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MN01 050.05 





guide to the land 


Parry, Cooke 


Bibliographic Record Target 

SOL MNO \050-C^ ' PSm\ 

F917.59 Bicjtise, H. D. 
3583 A guide to the land of flowers .♦. with a 

tour through Florida by Wniiam A. pringle. 
Charleston, S, C., Parry, Cook k co., 1878. 
lS2p. illufi. :-- c^ 

U72iili E. Morrill 2-26-58 7.50 

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12 3 4 






lill|HMMillM lMlillilM|ilMjlMI | | ||| 










10 11 






I I 

12 13 14 15 






•* %■ 


The Unique Shop 


273 Tremont St. 

Boston, Mass. 

Ji. a-XJI3DE 


Land of Flowers, 





NOVEMBER i, 1878. 



., , . . 


f (^i : r~i ^— C7 




Reminiscences of the Past...~ 8 
Present Condition of Affairs. 9 

A Glance at the City 9 

Public Buildinf2:s K) 

The Battery 12 

Buildings Destroyed by Fire. 14 

Mills, Manufactories, etc 15 

Churches ig 

The Citadel is 

Cotton Presses 19 

Banks 19 

Items of General Interest 19 


The School System 19 

Cemeteries 20 

The Harbor— Fort Sumter. ... 20 

Moultrieville 22 

Fort Moultrie 22 

Morris Island 24 

The Phosphates 25 

Newspapers 28 

Hotels and Boarding Houses. 29 

Home Enterprises, etc 30 

Steamship Lines 32 

Street Railway, etc 32 

Fort Pulaski 45 

Reminiscences 45 

Present Condition 47 

Churches 47 

Monuments 43 

Forsyth Park "„ 49 

Waterworks 49 

Cemeteries 50 


DeNarvaez 52 

Fernando de Soto 62 

The Huguenots 62 


Pubhc Buildings and Banks. 50 

Suburban Resorts 50 

Hotels and Boarding Houses. 51 

Business Houses 52 

Nursery Gardens 53 

Rice Mill 53 

Railroad Lines to Florida...... 53 

Newspapers., 53 


Grave of Gen. Henry Lee 

Business Resources 

.. 61 

. G3 


General Observations, etc 65 

Climate, Agriculture, etc. 
Price of Land 



The City and Streets 67 

T?nvni..^^ K"sources 68 

ijn]j]-cAi-iiiciits ' 68 

Yacht and Club House .".'.' 68 

Churches, etc 59 



H il'ernia .".*.'.".'.*. 

Magnolia .."' 

The City 



Suburban Resorts. 
Business Houses.... 


Boarding Houses ., 











Green Cove Spri ngs 89 

Picolata * qq 

Tocoi ^u 

streets and City Goveriim, -la 92 
i'"rr ;iii.l s,-;i Wall 

Cal!iM,l,-;,l ... 
^'i^v (rat....... 

Bar^ack.^ ..". 

Hospital and CenietJ 






Public JiiiildinLT^ 9^ 

Hotels and Boarding Houses! 9S ^ and Convents 99 

Coiif,Ml<Tat»- ^Fonument 99 

C hantal.I.' I nsTitutions 100 

Ihf^ HaThiii;,' iiouse lOQ 

NewspajHiv "jQQ 

A Raiiifil- Tlirougli t'he'city.llOO 





Federal Point -l?? 

Orange Mills- 



Whitestone's Landinj? .105 

Russeirs Landing. lOo 


Streets and Public Buildings. 106 i 

Churches • ^^^ i 

Hotels and Boarding Houses. 108 ] 

The Park and Streets .110 | 

New Town H^ 1 

Steamboats.. H*^ 1 


Lake Crescent 12- 

Lake Como J22 

Crescent City 1^4 



Saw Mill |13 

Amusements. H'* 

Places of Interej^t 114 

Fishing CJrounds 114 

The Outskirts of Palatka 114 

Real Estate 115 


Lake Stella 124 

Florida Fruit Grower. 125 

The Hawk Creek Country,etc.l25 


Murfrees' Island... 127 

Buffalo Bluff 127 

Horse Landing 12/ 

Nashua Landing 128 

Welaca 128 

Little Lake George 128 

Mount Royal 1-9 

Fruitlands. 129 

Fort Gates. 129 

Lake George 129 

Dravton Ishuid 129 

Hog Island 1;^0 

Main Shore of the Lake 130 

Lake George Landing .130 

Georgetown 130 

Lake View 131 

Volusia 131 

Manhattan 131 

Orange Bluff 131 

Lake Dexter 132 

Alexander Spring Creek 132 

St. Francis 133 

Lake Beresford .133 

Beresford 133 

Orange City 134 

Wekiva River 134 

Lake Munroe 134 

Sanford 135 

Mellon ville 135 

Orange CJ roves • 136 

Fort Reid. 136 

Enterprise 136 

Green Spring 136 

Indian River 136 

New Smyrna 13'*' 

Haulover Canal 138 


Davenport Landing 139 

Fort Brooke Landing 140 

Orange Springs 140 

lola 140 

Eureka 140 

Sunday Bluff 141 

Palmetto Landing 141 

Long's Landing 141 

Silver Springs Run 142 

Silver Springs, the Fountain 

of Youth 143 

Ladies' Parlor 143 

Silver Springs Settlement 143 

Ocala 143 

Marion County 144 

Lake Ware 145 

Moss Bluff 145 

Stark Landing 145 

Slighville 145 


Lake Griffin If^ 

Lake Griffin Landing 146 

Leesburg • 146 

Orange Bend J46 

Haines' Creek 14' 

Lovell's Landing 147 

Lake Eustis 147 

Fort Mason 147 

St. John's, Lake Eustis and 

Gulf Railroad 147 

Pendrvville 147 

Dead River and Lake Harris. 148 

Yalaha 148 

C)pahumkee Creek 149 

Blue Spring 149 

Lake Dunham 149 

Opahumkee 149 

Palatkaha 149 

Appendix 151 



The object of this work is clearly indicated by the title. 
It is truly intended as a rode mecuni, and a guide for 
those on their way to the '-Land of Flowers." As the 
aim of the editors throughout has been to avoid confu- 
sion, they concluded to give their attention solely to lo- 
calities and matters of special and general importance. 
All places herein described have been visited by the 
editors in person, and the statements may be relied upon 
ns authentic up to the time the notes were taken. The 
principal route being along the line of the Charl'eston, 
Savannah, and Florida steamers, the book opens with a 
description of the old historic City by the Sea, followed 
by detailed accounts of all items of interest incidental to 
those points touched by the steamers, viz : Savannah, 
Fernandina. Jacksonville, St. Augustine (by way of 
Tocoi), Palatka and the minor stations. The St. John's 
and Oclawaha Rivers are then followed until the head of 
navigation is reached. 

It will be seen that the present work differs from 
others, l>earing a similar title, inasmuch as the descrip- 
tive statements arejendered at length, while everything 
deemed non-essential and calculated to bore the reader] 
has been carefully eliminated. 

The information given regarding the various hotels 
and boarding houses is furnished witli the view of reliev- 
ing tourists and travelers from the annovance of hack- 
men and ''runners," who infest the different landings, as 
a selection can be made long before the place of destina 
tion is reached. 

That portion of the work devoted to the climate, health- 
fidness, agricultural resources, and especially to the 
orange culture, has been carefully arranged, and may be 
i-egarded as impartial and correct as far as it is possible 
to ascertain from observation and information. 



The editors are not unmindful of the fact that in a work 
of this kind there is room for vast improvement, but in 
justice to themselves, the publishers, and to those who 
have kindly patronized the enterprise, they deem it nec- 
essary to state that neither pains nor expense have been 
spared to bring it to a standard not yet reached by any 
of the Guide Books to Florida now extant. 

With these preliminary observations, and craving in- 
dulgence for wdiatever imperfections may appear, 
the work is respectfully submitted to the favor of those 
whom it may interest and profit. 



As ^he State of South Carolina once formed a portion 
of that territory claimed by the Spaniards, under the 
name of Florida, the sketch will open with a description 
of the City of Charleston and those portions of the coast 
first visited by the early discoverers and settlers of the 
New World. 

In the year 15^30, Lucas Yasquez de Ay Hon, a Spaniard, 
equipped with two ships, sailed from the harbor of La 
Plata, and landed in South Carolina at the mouth of the 
present Combahee River. His mission was for the pur- 
pose of kidnapping the natives, to sell them as slaves for 
the Spanish mines. Prompted by motives of curiosity, 
the unsuspecting and friendly savages were induced to 
visit the ships : but no sooner was the number desired 
fairly on board than the anchors were weighed ; and, to 
quote the language of history, ''husbands were torn 
from their wives, and children from their parents ; and 
Avhere before nothing but peace prevailed, the seeds for 
future wars w^ere now lavishly scattered." Wliile at- 
tempting to make port at St. Domingo, one of the ships, 
with all on board. \vns lost at sea ; and man}' of the 
captives upon the other pined away and died. 

About twelve years after this, a portion of South Caro- 
lina was traversed by the famous Fernando de Soto in 
his search for gold; but the first settlement in Carolina, 
and upon the American coast, was made by the Hugue- 
nots, under Jean Ribault, in the year 15(>"-2. After a cir- 
cuitous passage. Ribault landed a few leagues south of 
the present town of St. Augustine, in Florida, and then 
sailing in a northern direction reached the mouth of a 
river on the Carolina coast, which, from the "' fairness 
and largeness of its harbor," he called the Port Royal 
River. Upon an island a few^ miles up the river, Ribault 
planted a colony of twenty-five men. and erected a fort, 
which, in honor of Charles IX of France, he called Arx 
Carolina. It is the prevailing opinion that from this cir- 
cumstance the country first received the name of Caro- 
lina. After much suffering from hunger and sickness, 
the survivors of this colony returned to France in great 

8 A guidp: to 

In the year Kirn, an English colonv. under Governor 
William Seyle, effected a settlement at Port Roval. but 
finding that the west banks of the Ashlev River aff'orde<l 
better "pasture and tillage." they renuived to a site a 
short distance from its mouth, during the year following. 
Here the colonists soon discovered that thev labore(i 
under a new difficulty. Ships of large burden Vould not 
conveniently reach them, which greatly retarded com- 
merce. In consequence of this, in the year 1071), the 
people, under the government of Colonel West, removed 
to "Oyster Point," at the ccmfiuence of the Cooper and 
Ashley Rivers, and in the sul)se(]uent year the foundation 
of old Charles-town was laid. By an Act of the Legisla- 
ture it was incorporated in 1783, and called the City of 

From that time to the dawn of the late civil war, 
Charleston continued to flourish, and became the wealth- 
iest and most important of the cities on the Atlantic 
coast south of Baltimore. 

As it stands at present. Charleston is about three miles 
in length, ranging from south to north, commencing 
at the Battery and ending at tlie Forks of the Road. 
In width it extends from river to river, and varies from 
two niiles to less than a mile in some places. 
^ With Charleston commences the low, fiat lands of the 
State, which ascend as you travel westward, until an 
elevation of near 3,000 feet is reached. The climate is a 
medium between the tropical and cold temperate latitude, 
and corresponds with that of middle Asia, China, Italy, 
and the South of France, 


Up to the period of the Revolution of 1770, nearlv a cen- 
tury had passed away since the settlement of Charles- 
town. Its trade and commerce had reached a standai-d 
which could compete with that of any of the cities along 
the coast. From various sections of Europe multitudes 
or husbandmen, laborers and manufacturers crossed the 
Atlantic, many of them taking up their abode in the vicini- 
ty of Charleston. The principal buildings and the thickly 
populated portion of the city, extended from the Battery 
to Market street, while Calhoun street (then Boundary) 
formed the limit. A few of the colonial edifices, of wdiich 
we shall hereafter speak, still remain to be seen. In the 
cellars of some of these places the tea taxed bv the Bri- 
tish government was stored away to prevent' its sale, 
wOiile more secure apartments contained the gunpowder 
and small arms taken from the State House Armorv by 
authority of the Provincial Congress of South Carolina, 



held 111 Charleston, April ;^lst. 1775. Among the inci- 
dents of later life, Charleston is noted as having been 
the birth-place of the Southern Confederacv and the 
scene of many of those stirring conflicts wdiieh marked 
that em, known as the " War between the States.^' The 
great fire of 1 SGI destroyed a large portion of that terri- 
tory, extending from east to west, south of Calhoun 
street: and this, together with the ravages of war the 
mi itarv despotism, and the reign of corru])tion which 
followed, left the city in an impoverished and almost 
hopeless condition. 


Notwithstanding the trials and difficulties of the past 
Charleston under the present Democratic administra- 
tion, is fast recovering herself, and will continue to pro- 
gress according to the energy and disposition of her peo- 
ple, who to their credit, may it be said, have proved 
themselves equal to every emergencv. Being the chief 
commc^rcial metropolis of the State, the citv is thorough- 
ly connected w.tli the interior by means of Vailwav lines 
and receives for shii)ment the greater portion of the rice 
aiK cotton crops together with other commodities raised 
and cultivated for export. Although there has been a 
; 11 .1^' 'f ''^ ^'l^ country trade daring the past f(^w vears 
still the favorable reports which of late have been and 
are daily being received by the merchants from their 
agens. indicate an early revival of business in the mer- 
(•antile line The price-lists are very much the same as 
those of Baltimore or New York, and goods can be trans- 
ported to every part of the State within twentv f^ ur 
hours after being ordered. ' 


Charleston, like most other places of the kind, has its 
q Ota of steeples, cupolas etc., which can be seen ^c m 
afar, towering over the clustering houses and tree tons 
m nTf ^^ together, and forming a city the bealltv of wh^ 

ust be pidged from observation. Although a maiority 

wonM '^'''^^%f'^- "^''^^^- ^"^1' ^^^^ their irreguliritv 
would convey the imi)ression that the citv was planned 

tir Imf' IT' nJ.e^ ''r'' "^'i^ ^''''''^}^ in a good' c'rhl 
non and at present well attended to. The nrin- 

ire Fn.t r^''^.';^^f^' 7."^'"^^ ^^^^"^ ^^"th to north, 
are East Bay. Meetmg, King and Rutledge streets- those 

l^r(Md. ()u king street are found the retail drve-oods and 
tancy stores, where most of the shopping is dre; ^he 

(-8.M..) Can yon rerrint Father Prout's ex- 
quMre poem. •■The B- Is of Shandou," ar.,1 
' onfer a favor on 


followinjf irt th* 

if'jn chI led for 


U ilh (iv'^ep a!Tf^rtii)U aud recolleotion 
I <'iten thir.k of th^-'se ShHiidon bell«, 

\s i;. -> '.. nna-* ^- wild wMtiM hi d.iys uf childhood lioe, crockerv. clotliinu", driiij and 

Fillip PMund mv rradle thpir magic spells. ^ ...i i ' • I^ rSc 4. 

Onthjslpoudoi where er J wander, jiio' ^P t'^^' UUSllieh+S pOrtlOll ot Meet- 

A';f,.'lv': r'-' ^'^fVJT^\?/^."' f^^®' H i^alt^ groceries are stretched along 

» itu ai> bc.b V . ."?li.iiid<in, that sounil ^o grand i. ^ri ± -rt it n* 

ou troni Market to Broad: the oinces 

The pleasant water, of ^-^^^^ merchants line thcwharveS, 

TZ^^^^::^:^c^^^.u^i^Z'' '"'"" ^°' ^^ers, brokers and journalists eon- 

While at a ^\\\^ rate brass t.m^^uert wiuld vibrate; 5road Street. 

But all their lun^ie -^ndke iiautcht like thine. • xi a1 ^ l a1 ^ 4. 

For n.eniorvdueiiiri nil earh proud swelling; are HI the nortlicm and nortlicast- 
of thy beitrv kmiiin^^ its bold notes free. " y, arc substantiall V and luindsonie- 

Made the i'tdis of hhandjii scuiul more 

grand on 
The plea!*aiit water* 

l^ha rub.! II 
it th»' river 


•onsi<lerable s])ace of <2:rouiid. The 
Carolina Railroad connnence with 

it Line street, and extend to Hud- 

)Ut a half mile. The Northeastern 
at the corner of Washin^^^ton and 

ssenger depot being on Washington 


I 've heard t'e:!« t' ilinr iju ■• A Irian'fi Molt- 

Their thunder r-biui^ from t;,.' \ ,ii: ui, 

Atid rvnit-als iri> ii^u.'^ swi:;:_'U)l: uornarhj'.;-' 

In the poiireouh rwrrc;.-; ni SUtrt- 1 lame, 

but thy ■rounds wnn- -wf it i tium the dome of '^"- >^"^ wiix^i •■>'* •■ ii...i .nji, > 

Flinp> o ei the Til <i, pealing poiennilv, i ^ v ^ / n i j. 4. 

Oh: the If INof Sii<tnduu souii 1 tar iiiMre -laiid on lit (lopot Oil L lUlpCM Street 
Theplea^ant watt., of thenvtr l.e ^ AslllcV RiveT Road, the trainS of 

w. vvhiie Irum 

There is a bell m Mo 

klo>ki ', 
In j^t. ftcphi.i tb.e 'rurki:..ui 
And luud ;n air .-aiS iii'm; t 
Fioni tb.e taii»'r!i,_; simoo. • 
iSuebeUiptv piiaul.'ii. 1 li- 
}'u t t i.ei t 1- .11, ai:t;.i m 1:.. 
'T is tho i c:N of i^tKiiKi. 1: 
The p'.ea.'-an'. waters i,t t:.e 

tower and arlestoii Railroad Company arrive 


- 'd' tall nunarets; 
•ly j^rant them, 

!:a;'l;:i„M":V;randon l>nildings of Charleston noted for 

1 IV t-r Loe.J 

« • 

importance, none perha])s are more 
lan tliose forming the four corners 

(2887.) Caii at y one give me the old song " streets. 

. ; building, situated at th(^ nortlnvest 

O'lahSc)' ^mr *^ ^*^ itself, with doors opening <>n 


est. It is a three-storv brick builds 

clumsy in ap})earance. but its walls 

-. resounded with the imptissioned 

/s most gifted orators. It was orL- 

giiictiij^ iiic kjictte AX. .use of South Carolina. 

City Hall. — This building is situated on the nortlu^ast 
corner, has a fint^ park attaclied, and is rather to be ad- 
mired for its massive appearance than for architectural 
beauty. The apartments inside are spacious, airy, and 
used for various purposes. The Council Chamber, Mayor's 
room, Clerk's and City Engineer's offices, are to be found 
upon the second story. The first floor contains the City 
Court room. City Assessor's and City Treasurer's offices, 
while the basement is used b}- tlie Detective force for an 
office and temporary prison. 

At the other end of the park, corner of Chalmers street, 
is the Fireproof Biildinc;. This place, with its thick 
walls, stone floors, iron shutters and winding stairs, pre- 
sents a dungeon-like api)earance. and was built as a re- 
pository for important papers and records. Th^ County 
Treasurer, Probate Judge, and County School Connnis- 
sioners have their offices here. 


St. :\ri. hael's Chl'rch.— Opposite the City Hall, on 
the southeast corner, stands this famous ante-revolution- 
arv chinv-li edifice. We remember the beautiful words 

of poeti-v. 

The bells of Sliaiid .11. 

That sonnd so o^rand on ' 

The siiiiHii^' waters ol the Rivni- Lee,"'' 

But there is no grander or more ins])iritiiig sound to the 
true Charlesioiiian than the musical chimes of old St. 
Michael's bells. He remembers them from earlv cliild- 
hood, waking him before the dawn of day. and tlirilling 
his very soul with a wild, inexprwsible delight. He has 
heard his father and grandfather tell how thev rliymed 
and cliimed as they rang out the glad tidings of victory, 
and they are doubly endeared to him from associations 
of the past and as the veteran survivors of two wars. 
When Charles-town was captured by the Britisli. they 
were taken to London and" sold, but afterwards returned 
by the purchasers: and during the last civil war were so 
badly injured by the burning of Columbia, S. C, where 
they had been sent foi'safe keeping, as to make recastincr 
necessary. They were shipped to England in the early 
l)art of 18(10 by Jas. R. Pringle. The cost of recasting, 
i'e]»airing belfry, etc., amounted to S7,(M)U. 

The steeple of St. Michael's is noted for its arcliitectural 
proportions, and is one hundred and sixty-eight feet higli. 
From the piazza, which encompasses the stee])le. an ex- 
Ci'llent view <^f the city and harbor can be obtained. The 
])ody of the Church is rather jilain in appearance, but 
neat and roomy, with lofty ceilings and comfortable 
pews. The worsliippers are of the Episcopal persuasion, 
and are composed of the eJife of the city. 

The brown rough-cast building on the southwest corner, 
with colonade in front, is the Main Stationhouse. 

FosTOFFicE.— Continuing down Broad street to the Bay, 
we come directly to tlie Postoffice. which, although much 
improved, was liuilt prior to the Revolution of "ro bv the 
British and used as a Customliouse. It is also noted as 
having been the prison from which the celebrated Ameri- 
can patriot Hayne was led to execution; and. previous to 
the capture of Charles-town, the Provincial Congress of 
South Carolina assembled beneath its roof. 

< )pposite to the Postoffice, on the southwest corner, is 
tlie large banking house of Geo. W. Williams, and on the 
iiorthwest corner the meetings of the Chamber of Com- 
merce are held. 

Xew Customhouse.— This beautiful structure, built 
entirely of marble, but yet unfinished, is situated at the 



wholesale boot and shoe, crockery, clothing-, drug and 
dry goods lious^-s make up the business portion ot Meet- 
mr street: the wholesale groceries are stretched ahnig 
be^h sides of East Bay from Market to Broad: tlie ofhces 
of factors and conmiission merchants line tlie wliarves, 
while the lawvers, bankers, brokers and journalists con- 
duct the business of Broad street. 

The railroad depots are in the northern and northeast- 
ern portions of the city, are substantially and handsome- 
Iv built and cover a considc^'able spare of ground, ine 
luiildinos of the South Carolina Railroad commence wit i 
the passenger depot at Line street, and c'xtend to Hucl- 
son, a distance of" about a half mile. The Northeastern 
depots form an angle at the corner of A\ ash ington and 
Chapel streets: the passenger (le])ot being on W ashington 
street, and the freight depot on Chapel s^tivet bmvv 
the completion of the Ashley River Road, the trains ot 
the Savannah and Charleston Railroad Company arrive 
and leave from this depot. BUILDINGS. 
Amono- the public buildings of Charleston noted for 
their usf^fulness and importance, none perha])s are more 
worthv of mention than those forming the four corners 
of Broad and Meeting streets. xi ,.+ 

Courthouse —This building, situated nt the northwest 
corner, forms a sepiare in itself, with doors opening on 
the south, (vast and west. It is a tliree-story brick build- 
ing rather dark and clumsy in api)earance, but its walls 
have time and again resounded with the impassioned 
eloquence of Carolina's most gifted orators. It was ori.- 
ginallv the State House of South Carolina. 

CiTV H\LL.— This building is situated on the northeast 
corner, has a fine park attached, and is rather to be ad- 
mired for its massive appearance than tor architectura 
beaut V The apartments inside are spacious, airy, and 
used for various purposes. The Council Chamber. Mayor s 
room. Clerk's and City Engineer's offices, are to be found 
upon the second storv. The first floor contains the City 
Court room. City Assessor's and (Mty Treasurer s offices, 
while the basement is used by the Detective force tor an 
office and temporary prison. 

At the other end of the park, corner of dialmers street, 
is the Fireproof Buildinc^. This place with its thick 
walls, stone floors, iron shutters and winding stairs, pre- 
sents a dungeon-like appearance and was built as a re- 
pository for important papers and records, i^/^^,^;^^^^^^^^^ 
Treasurer. Prol)ate Judge, and County School Commis- 
sioners have their offices here. 


St. .Mi.hael's Chlrch.— ()i)posite the City Hall, on 
the soutlieast corner, stands this famous ante-revolution- 
ary cliur-*li edifice. We remember the beautiful words 
of poetrv, 

•'Tlie bells of Sliaiu! -ii 
'^riiat sound so jj^raiid on 
The smiling waters of the Riv(-i' Lee."" 

But there is n<» gi-ander or more inspiriting sound to the 
true Cliarlesiohij'M than the musical chimes i)f old St. 
^lichaers bells. He remembers them from early child- 
hood, waking him before the dawn of day. and thrilling 
his ver\^ soul with a wild, inexprc^f^sible delight. He has 
heard liis father and grandfather tell how they rliymed 
and chimed as they rang out the glad tidings of victory, 
and they are doubly endeared to him from associations 
of the past and as the veteran survivors of two wars. 
When Charles-town was captured by the British, they 
were taken to London and sold, but afterwards returned 
i)y the purchasers: and during the last civil war were so 
badly injured by the burning of Columbia. S. C, wiiere 
tliey had been sent for safe keeping, as to make recasting 
necessary. They wx^re shipped to England in the early 
part of 18(10 by Jas. R. Pringle. The cost of recasting, 
ie]»airing l^elfry. etc.. amounted to 87.000. 

The steeple of St. Michael's is noted for its architectural 
])!( (portions, and is one hundred and sixty-eight feet high. 
From the piazza, wiiich encompasses the stee])le. an ex- 
cellent view of the city and harbor can be obtained. The 
body of the Church is rather })lain in appearance, but 
n(^at and roomy, with lofty ceilings and comfortable 
pews. The worshippers are of the Episcopal persuasion, 
and are composed of the elite of the city. 

The brown rough-cast building on the southwest corner, 
with colonade in front, is the Main Stationhouse. 

PosTOFFicE. — Continuing down Broad street to the Bay, 
we come directh^ to the Postoffice. which, although much 
improved, was built prior to the Revolution of '70 by the 
British and used as a Customhouse. It is also noted as 
having been the prison from which the celebrated Ameri- 
can patriot Hayne was led to execution: and, previous to 
the capture of Charles-town, the Provincial Congress of 
South Carolina assembled beneath its roof. 

Opposite to the Postoffice. on tlie southwest corner, is 
the large banking house of Geo. W. Williams, and on the 
noi-thwest corner the meetings of the Chamber of Com- 
merce are held. 

Xew Customhouse.— This beautiful structure, built 
♦'utirely of marble, but yet unfinished, is situated at the 



Miner of P2ast Bay and Market streets. Its cost for com- 
pletion is estimated at two million dollars, but when this 
will be accomplished no man knoweth. 

The Market. — Crossing from the Customhouse we 
come to the Market, which extends from the Bay to 
Meeting street. It is said to be the largest in the South, 
and shows to advantage on Saturday evenings, when it is 
brilliantly illuminated. 

St. Philip's Church. — No tourist who stops at Charles- 
ton should fail to visit St. Philip's, situated on Church 
street, between Queen and Cundjerland. The original 
building was destroyed by fire in is;u, which necessitat- 
ed the erection of the present handsome edihce. The 
••Old Church" was often attended by Mcndtrie and dis- 
tinguished persons of Revolutionary fame: and the grave- 
yards, which occupy considerable ground space on botli 
sides of the street, contain the remains (»f some of the 
oldest families of Chai-leston. Near the centre of the 
grave-yard, on the west side of the street, is the tomb of 
John C. Calhoun. 

Towards the west end of Queen street, in the vicinity 
of Mazvck and Franklin streets, we find the Medical Col- 
lege and Roper Hospital. The latter is a spacious, hand- 
some, and thoroughly ventilated building, with fine gar- 
dens and walks in the front and rear, and takes its name 
from a worthy philanthropist who contril)Uted generously 
towards its erection. 

Passing through Mazyck street to Magazine, we come 
in full view of the City Hospital, Marine Hospital, and 
County Jail, all of them staunch buildings and well 
adapted to the purposes for which they are used. 


By walking down King street, or by taking the cars of 
the City Railway on Meeting street, we can be landed in 
the space of a few minutes at the Battery, or as it is 
otherwise called. White Point Garden. This, in the 
spring and sununer time is the most inviting resort in the 
city, and in point of attractiveness is not surpassed by 
any place of the kind in the South. That portion south 
of'^South Bay street is beautifully laid out in squares, 
divided by hard shell walks, carefully shaded with trees 
and bordered with benches; a strong stone side wall pro- 
tects it on the east side, forming a wide smooth prome- 
nade for several hundred yards. A short distance from 
the south wall, connected by a bridge, stands the Bathing 
House. The square facing Church street contains the 
Jas]Mi' Alonument, erected by the Palmetto Guard as a 
iribute to the defenders of Fort Moultrie, June 28, 1776. 




The monument is made of South Carolina granite, highly 
polished with die block and bass-relief, and is surmounted 
with a life-size bronze statue, representing a Continental 
soldier with a sponge-staff— to which is attached a flag- 
in the left hand, while the right is pointing in the direc- 
tion of the channel. It also contains the following in- 
scriptions and engravings: 

North side— Second S. C. Regiment, Army of the Revo- 
lution, organized June 17, 1775. Seal of the City of 
Charleston. *^ 

South >^i.le— List of wounded, /Seal of the State of 
Carolina. —^ 

East side— List of the officers in the fori June 28 1778 
encircled by a wreath of oak and laurel leaves. 'aIso, 
the following inscriptions: 

" To the Defenders of Fort Moultrie. June 28, 177(^:" 

'' No men ever did and it is impossible for aii\ lu be- 
have hQttevr—Muj. Gen. Chas. Lee. 

West side— Engraving representing the scene of con- 
flict with Jasper restoring the flag to position: also, a list 
of the wr.iinded ail.] tin' uords of Jasper. •' Don't let us 
fight will) Ml it ri flag. ■ 

Most of the buildings on East and South Bav are hand- 
some brick or stone residences, and conspicuous amontr 
them on Meeting street, a few doors north of the Batterv, 
IS the elegant and costly mansion of Mr. Geo. W AVil- 
liams. This nalatial edifice has only been recently fin- 
ished, and is by far the handsomest"^ private dwelli'^no- in 
the State. 

Among other prominent buildings of note in ilie lower 
portion of the city, are the Hibernian Hall, South Caro- 
lina 1 1,1 1 1. ^]\\\^ House, and Academy of Music. The 
latter is sitii.n.d m the rear portion of Uie large building 
corner of Market and King streets, was built since the 
war, and i< 'u-Tinmented in beautiful style. It is well 
patronized durum i It^^ 'h-amntic season. 

Among the ul-i Lulumai residences, two houses still 
stand, as near in appearance to their original construction 
as time aii<! ihe elements would permit. 

(hie. No. 51) Church street, was formerly owned by 
Judge Hey ward, and is noted as having been the place 
where General Washington was entertained during his 
visTt to Charleston in 1791 : the other, No. 24 Meeting.- 
street, was the residence of Lord William Campbell, tlie 
last Royal Governor of South Carolina. 







The ''great fire" which destroyed nearly a third of 
Charleston, in the year 18(U. will long Ix- reniemhered by 
those who witnessed the work of destruction. It was a 
December evening. The good people of the city had 
gathered around the hearth -stone, thinking. ])erhaps, of 
the soldier boy chilled by the keen winter wind as he 
w-alked his post on tlie beach, or imagined him shivering 
and begrimed over the fading embers of some smoulder- 
ing cainp-fire. It matters not in what direction their 
thoughts had taken flight, their reverie was soon broken 
bv a cry which moves the stoughtest hearts. The alarm 
of fire was sounded, and in a few moments engines and 
i-eels were rattling over the stony streets. Near the 
waters edge, in the eastern ])ortion of the city, a heavy 
smoke could be seen with its huge bcxiy moving skyward 
and bending to the southwest. Little by little, wimt ap- 
peared at first to be an impenetrable mass of thickest 
gloom, began to change, chameleon-like, until the angry 
flames burst their confines and shot high in the air. Al- 
though the gallant firemen battled manfully with the 
destroving element, only giving way when half scorched 
by the intense heat; still their efforts were of little or no 
avail. Like the folds of an enoi-mous serpent, the fiery 
fiend wound itself through the archways and windows 
of adjacent buildings, and tlien darting from street to 
street, gaining strength and volume at every bound, 
united in a sea of rolling flame, which beneath a scintil- 
lant canopv moved along the midnight air. forming a 
panorama of appalling beauty. During the long weary 
night and day following the work of destruction con- 
tinued, leaving a gap of smoking ruins, commencing at 
tb'' foot of Hasel stn'ot. and ending at the water's edge, 
which marks the southwest boundary of the city. 

To sav nothing of the many fine private residences 
destroye*d by this conflagration, among the churches and 
public' buildings we note 

St. Finbar's Cathedral, which w^as one of the hand- 
somest churches in the South. The ruins are still to be 
seen at the corner of Broad and Friend streets. 

Instittte Hall.— This building was situated on :\Ieet- 
ing street, east side, a few doors above Queen. In its 
spacious hall the Democratic Convention of L^oo was 
held, which w^as attended by Caleb Cushing. Benjamin 
F. Futl^r. an(l many other prominent men. Th<' Ordi- 
nancr of Secession was also signed at this hall. 

One door north of where the Institute Hall stooil. are 
the ruins of the 

Circular Church.— In point of unique attractiveness, 
this church surpassed all others in the city. Its richly 
ornamented dome, handsome colonade and circular form, 
were gracefully proportioned and much admired. 

Old Theatre.— This popular resort was situated on the 
west side of Meeting street, near Cumberland, and in 
<lays gx)ne by. from the opening of the theatrical season 
until tile close, was w^ell patronized. 

St. Andrew's Hall.— The ruins of St, Andrew's, on 
Broad street, which yet mark the site wiiere it once 
stood, bring many recollections back to memorv. Al- 
though the ceremony of signing the Ordinance of "^Seces- 
sion was performed at the Institute Hall, still the Con- 
vention which framed it met at this place. Beneath the 
l)r]ll]ant gas jets of Andrew's too. the beautv and the 
chivalry of Charleston were wont to meet and while 
awav the evening hours in the pleasure of the dance. 
J he hall was built by the St. Andrew's Societv. a select 
bcotch association still in existence. 


In the upper district of Charleston, otherwise known 
as the "Neck," there are several places well worth visit- 
mg, among which are the Charleston College, corner of 
George and St. Philip streets, to which is attached one of 
the finest museums in the South: Orphan House, on Cal- 
houn street, a large building with extensive grounds^ 
c-ontammg the statue of Pitt; the Arsenal, corner of 
Ashley and Bee streets: and over in tlie northeastern 
portion the Ahnshouse. Half-moon Battery, and Hamp- 
stead Mall. . ^ 


There are in Charleston at present six large sash and 
l)lind factories, and as many more machire shops repre- 
senting a capital of about 8700,000. and giving employment 
to between three and four hundred workmen The 
Charleston Bagging Factory, situated on John and Hud- 
son streets, also gives employment to about seventy-five 
persons, the majority of whom are females, and has the 
capacity for turning out between three and four thousand 
yards of bagging a day. 

w^^'^ o^^ i"'^^"" ^'''^ ^^'""^^ "^ number, viz: Chisolm's and 
vyest Point on the west river front, and Bennett's Mill 
at the toot of Wentworth street, on the east side. The 
three mi Is, when m operation, are said to turn out two 
thousand and thirty tierces of clean rice a dav. 

.— M 




Although among the primitive North American colo- 
nies, of a permanent nature, South Carolina is the only 
place whicn was not settled by refugees from religious 
persecution.* and while by a constitutional right every 
man was permitted to worship God in a manner win li lie 
in his wisdom and judgment thought most conformable 
to the divine will, still dissentions would arise among the 
early pioneers, especially between the cnvnlipr< and Pu- 
ritans — reviving those prejudices and aiiiiiu)>iues con- 
tracted in England, and which neither time nor the dan- 
gers and hardships which surrounded them 'ii!! oblite- 
rate. In good time, however, the wise measures adopted 
by the government restored order out of rlu - .m] tli • 
last spark of religious intolerance was extmguisiied tor- 
ever. A glance at the Churches herein recorded will 
show that whatever mavbe our creed, whatever our sect, 
we will find a temple of worship from which oui i>nsons 
may arise. 


St. MichaePs Church, corner of Broad an i Meeting 
streets: described elsewhere. 

St. Luke's, corner of Elizabeth and Charlotte streets ; 
large brick building, Gothic style. 

St. Paul's, Coming street, between Vanderhorst and 
Warren; large brick building, handsomely finished. 

Crrace Church. Wentworth street, near St. Philip's 
street: ornamental Gothic style. 

St. Philip's Church, Church street: described elsewhere. 

Holy Communion, corner of Ashley and Cannon streets; 
elaborately finished, with large parsonage attached. 

St. John's Chapel, corner of Hanover and Amherst 

Christ Chiirch. Rutledge Avenue, beyond Line street. 

St. Stephen's Chapel, 4o Anson street, west side. 


Cathedral Chapel, corner of Queen ani i liend streets; 
built for the temporary accommodation of St. Finbar's 

St. Mary's Church, Hasel street, between King and 
Meeting: small brick building, with colonade in front. 

St. Joseph's, Anson street, near George, built of brick 
in the style of a cross. 

*Tlie temporary sojourn of the Huguenot colony at Port Royal 
cannot be called a settlement. 


St. Patrick's, corner Radcliffe and St. Philip's; ordinary 
size wooden budding, recessed from the street 

St. Peter's, (colored), Wentworth street, two doors west 
ot Anson: small plain brick church. 


Trinity M. E. Church, corner of Hasel street and Maid- 
en Lane: large and airy, with high ceilings, comforta- 
ble pevvs, galleries, basement, etc. The church is con- 
structed entirelv of brick, has stone steps running the 
^y^dth of the building and enclosed with an iron railfng 

i>cthel Church, corner of Pitt and Calhoun: brown 
rough-cast brick building, recessed and surrounded by 
extensive grounds. The wooden church in the rear was 
removed to give place to the present handsome edifice 

Si^i II, g street Methodist Church, Spring street; massive 
brick building, yet unfinished. 


Citadel Square Baptist Church, corner of Meeting and 
Hrnnetta streets : described elsewhere 

1- list Baptist Church, brick church, situated on the 
west side of Church street, between Tradd and Water. 


St. John's Lutheran, corner of Archdale and Clifford 

Wentworth Street Lutheran, on Wentworth street be- 
tween Meeting and Anson: ordinary size and plain,' but 
neataip! romtortable. 

St. MciLihew'^ King street; described elsewhere. 


Glebe Street Church, situated on Glebe street This 
church IS modestly but gracefullv constructed, and num- 
bers among its congregation some of Charleston's most 
important citizens. 

Scotch Church, or First Presbyterian, corner of Meet- 
in- nil. I Tiadd streets: antique brick building 

1^ i^ nil ^ C^hurch or Second Presbyterian, situated in the 
rear ot ,, fin^ pnrk at the corner of Charlotte and Meeting 
w u'.u i^^iiying ground of this church extends to 
i^^lizabeth street, and contains some interesting monu- 

Independent (Chapel), built for the accommodation of 
the congregation of the Circular Church, which was de- 
stroyed by fire, situated in the grave-yard close to the 



Central (Third Presbyterian) Churcli. spacious brick 
buildipg, handsomely finished, with portico in front, situ- 
ated on the west side of Meeting street, north of Society. 

Ebenezer Chapel, corner of Nassau and Amherst streets. 


The Unitarian Church, situated on Archdale street, 
near Clifford, and the Jewish Synagogue, on Hasel, be- 
tween King and Meeting streets, are rare specimens of 
architectural beauty. The former, although compara- 
tively small, is built in the perpendicular Gothic style, 
and is well worth seeing. 

The French Huguenot Church is situated at the corner 
of Queen and Church streets. 

Bethel, or ^Mariner's Church, at the corner of Church 
and Water streets. 


The Citadel Academy and park form a complete 
square, bounded on the north by Hudson street, south by 
Calhoun, east by Meeting, and west by King, Before 
the war the Academy ranked among the first military 
schools in the country, and during the struggle which 
> followed many of its alumni were elevated to high posi- 
tions in the Confederate army, and their soldierly skill 
and valor is best told by the few survivors of the present. 
The building resembles a fortress in appearance, and is 
quite extensive, with wings upon either side, sally-port, 
barracks, parade ground, etc. At the close .of the war 
the place was seized by the United States government 
and lield as captured property; but througli the exertions 
of General M. C. Butler will shortly be restored to the 

The new Artesian Well is located on the Green, near 
the corner of King and Calhoun streets, which, when re- 
gularly in operation, will contribute largely to tjjje water 
supply of the city. 

._, TWO cfH !;• 11 !:s. 

On both sides of the Green, one on King and the other 
. on Meeting street, are two large substantial church edi- 
fices, with lofty spires, almost facing each other. The 
new German Church (St. Matthew's), on King street, 
was erected only a few years a^o, and is quite an orna- 
ment to this portion of the city. The Citadel Square 
Baptist, on Meeting street, presents an imposing appear- 
ance, and has facilities for seating a larger number 
of persons than any other church in Charleston. 




Then, are four large Cotton Presses in Charleston, 
winch, during the busy season, are kept in operation 
iU\} and night, and can compress an aggregate of be- 
tween nine and ten thousand bales daily. The number 
of bales compressed by them during the "last commercial 
year was ;i(JO,U()(). 


The Banks, representing a capital of over 63.00U,0uu 
are located as follows: ' ' 

Germania Savings Bank, 54 Broad street 
(aroina Savings Bank, corner East Bay and Broad sts. 
l^eople s Bank of South Carolina, i) Broad street 
I nion Bank of South Carolina, i:39 East Bav 
South Carohna^oan and Trust Company, 17 Broad st. 
Hank of Charleston National Banking Association. X 
K. corner Broad and State streets. 
First National Bank. 13:^ East Bav. 
People's National Bank. 15 Broad' street. 


The present population of Charleston is estimated to be 
•d»out oej.OOO persons of whom 28,000 are white and 
<'.»lored or black. The customs and manners of the people 
vary according to caste, but a characteristic which be- 
iniigs to them as a whole is a generous outflow of hospi- 
tality towards those who come among them with worthy 
motives Society especially the higher grade, is noted 
for the beauty and refinement of its ladies and gallantry 

vL,^'' Tfr ^" ''^^^'^ ^'^""'"'^ '^^^^ ^""^'^'^^^ the chivalrous 
virtues of their ancestors. With regard to public morals 

Charleston IS fully up to the standard, and notwitlistand- 
mg the fact that a time existed when a partisan gover i- 
ment antagonistic to the intelligent portion of the com- 
munity, bed full sway, acknowledging -no right but 
might and no law but power:" ^.tiH. even Tiring 
that chaotic period, the calendar of crime was surpris- 

simiTJr nnVT ^^'' Compared with other cities containing a 
similar number of inhabitants. '^ 


Besides a number of private schools, and the school of 
he Christian Brothers for Catholic children the ctap 
propriates about $(;(),000 for the supi)ort of five pubHc 
schools, which are attended by both white andc^^M 
chddren. three schools being reserved for whites and t^ 



for the colored children. There is also a High School to 
prepare boys for their entrance to the Charleston College, 
which is conducted by an able corps of professors and 
numbers among its alumni the leading business and 
professional men of the State. The Medical College, too, 
fe has an abfaculty, and is the alma mater of Carolina's 
most distinguished physicians. 


The Enterprise Railway cars run directly to Magnolia 
avenue, which leads to the burial grounds. The first 
place we enter while passing down the avenue is 

Bethany Cemetery, which, from the following in- 
scription on almost every tombstone. " Hier ruhet in 
Gott,'" we observe to be the German '• place of sepulture." 
Tlv^ irrnvf>^ nnd w;i1k< ;ire carefullv att^'nrled to, and 
s-i!!»^ul lia- iin.iuuiufiil.»> ure costly aii'i liaiid>"MM'. 

Magnolia.— A short distance from Bethany, ciul iacii!_r 
the avenue, we pass through a large main entrance aul 
find ourselves in the most interesting portion of the ceme- 
tery. Conspicuous among the objects of attraction here, 
are the graves of Confederate and Ini' ii soldiers in 
close proximity to each other, reminding une of the lines, 

" Under the sod and the dew, i 

\yaitino: for judj^nient day, 
Under the laurel the blue. 
Under the myrtle the jjray.'' 

Space will not admit of a aL-cnpu 'ii of tlie many hand- 
some monuments and vaults to be seen at M,i-nolia. 1 he 
most prominent are the cenotaphs of tip Washinj^i' ^ 
Light Infantry aii<i Iri-li \ < 'mnteers. Firemen's M- in.'uto 
an'3 Vanderhorst Vault. Among the n mil i-i < reeled to 
the memory of private individuals, w* note the Wn^h- 
ington, Legare, Jones, Taber. and \Vi<(> Tnn]iniii' iiis, 
which are fine specimens of artistic ^kiii .ml tiin^h. 

St. Lawrence Cemetery.— To the nghi *>i Mnirnolia a 
large wooden cross marks the consecrated grouml of the 
Catholics. The cross, the emblem of the Catholic Jfaith, 
is also to be found upon every tombstone. Tliis ife truly 
a woodland solitude, where a reniii;mi ■! thr "silent 
majority" await in peaceful slumber the angelic trump 
of the great Resurrection. 

Tin-. iiAi;r.' 'U 

The beautiful land-locked harbor of Charlestuu. large 
enough to contain the argosies of the world, is the most 
extensive on the coast of America. The landscape, as 
far as the eye can see, is pleasing to behold, and every 


here and there, as if rising from the sea. are battle-scarred 
fortresses still standing like grim sentinels of the past 
An excel ent view of the bay can be obtained from the 
l>attery, but, for satisfactory observation, an excursion 
on one of the steamers of the Sullivan's Island and Ferrv 
( ompanv Line, is far .more preferable. Tlie steamers, of 
uiiirn Mv. H. L. P. McCormick is superintendent, are 
^witt. safo iUMl commodious, and leave from the pier at the 
;<M)t of MaWat sti" ot. The first point of interest reached 
IN Lastle liNc KNi-:^-, wliicli lias no war record worthv of 
inention but was used after the war as a place to ^im- 
prison tliose charged with disloyalty. The steamer passes 
dose bytl.of...;- , ,n]. fiffeon i.M.nites later, stops at 
he wharf of M^.r-r J ikasant. Tliis is an interesting 
itt e vilhigc. an<l wll wortl* vi.Mtiiig. The houses are 
'•iiilt m cottage style, and froui a distance present an at- 
M-active appearance. The remnants of some old foitifi- 
■ations are still to be seen, and the cemeterv, which 
overs about an acre of ground, contains the remains of 
-^ome of the State troo]»s who died during the war of IS12. 

1 < 'HI s( \i i>:k. 


Leaving Mount Ileasaiit. ue again tak. the steamer, 
and. while making the curve for the Island, will occupy 
a tew monients in contemplating the historical renown of 
ae fort just off m the distance. In the annals of war 
n-f^knowof no other military post so long and fiercelv 
Ix'sieged and so ably defended as Fort Sumter. From 
Mie time that the siege commenced, davs rolled into 
\yeeks. weeks mto months and months into vears, and 
M.e rain of shot and shell from the Federal batteries and 
-riinboats. continued to fall in and around the walls until 
ihey were battered into a mass of crumbling ruins But 
I was commanded and manned by men of the stamp of 
those vvho fought at Marathon of old. Of this fact the 
.nanv l)ecame thoroughly convinced during the attack of 
.l)ril (.th. isc.-j. Early in the afternoon the entire fleet 
uenty-seven wooden war vessels, nine monitors and the 
ingate Ironsides could be seen off the bar: at half-past 
Our o clock the iron clads moved in the direction of the , 
tort and the battle opened. While the smoke and flashes^ 
of the ronflict could },e seen along the broad expanse 
i-n. Suiju-ans island to Coming s :>oint. the heaviest 
>n>a(lsi< .>s wrce pn.nv.l against Fort Sumter, shattering 
The walls or ricochetting along the water, dashing the 

v^\u?. '^IT ^'f\ V' ^}^; ^>' ^^"'^ ^"^^^ tlie brave artille- 

mtai at the fort had become terribly in earnest, and a 

; s uctive fiiv from the barbette guns, which lasted for 

ahout three-quarters of an houi-, turned the tide of battle 





in favor of the defenders. The Ironsides, unable to stand 
the broadsides directed against her, gave a few parting 
shots and retired southward, follow^ed by the double tur- 
retted monitor Keokuk; the latter having her fiag shot 
away, three holes in her smoke stack, and her bow badly 
disabled. At half -past five o'clock the firing ceased, and 
the entire fleet retired from the conflict, leaving another 
tribute to be added to Carolina skill and valor. It is the 
proud boast of Carolinians that the enemy was unable to 
capture this stronghold, which for nearly thrtv years of 
a siege, stood as firm as the rcx-k of Gibraltar. For some 
time after the war these portions of the fort not entirely 
destroyed, were subject to the nuitilating homage of relic- 
seeking travelers, and fragments of Sumter may be seen 
to-day in the mansions and cottages of rich and poor 
throughout the length and breadth of the land. The 
outer walls, as will be seen from observation, have been 
entirely rebuilt, but from the want of funds, the interior 
is yet unfinished. While a sight of Suniter always 
awakens in the mind of the true Southron a sense of 
vanquished hopes, it also recalls to memory the gallant 
deeds of noble men, which the impartial historian may 
some day record with justice to themselves and the cause 
for which so many of them sacrificed their lives. 


Moultrieville or Sullivan's Island is the next place 
touched by the steamer, and is a great sanitarium and 
summer resort. It is in the shape of a crescent, some 
four miles in length, and was named after one Florence 
O'SuUivan, who was placed there in the year 1074^ in 
charge of a cannon, to alarm the town in case of inva- 
sion from the Spaniards of Florida. Tlie Island, which 
was lined with earthworks during the war. has been 
since built up, and at present contains some three hun- 
dred and fifty houses. It has a fine hard beac-h. which is 
used as a promenade, besides a wide center street run- 
ning to the myrtles. A ride of about a mile on the street 
cars will land us at 


What glorious recollections crowd into the brain as we 
prepare to ascend the f)arapets of this renowned fortress. 
Not visions of steel-clad gladiators, with glistening shields 
and spears and all the ancient panoply of war, but rather 
of the stern yeomanry imperfectly equipped, behind a 
few logs of palmetto, holding in check a nn-midable ar- 
mament. We revert in imagination to the Spring of 1770, 

and before our " mind's eye," are stalwart men piling the 
palmetto logs one upon the other, forming two walls, six- 
teen feet apart, and filling the intermediate space with 
sand. After this fashion the fort, then fort Sullivan, was 
built, nor was it even completed when attacked by the 
British Fleet, June 28th, 1776. But the various achieve- 
ments incidental to this engagement have long since 
passed into history, and are too generally known to re- 
quire a rehearsal here; besides any attempt to render a 
detailed account of the facts, would only be to quote or 
plagiarize from the records of some faithful annotator of 
the past. We remember the fears ancj. anxiety of Gen. 
Charles Lee, tlie firmness of Governor Rutledge, and the 
intrepidity of Moultrie. We hear again the words of 
Lampriere, '' The men-of-war will knock vour fort dow^n 
in half an hour," and our breasts kindle with enthusiasm 
as we listen to the patriotic reply of Moultrie: *'Then wp 
will lie behind the ruins and prevent the men from land- 
ing." We can picture to ourselves the line of vessels 
under command of Sir Peter Parker, crossing the bar 
and casting anchor within easy range of the fort. Clouds 
of smoke arise from the decks, and broadside after broad- 
side is poured against the fort; sphnters fly in every di- 
rection; but the balls rebound from the spongv palrnetto 
logs, or bury themselves in the sand. But'^Fort Sul- 
livan IS yet to be heard from. Twentv-six cannon 
belch forth, and, like the voice of deep rolling thunder, 
when it breaks in all its force from some angrv cloud, the 
n-on messengers of death rattle against the hulks of the 
enemy, sweeping the gunners from the decks and em- 
beddmg themselves between the timbers. The comba- 
tants on both sides now recognize in each other foemen 
worthy of their steel, and 

" The combat deepens ; on ye brave. 
Who fight for ^lory o>r the wave:' 

The crescent flag is shot from the parapet of the fort 
and falls on the beach directly in front of^the enemy; a 
few moments later the gallant Ser^-eant Jasper leaps from 
the walls and restores it to its position amid a rain of bul- 
lets from the British. The battle rages fiercely for nine 
long hours. The loss of the British is two hundred and 
twenty-five killed and wounded, while the Americans 
only numbered ten killed and twenty-five w^ounded. Sev- 
eral vessels are stranded, several disabled, and with am- 
munition exhausted, the remainder retire from the con- 
test to report the first naval defeat of England for many 
years previous. This was the first victory gained bv the 
contiueiital .^oldicrs over the regular troops. 




During- the war between the States. Fort Moultrie also 
played a conspicuous part, and was the source of consid- 
erable annoyance to the enemy. It engaged in the in- 
cipient battle of the war. (Fort Sumter, April l\;th, ISIJI). 
and had one gun dismounted and one man wounded during 
the monitor attack of April, 1^(13. Since the war, under 
the supervision of Mr. Gleason, Fort Moultrie has been 
almost entirely rebuilt. It covers an area of between 
four and five acres of ground. The walls are all neatly 
faced with brick and filled with earthworks of sand. It 
contains at present eight magazines — one of which, al- 
though since much improved, was built with the fort 
after the rovolution. Tlie other seven were built since 
1ST--3, and consist of brick and concrete entirelv covered 

__■ *' 

with earth, for they are all under ground. There is also 
a bomb-proof connecting the magazines with tlie sally 
port. The open space on the outside forms the parade 
ground, and two fifteen-inch smooth bore Rodman guns, 
and two eight-inch Parrot guns command the channel. 
In an angle just outside the sally port, is a grave con- 
taining the romains of bodies taken from the wreck of 
the Monitor Pata}>sco. sunk by a torpe<lo during tlie late 
war. Alongside of this, on a simple marble slab, four 
feet in length and about eighteen inches wide, enclosed by 
an iron raiiia^. \\r read: 

Patriot and Wakkiok, * 

Died at Fort Moultrie, 
.Ian :^0, 1838. 

Tliis ctU'ljrated chief ^A' the Seminole Indians was born 
in Florida alujut the year isoij. His father was an Indian 
trader in the name of Powell; his mother was the daugh- 
ter of an Indian cliitf . ( )n the -^^^kl of August, l<s:37, while 
holding a conference with Gen. Jesup. near St, Augus- 
tine. Florida, under a flag of triH •'. l.r an i seventy of his 
warriors W( ir jiiadr pi ". M>.i','i>.. \\v N\a.> confined at Fort 
Moultrie, where he died a few months afterwards. There 
is an old story afloat that Osceola remarked, while in 
captivity, that some red man of the forest would avenge 
the treacherous act. If this is authentic, we cnn tiuly 
j»oint to Gen. Canby's death, and exclaim, ''Osceola thy 
words are verified.'* An oil painting of him can l>r s^mmi 
at G. C. Seeber's restaurant. No. .')(><> King street. • , 


Across the channel is ^lorris' Island, with it^ wide, 
white bleach, crumbling fortifications, etc. On its soil 
the most sanguinary battles arouiid Charleston were 


fought in vain attempts to capture Battery Warner 
which was finally evacuated by the Confederate t?ooi ^ 
just prior to the close of the war. A n.'w ]TSp,.< h-^^ 
been lately erected on this Island. To tlu- w^^t oMIon^ 
IS JAMES Island, containing the ruins of Fort Johnson* 
rom which the signal shot of the war was fim Be- 
tween Fort Sumter an<l tlie city, on the site where Fort 
Ril)lev <WK.. stood, a now iron lighthouse is in ^^Ltrur 

Drayton Hall. -This old baronial residence, some 
thrte^en miles from the city, may be reached by a tr p on 
one of the steamers or sailing yachts, which ply un the 
Ashlev River Although moi"^ than a century has passed 
since It was built, still its massive brick walls are fn a 
state of perfect preservation. Both in the front and rear 
are stone steps, with iron railings running up and over 
the otitside doors, and from the walls within are sus- 
pended severa pairs of stag antlers, which call to mi^d- 
Scott s description of Ben-venue, where he says : 

" l)rooi)e(l from the slieath that eareJess fluno> 
Lpoii a sta^'fs huj?e antlers liuiij; • 
For all around the walhs to ^n-nce' 
Hnn- trophies of the fi-ht or chase." 

The interior is gradually falling to decay. The eleo-ant 
statuary was either destroyed during the war or taken 
away bv the soldiers as relics of Southern aVistoJmcy 

inmnds, ^' '^'^''^^^ ^"'^^'^ ^^^^^" ^« attached to Se 

" Wliere roses, e-lantine and ])rooni, 
Watt around their rich pt^rfuni*^ 
riose to the walls to^rether twine. 
The ivy and the Idani vine." 

The Bar.-A great drawback to Charleston^ commer- 

n louth of Tl ' ''''i ^'T ^^'' ^^^^^ ^^'^^1 ^'''' blocking thl 
niouth of the harbor for ten miles, and preventing ^shins 
-t heavy burdt'ii from entering, except at very high t le 
ly nieans of the national jetties, ho^^ever. thl const^t-uc: 
ion of which will commence shortly, a depth of ten or 
twelve feet of water will be gained. formin|a channel f 
• n half mile in width, deep enough for the lail^srvessels 
J' » pass through. - ^^^^fet^sL vessels 


For many years past the marl underlying the phos- 
phate beds of South Carolina was known and used as 1 
I'-rtilizer, but. until of late, the rocks c,r loclules were 
•Ing up and thrown aside, not merelv as a iiseles^ maVe 
. i-ial, but were regarded as an obstruction. The foL whig 



extract from a pamphlet published by Dr. N. A. Pratt, 
will show how the discovery of the usefulness and value 
of these corpolifes was made : 

"As early as the year 180(5, I attempted to establish a 
company for the manufacture of acids and fertilizers, 
but without success. In 18G7 the attempt was revived 
with better hopes of success; and while from May to 
August selecting- a suitable location for such works, and 
as chemist to the ' North Carolina Geological Survey/ I 
searched in both the Carolinas for native home material 
which might be turned to profit in the manufacture of 
acids and fertilizers, I was fortunate enough to discover 
that a bed outcropping within ten miles of Cliarleston, 
contained as large a percentage of the phosphate of lime 
as any of the phosphatic guanos imported from the tropi- 
cal islands, and used in this country and abroad in the 
manufacture of fertilizers. This bed has long been known 
in the history of the geology of South Carolina, as tlie 
' Fish Bed of the Charleston Basin,' on account of the 
abundance of the remains of the marine animals found 
in it ; Professor Holmes of the Charleston College, hav- 
ing in his museum no less than sixty thousand specimens 
of sharks' teeth alone, some of them of enormous size, 
weighing from two to two and a half pounds each. Tlie 
bed outcrops on the banks of the Ashley, Cooper, Stono. 
Edisto, Ashepoo, and Combahee Rivers, but is developed 
most heavily and richly on the former, and has been 
found as far inland as forty miles. Near the Ashley 
River, it paves the public highway for miles— it seriously 
impedes and obstructs the cultivation of the lands, afford- 
ing scarcely soil enough ' to hill up the cotton rows ;' 
and the ^phosphates' have been for years thrown up 
in piles on the lawns, or into causeways over ravines, 
to get them out of reach of the ploughs; it underlies 
many square ^niles of surface continuously, at a depth 
ranging from six inches to twelve or more feet, and ex- 
ists in such quantities, that in some localities fnnn five 
hundred to one thousand tons, or more, underlie each 
acre. In fact, it seems that there are no rocks in this 
section that are not phosphates. 

'* While engaged as above-mentioned, from May to Au- 
gust, 18G7, in locating my proposed works, and searching 
for material suitable to my purposes, on or about the first 
of August, while examining samples of foreign guano in 
the laboratory of Dr. St. Julien Ravenel, (who was then 
engaged in preparations for the manufacture of fertili- 
zers, and expected to import or purchase his materials 
from al)road,) I was shown by him a rock whicli he said 
was from Goose Creek, S. C, and contained, according 



to his estimates, from ten to fifteen per cent, of the phos- 
phate of lime. Knowing from Toumev's Geologv of South 
Carolina, and Professor Shepard's analvsis, that nine per 
cent, was not uncommon in the marls of Ashley River, I 
was not surprised, and at his suggestion that ' as I was 
interested in such matters I had better analyze it,' I did 
so. Two days afterwards the result was known, as fol- 
lows, and immediately communicated to Dr. Ravenel. 
who was then in my laboratory, with the remark that ' it 
was well worth looking after :' ' Phosphate of lime. 3-t 40- 
sand and insoluble matter. 29. 92.' The same da v. Au- 
gust o. (as taken from mv laboratory record,) recallino- to 
my mind the 'Fish Beds' of the Ashlev River, and tlie 
•nodules' or "conglomerates' buried there, I applied to 
my friend. Professor F. S. Holmes, (who, among all mv 
acquaintances, was best informed as to the geologv of 
this section of the country,) for samples of those and 
similar rocks, and finding in his cabinet a quantitv taken 
tvvelve years before from his own plantation on Ashley 
River, was pleased to discover an August lo. 1807. No 1 
phosphate of lime, 55.92 per cent.: No. 2. phosphate of 
hme. 55.52 per cent. Subsequent analvsis made of the 
rocks taken by myself from the bed, showed averages 
varving from fifty-seven to sixty-seven percent., which 
could be relied on from a very large extent of countrv • 
thus having found these phosphates to be identical with 
the/ marl stones.' 'nodules,' or ' conglomerates,' of the 
' Fish Bed of the Charleston Basin,' all the phvsical char- 
acters of which had been known and described twenty 
vears before; and the nodules, of which 1 was informed 
by Professor Holmes, were known to contain fifteen or 
sixteen per cent, of phosphate of Hme. Availing mvself 
ot Professor Holmes' extended information in regard to 
the outlines of the bed. which he had manv vears ago 
rnapped out, I pushed forward my examinations and ex- 
plorations with flattering results, and in a few weeks 
extended the limits of the bed far beyond its previouslv 
known l)ounclaries. Thus this valuable material was 
discovered and loccited.'' 

The following extract from a report of the Chamber of 
Commerce on the trade and Commerce of Charleston will 
give an idea of the value of ihe marl found in South Car- 

The extensive marl beds of the low countrv of South 
Carolina were known and adverted to from an early pe- 
riod in the history of the country. The economic value 
ot these marls was, however, especially brought to notice 
by Mr. Edmund Ruffin, who had been very successful in 
renovating worn out fields in Virginia, by the applica- 



tion of the marl found in that State. He therefore na- 
turally concluded that South Carolina marl would effect 
the same desirahle object. With great industry and en- 
thusiasm, he examined numerous localities, determined 
the percentage of carbonate of lime, and urged u])on 
planters the advantages to be derived from enriching 
their fields. 

*' In Virginia, the carbonate of lime is in a condition 
easily attacked by acid compounds of comparatively 
weak and solvent power, while in South Carolina it is so 
combined with and mineralized by silex, oxide of iron, 
phosi)hate of lime, and other substances, as not to be 
applicable to agricultural purposes, until its nature has 
been changed by l)urning. When this has been done, the 
South Carolina marl becomes an imj)roving agent, vastly 
more effective than that of Virginia." To effect this de- 
sirable-, object, the ''Charleston Agricultural Lime Com- 
pany " have established works at Woodstock, on the 
South Carolina Railroad, about IS miles from Charleston, 
where this marl has been found, after numerous and 
careful examinations, to be very rich in phosphate of 
lime." The Charleston agents of this company are 
Messrs. Ravenel ^ Co. 

Some of the principal j)hosphate companies are the 
Etiwan, Wandoo. Pacific. Stone* and Atlantic. 
■ At a recent meeting of the stockholders of the Stono 
Phosphate Company, the following officers were elected : 
Wm. Ravenel. President: F. L. Frost, Secretary and 
Treasurer: Dr. St. Julien Ravenel. Chemist: J. B. Kecke- 
h\v. Surprrintendent. 


Xkws and Courier. — This is one of the best conducted 
('ailies in the South, and the leading Democratic journal 
oi the State. The office, large stone front building, is 
situated No. 10 Broad street, and includes in its depart- 
ments a business office and recei>tion room on the first 
floor, editorial and reportorial rooms on the second floor, 
and composing rooms on the third floor, all well fur- 
nished: while in the outer buildings, ranging towards 
Elliott street, are to be found the steam presses and ma- 
chine for folding the i)aper, and the job office in the rear 
of the press room. 

Deutsche Zeitunc;. — A German paper, jiublished tri- 
weeklv, bv F. Melchers & Son, at OS Broad street. A 
sterling Democratic sheet, with extensive circulation. 


Sunday Tuaies.— Published every Sundav morning at 
No. o State street. Large and increasing circulation. 

Monthly REcoRD.-Episcopalian, bv Walker, Evans 
<x: Cogswell. 


Charleston Hotel.— (3n the corner of Meeting. Havne 
and Pmckney streets, is a massive building, with double 
colonnade, reaching to the roof, and forming quite an 
ornamental exterior. 


Pavilion.— This popular first-class hotel, so extensive- 
ly known throughout the country, is situated at the cor- 
ner ot Meeting and Hasel streets, in the verv center of 
the wholesale and retail business houses. It has been 
recently renovated, is elegantly furnished, and affords all 
the facilities and comforts looked for by those traveling 
foi- pleasure or on business. On the table evervthing 
pleasing to the taste is found, and the celebrated artesian 
wat^er, so higlily recommended by physicians, is supplied 
tor both drinking and bathing piif poses if desired. A fine 
biNjard jwirlor and barber saloon are attached. 

Waverly House.— This is third in size among the 
hotels now open in the city, and has the facilities for 
accommodating one hundred guests. Its situation is in 
the bend ot king street. 

^1 A. ^.'^loN House.— Located in Broad street, near Meet- 
ing has been recently fitted up, and now offers accom- 
modation f(^r fifty persons. The situation is a most de- 
sirable one. and the charges moderate. 

HiLBFRS House. No. ■.>84 King street, is well known as 
a first class private boarding house, and is now prenared 
tor the winter travel. 

The Forest and National houses, both located on 
King street, are most comfortably furnished, and have 
tlie facilities for accommodating either families or sincrle 
persons. >^ ^ 

H xMiToN House.— This house is conducted bv a lady 
whose appreciation for the gallant - standard bearer" of 
tlie State suggested the illustrious title which it bears 
those who patronize the Hampton House will receive 
every attention. Its location is on Meeting street, next 
to the Pavilion Hotel. 





Mechanics House, fitted up especially for the accom- 
modation of mechanics, is situated on Meeting street. 
nearly opposite the Market. The prices and enerj;y of 
the proi)rietor to give satisfaction, will be found in keep- 
ing with the times. 

Lemon's Restaurant, on the northeast corner of Hascl 
and Meetiiit^ streets, is always su})plied with the host 
oysters, fisli, and game, when in season, prepared in 
savory style and served by attentive waiters. Meals are 
furnished at all hours during the day, and up to the 
closing hour at night. 


As the Charleston Disinfectant, manufactured by Mr. 
John Commins is receiving the attention of the medical 
faculty, we take pleasure in appending the reports of 
some leading physicians on the subject. 

Dr. Lynah, while practising on Sullivan's Island, speaks 
thus: I have freely used the Fumigator and Disinfectant 
manufactured by John Commins, and fintl it one of the 
most perfect Disinfectants that has been brought into use 
for the prevention of epidemic and contagious diseases. 
T would recommend its use in all houses where diphtheria 
and fevers prevail, as I believe it to have a tendency to 
prevent the extending of such diseases in the house. 

Health Office, Galveston Texas. 

I have experimented with the Disinfectant manufac- 
tured by John Commins, and find it a powerful Fumiga- 
tor and Deodorizer. I think it a most valuable disinfec- 
tant for vessels, as it gives off no sparks while burning. 

Health Plujsician. 

Office City and Roper Hospitals, Charleston, S. C. 

Mr. John Commins : I have given your disinfectant a 
good test, and I am much pleased with the result. In 
this institution it has served our purpose admirably; it 
has few equals for simplicitv and efficacy. 

J. b. liLIST, M. D., 

Physician to Hospital. 

The Charleston Disinfectant, manufactured bv John 
Oommins, has great recommendation for cheapness and 
•easy of application. From its combination it has great 
<'laims for recommendation on ships and in houses we 
consider it a powerful disinfectant. 

J. T, McFARLAND, M:. D,, ) Committee on Disin- 
JAMES HOLMES, M. D., [fectants. Jacksonville, 
L. I. SAILIL. M. D., ) Fin., Feb. Wth, 1878. 

Among the most flourishing industries in the citv is 
the Sash and Blind Factory of Mr. E. W. Percival,*^ sit- 
uated at the east end of Columbus street. This is, strictly 
speakmg, a Southern enterprise, and is suuplied with all 
the modern improvements for turning out doors, sashes, 
blinds, frames, moulding, brackets, mantels, etc. with 
neatness and dispatch. The saw-mill attached contains 
tlie latest improved machinery for planing work The 
track of the Northeastern and Savannah Kailroa'ds run 
through the yard, which saves the expense of drayage 
as the cars can be loaded at the factory. 

Invention.— A unique contrivance, wliich can either be 
used as a sleeping cot, or parlor lounge, has recently been 
invented by Mr. R. C. Millings, No. 'UU King street. It 
may be used with or without a net, can l)e folded up and 
carried about, and may be used to advantage by hotels 
>»r boarding houses. The prices vaiy ai cording to finisli. 

HoLMAN Liver Pad Company. -Tlie trite saving that 
•" "^V^^^VJ^^ succeeds like success," finds an apt illustration 
m the Holman Liver Pad. That the theory of the appli- 
cation and use of medicine by absorption is, in most 
cases, the true course of treatment, has been thorouo-hly 
demonstrated and conclusivelv proven to the public mind 
through the introduction of the Holman Pad, which has 
done its work whenever and wherever used with extra- 
ordinary success. 

This pad company have established in the Citv of 
harleston a supply depot for the West and South, thev 
have ample and fine rooms at the corner of Kino- ancl 
Market streets, with separate parlor for ladies and gen- 
tlemen. Though they have been here but a short time 
the sales of over a hundred pads in a single day attest 
the public intelligence and appreciation. The testimo- 
nials of this company are of the highest character, in- 
cluding high and well known names in Europe as well as 
in America. ' ! 

Obliging and skilled assistants are in attendance at the 
rooms to give all desired infoi-mation. 




Insurance Agency. — The agency of Messrs. Ravenel. 
Bowen & Co., representing no less than seven of the best 
companies in England and America, is located at No. 8 
Broad street, three doors east of State. It also represents 
one of the most solvent accident companies in the country, 
and the term of insurance on dwellings and other proper- 
ty may be carried for periods of three and five years. 


The steamship lines connecting New York with Charles- 
ton, are the Adger and Clyde Lines. To the former line 
belong the steamers City of Atlanta. Charleston, and 
Champion ; to the latter, the George W. Clyde and Gulf 
Stream. The Clyde Line to Philadelphia, consists of the 
steamers Virginia and Equator. 

The Falcon and Sea Gull belong to the Baltimore Line. 
The Sappho, Pocosin, and St. Helena, to the Mount Plea- 
sant and Sullivan's Island Ferry Company Line, and a 
number of smaller steamers run between Charleston and 
llw landings on the Santee and Pee Dee Rivers. 


Charleston has two street railway companies, viz : the 
City and the Enterprise, which run through all of the 
j»niicipal streets, with a line of track extending from the 
Battery to the Forks of the Road. 


And now farewell to Charleston and all her greatness ! 
For the present our occupation is gone. The good steamer 
waits at the foot of Adger s wharf to bear us to the 
"Forest City." We provide ourselves with a ccmifortable 
state room, and as the swift steamor turns seaward, we 
rapidly pass forts, islands, and lighthouses, which grad- 
ually sink from vietv as we reach the broad ocean and 
continue our course further into the heart of the "sunny 


^ N 1) 




DOUBLE DAILY TRAINS, ('^^5^^~U. S. Mail. 

PULLMAX SLEEPixr^ CARS on all Nii^-ht Trains. 

Paj<S(Mijreri< ^-o Tlirou^-h between CHARLESTON and S \- 
VANNAH and AU(iUSTA. /r/fhont rjiauf/*^/ 

s. ('. Jioi/istoit. r;. K ,{■ T. A. 

f. S. (Indxdrii, /•'//, r ,(• Snn> 

T t T t t t 'J r '> 'f .|. .^ .. A ^ . 


GEO. T. ALFORD, Proprietor. 

IlOAitI). ITH l)V^^ - Ki.oo \>l> 82.50. 

(According? to location of roomj<.) 

This is a First-class Hotel, and has recently ])een Renovated 
R.painted and put m thorou-ii (n-der in every respect. ^ '^^*^*'' 

The Pavilion is situated on Meetin- street, one of the widest 
handso.ncst and busiest thorou<rhfare's of tlie citv. It is u-^\l in a 
t.n st.'ps o the lar-est wholesale houses, and connected bV vfeVt 
railway the R R. DeiK>ts. Postoffice. Banks, ^^c. The Lmies' 
entrance ,s on Basel street, less than a s(,narefroni Ki„^' street he 
fashionable promenade and principal street for retail shoppinl^ 

( leiks <-on.i»etent and i,olite. Servants quick ai.d attentive? 

The Bdhard ]>arlor connected with the Ik, use is the finest in the 
South, contairnn^^r,Collender Tables, fifteen )>all pool: 

Rooms may be en^-aj^-ed in advance by applyin;,- to 

G. T. ^LFOlll), Proprietor, 

^ CHARLESTON,' 8. (j. 



A <a'n)R TO THK LAM) (»F FL()\VI:R> 

IxsTKANcK A(iKNcv.— Tlu' a^^i'iicv of ^lessi's. l-Javciicl. 
Bowrii cS: Co.. i'rj)n>s('iitini^ no less tliaii seven of the l)ost 
companies in Kn.L;Ian<l and Anieric-a, is located at No. s 
Broad street, three doors east of State. It also i'e})rrs('nts 
oneof the!nost solvent accident companies in tl]<' country, 
and the term of insurance on dwellings and (>ther proper- 
ty may he cai"rie<l foi- i>erio(ls of three and five yeai-s. 


The stf^amshi}) hni^s eonnectin;;- New N^>rk witli ( 'has'lys- 
ton, are the Ad^^i-r and Clyde IJnes. To the formei- line 
helon;^- the stejimers City of Atlanta. Charleston, and 
C1ianri»ion : to the latter/the Cleori;*' W. Clyde and (hdf 
Stream. The Clyde Line to I^hiladelphia, consists of the 
steamers Vir'_;inia and Ecpuitor. 

The Falcon and Sea (iull l)elon<;- to the Baltimore Line. 
The Sapoho. Bocosin. and St. Helena, to the Mount IMea- 
sant and Sullivan's Island Ferry Comjjany Line, and a 
numher of smaller steamers run hetween Charleston and 
ill'- landin^;s on the Santee and Bee Dee Rivors. 


rharleston has two street railway conipam'es. viz: the 
( ity and the Fnter])rise, which run through all of the 
nriiu-ipal streets, with a line of track extendin*;- from the 
flattery to the Forks of the Road. 


And now farewell to CharU'ston and all her <;reatness ! 
For th<' })resent oui* occupation is ^one. The i;-ood steanu'r 
waits at the foot of Ad*;-er"s wliarf to hear us to the 
•Forest City." We provide ourselves with a eomfoi'tahle 
state i'o»m/and a-- the swift steamer turns soawai'd. we 
ra])idly ])ass forts, islands, and lighthouses, which i;rad- 
uallv sink from view as we reach the hroad oci'an and 
continue our course further into the heart of the "sunny 





;iavannah and wjiarisston Railroad. 



•- ^ ,/-« C — —4*- .MM i ff! —— .^Z. 


.-iifi;Ti;sT ijoiT!-: .wn (^iickkst via a (\ i,. 
F 1^ O K if E> A ' P 4 M \ r .S 





DornLL DAILY TIL\ I Xs, ."^Ti^Wno^L. S. \\,x\\. 

IMI, L.MAX sL|.:i.:j>i>-,, CARS ,,„ all Xi^.T Train- 

: l»a-vi)-..i-v o<, 'J'lin.imli\v,«Mi ( HARLLSTOX and S \- 
\.\N.\AII an<l ALdlSTA /rUhmif r/m ii(i> ' 

'' s. I, •,;</<,/, ,,. J-:, 1,1, a- ,Si/jif 

f'Af iii#i U-e-Tki 


^ & .ml^ 

■ip c>. 

C T 

':^, S c . 
BOAHI>, I»FH aAV. - ^^2.00 A>J> $2.50, 

According to locatinu <,! n>«»i 


I'TJ^mTi" ^'I'"-^ ••'/'^^Hot.l, an.! La> ivr.ntlv In-.-n R.-unvate.! 
U.painnMl an.l piir in l lM,n,n-)i nnl..,- in .'V^-rv iv<ih.,-t. 
Tin- I'avilinn i> sirnar.Ml (,n M,..ti„u- ^r n ."t. ^uie nf rl,,- wiH.-^t 

U'^v .uv< <. rln. !ar^..>T wholesale hous... an.l <-<,nn..-i. I Uy It^r 
nnlwav w.rh Tl... U H. |).,,.,t> Rn.tom... Ranks. .Vc- tL"! -m iVJ 
j.ntnM...,son Ha..Urn-.t l...rhanasMnarMn>nNsinj:^^^^ 

t..>l lo nal.lM i,r«>|." and principal sThw-t l<.r nTai! .!„>, 
; ••••k> .M.n.p.r.-nr and polit... S..rvanT> .-,n;.-k and alfntiv.."^ 
J I..' Hillia.rd ]'ar!..r(M,nn,M.t.'d with tlu' Ikmim- is t'ih lin<-r in r'-.^ 

SonTl,,r,.nrainnm:,<n||.nd.M-Tal>I... fitT-.-n hall jkm.I '"" ^ '" ^-^ 
R<.<»ins May 1..- cn-.^-^'d in advanr.- I.y api,lyin- r<> 

^'. 7: ALFOIIJ), Pro/jricfur^ 

' <HARLLSTnX,'S. ('. 



iwferiAAW A. low 

FERRY ^--^^-5.3^^11^ 


Www W * mf^ v% * * * w w S^ l# 




Leave the City daily at lo a. m., 3 and 6 i'. m. 
Leave the Island daily at 8 a. m., 12 m., and 5 v. >r. 

11 1, !' .McCOKMK'K. 

.<^rr/''///. wv;. \7'/ . \'/, 

Mannfartnver of 


Will renew and work over all old Hrniib. C onii>in}r-s> «Stc"., in lasliionalile styles 
at low 1)1 ices; also Dyeinjr in every shade, either liyfitrr or <l(irk(r. 

Country Orders promptly atteruled to. 

Ladies' Hair-dressiiiji: a specialty, 

301 Kiiiu StrtM't Cliarlt'stoii, S, C 


188 Ivuil; Sulll, Clkiilcston, S. C. 





Steam Fitting and Ship Plumbing. 


Charleston f o Baltimore ! 

And aJJ points XOKTH and WKST, also to h11 ErR(^PF:AN Ports. 


FALCON, B. F. Ktrbv, Commander, 

SEA GULL, \\\m. ALvRsiiMAN, Commander, 

Sailing from Charleston and Baltimore weekly, 

Otter to the traveliiiir public every Comfort and ConvHiiience. 

W:\\ to BALTIMOREpt^^c r':Oiily $ 15.0^! 
Direct Coiiuectloii is lade at Baltimore for all Points NorftlFwest^ 



!■ \1 

''. a..«v 

. ^g: 

riMoRK. ArT> 

A. Tobias' S:r. k ZoL—r. 




CoBlii, H?aliii2, ii Kerosene ^m. icM. M "tm. 

IMain, Japa^med, and Planished Tin. Sheet Iron, and 
AV^oodeii Ware, House Furnishing Articles, etc. 

Eoofimj. Giifff-Tfin/ and Repairing pronq)tJij attended to. 

No. 118 Kiniz Street. Cliarleston. S. r\ 






Meeting S:.. ::r. Ilorlbeck's Alley, 



Mount Flsasant ^ Sullivan's Island 

F E P. " Y K gm^:^ .-^^, C^Ch^r-ANY 

Office and Wharf, Foot of Market St. 


K! 1J 


III ui' 


'11,;' N ! 






Leave the Cit)- ilaily at lO a. m., 3 and 6 r. \i. 
Leave the Ishind ilaily at S a. m.. i j m.. aiul 5 i'. m, 

. L. i\ AicCOi< M i^K, 

^7 77';^7.\77•;.^'/^/' ^"/' 

M i >>S S 

■\1 ,r, iifactur.T of 

i J j« >i I ^ c 


WiG3,''LA!To, ,R 


Will ifiiL'W ainl work <>\ . r :i!l olil i;raiil-. ( oiiiliiiii:*. \f. uii j'asliioniililr -In 1('-< 
at low iiii(»'~: al~<> Dxciuir in cvcrx >liatlf. citlitr //;//*'</■ or »/";/.» /•. 

(\>ui»t!'y <)r(l»'r> proiiipTly attnultMl To. 

J..;nli»'s" Hair(lrt's>iiii;" a >ptM-ialT>' 

301 King Street. Oharlestou, S. C 

r. I., an Li.FMiX. 

kScS Kino- Street, Charleston, S. C 





."Meani I'lttini^' and Shiii I'iumlMiiy. 


Charlcsfon io BaIti..n^rG ! 

Aiid aJJ j)(.inT> >(iHTil aii.l W KST. also m.-, 11 KIRDPKW IN.-t^ 

~^^ Mml M Fimil & AttractiYe Route ! 


J'AIXOX. I). V. Kikji\. Commanck-r, 

SKA (illJ., \\\m. Ma KM). man, Coiiiinaiulcn 

Sailing from Charleston and Baltimore weekly, 

( mvv To Tlu^ Trav.'li'ii.^- ]iii!.:ic cvHi-y Cointoi-T and ( ouvciii.'nc.'. 

Ticte to BALTIMORE; 

IiH'luiliiiir Mt;i]- aiii 
statt'ivuMu Itciili. 

:Oiili $15.00! 

iJV^M'M^S, AT SEA O^^LY •>*-nofirs! 

Direct Coiii iGCtioii i.s made at Eiilt iiiior c for all P oiiiL^ NgUIi aiiii We.^t, 


Edwin Fitzgerald, Agt.. ; A. Tobias^ Son .S; LeLeon, Agts, 

<HAHI,i:ST()N. S. ( 


Cooliiiff, Mm, and KeroseEe Stoves, Grates, M Mm. 

Plain. .lapiHiihMl, and I'lanisjicd Tin. Siiec^T Iron, and 
WcxhIpm War«\ Hou>»' I'Mnii>liiHji' ArTJcIes. pTc 

RonJiiKi. (intti^iiiii (UkI ni'i>(iii-iHij pjt>ii//)fl// i(ffrit(Jv() /(). 




LiT^^ J ,.-' 


R08EBT O.W !TE. 

< KMl-rrKKV LOTS KN( J.OSKl), 
1_ SHOR'J^ No'i'K !•:. 

'>«=^?:®«^^ Meeting St., cor. Kcrlceck's Alley. 

'::t"-:" < HARLP.STON. S. ( . 


155 Meeting St,, 


C K I IN A t: M !~ulTl U M ! 

II. C. STOLL, Aj»enl, 

No. 287 King Street, opposite Masonic Temple, 


Importer and Dealer in French Cliina. (xlass aiul (.^ueensware. ('.('. 

Yellow and K()ekin>;ham-\vare, Kerosene Laini>s, Chandeliers 

antl Hraekets, Plated -ware. Cutlery, juid Hf>iise 

"iirnishiu":' (ioods ireurrallN 

The C!> dc Steamship Lnies 


Elegant Deck Stateroonis foi' Cabin Passengers. 



AVA(tNER, IIU(iER & CO., ] . . 
WM. A. CIOURTENAY, f ^^^<^»ts, 

1)« East Bay, Charleston, S. C 

. Ho. 284 KiiiE Street, Ctiarlestou, S. C. 

Transient Board, — from $1.50 to $2.00 pur Day, 

accordin(t to rooms. 
carriactEs always in attendance at the depots 

AND house to convey PASSENGERS. 

Mrs. B. Hilbers. 

Geo. A ^A'.if^ener. 


.7011 \ C()I{|JI7IT. 

(Successor to Geo, A Bowman,) 


Clotli & iaiiii 






-^ ■-«» '^m-- ■•: ic ■■• » 


Composed of Sulphur, Carbolic Acid, and Iodine- the O N L Y 
KNOWN FUMIGATOR that completely destroys all germs of in- 
fection in a house, or in clothing. Should he freelv used where 
Dii)htheria, Miasmatic and Contagious Diseases existl 

Endorsed an<l recommended by the Medical Convention lately 
held at Jacksonville, Fla., February lU, 1878, to consider the most 
eflfectual Di>infectants, and the best means of preventing the intro- 
duction of Yellow Fever, and other contagious diseases into the 
Ports of the United States. 

Price, 10 cts, per mm., siifflcieiit lo f iimipte a small louse, 

, roH .s.vr.K nv 


Patented Nov. 28, 1870. Manufacturer, 



Hon. E. C. Anderson, Mayor of Savannah, Ga.; H(m J C Rid- 
dell. Mayor of Fernandina. Fla.; J. A. Stewart, Esq., Commis- 
sioner of Health. Baltimore, Md.: Hon. H. A. Kendrick, Mavor of 
Brunswick, (ia.; .1. C. Habersham, M. D.. Health Officer, Savan- 
nah, Ga.: Dr. F. P. Porcher, Associate Phvsician, Citv Hospital 
Charleston, S. C; Dr. Rob't Lebby, Health Officer, at guarantine, 
Charleston, S. C, who savs: 

" Since the introduction of the Fumigator and Disinfectant 
manufactured by John Coannins, I have used it freely on all vessels 
infected or otherwise, quarantined at this station, and believe it 
has no equal.'' 

-*«=«■• I ■ -^ Bb «-«■ ■ 



No. 245 King htret^t, Charleston, S. C. 

Pinrrrx tn Ipf. PiniiO'^ tnninl niid rtMiairfd. 





^ T 

CO y^ 



By MISS M. C. PHIl 1 IPS, 

187 Meeting Stref^t next nhovo Pavilion Hotel, 


Board and LudgLito per daij, ^p l.di): })ev iveek, 
$7.00: (411 d per month, $26.00. 

3li:i I! AM(S- iiorsK, 

121 Meeting St., opposite Market, Charleston, S. C. 
CiIooi> Pifi> vim: rJoAKDix;, 

Can be obtained at this House, with Ciood Aeeoiniiiodations. 

BOARD Per Day, |1.00; per week. ^«).(M). 

Pernianf^nt Board, $5.00 per week. 

4 ' ■■ .m HC ■. B-:^ BS ■-.mC ■« Hk' . 

lew York ; Charleston 

bIKAMMllp Ll\i:i 

Sniliiigever^ Sadirdnj 

-^ '^IC^ *- 

.steamship CITY OF ATLANTA, uaptain M. S. Woodhiill. 

Steanhship THAMPION, Captain R. W. Loekwood. 

Steanisliip CHARLESTON, Captain James Berry. 

V. i .. VA. A > T Ht \ T V \\ o r?>rs : 



i.. , 

JAMES ADGER & CO., Agents, 

Corner of Ad-erV AVliarf and East Bay, 


^ u U . 

- 0, j. THO;^iPSON 


ST(,)\i:s, KA\(J,S, GRATIS. 


ArT?<"V'ri:^'.,^\^VI^^^^'^ ^"^^""^ OCTFITS A SPEd \ I TV 

V?ol \\a^\ Jliiji, Noiili oT 3LiiKrl Stiect. 


House and Ship Phiiii})inp:. Roofinjr. Gutterinj,', and Tin Work 

irenerally. ])ronii)rIy attMndMd fo 

W(^(l(liiii> (;iil at Alhiifs. 

M' n .M.W I.I.K\ — Ot new and elej^ant desii-ns, and exouisite 
workmanship. DIAMONDS, PEARLS. CAMEOS-As AveH ax W 
co.stiy sets, jn ?reat variety. STERLIN(7 SILVERAVARE — In 
tresh and beautiful patterns, especially adapted for Weddinir IVes- 
..»ts ^l I . I:R PLATED-WARE-Tea SetJ, Waiters. Ice PiR-hers, 
Butter Dislies, ( ups, Ooblets, etc. CHOICE FANCY (iOODS— 
French Clocks, Bronzes, fine Table Cutlery, Opera Glasses fine 
<jiassware, etc " ' 


Sign of Drum Clock, 307 King Snvt^t, Charleston, S. C. 

, 'j^Mmm& 



WTKAM I ITTi:i{ A I'LL 31 UK I?, 

No. 447 King Street, Charleston. S. C. 

A tine assortment of (trs and Kero.sene CHAN I > 11 

T.AAIPS nlwnv< on IimimI 

iin^ and 

iliansion i;.louse 

By iMrs. K. (J FINNEV, 

«9 i:r..,i(l \t 1.1. 

In the immediatf vicmii\ oi the linnks 

ami I"o.~torti'ce. 

(_ iiAi;Li.>i'« '\, >. c. 

Pemaiieiit & Trau^iciit Boardtr^ 

At 11 )\IMi )liA IF I ■ 

ON iti: is<»\Aiii.i: 1 iHMs. 


Tmpm-t>>r ami Mnnnfnotvrrr of 


And ])♦'!) l,r ui 
TO\>. W h I \.\T-y (i()(,i>s, 

."•iOi Kii;^^ Sti-eet, 
4 IJOOK.^ Ai;»>\ i \», 1 \ i w (M:'rn. 

nriS!,!^?.! CiiaiiestoiLS.C, 

'Ihc ihrupfst Fiiniiiiire Ware-rooms in 
Charleston, ami none ol" Adam and Kve's 
Old ^t vies either. 


Fiiiiiitnre Wai'fi-rooiiis, 


i\o. 219 Ilir- Stroc-:, 

« M \i;i.ESTUN. 

Constantly re- 
ceiving the Latest 
Styles of Furni- 
T tire. T'offins and 
' Kiirial Caskets of 
ilie most sn])erb 
>t^les and finish. 


Havkm:!., Bo>vf:> & Co. 

Representing in FIRE DEPARTMENT first class English and 
'tII'T't, t'' L' 't^' ' '^'l'"~ ',:: "" " ' ■'-^■i-t^^;ii' iii^C upwards of $.S(K()()0,O()0. 
MARINE DEPARTMENT. -Mercantile Mutual Insurance Com- 

panv New iork i oreign and Coastwise Insurance eflfected to all 

]>'>ri- Mt rcnsniialiic r;it<-'^ 

LIFE AND ACCIDENT DEPARTMENT, representing the Pion- 

T^^!-^f'^^'r^^V\'?^^^^l'^^^ ^^fr ^^^^ '^'''^ reliable TRAVELERS' 
I^s( H NCE COMPANY of Hartford, Conn. Every available 
lonu ul Lile and Accident Insurance effected. 


^Vki^* '\^ P' f r. ^ *^ "^ ' ^'■^- '^^ ^'ENEL. E. P. JERVEY, 

J^cinoiTs licstariiant, 



Fish, Oysters, and Game, in season. 




I''r;iiu.-.v, M(.ul(liii-v. l^r-acket.s, Stair 
Rails. W 1 .\l;tnt.-U. &c. 

' ' 111] . hiidii aiht quality of work defled. 
I'lict'b Guaranteed as low as any House 

East Lnd ot CohimEiis Strc('t. Charleston. S. C. 







i: \^s I'Ai.i.; Ai.K .-.X I.|{ \i .,|fT. MEALS AT ALL HOURS. 

Lunch trMiu 1 1 A M to 2 P M 

Oyster^ Wine.s, Liquors, Cigars. Tobacco, etc., of best qualities. 

BRANCH Ocean Paii Ceiiteiiiiial Hall, Siillivan^s Islaufl HOUSE 


IMIM I()\ \l S! ( ONn I XPOSl RF. 




srs;A>F I iri!:i{ .\ !*ll Muiit, 

No. 447 King Street, Charleston, S. C. 

A liii«' a>surtint*nr (»t <ia> and K'.M-ostiu' ('HAM)KLIKKS and 

SiLansion 3?ouse ^^^^^^^^ eerel-s^e, 

Jiii/Kirtir mill MnnnOtrfurir i<f 


li\ Mi>. K. ( Fl.N.NKV 

Ill tin- itiiiiH'tlialf vi('inil\ ot \\w I5;iiiks 
.iml ro^lotlire, 


Penuaiieiili Transient Boarders 

I >i^'ii ol |}ic' « 


And Deah'T in 

TOYS AM) FAX( V (iooDs, 

304 King Street, 

» 1 onus .\l5o\ 1; WKNTWOirni. 

Ctiarlestoii. S, C. 

1 ii< «7(../y/»A/ !• iniiiuiic \V;iro-rr)(niis in 
' li.-irlr-Icn. .-iinl in.iu' <>! Ailani ;m'i Kvt'"s 

^ t.C.MILLfNGS, 

Fiiiiiitnre Ware-rooiiis. 

Kc. 21 D Ilirg Street, 

( HAHLKS'l'O.N. 

<'<)n>tantly iv- 
('♦'lAinji- Tlif Latest 
St>l»'s of I'urm- 
A t HIT. ( 'olTins and 
^' l^urial ( 'askt'ts ot 
\\w most sn|)ei"l> 
>T\1hs anil 1in.i>h. 


Representingr in FIRE DEPARTMENT first olass English and 

MARIN LDLPARTMENT.-Mercantile Mutual Jnsuranc-; Cou.- 
l)anv. .New \ ork. lorei-n and Coastwise Insurance effected to all 
I)orts at r.','i^Miial)le rates 

LIFE AND ACCIDENT DEPARTMENT, representing tlie Pion- 

f nn. f^y^^ VV''^-i^^\^*^ Hartford, Conn. Everv available 
lurni ul Ldc and Accident Insurance eirect(^d. 





• "" W. (• !'..,. ^V Co. 

LcinoiTs llcslnuraut. 



Fish, Oysters, and Game, u\ season. 





I'ranies, Mouldin-rs. Brackets. Stair 
Rails. Wood .Mant(ds. &c. 

'oinp(>iiti()n and <iuality ol" work "Iclicil. 
I 'net's Guiiiaiitoed as low as any lloiiso 

East Enr] of CnJnmhim Strrr>t. Charleston, S. C. 






A Y 



Lunch from 11 A. M. to 2 P. M. 

Oysters. Wines, Liquors, Ci^'ars, Tobacco, etc., of best qualiti-- 

BRANCH Ocean Par!( CeiiteniiiarHall7s^^^^^^ islauS HOUSE 

C U R I 

\\y A nsORPTIOX ! 


LiTer M Ape Pat id Aiiiiliaries! 


(vH i^Kli 


#■< . ■ 

5 ^^ 

- d '^ 

»« -^ Oj 

^ *- ^ 

t; o - 

2 ^^ f^ 

2 ^ "^ 

A -N 1 > 

5. 3 


\'\i\:\ i.> ri:i> 

o .-^ '< 

--^ ~. r* -1 

7i -. "t "^t 

'^ — V"' ^ 

— ■ ' 'r 




All tlipse liav«» tlu'ir origin, direftly or indirectly, in the Stomach 
or Liver: if you doubt it, send for Dr. Fairc liilds Lecture. 

Regular S2: f^pecial, S3. Plasiers. 50c,; Sails. 25c. 

Specials are used in Complicated Oases, sent l>y ihhiI, on receipt 
of price, free of charge. Salt is sent by express at txp- i\<(> of the 

Consultations at our parlors or by letter free. Sei'ii it> parlor 
for ladies, in charge of a lady attendant. 

Wliolesale orders prom})tly executed, t^" T^'ware of imitations. 

t^" None {Tannine hut the above. 


< ' 'I'li'-r* K iiitr Hn<l NI .1 ik>: ^i 

< harlt 

■ston, S. C. 


jA>fKN S. HVER, 

!5 '^^ n ri^C*!^'*^ l^f^-^-^^ 

Ga.^ Clidodelicr^, Brackets, Pendants, M Kerosene Lamps, 

82 Broad Street, under Carolina Hotel, 








riTZM* )Ki(!- .V T' ':-'rr.i; 

a !ia^-rs. 

Competition and Qualify of Work Defied 

fc^ PRICES .:^:s 


IJooK .WD Cl'XI-.R.M. lo]^. PrIXI'IXG ! 

IMINIION \1 S! (OM) i;\P()Sl KH 

CU RE r.N' A nSOl; I' IIUX ! 

Liver m km M M Aiixiiinnes' 

■^ r\ —^ I ■, ■ •-'v - 

VEr? A>3D DSr»!^ A!^?Tr> STO?^/IACH, 

^ 1- ^ 

■^ -3 i, 

iT X - 

/- c < 

J: K -^ 

i .ff I 

Vw ~. <-* "T 

K — ^ ' 

— '' "• .^ 

1' — —. ~ ' 

'/- r -" = 

-f — Y - 

S 3 p _ 

C ^' 

' Z "^ — 

■J. ,,-1 ^ _^ 

~ ^^ 

Al! tli»*s<' liavr tlwii- «)ri^in. diii-rtly or indircrtly, in tlu* StoiiUK'h 
or liivt-r. if vou (loiiht it, >v\\(\ tor I)r. Fair( liildV ]<<(tuu'. 

Regular Pai, $2; Special, $3; Plasters, 50c., Salts, 25c. 

SptM'ials <Mi"«' used in < 'oiiiplicatcd (.'a.'^cs. .^rnt •>>' mail, on rccript 
of |>ri<n\ fre»' of char^«'. k*<alt i^ M'lit by ('.\i)n*(^s at t\\[)«'ns(' of the 

Consultations at our parlors or ])y letter free. Sei)arate parlor 
for l.'idif's, in ehar^'e of a lady attendant. 

Wholesale orders proni|)fly e\«'eut«'d. C;^" Heware of imitations. 

t^V None ^t-nuine but the above. 


('orner Kin}.;: and Market Sts., ( luirleston, S. C 
FirriMORKlS ^ FOSTKU. Mana;j<Ms 

flA>!S']S S 

I \' \\ \l 


V H "^ t. \ 

Wi H A V W A ^ W '^^ W< dim W * w -^^ A A i. 

Gas Chaiiflellei's, Brackets, Peiidaiits, au^ Kerosene Laiims, 

82 TJroad SircM't, iirdrr farolinri notfl, 




I / / 


Competilion and Quality of Work Defied 
. i^ PRICES ^2 

0,f> vMV^*^"^' '*'?/>; 

!- 1 ^ i 

Book and Gknkral J oh Printing ! 


Mr8. A. J. Kennedy. Walt r 1 IJuff. 

Nos. 252 to 256 King Street, Charleston, S. C. 

This House, having been thoroughly renovated, is first-class in 
every respect; is situated in the bend of King Htreet, in the most 
fashionable portion of the city, convenient to all places of business 
and amusement. 

It*ar(i HJ |>«'r <!«> in hII partH «ir lh»' II«»ii««4>. 

Persoutii Attention given to Guests of this Houye. 

Carriages at depots and steamers to convey passen ;,'•!- t. i !i. house. 

A J KF.^■\KI)^ .V CO. iM--[.n.T,,r^ 

S. B. THOMAS, Agent, 

NO. ;,oS Kl\(i SI Rlin', 

Windcv; Shades, Fapsr Hangings, 

Cornices, I" i li'^ '!-i.t\ (,i..mU \- \\';ii<!,,\v Awuiues, 


2u ii.wxr: .K- 


MARKi: r sis.. 

\lhnU-xah' Jh. 

House Furnishing Goods 


iHAi;i.i>r( )N'. s V 


250 King Street, Charleston, S. 0. 



Sign of the Big Boot. V. O. 1 < • r.iers promi)tly attended to. 


The first point of interest that greets the eye on ap- 
proaching the moiitli of the Savannah River is Tybee 
Lighthouse, situated on an island bearing the same name 
about eighteen miles from the city. The island is a 
pleasant summer resort, and is much frequented by visi- 
tors during the heated term. 


Passing up the river about three miles from Tybee, we 
come in sight of Fort Pulaski, which, as long as' one 
brick remains upon another, will perpetuate the glorv 
and valor of (>eorgia"s gallant soldiery. The work of 
building this fort commenced in 1831, and was completed 
sixteen years afterwards at a cost of nearlv a million of 
dollars. The walls are seven feet and a half thick and rise 
twenty-five feet above the water. It has five faces, sev- 
eral of which were badly battered during the war, but 
have since been repaired. The memorable siege of Fort 
Pulaski commenced on the morning of the 10th of April, 
1 8G2. Previous to the bombardment, an order was sent 
by the Federal commander for the immediate surrender, 
but Col. Olmstead, the commandant of the fort, answered 
" I am here to defend the fort, not to surrender it." 
After a furious cannonading of a day and a half, from no 
less than a dozen formidable batteries, which battered 
the fort into a shapeless mass, the brave garrison surren- 

We now continue up the river, which winds like a huge 
serpent, pass Fort Jackson and numerous rice fields, and 
finally land at the steamer's wharf, foot of Abercorn st. 

Savannah is noted as being one of the most beautiful 
cities of the South. It is situated on the south bank of 
the river, on a bluff which rises fifty feet above the level 
of tlie sea. It has a population of about fort}^ thousand 
inlKil.iiants, contains many large handsome buildings, 
and is divided by numerous wide streets and parks from 
end to end. 

Ill ili(^ year i:3'>. King George II of England, granted to 
James Oglethorpe and others, a charter separating that 
track of country lying between the Savannah anl Alta- 




A (tUidp: to 




inaha Rivers from the province of Carolina, stating, 
among other things, ''that many of liis poor subjects were, 
through misfortunes and want of employment, reduced t 
great necessities, and would be glad to be settled in any 
of his Majesty's provinces of America, where by culti- 
vating the waste and desolate lands, they might not onlv 
^ain a comfortable subsistence, but also stivngthen hfs 
Majesty's colonies, and increase the trade, navigation, 
and wealth of his Majesty's realms : and that the pro- 
vince of North America had been frequentlv ravage(l bv 
Indian enemies, more especially that of South Carolina, 
whose southern frontier continued unsettled, and lay 
open to the neighboring savages ; and to relieve the 
wants of said poor people, and to protect his Majesty's 
subjects in South Carolina, a regular colony of the said 
poor people should be settled and established on the 
southern frontiers of Carolina." In November, ITo'.*, James 
Oglethorpe with thirty-five families, -ibout one hundred 
and twenty-five persons in all, sailed from London, and 
in January arrived in Rebellion R )ads. at Charleston. 
After a pleasant sojourn at Beaufort. S. C, the colonists 
sailed for the bluff, which had been previouslv selected 
by Oglethorpe, and landed there on the 1st of February, 
17:3:j. They were met by a number of friendly Indians, 
who presented them with gifts, and otherwise assisted 
them in the work of clearing and settling the place. The 
following summer one hundred and fifty more settlers 
arrived, and the wards, streets and squares were desig- 
nated, and named with appropriate ceremonies. The 
building up of the town increased with even greater 
rapidity than could reasonably be expected, and where 
but a short time previous thick woods and a few wig- 
wams stood, signs of civilization and diversified indus- 
try became everywhere apparent. Here, in 17:]:}. Rev. 
John Wesley preached his first sermon in America, taking 
his text from the KJth chapter of 1st Corinthnns. 

During the Revolution of "Tfi, Savannah occupied an 
important place in the picture. 

In 1778, General Robert Howe, the American comman- 
der of the post, with one hundred regular troops and a 
few hundred militia, after a spirited engagement was 
compelled to yield to superior numbers, and the city fell 
into the hands of the British. On the 1st of September, 
1779, a French fleet under Count D'Estaing, appeared off 
the coast, and sixteen days later being reinforced by the 
arrival of troops from Charleston, the British garrison 
was summonea to surrender. After twenty-four hours 
consideration the summons was answered in the nega- 
tive, and D'Estaing resolved to take the city by storm. 

On the morning of the 0th of October, the French and 
Americans moved against the works in three divisions. 
The garrison having been informed of the plan of attack 
through a deserter, the advancing columns moved under 
a destructive fire. Notwithstanding tliis the flag of the 
2d South Carolina Regiment was planted upon the works 
by Lieutenants Bush and Hume, who were shot down and 
the colors fell. Lieutenant Gray seized them, but met 
with a similar fate, and it was here that the gallant Ser- 
geant Jasper nn-eived his death wounrl in bearing them 
nloft, and from the fatal field. The assault proved a 
failure, and among the killed was Count Pulaski, and 
other valuable officers. On the IvHh of July, 178'>. the 
town was evacuated and surrendered to the Americans, 
and was made a city by Act of the Legislature in De- 
cember. 1 780. ■ 


Savannah at present is in as pros{)erous a condition as 
any city in the South, and besides being the second 
largest cotton port in the United States, does a large busi- 
ness in the shipment of timbei'. rice, naval st<^res, etc. 
It is connected with the interior and North and West by 
the Georgia Central Railroad, and with the South bv the 
Atlantic and Gulf Road. There are also steamer "lines 
running to New York. Baltimore, Boston. Philadelphia, 
and Florida. 

The principal streets running across are Bay. Congress, 
Broughton. South Broad, and Liberty. Those running 
from north to south, are East and West Broad. Houston. 
Habersham. Abercorn. Bull. Whitaker. Barnai'd. Jeff(^r- 
son. and Montgomery. On Bay street are found the 
^vholesale grocery, liquor and tobacco (lealers. commis- 
sion merchants, custoiiihouse. banks, etc. The dry goods 
and fancy stores are located on Broughton strc^et. while 
a miscellaneous colle^-tion of hanhvare. boot and shoe, 
leather finding and stationery stores, wholesale and re- 
tail, flourish on Congress street. The most attractive 
thoroughfare, however, is Bull street, which leads to 
Forsyth Park. Here are found many beautiful resi- 
dences, with cultivated gardens, churches, public build- 
ings, parks, etc. 


The <-hurches of Savannah are numerous, costlv and 
attractive, and are illustrative of the fact that the various 
Christian denominations are well represented. The Epis- 
(;opal religiim was* established by Henry Herbert, D. D., 
who came over with the settlers in ]7'S:]; the Lutheran^ 





first by the Slazburgers, in 1774; and afterwards, in 18'.>4 
by Dr. Bachman, of Charleston, 8. C: the Presbvterian, 
by Key J. J. Zubly, in 1755; the Methodist, by Rev. 
bamiiel Dunwoody, and other divines, in ISOO; the Bap- 
tist and Catholic, about the year 18(J0. The first Jewish 
Synagogue was built at the corner of Libertv .n i \\!,i ta- 
ker streets in 1815. The most beautiful chuVri, edifice in 
Savannah, and possibly in the South, is tiie Catholic 
Cathedral, situated at the corner of Abercorn and Har- 
ris streets. It is built in ornamental Gothic stvle, with 
elegant and spacious interior accommodati(>n^\\n)able 
of seating one thousand persons. III. altai^ tin re in 
number, are constructed of white marble and elni.Miately 
tinished. The building is yet unlini^h. 1. hut xvii-n com- 
pleted will present a rich, roughcast exterior u iili i-inted 
towers iron rail work, etc. The corner ston. wa. laid in 
^ovembpr 1873, and the dedicatir.]i ceremonies u . ,. n.^. 
formed A|a-il 30th, 1870. 

The Independent Presbytekl\n rm k, ,, situated at 
the corner of South Broad an.] null streets, is also another 
costlystructure, noted for its arcliitecturnnM. ant V \niMno; 
others are St. John's. KpiRcnpal; Trinitv, Meth/.JiM bap- 
tist, and Jewish SynagM^u.. 


The appreciation of the poop],, of SavaiinnJ! Tmi- valor 
•and true merit, has caused ih.- rr-.'iion ,,f ^rv.-i-al l.^an- 
tiful marble memorials, which einiKllisii the ciiv n, 'i,t. 
fei-fiit places. 

Gkkkn-k Mcntment.— Tlii^ i. a piaiii ul.r!i>ral marhl.- 
-luitr, u-!Tli.,nT in^'TiptiMii. placed in Johns^a -^(piaf It 
was erected m m-niMrv ,,f Gen. Natliaiii.-! (iivm.- in 
1829, andisalx.ut tifT\- f>-^-r tiii^li. 

Pri.A-Ki Ar^M \iknt.— This costly ceii-iaph n.-r^ trMin 
tiie center_of M'Miterey s<pia!'". .m^l i- aU.. alM^it fifty 
feet in hr'io-lit. The cai-\ in- at ilie coria-rs cf tlir .lie 
repre.->taiT- reversed cani]..ii. TJiat ^-n tlir n.a-tli sid.' repre- 
sents a ^v.imdfM] soldhi' laliiiig fiMin his pranrin^,^ war 
•steed . th- iii-^rnption on the south ^ide ivads as; 

** whu fell mortallv Wf^ind^d ti^litin-'- for 
-American liberty at the siege of .^axaniiah. :'?!! ( )(•?.. i.rr 
1770:" on the east side, inscribed in large leti. r^. i^ the 
nam. PuLASKi 'Wvo sides of the cornice are ornana nt.d 
^Mth The shields of Poland and Georgia. In-rdrr.-J unh 
iMMii.lies of laurel, over which is an ea-h . the svinhMlJc 
bird ui America and Poland, while tli. pxrami.fal -liafi 
is surmounted with the Goddess of Liberty 



Confederate Monument.— This beautiful and inter- 
esting memorial, erected bv the ladies of Georgia, and 
situated towards the centre of the Park Extension, is in 
every way suggestive of the touching words : 
" There resteth to (Georgia a ^lorv, 
A glory that .shall not grovi^id ; 
There reiiiaiiieth to Georgia a storv, 

A tale to be chanted and told ! 
They have gone to their graves grim and gory, 

The beautiful, brave and bold; 
But out of the darkness and desolation 
Of the mourning lieart of a widowed nation, 
Their memory waketh an exultation." 

As near as we can describe it, the monument consists 
of brown frame work, elegantly carved from base to top, 
with an arching center, in which stands the figure of 
" Silence." On one of the panels we read. 

To the Confederate Dead. 18G1— 1SG5. 
Oil another, 

•' Come from the four ivinds of heaven O Breath, and 
breathe vpon these shun that they may live.'' 
On the side facing the Park is the figure of a woman, 
stihliin.- Mi I lie sadness of her expression, representing 

the Soli! h 111" •nrning. 

( hi the to 

nth.-r. stan 

with trumpet in one hand and scroll in the 
tla' Tnio-hty angel " Resurrection." 


Every one who stops at Savannah should visit thi^ 
encliaiiting spot. It is really a terrestrial paradise, l)Ut 
ni the center, instead of the tree of life, a gushing foun- 
laiii v;(>nds fortli its refreshinf^- streams, which fall in 
luiui-l -pray tn iniprarl the flowoT's Inflow. The statelv 
trees on liMtli mJos of the centi'al slioll walk arc survivors 
of the }.] nnitive forest, and form a miniature wood from 
which thr lards of spring pour forth their sweetest livinns 
-f piaise. The main entrance is guarded by two bronze 
sphinxes, and a short distance further to the right is a 
smail statue of the w in Lced god Mercury, with caduceus 
in iiaiid. 

WATER Works. 

The water works to be found on the western side of the 
Ogeechee Canal, su])ply water to the distributing reser- 
voir located mi Frankhn sqtiare, about half a mile dis- 
tant from the Works. The works force the water into 
the distributing reservoir at an elevation of one Inmdred 
feet, and at the rate of over one thousand gallons a nnn- 
ute. By means of pipes running through the streets and 
houses, the city receives a constant and abundant sup- 
j>l\ of pure, fresh water. 


a guide to 


Lalrel Grove.— Twenty-six years have passed awav 
since the dedication of this hallowed spot. Beneath its 
sward he the remains of Savannah's hest citizens who 
have been gathered to their final rest hv the silent reaper 
whose name is -Death." The ImriarMnmnds cover an 
area ot ten acres, and are consi)icuous for the number of 
costl>' and elegant monuments wliich adorn them In 
the Confederate soldiers lot. and that portion marked the 

Men ot Gettysburg." lie side by side in like an av. as 
A\ hen the clarion notes bade them rush to glorv o'er the 
grave the patriot soldiers of a vaiKiuished cause. Here 
they sleep m sweet oblivion but unforgotten, for at the 
(lawn ot earJi vernal season myriads of 

•' B'uitifiil fe-t \v:t'i Ml li 1 miIv tr.McI 
()fferiii<rs briii^' to tlie gallant dead." 

BovAVENTrKE.— For sublime grandeur of scenerv. Bon- 
aventure Cemetery is not surpassed bv any place of the 
kind in the world. The arching and moss-dVooping trees 
wi h their long branches trailing over ihr tombs, ^uv said 
to have been planted by Col. John Mulrvne in irr,i in the 
form of the letters M. and T.. the initials of his daughter 
Mary, and her husband. Mr. Josiah Tatnall, of Charles- 
ton. The cemetery is situated on the Thunderbolt Road 
about three miles from the citv. ^vuau, 


The principal ])ublic buildings iu the citv are the Ex- 
change. HLs^oncal Society Building, Courthouse, Poor- 
house and Hospital Medical College, Customliouse, Or- 
phan Asylum, and Bank of the State of Georgia 

Hanks.— The banks now in operation are the Central 
. Railroad, Merchants' National, and Savannah Xational 

SUBURB \\ lir^:soRTS. 

The suburban resorts, all of which are well worth visit- 
ing, are located as follows : 

Tybee Island is at the entrance to the Savannah River 
and 18 miles from the City of Savannah: and from tie 
Ocean House there is a fine view of the hundreds of ves^ 
sels tliat are constantly arriving at and departing from 

nteflvf ^f"'^" cotton port. A new and Vast steamer 
pl.vs dailA between the city and tlu^ island, and a tram- 
road, passing through beautiful groves of })almetto oak 

ducted"?; Tc'^vV^'" "^^"1 7''^] '^'t ^^^^^'" House,' con- 
(lucttd by A. G. \ banez, and lands the its very 


doors. A telegraph line, always in operation, affords 
facilities for prompt communication with all parts of the 

Be'Ihesda, signifying a "'House of Mercv," about ten 
miles from the city. 

Thunderbolt, containing several hotels and a number 
^ pretty summer residences, five miles southeast of the 

White Bluff, on the Vernon River, about ten miles 

Jasper Springs, so called on account of a famous ex- 
ploit of Sergeant Jasper, where, by a well planned stra- 
tagem, he, with a single companion, captured a corporal 
and eight men of the British army, is situated on the Au- 
gusta Road, about two miles from the city. 

iiuTELS AM) l>()Ai;i)J.N(T HOUSES. 


Among the larger hotels of Savannah are the Marshall, 
Screven and Pulaski Houses, and Pavilion Hotel. 

Pavilion. — This iK.})ular haUA is situated at the corner 
of South Broad and Bull streets, the most desirable loca- 
tion ill the city. It is recessed in the rear of a pleasant 
garden, contains thirty-live sleeping apartments, ]);ith 
room.s, parlors, etc. The tables are supplied with the 
luxuries of the season, and are extensive enough for the 
acc'inniodation of seventy-five persons. 

Mrs. Sawyer's Boarding House.— This is really a 
hotel upon a small scale. It contains twenty-three rooms, 
m11 hnudsomely furnished and carpeted, ornamental par- 
lur.s. dressing rooms, etc. It has a back stairwav bv 
which ])ersons could descend in case of fire, and an ele- 
vator i.\ vhich invalids may be conveyed to the third 
story. There are also furnished apartments for families. 
a spacious and pleasant dining room and bath accommo- 
'!;iti <us. The situation is on the corner of Brougliton and 
1 '! I \ ton streets. * 

Mrs. S \v \(^e.— In front of Orleans Square, at the cor- 
ner of Tliii! and Barnard streets, is the boaMling house of 
.Mr>. John Savage. This is rather a unicaie looking 
building, and has one of th(^ handsomest shaped dining- 
rooms in the city. The location is pleasant and quiet. It 
contains twenty-five rooms, a comfortal)le parlor and out 
buildings. Everything here is conducted in first-class 

Mrs. Ki k!xs.— This house is also pleasantly located on 
York stifeL, three doors east of Barnard. Tlie bed rooms 
are well ventilated and warm in the winter season. It 
contains an extensive parlor and dining room, south piaz- 
zas on the second and third stories, bath rooms, etc. 



Mrs. WiTHiNdTON's, 108 South Broad street, in easy 
reach of two hnes of city railway, with bath rooms ami 
all the necessary conyeniences. 

Mrs. Jones. -This house, No. I(;;j York street, is hand- 
somely and carefully furnished throughout. The apart- 
ments are spacious and adapted to the comfort of those 
seeking the mild climate of the South. 

Florida Hm'sE, located on BrouKhton street, next to 
tlie Marshall House, is under the superyision of Airs 1 
Clay, who thoroughly understands the art of catering \o 
the wants of the hotel seeking public. 

^i^"^" .^^S^*L•"1^^''^^';'^^''^' ^'*'- ^•^■' Broughton street, is 
well established, and furnishes good, substantial board 
at reasonable rates. 


^rS^^^.r^"^^ & Pol'RXelle, booksellers and stationers, 
ISO U2 Broughton street, constant supply of stationery 
and fancy goods kept on hand. - 

Wylly & Clarke booksellers and stationers, wholesale 
and retail cornc^r of Whitaker and St. Julian streets. 
He^ can be found the argest supply of books, chromos. 
mks> periodicals, etc., in the city 

chmit^' ^^''^^^^^> ^^y ^^^^^t, rice and commission mer- 
crickery: eU'"^^^^^' ^^'^ Broughton street, importer of 

.J;,i^'^''"f^^ "^ ^'''\ Uo Broughton street, jobbers and 
retailers ot dry goods, fancy articles, etc. Tourists will 
find here eyerything m the line of dry goods of the best 
quality, and seryed by attentiye and polite clerks 

Jos. E LoisEAU & Co.. 118 Broughton street, hair 
store. The attention of the ladies is "specially calhn to 
this emporium where braids, wigs, curls, hair'generally 
and toilet articles are kept on hand, and all kinds of hair 
work executed in the latest styles. 

A. L. Desbouillons, No. '.>rBull street, jewelry estab- 
hshment. Besides all articles in the line of iiwelrv 
many noyel Florida curiosities can be seen at this place* 
Among the specialties are sleeye buttons made of alliga- 

beans,''etc: ' ''^^^ ^''^'''''^'^'' ^^'^^"^^ ^•^"^^' ^^^ 

Cunningham & Hewes, wholesale grocers and ship 
chandlers, corner Bay and Drayton streets ^ 

i-t?p".!/'V ^^,^'^"'^-^^ & Co. dealers in cigars and tobacco, 
lU Hnv street, Sayannah, Gci. 

-M. K Foley & Co., grocers, corner Barnan] and 
Broughton streets, Sayannah, Ga. 


Joseph B. Ripley, commission merchant. 118 Bay st. 

R. H. Footman & Co., insurance agents, 118 Bay st. 


Noble's Greenhouses.— Here is a place where a pleas- 
ant hour may be profitably wiled away. The nursery 
iiid garden are situated in the rear of Sladison Square 
and contain rare specimens of numerous bij-ds, aliye and 
stuffed, gold fish, flowers, hot houses, etc. ' 

Savannah Nursery.— This place is located iust outside 
of the city on the White Bluff road, a few minutes walk 
trom the terminus of the city railway. Those who are 
fond of anthology will have ample scope for study and 
amusement here. About ten acres are planted in tube 
roses, and under a thousand feet of glass are exotics and 
domestic plants of every description. 

On the water front in the western portion of the city is 
tbe large steam rice mill of Messrs. Habersham & Co"" 
1 his place has all the facilities for pounding, cleanino-' 
and preparing rice foc^ shipment. A large number Sf 
workmen are kept constantly employed, and the rice 
when s()l(l, can be shipped from the large storehouses at 
the water s edge. 

From Sayannah. to Florida and Southern Georgia we 
y,^^}^}^' -1^'^ established and pioneer line, the Atlantic and 
(jrult Railroad, still up with the times in all that minis- 
ters to the comfort and conyenience of the trayeler 
whether tourist or inyalid. Its elegant equipment— Pull- 
man palace Sleepers and spacious and sumptuous Parlor 
cars— Its smooth and safe track, extensiyely renewed 
recj^ntly with steel rails— its double daily train service 
and liglitnmg si)eed of trains, all combine to make the 
last stage in the trip to Florida the pleasantest of all No 
weary waiting for the lifting of the fog to go ahead— no 
"rough weather outside" to stop its passengers, but on- 
ward they fly on the wings of the wind, while the eyer- 
sjiifting and beautiful panorama of the scenery of the 
Flowery Land unfolds itself before the delighted gaze of 
those who, in the choice of their routes, have wisely fixed 
on this. " ' 

The Morning News, a large and well conducted Demo- 
cratic daily.. IS published at No. .3 Whitaker street The 
News has an extensiye circulation throughout Florida is 
under the management of the proprietor, J. H Estill 
Esq., and edited by Col. W. T. Thompson. ' ' ' 

10 ^ 

I • 

All Eail to riorida ! 

■ m 

■ ■ ■' 

Miiilii ml Mi Riiliii , 

--•-■^-^^ V*-%J 

Double Daily Train Service 

c ■ :'■ - ^m- 

Javannali and |ack5onville ! 

U LI. MAX P.ilace Sl.vpers aiiJ 
SjMLious aiiil S;iiiipt!i'ni< 1^,'ii-li.r 
Cars, without ch.intre, to I'loiula. ^ 

SMOUl'll 11;. LCK! ^.IFET)' l:i:. IhT^' 


l^ Be sure your Tickets read ..^J 


Ih. ()XI.\- Ai.l.-KAII. RMute 


H. S. Il.MXES, J AS. L. iA\ 1,(jK. 

Ge7ieral SicfL Geiil I 'u,,. AgL 

J. H. CiKIFFIX, Passenger Agent. 





.ViUlrubb,— -Savannah, Ga, 





No. 1 08 Sou ill Broad Street, 

2 doors from Drayton Street, 


Importer of 


140 Bi'oiigliioii Street, 



Fftnti'T'ly with John 31. Cooper cS: Co., 

Booksellers and Stationers, 


Fancy Goods^ die. 

No. 132 Broughton Street, Savannah, Ga. 

Geo. T. Qiiantoek James G. Pournelle. 


All Eail to Florida ! 

■ m 

■ ■ 




1 ^ 

idll! lid 


— ^ - .i<«^*-*- 


Double Daily Train Service 

c ■ ■ ^^ 

• '^ 

\iumi\ and Jacksonville! 

^ '^ ' )' ^^ I'cilacc Sleepers and 
S7)aci()us and Sumptuous l\irl()r 
Cars, without chano-e, to r^lorida. 




tS^ Be sure your Tickets read Ml 


The UN \.\ AM.-kAl I. Route 



General Suf t. 



Geiil Pass. Ao'f, 

Pa ssen oer A o-a: i. 

r^ f\ I 




I J! 

Address,-— Savaxxah, Ga. 



No. io8 South Broad Street, 

2 doors from Drayton Stretjt, 

KAVAlSr>. All, C^A 


TAN. S. Nl L>' A 

Importer of 






140 Brougliton Street, 


0UANTOC!{ k n 

ii» ,!kJt mm 

FfiniK'i'ly witli John M ('i.eDcr «.\L T'o., 


Booksallars and 


k A 

Fancy Goods^ d^c. 

No. 132 Brou^^hton Street, Savannah, Ga. 

(tpo. T. (^UiiiitocU " JaiiH'v (i. l>()unie!i.'. 


SIT(^r!ESS(^R8 TO 




Ooraer Bay aud Drayiuu Sts..Savriiii;a'i. Ga. 

Inr-irl D'lshr 

i- iiiiii. n . inisrn . 

1. !>\snf:ii ^^ CO. 

Johhers and RetailcrH of 



FANCY GrOons. /rosrERv., 

- *" — — __ o.., _. ,, . — ...... .j:. . :v a.i. 

Periaiieut and Tfaiisieiit Boarding, 



Corner Hull and ) 

N M w H M i\i A ri T- A 

iiioimtfd in Sleeve Buttons, Kar-rin^'s. Sets, etc. SllKU, iin<1 
FISH SCALE JEWELRY, lenflyiiiiule and to order, at the 



21 Bull Sfrrrt opposite Screven House, 




i:?^, ijn 




Ifi ti Fliri 



Gi,i)RGiA AND Florida 


Slemmer €lly «{ Brlig el«» 


H FLKHTWOOI), roiumander, 

W ill Iravv Suvaiuiali K\"KKV irF.SDAY and S.\TUKI).\Y, at 5 

!■ M,, for St. Calliiiriii.''-, i),.lM,y. Darifii. St. Sini< (iTs. Hrinihwick, 
Si .M;ir\V. |\Tiiaihliiiit. Jack.v.aivilU-. I'alatka, and all points oil 

Si . J ■ .liii > Kixcr. 

STi:A.\n:R dax'idclark, 

.1 \VH rri". ( iiiiiinander, 

Will leave Savanna h , v.rv THrilSDAY at 10 .\. M., for St Patlm- 
rino's, Dohoy, 1ii;..m Maud. 1 )ari»'n. St. Sini()n\s. Hrun.^wick St 
.Mary's, Fei-naiidina. and all point- on Satilla Rivpr. ' 

Dif ahovf .-O'iunrr.-^ conn.^.-t at Brunswick with M. & }?. and P. 
A .\ Kaih-nads tor all in Si) <te<^rtria. At St. Marv"-' 
N^itti .M.-.mi.Tv f,,,- point- (ai St. Mary's River. At Fernandiim wfth 
\-^'.^\\ I. r. Co.- Radroad for Waldo, Starke. Gainesville, 
id'iai.^i.M. ('.'(Jar K.-y-,, and all jxtints on this roatl. Also with 
steaiiar- at Cednr Key- (or Key West, Tampa and Manatee At 
Jark-.eivill.- with V (' R. R.. .1., ]>. ^ M. R. R. f„r Lake (^itv and 
Jill pc^inis on tln'-.> road-. At Palatka with steanu-rs for the Upi)er 
St. John s and < )kla\\aha Ri\.'r-. .\t Tocoi with St. John's R. R. 
tor St. Au^-n-t 111.', and at St. Aui;-iistine with steamertj tor New 
Sniyrna and all j)oiiiT.- (»n liajian River. 

Throii-d hiiu ladui- i:i\-.!i and throui,di tickets sold to ahovo 
ponit-. For ireight or i>ci.s.->a^'e, apply ut Uflfic*' No, 5 Stoddard'.s 
Uppei Kaiige. 


*^ General Manager. 


AlK.^^ il. K. SAWYER'S 

^ f . In tluj JXew BuihiiriiT fronting South, 

•' * SA\'A N N A ] I ( r A. 

VW Is pr.par.d to funnsh Guests with UockI Acconuuodation..^ 



SuccossOT-s to J. M. Ooc,!-.-! .s: to. 

3ooksoIIers and Stationers, 



AcrentM for \VAI>J'iN l>n,itinu' hh-I 

''ARTKR-^ Writio.: IXKS. 

Hava>^xah Nur 

WIMTF VAXW K(i.\|i. 


Address 32 Bull .Street S,,.. ,„„,,!!. C, 


Vork St., 3 doors S-.-uh ul" HariMn! 

. ■ - SAVANNAH, GA. 

Psrmsncnt an: TranGisnt Boarding. 


<'> O E A^ N H C> XJ s E 

TVHKI-: iM.\N-p ' 

„•.,.,• , GEORGIA. 

(18 Miles from Savannah.) 

..| '• .'m .';; Tl.Mst of'Sav Ts™"' ^■°''"V« Z^" ^*''"^"« Ocean, wa, 
l>-«n ,„ad wh ch niak?if n Ih """ ''^'* '""■*."" additions have 
a,„l the i/nlenflessee guarrnierth„f''/fj°'''^'''"'' ''",'' '"<'''^'^"*- 

;rti;^ ',.'::: 'y^^i^- ^*i ^^^^ ^=i;;;? ;s s^ 

:/; ,:rd;^' S^^-^^'-^- 
.fi'iK) oer \SMHk tiofwi «V: 1 liatlimg. Board per day 
H( riists Fnr fwi Special arraut^ements made uith excur- 
. .mn^ts. I or furthtM ; ,m rticulars address A. G. IB v \ EZ 
J_<>_Addr. ... ..„ vaniiah, Ga. Proprietor Ocean House 


118 2rongh:on Street, between Bull and Drayton, 

;V;:p^xr:;;.;;;i;^3onii;i;i;;^'^or;l;i ii,'-- ^i:!'.!;^"^!^ 


o - 


TERAf<; RKA^^DX \Tn.E. 


.1/. I hi Si KK SO UARE, h I ' LL sii: i: i: T, 

I'lintx C,:: I •lowers. Gold Fish. Canaries, and Birds 

of all kinds. 

X .|:i,i- . ''i'l;>;<>vod ]^ua hivis-oratof. and prepare,! iloek- 
Mi-lm.i f.,o,l. B,r(l-raK(vs, Hanffins-I.Askets, etc. 

A 1 ) I . I , h H 

*« ■» , «« s« , 




SK.Ml WlfA.K I.V. 

For St. Ccitliarip.c^, D<:)l)()v. Darirn, 

Union Island, bt. Simon's, lirunswii k. uij St. 

Mary's, (}a., Fernandina, jacks. )n\r!lr. .nul 

all points on St. John's River, ILi. 


Forai! i.a^liiiL:- rr,] th.- Satilla Ri\aT. 

THE i.f W i'Ui.»L)RF. <ll}\: \V(iKi;L 

Steamer ROSA! 

Captain 1'. H. \\ AlLl), 

Will leave wharf foot Dravtoii stroet, at 4 oV.lock i'. M.. K\ Kin 
lUESDAY. FOR FLORIDA, tonohin- at St. Catharine's. 1>..1m,v. 
Lruou Island, Darien, St. SiniotrH and Brunswick, coim.< tiiiic 
^^t)*^^/}' at Brunswick, with steamer Carrie, Capt. Joe Stint h. f, ,r 
M. MaryV. Fernandina, Jack^sonville and all points <>n FL li la 
Central and Jack.sonville, Penwicola and Mobile itnlrM.!., and St 
John's River. 

For Satilla every Thursdav at 4 o'clock P. M , ton,fiin" nt ;dl iti 
terniediate landings. 

conm:cti' »nn. 

At Darien with stea«iers for the Alt^niaha, Ocn.ui-. . ^uid U-o- 
nee Rivers. 

At Brunswick with Macon and P^M!-^^i,.k mti-I T^>niii^\vi.-k a; d 
Ait.nny Railroads. 

At Jacksonville for New Brittain, New Snivma and Datona. 
A^ I oeo! with St. .John's Railroad for St. Au<,^stine. 

A: J'aiatka for Oklawaha River and ['inm^ Ink.- ..r f *r,.^,.,.Mf 

At Wekiva River with steamer Mav Flower for Clav Sf r i.- . i ! 
all [xiints on tb.' K'ver. 

At Saniord lui Lake JesHuj) and all iK>ints on Upper St >'> 
and Indian River.s. 

TiMMi-h low ratcsof freij^rht and;^-e and bills of latliiiir 
!r!\ n U) all ix)ints. 

! vights for xVltanuiUa, Ocnndgee and Oconee i::\ rrs luust Im? 

Freiglit receiveil daily, Sundays excepted. 

, ., W F n AIUIV \ • nt 

.1. H SMITH. Manam-er. 

O. S. BENSON, Oeticral Bu.siness Airent. 


Passing the mouth of the St, Mary's River, which at 
tlie coast (lividf'S Geort^ia from Florida, we enter the 
waters winch lave the hanks (^f the '" Flower^' Land; the 
land of the orange tree, the pine and the cyi^ress: the 
sequestered home of the wily Seminole." While gazing 
upon its heautiful shores, and drinking in the delicious 
air which floats athwart the main, as soft and as fragrant 
as the perfumed gales of Arahy. we can almost fancy to 
ourselves that the veteran cavalier. Ponce de Leon, was 
right, and that somewhere amid the wild morass is to he 
found the fountain whose translucent stream will per- 
petuate youtli and health, consign care to ohlivion, and 
open to our longing eyes a joyous future, from which the 
sunlight of happiness will never depart. 

The early history and discover}^ of Florida, has already 
been alluded to in the opening of this work. 

In the year lolt>. Juan Ponce de Leon, then Governor 
of Porto Rico, actuated by the belief that somewhere in 
the direction of the setting sun. the fabled Fountain of 
Perpetual Youth was to be found, fitted out three ships 
and set sail for its discovery. On the '^Tth of March, of 
the same year, he arrived off the coast of Florida, and 
charmed with the grandeur of its scenery, its rich foliage 
and clustering wild flowers, and owing to the fact that 
he discovered it on Easter Sunday. (Pascua Florida.) on 
the lid of April he took possession of the land in honor 
of his sovereign, and gave it the name which it now 
bears. On his return, he was rewarded by the Crown 
with the title of "Governor of Florida." and ten years 
afterwards, while making a second visit, he was attacked 
by the natives, who drove his men back to the ships, and 
inflicted upon him a wound, from the effects of which he 
<lied after his arrival in Cuba. 


On the F^th of April, 152.S, Pamphilo de Xarvaez landed 
on the west coast of Florida, near Tampa Bay. with a 
force of three hundred men and forty-five horses, and de- 
termined to penetrate into the heart of the country in 
search of the untold wealth which he believed the country 
■ possessed. After suffering great hardships from want of 




food and attacks from the natives, who disputed every 
inch of ground, and losing all hopes of heing again able 
to find their ships, they set to work constructing barges 
out of whatever material thev could gather, and in Sep- 
tember set out from a place which thev called the Bay of 
Caballos, and after days of tempestuous weather, 'the 
barks became separated, some of them lost, until the 
number was reduced to one hundred souls. The majoritv 
of these, with Xarvaez. finally perished from hunger and 
the arrows of the natives. Of the survivors. De Vaca and 
three of his companions succeeded in reaching Mexico. 


This celebrated nobleman of Spain, who had distin- 
guished himself with Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, 
with a splendid retinue of a thousand men and three 
hundred and fifty horses, landed at Tampa Bav on the 
25th of May, 15:30. De Soto passed thi'ough a large por- 
tion of that territory which now forms the Southern 
States, and after many difficulties and adventures reached 
the Mississippi River, where he died, and was buried be- 
neath the waters. 


Although in the year 1559 the Spanish monarch made 
another attempt to settle Florida, and entrusted the expe- 
dition to Don Tristan de Luna, still this, like the rest, 
proved a failure; the first permanent settlement was 
made by the Huguenots under Rene de Laudonniere, a 
companion of Ribault, who two years previous had at- 
tempted a settlement at Port Royal, Soutli Carolina. 
About the year 15(14, Laudonniere landed at the site where 
St. Augustine now stands, but on the day following en- 
tered the St. Jolin's River, and ]>lanted his colony on a 
bluff at its mouth. Here Fort Cai'oline was erected, the 
remains of which, it is said, are still tu be traced. While 
arrangements were being made in France to increase and 
render more permanent this colony, the news reached 
Spain that the Huguenots were about to seize Florida, to 
which the Spaniards claimed exclusive right on account 
of prior discovery, and, to thwart this i i ipose, Pedro 
^lenendez, encouraged by Philip the Secon 1. tittedx)ut an 
expedition, and in August, 1565, landed on the coast of 
Florida, with twenty-four vessels and nearly ihnu^ thou- 
sand followers. Learning that the Huguenot >ci dement 
was only a few leagues distant, Menendez set out at once 
for the fort, and after capturing it murdered the garrison, 
sparing neither the women nor the children. About three 
years afterwards, this inhuman* act was avenged by 
Dominic de Gourges, a brave adventurer of Gascony. He 



completely surprised the Spanish garrison at the fort, and 
those who were not slain in the conflict, he hanged to the 
very trees from which his own countrvmen had been 
executed. Menendez being called to Spain, left the colonv 
in charge of a relative, the Marquis de Menendez, and 
regarding its increase and success, we shall further speak 
in our description of St. Augustine. 


The following abstract of a report of the Florida Branch 
of the International Chamber of Commerce of London, 
furnishes all necessary information with regard to cli- 
mate, healthfulness, agricultural resources, etc. 


•* The annual mean temperature of Florida is 70.95 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. The average temperature in winter is 
<;(! degrees, making the climate the most equable of any 
in the United States, Its peculiar geographical position, 
nearly surrounded by the ocean and tempered bv the gulf 
stream, makes it warm in winter and cool in summer. 
Frost occurs seldom even in winter, and in the southern 
portion of the Peninsula is Unknown. The summers are 
long, but the nights are cool, while the regular sea-breezes, 
and frequent showers, temper the heat of the dav. The 
distinctive features of the climate is its healthfulness. 
There are localities which are malarious, but bv a judi- 
cious selection of location this evil may be whollv avoided. 
As an evidence of the universal salubrity of the r-]imate^ 
the fact is stated on the authority of a well known phy- 
sician from the North, and a resident of the State for 
nearly forty years, that nearly all the children horn here 
live to niaturitij. The diseases which prove so fatal else- 
where, such as consumption, bronchitis, pneumonia diph- 
theria, typhoid fever, etc. , seldom occur, and when they 
do occur, are of a very mild type. 


Florida lands are classified into pine lands, hummock 
lands, "scrubs." sw^amps and savannas— pine and hum- 
mock comprising more than three-fourths of the entire 
area. ! ) ninmock is that which is covered by the different 
hard woods. The prevalent forest growth is yellow pine, 
and its soil is light and sandy. These lands, owing to 
the climate, are far more fertile than the same character 
of soil elsewhere. The fact is, that the fertilization re- 
quired at the North to produce forty bushels of corn per 
acre, on apparently similar soil here, will yield from two 
to three thousand pounds of sugar. " Scrubs •' are high 





rolling- lands of light dry sandy soil, and of inferior char- 
acter compared to the pine land?, yet with proper fertil- 
izing yield ahundantly many semi-tropical fruits. The 
savannas are low-lying lands, very rich, but valuable 
only as they were reclaimed. TJiis can be done easily, 
when their fertility equals that of any known lands. 
The swamps are low wet lands, frequently covered by a 
heavy growth of cypress timber, which makes them very 
valuable, and when reclaimed they possess a marvellous 
fertility. Besides, they furnish one of the best fertilizers 
for the pine lands. 


Usually, whatever may be the attractions and induce- 
ments offered by any particular State or section, the im- 
migrant will be confined within the narrow limits of tlie 
usual range of crops characteristic of tliat section; and 
the prospect of even a light enlargement of that range or 
scope of crops would be recognized as an inducement of 
great power. Other things being nearly equal, few in- 
ducements could more attract an immigrant than the 
option of continuing, in a more genial climate, the culti- 
vation of accustomed crops, and simultaneously of reach- 
ing out to the cultivation of crops peculiar to a witlely 
different zone. 

To a resident of Great Britain, Canada, New England, 
or the Northwestern States, it seems scarcely possible, in 
any one locality, and that without the variation of tem- 
perature given by mountain elevations, to cultivate suc- 
cessfully within an enclosure of ten acres, the oats, rye 
and wheat of the North, the peach, quince and sweet 
potato of the Middle States, the corn, cotton and tobacco 
of the Southern, the coffee, indigo and ginger of the West 
Indies, the orange, lime and lemon of Central America, 
the olive, grape, coffee and spice, the date and palm of 
the desert, and the sugar cane, pepper and tea of the 
East, but residents of several portions of the State know 
that this can be done in Florida. When to these are 
added the rice, bananas, plantains, guavas, cocoanuts, 
pineapples, and pawpaws that are actually raised with 
success, the wide range of Florida productions is strik- 
ingly shown. 

rnrcE of t \nd. etc. 

One-third of all the lands on the Peninsula belong to 
the United States, but are open to entry only under the 
Homestead Act. All the Government land on the St. 
John's River is taken, but two or three miles back plenty 
remains unoccupied. Every head of a family, under the 
homestead law, on the payment of SU and by mnkino* a 

liome on the land, is entitled to a deed from the United 
States to KiU acres at the end of five vears, and that, too, 
with little further cost. There are also large quantities 
of land known as State land, which can be bought out- 
right for from GO cents to S\.25 per acre. These are as 
valuable as the United States lands. Improved farms or 
}»lantations. with more or less improvement, can be pur- 
( based all over the State at from §5 to $10 per acre, but 
inmiediately on the St. John's River, or on some communi- 
cating lake, they are selling at higher figures. These 
have but few orange trees upon them. There are so few 
1 Hearing groves for sale that no settled price can be given. 
A good bearing grove can be raised from the seed in 
seven or eight years. By transplanting wild orange 
tT-ees, and '•i)udding" thf^n. tlvv >vi11 begin to bear in 
four years and yield abundniitiv ']]\ six. 

(iENERAL (>|}SKll\.\TJ()^S. 

Lest the above facts might be construed too favorably, 
it may be well to refer in general to some of the c//.s'-ad- 
vantages to be encountered in Florida. 

The new settles* must expect to find a new country, and 
consequently one that is crude and uncultivated. A 
j)erson from abroad will see much here that is not invit- 
ing and even unsightly. He must come expecting not to 
find in the newly settled sections school houses, post- 
offices, churches and the general appliances of civilization 
and C(niifort. These, however, will rapidly follow the 
settlement of the country. The many privations and 
har(lshi})s incident to a pioneer life, can be immediately 
obviated only by several families coming together, and 
by thus forming their own community, utilize at once 
the manv advantages wliicli surround them. 

To the invalid seeking a winter whose temperature is 
like the latter half of the Northern ^lay: to the tourist 
and the person desirous of a mild climate during the win- 
ter months; and above all. those who will come here in 
colonies of from fifteen to twenty-five families, will, with 
thrift and economy, find in Florida homes of comfort and 
plenty, and where the greatest and safest possible return 
will follow the provident ej^penditure of labor and capital." 




A pleasant sail of about twelve hours from Savaniialu 
brnigs us in sight of Fernandina, which is situated on 
Amelia Island, at the mouth of a river of the same name. 
The city was built by the Spaniards, has a population of 
about two thousand five hundred inhabitants, and from 
Its increasing trade gives fair promise for the future. 
The harbor is land-locked, large and safe, and the bar is 
deep enough to admit the passage of vessels drawing 
from nineteen to twenty feet of water. 


Fernandina is connected with points North bv means of a 
regular steamship line, and with the interior by the Jack- 
sonville, Pensacola, and Mobile Railroad. A number of 
large stores carry on a brisk mercantile business, and 
several steam saw-mills kept in constant operation, attest 
the activity of the lumber trade. Large crops of early 
vegetables are also annually raised and shipped North. ' 


Among the churches there are two Baptist, two Metho- 
dist, one Roman Catholic, one Presbvterian, and one 
Episcopal. This is also the seat of the Episcopal Bishop, 
who has under his supervision a flourishing academv for 
young ladies. Several hotels and boarding houses are 
open at all times to visitors. 


This place, once the seat of Gen. Nathaniel Greene, is 
in easy reach of Fernandina. The estate, consisting of 
about ten thousand acres, was presented to lim hv the 
people of Georgia as a token of appreciation tor his ser- 
vices as a commander during the revolution of '70. Sev- 
eral hundred yards from the mansion is the grave of Gen 
Henry Lee, ('"Light Horse Harry,") who died here in 
March, 1818, at the age of sixty-three years. The spot 
is marked by a head stone erected by his son. Gen. Robert 
E. Lee, the lamented commander of the armies of the 
Lost Cause. 

Leaving Fernandina, a most delightful excursion of a 
few hours will bring us to the mouth of the ''beautiful 
St. John's." We cross its bar twenty-six miles from 
Jacksonville, and come in full view of May Port, a fa- 
vorite summer resort for the people of the city. Con- 
tinuing down the river, we pass St. John's Bluff, the 
site of Fort Caroline, and as we gaze upon this now syl- 
van solitude, so rich in the possession of natural beauty, 
and feel that amid the tangled wildwood, one might 
safely withdraw from the tumultuous bustle of the busy 
world, become a stranger to passion, avoid temptation, 
and grow old in virtue, we recoil with horror as we re- 
niember that the very trees bear testimony of inhuman 
butcheries perpetrated by Spaniard and Huguenot. 


Arriving at Jacksonville, we find it to be a pleasant 
city with a spacious and beautiful harbor, wide streets, 
large and beautiful buildings, etc. It takes its name from 
Gen. Andrew Jackson, and the first building, a rude log- 
house, was erected on it by Mr. L D. Hart, in the year 
182G. It is the most important city of Florida, and"^ the 
largest on the Atlantic coast south of Savannah. Its 
present standing population is about thirteen thousand, 
whirli, is more than doubled during the winter by an 
ill! lux of visitors from all portions of the world. On Bay 
street are to be found all of the prominent business places, 
and to the stranger it is an agreeable surprise to find him- 
self, on stepping from this crowded thoroughfare, in 
what appears to be a large, but quiet and picturesque 
village, beautifully built un with romantic and cottage- 
like dwellings, embellished in the front with cultivated 
flower gardens. 


The streets running north and south, are Catharine, 
Washington, Lil)erty, Market, Newnan. Ocean. Pine, 
Ljuira, Uogan. Julia, Cedar, Clay, and Bridge. Those 
running «:ast and west, are Bay. Forsyth, Adams, Mon- 
roe, Church, Ashlev, Beaver, and Union. 






Taking into consideration its many res(nirces and fast 
increasing trade, Jacksonville bids fair to become in time 
one of the most flourishing cities in the South. It is the 
center of the lumber trade of the State, and no h^ss than 
nine saw-mills are kept constantly at work to supply the 
trade demand. A large nund)er of vessels are also em- 
ployed for the purpose of transporting lumber to various 
sections of the globe. The city is well c<mnected with 
the interior by the St. Jolm's River and an extensive rail- 
way line, and it is rumored that leading merchants are 
exerting themselves to give it prominence as a cotton 


Conspicuous am(»ng tlu^ improvements on Bay street, 
is the block of brick l)uildings now in construction on the 
south side, between Laura and Hogan streets. The bloek 
will consist of iron front stores, four feet high, wllicli in 
point of finish will (•o]n]>i5re favorably with those of our 
large Northern cities. In tlie rear will be the new wharf, 
storehouses, etc., for the Ciiai'leston steamers. These places 
are being built by Mr. Wm. H. Astor. a wealthy Northern 
gentleman, who has already contributed much towards 
the improvement of the city. 

New Episcopal Church. —The Episcopal congregation 
of Jacksonville have in contemplation the erection of a 
fine church edifice, and for whicli purpose a lot has been 
purchased at the corner of Adams and Laura streets. 
The building will be ;>»; l)y i'A feet and forty-five feet 
high, Ootliic style, with circular arrcingement of seats,- 
elevati'd chancel, and a tower ninetv feet in heiicht. 

()i>i> Fellows' H.\ll. — This place on Market street 
has recently undergone a thorough overhauling, and the 
hitherto contracted hall has been enlarged and now mea- 
sures 40 by 21 feet. It is handsomely furnished and car- 
peted, is supplied with gas, and has attacdied capacious 
ante rooms, closets, and reception roonu 


The officers of the Jacksonvlile Yacht Chib are : Wm. 
B. Astor, Commodore: S. Conant. Vice-Commodore: E. 
W. Stetson, Treasurer : H. 1). Browne, Acting Secretary ; 
A 1). Basuelt, Captain, and chief executive officer. The 
Club House, at the foot of Newnan street, was completed 
December 27, 1877, and is quite an ornament to the city. 
It is built beyond the water front, is about 75 by .']0 feet 
and forty feet high. The ceilings and sides of the liall 

are handsomely painted and ornamented with chande- 
liers, while the furniture consists of chairs, tables, and 
sofas, of fine material. On the roof there is a flat ter- 
race about sixteen feet wide, railed in and supplied with 
seats, and from which an excellent view of the St. John's 
River and surrounding scenerv can be ol)tained. Tliere 
are, als(^. ladies' and gentlemen's dressing rooms and a 
large bathing room attached. 


The Catholic Church of the Immaculate Conception, is 
situated corner of Newnan and Church streets: St. John's 
Protestant Episcopal Church, is at the head of Market 
street: the Bethel Baptist Church, is on Church street; 
Ocean street Presbyterian Church, is on the corner of 
Adams and Ocean streets: Xewnan street Presbyterian 
Church, is on the corner of Newnan and Monroe streets: 
St- Paul's Methodist E]>iscopal Church, on the corner of 
Duval and Newnan streets: Trinity M. E. Church, on 
Mt)nroe street, near Citv Park: the Hebrew Svnagogue, 
at the Hall of the I. (i. O. F., on Mai-ket, near Forsyth 



Jacksonville can boast of an efficient fire department, 
several militia companies, various secret, religious and 
charitable societies, prominent among which is the Young 
Men's Christian Association. The principal banking fa- 
cilities are offered by the Ambler's and First Nati(^)nal 
Banks. The Catholic. Protestant, and Je\yish burying 
grounds, in the northeastern portion of the city, form the 
cemetery which contains some interesting monuments. 


8uN AND Press. — A leading Democratic daily, was es- 
tablished in 1S75. The size is 27 b\^ 42 inches, circulatitm 
2,(X)0. It is published by the Sun and Press Company, 
corner of Bay and Laura streets, and is under the edito- 
rial management of N. K. Sawder. Esq. 

Florida Union. — The Union is a weekly paper. Repub- 
lican in })olitics. and has a circulation of ^<<H). 

Evening Travelp:r. — Daily independent evening paper, 
size bS by 2.5 inches, circulation 5()(». The Union and 
Traveler are both ow^ned, published and edited bv Mr, 
Sidney T. Bates. 


The suburban resorts adjoining the city are P2ast Jack- 
sonville, Brooklyn, and Springfield. Those across the 
river are, Riverside, Arlington, St. Nicholas, South Shore, 
and Alexandria. 




Just aside from the shell road, about three miles north 
of the city, is Moncrief Spkinc;. The spring flows about 
one hundred gallons a minute, and the chalvbeate proper- 
ties of the water are said to be highly beneficial to those 
whose constitutions are weakly. 


^ FuRCHGOTT, Benedict & Co.— This large establishment 
IS known throughout the country as the '* the Stewarts of 
Jacksonville.** It is one hundred and fifty feet deep, fifty 
feet wide, has large attractive show windows and a grancl 
entrance. The firm has been established in Jacksonville 
for many years, and has branch houses in Charleston, 
S. C, and Atlanta, Ga. Our readers are referred to the 
advertisement to be found elsewhere. 

New York Store.— There are but few stores tliat make 
a finer display of goods outside of New York, and none 
in this section, than the New York Clotliing Company, 
Bay street, Jacksonville, Fla. A visitor sees at a glance 
what he wants, and, more than that, everybody can be 
sure of receiving a very courteous reception from the 
manager, Mr. Tischler, and those who have purcliased 
there before, are sure to return for anything thev may 
want, simply because they always find every style of 
goods just what they are represented to be. 

It will repay every visitor to call at this store, 1.' \\ 
Bay street, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Mrs. S. \ Land auer.— This lady has entered largelv 
into the business of millinery, fancy goods, black and 
colored silks, etc. Her goods, which are imi)orted from 
a leading Paris, and several New York and Philadelphia 
houses, are of the best quality, and having secured the 
services of a superior milliner, she is prepared to display 
a most elegant assortment of Parisian hats and bonnets, 
at the lowest prices. Particular attention given to bridal 
trousseaus and morning outfits, and a large assortment 
of ladies' under-garments kept on hand. 

Cigars and Tobacco.— At G. H. Gato & Co., 17 West 
Bay street, fine goods in the shape of full Havana cigars, 
fine cut chewing, plug, cigaretts, and smoking tobacco, 
are made a specialty. Lovers of the weed who consult 
their interest will do well to call at this place. 

Cohen Brothers.— The popularity of this large dry 
goods house is attested by the multitude of purchasers 
who throng the place from morning until the closing 
hour at night. Everything in the line of dry goods and 
fancy articles is kept here, and visitors are sure to meet 
with a most cordial reception. See advertisement. 



O. L. Keene.— At the corner of Laura and Bay streets, 
we find the large handsome millinery establishment of 
Mr. O. L. Keene. A glance at the advertisement will 
show to visitors that it will be to their interest to visit 
this place and examine the large stock of articles put 
down at reduced prices. 

MxMMOTn \ \riety Emporium.— At S. Ritzewoller's 
dry goods emporium is to be found the largest assortment 
of dry goods, hats, boots and shoes, and fancv articles in 
the city. The house No. 73 West Bay street.^vas estab- 
lished in 1860. and besides the city \rade. carries on a 
heavy business with the interior. 

(r W. Clark.— At this place, known as the New York 
MiMiii. rv House, 35 East Bay street, the latest novelties 
ifi iIm I iM i-nn be found. Also, special attention given 
u> ihv Uitnniino: and renewing of ladies' hats and bon- 
nets after tli. most improved styles. 

G.\Khi; & Halt..— This firm is prepared to sell on 
comini--ion all kinds of country produce, and also en- 
gages in 111. wholesale business of fruits, groceries and 
provisions. See advertisement for address. 

Boat ^' \rd.— This place next to the Club House, is 
!i!i'l'T 111*' -iipervisiMii -i' Mr. Peter Jones, ex-Mayor of 
Jackson \ ill.- Tourists desiring a pleasant sail along the 
St. J<'bn .s. can be accommodated with a first-class yacht 
or row iMt.-it with ,,r without attendant, by the hour, day, 
Work ( tr ni< >\\i h. 

1 »}:k^n M AKiNo.— i'arties wishing to have wT>rk done in 
tiie hut' of .ir.-^s making, will inquire for Mrs. S. Barber. 

Ct-rto^itii^ Mrs. C. E. Mott, who keeps constantly 
on ham I .i Mipply of curiosities, makes a specialtv of 
shell ami ti^h scale work, for which she received the m^edal 
of honor and diploma of merit from the Centennial Com- 
mission. [• or fm iher particulars, read advertisement. 

.h < . r M I . I \ . . i-:r. — Tourists may have their curiosity grat- 
ifio.l hN onllniirat this place, 37 West Bay street, where 
every! hmir m the shape of the wonders of the ''Flow^ery 
T.nn.i'oiin h. seen. Mr. Gumbinger is also a first-class 
\\a!- hmak. I. jeweler and optician, and ^ives personal 
atiriition lo ilie adjustment of sijectacles .iml eve-glasses 
to the eye. 


The larger hotels of Jacksonville, are the St. James,- 
Carleton. Nicholls, Grand National, Windsor, Elm wood' 
Metropolitan, and Moncrief. With a few exceptions,' 
these are closed during the summer, and several of them 




will remain closed during the coming winter. The list 
below will direct our readers, looking for home comforts, 
where thev can best be accommodated. 

Mattaik House. — Large brick building. No. 1 1 Forsyth 
street, built especially for a boarding house; has thirty- 
two rooms, double piazzas facing south, large furnished 
front rooms for families, large ventilated dining room, 
etc. The liouse is car]>eted throughout, and on tlie table 
will be found the best that the market affords. 

Elm WOOD House. — Location corner of Forsyth and 
Hogan streets, in close proximity to Wm. B. Astor's new 
iron front frame block, and to the railroad dei)ot and 
wharf, which is to be the landing of the Charleston 
steamers. The Elm wood is regularly on the hotel plan, 
with facilities for comfort and convenience. There is a 
large sewer running to the river through which all waste 
matter is carried off. The honhoniit^ of the proprietor, 
?v[r. G. Anderson is proverbial, and guests receive every 

St. John's House, No. 41 Forsyth street. The St. John's 
is centrally located and convenient to the cars, steamers, 
banks, and postoffice. The roc^ns are all large and well 
furnished, and the table is supplied with the luxuries of 
the season. Attaches of the house will be found at all 
of the depots and landings to take charge of baggage. 

Mrs. S. a. Day.— This place is ])leasantly situated at 
Xo. 44 West Adams street, has large front and back 
]>iazzas facing north and south, large handsomely fur- 
nished parlor, twenty sleeping rooms, comfortably fitted 
up. and can accommodate from forty to fifty boarders. 

( )CEAX House, corner of Ocean and Adams streets, 
contains nineteen rooms, and can accommodate twenty- 
five boarders. This place has the largest dining room 
of any boarding house in the city, and at the tables can 
]>e seated from eighty to -ninety persons. Its location is 
near the principal business houses, and its accommoda- 
tions are first-class. 

Mrs. E. A. Henderson. — This is a handsome residence, 
situated on the corner of Pine and Monroe streets, is 
elegantly furnished throughout, and contains an exten- 
sive parlor. Among the sleeping rooms, sixteen in num- 
ber, there are furnished apartments for families. 

Mrs. C. Freeland. — Large two story building on the 
corner of Pine and Duval streets with double piazzas, 
extensive halls on the first and second floor, and dining 
room 30 by 20 feet, capable of seating fifty persons. The 



house is heated by large stoves, kept burning night 
and day, and contains tw^enty-five well furnished sing'le 
and double rooms. This place was built expressly for a 
boarding house, and the table dliote is fully up to the 

(). P. Knapp. — Pleasantly located. No. 71 Forsyth street, 
in easy reach of the postoffice. Piazzas on both sides, 
eight rooms comfortably furnished and carpeted, and no 
])n ins are spared by the proprietor to render those home 
comforts so nmch looked for by visitors. ' ' 

Mrs. Rosa D. Harn. — Towards the east end of Bay 
-street, we find the popular and favorite resort for tourists, 
superintended by Mrs. Rosa D. Harn. Concerning the 
nttractions of this place, nothing further need be said 
t!inn to allude to the fact, that those who patronize it 
always carry away with them the most pleasing recollec- 

F. G. Tibbets. — This house is located in the northwes- 
tr]*n portion of the city, and is a quiet, rural retreat, beau- 
tifully laid out with gardens, shade trees, etc. It has 
jiiazzas on the front and rear, eight sleeping apartments, 
some of which are on the first floor, handsome parlor and 
dining room, and is furnished with fine walnut furniture. 
Everything about the place is indicative of refinement 
and good tasteT 

Mrs. T. Y. Chase. — This is a small but comfortable 
house, located on Adams street, between Laura and Pine, 
is free from all noise, has pleasant apartments, and fur- 
nishes substantial fare. 

Mrs. R. G..Slager. — First-class Jewish boarding house, 
at the corner of Adams and Pine streets. 


No. 41 l-< )I<S\"ril >T , I \(K-,( )X\ I i.i.i-;^ i.i_,v. 
Mrs. E. HrD>f.4LL, Proprietress. 

t^ "Board from $1 to $'2.50 por da v. Spprial rntp< to FMiiii'i.'^ JS-^ 

G. II. (.A TO X CO. 

Manufacturers of 



o -) 




Full Havana and Fins Scsd Havana 
* c i G A R s ® 

Dealers in 











\\ liole^^ale Depai'tment. 

D'T Mi Bf 01^. Ml M, Clolliii. MmM Tniiib; 



7:^ West Bay Street, Jacksonville. Fla. 

G. W. CrLAKK, 


;;,; 7.V/.S/ />V'// Strrrf. MitrJn I! Iih,( I,'. 





' HAS. S. HALL. 




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A ^ A, A, ^ ^ ^ 

t t t t t t t 

■^*~^^*^J ^.^ >.-^ ■^•^ ^,.^ 


No. 41 F(>k-Vl ii :.r.,JACKSOX\'ILLL:, M.A. 
Mr^^ F HT D>ALL, Proprietress. 

^ ' p'^ ua\. ^pf'cial ratf^s to h aiinliHs. ^.^:3 

c. II. (. vroc^ ( (). 

Manufjictmvrs of 

Q^^ J 



T^f^alers in 


1 ■ » « - 4 « 

■ »«-«-■ ^«ICji» 








Wholesale Uepaitmerit 

fill [Mil, Mil, Ml, Hats, Clotliiiis,. Notions aiifi TfmIs, 



7;; AWnT Hiiv STrin-r. .Licksniivi,Me. Fla. 



'\ ^ 


.v.; I'i^f ])nri ^fr-'f. ^T,J^],>11 JlJn<J,\ 



<IIAS. 11. (xAKIH 11 v.s s 11 VII 

nALnF .^- N ALL/ 



ILOIUJJA OliAyOES A sj>!:ciA / / ) . 




Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

mt X iu i^ Lii :[^i :^- Li^_ ^ 1^ 


FANCY ii;eoi)H, 



Jac'ksouN ilk', Florida. 

X. H.— KHJiahle Triiinners always employed. 

MRS. S. A, DAY, 




W. Adams St., 



Mrs. Rosa D. Ham, 



Gooii Accnwvmdations. Terms Reasonable. 

House contains 15 large rooms, and fronts upon the St. John's 

s river. 

Boarding Hous 

-■r^ T^ ^^ 

Mrs. C. A. Graybell, 

T^iiA-nl St.. a few doors TVortli of l^me, 

Pernianei/f <fnd Tmiisient lliiard. 
Terms Reasonable. ^ 





A. W lv>,APT^ Proprietor. 

<» BC 'w- ■« w: 

1 |)pcr SI. Johirs River ill Salt Lake! 


rsii: Stivamer Toi.l\sia I 

Li ((res Jiick\soinnlle for the above, conneefing 
with Tf'ftniway leading to Sand, Point, 
14 on Tixl'.iu River. 


Vdjoir ill" the Jack-' >r,vi11p YnphtChib House, foot of Market St. 

no ^RO,-ITS ilXD ^.-11 L SOHTS: 

TO KENT BY Till. HOUR, i'^^ Ul.KK < -U Mu.N i'H. 
Pleasure seekers and those lookui^' lur laud u> stUie, will always 
find ^ood KuideB ready and willingr to furnish them any intormation 
concerning the lands on the St. John's. 

Will lind it to their interest to ^ive us a call and examine our stock 
of Boats. Those wishing to sail or row for pleasure, will hml nrsi- 
class IU)ats and competent men to take charcje. J*^^^^^^^^^^"^ ^)^^'^^ ^'^' 
paired and built to order. PETER JONES, Proprietor. 





^ 4 BJL M«» 

■- H>«» ■«. ■ ■> 

i>i{i\ aim: boaim). 


vnnM'i: /v.w; . '.\/' /'/!://. •-ri:i-:FTS, 






noard from $l.rjO to $2.00 per D'l'i. I'rr U 'cek 
$7.00 to $10.00. T(Me Boara ^:>S)0. 


Or/and after Wednesday, the 22d of May, 1878, the 


Will leave S. G. Searing & Co^s Wharf, foot of Pine St., 


Sanfortl, Interprfse 


And Intermediate Landinofs, 



S. a. SEARING & CO., 
General Freight and Passenger Agents. 


/A f 




Palalla, Wm F^priiip. Leesliiiri, Oleeliiilee,, . 




A. N. Kl 'WARDS, blaster, 

AVill leave S. G. SEA Kl NG & CO.'S WHARF, foot of Pine street, 
every THURSDAY MOKN iNG, at 8 o'clock. 

For Freight or Passage, apply to 

General Freight and Passenger Agents, 

Jacksonville, Fla. 



$^::i:i::c -f All; B#iiil,£; 

By the Day or \\ erk. 

PRICE, ACCOllVI^'G To ^IZE (>i: Lul'JTUjA 


Alio;:! 2 Mocls ta Steaiiilioat. Eailroal aM PflslcSce, 

No. 1 1 Forsyth Street, 

Jacksonville, Fla. 


j/lCKSO^ViJ-iJ:, fi;^, 

Dry Goods, Carpets, &c. 

Positively the Largest and most Attnictive Store 

in Jacksonville. 

Lar^p Facilities ennhlc ns to Sell 


At Strictlij .Kortherv Prices! 

Our Assortment of (too(1s coiHi)rises the v«'rv L VTEST ^i\ 1 FS 
and t^l.:sT QUALITIKH. A visit wifi aniply ropjiy. 


Corner oi' 1 'me nn I lii, Sfro. f:<. 
JacS-, :>o^;\ iltc, na. 

Elmwooci House 

No. 80 Forsvtl] street' 

'" til * ..-1 ~ .» '«tt^ 


One Blockirom the Railroad 

r>(^pot and the principal 

Steamboat Landinp^s. 

•$2.00 PER DAY, 

#7 to $12 per ircLk, 

(I ('('()]•(] ijin to Ujca- 

tioji of I'uums. 

\\m. (j. Axdfrsox, Proprietor. 





J ~ -t_ ^ t t * « <► •* 4 ^ A .. ^ * V 

jT cV 43 Hay St., 

Ladies' Gents' Furnishing- GoocL^, 
and Ladies' ready-made Under- 
garments, Cloaks, 






t t *f T t t '^ t 
* 4- '4- «)<<)> '4>'^4> 


r;) -.,- N 

■ r ' c / 

By the Day or Week. 

i'iri('i:,AccoiwiMr to size or lo(\itjo,k 


Aljflii! I Wli from Sleaiiiiioat, Raliroail, aiifl PosloSce. 

No I I r\)rsyth Street, 

ruiiuliiruli, L^Llmliiul a bu. 

1^7 GoodSjCarpeis, ^^t o. 

J'ositively t\\v Lar^'est iuxd most Attractive Store 

in Jaeksonviilo. 

Iffi'Uc F(t('iHfi<\s ciuilflc us to Sell 

,11 Sfriclhj AhrUirrif Ri'ircs! 

(^nr As-;<)rh,"<>Tit of (h)>)(1s coiiiprisi-s the v.>rv L M'J^^'T STY I FS 
aii.l {;i-:sT <,>rA!JTn:N. a visit wil'l Miuply n-pMy. 

C\^rn(M' of* l^iiio nnd Ii;i,y Stroc^ts. 







Jffl. 80 Forsvtli {Street. ' 

.11 w, 4..,. ,„^ .„^ 



^'^' t^-'fjiy' '^'^^' ^^'^m '>iock.froiij the Railroad 

y^^^i^-A ^^r^ -Depot and tho prinn]>al 
Akl'.lt' * . •' -^ "^ Steaiiilxrit Landing's 

^'2.00 PER DAY, 

'$7 to $12 per week, 

aceording to locct- 

tioii of rooms. 

\\ Ai. (i. Anderson, Proprietor. 

'f' !!^'^>l "^ ^^ ^^ "^ If ^^^ P Q^ 


'fr]\ ^iH) %/-' .r? .^^t A ^)rA ^^' $r^^ A ^t^^p ^^-^ -^W 


41 \: 43 liay bl., 


T,;i(1i( -;' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 
liid r.:i. lies' ren(l\-m:i(le Unf],:r- 

gannents, Cloaks, : 



:€-'M-m. m^-m: 




■ 25 LcFira street, Jartsoiyille, Fla. 

Sea Beans and Ali!_vir> »r Tppth — PoHsIumI, KoutJcli ft^nd made into 
Jewelry. Orange (Jant'> m threat varift)', Florida ( )rnaiin'ntal 
Grass, (loose and made into lioiKjuets;, Alligator Eg-^s, etc., etc. 


A large variety of Small and ( )niauieiital ShflLs, Small Shells and 
Fi-M St-aleJi for Shell and Fish Scale work. Shell Necklaces, and a 
^-r<ai variety of rare aiid beautiful Shell Jewelry iuid many other 



Sea Beans, Alligator Teeth, Shells and Fi.sli vSoale Jewelry and 
Walking Sticks made to order 

Medal of Honor and Dipl.Miaof Merit awanled to Mrn. C. E. 
Mott by the Centennial C(»ii:Hii>sion, September 27th, 1876. 

Hard times compel us to "iTer the .ilmve >toek at very low prices. 
We intend to sell. Give Ub ti. call. lU^meuiber the place. 

MRS. ('. E. MOTT. 
2." Laura street, near Bav, 

*mimi- ("X^ 


f). L. KEENE, 

No, 61 W' :t E:j Street, ioraer of Laera, JactoTllle, Fla, 

Ha- iiow in stock a tine Une «'f Miiliii. ry <i.M»d>. including Pat 
(■'•ru Hats and Bonnets, Flowers, F-'aili- i>, RiMm.u.-, and the Latest 
novelties in Millinery. 

I>RKSS (T< )( il)S, 

Including a tine liur of Hlack 1 M-es.'. .^ilk>. Cashmeres, Drab I)"Ete, 
H'urietta Cloth and Fancy Suiting,', with (ialloonsand Fringes to 


Fancy Hosiery, Ti----. S( arf- a:i>i Han Ikerchiefs. I^iidies" and Chil- 
dren's MeriiK''an(i u.uize \ e.-.t>, ( iuldren s Worsted Socks, Mittens 
and Wa:-r~ ^:!k I'lnbrellas ami Parasols. A flne Line of Kitl. 
Undre>^rMi Kulaiid Lisle (Hoves. C\>rsets— including the celebrat 
ed ••Cork (orset." Table Linen Napkins, Towels, Tidies and 
Lace Curtaais 


Real Hair Suiieh,--. and PutTs. Ht^rginann & Co.'s Worsteds, 
W\>rsted Patterns. Zephyr and Shetianvi Shawl.-,, Weuck's Pcrlu- 
no'ry and Toilet Soap. 



We constantly carry a Com- 
plete Stock of 

Children's, Boys' & Men's 


Our I'iUMllties for getting these 
I up are rxsTRPASSKD l)y anv 
3 House South; hence, we 


: and Do sell at loir prices, and 
yet make a profit. 

With the above we kee{) a well 
aiitl carefully selecteti line of 

GeEts' hmWii Goofls! 


InJises, rru})reUas, c^'c. 

Oarments made to measure in 

■ate.-t .-tyle, 

' Mir method is C. O. D. 

We warrant all goods as rep- 

Now York Cloltiin£ Company, 

IJ W Hay St., Jaeksonville, Fla. 

;-. i:w York office. 

No nn Franklin Street. 




^f tin' Coiiur (if IjiuFd (nuf Brfjrer Streets, 
JAc/K.-;( )X\IL.1.L:, FX.A. 





f ©mil P0ef films mw 





S II E 1^ JL - > Y 11 K E R 



25 iaira street, Jac!(son?iile, Fla. 

kSf ti B»'ans and Alli<j:ator Teeth — Polished, Roii^h and made into 
Jeweh-y. Oianpe Canes in great variety, Florida Ornamental 
(rraj^s, (loo'ie and made into bouquets), Alligator Eggs, etc., etc. 


A larj;:e vtriety of Small and Ornamental Shells, Small ShelN and Scales for Shell and Fish Scale work. Shell Necklaces, and a 
great variety of rare and beautiful Shell Jewelry an i numy other 



S«'« Beans, Alligator Teeth, Shells and Fish Scait- Jt'\stir\ und 
W.-J-lking Stickr made to order. 

M»'dal of Honor and Dii)loma of Merit awariltd to T^fr-. C E. 
Mott by tlif Centennial Commission, September 'iTtti, I'^T''. 

Hard tiiiies < omi)el us to offer the above stock at \» r\ \^<\\ prices. 
We iiileiid to s^dl. Give us a call. Remember the place. 

MK<. (■ K MHTT 
2-' FaniM -i i-f-t, nmr Ha\ , 


(V \. k(:i:m:. 

No. 61 West Bay Street, taer of Laura, JaclsoaTille, Fla, 

Has now in stock a fine line of Millinery Goods, in<]n.linL' Tat- 
tern Hats and Bonnets, Flowers, Feathers, Ribbons, and ihv. Lai- st 
novelties in Millinery. 


Including a fine line of Black Dress Silks, Cashmeres, Drat- 1> Kt.*, 
Henrietta Cloth and Fancy Suiting, witli Galloons an. 1 I"r;nges to 


Fancy Hosiery, Ties, Scarfs and Handkerclu't-. Ladi''> an! ( hil- 
dren's Merino and Gauze Vests, Children's W^r-ted Socks. MitT.ns 
and Waists. Silk Umbrellas and Parasols. A tin.' Line of Kid. 
Undressed Kid and Lisle Gloves. Corset8^in( lading' tli-- celebrat 
ed "Cork Corset.'' Table Liiu-n — Napkins, Tuwei.-, Tidies and 
Lace Curtains. 

A FINE Li.NE OF UitiTE G0(»1)S. 

Ue*i.i Hair Switches and Puffs. Bergmann »5>; Co.'s Wur.-teds, 
Worsted Patterns. Zephyr and Shetland Shawls; Wenck's Perfu- 
mery and Toilet Soap. 





We constantly carr\ a Com- 
plete Stock of 

Children's, Boys' & Men's 


Our facilities for getting these 
up are unsurpassed by any 
House South; hence, we can 
and DO sell at lo?r prices, and 
yet make a profit. 

With the above we keep a well 
JJ and carefully selected line of 

FfEiiiS' FDiiisliiiE Goufis! 


Valises, rfnhrcUiL.s, cfc. 

* tarmenth made to measure in 
-'atest style. 

' )ur method is C. O. D. 

We warrant all goods as rep- 

New Yort ClotliiB£ Ccnmuay, 

■ U W. Bay St., Jacksonville, Fla. 

Nn nn Franklin Street. 

F. G. 

■y rKjptirr 


WE E 2. :4r ■ a '-.«•."?_ 'U .fl^jj^i 




M the Comer oj Laura and Beaver Streets, 





t t 

q%wmh pdmim^ Mmii 

<^ 4. 



4 > 

4 Transient Board, 

J/UJKSO-NVIilE. ri;^. 



\ V/a::h!r.ak2r, Jsy/gIsp, and Optician 

Dealer and Man; tat ;i > r of 


No. ^y U'est Ba\' >trfa-t, Jacksoin ilk-. MothLl 





Orders solicited and pronip+lN atr'!::' ^1 tu. Ail work done with 

neatiK"-.- and di-parch. 

Ja^etsottTtlle, Florida. 

S. G. 8EVKIWO, Xotary Public. 

U. t rK \ N'.KK, N I'liblic. 


FIRE Insurarice, MAB.INE Insurance, LIFE Insurance 

,f hipping and (i!'ommi.$,$ion 5JlkTdiivnt,$, 

Office No. H West Baj Street, Jacksonvillo, Jla. 

A_'''nT"**T H Squi^^'^" N Y. SchDoru'r I. in-'; office U\ Front Strt-et, 

>'ew \\>rk, <Tf*n»'ral Stt^ainboat Au'^-nt^. A^'rnts HallV 

Safes. Dt-alern in KetU Estate. Ivciant ne^'otiatt-d. 



V,\ \\ \! A. PRINGLE. 

Ever since its discovery Florida has been the land 
of romance and fable. The land where nature assumes 
her brightest garb, and wliere every object is pleasing to 
the eye and soothing to the senses^ has a history that is 
one series of vicissitudes and misfortunes. From the 
' time that its soil was baptised by the blood of its first 
discoverer to within a very recent period, its annals have 
been stained by violence, contention and blood shed, and 
it has been the apple of discord betw^een contending races 
and nations. The bloodthirsty Seminole, the adventurous 
Spaniard, the fiery Frank, and the irrepressible Anglo- 
Saxon, have in turn shed their blood for its possession, 
and left their bones to whiten on its soil, while the re- 
morseless hand of bigotry has stained its historv w4th some 
of the foulest crimes. Race animosity, religious intole- 
rance, political hatred and sectional strife have all in 
turn visited its smiling shores with their baneful influ- 

Its wars and misfortunes are for the present at an end, 
and a new era of peace se^is to be dawning on it, 
while its shores are yearly visited by the invalid and 
tourist in pursuit of health and recreation, and by the 
impoverished with a view of mending their broken for- 
tunes. On its past history w^e will not dwell, but shall 
confine ourselves to giving an account of its present con- 
dition and resources and a description of the cities, tow^ns 
;iiid settlements in the eastern part of the State, as well 
as of its rivers and streams, lakes, springs, forests, 
swamps, orange, lemon and fruit groves, and of its fish- 
ing and hunting attractions. We will describe the old 
Spanish city of St. Augustine, around which cluster so 
many past associations : the city of Palatka and Crescext 




City, the home of the orange grower. We will take the 
tourist along with us on a Trip up the St. John's River 
and the lakes beyond, and point out the attractions of 
Indian River and its vicinity, the *' Eden " of Florida. 

We will wind up with a voyage up the aha 
River, Silver Springs Run, Silver Springs, and lakes 
Griffin. Eustis and Harris; an ! >vill rake a glance 
while passing at the orange and lemon -n>\.-~. });m;iiia 
plantations and flower gardens along the ^litV' f ni routes. 

' THE ST. JOHNS ivl\ IK 

The St. John's River. cMlkni by ihr Frfiu-h ihc l:i\er 
May. and by the Spaniards the San M.itt^o, is a large, 
bold and beautiful stream, wl-i-li takiiiL;- ii^ ri^t ;iinong 
the swamps and springs of South' [M MtkIm. fl^w^ -iirect- 
ly north for a distance of more than 4oo milr-. ind tmii 
ing eastward, 25 miles n"!'Mi of .f;ic]x-^(.ii\ illr. .nij-iies 
int') the Atlantic ocean. '\'\\>- -Iimt,^ ,,!i citlitr -idf are 
luw and fla^. and tli*' t'a!! "T TJif imn-'I- t'roni its -^iiiirco t'> 
its outlrl i^ vur}' Lcradaal. i-'Mid-'fiiiu' it^ coursr .■>lo\v Mtid 
sluggish, thus URiking th*- a^criit i-^'inarkahly easy and 
safe. For the same reason the ocean iid< .-^ are felt np its 
course as far as Lake George, a distance <'f ir.n miN's. 
Besides its sources in Soutli* in Florid n it lia- nnni. I'Mi< 
tributaries, such as Deep Run or P mn - < r» . k, tla < >kla- 
waha, Alexander Springs Creek. tli. W- ki\ a. and otlit r<. 
' Those tributario'^. wlii'di arc n;i n iL;-alil-', and (Mnn'-cT wit h 
large lakes or .^prni.;^, iudp U) .swcil tlic xi'iuni- "t' waUT 
in the lower p<»rti ^n of the river, until n impasses in 
bulk the waters of the Rio Grande. It is in many rc^spects 
unlike anv other ri\'''i'. and fr'Un ;r- mMuili \,, Palatka. a 
distance of 100 miles. \ ari<^ from one nnh" to six nnl.- in 
width, and is a succession <^v i-liain 'd' lak''<. dotted wnth 
beautiful and well wootled islands. ItssliMiN-. wli. i. not 

cultivated, are for the most ]^art rl(^o])l\ w i-d with 

forests of oak. cypress, sweet k""'- 1'"m-. palm.'tt'i and 
magnolia, which are draped in han^inu -i»'\ m >--. wjiile 
the trunks of the trees, 15 or ?0 feel from th- water's 
edge, are clothed with vines, jessamines, woe !1 n- -. and 
other parasitic ] lant- wliirli hang in festoons, wreaths, 
garlands, and drapery of the most beautifn] \ • ilnre, 
until they kiss the water, and freiin. ntly taking posses- 
sion of a stump or old decayed and prostrate tree trunk, 
spread out over it and into the water, formin<r a r^'eli ear 
pet of green on the very surface of the stream a lung the 
river's edge for the distance of five or six feet. 1 hrough- 
out the entire length of the river this is one of the most 
striking and beautiful features of the shore scenery. 
Sometimes in their upward growth these vines embrace 




at the top and form the most perfect arches, and assume 
fna^ry variety of graceful aitd fantastic form. Where the 
banks have been cleared and are under cultivation, the 
shores are lined with beautiful groves of orange and 
lemon tr. .-. and (hiring the winter, when they are loaded 
with tin ir ladliant fruit, present a succession of shore 
scenery of -urpassin;; lovehness, and call to mind the 
famuli-^ Greek legend of the Gardens of the Hesperides 
witli their golden apjdes. while here and thereat inter- 
vals lMtN\ ern tlie nnmerous groves, the handsome dvvell- 
ino:s hui-icd am'.ji^:- ^i-eve^ of live oaks, or situated on the 
i»ru\vs of e(.mmanding hills, or nestled among the orange 
trees, enhance the general beauty of the scenery. 

The river from its moutli i<> Jacksonville has already 
been descrilMMl in thr ^-arlier part of this work, and we 
shall contin.' to gi\ in- an niitiiue of a irij* np 
its course to Lakes George and AlMin-or. and sliall note as 
we pass along its banks tlie i.nncipal objects of interest 
and beauty that strikr tin- tra\-elrr"> eyt\ as w<dl as its 
towns, settlements and landings and the i)lantatin]i> and 
oraiigr groves that line its shores, thus t^ndeavdnng to 
assist the tourist in recognizing and appreciating thr nii- 
merons attraetiva and h.-autiful p^»int^ ahaig his lim^ uf 

Leaving Jacksonville on the steamer TTattie. and tmd. r 
thf i-:\v>' ^^f its ronrtemi^ and attentive commander. Capt. 
L. M. Coxetter. Wo start s(.)Ulh and np tlv river, inlialing 
the soft and balmy breeze, rendered nnid Ijv its ])a>>age 
over vast sheets of water— lakes and streams tliat have 
their rise in thf warm and semi-tro])ieal (dime («f Southmi 
Florida. A<piartrr<»f a mil.- .^Mijth (if ,J(U'ksMHville and 
on t1i(' w.'-tci'n -^liorc. Wf hclmld the juctnresque little 
\ illagc -f Brooklyn, located on a hcautifni. gcntlv >]..p- 
ing hhiff near a l)cnd in tin- rivta- hank: and just beyond 
this and Mil the > nit.-kirt-. tin- >'ntl»anout of " Riverside. 
These ma V h^th h.' c. .hvkPt-mI a^ sulairbs of Jaeksonvillo, 
and wiH;/ (hi\ Itt- nndudcd within its corporate limits. 
They present a beautiful appearance from the river, and 
resemble a collection of villas, containnm^ many hand- 
some dwellings. Beyond these places the river expands 
into a lak<^ three miles in width, tlic hurdt^rs being dotted 
here and tlirr.' witli counti-v residences overlooking the 
streann l^ihiix . r (diannel is marked out by a series of 
buoys fr(<m a (piartcr of a mil* tu a mile apart. These 
buoys extend lr(jm the mouth to J'cdatka. a distance of 
100 miles. 

< >n the eastern hank, situated about three miles from 
Jacksonville, is the handsome cross-shaped two story 
dwelling of Mrs Alexander ]\Iii. Iiell, of Milwaukie. with 



a pretty garden and fine orange grove. Our little steamer 
speedsup the river, and soon brings us in sight of- Philip's 
Point, or Point Lavista, where there is a magnicent 
grove of live oaks. We do not stop here, but continue 
our voyage, and catch a passing glimpse of Black Point 
on the western shore, and the settlement of Mulberry 
Grove on an elevation on a curve of the river. The 
stream here maintains its lake like character, while the 
deeply wooded shores form a succession of lict\^, coves, 
and small peninsulas jutting out into the river. Nume- 
rous settlements appear along tiie banks, breaking what 
would otherwise become a monotonous scene, and ini- 
parting variety to the landscape view. The shores in 
some places are so low that the forests appear at a little 
distance off to spring from the water. \\ e speed along 
and pass the settlement of Oran(;e Grove on the west 
side, a thriving place laid out by the Orange Park Com- 
pany, of which Mr. G. W. Benedict is the movino: cipiHt. 
We now reach the village of 


On the east of the river, near which are several valuable 
orange groves; among others that of Mrs IT I' ^""ne. 
This is a settlement of two hundred and fifty mli linlants, 
and is a popular resort for travelers. There uru two or 
three good stores here. Leaving this place and turning 
a bend in the river, we approach a fine bay called Fruit 
Cove, where oranges, lemons, grapes, bananas, and 
other fruits are successfully cultivated. Several promi- 
nent merchants from Jacksonville have country seats 
and groves here, and the place promises to be a wealthy 
and thriving neighborliood. We pass this place and 
plough our way up the river, and next land at 


On the western bank, a settlement of a few houses, con- 
taining a hotel kept by Mrs. Fleming, and is a favorit(^ 
resort for invalids during the winter season. We start 
again and skirt along the shores and pass New Switzer- 
land and Remington Park, settlements on the east of 
the river, and only a mile apart. Without stopping we 
leave these two miles behind us, and stop at 


Also on the west of the river, and 29 miles by water from 
Jacksonville. This is also a great winter resort, and 
boasts a fine hotel, called the Magnolia Hotel. Two miles 
more of traveling bring us to 




On the west of the river. This is a picturesque little vil- 
lage, with a few business houses and two large hotels— 
the Clarendon, kept by Messrs. Harris & Applegate, and 
the Union. There is a spring here of beautiful clear 
water, impregnated with sulphur and of a temperature of 
75 degrees. The bathing is considered beneficial to 
invalids, and all necessary bathing facilities can be ob- 
tained, such as hot, cold, and swimming baths. Those 
afflicted with rheumatism, gout, or Briglit's kidnev com- 
plaint, have been known to derive great benefit from the 
use of the water. We next pass Orange Dale, Ho- 
garth's Landing, and 


On the eastern shore. The last named place was former- 
ly a Spanish settlement, and the landing place on the St. 
John's for the city of St. Augustine, but it has now 
fallen to decay, and Tocoi is at present the point of access 
from the St. John's to St. Augustine. W^e are again in 
motion steaming up the river, and after a run of 49 miles 
fr«M! facksonville, find ourselves at 


A settlement on the eastern shore of the river, containing 
about ten or twelve houses and two stores, which are 
scattered about without any re,o-,'vd to regularitv. This 
place is fifteen miles from St. Augustine, with which it 
is connected by a steam railway. This road was built 
and run some years ago as a horse tramwav. In the 
year 1874 it was purchased by a new company and con- 
verted into a steam railway. Mr. D. G. Ambler, a ban- 
ker of Jacksonville, was at that time tlie President. In 
1877 Mr. Ambler's interest was purchased by Mr. W. i^. 
Astor, of New York, who now owns a controlling inter- 
est in the road. Tlie present officers are R. McLaughlin 
President and Superintendent; Col. Henrv Gaillard,' 
agent at Tocoi and Paymaster and Auditor: J. M. Hal- 
lowes, agent at St. Augustine and Treasurer. During 
the winter season there are trains running from each 
terminus four times a day, and connecting on the St. 
John's with the river steamers plying up and down. This 
road also connects with the Charleston and Florida 
steamers and with the line from Savannah to Florida. 
Ther(^ is also telegraphic and postal communication here 
with all points north and south. Taking passage on this 
raili'Qad we set out for the famous old Spanish city of 



The oldest in the United States bv more than fortv vears, 
and founded at a period when Spain was at tlu htin^ht 
of her greatness, and when she was the most formiddl'l'- 
naval power in the world, and her possessions were so 
vast ami extended, that she boasted that \i\>'>n ]ntr posses- 
sion> ill' -mi ii'ver set. On the evening of tlie 8th of 
May, 1565, Pedro Menendez, at the head ■ f the Castilian 
( liivalry, landed on the shore of Florida, an! j'lanted tiie 
liannpr nf SpniTi. nnfl ]^rni"1niTiif^d Phili]i IT ili-' vnvr'rt'i'j:Ti 
i.f i]\f wliMif { '> .Ml ii^'iii I'f N'-rth America, aial laiT liie 
lirbL i\,'Un<iani.'ii '.>i ihib <ai\ . 

The ohi ( itv is now chi' tU aitractivp on account of its 
age. ami Th.- (^M associations connects i wirh it- jia>t his- 
tory. hiiT 1- L;Ta'liiai!y disappear! n;_; y far hy \.'ai-. ^"that 
ill lialf actMiiui-N inure lilt!'' \\'\\\ be left of it, ex«-fpt the 
"IT fi Tt and catii'''l!'a], aipi a t'fw iT flic ;niclfnt Spaiii-li 
bu i JTiiiL;'-. wliii'l! \\\\\ v<-<]]:i]\\ ,i- !a,!ia!i;a rk - mI" t!if lii-t''i'\ 
of It- ti;--' t"' 'UiiTf r,-. A tii'-- rcccutiv -^^"'■j»t <'\< v it, ,1c- 
stroyiug a large nuinlKT oi the old cikjiiiii,! )h>ii-.- in 
the eastern part of the town, and had tii. \\iiiT Imjlu 
blowing t'r-'-ii] \' at the time, !itt!.' ns^uIT lia\f iieen left 
of the old cit\ . < ^vingto the nani w ness of the streets 
aiiT tlie building'- 1"Mii_;- -i^ cjo-^fly (MMwTed tog^i li--r. 

The most attractive part of the city i- tla- n-w jxirticii. 
which occupies the sontli^'rn anT ^v*-^\'T\\ -icii,.)!^ n\\,{ 
th*^ "^^iiTnrlx. mid whirTi i- laiilt altrr tli« -t_\ !<■ ^t' tihMJ.Tn 
towns. iu> iiisb'Ty lia-lMMh t'llll of iiie-uitait a.nT xaa--!^ 
tude. In 158G, Sir Francis Prake, then en<2:'JU''l m \vagiug 
war upon the Spanish cciiuiiurce on thr ln^li seas, at- 
tacked an i i>u! lit the to^^ ii. 

In 1638, the Inlians attack. ! the place but were re- 
pulsed, and the prisoners taken by the STaniarl- were 
compelled to work on the fort. 

In If'*''.".. ]Trates under tlio nnfr^rimi^ htirrnnpcr Davis, 
].iuiiTfr..i lii.' town, an^! ila' .ati/.-ai- <'ii\\ ^a^t■T tlicm- 
bchus fruiu Jl-.^ I ruction l^v uiking iriiigL- under the walls 
of the fort. 

In September, 1702, an exp'-.iit ;. .n wa- IrT again-t it 
under Gov. Moore, of Soutli ( aiolina, ^vlli(•h succeeded 
in capiUi-ing the town. Tnt the fort was a^.iin f. - .ited to 
by the inhabitants as a place of refuge. The siege was 



finally raised by the arrival of two Spanish men-of-war 
which compelled the Carolinians to retreat and abandon 
their ships and stores. 

In 1712, the vessels bringing in supplies from Spain 
were delayed by the weather, and the inhabitants were 
on the brink of starvation. 

In 1740, Gov. Oglethorpe, of Georgia, at the head of 
one thousand men, marched against St. Augustine, and 
captured the suburbs and a part of the town, but was 
finally forced to retreat and abandon the enterprise. The 
fort again proved the salvation of the town. During the 
siege, General Oglethorpe established a sand batterv on 
the northern extremity of Anastasia Island, at a distance 
of about six thousand yards, and opposite, hut after fortv 
days bombardment, the fort was found to be inij^rocrnnble. 
aii'l til.' .Sj); were left in peaceful possessi. .n mI' their 
to\y]\. 11. .t ;i liouse having been >)urnt. ii..r a uarTt^n de- 
stroyed, by the chivalrous Georgians. Some of the traces 
of the bonibatdnient may still he seen on the eastern wall 
of this ^^rifii au.l w.\at1irr stained fortress. 

The cjty. m I ;.;;;, wa^. ceded to England in exchange 
for HavaiKt. \\ hich had been cai)tiired -sometime ])revious 
by the British. On this occasion numercjus Si>anisli fami- 
lies the town, rather than five under Engli.-ii 
rule. The city was garrisoned by the English during the 
revolutionaiw war, and reinforcements were organized 
and sent from here to Savannali .Tiring the siege of that 
city hv the Americans. Duiang the same war tif^tv,,r 
sixty leading citizens from diarl.-t.ui. S. C. were de- 
tained as prisoners in th. t wn. an.l Grnorat Gadsden 
was imprisoned in the f. ut. 

In 1784, it was again transferred to Spain, anl ila. Kn '•- 
lish settlers were allowed eighteen niMuths to niuv. away 
Many removed to South Carolina. Tnnaica, Brunswick* 
Nova Scotia, and EnglatiT. Fiiuillv, in ISIO, it passed 
into the possession of the United States. 

At the outbreak of the Spanish war, St. Augustine was 
threatened by the Indians, the plantations in the neio-h- 
borhood burned, and the planters obliged to flv and take 
refuge in the city, thus overcrowding the place and 
causing a threat of famine, as there was onlv one sailing-- 
vessel on the line between this place and Charleston. anTl 
postal communication with the outside world was inter- 
rupted. The citizens were compelled to act as soldiers 
and were on duty every third night, until relieved by the 
arrival of troops and militia from South Carolina and the 
United States. 

During the late war between the North and South it 
changed hands several times. Since then it has enjoyed 



the blessings of profound peace. It is situated on the 
eastern coast of Florida, thirty-five miles below Jackson- 
ville, and fifteen miles from Tocoi, the nearest point on 
the St. John's River, which is connected with it by a 
steam railway as before stated. It is on a x^eninsula, 
bounded on the north by the mainland, on the east by 
North River, the harbor channel and the ^Matansas River 
separating it from Anafitasia Island, on the ocean, and 
on the south and west by the San Sebastian River. > 

It is built in the form of a parallelogram, a mile in 
length and about three-quarters of a mile wide. It con- 
tains about two thousand three hundred inhabitants, but 
during the ^v^nter season ^the population is trii'i. il nnd 
quadrupled by the influx of strangers. 

The climate is admirably adapted to invalids and to 
those in the early stages of pulmonary complaints, but is 
too exciting for those m lii- more advanced stages of 
the disease. The interior of Florida, near the rivers, is 
much more desirable as a j lace of residence for the last 
named class of sufferers. Its ancient coquina houses, 
narrow streets, and grand old fort facing the channel, 
and affording an admirable sea view; its town hall, city 
gates, and, above all, its cathedral, and sea wall, a mile 
long, and all built of coquina. attract the curiosity of all 
visitors. To go to Florida without visiting St. Augustine, 
would be as bad as visiting France without seeing Paris. 


There are four principal streets running north and 
south, and three of them not more thai! twelve or fifteen 
feet wide. The first and widest is Bay street, on the 
water front, and west of this Charlotte street, next St. 
George street, and west of this Tolomato street. The 
principal cross street is King street, running from Bay 
street at right angles through the center of the town and 
westward, and terminating in the causeway which leads 
across the San Sebastian out of the city to the railway 


The city government consists of a Mayor. 1 resident of 
Council, City Physician, Clerk, Tax Collector, Assessor, 
five Aldermen, and Town Marshal. 

In the new section of the city can be found some of the 
handsomest residences, and largest and finest "iinge 
groves, in any town in this land of the sun. ^^ • will 
now proceed to point out the objects of interest a.^ iliey 
present themselves. The first on the sea front, at the 
north east end of the city, is the 




Formerly Fort San Marco, now Fort Marion, commenced 
in 1520, and completed in 175G, and situated on a high bluff 
directly facing the channel and the northern end of Anas- 
tasia Island. This is a venerable massive fortress, built 
of coquina. This ancient time-worn and battle-scarred 
fortification, towers above the town and country around 
as w^ell as the harbor, frowning defiance on evervthing 
in the vicinity, and when new must have been one'^of the 
most formidable structures of its kind in any land. It is 
now mouldy and decayed, and gradually"^ and slowly 
crumbling into ruin, and remains but as a"^monument of 
the past grandeur and military prowess of the once 
haughty and adventurous Spaniard. There are several 
cracks in the western w^all, but though condemned by 
military engineers, in case of a foreign war it would yet 
prove a formidable obstacle to vessels entering the chan- 
nel, and would stand a longer bombardment than many 
a newer fortress of brick and mortar now^ armed and 
garrisoned. It is square shaped, with four large bastions 
of immense thickness at the corners, and is twentv feet 
in height, and surrounded by a moat five or six feet 
deep, wiiich at one time could be flooded through a ditch 
connecting it with the San Sebastian River. There is on 
the outer edge of the moat a wall or batterv, behind 
which infantry or artillery could be posted and used 
with great effect. At the entrance is the lunette or 
outer defense, from the parapet of which a hundred 
men could fire with small arms upon approaching foes, 
and could afterwards retire along the drawbridge in the 
rear and leading into the fort. There is a belief that an 
underground communication could be discovered between 
this outer defense and the main fort. 

On entering, yon find yourself in the square or parade 
ground, measuring une hundred feet each way. Inside 
there aiu twenty-seven casemates, thirty-five feet long 
and eighteen feet wide. In former times, during the Indian 
w^ars, and in cases of attack by sea, the citizens w^ould 
flock to this stronghold, and take up their abode in these 
bom I. proofs. The casemate in front of the sallv-port, 
has on each side, as you enter it, a niche that was used 
for holy water vessels, and at the end is an altar, and 
above the altar a niche, where was at one time an 
image of some saint or martyr of the early church. This 
was the chapel where service was held. In another 
bomb-proof is a raised platform ; this is supposed to 
be the judgment hall where courts-martial were held. 
Above this platform is an aperture or embrasure through 




which '• Wikl Cat," one of the Seminole chiefs escaped, 
but was afterwards recaptured. In an adjoining bomb- 
proof Oseola was confined. 

In a neighboring casemate is an opening which was 
cut for the purpose of discovering an underground 
passage, which was supposed to connect the cathe- 
dral and the fort. In another casemate, formerly the 
kitchen, is a bake oven. Under the northeast bastion we 
find a dark, gloomy dungeon, twenty feet long and six 
feet wide, where not a ray of light can penetrate. This 
was once built up and cut off from all communication 
with the rest of the fort. We will here quote from the 
Florida Pathfinder of 1877, page 23: 

*' The terre-plein of the northwest bastion in 184G fell in, 
revealing a dark and dismal dungeon. We have heard from 
the lips of a relial^le person, still a resident of St. Augus- 
tine, and who was present at the time of the above acci- 
dent to the foi-t, the following facts: I s'tood upon the edge 
and looked down into this dungeon, and there saw tlie 
complete skeleton of a human being lying at full length, 
apparently on its back, the arms were*^ extended from tlie 
body, and the skeleton fingers were wide open ; tli(^re 
appeared to be a gold ring on one of tlie fingers. En- 
circling the wrists were iron bands, attached to which 
were chains fastened to a hasp in the coquiiia wall, near 
the entrance to the dungeon. The militarv engineer hav- 
ing charge of the fort descended into this dungeon, when 
his curiosity was excited by the discoverv to the north- 
east of a broad stone, differing greatlv in 'iimensions and 
appearance from those of which the wall was built. He 
noticed, moreover, that the cement which held this stone 
in its place differed in composition, and appeared to be 
more recent. On the removal of this stone, the present 
dark, dismal, and fearful dungeon was disclosed. On 
entering with lights, there were found at the western end 
two iron cages suspended from hasps in the wall. One 
of the cages had partially fallen down IV- in ni-i ;;nJ 
decay, and human bones lay scattered on the i! M^r; the 
other remained in its position, holding a pile ot human 
bones. Tlie latter cage and contents may be seen in the 
Smithsonian Institute, at Washingtcm." 

This second dungeon is about the same length as the 
first, but wider, with a low arched roof from eight to ten 
feet \i\'j:].. H- i> not a breath of nir can be obtained when 
the entrance is sealed up. It is the opinion of wvaiw that 
there are like dungeons under the other three bastions. 
Whether the story of the skeleton and cages be true or 
not, we are unable to say, but we can imagine no more 
horrible death than one inflicted in this manner. 


Ascending a broad stairway of two flights, we reach 
the top or parapet of the fort, from which can be obtained 
a superb view of the channel and the ocean beyond. On 
this battlement were formerly mounted heavv guns that 
commanded the channel and surrounding countrv On 
the corner of each bastion there was a circular ^tower 
but one of them has recently fallen. The fort sustained 
a heavv bombardment from batteries erected on Anas- 
tasia Island by General Oglethorpe in 1740, but received 
no injury beyond a few scars on its sea front, tlie marks 
of which are yet visible. There are twenty old fashioned 
Spanisli guns in the fort. In front of the sea wall of the 
fort IS a low battery, about five feet high and fifteen feet 
wide, which torms a fine promenade connected with the 


Which is the next object of interest. This was originally 
a Spanish structure, but was rebuilt by the United States 
Government in 18;J7, and was six yccirs in buildin- and 
cost one hundred thousand dollars. It extends from Fort 
Clarion along the River Matanzas, and in front of the 
town for a distance of nearly a mile, to the barracks south 
ot the city, and is ten feet above low water mark, seven 
teet thick at the base, and three feet wide on top and 
capped with granite. It forms a fine promenadi,' iust 
wide enough for two persons to walk abreast, and is a 
favorite resort for lovers or those who are sentimentallv 
mchned Near the plaza the wall is recessed, and forms 
a basin two hundred and fifty feet long and one hundred 
feet wide, where the fishermen bring in their boats. 


Is at the end of this basin. At the southern extremitv 
ot tiie wall is a similar basin, where pleasure boats and 
yachts are harbored. In the center of the old city is the 


Or iiMic square, which is furnished with seats and sur- 
rounded bv a row of Pride of India trees. In the center 
is the mojh^^neiit erected in 1812, in honor of the liberal 
Constituti^i granted to the colony by Spain. It is a mar- 
ble pyramidal shaped shaft, about twentv feet hig-h with 
^l "^;^;^^P^l«n in Spanish commemoratiVe of the event 
^^e^following IS the translation taken from the Path- 

f ].r i-""^ ^""^T ^''"^ '^"'^^^'''^ .^^ ^^^^^^^^ t^ *^^e United States, 
the King of Spam granted a liberal Charter to the citi- 
zens of St. Augustine and of Florida, and this monument 



is a memorial erected by the Spanish citizens of St. Au- 
gustine. The date of this Constitution was the 17th of 
October, 181-2." 
On the north side of the plaza is the old 


An oblong coquina building, erected in 1793, at an ex- 
pense of about $17,000. It has a quaint Moorish belfry, 
in which are three niches in a row, containing each a 
bell, and above these, and in a line with the clock, is a 
fourth niche, also containing a bell. The oldest bell is 
dated 1G82, On the north side of the city, and west of 
the fort, is the 


And on either side a portion of a wall. The coquina 
pillars and towers, with sentry boxes and loop holes, are 
still in good preservation. At the southern end of the 
sea wall are the 


Formerly the Convent of St. Joseph, but now used as the 
officers' quarters. On the top of the building is a terrace 
along its entire length, one hundred and forty feet long 
and five feet wide, and railed in. From this there is a 
splendid view of the islands and the ocean, and also an 
excellent birds-eye view of the city and the country be- 
yond for a distance of six or eight miles. Back of the 
Convent is the new building, the barracks proper, where 
the privates are quartered, and south of the Convent the 


A fine two and a half story building, with piazzas on 
each floor, extending entirely around it. We next ap- 
proach the 


Or military burying ground. There are two others be- 
sides this; the Catholic Cemetery on Tolomato street, 
and the Huguenot Cemetery outside the city gate. In 
the Military Ci.MKTERY are three mounds or ivrmn'^lal 
shaped tumuli, iniikini:" flu- y^nm where are ini' ritd ilie 
remains of Maj-r \hidv, aiui h;.> wiie huiirlrrMl ;t:i.l seven 
comrades, who wire massacred by the luliau- when on 
their way to the Withlacoochee River to join Gen. Clinch. 
These were sent from Fort Brooke, at 1aiii[;t. to rein- 
force Gen. Clinch, and on the 28th of Decern!' r, 1835, 
w^ere attacked by eight liii 111 I' 1 Tnliai!- in ambush. At 




the first fire more than half the soldiers were killed or 
wounded, but the remainder returned the fire, and a 
small six-pounder cannon was used with some effect until 
the artillerymen were all killed or wounded. The In- 
dians then showed themselves, leaving their ambush and 
thus disclosing their numbers, of whom one hundred 
were mounted. The fight was kept up for an hour, when 
the Indians slackened their fire, and the soldiers felled 
trees and erected a triangular fortress as a protection. 
The respite, however, was temporary. The Indians again 
rushed on with whoop and yell to complete the fearful 
butchery, and a desperate hand to hand conflict was 
maintained, until all but three of the soldiers wer^ killed 
or wounded. These three managed to escape and tell 
the sad tale. During the conflict the soldiers used their 
bayonets and clubbed their muskets, and the Indians 
made use of their knives and tomahawks. 

After the battle the wounded were killed and scalped, 
and the victors danced a war dance over the battle 
ground, and at length left the field of carnage with the 
dead unburied, lying in the postures in which they had 

A dog belonging to Capt. Gardner escaped and re- 
turned to Tampa, giving at that place the first intimation 
of the bloody work that had been perpetrated. W lien 
fresh troops arrived on the scene, they beheld then- dead 
comrades lying w^here they had fallen, with the stern 
expression of battle still on their faces, which w^ere turned 
in the direction of the quarter from which their savage 
foes had attacked them. They were buried on the bat- 
tle field, and the six-pounder cannon was placed upright 
in the ground to mark the spot. Their remains were 
afterwards removed to this place. There is here a monu- 
ment, consisting of a marble shaft, with inscriptions on 
ihe f*>iir faces. On one we read, 

'• i hi^ monument, in token of respectful and affection- 
ate remembrance by their comrades of all grades, is com- 
1 iiitted to the care and preservation of the garrison of St. 

On another is the following: 

''A mute record of all the officers who perished, and 
are here and elsewhere deposited, as also a portion of the 
soldiers, has been prepared and placed in the office of the 
Adjutant of the Post, where it is hoped it will be care- 
fully and perpetually preserved.'' 

On another is inscribed: 

"This conflict, in which so manv perished in battle and 
by disease, commenced 25th December, 1835, and termi- 
nated 14th of August, 1842." • 




On the fourth we find: 

'•'Sacred to the memory of the officers and soldiers 
killed in battle, and died in service during the Florida 

The Catholic Cemetery is on Tolomato street, and is 
quite a contrast in appearance to a more modem ceme- 
tevy. The graves are mostly marked by black and white 
wooden crosses, along which the inscriptions are written. 
This place is very little used at present. The New 
Catholic Cemetery is on tlie shell road, some dis- 
tance from the city gate, where the first Catholic Church 
formerly stood. 

The Huguenot Cemetery is on the shell road, just 
outside the city gate. 


Back of the plaza towards the west, is the old Spanish 
Governor's mansion, which has been repaired and re- 
modelled, and converted into a postoffice. The front or 
main building is of coquina, but the western CKtension, 
which is of wood, is new. having been added to the old 
building in 1873. In this section are the public library 
rooms, and the customhouse rooms. Capt. T. T. House 
is collector of the port here. At the east end of the plaza 
is the 


An ordinary coquina structure, remarkable merely for its 
antiquity. The market will shortly be removed to a new 
building on Hospital street, and the Spanish building will 
be repaired and converted into a Pagoda or pleasure 


Near the Cathedral and facing the plaza, is the St. Au- 
gust ine Hotel, kept b}' Capt. E. E. Vail. This is one of the 
largest hotels in the South, and can accommodate more 
than four hundred guests. On St. George street, north 
of the plaza, is the Magnolia Hotel, of which M t W . \\ . 
Palmer is the proprietor. At the corner of St. George 
and Treasury streets is the Florida On Treasury 
street is the old Florida House, which is attached to and 
part of the new structure. There are also the Marion 
House on Charlotte street, and the Atlantic Hotel. 


On the corner of King and Tolomnto streets, and back 
of the Postoffice. is the Sunxvside House, kept by Capt. 
T. T. House. This is quite a handsome building, in the 
shape of a double M, and divided into sections, with pri- 


vate balconies on each storv On tnn r^f fiw. 1 

tamifies. *" " ad.mrably arranged for boarding 

On Cliarlotte street a few doors north of the nlaza nnrl 

near the 8t Augustine Hotel, is the boarding'^ house of 

Mis. J. \. Herxandez, one of the oldest and verv Wt 

^mn^'^^f'''' '" »'- '=•*>■• It is'a th^ee'stt? 
ro, m r^P«^^„f V> '"'""•^ '■'I?"'®' ^ commodious dining 

floo" and Hdil"- "f ""'•"'"', ^"' 8«"tle'n«i on the firs^t 
noor and ladies parlor on the second storv There -.v^ 

eighteen bed rooms, all carpeted in winter? The table is 

vh le'l^Tn-'aTten;,!;':*-^- "" Tf 'l?"^^"^^ ^^ ^ -a 'n 
^^nn^i ever> attention is paid to the comfort and n^^-n^^ 

n":T;^tiXd^t?ir?V'":"'''*t Thel^use'hasr^- 
iiLui\ rurnis,lied throughout, and contains rooms suitablp 

.^.s^pStlC uHv aT/f ""'r- }' '« ""« <^^ thc"a?ge^'tt^d 
nrJ fi,?^ • l"Vate boarding houses n the city There 

brardci*^,''ll'V'^'''^°^''^'"-'''^^««« '» "'« torn;, w Irl 
board can be had on reasonable terms. 


l,„Vif ii"" '""•'' ''''^*' °,^ *'^e P'a^a is the Episcopal Church 
built of coquina a plain .structure, with a quaint sS 
steeple shmged the whole length. On St tfeor"e street 

any kind '^ ''"' '°'^"'"'* ^""'""S" ^'"'^'^"t ornament of 


The old Convent of St. Joseph, now iised a's offinar-,- 
quarters, has been already mentioned Besides tWs on 

Aew Cox\vext of St. Joseph, a handsome lare-e bnild 
"ll,^ three stories high, with a fine court fadnfnort). 

Thi'i'l ? 'm'*^ *'^' '.'""^'i"^ '^'•^ "-"^^^ of Gothic window ' 
This building IS alsoot coquina. the favorite build ne ma 
terial ,n use here. This was erected in 1874 A tf chid 
to It ,s a flower garden. Tiie old Convent of St Mai v's 

r" t*- ?S?'"^;^ '"■?^*- n'^^'- th^ cathedral. ^^ ^ 

,, ar<4*f ***• -^lar-ys Convent is the Bishop's residence 

Ly Jria^T<hTreK' ^ °^ ''- P'--' -'^ -- ^^ 


fausf TI,i' ^'^? t'^'-.^^^mory of the martyrs of thei.06-< 
sboff '.n , *i a'^^o of coquina, and consists of a broken 
shatt, on a pillar or pedesta . On the back of the nili^v 
.s inserted a white marble slab, with tWs inscripUoi'if*' 



" Erected by the 
Ladies* Memorial Association of St. Augustine, Fla., 

A. D. 1872." 

In front, on a white shield-shaped marble tablet, sur- 
mounted by a cross, is the following : 

" In Menioriam, 
Our loved ones who gave their lives in the Service of the Confede- 
rate States." 

While on either side of this is a plain marble slab, with 
the names of the fallen heroes. 

'' How blest is he who draws 
His sword in freedom's cause ! 
Though dead on battle-field, 
Forever to his tomb 
Shall youthful heroes come, 
Their hearts for freedom steeled, 
And learn to die on battle-field." 


On King street, corner of Bronson street, is the Col- 
ored Home, a fine large two and a half story building, 
with a mansard roof and piazzas on both stories, north 
and south of the building. This was built by Dr. Bronson, 
and endowed by ^Mr. Buckinizliam Smith. 


Is situated on Bay street, and built out over the water. 
This is a wooden building of one story, on a circular 
coquina foundation, which forms the swimming bath. 
Here can be obtained warm or cold batlis, at the option 
of the visitor. The building was erected in 1872. 

.\L\\>i APERS. 

The Florida Press, is a weekly six column sheet, estab- 
lished eight years ago, and has 800 subscribers. Mr. J. 
F. Whitney, publislier of the Florida Path-Finder, is also 
the editor and proprietor of this paper. 

A ramble through the city among the private resi- 
dences, gardens and orancre proves: 

i;A\ -lUEET. 

On this street, and opposite the Bathing House, is th^ 
residence of Mr. Daniel Edgar, built of coquina, an^ 
cemented and painted. On this street, opposite the plaza, 

is the 


A tastv building, handsomely furnished with piazzas run- 
ning around it. Further on, and one door south of the 
plaza, is the residence of Mr. Aspinwall, of New York, a 
neat dwelling, with front porch and piazzas on both 



stWies, extending around the house. Attached to this is 
a Kower garden, with a hedge of Cherokee roses. South 
of this, and of the favorite building material, is the resi- 
dence of Miss Worth, a daughter of General Worth, of 
Mexican war fame. In front of Mr. Aspinwall's is the 
Boat House of Commodore Douglass, of the St. Augustine 
Yacht Club. 


On this street, south of the old Catholic Cemetery, is 
the residence of Mrs. Ball, one of the largest and hand- 
somest private dwellings in the city, with a sqnnro tower 
on one side of it nad a cupola on top. The gruunds are 
laid out on a grand scale, and upon entering the premises 
the visitor feels as if he ImI suddenly stepped from the 
city into the ccuniiv . The approach to the house is an 
avenue wiili i-mus of orange trees on either side, beauti- 
fii]I\ arched overhead, and the foliage of ^\]n>h is so 
tiuck that the sim <min..t penetrate. There are numer- 
ous other well ^li.i'it i a \'!iues, drives and walks through- 
nnt the groujuis. ami a vi ry large au'i dd orange grove, 
completely shading the ground, Tlitie is also a fine 
flower garden here, careful! v laid out, and containing 
clioice selections of native an! iDreign plants and flowers. 
Along the sha<l\ walks, at intervals, are arbors, rustic 
chairs, settees and sofas. Near the house is a winil mill, 
and within the enclosure are too picturesque cottages. 
Tti front of the dwelling are four gigantic trees, in the 
uuuk of one of which is a gas lamp attached and faring 
the avenue. This lamp is kept lighted at night wli.m the 
family reside here. These grounds cover more than 
fifteen acres. 

Further south, corner of Tolomato an 1 King streets, is 
the residence of Dr. Andrew Anderson, a handsome two 
story building, of the favorite material. The gr .uimIs are 
beautifully laid out in lawns and parterres, avenues. 
drives and walk^. Tlio lawnv are carpeted with tnrf. and 
u!i'r«>eeled Willi lumierous jialhs. There is a splendid 
"laiige grove of 1,500 trees, covering over fifteen acre< in 
the enclosure which contains in all twenty acres. The 
I \v<> la-t named places are well worth visiting, and a few 
i!'>ur-("uld be deliglit fully employed in wandering over 
Th. ui^und-. < >n King street, opposite Dr. Anderson's is 
Mr. (jriiberts residence. There are fine grounds and an 
orange grove here. 


On this street, one door south of King, is the residence 
of ]>r T^ronson, brought from Philadelphia fifty years 
ago. Back of this is a flower garden and a date tree in 




bearing. On the west side of the same street, and further 
south, is Mr. Amidon's residence, a neat wooden building, 
with mansard roof. The beautiful flower garden around 
this is artistically laid out, and contains a great variety 
of flowers, while throughout the grounds there are foun- 
tains scattered at intervals. On the same side of the 
street, still further south, we reach the dwelling of Mr. 
J. P. Howard, of New York, with grounds tastily ar- 
ranged and the lawns beautifully turfed and carpeted 
with verdure the entire year. The walks and paths are 
cemented, and groups of statuary are found here and 
there in the enclosure. 

Tontinuing southward, we arrive at the residence of 
Ml A. J. Alexander, of Kentucky. On the St. George 
street front of the house there is a handsome bay a i!i.|-\\ . 
and on the grounds are a fine orarge grove an ! pictu- 
resque English garden, with the lawns covered with turf. 
On the southwest corner of Bridge and St. George streets, 
is the abode of Mr. Robert Br. wi^on. with a neat ^jrnrden 
and well turfed lawns in froni, while back of the huuse 
the garden extends westward, and contains choice varie- 
ties of roses and other plants. Further souih i- \\\r cot-, 
tage shaped dwelling of Mr .1 ! Wilson, where there 
are handsome gardens. Within the uimm!^ are three 
neat cottages and a will! mill and tnnk i. i wit. liim the 
garden. On the north side of the house is a Mjuare car- 
peted with turf, which is kept as a croquet ground. 

KING strp:et. 

This street leads out of the city to the causeway and 
bridge over the San Sebastian River. The end near the 
causeway is completely arched with magnificent oaks, 
and forms a splendid avenue. 


Outside the gate is the Shell Road, or drive, lendinir ^o 
the new Catholic Cemeterv. On this road is the rc.^i J^ nee 
of Mr. H. P. Kingsland, of New York, a large two story 
building, with eliptical shaped mansard roof. There is a 
large and flourishing orange grove as well as a fine flower 
garden on the premises, the whole encl(»sure covering 
fourteen acres. There are several other fine residences 
and grounds on this road, extending to the cem^tnv. 
There is a fine drive on the Bea' tt ;ilong the Sm s. l,ns- 
tian River. 

A.NA>;rA.>iA iM.ANl' 

Is opposite the city and on the ocean, mid extt-nd^ fiMin 
the channel southward, for eighteen miles to .Maianzas 
Inlet. The island is well wooded, and its average width 
is about three-fourths of a mile. On this islan 1 is foiini 



the CoQuiNA, which extends along the greater part of the 
island, and contmues to grow, being formed bv the action 
of the sea water upon the sand and shells. On the island 
IS ati old Lighthouse, built by the Spaniards in 1760 A 
new Lighthouse was erected bv the United States Gov- 
ernment m 1874. and is 1G5 feet high, from the summit of 
which the view is superb. 

The facilities for boating and yachting are very good 
and in the winter season frequent visits are made bv tour- 
ists to Aor//?, and So2ith Beach, Anastasia Maud, and the 
sand fort of General Oglethorpe, the lighthouses and co- 
quina quarries, and Fish Island, while picnic parties 
trequently go as far as Matanzas Inlet, where an agree- 
able day can be spent, (hi the 


Is the settlement of Ravexswood, comprising a tract of 
1,000 acres, the property of Mr. J. F. W hitney. We now 
take our leave of the city, and cross the causewav and 
bridge on our way to the railwav station. On the 
other ^v]o of the bridge we pass the dwelling and 
grouna.s ui Mr. Daniels, of New York, and final! 
the train, and stepping aboard bid a last adieu to the old 
bpanish city, with its associations of the past 







Cliaiiestou and Savaimali Steamers. 

>V V 


__- :.*^.-^-i«l^.,,.> 

Leaves TOCOI aM [^T. AUdUSTINE Four Times a Day 



R. McLaughlin, l>rpsiclent anl mii* nnn'ndent. 
H. GAII.UAIM) \-> Mt at Tocoi, 

J. M. H A 1.1.' 'NV KS. Aoreiii ur >t A ii_-iiM iiie. 

E. L. lEWII & BEO. 




TWO 1>.>.)US IKoM TKlAVSlin, 


This House is strictly First Class, and Guests wii tin 1 -oud atten- 
tion, particularly IiivaluN 


> MRS. J \'. HKKNANl'F.Z. ri-Mprietress. 


An hour's ride l.rin-s us to Tocoi, where we again em- 
h.irk .11 hoard the steamer and pursue our journey up the 
8t. .ImJimA River. < 'm route lies through the same series 
of smali iiummock: lands, alternating with ornni:^ and 
baiKiiKi groves. We ]iass Federal .toiut, and a mile 
higij'T !!]> (''>in^^ in sight oi * 

()H.\.\i.K MILLS, 

on til." pattern -huiv, and sixty nui^'S from Jacksonville. 
NuiiicToUb uiaiige groves are at tlii> landing and in the 
vicinity, one of the oldest of which is that of .Air. T. Snni- 
-ler Ma\^. wliir]] dates back to a period long prior to the 
uar Two inil.> h. voii.lthis we passDancy's whcivf, and 
steaming on our wav ii]i tin' livri- uia'ive at 

W 11 riLr^ i'j.N L > L.\ N DING, 

On the western bank. We make but a short stay, and 
our vessel is again bounding on, and brings us in a short 
timp in ^^ight of 


Tlircp niilc^ ingnc-r up. on the eastern bank. We take 
Ihil a glimpse of this in passing, and hasten onward, and 
at length reach 


A tlii-iving and t'lwn, situated on the western 
shore, <'n an iTilrt nr (•(ivc. and 100 miles nptliP rivpr. and 
?5bv'\vai.r rr^ni .Ia«-k>' .n\- ill''. This is tht- ttTininus^ of 
the ( 'harlL'.sluu and i'"iorida, and iheSavannali and Florida 

Steanitjrs. , ^ , 

It has been settled >ince 1837, the period of the termi- 
nation of the Semino].' \v;\r. before whidi .latf tlie coun- 
t!\ in the neiKl'i'Jhuod was occupied by the Indians, 
its name is of Imlian o]-io-in, and signifies Cow f(ird. 
Next to Jacksonviilr it i- tlip largest town on the St. 
John's "Rivf^r. and i^ a thn\ ,ng and grov,ing place, with 
a }M)pnlaii<'n of 1,300 souls, and is in postal and telegraphic 




Giiariestoii niul Siivaiiii;ili Steamers. 

Leases TOCOianyT,AyiilbTl:;EM Times a C;! 



R. Mclaughlin, president and Superintendent. 

H. GAILLARD, A^'ent at Toeoi, 

J. M. HALLOWES, A-ent at S» VM-n^tin' 

R. L. mwiif & mo. 






This Hous. ,s ^tHcfy^F..^ Cla^s. ..,. Uueg. wiU «n.. .ood att.,.- 

MRS. J. V. HEUXANDEZ, Pioiirietress. 


An hour's ride brings us to Tocoi, wliere we again em- 
bark on board the steamer and pursue our journey up the 
St. John's River. Our route lies through the same series 
of small hummock lands, alternating with orange and 
banana groves. We pass Federal loint, and a mile 
higher up come in sight of V 


On the eastern shore, and sixt}' miles from Jacksonville. 
Numerous orange groves are tit this landing and in the 
vicinity, one of the oldest of which is that of Mr. T. Sum- 
ter Mavs, wdiich dates back to a period long prior to the 
war. Two miles beyond this we pass Dancifs irharf, and 
steaming on our w^ay up the river arrive at 


( )n the western bank. We make but a short stay, and 
our vessel is again bounding on, and brings us in a short 
time in sight of 


Three miles higher up. on the eastern bank. We take 
but a glimpse of this in passing, and hasten onward, and 
at length reach 


A thriving and picturesque town, situated on the western 
shore, on an inlet or cove, and 100 miles up the river, and 
75 by water from Jacksonville. This is the terminus of 
the Charleston and Florida, and the Savannah and Florida 

It has been settled since 1837, the period of the termi- 
nation of the Seminole w^ar, before which date the coun- 
try in the neighborhood was occupied by the Indians. 
Its name is of Indian origin, and signifies Cow ford. 
Next to Jacksonville it is the largest town on the St. 
John's River, and is a thriving and growing place, with 
a population of 1,:300 souls, and is in postal and telegraphic 



communication with the rest of the United States. It 
boasts also a flourishing weekly paper, issued every 
Saturday, and owned by G. W^ Pratt, Eeq. This is 
the Eastern Herakh a lively six column sheet, with a list 
of 500 subscribers, and is sent to all parts of the country 
to Northerners during the summer. The Town Goverx- 
, MEXT consists of a Mayor, five Aldermen, Clerk, Treas- 
urer, Assessor and Collector. Town Marshal and Police 
Force. This town is the outlet for the upper portion of 
the St. John's and the Oklawaha Rivers and the upper 
lakes, from which boats bring down large quantities of 
fruit, cotton, cane and other produce, which i> lanJ -1 
and reshipped on the Charleston and Florida and the Sa- 
vannah and Florida Steamers for points further north. 
A large number of steamers ply up an<l (]r,wn the St. 
John's and its tributaries and the Oklawali;i l: \'>r^. and 
during the winter season are leaving or arn\ m^ ihnost 
hourly. Palatka is also the distributing depot [yr sup- 
plies for the whole of Southeastern Florida, and is des- 
.tined to become an important place. A considerable re- 
tail business is done here, and there are many fine stores, 
while every year at least a half dozen new buildings are 
added to the town. Last season the shipments North 
from this point were 7,000 bags of long cotton and :30,000 
boxes of oranges, besides a large quantitv of sugar and 
syrup. The climate is salubrious, the temperature equa- 
ble, and the air singularly beneficial to those suffering 
from pulmonary complaints. The town is regularly laid 
out with wide streets at right angles to each other, and 
bordered on either side with wild orange trees, v hi h. m 
the winter season, with their green foliage and golden 
fruit, give the locality a picturesque and semi tropical 
appearance, while its green, grassy streets add to the 
general aspect of the place, and render it a charming 
resort for invalids. It is nearly square, and covers an 
area of about a square mile, while the countrv west of it, 
which will one day form a part of the town, consists of a 
succession of high hills, some of them eighty feet above 
the level of the river, presenting excellent vi- us of the 
St. John's and of the vicinitv, as well as a fine biiM^ eye 
view of the toyn itself, with'its neat and tasty rlwdiings, 
fine large hotels, and liandsome gardens niwl 
groves. When the town shall have spread out m ilTis 
direction, these hills will form some of the finest building 
sites in the place. 

The principal streets running north and south are the 
following: on the river front is Water street, and tlnMii-i, 
the center of the town runs Front street, while First, 





Second and Third streets intersect the town in the same 
direction. Those extending east and west, are Madison 
street at the north end of the town, Lemon street in the 
center, the principal business street; and on the south 
side of the town, River street, where are located many 
fine residences, and the Pai'k and Wild Orange Grove. 


The Courthouse is a tasty square two story wooden 
building, with a square tower on top. It occupies a 
square corner of Lemon, Second, and Fifth streets. 

The Postoffice is situated on Front street, two doors 
north of Lemon street, and opposite the Putnam House. 


The Presbyterian Church is situated near the Larkin 
House, and is a small wooden structure, with belfry and 
bell, and was during the Seminole war the government 
powder magazine, but has since been converted into a 
peaceful edifice, and devoted to a more pious service. 
The pastor is the Rev. E. H. Driggs. 

Thi: lloMAN Catholic Church is at the northwest 
corner of Second and Oak streets. The Rev. Felix Gliione 
is in charge. 

St. James' Methodist Episcopal Church South will 
be found on the northeast corner of Second and Oak 
streets, and opposite the Catholic Church. It has been 
recently repaired and painted through the efforts of its 
energetic pastor. Rev. F. M. Hauser. 

Tttk Episcopal Church is situated on Front street, 
near the western part of the town, and is a tasty brown 
wood (Ml building of the Gothic style of architecture, with 
wiiiduwa of stained glass. The rector is the Rev. R. T. 

Ink Baptist Church is located' on River street. The 
pastor is the Rev. W. E. Stanton. 

r.i: I li KL African Methodist Episcopal Church South 
is found on Second street, and adjoins the park. It was 
built in 1875 by Northerners, with the assistance of the 
\v]iiT.' natives. It is lighted at night by a handsome 
bronze chandelier, and also contains a fine organ. Rev. 
^ . J. Sawyer, colored, is the pastor. 

New Catholic School and Convent, will be found on 

Lemon street, half way between Second and Third 

treets, and is a liandsome wooden building three stories 

igh, the last stor}' being a very high attic. It is the 

argest building in Palatka, except the hotels. 





The Larkix House is a large and imposing three story 
building, with fine piazzas on the first and second floors, 
running the entire length of the building, while in rear 
of the house are also piazzas: on top of the south wing is 
a tower. This is the handsomest building in Palatka, 
and is situated on Water street, and directly on tlie river 
front, and is the most striking object as you approach 
the town from the water. Mr. E. F. Larkin is the pro- 


Is at the corner of Lemon and First streets, ;iii'l is a two 
storv building with porch in front. It is kept by Messrs. 
P. & IT Peterman, and contains tifty^ rooms, a large 
dining room capable of seating seventy-fivr- ]irr^nn^. Thf^ 
hotel can accommodate one hnndrfd irii- -t^, ! h. r hhhs 
are handsomely furnished ;! mi 'Mi'p'''''! 'iunn- lii-' win- 
ter. The table*^ is first-clas>, and -uppii-jd \mi1i ail the 
delicacies of the season, and every attention is ])aid to 
the interests and convenience of guests. It i- Mi!y one 
square from the postoffice, a 1 1 1 tlnee minutes walk fr-n 
the steamer landing. There is a s«parate ladies' entrance, 
and a handsome ladies' p;!i-lorwell furnished. ri< well as 
a music room recessed. We cannui refrain tr,ini quot- 
ing from another's experience, who paid thi.^ hotel a 
visit during the traveling season. 

Arriving at Palatka, he found the steamer so crowded 
that no stateroom was to be had. '-Thi- a}4;iriii ii)is- 
fortune proved our greatest happiness : for lying over at 
Palatka at the St. Johns Hotel, we ol.t tin- d 1. li ions 
food wherewith to assuage the pangs of Inniger. Tiiink 
not, good reader, this is an nnnecessarv cx-hiln'tion (,f 
feeling over a small matter, fui git^at had ho. n .ni Mitr- 
ing, and great was oiir delight. De1i<"i" i- a idl. -. n 't»i*^ 

•!( ( 

( • t ■ n t 



wild turkey, (nobly served,) tender lanid. 
chicken, light sweet bread, potatoes, grem p-a- 
other delicacies that ravished the heart and mid* 
the digestive apparatus." 

Attached to the house and across the street is ila- Bil- 
liard Saloon of the Messrs. Peterman, the oidv fii^tda-s 
establishment of the kind in the town, coni^niniu \\\^^ 
handsome Griffith & Co.'s tables^ nine feet K>n.i; by four 
and a half feet wide. Near this is the bar, where the 
materials for a punch can be had at all seasons, as the visi- 
tor has only to stretch his hand out of the v. ind .^^ in to 
the grove and pluck a lime, and proceed to mix hispim h. 



The Putnam House is situated on Front street, oppo- 
site the postoffice and corner of Reid street, a large three 
story wooden building, one hundred and fiftv feet front 
and sixty feet deep, with large piazzas on both stories; 
the center of the front is recessed, forming a court, and 
the piazzas are enclosed on the sides, and thus protected 
from the weather. This hotel is kept in first-class style 
well tiinnshed and carpeted throughout, and the table is 
supplied with all the luxuries of the season. Mr. F. H. 
Orvi^ iq the proprietor. 

d ifH Carletox House is situated on Fifth street, near 
th. < on rthnnse, and three minutes walk from the steamer 
laiulnig. and is a large roomy building facing north, with 
piazzas m i ront. This is kept by Mr. Andrew Shalley. 
Ill thy language of another tourist, 

" Th.' Carleton House is within three minutes walk of 
tln^ st.;ind)M;tt whaif. and is convenient to the business 
rcnt.'i- nf t ho tnwn: its rooms are spacious and com fnrtabh^ 
its table substantially furnished. Tlir moderate charge 
of !<-?])('rdav. witli i.dnctions to families or parties re- 
ma imii- ;i wa^ok ur lunger, makes it a most desirable 
stopjwn-- pla(*o f.^r ^pftlrn's ov for parties seeking bn-iness 
or lionu's in Fh-nda. Mr. Shalley has been a n^sid.ait of 
Palatka f<-r many y.ars, is thoroughly arijnnint.'d with 
the -uir. Minding country, and is capable of givmg advice 
<>"'' inf. .rmatiMn t< . -na^sts, and int.-nding settlers, in rela- 
tion t.> fication, etc. Passengers and baggage carried to 
■ ind ti-.m t1a' wlirirf free of charge. Pleasant r(M»ms f,>v 
i>rrm,inont boardt'r> for the season, can l)o sociir.'d at 
ver\ moderate rates. Address by mail or telegrapli 

iiuAivM)f\(, HOUSES. 

Mks E. M. IlAurxHToN's boarding house is on Lemon 
street, one squan< fmm the St. Jolm's Hotel, and half a 
sqnnrp from th.' ( ". .iirthonQf> Thi< is a nnnt hnildin- 
with fn.nt piazzas on Im,i1i tlnur.s. ;in<l (*ont;iins fMinToon 
room>. w.-il (.arpeted and furnished, a oumfortabk' parlor 
and < •.'in mod mil- .lining- room, capable of seating thirtv 
Liia'sts. Tho tahl-' 1- tirst-class and bountifullv supplied 
u ith every liixiny. and served by polite waiters. The 
]>ropriotro~,->. Alr^. Hau,L;-]ito]i. i- tho daui^diter of ex- 
(;o\orno!' Wni. I) Moseiey. of Florida. Boarders will 
find that th.\ \\ i i ! !).■ received and entertained as guests 
oi tho family, and will have every attention paid them, 
particularly invalids. The terms are quite mod- rate. 

I\It;- (". !>. Estarrook's boarding house is situatrd in 
^'i'' ^vo-T.^rn pai-i ^f the town, m a quiet and secludt^d 
'"••'ditv. nnd -n one of the highest ridges in the town 




The Larkin House is a large and imposing three story 
building, with fine piazzas on the first and second floors, 
running the entire length of the building, while in rear 
of the house are also piazzas; on top of tlie south wing is 
a tower. This is the handsomest building in Palatka, 
and is situated on Water street, and directly on the river 
front, and is the most striking object as you approach 
the town from the water. Mr. E. F. Larkin is the pro- 


Is at the corner of Lemon and First streets, and is a two 
storv building with porch in front. It is kept by Messrs. 
P. & H. Peterman, and contains fifty rooms, a large 
dining room capable of seating seventy-five persons. The 
hotel can accommodate one hundred guests. The rooms 
are handsomely furnished and carpeted during the win- 
ter. The table is first-class, and supplied with all the 
delicacies of the season, and every attention is paid to 
the interests and convenience of guests. It is only one 
square from the postoffice, and three minutes wnlk from 
the steamer landing. There is a separate hulies* tii trance, 
and a handsome ladies' parlor well furnished, as well as 
a music room recessed. We cannot refrain from quot- 
ing from another's experience, w^ho paid this hotel a 
visit during the traveling season. 

Arriving at Palatka, he found the steamer so crow-ded 
that no stateroom was to be had. " This apparent mis- 
fortune proved our greatest happiness : for lying over at 
Palatka at the St. Johns Hotel, we obtained delicious 
food wherewith to assuage tlie pangs of hunger. Think 
not, good reader, this is an unnecessary exhibition of 
feeling over a small matter, for great had been our suffer- 
ing, and great was oiir delight. Delicious waffles, noble 
wild turkev. (nobly served,) tender lamb, adolescent 
chicken, light sweet bread, potatoes, green peas, .ni 1 
other delicacies that ravished the heart an ■! itiade giad 
the digestive apparatus." 

Attached to the house and across the street is the Bil- 
liard Salo())i of the Messrs. Peterman, the onlv fir<t-class 
establishment of the kind in the town, coiii.iining two 
handsome Griffith & Co.'s tables, nine feet long by four 
and a half feet wide. Near this is the bar, where the 
materials for a punch can be had at all seasons, as the visi- 
tor has only to stretch his hand out of the window into 
the grove and pluck a lime, and proceed to mix his pin ph. 



The Putxam House is situated on Front street, oppo- 
site the postoffice and corner of Reid street, a large three 
story wooden building, one hundred and fifty feet front 
arid sixty feet deep, with large piazzas on both stories; 
the center of the front is recessed, forming a court, and 
the piazzas are enclosed on the sides, and thus protected 
from the weather. This hotel is kept in first-class style, 
well furnished and carpeted throughout, and the table is 
supplied with all the luxuries of the season. Mr. F. H. 
Orvis is the proprietor. 

Till. Carleton House is situated on Fifth street, near 
the courthouse, and three minutes walk from the steamer 
landing, and is a large roomy building facing north, with 
piazzas in front. This is kept by Mr. Andrew Shalley. 
In th§ language of another tourist, 

''The Carleton House is within three minutes walk of 
the steniTibnnt wharf, and is convenient to the business 
center of the town: its rooms are spacious and comfortable, 
Its table substantially furnished. The moderate charge 
of 82 per day, with reductions to families or parties re- 
ma ining a week or longer, makes it a most desirable 
sto])])ing place for settlers or for parties seeking business 
or 1iMi,M- 111 Florida. Mr. Shalley has been a resident of 
T\il,itka tor many years, is thoroughly acquainted with 
til- -111 rounding country, and is capable of giving advice 
aii-1 in formation to guests, and intending settlers, in rela- 
tion I- location, etc. Passengers and baggage carried to 
and Ir im the wharf free of charge. Pleasant rooms for 
permanent boarders for the season, can be secured at 
very moderate rates. Address by mail or telegraph 


Mrs E. .M. Haughton's boarding house is on Lemon 
street, one square from the St. John's Hotel, and half a 
square from the Courthouse. This is a neat building 
Willi fr.Mii piazzas on both floors, and contains fourteen 
room-, w. !! carpeted ;iim1 finnished, a comfort a 1 )le i)arlor 
and commodious dining room, capable of seating tliirtv 
anests. T1ir tn1.1<MS first-class and bountifully supplied 
u ith f^v.'i'N !ii\in-v. and ^orvcd bv ])olite waiters. The 
p^M!.l•l.•tr(^'^.^. .Mrs. Haughion, i^ the daughter of ex- 
(iov.rnor Wm. D. Moseley, of Florida. Boarders will 
fnnl thai 1 hey will be received and entertained as guests 
ol tJM laniily, and will have every attention paid them, 
particularly invalids. The terms are quite moderate. 

All;- r. T). EsTABROoK's hoarding house is situated in 
the western part of the town, in a quiet and secluded 
locality, and on one of the highest ridges in the town 




limits on Oak street, a block and a half west of the Cath- 
olic Church, and in rear of the Park. This is a neat 
commodious building', containing ten rooms, a small snug 
parlor and pleasant dining room, and is neatly furnislied, 
the best rooms being carpeted durmg the wmter. ihe 
table is well kept, and boarders receive every attention. 
The terms are quite reasonable for permanent and tran- 
sient boarders. 

Mrs Se\ls' boarding house is on Fifth street, nea^r the 
Carleton House. Here boarders can be accommodated on 
terms that are quite moderate. 


Is a fine natural grove of venerable live oaks, and occu- 
pies a square four hundred feet each way on River street 
and facing the Bay, and is the coolest and shadiest spot 
in the town, and a delightful resort in the middle of the 

A glance at the town, its streets, private residences, 
gardens, and orange groves: 

At the north end of Water street, and foot of Madison 
stfeet. on the river bank, is the handsome residence of 
3Ms- E J. Whife^aUvo and a half story building, with 
piazzas east and south of the house. It is situated in tlie 
midst of a tine grove of live oaks, concealing it almost 
entirely from view. The grounds cover a space of more 
than ten acres, and the grove consists of orange and 
lemon trees, planted with great regularity. Cherry, pear, 
truava, and banana trees, are scattered throughout the 
Grounds. Towards the south is a lawn with avenues 
diverging to the right and left, while on the east side ot 
the house there is a broad avenue leading down to the 
river side. The bank along the river is lined with a row 
of beautiful weeping willows, while the garden and lawns 
are covered with geraniums, verbenas, roses, an i '>tlier 
choice i)lants. In front of the house near the street, is an 
enclosure surrounded by an orange hedge wImt. rest the 
remains of Judge Isaac H. Bronscm, and oi Mr Ixobert 
Emmet, of New York. This spot is piously kepi lu com- 
plete order. The tourist will be able to spend a few hours 
very agreeablv rambling through these grounds, cn this 
street farther south, are the grounds ;i hi residence ot 
Mr Burt, containing a fine orange grove, bouth ot tins 
we find the grounds of Major H. K. Teasdale, occupying 
almost an entire square, and containing a fine grove ot 
orange, lime, and lemon trees, as well as ]>mr- :i].],l(«< luvi 

■ p 



other fruits in large quantities. The dwelling is a plain 
neat wooden structure. Further on are the grounds of 
Col. H. L. Hart, covering a square four hundred feet by 
one hundred and fifty feet. The residence is a two and a 
half story building with front piazzas, and facing the 
river. In the rear of the building are piazzas on both 
stories, and running back along a wing of the building, 
extending west into the grounds. These western piazzas 
are covered up to the. top with choice grape-vines. In 
front is an orange grove, and the grounds are laid out in 
lawns and shell walks. In the rear is an arbor three 
hundred feet long, covered with grape-vines. There is 
also a fine flower garden laid out in English stvle. and 
containing numerous varieties of choice plants.^ There 
are two very large cactus trees to be seen here. 


On this street, the first place of importance is Mr. Quar- 
terman's. Attached to this is an orange grove. West of 
this is the sour onutqe grove of about thirty-five trees, 
the prop(M-ty of :\Ir. Jas. F. Burt, and is an object of 
much curiosity to travelers who desire to see the orange 
growth in its natural state. Next west is the residence 
of ^Ir. W. ]\L Badger, a tasty dwelling with piazzas on 
the river front. Around this is a handsome orange grove. 
Adjoining is tlu^ residence of ^Mr. Chas. Underwood, a 
low one and a half story dwelling, situated on a bluff and 
back from the street, but facing the river. It is sur- 
rounded by a large orange and lemon grove, covering a 
space four hundred feet square, and extending west and 
north across the adjoining streets. On the grounds is a 
small grove of live oaks. Next to Mr. Underwood's, and 
at the west end of Kiver street, is tlie dwelling of Dr. 
N. H. ^loragne. with a fine orange grove in front and 
rear of the house. There are some very large oraiu>-e 
trees hei-e, one thirty-three feet and another thirty ft'et 
high. There is also on this place a Tangierine orange 
tree, whose fruit is regarded as a great delicacy. In the 
enclosure are several scupperpong grape-vines, one of 
which covers an arbor sixty feet long by twelve wide. 
Adjoining is another lot belonging to the doctor, called 
the red water branch lot, of three acres. Here are found 
sail i i -ars, early and late peaches, the wild-goose i)lum, 
Jai)an plum. Jai)an persimmon, one hundred tea plants, 
and also (juinces, cherries, bananas, and otlu ;• fruits. 

The street we have just described is densely shaded by 
rows of live oaks and resembles an avenue, and is the 
handsomest in the town. 




On this street back of the Episcopal Church is the Par- 
sonage, where Dr. R. T. Roche, the rector, resides. At 
the northern extremity of this street, and bordering on 
the country, is the residence of Capt. R. R. Reid, a hand- 
some two story building, with an attic and piazzas on 
both stories on the east, south and west of the house. 
The piazzas on the west are covered with grape-vines, 
running up to the eaves of the roof. The house contains 
handsome front rooms and large and airy halls, and eight 
sleeping apartments. In the winter boarders are accom- 
modated here and well cared for. From the second story 
south piazza, a fine bird's-eye view of the town can 
be obtained. The enclosure around the dwelling con- 
tains ten acres. There is a flourishing orange grove 
on the grounds, and a splendid growth of banana trees. 
Grapes, Japan plums, pine-apples, lemons, and other 
fruits, are raised here. The place contains a handsome 
hedge of lime trees, which attracts a great deal of notice. 
From the house to the river is an avenue OUO feet long, 
lined on either side with orange trees, and at the end of 
the avenue is a pretty circular croquet ground. A iKtni- 
some drive winds around the outer border of the enclo- 
sure. The whole place resembles a miniature park, and 
easily accommodates the hundreds who resort here for 
recreation during the winter season. From the wharf, 
on the river, can be obtained a fine view of the groves 
that hne the opposite banks. There is a specimen here of 
the myrtle orange, with the fruit growing in clusters like 
grapes. These are the finest grounds in Palatka. On 
Front street, south of Lemon street, is the residence of 
Dr. Lent, with a pretty flower garden and a neat iron 
railing in front. Further south and back of the Larkin 
House is the office of Dr. George E. Hawes, a resident 
of this place since 1854, and a practicing i^liv^irinn for 
thirty years, being a graduate of the I iii\- r>uv ui liie 
City of New York. He has had a long • \ i >prience in 
treating lung diseases and pulmonary coin} 'lain is, and is 
regarded as one of the most successful and reliable physi- 
cians in the whole neighborhood. 

On the northeast corner of Lemon and Front streets, is 
the drug store of Dr. N. 1 1 Moragne, two doors from the 
Postoffice, and a half square from the I'ntnini House. 
He has on hand drugs, medicines, perfumery and fancy 
articles, and also manufactures a delightful orange flower 
water and orange wine, which have taken premiums at 
the Centennial and numerous State and County Fairs. 



Opposite, corner of Lemon and Front streets, are Messrs. 
Ackerman & Jackson, druggists, who pay special atten- 
tion to prescriptions, and keep open in the winter season, 
until a late hour, to suit the wants of invalids. Here, 
also, can be procured Florida beans and jewelry; also alli- 
gator teeth studs, sleeve buttons, whistles and other va- 
rieties of the same class of jewelry, tastily gotten up. 


This is a suburb, included in the corporate limits of Pa- 
latka, and entirely inhabited by negroes, where there are 
several thriving, though small orange and banana groves. 
The bourses are neat and tasty, and indicate a degree of 
thT-ift :)]](] enterprise not usual among this class of per- 
.soii>. A Baptist Church is here, of which the Rev. Wm. 
Bell, colored, is the pastor. 


Among the steamers that ply up and down the Okla- 
^vaha is the Marion, of which Captain H. A. Gray is the 
owner and connnander, and Mr. M. H. Rogero the agent. 
Tin's steamer leaves on Mondays and Thursdays for this 
ri\ ' ! Strangers should not neglect visiting this roman- 
tic stream, or they will miss one of the most novel sights 
in all Florida. Capt. Gray has been traveling this route 
more than thirty years. We would here recommend also 
the steamer Tuscawilla, (the Indian name for Whippoor- 
wi]1.) wliich also plys up aud down this stream. Capt. 
Kd wards is the polite commander, and the Messrs. Bouk- 
night are the agents of this boat, the Osceola, of which 
Capt R. J. Adams is the agent, also runs up this river. 
Capt. Adams is the agent of the Charleston and Florida 
Line of Steamers here, and is the owner of the Adams 
Grove across the river. 


There is a mill of this kind on the river southeast of the 
Jown, and owned by M v I). A. Boyd. 


Among these, boating, yachting, fishing and hunting 
havp n prominent place. On the riverfront, opposite the 
1 .1 1 k 111 1 louse, is the Boat House of Messrs. Thos. Dardis 
& J. E. Lucas, capable of accommodating twenty row 
boats. It is covered on the sides with lattice work, -and 
a good shingle roof. Here the tourist and sportsman can 
procure sailing boats, pleasure yachts, rowing and fishing 
as well as ducking boats, and every convenience for plea- 
sure or picnic parties to the groves and country seats 
across and up and down the river for any distance.^ This 




little fleet contains some very expensive boats, among: 
which we would mention their steam yacht, capable of 
seating fifteen persons. This craft can be hired to take 
out ladies on picnic or pleasure excursions in the neigh- 
borhood, or mav be chartered by hunting or fishing par- 
ties to carrv them to anv distance on the river. A\ lien 
chartered bv sj)ortsnien she has in tow a small sharp 
ducking boat that can go up into the creeks or inlets along 
the river, where the game take refuge when closely 
pressed. There are the Miun^-hahn and the Orange 
Grove, which are the ladies" favorites for large pleasure 
parties. The FJorie and the 3/o//?> are smaller, but equal- 
Iv popular boats. There are, besides these, sixteen more 
good boats. These boats are well carpeted and cushioned, 
the larger ones quite handsr>me]y. Besides boats, rifles 
of all sizes, shot guns and ammunition, and every conve- 
nience for sportsmen are supplied on reasonable terms, as 
well as fishing tackle of every description. Among the 


That mav be visited by means of these boats, are 
Colonel Hart's Grare. on the point across the river, and 
one of the oldest on the St. John's River, and also the fin<^ 
Orange Grove of Mr. Lozier. of Brooklyn. N. Y. Th<>s(> 
two oecupv about fifteen acres of ground each. We w(juld 
mention in this connection the Adams* Grove in the 
neighborhood, which is equally as large. Near Palatka, 
ten miles up and down the river, there are (excellent 


And Hnniinq localities, with vvhicli the owners of these 
boats are perfectly familiar. Sportsmen, desiring alligator 
or duck shooting, will find good sport in /'/r<> Greek, 
which ab<^unds in game. 

Dunns Creek is the favorite resort oi fisherm<^n. 1'he 
black bass, perch, bream, and other fish, an^ found in 

abundance here. 

On Murfrees' Island, t<-n mil(^s up the riv(>r, is an Indian 
MoL'ND and another fine orange grove, also the j)roperty 
of Col. Hart. Messrs. JJardis <S: Lueas are the only gen- 
tlemen regularly engaged in the boating business, and 
are the most reliable. 

. THE (jLTf^l^Ji^'J'^ ^>^^ J\\EATKA. 

A mile from the town tovvanl'^ the west. tli<^ country 
rises to a height of eighty or one liundre(l te(4 above the 
river, and there are some youjig but fine orange groves 
in the vicinity, among others that of Mr. il. l*eteiinan. 



This contains five and a half acres and eight hundred 
trees. The residence is on the top of a hill, eighty feet 
above the river level. South of this is the young grove 
of Mr. A. W. Rollins, of Chicago. Beyond are the groves 
of Mr. Quarterman and of Mr. Lilienthal. In this neigh- 
borhood is White Water Branch, a natural spring of 
pure drinking water, situated in a circular dell eighty 
feet below the hill tops, and twenty feet above the level 
of the town, a beautiful and romantic spot, and the re- 
sort of picnic and pleasure parties duriiig the winter and 
spring. Xear this spring are several fine drives. There 
was a project started to bring the water from this spring 
through pipes into the town, but it was never carried out. 


The town of Palatka is growing steadily, and the 
country around is gradually being settled up. and pro- 
perty here is likely to advance. We would advise persons 
coming here and desiring to purchase, to apply to Mr. 
Jas. Burt, who has also a number of good tracts on the 
river for sale. We would also call attention to Mr. T. T. 
Harrison's card. He is the agent for lands near Eureka, 
on the Oklawaha River. Persons desiring to purchase 
there would do well to consult him. 

Attention is called to the advertisement of the Waldo 
House, kept by Capt. H. H. WilTuims. in Waldo. Alachua 
Countv, Florida, which is a delightful and liealthv resort. 

.. ^ 





P. & H. PKTERMAN, Proprietors. 

This hotel is within three minutes walk of the steamer's landing;. 
Arcommo<lations and Table first-class. Terms reasonable. Open 

all thp vpnr round. 


Billiard Saloon, 

LeiDoi! Street, oppsite St, Jotiin Hotel, 






Open from December to May. 

l^ilatka is situated on the west bank of the St. John's River 
seventy imles south of Jacksonville. It is at the head of naviga- 
tion for Ocean bteamers and near the mouth of the celebrated 
Ocklawaha River. Harts famous Oran-e Grove is immediately 
acro^s the St Johns Kiver opposite the town. Florida Tourists 
i/n?/ n Tl''* I'alatka and make the trip to the upper St. John's 
and lip the ronumtic Ocklawaha. 

uSL'I''^^"'^ ^*^*''' ^^^ i-eaehed by Steamers daily from Jacksonville, and 
h> Steamejs from Charleston and Savannah, which run in connec- 

f ili"v' li ^^'^'''''^^ ^^'V"* ^^.^ ^'^^^' ^"^^ ^'nes of Railroads from 
TlieiNorth Steamers leave Palatka dailv for Sanford and Enter- 

law-UirRi\ • ^^* *^^^"''' ^^^'^'^' *^l'^o for Silver Spriufj^s via the Ock- 
Address by mail or teleprraph, p, h. ORVIS. 

a II K K X >I O L > T A 1 > S, 




u 1 

• Trains M; from New M. Albany,, and Troj ! 

OW Hours from New York, H. R. R. 
2 Hours from Troy, T. & B. R. R. 
'^^2 Hours from Saratojjra, via Trov 


7 Hours from Hoston— Tunnel Route. 

8 Hours from Montreal, C. V. R. R. ^ 

Manchester, the leadin^^ summer resort of the Green Mountains 
is two hundred miles north of New York, fiftv miles north of Tiov' 
orty-eight miles east of Saratof-a ami thirty miles south of Riit- 
laiKl on the Bennin^'ton and Rutland Railwav 

It has three miles of white marble sidewalks fiiielv shaded by 
elm and mai)le trees, and is the most charming summer resort in 
JNew England. 

The Village is situated at the foot of Mt. E(iuinox, from the sum- 
mit ot which an extended and magnificent view can be obtained, 
ilie road 1.- Ill line order, and four horse mountain wagons run to 
the top 111 two and a half liours. 

r 11 

The l]([uino\ House, 

Foot of Mt. Equinox, 

IVIanchester, Vermont, 

Open Irom June to Uctober. 
Address by mail or telegraph, F. H. ORVIS 







P. & H. PRTERMAN, Proprietors, 

This hotel is within three minutes walk of the steamer's landing:. 
Accommodations and Table first-class. Terms reasonable. Open 
all the vear round. 

p. & H. PETERMAN, 

Billiard Saloon, 

Imoii street, ODDOslte St, Joliirs Hotel, 


9»t- •! 

ia''i»> ■«.■ ^-«« 


Open from December to "Slav. 

1 alatka IS situated on th- west bank of the St. John's River 
seventy miles south of Jacksonville. It is at the head of navi-a- 
tioii torn.,.;,,, Steamers and near the mouth of the celebraFed 

Uckluv,,.!,,, 1.1 ver. Harts famous Oranf>re Grove is iiuiiK^diatelv 
across 1 1,. srJohn^s River opposite the town. Florida Tourists 
slioiihl xi^n 1 alatka, and make the trip to the upper St. John's 
and iijM !i.' !•( iiiiantiV' ( )ckl;i u aha. 

Palatl^a can Im- .■.•acii-d by :5U'amci> dai ly fr, a, i Jacksonville, and 
by steamers trom Charleston and Savaniiati. which nni n, , onnec- 
tion XM I ], Steamers from X.'w ^ nrk. ai,.! lines of from 
Tne.\unli Steamers leav.^ i'ahtlka daiiv for Sanford and Knter- 
prise via the St. John\s River; also for silver Spring's via i\h- Uck- 
Jawalia River. 

Address !)y Tiiail > >v f.-l.-irrapli, y ]j ( )i^VIS. 



K.\S\ ( )V ACCESS. 

{ rciii' Trains Dally froiii New Yort Albany, aifl Troj ! 

03^ Hours irom ^ew Voi-k, H K li \i 
2 Hours from Troy, T. & H. R. R. 
31.^ Hours from Saratoj^ra, via Troy. 

7 H .in-^ from Boston— Tunnel I^.ilU^ 

8 Hours from Montreal, C. V I{ 1{ 

Manchester, the leading' summer resort of the Green Mountains 
is two hundred miles north of New York, liftv ndles north of Trov 
Jorty-eight miles east of Saratoga and thirt;- miles soutli of Rut- 
laud, on the Bennington and Rutland Railway 

it ha.s three miles of white marble sidewalks finelv shaded by 
elm and maple trees, and is the most charming' summer resort in 
JNew hn;j:land. 

ThH Villa^'.- !> .if ,,at. ,1 at the foot of Mt. Equinox, from the sum- 
mit ol wu.M, an .'M..;,.!.-, I and maprnificent view r.ui be obtained. 
1 ne road is m Im.- m,!, r. and four horse mountain wat'ons run to 
the top 111 t wo and a half hours. 


The Kciuiiiox House, 

Foot of Mt. Equinox, 

lYIanchoster, Vermont^ 

(Jpen from J une to October. 
Addivss by mail or tele^'-rapli, p^ y^ ORVIS 




^^■J'vil,T>{-5i>,^,-\-s'> f ■ 





P. & H. PKTKRMAN. I'roprirtors. 

This hotol is Avitliiii three minutes Avalk of the steamer's laii(lin<^ 
Aeeommo'lations and Table (irst-fluss. Terms reasonable. Open 
all the year round. 


Billiard. Saloon, 

Leioii Street, ODDOsite St, Jotiii's Hotel, 


.'"»' iO 


^ik' « » »• . 

rAI.AllvA, 1-LUiUDA. 

Oi)en from IJecember to May. 

1 alatka IS situated on the west ))ank of the St. Jolm's River 
seventy miles south of Jaeksonville. It is at the head of navi-a- 
t on tor Ocean feteamer.s ancl near the mouth of the celebratl-d 
I MaNwdia Uiver. Harts famous Oran-e Grove is immediatelv 
<uuU\^vruv ! n''^"'''r 'V''''}'' the town. Florida Tourisfs 

M /l nt ^-^'/I'Vl '"'\'''^ *^^^ ^''^' t^ ^^^^ upper 8t. John s 

«inu uj) the romantic Ocklawaha. 

Palarka can be ivached by Stcvimers daily from Jacksonville, and 

io/^vlTtV^^T ■'"" <'';'^'-^'^t;i'» ''^i'} Savannah, whi.-h run in connec. 

V ! siV"^*"*" ^'T' ^^,^^,^^^^-}^''iiHl lines of Railroads from 

•L; V ;i ^^::i'''l''';^ ^,^'V;f Palatka daily for Sanford and Enter- 

i'^vaiia River ' ' ''^''' ^'*''' ^'^'''^'' ^P^i^-s via the Ock- 

Address by mail or t<d<'irrap]i, p }] ORyjj^ 

Vh u k k X M o t: :^^ t a 2 x s . 



Fciir Trains Daily Iroin I^ew Yoii, Aiiiaiij, aiid Troy ! 

(il{ Hours from New York, H. R. R. R 
2 Hours from Troy, T. & H. R. R. 
^{'2 Hours from Sarato«i:a. via Troy. 
7 Hours from Boston -Tunnel Rotite. 
S Hours from .Alontreal, (J. V. R. R. 

^ Mancliester, the leadin- summer re.^ort of the (ireen Mountain^ 
IS two hundred miles north of New York, liftv milrs north .h Trov' 
orty-ei^^ht miles of Sarato-a and thirtv mile., soul h of Jiut- 
iaiid on the JSenniiii^'ton and Rutland Railwav 

It has tlireemilesof white marble sidewalks hnelv shaded bv 
Hm and map ,■ trees, and is the most eharmin- sumiiier resort in 
-iNt'W r^n^'land. 

V''^- ^'i'!'f *^ ^« Mtuated at the foot of Mt. Eciuinox. from the sum- 
mit of w iich an exten(le(l and ma^-nilicent view can l)e ol,taine.h 
J he road IS in hue ord.'r, and mountain wa^^ms run to 
tlie top in two and a halt ' 'n-^ 



H' |](|jiin()\ iloiisc, 

l\w.f ,,f Mt. E(iuinox, 

Manchester, Vermont^ 

Open from June to Octo))er. 
Address by mail <.r Ide-raph. p ^ OR VIS 

■ «» ac 


■ ' ■■ m£ 


( a i>tn in 11. A. ( > I» i K 

Will leave Royvro's Wharf every 


charie?;ton. ^avapah, and fernapim 

For the ahu\c iianiccl j.)hLLL>. 

M. H. ROGERO, Agent, 

i'\!,\Tr, A i[ \ 

A. SHl'.I.I.lA'. Propimitor. 

Ilodiil. $3])erd<iii, (I II (I no rhar^r Jm int-;^aij,e. 





.Above St. .loliii's Hotel, two s(iii:ires troiii the Steamboat Wharf. 



Dealer In Briip, led.iciiies. Perfiiiiiery, Fancy Articles, &c. 

Comer of Front and Lemon Streets, 

^raniifactnrer of Oranp:e Flower Water and Oraiig:e Wine. 
BT^" Oranges put up in neat packages for shipiiieTit fnni my 
own crove. 


V-4^x ... Sleaiii Yaclil. U & Row Boats 

Of every cle8cri])tio« and size 

For hireonreasonahl.- terms b\ the 
hour, day, or trip.; also 


JliKi f 1/ Dif sr f)j)f)r)sifr fh r Lurk'in Ilmise, 

Palatka, Florida. 



Mrs. SEALS, Proprietress 

Opposite the Cmtrf House, Palatka, Florida. 

l()i- Lake Crescent k Crescent City! 

The Fast Sailius — flora Mail Steamer ; 

Makes three trips per week between Palntkn niiii \ h- ,i1kj\ r points. 
JOllS /. I! ilOA ns. Owner (tad Captahi. 

jjeaj.i:k i N 

Ooods^ (iroceries^ Notions, Ac. 









■ ■ O K 

Sieaiiier 'M^mm. MHIOI 

Will leave 1\()o-er(Vs Wharf every 
Monday and Thursday, 

(•()NNK(TlX<i WITH 



I"\)r the al)<)\e named places. 

M. H. ROGER 0, Agent, 


^ .» *- < 4- * 'f 

>, , ^ .^ ^ • i. /r. -If. jp s^ -r y T- T -[- 

C> .1 ■> V j^ i. -+■ « -r f? 4- c> 0. > ••> - 

C» A>i -> in 

1*A 8. a;i'^ a« ¥ i.x 

A. ^111 1.1 

\ . pKorkii'/roR. 

Hoi/rd, s J jH'r (htij, (in<l m^ chan^i' for h<i <J'J(i 'Jr. 







Al)«>vt' Sr. John's Hotel, two ^(|n:in's troiii tli.- Sieumhojit Wliarf. 

N, H. .>H)RA€NE^ m. D. 

Dealer in Dris, MeiJciiies, Perfumery, Fancy Arlicles, & 

Corircr of Fi'ont and LcDion Streets, 

Maiiufact m-cr ot Oraii^^'o Flower Water and Orange WMnc, 
t^' Oranjics i)ut tip in ni^at i)ackag:es for slii^jnient from my 
own irrnv**. 



Steam YacliUiaih^i Row Bo3l;; 

Ol' every dt'scriptioii and size 

'i V/ '^ "^^^ "^ ^^^^' 1"''<' <*" reasonable terms ])y the 


hour. (lay. oi' trip.; also 

JUhi lliousr '^lijjosite the Lurk'ui House, 
Palatka, Florida, 

Tin: iioMi: iiotsi: 

■^^«r< ^vTT \ T C! p^^v^-; .^trop-r- 
Offositc flic Co?/?'/ //o?fsr, Palatka, Floricta. 

! (M* Lnki^ Crescent A ^^(^seenl Cilv! 

Tiie Fast Sailing - fl.ora - Mail Steamer 

Make< tin-"'" rrijx ]>er wcM'k b<^tw(>(»n Palatka aTid the aboM' points. 
• Kills /. l: U< > A I >s. ( >,CH<r <nnl (a jtta i n. 

T. T. //./IW/S(/A\ 



fi!oe(N, («roeeri( s, Xotions, iVe. 




CnESC-£?JT CITY,, flOplDA. 

Crescent fity tlie (irore ('icy of f'1ori(l4, is situate*! on the cast side of rruitfaud 
I't'iiinsiila. Ivoiitinj; tlie now hnnou^ Lake Cvesrent <>r Dunn's Lake, one humlreil 
miles south of Jack^oBville, and l«enty-tlve miles south of I'alutka. It 18 located 
on tt ili>fb Pine HlulF, overlookinjf the K<'t'«t lake from hold, handsome hhores, seen 
no where else in Florida. It i8 a faroritc report for invalids as well as sportsmen and 
pleasure seekers in jreneral. In the vicinity of the town are numerous hearing 
« 'range (iroves. as well as younj? jfroves recently set hy wealthy Northern jft'ntlemen, 
Avho have erect' <1 and are ereclniK tin« residences on this extensive bluff. 

Xo one srekinjr a winter home should fail to visit this raoidlvy rowing place, where 
they will lind a Ursl class Hotel as well as several Hoanliug Houses, with j^ood fare, 
Mt jirices ran>{ing fvom Seven to Twenty Dollars p«r week. 

We hare daily mails and daily communication with .Ia<-ksonville and Palatka. All 
St. John's Uiver Steamers connect at I'llatka with Steamers lor Crescent Citv. 
Steamer Flora runs thriuiph trom Jacksonville to Crescent City on Mondays, Uetl- 
nesdays,and ^rldays, returning on alternate davs. Through Fare 8vi..^0. As a pleas- 
ure trijt, the route from I'alatka to Crescent Ciiv has no ecjual. Up the St. John's, 
ei^ht miles and you diverjre to the left into I>eep Uiver. the home of the Allijrator; 
thence ten miles through this wierd and beautiful stream and vou suddenly emerge 
iiUo the broad Lake ('^<- <•••••, ' miles wide am! J'' ' ; .'. 

JOSEPH W. GARDINER, Cros( ent City. Fli,i ;da. 

i i 

The reader of this card i.s solicited to siubyeribe for 

The Florida Fruit Grower 


A new and ititcrestino^ ei^ht pajjre journal, published monthly, in 
Florida, that ^reut winter resort of health and pleasure. Terms 
$.1 per year in advance. 

The Fruit Grower is a paper which to read is to. appreciate, and 
aspires to the position of the larjjjest and be^t non-partisaw paper 
in Florida. 


Editor anil i^ihii.^iier, 
Oescent Citv, Florida. 


Waldo, Alachua Co., Florida. 

The only llrsfr-cla?^ Hotel between the Atlantic jnid i;ult thjtt is open to {,'tiests the 
year round. This Hotel has Ikhmi leaseM bv Capt. H. H. Williams, ol tlie Clilllou 
Hoifl. MankM'o. Minn., (funner'.v o<' Huston, Nlas-..i ami will Ik- kept in stvle as 
to make the Knrsts feel at home In this beaulitul. healthy and attractive " Lake |{e- 
Kion." NValdo is situate on the Transit K. l{., eitihty four miles from Fernandina; 
seventy-one miles t'rom Cellar Keys, and only four uiiles fioin tho great .^antu Fe 
I-ak'.' and roll njr Lake Kepion bv canal. 

The rate at the \N aldo House is $i'.tKi per day. 

" Viator," a New V(»rk correspondi-ut, who has visite«l all parts of Flori<la. writes 
as follows: " I am best pleased with VValtlo. It is emphaticaUv the best climate for 
consumptives. Tlie air is pur»' and dry, and the climate most' jreiiinl. Invalids will 
not be misleil by wliat I say, for I haVe .-^een nnin\ sulfereis relieve<t ;ind entirel> 
cured by a sojourn at this place. The Hotel has all the (puet, «oinfort aixl luxury of a 
IMivate Home, and the rates are rerv reasonable. 




t^ffnSI(I.-i,V ^M'D Sl'RGEQ.y. 


Opposite Larhin House, 

Front Street, Palatka, Fla. 


Successors to S. ^\ Moody, 

Druggisfs and Pharmacists, 


VAL.lTkW. FIJI i:i 1>A. 

Also, Dealers in Florida Jewelry, Sea Beans, Alligator's Teeth, etc. 

y\\\S. (. I). KSTAIJUOOK, 

Oak Street, West of Catholic Church, 





P.\L.\ IKA, I- la )RI1)A. 

500 eligible Town Lots for sale. Lots av^iilihle 
for dwellings or stores, and valued from Ssoto S5000. 

.'Mso, Special Agent for Dwellings, Real Instate, 
etc., etc. 21 



CB:rsCT]NT CITY, flOBlC/t. 

Crescent City tlie (Jrore City of hloriiKi, irt situated on the east side of Fniitfand 
I'eiiinsiila, Iroiitin^r the now famous Lake (rt'Sft'nt or Dunn's i^ake, one hundr(>d 
miles >outh of Jack>oBville, and twi-nty-live miles south of I'alatka, It is located 
on a ili>fb I'ine Hiuir, overlookinj; the flri"eat lake from hold, handsome shores, seen 
no where else in Floridjt, It is a fayoritc resort for invalids as well as sportsmen and 
pleasure seekers in jreneral. In the vicinity of the town are numerous hearinj? 
« irange (irov-t;9, as well as youn>f jci'oves recently »et hy wealthy Northern Kt-'ntlemen, 
who have erect <\ and are ereclni>r fin« residences on this extensive bluff. 

No one sifekiriK a winter home shoiddfail to visit this rapidly y rowing i)lace. wliere 
they will lind a lirst <'.las8 Hotel as well as several Hoarding lionses, with jjooii fare, 
Mt prices ranj;inK riom Seven to Twenty Dollars p«r week. 

We have dailv mails and daily communication wilh Jacksonville and Palatka. All 
St. .John's Kiver steamers connect at Tilatka with Steamers for Crescent Citv. 
Steamer Flora runs throufrh Irom Jacksonville to Crescent City t>n Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays, and ^rldays, returninj; on alternate days. Through Fare SJ-.'^O. Asajdeas- 
nrc trifi, the route from f'alatka to Crescent Ciiv has no I'tpial. I'p the St. Jolm's, 
eight mih's and you divci^e to the left into Deep River, the home of the Alligator; 
tlu'uce fen miles througli this wierd aud heautiftil stream aud vou suddenly emerge 
into the hroail Lake <^- • • ' inilus wide amr.' ' _- 

JOSEPH W. GARDINER, CroscoTil Citv. F 


i 4 

The reader of this card is sohcited to siubscribe for 

The Floridii Fruit Grower," 

A new and interesting ei^^lit paj^e journal, publishtnl monthly, in 
Florida, that fijivat winter resort of health and pleasure. Tetfjis 
$.1 per year in advance. 

The Friut (Jrower is a pa[)er which to read is to. appreciate, and 
aspires to the i)osition of the largest and be*<t non-partisaw paper 
in Florida. 


Editor and Publisher, 
(Jrescent. Citv, Florida. 


Waldo, Alucliua Co., Florida. 

The only lirst-class Hotel between the .\tlantic jmd tiult thjit is opcu to guests the 
year round. This Hot*'! has lii-en leaseil hv ('apt. 11. II. Williams, ot the Clillloii 
Hold, .Mankaio, .Minn., ( former! v o4 Hostori, NLis>;..) and will l»e kept in such stvle as 
to make the guests fi-cl at houie in this itcaulitul. healthy and attractive - Lak«' Re- 
gion." Waldo is situate on the rransit K. H., eighty four miles iVoin Fernandina; 
s4fventy-»)ne miles from I'tular Keis. and only four miles fiom thu great sania Fe 
Lak'.' and roll ng Lake Kegion l»y canal. 

The rate at the \v aldo Hou-e is $-'.<K» )»er day. 

" Viator," a New York corres|>ondent. who lias vi-'itetl all ))arts of Florida, writes 
as follows: " [ am best pleased with Waldo. It is em)d)atica!ly the best (dimate lor 
eonsumptives. The air i^i pure and dry, and the climate most gtuiial. will 
not be misled hy what I say, for I have .^een nianv sullerers relieved jumI eiitireh 
cured by a sojourn at this |)laee. The Hotel has all the quiet, woudbrt and luxury of » 
rriv.ite Home. ;md the rales are reiv reasonalile. 





Opposite Larkin House, 

Front Street. Palatka, Fla. 


Successors to S. W. Moody, 

Druggisfs and Phannacisfs, 


PAL.rrix.l. FLO BIB A. 

Also, Dealers in Florida Jewelry, Sea Beans, Alligator's Teeth, etc. 

)IHS. (. n. KSTA BROOK. 

Oak Street, West of Catholic Church, 




T* ♦* 


vflik> <\ 

»». V. 


500 eligible Town Lots for sale. Lots available 
for dwellings or stores, and valued from S50 in §5 000. 

Also, Special Agent for Dwellings, Real Estate, 
etc., etc. 21 







The sojourner at Palatka, or in the vicinity, will find 
himself repaid for the expense entailed by a visit to Deep 
Run or Dunn's Creek, Lake Crescent, Crescent City, and 
the vicinity. The small fast sailing mail steamer Flora, 
of which Capt. John F. Rhoads is the owner and com- 
mander, leaves Palatka Mondays, Wednesdays and Fri- 
days for these places, and returns on the following days. 
The accommodations on board are good, and the fare ex- 
cellent. Embarking on board tlie steamer, we start up 
the St. John's, and eight mik's up, and three miles beyond 
San Mateo, enter Dunn's Creek or Deep Run, as it is 
most generally called. This is a stream four hundred 
yards wide at its mouth, and one hundred and fifty at its 
narrowest point, eight miles long, and deep enough to 
float any vessel that plys on the St. John's. It leads into 
Lake Crescent or Dunn's Lake. On the right of Deep 
Run at the entrance, we come to Mukfree's Island, 
where there is a flourishing grove of orange trees, owned 
by Col. Hart, and elsewhere mentioned. A half mile up 
the creek is the fine orange grove owned by oVIr. John 
Wells. Three miles further we reach Horse Landing, 
where is the large Indian mound previously referred to, 
where tourists are wont to resort in the winter and spring, 
while sportsmen and fishermen also seek its neighborhood 
for game or piscatorial sport. Sailing on we enter 


A remarkably dark sheet of water, but perfectly free from 
weeds or water flags, and a beautiful inland lake, fifteen 
miles long and from three to five miles wide. On the 
western bank of the lake, and four miles from the en- 
trance is Florence Landing, which leads back to 


An inland lake two miles back from the landing, three 
miles long, and from a half to one and a half miles wide. 
This is a lovely expanse of water, with no visible outlet, 
and embosomed among the hills. It is eighty feet above 



the level of Lake Crescent. Its banks slope up from the 
shore thirty to forty feet above the water, and the shores 
are sandy, and admirably adapted to bathing purposes 
The bathmg facilites are very good. The country around 
IS a high rolling pine ridge, and there are more than one 
hundred settlers m the neighborhood, all owning young 
orange groves. The settlers are for the most part North- 
erners, who have established themselves here within the 
past two years. In the neighborhood are two stores, a 
Baptist Church, and a new town hall. One of the stores 
here is owned by Mr. C. B. Smith, who also owns a flour- 
ishing grove of one thousand seven hundred orange trees 
The climate is healthy and the countrv fertile. Leavino-. 
this landing we continue up the lake, and a mile furthe*? 
up reach Port Como, which also leads back to the lake of 
the same name. At this place, as well at Florence Land- 
ing, there is a postoffice. At this landing is a voung 
grove, the property of Mr. Shipes, who also owns the 
banana grove here. Two miles further up, on the same 
shore, is Oakwood Landing,, where is the orange grove 
of Mr. Chas. Hutchinson, containing three hundred trees 
Adjoining is the grove of Mr. R. F. Breen, of Alabama' 
containing five hundred trees, and alongside of this the 
Forest Grove, the finest on the lake front or on the penin- 
sula, and which contains one thousand two hundred or 
more trees, and sold last vear 85,000 worth of orano-es 
This is the property of Mr. W. M. Nevvbold. Adjacent, to 
this is the Sheffield Grove of eight hundred orano-e trees 
all bearing, and beyond, the grove of Mr. Thos. N. Gautier' 
ot more than six hundred trees. Passing up the lake' 
we reach Dr. J. L. Newsome's grove of eight hundred 
trees, a picturesque and beautiful grove, on a high hill 
overlooking the water. 

The Penixstla alluded to above is called Fruithinu 
and is between Lake Crescent and Deep Run River on the 
east, and the St. John's River and part of Lake George 
on the wf^st and south, is twentv-five miles long, and 
averages sixteen miles in width, and is thicklv settled on 
the lake shore as well as on tlie St. John's River and Lake 
George. The St. John's River settlements are Buffalo 
Bluff P O., where are fine orange groves, and south of 
this and further up the river, n>/As' Landing, where is 
located the St. John's Colony, which came out from 
New York in December last, and consists of one hundred 
and sixty souls. The tract purchased was ten thousand 
acres. This is called the Hernandez Grant, the neio-hbor- 
hood of which is quite healthy. Next iu onk^-, are 
Nashua, Rodgers, IVelaea, and Lake ("/co/y/c^ settlements 
which will be more fully described when we again start 

. , < 



up the St. John's. Most of these places 'are quite pros- 
perous, and contain large and flourishing groves. v\ e 
now resume our route, and arrive at 


On this peninsula, situated on a curve of the lake shore, 
in the shape of a crescent, and on the western side, nine 
miles up the lake and twentv-five miles from Palatka. 
It is on a beautiful high bluff, from thirty to sixty feet 
above the lake, and in a healthy neighborhood, and con- 
tains more than sixty houses, four stores, an Episcopal 
Church of which the Rev. C. S. Williams is the rector, a 
colored 'Baptist Church, a postoffice, and a fine hotel, 
owned bv Mr. J. W. Gardiner, of Providence, R. I., which 
contains^twenty-two rooms, and has first-class accranmo- 
dations. There are besides three boarding houses h< re. 
The northern end of the town is laid out in lots of five 
acres for orange groves. Wandering throutrh the town, 
we come to the Gardiner House, a tasty bm inm m the 
shape of a cross, with a cupola on top. A - piar. 1m vmipI 
this is the residence of Mr. Conard, of \\ i-iMmt n. 1 ' C^. 
On Edgewood Avenue is the attractive residence of Kev. 
C. S. Williams, rector of the Episcopal Church, and nr- 
<3uit pastor for the country aroiiiil. whohas acconi])li-!w ! 
a great deal of good wrk here duniig his Tnim-ti v < »ii 
Oakwood Avenue is the Episcopal Church, u Mudil l-ui 
neat Gothic edifice, erected at a cost of $(;,000. A square 
south of this is the Baptist Church, on the borders of 


A small sheet of water, three miles i -im nii -n- mile 

wide and buried in the bosom of the limii tiiH- » m" "^^r 

of a mile west of Lake Crescent. It is llllII^ t. . i above 

the level of the larger lake, and has no outlet above 

ground. South of the colored Bapti t w < ^me 

to the abode of Judge Patchin, of .Mirhm-m. mh .h. of 

the highest and hands<'Tii.'<t xitiintion- -n t h.' lak.^. an.l 

full seventy feet above the wai» r • V( 1. Ai tli' -Muth. in 

rvtremity we reach the grnvo and residence ^t Maj'T .1. 

1 Burton, a "Florida ciarkt^r,'' par excellence, Aud an 

uiacle on the subject of Crescent City. l\\- r. ^u!. nro is 

a neat frame building, on a higli \/.u\] la. m- tlu lak.'^ 

This grove consists of eight linnii..! ..r;nm. tr*(*s, ot 

which five hundred arr h. anng. Here can Ix- -•■* n n 

patch of guava trees, an .-mhth -f an ar-r.- in .■xt.aii. and 

the trees all laden ^viih i'imhi, whii.' pm.-appl--. hni.-, 

lemons, and other irupuai fruits aix al>" ani.>n- th(3 

productions of this place. The greatest lai ui^ ^, however, 



are his sugar custard apple tr^e and his ginger plants. 
The ginger plants resemble young canes, with a slight 
difference in the shade of color of the leaves. There is 
published here the 


A new and interesting eight page monthly journal. 
This is a readable paper, and aspires to the position of the 
largest non-partisan paper in Florida. It is edited and 
published by ^M r Joseph W. Gardiner. The terms are 
only one dollar per year, in advance. 

Back of tlie town are the groves of Mr. Harp, of five 
Inmdred trees, and of Judge Morrow, of seven hundred 
Uit's. On the east side of tlie lake, which is low and Hat, 
is but one settlement, that of Mr. A. M. Grimsley, who 
owns a young orange grove, containing two hundred and 
fifty bearing trees. In the centre of the lake opposite 
the town, is " Bear's Island or Lopez Island, as it was 
from tins place that Lopez set out on his fillibustering ex- 
pedition to Cuba. 

On till- island are a small orange grove and fine flower 
garden, I lie property of Mr. John Long, an Englishman. 
At the south end of the lake is 

'I- i ! i: ! 1 A w 


The finest cattle ran-e in the whole county, and also a 
s]^lendid game country, abounding in bears, deer, wild 
taik.'ys, coons, 'possums, snipe, quail, wild durks, anl 
other game, while occasionally a panther is en* < untered 
by the sportsman. 


Is a splendid body of water for fishing purposes, the trout 
fishing here being particularly fine. We now take our 
leave of this neighborhood, embark on board the Flora, 
and wend our wav back to Palatka. 




Leaving Palatka and taking passage on the steamer 
Hattie, we start out on a trip u{) this heautiful river and 
proceed to catch a passing glimpse of its shores, orange 
groves, and other objects of interest that present them- 
selves along the route. The river, which has heretofore 
been from a mile to six miles in widtli. now changes its 
lake-like character and assumes the appearance of a nar- 
row winding stream, but extremely beautiful. At some 
sudden turn we come in sight of groves of oaks and other 
trees, so thick and deep that the sun is unable to pene- 
trate their silent shades, while their sliadows are flung 
far into the stream, and reflected deep down on the sur- 
face of the placid waters. Again, on turning a bend, the 
woods suddenly disappear and give place to shores lined 
with flourishing groves of banana and orange trees, the 
latter laden with their golden fruit, presenting a pano- 
rama of unrivaled beauty. The river between Palatka 
and Welaca is considered, by tourists the most romantic 
and picturesque along the entire route. Immediately on 
leaving Palatka we approach the flourishing grove of 
Col. Hart, on the east of the river and opposite the town, 
and beyond this Capt. Adams' grove, younger but equally 
as large and attractive in appearance. A few yards 
further up is the settlement ^f the Fertilizer C()m])any of 
Palatka, engaged in the manufacture^ of fish manure. 
On the building is the following quaint device : 

" Our couritrv seat, 
Hotel (le Paris." 

Passing on and turning what is called the '' Devil's 
Elbow," we come in sight of a pictures(jue settlement and 
orange grove on the east of the river, and passing it pro- 
ceed up a straight reach a mile in length, witli densely 
wooded shores. We pass a small live oak grove, and ar- 
rive at Kavvles Town, on the east side. Making but a 
short stay hei-e, w<* speed on our w.iy and reacli tlie vil- 
lage of San Mateo, where there is a large ])acking house 
as well as a fine orange grove. In tliis neigld)<)rh()od is 
the Riverdah' Hotel, offering all necessary accommoda- 



tions for travelers who resort here during the winter. 
Back of this place are numerous valuable orange groves. 
A quarter of a mile higher up is the landing of Mr. Bean, 
with a packing house. The Charleston and Florida 
steamers stop here during the winter for cargoes of fruit. 
We will not detain the reader, but will continue our jour- 
ney. We next pass Mr. Lyle's packing house, and a 
mile further south the Edgeicafer grore, the property of 
Mr. C. F. Fuller, of Brooklyn, N. Y"., and one of the finest 
and most picturesque, being situated on the water's edge, 
whence its name. Almost adjacent to this are the hand- 
some residence and flourishing grove of Mr. Evins, of 
New Hampshire. The whole shore here for more than a 
mile in length is one succession of orange groves, and 
the view from the river is superb. As we journev along, 
the next object that greets the eye is 


Where is the orange grove of Col. H. L. Hart, an ante 
IwlliDii grove, and one of the finest on the river front. 
The residence is almost completely hidden from view bv 
the orange trees. There is also a fine growth of banana 
trees here. Our boat is again in motion, cleaving the 
water, which it dashes aside as it makes its way up the 
stream, and brings us next in sight of 


On the western side, and eighty-three miles from Jackson- 
ville, where is the grove of Mr. White, who also owns a 
truck farm alongside, and on whose place some of the 
best honey on the river can be obtained. The residence 
is situated on a bluff in a clump of live oaks. We find 
ourselves again ploughing our way through a narrow 
and straight reach, presenting to the eye a long vista of 
river scenery. After traveling for three or four miles 
through unvarying scenery of shores lined with oak and 
cypress woods, we reach 


And pass on and arrive at Wells Latnliug, where is a 
strawberry farm and orange nursery. This is a lovelv 
spot. There are twenty acres of land here under fruit 
culture. Along the shores of the river here the banks 
have become washed, and for a quarter of a mile on either 
side many of the trees are uprooted and continue to grow 
in an almost horizontal position along the water's edge. 
Numerous terrapins are seen sunning themselves along 
the trunks, but disappear with a splash at the approach 
of the steamer or the report of a i)istol aimed at them 
from the boat's deck. Occasional! v a white crane or 


■ i 

V 1 





heron is seen, and sometimes the pink curlew, as we skirt 
along the river shores. A quarter of a mile beyond, on 
the eastern bank, is Old Nashua, and a half mile further 
up, on the same side, 

This is a pretty bluff, in the midst of a grove of oaks. 
The oak, pine and cypress trees along the shores here are 
draped in moss. We pass along up the stream through a 
straight reach, but soon get into a narrow pari of the 
river, which is quite beautiful. The next place we come 

to is 


Near which is a fine grove of moss covere-i aipl venera- 
ble oaks, on a high hill slopin- lown to the water. This 
was quite a village in ante beilum t\mei>, i\]\<] i -ni'l to 
have once rivaled Palatkn Tt was burnt .liiniiL; th* war, 
aiTi has never been rebnih. i>< a -mall ^lorc l^-re 
iind.r the oaks, while bt'l^w i- ihr pr.-tt\ r..tta,,5]:p of^.Mr. 
P.rvaiit. The whole neigiil'orlioM.j i,v U'^laca i> a ])ictu- 
r^'-M It' locality, and with its venerable oaks pi.-. iit-> a 
St i-ik-iiig appearance from the river, a I I'l \\-iiM rnak.' ati 
excellent picnic resort. Adjoining is an orati-.- grove, 
with a .Iwelling back on a bin. aini'l a grove ->t oaks. A 
qnai tor of a mile south we reach Mr. HaU\s ll'/nnf nnd 
''iM!iL;-e grove on tb.- eastern bnnk. LeaviTu: this wr pass 
ih.. inouth of tlie (JKLAWAHA, wliich w^iil Uv described in 
due Lime, and enter 


Seven miles in length and four wido, ati<l «»ii one --kI'' ul 
thr r!\. I-. whicli skirts along its edge. At the entrance 
aiuiig tiie eastern shore are rows of large and stately nal- 
mettoes. On a high bluff is the settlement of Beecher, 
which is on a fine situation. An orange grove is found 
here, but it is not well cared for, as the place has been 

a ha II' 


h Afilway on the eastern shore i^ 




orani^e grove, the property of Major H. R. I. asdah. 
:\Iavor of Palatka, on w^hich are some ver> oM ti..-. a, 
do/rn of which are fifty years old, and some ot th. m have 
hetii known to produce as many as S,000 ercnn;.^. In 
thi'^ grove are a thousand young oranf^e tr^es, ja-t 
nmg to bear. Again we enter tli.- ri v. r. which narrows 
to about three-fourths of a mile, an-l a!ii\f witlnn -h^si^ 
view of the 1' '^^^ hanks, h.''d with forests ot oak and 
cypress, and a succession of rows of palmetto tr. . -. ^i\ - 
ing the shores quite a tropical appearnnee. Thf {>al- 
mettoes in <nme places are riense enon^h to f, am proves, 
Avhieh nr.' . xtren^^ely picturesque. We iiuw cuuie in 

Slgiit ut 




On the eastern side of the river, and 105 miles south of 

^^^f ^^?.^^^|i^V ^^ *^^^ P^^^® ^^ ^^^ handsome countrvseat 
ot Mr. K kirby. The orange grove contains 1,000 trees, 
most of them laden with their golden fruit. There are 
also a few banana trees and quite a large flower garden 
on the place. The residence is a neat two story building 
^vlth an attic and mansard roof, and piazzas facing the 
river. Beyond are Mr. W. P. Wright's residence and 
orange grove of 2,000 trees, some of which are bearing 
Next on the eastern bank is the plantation of Mr. John 
Varnum, of Portland, Maine, which contains an orange 
grove. ^ The dwelling is a two story building, with piazzas 
on the river front, and is worth six thousand dollars On 
the same shore, further south, is 


A landing on the river, back of which are some valuable 
orange groves. South of this is the grove of Mr. Hani- 
niond, of Cincinnati. The dw^elling house is a tine new 
edifice, two and a half stories high, and built in Swiss 
cottage style, and one of the handsomest on the river 
On the western bank, near this place, is the settlement of 


Which was a military post during the Seminole war 
The grove near here is owned by Mr. Hemingway, of 
Boston. The eastern side of the river is the most denselv 
wooded, and also the most thicklv settled, as the prevail- 
ing winter winds, are from the northwest, and the air is 
rendered milder by passing over the warm water of the 
river. We now leave the river and enter 


A magnificent sheet of water, eighteen miles long, ai:d 
from ten to twelve miles in widtli. At iho entrance is ' 


Containing l.GOO acres, and well wooded. This is quite a 
resort f. 'rt-urlsts during the winter, and the Drayton 
Island Ifnfr/. owned by Mr. Crosby, is kept in tirst class 
style. ( )n ilio island are numerous fine orang(^ groves, 
the most not.'(l of wdiicli is tlx^ one ownc^l Ijy Mrs. Rem- 
htTt. one of tho oldest in tlie State, having been planted 
more tlian thirty years ago, and formerly tlie })ro})ortv of 
JoJiii ('. CalJinuji. of South Carolina. It iiroduced last 
year more tlian 150,000 oranges. ( )n the eastern shore of 
the island is also the grove of Mr. Kogurs, as well as sev- 




heron is seen, and sometimes the pink curlew, as we skirt 
alonu^ the river shores. A 'piart^^^r of a m\]>' beyoiKl. on 
the elistern bank, is Old :\a.'skua, and a halt tnilr further 
np. on tho samr* side, 

This is a pretty bluff, in tho Tin'ih-t of a lthvp (if onks. 
Th.' i-ak. pine an f1 r'V]n'''s-; ti-'-*'- ;i!<.iil: tht^ >h<in'> lifi--' are 
<ii-apt''i in ino'^s. Wr pass iih)nL;- up th.- ^trfaiii tln-MLi^'ha 
straight reach, i,'ut -oon get into a narrow ].art of the 
river, which is quite beautiful. The ne.xi i'la<' ^ye come 

to is 


Near wiiich is a fine ^ove of moss covere<l ami v.n^ra- 
])]»' (Kik^. on a high hill ^^lopinir rh.wn to thr watn-. This 

'A'a> ipii^'' a vihau;"*' in -//'/» hf Ihm/ tinif^. and r- ■-aid ti> 
Pavf nur,' !-i\ al.'d h;il;it ka. It wa^ hui-nt .hirniL: the war. 
and ha^ ii'-x^r \>>'f]\ reliiuU. idicre i-- a ^iiiad >t<>rf hfi-»* 
und.r th'' ''ak>. while below is the pretty cottage ef .Mr. 
Ih-vant. The whole neighhorh. h nj h\ \V» laea is a pictu- 
rt'-;(iiie locality, and wiUi it^ \-<Mi,-ralih* ^aks ja•.'-t■nt-^ a 
slrikui^- app'-a ranee from tlie river, and w^nild make ;iti 
excellent piiin- report. Adjoining is an orang.' gruve, 
witli a dwt'imi^- haek nn a hidh amid a irr'^ve of .>aks. A 
(^piart'i' ' m" .1 n iile --' Mit h We riatT Mf. Ihi/ls II //»/// and 
orangtj gruve uu ih*' .[i^^tprn hank. Leaving thih Wf pass 
the nlouth of the ( >ki.a\\ aha, which will be descnh. d m 
due time, and enter 


Sev.-n nllle^ Hi length and \<<\\v wide, and on one side of 
the ri\-r, which skirts along its edge. At the entrance 
ahaig the eastern ^hore are rows of harg.' and stately pa!^ 
mettoes. On a high bluff is the setrhin.nt -f n> ccker, 
whi h is on a fine situation. An orange grove is feimd 
h.ere, but it i< n^t well car»'d f^r. a^ tlie ])lace has hern 
ahand'^ai.' h Midw.iv oti th-- ••;i-t.'i'n -here i^ a K'lrge 
orange gi-^iVf. tli.- ]>r<'p''rty oi M;\\''V 11. I\. leasdah*. 
;>hiv.)r "f h;ilatka, eai wliich are -minever}- eld tree^. a 
dozen of which are fifty y^ar^ .uth and -ome of t hem ha v(^ 
been known to produce' as many as s,000 <aanges. In 
this grove are a thousand voung orange trees, jn-t hegin- 
mng te hear. Again we enter the river, ^v]n'(dl narr<»ws 
to about thr^'e-f.>ni-ths of a nule. and an-ive within -dese 
view of the i'.w hanks. b<irdered with foi'e^ts ef (lak and 
cypress, and a -uceession v>f rows ef pahnetto tn^-es. gi\- 
ing the >hore.> quite a tropical app'tarance. ddie pah 
niettops in some places ar- hnse enough to form greves, 
which are extremely picturesque. We m-w eMnie m 

Slgiil ef 




On the eastern side of the river, and 105 miles south of 

f ^T ^^2.^'^li^V ^^ *^^^ P^^^^ ^'^ ^^^^ handsome countrvseat 
J' ^\ ^^^^^y- The orange grove contains 1,000 trees, 
niost of them laden with their golden fruit. There are 
also a few banana trees and quite a large flower garden 
on the place. The residence is a neat two story building 
v^ith an attic and mansard roof, and piazzas facino- the 
river. Beyond are Mr. AV. p. Wriglit's residence and 
orange grove of 2,000 trees, some of whi( li are bearing 
Psext on the eastern hank is the plantation of Air John 
Varnum, of Portland, .Maine, which contains an orano-e 
grove. The dwelhngisatwo storv building. Avith piazza^ 
on the river front, and is worth six thousand deilars. {)ii 
the same shore, further south, is 

A landing eii the river, back of which are some valuable 
orange groves. ►S«.uth of this is tlie grove of jlr. Ham- 
mond, of Cincinnati. Tlie dweUing hon^e is a time new 
edifice, two and a half stories high, and huih in Swiss 
cottage style, and one of the handsomest on the river 
On the western bank, near this place, is the settlement ot 


\\'hieh. was a niditary poc;t fhirino^ the Seminole war 
Ihe ^^rove near here is owned hy Mr. Hemingway of 
Boston. The eastern side of the river is tlie most denselv 
wooded, and also the most thicklv settled, as the prevail- 
ing winter winds, are fn>ni the n'erthwest, and the air is 
rendered milder by passing over tlie warm water of the 
river. We now leave the river and enter 


A in.agnrficent sheet of water, eighteen lni](^s long, and 
from ten to twelve miles in width. At the entrance is 


Containiipg 1,G00 acres, and well wooded. This is quite a 

resrw-i hMMonrlsts during tlie winter, and the Draf/fon Ilnft i. Mwiied liy Mr. Crosby, is kept in first class 
style. ( )n tlie island are niinierous fine orange groves, 
the in<*st noted of wdii(di is the one owned hv Mrs. Rem- 
i»ert. (.ne of the oldest in the State, having been planted 
mere tlian thirty years ago. and formerly the property of 
Jo//// ('. CalJio'ni. of South Carolina, 'it ])roduced last 
year nmre than 150,000 oranges. ( )n the eastern shore of 
tla- ishnid is also the grove of :\Ir. Rogers, as well as sev- 





V \ 



eral others. On the western bank is Mr. A\ . .;ht's ^mo\ p, 
which yielded last season more than 50,000 oranges. The 
vegetables raised on the island are remarkably fine. N*; ti- 
the entrance to thr lakr i> nnnr]if>r island, called 

HOG It^I.AM). 

These two islands are separated from each oiht-r \>\ a 
narrow strip of water, ana fronting each other, and fac- 
ing the river, stand like sentinels guarding liie nil ranee 
of the St. John's into the lake. On the 

MAIN SihjKI-: t.»r Ttii. LAKE, 

On the eastern side is a line of ..ran^-e ^v^^w^, vvliich vve 
]»roropd t'^ mention in ilif <>r<lfr ni wln'.-li itif\ CMnif. The 
!!/•>! ;■- Ml'. I i i_:-lfy".-> gi'MV f. and aiijao'nt T<> this ar-' the 
<.a'angc ana i.<anana grn\a'> of Mr->. I l;i wkin--. Lravnig 
these, we come to Mrs. .Manville's and i >r. ( "nllV gr«'Vc>, 
and farther on the grove and }.iantaii"!i of l>r. I'oTers. 
dditTr a FH 800 orange trees in hi- gr>.\f, .Mid in his nurse- 
ry :i5,000 seedlings, wind.- liin.'>. K-ni'^is, baaana.-. gna vas,. 
fig^. f>int' ai'ph-. an-i almost every \-ai-it'T \- of tropi'-nl 
frui 1 > arc r ound on hi> pla^N-. TTf lia< a i-o ;i ti nr n n^>t■!■\■ 
g•a^tlt'Il and ii' ', ho a So. wdioro u'a rd-n pla at -^ of a II do>-(a-i[i- 
tions arc gi'oNN n. Wo \V(.aId roci innnond TuvvtT'i'^ to pa v 
a visit to this lake anii noighl>oi-houd. Beyond ihi> i-> 


Where is the postot!iae, of whu ii Mrs. Peters is tla- Post- 
mistress. This whole group of groves and dwolhng 
lifMises forms one of the nio^t hoautiful ^pots on tho hike 
hor-,h'r. The tuberose, poMio^-rauao' and otlaa- plants 
grow iuxunanriv here, while \arioi\ i- unpartod to the 
landscape bv palmetto trees, int.r-por-od liorr and thore 
among the orango and lemon trees. On tin- -Ihu-o is the 
extensive orange grove of Mrs. Hinds, oiiginahy a wild 
grove, but whidi has beon ]iuddo(L and last season \ irlih 
ed more than iuu,()O0 oranges. This season the < rop will 
exceed 200,000 oranges. On this shore and opposite 1 )ray- 
ton Island is the settlement of 

<tK' iRdF/n »WN, 

One hundred and twenty-throo ui]]>-< from dark-om ijle. 
There is a lumber mi!! at this place. The ^horos ah-ng 
the lake are quite tropical in .ippoarance. We arrive 
next ;it Mr. Cosgrove's, from whose wharf we obtain a 
■fino view of the groves. Cir. the western -iioro of Lake 
George is a high bbtff, in the vicinity c>f w hi<h is Si,riuq 
Grove. Mr. W. K. Lent also owns*^a fine orango grove 
and farm on the eastern side of the lake. Before leaving 



Lake George we cast our eyes over its broad expanse of 
waters. It resembles an inland sea. and is Tlie largest of 
the chain of lakt's that constitute tlie lower St. John's 
River. There are storms here occasionally wliieh rival 
those of the Atlantie Ocean, when the waters rise in 
waves as liigli a> tlie billows of the sea. and whon it is 
unsafe for steamers to navigate its angry tides. We take 
our leave uf the lak<', and after an hour and a quarter 
spent in crossing it, arrive at the Volusm Bai\ an«d pass- 
ing over the same, emerge from this inland sea. and re- 
enter the St. John's, which again becomes narrow and 
winding, witli shores covexetl with stately forest trees 
and luxuriant undergrowth. At the entrance on tlie east- 
ern shore, is tlh^ settlement (»f 

The property of Mr. Koj)e's. where is an orange grove, 
and also a beautiful cluster of palmetto trees on tlie ex- 
treme point. Here water lilies, flags or bonnets and 
water cresses c<»ver tlu^ surface of the river in large 
patches or S(]uares. resembling floating fields of verdure, 
some of them several acres in size. The river from this 
point to Volusia is unsur})assed in natural scenery and in 
wild luxuriant growth along the shores. It winds and 
l)ends in a series of gentle curves around densely wooded 
shores of a semi-tropical a]>pearance. On the eastern 
shore for the distance of a mile there is a grove of pal- 
metto trees of tlu' largest growth, and the shores are not 
inon^ than 4uu yards ai)art. We liave now arrived at 

One bundre(l and forty-four miles from Jaeksonville. situ- 
ated on ahigli hill, sloping down to the water. It is on the 
east side, and on a bend, and was formerly an old Spanish 
town, whicdi long since f(dl into decay. iHiringthe Semi- 
nole war there was a fort here. From this point facili- 
ties are offered for visiting New Sinyrim and Indian 
River. The settlement now consists of the store and 
residence of Mr. L. H. Eldridge. who owns the orange and 
banana grove on the bluff. Three miles south we reach 

On tlie western bank, where is a wharf, and also a store- 
bouse. Standing on this Avharf the river view is verv 
fine, especially the lower portion. In the middle of tlie 
stream is a beautiful islet, covere.l with trees, and almost 
circular, and within rifle shot of 


Which we next reach. This is on the eastern shore, 147 
miles frtjui Jacksonville. 





Near this place is a packing house. The oranges in this 
neighborhood are some of the choicest and sweetest in 
Florida. There are also numerous fine orange groves of 
sour oranges in the vicinity, and near by is a small hand- 
some wooden dwelling, situated on the brow of a l^eau- 
tiful, steep cone-shaped hill, while along its slopes is a 
grove of orange trees planted in regular rows. On the 
right of the dwelling is a fine grove of palmettoes. This 
is one of the most picturesque spots along the river. Our 
Steamer is ploughing her way through the rippling waters 
of the river, and we are again en route for the sunnv 
south. The river here widens into a small lake covered 
Avith bonnet plants, while along the eastern shore is a 
low of palmettoes. We are now in sight of 

LAKE i)i;\ ri;u, 

' A small but beautiful lake, completely bordered with 
forests, and at the present moment as smooth as a mirror. 
This is considered one of the loveliest lakes oji th- ri\ er. 
In our course we pass a iniiiiber of small well wooded 
islets that dot the surface of the water, and add variety 
to the river scenery. We are now traversiuL;- a ])retty 
stretch of the river, which winds and curves like a ser- 
pent when in motion. As our steamer pants on her wav 
up, we pass the mouth of 

ALEXANhKK >r!;i.\r; CRF.EK, 

A trihiitary of the St. Johns, which runs ba- k iiit-. the 
c<»ui!trv for thirty miles or more, and whose waters are 

n-iii;irk;il>le fr^v their clearness and p^rir^-. Tlirro are 


spnn^> alung the banks. The water. 

ar»M . clear 
tiui: ohjects can be seen at the bottom, a ai.^iance of 
I w, niy feet. Its source is a large boiling mineral spring 
t t ail a( r. m extent, comprising numerous small -aljliur 
aii.i other springs. We twist and turn v/ith the carves 
;tri(l l)fn<ls of the river, while imniorou^ w;it.>i- fowl, ^uch 
;i- wiut-- <■[•,■)!:, ■^;. herons, grey and \Nhi!.' and ht-autifiil 
pink (airlou-^. an>} occasionally a pelican lli,'> (.\rr the 
sti\'ani or >kini> along its surface, or an nliiLcator inav he 
seen with his head above wat.r. He is not unchallouL;. d 
however, for the shai- 

' oraok » -1 

a, rifle, or tite report of 


pistol, atiinonishes hnn 'tiiat foes are at han.l. and (iown 
goes hi^, head, v/liile the halK llatten on the wai.r aronnd. 
The wi.itli of the stream here is not moro than on.- hun- 
dred a!id twonty yards. We emerge occasionalK fii-ia 
the wotxis into a part of the river that flow- t]iroUL:ii fi» lU 
of bonnets, which are here called prairie-. Tho i i\ » i- his 
dwnidled into a small winding creek, with 1-w Wm hanks 
lined with c^nes and water willows, clothed wiih a Inxu- 




riant growth of vines and parasitic plants, while occa- 
sionally a few clusters of trees are seen in isolated groups. 
Again, we find ourselves embosomed among wooded 
shores. W e have now reached 

teT. ruA.NCIS. 

On the western bank, and twenty-five miles from Orange 
-Bliitf. Here we see one dwelling, a group of fine oaks 
and a small orange grove. We w^end on our wav, the 
<lark green fohage of the oak and cypress here mingling 
with tlie Ito-liter verdure of the sweet gum and water wil- 
^':;'' "''. ^'"' ^J^^er. while the woodbine, jessamnie, and 
other vmo^, hnr the water's edge. We enter a sti-aight 
reach three-fourths of a mile long, and turning a bend 
como 111 s]-],t of a row of tall ]>almettoes on the western 
f^h.ore. _ ^ear this place is a tall d» ad cvpress, on top of 
Avlnrh IS an eagle's nest, which stands out like a beacon 
jMant \\ e next pass Crow's Bluff, and continue on our 
way thr..u-h the same succession of wild natural scenery. 
W e ent^r a reacli with rows of palmettoes on both sides, 
and tmah y arrive at Haw^kinsville, on the western hank 
one hundred and seventy-four miles from Jacksonville 
Ihis |.lace is owned by Judge Brvsoii. wno is also the 
})ropnetor of the store here, and of the fine grove of 
orang.^and banana trees that fine the shore. Back of 
this landing are many fine orange groves. The trees here 
are covered to the very topmost branches with ])arasitic 
I'iants and vines. We leave this place, and a mile further 
come to Cabbage Bluff, on the east of the river, where 
w^e hnd a store, a few orange trees, and a grove of pal- 
mettoes. Our boat is again in motion, scudding along 
like a thing of life, and we pass an island of some extent 
and turnni- a ])end reach De Land's Landing, where can 
h- h.und a lar-e warehouse and flourishing orange grove. 
\v e leave thi- {dace, and in a short tinT". jiud ourselves in 

And reach Alexander's Landing, on the lake. The lake 
isaindeanda halt wide, nearly circular, and bordered 
with jiamiofto trees. The settlement of 


^•" '^[■^" ".'' ^''^^ ^'^f^'''- Leavm- till^ Wi, Lxmtinup our way 
n{. th:' riv,.!- whndi is not nioiv tlian fiftv feet wioc here 
aiai .merge from the woods into the prairie couutr\ We 
have now reached Blue Springs Landlng, on the east of 
tho nvor. and one hundred and eightv miles from Jack- 
sunviho There is a cove near tliis landing, which can 
be seen iv -m tlie deck of the steamer. This is blue spring 



a small sheet of water, and one of a series of springs of 
dark blue clear water, in which you can see the fish and 
other objects for a considerable distance down. Xoar the 
wharf is a thriving orange grove of sev.r:.! hundred 
trees, the property of Mr. Thursby. This iaudiug is the 

depot for 


Tw.' ,iii'i a iiii'ii iinl*- i«ack in t'ne count r\. There are a 
goo<l class of settlers here, and the tcwn hnasts a lai-*' 
Ci'innio'iiou- h^t.-h a rliurrh. ^.-h- h >lhouSf. hjaok-niith and 
whrfi\vrm-ht sliop. TWO Stores, and a p. v<t. vtH<-f. SLvanKTS 
iipriv.' at and h'av.' tlv landinir d.niv durniLC tii-' wnit-T. 
'ld\.' (^.unirv ar.'Und w t"un'. r.^hinu" and health}, whih^ 
tlir!-'- art' n"ian\- vahiahU' Mrun--.' ^T"^''^ ^'^ ^''*' vicinity. 
Tilt' land,- aruiupi arr ^uitt' frrtdf, and t.rart> ran \>r juir- 
cha^fd at t'r«un >5lc {>> ^'^') ]u'r acre. 

The whi-^th' is bl-win--. and muf impatient little ^trainer 
i> air^adv ni inoti^ui. Wr continue eiir upward course 
l).-twe»-n" well woodod ijanks. hut smm einerj^-f from 
them and a^ain tlnd oursehfs in tlie (.pen swamp or 
i.rairie countrv. Th- stream i- narrow. <le.'p and, 
i.ut MUite -afe" and ea>v of navi-atmn. Pahnett<ws hue 
the sliere-. d'he cuuntry twcivo mde^ hack ot thi^ rises 
to Dne hundred feet. an"d is a mauniiti<-ent cattle range. 
( )ur boat 'j:\\dr> 111 the hosom of tho >troani iji hyr up- 
ward cour'^e. and we pa>- ah-nu^ a thin row (»f nahuetto 
tre(-. which ar.' in a strai-ht lino, and stand like scnti- 
n<as ah.'ii^- the eastern shoi-o. After pas>in- num.Tous 
^■rnves of palmetto. v.-e roach I'Ai ant Ki/-. Landin* .. and 
a littlt^ hoyoii,! tlio month of tic 

A tribntarv of tlie St. ,hihn'-. winch run> throii.udi ('h'!/ 
^'///•//,^/.^•. a'sheel uf nnnoral wator. Tic river i^ navi^-a- 
bleaii'i pictnro<(|Uo, and remaiitie in theextn-nie in a]o 
pearaneo. :ind the rcburt uf traveler- and tourists during 
the w nit or. . 

Fa-.-nm- tin- -tream the St. John -> again chanu-o- its 
protean >lia}ie. and \siden> into the >i/.e of a small lake, 
^nid horoiiio- (luito -TI•ai^•ht. its east-'i-ii -hore ludng bor- 
dered by a row of ].almettoes, succeeded by a line of live 
oaks, overhati inn ^- tho stream. .\ litth- l.evond and to 
tlie riLrht and wo-t, wo <-onio to a ^Tovo of nalmettoes. 
whicin -o.-n bv moonhudit. present a novel and imp' .sing 
appearance. \N"e now ontor 

A lar_:o -hoot of Vv-ater. twelve miles long and five miles 
wide,"aiid abouutliUL: m lislu whilo numerous water f(.wl, 
such as the crane, heron, grey, white and pink curlew 



and pelican, feed on its shores. The country around is 
quite fertile, and contains many valuable orange groves, 
\^"o now arrive at 


On its western shore, 20-4 miles from Jacksonville. This 
pla<o was settled some years ago by :vrr. Henry S. San- 
ferd, at one time Minister to Belginm. and is an incorpo- 
rated town of about 300 inhabitants, aiid. eontains eight 

stores, a town hall, an Episcopal <'hurch and three iK.teLs, 
the JS(nij'nni Ihmse, kept hv Mr. d. B. Wistar. of Phila- 
delphia: the \l)i,,.^r !{nns,'_ k-o]>i by Mr. l-Hunquist. and 
the p()/jiif: fh>i(se, by Mr. (Jeo. A.'Snwver. and a Post- 
othce. There is a fi-hing company established here, who 
ship lari^e quantities of sliad and' sliad roes to the Xorth 
in tho wintei". and <'onvort the inferior fi-h into manure, 
lor tli*c use of ill,, orange o-rovps in the noigliborhood. 

In the country, two atii] liaif miles back, is the Belle 
Air drove, of 100 acres, containing foreign orange and 
limo trees of the finest (piality, and also a magndficent 
.uardeii of foreign and native roses, geraniums and tropi- 
cal hot house ]>lants, and flowers of ever\- variety. This 
].i-o[>erty is ov.nod by General Sanford. "The town leads 
back tea lovo] rolling connn-x'. to \v]ii(di tiiere are several 
line aveiiut's and drives. Tho iH'i^^-hborhood is ]>rincipallv 
settled by N<_.rtlierners, and is plaiited in (grange groves. 
Among the oldest and most noted is that of Mr. Speer, 
as well a< tho Ifayden and Marklian:! grove, and many 
others contain in- from 50 to 80 acres each. Fr(.m San- 
ford and Mellonville were ship].ed last season 4,000,000 
of oranL^e-. about 24,000 boxes. Lemons, limes, pine-apples, 
gua\as, grapes, bananas, etc.. abound here. A mile be- 
yond, on the same side of the lake, is the town of 


Two. hundred and five miles from Jacksonville. This is 
an incorporated town of about the same number of in- 
habiiants as Sanford. It is the oldest town of the two, 
and contain- ill! o, liotels, the M^UonvHb' IlofrJ, owned 
by :\rr. 'I'. .\. Hewit, of tin's ])lace: the MrlJonviUe Houses 
kept by Mrs. J. J. Hill, and another one, also well kept. 
Tt contains also a Methodist churcli. two stores and a 
postofTir'(\ There are several drives and a large avenue 
leading back into the hilly country. In this neighbor- 
hood aic also to be found flourishing orange groves. 
Till- was formerly the site of Fort Mvllun, erected during 
the Seminole war. As this is a large orange producing 
section, we will hazard a few remarks on 






A grove budded on sour stocks, in a favorable locality, 
will commence to pay in five or six years. When seed- 
lings are planted, the trees rarely begin to pay before the 
tenth year. An acre contains eighty trees, sometimes 
more, and after it has been set out or planted, one man, 
with a little extra help in the grassy season, can attend 
to a grove of eight or ten acres. One man suffices to cul- 
tivate the Speer Grove, mentioned above. This contains 
seven acres, and yielded last year 350,000 oranges, wliii h 
netted S18 per 1,000, amounting to about $6,000. The grove 
is thirty years old. During the picking and ]);uki!ig sea- 
son extra help has to be hirrMl. Those whu hii\ v invested 
here in this enterprise, and Lave failed, have <iiii.'r ne^;-- 
lected their groves, have been lacking in judi^-nient and 
business knowledge, or have selected bx aiities totally 
unadapted to the orange culture. One aiul u hall miles 
back of Mellon ville is the villai;* -t 

Of one hundred inhabitants, and containing thin y nr f nrty 
houses and two small hotels, one of which is cah. .1 the 
Orange House. There was also a fort hore (hirinjj: the 
Seminole war. On the eastern bank of Lake ^Ujuiue is 
the town of 


Situated on a high bluff, and 210 miles south of Jackson- 
ville. This is the county seat of Volusia Count >j. and 
contains about forty houses, two stores and ont- lar^^e 
hotel, the Brock House, and a postoffice. Thi^ tnwn I. ads 
back to a splendid sporting country, wIk iv (ht r. Ik ar, 
wild turkeys, coons. '] 




1 1 a 1 



species of game are in i^rfat ahniiilancu. Aloii^'- tht- lake 
water fowl are very uhundant. a^ ht.fore stated, and the 
fishing is excellent. In the vi( inity is 

GKKKN S PK I \ri. 

A body of sul]th'ir wattT. tiu-htv f»-.'t in diameter, and 
100 feet deep. From Kntrrpn--' >t. am. rs ran tn S.\T/r 
Lakk. and frnm thi^ lak.* ihfi'f i> a h<>rsv f rani /nn/, six 
miles l^'nL^, whioii l-'a-l^ tn Sam* i'cjiNT. '»n the Indian 
River. The steamer \'(jiu^ia ruii> to Salt Lake and the 
viianil V. 


This is a salt laj^'H.n ur hay. x'parat.'d fmni the St. 
.h>hn'< Itivfi- h\- a narrow strip nf land. >ix nnh's wide at 
it^ narr«^west iniint. and from the sea by a mer<' strip of 
sand. I^ i^ irau-yv nnd*-^ in lfni;-t]i. ainl in width \'aries 



from ten miles to less than two in some places, but aver- 
ages two miles. It runs from north to south, slightly in- 
clmmg eastward, and is parallel with the Atlantic coast, 
and is connected with the ocean by three inhis. the 
southernmost being Jupiter Inlet, and the northern In- 
dian Piv^r Inlet. It is quite shallow, but has a channel 
in the eenter from eight to ten feet deep, and is a ma^^nii- 
lieent sheet of water for yachting or boating. The water 
IS clear and of a sky 1)1ne color, and in calm weather^ 
when its surface is unruffled, the bottom can easily be 
seen, and the fish can be perceived sporting in its pellucid 
waters a long distance off. The banks, in some places, 
are In-li and steep, and from twenty-five to thiitv feet 
above the water level, while the growth along the shores 
IS the only real tropical growth in Florida, consisting of 
benr])erry. ffiimelerna. box tree, india rubber tree, cocoa- 
nut. ^nur ..rrm.^-r and lime, and the mangrove. It abounds 
in fish uf all descrijitiniis. and is the best fisliimr region in 
th.' whole State. In its waters can be found in immense 
numhrrs th.' mullet, r.-d fish or bass, sheephead. jew fish, 
salt water tr.Mit. the angel fish, a great delicacv, sailor's 
choice, hlackti.-h, whit inij^, and almost everv species of 
salt water fish. Here can be found the largest and finest 
oy.-t.Ts on onr poast, and in great abundance. Xumer- 
<Mis >]HH-]f>s i>f water fowl frequent its shores. Here may 
bo s. ■en the heautiful roseate colored spoon-bill or pink 
cui-!ew. as well as the white and grav. the ganut and 
every variety of crane and heron, as Avelf as everv speoies 
«'f wild du'-k an.l the white and gray pelican. The coun- 
try a.i-<uind i^ <diiefly pine land, an(f the northern end is 
heme; era. lually settled up and planted, principally in 
oranges, lemons. ])ine apples, bananas, and other tropical 
friuts, an<] also m sugarcane. The climate is the most 
delightful and >aluhrioTis in the United States, being 
equally fine n\ Mimnier and winter. It is as invigorating 
and braeing in summer as the more northern seaside re- 
sort-;, and ima-h more soft and bland, and tlK^refon^ more 
suitable f.T invalids and winter tuurists. This localitv 
may he (billed the sportsman and fisherman's paradise. 
In the country can be foun<i in abundance game of eYt^ry 
description, bears, iiantlurs. wulves, deer, otters, foxes, 
'possums, coons, and also wild turkeys, snipe, quail and 
other wild fowl. On its shores is also found the cele- 
brated coipiina fur building material. Boats are some- 
tnnes run fn.m St. Augustine to this river, but can al- 
ways be chartered at 

An old settlement on thr Atlantic coast, where, in 1767, 
Andrew Turnbull kuaivd l,oiJ(J Minorcans. Formerly 





large indigo crops were raised here. It is situated on 
Mosquito Inlet, which is the opening of the Halifax and 
Hillsboro' Rivers, into the Atlantic Ocean. The southern 
end of Hillsboro' River is called Mosquito Lagoon, v.liich 
is connected with Indian River by the 

Dug by the United States Government six years prrvlous 
to me opening of the late war, under a contract with l)r. 
George E. Hawes, of South Carolina, now a ]»hysi( lan at 
Palatka. The canal cost five thousand dollars. 


Twenty-six miles south of Palatka, and li'l iiiilrs from 
Jacksoiiviiir. the traveler haves the hmad, bold stream 
of the St. J(-hn"s, an<l pluiijj:*'.-. at «aicc into ilie lit-art of a 
deep and densely woodod >\v;tni}). and entr-rs throujj^h au 
I'p'-nin^^ sixty or sevf^ntv yar(l.-^ wide, a narrow, dark and 
windiri!^'" >treani. whose hoiMh-rs aro linnl with tall, 
gi^^antie eyure^s trees of viri^^in ;^-rowth. towt^ing 
eii^dity feet above the water, and draped in hanging grey 
nie'ss. while the edges lower down are frin^j^ed with the 
whit^' niaph'. a>h. magnolia and palmetto, wliose trunks 
are oh)thed with dra}»cry of parasitic ])lants and cree}>ing 
vines (;f the nh)>t heatitifnl and luxuriant growth. The 
river tiows thr» »n-;-h an inipf-netrahle swarnj*, whose shores 
on either hand arc beiieatli the surface of tlic water, an<l 
completely >uhmerged for a distance i^f half a mile or 
more Ijack from the stream to the ri^dit and left. It is 
merely a narrow channel way through a swamp of im- 
mense extent, winch follows the course of the stream for a 
distance of n:iore than 1^ > nules heftsre the scenerv 
changes, and tlie river emerges into an immense water 
prairie, strettdiing as fai' as tlie eye can reacdi. for a dis- 
tance of rather more than sixty miles, when it finally 
enters Lake ( Irirhn. The cypress is the ])rincipal growth, 
diversitied hy maple, ash. oak and palmetto, and when 
the river is traveled on a beautiful, still, clear moonlight 
niglit. it assumes a scanhre and weii-d.diko appearance, and 
the dimly li^dited vi-ta that presents it^olf to the eye of 
the a[)proach!n^- traveler, resf'nd)les th.e aisle of some an- 
cient Gothic cathedral, or the hall of a venerahh^ and 
ghost-haunted castle of Media'val times, as seen in the 
rotlectiou of the moon's jtalo heam.^. Puring the day 
time the smooth, tall gr.en cap])ed cypresses, raising their 


urnbrelia-.diaped summits to the sky, and almost meeting 
above, cast their shadows over the entire width of the 
stream, and contribute to render the scenery alone- the 
river romantic, picturesque and beautiful bevond descrip- 
tion. \\ Inle the view by dayliglit is beautiful, novel and 
pictures(iue, and by moonlight sombre and weird-like yet 
nothmg ecpuils the appearance which it presents nor the 
impression it produces when it is traversed on' a <lark 
nigiit. lighted up by the fire which burns on the deck of 
the steamer which ploughs its wav up its narrow^ and tor- 
tuous course. The vista is dark.deepand gloomv while 
the cypress swamps around, shrouded in impenetra- 
ble blackness, resemble the dimlv lighted vault of 
some old churcli of the middle ages. ' If at the same time 
the organ on the Tuskawilla be touched bv some skillful 
hand, tlie solemn strains and the gloomv scenerv around 
produce an impression upM,n tlie mind at once mysterious 
and solemn. "^ 

The Oklawaha takes its rise in Orange Coimtv, from 
Lakes Dora and Ap.^pka. and from thence flows through 
Lakes (xrifhn, Eustis and Harris. Its largest source of 
supply, however, is Silver Springs Run, a beautiful 
trans])arent stream of water, nine miles in len^nh from 
where It empties into the Oklawaha to Silver" Sprinrrs 
wliH-h IS Its source. Tlie Oklawaha is navigable for ^75 
miles from its mouth, and flows through a rich and fer- 
tile country. comi)rising .Alarion. Sumter and a portion of 
i utnam Counties, and is the highw^av to one of the most 
productive sections of the State. It is from ten to twelve 
feet deep and quite ra}.id. while the waters are dark 
and muddy. 1 he name Oklawaha is of Indian orimn 
and means crooked irafrr, and the river well deserves the 
title t(.r It IS the narrowest navigable stream in the world 
tor itslength, and is a succession of bends and turns 
bometimes the bends are less than sevent v-five feet ai)art' 
andii the steamers were not especiallvVonstructed for 
the puri)ose steam navigation along its course would be 
an imi)<)ssibility. It was originallv navigated bv flat or 
narrowb..atswliudi were poled up, and the problem of 
navi^ratinj.r n by steam has only been solved within the 
last twenty-five years. 

We will now proce«Ml to give some description of a vov- 
age up its course until we emerge into the beautiful lakes 
beyond. Steaming up the river for a distance of eiLfht 
miles, we reach 

Which leads back into a fertile pine land region, opened 
up and settled withm the last four vears, and cultivated 
in cotton and corn, and containing nianv thriving vouug 




oranp:e groves, while all the tropical frnit-^ arp ra-ilj 
raised here. In the neighborhood are tAvt'iityfiv,' >>! tlmty 
settlements, while the countrv fivf- or six niiirs Lark ri>es 
into a hilly and healthy regiuii. Most of the laiui^ iu the 
vicinity are owned by the Government, and are called 
homestead lands, and can Im purchased f<»r a liMitly 
nominal price, by complying with the horn* -^i* ail law. 

Our steamer is again in motion, up a narrow -tr-nn. 
not more than thirty feet wide, while the vines and 
branches on either hand brush the sides of the vesso! as 
it passes along. We turn a bend and ent(T a widrr part 
of the river, but are soon again in the narrows, and m a 
short time arrive in sight of 

Thiriy-six miles from the ni<'mh. Two miles back e>f 

this is 


A settlement so naaied from ilio sulphur s}»i-iTi^^ in the 
vicinity. | -assessing fine medicinal properties, aii'l the r.- 
sort of 1' -urists (luriii:: Th^ wiiii-r, 'Iliere are two wrll 
kept hotels, oiif 4iiitelarge containing 140 m. .ms. 11irro 
are several niM' '-rani:*' _i-oves in this neij^liborliood. A 
little higher up Ui^' nvi-v ']< i)vnu'j;<' ^])vin';:< landin.LC alx) 
Uadintr back t^' the -dil.rii.'iiT nt' tip- >amc nanit;. A 
joarnuy ut tkirt-'fH mil.- t'urtlicr hnng.^ u^ lu 

Some iii>tance back ul wiiicii i- a liirivuiL;- sfttlfiiicnt^. 
"Wp pass along and next, come m >uiii "i a Ihl:)' !»lntf. 
\\ iiich for a mom- ni breaks the monoton\ of the s\vam]> 
scenci'y. Icit are soon again -uit^ .mch-ii 1'}' fc<i-c^ts and 
\\aT.r. Occasionally an islet or pcnin>ula appears cov- 
er'-'l wirli trees, whose tnnik>ar. onwoiMptMl in vinc^ and 
creepnig plants. We n'>\y pass Log<inm-. < Mir next 
landin-- jilacp is 

sixty-eighili niiie> up. Tlie N'Kanit}' is cultivated in c«it- 
tun, corn, sugar cane and rice as well as oranges and 
tropical fruits, while further back is a rolling i)ine region 
fertile and htaltliy. 

We leave tin- place and follow the course of the rivor, 
v/liicli i- t\N'*i!tv fe.'t \vi(h'. and reacli two cypress trees 
SO close together tiiat the hark i- ruhhed < 'If in some ])laros 
by tlie boats ]»a>>inu: h. t -A.'.'ti : .nr craft gr-a/.es in passin,l,^ 
an^i purines its liar!' c.s- wnidin.;- course. The hands on 
h-;o-d. ar- ivw ctan^'ned at the bow, pole in hand, to a.^- 
si--t in t 'iiaiin,.:' t ],>■ ve.-std. 

We steam alon^- 1 wi-t in.;-, turninu'-and windinc; throngli 
scenery of wild r'jmantic beauty, an ^1 roimdin-; a ben<l 


come in sight of a bluff sixty feet high, sloping down to 
the water on which is the settlement of MiT McLure 
This is called 

Severn V miles up the river, a lofty height, towering 
above the river. Our little steamer glides along the sur- 
taceof the nv.r. and we are again in the swamp and 
tnrinne .a <'irve. catch sight bf a natural curiositv m the 
siiape of two cypress trees, which have inclined towards 
each r,rher nntil they have united and form a single tree 
-•\l''''^Mhe n.ite IS another freak of nature, in the shape 
ot a douhle h.aded palmetto. Wending our wav under 
the over-arching tive,^ and passing a liandsome clusiHr of 
paimettoes, we reatdi 

Seventy-six mile^ from the mouth. We take a fleetina 
gl^nice, at this and i,a» Mil. A half mile hitrher up is 
Gore's I.and me-. eiglity-Mx milo up. We now come in 
siKht ol a hank six or eight feet hi-h. hut are soon a^^ain 
surrounded hv water an-l w.h,,]^. and six miles hightTup 
rea(d) l)eurisosa Landm.-. hut make m, stav here and 
•■'•ntinumg on. ].ass a grove of laH j.ahnettoe; en .;ur Kff 
and a nnle turiher enter a reach bareiv wid.c euou-h U,r 
"iir httle crait to pa^-^. hut <uccooii in "bum].ing our w-av 
liirough. Kmer-iU- wr nnd our>eives in a 'wider anil 
more navi-able part of the stream. 

In this nei-hhorhood the fishing is verv tine, liie river 
aboundim: m trout, luvam. etc. Trout ^are frequentlv 
cau.^Tit here weighing tw^elve pounds. Deer wild tur- 
keys .piail. etc., abound en the hie-h lands and anions the 
scrni) <.ak>, wlnle wild ducks, curlew., herons, cranes 
and Nvater turtle:, are Inund in great numbers ahan- i]ie 
rnej- hank>and in the ^wamjts. ^ 

^^ e have liow reached 

LONG'S landing;. 

Xmety-three mil... up The riv.-r. hack of which is a ihriv- 
mg settltmieni. while lii the viemitvare numerous cotton, 
corn and cane plantations and manv <.ran<'-e groves' 
Last winter there were oO.OOO oran-es ;hi].]M"hrfrom hero' 
A mile hey(uid We e,,m,. t,, Gkahamviulk a iu-h hluil 
on whudi is a neat cuttage. Jouruevme ,;n we pass 
LiMJU<i\ h^.m-FF. ninetv->ix inilo u}c ' 
_ <hir little. u-aft speeds aloUL^ un ihe luarr-w windin^^- 
["■''[- ;'''"'" ^^'" ''^"'^•'^^' -^ ;' rill- -r the report of a pistol 
i^'y'i>''i ill -ome Me.-pm- aih-ator. which mies 
of] unharmed, hivaks the silence of the forests an.und 
bometmies an unet^.udmg limpkin or water turtle i- tlu; 
object ot th.' >].orimairs notice. Occasionallv. at th> re- 

1 1 

r i. 



port of a pistol, a water turtle is seen to drop fr. .in a pro- 
jecting limb of a tree into the water, and whi!r tlit- marks- 
man exults in his own skill, behold he disappt-ar- >iiiiler 
the water, and his long neck and snake-like head are 
alone seen a few minutes later, far out of guu^liot. We 
turn a bend, pass a Mr.ff and again linr}- ..nrsclves in the 
swamp. We now reach apc^inr wli.Te two^t^t•anls in'-et, 
and turn t" tlic I'i^-ht. where the water is as clt-ar as 
crystal, and w.- ar-' in 


Wln.'h is callril il;*- I'kide OF THE Oklav.-aha. at lli.^ 
mouth of wlncli ran be seen where'the clrar and th.' 
nniddv waters nif't. Fifty yards furtlicr u]» we can see 

the butt'^ni. N\hi(di i^ niorr than twenty fcrt deep, as vr.dl 
a=;thr- wh"U' fnrniatK'n <>f tiif riv^T hrd ami sinallrst tish 
swinumnij: htdnw. and the n.unutest ])ubblu, sludl orfern, 

at the bottom. 

Tlu' whole course. f..r nino mih'< ui). i< sur])assingly 
beautiful At certain pha-'-'s the bedi.f the river deepens 
to forty feet, at the bottom of whi(di a tive cent piece can 
be seen. Auam laru'e portion^ ^A^ t)ie bed are covereii 
with a luxuriant i^n-owtli of waving weeds, resembling 
wild oats, which o-^ciUate to and fro with the motion of 
the water. a< tields nt grain would wave at the sighing 
of a summ-T breo/.f. In other phe'es tlie l»ed is fr(H' from 
weciN. and o^n-i-^ts nf white saiKh whi(di assumes an em- 
erald tint, and is covereii with multitudes of beautiful 
shelU. whieii tia-h back throULch the idear waters the re- 
flected raA'^ of li--iit. produciUL: u shinini:: silvery a])])ear- 
aiK'c. thus irivnu;- rise to tiic name of tlie run and spring 
bevoml. In >ome spot> the bottom resembles a sheet of 
chased silver, strewn witli thousands of emeralds, rubies 
and diamonds which retloct tlie rays ( f the mid(hiy sun 
in all the hues of tic ramitow. The whole bottom is of a 
delicate green tint, sometimes (dianging t(Wi deep i)]ue, 
and a glance i)elow resfinbles a glimpse into fairy land. 
In otlu^r localities there are oveidianging boulders of 
sparkling ro<'k. forming submarine caves, caverns and 
grottoes, whose silvery walN appear to be (N)vered with 
gems and sapphires, and whence the imagination might 
readilv cheat itsfdf into the belief tliat some water sprite 
or undine was about to issue forth to assert its suprema- 
cv over the fairy roalms below. In thesc^ submarine 
caves can Vie seen fissures from wlnidi the water ])ubbles 
up from the Ixtttom. {irodvadng the impression that under 
the river bed. exists an immense cavern, througli wliich 
the water c«turses under ground and fnvci.'<. its way up 
and forms the river. The water i^ so limjad and (dear 


ii'^^''''V-f-^^\-i^^''?''^^^^P^'^^^di^^ air above the bot- 
tom, and It IS difficult to realize that it is resting on an v 

more substantial element. Tlie fish are seen cro^^s Ir 
each other's tracks, and the whole len^ah of tL run 4^^ 
sembles a submarine street, teeming with animal life 

About five miles up we arrive at the landing of Col 
Rodger.s where we find a flourishing orange grove and 
-nj; of the largest banana groves we have vet teen 

lis creek flows through a rich and fertile section of 

mi;^ t iV ^'''^11^'^^^ ^^^•'^"\- ^<^tton, cane and fruit, in large 
quantities. \\ e have at length reached 

After which the old w-_ar-worn Sj)anish leader sighed, and 
^hidi he lost his life m vainly attempting to discover. 
Ihis Ls a i)eautiful curcular basin of the clearest water, 
nearly ],ree hundred feet iii diameter. Towards the head 
or this i.asm is a circular spring, seventv feet deep, with 
sne.ll r ]', '' :^r\Vhlue color, sandy, and covered witli 
Muall .shells, win.di flash and sparkle as above described. 
iMom this >pring tlie water boils up with immense force 
and velocity, and a heavy body dropped into the water 
AMion halt way d<.wn. is seized by thecurivnt and whirled 
aside and d.)Wii the stream as though it were a feather. 

^^ii ''i'"'''^ l¥.^'"''-^^'''"i^''^^^-- '^ a semi-circular bav or 
cove, bottom is free from weeds or growth i,f anv 
^ind. and -m a sky blue color, which is called the 


AN^liilo within a f,-wfeet is a .nfuni! u'cll beneath the 
^ater. sixty b^^t deep and fonr fe.t wide at the top. Tlie 
surface of the spring w],en undisturbed is smoother and 
more transparent than the finest glass. 


Is spread ont at the head of the spring, and consists of a 
dozen li.»uses. a stor(^ and a hotel, kept bv Mrs. Kodgers 
Ihe sottlenieiit is the depot for ' 


The county seat of ^Lari^n Tounty, and an incorporated 
town of oiw thousan.i inhabitants, containing twentv-rfve 
stores, a fine h,,tel. th.- Ocala House, capa])le of contain- 
ing one hiHKbvd and fifty guests, a white and a colored 
school, and two colored churcJies. It also boasts a well 
coii.]u('te(l daily j.aper, edited by Mr. F. E. Harris, called 
the h,tsf I'lorida Banner. 






Between Ocala and Silver Springs, a tramway six miles 
lone is in course of construction. This town is the outlet 
of the whole belt of country twenty miles around,, and ot 

Which is a cotton and cane producing section, while fruit 
is also raised in considerable quantities. T.ast season 
there were shipped from this county seven in. .u- >:ind hng:^ 
of long staple cotton by this route. Corn ks P^^i^^i^ i^^; ^.^^''^ 
cheap, the current price being from twentv five to thirtv 
cents per bushel. The country is high, vvell .Inun.a and 
fertile, abounding in cool clear springs of good .linikmg 
water, and admirably adapted to whit, tann laln-r. 1 h-^ 
health of the neighborhood is excellent. 

Leaving Silver Springs we procee<l <l'^wn tho nvrr ami 
re-enter the Oklawalin hv '<\v(M>piTm- ar-umi a li.'iid. and 
iTtiinediatelv. a< if l>v tIi;. t-in-h -f a niaL,nria:rs wand, 
tl'.. watprQ r.-<nni-' tl;.'ir dark and turbid aiq^'arance. 

'w',' n.-xr pass ^7m//-/- "> /•'' '•/•'/• the crossin- i>lac.- nt the 
r.^aai iR'tu'tvn Ocala and \'..lnsia, on the St. J"hii s IJiver, 
and continue our journey on \\\r ru-kawilla. undn- the 
can' of Capt. Arthur Kd\vard<. 

AVo have now reached an -iH-mn-. where on our Ndt is 
nn iT.iniense field of war. t flags m- l.oiinet plant^ t-nni- 
ivw'in^r in a splendid r^w ..f palm-ttoes, holiind wlncli 
a^-anTrise cvpress and -th-T tivus, of a still tcdlorgn.wtli, 
Thi^ IS called Palmkt i' > TATcn. 

Wo at length emerge from tho wooded -wanip an<l hi<i 
it a final adieu. What the river ha-^ 1->t m |Moninsquo- 
ness and beauty of scenery it lias gamod m novrlty, 
while the vision so long confined is free to n>ani t.. its 
widest range. Northerners an- osju-ciallv attracted hy 
tins portion of th.' rivor. d"!w -troani has assunicd the 
appenrnnoeof a narrow and or-Mko,! canal. wnidin;x_and 
twistin^-- like a seri-'iit through wido and tirlds 
of wat"r cresses, whu ii cover the surface ot tlio wator 
on -ither side of the riv.-r. This is tho i^raino (N.untry. 

The bonnet plants coniph'toly cover tho surface of the 
open swaiii]' with hr^ad tlat leaves, and tlu^ surface 
of the ].rairie countrv k as smooth, as a newly mown hay 
f.cld d'his prairie extends alntii: tii.' nvrrs odges for u 
distance of sixtv miles, the .■d-.'s of the ].rairie being 
walled on eith.'r side a ({uartor of a mile back (>f the 
stream bv forests (^f cvpress and j)almetto trees. 

\\V ^v'rud "11 nur wav and pass a solitary tree called 
Lonr I )<il:. liud continue' uin the river by moonlight re- 
semblmi: a -ilv.'r thread windiiiL^ through an immense 
and interminable uTe.-u field. W.- n^w stop at L'lke 
W'^irr landing, one hundred and t\v.ntydiv(> miles up the 
river, and h'adinc: b^n'k to 




In Marion County. This lake is nearly circular and varies 
in width from five to nine miles, and is a beautiful slieet 
of water, surrounded by an amphitheatre of hills from 
forty to sixty feet in height, while the surrounding 
country is high, rolling and salubrious. The settlement 
along its shores is only six or seven years old. and con- 
sists principally of Northerners who ow^n numerous voung 
orange groves in the vicinity. It contains three stores and 
more than four lumdred families. It is proposed to con- 
nect the lake wdth the landing by a canal three miles in 
length. We resume our journey and next stop at 

On the east side and one hundred and twenty-eight miles 
up. The countrv for fifteen miles back of this is well 
settled, chiefly by natives. The productions are corn, 
cotton, cane, oranges, and other fruits. Large shipments 
were made from this place last season. We speed on 
through the prairie and pass 


On the east and sixteen miles up. This section is chiefly 
cultivated in cotton and cane, though there are some fine 
orange groves in the vicinity. Our next stopping place is 


Which leads back to one of the most fertile regions along 
this river, and takes its name from the gentleman settled 
here, who owns a large tract of land and an orange 
grove of fourteen acres, containing one thousand two 
hundred trees, which will yield this season one hun- 
dred thousand oranges. The estates of several wealthy 
gentlemen from Alabama and Georgia, are also under 
nis care. There will be from twenty-five to thirty mil- 
lions of oranges shipped from this vicinity during the 
winter. The coimtry is also largely planted in corn, cot- 
ton and cane. The river from Stark Landing to Sligh- 
ville is perfectly straight, and from one hundred to two 
hundred yards wide. Leaving this place, we soon after 
enter , 


A fine expanse of water, ten miles long, and ^Wn four to 
five miles in width, and one of the sources ^f the Okla- 
waha, which flows through it. The entire shore is planted 
in orange and fruit groves. We will mention some of 
them as we pass along the shores. On the edge of the 
lake is the Whitehall grove, the property of Dr. Bouk- 
night. The handsome dwelling is almost hidden from 


A GriT)F. T's 

view by the orange trees. Mr. Holt^on'^ i^q-,iv. of six: 
acres is on a fine situation < >]\ tiic NVr>t«i-ii -liui-.', uu wlncii 
is a fine residencp. Beyoiul is tin- >ix :u-i\' ^rove of Mr. 
AVril>-r,>. and furllu'r nn we reach (/d. Laiiier^s tiiif rcsi- 
(iciu-c and Lxr^vf, fronting: thf lakf. from whicii will he 
shipprd thi.> wiiit- r f"iir iiiindred J4iia\ a>. We next [ia>s 
^\v. Allfu's estate, conlaimai.; a i^rove of f"iir Imn.h-cd 
and fifty orange trees, aui a luindsome reMd.Miet' ^( n a 
I'.l'itT -ixtv feet aV»ov(^' tii-- watrr. and eeTisidertMl liir tlnrst 
situation ^n fli" hik-'. FurllhT SDUth i^ tlie |>r<>p.Tt\' ui 
]\rr. Krrv.'. who uwn^ a >"ou!ij; nranu-*' ^M-n\-." n[ tt-n acres, 
funtaininu^ also a few i.jnu.n irir>. We have now reached 

LAKE ' ; ! ; I r fix t, a xd t xg 

And postoiBce, and passing on come to Mr. J. F.. I>Mrdtns 
orange grove of five acres and !«anana plan fat ion. with a^ 
few pine apples on it. Next in ord' f is the lesid' nc ♦• of 
Mr. Bishojc uid also his Lrrove of about tw. my acr. >; 
while heyond is Dr. FrrtwoU'^ -rov*- "f t.ii a(a-.'-. and 
al-" h;^ handsome residence on a in^^ii i;lutV. ['.oy(»nd is 
])!•. Inrnknight's grove, ah-ead;. n-: ic '1. ^oid :^oa;h of Uns 
Mr. Cliaplin's residence. >ai a I i-^h hid. v/lnci; is 
a vnna.: seedling grove of six acres. Nh-ar hy is Mrs. 
E'iwai i-' plarp. and in the vicinity Capt. Edwards' vounu: 
grove. ]■ iiriiic)- oil is the }'r"]MTt v of Mr, .i,ini''> ( '< 'udray, 
who owns a small grove on tlie lake front. I ; i^c < iioss' 
grove of five or six acres next strikes the eye of i he trav- 
eler, who has at length reached 

On the north side of the lake, and en n peninsula betwecMi 
Fake Griffin and Fak(> Harris. Fl rontains .du ui thirtv- 
li\-f d Wfinn^\->,. .-^ix .■3Lufe^, and a ^'-''-'d huici that can ac- 
euniniudau fifty people, and kept by Mr. Lee. 

In the neighborhood are some very exnn^ivr oranK*' 
groves, ringing in value fiMin $5,000 to !$40.00(). All 
tr-ceicMl frnits are here iar-vly cuFivate.i. Frein Mr. 
Harris" plcice will be shipped this year hx. handivh pine- 


Fan<ls can be purchased here at lium 82.50 to S') per 
aci' . In the vicinity are two flourishing: oransre ere\ t>s 
owned hv the- Messrs. F<~'p. nftor w hum the place is e.illed. 
< Hir little -^toamer is again m motion, and we next arrive 
m sight of 

A> It i> called, ale^n,;- winidi is a line of oraii;;'e ^roN'es of 
mere than, ninety ^acres, and a ndle and ,i (piart.T in_ 
lone-tli. Fro!ii tins bend last season were s!ii[>ped a half 

THE LA.N.i; uF TLuWERS. 147- 

jniilion of oranges. On the north is an island surrounded 
l.<^^^ll^\ A'lan]^. n\ e next enter 


Wlii.h <onnects Lake Griiiin witli Fake Eustis The first 
I'lndme- place is J-ne nrst 

Near which i. Mr. ilarns" grove. Messrs. Love]] Sc Vail 

ne hu died thousand oranges. On the creek are sevirai 
nther tn- e g^roves. The grove of Mr. Alserbrooks otddo 
Mte the -uuUng,^ yielded last year three hundred tFous^^^^^^^ 

e auf 'th r T^'T'^^ '^''' settlement is very pien?r 
esque. tlie dwcllnie hom^- <.t hack among the pines 
Leaving the creek we enter P^^t^b. 


Very nearly circnlar^ and eight miles in duuneter. the 

ing'n 7;;;:' 1!;^; ;r "^- •" ' '''■''' ^^^"^^^- Th^ fi^^^ '^-^- 


Whore are found a lumber mill and store, owne.l hv Mr 
( )wens. . ^ui. 

This will ho ti:o present terminus of the })roiected rail- 
road rom Fake George to Lake Eustis, thn distance be l 
'>nl^' t went N -three miles. This is called the ^ 

-HT. Johns, lake eustis and gulf raj lroau - 

And has a capital of S2n.noo. subscribed hv a companv " 
Fen ^^'nt,com,;ry Ala., who have arranged^to borrow in 
Atu \,,rkthe balance necessary to complete the road 
Ilio t..tal ce.t w:]l he 800,000, and later it will l>e e^^eSd^ 
from Port Mason, on Fake Fn.stis, to some poin near 
Tam].a. onthefJulf of M<cxico. The road will he the 
ngliway to a rich Firming country back of Lake Harris 
i^eaving i^urt Mason ^ve speed on and roach 


On the east of tlie lake, and containing a hotel that can 
accommo,late forty persons. From this point there is a 
stage line to Sandford, on Fake Monroe a distance of 
thirty miles. Kv tins route the trip can be made up the 
M. Johns an<l crossing can be continued down Lakes 
Eustis and (Jnffin and the oklawaha. Bevond are the 
grove and residence of Col. Lane, of Ala])ama, and fur! 
ther on. the grove of oOU trees owned by Mr Brvant \Vp 
now enter *^ - ^i, am. v> e 



WiiiLii cuiUiLLis Lake Eustis with Lake Harris. This 
river is about a mile long and lOo yards wide, with shores 
lined with iiniuense cypresses, covered from their toDs to 
the Nvater's edge witlT^rey moss. We have reached 

or Lake Astatula, an Indian name, which means lake of 
sunbeams. This is a lovely sheet of clear water, and 
whru in repose merits the beautiful name conferred on it 
bv the Indians. It is eighteen miles long, and varies 
from six to nine miles in width, and is surrounded by for- 
ests, alternating^ with beautiful dwellings and orange 
groves, while the banks slope up from thirty to forty feet 
in height. 

Passing a grove "-f moss covered live oaks, we reach 
Capt. Hain*-s" grove, on a lofty hill, containing twenty- 
five acres under (»range and fruit culture, and two or 
three thousand pine-apple plants. Beyond is Mr. Haines' 
grove. At the heail of the lake is the village of 


The Indian name for orange, a picturesmie settlement on 
a rising slope twenty-five feet high, and containing two 
stores, a school-lutuse and a church for all Christian de- 
nominations. The inhabitants number forty souls. The 
back country is high and healthy, containing numerous 
settlements.' Besides oranges and tropical fruks, sugar 
•cant\ corn, potatoes, etc., are raised here. Numerous 
families from (ieorgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Virgi- 
nia are located in this vicinity and engaged in tlie orange 
culture. One party last season shipped p)o,oon oranges. 
Behind tht- village' is a high hill, from which can be seen 
five lake's (Jrittin. Eustis. Harris, Dora and Apopka— 
the sources of the ( )klawaha River. The wild orange 
grows luxuriantly here, and is indigenous to the soil, and 
one grove of sour orange trees here contains twenty- 
sevon acres. The whole neig}d)<»rhood is quite healthy, 
there being hardly any frost here, not enough to injure 
the guava^ the most st-nsitive of all fruits to its effects. 
The railroad being built from Lake George to Lake Eustis 
will also tap this country. Passing down the lake, we 
catch a ghmpse of Mr. Eady's grove and residence. 
Across the lake, on the n(^rthern shore, is one of the finest 
groves in this soction. that of Col. Marshall, who wdll 
ship this season more than -.2.000.000 oranges, while on 
his place all tropical fruits are found. We next note Dr. 
Gaston's grove, and then reach Judge Stone's residence 
and grove, on one of the handsomest sites on the lake 



Tho dw.'Uing is on a hill >luu feet high, which 




commands a fine view of the lake, Leesburg and the sur- 
rounding country. The grove contains bou trees. 

We now pass Mr. Hooks' place, at the mouth of Opa- 
humkee Creek. The grove contains 1,200 trees. The 
country back of this lake is high, rolHng, hummock land, 
adapt( (1 to cotton, cane, grain and fruit culture, while in 
the mterior the pine lands are studded with small, clear 
w^ater lakes that swarm with fish. The new railroad will 
put this section within fourteen hours communication 
with Jacksonville. We now^ enter 

And three miles up reach the postoffice of the same name. 
This IS the Indian name for muddv water, the character 
of the water of the creek. We pass a draw bridge, and 
continue on. To the left of the creek is a cove or circular 
basin and spring of the most transparent water of a deep 
blue color. This covers two acres, and has no bottom, 
and is called 


As beautiful as the more famous Silver Spring. We now 


The head of navigation of the Oklawaha/ on which i!< 


A settlement containing about a dozen houses. About 
thirteen miles south of Yalaha is the settlement of 

Which is a fertile grain section, from which the lake set- 
tlers obtain their corn, and which thev call their Egypt. 

We now return into Lake Harris,' on our w^av back. 
On the western bank we pass the grove of Mr. Thatcher 
S. Johnson. The next is the young grove of Mr. J. F. 
McLendon, three miles from' Leesburg, on which are 
some very fine leniun trees. This estate will ship this 
year 50.000 oranges. Viewed from the water it is one of 
the most picturesque settlements on the lake. Separated 
from this, by a strip of woods, is the grove of Mr. T. K. 
Milam, and also another grove near the w^ater front. We 
now pass Col. Marshall's place, before mentioned, valued 
at 830,000. The situation of the dwelling is excellent, 
and there is a fine avenue, forty feet wide, sloping down 
from the piazza steps to the water's edge. On the adja- 
cent bluff is Dr. A. A. Stivender's grove, of sour orange 
trees, twenty-seven acres in extent. These will all be 
budded in time. 

This vicinity may be called the garden spot of Florida. 
and IS one of the most romantic and beautiful in appear- 



ance. On the eastern shore of the lake is Capt. A. J, 
Phares' place, on a bluff thirty feet hi^h. '11 1. m>ve eon- 
tains 1,0(X) orange aivl l-^^ ].'nv)Ti trc'^. win!.- TrM])ica [ 
fruits of every description are f ultivat. >!. In thr K'^ve is 
a curiosity in the shape of a sour uraiigr tr. . , which has- 
been freely budded, until it^; seven 'iitf-r'Ht kinds 
of fruit — the citron, lime, lenu.u, sweet aiid s >iir oranw... 
L^rai- rruit and shaddock. East of this i- tlir »-!at»' Of 
Dr I »raK:e, one of the most f> rtile on the iak. Idu r» si- 
deiice is a tasty low structure, \\iiiia i,i^[i iHfrlu'd r>M>f'. 
and situated in the midst of the grove, which contains 
500 trees, while every variety of tropica! fi lir i- raised 
here, and along either side of theav^inis i- a li'd'^eof 
piup-npT>les. This fruit arrives at ur- a i {MTifcia.n horr. 
aiM 1- ;:-> mellow and juirv as a p^^ar. 

Adj.'nr.iii,^ we t;ii(l Mr, i'a^-^a's piac-c, v/hich i> b.-auli- 
fully laid uii; in \sa]k> divcru;iii^ fr\>iii tla* hmi-;,' hkc tht- 
radii of a circle. The grove contains .'.'d nran^^o Trres 
and, . .rlitT ^ropical frtiits. We n^-xt c^ ^nif t<> ( ; r.Maan i'.cnd. 
thr |ir(>)uTr\' (»f Mrs, ( '. P.. r)rak''. wnh a youn^ nran;,;(' 
L:r<)\-f .in It. and adj'a'-rnt to this Mr. ('(iitrr!]"s .^inall 
,^"^"^■^' I m" y< ']iw^ eran^u:*' trees. In thr iifii^ddiorhuod is llif 
^Tnvfdf I>!..d. .Maridn Sims, and next Pint- Solus, tht- 
|,r, ,|,,-rT\' ' d" ^h•, ('. W Sj.ict'!-. v.ddh' furt !if>r on is I-it-ndr- 
in.Tf. (iwn- d hy Mr. W . A. llucker, vf XdrLCUiia. on whi(di 
phu'f i- a hand- ane cottage. Next in order is I)r. Thomas" 
small 'j;v"\ ' . and last comes Mr. d 'iiaT^.s pr.iptTty. 

There is no more hcaiitiful and r<*niantir trij) anywhere 
in F]< >rida than this on^ ii[) tla' ( ^kkawaha. Sil vci- S]»rin;j;s, 
and Lak-- Oritiin. Kn-ti^ and Harris, tht- Pak** of *" Sun- 
h»,'ani>," Tiif ia--f i.--.>nf(if iJm' most hcautiful sheets of 
watr'- m ad Fl'.rida. wldh' tla- ^liores and surroun<lin^ 
country art.' ].i\-,.l\- ar.d i>i;'tr.rrv(m-' in the extreme. The 
air is soft -.tU'] hland, tlif niLclits arr eonl and hra(a*n(j^. 
Aloni:: tla' sIk^to of th.o lalce water fowl of all descrip- 
tions, ar.' fi 'nnd anaaiLT \\dii(di are tlw \\diite crane, lieron, 
^roy and white ciirhw and the h.autiful pink curlew, 
while in th.f .•onntr;^- aro numerous th»cks of wild ]>arn)ts 
of brilliant pluma^^e. whi(di are easily domesticated. The 
settlers are ,L;-eniah hospitable and courteous, and extend a 
warm wtdeomo to all now comers. 

AVc mu-r now hid adieu to the •" Land of P"1()W(ts," of 
simny skies, and soft and balmy breezes: of nc^ble rivers, 
romantic st roams, silver springs, and lovelv lakes; of 
magnificent forests, of the evergreen, oak. and cypress; of 
the woodhin»' and jessamine: of orange grovt^s and flower 
gardens: of tropical fruits and birds of the brightest plu- 
mage — a land wht^e naturo assumes her most pleasing 
and smiling as]><'ct. and where she is robed in her most 
beautiful and ^ron'-euus attire. 


The favorite route to Florida by water is froi,, l>,er '- 
:S. u- v.k -.vhere the fine and po.nular line of steamers" 
of wh,,.i, .M,. Geo, W. Quintard is Pre.sident, 1, aves twice 
■1 ^v.vk. A , oyaj^e of fifty hours brings them te Charles- 
;.""■■;■;',■""' "l"'-' "-eir arrival passengers are trans- 
t-n-ed to the si^liyulid steamers of the Flori.];. lino v-hirh 
will 1,.. f,„„i,! at the wharf awaiting their arnval. Plea- 
sure seekers or invalids will find this route the most 
at,nv,,, ,„. ai.a attractive, and less expensive than any 
otin r. It IS the only route by which the beautiful scenery 
o th.. !, .wnr St. John-s River can be viewe-I Those trav- 
.Imu' uiUi mvalids. I.-idies or children. wiU particularlv 
uppivciate the trouble and inconvenience avoided l,v i.-int; 
earned direct to their destination without change or 
trnnsf,.,- of baggage, except from one steamer to the other 
l.v.n-at ti,.. u-lK,ri- at Charleston. A splendid new mai 

St. -am.. rju. •,...:;,, .!,.,,.!, and the finest steamer of her. la-^s 
ever Souih. and commanded by the favorite au.l popular 
officer Capt. Leo Vogel, formerly of the steamer Dictator 
so w,.| kn,.-,vn to all Florida tourists, will soon be on the 
route tn„n Charleston to Florida. This steamer, built 
.■xi"---'->l.v f.T the service, splendidly fitted up with every 
comfort au.l .-..m ...uience, has a table .supplied with every 
, lu.xury ,,( the Charleston, Savannah aiai F!. mi iikets 
Pas..,.ng,r.s bj this route will reach JacKsonviiie, Florida' 
t after their arrival at Charleston ahead of 
the 1 a.ln.a.l t„ne, and wi!l „ot fail to find this route a 
(Itdightful one. 

, ]^''^ ^^teamer; proceed up the St, John's River to Pa- 
iatka. stnppm- at all points along the route. They con- 
I'-t :it locoi, on the St. John's River, with the St. John's 



Steam Railway C«'mpany fi^r St. Anj^ni'^tiiH'. and at Pa- 

latka with stfainors plyin^^ en th*' lu-autiful Upper St. 

John's Kiv^L'T, 

terprise. and Indian River or th< 

steamers in tl 

and running to Sandford. Mrllonvillc, Kn- 

vicinitv, and also with 

le Tl 1 

nianti*' and b^'autiful < )klawaha River 

and Silvt^r Sprin;^^s. The ch()icr>t statf rooms (\an 



'Cured hv n< itifvniu^ tlu. 

airt-nts at Charleston hv Irtter 


r teleyrrani. Further infornuitiou can !•♦• ohtaini 

1 hv 



\' » ' n t ' 

cV ( 

a'_r>Mits, Corner ut \ andcr 




luirf and Ea-t I^av. (diarleston, S. C. 


^ 75- H 




f- i i I 




-/ 75- ^H 

Microfilmed 199 

State Library of Florida 
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as part of the 

SOLINET/ASERL Cooperative 
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Funded in part by 

the National Endowment for the Humanities 

Reproductions may not be made without permission from 

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in its judgement, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of the 
copyright law. 

Barbour, Ralph Henry 

Let's go to Florida 

New York: Dodd, Mead 


Bibliographic Record Target 

SOL Mm 1 060-0/^ fBA 





Barbour, fialph H«Qryf 1870- 

Let*a 80 to Florldal Infornation lor 
those who haven't been but are goin^f 
those who have been and are going back, 
and those who don't expect to go but 
will, by fialph Henry Barbour. New York, 
Doddv Mead 6 companyt 1926* 

vi p., 2 I., 288 p. front. t plates 20 


I. Florida — Descr. S trav. I. Title 

29 SEP 77 CMJ FBAGsl 26-1141 

Technical Microfilm Data 

Microfilmed by 

University Microfilms, International 

Ann Arbor, Ml 

on behalf of 


Atlanta, GA 

Film Size: 35mm Microfilm 
Reduction Ratio: / o^ X 

Image Placement: IA(lJA)lB MB 
Date Riming Began: (7 oq -^ I 
Camera Operator: ).\.r .x^pi Coi^^eLvA 


■ " 


Association for Information and Image Management 

nuu Wayne Avenue, Suite 1100 
Silver Spring. Maryland 20910 




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V\)e ©urnn Jt a>o6t n Camjanp 

RAHWAY -.(A .t'fciY 

Tins is licit Iht iriiidc-liook nor gazetteer. Noth- 
iiiu: X) orderly oi- ambitions. It is, rather, an 
ctTort to ti'Il what Florida is really like, in the 
lio|)(^ that some yxTsons, liaving read it, will de- 
cide to act on the snu:gestion contained in its title. 
Xo att('m])t is made to depict Florida as a modern 
(Jar(hm o\' Fdcn. The state is still in the makiniz: 
and has the nsnal fanlts and shortcomings of 
yonth. Bnt it also has its virtnes and merits. 
Tli(^ writer has somrht to ])resent each impartially, 
.'dthonLrh he nn])lnshinLrly confesses that a w\arm 
likinir for Florida has sometimes made it difficult. 
Still, h(^ helieves he has hewn pretty close to the 
line, unconcerned with the chips. 

Tie has drawn on a knowledge of his subject 
gained fi'om more than forty years of accjuaint- 
ance, and has written from the point of view^ of 
neither the Floridian nor the outsider, but as one 
who, born in the North, has visited the state many 
times and r(^sided in it frequently for varying 
periods. Uo has eked out first-hand knowledge 
In- recours(^ to tln^ works of many writers who 
liave preceded liim on the trround ; has, in fact, 
in the reprehensilile fasliion of his kind, taken 
what he wanted wherev(T he could find it. 




IwiConracies may hr discoverod; fi^i^uros, espe- 
cially, }ia\'t' a pot il'ri-nu> way ol' cliarii^diiLC ht'- 
tweeii tlu' tiiiu' tliry nvr tirbL but down and \vln.-ii 
fliey apiH'ar in prim ; an<l if mi?takfs (xnair in the 
spellinir oi' LrfuLrrapiii<-al names Wir wriltT will not 
lit' siirprisrd. Compositors and proof-readers 
are ordy liumnii. And >o, needless tu say, are 
writers. Bui tli^y needn't l>e iincrratofnl, and so 
the pres(»nt writer haptens to aeknowledir<' the 
courteous assistance atfoi-dtMl him in the ])repara- 
tion of thi< hook h\' \-arious State and muincipal 
officnds aiid organizations. And now, if you are 
(plite readiV, 

"Lei":, Go to Florida I'* 



I Fi.oiapA: An Awmvjnixg State 

1 1 Getting There 

III I'ioKii'A Under the Spam-h . I 

IV And After 


\'I '■ What's THE Clim \ii: Like?" . 

\ 1 1 Agriculture 

\d 1 1 lM>r-ri:n- 

i \ Schools and Colleges 

X IloMi; lie II. DING AND Housekeeping . 


Xil Hftttng About in Fi.nRinA 

XI 1 1 Tin i:vFR(,'nADES 

A 1 \' M MM. AND Florida . ... 

X\' Down THE West Coast 

X\d 1)<'\\N THi; We-r Coast {Concluded) 


X\d 11 H' 'WN T!!K !v\-T < ■' ' \-T 

XIX n^wN TiiK Ea>t Coast yCouLliided) 

XX Tni; I-'noKiDA Keys .... 




a 4 












Flori^Ia palm.. Looking toward Wc^^t I'alm Ht^ach 
Ir.Ki! Palm ik'nAi . av ->■/;, ■ 

T ■, r • • Facing page 


A euuijlrj- vlub ju I-"! 

• . . 

The Rnyal Pninciana lint,.] at Palm lieadi 
A wiiucr .sport m Florida 

Motorlrie n„ the brick road between Orinund and 
DaytMiia . 



Ocfan^_ houi- v,,r.N and shore with palms, near 


^''^^y -at.' at St. An-ustine, built in 1702 . 


21 n 



Florida is at oiiro the oldest and newest state 
ill the Tnion. At St. Augustine was efTected the 
first setth'nieiit in the territory that is now tlie 
United States, and yet, despite that, Florida's 
deveh)i)ment lias all taken place within a mere 
handful of recent years. She is out of the 
chrysalis staire luit still in the pupa. She is in 
the throes of irrowinir-pains and, like anything on 
its way to maturity, is at once confused, self-con- 
scious and rather awkwjird. Tt is embarrassing 
to discover, after having remained a grub for so 
many years, that you are about to develop wings! 

If a commonwealth may be said to have a soul, 
then Florida has onlv recentlv begun to realize 
hers. She is still a bit incredulous. So many 
things happening at once are sufficient to confuse 
any conscious body. Ripping her way out of the 
j)upa-case and, at the same moment, finding her- 
self in sudd(ni acquaintance with impulses, con- 
science qualms, doubts, desires and all the inner 
stirrimrs resultant on the functioning of a brand- 
new soul, leaves her in a sort of '' Where-am-T- 
atf condition. Florida is shooting up fast, 
physically and spiritually; so fast that she is out- 



grnwiriir hoth her clothes aiid li.^r nimtal (Mjulp- 
mmt. I-'ortuiiately those can 1).- enlarged, ])ut 
niuaiiW'liilu ^iiu 1^5 awaru ui the neighbors' incnMlu- 
loii? ^fnro^ nm] smffinfrs nnd trio- to rover her 
rrnl)arra>-in''nl willi a line .-how of (.'asc, some 
posturing and a good <le;d of noise. 

Youngsters all lia\'e to undergo the process of 
adoh'sconcL' bt'lure attainiin_r man's estate. Kverv 
irnil* must romnin n pupa for a timo before it be- 
come- a buttrrlly. Self-com^eiousness and awk- 
wai'ilne-- are only natural ])l!asr<. 

A irreat nian\' p).'r-on< di-e(A-ri-t'(] Florida, from 
Peiieo (If Ll'uu (Imwu to llenr>- M. b'lairler, Mor- 
ton F. Flanf and Afr-. Potter Palmer, l^it their 
discoveries went unacclaimei] b\- the rest of tln^ 
world. Kocentl} h^Mri^la <liscovrred In-rself, and 
this time it "louk." Shr awoke to the fact that 
she had climate, soil, natural beauty and a lot of 
other tllin.L^<, HTid bccan to make a n(»i-e about it. 
If one person starts tc) >hout, other- invariably 
.ioin in. Fhna(]a comm-'ncei] to a<l\'*'i't i-e hers(df 
and ve]-y soon every one was doing it for her. 
She made flio snowball and the rest of the conn- 
try L^ot b.'hin.d it and iJUshed. Xow von can't 
see o\-cr it. 

In ir»-J() the state's poy)nlation was r)r)S,4f)0. 
Five years later it wa< 1,l!Go,o4!), a Lrrowtli of well 
ov.^r n quarter of a million. A cnois including 
the winter population of hdoiada durim: the sea- 

son of bJJbllo would >how a tigure close to 


2,000,000. AVhat the combined permanent and 
transient ])opulation will l)e for the winter of 
1920-26 is anvbodv's guess. What is certain, 
liowever, is that Florida can comfortably accom- 
modate and maintain a ])ermanent ])opnlation of 
at least six millions. It seems pi'obable that she 
will be doinir it ]»efore manv vears have ])assed. 

Florida is a pleasant ])lace to live in. It lias 
a delightful winter climate, is comfortable for 
eiirht months of tln^ year and no more uncom- 
fortable during the other four than many states 
much farther north. It has good soil in a vast 
vari«dy of kinds, it has moi'e days of sunshine 
than any other state and an unfailinir and gen- 
erous rainfall. As an airi-icultural state its fu- 
ture is assured by its ])resent. A state from 
which a thousand, fifteen ]iundre(l, even two 
thousand dollars are beinir taken from an acre 
of Grronnil dor-sn't have to l^ase its self-lauda- 
tions on visions. It is rich in minerals, besides, 
and it is fast l)ecominLr commercially important. 
It has no bonded indebtedness. Valuations for 
purposes of taxati<ui are extremely low. It does 
not levy taxes on either incomes or inheritances, 
and by a recent act of its legislature Is forever 
prohibited from doimr so. Tt is only a few hours 
distant from the bulk of tlie population of the 
country and is easily accessible by rail, water 
and hiirhway. Its mai'kets are close at hand. 
Florida is operated efliciently and at little cost 



\vit}i()ut iLr iiMial n!a<> of Lrovcriimpiital !)nroan.^ 
and iM.anl.^. Thr (n.vmior an. I his't are 
^^^^^'^•■'^ ^yp'. pillar vote and p.-rfunn practically 
;i^l \^i*' dutir. (,f ircvrrnnicnt at an immense sav- 
ing in time, labor and monny. 

As a placo to live in, either fi)r tlw winter or 
^}^ ^^i'' yar. Florida otTers more, the writiT be- 
lieves, than ar.y state Its scem-ry is never 
mairniiicer.t. f(.r it has no mountain^, " hut it is 
irequ^'ntly h.^autituh always attractive. Sunshine 
spells hralth, and in Florida it is ])ossil.le to live 
^^it of dMor> cnntiniially. Florida is a fine land 
^^^ I'^'iy ifi a!id a tine land to work in. One may 
l>e eithrr a inillinnaire or a man of little means 
and still gt't mor.' .eit of lif.. in Florida than 
in most places. Xec-.Mth-s co<t no more than 
m most ntlirr <tafcs, Avliilr a homo in Florida costs 
less to hinld than in the \orth, and mucli le^s to 

Since this volume i< d.-dicated to a fair and 
truthful exposition of facts it hrcomes incumbent 
on the writer at about this point to say frankly 
that in spite of its merits and attraction's Florida 
n^ not y.-t tic perfect residential state for some 
persons. 'rhl> is not a very hard slap, though, 
for the same may be said of rather more than 
half the stat.^s of th.. Fnion. The persons the 
writer has in mind ar^ tho... accustom. m1 to in- 
tellectual int. 'rests and i>lea^^ures. Tla-re ar(\ to 
be sure, conmiunities in wldrh sucli p.-rsons may 



iind tlu^ thim^s they crave, liut as a whole Florida 
has n.>t yet had time to develop lier mind. She 
has l)een ami still is far too busy clearing and 
])lowing, ]danting and buildinix. The same thing 
has been true of every state, and no criticism is 
implie(l. Tin' im])rovement of the land must come 
before the improvement of the mind and the soil 
must be cultivated l)efore the graces. 

Like all states emerudng from the wilderness 
Florida for a long while made her appeal almost 
solelv to the sturdv and adventurous pioneer. 
"\Vh(ui he had cut ])aths in the wilderness and 
made his plantings he was followed in due time 
and in vearlv increasing numl»ers bv a class of 
visitors not s|)ecially desirable as constructive 
citizens. This class was composed of the invalid, 
the poverty-stricken and the shiftless who hoped 
to find in P^lorida a cure for body or condition or 
qualities. For a considerable numl)er of years 
the i)ioneer and the basker in the snn had the 
newer parts of the state to themselves. This 
may sound as though the writer were leaving out 
of consideration the native Floridians, l)ut lie 
isn't. The natived)orn residimts of the state were 
few in number; not over half a million, probably, 
of whom practically a half were negroes. They 
were occupants of the northern counties almost 
exclusively and liad little contact with the newer 
])opulatio!L After a while the workers ])egan to 
invade the state, cleariiiL^ the land and planting 



and buildiiii: tlicir mo(]o<f dwellings, and woro 
I'olldWtMl liy tradrsnit'ii, ai'li/an> and others who 
tread on the hrr\> ot' the setth-rs. But tht-r.' was 
still no call to tla- thinkt-r. Nur has tluTc brrn 
until very laHTntly. AVith th<' dovt'lo])nn'nt of tlu' 
scdiools and (•()lh>i:('s ("ulturf made a timid a])- 
})oaranc'e. ('ulturc is still far i'l-uni boisterous or 
even a>>ertive. In the several eollcir*' towns there 
is to he found an atrnosplan-e of intflleet indity, 
and the arts and sciences hold uj) their heads 
bravely enoinrh. And in the larirer cities clubs 
and coteries are sowinir tie' seed<. By and larire, 
however, the (hiilv paper still sub>ti!utes for tlie 
TVorlii's Best Literature and the sale of books 
is by no means a leadiiiLT iiidu.-try. AfusiV is en- 
couraLre(l in many ways, and in se\-eral communi- 
ties it rules in hiirh favor. This is especially 
true where a considerable Latin population ex- 
ists. The drama fare< badly, imt so mueh be- 
cause of lack of >tipport as by reason of Florida's 
situation olT the main hiirhw;iy< traveled by the- 
atrical attractions. Theaters olhei- than those 
devoted to movinir pictures are few. nf movin<: 
])ictures and canned music, of Sunday su|)])lement 
literature and rotoLrra\-ure art tlci-e is no dearth. 
Th-re are numy who will take (exception to tin- 
foreiroinL^ statements. It is possible that the 
writer will bo sliown numerous examples ot local 
develnpmerit> alouu^ tht' liiM'- <»f music aiid drama 
and literature and painting- AVhich will pib-ase 


liim very mucli. Tie has been, however, speakini: 
of the state ;is a \\hole and in irenei-al, and not 
<'l thi- (0- thai community in partiiailar. He 
would di>like very much to be coiisidered dis- 
parairinir (»f the considerable and steadily increas- 
iinr number of pei-.-ous who realize that intellect- 
ual pursuits aid en.joynient< ;n-e necessary to the 
Well-being of a people and to the perfect dovol- 
opnient of a commonwealth. 

What is lackinir \\ill coiue; is comimr. And if 
1]io>e who demand thoe thinir^ will, instead of 
remaininir away because they ai'e not yet t(^ b«^ 
had in full measure, go and do their ]iart in the 
encourairement of them, tley will cr)me sooner. 

I'dorida as a j)Iace in whicli to in\"est has Iteen 
written of -o fullv and exliau<tiv(dv in the dailv 
pre<s and in the magazines that it seems scarcely 
worth while to iro into the subject here. So manv 
iJi^'H fai- better (pialitied to speak with authority 
than is the writer have iriven their opinions that 
what the latter may say will possess little value. 
Still, it is possible to mention a few estaltlished 
facts oi" interest to one contem])latin£r puttinir 
money into bdorida land oi' Florida enter})rises 
without assuminir the role of saire. 

bdori(la as an in\-estment is not somethinir of 
lo-ilay or of yesterilay. Men of discernment have 
boon inx'ostimr in the ^ta^e for many \-eai-s. For 
litteen >ears past the adx'ance in pT'ices of Fh^rida 
rt al e>tate has l.»een .^teadv, esi^eciailv oi land in 



and about lare:er cities and towTis and alone: the 

allures. i'^iunJa's gru\Mli Las bt-un iiuxcr >\)vc- 
tacnlnr, but it has been fairly rnpid mid ai\\a\> 
sul.-'aiitial. That is true, at 1- ast, umil th'' 
Sprini: m;' l!»2r). Even wliat liapp-rM'iI tlicn cannot 
i"a:rl\- he said to alTfct the state's lm-owiIi. 
"Buoni.-" aru upiiumural tilings thai do nul con- 
cern tla- investor save in that ^hoy put a toni- 
]>orarv an<I hiri:f]v P-i^'titions valnc on what he 
may \vi>li to hiiy. When thf\' arc pa>t tlif ])<'n- 
duluni .-win;;.- hack, .-onntinn's not (piitt^ all the 
way, sometimes a liuic fuiiher. W'hrtht-r the 
pre.-ent i.< a propitinn- time to invH>t in Fh)!'ida 
land is a i{n»\-tion to he answcrtMl hy a inorc en- 
li^hten^'d ji^r.-on than thf writt-r. It' thf intt'iKhini,^ 
investor is conxniicuJ that presmt real estate 
prices nt'ai-!y represent \'alte'S, lie \vi!l he wist^ 
to pnrcha.-t' now i-atlcT than hatfi-. Dnc sliould 
r»'Iy on his convictions, windier in\a'>tor or spec- 
ulator. ( )n thf other liainh it' he hrhnwes, as niativ 
do — the writer among them — that certain chassis 
of real e<tat'' ar^ now prir'od beyond tleir ])!"odnc- 
tive \'alue<. he can alYord to wait a while and 
watch develo}irnents. AddressinL^ tlie Floia<la 
realtor^ in eon\'en'ion in Xo\'ernh.n' la-t, ('harh's 
^[. PMward-. ])re-.i(leT"it ot' the National Associa- 
tion ot' I\eal l''-ta*e<]-. -tated a rocoirnized 
hut too i'r'''i]iently 'lisre^ar'h'«l truth \'ery jiithily 
a- fo!h)\vs: *'The mere fact that a piece of real 
estate can he ::uld al a eerlain ilgure, due to the 


public state of mind, i- r.o criterion of its true 
\alue. Any })iece of real estate find- its level of 
fcound \alu(^ only when it passes into the hands 
of the ultimate eon>umer at a price wdiieh can 
be .iu^titied hy eannni^s.'' 

It is imi)rohahle that tlie pendulum iti this par- 
ti(ailar case will <win- haek all the way. Prices 
Will alwa>-s remain well w-fiat they were 
in the winter of h.^iM^-Jo. Thi< i< trn.' of city, 
suhni'han, slioro and acreage ])ro])tM'ty. Acreage 
will prohahly more nearly return to it- pred^oom 
]»rices than the oth-u" classes. There is far too 
much of it to allow iiny sudden increase in value 

to take place. 

How long the borim will la^t is another <piestiori. 
One man's iruess is as good as another's. This 
man's Lniess is one more yeai". Rut when In^ 
says ''hoom" he mean< thic hysterical ])hase of 
the thimr: '^nch a phase :c< was seen all (u-er 
Florida in tic motith.s of duly and Auirnst of 
IOlX). T\\r Standar<l IVietionary d.^tin^s "In^om" 
as ''suddeti activity . u' ])rosperity." a lamentably 
weak and uneollo^uial detlnition. Anv one who 
witnes>ed tlie Ah'i-knu ]ui<h or the overtiiirht birth 
of an oil town c.uild do l>etter than that on the 
Park of an with a t o.^h-harpened |HUicil 
stub. If "hoom" means no more thian ]M-os]^crity 
the present affair i- likely to continue indefinitely. 
If, ,)n the cont!-ar\-. it mean^ a sudden and hys- 
terical acti\it\- on th.e part .d' s]n"Culators, it is. 




in lliib wrii^T's opiTiioi], mor.' Iikfly in j^cfcr out 
by tho Miriinirr nf l!)i'7. \i v^^t l.,.}nre. AVlicii it 
(Int/> jM'tfi- out smn.' \-aliirs arc ^'■(.ini: to he iiiia^-i- 
nary. At lfa>t lur xjiiic (•(.lisidcrable time. 

Booms are natural. Xrarly pvpry tipw state 
has had ono or more. In >onh' cases tln-y have 
hpcii (Ifcidrdly heneiicial, in no case have th.-v 
inatcriall\- hurt ih- slat.- in tl,,' l(»ii- nin. The 
wnr^t they ran .lu i:, d^hiy the ]:atiiral and suh- 
^tantial development hy a pori(Hl .h^pcndriit on 
tlH'ir h-neth and intensity. The prc^t-nt boom in 
IMoriihi wa- hoijiwi to come sooikt or later, and 
it s .ju>t as wrjl to Ijaw it now and <:i't it over 
with. It Won't alK-et the ^ane, solid irrowth of 
tlie 6tate very notiVoahly, and it nc..,] not (h'tcr 
investors from pnttinir their inonry into the 
>tat.''> hin(L< and *• ntt'r})rises. Idn-y do not de- 
pcnil on a (piirk tnrn-o\aT and arc not lookini:: 
for in-tant and L-nurnious |n-o{ils. Like a child 
with the measles, Florida will he tlic same Florida 
when the rash is gone: onl\- a Ml liett,.r for liav- 
iinr irni ^oniethinLr unhealth\- on.t of hei- system. 
i^'I"f!'hi i- n(»t particulai-l\- keen ahout specu- 
lator.-, while realizing that they are natural and 
even necessary phennniena, l-)tit she does hanker 
for investors. And she has a clean ,-et of lM)oks 
^•' f'peii fen- tii.'ir inspectiorn She can >how fig- 
ures in the right c.,lunin-. Florida'.- future as an 
agricultural state is assured, and she eould roly 
on agricultnrn alone and still he [ l>ut 


she ^^■ill Tiever Inive to. Tliero are manv otlier 
sounii 1 actors in her success: minerals, exports, 
indu.-t rie-, ti-heries, lumher and so on. But the 
one big, neVer-failing factor is climate. So long 
as slio has that she will prosper, and })rosper 
amazini:!}-, for in hei- climate she has whiV no 
other state has to ijuite the same deiifree of per- 
fection and what millions of ])ei'sons throughout 
the land Vsant ami will travel far to enjov. An 
investment which is based on Florida's elimate is 
a safe one. Thousands have found this true and 
thou>an(ls will yet disco\-ei' it. 

P)Ut, whether you conteniplatt* Inlying a town 
lot or an acreage, don't do it with your eyes shut. 
Yon wouldn't pnrehaso a ])iece of ]) roper ty at 
home, even an old barn, without lookinir at it. 
When you buy in Florida see wliat yoiFre get- 
tiiig. Fon't (io your shopping by mail, no matter 
how attractive ihe offer may sound. If you eaiFt 
tind the tinie to iro to Fhu-ida and see for vour- 

self, d 


huv. The ( hambers of Commerce 

and reputable citi/ens are irhid to advise you. but 
their idea> and yours ma>' be miles apart. Y(ni 
may take their w(^rds as to tln^ value of tln^ ])ro])- 
erty you are contemplating ])urc}Kisinir, but no 
Fhambei" ol' ( "ommerce or I'eputable citizen knows 
as well a- \'ou do what sort of a home you want. 
if vol! are buving for speeulation, wliv, that's 
anotlnu" matter. Go ahead and take a chance. 
That's all real estate speculation is, anyway. 

. I 



i|: 1! 

W t 


GETTixc thi:ri: 

Going to Florida has become so iLli. nlou^jv 
simple that those who must have the d. in. ii u\' 
adventure in their jouruLyiii,- ii.^i lar buiLur re- 
main at home and cross Main Street nj^m or 
iwioo at the height of ^rnffir-. There wa. a lime 
when making the trip to Fhni^Ia ci]!..! tnr a lair 
degree of daring and fortitude an<l a d. a! ..i 
patience. This was spuriall\- tniu ol' a jounii'V 
all the way by rail. One porfnrmpd ii l,y n -orios 
of jumps. Having L'ni.l.MJ imm one jnnip, tlio 
succeeding take-ofT was more (»: 1-^ ( nn j. .niral. 
One might jump again Mat day or he ini-lit re- 
main poised for several 'la}.-,, tin one tiip made 
many years ago the writ or -^avr.,] so Inn- in 
^'aycross, Georgia. trains tlml !ir ha- 
ever since felt guilty \'nv nm having j.aid a |)(.ll- 
tax. In those days r-.adh'l- were -k.i(!i\ af- 
fairs beyond Jacksonville, the liujo hn orn-^i i\'es, 
with their huge stacks, Vinn. ] avoo I, an^l all 
schedules were *' subject 'n change uiilKait nn- 
tice.*' The fuel ^■ if.j '> \'<>v the en-in*- was 
stacked beside the track, li, as soni. lim.^ hap- 
pened, the woodpile wasn't where if ^ImnM Im , 
you wf re out of luck. Water tanks, fon, had a 




way ui di-.tppuiiiting one. Sometimes they held 
no wnfp]'. Tho writer still vividly recalls his fuel- 
ing ni' Inljilessness when, left iiiarooned in the 
heart <d' a <'ypress swamp, he watclird tliM onirine 
t'adt' into the distance dowii tin- lonir straiirlit 
track. There wa.-, it seemed, ^ufncient water in 
tho tank to fako tlip lororrmtivo to tlu^ la'Xt sup- 
ply, hut not enough to make the st<'ani rfpiired 
to drai: the train, too. Of Cour-e one la^pied that 
iht' etiirineer, haviner refreshed the boil< r, wouM 
remumher the three ears left behind in the chirk- 
t'liiTiL'" fnrp=;f, hnt thorn was Tin a-^nrance of it. 
The hour (»]• so that i^a^-^'d h.efore ri faint irhire 
on til" rim of the world hei-aMed resciir wa< tilltMl 


anxh'lN' an^ 

'( n't'' 'I id 1 ult- 

i i :> 

I t r. 


airiiiLC predictions of a ndUion pessimistic frogs. 
()no wouldn't williii-ly rpfuni in those condi- 
tions ol" t !'an-.p()!-ytti(un of course, yet it mu<t he 
acl^now ledgeil that there wa< a fa^innation in 
them. Idicerlaiiiiy hold- allracih^Ti for most o^' 
u^. TIk^ti OTie started fordi at mo]-uiiig not know^ 
in.LT wlna-c hedtimc would tiiid him, and many 
pri--i>n-- accu-tomod !o t!:c luxui'}' '■>( hair mat- 
ti-csses a!:d tin" li^.m -heets became adept in tho 
art of ^leeping curled \i\^ (*n a du<ty I'ed \-elvet 

car spat. A< for T^imal 

\\ h \ , O ! ; e 


hh- fo flL;-:',!-" ahout d 

nor cane 
1 ■ 


( W( '. 


imoh' didn't 
' ' t'l en enou'"!! d i !i- 

wa- calt 

t ,'M 

\- the 

1 o! :i -nicMx- oil lamp at --ome u''^'od'\- \:'^uv 

(){' the early nioi niui;, the passengers' heads novl- 





dmg sleepily nhovp t]i.-ir irrif< a-,] ])i<('iiit> an.] 
cane syrup. Ht u!i;,t a in ai'P hiriir eaniara.j.Tie 
was engendered by the tnl.uh.Unix^ ui tiiu jour- 
ney: Talk abuul ihc InLUKLsiiips formor] nn >liip- 
board— bhnHc?. a trip from X.'w Vnrk tu Talla^ 
linssee in the old days liad .in .m^.-if, xnya-r h.^at 
riirht frnrn the start! Adventur- rnadr i'or r.ju;,]- 
r.y. a ;hree-],nur -h^lay at a .iuu.ul.ui was as good 
as a lunnal iuirodnptifMu Au.l, -poakiiiLr of 
junctions, wj.a- lias become oi" th.iii all.' One 
used to r^arh a .junction every so ol't.'Ti, if innn- 
"'"> ■-'•'■;■'•-. a!..], having reacla^d it. waitr,!. What 
^■^'" ^^''■'^''■'« ^•^ was not always clear, luit wait one 
d-^i. Had ihuy been plarod a hii .•I.>^.'r t.)i:ctli('r 
^\^'"''^'^ •'•'•■*' li-h-.l, l-r ifiere was al\vay> food 
of a sort to be purchased at tiaun; oran-."> if no 
iiim:.. Snrne one— doubtless a scientist— hn^ said 
that oaur- rcmaiii in the Tncmnry loTiir.u- than 
lights. Perhaps they do. At :,l! rvnt^ ih«; 
writer's most vivid recollection of scv, ral tiips 
to Florida in the early .lavs is concern..! with 
the mingle! Miiells of orange., an.j huiuiinLr \-a\- 

There are thren wav< of r.a.Ti!i- I-1orida to- 
day: f!:r..- if we eA.-rnpt ualkin- a-nl iKIiil:; by 
train, by boat, by antoin..h!h'. P,y train l!i.- tlrn".' 
^'■■"[•^ '^' ■• Vork Uj Jack;.o!:M!le is tliirh' liour^ 
Uj diirty-six bonrv, 1,, Tarnna fMri)- liours 
to Key West fifty-one houf^. I'h'om M.'trolt th.' 
tir/i. t.. Jaksonville is thirty-live houi> hv "The 

GETT1X(; TilKRE 15 

FhiininLTo." Thr "Dixie lamited" and the 
"Ihxit' l*'i\-er" gtj .h^wn I'roiri (hicairo and St. 
Luuic5 an.i connect with Kast and W./>t C/oast 
points. Fi-'-ni X.w York run the ' 'Havana Spe- 
cial," ilit' " Ia\ crirheh-s Limited" — the latter in 
tNNO section-, one 01' whi.h starts from Boston — 
the "hdoriaa Sp.ciah" niakinir but one passenger 
stop between IviOmiond and Jack<onvillt^ and 
ser\-inir tin' lua.-t ("oast a> far as Miami, tho 
''T'loiu.hi dull' 1 aniiir.i"- -a (h- luxe tiyer — the 
'•West liMlian Limit.'.i," the "Palmetto Limited" 
and the " h' Mail." 

From tli.' \\'.-t, l)«'-i.h'S tlie "*'" and 
the "Lixies," are the "Seminole Limit rd." tha 
"Fh>ridiam" the ^'Suwan.M'." tlie '-Southland" 
and tho "Lan.l of the Sky Limited/' tlu' latter 
runniinr between Linelnnati arnl Jaeksonvilh' by 
way of Adioville, Xortii Laroliiui. Perluip^ tliare 
aro >till others. Not miu-li like tlie ohl ilays the 
wi'it.a- !ia> Immmi r. nkniixunir about! 

liaiiruad tar.- ih'.un -onn' ot' tie' prin.cipal 
points to follow. One \\a>-, X.w Y.>rk 
Oit\- t.) Jaek-on\ ille, ^otkon; f.a Tam|>a. >44.L"); to 
NLami. ^\\K~-\ Chieairo to ,laekson\-i!le, ^^:N.!>:) ; 
L.Ui-.>it I.) .la.T-oiA ille, $38.90; St. Louis to Jaek- 
kSoux ihe, .^^kkLkk 

LroxuTur, of conr<(^, f]io <r.p.u'iority .a' St. Louis 
a- a phaco i)\' -umni-T residence, I rom it 
b^l.> can !te reached at a -a\ing ot" more tlian 
two and ii halt do 1 la r> ! 






The writer would like to be able to «a^ that 
the journey from, say, Xew York to I'Iup,]. ,s 
one of unalloyed pleasure. Occasionallv i, n iv 
be, but generally it's a bit mnj,nfmviu. .,. {,, 
6cenery-you know how railways love to ^o 
throiigh the most uninteresting sections of a state 
and how they almost never enter a .iu .avo by 
way of the slums— and extremely .llitv n. fo at 
mosphere This applies mainly f. the souMa'ni 
portion of the trip. Unless theiv ],,. ],.,,, , 
recent and abundant rain one exhaii^:. n,.. unvA 
supply in the Pullman long before hi. cic.unation 
IS reached, and that without encouragiiir. ovl 
dences of bodily cleanliness. Of course a r^riain 
amount of dust and soft coal smoke i^ in !.. „x- 
pected, but Southern railroads, in the opinion of 
one occasional traveler, are much luo g.iioron. 
in the distribution of those things. On n l m ,J ,v 
travel south of Mason and Dixon's linr I. lik.' Iv 
to prove a sharp reminder of what lies ala a.l of 
^^- It we don't behave ourselves! 

Florida railroads mean well beyui.l a <lnuM 
but they haven't quite discovered fli ,i i),., ^v ,r 
IS over; the Civil War, that is; and v^..Uu.U and 
equipment are still hir f.-m t!.. .,,,1 .alml it.d 
to win prizes at a state fair. Sna,. of t|,.. p, ,|, 
-^ne m particular, and the uiiur wo„M Invo 
to name it right out in meeting !-se. a, t,. I,, ja^t 
a wee bit aggrieved over the growth m il .. .f.t,. 
and the consequent necessity in, Jni|aovrna nts 


nil, I la -y 're doing things, but they're doing them 
late and almost, one might say, on compuL-iun. 
TTnwovpr. all things come to him who wait^. and 
even a Morida train gets there eventually. Fiom 
this latter cruel jibe you may jump to the coii- 
clusiun that the thirty-hour "Limited" loesn't 
alwayc! arrive in exactly thirty linnr^, ul the 
forty ''Flyer'' in forty. Wull, it's ymir 
jiinip: and tli-} don't. Schedules are one thing 
and ]Mif.)rniances are another. Single tracks in- 
sluad of doublt', obsolete signal systems, din l-al- 
Inst nT]d nntiquntod rolling equipment pertain to 
inan\- railwax's and account in part for failures 
to make schedule times. 

And there may be another reason. The a\ Titer 
advam-us it for wlaii it's worth. The southern 
omriTic is o(ini]^pod wiih an extremely }»t>NVtrfnl 
and I'ancon^ whistle which it takes almo-^! rluld- 
i-h pleasure in soundinL^ It is a painful, tar 
splittinir -<'p!-ano of a whistle, and is xvarrantid 
to hiinu'- onu fruin -oimd slumber at the distance 
of a mih\ yow whittling is, it is understood, 

/ \nvr\i\i: a rnrrent of steam tlirc^mrh 
!. (hn.^n't it stand to i-t-a-^ou tliat if 

perloi'ni''' i 

a tnlu'. \V 

an oxcc-- airioun! of steam is devoted m arou^ini: 

passcnir^'r- fi'Min -Ici'i) there is a constMnn'nt hu'k 

of if \\>v niaki','-:- lh,p wheels go T'onnd ' lirin^mbfr 

111.' Mi^-i-^ippi \lh<'V sti^am.boat that st.^pped 

whtaiiw. !■ 


h whistled for a laudiiiir? Well, there 

}ou lia\e thr writer's theory, which i^ that ^outh- 


t \ 


T.KT-S CO Til FIjimDA: 

S to LTfi 


ern engines spend so much steam whistling fliaf 
they haven't enough left in their boilers 
wlere they are going on time. Of course a 

^^ii'i inidiiiM u[' whistling is necessary, especially 
on luadft which would nlmost rather go into Imiik- 
ruj.tpy than erect a waiiiiiig device at a L:ra<ie 
crossing, but it can be \:t-H\ overdone, if \uu 
don't believe it tfa\-.I arr.:^. I'^'orida. 

It' vuu aru a iair-to-good saiiur, and dou'l niind 
.-ptiidinir another dav or -n nn route, flin ^foaincrs 
otf.T pleasanter conveyance. You liaxc >()iir 
oimice of several lines, all of winch seem inoro 
or less willing to accept your iialiuiiagu. Yuu 
Will, juul-iably, miss the courtesy sho^^^^ pn^^^on- 
cors on trans-Atlantic boats, but since y,,ui- tiip 
i^^ ^"'i''^' >"n can <]n without it. With tin- in.uva-e 
of connH^ition in coastwise territory it is (juiio 
lik'Iy patrons of the steamship lines will 
liutu a cuiiL^iinnding increas^o in affability o?i tho 
part of the Miudity Ones who have it in tlair 
pow- r to sentence you to an inside, lower 
stateronin over the screw, or to one amiddiip and 
out>ido on thr prom.jnadu duck. 

The Clyde Line runs boats from \.\v York to 
Hiarlo^ton, S. C, and Jacksonville, Fia., and tVom 
X.u York direct to Mi;ini!. Boats in the daik^on- 
\-ilk' -.u'vice sail iVoni XfW \\>vV. (.!, Tia'-ikax's, 
Iliur>da\> and Saturdays at d;Uu r.M., due at 
Charleston two days later and at Jackson vilN- 
the forenoon of the third day. Sai];: -. fui Miami 




are on Wrdnrxlays and Sadurdays, at o:(H) p.m., 
,iu.. u> arri\- in Mianu early m llio morninir on 
Saiurda\^ and Tuc:=days. AVith one or two excep- 
tion- tho boats are now. the '';Scminulc," "(dioro- 
kee" and "M()]ia\\k'" liavinc boon lainiclied 
within iIm' past year. These are si.^tor shi]»s of 
8,140 iou> di.-plac.uncnt, 4'f_' feet lonir, o4 feet 
beam, carrying 440 pa^.-engfr^ oadn Tlioy liave 
cxTM'll.'iit dork room, something missing in tlie 
nldrr ])oats, and giass-endoH-'d promenades and 
deck veranda> in addition t" the usual lounges. 
Tin' niininiuni fare iVoin Xrw York to Jaekson- 
vilh' is $36.54 ou all buaU, wliirh faro includes a 
b(u-tli in an lu^ido room on the lower deck. 
P,('rth> in oth-r locations cost from ^'2.2.') to ^9.2.") 
extra. Suites with double bed and ])rivate batli 
may bu Lad fur >^17.'Ht and $20.00 extra, according 
to location. For these at least two tickets must 
1„. ]airelia>.Ml. < hi tho ^^Sominole'' and her sister 

I P * X 

ships one may even spend s47.41 <?xtra tor a suite 
,,r parlor, brdiivoni and hath. If you are travel- 
ing alune and duuT crave the society of a stran- 
rror, von may pay two fares and have a stateroom 

(tl- bedroom to yiuil'sell. 

Thr fare to Miami from New York is ^49.71, 
minimum, an.l beyond that you may go as biirh 
as $76.71. It due^ seem tliat the extra cent might 
be knoek.'d ofT, but there's doubtless a reason. 

(),. .11 hoat< children under two years of age 
are carried free but are not entitled to seats at 


1*' I 



the dining table. From the a^e of two uj ii\ e 
children pay a small charge for muals. That is, 

the pai Liii eioes. A child between five and twrlve 
is charged half-fare; above twelve full f.nv. i mo 
steam, r trunk not exceeding thirteen inc}!. s in 
height may be placed under a lower b.t r 1,. Dugs, 
irrespective of height, aiu not aiiuwuJ in stnto- 
luum^ hill must be eitli^r housed in i-nw^^ or 
mu7.7.]or] and leashed. TIm v are then contid.Mi to 
the care of the Chief St. v,,i,,L a gent). man with 
an ,<!.i)arent aversion for l.cmg bitten. W.- are 
informed that ^'the same generTnl rp-n!;iti..ii. ap- 
ply to birds, cats and other pet aniniaU." Pk.I,. 
ably, however, the matter of the nnizzlr is waived 
in tlie case of canaries. 

Automobiles are cani.-i at iliu rate of $l\.">2 
per hundred pounds from Xf^w Ynrl,- fo JarkM.i!- 
ville and at the rate of $3.73 per hun.jr. .i I'min 
N-w York to Miami, released. luMiranr.. mav, 
h-^v.^vi. be purchased. Reservations sliunM be 
^n>i<le well in advance of sailing date. Tnur\u<x 
ears must have tops foldnd down and will 1... ac- 
ceptod on any boat. Closed cars can be Jian.jl. ,] 
on certain boats only, wherefore it is u. 11 tn make 
inquiries regarding car shii-mtnl vt-ry rarlv in 
the i:anie. 

The Merchants and Aliners TrnTi^porfalion 
Compnnv operates four steamers between f^alti- 
mm-.- :u'.l Jacksonville, Fla.. tliivr Lotwocn Pliil- 
adi'lphia and Jacksonville and one Lctwren Phil- 


i'/,uto. iroin liriiii n Ui'OS. 


't : 


t . 





the dining table. From the age of two to tive 
children pay a small charge for meals. That is, 
the parent does. A child between five and twelve 
is charged half-fare; above twelve full fare. One 
steamer trunk not exceeding thirteen inches in 
height may be placed under a lower berth. Dogs, 
irrespective of height, are not allowed in state- 
rooms but must be either housed in crates or 
muzzled and leashed. They are then confided to 
the care of the Chief Steward, a gentleman with 
an apparent aversion for being bitten. Wo are 
informed that *'the same general regulations ap- 
ply to birds, cats and other pet animals. '^ Prob- 
ably, however, the matter of the muzzle is waived 
in the case of canaries. 

Automobiles are carried at the rate of $2.32 
per hundred pounds from Xew York to Jackson- 
ville and at the rate of $3.73 per hundred from 
New York to ^Fiami, released. Insurance may, 
however, be purchased. Reservations should be 
made well in advance of sailing date. Touring 
cars must have tops folded down and will be ac- 
cepted on any boat. Closed cars can be handled 
on certain boats only, wherefore it is well to make 
inquiries regarding car shipment very early in 
the game. 

The ^[erchants and Minors Transportation 
Company operates four steamers between Balti- 
more and Jacksonville, Fla., three between Phil- 
adelphia and Jacksonville and one between I'hil- 


! :a n n n n esj n| n 
! n n n n n n n 

IN .MIA .Ml 




la a 

11(1 Mian 

All l.nat 

Aliaini toiirli a 


} : 1 


]•(' iiiadi^' 




lavs ; riiiladrlpliia srti 




vavp that for 

Geor.iria. Hahiniore 

>. Fridays and Sun- 

AV^'diK^sdavp and Sat- 


For Miami lli<' steana-r >ails ^ 

days. l>ahimore l-oats sail at <"):(hi p.m. ai 

■W'l-V tl'll 

id ar- 


e at JacksonvillL' T:*'*) a.m. < 


the fourth day 

rhiladulphia boats sai 

1 at 4-;UU p.m. and arrive 

at Jacksonville T-.oi) a.m. o 

t' the fourth day. Boat 

for .\Fiami sail at 4:0(1 i'.m., arrivin-- at i :'>() a.m, 
of the fourth day. Minimum 
as follows: l)altimore aiiil d 

( tne 

wav lart's are 

i < • t\ : 



IMnladrlphia an< 
j)hia and Miami 

1 darkson\ilk', ^^ 

s;i( ).0() : 

4(1. 4<. Wintor oxoursion rate 

ire from ahout hvo to seven 




nder the 

)rir(' of t\\o oin'-\\'a\' tares, c 

ITith. Reirulatioi: 


limit to dun( 

\nd have a return 

to ]U'eferre( 


■ pa 

(•(', ( 



ha^■-:■alro. automoltnos are a 




le as on otlier lines 

Fho Paritic Steam.^hip Com]-.any's Admiral 
tl,,. '-ll. F. Ahxandrr'' from New 

no nil 



( ) 




I oil a forty -A 

iirlit hour 



rv2.A feo1 in, length. ace(un- 

inodates 585 lir-t *• 
an linfr CMinfort- 




assenirers an« 

1 olT 



Sail in ITS are 

mate' t 

A"orv tou t 

lays. The minimum tare n 

Tho Savannah Fin 

o o 

f the Ocean Steam 


( 'ompan>- < 

Vers an exce 



t'l'oni Hoston 

and Now 


to Sa\anria 

h, ( 

MM ) 

rLTia, w 




! , 





ings from f losiun on Tuesrlnyc: an.] Sntnrdavs and 
frOTT! y. w Ynv\ ,,:; Ti:.-.I;i>^. TLiir.^iay. aiid Sat- 
i:r.lays. The fare from IJoston is ^:u\a\:>, tr,,in 
Xe^v V,.rk $30.38. Tlu- iivi-Li rate on^ 
bik'- ir^iiii 1-Ju:=lun i:> .^2.09 \)('r \iuni]vo(], 
from X.-A- York, ^^LO^. An a-M.Ml rhar-- ..T sl.oi) 
r^'r rar i^ m.ide for whai'Iage at Sax-annali. The 
time between Boston an.l Savannali i^ lour days, 
between New ^'-ak and Sa\aiiiiali, ihruc days! 

At Savannah railroad connrrfion- for Florida 
points are convenient. One or tun .la\> sp. nt in 
that city before continuing the tri|. wii], li(,w.\,.r, 
add^enjoyni.-nt. It j. a pleasant city, chock full 
of historical intert:.! hui modern enonudi to satisfy 
the exacting demands of tlio visitor. 

The Am-rican Lin.- will prnha!.ly have one l)oat 
af least in service between \. w York and Miami 
by the time this is bein- r. a-i. 

Another thoroughly enjoyahh' m.thod of 
reaching Florida i'< ^ofakc a Malio)-;.^ Iki.- -^i.-anier 
^rom Ne-A- York to Key \\k-t, ivm^aML'- in i!i,» 
East Coast by railway or r. a.hing tlie W . M>L 
by one of the Peninsular and Occid -lal Lim^ 
boats to Tampa. The voyage to K. v \\ .^i 1,1 os 
four days, and under ordinary weath r . ,,ndilions 
is a most pleasant and interesting one. Th. 1 1 av- 
eler can do worse than to pause a day ui Mi at 
Key West before seeking the mainlanfl aL^nTn 
The fare to Key West is $36.00. 

Florida may be reached Umn X, a Oi],..Mi> hv 

OETTixG tii?:kk 


l.oats of tlic Onlf and Sontli-rn Steamship Corn- 
pan}. >ailinir iwicf w^-^'v^ly. 

Vur tht' owner- of -h<»al dr. if* iioats, either 
motor or auxiliary, a cruise to Florida hy tin' 
Insido Houtc i? a pToa^^nraMc ndvon'nrt'. A 
craft drawinir fonr f.M-t oi- less can make the trip 
all thr way to th.- Bay of Flori<la irisid-- of lan<l 
or reef prott'cii(»n, c\ct']tt in'_r for ono op).*n strrtrh 
below l^caiifort, X. C. Frona Barn.cs Sound t(^ 
Kcv Wt'st tho naviirator may kt*o]i lii< c<Mirse 
nortli (^\' the rpprr Krys as far a- Hahia HoTida 
or he may 1:0 hy way of Hawk Chanml. t<^ the 
south. Distances are as follows: Xrw \ -rK to 
Jacksonville, 1,185 mile-: Jaek^onviTie to Kuy 
We>t, :):N mile<: total 1X-- miles. Tla'<e dis- 
tances are, howr\-c!', suhj<-ct to co!i-tant -liorttMi- 
imr as old cliannoL art^ dr./d.ged a:id ^:' w ones 
(.pt'iird. From Xcw York to Jacksonville liie trip 
r.Mjuirr< from tw.-i'v to ^liirt}- daiy-. 'Tho ccMirse 
i< Writ liiio\ .mI and mai-k.'d. hn' owing to the siiift- 
inLT <^\ -iwi^l- l^'cause of tidal or current influence, 
oaro siiouid he c\e^ci^^d. charts and sailinir 
dii'fction^ mav hi^ obtained for the whole dis- 

t anco. 

Th," coniiimod motorist will, of course, prefer 
lo reach h;^ I'heida destination over the high- 
W!iv^n and, wlcn all is said, periiap'S that is the 
l)est \^a\ to make ihe journey. Certainly it is 
to be pi r!\ ! I . d ti) traveling by lail so long as time 
is hoi a seriou>. consideraiio-a I'h.' \s liter has 


T.KT'.^ nn Tn FLnniDA! 

tried all methods and speaks from < xperience. 
Every year witnesses a notable improx . rn. nt in 
highway conditions, and the day is ri..t far .li<- 
■ tant when t!i.- motorist will bu" ahlc lu roll all 
the way from Xtw Vork to T\oy Wo.^f ov.-r liard 
pavement. At i-rosent there are ninny >tivt(}ies 
of dirt, ranging fi'mn Lad to -..od, y.-t "tlirsc, save 
after i-mTacted spells .»f bad w.-atli.T, arc noth- 
ing to worry abuut. Dt'tour> y..n will fin,], of 
course; these, liko fho, aiv always witl/iis. 
And somr. of tb.'ni, likr tliM pom-, aro /.o^r/ But 
they are -rowing scarcer oadi y.-ar. It is no 
longer a!:\- trick to mak.' tbr Juurnoy from Xcw 
York to Jacksunviiiu in ii\-.' days, altlionirli that 
time is a bit too Lripf f,,,- enjoyment. A six-dav 
schedule leaves one better miT a> to Iiot.'ls and 
allows one to finish the da> '- ran brfoiv dmk. 
The distance is approximai-ly twelve Jinndreil 
miles, and, of course, if vonVo f]]nt c,ori, von 
can cut that timo down consid.Tabjy ],v ])nni>]i- 
ing the drivei\ sMsregardi:.- traffic rules and tak- 
ing chances. It is best, thon-!i, t- .db.u inr un- 
foreseen delays and aut pn^mise yourself to ir.t 
to the end of the journey nf nnv ^prrlfi,. \\uu^ 
on arv fixed date. If yon^-.^ in ;,n";dniii:lit v ru>li, 
yti' 1 much better take the train. 

Kr-in Xew Y^^-l y.^ir r(Mitr, uliichrvcr voii 
select, lands you ultimately at KulimoTid, \'a. 
From Richmond you trnvr ] ].v vmv nf Suntli Hill, 
Clarksville, Oxford, D .•!.,ni. (ireensboro, Char- 



loite, :Spartaiibnr-, Greenville, Hartwell, Athens, 
.Madison, Macon, Perry, Tiiluu, VaWosta to Lake 

rdtv, Fla. 

An altrrnat(^- ronf<> pr.'f^Trod by many— the 

writrr amongst ilimi- is from Parlaim to l\.lmn- 

bia, Ai^Mista, Macon and as above to Lake City. 
Vronrnofroit and Chn-n^o use the eastern and 

western branclirs of the Dixie ILirliw-ay respec- 
tivelv. Idle tir<t '.rni-s tlirouirli (dncinriati, Lex- 
in<rton, Mt. Vrrnon, Cnvhhi, HaiLonrvlllr. Knox- 
viHe, (diattaiiuoira, Atlanta, Perry, Tifton, Val- 
dosta, Lake City. The second iroes to Danville, 
Terre Haute, Kvan>ville, Clarksville, Xashydle, 
]\[onteade, Cliattanooga and on as alu>vr. From 
Lake (dty, wliidi is tlio more we^tt^rn iA \hr two 
main irateways iulo Florida, tin" Ea<t Loa-t trav- 
eler crosses to JacksonviHc while those uii their 
wav to the Wc<i Coast or The Kidge contmue 
.ou'th to (biinc^vilb', ()c;da and so om Highways 
witliin tlic ^tatc will be dealt with later. Some 
(,i will be dealt with severely, since they 

"llavin- roaclwd Mncon. Ca.— and a mo^t desir- 
.^1,],. ^,1;hv it i< to reaclu too— the East Coast trav- 
eller has tbe option .>!' slidiiiir down to Jack>on- 
\ ille b\' NNav of \\'a>\'ross. 

(■•^lifornia vi^it^- trnv.! bv way of Ymna, 
Pou-las, Fl IM^n, nalbis-but wliaCs tho use? 

No patriotic Californian would go to Florida. 
Besides, he'd miss hi:, morning eartlhiuake. 


>'i-"Kn)A L.\i>i:K Tin: F^p.wi'^ir- 

Tnis chapi,x- and the followinir mav contain 
liothiiig not already known to you, ,. whi,-!, case 
^7 ''■^- '•■■""■''^■■'">- invited to pas« ,!..„> ..v-r I„ 

iieevent, however, that yo„a,v nut ae,„ain„.,i 
^.lt!. the occurrences whid, rc.uited m the Vh„-uU 
"!,!""ay, ur :!.ai they are no longer fre>l, in v,,,,,- 

a=:.ta.e the dose. I- i-n't v,,y l.i„,,, ,.;,,., 
a shght knowledge o: t!„. Li.i.,v .,r il.e .talo, 
•I K,.,.- you can get at it. will ,na1<,. tl,e 
l-a.ance of tl^e volume of mor- interest I,, v,,,, an,l 
when von cnnio to it is hn,,,-,!' v„„ 

r ^"°"^'- '"■■ '■''^^'•-it -in -i.l un,|,:f.lan,lin^^ 
t" y-ur pleasure. V,.;, will, r^, instanc, ,ak,. 
"i-re zest in seeing the old narrow ,uvets of 
St. .Augustine if, in vo„r mi,,,]. v,,u .•;„, pi.i,,,-,- 
.tw-ni_hlled with , ,,,!,, ,,•„, ,.„,„;,,. ,,,„|.„i„„ „,. 
^pniM.!; cavaliers, swa.shhncllinL: .,,, row,--, 
■'••-roes, Indians, and, ..uaui..^ in il„.ir,i' 
];;ns, those Ldies "<h..,.rv.:Uv ..„l..l,ral,.l 
l"r!!,.:r charms." lY-nsacola's ohi rurilii,.aiion< 
•'■''I U.C Spanish names I.- 1.,. ,-,,,, | ,,,, ;,, ,,,,,„, 
;-™ers will have u..,. interest i„r vou a' you 
know something of the ■■ v, l.v!,,,-." The manv 

it) " ' ' ■ 


_ t 

mnuiid.-^ to 1h' foinifl from one end of the state 

to tlif oilifi- vsill inmn more to yen it' you aro 
ah!,, tn ivrnll a liille of the story of those wlio 
huilt thrill, aiid thu quuer, n'uw.'I IiIUmI narar.- of 
I'iv.'i'.-^ and lako^ anrl town^ will say somL'thing 
Tn.)iv t.) yon lliaii juM "Mataiiza^" or ''^ficoosn- 
kee'' mt "Witlilacnocl!. •..."' I-).v-i(les, con-idrr the 
advaiitairt' yu will hold nv.-r >oin- travt'liiii: com- 
pnnioii who. Iiaving .-kippud llu:: eha})^'r aii<l the 
next, Ix'lirx-.- Potipp de Leon to have hpfii the 
first proprietor oi' a tainous hotel and Oa.^parilla 

a .^prinir tonic ! 

The historx (a' h'loridi;> 1> ricii in roinan(U\ it> 
disrovory, conquL'^l aud settk-muiit a colorl'ul pic- 
tiir(^ Trior to it^ possession hy the rnUt-d States 
in l^i^l, the standard^ of throe Idnirdo-m^ waved 
(,vor it. d"h<" w.o'ldold Inre oi' l^^'M hroinrlit t1ie 
iir<t advontnivr t.. it< :-^hoivs in the ])orson of 
Juan Ponce de Leon, who, liavin- coinpiered 
lN)rto l\ic() t'oi' Spain, had hoon nia.h' its giu-ornor 
and had inana-ed to do very wdl for ]iim<elf. 
Accordinir to tic nativ.-s, there hay to the north 
a wondei-t'ul country c;dled P)iinini wla>rein, he- 
sides much irulih Ava< a sprimr ]io<<essLng the 
].o\vor to iv-tm-e youth to him who immersed iu 
it. Pi fact, th.> h-L^.aid seem- to luwe irone even 
farther than that and Lmaranteod eternal jiiViUiih 
ity to the i'urtiiiiale bather. The spriicj: was 
supposed fohp the snurre of an »M|uaiiy marvelous 
river which iiMW-d lo ^he sea and which, in the 




belief of the SpaniarJ., uiiu licar.! ihr tal.'s an.l 
carried them back to ^^pnm, aniU Im- no ctlirr 
than the Jordan of Biliii. ai lame. At thr l.cirin- 
ning of the sixteenth centin > .1 Fniintain ,,1' Kt.r- 
i.mI Vouth was a sni;ill ninr...I tu .wallow, aii.l 
Ponce de Leon's crudaliiy was not straiiir.l in 
the least. If, Imwovor. L.- lia-ln't l..>t his jol) as 
Onvernor of Porto Pico alM.nt thai tini.' it is 
Hk*'ly that he woul^l have ]. I'l thr .liM'ov.Tv of 
the famous fomitain to aiiuther. P. rhaps 'time 
hung heavy, perhaps playing seron.I-fi.hllc to 
Piego Columhus his successor in taxoi-, wmt 
ne-ninst the grain, or perhaps the (»M spirit of 
aiventure reawakened. In any case, hr ohtaiiKd 
^'!'"i''i hi^ Ki'iir a patent ui di^cuViTv and dulv sot 
forth for Piinini. 

To sav that Ponce de Leon had in view mainlv 
the linding of the Fountai:: of ^',,,nli i^ Tn.ivly a 
phasing assumption. Without donht tli.^ .piVst 
for that fabled wonder wa^ put oi hi^ plan .Inr- 
nii; hi.> lirst expedition, hn^ a^ hr. Yxa< thru hut 
forty-twn vears of age, healthy ainl xiirorou.^. it is 
not likely that he felt aiy consnniliiir p. rsoaal 
interest in it. Tf there ha^i l-.n no rumors of 
gnl.i iu Bimini ii 1:, very dMnlitfwl iliat he would 
have financed the adven^ui.. llowrwi-. on tlio 
oppasionof his second attempt h.^ app*'ars to liavo 
been animated by more altruistic seat im, aits, for 
he wrote to the King: ^'1 im.w raurn \n that 
island, if it please God's will, to settle it . . . 


tlmt th.' name of Hiri^f mav be prai^od there and 
your Majesty serve-l wiih th.' t'ruii that land pro- 


Ponce de Leon's patent was received in l.)P2, 
liut a (hPiy ensuerl and it was not until a year 
later that he finally salh'tl iVnm Torto Kieo with 
tliree caravels. On April 2n.l ol' that year he 
landed uu the eoa.-t of what is now Florida well 
])t'low the mouth of the St. Juhu's River, an<l six 
(lavs later tnok possession of the ^Msland" in the 
name of the KiuLT of S^pain. Tlu' n.ativcs, thouirh, 
didn't cotton to the KinL^ noi', it seems, to duan, 
for they made it ]>iTtty hot for the litth/ ]iarty, 
and, after spen-ling nearly two months alomr the 
(>oast— it is donht ful if ho ever cot very far away 
fr(»m it -tilt' e\])lorer lieadi'd homeward without 
havini: found ritla-r the Fount;un of Youth or 
any sign of gold. He had just ahnut as much 
ehanco of di-envorinir the latter as the former, 
since Florida is one of the few stato^ of the T^nion 
whose L^coloi:-ical formation V^"**^^^^'^^-^ ^^^^' exist- 
ence of that intcrestinLT metal ! 

Ponce de Leon made his second attempt in 
lo^l. Pui'inir the intorvpninor oiirht years Ic had 
worki'd at his trade n\^ soldicrin^ir in the ])rocess 
of convertini: the Caribs to the Catholie reliirion 
and to allegiance to thr Kinir of SiKiin: a task 
to which ho applied himself with courage and dili- 
^rui'i\ He had aPo found time to visit Spaiii and 
play the role of Florida's first '^booster," giving 




^udi an enthusiastic account of the laii.i fliaf the 
Kin- rnmo nrross with a new patent an, I ImMow..! 
<'■'! l.iin the sounding title of ^^A.l.laMa.l., ,.i thu 
Isles of KiMr.iaaiKi JJiiniM." TIm-iv i., l„)w,.vor 
no i-fcurd lu the eifect tliat Lj. Mai.^Mv -nvr 
any more suh^fnr.Hn] aid. and >o ii iVt,. },.. ,„p. 

posed that the ind.iatiuM'hl. Ponce d.I/nndipiKMl 

^^:'''' ^''^" ^^- "^^■■' l-,.k..t>.. Tin. tiin. 1,. took 
''■';^^ ^-'^' ^"^^i" l^Liiidivd soldiers, a iiiinil.^.r of 
l»riL-is, horses for hi^ troop., .-nft!.. and da-rp 
ai:d mndo a landing pr^.haMy nm tdr di.Mant from 
the scene of In. tirst effort. Once in-nv 1},.. na- 
tives interfered ^vi•L In. plan uf .uttl.naait and 
so narrad the party that the attempt was a.-ain 
abandoned and the caravels set .siil r.,r Ciil.a. 
^^^'*'^'" ^'^^ '^ present-day saying tliat nn,v vou -.'t 
Flnrida sand in vnv.r .dm,., xna will snivlv n- 
twrn. Perhaps the rulf h.dd guud hark in ilioso 
timr.. and aceuunted for Poiim do's second 
arrival there. And prnTap., if th.^e is truth in 
til" -nyinir, he would still hav.. p.a->i<tcd and, 
sir;'- }:>■ was of stout Iwart, cvrntnallv >uccuuded 
liad 1;m not received an arrow woun/l in ono of 
the ^kirmi.diL's with the Tndian^< arid nitimatrlv 
^h>''l from the eiTects. S,, .ni.]. tlm fh-.t ('liapt.'r 
';t thecornn.^^ rnn.-. d, .!,:,,„ 's prac- 
^^'■al a.'-nrnpiidniH'nts w.nv nil, va la- s)a)w.Ml tin' 
'''^>' ^" ''^"-' '^'t"^- an, I lar I.-ss a-lrniraM.- ad- 
VL-nturt-r^ and supplied l-'lnri.ja'. }n>torv with its 
first romantip pages, pages nnnillird hv crime or 


crndtw He ditl natrc than discover Florida, 
laoiiirh, l'(»i" lit' al>o named it — J t na 'h Pascua 
Florida! Only a Latin could have attained such 
a flourish. Xof that much iniairination was en- 
taihMJ. I'nv he had ^iirhtcd land on Easter Sunday, 
March ".-7, and tlic name of Flowery Easter prob- 
ably presented il:?elf readily eiiouirh, but the 
point is that he didn't turn it down in favor of 
Ponceland or Sand l>landl Yes, we (>we more to 
him than iu>t the little matter (^f diseoverv. He 
was Itui'ied in San Juan, Porto Kico, where his 
tomb bears the Sjiaaish eipUN'ah-nt of: ''Here rest 
the bones of the bravo Eion whose nature was 
,t:i'eater than his name." Yes, they had the gift 
of words, those Spaniards! 

After Ponce de Pr^on came Diego Miruelo, 1516, 
landiriLT supposedly in wTat is now Pensacola Bay; 
Hernandez de Pt'u'doba, l.')17, landinsz on the east 
coast; Alonzo Ahai'cz de Prieda, loP.b skirting 
westward and e.tabli>hinLr tli,' fai't that Pascua 
Florida was not an island: (I;iray and Vasquez 
de Ayllnn. ir)20d52r;: and tla-n Paidilo ile Xar- 
varez, lo'J^. The latter, at the hea<l of a hundred 
men, reached Apalache, hut, brim: contintudly be- 
set by Indiaii. ami >hoi1 of f()od, soon ri^treated 
to the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico, where 
lie constructed rude boats and ])Ut to sea. De 
Xar\-arez and all but toui' of his meti were 
drownrd by the o\'ert uriiiniLT ot' th^ir craft. The 
sur\ivur> at last made iheir va\' to Mexico and 




frr,m there returned to Simih. wliere the trcasui-. r 
• »f Hi., ill-fated expedition, Cabeza dr Vhc-a, wrde 
<»f !:!< adx-t'iiturf-, iiK'tuniig Pasciia Florida as a 
vtTiiaMt' Land of rrold. 

De \'a<a'< tales soon roarliod the oar^ of a 
gentl'-nia!! a-ivriitnr.-r \\]\i) had aided IMzarro in 
the conquest of Peru and who was now looking; 
for Th'w iiuld:^. This was Ft-niand.)— Hernando if 
you like it better — do Soto. De Snto had a('(|uired 
fame and, some historians assert, fortune, and 
when he mad*' known hi< intention to confjuer this 
land <>: r:.L»- he didn't hav.- to advert i-c for com- 
panions. Hl'^ chief task was to refuse applicants. 
Nobles, peasants, soldiers, artizans. Hocked to his 
staTidard. many adventurous Lr'-nth^men selling: or 
mor^L'-ai:!!:L^ th-ir estates in or-lrr to purchase 
interests in the enter}»rise. E\entually seven 
lar-*- and three small ships set sail for Cuba. 
Th.-r.' two morn wnro a<ld.Ml and sail was set for 
Pa<eua Florida. In May (,r June of ir):;9-^let 
others settle the date — the expeditifju, consistiiif^ 
of more th/iu ,-ix hundred thorouirhly e(juif)ped 
men, dropped anchors in what i- now d\ampa I^ay 
and was tlien narnef] F-pir-itn Santo, an<] onc(» 
mor<' t!:e roy;i! vt;in<lard of Spain \\-as raised. 
d'rouhh' at once ensued with tlio Lidians, who, as 
a r<'^Lilt of Df \:ir-\afez's visit, had no likin^^ 
for visitors. T). bulu tor)k pos'qr^c;^;^,,, ,,f a de- 
s'^r^ed native village where the present city of 
Tami'a .-tands and opened n'gotiati<jns with the 


cliief, Iliiuuhicrua. knit neither he nor any other of 
the cliiefs encountered in the ex})l(»i'ations would 
consent t(t a truce. Wherever the expedition 
iourneved it encountered onlv hatrt'(l and malice. 
Warl'ai'e was continuous, Indian and Spaniard 
0|)posing treachery to treachery and brutality to 
])rutalitv. Eventuallv De Soto reached the land 
of the Apalache, in the vicinity of the present 
Tallaliassee, where the winter was spent. Early 
in the sprimr he h^l his forces northeastward into 
wduit is now (b'oriria, and from there westward 
to the Mississippi. So far as Pascua Florida 
was conceriied he liad accom])lished nothing save 
to inci'ease the enmity of the Indians. Ills search 
for LTold continue(l for more than tliree years, 
terminatini: in his death and tlie buidal of his 
body in the Mississippi I\i\-er. Of six hundred 
and twent\- who had started hopefully forth with 
him on that (pie>t for riches, but three hundred 
and ele\-en remained when the expedition tinally 
reached the (lulf of Mexico arid foundied a settle- 
ment on the Panuco l\i\"er. Fnlike that otlier 
romantic adx'enturer, Poiu-c de Leon, De Soto Irft 
a trail of bh»od behind him, but, like him, he met 
death in his enterprise. 

Hut others were I'eady. First, rancello. a Do- 
minican monk, led a numl'cr o{ his faith to deatli 
at the hanils of thr Indians. Then, in loo^, came 
(luido de hi> P»a/.ares with man) -^hips, supplies 
and men, onl\ to encounlrr territic ^tiM'TMs tliat 



tiiially spollof] disaster. In lo^.O Ti"!>tai! (].■ T.inia 
expior.-i the western pari ..!' ih,. prr>fiit >iaie, 
hill p.-ri'rcied no settl.'iiifiit. hnuhtless ilicr*' 
wt're others unknown to the hi.-^iurians. 'J'liat as 
nia\- \jL', ;Spaiii continued to' hold tiflo to a \ast 
t.-rritnry on whi''']i -li- ]ia.l >o lai- }ailc<l lo otah- 
lish one permanent or consid-raM.' settlrmnit. 
^■>y virtia- Ml' the discoveries of Columbus, the 
gran: ^f the Tope and ^.uch uxpuditiuns as those 
of Dl' LvoUy Du Xarvaroz, Do Soto and otlnT-, 
Pa-nin Florida wa- a \-a-i lainl of unknown ex- 
tent that stretched from tia' Atlantic to approxi- 
matrix- what is now New Mexico and ran north- 
ward to the frozen seas. Tu the north, however, 
Spain's title was contested by Eno-Iniid as a re- 
sult nf Pabot's discoveries; and ly Fran..', as 
w.-d. ahhouirh the latter's elaim v.-a^ less solhllv 



N'''."<>rtheless it wa.-. hd'anee who tuuk steps 
to mak. good her claim. Tn ^'^r2 rnptiin .T.;ni 
Iiihaut arrived at the mouth of the Si. dohn'.^ 
Rlvr. v.! ieh he called the **Ri\.r ..f .Ma\." He 
then coasted northward and fina!l> h 'j-an ih.' .ice- 
liun of a fort near the present l^'aufort in South 
rarolinn. leaving there n hnn.lhd of hi- in.'ii to 
k"ld i* :'..!■ K'ing Charles. K'ihant th.-n i-.'iui'ned 
to Idance for the purpose of reondtinL: Huiruenot 
colonists and a second expediUon -aile.l for the 
Xew W urld in three vessels under eomman.l of 
Rene de Laudonniere in the Si ri-- n\' laiil. 



Landinir was ma.}.* a few rnilo u]) the St. Jolin's 
an.l a loir l'.)rt was built whiidi was called Fort 
Caroline. The >itt' is now known as St. John's 
HIulT. Meanwhih' the iraiudson left Ixdiind at 
Fort ( 'harles had deserted, put to sea in small 
boats \\hirh tlioy had fashioned and. after almost 
])erishinir of Iriniirer, been rescu.'.l bv an Fncrlish 

The new eoloiiv had troubles aidentv. The In- 
dians, at iirsl friendly, turn.-d enemies, laek (^f 
food produced illness an.l ])art of the garrison 
mutini.'.l. Tho tiintly \i-it of Sir John Hawkins 
^^ith an fbiLdi-h tleet, however, supplio.l them 
\v\\]\ provi>ion<. rin.j bflort- thfir dt.'termination 
to return to France could be put in foree Captain 
Ixibaut aiu'ived with his second expedition. Joy 
over this ev^eiit was short di\aMb tliouLrh. for 
S(puirely on tho h.-els of tli»' Freiieli ships came 
i'.MJro Meiieiide/. (]>' A\dh's, ^^itll eleven Spanisli 
vessels, determin.'.l on the extermination of the 
Fr.-neh I 'i-ototant colon}', "^fen.'ndez attacked 
the hirL^.'i- of liihaut's shijx ;it the nnuith of the 
i'i\'or, but tho>x I'oui- in number, cut their cables 
and mad.' tli.'ir e-eape. M.ei.'n.lez took his tlai^- 
ship up the Si. J.ihn's, found tlie Frruu-h well pre- 
par.'.l for i'.'>i-tanc.' an.l. I'.'turniuLr to his thud, 
b'.i it southwar.l an<l dcbaikod at St. Auu'ustine, 
nanie.l so by him b.M-au<o <.f his arrl\'al (Ui St. 
Augustine's I)ay. Ibu'e .Menemb'Z t.)ok ])osses- 
sion of an Indian villaofe, erected fortifications 

Li::i";S GU Tu FLORIDA: 

an.] set u[> l:i> liaLiiLT witli iiiiu'li pomj) and cere- 

Rifunit iironiptly folhnvpr] an.] attomptor"! an 
attack. Inn a gale of inor^' tliaii common intensity 
(li>prr-t'i] his >]ii[i> x'litliward. \\'licrcn})on, (piite 
as pronifitly. M.'n.'iidt'z (|tM'i(|r(l to surprise the 
small i^arrison left beiiin<l at Fort Farolinc. This 
he did with a force of somt' tivt- hundi-cd warriors, 
being gni-hd across the intervf-ninLr forty miles 
of .-warn}) and forr.^t hy friendly Indians. Fi'oni 
the Spaniard '> point of view the riit,-rprise was 
a vast :>uecess. Ul the less than two hiuulred 
occupant- of the fort only a handful possessed 
guns; tht' rr-t w.^re artizans, camp followers, 
wonn-i! an<i childr^-n. Mcnt'iuh-z had no dilTicultv 
in capturini: the furt nor in -lauLdit^'rinir nearlv 
all the a<lu]t males. A f^w escaped, reachtM] two 
of three >.ma]l vessels lyinir in tho river an<l 
^-vriitualiy arrived saf.-ly in Franc. ■. Ment'ndez 
returrh'd to St. AuLrn^tiiu' and "iravt' the Ford 
a t!ion>and thanks fur the great favors re- 

Rihaut'- th'ef was wreckei] aloni: tlic coast to 
the southward, hut all hut a f.-w of the party 
reaeli.Ml lai:d in -af.'\\- and start»'d northward for 
Fr>rt Caroline in two parties. Th.e first party 
numhered ahoiit oi.r himdr.'d and fifty, and these 
wrr** kilh-d to a man close h>' th.' inh't now known 
as Mara!;za-. '•p]a''.. ,,f Shiuirht .u-/' The secoiKl 
party appeared a few day:, later, mustered close 


to fhrcH' Iiundred and fifty and was in command 
of Rihaut himself. After a parley Ril)aut olTered 
Men.'ndez a ransom of 100,000 ducats in behalf 
of those of his men ready to surrender. Menen- 
dez agreed and about a hundred and fifty French 
gave themselves u]). The others retreated south- 
ward again. Those wdio had surrendered were 
offered their lives on condition that thev recant 
Protestantism. The offer was refused and all 
save five were put to death, Ribaut among them. 
Most of the two hundred wdio had retreated were 
later captured and brought to St. Augustine where 
they were set to work as slaves. 

The Spaniards put in a diflicult wdnter, the In- 
dians wdio had first proved friendly soon turning 
against the colonists and killing well over a hun- 
dred of tlieir number as chance permitted. Many 
others, tiring of conditions at St. Augustine, re- 
turned to Spain or Mexico. ^lenendez himself 
soon went back across seas to bask in the favor 
of his Klnir, but not before he had seen to the 
<'rection of a new fort. Fort St. Jolm, and the 
restoring of Fort Caroline. The latter he newly 
named San Mateo. 

The news of the catastrophe to the Ri])aut ex- 
pedition soon reached Fratice, and in August, 
lof)?, Dominhiue de Gourgues, a gentleman of 
ancient family and a soldier of much renown, 
set fortli with three ships and a fovoo of two 
hundred and fiftv men to avenge France. In 


or(LT t*) I rocrir-' tin- wlimnvit hal for tliis ox- 
})tMliti()ii !)'■ (iMurLj^ues soM hi- inlifritaiu'''. He 
inadt' a kiiidnig north ui ihr St. Jolni's, iratlit'iaMl 
a lar-Tf forro of TiHlians to him and aMarktMl Fort 
San .\LittM). Ai't^'T sligiit resistance tli*' irari-ison 
tlt'd ir,*<> tlh' t'or.-.-t wlifi'.' th*' Indian^ inadf >li<>rt 
work nt' til. -in. Only a few wrvr taki'ii ali\'i\ and 
such a- vslTl' Wl'Tl' hah'd tu the scene of .XL'iw'n- 
doz's butchery and hanged. The Spiuiiard liad 
h't't th-' !r.-cr!|t!ion *'Not as i<» I^'r^'nchinm, ])ut 
as to Lutherans." T^*' Oourgues set up a new 
leL:»'nd ah(»\''' til'' danLrlinir cnrpses: "Nnt as to 
Spaniard-, but a>. to traiini->, ihieves and mur- 
derers." He wn = . it WMiild seem, not only a 
nMhh' Lrentleman and a gaUant sohii^r. hut a mas- 
ter of the retort courteous. Vengeance seeure(l, 
!)•' Oijiagues sailed hack L-r l-^ance in Mny, L")(i'^, 
unregretful, one is sure, ul hi:^ iu.-A inherit a nee. 
J'> have aH-mpfed an assault on the heavily t'orti- 
fied S^ AuLnnstine with so .-mall a t'oree w(uild 
have been useless. 

Menend'V. |ut_'sently retui-::t<] to lii- folhiwers 
and set about converting tiiu Lilian- to ('atholi- 
cism. But the natives wfTC still anta'-ronh-tie to 
tie- Spanish and tlie efforts <d" hi- pri.-ts met 
vi'h ill success. He estahli-ii-d a I'.-w missions, 
hnt each, because of continm 1 d. pi-dation- ot 
the Indians, was as much a block huu.-e as a mi> 
sion. Meanwhile, at le-'m'- m ^p'a'va interest in 
the new possession fast d'Aiiifilrd. Th.- expected 


stores ot" irold aiid precious .ie^ve]s had failed to 
materialize, and the Kim: displayed scant enthu- 
siasm for this distant and uncivilizeil land. Set- 
tlement continued hut slowly. Nearly a score of 
years passed suhseipieiit tu the brief ])ut hectic 
\dsit of I)«^ Gourirues before Florida ju'ovided a 
new sensation in the arrival at St. Augustine of 
Sir P^rancis Drake. Drake bon? (^(ueen Elizabeth's 
commission to play hob with the Spanish when- 
ever and wherever found, and after the famous 
Emrlish freebooter had discovered that a settle- 
ment of Spaniards lay beyond Anasta<ia Island 
there was j"ust one thimr for him to do. So he 
went riirht ahead and did it, and did it with Brit- 
isli thoromrhness. 

He ca])tured, plundered and burned the village, 
and saile(l meri'ily (»tT with a treasure chest con- 
taining: two thou-and p«enids. 

After hi- departure the irihabitants returned 
to St. Auirustine and relniilt. Lidiari outbreaks 
were numerous and life in Flori(k\ durim: the 
next century was far fi'om monotonous. The 
Indians killed tlu> Spaiuartls anal the Spaniards 
killed tlie Indians in laUaliatiom Or, maybe, it 
was the other wa\' alneat. In Ib.'N an outbreak 
resulted in a ])uniti\'e e\pe.litio:i airain-t tlie Apa- 
lachete^, and a larire naunber (^\ pris(Uier< were 
briuiirht back to the setih nier.t atid put to work 
on the forts, the\- or their de.-cen.dants remalnimr 
as sla\'es t'oi- si\tv vears. Tti U>47 there were 


LKT'S: no TO FI.riKiDA! 

about tliree hundro'l fain ill.-- in tlir town. In 
1665 the pirate Davis ina.l. a call and lia' irar- 
rison retired to the woods. Davis tnnk what he 
I wanted. I.^irn^d as much of the town a^ was burn- 
able and ruidi/kfd niV a-rain. 




Fff.tjxo hotwoon Tnnc^li?]! and Spanish crrr-w 
nion^ Mttt'i". and iii l*)7*i. in I'rtahat ii»]i I'.^r the 
cdiitinnt'd attack nn Snani-li -hips hy Knirli^li 
pirates, tlic Spain^li niai' (»n tha^ Enirlisli col- 
ony Tioar wliat is ti<v,v rliarlcstom h)nt. tindinir tin' 
dcf(nid(TS too wa'll orit rcncln'*], rntnnnvl witliout 
attackiiiir. T^atcr tlu'v sackc*] and dostroved set- 
tlcincTits on TN)rt Koyal Island. 

Juan Martpicz Cabrera \nok over tln^ irovern- 
nicnt of tin' tcinntoi'y (^f Florida in IboO, or th.crc- 
abonts, winch np to that tinn.* had b.M-'ii vt^sted 
in the Mcn-'nidc/' family, and in M^92 sent an ex- 
]>lo]-atinn i^artv to c\])h)rc th.c wtc^tern ct^a^t. A- 
a rcsnlt the \-i1hn:c o\^ Pcni<acola was sub<cninMitly 
fonndc(l. I'^roin the tini-' of F'eicc do I.-'oirs tirst 
hMndiin: to ITi'ik close to t\V(^ hundred yc'ar<, S^pain 
accomplished almost in the matter o[ set- 
Henunit. M-'an\\hile tin' Inmrli^h celoni<N i'l th.e 
rai'olina^ wrfe pro-]*' ininr and i!!cT"easi!n: yeaT"ly 
in strciii^th and nnmbri-^, and in 1 70'J, bniLrlaTnl 
and Spain then bcimr at war. (bnwmnM' Moon> of 
Soiitli (^arelina titted ont :\u r\ned;*ien to caieiiro 
St. AnufU^tine Ii c(wt Sicith ("a^'oli'ia -'\ *^'e 


sand ponnd-- and re viilt,>d m t 



< < ni ! ' ! ^ 

v>f the 

• fi 




LKT'S (lo To FLoinDA! 

first paprr money to appear in ilii> country. The 
attack, apprnaciung tiit- Spani-h >l rontrliold liv 
lan.i anil --a, laid siege to tli^' nrw >t()ne fort of 
San Marro, into \\liicli the town-p.'oplt' had Hod 
with tli^'ir ni<A-af-lr possr<>i()ns, hut after a 
month's inve^tmL'nt wltu ohliir.-d. <'()inci(h:'nt with 
the arrival of two nnomy >!iip.v, to retire after 
hTirnini: th- town. T!i»-ir ha>tr was so great that 
they ahandontMl thtir tran>purts, stores and nm- 

In 171^ the fecenu of e(»!it!ic^ -liiftcd to I^ensa- 
cohi. AVar havin^r hr-on <hM-Iarfd hftw.-m France 
and Spain, ]\.r^'^' -~hip-^ from M.)hih' siirpriscl the 
^^■l^rison at Pensacohi and took thn r.'crntly 
rr^'ct^Ml fort. La^■I• it was r^'tak^n hy the S{)anish, 
and, in the' tMHowmg year, once more ca[)tiired 
hy thn Fr-n-li who. imai^h- to .<par.' sullicicnt 
troops to h-M i\ hiirn.-d it p. tie- Ln'oimd. "When 
p-ace was restor-d in ]7_'_> p..;,>a.-ohi was n- 
turn'jd lu Si'aiii. ('ontinnf.] and LM-owim,^ enmity 
between the KnL^i^h and th.- Spani.^li at h.'ni^^tii 
resulted in the exp*-di';,,r] oi' (;o\ai-nor ( )ir]rthorp(' 
"f ^'h-or-ia at^'ainst 8t. An-n^tin.'. Oi^h'tliorpe 
-'^'* ■"' •' -Jv.n a pa'. -it in \7:V2 an*! had Imilt a 
fort al Ih-ed' rjra, on the Altamaha Ri\rr, in tcr- 
rJN)rv r.pdm. d f^>- Spain. Ant iripat imr an ofTm- 
M\e by the Spanish, !o]h,uin- ih*- failure of an 
*'tfo.'-t toward arbitratio.-n n-hthorpc h-.i f(»ur 
l'i:.<ln<l -ohJiers and 8ev<ial hand^ of Creek In 
dian.^ against the enemy, »ailii;g in a numh.u- of 



small \-ess(T< in the s})rinLr of 17.">0. lie captured 
several outpo-ts alouLC the St. .John'.- Kiver, rav- 
aged the country ar(Uind St. Auirustine and finally 
{ilaced three hatterirs on Anastasia Island and 
commenced the homhardment of Fort San Marco 
June lUth. Iron, liowever, pi'oved no match for 
co(piina stone, and the cannon luills 'lid small 
damage to the defenses heyond buryin^^ them- 
selves in the walls. Une of Oi:lethor]ie's souve- 
nirs is still to be seen imbedded in the stone. On 
July 7th Spanish vessels approached and the 
siege was raised. 

In 17(i-, after peac«? had existed for fourteen 
years under the treat v of 174^, war l»roke out 
afresh and the Fn^dish captured Ilavami, cutting 
St. August ine olT from its base o( supplies. 
(Jreat Britain (dTered to exehamre Havana for 
Florida and the Bahamas, the otTer was accei>ted, 
and in 1 7h:) Spain's ])ossessio!is on the coTitinent 
o)i North Amiudca ])assed to tht> enemy. Many, 
indeed nearly all, of the Spanish reslvients of 
Idorida remo\-ed to Fuba, lu some case^ destroy- 
inir or defai-inir their homes before leavinu:. 
Kngland set to work with a will to coloniz.e her 
new possession, and in 17r'*> the tirst attempt at 
colonization on a larire >eale was made h.y Andi-ew 
Turnbull, who bi-ouudit a ban-d o{ tiftiuei hundred 
(Ireeks to a loealit> -ome eight)' miles soiitli of 
St. AuLTU.-line, whieli he named Nrw Sm\ rr>a, for 
the ot" gr(>\\ ing indige>. Koad> were built 





and both West and Ea^t Flurida. in'o whidi the 
territory bar] hcnv. divi^lor] for })in'jM..-t'> ni a(hiiiii- 
i>tration, enjoyed an era of pros|M'riiy and quiet 
which continued until liio h. iriniiinLr ot" tlio luvo- 
lutionary War. Fur lliai inait.-i-, tlio war can be 
said lu haye interfered but linlo with tho normal 
life of the Floridas, for tin- inlialutant- wero al- 
most iiivarial'ly loyalists and war it>elf iie\Tr 
penetrated wiiliin tL^ borders saye on two occa- 
sions. Aftt-r Spaiii had oi;i-»- iiinrf lTmu*' to \\'ar 
with Greal iiritain in \77\K D.- (ialvz, then (Jov- 
ernoratXew < Orleans, led an expedition into W'.m 
Florida, then compose<l of Louisiana and {)ait< 
of bordering states, and took :=u\eral forti{i<-a- 
tions. Later, in 17.51, he made a second \i>it an<I 
took possession of Pensacola. The lat'.r in\aM(.n 
consiiluted Spain's last act of aggre.-dnn on this 

Haying lost L-r other colonies lu ihe New 
\\ urld, Great Britain had <mn]] m-^o for flie Flor- 
idas, and in 17^.3 they were ceded ba- k to Spain. 
Seyeral years later Sp:,!,-! j.;i..,,i \\',..t I'^lori(bi 
o'. 'I ' l-'rance, retainini^ only so mu<li of tin- ter- 
ritory as lay east of liio i'eididc. h:iver, the jiivsciif 
boundary between Florida aiid ALd.ima. Th.n, 
three years later still, came th. l.ui;i.Iana Pur- 
chase, bringing with it the pt.J-hnj .,f wIhfv 
United States ownershi]; h.■^^,;, ;,!.,1 Sp.midi 
ownership left off. Spain still claim, d W . M 
Florida, while the United States consid. r. 1 it a 

' I 



part of tlic Loui.-iana ])nrc]iase. An effort to |)nr- 
cliase the diispuled territory met with failure In 
1^10 troops wore sent t(» Wot I'lorida to pro- 
tect it from aiTLrres.-ions of b()ih F^ranco and (ireat 
l^ritain. Subscniuent to tlie War of l^ll!, the 
necessity of acquirinir East Fh^rida became thor- 
ouirhly a[)parcnt to the Enited States. The terri- 
tory had become the rendezvous of pirates, rene- 
gades, fugitive slaws and hostile Eidians, and the 
Spainsli (JoveriiMr was uttei'ly iinah'le to cope with 
a situation which, especially durin^r tlie recent 
war, had caused the Enited Stat.'< intinile tr<M.ilde. 
(;onsc(iuently, on July J7, l^E-, (E neral (Eunos 
crossed into Spani.-li territory and captured^ tle^ 
f(.rt oil Amelia Island at Apalacliicola. ( )]hmi hos- 
tilities ensued, and a yt>ar laN-r Andrew Jaci<<<v.i 
led his forces iiT.o the t !-'e,i]i!ou< territory. X.^ar 
bake Miccusukc, just over tl;.' line frorii Georiria, 
h," found thf fr.-^h scalps of three Inquired men, 
women and children. He took swift veui^eance, 
hanLrinir >e\-eral ^Eccosukee chi.'f<. Inn-nin:: tlie 
\illaire and e\-e!i e\ocnti!n: two Ean^lislimeTi wlio 
he found iruilty ot' -upplyin^r the Indians witli 
arms and fomenfiuL: tn.>uMt,>. For the latter 
^ome\\hat di'a-'ic actne^ lie foun.d him<eE^ in J.i<- 
favor at Wasiiiaglon. lli^ co'idiu-t was ih<- 
' ' i- success lari^tE nul'itied and he nar- 

row ly e--cap 

fd cen-ure at !h<' !"-t iira' ion ol i 'ai- 

houn. llnWi'Xf!-, Spaii; w a - n- v-mtik'h^ i\u\ un with 
her propi'rt) h\ now, and in l^TJ, mi payment 



Ll'rr'.S GO TO FLOinOA! 





of (lamaL^o- inflir^~M] cm Fiiltt'il S^tafcs commerce 
estimated at ti\ .■ millions dollars, ced.'.j W,->t and 
ha-t l-';<»ri(la to this country. Thereupon (reiieral 
JacKson \\a> appointed Military (iovenioi' of the 
new Territorv, 

Troul^h' With the Seminoles confinned. These 
N^ Indians —th" word Srminole means ''out haw'' — 
mu>t not h,. eonfuMMl with the original native in- 
habitants of hdorida. Tie' latter, aecordini: to 
the aeeomits of tho oarly explorers, were a par- 
ticularly tie.' racf, iutelliLr.'nt, s.'lt'-i'f^peet iiiir. diir- 
nitit-d. MT.,p at h.ast liefore the desiirns oi' the for- 
eii::. inwel-rs hfcamt' known to them, eourteous 
and lri-nd!y. Of stalwart huild, liLrht eomplexion, 
frequontly faHnner], tla-y were an airricultural 
I'^'^'i'J''' al'ho!;-!! wli.ii necessity called they 
]>r(>v^-[ th'-mselyes hold na\dL^a^»rs and coiir- 
a-'-ou.^ ti-hters. Th- S.-minoh'S had their oriLdn 
j\viieii, in 1703, the MnLrli.^h drove tie- Creek Xa- 
'i'vm from t]ir-ir lioldin^r^ farther north and many 
of th.- Indians • rinL^rat.d to Alabama and Florida. 
About thr- same lim.- <ii->.-n-ion< amoinx the Ala- 
bama hv.hiih>. rc-iub-d in the secession of a larij^e 
number of fhem and th<-ir invasion of north cen- 
tral b.'-rela. I'honi tie- ^'arolina- came a scat- 
tern.- o!" N'-massees. To thi-^ mixture was added 
as t;jiM- went on man\ n-'^^'ro.'^ uTo had escaped 
i'runi tiicir ma.-.lers, an occa-ional captive or vol- 
Tinteer fre.m a surroinidiMi' tribe and a certain 
i'-a-verdnL' ol whites; and, also, uhat was h;ft of 

the native I'loiuda Indians after their strength 
had been broken and their numbers decreased by 
the Spanish. \Vithi]i the century the Seminoles 
^vere to be found in all ])arts of the state, and of 
the Florida aboriirine no trace remained. The 
total number of thes(^ 'M)utlaws" at the time of 
Spanish withdrawal was believed to be close on 
iive thousand, of whiOi |)erliaps one thousand 
were neirroes. Althomrh the name of Osceola is 
that i)rominently associated with tlie Seminole 
Wars, yet it was another who prepared the 
ground for him. l-]arlv in the (dirhteentli centurv 
Alexander McGillivray, half-breed chief of the 
Oreeks, formed an alliance with Sp»ain to clieck 
the ti(h^ of innniirration then commenciui^: to tlow 
into southern (Jeorgia and Floidda and, aided by 
ih(' Flori<la tidbes, waged warfare for some years 
against the settlers. 

J)oubtless tii^hting the Seminoles was hard 
enough, but think what it must have been to at- 
tempt to jironouna'c their names; such names as 
Chitto Ihi.steemuirLree, C\it sha-I'ustmuij:i:ee, Gaha-, llola-ata-mico, (lahaemai-tla-Cliupko and 
Mokehisshelarni ! Xo wondei" the war lasted so 
long. It's suHicientl}- dithcult to catcdi up with 
a foe who doesn't want to be cauirht up with 
wdien you are <juite ceiiain of his name and can 
sa\' it nonchalant !>■, but imairine stopping: on 
the march to make iiKjuii-irv t'.>r ( Jaliaemartla 
Cliupko I ( )f cour>e (J. i'. w ould add a couple more 

I t 





miles to his lead while jou wore sfrncrirlnifr with 
his name. SometiiiM'- ,1 chi.-i' \va< aniiahh^ enough 
to answer to a nickname, riihrr lu wliittl.' down 
the uad^, a Lit ur in the interests of ooononiy. and 
Arpiiiki wn- known n- Sam Jonfs and ( 'uacooclice 
as Wild (.'at. I'lit no niaitcr wliat tlicv were 
called, the\- dddn't cmim,., and tlifv didn't b.'liavc 
and not until l^LL', at'ttT many coni'erenees liad 
been held between thein and tlm covornnnnt, was 
a treaty at last negotiated —la rircly 1»y nu'vclon 
— with fifteen of their nunilMr. who, as |)rt'<(ntlv 
transpired, di-I not speak wiiji authority for the 
j bahmce of ihfir IriLu. h'y thi.^ treaty tho Somi- 
■I; noles were to be romnved, jork, sfo.-k and harrel, 
j! to a reservation in Arkansas. Two years more 
passed, liowever, h.-lor.- tho troaty was ratiliod, 
;^-'l ^-y '--''^ ^i^^''' inany of thf Indians liad ex- 
perienced a change of heart and affaii's drau'-Lrerl 
along thronirh a third ya.r. AVIion the irovern- 
ment would have j-u* tho treaty into elToef it was 
found that a lare:e ma.jority of tlio Soniinolos, in- 
eluding the negroes, the latter particailarly op- 
posed to the plan, would ha\-e nnue (.}' it. Those 
.who w-ro in favor oi' a\-oidinu'' ti-ouhle with tlu^ 
ir''\-'!-nment gathere<l a< Fort P)rnoke, wliere 
Tarn[>:. ',mw standi, wkil,- th.- r.-t, under the lead- 
fr.-hi]j ol (i.-.eeola, prepared to ro.^isf. 

^-ceola — the word m-an< f?i<inL'' Sun — was the 
offspring of an English t'ad-r aud a woman of 
the Red Stick tribe of the Creek Xation. Born 



in Oeoriria, about 1800, he removed as a youth 
lo tile neiLdikMrliood of Fort King, now Oeahi, 
fdorida, and niarrio.I a s^piaw w lio was a descend- 
ant of a fugiti\e skive. AVhen (ue' day <)>(-(M)]a 
took his wife to visit tlie trading station at F(^rt 
King she was seized and returinnl to slavery. 
()seeola, ei'a/.e(l witli Lrrief an<l anirer, made des- 
|)erate attempts to resiuie jier, laU failed. Nat- 
urally, liis liking for the white men was not 
strenirthene<l hy tliat ineident, and he was always 
one of the hitt»u'e<t op])onents to the government 
j.lan of remo\al. When ordered hy (huieral 
Wdlev Thompson to place Ids nuii'k on the emi- 
gration li-t he instead slashed the docamieut with 
Ins knife, and for punishment was ]iut in eliains 
and imprisoned in Fort Kimr. In order to olttain 
Ills free(lom he riirret-d to irathor one hundred wai'- 
rioi's and briuLT them to General Thompson to 
siirri the paper. At liberty, however, although 
he gathered his waiu'iors, it \Na- with no intentir)n 
of havinir them siirn the emigi-ation list, and lie 
di>ap]»eare(l for some time. 

Actual hostilities in the Second Seminole AVar 
began in June, H.'lo, when a party of Indians were 
apprehendeil hutelie'riuLT a stolen lu'cve and were 
llo^'-t'-ed on the siiot. Two Indian liUCiters wit- 
nesse<l the lloLru'inLT and tii'ed uii tlie white men 
witli the result that t\\«) Indians and ouc wlilte 
were kllh'd. A little lat.-r a dr-pateh la-hu- on 
his wav from Fort Brooke to Fort King, the only 

II ^ 



irarri>()ris thru inaiiitaiiKMl in the whole state, was 
shut to duatli and \i\< hody hidden in a swanij). 
Tho first ronsidt'rahh' atTair, however, came on 
Di'crnihfr L'^th, l^:;o. when rrLrnhir troops to the 
mmilu'r of oie- hundred and ten, in comniarid of 
Major Dade, were lired on from anihnsh close to 
the W'llhlaoooehee "River, about midway between 
Forts Brooke and Kinir, and exterminated almost 
to a man. Fnaware that hostilities had heLrun, 
tile command had takm no precautions beyond 
loadinir th-ir Lnms, and the sudden attack of the 
enemy, numb.'rin'j- elo>r to two hun<Ired and led 
by Chief Jumper, eamr as a total surprise. Ma- 
jor Dade aiKJ about half of his men fell at tho* 
lir-t vnlh-y. Tlh' others rallied, dreive the In- 
dian- fr«.ni (■o\-.-i- ;in(l tle-n erreted a breastwork 
of tr»-*'> from b.-hind which they fired until tho 
last of tht-ir numltcr hnd lifrn kilh-d. l->ut two 
member-; of th*- oxpt-dition survi\-."d. One, 
woun.hMJ in th.' tir-t '-ni-onnter, bi-i!)tMl his ca})tor 
to reb-a-*- him, !a\- liidd^n in the palm.'tto scrub 
until darkn- -- and then crawled nt'arlv sixtv miles 
baek *M b\,rr i^,fooke on hand< and kn.'cs. The 
second >i;r'.i\or wa- a n»-irro Lniidf who, knowim;; 
^vha♦ wa- Ni happen. ab-^'Hicd him-t-lf from the 
iorce belorehand and r'-rnain-MJ uninjure*]. When 
hostilities b..[ran he joii^.-d th.' Indians and took 
par' m t!..- massacre. 

That -am<- day, at V'>v^ K'inL', n^c'ola struck 
LL-i biuw. WiUi a .-.core ol Miceo.-ukce warriors 



he watched the fort until, after the midday meal, 
(ieneral Thomj)son and a lieutenant left it to 
walk to the sutler's store, about a mile distant. 
Tlie Indians, concealed in the woods, fired and 
killed botli men instantly. Tliey then went on to 
the store, killed five otliers there, robbed and set 
fire to the buildinc:. Tidinirs of the two events 
astounded and dismayed the country, and war, 
one of the costliest in lives and money in our his- 
torv wlien the end to be attained is considered, 
besj:an in earnest. 

General Winfi<^ld Scott took the field aeainst the 
forces of Osc(H)la in 1S:]() with nefrative success, 
and Avas followed by Govinnior Call, whose vigor- 
ous tactics drove the Indians into the southern 
part of the stat(\ A year later tlie rebellious 
S(^minoles airain consente(l to the exodus only to 
once more reconsider. Durinir the neirotiations 
Osceola was taken ca])tive In- the Ignited States 
forces and imprisoned in Fort Moultrie, on Sul- 
livan's Island, opposite ('harleston, S(nith Caro- 
lina, toufetlK^r with his second wift^ and ht>r child. 
There, in January, l^.'vS, })cinir ill an.l refusintr 
medical aid because he feai'e(l i^^ison, he arose 
from his palh^t, dresstMJ himself in chieftain's 
,ij:;irb, and, airain la>iin: himself down, died within 
a few minutes. He was burii^l outside the fort, 
whiM'e a monument now stands {o his memory. 

1di(* loss of Osc(M)la's leadership did not, how- 
<n'er, deter his follow. 'T's from continued resist- 
ance to the militar\- authorities. Desultory fight- 





ing went on for three year- liiLrt r, tlic TndiaTis 
hiding in the Everglade:., iiurn wiiLiici' th* y came 
forth at intervals on sudden and stealthy raids. 
All efforts to dislodge them from that wilderness 
were unavailing until, in 1^41. (_\)l()ii(l Worth took 
command of the niilitar\ and, after conduct iiiic a 
campaign which cost thousands of lives and an 
immense amount of money, tinally succeeded in 
penetrating the fastness and comp. lliuLC the en- 
emy to surrender. The government liad i)lace(l 
a bounty of five hundred dollars on Indian war- 
I riors, three hundred on women and two huiHlied 
on children, something Avldeh ma\ li i\e expedited 
the pursuit. When, at P>ii: Cyiir.-.s Swamp, a 
small detail of soldiers on scon d ml: ilnty surprised 
a party of Seminoles -md took captive eiLdit^Hni 
men and women it is jn'ohalde tic Indian-' 
astonishment w^as no greater tk an that of tlie 
soldiers, for the occasion was the (uily one oeeur- 
ring during the long warfar<- wicn tli' <nrpri-inu^ 
< was not done by the s,!\aL''-! One of the pris- 
oners taken was UUi 'i'oujrny, and h.- and hi< foiir- 
teen-year-old son w^ere -'it i.. I- Ci t My, rs. The 
boy later escaped, and ho keen ua- Old Tonim\ 's 
chagrin that he committed 'li- i i. I y < .itinir ^da-s. 
Colonel Worth's campai;/n lin;i!i\ end.'d tfi,. Sem- 
inole War and all save a u-w liiifnlicd ,,r tlie 
suMued foe were removed to I!m Indhm Tcril 
tory. A recent estiniat- nf th.- nnnil)er of Semi 
noles now in Florida places it it ;doiit si vm 
hundred, but it is likely tiial ihu uri^inal uiimher, 

ANd) AFTl-d{ 


immediately -uk-e^ueut lu ike exodus, was much 

Florida became a state in 1845. In I8f^1 ^ho 

joined with the otjier sonth-rn commonwralihs 
in seceding fmm the Union, and Si. Aujru-tine, 
Fernandina and Pensaeola. in 1^02, and Jackson- 
ville, in lS(k^., Wi-re capture.] k.y X^'nion forces. A 
year later an attempt to inva-le tlie interior faik'd 
wlien Northern troo])s were defeated at Olustee, 
some fifty miles west of Jack-o]ivilIe. Siik^.-pieut 
to tke restoration of ])«'ace a new state irovern- 
meni was oriraniz'-d an<l a ]n-Mvisi(V,ial -overiK^r 
look oilice in l^lio. Florida remain-*] under mil- 
itary rule until l^lN, wken the elector^ ranti-d 
a lU'W state cons!ituti(nn For maT:y year- tli--' 
<:rowth of the state was slow but <t.'ady, its p<^s- 
Mkilities as a re-ion for the irr.nvinir of ^ci^-us 
crops irainimr incrra-iriLr reeniridtion and k<ri!ii:ing 
each year new si'ttler> frmn adjoiidng states— 
])articulai'ly (leor-ia and Alakanni— and ivom the 
North. The fame of it< climaN^ lik.'wi<e at'racs^d 
both viMtors and st>ttler<. (\\tMtak a^ t'r<t ex- 
tremely warv of tlie South.. fodi)w,M]. Fkiirler 
brom^ht the lowrr east coa<^ o( die ^^a^^ i'lto 
])rnminence by the buildin-- o\ I'i- raid-oad. a'ld 
Flant performed a like service for tlie western 
])art of the ].eniiiMila. ITot*^l> arose witli !>iu-h- 
roomdike ciTaatN and e'her e!!lenu-ives <-\'-ted 

up. .About 1^^'^ a ! 


'd \ a ■-! --ourv't' o t re\a 


came te liLi-ht with the di>covcry of [Cio-;^!iate 

York (h'[)0--its. 




Because of its peculiar outline Fimida has liccn 
i.fiened to a pistol, the peninsula I'unniiiLr the 
Lttt, the western stretch of tho ?fato the harrol 
rtA X.issau County, which jogs up !:;:() (nonria 
along the coast, the trigger. T}.' i» -x-inhhiiK'*' is 
strong, and especially so \vh<'ii th" outline ot' the 
state is reduced to }.;-*'.! ^izu a6 it Is on tlic 
rriotor license plates. It wa^-- fho siL^it of sucli 
a plate on the !•■ ar of a I-'N.ri'hi car passinic 
through a northern to^\Ti w}.!. ]i auak.'iM'd in on.' 
beholder recollections of a ni": *h ^p. nt in a hiirh- 
priced East Coast hostelrv ajd .,, n^.d him to 
announce dryly: **I know v, !,m'-. ;•, that autoino- 
bile. It's the fellow \\]:n j:i!.~ t},, hot.) (h)\vn 
there where I stayci '" Iluwovrr, ll' it sorn<'tiin«'s 
happens that a P^lorida 1 ^-^ ! jnupi i. tor niota- 
phorically holds a pistol to the h. i 1 oi" a lmk st, 
the state itself cannot be a''!i-.(i of scri on six- 
threatening the rest ^f' t!..- count r\, ^incf, with 
the pistol pointing as it <lr,' -, an cxplo-ion x^ouM 
do no more than fuiuov. a neat swuMa; ihrouLdi 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and !< vn^- Ilit 

I bullet would miss California (utirely, rrgi . t tnhh , 
since it was a (.aliforuia/j v.\.<> .-ai(J of i'lornhi: 

i 64 


*'Tt's T^ncle Sam's appendix, and only God Al- 

niiirhtx' kn()\v> i;-^ i)ur])Ose!" 

Aiurc rccuiith' a mur^ puiilu if no iess facetious 
person referred to the pfato a? *' Uncle Sam '3 
chin uhi-kers." A glance at the map) will reveal 
the appropriateness of the simile. But pistol. 

\auuni I orni a| •] mij li \ 

or chin whi 


Florida I 

TiiL-re she ^land.-^' Uulv it wuuld be l'»''ttcr to 
resist t]io femptntion fn prtraphrase a ^L^-sacliU- 
setts !>tatc>nian, ;ind -.i\ : •" Inhere she lies !" For 
wlicn a state persists in keeping as close to sea 
h'\«'l a< Fh)rida thh <, aiivl i< nowhere more than, 
about four hundred feet high, it i- dirneul: to 
thiTik of it as -tandinsr. 

hdori'hi i> ae'ci* 4~ii^ ni;'''< i:: length, nor"]! to 
south, a! 1 at its broadest and norther:: wi.i^ii 
i> ^onie lif'\- Tnile> le^s. 1: had a:: area oi 
58,1)00 square ip/des a ft^v vears ai!;o, makanjj: it 


sect till 

hir_:est slate east of the Miss: 


K'iNtr. L>nt ^.) much submorired :i!'ei ! :a< been 
ai;d i> b,ii;_r reelaimed tha' \\''.> kn^nx^ 'e:' '!:aL 
\er\' .sliorllv il wul be ihe Uuxesl .' A: present 
it equals fln^ C'-nnbinod nre:\s (>^' Nkw York, 
\Liv>achn-e!'^ a"; { Ivhodc Islanob bdorida also 
boa-!s, aiid with piddc, the longest eoast Inie ot 

a!i>- -s!a!r; a i a a o \ lUiatolv 1,150 miles, ''\-yK]\ 'd'e 

er on the north, down aloiii: 


St. \Li! \ \ \li\ 
Aihiniu c.'i^i, around the tip of the peniii>:i'.a, 
bac'u np ici di iJult' coast and tinall\ \Ne>'\s-i'd 
t^' the l\ id.vlo. And if the shuie Lues ol the 





lA-VrS GO TO rL(d:il)A! 


\arious islands and keys, \\l\^-]i are so iminrTous 
that no one yet knows the exact numi - r nf tin m, 
were added on — well, one can only gUL\-,s at tin" 

result. Florida i- tlio nio-t -mithorly of th(> 
states, Tampa. l>i',-r a.[i|)i'(i\iiiia!rl\- i!rhl\\a\\ 1)0- x'liit' li\'t' hua'lrf'l niilf^ ia'ai"fr thf c'luator 
tiiaii San L)iL'go, ralil'"riiia. Ha- cast cape of 
Capo SaMo is tho sou' h-'riiinost pnint of tlif inaiii- 
laijl of the United States. Kry AVo>t Ik-s about 
tliir*\ ii\'f niiif- Im^Idw ( 'a{)o Saldo. ^ 

The .Fi')!-i<la peninsula mw,.> ip^ cxistouco to 
a folding uf the onrth's i-ru-t at a rrinota iraoloLri- 
cal porind ^^y ^^'l.i'•ll a lai''_r«' phitcia was I'aisctl 
I'roin the ocean i'-h.!'. Tlii- ]ilat»'au i> i-ouLrhly 
three liuudrcMl miles in lontrth ai^i widtli, >lo])inir 
abruptly on throe sides to aby-inal drpths. Tho 
highe>t-t portion of the plateau i6 along tiio uastfiui 
edge, em^r-iririL^ frnm the sea as tlio Florida pouin- 
suau a:.d -Li- r^-presents about <inf hall' of it- Tlif low.'r half oi' ih'' p^uiiii-ula i> of 
more recent growth Mian thf up])'U\ but tlio sui'- 
face of the state as a wliolo is conipai'at ixdy new, 
datin'_r back a'-era^lirio- fo rrrM">]n(ji>-i - no t'urther 
than *1m' rpp<-r h'ocene p- rind. Still later, ab>out 
tlir (i.i\- In^for.' \(*ster<lay tn -p^ak Lrcoloirieally, 
there \va.^ a '-TeUeral -ub-iM.,.!ict' df tlo' entire 
poTiiTisuln, tlit' Inwr^r yiortioii I'l'oni the reirioii 
of ba'o' ' )i<(M-ci;()bee south — sinkinu" b.low tlie sur- 
face. Thi< sunken ar- a \\a< lat-u- built up airaiu 
under water, a.> the roek at tot.-, for all u\er tlu.' 






various islands and keys, which are so numerous 
that no one yet knows the exact number of them, 
were added on — well, one can only guess at the 
result. Florida is the most southerly of the 
states, Tampa, lying approximately midway, be- 
ing some five hundred miles nearer the equator 
than San Diego, California. The east capo of 
Cape Sable is the southernmost point of the main- 
land of the United States. Key West lies about 
thirty-five miles below Cape Sable. 

The Florida peninsula owes its existence to 
a folding of the earth's crust at a remote geologi- 
cal period by which a large plateau was raised 
from the ocean floor. This plateau is roughly 
three hundred miles in length and width, sloping 
abruptly on three sides to abysmal depths. The 
highest portion of the plateau is along the eastern 
edge, emerging from the sea as the Florida penin- 
sula, and this represents about one-half of its 
width. The lower half of the peninsula is of 
more recent growth than the upper, but the sur- 
face of the state as a whole is comparatively new, 
dating back according to geologists no further 
than the Upper Eocene period. Still later, about 
the day before yesterday to speak geologically, 
there was a general subsidence of the entire 
peninsula, the lower portion — from the region 
of Lake Okeechobee south— sinking below the sur- 
face. This sunken area was later built up again 
under water, as the rock attests, for all over the 





]<'V>fr uiiJ ui 

I n i ^ 

]»<'!iinsiila ar.' hod< of wat 


linic^toriP: fho *' Miami 1 
ea-t ('(.a.-t, the 




Miami linh\<toiit^" of tliu soiitli- 
Lostnian's Kiv.-r limestone" of 

iwest coa.^t and tjj,' KveiMrlades. AVhil 

tin' tip of tho mainland was l)uildin<r tli« 



coral reef knowii as the ]/p}K'r Keys was also in 
process of formation. Fo]h3wed at a still more 
recent time— ycstmlav, to eontinne th 

le L^eoloiriea 

•t\i(' — an ('] 



t'Vation, thrnstinir the previouslv sub- 


'■d ])ortion ul' 

!it' peninsula onct' more into 

<' air and presentinir to view— oidy, of course, 
lerp was no one to virw it— Soutli Florida verv 

miK'h as we know it to-day. Other lesser sul)s[- 
oIo\-a:ioiiv occurrod without trreatlv 

( it ' n (• < ' s 

.•dt.Tinir th.' topiography of the section, and ])y the 
a. 'lion (»f wind and wa\-.' the coastal islands were 
.Lrradually fdin^.d niul th.' tiny coral builders ])er- 
foniiod thrii- slow and ]iationt work on the Kevs. 

^ b'nci'all}' <pt'aki] 

('o\-('?-inL'' ol 


, Fl 

1 o\Tr 1 

"I'iila consists of a t 


sand \v\ir]\ !\)n!i<i noiih of th 

most one oi- clav. Thi 



of t 


ila is 


t'Xti-eme southerly 
iccous, formed of 

'piartz i-ock. <u- ot" older i-ocks, fai" to tl 



1 d 


le north- 

;ted in it- promt h^cation bv the 

ri\-fi's of the Appalaehi 

m niountains or tossed up 

bv the soiithwai'd oeeaii current and distributed 

landwaT'd b\- tl 

lo win< 

]<. I 






OAvever, thi 

I 1 w It 1 1 ( 

The Iwaeh 

'- (if t 

as th 

d ad 

mt.'Ln-atcd limestone rock. 
li<' tip of the peninsula, as well 

e soil adjacent, are composed of tinv fra 




D n ri ' 

TTifMits of shell and coral. The popular n 
that the state consists of only sand and s\\anip 

is im! f;,r w r,.iig. What is not always a}ii»rt'*'iattNi 
is tht' i'act that the sand, when combined \\ith 
siinliirht arni mni^fnro, will frmw about evorything 
that t an i'r 1:1 twn anywhere, and that the swanip 
whtii hai: ' i becomes soil as rich and jin Ini tive 
a:; tli'j iamuLi- lands of the Nile valley. Thf ii to- 
neons belief that Floridn coritnin^ n lariro nTiiount 
of worthless land has long existed; even I'Nnid- 
ian- ha\a' h. h] it. The plain truth, however, is 
thuit, althouu:h I'^htrida has a lt* at.!- iMTcmtaLre 
ul undeveloped territory than any stale t'a>.t of 
tbp "Rnr'kio^^. ^nrh a thing as worthless land dors 
not <'\ist. The most unprnnn-jnu'' Inokinir sti* ^ h 
of (li'v sand iiKiv he capahh^ of ])i'0(liiciiiL'' tho 
tinrst ,Lrrap'':'i'nit or craiii:''-, ih*- nio-t hop.'lrss 
appearing swamp may be converud lulu amaziiiLr 
triir-k hT^il Even the -bnllnv,- d*" posits nf -ami 
on thf K('ysai:i] along the hiw-r coast, ^v]it•r^' liino- 
stone outcrops continually, will raise won<h!ful 
pinoappih.'S. There is no plnee where somulhing 
at h a-t will not grow and grow remarkably well. 
The lan^l i- not always read>' f'^v fb" lian-ow; 
Mtin'- ni' i' iin-^ h,^ <:rained; some ol' it u\u<\ bo 
chare i of forest or palmetto scrub; and oitlar 
upcration (lumands patience and labor and o\-- 
ppTi=;n. h'>ut, once ready for planting, the land will 
reward the toiler. 

Although it has been stated Ilia! tlic soil is 

(;K(HdlLVi'ilV A\l) i^LAXT LIFE 59 

generally sandy, yet there are many xariLtits 
thioughout the state, eacli luivihg liualiUc:. mak- 
ing it especially valuable for certain purposes ; as, 
for instnTiop, the red clay lands of the nonhcrn, 
or mainlan(i, portion, Avht-re cntton, corn and to- 
bacco are staple crops: the stretch of country 
m the n.-i^rpp,,,.p,,,„j ,,,• il^i^-Qi^g^ where white 1)0- 

tato grows prudigiou-ly — and to tlie extent of 
nearly one million bushels a season; the land in 
('(M'tain sections of Maihon ("ouiity, as well as 
in other ])]aces tlirouirhout the state, where the 
orange reaclie:^ perfection. The clay lands just 
montionod dosorvo a wnrrl mor(\ That ])ortion 
of them known as tJie K\m1 Hills of Leon is fairly \ 
uni'jue. It covers an estimated territoi\v of three 
hundi'ed aiid torty S(piai-e mib's on all sides of 
Tallahassee, the state capital, and is ])e(ailiar to 
itself ns rojrnrds gpoloiry. soil. t<'poirraphy and 
vegetation. Jefferson and Madison Counties, to 
the ea-tward, situated in tiie Middle Tdoiada ham- 
mock Itelp sliow an occa.^ioiial small area of sim- 
ih'ir character, Init nowliere else in the Lnitod 
States, nor, ^ay geoloiri-t^, in the w<»rld, does a 
like area (^xist. Even tlu' red hills of southern 
(leoriria, while su]»ei'}icially similar, are funda- 
mentally dilTereiit. This tirritory is rich in larire 
lakes, bavimr Ibo rbnrncfpr of sinkdioles, in which 
the watei" level is freakisli'y \ai'iable. 

FloT'ida'- formation i- jMMMiliar in that nowdiere 
is the coast more than seventy-iive miles distant, 



a fact which has its bearing on climatic condi- 
tions. Laid upon a limestone foundation, the 
state is netted by innumerable undergir.uiil 
streams which appear on the surface in almost 
every locality in the shape of lakes and >i)iiiiL"<. 
It is doubtful if all the form or am yof Txnnwn, l-ii1 
some one has guessed their number as close to 
thirtv-two thousand. In combined ana dax- form 
about one-fifteenth of the state. The laii:' >t is, 
of course, Okeechobee, somu 1,250 square mik'S 
in area. Smaller, but by no means to ho sneezod 
at, are George, Apopka, Kissimmee, IstnlpoLM, 
Tohopekaliga, Orange, M'ccosukee and oih* is. 
Of springs there is no end, of wliIi li !!•• li- -1 
known are probably Green Cove, in Liay Ciuuily, 
and Silver, in Marion County. Thern arp. Im^v- 
/ ever, many more equally worthy of acqiiiiniaiH • ; 
among them Espiritu Santo at Safety Tin ^oi, in 
Hillsborough County, near where De Soto landed, 
a spring which is said to possess curntive. o! ai 
least palliative, properties for manv of tfio ills 
to which we are heir. Some of these Bpiinir- are 
of immense volume, as, for instance, Silv^ei, \\ liidi 
have a flow of 3G8,000 gallons a mi hi' a a I ulii<li 
generate the picturesque, winding r.tiiam known 
as the Ocklawaha River Tlii'ai'djonf iIm Ia ^ r- 
.:-dades the underground slr^Mra- fMiaiiatc 1lie 
eroded lime rock and help s ipi '. ^'M v. a!( i that 
in most seasons overlies thai inmiense tract. In 
many parts of the state flowinir wells can \nt 



secured !■>• -^iiig only a short di<tanfo into the 
^namnd, whde deeper boring usually sii|.plies 
water free from minn'al taste. 

As tlioiiirli ilic miiiiiiiido of lakes and sinks and 
all the many tinier ponds which result from tlio 
rains of summor and somofimos 1a<t wud into the 
foHowing spring were not sulhcient, Florii'ia has 
anntla'T and immense area of water in la-r river-. 
Thf'^r foi'in a v.aatahh' nttwairk over tja- whole 
>tatt' and with Irihntar}- cr.M'ks an.d liranalios 
add eoTisidoralily more tn \\]i:\\ mav ],a trrm-d 
the statfV w^t.-r content. In tla^ mainlaTid ]'nv- 
tion tia' I'ixaT- lie generally nouli and -ontli. 
Tlu'Vi' ar." t!i(^ Escamhia, Chuetawatehee, Apa- 
lachieohi, Oekloeknee, Aurilla, Steinhntehoo. an.d 
JSuwaTiop. all of wliirli ]ai\-o t!a'']" oTairiTi a])ove the 
stat( 's northern border and empty into the Gulf 
of M.'xi,'... Dnwn thr AV.'st Coast the AVi'hhieoo- 
cla'c, I*eaoe a.nd Caloo^^ahaiehee are the main 
sti' am-, diaii, !!;■-: tin western slope of the penin- 
"^"la aiid wiinliiiir iind twisting in a generally 
westmai .lir.'.'t iiei to tlif (iulf. <^hi tla^ Ea-' Coast 
the only eon-idm-ahlf ri\aa--, tlie St. Johrt'< a-d, 
the Kis.-imm.'.', >trL'leh their h'nicths north and. 
6onlli, thr latt.T rising in the lake of the same 
Tiame and rmptxini:- into Lake < 'k-ehobee, and 
tli<' St. J oil a V, wiMi ()>M perversity, having its 
'"'■nlw ati I- la lo. \ard County, close io the sea^ 
and llowim;- northward almost to the horder of 
the sfate, yowht^rr ii; its last seven fv five miles 

I' t 





oi tra\'el is it less than a miiu wide. Abovu that 
stretch it is more than once six miles across. 1 1 
is one of very few rivers in our count ly wliii h 

iT.w i.MTtliwar*]. The St. John's is ii,i\ iLralflf I'nv 
about \\\n hundred and fifty miles, an^i, -ince 
heaJ\vatui\-5 and mouth aru uidy 6ume on^' Inia- 
drofl and forty miles apart in n straip-Tit I in.', it 
will br ii:iderstood that the stream doesn't ex;i< tly 
ilow a- ihe crow flies! Two other ^'rivers" v.lii<li 
may coine to mind, the Halifax and Indian, are 
really sounds. These and >>imilar narrow ri\ .r- 
like bndios of water follow the East Poa-t, with 
an occasional interruption, all tl .• w.iy t'loin just 
alM)ve St. Anirustine to several niih- hflow Palm 
Beach, varying- in width fr.jin a iVactiun uf a 
inilc to several miles, and include, besides the 
Halifax and Indian, the Xoi-f]!, Afaf;ui7.a< and 
Jnpit'T liivers, St. Lucie Sunnd and Lak-' Wnrth. 
They are connected with the ocean by vaiious 
narrow inl-i- through the island:^ and rci'l'> \\hi'-!i 
contine thtm. Those guardian reefs begin airain 
in tlie vicinity of Fulfoi'd, in T^ade County, in tlie 
sliafM' of tka' In--! of the Florida Keys, and enclose 
Biscayne Bay and Card and Ikariies Sounds. I'ut 
now tho pi'utectud waters iiu luni^ur ha\-f' any 
seniblan<t' to rivers, for Bi^cayno is a L'-ood ciLrht 
niilo- ai !()ss at its widest. 

Once ''around the corner," pa-l Cape Florida, 
tilt' . nast loses its simple contoui- of long% irrace- 
ful curve? and becomes all sort of mixed up and 



haphazard. Elliott's Key and Key Lariro, as well 
as an assortment of smaller islands, stait the con- 
fusion, and after that a bird's-eve viow of the 

l»>nin-ula's end would show sn<}i a mixture of 
keys and I'ock- and ^huals as to (hunit the })ravest 
cartographer. Which is^ pro}ia])lv wliv, even to 
this moment, inith-u- chart iior map exists on 
^^■"fii^'h all th<' features of tho suuth and southwest 
Idorida t-oast are to be found in tlieir correct po- 
sitions—if found at all I Key Largo, the grand- 
father of tliem all, swings down and (uit to the 
southwo-t for soni.' tliii-fy milos, while the main- 
land pioceeds practically due west in a series of 
sounds and inlets and bays so confusing that even 
the ciocodileb mu^i ha\e difficulty in naviirating 
that shore. The Upper Keys end at a point 
dirocfly south of Tape Sable, and some thirty 
miles distant, and the intervening s]iace is Florida 
Bay, a >!ualkiw -xpanse dotted with keys of all 
sizes from nothing at all t(^ many acres. One 
miirht easily conclndo that these had been left 
o\"fr \'vn]n tl,r m;tin job and eliueked aside. 

Once past the bold sand hea]) known as Cape 
Sablr. coTit'u-ion again presents itself in the vicin- 
it\' of the Ten Thou'^anfl Islands. It is esy)eciallv 
tlai-e that tlie ma]> mrdvcr gives a load shriek of 
d''>paii- and casts his iinjilrments into the sea. 
Ao \\\n maps agree on the configuration of that 
section ,,t' the coast. Starting at about the town 
of Marco a!id following the mafnland as it dips 


LET'S on To FL< >1MI)A! 

to the southeast lies an unbroken chain of sand 
bars scarcely deserving the name of islands. Fow 
if any of these are above water at all tides, al- 
though practically all are thickly irr-wn wi'li 
TiKiMgrove, ^'black jack" ;i!i^] -iini'iir \vro< mikI 
fturubs. The average width of iIk' chain is per- 
haps eight miles. It finally teriniTintp- ^nnflnvnrfl 
just north o^ Tape Sablo ii; \\].;t' i- called on smuk^ 
i!i;i})S the Shark River A i-''l:i[)flai:". H'-i-ralinnis 
islands and iiia inlands (•••ni.' tM-.a]j,.i- ^o ('on'li.'t- 
ingly that not uniii liiis portion oi the .stale has 
been surveved with the ni'l <~»f nirp]nr.r'=: mn tlio 
true shore line be determine*!. Indee^l, tlif sanio 
i- true of the whole streti h <■!' the shoi-e a< far 
a^ Marco. The island^ are ^:^^la!■a^■^l !■>• hnii'li-t'ils 
of channels, wiMo (.r narrow, *!.■. p or sliallow, 
through which the ovcrllow irnm tli.' Kv^ rLHades, 
to the westwar 1, makes its f-cap<', and thmnLdi 
which the tides sweep. Tlie aetion< ol' v/ind- ami 
tides are continually alt. linL^ iL ■ tn|)OLri apli\', 
wearing down old island, <, tInowinLr up law. al- 
though the I'^-ocess is in tlif main a slow one. 
Sona-hnos, however, al'tfi- a la'avy irale im'W clian- 
ncl->> arc luuiad and <'ld ein.'< }ia\a' di-appearrd. 
An interesting if somo^^llat inondtonous bit of 
Florida; often attractive, a- ol't' n drpro-^incr. 

The Gulf Coast is blessed wiih -. \. lal t xcrl- 
lent harbors, conveniences far -care* r on tla dtja r 
side of the peninsula. Charlotte JlarlM.i. Tampa 
and Ilillsboro Bays, Clearwater TTarbor, Apahe li- 

niannrAriiY axd pt.axt life 65 

icola, St. Joseph's, St. Andrew's, ^t. Afirk's, 

Choctawlaitrla . . Pensacola and Perdido Bavs are 
strung at i!;S rxals alon^ the shore, and there are 

uliifr natural liar bur- wanting only the drt'dges 
to make tlifiii n^efnl. Long sand i-^lands which 
]'ai'al!.'l the shore are not confined to tlit' Ka-t 
Coa<t, fdi' they occur at several ])laees on the 
\Vf-t a< w.'ll; laitahiv oiiposite and hrlow (liar- 
lutte liarboi', in the \dcinity of Sarasota and 
Bradenfr.Ti, off iho shore of Piindlas County, alxMit 
Apaladiicola, aii<l, finally, otT Santa I\(^sa P<»nnty, 
near the cxtrmie western end (^^ tlu^ state, where 
Santa Kosa Island i'<)rnis an unhrokfii hai'ri*']' for 
forty miles, a notable exam|)le of the iruardian 

The plant lif.' of Florida is enormon-Iy int.-r- 
estinL^ althoULrh it i> in the fxtia-mt' soutlieiai por- 
tion of tho pL-nin-ula ai;d on the Keys that it 
exists in LM'eafest waricty. 'N'orthwai'd thtu'e is 
an appai'fut monotony to the natural irrowth o( 
ti'ces and plants. Ida' Ioult P-af ])ine {Pi}iu.< 
/"/^"^'/•/A) ()}' tl;>' Southoini statt'< liolds sway in 
the "llat woods," x'ariuus oaks and a few other- 
hai'ilwood t!"ees are found and tlie eypress iri-ows 
thick in the >wanips. And, of e(nirs(\ tlie eab- 
bairo ]ialm oi' palmetto >ta]id< u]) like a irreat 
tA,p hoi- dn-tia- h.a-o and there. The manirro\a' and 
'' biaek-jarlA' rim the sea pools and bi-a<'ki<li 
streams, and maL''no]ia< and hay< hide in tlie moist 
forests. It' oiM' will h-axo the beaten riuid and 

T.KT'S an TO FI.flKinA! 

take to wood roads and paths he will dismvor 
much more than this, for there is reall\ <.\n\v a 
wral:h of tree and shrub in Northern I'lorida, 
t'>pecially in certain favored localities in ilic wtat- 
tTii roaeh of mainland, but nevertheless as viowod 
iVuni iiie train window or hurrying aiitninoMlo 
the LT<»\v]. appears to lack variety. T:: kit*- Xkiicli 
and April, when the yellow jasmine i- in kinom, 
thnre are few lovelier sights than a wuud ruad 
in tko vicinitv of Tallahassee or iMonticello. So, 
ton. when the Cherokee roses are at theii- ktiL^ht. 
And nothing is more breath-taking tlian a inaiii- 
moth magnolia come suddenly on in tlir -ikiit 
I'uiest, laden with its great fragrant, croniny- 
white blossoms. Perhaps when all i= ^ai-L ih«3 
rolling hills and valleys of the mainland aie every 
whit as interesting as the tropic portions n\' tlm 
state. Certainly they ai-j more easily xiowt-d! 
Up there the growth shows fewer surprises, biuco 
the flora is much the same as in Georgia and 


n T 


and South Carolina, ])ut the 



• k)' < occasionally happen, and the botanist will 
lind plenty to interest him. 

To casual observation the name < i Land of 
Fl'^wrr^-. somewhat erroneously ajipli' <1 lo I^'lor- 
I'ia, - • rns a greater misnomer than it r< tll\ is. 
S*» much of the state consists of I'im' woods, 
vskurein such flowers as exist are exiiLiiK-h mod- 
est in appearance, that the visitor is (vufo Hkoly 

to e 

vijf^-- <1: 

pointment. 'WiM; a ku excep- 


i — 


iions, MoiiikFs flowers are not airLrres<ivt/ly kril- 
liant. \t'il!:t r ar*' llifv usually l;ii"i:t' of Ijlos- 
som. Yrt there are many of them, and ii is nec- 
essary to isn kut a sliort diblaiK-t' from tlit- high- 
road to lind tkom. Ik'. Ckarlos Toria-y Simpson \ 
lias said tliat lir l];i> never seen a time when on 
any extended wall: lie could not iratlier at least 
iift>- \-arirties of wild kl( kkmy of them are ^ 
familiar friends, yet you will notice tliat tliey 
ha\'o ^ulVrrcd a rliamre of one sort or another. 
In some cases the change is so great ris t«^ cause 
tlic kotani-ts to ki-t tlain as new varieties. Many 
others wdi ku ^tranu^f t.) yoti, since they are ptirely 
sub-tropical or fi-<i|)ical; unless, tkat is, you have 
seen tlifm in countries S(»nd! of onrs. Tlie |»ine 
liarrciis arc w.'ll wortli rxplorinir, for ntimerous 
attract i\r tlowers irrow tlirrc. In <kimper spots, 
up kt'twccn tka palnit'tto scrub, skoot tall spikes 
of tcrrc-t I'ial orcird- in late winter, kua-nder and 
wkitc. Wild yellow cannas stand keside 
tln' krook- aibl tkf k)\-aly — if unwelcome — water 
hyacintk spi'^ad- itself in acres of pinki^k-violet 
beauty. Our rau-tkn-n. wliitc water lily is omni- 
present, too, in tla> ])lari.l wa^'^rs. AnotluT deiu- 
ztai of tkc damp -pol- is a larirc-nowcrad. deep- 
])lue tlaL^ woi tky of any garden, llm.''' I'lue vio- 
lets, udork'^s like so many of tkc^la tk>wers, 
grow in akun<lance through the nd(Fke latitudes 
of tkc ])cni!!-u!a, Pka' lupins an.d yr!].>\v-kk^N- 
somad cadi !!(»\\rr -ide bv side. Golden t'O'I and 




asters and erigerons hold the sunny placo^, arid 
many kinds of ferns are found. 
f r Once down toward the southern part of tlip 
/state the long-leaf pine becomes the (arilihrau 
lor slash pine, although the difference is not ivad- 
ily noticeable. Palmpfto^: am mor*' mnnrrou^ 
now. cabbage, saw an^l .^, and the comptio dis- 
putes their territor\-, Li\w oak.< irrow to iriirantie 
proportions, and sniall-r (.ak>— tli.- hollydcavrd 
among thuii!-- liurdcr thr haniinock-. In the liain- 
mocks. too. LTow tho wild Wi:^, tlif poi<on wood, 
the blolly. !}..• prickh- a-h, th.' >wr..t hav. tlio 
hog plain, •!..' iraniko liniko and iiiaiiv inor... 1dio 
^^•^^ inyrt'.' Lrrnw. to trcu >izf undur favoral^lo 
cundiUukcs and the lantana of fho TinrfhV'iai part 
of the peninsula beronn*s an iinpo<iiiL: -hriil). 

In the ]arn:er haninmrk-^ of t},,. ]-,.a!lv tropical 
territory v/ki^'li exists only 1m. low a lin.- .Irawii 
. across the peninsula >lii:lii!\ north of tliu llhth 
parallel and is only contiLrnons fo fho roast, so 
many things strange and nnn-nal to tin- iiortlicrii 
beholder are found fliat ro ait. mpt ran h.- inado 
here to mention morr tlian a Mnall poitioin 
Doubtless to the stranger to iIk- tropi.< the or- 
^ diid.^ are of first interest. Of tk.'^.' aro 
! mnrp than twenty species, of wld-k oidy a f.w 
\* are especially attractive as to blossom. Tho 
green-and-brown Cyrtopodiuni (C. puncialum) 
grows to huge size, forming basket-li];'p ma=^^o^ 
of stems crowned with hundreds of ni.'.liuin- 


sIzamI ilowers, and when so witnessed is a re- 
markaklo sight. ^'}ing whli the orduds in 
intfrf>t if not in attractiveness avr nunnTotn^ 
vaiielies of air pines. A peperomia, n.-nrdly 
an eroct irrowinir ]»lant, lifro climhs and clinixs 
to the tree limhs and throws out a tonirne of 
i:i'et'in>li tlorets. Of feriL< there are many; the 
beautiful sword fern, the gra^s ffrn. the ser- 
pent fern, at least one tree fortn the bootlace f^rn 
and a host of otln-rs, amoriLT them the odd resnr- 
rt'ction fern whic-h, seeminixly sere anil dead in 
dry wcatlir]-, awakens to life an<l loveliness at the 
tuueli of tlif I'ain. There art* all >orts of cacti, 
too, ])oth ()( tile ()piintia and ( 'erens tribes. One, 
Cereus ptttfiiqonus, genei-ally eallrd by less polite 
names, is ])rMliaM\' the most \'illain.ons ])lant ever 
met with. Its ainrled st«'m< are armed with inch- 
long s})n]'s and it irrows like Sam Ililh into and 
()\'er and about e\'erythinir, until there's literally 
no u^ettinir past it withotit a maeliett.'. Barlied 
wiro is a tliiiiLT of no eonsetiueneo lu'sid*^ it, al- 
tlioiiirli it may well be that the in\'entoi' of barlied 
wire u'ot his idea from old Pentaironns. A brother 
pest i< ('. r/-?'"/'// //s. but Ini'i laek< .^om^ ^^\ the inii'e 
iMi-->c(biess of Pent. He ijiir-ii't liOLT ■liinij:< ([uite 
a^ badly, wrw it" lii> nail> ai'f j'u.^t as sliai'p. Some 
ol' tho eaeti present \"or\" pretty blossoms in sea- 
son, and one or two ot' tie- (^imnthis boar edible 

0!i malnla!:d and lve\s the tree^ iiielude manv 



son- unfamiliar to the visitor. Ul tin so fhn 
A\'»'>: rii'lia:. f'lrrli sel(l<an fails to interest. Tills 

is tlie irunihM iimlM). a rath.'r crooked tiTe with 
i:!o>-\- leaves and a -ni 

' ) ( » 1 a 



color iio' 

unlikr llial ul' a r'ip[)rr bccL-ii. Tlic name bircli 
is pomofimp? a|i|Mi'<i to it boeauso it> oiifor hark ■ 
will peel off in siieets just as does the jiapcr hirdi 
of our linitla ra woods. The poison wood {Me- 
t"piHi}' mefopium) while not a lilni- i-, lawrrth*'- 
Itj^si, a, lir^il cousin ol our iiorliiorn pohson oak. 
Tho <=n^ir!wnod i- a fro- with intenselv crrrT']!, ])nr- 
iii>la-il h';i\'»'< which, oil tht'ir nador surfaces, arc 
C'MVcrt'd witli russet-gold <l<»\v!i. AVlaai the wind 
stirs it th»' tree seems to glow with liic aad vn\nv. 
The >oa})ht'rry tree, tho pnrndiso troo, tlic niahoLT- 
any, tla' liddl^wnod. tlic toothache tree, wild 
lime. irr)!i\vood, inkwood, whitewood, v. How- 
wood, calaha-h. Surinam cherry, papaya, rc(l hay, 
Several Wild plums, the seaside grape (cocolobo 
or cocobolo), holly, tamarind, liirnnm-vitrr, ham- 
boo, the " mangle' ' or niaaLrro\f. aiid -till others; 
all these inhabit harnnaick or liver hank or 
oceaii'- eii^^e, anii ni._»-l are luuhLl ia the !iatu!-al 
sta'c nowhere beyond the norfhciai rim <»1" the 
limiN-d, Florida tropics. With these, I'airly a part 
of them, are nuru' rous ^'lianas,'' their stout rope- 
like f)ranches thrust up and around ard o\.i- the 
tre*j.- tu heights of forty and even iiiiy icct from 
where they frequently loop downward] ai^ain and 
ac'ain ascend. Some of these are \ ine-, like two 



\-arieties ol' wild gra})0, the woodbine, or \dr- 
gliiia creeper, and others; as many more are 
])lants wliich a|)pear to elevate themselves by 
leveraire, tliru>tim: themselves over l)ranches and 
ever reachiniz: n|)ward for the next shelf on which 
to place a knee and lift airain. The two cereus 
alrea<ly nientionod have tins liahit, and so has the 
infernal "])iill-anddiaiild)ack" [I'lsnnia a< uhjata). 
And one of the grapes, too. As may be imagined, 
tra\'el throULrh such veiretation is not a recreation 
ior an idle afternoon, and in coinsequence few 
casual visitors to southern Florida ever reallv 
\'iew tlie tro])ical forests. These forests — ''ham- 
mocks," as they are called in the only aboriginal 
word known to be extant — will not last many 
years more, for tho soil in them is black and rich 
and the settlei' will eventually work his will with 
it. Friwately owned hammocks, of course, will 
survi\a', for which those who love nature unim- 
proved by man will be thankful; and the state 
too lias helped by sottiniT aside a consulerable 
iei'ritory midway of the ])eninsula end known as 
lu)\al Palm Lark where much of the natural 
beauty aTid inttua'st of t}a> tropical hammocks 
may be seen without inconwuiience. 

L^)yal Falm Fai'k is t'orty-two miles soulliwest 
of ALami, and is reached by an excellent luird- 
surlaceil road. It consists oi four t]iou>and acres 
oi \iririn forest hanunock Ixune; h>etW(H'n the 
*'g!ade.s" and tho lowlands alom; the coast. Par- 

I i 



adi^u Ivt'V \\a6 liic lurmer nanie fur tin.' local it \-. 
Tho ovistence of the Park a> a .-lato reserva- 
tion i- <Iii'' to tlie t'oresiLTlit and hard work ol" tli.> 
Federated Wonnm'.- Clubs ot' Florida, and lla:' 
tith' i> hrM liv th.-m. Tli.' oriirinal lioMinir of iH\n 
acres, MM'urcd in MH'), was addeil to l»\- the irift 
of a like territory from Mrs. Henry M. Flairlcr, 
and iinally, in IILM, the state loosened U|) and 
deeded the reniaininir L!,n^i) acres. Tho >tate must 
Jou>t'ii up con>i(lerahly more hefoi'e its entire duty 
is i)erformed, for there is much to ho done there 
yet and money is h)a<lly needed The Park pre- 
sents to the visitor an opportunity to satisfy liis 
cravinir for tropical vei2:etation, for liere are found 
most if not all of the trees and plants natural 
to the I'lwer Florida liammocks. Hie T\oyaI 
Palms — one unthinkinirly writes the words with 
caj)ital letters after viewini: them liei'e — rise to 
astoundinir lieiLrhts in the jumrles, mammoth oaks 
are draped with loin: festoons of irray moss, ferns 
of many kinds irrow from irround or brandies, 
orchids are al)undant and birds and butterflies 
and moths are on every hand. The Park is a 
mecca for naturalists, and amonir the tliousands 
of names inscribed on the reirister in tlie Park 
Lodire are many notalile in the world of Seience. 
The Lodire provides comfortable rooms and irood 
meals for those wlio desire to tai'ry, and the war- 
den and his wife, ^Ir. and Mr<. Wlieelock, know 
how to make the stranirer welcome. What income 



is derived from this source goes toward — though 
not Very fai" toward — the expenses of the reserva- 
tifui. A second source of income is the sale of 
Po}'al Palm siMxllings irrown by Mr. Wheelock. 
As many as twenty thousand persons have vis- 
ited the Park in one year, a nmriber that will 
1)0 irreatly amrmentei] when its fame becomes 
more widely known. At the present time there is 
but one road throuirli tho Park, and, while it is 
possi]»le to explore the inconsideralde northern 
portion afoot without irettinir lost for more than 
a few minutes, more trav(M-sa])le highways must 
be laid out before tlie full beautv of the reserva- 
lion can be realized aiid enjoyed. These, how- 
over, as Well as a surrounding moat to minimize 
tlie ever-present danirer from forest fires, must 
await the pleasure of the State Legislature. 



One of tiiu quustiuiis musl rrcM|ii,Titly askod of 
tlH' writer is: ^'What^ tho Florida climate really 
liker' It's a difticiilt <iiie>ti()n to answer to the 
in.iuirer's satisi'actioii. for what he irt'iiei-ally 
wants to hrar is that, onee over the i^late line, he 
can discard his overcoat and chaniro tho clotlios 
he has worn on the southward trip to flannels 
and a straw hat, this irrespective of the month 
or Weather conditions in the north. When he 
learns that the overcoat will fn^ piently feel very 
comfortalile dnriiiLT January and Fehrnai-y. and 
that, while the >traw hat niay pro\-e just the thini^^ 
for Miami or Vovi Myei's, -onictliini: a hit less 
troi)ical will an^w.-r liettcr in the upper part of 
the state, he is likely to sTiiff a ud say that he al- 
ways -u>peeted it was a sitdit enldcr down there 
than folk? lof on I 

Teniperature- \-ary con<ideraM>- o\-er the stafo. 
Latitude. eh.\-;inon and p'roximity to Lnilt" oi- ocean 
are factor-. It ean iiud dues <;et anno\-inLrl\- cnld 
in Xorthern Florida in tho win^-r month-; ye-, 
and in r-entrnl I'^lnrida, too; and even Miami has 
had *h.' raercurv dnvwi l. J!^^ Sillh -ave \nv a 
few day- during the ^^inter, jierhap:, ten ur a 

7 } 


dozen alto£(ether, the weather ordinarily l»ehaves 
itself \'ei'y well; and it is (piite likely that Miami 
will not again fcee a temperature as low as that 
just mentioned for manv vi^ars. Fort Mvers, 
considei'ahly iiorth of Miami, on the West Foast, 
re})oi'ts that for the last seven years the lowest 
tem})erature recorded i)y the oilicial observer 
was 82°. 

The l)est course for the winter visitor to pursue 
is to assume Ixd'ore he leaves home that he will 
encounter sonn^ cold days and so arrive provided 
with niediinn weiirht clothinir for ordiiuirv occa- 
sions, outer wraps for the chilly days and eve- 
nimrs and, especially if he is iroing well down 
the ])enin>ula, liirht attire for the warm, even 
hot, days which will come more certainly. Re- 
memhtei' that, after all, Jacksonville lies only 
tliirty lioui\s from New Yoi'k by railway and that 
\ou can't plunire into the ti'opiics in any such time 
as that I And he assui'cd of this; whenever the 
Xttrth is chatti'rinij: with cold, Florida is seekinir 
tin' sunny side of the hou-e I Every really severe 
cold spell ''hack home" reaches Florida to some 
extent, althouLrh it may not ])ent^trate all the way 
down the ]ienin>ula. Point (^x])ect mii'acles and 
you'll not he disapp(»inted. Florida's all-year cli- 
mate is excelh'Ut, and hei- winter climate is better 
than can l^e t'lumd el>e\\here within tlu> c(Uitines 
ol' the riiite(l States, but no climate is perfect. 

From the iirst of December to the last of Febru- 

76 LET'S no Tn FT/)Tri!)A! 

ary Fl'TMa nfTpr- .Timo ^\-f;if]!f]\ <ur\[ June 
weal!:' r a-, liarring much rain, is nonnal in -oiitli- 
erii X-\\ Iv.glainl. Sometimes, thoiii:!), tli.i-''s 
a >iip, jiL-t as tiicru i^ m Xuw Engidiid, aii-l frusl 
wariiin£r< are issTiorl, oraTic-o o-rnwors lii^lit the 
>vAU'l^es in their '.rrux^'v, i:ai-<h'iit'r> wrap thrir 
tender shrubs in y-'ster(hiy*> ia\v>p;ipers and the 
therniMineter goes sliding duwii Mum amund sev- 
enty to forty or even thirty. W hen that ha})pens 
th*^ wind rnmr-? frnm >oni»' <;na'-^»'i- in ihf north; 
and it blo\v^ with a hr-a^ii !};a^ \vmiiM -.Man hut 
inildiy chill "back la>rn-" hut tJKit u.,.\^ ]a<hai with 
icicles when it scainpcr^ inlu Idurida. ^^•rtll- 
na^ ly, such conditions seldom la-t nrnro tiian two 
or *,hree days at a ^'rn.-. or <-(iin.' inor-' tfian twi(/e 
or thrice in a winter; and, for'nna'- :\. to.., the 
cold snaps are not often accompanied hy rhajdy 
weather, and, having donned the overcoat oi the 
sweater which you brnn'dif alnnn- aL^■linM \onr 
better judgment, you need only to keep to thr un- 
shaded spaces to be comfoi table. I:i -ImH, >,> 
long as the sun shines — and it seldom iiii^.sl.s a 
<iay — you should worry ji ilie ifiorrnrv ^avs 40! 
bunshine is Florida *8 biggest a-- i uh.n all's 
•aid and done. It's the on< rrop t!,,? ,,,v,., );,i!s 

You're not to take that as lu^-iiuiui^ !!,;,i ( h.ij.jv 
days never occur, for iht-, d(j, in .--r/i- p:iMs ,,t' tho 
state more often than in others. I^ii i!i. \ ^, >,) 
few that, after a winter in Floridi. \.,ii'm. !i1.,.|v 
\'j ndurn north and solemnly alhrii; ih.ii th. mhi 


novor stoppnd shininir onro; and niran it, too! 
W'holo days of dnudiness ar.' infrequent, wlioh.^ 
(la\s of rain alnio>t unknown. In Marion (Vjimty, 
lyincal of tho northrrn hail <tf tho pt>nin.-ida, the 
record o\a'r a tnnnhcr of years gives 7;^) days of 
siinshino ont of 90 in tlio wintr-r. Li htcations 
further south the mmiht'r of sunny days is 
<rrt'att'r. Most every one has liuard of th^e nows- 
]»ap<'r in Si. IV-turshurg \vhi('h distrihaites its 
whoh' i-sue free Avhon the snn (hjesri't sliint,' at 
some timo (hiidng the day. and whicln in conso- 
(pit'iic*', ]ia< indulLTril in tliat sort o\ i^hilantliropy 
hut ^\ time- in lo years. Then thtu'e's the hotel 
man down ihe Kidge who airro-ed lo eliarixe hds 
Lrur>ts no rent on suide'ss days. At last aoooun.ts 
he ^^■as >till t'ar I'rom hankru]itey. 

h'lorida'> ax'ei'aLre annual rainfall i< oo inelies, 
the liiLfhe-t of an\" ^tate in the Luion, hut mo<t of 
that water falls .lui'inLT the rain.y season, whieli ex- 
tends fi-om dune to Septeinher. ' >f tlie ">•") in.ehos, 
onl>- ahout !> fall duriuir I)eeemher, dar.uary arid 
h'.-!uaiar\. Idiei'efore the \\inter N'isitor is likoly 
to eiieuuuU'r unl\' an ueeasionud rain durm.i: liis 
stay, aTuL shuM^ the p(^rous s(m1 ipiiekly soaks up 
the heaviest downfall, he ma\' lea\'e liis ruhher^ ill 

t he IlDl'l h wit h pelt'eet iuipUUlt) . 

Since thi-^ hook i^ not desiirned solels' lov the 
iiifoiaiia! Ion i^\ wiii'er \ i^ilors, someth.!!ii: naaa'>l bo 
^ai(l of I'Moi'ida'- \ ear T'tMind iTuuLattv Th.e win- 
tt!--> ha\e a!ifaii\ heen -'oohe!i of^ Mare!i i^ ai>- 



{•rrrialay wiivmrv than Fcbniarx', bill il i.s not mi- 
til May ihat ih*/ hot woatli.T rnakr'- itsdl" I'rlt. 
Jui;»' ai^l July ar^ < Tiiiiiaialy tiif hottest ninnths 
of the }a'ar. AiiL'u>t !> but ViWlr cooler. Scptt'in- 
ht'F may dvo\) ilic m»Tcur\' a t'cw <lfL:i-ft's moi'L', hut 
Xovmiht-r f^ilVrs tho tir>t real I'clh'i'. Llorida's 
sumni*'r may, thrrd'ort', he >ai(l to hist a full six 
months. The suu is intfUx-ly liot (liirini: that 
|H'rio<h ami onr lind- -mall tt'm])tatiou to staii<l 
about ill it. Yet as suou as ouu has mo\aMl into 
the shade he is u>ua]ly romfortahh^ Took airain 
at the map and \'ou will s^e why. All around is 
wat.T, ii<.»\vlifrt' more than seventy ti\-e miles 
away, and i'rum ucuan or gull' the air i- eontinnally 
stii'riiiLT ovon whon tho ?un i< hla/.inu^ it.< hottest. 
Pt'rha|j< t!ie best idea <•{' what tli-' l^dorida cli- 
nni'*' i- likf tiirouLdi tlie year ean hi.- obtained I'rom 
a i-e>um>' of one year'> rr('or<l> at d'ampa. Tampa 
is fair!}' y\'pi«'al oi' th-' e-'nlral pari ul ihu ijeuin- 
sula. althonLdi sliidit dilTeronr'pv oxi-t hotwpon 
Atlantirand ( lult" coasts. Mr. Wab.-r d. Bennett, 
in ehari't' of the wrath'-r bureau at d'ampa for 
rium}' \-far-, i> tla' authointy <pioto(h I^'irinninic 
with )Sfp*''mber, l'.*--l, tln-n, it is shown that hiirh 
femperat urt-.- r'ontinn«'(l to tlie ^t]i of that month, 
uht-r; t!.'' m<'r'eur\' N^^nt to !'d <lrLrr<'os. (Remem- 
ber tjia^ t'e'~f are \\fatlifr bnrfan liLTUi-e^, not 
thu.-e of .-lr<;el h-;\Ll.; ddic lir-t drop came Sep- 
t<^mber SOtli. Tn Ocffdn-r the hiLdc-t t-'irijieratrn'O 
was ^'^, on tl.i' '.*th. and lh<' h-uc-t oh, on the L'.'h-(h 



In Xox'endn'r the mercury jugged u]) to .^3 on the 
7th, and never got tliat hiirli airain durinij: the 
month. ( 'n the 3nth liirht fro>t> were reported 
and tlie tliei'mometer >ank to '.V.K In December 
the Lighcbt was on the Inih, >2 degrees, and the 
lowest on flic Lhnh 4d (h'lrrees. December held no 
frost. In January, TiLlo, the tem|)erature was 81 
on the K'th. the hiirhest for the month, and 45 
on the dl^t, the luwest. Februarv htrouirht a heavv 
frost wlion tlio moreui-y wont <lown to eN decrrees 
on the Idth. l-'tbruary's Inirh mark was S2, on 
A\'a<hiiurton's h)ii't Inh-iv. The Februarv frost was 
the second of two occiirrim: durini: the wdnter, 
and, while llic citrus fruit was nowdu're atTected, 
temperatures r1o=:o to freezinir were experienced 
in a numb.n- oi' neaT'by localities and tender crops, 
such as xwcft potatoes and h»eans, were killed. 
March I't'inaiued about like February, but in April 
the mercury stalled upward an.d i"ea(du^tl IH on 
the '21 -^ the i'ec*n-d foi' the month over thirtv-tive 
>ear-. To be -juite I'air, liowe\"er, it rt-ceded to o2 
on the 2nd. .Ma\- was moderatt\ as Florida Mays 
go, with a liiirh of IM on tlie loth. June was a bit 
abo\-e iiiMinal, I'aiiLrini: td'om a low of (N to another 
hiLrh ot' !M. The rainy season stai'ted about the 
c^th ot" .Ma>\ but the t"all wa< net l!ea\'\" until June, 
^^ hell nineteen -howei's occu.rred. d'emperature^ 
ifi Jul> Were about noianal. ranirinir fi'om (N to 9o, 
t'le lattei- on the 2 lib. in AuL:-u.-t tl:e mtu'iuiry 
did luie dcLM-ee beii-u' ou it-- liiudicst [H' r f oiunaucc 






ciiiLi went as low as 69. Showers cuuliiuuMl as 
usual through July and August; twenty-four days 

of rain m Jnly nrid fwrnty-two ir Aniriist. On 
Jul}- lull and 15tli the recor^l laii/iall ol' ^).^^'5 
iiicla- in tw .ntv-four hours was recorded. AL^lin, 
uii AiiL-iist 2Sth and -!Mli, anutliL-r dLdu.irt" iVll; 
or. ra'hrr, two of thoni. < >!! tho first <lny it raiia'<l 
4.59 inches in the record tinif cf two }ioin-<, <'ni«l 
on tlu' 20*]} 4,''!'' inches ft-l! dindnL: th*' twenty-four 
hours. Idit' rainy season ondt^l Soptenibfr '.'r^\. 

That, thu writer btdieves, gives a vury fair no- 
tion of w]:nt may ho oxpected in tho irf^noral lati- 
tude of cential Florida durini: tlio ynir. The 
^^dnt•'r of 1924-2') was rather wa rnau- tluui tlic 
averai^f, perhaps, but not sutlicitiitly so to affect 
the dependability of the record given. 

Tla- wri^"r lin- no wi<]i to influence any por^^nn 
accustomed to real!} enol -ununers into sptuidiuLC 
the months of Jul}'. Auirii-t atid Septenihcr in 
Florida. Su' h a pfi'-iui would lind the conditions 
extreui-']}' tryiuLT in all ]U'oltaliility. Florida in 
summer i< h^t. Tt i-n't a- hot a< many helieve it 
to he. nor a- hot a< it miirht he, hut there's no 
hlinkiiiLT the fact that the teuipei-ut ure duriuir tln^ 
three munllis mentioned is too hiLdi for comfort. 
Life i^ perfectly endurnhle. n\i\y be tlnu-ouLrhly 
enjo}ahle under the most ad\antatreou< (■ir(a]m- 
-tances, but it is necessary to a lap* ..neself to 
eondit ions. 

If you are a man vou lav aside vour coat 

i i 


in /June and attire yourself in light -we i-rht cloth- 
iu'j-; if you. are a woman you take to tub dresses 
for da\ W' ar and thin cottons or silk for evening 
or " occasions. *' Excessive Inuniddty i- raire. and 
the air ha.-irt that breathle.--, eiiervatiiii: (juality 
which 'Makes the sap out of a fellow.'' Heat 
pro>t rat ions ai"e unknown and no death fr'^m sun- 
stroke has ever occurred, which seems t(^ infer 
tliat excessive lieat of it>elf is not the cause of 
cuiip dc ^ult il. In fact, as regards summer tem- 
perature Florida can point with pride! Fre- 
{juentl}' whieii noi'thern cities are swelterini^: with 
the meiMuir}- at !*^ and TOO, Floridians are com- 
fortable at '^^ aiid slee])in'j: under cover at niirht. 
()iie doesn't have to come to a dead stop durinir 
the hot Aveathier, but one certainly does need to 
slow down. Xoi'therners are lik'ely to ])oke fun 
at the Floiadian<, Floridians either liy birth or 
ado]»tiiui, becau>e they coin|U'oiuise with labor 
once the summer Inas set in. P(U'ha])s the com- 
p]"omi-e can be too irreat ; it fi'ei juentK' is: but 
some coTUju'omise is necessary. Stiauiuous tasks 
must be ])erl"oi'me(] in tlie early moruinir lioui's or 
let"t over for the eX'ening. Tt <loesn't do to under- 
take tlie same amount of woi'k, iixlooi's oi- <uit. Unit 
one has lieen aciui^tomed to in the Xortli or tliat 
one can pei-form in the witit<'r months. 

Tliis i^ Iwini: written in Fhu-ida at 11:00 a.m. 
on r^etober ir>th. The thermometer in the shade 
of the porchi on the west side of tho house stands 

LET'S no To IM.oKIDA! 

aL 85. The buu is intensely liul. There is, how- 

evor, [I liLriit snuthpa.-f l^roozo hri^k onmio-h fn ]iii>li 
flic Spaiii-ii iiin.>-> oui t'roni ll.f ln'anciir^ ol' lluj 
|iiiu'< !'• a thirty (h'lri-c.. aaL'"!** and to lift tlic loose 
shtH'ts t'roin this (h-^iv to the lloor — anil, ol' coursf, 
out of reach! In breeze and shaih- lil'o is coiii- 
t'ortahh- t'i;nnrr]i, but no onr- savt' a " tc!i<lorfoot " 
wouhl (h'lilM-rai'lx' l-'o out an^L >av, t rai!>phiiit the 
hihisctis that needs it so badly or amuse hinisflf 
with an a\ at tliu W'-'udpilL'. Muilcration is the 
watciiw ofd iii >iiniTnor; modci-ation in hoth work- 
inir and t■ati^u^ 1 1' l"':orida sinnnirr^ were hut 
three months loni:. of even four, it woujij lir dii'- 
t'tTent. Ihr wlien the hot season h.^rins in late 
May and huhh-. through (Jetuber \ou aru likely to 
L^'t [>retty well fod up ^vifh it. Tool niirhts are a 
hle>.-ing and sumne-!- -!;e)\vers hflp*, hut there's a 
ten hour ( r so spell of hot suu-idne eveiy (hay 
aiui one can he tliomuLrlih' wilted hy th" time the 
lirst norther eomes along. A taxorite expression 
is "Tho suTnmers aren't nwfu!l\- h.nt, hnf fhey 1a^t 
so long!" A iu'omidie r-'mark, hiit one which puts 
the trutli in a nut-h'-lh 

Na'ui-aliy, it' vim are t'ortuiiute enoUL^h to oe- 
cujA' your own hom*^. and that home i-u't eloped 
in hv -urrnundinu'" huildings, you wiil have a dif- 
t'efent story •(» tell t han the per- on who ha- to li\a^ 
in a ho'.j :,]• hoarding house. A hot.'] room in 
.summer, even with an electric fan, i- no A re He 
iLdoo! The writer realizes fliat he is ineuirim: tin* 


wratii ol' a eertain type of Floridian who won't 
a('knowledLr(\ even to hinisell", tliat his — usually 
ado{)ted — state is a whit warmer in summer than 
Ahiine. There ari' umhniljtedly places much far- 
ther north than Flori(hi \shieh are inferior to the 
latter as summer resorts, and it must be that the 
irentleman jtnst mentioned came from one of them. 
If \()u can i:et away for a few weeks into cooler 
latitudes, the Xoi-th (Airolina mountains for ex- 
am f)h% you will break the monotonv of the heat, 
which, after all, i< the most trying feature of a 
Ldorida sinnmer. 

Daily relief from tlie excessive attentions of 
the smi come> in the lorm (»f a shower. At least, 
I' loridiaiis like to speak of those blessimrs as be- 
iuLT daily, but the truth is that they aren't abso- 
lutely infallible. Still, they do occur fre(]uently 
enouirh to deserve their reputation. Thev come 
suddenly, pre-ai:ed by snowy mountains of clouds 
ULnain^t the blue of the sky. A clap of thunder, 
and the heavens open. A drivinij: sIuhT of water 
blot> out the world. \\i]\(\ may or may not accom- 
pany the deluire, but thunder and liirhtnimr are 
u.Mial conconntants. Pede>trians duck for slielter, 
niotorisis s(aiiu'\' to harl^or undiT tlie wide- 
spreadimr oaks; not int'reiphuitly discoverinir to 
their di.-nia>- wlaui the T\ain is over tlnit wet insu- 
hution will k''ep tlaan there :-ome tinu^ lonirer. In 
the citie< the .-treels become rushing streams. To 
cross them one would need either rubberd)oots or 


LET'-^ GO T'> n niMPA' 

the stilts of the Chinese workers in tho pa<l<]y 
fields. The shower may last twenty minutes, an 

liuur, iwu LuLir-. Once over, the sun shines t'nrth 
nirain, the trees and sLruh^ drip w'wh moisture 
ai:«l iif'- takes up where it l^ft niW ( )uo Trm-t ox- 
]MTience a Flori'la summer rain t'» a]a)r.M-!att' lli»^' 
nifahing of ih^' won! <lt']iiLrt'. Tla' af'taainoti is tlio 
recognized Ulqu i'ur ihese wrlcnnp' xi-itations, and 
ii^nally thev arrive at about llii' rii^dil time to 
break up a bail LMna* or to 'k^'op ono from a five 
o'clock appointment. Infrequently iIm y I'nrLrtt to 
stop for tv..i .lays. Even a bi-i<'f ijr.wnpniir rau 
dt posit a lot of water on the ground. In tin- sinn- 
ni. r of 1925 at several lornlities aloni: tlio W* <t 
Coast a two-hour rain accounted f<>r I oP inda >! 
Fortunately precipitation speedily di-apprar> I'y 
dia na.:e, seepage and evapnMt aiii. 

While the rains send tin' t> nip-raturt' d<>\vn 
magically and are wondorful aid- to (oinlOit, it is 
really the cool nights whi* li ar. the state's irroat- 
est blessing. Once the sn?! has calh 1 it a day, 
Flori'la, I'mm sea to '-nil:', -^i-h-, -mih'- an<l taki'S 
n nif'e deep breath of th.' i-fl'r(\-]iin'_r •■v^aiinL^ air. 
The same brr-ozp tha^ ha< bpnn -tirrin<j- all day, 
perha[^s too languorous'} t'lr you to })<■ aware of 
it, how begins its nightly task of nndoinL'- the work 
of the sun. id-' rn ocean or K'ld" i^ corii'-. briniring 
an odor of salt liom the sea and ^i)i'<' from tlie 
pine forests. Watch the therm onnter mi tin- front 
jior'h LOW. l)o\vn goes the siU'-r colnrnn, slowly 


perhaps at iiri>l, Ijut faster as the stars brighten 
in the pnry^Ie-hlaek ^ky. Tim breoze may he no 
m'a'e than a wide, stead}' movement of eooh'r air 
fi'om the sea coveriiiLT the heated land, too faint 
to rn>th' the leaves of the bMim^tiii\-ilhi a or stir 
thr fans of the p»alnis, but it's tliere and you know 
it. < >r it mav wake von in tlie niu:ht bv tlnttering 
the papers on the tahk', and wlien it does you 
I'eaeh sleejiily fur sla-rt or blanket, or both. 
()t"ten <'nonLrh the exa-ninLT relitd' do^'sn't make it- 
s<'lf really t'^lt until nfarl\" midinirht, but it eomes 
al\va}-s in time to irivt.' \-ou a fnll n.iLrht of eom- 
toiiable an<l rrn're-hniLC sleep. Always? Xo. for 
there are exce]»tioii< to ever}' rnle, and oeeasion- 
nlly, not tVequently enough to be remembered, 
tlifro will be a ^ti1l niirht wlien the aforemen- 
tioned >licet will rrmain draped over the foot- 
board. ( >]■ ])t'rhapi< j'n^t before the dawn an ex- 
ploi'inir hand will reach for it. f^loritha naLrhts, 
whether of SjaanLr or Summer, Winter or Fall, 
whetlier mooidiirhted or (^ily starlit, are wonder- 
ful, and if no poet has yet sum: them the faet 
should be noted b\' the- I .t'lrishit ur(^ or the State 
Chambe'r of Connueree and instant ste|^s taken to 
repair tho omission. Poets liave rimed on ^o 
many less woi'th}' tla'Tiifs! 

Now to sunnnai-i/e. Florida ^\eatller, winter, 
sunnnei' or all the vnw roiiiid. has its tiaws, but 
the flaws are like the little ineonsequeiit faults o( 
a friend, anil onl\- make von ]nyo it the more. 



In Florida oih^ vdii livu ouldours practically every 
flav of the vrar, tho soa broozos niakiiii:: it possible 
in summer and the suiii^hiie' in winter. You can't 
arri\e in January and 1:0 to slerp on a hank ol 
r(»se> attired in your jia. jamas; or you can't do It 
and iret away with it : anil you can't >pfnd a sum- 
mer in Florida and ru>h arotnid in tlu' daytime 
full-tilt ; althouLrh \-ou can u:o as fast as vou like — 
up to fort\'-ii\-e miles an hour — in a car. If you 
experience a two-day rain storm with the tlier- 
raomet^r hoverinir a!'()und forty, you can comfort 
Yourself with the knowh-dLrc that fui'ther north- 
ward your friends are havimr a nice hli/.zard, with 
the mercury a L^ood many dcirrees lower than 
fortv! And vuu ^ct tjuite a kick out of I'eadini: in 
the next day's paper that the surface lines in your 
city are out t.f c()nnni->ion, that the Street De- 
])artment i- ad\ertising for snow .-ho\-elers and 
that train- are runniiiLT from two to twelve houi's 
late. And hy the time the surface lines u]) there 
are operatinir on >c]iodule aLrain you are once 
more out in tin- -unshine, [)la>inLr ^oif or tennis, 
takiuL'' ^■eur morniiiL'' dip or merely liaskinir atid 
lettiuL' the Other fellow attend to tlie strenuous 
thiuL''^ of life. I'ernernher tliat I'dorida isn't 
tropical. -a\e for it- l\ev< and a narrow border 
around i^- lower tip, and don't e\))eci to lind e<pna- 
toi'ial co.ndi'ion- a\'. nih i-'j" >on. Not until you 
reach {}:>■ \\*\< do \m'i (•-cap'- tie- po--ihility ot 
frost, althouLdi the farther s(mth xou isa the less 


likelihood theie is of it t'ohowdnLT yon. Don't be- 
lieve too inijilicitly in the iraudily-covered pam- 
]»lilets issued l»y the \ariou> cities and towns when 
it comes to the matter of (dimate. Doubtless 
there's no intent to deceive; possibly there's no 
deception; \r{ after pernsimr some of those 
])am])hlets it's (juite an easy thinir to start south 
in the winter with a wai'drobe consisting entirely 
of Palm Beach suits and solar topees! 

If yon are consider ini: a ])ermanent home in 
Florida you will do well to remember that locali- 
ties in ])roximity to ocean, irulf or larire lakes are 
more (Miuable; that i<, they are sliLrlitly warmer in 
wintei', sliirhlly cuok-r in summer. But since the 
climate of the state as a whole is remarkably even, 
that ])oint is not worthy of LM'eat attentimi. The 
lack ot' extreme tempei'attu'es in Florida i< due 
mainly to two ihinLr>; lir>t, the fact that the state 
lies for the mo-t part surrounded by warm seas; 
second, that it hns shorter days of sunshine in 
sunnner and lonirer da>'> (»f sunshine m wdnter 
than the northern -tates. As to which ])orti(ni of 
hdorida is climat icall>- superior the writer is si- 
lent. One reason for lii< silence is tliat he doesn't 
know. Xoi-tliern Floridai and Southern Florida 
are (piite diffei'ent and \et each has a tine climate. 
The question naiTo\\< down to: What do you 
want? If you wi-h in the winter t*^ iret utterly 
awav from an\ -nu'"L:'c-t ion of real cold, go as tar 
south as vol! can. If \«>u want some bracinu- days 



interspersed with the warm ones, choose a loca- 
tion anywhere in the northern comities. Wher- 
ever you are yon'I] find pU'nty o^ Fh)ri(hrs best 
gift, golden sunshine. 

It is not within the province of this volume to 
discuss Plorida as a health resort. An invalid 
should consult a ])hysician before deciding on a 
sojourn in the state. However, it is permissible 
to state that the Florida climate is not a panacea 
for all ills, and that it has been conclusively 
proved that advanced pulmonary aiTections are 
not benefited. Throat troubles, though, can be 
greatly aided, and rheumatic patients usually find 
the winter conditions very beneficial. Nervous 
patients and convalescents can probal)ly do no bet- 
ter than seek the tranrpiillizintr and yet invigorat- 
ing air and sunshine of the state, while as for 
children— well, maybe God made Florida just for 
them I 



"With a total area of more than thirtv-five mil- 
lion acres, Florida has less than two and a half 
million acres under cultivation. Yet from this 
cultivated area was produced in 1924 more than 
ninety million dollars worth of products; almost 
twenty times the price paid to Spain in 1819 for 
the territory. The Department of Agriculture is 
authority for the statement that of the unculti- 
vated thirty-two and a half million acres rather 
more than twenty million are adapted for fann- 
ing purposes. These lands are still to be pur- 
chased at prices varying from thirty to two hun- 
dred dollars an acre, and, as has been demon- 
strated, are capable of producing crops to the 
value of from five hundred to two thousand doL 

Soil and drainage are important factors 
throughout th(^ state. Taken as a wliole Florida 
niav be said to b(^ level, although its surface is 
rolling or broken in certain parts. Except along 
the coasts the natural drainage is good, and this 
is particularly true of the western arm of the state 
and of the peninsula as far south as the northern 




limits of Lak»' Okeechobee. Exceptions occur, 
ho\v,\ er, in scattered localities. 

As has been said, more than a huiitlr* <1 kinds of 
buil are found in the state, but the recognizi d and 
named varieties are not -o mnry. T'pland soils 
are generally of t]i. Xnrinlk series, the top sandy 
and gray, the subsoil yellnw a:. 1 fiial)]**. Fruit, 
farm and truck piuduct.-- gruw wl-U in it. Mueli 
like the Xuri'olk soil"^ nro tlie Orlando, IlolTnian 
and Tifton. The Orlando ai'' a \vii\r inorc fertile 
than the Xniu^.lk. are dark in color and .-nmotli iu 
texture. The Hoffman grouip i<un| rises the iriay 
soils of the peninsula above a cunipacl 6ub^)uil, 
and th^ Tifton is found principally in flm wp<^orn 
(•lurities and ];as a pebbly surface. Sod- lia\ i:i'_r a 
limestone oi-i-riu ai- a!'.\a\> I'tu-iilt', althouLrh the 
<!• LTee of fertility depends cu t! ' presence of 
other components. Of these are ihe ,L''!a\- >and> 
containing sea shells found near Palm I>.i(li, 
the Orangeburg soils, the r;r(?enviile soil-, the 
Brown Hammock and Red fl iinia<M ;; a' 1 ti.r lime- 
stone subsoil land.^ u: hade ( ouni\. The OraiiL^.'- 
burg, Greenville and Hammor-k-'^ monfionod ai'e 
particularly good farming soils. Certain isvnv 
and brown hammock lands calLd Ik iiiando and 
Fellowship are excellent for fruit and tiu(k. 
liiaek swamp lands witii a hgi;l .s.uidy subsoil ar(^ 
known as Portsmouth, and a similar urfa< . ku! 
with a black subsoil is called Hyde. i\rMki<Ial 
ok'aining is necessary to make either n\ ihc-c very 



fertile. TIjo grass-covered flatwoods, of gray sur- 

larc and darker <:i'a\- .-ukx'il, are either Bladon or 
Cow illo and are well adapted tu general farniinLT. 
iduniniei- or 'Trn^vfisli" land is of snndl airriiuil- 
tural \-alue. 'Jdic -amc i- trui- of tlie k.H^>e, liirht- 
Init'd surface sand< known as Leon unless they 
are drainetk No soil, lio\\e\'er, i> kopeless fnr tlie 
raisiTiLr of some kind ot' crop so lung as it can l>e 
fertiliz<'d or dradncd, or ko!h. It would, of course, 
be folly for a man intending to raise citrus fruits 
to ])urcha>t' land -uitable oioy foi- trut^k, or for 
(uie meaning tu ^peeiaiize on eelery tu invest in a 
tract (^f scrubby sand. Having' dncidod on your 
ci'op, in\-c-tiLrate tlie subject of soil thomnirlily. 
( >r, ha\inir icanhased your land, select tlie crop 
to suit it. ddie Slate n.-pai-tnirn- of ALrricultui'e 
will irladly alTord \a)u inwduakie aid in stich niat- 

From one io f<>uv cro]c< a yt-ar m;iy V>o ]^roduccdi 
in I'durida, accordini: to the I'r^-ion. rainfall an<l 
the kind aT<t\\n. At present idori'hFs pro(kaction 
from her cultivated area is ronudily a:< follows: 
Fruit (u-op-. .v-:n,(i()(pnnn; fa.M crops, >i:),(Hin,riOO: 
truckiiiLT c!Mp., si 1,000,000; root crop<, .<4.!»0(n)on ; 
nkn^cellaneou- crops, $3,000,0()i^ ; live stock, $;k- 
2aO,UUO; i)eiili!'\ and Oggs, ^S,UOO,UOO ; milk and 
I'uttor, ^f7Ji>",oiin. 

I-doridaV- nuirket is close at hand, slie is well 
>uppli.d with transi)ortation facilities and her 
future as an agricultural state is secure. At pres- 



it' i 

I <i 


ent the state's surface has licni littk* more tliaii 
scratcliod ; what Floriihi is eapabh' of (ioiiii:: in the 
supplyinti: of food products to the rest (tf tlie coun- 
try is somethin^^ that can be only ii:ucss(Ml at. Ah 
ready she U^ads in the production of winter-grown 
vegetables, — more than 100,000 car loads yearly, 
— in the number of growing days, and in variety 
of croi)s, estimated at over two hundred and fifty. 
She stands at the head of all states in the produc- 
tion of grapefruit, winter tomatoes, celery, cocoa- 
nuts; second as to oranges and watermelons; 
third as to lettuce— $L892,000 worth annually— 
fourth as to cabbacre. She produces more pota- 
toes than Maine and more celery than Michigan. 
In short, she ships at ])resent one-tenth of the 
fresh fruit and vegetables of the country. 

The growing of citrus fruit is still the leading 
agricultural industrv. AMiile everv countv in the 
state will produce them, only thirty-five are at 
present engaged in the commercial i^n'owing of 
oranges and grapefruit. From these counties 
come nearly one-half of the citrus fruits of the 
country. Some 2G0,000 acres are givi^n over to 
this crop; about 20,000,000 trees, of which 12,- 
000,000 are bearing. At that, from five to ten 
million acres of land suitable for citrus croj)s are 
still available. Marketing is largely done through 
a cooperative organization known as the Florida 
Citrus Exchange, althouirh the independent 
packer still exists in considerable numbers. In 







ent the state's surface has been little Tiiore than 
scratched; what Florida is capable of doinir in the 
supplying of food products to the rest of the coun- 
trv is somethine: that can be only guessed at. A I 

ready she lead^ in the pruductiuii u\ \\ inii-r-Lrruwn 
vegetables, — moii' ilian 100,000 car load- yraily, 
— in the number of Ln-owiniLr days, and in variety 
of crops, estiniattMl at ovt-r two hundrtM] and til'ty. 
She starnls at tlif la^ad of all states in {lie pi-oduc- 
tion of gra}Jefruil, winter tumatues, celery, eueua- 
iiuts; socond as to oranges and ^vatormolnns; 
third as to h.'tluee — $l,^r»L!.nnn wui'th annruilly— 
fourth as t-) cabbage. She ])roduces more pota- 
toes than Maine and more ceh-rx' than Mit•]liu^an. 
In short, she ships al present one-tenth of the 
fro-h frnit aiid vegetables of the countr\'. 

The LToAnnL: of citrus fruit is still the leading 
agrienltnrril industry. While every count}' in the 
t^tate will produei' ile'm, only thirty-li\-e are at 
present engaged in the comnaTcial i:ro\\inLr ot' 
oranires and irraiifi'mit. l-'rom these counties 
Com*' nearly on'-hall' ol' the eitru- fiaiit- ot' the 
countrv. Soni.' LiGO.OOO acres are is'ivrw ovrv to 
this erup; about 20,000,000 trees, of whieli 1l\- 
000,000 are bearing. At tl^nf. from five to ten 
million acres of land suitable \''>v riwii- er<i|i< are 
still ax'ailal']''. Mar;{t't!nL: i< larLT-'S' done throuirli 
a cooperative organization known as th.- hlorida 
Citru- Fxelinnge, although the independent 
packer still exists in ce.nsiderable numlier?. Tn 






1924 moro than 8,r)00,000 boxes of grapefruit and 
i:),4()(),(){){) boxes of oranges were shipped from 
tlie state. 

Field crops include corn to the amount of 
17,000,000 bushels, peanuts to the amount of 
rj,0OO,000 bushels, velvet beans to the amount of 
2,000,000 ])usliels. Commercial truck crops com- 
prise lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbages, pep- 
I)ers, strawberries, celery and many others. St. 
Joliu's (^ounty produces more than a million dol- 
lars worth of white and sweet potatoes annually, 
while Volusia, Flagler and Alachua each raise 
about $200,000 worth. Marion, Seminole and 
Suwanee Counties each grow more than $2,- 
000,000 worth of field and truck crops annually. 
Polk County leads in the production of citrus fruit 
with 4,000,000 boxes a year. Hillsborough, Pinel- 
las, De Soto, Orange and Volusia each grow more 
than one million boxes. Marion, Alachua, Gads- 
den, Madison, Okaloosa and Jackson each raise 
$100,000 worth of sugar cane a year. Polk County 
leads in the commercial growing of grapes. Two- 
year-old vineyards are yielding close to four tons 
per acre, the selling price of which is from twenty 
to sixty cents per pound. 

The growing of winter tomatoes is a large and 
ever-increasing industry, the shipments during 
the 1023-24 season amounting to 4,276 car loads. 
The yield per acre varies from seventy-five to 
three hundred crates, and the cost of production 



Irum suvt'iity-five to one iinr.-lrr.i ;ni(l twontv-five 
dollars por arrp. The cost on in.- market i.' rsti- 
iiiatril at about one doll.ii- p. i- vvnir. 'I'jie coin- 
nicrrial \;: rieties gfrown are the Li\inLr>i()no 
(ilol>t', wiiirli i< plaiiU'd to lliu extent of nearly 
nii.ty por ront of all arrcage, Stone, Karly !).■- 
troii, r^nrida Sp. rial. Kai'IIaaa and I^'auty. Tlio 
irrowin- lini.' a\Ti-a-.'s between M\ty and ninety 
days except for th- Li\ ing:=luiiu (dlube which gen- 
erally rrquires about one hinvlrpd aiid foiirtr'pn 
day^. The season starts the middle of Dr^mihrr 
and CMntinn.- w.-d Into June, the bulk oi' tli.' >hip- 
pinir oc.Minndi- trom ^Farch 20th to May l-~l. 

<>l Inttucu Idurida shipped duriug the above 
HL'iisoii 2,087 carloads. The crate valuo wa< '^\:2:\ 
The avorarr-' yirM i. ai-onad 254 crates or hain- 
|)t'r< an a<Tr, although a figur.- l,irLr-l\- in ('xcess of 
tins Is enininMM ia specially favorahlo loralith'S, 
d6 around iJradenton and Sanford. Xiup hun- 
dred hannpors por ar^re has been set up as a r-cord. 
'Hip hrM prices f.-r !]..■ Florida ].!-..duct is ob- 
tained ia Xovember, I-k-hruai-y a!:d Man-h. Scnu- 
i!')ha Manatee, < >raiigL' and .Mariuu Counties arc at 
prudent the ])ri!Ma*pa] produrors of Irttucn. Bif^* 
■Ronton. Crpain, Iceberir a!id Ixonialne are 
the wirieties pfft'-nvd. Florida Ic'liorLT. how- 
♦'^■''J'- i- not ('.jual to th." Falit'oraia lottnc' of that 
^■arh'ty, iinee the hdurida \\int rr niirhts are not 
sufhciently cool to allow it to head-up w, 11. ]]\^ 
Boston niaCiros in fr^-ui l]]'\v to .Ixtv davs from 



the seed, Iceln'rir in from sixtv to sevontv. Cali- 
iornui is Floi'ida's stroiiLrest comjjetltor iu the 
marketing of luUuee, with Texas next. 

Back in eiirhteen hnndred and sometliing an At- 
lanta, (JeoTL'-ia, seedsman named Hastings came 
snooplnir around St. John's County. What he 
found con\Iiicr(l him that the lower end of the 
comity was an idml place for the raising of Irish 
I)Otatocs, and he said as much. The assertion oc- 
casioned ahotit the same deirree of hilarity as 
would to-(iay m-et the pi'cdiction that Xova Scotia 
is destined to he the world's principal banana pro- 
ducini: country. No one had tried to irrow a white 
])otato in a country where the yam lloiirished, and 
ne\vs|)apci-s an(l individuals held the prophet up 
to <:ood-naturc(l ridhade. But some one did trv to 
grow white })otatoes eventually, and n(nv the im- 
mense territory around TTastinirs, St. John's 
County, is one of the linest li'i-h ])otato st^ctions in 
the world. From S0(),000 to 1,000,000 l)ushcls a 
y<'ar is the re.-ult of lla>tini:s' folly. Some ten 
>cai's latiT Senator A. S. Mann occasioned more 
incredidity wh^n he advocated the growing of 
Celery. Xo one would lauirh at him to-day in the 
\-icInIty of Saiiford. More recently, although 
bananas ha\-e been grown In Floiada jjfardens from 
the days of tho first settlement, folks in ireneral 
grinnei] wIicti the jirojecf oi' commercial plant- 
inirs ot^ that fruit wa< mentioned. In 1924 Lee 
County produced 28,000 bunches and Hillsborough 



County ri'Mrly ir),or!(i. Avocado ])t'ars wore prar- 
ticallv uTikiiowii to Florida twriitv-tive vears airo. 
To-day, alth'iuirh tlif r!itt'r])risr of ixrowiiiij: them 
is still in its infancy, upwards of $^00,000 worth 
are marketed. IIillsl)oroui:h County produced 
over five million (piarts of strawberries last sea- 
son, representing the tidy sum of a million and a 
half dollars. 

Crop diversity is certainly somethini^: to cheer 
about in a state where the merry little radish and 
the golden pineapj^le l^o to market sid(^ l)y side! 
At the risk of tiring the reach^r — who ]Hn'haps is 
no more iiiteresteil in aijrriculture than the writer 
is in theosophy — here are a few, only a few, of the 
two hundred and fifty things which are profitably 
grown in Florida : oranges, grapefruit, bananas, 
peaches, figs, pears, plums, avocados, grapes, 
watermelons, cantaloupes, berries of many sorts, 
tomatoes, beans and more beans, Brussels sprouts, 
caulifiower, cabbacre, collards, asparagus, beets, 
rutabagas, peas, dasheens, celery, corn, white po- 
tatoes, sweet potatoes, cowpeas, cassava, castor 
beans, cucumbers, eggplant, okra, lettuce, mus- 
tard, onions, parsnips, peppers, kale, pumpkins, 
radishes, kohlrabi, spinach, squashes, turnips, 
peanuts, guavas, sucrar cane, cotton — long and 
short staple — carrots, lemons, limes, pinea})ple8, 
rape, tobacco, c(^coanuts, persimmons — but what's 
the use? If you have somethintr you want grown 
fetch it alone! Anvthing, that is, save bread- 



making grains. And, at that, wheat can't be said 
to be outside the possibilities, since alreadv Mr. 
Raymond M. Champ, experimenting with Bur- 
bank wheat at St. Petersburg, has grown a satis- 
factory crop — and without fertilizer. 

But all this is only a beginning. Next year there 
will be many more farms, little farms of from ten 
to twenty acres, likely, and many more carloads 
of produce will go rolling northward to feed the 
liungry ; such of them, that is, as aren't already in 
Florida ! It is said that with but half the fertile 
land in the state put under cultivation Florida 
could feed sixteen of the — well, whatever nmnber 
of states there are now. And perhaps in another 
ten years she will be doing it. 

It mustn't be thought, however, that one can go 
to Florida, purchase land and then merely sit 
down and await his profits. The farmer or truck 
gardener or fruit grower must work, just as he 
must work anywhere else. Florida offers no 
prizes to the idle. Wliat she does offer is certain 
and generous rewards to the industrious. The 
man who has made a failure of everything he 
has undertaken will probably be no better ofif 
wdth a piece of Florida land on his hands than he 
was before. The man who arrives witli two or 
three hundred dollars for capital will surely go 
broke; unless, that is, he is fortunate enough to 
find an occu])ation that will (liable him to live 
while his grove or patch is developing and that 



\vill allow him sufficient time eadi <]ay \n drvrlop 
it. And suc'L uccupations a it t«> tind. Some 
iiirii who are now o\Miers of profitah.h- i'arm> or 
trrn\-,'- (iid I'eacli Flr.ri-la wif1i iinf tiiu<']! inoro than 
riiouLM. money to make an ii:i*ia! pa\-m<'!it on a 
piece of land and a, determination to win. If the 
dclurmination lu iUcccud i^ .-trong enomrli, woll 
and good; this advice is not for the intVcouuiit 
possessor of that brand of d.-t. rmin.ation. < ithors, 
l.nwaver, should go to hh^ri-hi in-foar-'d to hdutr 
and spend. Remember that if you aic iroini: to 
raise oranges a wait ui fium six tn iiLcht y<ars is 
ahead of you, since i^ will bo tliat long bofoir your 
trees will reach the stage of cnnnn.nraal hoaiimr. 
If >ou intend to plant tni'k \iair wait will be 
fchoitur, of course, but your expenses will be 
hoavy. Clearing the land h-> a >io\v and oarnost 
business, unless, of cour^p. von nro fortunate 
enoiL'h to purchase a tract alr-ad;/ clearrd : \i)V 
which ;.m:i will pay a good roun'i price. In -nme 
])ar':>: uf the state, loecilitit'< wlau'.' tho revenue 
from established farms and tiia k iKiicliLb is very 
larL'-e, clearing the land is only iha fir<t and loast 
oxp^-nsive step. V/inter r.iinfall i- too >nia!l to 
}m depended on and so irriLMt i(>:i inu-t ho n^-d, 
and ii-ngation means oul- or mni'f ar^'-ian wrUs. 
XuL infrequently it is neces^^ary t<> drain the hmd 
by open or blind ditches, the iatler, of cour^o, 
tiled. lu short, there are places vk' re the (•o>t 
of preparing an acre of gr(nind lor .-e^d or trees 



wdl amount to as mra-h as four liundrod (hjllars. 
iiowever, lest this .-uund uunecessanlv discour- 
^^gi^igj y^iJ ai-e ]\'n]inded that in snch sections a 
ton-arro t;-act is a mora'V-rnakor and tlirtt three 
crops annually are tak-n off. 

Santorth in Smiinoh' County, one of the state's 
husu'-t and mu-t thriving cities, is a fair exam])le 
of what can bo dnno with the riirht conditions of 
hmd and >oil and the application of seicntitie 
principles. Sanford's prosperity is chietly due to 
the successful i/rowing of celery. Other cro])s are 
produced; lettuce, escarole. ])e|)])ors, strawl)erries, 
corn; but mlory is what the Sanford district 
hanks on; and, as thei'e lias never lieeii a crop 
tailure since 1899, wh.-a the first carload was 
started northward, it is pretty ^afe banking. San- 
iurd— and by Sanford is moaTit a cnn-iderahle sec- 
tioTi of tlie miiTitry round about the citv— is fortti- 
^i''^'' '!i hax-inir the es<entiaN for cehTy enlture: 
abundant water, h'\-el land, liardpan at tfie riirlit 
distance under the surface to form a water table, 
a coarse subsoil and a surface soil of <andy loam 
of the proper por<)-it>- to allow tli" di-Mahut ion of 
moisture. Ahoat tliree thouvaa.j ;!,.rr< of land are 
now in (ailli\;iti<.n, fr(»ni which, in 19:^4, seven 
thousand carloads of })roduce wrvo tabpin Sub- 
irriiration i<v- i^^n(]^ flip wa-^.^r e.)nii!:- from a de|»th 
of appi-oxiuialely one hnndr.M] ;irj .ixtv feet 
tkroinrh ai'tevian \vrll<. Practically every aere of 
truck land lu the district is tiled fur irriLration and 



(IrainaL^'. As mnuy a< ft)ur crops are fre(|Uontly 
takrii clT thi- land, but the usual number is three, 
pepp'-rs or h'Uurr followini: the celery and corn 
ser\"inLr f<»r tho tinal crn|). ('ooporative market-_ 
iiii: is ^^'ell cstablishe(l. This in-tance has been 
cited to sin.w that in PTorida, as in all other places 
the world over, the irrower must put money into 
his land b♦■t^3re he can take money out. Every 
acre of Sanford truck land now producing crops 
represent > the expenditure of much money as well 
as labor. < ■Icarini:. fcncini:, irriiratinir, draining:, 
fertllizinir, > — all these thinirs cost. It is 
idle for any one to hope to win real success in any 
Itranch of airricult ur*- in P'lorida unless he is will- 
inir and able to buy that success not only with the 
etlorts of mind and body l)ut with hard coin of 
the realm. There are, of course, other crops than 
celery, and such intensive farminii: as ,o:oes on 
about Sanford is not always necessary, but never- 
theless the rule holds irood for any line of aurri- 
cultural endeavor. But, to return to the optimis- 
tic side of thimrs, it is yx'rfectly |)ossil)le to start 
oil in a small way; take a small bit*^ before you 
tackle the whole |)ie; and there is certainly no 
state where a u-reater interest on the invested 
principal can be ol)tained. 

The Florida State PTxperimeiit Station has been 
and is doine excellent service' for farmers and 
fruit trrowers. Located at Oainesville, it has 
branches at Quincy for experimental work in 



tobacco, at Lake Alfred in the interests of citrus 
fruits, and at Belle Glade for general agriculture. 
It also conducts six laboratories throughout the 
state for the study of various plant diseases. At 
Gainesville one hundred and twelve lines of in- 
vestigation are being pursued. 

Another aid to Florida growers is the State 
Marketing Bureau located at Jacksonville. Es- 
tablished in 1917, and supported by the tax on 
fertilizer, it keeps in touch with market conditions 
throughout the country and can at once supply re- 
liable information as to prices at any locality, 
the names of dealers in fruit and produce and 
advice on shipping matters. Its services are free. 


A;.iDE irom airri.-uhiir.., ^^h^u■h t.Tin Is iisr.l liore 

to iTidiido thr^ friut nAn:.iry and, l.y spiH-ial pn^tic 
licvi-.-, th- .iairv. i.uiilirv nil (1 livestock iiKlu>trir>, 

FlnrldaV iiu'ona' i< drrixvl In.m qnit.' a varu'ty 
of sources. In ronn.l fnrnr.'^, niannfarturcs l.nnic 
in sl5u,UUU,UUU; IuiuUt s;^i m )i)0,00() ; naval storrs 
s2n i)00,000; minora^ $1;],UUIVJUU; the ri>linn: busi- 
ness ^U 000,000. AikL "last l^nt by no nn-aiis Irast, 

I • -t ' 1 .,^-.. nLtrr tl-an -l'>o 000 000 ])(']rinil thorn 
/ visitors iva\ t' nn»ii luau •, i 

each vcar. . 

Ju^at th-t it i. dllileult t.. iliinh m Florida a< 
a nnnmg state, but, Avhile .he i. haiv of invr.nn^ 
or.-^ ^he is doln- a ronsidprablo hn^me^s m 
th. mii.nal line. Ki^ht niillim:^ .-f dnlhirs ^vns 
5 thu viuld of h.T phosi^hatr niiiM- in on-' yrar, and 
TnoT^thanannllinnwa^d^.riv.d t i-nm tho minnnr 
I of fuller's .anil. In V.'-:> th. .tata sii]M) u;d 
ei-htv-hv. lur .-n' of all ].hospbato rock sold m 
/ the counirv. Fhosphate rock is a hu^iry irom 
the riinoene a-s ^-mrrin- principally m^ nlk 
a.,1 ]Iil;.boroii-h Counties, in \hr form oi _ land 
|,..phh- ].hosphate, and in Alachua. L-vy, Citrus, 
Mariuii'and Snrapter Connth- a^ hard mck pirns- 

piialc A third ^ariety, soft rock, is found with 

^ 102 


tlio otliors, ])i]t so far lias not 1)(m-!i commercially 
recovtTciL Co\v-irra<lr i.ho-pliatcs aru found in 
\-arious other counties throughout the state and 
will douhtloss come into use eventually. At pres- 
ent practically the entire out])Ut of hard rock and 
ahout oned'ourlh that of jjehhle is exported. The 
l)alance is used within thr Cnited :States, and sev- 
eral c()m])anies in Flori<la are omraced in the man- 
ufacture of commercial fertiliziu's. 

Fuller's earth is a mai'l clay wliidi. havin.i^ been 
freed from imi)urities, is crushed and sifted into 
four standard irrades iis,-(] for clai'ifyinir mineral 
oils, for refinimr vegetable an<l minrral fats, for 
removinir the irrease from wook-n goods after 
manufacture and as a hasis for |)aints and cos- 
metics. It was discover. m] in this country for the 
first time in ISDo at (Jnincy, (bidsden County, 
Florida. Since then it has keen found in several 
other localities, notakly in :\Ianat(^e Count v. 
Kaolin or cbina clay has a wide distribution 
llironirhout th(> state, but is mined only in Lake 
and Putnam (/ounties. Florida kaolin is of su- 
perior (piality and is shijiprd in the raw state 
to th(^ whiteware potttuurs of the North. Clavs 
suitable for the manufacture of brick, tile, drain 
pipe, stonewar.^ and common pottery are f(Hind 
in larire (h'po-it<. Florida manufactured L'0,000,- 
000 ])i-i(-k in l!lL\-^ from her own clay. 

Infusorial earth, or fo-.vil niral --diatoniite is its 
scientiiic name— was foinid a few vears since at 





Tavaro?, in Lak*' rouiity, j.y Cliarlt^s Lindlcy- 
"Wood, (li>|)atrlu'd to tlii> country hy tiie Ki^di^ii 
Admiral!}- in tlir hopi' that he wmiUl he ahle to 
(lis(H)\"t'r (K'{)0>i's of the vahiahlf mineral at a 
time whvii Knirhmd's own supply on the Isle of 
Skye wa> depleted. The deposit was, liowever, 
iirvvv workinl, since the armistice was signed and 
the need of the nuiterial ]iassc'd for the time. The 
death of the heaviest investor, in tlu^ last days 
of the War, ])lacrd the Tavares ])lant in chancery, 
and hence the depo-it still remains where Nature 
placed it. However, persistence on the ])art of 
Mr. Charles LindleyAVood, Juiiior, led to tlie dis- 
covery of a Second de|)Osit some two years later 
a dozen miles from Clermont, als.i in Cake County. 
Diatomite is now heinL^ successfully mined there 
on a >eventy-f]ve-aere tract and is sellini!: at from 
two hundred to thr.'C hun<lre<l dollars a ton. It 
iri 99.:] prr cent ])ure as airainst tlie 9l^ per cent 
of tlic California article. No matter what ex- 
travaL^ant claims California may choose to make 
for In-r climate, In-r mountains, her raisins or 
her motion-})ieture stars, >he mu>t forever re- 
main sih-nt on the suliject of diatomite. 

Prol'ahly you are wonderinir why so much fuss 
i- l.eiuL' made ahoiit somethiuK you never heard 
of lit'fore. Tht' writer, from his superior —and 
v-'rv lat*-lv ar'.jiilrt-d wixlom, will procecfl to en- 
liLditi-n \ou. In i^- ^vav infusorial <*art}i is just 


ii a 


old. Perhaps m(»re so, for 



gold won't stand up in front of a blow-torch for 
forty-ei^dit Inuirs without even getting warm, 
which is what a brick of diatomite will do — and 
like it. It's the most perfect insulating material 
known, resist inir both heat and cold as nothing 
else will. And it's (juite as handy for insulation 
against soutkI, and the writer would like very 
much to lu-ini.^ that fact to the attention of the 
builders of modern apartments. It is also ex- 
tremely liglit in weiirht. As a fire brick it has all 
the other tire brick faded, one of its kind doing 
the work of twenty-inne of the other sort. (It 
\vould have been easier to lia\-e written thirtv, but 
twenty-inne is the cori-ect number.) It does this 
at a saving of two dollars and fifty-one and one- 
half cents, and, of course, if you save that much 
every time you lay a lire brick — well, fiirure it 
out for yourself. But in-ulation and fire-proof- 
ing areiCt diatomite 's only uses, not bv a loiii^ 
shot. It miirht well ])e calltMl the hair]nn of the 
mineral world. It is utilized in makim: all sorts 
of things fi-om rubber, including autoniolnh^ tires 
and phonoirraph records; it is useful in the man- 
ufacturi^ of explosives, insulating ftdt, fireproof 
paint, glass, porcelain, pottery, filterin.L: nuiterial, 
grinding stones, safety matches, fireworks, calico, 
tootli powder, fac(^ pow.ler, dental cream and 
numerous othrr tlilnL:<: and if can p.^lish gla<< 
and lenses and i-etine suLrai'. Ci bri.-f. diatomite 
IS an extremely u.-eful thing to have around. 


LKT'S Go Tu FL'tlilDA! 

TLt' deposits occur iu mar^ii-liiu I'ormatiuii, 
"havincr hr-on stowpM-] awny fhoro maTi\' Ininilrrds 
of thoiisauds of years before the dawn of }ii>t()ry. 

Tla' diatom i- a i !< >uMp-celled ()rL:;nii>in which, 
under prnprp cuiidiLions, ^a'nw,^ in froh >|)ring 
water aii<} inultiplios with a rapidity thnt is <iuite 
scandah)ii<. Ail \'«iu ha\"»' to havr- nii liand ^^'h^Tl 
yr.ii waiit \o see a <ii;t'oni i- n l/J'iii-niultiph' lai- 
croscop", and it takf^ onl\' a fonph' ot' hillioii of 
thfin to niaku an inch cube. Xatni'ally, it took 
• luite a \\!nlc fnv flio dintom<, as bu-y as they 
\vt'!"tn to iorin a d''ji"-it iVoin fi\T to t wtnitydivo 
i'»'ft (h'f[) over a;i ar-'a ot' jirohaMy forty acres. 
AVlnit is left of tia-in to ila\n wliat is ])ciiiL: dried 
iu i^ilns and puhv-cnzt'd and siflud, arc tlic skele- 
ton? and hony oiitsidp Avonr of the tiny chaps. 
Voii ar-' to un.h'r>tan<l, of course, tliat the diatonns 
tla'n].-fl\'f-> arc i.uite (lfa«l, <h'ad tlcse thotisands 
of \-ear>, and that ihoir litth' in-ido- have lonij; 
since disappeared, leaving onl\' hillions and bil- 
lions — and then some — of tiny hnljow <]!<■]]<. Tt 
is this pfculiar lioHow t'orni ot' th*' >hflls which 
e:ives to diatomito its poro-it\" and liL:htncs>, and 
it is the puro.-itv wiiicii make.- it -o remarkably 
nnTi-r'r)r.duotive. Scientists toll ns that in this par- 
ti<aihar rt-Lrioni the diatoni-- w-nit out of business 
hiitidreds of thousands of year- au^o, and tlnu'c 
i- no c\idence to indicate that other diatoms ai'O 
anywh'T.' b;ick at their trade, in .^hort, tiien, 
vouiiL'" Mr. Lindlev-Wond and his associates — one 



(d whom is a ^voman; you cand keep 'em out 
of anythin^^ nowadays — have a miirlity crood thim: 
at (dei-mont, and the writer grows gree]i with 
envy every time lie di'aws a mental picture of 
Mr. Lindley-Wood layinir tire brick as fast as lie 
can lay them and makinir two dollars and fiftv- 
one and onedialf cents with e\au'y lirick! 

Ilmenite i> anothe]- out-of-the-way mineral that 
is beinir producd in Floi'ida. llmeinte is an ii'om 
titanium oxide foun-l with tlu' beach sand at }\Iin- 
eral ('it\-, south of J^iblo Beach, Duval County. 
li is n-cd extensively in the makinir of white 
titanium oxide, a paint piirment. and also has a 
l'''i<'^' ill tho mamd'acture of liiLdi-irrade steel. 
With ilmeidte are found rutile, zircon and mona- 
zitc, all of which have tlanr uses in s]>ite of the 
tact that the writer never heard of them until the 
other day. 

Limestone exists in Florida, or under it, from 
one end to the othoi'; all -orts (»f limestone; such 
as Ocala, the oldest of all, occurrinir in western 
and West-cent I'al poidions of the state and beini: 
the most extensi\-ely us.'d stone for road-building 
pur])oses; Chat tahoocln-e, Mariamia (ilendon, 
i*alm Ih'ach. Miami— popularly c;db'd Ojus after 
the town vh.-re it is mined— -Jacksonvide, Key 
\\est oohtio. Key Lai-iro coralline, ])hosphatic 
"if''^ coMuina. And, ma} bo, others. Shell marls 
should be included, too, and there are several 






recf)Lniizt'(i \-arit'tir< of those, all useful iu liiirli- 
wa>' enlist ruei ion. Cotjuina, a >liell liinestoue 
peculiar In the hhist C(»a>t in tlif \-icinity of St. 
Auiru>tint*, was the first huildinir stone used in 
America. Old Fuv\ Marion and \-arious of th(^ 
early huildir.irs of our oldrst city were constructed 
of it, and it is still hfinir used as a huildiuLC ma- 
terial. ThtU"e is, apparently, no wear-out to it. 
Many of the other liniesP)ncs arc tM|ually useful 
fur Ituildinir |)ur|ju6t\s, whih^ the lime industry 
uses thousands of tons yearly. In M^'2'.-t more than 
a million and a half tons of limestone pr(^ducts 
Were j)roduc*'d with a value of .-<l,r)7-,(>nO. (Iravel 
and sand together account for another ludf mil- 
lion of the state's income. ]\N'Cently experiments 
coniluctcd with the p. -at of which extensive d«^- 
posits ai"e found in an<l ahout ^h^ Everirhides 
reirion ha\^' pi'o\-.m1 it to he rich in fuel valu(\ 
Doctor Hohert I\an-oni. of .Miami, is certain that 
the (rladfs coiitain suthcient ])cat to liirht every 
liome and factory an^I electrify e\-ery transporta- 
tion lint' in the state witliout really makinu: a <h'nt 
in tlie deposit. And hl< experiments have sliown 
that ammonium of >ulphatc to the value of sixty- 
fi\'«' (h)llars can he recovere*] from Kvert^dades 
peat at a co<t of twrnfy-fwo (h)llars. Mayhe som<'- 
thintr (JoiuL^ th'Te ! 

AmoriL'' r'--onr-ees 8til] practically unde\'el(){)ed 
arc dcp(jsit.^. of hug iron, ochtT and L'">'})sum. On 
tlie uholo, von ^ee. p'lorada is not to he sniffe(l 

at as a mineral state even if Ponce de Leon didn't 
iind his gold I 

The lumhering ])usiness is important. In spite 
of tlie fact that mucdi of the forest has already 
disappeared, liundreds of sawmills still turn out 
well over ;i hillion iV-ct of lumher each year. Re- 
forestation is something that must engage atten- 
tion hefore loTig. Xaval stores— turpentine and 
rosin— are produced to the extent of twenty mil- 
lions of dollars. Fishing is an immense and grow- 
ing industry, including the taking and export of 
both fresh and salt-water food fish, turtles, 
oysters and sponges. More than six hundred 
varieties of fish, not all used for eating, however, 
inhabit the Florida waters. Along the Gulf coast 
are numerous companies emraged in commercial 
fishing who control larire fleets of vessels and 
maintain docks an<l packiiiir plants. Punta Gorda 
alone does a business of approximately one mil- 
lion dollars a year. The fish when caught are 
taken to the nearest icing station, many of which 
are scatt(Ted aloncr the coast, and are then re-iced 
at Punta Gorda and ship])e<l to the northern 
markets in r.d'ri-erator cars. The shipments to- 
tal in the Tieiirhborhood of ton million pounds a 
year. About two thousand fishermen make their 
head.puirters at Punta (b.rda. The market there 
includes mullet, king and Spanish mackerel, pom- 
])ano, trout, red bass, irrouper, pike and blue run- 
ner. Sarasota also goes heavily into coumierciul 




li>hiiig, while inlaii'l at Lake ( ikcTliolift' immense 
Lauis of catlic^li aru madu and ^iiippcMl noi'tliward. 
The nv^ter industrv i> larc-olv sriilfd a^nut 
. AiKdaeliicola Ba\-, althoiudi cdiMe oysters occur 
in all coastal waters around the state. The 
sponirc ii.-iicric- aru i »!•.■* \v wuU concL-ntratfd at 
Tarpon Springs, altliouirh the industry still per- 
sists at T\r-y TTest. 

Florida is not yet a mainifachirini: state, Imt 
she has close to $200,000,000 invested in I'aciorics. 
borne of the things turnud out arc iertilizcrs, 
ciirars. frnit and vegetable contninors, riirnr 
boxes, brushes and lironms, .-yi-np. caniuMJ iVuits 
and jellies, tapioca, pap^r, niontr trucks, per- 
fumes, cement products, lni<d:, tile, I'urnituic an<l 
candy. Thu cigar Innsincss is practically state- 
wide, nl^hmnrh Tampa lia- lonir Innd a monojtoly 
of it. Nearly fifty millions ciirar- ai-e produced 
in the latter city alone ever-}- mout li— sL\()()i).()n() 
a \''ar, in fact — by more dian titteeu thousand 
worker.-, who were paid in VJ.14 j'ust 5i;l5,Qi!l,:'s-_!. 
The canning industry is erowimr at leaps and 
I'ound-, and, if tlie makiriLr of j-llies aiid pi-eser\'es 
and fruit syrups be included, aeroiini-, tnr a con- 
sidtraMe part of the state's revenue from mann- 
factoru'^'. Xiu-'ierous lesser indu-f rie:<, many of 
tli^m novel, the latter lucliidimr the utilization 
of palmetto for lumber, paximr I'loek^, 1nai<lies, 
lu-oom^ and soap, are still in tlc'i!' infancy. The 
prudueiiun of tung oil has been started in Alachua 



County and may bucume one of the great indus- 
tries. Tung, or Chinese wood-oil, is ohtained 
from the nut of the tung tree and is of great value 
to the paint and varnish industry. And there are 
those who liope, Mr. Kdi-^on among them, that 
Florida w ill one day produce the bulk of the rnh.- 
])er in thi^ country. An excellent ].a|)er has 
been made fiorn the saw grass wdiich abounds all 
throuirh the Everglades, and ^^llenever, or if ever, 
those who cnuti'ol ihu papcT lun-iness see tit an- 
other and notable industry will ho added. 

One more infant industi-y deserves a Avord. 
Bees in yhld more honey than the same 
critters do in other states. The ALM-iculiural De- 
partment says bo, and u ought to know. .Mr. K. 
J. P>laine, of St. Petersburg, says so, too. anid he 
ouirht to know even better. Mr. IMaine came fr(mi 
]\Iiehiiran---(;rand Txapid,^, to be precise— and 
turnrd i"rom nudvung furniture — is an\-tliing made 
in (J rand loipids save furniture? — to keepinu' a 
bee, or. I'adier, a considerable of bees. 
He started in a \-.ry .-mal] wa}-; a tiny -liack and 
a wIirclbiiiTdw were his principal (npiipnumt. 
That was moi'c than ten }-''ars age>, whicli dou])t- 
less explain^ why Mi-. I)laine ]<o]^f a whrclhai-row 
instead ot' a Vi^v^l. I'Mnu^ a cnd^iui'tmakei- hv 
trade, makii!-- hcMuNr,- was a simple matter to 
^J"' reformed M i.'!!iL:ai!d''r, a:;d he soon had lii^ 
small iarm dotted with the contraptions. Natu- 
rally, havimr a lot of beehives on hand he thomrht 






of putniig bt'i'S in tlicm. Or pt^'rhaps iio tlioiii^ht 
of tlh' ItT'O? first. Anyhow Mr. IMaine has live 
hiHiiirtMl ('(ih)nifs of haisy worktTs now and thin' 
arc turnini: out for him twenty-four thousand 
]M)un(L< of hont'V overv voar. Wliich iust sliows 
liow Floriila Ih'cs will respond to kindness and 
apprt'ciat*' real irood homes. Mr. Blaine has given 
np til*' wlif-rlliarrow and to-(h\y his product is sent 
to .^hippinir [)oints in motor trucks. In a book of 
this sort it i< vt-rv ru-cessarv to abstain frora even 
the suspicion of ad\-ertisinir, and so the fact that 
Mr. Blaine's honev is wi(h'lv and favorably 
known as "Oranirc Blend LL)ney" must remain a 
secret. Aithouirli, if it should someliow iret out 
the ensniiiLr ])nblicity would probably not be be- 
grudL'-ed to a p)crsor. of Mr. Blaine's coura^i^e and 
indu-try. Both Mr. Blaiiit^ and tlie aforemen- 
tionc] ALrrieultural Department are authority for 
the statement that in an avcratrc yi^ar eiirlitv 
potmd^ cf honey per colony is t!i«^ usual yield. 
Thi- i- mnvi' than twice as much as is produced 
]>('T fTilni y jr, ^r^Tiy other statc. Two varieti(^s are 
rccHLTized. tupclo and oramrc blossom, and in 
^luali^y they rank W!*}i the })e<t in the country. 

Other indu-trie^ wliich, if they scarcely may 
!»e ea;]'-d any IniiL^er infant <, are e(>rtainly no more 
than j']\'er:ile-. are tlie nursery business and the 
growing of bulb<. f.-rii< and cut tlowers. There 
are several larL''e and sueees^ful nurseries in the 
state, not;, [,]".■ at ( ineco and (JleFi Saint Marv, and 



nnmerons lesser ones, ])ut tliere is still room 
for many more. The growinir of bulbs is a prom- 
ising field, es{)ecially since the United States has 
shut down on the importation of plants and 
bulbs from al)road. It has already been demon- 
strated that the so-called Bermuda lily can be 
profitably raised in Florida as well as ])ractically 
all other mc^mbers of the lilv familv. At St. 
Petersburg Mr. Raymond Cliamp has gone ex- 
tc^nsively into the business of raisiinr lily and 
gladioli l)ulbs, as well as iris and dahlia roots, 
for market. lie also ships cut tlowers. lie is 
doing well, so well that the original fourteen acres 
is soon to become thirty. The ''asparagus fern'* 
industry is W(>11 established at several ])oints, 
some three hundred acres being devoted to the 
growing of this climber for the Northern florist 
trade. Swc)rd f(Tns are also grown for market. 

Mushrooms may be grown out of doors in Flor- 
ida, under shelters, or in above-ground sheds. A 
three-acre enterprise is already under way at 

Si * 



Education in Florida began v/ih the S|);uiis]i 
missions, but it is a far cry Hum tlio>r rudi' 
fcliurts to the schools and colleges oi' today. 
Florida's educational irrMwt]; ].as been siir|)ri>iiii^^ 
when one considers that it has all lak* ii ])la('(' in a 
comparatively brief time. Scarcely nmrc tliaii a 
[\ century ago the state, or territory n^ it \vas tlun, 
A established an educational system \\ lit n every six- 
/' teenth section of land in the newly oriraniziMl ter- 
l ritory was reserved by act of Congress tor tlu} 
maintenance of schools. But the posse^^.-ioii of 
thousands of acres of forest nnd swamp un- 
claimed by the settler was not .1 lm. at -^ouicc of 
income, and the establishing of free sclionj- went 
slowly. For that matter, so <iM the settlimr ii]) 
of the territory, and not until ailLi thu Civil War 
did the state's educational system 1m mmo a prac 
tical factor. Since then its growtli lia> 1). < ii 
a'n.'jst startling. To-da>; Florida's pal. lie >. hool 
system, while still capable oi imp! u\ rui* nt, is 
fully equal to that of many far olth r -tatos; ami 
improvement is taking place stea<]il\. 

Florida is particularly proud of her state-siip 
ported colleges, the University oi I'hjiida an<l 




the State Cuilege lor Wumuu, Loth approvr-d 
l»y the Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools of tlif Sniitlaa-ii Spites, and the former 
hy that national aeere'liiiLi: agency, the A.-soeia- 
tion of Anirriean Cniversities. The I'nivLT.-ity 
of Florida is but twuniy \rar- oM, and to havt^ 
attained equal standing: with coilrire^ of five and 
six times its age is surely somethinir to boast of. 
The I'niversity of Florida ht'iran in li^C) with 
an eTir(»llment of l/.ii students, a faculty of tifteon 
and buildimrs to the niimher of three. Ttv.iay 
the enrollment is 1.747. tie* faculty ntimber 123 
and the liuildimrs sixteen. Loea.ted at (uiinesville, 
Alachua County, n.tar th.e northern en.d of the 
peninsula, the rnivur-ity's hirir.^ eam|^u< and 
handsome l)uildinirs add to t!:e hean'v of <^tie i^^i 
the state's most atti-aeM\'e to\vT|<. ln>tructi«m in 
arts anil scienc-'S, airi'iculture. architecture. hu<i- 
ness administration, conainerce, erigiriee^rinL:, jour- 
nalism, iXHlairoiry, law, inilinu-y science, physical 
trainimr and mu^ic i^ '^dven ur-ler the ext^er'enced 
direction of one ol t!ie South's most notable C'lu- 
cationali^ts, Ooctco- A. A. ^Nhirphree. Residents \ 

of the state pa>- wo tuition fees, save in the 
College. Xonroidents are required to pay .^'Ji^ 
per semester. Hxpen^r's are extremely modei-ate. 
The l^'hoida S'ate College for AX'^men, at Tah 
lahas>ee, was established in 1905 in a very small 
\\a\, ha\ iiiL;- then but four buildings i>et in a 
campus ut" tliirteen acres. To dav the carapus has 







expanded to tifty acres, there ar.> tliirteen biiild- 
intrs. of which eleven are modern structures of 
brick, and there is aL^o additional land to the 
extent of two hundred and thirty acres, largely 
used as a dairy and truck farm to supply the 
wants of the colleire. The present plant is valued 
in excess of a million and a half dollars. The 
four dormitories accommodate more than eight 
hundred students and a large dining hall is capa- 
ble of seatinc: eleven hundred. Other buildings 
are the administration and education buildings, 
science hall, library, training school, gymnasium, 
infirmary and primary training school, the latter 
now used for general purposes. Li spite of these 
facilities the clleL^' is still unable to accept all 
applicants for admission. At the present time 
the ^'nrollment i< just under one thousand. Its 
faculty numl^ers forty-seven members. In addi- 
tion to the staiidar<l courses in liberal arts, the 
colleire offers the advantages of a normal school 
and a school of home economics; and in summer 
conducts a summer course for two months for 
tlie arT'ommodation of teachers in servic<^ in the 
I)ublir' seliDoI^. The campus is a verv lov(dv (^x- 
pan-<- of r)ak-^harled and welMandscaped ground 
iK-ar tlic old Oa[)itol. 

H<^^id«-^ tlji- .^t;it*' institutions for learning, 
Florida ruairitalri- a nnnibrr of <'ndowed or pri- 
vately >nj,port<-d coUi-Ln-s. Of t},ps<' Hollins Ool- 
legp. at WinN'r Lark, is the oldest and most im- 



portant. It was organized in 1885 and has pros- 
pered exceedingly ever since. It enjoys a superb 
location on Lake Virginia, its buildings follow- 
ing the curve of the shore and facing the water. 
With such a situation, and with a climate which 
allows outdoor work almost constantlv, it is not 
surprising that Rollins draws half its attendance 
from the North. It ofTers a four-year academic 
course leading to A.B. and B.S. degrees, and has 
besides departments of Business Administration 
and Music. Rollins College has recently honored - 
herself and one of the country's foremost citizens ' 
by inviting to the presidency Hamilton Holt, • 
former editor of The ludcpeuchnt, lecturer of 1 
note and, in 1924, candidate for tlie Governor- 
ship of Connecticut. The new president began 
his incumbency at Rollins last September. 

Stetson University, at De Land, was founded 
and endowed by John B. Stetson — naturally, the 
football team is known as the ''Hatters" — and 
is the ofiicial Baptist college of the state. Its 
campus, sj^rinkled with moss-draped oaks, con- 
tains many fine modern buildings which accom- 
modate some five hundred students. It otTers lib- 
eral arts courses and courses in law and engi- 
neering. Other de]>artments are being developtHl 
with the aid of an income close to a million dollars 

On Lak(^ llollinLrswortli, at Lakelanii, is South- \ 
orn College, supported by the Methodists. This 




iTisfifiifinn is being rapidly developed alon- all 

lines, aiil 

s newer 






weiily-iwu >[alL'.> aru rfprfi^uiitrd in tlu- ('iiruU- 



J^ilnifr Oollege, at DrFimiak Spriiiirs, has tin 

-^ SUppiU't 

t t i 


inlirrii Pr.-ii\-trriaii rhurcl: 


<1, Will 




as a luiiioi- CO 



it is fast 

takini: i*- ])lare ariioiiir.-t tl 


ito's wonliv in- 


At^oTi is the Florida XorMial Institute, 
many of thu pailjlic-schoul tfai'lifrs are 

\N . t 



oiig prujiaratory anil <op<Midarv schools nia\ 



ho mnntionod 

Florida Mili'ai-x- Acad 

• ■iiiw a 


Ala-nolia Springs, n.^ar J 

i ' • k - 1 i n \' 1 1 ! ( 



1 T I 

nniversity prcpar 

1 i 1 i ui^ I 


-1 in 1 


traminir. It is a 

;Militar>- Collci^es aiv] Sr-linolQ. Aia)!!: 

■ociati'iii of 
i'V niilitarv 

sclirio] i 

tarv A 
it "i- 





a a < 1 

: ( • 

! tl 

S.ciUi Florida Mill 

m oiil\- 1 



a;r'fa< V w 






The ('apii\a L-land Preparatory School. 


Fort MvfT^j, has hoon 

a nnrnk'-r of \-cai--, ; 


;]]crr'=:sful Operation for 

1 1 

U fi''c;in,^c O 

f its 1 


air'\' on t 

I ' ( ■ ( 

L'*'' of 

ropier atTords s})lcii(lid 

op})orMinities for rcr,!oor .^tudv ami ruci-cat 



1 ' . • - 

Hies seized \jy m.-my vonflis from othci- 
The Aitkin Op.-n Air School at St. 

Pete^shli^L^ conducts 

P' resent, Lat expansi( 

only elena !itar>- chi->es at 
'ii i- forlhcoiuing. A ;5cc- 



nndary sclmol that specializes in vocational in- 
struction is opei-ated at .Montverde, Lake County. 
Other estahli.-li.'d private .-e}i(»(,]s are to be found 
in Miand, 'hanipa, Jack>on\dlle and several more 

The Cat}K)lic Church maintains a numl)er of ex- 
cellent institution- of learninir, as the Sacred 
Heart College, at Tampa, the Saint Leo Acad- 
emy, at Saint Leo, in Pasco County, and convent 
scliools at Jac]^^<onvi]Ie, l^ampa, St. Auirustine, 
Orlando, West Palm P>cach, Fernandina and Key 

The Fh)rida Educational Association, a citizen 
oriranization, i> pi-oxunir of ereat value in the 
state's movement for securing improved schools 
and conditions. 



Florida wants home-bnil'lrT-. n-'r..]-- tliom; and 

a lot of l;Mrnt'-]iiii].]>-rs need Florida. Many of 
ilitTM arc di^eoverin.e: the fad. t()o. Tihit'cil ju.^t 
Ti.»\v ()!!•' niiirlit think tliat al>out vv^'vy one was 
liuiMiiiLT tla'i-c, but afttT tlio tap of liaiiimers lias 
coa^tMl and tlif (In-t (tf nioi'tar has lijown away 
it will doubtless be foinid tliat <initf a ir^'od many 
persons wla^ niiLrlit own lionirs in Florida with 
beiieiit to their health, happinr-s and poekctbooks 
nro still abseiit — a drploi-abl^ state of affaii's 
that will iiltimatflv bo rfinrdit'd. T]\r eountrv 


eontains a vast niinibfr ot bih^ 

whnv,' oMiees 

aro undtT thoir hat-, as tho ])]irase is: ])orsnns 
wh(>>t' profession or trade alh)\\s ihrm to ])ui'sue 
it a< w.'ll in one plaee as anoth'a- a< Iohl: as they 
art' within CMinTnunication with tlicir niai'kot, 
wht'!"t'\'t'r that nia\' be. Also tie' country eontains 
a still larger populati(>n whiosc business docs not 
roqnire thoir presence in the Xurth duriiiLT the 
winter niond:-. Mr. bvoL^er P)ab-(in, who LTi'aees 

Florida with hi< pi'esence whc 

in Wclh-lcv. Ma--- 

n i 

1 1 ' > n ( ) \\' 



■ , and wli 



ancc- aiit'iit the .state aru alwavs sane and well 
eon-iderod. ha^ reeontly invited ns to take a map 



121 • 

of the Fnited States and draw on it three Hues 

as follows: one fr-.m Clncago tn J'crtland, Maine, 
one from Forthand to Florida and, completing the 
tnanglc, one from Florida to Chicago. The spaee 
so enclosed, he informs ns, contains a farming 
popnlation of over six millions. Xo place in that 
triaiiirlc is more than, let ns wntnre, sixty honrs 
by train from Florida, none more than a few (hiys 
by antomobile. At sonic time between X'ovember 
and March, the farmer within that triande is free 
to take a welbcarncd \-acati()n. and what simpler 
or more sensible way to take it than by going 
where he will lind a complete change from the 
life he lea<l> dnrinir the other eiirht or nine 
months!' AVhy -honhl he stay housed up and idle 
at home when, by stepping into his car or onto 
'i ti'ain oi- a beat, he can in a very slnn't time 
reach a pilace where he can lie outdoors everv 
day and take hi- choice of any number of ])leas- 
ant activities^ Or where, for that matter, he 
can stay ju-t as idle as at home, but do it under 
blue skies and in warm sunshine. Anothei* })or- 
tfon of the population of the states outside Florida 
is composed of i^ersoTi- who, while theii- duties 
re<jnire them to remain at home durini: most 
of the winter, are yet able to absent themselves 
lor a month or -ix week- or even two nmntlis 
so long as messages still travel by wire — or with- 
out wire — and Fncle S^am continues to conduct his 
post-ofhce bii-iness in no worse fashion than at 

i I 



LET'S GO Ti) i-Mj'ini)A: 

jire^t'iii. All liiese classes aru puluntial winter 
dweHpr? ii! l^'loridn. ^fnny of fliom will he ccm- 
ti'iit With hnifl- (»r I'oardiiii: Imuses it' their time 
(»t >(>,ii>ur!i 1^ hrirt". M;ui\' nf th»'iii will he conlt-iil 
with ^lir}; afconiiiiijijatiuii^ e\"f:i il' tlu'V remain 
South ah thi-oii-h tho winfor ; that is, for the 
first wiiiN'r. After that, it' hi-t<»i-y e(Hitiinit's to 
rt'pfat laT-t-lf, tla-y v>ill lonk arouial for a place 
to hinl^l. 

Fhtri'la ta'eds mu.-t of all citizens wlio will 
mak..' th'hr |MTiiianent honir^ within her territory, 
heeome iiileresled in her a!i<i owe uiiilixiilt'd allc- 
iriaiice !'> ]:*-r, a:..] -];- is gettinc: >\\r\i eitizms 
aii'i Will cuiitiniie to gret thorn in increa.-ini:- iiinn- 
hi'T- a-> ht-r mtril:- a.> a ru.-niential .-tatf become 
more widely knowr!. Fnilinir ycai'-ronnd dwrllers, 
how.-\-. r, she welcomefc tliM^,- who II'k,. ]i,.r well 
cnniii:h to spend a part ol' th-ir time with Iht, 
[ind especiall;.- those ^vho v/ill hnild homes. Snch 
part-tmjo citizens she is ac(inii-ing in vast nnm- 
hef^. And wlivnot? A Floia'da linm*', he it ne\-ei- 
BO hnnihle, beats any hotch h" it never so bixnri- 
•-n-, tor- ->']]i\ comfort aiid content rnent. And 
f'^rtainl}- it I'eats shari!:L'" your paM'imony with 
the coal dealer to seciir^' waT-mth atid with tho 
family physician to !';^:ife h.ahli. A bdorida 
hiinirahiw, even if i' d'M.^a't loolt h!-;e one of tlu' 
Spani-h palaces that got their [ii<tiir,.s in the 
rotogravure sections of tlie Siinda\- papers, lias 
sevora] thimr^ in its favor. l\<v instance, it 



doesn't cost mncli fo Imi].]. And. as tliero is no 
cellar, it has liu fuiaiaco to consinno I'oal from 
()ctohei- to May. And it.- eaves may become fes- 
tooned \\ith houLniinviila'a and biirnoiiia, but 
never wit li icicle.^ I 

To those considering building in Florida a few 
hints may be welcome. Lots are almost univer- 
sally lifty feet wide in the newi^r additions to 
towns and cities, althouLrh otio sixty- or sixty-odd 
feet wide nniy occasionally occur. Depths arc or- 
dinarily one hundred feet. < )ne can Iniild a bun- 
galow on a hlt> I'oMt jut and have room at one 
side for a drive, but he will find himself discon- 
cert inirly chi-e to lii^ neiir]il)ors on either hand, 
and in a land vleu-e windows are almost con- 
tinuously o))eti and phiuiMi^raj^hs or radios a part 
of the fuiaii.-hitiLT^ of nearly eVery home that 
claims con-idera'ioin Two tifty-foot lots, with 
the hou<e centei-ed, i< the hietter ])roposition. It 
i< impo.->i]i]e to tell you what ynui' lots will cost, 
for, ot' cour-e, residence ])ropierty varies widely 
in price and lu-da> 's price may n.ot be to mor- 
I'ow's. TTowever, if ont^ doosii't insist on being 
too clo-e t<» a rapidl>' irrowinLr town he may still, 
at thi< wiilinir, obtain lots a< low as ^7o0.i)0 each. 
From that tigurc he nia>- ad\-ance ti^ almost atiy- 
sum he ]>loases. it' one \\;ints tlu* best as to 
proximity to fowm vilh itnproN'ements such as 
]ia\-ed streets, sidewalks, telephone s*>rvict\ elec- 
tricitv, gas and water he may pay from $l,ol>0 u\k 






Moorish gateways, swimminir pool-, palms a!i<] 
so on add another thousand or two. Airain, il one 
is willing to locate well away from 1()\mi and wait 
for it to grow out to Imn, Lr may purchase an 
acre for the price of a lot farther in. Shore pro})- 
erty is becoming prohibitive, alhou-h >ii!l not as 
high as it will go. As some one said, thr L..rd 
made a lot of land, but only just i^o much sea- 

In buying look lur eI.-\-atinii. Eh'\-a!ioTi is 
merely relative along the coast, \sh. re a ch \. h)p- 
ment lying twenty-four inches alM,\.. th.- >ui- 
rounding land will probably bear some su-h name 
as ''Overlook'* ur • Pineland iicighib," hut oven 
the matter of an added fr^of m.ny m;i]:e a diffci'- 
ence. It isn't sea-water that \-ou n.^^d to avoid, 
but the water left by the torrential -h.v npour< of 
the summer rains. It is just a hit iaeuii\. nh nt 
to have to take off one's shoe^ arid sfnehinirs to 
reach the garage! A Inf wide), a.Mnw^ tie- hon-^e 
to face east or west is pret*< rr- ! ii 11,,. rr-i^i. nl 
intends to remain into or thmn-h t) , j,,,: u. ath. r, 
but that isn't an important item, siuLu th.' ad\ .m- 
tage of sunshine in winter aiid flie nvoi.hmc. ,,r 
it in summer may be secured hy phmninL- the 
house correctly. 

You may build your h<Hi-c oi anv one of n 
number of materials, but il y>ii v.ani hUnn' vow 
will have to pay well for it unle.^« you hipin n i,, 
locate in one of a few favored spots. All Liinhs 

( I 

r clay aTid concrete lirick are to l>e had, as well 
as Imliow tih,', concrete hlocks and poured c«~)ii- 
erete. Since freedom from the extremes of heat 
and cuki is an advantage, hollow tile, with its 
splendid insuhatinir ]»ropertie<, i^ a mo>t satis- 
factory maieriah But it comes from a <li>tancc-. 
and frei2:ht chai'ires added to the oriirirud c«K<t 
make it liiirh. Brick btiilds a house that resists 
the weathe]- almost as well, and brick is less ex- 
] tensive. I'rame and frame-and-stucco are favor- 
ites ani], ^\hen a really good insulatimr material 
i> used in the walls, answer very well. Stucc*^ 
min<t, howe\-er, be backed with a waterproof sur- 
face if the house is fo he dry in summer. AVlien, 
that is, it i-^ applied to a frame buildin^^ 

Stucco has the adwantaLre of ace(>mmodatim: it- 
fcelf Well to the Spani-h-Mo(M-ish style ol arch.i- 
tectnre now >o ])opular in h'lorida, an.d may be 
fi'eale<l in an\' (Uie ()f a \\ ide vai'iety of fa<hi*^ns 
a- t" >ui'i'ace textui'e and i-olor. Tt may b'.,* laid 
smiM)lli, >lap (hi.^hed, pelibled i>r left rouirhened 
b}- the trowel in sexeral wa>s. As for color, you 
may choose anx'thim: you phrase and still pi'obably 
not succeed in slrikiuL: a new note. Already tlic 
state i^ pii'Krij out \\\\\\ blue h.ouses an.d pm.k 
hou-es and ).!!()w and buiT aiul brown, and ^^'reen 
anil laNeuiler and purple houses. And you n-'e^l 
not re-!i-ic! \Mur-i'lf !•> one <hade alon.e. If t^ic 
pla-!er i- \ni\ iCi \^ i ! h a sort of *'C(>\\ bck " c'Tect 
the bachu-ritund ma n be OUe lone and ihc piotuber- 


LKT'S GU TU I-MJ)}ni)A! 



ai:res ^'high-lighted'' with another. Tlitru is, uf 
. Course, the danger of having your bungnlnw mi^- 
takon for a filling station, l-nt that is iinihinL: if 
the ii/ane is what you seek. 

IK'' Spaiii-li-Mnorisli lioii^e is imicli mure 
^Foori^^h ihaii; " iiiuru-ur-ic.s6-:Spanish" 
migl.t l.e a fair name fnr tlii^ sfylr. of nrrliitcc- 
tiirn. Pin%'!y Spaii'-^li la. uses in I-':nri,]a one can 
Hii'l''r-^a::'l, but, to parayKra-- th.' hit.' H. A. W. 
Tal'nr, .a' I.-a'!'.-ille and HLUw-r, wliat lla- ljii<- 
anJ-iLal did iLu Aluurs ever do foi- Floi'i^la .' (ha.' 
becomes just n h*^ ivmry of these la. uses with 
their ^^t■:^<l colnrs and '•ornhinatioiis of coji.r^, 
their imn L-rilled balconies, srlazod \\]r<, ojiilv 
shape'!— and often useless — wih^lows and tiav pa- 
tios. True, the ;Spanish-^foori-h limi-c ina\- ho 
of white, in which case it i- at i^^ 1m m, hut it so 
sehlom i^! Give the average architect in Fh.ri^hi 
a >turc.) >uriace to work on an^l he bec(.nas c-.hjr- 
niad. S..naj de\-h 'punents insist that only this 
particular style of nrfhifonfurp mav hn u^ed n!<i.le 
thrir CMTifiTjr.^, an^! the results are -nmrtirncs a 
trith' mi)]j){niin\i<, Ifnwever, the I' law 
dot'Mi't yet rr^piirr ymi tu huilil any .-pfclal sort 
oi a hou.-e, and you can do pretty much as vou 

\'arious ver<!0!n< cf tic rallfornia type l)unL^a- 
Liw arc popii!;,!-, Ronc wi'h the aii-phific v],M'pinir 
room atnp. .^ widajut. The main lhinL^ what- 
ever ,-tyIc (,r {)cra)(l you deeifle on, is fo have vour 


ruul' tiirht, your walls insulated, your ceilings 
fairly hiLrli, yf.ui* porch space eenerous and your 
(h.ors and ^\indows arranLTeil to secure cross- 
(Irau.irhts. Stramce as it may sound, a water-tight 
rottf is about the la>t thing a Florida builder will 
give yoiL See that he speciiically guarantees 
vour root' for at least one vcar. The material 
he will u>e will ])robabl}' be the best of its kind, 
but Florida rains arc calculated to get through 
almost anythini: ^hurt of i.i'oeessed steel and it's 
dollars to douirhnuts your roof wall be laid by a 
smart lad who until a few months before was 
guidimc a ph.w in Indiana. (AVhy it is that so 
large a ])roportioTi of the citizens of Indiana go 
to Fh.riihi and, irrespective of previous lines of 
endeavor, insist on posiuL: as carpenters or ma- 
sons or ])ainters is an unfathomable mystery.) 
Fla>liinLr< about chimiays and anirles should be 
laid carct'ully and all valleys should be widely 
tinneih Al'ter that jdmost any kind of tile, asbes- 
tos or t'elt shingle will serve. Although if your 
amateur ]-o<.fer can be ])ersuaded to refrain from 
leavinir exposed nail-holes your chance of spotted 
ceibngs and streake<l jdaster will be lessened. 

You mav have hardwood floors to vour heart's 
content, but vou are herebv informed that who- 
ever has to h.ok after them will rue them daily. 
If you must lia\a> them, let them be nothing less 
than oak. Hai-d pine is a mockery. Most of 
Florida is stirfaceil witli ^anMh and no matter how 




careful yon art/ ymi will briiii.^ it into tlic house 
on \(iur shoes, and it pla\'s Imh wiih j)nli>lied 
lioors. Soft i)ine tlnorinir coviTr.l with cork lino- 
knim is thf l)t'>t bet. Xon-rustahh' hardware 
should be used, indoors and out; and tlie nearer 
tho salt-water you are tlie nntre you will need it. 
All windows and doors should be scr<'ened with 
small-mrsh copper sereeninu:. Like any other sul)- 
tropieal land, P^lorida is rich in inseets. Mosqui- 
tors, unless you locate near stairnant water, will 
trouble you no more than "back home"; proli- 
ably less, since tlie ahno-t constant breezes dis- 
couraire what there may be. You will need awn- 
ings on the south and west sides of your house, 
may want tln-ra also on the east and will b<' well 
ad\'i<''(I if you havr them on all sidrs. AVlicn the 
rain- ennie you can kt-t-p your windows lowrrrd 
at the top, which you can't safely do with no awn- 
ing'- to d-lh-ct the torrents. 

Your iraraL'"*' may bo of the .^ketchi(\st sort, 
Fince all you really n.eed is a root' abov-c th*' car 
and sulii.'h'nt wall to ket'p the hottest suti off if 
and s*ratiL^crs out. You may build the sides of 
lattice ii' you want tr) save mon.'y. 

L i- alrno-t a- dlllicnlt to talk buildincc costs 
a8 the }»fictv< of land. .Material-^ and labor both 
fluctuate, h'ort nnatoly I'dori<la profliiccs enouirh 
pine bnnbo!- for i'- fir.-cnt jhmmI.-, althoULdi, duo 
to t ran.>p(jrlali(jn dillicuUies, it i>n't alwa>-s awail 
abl*. uhen needed. Neither i- it alwa\s a- satis- 



factory as northe-rn tir or pine, partly l)ecause it 
is weather- and not kiln-dried. This is retlected 
in the tini>hed product of the mills. Nevertheless 
it answers ordinary requirements. Brick, lime, 
buildinii: stone and sand are also home ])roducts, 
and, althouirh nmch of what will enter into the 
construction of your house will be shipped in from 
the North, with heavy freitdit charges attached, 
yon will build your house for far less than a simi- 
lar residence would cost you "back home." On 
a basis of 1924 ])rices, a tive-room-and-bath bunga- 
low of frame or frame and stucco, together with 
a one-car irarage, mav be built for $4,500, this 
])rlce includinir phunbing, iras and electric fittings; 
also incidental concrete work, as automobile run- 
way, ste])s and walk. This hirure may be a thou- 
sand dollars less for a lieuse with interior walls 
of builder's board instead of ]>laster, fewer win- 
dows, soft ])ine floors and so on. Or it may be 
increas(Ml by another thousatid without much (d'- 
fort. And, of course, from four or live thousand 
vou mav raniri^ skvwartl as hiirh as vour faiicv 
dictates and your purse allows. Kemembei- that 
you have no cellar fo diir and almost no foun.dation 
to build, no heater to install and tio swstem of 
})i])es or Hues to be carried thi'ouLrhout. 

^'our house will, o[' course, have a chimiu^y to 
acc(unmodate one or more fii'eplaces uidess it is 
very far soutli indeed. I^x'eii at the end of the 
]»cnin>ula or on one o( the Ke\s \ou will be 




mori' I'onit'urtcililt' tor an orra-ioTinl Mazo. Over 
most ut the statf a lire is a necessity at intervals 
durinir the winter months. Your tirrphiee may })e 
fitted with one ol' thixc irooddookini: and etlicient 
impro\-emtnt> on the oM-tinif irasdoir, or you may 
I)ut a haskt't in it and lan'n ee)ah or \()U nniv have 
a t\'W (hidars' worth of pin^ and oak pih'd in tlie 
{taek yard and wateh llw spai'k- tly np \-our chim- 
ney on a cool e\-(nunLr. hi an\- case vour fuc] hill 
will he small! In your hathroom a eras or cloctric 
heater— tht' laM^n- has tie- caH-- will a<ld to th.^ 
comtort ot' cool niorninir-, wfiilr for room- not 
atlrc't'd !'}■ tliM warmth fi'om the fn'cplacc (»nr of 
tho:5e Lni< heaters that may he moved ahout at 
fancy will prove convenient. 

Keeping house in Flori<la ha< its dilTicult ies, 
Ju-t a-, nowada}'-. i* has c\'fi'\'uliert'. Tho .-frx'- 
ant pr-ohl'-m is (juite as arut«" tliere as in New 
York (»r i'ortland, Wdiito help is ex- 
tremely hard tM ohtai.'i and colnrf(I st-rvants are 
notoriou-l}- tritlinir. Lnh'^s \'ou can jjrovide a 
room (>n th.' pi'omisos fm- yuur co(^k or irt'ncral 
liouse-^ir! \ou miLrht almo<f- a- well d(, without. 
Tho=;e who r<»rne in }i\- thi' da\' oh^crx'e inanv lioli- 
days liMt ^c! down <in your cahuidai', ar'e suhject 
to untimely an<l m;>--t.'riou- rnaladit'S neees^itat ini,^ 
var^int^ pern.xh-, uf ahftlinence from lahor and 
recoL^nize no duties after 5:00 p.m, ]f you have 
ycnjr dinner- at midda\\ L'«'t your (A^n supper ami 



are satistied to h'ave a sinkful of soiled dishes 
overni.trlit you can manage after a fashion. Male 
liel|) may serve you a tritle hetter, for your yard 
man, whom vou will share with most of your 
nei,c:hhors, may he depended on to show up with 
some regularity; uidess, of eourse, he manages to 
accumulate sovei-al dollars at once, in which case 
he will remain a stranircr to you — sulYering from 
*'a touch of fe\-er" — until the excess wealth has 
been dissi])ated. 

Your laundry ^^■ill either c:o to a steam laundry, 
most of which are ])art icularly destructive and 
iri'iierallv nn-ati-factorv as vet, he entrusted to 
a coloreil W(»man, or, all else failing, l»e done at 
liome hy the housewife in sheer desperation. If 
the ai<l of a laundress is resorted to, one of two 
ihlnirs will ensue. You will provide a large iron 
kettle tor hoilinir the clothes, a few l^dcks to 
keep it off the LH-onnd, some wood for a fire, three 
or more wash-tuhs and a heiich to set them on, 
plenty o^ watei', soap — which has a way of dis- 
a])pearinL: mysteriously the next moment — and the 
other usual concomitants. Also you will some- 
liow ])r()\'ide sulVicient space on the premises tor 
the accommodation of thi^ paraphernalia and one 
• — usually — stout colorr<l lad>'. ("^r •■Ise you will 
]»lace \oui' Week's wa-hiuLT in the automohile and 
hrar it, with due humility, t«) the resicU^nce of 
the laundre>>. Since laundresses invariably live 
on unpaved streets, the task is less simple than it 


[,KT'S no TO FT.ORinA! 

sounds. At the end of tlio ^v.-rk von ^^■i]l rofprn 
fr^r the laundry. If ym; arr wise, yon will, liaxinir 
reached home, take the doiht- iVom ilir ha-k.-t 
or k^uL.ile before .•:.*. linir ilir huu^e, since nul iu- 
frequentl}- mure corner hack to ynn flian von srnit. 
The reference is to r-ofkroachcs, how-.A-.T, and not 
to that more dread* <1 in>oot. 

Unless you like cockn.a.lic.v. and f.w |)L'r:;uns 
seem to, y^ra will ncud tu hv ak-rt if you nro to 
keep the house free from tlioni. Ktrmal \iL'-ikince 
is the prifT. of peace. The corkn-a.-h. of wldcli 
several \-arieties are eltli.-r In.iiir.'nnu- to tli.' >tat(^ 
"I- have recoiridzrd In advantages a< a p]a<'.' of 
l^sidence, is luruvur to he rcckoiiof] with. Your 
house, it is to be hnpr.d, vdl] ha\-.' Imm-ii knilt witli 
a vir-w to the exclusion ..f knth rod.mts and 
roaches, with no adits U)r tk.ii' cnhx .iii.nic,. and 
with all outer doors fitting L-lostdy. iiiu ymi ,an't 
laz.j llit' cuekruacli kv n «liow of inhovpifalit w Ho 
thrives on snub^. If he can't Lr-t into"kuuse 
through a cra<'k or nnd.T a ( ].<■ will d,, it In - 
a f-ld of pap-r at the botinm oi' a ka-ket or con- 
cealed in a l^ig, disguk^ud a^ a potato, or in somo 
other stealthy niid tiujonion^^ wa>-. X^vm- allow 
the^ groceries far-k.-r Mian t!jc ka."k p.nv}, witlmnt 
an inspection, and never jar potatoes, ofdon^ and 
vegetables generally awa;. in tk.- cnntaiiars they 
arrive in. Once well estakli Ji.-d, tlm corkroaf"!!, 
either the big, linnd^-onn- InMr-.n,^ la-nun cliap <.r 
the little so-called ('nl^.n f..!k>w, i^ precious hanl 



i . ) . ) 

to externiinafo. lint li»' cati ])c kept out if you try 
hard eiioULdn K\eii if yon don't su<|)eet him, an 
occasional otTri'inir of roadi ])aste or powder left 
in the corners will do no harm; and yon needn't 
give way to siii'prisu and morlilicatioti if one oi- 
more victims of vour frenerositv is found the next 
day. Cockroaches are s])lendid waiters and will 
remain concealed foi- days at a time in the hope 
of lulling you into a state of false security. It ks 
best to take it for Ln-antcd that there is always at 
least one on the ])remises, and go after him. 

Ahont the only other things that may bother 
the housewife are ninths and ants. Moths are 
plentiful in the South and nothing should be put 
away in th(> sprinj^^^that hasn't been sprayed with 
one of the ])atent moth-])rootniir liipiids. This is 
ad\d>ahh' e\-en when cedar chests or bags are to 
contain the ai'tlclc. Ants are not likely to trouble 
unless vou delibcratelv tempt them. If vou It^ave 
an unr'o\-ri'e(l s} rup can around, however, (U* any- 
thinir (Mpnilly delectable from the ant ]»oint of 
view, they will tlock to it even if they have to 
ero-s the street and climb the rain-spout I ( hily 
the tiny r(^d— oi', let us say, l»londe— ant is so en- 
terprising. 1die\', too, ma}' be controlled, liow- 
eV(n\ witlauit undue exertion. 

Vou will cnnk on a ira^ <to\'e or, if \ou ])refer 
it, an electric range, and hot water will lu> sup- 
plied by moau^ of an auxiliai'v Lras beater. Yiui 
will, prokabi}-, tind the water hard and <o have 





ri'C(3ur>»? to soaps and wasliinir preparations spe- 
ciallv >uital)lt'. W)u will diM-ox.'r, Id xouv ilis- 
may, that thf Florida >iin is dr-t ructivc on cer- 
tain curtain materials and that silk dra|)orios ai"i' 
shortdi\-ed. But yuu will also discover that tliat 
same sun has wondort'ul clt\nnsin[r and !)leachini^ 
j)ropcrties. ( )n the wliole, you'll {"orLri\'e it its few 
misdemeanors t'or tlie sake ot' its manv virtui's; 
just a< you will soon i'orget the inconvcniencc^s 
and trivial annoyancps in the feelinir <>f rcstl'ul- 
ncss and wulhliL-inu: that will 1k> vours. 




Prodabey every crnmo or amusement not de- 
picndent on tiie presence of snow oi' ic-e is to l>e 
I'ound in l^dorida. Anil, while >kiini: and tolx^ir- 
ganing will foi'exci- remain impo^^aible, ice-skating 
may soon ])e indulired in on an artificial rink in 
Miami. With iIm- exce])tion-< iioied. a list of s])orts 
pui'sued and i:-ames )ila\'ed in the Xoi'th will an- 
swer for Florida in llie winter time. (lolf is pre- 
eminent, and the state is dotttMl from end to end 
with courses, most of tliom of excellent quality, 
(iolf is one sport nttt limited to tln^ winter months, 
fe.r even in the hottest weather you will find the 
links Well occupied. Tennis is pilayiMl everywhere, 
and, like golf, draws many coni]K'titors to winte-r 
tournaments. I'olo is re^ti'icted to a few locali- 
ties. 'Idle seeminirly ircntle, l)ut really I'atluu" 
streinious, LMUie ot' roipie counts its dcN'otees by 
the thousands, while lawndsowls and th.e demo- 
ci'atic pitchiuL^ of horseshoes \'ie in fa\'oT'. The 
National Pastime has tairl}' adopted Florida, 
and ma.joi" and minor leaLTUe tearn^ descend u{)on 
it in I'^'hruar)' and occup\' ti'ainiiiLT irrounds all 
o\-ei- the crntial pari of the >late. A Slate Hase- 
hall LeaLTUe ilouiT-ln^s in ^nniircr :\i\d an b'.ast 








Coast Leac:iio iii wintor. F(V)tl»all ])of\vooTi col- 
lege and school teams lasts I'ruin Srptt'itilK'r tt) 

FloriJa waters aru buautifull}' adapted to ^ail- 
im: and niotordioatinir. and cadi s^'ason seos an 
increase in tlie nnmber of x'isitinsj: and home- 
owned boats. Idle protected snimd-^ aiiil harbors 
of thc' East Coast and the (iuh' are iih-al waters 
for small craft, and FK)rida \\inlri's provide ideal 
weather. Speeddioat races aiT held each sea'^nn 
on both coasts and inlaiKb too, and are contested 
by the lleetest craft of the coniitr}'. < )ne scarcely 
thinks of antomobilinir as a recreation any hniLT'^r, 
vet there are manv who have flie l<Msni'e to make 
it such, and for them Fh)ri(hi nlT.-i-s a wealtli of 
excellent pave(i roads. Motor i-aeini: on Ihiy- 
tona's wonderful lieacli is a freiju-iit event. 

Many there are \\]\o deri\'e tlieir greatest pleas- 
ure from bathinir, and to them fho ^{nfo is gener- 
ous in the mattei- of superb beaches. The l^ast 
Coast, from Pablo Pleach on tlie nortli to Miami 
Beach on the south, is an ahno--t unbi'okeii suc- 
cession of smooth white >trand>, wliih' scarcely 
an island of size from tlie latter place to Key 
West does not ntler sui't' t'acilit ifs. The West 
Coast, too, has a iiumber of liiie beaehes, liiit their 
number is more limited. .Many of ihe inland lakes 
provide excellent convr'niences for enjoyable bath- 
ing, and where nature ha- oveiluoked the matter 
artificial pools sujipl}- the dilicienc}'. 



Lovers of Imrse-racing may enjoy their favorite 
sport at both Miami and Tampa, and, when the 
season there is over, may find excitement in 
watching the c-reyhounds run. And, of course, 
they may wager to their hearts' content on either. 

Florida is tlie fisherman's paradise, has been 
for A-ears on end and alwavs will ho. Fish are 
to bo camrht in num])ers not only in the deep 
waters ()\]' the coa&t but in every harbor, channel, 
canal, ba\-ou, river an<l lake in the state. To list 
them would be impossible. Dr. James Henshall 
states that he has collected close to three hundred 
species from the salt and fresh waters of Florida, 
and not i-\en as canny and inthd'atigable a fisher- 
man as the o-ood Doctor could ])ossil)lv come bv all 
of them. ( >f the fre<h-water fish the big-mouth 
bass, or "tront" a< the native Floridian calls 
him, is kiiiL!'. lie i> taken in about every lake 
and sti'eam throughout the state, and while some 
localities claim ]u-(^eminence for size of fish taken, 
othei'^ excel in the abundance of smaller prey. 
It is onl>- fair. h(»wever, to <:ive (U'lMpt where credit 
bielonirs and >a\' tliat ^^hat the writer ])elieves to 
he the larL'ost biLr-mouth on i-ecoi'd was taken 
with hook and line from Lake Moody, in Pasco 
("ountv. It weiirhed twenty pounds and two 
onnces. \^irious lakes on tlie Pidire are favorite 
resorts foi" the enthu.-ia^.tic bass fisherman, and 
some vor\- lai'ire specimens have lu^en taken there. 
Lakes and stream^ aI>o vield \'arious sunfishes, 

* 1 




the crappie, the catii.-ii and, infroijutiiil}, the 

What the big-moutli bass is to the Flt.rida 
lakes, the tarpon is to the sea, but he is a i::inie, 
ha III ti::-htin,2: kins: while the biir-month is a irno,! 
deal ui a quiltur m warm waters. Tar])()ii liihiug 
is at its; best on tlio W'.-i Toast aiid alonir thn 
Keys, aIthoi:Lrl! i^ i> paiv-UiMl on ih,' ocran vidi^ 
(•r the peninsuhi. Th.' h.iys and «-*!!;ii-h's that 
liiit' the West Coast seem to hf \rr\ nnirh tu the 
tarpuu'6 liki:!'.:. aiid Si. Petersburg, ISara^otn, 
Punta rinr.ia aiid I'^nri Myers aro tho tnr]»()!i li-li- 
t'lTuaii'- h'';i( I'piart '•!■> on lliat side SiM'ci;d men- 
tion niii-t 1m' L:i\.:i to r>f|)|i;i I-];i:id, olV Punta 
Utirda, I'ui tht'i'L' i> wLl'Tl' lWjiv real ds'L'ddii t hf- 
wool tarpon enthusiast gets at somo timo dur- 
iia: the season. That season lasts iVuni May to 
Auirust inclusive. But tuipn!! aren't the only hiir 
th-h l«t ho cau.srht, for you cun l^. t a ju-ft ty hai'd t ui; 
I'ruin a jcwli^li aad, il that i>ii'l large enough, 
you nuiy. wiHi lur^k, enh-h a two ton rliyunflou. or 
"(h'\ii tish"; altliOULdi it'> a laii' h^t n'ou w.ui't 
hiud iiini with hook and liu'd AuLdtU'^ with liLrht 
tarkh' tind [ih'U-urt/ iind exriltjinrut tuiouudu how- 
ever, in -niulk-r if no less sport inir eapturo?;. 
SJailti^iu tuiui niarlin, l);!rra<-U(hi, hiunto. -,h»M'|)- 
head. hid}' ti-!u Sp;i!d-!i niurkrrfh ponipano, 
rhanut 1 hass, grouper, druan lish, jack, sno-k, 
king li-li — the Southern, not the Northern elmp - 
sea trout, red snappor, mangrovo snapper, all 







the crappic, the catfish and, infrequently, the 


What the big-mouth bass is to the Florida 
lakes, the tarpon is to the sea, but he is a game, 
hard-fighting king while the ])ig-mouth is a good 
deal of a quitter in warm waters. Tarpon fishing 
is at its best on the West Coast and along the 
Keys, although it is pursued on the ocean side 
of the peninsula. The bays and estuaries that 
line the West Coast seem to be very much to the 
tarpon's liking, and St. Petersburg, Sarasota, 
Punta Gorda and Fort Myers are the tarpon fish- 
erman's headquarters on that side. Special men- 
tion must be given to Useppa Island, off Punta 
Gorda, for there is where every real dyed-in-the- 
w^ool tarpon enthusiast gets at some time dur- 
ing the season. That season lasts from ^lay to 
August inclusive. But tarpon aren't the only big 
fish to be caught, for you can get a pretty hard tug 
from a jewfish and, if that isn't large enough, 
you may, with luck, catch a two-ton rhynodon, or 
^'devil-fish"; although it's a fair bet you won't 
land him with hook and line ! Anglers with light 
tackle find pleasure and excitement enough, how- 
ever, in smaller if no less sporting captures. 
Sailfish, tuna marlin, barracuda, bonito, sheep- 
head, lady fish, Spanish mackerel, pompano, 
channel bass, grouper, drum fish, jack, snook, 
king fish— the Southern, not the Northern chap- 
sea trout, red snapper, mangrove snapper, all 


< . ! 






I J 



si^uirrs AXi) jn^(;iu<:ATit)Xs 139 

iwaii yoii in Flori(ia waters. Fi^liiiH^ clubs ar 

iiiaiix' a loiiir 


L'ua^ts and »i()\v!i the Kovs. The 

Miami Aiiirlor<?' C]uh aloiip iiiiin])t']-s (•h)se to four 






fii III 

'■re is the Sailfisli 

Cluh at I\-ihn Px-ach, the Foit Lan(hT(hile Clul), 
the bull- jvey Chil), aii(], schn't an<l t-xelusive, the 
I'amuus Coculubo (/av Club. And so o 

1 U] 


ie question : Have 

"West Coast as ^v(■]] : not onnttinir another exclu- 
sive a>s()ciati()ii of sportsmen at Clearwat(T, the 
Stone ( 'rab Cb]]). 

And tliat naUirabiv brinirs tl 
you ever eaten stone crabs? Oilier crabs, ves, and 
probably crayfi-li, but stone crabs! If vou 
l]a\a'iCt, ])lease <ln so before you die. ]\rake a 
pilLriiniaire to the place ^vhere they are best, Passu 
Grille, and conline your efforts to them. Don't 
mar your palate or clutter up youi' internal work- 
i!iir> with an\-thinLr else. Just sav '' Stoiu'crabs ! 


nd k 

eep on sa\-inLr it until \-ou've 



er that 


:U vour leisur 


you may drop 

a lew fervid exi)ressions of L^'atitude to the 




f ir 

or tlie hunter Pdorida still supplies a quantity 



xcelleiit ouail shootinir exists in al- 

most all sections north of Okeechobee, wild doves 
are numerous and turkev can be found in the back- 


oods. Ceese. diiek, ])l(»ver and snipe are to be 
liad. (Jaine animals inehide cottontail and marsh 
rabbits, cat and fox stpiirrels, opossums, raccoons, 
toxes^ wildcats, deer, bears, panthers, alligators 


t u 



aiul crocodiles. And, if >'oui- ta-tr> run lliat way, 
rattlers I Perhaps, liowcN'fr, ratllcrs arm't iranio 
animals. Wliilo on the subject of snakes, it may 

be well to state that poii^orion^ ropfilo- do oxist 
in Plorida. althouLdi you iniirhl I'.-inain in the state 
all your lift' without seein.s: one. Several \ariftit's 
of rattlers and at lea^^t one moeea^in do hu-iness 
there. TuIl'ss, however, yon disregard the 
simplest preeautionarx' measures when Imntinix 
in scrub, hanmiock oi- >wainp }ou av*- in no dauL'-fr. 
There are undoubtedly far inoi-c rat t If-nakf- in 
many oi tin.' western states than there ai''' in 
Floridai. M(^«"'r'a-in = , full}' n- poi--o7ionq. inliabit 
the wattr- of -uanips and slow-moving streams 
or, on occasion.-, >un thrmselves along tic banh.<. 
Sonu'time.- they "hang thmnselves np to di'y" on 
a l)u>h. "HoTi't interfere with the drying process. 
Leather boot- or IrL^'j-iriL'"- reachinir ^vell toward 
the knee are ^^goo<l nirdii-ine" foi- ibc liuntfi-, 
alth(»ULrh thrrt' arr pb'Ht}' of' "ci'ai'kt'rs" who liave 
spent mo.^t uf their li\'''- in the wo"d.- and clear- 
intrs and have nnvtT kiiowu the feel of n shoo. 

Anotln-r inhabitant of the wattn-, i},;. time a 
harmless one, i- th^ Florida olffi", wbieli abounds 
in the >ouMe-rn fiart of the peniTisnla, (^specially 
ini arnl about Hig Cyjiress Swamp in the Fx'er- 
^dades, wleu'e ]\r i~. trappr-d *!! Ln-eat innnbeT^ 
both ]>y tic Srininob' ludiun- a:,d by i irof«'--i"!i;d 
trapptT-. Foiitrai-y to the ereneral iinpro--io!i, 
wdiich credit.-^ the far nurthern ullcr uilh the linest 


pell, the I-doi'ida otter has his cold country birother 
brat en. Hi- fur i- longer and of better ipiality, 
and there is more ot' it for the reason that he is 
considerably larirt'i. A ])art icularly fine otter pelt 
hii6 brought as high as twentydive dollars more 
than once. ]^)uyers from the fnr exchanges make 
reirular \i-it> to the Everglades, leaving the trap- 
pers considt rally better off. 

The owner.-hi|) of irame i- vested in the coun- 
ties. Persons may hunt free on their own prem- 
ises, Init all othei-s nnist have licenses. A non- 
resident built iuLT license good only for the county 
ill whieli i--ue<l costs $2r).i!r). Each a<lditional 
county license costs $5.25. l\esi<lent licenses cost 
$1.25 for county of residence and $3.25 for each 
ad<litioi:a! count}-; or a state-wide liceiise may be 
obtai]if<I tor >bi.L:r). Xo!ir*'<idtnit fishermen pay 
$2.25 I'or a license permit tinir them to fish in the 
fresh waters of one county, or s:).25 for a state- 
wide permit. Hcsidents do not recpiire licenses, 
noi' (hi cliildron of thirtreii years or less. Bag 
liniit : two d.'or, ti\-e turkeys an.<l three hundred 
<»t' aii\' otbcr irame biirds iiei' vear: one deer, two 
tui'keys, twenty (juall, twentydive ducks, coots and 
LMllitinlo^;, eiudit L^ecse, eiirht lu'ant. twenty-five 
do\-es, six woodcock, twauityTive Wilson snipe, 
lift^'cn in all o]' ]ilover< atid yelhnvdeirs, twenty- 
flve in all ot' rails, coot- and ijrallinules ]^er day. 
The sab" of all reedbird< and all ])rotected o;ame 
is ])robi!'itcd. A nonrc-idrut hunter nniy carry 


I !1 




l.HT-S (io To FLoIvMDA: 

out ui liie state gcimc ac^ personal luggagu, but not 
m.nre than a t^vn <]ays' limit of migrntory irnme 
1 ir<ls may be exporte<I in any one week. 

The season on deer, turkey, sfpiiii.]-, (pi.til, 
du\L-, duck, geese, etc., opens ^'oxrinl-ri- i^ijili 
and extends to Jaminry 31st, inclusive, on .ill save 
deer, turkeys, squirrels and 'inaTl. On tlir^.' the 
season ends Feb]''!;wy ]^\']\. ('.'i-tiiin exceptions 
exist, and the visiting huntei" will "lo w.H in pro- 
\ i J'j himself with full int'urmaiiou eo\iiinif iho 
districts he intends to hunt over. An nff'Tnpt is 
being made through the Legislature to L-^ix- tlio 
control of game to the state, but the mattt i- is 
still in process. 

The subject of golf mnTiof hn di^zpn^rd of as 
siuiiiniiily as in a sentence or two. Go It in 
Florida is a vastly important factor in tiic w])- 
Luilding and }»iugress oi iliu state, a lact nli'.jady 
woll recognized by those interested, either tin an - 
(•iall\- <n: aUrnistically, in FLnnda'- Lrrowili and 
prosperity. Ten >'''ars aL''o th-'i't' \\';is a diiTi'iTiit 
story to tt'l], t'oi' 'lit'n irolt' was still l()okt'(l on as 
the ricii man's Lobljy, and tliu idrn of developing: 
n fowp. -ifp n^f^ont a 'j'oir links wrniM ]ia\'o boon nn- 
thought of. Yet to-day inoi-c than one snlini'baii 
development has seen thf laiildinu'" o)" a oom-^o and 
an elaborate club house tlioi-oug}iI\- coniplctrd, has 
even seen the course played on, before the grad- 
inir and paving of streets wa- oomplr'tr-d and lots 

SPuKTs; AND i?p:(;keati()Xs 143 

were oilered ior sale. Public Lrnjf eoursi's have 
been or are lieinc: provi<hMl by all the cities and 
lai'ircr towns. Some of these are even starting 
tlicir second or third eourses. Privately owned 
link< ai'e e\er\ where. In short, Florida is toed 
and irrcenod and hnnkored from the Georiria line 
to the tip riid (»f the far-llunic Kevs, and it is 
danibi ful if more than a half-dozen other states can 
(ifW'V as manv rcaJh' excellent <rolf courses. To 
duel! in detail on all that deserve it wonld take 
far too mnrli spare, but a few are fairlv entitled 
to sjiecial mention: as, for instance, the fine mu- 
nicipal course at St. Auirnsiine, the lornr (dghtcen 
ho!e> at (.)rmond, the Palm Reach Count rv Club's 
links, the excellent course of tln^ (Julf Stream Golf 
Club, at Del l\ay, the Clni^pT and ]\'itz Carlton 
Golf Clubs' links at I^oca Haton, th.' (^oral Gables 
<'ourse and the Miami Country Club and the Fla- 
mingo Golf Idub links, ih.^ latter at Miami Beach. 
On the West Coast the justly famous Belleair 
eourses at dearwatei- demand mention, as do 
those of the (/otTee Pot (Jolf Club at St. Peters- 
burir. Tampa's lu»cky Point links and the course 
at Temi)le Tei'race, a short distance frc^m Tampa, 
are orpndlv notable, b'radenion's thirtv-vt\ir-old 
coui'se desei'ves a word if only becaust^ it is the 
]>roirenitor of all Floi'ida courses. Inland are the 
Pakrhtnd (Jolf Club links, the new Cleveland 
llei^trhls, in the sam.' citv, ilir s])0!'tinLr Mountain 
Fakes, at Lak.' \Veii-, tlir " ' r)ubsdread," at Or- 




Inndo — worthy of its name — and the eourM' at 
l)c Land. Doubtless thero nvo mnny nth or- of all 
the scores unmentioned fully as deserviui: of r< »- 
ord; and the writer is at this moment coveifl witli 
remorse for having neglected the ('olL u-.' Arms 
course at Lu Land, one of tliu ulJu:^! aiul still one 
of tlip finest in the stafo, opoupyinir hti id^al -it na- 
tion amongst pines an-l i)alni- aii'l t'rai:raiit 
orange trees. 

As nearly perfect as many of tla- ])!-i\'att' coin'.^es 
are, there are at least two ]a\-outs 
which seldom fail to nron^o thr a'hniration ol' all 
wlio play on them. These are the courses at 
Jacksonville and at Hialeah, outsid-' Miami. Tlip 
Jacksonville course has I'fW -upcrioi-s in tli.' 
country. It was designed by DonaM I\oss and 
rorr-ihines in its eighteen holes altont r\ .ry t«'st of 
the golfer's skill v.i^h conditions adjn-taU' to 
the ploddimr LMme of the dnff( i-. Tlio turf i< al- 
wa\'.- ill t-xcL-llfnl C'jndition a.nd fw-n in tin' driest 
weather does not become lakod nnfl liaid. Tt is 
undonlifffl^y on*' of the best tended conr.^fs in the 
Unite] Spates, and in spite of tlir jinrrly nominal 
fee charged — fifty cents — it lia- |»ro\M.] a ])a\inLr 
pruijosition lu the city. Kales Ly wcfk <»r month 
are proportionately lo'^ . i\ and for twenty li\-o 
dollars one may play ther< loi- a \ <'ar. 

Low fees are also in vogue at Hi ik.di, wlnn', 
likewise, the golfing visitor will lind fairwax- and 
greens, service and surroundings, pfpial to the 


best. Here, in December of last yeai'. v. as staged 
a noi.ilile tournament in which, during two liil- 
liant days, such golfing masters as Duncan and 

Mitclitll, tlip Briti-l] ^tar-. Boldn- rniik-liank, 
Ocnp Sarazt'ii, Johnny Farrell, Leo Diegel and 
others of like calil»er fought thoir \\ay to a de- 

Over on the West Coast, Belleair possesses the 
OTily :i()diolo coni'se in tlio state, and it i^ tho wintor 
Mecca of thonsands of irolf entlm^iasts, mainy •■»f 
whom r<'tnrn there foi* ]ila\' N"car after vca.i- with 
iieN'er-failinLT rc,L;nIa rit \-. The course is ddiirht- 
fully situated oti a rolling terrain overlooking the 
waters of the (J nil", and it< fairways are marvels 
of textni'e and cohn* and it^ irreens like stretches 
■ — and irood trenerons stretcher — of fmoraiM xadvet. 
Verily, a joy to the di>eiple of old John P>. Golf. 

The P>(')ca rioirn Connfry Club, at St. Peters- 
buri:, called on \\'alt« r Ilairen wh^n it eame time 
to con--id('i" a ltoIi' layout and tlie Pxu'a (keira 
course i-- the I'r-ult of ihe comkinoil re-oin'cs (^^ 
liairen and \Va\ne Sliles. It is slill new, but it 
take- it< plaep amoTisr the bpst. If om:^ 1ikp^ water 
ha/.ai'ds — what true lilue irolfcr dot vi 't at the 
bottom of his Soul .' - lie \- are to be fou'id to per- 
fection at l^tea ('iei;-a, I'or tlio course not only 
bordei's the bay but is indented and eros^ed by the 
lazih- Nvindinir i^dots of blue- wafc'r. 

The li-t dt' L'l'lf eoui'ses in Fh)r 


' n f' ■! 1 

is b\- no means complete since golf cour-es, like 



;SPORTS; AXI) ]xK(in:ATInXS 147 

subdivisions, are being openol up wi^li ainazinir 
and confusing persistency. The list is, liow^ \. i, 
correct to within a few months. Tlie \\ liici i.-, abk 
to include it here through the cmirto^y of the 
Florida State Chamber of Coniiii' it. . 

GOLF COURSEb IX i 1 nini»A 

Altamonte Springs 
Altamonte Springs Golf Course 


Arcadia Golf Course 

Atlantic Beach 

Atlantic Beach Country Club 

Number Total 
of Length 

holes in yards Par 

*J 1,825 34 

18 6,(i(H> 

Avon Park 

Scenic Highland Golf Club 9 3.1 "J 

(Building) Lake Shore Country Club 18 G,400 

B arson Park 

Crooked Lake Golf and Yacht Club 


Bartow Golf Club 

]:Jelleair No. 1 
Belleair Country Club 

Belleair No. 2 

Boca Grande 

GuJf Shore Golf Links 








9 3,240 35 

9 2,855 34 





Number Total 
of Length 

holes in yards Par 

I'.radLiiiuii Golf and Country Club 9 3,008 36 

Palma Sola Golf and Countrv Club 9 

Cleai: water 

Clearwater Cournry Club 


Pni]!^. t r.olf and Country Club 

Coconut Grove 

CocoTint Grove Countr} Club 

Crooki:i> T- \ke 

V.nlit ;ii .i ('ountT-y Club 

r> \^■■^()XA 

I '.!> t(.!i;i C-M" ana ( 'ountry Club 

Di Cwa 

College Arms Golf I'lul) 

Municipal Golf Course 


Laiu' County Country ( iub 


Finn ri, ,. Villa Golf Club 



Fort Lauderdale 

For! Laidndale Golf and Countrv Club 9 


18 6,280 73 

18 5,685 69 


-> "'N 


18 6,287 75 

18 6,600 74 

9 3,000 i^o 

L) 3,250 37 


2,770 37 



LET'S on TO rT.f^T7TDA! 


Fort Myers 

Golf and Yacht Club 

Number Total 
of Length 

holes in yards Par 

18 6,388 74 

Fort Pierce 

Fort Pierce Golf and Country Club 9 3,007 36 

Fruitlaxd Park 
Golf Club 


Gaines\dlle Golf and Country Club 

Green Co\'e Springs 
Qui Si Sana Golf Course 

Hampton Springs 

Hotel Hampton Golf Course 

Highland Park 

Highland Park Golf Course 

Hobe Sound 

Jupiter Island Golf Club 


Homestead Golf and Country Club 

18 6,125 69 


9 2,321 35 


Chain of Lakes 




9 3,079 35 


Hollywood Golf and Country Club 18 l,ltJtJ 72 

18 6,200 73 

Rpnr^Ts AXi) rn-:rTM-:ATi''XS uo 


Municipal Golf Course 
Florid ];i Country Club 
Timuciuana Country Club 

Kry West 

Key West Municipal Golf Course 


Onlf Clnb 

T. \KE City 

LiKt'view Country Club 

Number Total 
of Length 

holes in yards Par 

18 6,282 
18 6,098 
18 6,500 


9 3,201 35 

9 3,030 38 


Country Club 




Clevelai!'] Heights Golf and Country 

Club (under construction) 




T,\Kr W\LES 
.Mouii'.iii T.alv • Club 

18 6,580 73 


Leosburt? 'Minilcipal Golf Course 9 3,015 37 

sn\.r L;ti. <io!r -mi C\)untrv Club 9 3,184 36 


Golf and Country Club 

9 2,751 35 

M i \ M 1 

< 1 I il (rabU'H Clubhouse and Golf 





M i.iiiii Couiiiiy Club 












LET'S Gn JO FT/)]nDA! 

Number Total 
of Length 

holes in yards 


] >.)V Shore Golf Club 
iiamingo Golf Club 
Miami Beach Golf Club 

Mountain Lake 
Mountain Lake Club 


Naples Golf Club 

Nr \v Smyrna 

N- w Smyrna Golf and Country Club 


West Orange Country Club 


Oeala Country Club 


Orlando Country Club 



Ormond lieach Golf Links 


Palatka Municipal Golf Course 


Palmetto Country Club (Jan. 1) 




'> ^",' 


9 3 tnn 


1^ 6,300 71 

9 3,133 35 

18 6,168 72 

1Q n,24n 

9 2,900 40 



18 6,006 75 






Palm Beach 

Palm Boaeli Coinitn' Club 

Number Total 
of Length 

holes in yards Par 

iC5 5,025 63 


Pensa''T.1a Cniintrv Clnh 

9 2,638 35 


Hotel Hampton Golf Ciub, Hampton 
Spnnir-. Morida 

Port Sewell 

St. Lu<-i.' Ki\.'i- rouiitrv C]\i]) 

9 3,100 35 

18 6.14n 71 
and 86 


i'uiita (in! la Golf Club 

9 3,800 38 

1 1 1 M • K 1 . 1, 1 n a^: 
K-MkhMJcre Golf CluS 

9 2,548 34 


Golf Course 


Sanfoi'd M iini'-ipal Golf Course 

E^ 6,005 70 


Snrnsnta Oc^lf TTolding Co. 


9 6,890 38 

Si:\Hi;i i:zE (Daytona) 

1< 6,217 74 

I !! 




C]n Jn FT.'>r:TDA' 


Number Total 
of Length 
holes in yards 



Kenilworth Lodge Golf Club 

18 6,250 


St. Augustine 

St. Augustine Links 

36 1J,776 

St. Petersburg 
Country- Club 

Tallahassee Golf Club 


Palma Ceia Golf Club 
Rocky Point Golf Club 
Temple Terraces Golf Club 

Tarpon Springs 

Tarpon Springs Golf Club 

UsEPPA Island 
Useppa Golf Club 

Roval Park 

West Pai.m Beach 

West Palm Jieach Country Club 

Winter Haven 

Lake Region Country Club 

Winter Park 

Winter Park Country Club 

18 6,080 75 

9 3,090 35 










9 3,200 37 

9 2,330 33 


18 6,252 71 

18 6,320 72 

18 6,021 72 

rnAPTFr: xtt 


Flmrti'a railronds lia\"f boen vorv busv of lai«\ 
l^iii-iiiLT tilt' vrar of 1!*"J4 niure new trunk ]'nr rail- 
road was inidtT roiistriictioii in that state tluHi in 
all the other <tat.'s of the Union ('(nnbined. an*! i'l 
19'2r) Ituildini; full olT l^n* ]itth\ Idie nm^t -pectae- 
iilar I'aihvay font of rt'cent times wa< tlie constnic- 
tioii l>\- the Seahoard Air Lir.e witliin ten nKviths 
of two Inindred and seven niih< of road, connecting: 
the Ivisl and Wh's! ('oa<ts. At presonit tin? At- 
lantic (\)a>t Ian.* i< doublet rai-kiinr it< !!ia:n line 
V il hin t fie state. hniMiTiir an extenvi.ui a' tin,' ! ip of 
tlie peniii-iila. and pi'fpai'ini: t<> la\' d<^w': a eoin 
iifctinii l))'!\\r. n Mo!;tieeMo aiid PeTn-y. The Ka<t 
('oa^t Kaili'oad i-> aKo . loublo-t raekini^- it- main 
lino. The Sf.iboai'd 1- bnsv on th(' Wost Coast 
wiih a new nort h a!;d soiill! !"oa,h an extension 
fi'eni Sarasota noii'Ii !o Ike' M\' 's aiul se\era 
cut olT-. In I'^ebniaiA-, h*:*."), there \\er.> twe'i^y- 
iiiiii' iaili'(*atb. in hdurula, practically all, liow -a ."■, 
ennfi'elh'd b\ ihrf^e nn\in systems, the S5i\'d'oa'^l 
Ail I. ill., the \t!:i!!te ( \)ast Line and the Easi 
(-oast Ivaihoid These with their lea-d lines 

and ('(•!i!ierti>e!!- en\ < 1 tllO stato \er\ ! ^ ! e 'o'lS^hly. 

Various steauihoat and mennlMal hues ^erve 



LET^S no TO KljilMDA! 

travelers along the coasts and on the |)riiH iji.t] 
lakes and rivers. Of these the yrinf ipal ..n. is 
the Clyde St. John's River Line, opera niiir a daily 
schedule between Jacksonville and Saiii'or.l. This 
trip is one that should not be missed !'\ thr \ i-i- 
tor to Florida, since the St. John'^ lu\rr is a 
really beautiful stream and travel in eitln i- dircf- 
tion, by day or by night, is thoroughly en jnyal.].'. 
The southbound or northbound tourist will do 
well to break the monotony of lailiuad traxcl by 
connecting with steamer at Jacksnnvila' or Shti- 
ford; or, if going north on the East Coast Rail- 
road, at Enterprise. The service is L'-ood, tlio 
staterooms excellent and, since the l^at^ ai*- nil- 
hurners, you will not be required to doik^c ciiid' rs. 
The fare is ^T.'Y between frTniini. and tlir ii-ip 
requires nineteen hours, leaving lime at Jackson- 
ville being 4:00 p.m., and at Sanfotd IJ:!.') i'.m. 
The sixty-mile stretch from Jacksoaviilu lu Ta- 
latka consumes about ten hours and i=^ madp nvor 
the widest part of the river. Shores are iVc^jia ni ly 
too far away to be readily disassociate I linm tho 
water. At Mandarin, fifteen niil.^ alnx, .Ia(k- 
sonville — remember that your .slKani i.- IIouIult 
north! — is the site of TTirrirf "Reecln r St our '8 
winter home. Near by the Maniuis d T dl. \ i and 
lived nearly three years after his haii-lnn. lit 
from England. The old settlement of HiIm una 
shows on an island, and not f:)r abr)vp if, nf tbo 
right, Black Creek empties. Black ( iv. 1 i^ na\i 



gable for nearly ten miles inland. ^Tairnolia 
Spi'in-j--, t \\ .'iity-eitrli' miles from Jark>on\'illt', 
lia- long ht'cn in high iavor with winter residents, 
l)oth on nrronnf of ihn nbnTidnrire of fine treos and 
lircau-o ot' tliM alleged healing jirinM-r-it-s of its 
>|)rinL!-s. Tliat woi-d • "alleged" is }'iit in tliert- just 
tu be on the sai'e side. The writer guarantees the 
lionliTii: properties of no spring in FhM'ida, tlie 
United States, EnT'o]i('. Afi-ica or jiiiv otlier hind. 
TTo\\r\ar. lots o\' i'olk< di'ink tla^ watt rs at Mag- 
nolia and (ire(Mi (\na^ Spriiiir-, .iii-t beyond., and 
])rot'o<> tu be benelilL'd. Urc'L-n < "ovo lia< so nuieh 
more water fhnrt cnn be dniTik tlial a wliolo lot of 
it i< th'Wrd int<i a pool and u^ni i'nr hathinLT pur- 
poses, i'kirt liri- alomr conn s Pieolala, w lin-r, <omo 
two liundrtMl year- airo, the Spaj:!--h ri-tM-hMl ;i i'(M't. 
If was takiM! t'rom them h\' ihc Hrilisin later used 
a> a militar\- pn-i durinir the Srukniole unpleasant- 
ness and lina!l\- ]tla\ fd it< pai't in tin- (k\-il \\:ir. 
At 1 Mcolata, t lam 1 haolat i, v\ as t in.' liome e)t" TolomT 
John Lee William^, di-t ini;ui>ia-d au'lioritx' and 
w I'itor oil I'd.oi'ida in tlu' fn'st ]iaT-t ot' t'lc last t-en- 
1nr\'. lie ua- a lii'm iVimd ot' the liidia!i^, and 
\\!h-ii St. AnL!ii>tine, an^l Lleolati, te>o, wei'e 
lairni'd, and -i-tthi- ki!h.! i^v drixa-n a\\;i>. he re- 
maiiifd nnniuh'-tcd and vlied pCvieoMiliN la l^ji) 
ateiLdit\ N.'ai- "\ age. ()]n^o<ita \\h>v! T(X'o\ is 

he ( ildt 


'Ut of Tociti 1 loni w 

1 :, .) 


loit) \. ais ago a little railroad ran — no, 
— tu Si. Augustine, twenty miles east. 'lia\rl lu 





those days was a real aht-nfiiro, for the train ran 
on no hard-and-fast schedule and stopptil wher- 
ever a passenger put in an appearam <■ .ilniiir tla; 
track. Federal Point and Orange AIiiLs IoMmw/ 
and then you reach the orane*" irrovrM] and >till i , - 
freshingly old-fashioned town of I'alatka. ( )ncM' 
on a time you could com.' riLrlit to Palatka I'roiri 
Charleston and Sa\'aiinali, ail llit' \\'ay on an uc^an 
liner; although it must. bo conrtMltd that ocran 
liners of those davs weren't tith. r a- huLro (»r as 
sumptuous as those of the present. 

Above Palatka vour r:\»r nairows suddcnlv 
and the scenery becomes muru trupical. Tliu hoat 
frequently pushes through nr>ro=: nf wnfpr h\a- 
cinths in bloom. Occasional clear! n.^-. L'vnvr^ and 
villages hold back the jungle, but for th> most 
part the river turns and twists thmuir!! nn-pnih-d 
Nature. The turns are uUlu >u a'niuiu tliat 
further progress upstream seems ini])n<<il)l<'. 
Giant oaks and wild olive trees bend ontward 
almost to the steamer \s decks. Tar'h - ^pht-h 
from cypress knees and float! n;< h.,-^, !i. lon-^ whir 
away in pretended panic and songhirds lill llio 
hammocks. At night this jyrwi of flj.. jonrnoy is 
weirdly beautiful, either wh. u ihxMhl h\ moon- 
light or by the big search !i/!< o! th^ -t.anni-. 
Suddenly Lake George lies ImIm], w.u, a truly 
lovely expanse of water seven miles a^ros^ at its 
widest point and about twelve in lies loirj. At 
Volusia is the site of an early Span! h mi — ion. 


The river again narrows and continues slender 

and windino" to the end of navigation. T^o Land 
is roachiil rail} in tlic morning on the southwartl 
tri]». Enterprise lies a few miles on ai.d at hist 

JSaiii'ord, on Laku Monrof, i- reached and the trip 
is over. 

Sonthhonn.d alonir llio St. Jolm's. you will see 
tilt' month ot' the Ocklawaha Kiv^r aronn«l a poiiit 
to tho riirlit soon, al'trr ])assini: Welaka : which 
will (loublk'bs remind you that tho mo:?t inetur- 
es(pn' \'oya!TP of all i^ still alu-ad of you. < U" 
course you ha\a' hoard ot' tlie Ockhnvaha River 
and Silvei- Sprimrs, so why -h.ouhl you have to 
hoai- it auMin .' But don't be sa'i^ti'MJ with hoarini: 
alnnit thrni. (lo and t^ee them. ^ on/ll !:ot h-' «lis- 
a]i]M)lntf(l. V(ni may mal'o ynm- <tart i'rtun Jaek- 
sonx'ille hy >teann'r and ^ptnd a iia>' m Palatka 
before emharkimr (»n the next -trfteh it' \-on are a 
leisurt'h' xnih oi' \ nu ma\' roa^'h Palatka hy tram 
or autonii'hih' in time t'or a elose eorin^'e'ion witli 
thr hoat- w hieh lra\e at 7 :"'Pvm. dailv. Tlie on.o- 
\va\- faiT is slO. The ronnd tt'lp -^If). 

Wise t'olks secure aeeonnnt>o,a:io!i- i'l adx'an.oo. 

Tho (>ekhn\aha i- the t nrmiiire-t ri\-er in the 
Woi'ld. That it wa- laid ont h\- \\\r m:in who plat- 
ted the eitv of Ihi-toii i- a\' ;ei\;in:eed I'Ut 
nf\-ri- ))i-.>\a'd. Tlie -'n!-\- ot" the man \\lu» met hiui- 
scll' eomi!M.j- harl. o! iL'in.atftl on this ^*reann liow- 
evei-, at the Xeedlek^ K \ e. Tiie huiiau liani- ^"or 
the ri\ rv nu-'an.< 'Marh aiid windinir stroam." The 



l.KT'^ UU lU i-'LulMDA 







Indians were pretty good namcrs. Ilowcx ci-, the 
river is only dark in places, and it is moi. tliaii 
the name suggests; for it's one of iIm^ loNclirst 
streams in tht* worlJ. But don't lakr thr \\ I'itcr's 
word for it. 

1: wi.: take yoii a^oiit tWfUtv liours to make 
the trip to SilvtT Springs, at iho otkI of tli«3 
route, and fifteen hours to eoiii'' })a( k. You don't 
have to come back if }<'u don't want to, since 
Ocala is only six miles awa}. If possiM*' tarry 
at Silver Springs long enough tu f tat he in the 
gorgeous water; for it is gorgeous; any water is 
through which you can see to a dd-*anc.' of over 
eighty feet. And, too, t]> a Ldass-lxtttonnd hoat 
and have a glimpse *j1 faii}'and. 'Jdni*' arr five 
basins here, as well as a subterranean river \\ Inch 
comes flowing up with millions of ,L^d]on< <hiily, 
and much to interest the visitor for several hours. 

Other trips may be ina'h' fr<>ni J.-ick-oaN-Hh- u\) 
the St. John's, and most of the- larg'!- rivcis offer 
pleasant trips, that up the Caloo^aliatehte and 
across Lake Okeechobee being one of tlie best. 
Daylight trips are also possible on several of tlio 
laru^e-r lakes. On the West Coast ]>o;it> ply lie- 
iween various shore piul.-. and liu: neai- h\ l\<>s. 
From Tampa you can go by steamer fr, St. l'(-t<i-s- 
bur^, Sarasota, Bradenton, I'ahmtto, Anna 
Maria, Cortez, Fort Myer-, Marro, lAcrirlade, 
Chokoloskee an-; I'.^j W^est. .Vi.d \\ \<hi wimt 
to adventure farther toward the tropic-, si( ani< i s 

will take yon ir^m Tampa ur Key West to Havana 
or I'rom Miami to Xassnu. Or if yon wi.-h to 
see New ( )rleans before returning north — if you 
must retuian-- tile (nilf and Southern Steamship 
Company offers you tin' choice of two iro<Mi boats. 
These steamers sail i'rum Tamp»a on Tuesdays at 
.*>:()() p.Ar., and land you in New Orleans in just 
under two days. 

One means of tran<])oi'tation was almost for- 
gi^tten. \(m can iret from Lithrr t^ yon — almo-t 
anv hither and pra<'tieallv everv von — all thromrli 
tlie state by ennit oi't ahle motor hu,^ ■-»■<. At least, 
most of thfui ai'e eonifortaltle ; tho<e that aren't 
are f<'W and will soon be rrpilaeed I'y the other 
sort. It would be impo:?^ible to li-t the motor- 
bus lines, since new ones are start ini: almost every 
week, luit it is ali'rad}- <at"e i(^ say tlnit one may 
trax'el fi'om one end ol' the >t;it<' to tlie otluu' auAl 
fi'om one >ide to the otlirr h>- thi< mean<. From 
Tampa alone, o\-.u- ih.c White Slaire. tlie (Julf 
Coa>t Motor utkI the Hhie Bus CoinpanN' Lines, 
you can jouriuy a< far noi-'h ;i^ Bake Bity and 
daek'-on\ilh' and a- far -nn'h as h'ort M>-ers and 
Balm Bcaeh. Nhui e.m i^'aeli Bt'ook-xjUe and 
Bee.->linrLr and Basils, i Orlando, Santord,, Baytomi 
and St. Auuai-t I lii'. Yeui t-.i-i l^'o u]) and down the 
K'i(B''»'. aiu'd-^ thf !i,t\ !(» S'. B-'! ri'-!iU!'L:\ BU-ar- 
N^atri' and TarpMM Springs, and d 'wn aloUL; the 
<'<'a,^t to Balne'iln and IBadenlon a':d Sarasota. 
^ ou can, ill short, go almost anyw le ae. 



'< nn TO FT.nKIDA! 


: I 
it I 



Florida has been at the business of roal luild 
ing in a large way for about four years. JShe 
isn't through, by any manner of means, but she 
is well along on the job. In the year 19l!.J -lie 
expended just short of twenty millions on this 
T""»rk. In 1924 the figure was npprnvimatoly the 
same. In 1925 it was some three millions Lul'^' i-. 
The result is a series of paved and semi haul 
highways from Tallahassee on the west tu Jack- 
sonville on the east and from the Georirin ^^frife 
line to Fort Myers on the West Coast and l-'Ioii.! a 
City on the East. Th^re are, besides, eigln \\ •11- 
defined cross-state routes, of which fou!- .ii.' al- 
ready paved ur semi-hard, one not quitu as l'-o.kI, 
and three in process of building and trnvn-al-h' 
for parts of their distances. North and soinli, 
four main systems of excellent highways cover 
three-quarters of the peninsula. Besides tlase 
principal constructions there are, of course, nu- 
merous connections and branches. One ninv v.nw 
start at Tallahassee and journey to F .rt Mm rs, 
to A: adia, to Okeechobee, to Fort rii<,', to 
Palm Beach, to Fort Lauderdale, lo Miaini and 
lu Florida City without leaving paved road^. «nvo, 
perhaps, where repairing operations ai<' l^mhil: on. 

However, the word ** paved*' in Fh»! i ! a !- a • 1 
to include much that is no longer rcallv <L-« iv- 
ing of the name. That is, some roads pavad a iih 
brick several years ago are now so worn mif iliaL 
an ordinary sand-clay surface would 1 - nmia ac- 


etpiabiL. An example of this type of road is that 
between St. Augustine and Bunnell on the East 
Coast highway. Other examples of it exist 
tliroiiLrliout the state. Such roads were hurriedly 

aii'l iiiiwi^.'ly ],uilt, the bricks laid uu a ^and base 
williout eLmunting and the law of gravitation re- 
lied oTi to ]::nnp ihr-m there. In sueli cases the 
law ()!' LTiax itation runs out in a verv few vears. 
However, even these road-, most of them only 
nine feet in widiji. ar.^ |iraciienl. Ui euursL' when 
}uu niuel another ear botli yir;] niid th^-^ nth»-^r 
cTiap have to turn nnf. and since the sand outsl.le 
the l>ri< ks is general!} loose and deep it some- 
times liappens that one or aiioiher of \uu Lrets 
stuck, lu a\oaJ ihat pu.-^Mbilily, don't slow do\\Ti 
in parsing. Keep on the pavr-mPTit a- lomr as 
possible and tlien tnin olT as fast if not faster 
tlian Mai wore running before. AV'tli hick you'll 
i''>ini.!.a' back to safety. Those narrow brieve 
ruad^ aro duumod, but now the dema!i.l for 
pavimj' wln^ro ihnvo ]< ouly improved roacb and 
the (banaiid Wiv iinpi'oxa'il r<ta.l where there is 
<eily :-a!id lia-- (bTi\r.l :!;.^ i"''bi:iMi:,i_r i^i' :h<-m. 
^*!"' -<'aia-i'!\ ba- a riL;bl to kick akuul lhc^c in- 
liKpK lit -ti.'tches of loose and no ended hriokv 
tlionLrb, I'nv l''|(.rida ba- neoix' ]iundred< ^n" miles 
ot I'ralK excellent roadwav o\aa- wlilc]; i.>ni-nt'\- 
im: i- a pleasure. 

Ib-^ni Tallabassee west\\ ai'.l, ilighwa\ Number 
"1' 'fi< ''M >^panish Trail, is being hard surfaced 


LET'S GO TO il.Kh'lDA 


or paved all the way to the Alabama line. Some 
portions of it are now ready, and the conipl. t mn 
of the undertaking is looked for during liir -pnng 

of 1926. Travel by automf^^iln ^vest of T;ill;iii;i>- 
see is possible in good weather at !>r« -.ip. hut 
not to be advised as a pleasure. The East Coast 
Highway is generally goo I, although th* r.' ar<' 
stretches of worn-out pavement and a section of 
a few miles south of New SmyrTin -tiH only in tln^ 
'Mniiiroved'' stage. Stil!. i-n;i.l woi-lv goes on so 
fast ii: I''" that by the time you read thi- the 
exceptions ma} le out of date, li i.- now |)o<>il>l(3 
to cross from one coast to the othor in ( oint'ort 
from Bradenton to F^^vi Pierce (n- Palm Pxach 
i'> way of Arcadia, Okeechobee and tip' ('onnms 
Hisrhway. The latter is the recently comph 1(m1 
toil road along the eastern .^liure oi Lake ( )k(ju- 
eho]>oo. The toll rates nro two cents por mil*' p^r 
car and one cent per irnh' ])*'r passiMiircr. The 
much advertise^] T.-iiniami Ti'.iil i- -till in llni 
makiiiLT. although it has seen consiiltiaMc pi'oir- 
rL\>>. Within the past }t'ar. A' present the 
^^farthest south" is near f'onita Spi-imrs on llio 
West Coast, while a consid^raM'' -trctdi of road 
lia- been built due west from Miami and another 
sectin!! is nearing comphtion .-iliMut midway in 
Lee ( uunty. It is likely thai ili-? will witness 
fho r-nmnletion of this importanf and (lifiicnll task. 
The highway through the lake di-triei and 
southward along the Ridge is in g^ni rally line 


condition. The same is true of the St. Ji^lm's 

K*i\. r route as far as DeLeon Sprinirs, heluw 

wliirh iJae.j a :riiurt stretch of sand-elay is on- 

euuntered. The nmeh needed eonnection between 

Palatka and Ocala is still lacking. In tlie vicinity 

<'f linim's City, Lakeland. Partnw and Pake AVales 

tlare is a veritable network oi pa\(Ml roads, and 

the vi.-iiur is afforded a varioty of rentes over 

"^'^'^'-^^ ^^ ^^^ that section. Between Tampa and 

I>rad.-nt(in two pavcd Idirliways ai'o alTorded. 

Eastward, Ai'f-adia tind< la^rself the meeting place 

f)^" ti"^'' pn\'<'d OI- scmidiard I'oads. Fort Elvers 

may at labl be reaehof] witliont nn]ileasant ex- 

prrioTicps. On f],. ^vl,nle Florida need otTer no 

apologi.'s t.. the motorist. She has done well in 

the mattrr of I', is doiinx letter an<l won't 

be sati-ti.'.l iintil ..jh^ ]ias the fim'st system of state 

roads in ih," conntry. An.l that means in the 


The Floi-ida Antomoliile Association of tlie 
A. A. A. has its headunartei's at < >rlando and 
maintains more than three lnindn-d service sta- 
tion< and inlorniation hnreans thromrliont the 
•^''■'te. The \-i-iiiiiL'- motoi'ist is accoi-(hMl cvei-v 
conrte-y aiid -honld r.'t'er to the Tiearest hnr^'au 
lor infoianat ion i'r'j-;irdin<^^ state hiws, local rcLT- 
nlations and condilioii.^ of hiii-hwavs. A road map 
(•f i- pnh.]i<l!iM| \-ai'!v and may he liad 
tree of chaia'-.'. If one can di-!-. irai'd Mie mnch 
nnnecessary and nncall-d fm- drtad on the latest 



production he will find the informatimi r. Larding 
the roads up to date and authentic. The Auto- 
iii .bile Association can do better aimtliMr time. 
Residents of l^^rrida are not yet requirtMl to 
be licensed in order to chive an autuiiiohllf, aiiJ 
the result i- rather rli^maying to strniiirrr?. A 
( ;ir on which a registration fee of fit't\- ctui^ ])t"r 
hundred pounds of wei-li^ lia- h. .11 paid may be 
driven by any person able to reacli ih.c wIkm'I, irio- 
sppctive of age, color, mental or pliysical caiiac- 
ity. In a state where a spcM-l of fnrtv-tivo niih^<^ 
an hour is legal outside of conmniuities, t1iis con- 
diM"ii of afl'air,- <loes not inak.' I'm- >af''ty. Xor 
does it add greatly to the ].h a-ur*- of <]riviii^^ 
in the to\sTis whero n cnroornii'j- (hTivrry v»'lii('le 
iiiav be ••manned" bv a t\veive-y.'ar-<>hl coIoi-im] 
boy, a four-ton truck by a iria t'lKi^lh'] nrLrio <>i' 
a hounding *'fli\^-er" by a <h';if aiiih-lunih para- 
iviic. Florida's automuhilu law:; will .-laud re- 


The short-tern] registration }\:\< "! n al-nli^licih 

and nonresident motorists operate nn!' i' a 
''iL-jiprocity" clause which entitles tlicni in n-<' 
their cars for such a peiiml as hs allowed non- 
residents by their home states. 

Tourist camps are frequent fhroii-liniil the 
state, although the free (amp 1- na the (h'(Tiiie. 


TIIK j:\'ekulades 

"Whkn til.' wiatrr was very young and studied 
gcoirraphy from a large thm book his youUiful 
imagination never failod to bo inflnmod l^v tlu'ee 
foatur(v< apponrinir on tlio l-lii.' and irrt'cn an<] 
]»ink and yrlh)w ma|)s tlanaam Ono wa< \\\i\\^ 
cat.'d hy til." mairic h-u-.-nd ''LlaiK) K<tacadn. or 
Orcat Staked Plains," wliidi, by sonn^ odd ])or- 
version ot' mind, was always mentally associated 
with a full m.'al; one wa^ kn.nvn as the IMvuial 
Swam]), and ore as the K\aa'Lrhidos. In later 
years ho passed over tho Staked Plains in a tra.i:! 
"1" 1^1'' Santa F*' Kailroad, and discovei-ed i^wv^ 
more that i-omaneo i^ al\\av< a ,inT]u> ahead. Still 
later he \-ie\v,(l the Dismal Swamp, or <ome ,»f 
it, at lea-t, from a liurr\-ii!Lr, humpini^ au^nnohila 
and t'oiind it no more divin.-il tli;ni ;i lumdre,] o:her 
Hno.led ]-ei:ions. And eventually lie beheld the 
fabled la\-erLdade<. In e'aeh ea<t^ he wa.< .lisap- 
l'"'filed. Life i^ li]<r tlj;it. XothinLT ])an< out iu<t 
.'IS imaLdnation ])ielure< if. There wa^, for in- 
stance, the faniou- eiephaat. .Iiiniho, A hraarhh^s 
,iu\a'!ii|(' woi'M \\;!< 1,.(| to h,'l!r\e t hi a t Junih.) wav 
soniethim^^ e()l()vv;il ;j!i,] ;,x\,, iii.^pi riiiLT. In t'av't 
that irrcat tictioiiisi, \\v l>;ii-!!uni, regaled u> willi 




])n.-ters showing the ^'"R. Ininotli df Holy Wrlf 
bein^ led 'lirijii-rli the streets n\ Xtw ^'ork, or 
puiiibiN ii was Londun, bcLwcuu lliruiiirs ot' clict'i-- 
ing citizens, his head nhnnt lovp] with tliircLstorv 
windows. And lliiii in- canit' to tdwn and \v(' saw 
him, a:id— oil, that's the usef Bii:, >('<, lie was 
luLT, ail right enough, lait lir wa.-n't so <lai-ii l)igl 

The writer "6 preconceived id. a of the Fh)ri(hi 
iEvpr2'lndn=:, with tlin hirr wifro-jy^lincd spot at th'^ 
\t>\) called Lak*' < >l^eeehobee, was of a vast, <lt'iiso, 
Amazonian .iunLH.' filled wiMi mammoth trees and 
giant ferns and tropical lM-a>ts, hii-ds and ])los- 
soms. Tn Lri.'f, the sort of tliinir tliat Captain 
i^^ayne ]\.id, of rf\a'rf(] mfmor\', would have ])r<^- 
vided if he h:id liad thf manairinir <'f things. 
'^ outhful im.'iLrination ei-owih-d it witli apes and 
bua eun^^Lrictors, panthers and crucudiles. Per- 
haps thorp were even ^nmp of flin^^p trops whicli 
]M)!^oned the intrepi.l .•\|,loi-ti- with theii" di'a<lly 
exhalations. Anyway, tlif l'i\-''ru'la<h'< wln-n the 
^\^^\u■^ dr-ann-d over his Lig gt'OL'^i'aphy Itook were 
all righll Idiey're all I'ight still, hut tli^y art'iTl 
the -nmp "Pv^'TLdades they wore tlipu. 

What they are now is a \ast piairh' al)ouf iriO 
miles long hy 7" v/ide, containiuL^ in tie- nriirli- 
horhcHMJ of 8,000 square miles, an area m-arly the 
size of ihe state of N^'ew Jersey. Tho r< irion is a 
eor dline limestone basin, its rim leokin down in 
places and allowing water wl)l( !i (olh. i^ tier, in 
from the rainfall and frona niimcroa,- >piing> to 



flow info oeean and Lrulf. The generrd elevation f 
is some sixteen feet above sea level, the lim 

i-eaehing a Jicii:hl uf several feet more. Tlie , 
region is sprinkled witli wooded islands (liam- 
moeks) \ar\anij: in >ize t'roni mere knolls a few 
S(iuai-e yards in (extent to ex])anses of larire acre- 
age crowded with Inxuriant vegetation. Most of 
the territoi-y, however, consists of level glado, 
traversed hy hnndi'eds of watercour-es and con- 
taining numerous small, shalhnv lakes. In tho 
rainy season the entire surface is covered with 
water, save for the hammocks, and depths of from 
a few inches to tw.-lve feet are found. This con- 
dition may piawnil throucrhout most of the year 
when the summer rains aro excessive oi" when a 
com])aratively rain^y winter ensues. ]\Iuch of the 
overflow fi-om Lake ( )ka'.'ch(»])ee al.<o makes its 
way into the (ilade<, althonirh as the ])resent ex- 
teiisixa' di'ainaiT'' project pi'oiri'ess.'s this sup]^L' 
will he h's>en<Mh Th(^ watt-r ot' the Everirlades is 
clear and jiui'o and ne\aa- >ia'_:-!;aiii. since it is for- 
tvcv in moiiun in a iT'ieTal southerly <lireetlon. 
Lrop(M-ly speak inir. Lake Okpoeliofipp is not a 
part of the h]\aa-Lrlades, hut form< thrir naaT'theru 
hioundary. The t-a^li n; l-oii'idai-}' consists o\' pine- 
lands along the Allaiilic coast, the south.ern ot 
ma!iLri'o\a' swamps lining liie l>ay o\' h'h>rida and 
the (Jiilt' of Mexico, the we^trm o t" Wn: ("xprcss 
Swamp, which extends to the gull' coa-t. Tlu^ 
loundation of coiallinc sandstone freipaenlly ]U'o- 


t i 





trudes above the surface and as frequ' tiHv drops 

i^away in pot-holes and springs. ' >\ • i- th- lork 
there is generally a deposit of hhk k tioin a frw 
I inches to several feet deep. iVat, it {. iumI to 
if elsewhere, occurs over a large ten iioiw TIh' air 
/ is fresh and the wind blows constant!}, ir-ually 
/ from the southwest. TL" }'rii;rl|.;il irrowtli of the 
Glades is saw grass, a sedge witli iliTcr tonihcd 
edges which will cut as easily If not so el* anly 
as the tool it is named for. A< ( Mrdlii^^ to water 
/idepth, the saw grass attains a li« iLrlit of t'lom 
/jfour to ten feet, an<] iiiak-< nioi-.' than an ineh 
I /of such growth in twenty-fuui Luias. Tho tem- 
perature in the Glades i- oxfremely orpial)!' , be- 
cause of accessibility t'> winds n nm oct an and 
gulf. In winter it ranges froni 7" to ^o <}.'Lrrrts. 
Although waterways adnnittinir ilat lMit^)nn'<] 
boats and canoes wander practically all o\ a i- tie' 
Glades, navigation is difficult ui mni,' ways than 
one. Saw grass must almo.-t cDn^tanil}- he 
avoided, shoals appear unexpected!.-, n-M. -.vitat- 
ing short carries, and the sense of diit( tl(»n is 
easily lost. To attempt the windiiiL^ < rr. ks and 
courses without a competent s/ ail- i- imt advisa- 
ble. The Everglades have never yet been anthon- 
tically mapped, nor have nunf i!i;in two or thrive 
expeditions succeeded in crossing tin m. dhapprrs 
and hunters well experienr'<'d wiMi t!i(' -tKariis 
occasionally penetrate to the inUoini in < a noes, 
however. Hammocka dot the surfac* lilx* inlands 



in a lake, large ones and small ones, hy tluAv sim- 
ilarity at a distance adding to the difficulty of 
(>ri< ntation. Under the care of a good giiid- a 
trip iiito ih'j (j lades is an interesting and en- 
joyahle adventure. The hunter will likely be wrll 
rrpaid I'nv a week or so spent there, for deer still 
Mi;ii^<' ile-ir liMiii,. ill the Glades, as do ht-ar^ and, 
wildcat- and a few panthers. Small. n- -ame 
abounds. The (JiadfS are one of the la-^ fast- 
nesses of the di-appearinir 'Lrafoi-s, and, iheoreti- 
eally at jca-t. rrMn tdilos may !'<■ fnnijl there, too, 
althniiL:!i tle'<e latlur are more at home along the 

Alliirator^ t)refer fi-esli or hraeki-li water to 
salt and moxana" wat^r to stagnant. T:e'\- iidial-it 
hnrro\\s alnni^^ -troam<, hat seem to <pMe;'l m.o<r 
ot their tinh' a\\a\- from lioia,', jvinir r>artl\- or 
wholly ont of water. A 'iratur slide is easilv 
recoLrni/.fd wIkmi *^(^(Mi and alwavs iiidientes a ^a- 
voi'ite -winnninL;- lio'e nrar hy. A '^rn'or mav 

irrnW to he elLrliteeli foct in heiL^tJi, |.\- W!;!.''! Mnio 

he has attained a rii'e n\d ;ii:e ef weH (u-er a 
hundred yeai-.<. He feeds ou lish, turtles, hi!\i<, 
sna]<i'<, li/'a rd-, lVof>-< n^^d not infrcipienth' on. 
hi- own yonnu'-. To shoot one, aim for just a'>o\'e 
an e\-e or e!n-e lip I'-hi-d a foreleg. Sometime- 
a <li(.t at t! r iiineiid'i of head and neck will tura 
the tiiiT. S!iM(tt at any other place iv\<] von 
waste aninniaitinn ; one reason wli}' alliLralor hai^s 
\Near >o W ell I 



LKT'S Go 'Yn FLoKlDA! 

The 'irator defends iumscll' with jaws ami tail, 
and makes a good jnh of it, too. It is still possible' 
ti> rat«'l! sight ot* a 'gat^- In hi> naiivf liauiit, but 
it wuii'' I-' iiiiU'L longer, for his rxtrriuiiiatioii 
goes oil apaeu. Tiiu^c wlm \-isioii l^dorida as a 
roeioii toomin^r with airnrator> and crocodihjs 
must revise their pl.-tiirr. Thr chaiiro of sotuug 
a 'ira'or out-i'l'' an "alliLrator farm" or in the 
^hapo of a t ravelinir-baL: is gettinir mii::hty slim. 
If vou :>liuuld bu lucky enou^i^di to como on one 
takinir a siesta .in^t Isoop (jniot and ho will lot 
vou iraze your lill. Di-iurb him, Imwovt-r, and 
he will A'ulr- HUt of sight into tlio wator or waddle 

(iuicklv in'o hi- burrow 

A 'irator will fiL^dit liko^ 


Sam Hill if >"'>u insist, but, liko m-arly ovory wild 
animal thu w^rld ovor, ho will h't you soveroly 
alone so long as you dnn't start anything. 

Your chance of seeinir a Fhu-ida crocodilo is 
|.ra<-tiraliy nil unless you make a l)usiness of 
hun^inir him ujk Thu Cnjcudilus A})i> ri<'iiin:> 
pr<']*ab'v never did oxist on this rontinrnt in as 
larire numbers as his con-in tic albiL'-ator, and 
to-day he is pretty nearly .'Xtin.rt. If you do see 
one you \\ill ruadiiy id-ntify him for what he 
is, fur he doesn't resemble Iho alli'-rator more 
tlian -nporfi'-iallv. 11.' ha- very narrow, pointed 
jaws and long teeth, whereas the 'ga^orV- nos.' is 
broad and round and his teeth short, r. Xot, of 
courbL-, that it is advisable to examiiio the teeth 



ot" cidier animal too closely. The 'gator dresses 
in black and dark htrown on top and wears a yol- 
lowi>h wai.-lcoat, while tic d'orcxiile attires him- 
silf in ^-reenh-loiri-ay, witli an occasional blotch 
of black, as to his t0|)-side, and is much liirhter 
i)oneath than the 'g^^^tor. If every other means 
of ident ilication fails, however, vou can alwavs 
dilTcrtuit iatc the crocodile fi'om liis fellow re])tile 
by the pi'csence of tusk holes in the upper jaw 
which acconnnodate the two I'ront lower teeth. 
If those paiiicular teeth don't ])rotrude thromrh 
the upper jaw }'our crocodile is an alligator, no 
matter what he tolls you. 

The Floinda ci'ocodile rancres alonir tln^ coast 
fi'om south of Miami to Cape Sable and, to some 
small extent, ahuiir the Keys. TT(^ likes salt water 
lairoons and ]ionds and must ha\'e a sia beach 
liandv for iiestinir. rnlikc the alliijrator, wh(^ lavs 
her one to two hundrcij eirirs on a built-up ar- 
ramremmt (>"[ sticks, leaves, sedge and mud. the 
lady crocodile makes a nest lilre a sea turtle's. 
That is, she scoops a hole in. the sand at the 
water's edLrt\ deposits jterhaps sixty or seventy 
egu"s therein, co\'ers them up, smooths the sand 
down and foi-irets all ab(uit the wliole alTair. 
AVhen the baby crocodiles hatcli out and (^merire 
from the wai'in nest they have to fen<l for them- 
selves, and no fa\"ors asked oi" i:i\"en. 

It is alwa\'< open season on alliirator^ and croc- 
odiles, and varicuis llzarils whose skins look well 



V when made up into bags, purses and so on, and 
'• it won't be many years before they, like the inan- 
. atee, or sea-cow, will be just a n; inoiy < )f 
* course a few hundred will iLiiiaiii to be \ icwcd 
. with curiosity by incredulous visitors to | nix ate 
*'farms,'' but they'll be missinir from tla' wild 
life of the state, just as the }- arakeet is, and tlio 
flamingo and many another beautiiul or putur- 
esque former denizen of I'luridci luia ^is and 
shores. Considering that thero v.-]]] always re- 
main — at least for a great many years— p-rtion=^ 
of the lower end of the state whicli (aiinot be 
turned into groves, truck patches or snlnirv i-ion-, 
it would seem only fair to future general ion^ to 
save a few crocodiles and alligators. Tt i^n'l, }<)u 
know, as if they were dangerous citizens, lV.r tht y 
aren't. No one was ever pursued along a count ly 
road by an enraged 'gator or chased up a live 
by a maddened crocodile. Of course, tla; wrlur 
doesn't recommend them for household p('f- or 
even as farmyard animals, but in their o\\n 
haunts they are picturesque and peaceful aixl ail 
largely to the interest of the wilderness. 

Another inhabitant of the Everglades and ihc 
adjoining regions deserves as much ^pnoo n- the 
alligator, surely. The reference is to the S' mi- 
nole Indian. 

To the writer the Seminole of to-day h.diis a 
rather pathetic figure, although tliere is no evi- 
dence that he considers himself ku<Ii. lb ap- 



ugh. lie ii a ," f 
Indian nations, ^ I 

pears saii>litil an<l cniitented eno 

composite of the Creek and other India] 

the iien-ro and, possibly, the Spaniard. Tn fact, 

1]i(r(''> no tellinc: what racial strains may t'^ow 
llii-riuirli tlie veins ot^ tlie present-day Seminole. 
Oeeai^ional!}" iLtj Iniiiau riiaracteristics <>i eounte- 
nance are mueli in evidence; occasionally tl.-' f^^a- 
turrs }ia\a' a di-tiuct negroid cast. Ib>WfV.-r, ^bey 
are as bon.'st as their white neighbor-, peaceable, 
an<l s»']i'-respeel inir. V^^v ^-me year- followins: 
tbe St-miiiolu War tiiuv remained verv charv of 
sliowinLT tliamselves to the settlers. Then, as vil- 
lages sprani: up along the coa.<^ tli-'V began to 
vrnturo I'orili In. ila-ir diiLrriuts to sell and barter. 
''J'o-(bi\" tbr\- are beliewu*- in iiiblicitv. and sev- 
era! Indian \i:!ages on the East (^oa-t have be- 
come inonry-m.akiTiir r^ropn^itions by reason of 
tilt' tlion-ai Tills of \i-i:()]-< wbo v-iv a Imission to 
tliom. (Jai'o a t - w ban e become caddies and ca-'-v 
the irttlt"*!'-' ba>L:- o\a>r !'.■ llialeah links, outside 
]\liami. Slill olher> a!"a traixaliUi; ibe eouiitrv 
\\\\\\ airens trou]^e^. lb>\vfver, the home life per- 
sists in bM'abi'ir- r.anM'X. d tb'om the of 
ti"a\ol and ibo o!>l aiivSen- :ive tenaciously clunia: 
to. Soinr ol' Uu'M' ai\' no\vl and inlereslini:. 
Tliaf, tor i!t-^taTie«\ which decrees that a ^v^^>^v 
sball L^aib lar-r't" in black after her hn>-!^a"'i'^ 
ibaili a!hl lit \ ,a tii.a her clothes otT. Eveutuallv 

1 bf\ t h'Mp 11 


n accord, ^^l^e!l a wife 

dios ibr bu-l'and ttin-l \\<.\u' the sauio 



four months, lie is also ru^Lnclud I'roni visitiiiir 

V hi'u settlements. A Seminole man i^ Furird with 

■ liis lii'W and ;irrtAvs, gun ii" ]\r ]in< one, liiintiiii:: 

, kiiift' and raMoii- I'nr a ihree-dnv j(»uriR'\' to 

^ ^'liupiL'," li.L' iia]i|>}' liuiiling Ground. 

A Sominole encampment generally (( insists of 
froni I'oiir to six families, a famiil\- coniprisiiii:: 
fatluT. T!.Mtii,.i\ d-pendent r-Iafives, chiMiTu and 
sonsdn-!aw. A Seminole maidni dof-n't ltd off 
iand .-'t up iiuusekeeping alter mai-riaice. Slie 
.]brii!ir> ImM'y Iiottio to the pnterTial iialm-tliatclictl 
rroof. Ti.^' !:()uses ar*' «i'-\'at<'d soiiu- two fftd 
a!io\-e the ground, a wi-^ aia'anL'i'mt'nt in a couii- 
tr}' >i;l>.it'Ct to summer iinmdat ioii<, and have 
no wall>. Tcrhaps the term house i^u't deserved. 
rnvorrMJ p^■lff^rm wmild "ho more dnsrriptivc 
The storehouse i> u!.dfr th*' roof, aiid there surli 
treasure- as blankets and pi'-i\-i<ions are ke|)t. 
Cooking is dune iu tlie open air o\-er tires of loirs 
placed like tho spokes of a w lieel, the flames t)e- 
iuLT at the hub and the logs a<lvaneed as the inner 
,ends are consume*]. ()]ie tire serx'es for the whole 
l!villai:e, and, since a tire is never allowed to *;o 
(•out sa\'e when the \-i!!aLrer< travel, there's no 
coTiL^estion of cook-;. Tliey have praetieed deliy- 
draiioti f^e- many years, since heiir hefore an 
airitate.! Government brouudit It t^ the attention 
of a war-'ime puhlie. Tiiev dry their veiretaliles 
thorouL:h!\' in the sun, pack them away until 
needed and tlion soak tliom for several hours he- 


— ^ 




/% . :' 

<•«'- i. 





four months. He is also restricted from visiting 
white settlements. A Seminole man is buried with 
his bow and arrows, gun if he has one, hunting 
knife and rations for a three-day journey to 
^^Hopie," the Happy Hunting Ground. 

A Seminole encampment generally consists of 
from four to six families, a family comprising 
father, mother, dependent relatives, children and 
sons-in-law. A Seminole maiden doesn't go off 
and set up housekeeping after marriage. She 
brings hubby home to the paternal palm-thatched 
Toof. The houses are elevated some two feet 
above the ground, a wise arrangement in a coun- 
try subject to summer inundations, and have 
no walls. Perhaps the term house isn't deserved. 
Covered platform would be more descriptive. 
The storehouse is under the roof, and there such 
treasures as blankets and provisions are kept. 
Cooking is done in the open air over fires of logs 
placed like the spokes of a wheel, the flames be- 
ing at the hub and the logs advanced as the inner 
ends are consumed. One fire serves for the whole 
village, and, since a fire is never allowed to go 
out save when the villagers travel, there's no 
congestion of cooks. They have practiced dehy- 
dration for many years, since long before an 
agitated Government brought it to the attention 
of a war-time public. They dry their vegetables 
thoroughly in the sun, pack them away until 
needed and then soak them for several hours be- 










foro rnokiiii:. Bcwc: PXroYlcnt ]inui('T<, the Somi- 
liolcs seklern wani I'or iiu-at. ( )ccasin]iallv tliev 
make purchases of it, sa!t pork especially, at the 
white incir.s slurt'S. Their favorite dish, ''sof- .' ^ 
kee,'' consists of hoihd corn nical, or mush, and 
strips of pork or bacon cooked therein. ''Sofkee" 
is eaten with a larire wooden si)oon which is 
dipped in the iron ])ot and then lianded from 
one to another. When one is really hungry, 
*\sofkee" is palatable and satisfyinir. 

Permanent \illages raise their own pigs and 
cliickcns and keep oxen for hauling and plowing. 
Tsually, iiKh'cd almost invarialily, there is a sew- 
ing machine under one or another of the thatches, 
and on tins the w^nmen fa^liio?] the coh>rful cos- 
tumes woi'u by both sexes. The men wear knee- 
lenirth skirts and blouses, sometimes addim? as ? 
a tinal touch a iray handkerchief around the neck. ' 
Sometimes, too, that badge of civilization, the , 
derl»\- liat, is dnnnrd, in wliicli case tlie Seminole ■ 
considci's himself about perfect. A few have 
abandoned the native costume altoirether, l)ut 
these are mm whu liave, as well, practically aban- 
doned tribal \illages ar^d customs. Ivich village ? 
has its own distiiictive costume so far as color . 
is conce]'ne(l, with red the favorite and vellow, ' 
black and blue foilrtwini: in that order. (Tans 
are name(l for aniTnals and birds, as ''Turtle/' x' 
"Ott.'r," ''Kaglu" and so on. The women take z^ 
pleasure in dress and especially in adorniuij: them- 



1 76 

■:t"-^ (i' ' T' I I'l.i »fnr)A! 

selves with as many strings of glass, shtH nr 

metal beads as their mpnir- afforri Tliosi- are 

e Semiiiolt'S 

ri'liinix aii'l 

lifv spread 

that's that. 


; » 




seldom removed. For that nia't, r. t 
don't bother lh< mselves imi' h wii] 
disrobing. When bedtime comes 
their blankets and crawl in, and 
When they bathe, which they do wiMi coniinnKl- 
I able frequency, they walk into the water with 
i clothes on and kill two birds wi'li one st<»iie, wash- 
•; ing their bodies and their garments ia the same 
^ operation. They are governed by nn dioino mon 
who call councils and preside at them, p* rforrn- 
ing marriage ceremonies, settling disputes and 
meting out justice. 
,' There are two distinct Seminule hiiiLniaL^'s, so 
utterly unlike that the Indians inlial iiiiiLr tho 
northern parts of the Everglades cannot talk with 
their brothers of the southern - .arai -. Ihat is, 
not without the aid of some acc'ini li-ln d liiiLrui-t 
acquainted with both tongues. However, eith< r 
language is simple and easy to ^poal,- and under- 
stand — if you happen to be a S. ra! mh-. other- 
wise, you might far better try ymir tnnirn,. at 
Chinese. The Seminoles work the h tt. r^ of tho 
alphabet to death, 8howiIl^^ Iiowf^ver, litth' fa\or- 
itism between consonants nnl \'e.vois; rvr-.p' tliaf 
an P], wandering into i Seminole \'1],il^', uoiiM 
last about ten minutes! Some of th* ir word- are 
delightfully short, like **Cliee," eurn, hat nm^t 
of them go the limit, as: **Och-chee-lo wat kee,'* 



irrrtai eorri ; "< N-Iide'e-tot-oda-go-chee,'' corn 
bread; " I hil k(j la la gu-ehee, * " rattlesnake; **E- 
]it-ta-i)ix-tpp-r-fa-eh<) to dcre-not-ee," instep, and 

— take a .irodd, deep hrratli ! — ''Tiidt'odi-pixdee-e- 
t o k e - k eed< i'e- 1 a y - LTa \\', " w r i - 1 . 

Title to the iii\'er'da(h\- lurmerlv v;;;s held bv 
ihe Federal Oovornmen.t, but it evontnady doodod 
to tlie state oi' h'lni'ida twtnyv ndllion acres with 
the understandinLT tJiat ijiry were to be drained. 
In l^^l a }ti ivate concern started on four r.iillitni 
acres and attempted tu eunstruet e:i!;;diS from 
OkooclinlMM^ fo Hiopoplipo anfl beyond. Intense 

t]-,^ 1 

I I 

tndertaking, { 

'' ■ \''-ntnr. < t'ai^'d 

summer rain- jeit a <piietus on 
and one or \\\'n other ]iri\Tt 
scarcely better. In ]9^i) tli^ -^ate itself took ]uA'], 
prompted by the t'oi'eeful Ci!o\'t'rn<«r Napoleon B. 
IW'oward. a Florida "(^rapkr-r" b\- birth, who. al- 
thonLrh laekinir edueati'Mi, ne\aM"theless liad \'i-iipi 
and t"oT"c<iirlit anil indoniitable eoni'asre. I^^T'owai'd 
made lii- eampai^Lcn <>:i a phi' t'o^an et' • • Ih'y L.uid in 
the l']\-eri:lados/' an.d won. Ila\i!;i: been elected, 
lio irot bnsy an.d i-eal woi'k ot' T'eeh-imation bt'unan. 
A OrainaLTe r>oa!-d wa< t'ormt-d ani^l <'\ pa'ud.s 
])rojeeted, and t'^i' a while iliiTLrinL: went fio-ward 
Well. Hilt the project wa- a huge one, unforeseen 
diiheulties wt>ri^ mid a::l lliP wni-k flowed up. 
Hdie I'dorida pnblie. our-,!,],^ ot" a <Tnall n.'nnber 
of land o\s iiers to w lioni the draining of the Ever- 
^dades meant financial salvation, became apa- 
thetic. Idle whole project began to take on the 



jj:t's no to Florida: 

stTiiliianco f^i a \'i-ioii. Money was not fortlicoin- 
iiiLT wK.ii needed and legislaturr at't-T It'Lri.-lature 
I'oiihti other u-e< h»r -tate I'uikIs. Ihit the work 
Lt'V.T aetually ceased, and t<)-(hiy thei-e is much 
to sLow. Aljuul twel\"e million (h)lhirs havi' been 
oxppHfh-d and four lhou>and s^juare miles liave 
been made lit for I'arminLT pui'poses. The Con- 
iiers Iliirhway has been built, althouLrh not nnder 
the Drainage Board, thronirh th(^ heart of the 
Everirlades, connecting \Ve>t Palm I^cacli with 
Ok(/echobep, on the edire of tile hike ot' tliat name, 
i and r)|ieninL: up to settlement a lariro territory 
ot' rii'h muck land-. Tn-day the mnlertakiiiLT is 
enjoying a n-w l-a-- ni' jil'e, with the ])resent 
governor, John W. Martin, fnrc-l iil!>- behin<l it. 
Ahniit 19,000,000 million acres rrmain to Ite drird 
i:]'. and -if tliis number some f"ur anil a halt' Tnih 
lion are CApecled lu he read\' luT the plow in YSlI , 



Fr is not intended in the following chapters to 
mention even in pas>inLr, much less describe, all 
the towns and places of interest on the wav. Xor 
is it intended to deal at lemrth with those that are 
mentioned. Instead the writer proposes to arbi- 
trarily divide the state for his })resent purpose 
into four sections and seek to convi^y a general 
im])ression of each section as a whole rather than 
report on its communities. Exceptions will be 
mad(\ of coni'se, ot' the larirer cities, h)ut for de- 
tailed infoT'ination reirai'dim^ the geniM'al run of 
towns the T'eader i< referi'ed to local authorities. 
No FloT'ida town will refuse to enliirhten the 
thirsfer after knowhulire; in fact, most o]^ tliem 
ai-e armed and Ivimr in wait for the tlurster; 
armed with facts an.d tiLTin-es an.d liiudily tintc'd 
pam])hlets so tnxcellently prepared as to put the 
present writer to shamt\ 

The western jiart (d' tlie state as far to the 
east as a liic drawn i'vt)u\ the mouth o( the Su- 
wanee l\i\cr tlii'ouirh Lake Flty shall comprise 
the sectiiui called Mainland l''i.u"i'la. Tlie rest 
<if the state naturall}' ilixlih'- '!>elf in'(> tlu' West 
Foast, the l'ki>t Foa^t and llie Ridge sections. 





Let us travel the mainlaiui iM.rtin:! tir>t, ('nt.riiig 
the state by the Old Spanish Trail aii.l cn^sini.^ 
Perdido Bay to Pensacola. Aft.r all, it is onlv 
fair to start with Pensacula, fnr that old city 
is said to be the outcome of the t]v>\ rral settle- 
ment on the AiiitriLan continent. AVhih- Pensa- 
cola itself was not found'^l until MVji]^ PmsaeoLi 
Bay was visited as early as loSG hy Dr Soto, and 
either he or another estaMi-lif.] a rath.-r sketchy 
settlement on Santa Rosa T>]an.]. Tliis was de- 
stroyed by the storm of 17^)4. or so tlie ^torv o-oe=:. 
Pensacola is as full of history as a north, rn Flor- 
ida pecan is of meat. Spaniard and Frenclmian 
fought for her possession, a-^ dh], lat.r, Spaniard 
and Briton and then Briton and American, and 
finally American and Amcrir'an. Thr transfer ..f 
West Florida from Spanish tn Ane rican rnh' took 
placehereonthesiteof th<' present Tity Hall, and 
the first governor of the new T. rrit Mr\ m}' 
lived for a while there and presided ov.r the 
first session of the Legislalur. . ron<e<iu,-ntlv to 
Pensacola belongs the honor <>\' h txiriL'- I.-mii tln^ 
first capital of Florida. 1> ifi.- tl, ('\v\] War 
the Confederate forces held Fort P.arran.a< and 
Fort :«I itae, and the Union forces h.ld Fort 
Pickens, on Santa Rosa Tdand. Tiv<-ri]v opp.^nt.' 
the town and across the chaine 1 ti.rn f'',,it McIJar. 
The Confederates made sovera! d^^rnlin(d at 
tempts to capture the Unioii .-.truiiglinhh hut they 
were unsuccessful and the Star<^- and Strip, s (on 



tinnec] to tly from the island rampiarts all tkroii^di I 
the war. / 

Pensacola to-day is a prosperous and pleasant 
city charminirly sitnate.l between bay and bavon-. 
witli nine miles of water front bonndinir her o!i 
three sides and a wonderful \-it'W from hi t w.ll- 
elevated position of bay and xuiiid ant] far- 
stretebin<4" ,t:ult\ of tree-horih^red bayou an-l river 
and f^aiardino: K.-ys. Atop Palafox Ilill one is wrll 
over a hundi'ed feet above sea level, and tbie city 
is ri.irlitly proud of sucli an elevation. She denies 
l)y it naturally aiid h(»ne-tly, too^ for jtn<t across 
the bay at Town Point the Appalaeliia!! luinir.- lias 
its modest beirinnimr — or en-Iinir. Pensacola is a 
cit>' of fine Ituildinirs, conifoT'iable residences and 
wdl-sliaded streets. Ibr harl^or is one of the best "• 
in the country, the only !iatural deep-water h;ir- 
bor on the (Julf (^oast, ai'jl an inimnn'^e import i\i:d 
export business is done leu'e. Pi P^'Jl th-- port 
industi\\' amour.led to nior^- th;i'i ti!''\- million dol- 
lars. Here art.' the marine t-^i'minaP ol {wo hn''-re 
rail\va\s, cual tipples, oil terminals, naval stores 
\\'areliouses, ship huildliiLr ]»knd^ and i^reat fish i 
whar\-es. (Pensacola Iea>N the co'i':t!-\- in the red i 
sna})per ti-h i!idu>t i'\ . "> Tin-. -• nulos of ^\■:,.i!•f:ll:e 1 
IS what the cit\ ofT.'rs t^ \ essols of the deepest 
dramrht, alone sullicienl, il wuuld seem, to ac- 
count t'oi" her sftvnlilv irre^wlr!'.: !nnu>rhince a^ a 


l*cnsacola'> ]H»pu!ation is 25,305, but tliese fig- 



ures won't stand long. Western Flnrida— IIk^ 
whole of it, frnm {}]>• P.i-.jido to the Apalachicola 
— is entering into a new era of develnpnit-iit and 
prosptjrity second in inipoHanrr to that of no 
other seciiuu <'i' the state, and the n.'xt drcade 
^vill witness a niarvolons indnstrial and aLrricul- 
turai ad/ance of that rich territory ot" which Ks- 
canihia County forms the west<'rnmost limit. As 
a r*'>()rt f^r the sportsman, IN^n-acohi is to Ix^ 
Lcaruly reeummended. Flashing both in tlie deep 
waters and in tho mnnr stroam== and havons is 
a pleasure alwa;.- rtward-'d. OrtT arc still to 
be found, as well as soni" tnrkry and many 'piail, 
within a day's comfortable ran*:*' of the city. 
The ^surrounding waters, open as w.ll as land- 
locked. n^i-T fine opriortniiit !••< for sailimr and 
motor-boatii _' ; an! bathing, either in tic irnlf 
surf or in the quieter waters ot' the bays and 
lagoon,-, is of the best, b'-rtunately, too, out- may 
reach the beaches over tine concrete hiirh\va>s. 
For the golfer there is the Pensacola ("oiintry 
Club's eighteen-hole course at hand a:id a *d hole 
layout at Valparaiso for a » haiigc A municipal 
course is in construction. 

The visitor whose tastes lin nlnncr ln==s stren- 
uous lines will find Pensacola a > at !-fa<toiv place 
to rest and enjoy a nii!'! \\'r.iu-v tilh'd with >iin- 
shine. The hotel acconim h1;,i i-ns in the eity art- 
good, while at Gulf View and Walton a!i 1 al a 
number of near-by localities adequate ho-nliii > 


ofTer onferfainment. The city hohls manv places 
"^ iHteivst, both hi>torn.d and modern; the ohi 
iorts-San Carlos, Heduubt, Pickens, .Abd^ae, Bar- 
rancas-St. MichaoFs Femetery, S.-ville S<iuare 
^^']^l ^^ho old huuse of wor>hip there, the Xaval 
Air J^ramiiiLr Station on the site of the old Xavy 
^ard, and others. :ylany l^eautiful drives are 
pos.Mble over excellent roads. 

The country about Pensacola, nnrtliwar.I and 
eastward, is a line a-ricu]iur;d and horticultural 
section, with iruod all-purpn>e and fruit-raisin- 
sods, fitty-six inches cf rainlall and a irrowin^r 
season of -10 days. Add ^, those features nat" 
nral dramao-e and you have somethimr to bank 
on. Besides ih,. „sual crops common to the n.orth- 
^'y'^ ^''■^' "^' ^•"^■^i'i"^^ <'<»rn, cotton, oats and cane, 
Jv-cambia and her nri-hbor.^ rai<e the Satsuma 
^^^'^^^'-*: ^'' VrrU^rUou. Prrhap. the writer i. in 
error m ca!!ii,Lr tic SatMinia an nran-c since it 
has Immui lately irravely ,lrcid.Ml bv the powers 
'"'"•"" :^'^^>' '^ i^ ^" KHard airain.t the marketing 
'•^ iniripe cramros and -rapefniit that (^ran-es 
;^/"'' <>i-ani:r< bm SatMnna^ ar,' ^nniethim: else. 
'■^^''•■>' '^""'^ ^ay what else, hnwc-ver, so vou are 
'^^ ^'^'^''^y ^'^ ^^' = ^'1^ "1' tH- Sat-ima as a jdum or 
a watermelon or a ouince or anyihimr vou please. 
<d" course the m.)rtlfNin<r fact i< tjia' "t!u> persvm 
'^■'■'^'^'^ ^f''- }'ad ilicrctofore alwavs thou-ht a 

^'^^^"^"'' '"'^ 'i-^'' i^- a Sat.nnia iruip-wL an 
"I'an-c. l^ii-s,.^ on hi> ignorance! 


LKT'!=^ on TO FLoKlDA! 

The best of the FloriJa l>luclRrries come from 
this section of the state, fno, and the pecan i- 
another crop that seldom fail-. Sweet and Iri.-h 
potatoes thrive, and so J" jnannr^ ami waitr- 
melons and cantaloupes and a Iniiidr*'] otlar 
things. These conditions extoiid all tli' way aloiiL^ 
the western part of the sfaft-, althnuLrh -oils vary 
].'-ro and there. AV]i;!t doesn't \ary i- a tint' t^qiia- 
I'l'' climate. Continno ;ilni:u^ o\-.'r the rnllini:; cdun- 
Iry past DL-Funiak Sprim:- — thfru'.- a irood Ddiolo 
golf course fhoro — \n Mariannn and tlio sponory 
6h<>^v< little change. It's all Lrnod country, des- 
tin-ii to far better thini:< than i' yet kno\\-n. 
Wc-tcrn P'lorida has played th»' role of ("inder- 
ella until recently, but now the T^-inc.' i- lia-tcu- 
ing to her, magic slipp'-'r in hand. S.'c what liap- 
pened just last sumna'i- tn i^oci] oM Inn^rai'lty 
Island, off Pensacola, that r- ndc7,\ ou^ in oldcu 
N times of the jolly i-ir.alc- of th'- Spani-h Main. 
> Sold, and to a handful of Xorilifini mlllinnairus: 
; Arthur P>risbane, Pr. Alhcrt Shaw. Will Tf. Hay?, 
/ Charles H. Christie and. Juhn II. I'.rr>. Wd], 
perhaps they aren't all actually millionaire-, nor 
all thev all NorlLL-rner^?, hut it malo'S a hotter 
htorv to sav thev nm. An\-wav. li\<- fhir homes 
will soon loom up on the i.sland. ar: d if that doc-ri't 
disgruntle the ghost of old Jol i; !• a. aaiity he's 
a hea]< better natured as a spirit tlian he wa< in 
the flesh. The purchase (jf 'hi-, i.-Iand h\ the iren- 
tlemf'n montioned isn't so mncfi in if^'clf, hut it 



sh'iw.- which 

\^ay the millionaires hlow: and one 
millionniro leads to another and heiore Pensacola 
^'^^^ ^[^y '"'^"^Jn fiiiiHi-ai-ity" she will he all littered 
up ^v^ll the thino:s. Of course millionaires aren't 
what you miirht call p.roductive, hut their monev 
is; and tliu main thinir is that Western Florid'i 
has been discovered at la^t a< a proper place 
l'>r a^ irentleman of wealtli and leisure to build 
lii> winter home. Pensacola and Western Florida 
^^';^''^ ^'•'^■'-' ^"•^^'' "^^^^'.^' ''thers follow tlie exami)le 
of .Afessrs. ]^ri>hane, P.-rry, Shaw et al. 
^ Marianna, well ah.n- on the road to the State 
('apitah ha< a ])r.pulation ef just nver ?>J)m and 
'"d'Hcit faith in lier future, ('onsiderinir that 
she a<lde.l :)7(i pt-r>nns to her roster between 1920 
'•"id IDiM, or an increase of 25 per cent why 
^iM'uldn't she have faidi? Everv one ha< i't 
'''"^'^"^ ^^'•■''''' ''' •'^^H'lvS'Hi County and Calhoun an.I 
\\a<}iin-ton and all the others. JackMm Coun.ty 
'las hoth Alahama and aeoriria a< neiirlihor^. and 
with so niany t\)lks lo,,kin- on <he.'s iu<t -or to 
J"'^^'P li-r^elt'. And she's dein- it. ' Afeet t^e 1 
county that leads all the rest of the state in the j 
l"''"^"<'^'"n of cotton, SatMunas-vou kia^w, tlawe *' 
pbims that look like oranLre<-vorn, peanut, and 
'^ ^-^ ^"-iv .fulT. And, especially, .hake liands 
'^■'^'' ''"' ^•'^^" <d' Oracevllle, which in one recent 
'''.''"■ ^''d'h-d 7,072 car< ..\- wat. lanelons an.I ,V>0 
''[ '■•I'Mimher^, and Lriniied and >hipped n,00() ha^'S 
of cottnn. ( Itlaa- town, ol' \jM)0 iuhahitants which 




have equaled that record will iileasr raise llirir 
hands! She's a great live-stock county, too, and 
uuv that i- ivv<' I'rcni that infernal post, tlie cattle 
liek. h'-»rt}' (*r lilt}- dollar- will -till \n\y an acre 
of ^ixnl Jackson County soil, and ih" nionrv ni'mht 
be puL lo a wor-u use. Alarianna i- a li\'c and 
pro£rrn>=ive fo^vn — beg pardon, city — wrll paxa-d, 
well liirLt'd a!.d well eh-vatrti. In tact, toLTcthrr 
with several other commuidties, Marianna claims 
to be the highest mani.ipality in the state. Ib-re 
Andrew Jackson Lad hi^ hcadquarirrs dui-ing 
the S.niinole campaigns and here tla- Batth' of 
^larianna was fought in tla- Civil War. Near 
L*-rf. too, are two natui-al wond^a-- wrll worth 
Viewing. The Chipola hMv^r i> a^'onntable for 
i both. One is the Natural Bridge that crossrs the 
' stream liigh in air and tlip other i- tla- Xatnral 
I'ridge Cave found viiere the i hipola i:*'\< tired 
of fresh air and sunlight and tic in< ^---ant chat- 
ty -r ol mockingbirds and dia k- <c!t <»f siLdit. 
li Ivors have a way of doing thai in Idijnda. It 's 
their natural modesty. Tin- rnvc' v< n v hoh' lot 
like other caves of its kin<i. being liM'-i with ihe 
usual stalactites and stala-ndtes, but it's a very 
good example of that kind. Blue S|,ilng>, too, 
aro w^rth a visit. 

Apalachicola is a much smal]<f o]tv tlian Atari- 
anna, having a population of 3,003 to Mc (other's 
3,069. If they were closer loL^.th.r A[.ah'irhicoL'i 
might have borrowed some sixty-six ot Mari 

MALXLAXp 1-dj dMiJA 



anjia's ciiizens for census purposes, but the way 
is lonir and ruundaimut, and one doesn't take the 
journey hy land widcait the most pressimr reason. 

Say " Apalaehicdja " " an\wher.' witliin the con- 
lines ol Ch)rida and }our la^arers instantly ])rick 
up their <'ai's an<I >mih'. Soue'lime- their mouths 
water. That's becau;5e the words doesn't mean 
Apalachicola as mucli as it does ^'ovsters." The 
Apalachicola o\-irr i- the blue point of the 
South, and, while it i> a larger ;ind less rotund 
delicacy, it is mo^t excellent. Ovsteriuir :Hid tish- 
ing are the city's principal i::iln-M-ios ; almost the 
only industries ii' ^\ e except linnh./rini: and the 
entertainnaait ol' visitors; hut tle^y are 'piite suf- 
iicieiit to maintain the citv in a thru ino: condition. 
Steamers run from here to Pensacoln, St. An- 
drew's l)a\- pnints and Can-abelle, vhile towns 
up-river ma\- be reached hy waiei-. 

Practieall\- niidwa}" h^iween Ter-acola and 
eJackson\ iUr -tand> TaM.duissee, third a!:d pres- 
ent capital cf the >tale ^iuce l^-4. The word 
stands i> u--tM{ ad\"i>('dly, for a citv built upon 
a hill he hid, a:;d Tallahassee i^ aU .'f 
two hundred feet a!'o\e the h \ el ol' the (aulf, no 
more than twenty mile^ distant. The capitol it- 
self is of bihek, a prepos<;(>ssiTn_r --IrueMii'e in spite 
of liax'inir been built h\ pire»nieal ovw a space 
<»1 nau'e than eiLihis The oriiriiial u'lit is 
the central >lriieiure. !;.'rdi and soiidi w!!:_'-s ha\'- 
ing bei'U added in l!'ii'J and en«?t and. we>r w in^rs 





in 1922. A more modern building houses the 
Suin-.iiio Court and the Ti;iilrn;i,l Coniini-<ii)ii. 
Not lar away is the Executive Mansion « rected 

by the state in 1907 nri-i at proL-nt uccupicJ by 
rinvornnr John A\\ Mai"ii:i. Tnllnlmssee i^ n 
plea-ant, ra:};-'!' sleepy ol'l town <»!' (1.41.' })npula- 
tion, so far not seriously tli-tiirbt'l b\ the rauinus 
(TV of the realtor. Iland-oin^' oak> >lia*la its 
streets and ijarks and manv uxanmlcs of anti- 
hollnm nrrliifortnre survivo nmnnL'* tho liand-ome 
residences. One of the best is the ('all mansion, 
built in the oarl\' ijays of the last ceiitur}' by (Icn- 
cral Ivichard iCrith Call, trrriioiaal LTovornor for 
two tfrms. officer under General Jack-on and con- 
structor nf the old St. Mark's Railroad, tlic third 
tra-k bnib in the United States. Tliosc who re- 
call a novel which had much xoirne some forty 
yeai\> s^ince, *"Tlic Tallahassee (Jirl," ]>}■ Maurir,' 
ThompsoTi, will find intorost in the fn("f that tic 
lifToint' was supposed to haxa- lived in thi- hou-''. 
At Tallahassee is the State Culle^e for AVonnn. 
its c:T-ound> and buildini:s invitinir the \-i>itor's in- 
>|)c('t i(jii. 

The vifp nf thc' present city wa- hniLr used by 
the lu'lians as a place of fcmpoi-ai-y \-illaLrfs, and 
Talh'diassee is the name of the trilx' wliicli foi-- 
m*'rl\- foi-cirat lit'i'iMl there. The mcanlnir of the 
word can bu only guessed at. "(dd Fiold" and 
"Sun X'illage" are thc fax'orifc o-nesses. ridici-al 
Jacl.;-nn. when he dro\a' tlic Tndian.s away, ncg- 




lected to inquire mtu the matter. Some two miles 
west of town j. Foi-I San Luis Hill, where the' 
last stronghold of the Spanish in this i)art of 
Florida stood until it was razed by the English 
in 17i>4. 

Not far from this spot is Rellevue Plantation, 
for some years the residence of the Princess Mu- 
rat, who was Catla-rine Willis, a grand-niece of 
Georir.^ AVa.diington. After a first marriage of 
tehort duration, she cann^ to Tallahassee to live 
and met Vv'mco Xapolcii Achille Mnrat, son of 
the Fin- (,f Xaplrs and (kiroline Bonaparte, sis- 
ter of Xap.T'on. I'lnncc Achille had come to 
Am.-rica following the Napoleonic exile and had 
settled in Talhdiassee, becominir one of the lead- 
ers of the ai'i-toeratic society of the early terri- 
torial capital. The Prince's courtship w\as brief, 
an<l Cath.'rine Gray, n.'c Willis, became the Prin- 
cess Mr<!-at \\ithin a few short months of her ar- 
ri\-al. The Pi'ince aTid his liride went to live 
nt Lipona, the Murat phuitation b(dow the town. 
After ti-av(Ts abroad, the Prince returned to this 
country, studied ];iw aiul presently practiced it in 
New Orleans in partnership with a countryman 
^i;ini''d (b-uuiirr. Later, however, he was again 
back in Tallahassee, where he died in 1S47. Tlie 
T^'incess after lau- husband's death br^nefited by 
<ni allowanci' made her by Fmperor Louis XV 
p'»lcon, anr] niade one nr two visits to the Court 
ot Franc.\ She nirvived her husband nineteen 

\ ^ 



\ ta! -. passing away in 1866 at the ]>' 11. \ u.' Ii<»ine, 
wliiLii she had purchased shortly aiitr ihu 
Prince's death. The graves of the AI nat- are 
{ ill the Episcopalian Cemetery and ar- (»i .j.'( t> of 
interest to all visitors. 

Below Tallahassee, on the St. .Ma^i^'< Iii\a'r, is 
Belleair, now only a memory uf. the aii^lucraiic 
irathering place it was in territorial *lny<. Mere 
v\,re the summer residences of Tailaiia^see's haul 
ton, and here Prince Murat induli:' 1 in many of 
the amusing eccentricitie:^ iui vsLnii hu wa- ta- 
mou^n Hospitality was bounteous and gayety 
liik'd the pleasant, gracious days. Alilionirli fow 
traces of the old mansions remain hereaitnut-, the 
old spirit of hospitality still survives in thf * iiy, 
together with a certain tiaiiquillit} tliat was 
learned in the days when Tallahassee \Na< tlio 
center of government, of culture and nf aristoc- 
racy. Some, too, of the quaint customs are n^t 
wholly lapsed. The city is a place of trinliMoh^, 
although one must dwell in it awhile hciuic tiity 
can be learned. 

A fire which swept the town in ^'^\'\ -iurinir flio 
incumbency of Mayor Eppes, a ^Tinfi- >n <>r 
TL'jn.a-, Jefferson, obliterate' i ]<ra<;li<;ali\- all ila' 
structures dating back to territorinl days. Unly 
the capitol and the ancient Presbyt( i ian clinnli 
building survive, and the latter is (!'H,ni< 1 A 
\ more recent fire destroyed, in S(»|m' nilx r, 1 !«_.'), 
an*/ her landmark, the old Lruu iiuUi in uhicli 




succeeding Ir-i.^lators were liuuiud lor nuiuy 
yoai'i and in whose ruum.s more govornrnont was 
transacfcl ijian in fho rapik)! itself. A n.-w and 
cxptnisivr hosteli'v i. I'i.smg on the a>ln'< of th.- 

I'allahasxM' has L'uod roads for sliort trip^• 
about the city and many intorostino: and lovely 
scenes await the explorer. A liuraber of larire 
])lantations atv still i.eing work.-d and the oak- 
and moss liiddt'ii liomrs arc wurtli x-eini:. Sev- 
eral lakes aru nestled in the surrotnidinir hills, 
one, Lafayrtte, lyiTiir m th.' to\vii>}iip which, be- 
^inninir in tho city itself an<I cxtendinir -ix miles 
ea>t and north, was pr,'<ented hv tho Urdted 
States ConuMVv. to General Lafayette in 1^24 in 
Ki'atitude lor iUl' ]iart plavf^d h\- him in the War 
of the Pfn-oliitioTi. Sinit least of tlie citv, sixteen 
milr> away on tho Si. Mark*- Ri\rr — above it, to 
bo moro coiTcct — is another natui-al hihdire, and 
Ic'ro tic >tati' ha^ set ni' a monunion' la honor 
<>1 tho old mon and hoardh^ss b(n-s who m.-t the 
1 nion forces on the vpu' dnrinir tlic Civil War 
and >a\cd tic capital l'vn\\\ capture. Tlu^ old 
cai-t hwoi'ks arc still to he made otil and, several 
tahlet> <ct up hy paM'iotic Societies tell the stoi-y 
op fliaf W'Alr hatlh' h> \vh\rh Tallaln-K-ce won the 
di^tincliou of 1). iim- iho only state capital iii the 
South to \\\ !!,.> :1a,; uf t he Confederac\ all tlirouirh 
the >! ruL''Lrle. 

The famoia^ Si. Mark's K'aihoad. ah'cad.v re- 





f erred to, is still doing bUiiiiL';5i, now a part oi 
the Seaboard System. In the old day? 'lallalia?- 
see was one of the wmld's great cotton ct nitrs, 
and St. Mark's, on the gulf, was a iiotabK' \un-\. 
Who can say that its glory ha- d* partid forivi r, 
though? It would be a ra^-^ii piLmisu. 

Wakulla Springs deservp^ a visit if timo per- 
mits. It is some fifteen rnil.'s south ot' town, set 
in a fine growth <•!' L^-ay hfar-h'tl oaks and riiair- 
nolias about which the flaming truinptt xinc an(l 
pale golden jasmine twine and chinilicr. Tho 
water of the springs is of ^vnTid.ilnl ( larity and 
flows from an aperture nearl\ a liundrfd j'.ct be- 
low the surface. Xo* far awa\' h»'irins thr swamp 
countrv which extends mo-t of tho wav to the 
gulf and is threaded by vaiiou- -mall strfams. 
Or so it was in tho wriN'r'< oarlha* da\'s whon 
the famous ^'Wakulia \'olca!!o" wa- -iiuatrd in 
the heart of the impenetrable jungle tlarc d^)- 
day, probably, no one believes in the •'\()l('ano/' 
but there was a time whon its smola was always 
discernible against the ha/,}- Idu.- -ky and wIk'ti 
the credulous — of 'a]i!<']i t^i.- wiat.-r was, tliank 
Heaven, one — C'o!i:l. hy t!i.' ox.rtinn of an eager 
imagination, -nn.'! ^ht- hrim.-acniL' I What ac- 
counted for the col limn of ^moke is ^tlll a mys- 
tery. Some person^ h-li. ■'.•■<! it only -toam i'l'om 
a boiling spring — althonLdi i.u <>' Ik i- fj^ilintr spring 
was known to exist thereahcaits — an<l otlni- at- 
tributed it to the fires of nu ![; dian \illat:<'. The 


latter explanat >.Main-d tlir Letter, for Indians 
nevei- lot ilaai' lir.-s ont aiid the smoke was al- -• 
ways visible trum some point. And being then 
at a romanfie aire, the writer proferred the 

Indian tire version to fli.' liot-spring variation. 
Bat ho liked tlie '-voleano" explanation \n->i uf 

Going east from Tallahassee tlio n-aveler find^ 
a fine 71CW road whicli tako< Idm llironirh Mon/d^ 
cello, Madixni and Livo ( >ak,and iVom there either 
onwar<l to Lako City or sonthwai'd to Bi-aiiford 
and tho Wrst Coast. :\lonticelIu, of ahont i:,UUU 
inliahitants, i< the county seat <d' J.-tTerson 
rounty. So far a< any ono kiiows to tlie eontrarv, / / 
^fontieello has always liad "ahont two tlanisand" / / 
]»opnlati()n. It i- one of tliose town- all tlio h^t- 
tor for stayimr jnst a< it i<. If Montierlh) ]ia< 
o\"oi- had a "hoMin" tho writor ha< nrv.^r hoard 
^^i ii- 1' it has rvrv di'-lm] a hooni tho wvhrv 
is snrpriMMh More. Jir i< inerodnhni-. But, oi 
*'*"J'"^<'' lliat two thon-aiid dorvM't iia-hide tlio 
numhcr of wintor \ isitors who luive he^Mi rotnrTi- 
niL" to Montieollo for so many \-ra!'-, r. tiii-uing in 
a somewhat srci-rt fa-hion in. oT'drr that too'v 
otlu'rs Won't surprise thom (huT!i^^ it ;ind, ''a- tn 
"'*'>^^ iiid' Thos,' wiutor rovidcnls ^!Iow a 
mai'ked prodix ity to aet on th.o a'!\uee of the o.t,] 
sa\unLr. "It" xou ha\t> a i:^^^)'] iliin^. k.'op i^ to 
y""i""''H"." 'Hint, indo-d, i- \\''al at lea<^ two 
i;roup< ..f a>>Mriat«'- not ela^^al''e a> winter resi- 


LET^S G') TO FLioKinA! 

•dents ;ire doing. One is the }^ririi;i] P. ran Orovos 
\/ Company whose holdii.L^^ east of town comprise 
/ ^uII^J ul the best pecan gru\L':: in a county where 
' the irrowing of that particular k!n<i ol' nut has 
been going on for tliii'ly \ car- or nioi'f. This en- 
terprise is of the nature of a rlox' corporation, 
■ its stockholders beinu intinlMis ot' the various 
railwa\' ijrotherhoods. if vuu want tu pui'chaso 
land from the Mutual roTnpaT]y ynn'vo ir,,t to 1)0 
recommended and vouched tor l.y >onie fortunate 
fellow already in. Then norlw.-t ot" town lie 
the preserves of an association of hinir h*'a(l(Ml 
and far-seeing sportsmen. There, borderiiiLT Lake 
Miccosukee, one of the state's biggest htkI fairest 
bodies of water, they control nian\- acres of ex- 
cellent hunting ground, and here they (onirr* irate 
each winter and shoot l-irJ- aiiJ duck- and ti>ii. 
That is, they don't shoot the fish, of r»oiirse. They 
shoot birds and ducks, and tla n ji^h Or they 
fish first and then — but never mi fid. W hat is he- 
ini: got at is that they, too, ha\ in^,^ a good thing, 
are keeping it to themselves. 

Pecan culture isn't the m\\v form of airri(ul- 
ture pertaining to Jefferson (onnty. .dihouLdi it 
is one of the most successful. 1 !e l^<hh1 iimI soil 
in Htill underfoot, and it raises i'- lint.uIiriL'' crops 
iicre as elsewLeic along the jioi lh( rn horihr. ( )iic 
industry in especial deserves mentictr]. hi Monti- 
cello is a warehouse from which is diipprd ck h 
year 82 per cent of the world's < nmrm i . i.d \' atn 
Helon seed crop. The number ui .scuds i.^ nut 





known to tli^ writer, hut their comhined weight j 
is scarcely sln^rt of live hundred tons. ^ 

Madison, conntv seat of Madison Cou^itv, 
comes next, an<l then Live Oak. .Just short of 
Live Oak the Suwannt-e I\iver, famous in soiii: an<i 
story, is crossed. It i.^ nut an especially beautiful 
stream just here, howpver. perhaps because it 
has been discovered too dose to it- source in the 
Okefenokee Swani]). Live Oak is a busy ])lace of 
nearly .'>,()(»() iiihahitan^< aiid a railway "six 
})()ints.'' Here the locomotives of sevei'al linos 
contrreirato and liavo a rare irood time Mowing^ 
their screechy whi>tles. However, Madison has \ 
more than railA\ays to recomm-'nd, it. foi- it i- tlie i 
conntv seat (»!' Siiw-anneo Countv and a ii\"e and 
I)ros])er()ns }'ounir city. The £:on<] road continues 
on to Laki' City, a pre'ty town^ of 4."_'7'> ]n^pnla- 
tion tliromrh wliich a lai'::*' r.nmlicr (>f the south- 
bound \isitors to tilt' >tate pass. Sometimes t!:* y 
stop in pa><, huwever, a habit the city is d,oi!.i: 
its be^t to eiicouT'ace. WlitMi fliev do they t^^ld 
good accommodat ion< a^ ti) lod--iii'_'< a'.d ;n'e told 
how the city ha-> jumiMM! fni'war.l since the new 
|)a\('d road to Jack v« eixiM,. h^^s been completed. 
Lake Lit\' is att ract i\ civ located and wt^l! naiiUMl, 
and on the whole ii answer- very W'll a- th.e 
straiiLTci-'s ill's! jMO't of call in Florida. Fiom 
thei'e the niotoii-t can turn east, west, c- <oiit^i, 
or, and thi.-. n^ heartily recommended hv t^^e 
bustliiiL'' citizens (^f tlie community, be ca!i s*ay 

just w here lie i>. 


D0^\■^: jill VsL<r lua.^t 

Passing Iinineo and Jiillotto, adjaooiit <vnlc- 
ments on the highway in M.iriuii Loniity, tho 
traveler by cnr roaches Duneiloii, n fa\ niit. \\ in- 
ter resort for many fleeing the snow an.! ici} 
of the Xorthland. Altlioiiu'-li iM^a^tiTiLr a< v.t but 
eleven hundred inhabiiaiit-. Dun. !l,.!i i< makinLT 
the erndo steadily. "Ry the time \]ii< \< b.ini^- 
peru;>eJ that eleven hun.^i rod mav ]).■ tuo tlion.-aiid. 
Tliat sort of thing is happening fre-inmtlx tla'se 
'\:\y<. and perhaps it will be well to . xplain that 
n;! nnpulation figures eivoTi hire are ol the 
li*-0 State census, and that tho wrifnr i? Tint re- 
sponsible fnr nnythinL- hapjirninL: subse-pifntlv. 
This is slipped in to fnr. -tall thr protests ul' in 
dignant Cliambers of Cornnirreo. 

The Withlacoochee liiver iluws past Diin.'lh)ii, 
aii.h presently turning southon^f. fonrn a pocket 
fnr two attractive lakes, Apopka and [\ana:<...f 
kee. Apopka appears to be a \iivnv\\r nam.' t'nr 
lakes in Florida; just as Mai-i is for streets back^ 
iMH-h. This p.arlieiilar Apopka i^ in rifmlS" 
Couiity, but it bn^ n bio" ]ir."»tb'~'r <om<' tliirty miles 
westward in Lak.' (;ountv. For a]| tho "writer 
knows there are others of the Apopka family 

. 196 



sprinkh'd about. Of r-onrse tliere are so many 
lakes in Lloiida that it is doubtless extremely 
<litlieult to lin.l a fiiiforeut name for each. In- 
verness and hloral (.'it}' -it elo^u to the lake 
shores, and tiien eomcs Hi-ooksvillo. n homelike 
phaee of ju>t over IJtio folk> in the rollimr hills 
of Hernando Count v. It is a beaiitifid coimtrv 
Icreabouts, a hit of the Iliirhlands of the centT-al 
I'idiro of the >tate wandering towai'd the irulf. 
l-'orest-elad hills, sparklinir streams and (piiet 
lakes east their -pioll on the visitor. Bi'ooksvillo 
slumbered hwiL'" b.-t'oi'e railroads and t i'aversa])le 
hiiz:}iways discovei'od her to the rest of the world; 
slumbered and dreamed, too, and nriw h<'r dreams 
aro rominu- trii.-. You'll like Brooks\-ille, wlio- 
ever xou are, for the <piiet beauty of her. The 
quiet Won't la>t a irreat while lonirer, ])er]]a])s, 
but it is to be hoped that the beauty will n^main. 
Hernando's soil is extremely u:ood and raises to 
porfeetion amonir othei* thinirs the tanirei'in^^ 
(»rani:e. (It is hop>ed that it i^ ])roper to call tho 
taiiL'-erine an oranire, althouirh it has all tin' char- 
acteristics of the Satsuma.) The tanirerine you 
will tind in Bronksville will upset your previous 
ideas of thi' fruit. It may eventually be even liner 
than it is now, for ovei- in Annutalaiza Hammock, 
a few miles out of to\v?i. Or. Harvey W. Wiley, 
he wlio lias so carefully h)oked after our healtli 
fboso many years, is conductinc: experiment^ with 
the variety that lends its name to the grove, "Tan- 1 


I > 
I! ^ 

\i ! 

|i ! 


T.KT'S (;<) TO FLoIxMDA! 

? ? 



o:oria." liernaiido Count} ali^.i'l) li;i> iiia<It' a re- 
markable start in the dair\iM'_: ludusti'} an<i sov- 
cral tine herds of iniicli raitlr (■!■(•{> ii> liill-i<lt'S. 

l>fi''»re r)]'()oks\'int' niciit ion .should Ix' 
madr ni Wcrkiwachee bpniig. Watfr untaiiitt'd 
}»v -alt, sTiliihnr nr somo othor iitTt'fctly Lfood lail 
not *'>pri'i;ill\' jialatable cln'niical i- r^ot always 
easy to tinii along tlif Florida coasts, l>ut P)r()()ks- 
vilh' lia> it in |)lrniy. Wrdd wacli./f S])rinLr Hows 
U4,UUU,UUU gallons a day irum a naMiral spigot a 
liundrr'd arid thirH- feet holnw irround. 

Somt' t'lLrht miles south ot' l*rook>vlllt' alrinc: 
Hiirliway Xo. 5 has \u-rn staia^Mi an interest inii: 
ex])erimt'nt in colonizat iom Ilei-c around a little 
settlement nam«'il Masarvcktuwn in honor e.t' tlie 
Czecho Slo\-akia!i Pre-idont, twenty tlanisand 
acres ot' land in Hernan<lo an-1 I'a-eo Counties 
ha\'t' Imtii ])Hrel:a-'-d hy a LM'onj) of liis com- 
patriots, which are hieing dix'ided into small farms 
for the n^p of Czecho-S5]ovakians desirin-j: to 
escape t'roin the niin'-^ atid I'aetories in ^vhicli so 
many are confined. The laiid i< to he sold with- 
out p'l-Mti* on eas\- ])a}'ments and for the most ])art 
will lie duVuLed to the growing of grapes. Four 
hundred nrro^ are alreadv planted in \incs. Tlip 
uiKiertakinL^ L'ives f'V.-ry ]»resent promise of 


Southw*-t of Brooksville, over a irood Inird 
roaih i- Hade City, county seal of Fa-eo County, 
and, like the proviou- place, pcrclied (Ci the pli^as- 


ant hills. Dade City is a gooddooking, self-re- 
specting community with comfortal)lc homes, ex- 
cellent bnildinirs and all the requirements for*a 
rapid and .Mihstaiitial growth into a city of im- 

Strikino: westward, the F)ixie Highway is re- 
gained at Hudson and the gulf shore is followed 
past Port Kichey, a growim^ resort of manv at- 
y^<^^'^'^^^^^>^ to Tarpon Springs in Pinellas Conntv. 
Tarpon Sprinirs— " the Venice of America" in lo- 
cal phrase,)h,i:y— li,.s between the i^ulf, the charm- 
ua: Anclote KMv.t and Lake Butler. Not ordy is 
It fairly surrounded l.y water— it claims fifty mdes 
ot water front- hut it is also inyaded by it. The 
ornamental bayou that lies in the heart of the 
older residential section is a feature many cities 
may wrll envy. On the whole, the poetic appella- 
tion of "America's Venice" is qnite deserved, 
larpion Spianirs has a iiopulation of 2,685 and is. 
on the way to doubh^ that number in a short space. 
'^ /'^■^'lid'aved city, with wide streets, modern 
buiMinirs an.l all the up-to-date advantages sought 
hy pi-oirres>ive communities. A place of fine 
Inmn's, too, and fair gardens. The citv is sup- 
plied with water from Lake Butler bV a new 
waterworks plant and is well sewered.' It also 
honsts an exeelh-nt eighteen-hole golf course, 
bathinirand fi.diin- pirrs that extend into the irnlf 
on one side and into Lake Butler on the other and 
good hotels. As a resort city Tarpon S|.rin-s is 






I; i 




already wt-ll aii<i fa\-oraMy known, but slu' is still 
only at thf bt'iriniiinu: of la-r faiiu'. 

It was la'Ff that tlu' masti-r landscape artist, 
Geurict* Lint'>s, lix'ril and y)aint»Ml for so many 
years. And here his sun, Gt'orgu Inness, Junior, 
still rt'sidt's. 

To mt'ntiur, Tarpon Sprinirs wdthout mentionini^ 
the S})onidnir industry would be like alludln.t^ to 
Detroit and sayinir nothini,' of automobiles. For 
sponginir is tlu- city's biiTL^cst cntfrjjrise. The 
visitor will, of ('r)urst', takt- the road to ^'Little 
Athens," down by the shore wdiere the Greek 
s|)omj:ers live, witlmut beinir told, sinee the inter- 
est and pictures<}ut'ness of that (piaint liamlet are 
well known. The industry starte<l on this side 
of the world many years airo at Key West. To- 
^day Florida >ends forth rd»out 00 per cent of the 
worM's suiiply of this necessary articl(\ Apa- 
lachicola and then St. Mai'k's had their iViUii: at 
s[)onirinir back in 1^70, and then the best reefs 
were di>cC)\'t'rod about the IMnollas Gounty shore 
and a srith-nn'rit ^pt-edily s])runtr up there. Now 
Tar[)on SprinL''> ha.- succeede(l Key A\ est as the 
c<juntry'.- >pnnge market. The Tarj)on Springs 
fishery are (;reeks and they broutdit with them a 
surer know b'fji^f (^f tho art of dftaching thi' shy 
zoophyte from lii- r«i<-ky home than was ])ossesse(l 
by the F)ahamai.- at K.-y W^-t. Thr "Gonchs" 
depended on the water Lda-< to Incatc the ])rey 
arid on lohi: jioles terminatinir in hooks to bring 



it up, and since the sponge contrarily insists on 
growing in water not onlv thirtv and fortv feet 
dee]-) ])ut a hundred and a hundred and seventy- 
iive and e\-i'n more, their purlieu was extremely 
limited. Their thirty-foot poles were too short 
to reap the richer harvest of finer sponges grow- 
ing at the greater depths. The newcomers, the 
divers from the Mediterranean, didn't "hook"; 
they went down for wdiat they wanted, picked it 
from the reef and sent it up in rope baskets to 
the (hn^k of their (jueer lateen-rigtred, gaudily 
I)ainted ])oats. However, leirislation was passed 
to ])rotect the "Gonehs,'' and diving was prohib- 
itiMl within all waters of the state on the assump- 
tion that the divers trampled and destroyed the 
])aby s})onges while gathering the grown-ups! 
Gonsequently the Key West spongini^ business 
was saved and the Greek fishers are obliged to 
|)ly tludr trade beyond the tliree-mile limit; which 
disgruntles the Tar])on Spring tleet not a whit, 
since with modern diviuir apparatus, they can 
descend to depths of a hundred and stwenty five 
feet and irot tlie fuier i^rades of "glove" and 
"snudl wool." Let those who ar(^ satisfied with 
the small pickiinrs (hd)ble about in the shallows! 
A crew of a Tarpon Spriui^s s])onger consists 
of from four to six men besidt's tin* master, and 
they work on shares. ()ne bv one the divers get 
into helmet and .vuit, the ;ur pump is manned and 
they go over the side. According to the depth 




LET'?; no TO flohida: 


^vnrknr"! at, the rlivnr r»'iiiain> dnwn from fivo to 
teu minutes. W'lifU Im' roiur- up aiioihrr takes 
lii> {tiace. Tl;*' Tarpon Spriiiirs fieet (M)ii>i>ts of 
^f liuarl}' a uuiidrcJ aiiJ lii'i}' xTouiiur:?, muslly sup- 
^ plied With anxilinry power. These nro tlio parent 
]»oat<. aii'l out t,, ti;,. rt-efs \vitli tlirin Lr<» a inulti- 
tii<l*' nf >ni;il!fi- ci-at't, four, ti\-r and >ix to a 

y schooner, each hax-'nii: it> -piota oi' -killed divers. 
Swa>" df«kt d, latrt'ii-rigged, built as tlirir kind 
wero huill and riueod in the far-off (hiys of 
Christ's presence on oartli, onl\' tie' iiutlinir of a 
gasoline motor or tie' prt-sfiice of an air-pump 
hosi(h' a *;itTrail >iio\vs tho^c litllt' hoats to he 
niodcrn. d'h^'V arr L'aiidil\' paintfil crat't ; yellow 

y and hluo and r^fl and oraniTf and whilo; and eaeli 

/ hear- its nane' in iii'oek cliaracter.- on how and 
stern. One such "(eatlit" mean< tie' outla\' <»f 
cuii:;iderable muue}', hut tlie rewards are conmiou- 

The sponges p'o from seliooners to waicr-pons 

f fnr the soaking stage, hla^'ki-li, rubber liko masses 
of all sizes and shapes fmrn tlif tin\- "-ilk" to the 
biggest *Tuggerhead," the hiUer luukinir like a 
round lifn-p-,r'"-ervrT arid -om-'^'timr'- four foet in 
diarn''nr. hi:;;d!y ti.fy are ea^^■d to tie* Sponire 
K\<-}.arige, a biLT bu"i<-k biilldi.'iLr -uri'oundlnLT a wide 
concrete conrtvard m uheli tk.' buNcr- etuiirre- 
gate, lii Vj^-^ about nine nillheei sT)OTiirey went 
throuirh the Exchange, passing to ike po<-e^^ion 
of the various companies whicb miin ein k- ad 



'jnarfors in lie' town. Tlie valtie of these was 
<■!'»>•' to oie' million dollai's in tbe I'aw staire, sev- 
eral time- that when ready for the retail trade. 

At present there are upwards of a tlnnisand 
members of the Oreok colony at Tarpon Springs. 
d }h'>- speak their own lanirnage and keep to their 
own customs, yieldimr to AjTierieainzation but 
slowly. Yet they have built homes, many of them, 
invested in local entei-prises and are good citizens. 
They maintain their own schools and churches, 
ha\-t' thfii' own theater and support their own 
stoi'es and coffee houses. They are deeply re- 
ligious, and combiiu' joy and devoutness on tlie 
occasions of their sevei'al cliurch festivals in a 
manner that i< at once naive and admirable. 
''(Ji'eek ( "rr)ss Day,'' as the other citizens of Tar- 
])on Spi'iiii^s call it, or the Feast of tlie Epiphany, 
as il is known to tla^ Greeks, falls on January 6th. 
Tt commemorates the ba})tism of Clirist and is 
goi-ireou-ly celebrate.] by the return to port of 
the entii'e tieet of boats frcnn whose rigijrinir tlv 
the Creek and American tlairs an<l all the other 
buntinir obtainable. The Greek villaire o\^ St. 
Mehola< is festooned from end to end and the 
<h'eoi-atiou< continue all the way into the town 
and about the baxou where, viewed bv a thron^r 
oi several thousand sjiectators, manv of whom 
have jouT-m-yed far for the (n-casion, the waters 
are ble<vfd by the (ii'eek Patriarch, a symbolic 
white do\e i> feleased and a gold cross is cast into 




/the bay(M]'< clrar (I'-pths to ho dixtMl for by a 


1 or more 




u'on/.r sKiinitM 

1 la<l: 

.' The festival is iniprr-si\-.' aiwl iiiterestiiiix and, 
I abovr all, cnlorful. After the puhlic (MTfinony 
I the Gr»'ek> march to their chureh and the festival 
continues throuixliout the day with relii^doiis de- 

Clearwater lies some fifteen miles sontli of Tar- 
pon Springs, a thri\'inLr, st»'ad 

ilv inereasinLT com 


nity e)f 5,00<». It i< one of P'loridaVs most \)()\)u 

I'ciT resorts 


II i"" 



eair, draws eacn 



ar a larL'^* number of \-isitors to it< handsome 

home- ani] spUuidid hotel 


C 1 1 \' 1 : 






a ridi'e ovt^rlookin.Lr a hroad arm of 

the sea known as Hearwater ]^a\' and a line of 
narrow k'-v-« h.-vorid with which communication is 




ri< LT* 





earwaler i< a 


h U 1 . 

a I 



h'okiu'^ eil\', n(jtah]e for tine husin 





y and residences 

A\'ide sti-eets, ' 

['a\''<l aini nicel>' -liad-'d. make siirht seeii 






Ti r 


\Vn (• 

t' W 

■11 !■ 



eair tro 

irlitcfii hole l;i\-oi]t 





i.> the (i,.'>uO-va rd c(mr><' of the Country 

[}■>. Fishing' 

pvcel!<"it, and tar-pon hite no- 


licre an'.' better tiian in the warm waters alont:; 

th<Miear hv }\eV8. Ch'arw\'P 


da' e 





u 1 1 d ' • r 

• ■!■ i- a nio-t appealini^ 
ono i,\' the dfj/en or 

sc; NeAus in w 

hich. if tle-re uer-e a do/.efi ol" so o 




t h<' wr'C'f woiiM -!] rt 


I Vc 

0\rr" on 




t'-r l.-land i- ori'' cd" the hc-t heaches of tin 



West C 


d f 

( ) 



and farther dow 


JIaven ]^)each. (deai'water is the winter home of 
a small hut doubtless select literary colony which 
includ(\s Mr. (Jeorcre Ade, Mr. Sewell Ford, Mr. 
Clarence Buddinirton Kelland and otliers whose 
names are familiar to the readers of 




om some obscure motive, 

literature. This fact, fr 
is frequently mentioned by Clearwater's Cham- 
ber of Commerce. 

Some twenty miles farther soutli. at the tip end 

e:s a earn St 

of the Pinellas Ptuiinsula, tall buildiii 

the bhu^ skv iid'orm the motorist that he is about 

to reacdi "Th(> Sunshine Citv. 


owever, it 


lias l)een readintr the siirns alons: tlie road for th 
past hour or so he has already had an inklini: of 
liis fate. St. Pcterslninr is one of the "bii^ towns" 
of the stat(\ with a ])opulation of l!(kS47, of which 
12,(11(1 Were added in the five years ludween 1920 
and 192,"). A younu: city, St. Pete, but a lusty one. 
It set out with malice aforetlnniirlit to make itself 
a winter res(U't city ])ar t^xcidlence, and so it has 
no c)}n: but itself to l>lame i'ov what has ha]^pened. 
Take it in January, and tlie sidewalks are so 
IhronirtM] with ])ersons milliiii:: around, the str 
so crowded with automobiles scrapliiLr bumpers 
and mudicuai'ds and the parks anil playirrounds so 
filled with chiKlren — from (Uie to eii:}ity — that a 
stranirer fi'om some (paiet phe-e like l^h/icairo, 
Philadelphia oi' N'ew N'ork t'eels i'onfu^ed ar^d 
ner\'ous. The hotels, of which there are alreadv 





enough to serve tlirrf cr four cities, villi now ones 
alwax's in i^rocoss of l>uii<iiiiir, aro crowdt'd, too. 
AiiJ .--o, it bcciiib, art' all tla' Mi: and ill tic and 
medium -i=izprl honsp^ and luniiraldws an<l Ituuga- 
lettes lafini: tlio Bay in haiiudity irrandour or 
nestlinir inul.-r thvdr vines and caniplior tr^.-s over 
BuLd Cfiga way. Yes, sii\ St. Potersburir ct- 
tainly wont and ddd it, and ^lio onirlit to be salis- 
lied it what sla' wa< al'trr was a t'ull lionsp. 

St. Peter-l'urir talk< olimatf a lot, and maybe 
she has a riirht tn. Srt tlnwn on the tip end of 
Pinellas County's toinrn*', sla-'s lionnd to wair. 
Certain i^ i^ that, with wat^r on three sides of 
]a-r, she oan fairly lay claim to ideal winter con- 
ditions, since sun-hinc and ])roximity to irnlf 
waters and hay- ar*- what allow West Coast re- 
sorts to assume a certain snirgestion of arr<tL^ance 
when the snhject ot' climate is mentioned. St. 
Petersburg's avcraiT'' na-an t*'ni|»'-rat ure fi'om 
November to April i- fi»».d d-'L^rees, and tin- a\''r- 
age monthly raiiifail fnv tie- -am'- p'-riod i- ^2..>'1 
inches. So, you see, the Sunshine City is a place 
for j'.'irasols and not o-nhr-^ho^;. 

T/.' '.vinter pnpulanon of tla- city i- somr'whero 
aron.nd ninet;/ th'ai-and. Vou lia\-<' t(> sort of 
guess at this, for St. I'.-t.-r-lMiri' \i-itnr< cnme an<I 
^o to make room t"or others and it's (riHiciilt to 
count them. I'n^ ninety tlion-and'- a mn^crvat ivo 
estimate. T!.- city 'dT.T^ at.<eit ex .a-x tlilnL^ pos- 
sible for the an]U.''-;n(nt (d' h-r guo^t-, fi-<)in 




cliccker-' and horseshoes and roque in picturesque, 
moss-drapt-d Wdlliani- Park, and sand l)Oxes on 
the Mole, to gulf un her three courses, tar|)on 
fishing in near-by waters or yacht inir on the 
smor.tli stretches of h^r manv liavs. Tlie Yacht 
Cliih has a fine clnhlaiuse and a memhership of 
six hiuMlrt'd. St. I'otersburg is the ideal play city, 
hut, ju:5t to ^how that she has her serious side, let 
it be said tliat slic has a million and a half in- 
vested in x'hool iri-onnd< and huildinirs, a host of 
beautiful chui-ch e(liiices, municipal and commer- 
cial huildinLTs worthv of anv dtv in the Union, 

• • • 

excellent shoijs and a tine svstem of houlevards 
and stroofs tliroudiout her twenty-scven S(}uaro 
mih's ot' territorw If vou want to ]dav or merelv 
rest and li>trn to the hand play, St. P.'t<'rsh)urir 
\\ ill Welcome you. If you want to>t or huild 
a home youi' wtlconii' will Itr still warmer. 

I'h-oHi St. h.'trr>hni'L: to Tampa tlie wav lies 
ovei" tilt' rcc.'iillx' conqileted (Jan.dy l-^Tudire, this 
ritiiic eliniinal iiiLT ahout twenty four miles o( the 
former ^.li^tance hrtwi'en the two cities. Mr. 
Ooor<r(^ S. Oand}' is one ()( the Miracle AYorkers 
of I'doi'ida. ono (^[ the \ision auihdiO coterie which 
inchidrs I'dai^ler and Thnil, Fisher ar.d Merrick 
and l)a\ is. (dand.y looked acro-^s ( ^!d dkimpa Hay 
and dreamnl of a -^i\ niih> caustn\-a\' and bridLre. 
Then !i-' \\> lit ;ihoad and l-uill it. Not N\-it!iout 


nl! les, SI I 

I ( 


oMi.T- cccdd 


!ns \!^u>U 


ho saw il, and no! vii::\'i[ a\\a\. l\vent\" vears 




olapsrd lirtwor-n (Irr'am ar.r] aotualify. "Rnt it's 
<luT.»' a: la.-t. a straiirhl ovcr-watrr liiirliway from 
Hil!>l>..rui;-h County to riiM'lla-. from tli.' oiit- 
skir*> (>!' T:iT]i|.;i to i!;r t':i\-iroii< of St. IN'tors- 
biiFLT. a ruule bringing the aiitomohilo riinTiiTi2r 
tim.f between the cities down t'r<>m two aii'l a half 
hours to about one. S*. PetersburLr aiKl lur larirtr 
sister across the bay are gL'tting btttur a('(j[uainted 
evufv Jav. 

Tampa is built on the site of old Fort Brooks 
of S.-minole AVar -lays and la'r -••itl.'mt'nt <lates 
back to 1823 when four comjiara.-- of tlic Lnitcd 
States Army from Pensacola, under conimand of 
Colonel Brooke and Lieutenant Oa.l^d.n, landod 
is no^v Gad-d*'ri T*oint and, mai'cliim 

a^ w].a^ 

1 1 


along: the peninsula, e.-*aMi-!a d a ptrmanont lo 
f"r'irication beyond th»- HilNl)oronLdi \V\wy in tlio 
jor-ali+y at present known a< "Tfa' f'iarrison." Tt 

\ b'-'-arnc' an in^-orporatcd oj^v in \ 




TIh' namo 

of T;irn[ja was taken from an Li'lian st-ttlcmoiit 
*whicK o<T-]yH<.<] a ^ite close to !}]•• f.ld fort and is 
b*.-In-\*-d to rrj;an "Split \\'(>(jd for (^)iili'k Firt's." 
'J'arn[»a ua- originally in Benton r'onnt\' and later 
ir: A'af'hua. In those days a I'\!orida rounty was 
a piece of land! Two of- \y.v<^- nj' ilj.-rn included 
most of the peninsula. Making nou <oiiniirs is 
evi.i. to this day one of the princiftal ii, door ^f)ort^ 
of the Legislature, and just as fa>t as a new map 
is published a county is split Into tuo oi- moic 



parts and the map ma"ker fears liis hair and starts 
to work airain. Wlictlicr there is at presnit a map 
of Florida sliowini: thr new count it-s .'Volvf'<l in 
192') is doubtful. Tampa tinally found ln*rst-lf 
in llillsborouLrh Oounty, and tln-re. altlnnnrh the 
eastern part of said county lias since l)»_'t:'n sliced 
off and called Pinellas, she still resides. 

Tampa may bo said to have come to life when 
Henry B. Plant bought the South Florida Rail- 
road and ])uslied it to the eulf in. 1^'^4. He fol- 
lowed that bv buildiuir the Tannni Bav Hotel and 
])lacing it in a line |)ark oi tropical trees and 
shrubs alonu: the IIillsbor»uii:h Kiver and across 
from the city proper. Hotel and ])ark came into 
the limeliirht duriin^ tlio War with Spain, wlioii 
Tampa became tho port (tf emh'arkati«ni for south- 
ern troops bound ('uba-waT'«l an.d Theodore Ro<^se- 
velt's fauKuis iuunrh Kiders foia'Lrathercd, in^ tho 
hostr'li-y and Kiehard llardini: na\'i<, lovable ro- 
mancer <•!' that rtunantie time, po<r.| t'^u' h.i> pic- 
ture airaiiist a baekiria^un.d k:^^ Mih>rls!i architec- 
ture gone a litth' bit mad. Sonn h^ow, tliat row 
with our nciirhbor on tlio <outh seems to luive 
gi\'en a (h'cidod fiilij* to Ta!n]Xi*< deviopnieiu. 
She started rii^dit out after th.e S]ia!:i-h War was 
o\'er and irrew and kept on gi'ow in:g. A:i'-1 !i'^w 
look at hn* ! 

A !)ie- citx Ixtth a^ I'eirai^N ai-ea and popnhition; 
at h'ast, biLT a- LloiiJ.a cilies ^^"i. Still second to 
Jacksonville a> fat' a> the countini^ of !!0>es Is 



LET'^ no TO ]'!.< >i:iI).V! 

• •':..' rned, but ahead of the East Coasi metropo- 
lis in rnnny other ^vnvc:. fT^.. last con^ii^ irives 
JarkM)iiviile 95,450, TainiNi 'Jl.7i:";.) WiiJiin iln^ 
I'^i-t :'.'W years 'r;iiiiya La- made ^allaiil -tridcs 
lorwa!',]. Slie has adopted the cumiiii.s.-iun-maii- 
air.T lurin ui guvcniment nvA taken at l(\a^t one 
piiMii- utility, the ^vn^nrwork^ p];]];!, umlrv mu- 
iiicipal ownership. S!:,' ha- l.nih li()irl> and apai't- 
nifiit< ai;d l;i)rnes in a ])rfat li-takiiiLT i'a-liion, 
I'l^ict'd a la!.]; ni! alnin-t i'\-fry ax'ailalilt' coi'ia-r of 
lit'i" ciuwii'.owii (.ii^irict aiKJ (!.'\-cI< iji.mI all -i>r1< of 
now indnstries in add ^) laa- ,,!d ones. II. t taxaM.' 
pro|M'ryv to day is eight}" -i\ Tnikioii dolla!-<, an 
iiuToase of thirty-seven n;il!ions in ila' Ia-1 \-far. 
larni-a n- iir-t uI all a comnu'rcial city, aiui such 
she will continue to be. That i- lar dr>-tiny. 
Xovri-tludess she offers the tnnri-l nio>l of tlio 
att ractio::^. If ];,)t all, to he founil .■!-., •wIkto. Ilor 

Avat.Ts contain a- l: 1 f:-li a< o\-.a- w.-i-r found; 

her liotuLs, ihuugli ^till tuu few Iii nuuil>.']\ art' 
niod.u-n nr.d oxcellent : slip lia- ihrco fine irolf 
('oursf< a.nd; a I'lMU'di niid'a" cijn-t i-ii<'l ion ; >ai!iii'^^ 
and motor l.oatinir enthusiasts could a<k foi" no 
hctttT opyornini' i.'- than d'amjia afi'urds; sh-' has 
tli('atL'r.>, rare cuur^us, swinuiiinLT ])ools, tennis and 
ro'jUP oourtN and, in s]i(,i-t, tlie u>ual eonx-enioneos 
h)ok.M| fiT hy ih*' wint'-r \d>itor. Tampa's climate 
is of the ]'<-<\, wi'li t'.'W cool days in winter and 
t«'W cxcr>-i\-fly hd* OIK'S in -unuucr. (The mat- 
ter ot her climate iia.-5 been touched on in a former 







concerned, but ahead of the East Coast metropo- 
lis in many other ways. (The last census gives 
Jacksonville 95,450, Tampa 94,743.) Within the 
past few years Tampa has made gaUant strides 
forward. She has adopted the commission-man- 
ager form of government and taken at least one 
public utility, the waterworks pLant, under mu- 
nicipal ownership. She has built hotels and apart- 
ments and homes in a breath-taking fashion, 
placed a bank on almost every available corner of 
her downtown district and developed all sorts of 
new industries to add to her old ones. Her taxable 
property to-day is eighty-six million dollars, an 
increase of thirtv-seven millions in the last vear. 
Tampa is first of all a commercial city, and such 
she will continue to be. That is her destiny. 
Nevertheless she offers the tourist most of the 
attractions, if not all, to be found elsewhere. Her 
waters contain as good fish as ever were found; 
her hotels, though still too few in number, are 
modern and excellent; she has three fine golf 
courses and a fourth under construction: sailinc: 
and motor-boating enthusiasts could ask for no 
better opportunities than Tampa affords; she has 
theaters, race courses, swimming pools, tennis and 
roque courts and, in short, the usual conveniences 
looked for by the winter visitor. Tampa 's climate 
is of the best, with few cool davs in winter and 
few excessively hot ones in summer. (The mat- 
ter of her climate has been touched on in a former 






C'liapfrT.) So -lie (losorvo? considiTable eonsid- 

i'ratioii as a place for tfinporai'v .sojourn. Xover- 

tlirlos, I'ldrida's west coa^t iiu*tropolis is a bii: 

and })iisv and bustlinir comni«*reial citv, with her 

thoiiLrlits set on s<'rinns matters. Slie takes time 

to }»lay, 1)ut slic observes very strict business 

bonr>, as brfits the state's leadinir mannfaeturin^ 

and indnsti'ial eeiitin' witli a total invested capital 

of nt'ai-]y ibirty-two millions of dollars. Tampa 

i> tlie market place for a larire and exceedimrly 

ricb territory; pi'acticall}' all of the state's ])hos- 

})]iate passes tlironirh le r irates and her port l)usi- 

iio<^ is already treniondons. To accommodate the 

sliippinir interests new nuinicipal tcM'minals are 

beinir built and occupied as fast as completed. Be- 

iiiLT the neare>t port of size to the Panama Canal, 

her imports and exports grow yearly in volume 

and valu(\ 

Tampa is the world's hea(l<]uarters for Havana 

ciirars, producinir mor<' than the City of Havana 

herself and far more than anv other citv. Her j 


}t'ai'ly ouiput is appi'oximately 500,000.000 cigars i 
and she has fifteen million dollars invested in the 
industry. She manufactures numerous other 
thini^^s, too, with more than fifteen hundred con- 
cerns enLTairod. 

She is, as Florida cities 2:0, a cosmopolitan 
connnunity, baviiiLr a largi^ Spanish ])opulation 
which includes many of ln-r I'oremost and es- 
timal)le citizens, a irood manv Italians and a 

': I 


i.i-rr's no t^) n.riiMDA: 



sprinkling of oliier iinf innaliiioR. Tho Spaiiisli 
have iiifliitnced the city consideraM>. and in tli.' 

localities |)ri!i<'i{iaily occiipi.Ml li\- tjirni— tlif for- 
mer s<'|)arate rnunicipalit >' d' AVr>t Tani})a and 
thai porti'.n of the cit\' known as Yl)or — tlioir 
])rf'scn('t' has add'''] aii intcrc-t ini: and picturt'sipio 
atmosjjherc. The Sj)ani>li residents Iiave their 
own cluhs and in-t ituliuns, continue to speak th(^ 
huiLruaire of the homeland and lend a> well as mav 
be pos>ilile the lit'.' tliev were accu>tomed to lliere. 
Tlieir vlwl^^—cFMtrn^ — are important social fac- 
tors, with liand:=ume buildings and lanre meinher- 
ships. Ono, the Centro Es|)ari()l, oldr.-t of all, 
maintrdns two clnl'liouses. All conduct educa- 
tional, mutual-aid, mu-ical and arti-tic depart- 
ments, and membur^hi}) includes the privileL^e of 
medical treatment and hospital acconmiodatioii. 
Amateui- hi-trionie and mu>ical talent produce 
pla\'>, operas and eojieerts ea(h winter, while iiot 
infriMiuenll}- proft'^-iuiuil oijera troui)es present 
themselves in the wp]]-nppoinfed anditorimns. 
The Italian citizens likewise have their national 
orLrani/at ions and clnhs aiid pro\-ide exerllciit mu- 
sical feature> tu which the general public is wel- 

Tampa lias many linnd^ome homes, notablv ])or- 
derinir her }-.a\-,^liore l',..ule\ard, wliidi huirs the 
rim of llillvburuugli h^ay f,,r sevei'al miles, and 
tlirouirliont the newer additions d.-\-..h)p.'d between 
that body of water and O],] Tampa Bay on tho 

west. She has wi-11 pave(l and well liirhtcd streets, 
a irood water supply, excellent transportation by 
trolley lines and busses and most other advan- 
t aires demandeil by the temporary visitor or per- 
nuinent resident. Slie has not yet perfected lier- 
flelf, certainly, for her recent .irrowth in popula- 
tion and commercial enterprises, the expansion of 
her residential territory toward all four points 
of the eom])ass, lia\'e been so sudden and so rapid 
that the city has scarcely yet camrht np with her- 
self. But Kome wasn't built in a day, and l)efore 
lonir Tami)a's streets will lie wide enough to ac- 
commodate her franic, she will ado])t zoning regu- 
lations, her new and much needed bridges wdll 
Ix' thrown open, she will hav(» more liotels and 
more first-(hiss I'estaui'ants and, possibly, she will 
crawl out fi'om under the domiiudion of the rail- 
roads whi(h plow tlirouLdi her main streets and 
skii't her pai'ks. This latter, however, if accom- 
plished will be no mean feat, for railroads are 
])roverbially diflicult to leirislate against. But in 
the meantime Tampa, bui'sting out of her clothes 
as she is, is bending all her eiuM'gies to solve the 
many sudden and ofttimes unforeseen problems 
that l)eset her, and when she finally succee(ls, as 
she surely will, she will l)e a city to be proud of, 
whether one is a Eloridian or — unfortunately — 
just a resident (tf some other part of this big 
country. An.d, anyway, you can get a good five- 
eeiit ciirar in Tampa, and that ought to be glory 
enouirli for anv cit v I 


"nOTVX Tin: WTST COA^T (Concluded) 

It W(»ii!(1 Ii.' hai'ijl}' fair lo lonvc 1'aiii{)a without 
mention ot the recent a«'!i\iti' - liiere ot" 0. P. 
T)a\"i-. aiitail}' mentioned as one of th" state's 
.Miracle Men. 'rho>L' N^ho nioru iJian two years 
hack >aw the three seruhhy panrl is]aii(h< ju-t off 
\\ir month of the llilh-horniiLrh Iiivaa- in tin' l)av 
of tho >am*' nam*' — ( 'oh»ii''l h'oosev'elt and his 
RouL^i Ki'i''i's camiitMl on them wliih' awaitini^ 
transportaliuii to Cuh>a — wuiiM iiev-.-r know them 
today. A fleet of drcdLrcs ]in< hnih them into o]H3 
hii: tract of <nnie iiiteen hinnlre(I aci-r^, an<l h'»1els 
and apartment-, i-e-id-'Uces and clnh<, windin-j; 
\\'aterw.i}-- and \\\'\>' honh'\"ar( k-, tennis conrt- an(l 
towimnndiL' puuhs havu ali'eail}' ta!<''n the pkace of 
prMJe-,. a-,) maTiL^rnvT'cj. ^\dlat no mni-e than a year 
ainl a had' .aL'o was Still onl}' a <le-ert wa>te of 
sand i- to-day a thrixniiir and heanlifnl community 
distant I'mm Tampa'- Ikay-hore rc-i(hnice section 
only the length ul a hridirc. Tiicru's an L'i;j:litecn- 
hole golf course liniklimr, too, ont tlioro at the 
fard.'-r end of tlie i-laiid. ^'on jn-t caidt pei-form 
a nnrae';.' tliese d,a;. - withont e\a)I\-in'j* a irolf 
fourse as |jart of il. Xc»t a gr^^at man\- >-ears airo, 
siiae he is still a young man, "Dave" l)a\is was 




running errands for a Tampa grocery concern. 
Six years ago, perhaps, ho was o|)cinng the eyes 
of Miami real estate opei'ators liy liis sloight-of- 
hand (h'Velopmeiit and dnsposal of additions and 
sul)di\isions in the then awakeiuno: ''Mairic City." [ 
X(»w, having hrought Davis Island within sierlit 
of completion, at an estimated expenditure of 
thirty millions of dollars, ''Dave" is oil to St. 
Augustine to turn the trick airain. ' 

IIills])orouirli ( 'ountv is ])roud of her irood roads. 
She has to date tliree hundred and sixty miles 
of paved highways outside the corporate limits of 
her cities and towms and some two hundred more 
of rock r)r shell roads. It is on one of her good 
roads that the southhound traveler sets forth for 
Bradenton, Sarasota, Fort Myers and way sta- 
tioThs. One cain at the (expenditure of little time 
and gasoline, iro hv wav of Phuit Cdtv, a thriving 
j)lace of (),GUO inhahitants twenty-two miles east- 
wai'd. Idant (dtv is widelv known as the home 
town of the Florida stra wherry, and from it in 
l*)-.') wa^re shipped more than one thousand ear- 
loads of its specialty. This is in addition to the 
two hoxes bouirht hy the writer along the wayside. 
(They were good berries.) 

Bradenton, haskinir in th(> sunliglit on the bank 
of the Mamitee Ivi\au-, is another o\' the idaces 
wdiere, Avere it ])h>-sically ])ossible, the writer 
would spend his (h'dininLr >ears. But, as Hurree 
Babu said, 'Aou cannot occupy two places in 




' I 



I.ET'?^ no TO FT/)ini)A! 

spac't' >ImiiltanooTi-1y. That i> axi<)iii;i! io.'^ l>ra- 
(It'iitMii rall> htTself '-Th.' Frirn.lly City." Ono 
can I'^'lit'Vf that sIm- (h-.-i'Vrs the s.'lf-coiil'cnaMl 
tilk', fur i,he lool's frit'iidly. So many phuM's, yon 
know, rlon't. BradfTiton lias a year-round ])opu- 
latioii of just over 7,'»00 and a wintrr popnhitioii 
of— von may write your own th-kt-t. It' it isn't 
douMt' T.'t'i'h thouirli, it onirlit to ])o. Bradontoii 
is so ])linnb full of gouddookiug, lioinoliko liomes 
that the \-i-itor spends his first day there in just 
walkiiiLT arouii'l and loMklin: at them and eox-etimj; 
about every >eeond one he sees. They all have 
the leok of heiiiLT lived in, and not .iu<t ])u1 ii]) on 
speculation, with the o('en])ants hidinir behind the 
cairtains of th*' fi'ont room on the watch fer pos- 
>ibh' buv.-rsl And n.ever were handsomer L^ir- 
dens than here. P>ra(h-nton is appar.aitly elmck- 
full ot^ eivie pride. Otherwi>e h(^r streets would 
n*-\er }>>■' so ch'am hei- pri\-ate estates >o well eared 
for, le-r publie buiMinirs so fino. Oh, yon'll like 
Bratlenton.. Oan't hel]» it! 

Aero>s thf broad Manatee, more a bay here than 
a rivtT, lie< one of Bradenton's irood neiirhbors, 
I'almettn. TIhto's a fine new bridire stretehinir 
its lent^nh from town to town, and when that's 
fini-hed tie- two will be praetieally one. Tn fact, 
before lunL^ Im-voi..! a doubt P)i-adriit on and Bal- 
motto and Manatee, her neighbor up the river, 
^^ill .^]] p,. on^' nmni'-'ipnlity. "FeoTK.nn' demands 
it. AVleii it happens i' i- to be hop-d that tlui 



present Bradenton will lose none of its individual 

I'radentun is not without some history, for all 
of her modornnoss. Xof far away, up-river, is 
the old (Jamble Mansion, recently purchased by 
the Thiited I)aui:hters of the Confederacv and 
j)resented to the state to l)e preserved as a memo- 
rial. The old lunise will be restored and the once 
attractive irrtumds replenished. Meanwhile this 
excellent speeinnni of ty]ncal Southern colonial 
architecture ovt'rlookinu- the beautiful Manatee 
lii\'er is worth a \-isit. Here Judah P. Benjamin, 
Secn^tai'v of State of the Southern Confederacv, 
liid from the Enion authorities during the Civil 
AVar, and from her(\ with his aides, he took flight 
down the river and so made his escape to Eng- 

Bradenton is in Alanatee Countv. Manatee 
Countv, when it wa- sliced olT some other countv, 
was named after the Ab-matee Biver, and the Afan- 
atec ]\i\er was named after the manatee. All 
(piile simple, i<n't it? The niaiiatiM', oi- st\a-cow, 
is still extant, but vou iwo chalhnnrcd to find one. 
Eid'ortunately tla^ ]n-(\<ent law iirohibitinir the 
lakinir "f manatees was not ]\assed early enouirh. 
Xow, if you see one at all, it will very probably 
he quite (h-ad and stulTeil full of sawdust or tow 
or whatevei- <lead manattM'< art^ stulTed with. The 
sea cow i< a larire, ]M)!idt'i-ou<, idileirmatic animal 
which sometimes weighs as much as twelve hun- 


drc(i pounds, it lives in salt or brackish wafor 
and feeds on the bottom irmwili. T!m' Indians 
used \n think a who'^' h.t of manatee strak-, chops 
aii'l cutlets, and, since the animal lia^ ahoiit as 
mucli sense as the other kind ot" cow, and not a 
whit mnro, if wn- oa^^ily kidrd. Ad thr hnnun-y 
Indian did was sit on the hank and wait for thf» 
sea-cow to li.-ave out of th.' watrr in it^ h'i-nrdy 
^va\' for an Mcrasional breath ot' air a!id tlicn >huut 
an arr^w i:;to it where it would do tlif mo-t irood 
— to tiio IndiaiL»'r tic rille sup'plantcd the 
how and ;!..' manatee sonn hfcamc coii>pi(Minirs 
for in- ahsence. Wdiat th^' writ^n- wan.ts to kn.ow 
is what Mr. Manatuu vsa:^ called. If Mrs. Manatee 
was a sea-cow wa- he a ^oad^nll' Tin has nrx-or 
ht-ard of a -''a hull, icit an\' tlpin\\- to the ftr.'ct 
that manatees were or are alwa\- of tla- t-^nd-a- 
sex isn't a hit of good for thr roa-nii that >oung 
inanatt't's have frequently been seen accompany 
i:.L: .\fnther Manatee, which Avnnld h^f.r that ,-onie- 

wh- It ahout was a sea-cow, or 

' ; i ; i 

• it till' oppx) 

site sex. lhi\\,.\< r, since little of tic manatee 
sa\'o ii> name is left to-da\, \\h\ \surr\' uwr >uch 
a tritliug point? Just the sam^, nnv one will road- 
ily see that a sea-cow can't ho a sea-cow when 
h.''< a had! 

The nam*' of Sarasota i> all .-'irt of tamrhM] np ; 
widi diat erstwhile better-known name of Kimr- 
lini,^ It used to be a case of t]dnh of a cir(ai- and 
yon t!a»nLdd of Singling. Xow it' \<ca tldnk of a 



circus yon tldnk of Sara-ola. Tt takc> two 
jumps, hut you do it. John Iiimrlinir, of the 
Greatest Show on Inarth, now }>rid'ers to he known 
as Jolm Kdmrlinir of Sarasota. As far hack as 1912 
Mr. KlmrlinLT saw the ])os>ihilities of Sarasota 
and j)romptIy annexed a hundred and fifty acres 
of shore ])ro]»orty. That \\as t he heiriniunfi:. Xow 
there is under eunstrucliun at Shell Beach a mil- 
lion-dollar palace of Ferrara marhle— well, there 
mu\' he a few hrick or tiles nsed — wdiich, when 

completed, will he the top hole show ])lace of the 
A\ e<t Coast, (rntil some one sees Mr. Kimrling 
and goes him a million dollars— and a few shi])- 
loads of Italian mai-hle — better.) While the palace 
was still no more than white lines on lilne ])aper, 
perhaps not even so much, Mr. Kingling got to 
hankeriuL^ for somethinir to occaijjy his waiting 
moment.^. Prohahly he had .just tinished watering 
tlu' la>t ot' his several hundred heantiful palms 
and was dr\inir hi^ hands (ui the seat of his 
tr-ousers, which is the way the writer invariably 
di'ies his, and lonkimr off into the sum^et wdien the 
idea came to him. (hit tlnu-e, aloinr the horizon, 
stretched any numher of inlands not doinir a thing 
In the world hut ,iu>t st T'etchinir. Wliy not make 
them at least eaini their keep? Xo sooner said 
than done! Mr. liinirlimr trot a lot of money to- 
irt'ther -ma}he he sold an eh-phant or a couple 
ot camels and houirht the whole cahoodle of 
Key>; Longh(;at aiul Worcester and Sarasota and 







/ Luuii. Tiicu lie started in tu aiung.-liure. 
I Xnw, althonirh ho mny possil'l} ho shy n ronple 
/ ot" elephants, he has tliirt}- -ix miles <•!' w.ilt'r 
front, thf \\\in\,- southern eiid d' Sai'asota Counly 

ami all thf i-'iands north ol Bii^: Pass. AfU'i" all, 
\vliat '> an flrj.haiit? 

Juhn Iiihirliinr made Sarasota wliat slic I< to- 
dav and vou ('an liiaic lir i< sati-ticd. P)iit he isn't. 
He's ,ju>t started. Wait until lie has dcvrloped 
all that hark c»aintr\- ui'n triu-k t'arnis and irroxa^s, 
as he nu'ans to; wait until that thirty-six milL'S ul' 
shore t'r^uit h= dotted ^vith hnud-omo ]iomo=:: wnit 
until tilt' n-'W "MillionDdllar ('ausr\va\'" from 
CJolih-n (hit-- Toiiit t(t Longhuat is opL'U I'or its 
^vhol«■ I'our niilt'> ! Ju>t wait. 

]^at at that \'ou A\"on't have to wait long. Thuy 
not (tnlv il<i thinir^ in a huir ^va}" in Florida, hut 
tlifV do tlitin in short time. Aiid thf\' <i<» thrm 
Avith miirhty little fuss. To-day you dri\-(' ah>n<_r 
and see a btrt-teh ol' .-and ociaipi.''] l.y two man 
prove fvpo^i, a hlue horon aii'l a fuMler crah. 'l\\-o 
month- tV^m t^) <la> >oii pas- t lie same way an<] 
ruh y<t!ir eyes. Tin' two manL'ro\a' tr»M's hax'r ])e- 
c'ome I'oi'ty-eleven |ialm<, tlio Muf Ina-on is a pink 
ln)ti'l with laVL'ndi'r trimmings an^l thf }i<Mlfr crah 
is rarinn- '<irh-'\vise ovor an oiLrhteen hole l^oH' 
course ! 

".John RinLdiiip of Sarasota" Is correct, hut so 
is "Sarasota >>\ John l\inirling.^' Mr. ]\inLdinu' 
douhth'SS still lovus his elephants — what t'.'W ho 


has left— his camels and Iiis antcat<'rs and all tlie 
other attractions of the Biggest Show ou Earth, 
but it's dollars to doughnuts he lovcs Sarasota 
muru. lie couldn 't very wed help it. Why, it 's his 
own city and ho ju-t ahout made it lumself. Others 
have come aloni: and helped, a lot of them, but it 
was John KMnirlinir who })ointrMi the way and cut 
the first path. Sarasota now has a poi)ulation of 
5,529 citizens and about a thousand real estate 
sah-'snicn wjio lam around too fast to ])e counted. 
She- has line buildings, fine water and good sewer- 
age. She has irood schools, too. The Bank of 
Sarasota has deposits of more tlian $2,200,000. 
And it's not the only bank tla^re, oitlnT. 

Kather a lively, up-and-cominir ])lace, Sarasota. 
Of her pi'e-rnt authentic po|)ulation. 3,o^0 per- 
sons ha\e ai-ri\-ed on the scene since the Census 
of lli2U. Sexcrrd more have arrived since the 
Census of ir»2o. If you are still interested in 
climati' after all }-ou'\-e had to read ahout that 
suhjrct, }()U will foririve mention of tlie fact tlnit 
()\t'r a jioriod of tweiitv-seveii vears Sarasota's 
averairc maxinmm tem])erature was 90.5, her aver- 
aire minimnm ri.'t.o and her averaire mean 71.9. 

Xt'ar Sai'asota the Hrotherliood of Eocomotive 
Euginrei's has started a larire de\-elopnnuit by the 
purchase of tlie town of X'onicc and 27,000 acres 
of farm hmd. Tlie latter will be sold in small 
tracts to members of the organizatiom Veince, 
already well started, faces the 02>en gulf some 




twenty niiiL'6 below ►Sarasota. lliis town was 
plariiit'd hy John ^s'ohl!i, who ha^ l»roui:ht to 
ri-alit\' so many (irrarns of i'air citit-s, and should 
soon rt'>ol\-o i!>oh' inio one of the h)t'auty spots 
of tht' A\ t'.^t Cua^l. ddif df'\'(,'h){)Tnt'nt plans in- 
clude a of sovoral niilrs to connect X^'nice 
with the Myakka I\i\"rr, which pai'alh'ls tin- coast 
inland, aiid tlie hiiildiiiLT of a second town on tln^ 
aereaire property alouLT that stream to tlie south. 
AVhu wouldn't be an engineer, li\-c in Mr. Nolan's 
idoa of a proper eity and commute by motorhoat 
down tho tropical Myakka to a noat tni-aere 
oranLTf Lrr(»\-e or radi-h i'arm.' 

Sonit'thiiii; >l!ould }ia\'»' been said while we were 
still ''up tlio road a pioee'' about thr Indian 
mounds of Sara-o*a and v'ciiiity. Several of 
these ha\f rdrtady be.'ii fonn.l and exeavated, and 
more doubtless still await discovery. The build- 
ers Were that "lo.-t race'' which we call the Abaii- 
aki, tl'ip tribe wliich leaked its pottery from the 
inside iii-tfud of from without. IVits of the pot- 
tery, stone imphiuents, beads and ptortions of 
skeleton^ lia\'e been frequently unearthcfh Any 
one with a •'buLc" lor archeology and a spade can 
have an a\^t"ull}' [ro<»d, time- around Sai'asota, so 
hjUL'" a- h>' rt'^peet -!!.>■'" Xo T re- pass" si<j"ns. 

You'\'<' '-rou'- about a hundr-'d miles from d'ampa 
when you eat'-h sight of the broad waters of 
Charlriffe Harbor arid r'i!l a<'ro-< the mile and a 
'juart'-r, sleel-and-concrete bridir'' into Ihiuta 


(Jorda. Here is one of tlie pleasantest spots on 
the gulf coast. Sea and rivers and sounds, off- 
shore keys aiid barrier reefs, mingle in interest- 
ing confusiom The waters abound in fish and 
Punta (Jorda is one of the liig commercial fishing 
ports. The city has l,b;>5 inhabitants and does 
well by them. It maintains its own water and 
lighting systems, has a good sewerage system, 
plenty of welbpaved streets and sidewalks and 
excellent hotels, (diarlotte County, the result of 
a major oi)eration pjerformed four or five years 
ago on De Soto County, is, for a Florida county, 
only a baby in size. But it's a particularly 
liealthy baby. Its develo])ment is hardly more 
than started and thousands of acres of its rich 
soil await tlie ]>l(nv. The main industries at pres- 
ent are truckinir, citrus fruit growing and pine- 
a|)ple culture. Some of the best pinea])ples pro- 
duced in the Enitod States are- o-rown around 
Punta (Jorda and handsome ])rofits are made. 
The initial outlay is fairly great, however, and 
the man who iroes in for ''pimps'' must be pre- 
pared to ])ut many dollars into the soil before 
he tak(\s his reward. Both open tield and lattice- 
shed growinir is don(>, according to the variety 
planted. Charlotte County is well down toward 
the tro})ical reirion of the state, and sutdi fruits 
as dates, sapodillas and papayas gi'ow to per- 
fcctioin Punta Corda and the Charlotte Harbor 
islands }ia\-e already been >j)oken of as tisliing re- 


LET'^ no TH FT.nT7Tr>A! 

sorts for the -pnrtsman. Hereabouts the '';Silver 
King'' and the less kingly but weightier jewfish 
are to be found in abundance. A jewli-li ot five 
hnn<ir.Ml puimd^ eaii, ihey say, give you (jiiiif a 


A run of fwoTity-seven milr'^ ovor 'hf Taiiiiaini 
Trail laings the traveler to Fort M >.'!<. ainl wIh'U 
la' La> reached Fort Myers he ha- ai rixtd some- 
where. Here is a rual truijical Laly jn-t lu.'giiiniiig 
to awa]:en to h^^r pn=:^ibilitio<=. Until three years 
back P''!]-* Af-.t-r- v. a- th*' Sleepincr PririrT'>^ of 
Flori'la towns. Lackinc: a a a']-- ma*'' la'idi:*' ox^r 
the Caloosahatchee ]liv^v and t i-av.rsal)l<' roads 
to the north, she might alniu^t a>-: wt-li haxa- hrcii 
set do^^Ti on one of the Florirla T\pys so far a< in- 
tercourse with the rest of the state was con* . rih d. 
Not, however, that she v,a< L^rtady worrit d. Tu 
fact, she didn't mind her isolation a Kit. Sla* 
had been isolated for bomu thr.*'^ r< of a 
century, had become used to it ai 1 railar lilod 
i^ |aa)bably. Indeed, you'd tin>l pa-nly of old 
residents who view the rec* iit -ad-'a n impetus to- 
ward enlargement and a iiifLro|.)olii;in -tatu-, with 
d. . p suspicion, and who even speak a trill.- l>it- 
terlv about it. Well, there i< no doulit tliat I'ort 
M; L'rs before the worl'l iana' ^o it \\a< a plea-ant, 
leisurely place to live in; no dou^' tfiat LM<»wtli 
and development will do av, ay v. itli mal! ot' its 
former charm. But enoup^h of the latt. r will le 
left to keep the city wholly de^ir d-l- from tla' 



puiul uf \iu\v ui winter visitor or voar-round 

Fort Myers came into existence in the da\ > of 

the Seminole unplra-antiuv^s when a luilitarv post 
was e-taMi.die.i a lew mika^ up the Caluosaliatehee 
River under the name of Fort Harvio. Later the 
post was -treiarthenod, roLrarri-oia'd and recliris- 
tened Fort Myers in honoi- of ili,. thrii Thief (Jnar- 
termaster of tla^ Deparlmmt of Florida. Brevet- 
(oaaa-al Abraham T. Myers. In l^ai! Genei'al 
Hancock was stationed tln^Te. After the termina- 
ti'»n of tlio Indian troaklt-s tin* I'ort wa< ptraeti- 
eall}' ahandontMl anil tho localiMii \\-;is taken up 
^i"der i!,.. IloiiiHstead Act by a Xdnrinian named 
F\-aiis. lie iiad his residence in a loir house A\iiLrli 
had bpon part of flie fort and which occupied a 
site ahoui where the present Royal T'alm Hotel 

Naturally enough, a tuwu in. existence fully 
eiirhty y».'ai's acquires a seftl(^d lo-k, and tin's Fon 
.M>aa-- lia-. SIh' ]i:i< ]ior streets shaded hy trulv 
maLrnilieciit treos, and the tra\-'ha' iVom the Xorih, 
alter (U-o-^inu" the v'wrv on the luiledomr brid^'-e. 
proceed- ah)[a_r tho winding river shore ou an 
avenue ari'hod wi'ji tiia^ ^pc'rimi'Tis of tliat na^st 
reiral of all trees, the Royal Pahn. All of the 
city's other attractions aside, a walk or lide 

a 1 f ' ! I Lf { 1 1 : ( • ( 

1 r • 1 ' , ,■ a 

lOl n( 

r nf lu.a- >ha.!"d -Irccl.^ is sui- 
licient r. ward for a visit to Foia M\a^rs, Slie has 
moro i!,,ia :,0 varieties of r-ahn-, besides interest- 



LKT'F^ on TO FLolMDA! 

iiig specimens of tropical ami i! tropical trees 
a!i<l -linil'S of other species, ai:'! !:• r uMnlfiis aro 
(It'liirii' t'lil. r)iit >]i'''- ;i\vakf !;m\v, aii^l takiiiLT oil 
a sliirlitl} <iii'i\'rent aspect. The tree-honliTiMl 

fcti'L-fts rfinaia. l)n! hii^iiiess Imiuiiiigs arc jiokiiii^ 
their iip|>«'r >:'>!•!. ^^ nlmvo f]ip -mnssos^ of t'oliai^o 
and the erstwhile quiet i- I'l'^kcii 1»\- tic //">//r of 
the motor kns and the plfailin-r cr}- of tho sales- 
man with a nt-w subdivisi' ^n on hi- hands. 

To-dav — ur vesteriia\', that i-— "Tlie Citv of 
Palm-'" liad a population of -liLrhtly loss than 

7, <"'•', hat siie is uiidouhttMily In i"(ir a tremendous 
irrowtli, a!:d that tiLrnro won't an-wcr for loiiu^. 
An ;iml.i'ioLi> dovolopmonL i> [dannod aiid already 
under way. This ineludes the dred^^Im^: of the 
river for deop-dranirht vessels and tlio luiildinu^ of 
mnnii-iiKil th-cks. Ali'''ad\' the citv has manv of 
the conit'oit< and convenience- to he . xprctod of a 
modern and pirugrfS--i\e pilaee; really irood 
schools, paved streets and sidewalks, sanitary 
and -*orni sewei'^, an arff-ian wi'll >upply of t^ood 
wan-r, electric li-rhnnLr, pnhlie parks, a })leasnre 
pier and last, but certainly not h a-t, a thoromrhly 
aMrae:i\u a.-^ well a>. eunnnudiuus railway station 
that lool:<=^ a whole lot liko a pief nresrpic, sprawdy 
old Spani-h mission, d'ho eip\' i- wrll serxaMJ by 
two n^w-papers, it ha- tln'r,. pro. parous hanks 
an(i th.- -tart of an excellent pnhlir lihi-ar\-. If 
also has a handsome n( w ho-pitah Xot, of 
coTirse, that there was reallx an\- n.-rd of a hos- 



pifaUn so jjrallliy a place, but you know how it 
. n-. These heirinnnii: cities think they have to have ■ 
all the frills of older comnninitit-s, wdiether tliey're 
really re.pured or not. What hotels there are'are 
prood, hilt more are ne.>d,.<h T)]), yes, and there's 
a nice eiKhtecu^li,,!,. ^r,^p' ,-,,urseI 

Lee Tounty, of which Eort Myers is the seat, 
is a rich sectioji ,,f the state, and while its present 
l)<'})iilation is only around Tl/ioo— of which 267 
are Seminole Indians—its resources are such that 
withm the next two or three years tliat ])opula- 
tion will without the shadow of a doubt be more 
than trebled. A part of the county is included 
in the P"]verirlade country and will not be rea<ly for 
cultivation tor a while, but tliere's plenty of 'land 
easily accessible at i)resent. Lee County's posi- 
tion at almost the tip of the peinnsula* is crood 
insuranc' airaimst killimr frosts, and plenty of sun- 
sliine and raintall account for the remarka])le 
cro})s rai-ed. Here is veritahly the hiniter's and 
fislierman's para<lise, for biir and small irame are 
^^^ ^"' ^'^^nuil and the tishimr is far-tamed. Guides 
and outfits for trips iTdand or alomr the passes 
may bi' obtained. By },oat one can trav(d up the 
nvt-r to Lake < Jk.M'chobee and thence bv canal to 
Mmmi, and tinil good sport and plenty of interest 
all the way. 

Fort Myei-s is the w i?ifer rc'sidence town of two 
distiniruished citizen.-,^ Edisori and Henry 
1-k'rd, whose comfortable hut modest homes are 









sitnrtted companionably close. Here, too, Jolm 
I-)UiT<>nL^];- was a frequent visit mt (lurini: tlir later 
year- of his life. AhhoiiLrh the city ii a guud 
tifteen miles back fmin th<' 1:11! f, tlio fact is not 
rt'Lrretted since the ('aloo-ahatcliee is so broad as 
to be a iniiiiature gulf in it>flt\ To I't-acli tlie 
coa-t, liMwever, i-> only tlir niatt^/r oi a f^'W niiuuti's 
I'V way (>:' tliM |)a!ni-ljordL'rL'd McGregor Boule- 
\'ar.l, |i;i-t Lrro\a- and attracfivo winter liomes. 
I'nM'a ]\a--a is the terrninu< of tht' lioiilcvard; 
and also the terminus of tla- caltle to Havana. 

Xot far fr<>ni F-n't M\-i-.-, at Iv-t.To, i< tlif seat 
of the Kort'shan Unity, or ^^rnivursology," tlie 
unique religious and intellrT-tnal cnlt founded by 
the late P-. Tvrus R. T. ■,•,]. Dr. Tc-d, whose 
\olrjninous wiltings were signed "Koj-.-sh." hehl 
the view that the wurld i- a spLuru an<l that we 
live on the inside instead of the outside of It. And 
he proved it, at least to ]n< o\v?i -at i-faction, in 
a volume published some }• ars ago entith d ''The 
Cellular Cosmogony." After his deaUi hl> body 
wa- tnloml^ed in a huge bupuleher on Ihu bank 

I of the Estero River, ^v];r■•re n I'-nard wn^ alwny- on 
watch by day and \'.!iere a heet.rn burn'MJ 1,y 
night. The high water occasioned by th<' storm of 
1921, however, swept away all tr i<« of ihr inaii-<> 

ileum. His disciples engage in irm^ r ai-iiiLr ami 
truck growing, and their prodn'^- ar. a]\^ay> of 
the finest. They believe In (onmi'^n owie r>hi[), 


linve prospered exceedingly and are now a wealtliy 
and esteemed rommunifv. 

^AVhen, a frw years a-o. Barr-.n G. Colli. t. of 
Xew York, bou::ht ija- h.wer lialf of L^e Countv 
an obligiii- Legislature used the knife a-ain and 
Collier County came into boimr. Barron Collier 
IS lord of a vast domain down there, and what he 
has done and is doimr gives liim everv riirlit to a 
niche in th(^ Ilall of the Miracle Workers'^ Tlnis 
far, Uiomrh. liis atTaii-s are strictly })rivate, none 
of his vast liohbJnirs have |)ass.'d from hi^ hands 
and it is on]\- fair to respect his rechision. At 
some not far (bstant date Collier County will, so 
to speak, }n\r<\ onto the worhl and into jml^licitv, 
but until it (h)e.s h^t it live its own life. Xot, of 
course, that the visitor is barrel Xor tliat lie 
doesn/t get down that far. The Tamiami Trail 
i-^ ^^'■•'<)d as tar as h^^nita Sprin-.-. an.d practicable 
to Xaples an.l ewn bcynn,]. Xa|)les, a small town 
awaiting the coming of the railroad, was a fa- 
vorit(^ spot in flie winter oi^ the late Henrv Water- 
son, of Loni<vIlh' and the rest of the w.n-hb Here, 
in a fine old house set in a mass of tropical luxu- 
riance, he was wont to vi>!t hi- frirn.l and busi- 
ness associate, Cnlouel W. X. IlaMeman. Sitilnir 
there on the veranda of the comfoi'tabb' residence, 
^^■''^' ^^"' '""l: -ihrry beach and the quiet i^ulf 
'"'*"*"■'' them, ihe tw., Ixentucky ch-nels must have 
enjoyed many ra!,- hours of reminiscence and 



propliocy. Lot us hope that amonc: the many 

othrr thiiiir> that irrrw in the Mu^ irardm sur- 
rounding' the hou>*' was that fraLn-ant hcrh known 
as niiiit, fnr tho ])ii'tui\' ot' tin" two aoc-onifdisluMl, 
ol.i-worM irnith'nn'n srattMl th.To at tli^ir case 
s^'cms sonnliow iiicomph'tf unless we can vision 
at their >-U»)w< two tall fr^M encrusted glasses 
topped wuh what w;i<, or .-hould havu been, the 
fctatc iiuwer of Kentucky. 

OKattee XVII 


Moore Havex, on tlic west sliore of Lake Okee- 
chobee, is at th.' end of an interestinLr run from 
Fort Myers that follows th. picturesque Caloosa- 
hatchee Kiver, past Huckinirham and Lal)elle; 
but, havino: ivached that destination, there is noth- 
ing' for it as yet but to turn around and come back 
since the road to the north is not temptimr. Moore 
Haven, a younir but thriviinr to\^m in the center 
of the rich Ok(H'c]iobee farmin- district, can best 
be reach(Ml by boat from P^ort :\ryers or bv trains 
of the Atlantic Coast Lin(>. The boat trip is not 
to be miss(Ml in any case, for the vovaire up 
the troi)ical Caloosahatchee River is a series of 
h)vely views. (The word Caloosahatchee means 
''crook(Hl river"; so, of course, it is unnecessary 
lo a(hl -river" to it, but, e.iuallv of course, it is 
done.) Above Fort Myers the stream narrows 
middcuily and never exceeds a (pnirter of a mile 
in width until it broadens into Lake Ilicpochee. 
the traveh^r may still obtain a better idea of the 
Iroincal junirles here than on any other o? the 
navi^^abh> streams, altlion-h the hanks are beam,- 
rapi.ily ch-ared lor -roves and farms and villa-es 
are spriiiKinir up on each side. 



Li:T-S GO Tn V\a)\U\)\\ 

I Steel motor vessels sixty-five iVcL iu kngiii and 
'nineteen feet in width mnlxo the trip tlirim wpckly 
in each direction between Fort .\fyers ainl W't -t 
/ Palm Beach. These boats are now ainl wt 11 ap- 
pointed, with accommod i'ioiis for Ud }ia->t ult. is. 
An observation deck sixteen feet above the water 
a]]nw= a fine view of the scenery. 

A good road runs by wriy of F.»ri On^,],]!, a Sem- 
inole War settlement, to Ar^ adia. aid from tho 
latter place the traveler can cuxcr iliu liidire and 
Lake sections very thoroughly on liis northward 
trip. Arcadia has a few more than 4,000 inhahit- 

h is the 


ants and is a fast-growing conim 
county seat of De Soto County, one of the state's 
best citrus fruit dislriet.s. Arcadia has particu- 
larly good water from nrfp-inn wells, n fill' -\-teiu 
of schools and many attractions for th^ home 
seeker. Xorthward, past Zolfo Spi i!!--, t!.- road 
reaches A\ auchula, seat of llar<lee County, one of 
the most productive counties iu ihc peninsula. 
The Peace River flows past on if= way down fmm 
the lakes, forming the valley of that nam.' vdiah 
has a state-wide reputation f i- }• liliyw (ilrus 
fruits, truck and general larm jeoducL- arc raised. 
Wauchula is well supplied wiiL paved sf relets, 
municipal lighting and wa^ r pLiiits, 8ew.rair(S 
good schools and many creditahh* liuildii i^s. It 
is a particularly progressive city ulth a pit -en 1 
population of 2,G00. 

Sebring lies eastward, on the shores of lieanti- 


ful Lake Jaekson, fairly iii wla' lias come *o lio 
known a.- the Scenic Highlands. It i. a]y 
|''\''^' ^';^ '■' •' lovely place, and, altheu-h ^till an 
infant in yr;tr<, bas already won distinction as a 
resi'h'iice city. It lia^ l.^no iidiahitants tlnrty 
mil. > (,f street pavement, parks, schools, elmrclies, 
hanks, a puhli.- Idn-ary, at least one good liot^l 
and much mure on the way. Tt is that same Iiotel, 
elsewhere referred to, ^vhirh ae<-rpts no money 
from its guests for hMlirii;-. on >i;,-]i ,]avs as tlie 
snn fails to <hlnr. Oeor^e E. SebriiiL:." tlie pro- 
prietor, is seldom out of pocket. The lake ikvhin-: 
in the ncighhoi-hood is famed. 

The Scenic Tli-hland^ c<.TiM<t of a ridire a])out 
sixty mih- in lon-th faii-]\- in the center of the 
peninsula, a di-M'iet of i-ojiin- hills, -uti-llecked 
^'^''•' ^-'tl^"''^ <'nd piih" fni-^.^sts, a kind of country sur- 
pn.^inirly dilTeivnt from fliat alouir the coasts on 
^■'^^'•'i" ^"^♦'- Ilax-im.^ con^iderahle elevation, tlie 
lliirhland^ r.'eoi\o the benefit of the wiud- from 
^'otli^ ocean and -ulf and form, without doiiht, a 
p;i!'tieularl>- h-althfnl section of the state. Per- 
L'dnly it is a heantit'ul snctin7] aiid a re\-clat!on to 
those who -o Miero lahorin- ui;dor the nM<a])pi-e- 
^i''ti-ioii that Eloi-ida is Ju-t ono hmre expam<e of 
h'\-el .^an.l. W!m!-.'\oi- the eye travcLs a charming 
^■'"ta of hill and lake, of LM-ove aTid fnres-f, of wlm]- 
mi^ road- ai:d ph-a-ant homes i> \\:i\un^. This is 
^■"nipai-ati\,.ly im-a .•.hi!,m-\, <lating back scarcelv 
^"'^•"^'i "*!•'■ 'I^l-'H I-h'o>tprool', ahout tliirtv miles 



nortli of S"])ri!!Lr. was tl^.r' smitlipni forminus of 
/ til'' railroad aloiiLT th-' Ki<ii:t'. Fi-<^>t})rn()t' wasn't 
much at tliat tinir; '\u>\ a muiiKk'r of old Fort 
Clinch of Scminolf AVar days. Fow towns have 
had moro names, i»y tlie way, for it was siiccos- 
sivcly LakcmouTit, Keystone and Frostproof. 
The |)rc<fnt name will undoubtedly stick. It's a 
good nam*', wle-tlirr its im|dieation is wliolly 
truthful or Tir»t. IVriliaMy it i<, thouLdi, for the 
old r*-idents of tli" section assert that it hasn't 
^ known a real fm^t ]r\ forty years. And they ouudit 
to know. Frn>t|)r(»of t^-day is a thrivinir town 
of a thousand citizens and many mor«^ winter r(\s- 
idents, with every indication of becomini^^ in a 
short timt' a model r-ommunity. It is just about 
surroumh-d by lakes whose wat»Ts sujij^ly the best 
of fi-liinir and wlio.-e sandy shores lur(» the batlier. 
One is -J.".'! f*'"t above the sea liere and the air is 

Tm the wp>;t, a few miles distant, lies Fort 
Mt-ade, a!ioth*'r r''ni!nd''r of Seminole War times. 
P'ort M'-ad'- boa-ts the wii{e-t bu-iness street in 
the <bate, P^roadway, wleT<'on ten automobiles 
may stand abrea-t-^or jias-, if they'd rather. It 
is in the center '-f a larL'-e phosphate district and 
^urro•:^ded by sonie (,1" thf b<-t L'^roves and farms 
in Fc'lk Oountv. J:>art(AV is a ^hort run to Iho 
riOr*/i. ;i c'^vof nearly 5,0^0, and one of the fastest 
jjT(,\\\n^ cornmunitieB in tie- ^tate. Folk is one ot 
the big and pro-pc-rciU- counties, containing a 


number of large towns: Lakeland, Haines City, 
AVinter Haven, amoni: them. 

The I\id,ire miirlit well be called Millionaire's 
Row, or somethinir e(|ually impressive, liut it 
wouldn't be fair to that part of the state, since, 
wliile it is true that a number of wealthy men have 
l)uilt their winter homes amomrst the hills and 
lakes there, the Ridire holds forth a welcome to 
all the world and his wife, and although some 
of the largest and fairest estates are found in that 
part there are thousands of smaller and humbler 
homes as well. Wealth is represented liy such 
names as Havemeyer, Westinirhouse, Curtis, Bok, 
Cadwalader, Gunther, Montgomery, Starrett, 
Heckscher, Crocker, Hemphill, Bush, Jennings, 
l^eclford, Warner, Babson and still others. Mr. / 
Babs(»n, statistician extraordinary and irood 
friend of Florida, sehu'ted a S])ot about halfway 
along the Ridi^e, not far south of Lake Wales, for 
his honn? and for the win.ter ([uarters of his statis- 
tical laboratory, and, incidentally, for dt^wlop- 
ment as a residence town now known as lxibs(Ui 
Park, on(^ of tlu^ aspirants (or the honor of being 
the highest town sitt^ in Florida. 

Edward Bok, of ^h)untain Lake, after he had 
settled down to the enj'oxnuMit ol a cliarming 
home, ])urchas(Hl some 2,2(^0 acrt\< near Lake 
Wales and (^ast of Babson Park, called in Fred- 
erick Law ()lmstead, landscapt> architect, and 
gave Trexel .hmgle to the \\t»tld a> a rcservaliou 


LET'S an T<^) FT.ORTPA! 

/ of wonderful beauty. Mr. P.^-lx wn^ liorn on 
i Trexel Island in the Netherlands ; lience the name. 
i This tract has been deeded to the state oi' Florida 
j for the use of the pn])lic. TLr lidlural braiily of 
I the reservation will be unmolested, and Mr. ()]in- 
stend'- ]n^'or=; ar*' oo-nrTTntMl cliiffly with the cs- 
taMishing of roads to best . ■ tlir attractions 
of the park, these to connect with tlif neai- ])y 
highways. "Wild iii'f will Lu prutucifd and for 
this purpose the reservntion will ])o jilactM] in 
charge of a ward-:i a:;d -'X-ri-al d*'pn:ies. Walk- 
in-thc T^'aS'T Lake a:.d the connect im: (-nek of 
. the same name are within the con tines ot' tlie 
paii:. \\ alk-in-the-Water Creek k> Lini.jue in that 
its bed is frequently fifty feet below thf sur- 
face. Mr. Bok has also established a park and 
bird sanctuary on Iron Mountain, one ol" th.- liiLrli 
spots of the state. In fact, it is claimed tor tht^ 
summit of Iruu Mountain that it is the hiLdn st 
elevation on the Atlantic and gulf coast ])et\v( .11 
New Jersey and Mexico, but every now and then 
some one takes the joy out <-!" lif. hy di-ox . rini,^ 
a ne^r. » levated place. Anyhow, li'n-i Mountain 
is 324 feet above sea level, nn i *!ai onudit to he 
bio^b onough for any bird, even an . ,i_dc. 

Lake Wales looks on Iron Mountalfi and Moun- 
tain Lake as her own, though sh- lia< ph nty ot' 
other attractive features and euiild gt,l,': 
nicely without them; Lake Caloosn. for in-tan. c, 
ten miles of beautiful forest-lined vat. a that i^ 

TimuLGii TiiE KIDGE CuUXTRY 237 

not onlv wonderful to h-ok on I ait is e(!nallv won- 
derl'ui to lii^ii on or bathe in. Lake Wales was 
a turpontino cnnij) twelve years airo and yon could 
]ia\a' {lui'chased all xou wantt'd of it for a dollar 
and twodiits an aci-e. The same land is lunnir 
snapped up now at the rate of al)out $100,000 an 
acre. Xot all of it, of courr^e, just some that 
happens to he well within the Intsines? seetion of 
the city. Xice if you had known in time, eli ? 
Lake AVahs laid a ])opnlation of 2.747 in tlio 
sprini,' of lO^o, but the writer suspeets tliat that 
iiLrure won't answer to-day. It's a ^rreat little 
town. A bn-}- one, too, and a wealthy one. Its 
assessed valuation is $4.r)(ir).()00 ; not at all h>ad for 
a town that i-n't much more than tcqi yr-ar^ old. 
A(uril find L-'ood ti>liing there, aiid irood irolf, \oo. 
The Mountain Lake course is kianvn from Maine' 
to Mexico. Aou'x'e irot to o\\-n |)]'optM'tv there 
i<» join, liowe\'.-]", altliouirh it' you hapunui to be 
a ])er<onal frien<] of Mr. lleek>h.T or Mv. Be*]- 
f(»i'd or of one of the other members yon can hint 
for visitor's ])ii\-ile!j'os and ]>robably irct tliem. 
'Jdu'y ha\-e a eluhhou-e th.-re that tliey tliink 
rather well ot'. Some l'olk<, pi'ohaMy enxdous. 

call it the ''M 

il! iona I rt 


1 ' ' 

nh : 


hich i_<n't fair 

since there aren't an\' more millii^naires beloiiL^:- 
ini:* to it than helieiLT •<> t!;e Metropolitan in Xew 

A\dntor na\-r!i mW- i'-rlf "Tlie C]\v of a Ilum- 
dred Lake>." (.^uile a pretty name, and doubt- 


238 LHT'S (;() TO FLoKlDA! 

less rIoQorvpfl, altlpiUL:}; no on.' to tho writer's 
knowledge has actual!}- couiittMl the lakes thore- 
ab'»ut>. Manv nf th,. lak.-s are C(Minected bv 
canals, an\-\^'a\'. wliicli would causf confusion to 
one cnLTaircd in chcckini,^ llicni np. Those canals, 
thouLrli. are certainJy clover contraptions, since 
one may get into a launch and iro for fully fifty 
miles throuirh ont' lake after another. Maybe one 
can <h) thf whole hunilr^M} that way. Boatini^: is 
a ]i()pular sport at Winter Ilaveii, and a new 
cluhhnus.' on I.ak'' I'doise will, when completed, 
mak'f it more so. Tliey'\»' L'"<»nt' in for spee(ld)()at 
raeii.LT ^h'^Tf latoiv, an<k althouLrh some one is al- 
wa}-.-» gelling dumpd into {\n' water, they keep 
riirht at it. T\"int*r Ha\''n is a ir^od lookini^ citv 
— bv thi< *;nn' vou'\-.' fallen to the fact tliat anv 
plac' i:: Flori'la with more than three liundred 
p'^rman.'-i.* rf-i'h'iits is a <aty — and is one of tlie 
wiiie awake cumniunities of the Seeuic ITit^ldand.s. 
Th'Tc are lots of o-rovo^ around and the fruit 
is 8om'- of t]]e h.'-t rai<e(l in tlie state. Winter 
Ilavei] };a< "Social Security" for its motto. 
W}iat.\-.'r i^ mean-, th'- writer is certain that the 
city i- li\-inL' up to it. As for inluibitants, it 
lia^ 'ko"*' "f th'-m, and more, a w}K)le lot more, 
are c\p(<*ted. 

Lak'-lar;'! i- one of Poik ronnty's biir burcrs, and 
po---il.'ly it- liiie.-l. With a })opulation of 17,000, 
Lakeland is proud of her progress. Of conrsi; 
I>oi)ulatioii isn't •■\-cr\-Miinir, but any one knows 


that 17,nn() |)ei-sons — to say nothing of hundreds 
of smart real estate men — aren't going to settle 
down in a })lace unless that place has lots to ofTer. 
And Lakeland has. Why, even its self-selected 
nickname, "The City of Heart's Desire,'' proves 
that. By this time you've probably concluded 
that communities aloni^ the Ridge are inclined to 
l)e a bit — is siuitimental the word? Or fanciful! 
A bit fanciful in the matter of their selection of 
nicknames or sloirans. But it isn't confined to 
the Ridge, that failing. It's all over the state. 
There's somi'thinir about Pdorida that makes you 
just a trifle romantic. Lakeland is a well-ar- 
ranged city, well paved, tilled with a multitude of 
comfortable, generally handsome and freipiently 
imi)osing residences, suppliiMi with about all the 
conveniences looked for in much larger communi- 
ties and on the way to becoming a i)Ower among 
Florida cities. She has, by the way, exceptionally 
good hotels. 

The hii^diway turns eastward now% passing Au- 
burndale and Lake Alfred and several other at- 
tractive towns that are set down l\v the shores 
of the lakes and fairly embcnvered in orange trees, 
and leads to Haines City, a fast-growing com- 
munity of slightly over 2,000 persons recognized 
as one of the healthiest spots in the state. Its 
elevation is 2'_M feet. The traveler cuts across 
the nortliwest corner of Osceola C(Uinty on his 
way to Kissimmet', that town with the famous, 


T.KT'S; no TO FT/)KII)A1 

Tr;^i'li-puiined-on Tiamo farront on tlio '^<i^l/' 
please). K's-ininifr isn't >iti]at*Ml on Lake Kis- 
simmtH', as cvtry oiif knows it shouhl he, and tlm 
kirgr IxMjy dt' wat»T ynn.dcr is, instead, Lake 
TohopekaiJLM, which is much nK)ro diffHnilt in say 
than Ki- = ininn'c. A clean, mncli alivt^ town — that 
is, city — of jn-t n!id»T 4,000, KissimnuM^ is tlio 
shippinir [xjint for a larL^' territory dovotcd to 
citrii- fruits and hanana culture and tlic p:rowint^ 
of truck and general crop<. TImtc arc larire 
pa'-kincr houses h^rf. T.akc ToliopckaliLra is a 
fine body of wat^r iiit»rs|H'r>tMl with numerous 
islands. Connection with Lake Kissimmee is 
made hy canals, and, from tlcre naviiration is ])0s- 
sible all the way to Lake Okechohiee and thence 
to tht' AMardic or the Lnilf. K\-t'ntually water 
commumcatioii will h.- s«'cur«'(l to tlif St. Jolm's 
River, wht-n I\i--irnmf'' will occu|)y a unique po- 
bitiun on an inland waterway rt'achinir from Jack- 
sonville the entire length of thf pt-ninsula to 
Fort Mvers. Thi< ci*\' ]ja< a r<'markahle future. 
Which, ho\\> \->r, is not to say that slie isn't en- 
joying an excellent, pio.-jterou- pre^fut. 

Orlando h^ a place of 'Ji'.non irdiahitants, a city 
CO wr]] and favorabl}' known that it is scarcely 
necessar} *o -pf^ak o^' it la-r't' at any IcriLrth. Tt 
fullv deserves the nanc' ot" "Lh<' (itv Heauti- 
ful," lying as it doc^ in th*- mid<t <t\' many lakfs, 
with its well-shadt'd btreeth, its hand-ornc Imild 
ings ar.d rf-id'Ji'.-^ and its lovely parks. Any 


one happeninir into Orlando on a midwdnter 
morninir miLrht sui)pose that Ic had inad\'ert<'ntly 
wandered t'rom his course and reached Cleveland 
or some other nu trop)olitan city. ( Thi> is in- 
tended as a compliment to both (develand and 
()rlan(]o.) Orlando lias several modern transient 
hotels, several large and W(^ll-arranired a])artment 
hotels and accommodations of the humbler sort 
for its visitors. And the \dsitors kiiow it and go 
there. Orlando is a much-visited jdace, wdiich, 
since it is on tln^ wav to ])racticallv evervwhere, 
is not surprising. But it isn't just a I'csort cdty, 
for it has a large and Lrrowdm: commerce juid 
is a manufacturinir titwn of some importance. It 
is the outlet for an extremely prosperous farm- 
ing and fruit country, and nearly threc-ipiarters 
of the state's (dtrus crop is marketed thi'ouirh con- 
cerns wdth head(piarters there. At present (Or- 
lando is enjo\ inii: its shai'c of tln^ Florida "boom'' 
and ]nishinir out rapidly in all directions. 

Winter Park, not fai' away, is called "The City 
of Homes," and has lots o\^ tlnnn. L also has 
l\ollins Oolle^-e, beautiful streets shaded with 
mossdi-aped li\-e oaks, its attractive' lake and an 
air of Welcome (piite its own. A number r>\' per- 
sons who su])posedly know what thry are doing 
ha\'e chosen Winter Pai'k for season or perma- 
nent residence. A\'ise folks are tie}'. 

Sanfoi'd is callrd but never mind. Lei's fo!-i::e t 
the sloL^ans. li'> a tine citv of 7,i>oO inhabitants 



' t 

• ! 


t i 




{ilai'rd in a farmiiiir community second to none 
in the state for arhievements. Sanford is the 
Oelery Center (»f the South. (If one couhl sj)ell 
it Selery St-nter it would look much better.) It is 
on Lake Monroe, one of the larirc lakes of the St. 
John's Kiver, and so has the advantatre of water 
transportation f()r its iroods. Five years a^o its 
citizens numl)ere(I h-^s than 2,OoO. Li four vears 
its population increased ei^i^dity-six per cent, its 
assessed valuation 121 per cent and its bank de- 
}tosits 4^ [)*'r cent. So, you see, Sanford is wluit 
may w.-ll be called a errowinu: and substantial 
community. B.inLr a deep-water port has a i:()od 
deal tn (jo with tic city's prosperity, for sliips 
may conn' to its docks from all over tln^ world in 
spitf- of tie- fact that it lies twenty-five miles 
awa}- from the oeran. Seminole ('ounty, of which 
Sanfurd i^ the S'-at, is sharing the city's pros- 

Mount Dora, Tavares, Eustis, all li<' on the road 
to tho u'e-t and north, attractive residence towns 
nmoh'^-l tie- lakt'.- (>\' Lake (^'ounty. Mr. Water- 
man mak»-s some of his pen points at Eustis. 
Lives t!]'-n-, too. L•M^^hurL^ farther west, is a 
jjlaee of o/jOU residents jvintr between Lakes 
(irinin and Harris, aboJit midway between o(M'aii 
arid irulf. \\ is a fjh-asant city, well liked as a 
wintt-r rt>idt'ji''f hy man}' from tie- eolder parts 
of tlie country and }orL.nn^' ahead rapi<lly. ' 

Ocaia, in Marion Coutity, is in the hunting 


grounds of Chief Osceola. At Old Fort King, 
which stood some two miles distant from the site 
of the present city, Osceola playfully murdered 
General Thompson. Hereabouts, too, roamed the 
Spaniards, and the ^'Ocali'' mentioned as one of 
De Soto's camping spots gave its name to the 
city which has grow^n up near by. Ocala lies in a 
beautiful country, with the famous Ocklawaha 
River handy and the equally famous source of 
that stream. Silver Springs, only five and a half 
miles distant. Lovelv drives extend in many di- 
rections. The city contains 6,721 inhabitants and 
is one of the worth-while communities of tlie state, 
with many miles of excellent paved streets, mod- 
ern public buildini^s, fine homes and a nice at- 
mosphere of comfort and contentment. 

Gainesville is a real citv beautiful to tHe 
writer's tliinking, no matter how many other 
places claim the title. It is old enough to have 
grown beautiful slowly, and tlie beauty that Time 
lends lias a distinction of its owil No gardens 
in till' state are fairer than those of Gainesville, 
and no broad avenues and streets are more won- 
(liTfully sluided. There's a homelike air about 
the jilace tliat wins the \'isitor at once, and, al- 
though frosts are far from unknown there, 
Gainesville has its own clientele of winter so- 
journers wlio wouldn't trade its sunny briskness 
for all the languorous mildness [^^ the farther 
south resorts. Tlu' citv is the hub o( numerous 



'i ' 


highway spnkos along whlrh otio may l:<, In at 
least six dilTerent direction.^. It is \hv srat .if 
A].u'lii:a Coiii.-y a:..] lias 8.400 iiilialiitants ; and 
this <]n.'^u\ ihrluLiu tliu young g.-mlcrnen of the 
^taif University located thoro. By all means s^o 
the Uniyersih' campuN vi>it thr huildin.irs and 
don't miss tlic .Mii-'un]. It's wry much wortli 

Fr-ni Gainu5vi!h--~!liom:rh don't Imrry otT— " 
your way lies to Stark.., an-l t^mni tla^rt- to Bahl- 
win, where you connect wl^h tla- Dixi.' 0\a'rlan.l 
Highway— State Road XunilMi- Ll-that takus 
yu— safely, it is h-^cd— into Jacksonville. 

rn AFTER xviri 

Ff.rnaxdixa is tilt' Kastport, ^faino, of Florida. 
Xct, of courso, that it specializes in lioilinir 
herrinir fry in oil and so turninir out ''sardines," 
hut, lik(^ Fastport, it is tucked away in a remote 
corner of tlie state, and tlie ti(h' of travel flows 
past ratlier tluu] to. And. like Fastport, it is an 
interesting; and ])i('tur.\«jU(^ place, and worth the 
side trip necessary to reaeli it. 

VouM never suspect, vicwin.u^ P^ernandina to- 
day, tlnd it was once a vastly imjiortant seaport, 
hut ])ack in 1^12 and thereah.uits it was made a 
neutral poid ])y tln^ Fmhariro Act, and, durinir war 
tim(\ its excellent natural ]iar])or was a< full of 
v(^ssels as a (liristmas ])U(hlinir of raisins. To- 
<hiy it leads a far quieter life, althouirh it is by no 
means a (h'ad town. Tt still lias a considera])le 
mai-itime tra<]e and stands na\-al stores and lum- 
her and ])hosphate u|) tln^ cinist an<I over the seas. 
To-day's po])ulation in :\01S. D Inis its own 
clientele of winter visitors, and nuiiiy of the 
near hy islands ai-e piawitely owned. On Oum- 
hcrland Island, close hy. stoo,] thi> liome of Colo- 
nel Xathaniel (Jreene, of the Oontinental Armv, 
presented to him i)y the state of Georgia. It is 






now tht' iiroprrty of tlu' Canit'irit' family. From 
Frriiandiiia fxcursions by buat amoiiLrst the Sea 
Ic^lands are i)]ea?ant expcrionros. Fernaiidina's 
winter rlimair is healthful and no more chill than 
that of east coast towns many miles to the south. 
rTack>onvilit', tlir (Jateway of Florida, is like- 
^vi^r its m^'tropolis, in spite of the lu'st eiTorts of 
Tampa a'.d Miami, its chief comnK^cial city and 
its principal railroad center. It also claims the 
dh-tinctinri of hoiiiLT the farthest west of all At- 
lantif I'orts, lu-iuLT |)racticany <liie south of Cleve- 
land, ( >}iio. Still, whether a city may rit^ditfully 
r'all its*']f a seaj)ort wli^n it li»'s twenty-five miles 
inland by river is at least a subj<'ct for debate. 
Its fir^t s^'ttlement wa.^ about l^U), but it was not 
incorjioratt'd until 1^:].'!. It was, of course, named 
lur Tn-neral Jaekson. It experiencrd ratlier a 
hoctic exi>tence durin^^ the Civil War, since tlie 
^'♦Mh-ral force's, wht-n not otherwise eniraKcd, in- 
variably went and Cca]-)tur<'d Jacksonville. One 
eari imagine the T'nion treneral [)ushini!: Iiis coffe(» 
cup away at the breakfast table, stretcliin.u: and 
a-kinL'': "\VfI], boys, what's on the tapis for to- 
day?" ''Not a thinir, General." ''Zat so? Well, 
]>('{u^r tro down and take Jacksonville, T ^Miess. 
Woti't <io to h,-t those folks think we're nei^dect- 

inLT '<^m." 

About the only fhint'' of real note happeninpr 
to Ja''k^or:'vi!J<- from t}jo time tin- Fnion colored 
troop- burned and l(jote(l it (ni their way out in 



'G3 to more r.M'ont }ears was the biir ilre of 1901, 
which cost the city about $15,000,0n(). Even that 
was ratlier a blossinLr in disiruise, since it gave 
an o|)poi-tunity to I'obuild in the ])roper way. 
'To-day Jacksonville is a tine, clean city, which it 
wasn't before the conllagraticui, and well worthy 
its post of commercial capital. The majority of 
persons etiterinir Florida make Jacksonville their 
first stop, and whm they do they are likely to 
receive a very good impression of the state. 
Jacksonvilh' is well laid out, has liroad streets, 
line })arks. liandsome buildinir<, attractive resi- 
dences and many admiral-le hotels. Beimr fairlv 
experienced a< a cit}-, it iro«\s about its duties 
w\\h little lost Tuotion and im]»resses the stransrer 
as beinn- Well go\-ei'nt'd. Jacksonville acts as a 
clearinir house for the re-t of the slate, supplies 
information to iinjuirini: travehu's and sets them 
on their way airain \\\\]\ c(Mirte<y and crood-will. 
nt course a \'ery considerabl*^ number who reach 
the city don't go on. Why should they? Jack- 
son\i!le offers about eveT->-thinir that any other 
I'dorida comnninii}- can of'fer, with the (exception 
of the warmer climate in winter. Xot tliat Jack- 
sonxdhe's \\inters are anxthinLr to strike fear into 
the heart of the Xoi-therner, however, for while 
she may and does ha\e some nippy days, the sun 
iroes on smilinir mo-t ot' tht> time and a little cold 
doesn't do worse than .set one up. Resides, it 
kills the insects I One naturalh isn't irreailv 




trruihltN] jiv insects in Jacksonvillr, luit tlu^ point 
occurred \n the writer and he threw it in. Many 
attractive residence sections, both insidr- the city 
pro[uT anjl on tlie outskirts, otTer themselves to 
the hnnit'-hnilder, wliile, if the intendinu: resid(Mit 
craves the oeran, h(' may take his ]>ick of several 
fine developrnt-nts al'niir tlie shore. As a ^irateway 
Jacksonville's titlf is secure. An avt-raire of more 
than fiV.' t;.on>a!id, autnmohilrs, containinii: ei,trht- 
een tiiousaiid pas-^-neers, enter the city by the 
►St .Tolin's Iiiv.'r Itridirt' (hiily. 

Thf/ ci*y i> a popuhir resort for winterint^ 
Xurth*-rners, and for such supplies severrd hotels 
whi'h >pe('ializ'' on sea>on or monthly rates. In 
tlie way of rtMT^at ioii Jacksonvilh' has about all 
there is. Her e-o]f courses ha\'e been referred to 
elsewhere. A number of irood theaters sup])ly a 
program of drarnanc, mu-ieal and mo\-inL^ picture 
attractions. Band cniic<>rts in Iffinminir l^irk are 
heM daily. The stores ai-e rather Ijetter than 
mitrht be eyppcfr-d af^'T <'X}>M'iences in other 
s'tutht'rii cities, a'.d pri<'('S, probably because 
Jackson\-i'b- m^r^'liarit < arc c,\t'mi)t from tin' 
ht-avy fr••iL^'/. tolls exacted of dealers farther 
south and west, arc reasonable. 

Jacksonville's population increases at a steady 
and le-.dM.'V pa«-c. In ]'r2\) it was a})out 91,000. 
In ]U'2'i 'r was !^'>,4oO. If ibe city carri<'S out its 
exprt-^-'d [njrp«>.^< of takin<r in adjacent territory 
the rj-0 tj^'-ure \sill }m- ab(jut 40,000 larger. Jack- 



sonville is the larirest naval stores port and ship- 
pini: point in tic world. Its total exports in 1924 
were .^7,7(i2,r)9:^ in value; its imports $7,448,831. 
It is a manufacturinir place of importance, with 
more than four hundred plants turnin.^ out a 
product valin-d at close to $100,000,000. The 
city's industrial pay roll is about $20,000,000 an- 
nually. Duval County, of which Jacksonville is 
the s<\'it, is one of the most prosperous in the 

Leavinir Jacksonville — recrret fully, perhaps — 
one starts soutliward on what is the longest shore 
drive in the world, almost 420 miles in lenirth. 
One may sto}) practically anywhere alonir the way 
and be certain of comfortable accommodations, 
excellent sea bathinir and a deliditful climate. 
Oh, other thinirs, too, but these come first to mind. 
The dauLrer in stoppimr before you have reached 
the (Mid of tlh' route, thouirh, li(\-^ in the possibilitv 
that }-ou'll like the pause so well that vou won't 
,iro on! Any otie of tifty spots alonir Florida's 
^rold aiiddilue east coast mi^rht well hold vou 
capti\c. \\diy, the writer knows a man who 
started six \-cars airo to i^et to a certain place 
<lo\vn in Palm l^each (\ninty--I won't mention its 
name since it doesn't iuhmI the advertisins: — and 
made the mi^taki--df it was a mistake; he thinks 
Hot of spendini:- the niirht in St. Auirustine. 
He's f)cen sj)endinLr tlie nii::ht there ever since. 
But St. Augustine certainly has a charm that's 

250 LET'S (iO TO FLoKlDA! 

liard to rosi^t. It's such a drliirhtiul miiidini: of 
the aiicifnt aii'l \\ir morlfrn, of i!i»- (iuaiiit and the 

pr;U'i!>'al ; .-' 

1 a w-h'l.'ii'ul {)laro to h)af in and 
such a tinr phicf to ho rnorirotic and np-an(hdoing 
in. And. of o-.ur.-o, it's ju>t ahont as lovely a 
town a- all Florida can show. And then— for, 
after all, tlioro ai'o a fow of lis old fo<z:ies left 
wTiii don't crax-*- heing crowdrd an<l pii-hed and 
walked on .'Vci'v niinnte— it's small (MKMmdi, witli 
its 1U,UUU iuhahitant-. to all<»w ilio visitor room 
to stretcli h,i= arni>. I'nt Si. Auirn-iino kee|)s on 
irrowinir ainl add- a thou>and or so ovory year, 
and ><), i^r^'Uv -Dnn, wli^n tho writer wants to 
stretch la- will doiikl'.r-- hax'e to i:.» farther. 

Tn case you've forgutteu it aftt-r hearinir it all 
vonr lifr'. St. Anirii-tiTiP is the oldest city in the 
I'nitod Stat'-. < Mm' alway- ha- tn h.-Ldn any sort 
of an aecouiit of th^' ]»laco with that statement. 
IlaviiiL: it off his clir.^t. tic wriirr may <ro on to 
remark that St. AriLrn.^tine continairs to look tlie 
])art owiriL-- to tla- v:\vr con-n and urood .indL^m»Mit 
of H.'iirv M. Fla-h/r. What would ha]»pt'n to St. 
Auirii>tine to-dav if one oi" ■■^uv mn,ha-n (h'Vt'lo|)ers 
got liold of her in the oondliinn in whieh Flairlor 
fonnd lie]- !^ something to make o!ie shnd<ler. The 
citv dates ba«'k U) lo^o, wheMi Feiiro Menendez 
de A\!!''- — Menendez to his fi'ifiids — defeated 
Jean Iiihant's fleet for the irlniy of (iod an<l set- 
tled dow!; (C: the site of the present city to start 
;i Xrw World colony for the King of S{)ain. 





hard to resist. It's such a delightful mingling of 
the ancient and the modern, of the quaint and the 
practical; such a ^vonderful place to loaf in and 
such a fine place to be energetic and up-and-doing 
in. And, of course, it's just about as lovely a 
town as all Florida can show. And then— for, 
after all, there are a few of us old fogies left 
who don't crave being crowded and pushrl :vm\ 
walked on every minute — it's small enough, with 
its 10,000 inhabitants, to allow^ the visitor room 
to stretch his arms. But St. Augustine keeps on 
growing and adds a thousand or so every year, 
and so, pretty soon, when the writer wants to 
stretch he will doubtless have to go farther. 

In case you've forgotten it after hearing it all 
your life, St. Augustine is the oldest city in the 
United States. One always has to begin any sort 
of an account of the place with that statement. 
Having it oiT his chest, the writer may go on to 
remark that St. Augustine continues to look the 
part owing to the rare sense and good judgni* iit 
of Henry M. Flagler. What would happen to St. 
Augustine to-day if one of our modern developers 
got hold of her in the condition in which Flagler 
found her is something to make one shuddoi-. The 
city dates back to 1565, when Pedro Menenduz 
de^ Avilos— ^lenendez to his friends— defeated 
Jean Ribaut's fleet for the glory of God and set- 
tled down on the site of the present city to start 
a New World colony for the King of Spain. 






^h'i!('ii(I('Z liad Ills troubit'S, Imt \ho colony } 
roiitiiiued 1.) \\i]< (|;iv. Tl i< likrjv tliat if 1 


10 came 

l)a('k now he wonUn'l kii..w thr i-laoo! Of 
lio nuixhi roooirnizo an aiiciont landmark here and 
tliore: the old ])it of tbo city wall that is left, the 
ancient house in which the monks lived; but that's 
about all. Perhaps, thouirh, lie wouldn't feel h 



quite a stramrei', for there's the Hotel Al- 

cazar looking a little bit like the Alhambra of 


lis own countrv, and tln^ ]'onc(^ d.' Lt'on 

;o un- 

mistakably S|)anishAIooi'ish in stvle and col 


mg. And ho wonld Ibid oil 

ler sug^restions, if no 

more, of the old St. Auiru-tine he rnh*d over. 

Even if this were a uniide book, which it isn% 
and had twice as much sjnice as it has, there 
wouldn't lie a bit of sense in ti'vinir to set d 
here all the things and ])laces to 1 


>e seen m anc 


about the ancient citv. There are far t 

of tl 


Besides, there are rnnuer 

00 many 

ous volumes 

devoted to the subject and readily ol>tainable in 
the town. Only, pleast^ don't ti'avel tlirou2:li with- 


t a stop, and please don't stop without doi 


the city justice in tln^ way of si<rht-seei]]£r. Of 
course it isn't necessary to stav tlicu^e if vou're 
bound elsewhere, but the writer will sutT 

er no 




s 01 i'em()i">e it von do 



1 h 


But h 


a cl: 


nice oi a side- 


trip worth the makiinr. Turn wi'stward at Ilast 


-or 1: 


iiigs, wnere tlu^ wlnt** ])otato vmes- 

j)lants? — stretch for acres and acres on everv 



side, cross tlir' St. Jolm's Riv.T airain htkI ^^'o 
Palatka. "Tli.' In.lnstrial City" they arc callin- 
her nuw, lail tlc' writer knew lirr ^v]H■Il! lie liked 
hor '^wlieii," too. F<)lk< went there in numbers 
in the old days \vlu'n Palatka wa< tie- outpost 
of eivilizatioii — nearly — and took adventurous 
steamrrs np the rivrr, writinir tli^'ir wills bet'ore- 
hami and biddinir ti^arful far.'Wrlls to travelinc: 
acquaintancos. h>ut some stayt-il riLrht there and 
grew to lovf the <iui.'t old town and kept on eoiTi- 
imr thert' year at'tt'i" y^ar, or el.<e l^)rLrot to iro 
back North at all. All that was ])efore you had 
to park your car at an anirle, thouirli. 

Still I'alatka has rftaincd many ot^ her former 
virtUi'S in spite of tie' march i^i^ 1^-oirrt'ss, and tln^ 
river still tlows lazil>' ])a-t Icr front door and tle^ 
frairranee of ^uiet L'ardfn^ does its bc<t to make 
amends for the -'pund od'>r" from the wat(T. Of 
course when, vou've boori in Palatka a day or two 
voti don't know anythinLT about that tlat. ])rackish 
smell, but jii^t at tir.<t it's a bit A <]eeper 
chann^'l to her wharvt'< and n^w >tatt> hii^hways 
are amoiiL^ the bh\ssings expected from tlie near 
futurt\ and I'alatka i- on the way to rreoirnition 
as wliat >h>' plt'a<''< \n nann- le-rsflf, "The In- 
dustrial ('it v." ( )h, \y>'\]. porehan<'<' it's all for 
the Ijcst. < Mit' can't w.-ir ronipei-^ forover. Ono 
ha? to either irrow up or die. And l^alatka liaa 
no inten.tion r^f dyinir. 

Southwai'd, on Xnmbrr n Hiirhwav, tlirough 



i'omona, Seville and Dtd.t'on Springs, takes yon 
to De Land, one of the state's loveliest inland 
cities. De Land is reallv a community of homes, 
and the nicest sort of liomes, too. Stetson Uni- 
versity is liere, lending a pleasant intellectual 
tone to the ]>lace. Do Land has a population 
sliijrhtly short of (hOOO, \vhich is just about right 
for a residential city. But the population very 
nearly doubled dnrinir a recent five-year period, 
for folks are finding out wdiat a wholly charming 
])lace it is, and so what is just about right isn't 
goinir to stay right long. However, the writer 
will trust De Lan.d to be just as nice when she has 
twenty thousand as she is to-day with her six. 

P>om De Land a twenty-three-mile run brings 
the traveler to Davtona Beach, Davtona Beach 
that was just recently three places instead of 
one. Xoi'thward a few miles, missed by reason 
of your inland route, is Ormond Beach, a resi- 
dence and hoti'l colony whicli has the distinction 
of having John D. Rockefeller as a winter citizen. 
^Ir. Rockefeller's home, *'The Casements," is a 
sightly but unornate dwelling situated conven- 
iently close to the l)ig hotel. Probably Mr. Rocke- 
feller's cooks have a wav of leaving suddenly, 
like other folks', in wdiich case he has onlv to cross 
the street for his meals. A few blocks to the east 
lies the Lfolf course which is the scene of his 
fa\-oi-ite diversion. Th'yond the links stretches 
the far-famed r)rmond-Daytona Beach, where 


2-) 4 


tilure are no motor cops and where on a smooth, 
dustless, hard but springy course of twrrit\ li\.' 
miles the speed maniac may ^'step on if to his 
1' art's content. On this speedway, I'loiii live 
Iriiihii-r.i to a thousand feet wide, \uur foot inav 
\ be as heavy as lead on the accelerator an<l no 
^ sign says ymi r.ny. Thrrr miles a miniilr has 
been made here, and the end is not yet. 
1 It is her really beaut i In 1 I'osidenees tliat make 
DaN'tona Beach so emincnllv attract ivo. Tliose 
nnd a goodly number of oxr^olloTit liottU. 1'ho 
Halifax T\i\f]' runs along li^r irai-'hii \vall, so 
to -|M ak, but similar bodies oi' wat. i- do tjic samo 
I'l- various other towns up and d.uwn the coa-t, 
and many of them lack JJaytona's appeal. Soino 
thirty fn forty tliousand ppr-nTi= ?ppnd their win- 
teis hi. r-' and seem to enjoy doini: it. Iditrt^ are 
sii|).'i-h motor roads around, finf ti-hinL^ (h'liirht- 
ful -aiiing ani.] hoating and plonty of hiintinir if 
one will go afield hut a shuri distance. Captain 
riark"- oighteen-hole golf ronr=p is ono of tlio 
best along the coast. Of coiu-^r it isn't roally his; 
it belongs to the Pa^'oiia (Jolf and Country Chih; 
but the Captain i^ the deus ex luatlrna. Thrro 
is a second course of eighteen holes over in the 
Seahroeze section of New and (Jrcator Daytona 
Beach. ])Osides. Sometliim:: deserves to ho said 
(•f Th'' trees and tiiO gardens, lait tlie writer is 
enlirel}' out ul adjectives. lli> ad\'ie'' is do and 
SOP for vonrself. Tf von do iro, ti'v and find the 



time U)V a trip hy hoat up tlie tropicaldooking 
■J'nmnka Iiiver. 

When you reach New Smyrna you are on his- 
toric iri-ound, even though the lii^tory dates back 
only to the seventeenth century. A local his- 
torian, John Y. Detwihu-. contends that his town 
was settled before St. Augustine, and has col- 
lected mucli (hda to prove tlie contention. If 
Mr. Detwiltu- is cori'ect the beginning of New 
Smyriui's history must I)p sot back another cen- 
tury. It was to Xrw Smyrna that Dr. Andrew 
Turnliulh an Kmrlish physiciaTi, brought his col- 
ony of Creeks for the cultivation of indigo. With 
Sir AVilliam Duncan, he secured a grant of 60,000 
acres of hdorida land and su])sequently expended 
well over a liundr.M] and fifty tliousand dollars 
on tht' venture. Drainaire canals were built — 
these slid exist — ilie tifteon hundred emigrants 
Were lioused and the work of cultivation was 
started. All went well for a time, and bv 1772 
some thi-ee thou-uiid acres had produced a crop 
vahu"(l at ov.-r lifteen thousand doHars. But the 
promises mad«^ to tlie settlers were not kept, dis- 
satisfaction at first and then open rebellion en- 
sued and tlu' Venture ended in disaster. Turn- 
l)uirs treatment of the emigrants has been pic- 
turci] as crut'l and evim inhuman, as perhaps it 
was. Do\ve\er, lii'- side of tlie story is less well 
known than the otlhr, and he may have had much 
])ro\-oeat inn. lie \\a.< a hiirhl}- respected citizen. 





a nh'nilicr of th-' ("oloiiial Privy Coiinoil and wa^ 
even coii^idcrffl for L^()\-t'rii(-)r. At tlie outlircak 
of the K('\-(>lution h.' cast his l(^t with the roloiiies, 
th'Trby forffitiiii: hi- estates. A son, Robert J. 
Turiibull, was horn at Xmv Smyrna and later 
practired hiw in Charh'ston, S. C. lie was widely 
known as a |H)]itit'al writer and was a stronij: 
"Xullificati'in" advocate. A monument to his 
memory stands in that city. Descendants of An- 
drew Tnrr.hull are numerous throuirhout Florida 
and tilt' South and many have served with dis- 
tinction in the legislatures and at the Bar. After 
the collapse of the Xrw Smyrna colony the re- 
maininir emiirrants were allotted lands in St. Aii^ 
irustine, from where they sf)read in time to sev- 
eral other localities in the state. In the Civil War 
Xew SmyrTia had tlie distinction of bein.c: de- 
stroyed quite com|)letely by Union crunboats in 
the etTort to discouraire the blockade runners. 

Tlie remains of the Spanish Mission, situated 
a f<nv miles from the present town, are wortH 
seeini:, althouirh litth^ is standinc: to-day. Tradi- 
tion says that the mission was used as a sup^ar 
mill durinLT the eiirhteenth century. Relics of the 
Turnbull colony are to be s(mui in the form of an 
old stone jt-tty l)y the river and "Turnbull's Cas- 
tle," the ruins of what was presumal)ly a Span- 
ish fort. At pr«^srnt Xew Smyrna is a y)rosper- 
ous an<l Lrruwini: communitv of 4,300 inhabitants. 



The Indian River bep:ins at X\>w Smyrna and 
keeps the travider company all the way dowm the 
coast to just abovr P'ort Pierce, past Titusville 
and Cocoa and Rockledsre and Melbourne and 
Vero and dozens of other pleasant, attractive 
places, each with its bridcre across the water and 
its palm-frinired beach beyond. YouVe ^ot to 
hand it to the east coast for beaches. Indeed, 
it's practically one lone: beach, from the famous 
Pablo, where all Jacksonville disports in the surf, 
down to Coconut Grove, below Miami. A wonder- 
ful coast in all ways, this, enjoyed alike by the 
rich and the poor and the in-betweens. The' Gulf 
Stream flows not far away, and its warmer waters 
make bathing a pleasure all through the winter 

Fort Pierce is an interesting town of some 
3,300 persons, the junction of the East Coast 
Highway and the cross-state road to Arcadia and 
Bradenton and a fishing place of importance. 
The settlement dates back to Seminole War days, 
and th(^ Seminole Indian is still to be j^limpsed 
there, although he now comes on a peaceful er- 




V I 

rami. The accompanying ribbon of water at your 
k'ft i> ii"W Si. Lucie Sound, and a fe\\ mihs far- 
ther alung is the little luwn of LJon, not so illy 
nam^d, oither. ^vliere some fiftv vonr<=: niro rapt a in 
Thoma< E. Tvichai'iL, of \>-\vark, X. J., sdtlrd 

down to LrT-()\V pi!..';i]i| 

I i » 


( I 

W the \\'OI'ld 


' that tla' I'niii rould I'o grown (••.niinrrcially with 
profit. He succeeded and became iairly wealthy, 
altliouL'h his efforts to populnrizo n -p'M-itic fni- tlio 
curt' of iijIiLTestion, madt- I'mm pin»'ap]»h:^ juieo, 
du£r into his earnings. The Cap'ain had a very 
comfortablu home and wa:; noted I'ur his ho<pi- 
tah'y; was. in fact, what in thoso days folks 
calh-d '■;! character." That hi- faitli in thf pino- 
apph' a- a connnercial crop wa- not nii-taln-n was 
lat»/r prM\-«Mi hy the extensi\--' ]»hintat ioiis around 
the shores uf ihu Si. Luciu Iiiwu" where, near 
Jensen, tho crop has become wf^ll estahli>li(Mh 
Stuart, r^aehed after crossing the St. Lucie Kivcr 
hy hridu''*'. u---d to h.- pat I'oiiizod ])y President 

Oevehind \^hen h 

t • ( '( I 

uldi: 't ti-h iii Hii//ard< Thiv. 

Here begins the Si. Lueie Canal, the main con- 
trol canal of the Ever^lad*'- drninairc ju-oject. 
Wlien conipieted it will ha\-e a hottoni width of 
140 f.'c^ a *op wi'hli of iM'i feet and. h\' a <>--teni 
of luck-, w"!l inair.'aia a d'-plh of twelve feet 
of water. Although Stuart is a goof] eleven miles 
inland, vessels drawing as much as t< n feet will 
be able to rea h her docks when the canal is 
opened fur tralhc. This ualerway uill f(jrm the 



final link of an almost straight route across lower 
Morida from hkoM Alyers by way of Okechobee 
and IIic})ocliee Lakes and the Caloosahatchee 
Kiver. Stuart is getting ready for things to hap- 

Present Iv another arm of the sea iuts in in 
the shape of Jupitei- l'i\-e]'. Jupiter Light is 
in siirht at the let't, toiretlier with the wireless 
antl cahle -lation. Here is the >cene of Constance 
Fenimore AVoolson's novel of Florida life, "Jupi- 
ter Liirlits,'' written some time airo hut still well 
woiili readinir if for only tla^ atmosphere the 
writer creates. For a time the ocean looks after 
the shore itself, instead of de]jutizin£r a subordi- 
nate body of water to the task, hut it presently 
tir(\s and Lake \\h>rth goes on duty. And with 
Lake AVoi'th come tln^ Palm Beaches, the two 
conmiunities separated hy a narrow ribbon of 
blue water. 

Palm Ih-ach is much too well known to demand 
description here. The city has a ])r»\<ent ])opu- 
lation of o\-.-r LhooO and tlie Ix^acli of 1,100. 
A\'e>t Ihalm Ih'aeli is a hustlinir, thriving place 
with hai'd-surfaced or pa\ed streets, g<^(Ml iu\t- 
ural drainaire ami most of tiie factors desirable 
in a re-ideiicc oi' hn-iness connnunity. AVest 
Palm Leach cater^ to the thinner ])urse, while 
her somewhat more' JiauLdily sh>ter acia\<s the 
watei" like< I hem halging. As a market town for 
the innnen.^e and fertile liack reirion of Palm 



LP:T'S go to FLORIDA! 

lM-a''!i Ouuntv tilt' cjtv will, since the mmplction 
of the Wp>t Palm l^each Oaiial, soon have lier 
han.i^ full. 

Xatiirr first, Art lattT, have mado Palm B^'aeh 
a rrally magTiithviit ph'asurt' resort. Nature sup- 
pli*Ml the foiiiiiiatioiis ; a tine soft climate, a 
str*'tch of (T»'amy-\vliitt' sand waslied V)y the ocean 
\va\»'s on niit' sido and hivfd by thf (piiet waters 
I'f Lakt' AVortli on tie- other, a liazy hhie sky 
above. Art took h«>ld and, with AVt^alth oj)enin^<^ 
her mnn-'y-hae. sii|iplifd tlic rost : hotels, estates, 
rasinn-, pools, smooth l)ouh'vards and paths, 
country club- and c:(»lf oonrsrs. Flairler had his 
vi-ion, but it i> <]onbtfiil if It encompasst'd all the 
mar\-»'l- and beaulit-s of tli»' Palm I^cadi of to- 
da}-. Xow}]ore olse in the state has tie- landsca[)e 
artist ye* pfrfornifd bis work >o well. Xowhere 
are the po>-ibili!b'- of Flori<]a's tropical })lants 
so well sliow!;. H'Te ar*' the sprcadinu-, scarlet- 
blo^.-5umed po!!!r'ia!;a. thf \'i\'!d poinsettia, tlie 
vari-hued bibi-cn-., tb^ croton ef a hundred 
shades and pa^^T!-. tbr travel.T's trre, tbe Hoyal 
and cocoanut [lalm, tla- tlaminir biLrnonia, tbe soft- 
bbe- pa^-ad:-" \-i!..'. t!a' pnrpb' liouirainxdlla'a and 
the rr]u\-(']i. tbt' rose of many colors and a score 
nf o'b.-r d'-liLrlit- to i]i>- ^>-]i<r<. A tlttint^^ scem^ 
f"^ *'-'■ >'-;ir!;.- paL'rant of wt-altli and luxury 
which fills tb'- rno':,t,,r }M.t.'l< to ovfrflowinir, jams 
the ^bop-, ibb-5 the dan'-inL-" iloor of tbe Coconut 
(iro-..- and «prink]op th.- bitr lairoon with white 



and ^old and maliogany pleasure craft. Palm 
"Reach is pef-haps tlie most famous winter resort 
in th(^ world to-dav, and she well merits her fame. 

Delray succeeds Palm Beach on the southern 
journey, facimr the ocean about midway between 
the resort and Fort Lauderdale. Here is excel- 
lent huntinir and fishini^: territory for the sports- 
man and fine citrus and farming land for the 
settler. Proximitv to the Gulf Stream, hardlv 
three miles offshore, and the numerous lakes to 
the westward give Delray a particularly fortu- 
nate climate as regards the possibility of frost. 
T)(drav has ab)out LoOO inhabitants and is a l)usv 
8hi])ping ])oint for pineapples, citrus fruits, to- 
matoes aTid other veiretables. The OuTf Stream 
Golf (dub has a fine course along the ocean front. 

Yaraato is an interesting: towm bevond Dtdrav 
where a successful effort to colonize with Japa- 
nese has been made. "Many of the residents are 
growinir not only American crops hut are trying 
their skill with the vegetables of their native land. 
FarthiT along is the Ilillsboro River, the beirin- 
ning of tlu^ drainag(^ caiud of like name which 
connects with Lake Okechobee. Not to be con- 
fused with the Hillsborough River of the West 
Goast. Another example of i^aucity of imairina- 
tion in the naming of Florida lakes and rivers. 

Fort Lauderdale is on tlu> Xew River. In fact, 
it is astride it, for tlu^ rivt^r fiows rii^ht alonir "Nfain 
Street, so to speak, through the heart of the city. 


Bt'low flic city til'-' rivr.r ]ia= a wirlth o\' 14i") fct't 
and forms an idral aiiclioi-ai:'' I'or x-aOits. New 
RivtT i>n"t liniLT, |M'rl;ai'- >ix iiiil-'S only, ])Ut it 
makes up in drpl}!, lur in linic- pa^t the oviT- 
flowinir waters from thf h^'frLrladr- liave cliis- 
cltxl <lown tlio ImmI nint'ty f.M-t in ]>la(n's. Fort 
Lau(it'r<!alt' has o,!;:!.') ]io|iuhitinn and an area in- 
side corporal' limits of twmly ono sijuarc mih'S. 
The real tro|)i(' secliun of Florida can fairly he 
said to bririn here, and th^ climate is unusually 
equable. It is an up youmr city, with 
much already accomp!i>lit'd and a d'-al more in 
prospect. You will tiiid fine hu>iness huildini2:s 
and many beautiful residence^:, excrllont streets 
over most of the city, irood hotels ami an atmos- 
phere of friendliness; the laU.r not the least of 
a city's attracti<^n<. Fort Lauderdale is rapidly 
becominir a favorite wintfi" and a!l-\'eai' I'esort. 
Las Olas Reach, at the ctkI of a tine concrete 
b)Oulevard. and in-idc th-' eity limits, is one of 
the bhist Fi-a-t'.-- nm-t aM i-act !\-.- bathimr l»laces, 
the trees forminL'" a t'rin'_rt' ot' welcome shade alomj; 
the sands. The tarpon h^hlnL: is as irood hen* 
as at any plaee on the Fast Coast, and the back 
country snil abounds in irame. Tic irolfcr will 
find a L''"0(i nhnc liob- course. 

Hollyw(.od, abhoii'j-h a recent development, is 
a thrivini: re>(jrt cijmmuni'y with an estimate(l 
winter populatir)n of },UUU. Thore are, however, 
manv all vear residents and the town makes 


some claim alrea(|y as a liusin»\<s place. It has 
many notable features desiirned foi- tlic comfort 
and amusement (»f its residents and \-isitors. 

Little KMvtT, at the northern end of Biscayne 
Bay, is set down in a ])lace where the >oil, a rich 
liammock loam, is particularly fertile and where 
thinirs .irrow without beinir asked. There are said 
to ])e more than L'oO kinds of palms in Florida, 
and if there are they'i'e all irrowinir somewlu^re 
or other in Little River. L' the traveler is inter- 
este(l he will enjoy a visit to the estates of John 
^oar and Professor Charles Torrey Simpson, 
wliere tlie ]^alm tlourishes in perpleximr variety 
and wonderful luxuriance. Professor Sim])S(ui 
knows the southeim end of the peninsula and the 
Florida Keys better, ])ei-ha])s, than any one else 
alive and has written about them inter(\<tin£rly 
and authoritatively in 'Mn Lower Florida Wilds" 
and "Out of Doors in Florida." lie has an es- 
tate of tifteen acres at Little Kiver on whieh he 
lias experimented with hundreds of native and 
introduced plants, includiiiLr ])alnis and orchids 
and tr()j)ical fruits, lie has a collection .»t" up- 
ward ot' 7."),()U0 specimens of s(^a, fresli water and 
land shells, (^f tree snails alone tlic Prot'es<(M" 
has some 0,00(1 specimens from h'lorida, the West 
Indies and Honduras. 

]\riami owes its ])rcsence on the map to Henry 
M. hdairlei- and the comiuLT o\' the F.ast Coast 
Railroad to the cdire of the juuLrle. Last ^priin: 


LP:T'S cm to FLORIDA! 

tht' "Mai:i<- <^i*>""' had a iiopiilat ion of ()9,000, a 
prC'ttv fair u:ro\\th for a |i<ri()«l tti' thirty yoars. 
Miami Beadi, arross Biscayiu- l^ay, an«l coinifctrd 
bv causewav>, ha«l sliirhtlv ovr 'Jj^nO. Miami — 
k't us lump I'Otli towTiS toirt'tlit^r undfr tlu' name 
— i> v:,']] (loserviiiir (^^ the'ctivi* "mai^ic." 
Not only becauso sh*- lias accumulat'M] a ])t'rma- 
neiit pnpiulatioTi ^>f the si/.t' stated but bi-cau-^e 
she has m.a«]»' hrr>»'f in »'\'*'ry ^cusr a beautiful 
aii<i wctL'b-rful city i:i a .^pace <»f time ridieulously 
brief. Some clever uiairii'iaus workt'i] at her uu- 
foldine, and yet nr. where else, the writer is per- 
Fuad.vd, eou'd th-'ir IfLr^Tdemaiu liave ])ro(luee(] 
sucdi a-toun'i::.L'- results a- in Fhu-ida. Florida 
herself i= the Moliier of Magic, and no one realizes 
it b-t*er than those ^vho liax-e practiced their 
sleiL^ht of hand under her -'>\'' -ki--. 

Miami, the citv, is not on]\- a nh-a^ure irrouud. 
In faf'% fcLe i:^ beginning tu look a-kanee on mere 
l/:ea-ure, Ipavins^ that frivolity to the Beach. 
Miami her-e;f i- on 'le- way tn iMi'-'j'er thinirs than 
just amusement. She talks about ha\-ini,^ a mil- 
iion }»oT)ulaMon iri — <A\, wed, a few more years, 
and }>erha[;^ sh<- wdll. She i.s bec(jnjin^'' a jiort of 
eo.nse'iiieerc, for ojie tldriL''. Tier })ort traflie in- 
erea>ed ir; * WO \'ear'> from 'JofkOon ions to IjOo,- 
hi'Ki She is oi! } 'V ua\' U> -^ieat tliim/s as a com 
mere;a! c'l^y. She alieady ha- ju-t about <'Very- 
thin^r a :^reat eily should have in the way ol' 
muijieipa! eonverjf^iicett ai-d j efjaniiciits, biit iier 

])(>\\X TllK FAST COAST 


gruutli has scarcely inore than started and her 
maLdc Inns been =;o t'a i- oi;ly hinted at. 

I ]) to the time of iroini: to pi'ess, a> tlie news- 
papei- })lirase ha< it, Miami is the i7io>t >outherlv 
of all mainland caties in the FniteJ States. What 
may hap|)eu between the moment of writimr this 
and the arrival of the volume in the reader's 
Iiaials there is no >ayinLr. It i<n"t at all dillicult 
to conceive in these days of miraeb-s of a rival 
city s])i-inirini: up overnight like a mu<hi-oom and 
wrestini: Miami's title from her. It ivn'r Hk^dv, 
but it's possibU\ Jii>t now almost anvthin-r 
seems ])ossible in Florida. A streteh ot llatwoods 
or junirle and a blueprint may be a three-imiHoii- 
(lollar subdivision in >ixty days, wiiji pa\-»Ml r.nids, 
i^ranolithic si.b'walk<. a stncco gatewav loe^kinir 
like a section ol' a Spanish fortress, street liLrhts 
palm tree- and, ahno>t certainly, a Kouum Bath 
or a PoinpeiaTi Fool. Sixty daiys more and, the 
ground ha> blos>omed with Moori-h pa!:ices 
S])ani^ll casth's and Itaban villas, hii>i<cu- and 
phihinthus and crotons bhi/.e ai:ai!:-t pa'io walls 
and Mrs. Jones oi' "I'almhur-t" is hobiakeidn^'- 
across an incipient Ihuli^e witli \frs. Snud. of 
"Manihirin bod^-e." Hut the po--;b!e new and 
nio!-e southei'l) (at\- univt t"o!'e\cr >ta\- t'ai' b^ -hoad 
Miami in >l/e, fm' the hitler cii\ ha> a ^lari that 
can't Ite o\erconu\ 

A\ hell Miami'- was sfafed a- i'»th(^<^t) 
It waMi't for an in>ta!il ititended t!:al the reader 


should accept thai liuaire as r.'prt'siMitiiii]: lior 
present muster. A lut has hapiM-ntM,! since the 
.v:ai»' lo-k I he i:»-5 census, aw;i>- hi.^t spriiiir, and 
tiiL' wnl.jr':? t'stimal'' ol' Miami '> pnpuhition at 
this moment is around 110,UUU. And the trains 
and steamships haven't stopped running, and, 
while there^s an emiiariro un t't-riain classes ot 
freight, there's none on pa-.-'Hirt-rs. Ner liave 
the auiumobiles ceas.d >p.-,Mliiig .southward ah)nic 
the six national hiir!iwa\'< whose tinal terminus 
is the Magic City. The rhamhor ut^ Commerce 
is advertising for a liuinlrtMl moi-r hotchs and 
thrice that many a]-ar'nn'!it hnildinL^s, assurinii; 
us that all can Lu bo!'i or rented before th*'y are 
completed. Just now all roads lend to Miami. 

Of course life there i- a hit h.-etic dnrinir the 
'^ho(>ui." Trices of real estate douhh' h.tween 
breakfast and luncheon and iithh li-Tore bed- 
time. The voice of the realtor h-^ heard in the 
land and every fifth per-^on has ennrealed s(.m<'- 
where on his person the maj) nt a ^uhdivnsion. 
It's Los Angeles at the heiLdit of h.r oil lan<U 
boom all over again, and then >uni''. lor the pro- 
fession of the realtor has not ^tood -till since 
then and many new and starihiL' triniminLrs havn 
been added. It's all ver\ ama/.inL^ and bi-ealh- 
taking and just a trifle disturhi-.-, lo.i, I'm- (.no 
can't help wondering where the thinL^ will stop, 
and whether, when the music ha'^ died ;t\\a\ and 
the merry-go-round has cea8e<l -uirlini!-, every 



one is ixohi^ fo br .p.iitc, (piite happy. For, of 
course, it will cease sooner or later, and not all 
who have I'idden the i)rancing steeds will have 
been so fortunate as to liave captured the brass 
ring ! 

But \vliy fliink of to-morrow? Building goes 
on at a feverish i)ace, tie' banks are still full of 
money, ])rospects continue to arrive daily and 
not all the l^arron spaers have been yet platted. 
Anyhow, thouirht of to-morrow doesn't worrv 
Miami. The hullabalon may quiet down and tlie 
drifters drlU off aL-'ain, and slie will still be 
sittinir ])retty. Slie's on a firm and solid founda- 
tion, and she knows it. Loiiir after the last real 
estate salesman has folded liis knickers and stolen 
awa\' Mnuni will keep I'lirht on ixrowinir bii^'u^er 
and finer jind nn^re p)roiSperon<. (Jnats don't mean 
a thinir in the life of an p1o])hant, either present 
or absent. 

dn^^t the sam(\ one sometimr< hnn^s for a flv- 
swatter in Miami; a tly-swatter with a very line 
me.-h, suitable for gnats. 

Of course Tin one visif^ Afiami witlie.ut also 
seinnLT (^>ral (Jables. TIm> (le\-eh)pnien! lias pi-o- 
irressed to a staire whei-e i' may be considered as 
«i coniniiinity I'athrr iha.n a prix-aielv owned 
project. T!ie- writ.-r is glad ot' because he 
wants to a(!d !::^ rra..!.'-^ ])it of praise to all that 
^■'•1" L^'eP' hft"(i|-r, ahhieiL:!: it is the dexaTtpei" nioi'*' 
'han th.' tlevelopnienl he has in nnnd.. Cieorire E. 



M> rrick has already been referr* 1 \n ]n tlitse 
pages as one of the Miracle Men. Uv iiiiLrht with 
justice be called the Dean of the Mirach' Mon, 
for, if he ^'n^ not the first, ho i^ at hast at the 
head in the performance of h'aiitiful miracles. 
M- rrick 's creations have not only niaLTTiitiKh' and 
scope but possess imaginatin:;. ai' aii-l ])->. tr}-. 
Coral Gables is said to havo ( ,ilini ^o t'ar for an 
expenditure of thirty miilion <h^]]nr<, an<I tlic 
figures occasion no side looks. AVLat i< lai- more 
important is the fact that these thirty millions 
have paid not only for buildings and pavtiiimt^ 
and landscaping but for beauty worth many tim< < 
that sum. Mr. Merrick is known a- a practical 
and nose-to-the-grindstone busin*--. man, witli a 
head for figures and a passion t",,r L'tttinir tho 
value of his monev. He mav be all that, and 
yet, even giving all the credit thoy deserve to 
the architects and artists of all sorts who liavf^ 
created Coral Gables, he must b* uw mor<'. \o 
man without a fine knowledge of the fitic-^ of 
things, without a keen love for I ^ la^ ,. witliout 
just a touch of the poet and dreamer, coiihl havo 
sponsored Coral Gables no matter a -dist- 
ance was rendered him. 

The Merricks came from Pennsvlvnr la In l^fN. 
Young Merrick was twelve then. Hi- lather 
bought 160 acres alx)ut eight mile- t/oni MI;iml 
and planted grapefruit. lie prospe/. i and add<d 
more land to his original holding, ^i. o/irr .M<r 

Dowx tup: east toast 


riek wa- sont to Kollin- <''olle£?p, at Winter Park, 
Flori(La, and lator to Xcw York to study law. 
His father's death broiiirht him back to Miami 
and to rai>in£r irra})cl>uit. Miami, only a village 
in 189-*-!, was coming to life now, and Merrick 
pnt on liis thinkinir cap. lie started in develop- 
ing: subdivisions, hiirh-cla-s onps always, and sold 
olT fotir or t]\-e with protit before the idea of 
tnrninir the old homestead into a Miami suburb 
occurred to him. He bad some capital and bor- 
rowed more, an.d lie start rd ont to create not 
merely "another one of th-m tliinirs" but >^ome- 
thinir <listin(^tly worth wliile. He had traveled 
dnrino: Ids eolh^t^e day< and after an^i had seen 
wliat architecture C(»uM h,,' wht-n it had a soul. 
And hi^ liad setMi the huildinirs and ijrardens of 
Spain and Mexico and. Soutli America. And so 
wliat emerirtMl from liis dream< was Coral Gables. 
It Inas heen four year< in^ tl'e making, but to- 
day thei-,' are close to 10,000 acre's of it and it 
e\t(>nds for sex'eral tniles on lour >ldos of its 
irrowinir hn>incs^ center. Tfie huildiuirs are not 
all ])ure Spanish, thoui^h tlie Spa'iish i'lthience 
i> f\ci-y\\herc retained, and the resuh is that the 
damrer of mnnotiuiN- h.a^ hecTi avoided. There are 
nearly a hiiniii-iMJ milev o\ Nt'^"c^ almost a thou- 
saiiil rcvidriicrv tini-h-'.l a';d ^:\ !i e,.|s eompleted 
<♦'' luuh-r \\a\ Tlie Miami Hihrnore Hotel will 
he (»peiied .soon af^'!' tlie hcLriioii n^^ ol 1920. The 
rni\crMty of Miami, t!;e r'!iver>i!y Hi^h School, 



a W uPixan's Coilfg-, m roiiitTvatury uf miisi(% 
theaters and other projects are assiirod. The 
city is incorporated and irnwriuMl by a commis- 
sion. Yuii will see i: without Ifini^ told to, so 
here's an end *o tli.' subicrt. Oiilv, wlini vou do 
see it, iTcdi: ihc man who dreamed it and formed 
it for giving the world ori'' more beautiful thine:. 
But n-itlier Miami nor Coral (rabb-s is the end 
of the worl i. fr.r tl.^ bii: road troes on invitinirly 
and here is Coconut Gr.ive. (('Ix.'rve, ])ray, the 
elimination of the A; correct but unusual.) Coco- 
nut Grove T^'n-, not so vr-ry lonir airo, the last 
settlement towar^I tlie K»'V<. To-(]av it is one 
of the handsomest and -martt'st of the I^ay cum- 
munities. Coconut Grove sefins to pjossess tho 
community spirit to a greater extent than many 
other towns of the state, p'-rhap- Ij^rmi.e it had 
to fend for itself so Ioul^ 'fiat it- eiri/tus i^ot to 
know each other. Xow, however, tier*' aro moro 
than 3,000 of those citizeiis, an! if tiny donT 
watch out their town will soon b. ( r.m.. pk,. otlnr 
places and life wonH be nearly so much fun. 
One of those three thousand ;tr .j odd iiilia bit ants 
is Kirk Monroe, who not so lonL^ tL^n ua- writimc 
the finest stories for boys: that ever ha\. been 
written. Perhaps he is stii! <b)ini? it, ihoutdi 
at seventy-five years of age even an audior has 
the right to rest. If you v.i.o r-ad tlii- wm^ 
ever a boy you'll surely recall ' Raftmai. -" and 
**Canoemates'* and a host (.f '.Ua-r wond. iful 



stories that doul)tle>s kept vou wide-ev«-d Ion--'" 
after the liirbt should have be^vn <uit, and you'd 
be triad to know tliat one who has iriven ^o much 
plea>ure — yes, and instruction, too, in a nice 
su,^ar-coated form — to you and thousands of 
other eager-eyed cha|)s is spendinir Ids autumn 
years in so fair a spot as 'vKirkland House," in. 
Leafy Way, Coconut Grove. 

Soutlnvard still now; to Perrine, named aft^-T 
Dr. lleni-y PondTC', who was killed l»y Lirlians 
in ISoo, [ind Avhere the government has an ex- 
perimental .station f.jr :rn|)iral ]dants; to Goulds, 
wdnch ships enouirh tMinatovs in one season to 
make kt'tehup for all the world: m ITomt'Stead. 
outlet lor the growers of the Redlands and Ca|>e 
Sable districts and ]iiaaud ]mssossor of a tin.e new 
hotel and golf course; an<l tinally to Fluidda City. 
a small plact^ with a bii^ civic s|-,irir. An.d that. 
Ladies and (b'ntlemen, bri!:L:s us to t'ne e-nd, ^f 
the paxa'd InLrhway and {){ tiie present discourse. 
llowc\a'i", it' \a)U ha\a' tlie |>!"ice of tlte fati'c, tliere 
art' nna'f worhis to be cononerc<b a v hole raft 
of woildv strctchinir crescentically out into the 
warm .seas. Who's for ihe ITorida Kcvs.' 


THY. TlnJiiDx KEY^ 

Xo one can say he has ''done Florida" unless 
he ha? made some acquaintance with tlip Keys. 
T* \von*t be necessary for l.ini *<> l^o all tlip wav 
to K- y AV-jst, although the trip will be well worth 
the time and expense, but he shonlrl at loa-t unt 
as far a- Long Key. There ar.' those who con- 
sider the seagoing portion of Monr-M- ( Dimty tlio 
most fascinating part of FIoTJda, and th.- writor 
i- more than half inclined to agree with tlicni. 
The Kr>vs aren't all within "^foTlro^., liow^^ver, for, 
iror.erly, they begin in Dade C-ai/y, with S. ti- 
dier and Sands and Elliott's Keys, and sweep 

o r)nt ()\'('r 


ward around the corner and 

many miles of deeply blue water to t( rininate at 
last in the T>^y Tortugas, a hundred and nxty 
miles southwest as the gull flies. There ar.- thou- 
sands of them, how many thousand- f;M on,, knows, 
and they range in size from liith- lump.s 
larger than a barrel head to Krv TnrL'o, thirty 
miles in length. Geographically as u I! a- ideo- 
logically they belong in three ^m. p.; t!,.. Cppcr 
Keys, which end at Knight's oi, po.-.>aid ., P,alda 
Honda; the Ix>wer Keys, terminating ytr .k ti< alU- 
with Key West; and the keys beyond, including 



the ^Marquesas and tlie Tortncras. The Upper 
Keys aro the \-i-ihlo fX-iih/nee of a eoral reef built 
along the rira of tin- peninsular pjlateau. The 
Lower Ke}-s are tho remains of what was once 
a considerahle island. The i-lands w^est of Key 
"West are of more receiit oricrin, several of them, 
notably the }*Iar<inesa> — Maronesas aceordinir to 
some maps — brinLr atolls. Islands of tla:- latter 
group are still in pro('<'>< of irrowtli, f.trmir;!:, wirli 
adjacent reofs, tin- only oxample wiTiiii the et:'n- 
tiiieiital limits n\' onr ci'Uiitrv of irrtuvinir coral. 
Knnrnnii: parallel with the entire chain oi key^, 
and exteiidiinr t'rom Kev "Ri^ea^iie t(> Mn- Afar- 
qnesas is an outer rrvi of coral which only 
awaits a sliLrht uphoaval to drvolop into a <ee(_^!id 
chain ot" kr\"<. Thi-^ ro<'f .'nchxes Hawk idiannel, 
^\lli(•h lia> a widih o\ from three to six niih^s aiid 
an extreme drpth (d" -ix fallnans. Xortli or" the 
Upper 1\< ys, Floi'id.a ]xiy i< a ^liallow expanse of 
wat^u" as thiekly sprinkh d wiMi i<uts a< a pudding 
^vith ])lums. Ibua' naxiiration save wi^li tlie liirlit- 
ost o\' liirht drauLrht eiwt'i i-^ ^omelhi::!: to be at- 
tomptfd onl\' by the init iate. 

'^riit' Keys \;n'y in rloxnition from |M\u-*ieallv 
nothimr to oi^'hteon t'e.'t, th-> a\'erai.rt^ hoiirht abo\"e 
niraii hli:li lido beini^ abvuil leu leet. Ou ihe 
smallor ours the <nrt"aee is e«'^r:d r*oek I" i^'^oeess 

;ih!iou^"'' oeea^ii>nal!y a poeket 
< hi such islets the growth i^ 
spar>e and >tun'rd. n^ual!\ e^.)Il^ist i::^ of a iKi'eh 

ot (h^i ntoL'Tal lo! 
(d >()d 1^ !*"U!ii| 


T T.^T 

r-s GO T(^ Fi.nKinA: 

of mangroves. Larger islands, however, cm. r- 
ally boast a considerable flora. Incise liaininecks 
are frequent in which trul} Uuiieai \LgLiaUun 
holds forth, often in company with flio mnro 
familiar flora of the northern mainland. .Mahog- 
any grows in abundance, as does satiiw.H,.]. At 
least two scarce species of palms are inund. 
Fiddlewood, lancewood, ironwood, gumlM. liinl.o, 
poison wood, wild rubber, lignum vitae, fainarin.l 
and bamboo are some of the jungle dwcll.r-, ami 
with them are several orchids, the viM \aiiilla 
one, and numerous cacti. Along the ed-r of iLe 
beaches tumfortia, seaside morning gh^ry and 
one or more other creepers range. Thr- omrnM'.-s- 
ent buttonwood edges the further grov-Mi a:; 1 :!,•» 
pernicious wild grape, bete noire of the plaan r, 
takes possession wherever possible. 

A great number of the Keys, even those m i ,ir 
acreage, are so slightly above water that tj.y 
are drowned during the high tides of .^tii!- or 
when a gale comes along. Others are 8i]f!icipntly 
above sea level to be cultivated ani u.-A-d as 
homes; in fact, some sixty or seventy nrp ^o 
used. Pineapples do well, and so, in ccr ^lia !o< .,!- 
ities, do cocoanuts, bananas and limes. W nliout 
doubt niany other fruits are capable of corara. / 
cial cultivation on the larger Keys, for thc^ ia( lor 
of frost has never to be considered, rind. wlii]r 
the soil, save in ofx^asional spots, is Jackin- m 
liumus, that lack will eventually be scie/hliriiJj , 



i-onir(Il,M]. Wiarc proir;-! inii i^ alTord.'-l from 
^J"' \\in<i>, oranges, grapefiuii, -apadillos, cus- 
tard aj)j)lrs, lumons, pnpnyn- hti'I tamarind? are 
touiid irrowiTiLT Inxiirianth-, In short, with study 
and patience any tropiral n?- sub-tropical fnii: 
may h.^, and .'Vontually wiil be, produced uii these 
coralline i>land>. 

To the visitor the beaches aro a never-tailino: 
source of (Icliirht, tor shells of endless form> and 
colors are lorex.i- h .ing cast ashore for his in- 
S})oction. An-1 with them rorntj all ^-ns r,t in- 
terest inic tlot^am; bii> ol sponges and fragments 
of coral, S(\'i-s]iidor^ and horseshoe rra'h^, purple- 
hlue I'nrtmruese men-o'-w-i'-, spiral egg cases of 
the conchs, sea heans o\ many shades, scores of 
intriiruimr ohjt^cts many ot' \\h:^:i have been 
'l"''i''''I t' t'ar away South American shores. 
And, ot' eour-»\ it' }(erre ](^n"k'ng for conch shells 
h'l-e t!i. \ aro in ii'nnher, since the conch, king 
<^'oiieh and qu. . !i conch, ;ire brought up in abun- 
<!•'!!>''' Ifom lie' \\ater> and eaten in chowder^. 
1^ i^ liiat >ame pleasantly flavored but rather 
h'athfry >h.ll ti-l! ihat irtves name to the natives 

»'t' the K't'N's. T!:f '•('onchs" ar 

O' M 

'■^' Ixi- 

l^'iiii'i l-hm.!-, and are still more English than 
-\"" 1 i^an in manners and speech. There i^ more 
til in a MiKgc^iiou of the cockney in the latter. 
Th. \ s]MMii'-e', fi ii, 'turtle'' and And time to do 
'' '"' '*(" ^^l•i'ckiug; although the wrecking isn*t 
^^I'lt it u> d to hr in the good old days. The 




tj:t'>; no to flohtda! 

grandsires of the pro-r-Tif o-PTiPratinn couM tell 
YOU tales worth listening to! B.i* k in the days 
of the pirates and even down to ( i\il Way times 
wrecking was a payinsj- iMi-iiiL':^^. So t'reipirntly 
did ships come asLorc on tlie roof^? that tlir stretch 
of i-]ar.d.= wa- "kr.o^^"n as "Tlif MartNTs." Xot 
all of the wrecks were lalcd, for in the i2:ood old 
days above referred to wreck ini: \va< a jirot'rssioii, 
an art, and the use oi a cuiininirly di-|ilayr<l lan- 
tern was only one of several nifthrxh-. de\-isetl to 
lure unfortunate ships to destruction on the reefs. 
Ilistorv has it that even in l';iir]v niodmi times 
one serviceable West Indian hurrirano lias driven 
more than twoscore vessels, lag and little, wlare 
they would do the most good to the inhahitants 
of the Keys. But now a far-tlunir liia' of liLrht- 
houses and beacons has taken inu' !i i>\ tie- "kick'' 
out of the ancient and worthy ]-uiMiit of wrcek-- 
ing, and, while disasters are ^:il! ir.Mju.nt, the 
*'Conch'' works alongside the legal authoriths 
in the matter of rescue and sahaLnng. And works 
well, too, we're told. Some of the count- nanets 
seen might well belong to pi rat.- ot' the old 
regime, but the **Conchs" are well h. ha\rd to- 
day; not, perhaps, so mueli fr''»m elioic, as from 
a deep respect for the Fid. ral aiMir.rit i.s. When 
not engaged in swarming over a st r ifioh d s* hooncr 
or other craft, or in pulling i\-\i or turllen from 
the water, the ** Conch*' invades the mainlriTid for 
boatloads of wood for fuel or clears a pat( h of 


sand and plants a crop of ])ineapples. AVhm the 
weeds or grapevines take possession of the pateh. 
which soon happens, he elears a now one. Tliere 
are two thinir< ho doesn't believe in. One is 

weediiiLT and tin* othor i< fcrnliziiiir. But, after 
all, why should lie? Thore'.^ plenty of land. The 
"Conehs'' are very reliirious and seldom miss a 
elnireh service nnless a wreck is '*in." As tliere 
are no roads save on one or two large Ke\"s. thev 
trav(d irenerallv hv boat. 

To visit the Florida l\oy< tho traveler by auto- 
mobile leaves his car at Miami and boards a traiti 
of the East ('oa<t Kailway. The time is cominir 
vhon lie won't have to do th;it unloss he clio.^ses 
to, bnt that time i< not yet. The "Over-Sea Rail- 
road" begins at Homestead, some twerity miles 
below Miami, and ti'aversos the ed.ire oi tlie Ever- 
glades to Jewlivh ("i-rek, |)a<t Everirlade, the last 
station on mainhind, t'i'<un wh.-nce water is con- 
veyed to Key West in tank cars. Once across 
tile draw bi-idi^e oxa-r the creek vnn are on. tlie 
Keys, althonirh, to be sure, there's notliir.Lr miicli 
to nidicate thr fact, ddie particuhu' Key o!i wliich 
ynu ai'c trax-elini; is bai-iro, thf one "wliopper" 
'»f the lot. bai-iro I< ia t'ny a rather -pectacular 
Tnetamoi'phosi<, for do\ flopnients ^aid to aiTLrre 
gate ten milli-n dollai'^ are alreadv wav. 
At the northerii end of ili,' iv^and Mi-. W. M, I'ut- 
ler is sponsor t"(0- an niid-a'takin^^ iliai includes 
a mammotli liutol, a Ii^lilnLr pua-, a i^olf coarse 



and club house, yacht anclM.r.n:. < nii^l, Inially, 
building sites for, so nipa-.r has it. inHli..]. aires 
exclusively. Other developments are wdl start. d 
at Rock Harbor, Plaza and Fas ernier. Watrr is 
now available from the mainlnnd l\ ni.Mns of 
pipes; an ice plant, without which lit.- in tlio 
irupics is scarcely ideal, and an electric platii ar*^ 
under construction. And, just to i n.v.' tliat K.-y 
L:.rgo, which only a very few years ago was con- 
sidered even more undesirable as a resid'-Tipp lo- 
cality than Miami Beach, has realh^ muw into its 
own, let it be added that a newspap. r ]ia< Immh 
established. Even as it was before capital dis- 
covered it. Key Largo was a pleasant place and 
it wasn't by any means unpopulated, nlfhonirli tlie 
bulk of the population was composed <>\' native^ 
whose houses, surrounded by groves c.t liira s, 
bananas and cocoanuts and patches of '*iii'i.-," 
clustered, and still cluster, along the occaii .side 
of the narrow island. Largo has much m ilKc/nnv, 
although not of a size to render it cornna r , i;,|lv 
valuable, and much gumbo limbo, tha' pir'in- 
esque and persistent tree which after bciii- < nl 
into post lengths and placed in the gron- 1 will 
at once come to life again and becofi. ja^i -,. 
many more trees. It is quite as great . * < ppu 
nent of race suicide as our own norllc ju .-a a /up 

Long Island and Windley's Key succf . j I. arLrn, 
the track crossing the narrow channeite Kma . li, 


and tlion romr-s Hpper Afatecumbe, signifying that 
tlH' jniirncy to K.y West is half done. This 
i>Iaiid, too, is undergoing change, it was lately 
i)urclia>ed by Miami capital for $750,000, not an 
(^x(•esMve priec in these hectic times for 873 acres. 
Matecunihe i. w.H irrc.wn up to cocoanut palms 
and other trees and presents a distinctly attrac- 
• live appi'arancc lr..m the car window. Closer in- 
.-pection will r.'pay the visitor, and he wiU find 
the best of fishinir there. This key. Lower Mate- 
ciimbe and Lnni: K. y-not to be confused with 
Lon- Island already passed— are fairlv in the 
^'*'^it*'^' <'t' the ti^ ^^rounds. Lon- KeV is best 
known for its fa.m,>ns Long Key Fishing Camp 
maintained hy ihe Kast Coast Railway. Perhaps 
you had host uoi .foil off at Long KeV, after all 
unless you a.rc a fairly ardent fiWrman, or, at 
^^''^;^^' ^'''^;' ^' '- niakuig of one, for fishing is the 
mam suhject cf co-iversation from gray dawn to 
!>nrplc du.k. If, l.oNvover, you're ^agreeable to 
^''''^' >"''"^^ ^^"'J ^'>' island a charming place 
;»n(l the accoinnaa.lations comfortable. The Gulf 
Stream passes vonr hack door, so to sav, onlv a 
'"'1^' awav, and M. re's much to interest one in "the 
J;^*";"'"- ^'^" ^'''' -^>d>s, the coming and going of the 
^i-limL- launcluvs and sailboats, the catches of the 
'''*' ''^'* * >i^'inir is excellent if one is not an 
'"fliiiMa lie i\^\:riin:\n and can find time for it! 
^'' •"■ !'^'' nn!,.P> I ong Key Viaduct begins, at 
"'' '""> ^t '^ faid 1^ ,, unique undertaking. It 


LET'S GO TO FLOini^v: 

is of concrete, 11,957 feet in len^rth and consists of 
180 arched spans. Once well onto it one ir. i< tor 
the first time the impression of being ai >.a on 
land. Knight's Key, well on the wnv tnwai.l ihr 
end of the Upper Keys, was formerly the (^nl.ark 
ingport for Cuba, and here the longest in , r-wat.r 
section of the road commences, endini: at Littlo 
Xeck Key, jnst under 7 miles away. Kicr pjno is 
the next large Key and owes its name to tlir hand 
some forest of that tree still r. maiiiin'r. Silver 
palms, too, abound, and the island has sonir at- 
traction for the hunter as deer are belie\-.',l to still 
hide^ in the hammocks. Ramrod, Summerlan.I, 
Cudjoe, Sugarloaf ; viaduct after viaduct; sna and 
channel; the interest begins to wane. Bit hnforo 
boredom can start the last concrete span is crrxxMl 
and Key AVest Island is under the wheels and the 
end of the journey is in sight. 

Just a few words here about the rnilwav wliidi 
has done the trick. Just over a half centnr> atro 
H^nry M. Flagrler made his first visit to Florida. 
Evidently he liked what he saw, as so manv have 
done since, for he started in immedia'^ !v to dc 
velop the East Coast. At that tina M. r.- uvro 
fewer than 300,0^)0 persons in the state ar, I onlv 
some four hundred mih^n of railroad. 1^ lov Si. 
AuKUHtine the East ('oast was practically t. rra 
incognito. At least, it was seldom visif.d, and 
then only by means of small steamer> |J on/ ih.- 
St. John's and Indian Rivers an-i .v ih. . (,..t (^f 

'^'f^f-- Fr.'''R[f).\ KEYS 


^^i.l discomfort Bnt Flagler had vision. The 
Ponce deLc^n H^^tel at St. Augustine was his 
''^' ;^: ^ ; "^^^^ ^^^S^ railway connecting 
the oi,l Spanish town with Jacksonville was pur 
H'.i- . ni.i lurn.d into the first unit of the Florida 
Ka>i toast Systrm. A steel bridge was then 
^'"^ t a.rn.s f],. St. John's River at Jacksonville, 
;;^"1 a >var lar.r. in 1S87, the first through traii^ 
'y;^^ ^-^v \nrk to St. Augustine rolled Into the 
:^^'' ^- /;'^^n. si. Augustine was rapidlv trans- 
lurmed hy ihe erection of more hotels, a hospital, 
' '-'';''- ' -•^^^'^^' ^ ^'^^^ino, light and water plants 
^•^' •>}-!>« and many homes. He likewise laid two 
^n'h^ ni excellent streets. And all this without 
d;^.^ or even marring the historic quali- 
ties S^t. An.^nstine's fame spread and visitors 
f^n. k. I.J see More railroads were bought and 
\r:;' '"'^ ' ^^^^^^ ^^^ l^^^> the Florida East Coast 
*-'''<-:^ I'-i uachea Miami. Here, as at St. and, later, at Palm Be^ch, he built a 
'^•'^v ntx I on years later the road building be^an 
;'^^Hn a .! Progressed as far as Homestead, where 
:' ^'"*^;"' ; "■ ' ^^^^^^ ^^•^^■*^^h before taking its final 
'"*^^!'- ';' 1^"^'- ^^- K^'> West Extension was be- 
^^nn to tho nuTedulous amazement of manv T^oubt- 
'"^ I hnn.ases, and o- \ u Voar\. Dav, ipOS the 
"- - - opened as far as Knight *sKev, from 
y-" •*' steamers made the trip to Kev West and 
' ;\'"'- . i^';' ^'ompletion of the undertaking was 
"^^'""^"'^ ''' Vmuary, m- after five vears dur- 


LEI-b GO JV VLuiiiDAl 

ing which many discourai: nonts and >onio dis- 
aster were met. On one occasion a luiniraia^ 
cost the lives of one hundred and iliiiM> imii. 
The road from Homestead to K- > AV. -t ( ity 
is 128 miles long and cost'h on-' Inm- 
dred thousand dollars a mile. Tw.n^y ,'iirht 
islands are utilized and seventy ii\t' miles of the 
track are over water, water that is in ])lac»^< thirty 
feet deep. There are four i^T-incipal via-hirts: 
Long Key and Kjiight's K-y, alr-^'a-ly rar-ntioncd, 
Moses Channel, 7,800 feet, aiiJ Baliia Honda 
Channel, 4,950. There are, also, several smaller 
viaducts, as well as numerous fills ar-l r'm])ank- 
ments. As a feat of organization and tiiiriiiorTinf^ 
the Over-sea Railroad is notable. A< an ox- 
ample of creative imagination it is cv* n more so. 
It stands and will continue to stand tor many 
centuries as a fitting memorial to its f-roator. 

With the completion of the (»\« ! -'-a Railroad 
Key West became no longer an isolated s<'ttlo- 
ment a hundred miles from nowhere l-ut, to all 
intents and purposes, a part of the mainhind of 
Florida. Not so long since 8t. Anni-tinc was 
practically **farthest ho'i^h " 'J'h'-n tlj.- railroad 
followed on the trail of a few advpnt ur on- pio- 
neers and Miami took title, i'oi y m^, h"W( v( r, 
Miami was the jumping-off place. N^Miin:.' was 
considered to exist beyond it until !<< > \V'< si 
was reached. I'he railroad cljaiiged that, .'mI im w 
groves and settlements and, finally, towns spj ajjg 

^:ill': FLoRUiA KEYS 


up. Railma-l development will continue im- 
portant for ifiany years, but when the first creak- 
in lc riivvtr luugL'd through the pinp woods and 
])ahn(,'tto sr-riih) of Florida it inaugurated a new 
oi'dfi- ol' things. N«)A. as lor several years past, 
till' antoniohile is the real covered wagon, and the 
present -(hi\' ox{»h)rtr rlinir- lo a steering wheel 
instead ol' a wl.ip. Fartiier and farther fnTrard 
the manLrrove-elad lip of the peniii-^ula the mo- 
tors ar<' chugging, following the m:iin roads first 
and then the wagon trails and at last pushing 
forward uvtr unirod ground; branching otT at 
intei vals, to b^ sure, but in the main pushing the 
frontier back niiie bv mile toward the sniith. 
Faster an.d faster they are coming, an a':n'\-^ 
steady stre. in ol 1;,. ni, and althou-ii many tri:'^i 
baek, as ma:.y more stay. The ax rir.^-s and the 
grnh hoe tliiid-, the acrid o«ior o: burning 
palm.iio rooi> tills the air, hammer a'.i <aw drown 
the>o!ii: ..f \\:r nioekiug birds and presently, magi- 
cally aimo>i, a : < w home appears in the wilder- 
ness. Frt^stM^tlv a^H^ther laden car humps over the 

ron^■h Irad a', i a eei^^'hboT' has arriveih And SO 
it Kor-, nue.'l! a:'rr !Lie''h. v'U'ar'"-:^ ^eeonie 
trih-k L;.ird.!,- v-r ora'.;.;' i;io\es, a ^c'^'oi house 
appeal -, and ;i ehuixii, and a 'leu lown is well in 
thr niakiii- Florida is still called the Last Fron- 
tii'i, hnt i:u 11, line will stand but a >hort time 
h.iiirn- d'!i.' aii'om.^^ih' u dl see to that. How 
Nri) difu u ut the history of the state would read 

LET'S GO T'"' FT/'T:IT)A' 

to-day if Ponce de Leon had brought a (l-x k of 
Fords with him! 

The automobilist demands roads, av:<] li ' '-r<ts 
them. States and communities all over iIr' cuun 
try now realize that the pnvod hifrlnvny i- iho 
most attractive feature thev can offer, h '- all 
well enough to make loud talk n^'>>u\ a ih w s.'w- 
erasre svstem or electric li^-iit- or xlaw)! ]i(in<(^s 
or a wonderful climate, but there's n nni( kt r wav 
to build up your community. T.ny a pavt .] road, 
my friends. That is what the Flori<ia Kt v< are 
doing. Within two years from 'h- time of 
writing you will be able to st< p i: N) your car In 
Maine and roll all the v ay lo K* y W* -t on your 
own tires. 

Already the first unit of t^.- 0\-. r -^^ a TTiL'liway 
is under construction. Dade Tounty is I liMiiiLr 
from Florida City, just below Ili^mestead, to i ard 
Sound and the Monroe Count v line. ATonroc 
County is erecting a causeway and bridge tlH'r(> 
to connect with the Key Lar^o higliv i\. tliirfy 
miles in len^h. At the hauie time Ua* latter 
county, which contains all the Keys frorri ].:\v<j() 
to the Marquesas, and has long been vond-riuL' 
what use they were, has also star^ d at the other 
end and is building from island ''. j-'iud ufidcr 
a recent }x)nd issue of two million dcjll.ii-.s. Tlio 
motor highway will parallel tin rnilrorid for irioht 
of its distance. Here, of courbe, i- tla .-((fit of 



tilt' proscTit activip\ iii real estate development all 
down tla' ]\]]f\ from Largo to Key West itself. 
And tlh' developnar/*^ has only begun. The 
Florida Keys have wonderful possibilities, and 
withi]! the ensnlnLT <Iecade many of them will be 
realized. [)o\\ n tlierc lies indeed a veritable land 
of eiicliantnitiit. a Inrid nf blno i^kies and bluer 
sea, of a cllniat*' nowhere snr|iassed, of tropical 
foliatro and Ldowing flowers, a. kind where every 
day may ko -p» nt out of doors. All of which, 
while it sor.ndi- a good deal like a real estate com- 
pany's 'M)lui]/' IS still as true as gospel. Even 
Key West, so long immune to the raucous chant 
of the ]-(\dior. ] a< fallen into line. Recentlv about 
lialf tko i-land \\a< i^urchased by Xorthern capi- 
tal and tlio erst while placid citizens of the Far- 
tlu^st South CWy ar.' scratching their heads and 
woiKk rinir a wliolo lot. "Wouldn't it be a heap of 
fun to o('('n]>v tlie front seat of the first automo- 
bile to roll in.'o K' \ West over the new highwa\ .' 
And what pi iro t^ e concession to operate ''hot- 
doi^^" stands all ike wa\- ^*ro!!' K-v Fargo to the 
city linkit^ .' 

Key We^t oerni'ios- ;it oresent — onlv the far- 
ther end o\' \\:y i-land ol" liie Same aaine. kko 
Spanish \sa> (',."/' !l (eso^ meaning Island of 
Bones, hut, ol roui -o, i' was easy, and not inap- 
propriate, to till!! !h(eso into West. When the 
islauil wa::. tii->i di^^o\ei\d >o maiiv humau skele- 



tons were found there thai iiit\ ju^t couldn't call 
it anything else. Whom the ^kolofoTr^ holonirf^d to 
originally is a matter for conjertur. . Sonu' Ix^- 
lieve that a party of p'lau > \va> dDn-' to death 
there — in which ease i: mu^t haw* b.-cn an ex- 
ceedingly large party!— ail d otht rs that the hones 
were those of natives wlio had h.^n oxtei-minated 
by their mainland foes. As none ot" the hones 
are known to exist to-day for scientists to mull 
over, the truth will probahly never he known. 
Key West is still a Spanish -pt^lpTnent to all ap- 
pearances; although the C^.arnh* r ot' ( "onmieree 
will be up in arms if it sees this. Let n- diaiiL^^ 
that to read: Key West still retains inueh of its 
picturesque foreign atmosphere. The irihahiiants 
include Cubans, Greeks and negroes, the latter 
mostlv Bahamans. Earlv in the last ceii'urv a 
number of Minorcans, survdvors of T nnl-nl] '- un- 
successful venture at colonization, came to Jvev 
West from the district around New Smyrna and 
St. Augustine and many of their race still sur- 

Key West has quite a hist 

t ,^ 

<jry 01 n<T o\'-, n, o m!* 
a romantic one, too, but it will suflice lio., if oiJy 
the high lights are touched on. Duriiig ih. M, i- 
can War permanent fortifications wer- h. Lnifi .Hid 
military and naval stations estalJishc^'h \>\i\ the 
present Martello towers were inA buih until l^<iJ. 
Key West had one engagement duii' l' ^\ut ( j\il 
War when Secessionist sympathiziih .t'^niia. 1 



to seize the phice and were defeated hv the eouraf^e'' 
of the commander oi th.- fort and the timelv ar- 
rival ot reenlorcemriit>. I'hu- \\a- Key West 
saved to the Tnion ! In l^Gs and 1^G9 the Cuban 
revolution sent many new citizens thither and 
these r<'fu,irees from Spani-h rnh- hrouirht en- 
couragement to a faltorini: ciirar-makin^ trade. 
To-day the ciirar husincss occupies numerous fac- 
tories and em])loys tlion>ands of workmen. Key 
A\'est has expt-rit'iK^Ml Mvo great disasters, the 
hurricane of 1^4*; a!.-] ^h" two-day fire that in 
l^^n almo>t (he-troyod the towi. In spite of the 
lack of certain municiprd ;i.:\a!.*a^^es enjoyed by 
other cities— a hnk tlni^ i- rapidly being supplied 
—Key West is a remark;i! !y healthful place. As 
for the climate— well, sonir maintain that Heaven 
lias still a lot to h-aiai fr-orn K- y West. Certain it 
is that the winds mitiira'.' '^le summer heat won- 
(hu-fiill\-, so that, ahlioinrh the island is a hundred 
ndies farther v.. nth than the lowest corner of 
Texas, it is coohn- in the !:.>^ nii^nths than manv 
moie northerly citi.-^. A> f,e- the winter weather, 
it really Is splendid. There !:as never been a 
frost ther(>; ne\ cr can he, pi-ohably; and 41 de- 
gre(>s is t!ie lowest the itiercury has ever reached. 
From Kev \V, vt fieiu!- Ner Cuba is handled bv 
•ailoaihs, tlie tiMiiis h, j-^- split up and run onto 
huL'c cai- fellies. Ih oiu Kcv Wost, also, com- 
tortahh' passriiL'-,'!- hoats- proce(N] daily to Havana, chainiiiii: eiy\' as yet uueulighteued bv Mr. 



Volstead. A trip aiTo-- is a pleasant experience, 
and, of course, yuu dui.'i haw to drink the wine 
of the country while tli^Ti- if you have scruples. 
So, what's to rTev.:y.i * (n), |,y all means, and let 

vour conscience 

vuiir ^^uidv I 

h I 

thp: end