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Florida State 

The Unique Shop 

273 Tremont St. 
Boston, Mass. 



Land of Flowers, 




BY W M . A . P R I N G L E . 

NOVEMBER i, 1878. 





Reminiscences of the Past 8 

Present Condition of Mfcirs. 9 

A Glance at the City 9 

Public Buildings lo 

The Battery 12 

Buildings Destroyed by Fire. 14 

Mills, ^Manufactories, ete lo 

Cluirches 10 

The Citadel is 

Cotton Pres'ses........ 19 

Banks 19 

Items of General Interest 19 


Fort Pulaski 45 

Reminiscences 45 

Present Condition 47 

Churches 47 

^Monuments 43 

Forsyth Park [, 49 

AVaterAVorks 49 

Cemeteries 50 


De Narvaez 

Fernando de Soto .V.V.V. G2 

The Huguenots G2 


Grave of Gen. Henry Lee... 
Business Resources 

The School System 19 

Cemeteries 20 

The Harb©r — Fort Sumt#r. ... 20 

Moultrieville 22 

Fort Moultrie 22 

Morris Islancl 24 

The Phosphates 25 

jN'ewspapers 28 

Hotels and Boarding Houses. 29 

Home Enterprises, etc 30 

Steamship Lines 32 

Street Railway, etc 32 


Public Buildings and Banks. 50 

Suburban Resorts 50 

Hotels and Boarding Houses. 51 

Business Houses 53 

Xursery Gardens 53 

Rice Mill 53 

Railroad Lines to Florida..'.'.'.'.' 53 

i^ewspa»pers. 53 

Climate, Agriculture, etc 
Price of Land 

Geneml Observations, etc 




The City and Streets 67 

Busmess Resources G8 

Improvements ;.. qq 

Yacht and Club House .'.' G8 

Churches, etc 


Mandarin qq 

H i b er n i a .'.'..".'.*..." 88 

Magnolia SS 

ST. AvmstmE 

Streets and City Government 92 

Fort and Sea AVall 03 

The Fish Market ' 95 

3 laza de la Constitution 95 

<^athedral " o« 

City Gate.. .■.'.'.'.'.':;;;;"..7:' ] 

". OG 

Jrv 9G 

The City.... 








jN'eAvspapers 09 

Suburban Resorts G9 

Business Houses 70 


Boarding Houses 71 

Green Cove Springs. 






Hospft^ and Cemetei 

Public Buildings 9g 

Hotels and Boarding Houses. 98 

Churches and Convents 99 

Confederate Monument 99 

Charitable Institutions 100 

Ihe Bathing House 109 

Newspapers 'iqq 

A Ramble through the City.! 100 




Federal Point -105 

eWmge Mills lOo 


Whitestone's Landing .105 

Russell's Landing. -lOo 

FiiiaTKA '""^ 

^gw^^ WK^ PiiWic Bw/ildtogs. 106 


Hotels and Boarding Houses. 108 

The Park and Streets «.110 

New Town H;^ 

Saw Mill ||3 

Amusements. ij'^ 

Places of Intere-st It* 

Fishing Grounds 

The Outskirts of Palatka 114 

Real Estate 


Lake Stella 124 

Florida Fruit Grower. l^f) 

The Hawk Creek Country,etc.l25 

Lake Crescent J-^ 

Lake Como J;-;' 

Crescent City 124 



Iturfrees' Island.... 12/ 

Buffalo Bluff 127 

Horse Landing 12/ 

Nashua Landing 128 

Welaca 12S 

Little Lake George 128 

Mount Royal 1^0 

Fruitlands. 129 

Fort Gates. 129 

Lake George 120 

Drayton Island 129 

Hog Island I'^O 

Main Shore of the Lake 130 

Lake George Landing .130 

Georgetown 130 

Lake View 131 

Volusia 131 

Manhattan 131 

Orange Bluff 131 

Lake Dexter 132 

Alexander Spring Creek 132 

St. Francis 133 

Lake Beresford .133 

Beresford 133 

Orange City 134 

Wekiva River 134 

Lake ]Munroe 134 

Sanford 135 

Mellonville 135 

Orange Groves • 136 

Fort Reid. 130 

Enterprise 136 

Green Si)ring 136 

Indian River 130 

New Smyrna 137 

Haulover.Ca^l 138 


Davenport Landing 139 

Fort Brooke Landing 140 

Orange Springs 140 

lola ]f 

Eureka 140 

Sunday Bluff 141 

Palmetto Landing. 141 

Long's Landing 141 

Silver Sprmgs Run 142 

Silver Springs, the Fountam 

of Youth..... 143 

Ladies' Parlor 143 

Silver Springs Settlement 143 

Ocala 1^3 

Marion County*. • l44 

Lake Ware 145 

Moss Bluff 145 

SWk Landing 145 

Sliigte vUle 1 45 


Lake Griffin Jf^ 

Lake Griffiii Landing 

Leesburg J^O 

Orange Bend 146 

Haines' Creek 14' 

Lovell's Landing 147 

Lake Eustis 1^17 

Fort :\rason. 147 

St. John's, Lake Eustis and 

Gulf Railro«%€l 147 

Pendryville 147 

Dead iliverand Lake Harris.148 

Yalaha 1^ 

Opahumkee Creek 149 

Blue Spring 149 

Lake Dunham 149 

Opahumkee •• l'*0 

Palatkalia IJ^ 

Appendix 151 


The object of this work is clearl}' indicated by the title. 
It is truly i«teftd#d a* a ra^^ nmmm^: and a guide for 
those on their way to i%e ' limtd 6f flowers." As the 
jMTn of the editors throughout has been to avoid confu- 
sion, they concluded to give their attention solely to lo- 
calities and matters of special and general importance. 
All places herein described have been visited by the 
editors in person, and the statements may be relied upon 
as authentic up to the time the notes were taken. The 
principal i-oute being along the line of the Charl'eston. 
Savannah, and Florida steamers, the book opens with a 
description of the old historic City by the Sea, followed 
by detailed accounts of all items of interest incidental to 
those points touched by the steamers, viz : Savannah, 
Fernandina. Jacksonville. St. Augustine (by wav of 
Tocoi). Palatka and the minor stations. The'^St. John^s 
and Oclawaha Rivers are then followed until the head of 
navigation is reached. 

It will be seen that the present work differs from 
others, bearing a similar title, inasmuch as the descrip- 
tive statements arejM^ndered at length, while everything 
deemed non-essential and calculated to bore the readeit 
has been carefully eliminated. 

The information given regarding the various hotels 
and boarding houses is furnished with the view of reliev- 
ing tourists and travelers from the annovance of hack- 
men and " runners," Avho infest the different landings, as 
a selection can be imM.hmg^ime ^ place of destina 
tion is reached. 

That portion of the work devated to the climate, health- 
fulness, agricultural resources, and especially to the 
orange culture, has been carefully arranged, and may be 
regarded as impartial and correct as far as it is possible 
to ascertain from obsei-vation and information. 



The editors are not unmindful of the fact that in a work 
of this kind there is room for vast improvement, but in 
jti^ke to themselves, Ike piiWishers. and to those ^yho 
have kindly patronimd the enterprise, they deem it nec- 
essary to state that neither p«ins nor expend bmre been 
spared k) bring it to a standard not yet rettil^ by any 
of the Guide Books to Florf#» nmw e»teit. 

With these prelimwmjy olw^f^wtiows, and craving in- 
dulgence for whatever imperfections may appear, 
the work is respectfully submitted to the favor of those 
whom it may intoi-est and profit. 


As the State of South Carolina once formed a portion 
of that tei'ritory claimed by the Spaniards, under the 
name of Florida, the sketch will open with a description 
of the City of Charleston and those portions of the coast 
first visited by the early discoverers and settlers of the 
Xew World. 

In the yea.r 15:2(), Lucas A^asquez de Ay lion, a Spaniard, 
equipped with two ships, sailed from the harbor of La 
Plata, and landed in South Carolina at the mouth of the 
present Combahee River. His mission was for the pur- 
pose of kidnapping the natives, to sell them as slaves for 
the Spanish mines. Pi-ompted by motives of curiosity, 
the unsuspecting and fi'iendly savages were induced to 
visit the ships : but no sooner was the number desired 
fairly on boai'd than the anchors were weighed ; and, to 
quote the language of history, ''husbands were torn 
from their wives, and children from their parents ; and 
where before nothing but peace prevailed, the seeds for 
future wai's were now lavishly scattered." Whil(> at- 
tempting to make port at St. Domingo, one of the ships, 
with all on boai'd, was lost at sea ; and many of the 
captives upon the other pined away and died. 

About twelve years after this, a portion of South Caro- 
lina was traversed by the famous Fernando de Soto in 
his search for gold: but the first settlement in Carolina, 
and upon the American coast, was made by the Hugue- 
nots, under Jean Ribault. in the year 15G2. After a cir- 
cuitous passage, Ribault landed a few leagues south of 
the present town of St. Augustine, in Florida, and then 
sailing in a northern direction reached the mouth of a 
I'iver on the Carolina coast, which, from the ''fairness 
and largeness of its harbor," he called the Port Royal 
River. Upon an island a few miles up the river, Ribault 
]3lanted a colony of twenty-five men, and erected a fort, 
which, in honor of Charles IX of France, he called Arx 
Carolina. It is the prevailing opinion that from this cir- 
cumstance the countr}^ first received the name of Caro- 
lina. After much suffering from hunger and sickness, 
the survivors of this colony returned to France in great 


k GUfim TO 

In the year loro. an Englisli colonv. undei- Governor 
William Seyle. effected a settlement at Port Hoval. but 
finding that the west banks of the Ashlev River afforded 
better "pasture and tillage." they removed to a site a 
short distance from its mouth, during the year following. 
Mme Ife*; col«ftfets soon discovered that thev laborecl 
under a new difficulty. Ships of large burden could not 
conveniently reach them, which greatly retarded com- 
merce. In consequence of this, in the year 1070. the 
people, under the government of Colonel West, removed 
to *• Oyster Point,"' at the confluence of the Cooper and' 
Ashley Rivers, and in the subsequent year the foundation 
of old Charles-town was laid. By an Act of the Legisla- 
ture it was incorporated in i7S:(, and called the City of 

Fi *om that time to the dawn of the late civil war 
Charleston continued to flourish, and became the wealth- 
iest and most important of the c^m- m th-e Atlantic 
coast south of Baltimore. 

As it stands at present, Charleston is about three miles 
in length, ranging from south to north, commencing 
at the Battery and ending at the Forks of the Road. 
In width it extends from rivei' to rive]\ and vai-ies from 
two miles to less than a mile in some places. 

With Charleston commences the low, flat lands of the 
State, which ascend as you travel westward, until an 
elevation of near .'i.OOU feet is reached. The climate is a 
medium between the tropical and cold tempei-ate latitude, 
and corresponds with that of middle Asia, China, Italy, 
and the South of Fi-ance, 


Up to the period of the Revolution of 177G, nearlv a cen- 
tury had passed away since the settlement of Chai-les- 
town. Its trade and commerce had reached a standard 
which could compete with that of any of the cities along 
the coast. From various sections of Europe multitudes 
or husbandmen, laboi'ers and manufacturers crossed the 
Atlantic, many of them taking up their abode in the vicini- 
ty of Charleston. The principal buildings and the thickly 
populated portion of the city, extended from the Batterv 
to Market street, while Calhoun street (then Boundary) 
formed the limit. A few of the colonial edifices, of which 
we shall hereafter speak, still i-emain to be seen. In the 
cellars of some of these places the tea taxed by the Bri- 
tish government was stored away to prevenf its sale, 
while more secure apartments contained the gunpowder 
and small arms taken from the State House Armoi-v by 
a^ithofUr of the Provin.cial Congress of South Carolina, 


held in Charleston, April 21st. 1775. Among the inci- 
dents ot later hfe, Charleston is noted as having been 
the bn-th-place of the Southern Confederacv and the 
sceite of nrn^f of those stirring conflicts which marked 
that eni. known as #i« War between the States.'' The 
great tii-e of JHoi destroyed a laP^ portion of that terri- 
tory, extending from east to west, south of Calhoun 
street: and this, together with the ravages of war the 
mi itai-y despotism, and the reign 'of corruption which 
followed, left the city in an impoverished and almost 
hopeless condition. 


Notwithstanding the trials and difficulties of the past 
Charleston under the present Democratic administra- 
tion. IS fast recovering herself, and will continue to pro- 
gress according to the energy and disposition of her peo- 
ple, who to their credit, may it be said, have proved 
themselves equal to every emergencv. Being the chief 
commercial metropolis of the State, the citv iS thorough- 
ly connected with the interior by means ofVailwav hiu^s 
and receives for shipment the greater portion of the rice 
and cotton (Tops together with other commodities raised 
and cultivated for export. Although there has been a 
falling off of the country trade darini the i3ast few vears 
still the favorable reports which of late have been and 
are dailv being received by the merchants from their 

c?nldelh/^'%V'" '^'^Vr'^^^oi business in the mer- 
cantile hue The price-lists are very much the same as 
those of Baltimore or New York, and goods can bc^rans- 
j)orted to every part of the State within twe !ty-four 
hours after being ordered. ^ 


Charleston, like most other places of the kind has its 
quo a of steeples, cupolas, etc.. \vhich can be seen Trom 
afar, towering over the clustering houses and tree-tops 

?nX '"f '^f '''''^ ^ tl^e beauty of wS 

us be ludged from observation. Although 1 maioi ity 
of the streets are narrow, and, from their irreo-ularitv 
would convey the impression that the city ^^^s^ 

tk.n " wf ''It'' nf" '^r" ^^'1^ ^'''''''''''y ''''^ ^^ood' condi 
lion and at present well attended to. The prin 

aie East Bay. Meeting, Kmg and Rutledge streets- those 
BioT^\f'"|-' ^'f ^^^^^ouu, Ventwoilh and 

f -t " 1^' '^'^'^ ^^'^ ^^""^^ ^^'^ ^^tail drv goods a 
tcincj stores, where most of tlm shopping is done the 


(28SG.) Can you reprint Father Prout's ex- 
quisite poem, "The Bells of Shandon," and 
C0sr*» • favor an 

Several Trakscript Rkad^bi? • 

[Tlie following is the poem called for: 


Witti (le€p affection and recollection '7* 
I often think of those Shandon bells, / 

Whose sounds 60 wild would in days of childhood lioe. CrOCkerV. clotllino'. (Irilf^and 
Fling round my cradle their magic spells. ^i i • r-' -c at 

On tTiis I ponder where'er I wander, I i t Q - ^^P ^^^^ OUSmeSS pOl-tlOll 01 Meet- 

sale groceries are stretclied along* 
fi'0»i MarkM to Bfoad: tte eiil©« 
sion niei'cbants line the wh.mi'*^.f». 
ikerj^. bix)kei*s and journalists con- 
5road sti-eet. 

are in the noi'thern aiid noi'theast- 
y. are substantially and handsonie- 
•onsidei'able s})aee of gi-ound. The 
Cai"()lina Railroad coniinence witli 
it Line sti'eet. and extend to Hud- 
mt a half mile. The Nortbeastei'ii 
at the cornei'.of Washington and 
vsenger de])ot b(Mng on AVashington 

Oh! the bells Of Shandon sound far mor#^p«tiiWl o« ht (lopot Oil (. hapCM StlX'et blllCe 
The pleasant waters of the river Lee. ^ Asllley River Road. the trains of 

There^iia^beii in Moscow, while from tower and ai'lestoii Railroad Company arrive 


'if. ii.!..- Lrov,- render, sweet Cork, of thee' 
Willi thy bel.b of Shandon, that sound so ^pnmk 

The pleasant waters of the river L-ee. 

I 've heard bells chiming full loMftgr ft clime in. 
Tolling subHme in cathexiral a*»TWw; 
While »t X glib rai€ bri»#« to«f ««e« would vibrato; 
But all tMfir mu-s4c spoke naught like thine. 
For meraorj' dwelling on each proud swelliwf, 
Of thy belfiy knelling Its bold notes free, 
Made the bells «c iilmiiiinww mmmtk fMr mmtt 
^g^md^n ^ 

I 've heard bells tolllnc: old "Adrian's Mole^' in 
Their thunder rolling from the Vatican, 
And cymbals glorious swinging upro*BiP(A) 
In the'gorgeou* turrets of Kotr« Vi>wmm^ 
But thy soHw#8 •mx% s- w » Pt i er t4*»n 1km doni« »f 

Flings o'er the Tiber, pealing solemnly; 


In St. Sophia the Turkman gets, 
And loud in air calls men to prayer 
From the tapering summits of tall minarets; 
e5nch empty pbantoni I freely grant them, 
Hut there is an anthem more dear to me; 
•T is the bells of Shandon that sosnd so C* 
Th« pl«*SA8t WMMM of the ri¥«r L*^.] 


Can any one give me the old song 

i' / 

^rjif , /* , So 


buildings of Charleston noted foi- 
importance, none perhajis are moi-e 
lan tliose forming the four coiumr^ 
: streets. 

; building, situated at the northwest 
•e in itself, with doors opening (/n 
est. It is a tliroe-stoiy brick buildi 
clumsy in ap])earance. but its walls 
resounded with the impassioiu^d 
"s most gifted orators. It was ori.- 
use of South Carolina. 
City Hall. — This building is situated on the nortlieast 
cornel-, has a fine park attached, and is rather to be ad- 
mired for its massive apjiearance than for architectural 
beauty. The apartments inside are spacious, aiiy. and 
used for various purposes. The Council Chamber. Mayor's 
room, Clerk's and City Engineer's offices, are to be found 
upon the second story. The first floor contains the City 
Court room. City Assessor's and City Tivasui-er's offices, 
while the basement is used by the Detective force for an 
office and temporary prison. 

At the other end of the park, corner of Chalmers street, 
is the FiKEPKooF Builping. This place, with its thick 
walls, stone floors, iron shutters and whiding stairs, pre- 
sents a dungeon-like appearance, and was built as a re- 
pository for important papers and records. The County 
Treasurer. Probate Judge, and Coiwiy School Commis- 
sioners have their o^caa liei'e. 


St. ^A\k HAEjys Chukch.— ()])posite the City Hall, on 
the soutlKvist corner, stands this famous ante-revolution- 
ary chnr.'li edifice. We rememlier the beautiful words 
of poetrv. 

•• The bells of Sliaiul .11 
Tlijit soniul so ^raiid on 
Tlie siiiiliiif;- waters of the Kivni-" 

But there is no Lrnnder or more insi)iriting sound to the 
true Charlesi!);i ■;)'! tlian the musical chimes of old St. 
Michael's bells. He remembers them from earlv child- 
hood, waking him before the dawn of dav. and thrilling 
his very soul with a wild, inexprossible delight. He has 
heard his father and grandfather tell how thev rhymed 
and cliimed as they rang out the glad tidings of victory, 
and the;f are doubly endeared to him from associations 
of the past and as the veteran survivors of two wars. 
When Chai-les-town was captured by the British, they 
were taken to London and sold, but afterwards returned 
by the purchasers; and during the last civil war were so 
luidly injui-ed by the burning of Columbia. S. C. where 
I (ley had been sent foi- safe keeping, as to make recastino- 
necessary. They were shipped to' England in the early 
part of ISOG by Jas. R. Pringle. The cost of recasting. 
re])airing belfry, etc.. amounted to $7,000. 

The steeple of St. Michael's is noted for its architectural 
])roportions. and is one hundred and sixty-eight feet high. 
Erom the piazza, which encompasses the stee})le. an ex- 
cellent view of the city and harbor can be obtained. The 
body of the Church is rather plain in appearance, but 
neat and roomy, with lofty ceilings and comfortable 
pews. The worshippers are of the Episcopal persuasion, 
and are compos<3d of the elite of the city. 

The bi'own rough -cast building on the' south west corner, 
with colonade in front, is the Main Stationhouse. 

PosTOFFicE.— Continuing down Broad street totheBav, 
we come directly to the Postoffice. which, although much 
unproved, was built prior to the Revolution of '70 bv the 
British and used as a Customhouse. It is also noted as 
having been the prison from which the celebrated Ameri- 
can patriot Hayne was led to execution; a-nd. previous to 
the capture of Charles-town, the Provincial Congress of 
South Carolina assembled beneath its roof. 

Opposite to the Postoffice. on the southwest corner, is 
the large banking house of Geo. W. Williams, and on the 
northwost corner the meetings of the Chamber of Com- 
merce are held. 

New Customhouse.— This beautiful structure, built 
L'ntirely of marble, but yet unfinished, is situated at the 

10 A «UID€ TO 

wholesale boot and shoe, crockery, clothing-, drug and 
drv <^'-o()ds houses make up the businei^s poi-tion of Meet- 
ino- "treet : the wholesale groceries are stretched alon^' 
bolh sides of East Bay from Markt*! to Broad: the othces 
of factors aiMl eommissi€« merchants line the wharves, 
white the IswTers. bankers, bi-okei's and journalists con- 
duct the business of Broad street. 

The railroad depots are in the northern and northeast- 
ern portions of the citv. ai'c substantially and handsome- 
Iv built and cover a considerable si)ace of ground. I He 
buildino-s of the South Carolina Railroad commence with 
the passenger depot at Line street, and extend to Hud- 
son.^ a distance of about a half mile. The Northeastern 
depots an angle at the corner .of Washington and 

Chapel streets:t]ie passenger de])ot being on \\ ashington 
street, and the freight (U'pot on Chapel street bmce 
the completion of the Ashley River Road, the trains ot 
the Savannah and Charleston Railroad Company arrive 
and leave from this depot. 

PUBLIC HU1L1)1^'(tS. 
Amono- the public buildings of Charleston noted for 
their usef'ulness and importance, none perhai)S are more 
worthv of mention than those forming the four corners 
of Broad and :\[ceting streets. 

Courthouse —This building, situated at the north^^est 
corner, forms a scpiare in itself, with doors opening on 
the south, east and west. Tt is a th.ree-story brick build- 
incr rather dark and clumsy in api)earance. but its walls 
hav'e time and again resounded with the impassioned 
■elo(iuence of Carolina's most gifted orators. It was ori.- 
o-inallv the State House of South Carolina. 
" City Hall.— This building is situated on the northeast 
corner, has a fine park attached, and is rather to be ad- 
mired for its massive appearance than for architectura 
beantv. The apartments inside are spacious, airy, and 
used for various purposes. The Council Chamber Alayor s 
room, Clerk-s and City Engineers ofhces. are to be found 
upon the second storv. The first floor contains the City 
Court room. City Assessor's and City Treasurers offices, 
while the basement is used by tlie Detective force tor an 
office and tempoi-ary prison. x- ^i i + 

At the other end of the park, corner of Chalmers street, 
is the Fireproof Building. This place with its thick 
walls, stone floors, iron shutters and whidmg stairs, pre- 
sents'a dungeon-like appearance and was; ^ 
pository for important papers and records, i he Uount} 
'Treasurer, Probate Judge, and County School Commis- 
sioners hmvm tti^ir offices here. 

Till-: LAyi) (.)F FL()WF.1?S. 

St. ?n1i.'Hael's Church.— ()])posite the City Hall, on 
the s(Mitlieast corner, stands this famous ante-revolution- 
nry ehur-'li edifice. We remember the beautiful words 
of poetr\'. 

■• The bells of Sliaiid .11 
Thar sound so ^miid 011 
The stliiHii^' waters of the Kiver Lee."" 

But there is ii<> v'^'uder or more ins])iriting sound to the 
true CharlesM.i jM than the musical chimes of old St. 
MichaeFs bells. He remembers them from early child- 
hood, waking him before the dawn of day. and tlirilling- 
his very soul with a wild, inexpressible delight. He has 
heard his father and grandfather tell how they rhymed 
and chimed as they rang out the glad tidings of victory, 
and they are doubly endeared to him from associations 
of the past and as the veteran survivors of two wars. 
When Ghai-les-town was captured by the British, they 
were taken to London and sold, but afterwards returned 
by the purchasers: and during the last civil war were so 
badly injured by the burning of- Columbia. S. C, where 
tiiey had been sent for safe keeping, as to make recasting 
necessary. Tliey were shipped to England in the early 
part of lS(iG by Jas. R. Pringle. The cost of recasting, 
re]>airing belfry, etc.. amounted to $7.(300. 

The steeple of St. ]\[ichaers is noted for its architectural 
proportions, and is one hundred and sixty-eiglit feet high. 
From the piazza, which encompasses the stee])le. an ex- 
cellent view of the city and harbor can be obtained. The 
1 )( >d\ of the Church is rather plain in appearance, but 
neat and roomy, with lofty ceilings and comfortable 
p(^ws. The worshippers are of the Episcopal persuasion, 
and are composed of the elite of the city. 

The brown rough-cast building on the southwest corner, 
with colonade in front, is the Main Stationhouse. 

PosTOFFiCE.— Continuing down Broad street to the Bay, 
we come directh^ to the Postoffice. which, although much 
improved, was built prior to the Revolution of "70 by the 
British and used as a Customhouse. It is also noted as 
liaving been the prison from which the celebrated Ameri- 
can patriot Hayne was led to execution; and. previous to 
the capture of Charles-town, the Provincial Ccaigi'ess of 
South Carolina assembled beneath its roof. 

Opposite to the Postoffice, on the southwest corner, is 
the large banking house of Geo. AV. Williams, and on the 
northwest corner the meetings of the Chamber of Com- 
merce are held. 

Xew Customhouse. — This beautiful structure, built 
entirely of ^Mki^bi^ tot yet unfiM^ited, is situated at the 

A (tUIDK T(> 

^oi-ner of East Bay and Mai'ket streets. Its cost foi- com- 
pletion is estimated at tAvo million dollars, but when this 
will be accomplished no man knoweth. 

The Market. — Crossing from the Customhouse we 
come t-o the Market, which extends from the Bay to 
Meeting street. It is said to be the largest in the South. 
mmd shows to advantage ou Sii^toxAay avenings. when it is 
brilliantly illuminated. 

St. Philip's Church. — No tourist who stops at Charles- 
ton should fail to visit St. Philip's, situated on Church 
street, between Queen and Cumberland. The original 
building was destroyed by fire in ]8:U, whicli necessitat- 
ed the erection of the present handsome edifice. Tlie 
" Old Church " was often attended by Aloultrie and dis- 
tinguished persons of Revolutionary fame: and the grave- 
yards, which occupy considerable gi-ound space on both 
sides of the street, contain the remains of some of the 
oldest families of Charleston. Xear the centre of the 
gi-ave-yard. on the wesl side of the street, is the tomb of 
John C. Calhoun. 

Towards the west end of Queen street, in the vicinity 
of Mazvck and Franklin streets, we find the Medical Col- 
lege and Roper Hospital. The latter is a spacious, hand- 
some, and thoroughly ventilated building, witli fine gar- 
dens and walks in the front and rear, and takes its name 
from a worthy philanthropist who contributed genei'ously 
towards its erection. 

Passing through I\Iazyck street to ^lagazine, we come 
in full view of the City Hospital, Marine Hospital, and 
Count V Jail, all of them staunch buildings and well 
adapt-ed to the purposes for which they a^e used. 


By walking down King street, or by taking the cai'S of 
the City Railway on ^Meeting street, we can be landed in 
the space of a few minutes at the Battery, or as it is 
otherwise called. White Point Garden. This, in the 
spring and summer time is the most inviting resort in the 
city, and in point of attractiveness is not surpassed by 
any place of the kind in the South. That portion south 
of South Bay street is beautifully laid out in squares, 
divided by hard shell walks, carefully shaded with' trees 
and bordered with benches; a strong stone sidewall pro- 
tects it on the east side, forming a wide smooth prome- 
nade for several hundred yards. A short distance from 
the south wall, connected by a bridge, stands the Bathing 
House. The square facing Churcli street contains the 
Jiis])ci- ^lonunn^nt . L'n^cttnrbv tlie Palm-etto Guard as a 
iribiitc^tu the defiMi-lei-s of Fort Moultrie, June 26, 1776. 



The monument is made of South Carolina granite, highly 
polished with die block and bass-relief, and is surmounted 
with a hfe-size bronze statue, representing a Continental 
soldier with a sponge-staff— to which is attached a flag— 
m the left hand, while the right is pointing in the direc- 
tion of the channel. It also contains the followiiMt in- 
scriptions and engravings: 

^s^orth side— Second S. C. Regiment, Army of the Revo- 
lution, organized June 17, 1775. Seal of the City of 

South side— List of wounded /Seal of ^ State of 
Carolina. ^ 

East side— List of the officers in the fort June 28 1778 
encircled by a wreath of oak and laurel leaves. 'aIso 
tl24^ following inscriptions: ' 

To ike Defenders of Fort Moultrie. June '.^8, 1776:" 

No men ever did and it is impossible for any to be- 
have hotter r—Maj. Gm. Chas. Lee. 

West side— Engraving representing the scene of con- 
flict with Jasper restoring the flag to position: also, a list 
of the wounded and the word* ^f Jasper, " Don't' let us 
fight without a flag.'' 

Most of the buildings on East and South Bay are hand- 
some brick or stone residences, and conspicuous amono- 
them on Meeting street, a fcAv doors north of the Batter^^ 
IS the elegant and costly mansion of Mr. Geo. W. Will 
liams. This palatial edifice has onlv been recently fin- 
ished, and is by far the handsomest^3rivate dweUinfi: in 
the State. ^ 

Among other prominent buildings of note in the lower 
portion of the city, are the Hibernian Hall. South Caro- 
nia Hall, Mills House, and Academy of Music. The 
latter is situated in the rear portion of "'the large building 
corner of Market and King streets, was built since the 
war, and IS ornamented in beautiful st}^. ft is well 
l)atronized during the dramatic season. 

Among the old Colonial residences, two houses still 
stand, as near in appearance to their original construction 
as time and the elements would permit. 

One, Xo. 59 Church street, was formerlv owned bv 
Judge Hey ward, and is noted as having been the place 
Wiiere General Washington was entertained during his 
visit to Charleston in 1701 ; the other, Iso. 2-1 Meetino- 
' street, was the residence of Lord Willi^i Campbell, th? 
last Royal Govornur of South Carolina. 




The "great fire'' wliich destroyed nearly a third of 
Charleston, m tke year l^I. long he remembered hy 
those wko witnessed the work of destruction. It was a 
December evening. The good people of the city had 
gathered around the hearth-stone, thinking, perhaps, of 
the soldier boy chilled by the keen winter wind as ho 
walked his post on the beach, or imagined him shivering 
and begrimed over the fading embers of some smoulder- 
ing ctmip-fire. It matters not in what direction their 
thoughts hswl taken flight, their reverie was soon broken 
bv a crv moves the stoughtest hearts. The alarm 

of fire was sounded, and in a few moments engines and 
i-eels were rattling over the stony streets. Xear the 
water's edge, in the eastern })ortion of the city, a heavy 
smoke could be seen with its huge body moving skyward 
and bending to the southwest. Little by little, what a])- 
peared at first to be an impenetrable mass of thickest 
gloom, began to change, chameleon-like, until the angiy 
names burst their confines and shot high in the air. Al- 
though the gallant firf^men battled manfully with the 
destroying element, only giving way when half scorched 
bv the'intense heat: still their efforts were of little or no 
avail. Like the folds of an enoi-mous serpent, the fiery 
fiend wound itself thi-ough the archways and windows 
of adjacent buildings, and then darting from street to 
street, gaining strength and volume at every bound, 
united in a sea of rolling fiame, which beneath a scintil- 
lant canopv moved along the midnight air.' forming a 
panorama of appalling beauty. During the long weary 
night and day following the work of destruction con- 
tinued, leaving a gap of smoking ruins, commencing at 
tlv' foot of Hasel street, and ending at the water's edge, 
which marks the southwest boundary of the city. 

To sav nothing of the many fine private residences 
destroyed by this conflagration, acnong the churches cM^d 
public buildings we note 

St. Fixbar's Cathedral, which was one of the hand- 
somest churches in the South. The ruins are still to be 
seen at the coi'uer of Broad and Fi'iend streets. 

Institcte Hall.— This building was situated on 'Meet- 
ing street, east side, a few doors above Queen. In its 
spacious hall the Democratic Convention of ISOo was 
held, which was attended by Caleb Cushing. Benjamin 
F. Buth'r. and many other prominent men. The ( )i-(li- 
nance of Ser-ession was also signed at this hall. 

One dooi- n<^rth of wh(M-e the Institute Hall stood, ai'e 
th-e ruins of the 



Circular Church.— In point of unique attractiveness, 
this chui-ch surpassed all others in the city. Its richly 
ornamented dome, handsome colonade and circular form, 
were gracefully proportioned and much admired. 

Old Theatre.— This popular I'esort was situated on the 
west side of Meeting street, near Cumberland, and in 
<lay8gone by, from the opening of the theatrical »easofi 
until tile close, was well patronized. 

St. Andrew's Hall.— The ruins of St, Andrew's, on 
broad street, which yet mark the site where it once 
stood, bring many recollections back to memory. Al- 
though the ceremony of signing the Ordinance of Seces- 
sion was performed at the Institute Hall, still the Con- 
vention which framed it met at this place.' Beneath the 
hrilliaiit gas jets of Andrew's too. the beautv and the 
chivalry of Charleston were wont to meet and while 
awav the evening hours in the pleasure of the dance. 
J he hall was built by the St. Andrews Society, a select 
bcotch association still in existence. 


In the upper district of Charleston, otherwise known 
as the " Aeck. there are sevei-al places well worth \i.sit- 
mg. among which are the Charleston College, corner of 
George and St. Philip streets, to which is attached one of 
the finest museums in the South: Orphan House, on Cal- 
houn street, a large building with extensive groundr" 
containing the statue of Pitt: the Arsenal. cSrner of 
Asiiley and Bee streets: and over in the northeastern 
ste'a(^^^ Almshouse^ Haif-moon Battery, Hamp- 


Tliere are in Charleston at present six large sash and 
Dimd tactories. and as many more machire shops repre- 
senting a capital of about $7()0,0()0. and giving employment 
to between three and four hundred workmen The 
Charleston Bagging Factory, situated on John and Hud- 
son streets, also gives employment to about seventy-five 
persons, the majority of whom are females, and has the 
capacity tor turning out bowmen three and four thousand 
yards of bagging a day. 

The rice mills are three in number, viz: ChisolnVs and 
\v est Point on the west river front, and Bennetts Mill 
at the toot of A\entworth street, on the east side. The 
three mi Is, when m operation, are said to turn out two 
tliousand and thirty tierces of clean rice a day 




Although among- the primitive North American colo- 
nies, of a permanent nature, South Carolina is the only 
place which was not settl«ii fey refugees from religious 
f#f^i€*fewfi,* and whil» by a constitutional right every 
man was permitted to worship God in a manner which he 
in his wisdom and judgment thought most conformable 
to the divine will, still dissentions would arise among the 
early pioneers, especially between the cavaliers and Pu- 
ntans — reviving those prejudices and animosities con- 
tracted in England, and which neither time nor the dan- 
gers and hardships which surrounded them could oblite- 
rate. In good time, however, the wise measures adopted 
by the government restored order out of chaos, and the 
last spark of religious intolerance was extinguished for- 
ever. A glance at the Churches herein recorded will 
show that whatever maybe our creed, whatever our sect, 
we will find a tei^ple of worship fi'om which our orisons 
may arise. 


St. Michael's Church, corner of Broad and Meeting 
streets; described elsewhere. 

St. Luke's, corner of Elizabeth and Chai-lotte streets ; 
large brick building. Gothic style. 

St. Paul's, Coming street, between A^'anderhorst and 
AVarren; large brick building, handsomely finished. 

Grace Church, Wentworth street, near St. Philip's 
street: ornamental Gothic style. 

St. Phihp's Church, Church street: described elsewhere. 

Holy Communion, corner of Ashley and Cannon streets; 
elaborately finished, with large parsonage attached. 

St. John's Chapel, ('f)rner o^t ^liasn over and Amherst 

Christ Chprch. Rutledge Avenue, beyond Line street. 
St. Stephen's Chapel, 43 Anson street, west side. 


Cathedral Chapel, corner of Queen and Friend streets; 
built for the temporary accommodation of St. Finbar's 

St. Mary's Church, Hasel street, between King anil 
Meeting; small brick building, with colonade in front. 

St. Joseph's, Anson street, near George, built of brick 
in the stjm of a cross. 

*Tlie temporavy sojourn of tHfe-iN|p^rt golony at I^ort Roft^ 
o«i®not be caJled » aettleiiient. 



St. Patrick's, corner Radcliffe and St. Philip's; oi^dinarr 
size wooden buildmg, recessed from the street. 

St. Peter's, (colored), Wentworth street, two doors west 
ot A«on: small plain brick church. 


Trinity M. M. Ommck. corner of Hasel street and Maid: 
en Lane; large and airy, with high ceilings, comforta- 
ble pews, galleries, basement, etc. The church is con- 
structed ejitirely of brick, has stone steps running the 
width of the building and enclosed with an iron railfng- 

Bethel Church, corner of Pitt and Calhoun; brown 
rough-cast brick building, recessed and surrounded by 
extensive grounds. The wooden church in the rear was 
removed to give place to the present handsome edifice 
1 ?lf sti-eet Methodist Church, Spring street; massive 
brick building, yet i«#!iished. 


Citadel Square Baptist Church,, corner of Meeting and 
Henrietta streets ; described elsewhere 

First Baptist Chui-eh. brick church, situated on the 
west side ot Church street, between Tradd goa^ Water. 


St. John's Lutheran, corner of Archdale and Clifford 

Wentworth Street Lutheran, on Wentworth street be- 
tween :\reetingand Anson: ordinary size and plain ' but 
neat and comfortable. 

St. Matthew's, King street-, described elsewhere. 


Glebe Street Churcli. situated on Glebe street This 
church IS modestly but gracefully constructed, and num- 
bers among its congregation some of Charleston's most 
important citizens. 

Scotch Church, or First Presbyterian, corner of Meet- 
ing and Tradd streets; antique brick buildino- 

Flynn's Church, or Second Presbyterian, situated in the 
rear of a hue park at the corner of Charlotte and Meetincr 
streets. The burying ground of this church extends to 
i^iizabeth street, and contains some interesting- monu- 
ments. ^ 

Independent (Chapel), built for the accommodation of 
the congregation of the Circular Church, which was de- 
stroyed by ill ti*« grave-yard close to the 

1 iJiij; JQ S • 



Central (Third Presbyterian) Churcli. si)acious brick 
building, handsomely finished, with portico in front, situ- 
ated on the Avest side of Meeting street, north of Society. 

Ebenezer Chapel, corner of N^assaAi and Amherst streets. 

The . Unitarian Church, situated on Archdale street, 
near Clifford, and the Jewish Synagogue, on Hasel, be- 
tween King and Meeting streets, are rare specimens of 
architectural l>eauty. The former, although compara- 
tively siiwiil. is built in the perpendicular Gothic style, 
ajid is well worth seeing. 

The French Huguenot Church is situated at the corner 
of Queen and Church streets. 

Bethel, or ^Mariner's Church, at the corner of Church 
and Water streets. 


The Citadel Academy and park form a complete 
square, bounded on the north by Hudson street, south by 
Calhoun, east by Meeting, and west by King, Before 
the war the Academy ranked among the first military 
schools in the country, and during the struggle which 
followed many of its alumni were elevated to high posi- 
tions in the Confederate army, and their soldierh^ skill 
and valor is best told by the few survivors of the present. 
The buildin<j" resembles a fortress in appearance, and is 
quite extensive, with wings upon either side, sally-port, 
barracks, parade ground, etc. At the close .of the war 
the place seized by the United States government 
and held as captured property; but through the exertions 
of Geiw*l M. C. Butler will shortly l)e restored to the 

The new Artesian Well is located on the Green, near 
the corner of King and Calhoun streets, which, when re- 
gularly in operation, will contribute largely to tUe water 
supply of the city. 


On both sides of the Green, one on King and the other 
. on Meeting street, are two large substa-iitial church edi- 
fices, with lofty spires, almost facing each other. The 
new German Church (St. Matthew's), on King street, 
was erected only a few years ago, and is quite an orna- 
ment to this portion of the city. The Citadel Square 
Baptist, on Meeting street, presents an im})osing appear- 
ance, and has facilities for seating a larger number 
of persons than any other church in Charleston. 




Tlicrr are four large Cotton Presses in Clwrlwton 
which, during the busy season, are kept in operation 
(la} and night, and can compress an aggreo-ate of be- 
tween nine and ten thousand bales dailv. The number 
<»f o^^ffe^sed by them during the "last commercial 


The Banks, representing a capital of mrer m QUO 000 
are located as follows: ' ' ' 

Germania Savings Bank. 54 Broad street. 

(aroina Savings Bank, corner East Bay and Broad sts 
eople s Bank of South Carolina. 0 Broad street 

L nion Bank of South Carolina, 139 East Bav 

South CcirolinaJ.oan and Trust Companv, l? Broad st. 

Hank of Charleston National Banking Association \ 
K. corner Broad and State streets. " ' 

FiJ'st National Bank. 138 East Bav. 

People's National Bank, 15 Bi-oad"" street. 


The present population of Charleston is estimated to be 
•■'I .out ob.OOO persons of whom 2S.000 are white and 3().UU() 
colored or black. The customs and manners of the peoph^ 
vnry according to ca.ste. but a characteristic which be- 
niigs to them as a whole is a generous outflow of hospi- 
tiility towards those who come among them with worthy 
Iv!v tlTf]- '"^^'^i especially the higher grade, is noted 
f 01 the beauty and refinement of its ladieland gallantry 
of the men in wliose blood still survive the chivalrous 

Ph. ' r ''^^''''^ Vi^hhc morals, 

Cha leston IS fully up to the standard, and notwitlistand- 
ing the fact that a time existed when a partisan gover i - 
mun " ii' ^^''^ intelligent portion of the com- 

i r ' % fJ'^ full sway, acknowledging - no right but 
might and no law but power;" still, even durino- 
that chaotic period, the calendar of crime was surpris''- 

ll^.V'^ T '"^^ compared with other cities containing a 
similar number of inhabitants. " 


tf..^^^^'^-^'!-'' number of private schools, and the school of 
the Christian Brothers for Catholic children the citv an 
propriates about *(;o,(>00 for the support of five piibHc 

cWldrl'/Z'th'^' ^ ""'^^T^-^'^ botl/white and colored 
childieii, thr^ ##iools being reserved for whites and two 



for the colored children. There is also a High School to 
pi-epare boys for their entrance to *he Charleston College, 
wiBte'li is- cc«d«»tecl hf an able corps of professors and 
iMimbers among its alumni the h ading business and 
professional men of the State. The Medical College, too, 
le has an abfaculty, and is the alma mater of Carolina's 
most distinguished physicians. 


T-lie Enterprise Railway cars run directly to Magnolia 
avenue, A^hich leads to the burial grounds. The first 
place we enter while passing down the avenue is 

Bethany Cemetery, which, from the following in- 
scription on almost every tombstone, Hier riihei 'hi 
Gott," we observe to be the German place of sepulture." 
The graves and walks are cai-efully attended to, and 
som^of the monuments are costly and handsome. 

Magnolia.— A short dist^ince from Bethany, and facing 
the avenue, ^ve pass through a large main entrance and 
find ourselves in the most interesting portion of the ceme- 
tery'. Conspicuous among the objects of attraction here, 
ai*e the graves of Coiifederate and Union soldiers in 
clc«» ^oJti.*«ity to each other, reminding one of the lines, 

" Under the sod and the dew, 
^y^liting for judf^nient day, 
Under the laurel the blue. 
Under the niy^-tle the ^ray.'' 

Space will not admit of a description of the many hand- 
some monuments and vaults to be seen at Magnolia. The 
most prominent are the cenotaphs of the AVashington 
Light Infantry and Irish Volunteers, Firemen's Memento 
and Vanderhorst Vault. Among the number erected to 
the memorv of private individuals, we note the Wash- 
ington, Legare, Jones, Taber, and AVise moiiuments, 
which are fine specimens of artistic skill and finish. 

St. Lawrence Cemetery.— To the right of Magnolia a 
large wooden cross marks the consecrated ground of the 
Catholics. The cross, the emblem of the Catholic^aith, 
is also to be found upon every tombstone. This i% truly 
a woodland solitude, where a remnant of the "silent 
majority await in i>eaceful slui»b«* tfa€ ai^i^lic trump 
of tlpi great Resurrection. 


The beautiful land-locked harbor of Charleston, large 
enough to contain the argosies of the world, is the most 
extensive on the coast of America. The landscape, as 
far as the eye can see, is pleasing to behold, and every 


here and there, as if rising froin the sea. are battle-scarred 
forti-esses still standing like grim sentinels of the past 
An excellent view of the bay can be obtained from the 
Lattery but, for satisfactory observation, an excursion 
on one of the steamers of the Sulhvans Island and Ferrv 
f 'ompanv Line, is far more preferable. The steamers, of 
vvhirJi Mm. H. L. p. McCormick is superintendent, are 
switt sn , (' imd onfmiK^dious. and leave from the pier at ihe 
.M)t ol Maru t .tr' .-t. Tlic first point of interest reached 
is LAsn.E 1 IX( K.\>:v-. \vli],-]i lias no war record worthv of 
mention, but was used after the war as a place to'^im- 
prisoii tlioso charged with disloyalty. The steamer passes 

'■•^^^^ V'"',';; ■ ' ^- ^^^'^''^i nvnutes later, stops at 

the wharf of M, l^•..:^s^^•T. Tln^- is an interesting 

itt le vilhigv. and wr]\ xvoril. viM'ting. The houses ail 
i)inJt in cottage style, and froni a distance present an at- 
n-ac'tive appearance. The remnants of some old fortifi- 
•ations are still to be seen, and the cemetery, which 
• <n'ers al)niit an acre of ground, contains the remains of 
-nme of tlK^ State tr()i)])s wlu. died duriiio- tho war of ]8]-2. 

Leaving Mount Llensant. we again take the steamer, 
while making the curve for the Island, wih occupv 
<t few moments in contemplating tlie histoi-ical renown o^ 
Me fort .pist off m the distance. In the annals of war 
n-e know of no other military post so long and fiercelv 

.('Sieged and so ably defended as Fort Sumter. Froin 
Hie time that the siege commenced, days rolled into 
\yeeks. weeks mto months and months into vears, and 
tl.e ram of shot and shell from the Federal batteries and 
i^unhoats, continued to fall in and around the walls until 
ihey A^'ere Ijattered into a mass of crumbling ruins But 
1 was commanded and manned by men of the stamp of 
rhose who fought at :\rarathon of old. Of this fact the 
■ nanv hecaine thoroughly convinced during the attack of 

>pril (.tii, Lsii.s. Larly in the afternocm the entire fleet 
. wenty-seven wooden war vessels, nine monitors and the 

rigate Ironsides could be seen ofi^ the bar: at half-past 

our o clock the iron clads moved in the direction of the 
t.»rt and the luittle o])ened. While the smoke and flashes\ 
-I tlie <-n,ifhct could be seen along tho broad expanse 

'■••1" Milhxaos Island toCmiing's ?oint. tlio heaviest 
•)i-'>a(lsi( .'s wnv agiUDsl Forf Sunitor. shatterin g 

M' walls or ricochetiing along the water, dashing the 

•\ nu? '^'/Y V' 'V'V '^^^ ^^''^ ^^^e '^^'^^^-e a?tille- 

\l u^] '1 \ had become terribly in earnest, and a 
; .stiuctive fire from the barbette guns, which lasted for 

ai)out three-quarters of an hour, turned the tide of battle 



in favor of the defenders. The Iroiisides, unable to stand 
the broadsides directed against her, gave a few parting 
shots and retired southward, followed by the double tur- 
i-etted monitor K^jeokuk; the latter having her flag shot 
m'^my, thfii^lioles in her smoke stack, ancf her bow badly 
dis^fe«i» AitniM-past five o'clock the firing cemm4, msLi. 
the entire fleet retired from the conflict, leaving another 
tribute to be added to Carolina skill and valor. It is the 
pi'oud boast of Carolinians that the enemy was unable to 
capture this stronghold, which for nearl}^ three years of 
a siege, stood as firm as the rock of Gibraltar. For some 
time after the wai- these poi'tions of the fort not entirely 
destroyed, were subject to the mutilating hoinage of relic- 
seeking travelers, and fragments of Sumter may be seen 
to-da}^ in the mansions and cottages otf rich and poor 
throughout the length and breadth of the land. The 
outer walls, as will be seen from observation, have been 
entirely rebuilt, but from the want of funds, the interior 
is yet unfinished. While a sight of Sumter always 
awakens in the mincl of the true Southron a sense of 
vanquished hopes, it also recalls to memory the gallant 
deeds of noble men, which the impartial historian niay 
some day record with justice to themselves mid the cause 
for which so many of them sacrificed their lives. 


Moultrieville or Sullivan's Island is the next place 
touched by the steainer, and is a great sanitarium and 
summer resort. It is in the shape of a crescent, some 
four miles in length, and was named after one Florence 
O'Sullivan, who was placed there in the year 1074^ in 
charge of a cannon, to alarm the town in case of inva- 
sion from the Spaniards of Florida. The Island, which 
was lined with earthworks during the war, has been 
since built up, and at present contains some three hun- 
dred and fift}^ houses. It has a fine hai-d beach, which is 
used as a promenade, besides a wide center street run- 
ning to the myrtles. A ride of about a mile on Ae stt^et 
cars will loMd us at 


What glorious recollections crowd into the bi-ain as we 
prepare to ascend the parapets of this renowned fortress. 
Not visions of steel-clad gladiators, with glistening shields 
and spears and all the ancient panoply of war. but rather 
of the stern yeomanry imperfectly equipped, behind a 
few logs of palmetto, holding in check a formidable ar- 
MtaAnmSl. W«i%vert in immgumi\om4m'^e Spring of 177G, 



aod before our " i^ind's eye," are stalwart men piling the 
palmetto logs one upon the other, forming two walls, six- 
teen feet apart, and filling the intermediate space with 
sand. Aftei- this fashion the fort, then fort Sullivan, was 
built, nor was it even completed when attacked by the 
British Fleet, June 2Sih, 1776. But the various achieve- 
ments incidental to this engagement have long since 
passed into history, and ai-e too generally known to re- 
quire a rehearsal here; besides any attempt to render a 
detailed account of the facts, would only be to quote or 
plagiarize from the records of some faithful annotator of 
the past. We remember the fears and anxiety of Gen. 
Charles Lee, tlie fii-mness of Governor'Kutledge, and the 
mtrepidity of Moultrie. We hear again the words of 
Lampriere, "The men-of-war will knock your fort down 
in half an hour,'' and our breasts kindle with enthusiasm 
as we listen to the patriotic reply of Moultrie: ''Then we 
will lie behind the ruins and prevent the men from land- 
mg." We can 'picture to ourselves the line of vessels 
under comma^nd of Sir Peter Parker, crossing the bar 
and casting anchor within easy range of the fort. Clouds 
of smoke arise from the decks, and broadside after broad- 
side is poured against the fort; sphnters fly in every di- 
rection; but the balls rebound from the spongy palmetto 
logs, or bury themselves in the sand. But Fort Sul- 
livan IS yet to be heard from. Twentv-six cannon 
belch forth, and. like the voice of deep rolling thunder, 
when it breaks in all its force from some angrv cloud, the 
iron messengers of death rattle against the hulks of the 
enemy, sweeping the gunners from the decks and em- 
bedding themselves between the timbers. The comba- 
tants on both sides now recognize in each other foemen 
worthy of their steel, and 

" The combat deepeiKs ; on ye brave. 
Who Jight for ^lovy o'er the wave:' 

The crescent flag is shot from the parai:)et of the fort 
and falls on the beach directly in front of^the enemy; a 
few moments later the gallant Serg-eant Jasper leaps from 
the walls and restores it to its position amid~a rain of bul- 
lets from the British. The battle rages fiercely for nine 
long hours. The loss of the British is two hundred and 
twenty-five killed and wounded, while 'the Americans 
only numbered ten killed and twenty-five wounded. Sev- 
eral vessels are stranded, several disabled, and with am- 
munition exhausted, the remainder retire from the con- 
test to report the first naval defeat of England for many 
years previous. This was the first victory gained by the 
coiitiue]ual .-^Idiors over Ihe regular troops. 


During- the war between the States, Fort Moultrie also 
played a conspicuous part, and was tlie source of consid- 
erable annoyance to the enemy. It enoaged in the in- 
cipient battle of the war, (Foi-t Suinter. April P^th, ISOl), 
and had one gun dismounted and one man wounded during 
the monitor attack of April, ISnij. Since the war, under 
the supervision of Mr. Gleason, Fort IMoultrie lias been 
almost entirely It carers an area, of between 

four and five acres of ground. The walls are all neatly 
faced with brick and filled with earthworks of sand. It 
contains at present eight magazines — one of which, al- 
though since much improved, was built with the fort 
after the I'ovolution. The uther seven were built since 
187;:^, and consist of brick and concrete entirelv covered 
with earth, for they are all under ground. There is also 
a bomb-proof connecting the magazines with tli^ sally 
port. The open space on the outside forms the parade 
ground, and two fifteen-inch smooth bure Rodman guns, 
and two eight-inch Parrot guns conmiand the channel. 
In an angle just outside The sall}^ port, is a grave con- 
taining the remains of bodies taken from the wreck of 
the ^Monitor Patapsco. sunk by a torpedo during the late 
war. Alongside of this, on a simple marble slab, four 
feet in Icnu'tli and about eighteen inches wide, enclosed by 
an ii-on i-iiii.iig, \v(^ read: 

" ( ).S('K()LA." 

Patriot and AVahrioh, 

Died at Fort Moultrie, 

Tliis ctU'lirated chief of the Seminole Indians was born 
'\\\ Florida about the year iso.'j. His fathei- was an Indian 
trader by the name of l^owell; his mother was the daugh- 
ter of an, Iwilian chi^". On the ;2od of August, 18.'i7, while 
holding a conference with Gen. Jesup, near St. Augus- 
tine, Florida. un<ler a f];ii; of tnic'-. be an 1 'Seventy of his 
wari'iors wt ri' juado [»j >.i'.'i lio \Na.> roiilined at Fort 
jMoultrie, where he died a few months afterwards. There 
is an old story afloat that Osceola remarked, wdiilc in 
captivity, that some red man of the forest would avenge 
the treacherous act. If this is authentic, we can truly . 
jMDint to Gen, Canby's death, and exclaim, C)s( ('. .la thy 
words are verified." An oil painting of him can I'f simmi 
C Seeber's restaurant. No. 300 King sti-"el. • , 


Across the channel is ]\lorris' Ishnid, with it^ widt-. 
wliite beach, crmnbling fortificatioiw, (4c. On its soil 
tliu most banguinary battles around Charleston wore 


fought in vain attempts to capture Batteiy Wao-ner 
which was finally evacu.ited by the Confederate troo, s 
.lust ,M-,or to the close of the war. A i^.w ir.-h\TK . Jr < 
been lately erected on this Ishnul. T,. thV w"' '^l „ As 
IS James Island, containing the ruins of Fort Johnson 
rom which the signal shot of the war was fired B.- 
tu-een Fort Sumter and th.. city. ,>„ the site where Fort 
d.?n ■ " l'«l'ti>"«so :s inc''nslrur 

Drayto.n Hall. -This old baronial residence some 

of ^'^'^ "'^^'^ '^'^ '•e<'^ched by a trfp on 

one of the steamers or sailing yachts, which plv up the 
Ashlev River Although more than a century ha"s p ssed 
since It was built, still its massive brick walls are in a 
state of perfect preservation. Both in the front and rea^ 
are stone steps, with iron railings running up. and over 
the outside doors, and from tlie walls within are sus- 
pended several pairs of stag antlers, which call to mM 
bcott s aescriptioii of Ben-venue. wh4re he says : 

" Hi-ooped from the sheath that careles.^ fliriii.' 
Lpon a stafr'.s liiiire antlei-.s hunfr ; 
I' 01- all around the walls lo (,'nice 
Huns: trophies of tile iiRht or chase." 

The interior is gradually falling to decay. The eleo-ant 
statuary was either destroyed during thi wai or take. 

rS;,er.b Iv'l '°"rr, ■•'^"^^ °f Southern ai-istoc^rcy 
>^^-ounds flo^^'"- 8-arden is attached to the 

" ^)r'',^'''^ >'f-'l""tine and broom, 

Walt around their i-ieh perfume 
(;iose to the walls tov'ether twine 
'J'he ivy and the Idaj'n vine." 

The Bak.-A great drawback to Charleston-s coramer- 

niou 1^ H e hf 1 ^""T l'^"' locking tife 

nioutli ot the harbor for ten in es. and nreventino- ti,;,,^ 

ot heavy burden from entering, except afveiT Li, iT 

By means of the national jettTes. however, the -oustr c' 

ion of which will commence shortly, a de] h of tei d' 

io'l'i^lL'rhl'ough:"'"'' ^'^^^^ '^"^"^•"^ '--^'-t --els 


For many years past the marl underlving the nhos 
phatebeds_of South Carolina was known ani used as a 
i;;rnlizer, but, until of late, the rocks or nodules were 
■ n^^Mip and thrown as de, not merely as a useless inatc^ 
. lal. but were regarded as an obstruction. The followhig 



extract from a pamphlet published by Dr. N. A. Pratt, 
will show how the discovery of the usefulness aiid value 
of these corpoUtes was made : 

As early as the year ISGG, I attempted to establish a 
company for the manufacture of acids and fertilizers, 
but without success. In ISf? \km attempt was revived 
with Iwiter h^yp^ of success; and wMle from May to 
August ^ectino- a suitable location for such works, and 
as chemist to the ' iSTorth Carolina Geological Survey/ I 
searched in both the Carolinas for native home material 
which might be turned to profit in the manufacture of 
acids and fertilizers, I was fortunate enough to discover 
that a bed outcropping within ten miles of Charleston, 
contained as large a percentage of the phosphate of lime 
as any of the phosphatic guanos imported from the tropi- 
cal islands, and used in this countr}^ and abi-oad in the 
manufacture of fertilizers. This bed has long been known 
in the history of the geology of South Carolina, as the 
*' Fish Bed of the Charleston Basin,* on account of the 
abundance of the remains of the maiine animals found 
in it ; Professor Holmes of tlie Charleston College, hav- 
ing in his museum no less than sixty thousand specimens 
of sharks' teeth alone, some of them of enormous size, 
weighing from two to two and a half pounds each. The 
bed outcrops o» ifce banks of the Ashky, Cooper, Stono. 
Edisto, Ashepoo, and Combahee Rivei-s, but is developed 
most heavily and richly on the former, and has been 
found as far inland as forty miles. Near the Ashley 
River, it paves the public highway for miles— it seriously 
impedes and obstructs the cultivation of the lands^ afford- 
ing scarcely soil enough ' to hill up the cotton rows ;" 
and the phosphates ' hav^e been for years thi-own up 
in piles on Wm lawns, or into causeways over ravines, 
to g€t them out of reach of the ploughs; it underlies 
many square Tiiiles of surface continuously, at a depth 
ranging from six inches to twelve or more feet, and ex- 
ists in such quantities, that in some localities fi'om five 
hundred to one thousand tons, or more, underlie each 
acre. In fact, it seems that there are no rocks in this 
section that are not phosphates. 

'-'While engaged as above-mentioned, from May to Au- 
gust, 18G7, in locating my proposed works, and searching 
for material suitable to my purposes, on or about the first 
of August, while examining samples of foreign guano mi 
the laboratory of Dr. St. Julien Ravenel, (who was then 
engaged in preparations for the manufacture of fertili- 
zers, and expected to import or purchase his materials 
from abroad.) I was shown by him a rock which he said 
was from Goose Creek, S. C, and contained, according 


to his estimates, from ten to fifteen per cent, of the phos- 
phate of hme. Knowing from Toumey's Geology of South 
Carolina, and ^ofessor Shepard's analvsis, that nine per 
cent, was not uncommon in the marls of Ashley River. I 
was not surprised, and at his suggestion that ' as I was 
interested m such matters I had better analyze it." I did 
so. Two days afterwards the result was known, as fol- 
lows, and iinmediately communicated to Dr. Ravenel 
who was then in my laboratory, with the remark that ' it 
Avas well worth looking after :' ' Phosphate of lime. 34.40- 
sand and insoluble matter. 29.92.'* The same day. Au- 
gust 3. (as taken from my laboratory record,) recalling to 
my mmd the ' Fish ItKk'' erf the Ashlev River, and the 
' nodules' or 'conglomerates' buried th«%, I applied to 
my friend. Professor F. S. Holmes, (who, among all mv 
acquaintances, was best informed as to the geologv of 
this section of the country,) for samples of those and 
similar rocks, and finding in his cabinet a quantity taken 
twelve years before from his own plantation on Ashlev 
River, was pleased to discover on August 10. 1807. No. 1. 
phosphate of lime, 55.92 per cent.: No. 2. phosphate of 
hme, 55.52 per cent. Subsequent analysis made of the 
rocks taken by myself from the bed, showed averages 
varying from fifty-seven to sixty-seven percent., which 
(;ould be relied on from a verv large extent of countrv • 
thus having found these phosnhates to be identical with 

i.®. V",?'^'^ stones.' ' nodules,' or '' conglomerates.' of the 
' lush Bed of the Charleston Basin.' all the physical char- 
acters of which had been known and described twenty 
vears before: and the nodules, of which 1 was informed 
by Professor Holmes, were known to contain fifteen or 
sixt^een per cent, of phosphate of lime. Availing mvself 
of 1 rofessor Holmes' extended information in regard to 
the outlines of the bed. which he had many years ago 
inapped out, I pushed forward my examinations and ex- 
plorations with flattering results, and in a few weeks 
extended the limits of the bed far beyond its previouslv 
known boundaries. Thus this valuable material was 
discovered and located.'* 

The following extract from a report of the Chamber of 
Commerce on the trade and Commerce of Charleston will 
give an idea of the value of the marl found in South Car- 

The extensive marl beds of the low countrv of South 
Carolina were known and adverted to from an early pe- 
riod m the liistory of the country. The economic value 
ot thj'se^inarls was, however, especially brought to notice 
by .Mr. Edmund Ruffin, who had been very successful in 
renovating worn out fields m V4^»a^ by the ai>i)4ica- 



tion of the marl found in that State. He thei-efore na- 
turally concluded that South Carolina marl would effect 
the same desii-ahle object. With great industiy and en- 
thusiasm, he examined numerous localities, determined 
the percentage of carbonate of lime, and ui'ged upon 
planters the advantages to be derived from enriching- 
their fields. 

Im TiT^Tiia. the c«A#-h#*Io of ]imm i€ in a condition 
easily attacked by acid compounds of compaiatively 
weak and solvent power, while in South Carolina it is so 
combined with and mineralized by silex, oxide of iron, 
phosphate of lime, and other substances, as not to be 
applicable to agricultural i)uri)Oses. until its nature has 
been changed b3'bui*ning. When this has been done, the 
South Carolina marl becomes an im})roving agent, vastly 
more effective than that of Vii-ginia."' To effect this cfe- 
simble^ object, the ''Charleston Agricultural Lime Com- 
pany " have established works at Woodstock, on the 
South Cai'olina Railroad, about 18 miles from Charleston, 
where this mai-1 has been found, after numei-ous and 
careful examinations, to be very rich in phosphate of 
lime.*' The Chai'leston agents of this company are 
Messrs. Rarenel (Sr Co. 

Sonie of the principal phosphate companies are the 
Etiwan. Wandoo. Pacific, Stono and Atlantic. 
■ At a recent meeting of the stockholders of the Stono 
Phosphate Company, the following officers were elected : 
AVm. Pavcnel. President: F. L. Frost. Secretary and 
Treasurer: Dr. St. Julien Ravenel, Chemist: J. B. Kecke- 
ley. SurptM'intendent. 

News and Courier. — This is one of the best conducted 
dailies in the South, and the leading Demm-ratic journal 
of the State, 'i'he office, large stone front building, is 
situated No. 10 Broad street, and includes in its depart- 
ments a business office and i-eception i-oom on the first 
fioor, editorial and reportoi-ial rooms on the second floor, 
and composing i-ooms on the thii-d floor, all well fur- 
nished: while in the outer buildings, i-anging towai'ds 
Elliott street, are to be found the steam pi-esses and ma- 
chine for folding the ])aper, and the job office in the rear 
of the press room. 

Dp:utsohe Zeituxg. — A German paper, published ti-i- 
weekly, by F. ^Melchers & Son. at OS Broad street. • A 
sterling Democratic sheet, with extensive circulation. 

THE LA:s^D of flowers. 29 

Sunday Times.— Published every Sunday morning at 
o. 0 State street. Large and increasing circulation. 

Monthly Pecord.— Episcopalian, bv Walker, Evans 
cV: Cogswell. 


Charleston Hotel.— On the corner of Meeting. Havne 
and Pmckney sti-eets. is a massive building, with double 
<-t>l()nniide. reachmg to the roof, and forming quite an 
'-v¥wmm&^d exterior. 

Pavilion.— This popular first-class hotel, so extensi^- 
ly known throughout the country, is situated at the coi- 
ner ot Meeting and Hasel streets, in the verv center of 
ilie wholesale and retail business houses. It has been 
ryeently renovated, is elegantly furnished, and affords all 
the facilities and comforts looked for by those travelino- 
\ov pleasure or on business. On the tabic evervthing 
pleasing to the taste is found, and the celebrated artesian 
water, so hig-lily recommended bv physicians, is supplied 
tor both d]-mkingand bathing ptvfposes if desired. A fine 
biNiard parlor and barber saloon are attached. 

Waterly House.— This is third in size among the 
iiotels now open in the city, and has the facilities for 
accommodating one hundred guests. Its situation is in 
ty*© «^««4 m King street. 

:^Lansi()n House.— Located in Broad street, near Meet- 
ing has been recently fitted up, and now offers accom- 
modation for fifty i)ersons. The situation is a most de- 
sirable one. and the charges moderate. 

HiLBERs House, No. •.>S4 King street, is well known as 
a first class private boarding hou^, md is now prepared 
tor the winter travel. ' ' 

The Forest and National houses, both located on 
King street, are most comfortably furnished, and have 
tlie facilities for accommodatiij^- «i#ier families or siiw*le 
persons. ^ 

Hampton House.— This house is conducted bv a lady 
whose appreciation for the gallant ''standard bearer" ol 
the State suggested the illustrious title which it bears 
ihose who patronize the Hampton House will receive 
every attention Its location is on Meeting street, next 
to the Pavilion Hotel. 


Mechanics House, fitted up especially for the accom- 
modation of mechanics, is situated on Meeting stiet-t. 
nearly opposite the Market. The prices and ener^^y of 
Ule proprietor to give i^«flbcfli0n, ikiW be found in keep- 
ing with tlie times. 

Lemon V Restaurant, on the northeast corner of Ha^cl 
and Meetino- streets; is always supplied with the iH'.st 
oysters, fish, and game, when in season, prepared in 
savory style and served by attentive waiters. I\leals aic 
furnished at all hours during the day, and up to the 
eiWMlg' hour at night. 


As the Charleston Disinfectant, manufactured by Mr. 
John Commins is receiving the attention of the medical 
faculty, we take pleasure in a})])ending the reports of 
some leading physicians on the subject. 

Dr. Lynah, while practising on Sullivan's Island, speaks 
thus: I have freely used the Fumigator and Disinfectant 
manufactured b}' John Commins, and find it one of the 
most perfect Disinfectants that has been brought into use 
for the prevention of epidemic and contagious diseases. 
T would recommend its use in all houses wliere diphtheria 
and fevers prevail, as I believe it to have a tendency to 
prevent the extending of such diseases in the house. 

Health Office, Galveston Texas. 

I have experimented with the Disinfectant manufac- 
tured by John Commins, and find it a powerful Fumiga- 
tor and Deodorizer. I think it a most valuable disinfoc- 
%mil for ve§*»l% ilngives off no spafks while burning-. 

^y. F. BLUNT, M. D., 
'Health Ph i/siciaii . 

Office City ami Roper Hospitals, Charhstmi, S. C. 

Mr. John Co^niiNS : I have given your disinfectant a 
good test, and I am much pleased with the result. In 
this institution it has served our purpose admirably; it 
has few equals for simplicity and enicacy. 

J. S. BUIST, M. D., 

Physician to Hospital. 

Te€ IjA^d of flowers. 


The Cliarleston Disinfectant, manufactured bv John 
/'Commins, has great recommendation for cheapness and 
•easy of application. From its combination it has great 
■claims for recommendation on ships and in houses we 
consid«*it a powerful disinfectant. 

L T. McFARLAND. xM. D,, ) Comm.itiee on Disin- 
//^i^f^-'^ HOLLIES, D., \ feet ants. Jacksonville, 
L. I. SAIL\L. M. D.. ) Fin., Feb. IGth, 1878. 

Among the most flourishing industries in the citv is 
the Sash and Blind Factory of Mr. E. W. Percival.'' sit- 
uated at the east end of Columbus street. This is, strictly 
speakmg, a Southern enterprise, and is sunplied with all 
the modern nnprovements for turning out doors, sashes 
bJmds, frames, moulding, brackets, mantels, etc with 
neatness and dispatch. The saw-mill attached contains 
tlie latest improved machinery for planing work. The 
track of the Northeastern and Savannah Hailroads run 
tJii-ough the yard, which saves the expens/- of drayao-e 
as th<^Mit #m he loaded at the factory. . ^ ' 

Invention.— A unique contrivance, whirli can either be 
used as a sleeping cot, or parlor lounge, has recently been 
invented by Mr. R. C. Millings, No: :UU King street It 
ma}; be used with or without a net, can be foTded up and 
earned about, and may be used to advantage by hotels 
or boarding houses. The prices vai-y a.-cording to finish. 

HoLMAN Liver Pad Company. -The trite saying that 
y nothing succeeds like success," finds an apt illustration 
m the Holman Liver Pad. That the theory of the appli- 
cation and use of medicine by absorption is, in most 
cases, the true course of treatment, has been thorouo-hly 
demonstrated and conclusivelv proven to the public mind 
through tlie introduction of the Holman Pad, which has 
done its work whenever and wherever used with extra- 
ordinary success. 

This pad company have established in the Citv of 
Uiarleston a supply depot for the West and South. Thev 
have ample and fine rooms at the corner of Kino- and 
Market streets, with separate ])arlor for- ladies and o-en- 
t emen. Though they have been here but a short tfme 
the sales of over a hundred pads in a single dav attest 
the public intelligence and appreciation. The testimo- 
nials of this company are of the highest character, in- 
cluding high and well known names in Europe as well a^^ 
m America. 

Obliging and skilled assistants are in attendance at the 
rooms to give all desired infoi-malTion. 


Insurance Agency. — The agency ai Messrs. Ravenel, 
B#wen & Co., representing no less than seven of the best 
companies in England and America, is located at No. 8 
Broad street, three doors east of State. It also represents 
one of the most solvent accident companies in the country, 
and the term of insurance on dwellings and other proper- 
ty may be carried for periods of three and five years. 


The steamship lines, connecting New York with Charles- 
ton, are the Adger and Clyde Lines. To the former line 
belong the steamers City of Atlanta. Charleston, and 
Cha.mpion ; to the latter, the George W. Clyde and Gulf 
Stream. The Clyde Line to Philadelphia, consists of the 
steamers Virginia and Equator. 

The Falc(jn and Sea Gull belong to the Baltimore Line. 
The Sappho, Pocosin, and St. Helena, to the Mount Plea- 
sant and Sullivan's Island Ferry Company Line, and a 
number of smaller steamers run between Charleston and 
Ihr landings on the Santee and Pee Dee Rivers. 


Charleston has two street railway companies, viz : .the 
Citv and the Enterprise, which run throue-h all of the 
l)rincipaJ streets, with a line of track extendifig from the 
Battery to th« Fof-ks of the Ro»d. 


And now farewell to Charleston and all her greatness I 
For the present our occupation is gone. The good steamer 
waits at the foot of Adger's wharf to bear us to the 
•'Forest City." We provide ourselves with a comfortable 
state room, "and as the swift steamer turns seawai'd. we 
rapidly pass forts, islands, and lighthouses, which grad- 
ually sink from view as we reach the broad ocean and 
continue our G^Pif« further into the hmM of the ''sunny 

Savanaiili and Charlsston Railroad. 









])OUJ^.E DAILY TRAINS, canyii^^U. S. .Mail. 

J^ULLMAX SLEEl^ixa OARS on all Ni-ht Trains. 

C^-" Pass!Mi<,-ers ^-o Tliron.irli between -CHARLESTOX and S\- 
\'ANyA H »ii(l A IJOUSTA. trifhovt rj)anf/e! 


GEO. T. ALFORD, Proi-kiktok. 
BoAKu, PKK oAy, . $2.00 Aisn $2.50, 

(According' to location of rooms.) 

This is a Fir.^t-class Hotel, and has recently been Renovat-ed 
Repainted and pnt ni thoron-h order in every respect. 

The ]^avilion is sitnated on Meetin- street one of the wide^^t 
handsoniest and hns.est thoronj^hfaivs of the citv. It is witl in \ 
ew stei)s o the hn-est Avholesale houses, and connected l)v It reet 
nnlwa y w,th the R. R. De,)ots. Postomce, Banks, .tc. The'En ie.' 
entrance ,s on Ha..el street, less than a sqnare from Kini, stree he 
faslnonabl^ pron.enade and principal street for retail shoppim^ 

( lei ks (•omi)etent and i)ohte. Servants qnick and attentive 

The Bilhard IVrlor coiniected with the house is tlie finest in the 
South, contemn- oC'ollender Tables, fifteen ball i,ool. 

RomthH may be en-ji+ced in advance by a])plyin<r to 

(I T..4LFOIU), Proprietor, 



:v2 A (;rii)i-: to tiik land of pi.owkrs 

IxsriiANcK A(;kx('V. — Tlu' aL;(MU'y of ^lessrs. Piavciicl. 
Howell Co.. r<'|)fos('ntin,L;- no less tlian sovt^u of tlic brst 
(•()in])anios in l^nL;lan<l and America, is located at No. s 
Broad street, three doors east of Stiite. It also i-e|>resents 
one of thcniost solvent accident companies in tlic c(Uinti-y. 
and tli<^ t(M-m of insni'ancc on d\vcllin«;-s and (>ther proiter- 
ty may be carrieil for pei'iods (tf three and hve years. 


The ^teamship lines connectinL;- New N'ork with ( 'iiai'les- 
ton. are th<^ Ad^^-er and Clyde i.ines. To the former hne 
helon^- the steamers City of Atlanta. Charleston, and 
Chani])ion : to the latter, the (Jeor,L;e W. Clyde and iUiW 
Sti-eam. The Clyde Line to ITiiladelphia. consists of the 
steanu'rs Virginia and l^](piatoi'. 

Tlie Kalc<.n and Sea (Jnll helon*;- to the j-ialtimoiv Line. 
Th.e Sapnho. I'ocosin. and St. Helena, to the .Monnt Llea- 
-..nt and Snllivan's Island Ferry Company Line, and a 
iii:!i!!)er of smaller steamei's i-nn Ix^tween Chai'h^ston and 
I<e landin;^-s on the Santee and Pee Dee Riv(>rs. 

sTm:i:T kai iavav. 

< "harleston has t wo street rail way comi)a nies. viz : the 
('itvand the Lnterjn'ise. which rnn thron.i;-li all of tlie 
'••■nci])al streets, with a lim^ of track (^xtendini;- from the 
It f cry to the Foi'ks of the Koad. 

( 'oyoLi'sioy. 

And now fiWR'Wrll to Charleston and all hei' .L;"reatn(>ss ! 
for th(^ present oni- occn])ation is <;-one. The .L;-ood steamer 
waits at the foot of Ad^^-ei-'s wliarf to hear ns to the 
■Forest City."" \Ve provide ourselves with a comforlahle 
state ro'»m/and a-- the ^wift steamer tnrns seaward, we 
rai>idly i)ass forts, islands, and li,L;-hthotises. which .<;-ra<l- 
nallv sink from view as w(^ reach the hi-oad ocean and 
continue our coui'se furtlier into the lieart of tlie ••sunny 

Savannah and dharjsritsn Railroad. 



TBI is: AS stiuirr j^etwkkx ^'"^ 

l>ol l^lJ.: DAILY TRALXS, ("^".^yini^M-. S. .M.-nl. 

l*nj..MAy SLKi.:j>iy,i (^\Hs nn y,..],, Trail,.. 

rawiiu'c)'- Tlii-(,iml) l)ct\V(M'ii ( IIA IJ i J:s'|'( ).\ aiKl s \- 
\ \N.\.\ li a 11. 1 A I'd rS'l'A. ,rif/,oNf ,-hn,,il> ' 

• - • • ■ <"i</<fl,n. hiiii, a- Siiitt. 

CH^flL€STOfi, S. C. 
BOAH8>, t>r.»t DAY, - S2.00 A>'f) $2,50. 

' Acc()i-<lii|w- t,, location ,,j i-tjoinvj 

'^'T-"MnMl and put ,11 i|.,.n.ii-]i i,, ,.v.m-v iv^prci. 
The Pavilioi, i> .irnai.Ml o,, .M,,.Ti,,u- Mn/.i.r.,,,. nf rl,,- ui,|...T 

'nrra.H-. i.oi. I la^H m .v,.t I... ri.aiia Minaivtnun Kin J m.v h.. 
(..|-l..- ial.|.. ,.nM.H>na<i. an.l prin.-ipal snv.t l..r ,v,ail >lToppin.: 
< .•(.„, P.M.. 1,1 and polii... S.i-vanr^ -piick ami ainaniv..'' 

1 iH' Hdiiani ]>aH..r .M.nii.M-PMl will, tl... ImuM. i.. r'ln lin.>^r in r^.- 
>nnrh, .•<,nta.ninu-..(ol|,.nd.M- Tal,I,.. fif,..,.,, h.-dl ju....'. ' 
H.H.iii> May h.- .•ii-.,-vd in a,!van.-.. !,y .>pplyin- r.> 

7: JLFOJN). J'ro/jriclm; 

' ( ■|IA1UJ-:ST( )^-/S. (>, 


Mount Pleasant ^ Sullivan's Island 



add Wlmi, Fosl sf Maskst St. 




Leave the City daily at lo a. m., 3 and 6 p. m. 
Leave the Island daily at 8 a. m., 12 m., and 5 p. m. 


-Manuracturer of 


Will renew and work over all old Hraids, Conibinjrj^. iK:e., in I'asliionahlo style* 
at low jiriees; aliso Dyeing: in every shade, eillier lighter or darker. 

Country Orders proni])tly attended to. 

Ij*dieH' H«sir-(lre?*siii^ a speciji-lty, 

301 Kine Strppt Ohaiipston, S. 0 

1 88 King Street, Charleston, S. C. 





i»g and Ship Plumbing. 


dMiirlostaz& to Saltimoife I 

And ill] points ^^CVRTH and WEST, also to all EUROPE \N Ports 

^ Cheapest Most Pleasant & AttractiTe Boitel 

FALCON, B. F. Ktrbv, Commander, 

SEA GULL, \V>r. j\fARSiiMAX, Commander. 

Sailing from Oharteston and Baltimore weekly, 

()fTer to the travelin<»: public, every Comfort and Convenience. 

Mi to BALTIMORE -J ^^^^^^^^^ \ M] $15.00 ! 

FOR A].L lNF()R>lAT102f, APPLY TO 

Edwin Fitzgerald, Agt.. 


A. Tobias' Son & DeLeon, Agts, 

<"H\RT.EST()X, S. C. 


Mill Mlvni Mlmim Stoyes, Grates, M Eaies, 

Plain. .lapfHined, and Planished Tin, Sheet Iron, and 
Wooclefi Wme, Hous^ Furnishiufr Articles, etc 

J^oojiiig, Gidtering and JRepairiiuj promptly athmcUd to. 
ISo. 118 Kin^i; Street, Charleston, S. G. 




m 1 mMmm-^tM _ 

lAteting St., cor. Sorlbeok's Alie^^, 




unt Plsasant & Sullivan's Island 

FERRY y ggrfc i COMPANY 

OSlcs and Wharf, Foot ftf M'^i^u^ St. 


SAPPHO, POCfll', m I 


SCI ii:i)rLi':. 

L'.'civc th(j Cit\- (hill)' at lo a. m.. 3 aiul 6 i". m. 
Lfc-avc the Island dail\- at S a. m.. 12 m., and 5 r. m, 


sri'i' I! iM'i-' yiii-' ^T. 



Will renew ;mil work <>\ cr -i!! oM Ur.-iid-. ( '(>iiil>iiiL:~. .Vf.^iii r.i-liii>n:i!il(' laja lt"~ 
;i! 1( >\v pi ice-: ;iU(> I )_\ ciuir in <'vcr> >li;itl( . cil hci Z/;////' /■ or A < / . 

(\>iiiiti"y ( )i-(lt'r> prnniptiN' attfiidftl To. 

301 King Street, Charleston, S. 0 


1 88 King" Sti'cct, Charleston, S. C 





Stenm t-ittinL; ami Shi]) PlunibiiiL;. 


All. I .-iJJ lu'inrv X( iirrn WKST. also i<..-, 11 Kl'Rol'KW Po-t^ 

^ Clieapest Most Pleasaiil & AttrasliYe Roite ! 


J'AIX'OX. I). V. Kikjn, Commander, 

SKA CjL IJ., \\\m. M Aksii.MAN, Commander. 

Sailing from Ohaiieston and Baltimore wmkly^ 

( )riVi- To Tlif* Trav.'li;).-- ]iiil.:ic .'VPi-y (•(.iiiforT and ( mi v.'iii.'n.-f. 

Tic)[elUo BALTIMORE- '''t:z::t.r :Oiily $15.00! 

Direct CoiiiiGctioii in made at Balt iiiiorc for a!! Poiiit.^ Nortii eiiii We.^t, 

i-oR ALL 1 X > 1{ M AT K A P PL V~Tn 

2dwin Fitzgerald, Agi.. j A. Tobias' Son k DeLeon, Agts, 

HAi/.ri.M( )J^K. Ml). 

' " ^ HLLSTON. S. ('. 



Coolii, Hsalii, and Keroisei Stoves, Grates, and Eaiips, 

I'laiii. Jap;H)iitMl, and Plain-li(Ml 'j'in. Slif^.^T livni. and 
Wwtrif*}! WaJ".\ lloiix' lMinii>Iiiiiu' ArTick\-. ht.-. 

ROBEBT 0. W!:iTE, 


< i:.-\i!<7rKKV POTS KNCPOSKI), 
SHORT X( )Tl('iv 

Ttm^ Meeting St., cor. Horlbeck's Alley. 

< llAliPPSToX. S. ( . 

A. G. cuDwaaru 4 co. 


Meeting St., 


china" emporium ! 

H. 0. STOLL, Agent, 

Nq. 2^7 King Street, opposite Masonic Temple, 


Importer and Dealor in French C'liina, (ilass and Queenswiire, ('.('. 
Yellow aijwl Rockii)«,'liani-\vare, Kerosene LMini):<. C'liHiidelicM'S 
■ i^Ta-ckots, ]'Iate(l-\varo, Curlerv, .-md jtJonse 

e Dieamsiiip Lmcs 

Elegant Deck Sfdtei'ooms for Cabin Passengei's. 



AVACtNER. IIU(iER cV: CO., ) , 

Wil. A. COURT EN AY, p^>?<^"^^^ , 

1« ^IWitkiy, Charleston, S. C 


No. 284 King Street, Ctiarlestou, S. C. 

Transient Board, — from $1.50 to $2.00 per Day, 



^[rs. P. Hilb^aJ*'. 

C-€0. A. Waisener. 


(Snccei^or to Geo. A. Bowman,) 


237 K'lKC ^f^'^ 




Composed of Sniphnr, Carbolic Acid, mm\ Iodine; the O N L Y 
KNOWN FUMIGATOR that completely de.strovs all germs of in- 
f<>ction in a honse, or in clothinn:. Should be fi-eelr used where 
Dii)htheria, Miasmatic and Contaj^nons Diseases exist. 

Endorsed and recommended by the Medical Convention lately 
held at Jacksonville, Fla., Pebniary 10, 1^78, to consider the most 
<'ffectnal Disnifectants, and the l)est means of i^reventin- the intro- 
duction of Yellow Fever, and other conta-ious diseases into the 
Por^' of the United States. 

Price, 10 cl;. pr paclap, siifflcieiil to Fiimipte imW tioiise, 

J'oi: SAI.I-: i?v 


]^'itented Nov. 1870. Manufacturer, 


Hon. E. C. Anderson, Mayor of Savannah, Ga.; Hon J C Rid- 
<lell. Mayor of Fernandina, Fla.; J. A. Stewart. Esq.. Connnis- 
sioner of Health, Baltimore. Md.: Hon. H . A . Kendrick, Mavor of 
Brunswick, Ga.; J. C. Habersham, M. D.. Health Officer, Savan- 
nah, Ga.; Dr. F. P.Porcher, Associate Phvsician, Citv Ho.spital 
Charleston, S. C; Dr. Rob't Lebby, Health Officer, at Quam«tine 
Charleston, S. C, who says: 

"Since the introduction of the Fumi-ator and Disinfectant 
manufactured by John Cummins, I have used it freely on all vessels 
luleeted or otherwise, quanmtined at this station, and believe it 
1h*s wo equal." 


AN J> 


No. 245 King Street, Charleston, S. C. 

Pianos to let. Pianos tniied ami repaired. 


187 Meetinir Street, next above Pavilion Hotel, 


MocM'd and Lodging per day, $1.50: per iv&eh, 
. $7.00: 9i,nd per month, $25.00. 


121 Meet>ng St., opposite Market, Charleston, S. C. 

Can be obtained at this House, with Good Acconjuiodations. 

BOARD Per Day, |1.00; r wrek, ff5.(KJ. 

Permanent Boaixl, $5.00 i>er week. 

lew York i-Oliaiiestoii 

.steamship CITY OF ATLANTA, Captain S. Woodhnll. 

Steamshii) CHAMPION, Captain P. W. Lockwood. 

it^4*iaiip CHAW^^f#M, fc^^in James Berry. 


JAMES ADGER & CO., Agents, 

ConicT of AdjrerV Wliiii-f and East Bav, 

" 6. i. THOMPSan & CO. 



iMT.M?c."V;?' {<^V^9,9^JtV^'^^I^ OUTPrrS A SPECIALTY. 

r,M East Bay, Norlli of Market Street. 


Honse and Sliip Plnmbinp:, Roofm- rfurterinj^, and Tin Work 
^^eneralj}', promptly at tended to. 

Wedding- Gift^ at Allan's. 

ph'u ^Ti^wnfoA^"^ 7;/"^''''''''''" '^'''^ ^'^'^^'-^ of the latest stvles., 
KICH JEYVELRY— Of new and ele^jrant desi^rns, and exonisite 
workmanship. J)IAMONDS, PEARLS. CAMEOS-As weH a" fe.< 
costly sets, ]n j-reat variety. STERLIN(i SILVER-WARE — In 
tresh and beautiful patterns, especially adapted for AYeddin^- Pres- 
V"^r: I^Y^^^^^ ;y.ATED-WARE-Ten Sets, Waiters, l^^e Piudiers 
.Butter Dishe.s ( ups, Goblets, etc. CHOICE FANCY OOQDS- 
Frencli Clocks. Bronzes, line Tal)le Cutlerv, Opera Gla-sties Hue 
(ihkiswai'e, etc- ' 


Sipi of Drum Clock, 807 Kin- Street, Charleston, S. C. 




A hue assortment of Gas and KcM'osene CHA^PELIIiRS and 

LAMPS, always on lian'^ 

By Mrs. R. G FIN:^EY, 

1» the inMi*€(li.'itc> vicinity of llwj Banks 
and roslollice, 


Perniaiieiit & Transient Boarders 



/wj*PW M(nnifac(urcr of 


And Dealer in 
304 King Street, 

4 DOOllS A15UVK W^LXTWOimi, 

■n'r^lK. i cmrlestoii. S. C, 

1 Ik- chi'apesf Fumiuire Wnre-rooiiis in 
Clun-Ieslon, nnd none ol Adiun and Kvc's 


Fsniitnre Ware-rooms, ' 

No. 219 Kirg Street, 

Constantly re- 
ceiving 1 1 1 1* l^ki es t 
Styles of Fnrni- 
t lire. CoHins and 
I Bnrial Caskets of 
the most snperl) 
st;j^'les and finish. 

^...iPHLEr^^ ^ ^ SSV^-^ATro.v^ ^^^^^^^ 



Representing in FIRE DEPARTMENT first class English and 

mASVM^''^i^^'l'l%^]^i^^ aggregating upwards of $30,000,000. 

KARIME DEPARTMkNl'.-Mercantile Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany, iNew iork. Foreign Coastwise Insur^e effected to mil 
ports at reasonable rates. 

LIFE AND ACCIDENT DEPARTMENT, representing the Pion- 

?Nc,fTP x'^vP?^'' nMAJ\\^^^^^ 9'% ^^^^ '^"^^ reliable TRAVELERS' 
fn^,n 5t^f^ ^^^i^^ford, Conn. Even- m^m^me 

form of Life and Accident Insurance eirected. 


^V^)'t^^V?^'' c r. ^^^J^IEL RAVENEL. E. P. JERVEY, 
Of Jas. Adger & Co. pf q . , 

Lemon's Restaurant, 


JMrtIp 9fMmnp mm& Game, In seajson* 





Frames, ]\rouldings, Brackets, Stair 
Rails, Wood Mantels, &c. 

Conipention iwid quality of work defied. 
Trices GuwMi.^>@d as k)# m iwy Momse 

East End of Columbus Street, Charleston, S. C. 








Lftn(^ from 11 A. M. to 2 P. M. 

Oyet^, Wines, Liquors, Cigars, Tobfwjco, etc., of best qualities. 

BBANCH- Ocean Parfc^iiteBiilal' M J Islaui-MOUSI 




No. 447 King &iTm% Ch^iiesten, S. 0, 

A liiH' M>M>rtni('iir (it (ia> nnd Km^nu' ("HAXDKLIKRS an.l 

LA.MJ\S, alwiiNs on liaiul. 

Ilansion ilouse i 


By Mrs. K. (J FLXNKV, 

(>'.) EbiMKul Si vvi'i. 

In lln- inuiu'ili.'ilf viriniix uf ilie Hunks 
.in<l J'D.-loHii'c, 


PeriuaiieiiU Traiisieiil Boarders 

.And Dcalo- in 
304 King Street, 
I I ()(>K> AiioVK \vi:nt\V(»i;Tii. 

Cliarlestoii. S. C, 

I'>iK i;:i.*ki l. » 

'Vlii- chid jns/ Kni iMliMC \V;iri'-ir)()ni> in 
( Ii;ii-li'-t(in. :iii<I ni)nc h|' Aihmi .niM Kvc'- 
<>l<l riilicr. 


Fiiriiilnre fare-rooms, 

No. 219 Kirg Street, 

<*()ii>ran1ly rc- 
(•('i\-in<i' till' Latr.-r 
Styli's of I'nriii- 
i urc. ( 'odins and 
Hn rial ( 'ask<'ts of 
Till' most snpprl) 
>t\'lps and iin.isli. 


Representing in FIRE DEPARTMENT first class Hn-lish and 
wl'i T'llrir'^ll'i'^'V^^m^^ a-o-rt-atiii- iipwanls of $:-;(),0()0,()(l(). 

MARINE DEPARTMElfT.-Mercantile .Mntual Insurance ( oni- 

paiiy, New i ork Loroi--n mu\ Co^Hrise Insiirnnt-e efTeeted to all 

ports at reasonable rates 

LIFE AND ACCIDENT DEPARTMENT, representing,^ the Pion- 

IXSmMXP^ rm^ '"'V^' '•'^^'■'^''^^^ TRAVELERS' 

U):MPAN\ ()t Hartford, Conn. Everv ftvwhihl*^ 

lonii ol Lite and Aceidenr Lisnranee elfected 



()t .ias. AdKercSrCo. Qf -\y^ (j 

Leinoii's Restaurant, 



yisli, #fii^rs, and Game, in season. 




Frames, Mouldiiin;s. Brackets, Stair 
i^ail.s, Wood .Alantels, &c. 

^t-^ , ^.'oinjiflitiou ;m(l (|u;ility of work dclici. 
J nccs (Ju:ir;inl«cHl as low as auv Iloiiso 

Hast End of Columbus Stn-et. Charleston, S. C. 









Lunch from 11 A. M. to 2 ]\ M. 

Oyster.^ Wines, Liquors, Ciprars, Tobacco, etc., of best qualities. 

BJBANCH- Ocean Par]( Ceiiteiiiiial Hall Islaud-HOUSf 


IjTer aflfl Ape Pad aifl Amiliaries ! 

All Hiscases arisiiiij from 






- ^ 




o - 

X — 

^. r-t- 











c - 

K- - 




All tlipso liavo tlioir ori^cin, directly or indirectly, in tile Stoiiijvch 
or Liver; if you doubt it, jAfiid for ])r. Fnirchikr^; Lecture. 

Rfittttlar Pad, $2; Spernl, $3; Plasters, 50c.i Salts, 25c. 

Specials are used in Complicated Cases, sent by nuiil, on receipt 
of price, free of cluy-ge. Salt is s<3ut by express at expense of the 

Consultations at our parlors or In- letter free, ^fmaile {»#lor 
for ladies, in charo:e of a lady attendant. 
AVhoIesale orders promptly executed. Beware of imitations. 
None genuine but the above. 


Gomel- Kin^ and Mm-ket St^., ClnKrl^irton, S. C. 
•fflMiCmillS A FOSfER, M&n*fie^'K. 

Plumbsr, Gas and StGam Fitter, 

Ml CMifleliers,, BiiJtols, PeuflaiitvaM Kerosene Laips, 




Cooipetitioft mi Qyailty of Worl Defied 



Book and General Job Printing ! 


C U R i: I] Y A B S C) R P T I O N ! 

Ape Pat and Aiiiliaries! 

All Di-i'.'iM's ariM'nu' trom 

A X ! ) 

V\i\'A' 10XTK1> 

- -A 

- '^^ - 

/. :^ 

r — 

7- r - — 

— — Y - 




y — 


AI! tlics*' lia\-»' tlicir i)ri<,n"ii. din-ftly or iiid ircctiN', in tlic St(Hiia<-li 
or Liver; if you doubt it, x-ud lor Dr. l'air( liildV J.cctunv 

Regular Pad, $2; Special, $3; Plasters, 50c.; Salts, 25c. 

SptM-ials {ire \\<tH\ in ('onipli(*at<M] Cases, sout hy mail, on rofciijt 
of i)ri(H', free of cliar^-<'. Salt is sout by cxpi'c.v^s at (wpcusc of tho 

Cousultatiou.s at our parlors or by hotter fi-ci'. Separate parlor 
foi- liidies. in (diai'fre of a lad\' attendant. 

AVliolt'sale ordei's i)i"ouii)tly executed. Reware of imitations. 

iPtf' Xouc <r<'Uuiuc I)ut tlie above. 


Corner l\iu«r and Market Sts., Cluirleston, S. C. 

Plumbsr, Gas and Steam Fitter, 

Has Cliaiideliers, Braclels. PeMaiits, and Kerosene Laiiiiis, 

62 ,Bi'oa.d JStjrcet. iuiticr Car^iio^ <Uo£ei, 


Gonipetifioa and Qualitj of Work, Defied 



Book and Gkni';ral ]on Printing ! • 

Nos. 252 to 256 King Street, Charleston, S. C. 

Thm Mmm, having been thoron^'hlv renovated, is first-olass in 
every respect; is situated in the bend of Kin^ Street, in the most 
fashionable portion of the city, conveaient to aJl plmim of busina#s 
»nd aniu&enient. 

B«nrd ga per day in nil parts of tho ITouno. 

Personal Attention given to Guests of this House. 
Carriages at depots and steamers to convey passen^'crs to thehou#e. 

A. J. KTW rnV \ <•> Vr- ! n i. 

S. B. THOMAS, Agent, 


Window Shades, Papgr Hangings, 

Cornices, Upholstery Goods & Window Awnings, 


Wholesale Dealers in 

House rixrni«hing GoodSf 


250 King Street, Charleston, S, 0. 

lAidie&\ Gents', Misses', (uid Children's 


V. O. T). Orrter^ prcwuiitly attended k). 



The first point of interest that greets the eye on ap- 
I)roaching the mouth of the Savannah River is Tybee 
Lighthouse, situated on an island bearing the same name 
about eighteen miles from the city. The island is a 
pleasant summer resort, and is much f re%u«ited by visi- 
tors during the heated term. 


Passing up the river about three miles from Tvbee we 
come in sight of Fort Pulaski, which, as long as' one 
brick remains upon another, will perpetuate the glorv 
and valor of Georgias gallant soldiery. The work of 
building this fort commenced in 1831, and was completed 
sixt-een years afterwards at a cost of nearlv a million of 
dollars. The walls are seven feet and a half thick and rise 
twenty-five feet above the water. It has five faces, sev- 
eral of which were badly battered during the war, but 
have since been repaired. The memorable siege of Fort 
Pulaski commenced on the morning of the 10th of April, 
3 8G2. Previous to the bombardment, an order was sent 
by the Federal commander for the immediate surrender, 
but Col. Olmstead. the commandant of the fort, answered 
" 1 am here to defend the fort, not to surrender it." 
After a furious cannonading of a day and a half, from no 
less than a dozen formidable batteries, which' battered 
the fort into a shapeless mass," the brave garrison surren- 

We now continue U]) the river, which winds like a huo-e 
serpent, pass Fort Jackson and numerous rice fields, and 
finally land at the steamers wharf, foot of Abercorn st. 


Savannah is noted as being one of the most beautiful 
cities of the South. It is situated on the south bank of 
the river, on a bluff which rises fifty feet above the level 
of the sea. It has a population of about forty thousand 
inhabitants, contains many large handsome buildings, 
and is divided by numerous wide streets and parks from 
'ilMl to end. 

In the year 1732, King George II of England, granted to 
James Oglethorpe and others, a charter separating that 
ti^a^k of country lying between the Savannah mid All»- 




malia Rivers from the province of Carolina, stating-, 
among otlier things. •* th*t-iiiany of his poor suhjects were, 
through misfortunes and want of employment, reduced to 
great necessities, and would be glad to^ be settled in anv 
of his ^Majesty's provinces of America, whei-e bv culti- 
vating the waste and desolate lands, they might not onlv 
^ain a comfortable subsistence, but also sti-engthen his 
Majesty's colonies, and increase the trade, navigation, 
and wealth of his Majesty's realms : and that the pro- 
vince of North America had been frequently i-avaged bv 
Indian enemies, more especially that of South Carolina, 
whose southern frontier continued unsettled, and lay 
open to the neighboring savages : and to relieve the 
^vants of said poor people, and to ])rotect his Majestv's 
subjects in South Carolina, a regular colony of the said 
poor people should be settled and established on the 
southern frontiers of Carolina." In Xovend^er, l7o2. James 
Oglethorpe with thirty-five families, about one hundred 
a^d twentj-five persons in all, sailed from London, and 
in January arrived in Rebellion R.>ads. at Charleston. 
After a pleasant sojourn at Beaufoi-t. S. C, the colonists 
sailed for the bluff, which had been previouslv selected 
by Oglethorpe, and landed there on the 1st of February. 
17:3:3. They were met by a number of friendly Indians, 
who presented them with gifts, and otherwise^ assisted 
them in the work of clearing and settling the place. The 
following summer one hundred and fifty more settlers 
arrived, and the wards, streets and squares were desig- 
nated, and named with appropriate ceremonies. The 
building up of the town increased Avith even greater 
rapidity than could reasonably be expected, and where 
but a shoi't time previous' thick woods and a few wig- 
wams stood, signs of civilization and diversified indus- 
try became everywhere apparent. Here, in ir::]:3. Rev. 
John Wesley preached his first sermon in America, taking 
his text from the i:3th chapter of 1st Corinthians. 

During the Revolution of Savannah occupied an 
important place in the picture. 

In 177S, General Robert Howe, the American comman- 
der of the post, with (nie hundred i-egular tr()0])S and a 
few hundred militia, after a spirited engagement was 
compelled to yield to superior numbers, and the city fell 
into the hands of the British. On the 1st of September. 
1779, a French fleet under Count D'Estaing. appeared off 
the coast, and sixteen days later being reinforced by the 
arrival of troops from Charleston, the British garrison 
^vas summoned to surrender. After twenty-four hours 
consideration the summons was answered in the nega- 
tive, and D'Estaiixg resolved to take the city by storm. 



On the morning of the 0th of October, the French and 
Americans moved against the works in three divisions. 
The gari-ison having l}een informed of the plan of attack 
through a deserter, the advancing columns moved under 
a destructive fir-e. Notwithstanding this the flag of the 
'2d South G*i*olina Regiment was plairted upon t\w wo^s 
by Lieutenants Bush and Hume, who were shot down §mi 
the colors fell. Lieutenant Gray seized them, but met 
with a similar fate, and it was here that the gallant Ser- 
geant Jcisper received his death wound in Ixniring them 
aloft, and from the fatal field. The assault, pi-oved a 
failure, and among the killed was Count Pulaski, and 
other valuable officers. On the \-2th of July, 1782. the 
town was evacuated and sun-endered to the Americans, 
cmd^^ made a city by Act of the Legislature in De- 


Savannah at present is in as pros])er()us a condition as 
any city in the South, and besides being the second 
largest cotton port in the United States, doe's a large busi- 
ness in the shipment of timbei*. i-ice. naval stores, etc. 
It is connected with the interior and Xorth and AVest by 
the Georgia Central Railroad, and with the South bv the 
Atlantic and Gulf Road. There are a]so steamer "lines 
running to New York. Baltimore, Boston, Philadelphia, 
and J^^lorida. 

The principal streets running across are Bav. Congress, 
Broughton. South Broad, and Liberty. Those running 
from north to south, are East and AVest Broad. Houston. 
?labersham. Abercorn. Bull. AVliitaker. Barnai'd. Jeffer- 
son, and Afontgomery. On Bay street are found the 
wholesale grocery, liquor and tobacco dealers, commis- 
sion merchants, customhouse. l)anks. etc. The di-y goods 
and fancy stoi'es are located on Broughton street, while 
a miscellaneous collection of hardware, boot and shoe, 
leather finding and statir)nery stores, wholesale and re- 
tail, flourish on Congi-ess street. The most attractive 
thoroughfare, howe^•el•. is Bull street, which leads to 
Forsyth Park. Here are found many beautiful resi- 
dences, with cultivated gardens, ekurches, public build- 
ings, parks, etc. 


The churches of Savannah are numerous, costlv and 
atti-activ(\ and are illustrative of the fact that the various 
Christian denominations are well represented. The Epis- 
copal religion was* established by Henrv Herbert. D. D., 
who came OT«r with the settlers in 17o":3; the Lutheran^ 



first by the Slazburgers, in 1774; and afterwards, in 18'24 
by Dr. Bachman, of Charleston, S. C: the Presbyterian" 
by Bet J. J. Zubly, in 1755: the Metliodist, bV Rev. 
bainuel Dunwoody, and other divines, in ISOG; the Bap- 
tist and Catliohc, about the year 18O0. Ttie first Jewish 
bynagogue was built at the corner of Liberty and Whitiii> 
ker streets ni 1815. The most beautiful church edifice »i 
bavannah, and possibly in the South, is the Catholic 
Oathp:dral, situated at the corner of Abercorn and Har- 
ris streets. It is built in ornamental Gothic stvle, with 
elegant and spacious interior accommodations.^ capable 
ot seating one thousand persons. The altars,' three in 
number, are constructed of white marble and elaborately 
hnished. The building is yet unfinisli^cl, but when com- 
pleted will present a rich, roughcast ext.e-rior, with pointed 
towers iron rail work, etc. The corner stone was laid in 
iNovember, 1873, and the dedicatioya .aQtajnon^ were per- 
formed April 30th, 187G. 

The Independent Presbytekian Church, situated at 
the corner of South Broad and Bull streets, is also another 
costly structure, noted for its architectural beauty. Amono- 

?• . Jo^^^^'^' Episcopal: Trinitv, Methodist: Bap- 

tist, mi^Mwmk Synagogue. ' 


The appreciation of the people of Savannah for valor 
•a^nd true merit, has caused the erection of several beau- 
tiful marble memorials, which embellish the citv in dif- 
fepefit places. 

Griene Monument.— This is a plain obeliscal marble 
shaft, without inscription, placed in Johnson square It 
was erected m memory of Gen. Fathatiiel Greene in 
1829, and is about fifty feet high. 

Pulaski Monument.— Thi« costly cenotaph rises from 
the center of Monterey square, and is also about fifty 
feet m height. The carving at the corners of the die 
represents reversed cannon. That on the north side repre- 
sents a wounded soldier falling from his prancing war 
• steed : the inscription on the south side reads as follows: 

''Pulaski, who fell mortally wounded fighting for 
American liberty at the siege of Savannah, 9th October 
1779; ' on the east side, inscribed in large letters, is the 
name PuLxVSKI. Two sides of the cornice are ornamented 
■with the shields of Poland and Georgia, bordered with 
branches of laurel, over which is an eagle, the svmbolic 
bird of America and Poland, while the pyra«iidW sha^t 
is surmounted with the Godctesg of Li^rty. 



Confederate Monument.— This beautiful and inter- 
esting memorial, erected by the ladies of Georgia, and 
situated towards the centre of the Park Extension,' is in ' 
every way suggestive of the touching words : 
" There i-esteth to Georgia a orlorv, 
A g-lory tliat .sliall not <rro\ok1 ; 
There reiiiaiiieth to Georgia a storv, 

A tale to be cliaiited and told I 
They have gone to their graves grim and gorv 

The beautiful, brave and bold; 
But out of the darkness and desoJation 
Of the mourning heart of a ^vido^ved nation, 
Their memory waketh an exultation.'' 

As near as we can describe it, the monument consists 
of brown frame work, elegiintly carved from base to top, 
with an arching center, in which stands the figure of 
" Silence." On one of the panels we read, 

To the Confederate Dead, 1801— 18G5. 
On another. 

Come from the four winds of heaven 0 Breath, and 
breathe u^yon these stain that they may live.'' ' 

On the side facing the Park is the figure of a woman, 
sublime m the sadness of her expression, representing 
the South mourning. 

On the top, with trumpet in one hand and scroll in the 
other, stands the mighty angel " Resurrection." 


Every one who stops at Savannah should visit this 
enchanting spot. It is really a terrestrial paradise, but 
m the center, instead of the tree of life, a gushing foun- 
tain sends forth its refreshing streams, which fall in 
liquid spray to impearl the flowers below. The stately 
trees on both sides of the central shell walk are survivors 
of the primitive forest, and form a miniature wood from 
which the birds of spring pour forth their sweetest hymns 
of praise. The main entrance is guarded by two bronze 
sphinxes, and a short distance further to the right is a 
small statue of the winged god Mercury, with caduce^as 
in hand. 


The water works to be found on the western side of the 
Ogeechee Canal, supply water to the distributing reser- 
voir located on Franklin square, about half a mile dis- 
tant from the works. The works force the water into 
the distributing reservoir at an elevation of one hundred 
feet, and at the rate of over one thousand gallons a min- 
ute. By means of pipes running through the streets and 
houses, the city receives a constant and abundant sup- 
ply of pure, fresh water. 



Laurel Grove.— Twenty-six yeai-s have passed awav 
since the dedication of this ImUowed spot. Beneath its 
su-arc he the remains of Savannah's hest citizens, mho 
have been -athered to their final rest bv the silent reaper 
whose name is - Death." The buriaf grounds cover an 
area ot ten acres, and are conspicuous for the number of 
costly and elegant monuments which adorn them. In 
the Confederate soldiers lot. and that portion marked the 

Men of Gettysburg." lie side by side in like arrav: as 
wlien the clarion notes bade them rush to glorr oel- the 
grave the patriot soldiers of a vanquished eause Here 
they sleep m sweet oblivion but unforgotten. for at the 
(lawn ()L each vernal season myriads of 

B-uitiftil ff'jt with Ml Li'l Milv rivad, 
^^l^mm bring to tin- g-nllant dewl.'' 

BoNAVENTURE.— For sublime grandeur of scenerv Bon- 
ayenture Cemetery is not surpassed bv any place of the 
kind m the wor d. The arching and moss-dVooping trees 
wi h their long branches ti-ailing over the tombs, aiv said 
to have been planted by Col. John .Alulrvne in 17G1 in the 
form of the letters and T., the initials of his daughter 
Mary, and her husband. Mr. Josiah Tatnall. of Charles- 
ton. Ihe cemetery is situated on ihe Thunderbolt Road 
about three miles from the citv. 


The principal public buildings in the citv are the Ex- 
change. Historical Society Building, Conr'chonse Poo'r- 
house and Hospital Medical College. Customhouse Or- 
phan Asylum, and Bank of the State of Geor-ia 

-D i^^'"''5*"^ operation are the CY'ntral 

Kailroad. iie«C'hants' National, and Savannah Xational. 


The suburban resorts, all of which are well worth visit- 
ing, are located as follows : 

Tybee Island is at the entrance to the Savannah River 
and lb miles from the City of Savannah; and from the 
Ocean House there is a fine view of the hundreds of ves- 
seds that are constantly arriving at and departing from 
the great Atlantic cotton port. A new and fast steamer 
plys daily between the city and the island, and a tram^^ 
road, passing through beautiful groves of palmetto oak 
and pme. connects the wharf with the Ocean House "con- 
mmmM a. (jr. \ banez, and lands the guest. at its very 


doors. A telegraph line, always in operation, affords 
facilities for prompt communication with all parts of the 

Bethesda. signifying a -' House of Mercy.'" about ten 
miles from %he city. 

THUNDM»»iT. 0#wlaining several hotels and a number 
M preltf summer residences, five mites s#«#it€®«t of the 

AVhite Bluff, on the Vernon Elver, ^kimt te» ^fes 

„ Jasper Springs, so called on account of a famous ex- 
ploit of Sergeant Jasper, where, by a well planned stra- 
tagem, he. with a single companic/n. captured a corporal 
and eight men of the British army, is situated on the Au- 
gusta Road, about two miles froni the city. 


Among the larger hotels of Savannah are the Mai-shall 
Screven and Pulaski Houses, and Pavilion Hotel. 

Pavilion. — This jx^pular hotel is situated at the corner 
of South Broad and Bull streets, the most desirable loca- 
tion in the city. It is recessed in the rear of a pleasant 
garden, contains thirty-five sleeping ai)artments, bath 
room.s, parlors, etc. The tables are supplied with the 
luxuries of the season, and are extensive enough for the 
accommodation of seventy-five persons. 

Mrs. S.\wyer's Boarding House.— This is really a 
liotel upon a small scale. It contains twenty-thi-ee rooms, 
all handsomely furnished and carpeted, ornamental par- 
lors, dressing rooms, etc. It has a back stairwav })v 
which pei'sons could descend in case of fire, and an ele- 
vator by whicdi invalids may be conveyed to the third 
«tory. There are also furnished apartments for families, 
a spacious and pleasant dining room and bath accommo- 
dations. The situation is on the corner of Brougliton and 
Drayton streets. * 

Mrs. Savage.— In front of Orleans Square, at the cor- 
ner of Hull and Barnard streets, is the boa! ding house of 
Mrs. John Savage. This is rather a unioue looking 
building, and has one of the handsomest shaped dining 
i-ooms in the city. The location is pleasant and quiet, ft 
contains twenty-five rooms, a comfortable parlor and out 
buildings. Everything here is conducted in first-class 

Mrs. Elkins.— This house is also pleasantly located on 
York street, three doors east of Barnard. The. bed rooms 
are well ventilated and warm in the winter season. It 
contains an extensive parlor and dining room, south piaz- 
zas on the second and third stories, bath rooms, etc. 


Mrs. AVithington's, m South Broad street^ in easy 
reach of two hues of city railway, with bath rooms and 
all the necessary convenient?^. 

Mrs. Jones.— This house. Xo. l(;;3 York sti-eet. is hand- 
somely and carefully furnished throu^koM^, The aimft 
ments ai-e spacious and adapted to the comfort of those 
seekmg the mdd climate of the South 

fi ■^^'''''i-' u'It^''' ^o.^-'^ted on Broug-hton street, next to 
tlie Marshall Plouse, is under the supervision of AErs \ 
Clay, who thoroughly understands the art of catering 
the wants of the hotel seeking public. 

"^n^"^' house. Xo. im i^oughton street, is 

well established, and furmsh-es good, #w«b6teiitial b^#! 
at reasonable rates. 


■v^^^7-S'^^ ^-w^'^^'^^'^'^^^^^^- booksellers and stationers, 
^o U2 Broughton street, constant supply of stationery 
and fancy goods kept on hand. ' 

A\ YLLY & Clarke, booksellers and stationers, wholesale 
aiul retai . corner of Whitaker and St. Julian streets. 
Hei^e can be found the argest supply of books, chrooios. 
inks> periodicals, etc., in the citv 

chl^U^' Bay street, rice and commission mer- 

Jas. S. Sil¥a, m Broughton street, im])orter of 
crockery, etc. ^ 

vo^;•]^•''^^''^^^ ^''•\ ^'-^^^i.^^liton street, jobbers and 
letai ers ot dry goods, fancy articles, etc. tourists will 
hnd here everything m the line of drv goods of the best 
quality, and served by attentive and polite clerks 

Jos. K LoiSEAU & Co.. US Broughton street, hair 
s ore. The attention of the ladies is Vciallv cal ed to 
this emporium where braids, wigs, curls, iiair'geiierallv 
and toilet articles are kept on hand, and all kinds of hair 
work executed m the latest styles 

A. L. Desbouilloxs, No. -^rBull street, jewelry estab- 
lishment. Besides all articles in the line of jewe rv 
many novel Florida curiosities can be seen at this place' 
Among the specialties are sleeve buttons made of alliga' 

b" ans^tc: ^^'^'"-^ ''''''-'^ ^^^^ 

CuxNixGHAM & Hewes, wholesale grocers and shin 
chandlers, corner Bay and Dravton streets ' 

iif^lT.'^ Bexdham & Co. dealers in cigars and tobacco. 
143 Bay street, Savannah, Ga. 

n^i\Jl \^ Co., grocers, corner Barnard and 

Broughton streets, Savannah, Ga. 



Joseph B. Ripley, commission merchant. ILS Bay st 

K. H. F00T51AX & Co., insurance agents, 118 Bay st. 


Noble's Greexhouses.— Here is a place where a pleas- 
ant hour may be profitably wiled away. The nursery 
Hid garden are situated in the rear of Madison Square 
and contain rare specimens of numerous birds, alive and 
stufied. gold fish, flowers, hot houses, etc. ' 

Savaxnah Xursery.— This place is located just outside 
of the city on the White Bluff road, a few minutes walk 
from the terminus of the city railway. Those who are 
fond of anthology will have ample scope for study and 
amusement here. About ten acres are planted iii tube 
roses, and under a thousand feet of glass are exotics and 
dom-estic plants of every descrii)tion. 


On the water front in the western portion of the city is 
the large steam rice mill of :\ressrs. Habersham & Co 
1 his place has all the facilities for pounding, cleanino- 
and preparing rice for_ shipment. A large number Sf 
workmen are kept constantly employed, and the rice 
wJien sol(l. can be shipped from the large storehouses at 
the water s edge. 

From Savannah. to Florida and Southern Georgia we 
^ established and pioneer line, the Atlaiitic and 
Gult Kai road, still up with the times in all that minis- 
ters to the comfort and convenience of the traveler 
whelrher tourist or invalid. Its elegant equipment— Pull'- 
man palace Sleepers and spacious and sumptuous Parlor 
cars— Its smooth and safe track, extensively renewed 
recently with steel rails— its double daily train service 
and lightning si)eed of trains, all combine to make the 
last stage m the trip to Florida the pleasantest of all Xo 
weary waiting for the lifting of the fog to go ahead— no 
" rough weather outside " to stop its passengers, but on- 
ward they fiy on the wings of the wind, while the ever- 
sliiftmg and beautiful panorama of the scenery of the 
lowery Land unfolds itself before the delighted gaze of 
those who, m the choice of their routes, have wisely fixed 
on this. 

The Morxixg Xeavs, a large and well conducted Demo- 
cratic daily, -is published at Xo. 3 Whitaker street The 
>.ews has an extensive^ circulation throughout Florida is 
under the management of the proprietor, J. H. Estill 
Esq., and edited by Col. W. T. Thompson. 

Uail to riorida ! 

Douhle Daily Train Sarvio^ 


ULLMAN Palace Sleepers and 
Spacious and Sumptuous Parlor 
Cars, without chancre, to Florida. 



^ Be sttrtt your Tickets read 





General S7ifi' I. Gen I Pass. Ao-'l. 

J. H. GRIFFIN, Passenger Ao-cnl. 

R I C E 


Address,—- Savannah, Ga, 


No. 1 08 South Broad Street, 

2 doors from Drayton Street, 


Importer of 


140 Broughton Street, 



Formerly with John M. Cooper &: Co., 

Soofesallers aad Stationers, 

Fancy Goods^ dfcc. 

No. 132 Broughton Street, Savannah, Ga. 

Geo. T. Qnantock Jaiiies G. Pournelle. 


AU M to riorida ! 


nil m niu 

-— — ^ -Mil ^ f ' 't m '• 

Double Daily Train Service 

avannal] and |acksoiiville f 

alace Sleepers and 
^S7Jacious and Sumptuous Parlor 
Cars, without change, to Florida. 

S, UOOTJf TIL ICR'! S.lFKTl ' BnAk'l':S! 



^ Be sure your Tickets read 





General Sup'/. Cen'/ Pass. <^V. 

J. H. GRIFFIN, Pcisscr^orr .^o-ca/. 

s» R I C E « 


SAVANNAH km mmmim. 

Address,— -Savaxxah, Ga. 


^. 1 08 South Broad Street, 

2 doors froiri Drayton Street, 

s;a VAisr>s' All, (3-A 

Importer of 


140 .BroLighton Street, 




ForiiuM-ly with John .AI. ('()0])tM' »S: Co., 

ooksellars and Stationer; 

No. 132 Broiighton Street, Savannah, Ga. 

(^oo. T. (^)n;uitock .riiiii.'^ (J. l^)urufll.'. 



Corner Bay and Drayton St&, Savannatu Ga. 

Israel Dasher. Jnsnph P. (irrm-tinr. Fraul: W Dasher 


JiMer^ and MetciilcvH of 

RX^^ G O O D S 

li£ 2«m^hton St., corner Whitaker, Savannah, Ga. 

Dnrmmimit nnfl fP 


for,H.,- H„l. nn.l . SAVANNAH. GA. 

Barnard Str*>'»t< C 

mounted in Sleeve Buttons, Ear-riufrs. .Sets. etc. SJIELI, luid 
FISH SCALE JEWELRY, lendy-nisde afid to oiiior. «t the 


21 Bull Street, opposite Sever en House, 

Fiiilt liii |g FIlA I 


Georgia and Florida 


fitAMKcr City •! BrMc«t»B, 

H. Ft^TW!0OD, Ow««»n4er, 

Will leave Savannah EVERY TUESDAY and SATURDAY, at 5 
1 . M,, foi- St, Catharine's, Doboy, Darien, St. Simon's, Brunswick, 
bt. iAhirys, Fernandk**^ ln©k#c»i:TlWe, Pft4«tlta, »»€ Ail poi^Hfe cm 
c^t. John's River. 


J. WHITE, Commander, 

AVill leave Savannah every THURSDAY at 10 A. M., for St. Catha- 
rine s Doboy, Union Island, Darien, St. Simon's, Brunswick, St. 
Marys, iernandina, and all points on Satilla River. 

The above steamers connect at Brunswick with M. & B. and B 
& A. Railroads for all points in Southwest Georgia. At St. Mary's 
with steamers for points on St. Mary's River. At Fernandina with 
A., & AV. I. T. C^o.'s Railroad for Waldo, Starke, Gainesville, 
Bronson, Cedar Keys, and all points on this road. Also with 
st-eamers at Cedftr Keys for Key West, Tampa and Manatee. At 
Jcicksonville with F. C. R. R., J., P. & M. R. R. for L«,ke City and 
all points on these roads. At Palatka with steamers for the Upper 
St. John's and Oklawaha Rivers. At Tocoi with St. John's R R 
ior St. Au.gustine, and at St. Augustine wfth steamers for New 
Smyrna and all points on Indian River. 

Throuprh bills lading given and through tickets sold to above 
points. B or freight or pa.ssage, apply at Office No. 5 Stoddard's 
UpiKir ii*jft^e. 




, I » tlwj Mew Ifciklift^fl^ritlnj^ South, 

Coriie?' orBroughtpn, and Drayton Streets, 
m- U tm^a to ftmn^ai with Good A^oH.n.oclations.^ 


Succossars to J. M. Cooper .V: Co. 

AVhole>^a\e a-rid Retail 

^ooteollers and Stationen 

^ -.^1*^ ^'"'i!'" streets, ^ayaiiiiali, Ga, >^u>ff:s Pri„ti„/~TpTRTER-S Writing INKS. 



GK/V7£.h'./1£ A'VIf.SRRY STOCK. 
Address 32 Bull Street, Savannah, Ga. 

I I 

York St., 3 doors South of Barnard, 

Psrmangnt and Transient Boarding. 




(18 Miles from Savannah.) 

1 . O. Addros.. Savannah, Ga. Propriet or 6ce1C.rSe. 


• U8 Broughton Streft, between Bull and Drayton, 


BtAIiHi, WIGS, CURLS, SWITCHES HATR tt?'Wt?t t?v a att^ 

MAfK FRAMES, MADE 'tO 0^1^^ ^'^^ 


«32 Broughton Street, Savannah, Ga." 



Jfcii) J.VaA'' ^(3 ^ ULL STREE T, 

Plant.s, Cut Flowers, Gold Fish,- Canarie.s, and Birds 

of all kinds. 

^''^it^it'^T'fn"''-} ^"^'*f?"''at">'-- an,d prepared Mock- 
.«g4*vl Hoo<l. Bird-caftOR. Hano-ino-i.Askcts, etc. 

Savannah and MslIonYiUs 

STEilBOAT nil 



i"or St. Catharine's, Doboy, Darien, 

Union Island, St. Simon's, Brunswick, and St. 

M«rf's, Gsfe. Feraandina, Jacksonville, anJ 
all points on St. John's River, Fla. 


tor all landings on the Satilla Ri¥en 


teamer ROSA! 

Captain P. H. WARD, 

mi'J!J^/l^'^ M'harf foot Braytou street, at 4 o'clock P. :\[.. EVERY 
J UhSDAV. I^X)R FLORfDA, touoliin- at St. Catharine^ Dobov, 
Union Lsland, Darien, St. Sinioii's and Bnni.swick, connectiji': 
111° "'^ Brunswick, with steamer Carrie, Oapt. .Too Snn'th. for 
ht. Marys. Fernandina, Jacksonville and all i)oints on Florida 
(.entral and Jacksonville, PeiM»cola *wid iio*»le Bwlitmcli fft. 
.John's River. 

For Satilla every Thursday at 4 o'clock P. M., touchiiiir #i all in- 


At Darien wtth .-^e^iMers tor the Alt^unaha, Ocniultree and Oco- 
nee Rivers. 

At ]^riinsM-ick \%'ith MtM^on and Bniniwick mmI Bruuifrkk mid 
Aumny Railroads. 

Jacksonville for New 73rittain, New Snirnm and 

At J ocoi with St. John s Railroad for St. Auj,'ustine. 

At Palatka for Oklawaha River and Dunn's Imke or Cr<«ii^)t 

At Wekiva River with steamer May Flon^ef fm- Clny B^mm und 
all points on the River. ' «■ £ 

At Saiiford for Ljike Jessup and all points on Upper St. .FoJin's 
and Indian Rivers. 

Throuofh low nite^ai" imi0m mid pmmm tma bills of \mmnv: 
fj^iven to all i)oints. 

Freights lor Alt-aniaha, Ocmnlpree and Oconee Rivers must (h; 

I'^reight received daily, SuLnlays excepted. . 
J. tl SMITH. IMana^er. 

o. s. BKxsoif. a«Aw?iy a«j«*r4. 


Passini^ the moiitli of the St. Mary's River, which at 
the coast divides Georgia from Florida, we enter tlie 
waters wliich lave the hanks of the " Flower}' Land; the 
land of the orange tree, tlie pine and the cypress: the 
sequestered home of the wily Seminole. "' While gazing 
upon its heautiful shores, and drinking in the delicious 
air wliich floats athwart the main, as soft and as fragrant 
as the perfumed gales of Araby. we can almost fanc}' to 
ou]"selves that the veteran cavalier. Ponce de Leon, was 
right, and that somewhere amid the wild morass is to be 
found the fountain whose translucent stream will pei*- 
petuate youth and health, consign care to oblivion, and 
open to our longing eyes a jo3'ous future, from which the 
sunliglit of happiness will never depart. 

The early history and discover}^ of Florida, has already 
been alluded to in the opening of this work. 

In the 3'ear lol2, Juan Ponce de Leon, then Governor 
of Porto Rico, actuated by the belief that somewhei'e in 
the direction of the setting sun. the fabled Fountain of 
Pei-petual Youth was to be found, fitted out three ships 
and set sail for its discovery. On the 27th of March, of 
tlie same year, he arrived off the coast of Florida, and 
charmed with the grandeur of its scener}-, its rich foliage 
and clustering wild flowers, and owing to the fact that 
he discovered it on Easter Sundav. (Pa scua Florida.) on 
the '2d of April he took possession of the land in honor 
of his sovereign, and gave it the name which it now 
bears. On his return, he was rewarded by the Crown 
with the title of *'* Governor of Florida.'' and ten years 
afterwards, while making a second visit, he was attacked 
])y the natives, who drove his men back to the ships, and 
inflicted upon him a wound, from the effects of which he 
died after his aiTival in Cuba. 


On the P2th of April. 15:38, Pamphilo de Narvaez landed 
on the west coast of Florida, near Tampa Ba}^, with a 
force of tliree himdred men and fortj^-five horses, and de- 
termined to penetrate into the heart of the country in 
search of the untold wealth which he believed the country 
possessed. After suffering great hardsliips from want of 
1 •> 



food and attacks from the natives, who disputed every 
inch of ground, and losing all hopes of being again able 
to inci their ships,, they se4 lo m^ork constructing barges 
out o€ whalever niat*eHal they c«ld gather, and in Sep- 
tember set out from a plasm iff^mk tiiej ^led the Bay of 
Caballos, and after days of tempestuous weather, the 
barks becdme separated, some of them lost, until the 
number was reduced to one hundred souls. The majoritv 
of these, with Narvaez, finally perished from hunger and 
the arrows of the natives. Of the survivors. De Vaca and 
time of his companions succeeded in reaching Mexico. 


This celebrated nobleman of Sp^iin, who had distin- 
guished himself with Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, 
with a splendid retinue of a thousand men and three 
hundred and fifty horses, landed at Tampa Bay on the 
25th of May, 1530. De Soto passed through a large por- 
tion of thcit territory which now forms th-e Southern 
States, and after many difficulties and adventures reached 
the Mississippi Eiver, where he died, and was buried be- 
neath the waters. 


Although in the year 1559 the Spanish monarch made 
another attempt to settle Florida, and entrusted the expe- 
dition to Don Tristan de Luna, still this, like the rest, 
proved a failure; the first permanent settlement was 
made by the Pluguenots under Rene de Laudonniere, a 
companion of Ribault, who two years previous had at- 
tempted a settlement at Port Koyal, South Carolina. 
About the year 15G4, Laudonniere landed at the site whei-^ 
St. Augustine now stands, but on the day following en- 
tered the St. John's Kiver, and jilanted his colony on a 
bluff at its mouth. Here Fort Caroline was erected, the 
remains of which,, it is said, are still to be traced. While 
arrangements were being made in Prance to increase and 
render more permanent this colony, the news reached 
Si)ain that the Huguenots were about to seize Florida, to 
which the Sp^vniards claimed exclusive right on account 
of prior discovery, and, to thwart this purpose, Pedro 
]\lenendez, encouraged by Philip the Second, fitte^i-^ut an 
expedition, and in August, 15G5, landed on' the coast of 
Florida, with twenty-four vessels and nearly three thou- 
sand followers. Learning that the Huguenot settlement 
wa«s onl}^ a few leagues distant, IMenendez set out at once 
for the fort, and aft«er capturing it murdered the garrison, 
sparing neither the women nor the children. About three 
years afterwards, this inhuman* act was avenged by 
Dominic de Gourges, a brave adventurer of G«»scoiiy. He 



completely surprised the Spanish garrison at the fort, and 
those who were not slain in the conflict, he hanged to the 
very trees from which his own countrymen had been 
executed. iMenendez being called to Spain, left the colon v 
in charge of a relative, the Marquis de Menendez, and 
regarding its increase and success, we shall further speak 
in our desci4ptian of St. Augustine. 


The following abstract of a report of the Florida Branch 
of the International Chamber of Commerce of London, 
furnishes all necessary information with regard to cli- 
mate, healthfulness, agricultural resources, etc. 


The annual mean temperature of Florida is 70.95 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. The average temperature in winter is 
degrees, making the climate the most equable of any 
in the United States, Its peculiar geographical position, 
nearly surrounded by the ocean and tempered by the gulf 
stream, makes it warm in winter and cool in^summer. 
Frost occurs seldom even in winter, and in the southern 
portion of the Peninsula is Unknown. The summers are 
long, but the nights are cool, while the regular sea-breezes, 
and frequent showers, temper the heat of the dav. The 
distinctive features of the climate is its healthfulness. 
There are localities which are malarious, but bv a judi- 
cious selection of location this evil may be wholly avoided. 
As an evidence of the universal salubrity of the climate^ 
the fact is stated on the authority of a well known phy- 
sician from the North, and a resident of the State for 
nearly forty years, fhaf nearly all the children horn here 
hve to maturity. The diseases which prove so fatal else- 
where, such as consumption, l^fonchitis, pneumonia diph- 
theria, typhoid fever, etc., seldom occur, and when they 
do occur, are of a very mild type. 


Florida lands are classified into pine lands, hummock 
lands, ''scrubs.'-' swamps and savannas — pine and hum- 
mock comprising more than three-fourths of the entire 
area. Hummock is that which is covered by the different 
hard woods. The prevalent forest growth is yellow pine, 
and its soil is light and sandy. These lands, owing to 
the climate, are far more fertile than the same character 
of soil elsewhere. The fact is, that the fertilization re- 
quired at the North to produce forty bushels of corn per 
acre, on apparently similar soil here, will yield from two 
to three thousand pounds of sugar. Scrubs '' are high 



rolling lands of light dry sandy soil, and of inferior char- 
acter compared to the pine lands, yet witli proper fertil- 
izing yield abundantly many semi-tropical fruits. The 
savannas are low-lying lands, very rich, but valuable 
only as the}' were reclaimed. T.his can be done easih\ 
when their fertility equals that of any known lands. 
The swamps are low wet lands, frequently covered by a 
heavy growth of Cypress timber, which makes them very 
valuable, and wh^i mc^iiiiimed they po»««5 a marT«llom 
fertility. Besides*, they furnish one of the be»t Iwrtilis^rs 
for the pine lands. 


Usually, whatever may be the attractions and induce- 
ments offered by any particular State or section, the im- 
migi-ant will be confined within the nai'row limits of the 
usual range of crops characteristic of that section; and 
the prospect of even a light enlargement of that range or 
scope of crops would be recognized as an inducement of 
great power. Other things being neai-ly equal, few in- 
ducements could more attract an immigrant than the 
option of continuing, in a moi-e genial climate, the culti- 
vation of accustomed crops, and simuitan-eously of reach- 
ing out to the cultivation of crops peculiar to a widely 
ditferent zone. 

To a resident of Great Britain. Canada, New England, 
or the Northwestern States, it seems scarcely possible, in 
any one locality, and that without the vai-iation of tem- 
perature given by mountain elevations, to cultivate suc- 
cessfully within an enclosure of ten acres, the oats, rye 
and wheat of the North, the peach, quince and sweet 
potato of the Middle States, the corn, cotton and tobacco 
of the Southern, the coffee, indigo and ginger of the West 
Indies, the orange, lime and lemon of Central America, 
the olive, grape, coffee and spice, the date and palm of 
the desert, and the sugar cane, pep])er and tea of the 
East, but residents of several portions of the State know 
that this can be done in Florida. When to these are 
added the I'ice, bananas, plantains, guavas, cocoanuts. 
pineapples, and pawpaws that are actually raised with 
success, the wide »iige of Florida productions is strik- 
iw^-ly sMown. 


One-third of all the lands on the Peninsula belong to 
the United States, but are open to entry only under the 
Homestead Act. All the Government" land on the St. 
John's River is taken, but two or three miles back plenty 
remains unoccupied. Every head of a family, under the 
homestead law, on the payment of $14 and by making a 


liome on the land, is entitled to a deed from the United 
States to ](i(J aci-es at the end of five years, and that, too. 
with little further cost. There are also large quantities 
of land known as State land, which can be bought out- 
right for from GO cents to 81. -25 per acre. These are as 
N'aluable as the United States lands. Improved farms or 
j'lantations. with more or less improvement, can be pur- 
r based all over the State at from 85 to 810 per acre, but 
inimedia»lelv on the St. John's River, or on some communi- 
<-ating lake, they ai'e selling at higher figures. These 
iiave but few orange trees upon them. There are so few 
bearing groves for sale that no settled price can be given. 
A good bearing grove can be raised from the seed in 
-.•\;en or eight years. By transplanting wild orange 
trees, and •'budding" thon^. tlw will bogin to bear in 
tour years and yield abumhinil^v in ^i x. 

( iEy ER AL ( ) BSE R V A TJ ( )y S. 

Lest the above facts might be construed too favorably, 
it may be well to refer in general to some of the dis-ad- 
vantages to be encountered in Florida. 

The new settler must expect to find a new country, and 
consequently one that is crude and uncultivated. A 
person from abroad will see much hei'e that is not invit- 
ing and even unsightly. He must come expecting not to 
find in the newly settled sections school houses, post- 
offices, churches and the genei'al appliances of civilization 
and comfort. These, however, will rapidly follow the 
settlement of the countiy. The many privations and 
hardships incident to a pioneer life, can be immediately 
obviated only by several families coming together, and 
by thus forming their own community, utilize at once 
the manv advantages which surround them. 

To the invalid seeking a winter whose temperature is 
like the latter half of the Northern May: to the tourist 
and the person desirous of a mild climate during the win- 
ter months; and above all. those who will come here in 
colonies of from fifteen to twenty-five families, will, with 
thrift and economy, find in Florida homes of comfort and 
plenty, and where the greatest and safest possible retui-n 
will follow the provident (^^penditure of labor and capital." 


A pleasant sail of about twelve hours from Savannah, 
brings us m sight of Fernandina, Avhich is situated on 
Amelia Island, at the mouth of a river of the same name. 
The city was built by the Spaniards, has a population of 
about two thousand five hundred inhabitants, and from 
Its increasing trade gives fair promise for the future. 
The harbor is land-locked, large and safe, and tlie bar is 
deep enough to admit the passage of vessels drawing 
from nineteen to twenty feet of water. 


Fernandina is connected with points North bv means of a 
regular steamship hue, and with the inferiority the Jack- 
sonville, Pensacola. and Mobile Riilroad. A number of 
large stores carry on a brisk mercantile business, and 
several steam saw-mills kept in constant operation, attest 
the activity of the lumber trade. Large crops of earlj 
vegetables are also annually raised and shipped North. 


Among the churches there are two Baptist, two Metho- 
dist, one Roman Catholic, one Presbyterian, and one 
Episcopal. This is also the seat of the Episcopal Bishop, 
who has under his supervision a flourishing academv for 
young ladies. Several hotels and boarding houses are 
open at all times to visitors. 


This place, once the seat of Gen. Natlianiel Greene, is 
in easy reach of Fernandina. The estate, consisting' of 
about ten thousand acres, was presented to him by the 
people of Georgia as a token of appreciation for his ser- 
vices as a commander during the revolution of '70. Sev- 
eral hundred yards from the mansion is the grave of Gen 
Henry Lee, (''Light Horise Hcwrv,") who died here in 
March, 1818, at the age of sixty-three yeafs. The spot 
is marked by a head stone erected by his'^son. Gen. Robert 
E. Lee, the la^nented commawgi^ of the afniies of th* 
Lost Cause. 


Leaving Fernandina, a most delightful excursion of a 
few hours will bring us to the mouth of the '-'beautiful 
■St. John's.'- We cross its bar twentj^-six miles from 
Jacksonville, and come in full view of May Fort, a fa- 
vorite summer resort for the people of the city. Con- 
tinuing down the river, we pass St. John's Bluff, the 
site of Fort Caroline, and as we gaze upon this now syl- 
van solitude, so rich in the possession of natural beauty, 
and feel that amid the tangled wildwood, one might 
safely withdraw from the tumultuous bustle of the busy 
world, become a stranger to passion, avoid temptation, 
and grow old in virtue, we recoil with horror as we re- 
]neml3er that the very trees bear testimony of inhuman 
butcheries perpetratecl by Spaniard and Huguenot. 


Arriving at Jacksonville, we find it to be a pleasant 
city with a spacious and beautiful harbor, wide streets, 
large and beautiful buildings, etc. It takes its name from 
Gen. Andrew Jackson, and the first building, a rude log- 
house, was erect-ed on it by Mr. I. D. Hart, in the year 
182G. It is the most important city of Florida, and"^ the 
largest on the Atlantic coast south of Savannah. Its 
present standing population is about thirteen thousand, 
wliich. is more than doubled during the Avinter by an 
influx of visitors from all portions of the world. On Bay 
street are to be found all of the prominent business places, 
and to the stranger it is an agreeable surprise to find him- 
self, on stepping from this crowded thoroughfare, in 
Avhat appears to be a large, but quiet and picturesque 
village, beautifully built up with romantic and cottage- 
like dwellings, embellished in the front with cultivated 
fiower gardens. 


The streets running north and south, are Catharine, 
Wasliin.L^ton. Liberty, Market, Newnan, Ocean, Pine, 
Laura, llogau. Julia, Cedar. Clay, and Bridge. Those 
running t^ast and west, are Bay. Forsyth, Adams, Mon- 
roe, Church, Ashley, Beaver, and Union. 

68 A GUIDE TO | 


Taking into consideration its many resources and fast 
increasin.Q^ trade. Jacksonville bids fair to become in time 
one of tlie most tlourishing- cities in the South. It is the 
center of the lumber trade of the State, and no less tlian 
nine s«w-mill# »fe kept constantly at work to supply the 
trade deman<l. A large nuiMter ^-es^ls ai-e also" em- 
ployed for the pui-pose of transporting lumber to various 
sections of the globe. The city is well connected with 
the interioi" by the St. Jolui's "River and an extensive rail- 
way line, and it is rumored that leading merchants are 
exerting themselves to give it i)rominence as a cotton 


Conspicuous am<)n.i>- th(^ impi-ovements on Bay street, 
is the block of brick buildings now in construction on the 
south side, between Laura and Hogan sti-eets. The block 
will consist of iron front stores, four feet high, vrhicli in 
point of finisli will coi'ipjM'c favorably with those of our 
large Northern cities. In tiic rear wilF be tlie new wharf, 
storehouses, etc., for the ( 'i'.-irloston steamers*. TIk^sc ])]aces 
are being built by Mr. Wm. H. Astor. a weaithy Northern 
gentleman, who has already contributed miicii towards 
the improvement of the city. 

New Episcopal Church.-- Th.- episcopal congregation 
of Jacksonville have in conLemj)hition the erection of a 
fine chui-ch edifice, nnd for whieli ])ur])ose a lot luxs been 
purchased at the corn'-r of Adams and Laura streets. 
The building will be :>•; by 04 feet and fort.v-five feet 
high, Gothic, style, with circular arrangement of seats, 
elevated chancel, and a tower ninctv feet in heiii'ht. 

Oh!) Ffj. lows' H.vll. — This place on Market street 
has recently undergone a thorough overhauling, and the 
hitherto contracted hall has been enlarged and now mea- 
sures 40 by '-li feet. It is handsomely furnished and car- 
peted, is supplied with gas, and has attached ca:p«, 
ante rooms, closets, and reception roouL 


The officers of the Jncksonvlile Yacht Club are : AVm. 
B. Astor, Commodc)re : S. Connnt. X'icc-CcHnmodore ; E. 
AV. Stetson, Treasurer : H. 1). Browiic. Acting Secretary ; 
A. D. Basuelt, Captain, and chief executive officei*. The 
Club House, at the foot of Newnan street, was completed 
December 27, 1S77, and is quite an ornament to the cit}'. 
It is built beyond the water front, is about 75 by .')0 f(»et 
and foi;iy feet high. Tlie ceilings and sides of the hall 


are handsomeh^ painted and ornamented with chande- 
liers, while the furniture consists of chairs, tables, and 
sofas, of fine material, (^u the roof there is a fiat ter- 
race about sixteen feet wide, railed in and supplied with 
seats, and from which an excellent view of the St. Johir's 
]livei- and surroundiiiL;' scenerv can be obtained. There 
are, also, ladies' and gentlemen's dressing rooms and a 
large bathing room attached. 


The C.atholic Chui'cli of the Immaculate Concei)tion. is 
situated corner of Newnan and Church streets: St. Jolm's 
Protestant Episcopal Church, is at the head of Market 
street; the Bethel Baptist Church, is on Chui-ch street; 
Ocean street Presbyterian Church, is on the corner of 
Adams and Ocean streets: Newnan street Presbyterian 
Chui-ch, is on the corner of Newnan and Moni'oe streets; 
St. Paul's Alethodist E]u"scopal Church, on the corner of 
Duval and Newnan streets: Trinity ]\[. E. Church, on 
IVloni-oe street, near Citv Park; the Hebrew Synagogue, 
at the Llal] of the 1. (K (). F., on Market, near Forsyth 


Jacksonville can boast of an efficient fire department, 
several militia couipanies, various secret, religious and 
charitable societies, prominent among which is the A^oung 
Men's Christian Association. The principal banking fa- 
cilities are offered by the Ambler's and First National 
Banks. The Catholic. Protestant, and Jewish burying 
grounds, in the northeastern portion of the city, form the 
cemetery which contains some interesting monuments. 


Sun and Press. — A leading Democratic daily, was es- 
tablished in 1S75. The size is 27 by 42 inches, circulation 
'^.000. It is published by the Sun and Pi-ess Com])any, 
corner of Bav and Laura streets, and is under the edito- 
rial management of N. K. Sawyei*. Esq. 

Florida Union. — The LTnion is a weekly paper. Repub- 
lican in })olitics. and has a circulation of 800. 

Evening Traveler. — Daily independent evening paper, 
size LS by 2r) inches, cii'culation 500. The Union and 
Traveler are both owned, published and edited by Mr, 
Sidney T. Bates. 

The suburban resorts adjoining the city are East Jack- 
sonville, Brooklyn, and Springfield. Those across the 
river are. Riverside, Arlington, St. Nicholas, South Shore, 

A f O 

Just aside from the shell road, about three miles north 
of the city, is Moncrief Spring. The spring flows about 
one hundred gallons a minute, and the chalvbeate proper- 
ties of the water are said to be highly beneficial to those 
wfe«®e constitutions are weakly. 


FuRCHGOTT, Benedict & Co.— Tiis l4irge establishment 
IS known throughout the country as the the Stewarts of 
Jacksonville."" It is one hundred and fifty feet deep, fifty 
feet wide, has large attractiye show windows and a grand 
entrance. The firm has been established in Jacksonville 
for many years, and has branch houses in Chai-leston. 
S. C, and Atlanta, Ga. Our readers are refei-red to the 
m^m^^m^ M;-^ found elsewhere. 

New York Store.— There are but few stores that make 
a finer display of goods outside of New York, and none 
in this section, than the New York Clothing' Company, 
Bay street, Jacksonville, Fla. A visitor sees at a glance 
what he wants, and, more than that, everybody can be 
sure of receivino- a very courteous reception from the 
manager, Mr. Tischler, and those who have purchased 
there before, are sure to retui-n for anything thev may 
want, simply because they always find every style of 
goods just what they are represented to be. 

It will i-epay every visitor to e^M Hi this store, 1'.^ W. 
Bay street, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Mrs. S. V. Landauer.— This lady has entered largely 
into the business of millinery, fancy goods, black and 
colored silks, etc. Her goods, which are impoi-ted from 
a leading Paris, and several New York and Pliiladelphia 
houses, are of the best quality, and having secured the 
services of a superior milliner, she is prepared to display 
a most elegant assortment of Parisian hats and bonnets, 
mi the lowest prices. Particular attention given to bridal 
trousseaus and morning outfits, and a large a^ssoTtment 
of ladies' under-garments kept on hand. 

Cigars and Tobacco.— At G. H. Gato & Co., 17 West 
Bay street, fine goods in the shape of full Havana cigars, 
fine cut chewing, plug, cigaretts, and smoking tobacco, 
are made a specialty. Lovers of the weed who consult 
their interest will do well to call at this place. 

Cohen Brothers.— The popularity of this large dry 
goods house is attested by the multitude of purchasers 
who throng the place from morning until the closing 
hour at night. Everything in the line of dry goods and 
fancy articles is kept here, and visitors are sure to meet 
with a most #@4'4ial recerptton. See adTertisement. 



0. L. Keene.— At the corner of Laura and Bay streets, 
we find the large handsome millinery establishment of 
Mr. O. L. Keene. A glance at the advertisement will 
show to visitors that it will be to their interest to visit 
this place and examine the large stock of articles put 
down at reduced prices. 

Mammoth Variety Emporium.— At S. Ritzewoller's 
dry goods emporium is to be found the largest assortment 
of dry goods, hats, boots and shoes, and fancv articles in 
the city. The house No. 73 West Bay street." was estab- 
lished in 186G, and besides the city ti«^. carries on a 
heavy business with the interior. 

G. W. Clark.— At this place, known as the New York 
:\[illinery House, 35 East Bay street, the latest novelties 
m the line can be found. Also, special attention given 
to the trimming and renewing of ladies' hats and.hon- 
nets after the most improved styles. 

Gaede & Hall. — This firm is prepared to sell on 
commission all kinds of country produce, and also en- 
gages in the wholesate business of fruits, groceries and 
provisions. See jwivertisement for address. 

Boat Yard.— This pla<ie next to the Club House, is 
under the supervision of Mr. Peter Jones, ex-Mayor of 
Jacksonville. Tourists desiring a pleasant' sail aloi^g the 
St. John-s, can be accommodated with a first-class yacht 
or roAv boat, with or without attendant, by the hour, day 
week or month. ' 

Dress Making. — Parties wishing to have Avork done in 
the line of dress making, will inquire for Mrs. S. Barber. 

Curiosities.— Mrs. C. E. Mott, who keeps constantly 
on hand a supply of curiosities, makes a specialtv of 
shell and fish scale work, for which she received the medal 
of honor and diploma of merit from the Centennial Com- 
fnissiaii. For further particulars, read advertisement. 

J. GuMBiNGER. — Tourists may have their curiosity grat- 
ified by calling at this place, 37 West Bay street, where 
everything in the shape of the wonders of the ''Flowery 
Land "" can be seen. Mr. Gumbinger is also a first-class 
watch niaker, jeweler and optician, and gives personal 
attention to the adjustment of spectacles and eve-glasses 
to the eye. 


The larger hotels of Jacksonville, are the St. James,- 
Carleton, Nicholls, Grand National, AVindsor, Elmwood, 
Metropolitan, and Moncrief. With a "few exceptions' 
these are closed during the summer, and several of thern 



will remain closed (luring the coming winter. The list 
below will direct our readers, looking for hmjm comforts. • 
where they can best be accommodated. 

Mattaik House. — Lai-ge brick building. No. 11 Forsyth 
street built especially for a boarding house: has thirty- 
two rooms, double i>iazzas facing south, lai'ge furnished 
front rooms for families, large ventilated dining room, 
etc. The house is carpeted throughout, and on the table 
will be found the best that the market affords. 

Elmwood House. — Location corner of Forsyth and 
Hogan streets, in close proximity to Wm. B. Astor s new 
iron front frame block, and to the railroad de])Ot and 
wharf, which is to be the landing of the Ciuirleston 
steamers. 'I'he Elmwood is regularly on the hotel plan, 
with facilities for comfort and convenience. There is a 
large sewer running to the river through which all waste 
matter is carried off. The honhoDn'c of the proprietor, 
?vlr. G. Anderson is proverbial, and guests receive every 

St. John's House. Xo. 41 Forsyth street. The St. John's 
is centrally located and convenient to the cai's. steamers, 
banks, and postofHce. The rooms are all large and well 
fui-nished. and the table is supplied with the luxuries of 
the season. Attaches of the house will be found at all 
of the depots and landings to take charge of baggage. 

^Irs. S. a. Dav. — This place is pleasaiitly situated at 
Xo. 44 AVest Adams street, has lai-ge front and back 
]>iazzas facing north and south, large handsomely fur- 
nished parlor, twenty sleeping rooms, comfortably fitted 
u]), and can accommodate from forty to fifty boa-rders. 

Ocean House, corner of Ocean and Adams streets, 
contains nineteen rooms, and can accommodate twenty- 
live boarders. This place has the largest dining room 
of any boarding house in the city, and at the tables can 
be seated from eighty to -ninety persons. Its location is 
near the principal business hotises, and its accommoda- 
tions are first-class. 

j\[rs. E. a. Henderson. — This is a handsome residence, 
situated on the corner of Pine and Monroe streets, is 
elegantly ftirnished throughotit, and contains an exten- 
sive parlor. Among the sleeping rooms, sixteen in nimi- 
ber, there are furnished apartments for families. 

Mrs. C. Freeland. — Large two story building on the 
corner of Pine and Duval streets with double piazzas, 
extensive halls on the first and second floor, and dining 
room 30 by 20 feet, capable of seating fifty persons. The 


house is heated by large stoves, kept burning night 
and day, and contains twenty-five well fui*nished single 
and double rooms. This place was built expressly for a 
Ijoarding house, and the table d'hote is fully up to the 

O. P. Knapp. — Pleasantly located. No. 71 Forsyth street. 
. in easy i-each of the postoffice. Piazzas on both sides, 
eight rooms comfortably furnished and carpeted, and no 
])ains are spared by the proprietor to render those home 
<-omf#f4t so much looked f©r%y visitors. 

Mrs. Rosa D. PLvrn. — Towards the east end of Bay 
->treet, we find the popular and favorite resort for tourists. 
-ui)erintended by Mrs. Rosa D. Harn. Concei*ning the 
m tractions of this place, nothing further need be said 
(han to allude to the fact, that those who patronize it 
always carry away with them the most pleasing recollec- 
1 ions. 

F. G. Tirbets. — This house is located in the nortliwes- 
\rY\\ portion of the city, and is a quiet, rural retreat, beau- 
tifully laid out with gardens, shade trees, etc. It has 
jiiazzas on the front and rear, eight sleeping apartments, 
some of which ai*e on the first floor, handsome parlor and 
(lining room, and is furnished with fine walnut furniture. 
Everything aboiit the j>i*@o is indicative of refinement 
and good taste: 

jNFrs. T. Y. Chase. — This is a small but comfortable 
house, located on Adams street, between Laura and Pine, 
is free from all noise, has pleasant apartments, and fur- 
nishes substantial fare. 

Mrs. R. G..Slager. — First-class Jewish boarding hotise, 
at the corner of Adams and Pine streets. 


Board from $1 to $2.50 per day. Special rates to FaiDilies. 

G. H. GATO ^ CO. 

Mmitm£mftui'evn of 




Full Havana and Fine Seed Havana 

® CIGARS ffl 

Dealers in 






mmm m fakcy m\ goobs, 



Whole.^ale Department. 

Dr? Ml, Boots, Slioes, Hats, ClotMi, Notion'! aai Tmiii.^, 



7:^ AVest Bay Street, Jacksonville, Fla. 


.?eT jL\(sf JRay Street, Mitcliell Block, 











Board frop> r i;,y. Special rates lo Families. 

G. H. GATO & CO. 

Manufacturers of 

Full Havana and Fins Ss9d Havana 


Dealers in 







\\" 1 1 o U^^ a 1 e IJ o ] :> n 1 ' t i:i 1 e 1 i 

fill TTOods, Boots, Slioes, Hsis, Clotliins, Mmmi 'Mil 



\Ve>r Bay Strt-er. Jacksonville. Eia. 

G. W, Ct^AJiK, 

VJ i';r/>7 J?^'^// Street. Mlti'licJl JMoch\ 


CI [AS. IL (tAEJ)E. 










Wholesale and Ret«l i^m^ in 





JacksonvMlc, Florida- 

N'. 13.— Reliable Trimmers always employed. 

^^^^ , — BBni- ' — "" ill 1 III - -'•'"*~""'™*'**'" — " — — 

EMM. B, 1. DAT, 


94 W. Adams St., 

Mrs. Rosa D. Harn, 


Good Acooimnoclations. Terms EeasonctbU. 

House contain s 15 Iwge rooms, and fronts upon the St. John's river. 

Boarding^ House ! 

Mrs. cTArGraybell, 

St., a few doors JSJ'ortli of Fine, 

Perffhcinent and Trgbmient Board. 
Terms Reasonable. ^ 




A. P. KN APP Proprietor. 

Upper St. Jolm's River & Salt Lake ! 

Leaves JaehsonvUle for the above, conneefing 
wiilh Tramway leading to Sand Point, 
^■^ on Indian River. 

Ad ioii iuix the Jacksonville Yacht Club House, foot of Market m. 

Pleasure seekers and those looking for land to settle, will ^^l^ays 
find good guides ready and willing to furnish them any nifornijult^R' 
concerning the Itvnds on ^K^s^Wt. John's. 

Will lind it to their interest to give us a call and exiuniiie our stock 
of Boats. Those wishing to sail or row for pleasure, will hnd nrst- 
class Boats and competent men to take charge. J|of ^s for sale, re- 
paired and built to order. PETKR J0NE8, Proprietor^ 

lES. T, J. CHACE, JU: 



40abajMS street, 


i'OiiKEii Fjm: AM) duyjil streets, 




Board from $1.50 to $3.00 per JM//. Per IV'eeh 
$7X)0 to $10.00. Tahto Boord $r>.00. 


Oi^and after Wedneeday, the 2Sd of ^y, 1878, the 


Will leave S. G. Searing & Go's Wharf, foot of Pine St., 


And Intermediate Landings, 



General Freight a.nd Passenger Agents. 




PalBtta, Silver Spriip, LeesliiirL Oieeliiiiee, . 




A. N. EDWARDS, »a-b*er, 

Will leave S. G. f^EARING & CO.'S WHARF, foot of Pine sti-eet, 
every THURSDAY MORNING, at 8 o'clock. 

For Freight or Passage, apply to 

General Freight and Passenger Agents, 

JacksonYille, Fla. 


By th-e Day or Week. 



Ml 2 Mods frfliii SteauiDoat, Mmi aiifl Posloffice. 

No. II Forsyth Street, 

Jacksonville, Fla, 


Positively the Largest and most Attractive Store 

in Jacksonville. 

Large FcwiUli<p,s en alii a u,,^ to Sail 


Jit strictly J\''ortkerf7- P rices I 

Our Assorhnent of (roods conii)ris«\s the v«m-v J^ATEST STYI/PS 
iUid iU'^HT (4UALITJEH. A visit- will attiply rep#y. 

CJornor of Tr^ine and Bay iStreet.s, 

Elmwood House 

No. 80 Mt\ S&eet, ' 


One Block irom the Ikifilroad 
Depot and the pi-incipal 
Steamboat lAndin^fi. 

•f2.00 PEI^ DAY, 

#7 to $12 -per week, 
according to loca- 
tion of rooms. 

Wm. G. Anderson, Proprietor. 


41 & 43 Bay St., 


Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 
and Ladies' ready-made Under- 
garments, Cloaks, 





By the Day or Week. 


.rni('r.,.!ccoiU)JXG to stze or locjtlo,^' 

' OF liOOM, 

AMiiI 2 WXi M SleamiiGgt Rallrosfl, and PosioSc^. 

No. I 1 I\')rsyth Street, 

Ja^ksomTilie, Flair 




.lEBlIlT & CO. 


J/tCilSOjV'/ILii:, fj.;!. 


J\»^ifc<4y tte L.H-<^('st mid most;ictiv(> Store 

in Jnr-ks("tn ville. 

IjiniP luicllitivs ri{fil>lc 7(s to Sell 

m mm%,^mB% mmimm, m 

. U Sf i'lcKij . \ hrll/ri'ii 1^ rices ! 

( ^ili- A.— n;-h;«, 7ir ot (n);Kis (•( ni:) M'is»'s the v.m'V I . \ T I.^S'I' S'I'VI.KS 
i^i'l iiiOS'J' (.iTALITIKS, A vi^:ir uilj nmi)ly n-p.-.y. 

i\^v\u-v of Pino nrid Wn.y StrocMs. 

Elmwood House 

No. 80 FoFsytli Street. 


(Jiie I-llock.froiii the Hailroad 
■ D(M)ot aiKl t'no priiH.ii)a] 
Stp.'!iiil).rr>t ].aii.]in:rs. 

$2.00 PER BAY, 

$7 to $12 per ireek, 
according to loca- 
tion of rooms. 

Wm. G. Anderson, Proprietor. 



41 & 43 Bay St., 


Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 
and Ladies' ready-made Under- 
garments, Cloaks, 





25 Laira street, Jacisonyille, Fla. 

Sea Beans and Alligator Teeth — Polished, Rough and made into 
Jewelry. Orange Canes in great variety, Florida Ornamental 
Grass, (loose and made into b^^uets), Alligator Eggs, ^fee., 


A large variety of Small and Ornamental Shells, Small Shells and 
Fish Scales for Shell and Fish Scale work, Shell Necklaces, and a 
^reat variety of rare and beautiful Shell Jewelry and many other 



Sea Beans, Alligator Teeth, Shells aod Fiali S@&le Jewelry and 
Walking Sticks made to order. 

Medal of Honor and Diploma of Merit awarded to Mrs. C. B. 
Mott by the Centennial Commission, September 27th, 1876. 

Hard' times compel us to ofTer the above stock at very low prices. 
We intend t-o sell. Give us a cail. Remember the place. 

25 Laura street, near Bay, 



No. 67 West Bay Street, iorner of Lanra, JactoDTille, Fla, 

Has now in stock a fine line of Millinery Goods, including Pat- 
tern Hats and Bonnets, Flowers, Feathers, Ribbons, and the Latest 
novelties in Millinery. 


Includin<5 a fine line of Black Dress Silks, Cashmeres, Dr»b D'Bte, 
Henrietta Cloth atid Fimcy 8tiiti»g, irttfe 8»lk)Otti *nd FriRge* to 


Fancv Hosierv, Ties, Scarfs and Handkerchiefs. Ladies' and Chil- 
dren's Merino' and Gauze Vests, Children's Worsted Socks, Mittens 
and Waists. Silk Umbrella« and P».rjk9ol«. A fine Line of Kid, 
Undressed Kid and Lisle Gloves. Corsets— including the celebrat- 
ed "Cork Cor&et." Ta^le Linen— Nsipkias, Towels, Tidies and 
Lace Curtains. 


Real Hair Switches and Puffs. Bergmann & Co.'s Worsteds, 
Worsted Patterns. Zephyr *nd Shetland 8h«wl«; W^i^li's P«^rfu- 
mmj lMl€i #q«p.. » 


We constantly carry a Com- 
plete Stock et 

Children's, Boys' & Men's 


Our facilities for getting these 
up are unsurpassed by any 
House South; hence, we ccm 
and DO sell at low prices, and 
yet make a profit. 

With the above we keep a well 
and earofullir selected line of 

U' ImMm Mil 


Valises, Uinhrellas, ^c. 

Garments made to meapiPe in 
latest style. 

Our method is C. O. D. 

We warmat all goods mt mp- 

New York Glothiii Zmmi, 

13 W. Bay St., Jackeonvilie, Fk. 


No. 116 Franklin Street. 


mmn summ house, 


M the Comer of Laura and Beavet Streets, 








MBS. C. £. MOTT, 



25 Laira street, Jac![sonTille, Fla, 

Sea Bt-aiis and Allit^ator Teetli — Polished, Roiifch and made into 
Jewelry. Oiang-e Canes in great variety, Florida Ornamentty 
Gras.', ^^lou.'-s- ii?id made into bouquets), Alligator Eggs, etc., etc. 


A large virit-ty of Small and Ornamental Shells, Small Shells and 
F\>'n Scales for Shell and Fish Scale work, Shell Necklaces, and a 
great variety of rmre and beautiful Bhell Jewelry mid nmnj other 



S»'ji Beans, Alligator Teeth, Shells and Fish Scale Jewelry and 
Vv';:.l::iug r-^iii.-kn made to order. 

Mfvlal of Honor and Diploma of Merit awarded to ^frs. C. 
Mott by tlif Cent'-nnial Commission, September 27th, 1876. 

Harvi tiiiu^s ( oni])el us to offer the above stock at ver}' low prices. 
Wo iniend to Sv4i. Gitesi4is a (Mill. Ilemember the place. 

25 Laura street, near Bay, 



No, 67 West Bay Street, iloriier of Laira, JaofewTille, Fla. 

Has now in stock a fine line of Millinery Goods, including Pat- 
tern Hats and Bonnets, Flowers, Feathers, Ribbons, and the Latest 
novelties in Millinery. 


Including a fhie line of Black Dress Silks, Cashmeres, DrabD'Ete, 
Henrietta Cte^ya-^d Fancy Suitiiig, with GallooMs and Fringes to 


Fancv Hosiery, Ties. Scarfs and Handkerchiefs. Ladies' and Chil- 
dren's Merino'and Gauze Vests, Children's Worsted Socks, Mitt-ens 
and Waists. Silk Umbrellas and Parasols. A fine Line of Kid, 
Undressed Kid and Lisle Gloves. Corsets— including the celebrat- 
ed "Cork Corset." Table Linen— Napkins, Towels, Tidies and 
La<ie Curtains. 


Real Hair Switches and Puffs. Bergmann & Co.'s Worsteds, 
WotMed Patterns. Zephyr atid felMttod Sbwwls; Wenck's Perfu- 
mety m\d Toilet 6o«|^ 



We constantly carry a Com- 
plete Stock of 

Children's, Boys' & Men's 


Our facilities for getting these 
up are unsurpassed by any 
House South; hence, we can 
and DO sell at lo?/) prices, iwid 
yet make a profit. 

With the above we keep a well 
and carefully jjele^t^jd line of 

Seats' Furiiisliiiiii 


VcdisGS, Umhrellas, ^'c. 

Garments made to measure in 
latest stvle. 

Our method is C. O. D. 
We warrant all goods as rep- 

NewM ClotMns Company, 

12 W. Bay .St., Jacksonville, Fla. 


No. 116 Franklin Street. 

F. G. 


»r -Jt ■itm,m -m: ^4iu ^fiii» 



M the Comer of Lawra (ind Beaver Streets, 

MfiS. fi. J. SLAGER, 




tixate k f ransient |oari 


■•, Watchmaksr, JgwgIgt^ and Optician 

Dealer Mgfefiuli*^«»er of • 

No. 37 West Bay Street, Jacksonville, Florida. 



WkmiLJ ifWING BONK TH 0ilEI€ll. 

Orders solicited and promptly attended to. All work done with 

, . ._nn— - ' ' ""^ — ■ 

S. n*^m,k-hi1m, fernery Public. H. G«aso«», Notary Public. 

S. 6. SBARIlffG & GO. 

Agents G. H. Squires' N. Y. Schooner Line; office 91 Front Street, 
New York. Gmm^^Pt^ Wltm^bmi, Agents. 'A^«Ji4jt Hfbil'g 




Ever since its discovery Florida has been the land 
of romance and fable. The land where nature assumes 
her brightest garb, and where every object is pleasing to 
the eye and soothing to the' senses, has a history that is 
one series of vicissitudes and misfortunes. From the 
time that its soil was baptised by the blood of its first 
discoverer to within a very recent period, its annals have 
been stamed by violence, contention and blood shed, and 
it has been the apple of discord between contending races 
and nations. The bloodthirsty Seminole, the adventurous 
Spaniard, the fiery Frank, and the irrepressible Anglo- 
Saxon, have in turn shed their blood for its possession, 
and left their bones to whiten on its soil, while the re- 
morseless hand of bigotry has stained its historv with some 
of the foulest ci-imes. Race animosity, religious intole- 
rance, pohtical hatred and sectional strife have all in 
turn visited its smiling shores with their baneful influ- 

Its wars and misfortunes are for the present at an end, 
and a new era of peace sepr^ns to be dawning on it! 
while its shores are yearly visited by the invalid and 
tourist m pursuit of health and recreation, and by the 
impoverished with a view of mending their broken for- 
tunes. On its past history we will not dwell, but shall 
confine ourselves to giving an account of its present con- 
dition and resources and a description of the cities, towns 
and settlements in the eastern part of the State, as well 
as of its rivers and streams, lakes, springs, forests, 
swamps, oi-ange, lemon and fruit groves, and of its fish- 
ing and hunting attractions. We will describe the old 
Spanish city of St. Augustine, around which cluster so 
many past associations ; the citv of Palatka and Orescent 

if A GUI®* to 

City, the home of the orange grower. We will take the- 
tourist along with us on a Trip up the St. John's River 
and the lakes beyond, and point out the attractions of 
Ini>ian River and*^ its vicinity, the Eden " of Florida. 

We will wind up with a voyage up the Oklawaha 
River, Silver Springs Run, Silver Springs, and lakes 
Griffin, Eustis and Harris;" and will take a glance 
while passing at the orange and lemon groves, banana 
^|iftetatioii« a»d 3k>wer gardetis alomg th€ diffe^jnt routes. 


The St. John's River, ciilled bv the French the River 
May, and by the Spaniards the San Mateo, is a large, 
hold and beautiful streain. wfcich, taking its rise among 
the swamps and springs of Southern Florida, flows direct- 
ly north for a distance of more than 400 miles, and turn- 
ing eastward, 25 miles north of Jacksonville, empties 
into the Atlantic ocean. The shores on either side are 
low and flat, and the fall of the river from its source to 
its outlet is very gradual, rendering its course slow and 
sluggish, thus making the ascent remarkably easy and 
safe. For the same T^ii'Son the ocean tides are felt up its 
course as far m Lake George, a distance of IW miles. 
Besides its sources in Southern Florida, it has numerous 
tributaries, such as Deep Run or Dunn's Creek, the Okla- 
waha, Alexander Springs Creek, the Wekiva, and others. 
These tributaries, which are navigable, and connect with 
" large lakes or springs, help to swell the volume of water 
in the lower portion of the river, until it surpasses in 
bulk the waters of the Rio Grande. It is in many respects 
unlike any other river, and from it» mouth to Palatka, a 
distance of 100 miles, varies from one mile to six miles in 
width, and is a succession or chain of lakes, dotted with 
beautiful and well wooded islands. Its shores, where not 
cultivated, are for the most part deeply wooded with 
forests of oak, cypress, sweet gum, pine, palmetto and 
magnolia, which are draped in hanging grey moss, while 
the trunks of the trees, 15 or 20 feet from the water's 
edge, are clotlied with vines, jessamines, woodbines, and 
other parasitic plants which hang in festoons, wreaths, 
garlands, and draj)ery of the most beautiful verdure, 
until they kiss the water, and frequently taking posses- 
sion of a stump or old decayed and prostrate tree trunk, 
spread out over it and into the water, forming a rich car- 
pet of green on the very surface of the sti-eam along the 
I'iver's edge for the distance of five or six feet. Through- 
out the entire length of the river this is one of the most 
striking and beautiful features of the shore scenery. 
Sometifttes ite tlwit^ upwsyrd gf*owth these viii*^ ewibrg^e 


at the top and form the most perfect arches, and assume 
every variety of graceful and fantastic form. Where the 
banks have been cleared and are under cultivation, the 
shores are lined with beautiful groves of orange and 
lemon trees, and during the winter, when they are loaded 
with their brilliant fruit, present «, succession of shore 
scenery of surpassing loveliness, and call to mind the 
famous Greek legend of the Gardens of the Hesperides 
with their golden apples, while here and there at inter- 
vals between the numerous groves, the handsome dwell- 
ings buried among groves of live oaks, or situated on the 
brows of commanding hills, or nestled among the orange 
trees, enhance the general beauty of the scenery. 

The river from its mouth to Jacksonville has already 
been described in the earlier part of this work, and we 
shall, confine ourselves to giving an outline of a trip up 
Its course to Lakes George and Monroe, and shall note as 
we pass along its banks the principal objects of interest 
and beauty that strike the traveler's eye, as well as its 
towns, settlements and landings and the plantations and 
orange groves that line its- shores, thus endeavoring to 
assist the tourist in recognizing and appreciating the nu- 
merous attraKitive and beautiful points along his line of 

Leaving Jacksonville on the steamer Hattie, and under 
the care of its courteous and attentive commander, Capt. 
L. M. Coxetter, we start south and up the river, inhaling 
the soft and balmy breeze, rendered mild bv its passage 
over vast sheets of water— lakes and streams that have 
their rise in the wann and semi-tropical clime of Southern 
Florida. A quarter of a mile south of Jacksonville and 
on the western shore, we behold the picturesque little 
village of Brooklvn, located on a beautiful, gently slop- 
ing bluff near a bend in the river bank; and just bevond 
this and on the outskirts, the serttlement of Riverside. 
These may both be considered as suburbs of Jacksonville, 
and will some day be included within its corporate limits. 
They present a beautiful appearance from the river, and 
resemble a collection of villas, containing many hand- 
some dwellings. Beyond these places the river expands 
into a lake three miles in width, the borders being dotted 
here and there with country residences overlooking the 
stream. The river channel is marked out by a series of 
buoys from a quarter of a mile to a mile apart. These 
buoys extend from the mouth to Palatka. a distance of 
100 miles. 

On the eastern bank, situated about three miles from 
Jacksonville, is the handsome cross-shaped two story 
dwelling of Mrs Aleit««der Mitchell, of Milwaukie, with 



a pretty garden and fine orange grove. Our little steamer 
speeds up the river, and soon brings us in sight of- Philip's 
P^fjfT, or PoinI Lavista, where there m a magnicent 
grove of liv« (^te. We do not stop here, but continue 
our voyage, mmi catch a passing glimpse of Black Point 
on the western sliore, and the settlement of i\[uLBERRY 
Grove on an elevation on a curve of the rivei-. The 
stream here maintains its lake like character, while the 
deeply wooded shores fonn a succession of bnys, coves, 
and small peninsulas jutting out into the rivei'. Nume- 
rous settlements appear along tiie banks, breaking what 
would otherwise becom-e a monok> scene, and im- 
parting variety to the landscape view. The shores in 
some places are so low that the forests appear at a little 
distance ofi: to spring from the water. AVe speed along 
and pass the settlement of Orange Grove on the west 
side, a thriving place laid out by the Orange Park Com- 
pany, of which ]\lr. G. W. Benedict is the moving spirit. 
We now reach the village of 


On the east of the river, near which are several valuable 
orange groves: among others that of i\Irs. H. B. Stowe. 
This is a settlement of two hundred and fifty inhabitants, 
and is a popular resort for travelers. There are two or 
three good stores here. Leaving this place and turning 
a bend in the river, we approach a fine bay called Fruit 
Cove, wiiere oranges, lemons, grapes, bananas, and 
other fruits are successfully cultivated. Several promi- 
nent merchants from Jacksonville have country seats 
and groves here, and the place promises to be a wealthy 
and thriving neighborhood. We pass this place and 
plo^i^ii #%ir way up the river, and next land at 


On the western bank, a settlement of a few houses, con- 
taining a hotel kept by Mrs. Fleming, and is a favorite 
resort for invalids during the winter season. AVe start 
again and skii-t along the shores and pass New Switzer- 
land and Remington Park, settlements on the east of 
the river, ajid only a mile apart. Without stopping ^¥e 
leave these two miles behind us, and stop at 


Also on the v/est of the river, and 29 miles by water from 
Jacksonville. This is also a great winter resort, and 
boasts a fine hotel, called the Magn^^ia Hotel. Two miles 
more of traveli,i\^ bring us to 




Oil the west of the river. This is a picturesque little vil- 
1#^, with a few business houses and two large hotels— 
the Clarendon, kept by Messrs. Harris & Applegate, and 
the Union. There is a spring b«re of ^mtiful clear 
water, impregnated with sulphur and of a temperature of 
75 degrees. The bathing is considered beneficial to 
myahds, and all necessary bathing facilities can be ob- 
tained, such as hot, cold, and swimming baths. Those 
afflicted with rheumatism, gout, or Briglit's kidney com- 
plaint, have been known to derive great benefit from the 
use of the water. We next pass Orange Dale, Ho- 
garth/s Landing, and 


On the eastern shore. The last named place was former- 
ly a Spanish settlement, and the landing place on the St. 
John's for the city of St. Augustine, but it has now 
fallen to decay, and Tocoi is at present the point of access 
froin the St. Jolm's to St. Augustine. We are again in 
motion steaming up the river, and after a run of 49 miles 
from Jacksonville, find ourselves at 


A settlement on the eastern shore of the river, containing 
about ten or twelve houses and two stores^ wliich are 
scattered about without any regsifd to regularity. This 
lilace is fifteen miles from St. Augustine, with which it 
is connected by a steam railway. This road was built 
and ru]] some years ago as a hoi-se tramway. In the 
year ]874 it was purchased by a new company and con- 
verted into a steam i-ailway. Mr. D. G. Ambler, a ban- 
ker of Jacksonville, was at that time tlie President. In 
1S77 Mr. Ambler s interest was purchased by Mr. W. B. 
Astor, of Xew York, who now owns a controlling inter- 
est in the road. Tlie present officers are P. McLaughlin 
President and Superintendent; Col. Henry Gaillard' 
agent at Tocoi and Paymaster and Auditor: J. M. Hal- 
lowes, agent at St. Augustine and Treasurer. During 
the winter season there are ti-ains running from each 
terminus four times a day, and connecting on the St. 
John's with the river steamers plying up and down. This 
road also connects with the Charleston and Florida 
steamers and with the line from Savannah to Florida. 
There is also telegrapliic and postal communication here 
witli all points north and south. Taking passage on this 
railrqad we set out for the famous old Spanish city of 


The oldest in the United States by more than forty years, 
and founded at a period wlien Spain was at the height 
of her greatness, and when she was the most formidable 
naval power in the world,, and her }X)Ssessions were so 
vast and extended, that .^he boast^ed that upon her po^es- 
sions the sun never set. On the evening of the 8th of 
May, 1565, Pedro Menendez, at the head of the Castilian 
chivalry, landed on the shore of Florida, and planted the 
banner of Spain, and proclaimed Philip IT the sovereign 
of the whole Continent of North America, and laid the 
first foundatipn of this city. 

The old city is now chiefly attractive on account of ils 
age, and th<€ old associations connected with ite past his- 
tory, but is gradually disappearing year by year, so that 
in half a century more little will be left of it, except the 
old fort and cathedral, and a few of the ancient Spanish 
buildings, which will remain as landmarks of the history 
of its first founders. A fire recently sw(^pt over it, de- 
stroying a large number of the old coquina houses in 
the eastern part of the town, and had the wind been 
blowing freshly at the time, little would have been left 
of the old city, owing to the narrowness of the streets 
and the buildings being so closely crowded together. 

The most attractive part of the city is the new portion, 
which occupies the southern and western sections and 
the suburbs, and which is built after the style of modern 
towns. Its history has been full of incident and vicissi- 
tude. In 15SG, Sir Francis Drake, then engaged in waging 
war upon the Spanish commerce on the high seas, at- 
ta?cked and burnt the town. 

In 1638, the Indians attacked the place but were re- 
pulsed, and the prisoners taken by th-e Spani^Kls m^eye 
compelled to work on the fort. 

In 1605, pirates under the notorious buccaneer Davis, 
plundered the town, and the citizens only saved them- 
selves from destruction by taking refuge under the walls 
of the fort. 

In September, 1702, an expedition was led against it 
ui>der Gov. Moore, of South Carolina, which succeeded 
in capturing the town, but the fort was again resorted to 
by the inJaabitottg m a? place of refuge. The siege wm^ 



finally raised by the arrival of two Spanish men-of-war 
which compelled the Carolinians to retreat and abandon 
their ships and stores. 

In 1712, the vessels bringing in supplies from Spain 
were delayed by the weather, and the inhabitants were 
on the brink of starvation. 

In 1740, Gov. Oglethorpe, of Georgia, at the head of 
one thousand men, marched against St. Augustine, and 
captured the suburbs and a part of the town, but was 
finally forced to retreat and abandon the enterprise. The 
fort agam proved the salvation of the town. During the 
siege. General Oglethorpe established a sand battery on 
the northern extremity of Anastasia Island, at a distance 
of about SIX thousand yards, and opposite, but after forty 
days bombardment, the fort was found to be impregnable, 
and the Spaniards were left in peaceful possession of their 
town, not a house having been ^urnt. nor a garden de- 
stroyed, by the chivalrous Georgians. Some of the traces 
of the bombardment may still be seen on the eastern wall 
of this gnm and weather stained fortress. 

The city, in 1763, was ceded to England in exchange 
for Havana, which had been captured sometime previous 
by the British. On this occasion numerous Spanish fami- 
lies abandoned the town, rather than live under English 
rule. The city was garrisoned by the English during the 
revolutionary war, and reinforcements were organized 
and sent from here to Savannah during the siege of that 
city by the Americans. During the same war fifty or 
sixty leading citizens from Charleston. S. C, were de- 
tained as prisoners in the town, and General Gadsden 
was imprisoned in the fort. 

_ In 1784, it was again transferred to Spain, and the Eng- 
lisli settlers were allowed eighteen months to move awav 
Many removed to South Carolina. Jamaica. Brunswick 
Nova Scotia, and England. Finally, in 1819, it parsed 
into the possession of the United States. 

At the outbreak of the Spanish war, St. Augustine was 
threatened by the Lidians. the plantations in the neio-h- 
borhood burned, and the planters obliged to fiv and take 
I'efuge in the city, thus overcrowding the "place and 
causing a threat of famine, as there was only one sailing-- 
vessel on the line between this place and Charleston, and 
postal communication with the outside world was inter- 
i-upted. The citizens were compelled to act as soldiers 
and were on duty every third night, until relieved bv the 
arrival of troops ;ind militia from South Carolina and the 
United States. 

During the late war between the North and South it 
changed hands several times. Since then it has enjoyed 



the blesskigs of pmfound peace. It is situated on the 
eastern coast of Florida, thirty-five miles below Jackson- 
ville, and fifteen miles from Tocoi, the nearest point on 
the St. John's River, which is connected with it by a 
steam railwa}^ as before stated. It is on a peninsula, 
bounded on the north by the mainland, on the east by 
North River, the harbor channel and the Matansas River 
separating it from Anastasiu Island, on the ocean, and 
on the south and we^t by the San Sebastian River. 

It is built in the form of a parallelogram, a mile in 
length and about three-quarters of a mile wide. It con- 
tains about two thousand three hundred inhabitants, but 
during the winter season ^the population is tripled and 
quadrupled by the influx of strangers. 

The climate is admirably adapted to invalids and to 
those in the early stages of pulmonary complaints, but is 
too exciting for those in the more advanced stages of 
the disease. The interior of Florida, near the rivers, is 
much more desirable as a place of residence for the last 
named class of sufferers. Its ancient coquina houses, 
narrow streets, and grand old fort facing the channel, 
and affording an admirable sea view: its town hall, city 
gates, and, above all, its cathedral, and sea wall, a mile 
long, and all built of coquina, attract the curiosity of all 
visitors. To go to Florida, without visiting St. Augustine, 
would be as bad as visiting France without seeing Paris. 


There are four principal streets i-unning north and 
south, and three of them not more than twelve or fifteen 
feet wide. The first and widest is Bay street, on the 
water front, and west of this Charlotte street, next St. 
George street, and west of this Tolomato street. The 
principal cross street is King street, running from Bay 
street at right angles through the center of the town and 
westward, and terminating in the causeway which leads 
across the Sa© SebeiSliaci out of the city to the railway 


The cit}^ government consists of a Mayor, President of 
Council, City Physician, Clerk, Ta* Collector, Assessor, 
five Alderaien, and Town Marshal. 

In the new section of the city can be found some of the 
handsomest residences, and largest and finest orange 
groves, in any town in this land of the sun. We will 
now proceed to point out the objects of interest as they 
' present themselves. The first on the sea front, at the 
north east end of the city, is the 




Formerly Fort San Marco, now Fort Marion, commenced 
in 1520, and completed in 175G, and situated on a high bluff 
directly facing the channel and the northern end of Anas- 
tasi«, Island. This is a v^uerable massive fortress, built 
of coquina. This anciOTfe time-worn «iid battle-scarred 
fortification, towers above the town and coimtry around 
as well as the harbor, frowning defiance on evervthing 
in the vicinity, and when new must have beeR one'' of the 
most formidable structures of its kind in any land. It is 
now mouldy and decayed, and gradually and slowly 
crumbling into ruin, and remains but as a monument of 
the past grandeur and military prowess of the once 
haughty and adventurous Spaniard. There are several 
cracks in the western wall, but though condemned by 
military engineers, in case of a foreign war it would yet 
prove a formidable obstacle to vessels entering the chan- 
nel, and would stand a longer bombardment than many 
a newer fortress 6f brick and mortar now armed and 
garrisoned. It is square shaped, with four large bastions 
of unmense thickness at the corners, and is twenty feet 
in height, and surrounded by a moat five or six feet 
deep, which at one time could be flooded through a ditch 
connecting it with the San Sebastian River. There is on 
the outer edge of the moat a wall or batterv, behind 
which infantry or artillery could be posted and used 
with great effect. At the entrance is the lunette or 
outer defense, from the parapet of which a hundred 
men could fire with small arms upon approaching foes, 
and could afterwards retire along the drawbridge in the 
rear and leading into the fort. There is a belief that an 
underground communication could be discovered between 
this outer defense and the main fort. 

On entering, you find yourself in the square or parade 
ground, measuring one hundred feet each way. Inside 
there are twenty-seven casemates, thirtv-five feet long 
and eighteen feet wide. In former times, during the Indian 
wars, and in cases of attack by sea, the citizens would 
flock to this stronghold, and take up their abode in these 
bomb-proofs. The casemate in front of the sally-port, 
has on each side, as you enter it, a niche that was used 
for holy water vessels, and at the end is an altar, and 
above the altar a niche, where was at one time an 
image of some saint or martyr of the early church. This 
was the chapel where service was held. In another 
bomb-proof is a raised platform ; this is supposed to 
be the judgment hall where courts-martial were held. 
Above this platform is an aperture or embrasure throue-h 
17 ^ 



which Wikl Cat," one of Ik© Seminole chiefs escaped, 
but was afterwards recaptured. In an adjoining bomb- 
proof Oseola was confined. 

In a neighboring casemate is an opening which was 
cut for the purpose of discovering an underground 
passage, which was supposed to connect the cathe- 
dral and the fort. In another casemate, formerly the 
kitchen, is a bake oven. Under the northeast bastion we 
find a dark, gloomy dungeon, twenty feet long and six 
feet wide, where not a ray of light can penetrate. This 
was once built up and cut off from all communication 
with the rest of the fort. We will here quot^ from the 
Florida Pathfinder of 1877, page 23: 

" The terre-plein of the northwest bastion in 1S4G fell in, 
revealing a dark and dismal dungeon. AVe have heard from 
the lips of a reliable person, still a resident of St. Augus- 
tine, and who was present at the time of the above acci- 
dent to the fort, the following facts: I s'tood upon the edge 
and looked down into this dung:eon, and there saw the 
complete skeleton of a human being lying at full length, 
apparently on its back, the arms were extended from the 
body, and the skeleton fingers were wide open ; there 
appeared to be a gold ring on one of tlie fingers. En- 
circling the wrists were iron bands, attached to which 
were chains fastened to a hasp in the coquina wall, near 
the entrance to the dungeon. The militarv engineer hav- 
ing charge of the fort descended into this dungeon, when 
his curiosity was excited by the discovery to the north- 
east- of a broad stone, differing- greatly in dimensions and 
appearance from those of which the wall was built. He 
lioticed, moreover, that the cement which held this stone 
in its place differed in composition, and appeared to be 
more recent. On the removal of this stone, the present 
dark, dismal, and fearful dungeon was disclosed. On 
entering with lights, there were found at the western end 
two iron cages susi^ended from hasps in the wall. One 
of the cages had partially fallen down from rust and 
decay, and human bones lay scattered on th^ floor; the 
■other remained in its position, holding a pile of human 
bones. The latter cage and contents may be seen in the 
•Smithsonian Institute, at Washington.'' 

This second dungeon is about the same length as the 
first, but wider, with a low arched roof from eight to ten 
feet high. Here not a breath of air can be obtained when 
'the entrance is sealed up. It is the opinion of many that 
there are like dungeons under the other three bastions. 
Whether the story of the skeleton and cages be true or 
not, we are unable to say, but we can imagine no more 
horrible death than one inflicted in this manner. 



Ascending a broad stairway of two flights, we reach 
the top or parapet of the fort, from which can be obtained 
a superb view of the channel and the ocean beyond. On 
this battlement were formerly mounted heavy guns that 
command^ tfie ctonnel and surrounding couiitrv On 
the cornel- of eacii basfci there was a circular ^tower 
but one of them has recently fallen. The fort sustained 
a heavv bombardment from batteries erected on 4.nas- 
tasia Island by General Oglethorpe in 1740, but received 
no injury beyond a few scars on its sea front, the marks 
of which are yet visible. There are twenty old fashioned 
Spanish guns m the fort. In front of the sea wall of the 
tort is a low battery,, about five feet high and fifteen feet 
wide, which lorms a fine promenade connected with the 


Which is the next object of interest. This was orimnallv 

Onl'^r^f!' 'V'"^"^^"''^,:,^^^ 7^^ ^-^^^^It tlie United States 
(.Toyernment m 1837, and was six years in buildih^r and 

cost one hundred thousand dollars. It extends froni Fort 
Clarion along the River Matanzas. and in front of the 
town for a distance of nearly a mile, to the barracks south 
of the city, and is ten feet above low water mark, seven 
teet thick at tne base, and three feet wide on ton and 
capped with granite. It forms a fine -promenade.' lust 
wide enough for two persons to walk abreast, and is a 
favorite resort for lovers or those who are sentimentallv 
mcimecl. Js^ear the plaza tlie wall is recessed, and forms 
a basm two hundred and fifty feet long and one hundred 
teet wide, where the fishermen bring in their boats. 


Is at the end of this basin. At the southern extremitv 
the wall is a similar basin, where pleasure boats and 
yachts are harbored. In the center of the old city is the 


Or public square, which is furnished with seats and sur- 
rounded bv a row of Pride of India trees. In the center 
IS the mojhiment erected in 1812, in honor of the liberal 
ConstitutiAi granted to the colony by Spain. It is a niar- 
ble pyramidal shaped shaft, about twentv feet hifrh with 
an inscription in Spanish commemoratiVe of the event 
Phe following IS the translation taken from the Path- 

" Just before the cession of Florida to the United States 
the King of Spam granted a liberal Charter to thrciti- 
zeu& oi m^ Augustine and of Florida, and this monument 



is a memorial erected by the Spanish citizens of St. Au- 
gustine. The date of this Constitution was the l?th of 
October, 1812." 
On the north side of the plaza is the old 


An oblong coquina building, erected in 1793,, at an ex- 
pense of about $17,000. It has a quaint Moorish belfry, 
in which are three niches in a row, containing each a 
bell, and above these, and in a line with the clock, is a 
fourth niche, also containing a bell. The oldest bell is 
dated 1682, On the north side of the city, and west of 
the fort, is the 


And on either side a portion of a wall. The coquina 
pillars and towers, with sentry boxes and loop holes, are 
still in good preservation. At the south em end of the 
mm wall are Mie 


Formerly the Convent of St. Joseph, but now used as the 
officers' quarters. On the top of the building is a terrace 
along its entire length, one hundred and forty feet long 
and five feet wide, and railed in. From this there is a 
splendid view of the islands and the ocean, and also an 
excellent birds-eye view of the city and the country be- 
yond for a distance of six or eight miles. Back of the 
Convent is the new building, the barracks proper, where 
the privates ai'e quartered, and south of the Convent the 


A fine two and a half story building, with piazzas on 
each floor, extending entirely around it. We next ap- 
proach the 


Or military burying ground. There are two others be- 
sides this; the Catholic Cemetery on Tolomato street, 
and tl^e Huguenot Cemetery outside the city gate. ^ In 
the Military Ce:\ietery are three mounds or pyramidal 
shaped tumuli, marking the place where are interred the 
remains of Major Dade, and his one hundred and seven 
comrades, who were massacred by the Indians when on 
their Avay to the Withlacoochee River to join Gen. Clinch. 
Tliese Were sent from Fort Brooke, at Tampa, to rein- 
fot*oe Gen. Clinch, and on the 28th of December, 1835, 
tMWtNMMlMiiir ©ig^t kuiid^red Iiidi*n# i» a*ii.b"Ush. At 



the first fire more than half the soldiers were killed or 
wounded, but the remainder returned the fire, and a 
small six-pounder cannon was used with some effect until 
the artillerymen were all killed or wounded. The In- 
dians^hen gllowed tl*entselves, leaving their ambush and 
thus disel^ing their numbers, of whom one hundred 
v/ere mounted. The fight was kept up for an hour, when 
the Indians slackened their fire, and the soldiers felled 
trees and erected a triangular fortress as a protection. 
The respite, however, was temporary. The Indians again 
rushed on with whoop and yell to complete the fearful 
butchery, and a desperate hand to hand confli6t was 
maintained, until all but three of the soldiers wer6 killed 
or wounded. These three managed to escape and tell 
the sad tale. During the conflict the soldiers used their 
bayonets and clubbed their muskets, and the Indians 
made use of their knives and tomahawks. 

After the battle the wounded were killed and scalped, 
and the victors danced a war dance over the battle 
ground, and at length left the field of carnage with the 
dead unburied, lying in the postures in which they had 

A dog belonging to Capt. Gardner escaped and re- 
tui'ued to Tampa, givijig at that place the first intimation 
of the bloody vrork that had been perpetrated. AVhen 
fresh troops arrived on the scene, they beheld their dead 
comrades lying wdiere they had fallen, v/ith the stern 
expression of battle still on their faces, v/hich were turned 
in the direction of the quarter from which their savage 
foes had attacked them. They were buried on the bat- 
tle field, and the si^t-pounder cannon was placed upright 
in the ground to mark the spot. Their remains were 
afterwards removed to this place. There is here a monu- 
ment, consisting of a marble shaft, with inscriptions on 
the four faces. On one we read, 

'•'This monument, in token of respectful and affection- 
ate remembrance by their comrades of all grades, is com- 
mitted to the care and preservation of the garrison of St. 

On another is the following: 

''A mute record of all the officers who perished, and 
are here and elsewhere deposited, as also a portion of the 
soldiers, has been prepared and placed in the ofiice of the 
Adjutant of the Post, where it is hoped it will be care- 
fully and perpetually preserved."' 

On another is inscribed: 

"This conflict, in which so many perished in battle and 
by disease, commenced 25th December. 1835, and termi- 
nated I4*fe #f August, 1842." « 



On the fourth we find: 

/'Sacred to the memory of the officei'S and soldiers 
killed in battle, and die-d in sei-vice during the Florida 

The Catholic Cemetery is on Tolomato street, aad is 
quite a contrast in appearance to a more modern ceme- 
ter}^ The graves are mostly marked by black and white 
w^ooden crosses, along w^hich the inscriptions are written. 
This place is very little used at present. The New 
Catholic Cemetery is on the shell road, some dis- 
tance from the city gate, where the first Catholic Church 
formerly stood. 

The Huguenot Cembtery is on the shell road, jiwl 
ou-tsii® ttpe city gpste. 


Back of the plaza towards the west, is the old Spanish 
Governors mansion, vvhich has been re]>aired and re- 
modelled, and converted into a postoffice. The front or 
main building is of coquina, but the western e»:tension. 
which is of wood, is new. having been added to the old 
building in 1873. In this section are the public library 
rooms, and the customhouse rooms. Capt. T.' T. House 
is collector af the port here. At the east end of the plam 
is the 


An ordinary coquina structure, remarkable merely for its 
antiquity. The market will shortly be removed to a new 
building on Hospital street, and the Spanish building will 
be repaired and converted into a Pagoda or pleasure 


Near the Cathedral and facing the plaza, is the .SY. Au- 
gusfine Hotel, kept by Capt. E. E. A^ail. This is one of the 
largest hotels in the South, and can accommodate more 
than four hundred guests. On St. George street, north 
of the plaza, is the Magnolia Hotel, of which Mr. W. W. 
Palmer is the proprietor. At the confer of St. George 
and Treasury streets is the Florida House. On Treasury 
street is the old Florida House, which is attached to and 
part of the new structure. There are also the Marioii 
House on Charlotte street, and the Atlantic Hotel. 


On the corner of Xing and Tolomato streets, and back 
of the Postofhce. is the Sunxvside House, kept by Capt. 
T. T. House. This is quite a handsome building, in the 
shape of a double M, and divided into sections, with pri- 



vate balconies on each story. On top of the house is i 

v intir " tLT"'^^'^- ^^f' wh?ch floats a fllg in 

ilinihes adnairably arranged for boarding 

nooi aiu ladies parlor on the second story Therp i.-p 
eighteen hed rooms, all carpeted in wintPr" The fablP is 
first class, conta ning all the deb>arip« of H?f o 
whilp pvprv atto„t;„, • • 1 i I- encacies ot the season, 
iiYp attention is paid to the comfort and conve 

nience of boarders and invalids. The house li-is hpp^i 
newly furnished throughout, and coiUain rooms suitable 
fw single persons or families. It is one of the laLpsttnd 
most popular private boarding houses in hfc ty^ The 4 

board'c\ii\'e\°.'^' ''^^■■''■""i 1^°"^^^ the to4, w£ 
uoaia can be had on reasonable terms. 


i,„?it *f ° °^ plaza is the Episcopil Church 

binlt of coquina a plain structure, with a qmiut SDh-al 
steeple shing ed the whole length.' On St (^po^-l st repf 

«»Tkhid coquina building, without ornament of 


guf ^S'lPrS *d/Sione7 teifi 

. New Co.xvent of St. Joseph, a handsome laro-e build 
mg, three stories high, with a fine coiiTfadnS nor h 
wh^e along the building are rows of Gothic >>indows' 

ter il^i^' u^"e1iPrP •""'^"'"''^^ build!ng°ma: 
leiiai m use here. This was erected in 1874 Atttched 

is llX"" rlT' ^'T^^?- Convent of sfMaiy-s 

rIi ?o?'"§^ "e^'' the cathedral. ^ 

Jiack of St. Mary s Convent is the Bishop-s residence 


Cau^f Tl.'!"' "^^™emory of the martyrs of theio^^ 
sbn ff oM' ""''^ of coquina, and consists of a broken 
shaft, on a pillar or pedestal. On the back of tbp nilit^ 
.s inserted a white marble slab, with tWs Lscriptfo/r 


" Erected by the 
Ladies' Memorial Association of St. Augustine, Fla., 

A. D. 1872." 

%Xi front, ou ^ ^hite shield-shap^ marble -kMet, sur- 
mounted by a cross, is the following : 

" In Menioriani, 

Our loved ones who gave their lives in the Service of the Confede- 
rate States." 

While on either side of this is a plain marble slab, with 
the names of the fallen heroes. 

How blest is he who draws 
His sword in freedom's cause ! 
Thouf^h dead on battle-field, 
Forever to his tomb 
Shall youthful heroes come, 
Their hearts for freedom steeled. 
And learn to die on battle-field." 


On King street, corner of Bronson street, is the Col- 
ored HomIc, a fine large two and a half story building, 
with a mansard roof and piazzas on both stories, north 
and south of the building. This was built by Dr. Bronson, 
and endowed by ISh: Buckingham Smith. 


Is situated on Bay street, and built out over the water. 
This is a wooden building of one story, on a circular 
coquina foundation, which forms the swimming bath. 
Here can be obtained warm or cold baths, at tlie option 
of the visitor. The building was erected in 1^7'2. 


The Florida Press, is a weekly six column sheet, estab- 
lished eight years ago, and has 800 subscribers. j\Ir. J. 
F. Whitney, publisher of the Florida Pat/i-Fi ruler, is also 
the editor and proprietor of this paper. 

A ramble through the city among the private resi- 
dences, gardens and orange groves: 

BAY stre?:t. 

On this street, and opposite the Bathing House, is the 
residence of :\Ir. Daniel Edgar, built of coquina, and 
cemented and painted. On this street, opposite the plaza, 
is the 


A tastv building, handsomely furnished with piazzas run- 
ning around it. Further on, and one door south of tlie 
plaza, is the residence of Mr. Aspinwali, of New York, a 
mm^t dwellif^, witli front porch ^d piazzas on both 



stWies, extending around the house. Attached to this is 
a Kower garden, with a hedge of Cherokee roses. South 
of this, and of the favorite building material, is the resi- 
dence-c^ Miss Worth, a daughter of General Worth, e€ 
i\Iexicaii war fanm |« fi^nt of Mr. Aspinwall s is the 
Boat House of Goai»#fc>re Douglass, of the &t. Aytgustiftie 
Yacht Club. ' 

On this street, south of the old Catholic Cemetery, is 
the residence of Mrs. Ball, one of the largest and hand- 
somest private dwellings in the city, with a square tower 
on one side of it and a cupola on top. The grounds are 
laid out on a grand scale, and upon entering the premises 
the visitor feels as if he had suddenly stepped from the 
cit}" into the country. The approach to the hoii»se is an 
avenue with rows of orange trees on either side, beauti- 
fully arched overhead, and tlie foliage of which is so 
tliick that the sun cannot penetrate. There are numer- 
ous other well shaded avenues, drives and walks through- 
out the grounds, and a very large and old orange grove, 
completely shading the ground. There is also a fine 
flower garden here, carefully laid out, and containing 
choice selections of native and foreign plants and flowers. 
Along the shady walks, at intervals, are arbors, rustic 
chairs, settees and sofas. Near the house is a wind mill, 
and within the enclosure are too picturesque cottages. 
In front of the dwelling are four gigantic trees, in the 
trunk of one of which is a gas lamp attached and facing 
the avenue. This lamp is kept lighted at night when the 
family reside here. These grounds cover more than 
fifteen acres. 

Further south, corner of Tolomato and King streets, is 
the residence of Dr. Andrew Anderson, a handsome two 
stoiw building, of the favorite material. The grounds are 
beautifully laid out in lawns and parterres, avenues, 
drives and walks. The lawns are carpeted with turf, and 
intersected with numerous paths. There is a splendid 
orange grove of 1,500 trees, covering over fifteen acres in 
the enclosure which contains in all twenty acres. The 
two la^t named places are well worth visiting, and a few 
hours could be delightfully employed in wandering over 
the grounds. On King street, opposite Dr. Anderson's is 
Mr. Gilbert s residence. There are fine grounds aiid an 
orange grove here. 


On this street, one door south of King, is the residence 
of Dr. Bronson, brought from Philadelphia fifty years 
a^o. Back of this is a ^m^m garden and a date tree in 


bearing. On the west side of the same street, and further 
south, is Mr. Amidon's residence, a neat wooden building-, 
with mansard roof. The beautiful flower garden around 
this is artistically laid out, and contains a great variety 
of flowers, while throughout the grounds there are foun- 
tains' scattered at intervals. Ob the same side of the 
street, still further south, we reach the dwelling of Mt. 
J. P. Howard, of New York, with grounds tastily ar- 
ranged and the lawns beautifully turfed and carpeted 
with verdure the entire year. The walks and paths are 
cemented, and groups of statuary are found here and 
there in the enclosure. 

. Continuing southward, we arrive at the residence of 
Mr. A. J. Alexander, of Kentucky. On the St. George 
alr^t front of the house there is a handsome bay window, 
and on the grounds are a fine orarge grove and pictu- 
resque English garden, with the lawns covered with turf. 
On the southwest corner of Bridge and St. George streets, 
is the abode of Mr. Robert Bronson, with a neat garden 
and well turfed lawns in front, while back of the house 
the garden extends westward, and contains choice varie- 
ties of roses and other plants. Further south m the cot-, 
tftge shaned dwelling of Mr. J. L. A*»^ilson,, where there 
are handsoi^Ki gardens. Within the grounds are three 
neat cottages and a wind mill and tank for watering the 
garden. On the north side of the house is a square car- 
peted with turf, which is kept as a croquet ground. 


This street leads out of the city to the causeway and 
bridge over the San Sebastian River. The end near the 
causeway is completely arched with magnificent oaks, 
and fm-ms a splendid avenue. 


Outside the gate is the Shell Road, or drive, loading to 
the new Catholic Cemetery. On this road is the residence 
of ]\Ir. H. P. Kingsland, of New York, a large two story 
building, with eliptical shaped mansard root. There is a 
large and flourishing orange grove as well as a fine flower 
o-arden on th€ premises, the whole enclosure covering 
fourteen acres. There are several other fine residences 
and grounds on this road, extending to the cemetery. 
There is a fine drive on the Bkach aloixg the San Sebas- 
tiaM Eiver. 


Is opposite the city and on the ocean, and extends from 
the channel southward, for eighteen miles to Matanzas 
Inlet. The island is well wooded, and its average width 
is about three-fourths of a mile. On this island is foui>d 



the CoQuiXA, which extends along the greater part of the 
island, and continues to grow, being formed bv the action 
ot tlie sea water upon the sand and shells.. On the island 
IS am old Lighthouse, built by the Spaniards in 1760 A 
new Lighthouse was erected by the United St<ates Gov- 
ernment m 1874, and is IGo h%h, from fte summit of 
wiiich the view ig suparb. 

The facilities for boating and yachting are very good 
and m the winter season frequent visits are made by tour- 
ists to Is'orth and Sovth Beach, Anastasia Island, and the 
sand tort of General Oglethorpe, t!ie lighthou.s#s and co- 
quma quarries, and Fish Island, while picnic parties 
frequently go as far as Matanzas Inlet, vhere an ^ree- 
able day can be spent. On the 


Is the settlement of Ravenswood, comprising a tract of 
1,000 acres, the property of Mr. J. F. AVhitney. We now 
take our leave of the city, and cross the causewav and 
bridge on our way to the railwav station. On the 
other side of the bridge we pass the dwelling and 
grounds of Mr. Daniels, of New York, and finally reach 
the tram, and stepping aboard bid a last adieu to the old 
Spanish city, with its associations of the past 


(Itelesto a&d Sayannah Steamers. 

Leaves TOCOI aM ST, kmmu Im Tiies a Dai 



R. McLaughlin, President mnd SuiT^rin^ndeiit. 

H. GAILLARD, Agent at Toeoi, 

J. M. HALLOWBg, A§reat St. Aiigiistiiie. 


oiiis k mmm 





This Hoi^ is ttrtetlv First Class, and Guests will tiad «ood atten- 
tion, particularly Invalids. 

MifeS. J. V. HERNAIfDB^, Proprieti'€*s. 


An hours ride brink's us to Tocoi, where we again em- 
bark on board the steamer and pursue our journey up the 
St. John's River. Our route lies through the same series 
of small hummock lands, alternating with orange and 
banana groves. AVe pass Federal .^oiiit, and a mile 
higher up come in sight of ' 


On the eastei'-n shore, and sixty miles from Jacksonville. 
Numerous orange groves are at this landing and m the 
vicinity, one of the oldest of which is that of Mr. T. Sum- 
ter Mays, which dates back to a period long prior to the 
war. Two miles beyond this we ipass Dancy's ivharf, and 
stewniiig on our way up the river jwrive at 


On the western bank. We make but a short stay, and 
our vessel is again bounding on, and brings us in a short 
time in sight of 


Three miles higher up, on the eastern bank. We take 
but a glimpse of this in passing, and hasten onward, and 
at length reach 


A thriving and picturesque town, situated on the western 
shore, on an inlet or cove, and 100 miles up the river, and 
75 by Avater from Jacksonville. This is the terminus of 
the Charleston and Florida, and tiie Savannah and Florida 
SteaiTier s 

It has been settled since 1837, the period of the termi- 
na-tion of the Seminole war, before which date the coun- 
try in the neighborhood was occupied by the Indians. 
Its name is of Indian origin, and signifies Cow ford. 
Next to Jacksonville it is the largest town on the St. 
John's River, and is a thriving and growing place, with 
a population of 1,300 souls, and is in postal and telegraphic 




Charleston and Savannali Steamers. 

UaiK TflCOl It II mmm M Times a Bay 

PUK1X(t the TRAVEL1^'(^ SEASU.X. 


R. McLaughlin, President and Snperinteiident. 

H. GAILLAHH, A^'ent at Toooi, 

J. HALLOWES, A-ent .t \n-iistine. 






Thi^ House is strictly First Class, and Guests will find -ood atten- 

tion, particularly LiVftlids. 




An hour's ride brings us to Tocoi, where we again em- 
bark on board the steamer and pursue our journey up the 
St. John's River. Our route lies through the same s^«s 
of small hummock lands, alternating with orange and 
banana groves. AVe pass Federal loud, a mile 

higher up come in siglit of * 


( )n the eastern sliore. and sixty miles from Jacksonville. 
Numerous orange groves are at this landing and in the 
vicinitv, one of the oldest of which is tliat of Mr. T. Sum- 
ter AlaA's, whicli dates back to a ])eriod long prior to the 
war. Two miles beyond this we \)ass/\uici/'s irhart, and 
steaming on our way up the river arrive at 

W H 1 T E 8 T ( ) E" S L A X D 1 Ct , 

C)n the western bank. AVe make but a short stay, and 
onr vessel is again bounding on, and brings us m a short 
time in sight of 


Three miles higher up. on the eastern bank. A\"e take 
but a glinii)se of this in passing, and hasten onward, and 
at length reach 


A thriving and picturesque town, situated on the western 
shore, on an inlet or cove, and 100 miles up the river, and 
?5 by'water from Jacksonville. Tliis is the terminus of 
the Charleston and Florida, and the Savannah and Florida 

Steamers. -, ^ ^ 

It has been settled since 1837, the period of the termi- 
nation of the Seminole war, before which date the coun- 
try in the neighborhood was occupied by the Indians. 
Its name is of Indian owghi, and signifies Cow ford. 
Next to Jacksonville it is the largest town on the St. 
John's River, and is a thriving and grovring place, with 
a population of 1,300 souls, and is in postal and telegraphic 




communication wmi tfee tm% of the Uhitcd States. It 
boasts also a flourishing weekly paper, issued every 
Saturday, and OAvned by G. W. Pratt, Esq. This is 
the Eastern Herald a lively six column sheet, with a list 
of 500 subscribers, and is sent to all parts of the country 
to Northerners during- the summer. Tlie Town Goverx- 
MENT consists of a Mayor, five Aldermen, Clerk, Treas- 
urer, Assessor and Collector. Town Marshal and Police 
Force. This town is the outlet for the upper portion of 
the St. John's and the Oklawaha Rivers and the up]>er 
lakes, from which boats bring down large quantities of 
fruit, cotton, cane and other produce, which is landed 
and reshipped on the Charleston and Florida and the Sa- 
vannah and Florida Steamers for points further north. 
A lai'ge number of steamers ply up and down the St. 
John's and its tributaries and the Oklawaha Rivers, and 
during the winter season are leaving or arriving almost 
hourly. Palatka is also the distributing depot for sup- 
plies for the whole of Southeastern Florida, and is des- 
.tined to become an important place. A considerable re- 
tail business is done here, and there are many fine stores, 
while every year at least a half dozen new buildings are 
added to the -town. Last season the shipments North 
from this point were 7.000 bags of long cotton and 30,000 
boxes of oranges, besides a large quantity of sugar and 
syrup. The climate is salubrious, the temperature equa- 
ble, and the air singularly beneficial to those suffering 
from pulmonary complaints. The town is regularly laid 
out with wide streets at right angles to each other, and 
bordered on either side with wild orange trees, which, in 
the winter season, with their green foliage and golden 
fruit, give the locality a picturesque and semi-tropical 
appearance, while its green, grassy streets add to the 
general aspect of the place, and render it a charming 
resort for invalids. It is nearly square, and covei-s an 
area of about a square mile, while the countrv west of it, 
which will one day form a part of the town, consists of a 
succession of high hills, some of them eighty feet above 
the level of the river, presenting excellent views of the 
St. John's and of the vicinity, as w^ell as a fine bird s-ey# 
view of the toyn itself, with its neat and tastv dwellings, 
fine large hotels, and handsome gardens and orange 
groves. When the town shall have spread out in this 
diwction, these hills will form some of the finest building 
si«te# in the plac€. 


The principal streets running north and south are the 
following: on the river front is water street, and through 
the.ceai^r of the town runs Front street, while First, 



"Second and Third streets intersect the town in the same 
direction. Those extending east and west, are Madison 
street at the north end of the town. Lemon street in the 
center, the principal business street; and on the south 
side of the town. River street, where are located many 
fine residences, and the Park and Wild Orange Grove. 


The Courthouse is a tasty square two story wooden 
-building, with a square tower on top. It occupies a 
square comer of Lemon, Second, and Fifth streets. 

The Postoffics is situated on Front street, two doors 
Aiorth of Lemon street, and opposite the Putnam House. 


The Presbyterian Church is situated near the Larkin 
House, and is a small wooden structui-e, with belfry and 
bell, and was during the Seminole war the government 
powder magazine, but has since been converted into a 
peaceful edifice, and devoted to a more pious service. 
The p«,stor is the Rev. E. H. Driggs. 

The Roman Catholic Church is at the northwest 
corner of Second and Oak streets. The Rev. Felix Ghione 
is in chai'ge. 

St. James' Methodist Episcopal Church South will 
be found on the northeast corner of Second and Oak 
streets, and opposite the Catholic Church. It has been 
recently repaired and painted through the efforts of its 
energetic pastor. Rev. F. M. Hauser. 

The Episcopal Church is situated on Front street, 
near the western part of the town, and is a tasty brown 
wooden building of the Gothic style of architecture, with 
windows of stained glass. The rector is the Rev. R. T. 

The Baptist Church is located' on River street. The 
pastor is the R-ev. W. E. Stanton. 

Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church South 
is found on Second sti-eet. and adjoins *the park. It was 
built in 1875 by x^orthei'ners, with the assistance of the 
white natives. It is lighted at night by a handsome 
bronze chandelier, and also contains a fine organ. Rev. 
J. J. Sawyer, colored, is the pastor. 

New Catholic School and Convent, will be found on 
Lemon street, half w^a}^ between Second and Third 
treets, and is a handsome wooden building three stories 
igh, the last stor}' being ■ a very high attic. It is the 
argest building in Palatka, except the hotels. 




f«i hiLMmm Ho0Sl m a large and imposing three story 
building, with fine piazzas on the first and second floors, 
running the entire length of the building, while in rear 
of the house are also piazzas; on top of the south wing is 
a tower. This is the handsomest building in Palatka, 
and is situated on Water street, and directly on the river 
front, and is the most striking object as you approach 
the town from the water. Mr. E. F. Larkin is the pro- 


Is at the corner of Lemon and First streets, and is a two 
story building with porch in front. It is kept by Messrs. 
P. & H. Peterman, and contains fifty rooms, a large 
dining room capable of seating seventy-five persons. The 
hotel can accommodate one hundred guests. The rooms 
are handsomely furnished and carpeted during the win- 
ter. The table is first-class, and supplied with all the 
delicacies of the season, and every attention is paid to 
the interests and convenience of guests. It is only one 
squ^-e from the postoffice, and throe minutes walk from 
the steamer landing. There is a separate ladies' entrance, 
and a handsome ladies' parlor well furnished, as. well as 
a music room recessed. We cannot refrain from quot- 
ing from another's experience, who paid this hotel a 
visit during the traveling season. 

Arriving at Palatka, he found the steamer so crowded 
that no stateroom was to be had. " This apparent mis- 
fortune proved our greatest happiness ; for lying over at 
Palatka at the St. Johtvs Hotel, we obtained delicious 
food wherewith to assuage the pangs of hunger. Think 
not, good reader, this is an unnecessary exhibition of 
feeling over a small matter, for great had been our suffer- 
ing, and great was oiir delight. Delicious waffles, noble 
wild turkey, (nobly served,) tender lamb, adolescent 
chicken, light sweet bread, potatoes, gre-en jxjas, and 
other delicacies -that ravished the heart and made glmd 
the digestive apparatus." 

Attached to the house and across the street is the Bil- 
liard Saloon of the Messrs. Peterman, the only first-class 
establishment of the kind in the town, containing two 
handsome Griffith & Co.'s tables^ nine feet long by four 
and a half fqet wide. Near this is the bar, whore the 
materials for a punch can be had at all seasons, as the visi- 
tor has only to stretch his hand out of the tvindow into 
tfre grove and pluck a lime, and proceed to mix hi« puaach. 

THE LAitD OP wmmmm. 


The Putnam House is situated on Front street, oppo- 
site the postoffice and corner of Reid street, a large three 
story wooden building, one hundred and fifty feet front 
and sixty feet deep, with large piazzas on both stories,- 
the center of the front is recessed, forming a court, and 
the piazzas are enclosed on the sides, and thus protected 
from the weather. This hotel is kept in first-class style 
well furnished and carpeted throughout, arf the table is 
supplied with all the luxuries of the season. Mr. F. H. 
Orvis is the propi'ietor. 

The Carletox House is situated on Fifth street, near 
the courthouse, and three minutes walk from the steamer 
landing, and is a large roomy building facing north, with 
piazzas m front. This is kept by Mr. Andrew Shalley. 
In the language of another tourist, 

" The Carleton House is within three minutes walk of 
the steamboat wharf, and is convenient to the business 
center of the town; its rooms are spacious and comfortable, 
its table substantially furnished. The moderate charge 
of $2 per day, with reductions to families or parties re- 
maining a week or longer, makes it a most desirable 
stopping place for settlers or for parties seeking business 
or homes m Florida. Mr. Shalley has been a resident of 
Palatka for many years, is thoroughly acquainted ^vith 
the surrounding country, and is capable of giving advice 
and information to guests, and intending settlers, in rela- 
tion to location, etc. Passengers and baggage carried to 
and from the wharf free of charge. Pleasant rooms for 
permanent boarders for the season, can be secured at 
very moderate rates. Address by mail or telegraph 


]\Irs E. :\r. Haughtox's boarding house is on Lemon 
street, one square from the St. John's Hotel, and half a 
square from the Courthouse. This is a neat building 
with front piazzas on both floors, and contains fourteen 
rooms, well carpeted and furnished, a comfortable parlor 
and commodious dining room, capable of seating thirty 
guests. The table is first-class and bountifully supplied 
with every luxuij, and served by polite waiters. The 
proprietress, Mrs. Haughton, is the daughter of ex- 
Governor Wm. D. Moseley, of Florida. Boarders will 
find that they will be received and entertained as guests 
of the family, and will have every attention paid them 
particularly invalids. The terms are quite moderate. 

BfRS. C. D. Estabrook's boarding house is situated in 
the western part of the town, in a quiet and secluded 
locaMty, and on one of the highest ridges in the town 




The Larkin House is a large and imposing tliree story 
building, with fine piazzas on the first and second floors, 
running the entire length of the building, while in rear 
of the house are also piazzas: on top of the south wing is 
a tower. This is the handsomest building in Palatka. 
and is situated on Water street, and directly on the ftwer 
front, and is the most striking object as you approach 
the town from the water. Mr. M. F. Larkin is the pro- 


Is at the corner of Lemon and First streets, and is a two 
storv building with porch in front. It is kept by :\[essrs. 
P. & H. Peterman. and contains fifty rooms, a large 
dining room capable of seating seventy-five persons. The 
hotel can accommodate one hundred guests. The rooms 
are handsomely furnished and carpeted during the win- 
ter. The table is fii*st-class. and supplied with all the 
delicacies of the season, and every attention is paid to 
the interests and convenience of guests. It is only one 
square from the postoffice, and three minutes walk from 
the steamer landing. There is a separate ladies' entrance, 
and a handsome ladies' parlor well furnished, as. well as 
a music room recessed. We cannot refrain from quot- 
ing from another's experience, who paid this hotel a 
visit during the traveling season. 

Arriving at Palatka, he found the steamer so crowded 
that no stateroom was to be had. " This apparent mis- 
fortune proved our greatest happiness : for lying over at 
Palatka at the St. Johivs Hotel, w^e obtained delicious 
food wherewith to assuage the pangs of hunger. Think 
not. good reader, this is an unnecessary exhibition of 
feeling over a small matter, for great had been our suffer- 
ing, and great was oiir delight. Delicious waffles, noble 
wild turkey, (nobly served.) tender lamb, adolescent 
chicken, light sweet bread, potatoes, green peas, and 
other delicacies that ravished the heart and made glad 
the digestive apparatus.'' 

Attached to the house and across the street is the Bil- 
liard Saloon of the Messrs. Peterman. the only first-class 
estabhshment of the kind in the town, containing two 
handsome Griffith & Co.'s tables^ nine feet long by four 
and a half feet wide. Near this is the bar, where the 
materials for a punch can be had at all seasons, as the visi- 
tor has only to stretch his hand out of the window into 
the grove aad i^mk a lime, and pros##d io mix his pun^. 



The Putnam House is situated on Front street, oppo- 
site the postofiice and corner of Reid street, a large three 
story wooden building, one hundred and fifty feet front 
and sixty feet dee]), with large piazzas cm both stories: 
the center of the front is recessed, forming a court, aM 
the piazzas are enclosed on the sides, and thus pi-^te^d 
from the weather. This hotel is kept in first-class style 
well furnished and carpeted throughout, and the table is 
supplied with all the luxuries of the season. Mr. F. H. 
Orvis is the proprietor. 

The Carleton House is situated on Fifth street, near 
the courthouse, and three minutes walk from the steamer 
landing, and is a large roomy building facing north, with 
piazzas in front. This is kept by Mr. Andrew Shalley. 
In the language of another touris^t, 

"The Carleton House is within three minutes walk of 
the steamboat wharf, and is convenient to the business 
center of the town; its rooms are spacious and comfortable, 
its table substantially furnished. The moderate charge 
of $2 per day, with reductions to families or parties re- 
maining a week or longer, makes it a most desirable 
stopping place for settlers or for parties seeking business 
or homes m Florida. Mr. Shalley has been a resident of 
Palatka for many years, is thoroughly acquainted with 
the surrounding country, and is capable of giving advice 
and information to guests, and intending settlers^ in rela- 
tion to location, etc. Passengers and baggage carried to 
and from the wharf free of charge. Pleasant rooms for 
permanent boarders for the season, can be secured at 
Tery moderate rates. Address by mail or telegraph 


Mrs E. :M. HauCxHTOn's boarding house is on Lemon 
street, one square from the St. John's Hotel, and half a 
square from the Courthouse. This is a neat building 
with front piazzas on both floors, and contains fourteen' 
rooms, well carpeted and furnished, a comfortable parlor 
and commodious dining room, capable of seating thirty 
guests. The table is first-class and bountifullv supplied 
with every luxury, and served by polite waiters. The 
proprietress. Mrs. Haughton, is the daughter of ex- 
Governor Wm. D. Moseley, of Florida. Boarders will 
find that they will be received and entertained as guests 
of the family, and will have every attention paid them, 
particularly invalids. The terms are quite moderate. 

Mrs. C. D. Estabrook's boarding house is situated in 
the western part of the town, in a quiet and secluded 
locality, and on one of the highest ridges in the town 



limits on Oak street, a block and a half west of the Cat-h- 
olic Church, and in imi- o€ ihe Park. This is a neat 
comniodioiis building. cofit«aning ten rooms, a small snug 
parlor and pleasant dining room, and is neatly furnislied, 
the best fooms being carpeted during the winter, ihe 
table is well kept, and boarders receive every attention. 
The terms are quite reasonable for permanent and tran- 
sient boarders. 

Mrs Seals' boarding house is on Fifth street, nea^' the 
Carleton House. Here boarders can be accommodated on 
terms that are quite moderate. 


Is a fine natural grove of venerable live oaks and occu- 
pies a square four hundred feet each way on Kiver street 
and facing the Bav, and is the coolest and shadiest spot 
in the town, aiid a delightful resort in the middle ot the 

A glance at the town, its streets, private residences, 
gardens, and orange groves: 


At the north end of Water street, and foot of Madifeon 
stfeet on the river bank, is the handsome residence ot 
Mrs E. J. White, a two and a half story building, with 
piazzas east and south of the house. It is situated m the 
midst of a fine grove of live oaks, conceahng it almost 
entirely from view. The grounds cover a space ot more 
than ten acres, and the grove consists of orange and 
lemoS taees, planted with great regularity. Cherry, pear, 
^uava, and banana trees, are scattered throughout the 
S-rounds. Towards the south is a lawn, witli avenues 
diverging to the right and left, while on the east side ot 
the house there is a broad avenue leading down to the 
river side. The bank along the river is lined with a row 
of beautiful weeping willows, while the garden and lawns 
are covered with geraniums, verbenas, roses, and other 
choice plants. In front of the house near the street, is an 
enclosure surrounded by an orange hedge where I'C^t tlie 
remains of Judge Isaac H. Bronson, and of Mr. Kobert 
Emmet, of New York. This spot is piously kept m com- 
plete order. The tourist will be able to spend ii few hours 
very agreeably rambling through these grounds. On this 
street farther south, are the grounds and residence ot 
Mr Burt, containing a fine orange grove, bouth ot tins 
we' find the grounds of Major H. R. Teasdale, occupying 
gamost an entire square, and containing a fine grove ot 
ormge, \mm, smd lemon ti^ees. as well as pme-apples and 


other fruits in large quantities. The dwelling is a plain 
neat wooden structure. Further on are the grounds of 
Col. H. L. Hart, covering a square four hundred feet by 
one hundred and fifty feet. The residence is a two and a 
half story building with front piazzas, and facing the 
river. In the rear of the building are piazzas on both 
stories, and running back along a wing of the building, 
extending west into the grounds. These western piazzas 
are covered up to the. top with choice grape-vines. In 
front is an orange grove, and the grounds are laid out in 
lawns and shell walks. In the rear is an arbor three 
hundred feet long, covered with grape-vines. There is 
also a fine flower garden laid out in English style, and 
containing numerous varieties of choice plants."^ There 
are two very large cactus trees to be seen here. 


On this street, the first place of importance is Mr. Quar- 
terman"s. Attached to this is an orange grove. West of 
this is the sovr ovgikjp grove of about thirty-five trees, 
the proi)(M-ty of Mv. Jas. F. Burt, and is an object of 
much curiosity to travelers who desire to see the orange 
growth in its natural state. Next west is the residence 
of Mr. AV. M. Badger, a tasty dwelling with piazzas on 
the river front. Around this is a handsome orange grove. 
Adjoining is the residence of Mr. Chas. Underwood, a 
low one and a half story dwelling, situated on a bluff and 
back fi- om the street, but facing the river. It is sur- 
rounded by a large orange and lemon grove, covering a 
space four hundred feet square, and extending west and 
north across the adjoining streets. On the grounds is a 
smnll grove of live oaks. Next to Air. Underwood's, and 
at the west end of Kiver sti-eet, is the dwelling of Dr. 
N. H. Moragne. with a fine orange grove in front and 
rear of the house. There are some very large orange 
treses here, one thirty-three feet and another thirty ftM^H 
high. There is also on this place a Tangierine orange 
tree, whose fruit is regarded as a great delicacy. In the 
enclosure are several scuppernong grape-vines, one of 
which (*overs an arljor sixty feet long by twelve wide. 
Adjoining is another lot belonging to' the doctor. calle(i 
the red water branch lot, of three acres. Here ai-e found 
sand peai-s, early and late peaches, the wild-goose ])]um. 
Jai)an plum. Ja})an persimmon, one hundred tea plants, 
and also (juinees. cherries, bananas, iind otln .• fruits. 

The street we have just described is densely 'sliaded bv 
rows of live oaks and resembles an avenue, and is the 
handsomest in the town. 



On this street back of the Episcopal Church is the Par- 
sonage, where Dr. K. T. Roche, the rector, resides. At 
the northern extremity of this street, and bordei'ing on 
the country, is the residence of Capt. B. R. Reid, a hand- 
some two story building, 'Wife an attic *nd piazzas on 
both sl0^i^ on ^tm mmi, mi^k imd west of the house. 
The pt«^is on the west are covered with grape-vines, 
running up to the eaves of the roof. The house contains 
handsome front rooms and large and airy halls, and eight 
sleeping apartments. In the winter boarders are accom- 
modated here and well cared for. From the second story 
south piazza, a fine bi]'d"s-eye view of th«e town can 
be obtained. The enclosure around the dwelling con- 
tains ten acres. There is a flourishing oi-an^'c grove 
on the grounds, and a splendid growth of banana trees. 
Grapes, Japan plums, pine-apples, lemons, and other 
fruits, are raised here. The place contains a handsome 
hedge of lime trees, which attracts a gi-eat deal of notice. 
From the house to the river is an avenue GOO feet long, 
lined on either side with orange trees, and at the end of 
the avenue is a pretty circular croquet ground. A hand- 
some drive winds around the outei' border of the enclo- 
sure. The whole place resembles a miniatui-e park, and 
easily accommodates the hundreds who resort here for 
recreation during the winter season. From the wharf, 
on the river, can be obtained a fine view of the groves 
that line the opposite banks. There is a specimen here of 
the myrtle orange, with the fruit growing in clusters like 
grapes. These are the finest grounds in Palatka. On 
S'ront street, south of Lemon street, is the residejice of 
Dr. Lent, with a pretty flower garden and a neat iron 
railing in front. Further south and back of the Larkin 
House is the office of Dr. George E. Hawes, a resident 
of this place since 1854, and a practicing physician for 
thirty years, being a graduate of the University of the 
City of New York, He has had a long experience in 
treating lung diseases and pulmonary complaints, and is 
regarded as one of the most successful and reliable physi- 
cians in the whole neighbofhoo€l. 

On the northeast corner of Lemon and Front streets, is 
the drug store of Dr. N. H. Moragne, two doors from, the 
Postoffice, and a half square from the Putnam House. 
He has on hand drugs, medicines, perfumery and fancy 
articles, and also manufactures a delightful orange flower 
water and oi-ange wine, which have taken premiums at 
the Centennial and numerous State and County Fairs. 


'Opposite, corner of Lemon and Front streets, are Messrs. 
Ackerman & Jackson, druggists, who pay special atten- 
tion to prescriptioas, and keep open in the winter season, 
omtil a late hour, to suit the wanfe of iwaMis. Her^, 
also, can be procured Florida beans and jewelry; a.lso alli- 
gator teeth studs, sleeve buttons, whistles and other va- 
rieties of the same class of jeweby, tastily gotten up. 

JiEW TOWii. 

This is a suburb, included in the corporate limits of Pa- 
latka, and entirely inhabited by negroes, whei'e tliere are 
several thriving, though small orange and banana groves. 
The houses are neat and tasty, and indicate a degree of 
thrift and enterprise not usual among this class of per- 
•sons. A Baptist Church is here, of which the Rev. Wm. 
. -Bell, colored, is the pastor. 


Among the steamers that ply up and down the Okla- 
waha is the Marion, of which Captain H. A. Gray is the 
owner and conmiander, and Mr. M. H. Rogel'O the agent. 
This steamer leaves on Mondays and Thursdays for this 
river. Strangers should not neglect visiting this roman- 
tic stream, or they will miss one of the most novel sights 
in all -Florida. Capt. Gray has been traveling this routfe 
more than thirty yeai's. We would here recommend also 
the steamer Tuscawilla, (the Indian name for Whippoor- 
will,) which also plys up and down this stream. Capt. 
Edwards is the polite commander, and the Messrs. Bouk- 
•night are the agents of this boat. ' The Osceola, of which 
Capt R. J. Adams is the agent, also runs up this river. 
Capt. Adams is the agent of the Charleston and Florida 
Liaie of Steamers here, ajid is tlie owner -of ih% Adams 
€I^F,# s^^-om- the riv^r, 


There is a mill of this kind on the river southeast of the 
town, and owned by Mr. D. A. Boyd. 


Among these, boating, yachting, fishing and hunting 
have a prominent place. On the river front, opposite the 
Lcwkin House, is the Boat House of Messrs. Thos. Dardis 

J. E. Lucas, capable of accommodating twenty row 
boats. It is covered on the sides with lattice work, - and 
a good shingle roof. Here the tourist and sportsman can 
procure sailing boats, pleasure yachts, rowing and fishing 
as well as ducking boats, and every convenience for plea- 
sure or picnic parties to the groves and country seats 
across and up and down the river for any distance. This 


little fleet contains some very exf^ensive boats, among 
wfeieh we woti-ld ifnenlion their steam yacht, capable of 
seatin^r fifteen persons. This craft can be hired to take 
out ladies on picnic or i)leasure excursions in the neigh- 
borhood, or mav be chartered by hunting or fishing par- 
ties to caiTv them to any distance on the river. A\ hen 
chartered bv sportsmen she has in tow a small sharp 
duckinf^- boat that can go up into the creeks or inlets along 
the riv%r. where the game take refuge wlien closely 
pres=;ed. The«* •'Pe tlie yii uiK^hfiha and the OnuKji^ 
Grove, which are the ladies' favorites for large pleasure 
parties The Florie and the Mollie are smaller, but equal- 
ly popular boats. There are. besides these, sixteen more 
good boats. These boats are well carpeted and cushioned, 
the larger ones quite handsomely. Besides boats, rifles 
of all sTzes. shot guns and ammunition, and every c<mve- 
nience for sportsmen are supplied on reasonaWe terms, as 
well as fishing tackle of every description. Among the 


That mav be vi^it-ed by means of these boats, are 
Cffloii^I Jhirf's fjroi r. on tlu- ]U)ij]t across the riv(M-. and 
on<- of the oldest on the St. JohnVKiver. and also the fine 
r)range Grove of Mr. Lozier. of Brooklyn. X. V. These 
two occupv about fifteen acres of ground each. AVe would 
mention in this connection the Adams' Grove m the 
neighborhood, which is equally as large. Xear Falatka. 
teirmiles up and down the river, there are excc^llent 

FJSHjyo 0Koi'yj)s 

And y/«//////(/ hu-alities. with which the owners of thes(» 
boats are p(-rfectlv familial-. Sportsmen, desii'iiig alligator 
or duck shooting, will find good sport in H/a^ Creek, 
which abounds in game. 

Dunn's CKP:f:K is the favorite resort <jf fisheriiK^n. 'V\\(t 
black bass, perch, brea^n, and other fish, are found in 
abundance here. 

(Jn Mui'fre<^s' Jskuid. t<^n niil(^s U]) tli(M'i vei*. is an Ini^ian 
Mound and another fino orang(^ grove. als<) th<i jn-ojjcMly 
of Col. Hart. Messrs. Dardis ik. Lucas are the only gen- 
tlemen regularly engag<id in the boating business, and 
are th(* most reliable. 


A mile from tlie town t(>\va!-d-^ 1 be west. th(^ e()nnti-y 
rises to a height of eight v <;r (jue bundred U^ri above th(i 
river, and th(M-e are souk^ young but hue orang<^ gi-oves 
in the vicinity, among others that of Mr. Jl. Petei-man. 



This contains five and a half acres and eight hundred 
trees. The residence is on the top of a hill, eighty feet 
above the river level. South of this is the young grove 
of Mr. A. W. Rollins, of Chicago. Beyond are the groves 
of ]\Ir. Quarterman and of Mr. Lilienthal. In this neigh- 
b€>fto€)d is WMfT« Water BR^jfcm. a -im^rdA spring of 
pure drinking w^er. situated in a Gireul#r dell eighty 
feet below the hill tops, and twetfity feet above the level 
of the town, a beautiful and romantic spot, and the re- 
sort of picnic and pleasure parties duriiig the winter and 
spring. Near this spring are several fine drives. There 
was a project started to bring the water from this spring 
through pipes into the town, but it was never carried out. 


The town of Palatka is growing steadily, and the 
country around is gradually being settled up. and pro- 
perty here is likely to advance. We would adrise persons 
coming here and desiring to purchase, to apply to Mr. 
Jas. Burt, who has also a number of good tracts on the 
river for sale. We wotild also call attention to Mr. T. T. 
Harrison's card. He is the agent for lands near Eureka. 
on the Oklawaha River. Persons desiring to ptirchase 
there would do well to consult him. 

Attention is called to the advertisement of the Waldo 
House, kept by Capt. H. H. WilFiams. in Waldo. Alachua 
Countv, Florida, which is a delightftil and heaithv resort. 

ST. JOffN'S iota, 



P. & H. PKTERMAN, Proprietors. 

This hotel is Avithin three miiuites walk of the steamer's laiKlinj^. 
Accoiiiiiioclations and Table first-class. Terms reasonable. Oi)eii 
all thf vpnr ronnd 


Billiard Saloon, 

Leioii Street, oiosite St, Jotiii's Hotel, 



Opea from.Di&»!eiiibor to M«tf. 

Palatka IS situated on the west bank of the St. John's River 
seventy miles south of Jacksonville. It is at the head of navi-a- 
toii for Ocean Steamers, and near the mouth of the celebrated 
Ucklawalia_ River. ^Hart's famous Oran-e Grove is immediatelv the St Johns Kiver opposite the town. Florida Tourists 
should visit Palatka, and make the trip to the upper St. John's 
and up the romantic Ocklawalia. 1 1 J""" 

Palatka can be i-eached by Steamers daily from Jacksonville, and 
1)> Steamers from Charleston and Savannah, which run in connec- 
tion with Ste^imers from Xew York, and lines of RailrotKls from 
heiSorth bteaiiiers leave Palatka daily for Sanford and Enter- 
piise via the St. John's River; also for Silver Sprin-s via the Ock- 
Jjiwaha River. 

Address by mail or tele^n-aph, h. ORVIS. 



Four Trains Daily froiii New Yort, AIMiif, M Troy ! 

03^ Hours from New York, IL R. R. R. 
2 Hours from Troy, T. & B. R. R. 

Hours from Sjirato<2:a, via Trov. 
7 Hours from Boston— Tunnel Route. 
S Hours from Montreal, C. V. R. R. ^ 

i^fanchester, the leadin«i: summer resort of the Green I\rountain'^ 
is two hundred miles north of New York, fiftv miles north of Trov' 
|orty-ei^'ht niiles east of Saraton:a and thirtv milrs south of Ru't- 
land, on the Bennint^ton and Rutland Railwav 

It lias three miles of white marble sidewalks finelv shaded bv 
elm and maple trees, and is the most charmiii- suunner resort in 
JNew En«^'land. 

The Villap is situated at the foot of Mt. Equinox, from the sum- 
mit of which an extended and maf>:nificent view can be obtained. 
Ihe road Ls m hue order, and four horse mountain wagons run to 
the top m two and a half hours. 

TJie Equinox House, 

Foot of Mt. Equinox, 

Manchester, Vermontji 

Open from June to October. 
Address ],y nmil or h}le#?tlipfe, f , H, OH^VIt. . 

m, ymwB BO'?* 

Li ii I 

€iM£i iCMii AW mtJ ttlCETt, 


p. H H. PRrERMAN, Proprietors. 

This hotel is witliin three minutes walk of the steaanei-\« laiuling. 
Accoiiiinodations and Table first-cIiPS. I^PtSi? reik«on«ble. Open 
[>11 the yea-r fOTiiul. 

p. & H. PETERMAN, 

Billiard Saloon, 

Leiou Street, ODposite St, Jotiii's Hotel, 



Open from December to Mjiy. 

Palatka IS situated on the west bank of the St. John's River 
seventy miles south of Jacksonville. It is at the head of navi-a- 
rv ■ V^'^f-' Steamers and near the mouth of the celebrated 
Ocklawaha River. ^Harts famous Oran-e Grove is immediately 
aeio^s the St. John s River opposite the town. Florida Tourists 

MT^./ili"^ ^''^''^^^•^ ^^'^ ^"i^ ^^'^ upi>er St. John's 

and up the romantic Ocklawaha. 

Pftlatka can be i-eaclied by Steamers daily from Jacksonville, and 
m Steamers from Charleston and Savannah, which run in connec- 

fl.'i"^'^ ll S^^iV"'''"^' ^'"^"^ '"^"^^ of Railroads from 

tlie iNorth bteaiiiers leave Palatka daily for Sanford and Enter- 
pi ise via the St. John's River; also for Silver Springs via the Ock- 
iawana River. 

Address by mail or tel. j-raT-h h. ORVIS. 



Four Trains Daily froDi New Yorl, AHianj, M Troy ! 

ox Hours from New York, H. R. R. R. 
2 Jf ours from Troy, T. & B. R. R. 
i5)< Hours from Saratoga, via Troy. 
7 Hours from Boston— Tunnel Route. 
S Hours from ^Montreal, C. V. R. R. 

Manchester, the leading summer resort of the Green Mountains 
IS two hundred miles noi-th of Ncav York, fiftv miles north of Trov' 
torty-eight iniles east of Saratoga and thirtv miles south of Riit- 
iaiid, on the Bennington and Rutland Railway. 

Jtha.s three miles of white marble sidcAvaiks finelv shaded bv 
elm and maple trees, and is the most charming suminer resort in 
isew England. 

The Village is situated at the foot of Mt. Equinox, from the sum- 
mit of w iich an extended and magnificent view can be obtained, 
llie road IS m fii*e order, and four horse mountain wagons run to 
the top in *nd a hi*lf hours 

The Equinox House, 

Foot of Mt. Equinox, 

MAiioIiesteF, Vermont^ 

Open from June to October. 
Addre.^s by mail or telognuph, |4_ 0||yt§. 





P. & H. PF^TKRMAN, Proprietors. 

This hotel is a\ ithiti three' uiiimtes ^v;llk of tlie stt'M iiiei'"s l;iii(liii<^ 
Ae(M)iiiiiif)'l;ition< .mikI Table first-olass. Tei'iiis reasdniihle. Open 
all the \gm- I'ouuiu]. 


Billiard Saloon 

Lemon Street, oposile St, Jotiii's Hotel, 



Ol)en from December to 3[ay. 

Palatka, is situated oil the west bank of the St. John's River 
Tinn'r V '*iV''' ''^ JaeksonviUe. It is at the hea<l of i.avi^-a: 

a H ^.s the .M JohusKiver op])osite the toNvn. Florida Tourist's 

am n,ii:'V ''''"'n-^\rV ^'''I^ the upper St. John's 

• iiiU nj) tile romantic Ocklawalia. 

Palarka, can be ivached by Steamers daily from Jacdvsonville, and 
i .ru'lth*^";' <^l;«^'-l^^ton and Savannah, which rnn in connec- 

•nu.t Steamers Iron. ]New \ork, and lines of Railroads from 
• vi H ^ o?"rr ^^'^'V;^^ l^^latka daHy for Sanford and Enter- 
) se Ma tlio t^t. John's River; also for Silver Sprin-s via the Ock- 
'•I \N ana ivi ver. 

Address by mail or t<de«,n-ai)li, p ij_ qrvIS. 



Fear Trains Daily froiii New Yorl, Alliaiiy, anfl Troy ! 

0'^ Hours from N<'\v York, II. K. R. R 
2 Hours from Troy, T. & H. R. R. 
'•^2 Hours from Sai'atojj:a. via Ti-oy. 
T Hours from Hosfon —Tunnel Roiit(\ 
>S Hours from .^lontreal, (J. V. R. R. 

Manchester the leadin- summer ivsort of the (ireen Mountain^; 
IS two hundred nnles north of Xew York, liftv miles north ..1 Trov' 
ortyHM-ht iin!esea.«.t of Sarato-a and thirty- mi!<'.>. s..ui ii cf \Un- 
land, on the Hennini^ton and Rutland Railway 

It ha.s three mil,^sof white marble sidewalks linelv shaded bv 
elm and majX. trees, and is Hie most diarmin- summer resort ii. 
Jvew iMi^dand. 

The Vilia^-e is situated at the foot of :\lt. Ecpiinox, from the sum- 
mit ot wuch an extemlecl and maKnilic.ent view can be obtained. 
J lie road i.< in hue order, ami four horse mountain wa-ons run to 
the top in two and a half hours. 

Tlie En iiinox House, 

Fo()f of Mt. E(piin()x, 

lYIanchester, Vermont, 

OjwMi from Juw* f^iOetoIxM'. 

Address Ity luaii oi- 1 el(>ui-;i j)]). 



Captain Jl. A, GBAi, 

Will leave Rogero's Wharf every 
Monday and Thursday, 


For the above named places. 

M.H.ROGEm Agent, 


ti t T ttt 

t t t t t t t 

A. SHELLEY, Proprietor. 

B()ur(k$.2 -per day, and no charge for hagga^ge. 


lemojy street, 


•Above' St. Joiwi't lionet, fewo s(itiiw?.s from the g-tefwuboat Wharf. 

1. M^OEAill 

Dealer in Driip, Meaiciiies, Perfumery, Ficj Articles, &c. 

Cw%er of Front and Lemon Streets, 

^Nraniifacliirer of Oranpce Flower AVater and Orange Wine, 

Z^" Oranfjfes pnt np in neat packages for shipment from my 

own grove. 


Steam Ya&lil, Sail & Row Boats 

Of ev«'y descriptioti wnd mm. 

For liii-e on reasonable terms by the 
lionr, d*y, or trip.; 


Boathouse ojrposite the Larhin House, 


Ofiposi/e Ike Court House ^ Palatka, Floi'ida. 

For Lake Crescent & Crescent City! 

Ttie Fast Sailiiis — flora — Mail Steamer i 

I\la,kes three trips per week between Palatka and tlie above points. 

./Oi/JV 1^. lUIOAJDS, Owner and Captain. 


Dry Goods^ Groceries, Notions, &t. 





-■: mm «^ 


Will leave Rogero's Wharf every 
Monday and Thursday, 




Vov the abox e named places. 

M. H. ROGERO, Agent, 


A. SHELLEY, Propriktor. 

lUiiii-il. S'J jicr (laij. (iiiil IK' cli-'irHc far Ixi <J'J<i !je. 

MRS. JE:. ;m. iuughton-, 



LEAKLV stiii-:I':t, 

Above St. .It^ltiV Hotel, two Miu:ir«'> t'roiii tli.' 8i<'aiiibo;it Wliarl. 

Bealer in Driip, Meiiciiies, Perfiiiiiery, Fancy Articles, &c. 

Vomer of Froiht and Lciiwii Streets, 

Manut'acl nrcr r)ran^'<' Flow<'r AVatcr and Oraiip- Wim*, 
f^^f Oraii^'cs pill \\\) ill neat packa^ivs for shipiiieiit from my 
own (^roA'c. 


SteaiiiYaclit, Sail & Row Boats 

or every desei'ii)lioa and siise 

For hire on r('asona])lo terms by tlie 
iionr, (lay, or trip.; also 

]}(}(( (lion sp ojyjosiic Uie LdTkiii ITou^e, 


Mrs. SilALSj Proprktress, 

Op/^osilc I he Com'/ Ilonsc, Palafka, Florida. 

For Lake Crescent & Crescent City! 

Tlie Fast Sailiii.2 — Fl*OR A — Mail Steamer 

Makes three irii>s \wx M'eek l)etween Palatka and the above i)oiiits. 

JOny Ji\ JUIOAnS, Oivnev and Captain. 


Dry Goods^ Orocerie^j Notions, &t. 

J:: I ^JIE K, '1, FL Oil IDA, 

("llASiN(J I'LACKS I'^OI^ ]\\RT1KS l)KSIHlX(i TO 


CrcPocnl f'ity the (irorc City of Rorida, \^ situnloil on the east side of Frnitfanil 
runinsiila. lvoiitiii;r llie now hinions I.ako (Jrcscent or Dnnn's J^ake, one luindrcil 
miles >ontli of JacksoHville, and iwenty-livo miles soutli of I'ahitka. It is located 
on a lliKli Pine Hlulf, overlooking; the jrreat lake from bold, hnnd^ome eliorcs, ?een 
no where else in Floridn. It is a faYorite resort for invalids as well as t-portsinen and 
phiasiire seekers in general. In the vicinity of the town are nnmcrons hearing 
» trance Grov-es, as wtdl as young proves reeenlly set hy wealthy Northern K*-'ntlemen, 
who have et»e<;t' <\ and are Wectnvp fin« resi(lencw on this extensive bluff. 

Xo one seekinjr a winter home should fail to visit this rapidly growing ])lacc, where 
they will llnd a Ih'st class Hotel as well as several Hoanliug Houses, \>ith good lare, 
iit prices ranging from Seven to Twenty Dollars pur week. 

Wc have d«ilv mails and daily communication vvilh Jacksonville and Palatka. All 
St. <Jolan*# lliver ^^teamGr6 connect at Tilalka with Pteamers for Cniseent Citv. 
.Steamer Flora runs through Irom Jacksonville to Cresitent Uity on Mondays, vVetl- 
nesdays,and ^'rIdays, returning on alternale davs. Tiirough Fare S"2..'»0. Asa))loa9- 
ure trij), the route iVom f'alatka to (Jreseent (Ji'ty has no etpial. U)) the .St. John's, 
eight miles and y(m diverge to the left into Peep liiver. the liouie of the Alligator; 
thence ten miles through this wierd and beaulifnl stream itml voni »utl»e>nly «?*»eif« 
into the bi-oad Lake ('rescent,'5 niilos wide and '1\> long. 

JOSEPH W. GARDINER, Crescent City, Fiofitljh. 

The reador of this card is solicited to subscribe for 

A new and interesting eight page journal, published monthly, in 
Florida, that great winter resort of health and ]:)leasnre. Terms 
per year in advance. 

The Fruit Grower is a paper which to reaci i« to. appreciate, and 
asjyires to tJie po*iiion of the largest and b«st non-part isft* paj^'r 
in Florida. 


Editor and Publisher, 
Crescent City, Florida. 

Waldo, Alachua Co,, Florida. 

The only llrst-elass Hotel between the Atlanlic jnid Uult tluit is oju'ii to guests the 
year round. This lIoKM has been leaseM bv ('apt. II. II. Williams, ol Ihe (MilVlon 
1 1 Old. .Mank.Ho, .Minn., (formerly Most on, ^lils-i..) and will be kipt in such style as 
(o make Ihe guests fend at home In this boaiitilid. hcallhv and attractive " Lak(> Re- 
gion.'' NN'aldo is situate on the Transit It. IJ., eighty fo'iir miles fnnn Fornandiiui ; 
se\ enty-one miles froMA Cud»r Keys, and only four 'miles fioin tlio greiit Nanta Fe 
l.ak'.t and roll ng l.ako Region bv 

'I'he rate at the \\'aido llou-;o is $2.(K) per day. 
Vi.itor." a New York corresi)ondent. who lias visilotl all parts of Florida, writes 
as follows: " I am best pleaseil with Waldo. It is em)thaticallv the best climate for 
consumptives. The air is luire aiiii<lry. and the climate most" g(iiiial. Invalids \vin 
not 1)0 misled by what I say, for 1 have seen man\ snlfereis relieve<l iuid entirel) 
cureil by a sojourn at this i)lai-e. The Hotel has all the (piicl^ aomfort »<mI liixiti-y of » 
I'rivate Home. :uu\ Ihe rates are rerv reasonalde. 



Opposite Larlcin House, 

Front Street, Falatka, Fla. 


Successors to S. W. Moody, 



Alto, Dealers in Florida Jewelry, Sea BeaiK, Alligator's Teeth, etc.. 


OA Street, West of Catholic Church, 



500 eligible Town Lots for sale. Lots available 
ter dwellings or stores, and valued from S50 to $5000. 

Also, Special Agent for Dwellings, Real Estate, 
etc., ete. 21 


Crcscrnt City the (Jrove City of Horid.i, situatml on tlio cast side of FniinatKl 
I'l'iiiiisula. 1 nmliii}; llie now iainoiis LaWo ( "rt'sceiit or niiini'.s Lake, one hundicil 
niili'b r^oiitli of Jaei<^oH ville, mid iwenty-llvc miles .south of I*;ihilka. It is located 
on a lliK'h I'iiie lUiiir, overlookinj^ the ^reat lake IVom hold, linnd^oiiic tihores, .•een 
no where else in Klorida. It is a faYoritc renorl for invalids as well as sportsmen and 
pleasure seekers in prcncral. In the vicinity of the town are niinicrous hearini^; 
< >ran>;e (irov^js. as well as yonnj,^ groves recently »et hy wealthy Northern ^:entlenicn, 
who have crcctMl And are ercctinjr tinii residences on this eXteiisive hliiU". 

No one seekinjr a winter home shonld fail to visit this rapidly yrowiiifr ])lac"e. where 
tliey will llnd a llrsl rinss Hotel as well as scvernl Moanling Houses, w ith j^ooil lare, 
))riees vanj,'iiij^ rrom Seven to Twenty Dollars p«r week. 

We have dnilr mails «nd daily coininunicjvtion with .Jacksonville and Palatka. All 
Si. .John'.'; Uiver J^teamers connect at Tilalka with Steamers for Crescent Cit.v, 
Steamer Flora runs tlironpli troiu Jacksonville to Crescent City on Mond.iys, WciV 
nesdays.and h ridays. returning on alternate days, 'rhrcuigh Fare S'2..'»0. Asai)l(!afl- 
nre trip, the route from f'alatka to Crescent Cilv has no equal. Up the M. .John's, 
eight miles and yon diverge to the Inft into Peep River, the home of the Alligator; 
thence ten miles throngli this wienl and heauliful stream mm\ vam sucUteniy en*W|fe 
into the hroad Lake (•'rescent,"5 milus wide and "JO long. 

JOSEPH W. GARDINER, Crescent City, Florida. 

The rojulor of tills card is solicited to subscribe for 

The \Florida Fruii grower J* 

A new and ititi'rcsting ei^^ht jm^a' journal, j)nblislied monthly, in 
Florida, that o:reat winter resort of health and pleasure. Tey|ii.s 
$1 per year in advance. 

The Frtiit Growe^r is a paper which to read is to. appreciate, and 
aspires to the position of the lai-gest and hmt non-part isa-i* paper 
in Florit^, 


Editor and Publisher, 
Crescent^ City, Florida. 

■ ■ I ...I... iH. ii[|«mi1llBri"MHiKi1[yi1'ili i i mi tir I ir"' — ■ — ■ — — ■ - -■ 

Waldo, Alachua Co., Florida. 

The only llrst-clas-i Hotel between the Atlantic inid tJult that is o])eii to guests the 
year round. This Hotel has been leased hv Cajit. II. IJ. Williams, ol the Clillton 
lit. I el. .Maiikaio. .Minn., (formerly tW Uosion, >l!iss..) and will he kept in such style as 
til make the guests feel at home in this heautilul. licallhy and attractive - Lake Ite- 
ginn.'' W;ildo is situate on the 'I'ransit K. IL, eis^'lity four miles from Fernaiidiiiii ; 
>cv cnty-one miles from CiuUr Keys, and only four miles fioin thu gre*H s«tita Fe 
Laki- aiiil rcdl ng Lake Region hy caiKiL 

The rate at the NV'aldo lloii-o is fL'.tHi ))»■)• day. 

*• Vi.-it(ir."a Nfw York ctn-resi)ondent. who ivas visiti^l all jiarls of Florida, writes 
Hs l"i>ll(iws : I am hfst |>leasei| witli Waldo. It is emphati(^a!lv the hesl idiiuato for 
consumptives. Tlie air is pure and dry. and the climale most' g(Miial. Invalids will 
not he misled by what I say. for I liaVe seen main sutlereis relieved :iiid entirel} 
cured by a sojourn at this i)lace. The Hotel h;is all tht i|im»t. •ondVmt fW^d lu.tnry of #i 
I'l ivale Home, and llir rates are very reasonable. 


Opposite Lcivhim House, 

Front Street, Palatka, Fla. 


Successors to S. W. Moody, 

iMriig;gi»iii Mi 



Also, Dealers in Florida Jewelry, Sea Beans, Alligator's Teeth, etc. 


Oak Street, West of Catholic Church, 



500 eligible Town Lc)ts for sale. Lots availabfe 
for dwellings or stores, and valued from $50 ta$5(xxD. 

Also, Special Agent for Dwellings, Real Estate, 
etc., etc. 21 


The sojourner at Palatka, or in the vicinity, will find 
himself repaid for the expense entailed b}^ a visit to Deep 
Run or Dunn's Ci«»A,, Lake Crescent, Orescent City, and 
the vicinity. The small fast sailing mail steamer Flon% 
of which Capt. John F. Rhoads is the owner and com- 
mander, leaves Palatka Mondays, Wednesdays and Fri- 
days for these places, and returns on the following days. 
The accommodations on board are good, and the fare ex- 
cellent. Embarking on board tlie steamer, we start up 
the St. John's, and eight miles up. and three miles beyond 
San Mateo, enter Dunn's Ckeek or Deep Run, as it is 
most generally called. This is a stream four hundred 
yards wide at its mouth, and one hundred and fifty at its 
narrowest point, eight miles long, and deep enough to 
float any vessel that plys on the St. John's. It leads into 
Lake Crescent or Dunn's Lake. On the right of Deep 
Run at the entrance, we come to Murfree's Island. 
where there is a flourishing grove of orange trees, owned 
by Col. Hart, and elsewhere mentioned. A half mile up 
the creek is the fine orange grove owned by Mr. John 
Wells. Tliree miles further we reach Horse Landing, 
where is the large Indian mound previously referred to, 
where tourists are wont to resoi't in the winter and spring, 
while sportsmen and fishermen also seek its neighborhood 
for game or piscatorial sport. Sailing on we enter 


A remarkably dark sheet of water, but perfectly free from 
weeds or water flags, and a beautiful inland lake, fifteen 
miles long and from three to five miles wide. On the 
western bank of the lake, and four miles from the en- 
trance is Florence Landing, which leads back to 


An inland lake two miles back from the landing, three 
miles long, and from a half to one and a half miles wide. 
This is a lovely expanse of water, with no visible outlet, 
and embosomed among the hills. It is ciglity feet above 



the level of Lake Crescent. Its banks slope up from the 
shore thirty to forty feet above the water, and the shores 
are sandy, and admn-ably adapted to bathing purposes 
The bathing facilites are very good. The country around 
IS a high rollmg pine ridge, and there are more than one 
hundred settlers m the neighborhood, all ownino- young 
orange groves. The settlers are for the most part iS^orth- 
erners, who have established themselves here within the 
past two years. In the neighborhood are two stores a 
Bai)tist Church, and a new town hall. One of the stores 
here is owned by Mr. C. B. Smith, who also owns a flour- 
ishmg grove of one thousand seven hundred orange trees 
The climate is healthy and the country fertile. Leavin^^.^ 
this landing we continue up the lake, and a mile further" 
up reach Port Co:>io, which also leads back to the lake of 
the same name. At this place, as well at Florence Land- 
ing, there is a postoffice. At this landing is a vouno- 
grove, the property of Mr. Shipes, who also owns the 
banana grove here. Two miles further up, on the same 
shore, is Oakwood Landing,, vvhere is the orange grove 
of Mr. Chas. Hutchinson, containing three hundred trees 
Adjoining is the grove of Mr. R. F. Breen, uf Alabama' 
containing five hundred trees, and alongside of this the 
Forest Grove, the finest on the lake front- or on the penin- 
sula, and which contains one thousand two hundred or 
more trees, and sold last year 65,000 worth of orano-es 
This IS the property of Mr. W. M. Newbold. Adjaceiit to 
this IS the Sheffield Grove of eight hundred orano-e trees 
all bearing, and beyond, the grove of Mi-. Thos. N. Gautier' 
of more than six hundred trees. Passing up the lake' 
we reach Dr. J. L. Xewsome's grove of eight hundred 
trees, a picturesque and beautiful grove, on a hio-h hill 
overlooking the water. ^ 

The Peninsula alluded to above is called Fruitlanci' 
and is between Lake Crescent and Deep Run River on the 
east, and the St. John s River and part of Lake Georo-e 
on the and south, is twentv-five miles lono- and 
averages sixteen miles in width, and is thickly settTed on 
the lake shore as well as on the St. John's River and Lake 
George. The St. John's River settlements are Buffalo 
Bluff P. 0., where are fine orange groves, and south of 
this and further up the river. Wells' Landiiuj, where is 
located the St. John's Colony, which came out from 
New York m December last, and consists of one hundred 
and sixty souls. The tract purchased was ten thousand 
acres. This is called the Jleriimidez GrcDtt, the neio-hbor- 
hood of which is quite healthy. Next in order, are 
Nashua, Ro(l(je)'s. Welaca, and Lake C7corr/e settlements 
which will be more fully described when we again start 



up the &t. John's. Most of these places 'are quite pros- 
peteus, and contain large and flounshnig gi-oves. We 
now resume our route, and arrive at 


On this peninsula, situated on a curve of the lake shore, 
in the shape of a crescent, and on the western side, mne 
miles up the lake and twenty-five miles from Palatka. 
It is on a beautiful high bluff, from thirty to sixty feet 
above the lake, and in a healthy neighborhood, and con- 
tains more than sixty houses, four stores, an Episcopal 
Church of which the Rev. C. S. Williams is the rector, a 
colored 'Baptist Church, a postoffice, and a fine hotel, 
owned by Mr. J. W. Gardiner, of Providence, K. I., which 
contains twentv-two rooms, and has first-class accommo- 
dations. There are besides three boarding houses here. 
The northern end of the town is laid out m lots of five 
acres for orange groves. Wandering through the town, 
we come to the Gardiner House, a tasty building m the 
shape of a cross, with a cupola on top. A square beyond 
this is the residence of Mr. Conard, of Washington, D. 0. 
On Edgewood Avenue is the attractive residence of Kev. 
€. S. Williams, rector of the Episcopal Church, and cir- 
cuit pastor for the country around, who has accomplished 
a great deal of good work here during his ministry. On 
Oakwood Avenue is the EpiscojKil Church, a small but 
neat Gothic edifice, erected at a cost of $0,000. A square 
sfouth of this is the Baptist Church, on the borders of 


A small sheet of water, three miles long and one mile 
wide and buried in the bosom of the high hills a quarter 
of a mile west of Lake Crescent. It is thirty feet above 
the level of the larger lake, and has no outlet above 
ground South of the colored Baptist Church, we come 
to the abode of Judge Patchin, of ]\richigan, on one of 
the highest and handsomest situations on the lake, and 
full seventy feet above the water level. At the southern 
extremity we reach the grove and residence of Major J. 
L Burton, a "Florida cracker," par excellence, and an 
oracle on the subject of Crescent City. His residence is 
a neat frame building, on a high bluff facing the lake. 
This grove consists of eight hundred orange trees, ot 
which five hundred are bearing. Here can be seen a 
patch of guava trees, an eighth of an acre m extent, and 
the trees all laden with fruit, while pine-apples, limes, 
lemons, and other tropical fruits are also among the 
productions of this place. The gimlest rai-ities, however. 



are his sugar custard apple tree and his ginger plants. 
The ginger plants resemble young canes, with a slight 
difference in the shade of color of the leaves. There is 
published here the 


A new and interesting eight page monthly journal. 
This is a readable paper, and aspires to the position of the 
largest non-partisan paper in Florida. It is edited and 
published by Mr. Joseph W. Gardiner. The terms are 
only one dollar per year, in advance. 

B^ack of the town" are the groves of Mr. Harp, of five 
hundred trees, and of Judge Morrow, of seven hundred 
trees. On the east side of the lake, which is low and flat, 
is but one settlement, that of Mr. A. M. Grimsley, who 
owns a young orange grove, containing two hundred and 
fifty bearing trees. In the centre of the la4ve opposite 
the town, is Bear's Island or Lopez Island, as it was 
from this place that Lop€z set out on his fillibust-ering ex- 
pedition to Cuba. 

On this island are a small orange grove and fine flower 
garden, the property of Mr. John Long, an Englishman. 
At the south end of the lake is 


The finest cattle range in the whole county, and also a 
splendid game country, abounding in bears, deer, wild 
turkeys, coons, 'possums, snipe, quail, wild ducks, and 
otlier game, while occasionally a panther is encountered 
by the sportsman. 


Is a splendid body of water for fishing purposes, the trout 
fishing here being particularly fine. We now take our 
leave of this neighborli'ood, embark on board the Flora, 
and wend our way back to Palatka. 




Leaving Palatka and taking passage on tlie steamer 
Hattie, we start out on a trip up this beautiful river and 
proceed to catch a passing glimpse of its shores, orange 
groves, and other objects of interest that present them- 
selves along the route. The river, which has heretofore 
been from a mile to six miles in width, now changes its 
lake-like character and assumes the appearance of a nar- 
row winding stream, but extremely beautiful. At some 
sudden turn we come in sight of gi-oves of oaks and other 
trees, so thick and deep that the sun is unable to pene- 
trate their silent shades, while their shadows are flung 
far into the stream, and reflected deep down on the sui-- 
face of the placid waters. Again, on turning a bend, the 
woods suddenly disappear and give place to scores lined 
with flourishing groves of banana and-iimnge tree=s, the 
latter laden with their golden fruit, presenting a pano- 
rama of unrivaled beauty. The river between Palatka 
and Welaca is considei'ed by tourists the most romantic 
and picturesque along the entire route. Immediately on 
leaving Palatka we approach the flourishing grove of 
Col. Hart, on the east of the river and opposite the town, 
and beyond this Capt.. Adams' grove, younger but equally 
as large and attractive in appearance. A few yards 
further uj) is the settlement of the Fertilizer Company of 
Palatka, engaged in the manufacture of fish manure. 
(JttjUie Imildiug is iJie following quaint device : 

" Our country seat. 
Hotel (1« Pari*:."' 

Passing on and turning what is called the ''Devil's 
Elbow." we come in sight of a picturesque settlement and 
orange grove on the east of the river, and passing it pro- 
ceed up a straight reach a mile in length, with densely 
wooded shores. We pass a small live oak grove, and ar- 
rive at Rawles Town, on the east side. Staking but a 
short stay hei-e, we speed on our w.-v and reach the vil- 
lage of 8ax Matko, where then^ is a 'largo ])acking house 
as well a.s a fine orange grove. In this neiglil)()i-hood is 
the flotrL offering all necessary ac(;ommoda- 


tiofis for travelers who resort here during the winter. 
Back of this place are numerous valuable orange groves. 
A quarter of a mile higher up is the landing of Mr. Bmn, 
with a packing house. The Charleston and Florida 
steamers stop here during the winter for cargoes of fruit. 
We will not detain the reader, but will continue our jour- 
ney. We next pass Mr. Lyle's packing house, and a 
mile further south the Edgewater qrove. the property of 
Mr. C. F. Fuller, of Brooklyn, N. Y'.. and one of the finest 
and most picturesque, being situated on the w-ater"s edge, 
whence its name. Almost adjacent to this are the hand- 
some residence and flourishing gi-ove of Mr. Evins. of 
jSTew Hampshire. The whole shore hei-e for moi-e than a 
mile in length is one succession of orange groves, and 
the view from the river is superb. As we journev along, 
the next object that greets the eye is 


Where is the orange grove of Col. H. L. Hart, an ante 
beUuni grove, and one of the finest on the river front. 
The residence is almost completely hidden from view bv 
the orange trees. There is also a fine growth of banana 
trees here. Our boat is again in motion, cleaving the 
water, which it dashes aside as it makes its way up the 
stream, and brings us next in sight of 


On the westei-n side, and eighty-three miles fi-om Jackson- 
*^ille. where is the grove of Mr. White, who also owns a 
truck farm alongside, and on whose place some of the 
best honey on the river can be obtained. The residence 
is situated on a bluff in a clump of live oaks. We find 
ourselves again ploughing our way through a narrow 
and straight reach, presenting to the eye a long vista of 
river scenery. After traveling for three or four miles 
through unvarying scenery of shores lined with oak and 
cypress woods, we reach 


And pass on and arrive at Wells Ldndiuti, where is a 
sti-awberry farm and orange nui-serv. This is a level v 
spot. There are twenty acres of land here under fruit 
culture. Along the shores of the river here the banks 
have become washed, and for a quarter of a mile on either 
side many of the trees are uprooted and continue to grow 
in an almost horizontal position along the water's edge. 
Numerous terrapins are seen sunning themselves along 
the trunks, but disappear with a splash at the approach 
of the steamer or the re])ort of a ])istol aimed at them 
from the boat's deck. Occasionally a white crane or 



h^poa is seen, and sometimes the pink curlew, as we skiii; 
aJ^g river shores. A quarter of a mile beyond, on 
the eastern bank, is Old Nashua, and a half mile further 
up, on the same side, 

This is a pretty bluff, in the midst of a p^rove of oaks. 
The oak, pine and cypress trees along the shores here are 
draped in moss. We pass along up the stream through a 
straight reach, but soon get into a narrow part of the 
river, which is quite beautiful. The next place we come 
to is 


Near which is a fine grove of moss covered and venera- 
bte oaks, on a high hill sloping down to the water. This 
was quite a village in ante helium times, and is said to 
have once rivaled Palatka. It was burnt during the war, 
and has never been rebuilt. There is a small store here 
under the oaks, while below is the pretty cottage of lh\ 
Bryant. The whole neighborhood by Welaca is a pictu- 
resque locality, and with its venerable oaks presents a 
striking appearance from the river, and would make an 
excellent picnic resort. Adjoining is an orange grove, 
with a dwelling back on a hill, amid a grove of oaks. A 
quarter of a mile south we reach Mr. HalVs Wharf 
orange grove on the eastern bank. Leaving this w^e pass 
the mouth of the Oklawaha, which will be described in 
due time, and enter 


Seven miles in length and four wide, and on one side of 
the river, which skirts along its edge. At the entrance 
along the eastern shore are rows of large and stately pal- 
mettoes. On a high bluff is the settlement of Beecher, 
which is on a fine situation. An orange grove is found 
here, but it is not well cared for, as the place has been 
abandoned. Midway on the eastern shore is a large 
orange grove, the property of Major H. R. Teasdale, 
Mayor of Palatka, on which are some very old trees, a 
dozen of which are'fifty years old, and some of them have 
been known to produce as many as 8,000 oranges. In 
this grove are a thousand young orange trees, just begin- 
ning to bear. Again we enter the river, which narrows 
to M)out three-fourths of a mile, and arrive within close 
view of the low banks, bordered with forests of oak and 
cypress, and a succession of rows of palmetto trees, giv- 
ing the shores quite a tropical appearance. The pal- 
mettoes in some places are dense enough to form groves, 
which are extremely picturesque. We now come in 
sight of 




On the eastern side of the river, and 105 mite south of 
J^^f sonville. At this place is the handsome countrv seat 
/■ ^^^^ orange grove contains 1,000 trees, 

most ot them laden with their golden fruit. There are 
also a few banana trees and quite a large flower garden 
on the place. The residence is a neat two story buildino- 
with an attic and mansard roof, and piazzas facing- the 
river. Beyond are Mr. W. P. Wrights residence and 
orange grove of 2,000 trees, some of which are bearing- 
^ ext on the eastern bank is the plantation of Mr John 
Varnum, of Portland, Maine, which contains an orange 
grove. The dwelhngisatwo story building, with piazzas 
on the river front, and is vvorth six thousand dollars On 
the same shore, further south, is 


A landing on the river, back of which are some valuable 
orange groves. South of this is the grove of Mr. Ham- 
mond, of Cincinnati. The dwelling house is a fine new 
edifice, two and a half stories high, and built in Swiss 
cottage style, and one of the handsomest on the river 
On the western bank, near this place, is the settlement of 


Which was a military post during the Seminole war 
The grove near here is owned by Mr. Hemingway, of 
Boston. The eastern side of the river is the most densely 
wooded, and also the most thickly settled, as the prevail- 
ing winter winds, are from the northwest, and the air is 
rendered milder by passing over the warm water of the 
river. We now leave the river and enter 


A magnificent sheet of water, eighteen miles long, and 
from ten to twelve miles in width. At the entrance is 


Containing 1,G00 acres, and well wooded. This is quite a 
resort for tourists during the winter, and the Drayton 
Island Hotel, owned by Mr. Crosby, is kept in first class 
style. On the island are numerous fine orange groves 
the most noted of which is the one owned by Mrs. Rem- 
bert, one of the oldest in the State, having been planted 
more than thirty years ago, and formerly the property of 
John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina. It produced last 
year more than 150,000 oranges. On the eastern shore of 
the island i% also the grove of Mr. Rogers, as well as sev- 


heron is seen, and sometimes the pink curlew, as we skirt 
along the river shores. A quarter of a mile beyond, on 
the eastern bank, is Old Nashua, and a half mile further 
up, on the same side, 

This is a pretty bluff, in the midst of a ^rove of oaks. 
The oak, pine and cypress trees alon^ the shores hei-e are 
draped in moss. We pass along up the stream through a 
straight reach, but soon get into a narrow part of the 
river, which is quite beautiful. The next place we come 
to is 


Near which is a fine grove of moss covered and venera- 
ble oaks, on a high hill sloping down to the water. This 
was quite a village in ante helium times, and is said to 
have once rivaled Palatka. It was burnt during the war, 
and has never been rebuilt. There is a small store here 
under the oaks, while below is the pretty cottage of Mr. 
Bryant. The whole neighborhood by AVelaca is a pictu- 
i*©SQue locality, and with its venerable oaks presents a 
sliriking appearance from the river, and would make an 
excellent picnic resort. Adjoining is an orange grove, 
with a dwelling back on a hill, amid a grove of oaks. A 
quarter of a mile south we reach Mr. HalVs Tr/?a?'/and 
orange grove on the eastern bank. Leaving this we pass 
the mouth of the Oklawaha, which will be described in 
due time, and enter 


Seven miles in length and four wide, and on one side of 
the river, which skirts along its edge. At the entrance 
aloKg ll^e emelefn shore are rows of large and stately pal- 
mettoes. On a high bluff is the settlement of Beecher, 
which is on a fine situation. An orange tcrove is found 
here, but it is not well cared for, as the place has been 
abandoned. Midway on the eastern shore is a large 
orange grove, the property of Major H. R Teasdale, 
Mayor of Palatka, on which are some very old trees, a 
dozen of which are fifty years old, aad some of tliem have 
been known to produce as many as 8,000 oranges. In 
this grove are a thousand young orange trees, just begin- 
ning to bear. Again we enter the river, which narrows 
to about three-fourths of a mile, and arrive within close 
view of the low- banks, bordered with forests of oak and 
cypress, and a succession of rows of palmetto trees, giv- 
ing the ' shores quite a tropical appearance. The pal- 
mettoes in some places are ciens-e enough to form groves, 
which at^ extremely picturesque. We now oome m 
sight of 



On the eastern side of the river, and 105 miles south of 
f T-*i this place is the handsome country seat 

/• i^;. ^^^^ orange grove contains 1,000 trees, 

niost of them laden with their golden fruit. There are- 
also a few banana trees and quite a large flower garden 
on the place. The residence is a neat two story building 
^vlth an attic and mansard roof, and piazzas facing the 
river. Beyond are Mr. W. P. Wright's residence and 
orange grove of 2,000 trees, some of which are bearino- 
^ ext on the eastern bank is the plantation of Mr John 
Varnum of Portland, Maine, which contains an orange 
grove. The dwelling is a two story building, with piazzas 
on the river front, and is worth six thousand dollars On 
the s«ie shore, further south, is 


A landing on the river, back of which are some valuable 
orange groves. South of this is the grove of Mr. Ham- 
mond, of Cincinnati. The dwelhng house is a fine new 
edifice, two and a half stories high, and built in Swiss 
cottfi^e style, and one of the handsomest on the river 
Om the western Imnk, near thi€ place, is the settlement of 


Which was a military post during the Seminole war 
The grove near here is owned by Mr. Hemingway of 
Boston. The eastern side of the river is the most densely 
wooded, and also the most thickly settled, as the prevail- 
ing winter winds, are from the northwest, and the air is 
rendered milder by passing over the warm water of llie 
river. We now leave the river aftd e«rt«r 


A magnificent sheet of water, eighteen miles long, and 
from ten to twelve miles in width. At the entrance is 

Containing 1,G00 acres, and well wooded. This is quite a 
resort for tourists during the winter, and the Drayton 
Island Hotel, owned by Mr. Crosby, is kept in first class 
style. On the island are numerous fine orange groves 
the most noted of which is the one owned by Mrs. Rem- 
bert, one of the oldest in the State, having been planted 
more than thirty years ago, and formerly the property of 
John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina. It produced Imt 
year more than 150,000 oranges. On the eastern shoi^ 
the island is also the grove of Mr. Rogers, m well mm- 


eral others. On the western bank is Mr. Wright's grove, 
which yielded last season more than 50,000 oranges. The 
vegetables raised on the island are remarkably fine. 
the entrance to the lake is another island, called 

These two islands are separated from each other by a 
n€tfTow strip of water, and fronting each other; and fac- 
ing the river, stand like sentinels guarding the eatmnce 


On the eastern side is a line of orange groves, which we 
proceed to mention in the order in which they come. The 
first is Mr. Higley's grove, and adjacent to this are the 
orange and banana groves of Mrs. Hawkins. Leaving 
these, we come to Mrs. Manville's and Dr. Grill's groves, 
and further on the grove aiid plantation of Dr. Peters! 
There are 800 orange trees m his grove, and in his nurse- 
ry 25,000 seedlings, while limes, lemons, bananas, guavas,. 
figs, pine apples, and almost every variety of tropical 
fruits are found on his place. He has also a fine nursery 
garden and hot house, wiiere garden plants of all descrip- 
tions are grown. We would recommend travelers to pay 
a visit to this lake and neighborhood. Beyond this is 


Where is the postoffice, of which Mrs. Peters is the Post- 
mistress. This whole group of groves and dwelling 
houses forms one of the most beautiful spots on the lake 
border. The tuberose, pomegranate and other plants 
grow luxuriantly here, while variety is imparted to the 
landscape by palmetto trees, interspersed here and there 
a*»«ftg the orange and lemqn trees. On this shore is the 
extensive orange grove of Mrs. Hinds, originally a wild 
grove, but which has been budded, and last season yield- 
ed more than 100,000 oranges. This season the crop will 
exceed 200,000 oranges. On this shorn mid opposite Dray- 
ton Island is the settlement of 


One hundred and Iwenty-three miles from Jacksonville. 
There is a lumber mill at this place. Tiie shores along 
the lake are quite tropical in appearance. We arrive 
next at Mr. Cosgrove's, from v\^hose wharf we obtain a 
fine view of the groves. On the western shore of Lake 
George is a high bluff, in the vicinity of which is Spring 
Grove. Mr. W. K. Lent also owns a fine orange grove 
and farm on the eastern side of the lake. Before leaving 



Lake George we cast our eyes over its broad expanse of 
.waters. It resembles mi inland sea, and is the largest of 
the chain of lakes that constitute the lower St. John's 
River. There are storms here occasionally which rival 
those of the Atlantic Ocean, when the waters rise in 
waves as high as the billows of the sea, and when it is 
unsafe for steamers to navigate its angry tides. We take 
our leave of the lake, and after an hour and a quarter 
spent in crossing it, arrive at the Volusia Bar, and pass- 
ing over the same, emerge from this inland sea, and re- 
enter the St. John's, which again becomes narrow and 
winding, with shores covered with stately forest trees 
and luxuriant undergrowth. At the entr«iee on the 
ern shore, is the settlement of 


The property of Mr. Rope's, where is an orange grove, 
and also a beautiful cluster of palmetto trees on the ex- 
treme point. Here water lilies, flags or bonnets and 
water cresses cover the surface of the river in large 
patches or squares, resembling floating fields of verdure, 
some of them several acres in size. The river from this 
point to Volusia is unsurpassed in natural soenery and in 
wild luxuriant growth along thre s»hores. It winds and 
bends in a series of gentle curves around densely wooded 
shores of a semi-tropical appearance. On the eastern 
shore for the distance of a mile there is a grove of pal- 
metto trees of the largest growth, and the shores are not 
more than 400 yards apart. We have now arrived at 


One hundred and forty-four miles from Jacksonville, situ- 
ated on a high hill, sloping down to the water. It is on the 
east side, and on a bend, and was formerly an old Spanish 
town, which long since fell into decay. During the Semi- 
nole war there was a fort here. From this point facili- 
ties are offered for visiting New Smynm and Iiidian 
River. The settlement now consists of the store and 
residence of Mr. L. H. Eldridge, who owns the orange and 
banana grove on the bluff. Three miles south we reaich 


On the western bank, where is a wharf, and also a store- 
house. Standing on this wharf the river view is very 
fine, especially the lower portion. In the middle of the 
stream is a beautiful islet, covered with trees, and almost 
circular, and within rifle shot of 


Which we next reach. This is on the eastern shore, 147 
miles from Jacksonville. 



Near this place is a packing house. The oranges in this 
neighborhood are some of the choicest and sweetest in 
Florida. There are also numerous fine orange groves of 
sour oranges in the vicinity, and near by is a small hand- 
some wooden dwelling, situated on the brow of a beau- 
tiful, steep cone-shaped hill, while along its slopes is a 
grove of orange trees planted in regular rows. On the 
right of the dwelling is a fine grove of nalmettoes. This 
is one of the most picturesque spots along the river. Our 
Steamer is ploughing her way through the rippling waters 
of the river, and we are again en route for the sunnv 
south. The river here widens into a small lake covered 
with bonnet plants,, while along the eastern ebore is a 
row of palmettos^. We are now in sight of 


' A groiall but beautiful lake, completely bordered with 
forests, and at the present moment as smooth as a mirror. 
This is considered one of the loveliest lakes on the river. 
In our course we pass a number of small well wooded 
islets that dot the surface of the water, and add varietv 
to the river scenery. We are now traversing a pretty 
stretch of the river, which winds and curves like a ser- 
pent when in motion. As our steamer pants on her wav 
up, we pass tlie mouth of 


A tributary of the St. John's, which runs back into the 
country for thirty miles or more, and whose waters are 
remarkable for their clearness and purity. Tliere are 
fine springs along the banks. The waters are so clear 
th«t 06^©l6 can be seen at the bottom, a distance of 
twenty feet. Its source is a iom^ge boiling viinerxU spring 
of an acre in extent, comprising numerous small sulphur 
and other springs. We twist and turn with the curves 
and bends of the river, while numerous water fowl, such 
as white cranes, herons, grey and white and beautiful 
pmk curlews, and occasionally a pelican flies over the 
stream or skims along its surface, or aii alligator may be 
seen witii his head above water. He is not unchallenged, 
however, for the sharp crack of a rifle, or the report of a 
pistol, admonishes him that foes are at hand, and down 
goes his head, while the balls flatten on the water around. 
The width of the stream here is not more than one hun- 
dred and twenty yards. We emerge occasionally from 
the woods into a part of the river that flows through fields 
of bonnets, which are here called prairies. The river has 
dwindled into a small winding creek, with low flat banks 
lined with c^nes and water willows, clothed with a luxu- 



riant growth of vines and parasitic plants, while occa- 
sionally a few clusters of trees are seen in isolated groups. 
Again, we find ourselves embosomed amono- wooded 
shores. We have now reached 


2]^ l^e western bank, and twenty-five miles from Orange 
LJluft. Here we see one dwelling, a group of fine oaks 
and a small orange grove. We wend on our way, the 
dark green foliage of the oak and cypress here mingling 
with the lighter verdure of the sweet gum and water wil- 
low on_ the river, while the woodbine, jessamine, and 
other vines, line the water s edge. We enter a straight 
reach three-fourths of a mile long, and turning a bend 
come m sight of a row of tall palmettoes on the western 
shore. ^ Near this place is a tall dead cypress, on top of 
which IS an eagle's nest, which stands out like a beacon 
point. We next pass Crov/ s Bluff, and continue on our 
way througn the same succession of wild natural scenery. 

A ^I^^^ ^ ^^^^'^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^""^^ palmettoes on both sides, 
and finally arrive at Hawkins ville, on the western bank' 
one hundred and seventy-four miles from Jacksonville'. 
I his place is owned by Judge Bryson, who is also the 
proprietor of the store here, and of the fine grove of 
orange and banana trees that line the shore. Back of 
this landing are many fine orange groves. The trees here 
are covered to the very topmost branches with parasitic 
plants and vines. AVe leave this place, and a mile further 
come to Cabbage Bluff, on the east of the river, where 
we find a store, a few orange trees, and a grove of pal- 
mettoes.^ Our boat is again in motion, scuddinp- alon^r 
like a thing of life, and we pass an island of some^extent* 
and turning a bend reach De Land's Landing, where can 
be found a large warehouse and flourishing orange grove 
\Ye leave this place, and in a short time find ourselves in 

And reach AlexaxNder s Landing, on the lake. The lake 
is a mile and a half wide, nearly circular, and bordered 
with paJaiietto imm. The &ettlem«fil of 


Is also on this lake. Leaving this we continue our wav 
up the river, which is not more than fifty feet wide here 
and emerge from the woods into the prairie countrv We 
have now reached Blue Springs Landing, on the east of 
the river, aiid one hundred and eighty miles from Jack- 
sonville There is a cove near this landing, which can 
be seen from the deck of the stumer. This is Um spring 



a small sheet of water, and one of a series of springs of 
dark blue clear water, in which you can see the fish and 
other objects for a considerable distance down. Near the 
wharf is a thriving orange grove of several hundred 
trees, the property of Mr. Thursby. This landnig is the 

depot for oilAKGE CUft, 

Two and a half miles barck in the countiy. There are a 
good claes of settlers here, and the town boasts a large 
commodious hotel, a church, &choolhouse, blacksmith and 
wheelwright shop, two stores, and a postoffice. Steamers 
arrive at and leave the landing daily during the winter. 
The countrv around is fine, rolling and healthy, while 
there are rnanv valuable orange groves in the vicinity. 
The lands around are quite fertile, and tmd^ mu he pur- 
chased at from $10 to $25 per »cre. 

The whistle is blowing, and our impatient httle steamer 
is already in- motion. We continue our upward course 
between well wooded banks, but soon emerge from 
them and again find ourselves in the open swamp or 
prairie country. The stream is narrow, deep and rapid, 
but quite. safe and easy of navigation. Palmettoes line 
the shores. The country twelve miles back of this rises 
to one hundred feet, and is a magnificeol cattle range. 
Our boat ghdes in the bo€om of the streajn in her up- 
wft^d course, and we pass along a thin row of palmetto 
trees, which are in a straight line, and stand like senti- 
nels along the eastern shore. After passing numerous 
groves of palmetto, we reach Emanuel's Landing, and 
a liUle beyond the mouth of the 

\ tributary of the St. John's, which runs through Clay 
Spriiigs, a sheet of mineral water. The river is naviga- 
ble and picturesque, and romantic in the extreme in ap- 
pearance, and the resort- of travelers and tourists during 

the winter. . 

Passing this stream the St. John's again changes its 
protean shape, and Avidens into the size of a small lake, 
and becomes quite straight, its eastern shore being bor- 
dered by a row of palmettoes, succeeded by a line of live 
oaks, overhanging the stream. A little beyond and to 
the right and west, we come to a grove of palmettoes, 
which, seen by moonlight, present a novel and imposing 
appearance. We now enter 

A large sheet of water, twelve miles long and five miles 
wide, and abounding in fish, while numerous waterfowl, 
such as the crane, heron, grey, while and pink cuft#w 

THf: t.k'^B OP FLO'^ERS. 

and pelican, feed on its shores. The country around is 
quite fertile, and contains maay valuable oraage groves. 
We now arrive at 

On its western shore, 204 miles from Jacksonville. This 
place was settled some years ago by Mr. Henry S. San- 
ford, at one time Minister to Belgium, and is an incorpo- 
rated town of about 300 inhabitants, and contains eight 
etores, a town hall, an Episcopal church and three hotels, 
the Sanford House, kept by Mr. J. B. Wistar, of Phila- 
delphia; the Monroe House, kept by Mr. Blunquist, and 
the Poyntz House, by Mr. Geo. A. Sawyer, and a Post- 
office. There is a fishing company established here, who 
ship large quantities of shad and shad roes to the North 
in the winter, and convert the inferior fish into manure, 
for the use of the orange groves in the neighborhood. 

In the country, two and half miles back, is the Belle 
Air Grove, of 100 acres, containing foreign orange and 
li-me trees of the finest quality, and also a magnificent 
garden of foreign and native roses, geraniums and tropi- 
cal hot house plants, and flowers of every variety. This 
nronerty is owned by General Sanford. The town leads 
Lack to a level rolling country, to which there are several 
fine avenues and drives. The neighborhood is principally 
settled by Northerners, and is planted in orange groves. 
Among the oldest and most noted is that of Mr. Speer, 
a-s well as the Hayden and Markham grove, and many 
others containing from 50 to SO acres each. ' Prom San- 
ford and Mellonville were shipped last season 4,000,000 
of oranges, about 24,000 boxes. Lemons; limes, pine-apples, 
guavas, grapes, bananas, etc., abound here. A mile be- 
yond, on the same side of the lake, is the town of 


Two hundred and five miles from Jacksonville. This is 
an incorporated town of about the same number of in- 
habitants as Sanford. It is the oldest town of the two, 
and contains three hotels, the Mellonville Hotel, owned 
by Mr. T. A. He wit, of this place: the MeUonville House. 
kept by Mrs. J. J. Hill, and another one, also well kept! 
It contains also a Methodist church, two stores and a 
postoffice. There are several drives and a large avenue 
leading back into the hilly country. In this neighbor- 
hood are also to be found flourishing orange groves. 
This was formerly the site of Fort Mellon, erected during 
the Seminole war. As this is a large orange producing 
section, we will hazard a few remarks on 



A grove budd-ed on sour stocks, in a favorable locality^ 
will commence to pay in five or six years. When seed- 
lings are planted, the trees rarely begin to pay before the 
tenth year. An acre contains eighty trees, sometimes 
more, and after it has been set out or planted, one man, 
with a little extra help in the grassy season, can attend 
to a grove of eight or ten acres. One man suffices to cul- 
tivate the Speer Grove, mentioned above. This contains 
seven acres, and yielded last year 350,000 oranges, which 
netted 818 per 1,000, amounting to about #6,000. The grove 
is thirty years old. During the picking and packing sea- 
son extra help has to be hired. Those who have invested 
here in this enterprise, and have failed, have either neg- 
lected their groves, have been lacking in judgment and 
business knowledge, or have selected localities totally 
unadapted to the orange culture. One and a half miles 
back of MellonrUle is the village of 


Of one hundred inhabitants, and containing thirty or forty 
houses and two small hotels, one of which is called the 
Orange House. There was also a fort here during the 
Seminole war. On the eastern bank of Lake Monroe is 
the town of 

Situated on a high bluff, and 210 miles south of Jackson- 
ville. This is the county seat of Vohmia County, aiid 
contains about forty houses, two stores and one large 
hotel, the Brock House, and a postoffice. This town leads 
back to a splendid sporting country, where deer, bear, 
wild turkeys, coons, 'possums, . snipe, quail and every 
species of game are in great abundance. Along the lake 
water fowl are very abundant, as before stated, and the 
fishing is excellent. In the vicinity is 


A body of sulphur water, eighty feet in diameter, and 
100 feet deep. From Enterprise steamers run to Salt 
LxVKE, and from this lake there is a horse tramway, six 
miles long, which leads to Sand Point, on the Indian 
River. The steamer A^olusia runs to Salt Lake and the 

INDiAK miVEB. • 

This is a salt lagoon or bay, separated from the St. 
John's River by a narrow strip of land, six miles wide at 
its narrowest point, and from the sea by a mere strip of 
mmd. It m nmety miles ii» length, aad in widtli varies 


from ten miles to less than two in some places, but aver- 
ages two miles. It runs from north to south, slightly in- 
clmnig eastward, and is parallel mith the Atlantic coast, 
and is connected with the ocean by three inlets, the 
southernmost being Jujpiter Inlet, and the nortliern In- 
dian River Inlet. It is quite shallow, but has a cliaiinel 
m tITe center from eight to ten feet deep, and is a magni- 
ficent sheet of water for yachting or boating. The water 
IS clear and of a sky blue color, and in calm weather 
when its surface is unruffled, the bottom can easily be 
seen, and the fish can be perceived sporting in its pellucid 
waters a long distance off. The banks, in some places, 
are high and steep, and from twenty-five to thirty feet 
above the water level, while the growth along the shores 
IS the only real tropical growth in Florida, consisting of 
bearberry, gumelema, box tree, india rubber tree, cocoa- 
nut, sour orange and lime, and the mangrove. It abounds 
in fish of all descriptions, and is the best fishing region in 
the whole State. In its waters can be found in immense 
numbers the mullet, red fish or bass, sheephead, jew fish, 
salt water trout, the angel fish, a great delicacy, sailor's 
choice, blackfish, whiting, and almost every species of 
salt water fish. Here can be found the largest and fines!; 
oysters on our coast, and in great abundance. Numer- 
ous species of water fowl frequent its shores. Here may 
be seen the beautiful roseate colored spoon-bill or pink 
curlew, as well as the white and gray, the ganut and 
every variety of crane and heron, as well as every species 
of wild duck and the white and gray pelican. The coun- 
try around is chiefly pine land, and the northern end is 
being gradually settled up and planted, principally in 
oranges, lemons, pine apples, bananas, and other tropical 
fruits, and also in sugar cane. The climate is the most 
delightful and salubrious in the United States, being 
equally fine m summer and winter. It is as invigorating 
and bracing in summer as the more northern seaside re- 
sorts, and much more soft and bland, and therefore more 
suitable for invalids and winter tourists. This locality 
may be called the sportsman and fisherman's paradise. 
In the country can be found in abundance game of every 
description, bears, panthers, wolves, deer, otters, foxes, 
'possums, coons, and also wild turkeys, snipe, quail and 
other wild fowl. On its shores is also found the cele- 
brated coquma for building material. Boats are some- 
tiaaes run from St. Augustine to this river, but can al- 
wflif « he okartered at 

An old settlement on the Atlantic coast, where, in 1767, 
Aadrew TufiilMall la*,ded 1,-^0 Mi-norooa^s. Formmiy 



large indigo crops were raised here. It is situated on 
Mosquito Inlet, which is the opening of the Halifax and 
Hillsboro' Rivers, into the Atlantic Ocean. The southern 
end of Hillsboro' River is called Mosquik) Lagoon, wliida 
is connected with In4«wi River by the 


Dug by the United States Government six years previous 
to tlie opening of the late war, under a contract with Dr. . 
George E. Hawes, of South Carolina, now a physicic^n at 
Palatka. The canal cost five thousand dollars. 


Twenty-six miles »outh of Palatka, and 101 miles from 
Jacksonville, the traveler leaves the broad, bold stream 
of the St. John's, and plunges at once into the heart of a 
deep and densely wooded swamp, and enters through an 
opening sixty or seventy yards wide, a narrow, dark and 
winding stream, whose borders are lined with tall, 
gigantic cypress trees of virgin growth, towering 
eighty feet aoove the water, and draped in hanging grey 
ffioee, while tbe edges lower down are fringed wi?h the 
white maple, ash, magnolia and palmetto, whose trunks 
are clothed with drapery of parasitic plants and creeping 
vines of the most beautiful and luxuriant growth. The 
river flows through an impenetrable swamp, whose shores 
on either hand are beneath the surface of the water, and 
completely submerged for a distance of half a mile or 
more back from the stream to the right and left. It is 
merely a narrow channel way through a swamp of im- 
men»@ extent, which follows the course of the strea/mfor ai 
distance of more than ISO miles before the scenery 
changes, and the river emerges into an immense water 
prairie, stretching as far as the eye can reach, for a dis- 
tance of rather more than sixty miles, when it finally 
enters Lake Griffin. The cypress is the principal growth, 
diversified by maple, ash, oak and palmetto, and when 
the river is traveled on a bemutif ul, still, clear moonlight 
night, it assumes a sombre mmd weird-like appearance, and 
the dimiy lighted vista that presents itself to the eye of 
the approaching traveler, resembles the aisle of some an- 
cient Gothic cathedral, or the hall of a venerable and 
ghost-haunted castle of Mediaeval times, as seen in the 
reflection of the moon's pale beams. During the day 
time the smooth, tall green capped cypresses, raising their 



umbrella-shaped summits to the sky, and almost meeting 
above, cast their shadows over the entire width of the 
stream, and contribute to render the scenery alone- the 
river romantic picturesque and beautiful bevond descrip- 
tion. While the view by daylight is beautiful, novel and 
picturesque, and by moonlight sombre and weird-like yet 
nothing equals the appearance which it presents, nor the 
impression it produces when it is traversed on a dark 
night, lighted up by the fire which burns on the deck of 
the steamer which ploughs its way up its narrow and tor- 
tuous course. The vista is dark, deep and gloomv while 
the cypress swamps around, shrouded in impenetra- 
ble blackness, resemble the dimly lighted vault of 
some old church of the middle ages. If at the same time 
the organ on the Tuskawilla be touched by some skillful 
hand, the solemn strains and the gloomy scenery around 
produce an impression upon the mind at once mysterious 
and solemn. 

T Oklawaha takes its rise in Orange County, from 
Lakes Dora and Apopka, and from thence fiows through 
Lakes Griffin, Eustis and Harris. Its largest source of 
supply, however, is Silver Springs Run, a beautiful 
transparent stream of water, nine miles in length from 
where it empties into the Oklawaha to Silver Springs 
which is its source. The Oklawaha is navigable for 275 
miles from its mouth, and flows through a rich and fer- 
tile country, comprising Marion, Sumter and a portion of 
Putnam Counties, and is the highway to one of the most 
productive sections of the State, It is from ten to twelve 
feet deep and quite rapid, while the waters are dark 
and muddy. The name Oklawaha is of Indian origrin 
and means crooked tuater, and the river well deserves the 
title tor it IS the narrowest navigable stream in the world 
tor Its length, and is a succession of bends and turns 
Sometimes the bends are less than seventy-five feet apart' 
and it the steamers were not especially constructed for 
the purpose, steam navigation along its course would be 
an impossibility It was originally navigated by fiat or 
narrow boats, which were poled up, and the problem of 
navigating it by steam hm only been solved within the 
last twenty-five years. 

We will now proceed to give some description of a voy- 
age up its course until we emerge into the beautiful lakes 
beyond. Steaming up the river for a distance of ei^ht 
mil@«, we reach ^ 

Which leads back into a fertile pine land region, opened 
up and settled withm the last four ye^rs, and cultirated 
in cotton and corn, and containing mmmj tlMivi»g yo«^ 

orange groves, while all the tropical fruits are easily 
raised here. In the neighborhood are twenty-five or thirty 
settlements, while the country five or six miles back rises 
into a hilly and healthy region. Most of the lands in the 
vicinity are owned by the Government, and are called 
homestead lands, and can b€ purchased for a merely 
o«fi*f»»l price, hj complying with the iiomestead law. 

Our steamer is again in motion, up a narrow stream, 
not more than thirty feet wide, while the vines and 
branches on either hand brush the sides of the vessel as 
it passes along. We turn a bend and enter a widt;r part 
of the river, but are soon again in the narrows, and in a 
short time arrive in sight of 

Thirty-six miles from the mouth. Two miles back of 
this is 

A settlement so named from the sulphur spring in the 
vicinity, possessing fine medicinal properties, and the re- 
s^Tt of tourists during the winter. There are two well 
kept hotels, one quite large containing UO rooms. There 
are several fine orange groves in this neighborhood. A 
little higher up the river is Orange Springs landing, also 
leading back to the settlement of the same name. A 
Journey of thirteen miles further brings us to 


Some distance back of which is a thriving settlement. 
We pass along and next, come in sight of a high bluff, 
wiiich for a moment breaks the monotony of tlie sWamp 
ao«tiery, but me mon again surrounded by foT€«ts and 
wmter. Occaiioti^ly an islet or peninsula appears cov- 
ered with trees, whose trunks are enveloped in vines and 
creeping plants. We mow pa^ Log Laiadin^. Our next 
landing place is 


Sixty-eighth miles up. Tlie vicinity is cultivated in cot- 
ton, corn, sugar cane and rice as well as oranges and 
Iropicml fruits, while further hnck is a rolling pine T^egion 
fertile and healthy. 

We leave this place and follow the course of the river, 
which is twenty feet wide, and reach two cypress trees 
so close together that the bark is rubbed off in some places 
by the boats passing between; our craft grazes in passing, 
and pursues its narrow winding course. The hands on 
board are now stationed at the bow, pole in hand, to as- 
sist in turning the vessel. 

We steam along twisting, turning and winding through 
mmmffj ^ if^M wmmUc beauty, and rmi»iiw^ m betid 

T«m lSmB <m FLOWERS 


€ome in sight of a bluff sixty feet high, sloping down to 
tlie water on which is the setti^ent of Mr McCure. 
I his is called 

Seventy miles up the river, a lofty height, towering 
above th^ river. Our little steamer glides along the sur 
face of the riTer, and we are again in the swamp and 
turning a curve, catch sight of a natural curiosity in the 
shape of two cypress trees, which have inclined txD wards 
each other until they have united and form a single tree 
Along the route is another freak of nature, in the shape 
ot a double headed,palinetto. Wending our wav under 
the over-archmg trees and passing a handsome cluster of 
imimettoes, we reach 

Seventy-six miles from the mouth. We take a fleetins 
glance, at this and pass on. A half mile hio-her up is 
<iore s Landing, ei^-hty-six miles up. We now come in 
«ight of a bank six or eight feet high, but are soon a^ain 
surrounded by water and woods, and six miles hiirherun 
reach Deurisosa Landing, but make no stay here, and 
continuing on, pass a grove of tall palmettoes ofi our left- 
and a mile further enter a reach barely wide enouo-h for 
our little craft to pass, but succeed in bumpino- ou? way 
through. ^ Emerging we find ourselves in a wider and 
more navigable part of the stream. 

In this neighborhood the fishing is very fine, the river 
abounding m trout, bream, etc. Trout are frequently 
caught here weighing twelve pounds. Deer, wild tur- 
keys, quail, etc., abound on the high lands and mmoiiff the 
scrub oaks, while wild ducks, curlews, herons, cmne« 
and water turtles are found in grmi mumh^ iUotw the 
river banks and in the swamps. 

We have now reached 

Ninety-three miles up the river, back of which is a thriv- 
ing settlement, while in the vicinity are numerous cotton 
corn and cane plantations and many orange groves' 
Last winter there were 50,000 oranges shipped from here' 
A mile beyond we come to Grahamville, a high bluff' 
on which IS a neat cottage. Journeying on we pass 
LiMPKiN Bluff, ninety-six miles up. 

Our httle craft speeds along up the narrow windinir 
river, wliile the crack of a rifie or the report of a pistol 
leveled at some sleeping alligator, which invariablv goes 
off unharmed, breaks the silence of the forests abound 
Sometimes an unoffending limpkin or water turtle is the 
object of the sportman "s notice. Occasionally, at the re- ■ 



port of a pistol, a water turtle is seen to drop from a pro- 
jecting limb of a tree into the water, and while the marks- 
man exults in his own skill, behold he disappears under 
the water, and his long neck and snake-like head are 
alone seen a few minutes later, far out of gu»shot. We 
turn m bend, pas® a bluff and again bury ouiwlTes in the 
swamp. We now reach a point where two streams meet, 
and turn to the right, wheTe the water ig m dmr a« 
c^ystaV^*fed «^ are in 


Which is called the Bride of the Oklawaha, at the 
mouth of which can be seen where 'the clear and the 
muddy waters meet. Fifty yards further up we can see 
the bottom, which is more than twenty feet deep, as well 
as the Avhole formation of the river bed and smallest fish 
swimming below, and the minutest pebble, shell or fern, 
at the bottom. 

The whole course, for nine mil-es up, is surpassingly 
beautiful. At certain pl^es the bed of the river deepens 
to forty feet, at the l>0ttom of which a five cent piooe can 
be seen. Again large portions of the bed are covered 
with a luxuriant growth of waving weeds, resembling 
wild oats, which oscillate to and fro with the motion of 
the water, as fields of grain would wave at the sighing 
of a summer breeze. In other places the bed is free from 
weeds, and consists of white sand, which assumes suu em- 
erald tint, and is covered with multitudes of beautiful 
shells, which flash back through the clear waters the re- 
!^ted rays of light, producing a shining silvery appear- 
ance, thus giving rise to the name of the run and spring 
beyond. In some spots the bottom resembles a sheet of 
chased silver, strewn with thousands of emeralds, rubies 
and diamonds which reflect the rays of the midday sun 
in all the hues of the rainbow. The whole bottom is of a 
delicate green tint, sometimes changing to a deep blue, 
and a glance below resembles a glimpse into fairy land. 
In other localities there are overhanging boulders of 
sparkling rock, forming submarine caves, caverns and 
grottoes, whose silvery walls appear to be covered with 
gems and sapphires, and w-hence the imagination might 
readily cheat itself into the belief that some water sprite 
or undine was about to issue forth to assert its suprema- 
cy over the fairy realms below. In these submarine 
caves cati be seen fissures from which the water bubbles 
up from the bottom, producing fee impression that under 
the river bed, exists an immense cavern, through which 
the water courses under ground and forces its way up 
ftiird fofiiis tb.e ri'^^ IThe water is §a limpid and cleai- 



^oS. o /•f-^'^l^PT'^^^^P^'^^^^^^ air above the bot- 
tom, and It IS difficult to realize that it is resting on anv 
more substantial element. The fish are seen crossing 
each other's tracks, and the whole length of the mn re^ 

^'^^^'^T"'" teeming wfth animal life' 

About five miles up we arrive at the landing of Col 
Rodgers where we find a flourishing orange ^rove and 
one of the largest banana groves welave #et feen ' 

rom.irxfT Z^-'^' ^^'"'^''^^ ^ '^^^^ ^e^'tile section of 
country, producing gram, cotton, cane and fruit, m 
quantities. We have at length reached ^ 


wIdoh'^i''i!.«f^''^^ war-worn Spanish leader sighed, and 
Th i^« .^S^^ I'-? attempting to discover, 

^.n.w beautiful circu ar basm of the clearest water, 
nearly three hundred feet in diameter. Towards the head 
fhfillr^^'l^ circular spring, seventy feet deep, with 

TTrni fl- ^' which flash and sparkle as above described. 
^ om this spring the water boils up with immense force 
w l t ^' ^ heavy body dropped into the water 

r^r' A 7""^ ^T^'^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^e current and whirled 
aside and down the stream as though it were a feather. 

^^^''^f below the spring, is a semi-circular bay or 
cove, whose bottom is free from weeds or growth of any 
fcmd, and of a sky blue color, which is called the. 


White within a few feet is a natural zvell beneath the 
water, sixty feet deep and four feet wide at the top The 
surtace of the spring when uadisturbed is smoother and 
more traasparent t»Uaji the finest glass. 


Is spread out at the head of the spring, and consists of a 
dozen houses, a store, and a hotel, kept by Mm. fkw^ps, 
I he settlement IS the depot for 


The county seat of Marion County, and an incorporated 
town of one thousand inhabitants, containing twentv-ifve 
stoics, a fine hotel, the Ocala House, capable of contain- 
itig one hundred and fifty guests, a white and a colored 
school, and two colored churches. It also boasts a well 
conducted daily paper, edited by Mr. F. E. Harris, called 
%sxe M*£i'St 1^ loriaa Bcmmm\ 



Between Ocala and Silver Springs, a tramway six miles 
lono- is in course of construction. This town is the outlet 
of the whole belt of country twenty miles around, and ot 

Wfeich is a cotton and cane producing section, while fruit 
is also raised in considerable quantities. Last season 
there were shipped from this county seven thousand bags 
of lent? staple cotton by this route. Corn is plentifu and 
cheap, the current price being from twenty five to thirty 
cents per bushel. The country is high, well drained and 
fertile, abounding in cool clear springs of good drinking 
water,' and admirably adapted to white farai Wm^t. iJae 
health of the neighborhood is excellent. 

Leaving Silver Springs we proceed down the river and 
re-enter the Oklawaha by sweeping around a bend, and 
immediately, as if bv the touch of a magician s wand, 
the waters resume their dark and turbid appearance. 

We next pass Sharpe's Ferry, the crossing place of the 
road between Ocala and Volusia, on the St. John s Kiver, 
and continue our journey on tb€ Tu«kawilla, mdev the 
care of Capt. Arthur Edwards. 

We have now reached an opening, Avhere on our lett is 
an immense field of water flags or bonnet plants termi- 
nating in a splendid row of palmettoes, behind which 
again rise cypress and other trees, of a still taller growth, 
This is called Palmetto Patch. 

We at leno-th emerge from the wooded swamp and om 
it a final adieu. What the river h«.s lost in picturesque- 
ne«s and beauty of scenery it ha6 gained m novelty, 
while the vision so long confined is free to roam to its 
widest range. Northerners are especially attracted by 
this portion of the river. The stream has assumed the 
appearance of a narrow and crooked canal, winding and 
twisting like a serpent through wide and unbroken helds 
of water cresses, which cover the surface of the water 
on either side of the river. This is the praine country 

The bonnet plants completely cover the surface of the 
open swamp with their broad flat leaves, and the surface 
of the prairie country is as smooth as a newly mown hay 
field This prairie extends along the river's edges for a 
distance of sixty miles, the edges of the prairie being 
walled on either side a quarter of a mile back of the 
stream by forests of cypress and palmetto trees. ' 

We wend on our way and pms a solitary tree called 
Lo7w Oak, and continue" on, the river by moonlight re- 
sembling a silver tliread winding through an immense 
and interminable green field. We now stop at Lake 
Ware landing, one hundred and tweut>^-flve mUes up the 

rifeti jMwAi^^^iBi; ^^^^ 


In Marion County. This lake is nearly circular and varies 
iH widtti from fi-re to sine mil€s, and is a beautiful sheet 
of wa^er, surrounded by an amphitheatre of hills from 
forty to sixty feet in height, while the surrounding 
country is high, rolling and salubrious. The settlement 
along its shores is only six or seven years old, and con- 
sists principally of Northerners who own numerous young 
orange groves in the vicinity. It contains three stores and 
more than four hundred families. It is proposed to con- 
nect the lake with the landing by a canal three miles in 
We wmmQ otir journey and next stop at 


On the eifcst side and one hundred and twenty-eight miles 
©p. Tlie (KHiBirT for flffeeen miles back of this is well 
settled, chiefly oy naUves. The productions are corn, 
cotton, cane, oranges, and other fruits. Large shipments 
were made from this place last mmmm.. We upmi. <m 
through the prairie and pass 


On the east and sit:teen miles up. This se^ioii Is chiefly 
cultivated in cotton and cane, though there are some fine 
or«^© groTes ia Ite ricinity. Our r^m.i pli^ i« 


Wliich leads back to oiie of the most fertile regions along 
this river, and takes its name from the gentleman rented 
here, who owns a lar^ tract of land and an orange 

grove of fourteen acres, containing one thousand two 
undred trees, which will yield this season one hun- 
dred thousand oranges. The estates of several wealthy 
entlemen from Alabama and Georgia, are also under 
is care. There will be from twenty-five to thirty mil- 
lions of oranges shipped from this vicinit j during the 
winter. The country is also largely planted in corn, cot- 
ton and cane. The river from Stark Landing to Sligh- 
ville is perfectly straight, and from one hundred to two 
hundred yards wide. Leaving tkis place, we soon s^tm 
enter - 

A fine expanse of water, ten miles long, and i^Rn four to 
five miles in width, and one of the sources of the Okla- 
waha, which flows through it. The entire shore is planted 
in orange and fruit grov^. We will mention some of 
them as we pass along the shores. Oti tlie edgfe of tbe 
lake is the Whitehall grove, the property of Dr. Bouk- 
Tlie hiyEidsiO»€ dw^liiig is Miii##t bi dda i i iMS 


A 0UfD« TO 

view by the orange trees. Mr. Hobson's grove of six 
acres is on a fine situation on the western shore, on which 
is a fine residence. Beyond is the six acre grove of Mr. 
Wilbers, and further on iP^e remch. Col. Lanie-r's fine resi* 
4^fm and gpove, fronting the lake, fi^otn which will be 
shipped tyi winl^r four hundred guavas. We next pass 
Mr. Allen's es^te, containing a grove of four hundred 
and fifty orange trees, and a handsome residence on a 
bluff sixty feet above the water, and considered the finest 
situation on the lake. Further south is the property of 
Mr. Reeve, who owns a young orange grove of ten acres, 
containing also a few lemon trees. We have now reacli^ad 


And postoffice, and passing on come to Mr. J. E. Borden's* 
orange grove of five acres aiKi bana^ia plantation, with a 
few pine apples on it. Next in order is the residence of 
Mr. Bishop, and also his grove of about twenty acres; 
while bevond is Dr. Fretwell s grove of ten acres, and 
also his handsome residence on a high bluff. Beyond is 
Dr. Bouknight's grove, already noticed, and south of this 
Mr. Chaplin's residence, on a high hill, near which is 
a voung seedling grove of six acres. Near by is Mt«. 
Edwards' place, and in the vicinity Capt. Edwards' young 
grove. Furtk€T on is the property of Mr. James Condray, 
who owns a s-mall grove oii the lake front. Judge Gross' 
grove of five or six acres next strikes the eye of the imw^ 
eier, who has at length reached 


On the north side of the lake, and on a peninsula between 
Lake Griffin and Lake Harris, It contains about thirty- 
five dwellings, six stores, and a good hotel that can ac- 
commodate fifty people, and kept by Mr. Lee. 

In the neighborhood are some very extensive orange 
groves, • ranging in value from $5,000 to 140,000. All 
tropical fruite are here largely cultivated. From Mr. 
Harris' ij^mm wiU be gM^^^d f-rna^ five kuadi'ed pine- 

Lands can be purchased here at from $2.50 to $5 per 
acre. In the vicinity are two flourishing orange groves 
owned by the Messrs. Lee, after whom the place is called. 
Our little steamer is again in motion, and we next arrive 
in sight of 


As it is c^led, along whick is a line of orange groves of 
wmte than ninety acres, and m mile and a quarter in 
Imgib, Wmm^^im hm^ ##i#om were eyp^d a 



million of oranges. On the north is an island surrounded 
by pa mettoes, on which is the five acre gmve of Mess^^^^ 
Lovell & Adams. We next enter ^^^^^^ .uessrs. 


l^^g^Zlt ^^'^^ The first 

Near which is Mr. Harris' grove. Messrs. Lovell & Vail 
also own a arge grove here, and last season shinped 
Xr fin^/'^ thousand oranges. On the creek aie sSal 
s^tP thp iLT^''- • Ti'^^F^^^ Alserbrooks, oppo- 

oiL^X T^^^^^^ last year three hundred thousand 

oianges The situation of this settlement is very Dictur- 
T^^-' dwelling being set back amoi^ tl?e Ks 
Living the creek we enter ^ 

Very nearly circular, and eight mil^ in diamefpr ihp 


Where are found a lumber mill and store, owned bv Mr 
Owens. ' mi. 

This will be the present terminus of the proiected riil 
road from Lake George to Lake Eustis, the distance befng 
only twenty-three miles. This is C£ai4d th* ^ 


And has a capital of 825,000, subscribed by a company ~ 
from Montgomery Ala., who have arranged to borTow^n 
^ew York the balance necessary to complete the road 
The total cost will be 100,000, and later it will be extended 
from Fort Mason, on Lake Eustis, to some point near 
Tampa, on the Gulf of Mexico. The road will be thi 
highway to a rich farming country back of Lake Harris 
Leavmg Fort Mason we speed on and reach "a^^ns. 

On the east of the lake, and containing a hotel that can 
accommodate forty persons. From this point there is a 
stage line to Sandford, on .Lake Monroe a distance of 
thirty miles. By this route the trip can be made up the 
bt John s, and crossing can be continued down Lakes 
Eustis and Griffin and the Oklawaha. Beyond are the 
grojeaad residence of Col. Lane, of Alabama, and fur- 
tW on^e strove of 500 trees owned by Mr. Bryant. We 



Which connects Lake Eustis with Lake Harris. Thi« 
river is about a mile long and 100 yartis wi^e, with skop<e« 
lined with immense cypre#sei, covered from their tops 
^ll^ water's €f%e with grey moss. We rmmhed 

or Lake Aslatula, an Indian name, which means lake of 
sunbeams. This is a lovely sheet of clear water, and 
when in repose merits the beautiful name conferred on it 
by the Indians. It is eighteen miles long, and varies 
from six to nine miles in width, and is surrounded by for- 
ests, alternating with beautiful dwellings and orange 
groves, while the bank« elope up from thirty k) forty feet 
in height. 

Passing a grove of mo^ covered live oaks, we reach 
Capt. Haines' grove, on a lofty hill, containing twenty- 
five acres under orange and fruit culture, and two or 
three thousand pine-apple plants. Beyond is Mr. Haines' 
grove. At the head of the lake is the village of 


The Indian name for orange, a picturesaue settlement on 
a rising slope twenty-five feet high, and containing two 
stores, a school-house and a church for all Christian de- 
nominations. The inhabitants number' forty souls. The 
back country is high aad li«»4lby, containing nua^^ous 
set^m#nte. B#«^S9i 0r«i«g« and tropical fruits, sugar 
•cane, corn, potatoes, etc., are raised here. Numerous 
families from Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Virgi- 
nia are located in this vicinity and engaged in the orange 
culture. One party last season shipped 100,000 oranges. 
Behind the village is a high hill, from which can be seen 
five lakes— Griffin, Eustis, Harris, Dora and Apopka— 
the sources of the Oklawaha River. Tfee wild omn^ 
grows ktjcurmntly here, and m indigenous to the *oil, and 
<me groTis of sour orange trees here contains twenty- 
seren acres. The whole neighborhood is quite healthy, 
there being hardly any frost here, not enough to injure 
the guava, the most sensitive of all fruits to its effects. 
The railroad being built from Lake George to Lake Eustis 
will also tap this country. . Passing down the lake, we 
catch a glimpse of Mr. Eady's gropve smi. tmMmmm. 
Acfom the lake, oii the nortttem shore, is one of the finest 
^veg in Ihie taction, ikM of Col. Marshall, who will 
«hip this season more than 2,000,000 oranges, while on 
his place all tropical fruits are found. We next note Dr. 
Gaston's grove, and then reach Judge Stone's residence 
and grove, on one of the handsomest sites on the lake 
shore. The dwelling is on a hill 200 feet high, which 


command* a fine view of the lake, Leesburg and the sur- 
rounding country. The grove contains 800 trees. 

We now pass Mr. Hooks' place, at the mouth of Op«- 
humkee Creek. The grove contains 1,200 trees. The 
country back of this lake is high, rolling, hummock land, 
adapted to cotton, cane, grain and fruit culture, while in 
the mterior the pine lands are studded with small, clear 
water lakes that swarm with fish. The new railroad will 
pmtthis section within fourteen hours communication 
"•^tth JftcktenvUle. We now enter 

And three miles up reach the postofiice of the same name. 
This i&^the Indian name for muddy water, the character 
of the water of the creek. We paass a dmw bridge, and 
continue on. To the left of the creek is a cove or circuit 
basin and spring of the most transparent water of a deep 
blue color. This covers two acrec, and hm mo ho^^m, 
and is called 


As beautiful as the more famous Silver Spring. We now 



The head of navigation of the Oklawaha,' on wliich is 
«*i tinted 


A settlement containing about a dozen houses. Afe<Mt 
thirteen miles south of Yalaha is the settlement of 


Which is a fertile grain section, from which the lake set- 
tlers obtam their corn, and which they call their Egypt. 

We now return into Lake Harris, on our way back. 
On the western bank we pass the grove of Mr. Thatcher 
S. Joh«>son. The next is the young grove of Mr. J. F. 
Mel^i^ti, tferee miles from Leesburg, on which are 
some very fine lemon trees. This estate will ship this 
year 50,000 oranges. Viewed from the water it is one of 
the most picturesque settlements on the lake. Separated 
from this, by a strip of woods, is the grove of Mr. T. R. 
Milam, and also another grove near the water front. We 
now pass Col. Marshall's place, before mentioned, valued 
•4 $^,000. The situation of the dwelling is excellent, 
Mi tk€*^ is a fine avenue, forty feet wide, sloping down 
from the piazza steps to the water's edge. On the adja- 
cent bluff is Dr. A. A. Stivender's grove, of sour orange 
trees, twenty- sev^ in txteak Tlmm will M be 

budded in time. 

This vicinity may be called the garden spot of Florida, 
and is one of the most romantic and beautiful in appear- 



ance. On ^h&mmtem shore of the lake is Capt. A. J, 
Phares' place, on a bluff thirty feet high. The grove con- 
tains 1,000 orange and^400 lemon trees, while tropical 
fruits of eveiy description are cultivated. In the grove is 
a curiosity in the shape of a sour orange tree, which has 
been freely budded, until it bears seven different kinds 
of fruit — the citron, lime, lemon, sweet and sour orange, 
grape fruit and shaddock. East of this is the estate of 
Dr. Dmke, one of th.e most fertile o^i tlte lake. The re«i- 
dence is a tasty low Btnicture, with a high pitched roof^ 
and situated in the midst of the grove, which contains 
500 trees, while every variety of tropical fruit is raised 
here, and along either side of the avenue is a hedge of 
pine-apples. - This fruit arrives at great perfection here, 
and is as mello>v and juicy as a pear. 

Adjoining we find Mr. Paget's place, which is beauti- 
fully laiid out in walks diverging from the house like the 
radii of a circle. The grove contains 5O0 orange trees 
and other tropical fruits. We next come to Grecian Bend, 
the property of Mrs. C. B. Drake, with a young orange 
grove on it, and adjacent to this Mr. Cottreirs small 
grove of young orange trees. In the neighborhood is the 
grove of Dr.. J. Marion Sims, and next Pine Solus, the 
property of Mr. C. W. Spicer, while further on is Bende- 
mere, owned by Mr. W. A. Hucker, of Virginia, on whicli 
plmm h a h^d^ome cottage. Next in order is Dr. Thomac' 
imall grove, and last comes Mr. Joiner's property. 

There is no more beautiful and romantic trip anywhere 
in Florida than this one up the Oklawaha, Silver Springs, 
and Lakes Griffin, Eustis and Harris, the Lake of "Sun- 
beams." The last is one of the most beautiful sheets of 
water in all Florida, while the shores and surrounding 
country are lovely and picturesque in the extreme. The 
atr is mft and !>ia»d, the nignts are cool and bracing. 
Aloi^ the shores of %he lake water fowl of *14 descrip- 
tions, are found among which are the white crane, heron, 
grey and white curlew and the beautiful pink curlew, 
while in the country are numerous flocks of wild parrots 
of brilliant plumage, which are easily domesticated. The 
settlers are genial, hospitable and courteous, and extend a 
warm welcome to all new comers. 

We must now bid adieu to the "Land of Flowers," of 
graay skies, and mft aynd balmy hp&mes; of noble rivers, 
ro»antic streal»»> sihw springs, a»d lovely liike«; o€ 
magnificent forests, of the evergreen, oak, ana cypressj of 
the woodbine and jessamine; of orange groves and flower 
gardens; of tropical fruits and birds of the brightest plu- 
mage — a land where nature assumes her most pleasing 
and smiling aspect, and where ghe is robed in her most 
beautiful and gorgeous attire. 


The favorite route to Florida by water i« from Pier 27 
^ew York where the fii* and popular line of steamers! 
of which Mr. Geo. W. Quintard is President, leaves twice 

f ^ -r. ^ "T""^" °^ ^^^^y '^^"'"s '^'■'"gs them to Charles- 
toa, 3 0. JHid upon their arrival passengers are trans- 
ferred to the splsndid steamers of the Florida line, which 
will be found at the wharf awaiting their arrival Plea- 
sure seekers or invalids will find this route the most 
agreeable and attractive, and less expensive than anv 
other. It IS the only route by which the beautiful scenery 
of the lower St. John's River can be viewed. Those trav- 
eling with invalids, ladies or children, will particularlv 
appreciate the trouble and inconvenience avoided by being 
earned direct to their destination without change or 
transfer of baggage, except from one steamer to the other 
lying at the wharf at Charleston. A splendid new iron 
steamer .lust completed, and the finest steamer of her class 
ever South, and commanded by the favorite and popular 
officer Capt. Leo Vogel, formerly of the steamer Dictator 
so well known to all Florida tourists, will soon be on the 
mate from Charleston to Florida. This steamer, built 
expressly for the service, splendidly fitted up with everv 
comfort and convenience, has a table supplied with every 
, luxury of the Charleston, Savannah and Florida market.s. 
Passengers by this route will reach Jacksonville Florida 
the morning after their arrival at Charleston al^ad of 
the Eailroad time, and wiil »ot fail to find thie route a 
delightful one. 

The steamers proceed up the St. John's River to Pa- 
latka, stopping at all points along the route. They con-' 
nect at Tocoi, on the St. JnAmS River, with the St Johns 


iiMHi B»iiiWI|r CtoiW«»F Augustine, and at Pa- 

lUgfal laHli fiiMiMIB pijt^ on ihfe beautiful Upper Si 
John's ]^T«@r, tcid mfmii^ to Sm^foFd, M€4}€>nvilie, En- 
terprise, and l»4i«ti Mrer of ri^mtj, and mlm wilh 
steamers to the romantic and l>©a«tifui Okkiis^yiMi RiT^ 
and Silver Springs. The choicest state rooms caa 
secured by notifying the agents at Charleston by letter 
or telegram. Further information can be obtained by 
application to Ravenel & Co., agents, corner of Vander- 
horst's whaxf and East Bay, Charleston, S. C. 

Microfilmed 1991 

State Library of Florida 
Tallahassee, Florida 

as part of the 

SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative 
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Reproductions may not be made without permission from 

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Ba bou. , Ra ph Hen.y 

l e s go to F o: da 

New Yo.k. Dodd Mead 


Bibliographic Record Target 

917.58 BarbouTf fialph H«aryt 1870- 
B^dA^ Let's go to Florida! Inlomatlon lor 

those who ha-reo't been but are goln^t 
those who have been and are golag backy 
and thofte who don't expect to fo but 
willy by Salph fienry Barbou#« te#ll# 
P^oddy Mead 6 companyy 1926* 

vl p.f 2 l»i 2S8 p* front. t plates 20 

/ 5-3 9 

!• Florida — Descr. S trav. !• Title i 


4* 2a SEP 77 CMJ FBAGsl 26-1141 

Technical Microf ''m pgig 
Miorolilmed by 
University Microfilms, International 
Ann Arbor, Ml 

on bftwl of 

AUantat GA 

Fikn Size: SStrifn \fkxo%m 
Redurtion R^io: / o?. X 
Image Plaoemant: IA(^S)IB IIB 
Rhning Began: /7 - ^1 








rftoto. from Kvimj Galloirai/, ,V. y 

I.()()KI\(, '|-()\VA1.M) WKST I'AI.M j;.KA<'II ri;()\I 1;K\( II 







3 ' - / 


bt i>odd, mead and company, Ikc. 


BOOK M A N U F A CT U *l« «« 


This is neither guide-book nor gazetteer. Noth- 
ing so orderly or ambitious. It is, rather, an 
effort to tell wkat Florida is r^ly like, in the 
hope that some persons, having read it, will de- 
cide to act on the suggestion contained in its title. 
No attempt is made to depict Florida as a modern 
Garden of Ed^n. The state is still in the making 
and has the musl faults aiKi slioTteoffiings of 
youth. But it also has its virtues and merits. 
The writer has sought to present each impartially, 
although he unblushingly confesses that a warm 
liking for Florida has some-times m^e it difficult. 
Still, he believes he 1ms hewn pretty clom to the 
line, unconcerned with the chips. 

He has drawn on a knowledge of his subject 
gained from more than forty years of acquaint- 
ance, and km written from ihe point of view of 
neither the Floridian nor the outsider, hnt as one 
who, born in the North, has visited the state many 
times and resided in it frequently for varying 
periods. He has eked out first-hand knowledge 
by reocruTse to the worte of many writers who 
have preceded him on the ground; has, in fact, 
in the reprehensible fashion of his kind, taken 
what lie wanted wherever he could find it. 


Immmimmm May be di«M)¥i(r«d; figures, e#p#- 
cially, hare a pestiferoiig way of changing be- 
tween the time they are first set down and when 
they appear in print; and if mistakes occur in the 
spelling of geographic?^! naj?Be€ the writer will tt#fe 
be surprised. Compositors and proof-readers 
are only human. And so, needless to say, are 
writers. But they needn't be ungrateful, and so 
the present writer hastens to acknowledge ik% 
fmkTimm mmi-simnm afforded him in the prepara- 
tion of this book by various State and municipal 
officials and organizations. And now, if you are 
quite readlj, 

Let's Go to Florida!" 


I FljObida: An Awakemin« Staw . . 1 

II Getting There 12 

III Florida Under the Spanish ... 26 

IV And After 41 

V Geography and Plant Life ... 54 

VI ''WhxIt's the Climate Like?" . . . 74 



IX Schools and Colleges .... 114 

X Home Building and Housekeeping . . 120 

XI Sports and Recreations .... 135 

XII Getting About in Florida . . . 153 

XIII The Everglades 165 

XIV Mainland Florida . .... 179 
XV Down thb Wbst Coast . . . .196 

XVI Down the WmT Coast {C&mluded) . 214 

XVII Through the Ridge Countkt . . . 231 

XVIII Down the East Coast .... 245 

XIX Down the East Coast {Cmclnded) . 257 

XX The Florida Keys 272 


ilorida paJms. Looking toward West Palm Beach 

from Palm Beach Frontispiece 


in Ml^l . . ^ 

A country club in Florida . 

• • • • . 

Tfet R@yal Poinciana ]ttot€l at Palm Beach 
A winter sport in Florida i^ 

Motoring on the Wck road between Ormond and 

Ocean boulevards and shore with palM, n^*r 

^^^^^'^"^^ 210 

Old city gate at St. Auf ustine, built in irm . . mO 





Florida is at once the oldest and newest state 
in the Union. At St. Augustine was effected the 
first settlement in the territory that is now the 
United States, and yet, despite tbftt, Florida'* 
development ha^ aii taken place within a mere 
handful of recent years. She is out of the 
chrysalis stage but still in the pupa. She is in 
the throes of growing-pains and, like anything on 
ite way to matmrity, is at once confused, eelf-€on- 
»don^ and mther awkward. It is embarrassing 
to discover, after having remained a grub for so 
many years, that you are about to develop wings ! 

If a commonwealth may be said to have a soal, 
thrni Florida has only recently begun to realize 
hers. She is still a bit incredulous. So many 
things happening at once are sufficient to confuse 
any conscious body. Ripping her way out of the 
pupa-ot»€e aad^ at the same UMaent, finding her- 
self in sadden acquaintance with impulses, con- 
science qualms, doubts, desires and all the inner 
stirrings resultant on the functioning of a brand- 
new soul, leaves her in a sort of *^Where-am-I- 
mtV condition. Florida is shooting up fast, 

physically and spiritmlly; so fast that she is out- 



flowing hm^ h%T elotliei md her laental eqiiip- 
mmit Fortunately those can be enlarged, but 
meanwhile she is aware of the neighbors' incredu- 
lous stares and scoffings and tries to cover her 
ecibarrag^ent with a fine show of mm^ »08Be 
posturing and « good deal of noi&e. 

Youngsters all have to undergo the process of 
adolescence before attaining man's estate. Every 
grub must remain a pupa for a time before it be- 
comes a butterfly. Self-con&ciou€iie«g and awk- 
wardness ar« mAf BUtwral p!i?^€. 

A great many persons discovered Florida, from 
Ponce de Leon down to Henry M. Flagler, Mor- 
ton F. Plant and Mrs. Potter Palmer. But their 
discoveries went unacclaimed by the iwt of Ifee 
world. Recently Florida diecovef^ herself, and 
this time it ''took.'' She awoke to the fact that 
she had climate, soil, natural beauty and a lot of 
other things, and began to make a noise about it. 
If one person i^iits to shout, others invmxiably 
Join in. Florida commenced to advertise herself 
and very soon every one was doing it for her. 
She made the snowball and the rest of the coun- 
try got hoMski^ a. miA pmhecL M(m fm. awiH; 
me over it. 

In 19^2€ the state's population was 968,460. 
Five years later it was 1,263,549, a growth of well 
over a quarter of a million. A census includiaf 
the winter populatien of Florida during the 
99B jrf ittt^& w#«ld ^k&w a figure close to 


2,0O0,(XX). What the combined permanent and 
trmnsient population will be for the winter of 
1925-26 is anybody's guess. What is certain, 
however, is that Florida can comfortably accom- 
modate and maintain a perrhanent population of 
at lestst six millions. It se«M probable that she 
will be doing it before many years have pa/s^d. 

Florida is a pleasant place to live in. It has 
a delightful winter climate, is comfortable for 
eight months of the year and no more uncom- 
fortable dmring the other fo^r than many states 
much farther north. It has good soil in a vast 
variety of kinds, it has more days of sunshine 
than any^other state and an unfailing and gen- 
rainfall. As an a^giiiciilturaJ state its fu- 
ture is as®«r#d by its pre«ent. A state from 
which a thousand, fifteen hundred, even two 
thousand dollars are being taken from an acre 
of ground doesn't have to base its self-lauda- 
tions on visions. It is rich in minerals, besides, 
tmd it is fmst becoming comn^TCially importimi. 
It has no bonded indebtedness. Valuations for 
purposes of taxation are extremely low. It does 
not levy taxes on either incomes or inheritances, 
stid by a recent met of its legislature is forever 
prohibited from doing so. It is only a few ho«r€ 
distant from the bulk of the population of the 
country and is easily accessible by rail, water 
and highway. Its markets are close at hand. 
PioriJa Is operated efficiently and at Uttle omi 


LET'S QQ m FhmmAi 

without the usual mass of governmental bur^iw 
and boards. The Governor g^nd his cabinet are 
elected bj popuitr vote and perform practically 
All the duties of government at an immense sav- 
ing in time, labor and money. 

As a place to live in, either for the winter or 
all the year, Florida offets more, tfee writer be- 
Irnrm, ik^ any other stat€. Its scenery is never 
ma^niflcent, for it has no mountains, but it is 
frequently beautiful, always attractive. Sunshine 
spells health, and in Florida it is possible to live 
out of doors continMElly. Florida is a fine land 
to play m mnd a foe land to work in. One may 
l>e either a millionaire or a man of little means 
and still get more out of life in Florida than 
in most places. Necessities cost no more tkm 
in most other states^ wliile a home in Florida cmU 
^ to bmld t^ ia ti^e North, and much less to 

Since this volume is dedicated to a fair and 
truthful exposition of facts it becomes incumb^t 
on the writer at mbmt tliis point to say frankly 
ik^t in spite of Hb merits and attractions Florida 
is not yet the perfect residential state for some 
persons. This is not a very hard slap, though, 
for the same may be said of" rath«t mom 
hijf the eimim of the Union. Wie persons the 
writtr hm in mind are those accustomed to in- 
tellectual interests and pleasures. There are, to 
be sure, communities ia wtdd^ such per«#ia# mjf 


find the things they crave, but as a whole Florida 
has not yet had time to develop her mind. She 
has hmii and still m far too busy clearing aad 
plowing, planting and building. The same thing 
has been true of every state, and no criticism is 
implied. The improvement of the land must come 
before the improvement of the mind and the mil 
mmi be enltivmted b^ore th% gr^c^. 

Like all states emerging from the wilderness 
Florida for a long while made her appeal almost 
solely to the sturdy and adventurous pioneer. 
Whea he had cut paths in the wilderness and 
made his plantings he was followed in dMe time 
and in yearly increasing numbers by a class of 
visitors not specially desirable as constructive 
citizens. This class was composed of the invalid, 
the poverty-stridceti and tiie ghiftl@#s who h^pad 
to find in Florida a cure for body or conditioti iB^ 
qualities. For a considerable number of years 
the pioneer and the basker in the sun had the 
Biewer parts of the state to themselves. This 
muf sornid m though tlie writer wme ImFing omt 
of consideration the native Floridians, birt he 
isn't. The native-born residents of the state were 
few in number ; not over half a million, probably, 
of wh(m. practically a half were negroes. They 
irere ooeipants of the northern counties €iliiie«t 
exclusively and had little contact with th-e newor 
population. After a while the workers began to 
4Bva4e tte ^tate, dearioig tJuB iand and planting 

# LET'S «Mr ffO VlJOSaUAl 

and buiWiD^ tiiek modest dwellings, and were 
followed by tf»de«tBsii, mti^mm and otE^oi •i* 
tread on the heels of the settlers. Bnt there was 
still no call to the thinker. Nor has there been 
until very recently. With the development of the 
m^mkA to4 ec^iegee Culture made a timid ap- 
pearance. Culture i« fftiil far Irxm boi^mm or 
even assertive. In the several college towns there 
is to be found an atmosphere of intellectuality, 
nMd the arts sciences hold up their heads 
fc™ni¥«lj eaoQgiL And in the larger cities clBbe 
and coteries are sowing th^e seed®. By mmd lifg»ft, 
however, the daily paper still substitutes for the 
World's Best Literature and the sale of books 
m hj m memm # leading industry. Music is en- 
woraged in msmy 'wmf% s«%d m several communi- 
ties it rules in high favor. Tliie is eep^cially 
true where a considerable Latin population ex- 
ists. The drama fares badly, not so much be- 
mmm #f l*ek of ««i^rt ius by reason of Florida's 
situation off the mmin highwmys traveled by the- 
atrical attractions. Theaters other than Qmm 
devoted to moving pictures are few. Of moving 
p4d;m?^ «i*d canned music, of Sunday supplement 
Ilferiit«l^ Atti r#*k)fraviire art ther€ m ao dearth. 

There are many who irill titke €it©@pti«ft to the 
foregoing statements. It is possible that tlie 
writer will be shown numerous examples of local 
i<^«i#im«it# id^ng the lines of music and drama 
UteMm md paiiitkg. WMaii will pkwie 


him very mueh. He h^ been, fee^w^^r, speaking 
of the state as a whole and in general, and not 
of this or that community in particular. He 
would dislike very much to be considered dis- 
paraging of the considerable and steadily increas- 
ing ntanber of i^nsons who realize that intellect- 
ual pursuits and enjoyments are necessary to the 
well-being of a people and to the perfect devel- 
opment of a commonwealth. 

Wlmt is lacking will aome ; is ctmning. And if 
tk#s€ who demand the#e things will, instead of 
remaining away because they are not yet to be 
had in full measure, go and do their part in the 
encouragement of them, they will come sooner, 

Florida as a place ia which to inv^eft hm been 
wt4tt*€n of m fully and exhaustively in the daily 
press and in the magazines that it seems scarcely 
worth while to go into tlie subject here. So many 
men far better qualified to speak with ajsthority 
than is tke writer h«¥e given tkeir opinioiMi iknt 
wflmt the latter may say ^^dll possess little value. 
Still, it is possible to mention a few established 
facts of interest to one contemplating putting 
money into Florida land or Florida enterprises 
without i«siiHiing the role ef s«ge. 

Florida as an investment is not something of 
to-day or of yesterday. Men of discernment have 
been investing in the state for many years. For 
fifteen ye^rg pmat the admn€«e ie prices ©f Fbridn 
eetate \m bmn sleady, especially of laad in 



and about larger citieg aiKl to^Tis and along the 
shores. Florida's growth has been never spec- 
tacular, but it has been fairly rapid and always 
substantial. That m true, at least, until the 
Spring of IMi^ Mmu what happened ttm cannot 
fairly b-e said to affect the state's growth. 

Booms" are ephemeral things that do not con- 
cern the investor save in that they put a tem- 
porary and largely factitious vm\m on what l*e 
i»ay whh lo buy. When tliey ure pmt th« pen- 
dulum swings back, sometimes not quite all the 
way, sometimes a little further. Wliether the 
present is a propitious time to invest in Florida 
land is a qt^stion to be anai^ered by a more 
lightened person th&n the writer. If the intending 
investor is convinced that present real estate 
prices nearly represent values, he will be wise 
to purchase now rather than later. One should 
ftilj ott hig convictions, whether investor or tpee- 
ulator. On the other hand, if he believes, as many 
do — the writer among them — that certain classes 
of real estate are now priced beyond their produc- 
tive values, he mn afford to wait a while and 
waleh d^eiopmenti. Addres^itig the Florida 
realtors in convention in November last, Charles 
M. Edwards, president of the National Associa- 
tion of Real Estate Boards, stated a recognized 
hmt too fr«qBemtly disrefmiKl^ trutli very pithily 
m folkws : *^Tbe mere fact that a pi-eee of tml 
estate can be sold at a certain figure, due to the 


public state of mind, is no criterion of its true 
value. Any piece of real e€tat«e finds its level of 
sound value only when it passes into the handg 
of the ultimate consumer at a price which can 
be justified by earnings." 

It is improbable that the pendulum in this par- 
tieukr easeoi^ill swing back all the way. Prices 
will always remain well above what they were 
in the winter of 1924-25. This is true of city, 
suburban, shore and acreage property. Acreage 
will probably more nearly return to its pre-boom 
prices than the other cla&ses. There is far too 
much of it to allow any sudden increase in value 

to take place. 

How long the boom will last is another question. 
One man's gu^s is m good as another's. This 
man's guess is one more year. But when he 
says ''boom" he means the hysterical phase of 
the thing; such a phase as was seen all over 
Florida in the months of July and August of 
1^5. The Standard Dictionary defines ''boom" 
as "sudden activity or prosperity," a litmemtably 
weak and uncolloquial definition. Any one wteo 
witnessed the Alaskan rush or the overnight birth 
of an oil town could do better than that on the 
b»ck of an envelope with a tootk-sharpened pencil 
stub. If "boom" means no more than pro«perity 
the present affair is likely to continue indefinitely. 
If, on the contrary, it means a sudden and hys- 
*®3:ical activity on tlie part of sp^ulators, it is, 

m UaT'S GO TO WWmikLi 

in this writer's opinion, more likely to peter out 
by tiie summer of 1927, if not before. WheBL it 
dom peter out mme values are going to be imagi- 
nary. At least for some considerable time. 

Booms are natural. Nearly every new state 
has had one or more. In soEie mms they hme 
been decidedly benejSdial, in no erne h^vt they 
aMierklly hurt the stat-e in the long run. The 
m^orst they can do is delay the natural and sub- 
stantial development by a period dependent on 
their length and intensity. Th% ^rmmi ^mn m 
Florida was bound to colae sooner or later and 
it's jmt m well to have it now and get it over 
with. It won't affect the sane, solid growth of 
the state very noticeably, and it need not deter 
investors from putting their money iato the 
state's iAiKk and enterpriser. TtwBj do not <!e- 
p@«i Oil a quick turn-over and are not looking 
for instant and enormous profits. Like a child 
with the measles, Florida will be the same Florida 
when the rash is gone; only a bit better for Imv- 
ing got so»eiiiiBg unli^altfay out of her system. 

Florida is not particularly keen about specu- 
lators, while realizing that they are natural and 
even necessary phenomena, but she does hanker 
for invegtors. And ^le hm a clean mi of }xmM 
to open for tti^ir inspection. 8he can show fig- 
itfes in the right columns. Florida's future as an 
agricultural state is assured, and she could rely 
0X1 agriculture alone and still be pin^roue. But 

FL0Ria4.: AM ^Ammi^Q STATE il 

she will never have to. Tliere are many other 
souud factors in her iueeess: minerals, exports, 
industries, fisheries, lumber and so on. But the 
one big, never-failing factor is climate. So long 
as she has that she will prosper, and prosper 
amft'zingly, for in her climate she has what no 
o4l^r state has to quite the same degree of per- 
fection and what millions of persons throughout 
the land want and will travel far to enjoy. An 
investment which is based on Florida's climate is 
a safe one. Thousands kave found th^ trite m^d 
thoiMaiids will yet discover it. 

But, whether you contemplate buying a to"wn 
lot or an acreage, don't do it with your eyes shut. 
You wouldn't purchase a piece of property at 
home, even an old barn, witbout looking at it. 
When you buy in Florida me what you're get- 
ting. Don't do your shopping by mail, no matter 
how attractive the offer may sound. If you can't 
find the time to go to Florida and see for your- 
self, don't buy. The Chambers of Gmmmmtm 
and reputable citizens are glad to advise you, but 
their ideas and yours may be miles apart. You 
may take their words as to the value of the prop- 
erty you are contemplating purchasing, but no 
Cii«iiiiber of Commeree or reput-able oiti«#a toiowg 
as well as you do what sort of a home you want. 
If you are buying for speculation, why, that's 
another matter. Go ahead and take a chance. 
That's all real estate &p0(e4ilatioii i% ajiywaj. 


GoixG to Florida lias become m rkjii^oueiy 
siaipie tkat tlio#e wfeo mmt have the element of 
ftdventtire in their journeying had far better re- 
main at home and cross Main Street once or 
t^\'ice at the height of traffic. There was a time 
wheE maJsmg the trip t# Florida called for m fair 
-degree of daring and fortitude and a deal of 
patience. This was specially true of a journey 
all the way by rail. One performed it by a series 
of jumps. Having landed from one jump, the 
suoae^ing taJce-off wag more or less ©onjectural. 
One might jump again tfiat day or he might re- 
main poised for several days. On one trip made 
many years ago the writer stayed so long in 
Waycroes, Georgia, between trains that he hm 
mm mmm feM guiitj tor not having paid a poll- 
tat. In those days roadbeds v/ere sketchy af- 
fairs beyond Jacksonville, the little locomotives, 
with their huge stacks, burned wood, and all 
#eii^uleg were ''subject to change without no- 
tke." Tbe frnl «upply for the engines was 
stacked Ix^side the track. If, as sometimes hap- 
pened, the woodpile wasn't where it should ])e, 
jau wei-^e out of kick. W^j^ <^m^ too, had m 




way of disappointing one. Sometimes they held 
no water. The writer still vividly recalls his feel- 
ing of helplessness when, left marooned in the 
heart of a cypress swamp, he watched the en^ne 
fade into the distance down the long straight 
track. There was, it seemed, sufficient water in 
the tank to take the locomotive to the next sup- 
ply, but not enough to make the steam required 
to drag the train, too. Of comr^e OB-e !w3^ped ii»4 
the engineer, having refreshed the boiler, would 
remember the three cars left behind in the dark- 
ening forest, but there was no assurance of it. 
The hour or so that passed before a faint glare 
on the rim of the werld hermlded tmme was 
with anxiety and foreboding — and the discour- 
aging predictions of a million pessimistic frogs. 

One wouldn't willingly return to those condi- 
tions of transportation, of <x)iii^, jet it must be 
acknowledged that there was a fa&cimtio« in 
them. Uncertainty holds attraction for most of 
us. Then one started forth at morning not know- 
ing w^iiere bedtime would find him, and many 
}3€re0n€ accwrStomed to the lunrrf of hair vmi- 
tresses and fine linen sheets bec?ii»e adept in tl« 
art of sleeping curled up on a dusty red velvet 
car seat. As for meals — why, one simply didn't 
trouble to figure about those. Often enough din- 
BeT mme at dusk md supper wm mien by thm 
light of a smelly oil lamp at some ungodly houf 
of the early morning, the passengers' heads nod- 


dmg sleepily above their grits and bigeuita and 
^mae ayrgip. But wkat a hei^rteiiing ca^maraderie 
wm en^dered by the tribulations of the jour- 
ney ! Talk about the friendships formed on ship- 
board—Shucks, a trip from New York to Talla- 
hassee in the old days had an oceMi Yojm^ he^t 
right fr®m the start! Adventure made for equal- 
ity, a three-hour delay at a junction was as good 
as a^ formal introduction. And, speaking of 
junctions, what has bec^»€ of theia all! One 
^»@d io rmifftii^ m iuncticw mery m often, if mem- 
&rj mrwe%, kM, having reached it, waited, mat 
one waited for was not always clear, but wait one 
did. Had they been placed a bit closer together 
it would have helped, for there alwmyg food 
of • mMTt to b% pHrcliased ihrni; oranges if no 
l3ii©f^. Borne one— doubtless a scientist— has said 
that odors remain in the memory longer than 
sights. Perhaps they do. At all mente the 
writer's most vivii f^colle^tion of e^T^al trips 
to Fkrida in tht eftrly days is concerned with 
the mingled smells of oranges and burning fat- 

There are three wayg of reaching Florida to- 
day; three if w% eiempt walldog and flying; by 
trmix, by l>oat, by automobile. By train the time 
from New York to Jacksonville is thirty hours, 
to Miami thirty-six hours, to Tampa forty houf^' 
to Key West fifty-one b<mri. VrmB Det?6it th@ 


FlamiD^.'' The ''Dixie Liiaitad'' amd. the 
*' Dixie Flyer" go down from Chicago and St. 
Louis and connect with East and West Coast 
points. From New York run the ''Havana Spe- 
cial," the "Everglades Limited" — the latter in 
two sections, one of which gtartg frofit B#et©o — 
the "Florida Special," making but one passenger 
stop between Richmond and Jacksonville and 
serving the East Coast as far as Miami^ the 
"Florida Gulf Limited" — de Iwm flyer — the 
"West Indian Limited," the "Palsietto Limlied" 
and the "Florida Mail." 

From the West, besides the "Flamingo" and 
the "Dixies," are the "Seminole Limited," the 
"Floridimn," the "Surn^ne^," the "Southland" 
and the "Land of the Sky Limited," the ktt^ 
running between Cincinnati and Jacksonville by 
way of Asheville, North Carolina. Perhaps there 
mre still oth-^rs. Not much like the old days tke 
writer has been r^mi«cing about! 

Railroad fares from some of the principal 
points to Florida follow. One way. New York 
City to Jacksonville, $36.55; to Tampa, $44.15; to 
Miami, $49.72; Chiemgo to Jadcsouville, $38.95; 
Detroit to Jacksonville, $^.90; Bt Lomis Jfttk- 
sonville, $33.93. 

Proving, of course, the superiority of St. Louis 
as a place of gummer ri^esnce, since from it 
Florida can b« reaeiied »t a mrmg oi mm% ikm 
two and a half dollars! 


The writer ^vou]d like to b* ^.ble to say that 
the journey from, say, New York to Florida is 
one of unalloyed pleasure. Occasionally it may 
he, hut generally it's a bit monotonous as to 
scenery-you know how railways bve to go 
through the most unintefesting sections of a state 
and how they almogt never enter a city save by 
way of the slums-and extremely dirty as to at- 
mosphere This applies mainly to the southern 
portion of the trip. Unless there kas hmu « 
recent and abundant rain one exhausts the towel 
enpply m At Pullman long before his destination 
«5 reached, and that without encouraging evi- 
dences of bodily cleanliness. Of course a certain 
amount of dust and soft cosl smoke is to be ex 
pected, but Southern railroads, in the opinion of 
one occasional traveler, are much too generous 
in tl>e distribution of those things. On a hot day 
ravel south of Mason and Dixon's line h likely 
to prove a sharp reminder of what lies ahead of 
us 11 we don't behave ourselves! 

Fkn-ida railroads mean well beyond a doubt, 
trat they haven't quite discovered that the war 
IS over; the Civil War, that is; and ro«d]>ede and 

«ort calciiIafGd 

to wm ptvmB at a ntale fair. Some of the roads 
-om m particular, and the writer would love 
to name It right out in meeting !-seem to jmt 
a wee bit aggrieved over the growth of the iiate 
ma ikQ com^q^md wmmmliy for mptmemQuts, 



Oh, thej^'re doing things, but tliej-'re doing them 
late and almost, one might say, on compulsion. 
However, all things come to him who waits, and 
even a Florida train gets there eventually. From 
tliis latter cruel jibe you may jump to the mii- ■ 
elusion that the thirty-hour ''Limited" doesn't 
always arrive in exactly thirty hours, or the 
forty-hour ''Flyer" in forty. Well, it's your 
jump; and they don't. Schedules are one thing 
and performances are another. Siiigk tracks in- 
stead of double, obsolete signal systems, dirt bal- 
last and antiquated rolling equipment pertain to 
many railways and account in part for failures 
to make schedule times. 

And there may be another reason. The writer 
advances it for what it's worth. The southern 
engine is equipped with an extremely powerful 
aad raucous whistle which it takes almost child- 
ish pleasure in sounding. It is a- painful, eir- 
splitting soprano of a whistle, and is warrant^^ 
to bring one from sound slumber at the distance 
of a mile. Now whistling is, it is understood, 
performed by forcing a current of steam through 
% tube. Well, doesM't it stand to rem^on tliat if 
an excess amount of steam is devot^i to ftfon«ifift 
passengers from sleep there is a consequent lack 
of it for making the wheels go round? Eemember 
the Mississippi River steamboat that stopped 
whenever she whistled for a laiKiiiigf W#.ll, tli§«^ 
you have the writer's theory, which is tbat soQt^- 



ern engines spend so much steam whistling th^t 
titei iw?¥iil't anough left in their boilers to 
where they are going on time. Of course a cer- 
tain amount of whistling is necessary, especially 
on roads which would almost rather go into bank- 
ruptcy than erect a waniing device at a grade 
erasing, but it mti be vastly overdone. If you 
dofi^t believe it travel across Florida. 

If you are a fair-to-good sailor, and don't mind 
spending another day or so en route, the steamers 
offer pleasaater conveyance. You have j&Hf 
ekmm of sevetiii Mn-es, ^11 of which seem more 
or less willing to accept your patronage. You 
will, probably, miss the courtesy sho^^^l passen- 
gers on trans-Atlantic boats, but since your trip 
is brief you can do witlK^ut it, Witli ike imummm 
of competition in #iiiigtwise territory it is quite 
likely that patrons of the steamship lines will 
note a corresponding increase in affability on the 
part of the Mighty Ones who have it in their 
power to mmbmce yon to &n inside, lower dmk 
miMtetmm over the screw, or to one amidship and 
outside on the promenade deck. 

The Clyde Line runs boats from New York to 
Charleston, S. C, and Jacksonville, Fkk, and fy<»a 
New York direct to Miami. Boats in tie Imekm^ 
yiBq g^rri^ sail from New York on Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Saturdays at 3:00 p.m., due at 
Charleston two days later and at Jacksonville 
the forenoon of tli^ third day. S^lingg f#r Mkimi 



are on "Wednesdays and Saturdays, at 3 :00 p.m., 
due to arrive in Miami early in the mormjag om 
Saturdays and Tuesdays. With one or two excep- 
tions the boats are new, the ^'Seminole," ^'Chero- 
kee" and ^'Mohawk" having been launched 
within the p^st year. The^e are sister ships of 
8,140 tons displacement, 4012 feet long, 54 feet 
beam, carrying 446 passengers each. They have 
excellent deck room, something missing in the 
older boats, and glass-enclosed promenades and 
deck v^anda^ in addition to the Msual lounges. 
The minimum fare from New York to Jarfikson- 
ville is $36.54 on all boats, which fare includes a 
berth in an inside room on the lower deck. 
BeriJhi in other locations cost from $2.25 to $9.25 
extra. Suites with double bed and private bath 
may be had for $17.00 and $20.00 extra, according 
to location. For these at least two tickets must 
be purchased. On the Seminole" and her sister 
ships one may even spend $47.41 extra for a suite 
of parlor, bedroom and bath. If you are travel- 
ing alone and don't crave the society of a stran- 
ger, you may pay two fares and have a stateroom 
or bedroom to yourself. 

The fare to Miami fro« New York is $49.71, 
minimum, and beyond that yott may go m high 
as $76.71. It does seem that the extra cent might 
be knocked off, but there's doubtless a reason. 

Oil all boats children under two years of age 
are carried free but §m »«* ««4ilied to seats at 


the dining iMe. From the age of two to five 
children pay a small charge for meals. That is, 
the parent does. A child between five and twelve 
is charged half-fare; above twelve full fare. On^ 
steamer trmik not exceedii^ thirteen inches in 
heighi i^y be placed mider a lower berth. Dogs, 
irrespective of height, are not allowed in state- 
rooms but must be either housed in crates or 
muzzled and leashed. Tk<ij aF€ then confid«i to 
the care of the Chief Stewsfd, a gentleman with 
»n apparent aversion for being bitten. We are 
informed that '^the same general regulations ap- 
ply to birds, cats and other pet animals." Prob- 
ably, however, the matter of tja« mns&le is waived 
in the case of canaries. 

Automobiles are carried at the rate of $2.32 
per hundred pounds from New York to Jackson- 
ville and at the rate of $3.73 per hundred iixm 
New York to Miami, released. Insurance may, 
liowever, be purchased. Reservations should be 
made well in advance of sailing date. Touring 
cars must have tops folded down and will be ac- 
cepted on any boat. Closed cars can be imi^M 
on certaii bmi^ only, wlierefofe it is well to make 
inquiries regarding car shipment very early in 
the game. 

The Merchants and Miners Transportation 
Company operates four steamers betw^n Btlti- 
more ai>d Ji^ksonville, Fk., three between Phil- 
adeliAia and Jacksonville and one between Phil- 

Photo, from Broivn 7^?'o,s'. 




the dining table. From the age of two to live 
children pay a small charge for meals. That 
tlm parent do^s. A child between fi^e «nd twelve 
is charged half-fare; above twelve full fare. One 
steamer trunk not exceeding thirteen inches in 
height may be placed under a lower bei'th. Dogs, 
irrespective of height, are not. allowed in state- 
rooms but must be either housed in crfites or 
muzzled and leashed. They are then confided to 
the care of the Chief Steward, a gentleman with 
an apparent aversion for being bitten. AYe are 
informed tha^ ''Urn same general regulations ap- 
ply to birds, cats and other pet animals." Prob- 
ably, however, the matter of the muzzle is waived 
in the case of canaries. 

Automobiles are ca]"ried at the rate of $2.32 
per hundred pounds from New York to Jackson- 
¥iite mm4 #t tlm rate of $,3.73 per hundred from 
New York to Miami, released. Lisurance may, 
however, be purchased. Reservations should be 
made well in advance of sailing date. Touring 
mTs mm^ have tops folded do\m and will be ac- 
cepted on any boat. Closed cars can ho handled 
on certain boats only, wherefore i( is well to make 
inquiries regarding car shipment very early in 
the game. 

The ^Merchants and Miners Transportation 
Company operates four steamers between Balti- 
more and Jacksonville, Fla., three between Phil- 
adelphia and Jacksonville and one between Phil- 



adelpliia and Miami. AH boats . save that for 
Miami touch at Savamiah, Georgia. Baltimore 
sailings are made Tuesdays, Fridays and Sun- 
days ; Philadelphia sailings, Wednesdays and Sat- 
lardays. For Miami the steamer sails every ten 
days. Baltimore boats sail at 6:00 p.m. and ar- 
rive at Jacksonville 7 :00 a.m. on the fourth day. 
Philadelphia boats sail at 4:00 p.m. and arrive 
at Jacksonville 7 :00 a.m. of the fourth day. Boats 
for Miami sail at 4 :00 p.m., arriving at 7 :00 a.m. 
of the fourth day. Minimum one-way fares are 
as follows: Baltimore and Jacksonville, $30.%; 
Philadelphia and Jacksonville, $34.38; Philadel- 
phia and Mia^i, $46.48. Winter excursion rates 
are from about five to seven dollars under the 
price of two one-way fares, and have a return 
limit to June 15th. Regulations as to preferred 
space, children, baggage, automobiles are about 
the same as on other lines. _ ^ 

The Pacific Steamship Company's Admiral 
Line runs the ^'H. F. Alexander'' from New 
York to Miami direct on a forty-eight hour 
schedule. This boat, 525 feet in length, accom- 
i^ates 585 first eabin passengers and offers 
ocean-liner comforts and luxuries. Ssilmgs are 
made every ten days. The minimum fare m 

$60.00. ^ 

Tk£ Savannah Line of the Ocean Steamship 
Company offers an excellent service from Boston 
and New York to Savannah, Georgia, wiUi mAh 


ings from Boston on Tuesdays and Saturdays and 
from New York on Tue*d^y«>, Thur#dayg md Sat- 
mrxlajg. The fare from Boston is $36.65, from 
¥ork $30.38. The freight rate on automo- 
biles from Boston is $2.09 per hundred pounds, 
from New York, $1.98. An added charge of $1.00 
per car is laade for wkirfaf e at SaFsimak The 
iimm- h^mmm Bostofi and Savannah is four days, 
between New York and Savannah, three days. 

At Savannah railroad comiections for -Florida 
points are convenient. One or two day« ipent in 
iksA city befofse ootitinuinf tii€ trip will, however, 
•M enjoym^Hi It is a pleasant city, chock-full 
of historical interest but modern enoi^h to satisfy 
the exacting demands of the visitor. 

The American Line wiU probably ^s^rt &m hcmt 
at le««t m •€mo€ h^imm New York mxid Miami 
by the liaie tliig is being read. 

Another thoroughly enjoyable method of 
reaching Florida is to take a Mallory Line skamer 
from New York to Kay W€#t, retaming to i\m 
EmmiOmidhf milway or reaching the West Coast 
by one of the Peninsular and Occidental Line 
boats to Tampa. The voyage to Key West take« 
four days, and under ordinAry mmthsr co^kimm 
is a mmi plmmm^ and inUmnUng one. The trav- 
titr iDafi do mm-m than to pause a day or so at 
Key West before seeking the mainland a^aiu. 
The fare to Key West is $36.00. 


bo^ts of the Gulf aiid South-^. St^Mi^p Com- 
pany, sailing twice weekly. 

For the owners of shoal draft boats, ertb^ 
motor or auxiliary, a cruise to Florida by the 
Inside Route is a pleasurable adventure. A 
€riifi drawing four feet or less can the trip 
all the way to the Bay of Fl«>ri<ia irnhd/e of ksnd 
or reef protection, excepting for one open stretcli 
below Beaufort, N. C. From Barnes Sound to 
Key West the mvigator m-ay keep his course 
Muth of the Upper Key^ as far m Bahia Honda 
or he may go by way of Hawk (^«3mel, to tte* 
south. Distances are as follows: New York to 
Jacksonville, 1,185 miles; Jacksonville to Key 
We#t^ 538 mil^; total, 1,723 miks. These dis- 
tances are, however, subject to eo®^at iii^ri«o- 
ing as old channels are dredged and new mm 
opened. From New Y'ork to Jacksonville the trip 
r^uires from twenty to thirty days. The course 
it well biiojed Whurked, but owinf to the shift- 
ing of sands because of tidal or citrfent influe»«, 
care should be exercised. Charts and sailing 
clirectious m^ay be oktaiiied for the whole dis- 

The ooiififmed motorist will, o-f ooMPse, prefer 
to reach his Florida destination over the high- 
ways, and, when all is said, perhaps that is the 
best way to make the journey. Certainly it is 
to be pfii^t^} to traveling by fail so long as time 
ii not » »«ftoi» ^*ilierati^. The writ^ hm 


tried all methods and speaks Umm €xperieiioe. 
Every year witnesses a notable improvement in 
iiigbwaf awiiitions, and the day is not far dis- 
■ t^fit when the motorist will be able to roll all 
the way from New York to Key West over hard 
pavement At present there axe many stretchy 
of dirt, ranging frota bad to good, yet these, save 
mltm protracted spells of bad weather, are noth- 
ing to worry about. Detours you will find, of 
course; these, like the poor, are always with us. 
And some of them, like the poor, are poor! Bat 
they are growing career mch year. It is no 
longer any trick to make the journey from New 
York to Jacksonville in five days, although that 
time is a bit too brief for enjoyment. A sii-<ky 
schedule leaves one better off m to hot^ md. 
allows mm to &iimt the day's run before dark. 
Ttie distance is approximately twelve hundred 
miles, and, of course, if you're that sort, you 
can cut that time down considerably by puMish- 
ing the driver, disregarding trm^ffic riiles »nd tak- 
ing ^mmm. It is best, though, to allow for un- 
foreseen delays and not promise yourself to get 
to the end of the journey at any specific time 
on any fixed date. If you're in an almifhtj rti^ 
you'd much better tak€ \]m train. 

Vtmm N0m IfDrk your route, whichever you 
mleet, lands you ultimately at Riclimond, Va. 
From Richmond you travel by way of South' Hill, 
Clark@YiUe, Oxford^ Dui-h^ Greemtbc^o, Cha?- 


lotte, Spartanburg, Greenville, Hartweli, Athens, 
Madison, Macon, Perry, Tifton, Valdosta to Lake 
City, Fla. 

An alternate route preferred by many— the 
writer amongst them— is from Durham to Colum- 
bia, Augusta, Macon and as above to Lake City. 

From Detroit and Chicago use the eastern and 
western branches of the Dixie Highway respec- 
tively. The first goes through Cincinnati, Lex- 
ington, Mt. Verno-n, Corbin, Barbourville, Knox- 
ville, Chattanooga, Atlanta, Perry, Tifton, Val- 
dosta, Lake City. The second goes to Danville, 
Terre Haute, Evansville, Clarksville, Nashville, 
Monteagle, Chattanooga and on as above. From 
Lake City, which is the more western of the two 
main gateways into Florida, the East Coast trav- 
eler crosses to Jacksonville, while those on their 
way to the West Coast or The Ridge continue 
south to Gainesville, Ocala and so on. Highways 
within the state will be dealt with lat^r. Some 
of them will be dealt with severely, since they 
need it.^ 

Having readied Macon, Ga.— and a most desir- 
able place it is to femeh, too— the East Coast trav- 
eler has the option of sliding dowu lo Jackion- 
ville by way of AVaycross. 

Cftiifornia visitors travel by way of luma, 
Douglas, El Paso, Dallas-but what's the use? 
No patriotic Californian would go to Floi'ida. 
Besides, he'd miss his morning earthqii^e. 


nothmg not already known to yon, in whick 
} on are cordmlly iBvitod to pass them over. In 
the event, Wwever, that yon are not acqnainted 
with tk€ occurrences which resnlted in the Florida 
of to-day, or that they are no longer fresh in ymr 
mind It wi 1 be well for yon to cfencli yonr hands 
and take Uie do6e. It isn't very bitter. Even 
a shgU knowledge of the history of the state, 
it kept where yon can get at it, will make the 
balance of the volnme of more interest to jou, mid 
when yon come to Florida-as it ii hoped yon 
will g<.oner or later-^it will add understanding 
yonr plea^nre. Yon wDl, for instance, take 
»ore ze.t in seeing the old narrow streets of 
bt. Angnstme if, in yonr mind, yon can pmhtfm 
them filled with a calorfui ooming-and-going of 
bp^nish cavaliifi% gwashbtickling sea-rovers 
mgf^ Indians, and, swaying in their .^ilded 
p^kn^nins those ladies -deservedly celebrated 
for their charms.- Pensacola's old fortifioalioTii 
and the Spanish name^ to b« tmd on its street 
Zl^^'L^ iia^^e more interest for yon if yon 
*amm iMmHung of the -whyfor.»» The mAiiy 

26 ^ 


teounds to be found from one end of the state 
to the other will mean more to you if you are 
able to recHll a little of ^he story of those who 
built them, and the queei^ vowel-filled names of 
rivers and lakes and towns will say something 
i»ore to you than just ^Matanzas" or ^Miccosu- 
kee" or - WitMacoocliee." Besides, consider the 
advantage you will hold over your traveling com- 
panion who, having skipped this chapter and the 
next, believes Ponce de Leon to have been the 
Af«t proprietor of a famous hotel and Gasparilla 

a spring tonic! 

The history of Florida is rich in romance, its 
discovery, conquest and settlement a colorful pic- 
ture. Prior to its possession by the United States 
In 18-21, the standards of three kingdoms waved 
over it. The world-old Inrm of gold brought the 
first adventurer to its shores in the persoa of 
Juan Ponce de Leon, who, having conquered 
Porto Bico for Spain, had been made its governor 
SBd \md maiiaged to do very well for himself. 
According to the natives, there lay to tke^ n#rth 
a wonderful country called Bimini wherein, be- 
sides much gold, was a spring possessing the 
power to restore youth to him who immersed in 
it. Ifi fact, the legend seems to have gone even 
farther than that and guaranteed eternai jttvefiil- 
ity to the fortunate bather. The spring was 
supposed to be the source of an equally marvelous 
r«T€f wMdi iiowed to the sea and which^.iii tlie 



belief of the Spaniards who heard the tales and 
carried them back to Spain, could be no othef 
than the Jordan of Biblical f&m%. At the begin- 
ning of ifct-iwiteenth century a Fountain of Eter- 
nal Youth was a small morsel to swallow, and 
Ponce de Leon's credulity was not strained in 
the least. If, however, he hadn't lost his job m 
Governor of Porto Rico about that time it is 
likely that he would have left the discovery of 
the fatnotis fountain to another. Perhaps time 
hung heavy, perhaps playing second-fiddle to 
Diego Columbus, his successor in favor, wmt 
against th€ grain, or perhai^s the old spirit of 
adventBfe reawakened. In any case, he obtained 
from his King a patent of discovery and duly set 
forth for Bimini. 

To say that Ponce de Leon had in view mainiy 
the finding of the Fo^mtain of Youth is merely a 
^€«mnf a€€umplioii. Without doubt the quest 
for that fabled wonder was part of his plan dur- 
ing his first expedition, but as he was tli^n but 
forty-two years of age, healthy and vigorwte, it m 
not likely that he felt any consuming personal 
interest in it. If there had been no rumors of 
gold in Bimini it is very doubtful that he would 
have financed the adventure. However, on ike 
occasion of his second attempt he appeiirg to have 
h^m »nisMM by more altruistic sentiments, for 
he wrote to the King: -I now return to that 
island, if it please God's will, to settle it . . . 


il»t the nmme <d Oirist may be praised there and 
your Majesty ser^«»i wttlL ike fridt th*t land pro- 

Ponce de Leon's patent was received in 1512, 
but a delay ensued and it was not until a year 
Mer that h-e finally sailed from Porto Eico with 
three caravels. On April 2nd of that year he 
landed on the coast of what is now Florida well 
below the mouth of the St. John's River, and six 
diiys later took possession of the ^'island" in the 
jmme of the King of Spain-. The natives, though, 
didn't cotton to the King, nor, it memSy to Juan, 
for they made it pretty hot for the little party, ^ 
and, after spending nearly two months along the 
coast— it is doubtful if he ever got very far away 
from it— the explorer headed homeward without 
having found either the Fountain of Youth or 
any sign of gold. He had just about as muck 
chance of discovering the latter as the former, 
since Florida is one of the few states of the Union 
whoee geological formation prohibits tiie exist- 
ence of that interesting metal! 

Ponce de Leon made his second attempt in 
1521. During the intervening eight years he had 
woTk<xi at his trade of soldiering in the process 
of converting the Caribs to the Catholic religion 
and to allegiance to the King of Spain; a tagk 
to which he applied himself with courage and dili- 
gence. He had also found time to visit Spain and 
play tbe role of Florida's fiy# '-'^miei^'' giviaig 

aO LET'S Oa 20 FUmiDAl 

such an enthusiastic accoimt of the Iwid that tlm 
King came across with a new patent and bestowed 
on him the mounding titk of ^'Adelantado of the 
Mm of Florida and Bimini.'^ There is, however 
no record to the effect that his Majesty gave hi^ 
any more substantial aid, and it ig to he 
IX)sed that the indef^tigmble Ponce de Leon dipped 
again into bin own po<jkets. This time he took 
with Mm four hundred soldiers, a number of 
priests,. horses for his troops, cattle and shee{^ 
and made a landing probably not far dtBimt ftom 
the scene of his fir^t effort. Once more the na- 
iwm inkrfered with his plan of settlement and 
m harried the party that the attempt was again 
abandoned and the caravels set mil for Cmb^ 
There is a present-day »^jmg Umt once you get 
Flo^-ida %md in your »hoo6 you will surely re- 
imn. Perhaps the rule held good back in those 
times and accounted for Ponce de Leon's second 
arrival there. And perhaps, if tWe is trm&t in 
the saying, he would still iaa¥® i^rsisted and, 
since h% wm oi stout heart, eventually succeeded 
hwA be not received an arrow wound in one of 
the skirmishes with the Lidians and ultimately 
died from the effects. So ends the first ehmpUt 
of the conquest of Flor«^ P@aee de Leon 's prac- 
tie^ «©8©mplighments were nil, yet he showed the 
way to those later and far less admirable ad- 
venturers and supplied Florida's history witb it€ 

first yocmut^ SA§mk mmm^i kf crme m 


€rtielt5^ He did more than di^oover Florida, 
though, for he also named it — Terra de Pascua 
Florida! Only a Latin could have attained such 
a flourish. Not that much imagination was en- 
tailed, for he had sighted land on Easter Sunday, 
March 27, and the name of Flowery Easter prob- 
ably presented itself readily enough, but the 
point is that he didn't turn it down in favor of 
Ponceland or Sand Island ! Yes, we owe more to 
hkm th&n just the little matter of discovery. He 
was buried in San Juan, Porto Rico, where his 
tomb bears the Spanish equivalent of: ^^Here rest 
the bones of the brave Lion whose nature was 
greater than his name." Yes, they kad tk% gift 
of words, those Spaniards! 

After Ponce de Leon came Diego Miruelo, 1516, 
landing supposedly in what is now Pensacola Bay; 
Hernandez de Cordoba, 1517, landing on the east 
CiMistj AJonao Alvar^ de Prieda, 1519, skirting 
westward and establishing the fact that Pae€tia 
Florida was not an island; Garay and Vasquez 
de Ayllon, 1520-1526; and then Panfilo de Nar- 
v4re% 1528. The latter, at the head of a hundred 
men, rencked ApaJiiche, but^ being contin^^y be- 
set by Indians and short of food, soon retreated 
to the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico, where 
he constructed rude boats and put to sea. De 
N&rv4rez and atU but four of his men were 
drowned by the overturning of tlieir craft. Tke 
iurvivors at last made their way to Mexico and 


from there retuai^d to Spaia, wfe€re the treiigiirer 
of tk^ ill-fated €ipeditioii, Cabeza de Vaca, wrote 
of his adventures, picturing Pascua Florida as a 
veritable Land of Gold. 

De Vaca's tale^ ^ooti reached the ears of m 
gientl€»ftn iwiTeiitGter w^o aided Pimrro in 
tke conquest of Peru and who was now looking 
for new fields. This was Fernando— Hernando if 
you like it better— de Soto. De Soto had acquired 
fame and, some historians ag#ert, fortuaia, and 
whm. he made knoina his int^tio-n to conquer this 
land of riches he didn't have to advertise for com- 
panions. His chief task was to refuse applicants. 
Nobles, peasants, soldiers, artizans, flocked to his 
standard, many adventarous gentlemefi &@lliii^ m 
mfoHg^ng their e^tat-es in order to purchase 
inter^ts in the enterprise. Eventually seven 
large and three small ships set sail for Cuba. 
There two more were added and sail was set for 
Paaeii^ Florida. In May of Jtme of 153t— let 
^hem «€ttf^ the da4#— the expedition, consisting 
of more than six hundred thoroughly equipped 
men, dropped anchors in what is now Tampa Bay 
and was then named Espiritu Santo, and once 
mmm tJbe roy«l i4ftiidmrd of Sp«in wm mlm^ 
'frmMt at onoe ensued with t!ie Indians, who, as 
a result of De Narvarez's visit, had no liking 
for visitors. De Soto took possession of a de- 
mri^ mti^p w'Sm^e where the pr«#€«t city of 
Tma^ §tmi$ ^ op«i«| »^tkti0Q3B with the 

chief, Hirrihigua, but neither he nor any other of 
the chiefs eiioomHtered in thm wipferitions would 
consent to a truce. Wherevef the expedition 
journeyed it encountered only hatred and malice. 
Warfare was continuous, Indian and Spaniard 
opposing treachery to treachery and brutality to 
brutality. EveMtmlly De Soto n^Kjhed tke kmd 
of the Apalache, in the vicinity of the present 
Tallahassee, where the winter was spent. Early 
in the spring he led his forces northeastward into 
what is now Georgia, and from there westward 
to the Mi#§i#sippi. So far ag Pascua Florida 
was concerned he had accomplished nothing save 
to increase the enmity of the Indians. His search 
for gold continued for more than three years, 
terminating in his death and the burial of his 
body in tlie Mississippi BiTer. Of six h^aiidr^ 
and twenty who had started hopefully forth with 
him on that quest for riches, but three hundred 
and eleven remained when the expedition finally 
imciH3d th« Gi^f of Mexioo mid founded a settle- 
ment on ihe Pmncmo Eiver. IJEiike that other 
romantic adventurer. Ponce de Leon, De Soto left 
a trail of blood behind him, but, like him, he met 
death in his enterprise. 

But others were remdy. First, C^ncollo, a Do- 
i»inioan monk, led a number of kin fmitk to ^mi^ 
at the hands of the Indians. Then, in 1558, came 
Guido de las Bazarcs with many ships, supplies 
md mmiy only to 0]>co«aiter terriJ&c sioria^ Qmt 

tET'S GO TO ffLOfilDA 

finally spelled disaster. In 1559 Tristan de Lmm 
explored tlie wegl^wa part of the present »tiit€, 
but peff©d:«i no settiement. Doubtless there 
were others unkno™ to the historians. That as 
may be, Spain continued to' hold title to a vast 
territory on which she Imd so far failed to estab- 
lish one permamnt or oon^iderable &€ttlem€iit. 
By virtue of the discoveries of Columbus, the 
grant of the Pope and such expeditions as those 
of De Leon, De Narvarez, De Soto and others, 
Pascua Florida was a vast land of unkmown 
t^t tlmi Btmt^mk from th^ Atlantic to approxi- 
ms^ly what is now New Mexico and ran north- 
ward to the frozen seas. To the north, however, 
Spain's title was contested by England as a re- 
sult of Cabot's discoveries; and by Frai^, ag 
w€ll, aitli#i^ Hi* iiftlif's ehim mmlltm mliMj 

Nevertheless it was France who first took steps 
to make good her claim. In 1562 Captain Joan 
Ribaut arrived at the mouth of the St. John'g 
Bivcr, whkili h« calkd the ''Eiver of May.'' He 
thm coasted northward and finally began the erec- 
tion of a fort near the present Beaufort in South 
Carolina, leaving there a handful of his men to 
hald it for King C lyrtbt . Eibayt tken refemmid 
to Fmmm for the purpose of recruiting Huguenot 
colonists and a second expedition sailed for the 
New World in three vessels under command of 
Eeue Laudonniltf m Um S^mg of 15^. 


Landing was made a few miles up the St. John's 
and a log fort was built which was call^ Fort 
Caroline. The site is now knomTi m "St. Johm's 
Bluff. Meanwhile the garrison left behind at 
Fort Charles had deserted, put to sea in small 
boats which they had fashioned and, after almost 
perigtoaf of hua^r, bee» reused by m Eoglisii 

The new colony had troubles aplenty. The In- 
dians, at first friendly, turned enemies, lack of 
food produced illness and part of the garrison 
mutinied. The timely visit of Sir John Hawkins 
with an Englisli fleet, however, supplied tfeem 
with provisions, and before their determination 
to return to France could be put in force Captain 
Bibaut arrived with his second expedition. Joy 
mmr this event was short-lived, though^ f^r 
squarely on the heek of the Fr^ieh eliips cm»e 
Pedro Menendez de Aviles, with eleven Spanish 
vessels, determined on the extermination of the 
French Protestant colony. Menendez attacked 
the larger of Eilmut's ships it ihm month of ilm 
river, but they, four in nu-mber, cut th^r caHe^ 
and made their escape. Menendez took his flag- 
ship up the St. John's, found the French well pre- 
pared for resietaaice and, returning to liis. fleet, 
ltd it sorrtinfmfd -a»d debarked at St. Augustine, 
named so by him because of his arrival on St. 
Augustine's Day. Here Menendez took posses- 
sion of an ladiafi villa,g% ^m^i^d forti&Atiaiig 


a&d mi up his banner with much pomp and cere- 

Ribaiit promptly followed and attempted an 
attack, but a gale of more than common intensity 
diipertsd him ship* southward. Wliereupon, quite 
m promptly, Menendez decided to surprise the 
small garrison left behind at Fort Caroline. This 
he did with a force of some five hundred warriors, 
being guided across the intervening forty mxlm 
of fwamp and forest by friendly Indians. From 
the Spaniard's point of view the enterprise was 
a vast success. Of the less than two hundred 
occupants of the fort only a handful posseted 
gang; the rest were artimns, camp followert, 
woffie« and s^ildnen. M-en^ndez had no difficulty 
in capturing the fort nor in slaughtering nearly 
all the adult males. A few escaped, reached two 
of three small vessels lying in river and 
©rentmlly arrived safely in Fmme. Menendez 
return^ to 8t. Augustine and ''gave the Lord 
a thousand thanks for the great favors re- 

Ribaut's fleet was wrecked alomg the eoaet to 
the southward^ hut nil b^t a few of the party 
r€m<A«ed land in safety and started northward for 
Fort Caroline in two parties. The first party 
numbered about one hundred and fifty, and th^se 
were killed to a man close by the ialet now known 
m Malanmg, ''Place of Slaughter." Tlie second 
|«rtj appeared a few days later, mustered close 


to three hundred and fifty and was in command 
of Rib«;at himsdf. After a parley Ribaut offered 
Menendez a ransom of 100,000 ducats in behalf 
of those of his men ready to surrender. Menen- 
dez agreed and about a hundred and fifty French 
gave themselves «p. The others retneated mvdk- 
mmtd again. Thorn who had surrendered were 
offered their lives on condition that they recant 
Protestantism. The offer was refused and all 
save five were put to death, Ribaut among th@m. 
Most of the two burred who hm^ Tetm^ed were 
Ia4er captured and brought to St. Augustine where 
they were set to work as slaves. 

The Spaniards put in a difficult winter, the In- 
dians who had first proved friendly gooa turniiig 
agaiast the oolomists and killing well over a hun- 
dred of their number as chance permitted. Many 
others, tiring of conditions at St. Augustine, re- 
turned to Spain or Mexico. Menendez himself 
soon went back across seas to b^ in tike favor 
of M% King, hut not Ibefore he h»d seen to the 
erection of a new fort. Fort St. John, and the 
restoring of Fort Caroline. Tke J^itter he newly 
named San Mateo. 

The newi of the catastroiAse to the Ribaut ex- 
pedition ioon reached France, and in August, 
1567, Dominique de Gourgues, a gentleman of 
ancient family and a soldier of much renown, 
set forth with three ships and a force of two 
inoad^ mi S£tj mm mmi^ FrAS^e. 



m^t to procurm wher-ewitkal fior tim «i> 
peditioa ]>e Oaurgues sold kis ialieritan^. He 
made a landing north of the St. John's, gathered 
a large force of Indians to him and attacked Fort 
San Mateo. After slight resistance the garrison 
iid m%o ikmimm^t where tl^e Indiane made short 
work of them. Only a few wet-© taken alive, and 
snch as were were haled to the scene of Menen- 
dez's butchery and hanged. The Spaniard had 
left the insQti#i'€«i ^^Not ae to Frenchmen, but 
m t© Lwtkefmne.'' Be CbmrigueB set up a m€W 
legend above the dangling corpses: '^Not m to 
Spaniards, but as to traitors, thieves and mur- 
derers.'' He was, it would seem, not only a 
mM% g^entl-eiMa and a gallant soldier, but a rns^- 
Ut of tie r^tott wttrt©mi«. Venf^ance secar^ 
De Gourgues sailed back for France in May, 1568, 
unregretful, one is sure, of his lost inheritance. 
To have attempted an assault on the heavily forti- 
fied Si Aiic^iUat mUik m mbmH # iorm wauLd 
kare hem. tiemlm%» 

Menendez presently returned to his followers 
and set about converting the Indians to Catholi- 
cism. But the natives were still antagonistic to 
iibe Bp«*i«^ md the efforts of his priests met 
fritli ill s«to©€««. H« @«taMi«l!i«d a fiiw miiiwl^tiA, 
but each, because of continued depredations of 
the Indians, was as much a block house as a mis- 
»km. Meanwhile, at home in Spain interest in 
IfeiiMetr pmmtmm last dwioidiad. Tiw 

wumm. um^ ts* ^p-u^ish s» 

stores of gold and precious jewels had failed to 
materialize, and the King displayed scant enthu- 
siatti for this distaat and nmiwilimd land. Biet- 
tlement continued but slowly. Nearly a score of 
years passed subsequent to the brief but hectic 
visit of De Gourgues before Florida provided a 
new sensation in the arrival at St. Augustine of 
Fraack Drake. I>rai:e bore Queen ElisaljetM 's 
commission to play hob with the Spanish when- 
ever and wherever found, and after the famous 
English freebooter had discovered that a settle- 
ment ©f Spaniards lay beyond Anaeiasia Island 
tiere wag just one thing for tiim to do. So k# 
went right ahead and did it, and did it with Brit- 
ish thoroughness. 

He captured, plundered and burned the village, 
Sud s^ed tmerriljr oii with, a iimmam «ok@ii4 mm- 
tainlng two thoitsand pound*. 

After his departure the inhabitants returned 
to St. Augustine and rebuilt. Indian outbreaks 
were mmierous and life in Florida during the 
aext ©entury was far from monotoftOTas. Th€ 
IiwJians killed the Spaniards and the Spaniardi 
killed the Indians in retaliation. Or, maybe, it 
was the other wav about. In 163S an outbreak 
resulted in a punitive expedition against the Ap«- 
lmk^%, a»d a l*i^g« nuialMr of prie«0«€f« were 
brought back to the settlement and put to work 
on the forts, they or their descendants remaining 
as slaves for sixty ^^eaavs. In 1647 there were 



about three hundred families in the town. In 
1665 tb^e pirate B^vig am^de m mil and the gar- 
rison retir«i ^ tite wood^. Bmvis took what he 
WBnt-ed, burned as much of the town as was burn- 
able and rollicked off again. 

Feeling between English and Spanish grew 
^0Te bitter, and in 1676, in retaliation for the 
continued attack oti Spanish ships by Englisk 
pirates, the Spanish marched on the English col- 
ony near what is now Charleston, but, finding the 
defenders too well entrenched, returned without 
fttt^iAiii^k Later they sacked aBd d#^»rof#d set- 
tlements on Port Royal Island. 

Juan Marquez Cabrera took over the govern- 
ment of the territory of Florida in 1650, or there- 
abouts, which up to that time had been vested 
ill tiae M-ecieiidez faaiilj, tnd in l^&i s«nt aa ex- 
ploration party to e!^plor€ the western w^st. Ag 
a result the village of Pensacola was subsequently 
founded. From the time of Ponce dc Leon's first 
li^i^ing to 1700, close to two himdred years, Spain 
aa©®«Qplislied al«a^t nothii^ m the nmtt^r oi 
tlement. Mefinwhile the En«:!igrh roloiiiiste in ih^ 
Carolinas were prospering and increasing yearly 
in strengtli and numbers, and in 1702, England 
md Spain then being at w&r, Governor Moore of 
Sstitfc OmroliiVR 6it#d out an ei|^ii^ to ^•|!^faif# 
St. Augustine. Tt cost South Carolina six ihm\- 
sand pounds and resulted in the issuing of the 



irst paper money to appear in this country. The 
attack, approaching the Spanish stronghold by 
land and sea, laid siege to the new ^om Uri of 
San Maixx), ink) whic^ the toWRspeopl-e had fled 
wit^ th%iT mQw§khle possessions, but after a 
month's investment were obliged, coincident with 
the arrival of two enemy ships, to retire after 
burning the town. Th^ir hm^ wm m gtmi ttat 
ih€f ikkm^mmi Ihm trmnsport^ stores and mu- 

In 1718 the scene of conj0ict shifted to Pensa- 
cola. War having been declared between Frims^ 
^d Spain, three elmpm tTom MobtliB iurprised the 
firriffoo *i Pensaodiii and took the recently 
er^ed fort. Later it was retaken by the Spanish, 
and, in the following year, once more captured 
by tLe French who, unable to npmm gufficient 
tiwpi U} hM bmrtmd it to the gro«nd. Wk€n 
pmm wm restored in 1722 Pensacola was re- 
turned to Spain. Continued and growing enmity 
between the English and the Spanish at length 
resulted in tks #ipeditioii ef (k^r^mm O^Mhorp% 
©^f QmwgiA agmbit Si Afj^tiiie. Ogletliorpe 
k<id been given a patent in 1732 and had built a 
fort at Frederica, on the Altamaha River, in ter- 
ritory claimed by Spain. Anticipating an oflP^- 
mw€ by the iSpeiiigk, foUowing tkm MUm of m 
0Mmt towird «rl)itraiion, Oglethorpe led four 
hundred soldiers and several bands of Creek In- 
dians a^ain^t the emm^^ miJm^ m m mmlmr ®£ 


small vessels in the spring of 1739. He captured 
several o«tpiO€ts along the St. John's Eiver, rav- 
aged the country mrowid St. Augmsiine nnd fiaailf 
placed three batteries on Anastasia Maud aod 
commenced the bombardment of Fort San Marco 
Jvm% 24th. Iron^ however, proved no match for 
ooquina stoite, mud tfce ©inisoii balk did mtmil 
damage to the defenses beyond burying ikmt- 
selves in the walls. One of Oglethorpe's souve- 
nirs is still to be seen imbedded in the stone. On 
July 7th Sp&aish v©#&ei€ A^roi^ied ajad the 
(giege was rmi»#(i. 

In 1762, after peace had existed for fourleea 
years under the treaty of 1748, war broke out 
afresh and the English captured Havana, cutting 
Aiagm^tine oif irom it« \mm of suppli^ 
<Jf«at BfitHRin offered to eirchange Hairanm for 
Florida and the Bahamas, the offer was accepted, 
and in 1763 Spain's possessions on the continent 
of North America passed to the enemy. Many, 
i»d«iid fiaarty all, Qi the Spiwitdb imtdents of 
Florida removed to Cuba, in mm& tmism it^troT- 
ing or defacing their homes before leaving. 
England set to work with a will to colonize her 
fijg^ po#i«iWO^ aii-d IM 176^ the first attempt at 
eoloniMtien on a Inrge mtA% made by Andrew 
Turnbull, who brought a band of fifteen hwtidt^ 
Greeks to a locality some eighty miles south of 
St. Aw^tine, which he named Now Smyrna, for 


and both West and East Florida, into wliicli the 
territory had been divided for purposes of admin- 
ii4ration, enjojed an em of pnosperity mid quiet 
mhkk omMmm^ until the beginning of the Eevo- 
lutionary "War. For that matter, the war can be 
said to have interfered but little with the normal 
life of the Floridas, for the iiihabi4«iits ware al- 
wmmt invariably loyftlieti an-d wmr itself never 
penetrated within the borders save on two occa- 
sions. After Spain had once more gone to war 
with Great Britain in 1779, De Galvez, then Gov- 
ernor at New Orleang, led an expedition into W^st 
Fiorid% ihm mmpomd of Loaisiana and parts 
of bordering states, and took several fortifica- 
tions. Later, in 1781, he made a second visit and 
took possession of Pensacola. Th€ ktter invasion 
o#n«titu^ ^liii^'g Imk mi of m^remion on tMM 

Having lost her other colonies in the New 
World, Great Britain had small use for the Flor- 
idas, and in 1783 they were c<>dcd back to Spai^L 
Several jmm kt^r pmrnrnd Wmt Florid* 

m^m to frince, retsiiiing only so much of the ter- 
ritory as lay east of the Perdido River, the present 
boundary between Florida and Alal)ama. Tlien, 
threo years later still, came the Louisiana Pur- 
cMm, brinfint^ witla it the probletfi ol where 
Uttil^i §tate« ownership began and Spanish 
ownership left off. Spain still claimed West 
Flori^ii, while UiB United SUto* mt3sidu€Qd it % 



■part of the Louisiana purdhaee. An effort t® par- 
chase the disputed territory met with failure. In 
1810 troops were sent to West Florida to pro- 
tect it from aggressions of both France and Great 
Brilain. Sifteequent to the War of 1812, th@ 
necessity of acquiring East Florida becmtt'S thoi- 
oughly apparent to the United States. The terri- 
tory had become the rendezvous of pirates, rene- 
gades, fugitive slaves and hostile Indians, and the 
Spanish Oovemor wm utterly uimMe to wHk 
a situation which, especially during the r&mni 
war, had caused the United States infinite trouble. 
Conatquently, on July 27, 1816, General Gaines 
cro€'&ed into Spi&nis.h territory and captured the 
fort on Amelia Isknd at Apali^lwx)!^. 0pm hm- 
tilities ensued, and a year later Andrew Jackson 
led his forces into the troublous territory. Near 
Lake Miccosukee, just over the line from Georgia, 
ht fomnd U\e iienk taalps of thre^ iiun^r-ed mm, ^ 
women and children. He took swift v#ngs*noii^ 
hanging several Miccosukee chiefs, burning the 
village and even executing two Englishmen who 
li€ found guilty of supplying the Indians with 
mrmm aid Cc^i^ting tromfele. For the Utter 
somewhat drastic action he foimd kim#etf in dm- 
favor at Washington. His conduct was dis- 
avowed, his success largely nullified and he nar- 
rowly escaped ©eiwure i^t ih% instigation of Cal- 
houn. However, Spain was be^c^essis^ fed wUk 
her propertv now, and in 1819, in paynw*! 

•1 lATM m TO FljOEIBAi 

of damages inflicted on United States comm%m^ 
egtimated at &ve millioiie (loll*rB, oeckd West and 
Eaet iloridm to tlii« country. Thereupon General 
Jackson was appointed Military Governor of the 
new Territory. 

Trouble with the Seminolet ©Mtinc&ed. Th%m 

mmt iKit he confused with the original native in- 
habitants of Florida. The latter, according to 
the accounts of the early explorers, were a par- 
ticularly fine race, intdligent, self-r^f acting, dig- 
mi&&df And, at biefore the designs of the for- 
eign invaders became knowTi to them, courteous 
and friendly. Of stalwart build, light complexion, 
frequently tattooed, they were an agricultural 
P0«|)le, although when im&mdtj mdled tb^y 
proved ^mmdrm bold navigators and cotir- 
ageous fighters. The Seminolos had their origin 
when, in 1703, the English drove the Creek Na- 
tion from their holdings farther mmili and maoy 
of yi« I»dbfi« ^mgrmted to Alabim mud Wl^n^ 
Aboirt tb« mme time dissensions among the Ala- 
bama Indians resulted in the secession of a large 
number of them and their invasion of nortii cen- 
tral Florida. Froai the Carolinmi c%m% m 
4«fiii# of Ymmmmmu •To tidt mlxtaf e was ft<M«d 
Ai M»e wnt on many negroes wlio had escaped 
from their masters, an occasional captive or vol- 
unteer from a surrouuudlo^ tribe and a certain 
imwmuM^ #f whiim i mi^ mlio^ whmi mm kti irf 


the native Florida Indians after their g4r«»|^jUb 
feid bmm. broken and their numbers deereawed by 
the Spanish. Within the century the Seminoles 
were to be found in all parts of the state, and of 
the Florida aborigine no trace renaained. The 
toiftl nomber of the«ft ^^Outiaws'' at tfee Um^ of 
Spanish withdrawal was believed to be close on 
five thousand, of w^hich perhaps one thousand 
were negroes. Although the name of Osceola is 
that prominently associated with the Setainole 
WarS) yet it wa« «»^tlier who prepared tk» 
ground for him. Early in the eighteenth century 
Alexander McGillivray, half-breed chief of the 
Creeks, formed an alliance with Spain to check 
tha ti4e of immigration then comasencing to §#w 
into st^tithem Georgia and Ti^rida amd, added by 
the Florida tribes, waged warfare for some years 
against the settlers. 

Doubtless fighting the Seminoles was hard 
eaaiigh, hut ibmk what it mmM. Iieve h&m ai- 
im^t to prono-unee their nan^s; such name« as 
Chitto-Tusteemuggee, Catsha-Tustmuggee, Gaha- 
Hadjo, Ilola-ata-mico, Gahaemartla-Chupko and 
■Mokehisshelarni ! No wonder the war la«i<»d so 
img^ li'i 8wifi«4#iitljr (iiimlt to mk^ wp idtk 
% foe irfio doesn't want to be caught up with 
when you are quite certain of his name and can 
say it nonchalantly, but imagine stoppiug on 
ihf% march to make inquiries for Ga^mMifila- 


miles to his lead while you were atruggling with 
hii -mam. Bmmiimes> a chief w»s amiable enough 
lo answer to a nickname, either to whittle do^\ai 
the odds a bit or in the interests of economy, and 
^ Arpiuki was known as Sam Jones and CoiK30oche# 
»s Wild Cat. But no matter what they w^m 
<mlled, they didn't eome, and they didn't behave, 
and not until 1832, after many conferences had 
been held between them and the government, was 
a treaty at l^st negotiated — largely by coercion 
— with fifteen of tktir »trmbe«r, wfeo, m pr^gently 
tr^Mgpired, did not speak with authority for the 
balance of their tribe. By this treaty the Semi- 
noles were to be removed, lock, stock and barrel, 
to a reservation in Arkansas. Two fmr^ 
p^Emd^ howev^er, t^fote ih^ tr«eaty was ratified, 
a»d by that time many of the Indians had ex- 
perienced a change of heart and affairs dragged 
along through a third year. When the govem- 
imut would h^ve pmt the treaty into tffect it wm 
imnd iMi a large majority of the Seminoles, in- 
cluding the negroes, the latter particularly op- 
posed to the plan, would have none of it. Those 
who were in favor of avoidia^ trmibk with tte 
gw^ii^t g^tli^red at ¥mt Brooke, where 
Tampa now stands, while the rest, under the lead- 
ership of Osceola, prepared to resist. 

Osceola— the word means Rising Sua-— th% 
offspring of an English tritdef &iid t woffcUJi of 
ik€ Eed m(M tnb% of iU Nation. Born 


in Georgia, about 1800, he removed as a youth 
to the neighborhood of Fort King, now Ocala, 
Florida, and married a squaw .who was a descend- 
ant of a fugitive slave. When one day Osceola 
took his wife to visit the trading station at Fort 
King she was seized and returned to slavery. 
Oicwla, crmmd with grief and anger, made des- 
perate attempts to rescue her, but failed. Nat- 
urally, his liking for the white men was not 
strengthened by that incident, and he was always 
«e of the bitterest opponents to the government 
plan of removal. When ofd^red by Genial 
Wiley Thompson to place his mark on the emi- 
gration list he instead slashed the document with 
his knife, and for punishment was put in chains 
aMd imprison^Mi in Fort Kiisg. In order to obtaki 
his f re^om he agreed to gather one hundred war- 
riors and bring them to General Thompson to 
sign the paper. At liberty, however, although 
he gmthered his warriors, it was with no intention 
ot fenving them sign th^ maigration list, and he 
disappeared for some time. 

Actual hostilities in the Second Seminole War 
b«gan in June, 1835, when a party of Indians were 
appf^eiided butchering a stolen beeve and were 
flogged on the si>ot. Two Indian hmiters wit- 
nessed the flogging and fired on the white men 
with the result that two Indians and one white 
mer% killed. A little later a despatch rider on 
hSM mkj trmk Fort Bm^e to Fort Kin^, tie ©aly 


gmrri«TO« tlien maintained in the whole state, was 
shot to death and his body hidden in a swamp. 
The first considerable affair, koweTer^ mm% on 
J>@^e®afo^ iii^ 18^5^ mhen regTil*f-troof3« lo tbe 
8m»ber of one hundred and ten, in command of 
Major Dade, were fired on from ambush close to 
the "Withlacoochee Eiver, ahout laidway between 
F©rt« By-Oioke and Kmg, a®d exteiurin^ted almost 
l# a man. Unaware that hostilities had begun, 
the command had taken no precautions beyond 
loading their guns, and the g^dd^n attack of the 
HiMBWing ^o»e to two haiMlred miwl led 
by Chief Jumper, came as a total surprise. Ma- 
jor Dade and about half of his men fell at the 
first volley. The others rallied, drov€ iba la- 
diajui from mwef then @rB€t#d a breastwork 
Qi tmm from behind which they fired until the 
last of their number had been killed. But two 
members of the expedition survived. On% 
wmmhd im ti^ &"«t eneociit^T, bTibed hit mptor 
to r«ka&€ him, lay hidden in the palmetto scrub 
until darkness and then crawled nearly sixty miles 
back to Fort Brooke on h^nds and kum^^. The 
»mmd mn!%mi wm % nogro gn^idt mho, Immwlng 
m%»t wa« to happen, absented himself from the 
force beforehand and remained uninjured. When 
hostilities b<2gan he joimA i^s luflimm md io^ 

f%ftt mjom day, at Fort King, Osceola struck 
his blow. With a score of Miccosukee warrior© 



he watched the fort until, after the midday meal. 
General Thompson and a lieutenant left it to 
walk to the sutler's store, about a mile distant. 
The IndiaM€, oo^noealed in the woods, fired and 
killed b@lfe Baen in^tently. They thee wmt on %q 
the store, killed five others there, robbed and set 
fire to the building. Tidings of the two events 
astounded and dismayed the country, and war, 
o®e ®f the coisdiest in live® and monej in our hig- 
tory when tiie be atlaiii*ed k ©««d»^ 

began in earnest. 

General Winfield Scott took the field against the 
forces of Osceola in 1836 with negative success, 
and wt^s folloir^d by Governor C«ll, wks*® vigor- 
ous tactics drove the Indians into the southerfi 
part of the state. A year later the rebellious 
Seminoles again consented to the exodus only to 
i€mm mom reeoimider. During the negotiations 
0«a@®lft wfts t^ken aaptive by the United Staie« 
forces and imprisoned in Fort Moultrie, on Sul- 
livan's Island, opposite Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, together with his second wife and her child. 
Tk@re, in January, 1838, being ill and refu^B^ 
m^ical aid l)eiaw€ lie tmt%d p#i«mi, k« mmm 
from his pallet, dressed himself in chieft-ain's 
garb, and, again laying himself down, died within 
a few minutes.. He was buried outside the fort, 
"wliere a mo^umint now staoa-ds to his m^^atoTf * 

The lorn of 0#(3«#l&'s l^©&d«Fship did mot, ho^^ 
ever, deter his followers from continued resist- 
ance to the military authorities. Desultory fight- 



img w%ni on for three 3^ears longer, tlie Indians 
hiding in the Everglades, from whence they came 
forth at intervals on sudden and stealthy raids. 
All efforts to dislodge them from that wilderness 
««fe Bii|J|»iling until, in 1841, Colonel Worth took 
eemmand of the military and, after conducting a 
campaign which cost thousands of lives and an 
immense amount of money, finally succeeded in 
, penetrating the fastness and compelling the en- 
I emj to mkrr^mdtm. Tke govermiaent had pi4bc#d 
■ a bounty of five hmndi^ dollars on Indian war- 
riors, three hundred on women and two hundred 
on children, something which may have expedited 
the pursuit. When, at Big C}^press Swamp, a 
mmM detail of goldien on «€o«tmg doty mrpnged 
a parly of SemiMoles and took captive eighteen 
men and women it is probable that' the Indians' 
astonishment was no greater than tliat of the 
ftoldiers, for the oa3a*gion was the only one occur- 
ftlf 4mjnmg thm \<mg wmrimm tfee stirprising 
was not done by the savages! One of the pris- 
oners taken was Old Tommy, and he and his four- 
tC'Cn-year-old son were sent to Fort Mvers. The 
lx>y lat€r escaped, afwl m keen w»g Old Tommy 
thsk^rm tliAt he miMiittiM! suicide hf eeting glai«. 
Colonel Worth's -campaign finally ended the Sem- 
inole War and all save a few hundred of the 
sulxlued foe were removed to the Indian Terri- 
i^Tf. rmeni estimate oi ih^ amabet of Bmi- 
mim now in WlorUlm place* il at About we^^n 
biadred, but it is likely that the original number, 



immediately subsequent to the exodus, was much 

Florida became a state in 18^5. In 1861 she 
joined with the otker si>«them commonwealths 
in seceding from the Union, and St. A^^tine, 
Fernandina and Pensacola, in 1862, and J ackson- 
ville, in 1863, were captured by Union forces. ^ A 
jmt later an att'^pt to invade the interior failed 
when Northeni troope were defeated at Olu^We, 
some fifty miles west of Jsoksoimile. S^%»0q«w^ 
to the restoration of peace a new state govem- 
ment was organized and a provisional governor 
took office in 1865. Florida remained under mil- 
itary rule until 1§^, ^hmi the elect^^ra r&tified 
a new state constitution. For many jmrm tlie 
growth of the state was slow but steady, its pos- 
sibilities as a region for the growing of citrus 
goiiiiBg iner^smg re<JOgnition and bringing 
eacli yenr new settlers fr#m adioiain^ sfemtes — 
particularly Georgia and Alabama— and fr^ 
North. The fame of its climate likewise attracted 
both vmiom and settlers. Capital, at first ex- 
tremely wary e€ Oie Soutkr followed. Flagler 
brought the lower mmt %omt #f tits %imim icik> 
prominence by the building of his railroad ^ 
Plant performed a like service for the western 
ptrt of the peninsula. Hotels arose with mush- 
fH50tn-llke ©elerit^^ mn4 otti^r ^t#rpd.^ stai't^ 
up. About 1880 a now vast ioi«ft*t f-wrmm 
camo to light with the discovery of phosphate 



ByiOAu^ ol it« pecftliaT oatlin^ Florida has h^m 
fiken^ to a pistol, the peninsula forming the 
btitt, the -western stretch of the state the barrel 
and Nassau County, which jogg up into Georgia 
mimoig mmi, ike tFs^f^r. The r«@€ttfcl®a#e is 
•InoiGg, and especially so when the outline of the 
state is reduced to pistol size as it is on the 
motor license plates. It was the sight of such 
a plate oa tiie rejyr of a Florida car ][mm^i^ 

b^oldCT r«oe0ed:iei5.i of a month spent in a high- 
priced East Coast hostelry and caused him to 
announce dryly: ''I know who\s in that automo- 
bile. It's the fellom^ who mm the botei dmm 
t&irt wi^Tt I ts^f^V* However, if it mmt^mm 
happens that a Florida hotel proprietor meta- 
phorically holds a pistol to the head of a guest, 
the state itself cannot be tkccumd o£ #igriously 
ihrmimm^ tke tmi of iim mmsii f f^ Atm^ mih 
^ii^ potsting Ai it <lo««, «ti explosion would 
do no more than furrow a neat swathe through 
Alabamia, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. The 
bullet w^Q4iI4adiss California eqlianJy, regreilable^ 

mm ii wm m CdLil^mkii wim mii #f f ibtidac 


^'It'@ IlBicle Sam'g apfiMriijif mmA mlj Gfmi Al- 
mighty knows its purpose 

More recently a more polite if no less facetious 
person referred to the state as Uncle Sam's 
ciliin whiskers." A glance at the map will reyeAl 
tiia appropriaten^« of tfce simile. B«l 
vermiform appendix or chin whiskers; Florida! 
There she stands! Only it would be better to 
resist the temptation to paraphrase a Massachu- 
mttM giatssBian, ajid say : ^ ^ Th^fe €be li©@ P ' For 
^^hmk m 0iMfte persi-sts in keeping m ci#ee Mrfi 
level as Florida does, and is nowhere more than 
about four hundred feet hi^ it is difficult to 
think of it as standing. 

Florida is about 450 mi\m im kfii^ti^ laertil is 
3«stitii, »nd at its bfo^deet afKJ notli^m widlfe 
is some fifty miles less. It had an area of 
58,666 square miles a few years ago, making it 
the second lai'gest state east of the Mis^is^ipfM: 
Biv-^. But #0 mmh m^m^f^^ mrm hm hmm 
and is being reclaimed that who knows but that 
very shortly it will be the largest! At present 
it equals the combined areas of New York, 
Miias&eliu#@iii imd Bho<l« Isl^i4. Fl^rkift %lm 
h^tM, Mt Wiih pride, ihm }m^k oo<i»l !mt of 
any state; approximately 1,150 miles, from the 
St. I\lary'8 Klver on the north, down along the 
Atlantic coast, around the tip of the |)#iyj\(iiaiJ.a» 
Imik xip MX the Gult' v<msi ami imlly UFattwmi^ 
to it* FtMidba JUMi if %h^r% ^mm Ite 


¥a.riotis islands and keys, wliidi mm m mmmmm 
that no one yet knows the exact number of th^m, 
were added on — well, one can only guess at the 
result. Florida is the most southerly of the 
gtates^ Tampa^ b^inc tpproiimately midway, be- 
ing some fiv^ hundred miles nearer the equitter 
than San Diego, California. The east cape of 
^Cape Sable is the southernmost point of the main- 
land of the United States. Key West lies about 
tliirtf -fi^pe milm below Cmp% BdWt. 

The Florida peninsula owes its exi«tea«6 to 
a folding of the earth's crust at a remote geologi- 
cal period by which a large plateau was raised 
from the ocean floor. This plateau is roughly 
tir^e hundr#d males in len^li and width, ilopdng 
abruptly on three sides to abysmal depths. The 
highest portion of the plateau is along the eastern 
edge, emerging from the sea as the Florida penin- 
sula, and this represents about one-half of its 
width. The low^r half of ihe peninsmlft is of 
more recent growth than the upper, but the sur- 
face of the state as a whole is comparatively new, 
dating back according to geologists no further 
ihm the U^)et Eocene period. Still later, about 
the day before yesterday to speak geologically, 
there was a general subsidence of the entire 
peninsula, the lower portion — from the region 
b£ Xiake Okeechobee touth — sinking below the sur- 
f«^. Thm maakm area mm kter built np again 
under water, as the rock &tit«tg, lot dl orm tk% 



various islands and keys, which are so nmnerous 
that no one yet knows Uie exact number of them, 
were added on — wll, one can onjj guess at the 
result. Florida is the most s€^uf!i'€tly of the 
states, Tampa, lying approximately midway, be- 
ing some five hundred miles nearer the equator 
than San Diego, California. The east cape of 
Cape Sable is the southeriimost point of the main- 
land of the United States. Key West lies about 
thirty-five miles below Cape Sable. 

The Florida peninsula owes its existence to 
u folding of Ui^ earth's crust at a remote geologi- 
cal period by which a large plateau was raised 
from the ocean floor. This plateau is roughly 
three hundred miles in length and width, sloping 
abruptly on three sides to abysmal depths. The 
higfc^ portion of the plateau is along the eastern 
edge, emerging from the sea as the Florida penin- 
sula, and this represents about one-half of its 
width. The lower half of the peninsula is of 
more recent growth than the upper, but the sur- 
face of the state as a whole is comparatively new, 
dating back according to geologists no further 
than the Upper Eocene period. Still later, about 
the day before yesterday to speak geologically, 
there was a general subsidence of the entire 
peninsula, the lower portion — from the region 
of Lake Okeechobee south — sinking below the sur- 
face. This sunken area was later built up again 
imder water, as the rock attests, for all over the 


lower end of the peninsula are beds of water 
limestone; the Miami limestone" of the mnth- 
east coast, the ''Lostman's Eiver limestone" of 
the southwest coast and the Everglades. While 
the tip of the mainland was building, the present 
coral reef kno^^Ti as the Upper Keys was also in 
process of formation. Followed at a still mor% 
recent time— yesterday, to continue the geological 
style— ®n elevation, thrusting the previously sub- 
merged portion of the peninsula once more into 
the air and presenting to view— only, of co^me, 
there was no one to view it— South Florid* very 
much as we know it to-day. Other lesser subsi- 
dences ftnd elevations occurred without greatly 
altering the topography of the section, and by the 
action of wind and wave the coastal islands were 
gradually formed and the tiny ©oral build€rs per- 
formed their slow and patient work on the Keys. 

GeHerally speaking, Florida consists of a top 
covering of sand over limestone or clay. This 
sand when found north of the extreme southerly 
end of the peninsula is siliceOTs, formed of 
quartz rock, or of older rocks, far to the north- 
wurd snd deposited in its present location by the 
rivers of the Appalachian mountains or tossed up 
by the southward ocean current and distributed 
landward by the winds. In places, however, this 
sand is mixed with disintegrated limestone rock. 
The ]3eaches of the tip of the peninsula, as well 
as the soil adjacent, are composed of tmj fra^- 

58 iMWm m TO FLOBIDA! 

mente o£ ^laeil and coral. The popular notion 
tlytt the stule oonsists of only mTid »nd swamp 
is not far wrong. What is not always appreciated 
is the fact that the sand, when combined with 
sunlight and moisture, will grow about everything 
Um^; be grown anywhere, and that tli<3 swamp 
wlien drained becotne^ soil a® rich and prodtietive 
as the famous lands of the Nile valley. The erro- 
neous belief that Florida contains a large amount 
of worthless land has long existed; even Florid- 
iaM hmwe i>eW it. The i3laiii truyii itowe^er, is 
that, although Florida has a greater percentage 
of undeveloped territory than any state east of 
the Eockies, such a thing as worthless land does 
not exist The laost unproi3iigin^ looking stretch 
dfj sand may be capmble of prodding the 
finest grapefruit or oranges, the most hopeless 
appearing swamp may be converted into amazing 
truck land. Even the shallow deposits of sand 
oa tfee K^ys and along the lower coast, where lime- 
&im% OBt^ropg continually, will raise wondefftti 
pineapples. There is no place where something 
at least will not grow and grow remarkably well. 
The land is not always ready for the harrow; 
MM of it mail k% Afifeiii'ed ; mwm of it mmt be 
cleared of forest or palmetto scrub; and eithe? 
operation demands patience and labor and ex- 
pense. But, once read^^ for planting, the land will 
reward the toiler* 
AJtfaough It Iw ^mm fit^ted ihmt tke mik is 


generally eandy, yet ther€ are many varieties 
throughout the state, each having qualities mak- 
ing it especially valuable for certain purposes ; as, 
for instance, the red clay lands of the northern, 
or mainland, portion, where cotton, oom and to- 
Imcco are staple crops; the stretch of country 
in the neighborhood of Hastings where white po- 
tato grows prodigiously— and to the extent of 
nearly one million bushels a season; the land in 
certain sections of Marion County, as well m 
in other places throughout the state, where the 
orange reaches perfection. The clay lands just 
mentioned deserve a word more. That portion 
of them knoTO as the Eed Hills of Leon is fairly 
imi<|w«. It covers an estimated territory of three 
hundred and forty square miles on all sides of 
Tallahassee, the state capital, and is peculiar to 
itself as regards geology, soil, topography and 
v^^ta-tion. Jefferson and Madison Counties, to 
tho €fastward, situated in the Middle Florida ham- 
mock belt, show an occasional small area of sim- 
ilar character, but nowhere else in the United 
States, nor, say geologists, in the world, does a 
like i^rea exist. Even the red hills of southern 
Gieorgia, ydiile superficially similar, are funda- 
mentally different. This territory is rich in large 
lakes, having the character of sink-holes, iji which 
the water level is freakishly variable. 

Florida 's formation is peculitr in that nowhere 
mmt more than seventj^-five miles distant, 


a fact which has its bearing on climatic condi- 
tion. Lskid upon a limestone fowwsycjation, the 
#lmt€ is tuned by innicnerable fBwIirgreti'iKl 
streams which app-ear on the surface in almost 
every locality in the shape of lakes and springs. 
It is doubtful if all the former are yet know, but 
Qome one has gti^ssed their number as clos€ to 
thirty- two tbenmnd. In eombiii^d «.rea tliey f ccm 
about one-fifteenth of the state. The largest is, 
of course, Okeechobee, some 1,250 square miles 
in area. Smaller, but by no means to be sneezed 
at, are George, Apopka, Ki#simmee, Istokpoiga, 
Tohopekaliga, Otange, Micoosikee and others. 
Of springs there is no end, of which the best 
known are probably Green Cove, in Clay County, 
/ and Silver, in Marion County. There are, how- 
mtnp tBany moro equally worthy of acquaintance; 
aieong them Bspiritm S^ito at Safety liarbor, in 
Hillsborough County, near where De Soto landed, 
a spring which is said to possess curative, or at 
least palliative, properties for many of the ills 
to whieh w€ are heir. Some of these springs are 
of immeage voltwie, as, for ingiatice, SUTef, whkh 
have a flow of 368,000 gallons a minute and which 
generate the picturesque, winding stream known 
as the Ocklawaha River. Throughout the Ever- 
fl*de€ ihm underground uimmn^ peu-e^rate tlie 
eroded lim-e ro<ik and help supply the water tii«A 
in most seasons overlies that immense tract. In 
jaaaaj j^axts of tlie state flowing wells can be 


secured by going only a short distance into the 
ground, while deeper boring iMualiy suppH^^i 
water free from minimi taste. 

As though the multitude of lakes and sinks and 
all the many tinier ponds which result from the 
rains of summer and sometimes last well into ti^e 
following spring were not sufficient, Florida km 
another and immense area of water in her rivers. 
These form a veritable network over the whole 
state and with their tributary creeks and branches 
add considerably more to what may be termed 
the state's water content. In the mainland por- 
tion ih^ rivers lie generally north and south. 
Tiiere are the Escambia, Clioctawatchee, Apa- 
lachicola, Ocklocknee, Aucilla, Steinhatchee, and 
Suwanee, all of which have their origin above the 
state's northern border and empty into the Qmli 
of Mexico. Down the West Coast the Withlacoo- 
chee. Peace and Caloosahatchee are the main 
streams, draining the western slope of the penin- 
sula and winding and twisting in a generally 
western direction to the Gulf. On the East CmMt 
the only eonsider^ble fibers, the St. John's and 
the Kissimmee, stretch their lengths north and 
south, the latter rising in the lake of the same 
name and emptying into Lake Okeeliabee, awid 
the St. John's, with odd penrer^ity, tiaring its 
he«dw»ters in Brevard County, close to the sea, 
and flowing northward almost to the border of 
the state. NQwkc4"C m Um last seventy-five miles 



of travel is it less than a mile wide. Above that 
stretch it is more than once six miles across. It 
is one of very few rivers in onr country which 
flow ii€NI3Mwili«L The St. Joha'g is navigabk for 
about two hundred and fifty miles, and, since 
headwaters and month are only some one hun- 
dred and forty miles apart in a straight line, it 
^dll be understood that the stream doem't exactly 
§cm m ike @row flies ! Two other ' 'rivers * * which 
may come to mind, the Halifax and Indian, are 
really sounds. These and similar narrow river- 
like bodies of water follow the East Coast, with 
mn occ^ional interruption, aJl the way from just 
Above St. Augfustine to several miles below Palm 
Beach, varying in width from a fraction of a 
mile to several miles, and include, besides the 
Halifax and Indian, the North, Mat^anzas and' 
Jupiter Rivers, St. L*uck3 Sound and Laie Worth. 
Tli^y are oonmcted with the oeefin by various 
narrow inlets through the islands and reefs which 
confine them. Those guardian roefs begin again 
in the vicinity of Fulford, in Dade County, in the 
skap^ of tk€ first of the Florida Keys, and emlo«© 
Bi&cayne Bay and Card and Barnes Sounds. But 
now the protected waters no longer have any 
semblance to rivers, for Biscayne is a good eiglit 
miles across at its awyfeiest 

0mm *'«jromd tiie coreer/' |)iist Cap€ Florida, 
the coast loses its simple contour of long, grace- 
ful curves and becomes all sort of mixed up and 


haphazard. Elliott's Key and Key Largo, as well 
as an assortment of smaller islands, start ike con- 
f«ifti®ii^ and after that a bird's-eye view of the 
peninsula's end would show such a mixture of 
keys and rocks and shoals as to daunt the bravest 
cartographer. "WHiich is probably why, even to 
this moment, neither chart nor imp exists on 
wMch all the features of the south and southwest 
Florida coast are to be found in their correct po- 
sitions—if found at all ! Key Largo, the grand- 
father of them all, swings dovm and out to the 
southwest for some thirty miles, while the nmin- 
kjid proceeds pra<itically due west in a series of 
sounds and inlets and bays so confusing that even 
the crocodiles must have difficulty in navigating 
that shore. The Upper Keys end at a point 
directly south of Cape Sable^ wmd some thirty 
Tmlm distant, and the intervening space is Florida 
Bay, a shallow expanse dotted ^^dth keys of all 
sizes from nothing at all to many acres. One 
might easily conclude that these had been Mi 
over from the main job and chiK^ked aside. 

Once past the' bold sand heap known as Cape 
Sable, confusion again presents itself in the vicin- 
ity of the Ten Thousand Islands. It is especially 
there that the map maker gives a loud shriek of 
de«|> §md casts hii implements ink> the eea. 
No two maps agree on the configuration of that 
section of the coast. Starting at about the town 
of Marco and following the mainland as it 



to the southeast lies an unbroken chain of sand 
bars scarcely deserving the name of islands. Few 
if any of tJiese are above water at all tides, al- 
Ifeo^h practically all \r>e thickly grows with 
mangrove, black jack'' and similar trees and 
shrubs. The average width of the chain is per- 
haps eight miles. It finally terminates southward 
imt north of Gap-e Sable in what is cijl^d on some 
imp€ the Shark Kiver Archipelago. Her^lxjirtg 
islands and mainlands come together so conflict- 
ingly that not until this portion of the state has 
been surveyed with the aid of airplanes can the 
tfim tfeoTe M»€ be d€termin€d. Inde€d^ ih% same 
ig true of the whole stretch of the shore m far 
as Marco. The islands are separated by hundreds 
of channels, wide or narrow, deep or shallow, 
through wluch the overflow from the Everglades, 
to the weetwmrd^ it€ me$kp%^ ftnd through 

which the tides sweep. The actions of winds and 
tides are continually altering the topography, 
wearing do^Ti old islands, throwing up new, al- 
though the pmmm h m the main a slow one* 
So«!*etim8«, ^oir^ver, alter a hemry gmle new tkMti- 
ne!s are found and old ones have disappeared. 
An interesting if somewhat monotonous bit of 
Florida; often attractive, as often depressing. 

Tkt Qmii Cmmi i« fetesstd wiik «€^ral €tm^ 
lent harbors, eonvenienees far §cmrcef on the other 
side of the peninsula. Charlotte Harbor, Tampa 
and Hillsboro B.a^^s> Clearwater Harbor, Apalach- 

icola, St. Joseph's, St. Andrew's, St. Mark's, 
Ci-t^liirwiaAtchee, P€ns#iCola and Perdido Bays are 
strung at intervals along the shore, and there are 
other natural harbors wanting only the dredges 
to make them useful. Long sand islands which 
parallel the shore are not confined to the Ea-st 
Coiiat, for they occur at ^everml places on the 
West as well; notably opposite and below Char- 
lotte Harbor, in the vicinity of Sarasota and 
Bradenton, off the shore of Pinellas County, about 
Apalacliioola,, and, finally, off Santa Ro#^ County, 
iie^r the extreme western end of the state, where 
Santa Rosa Island forms an unbroken barrier for 
forty miles, a notable ^e^^yajjle pf the guardian 

The plant life of Florida is enormously inter- 
esting, although it is in the extreiHe seuthem por- 
tion of the peninsula and on the Keys that it 
exists in greatest variety. IS^'orthward there is 
an apparent monotony to the natural growth of 
tre8€ a^d plants. The long-leaf pine (Pimm 
palnsfris) of the Southern states holds sway ini 
the ^^flatwoods," various oaks and a few other' 
hardwood trees are found and the cypress grows 
thick in the ewawp^s. And, of course, the eai)- 
bage palm or p#liB:iett6 stan<!s up like a gtmt 
feather duster here and there. The mangrove and 
black-jack" rim the sea pools and brackish 
streams, and magnolias and bays hide in the moist 
iowmi^ M iW6 ♦ill leave tfee ^mten r^d 


take to wood roads and paths he will discover 
mmdi more ih^ ihm, for there is really quite a 
wealth of tree and shrub in Northern Florida, 
especially in certain favored localities in the west- 
ern reach of mainland, but nevertheless as viewed 
from the train window or hurrying automobile 
^ gr€)Wth appears to l^ck variety. In late March 
gind April, when the yellow jasmine is in bloom, 
there are few lovelier sights than a wood road 
in the vicinity of Tallahassee or Monticello. So, 
i<Mx, when the Cherokee mm^ are at tlieir heights 
»0thing ig more breath-taking than m Mam- 
moth magnolia come suddenly on in the silent 
forest, laden with its great fragrant, creamy- 
white blossoms. Perhaps when all is said, the 
roMiii^ hill§ and valkys of the mainliuid ar€ every 
wfeit as i?it€r««ting as the tropic portions of the 
state. Certainly they are more easily viewed! 
Up there the growth shows fewer surprises, since 
the flora is much the same as in Georgia and 
Jkjmkmwm and Soutk Ckrolina, but the unusmal 
occmaioMlly happen, and the botaaiet will 
find plenty to interest him. 

To casual observation the name of Land of 
Flowers, somewhat erroneously applied to Flor- 
mmm a grmmlmi mimi<3meT than it redly is. 
§o much of the stat€ consists of pine woods, 
wherein such flowers as exist are extremely mod- 
est in appearance, that the visitor is quite likely 
%» m^mM dim%^pomtmmt. Wi^ ^ few %m&ip- 

tions, Florida 's flowers are not aggressively bril- 
liia^. Neither are th-ey uBmlly larg^ of bk#- 
som. Yet there are many of them, and it is .nec- 
essary to go but a short distance from the high- 
road to find them. Dr. Charles Torrey Simpson 
ha€ Bmd that he has never seen a time when on 
any exteiKied walk he could not gather at \mmt 
fifty varieties of wild blooms. Many of them are 
familiar friends, yet you will notice that they 
have suffered a change of one sort or another. 
In some cases the change is so great to cau^e 
the botanists to list them as new varieties. Many 
others will be strange to you, since they are purely 
sub-tropical or tropical ; unless, that is, you have 
geen them in countries south of ours. The pine 
bexrens are w^ell worth exploring, for nimi^rouji 
attractive flowers grow there. In damper spols, 
up between the palmetto scrub, shoot tall spikes 
of terrestrial orchids in late winter, lavender and 
white. Wild yellow cannas stand sentinel beside 
the brookg and the lovely-— if mnwelcoi®^— wter 
hyacinth spreads itself in acres of pinkish-violet 
beauty. Our northern white water lily is omni- 
present, too, in the placid waters. Another deni- 
gen of tlie dmap ipots is a large-flowered, deep- 
blue flag, worthy of any gard-en. Huife Wnie Fil- 
lets, odorless like so many of the Florida flowers, 
grow in abundance through the middle latitudes 
of the |3eninsula. Blue lupins and yellow-blos- 
•dlRti wmii flo^r €i^ b^ lida Gkidea-r^ mud 



asters and erigerons hold the sunny igOAces, md 
many kinds of ferns are found. 
r Once dK^mm -bmrns^ the southern part of the 
|ttAte the long-le«f pine becomes the Caribbean 
j or slash pine, although the difference is not read- 
ily noticeable. Palmettos are more numerous 
now, cabbage, saw mid sabal, and the coanptie dis- 
putes their tetritory. . Live <mks grow to gigantic 
proportions, and smaller oaks— the holly-leaved 
among them— border the hammocks. In the ham- 
mocks, too, grow the wild figs, the poi^oa wood, 
the blolly, the prickly a^h, tlie gweet bay, the 
k)g plum, the gumbo limbo and many more. The 
wax myrtle grows to tree size under favorable 
conditions and the lantana of the northern paxt 
of the peninsula becomes an imposiag shrub. 

In the Ij^rfer haffi»oeks of the readily tropical 
t€rTftory which exists only below a line drawn 
across the peninsula slightly north of the 26th 
parallel and is only contiguous to the coast, so 
many things strange and unuaual to the nortbern 
behoMer mm immd flmt no attempt mn be made 
here to wmtition mor^ than a small portion. 
Doubtless to the stranger to the tropics the or- 
chids are of first interest. Of these there are 
more than twenty species, of which only » few 
Mte eepeci^lly «ttm-ctive m to blossom. Tlie 
greeH-and-brown Cyrtopodium (C. punciatum) 
grows to huge size, forming basket-like masses 
of stems crowned witii huadrads ^ mediim- 


«ged flowers, and when so witnesaiA is a re- 
markable sight. Vying with the orchids in 
interest if not in attractiveness are numerous 
varieties of air pines. A peperomia, usually 
an erect growing plant, here climb-s and clings 
to the tree limbs and throws out a tongue of 
greenish florets. Of ferns there are many; the 
beautiful sword fern, the grass fern, the ser- 
pent fern, at least one tree fern, the bootlace fern 
and a host of others, among them the odd resur- 
reetioa fern which, g#^ingly sere and dead in 
dry weather, awakens to life and loveliness at the 
touch of the rain. There are all sorts of cacti, 
too, both of the Opuntia and Cereus tribes. One, 
Cereus peniagonus, generally called by less polite 
najaaes, is probably the most villainous plant ever 
met with. Its angled stems are armed with inch- 
long spurs and it grows like Sam IIill, into and 
over and about everything, until there's literally 
Bo getting past it without » machete. Barbed 
wire is a thing of no consequence beside it, al- 
though it may well be that the inventor of barbed 
wire got his idea from old Pentagonus. A brother 
pest is C, erioplms, but Eri lacks some of the pure 
eussedness of Pent. He doesn't hog things qwte 
as badly, even if his nails are just as sharp. Som^ 
of the cacti present very pretty blossoms in sea- 
son, and OHO or two of the opuntias bear edible 

On »aialM<t and Keyi tl^ imm imd^de mM0- 



sorts unfamiliar to the visitor. Of these the 
West Indian Birch seldom fails to interest. This 
is ih^ gimbo limbo, a ratifeer mmmk&d tree witb 
glossy leaves and a smooth bark in color not 
unlike that of a copper beech. The name birch 
is sometimes applied to it because its outer bark 
will pieel off in iheet^ jmst m does the pap<3r birch 
cdf owe ^tiMmn woods. The poison wood (Me- 
tophim metopium) while not a Rhus is, neverthe- 
less, a first cousin of our northern poison oak. 
The satinwood is a tree with intensely green, bur- 
mMked leaves whi<^, on their un-d€i' &mffjy^, are 
aov<^^ wiih rmmi-g<M down. When the wind 
stirs it the tree seems to glow with life and color. 
The soapberry tree, the paradise tree, the mahog- 
any, th^ fiddlewood, the toothadie tree, wild 
Hsmj imwm&i^ mkwmd^ wkit-ewood, yello* 
wood, calabash, Surinam cherry, papaya, red bay, 
several wild plums, the seaside grape (cocolobo 
or cocobolo), holly, tamarind, lignum-vitai, bam- 
boo, the ^'mangle'' or mangrovej and still other»f 
«li ihm% inlmbit iutfmi^MJIi or river bm^k or 
ooean's edge, and most are found in the natural 
state nowhere beyond the northern rim of the 
limited Florida tropics. With these, fairly a part 
of ihmx^ mf€ nt3»«roM« ^^liuMi,'' their «toit rop«- 
Klfe€ branches thnrst up and around and over the 
trees to heights of forty and even fifty feet from 
where they frequently loop downward again and 


varieties of wild grape, the woodbine, or Vir- 
ginia creeper, and others; as many more are 
plants which appear to elevate the»selv€ii by 
Iwerage, thmstin-g th^t&elves over branch^ md 
ever reaching upward for the next shelf on which 
to place a knee and lift again. The two cereus 
already mentioned have this habit, and so has the 
inferaal ''pull-and-lmul-ba^k'' {Piscmia mcMU^). 
And on€ of the grapes, too. As may be imagined, 
travel through such vegetation is not a recreation 
for an idle afternoon, and in consequence few 
casual visitors to southern Florida ever rBaJlj 
view the troplcMd farests. The®e fot^sti — ham- 
mocks,'' as they are called in the only aboriginal 
word kno\\Ti to be extant — will not last many 
years more, for the soil in them is black and rich 
and the settler will eventually work hie wiU witli 
ii Privately owned ham^oeks, of cx>urse, frill 
survive, for which those who love nature unim- 
proved by man will be thankful; and the state 
too has helped by setting aside a consfderabk 
territory midway of the peniM#ula end kno^wm m 
fioyal Palm Pmrk where much of the Battiral 
beauty and interest of the tropical hammocks 
may be seen without inconvenience. 

Eoyal Palm Park is forty-two miles southwest 
of Miacii, and is rmckMl by am exo^llent hitrd- 
eurfaoed road. It consists of four thousand acres 
of virgin forest hammock lying between the 
''glades" 4i4d tlie lowlands along the oomL Pat- 


adise Key was the former name for the locality. 
The existence of the Park as a state reserva- 
tion ig due to the foresight and kard work of the 
Federmt#d Women's Clubs of Florida, and the 
title is held by them. The original holding of 960 
acres, secured in 1915, was added to by the gift 
of a like territory from Mrs. Henry M. Flagkr, 
and finally, in 1921, the #ia.te loe^ened lap and 
deeded the remf€iining 2,080 acres. The state must 
loosen up considerably more before its entire duty 
is performed, for there is much to be done there 
yet and money is badly ii^eded- Th« Park pre- 
wmiM to t^ Fiaito? »n opportunity to ^tiefy his 
eraving for tropical vegetation, for here are found 
most if not all of the trees and plants natural 
to the lower Florida hammocks. The Boyal 
Palms — one unthinkingly wriie€ the wordi with 
eapit&l lett^ri after viewing them here — rise to 
astounding heights in the jungles, mammoth oaks 
are draped with long festoons of gray moss, ferns 
of many kinds grow from ground or branches, 
oreMdg rn^t nbuiifdjjit atud Mrds and butterfii^ 
&ia?d motlis a?e on every hand. The Park is a 
mecca for naturalists, and among the thousands 
of names inscribed on the register in the Park 
Lodge are many notable in the world of Science. 
Tke Lodfe provides oomfartabie ro<m« arwl good 
Meals for tho-se who desire to tarry, and the war- 
den and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Wlieelock, Imow 
how to make the stranger welcome. What incooaae 

Ofi0aBi4Pfi¥ AMD PLAN! LIFE 73 

is derived from this source goe6 toward — though 
moi very far toward — tk# expeoeeg of the reserva- 
tion. A seoond source of income is the sale of 
Koyal Palm seedlings grown by Mr. Wheelock. 
As many as twenty thousand persons have vis- 
ited the Park in one year, a number that will 
be gre«rtly augment€d when it« fame becofBpes 
more widely known. At the present time there is 
but one road through the Park, and, while it is 
possible to explore the inconsiderable northern 
portion afoot witliout getting lost for more than 
a few minutes, more traversable highways must 
be laid out before the full beauty of the reserva- 
tion can be realized and enjoyed. These, how- 
ever, as well as a surrounding moat to minioaize 
the ever-present danger from forest fires, iMst 
swsit the pleasure of the State Lefislature. 


One of the questions most frequently asked of 
the writer is: ''What's the Florida climate really 
likef It's a difficult question to Enswer to the 
•iK|iiirer's satisfaction, for what he g<enerally 
wmi% to hear is that, once over the state line, he 
can discard his overcoat and change the clothes 
he has worn on the southward trip to flannels 
and a straw kat, this iireap^tive of th^ month 
Of w#«4h^ co®ditk)ti« in the north. When he 
Imrm that the overcoat will frequently feel very 
comfortable during January and February, and 
that, while the straw hat may prove just the thing 
for Miami or Fort Myerg, «)gaM3thing a bit less 
ti^pkdi will aii^er better in the upper part of 
the state, he is likely to sniff and say that he al- 
ways suspected it was a sight colder down there 
than folks let on! 

Temperatures vary co^agiderably over the state. 
lA4itia?d@, el^fttion a»d proximity to gulf or ocean 
are factors. It can and does get annoyingly cold 
in Northern Florida in the winter months; yes, 
and in central Florida, too ; and even Miami km 
hmd the mreury down to 29°. Still, save fo? a 

tm during the winter, perhaps ten or a 



<lo2«^ altogether, tlie weather ordinmrily behavas 
itself very well ; and it is quite likely that Miaaai 
will not again see a temperature as low as that 
just mentioned for many years. Fort Myers, 
«®oiieiderably north of Miami, on ike West Coa^t, 
reports tlmt for the Imi #even years tfee l©w#st 
temperature recorded by the official observer 
was 32°. 

The best course for the winter visitor to pursue 
is to m&vme before he l^suve® bome that he will 
encounter some eekd days and s# arrive provided 
with medium weight clothing for ordinary occa- 
sions, outer wraps for the chilly days and eve- 
nings and, especially if he is going well down 
the peninsula, light Retire for the warn, even 
hot, days which will come more certainly. 
member that, after all, Jacksonville lies only 
thirty hours from New York by railway and that 
you can't plunge into the tropics in any such time 
as that! And be gi^ured of thi^; wlienever the 
North is chattering with cold, Florida is seeking 
the sunny side of the house ! Every really severe 
cold spell ''back home" reaches Florida to some 
eKtent, iJtliougk it may not penetrate all the way 
down ikt peninsMi^. Daii't expect miraek^ mmd 
you'll not be disappointed. Florida's all-yeaf cli- 
mate is excellent, and her winter climate is better 
than can be found elsewhere within the confines 
of tiie United States, but no climate is perfect. 

Wmm til 8 firit of Deoe»feef to tli« U/^ P^n- 

w iMT'S GO m WM)umhi 

SLiy Florida offers June weather, such Jttue 
•^Ather as, barring muck miu, mwmmBal in g@uth- 
€m Mew Ef^md. Sometimes, though, there's 
a slip, just as there is in New England, and frost 
warnings are issued, orange growers light the 
smudges in their groves, gardenerB wrap their 
t^yfef abfubs in yewt-cf^ay's newspapers and the 
U^rmometer goes sliding do^^^l from around sev- 
enty to forty or even thirty. Allien that happens 
the wind comes from some quarter in the north; 
and it blows with a breath that would b«t 
MkMy eiiil^'bg&ck hm^'* btit that feds laden with 
icicles when it scampers into Florida. Fortu- 
nately, such conditions seldom last more than two 
or three days at a iiim^ or come more than twice 
m tliria& igp s wmtmf ; rnf^d, f^ft^jii^t^ly, too, the 
snaps 9km often aocompanied by cloudy 
weather, and, having donned the overcoat or the 
sweater which you brought along against yoiu* 
better judgfmmt, yoa ae€d only to keep to tiie m- 
«fc«iclad «pMM l» mmioHiM^. In short, so 
long as the sun shines — and it seldom misses a 
day — you should worry if the mercury says 40! 
Sunshine is Florida's bi^eet asis^t wiien all 'ft 

mid mid dom. It '« om «f #p thmt mwm imkM. 
f«*f« mM to take that as meaning that cloudy 
days never occur, for they do ; in some parts of the. 
state more often than in otliers. But they're so 
few thjit, after a winter in PlorklA, joy 're lik«lj 

!• f^itaim mmtik md mimmlf Mttm tMi tk% ion 

' ' WHAT 'S THB CliM AXB UEM I " J7 

never stopped shining once; and mean it, too! 
Wbr#le days of do^din^it **''e infrequent, whok 
days of rain almost unknown In Marion Co«nty, 
typical of the northern half of the peninsula, the 
record over a number of years gives 73 days of 
sunshine out of 90 in the ^dnter. In locations 
further south the naiafeer of suiony days i« 
greater. Most every one ha€ heard of the new^- 
paper in St. Petersburg which distributes its 
whole issue free when the sun doesn't shine at 
some time during the day, and which, in conse- 
quence, has indulged in that sort of philmatlaroffy 
but 81 times in 15 years. Then there's the hotel 
man down the Ridge who agreed to charge his 
guests no rent on sunless days. At last accounts 
he was still far from baiikruptcj. 

Florida's aver«g« attnti&l rainfall is 55 ki^t«®% 
the highest of any state in the Union, but most of 
that water falls during the rainy season which ex- 
tends from June to September. Of the 55 inches, 
only mb^ut 9 fall durij^g I>eeemb€r, Jmrnvj 
February. Therefore the whiter risitor is likely 
to encounter onlv an occasional rain during his 
stay, and, since the porous soil quickly soaks up 
the heaviest downfall, he may loave hi% ruhhm% m 
th% north with perfect impmiitt. 

Since this book is not designed solely for ih« 
information of winter visitors, something must be 
said of Florida's year-round climate. The win- 



preciably warmer than February, but it is not un- 
til May that the hot weather makes itself felt. 

ar€ oTdiii*jily the feottet t moatti 
eft the year. August i« but little cooler. Septem- 
ber may drop the mercury a few degrees more, but 
November offers the first real relief. Florida's 
mmmmr may, tterefore, be said to last a full six 
iMstJbfk Tke mn in ifitensely hot d^rin^ that 
period, and one finds small temptation to stand 
about in it. Yet as soon as one has moved into 
the shade he is usually comfortable. Look again 
tfee Hmp aad jm will see why. All around is 
water, nowhere more than seventy-five miles 
away, and from ocean or gulf the air is continually 
stirring even when the sun is blazing its hottest. 

Perhaps the best idea of what the Florida cli- 
imle m like tfersu^ tke year cmi he ol>taio«i f r(«i 
a resume of one year's reeordfs at Tampa. Tamp« 
is fairly typical of the central part of the penin- 
sula, although slight differences exist between 
AUjikMtic Guii mms^ Mr. Walter J. B^ni^tt, 
in cliarge of tJbe wtgmttier bttreau at Tartupm fof 
many years, is the authority quoted. Beginning 
with September, 1924, then, it is sho^vn that high 
temperatures continued to the 8th of that months 
wbim the mercury wnt to 93 degtmM. (Ummm- 
tk*t ihme mii& weather b^rea^ figures, iK)t 
those of street level.) The first drop came Sep- 
tember 30th. In October the highest temperature 
wm S8^ on 4im Btis^ md iha lowmi 56, qb tibe 23rd. 


In November the mercury jogged up to 83 on the 
7th, and never got that high agaia diarii^ the 
aaontJi. Ofi the 30th light fronts were reported 
and the thennometer sank to 39. In December 
the highest was on the 10th, 82 degrees, and the 
lowest on the 2nd, 43 degrees. December held no 
frost. In January, 1925, t^e t@i6p@TatMire wm 81 
m the 10th, the highest for the month, and 45 
on the 31st, the lowest. February brought a heavy 
frost when the mercury went down to 38 degrees 
on the 13tli. February's high m^k was 82, an 
Wasliia^oii'g Birthday. The Febriiary frost wm 
the second of two occurring during the winter, 
and, while the citrus fruit was nowhere affected, 
temperatures close to freezing were experienced 
ill a nimkber of nearb}^ localities and tender cix?^, 
siKjIi as sweet potatoes i^nd be«ns, were killed. 
March remained about like February, but in April 
the mercury started upward and reached 91 on 
the 21st, the record for the month over thirty-five To be quite fair, however, it rooeded t# i2 
on the 2nd. May was moderate, as Florida Mays 
go, with a high of 91 on the 15th. June was a bit 
above normal, ranging from a low of 68 to another 
high of 91. The rainy S'Wk^on started a-bout ^e 
Bth of May, but the fmll mm not feenTy until Jmm^ 
wiien nineteen showers occurred. Temperatures 
in July were about normal, ranging from 68 to 93, 
the latter on the 24th. In August the mercury 
m0 dm^fm M.ttf m Urn ia^hiwi p^riommu^ 


and went as low as 69. Showers continued as 
usual through July and August ; twenty-four days 
of rain in July and twenty-two in August. On 
Jmlj 14tih IMk tim WfrnmA' wminiM of 5.53 
ibcbeg in twenty-four hours was recorded. Again, 
on August 28th and 29th, another deluge fell; 
or, rather, two of them. On the first day it rained 
4.59 inches in the record time of two hours, and 
oa the 29th 4.69 inches fell during tke twenty-four 
hour«. The rainy season ended September 3rd. 

That, the writer believes, gives a very fair no- 
tion of what may be expected in the general lati- 
tude of central Florida durbig the year. The 
wiiit€r of 1924-25 wag rather warmer than the 
average, perhaps, but not sufficiently so to affect 
the dependability of the record given. 

The writer has no wish to influence any person 
ft06tMlofB€d to really cx>ol summers into %pmimg 
the !»0iitlig of July, Augugt and September iti 
Florida. Such a person would find the conditions 
extremely trying in all probability. Florida in 
summer is hot. It isn't as hot as many believe it 
to be, m ket ag it migkt be, but tiaere'e 
blinking the im^i that the temperature during the 
three months mentioned is too high for comfort. 
Life is perfectly endurable, may be thoroughly 
enjoyable under the most advant^eous circum- 
glmitow, bnt it i« nmmmry to mdapt o^mii 

If you are a man you lay aside your coat 


in June and attire yourself in light-weight cloth- 
ing ; if you are a woman you take to tub dresses 
for 'day wear and ihm miitom or silk for evening 
or '^o€<3asion6.^'' Excessive humidity is rare, and 
the air hasn't that breathless, enervating quality 
which takes the sap out of a fellow." Heat 
prostrations are unlaiown and no death from sun- 
stroke has ever occurred, which seeais to infer 
that excessive heat of itself is not the cause of 
coup de soleil. In fact, as regards summer tem- 
perature Florida can point mth pride! Fre- 
quently when north-ern cities are sweltering with 
the mercury at 98 and 1(X), Floridmns are 
fortable at 88 and sleeping under cover at night. 
One doesn't have to come to a dead stop during 
the hot weather, but one certainly does need to 
slow down. Northerners are likely to poke fun 
at the Floridians, Floridians either by birth or 
adoption, because they compromise with labor 
once the summer has set in. Perhaps the com- 
promise cam be too great; it frequently is; but 
some eompromiee is neeessmry. Strenuo^ t&ski 
must be performed in the early morning hour« or 
left over for the evening. It doesn't do to under- 
take the same amount of work, indoors or out, that 
cme \\m been accustomed to in the North or that 
one can perform im the winter nM)ntiis. 

This is being written in Florida at llrOO a.m. 
on October 15th. The thermometer in the shade 
M ih# m tii^ wst side of the house stands 


at 85. The sun is intensely hot. There is, how- 
ever, a light southeast breeze brisk enough to push 
4li# Bp»iii^h moss (mi frooa the branches of the 
pines to a thirty degree angle and to iift the loo«e 
sheets from this desk to the floor — and, of course, 
out of reach! In breeze and shade life is com- 
fortable enough, but no one save a ^ tenderfoot 
w<»ald deiibiratdy go ou4 mn4^ gay, transplant the 
Ml)t&cu« th-at needs it %o badly or amu&e himself 
with an ax at the woodpile. Moderation is the 
watchword in summer ; moderation in both work- 
ing and eating. If Florida summers were but 
tlip©>i toontk^B iong, or even four, it would dif- 
ferent. But when the hot season begins in late 
May and holds through October you are likely to 
get pretty well fed up with it. Cool nights are a 
Wessinf and summer showers help, but there's a 
tem-l^ir or m sp-ell of hot tmnsiiine €very day 
and one can be thoroughly wilted by the time the 
first norther comes along. A favorite expression 
is "The summers aren't awfully hot, but they last 
m long r ' lii'omidic temmk^ h^i^mm mhiak p^is 

Naturally, if you are fortunate enough to oc- 
cupy your own home, and that home isn't closed 
in by surrounding buildings, you will have a dif- 
lif^Mt ^tory to iaJi than the p€f«#fii who Img te Mve 
m ® hotel or boarding house. A hotel roofn in 
summer, even with an electric fan, is no Arctic 
igloo 1 The writer realizes ttot he is incui*ring the 

' ' WHAT 'S THE CLIMATfi tIKE f " as 

wrath of a certain type of Floridian who won^t 
acknowledge, even to himself, that his^ — usually 
«.dopted — state is a whit warmer in itmmer th^ 
M«kine. There are OTKionMedly places much far- 
ther north than Florida which are inferior to the 
latter as summer resorts, and it must be that the 
gentleman just mentioned came from one of th^. 
If you can get away for a few weeks int<5 eooter 
ktitudes, the North Carolina mountains for ex- 
ample, you will break the monotony of the heat, 
which, after all, is the most trying feature of a 
Florida summer. 

Daily relief from the excessive aMentiooQ ol 
the sun oomes in the form of a shower. At least, 
Floridians like to speak of those blessings as be- 
ing daily, but the truth is that they aren't aJbso- 
lutely infallible. Still, they do oecur freqci^tly 
etiough to deserve their reputation. They come 
suddenly, presaged by snowy mountains of clouds 
against the blue of the sky. A clap of thunder, 
and the heavens open. A driving sheet of water 
blots out the world. Wind vmy or may aot ii^eoia- 
pmf ih% deluge, but thunder and lightning are 
usual concomitants. Pedestrians duck for shelter, 
motorists scurry to harbor under the wide- 
spreading oaks; not infrequently discovering t^ 
their dismay when the rain ii over tfeat wet mm- 
l^tkm. win keep them there some time longer. In 
the cities the streets become rushing streams. To 
cross them one would p.ead either ru.bber-boots or 


tli€ stilts of CbkmBe wot'kers in the paddy 
fields. The sboitit teiay la^ twmty iminwt^ mm 
hour, two hours. Once over, the sun shines forth 
again, the trees and shrubs drip with moisture 
»fipd life takes up where it left off. One must ex- 
pemnoe a Flaridik summer rain t-o appreciate the 
meaning of the word deluge. The »ft€Tnooii m the 
recognized time for these welcome visitations, and 
usually they arrive at about the right time to 
fcreak up a ball game or to keep one from a five 
d'dlock appointment. Mr^uently ihej foii:d: to 
stop for two days. Even a brief downpoar can 
deposit a lot of water on the ground. In the sima- 
mer of 1925 at several localities along the West 
Coast a two-hour rain accounted for 4.59 inches I 
• Forliffi^ely precipitatiofi i{>oedily ditapp€«ar« bj 
drainage, seepage and evaporation. 

While the rains send the temperature do^\^l 
magically and are wonderful aids to comfort, it is 
tmlly the cool nights which ^re the state's great- 
««t blessing. Onm mm %m called it m dny, 
Florida, from sea to gulf, sighs, smiles and tak^ 
a nice deep breath of the refreshing evening air. 
The mme breeze that has been stirring all day, 
p€rti«f)€ im) li^fiaorously for you to be aware of 
it, now begins its nightly imk ol tmdotBg tbe wsft 
of the sun. From ocean or gulf it comes, bringing 
an odor of salt from the sea and spice from the 
pne forests. Watch tbe thermometer on the front 
mmi Hmmm %%kwm %^mn^ «bwly 


perhaps at first, but faster as the stars brighten 
in the purple-black sky. The breeze may be no 
more than a wide, steady movement of cooler air 
from tlie sea covering tfee feeated land, too falat 
to rustle the leaves of the bougainvillaea or stir 
the fans of the palms, but it's there and you know 
it. Or it may wake you in the night by fluttering 
th^ papers on the table, aHrd when it does yom 
re^cb sleepily for sheet or blanket, or both. 
Often enough the evening relief doesn't make it- 
self really felt until nearly midnight, but it comes 
always in time to give you a full night of com- 
fortable and refreshing sleep. Always! No^ for 
there are exceptions to every rule, and occasion- 
ally, not frequently enough to be remembered, 
there will be a still night when the aforemen- 
tioned sheet will remain draped over tbe foot- 
Ibo^rd. Or perhaps just before the dawn an ex- 
ploring hand will reach for it. Florida nights, 
whether of Spring or Summer, Winter or Fall, 
whether moonlighted or only starlit, are wonder- 
ful, and if no poet has yet sung thoei the f*ct 
sliould be noted by the Legislature or the Stale 
Chamber of Commerce and instant steps taken to 
repair the omission. Poets ha^ye rimed on so 
many less worthy themes! 

H®w to gumm»ri«e. Florida w^th^, winter, 
summer or all-the-year-ronnd, has its flaws, but 
the flaws arc like the little inconsequent faults of 
a friend^ and only make you love it the more. 


In Florida one can live outdoors practically every 
day of the year, the sea breezes making it possible 
ia #«Km[H>r asid 4fee smnifeine in winter* You can't 
»rftTe in January and go to ^leep on a hmk of 
roses attired in your pajamas; or you can't do it 
and get away with it; and you can't spend a simi- 
mer in Florida and rush around in the daytime 
f yi-liit f aitho«gh yott emu go m imi m you like — 
Hp to f-orty-five mil-e« an hour — ^in » mf. If yon 
experience a two-day rain storm with the ther- 
mometer hovering around forty, you can comfort 
f^TOwlf with the knowledge that further north- 
nmM fom f ri^adi hskv'mg a mm blizaaxd^ with 
the mercury a good many degrees lom^tr tb«m 
forty ! And you get quite a kick out of reading in 
the next day's paper that the surface lines in your 
mij me o»t of commission, Umt the Street De- 
pikrtm«t m mdrm^ing for sno^ shovelers m^d 
that trains are running from two to twelve honm 
late. And by the time the surface lines up there 
are operating on schedule again you are once 
move m ^ t^a^hine, playing golf or tennis, 
taking yon? iss^ming di^ of Merely baikiiag md 
letting the other fellow attend to th^ stmna-^ne 
things of life. Eemember that Florida isn't 
tropical, save for its Keys and a narrow border 
ttiM^ its lower tip^ and don't expect to find equa- 
loritl ©onditiofu ft^aiting yoti. MtM sntil you 
reach the Keys do you escape the possibility of 
fros^ although the farther south you go the less 

^ ^ WHAT 'S TSfi CLIMATE LIKE ! " 87 

likelihood there is of it following you. Don't be- 
lieve too implicitly in the gaudily-covered pam- 
pMets issued by the ¥ario«s eities m^d towiis wtet 
it comes to the matter of climate. I>oul)tl@»s 
there's no intent to deceive; possibly there's no 
deception; yet after perusing some of those 
pamphlets it's quite an easy thing to start south 
in tiie winter with a wardrobe oofisisting entir^j 
of Palm Beach suits and solar topees ! 

If you are considering a permanent home in 
Florida you will do well to remember that locali- 
ties in proximity to ocean, gulf or large lakes are 
more equable; that is, they are slightly warmer in 
winter, slightly cooler in summer. But sinc-e the 
climate of the state as a whole is remarkably even, 
that point is not worthy of great attention. The 
4ack of extreiae te«|>era.tttT0s in Florida is dm 
mainly to two tilings ; first, the fmt that the %^t% 
lies for the most part surrounded by warm seas ; 
second, that it has shorter days of sunshine in 
summer and longejr days of sunshine in winter 
tlmii the northern states. As to wkidi portion of 
Florida is climatically superior the wfitef is si- 
lent. One reason for his silence is that he doesn't 
know. Northern Florida and Southern Florida 
are quite different and yet each has a fine climate. 
The qu€€tion narrows down to: What do you 
want! If you wish in the winter to get utterly 
away from any suggestion of real cold, go as far 
aMth ai jou cm. If you waat some bracing days 


interspersed with the warm ones, choose a loca- 
tion anywhere in the northern counties. Wher- 
ever you are you'll fijud ^plmtj of Florida '« ho^t 
gift, goid^ e»mUi^ 

It b iK^t wiHiin tli€ province of this volume to 
discuss Florida as a health resort. An invalid 
should consult a physician before deciding on a 
Bojoum in the state. However, it is perMi«iibla 
4«> «kite that ikm Florida diniftie i« not a panaoea 
f^r all ilh, and that it has been conclusively 
proved that advanced pulmonary affections are 
not benefited. Throat troubles, though, can be 
greatly aided, and rheiMMttie patienta vmmdlf fi-ad 
4&i wiBft^^ ««t]ditioTi« Tery ben^fi^al. Mervous 
patients and convalescents can probably do no bet- 
ter than seek the tranquillizing and yet invigorat- 
ing air and sunshine of the state, while as for 



With a total arsa of more tliati thirty-iv^ fail- 
lion acres, Florida has less than two and a half 
million acres under cultivation. Yet from this 
cultivated area was produced in 1924 more than 
nie^j million dollars worth of produots ; ai^^t 
tw^ty timm the price paid k) Spain in 1819 for * 
the territory. The Department of Agriculture is 
authority for the statement that of the unculti- 
vated thirty-two and a haJf millioii acres ratb^r 
wmm thim twwtf ttftMtofi ndap^ for farm- 
ing purposes. The^e lands are still to be pur- 
chased at prices varying from thirty to two hun- 
dred dollars an acre, and, as has been demon- 
are capable of producing en&ps to the 
value of tmm fire haMred to twD tfeoiEsaifed dol- 

Soil and drainage are important factors 
throughout the state. Taken as a whole Florida 
may be said to b€ level, although its siirfaoe m 
^lIlMg or bro'kw ift ©etl^in parts. Exeept klmg 
the coasts the natural drainage is good, and this 
is particularly true of the western arm of the state 
md af ik» pmm»^ as far ao^iib a« Urn wmtimm. 



iknite of LiJf^^ Okeechobee. lUoeptioas oo6W, 
Imwmw^Tf in scsttered locmlities. 

As has been said, more than a hundred kinds of 
soil are fonnd in the state, but the recognized and 
* named varieties are not so many. Upland soils 
are f€»€rfiUy of the Norfolk series, the top siuidy 
Mid gray, the subsoil yellow and friable. Fruit, 
farm and truck products grow well in it. Much 
like the Norfolk soils are the Orlando, Hoffman 
and Tifton. The Orlando are a trifle more fertile 
ikmxi the Norfolk, are dark in color Md laaooth in 
texture. The Hoffinan group comprises the gray 
soils of the peninsula above a compact subsoil, 
and the Tifton is found principally in the western 
©ountie€ §md has a pebbly surface. Soils having a 
Btm&^^e origin are aiways fertile, although the 
degree of fertility depends on the presence of 
other components. Of these are the gray sands 
containing sea shells found near Palm Beach, 
ihe Otw^^^mrg toils, tlie Green vOie soils, tJbe 
Browm Hamtao«ek and K«d Hammock and the lime- 
stone subsoil lands of Dade County. The Orange- 
burg, Greenville and Hammocks mentioned are 
particularly good farming soils. Certain gray 
mM bfH}irti hmmrn^ ImdM e&U.^ Eenmii'dii 
i*»l!^wship are excellent for fruit and truck. 
Black swamp lands with a light sandy subsoil are 
known as Portsmouth, and a similar surface but 
with a blacfe .irtajii. i« called Hyde. ArUfiiciAl 
dkiufikif k mmmmff to wmk% mtkmf of tbi*€ wmy 



fertile. The griis€-«wtt^ed flatwoods, of gray eiir- 
face and darker gray subsoil, are either Bladen or 
Coxville and are well adapted to general farming. 
Plummer or crawfish" land is of small agricul- 
tural value. The same is true of the looee, light- 
hued surface sands known as lieoii mukes they 
are drained. No soil, however, is hopeless for the 
raising of some kind of crop so long as it can be 
fertilized or drained, or both. It would, of course, 
be folly for a man intending to raise eitnis frmit® 
to purchase land suitable only for truck, or for 
one meaning to specialize on celery to invest in a 
tract of scrubby sand. Having decided on your 
ci^p, investigate the subject of soil thoroxjghly. 
Or, having purchased your laad, selmt the cr<>p 
to suit it. The State Department of Agriculture 
will gladly c^ffprd you invaluable aid in such mat- 

Fr-om on^ ia four crops a year may be produwd 
in Florida, aceording to the region, rainfall md 
the kind grown. At present Florida 's production 
from her cultivated area is roughly as follows : 
Fruit Gvop^ mfiOO,m ; field crops, $15,000,000 ; 
trmeking crops, $ll,0O0,OO0i root cfop^ |4,(XM),000; 
miscellaneous crops, $3,000,000; live stoek, $3,- 
250,000; poultry and eggs, $8,000,000; milk and 
butter, $7,100,000. 

Ploxida's maxkel is olo«€ at hand, she is weil 
supplied with transportation facilities and li-er 
future as an agricultural state is secure. At pros- 

32 LEX% GO TO FLOEffiuU 

ent the state's surface has been little more than 
scratched ; what Florida is capable of doing m Uie 
sTjppijin^ of food prodiiet* to tl^ r^t of ih% ewm- 
try is something that can be only guessed at. A1-. 
ready she leads in the production of winter-grown 
vegetables , — more than 100,000 car loads yearly, 
— m tfee fiBinber of ^rowiag days, and in variety 
#f €mp«^ e^tiamted at over two i^radr^ and fifty. 
She stands at the head of all states in the produc- 
tion of grapefruit, winter tomatoes, celery, cocoa- 
nuts; second as to oranges and watermelons; 
third m 4© letti*^ — $1^2,000 worth m^mHj — 
fourth m to cabbage. Sh-e produces more pota- 
toes than Maine and more celery than Michigan. 
In short, she ships at present one-tenth of the 
iiB&tk fruit and vegetables of the country. 

f rowiBg of ettrus fruit is still tk@ l^idim^ 
agTi€filt'nr«l indnstry. While every county in the 
state will produce them, only thirty-five are at 
present engaged in the commercial growing of 
or*B^f«ii And frapefruit. From the&e counties 
mam iMady «»-iaif of th« ^trm fruite of the 
acHtntry. Some 260,000 acres are given over to 
this crop; about 20,000,000 trees, of which 12,- 
000,000 are bearing. At that, from five to ten 
million acres of land suitable for citrms croj^ are 
(rtill avmilaMe. Marketing is largely done through 
a cooperative organization kno^vn as the Florida 
Citrus Exchange, although the independent 
packer still e^is isk aQmid%mhl% nm^mm. In 



ent the state's surface has been little more than 
scratched ; what Florida is capable of doing in the 
eupplyiag of food products to the re-si of the coun- 
try is g«w»ething that can be only guessed at. Al- 
ready she leads in the production of winter-growm 
vegetables, — more than 100,000 car loads yearly, 
— in the number of growing days, and in variety 
of crops, ectimated at over two hundred and fifty. 
She stands at the head of all states in the produc- 
tion of grapefruit, winter tomatoes, celery, cocoa- 
nuts; second as to oranges and watermelons; 
third as to lettuce — $1,892,000 worth annuallj^ — 
foMrth as to cabbage. She produces more pota- 
toes than Maine and more celery than Michigan. 
In short, she ships at present one-tenth of the 
fresh fruit and vegetables of the country. 

The growing of citrus fruit is stili the leading 
agricultural industry. WTiile every county in th-e 
state will produce them, only thirty-five are at 
present engaged in the commercial growing of 
oranges and grapefruit. From these counties 
mme nearly one-half of the citrus fruits of the 
oountrj. Some 260,000 acres are given over to 
this crop; about 20,000,000 trees, of which 12,- 
000,000 are bearing. At that, from five to ten 
million acres of land suitable for citrus crops are 
•iili ftvftikbk. Marketing is largely done through 
a cooperative organization know as the Florida 
Citrus Exchange, although the independent 
packax ^iiU eJO^ in consideraJoi^ numbers. In 



1924 more than 8,6G(\000 h^mm oi grnpefrmi mid 
1^,400,000 hoxm of owm^m were Aipped from 
tbe state. 

Field crops include corn to the amount of 
17,000,000 bushels, peanuts to the i«i#iint of 
5,000,000 bushels, velvet bmm to the mmommt nt 
2,000,000 bf3«k«d€. (Commercial truck crops com- 
prise lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbages, pep- 
pers, strawberries, celery and many others. St. 
John's County produces more than a mllioti d#i- 
lars worth of white aad tweet potatoes annually, 
while Volusia, Flagler and Alachua each raise 
about $200,000 worth. IVfarion, Seminole and 
Suwanee Counties each grow more titan 
000,000 worth of field aad truck crope aanmllf. 
Polk County leads im the production of citrus fruit 
wit^ 4,000,000 boxes a year. Hillsborough, Pinel- 
las, De Soto, Orange and Volusia each grow more 
than one million boxes. Marion, Alachua, Gads- 
den, Madison, Okalooaa A»d Jmdmm each rai#e 
$100,000 worth of sugar cane a year. Polk County 
leads in the commercial growing of grapes. Two- 
year-old vineyards are yielding close to four tans 
per acre, the selling price of whiok k fmm. twmtj 
to sixty per pound. 

Ti!« growing of winter tomatoes is a large and 
ever-increasing industry, the shipments during 
the 1923-24 season amounting to 4,276 car loads. 
The yield j^r acre varies fmrn »i^enty-ft^ 
tki^w hmir^ cmtm, sM tfee cost of production 


from seventy-five to one hundred and twenty-five 
dollars per acre. The cost m tJie iimrket ig etti- 
mated at ibont dollar per crmte. The com- 
mm^irnl Tarieties grown are the Livingstone 
Globe, which is planted to the extent of nearly 
ninety per cent of all acreage, Stone, Early De- 
troit, Florida Special, Earlinna iind Bmnty. The 
gmwmg ikm m^mgm between sixty and ninety 
days except for the Livingstone Globe which gen- 
erally requires about one hundred and fourteen 
days. The season starts the middle of Deoember 
and eoatino« well into June, the bulk of the gliip- 
pin^ o^mrring fK)m March 20th to May 1st. 

Of lettuce Florida shipped during the above 
season 2,087 carloads. The crate value was $1.23. 
The average yield is around 254 crates or kmm- 
pers tmms*ey aitho^gii a figi^re largely in exc^^g of 
tW® is common in specially favorable localities, 
as aroimd Bradenton and Sanford. Nine hun- 
dred hampers per acre has been set up as a reeori. 
The best pri^ for the Florida prodiict h 
Um&d ill Nowinber, Febniary and March. Semi- 
Dole, Manatee, Orange and Marion Counties are at 
present the principal producers of lettuce. Big 
Boston, Cream Butter, Iceberg and Romaine &m 
^ varieties preferred. Floridii leeberg, how- 
tver, is not equal to the CaEfornia lettuce of that 
variety, since the Florida winter nights are not 
sufficiently cool to allow it to head-up well. Big 
B-o^tm msikmm m imm Mij to mti^ days irom 



the &eed, Iceberg in from sixty to seventy. Cali- 
fornia is ilorida's strongest competitor in the 
marketing of lettuce, with Texas next. 

Back in eighteen hundred and something an At- 
laiit^ Georgia, seedsman named Hastings ca^e 
giiooping arownd St. John's County. What he 
found convinced him that the lower end of the 
county was an ideal place for the raising of Irish 
potatoes, and he said as much. The assertion oc- 
casioned about the mme degree of hilarity as 
TOmld to-day meet the prediction that Nova Scotia 
is destined to be the world's principal banana pro- 
ducing country. No one had tried to grow a white 
potato in a country where the yam flourished, 
newipmperB and individuals held the prophet up 
to good-natured ridicule. But some one did try to 
grow white potatoes eventually, and now the im- 
. mense territory around Hastings, St. John's 
County, is one of the finest Irish potato sections in 
flie world. From 8O0,(KXD to 1,000,000 bushels a 
year is the result of Hastings' folly. Some ten 
years later Senator A. S. Mann occasioned more 
incredulity when he advocated the growing of 
celery. No one would laugh at him to-day in the 
vicinity of Sanford. More recently, although 
bananas have been grown in Florida gardens from 
the days of the first settlement, folks in general 
grinned when the project of commercial plant- 
ings of that fruit was mentioned. In 1924 Lee 
0#iflnty produced 28,000 bunches and Hillsborough 

County neai-ly 16,000. Avocado pears were prac- 
ti-ci^iy mk&own to Florida tw#nty-five yearg mga. 
To-day, altliof^fc the enterprise of growing tii^m 
is still in its infancy, upwards of $800,000 worth 
are marketed. Hillsborough County produced 
over five million quarts of strawberries last sea- 

T€pfmmtim§ ^ <i ^ mMm md m 

hMlf dollars* 

Crop diversity is certainly something to cheer 
about in a state where the merry little radish and 
the golden pineapple go to market side by side! 
At 4ke risk of tirmf the r««d«r — who perhmpe ii 
no more int-er«t€d in agriculture than the writer 
is in theosophy — here are a few, only a few, of the 
two hundred and fifty things which are profitably 
fipown in Florida: ora»ge% gr^efruit, banaoaas, 
peac^6«, figs, pmrsy pliMC, w^&mddi^ gr«f«% 
watermelons, cantaloupes, berries of many sorts, 
tomatoes, beans and more beans, Brussels sprouts, 
cauliflower, cabbage, collards, asparagus, beets, 

*ta4o««, sweet pa4at#es, cowp^as, t$jsmv%^ mi&^ 
beans, cucumbers, eggplant, okra, lettuce, mus- 
tard, onions, parsnips, peppers, kale, pumpkins, 
raiiiighe^ kohlrabi, spinach, squashes, turnips, 
piMntA, gwmt, mg^T mm, eottot^lcsa^ mA 
short staple — e&rrots, li^w»n«, li»es, pineapples, 
rape, tobacco, cocoanuts, persimmons — but what's 
the use? If you have something you want grown 



making frains. Aad, at that, whe«t m&'i be said 
t© he outside the possibilities, since already Mr. 
Raymond M. Champ, experimenting with Bur- 
bank wheat at St. Petersburg, has grown a satis- 
factory crop — and without fertilizer. 

But all this is only a begijanimg. 'Hmi year ihme 
win be mMif more farms, little farms of from ten 
to twenty acres, likely, and many more carloads 
of produce will go rolling northward to feed the 
hungry; such of them, that is, as aren't already in 
Ffertdm ! It is mid that with hut half the fertile 
land in the state put under cultivation Florida 
could feed sixteen of the — well, whatever number 
of states there are now. And perhaps in another 
tea years she will b^ doing. ijU 

It muitn 't be tli#^ht, li<)wever, tibat one mn 
to Florida, purchase land and then merely sit 
down and await his profits. The farmer or truck 
gardener or fruit grower must work, just as he 
mw^ work anywhere else. Florida offers no 
pfir^ to tfee idle. Wh«t she does offer is certain 
and generous rewards to the industrious. The 
man who has made a failure of everything he 
has undertaken will probably be no better off 
witfe a pmoe of Florida l^ad <m his haad^ ih^ fc@ 
wms before. Tlie man who arrives with two ar 
three hundred dollars for capital will surely go 
broke; unless, that is, he is fortunate enough to 
find an oocupation that will enable him to live 
wMb his gmm or patch is de¥elopin^ md tiwi 


will allow Mm sufficient time each day to d^¥el©p 
it. And such occupations are hard to find. Some 
men who are now owners of profitable farms or 
proves did reach Florida with not much more than 
enomgh laoney to make an initial payment on a 
piece of land and a determination to win. If the 
determination to succeed is strong enough, well 
and good; this advice is not for the infrequent 
poes^saor of that brand of determination. Others, 
liowev€T, siroiid ^ to Florid# pr«|mr#d to labor 
and spend. Eemember that if you are going to 
raise oranges a wait of from six to eight years is 
aliead of you, since it will be that long before your 
tr#@€ will reach the stage of commercial bearing. 
If you intend to plant truck j&wt wail will be 
gfciorter, of course, but your expends wfli he 
heavy. Clearing the land is a slow and earnest 
business, unless, of course, you are fortunate 
etiough to purchii«« a tra^t already cleared; for 
wliich you will pay a good immd price. In mmm 
parts of the state, localities where the revenue 
from established farms and truck patches is very 
large, clearing the land is only the first and least 
expensive st«p. Winter rainfall is too small to 
be depended on and bo irrigation mmi 1^ im^f 
and irrigation means one or more artesian wells. 
Not infrequently it is necessary to drain the land 
by open or blind ditcher, the latter, of course, 
til#d. In iJmiit are places irt»r@ the ooet 

of preparing an acre of grouM for mmi of tPmB 



will amount to as much as four hundred dollars. 
However, lest this sound unnecessarily discour- 
aging, you are reminded that in such sections a 
ten-acre tract is a money-maker sBd QmA three 
crops annually are taken off. 

Simford, in Seminole County, one of the state's 
busiest and most thriving cities, is a fair example 
of what can be done with the right conditions of 
land and soil and the application of scientific 
principles, Sanford's p-ro^perity is chiefly due to 
the mieeessful growing of celery. Other-crops are 
produced ; lettuce, escarole, peppers, strawberries, 
corn; but celery is what the Sanford district 
banks on; and, as there has n€V€r been a crop 
imikim sin#e 1899, when the first carload was 
started northward, it is pretty safe banking. San- 
ford— and by Sanford is meant a considerable sec- 
tion of tlie country round about the city — is forta- 
nate in having the essentials for celery culture: 
abundant water, level land, hardpan at the right 
distance under the surface to form a water table, 
a coarse subsoil and a surface soil of sandy loam 
of the proper porosity to allow the digtribMtion of 
moi^tiire. About three thou^nd acres of land are 
in cultivation, from which, in 1924, seven 
thousand carloads of produce were taken. Sub- 
irrigation is used, the water coming from a depth 
of approKiRislely one hundred and sirty feet 
tliTougti art^eian wells. PTactically every acre of 
trmk land in the district is tiled for irrigation and 


Jtmi©ikf«. At mmnj tmat erepi art fiP#qTi^ft4]y 
taken off this land, but the usual number is three, 
peppers or lettuce following the celery and corn 
serving for the final crop. Cooperative market-, 
iflif m w^U estikWiihod. This instance hm hmm 
cit^d to shoir th€tt m Florida, m ia »I1 ©th^r |^k«i« 
the world over, the grower must put money into 
his land before he can take money out. Every 
ner® ®f S^aford truck land now producing crops 
iifprei»^ti tlfce ©Jip^nditmre of mm^ mmmj as w«3l 
as labor. Clearing, fencing, irrigating, drmining, 
fertilizing, spraying — all these things cost. It is 
idle for any one to hope to win real success in any 
bfmifedi of 8^ricultTa¥€ in Fk>ri(ii «nl-e«s he is will- 
ing as-d abie to buy that tuaeeie Mot o^nly witi the 
efforts of mind and body but with hard coin of 
the realm. There are, of course, other crops than 
mderjj and such intensive farming as goes on 
Mkmut S&alord is aot alw«yi mmmmrjj but never- 
theless the rule holds good for any line of agri- 
cultural endeavor. But, to return to the optimis- 
tic side of things, it is perfectly possible to start 
#ff ia m wjdl way; take a small bite before you 
l#Gitl« tfee wliole pie; and tii#r« m (^rtaialy 'no 
state where a greater inter@«t on the Inve^lid 
principal can be obtained. 

The Florida State Experiment Station has been 
ftod ii ^img exoellmt mrrioe for farmers and 
fmit growers. Located at Oaii^et^ille, it Ubm 
branches at Quincy for experimental work in 



tobacco, at Lake Aifr^ in the interests of citrus 
finite, and at B^lk Glade for general agriculture. 
It also conducts six laboratories throughout the 
state for the study of various plant disease. At 
Gainesville one hundred a»d twelve Mmm of m- 
vaitif aU<m ai^ feeing puntied. 

Another aid to Florida growers is the State 
Marketing Bureau located at Jacksonville. Es- 
tablished in 1917, and supported by the tai: <m 
fertilizer, it keepe in iou^h with marfcet con^itlcm 
ttrougfeout tile wuntry and can at once supply re- 
liable information as to prices at any locality, 
the names of dealers in fruit and prodiM^ md 
advu^ m shipping zmitmm Ite »rriesi mrm trm. 



Aside from agriculture, which term l« used liere 
to include the fruit industry and, by special poetic 
license, the dairy, poultry and livestock industries, 
Fk3rid*'g ineimme is derived from quite a variety 
of sources. In round fibres, manufactures bring 
in $150,000,000 ; lumber $30,000,000 ; n&vti etores 
$20 000,000 ; minerals $13,000,000 ; the fishing busi- 
nem $14,000,000. And, last but by no means least, 
visitors leave more ihaa $100/)00,000 behind them 

each year. . 

Just at first it is difficult to think of Florida *« 
♦ Buaing state, but, .vhile she is bare of precione 
8he i8 domg a very considerable business m 
the mineral line. Eight miUions of dollars was 
the yield of her phosphate mines in o»e year, and 
more than a million was derived from the mimng 
fuUer's earth. In 1923 the state supplied 
eighty-five pet cent of all phosphate rock sold m 
the country. Phosphate rock is a legacy from 
the Pliocene age, occurring principally in i'oiR 
and Hillsborough Counties, in the form of l*ud 
p«bble phosphate, and in Alachua, Levy, Citrus, 
Marion and Snmpter Counties as hard rock plios- 
phate. A third variety, eolt rock, m iomd witli 



Urn others, but so far has not been commercially 
reoovered. Lew-grade phosphates are found in 
various other counties throughout the state and 
will doubtless come into use eventually. At pres- 
ent practically the entire ootput of hard r©<*; and 
ihov^ one-fourth that of pebble is exported. The 
balance is used within the United States, and sev- 
eral companies in Florida are engaged in the man- 
ufacture of commercial fertilizers. 

Fuller's eartk is m marl clay which, haying been 
tfmd from impurities, is crushed and sifted into 
four standard grades used for clarifying mineral 
oils, for refining vegetable and mineral fats, for 
removing the grease from wooleu goods aftar 
manufacture and m a basis for points and oo€- 
imtics. It was discovered in this country for the 
first time in 1895 at Quincy, Gadsden County, 
Florida. Since then it has been found in several 
other localities, notably in Maiiaiee Comty. 
Kaolin or china clay has a wide distribution 
throughout the state, but is mined only in Lake 
and Putnam Counties. Florida kaolin is of su- 
perior quality and is shipped in the raw stat^ 
to the whiteware potteries of the Nortk Ckys 
suiia-ble for th« manufacture of brick, tile, drain 
pipe, stoneware and common pottery are found 
in large deposits. Florida manufactured 2Q,00a,- 
000 brick in 1923 from her own clay. 

Infusorial earth, or fos€il-mea.l — diat^mite is its 
idtailflc iiaii»fr~.wa^ foimd a few years since at 

Wk m TO FUmikkl 

Tavares, in Lake County, by Charles Lindley- 
Wood, diapatclied to tliis comtrf by the English 
Admiralty ia tfee liop^ tkaJl h% womld h% Mm to 
discover deposits of the valuable mineral at a 
time when England's o^vti supply on the Isle of 
Skyt was depleted. The deposit was, however, 
wmvmt fp^tfced, mm% the amietioe was signed and 
the need of the material p^^ed for the tiirw. Th0 
death of the heaviest investor, in the last days 
of the War, placed the Tavares plant in chancery, 
md hen<;e the deposit still remains where Nature 
pkieed it, HiQweFer, pergistetice on the part of 
Mr. Charles Lindley-Wood, Junior, led txj tli€ dis- 
covery of a second deposit some two years later 
y~ a dozen miles from Clermont, also in Lake County. 
Diakiffiii® m now being «^ocessfully mined there 
€m A B^^enty- i i iwig re tmct and is ieliia^ mi from 
two hundred to three hundred dollars a ton. It 
is 99.3 per cent pure as against the 92 per cent 
of the California article. No matter what ex- 
tmwm^mi dmam Ct^mmm may ch&om to make 
for her climate, her momdaim^ her fmi«ija« or 
her motion-picture stars, she must foreir€r rt- 
main silent on the subject of diatomite. 

Probably j%m are wondering why so much fuss 
k hmig nmd% %bmi mmmihhig jon uewm hmrd 
of before. The writer, tr<m his g^^i^-^aad 
very lately acquired — wisdom, will proceed to en- 
lighten you. In its way infusorial earth is just 
mkmt m mimid^ mgfiM. Pai-b^ more #0, lor 



g%ld w^n't gt&nd up in froat of a blow- torch for 
forty-eight hours without even getting warm, 
which is what a brick of diatomite will do — and 
like it. It's the most perfect insulating material 
known, resisting both heat and mM m ii#tMag 
else mil. And it's quite as handy for insulation 
against sound, and the writer would like very 
mtich to bring that fact to the attention of the 
builders of modern apartments. It is also ex- 
tremely light in weight. As a fire brt^ it hm all 
tte other fire brkk fmded, one of its kind doing 
the work of twenty-nine of the other sort. (It 
would have been easier to have written thirty, but 
twenty-nine is the correct number.) It doe« thi® 
at a saving of two dollars and fifty-one and o»e- 
ialf cents, and, of course, if you save that much 
every time j^ou lay a fire brick— well, figure it 
out for yourself. But insulation and fire-pr»a£- 
ing aren't diatomite 's only uses, not by a lomg 
fifeoi It might well be called the hairpin of the 
mineral world. It is utilized in making all sorts 
of things from rubber, including automobile tires 
and plionograph records ; it is useful in the wmk- 
ufacture of €ipJosiv««^ i»sid«tii^ felt, lirepw>#f 
paiiit, glmm, i>orcekin, pottery, filtering material, 
grinding stones, safety matches, fireworks, calico, 
tooth powder, face powder, dental cream and 
numerous other tilings; and it can polish gks« 
An<i Imm^ md r«iiti« m^^r. In brkf, diatamite 
ii m tttr^ely u«rfwl thing to have around. 


The deposits occur in marsh-life formation, 
having been stowed away there many hundreds 
of thousands of years before the dawn of history. 

di^toaa is a do^MeK?elled organism which, 
under proper conditions, grows in fresh spring 
water and multiplies with a rapidity that is quite 
scandalous. All you have to have on hand Avhen 
yom wmmi to see a dijitom is a l,20(^multiple mi- 
croscope, and it takes only a couple of WMion of 
them to make an inch cube. Naturally, it took 
quite a while for the diatoms, as busy as they 
were, to form a deposit from five to twenty-five 
feet deep over aren of probably forty a<cres. 
What is left of them to-day, what is being dried 
in kilns and pulverized and sifted, are the skele- 
tons and bony outside wear of the tiny chaps. 
You «re to aBderstand, of course, that the diatoms 
ihiite>i>elve€ are quit@ dmd^ dead these t^M^l&di 
of years, and that their little insides have long 
since disappeared, leaving only billions and bil- 
lions — and then some — of tiny hollow shells. It 
i# thk peeaUar hollow form of the shells whicJi 
givee to diatomite its porosity and lightnees, and 
it is the porosity which makes it so remarkably 
non-conductive. Scientists tell us that in this par- 
ticular region the diatoms went out of business 
hwttdred^ of ihoiimnd® of jmf§ ago, asd ilmf% 
is no evidence to indicate that oth-er diatoms are 
anywhere back at their trade. In short, then, 
joung Mi. lindley-Wood and his associates — one 



of whom is a woman; you just can't keep 'em out 
of anything nowadays— have a mighty good thing 
at Clermont, and the writer grows green with 
envy every time he draws a mental picture of 
Mr. Lindley-Wood laying fire brick as fast as he 
can lay them and making two dollars and fifty- 
one and one-half cents with every brick ! 

Ilmenito is another out-of-the-way mineral that 
is being produced in Florida. Ilmenite is an iron- 
titanium oxide found with the beach sand at Min- 
eral City, south of Pablo Beach, Duval County. 
It used extensively in the making of white 
titanium oxide, a paint pigment, and also has a 
place in the manufacture of high-grade steel. 
With ilmenite are found rutile, zircon m.d mona- 
ate, al! of wkiA have their u<Bm in spite of the 
fact that the writer never heard of them until the 
other day. 

Limestone exists in Florida^ or under it, from 
m% md to ike other ; all sorts of limestone ; such 
as Ocala, the oldest of all, occurring in western 
and west-central portions of the state and being 
the most extensively used stoee for road-building 
purp'(^&es^ Ciattalio#chee, Mariamia Glendon, 
Palm Beach, Miami— popularly called Ojus after 
the town where it is mined— Jacksonville, Key 
West oolitic. Key Largo coralline, phosphati« 
and coquin^ And, maybe, others. Shell marls 
should be included, too, and there are several 


recognized varieties of those, all useful in high- 
way construction. Coquina, a shell limestone 
psci^liar t'® ih^ Enmt C<m%t in ikm vitiinity of St. 
AcgtigtiBie, was tlie first b^iMing stone Qsed in 
America. Old Fort Marion and various of the 
early buildings of our oldest city were constructed 
of it, and it is still b^iiig used -as a building mm- 
l^riftl. Them is, appar^tly, no wmkr-mt k) it. 
Many of the other limestones are equally useful 
for building purposes, while the lime industry 
uses thousands of tons yearly. In 1923 more than 
m millim. ma-d a half tons of limestone products 
wire pro<iu€ed with m wmlm of 11,572,000. Grmvel 
and sand together account for another half mil- 
lion of the state's income. Kecently experiments 
conducted with the peat of which extensive de- 
po«il« are fe^tnd in and about the Everglade* 
¥6gion have proved it to be rich in fuel V#I»e. 
Doctor Robert Ransom, of Miami, is certain that 
the Glades contain sufficient peat to light every 
home and factory and electrify every transporta- 
tion line in 4he ^tmte without really making m dtiit 
In tk« (kpogit. And his €Xp«ri«ient« have shown 
that ammonium of sulphate to the value of sixty- 
five dollars can be recovered from Everglades 
peat at a cost of tweaty-two d^liu^a* Mayba «ome- 
^bmg dioimg ibsifiil 

Amofig re^otiroes still practically undeveloped 
are deposits of bog iron, ocher and gypsum. On 
wMe^ you se% Florida is not to be sniffed 



at as a mineral mm H Fmm^im Ij9®n dida't 
find his gold] 

The lumbering business is important. In spite 
of the fact that much of the forest has already 
disappeared, hundreds of sawmills still tjira o«t 
well over a billion feet of luml^r mdk jmr, 
forestation is something that must engage atten- 
tion before long. Naval stores—turpentine and 
rosin— are produced to the extent of twenty mil- 
lions of dollars. Fishing is an immense and grow- 
ing industry, including the ^iM^ aad export @t 
both fro»h and #sit-ir&ter food fish, turtles 
oysters and sponges. More than six' hundred 
varieties of fish, not all used for eating, however, 
inhabit the Florida waters, Aloi^ the Guli ooasi 
are numerous oompani^ engaged in eommereial 
iiWtig who mntr<A large fleets of vessels and 
maintain docks and packing plants. Punta Gorda 
alone does a business of approximately oii€ mil- 
lion dollars a year. The fish whm. tmught 
tafeen to the nearest tdng station, many of which 
are •©attorod along the coast, and are then re-iced 
at Punta Gorda and shipped to the northern 
markets in refrigerator cars. The ship^mte to- 
tal in the neigliborhood of ten isillion poiin?d« « 
y«ar. Abo«t two tito«g»jid fishermen make their 
headquarters at Punta Gorda. The market there 
includes mullet, king and Spanish mackerel, pom- 
pano, trout, red bass, groupei-, pik% aiwi Mm rm- 


fishing, while inland at Lake Okeechobee immense 
hauls of catfish are made and shipped northward. 
The oyster industry is largely settled about 
Apalachioola Bay, «4Uioiigh edifelt <jyst«^ oom$ 
im all co#stal waters arouiKl the state. The 
sponge fisheries are pretty well concentrated at 
Tarpon Springs, although the industry still per- 
sists at Key West. 

Florida ig not jet & manufacturing state, btit 
^e hm clo«e to 1200,000,000 invested in factories. 
Some of the things turned out are fertilizers, 
cigars, fruit and vegetable containers, cigar 
boxes, brushes and broo»g, gyrup, canned fruits 
j#llie«^ tapio^, paper, ffiotor tnieks, per- 
fumes, cement products, brick, tile, furniture and 
candy. The cigar business is practically state- 
wide, although Tampa has long had a monopoly 
of it. Nearly fifty millioHi eig^rs are produeol 
m the hMm mftf alone every month — 82,000,000 
a year, in fact— by more than fifteen thousand 
workers who were paid in 1924 just $15,821,382. 
The canning industry is growing at leaps md 
bounds, an4, if the making of Jelfieg md pmmfvm 
wskd fruit syrups be included, accounts for a con- 
siderable part of the state's revenue from manu- 
factories. Numerous lesser industries, many of 
them novel, the latter including the utilizatioa 
€^ paJ^iio fm Iwmhmr, paving bloeks, ferwi^i«, 
bi^(WiHg «nd soap, are still in their infancy. The 
production of tung oil has been started in Alachua 


County and may become one of the great indus- 
tries. Tung, or Chinese wood-oil, is obtained 
from the nut of the tung tree and is of great valme 
to thm imint and varnish industry. And there are 
tho«e who hope, Mr. Edison among them, that 
Florida will one day produce the bulk of the rub- 
ber used in this country. An excellent paper has 
been made from the saw grass which alwunds all 
tkrot^h the Everglades, and whenever, or if ever, 
those who control the paper business see fit an- 
other and notable industry will be added. 

One more infant industry deserves a 
Bees in Florida yield more honey thmi the same 
critters do in other states. The Agricultural De- 
partment says so, and it ought to know. Mr. E. 
J. Blaine, of St. Petersburg, says so, too, and he 
ought to know even better. Mr. Blaine cume ttmi 
Michi^n — Grand Eapids^ to be precise— and 
•turned from making furniture — is anything made 
in Grand Eapids save furniture! — to keeping a 
bee, or, rather, a considerable number of bees. 
He started in a yerj small way^ a tiay skack 
a wbeelfeftrtow were his principal equipment. 
That was more than ten years ago, which doubt- 
less explains why "Sir. Blaine kept a wheelbarrow 
instead of a Ford. Being a cabinetmaker by 
trade, marking beehives was a simpie matier to 
th@ reformed Michigander, and he soon had his 
small farm dotted with the contraptions. Natu- 
rally, having a lot of beehives on hand he tliought 

lis LET'S Ga m FumuxAi 

of putting bees in them. Or perhaps he thought 
of the bees first. Anyhow Mr. Blaine has five 
l2iiiidr#d «oi#iii«« of hmj imt^^m ^om wmd they 
' §km turning o«t for hkm tw^nty-foer tbougmnd 
pounds of honey every year. Which just shows 
how Florida bees will respond to kindness and 
appreciate real good homes. Mr. Blaine has given 
up the wh«®ifesrf®w Had 4<Miay Ma prtxiaei m mnt 
I© shipping points m mo^or trucks. In a book of 
this sort it is very necessary to abstain from even 
-the suspicion of advertising, and so the fact that 
Mr. Blaine's honey is wid^ md ftvormbly 
iriiWil IMI **0mag€ Ki^kI Honey'' mmt reamin a 
secret. Although, if it should somehow get out 
the ensuing publicity would probably not be be- 
grudged to a person of Mr. Blaine's courage and 
imdmlrj, Botk Mr. B^ici€ «d n^^mmm- 
Agrie«1tiir«l Bepmrtmeiit *r«e authority tor 
the statement that in an average year eighty 
pounds of honey per colony is the usual yield. 
Thi§ is more than twice as much m is prodii^ed 
per ^^kmj m mf o4i3€t' «teiti&» Two wm^^im mre 
thecognized, tupelo and orange bloseom, and in 
quality they rank with the best in the country. 

Other industries which, if they scarcely may 
\m ©ftlled any lon^r infajits, §if % 0€riaiQjy m more 
jtiTtiiile*, urg tli« nnrmrj biitin^i ^nd i%e 
growing of bulbs, ferns and cut flowers. There 
are several large and successful nurseries in the 
itak, uoiMi^f mi OmaQ aixd Glm Smut M^j^ md 


nmMmrom leaser oneg, but there is still tmm 
for m^nj more. The growing of bulbs is a proift- 
ising field, especially since the United States has 
shut down on the importation of plants and 
bulbs from abroad. It has alreadv been demon- 
iirated that the so-called Beriaauda lily emu he 
profitably r«ii«3 tu Florid-a as well as pra€ti€;ally 
all other members of the lily family. At St. 
Petersburg Mr. Raymond Champ has gone ex- 
tensively into the business of raising lily and 
glibdioli bulbs, as well as iris dafelia 
for tntrket. He also ships cut flowers. He i« 
doing well, so well that the original fourteen acres 
is soon to become thirty. The asparagus fern" 
industry is well established at several points, 
imm ihrm hmired -mstm being dmmimd to th@ 
growing of thi-s climber for the Northern florist 
trade. Sword ferns are also gro^vn for market. 

Mushrooms may be grown out of doors in Flor- 
ida, tmder shdters, or in above-froMnd siheds. A 
tfef^«-ife!fsrie wiltrprtee m i3b?«dy nndmr m%f at 



Education in Florida began with the Spanish 
missions, but it is a far cry from those rude 
efforts to the schools and colleges of to-day. 
Florida ■ed^eiiiieiml growth h^s hem swpcimng 
when ©^e eoa«tder§ that it km all taken j^M)e in a 
comparatively brief time. Scarcely more than a 
century ago the state, or territory as it was then, 
established an educational system when every six- 
t%miik mHim el Imnd in tiie newly oTganized ter- 
ritory was reserved by act of Congress for th^ 
maintenance of schools. But the possession of 
thousands of acres of forest and swamp un- 
dLaiffl^ed by the settler was not a great souree of 
iind^me, and tiie establishing of free schoolg wetit 
slowly. For that matter, so did the settling up 
of the territory, and not until after the Civil War 
did the state's educational system become a prac- 
tical factor. Since then its growUi b&e Imen 
mimmi gtailliiig. To-day^ Fiorida's public »chool 
system, while still capable of improvement, is 
fully equal to that of many far older states; and 
improvement is taking place steadily. 

Flo€'i?dji is particularly proud of her ^t&teHiiip- 

pofiid o^Ueges, the University of Florida md 



the State College for Women, both approved 
by the Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools of the Southern States, aad ike imnmm 
by tkat national i^oetieditin^ agency, the A»®oem- 
tion of American Universities. The University 
of Florida is but twenty years old, and to have 
attained equal standing with colleges of five and 
six times its age is surely something to boast of. 

The Univei'sity of Florida beg^n in with 
an enrollment of 136 students, a faculty of fifteen 
and buildings to the number of three. To-day 
the enrollment is 1,747, the faculty number 123 
and the buildings sixteen. Loaafeed nt G-mi»tS¥ilk, 
Ali-chtia County, near the northern end of the 
peninsula, the University's large campus and 
handsome buildings add to the beauty of one of 
the state's most attractive towBs. Iagtr»ctio« m 
afti and fences, agricTi!tttre, ai^tiitecture, bust- 
ness administration, commerce, engineering, jour- 
nalism, pedagogy, law, military science, physical 
training and music is given under the experienced 
-direction of one of the South 's moit notable edii- 
(mti^aJists, I>octor A. A. Murphfee. Ee^i-d^ats \ 
of the state pay no tuition fees, save in the Law y 
College. Nonresidents are required to pay $20 
pjsr semester. Expenses are extremely moderate. 

Th% Fkirida State College for Woai#n, mi Tal- 
lahassee, was established in 1905 in a verv small 
way, having then but four buildings set in a 
campiis of thirteen acres. To-day the campus has 

expanded to fifty acres, there are thirteen build- 
ings, of which eleven are modem «tr»cftmr€« of 
fetidk, Md ih^te m 9M0 addltioaml land to the 
exi^fit of two hundred and thirty acres, largely 
used as a dairy and truck farm to supply the 
wants of the college. The present plant is valued 
in mmm of a. milUo« mi % hjlf doiJbra, The 
im^ dormitork« arooiMaodat'e more than eight 
hundred students and a large dining hall is capa- 
ble of seating eleven hundred. Other buildings 
are the administration and ©ducatiea feiildings, 
»de®©e hsdl, librmry, trmiaing mhm^, gfrnnmimm, 
inir«Arj and primary training school, the latter 
now used for general purposes. In spite of these 
facilities the college is still unable to accept all 
applicants for admission. At the prm^i Umm 
tfet iiir©il»^ lb jttM mMm (me tk)usand. Its 
i&imltj !ium%erg forty-seven members. In addi- 
tion to the standard courses in liberal arts, the 
college offers the advantages of a normal school 
and a school ©f Lome iSiM^nlai ; md m stmmi&T 
msdmim m mamt mmrm for two months for 
^ aeeommodation of teachers in service in the 
public schools. The campus is a very lovely exr 
panse of oak-shaded and well-lafid»ii^id gp^mi 
near the old Capitol. 

B^stMm tk% «tai« ingtitwtions for learning, 
Florida maintains a number of endowed or pri- 
vately supported colleges. Of these Rollins Col- 
h^, at Wi&JUo- FMj:kf is tiia ^ mmi m- 

S£iS£>OLB AND COLififlEa 117 

portant. It was organized in 1885 and has pros- 
pered exo©€dingly ever sinoe. It enjoys a amp^fc 
Iwmkmm om lMk% Yirgifiia, ife buildings folk^w- 
ing the curve of the shore and facing the water. 
With such a situation, and with a climate which 
allows outdoor work almost constantly, it is not 
grerprising that Eolline draws half its a4tandan©e 
from the North. It offers a four-year mmAmuAe 
course leading to A.B. and B.S. degrees, and has 
besides departments of Business Administration 
and Music. Rollins College has recently honored 
feir-self and 01^ #f the ©otifitry's fotassoet ci4i»^i« 
by inviting to the presidency Hamilton Holt, 
former editor of The hidepeyident, lecturer of 
note and, in 1924, candidate for the Governor- 
ship of Conceaticut. The new president b^^p^ 
Im inc«mb€iJ€f at Balling \mi Septe»bat, 

Stetson University, at De Land, was founded 
and endowed by John B. Stetson — naturally, the 
football team is kno^vn as the Hatters'' — and 
\B 4ibe o£ldal Baptist coU^i of the state. liM 
mm^n%, spriakkd with mo-^^raped oaks, ftm^ 
tains many fine modern buildings which accom- 
modate some five hundred students. It offers lib- 
eral arts courses and courses in law and engi- 
Beeri^. Otlier depariaa^te am b#ing d@ve^I#p#el 
with ih% iJLd ol aiii mmas^ elo#€ to * iaiiliiim i^oitJbjrs 

On Lake Hollingsworth, at Lakeland, is South- 
Ck41#f% i^p^rtad by \k% M«U^d(£U4&. Tbui 

ui hmm m to Florida \ 

ingtitution is hmmf »pidly deveiopad along aU 
lm€% mmi Hi new^r buildings are admirable. 
Twentj-Uvo states are represented in tlie enroll- 

Palmer College, at DeFuniak Sprin^g, Mas tke 
wipport of ike Scrathern Presbyterian Church, 
and, while it grades as a junior college, it is fast 
taking its place amongst the state's worthy m- 

At Madison is the Florida Normal Iii»titiit€, 
mi which mmj of puUic- m i mi teacliers are 

Among preparatory and secondary schools may 
be mentioned the Florida Military Academy, at 
Magnolia Springs, Bear JaiiekgofiTille, ©offering 
mmtm% m univertity preparation and in business 
training. It is a member of the Association of 
Military Colleges and Schools. Another military 
school is at Sutherland, the South Florida Mili- 
tary Academy, A}ttM)mfii in only its lliird jmt ' 
it m already well established and prosperous. 
The Captiva Island Preparatory School, near 
Fort Myers, has been in successful operation for 
a number of years, a»d b#»wi€ of ite locatioji 
iMkij om ih% edge of the tropica affords splendid 
opportunities for outdoor study and recreation, 
opportunities seized by many youths from other 
states. The Aitkin Open Air School, at St. 
Ptt^rsbtixf, mwlmi^ only elem^nlaf^^ dmmfi at 
prmsnt, hud mp^jmion is forthcoming. A sec- 


ondary school that specialk^ in vocational in- 
struction is opemted at Montverde, Lake County. 
Other established private schools are to be found 
in Miami, Tamga, Jacksonville and several more 

The Catholic Church maimtaiBs a number of ex- 
oellent institutions of learning, as the Sacred 
Heart College, at Tampa, the Saint Leo Acad- 
emy, at Saint Leo, in Pasco County, and convent 
schools at Jacksonville, Tampa, St. A^stiB®, 
Orlando, West Palsa Beiich, Femandinm an-d Kmj 

The Florida Educational Association, a citizen 
organization, is proving, of great value in the 
state's movem^t f#r geie«ri»f ibaiaprovid 
md c<mditk»ii. 

Emm waw^w^ and jMusmEJBPii^ 

Florida wants home-buildors, needs them; and 
m lot of 3io»®-teil<ier6 need Florida* Many of 
them are discovering the fa^ct, too. Indeed just 
now one might think that about every one was 
building there, but after the tap of hammers has 
oeased and the dust of mortar has blown away 
it will tdonbilea^ be fouiid tkat quite a good many 
persons who might own homes in Florida with 
benefit to their health, happiness and pocketbooks 
are still absent — a deplorable state of affairs 
that will ultimately be remedied. The country 
eantains n nvmkmt of folks whose offices 
are under their hats, as the phrase is; persons 
whose profession or trade allows them to pursue 
it as well in one place as another as long as they 
are wilhin communi-cation with their laarket, 
wliefwer tlmi May be. Also tlie ootmtfy cofi4;iiiM 
a still larger population whose business does not 
require their presence in the North during the 
winter months. Mr. Roger Babson, who graces 
Florida with his presence when the snow is Qj'mg 
ifL Wellesley, Massachusetts, and whose utter- 
ances anent the state are always sane and well 
considered, has recently invited us to take a map 


of the United States and draw on it three lines 
m follows : one from Chicago to Portland, Maine, 
me from Portland to Florida and, completing the 
triangle, one from Florida to Chicago. The space 
so enclosed, he informs us, contains a farming 
population of over six millions. No place in tk«t 
triaiigle is more than, let us venture, sixty hours 
by train from Florida, none more than a few days 
by automobile. At some time between November 
and March, the farmer within that triangle is free 
to take a well-earned vaoation,j4iid wtiat simpler 
or more sengibie way to take it than by going 
where he will find a complete change from the 
life he leads during the other eight or nine 
months? Why should he stay housed up and idJe 
at home when, by stepping into his mt or onto 
a train or a boat, he can in a very short time 
reach a place where he can be outdoors every 
day and take his choice of any number of pleas- 
ant activities? Or where, for that matter, he 
emai stay just m idle m at liome, but do it under 
blue skies and in warm sunshine. Another por- 
tion of the population of the states outside Florida 
is composed of persons who, while their duties 
require them to remain at home daring most 
of tfee winter, are yet able to absent themselves 
for a month or six weeks or even two months 
so long as messages still travel by wire— or with- 
out wire— and Uncle Sam continues to conduct his 
^mh^ffm h'&mmmB in no worte fi^shioo t^a at 


present. All these classes are potential winter 
dwellers in Florida. Many of them will be con- 
tent with hotels or boarding houses if their tiii^ 
mitmm m brief. Many of th-em will c#®tent 
with such accommodations even if they remain 
South all through the winter; that is, for the 
first winter. After that, if history continues to 
ref^eat herMl£| will kok ar»M!«l for a piaae 
Id hmild. 

Florida needs most of all citizens who will 
make their permanent homes within her territory, 
become interested in her and owe undivided alle- 
fiiAce to her, and sti-e is gettiag stich eiti^ns 
ayad will continue to get them in increasing num- 
bers as her merits as a residential state become 
more widely known. Failing year-round dwellers, 
how&veTj ghe welcomes those who like her well 
€»on3^li t-o spend a part of their time with liet, 
and especially those who will build homes. Such 
part-time citizens she is acquiring in vast num- 
bers. And why not? A Florida home, be it nevei 
•Q httBftWe, bea4» hotel, J>e it never to Itnrtm- 
cm^ for 8-oiid cOTafort and contentment. And 
e«ftainly it beats sharing your patrimony with 
the coal dealer to secure warmth and with the 
family physician to insure health. A Florida . 
Imi^yow, eveii if it doi^u't look lika mm of Um 
Bpm^imh palaces that get their pictures in the 
rotogravure sections of the Sunday papers, has 
several things in its i|vor. Fox iastaxLce, it 


<;^#@n't cost much to ^MMid. And^ there m im) 
cellar, it has no furnace to consume ooal from 
October to May. And its eaves may become fes- 
tooned with bougainvillaea and bignonia, but 
never with icicles ! 

To those considering building in Floriife a few 
hints may be welcome. Lots are almost univer- 
sally fifty feet wide in the newer additions to 
towns and cities, although one sixty- or sixty-odd 
feet wide may oocasionally occur. Depths are or- 
diiMkrily o»e toiidred feet One giusi build a Bun- 
galow on a fifty-foot lot and have room at one 
side for a drive, but he will find himself discon- 
certingly close to his neighbors on either hand, 
and in a land where windows are'" almost con- 
tinuously open and phonographs or radios & fmrt 
of the furnishings of nearly every home that 
claims consideration. Two fifty-foot lots, with 
the kou^e centered, is the better proposition. It 
is imi^ossible to tell you wb«t your lots wUi cost, 
for, of course, residence property varies widely 
in price and to-day's price may not be to-mor- 
row's. However, if one doesn't insist on being 
too close to a rapidly growing town he may still, 
at ihirn writing, obtain lots m low m ^750.00 %mk. 
' From that figure he may advance to almo^ any- 
sum he pleases. If one wants the best as to 
proximity to town, with improvements such as 
pav©d itreets, «iclewalkg, teleplM>ne <rervice, elec- 
tricity, gas md water he mmf pay tmm lap. 


Moorish gateways, swimming pools, palms and 
so on add anot^r thousand or iw^ Jifain, if cme 
iii wiMi^ well away from town and wait 

for it to grow out to him, he may purchase an 
acre for the price of a lot farther in. Shore prop- 
erty is becoming prohibitive, although still not as 
high as it will go. As some ^ne said, the Lord 
mmA^ a lot of ImM^ hut only just so much sea- 

In buying look for elevation. Elevation is 
merely relative along the coast, where t develop- 
Mmn-t lying twenty-foir inckm above th^ mr- 
row^ing land will probably bear some such name 
as Overlook" or ''Pineland Heights,'' but even 
the matter of an added foot may make a differ- 
ence. It isn't sea-water Umt you need to aroid, 
hut ih€ water Mk }yy the torrentlftl downpours of 

rains. It is just a bit inconvenient 
to have to take off one's shoes and stockings to 
reach the garage ! A lot which allows the home 
to face enil m west k prefefr^ if tlia r«iident 
int-tiKk io reeiftiii into or through the hot weather, 
bat that isn't an important item, since the advan- 
tage of sunshine in winter and the avoidance of 
it in summer may he «acux#d hy i^kfiuaixi^ tJ» 
house eorr^ctly. 

Ymn may build your house of any one of a 
number of materials, but if you want stone you 
will have to pay well for it unless you happen to 



of clay and concrete brick are to be b^, as well 
m hollow tile, concrete blocks and poured ©oti- 
crete. Since freedom from the extremes of heat 
and cold is an advantage, hollow tile, with its 
splendid insulating properties, is a most satis- 
factory material. But it comes from a distance, 
and freight charges added to the original cost 
make it high. Brick builds a house tliat resists 
the weather almost as well, and brick is less ex- 
pensive. Frame and frame-and-stucco are favor- 
ites and, when m really good in^itlating imterial 
is used in the walls, answer very well. Stucco 
must, however, be backed with a waterproof sur- 
face if the house is to be dry in summer. Wlien^ 
that VB, it is applied to a fraaae building. 

Stuc(^ has tlie advantage of accommodating it- 
self well to the Spanish-Moorish style of archi- 
tecture now so popular in Florida, and may be 
treated in any one of a wide variety of fashions 
m to surfa-ce texture and color. It imy be laid 
smooth, slap-dashed, pebbled or left roughened 
by the trowel in several ways. As for color, you 
may choose anything you please and still probably 
Bot iucceed in striking a new note. Ali'eady the 
st^le is picked oi3t wiih blue hoQ»e« mA pmk 
houses and ^^ellow and buff and brown and green 
and lavender and purple houses. And you need 
not restrict yourself to one shade alone. If the 
pUk»t^Y ig put on with a sort of '^cow-liok" eff#64 
the baclvground wmy \m am iom mM tke protntef- 


ftneeg ^'higli-lighted'' with another. There is, of 
course, the danger of having your bungalow mis- 
taken for a filling station, but tk^t ig Mo4;Mnig if 
the bi^^rre ia what jou 

The SiMiiisfe-Moorish house is much more 
Moorish than Spanish; ''more-or-less-Spanish'' 
might be a fair name for this style of ai'chitec- 
ture. Purely Spanigli lioii«<ei in Florida one can 
nndertl&nd, but, to paraplira>&e the late H. A. W. 
Tabor, of Leadville and Denver, what the this- 
and-that did the Moors ever do for Florida? One 
becomes just a bit weary of these houghs with 
their weird colors and C0«ibiaation« of ©oiors, 
ikmx iroR-gyill^d balconies, glazed tiles, oddly 
ghapod — and often useless — windows and tiny pa- 
tios. True, the Spanish-Moorish house may he 
of white, in which case it is at its best, but it so 
siddom ml Giv^Hm averm^ architect in Florida 
m t^mmmrtwc^ to work on and he becomes color- 
mad. Some developments insist that only this 
particular style of architecture may be used inside 
their confine«^ suod the r©»»lte are gometime* a 
trifle B»ePtM)toiM)m However, the Florida law 
do^^snt yet require you to build any special sort 
of a house, and you can do prettj mmh as you 

Varioui werm^m id tiie California type btinga- 
I» ii^e popular, sotee with the airplane sleeping 
room atop, some without. The main thing, what- 
ever style or period you decide on, is to have youi' 


roof tight, your walls insulated, your ceilings 
fairly high, your porch space generous and your 
doers and windows arranged to «@ettre cross- 
draugfits. Strange as it may gound, a water-tight 
roof is about the last thing a Florida builder will 
give you. See that he specifically guarantees 
your roof for at least one year. The material 
hm will use wiU probably be the hmi oi ita kmd^ 
but Florida rains are calculated to get through 
almost anything short of processed steel and it's 
dollars to doughnuts your roof will be laid by a 
emart lad who until a few months before wmm 
gliding a plow in Indiana. (Why it is tkal m 
large a proportion of the citizens of Indiana go 
to Florida and, irrespective of previous lines of 
endeavor, insist on posing as carpenters or ma- 
sons or painteri is an HMfathomable my^ery.) 
Flashings about chimneys and angles ehouM h% 
laid carefully and all valleys should be widely 
tinned. After that almost any kind of tile, asbes- 
tm or felt shingle will &ejve. Although if your 
amateur roofer c^n be peremded to refrjua from 
leaving exposed nail-holes your chance of spott#(i 
ceilings and streaked plaster will be lessened. 

You may have hardwood floors to your heart's 
@«mtent| but yon are hereby infori»&d tliat who- 
eTer ha« to look after them will ra* th^ d*M]r. 
If you must have them, let them be nothing less 
than oak. Hard pine is a mockery. Most of 
is €urfac#d with sand, and no matter how 


LET'S GO m wu^aai^Ai 

careful you are you will bring it into the house 
on your shoes, and it pla^s Ijob with polishtd 

pine §©oring covered with cofk lino- 
lemm is the best bet. Non-rustable hardware 
should be used, indoors and out; and the nearer 
the salt-water you are the more you will need it. 
AH windows and doors should be scre€n#d with 
«»afl-i»e8h ooppier screening. Like any other sub- 
tropical land, Florida is rich in insects. Mosqui- 
toes, unless you locate near stagnant water, will 
trouble you no more than ''back home'^i prob- 
abij wism the €klmoet eonstant hremm dii- 
0Wifm^€ wkml lh#r« maj be. You will need awn- 
ings on the south and west sides of your house, 
may want them also on the east and wall be well 
advised if you have them on all gide«. Wliea the 
fmm ixmm joia keep jont wiadowt l#tr€r^ 
ftt the top, yfkkh yon cian't s-g^fely do with no awn- 
ing to deflect the torrents. 

Your garage may be of the sketchiest sort, 
since all you really need is a roof above the mr 
and sitj^^^t wwM to keep th« hottest sbh oUt it 
wid sftrangers out. You may build the sides of 
lattice if you want to save money. 

It is almost as difficult to talk building costs 
as the prices of land. Materials and labor both 
fl»^i]^t€. Fortomtely Florida pr^ducei eiiough 
pine lumber for its present needs, although, due 
to transportation difficulties, it isn't always avail- 
able wli^a jiteded. Neitkar is it always m mim- 



factory as northern fir or pine, partly because it 
is weather- and not kiln-dried. This is reflected 
in the finished product of the mills. Neverthele^ 
it answers ordinary requirements. Brick, lime, 
building stone and sand are also home products, 
and, although much of what will enter into the 
construction of your house will be shipped in from 
the North, with heavy freight charts attached, 
you will build your house for far less than a simi- 
lar residence would cost you **back home.'' On 
a basis of 1924 prices, a five-room-and-bath bunga- 
low of frjyme or fmne and stucw, together with 
a one-car garage, may be built for $4,500, tMa 
price including plumbing, gas and electric fittings ; 
also incidental concrete work, as automobile run- 
way, steps and walk This figure may be a thou- 
sand doMare less for a kouse with interior walls 
of builder's board instead of plaster, fewer win- 
dows, soft pine floors and so on. Or it may be 
increased bv another thousand without much ef- 
fort. And, of course^ frc«i four or five tliousand 
jm may range skyward »b high as joor fancy 
dictates and your purse allows. Remember that 
you have no cellar to dig and almost no foundation 
to build, no heater to install and no system of 
pipes or flmts to be carried throuf hout. 

Ymtr homse wiTl, of <x)wr»c, hare a cliiiBiioj to 
accommodate one or more fireplaces unless it is 
very far south indeed. Even at the end of the 
peninsula or on (m^ the Keys jou will ba 

ISO ^ I^T'S GO TO Fmms^Ai 

more comfortable for an occasional blaze. Over 
most of the state a fixe m a neeeaeity at i»t#r¥iJs 
diaring the wifiier laonths. Your fireplace m@.f be 
fitted with one of those good-looking and efficient 
improvements on the old-time gas-log, or you may 
put a basket in it and burn coal, or you may have 
a few doil^e' worth of pine asd cmk piled in the 
hm^ yard and watch the sparks fly up your chim- 
ney on a cool evening. In any case your fuel bill 
will be small ! In your bathroom a gas or electric 
haater — the latter has th-e ^1 — will stdd ^ the 
wmfort of oooi Momingg, whil@ for rooms not 
affected by the warmth from the fireplace one of 
those gas heaters that may be moved about at 
fancy wiU prove convenient. 

Ke€piiig hmm in Florida has its difficulties, 
just as, nowadays, it has everywhere. The serv- 
ant problem is quite as acute there as in New 
York or Portland, Oregon. White help is tx- 
itm&ely hard to ©btain and ©oi<or€d iierv&iitt ^re 
Ii04#rioti«ly ttiffing. Unless you can provide a 
room on the premises for your cook or general 
house-girl you might almost as well do without. 
Tho^e who come in by ihm day of^^efve nm^y holi- 
dmf% m)t mi ^mm m jom mlmdmr^ a.?e gub^ect 
U untimtlj and mysterious maladies necessitating 
varying periods of abstinence from labor and 
recognize no duties after 5 :00 p.m. If you kave 
yQm dimm Miiinkiijr). #yt f&m own supper md 


are satisfied to leave a sinkful of soiled dishes 
overnight you can manage after a fashion. Male 
Jaelp may serve you a trifle better, for your yard 
wum^ whom you will s^re with mmi of your 
neighbors, may be depended on to show up with 
some regularity; unless, of course, he manages to 
accumulate several dollars at once, in which case 
he will remain m stranger to you^ — suffering from 
touek of fever"— HBtil the excew weialili hm 
been dissipated. 

Your laundry will either go to a steam laundry, 
most of which are particularly destructive and 
generally unsatisfactory as yet, be entrusted to 
a colored woman, or, all else faiGiig, be dene at 
home by the housewife in sheer desperation. If 
the aid of a laundress is resorted to, one of two 
things will ensue. You will provide a large iron 
kettle for boiling the clothes, a few bri<^§ to 
keep it off the ground, »ome wood for a fire, ihwm 
or more wash-tubs and a bench to set them on, 
plenty of water, soap — which has a way of dis- 
appearing mysteriously the next moment — and the 
otier mnsl eoaeomitiyits. A\m yoQ fpill 
how provide sufficient space on the premises feir 
the accommodation of this paraphernalia and one 
— usually — stout colored lady. Or else you will 
pl*oe yoBF week's washing m ike automobile 
bear it, with due huaiility, to th% tmidmm et 
the laundress. Since laundresses invariably live 
on unpaved ^treets^ the task is less simple than it 


Ljrr's 00 TO widmBAi 

sounds. At the end of the week yon will rel^-n 
for the lami^. If yon are wi§.e, you will, having 
F@ae^ iic^e, taie th^ clothes from the basket 
#r tandle before entering the house, since not in- 
frequently more comes back to you than you sent. 
The reference is to cockroacheg, jaowever, aad not 
to that moTQ dtQsd^ immet 

Uale&i you lik€ cwkroaches, and few persons 
&eem to, you will need to be alert if you are to 
keep the house free from them. Eternal vigilance 
is the price of peace. The cockroach, of which 
mveml vari^tiaie tf^ either indigenoti* to the state 
or hmw% f^cognized its advantages as a place of 
residence, is forever to be reckoned with. Your 
house, it is to be hoped, will have been built with" 
a view to the exclusion of both fodents «.ik! 
r«c»dfee«, wUkmo a^its fot ttieir convenience and 
M outer doors fitting closely. But you can't 
f»^e the cockroach by a show of inhospitality. He 
thrives on snubs. If he can't get into your house 
through a cT^k »r nnder a door he will do it in 
» fold of paper at the bottom of a basket or con- 
cealed in a bag, disguised as a potato, or in some 
other stealthy and ingenious way. Never allow 
the groceries farther thaa the hmk porch without 
m inep^iom, and imer put potatoes, onions and 
i^«fiitables generally away in the containers they 
arrive in. Once well established, the cockroadi, 
either the big, handsome lustrous-brown cl*p oc 


to exterminate. But he can be kept out if you try 
hard enough. Even if you don't suspect him, an 
occasional offering of romeh paste or powder left 
in the corners will do no harm; and you needn't 
give way to surprise and mortification if one or 
more victims of your generosity is found the next 
day. Cockroaches are splendid waiters and will 
remain concealed for days at a time in the hope 
of lulling you into a state of false security. It's 
best to take it for granted that there is always at 
least one on the premises, and go after him. 

About the only other things that may bother 
the housewife are moths and ants. Moths are 
plentiful in the South and nothing should be put 
away in the springs that hasn't been sprayed with 
one of the patent moth-proofing liqimids. This is 
advisable even when cedar ^Mi« or bag« are lo 
contain the article. Ants are not likely to trouble 
unless you deliberately tempt them. If you leave 
an uncovered syrup can around, however, or any- 
Uiing equally delectable from the ant point of 
view, they will flock to it even if they have to 
cross the street and climb the rain-spout! Only 
the tiny red — or, let us say, blonde — ant is so en- 
terprising. They, too, may be oontroUad^ liow- 
iver, without itB-dtte eiertiojEi. 

You will cook on a gas stove or, if you prefer 
it, an electric range, and hot water will be sup- 
plied by means of an auxiliary gas heater. You 
vill^ probably; find Ui« water hwd aud m kare 

m LET'S GO TO FU}Mm.i 

recourse to soaps and washing preparations spe- 
cially suitable. You will discover, to your (Es- 
mmj^ tkai; ti^e Florida iuja is desti-mctive m cer- 
tain euf taifi materials and that silk draperies are 
short-lived. But you will also discover that that 
same sun has wonderful cleansing and bleaching 
pjn©p#r4i#&» O® ihe wliok, you'll forgive it its few 
naiid^e^ii^rs for the mkt at it« many vlrttres; 
just as you will soon forget the inconveniences 
and trivial annoyances in the feeling of restful- 
mm sjai^M-immi will be yaura 


Probably every game or amusement not de- 
pendent on the presence of snow or ice i€ to he 
found in Florida. And, while skiing and tobog- 
ganing will forever remain impossible, ice-skating 
may soon be indulged in on an artificial rink in 
Miami. With the exceptions noted, a list of sports 
pursued and gam«es played in the Nocth will mm.- 
swer for Florida in the winter time. Golf is pre- 
eminent, and the state is dotted from end to end 
with courses, most of them of excellent quality. 
Golf is one sport not limited to tlie winter months, 
tot %ren in the hott«€t weather you will fiiMl the 
links well occupied. Tennis is played everywhere, 
and, like golf, draws many competitors to winter 
tournaments. Polo is restricted to a few locali- 
ties. The seemingly gentle,, but really rather 
strenuous, game of foque counts its devotees by 
the thousands, while lawn-bowls and the demo- 
cratic pitching of horseshoes vie in favor. The 
National Pastime has fairly adopted Florida, 
and major and milior league- te«M« (l«#c«d mpon 
it in February and oecupy training grounds all 
over the central part of the state. A State Base- 
ball League flourishes in summer and an East 



Coast League in winter. Football between col- 
legs mnd mkmi kmam Imim from 6eptemb€T to 

Florida waters are beautifully adapted to sail- 
ing and motor-boating, and each season sees an 
i^jrease in the number of visiting and homie- 
mnmd boats. The protected sounds aad harbors 
of the East Coast and the Gulf are ideal waters 
for small craft, and Florida winters provide ideal 
weather. Speed-boat races are held each season 
©fi both eoa«ts and inland, too, and are oentested 
by the fle«ete«t craft of the country. One scarcely 
thinks of automobiling as a recreation any longer, 
yet there are many who have the leisure to make 
it such, aad for them Florida offers a wealth of 
«si»ll€mt pa¥€d roads. Motor racing on Day- 
tona's wonderful b^aeh is a frequent event. 

Many there are who derive their greatest pleas- 
nre from bathing, and to them the state is gener- 
mm ia the matter of superb beaches. The East 
Co»st, Irom Pafef^ Beach on the north to Miami 
Beach on the south, is an almost unbroken suc- 
cession of smooth white strands, wliile scarcely 
an island of size from the latter place to Key 
W«it not off€r surf facilities. The "West 

Coast, too, has a number of fine beaches, but their 
number is more limited. Many of the inland lakes 
provide excellent conveniences for enjoyable bath- 
ing, and wher« nature has overlooked tha zmitox 
arli&ml pmik supply the defidetiey. 

spo&TS AND MSiGmATiom m 

Lovers of horse-racing may enjoy their favorite 
sport at both Miarai and Tampa, and, when the 
season there is over, may find excitement in 
watching the greyhounds run. And, of ootirse, 
they may wager to their hearts' content on either. 

Florida is the fisherman's paradise, has been 
for years on end and always will be. Fish are 
to be caught in numbers not only in the d^p 
waters oif the coast but in every harbor, channel, 
canal, bayou, river and lake in the state. To list 
them would be impossible. Dr. James Henshall 
states that he has eollected close to three hundred 
species from the salt and fresh waters of Florida, 
and not even as canny and indefatigable a fisher- 
man as the good Doctor could possibly come by all 
of them. Of the fresh-water fish the big-mouth 
bass, or 'Hrout" m the native Floridian 
him, is king. He is taken in about every lake 
and stream throughout the state, and while some 
localities claim preeminence for size of fish taken, 
others excel in the abundance of smaller prey. 
It is only fair, however, to give credit where credit 
belonf^s and sav that what the writer believes to 
be the largest big-mouth on record was taken 
with hook ajid line from Lake Moody, in Pasco 
Comty. It weighed twenty pounds aiid two 
ounces. Various lakes on the Eidge are favorite 
resorts for the enthusiastic bass fisherman, and 
some very large specimens have been taken there. aiid streaim yie-ld vario^ ftwfi&ha% 


the crappie, the catfish and, infrequently, the 

What the big-mouth ba^ is to the Florid* 
hkhm^ the tarpon is to the sea, but he is a g ime, 
bsrd-fighting king while the big-mouth is a good 
deal of a quitter in warm waters. Tarpon fishing 
is at its best on the West Coast and along the 
Keys, although it is pursaed on t^e ocean side 
of tiie p^ningtila. The bays and estuaries that 
line the Wei§t Coast seem to be very much to the 
tarpon's liking, and St. Petersburg, Sarasota-, 
Punta Gorda and Fort Myers are the tarpon fish- 
ernoiiia's headqii&rters on ihmi side. Special mm- 
tion must be given to Useppa Island, off Punta 
Gorda, for there is where every real dyed-in-the- 
wool tarpon enthusiast gets at some time dur- 
ing the season. That season lasts from May to 
Angt^t inclusive. B.Mt tarpon aren't tti-e only big 
fish to be caught, for you can get a pretty hard tug 
from a jewfish and, if that isn't large enough, 
you may, with luck, catch a two-ton rhynodon, or 
'^devil-fish"; although it's a fair bet you won't 
iafid him witk hooJt mid Une ! Anglers with light 
tackle find pleasure and excitement enough, how- 
ever, in smaller if no less sporting captures. 
Sailfish, tuna marlin, barracuda, bonito, sheep- 
heftd, lady fish, Spanish miW3kerel, posi^mo, 
channel bass, grouper, drum fish, jack, snook, 
king fish — the Southern, not the Northern chap — 
sea trout, red snapper, mangrove snapper, all 



the crappie, tiie catfish aiiclj infrequently, tl*« 

What the big-mouth bass is to the Florida 
lak-es, the tarpom is to the sea, but he is a game, 
hard-fighting king while the big-mouth is a good 
deal of a quitter in warm waters. Tarpon fishing 
is at its best on the West Coast and along the 
Keys, although it is pursued on the ocean side 
of the fjwii^tila. The bays and estuaries that 
-line the West Coast seem to be very much to the 
tarpon's liking, and St. Petersburg, Sarasota, 
Punta Gorda and Fort Myers are the tarpon fish- 
erman 'g Ijeadquarters on that side. Special men- 
tion must be given to Useppa iatend, off Punta 
Gorda, for there is where every real dyed-in-the- 
wool tarpon enthusiast gets at some time dur- 
ing the season. That season lasts from ]\Lay to 
Auguat inclusive. But tarpon aren't the only big 
fish to be caught, for you can get a pretty hard tug 
from a jewfi^sh and, if that isn't large enough, 
you may, with luck, catch a two-ton rhynodon, or 
''devil-fish"; although it's a fair bet you won't 
land him with hsi^fe mid Tine ! Anglers with light 
tackle find pleasure and excitement enough, how- 
ever, in smaller if no less sporting captures. 
Sailfish, tuna marlin, barracuda, bonito, sheep- 
head, lady fish, Spanish mackerel, pompano, 
channel bass, grouper, drum fish, jack, snook^ 
king fish— the Southern, not the Northern chap- 
sea trout, red snapper, mangrove snapper, all 


await you in Florida waters. Fishing clubs are 
many along both coasts and down the Keys. The 
Miami Anglers' Club alone numbers close to four 
hundred members. Then there is the Sailfisk 
Club at Palm Beach, the Fort Lauderdale Club, 
the Long Key Club, and, select and exclusive, the 
famous Cocolobo Cay Club. And so on up the 
West Coast as well; not omitting another exciu- 
sive association of 6port©»en mi Clearwater, the 
Stone Cr«b Club. 

And that naturally brings the question: Have 
you ever eaten stone crabs? Other crabs, yes, and 
probably crayfish, but stone crabs? If you 
haven't, plea#e do so before you die. Make a 
pilgrimage to the place where they are best, Passa 
Grille, and confine your efforts to them. Don't 
mar your palate or clutter up your internal work- 
ings with anything else. Just say ' ' Stone -craBi I ' ' 
and keep on saying it until you've had enough. 
After that, quite at your leisure, you may drop 
a few fervid expressions of gratitude to the 

For the hunter Florida still supplier a quantity 
of gmne. Exeellent quail shooting exists in al- 
most all sections north of Okeechobee, wild doves 
are numerous and turkey can be found in the back- 
woods. Geese, duck, plover and snipe are to be 
had. G-ame animals include cottonteil and mmrgk 
rabbits, cat and fox squirrels, opossums, raccoons, 
foxes^ wildcats, deer, bears, panthers, alligators 


and cro<X)diles. And, if your tastes run that way, 
rattlers! Perhaps, however, rattlers aren't game 
animals. While on the subject of snakes, it may 
be well to state that poisonous reptiles do exist 
in Florida, although jom miglit remain in the staie 
all your life without seeing one. SeTeral varieties 
of rattlers and at least one moccasin do business 
there. Unless, however, you disregard the 
timpiest precautionary m^i^ures when hunting 
m msTTkh, haiftBftoek or gwamp jon are in no dan^r. 
There are undoubtedly far more rattlesnakes ia 
many of the western states than there are in 
Florida. Moccasins, fully as poisonous, inhabit 
ihe mftters of awtmps and slow-moving streams 
or, on ooca^i#fis, gun themselves along the banks. 
Sometimes they /^hang themselves up to dry" on 
a bush. Don't interfere with the drying process. 
Li^ther boots or leggings reaching well toward 
th% knee are **good iii^dicine" for the hunter, 
although there are plenty of '^crackers" irho have 
spent most of their lives in the woods and clear- 
ings and have never known tlie feel of a shoe. 

Anotiier inliabitant of the water, this time a 
^fi»le«« oiie, m ik^ Florida otter, wkic^ abounds 
in the southern part of the peninsula, especially 
in and about Big Cypress Swamp in the Ever- 
glades, where he is trapped in great numbers 
bo4b by th% Bmmimle liijAisjm wad by prole-iiiio©^ 
lrapper#. Contrary to the general Impression, 
which credits the far northern otter with tlie finest 

^Om^ AND. J^j&EATIONS 141 

pelt, the Florida otter has his cold country brother 
beaten. His fur is longer and of better quality, 
and there is more of it for the reason t^t hm i# 
considerably larger. A particularly fine otter pelt 
has brought as high as twenty-five dollars more 
than once. Buyers from the fur exchanges make 
re^lar visits to the Everglades, leaving the trap- 
pers -considerably better off. 

The ownership of game is vested in the coun- 
ties. Persons may hunt free on their own prem- 
ises, but all others must have licenses. A non- 
resident hunting license good only for the county 
in which issued costs $25.25. Each ^(Mitioufti 
county license costs $5.25. Resident licenses cost 
$1.25 for county of residence and $3.25 for each 
additional county ; or a state-wdde license may be 
oMnkied for $10.25. Nonresident fishermen pay 
$2.25 for a license permitting them to fish m tl^ 
fresh waters of one count}^, or $5.25 for a state- 
wide permit. Residents do not require licenses, 
nor do children of thirteen years or less. Bag 
limit: two deet, five turkeys and three hundred 
of any other game birds per year : one deer, two 
turkeys, twenty quail, twenty-five ducks, coots and 
gallinules, eight geese, eight brant, twenty-five 
doves, six woodcock, twenty-five Wilson snipe, 
fifteen in all of plofers and yellow-legs, tweaty- 
five in all of rails, coots and gallinules per day. 
The sale of all reedbirds and all protected game 
ig pr^iibited. A aonresiden4 luintor may carry 


out of the state game as personal luggage, but not 
more than a two days' limit of migratory game 
birds Baay he experted in any one we^k. 

1^ l iWIii i til am. dmtj turkey, squirrels, quail, 
doves, duck, geese, etc., opens November 20th 
and extends to January 31st, inclusive, on all save 
d#er, turkeys, squirrels and quail. On these tlie 
•iMiiOii €nd8 February Ibih, Certain tXioeptioms 
exist, and the visiting hunter wiii do well to pro- 
vide himself with full information covering the 
districts he intends to hunt over. An attempt is 
biing mad® thro^h the Legislature to give the 
aontrol of game to th@ et-^te, but the mfttlef i# 
still in process. 

The subject of golf cannot be disposed of as 
gtimffiarily tm m ^ m&imm or two. Golf in 
Florida is m vastly important fliil«r in the up- 
building and progress of the state, a fact already 
well recognized by those interested, either finan- 
cially or altruistically, in Florida's growth and 
protperity. Ten je^m ago there wae a different 
story to tell, for then golf was still looked on as 
the rich man's hobby, and the idea of developing 
a town site about a golf links would have been un- 
thoi^ht of. Yet to-day more than one suburban 
<d€f tlopra«fit hm mm. the bailding of a eoime and 
an elaborate club house thoroughly completed, has 
even seen the course played on, before the grad- 
'mg iuul paving of ^iJU^i^ was completed and lots 


were offered for sale. Public golf courses have 
been or are being provided by all the cities and 
larger towng. Berne of them are even Parting 
their s^ond or third courses. Privately owned 
links are everywhere. In short, Florida is teed 
and greened and bunkered from the Georgia line 
to the tip end of the far-flung Keys, m.d it m 
doTabtful i£ more tiian a half-dozen other states gmi 
offer as many really excellent golf courses. To 
dwell in detail on all that deserve it would take 
far too much space, but a few are fairly entitled 
to special mention; as, for instance, th»e fi«€ tm- 
nicipal course at St. Augustine, the long eighteen 
holes at Ormond, the Palm Beach Country Club's 
links, the excellent course of the Gulf Stream Golf 
Club, at Del Eay, the Cloister and Ritz Carlton 
Golf Clubs ' links at Boca Eaton, the Coral G^itfelee 
course and the Miami Country Club and the Fla- 
mingo Golf Club links, the latter at Miami Beach. 
On the West Coast the justly famous Belleair 
courses at Clearwater demand mention, as do 
thme of the Coffeo Pot Golf Club at St. Peters- 
burg. Tampa's Eocky Point links and the course 
at Temple Terrace, a short distance from Tampa, 
are equally notable. Bradenton's thirty-year-old 
TOnrse deserve a word if only beeattse it is the 
progenitor of all Florida courses. Inland are the 
Lakeland Golf Club links, the new Cleveland 
Heights, in the same city, the sporting Mountain 
L<i4e% at Lake Weir, the "Dub&dreAd," at Or- 


lando — worthy of its name — and the course at 
Dg Land. Doubtless there are many others of all 
the scores unmentioned fully as de&ervin^ of rec- 
ced ; tai^ %m immkmm at this moment covered with 
remorse for having neglected the College Arms 
course at De Land, one of the oldest and still one 
of the finest in the state, occupying an ideal situa- 
tion am^npii fiiPi mmi ifydmrn md fragmiat 
orange trees. 

As nearly perfect as many of the private courses 
are, there are at least two municipal layouts 
which seldom fail to arouse the admiration of all 
wlio play on them. These are the courses mi 
JackTOnville and at Hialeah, orrtside Miami. The 
Jacksonville course has few superiors in the 
country. It was designed by Donald Eoss and 
combines in its eighteen holes about every test of 
the golfer's skill with conditions adjwstabk to 
the plodding game of the duffer. The turf is al- 
ways in excellent condition and even in the driest 
weather does not become baked and hard. It is 
undoubtedly one of the best tended courses in the 
Umied Bt»t<3s, and in spite o€ the purely nomiml 
fee charged — fifty cents — it has proved a paying 
proposition to the city. Rates by week or month 
are proportionately lower, and for twenty-five 
dollars onmmmj pl&y ther^e for a year. 

Ijow fee« are also In vogtue at Hialeah, where, 
likewise, the golfing visitor will find fairways and 
greens, service and surroundings, equal to the 


best. Here, in i^cember of last year, was staged 
a notable tournament in which, during two bril- 
liant days, such golfing masters as Duncan and 
Mitchell, the British stars, Bobby Cruikshank, 
Gene Sarajzen, Johnny Farrell, Leo Diegel and 
otlmm of like caliber fought their way to a de- 

Over on the "West Coast, Belleair possesses the 
only 36-hole course in the state, and it is the winter 
Mecca of thousands of golf enthusiasts, many of 
whom return there for play year after year with 
never-failing regularity. The course is delight- 
fully situated on a rolling terrain overlooking the 
waters of the Gulf, and its fairways are marvels 
of texture and color and its greens like stretch^ 
— and good generous stretches — of emerald velvet. 
Verily, a joy to the disciple of old John B. Golf. 

The Boca Ciega Country Club, at St. Peters- 
burg^ called on Walter Hagen when it came time 
to oonsider a golf layout and the Boca Cie^ 
course is the result of the combined resources of 
Hagen and Wajnie Stiles. It is still new, but it 
takes its place among the best. If one likes water 
hmards — ^and what true-blw« golfer doesn't at the 
bottom of liis eoialf — they are to be found to per- 
fection at Boca Ciega, for the course not only 
borders the bay but is indented and crossed bv the 
lazilv windino; inlets of blue water. 

The list of golf coarses in Florida which follows 
ig by no tneAiis eomplete since golf coiafees, li^-e 

m Lf}f « «0 TO PLOEID A ! 

Sttbdiviei^ai^ are being opened up with aKii»ag 
*»d awiflwling persistency. The list is, however, 
wrr-ect to within a few months. Tlie writer is able 
to include it here through the coui'tfi^ of the 



Altamonte Springs 
Altamonte Springs Golf Course 


Arcadia Golf Course 

Am^mrsc Biach 
AlliHtle Beack Countr^^ Clmb 

Avon Park 

Scenic Highland Golf Club 9 

Number Total 
of Length 
holes im yards Par 

9 1,825 34 


18 6,000 72 

Babson Park 

Crooked Jj«ke GM Y*eht C1u4j 

Bartow Golf Club 

Bellkair No. 1 
Ir^elleair Country Club 

BeujEair No. 2 


9 3,240 



9 2,855 U 

0,218 71 

18 5,7G3 GO 

Boca Oiumos 

<lttif m^mm ^li %Mm 


2,900 34 


Number Total 
of Length 

■^0'"^ holes iM yards Par 


Bradenton Golf and Country Club 9 3,008 36 

Palma Sola Golf and Country Club 9 


Clearwater Country Club 18 6,305 71 

Poinset Golf and Country Club 18 6,^0 73 
Coconut Grove 

Coconut Grove Country Club 18 5,S86 €9 
Crooked Lake 

Yacht ittid Country Clmk 9 3,100 2^ 

l)«ytoim Golf atid Cousito^ Ciwb li €^ 1% 


CoU^ Amm <3olf Cluh 18 6,i00 14 

Municipal Golf Cour^ 9 3,000 36 


Lake County Country CUib 9 3,250 37 
Florence Villa 

Flonujce ViUa OoU' ChiU 9 2,5a6 37 
Fort Lauderdale 


Nnmbrr Totwl 

of Length 

Name ^'^-^ ya^^^ 

Fort Myers 

Golf and Yacht Club IS 6,388 74 

Fort Pierce 

F^rt Pierce Golf and Counti;y Club 9 3,007 36 
Fruitl.vxd VkSM 

€k)lf Club 6,125 69 

aMiM^lk Omi «i flMftitry Club i 35 
Green Co\t: Springs 

Qui Si Sana Golf Course t 2,321 35 
Hampton Springs 

Hotel Hampton Golf Course 9 3,100 
Highland Park 

HifWaHd Park Golf Course 9 3,100 
Ho^ Sound 

Jupiter Itflaed Golf CWi t 2,821 

Homestead Golf and Country Club i 3,(>7§ 36 

IlQllj^ftad OdII ^id Country Club 18 1,100 72 

18 6,200 73 

Number Total 
of Lenffth 

Name holes m ^fmnds Par 


iMunicipai vjroii L/Ourse 



1* loriaa L'Ouniiy LfiuD 




Timuquj-na Country Club 





Key West Municipal Golf Coui?9e 





ijrOll OlUD 



Lake City 


Country Club 




ClpvolnYid TToi(^ht<? Clolf and Oountrv 

Club f nnd#r (♦Odi'^ti'HiOtjiou^ 




Lake Wales 

Mountain L*k@ Club 





Lecsburp; i\Tunicipal Golf Coui*se 




Silver ij*k€ Q^i md Cowuk'y Cl\*b 


3^1 8-4 


Qolf md Country Club 




Coful Qibkn Clubbou«e aiul Golf 




MMn Coiifitry Club 








^IiAMi Beach 

Bay Shore Golf Club 

Flamingo Golf Club 

Beaob IMI CM) 

Number Total 
of Length 
holes in yards 







^louNTAiN Lake 

6,240 71 

Nipl» Gtolf C1j# 

# 2^ 40 

New Smyrna 

New Smyrna Golf and Country Club 


West Orange Count r>^ Club 

18 6,565 76 


Qmi^ Cmmtrj Club 

9 2,852 37 


Orljyado Cmmtry Ci^ 




Ormond Beach 

Onnond Beach Golf Links 

18 6,006 75 


Palfttka MuAieipal Gdf Course 




^o^^g Am Esm&kmmB m 

Number Total 
of Length 

Name holes im yards Par 

Palm Beach 

Palm Beach Country Club 18 5,025 63 ' 

Pens*cola Country Club 9 2,638 35 

Hotel Hampton Golf Club, Hampion 

Spii«^, Florida 9 3^100 2^ 

Port Sew^ll 

St. iiucie River Country Cl^b 18 6,140 71 



Punta Gof'da <3oif Clmb % 3,809 ^ 

BooMed«« Golf Club 9 2,it6 M 


Golf Course 9 

Sanford Municipal Golf Course IS 6,005 70 

Sarasota Golf Holding Co. 9 6,890 38 
Nokomis Golf Ijijik^ (Villa Nokoniia 

&«4*REEZii; (Daytona) I 

Gljif!iitde» OoU Co4aJ»e 1% %,2A1 7A 




y otal 
m. %'mrds 



^[enilworth Lod^e Golf Club 




St. Augustine 

St. Augustine Links 



St. Petersburg 

Countn' Club 




Tallahaasee Golf Club 


Palttia Ceia Golf Club 



Eoeky Point Golf Club 




Temple Terraces Golf Club 



^••p^® Springs Gclf €lul) 




tSawn Island 

U«epp« ##lf 





l^«l Park 



West Pai^ji Diacm 

Wistt PiaM Bmnh OiaftCrj Club 

IS <),»f 71 

Ejftl^ 0@u»pHry Club 

1§ 6,:f20 ?2 

Winter Pak^ 


Florida railroads have been very busy of late. 
During the year of 1924 more new trunk line rail- 
road wm mniet oon-struotion m \hMt state tlmn m 
ftll the other states of the Union eombinedj and in 
1925 building fell off but little. The most spectac- 
ular raihvav feat of recent times was the construe- 
tion by the Seaboard Air Line within tea montlia 
of two htmdred and seven miles M rmd eoiii^etiBg 
the East and West Coasts. At present the At- 
lantic Coast Line is double-tracking its main line 
within the state, building an extension at the tip of 
the peninsu]*, and preparra^ to laj down a (sm- 
nection between Montieello ar>d Perry. The Em^ 
Coast Eailroad is also double-tracking its main 
lino. The Seaboard is busv on the West Coast 
with a n«ew north-and-south road, an extension 
irom Bara^ota got^ffc io Fart M|Wi au4 #evetml 
cut-offs. Tn February, 1925, thefe were twefitT- 
niiu^. railroads in Florida, practically all, however, 
conirollod bv three main svstems, the Seaboard 
Air Line, the Atlantic Coa-st Line and the East 
Coafit Bftilfoad. ?he«e with ifmr l^ted \mm 
and connections cover the state verv 

Various steaml)oat and motorboat lines serve 



travelers along the coasts and on the principal 
lakes and rivers. Of these the prijicipal one is 
the Clyde St. John's River Ldne^ operiitmg m dmily 
scfcediile betw^n Jaek^onTille and Banford. This 
trip is one that should not be missed by the visi- 
tor to Florida, since the St. John's River is a 
really beautiful stream and travel in either direc- 
tiofi, by dm$ m Igr wght, i« iborou^hty enjoyable. 
The soutlilK)und or northbound tourist wilF do 
well to break the monotony of railroad travel by 
connecting with steamer at Jacksonville or San- 
ford ; or, if going north on the East Co^t Rail- 
mmd^ td Eiaierpri»e. Tbe service is good, the 
elalerooms excellent and, since the boats are oil- 
burners, you will not be required to dodge cinders. 
The fare is $7.57 between termini, and the trip 
requires nineteen imm^ time at Jackson- 

vilk Wmg 4^ ¥,m., aiid at Banford 12:15 p.m. 
The sixty-mile stretch from Jacksonville to Pa- 
latka consumes about ten hours and is made over 
the widest part of the river. Shores are frequently 
too far away k) ]ye renKiily dimag§ociat^d from the 
wmter. At Mandarin, fifteen miles above Jack- 
sonville—remember that your stream is flowing 
north!— is the site of Harriet Beecher Stowe'g 
winter home. Nemr by ike Marquis de Talkyf^M 
lit«d Mmrlj tkrm years after liig banishment 
from England. The old settlement of Hil)ernia 
shows on an island, and not far above it, at the 
I'U^U iUMk C^§A sm^Aim. B^k Cm^k is mwi- 


gable for nearly ten miles inland. Magnolia 
Springs, twenty-eight miles from Jacksonville, 
has long been in high favor with winter residents, 
both on account of the abundance of fine trees and 
b^Mtt&e of the alleged healii^ properties of it« 
springs. Thst word ' ' alleged ' ' is put in there jmt 
to be on the safe side. The writer guarantees the 
healing properties of no spring in Florida, the 
United States, Europe, Africa or any other land. 
However, lots of folk® drink the waters at Mftf- 
nolia and Green Gove Springs, just beyond, afid 
profess to be benefited. Green Gove has so much 
more water than can be drunk that a whole lot of 
it is flowed into a pool and used for bathing par- 
poses. Farther along comes Picolatm, where, mmm 
two. hundred years ago, the Spanish erected a fort. 
It was taken from them by the British, later used 
m a military post during the Seminole unpleasant- 
mm and fiimlly played its p&H in ihe Givil War. 
At Picolata, then Picokiti, was the ho^ of Goloiiel 
John Lee Williams, distinguished authority and 
writer on Florida in the first part of the last cen- 
tury. He was a firm friend of the Indians, and 
wfi^ St. Augustine, and Pi^kti, tcK>, w«F« 
burned, and settlers killed or driven away, he re- 
mained unmolested and died peacefully in 1859 
at eighty years of age. Opposite West Tocoi is 
tie older »etiien.iont of To(X)i fr^ wiiMi nearly 
forty years ago a littl-e railroad ran — no, plodded 
— to St. Augustine, twenty miles east. Travel in 


^mm <iaj€ wm a real adventure, for the train ran 
msL m %mtiimAimi seiedtile and stopped wlier- 
ever a passenger put in an appearance along the 
track. Federal Point and Orange Mills follow, 
and then you reach the orange-groved and still re- 
fl-«#@hinglj oW-fashion*@d imm of Palatka. Once 
mi a time you cohM mme right to Palatka from 
Charleston and Savannah, all the way on an ocean 
liner; although it conceded that ocean 
liners of those days weren't either m large or m 
msmptuom thorn ©f the pr<e^nl 

Al}we Palatka your river narrows suddenly 
and the scenery becomes more tropical. The boat 
frequently pushes through acres of water hya- 
cinths in bloom. Occasional clearings, groves aaid 
villagem hmk^ imifc the iiuigk, but for the mo«t 
part the river turns and twists through unspoiled 
Nature. The turns are often so abrupt that 
further progress upstream seems impossible. 
Giant oaks and wild olive tre<3e bend outward 
whnmi ^-^^mmer'g deekn. IPirtles splash 
from c}'press knees and floating logs, herons whir 
away in pretended panic and songbirds fill the 
hammocks. At night this part of the journey is 
weirdly !>ea«tifu], either whea flooded by iiM>o*n- 
lig^it or by the hig g#mrchlight of tl^e steamer. 
Suddenly Lake George lies before you, a truly 
lovely expanse of water seven miles across at its 
widest point and about twelve miles long. At 
V^kita iM tkm mtm of m mm^ ipiidih miiiioa. 


The river again narrows and continues slender 
and winding to the end of navigation. De Land 
is reached early in the moraiog on the southward 
trip. Enterprise lies a few miles on and Umt 
Sanford, on Lake Monroe, is reached and the trip 
is over. 

Southbound along the St. John's, jou will see 
the mouth of the 0€klawaJia Eiver around a point 
to the right soon after passing Welaka; wtiidi 
will doubtless remind you that the most pictur- 
esque voyage of all is still ahead of you. Of 
eomrse you have hemrd of the Ocklawaha River 
and Silver Springs, so why should you hare to ^ 
hear it again? But don't be satisfied with Hearing 
about them. Go and see them. You'll not be dis- 
appointed. You may make your start from Jack- 
sonville by steamer end spend m day in Palatka 
befoi-^ embarking on the next stretch if jm a 
leisurelv soul, or vou mav reach Palatka by train 
or automobile in time for a close connection with 
the boats which leave at 7 :00 a.m. daily. The one- 
way fare m $10, Th% muud trip $lo. 

Wise folks secure aceomtno<ktiofis in *dTiuie«. 

The Ocklawaha is the turningest river in the 
world. That it was laid out by the man who plat- 
ted the city of Boston is a theory advanced but 
o«v«r prov^. The story of Qie n^m who ni^ Mm- 
self coming back originated on this streafii, koff- 
ever, at the Needle's Eve. The Lulian name for 
iJie river memM ' ' drnk wyjgdiiig stream. ' ' The 



Indians were pretty good namers. However, tlie 
river is only dark in places, and it is more than 
the name suggests; for it's one of the loveliest 
flrsam^ in ti^ w#slA Bmi '4 ittkm Om writer 'i 
ipoftl for it 

It will take you about twenty hours to make 
the trip to Silver Springs, at the end of the 
ro4ite, and fifteen hours to come back. You don^t 
hmme to emm ba<3k if yo^ doM't wmMt to, mmm 
Ocala is only six miles away. If possible tarry 
at Silver Springs long enough to bathe in the 
gorgeous water; for it is gorgeous; any water is 
through which you can #ee to a distance of over 
eighty fe^t. And, too, try a gl®^€-l>ottom0d boat 
and have a glimpse of fairyland. There are five 
basins here, as well as a subterranean river which 
cosies flowing up with millions of gallons daily, 
mmd mmh io inier€«t the vimtor for several hours. 

Oth^r tTip€ may be m^-e from Jacksonville up 
the St. John's, and most of the larger rivers offer 
pleasant trips, that up the Caloosahatchee and 
across Lake Oii#echob<3e being one of the best. 
Dwyii^t tript mB^tdm powiibk m neTmr§d of tlm 
larger lake«. On the West Coast boats ply be- 
tween various shore ports and tlie near-by Keys. 
From Tampa you can go by steamer to St. Pctcrs- 
Iwf, ^fm4*ot«, Bradento^, Pakiietto, Anm 
li«fim, Cofim^ Wort Myers, Mstco, Everglmde, 
Chokoloskee and Key West. And if you want 
to advenluj'c farther toward the tro^lc8| steamers 


will take you from Tampa or Key West to Havana 
or from Miami to Nassau. Or if you wish to 
me New Orleans before returning north — if you 
mmt retmrn — the Gulf and Southera Sf€aD>giiip 
Company offers you the choice of two good boats. 
These steamers sail from Tampa on Tuesdays at 
3:00 P.M., and land you in New Orleans in ju&i 
under two days. 

Oii€ meaa* ©f transportation was alMost for- 
gotten. You can get from hither to yon — almost 
any hither and practically every yon — all through 
the state by comfortable motor busses. At least, 
most of tli€m are eosif or table ; those ttot aren't 
are few and will soon be replaced by the othef 
sort. It would be impossible to list the motor- 
bus lines, since new ones are starting almost every 
week, but it is already safe to say that one may 
travel from one md of the s<4ite to the otii@r and 
from one side to the other bv this means. From 
Tampa alone, over the White Stage, the Gulf 
Coast Motor and the Blue Bus Company Lines, 
you can journey as far north as Lake Citj^ 
JiieksotiviHe mi m far s^iath as Fort Mj«m ajid 
Palm Beach. You can reach Brooksville and 
Leesbnrg and Enstis, Orlando, Sanford, Daytona 
and Si. Augustine. You can go up and down the 
EmAi^, across Uie Imy to St Foters.t>iiff, Cl#iif- 
witeT and Tarpon Springs, and down alouj^ {ht 
coast to Palmetto and Bradenton and Sarasota. 
You can, in short, go almost anywhere. 

m LET'S 00 m FU)&iDAl 

Florida has been at the business of road build- 
ing in ^ large im^ im ^kmi foMt yeafs. Bh% 
isn't through, by any manne? of means, but she 
is well along on the job. In the year 1923 she 
expended just short of twenty millions on this 
work. In 1924 the figure was approximately the 
same. In 1925 it was some three miillioi>s larger. 
Tli-e restiit is a series of paved and semi-hard 
highways from Tallahassee on the west to Jack- 
sonville on the east and from the Georgia state 
line to Fort Myers on the West Coast and Florida 
City on the Ea^i. Tia^re are, besides, eight well- 
defined cross-state routes, of which four are al- 
ready paved or semi-hard, one not quite as good, 
and three in process of building and traversable 
for p^rts of tiieir distances. North and #outh, 
ixmf rmm gyste»g of excellent highways «0OT€r 
three-quarters of the peninsula. Besides these 
principal constructions there are, of course, nu- 
merous connections and branches. One may now 
#4^rt at Tallahassee and jouniey to Fort Myer% 
lo Armdia, to Okeechobee, to Fort Pierce, to 
Palm Beach, to Fort Lauderdale, to Miami and 
to Florida City without leaving paved roads, save, 
|>erhaps, where repairing operations are going on. 

However, tie word paved" in Fkirkla m fi#€d 
to include much that m no longer really deserv- 
ing of the name. That is, some roads paved with 
brick several years ago are now so worn out that 

m mtimmf mmif^i^ mrUm imyd im mom ac- 


ceptable. An example of this type of road is that 
between St. Augustine and Bunnell on the East 
Coast highway. Other examples of it exist 
Hiroughout the state. Such roads were hurriedly 
and unwisely built, the bricks laid on a sand base 
without cementing and the law of gravitation re- 
lied on to keep them there. In such cases the 
law of gravitation runs out in a very few years. 
However, even the^e roads, most of them only 
nine feet in width, are practical. Of course when 
you meet another car both you and the other 
chap have to turn out, and since the sand outside 
tl^ bricks is generally loose and deep it some- 
times hapi>etis that one or another of von 2:ets 
stuck. To avoid that possibility, don't slow down 
in passing. Keep on the pavement as long as 
possible and then turn oif as fast if not faster 
than fou were naming before. With luck you'll 
flounder back to safety. These narrow briok 
roads are doomed, but just now the demand for 
paving where there is only improved road, and 
the dei»and-=for improved road where tlier« im 
only sand iias delayed the tebuilding of them. 
One scarcely has a right to kick about these in- 
frequent stretches of loose and up-ended bricks 
though, for Florida has many hundreds of mllm 
of really exeelleiit ro#di'«y ovfrr which jotifney- 
ing is a pleasure. 

From Tallahassee westward, Iliirhwav Number 
1, the Old %uuaish Tnul^ is Imug hard-surfac#d 


or p#v€cl all the wmj lo the Alabama lin^e. Some 
portions of it are now ready, and the completion 
of the undertaking is looked for during the spring 
of 1926. Travel by automobile west of Tallahas- 
me is possible in good weather at present, bwt 
n@l be advi#^ m a pl#aeure. Th€ East Qomt 
Highway is generally good, although there are 
stretches of worn-out pavement and a section of 
a few miles south of New Smyrna still only in the 

improved" stage. Stilly road work goes on so 
imt in Florida that by the time you read iM^ the 
exceptions may be out of date. It is now possible 
to cross from one coast to the other in comfort 
from Bradenton to Fort Pierce or Palm Beach 
by way of Arcadia, Oke^hofee^ mnd the Conneri 
Highway. The latter is the recently completed 
toll road along the eastern shore of Lake Okee- 
chobee. The toll rates are two cents per mile per 
car and one cent per mile per passenger. The 
mmk advertised Tamiami Trail is still in th« 
making, although it has seen considerable prog- 
ress within the past year. At present the 
* 'farthest south" is near Bonita Springs on the 
We«t Coast, while a coTigiderable stretch of road 
Imm hmn hmli dm€ west from Miwai «Bd aBotJier 
section is nearing completion about midway in 
Lee County. It is likely that 1927 will witness 
the completion of this important and difficult task. 

The highway through the lake district and 
iiflSlbwanl along the Eidge im in fe!i«T*M;f fei^ 


condition. The mme is true of the St. John's 
Rl^r route as far as DeLeon Springs, below 
which place a short stretch of sand-clay is en- 
countered. The much needed connection between 
Palatka and Ocala is still lacking. In ike vkinitj 
of aune« City, Lakeland, Bartow and Lake Wales 
there is a veritable network of paved roads, and 
the visitor is afforded a variety of routes over 
which to see that section. Betweea Tampa and 
Bradenton two paved highways are aforded. 
Eastward, Arcadia finds herself the meeting place 
of five paved or semi-hard roads. Fort Myers 
may at last be reached mthout unpleasant ex- 
periences. On the whole Florida need offer no 
apologies to the motorist. She hm done well in 
tiie matter of roads, is doing better and won't 
be satisfied until she has the finest system of state 
roads in tb.e country. And that maajag m the 

The Floi ^•ida Automobile Association of the 
A. A. A. has its headquarters at Orlando and 
maintains more than three hundred service sta- 
tions and information bureaus throughout the 
state. The visiting motorist is aocorded every 
cotrjrtesy md shoMid refer to the nearest bureau 
for information regarding state laws, local reg- 
ulations and conditions of highways. A road map 
of Florida is published yearly and may be had 
free ol ^r^e. If on€ can disregard the miach 
mMM^m^ff§^ mmMmi-iof detail on th^ latest 


production he will find the information regarding 
4he ro^s wp to mud authentic. The Anto- 
mobiie Association can do b#li«r aiiotfe«t time. 

Residents of Florida are not yet required to 
be licensed in order to drive an automobile, and 
the result is rather dismaying to strangers. A 
cat on whkk registration fee of fifty ©ents pet 
hundred pounds of weight has been paid may be 
driven by any person able to reach the wheel, irre- 
spective of age, color, mental or physical capac- 
ity. In a state where a speed of forty-five miles 
nn horn 16 kgal outside of commmnities, this con- 
dition of affairs does not make for safety. NoT 
does it add greatly to the pleasure of driving 
in the tovms where a careening delivery vehicle 
amj be ''manned" by a twelve-year-old colored 
boy, a fomr-tom truck by b gia-fuddled negro or 
a bounding ''flivver" by a deaf-and-dumb pafa- 
lytic. Florida's automobile laws will stand re- 

Th# «fc#rt-teTO r^g ietratioia has been cabolished, 
and nonr€eid€nt Motwrists operate mder m 
"reciprocity" clause which entitles them to use 
their cars for such a period as is allowed non- 
residents by their home states. 

T€«rkt mmpn are fir^uent throughout tho 
state, altioofh the free cemp ii rnn tlJ€ d©diae. 



Wh»m- the writer was very young and studied 
geography from a large thin book his youthful 
imagination never failed to be inflamed by three 
features appearing on the blue and green msd 
pink and yell#w maps tb^rein. One was indi- 
cated by the ma^gic legend "Llano Estacado, or 
Great Staked Plains," which, by some odd per- 
version of mind, was always mentally associated 
with a full meal; one was known as the B'mmMl 
Swamp, ajid one the Everglades. In latef 
yemrs lie passed over the Staked Plains in a train 
of the Santa Fe Railroad, and discovered once 
more that romance is always a jimip ahead. Still 
later he viewed the DisDml Swamp, af mme of 
it, at least, frooa a hurrying, bumping automobile 
and found it no more dismal than a hundred other 
flooded regions. And eventually he beheld the 
fabled Everglades. In each case he wm dimp- 
pointed. Life is like that. Nothing pmU£ o«t. ju#t- 
m iaiagioation pictures it. There was, for in- 
stance, the famous elephant, Jumbo. A breathless 
.iuvenile world was led fo believe that Jumbo was 
something colossal and awe4ifl#piriii^. lu fmi 
tMt gtmi i^i^akt, Mr. BarmiiB^ rtfukd wi^ 



p9«st#r§ giiowing the ^'Biehmmih. of Holy Writ'^ 
being led through the streets of New York, or 
possibly it was London, between throngs of cheer- 
ing citizens, his head abont level with third-story 
windows. And tlien he oa^Be to town a«d we mw 
Mm, mxhd — oil, wtoat's the iiml Big, yes, he was 
big, all right enough, but he wasn't so darn big! 

The writer's preconceived idea of the Florida 
Everglades, with the big wiggly-lined spot at the 
top ©ailed Lake Okeechobee, w-m of a Tmi, dense, 
Aia^^sian jungle ill^d with mammoth t Mid 
giant ferns and tropical beasts, birds and blos- 
soms. In brief, the sort of thing that Captain 
Mayne Reid, of revered memory, would have pro- 
vided if he hmi bad the liwiiaiigifif of thingi. 
Youthful imagination crowded it with apes and 
boa constrictors, panthers and crocodiles. Per- 
haps there were even some of those trees which 
poisoned ike intrepid explorer with their deadly 
««l»laikQi€L Anyway, the Everglades when the 
writer dreamed over his big geography-book were 
all right! They're all right still, but they aren't 
the same Everglades they were then. 

Wliat 4fciy are now im • vmt prairie abo^at 130 
mile* kmg by 70 wide, ©ontaining in th« neigh- 
borhood of 8,000 square miles, an area nearly the 
size of .the state of New Jersey. The region is a 
ooraUittie limestone liii^x, its rim broken down in 
pkmm and ftlloiwwg wtt^ whitsk «»lki®4s tberda 
from the rmiiifaH and from numerous springs to 



flow into ocean and gulf. The general elevati#n 
is some sixteen feet above sea level, the rim 
reaching a height of several feet more. The! 
region is sprinkled with wooded islands (ham- 
mocks) varying in size from mere knolli « few 
sqmre yards in e^nt to expanses of large acre- 
age crowded with luxuriant vegetation. Most of 
the territory, however, consists of level glade, 
traversed by hundreds of watercourses and con- 
taining numerous small, shallow lakes. In the 
miny season the entire surface is covered with 
water, save for the hammocks, and depths of from 
a few inches to twelve feet are found. This con- 
dition may prevail throughout most of the year 
when the summer rains are excessive or wheti ^ 
<?omparatively rainy winter ensues. Much of the 
overflow from Lake Okeechobee also makes its 
way into the Glades, although as the present ex- 
tensive drainage project progresses this supply 
will be le#sened. The wattr of the Everglades ti 
clear and pure and never stagnant, since it is for- 
ever in motion in a general southerly direction. 

Properly speaking, Lake Okeechobee is not a 
p^rt of tlie Everglades, but forms tl^ir northern 
boimdAry. The es^iern boundary eon-sisk of plw#~ 
lands along the Atlantic coast, the southern of 
mangrove swamps lining the Bay of Florida and 
the Gulf of Mexico, tlie western of Big Cypress 
Swamp, which extends |@ ihe itulf o©.a«i The 
foTaiittcifflL of oofiliift» wuridstone frequently pro- 




4j|^cs above the surface aM frequently dropg 
limwrnj in pot-k#le€ umd gprii^g. Ov€r fke fock 
I there is generally a deposit of muck from a few 
f inches to several feet deep. Peat, referred to 
f elsewhere, occurs over a large territory. The air 
/ is fresk md the wind bl-ew^ constantly, iisnally 
/ from the §«epttthwe€i. The principal growth of the 
Glades is saw grass, a sedge with three toothed 
edges which will cut as easily if not so cleanly 
as the tool it is nAmod for. According to Avater 
/•d-epthj the mw gfms attains a height of from 
Mfour to ten feet, and makes more than an inch 
^l/of such growth in twenty-four hours. The tem- 
perature in the Glades is extremely equable, be- 
cmuse of accessibility to winds from ocean and 
f^tM. Im wiiiter it ranges from 7Q to 80 di^ees. 

Although water^^ays admitting flat-bottomed 
boats and canoes wander practically all over the 
Glades, navigation is difficult in more ways than 
ane. Saw grass mmi mtooet eomtmntly be 
avoided, shoals appear unexpect-cdly, neeessitmt- 
ing short carries, and the sense of direction is 
easily lost. To attempt the winding creeks and 
courses without a comj^teut guide is not advisa- 
fefe. Wim Bf«rgLs4€i Itate neve? yet hmm mikm- 
ticaliy mapped, nor have more than two or three 
expeditions succeeded in ci'ossing tliem. Trappers 
and hunters well experiencxid with the streams 

pi^ii^fttte to the iiiiatior in canoes, 
d^t the §uttjym Ebe iil«y&dt 

in a lake, large ones and small ones, by their sim- 
ilarity at a distance adding to the diffiaalty of 
orientation. Under the eare of a good guide a 
trip into the Glades is an interesting and en- 
joyable adventure. The hunter will likelv be well 
repaid for a week or so spent there, for deer still 
make their home in the Glades, as do bears and 
wildcats and a few panthers. Smaller game 
abounds. The Glades are one of the last fast- 
nesses of the disappearing 'gators, and, theoreti- 
oally at least, crocodiles f»my be found there, too, 
i^]though these latter are more at home along the 

Alligators prefer fresh or brackish water to 
salt a-nd moving wat^r to stagnant. They inhabit 
burrows along sireaini, but seem to spend m^t 
of tfeeir time away from home, lying partly or 
wholly out of water. A 'gator slide is easily 
recognized when seen and always indicates^ a fa- 
vorite swimming hole near by. A Valor rmy : 
ftow to be eighteen feet in length, by wliich time I 
he has attained a ripe old age of well over a 
liundred years. He feeds on fish, turtles, birds, 
snakes, lizards, frogs and not infrequently mx 
hm own young. To shoot one, aim for just abo^ 
m %fe or dose up behind a foreleg. Sometimes 
a shot at the junction of head and neck will turn 
the trick. Shoot at any other place and you 
waste ammunitioiai m% T%mm whj ailifntor hm^ 

to HF^J 



The 'gator defends himself with jaws and tail, 
mi^ makes a good job of it, too. It is still possible 
to miek Bigkt of a 'gator in his native liaunt, but 
it ww't be mmh longer, for hm extermtnati(Mi 
goes on apace. Those who vision Florida as a 
region teeming ^vith alligators and crocodiles 
Binst revise their picture. The chance of seeing 
m *gmtor outside an ''alligator farm" or in the 
shape of a traveling-bag is getting mighty sAim. 
If you should be lucky enough to come on one 
taking a siesta just keep quiet and he will let 
jm gme yonr fill. Disturb him, however, and 
ht will §E<l€ OMt of si^t into the water or waddle 
quickly into his burrow. A 'gator will fight like 
Sam Hill if you insist, but, like nearly every wild 
anim^ the world over, he will let you severely 
lAene to long m you don't start anything. 

Your cfean^^ of seeing a Florida cTocodik is 
practically nil unless you make a badnegs of 
hunting him up. The Crocodihis Americamis 
probably never did exist on this continent in as 
Imrge nwrnherw m hie cousin the alligator, and 
to-day is pretty nearly extifict. If yois do set 
one you will readily identify him for w%«l he 
is, for he doesn't resemble the alligator more 
t\mm superficially. He has very narrow, pointed 
jawi ®»d k>n^ tegtfe, whereas the 'gator's nose is 
broad and round and hi§ t^h iherter. Not, of 
course, that it is advisable to examine tli« t#eth 



of either animal too closely. The 'gator dresses 
in black and dark brown on top and wears a yel- 
lowish waistoo#t, while the crocodile attire» Mm- 
grelf in gr^nish-gray, witli an oocasional bloteli 
of black, as to his top-side, and is much lighter 
beneath than the 'gator. If every other means 
of identification fails, however, you can always 
differentiate the crooodile from hm fellow r^tile 
by the presence of tusk holes in the upper jaw 
which accommodate the two front lower teeth. 
If those particular teeth don't protrude through 
the upper jaw your crocodile is an alligaitar, no 
imtter what he tells you. 

The Florida crocodile ranges along the co^at 
from south of Miami to Cape Sable and, to some 
small extent, along the Keys. He likes salt water 
lagoons and ponds and must have a sea beach 
ka.ndy for nesting. Unlike the alligator, who lays 
her one to two hundred eggs on a built-up ar- 
rangement of sticks, leaves, sedge and mud, the 
lady crocodile makes a nest like a sea turtle's. 
Th^at is, slie scoops a hole in the sand at the 
wmter's edge, deposits perhaps sixty or^sevfiitr 
eggs therein, covers them up, smooths the sand 
down and forgets all about the whole affair. 
When the baby crocodiles hatch out and emerge 
from tlie warm wmi Uiej have to fend f<M" tiiew^ 
selves, and no favors a«ked or giTem, 

It is always open season on alligators and croc- 
odiles, and various lizards whose skins look well 


whm imde up into bags, purses and so on, and 
' ti won'! be m»m$ fears before Ibey, like Uie man- 
atee, or sea-cow, will be just a m^wiory. Of 
'course a few hundred will remain to be viewed 
with curiosity by incredulous visitors to private 
farms," but they'll be missiiig from the wild 
life of tl>e state, just m iho parakeet is, and the 
flamingo and many another beautiful or pictur- 
esque former denizen of Florida forests and 
shores. Considering that there will always re- 
Baain— at leik# f©r a great many years— portions 
of the md of the state which cmnja&t be 

turned into groves, truck patches or subdivisions, 
it would seem only fair to future generations to 
M¥e a few crocodiles and alligators. It isn't, you 
kmrw, as if ih&f mmm^J^eroiis citi^eas^ for they 
aren't. No one wm e^er pursued along a eomtfj 
road by an enraged 'gator or chased up a tree 
bv a maddened crocodile. Of course, tlie writer 


4oetn't recommend them for household pets or 
eT«a m fftmiyard miiim^, but in their own 
haunts they are picturesque and peae€f«yi«i sM. 
largely to the interest of the wilderness. 

Aiiother inhabitant of the Everglades and the 
ffcdjoleii]^ regions deserves m much space as the 
alligator, ftart4j. Vim- fn^lmmm m t@ tke Semi- 
nole ]ndian. 

To tlie writer the Seminole of to-day seems a 
rather pathetic %ure, although there is no evi- 



pears satisfied and contented enough. He is a 
composite of the Creek and other Indian nations, 
the negro and, possibly, the Spaniard. In fact, 
tfeere^s no telling what racial strains m^j flow 
through the veins of the preseat-day Bemiapole. 
Occasionallv the Indian characteristics of counte- 
nance are much in evidence ; occasionally the fea- 
tures have a distinct negroid cast. However, they 
ar« as honest lis their white neighbors, penembl'S, 
and self-respecting. For some years following 
the Seminole War they remained very chary of 
showing themselves to the settlers. Then, as vil- 
likges sprang up along the coast, they began to 
venture forth in their dwgomtg to ^11 and biart<@r. 
To-day they are believers in publicity, and sev- 
eral Indian villages on the East Coast have be- 
come money-making propositions by reason of 
the thousands of visitors who p«y admissiom t® 
tbem. Quite a few have beeome o^xMies and mrrr 
the golfers' bags over the Hialeah links, outside 
Miami. Still others are travelins: the countrv 
with circus troupes. However, the home life per- 
giits m l(»caUUes r«©o¥^^ irma ih% of 
tft?e4 iknd the old customs are tefiaciouslT clui^ 
to. Some of these are novel and interesting. 
Tliat, for instance, which decrees that a widow 
shall garb her&elf in black after her husband's 
d^tli wid w€V«r t*k« her olotlia^ olf. Ev^fih^ly 
the}^ drop off of their own accord. When a wife 
dies the husband must wear the same shirt for 



four months. He is also restricted from visiting 
white settlements. A Seminole man is buried with 

I his bow and arrows, gun if he h«i oae, hMsting 
knife and rations for a tkTee-4ay joum-ey to 
*'Hopie/' the Happy Hunting Ground. 

A Seminole encampment generally consists of 
from four to six families, a family comprising 
lmtii€f^ m^^imr, depeadent relatives, children *®4 
sons-in-law. A Seminole m-aiden do-esn'l go olf 
fiand set up housekeeping after marriage. She 
.brings hubby home to the paternal palm-thatched 
IWof. The houses are elevated some two feet 
above the ground, • w^m$ ftrtangmient in a mtm- 
try subject to summer inundations, and have 
no walls. Perhaps the term house isn't deserved. 
Covered platform would be more descriptive. 
The itogiiii^use m wdiir ilm roof, miA Uiere iuch 
tiisttur^^ m blankets and provisions fire iept. 
j Cooking is done in the open air over fires of logs 
1 placed like the spokes of a wheel, the flames be- 
j ^ug at the hub and the logs advanced as the inner 
I j^ods are eonsiaiied. One ine mrwm for the wkole 
{I village, and, since a fire is never allowed to go 
•out save when the villagers travel, there's no 
Icongestion of cooks. They have practiced dehy- 
dration for many years, since long before an 
agitated Government ferooght it to the altention 
of a war-time public. They dry their T€getable6 
thoroughly in the sun, pack them away until 
needed then soak them for several hours be- 



• four months. He is alsD restricted from visiting 
1 white settlements. A Seminole man is buried with 
I his bow and arrows, gun if he has one, hunting 
i kttife and rations for a three-day journey to 
' ''Hopie," the Happy Hunting Ground. 

A Seminole encampment generally consists of 
from four to six families, a family comprising 
father, mother, dependent relatives, children and 
sons-in-law. A .S««i»ol€ maiden doesn'l go off 
and set up housekeeping after marriage. She 
brings hubby home to the paternal palm- thatched 
; roof. The houses are elevated some two feet 
above the ground, a wise arrangement in a coun- 
try subject to summer inundations, and have 
no walls. Perhaps the term house isn't deserved. 
Covered i)latform would be more descriptive. 
The storehouse is under the roof, and there such 
treasures as blankets and provisions are kept. 
Cooking is dmm m op«n air over fires of logs 
placed like the spokes of a wheel, the flames be- 
ing at the hub and the logs advanced as the inner 
ends are consumed. One fire serves for the whole 
village, aiiij mice a fire is never allowed to go 
out save when the villagers travel', there's no 
congestion of cooks. They have practiced dehy- 
dration for maiiy years, since long before an 
'^agitated Goverimient brought it to the attention 
of a war-time public. They dry their vegetables 
thoroughly in the sun, pack them away until 
needed and then soak them for several hours be- 


fore cooking. Being excellent hunters, the Semi- 
nol#s seldom m^ant for meat. Ojcasionally they 
mdte purchases of it, salt pork especially, at the 
white men's stores. Their favorite dish, "sof- / / 
kee," consists of boiled corn meal, or mush, and {/ 
strips of pork or bacon cooked therein. ' ' Solkee ' ' H 
is eaten with a large woodea spoon which is 
dipped in the iron pot and then handed from 
one to another. When one is really hungry, 
"sofkee" is palatable and satisfying. 

Permanent villages raise their own pi^s Mtd \ 
chickens and keep oxen for hauling and plowing. ^ \^ 
Usually, indeed almost invariably, there is a sew- 
ing machine under one or another of the thatches, 
and on this the women fashion the colorful cos- 
tumes worn by both sexes. The men wear kiie«- | 
length skirts and blouses, sometimes adding as j 
a final touch a gay handkerchief around the neck. 
Sometimes, too, that badge of civilization, the , 
derby hat, is donned, in which case the Seminole i 
considers himself about perfect. A few have '« 
ala^ndoned the native costume altogether, but 
these are men who have, as well, practically aban- 
doned tribal villages and customs. Each village I 
has its own distinctive costume so far as color / 
is concerned, with red the favorite and yeltow, 
black and blue following in that order. Clans 
are named for animals and birds, as "Turtle," w 
"Otter," "Eagle" and so on. The women take A 
]^hmm% m dc^B and es|3ecially m adorning 


selves with as many strings of glass, shell or 
metal beads as their means atTord. These are 
seldom removed* For that matter, the Semin'Ole^ 
im-^t Wiber tItaEmtelves !i!«cli witli robing and 
disrobing. Wlien bedtime comes they spread 
their blankets and crawl in, and that's that. 
When they bathe, which they do with commend- 
able fr^^n-ency, they walk into tM w»4er with 
clotheg on md kill two birds with one stone, wash- 
ing their bodies and their garments in the same 
operation. They are go%^erned by medicine men 
who call councils and preside at them, perform- 
ing mairkg^ cmfWmmmi^ md^Uhxg dmpdLm mM 
mating out justic-e. 

There are two distinct Seminole languages, so 
utterly unlike that the Indians inliabiting the 
northern part-s of the 'EvmglsKlm cauftot talk with 
tfeeir brothers of the #oiitterti tmiaps.. That is, 
not without the aid of some accomplished linguist 
acquainted with both tongues. However, either 
language is simple and easy to speak and under- 
glumd-^ jou happen to Im m Seiaiiiole. Oih«r- 
Wim, you »igtit {mt l>ett«f try yotir tmg^e «t 
Chinese. The Seminoles work the letters of the 
alphabet to death, showing, however, little favor- 
itism between consonants and vowels ; except tliat 
«« WMMlmmg into m Beminok village, womM 
last about ten minutes! ^me of their words are 
delightfully short, like ^^Cheo," corn, but most 
of them go tke limit, a«j ''Ocli-oiii^e-la-wat-kee/* 


green corn; '*Och-chee-tot-o-la-go-chee," corn 
bread; ^'Chit-ko-la-la-go-chee," rattlesnake; '^E- 
Ut-ta-pix-tee-e-fa-cho-to-kee-not-ee," instep, and 
— take a good, deep breath! — ^*In-tee-ti-pix-tee-e- 
toke-k^-k#e-tay-gaw, ' ' wri^. 

Title to the Everglades formerly was held by 
the Federal Government, but it eventuallv deeded 
to the state of Florida twenty million acres with 
tlie underBtajiding that they were to be drmn^d. 
In 1881 a private coneeni started on four million 
acres and attempted to construct canals from 
Okeechobee to Hicpochee and beyond. Intense 
summer rains put a qijietus on that undertaking, 
one or two oihef private venttires fared 
scarcely better. In 1905 the state itself took hold, 
prompted by the forceful Governor Napoleon B. 
Broward, a Florida Cracker" by birth, who, al- 
thougli lackiiig edumtion, nevertliel-ess h^d vision 
and foresight and indomitable oourage. Broward 
made his campaign on a platform of ^'Dry Land in 
the Everglades," and won. Having been elected, 
he got busy and real work of reclamation begsui. 
A Drainage B<mf^ wm fofHied mid six (mials 
projected, and for a while digging went forward 
well. But the project was a huge one, imforeseen 
difficulties were met and the work slowed up. 
The Florida pmblic, outside of a small number 
of laid owmeFg to whom the draining of the Evtr- 
glades meant financial salvation, became apa- 
thetic. The whole project began to take on the 

m im^B GO TO FiiQ6iDAl 

semblance of a vision. Money was not forthcom- 
ing when ne^ed aad legislature after legi^tere 
iMMd «itfe«r Tmm state ftmd«. Biit th^ wark 
ncTer actually ceased, and to-day there is much 
to show. About twelve million dollars have been 
expended and four thousand square miles have 
l>e«n made fit for farming purp#&e#. Hie Con- 
mi'B Highway hai been bm\t, although not under 
the Drainage Board, through the heart of the 
Everglades, connecting West Palm Beach with 
Okeechobee, on the edge of the lake of that lajwne, 
tod opetiing up to aettletn^nt a Imnge ternary 
of rkfe mmk lands. To-day the undertaking is 
enjoying a new lease of life, ^\ith the present 
governor, John W. Martin, forcefully behind it. 
About 19,000,000 million acres remain to be dried 
ttp5 md 4jliii! number mme fcmt md a half naM- 
mre €X|>@ct»d to he ready for the plow in 1927. 


It is not intended in the following chapters t© 
mention ^en in passing, much Imn describe, all 
the towns and places of interest on the way. Nor 
is it intended to deal at length with those that are 
mentioned. Instead the writer proposes to arbi- 
trarily divide the €ta^e for kia pret^t purpose 
into fo^r sections and seek to convey a general 
impression of each section as a whole rather than 
report on its communities. Exceptions will be 
made, of course, of tlie larger cities, but for de- 
tailed iaf^rniation re^rding tke g<e«erai mn 
%o'Wm the render is referred to local authorities. 
No Florida town will refuse to enlighten the 
thirster after knowledge; in fact, most of them armed and lying in wait for the thirster; 
arw^ with fftcts mid figUTes and highly tinted 
pamphlets so excellently prepared as to put t^e 
present writer to shame. 

The western part of the state as far to the 
e^t m a line drawn from the mouth of tlie Sii- 
wmB-ee fiiver through Lake (Sty shdit oKMtpriii^ 
the section called IMainland Florida. The rest 
of the state naturally divides itself into the West 
CoAst^ tlie East Coast and the Bi%e sectian^ 



Let us travel the mainland portion first, entering 
the state by the Old Spanish Trail and crossing 
Perdido Bay to Pensac^^ After all, it is only 
imr to gta^'t with Pensacola, f^r that old city 
is #aid to b«e the outcome of the first real settle- 
ment on the American continent, ^^ile Pensa- 
cola itself was not founded until 1696, Pen^ola 
Bay was visited as early as 1536 by Do Solo, and 
€ither he of amether e^^Mish-ed a rather sketchy 
e^tleMent on Santa Rosa Island. This was de- 
stroyed by the storm of 1754, or so the story goes. 
Pensacola is as full of history as a northern Flor- 
id* pecan is of ffieai Spaniard and Frenchman 
fought for tier possession, as did, later, Spaniard 
and Briton and then Briton and American, and 
finally American and American. The transfer of 
West Florida from Spanish to Americmn rule took 
place here oft tfee §iie of the present 0ty Hall, and 
ti« fi^rit governor of the new Territory of Florida 
lived for a while there and presided over the 
first session of the Legislature. Consequently to 
Pen&acola belongs the honor of liaving beem th@ 
firgt capital of Flicidii. Daring the Clril War 
ife Confederate forces held Fort Barrancas and 
f^ort McRae, and the Union forces held Fort 
Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island, directly opposite 
the town and ammm^ ehmmml from Fort McRae. 
Tl^ €mihdtf%im Wide several determined at- 
tempts to capture the Union stronghold, but they 
were unsuccessful and the ^Stripefi oou- 



t»T»ed to fly irmm the i-sland ramparts all through 
the war. 

Pensacola to-day is a prosperous and pleasant 
city charmingly situated between bay and bayous, 
with nine miles of water front bounding her on 
^three sides aid a wonderful view from her well- 
elevated position of bay and sound and far- 
stretching gulf, of tree-bordered bayou and river 
and guarding Keys. Atop Palafox Hill one is well 
over a hundr^ feet above tern kvel, and the mij 
m rightly proud of %ndk an elevatio^i. Site comes 
by it naturally and honestly, too, for just across 
the bay at Town Point the Appalachian Range has 
its modest beginning— or ending. Pensacola is a 
city of fine buildings, comfortable residences and 
well^iiaded gtreets. Her harbor is one of the best 
in the country, the only natural deep-water har- 
bor on the Gulf Coast, and an immense import and 
export business is done here. In 1924 the port 
indiMtry n^^anted to fiiore than Eitj milliwi dol- 
lars. IIer« are the marine terminals of two lar^e 
railways, coal tipples, oil terminals, naval stores 
warehouses, ship-building plants and great fish 
wharves. (Pensacola leads the coitntry m the fed 
^JApp^j- fisli indn^Tv.) T%tm mile^s of wharfage 
is what the city offers to vessels of the deepest 
draught, alone suflicient, it would seem, to ac- 
count fox hBi' Readily gi'ommi^ imporimm m m 

P^iOMiAe^'s population ig 25,305, but these fig- 


ures won't stand long. Western Florida— the 
whole of it, from the Perdido to the Apalachicola 
— is «iit«riMg into a new em of dereiopm«t aad 
prosperity second in importance to that of no 
other section of the state, and the next decade 
will witness a marvelous industrial and agricul- 
toiral advan<>e of that ridi ierriiory of wliick B#- 
mmkm. County fofmi ikm iPwiaTtim^st limit. As 
a rewDrt for the sportsman, Pensacola is to be 
heartily recommended. Fishing both in the deep 
waters and in the many streams and bayous is 
a pleasure alwayg rewarded. Deer are still to 
he foaed, m Well m gome turkey and many quail, 
within a day's comfortable range of the city. 
The surrounding waters, open as well as land- 
locked, offer fine opportunities for sailing and 
»ok)r-b€«4iiiiP kt^kmgy either in the gnli 
mil or in th^e quieter waters of the bays and 
lagoons, is of the best. Fortunately, too, one may 
reach the beaches over fine concrete highways. 
For the golfer there ig ike Pensacola Country 
Club's eiglite#a-iioie at hm^d mud a 9-ho!e 

kyoat §tt Valp^rargo for a. change. A municipal 
course is in construction. 

The visitor whose tastes lie along less stren- 
umm Hum will find Pensacola & satisfactory plaoe 
t# tmt mud eiajof m wuM winter filled with mti- 
shine. The hotel accommodations in the city are 
good, while at Gulf View and Walton and at a 
number of vmx-hy locAUlie* iid^p^ikk ii^ioLri^ 



offer entertainment. The €ity holds many places 
of interest, both historical and modern; the old 
forts-San Carlos, Eedoubt, Pickens, McPae, Bar- 
rancas-St. Michael's Cemetery, Seville Sqmm 
and the old house of worship tiiere, the Naval 
Air Training Station on the site of the old Navy 
Imrd and others. Many beautiful drives axe 
possible over excellent roads. 

The country about Pensgtcok, norttwtird 9^ 
eastward, is a fifie agri<cultural afed horticultural 
section, with good ail-purpose and fruit-raising 
fifty-six inches of rainfall and a growing 
season of 290 days. Add to those features nat- 
ural drainage and you kav^ mmQiking ^ 
0®. Be€i4^ tlie mm\ crops common to the north- 
em tier of comities, corn, cotton, oats and cane, 
Escambia and her neighbors raise the Satsuma 
orange to perfection. Perhaps ilm writer is m 
error in calling the Satsama aa orange sine€ it 
hag b^a kt#ly gravely decided bv the powers 
duty it is to guard against the marketing 
of unripe oranges and grapefruit that on^fe« 
are oranges but Satsunias ar« «offli«ihinf elm 
They don't what elt^^ however, so tou are 
at liberty t# iklnk of the Satsuma as a plum or 
« watermelon or a quince or anvthino; you please 
Of course the mortifying fact is that *the p%mm 
writing tliis had theretofore Alwa^t tko^l n 
SMtsium orm— thi^t is, m Batiuma fruit-^was an 
Citf«#« mi his ignorance! 

184 LET'S fiO TO FWifiEDA! 

The best of the Florida blueberries come from 
this section of the state, too, and the pecan is 
mme^^f' cr^p ikmi mld<mi fiui#. Smmt and Irish 
potato^ thrive, and so (?o peanuts and water- 
melons and cantaloupes and a hundred other 
things. These conditions extend all the way along 
the western part of the state, although soils vary 
fcisf^ aftd there. Whmi doesnl ¥&ry m a fine eqmi- 
ble climate. Continue along over the rolling coun- 
try past DeFuniak Springs — there's a good 9-hole 
golf course there — to Marianna and the scenery 
ghows little change. It's all good ooratry, dos- 
tined t# far fee^te* things than it has yet knomi. 
Western Florida has played the role of Cinder- 
ella until recently, but now the Prince is hasten- 
ing to her, magic slipper in hand. See what hap- 
pmmd just last §wnn»er to good old Innerarity 
I^nd, off P®fi##«>ia, that T'^mdmTmi^ m oldmi 
times of the jolly pirates of the Spanish Main. 
Sold, and to a handful of Northern millionaires : 
Arthur Brisbane, Dr. Albert Shaw, Will H. Hays, 
OtorLw H. Cliiistie and John H. Perry. W#ll^ 
perhaps they aren't all actually milfionairee, nor 
all they all Northerners, but it makes a better 
story to say they are. Anyway, five fine homes 
will soon loom up on the island, and if that doesn't 
4iggTtmt!e th« ghmi of oki Jefon lM«rmrity he 
a heap better natured as a spirit than he was m 
the flesh. The purchase of this island by the gen- 
Uamea xaexdiamd iMU't much in itself, but it 


shows which way the millionaires blow; and one 
millionaire leads to another and before Penmc^k 
can say John Innerarity" she will be all littered 
^ with the things. Of course millionaires aren't 
what you might call productive, but their money 
IS ; and the main thing is that Western Florida 
has been discovered at last ms ft proper place 
for a gentlei^ of wealth and leisure to build 
his winter home. Pensacola and Western Florida 
don't care how many others follow the example 
of Messrs. Brisbane, Perry, Shaw et al. 

Marianna, well along on the road to tbe State 
Capital, has a population of just over 3,000 and 
implicit faith in her future. Considering that 
she added 570 persons to her roster between 1920 
and 1925, or an increase of 25 per tmit, wky 
shouldn't she have faith! Every om has it 
around there, in J^kson County and Calhoun and 
Washington and all the others. Jackson Countv 
has both Alabama and Georgia as neighbors, 
with so many folks looking on she's ja»t got to 
hump herself. And she's doing it. Meet the 
comity ihMt le^ds all the rest of the state in the 
produciion of cotton, Satsumas-vou know, those 
plums that look like oranges— corn, peanuts and 
a lot more stuff, ibid, especially, shabe hamls 
with Ihe town of Gmo^ville, which in one recent 
year shipped 7,072 cars of watermelons and 500 
of cucumbers, and ginned and shipped 6,000 bales 
of cotton. Other towns of 1,000 iiiliAliii^te wimk 


have equaled that record will please rai&e their 
hands! She's a great live-stock county, too, and 
@ne that m ime from that infernal pest, the cattle 
tkk. Forty or fifty dollars will still buy an acre 
of good Jackson County soil, a»d Ike money might 
be put to a worse use. Marianna is a live and 
progressive to^^TL — beg pardon, city — well paved, 
W€U lighted and well elevated. In fact, together 
wife several ^km mmmumilm, Mariaiinia claims 
to be the highest municipality in the stmte. Here 
Andrew Jackson had his headquarters during 
the Seminole campaigns and here the Battle of 
MMTwrnm mm fomght in the Civil War. Near 
I here, tm, are two natmraJ winders wdl worth 
/ viewing. The Chipola River is accountable tot 
both. One is the Natural Bridge that crosses the 
' stream high in air and the other is the Natural 
\ Brid^ Cave foand where the Chipola gets tired 
of fr^h air and sunlight mmd the immmmnt chat- 
ter of mockingbirds and ducks out of sight. 
Rivers have a way of doing that in Florida. It's 
their nutaral modesty. The cave is a whole lot 
||fc€ QiMf &mm iti kiad, being filled with the 
usual stalactites and gtalagMites, but it's a very 
good example of that kind. Blue Springs, too, 
are worth a visit. 

j|^#lAcii.i0©ill m ^ much smaller city than Mari- 
anna, having a population »f 3/)03 t^o the other's 
3,069. If they were closer together Apa!»chko1a 
iOi^t have borrowed some sixty-six of Mari- 



anna's citizens for census purposes, but the way 
is long and roundabout, and one doesn't take the 
journey by land without the most pressing reasaa. 
Say ^^Apalachicola" anywhere within tke ma- 
fines of Florida and your hearers instantly prick 
up their ears and smile. Sometimes their mouths 
water. That's because the words doesn't mean 
Apalachicola as much as it does ''oysters." The 
ApaLachioola oyster is the blue point of ik% 
South, and, while it is a larger and less rotund 
delicacy, it is most excellent. Oystering and fish- 
ing are the city's principal industries; almost the 
only industries if we except lumbering a«d Ute 
entertainment of visitors ; but they are quite 8«tlf- 
flcient to maintain the city in a thriving condition. 
Steamers run from here to Pensacola, St. An- 
drew's Bay points and Carrabelle, while iamis 
up-river may be reached by watter. 

Practically niidway bi^w^en Pens^ujola and 
Jacksonville stands Tallahassee, third and pres- 
ent capital of the state since The word 
stands is used advisedly, for a city built upon 
m lull cannot be hid, and Tdlahassee is all of 
tw# liandred imt mhor% ik% level of tHe Gulf, ato 
more tlian twenty miles distant. The capitol it- 
self is of brick, a prepossessing structure in spite 
of having been built by piecemeal over a 
of mm^ than eiglaty jen-ra. Tti« ofi^n<al imlt li 
th« central structure, north and south wino-s hav- 
inf,^ been added in 1902 and east and west wings 

1^ Lfi^^e GO TO FUmBAi 

; in 1922. A more modern building houses the 
\ Supreme C\rart and the ^Eailroad Co«ii^s#ion. 
' Not far away is the Executive Mansion ered;ed 
i by the state in 1907 and at present occupied by 
Governor John W. Martin. Tallahassee is a 
pleae^ntj rather sleepy old town of 6,415 popula- 
tion, s-o far not seriously di#tur^€d by the rmtt©ou€ 
cry of the realtor. Handsome oaks shade its 
streets and parks and many examples of anti- 
bellum architecture survive among the handsome 
residences. One of the l>est is th* Call maB#i^ 
built in the <^rly dtiyi of the laet ©entury by Gen- 
eral Richard Keith Call, territorial governor for 
two terms, officer under General Jackson and con- 
\ structor of the old St. Mark's Railroad, the third 
j track built in the United States. who re- 

call a novel which had mu-ch vogue some forty 
years since, ^'The Tallahassee Girl," by Maurice 
Thompson, will find interest in the fact that the 
heroine was supposed to have lived in this house. 
At TnHahai&ee is the State College for Woiaaen, 
its grownds and buildings inviting the visitor's iii- 

The site of the present city was long used by 
the Indians as a plitoe of temporary villages, and 
T»llah»i»©€ m the nimo of tl^ tribe widch for- 
merly foregathered there. The meaning of. the 
word can be only guessed at. '^Old Field" and 
'^Sun Village" are the favorite guesses. General 
Jmkmn, if%$m be 4m^w% ^ J-miimilt Away, - 


lected to inquire into the matter. Some two miles 
west of town is Fort San Luis Hill, where the" 
last stronghold of the Spanish in this part of 
Florida -iittlil mitil it was razed by the Endish 
in 1704. 

Not far from this spot is Bellevue Plantation, 
for some yoars the residence of the Princess Mu- 
rat, who was Catherine Willis, a grand-niece of 
George Washington. After a first marriage of 
short duration, she came to Tallahassee to live 
and met Prince Napoleon Achille Murat, son of 
the King of Naples and Caroline Bonaparte, sis- 
ter of Napoleon. Prince Achille had come to 
America following the Napoleonic exile and had 
settled in Tallahassee, becoming one of the lead- 
ers^ of the aristocratic society of the early terri- 
torial capital. The Prince's courtship was brief, 
ttftd Catherine Gray, nee Willis, became the Prin- 
cess Murat within a few short months of her ar- 
rival The Prince and his bride went to live 
at Lipona, the Murat plantation behw the town. 
After tr&¥els abroad, the Prince returned to this 
ooantry, studied law and presently practiced it in 
New Orleans in partnership with a countryman 
named Garnier. Later, however, he was again 
back in Tallahaaeee, where he died in 1847. The 
Princes€ after her husband's deatli benefited by 
an allowance made her by Emperor Louis Na- 
poleon, and made one or two visits to the Court 
of France. Slia s«my#4 iim ^ipbaod nm^Bm 


years, paa«mg away in 1866 at tho B^llev^^ feome, 
Avhicli she had purchased shortly after the 
Prince's death. The graves of the Murats are 
in the Epiicopalia^ Gm^^i&vj ai^ mt obj^tg of 
Ml^rMt to all figitorg. 

Below Tallahassee, on the St. Mark's River, is 
Belleair, now only a memory of the aristocratic 
gathering place it was in territorial days. Here 
w«r«- ike granoer re-^idences of Tallahassee's kaut 
to©, afid here Prin-c€ M^mt indulged in many of 
the amusing eccentricities for which he w^as fa- 
mous. Hospitality was bounteous and gayety 
filled tiae pleasant, gracious days. Although few 
t^iii0i^ of the old Bia&iiofig retmin hiereaboutgj t^ 
old spirit of hospitality still survives in the city, 
together with a certain tranquillity that was 
learned in the days when Tallahassee was the 
€i@iit"@r of govenment, of culture and of ^ristoc- 
f%CY. ^mm^ mi the qmimi custoTOt «re not 
wholly lapsed. The city is a place of traditions, 
although one must dwell in it awhile before they 
can be learned. 

A &r€ wkmk iwept iJUe towai mi iM3, dnriaig ih% 
mmmhmcj of Mayor Eppes, a grandsos @f 
Thomas Jefferson, obliterated practically all the 
structures dating back to territorial days. Only 
the capitol and the ancient Presbyterian church 
Isiikdifif survive, Mid ik% k.ti#r ig d-oo»#d. A 
moft recent fire destroyed, in Septeml>er, 1925, 
another landmark, the old Leon Hotel in which 


si(x>e^ing legislators were housed for/] many 
years and in whose rooms more government was 
transacted than in the capitol itself. A mm asd 
expemmm kmMrj m rming on tiie (d ^e 

Tallahassee has good roads for short trips 
about the city and many interesting and lovely 
scenes await- the explorer. A number of large 
pkfitations are still being worked and the <Mk- 
md mo#s-hidden homes are worth seeing. Sev- 
eral lakes are nestled in the surrounding hills, 
one, Lafayette, lying in the township which, be- 
ginning in the city itself acd extending six mile« . 
emt and north, wm presented by the United / 
States Congress to General Lafayette in 1824 in / 
gratitude for the part played by him in the War 
of the Revolution. Southeast of the city, sixiei^ 
miles away on the St. 'Mark's Eiver— ^tere it, to ' 
b« more correct — is another natural bridge, and ' 
here the state has set up a monument in honor j 
of the old men and beardless boys who met the \ 
Union forces on the spot during tfee Civil War . 
md ^¥©d (»piid from empture. The oki 
€ArtliWorks are still to be made out and several 
tablets set up by patriotic societies tell the story 
of that little battle by which Tallalm&see won the 
distinction of being {he only state capital in the ) 
Sowtli to fly the of the Confederacy all through ^ 
the struggle. 

The famous St. Mark's RaUroai ^'Qa^dj re- 


ferred to, is still doing business, now a part of 
the Seaboard System. In the old days Tallahas- 
see was one of tiie world's great cotton centers, 
and £t. mi the gulf, was & itotable port. 

Who can say that its glory has departed forever, 
though! It would be a rash premise. 

Wakulla Springs deserves a visit if time per- 
mits. It i« eome fifteen miles south of town, set 
ia m fine growth of gray-b^ifded mks and mag- 
nolias about which the flaming trumpet vine and 
pale golden jasmine twine and clamber. The 
water of the springs is of wonderful clarity and 
0t)ws from an aperture nearly a htindred fe^t be- 
low tfie surfaee. Not far away begins the swamp 
country which extends most of the way to the 
gulf and is threaded by various small streams. 
Or so it was in the writer's earlier days when 
tiie fMmm ''Wakulla Volcano" was situated m 
th€ h^art of litf impenetrable jungle thwe. To- 
da}^, probably, no one believes in the ''volcano," 
but there was a time when its smoke was always 
discernible against the hazy blue sky and when 
the er^wkmrn — of wkieJi tht writer w&% tinaiik 
H^mfen, on«e — could, by the exertion of an eager 
imagination, smell the brimstone! Wliat ac- 
counted for the column of smoke is still a mys- 
tery. Soffle p<jrgons believed it only steaio fcom 
m fMiiJin^ #priag — «Iifeomgli no otli^T belling spring 
wag known to exist tfierealwuts — and others at- 
tributed it to the fires of an Indian village. The 



Wter explanation se€»ed the better, for Indians^ 
never let their fires out and the smoke was al- 
ways visible from some point. And being then 
at a romantic age, the writer preferred the 
Indian-fire version to the hot-spring variation. 

But he Mked the volcano" explanation best of 
a41 ! 

Going east from Tallahassee the traveler finds 
a fine new road which takes him through Monti- 
cello, Madison and Live Oak, and f roffl there either 
onward to I^ke City or southward to Branford 
and the West Coast. Monticello, of about 2,000 

seat of Jefferson 
County. So far as any one Iniows to the nomimrj, 
Monticello has always liad ''abotit two thoitsand" 
population. It is one of those towns all the bet- 
ter for staying just as it is. If Monticello has 
ever had a "boom" the writer has never heard 
of it. If it has ever desired a boom ihe writer 
is surprised. More, he is incredulous. But, of 
c^nrm, that two thousand doesn't include 'the 
number of winter visitors who have been return- 
ing to Afonticello for so many years, returning in 
a somewhat secret fashion in oi^et tliat t#o wmnj 
others won't surpri^ iimm doing it and trr to 
'%iM in." Those vrinter residents show a 
marked proclivity to act on the advice of the old 
saying, "If you have a good thing, keep it to 
yourself." Tliat, indeed, k wlmt »( li^t |wo 
fToupi ^mmmlMim mi dMmmUe at wiater tmi- 

m LEf 1i «0 TO FliOEIDAf 

(l4yti'Mi.«lai^. One is the Mutual Peeim droves 
OtHnpauT wIkts^ hoMings east of town oompri&e 
some of the best pecan groves in a county where 
the growing of that particular kind of nut has 
been going on for thirty years or more. This en- 
tefimae m of the aattti^e of m clom eorporAti#a, 
it« stockholders being members of th-e various 
railway- brotherhoods. If you want to purchase 
land from the Mutual Company you've got to be 
recommend^ and vouched for by some fortunate 
{M&w already im. Then northwest of town lie 
the preaei'ves of an association of long-headed 
and far-seeing sportsmen. There, bordering Lake 
Miccosukee, one of the state's biggest and fairest 
bodies of water, they control many acrei of ex- 
cellent iunting ground, and h-er-e they congregate 
each winter and shoot birds and ducks and fish. 
That is, they don't shoot the fish, of course. They 
shoot birds and ducks, and then fish. Or they 
mkd tii^en— 4>ttt ntvtt miihd. What is b€- 
ing got at i« that they, too, having a good tMag^ 
are keeping it to themselves. 

Pecan culture isn't the only form of agricul- 
tar« pertainia^ to Jefferson County^ although it 
iM mm M ihe tiM M t #gccc#iftI. T]ie good «oil 
is gtill underfoot, and it raises its unfailing crops 
here as elsewhere along the northern Ijordor. One 
industry in especial deserves mention. Tn Monti- 
'c«lo iM m war€iioag« from which ii «ki|)|>ed e^ich 
YQ9kf §2 ptr (mii m^orWs (xwwm^rciiil wtt^r- 

|ielon seed crop. Tlie number of seeds is not 



known to the writer, but their combined weight 
is scarcely short of five hundred tons. / 
Madison, county seat of Madison Coubty, 
mmsm neit, and thea Live C^. J\mt %hf(xtt q£ 
Live Oak the Suwannee River, famous in song and 
story, is crossed. It is not an especially beautiful 
stream just here, however, perhaps because it 
has been discovered too clo-se to its mmjtm m the 
Ok€f^ofa&e Swamp. Live Oak is a busy plaoe 
nearly 3,000 inhabitants and a railway ^'six 
points." Here the locomotives of several lines 
congregate and have a rare good time blowing , 
their screechy wiiistles. However, Madison has 
more than railways to recommend it^ for it is tl?e 
county seat of Suwannee County and a live and 
prosperous young city. The good road continues 
on to Lake City, a pretty town of 4,279 popula- 
tion througii which a large MOT^>€r of m%iki- 
bonnd visitors to the state pass. Sometimes they 
stop in passing, however, a habit the city is doing 
its best to encourage. When they do they find 
g<K>d »CGommodatio«8 m to lodgings and are toM 
feofr tfee city km jumped fotwrntA sin-ee ihm 
paved road to Jacksonville has been completed. 
Lake Citv is attractivelv located and well named, 
and on the whole it answers very well as the 
ftirtQger'^ fij^t part o£ eail in Flaricii^. Frmm 
th^re the motoHst can luni east, west, or »<mt^ 
or, and this is heartily recommended bv the 
bustling citizens of the community^ he can stagr 



P^iFG Eomeo and Juliette, adjacent settle- 
ments on the highway in Marion County, the 
traveler by car reaches Dnnellon, a favorite win- 
ter resort for many fleeing the snow and ice 
of the Northland. Aithongh I^oa^ing as yet bnt 
ekven hundred inhabitants, Dnnellon is making 
the grade steadily. By the time this is being 
perused that eleven hundred may be two thousand. 
That sort of thing is happ#aiBf freqiieatly tlie^ 
d^ys, and perhaps it will be well to explain that 
all population figures given here are those of the 
1925 State census, and that the writer is not re- 
sponsible for anything happening subsequently. 
This is slipped in to fore«.taii tfe€ protastg of in- 
dignant Chambers of Commerce. 

The Withlacoochee River flows past Dnnellon, 
and, presently turning southeast, forms a pocket 
for two attractive lakes, Apopka and PaiMiisof- 
ke€. Apopka appears to b« a favorite name for 
Wkm in Florida ; just as Main is for streets back 
north. This particular Apopka is in Citrus 
County, but it has a big brother some thirty miles 
westward in Lake County. For all tfce writer 
te#wg mm «lttiets of the Apopka family 


mrnM a^iHs west coast 


sprinkled about. Of course there are so many 
lakes in Florida that i4 i# doubtless extremely 
diC«ult to find a different name for each. In- 
verness and Floral City sit close to the lake 
shores, and then comes Brooksville, a homelike 
place of just over 1,700 folks in the rolling hills 
of Hermado County. It is a beautifml comntry 
hereabouts, a bit of the Highlands of the central 
ridge of the state wandering toward the gulf. 
Forest-clad hills, sparkling streams and quiet 
lakes cast their spell on the visitor. Brooksville 
dofflbered long before railfo^s and traversaWe 
highways discovered her to the rest of the world ; 
slumbered and dreamed, too, and now her dreams 
are coming true. You'll like Brooksville, who- 
ever you are, for the quiet beaoity of h^r. The 
quiet won't l^t a great while longer, perhaps, 
but it is to be hoped that the beauty will remain. 
Hernando's soil is extremely good and raises to 
perfection among other things the tangerine j 
om^a (It i« hoped that it is proper to mM tlie j 
tangerine an orange, although it has all the char- | 
acteristics of the Satsuma.) The tangerine you ( 
will find in Brooksville will upset your previous 
ideas of the fruit. It may eventually be even finer 
than it is now, for over in Annatalaga Hammock, / 
a few miles out of town, Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, / 
he w^ho has so carefully looked after our health 
these many years, is conducting experiments with 
the variety that kMs ita na&mim the grove, ^^Tan- ' 

m u^'s.'& 00 ya florid a i 

geria/' Hernando Coiint}^ already has made a re- 
markable start in the dairying industry and sev- 
eral iae lierde of oaileli entile crop its hillside®. 

Before leaving Brooksville mention sho^M be 
made of Weekiwachee Spring. AVater untainted 
by salt, sulphur or some other perfectly good but 
»ot especially palatable chemical is not always 
e*ay to find along the Florida o®a€ts, but Brooks- 
ville has it in plenty. Weekiwachee Spring flows 
144,000,000 gallons a day from a natural spigot a 
hundred and thirty feet below ground. 

So®ae eight miles soutli of Brooksville along 
Highway No. 5 has been started mi interesting 
experiment in colonization. Here around a little 
settlement named Masarycktown in honor of the 
Czecho-Slovakian President, twenty thousand 
ft6t^ o-f land in Hernando and Pasco Coujiiies 
hmve been purchm®^ by a group of Mis eom- 
patriots, which are being divided into small farms 
for the use of Czecho-Slovakians desiring to 
€is©ape from the mines and factories in which so 
limy are conned. Tiie lajad is to be sold with- 
out proftt on easy payments and for the moet pmrt 
will be devoted to the growing of grapes. Four 
hundred acres are already planted in vines. The 
mderUkiaii ipntt 4^«#e£Lt prcomse of 

Southwest of Brooksville, over a good hatd 
road, is Dade City, county seat of Pasco County, 
md^ like tiie previous place, pei:ched on the pleas- 


ant hills. Dade City is a good-looking, self-re- 
spectmg community with comfortable homes, ex- 
cellent buildings and all the requir^ents for a 
rapid and sub^^tial growth Imto a city of im- 

Striking westward, the Dixie Highway is re- 
gained at Hudson and the gulf shore is foUowed 
past Port Richey, a growing resort of many at- 
tractions, to Tarpon Springs in Pinellas County 
Tarpon Springs— the Venice of America'' in lo- 
cal phraseology— lies between the gulf, the charm- 
ing Anclote River and Lake Butler. Not only ig 
It fairly surrounded by water— it claims fifty miles 
of water front— but it is also invaded by it. The 
ornamental bayou that lies in the heart of the 
older residential section is a feature many cities 
may well envy. On the whole, the poetic appella- 
tion of ^'America's Veniee'' is quite deserved. 
Tarpon Springs has a population of 2,685 and is . 
on the way to double that number in a short space. 
A well-paved city, with wide streets, modern 
buildings and all the up-to-date advantage® mvngkt 
by progressive communities. A place of fine 
h^aes, too, and fair gardens. The city is sup- 
plied with water from Lake Butler by a new 
waterworks plant and is well sewered.' It aim 
boasts an excellent eighteen-bole golf mufwe, 
bathing and fishing piers that extend into the gulf 
on one side aad into Lake Butler on the other and 
food hotels. As a resort cit^ Tampon Springs is 


already well and favorably known, but she is still 
only at the beginning of her fame. 

It w*« hm% tkat the B&Mter landscape artist 
George Innees, lived aixi paintad foT m many 
years. And here his son, George Inness, Junior, 
still resides. 

To mention Tarpon Springs without mentioning 
ik% spoD^ng mdmirj would be like alluding to 
Detroit and saying nothing of automobiles. For 
sponging is the city's biggest enterprise. The 
visitor will, of course, take the road to ''Little 
Atfe-#M,'' down by the shore where the Greek 
tjx)nger» liv^ wiyi^t being told, since the inter- 
est and picturesqueness of that quaint haffilet are 
well known. The industry started on this side 
of the world many years ago at Key West. To- 
day Florida •sads forth about 90 per cent of the 
•wid'g supply of tlii« mmmmrf article Apm- 
lachicola and then St. Mark's had their fling at 
sponging back in 1870, and then the best reefs 
were discovered about the Pinellas County shore 
and m miih&amiit ip#edily tpmng up there. Now 
Tg^rpon Springs hm §»«wepd#d Key W««t m th€ 
country's sponge market. The Tarpon Springs 
fishers are Greeks and they brought with them a 
surer knowledge of the art of detaching the shy 
zoophyt# fro«i hm mekj home Hmu wm possessed 
* by the Bahamans at Key We€t. Tbe ''GxmM'* 
depended on the water-glass to locate the prey 
Afid. QU terminatijig in hooks to bring 



it up, and since the sponge oontrarily insists on 
growing in water not only thirty and forty feet 
deep but a hundred and a hundred and seventy- 
five and even more, their purlieu wag extr^ely 
limited. Their thirty-foot poks were t#o aioft 
to Tmp the richer harvest of finer sponges grow- 
ing at the greater depths. The newcomers, the 
divers from the Mediterranean, didn't ''hook"; 
they went down for what they wanted, picked it 
from the reef aad sent it up in mp% hmk^B I® 
the dedt of their queer lateen-rigged, gaudily 
painted boats. However, legislation was passed 
to protect the ''Conchs," and diving was prohib- 
ited within all waters of the state on the a«€TMttp- 
tion tiiat tlie dive^i trampled and destroyed the 
baby sponges while gathering the grown-ups! 
Consequently the Key West sponging business 
was saved and the Greek fishers are obliged to 
ply their trade beyond the thr^e-Biile limit ; wBkii 
diignmtl#i the Tarpon Spring fleet not a whit, 
since with modern diving apparatus, they can 
descend to depths of a hundred and seventy-five 
feet and get the finer grades of ''glove'' and 
"gmali wool." Let tho#e who are miiaied witi 
tit mmdl pickings dabble about in the shallows ! 

A crew of a Tarpon Springs sponger consists 
of from four to six men besides the master, and 
they work on shares. One by one the divers get 
into Ifciljtet and iuit, Qm MT-pnmp m mmM%d aikd 
they go over the side. According to the depth 


worked at, the diver remains down from five to 
ten miB4i(les. When he eoai«i ap anotiier tak€s 
his place. The Tarpon Springs fleet consists of 
nearly a hundred and fifty schooners, mostly sup- 
plied with auxiliary power. These are the parent 
boats, and out to the reefs with them go a multi- 
tude of smaller ermft^ f-otir, five and six to e 
schooner, each having its quota of skilled divers. 
Sway-decked, lateen-rigged, built as their kind 
were built and rigged in the far-off days of 
Ckrist's ^^pmmsm <m mrth, ^nly the f^ffiag %i m 
^mlm% m^k%i or th% pr^i^oe of »m air-piimp 
beside a taffrail shows these little boats to be 
modern. They are gaudily painted craft; yellow 
and blue and red and orange and wMte ; and eacli 
kmmm it§ mesm m Qrmk ok^ft^itrt 09 bem 
«l#ni. On-e s«€fi outfit" m€«fi« the outlay of 
coroiderable money, but the rewards are commen- 

The sponges go from schooners to water-peng 
f or t^o iOiikiBg ttage, bJswikigh, rubber-like tnatses 
of all sizes and shapes from the tiny '^silk'^ to the 
biggest loggerhead," the latter looking like a 
round life-preserver and sometimes four feet in 
dia.ffi«t«ir, Fiwikliy they Ar« ©trted to the Spoa^ 
KxAisige, a M§ brick bmMing surrotrndlng a wide 
concrete courtyard in which the buyers congre- 
gate. In 1924 about nine million sponges went 
through the Excliange, passing to the possession 


quarters in the town. The ralue tte&e wm 
^om to one million dollars in the raw stage, sev- 
eral times that when ready for the retail trade. 1 
At present there are upwards of a thousand 
members of the Greek colony at Tarpon Springt. 
They speak their own l&»fftage mmd koep to thetr 
own customs, yielding to Americanization but 
slowly. Yet they have built homes, many of them, 
invested in local enterprises and are good citizens. 
They maintain their own schools emd ^iirehie% 
ba¥« their own theittec and support their ewfi 
etores and coffee houses. They are deeply re- 
ligious, and combine joy and devoutness on the 
occasions of their several church festivals in a 
manner that is at once aalve a»d «dmr*ibl®. 
''Greek Cross Day,'' as tho other citizens of Tar- 
pon Springs call it, or the Feast of the Epiphany, 
as it is known to the Greeks, falls on January 6th. 
It conamemorates the baptism of Christ and is 
g^fg^mlj oelebrnted by tbe return to port of 
tW entire Qeet of boats from whose rigging fly 
the Greek and American flags and all the other 
bunting obtainable. The Greek village of St. 
Nicholas i*s f^tooaed from end to eiKj md ti^ 
decorations eo»tiB©e nl the way into the town 
and about the bayou where, viewed by a throng 
of several thousand spectators, many of whom >^ 
have journeyed far for the occasion, tlie waters 
are blessed by the Greek Patrii^F«ii, % ^fmMm 
wbitt l# r«iaafe«ed mn4 a foM ervm is (mat into 


ik% hmjQU^M olmr depths to be ^ved for by a 

The festival is impressive and int^eating- and, 
above all, colorful. After the public ceremony 
tii^ Greeks march to their church and the festival 
mBBtamm thirniiigitewt Urn 4aj mUk j^#%ioiii dm- 

Clearwater lies some fifteen miles south of Tar- 
pon Springs, a thriving, steadily increasing com- 
munity of 5,000. It is one of Florida's most popu- 
lar nmf^ mmd^ including Belleair, draw® ee^h 
year ft Imr^e nvm\mt 6f vititoM to it€ hmndsome 
homes and splendid hotels. The city is well 
placed on a ridge overlooking a broad arm of 
mm known as Clearwater Bay and a line of 
mmmm fcef« befyo^cd with whicJi oommauikation is 
«pen by bridges and eau&eway. C\mrw§itet i« A 
fresh, clean-looking city, notable for fine business 
buildings, churches and residences. Wide streets, 
f^fed and nicely shaded, m^ke sight-seeing 
• p l i i yi Wi. Hem it Urn 'm%ll^momu B/^mix golf 
<X)urB<2 with its two eighte^n-hole layouts; and 
here, too, is the 6,305-yard course of the Country 
Club. Fishing is excellent, and tarpon bite no- 
wimtB my better tlian m tbe rn^rm w^teri along 
hy K€ji. dtmrwrnUt !• a mmt app^diag 
place to the home-builder; one of the dozen or 
so to\^Tis in which, if there were a dozen or so of 
hiaXg the writer would gurely live. Over on Clear- 



Wmt Gomt for bathing, ami tmHher down, 
Haven Beach. Clearwater is the winter home of 
a small but doubtless select literary colony which 
includes Mr. George Ade, Mr. Sewell Ford, Mr. 
ClAmi^ Buddingtofi Kell&fid ^tfeet* whmm 
ummm mm familiar to the readers of our best 
literature. This fact, from some obscure motive, 
is frequently mentioned by Cl^axwaiex 'a Cham- 
ber of Commerce. 

Sem€ twenty miles fMiher t^ttth, at the tip 
of tlie Pinelks Peninstila, tall buildings against 
the blue sky inform the motorist that he is about 
to reach ''The Sunshine City." However, if he 
has been reading the signs along the road for tlie 
past hour or to ke hi^a slreiidy hmd mm Inkling ot 
his fate. St. Petersburg is one of the ''big towns'* 
of the state, with a population of 26,847, of which 
12,610 were added in the five- years between 1920 
and 1925. A young city, St. Pete, but a Imtj mk%. 
It mi omt with m&ltot forethought to make itself 
a winter resort city par excellence, and so it has 
no one but itself to blame for what has happened. 
Take it in January, and the sidewalks are so 
tJiroT^«d with p^i^ug aallling aromd, Cho tirwite 
m crowded with, ax^ton^oblles f>craping bumpers 
and mudguards and the parks and playgrounds so 
filled with children — from one to eisrhtv — that a 
stranger frona some quiet place like Chicago, 
PkUad^phia ot New Ymk hidm mmimmd misd 
iwfwmc The hotels, of which there are already 



€tK>iig]k to mr¥% tkrm oit four mUm^ wi4ii new oum 
always in process of building, are crowded, too. 
And so, it seems, are all the big and kittle and 
medium-sized houses and bungalows and bunga- 
Mim imimg the Bay in haughty grandeur or 
nailing mwter t^r winm mmd camphor imm met 
Boca Ceiga way. Yes, sir, St. Petersburg cer- 
tainly went and did it, and she ought to be satis- 
fied if what she was after was a full house. 

Si, F^w^tig talks climate a lot, and maybe 
she has a right t^. Bet down on tie tip md of 
Pinellas County's tongue, she's bound to wag. 
Certain it is that, with water on three sides of 
her, «be cm fairly lay claim to ideal winter con- 
^JAiM^ m&m mimkinQ «od proximity to guli 
waters and bays are what allow Weet Comt re- 
sorts to assume a certain suggestion of arrogance 
when the subject of climate is mentioned. St. 
P^iergfeiirg 'g average mean tenaperature from 
Mc^«fiib€r to April it 66J d€gr»@«, and the av^er- 
age monthly rainfall for the same period k 2.52 
inches. So, you see, the Sunshine City is a place 
for parasols aad not galoshes. 

Tiie wiat«f 5pio<p-Ml«ti<» of the city i« tomtwhere 
around ninety tlioii«*ai Yom Mwe to tort oi 
guess at this, for St. Petersburg visitors come and 
go to make room for others and it's difficult to 
aoiaot Uymi, But ninety thousand 's a conservative 
m^^smM... Th0 city oii«fi mhmit m^ytEim P®«- 
sible for tti« mmsmmmtit fcef fiit^t, timx 


^mAmus^d horseshoes and roqme m pictur^sqiie, 
moss-drap#d Williams Park, and sand boxes on 
the Mole, to golf on her three courses, tarpon 
fishing in near-by waters or yachting on the 
smooth stretches of her many bay«. The Yacht 
Club has a fine clubhouse an4 a iiii«iibei#iip of 
six hundred. St. Petersburg is the ideal play city, 
but, just to show that she has her serious side, let 
it be said that she has a million and a half in- 
vested in school grounds and buildings, % host of 
i>e«ittiful church edifices, municipal tmrnmimr- 
cial buildings worthy of any city in the Union, 
excellent shops and a fine system of boulevards 
and streets throughout her twenty-seveti square 
»ilo§ of territor}^ If you want to play or wmfety 
tmt and listen to the band play, St. Petersburg 
will welcome you. If you want to invest or build 
a home your welcome will be still warmer. 

From St. Petersburg to Tampa the way lies \ 
ow^T the recently completed Gandy Bridge, tMe 
route eliminating about twenty-four miles of the / 
former distance between the two cities. Mr. / 
George S. Gandy is one of the Miracle Workers 
of Florida, one of the vision-and-do coterie whicit 
inclad^ Fta^kf md PU»t, Fi^«r ai%d Merritsk 
and Davis. Gandy looked across Old Tampa Bay 
and dreamed of a six-mile causcwav and bridsre. 
Tlien he went alicad and buiJt it. Not without 
<Jii3i<*.iiItiesg, »u\€e, few oik#iis mm\d mm kis ritjefi 
m Im mm i% ^mi'tlmt right awmy. Twenty jmm 


elapsed between dream and actuality. Bui it's 
done mi hmij a straigbt orer-water higiiirsf from 
HiUtb^ra'^h Oo«ntj to Pinells^, from the out- 
skirts of Tampa to the environs of St. Peters- 
burg, a route bringing the automobile running 
time between the cities down from two aad a Imlf 
hoim AiiatMHt on€. St. Pet^rebuTg amd hm larger 
wm^ merom iJke \mj are getting better acquainted 
every day. 


Tampa is built on tlie «ite of oW Fort Bradfcs 
I , ^ 8mmwm]m War day* «ad iiei" ©ettlafi^nt dates 
- hm^ to 1823 when four companies of the United 
States Army from Pensacola, under command of 
Colonel Brooke and Lieutenant Gadsden, landed 
*t wfaat i« now GjNdftden Point md^ m»r^lmg 
wlmig the p^%mm\s^, 6flt«%K«lie<! a permanent log 
fortification beyond the Hillsborough River in the 
locality at present known as ''The Garrison.'^ It 
became a«L incorporated city in 1855. The name 
of Tafisp* 1^ imkm fmm gji loditan fiettiem^t 
wyiA weupied « site to the old fort and is 
^ believed to mean *'Split Wood for Quick Fires.'* 
/ Tampa was originally in B<3nton Tounty and later 
I in Alifcchua. In those 4mjn a Florida county was 
m pieae ^ ImAHi 9mm or thrm of ih%m iaclTjd#d 
mmi of the peninsula. Making new counties is 
oven to this day one of the principal indoor sports 
of the Legislature, and ju«t as fast as a imw mA]p 
if p«iiiilhMi # mmnty it w§UM k4# im» at msm 


p^rts and the map maker tears Eis ha-ir and siswta 
6o work apuiL W^kw ihmm m mi prBtenl a 
of Florida showing the new counties evolved in 
1925 is doubtful. Tampa finally found herself 
in Hillsborough County, and tliere, although the 
©mAterii p^rt of said county has since hmm. vli^^d 
off and mlii#d Pin^la«, %hm still remdet. 

Tampa may be said to have come to life when 
Henry B. Plant bought the South Florida Rail- 
road and pushed it to the gulf in 1SS4. He fol- 
k>w#d that by building the T«eh|m Bay H-#4#l ^Md 
placing it in a fine park of tropieal tr^m 
shrubs along the Hillsborough River and across 
from the city proper. Hotel and park came into 
the limelight during the War with Spain, when 
TiJKipa lKmi»e ikt |M^rt #1 ^b^rkatkm for mmkk- 
em troops boimd Cuba-ward awd Theodora Booi©- 
velt's famous Rough Riders foregathered in the 
hostelry and Richard Harding Davis, lovable ro- 
mmJ&mr of tli&t ronmatic time, posed for his pk- 
tare sgminst a bifcckgr^iUKi of M«wi«li af^ki^^ 
ture gone a little bit mad. Somehow, that row 
with our neighbor on the south seems to have 
given a decided fillip to Tampa's development. 
Blue ftt«xt#d rigbt <mi tlisr ^pmmMk War wm 
m^f and grew and kept on growing. AM now 
look at her ! 

A big city both as regards area and population; 
at le^ygt, big as Florida citi#« ^o. Still sj^<md 



concerned, but ahead of the East Coast metropo- 
lis in many other ways. (The last census gives 
Jacksonville 95,450, Tampa 94,743.) Witkio the 
pmMi few years Taiaipa has mmde gM^ni gtrideg 
f»fwmrd. She has adopted the commission-man- 
ager form of government and taken at least one 
public utility, the waterworks plant, under mu- 
mmipsl ownership. She has built hotels and mpart- 
m€B.U und homes m a breath-taking fashion, 
p!aoed a bank on almost every available corner of 
her downtown district and developed all sorts of 
new industries to add to her old ones. Her taxable 
property to-d«y w -feisty-sir millicw dolla rs, sin 
hmrmm of thirty-s<3ven millions in the last year. 

Tampa is first of all a commercial city, and such 
she will continue to be. That is her destiny. 
Nevertheless she offers the tourist most of ilm 
mktvmiimm, iimt^ mll, to he ioimd ^mmhefB. Her 
wm^rg contain as good fish as ever were found; 
her hotels, though still too few in number, are 
modern and excellent; she has three fine golf 
courses and a fourth under construction; sailing 
lUiJ in#^t«0r-boatin^ ©^rrt!iu«i&ets could a si: for no 
letter opportunities than Tampa affords; she has 
theaters, race courses, swimming pools, tennis and 
roque courts and, in short, the usual conveniences 
looked for by the winter FiMtor. Tampa 's climiit« 
i« M the be«t, witk feir eool days in winter and 
few excessively hot ones in summer. (The mat- 
ter of her climate has been touched on in a former 

iNTEjftioNAL mcmm exposure 


conceriiGd, but ahead of the East Coast metropo- 
lis in many other ways. (Tlie last census gives 
Jid^Hvillc 95,450, Tampir 94^743.) AVithin the 
past few years Tampa has made gallant strides 
for ward. She has adopted the commission-man- 
ager form of government and taken at least one 
public utility, the waterworks plant, nnder mu- 
nicipal ownership. She has built hotels and apart- 
ments and homes in a breath-taking fashion, 
placed a bank on almost every avaihable corner of 
j her downtown district and devetoped all sorts of 
new industries to add to her old ones. Her taxable 
property to-day ii eighty-six million dollars, an 
increase of thirtv-seven millions in ilie last year. 

Tampa is first of all a commercial city, and such 
she will continue to be. That is her destiny. 
Nevertheless she offers the touri«l most of the 
attractions, if not all, to be found elsewhere. Her 
waters contain as good fish as ever were found; 
her hotels, though still too few in number, are 
modern and excellent; she has three fine golf 
@ours#s«iid a fourth under construction; sailing 
and motor-boating enthusiasts could ask for no 
better opportunities than Tampa affords; she has 
theaters, race courses, swimming pools, tennis and 
roque courts and, in short, the usual conveniences 
looked for by the winter visitor. Tampa 's climate 
is of the best, with few cool days in winter and 
few excessively hot ones in summer. (The mat- 
ter of her climate has been touched on in a former 



chapter.) So she deserves considerable consid- 
&s a place for tempomry ^jotini. Nwef- 
theless, Florida's west coast metropolis is a big 
and busy and bustling commercial city, with her 
thoughts set on serious matters. She takes time 
to play, but she observes very strict busiiiese 
Bours, as beflts ike state's leading maniafacturing \\ 
and industrial center with a total invested capital \ \ 
of nearly thirty-two millions of dollars. Tampa 
is the market place for a large and exceedingly 
rich territory; practically all of the state's ph#s- ^ 
phate ps-gses through her gates and her port busi- 
ness is already tremendous. To accommodate the 
shipping interests new municipal terminals are 
being built and occupied as fast as completed. Be- 
i»f tifee ne^rt^t port of size to the PanaMa Canal, 
her imports aoid exports grow yearly in volrane 
and value. 

Tampa is the world's headquarters for Havana 
cigars, producing more than the City of Havana! j 
kerself and i^r more than any other city. Her ' j 
yearly output is approximately 500,000,000 cigars % 
and she has fifteen million dollars invested in the 
industry. She manufactures numerous other 
thiiigSj too, witk isi^re ihmi fift^i h^dred con- 
eenm engaged. 

She is, as Florida cities go, a cosmopolitan 
community, having a large Spanish population 
which includes many of her foremost and es- 
tijaiable eitiieM, a g^ood loaay ItjJiiyQS ajad a 


sprinkling of other nationalities. The Spanish 
have influenced the city considerably, and 
k^enlities principally oeeiipied by tlietn — the for- 
mer separate municipality of West Tampa and 
that portion of the city known as Ybor— tlieir 
presence 1^ added an interestiiig and i^iQimmqm 
i^mmpkm^ Tfee Spanish residents have their 
own clubs and institutions, continue to speak the 
language of the homeland and lead as well as may 
be possible the life they wem mmmA<m^ t€ ttiere. 
Tlmit cl uimii <tii#r og— »re important social fac- 
tors, with handsome buildings and large member- 
ships. One, the Oentro Espanol, oldest of all, 
taaintaiag two clubliomses. All conduct ednm- 
tirnial, finitiml-aid, musical and artistic depart- 
ments, and membership includes the privilege of 
medical treatment and hospital accommodationu 
iaMsat#iir liktiionic miwiciQ tal#nl pi^we 
plays, operms and ooncerta each winter, while not 
infrequently professional opera troupes present , 
themselves in the well-appointed auditoriums. 
The Italian d^liieBs likewi&e feave th#ir »«tioml 
DrgmiiK&ations ^d ctibs and proTide ex-cellent mu- 
sical features to which the general public is wel- 

Tampa has m*iaj kandeome home^a, BotaWy Wr- 
her Bay«hore Boulevard, which hugs the 
rim of Hillsborough Bay for several miles, and 
throughout the newer additions developed b^tweaa 
tbat hady 4d wal^ md Old Tampa Wmj m ih» 


west. She has well paved and well lighted streets, 
a good water supply, excellent transportation by 
trolley lines and busses and most other advan- 
tage* demanded by the temporary visitor or p&t* 
wmmmi r^^ident. She has not yet perfected her- 
self, certainly, for her recent growth in popula- 
tion and commercial enterprises, the expansion of 
her residential territory toward all four points 
of the compass, have been m mdden and so rapid 
thftt the city has scarcely yet caught up with her- 
self. But Eome wasn't built in a day, and before 
long Tampa's streets will be wide enough to ac- 
commodate her traffic, she will adopt zoning regu- 
Imtioiis, her new and much i>e«ded bridges will 
be thrown open, s^e will have more hotels and 
more first-class restaurants and, possibly, she will 
crawl out from under the domination of the rail- 
roads which plow through her main streets md 
skirt h«r parkt. This latter, h^"TOV€r, if »@oofflL- 
plished will be no mean feat, for railroads are 
proverbially difficult to legislate against. But in 
the meantime Tampa, bursting out of her clothes 
m il^ m, is bending all her eM@rgie« to solve the 
many sttdden and ofttimes unforeseen problems 
that beset her, and when she finally succeeds, as 
she surely will, she will be a city to be proud of, 
whether one is a Floridian or — unfortunately — 
jmt A r^id^nt of uemm other part of this big 
country. And, anyway, yon can get a good five- 
cent cigar in Tampa, and that ought to be glory 
enough for any city I 

DO Wig TSB W£By COAST {Concluded) 

It would be hardly fair to leave Tampa without 
laention of th«e recent suctivitiee there of D. P. 
DsTii, ywii y mentioned as one of the state's 
Miracle Men. Those who more than two years 
back saw the three scrubby sand islands just off 
the moutii af the Hillsborough River in the bay 
ol tke mmm ii«fiie — Colonel Bao^evelt &:ad kk 
Bough Riders camped on the«i while awsiting 
transportation to Cuba — would never know them 
to-day. A fleet of dredges has built them into one 
big tract of some fifteen hundred acres, and hotels 
mod ap^fto^l*, ?B«ddenc€# mad c\uh% winding 
waterways and wide boulevards, tennis courts and 
swimming pools have already taken the place of 
sedge and mangroves. Wliat no more than a year 
taxd a half mgo was still only a desert waste of 
mMsd m to-daf a tferiviBg' miid b«@m4!tiftil coaniimnity 
distant from Tampa's Bayshore residence section 
only the length of a bridge. There's an eighteen- 
hole golf course building, too, out there at the 
imiker md oC i&e Y-m jast cjui't ^rforra 

ft mirmcle them dayn without evolvimg % f^lf 
course as part of it. Not a great many years ago, 
giace he is still a young man, ^'Dave" Davis was 


DOWN TME ws&i^ md^m mm^ 

running errands for a Tampa grocery concern. 
Six years a^o, pethap^, he was openiag the tjes 
of Miami feai estate operators by his sleight-of- 
hand development and disposal of additions and 
subdivisions in the then awakening Magic City." [ 
Now, having brought Davis Island within g%ht | 
of oompieti<M, at an €€ti«»led eipenditiire of J 
thirty millions of dollars, ''Dave'* is off to St.! 
Augustine to turn the trick again. ' 

Hillsborough County is proud of her good roads. 
She has to date three hundred and sixty miles 
of paved highways outside the corporate Hmite of 
her cities and tows and some two hundred more j 
of rock or shell roads. It is on one of her good J 
roads that the southbound traveler sets forth for 
Bradenton, Sarmsota, Fort Myers «ad wmy stft- 
tiong. One «in, at tli^ expenditure of little titife 
and gasoline, go by way of Plant City, a thriving 
place of 6,600 inhabitants twenty-two miles east- 
ward. Plant City is widely known as the home 
town af the Florida i^trawbtrry, and fiioMi it im ^ 
1925 were shipped more than one thousand car- 
loads of its specialty. This is in addition to the 
two boxes bought by the writer alon^ the wayside. 
(They wer« good berries. ) 

Brfbdenton, Imsking in the tnnlight on the bank 
of the Manatee River, is another of the places 
where, were it physically possible, the writer 
would spend his declining years. But^ as Hurree \ 
mudf ^'Ym mmkoi ^»mapf two ip&mm m \ 


space simultaneously. That is axiomatic." Bra- 
cteaton ed^ herself "Tlie Friendly City." One 
can believe that she deserves tlie g«lf-conferTed 
title, for she looks friendly. So many places, you 
know, don't. Bradenton has a year-round popu- 
lation of just over 7,000 and a winter population 
0f — yoii may write yotir own ticket. If it isn't 
double 7,000, though, it ought to be. Br^enlon 
is so plumb full of good-looking, homelike homes 
that the visitor spends his first day there in just 
irmikiHg a^foflifi^ and looking at them and coveting 
about every s^<K>nd one be »ees. They all have 
the look of being lived in, and not just put up on 
speculation, with the occupants hiding behind the 
curtains of the front room on the watch for pos- 
stbk b«yerg! And i>ever were kandsomer gar- 
dens than ^€T€. Br#^Bton is apparently chock- 
full of civic pride. Otherwise her streets would 
never be so clean, her private estates so well car ed 
for, her public buildings so fine. Oil, you'll like 
Brmde«iom. Caa't help it ! 

Across the broad Ma-nateo, more a bay h%m than 
a river, lies one of Bradenton's good neighbors. 
Palmetto. There's a fine new bridge stretching 
Hm lemigtk iscm town to to^vn, and when that's 
ftRlsli^ the two will be pT^ti€«lly one. In fact, 
before long beyond. a doubt Brsdenton Fml- 
metto and Manatee, her neighbor up the river, 
will all be one municipality. Economy demands 
il» Whm it haf>p§ffli it ii to be haped that tlie 


present Bradentcm iwiU hm mmmm£ Urn i^iwidml 

Bradenton is not without some history, for all 
of her modernness. Not far away, up-river, is 
the old Gamble Mansion, recently purchased by 
the Unit^ Daughters of tfee Confederacy and 
presented to the state to be preserved as a memo- 
rial. The old house will be restored and the once 
attractive grounds replenished. Meanwhile this 
excellent specimen of typical Southern colonial i 
arcMtecture overlooking the beautifttl Manslee | 
River is worth a visit. Here Judah P. Benjamin, j 
Secretary of State of the Southern Confederacy, I 
hid from the Union authorities during the Civil ' 
War, and frtwrn here, witk his aidem, lie took flight 1 
down t^e river and m made hm escape to Eng- 

Bradenton is in Manatee County. Manatee 
County, when it was sliced off some other county,, 
wm Ba»ed after tiie Manatee River^ and the Man- 
atee River was named after the manatee. All 
quite simple, isn't it? The manatee, or sea-cow, 
is still extant, but you are challenged to find one. 
Unfortmjiately the pre€ent law prohibitiiag the 
taking of manatees was not passed early efi(»»^. 
Now, if you see one at all, it will very probably 
be quite dead and stuffed full of sawdust or tow 
or whatever dead manatees are stuffed with. The 
mA~mw is a liwge, ponderous, plil^nmtic animal 
which sometiffiei wtighi as mwell m lwtl¥« 


dred pounds. It lives in salt or brackish water 
aji4 iaeds on the bottora growth. The Indi^ii 
med to tIpMl « ^©le lot of mmiatee steake, ehops 
and eutiets, and, since the animal has about as 
much sense as the other kind of cow, and not a 
whit more, it was easily killed. All the hungry 
Indian did wm mi on the hmk &md wait for tiie 
i«*-€Ow to he^ve out of th€ water in its leisurely 
way for an occasional breath of air and then shoot 
an arrow into it where it would do the most good 
—to the Indian. Later the rifk iepplanted the 
hem mwi the muRmtee soon baiiiiiB o^Rgpicuaug 
for its absenee. Wliat the writer wants to know 
is what Mr. Manatee was called. If Mrs. Manatee 
was a sea-cow was he a sea-bull? He has never 
heard of a *6a-biill, but any theory to the effect 
tkmt w^Mt^ W€re or ire ^Immymmi the teiid^ 
mK isn't a bit of good for the reason that young 
manatees have frequently been seen accompany- 
ing Mother Manatee, which would infer that sojae- 
wbere about mm m •ea-oew, or bull, of ike oppo- 
site mx. ttowerer, since little of the manatee 
save its name is left to-day, why worry over such 
a trifling point? Just the same, any one will read- 
ily see that a m§^^w can't be a §ea-«ow whm. 
he n hmU I 

Tie name of Saraeota is all sort of tangled up.; 
with that erstwhile better-kno^^m name of Ring- 
ling. It used to be a case of think of a circus and 


circu-g yoe think of Sarasota. It t§km two 
jumps, but you do it. John Ringling, of the 
Greatest Show on Earth, now prefers to be known 
as J olm Ringling of Sarasota. As far back as 1912 
Mr. Eiagling' saw tlie possibilities of Sar^totn 
and promptly annex^MJ a hundred and fifty 8fe^^e'S 
of shore property. That was the beginning. Now 
there is under construction at Shell Beach a mil- 
lion-dollar palace of Ferrara marble — well, there 
m^j be a few brick or tiles sted — which, whm 
c^pieted, will be the top-hofe show place of the 
West Coast. (Until some one sees Mr. Ringling 
and goes him a million dollars — and a few ship- 
loads of Italian marble— better.) While the p4^e 
was siiU no more than white line« on blue paper, 
per!iap6 not even so much, Mr. Ringling got to 
hankering for something to occupy his waiting 
moments. Probably he had just finished watering 
the la^t of his several hundred beautiful palms 
mud wm drying his hands on the m&t of hm 
trousei-^, which is the way the writer invariably 
dries his, and looking off into the sunset when the 
idea came to him. Out there, along the horizon^ 
stretched any number of islands not doing a tteiag 
in tlie world but jmt stretching. Why not make 
them at least earn their keep? No sooner said 
than done ! Mr. Ringling got a lot of money to- 
gether — ^maybe he sold an elephant or a couple 
of camels — and bought the who^e caboodle of 
Keys ; Longboat and Worcester and Sarasota and 


Coon. Then he started in to buy alongshore. 
Now, although he may possibly be shy a couple 
of elephants, he has thirty-six miles of water 
front, ihtwliele eoiithern end of Saraiiwift County 
and all the islands north of Big Pass. After all, 
what's an elephant? 

John Ringling made Sarasota what she is to- 
dbkj and you can hope he is satisfied. But he isn't. 
H-e's jm^ started. Wmit until he hag d€i^€lo|)«ed 
all that back country into truck farms and groves, 
as he means to ; wait until that thirty-six miles of 
shore front is dotted with handsome homes ; wait 
UHtii the new ' ' MiUion-Bollar Causeway" from 
Golden Gate Point to Longboat is open for its 
whole four miles ! Just wait. 

But at that you won't have to wait long. They 
not only do things in a big way in Florida, but 
tkey do tfe^m in short time. And they do th&m 
with mighty little fuss. To-day you driT€ along 
and see a stretch of sand occupied by two man- 
grove trees, a blue heron and a fiddler crab. Two 
montlig fpQiii to-day you pass the same way and 
mb your ^jm. The two miingroY^ tre€€ h^w^ be- 
come forty-eleven palms, the blue heron is a pink 
hotel with lavender trimmings and the fiddler crab 
is racing sidewise over an ei^tem-tole golf 
e<jmrse 1 

^'JeliB Eingling of Sara&ota'* is correct, btrt &o 
is ''Sarasota of John Ringling.'"' Mr. Ringling 
doubtless still loves his elephants — what few he 



has left — his camels and his anteaters and all the 
other attractions of the Biggest Show on Earth, 
but it's dollars to doughnuts he loves Sarasota 
more. He couldn 't very well help it. Why, it 's his 
own city and he just about made it himself. Others 
kave come along and helped, a lot of them, but it 
wm John Ringling who pointed the way and cut 
the first path. Sarasota now has a population of 
5,529 citizens and about a thousand real estate 
salesmen who run around too fast to be c^nt-ed. 
She- ha^ fine buildings, fine water and good sewer- 
age. She has good schools, too. The Bank of 
Sarasota has deposits of more than $2,200,000. 
And it's not the only bank there, either. 

Rather a lively, up-and-coming place, Sarasota. 
Of hei' present authentic population, 3,380 per- 
sons have arrived on the scene since the Census 
of 1920. Several more have arrived since the 
Census of 1925. If you are still interested in 
climate after all you've had to read about i^t 
subject, you will forgive mention of the fact that 
over a period of twenty-seven years Sarasota's 
average maximum temperature was 90.5, her aver- 
age minimum 63.5 and her average mean 71.9. 

N^r Sarasota the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers ha-s started a large development by the 
purchase of the town of Venice and 27,000 acres 
of farm land. The latter will be sold in small 
tracts to members of the organization. y*6fiiia% 
iJT^ij started, fa^^ tie open gulf mmm 


twenty miles below Sarasota. This town was 
planned by John Nolan, who has brought to 
mmHik^ m many dreaiHi of fair c^J^m, mud ^to^M 
movL resolve it#eif inte one of ike beauty spots 
of the West Coast. The development plans in- 
clude a canal of several miles to connect Venice 
with the Myakka River, which parallels tike coast 
M^ltfid, ABfd tfe€ biiildiag of a i^oond town on the 
acreage property along that stream to the south. 
Who wouldn't be an engineer, live in Mr. Nolan's 
idea of a proper city and commute by motorboat 
4mm Ibe tycfsitftl MyaJkka to m wmt teiMiare 
amnge grove radish farm! 

Something should have been said while we were 
still '^up the road a piece" about the Indian 
mounds of Sarasota and vicinity. Several of 

more doubtless still await discovery. The build- 
^-ers were that ''lost race" which we call the Aban- 
aki, the tribe which baked its pottery from the 
mmhd& Lmiead of from without. Bits of tlie pot- 
tery, stone iMfdnHi^Titg, hmM amd porticwi ®f 
flkeletons have been frequently unearthed. Any 
one with a ''bug" for archeology and a spade can 
have an awfully good time around Sarasota, so 
long mB hm rwipeci« the "No Trespass" signs. 

To« \e g^QUe »bowt n b widr^d milm ftum Tmmpa 
when you catch sight of the broad waters of 
Charlotte Harbor and roll across the mile-and-a- 


Gorda. Here is one of the pk^ant^st gpc^ mi 
the gfilf coast Bern and rivers and sounds, off- 
ghore keys and barrier reefs, mingle in interest- 
ing confusion. The waters abound in fish and 
Punta Gorda is one of the big commermal fisfeiag 
ports. The city h&s inkftfeilants aad does 

well by th^. It maintains its o^Yn water and 
lighting systems, has a good sewerage system, 
plenty of well-paved streets and sidewalks and 
excellent hotels. Charlotte County, th® r^t ^ 
m m^ioT oper€.tioii performed lour or five years 
ago on Be Soto County, is, for a Florida county, 
only a baby in size. But it's a particularly 
healthy baby. Its development is hardly 
than started and thousands of wrei of its 
mil #w«it the plow. The main industries at pres- 
ent are trucking, citrus fruit growing and pine- 
apple culture. Some of the best pineapples pro- 
duced in the United States are ^roi^^ arommi 
Punta Gorda and handsome proits are ttade. 
The iMitial outlay is fairly great, however, and 
the man who goes in for "pines" must be pre- 
pared to put many dollars into the soil before 
he takes his reward. Both open-field Mid hiitk^ 
shed growing is done, mooordrng to the variety 
plaated. Charlotte County is well do^^m toward 
the tropical region of the state, and such fruits 
as dates, sapodillas and papayas grow to per- 
fection. Punta Gorda aad the Charlotte Hj^few 
Mfts^ hme Birmdf hem apoken of m fishing re- 


sorts for the sportsman. Hereabouts the Silver 
KiCig'' md th€ lorn kingly weightier jewfish 
are to ht found in ab^ndiuioe. A jewfish of five 
hundred pounds can, they say, give you quite a 
tug ! 

A run of twenty-seven miles over the Tamiami 
Tnii bring* the traveler to Fort Myers, and whem 
he has reached Fort Myers he has arrived some- 
where. Here is a real tropical city just beginning 
to awaken to her possibilities. Until three years 
b#ek Fort Myers was the Sleeping Princess of 
H^orida towns. Lacking an ax3eqmte bridge over 
the Caloosahatchee River and traversable tomdn 
to the north, she might almost as well have been 
set down on one of the Florida Keys so far as in- 
t€r®owee with the rest of the state wa« concerned. 
Not, however, th&ki sfie wa« fre^tly worried. la 
fact, she didn't mind her isolation a bit. 8h€ 
had been isolated for some three-quarters of a 
f^tury, had become used to it and rather liked 
ft, probably. Indeed, you'll find plenty of old 
residents who view the reomt stiddeti impetus to- 
ward enlargement and a metropolitan status with 
deep suspicion, and who even speak a trifle bit- 
terly about it. Well, there is no doubt that Fort 
Mjmm befom tfc€ world emm to it wa« a f)l^Miftot, 
leisurely place to live in; no do^ibt tfiat growth 
and development will do away with much of its 
former charm. But enough of the latter will be 


point of view of winter visitor or yeax-rottad 

Fort Myers came into exigence in the days of 
the Seminole unpleasantness when a military post 
was established a few miles up the Caloosahatchee 
Eiver under the name of Fort Harvie. Later the 
post was strengthened, regarrisoned mnd reckris- 
tened Foi^t Myers in honor of the then Chief Quar- 
termaster of the Department of Florida, Brevet- 
General Abraham C. Myers. In 1856 General 
Hancock was stationed there. After the tereaiim- 
tion of the Indian troubles the fort w*s pra^ti- 
cmMy arbandoned and the location was taken up 
under the Homestead Act by a Virginian named 
Evans. He had his residence in a log house which 
had been part of the fort and which occupied a 
site ahoui whsm Urn ptm^ i^oyal Palm Hotel 

Naturally enough, a town in existence fully 
eighty yeai's acquires a settled look, and this Fort 
Myers has. She h^s her streets shaded by truly 
■»i^ai^ eent trees^ and the traveler from the North, 
after crossing the river on the mile-lono; bridtre, 
proceeds along the winding river shore on an 
avenue arched with fine specimens of that most 
regal of all trees, the Royal Palm. All of tlie 
city'i other mttractions aside, a walk or ride 
along one or another of her shaded streets is suf- 
ficient reward for a visit to Fort Myers. She has 
more Umi 50 varieties of p^hai^ besides ini©r®«t- 

m liET'S GO TO ffliDBIDA I 

ing specimens of tropical and sub-tropical trees 
and shrubs of other species, a^d her gardens are 
deligfeMttl. But »ke's awmke now, and t^^iiig m. 
a slightly different aspect. The tree-be rdered 
streets remain, but business buildings are poking 
their upper stories above the masses of foliage 
the erstwhile quiet is broken by the ho7ih of 
tte moloT bm and the piaiading cry of the mhm^ 
man with a new subdivision on his hands. 

To-day — or yesterday, that is — ''The City of 
Palms'' had a population of slightly less than 
7,000, but she is undoiibtedly in f#f » tTBmen<lo^ 
gwwtk, aiKi tkat figure woftt ita«irer long. 
An ambitious development is planned and already 
under way. This includes the dredging of the 
river for deep-draught vessels and the building of 
msmicmpiil 4im^m>^ iht eity bs« mt^mj of 

th% eomfort® «!k1 oonveMieneeg to be exp^4;e<! of « 
modern and progressive place; really good 
schools, paved streets and sidewalks, sanitary 
and storm sewers, an artesian well supply of g-(»ad 
wt^r, electric lightistg, public parks, s ple*«Tfr# 
per und last, }mt certainly not least, a thoroughly 
attractive as well as commodious railway station 
that looks a whole lot like a picturesque, sprawly 
old Sp^nieh minion. The city ii w#ll g«r?ed by 
two iie%gpflper6, it ikrm prosperoufj banks 
and the start of an excellent public library. It 
also has a handsome new hospital. Not, of 
course, that liiere ^mm^ really asy umd qJl a lios- 


pital in so healthy a place, but you know how it 
in. Them b^inning cities think they have to have ■ 
all the frills of older communities, whether they're 
really required or not. Wliat hotels there are are 
good, but more are needed. Oh, jm, aad tkme'm 
m mee eigliteen-hole golf course ! 

Ii®e County, of which Fort Myers is the seat, 
is a rich section of the state, and while its present 
population is only around 13,000— of which 267 \ 
are Seminole Indians — its resoutws are siKih timt ^ 
withia ike next tw# or tfei^e years that popula- 
^n will without the shadow of a doubt be more 
than trebled. A part of the county is included 
in the Everglade country and will not be ready for 
cultivation for a while, but there's pl^ty of l^i 
m^f mmm^iUe at present. Lee County's posi- 
tion at almost the tip of the peninsula is good 
insurance against kilHng frosts, and plenty of sun- 
shine and rainfall account for the r^jurkable 
crops raised. Here is veritably the hmter's and 
fi^hermmn^s paradise, for big and small game are 
to be found and the fishing is far-famed. Guides 
and outfits for trips inland or along the passes 
may be obtained. By boat one mm travel mp the 
river to Lake Okeechobee find thence by c^nal to 
Mi^mi, and find good sport and plenty of interest 
all the way. 

^ Fort Myers is the winter residence town of two 
distinguished citis^as, Thomms Edison in^ Hemry 
Ford, who®! oc^fortafclt iftrt wmdmt homes are 



sitiiifttei <)€»piAM0»aWy cl##e. H^e, too, John 
Burroughs was a frequent visitor during the later 
years of his life. Although the city is a good 
fifteen miles back from the gulf, the fact is not 
regretted since the Oaloosahatchee is so broad m 
to ]b€ a miniature g^lf in it#elf. To rmeh ihB 
coast, however, is only the matter of a few minutes 
by way of the palm-bordered McGregor Boule- 
vard, past groves and attractive winter homes. 
Punta Rassa is the teriaainus of the boukv&rdi 
md aim the tetmiOTs of ike cabk to Havan*^ 

Not far from Fort Myers, at Estero, is the seat 
of the Koreshan Unity, or '^Universology,'' the 
unique religious and intellectual cult founded by 
tli€ kte Jkt# Cyrus R. Teed. Dr. Teed, who^e 
iroltCHiinoug writings were signed ^^Koresh," held 
the view that the world is a sphere and that w^e 
live on the inside instead of the outside of it. And 
he proved it, at least to lus own satisfaction, in 
m voluftie pii Mi i Ai i i mme year* ago entitled *^Th® 
CeMular Cosmogony.'' After his death his body 
was entombed in a huge sepulchcr on the bank 
of the Estero River, where a guard was always on 
watch by day and wher€ a Lantern burned by 
night. The higii witer ^ocaiion-ed by the storm of 
1921, however, swept away all trace of the mauso- 
leum. His disciples engage in fruit raising and 
truck growing, and their products are always of 


have prospered exceedingly and are now a wmitim 
and esteemed community. 

When, a few years ago, Barron G. Collier, of 
New York, bought the lower half of Lee County 
an obliging Legislature used the knife again and 
Collier County came into being. Barron Collier 
is lord of a vast domain down there, and wkat he 
has done and is doing gives him every right to a 
niche in the Hall of the Miracle Workers. Thus 
far, though, his affairs are strictly private, none 
of his vast holdings have passed from his hands 
and it is only fair to respect his recluslon. At 
mma not far distant date Collier County will, so 
to speak, burst onto the worid and into publicity, 
but until it does let it live its o^vn life. Not, of 
course, that the visitor is barred. Nor th^t he 
doesn't get down that far. The TaMiami Trail 
is good m far as Bonita Springs and practicable 
to Naples and even beyond. Naples, a small town 
awaiting the coming of the railroad, was a fa- 
vorite spot in the winter of the late Henry Water- 
son, of Louisville and the rmi of the world. Here 
m a ine old house set in a mass of tropical luxu- 
riance, he was wont to visit his friend and busi- 
ness associate. Colonel W. N. Haldeman. Sittii^ 
there on the veranda of the e©mfort&H« re««ieii©e, 
with the long silvery be^tch and the quiet gulf 
before them, the two Kentucky colonels must liave 
enjoyed many rare hours of rejooj^scexLce md 

prtjpii^. ijet lae tkit among the many 

other things that grew in ^ hig garden %m- 
ronnding the house was that fragrant herb known 
as mint, for the picture of the two accomplished, 
^-world geiitlemeii seated there at their ease 
mmm wmm^m ti^mpi-eie mlm^ we can vision 
at their elbows tw-o tall fro^t-^MHsted ^mmm 
topped with what was, or should have been, the 
§tsMMwBM of S^tucky. 


Moore Haven, on the west sh^t^ of I^ke Ok^- 
chobee, m at tke end of an interesting run from 
FoFt Myers that follows the picturesque Caloosa- 
hatchee Eiver, past Buckingham and Labelle- 
but, having reached that destinaiioa, there m mov- 
ing for it m yet but to turn around and come back 
Binm tfee to the narth is not tempting. Moore 
Haven, a young but thriving town in the center 
of the rich Okeechobee farming distri<:t, cmi hmi 
be reached by boat from Fort Myers m by tmins 
of the Atk^itic Cmmt Um. The boat trip is not 
be Mm^, in any case, for the vovage up 
the tropical Caloosahatchee River is a serieg of 
lovely views. (The word CaIoosa^t<i^ mmmM 
crooked river ' ' ; go, of aomnse, it m ^m^sem^rj 
^ Udd ^^riT^r'^ to it, but, equally of course, it is 
mm.) Above Fort Myers the stream narrows 
suddenly and never exceeds a quarter of a mite 
in width until it broadens into Lake Hi^x>eto#i, 
Ihe traveler may still ofetnin a better idea of the 
tsropeal jungles here than on any other of the 
navigable streams, although the banks are beij^ 
rapidly cleared for groves and f*m« aud vUli^wt 
are sprtq^uj^ up w mch sidt. 


Steel motor vessels sixty-five feet in length and 
^ nineteen feet in width malce the trip thrice weekly 
' in each direction between Fort My«ri and We^t 
I Palm B«&ck Th-ese boate are ii-ew mid weil ap- 
pointed, with accommodations for 110 passengers. 
An observation deck sixteen feet above the water 
allows a fine view of the scenery. 

A good ro#d rupg by way of Fort O^en, a Sem- 
ii»k Wir #ettl€»ent, to Arcadia, and from the 
latter place the traveler can cover the Eidge and 
Lake sections very thoroughly on his northward 
trip. Arcadia hag a few mote than 4,000 inhabit- 
mdi mi mm £&st-gr owing e^munity. It m th^ 
county seat of De Soto County, one of the state's 
best citrus fruit districts. Arcadia has particu- 
larly good water from'artesian wells, a fine system 
«f schools and many attractions for tke iioia© 
mekm. Nortti^ardj past Z/^lfo Springs, the road 
reaches Wauchula, seat of Hardee County, one of 
the most productive counties in the peninsula. 
The Peace Kiver flows past on its way down from 
the kbkes, forminf ih^ valley of that namt wkijc^ 
km A staie-wide reputation for fertility. Citrus 
fruits, truck and general farm products are raised. 
Wauchula is well supplied with paved streets, 
municipal lighting and water plants, sewerage, 
go^ acfe^k and mmJij (^editable bMildiiift. It 
It a particularly progressive city with a present 
population of 2,600. 

Sebri|ig JLjes eas^w^-d, on the shores of beauti- 


ful Lake Jackson, fairly in what has come to be 
known as the Scenic Highlands. It is a lovely 
town set in a lovely place, and, although still an 
infant in years, has already won distinction m a 
residence city. It has 1,300 inhabitants, thirty 
milm of street pavement, parks, schools, churches, 
banks, a public library, at least one good hotel 
and much more on the way. It is that same hotel, 
elsewhere referred to, which aocepts no momj ' ' 
from its guests for lodgings on such days as the 

fails to shine. George E. Sebring,'the pro- • 
prietor, is seldom out of pocket. The lake fishing 
in the neighborhood is famed. 

^ The Scenic Highlands consist of a ridge %hmt ) i 
iiity miles in length fairly in the center of the / I ' 
p<gBiM«la, a district of rolling hills, sun-flecked 
blue lakes and pine forests, a kind of country sur- 
prisingly different from that along the coasts on 
either side. Having considermble elcTation, tlie 
Highknds reoeive the benefit of the winds from 
both ocean and gulf and form, without doubt, a 
particularly healthful section of the state. Cer- 
tainly it is a beautiful section and a revelal4oii to 
those who go there laboring under the misappre- 
kec^ioii that Florida is just one huge expanse of 
!eTel gaud. Wherever the eye travels a charming 
vista of hill and lake, of grove and forest, of wind^ 
ing roads and pleasant homes is waiting. This is 
comparatively new country, dating back goarcely 
hBjmnd im. Thm Fr<^tproof, about thirty miles 


nertfe of Sefcrmg, w«« the toutbern tersiiniis of 
the railroad along th-e Eidge. Frostproof wasn't 
much at that time; just a reminder of old Fort 
Clinch of Seminole War days. Few towns have 
Imd more mmmf by the way, for it w^as succes- 
mw^lj iMkmamm^ Kjej^im a»d Frostproof. 
The present name will undoubtedly stick. It 'a a 
good name, whether its implication is wholly 
truthful or not. Probably it is, though, for the 
old residents of the s«©ctiofi a»@€rt that it hasn't 
isi^wn m pm\ irmi in forty je&m. And tfey iragbt 
to know. Frostproof to-day is a thriving toim 
of a thousand citizens and many more winter res- 
idents, with every indication of becoming in a 
ilMrfi time a mo^l oomimmtj. It m just about 
«wnrOT!i<!ed by lak@« who#e wmtofi supply the hmi 
of fishing and whose sandy shores lure the bather. 
One is 230 feet above the sea here and the air is 

To ttii « few miles dijiiaiiit ^ Fort 

Mende, anothet reffiiiidef ^ Broinok Wat tim©^ 
Fort Meade boasts the widest business street in 
the state, Broadway, whereon ten automobiles 
iMij ilaad abreast — or if they'd rather. It 
!• tht ai»^ of m Imtg^ ph<mphAi% diitriet 
surrounded by some of the l>e«t groves It^rtm 
in Polk County. Bartow is a short run to the 
aortk, a city of nearly 5,000, and one of the fastest 
gmm'mg mmsmmltim in ih^ «tate. Polk is one ol 
thB big «^ pfmpercm mmUrn^ mui§mm§ m 

Tifiaojwia THE RiDm ootrita^sY ago 

number of large towns: Lakeland, Haines City, 
Winter Haven, among them. 

Th% Bidfe migiit well be called Milliotimtr^'i 
Row, or sometMng equally impressive, but it 
wouldn't be fair to that part of the state, since, 
while it is true that a number of wealthy men have 
built their winter homes amongst the hills 
Mkm tkere, tbe Ridge holds forth a welcome to 
all the world and his mfe, and although some 
of the largest and fairest estates are found in that 
part there are thousands of smaller and humbler 
homm as well. Wealth is repr«^fited by s»ei' 
iLiy»88 m UrnvmaBjer, Westinghouse, Curtis, Bok, 
Cadwalader, Qunther, Montgomery, Starrett, 
Heckscher, Crocker, Hemphill, Bush, Jennings, 
Bedford, Warner, Babson and still others. Mr.^ 
Babson, statistieiaa &Mirmvdmmrf and gmi / 
frmid of Florida, detected m gpot about halfway 
along the Ridge, not far south of Lake Wales, for 
his home and for the winter quarters of his statis- 
tical laboratory, and, incidentally, for develop- 
ment 1^ a residence town mow kaowa m Bshmmt 
Pari^ om of ih% &»pif aiits for the honor af being 
the highest town site in Florida. 

Edward Bok, of Mountain Lake, after he had 
settled down to the enjoyment of a charming 
home, purehaAid mm% 2^200 mtm Hour Indb® 
Wi3e€ and east of Babson Park, called in Frfxi- 
erick Law Olmstead, landscape architect, and 
gave Trexel Jungle to the world as g reseryatioii 


of wonderful beauty. Mr. Bok was born on 
Trexd m Qhe Netherlands i hmum the aame. 

This tr$M hm been deeded to the state of Florida 
for the use of the public. The natural beauty of 
the reservation will be unmolested, and Mr. 01m- 
stead's labors are concerned chiefly with the es- 
tjtblishing of roa#ds to bes4 txhibit the attr#ctioag 
of i^e park, these to connect with th-e near-by 
highways. Wild life will be protected and for 
this purpose the reservation will be placed in 
charge of a warden and several deputies, WiJk- 
in-tke- Water Lak€ and tl>e c^naaeting cteel: of 
tk€ mme name are within the confines of the 
park. Walk-in-the-Water Creek is unique in that 
its bed is frequently fifty feet below the sur- 
face. Mr. Bok has also est-ablished m park and 
\ lijd sanctiiary mi Iron MoQiitaiiiy one of the high 
\ spois of the state. In fact, it is claimed for the 
summit of Iron Mountain that it is the highest 
elevation on the Atlantic and gulf coast between 
N^w Jersey and Mexio^, but every now ajad tk#ii 
\ w&mm ttHm^e joy oirt of life by discovering 
• m i»ore elevated place. Anyhow, Iron Mountain 
is 324 feet above sea level, and that ought to be 
high enough for any bird, even an eagle. 

Lake Wales Imkm^lron Momnt&ifi and Moun- 
iikln Lii^e as her own, though she has plenty of 
other attractive features and could get along 
nicely without them; Lake Caloosa, for instance, 


not only wonderful to look on but is equally won- 
derful to fish on or bathe in. Lake Wales was 
a turpentine camp twelve years ago and you could 
iiave purchased all you wanted of it for a dollar 
and two-bits an acre. The mme Imt^ ie being 
snapped up now at the rate of about $100,000 an 
acre. Not all of it, of course, just some that 
happens to be well within the business section of 
the city. Nice if you had kiK)wn in time, eh! 
Lake Wales had a population of 2,747 in the 
spring of 1925, but the writer suspects that that 
figure won't answer to-day. It's a great little 
towa. A busy one, too, and a wealthy one. Its 
ikesessed valuation is $4^500,000^ not mi all bud for 
m town tiat ient much »oTe thun ten years old. 
You'll find good fishing there, and good golf, too. 
The ]\Iountain Lake course is kno^\m from Maine 
to Mexico. You've got to own property there 
to join, however, although if yoM happen to be 
a personal friend of Mr. Hecksher or Mr. Bed- 
ford or of one of the other members you can hint 
for visitor's privileges and probably get them. 
They have a clubhouse there that they think 
father well of. Smm folks, pmbably envioiws, 
call it the ''Millionaire's Club"; which isn't fair 
since there aren't any more millionaires belong- 
ing to it than beloii|; tp Uie MaijpQpolitaii in New 

Winter Hiit^ cbIIs iteelf 'The City of a H»»* 
dred Lakes." Quito a pretty name, and doubt- 

less deserved, although no one to the writer's 
knowledge hm actually counted the ia^s there- 
abi:>iiJbi. Many of lakes mm «wm©cl«d bf 
canals, anyway, which would cause oonfu€ion to 
one engaged in checking them up. Those canals, 
thougli, are certainly clever contraptions, since 
mm m»j get ink) a launch md go for fully fiitj 
milts tfeiNougli mm lake mlimf anotlief . M^ylw mm 
can do the whole hundred that way. Boating is 
a popular sport at Winter Haven, and a new 
clubhouse on Lake Eloise will, when completed, 
m^ke it more »o. They've ^ne in im ifwd-l>oat 
mcing ih&r^ Ijutely, and, alti^jfigh mme em 1% al- 
ways getting dumped into the water, they keep 
right at it. Winter Haven is a good-looking city 
— by this time you've fallen to the fact that any 
pitm m FimiSA with msm ^kmM three hundred 
peimanent residents is a city — and is one of the 
wide-awake communities of the Scenic Highlands. 
There are lots of groves around and the fruit 
is mmm @f th-e best raised in the state. Winter 
H«f^ Um *'Bm0l Bmmiif'^ fm iti wftto. 
Whatever it means, the writer is certain that the 
city is living up to it. As for inhabitants, it 
hm 3^500 of th^m, smd more^ a wl^ak lot jboqx^ 
tre expected. 

tMMkmd ti eff Pofk C%mif*e big hmrgu, and 
possibly its finest. With a population of 17,0(X), 
Lakeland is proud of her progress. Of course 
jpQf^triiiioB im^i everyilui^ b^i mj one kaows 


that 17,000 persons— to say nothing of hundreds 
ol scE^t iml estate men — aren't gmng to »«iti« 
dowa in a plai^ mnl^i that place has lots to offer. 
And Lakeland has. Why, even its self-selected 
nickname, ''The City of Heart's Desire," proves 
that. By this time you've probably concluded 
tibat comMiinitiei along the Bidge are inelrMd to 
be a Mt — is sentimental the word? Or fanciful? 
A bit fanciful in the matter of their selection of 
nicknames or slogans. But it isn't confined to 
the Ridge^ that failing. It's all over ti^ liaie. 
Ttere'i sometbiwg afeomt Florida timt makes j^u 
just a trifle romantic. Lakeland is a well-ar- 
ranged city, well paved, filled with a multitude of 
comfortable, generally handsome and frequently 
i»P'0«injg r^idences, supplied with afooitt all tiwe 
awfreai^c^ looib©d for in mimh larger commimi- 
ties and on the way to becoming a power among 
Florida cities. She has, by tk^ way, ej^cepUonaHy 
^ood hotels. 

The highway tmrns ea«lwax<l mjw, paasifig Au- 
birnd^e md Lake Alfred and several other at- 
tractive towTis that are set down by the shores 
of the lakes and fairly embowered in orange trees, 
and leads to Haines City, a fmt'grmfiMXg mm- 
Ittsttity of tiightly over 2,000 p#ni®fi« r«oogni»g<l 
m m% of the healthiest spots in the state. Its 
elevation is 221 feet. The traveler cuts across 
the northwest corner of Osceola Coimty on his 
.way iQ Ejmimmm^ ipm mik tfce f«M0iii| 


much-piinned-on name (accent on the '*sim," 
P^mmh ir.iiiiiillimin.i- im'i ^itii^ted on La^e Kis- 
damme, m #wwy wm km^mm it ehomid l>e, m^d the 
large body of water yonder is, instead, Lake 
Tohopekaliga, which is much more difficult to say 
than Kissimmee. A clean, much alive town — that 
is, city — of just wnder 4,000, Ki#i4mm@€ m the 
shipping point for s !&r^ territory d^wted to 
citrus fruits and banana culture and the growing 
of truck and general crops. There are large 
packing houses here. Lake Tohopekaliga i^ a 
§me body of water ini€rsp€r#@d with aw^rws 
islands. ConTOCtion with Lake Kl^sitnna'ee is 
made by canals, and from there navigation is pos- 
sible all the way to Lake Okechobee and thence 
to the Atlantic or the gulf. Eventually water 
60»muiiie®tio« will be »©aafsi h& tlie St, Johm^g 
Eircr, when Kissimm-e^ will oocupy a unique po- 
sition on an inland waterway reaching from Jack- 
sonville the entire length of the peninsula to 
Fort Myeri^ Thi* city lim m remarkable futijrs. 
Wbial,, hmm^m^f, h to say that she im*t 
jer^^ing an excellent, prosperous present. 

Orlando is a place of 22,000 inhabitants, a city 
so well and favorably known that it is scarcely 
tt-&oe§sary to %pmk of it here at any leagtk. It 
fully d«8€TT€s iJkm ti^mm of '"^Tke City B^uti* 
ful," lying as it does in the midst of many lakes, 
with its well-shaded streets, its handsome build- 

wmrna tme mmm oountby mi 

one happening into Orlando on a midwinter 
morning might supp<^ that he had iii^verte«tiy 
wandered from his course and reached Cleveland 
or some other metropolitan city. (This is in- 
tended as a compliment to both Cleveland and 
Orlando.) Orlando has several modern transient 
ho4d*^ ievBral large and well-arranged apartaa^iit 
hotels and accommodations of the humbler sort 
for its visitors. And the visitors know it and go 
there. Orlando is a much-visited place, which, 
since it is on the way to practically everywhere, 
is not surprising. But it isn't just n fi^rt -diy^ 
for it hwB a large and growing ^como^eree and 
is a manufacturing town of some importance. It 
is the outlet for an extremely prosperous farm- 
ing and fruit country, and nearly three-quarters 
of ilm state's citrw crop- is marketed through mm- 
mrm with headquarters there. At present Or- 
lando is enjoying its share of the Florida **boom" 
and pushing out rapidly in all directions. 

Winter Park, not far away, is called **The City 
of Homes," and has lots of th^L It aleo hm 
Eol!ifi« College, beautiful str^eis shaded with 
moss-draped live oaks, its attractive lake and an 
air of welcome quite its own. A number of per- 
mm who supposedly know whsJt ih^j ax-e doin^ 
chosaa Winter Park for m%9(m m pefitt*- 
n€nt residence. Wise folks are they. 

Sanford is called — but never mind. Let's forget 
the slogans. It's a fine (ii^^ q£. 2^0 iixliabitauts 


placed in a farming community second to none 
in the state for achievements. Sanford is the 
Celery Center of the South. (If one could spell 
i4 JMbrf BmiimiimmM Imk mrttk better.) It is 
on Lake M<?iar©«, ctie of the large lakes of the St. 
John's River, and so has the advantage of water 
transportation for its goods. Five years ago its 
miimm numbered \em than 2,000. la four years 
Mm popmlaiiciB i^fmmiiA ^A^tf^mM (Sent, its 
a»e#96d valuation 121 per cent and its bank de- 
posits 48 per cent. So, you see, Sanford is what 
^may well be called a growing and substantial 
oomminxity. Beiag a deep-fmt^r port hm m fi^d 
imai to ^ Willi tfce city's prosperity, for ship« 
may come to its docks from all over the world in 
spite of the fact that it lies twenty-five miles 
away from the ocean. Seminole County, of wliidj 
Bftafor^d i« tte 9m% m slaariag Hm dty'g iprm* 

Mount Dora, Tavares, Eustis, all lie on the road 
to the west and north, attractive residence towns 
Ai^toagst the lakes of Lake Coimty. Mr. Water- 
tmm wmikm mmm ^ hm pm pmMM mi Wmii%. 
Liven there, too. Leesburg, farther west, is a 
place of 3,000 residents lying between Lakes 
Griffiun and Harris, about midway between ocean 
and gulf. It is a pikMAffit city, welJ liked *« a 

tmnj tmm th-e colder parts 
■©f the country and forging ahead rapidly. ' 

Ocala, in Marion County, is in the hunting 

mROUGH xfifi aamm ooumtey m 

grounds of Chief Osceola. At Old Fort Eang, 
which stood mmm iwm milm di^iant ik% mkB 
of the preterit city, Osceola playfuUy murdered 
General Thompson. Hereabouts, too, roamed the 
Spaniards, and the **Ocali" mentioned as one of 
De Soto's caaiping spot® gave ite name to the 
dty which km f rowm up n?ear by. Ooida li^ ia m 
beautiful country, with the famous Ocklawaha 
Eiver handy and the equally famous source of 
that stream, Silver Springs, only five and a half 
fiiil@« distant Lo¥6ly driv^ extend in many M- 
rm^ioim. Tb% city ooatliins 6,721 inhabttaati msd 
is one of the worth-while communities of the state, 
with many miles of excellent paved streets, mod- 
ern public buildings, fine homes and a nice at- 
mosphere ef comfort and wntentffl^t. 

Gainesville is m real city beautiful to iSe 
writer's thinking, no matter how many other 
places claim the title. It is old enough to have 
grown beautiful slowly, and the beauty that Timm 
leiM^e Imm a <ii«twction of iti own. No garden* 
in the state are fairer than those of Gainesville, 
and no broad avenues and streets are more won- 
derfully shaded. There's a homelike air about 
the place that wim the vtiitor sd mitm^ ms^ al- 
though fro«t« art far from tmfoowfi lfctr% 
Gainesville has its own clientele of winter so- 
journers who wouldn't trade its sunny briskness 
for all the languorous mildness of the farther 

2U LET '8 m »T0 FLOBIDA ! 

highway spokes along which one may go in at 
least six diifereiit dir«ti©n«. It is the seat of 
Mm^m Connty Mid has 8,400 inhabitants; and 
this doesn't include the young gentlemen of the 
State University located there. By all mema iee 
the University campu^ visit the Imimm^ and 
don't mim iim UmmvmL It's very much worth 

From Gainesville— though don't hurry off— 
your way lies to Starke, and from there to BaW- 
wm, where you connect with tJa^ Dixie Or^md 
Highway— State Bo#d Mismlj^r 13— that takes 
70®— cmfely, it is hoped— into Jacksonville. 


Fernandina is the Eastport, Maine, of Florida. 
Not, of €ourse, that it s|>ecialiies in boiling 
h€frici-g fry in oil and so turning out sardines," 
but, like Eastport, it is tucked away in a remote 
corner of the state, and the tide of travel flows 
past rather than to. And, like Eastport, it is an 
interestiiig and picturesque place, isd worth tha 
»ide trip necessary to reach it. 

You'd never suspect, viewing Fernandina to- 
day, that it was once a vastly important seaport, 
but back in 1812 and thereabouts it wmg mmd% a 
neutral port by the Embargo Act^ aad, during war 
tiioe, its excellent natural harbor was as full of 
vessels as a Christmas pudding of raisins. To- 
day it leads a far quieter life, although it is by no 
means a dead town. It still has a ©©tieiderabk 
BwitiaM€ tritde ai^ wm4^ naval stores aiKi lum- 
l>«r and phosphate up the coast and over the seas. 
To-day's population in 3,078. It has its own 
clientele of winter visitors, and many of the 
near-by islands are privately owned. On Csm- 
berland Islaad, ckms by, stood the home of Colo- 
nel Nathaniel Greene, of the Continental Army, 
presented to him by the state of Georgia. It is 


wmw Ae property of tli6 Carnegie family. From 
Fernandina excursions by boat amongst the Sea 
Islands are pleasant experiences. Fernandina 's 
winter climate is healtMul no more chiU than 
Qm^ of m^t mme^ tewiig rmxij imlm to ^ toutk 
J««l»«m!le, tke Oateway of Florida, is like- 
wise its metropolis, in spite of the best efforts of 
Tampa and Miami, its chief commercial city and 
its principal railroad center. It also claims the 
diitiBittjoii 6if beiag ib% imrihmt W€«t of aU At- 
Umtm ports, being practically due south of Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Still, whether a city may rightfully 
call itself a seaport when it lies twenty-five miles 
inland by river is ml Im&t a €ubje<!ft for 
lim tei •Bl^flB»gnt mm nJbmi 1816, but it moi 
in-eorporated until 1833. It was, of course, named 
for General Jackson. It experienced rather a 
hectic existence during the Civil War, since the 
Federal i^mm^ mkmi W0t oth-erime cfsgaged, Im- 
wmtmMf wmt %M captured JacksoHville. One 
can imagine the Union general pushing his coffee 
cup away at the breakfast table, stretching and 
asking: ''Well, boys, what's on the tapis for to- 

fe«t*€r go 4own mUsJ take Jfi«kf5onvi!le, I gueiss. 
Won't do to let those folks think we're neglect- 
ing 'em." 

About the only thing of real note ii^f^^fiin^ 
tr»qpg INmud md Ic^ed it o^i Uieir way out in 



'63 to more recent years was the big fire of 1901, 
which cost the city about $15,000,000. Even that 
was rather a blessing in disguise, since it fȴe 
iui opportiMiitj to rebuiid iai the proper way. 
To-day Jacksonville is a fine, clean city, which it 
wasn't before the conflagration, and well worthy 
its post of commercial capital. The majority of 
persons entering Florida make Jacksonville th#k 
firgt stop, and when they do tfeey are Hkely to 
r€oeir« a very good impression of the state. 
Jacksonville is well laid out, has broad streets, 
fine parks, handsome buildings, attractive resi- 
dences and many admirable hotels* Being fairly 
experienced as a city, it gees about its duties 
with little lost motion and impresses the stranger 
as being well governed. Jacksonville acts as a 
clearing house for the rest of the state, supplies 
information to inquiring trwekw md te4« ihmx 
®a t!ieir way m^min witli coHTtesy and good-will. 
Of course a very considerable number who reach 
the city don't go on. Why should they? Jack- 
sonville offers about everything that any other 
Florida coemiunity can offer, with tii€ ei-atpiioii 
of tii-e warmet climate in winter. Not tfint Jft^k- 
gonville's winters are anything to strike fear into 
the heart of the Northerner, however, for while 
she may and does have some nippy days, the soft 
goes on smiiijif !ttO€t #f the iim^ and m little mid 
domn% 4o worse than set one up. Besides, it 
kills the insects! One naturally isn't greatly 



troubled by insects in Jacksonville, but the point 
occurred to the writer and he threw it in. Many 
sttiiiidiF^ reiideiioe «<^ions, both in-side tiie city 
proper mssd xm Hie onlildrtA^ tJb^md^f^ io 
the home-builder, while, if the intending resident 
craves the ocean, he may take his pick of several 
fine developments along the shore. As a gateway 
J#«k#onville '€ ii4te is #ie€ure. An average of rtj-ore 
Omm. §¥€ ttmct&iid Mito»ofeiie«, ociwtAining eight- 
een thousand passengers, enter the city by the 
St John's River bridge daily. 

The city is a popular resort for wintering 
Mortiii^ii#rs, mud for tmsh. «appli6« several hot<}l« 
•rfeiefe speclmiiae on 8^»#eni or monthly mtm. In 
tfce way of recreation Jacksonville has about all 
there is. Her golf courses have been referred to 
^imm^mt?e. A number of good theaters supply a 
proffWi^^niMtk, mmmml an^i n^in^-p^ti^ 
attr»d;i0fis. Band concerts in Hemming Park are 
held daily. The stores are rather better than 
might be exp<3cted after experiences in other 
southern d^ei^ «^ pri&mf p-ol)ably bacMte 
jMiummH^ m^^f'^snU, mm e%mx^ frooi tOa^ 
hea\'7 freight tolls exacted of dealers farther 
south and west, are reasonable. 

Jacksonville population increases at a steady 
healthy ptkm. In 1920 it w%# ^bout 91,(KX). 
In 1925 it mm iC^4S0. If th% city carries tmt it« 
expressed purpose of taking in adjacent territory 
ihB 192G jSgiu:^ ^Ul he ai)out 40,ytKJ laj:ger. J,^ck- 

sonville is the largest naval stores port and ship- 
ping point in the world. Its total ©jcporte in 1924 
were ^,762,693 in vake; its imports $7,448,831. 

It is a manufacturing place of importance, with 
more than four hundred plants turning out a 
product valued at close to $100,000,000. The 
city's industrial pay roll is about $20,000,000 aa- 
la-aaUy. D^Tml County, of which Jacksonville is 
th-e seat, is one of the most prosperous in the 

Leaving Jacksonville — regretfully, perhaps- 
one starts southward on what i« tfee ko^iMt Amm 
dwT€ in the world, almost 420 miles in length. 
One may stop practically an^-^vhere along the way 
and be certain of comfortable accommodations, 
excellent sea bathing and a delightful clima*€. 
Oh, other thio^^ too, hmt ik&m iwt to leitid 
Tim dmger in stopping before you have reached 
the end of the route, though, lies in the possibility 
that you'll like the pause so well that you won't 
go on! Any one of Mtj €iK)4s along Flo^ia#'« 
toW-mnd-bi^e eact €om«t Miglit wdl hold yon 
captive. Wliy, the writer knows a man who 
started six years ago to get to a certain place 
down in Palm Beach County— I won't mentian its 
name since it doesn't nmd iks adv#rtkinf^-^yrf 
mm^ ib% mi«i§k% — if it wan a Hiittmk'e ; 1^ thinks 
of spending the night in St. Augustine. 
He's been spending the night there ever since. 

But St Ai^ustiACi oQvijmif hm a ityuisi ikat't 

hard to resist. It's such a delightful mingling of 
ikit ancient and the modern, of the quaint and the 
practicmly iu^h a wonderfy place t© l©#f in and 
such a fine place to be energetic «i>d up-and-iwi^ 
in. And, of course, it's just about as lovely a 
town as all Florida can show. And then— for, 
after all, there are ai few of us old fogies left 
wk) don't cr^ve being crowded and pushed and 
walked on every minute— it '« small enough, with 
its 10,000 inhabitants, to allow the visitor room 
to stretch his arms. But St. Augustine keeps on 
gTt)wiiic and adds a thousand or so every year, 
and so, pretty goo% wbem tfee writer wamti to 
stretch he will doubtless have to go farther. 

In case you've forgotten it after hearing it all 
your life, St. Augustine is the oldest city in the 
Umit^ States. One always has to begin any sort 
of &n account of tfee plac€ with tkat simt€«€iit. 
Having if off his chest, the writer may go on to 
remark that St. Augustine continues to look the 
l»rt owing to the rare sense and good judgment 
of Henry M. Flagler. Wli^t would happen to St. 
Augi>stin€ to-day if one of out modern develops 
got hold of her in the condition in which Flagler 
found her is something to make one shudder. The 
city dates back to 1565, when Pedro Menendez 
de Aviles — Menendez to his friends — defeated 
Jean Ribaut's fleet for the glory of God 
tled down on the site of the present city to start 
a New^ World coloi^^ for the King of Spain. 



hard to resist. It's such a delightful mingling of 
the ancient and the modern, of the quaint and the 
practical; wmh a wonderful place to loaf in and 
such a fine place to b# energetic and up-and-doing 
in. And, of course, it's just about as lovely n 
town as all Florida can show. And then— for, 
after all, there are a few of us old fogies left 
who don't crave being crowded and pushed and 
walked on every minute — it's small enough, with 
its 10,000 inhabitants, to allow the visitor room 
to stretch his arms. But St. Augustine keeps on 
growing and adds a thousand or so every year, 
and so, pfetty soon, when the writer wants to. 
stretch he will doubtless have to go fai'ther. 

In case you've forgotten it after hearing it all 
your life, St. Augustine is the oldest city in the 
IFnited States. One always has to begin any sort 
of an account of the place with that statement. 
Having it off his chest, the writer wmj go on to 
remark that St. Augustine continues to look the 
part owing to the rare sense and good judgment 
of Henry M. Flagler. AVhat would happen to St. 
Augustine t#>4tf »f one of our modern developers 
got hold of her in the condition in which Flagler 
found her is something to make one shudder. The 
city dates back to 1565, when Pedro Menendez 
de Aviles— ^lenendez to his friends— defeated 
Man Eitew^'i fts#t fer the glory of God and set- 
tled down on the site of the present city to start 
a New World colony for the King of Spain. 



Menendez had his troubles, but the colony has 
continued to this day. It is likely that if he came 
back now he wouldn't know the place! Of course 
fee might recognize an ancient landmark here and 
there ; the old bit of the city wall that is left, the 
ancient house in which the monks lived; but that's 
about all. Perhaps, though, he wouldn't feel him- 
self quite a strmnger, for there's the Hotel Al- 
cazar looking a little bit like the Alhambra of 
his own country, and the Ponce de Leon so un- 
mistakably Spanish-Moorish in style and color- 
ing. And he would find other stiggestion«, if no 
more, of the old St. Augustine he ruled over. 

Even if this were a guide book, which it isn't, 
and had twice as much space as it has, there 
wouldn't be a bit of sense in trying to set down 
here all the things and places to be seen in and 
about the ancient city. There are far too many 
of them. Besides, there are numerous volumes 
devoted to the subject and readily obtainable in 
the town. Only, please don't travel through with- 
omt a itop, and please don't stop without doing 
the city justice in the way of sight-seeing. Of 
course it isn't necessary to stay there if you're 
bound elsewhere, but the writer will suffer no 
pangs of remorse if you do. 

So^tliward ho! But here's a chance of a side- 
trip worth the making. Turn westward at Hast- 
ings, where the white potato vines— or is it 
plants! — stretch for acres aiid acres on ewmj 


gkJi, cross t!i€ St. John's River again and see 
Paktka. '*The InduetrW City'' tfcey are calling 
her now, but the writer knew her when ! He lik^d 
her ''when," too. Folks went there in numbers 
m tlie old days when Palatka was the outpost 
0f dTilimtioiL— nearly — ^and took adventurous 
steamers up the river, wfiting their wilk before- 
hand and bidding tearful farewells to traveling 
acquaintances. But some stayed right there and 
grew to love the quiet old to\vn and kept on com- 
ing th«re yeat after year, m else forgot to go 
back North at all. All that wms t^efori y o« h^d 
to park your car at an angle, though. 

Still, Palatka has retained many of her former 
virtmes in spite of the march of Progress, and the 
fiwrn" still flow* h^j |»it her front door and the 
fragrance of quiet gardens do^g its best to make 
amends for the ''pond odor'' from the water. Of 
course when you've been in Palatka a day or two 
you don't know anything about that flat, brackish 
mmtll, but jmt mi first it's a bit cloying. A de^^ 
channel to her wharves and new state highways 
are among the blessings expected from the near 
future, and Palatka is on the way to recognition 
mB what she pleases to name herself, "The In- 
<!t«tiiml City*** €Miy will, perd^Jiee it'i aM for 
the best. One can't wear rompers forever. , 
has to either grow up or die. And Palatka has 
no intention of dying. 

S©«4jbwaurd m Hi^jinii- ^ Ul^hwmj, t^rou^ 


Pomona, Seville and DeLeon Springs, takes you 
to De Land, one of the state's loveliest inland 
cities. Be Land is readily a c^^wminity of h@fmie«, 
and the nicest sort of homes, too. Stetson Uni- 
versity is here, lending a pleasant intellectual 
tone to the place. De Land has a population 
slightly short of 6,000, which is jmt about ri^t 
for a residential city. But the population very 
nearly doubled during a recent five-year period, 
for folks are finding out what a w^holly charming 
place it is, and so what is just about right isn't 
going to stay right long. Hoirev^F, the writer 
wiH tntit De Land to be just as nioe when she ^ms 
twenty thousand as she is to-day with her six. 

From De Land a twenty-three-mile run brings 
the traveler to Daytona Beach, Daytona Beach 
that wm jmt recently three ^heees iBste^ of 
mm. Northward a few miles, missed by reason 
of your inland route, is Ormond Beach, a resi- 
dence and hotel colony which has the distinction 
of having John D. Rockefeller as a winter citizm, 
Mr. Bockefellet's home, "The Casements," is a 
sightly but unornate dwelling situated conven- 
iently close to the big hotel. Probably Mr. Rocke- 
feller's cooks have a way of leaving suddenly, 
like other folks ', in which case he has only to Cfross 
the itreet for liis Bfssls. A few blocks to the ea«t 
lies the golf course which is the scene of his 
favorite diversion. Beyond the links stretches 
i)m £^r-fame4 Ormond-D^toa^ wkef« 


there are no motor cops and where on a smooth, 
dustless, hard but springy course of twenty-five 
mil€<s the m^mA mmime wmj mi it" to his 

btart'i ■mml^mL tliis speedway, from five 

hundred to a thousand feet wide, your foot may 
be as heavy as lead on the accelerator and no 
sign says you nay. Three miles a minute bas 
been made here, and the end is not yet. 

It is her really beautiful r-esidences that make 
Daytona Beach so eminently attractive. Those 
and a goodly number of excellent hotels. The 
Halifax River runs along her garden wmll^ m 
to apeak, bmt similar bodies of wmter do the sitme 
for various other towns up and down the coast, 
and many of them lack Daytona ^s appeal. Some 
thirty to forty thousand persons spend their win- 
Itr^ here and %mm to enjoy doing it. There are 
superb motor rmM^ around, fine ishing, delight- 
ful sailing and boating and plenty of hunting if 
one will go afield but a short distance. Captain 
Clark's eighteen-hole golf course is one of the 
best along the coast. Of course it isn't really hii; 
4t ^long« t» the !>ayto»a Golf and Country Clmh ; 
but the Captain is the dens ex macliina. There 
is a second course of eighteen holes over in the 
Seabreeze section of New and Greater Daytona 
Be#ch, .tiiiiiiiiiii, Something deserves to be mM 
of the trees and the gardens, but the writer is 
entirely out of adjectives. His advice is Go and 
see for yourself. If you do ^o, try and find the 


time for a trip by boat up the Uoi^mi^BSikm^ 
Tom oka E.iv<ir» 

When you reach New Smyrna you are on his- 
toric ground, even though the history dates back 
only to the seventeenth century. A local his- 
torian, John Y. Detwiler, contends that his town 
.was settled before St. Augustine, and hm col- 
lected much data to prove the contention. If 
Mr. Detwiler is correct the beginning of New 
Smyrna's history must be set back another cen- 
tury. It was to New Smyrna that Dr. Andrew^ 
Turnbull, an English physician, brotight hi% eol- 
(mj of Greeks for the cultivation of indigo. With 
Sir William Duncan, he secured a grant of 60,000 
acres of Florida land and subsequently expended 
.well over a hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
on tfee venture. Drmlnage canals were buiit — 
these still exist — the fifteen hundred emigrants 
were housed and the work of cultivation was 
started. All went well for a time, and by 1772 
some three tiiousand acres had produoed a erop 
iwiliiied mt over fifteen thousand dollars. But the 
promises made to tlie settlers were not kept, dis- 
satisfaction at first and then open rebellion en- 
sued and the venture ended in disaster. Turn- 
bull's treatment of the emigrants has been pkj- 
tnai^ed as ertrel and even inhuman, as perhaps it 
was. However, his side of the story is less well 
knowTi than the other, and he may have had much 
jprovcK^ation, He was a highly respekcted oiW^m^ 


a member of the Colonial Privy Council and was 
even considered for foyemor. At the outbr^aic 
of the Be¥0l«ti-on he met his lot with the Colonies, 
, thereby forfeiting his estates. A son, Robert J. 
Turnbull, was born at New Smyrna and later 
practiced law in Charleston, S. C, He was widely 
known m m politiml writer AHi wm m ftrong 
'*N«it#eiition'' ad'rt^cmte. A monument to his 
memory stands in that city. Descendants of An- 
drew Turnbull are numerous throughout Florida 
and the South and many laave served with dis* 
tincti#iL MM. 4ki ki^ilaiiMris «(t tine Bar. Attmf 
tfe§ ^!apiB« of the New Smyrna colony the re- 
maining emigrants were allotted lands in St. Au- 
gustine, from where they spread in time to sev- 
eral other IccAlities in the state. la the Civil War 
Httw Bmfmm Jbad tbe diitijiifti«« ©f being 
strayed quite eompletely by Union gunboats in 
the effort to discourage the blockade runners. 

The remains of the Spanish Mission, situated 
m. few miles from the present towti, ars wortli 
mmimgj akthm^ little k stiwiiding to-day. Trsdi- 
tion says that the mission was used as a sugar 
mill during the eighteenth century. Eelics of the 
Turnbull colony are to be seen in the form of an 
old stone jetty by the rimw Mid ^^TurnbulPg 
tie,*' the rtiims of what wm prestiaabfy a Bp«n- 
ish fort. At present New Smyrna is a prosper- 
ous and growing community 4^00 inhabitants. 


The Indian River begins at New Smyrna and 
keeps the traveler company all tl»e way down the 
©oast to just above Fort Pieree, past Titusville 
Gmm and Eockledge and Melbourne and 
Vero and dozens of other pleasant, attractive 
places, each with its bridge across the water and 
its palm-fringed beach beyond. YoaVe got to 
hmnd it to the m^et ©^st for beaches. Indeed, 
it^ pt^etieally one long beach, from the famous ' 
Pablo, where all Jacksonville disports in the surf, 
do^vn to Coconut Grove, below Miami. A wonder- 
ful coast in all ways, this, enjoyed alike by the 
rich and the poor ^4 the in-betweens. The Gulf 
Str^m flows not far away, and its warmer waters 
make bathing a pleasure all throi^h the winter 

Fort Piertie is an inieresting' town of nc^me 
3,300 pftFTOng, thQ juftction of the East Coast 
Highway and the cross-state road to Arcadia and 
Bradenton and a fishing place of importance. 
The settlement dates back to Seminole Wa^r days, 
the Seminole IndiMi i« still to be glimpsed 
thmm^ although he now comes on a peaceful er- 



TwskA. The accompanying ribbon of water at jow 
left is now St. Lucie Sound, and a few miles far- 
ther along is the little town of Eden, not so illy 
named, either, where some fifty years ago Captain 
TiiOfflMig E. Richards, of Newark, N. J., §-ettlod 
d#wii lo grow pineapples and sho^ the world 
that the fruit could be gro^vn commercially with 
profit. He succeeded and became fairly wealthy, 
although his efforts to popularize a specific for the 
care of indigestion, made frotn pineapple juice, 
dag iato hie earnings. The Captain had a Tery 
comfortable home and was noted for his hospi- 
tality; was, in fact, what in those days folks 
Sidled ''a character." That his faith in the pine- 
appl© m m eo^smereial crop was not mistaken 
later proved by the extensive plantations arotmd 
the shores of the St. Lucie Eiver where, near 
Jensen, the crop has become well established. 
Stuart, r^Mi^ed after cro8«ing the St. Lucie River 
bw Imdge, mmd to be frntroairod by Premd^nt 
Cleveland when he couldn't fish in Buzzards Bay. 

Here begins the St. Lucie Canal, the main con- 
trol canal of the Everglades drainage project. 
Whea o(M»pleted it will have a bottom widtJi of 
140 feet, a top vndih of 240 feet and, by a syst^ 
of locks, will maintain a depth of twelve feet 
of water. Although Stuart is a good seven miles 
• inlsuad, vessels drawing as much as ten feet will 
fee ftfek to T'&mk hm docks whmt ^ (mmI is 
op^iaad for tmJBe. Thit wmttrway wifi fom ik^ 



final link of an almost straight route across lower 
Florida from Fort Myers by way of Okechobee 
and Hicpoehee Lak^ and the CaloosAhittdiee 
River. Stuart is getting ready for things to hap- 

Presently another arm of the sea juts in in 
the shape of Jupiter River. Jupiter Light is 
in sight at the left, t^ether with the wirel^ 
and cable station. Here is the scene of Constance. 
Fenimore Woolson's novel of Florida life, ^'Jupi- 
ter Lights, '' written some time ago but still well 
worth reading if for only the aintosphere the 
writer creates. For a time the o^an looks after 
the shore itself, instead of deputizing a subordi- 
nate body of water to the task, but it presently 
tires and Lake Worth goes on duty. And with 
JLaie Worth «0«e the Palm Beaches, the tiw> 
communities separated by a narrow ribbon of 
blue water. 

Palm Beach is much too well known to demand 
description l^^ere. The city has a present popu- 
lation of over 19,(>00 and the beach of 1,100. 
West Palm Beach is a bustling, thriving place 
with hard-surfaced or paved streets, good nat- 
ural drainage and most of the factors desirable 
in a residen®e or business comtt«iaity. West 
Pikhn Beach caters to the thinner pur^, while 
her somewhat more haughty sister across the 
water likes them bulging. As a market town for 
the ummmQ md fertik Mi^(ttm ®i PiJm 


Beach County the city will, since the completion 
of the West Pakft, Baadi C^aial, mmi h^ve her 
l*iKis full 

Nfttere ifwt, Aft later, P»lm Be^di 

a really magnificent pleasure resort. Nature sup- 
plied the foundations J a fine soft climate, a 
stretch of creamy-white sand washed by the ocean 
w^ve^ on one mAfb and laved if tb^ q^et wa4«ri 
#f Lake W#ftfe Oft tli€ oth€T, a fiazy Mq^ sky 
above. Art took hold and, with Wealth opening 
her money-bag, supplied the rest : hotels, estates, 
casinos, pools, smooth boalevards and paths, 
<3mmirf dmfei a»d golf mmtmik Vimglm had him 
Tli^n, but it i« dof!l)tf«l if it encompassed all the 
marvels and beauties of the Palm Beach of to- 
day. Nowhere else in the state has the landscape 
Arti«t yet performed his work gK) w«lL Nowher® 
9m tfe pe«sifeiliti@« of Florida ^« tropical plaa4* 
m we!! shown. Her^ are the spreading, scarlet- 
blossomed poinciana, the vivid poinsettia, the 
vari-hued hibiscus, the croton of a hundred 
«kada« md pattema, the traveler's Hie Boyal 
mi mmymwA frntni, VkQ iaming bignonia, the «oft- 
ptrsdise vine, the purple bougainvillma and 
the crimson, the rose of many colors and a score 
of other delights to the senses. A fitting ^amm 
f^r the yearly pafieaiit of Main and bstrsaj 
wtfeli iHi Hie mm^%t betels to overflowing, jams 
the shops, fills the dancing fioor of the Coconut 
Grove and sprinkles the la^^ooa witk wMU 


and gold and mahogany pleasure craft. Palm 
Beach is pe^aps the most famous winter resort 
in the worM to-day, and sh^ well »erits h«r faM«. 

Delray suooeeds Palm Beach on the sonthem 
journey, facing the ocean about midway between 
the resort and Fort Lauderdale. Here is excel- 
lent hunting and fishijag territory for the sporta- 
womi and £n@ dtnia and farming land for ih% 
aettler. Proximity to the Gulf Stream, hardly 
three miles offshore, and the numerous lakes to 
the westward give Delray a particularly fortu- 
nate climate as f«gards^the po^ibility of fro€4, 
Delray hm abditt 1,500 infeabitents aM is a busy 
shipping point for pineapples, citrus fruits, to- 
matoes and other vegetables. The Gulf Stream 
Golf Club has a fine course along ttie ocean front. 

Ymamk% m an interesting town beyo«d Delray 
wh#re a s^^3o©€^M effort to eo!#nti^ with Jajm- 
nese has been made. Many of the residents are 
growing not only American crops but are trying 
their skill with the vegetables of their native land. 
Fartl»er aloaf is %m Hilkboro Biver, Urn tegin* 
rninf of Ihe drainage mmA of like name which 
connects with Lake Okechobee. Not to be con- 
fused with the Hillsborough Piver of the West 
Cwist. Anoihar «wimple of paucity of imafiaa- 
ti^ ia ih% miming of Florida Itikm and rii^m 

Port Lauderdale is on the New Piver. In fact, 
it is astride it, for the river flows right along Main 
Street^ ao to apeaJk^ tjto'o^gh ike Iieart of iha oitf. 


Below the city the river has a width of 140 feet 
tmim ideal ajM3tiormf« for ^^hts. New 
River im^ long, perhaps sii miles only, b^t it 
makes up in depth, for in times past the over- 
flowing waters from the Everglades have chis- 
eled down the bed niiiety feet in places. Fort 
LatKliii^e hm ^626 popiilaii^n Mid an %f»ea ia- 
side corporate limits of twenty-one square mile«. 
The real tropic section of Florida can fairly be 
said to begin here, and the climate is unusually 
^^uabie. It is mi iip-and-coming young city, with 
bsmIi iif«Kly aaeomplished and a deal more in 
prospect. You will find fine business buildings 
and many beautiful residences, excellent streets 
over most of the city, good hotels and an atmos- 
fim^ of f rieiidliuDiei€ ; the latter not the least of 
a city's sttrsieti^s. Foft lAmdef^&le m rapidly 
becoming a favorite winter and all-year resort. 
Las Olas Beach, at the end of a fine concrete 
boulevard, and inside the city limits, is one of 
E#«t Coast's most attractive bathing places, 
Ibe trees fanning a fringe of weitome tliade along 
the sands. The tarpon fishing is as good here 
as at any place on the East Coast, and the back 
country still abounds in game. The golfer will 
ind m good aii>e-kole mmrm. 

Hoflywood, although a recent developm^tit, m 
a thriving resort community with an estimated 
winter population of 4,000. There are, however, 
wm^ M-jm3t wemdeuiM ike towu makes 


some claim already as a business place. It has 
many n o^ri i d i ^ features designed for the comfort 
and i^^us«ent of its residents and visitors."^ 

Little River, at the northern end of Biscayne 
Bay, is set down in a place where the soil, a rich 
hammock loam, is particularly fertile and where 
thin^ grow without being asked. There are mid 
^ be more than 200 kinds of palms in Florida, 
and if there are they're all growing somewhere 
or other in Little River. If the traveler is inter- 
ested he mil enjoy a visit to the estates of Jahn , 
6@^r and Professor Charles Torrey Simpson, 
where the palm flourishes in perplexing variety 
and wonderful luxuriance. Professor Simpson 
knows the southern end of the peninsula and the 
Florida Keys better, perhaps, than any one else 
aiiv@ mnd hm written about them interestingly 
and authoritatively in ''In Lower Florida Wilds" 
and ''Out of Doors in Florida. He has an es- 
tate of fifteen acres at Little River on which he 
has experimented with hundreds of mtive and 
iat?«du€w3 plants, including palms and orchids 
and tropical fruits. He has a collection of up- 
ward of 75,000 specimens of sea, fresh-water and 
laud shells. Of tree simils alone the Professor 
has mme 5,0(X) speeimeiis tmm Florid% tii€ 
Indies and Honduras. 

Miami owes its presence on the map to Henry 
M. Flagler and the coming of the East Coast 
Railro^id to ilm ©d^e of tibe jimfk. L^l spriiif 


the Magic City'' had a population of 69,000, a 
pr«tty fair gr^nM-fe for a period of thirty years. 

B«i«i^ mrme Bimmywe Bmj^ and connected 
by caimeways, had e-li^tly #^>ef 2,000. Mimmi— ^ 
let US lump both towns together under the name 
— ^is well deserving of the adjective ''magic.'' 
)ii#4 oftly ba^Qiie she has accumulated a perma- 
mmik popuMtko of 4h« mm «t&l«l hiii bemase 
she has made herself in every sense a beautiful 
and wonderful city in a space of time ridiculously 
brief. Some clever magicians worked at her un- 
twUdh^ §mi j«t the writer k per- 

wsmA&A, eofiM th^ir legerdeimiii have produced 
such astounding results as in Florida. Florida 
herself is the Mother of Magic, and no one realizes 
it better than those who have practiced their 

Miami, the city, is not only a pleasnf^ gronad. 
In fact, she is beginning to look askance on mere 
pleasure, leaving that frivolity to the Beach. 
MiiMM hmmM mmiks way to bigger thlngg than 
jmt mmmmmms^ ^hm i^Mm $Ai^nt huring » mil- 
lion population in — oh, well, a few more years, 
and perhaps she will. She is becoming a port of 
OQiMiequence, for Que thing. Her port trafhc in- 

OOO. is <« wsij to great thin^ m s mm* 
mercial city. She already has just about every- 
thing a great city should have in tlie way of 


growth has scarcely more than started dMLi^i 
magic has been so far only hinted at. 

Up to the time of goi»g to presw, m ih% n«w«- 
paper phrm#e hm it, Miami is the most southerly 
of all mainland cities in the United States. What 
may happen between the moment of writing this 
and the arrival of the volume in ikie imder's 
hSMdg there is no saying. It isn't at all diftealt 
to conceive in these days of miracles of a rival 
eity springing up overnight like a mushroom and 
wresting Miami's title from hex. It isn't likely, 
but it's poss-ible. Just now dbnast anytbi-mg 
mmmM i>o#iibl# in Florida. A stir^tch of flatwoods 
or jungle and a blueprint may be a three-million- 
dollar subdivision in sixty days, with paved roads, 
granolithic sidewalks, a stuc€0 gateway looking 
like a section of a Spsiiisli fortre^^ gtf^i lights, 
paka trees and, aimo-st certainly, a Roman Bath 
or a Pompeian Pool. Sixty days more and the 
ground has blossomed with Moorish p^i^i©®, 
Sp anish castles and It4^1iajci riUn^ kiJbibieM and 
piiiiajiathiK mud tfotom blaie agminst patio walls 
and Mrs. Jones of ''Palmhurst" is hobnobbing 
across an incipient hedge with Mrs. Smith of 
''Mandarin Lodge." But the possiUe and 
more southerly city mmi format ^imj far Ibmkmd 
Miami in siie, for iht Utter city has*^a start that 
can't be overcome. 

When :^riami's population was stated as 69,000" 
it wmu'i for m imi^i^i mimidmi ihmk ike tmim 

slaould accept that figure as representing her 
pmmni isuiter. A lot kae happened since the 
state took the 19^ ©eneus, «w»y k^t apriiig, and 
the writer's estimate of Miami's population at 
this moment is around 110,000. And the trains 
mad steamships haven't stopped running, and, 
mkiU ther«'» §mmilmw> oertaia classes of 
freight, there's none on pa-s^aengerg. Nor have 
the automobiles ceased speeding southward along 
the six national highways whose final terminus 
is U^im Cikj, The Chamber of Commerce 
ii ^drertising for m Munired more hotels And 
thrice that many apartm-ent buildings, a^itrring 
us that all can be sold or rented before they arc 
completed. Just now all roads lead to Miami. 

Of eo^r^e life there i« a bit hectic during the 
'*feooffi." Ffimm M rml €#t«ie doubk between 
breakfast and luncheon and treble before b^- 
time. The voice of the realtor is heard in the 
land smd every fifUi person has concealed some- 
fm hm pmmn the map of a subdivision. 
It's IjO« Angeles at the height of tier ml-kt»dg 
boom all over again, and then some, for the pro- 
fession of the realtor has not stood still since 
Hmn and many new and startling trimmings have 
h&m wMml 14 »ll very mmmig md hrmih- 
taking and just a trifle dmtwrfein^, too, for oii# 
can't help wondering where the thing will stop, 
and whether, when the music has died away and 

tim mmm^m^immd hm ommi mvkUMg^ every 



me m going to be quite, quite happy. For, of 
course, it will cease sooner or later, and not all 
who have ridden the prancing steeds will have 
been so fortunate as to Mve captured the bra&i 
ring ! 

Bwt why think of to-merrowf Building goes 
on at a feverish pace, the banks are still full of 
money, prospects continue to arrive daily and 
not all the barren spaces have been yet plattad. 
Anyhow, thought of to-morrow d^ecn't worry 
Mwrmi. The hullabaloo may quiet down and the 
drifters drift off again, and she will still be 
sitting pretty. She's on a firm and solid founda- 
tion, and she knows it. Long after tke Im^ wmi 
mimte salesman has £oMed his kiiick»s iwid €tol€?tt 
away Miami will keep right on growing bigger 
and finer and more prosperous. Gnats don't mean 
a thing in the life of an elephiuit, either presesat 
or absent. 

Jmt the game, om §mmiimm longs for a Qj- 
twatter in Miami; a fly-swatter with a very fine 
mesh, suitable for gnats. 

Of course no one visits Miami without a^m 
^mmg Coral Gables. This develofiwefit hm pro- 
to m »t»^ where it may be considered as 
a community rather than a privately owned 
project. The writer is glad of that because he 
wants to add his modest bit of praise to all ik%i 
has gone before, although! it m the dweloper mof% 
tJbiffl tb^ <^el©piii«at he Ijas in mind. George E. 


MiifiiA km tismdj hmn mkmtmd t# in ikmm 

pages as on-e of the Mirack Meti. He might with 
justice be called the Dean of the Miracle Men, 
for, if he was not the first, he is at least at the 
head in the performanoe of beautiful aitiracles. 
Mmtii^'m mmXimm hMwe mi mdj o^a^nitiMle mud 
scope but pos"S«ss imagination, art and poetry. 
Coral Gables is said to have called so far for an 
expenditure of thirty million dollars, and the 
iigi^rm occasion no side lookg. What is far moire 
mportaot i« iwdL tkst t^mm tMrtj iml^mii 
have paid not only for buildings and pavements 
and landscaping but for beauty worth many times 
that sum. Mr. Merrick is known as a practical 
mmd nose-to-ti#<gariBd»stoii'e bwwn-eis man, with m 
hmd for figBf«iB s^md a p««(it€a fof getting th« 
Talne of his money. He may be all that, and 
yet, even giving all the credit they deserve to 
the architects and artists of all sorts who have 
ciftwihte d Cer»l Gables, he must be far mom. No 
mm. witfco^ « §m kiiowl«d^e &t the fitnesfi ot 
things, without a keen love for beauty, without 
just a touch of the poet and dreamer, could have 
sponsored Coral Gables no w&iM^ wkat nfeiitt- 
fttnee wag rendm^d him. 

T%e Mermke emne from Pemisylvftnm ifi 1898. 
Young Merrick was twelve then. His father 
bought 160 acres about eight miles from Afiami 
and planted grapefruit. He prospered aud a4d#d 

m0m iiMi i# kirn mmmMl Mdmg. iwrf « Mur- 


rick was sent to Rollins College, at Winter Park, 
Florida, and later to New York to «t»iy kw. 
Hi« fmtJb^er'g dmdh. brought liim }mck to Miami 
and to raising grapefruit. Miami, only a village 
in 1898, was coming to life now, and Merrick 
put on his thinking cap. He started in develop- 
mg subdiFi«k)n«, hi^h-cteiit (mm Always, Md mM 
off four or five witk profit before the idea of 
turning the old homestead into a Miami suburb 
occurred to him. He had some capital and bor- 
rowed more, and he^istarted out to cr^te 
fm^lj another one of them thin^" ^mk mmm- 
thing distinctly worth while. He had traveled 
during his college days and after and had seen 
what architecture could be when it had a sod. 
And he had seen the buildings and gardcw «i 
gp^in and Mexieo and So^tfe Asi#fi«ft^ Aai m 
y^Mi ^erg^ed from his dreams was Coral Gables. 

It has been four years in the making, but to- 
day there are close to 10,000 acres of it and it 
extends for sevtr&i m^es on four site M ilm 
growing h\wmm% omieit. Tk% buildings are boI 
all pure Spftnish, though the Spanish influence 
is everywhere retained, and the result is that the 
danger of monotony has been avoided. There 9jm 
u%MJtly a hundred miles of street, mlm^t m ^mth 
ftiad r««i4«jaiis fiixishe^ and s-ix lioteis completed 
or under way. The Miami-Biltmore Hotel will 
be opened soon after the beginning of 1926. The 
UttiYPi'aity of j^IiAoai, the Uiuvtmt^ 



a Woman's College, a conservatory of music, 
theaters and other projects are assured. The 
city is inoorporated and governed by a co«ii!ii#- 
mmL Ymu wiil mm it witlaoiit being t©M to, m 
kmr%^m mn ei^d to the subject. Only, when you do 
see it, credit the man who dreamed it and formed 
it for giving the world one more beautiful thing. 

But neither Miami nor Coral Gables is the ^wi 
«if ike werid, for the big ttmd gm% on invitingly 
Aad hef^ 18 Oooonut Grove. (Observe, pray, the 
elimination of the A; correct but unusual.) Coco- 
nut Grove was, not so very long ago, the last 
settlement toWiMNi the Keys. Ta-day it m om 
mi hmitdmmmmt mmd wmmrtmt of the Bay com- 
mimities. Coconut Grove seems to possess the 
community spirit to a greater extent than many 
other towns of the state, perhaps because it Iwk 
tQ fead for itself so loag that its eiihm$ goi to 
kmam mmek ^her. Now, however, there are more 
than 3,000 of those citizens, and if they don't 
watch out their town will soon become like other 
places and life won't be umrly so much fun. 
O^e of tho#i i^m ikmrnrnd mM odd iaii»t>ilimt« 
m Kirk Monroe, who not m long ago was writing 
the finest stories for boys that ever have been 
written. Perhaps he is still doing it, though 
td #eventy-five jmrn of «fe woi m ^uihot biMi 
1km right t» r««t. If you wfeo fm^ ihm m%m 
ever a }}oy you'll surely recall ''Raftmates" and 
''Canoemates" and a host of oihej wonderful 



stories that doubtless kept you wide-eyed long 
after the light should have been out, and you'll 
be glad to know that oae who hm 
pfesscre — yes, and iii»lrttdion, too, in a mm 
sugar-coated form — to you and thousands of 
other eager-eyed chaps is spending his autumn 
years in so fair a spot as ^'EarHajid Hoiis^" ia 
Leafy Way, Coconut Grove. 

^utfcward still now; to Perrine, named aft-er 
Dr. Henry Perrine, who was killed by Indians 
in 1855, and where the government has an ex- 
perimental station for tropical plants; to Go«tkky 
which ships enough to«iiU(0»e€ in oae ^mmoKL in 
m^ke ketchup for aU the world; to Homestead, 
outlet for the growers of the Redlands and Cape 
Sable districts and proud possessor of a fine new 
hotel and golf course ; and finally to Florida City, 
ft wmsXl place with m b% eivk «pfit, Aad Itet, 
Ladies and Gentlemen, brings us to the end of 
the paved highway and of the present discourse. 
However, if you have the price of the fare, there 
*r€ more worlds to be co*iqu«emi, m wfe(»k mii 
cff worlds stretcliing^ eTe#o«fiti€ally out inia the 
warm seas. A\^o's for the Florida Keys! 

No one can say he kas ''done Florida" imlmm 
he hm mmlim mmm mdqmdniMnm with the Keys. 
It wofit he n^oem^ry for him to go all the way 
to Key West, although the trip ^\ill be well worth 
the time and expense, but he should at least get 
as far as Liong Key. Thepe are ikm% who co»- 
mdm tii€ rnmgQmg f^ortioa of Monroe County the 
Mfmi fascinating part of Florida, and the writer 
is more than half inclined to agree with them. 
The Keys aren't all within Monroe, however, for, 
properly, they bftfia in Dad€ County, with Bol- 
*ifr mmi AmJ^ ihm! Elliott Keys, and fsweep 
^o^ward around the corner and so out over 
many miles of deeply blue water to terminate at 
last in the Dry Tortugas, a hundred &nd «ixty 
ml^ mmih^^^mi m ikm f^ll flie«. Tt^m are ib^m- 
mMdm ^mm, feow manr thou&ande no one knows, 
and they range in size from little lumps scarcely 
larger than a barrel head to Key Largo, thirty . 
miles in length. GeographioaHy m well m fe#- 
Ugkmllf the J l>efen^ in thrm groups: th« Uppef 
Keys, which end at Knight's or, possi])ly, Bahia 
Honda; the Lower Keys, terminating practically 
with Key WeMt; md the keyi Imyot^ ^'V'l wUmg 



tbe Maiquemm and the Tortugas. The Upper 
Keys are the visible evidence of a coral reef built 
along the rim of the peninsular plateau. The 
Lower Keys are the remains of what was <mm 
a coii#iderabk irfmad. The kiikadg we«t- of Ktrv 

^ ^ 

West are of more r^ent origin, several of them, 
notably the Marquesas — Maronesas according to 
some maps — being atolls. Islands of the latter 
group are still in process of growth, forming, wit^ 
adj^eent reef s, tfee o^ily example witkia. 
tinental limits of our country of growing coral. 
Eunning parallel with the entire chain of keys, 
and extending from Key Biscayne to the Mar- 
K^Qesa^ is mn ottter roef of living ootml wfe^ ^aijr 
awaits a slight uph^Tal to derelop into a ^o»d 
chain of keys. This reef encloses Hawk Channel, 
which has a width of from three to six miles and 
an extreme depth of six fathoms. North of tfee 
Upper Keys, Florida Bay is a s-hailow BxptHgm wi 
water m thickly sprinkled with islets as a pudding 
with plums. Here navigation save with the light- 
est of light-draught craft is something to be at- 
tempted only by initiate. 

Kers Ta^rr m eletntion fmm pfsi«tif*llT 
nothing to eighteen feet, the average height above 
mean high tide being about ten feet. On the 
smaller ones the surface is coral rock in proeess 
di«iiitegratioii, aUko«gh QiKmmmMj a pook«t 
«f noil !« fot^nd. On moh islets the growth m 
sparse and stunted, usuallj^ consisting of a patch 


of mangroves. Larger isl&SM^ fc®w«verj g«ci€T- 
•ttj hmmk^ % om^dmmHe tm§.. Ikn&e hammocks 
«f« ffeqia^nt in which truly tropical vegetation 
holds forth, often in company with the more 
familiar flora of the northern mainland. Mahog- 
ajaj grow® in »lMiiid&«3€, me 4^ i®twiiis@«d. At 
two &m¥m ep&c^ of f>altn-s are found. 
FkWkwood, lancewood, ironwood, gumbo limbo, 
poisouTvood, wild rubber, lignum vitcT, tamarind 
and bamboo are some of the jungle dwellerg, and 
wUh ihrni swre ©ffr^r^l orchids, th% wild 
©oe, mimmmmm^ ca^di. Along the edge of the 
feefKjhes turnfortia, seaside morning glory and 
one or more other creepers range. The omnipres- 
ent buttonwood edges the further growth and t\m 
pemmmm mM gr tps, Mie m\f% ot the planter, 
tdbe® p@«»e«»o!i whercTer possible. 

A great number of the Keys, even those of fair 
acreage, are so slightly above water that they 
are drowned during the high tidm oi mpring or 
whm « mmm mknig. Otk^ns are sufficiefitly 
afeOT€ &em krel to t>e cultivated and used as 
homes; in fact, some sixty or seventy are so 
used. Pineapples do well, and so, in certain local- 
ities, do eoo#«piut^, hamm^ aod ]im®s. Wkhmjt 
4(mM mentif ii f bo.r fr«i3t« mrt cafMbk of commer- 
d*l etiHivation on the larger Keys, for the factor 
of frost has never to be considered, and, while 
the soil, save in occasional spots, is lacking in 
immm^ 4im^ Imk miii mmmtmiMf b« ^mmf^mmHf 


reiBidi«d. Where protection is afforded from 
the winds, oranges, grapefruit, sapadillos, cus- 
tard apples, lemons, papayas and tamarinds are 
found growing luxuriantly. In shorty witt study 
md pftti-enee Any tropioiii ar amb-tfoj^ieal trmt 
may be, and eventually will be, produced on these 
coralline islands. 

To the visitor the beaches are a never-failing 
source of deligkt, for shiU* of endless forms aod 
ool^s are forever being cast ashore for in- 
spection. And with them come all sorts of in- 
teresting flotsam ; bits of sponges and fragments 
of coral, sea-spiders and horseshoe crabs, purple- 
blue Portuguese men-o'-war, spiral egg emm of 
Hi© coii€!i% ^-l>e«ns of mmmj 'shmie^ s<eores of 
intrigiiing objects many of which have been 
floated from far-away South American shores. 
And, of course, if you're looking for conch shells 
here they are in number, sine^ the co!K?h, kinig 
emck aiid que^a couch, ar^ brought up in abcm- 
datiee from the waters and eaten in chowders. 
It is that same pleasantly flavored but rather 
leathery shell-flsh that gives name to the natives 
of the Keyi. Tim ''C<Miehi" are t^e Bm- 

%MMm. I«i«iid% and ar« still more English than 
American in manners and speech. There is more 
than a suggestion of the cockney in the latter. 
Thoy sponge, fish, turtle and find time to do 
A bit of wreaking; alihongk the nrrecking im% 
^bmt it I4#^ to be i]& tli€ food old days. The 

as LET'S «0 TO S'i-OBIDAI 

grandsires of the present generation could tell 
jou tsAm ikteftiBg k)l Back in the days 

af tke pirAte^ ani eTeti down to CiWl War times 
wrecking was a paving business. So frequently 
did ships come ashore on the reefs that the stretch 
of islands was known as ^'The Martyrs.'' Not 
all of th-^ wr<ediw were fkted, for in tiie good old 
days above referred k> wrecking profession, 
an art, and the use of a cunningly displayed lan- 
tern was only one of several methods devised to 
lure unfortunate ships to destruction on the reefs. 
Hiyitory hm it tliat erm. in fairly modem imma 
mrwiemhle W^t Indian hurricane has driven 
more than twoscore vessels, big and little, where 
they would do the most good to the inhabitants 
of t^ Keys. Bui now a far-flang line of light- 
hmmm wmd hemmm taken mwek of t\m '*ki<^" 
imt of the an-cient and worthy pursuit of wreck- 
ing, and, while disasters are still frequent, the 
"Conch" works alongside the legal authorities 
in the matter of rescue and saJvagiiif . As<i W0fk« 
wm^, too, we'f€ told. S#««e of the coi3nt«tim«oes 
mm might well belong to pirates of the old 
regime, but the ''Conchs" are well behaved to- 
day; not, perhaps, so much from choice m from 
ft re«pect for t!}-e F^derml amthoritie*. Wii#ia 
m4 ^jg^@d ill fwaraing over m stfinded scfcooner 
or other craft, or in pulling fish or turtles from 
the water, the ''Conch" invades the mainland for 
ho^UomdM af wirod far iml qi dm^^ m jp^M) q£ 


©and and plants a crop of pineapples. When the 
weeds or grapevines take possession of the patch, 
which soon happens, he clears a new one. There 
are two things he doesn't believe in. One i« 
weeding and the ©ther m fertilizing. But, after 
all, why should het There's plenty of land. The 
*'Conchs" are very religious and seldom miss a 
church service unless a wreck is ''in." As thet^ 
are no roads save on one or two krge Keys, they 
travel generally by boat. 

To visit the Florida Keys the traveler by auto- 
mobile leaves his car at Miami and boards a train 
of the East Coast Railway. The time is com^ 
when he won't have to do that nnle«s chooses 
to, but that time is not yet. The "Over-Sea Rail- 
road" begins at Homestead, some twenty miles 
below Miami, and traverses the edge of the Ever- 
glades to Jewfish Creek, past Everglade, Urn hmk 
station on mainland, from wfienee w^ter is con- 
veyed to Key West in tank cars. Once across 
the drawbridge over the creek you are on the 
Keys, although, to bo sure, there's nothii^ mmth 
to indicate the fact. The pi^rticmlar Kejm. wM§k 
yon ftf€ trtveMug ig L«rgo, the one "whopper" 
of the lot. Largo is in for a rather spectacular 
metamorphosis, for developments said to aggre- 
gate ten million dollars are already under waj. 
At th# Mr(i«rn %mk of the iilawd Mr. W. M. Bit- 
ter i« *poii#or for an undertaking that includes 
a mammoth hotel, a fishing pier^ a golf course 


LET'S fiO TO FLOmiiAl 

and club house, yacht anchorages and, finally, 
bnilding sites for, so rnmor hm i4 eaillioimires 
exclusively. OtJ*er (ier«io|3B^Mte afe weU gturted 
mi U»dk H^rfeor, ¥Um mm4 TuTernier. Water is 
tmw available from the mainland by means of 
pipes; an ice plant, without which life in th^ 
tropics m scarcely ideal, and an electric plant are 
mad^ WMtructiiib AM, jw^ to prove tliat Key 
I^go, only a very few years ago was con- 

sidered even more undesirable as a residence lo- 
cality than Miami Beach, has realty come into its 
own, let it be add^ ^mi m Eew«p^f>er hm been 
mimh^i^md. E/mm. m it wm betoPe capital dis- 
mmmmd it, Key Largo was a pleasant place, and 
it wasn't by any means unpopulated, although the 
bulk of the population was composed of nativ©® 
whom hmmm^ mmwmmdmi fey grwes of itmet, 
tmA mmmmU md pstch-es of ''pines," 
dwtered, and still cluster, along the ocean side 
of the narrow island. Largo has much nciahogany, 
although not of a si^ to render it commtrciMMf 
^w^mUm^ ^ gwm^ hmim, thmi pietur- 

^mmk^md tre« which after ])eing cut 
into post lengths and placed in tlie ground will 
at once come to life again and Ixicom^ jmt m 
many more trees. It k quli% M frea-t im oppo- 
s«it oi mm mmmde m our ofiTi northern iwaoap 

Long Island and Windley's Key succeed Largo, 
Ute tcitck (^ros^mg tJjyfej mi-mw p}mnmh l^iwrna, 



and then comes Upper Matec^be, eigmfying that 
the joim^y to Key W@€t is half done. This 
isi^d, too, is undergoing change. It was lately 
purchased by Miami capital for $750,000, not Mi 
excessive price in these hectic iimm for g73 wiCTm. 
Matecumbe ia well grwi up to cocoanut palms 
other imm and presents a distinctly attrac- 
tive appearance from the car window. Closer in- 
spection will repay the visitor, and he will find 
the best of fishing there. Thie key, Lower M*ie^ 
cumbe and Loaf K^y— not to be confused with 
iion^ fek-mf already passed— are fairlv in the 
center of the fishing grounds. Long KeV is beet 
known for its famous Long Key Fisiin^ 
maintained by the East Ci>mi B^ilway. Perhaps 
you h%d hmk not stop ©.ff at Long Key, after all, 
Mflte^ you are a fairly ardent fisherman, or,' at 
least, have the making of one, for fishing is 'the 
main subject of conversation from gmf dmwn te 
purple dusk. If, however, you're agreeable to 
tliAt, yott'U fed the island a charming place 
the accommodations comfortable. The Gulf 
Stream passes your back door, so to sav, only a 
mile away, and there's m»ch to interesi 03»e im k# 
passing of ih% iikip^ tW mimm^ and going of the 
^»hin^ Immchm and sailboats, "^the catches of the 
day. The bathing is excellent if one is not an 
enthusiastic fisherman and can find time for it! 

llore the fa-mo«s Lon^r K^v Vimliiet begins, at 
Urn iimm <4 ili Md^iiii m tmique undertaking.' It 



IS of concrete, 1V957 feet hi leugih mmimmm^U of 
180 arclied spans. 0«?t w^U onto it ot>e gets for 
iMi lime ih^ impression of being at sea on 
land. Knight's Key, well on the way toward the 
end of the Upper Keys, was formerly the ^ioiiark- 
mg ]X)rt for Cuba, asd here the longest aT€P-w»t«r 
section M iJm mmd mmsmmm, ending at Little 
Key, jnst under 7 miles away. Big Pine is 
the next large Key and owes its name to the hand- 
some forest of that tree still remaining. SUwm 
palms, too, abouad, mud the klmnd hmM mim at- 
tfi€ti@® lor tibe as doer are believed to still 

bid€ ifi the hammocks. Ramrod, Summerland, 
Cudjoe, Suf_rarloaf ; viaduct after viaduct; sea and 
channel; the interest beging io wm^. But b^m% 
boredom can start the k«t <mmf>et^ wpm m cp&meA 
a!>d Ken- W^#f MmM m ^mler th^ wheels and the 
TOd of the journey is in sight. 

Just a few words here about the railway which 
has done the trick. Just over a half oentury 
Henry M. Flagl^t Lit trmt wimi to Florida. 

E^d^tiy liked what he saw, as so many have 
done since, for he started in immediately to de- 
velop the East Coast. At that time Uwgrt wm 
fewer than 300,000 per mm in th« #t#t« i^tyi mlf 
mm^ fmm iili^mi miie« of railroftd. Below St. 
Au^UHUne the East Coast was practically terra 
incognito. At least, it was seldom visited, and 
then only by means of sraaj] wimamit ^fiskg iks 
Si. J^'m mid ladmm lUmi m$M itm mmt of 



vast discomfort. But Flagler had rimm. The 
ionce de Leon Ho4el at 8t. Augustine was his 

fh! i1'q ^ x""^"'^^ '^'^'''^y connecting 

the old Spanish town with Jacksonville was pur- 

East Coast System. A steel brid-e was then 
built across the St John's Kiver at Jacksonville 

fmm New York to St. Augustine rolled into th^ 
latter town St. Augustine was rapidly tran^ 
foimed by the erection of more hotel.., a hospital 
a church, a sch^I, a cssino, light and water plant^^ 
car^hoi^ aiKi many homes. He likewise laid two 
miles of excellent streets. And all this without 
destroying or even marring the historic q^i- 
iies bt. Ai^gustm-e's i^mB iprc^d and visitors 
flocked to me. More railrofids were bou-ht and 

Bailroad had reached Miami. Here, as at Si 
Augustine and, later, at Palm Be*ch, he b«ilt a 
new city. Texi jmm kter the. romd buildin- be-an 
agam md pro4|ret^ us far as Homestead^ wh'ere 

^iin to the incredulous ama^em^mt of rmiiv Doubt- 
i hcunmf^^ ^ ^ New Yeaf s Dav im the 
km v»t op^ufKl ^is far as Kni-ht's*Kev from 

H ana i } completion of the uncl^ci*iiu^ 
uttamad m JmiUM,^ m% flv^ Tear/dur. 


ing which many discoiiragawsfits and mrnm ttle- 
aster were met. On one occasion a hurricane 
cost the lives of one hundred and thirty men. 
Ti^ r©*d irmm Memmimd to Key West City 
ii 1J8 9Mlm \mig »»d mmt approl^Mfctely on€ fetn- 
dred thousand dollars a mile. Twenty-eigM 
islands are utilized and seventy-five miles of the 
track are over water, water that is in places thirty 
imi dmp. Tfeere Mre four principal viaducts: 
liong Key aM Kjiight's Key, airmdy ffi^ti©«d, 
Moses Channel, 7,800 feet, and Bahia Honda 
Channel, 4,950. There are, also, several smaller 
Tiaduct€, as well as numerous fills and embank- 
mtm^^ m imt of org-aiiimtion and en^imeerii^ 
the Qver-se# Eailro#d is iiotal)le. Ai an 
ample of creative imagination it is even more so. 
It stands and will continue to stand for many 
iwnturieg m t fitiiEf m.OTiorial to its creator. 

Witii ih% mmrpM^R. of tfee Otet^mtk Umkm§d 
Key West became no longer an isolated guttle- 
ment a hundred miles from nowhere but, to all 
intents and purposes, a part of the mainland of 
JPI©t%4a. Not m l(mg mnae St. Augustine was 
practically ^'fartli^t mfiML.'' Tkm ^ mMfmd 
followed on the trail of a few adventurous pio- 
neers and Miami took title. For years, however, 
Wmmi was the jumping-off place. NoUiiug was 
mmM^tt^ to b^y<md ii m^H K#y Wmi 

was !'eached. The ratlfoa^ chmn^ed tlist, t«d[ nmw 
groves and settlements and, finally, towns sprang 



lip. Umkhwmi. ^ttomtopwuiii. miik omtmu^ im- 
portant for many years, but when tfe€ irst cTe*k- 
ing flivver lunged through the pine woods and 
palmetto scrub of Florida it inaugurated a new 
©rder of things. Now, m for seversi years past, 
the aiutomobile is the rmJi covered wa^^m, ft»d ti?€ 
present-day explorer clings to a steering wheel 
instead of a whip. Farther and farther toward 
the mangrove-clad tip of the peninsula the mo- 
tors ar€ shu^gin^, following the wmln ro#ds first 
and then the wagon tmik und nt Imt ipmhmg 
forward over untrod ground: branching off at 
intervals, to be sure, but in the main pushing the 
frontier back mile by mile toward the south. 
Faster mmd imiet they are coming, «a i^laMMit 
steady stream of them, and althoi^i^ mmy ttM 
back, as many more stay. The ax rings and the 
grub-lioe thuds, the acrid odor of burning 
palmetto roots fills the air, hammer and s&w diNjwn 
tlie mng of the HiockiH^ hijed% m&i pwrnmUr, wmgi- 
cally almost, a new home appears in the wilder- 
ness. Presently another laden car bumps over the 
rough timl and a neighbor has arrived. And so 
it goes, moiiUi &ft^ ^ir^ Clmam^ heooma 
trnck gHi\1eo8 or omii^ growm^ m idtodi ba^iie 
appt^ars, and a church, and a new town is well in 
the making. Florida is still called the Last Fron- 
im\ but the imme will stand but a short time 
longer. The iiirtei»oWt will m% to tkMl. How 
very different the history of tlie stiite woiW tm4 

IMT'B OO TO PiiQiliDJbl 

to-day if Ponce de Lo^m kud ^m^kt A fl*&ck of 

Tie ai3to«obiiist demands roads, and he gets 
them. States and communities all over the coun- 
try now realize that the paved highway is the 
most -attractive feature they can offer. It's ^1 
wmll €»@w:h to make loti^ td[k about a aew »ew- 
system or electric lights or school houses 
or a wonderful climate, but there's a quicker way 
to build up your community. Lay a paved road, 
mj- friends. "Smdm whmt tfe€ Florida Keys are 
Smng. Within tvo years froisi tho time of this 
widting you will be able to step into your car in 
Maine and roll all the way to Key West on your 
own tires. 

MrmiiF *»'ir«t mnt ©f ike Omr-mm Highway 
m fmder cengtrodion. Dade County is building 
from Florida City, just below Homestead, to Card 
Sound and the Monroe Countv line. Monroe 
County in erecting a tnmewskY ind bridge ther# 
lo ooimect «Ml the K.^f Lar^o liigfiway, thirty 
miles in length. At the same time the latter 
county, which contains all the Keys from Largo 
to the Marquesas, and lias long been wondering 
mMi us^ they wmmf. hm sJia atarted at ikm ^Usiier 
and in building ffom island to-*i«knd under 
a recent Iwnd issue of two million dollars. The 
motor highway will parallel the railroad for most 
<d iis ^iisU»mM. Mt^'t, of mmm^ k Qm af 



the present activity in real estate development all 
down the line, from Largo to Key West itself. 
And the development has only begun. The 
Florida Keys hav€ wonderful possibilities, ao^ 
within the ensuing de<}ade many of them will be 
realized. Down there lies indeed a veritable land 
of enchantment, a land of blue skies and bluer 
sea, of % climiMte mowhere siirp««%ed, of tro|>iaal 
foliage m.A glowing flowers, a ijmd wbere every 
day may be spent out of doors. All of which, 
while it sounds a good deal like a real estate com- 
pany's ''blurb," is still as true as gospel. Even 
Key West, so long immune to the rauaous chant 
of the realtor, hm fallen into line. Reeenttv atoirt 
half the island was purchased by Northern capi- 
tal and the erstwhile placid citizens of the Far- 
thest South Citv are scratchins: their heads and 
wmdering a irhok lot. Wouldn't it be a hmp of 
fmi to o<xjupy the front seat of the first automo- 
bile to roll into Kev West over the new highwav? 
And what price the concession to operate ''hot- 
dog" stands Hili Urn fr(Mm K^j L#pfo to the 
^ff Mmitif 

Key West occupies — at present — ^only the far- 
ther end of the island of the same name. The 
Spanish was Cayo IluesOy meaning Idand of 
BfiH^ b\it, of m>nfm, it waa e^sy, and not imtp^ 
propriate, to turn B-mso into We«t. When the 
island was first discovered so manv human skele- 



tons were found there that they just couldn't call 
it anything else. Wliom the skeletons belonged to 
originally is a matter for cKm^&&tm<%. S^fue be- 
licTe tiAi • pitp i «f pirmt€« wm« <Io^Q€ death 
th ere — in which case it must have been an ex- 
ceedingly large party ! — and others that the bones 
were those of natives wha h^d bees exterminate 
by tkiir Wanland fom A^i nrnte mi tfc« b&mm 
are kti#n!i to €xigt to-day for scientists to mtill 
over, the truth will probably never be known. 
Key TTest is still a Spanish settlement to all ap- 
pearanoe^; althoiigfc t^e Chamber of CommeftJ® 
iriil be up ia armg if it »ee« Let u« eh«i4g€ 

that to read: Key West still retains much of its 
picturesque foreign atmosphere. The inhabitants 
include Cubans, Greeks and negroes, the latter 
35i0<etlj Bahamiiip. Early in ibe Imt oentmr j m 

successful venture at colonization, came to Key 
Vrest from the district around New Smvrna and 

St. A^gmUm ^Md mm^ ol ihm mm ^till mr^ 


K^y W^Ht hm quite a history of her o'9^n, quite 
a romantic one, too, but it will sufTice now if only 
the high lights are touched on. During the Mexi- 
can War permanent forti^<m-tions were ]}egun and 
Mttitrj mid naml fttitai^Oi ^fftml)!i<^9d, fmt ih% 
present Martello lowers wmj not ])uilt until 18G2. 
Key West had one engagemejit during the Civil 
War \^'lien S^esBioiiiat M^'iMi^^iliim^u Miimupisd 

to seize the place and were defeated by the courage 
of the commander of the fort and the timely ar- 
rivml of r#«iforce»eiiti. Tha^s was Key West 
saved to the Union ! In 1868 and 1869 the Cuban 
revolution sent many new citizens thither and 
these refugees from Spanish rule bro^kt en- 
couragement to a falterkiig cijgar-ioftkiBg trade. 
Tt^a^y the cigar business occupies numerous fac- 
tories and employs thousands of workmen. Key 
West has experienced two great disasters, the 
hurricane of 1846 and the two-d«y fire that in 
1886 almost destroyed th« town. In spite of the 
kek of certain municipal advantages enjoyed by 
other cities— a lack that is rapidly being supplied 
—Key West is a remarkably healthful place. As 
for the climate — well, some maintain that He«ven 
li»s still ft iot to iQmm from Key Wmi. Certain it 
i« that the winds mitigate the summer heat won- 
derfully, so that, although the island is a hundred 
miles farther south ^than the lowest corner of 
Terns, it is cooler ia the hot months ti«ai mamj 
moT^ u^rtberly eiti^ A4 for tke winter weather, 
it really is splendid. There has never been a 
frost there; never can be, probably; and 41 de- 
grees is the lowest the mercury has ever reached. 

From Key We^t fm^^t fojr Qiibm h hamcMfid by 
a«H0»a4«, the tmins being split up and run onto 
huge car ferries. From Key West, also, com- 
fortable passenger boats proceed daily to Ilavanss 
thj4 aluiamiii^ city m jfmL wmm^M^mmd hr Mr. 


Vi»M@iil. A trip (wcfiEWi i« a ple^Mint experl«fi#e, 
and, of course, you don't have to drink the wine 
of the country while there if you have scruples. 
^ wka^'a to prevent! Go, by aUiiiAftfi^ md let