Skip to main content

Full text of "A guide to the Old Persian inscriptions"

See other formats


H. C. TOLMAN, Ph. D., M. R. A. S, 


CAESAR'S GALLIC WAR. Eight books. By William R.^iney 
Harper, Ph. D., President of the University of Chicago (late of 
Yale University), and Herbert Cushing Tolman, Ph. D., of the 
University of Wisconsin (late of Yale University). i2mo, full cloth, 
502 pages. Price, $1.20. 

Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 
The men from whom this book emanates, are a strong recommendation at 
the outset. I think any person, whether a preparatory student or a post-grad- 
uate, could get great benefit from a careful study of .this book I should 

greatly enjoy putting a college. class through the work. I think your book 
a fine addition to text-books for College Preparatory Schools, and shall not hes- 
itate to recommend it as occasion may arise. Frank Smalley, A. M., 

Professor of Latin. 

Princeton College, Princeton, N.J. 
Its peculiar features, ingenious and scholarly, are admirably fitted to thor- 
oughly interest the young student It is altogether the best book in every 

thing the teacher and pupil can wish for. Wm. A. Packard, Ph. D., 

Professor of Latin. 

Centre High School, Northampton, Mass, 
A year's course in teaching from Harper and Tolman's Caesar will do as 
much good to an inexperienced teacher of the classics as it will do to the stu- 
dent who is taught. Clarence B. Roote, 

Principal and Teacher of Latin. 

"Wir sehen, das Buch ist reichhaltig und planmassig angelegt. Fiir die 
amerikanischen Studenten ist es gewiss sehr brauchbar, . . . ." — Rud. Menge, 
in Berliner Philologische IVochenschrifl. 


Herbert Cushing Tolman, Ph. D., M. R. A. S. i6mo, full cloth, 
186 pages. Price, $1.50. 

"Professor Tolman gives in forty-two pages the grammatical elements, 
including a classification of all the best forms which occur in the inscriptions. 
We gladly welcome this contribution to American scholarship, and we hope 
that other scholars may follow the example set by Professors Jackson, Lyon, 
Haupt, Tolman and others." — The Biblia. 













Copyright, 1803, by H. C. Tolman. 

Typcgraphy by Tracy, Gibbs & Co., Madison, Wi«. 




under whose instruction and guidance were spent five 
years of my study in the Sanskrit language^ 

this volume is 




This book does not claim to be a contribution to Iranian subjects. 
In these recent years there has been such an advancement in this line 
of scholarship that Sanskrit students have been compelled to surrend- 
er this field to specialists among whom in America the name of Dr. 
A. V. Williams Jackson of Columbia College is conspicio is. In 1862 
Haug published an outline of Avesta grammar in the first edition of 
his essays. At that time seventy octavo pages were sufficient to con- 
tain the discovered material. Two years later Justi's grammar of 
one hundred and fifteen octavo pages was looked upon as practically 
exhaustive. The grammar of Spiegel appeared in 1867, that of de 
Harlez in 1878, that of Geiger in 1879. Kavasji Edalji's grammar 
(1 89 1) and Jackson's grammar (1892) extend four fold the horizon of 
Avestan scholarship as contrasted with the outline presented by 
Haug thirty years before, although the same quantity of text of the 
Avesta is the basis for grammatical work. This statement can enable 
the reader to realize the great strides this study has made during a 
few years. My work in the Zend Avesta and in the dialects of Per- 
sia has been simply an avocation from my chosen field of Sanskrit. 

No book has been published in English containing the grammar, 
text and vocabulary of all the Old Persian Inscriptions. It was this 
fact that induced the author in 1891 to issue a little volume entitled 
"Old Persian Grammar" the copies of which have now been sold. 
The first fifty pages of the present volume, which contain the gram- 
matical principles, are based on this work. 

The following features characterize this volume on Old Persian 

(I.) The grammatical principles arranged as a grammar of the 

(2. ) The complete classification of all the verb-forms occurring in 
the inscriptions. 

(3.) The transliterated text. The portion supplied by conjecture 
has been inserted without brackets unless the conjectural reading be 

(4.) The references at the bottom of the page in the text which call 
ihe attention of the student to the grammar on the first occurrence of 
a form or principle. 

(5.) The cuneiform text. 

(6.) The translation. 

(7.) The vocabulary giving the related words in Sanskrit, Latin, 
Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, etc. 

The author recommends to the reader the following books as being 
of interest in the history of the early decipherment of the inscriptions: 

(I.) Die altpersischen Keilinschriften nach Hrn. Westergaards 
Mittheilungen. Zeitschrift fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes heraus- 
gegeben von Dr. Christian Lassen. Leipzig, 1845. 

(2.) Die persischen Keilinschriften mit Uebersetzung und Glossar 
von Theodor Benfrey. Leipzig, 1847. 

{3.) The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Vol. X, by H. C. Rawlinson. London, 1847. ** 

(4.) Memoire sur les inscriptions des Achem^nides, con?ues dans 1' 
idiome des anciens Persans, par M. Oppert. Journal Asiatique ou 
recueil de memoires d' extraits et de notices relatifs ei 1' histoire, k 
la philosophic, aux langues et k la litterature des peuples orientaux. 
Paris, 1 85 1. 1852. 

(5.) Expedition scientifique en Mesopotamie ex^cut^e par ordre du 
Gouvernement de 185 1 i 1854 par MM. Fulgence Fresnel, Felix 
Thomas et Jules Oppert, T. II. pp. 154-256. 

(6.) Memoir on the Scythic Version of the Behistan Inscription by 
Edwin Norris, M. R. A. S. (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 
XV, 1855.) 

(7.) Memoire sur les rapports de 1' Egypte et de 1' Assyrie dans V 
antiquity ^claircis par 1' ^tude des textes cuneiformes, par M. Jules 
Oppert. Paris, 1869. 

(8.) Die altpersischen Keilinschriften im Grundtexte mit Ueber- 
setzung. Fr. Spiegel, Leipzig, (two editions). 

(9.) Zur Erklarung der altpersischen Keilinschriften von Dr. H. 
Kern. Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 
Band XXIII, 1869. 

(10.) Inscriptiones Palaeo-Persicae. Cajetan Kossowicz, St. Peters- 
burg, 1872. 

In my references to foreign journals, I have used abbreviations as 
little as possible. They are mostly of the nature of the following and 
need not be explained. 

ZDMG. =Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenVdndischen Gesellshaft\ f. 
vergl. Sprachforsch.=:fur vergleichende Sprachforsckung; idg.-=:indo- 
germanische; ai.^:^altindische; Wb.^Worterbuch, etc., etc. 

The author is aware of the many faults this book contains as fully 
as the severest critic can be, and he shall be glad to receive all sug- 
gestions which may make it more useful to the reader, 

Herbert Gushing Tolman. 

Madison, Wisconsin, November 4th, 1892. 


Grammar, _..--_. 5 

Verb-Forms, ._--.. 48 

Inscriptions, ------- 53 

Cuneiform Text, - - - - - * - 93 

Translation, - - - - - - 115 

Vocabulary, ------- 161 



A. S.. 








- Aorist INF., 

Anglo Saxon LAT., 

Avestan PART. 

Compare PERF. 

English PRES.. 

- German SKT., 

Gothic SLAV., 

■ Infinitive 

- Latin 






Imperfect I.S., etc., 1st person singular, etc. 
Imperative 1. P., etc., 1st person plural, etc. 



The Old Persian language deserves a larger place in 
American scholarship than it has yet received. Here- 
tofore the work has been left entirely to European 
scholars, and it is due to a desire to awaken an inter- 
est in this old tongue among scholars of our own 
country that this little book has come into existence. 
I take the opportunity of expressing my gratitude to 
my pupil, WoLCOTT Webster Ellsworth, a gradu- 
ate of Yale and a member of the American Oriental 
Society, for help furnished me. He has taken my 
manuscript, which was in most part in the form of lec- 
tures, and arranged the whole work for the press. He 
also rendered much service in the transliteration of the 
cuneiform text. 

I shall gladly receive all suggestions or corrections 
which may make this volume more helpful in impart- 
ing enthusiasm in the study of this our sister tongue. 

H. C. T. 

New HaveUj Conn.y June^ i8gi. 


The copies of the first edition are exhausted. The 
author has taken this opportunity to revise and am- 
plify the whole work. He wishes to express his grati- 
fication for the kind reception the previous edition has 
received and also to make acknowledgment of many 
valuable suggestions. H. C. T. 

Madison, Wis.y Aug., i8p2. 


Professor Grotefend was the pioneer in the decipher- 
ment of the cuneiform text. His first discovery was 
announced in the Literary Gazette of Gottingen, in the 
year 1802. About one-third of the Old Persian 
alphabet was determined by his transliteration of 
the names of Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes and Hystas- 
pes. Professor Rask added to this number the 
two characters representing M and N. A memoir 
of M. Burnouf published in June, 1836, and a work 
Ox Professor Lassen published at Bonn in May, 1836, 
entitled Die Alt-Persischen Keil-Inschriften von Per- 
sepolis, furnished a true determination of twelve addi- 
tional characters. Dr. Beer, of Leipzig, in a review 
published in Allgemein. Hall. Literat. Zeitung in the 
year 1838, announced the discovery of the two char- 
acters for H and Y. M. Jacquet is said to have made 
the same discoveries independently at Paris, and also 
identified the equivalents for C and JH. 

It is evident that a cursive style of writing was em- 
ployed for epistolary purposes and had an existence 
contemporaneous with the cuneiform, since the char- 
acter of the latter rendered it fit only for lapidary uses, 
[Cf. Daniel VI, 9; Nehemiah II, 9; Herodotus VII, 
100.]. No Persian cuneiform writing appears after the 
time of Artaxerxes Ochus, and we are safe in say- 
ing that it died out at the end of the rule of the 
Achsemenian kings. 

The oldest inscription is that of Cyrus the Great, 
which perhaps may be his sepulchral inscription although 
the epitaph quoted by Strabo and Ctesias differs from 
the one on this Old Persian monument. The latest is 

the inscription of Artaxerxes Ochus which exhibits 
many peculiarities of grammatical structure indicating 
the decay of the language. In this inscription two 
compound characters for BUM and DAH are intro- 
duced (cf. Cuneiform alphabet); also before this time 
in the tablets of Xerxes appears an ideogram for 
KHSHAY^THIY^, due undoubtedly to Semitic in- 

The most important of the inscriptions is the great 
inscription of Darius carved upon the sacred mountain 
Behistan [BAGA and ST^N^ />lace of God]. This 
immense rock rose to a perpendicular height of 1700 
feet from the plain below. On this conspicuous place 
Darius Hystaspes caused to be inscribed the history 
of his reign to be a legacy to succeeding generations. 
The figures of Darius and his attendants are executed 
with considerable skill, yet inferior to that shown in 
the bas-reliefs of Persepolis. Before Darius stand 
nine usurpers to the throne bound with a cord about 
their necks, while under the foot of the king lies the 
prostrate form of another. These are intentionally of 
rude design and small stature. Above the picture is 
the efifigy of the Persian god Auramazda. 

The Old Persian language is most closely related to 
the Vedic dialect of the Sanskrit, yet the interpretation 
of the inscriptions depends upon the combined aid of the 
Sanskrit and Avestan together with the surviving dia- 
lects of Persia which have been in any degree faithful 
to their mother tongue. Where the cognate or deriva- 
tive word fails to appear in them, an arbitrary mean- 
ing must be assigned to the Old Persian to suit the con- 
text; hence I have given in the vocabulary the authority 
of the related languages for the signification of each 
word, wherever such authority can be obtained. 





I. A conventional arrangement of the European 
letters, transliterating the Old Persian cuneiform char- 
acters, is as follows: 

I guttural, a, a. 
Vowels, simple •< palatal, i. 
( labial, u. 

Diphthongs \ P^'!^'f '- ^'' ^'- 
^ ^ ( labial, auy au. 


^ guttural, k kh g — 

palatal, c — j — 

dental, t th d n 

labial, p f b m 

( palatal, y. 
Semivowels •< lingual, r. 
( labial, v. 
j lingual, sh. 
I dental, s. 
Aspiration, h. 
Note i. The short a has no written sign (in the 
cuneiform text) unless it be initial. Therefore a (italic) 
has been used for this vowel in the transliteration. But 
when it is initial the same sign is employed for short 
a as for long a (vide infra), since the native characters 
make no distinction; e. g., ad<3;m 

Note 2. The long a is transliterated in all cases by 
a simple a (in Roman type), e. g., Pars^. 




2. Two similar vowels coalesce, forming the cor- 
responding long vowel; thus, p^sav^ for pasa, and 

Actual examples can be cited of no vowels coalescing except a-vow- 
els, yet undoubtedly should other successive vowels occur, they would 
suffer the above treatment. 

3. The short a combines with a following i-vowel and 

u-vowel to ai and au respectively; thus, Pars^iy for 

Pars<^ 4- iy; the long a to ai and au; thus, aniyauva 

for aniya -f- uva. 

Note. An example of a and i forming ai (as in the Sanskrit the 
long a and i combine into e [ai] ) instead of ai, is found in the com- 
pound partita for p«ra and ita. 

4. An i-vowel and u-vowel interpose their cor- 
responding semivowel before a dissimilar vowel; thus, 
bumiya, bumi -f a; isuvam, isu -|- am. Sometimes, 
however, the vowel is converted into its semivowel 
(especially if it be the final vowel of a diphthong); thus, 
ab^v^, for ab^u + a. 

For exception, cf. dnraiapiy. 

5. No vowel (except a and a) nor diphthong can 
end a word. There is inserted as a protection the 
corresponding semivowel; thus, up^riy, for up<3:n; 
patuv, for patu; Pars^iy, for Pars^i. 

Note i. An exception seems to be adari (NRa). 
Note 2. Hau retains the v even before ci, mai, and tai; e. g. 
hrtuvci (I). Also occur p«ruvnam, p«ruvz«nanam. 

6. Final a is sometimes made short before an en- 
clitic; thus, av<2d^shim, for av^dashim; m^n^ca, for 
m<3:naca. Many examples remain, however, of the 
long a preserved; thus, utam<3;iy, y^thasham, etc. 

7. The semivowel is often connected with a pre- 
ceding consonant by its corresponding vowel; thus, 
adurujiy^, for adurujy^. 


8. A root is often expanded by vowel-insertion; 
thus, duruj, for druj (Skt. druh). 

9. Every Old Persian word must end in sh, m, an 

a-vowel, or a semivowel. Should any other letters 
stand as finals etymologically, they are dropped; thus 
3.]a, for aj^nt. 

10. The dental S, when preceded by any vowel 
except a and a, is changed into the lingual sh; thus, 
Dar<3;y<3:vush, aish<a;, (for exceptions cf. isu, usrtt^sh<^n^, 
V^umisa, Nisay^): also after kh, and sometimes after 
r; thus, khshapa, ad^rshn^ush, (^but tarsatiy, Pars^, 

Note. In the root had (originally sad) the influence of a-preceding 
i is felt, even with the augment; thus, niyashadayam. 

11. The final S, after being changed into h, is lost; 
thus, Pars<2(h) m«rtiya(h). 

12. The dental before t is changed into S (as in 
Avestan); thus, hasta, bound, for b^dt^. 

The semivowel r sometimes causes a preceding con- 
sonant to become aspirated; thus, c<3:khriya (from k^r), 
Mithr^, ufr^^st^m. 

14. Final h has gone over into the palatal j in the 
root duruj (Skt. druh), the influence of the aspiration 
being felt only in the form durukht^m. This exhibits 
the treatment of the palatal, namely, that it reverts 
to its original guttural if followed by any other sound 
than a vowel. 

Note. Final h of ihah becomes s befcre t; thus, thastanaiy. 

15. Medial h has a tendency to fall away; thus, 
thatiy, for th^h^tiy; mahya for mahahya, (but Aur^- 





i6. Endings: Singular, a. The usual masculine 
and feminine ending in the nominative is S. Stems in 
a and a have allowed the S to pass over into h (cf. 
II ) which has dropped away, thus leaving the bare 
stem. Stems in i and U retain the S in the form sh 
(cf. lo). By consonant forms it is euphonically lost. 
Neuters(except ^-stems, which add m) show the sim- 
ple stem in this case. The pronominal ending for 
this gender is historically t, which is dropped at the 
end of a word, but changed to sh before the enclitic 
ciy. The common ending of the personal pronouns 
is ^m (which is found also in the plural). 

B. The accusative ends in m or am. in masculine 
and feminine nouns. The neuter has the same end- 
ing as the nominative. 

C. The instrumental ending is a. In the pronom- 
inal declensions the nasal (n) is inserted between the 
stem and ending. 

D. The ablative of ^-stems doubtless ended in the 
historical t or d, which being final has been dropped 
euphonically (cf. 9). Elsewhere the ablative has the 
same ending as the genitive. 

E. The genitive of ^-stems adds hya (for original 
•sy^). The ending of consonant stems is a for ^h 
(original ^s). Masculine stems in i and u have regu- 
larly the historic ending ^s, the a of which combines 


with the vowel of the stem into al (ai) and au, the S 
being preserved in the form sh (cf. lo). Feminine 
stems take the fuller ending, a for ah (original as) sep- 
arated by an interspersed y. 

F. The locative ending is i in consonant and a- 
stems, Avhich appear euphonically in the form iy, aiy 
(cf. 5). In masculine u-stems this case ends in au 
(euphonically ^uv for an original avi). If this case oc- 
curred in a masculine i-stem, the form would be anal- 
ogous, i. e., <3:in(euphonically <3:iy for an original ^yi). 
An artificial ending of feminine stems is the addition 
of a to the masculine ending; thus, ^uva, a'lya. The 
true locative ending of this gender appears probably 
in one or two words in the form a, (duvaraya,, d^st<2:ya? 
perhaps loc. dual, Arbiraya). 

G. The vocative ends in the simple stem. 

Dual: a. The ending of the nominative, accus- 
ative, and vocative is a as in the Veda. 

B. A doubtful form of the locative occurs as a, 
(dastaya.. ) 

Plural: a. In the nominative the masculine and 
feminine ending aha appears, (corresponding to the 
Vedic asas). The shorter ending a, ah. (original as) 
is also in use. Pronominal ^-stems have the mascu- 
line nominative in ai. The neuter stems in a end 
in a. 

B. The accusative ending is a for ah (original 
[^]ns) in consonant-stems. In ^-stems the case appears 
in the form a. Neuter stems have this case like the 


C. The instrumental has everywhere the form bish, 
uniting with ^-sterns into <3:ibish. 

D. In the genitive the ending is am. In stems 
ending in a vowel, the nasal n is inserted, before which 
a short vowel is lengthened. In pronominal declen- 
sions s is the inserted consonant, before which a be- 
comes di. 

E. The locative ending is suva. When preceded 
by a or a, the S passes over into h and is dropped, the 
form becoming uva. When preceded by other vowels 
the S is preserved, and the ending appears as shuva 
(cf. lo). 


The normal 


of endi 


is as follows: 







a\ia, a (a) 


avi\. m 











a, (a)s, 







Suva, uva 

For convenience in comparison the case endings in 
Sanskrit are added. 








^S^S, «S, 


^m, m. 


^s, n, (a) 




bhis, ais 






as, (^d) 




^s (as) s, 





i (am)au 





1 8. Stems (masculine and neuter) in a. 
pies : haga, m. , god ; \\amaxana, n. , battle. 



N. haga 

A. hagam 

I. b^^ga 

Ab. hagsi 

G. b^g^hya 

L. b^grtiy 

V. hags. 


N. hamaranam 
A. hamaranam 

N.A. b^ga? (g^usha) 
L. b«g<^ya? (d<3:st^ya) 




b<?:gah^, b^ga 













Examples of peculiar forms are : 

A. The gen. sing, in hy^ for hya (G^rm^p^d^hy^). 

B. The abl. sing, in a for a (darshama). 

C. The loc. sing, in y for iy (dur^y). 

D. The accusative of d^r^y^ is identical with the 

stem in SZb. 


19. Stems (masculine) in a. 
m<2zda m., Auramazda. 

Example : Aur*^- 

N. Aur^m<2:zda 

A. Aur^zm^zdam 

G. Aur^ih<2zdaha, or Aur<3:m^zdah^ 



20. Stems (masculine) in i and u. Example of 
i-stem : C^zishpi, m., Caishpis. 


N. C<^ishpish 

A. Crtishpim 
Ab.G. C^ishp^^ish, or C^ishpaish 

Example of u-stem : gathu, m., place. 


N. gathush G. gathunam 

A. gathum 
1. gathva 

Ab.G. gath^ush 
L. gath^uv 

Note : The genitive singular of Darayavan is Darayavahaush. 


21. Stems (feminine) in a, i, and u. Example of 
a-stem: t<^uma, f. , family. 


N. tauma, G. t^umanam 

A. taumam L. t^umaiiva 

Ab. G. t^umaya 
L. t<3:umaya or t^um<3;ya 

Example of i-stem: Bumi, f., earth. 


N. bumish 

A. bumim 

Ab. G. bumiya 

Note : The ending sh of the nominative singular is dropped 
before the enclitic shim in hiapism (Bh. I, 19). 


Example of u-stem: d^hyu, f. , country (perhaps 


N. d^hyaush N. dahyava 

A. d<7hyaum or d^hyum A. d^hyav^ 

G. d^hyunam 

L. d^hy^^uva L. d^hyushuva 

22. Stems in ar. Example: fr^^mat^^r m., leader. 


N. fr<?mata 

A. fr<^matarrt:m or fr<i;mat<7r^m 

G. fr<^matr<rz (pitr^?) 

23. Stems ending in a consonant. 

A. Examples: n^z-patjm., grandson; vith,m., clan. 


N. n^7pa 

A. nrtpat^zm(?) 

I. n^7pata(.?) 

L. n<^pati(.?) 


A. vith<^m 

I. vitha I. vithibish or vith^bish 

L. vithi 

B. Stems in an (m^n, van). Examples: Vi(n)- 
dairan, m., Vindafra ; nam<3:n, n., name; asman, m., 
heaven; khsh<2tr^pav^n, m., satrap. 


N. Vi(n)d«fra 

A. Vi(n)d«fran^m 












Stems in ^s, ish. 

Examples: raucas, 

n., day; 


n., site. 





I. r^uc^bish 



N. h^dish 

A. h^dish 

24. Nouns of other declensions have a tendency 
to assume forms of declension I. Thus, Khsh^yar- 
sh^hyafor Khsh^yarshaha ; Dar<3:y^v^(h)ush^hya for 
Dar<2:y«v^h^ush ; bum<2m for bumim ; also n^m^: some- 
times takes the form of a feminine noun in a ; thus, 
n^ma for nama. 

25. The comparative and superlative endings are 
t^r^ and tama ; also iy^s and isht^ make correspond- 
ing forms of comparison. 


26. The pronouns of the first and second persons 
are thus declined : ad^m, I ; tuv^m, thou. 
N. adam N. v<3;y^m 

A. mam (enc. mam) G. amakh^m 

Ab. (enc. m^) 
G. mflina (enc. m^iy) 


N. tuv^m 

A. thuvam 

G. (enc. taiy, tay, Bh. IV, II.) 

27. The demonstrative pronoun is declined as 
follows : 


G (with enc. ciy, av^shciy) 

avrtm — 
avahya. — 

PLUR. M. F. N. 

N. avaiy ava — 

A. av<^iy 

G. av<3:isham — — 

28. The declension of the other demonstrative 
hauv (Skt. asau), that, he ; ait^ (Skt. etat), this ; and 
[yarn (Skt., ay^m), this, is as follows: 


N. hauv 

N. im^iy ima ima 
A. imaiy ima ima 

N. iy^m iy^m im<2: 

A. im^m imam 

I. ana 

G. — ahyaya, or ahiyaya 


N. ait^ 
A. ait^ 

29. Enclitic forms of the pronoun of the third 
person are : 


A. shim 
G. sh^iy 

A. shish 
G. sham 

A. dim A. dish 

30. The declension of the relative (hy^ [Skt. sy^] 
ty^m, etc.) is as follows: ■ 


N. hya hya tya N. ty^-iy — tya 

A. tyam — A. ty^-iy — — 

I. ty^na — — G. ty^iisham tyrt:isham — 

31. The interrogative pronoun occurs only in the 
vocative (masculine singular) ka. 

The indefinite pronoun is formed by adding the 
neuter of the pronominal stem ci ; thus, k^sciy, cishciy. 

32. The adjective aniy^, other, forms its neuter 
according to the pronominal declension ; thus, ani- 
y<2shciy ; its ablative is aniy^xna, after the analogy of 
the instrumental. Hama, all, has the genitive fem- 
inine singular h^m^hyaya. 


33. The scheme of the normal endings of the verb 
is as follows : 





mi m^hy a\ 
hy - - 
ti ^(n)ti t^i 





ma i 
a(v\), sh^(n) ta 





ta uva 
— tarn 


Note. The ending of the second person hy appears in the form 
h<^/ before the enclitic dish. 


34. The mood-sign of the subjunctive is a, which 
is added to the tense-stem. If the tense-stem end in 
a, the combination results in a. The inscriptions 
show the primary ending's ; thus, ah<3:tity f rom ah, \>a- 
vatiy from bu (tense-stem havd). 

35. The inscriptions show ya as the mood-sign of 
the optative, which takes the regular series of sec- 
ondary endings. Doubtless the simple i was taken by 
the tense-stems in a and by the middle voice. The 
ya is connected with the stem by the union-vowel i. 

36. The imperative has no mood-sign ; it adds its 
endings directly to the tense-stem. 


37. The augment is a prefixed a. If the tense- 
stem begin with the vowel i (or u) the augment com- 
bines with it into the strengthened diphthong ai (or 
au) instead of the regular a\, aw. 

A. In a few cases the augment appears as a ; thus, 
patiyaharam. It is possible, however, to regard this 
a as the combination of the augment and the prefix a. 

38. Old Persian reduplication shows the prefix- 
ion to a verb-root of its initial consonant and vowel. 

A. A long vowel is made short in the reduplica- 
ting syllable ; thus, ad<^da from da. 

B. A palatal is substituted for a guttural as the 
consonant of the reduplicating syllable ; thus, c^khriya 
from kar. 



39. The present system (composed of the indic- 
ative, subjunctive, optative and imperative) is divided 
into the following classes : 


In this class there is no class-sign ; the personal 
endings are added directly to the root, unless there 
be a mood-sign, as in the subjunctive and optative. 


In this class the present-stem is formed by prefix- 
ing a reduplication to the root. 


This class forms' its present-stem by adding the 
syllable nu, which is strengthened to nau in the sing- 


The syllable na (in the plural ni) is added to the 
root to form the present-stem. 


The present-stem is formed by adding a to the 
root, which (i) is strengthened or (2) remains un- 


The class-sign is ya, which is added to the simple 


This class adds aya to the strengthened root. 


40. Example : jan, smite. 



1. ]a(n)miy 

2. j<a:(n)hy 

3. j^(n)tiy 

1. — 

2. ]anahy 

3. ]anatiy 

1. j^niyam 

2. j^niya 

3. j^niya 

2. ]a(n)diy 

3. j«(n)tuv 


]a(n)mahy janaiy — 

j^n^(n)tiy ]a{n)ta[y — 


? ]anataiy — 


j^niyama .? — 

? j^niyata ? 



]<7nuva — 
j^(n)tam — 


aj^(n)ma 2i]aniy 

1. aj^n^m 

2. aj^ — — — 

3. Si]a 3.]ana(n) aj^(n)ta aj^n^(n)ta 

The form aitiy, (SZb) from root I shows that the 
root is strengthened, if it is able, in the three persons 
of the singular active. 

As an example of a root beginning with I, illustra- 
ting the heavy augment, the form nijay^im (for nijai^m) 
from root I, *go,' can be quoted. 

The verb ah, be, preserves the original s before t. 
Its forms are as follows : 




1. amiy amahy 

2. ahy — 

3- astiy h^(n)tiy 


3. ahatiy 


1. aham — 

2. — — 

3- 3ha ah^(n) 


3. ah<a;(n)ta and aha(n)ta 

41. Example : da, put. 

Present Imperative, 3. s., d^datuv. 
Imperfect, 3. s., ad^da. 

Note. The root sta, stand, takes the vowel I as reduplication, and 
shortens the stem-vowel : aisht^ta. 


42. Examples: j^d, ask; d^rsh, dare, 
Present Imperative, 2. s., j^dn^utuv. 
Imperfect, 3. s., ad^rshn^ush. 

The verb k^r, do, shortens the root to ku in the 
present and imperfect. Its forms are as follows : 


PRESENT subjunctive: SING. PLUR. 

2. kun^vahy 

I. akun^v^m akuma (for akunuma) 

3. akun^ush (in [S],akun<^sh) akun^v^(n) 

MIDDLE imperfect: 

3. skunavata. (in Bh. I, 12, akuta). 

Note. The union-vowel a sometimes follows nu, which is strength- 
ened to nav; thus, vainavatiy, kunavahy, for varnava-a-ti, etc. 


43. All forms of this class are regular (except 
Imperf. I. s., adin^m, from di, for adinam) ; thus, 


1. adinam 

2. adina, etc. 

V. ^-CLASS. 

44. Examples : gub, call ; bu, be ; b^r, bear ; 
jiv, live. 

Note. In the following classes, the stem-final a is lengthened to 
a before m of the 1st personal endings, but is lost before ^m of the 
1st sing, imperf. and the 3d pi. endings, and the short a of the ending 
remains (or vice versa). The imperative takes no ending (unless it 
be a, which unites with the class-sign into a). 

(I.) Examples of the strengthened root (cor- 
responding to the unaccented <a;-class of the Sanskrit) 
are gub and bu. Roots in u (and i) strengthen their 
vowel to au (and ai) which before the case-sign ap- 
pears as av (and ay). 


3, gauhataiy 


2. b<3:vahy 

3. b^vatiy 


1 . 3.hayam 

2. ahava 

3. ahava ab^v^z(n). 


(2.) Examples of the unchanged root (correspond- 
ing to the accented ^-class of the Sanskrit) are bar 
and jiv. 


2. harahy 

3. haratiy hara(n)tiy 


2. b^rahy 

3. harsLtiy 


2. jiva 

3. jiv^tuv 


3. 3.hara ab<3;r^(n) 


3. aharata. ab^r^(n)ta 


Note i. The passive formation is the middle-endings added to 
the class-sign. 

Note 2. The class sign is often connected with the root by an 
interposed i. 

Examples : duruj, deceive ; m^r, die ; th^h, say. 

A. Examples of the simple class in active are 
duruj, mar. 
present active, sing. 

1. durujiyamiy 

pres. act. subj., 

2. durujiyahy 

imperfect active, 

3. adurujiya 

imperfect middle, 

3. amariy^ta 


B. Example of the passive formation is th^h, which 
verb adds the active ending in the first person plural. 


I. th^hyam^^hy 

Note 3. The passive formation of k^r, do, is upon the strength- 
ened stem; e. g., Imperf. 3. s., akun^vyata. 

Note 4. It is possible to regard the form ath^hy^? as the imper- 
fect 3d sing., with the active ending, instead of the middle, yet pos- 
sessed of a passive sense. I prefer to read, however, athahy, 
believing it to be the passive aorist with short vowel in the stem. 
(Cf. 50 N.) 


Note i. A causative conjugation is made from this class, but all 
verbs belonging to this class have not a causative value. 
Note 2. The class-sign is added to the strengthened root. 

Examples : d^r, hold ; ish, send ; sta, stand. 

A. Examples of the simple class are d^r, and ish. 

Present, i. s. , dar<3:yamiy 
Imperfect, 3. s., adsLvaya 


1. aish^y^m 

2. a.ishaya 

B. Example of the causative conjugation is sta. 


I. astay^m 

3. astay<^ 

Note 3. Sometimes the class-sign appears as aya; thus, agarbay- 
am, ag^rbaya, etc. 

Verbs sometimes make their formation in more 
than one class; thus, j^diyamiy and ]adna\ituv. 

47. The Old Persian has left us only one exam- 
ple of the perfect; i. e., Optative, 3 s., c^khriya from 



48. There have been preserved two aorists; (i) 
the root aorist, which adds the personal endings di- 
rectly to the root, and (2) the sibilant aorist, which 
takes sa as a tense-sign. An example of the root 
aorist is the form ada, 3d person singular of da. Ex- 
amples of the sibilant aorist are aish^a;, 3d person 
sing., and aish^(n), 3d person plur. of root I. 

49. The aorist adds the secondary endings to the 
tense-stem, to which the augment has been prefixed. 

50. The root-aorist has a peculiar formation, 

which is passive in meaning, corresponding to what 

the Hindu grammarians call the "passive aorist" of 

the Sanskrit. The third person singular of the middle 

is the only form in use. This person is made by 

adding i (which it has borrowed from the first person) 

to the root. Euphonically, the form appears as iy or 

y. The root is usually strengthened; thus, adariy 

or adary from dar. 

Note. In the root thah, the stem-vowel remains short; thus, 
ath^hy (for athahy). The Hindu grammarians mention certain roots 
of the Sanskrit in avs\, which preserve the short a ; thus, agami, 
avnrdhi, etc. 

51. The optative of the root-aorist doubtless ap- 
pears in ag^miya from g^m. 

Note. The root bu loses its stem-vowel in this mode; e. g., biya. 

52. The Old Persian has left no future-system. 
A periphrastic future is built out of a nomen agentis 
and the auxiliary bu; thus, j^ta biya (Bh. IV, 17), 
let him be a killer; i. e., let him kill (he shall kill). 

53. The passive participle is formed by adding ta 
to the simple root; thus, k^rt^ from k^r. 



54. The Old Persian infinitive is formed by the 
suffix tana (Lat. tinus in crastinus, diutinus) which 
appears always in the locative case; thus, ka(n)ta- 
naiy from kan. 

Note. The infinitive of k^r change the initial guttural of the 
root to a palatal: e. g., cortanaiy. 


55. With accusative: abiy, ant^r, athiy, up^riy, 
upa, prttiy, p^tish, prt:riy. 

With instrumental: p^tiy, h^da. 
With genitive: abish, p^tiy, p^sa. 
With ablative: haca.. 
With locative; anuv, p^tiy. 

56. atiy — across, beyond ud, us — up, out. 
ap^ — away, forth. upa — to, towards. — down, off. ni — down, into. 

a — to, unto. nij — out, forth. 

p^ra — away, forth. 

fr<3: — forward, forth. 

h^m — together. 


57. a, 2Lj ah, i, ish, u, t<3;r (forming nouns of agency 
and relationship), ti, tu, tha, thi, thu, tr^, da, na, 
m^n, ma, ya, yu, ra. 



58. iya, pertaining to (used also to form the pa- 

a.ina, consisting of. 

ka (an adjectival suffix). 

ta (having an ablative value and often used for 
that case). 

ta (adverbial suffix). 

tha (having a local sense). 

da (adverbial suffix). 

na (adjectival suffix). 

ra (adjectival suffix). 

v^n, 'possessed of. ' 




59. Although the Old Persian language can be 
called syntactical, yet there exist many traces of that 
loose and free construction (paratax) which is original 
to speech. 


60. One or two peculiar constructions call for 

A. A collective noun in the singular often has the 
government of a plural noun, both over a verb and a 

pronoun; thus, imam bumim ty^^sham ad^m 

Sithaham akun^v^ta (NRa) 'This earth 

what I commanded them (i. e., this earth) this was 

B. The singular of the personal pronoun a.dam can 
be expanded in a following clause into the plural; thus, 
p<7tish mam h^m^r<^n^m c^rt^^n^iy p^sav^ hamaranam 
akuma. (Bh. I, 19) 'to engage in battle against me, 
afterwards we engaged in battle.' 

C. The plural can be used for the dual; thus, 
av<^thasham h^^m^r^in^m kartam. (Bh. II, 6) 'thus the 
battle was fought by them.' (i. e., the army of Vi- 
darna and the rebellious army); Anam^k^hy^ mahya 
II r<3:uc^2:bish (Bh. I, 19) 'on the 2d day of the month 
Anamaka' (lit., with two days). 



61. The nominative is the case of the subject of 
a finite verb, and of all words qualifying the subject, 
both attributively, predicatively, and appositionally. 
A few peculiar uses .ire^to be noticed. 


A. The nominative is used often in the weak syntax 
common to the Old Iranian languages. Artificially it 
can be explained as the subject of astiy supplied, the 
idea being repeated in the form of a pronoun; thus, 
m<^rtiy^ Frada a,vam m^thisht^m akun^v^(n)ta 
(Bh. Ill, 3) 'a man, Frada by name, him they made 

Note i. The pronoun is sometimes omitted, leaving the nomina- 
tive where the accusative of the direct object would be expected; 
adrt'm fraishrzyrt-m Dad(7rsis nam<7 Parsrt^ mana. ha(n)daka (Bh. Ill, 2) 'I 
sent forth my subject, Dadarsis by name, a Persian.' 

Note 2. This free use of the nominative is shown in such expres- 
sions as Kug^m<7krt nam^: vadanam (Bh. II, 3) 'there is a town, Ku- 
ganaka by name; (lit. there is a town, [its] name is Kuganaka). That is nominative, not accusative, is shown by the fact that it some- 
times agrees in gender with the noun, if that be feminine, e. g., Sik- 
aty^uvatish nama dida Nishaya namad^/hyaush (Bh. I, 13) 'there is a 
stronghold, Sikatyauvatis by name; there is a country, Nishaya by 
name. ' 

B. The nominative is used in the predicate after a 
verb in the middle voice which has the force of a pas- 
sive; thus, hya 'Nah\ik(u)dracara ag^ub^ita (Bh. I, 19) 
'who called himself (i. e. was called) Nabukudracara.* 


62. The vocative is the case of direct address. 
The following peculiarity needs to be considered, 

namely: The vocative of the personal pronoun tuv^m 
is made indefinite by the insertion of the interrogative 
ka in the same case; thus, tuv^m kahy^ ap^r^m imam 
dipirrt v^inahy (Bh. IV, 15) *0 thou (whoever thou art) 
who wilt hereafter see this inscription.' 


63. The accusative is the case of the direct object 
of a verb, and of all words which qualify the object, 
both attributively, predicately, and appositionally; 
e. g. Aurrt-m^zda hy^ imam bumim ada (O.) *Aura- 
mazda who created this earth.' 


64- Some verbs which allow two constructions 
may take two accusatives, one in each construction; 
e. g. , verbs of asking", taking, etc.; as ait« ad^m 
Aur^m<?zdam j^diyamiy (NRa.) 'I beg this of Aura- 
mazda.' khsh<i:tr<^mshim ad^m adin^m (Bh. I, 13). *I 
took the kingdom from him.' 

A. The verbs k<^r and da admit two accusatives, 
one as object, the other as predicate; thus, hya Dara- 
yava(h.)um. khshay^thiy<?m akun<2us. (O.) 'who made 
Darius king;' h^uv D a.r ay av a (h.)um khshay^thiy^m 
adrt:da (H.), *he has made Darius king.' 

B. A few verbs strengthen the verbal notion by 
adding their past passive participle, which becomes an 
accusative in agreement with the direct object; thus, 
av^m (h)ub«rt<^m aharam (Bh. I, 8) 'I supported him 
well; (lit, him well supported I supported.)' 

65. The accusative can follow nouns which have 
such a verbal character that they share the construc- 
tion of a verb; thus, Aur^m^^'zda thuvam d<2usta biya 
(Bh. IV, 16) 'may Auramazda be a friend to you.' 

66. The accusative stands as the limit of motion, 
b)oth with and without a preposition; thus, y^tha mam 
kam« (Bh. IV, 4) 'as the wish (came) to me' (i. e. as 
my wish was); a.dam (karam) iraishayam Uvajam, 
(Bh. I, 17) *I sent an army to Susiana;' K^(m)bujiy^ 
Mudrayam ashiy^va (Bh. I, 10) 'Cambyses went to 
Egypt;' (karam) fraish^y^ abiy Vivan^zm (Bh. Ill, 9) 
'he sent the army to Vivana.' 

67. The accusative expresses extent and duration, 
both with and without a preposition; thus, khsh<2p^va 
raucapativa ava akun^v^y^ta (Bh. I, 7) 'this was done 
day and night.* 


A. The time in which an action took place seems 
to have been expressed at times by the accusative. 
One case occurs in the inscriptions; Garmapadahya 
mahya I rauca th^k^ta ah^ av^thasham h^m^r^n^zm 
kartam (Bh. Ill, I.) *on the first day of the month 
Garmapada then it was that thus the battle was fought 
by them.' This idiom appears occasionally in San- 

68. The accusative of specification defines the ap- 
plication of a noun; thus, h^ca Pirav^; nam^ rauta 
(SZb.) 'from a river, the Nile by name.' Cf. 6i, A. 
n. 2. 


69. The instrumental is the case denoting associa- 
tion and accompaniment originally, and as a derived 
notion, instrument and means. 

70. The instrumental of accompaniment usually 
takes the preposition h<2da; thus, aish^ hada, kara (Bh. 
I, 19) *he went with his army.' 

A. In enumeration the instrumental may be used 
in the sense of association, when the same case as the 
preceding nouns would be expected; thus abacr/ris 
g^ith^mca maniy^mca v(i)thibishca .... avastayr/m 
(Bh. I, 14) *I restored the commerce and the cattle 
and the dwellings and together with the clans' (i. e. , 
and the clans.) 

71. The instrumental of means or instrument is 
very frequent; thus, v<7shna Aur^m^zdah^ (Bh. I, 5.) 
*by the grace of Auramazda.' ardrtistan^ . . . .vithiya 
karta (L.) 'the lofty structure was made by the clan.' 

72. The prosecutive instrumental denotes the as- 
sociation of time with an event; thus, Viy<7khn^?h\a 
mahya XIV r^uc^bish th<3:k^ta aha y^diy udirpat^rta 


(Bh. I, ii) 'on the 14th day of the month Viyakhna, 
then it was when he rose up (lit. in connection with iz^ 
days).' Cf. 6j, A. 

73. The instrumental is sometimes used in the 
sense of the locative, denoting the point in space; thus, 
ad(a;mshim'gathva avastay^'m (Bh. I, 14) 'I put it in its 
place.' m^na data ap^riyayrt(n) (Bh. I, 8) 'they fol- 
lowed in my law.' v<^siy aniy^sciy n^ib^^m k^rt^m 
ana Parsa (D.) 'there is many another beautiful work 
in this Persia.' 


74. The dative case has no existence in Old Per- 
sian, its place being taken by the genitive. 


75. The use of the ablative is to express separa- 
tion or distinction. The preposition h^ca is usually 
joined to this case. 

'j^. The ablative denotes issue, removal, release, 
and like relations; thus, khsh^tr^m tya h^ca amakh^rm 
t^umaya p<^rabrtrt<7m ah<7 (Bh. I, 14) 'the kingdom 
which was taken from our family.' h^uv hrtcam<3 
hrtmitriy^ ab^v^ (Bh. Ill, 5) 'he became estranged 
(rebellious) from me.' 

A. The notion of this ablative passes over to that 
of cause; thus, kar^shim h^ca d^rsh^m^ at^irs^ (Bh. I, 
13) 'the state feared him on account of (hisj violence.' 

j'j. The ablative expresses defense, which is a de- 
velopment of the idea of removal; thus, h^ca dn^uga 
p^tip^y^zuva (Bh. IV, 5) 'protect yourself from deceit.' 
imam d^hyaum Aur^m<7zda patuv h^ca h<?inaya h^ca 
d(u)shiyara h^ca dr<^uga (H.) 'may Auramazda pro- 
tect this province from an army, from failure of crops, 
and from deceit.' 


A. The ablative follows tars, to fear. Such an 
ablative contains this same idea of removal (i. e., re- 
coil from a dread object), h^ca aniy^na ma t^rs^m 
(I) 'let me not fear a foe.' 

78. The ablative is the case of comparison. This 
use is simply a special application of its original no- 
tion of distinction; thus, a.pataram haca. Parsa (NRa) 
'another than a Persian' (lit. another from a Persian.) 


79. The true use of the genitive is to qualify 
a noun with the same powers as the adjective enjoys. 
The genitive, however, did not remain restricted to 
this adjectival construction, but is employed with 
verbs and adjectives. 

80. The subjective genitive, including the author 
and possessor, expresses the subject of the action; 
thus v<3:shna Auramazdaha ad^m khshay(3:thiy<3: amiy 
(Bh. I, 5) 'by the grace of Auramazda, I am king.^ 

A. The genitive regularly follows kartamy perhaps 
on account of a substantive idea in the participle; 
thus, av^thasham hamaranam k^rt^m (Bh. Ill, 10) 
*thus the battle was fought by them.' 

Note. The genitive expressing means is found in Sanskrit. 

B. The genitive follows p^sa; thus, kar^ Pars^ 
p^sa mana. ashiy^v^ (Bh. Ill, 6) 'The Persian army 
followed me.' 

C. The genitive expresses manner; thus, hama- 
hyaya th^rd^ (Bh. IV, 7) 'in every way.' 

81. The partitive genitive denotes the whole of 
which a portion is taken; thus, ad^m Dar^y/?v<7(h)ush 
khshayrt:thiy^ khshay^thiyanam (Bh. I, i) 'I am Da- 
rius, the king of kings.' 


A. The genitive is dependent on an adjective 
(especially a superlative) which has substantival char- 
acter enough to allow a partitive construction; thus 
Aurrt:m<2zda hya m^thisht^ b^ganam (F.) 'Auramazda, 
who is the greatest of the gods.' 

82. The objective genitive, which designates the 
noun as the object of the action, occurs nowhere in 
the inscriptions. 

83. The datival genitive expresses the indirect 
object; thus, kar<3;hya avrt:tha athaha (Bh. I, 16) 'thus 
he said to the state.' Auram^zda khsh<a:tr<3:m m<^na 
ivdhara (Bh. I, 5) 'Auramazda gave the kingdom to 

Note. This use is simply a pregnant construction of the posses- 
sive genitive; e. g., khsh(7tr(?m mrt'na irabara, he gave the kingdom to 
me (made it mine by giving). This same power of the genitive is 
shared by the Prakrit and the late Sanskrit. 

A. The verb duruj, ''to deceive,' is followed by 
the genitive once in the inscriptions; elsewhere it 
governs the accusative. Kar^hya av<3:tha adurujiy^ 
Bh. I, 1 1 'thus he deceived the people.' 

B. The genitive enclitic sham follows a.]anam in 
place of the accusatfve of direct object in Bh. IV, 2 
ad^msham aj^n<3:m, T smote them,' and patiyakshaiy 


84. The locative is the case denoting location and 
condition. The locative expresses situation, both 
with and without a preposition; thus, ad^m khsha- 
y^thiy^ Pars^iy (Bh. I, i) *I am king in Persia.' hy^ 
Mad^ishuva m<3:thisht^ aha Bh. II, 6 *who was great- 
est among the Medes.' vardanam anuv Ufr<2t<a:uva 
(Bh. 1,(19) 'a town on the Euphrates.' 

A. The locative takes the place of the instrumen- 
tal in the expression nip^diy, 'on foot;' e.g., atiyaish^. 


passiva Vivan^ hada, kara nip^^diy (Bh. Ill, 1 1) *after- 
wards Vivana followed with his army on foot.' 

B. The locative can take the place of the partitive 
genitive; thus, Mad^ishuv^ m^thishta (Bh. II, 6) 'the 
greatest among the Medes.' 


85. These inscriptions exhibit such careless irreg- 
ularities that they call for special treatment. 

A. The nominative is attracted into the case of the 
preceding noun, although the predicate appears in the 
nominative; thus,thatiy Art^khshrttraDar<3:y^v^(h)ush- 
ahya. khshay<2thiy<2:hya putr<2 Dar ay av a (h.)ushahy a. Ar- 
takhsh<2thrahya khshay^thiy<3:hya putr<3! (S.) 'says 
Artaxerxes, the son of Darius, the king ; Darius 
(was) the son of Artaxerxes, the king.' 

B. The nominative appears for the accusative with 
a qualifying pronoun in the accusative; im^m ap^dana 
(S.) '(Darius made) this structure.' 

C. The genitive is attracted into the case of the 
subject or the predicate nominative and appears in 
the nominative; thus, Art<3:khsh^tra Dar^y^v^(h)ush 
khshay^thiy^ putr^ (P.) 'Artaxerxes, son of Darius, 
the king.' 

D. The nominative is thrust into the accusative, 
yet the passive construction is retained; thus, im^m 
usat^sh^nam atha(n)g«nam mam upa mam k^^rta (P.) 
'this stone lofty structure was built by me for myself.' 

E. The accusative expresses means, taking the 
place of the regular genitive construction after k^rt^m; 
thus, ty^ mam k^rta (P.) 'what was done by me.' 

F. A substantive in the singular takes its partici- 
ple in the plural; thus, tya mam k<3:rta (P.) 'what was 
done by me.' 



86. The adjective and the participle agree with the 
substantive in gender, number, and case. 
A few peculiar cases are to be noticed. 

A. The adjective can be hardened into a neuter 
substantive and in this way enter into the relation of 
an appositive or a predicate noun; thus, ciyk^^r^m ava 
dahysLva (NRa.) 'beautiful are the regions (lit. a beauty 
these regions are), h^uv kamanam a.ha (Bh. II, 6) 
'that was faithful (lit. a faithful thing).' 

B. The adjective is used, most often in the singu- 
lar, to take the place of the name of a country; thus, 
Pars^, 'Persia (lit. Persian).' Mad^, Media (lit. Me- 

Note i. Sometimes the plural occurs, and in a few cases alter- 
nates with the singular; thus, Yauna and Yauna (NRa) 'Ionia (Jit. 
Ionian and lonians).' 

Note 2. The real name of the country appears a few times; thus, 
Uvarazmish (NRa.), Harauvatish (Bh. I, 6). 

C. The noun vith, 'clan,' when used apposition- 
ally takes the place of the regular adjective vithiy^ai; 
thus, h<2da v(i)thibish b<3:g^ibish (H.) 'with (his) fellow 
gods (lit. with the gods [namely his] fellows).' 

D. In the inscriptions of Artaxerxes Ochus the 
masculine of the pronoun agrees with the feminine 
noun; thus, im^m us^t^sh^nam (P.) 'this lofty struc- 



87. The demonstrative pronouns av^ and h^uv 
supply the place of the third personal pronoun. 

88. The relative pronoun ty^, beside enjoying its 
ordinary functions, has the following important uses: 

A. The relative pronoun frequently serves to con- 
nect the noun with whatever qualifies it, either appo- 


sitionally, adjectively, adverbially, genitively, or loca- 
tively. In this capacity its independent character is lost 
and it agrees with its antecedent, not only in gender and 
number but also in case, thus becoming the equivalent 
of the Greek article; thus, v(i)th<2m tyam amakh^m 
(Bh. I. 14) 'the clan of ours. ' ty^na m<2na data (Bh. I, 
8) *in my law.' khsh^tr<^m ty^ Babir^uv (Bh. I, 16) 
'the kingdom at Babylon.' kar^m tyam Mad^m (Bh. 
II, 6) 'the Median army.' Nabuk(u)dr^c«r« amiy hy^ 
Nabunit^hya putr*^; (Bh. II, 16) 'I am Nabukudracara 
the son of Nabunita.' 

B. The relative can be used in the place of a demon- 
strative; thus, kar^m fraish^y^m ty^ip<a:tiy (Bh. II, 13) 
<I sent an army against these.' 


89. There are (as in Sanskrit) two voices, active 
and middle. The passive notion is conveyed through 
the middle Voice by means of a definite class-sign. 

One or two peculiar constructions call for notice. 

A. The active with direct object can take the place 
of the middle; thus, thuvam msitya durujiyahy (Bh. 
IV, 6) *do not deceive yourself.' 

B. The middle without the passive sign sometimes 
contains the passive signification; thus, hy^ N^buk(u)- 
dracara ag^ub^ta (Bh. I 19) 'who was called (lit. 
called himself) Nabukudracara. 'agrtrbay^ta(Bh. II, 13) 
«he was taken.' an^yata (Bh. I, 17) 'he was led.' 

C. The passive participle of neuter verbs has no 
passive notion, but simply an indefinite past tense; 
thus hrt(n)gmrtta (Bh. II, 7) 'having come together.' 




90. The indicative is used in the recital of facts. 


91. The subjunctive has a general future meaning, 
denoting what is possible and probable. This use is 
perhaps the historic one from which the nicer and 
more elaborate values of this mood in the cognate 
languages have been developed; thus, tuvam ka hya 
aparam imam dipim p^tip^^rsahy (Bh. IV, 6) *0 thou 
who wilt hereafter examine this inscription.' 

A. Conditional sentences introduced by y^diy, 'if, 
take their verbs in the subjunctive; thus yadiy avatha. 
m<3:niyahy (Bh. IV, 5) 'if thus thou thinkest.' 

B. Purpose clauses introduced by y^tha, 'in order 
that', take their verbs in the subjunctive; thus, yatha. 
khshnasahy (NRa.) 'in order that you may know.' 

C. The negative maty*^; (ma and ty^) denoting pur- 
pose or warning takes the subjunctive; thus, maty^ 
mam khshnasatiy (Bh. I, 1 3) 'that (the state) may not 
know me.' 

D. The subjunctive with the negative ma.tya is 
used to express prohibition, less peremptory than the 
imperative, more so than the optative; thus, p^tik<a:ra 
Tn^tya visanahy (Bh. IV, 15) 'thou shalt not destroy 
(these) pictures.' 

E. The temporal conjunction yava takes the sub- 
junctive in its ordinary future sense ; thus, yava 
t^uma ah^tiy (Bh. IV, 16) 'as long as (thy) family 
shall be.' 


92. The optative denotes what is desired, in 
which capacity it is the equivalent of a mild impera- 
tive. In a weakened sense it denotes what may or 
can be. 


A. The optative with the negative particle ma 
expresses a desired negation, not direct prohibition ; 
thus, utat^iy t^uma ma biya (Bh. IV, li) 'may there 
not be a family of thine.' 


93. The imperative expresses a command or a 
desire; thus, paraidiy av^m j^diy (Bh. II, 7) *go, 
smite that (army).' 


94. The infinitive, in its fundamental and usual 
sense, expresses purpose, as the dative infinitive of the 
Veda. It has also become employed in a freer sense 
as the simple complement of a verb ; thus, ais^ h^^da 
kara p^tish mam hamaranam cartanaiy (Bh. I, 19) 
'he went with (his) army against me to engage in 
battle,' kasciy naly ad^rshn^ush cisciy th<^st^n^iy 
p<3:riy G^^umat^m (Bh. I, 13) 'no one dared to say 
anything against Gaumata.* 

95. A few peculiar uses deserve notice. 

A. The present with diivita.taranam denotes that 
the action was begun in the past and continues in the 
present. This peculiarity is to be compared with the 
Latin use of the present with iam diu, etc. 

B. The indicative forms of the imperfect and 
aorist appear without augment. With the loss of 
this augment the imperfect and aorist sacrifice their 
own peculiar character and take on other notions. 
After ma prohibitive the sense is that of a subjunc- 
tive or optative ; thus, h^ca aniyana ma t^rs^m (I.) 
* may I not fear an enemy. ' 


C. Yata in the sense of "while" takes the imper- 
fect; in the sense of ''until" it takes either the imper- 
fect or aorist. 

D. The passive participle, both with and without 
an auxiliary verb, is used in the sense of a passive 
perfect; thus, amata am^hy (Bh. I, 3) 'we have been 
tested (or prolonged).' B^rdiy^ av^j<2:t^ (Bh. I, lo) 
'Bardiya was slain.' 


96. Final Clauses. Cf. 91, B. and C. 

97. Consecutive Clauses. Tya (the neuter of the 
relative) introduces clauses expressing result, and 
takes the verb in the indicative ; thus, dr<^ug^dish 
h<7mitriya akun^ush ty^ im^iy kar^m adurujiy^sh<3:(n) 
(Bh. IV, 4) 'a lie made them rebellious so that they 
deceived the people.' 

98. Conditional Clauses. Cf. 91, A. 

99. Causal Clauses. Y^tha expressing cause 
takes the verb in the indicative ; thus, Aur/^m<a:zda 

up<i:stam ahara y<3:tha n^iy arik<a; ah<^m (Bh. IV, 

13) 'Auramazda gave aid, because I was not un- 

100. Temporal Clauses. 

A. Y^tha, "while," takes the indicative; "in 
order that," the subjunctive. 

B. Yata, Cf. 95, C. 

C. Yava, "as long as," prefers the subjunctive. 
Cf. 91, E. 


101. A form of indirect narrative is hardly devel- 
oped in the language. Statements are expressed 


usually in the most simple direct manner; thus, yadiy 
av^^tha m^niyahy d^hyaushm^iy duruva ah<2tiy (Bh. 
IV, 5) 'if thus thou thinkest, may my country be safe.' 

A. This influence of the direct form of statement 
is felt often by the pronoun in a dependent clause; 
thus, kar<3:m avaj^niya maty^man khshnasatiy (Bh. I, 
13) 'he would smite the people that they may not 
know him (lit. that they may not know me)'; the idea 
being expressed as it was conceived in the mind of the 

B. A tendency towards indirect discourse is mani- 
fested by the use of the neuter of the relative ty^; 
thus, kar<^hya n^iy azda ab^v^ ty^ B^rdiy^ av^j^t^ 
(Bh. I, 10) 'there was ignorance on the part of the 
state that Bardiya was slain.' 

Note. The relative pronoun yat in Sanskrit appears to have a few 
times this same function. I refer to a case I have met recently in my 
reading, namely in the Khandogya Upanishad. 


102. Copulative. The composition of two nouns 
in coordinate construction as if connected by the con- 
junction "and" does not appear in the inscriptions. 

103. Determinative. The composition of two 
words, the former of which qualifies the second, either 
as a noun in case relation, adjective, or verb, occurs; 
thus, sarastiharaf 'having bows', Aur^m^zda, SLsahara, 

104. Adjective. The determinative compound by 
assuming the idea of • 'possessing" becomes an adjec- 
tive; thus, Art^khshatr^j, 'Artaxerxes* (as a determi- 


native, 'lofty kingdom'; as an adjective compound, 
^'possessing a lofty kingdom'.) zurakara, 'possessing 
power as action', (h)uv^sp«, paruzana, etc. 

Note. The compound paruzana has its two members separated, yel 
preserves the meaning and value of a compound; thus, paruv zananan 

(Ca) (Cb) (K). 

I02. Prepositional. The composition of two 
words, the former of which is a preposition governing 
the second, is found often; thus, passLva, 'after this', 
taradaraya patipadam iraharvamf etc. 


A complete classification of all the verb-forms oc- 
ring in the Old Persian language, 

Aj (?), drive. (See vocabulary.) 
Impf. 3. s., Sijata. 

Akhsh (?), see. (See vocabulary.) 
Impf. I. s., akhsh<2iy. 

Ah. be. 
Pres. I. s., amiy; 2. s., ahy, 3. s., astiy; 1. p.; 
am^hy: 3. p., h^(n)tiy; 3. s., ah^tiy(subj.). Impf. i. 
s., ah^m; 3. s., ah^; 3. p., ah^(n); 3. p. (middle) 
ah^(n)ta, (ah^[n]t^). 

Av^h, ask aid. 
Impf. (middle) I. s., avahaiy. 

I> go- 
Pres. 3. £., aitiy; 2. s., idiy (impv.); 2. p. ; ita (impv.) 
Impf. I. s., ay^m, 3 p., ay^(n). Aor. 3. s., aish^; 3. 
p.,aish^(n).Part., ita 

Ish, send. 
Impf. I. s, aiishayam 3. s., aish^zy^. 

K^n, dig. 
Pres. 3. s., k^(n)tuv (impv.). Impf. I. s., ak^n^m; 
3. s., ak^. Aor. (passive) 3. s., ak^niy. Inf. k<3:(n)- 

J^ar, do. 

Pres. 2. s., kun^vahy (subj.), k^rahy (subj.) 2. s. 
k^ra (impv.) Impf. i. s., akun^^v^m; 3. s., akun^iush, 
(akunash: S), i. p., akuma, 3. p. akun^v^(n), 3. s. 
(middle) akun^v^ta, 3. p. akun^va(n)ta, (akuta), 3. s. 
(passive) akun^vy^ta; Perf. 3. s. c^khriya (opt.). Inf. 
cartanaiy; Part k^rt^. 

OF run. 


Khshi (?), rule. (See vocabulary.) 
Impf. (middle) i. s, akhsh^iy. 

Khshnas, know. 

Pres. 2. s. khshnasahy (subj.), 3. s. khshnasatiy 

Gam, go. 
Aor. 3. s. gm^ta, 3. s. jamiya (opt). Part gmata. 

Garb, seize. 
Impf. I. s. a.garha.yam, 3. s., agarhaya, 3. p. ag^r- 
bay<3:(n), 3. s. (middle) ag^bayata, 

Gud, hide. 
Pres. 2. s. g<^ud^yahy (subj.); Impf. 3, s. agaudaya, 

Gub, speak. 
Pres. (middle) 3. s. g^ubd:t^iy, 3. s. g^ubat<3:iy 
(subj.); Impf. 3. s. ag^ub^ta. 

Jady ask. 
Pres. I. s. j^^diyamiy, 3. s. j<^d<2:n^utuv (impv.) 

]an, smite. 
Pres, 2. s. jadiy (impv.), 2. p. j^ta (impv.) j^niya 
(opt.); Impf. I s. ajanam, 3. s. aj^, 3 p. a]ana (n); 
Part. j<2t^. 

Jiv, live. 
Pres. 2. s. jiv^hy, 2. s. jiva (impv.) 

T^khsh, fashion. 
Impf. (middle) I s. at^khsh^iy, 3. s. at^khsh^ta, 3. 
p. at^khsha(n)ta. 

TaVy cross. 
Impf. I s. at^r^(m?) (Bh. V, 4) 3. s., at^r^ (t^rti- 
yana.?), i. p. atarayama; Part. t^rt^. 


T^rs, fear. 
Pres. 3. s. tarsatiy; Impf, i. s. ditarsam, 3. s. atarsa. 

Thad, go.(?) 
Impf. 2. s. Sithadaya. 

Th<3:h, say. 
Pres. 2. s. thahy, 3. s. thatiy, I. p, (passive) th^h- 
yam^hy; Impf. i, s. ath^zh^m, 3. s. athaha; Aor. (pas- 
sive) 3. s. ath<a:hi; Inf. thastanaiy. 

Trar, guard. 
Impf. I. s. atrarayam. 

Dan, flow. 
Pres. 3. s. danauvatiy. 

Dar, hold. 
Pres. I. s. dar<2yamiy; Impf. 3. s. adaraya; Aor. 
(passive) 3. s. adariy (adary, adari). 

D<3:rsh, dare. 
Pres. (middle) I. s, d^rsh^iy; Impf. 3. s. ad<2rsh- 

1. Da, know. 
Impf. 3, s. adana. 

2. Da, put. 

Impf. 3. s. ad^da; Aor. 3. s. ada, ad^da. 

3. Da, give. 
Pres. 3. s. d^datuv (impv,) 

I. Di, see. 
Pres, 2. s. didiy (impv.) 

2. Di, take. 
Impf. I. s. adin^m, 3. s. adina; Part. dit^. 


Duruj, deceive. 
Pres. 2. s. durujiyahy (subj. ;) Impf. 3. s. adurujiya, 
3. p. adurujiy^sh<7(n); Part, durukht^. 

Duv<^r, make. (?) 
Part, duvarta. 

Ni, lead. 
Impf. I. s. a.nayam, 3. s. anayay 3. s. (middle) an^- 

Fat, fall. 
Impf. 3. s. (middle) apatata. 

Vars, examine. 
Pres. 2. s. p<^rsahy (subj.) 3. s. p<^rsatiy (subj.) 
p«rsa (impv.); Impf. i. s. ap<2:rs^m; Part, fr^^st^. 

Pa, protect. 
Pres. 2. s. padiy (impv.), 3. s. patuv (impv,,) 2. s. 
(middle) p^y^uva (impv.) Part. pat^. 

Pish, rub. 
Impf. 1. s. apish<^m; Inf. pishtrt:n<3:iy; Part, pisht^. 

B<7(n)d, bind. 
Part. b^st^. 

Bar, bear. 
Pres. 3. p. b<3:rrt:(n)tiy, haratya?, 3. s. b^r^tuv (impv.); 
Impf. I. s. abaram, 3. s. ab^ra 3. p. ab^ra(n), 3. p. 
(middle) ab^r«(n)ta; Part, barta. 

Bu, be. 
Pres. 3. s. b^vatiy (subj.); Impf. i. s. ahavam, 3. 
s. ab^va, 3. p. abava(n); Aor. 3. s. biya (Opt.) 

M^n, think. 
Pres. 3. s. maniyatiy (subj.) 

M^n, remain. 
Impf, 3. s. 3imanaya. 


M^r, die. 
Impf. (middle) 3. s. am^riy^ta. 

Ma, measure. 
Part. mat^. 

R^d, leave.C?) 
Impf. 2. s. Sitada. 

KaSy come. 
Pres, 3. s. r<3:satiy (subj.); Impf. i. s. ar^s^m, 3. s. 

Vain, see. 
Pres. 2. s. v^inahy (subj.) 3. s. (middle) vainataiy; 
Impf. 3. s. divaina. 

Vaj, lead. 
Impf. I. s. avajam. 

Yar, cause to believe. 
Pres. 3. s. v^rn^vatiy (subj.) 3. s. (middle) warna- 
v^tam (impv.) 

S^n, destroy. 
Pres. 2. s. s^nahy (subj.) 

S^r, kill.(?) 
Impf. (middle) 3. s. as^riy^ta. 

St^r, sin. 
Impf. 2. s. astarava. 

Sta, stand. 
Impf. 3. s. aisht<3:ta, 1. s. astay^m, 3. s. astay^. 

Shiyu, go. 
Impf. I. s. ashiy^v^m, 3. s. ashiy^v^, 3. p. ashiy^j- 

H^(n)j, throw. 
Impf. I. s. ah^(n)j^m. 

H^d, sit. 
Impf. I. s. ahad<2y^m. 







*Ad^m *Kurush ^khshay^aithiy^?; ^HakhRmanishiya. 

lAdara. 36. 2Kurush, IC. ^khshay/^thiya. 18. '•H^kham^ni- 
shiyrt, 58. 




1. Adam Dar^y<3:V(3:(h)ush* khshayathiya vazraka 
khshay(3:thiy^ khshay^thiyanam khshay^thiy^ Pars^^iy 
khshay^thiy^ M^hyunam V(i)shthasp(^hya putm Ar- 
sham^hya 'naps. H^kham^nishiy<3:. 2. ^Thatiy Data- 
y^v<3:(h)ush khshay^thiy^ mam, '^pita V(i)shtasp^ 
V(i)shtasp<2hya pita Arsham^ Arsham^hya pita Ariya- 
ramna Ariyaramn^^hya pita [C^ishpish] ^C^ishpaisb 
pita H^kham^nish. 3, Thatiy Dar<3:y^v^(h)ush 
khshay^thiy^ av^hy^radiy vayam H^kham^nishiya 
^th^hyam^hy haca. ^p^ruviy<7t<^ ^amata ^am^hy haca 
p<^ruviy^t<3^ "hya amakh^m "t^uma khshay<2thiya 
dLha(n). 4:. Thatiy Dar^y<2v^(h)ush khshay<^thiy<3; 
VIII m<3;na t^umaya ty<3!iy paruvam khshay^thiya 
ah^(n) adam navamalXduvita.tarnam vayam khshay^- 
thiya am^hy, 5. Thatiy Dar^y^v<2(h)ush khshay^- 
thiy<3: v<2shna "Auramazdaha adam khshay^thiy^j: amiy 
Aur<3:m^zda khsh«tr<2m '^m^^na irahara. 6. Thatiy 
Dar<3:y^v<3:(h)ush khshay^thiy^ ^'*ima d<^hyav^ tya mana 
'5prt'tiyaish(3;(n) v^jshna Aur<7m^zdah(3; '"ad^msham 
khshay^thiy^ ah^m Pars^ (H)uv^j^ Babirush Athura 

*The author not feeling ready to accept the theory of Linder 
(Literar. Centralblatt, 18S0, p. 358) respecting the derivation of the 
second member of the compound (cf. Spiegel: Die Altpersischen Keil- 
inschriften, 2nd edition) retained the old spelling 4-vush in his first 
edition. The otherwise anomalous genitive +vah<7ush has induced 
him to transliterate +v<7(h)ush. See vocabulary. 

id^hyunam, 21. ^^^pa, 23. "thatiy, 15; 39, V. "pita, 22. 
'C<zishpaish, 20. ®thrthyamr?hy, 45, b. ^p^ruviyrttfl, 58. ^amata, 
95, D. •amahy 40 (end)- i^hya, 30; 87, a. ^U^uma, 21. ^^Aura- 
mflzdaha, 19. ^'mana, 83. ^*ima, 28. i''prttiyaishrt(n), 48. *«ad«m- 
sham. 29. 


Arahaya Mudray^ tyaly darayahya, Sp^rd<3! Y^una 
Mad^ Arming Katapatuka Tarthava Zara(n)ka Harai- 
va Vvsirazamiya Bakhtrish Sugud^ G^(n)dar^ Saka 
Thatagush H^r<a:uv^tish Maka haharvam dahyava 
XXIII. 7. Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay^^thiy^ 
ima dahydiva tya mana pat{y3iisha(n) v^shna Aur^- 
mazdaha m^na b^(n)d^ka aha(n)ta. mana. 'bajim ^ 
r^(n)ta ty^sham h^cam^ ath^hy khsh^p<3;va raucapa- 
tiva ^ava *a,kunavyata. 8. Thatiy Dar^y<3:v^(h)ush 
khshay^thiy<3; a(n)t^r ima d^hyav<3: martiya hya ag^ta 
aha avam ^(h)ub<^rt^m ab^r^m hya arik<^ ah^: av^m 
(h)uirastam ap<^rs^m v<3:shna Aur^m^zdah^ ima da- 
hyav^ ty^na m^na data ap<3;riyay^(n) y<^thasham ha- 
cam^ ^ath^hy av<3;tha ^akun^vy^^ita. 9. Thatiy Dara- 
yava(h)ush khshay<3:thiy<^ Aur<^m^zda m<3:na khsh<i:tr^m 
irahara Aur<^m(^zdam^iy up^stam ^ahara 'yata im^ 
khsh<^tr<3;m *°adary v^shna Aur^m^zdah^ im^ khsh^- 
tr^m "dar<^yamiy. 10. Thatiy Dar<2y^v^(h)ush 

khshay<^thiy<3: im<2: ty<3; m<?na "k^rt^m pasava y^itha 
khshay<7thiy^ ab<3:v^m Ka(m)huyiya nama Kur<7ush 
putva amakh<2m t<2umaya ^^hauv p^ruv^m ida khshay^- 
thiy<^ aha avrt:hya K<^(m)buj iy<^hya brata B^rdiy*^ ''^nam^ 
aha h^mata h<3;m(3:pita K<3:(m)bujiy<2hya pasava Ka(m)- 
bujiy^ av^m B<2rdiy<3:m ^^avaja y^^tha Krt'(m)bujiy^ 
B<3:rdiy<3:m avaj^ kar^hya n^iy azda ahava tya B^^rdiy^^; 
ava]ata pasava K<3:(m)buji}^ Mudrayrt-m ashiy<^v<3: 
y^tha Krt'(m)bujiy^ Mudray^m ashiy^v^ pasava kara 
arik^ ab^^v^ pasava drauga d^hy^uva v^siy ab^v^ uta 
Pars^iy uta Mad^iy uta aniyauva d^hyushuva. 
11. Thatiy T) ar ay av a (h)ush khshay^thiy^ pasava I 
mrtrtiy<^ M^^gush ah<^ G<2umat<2 nam^ h^uv ud<3:p^t<7:ta 
h<3;ca P^ishiyauvadaya Ar<3:k^drish nama k<3:uf^ haca. 

1 bajim. 20. * a.haTa{n)ta, 44, 2. ^ ^va, 27. ■* akun^vyata, 45, 
N. 3. s (h)ub^?rt^m, 64, b. « athahy, 45, N. 4; 50. N. ^ akun^v- 
yrtta, 42. ^ abara, 44. ® yata, 95. 1° adary, 50. ^ ^ danzyamiy 46 
i2kflrtam, 53. i^hauv, 28. i ^ nama, 23, b. - - 


Sivadasha Yiyakhnahya mahya XIV ' r<3;uc^bish tha- 
katSL oha yadiy udayatata. hauv karahyd. av^tha 'adu- 
rujiy^ a.dam B^rdiy^ amiy hya Kur^ush putr^ K^(m)- 
bujiy^hya brata kara haruva h^mitriy^ ab^v^ 
h^ca K^(m)bujiya abiy SLvam ashiy^v<3! uta Tarsa uta 
Mad<3: uta aniya d^hyav^ khsh^tr<3:m h^uv 3.garha.yata. 
Garmapadahya mahya IX r<^uc^bish th^ik^ta aha 
av^tha khsh(3;tr<3:m agarhayata pasava 'Ka(^m)hu]iya 
(h)uvam^rshiyush am^riy^ta. 12. Thatiy Damy^- 
v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ aita khsh<2tr^m tya G<3:umata ^ 
hya Magush ^adina K«(m)bujiy«m aita khsh^tr^m 
h^ca paruvlyata amakh<2m t^umaya ah^ pasava Gau- 
mata hya M<3;gush adina K<3:(m)bujiy^m uta Pars^m 
uta Mad^m uta aniya d<3:hyav<^ h<3;uv ay<3:sta uvaip<7shi- 
yam akut<3; h^uv khshay^thiy^ ahava. 13. Thatiy 
Dar^y<3;v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^s: n^iy aha martiya na'iy 
Varsa naiy Mad^ n^iy amakh<3;m t<3:umaya ^k^^shciy hy<3; 
avam G<2umat^m ty<2m Magum khsh<2tr<2m dit^^m 
*c^khriya kar<2shim h^ca darshama at^rs^ kar^m v^siy 
avaj^niya hya paranam B^rdiy<3;m adana av<a;hy<^radiy 
kar^m avaj^niya '^maty^mam khshnasatiy ty^; ad^m 
n^iy B<3:rdiy^ amiy hy^ Kur<7ush putr^ k^shciy n^iy 
ad^rshn^ush cishciy th^st^n^iy p^riy G^umat^m ty^m 
M^gum yata adam avasam pasava adam Aur^m^zdam 
p<3;tiyav<^h^iy Aur^m^zdam^^iy up^stam ahava Bag<3:- 
yad^ish mahya X r^uc^bish th^k^ta ah^ av^tha ad<a:m 
h^da k<3!m^n^ibish martiy^ibish av^m G^umat^m tyam. 
M^gum avaj^n^m uta ty<2ish<3:iy iraiama martiya 
anushiya ah<a:(n)ta Sik^y^uv^tish ^nama* dida Nisay^ 
nama d^hyaush Mad^iy av^d<3:shim avaj^n^m ^khsh^- 
tr^mshim ad^m adin^m v^shna Aur^m^zdah^ ad^m 

*For forms nam<7 and nama cf. the Grammar; but see Bar- 
tholomae, Arische Forsch. I, 58; also Thumb, Zeitsch. fiir vergl. 
Sprachforsch. (1891) 

1 rrtucrtbish, 23. * adurujiy^/, 45. * adina, 43. * k^shciy, 31 . 
•cflkhriya, 47. « maty^rmam, 101, A. ^ nama, 24; 61, A, Note 2. 
* khshatrarashim ad^/m zdxnam, 64. 


khshay<i:thiy^ ahavam Aur^m^izda khsh<3:tr<7m m^^na 
irsihara. 14. Thatiy Darrt:y<^v^(h)ush khshay<7thiy^ 
khsh^tr<3;m ty^ ^h^ca amakh^m t^umaya parahartam 
aha dva adam patipadam akunavam ad^^mshim 
*gathva^ avastay^m y^tha paruvamciy av^tha ad^m 
akun^v^m ayadana. tya Gaumata hya M<3:gush,viy^k^ 
adam niyatrarayam kar^^hya abac^rish g^ithamca 
maniy^mca 3v(i)thibishca tyadish G<3:umat^ hya M^gush 
adina ad^m kar^m gathva avastay<^m Pars^mca Ma- 
d^mca uta aniya d^hyav^ y^tha p<3:ruv<2mciy av^tha 
ad^m tya parabartam patiyaharam v^shna Aura- 
m<2zdah<7 ima adam akun^v^m ad^m h^m(3:t(7khsh^iy 
yata v(i)th<3:m tyam amakh^m gathva avastay^^m 
y<2tha p^ruv^mciy av^^tha ad^tm hamatakhshaiy 
v^shna AuramayAaha y^tha G^umat<^ hya M^gush 
v(i)th^m tyam amakh^m na'iy parabara. 15. Thatiy 
Dar<3:y^v<^(h)ush khshay<^thiy<7 ima tya adam akuna- 
vam pasava y^tha khshay^thiy^ ahavam. 16. Thatiy 
T> ar ay av a (h)ush khshay<7:thiy<3: y^tha ad^m G^umat^m 
tyrt:m M^gum avajanam pasava I martiya Atrina 
nama \Jpadara(n)mahya putr^ h^uv udrt:prtt^ta 
(H)uvaiaiy kar^hya av^tha athaha adam (R)uva]aiy 
khshay^thiy^ amiy pasava (H)uv<7Jiya h^^mitriya ab^- 
va(n) ably avam Atrin^m ashiy<2v^(n) h^uv khshay^- 
thiy^ ab^v^ (H)uvaiaiy uta I martiya Babiruviy^ 
N^dit^bir^ nama Aina - - hya putr^ h^uv ud^p^t^ta 
Babir^uv kar^m av<ztha adurujiy^ ad^^m N<^buk(u)dr^- 
cava amiy hya N^bunit^hya putr^z p^sav^ kar^ hy^ 
Babiruviya haruva abiy avam N<3:dit«bir^m ashiy^v^x 
Babirush h^mitriy^ ab<3;v^ khsh<^tr^m tya Babir^uv 
hauv ag^rbay<a:ta. 17. Thatiy Dar<^y<?V(^(h)ush 

khshay<^thiy<3; pf^-sav^^ adrt;m (kar^m) '^fraish^y^^m 

*It is possible to regard this form as a locative (gathava) with post- 
positive a (cf. note on {H)ufratauva I, 19; but the instrumental seems 

1 h<7ca amakh^m taumaya, 76. ^ gathva, 73. ' v(i)thibishca, 70, a. 
'* fraish^yrtm (H)uvajam, 66. 


(H.)uva]am hauv Atrin^ hasta anayata, abiy mam 
ad<^mshim]anam. 18. Thatiy Dar^y<3;v^(h)ush 
khshay^zthiy<a; a.dam Babirum ashiy^v^m abiy 
av^m N^ditrtbir^m hy^ ^^ahuk(u)dracara ag^ub^ta 
kara hya It^aditahirahya. Tigram adar^^y^ aisht^ta uta 
abish naviya ah^ pasa,va ad^m kar^m-m^kauva ava- 
"kanam aniy^m d^sh^barim akun^v^m a,niyahya. ashm 
. . . ^n^y^m Auramazda.maiy up^stam shara v<^shna 
Auramazdsha Tigram viy^t^^r^yam^ av<^da kar<3:m 
ty^m N^dit^bir^^hya ad^^m a.]anam vasiy Atriyadiy^- 
hy^ mahya 'XXVII r^uc^bish thakatd. aha av^tha 
hamaranam akuma. 19. Thatiy Da.rayava(h.)ush 
khshay^thiy^ p^^sav^ ad^m Babirum ashiy^v^m athiy 

Babirum y<2tha ay<2m Zazan^ nam^ v^rd^- 

n^m ^anuv (H)ufrat^uva* av^da h^uv N^xdit^^bir^ hy^ 
Nrtbuk(u)dr^c^r^ ag<^ub«ta aisha ^h^da kara ^p^tish 
mam h^m^r^n^m cartana'iy pasava h^m^^r^n^m akuma 
Aur^m^zdam^iy up^stam ahara v^shna Aur^m^zdah<2 
kar<7;m ty^m N^dit^bir^^hya ad^m aj^^n^m v^siy aniy^ 
apiya - h - - a . . apishim parahara Anam^k^hy^ 
mahya *II r^uc^bish th^k<3;ta ah^ av^tha h^m^r^n^m 

*(H)ufrrttmva: The a which occurs at the end of this locative 
termination is doubtless the prefix a of ths Sanskrit. For a full dis- 
cussion of this postpositive a; cf. Bazzenbergers Beitrage, XIII; also 
for the same postpositive a in Avestan, cf Jackson Am, Or. Society 
Proceedings (1889) and Kuhns Zeitschrift. XXXI. Cf. Grammar, 

IC. F. 

* Nrtbuk(u)dr^c«rez ag<zub«ta, Gl, B. ^XXVII r^uc^bish, 72. 
» anuv (Hjufratrruva, 84. * h<7da kara, 70. "^ p^rtish mam -c<^tan<7iy, 
54. N.; 60, B; 94. « II raucabish. 60, C. 



1. Thatiy Dar^y^v<^(h)ush hkshay<?thiy^ 
T<^aditahira hada. k<2m<^n<^ibish asbaribish abiy Babirum 
Rshiyava a.dam Babirum ashiy^v^m v^shna 
Aur^m^^zdah^ uta Babirum ag<3;rbay^m uta av^m 
NrtJdit^bir^m ag^rbay<3:m a.vam N<^dit<7bir^m 
a.dam Babimuv avaj^n<7m. 2. Thatiy Dar<3;yrtv<7(h)ush 
khshay^thiy(3: yata ad^m Babir<2uv sham ima d^^hyav^ 
tya h^cam^ h^^mitriya ab^v«(n) Pars^ (ll)\ivaja Mad^ 
Athura Arming Farthava M^rgush Th^^t^gush S^k^. 
3. Thatiy Dar^y<3;v<3:(h)ush khshay<7thiy^ I m^rtiy^ 
Martiya Cicikhraish putr<3; 'Kug<^n«ka nam<^ 
v^rdrtn^m Pars^iy av^da adamy^ h^uv udapatata. 
(H)uva]a\y kar^hya av^tha ath<2h^ ad<^m Im(^nish 
amiy (V[)uvd]aiy khshay^thiy^. 4. Thatiy Da.raya- 
\7z(h)ush khshay^thiy^ adrtk^iy ad<3:m ashn^^iy ah^m 

abiy (H)uvrtj^nTi p^sav^^ h<^cam<2 (H)uv«jiya 

av^^m Martiycim agrtrbayrt(n) hy^sham m<^thisht<^ aha 
utashim avaj<7n«(n). 5. Thatiy D a.r ay av a (h)ush. 
khshayrtthiyrt I m^rtiy^^ Fr^v^^rtish nam^o: Mad^ h^uv 
ud^^p^t^ta Mard^iy kar^^hya av^xtha atht^h^ ad^m 
Khshrtthrit^ amiy (H)uvrtkhshrt:t(7mhya t<^umaya ka.ra Mada hya v(i)thap(^tiy ah^ hacama 
hrt;mitriy<7 abava abiy av<^m Fr^v^rtim ashiy<^v^ h^xuv 
khshayrtthiy<^ ab^v<^ Mad^iy. 6. Thatiy 'Davaya- 
vrt(h)ush khshay<7:thiy^ kar« Pars^ uta Mad^a; hy<^ upa 
mam ah^a; 'h<^uv k^m^n^^m ah^ p^sav^: adrt'm kamm 
fraish(7y<^m Vid^rn^ nam^ Pars^ m^na b^(n)d«k^ 
av^msham m^thisht^m akun^v^m avrt:thasham ath«- 
h^m p^^r^ita av^m kar^m ty^m Mad<a:m j^ta hy^ mrt:na 
n^iy g^ub^t^iy p^sav^a: h^uv Yidavna hada. kara ashi- 
yawa y^tha Mad^^m p^rar^s^ Ma . . . nam<2 v^rd^n^m 
Mad^iy av<^da hamaranam akun^^ush h^da Mad^^ibish 
hy^ Mad<3;ishuva m^thisht<^ aha hauv ad<3:k<^iy kama- 
n^mciy n^iy a.daraya Aur^m^zdam^iy up<2stam ahava 

^ Kug^q^ka, 61 a, Note 2. ^ h^zuv ]s.amavL(im aha, 8G a. 


v^shna Auramazdaha ksLva hya Vid^rn<2hya av^m 
kar^m tyam h^mitriy^^m a.]a vasiy Ana.makahya 
mahya VI r^uc^bish th<2k<3:ta aha ^ av<3:thasham hama- 
ranam kartam hauv kara hya mana, K^(m)- 
pada nama d^hyaush Mad^iy av^da mam cita ama- 
naya yata ad^m a.rasam Mad^m. 7. Thatiy Da.ra- 
yava(K)ush. khshay^thiy^ pasava Dad^arshish nam^ 
Arminiy<^ m<^na ha(n)daka av^m ad^im fraish^y^^m 
Arminrt;m av^thash^^iy athrt;h(^m p^rrt:idiy kar<?; hya 
h^mitriy^ m^na naiy gauhataiy av^m j^-diy p^sav^ 
Dad^rshish ashiyava y^tha Armin^-m pararasa pasava 
h^mitriya ''ha(n)gmata. p<^r<2ita p^^tish Dad^^rhim ha- 

maranam cartanaiy nam<i; avahanam. Arm^- 

niy^^iy av^^da h^^m^mn^m akunava(n) Aiir<i'm(^zdam(^iy 
uprtjstam ahara v^shna Aur^m<7zdah<^ kam hya mana, 
a.vam kar^m ty<3;m hrt-mitriy^im . . a]a vas'iy Thur<3:va- 
havahya mahya VI r^uc^bish ihakata. aha av<^thasham 
hamaranam k^rt^'^m. 8. Thatiy Dar^y(^vrt(h)ush 
khshayrtthiy<7 p<?tiy duvitiy^-m h^^mitriya ha(\\)g\'nata 
paraita p^tish Dad^rshim hamarauam Qartanaiy Tigr^ 
nama dida Arm^niy<^iy av^da h^m^Tr^^in^^m ak\xnava{n) 
Aur^^m^^zdam^^-iy up^stam ahara v<7shna Aumm^zdah^ 
kar^ hy^ m<7na av^m kar^m ty^m h^imitriy^m a]a 
was'iy Thur^vah^mhy^ mahya XVIII r^uc^bish th^- 
k^ta ah^ av^thasham h^'m^r^n^m kaviava. 9. Tha- 
tiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ p<^tiy tritiy^m 
h<2mitriya ha(n)gma\.a. p^^r^ita p^-tish Dad^rshim ha- 
m^r^n^m cavtanaiy U . . . . am^; nama dida Arm^- 
niy<?iyav^da hamaYanava akunrtv^(n) Aur^m^zdam^iy 
uprt-stam ahara v^shna Aur^-m^zdah^ kar^ hy^ m^?na 
av^m kar^m ty^m h^mitriy^m a]a vasxy Thaig^rc^-ish 
mahya IX r^ucrt;bish thakaia. aha av<'7thasham h^m^- 
rarxam k^rt^m p^sav^ Dad^rshish cita mam aman^y^ 
. a. . . yata ad^-m arasavn Mad^m. 10. Thatiy Dar<^7- 
y^v^(h)ush khshay<'?thiy^ p^rsav^ V^umis^ nanirt! 

* avrtthasham, GO, c. * h//(n)gm^ta, 80, c. 


Pars^ mana. ha(n)da]<a av^m a.dam fraish^^iy^m Armi- 
n^m av^thashrtiy ath^^h^m paraidiy kara hya ham'i- 
triya mana. naiy gauhataiy av^m j^diy p^sav^a: 
V^umis^ Sishiyava yatha, Armin^m pararasa 
h^mitriya ha(n)gmata, paraita p<?tish Vrt;umis<3:m 

hamaranam cartanaiy - - I nama d^hyausk Athu- 

raya av^da hamaranara akun^v^(n) Aur^m^zdajn^iy 
up^stam ahara v^shna Auramazdaha kara hya mcma. 
a,vam kar-^m tyam h<^mitriy^m a]a vasly Anam^k^hy^ 
mahya XV muc^bish th<^k<^ta aha av^thasham hama- 
ranam kartam. 11. ThatiyDar<2:y<2v^(h)ushkhshay<a:- 
thiya pat'iy duvltiyam h^mitriya ha(n)gmata, p^r^ita 
p^tish V<?umis^m hamaranam. cartanaiy Autiyar^ 
nama d^hyaush Armin^iy av^da hamaranam akun^- 
v^(n) Aur^m<?zdam(^iy up^stam ahara v<3;shna Aur^- 
m<3:zdah<2 kar^ hya m^na a.wam karam tyam h^mi- 
tiiyam aja vasiy Thuravaharahya mahya - iyamanam 
patiy av<^thasham hamaranam kartam pasava Vau- 
misa cita mam amanaya Armin^iy yata ad^m ar^s^^m 
Mad<^m. 12. Thatiy D ar ay av a (h)ush khshay^thiy<3: 
p^sav^ ad<^m nijay^m haca, Babir^ush ashiy^v<a;m 
Mad<a;m y<3:tha Mad«m para.rasam Kud(u)rush na,ma 
vardanam Mad^^iy av^da h^uv Fr^v^rtish hya Mad^iy 
khshay<7thiy^ agauhata. aish^ h^da kara p^tish mam 
hamaranam cartanaiy p^sav^ h^m^r^n^m akuma 
Aur^m^zdam^?iy up^stam ahara v<?shna Aur^m^zdah^ 
kar^m ty^m Fr<2v^rt(^ish ad<2:m a.]anam. vasiy Aduk^- 
n<3:ish mahya XXVI r<^uc<3:bish th^k^ta ah<3: av^tha 
hamaranam akuma. 13. Thatiy D a.r ay av a (h)ush 
khshay<2thiy^ p^sav*^ h^uv Fr^v<3;rtish h<2:da \:ama- 
n^ibish asbaribish amuth<3: Raga, nama d.'zhyaush 
Mad^iy a^vada. ashiy^v<a; adam kar^m fraish^- 
yam ^tyaipatiy Fr<3;v^rtish "" agarhayata. anayata. abiy 
mam ad^msh^iy uta nah<3;m uta g^^usha uta izavam 
hajanam utash^iy ma a,va]am duv^r^yam<a:iy 

1 tyrtip^tiy, 88, b. ^ ago rha.yata. anayata, 89, b. 


hasta adariy h^ruv^shim kara a.valna passiva ad^m 
H^(n)gm«tan^iy uzamayapatiy akun<^v<3;m uta mar- 
tiya tyaishaiy iratama. anushiya ahrt;(n)ta av^iy 
¥la(n)gmata.naiy a(n)t<?r didam frah«(n)j<^m. 14. 
Thatiy Dar^y«v<^(h)ush khshayrtthiy^ I martiya 
Citra(n)t^khm^ Asagartiya h^uvm<3:iy hami- 
tr'xya abava kar^^hya av^tha a.thaha ad<2m khshay^- 
thiya amiy As^g^^rt^iy (H)uvakh.shatarahya. t^umaya ad^m kar^m Pars^m uta Mad^^rn fraish<3:y^m 
T^khm^spad^ nam^ M3.da mana.ha(n)daka av^^msham 
m<7thisht^m akunavam av^aithasham Sithaham. paraitdi 
kar<7m tyavs\ h<7mitriy^m hya m^na na'iy gauhditaiy 
av^m j^ta p^sav^ T^khm<?spad^ h^da kara ashiy^v^ 
hamaranam akun<2ush h^da Citr<3;(n)t^khma Aur^m<^z- 
dam^iiy up<?stam dhava v^shna Auramazdaha ka.ra hya 
mana. a.vam kanzm tyam hamitriyam a.]a uta Citr<3:(n)- 
t<^khmrt:m agarha.ya ax\.aya abiy mam p^sav^sh^iy 
adrt;m uta nah<3;m uta g^usha fraj^n^m utashrt'iy - - 
shm^ avrtj<2m duv<2r<^yam<a:iy b^st^ adariy h^ruv^shim 
kar^\xia p^sav^shim Arbiraya uz<3:m^yap<a:tiy aku- 
r\avavci. 15. Thatiy Dar^y^v<a:(h)ush khshay^thiy<3: 
im^ ty^ m^na k^^rt^m Mad^iy. 16. Thatiy 'Daxaya- 

v<^(h)ush khshay<2thiy<3: P«rth<3:v^ uta 

va Fr^v^rt<3!ish ag<3:ub<3:ta V(i)shtaspa 

m^na pita h kar^ a.vahar atara pasava 

V(i)shtasp^ ab anushiya ay^ Visp<3:uz -- 

tish nam^ v^rd^n^m da h^m^r^^n^m akun^v^ 

avtfthasham h^m^r^nam k^rt^m. 



1. Thatly Dar^y<^v<^(h)ush khshay^thiy<3! p^sav^ 
3.dam kar^m Pars^m fraish«y<^m abiy V(i)shtasp^m haca. 
R<7gaya y<^tha hauv ka.ra pararasa abiy V(i)shtasp^m 
p«sav<3;V(i)shtasp(3; ay<3:sta av^m kar^m ashiy^v^ Vati- 
^rabami vardanam Tarthavaiy a,vada. hamavanam 
akun^ush h^da h^a-mitriymbish Auramazda.maiy upas- 
tam ahara vashna Auramazdaha V(i)shtasprt; avam 
kar^m tyam h^mitriy<3:m aja vasiy Garmapadahya 
mahya *I rauca th^krt:ta ah^ av^thasham hamaranam 
kartam. 2. Thatiy Dar<7y^v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ 
yasava d<3:hyaush mana ahava ima tya mana kartam 
Varthavaly. 3. Thatiy Dar^y<^V(^(h)ush khshay<3:thiydf 
M<7rgush nama d^hyaush h<^uvm^iy h^shitiy^ ahava 
'I martiya Frad^ nama Mavgava avam m^thisht^m 
akun^v<2(n)ta p^sav^ ad<3:m 3fraish^y<3;m Dad^rshish 
nama Farsa mana b^(n)d^k^ Bakhtriya khsh^xtr^pava 
abiy avam avathashaiy ath<3:h<3:m p^r^idiy av^m kamm 
j<3:diy hy^ mana naiy gauhataiy pasava Dad^rshish 
hrt:da kara ashiy^v^ hamaranam akun^ush h^da Mar- 
g<7y<^ibish Auramazdamaly up^^stam ahara v^shna 
Aur^m^zdah^ kar^ hya m^na avam karrttm . . tyam 
h^^rnitriy^m a]a v^siy Atriyadiy<^hy^ mahya XXIII 
r<3:uc<a;bish th^k^ta ah^ av^^thasham hamaranam kar- 
tam. 4. Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay^iJthiy^ p^sa- 
v^ d<2:hyaush m^na ahava ima tya mana kartam 
Bakhtriya. 5. Thatiy D ar ay av a (h)ush khshay^thiy^ 
I martiya Vahyazdata nama Tar^va nama vardanam 
Yutiya nama d^hyaush Pars^iy av^da adar^y^ hauv 
■duvitiy^m ud<3:p<3:t^ta Pars^iy kar^hya av^tha athaha 
ad^m B<a:rdiy^ amiy hy^ Kur<2ush putr^ pasava kara 
Tarsa hya v(i)thaprttiy h^ca yadaya iratarta hauv 
l[\acama h^mitriy^ ab^v^ abiy av^m V^hy^zdat^m 
ashiy^v^ h^uv khshay^thiy^ ab^v^ Pars^iy. 6. Tha- 

1 1 vawca, 46, a. ^ j martiya Frada - avam, 61, A. ■ fraishayam 
Dadarshish, 61, a, Note 1. 


tiy D3irayava(h)ush. khshay<3;thiy^ adam kar<?m 
Pars<^m uta Mad^m iraishayam hya upa mam aha 
Artavardiya nama Pars<3; mana hai^n^daka av^msham 
m^thisht^m akun^v<7m hya aalya kara Varsa ^pasa 
mana ashiy^v^ Mad<7m pasava Artavardiya hada kara 
ashiyava Pars<3:m y^tha Pars<3;m pararasa R^kha nam^ 
vardanam Pars^iy av<a:da h^uv Yahyazdata hya Bar- 
d'lya agauhata aish^ h<3:da kara p<7tish Artavardiyam 
h^^m^rrt-n^^m cartanaiy p^sav^x h^m^r^in^m akun^vrt(n) 
Aur^m^zdam^iy up^stam ahara v^shna Aur<7m^zdah<3! 
kar^i: hya m«na av^m kar^m ty^m V ahyazdatahya 
a]a Yas\y Thur^^vah^^r^hy^ mahya XII raucah'ish tha- 
kata aha av^thasham hamaranam k^^rt^m. 7. Thatiy 
D ar ay av a (h)ush khshay<2thiy<3: p^sav^ hauv Yahyaz- 
data hada k^^m^ri^ibish as^^baribish amuth^ ashiy^v^ 
Prt;ishiyauvadam haca avadasha kar^^m ay^^sta hyap^- 
r^m aish^ p^^itish Art<3:v^rdiy<^m h^m^r^n^m cartanaiy 
Yaraga nam^ kauia av^da h^^m^^r^n^m akun^v«(n) 
Aur^^m^zdam^iy up^stam ahara v^shna Aur^m(7zdah<i: 
kar« hya m^na av^m kar<^m ty^m V^hy^zdat^hy^ 
aja vasiy Garmapadahya mahya VI r^uc<7:bish th^k^ita 
aha av<3:thasham hamaranam kartam uta av^^m Ya- 
hy^zdat^m ag^rbay^(n) uta m^rtiya ty^ish^iy fr^t^ma 
anushiya ah^(n)t« ag^rbay^(n). 8. Thatiy Daraya- 
v<2(h)ush khshay^thiy^ p^sav^ ad^m av^m V^hy<2z- 
dat^m uta m^rtiya tyc-zish^iy fr^t^ma anushiya 
ah^(n)t^ Uvadrtid^y^ nam« v^rd^n^OTn Pars^iy awa- 
d^shish uz^mrtiyap^tiy akun<2v^m. 9. Thatiy Dara- 
y^v^(h)ush khshay<^thiy^ h^uv V^hy^zdat^ hy^ B^r- 
diy^ agrtubrt:ta h^uv kar^im fraish^y<a; H^r^uv^tim 
Vivan« nam^ Pars<2; m^na brt(n)d<^k^ H<^rrt:uv«tiya 
khsh^tr^pava abiy av^m utasham I m^rtiy^m ma- 
thishtrtm akun^ush av^thasham ath^h^: p^r^ita Viva- 
rium j^ta uta av^m kar^m hy^ Dar^y^v^hush 
khshay^thiy^hya g^ub^t^iy p^sav^ h^uv kara ashiya- 

1 pasa mana, 80, b. 


ya ty^m V^hy^zdat^ fraish^y^ abiy Vivan^m hama- 
ranam cartanaiy Kapish^kanish nama dida av^da 
hamaranam akun<2v^(n) Auramazdamaly up^stam 
abara v^shna Auramazdaha ksiva hya mana, a.vam 
karam tyam h^mitriy^m a.]a vasiy Anam^k^hy^ ma- 
hya XIII r^uc<2bish th^k^ta aha ^av^thasham hama- 
ranam kartam. 10. Thatiy Dar^y^v<3:(h)ush khshay^- 
thiya p^tiy hyaparam h^mitriya ha(n)gmata, paraita. 
p^tish Vivan<3:m hamaranam cartanaiy Ga(n)dutava 
nama d<3:hyaush av^^da hamaranam akun^v^(n) Aur^- 
m^zdam^iy up<3;stam ahara v<3:shna Aur<3:m^zdah^ kar<3: 
hya mana, a.vam kar<3;m tyam hamitriyam a]a wasiy 
Yiyakhnahya mahya VII rawcahish th^k^ta aha a,wa- 
thasham hamaranam kartam. 11. Thatiy Dar^y^- 
v^(h)ush khshay<2thiy^ p<3:sav^ h^uv martiya hya 
av^^hya kar^hya m^thisht^ aha tyam YahyazdaXa 
iraishaya abiy Vivan<3:m h^uv m^thisht<3: h<3:da kama- 
n^ibish as<3;baribish ashiy<2v<3: Arshada nama dida 
}laraMvat\ya. a.vapara. atiyaish<3; p^sav^ Vivan^ h<2:da 
kara *nip^diy ty<2iy ashiy<^v^ av^dashim a.garha.ya 
uta m^rtiya ty^ish^iy iratama, anushiya ah^(n)ta 
avaj^. 12. Thatiy Dar^y<3;v^(h)ush khshay^thi}^^ d^hyaush m^na ab^v^ im<3: ty^ m^na k^rt^-m 
H^r^uv^tiya. 13. Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay<3:- 
thiy^ yata ad^m Pars^iy uta Mad^iy ah^m p^tiy 
duvitiy^m Babiruviya h<3:mitriya ab^v^(n) h^cam<a: I 
m<a:rtiy^ Ar<a:kh^ nam<3; Arminiy^ H^n(?)dit^hy^ putr<35 
hauv ud<3:p<2t(^ta Babir<3;uv Duban(?)^ nama d<2:hyaush 
h^ca a,vadasha hauv ud^p<3:t^ta av<3:tha adurujiy^ ad^m 
"^ahukudracara amiy hy^ N(3:bunit<3;hya putr^ p^sav^ 
kara Babiruyiy^ h^mitriy<3: abava abiy av^m 
Amkh^m ashiy^v^ Babirum hauv ag(^rbay<3;ta h^uv 
khshay^thiy<3! ab^v^ Babir<3:uv. 14. Thatiy Daraya- 
v<3;(h)ush khshay^thiy^ adam kar<3:m fraish<3:- 
y<3;m Babirum Vi(n)d^fra nam^ Mad<2 m^na b^(n)d<2k^ 

^ avflthasham hamaranam kartam, 80, a. * nipadiy, 84, a. 


avam m^thisht^m akun^v^m av<3!thasham dLthaham pa- 
raita. a.vam karam tyam Babir<3:uv ]ata, hya mam, naiy 
gauhataiy p^sav<3; Vi(n)d<3:fra hada. kara ashiyava abiy 
Babirum Aur^mzdam^iy up^stam ahara v^shna Aur^- 

mazdaha Vi(n)d^fra Babirum a.garha,ya mahya 

II r^uc^bish th^k^ta aha avatha ava 

ap^tiy a,sanyata.. 



1. Thatiy Da.rayava(h)ush. khsha-yathiya Ima tya 
man3. kartam Babir<3;uv. 2. Thatiy D ar ay av a (h.)ush. 
khshay^thiy^ ima tya adam akun^v<a:m v^shna Aur^- 
mazdaha aha hamahyaya tharda pasava y^tha khsha- 
y^thiya h^mitriya ahava(n) adam XIX hamarana 
akun^v<;7m v<2shna Aur^m^zdah<3: 'ad^msham ajanam 
uta IX khshay^thiya agarhayam I G<2:umat<3; nama 
Magush. aha hauv adurujiy^ av^tha athaha adam Bar- 
d\ya amiy hya Kur^^ush putr<3: haww Yaxsam. hami- 
txiyam akun^ush 1 K\.xma nam« (H)uv<2J<2iy h^uv 
adurujiy^ avatha athaha adam khshay^thiy<aj amiy 
(H)uv^j<3;iy h^uv (H)uvaiam h^mitriy<a:m akun<7ush 
mana I N^dit^bir<3; nama Babiruviy<2 h^uv adurujiy^ 
avatha ath^h^a; ad^m Nabukudr^c^r^ amiy hya N^bu- 
nitrthy^ putr^ h^uv Babirum h^mitriy^m akun^ush I 
M^rtiy^ nam<3; Parses; h^uv adurujiy^ avatha ath^h^ 
ad^m Im<3:nish amiy (H)uv^j«iy khshay^thiy^ h^uv 
(H)uv^j^m htxmitriy^m akun^ush I Fr^v^rtish nam^ 
Mad^ h^uv adurujiy^ avatha ath^h^ ad^m Khsh^- 
thrit<2: amiy (il)uvakhshatarahya t<2umaya h<3:uv Ma- 
d<a;m h^mitriy^m akun^ush I Citrrt(n)t<^khm<a: nam^ 
Asagartiya hauv adurujiy^ avatha athaha adam. 
khshay<2:thiy^ amiy Asagartaiy (H)uv^khsh^t<3:r^hy^ 
t^umaya h^uv Asagartam h^mitriy^m akun^ush 
I Frad<a! nam<3; Marg^v^ h^uv adurujiy^ av<3:tha athaha 
adam khshay^thiy^ amiy M^rg^uv h^uv M^rgum 
h^mitriy^m akun^ush I V^hy^zdat^ nam^a; Pars^ hauv 
adurujiy<3: av<3:tha athaha adam Bardiya amiy Kur^ush 
putra hauv Pars<2:m h^mitriy^m akun^ush I Ar^kh^a; 
nam^ Arminiy<a: h^uv adurujiy^ avatha athaha adam 
'Nahukudracara amiy hya Nabunit^hy^a: putr<3; hauv 
Babirum h^mitriy^m akun<a;ush. 3. Thatiy Daraya- 
va(h)ush khshay<2thiy^ im^iy IX khshay^thiy^ ad«m 
ag<2;rbay«m a(n)t«r ima hamarana. 4. Thatiy Data- 

1 adflmsham ajanam, 83, b. 


yava(h)ush. khshay^thiy^ ima tya h^mitriya 
ab^v^(n) draugadish akun^^ush ^tya im^iykar^m adu- 
rujiy<3:sh^(n) pasRva dish Aur<3;m<a:zda mana, dastaya 
akun<3;ush yaths. 'mam kam^ av^tha di - - . 5. Tha- 
tiy Dar^y<3:v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ tuv^m ka khshay<3:- 
thiya hya a.param ahy ^haca. dr^uga d^rsh<3:m patipa- 
y^uva m^rtiy^ hya drau]ana ah^^tiy av^m (h)ufr<^st^m 
p^rsa y^diy avatha, 4m<^niyahy d(a:hyaushm<^iy duruva 
ah^tiy. 6. Thatiy Dar ay av a (h.)ush'khsh.a.yathiy a ima 
tya adam akun^v^m v^shna Aur^m<2!zdah^ ^hama- 
hyaya tharda akun<2v^m tuvam ka hya aparam imam 
dipim ^p^tip^rsahy tya m^na k^rt^^m varnavatam 
'thuvam maty<3J durujiyahy. 7. Thatiy Darayava- 
(h)ush khshay^thiy^ AuramavAa taiyiya y<3:tha im<a: 
hashiyam naiy durukht<3:m ad^m akunrt;v<2m hama- 
hyaya tharda. 8. Thatiy D ar ay av a (h)ush khshay^- 
thiy^ v^shna Aur<2m^zdah« -- am^iy aniy^shciy v^siy 
astiy kartam ava ahyaya dipiya n^iy nipisht^m ava- 
hy^radiy naiy nipisht<2m maty^ hya aparam imam 
dipim p^tip<3:rsatiy av^hya paruv tha .... tya mana 
kartam n<3:ishim varnavatiy durukht<3:m m^niyatiy. 
9. Thatiy Dar«y^v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^^; ty<3:iy p^ruva 
khshay<2thiya - a ah<2(n) av^isham n<3:iy astiy k^rt<a;m 
y<3:tha m<3:na v^shna Aur<3:m<3:zdah<2 h^m^^hyaya duvar- 
tam. 10. Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ 

nur^m thuvam varnavatam tya mana k^rt<a:m ava- 

tha av^hy^radiy ma apagaudaya yadiy imam 

h<2(n)dugam n<3:iy ap^g^ud^yahy kar^hya thahy Aura- 
mazda thuvam d^ushta ^biya utat^iy t^uma v^siy biya 
uta dra(n)gam jiva. 11. Thatiy Dar^y«v^(h)ush 
khshay^thiy^ y<3;diy imam h^(n)dugam ap<3:g^ud^yahy 
n^iy thahy kar^hya Aur^m^zdat^y j^ta biya utat^iy 
t^uma ma biya. 12. Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khsha- 
y«thiy<3J im^ tya ad^m akun^v^m h^m^hyaya th^rd^ 

1 tya imaiy karam adurujiyfl-shafn), 97. ' mam kam^z, 66. " hacB. 
drfluga, 77. * maniyahy, 91, a. «* h</m«hyaya th<7rdrt!, 80, c. •pati- 
parsahy, 91. 'thuvam matya durujiyahy, 89, a. ® biya, 51, N. 



v<2shna Auramazdaha dkunavam Aur<7m<3:zdam^iy 
up(^stam ahara uta aniya b^gah^ ty^iy h«(n)tiy. 13. 
Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay<2thiy^ av<^hy^radiy 
Aur^m^zda up<2stam abara uta aniya b^gah<3! ty^iy 
h^(n)tiy y^^tha naiy arika aham naiy drau]ana aham 

naiy zurakara a}\am im^iy t^uma up^riy 

ab<a:shtam up^riy mam naiy sh^k^urim huv^- 

tavci zura akun<3:vrt:m ty^m<^iy hy^ h^m^t^khsh^ta ma- 
na vithiya av<^m (h)ub<2rt^m ab^r^m hy^ iyani . . avam 
(h)ufr^st<^m ap^rs^m. 14. Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush 
khshay<2thiy^ 'tuv^m ka khshay^thiy^ hy^ ap^r^m 

ahy m^rtiy^ hy<3: drau)ana ah^tiy hy<3;va - tar aha- 

tiy av<^iy ma d^ushta av^iy ahiteshtadiy p^rsa. 15. 
Thatiy D ar ay av a (h.)ush. khshay^thiy<3: tuv^m ka hy<^ 
aparam imam dipim v<^inahy tyam ad^m niy^pish^m 
im<^iva p^tik<3:ra maty^ 'vis^nahy yava jiv^^hy ava(?) 
avrttha p^rik<2ra. 16. Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khsha- 
y^thiy^ y^diy imam dipim v^inahy im<7iva p^tik<2ra 
n^iydish vis^nahy utam^iy ^yava t^uma ah^^tiy pari- 
k^rah^dish Aur^m^zda '♦thuvam d^ushta biya utat^iy 
trtuma v^siy biya uta dra[n)gam jiva uta ty^ kun«- 

vahy av^t^iy Aur^m^zda m m j<7:d^n^utuv. 17. 

Thatiy Dar^y(^v«(h)ush khshay^thiy<3: y^-diy imam 
dipim im^iva prt:tik<3:ra v^inahy vis^nah^idish utam<3:iy 
yava t^uma ah^tiy n^iydish p^rik^^rahy Aur^a^m^zda- 
t^iy ]ata biya. utat^iy t^uma ma biya uta tya kuna- 
vahy av<^t^iy Aur^^m^zda nik^(n)tuv. 18. Thatiy 
Dar«y^v<2(h)ush khshay^thiy^ im<a:iy m^rtiya ty^iy 
ad^k^iy av^da ah^(n)ta yata ad^m G^umat^m ty^m 
M^gum avaj<^n^m hy^ B<3:rdiy^ ag^ub^ta ad<7k<3:iy 
im^iy m^rtiya h^m<3;t<3:khsh^(n)ta anushiya m^na 
Vi(n)d^fr^na nam^ V^y^spar^hya putm Pars^ Utan^ 
nam^ Thukhr^hya putr<3; Pars^: Gauharuva nama Mar- 
duniy^hya putr^ Pars<3! Vid^rn^ nam« B^gabign<3!hya 

1 tuvrtm ka, 62. 2 vig^nahy, 91, d. ^ yava t^iuma ah^tiy, 91, e. 
* thuvam d^zushta biya, 65. 


putr^ Pars^ B^g^bukhsh^ nam« Daduhy^hya putr^ 
F3.rsa Ardum^nish nam^ V^h<3:uk^hya putr^ Pars^. 
19. Thatiy Dar^y^v«(h)ush khshay^thiy<3: tuv^m ka 
khshay^thiy^ hya aparam ahy tyama vidam t^r- 
tiyana — tya Dar^y^v^(h)ush - — ----_-___ 
- - akun^v^m. 


1. Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ ima tya 

ad^m akunavam ma . r thardam - - tha khsha- 

yathiya vajanam d<3:hyaush h^uv haca.- 

ma h^mitriya shava I martiya - imaima (H)uv^- 
jiya a.vam m^thisht^m akun^v<3;(n) a.dam kar^m 
fraish^y^m (H)uva]am I martiya Gauharuva nama 
Tdivsa mana. ha(^n)daka av<^msham m^thisht^m akun^a:- 
v^m passiva hauv Gauharuva hada. kara ashiy^v^ 
(H)uv^j^m hamaranam akun^ush h^da h^mitriy^ibish 

pasa,va utash^iy marda uta .... a.garha,ya uta 

aniy^ abiy mam d^hyaush ]anam 

d^shim .... 2. Thatiy Dar<3:y<2v^(h)ush khshay^- 
thiy^ a . . . uta d^h . . . Aur^m^zda . . aya . . . v^shna 
Auramazdaha . . .thadish akun^v<3:m. 3. Thatiy Da- 
Tayava(h)ush. khshay^thiy<3: hy^ aparam imam ya, . . . 

. .hrttiy uta jiv^hya 4. Thatiy Dar^y<3;v^(h)ush 

khshay^thiy^ ashiy^v^m abiy St^kam 

Tigram b^r^ty<2 iy abiy d^r<^y^m av^zm .... 

... .a pisa viyatara aj^n^m aniy^m agar- 

bay^^m abiy mam uta S<7ku(n)k^ nam^ 

av<^m ag^rbay^m avada aniy<3;m m^thisht^m 

am aha pasava da 5. Thatiy Dara- 

y<^v<3:(h)ush khshay<^thiy<^ ma n^iy Aura- 

mazda y<3:diy v<3:shna Aur^m^zdah<3: 

akun<^v^m. 6. Thatiy Dar<^y<3;v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ 

Aur^m^zdam yadata uta jiva- 

hya uta . . 


Smaller Behistan Inscriptions, 


Adam Dsirayava(h)ush. khshay<2thiy^ vazraka 
khshay^thiy<3; khshay^thiyan^m khsha.yathiya Par- 
saiy khshay^thiy<3: d<3;hyunam V(i)shtasp^hya putr^ 
Arsham^hya napa H^kham^^nishiy^s; Thatiy Dar^ya- 
va(h)ush. khshay^^thiy^ mana. pita V(i)shtasp^ V(i)sh- 
tasp<3:hya pita Arsham^ Arsham<3;hya pita Ariyar^mn^ 
Ariyar<a;mn^hya pita C^ishpish C^ishp(3:ish pita H<3;kha- 
m^nish Thatiy Dar<3;y^v<3:(h)ush khshay<3:thiy<3; Sivahya^ 
radiy vayam H<3;kham<3:nishiya th^hyam^hy haca, 
p^ruviy^t<3: amata am^hy haca, paruviyata hya ama- 
kh^m t^uma khshay^thiya aha(n) Thatiy Daraya- 
v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^a; VIII mana. t^umaya ty^iy 
p^ruv^m khshay^thiya ah<a:(n) ad^m navama IX duvi- 
tat^rn^m vayam khshay^thiya am^hy 



lyam Gaumata hya M<3;gush adurujiy^ av<3^tha ath^a;- 
ha adam B^rdiy^s; amiy hy^ Kur^ush putr^ ad^m 
khshay^thiy^ amiy. 



ly^m Atrin<2 adurujiy^ av^tha a.thaha a.dam khsha- 
yathiya amiy (H)uv^j^iy. 



ly^m N^dit^bir^ adurujiy^ av^tha athaha ad^m 
'Nahuk(u)dracara amiy hya N^bunit^hy^ putr^ add;m 
khshayathiya amiy Babir^uv. 




lyam Fr^v<3:rtish adurujiy^: av^tha a.thaha d.dam 
Khsh<a;thrit<3; amiy (H)uvakhsha.yatarahya t^xumaya 
ad^m khshay^thiy^ amiy Mad^iy. 



lyam M^rtiy<3: adurujiy^a: av^tha a.dam Ima- 
nish amiy (H)uv^j^iy khshay^thiy^. 


Iy<^m Citr^(n)t^khm<3: adurujiy^ av^tha athaha adam 
khshay^thiy^ As^g^rt^iy (H)uv^khsh^t^r^hy^ tau- 



lyam Vahyazdata adurujiy^ av^tha athaha a.dam 
B<3:rdiy^ amiy hya Kur<3;ush putr^ ad<3:m khshay^thiy^a 


ly^m Arakha adurujiy^ av^tha athaha adam N^- 
buk(u)dr^c^r<3; amiy hya N<3:bunit^hya putr^ ad^m 
khshay^thiy^ amiy Babir^uv. 


ly^m Frad^ adurujiy^a: sLvatha, aihaha adam khsha- 
y^thiy^ amiy M^rg<a:uv. 



ly^m S<3!ku(n)k^ hya Saka. 



The Inscription of Alvend. (O.) 

"Baga vazraka Aur^m^zda hya imam bumim ada 
hya divam asman<3:m ada hya martiyam ada hya shiya- 
tim ada martiyahya, hya ^Da.rayava(h)um khshay^- 
thiy<3:m aivam p^runam fr<3;matar^m Ad<3:m Daraya- 
v<3:(h)ush khshay<3:thiy^ vazraka khshay^thiy<3; khsha- 
y^thiyanam khshay^thiy^a: d<2;hyunam p^ruz<^nanam 
khshayathiya ahyaya bumiya v<a;zr^kaya dur^iy apiy 
Vishtasp^hya putr^ H<2kham<a:nishiy^. 

^ Dar<zyava(b)um kbshayatbiyam akunaush, 64, a. 



Inscriptions of Suez. (SZ.) 

Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay<3;thiy^ vazvaka khshay^- 
thiy^ khshay<3:thiyanam khshay^thiy^ d^hyunam 
Vishtasp^hya putm H^kham^nishiy^. 

'Baga vazvaka A\iramazd3. hya avam asman<3:m ada 
hya imam bumim ada hya martiyam ada hya shiyatim 
ada m^rtiy^hya hya Dar^y<3;v^(h)um khshay^thiy<3:m 
akun^ush hya Darayavahaush khshay^thiy^hya 
khsh<3:tr<3:m irahara tya vazrakam tya .... Ad<3:m 
Dar<a:y<3;v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ vazvaka khshay<3:thiy<2: 
khshay^thiyanam khshay^thiy^ d<3:hyunam pavuvza- 
nanam khshay<3:thiy<3: ahyaya bumiya vazvakaya. du- 
raiy apiy Vishtasp^hya putr^ H^kham^xnishiy^ Tha- 
tiy Dar^y<3:v^(h)ush khshay^thiy<3; ad^^m Tavsa amiy 
h<3:da Parsa Mudray^m ag^rbay^m a.dam niy^shtay<a;m 
imam yuviyam ka(n)taviaiy haca. ^Fiva,va vauta 
tya Mudray^iy d^n^uv^tiy abiy d^r^y^ tya haca. 
Parsa aitiy pasdiva iyam yuviya (akaniy) av^(da) 

y^tha ad^^m niy<3:shtay^m ut ay^ta haca, . . . ya 

mam yuviyam abiy pa ta y<a:tha ma 

* Piravtf namo rauta, 68. 



Inscription of London. 
Ad^m Par^yav^(h)ush khshay<3;thiy^. 


Inscriptions of Persepolis. 


Aur<2m<2zda vazxaVa hya maihishta b^^ganam h^uv 
Dar^y^v<2(h)um khshay^thiy^m ad^da h^ush^iy 
khsh<2;tr<3:m irahara v^shna Aur<3;m^zdaha DsLvaya- 
v^(h)ush khshay<2thiy(2; Thatiy Dar<3;y^v^(h)ush khsha- 
yathiya iyam d^xhyaush Pars<2 tyam mana. Aur^m^zda 
irabara hya, naiha ([h]uv^spa) (h)um^rtiya v<2shna 
Aur^m(^zdaha manaca, Darayavahaush. khshay<3;thiy^- 
hya haca. aniy^na naiy tarsatiy Thatiy Daraya- 
v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ mana Aur^m^zda up^stam 
haratuv hada vithibish hagaibish uta imam d<3:hyaum 
Aur<3:m<2zda patuv h<^ca h<3:inaya haca. dushiyara haca. 
dr<2uga aniy<a: imam d<3;hyaum ma. . aj^miya ma h^ina 
ma dushiyar<3:m ma drauga a.ita adam yan - - m 
j^diyamiy Aur^m^zdam h^da 'vithibish b^gmbish 
ait^m<3!iy Aur<2m^zda d^datuv h^da vithibish b^g^ibish. 



Ad^m Dar^y<3:v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ v^zr^k^ 
khshay^thiy<2 khshay^thiyanam khshay<3:thiy<2 d<2hyu- 
nam ty<3:isham p<3;runam Vishtasp<2hya putr^ H^kha- 
m^nishiya Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ 
v^shna Aur^m^zdaha ima d^hyav^ tya ad^m ad^r- 
sh^iyh^da ana Parsa kara tya hacama at^rs<2(n) m^na 
bajim a.hara(n) (H)uv^j^ Mad<3; Babirush Arahaya 
Athura Mudraya Arming K<2t^p«tuk^ Sp^rd^a; Y^una 
ty<a:iy (h)ushk<2hya uta tya'iy darayahya. uta dahyava 
tya p^r^uvi^iy As^g^^rt^ Varthava ZaTa(n)ka Haraiva 
Bakhtrish Sugd<2: (H)uvar^z<3;miy^ Th(3:t<3:gush Harau- 
v<2tish Hi(n)dush G^(n)dar^ S^ka Maka Thatiy Dar^- 
y<2;v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ y^diy av<2tha m^niyahy 

1 vithibish b^goibish, 86, a 


^hacsi aniyana. ma tarsam im^m Pars<3;m kar^^m padiy 
yadiy ka.ra Farsa pa.ta ah^'tiy hya duv^^isht^m shiya- 
tish akhsh^ta h^uvciy Aura nir^satiy abiy imam 



Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ vazraka khshay^- 
thiya khshay<3:thiyanam khshay<3:thiy<3! d<2;hyunam 
Vishtap^hya putr^ . Hakham<a:nishiy^ hya im^m taca- 
ram akun^ush. 

1 haca aniyana ma tarsam, 11, a; 95, b. 


Inscriptions of Naqshi Rustam. (NR) 


Baga vazraka Aur^m^^zda hya imam bumim ada 
hya a.vam asman«^m ada hya martiyam ada hya shiya- 
tim- ada martiyahya, hya Dar^y^v<2(h)um khshay^- 
thiy<3:m akun<2ush aiv^m p^ruvnam khshay<2:thiy<2m 
aiv<3:m p^ruvnam fr^mat^r^m Ad^m Dar<3'y^v^(h)ush 
khshay^thiy^ vazraka khshay^thiy^ khshay^thiyanam 
khshay^thiy^ d<2hyunam visp^z^nanam khshay^thiy^ 
ahyaya bumiya vazakaya, dur^iy apiy Vishtasp^^ihya 
putr^ H«kham<3:nishiy^ Pars^ Tavsahya, putra Ariya 
Ariya citr^ Thatiy Dar^y<3:v^(h)ush khshay<3:thiy^ 
v^shna Aur^im^zdaha ima tya ad^m a.gar- 
bay^m ^ap^t^r^^m haca, Parsa *ad^msham patiya- 
khsh^iy m^^na bajim ab^r^(n)t(a) ty^sham h^cam<a: 
ath^hy akunava(n) dat^m tya mana, a.\ta adari 
Mad^ (H)uvrtj^ Vavthava Haraiva Bakhtrish Sugud<3: 
(H)uvar^z<3:mish Zara(n)ka H^xr^uv^tish Th^t^gush 
G<3:(n)dar<a; Hi(n)dush S<3;ka Humavarka, Saka. Tigr^- 
kh^uda Babirush Athura Ar^bay<3J Mudraya Armin<a: 
K.atapatuka Sparda ^Yauna Saka, ty^iy t^r^d^r^y^ 
Skudr^ Y^una Takahara, Putiya Kushiya M^ciya 
K<3:rka Thatiy Darayava(h)ush khshay«thiy<^ Aura- 

vaazda. yatha. a.vaina imam bumim yu p^sav^- 

dim m^na irahara mam khshay^thiy^m akun^ush 
ad^m khshay<3:thiy^ amiy v<^shna Aur«m«zdaha ad^m- 
shim gathva niyrt:shad<^y<a:m "^tyt-zsham ad^m ath^h^m 
3iva akun<2:v«(n)ta y<3:tha mam kam« ah^ y<2diy^diy ty^ 
5ciy^(n)k^mm ava dahyava tya, Dar^y^v^(h)ush 
khshay^thiy^ adavaya p^tik^r^m didiy tyaiy ma- 
na gathum b<2r<3:(n)tiy y^^tha ^khshnasah^dish ad<3;- 
t^iy azda b^vatiy Pars^hya martiyahya dur^y arsh- 
tish p^ragm<2ta adata\y azda b<2vatiy Pars^ mfl^rtiy^ 

* apatar^m haca Parsa, 78. * adamsham potiyakhshaiy, 83, b. 
^Yauna, 86, b, Note 1. ■* tyarsham - akunava(n)ta, 60, A. •ciya{nj- 
}s.axam ava dahyava, 86. * khsbaasabadisb, 83, B. 


duray hacz Parsa hamaram patlya]ata Thatiy Dara- 
y^v^(h)ush khshay^thiy<3: aita tya kartam ava vis^m 
v^shna Aur^m<2zdaha akun^v^m Auramazd3.maiy 
up^stam ahara yata kartam akunavam. mam Aura- 

m^zda patuv haca, sar utam^iy vith<3:m uta imam 

d<3:hyaum 'aita adam Aur^m<2zdam j<3;diyamiy aita- 
maiy Aur<3:m^zda d^datuv M<2:rtiya hya Aur^m^^zdaha 
fmmana h^uvt^iy g^sta ma thadaya p^thim tyam ras- 
tam ma avarada ma starava, 

Baga vazraka Aur^m^zda hya aca f 

- - m tya va ada shiyatim m<:2:rtiy^hya 

- - u - - - a aruv^st<3:m up^riy Dar<3:y^v<3:(h)um khsha- 

y<3:thiy<3:m iyasaya Thatiy Dar^y^v^(h)ush khsha- 

yjzthiya v^shna Aumm<^zdaha kar 

iy<3; tya a tarn ya d^ush 

athiy n sh uva ya 

yim k^rimish v^sim tya 

r iya im riyish 

ava - - m m m m dar ------ 

ush a uvish a miy 

ya astiy darshama da ya au 

iyahya darshama 


Gauharuva Patishuv<3:rish Darayavahaush khshay^- 
thiy^hya sharastihara. 


Asp<2C^na Darayavahaush khshay^thiy^hya isuvam 

ly^m M^ciya. 

1 a\ta adam Auramflzdam jadiyamiy, 64. 


The Inscriptions of Persepolis. 


Baga vazvaka Aur^m^zda hya imam bumim ada 
hya m^rtiy^m ada hya shiyatim ada m^rtiy^hya hya 
Khsh<^yarsham khshay^thiy^^m akun<a;ush aiv^m p^ru- 
nam iramRtRvam Ad<^m Khsh(^yarsha khshay^^thiy^a: 
vazraka khshay<^thiy^ khshay^^thiyanam khshay^thiy^a; 
d^hyunam p<2:ruvz<?nanam khshay^thiy^ ahyaya bu- 
miya vrt:zr^kaya dur<^iy apiy Dar^^y^v^^h^ush khshay^- 
thiy(^hya putr^ H(^kham<^nishiy(3: Thatiy Khsh^iyarsha 
khshayrtthiy<^ v^zr^k^ v^shna Aurt^m^zdaha im^m 
duv(^rthim vis^d^hyum ad^^m akun<^v^m v^siy ani- 
y^shciy n^ib^m k^rt^m ^ana Parsa tya ad^^m akun^^;- 
v^m utamaiy tya pita akun^^ush ty<7p<^tiy kartam 
vainataiy n^^ib^^m vis^^m v<^shna Aumm^zdaha 
akuma Thatiy Khsh^yarsha khshayf^thiy^:? mam Aur^- 
m^zda patuv utamaiy khsh«tr<^m uta ty^ m^na kar- 
tam uta ty^m^iy pitri k^rt^m av^^shciy Aur^m^zda 


Khsh^^yarsha khshay^thiy^ v^zr^^k^ khshay<^thiy^ 
khshayrt;thiyanam Damyrtv^h^ush khshay<^thiy^hya 
putr<^ H<^kham(^nishiy^. 

1 ana Parsa, 73. 




Baga vazraka Aur<7m<2zda hya imam bumim ada 
hya av^m asman^m ada hya martlyam ada hya shiya- 
tim ada martiyahyd, hya Khsh<3:yarsham khshay^- 
thiy^m akun^^ush aiv^m p^runam khshay^thiy^m 
3.ivam prt:runam fr<3;matar^m Adam Khsh^^yarsh^ 
khshay<3;thiy^ vazraka khshay<3:thiy<^ khshay<2thiyanam 
khshay<2thiy^ d^hyunam p^ruvz^nanam khshay^thiy^ 
ahiyaya bumiya v<3;zr^kaya dur<^iy SipiyDsLvayavahaush 
khshay<2thiy<3:hya putr^ Hrt;kham^nishiy<3: Thatiy 
Khshi^yarsha khshay^thiy<3: vazraka v^^shna Auramaz- 
daha ima h^dish adrt;m akunavam mam Aur<2m«zda 
patuv h^da b<3:g^ibish utamaiy khsh<3:tr^m uta ty^m^iy 


Baga vazraka Aur^m^zda hya imam bumim ada 
hya a.vam asman^^m ada hya m^rtiy<3:m ada hya shlya- 
tim ada m^rtiy<3:hya hya Khsh^yarsham khshay^thi- 
y^m akun^ush aiv<3:m p^runam khshay<3:thiy^m aiv^m 
p^runam fr^matar^m Ad«m Khsh<3:yarsha khshay^j- 
thiy^ vazraka khshay^thiy^ khshay^thiyanam khsha- 
yathiya d(3:hyunam p^ruvz^nanam khshay^thiy^ 
ahiyaya bumiya v^zr^kaya dur^iy apiy Darayava- 
h^ush khshay<2thiy^hya putr^ H-^kham^nishiy^ Thatiy 
Khsh^yarsha khshay<^thiy<3; vazraka v^shna Aur^m^z- 
dah^ im^ h^dish ad<^m akun^v^m mam Aur^m^zda 
patuv h^da b^g^ibish ut^m^iy khsh^tr^m uta tyam^iy 



"Baga vazraka Aur^m^zda hy^ imam bumim ada 
hy^ av^m asman^m ada hy^ m^rtiy^m ada shiyatim 
ada m^rtiy^hya hy^ Khsh^yarsham khshayizthiy^m 


akun^ush aiv^m p^runam khshay^thiy^m aiv^m 
p^runam iramat3.vam Ad^m Khsh(2yarsha khshay^- 
thiya vazraka khshay<^thiy^ khshay^thiyanam khsha- 
yathiya d^hyunam 'p<^ruv z^nanam khshay^thiy^ 
ahyaya bumiya v<^zr^kaya dur^^iy apiy "Da-rayavahaush 
khshay<3:thiy<3:hya putr^ H(a:kham^nishiy^ Thatiy 
Khsh(^yarsha khshay^thiy^ v^zr^k^ v^shna Aur^hy^ 
Mazd^ha ima h^^dish D 2.r ay av a (h)ush. khshay^thiy^ 
akun<7ush hya mana. pita mam Aur<2m^zda patuv h^da 
b^g^ibish uta ty«mrt:iy k^rt^m uta tyama'iy pitr<2 Da- 
r^y<^vrth^ush khshay^thiyrt:hya kartam av^shciy Aura- 
m^zda patuv h^^da b^g^zibish. 


Baga vazraka Aur^^m^izda hy^ imam bumim ada 
hya av^m asman^^m ada hya m^rtiy^m ada hya shiya- 
tim ada m^rtiy<7;hya hy<3! Khsh^yarsham khshay^- 
thiy<^m akun<^ush aiv<?m p^runam khshay^thiy^m 
aivam p^runam fmmatamm Ad^m Khsh^-yarsha 
khshay(^thiy<2 vazraka khshay^thiy^ khshay^thiyanam 
khshay^^thiy^ d^hyunam 'p^ruv z^nanam khshay^- 
thiy^ ahyaya bumiya v^zr^kaya dur^^iy apiy Da.raya- 
v^hrtush khshay^thiy^aihya putr^ H<a:kham^nishiy(3: 
Thatiy Khsh^^yarsha khshay^thiy^ v^zr^k^ v^shna 
Aur^hy^ M^zdah^ im^ h^^dish T)a.rayava(h)ush khsha- 
yathiya akun^^ush hya mana, pita mam Aur^m^zda 
patuv h^da b^^g^ibish uta ty<7m<^iy k^rt^m uta ty^- 
maiy pitr^ Dar<^y<^v^h<7ush khshay<^thiy^hya k^rt^m 
av^shciy Aumm^zda patuv h<2da b^g^ibish. 



Baga vazraka Aur<7m<7zda hy^ imam bumim ada 
av^m asman^m ada hy^ m^rtiy^m ada hy^ shiyatim 
ada m«rtiy<?hya hy^ Khsh<^yarsham khshay^thiy^m 

^ paruv zananam, 104, Note. 


akun^ush aiv^m p<3:runam khshay^thiy^m aiv<3:m p^ru- 
nam fr^^matamm Ad^m Khsh<^yarsha khshay^thiy^ 
vazxaVa khshay<^thiy<3; khshay^^thiyanam khshay<7thiy(3: 
d<2hyunam p^ruvz^nanam khshay^thiy<^ ahiyaya bu- 
miya v^zr<2kaya ^wxa'iy apiy Dar(2y<^v<^h<2ush khshay^s:- 
thiy^^hya putr<3; Hakham<^nishiy<^ Thatiy Khsh^yarsha 
khshay^thiy<2: v^'zr^k^j; \.ya m<^na k^rt^^m ida uta X.ya- 
mrt-iy apataram kartam vis^m v^^shna Auramaz- 
daha akun^v^m mam Aur^m^zda patuv h^da bagai- 
bish utam<2iy khsh^tr^m uta tyamaiy kartam. 


Inscription of Alvend. 

B^^^^ vazxaka Aur^m^zda Yiya m^thisht^ b^ganam 
'\\ya imam bumim ada \iya av^m asman^m ada \iya 
m^rtiy^m ada \iya shiyatim ada m^rtiy^hya hy<2: 
Khsh^yarsham khshay^thiy^m akun^ush aiv<^m p^ru- 
nam khshay<2thiy<3:m aiv^^m p^runam fr^matan^m 
Ad^m Khsh^yarsha khshay^thiy*^; vazxaVa khshay^- 
thiya khshay^thiyanam khshay^thiy^x d<3:hyunam 
p^ruz<2nanam khshay<a:thiy^ ahiyaya bumiya vazxa- 
kaya dur^iy apiy Dar^y^v^h^ush khshay^thiya hya 
putr^ H^kham^nishiy^. 


Inscription of Van. 


"Baga vazraka Aur(3:m<7zda hya m<^thlst^ haganam 
hya imam bumim ada.hy<a; av<a;m asman^m ada hya 
m^rt'iyavn ada hya shiyatim ada m^rtiy^hya hya 
Khsh^yarsham khshay^thiytxm akun^ush aiv^m p^ru- 
nam khshay^thiy^m aiv^m p^^runam tematar^m 
Ad^m Khsh^yarsha khshay^thiy^^; vazvaka khshay<3:- 
thiya khshay^thiyanam khshay<^thiy^ d^^hyunam ^pa- 
ruv z^nanam khshay^thiy^ ahyaya bumiya v<3:zr^kaya 
dur<^iy apiy 'Da.rayavahaush khshay<3;thiy<?hya putr^ 
H«kham<2nishiy^ Thatiy Khsh^yarsha khshay^thiy^ 
Dar^y^v^(h)ush khshay^thiy^ hya m^na pita hauv 
v^shna Aur^m<^zdaha v^siy ty^ n^ib^m akun^ush uta 
ima stan^m hauv niy^^shtay^^ k^(n)t^nmy yanaiy 
dipim n^iy nipishtam akun^ush pasava ad^m niy^sh- 
tay<3;m imam dipim nipisht<?n«iy (Mam Aur^^m^zda 
patuv hada, b^g^ibish utam^iy khsh^tr^m uta tyamaiy 



Klish^yarsha khshay^thiy^ vazraka. 
^ paruv zananam, 104, Note. 







Inscription at Venice. 


Ard«khc^shc<3; khshay<^thiy^ Yuzvaka. 



Inscriptions of Persepolis. 


Ard^stan^ 3.iha(n)gama Da.r ay avahaush khshay^- 
thiyahya. vithiya karta. 


Inscriptions of Susa. (S.) 


Ad^m Art«khsh<^tra khshsiyathiya wazxaVa khsha- 
ya'Osxiya khshay<a:thiyanam 'Dar<3;y^v<3:(h)ush<3:hyakhsha- 
y^thiy^hya putr<3;. 



Thatiy Atr^^khsh^tra khshay<3;thiy^ vazxaVa khsha- 
y^thiy^ khshay^thiyanam khshay^thiy^ d^hyunam 
khshay^thiy^a; ahyaya bumiya Dar^y^v^(h)ush^hya 

1 Darayrtva(h)ushahya, 85, a; 24. 

* An ingenious attempt to make syntax out of the loose construction 
shown in these inscriptions of Artaxerxes Mnemon and Artaxerxes 
Ochus, is the following: 

Darfl'yav«(h)ush Vishtasp^hya nama putra "D. sohn eines mit na- 
men V." Das folgende jedoch Vishtaspahya Arsham^^ nama putra 
zeigt wie die vorhergehende genealogische aufzahlung eine anakoluthe 
verbindung zweier nominative, von denen der eine zum andern im 
genetivverhaltnis steht. So merkwiirdig das anakoluth in P) 
ist, so wird es doch durch ein analogon gestiitzt: es entspricht 
genau der construction Sz b) h^ca Pirava nama xavXa. In bei- 
den fallen ist statt eines obliquen casus der nominativ gesetzt 
in folge einer art verkiirzung einer bei den alten Persern haufigen 
pleonastischen ausdruckweise; wie h<7ca — Pirav^ nama rayxia voll- 
standig lauten miisste hrt-ca r^-uta — Piravii: nam^: xawia — hr/ca ada, 
ebenso an unserer stelle m^'rtiyrthya — Arshamfl; nam^ mfl-rtiya — av«- 
hya putr^. Eine solche lose anreihung zweier in abhangigkeitsver- 
haltnis zu denkender glieder ist etwas ganz gewohnliches, z. b. Nisaya 
namrt d<7hy<7ush — av^d^shim avaj'rn^m (Bh. I), (V^rumisa) nam^ 
Pars« b«(n)d«ka av<zm ad^ra fraish^ya'm (II). Diese construc- 
tionen unterscheiden sich von der unsrigen nur dadurch, dass die 
wiederaufnahme des abhangigen satzgliedes durch eine oblique pro- 
nominalform sowohl Sz b) wie an unserer stelle nicht stattgefunden 
hat. Es ist eine jedermann verstandliche vercinfachung jener um- 
standlichen und schwerfallinen ausdrucksweise. 

In P) ist auch das wort nam^, welches urspriinglich die be- 
dingung der anakoluthen construction ist, als entbehrlich iiber bord 
geworfen: ArtokhshrttraDarayavrt(h)ush khshayathiy^ putra ist also die 


khshay^thly^hya putr^ Dar^y^v^(h)ush^hya Art^- 
khsh^trahya khshayathiy^hya putr^ Art«khsh<3:trahya 
Khsh^yarsh<a:hya khshay^thiy^hya putr<3: Khsh^yar- 
sh^hya Dar<2y^v^(h)ush^hya khshay^thiy<3:hya putr<3: 
Dar<a:y^v^(h)ush«hya Vishtashp^hya putr<3; 
nishiy^ ^Imam a.pad2ina Da.rayava(h.)ush. ap^nyak<3:m<3f 
■akuiK^sh ahiyapara . . . .pa Art^khsh^tra nyak^m<3;. . . 
Anahata uta Mithr*^ vashnsL Auramazdsha ap^dana 
a.dam akunavam Aur^m^zda Anahata uta Mithr<3r 
mam patuv . . . 

weiterentwicklung und vereinfachung des Slteren typus Artakhsha- 
tra khshay«thiyrthya — Dar«yavrt!{h)ush nam« khshay^thiyrt: — avahya 
putr« ' 'A. sohn eines konigs — es ist ein konig Darius mit namen — 
dessen sohn." 

Noch eine andere eigenheit enthalt die inschrift, nSralich den gen- 
etiv Vishtapahya, wo wir einen nominativ erwarten. Dieselbe 
construction findet sich durchgangig in S. Die wiederholung 
des namens im genetiv statt im nominativ dient zu emphatischer her- 
vorhebung und ist eine assimilatorische anlehnung an den vorher- 
gehenden genetiv, wahrend das subjekt aus dem genetiv zu erganzen ist: 
Darayava(h)ushahya khshay^thiy^hya putr^, Dar^v^y^z(h)ushahya 
(hy«) Artokhshatr^hya putr« "des Darius sohn, (jenes) Darius, (der) 
des Artaxerxes sohn (war), jenes Artaxerxes, der des Xerxes sohn 
war u. s. w. — 

1 Imam apfldada, 85, b. 'akuntzsh, 43. 



Inscription of Persepolis. 


Baga vazraka Aur^m^zda hya imam bumam ada 
hya avam asmanam ada hya m<^rtiy^m ada hya shay^- 
tam ada m<3:rtihya hya mam Art<2khsh<^tra khshay^- 
thiya akun^ush aiv^m paruvna.Tn khshay^thiy^m 
aivam p^^ruvnam iramataram Thatiy Artrt:khsh<2tra 
khshay<3:thiy« vazraka khshayathiya khshay<^thiyanam 
khshay^thiy<^ d^^hyunam khshay^^thiy^a: ahyaya bumiya 
Adam Artakhsh<^tra khshay^^thiy^a: putr<3; Art<3;khsh^tra 
D ar ay av a (h)ush khshay^^thiy^ putra Art<3:khsh(a:tra 
khshay<^thiy<^ putr<^ Art^khsh<3:tra Khsh^yarsha khsha- 
yathiya putr<3; Khsh^yarshaDar<3;y«v^(h)ush V(i)shtas- 
p<a:hya nam^ putr^ V(i)shtasp<^hya Arsham<3: nam<3: 
putra H<2kham(3:nishiyrt; Thatiy Art<2:khsh<3;tra khshay*^:- 
thiy<a: im<^m us«t<3;sh^nam 'ath«(n)g«nam mam upa 
mam k<3;rta Thatiy Art^khsh^tra khshayathiya mam 
Aur^m<3:zda uta M(i)thr<3; haga patuv uta imam d<3;h- 
yum uta ^ty^ mam k^rta. 

1 'D3iTayava(h)ush, 85, c. ^ atha(n)g^mam, 85, d; 86, d. ^ tya mam 
k^rta, 85, e and f. 



Arsh<3:k^ nama Athiyad^ush^n^hya putr^. 



OF th:^ 






*The inscriptions are taken from a pen sketch made by the author. 

For the Cuneiform text of the Behistan the student is referred to 
the great work of Rawlinson in Vol. X of the Royal Asiatic Society 
of Great Britain and Ireland. The author is under much obligation 
to Dr. Kossowicz, Professor of Sanskrit in the Imperial University of 
St. Petersburg. 



Cuneiform kiVHA BET. 

fGvrTumi fn A 

Jtautal 11 I Sonant Sibiunj h^l z 

I i 

GuTT(;KM_ yt K ((Y BEFORE U) «TI KH' <TK(<£^B£r^7?E v) 

>^\A/ («^ BEFORE U) 

■p4L/iTAL y<>- 1:. 

LmGUAL^lK ("-({mroKBU) AsVlRATlOH (^^{ 

DE/vr>iL T£5 

h Vr^ <T// <?^^ H- 

£TC. ^TC. 


'•.'"^:#' -^? 


>M^T5m ft r<»m \ mrrnr \ <k h- \ r<\\ t<> nr 

jlrl ff -m ^ trr fr rr 'I -TtI ^T 5 TTI ^^ /<- <M T<> Yn\«<T<>\ 

^^ ^Yt £^r r<» T£ (rr-m \ «n ?< rrr r<' t<t ft r<»Mim<r<rr 

'Mffr 5TtT m ^r>Irn. 

KT ff T<> vmT»T^YY$ ^ «Yy^ rrr r<> kty? r<^ x«ymn? 
T<'T<r n r<> rrr Mm' nr \ «Tr n m r<> r<r r7 r<> "( n <?< T<><fr 

- r<> 1 m <>^< T<> nr r<> JtV t ^r <ff T<? rf r<> rTr X '-feT^'r 



<HK>ml<'m \ jT<rTr<Jnr<>frr ~t >r&M^rrstrr 

<^<UA ffr>rH>M1 fyr r£>rrrm5<'rrr X mfy yfr^ 
^><r<>T ff>TrT m>rrnir<rr K^frM-^mnm^ <J<r<>^ 

>rri^rjrrrffr<»M\ mtrm ^ <kt<> \ t<ff r<> ^r 
K<&^r8r^r\jwr<>vr^r»y^rrj>rYr\»wr<> v 

i. ^ rr>rrr 1 fr ffr^E rr<»m <n U ^ i<K \ i<l< ^r 
H m > M 1 KK 1 Tr <K T<> <r^ K m > M T ^ > « <rr> ter» ) 
HrnHWr>m\HlC\ ni<H1<^mr<> rrr \ ^r<fr m ff 

Krr r(> m « * irT m R»rrr \ n>m m > W ^ r<><rr5^ r7 
r<> m -M \ r-' rrr k ff t<> i <j< ^> fr, i ^ f? ^ r jp,.^i 
*< m >rrT "I fer <?r 5 w 1 J yrr r<> \ ^<> (rrn ^m mu^ 

>m^ff T<"Trr \ T<> <rr riff y<>frr X ft>ri5 \T<>r<r?rr'< 

iM m UK fr> ?rr 1 K> Tfi ^ ' hi m > m X r<> <?r>rs t? 

tfi fr.'M \ ff fWEii<»rs<tie<\i<T<i 

;. m <fr Sl>yrrr»Trr m \ >]'^l»]^1Y> \ c>< r<> X 

r£ r<»r£<?r> rry\ «/! s m r<> r<r i^ i<»iii \ mrrrr nA 
W <rr £r>yry y»y ri m <»< m t f? m sr y<» r& <ry ?< \ 

4 y<y ?rr jw ff y<> i f? m £yy<»r^<n?< ^ «yy r< frr 

1<>K1iiH>\HU»h1 1 ??<Ky<>m <rrr< \%n't^llB\ 

ilriK'ni'M \ >iiU<vi \ m<?T £r>y»yy»yrT m \ 
<rr>yry^y?rTyyf y<> 'm\>i^ro<m\ifiin^My'ir»ifim 
«yrs^ry<>y<yffy<><Ky<>rTr i <K?r>m '\?ryKffr<> 


5. y<y trr ?m n y<> Ur m £yy<» y e <^ ^ i «yy^?rr 
y<>y<rny<>i >yrrKmi ^i<^^i>hu»inm\^n 
i^^m-m \ 5r^ryrr'<fr>yfci kkyiWi i j^ffKr ff 
nn'^1 >>r<rrfrjyff<<Ufr'yir?rr^n>yirm>rrr \ w 


<?<rY>rri <i< ?h< ?rr y<>fry 1 <><rr'm\<^i^rr<m<>m 

'M rfr -rrT '\ Tr <K r<> nr <fr>/Tr 1 -Trr frr X rr' KKj ff 

r<> rr ^ -Trr m ^ <>< ?? k m \ 'M m \ <^y <?f ^ n r<> m 

T<> mK 'M \ >r(^Tr ff r<' ffr Kn'fT<> t m<fr ST> TrT 

r>'r rr ffr>Trn<Kr'i m \ ft ff T<r ff J Tff ^ 1 '>r<rrn ^r ff ?< t 

fn f f ' lit > TrT f f r <' \ frt <fr fc r >ri1 1» r ff fn l fr n fn 

r<rff K>vr£T'>r£Tr5\«rrs fn T<>Krffr<> \ «rr^ m 

K> K1 fr T<> fn K ffrM A «/Tr< Tn T<> T<T ff K> 1 f?4< T<><f? 

Krfr'Mi »rrrK'ffsm'M"i ^>«<rrKm>rrri f^ff 

?<?Trr rTy T£ ^<K r<> rTr 1 ^<ff ^ A <5<«Tr m> mK ff 

i KT ffr im ff r<> ^ ff ffr ST T<»T^<rrr< A «Tr^ m 
K'KTff T<> \ ']^V< ?< fn \ ffr (ff^l'hl '{^'In rTr<>'< m 
ff'M fn 1 ff<J(K> rYr>rS \ -M K>ni \ fii ff'W 1 frf ff 
^r^ ff K'\ <><rr ffr \ ffr K m \ fr ffr ^r T£ fn A n W 
^tffi \ MK'ffr XKKf-rrTr'HA frr JMSTT £ "< > TrT 
KrTr \ ?r fft K^ if>Jrr\ ffr ^T^T "\ <rr>T£>y<X -m ffi n "^ 
K rn ? r ff ' « <fr U 1 ffr ^r q rfr T<> \ fft T<r <ff ^ T m^<><rr 
ff ^I rr T<> ffr \ ffr & r T <> ff K 1 r? j W mrPin n \ rs ^■ 
srff \T<><rr >< rYr\ sW K-ff K' X (rf ^ KKK' w \ <ff 
''hi rn \ ilrl K' rf K- \ v ^n<><KK> m \ (irfW frr \ 

Off T*« 

>Tm «rr rr n n "\ m <rr urn a <rr> rs frr^rr'-irK^ n k>\ 
T<r> Trr <'^'<rr^\<i'<'^i <rr> i^^m n t<. \ <*< n <£ r w^ \ 

3. KT m 5 M rf r<' \ fr m £ T T<> ' i^<ry ^ X «rr^rr 

Y<'T<Tffr<> X K>^riffT<> \ frr>r^r<rfrr X 'TrTKf? 
K> m <K r<> \ <K rr> nr \ m K ff K- '>< nf \ 'B rfr \ m 

r. ffr 'W ^ m <K>rrr yf r<> \ <k k> m \ <^r<rr>T£ rr 
^ 'Ttt 'Trr 1 t^ ff K> m J w ff ^ \ ffr «n s 5 rrr m \ 

nj ilri K> \ fr'TrJ rTr-TrrX i^ rlKl> M \. 


rYfry£rT<>'r^<rr^ ^ «rT^mr<>Krrfr<'^>m 
r»r^TTM «]rr< m k> Kin t<> \ «jj^inK> KUrmr 

Krrr>rrr \ «Trs ffr T<> K) Tr K> A THK K'<ff K m> Trl \ 
n ff t< ?Trr rTr Tfc W <K /<> ffr X ^ <rr S 1 <K «rr ?fr>M»(f? 
^ff T<> X <!<K' \ H>'{iUM \ >1iirr'^l'm \ iTriUfi 





MTOTM 'r^r"r^T<> \ ffr<fTsr»rTrr"mrri 

<?<T<> \ff> M m>TrT\5T<rr K^ ff -Trr X mfrfTr A <KTn 
frt'T^'M \ m T^'W tTt K' MX trrff fn ^ <KT<>\ 

'W^i^rrff K»rrr ^ mfrfrM <Kr<> x^nK-m 

^TrTrf'TrrAfrrfrfrrVrrrST^Mffr<><Kr<> frr \ <KY<>\ 

fr ffr £T 7<>>T^<rr> MX «Tr i< frr r<> r<rf^ r<>'rrn?rr<i<fr 

K<t't^\ ffr n'r^>rTriW'«<rr>r^Kfn>rrT\«n?<rrr 
K> Kr fr K' > W 1 ffr ff > /£ > TrM ^ K< <rT > te K rTyTrn 

2. frr?T'Trr\fr ffrferr<'>r£<rrK '^ «TTsrrr<>Kr?^ 
r<> ^ •T^r-r^rr> \ i(Si r< m r<- r<r ff K- \ «nr< frrK> 

KT ff r(> ffr ?< m ' hJ \ «Tr r< frr K' Kf ff 1<> 1 r'r (K r<'<rr 
K ffr ' Trr A ,1 ii 1^frh>U< fTi K fTr >m \ «Jm in K> 
Kl ff r<> "I ffr <K r<> rTr K' fn V>1 <^ ra fi K> fn \ 'T£ 1>>1 
TSTJrTrK'ffrX <£ T <fr ^ r f f /<> rnfrfiK'^rrntoMm 
T^ ?r <K K> rTr \ ^ <rr ^ \ <K «rr ffr > M K ff ^ -ff K> 1 

?r m srr^ 1 ^ ffr fcrm<K k> frrU <fr frm^'inK>\ 

.5. KTfrr^Mff r<> x ff ffr^rK>'r£<rrS i «rr^ rr 

T<> Kf ff K' 1 'TS tiKrrx\m <fr ^ r> rrr 1'>in m <"< ffr \ 
rf 'Irr rTr \ ff <K /<> ffr '!£ X -h] K- m \ ffr TrhJ A in 

<Tr sr-T rTr K»/Tr \ frr r^Jhr^T' rrr \ <Kff' frr\f,m 
^ T^ fn \ fTr rr>mr< ffi'hnfr' m ff k> «nt< f f r<' i 

'MKrTr \ 'Trfr 'r<7f>rrr A m^J^l \ ^rlK- 
T<ni 'TtT \ <KfT> ffr>Trr A rnKT «<!<> \ fTr-I^ A frr<T<ff 
K>T^ \ rf rtr fTrT'Trr \ ^hl K> "I -rrTKrTr \ m if W \ 

m fr ffr £T f? V Trl ffr ft \<Sr>r^>K\^^1Kr>1'^\<K-^in 

<s'<fT ?j \ <TT>fT m ^1 \ <>< ff fr <rr r< \ T^ r'> m \ <«rr 

>hl> T^ ^ T 75 ffr A T^ T! ffr A ''TtT ff <Tr' ^ r «.V <ff fr ffr \ 
IT ffr >Tff -« <fr ^ \ ffr KT <fr ^T rTr A ffr £ r^T ffr K> \ 
£<- <fr fr ^r ffr r<'"A r^^TKs ff K \ T>;frrW rrr><fr /J \ 
T^ ^ ^ r fr \ K' (r-r K \ T^ T- ffr ^ > Trr T<> ff K A ^TrT ^ r fr 
HTK' A m<T<T'-rfrST\K«^rKfff A '/r/P-r^r rTr A 
W<ff -Trfff K' T'fr \ <T <fr ^ ff K- ffr \'rrrfr>fr K- rrr\ 

4-^ KT ffrJ/rTif K> A Tt ffr ^TK"r&<r'rr< \ «rTe? rr 
K>T<' tf T<> \ ffr <ff ^T>Trrr>>Tff frr \ T<> KW\ fn-rs ff 
K A ff 'Trr rrr - TrT \ >'T <rr K- fr * m \ K- <ri ^ ^ Tfe rTr >r£ 
^TTff'TrT \ 'MKffr \ K<fcT rTr ^T^T \ ^r/f Wr >M \ 
«Tr 5 ffr T<> KT ff K> > Trr A rTr <T <r'r K<rr ^ A ffr rr> /rT \ 
«TT^ ffr T<> T<T ff T<' \ rTr T<> ff K- \>J^r<Kfn\lTi<rr^1 
•TrT T» T ff ffr <K rTr \ rTr fr > lij r< if > m A <rP rTr r<r >r£ ffr \ 
Kff K> ^ ffr fr T<» Trr V Trr r<> S ffr > rrr "^ m fr 'M^mK1 
^<'hl A rTr >r^ \ rrr <T <fT K'TS -TrT ffr \ r<> r<r m\ 

>Trr ffr >rji \ r? ffr > frr 1 fri <K A r<> ^ rr ff r<> ?, ^ rr ff r<> i 

>TrTKff K>irr<KK>\'hJK> \ fr>ff r<> V'-^l^M A ffr 
'Tfe ffr A ff <K r<' ffr 'Tfe 1 ?rrr r<' m\nm^rK- 'Jt<m\ 
«ir Z< fff T<> KT rfK'\niriffr^rK'\^ >hl ff r>' fe /> rrr \ 

^rfff^TTffr<> \ '>hiK>nu>\ >hu<.m \ (wfrr 
r<r <ff 'Trr \ ii'^vmif r<> \ k> ki m \ «n ^ k mi^ m 

<»<S TT ff ^ \ ffiff n^l n K' \ m l"iri fn \ '1>1^ iTr 
ililnU \ WTTr^rT^<><T<>ffr 1 'm>^l^m ff r<> 

<j<T<> fff \ <£r <rT fer r<> a fff sr^ ^rrr ff s A ^ sTffr 

<'<fr'ffr VWfTr^rr 

m A <«<> ri-r ^ T' rrr 1 w ^mh k-k 

S. KT m^M n K> \ fr ffr ^TT<>'r^<rrT^ \ «Tmm 

i^ffT^^Trf 1 'i^z<Kfrr \fri <ri^i'hjr>'rrrm^< ffr\ 

TV <T (t*? K >r^ 'Mn ffr <rr ^r> Wr-irr ^r'Mr? r<> -K?? 

^rTs^rrrfTr>rrrxm>'T^r\T<> fTr^Mrff \r>^r5rrr> TrrA 
ffr <r <fT K ^r^ ' rrr\ ' hi m ^ rri i m <rr ^r > rrr r»rrr fn\ 

m fr > rrr \ m fr • hn fff <ff '^I'lrU'^rrifn'rin^ ks rr r? 

T<' frr K> ff K' 1 m n ^hP lit if K- \ ffr <rr EI- ni I^^Jfi ffr\ 

frff m rrf' <n > rs i -rr/^r^ m a )<> m \ <k r<> rTr ■; frr <fr 

?Mrrr»rrr frr 4< rTr 1 K'^Vhl frr Km \ <K <Si ' 1^ 

^Trrff T<> ^ (ir rs^Tjr rTr VM m \ Ki r^r r<> Arj<rff>/rn 

jItI T<> iTr >Trr ^ £/ m r£ JTrr rTr > frr \ >hl rTr ^ rTr>rfe 

^Tff\>rrrrTr \mfrrr£r>/£\. 

/ ?r<Tr \ 'TfcT->r^rT'> a rTr<fT^T>Trrr-7ffffr\ 

<KK' \ rTr r^ frr K< • 'Trr\^MK' \ -m rTr 

frfrrA r<ff K> ffr -Mff-rrT \ >M£T^rrrf?r<><KT<> ffrX 

<fr ffr A frr >« <fr * /£ /£ ^ /rT > TrT \ <fTW Si ff /<> \ 

ff ffr £TT<»r£<fr'rrr\ «Tr ^ ffr r<> KI ff T<»rrr ^ ff t<> 

1. KT ffr >M H K 1r1 ffr£TK»I^<fr r< \ «Tr 5ffrK> 


]?£! ^n<> A mK>\ fu \ ^hJ>m K>\ 

fr ^rm-rrr A frrrr r<> m<fr nK'<KK> m^ 

fr frr ^ r r<' > rs <K <rr ^ \ «TRf ^ ffr K> K T ff K' <J < /<> rTr \ 
T<> KI ff K' <>< K' frr 1 ff /^<fr > m ffr > rr/ A frffr riEr<> 





CYRUS. (M.) 


The oldest inscription of Persia is found on that 
structure generally believed to be the tomb of Cyrus. 
At Pasargadse, in the midst of the plain of Murghab, 
stands a building of white marble rising to the height 
of thirty-six feet from the ground. Its base is forty- 
seven feet long and forty-four feet broad. A figure in 
bas-relief carved on a pillar, perhaps the portrait of 
the king himself, strengthens the theory that this 
structure is the tomb of Cyrus. A narrow doorway 
leads into an inner chamber, where Arrian says, the 
body of Cyrus was placed. Under the relief is the 
cuneiform inscription, the translation of which follows: 


I (am) Cyrus, the king, the Achaemenide. 

For the sake of comparison the reader is referred 
to the epitaph of Cyrus quoted byStrabo, (XV, 3.) 



(PERSIAN, [median, ASSYRIAN.]) 

1. I (arn) Darius, the great king, the king of kings, 
the king of Persia, the king of countries, the son of 
Hystaspes, the grandson Arshama, the Achaemenide. 

2. Says Darius the king my father (is) Hystaspes, the 
father of Hystaspes (is) Arshama, the father of Ars- 
hama (is) Ariyaramna, the father of Ariyaramna (is 
Caispis), the father of Caispis (is) Achaemenes. 

3. Says Darius the king therefore we are called the 
Achaemenides: from long ago we have extendedf from 
long ago our family have been kings. 

4. Says Darius the king VIII. J of my family (there 
were) who were formerly kings: I am the IX: individ- 
ually we were (lit. are) kings. 

5. Says Darius the king by the grace of Aura- 
mazda I am king : Auramazda gave me the king- 

6. Says Darius the king these are the countries 
which came to me : by the grace of Auramazda I 
became king of them, Persia, Susiana, Babylon, As- 
syria, Arabia, Egypt, which are by the sea, Sparda, 
Ionia, Media, Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Drangi- 
ana, Area, Chorasmia, Bactriana, Sogdiana, Gandara, 
Saka, Thatagus, Haravatis, Maka, in all (there are) 
XXIII countries. 

*This inscription contains nearly one thousand lines. Cf. Intro- 

fThe Persian word amata is connected with the Sanskrit root ma to 
measure (Cf. Zend ma and Latin me-to). The A is doubtless a prefix 
corresponding to the Sanskrit a (hither), amata would mean meas- 
ured hither or to the present time, i.e., reaching to the present. It is 
possible to emphasize the idea of the root ma (measure): hence the 
word might signify measured, tested, tried. 

:}:The numerals are represented by horizontal wedges for units and 
oblique for the tens. Cf. Cuneiform alphabet 


7- Says Darius the king these (are) the countries 
which came to me : by the grace of Auramazda they 
became subject to me : they bore tribute to me : 
what was commanded to them by me this was done 
night and (lit. or) day. 

8. Says Darius the king within these countries 
what man was a friend* him well supported I sup- 
ported : who was an enemy him well punished I pun- 
ished ; by the grace of Auramazda these countries 
followed my law : as it was commanded by me to 
them, so it was done. 

9. Says Darius the king Auramazda gave me the 
kingdom : Auramazda bore me aid until this kingdom 
was established : by the grace of Auramazda I hold 
this kingdom. 

10. Says Darius the king this (is) what (was) done 
by me after that I became king ; Cambyses by name, 
the son of Cyrus (was) of our family: he before was 
king here : of this Cambyses there was a brother 
Bardiya (i. e., Smerdis) by name possessing a com- 
mon mother and the same father with Cambyses ; 
afterwards Cambyses slew that Bardiya: when Cam- 
byses slew Bardiya there was not knowledge t (on 
the part) of the state that Bardiya was slain : after- 
wards Cambyses went to Egypt : when Cambyses 
went to Egypt, after that the state became hostile, 
after that there was deceit to a great extent in the 
provinces, both Persia and Media and other prov- 

11. Says Darius the king afterwards there was one 
man, a Magian, Gaumata by name ; he rose up from 
Paishiyauvada ; there (is) a mountain Arakadris, by 

* The Persian word is of doubtful interpretation. It looks like the 
NOMEN AGENTis of GAM to go^ a goer hither or a comer. The transla- 
tion /rzVwo' is a conventional one. 

f AZDA, a doubtful word. I connect it with the root da to ktww 
which occurs in the compound aur^m^zda. 


name; from there on the 14th day* of the month 
Viyakhna then it was when he rose up : he then de- 
ceived the state ; I am Bardiya the son of Cyrus 
brother of Cambyses : afterwards the whole state be- 
came estranged from Cambyses fand) went over to 
him, both Persia and Media and the other provinces: 
he seized the kingdom ; on the 9th day of the month 
Garmapada then it was he thus seized the kingdom ; 
afterward Cambyses died by a self-imposed death, f 

12. Says Darius the king this kingdom which 
Gaumata the Magian took from Cambyses, this king- 
dom from long ago was (the possession) of our family : 
afterwards Gaumata the Magian took from Cambyses 
both Persia and Media and the other provinces ; he 
acted in accordance with? his own power? he be- 
came king. 

13. Says Darius the king there was not a man 
neither a Persian nor Median nor any one of our fam- 
ily who could make Gaumata the Magian deprived of 
the kingdom ; the state feared him vehemently (or 
because of his violence) ; he would smite the state 
utterly which knew the former Bardiya ; for this rea- 
son he would smite the state that it might not know 
mej that I am not Bardiya the son of Cyrus; anyone 
did not dare to say anything against Gaumata the 
Magian until I came ; afterwards I asked Auramazda 
for help; Aurama/da bore me aid; on the loth day 
of the month Bagayadis then it was I thus with (my) 
faithful? men slew that Gaumata the Magian and 

*Lit. with fourteen days; a use of the instrumental which denotes 
the association of time with an event. This idiom is employed in all 
like temporal expressions. Cf. Grammar, 72. 

t The word uv^MrtRSHiYUSH can be divided into xjva self [Ci. Skt. 
swa Lat. se) and MrtRSHivusH die (Cf. Skt. m^r Lat. morior). The 
meaning also corresponds to the statement in Herodotus III 64-65, 
that Cambyses died from a wound inflicted by his sword as he was 
leaping from his horse. 

X Note the direct form of expression. 


what men were his foremost allies; there (is) a strong- 
hold Sikayauvatis by name ;^ there is a province in 
Media Visaya by name ; here I smote him ; I took 
the kingdom from him ; by the grace of Auramazda I 
became king : Auramazda gave me the kingdom. 

14. Says Darius the king — the kingdom which 
was taken away from our family, this I put in (its) 
place; I established it on (its) foundation; as (it was) 
formerly so I made it ; the sanctuaries ? which Gau- 
mata the Magian destroyed I restored. The com- 
merce ? of the state and the cattle and the dwelling 
places, and (I did this) in accordance withf the 
clans, which Gaumata the Magian took from them, 
(I restored) ; I established the state on (its) founda- 
tion both Persia and Media and the other prov- 
inces ; as (it was) formerly so I brought back what 
(had been) taken away ; by the grace of Auramazda 
this I did ; I labored that our clan I might establish 
in (its) place; as (it was) formerly, so (I made it); I 
labored by the grace of Auramazda that Gaumata 
the Magian might not take away our race. 

15. Says Darius the king this (is) what I did, after 
that I became king. 

16. Says Darius the king when I slew Gaumata the 
Magian afterwards there (was) one man Atrina by 
name the son of Upadara(n)ma; he rose up in Uvaja; 
(i. e. , Susiana) ; thus he said to the state; I am king 
in Uvaja; afterwards the people of Uvaja became re- 
bellious (and) went over to that Atrina; he became 
king in Uvaja; also there (was) one man a Babylon- 
ian Naditabira by name the son of Ain . . . . ; he rose 
up in Babylon; thus he deceived the state; I am Na- 

*Nam^ is not the accusative of specification, but is attracted into 
the case, and even the gender of the subject. Lit. there is a strong- 
hold (its) name (is) Sikayauvatis. Cf. Grammar, 61, A. Note 2, but 
cf. Bartholomae, Arische Forsch. I, 58. 

f Cf. Grammar, 70, A. 


bukudracara the son of Nabunita; afterwards the 
whole of the Babylonian state went over to that Nad- 
itabira; Babylon became rebellious; the kingdom in 
Babylon he seized. 

17. Says Darius the king afterwards I sent forth 
(my army) to Uvaja; this Atrina was led to me 
bound; I slew him. 

18. Says Darius the king afterwards I went to 
Babylon against that Naditabira who called himself 
Nabukudracara; the army of Naditabira held the 
Tigris; there he halted and was on shipboard; after- 
wards I destroyed the army one (army) I made 

submissive, of the other I led; Auramazda bore 

me aid; by the grace of Auramazda we crossed the 
Tigris; here the army of Naditabira I slew utterly; 
on the 27th day of the month Atriyadiya then it was 
we thus engaged in battle. 

19. Says Darius the king afterwards I went to 

Babylon; when to Babylon ; 

there (is) a town Zazana by name along the Eu- 
phrates; there this Naditabira who called himself Na- 
bukudracara went with his army against me to engage 
in battle; afterwards we engaged in battle; Auramazda 
bore me aid; by the grace of Auramazda the army 

of Naditabira I slew utterly 

the water bore it away; on the 2nd day of the month 
Anamaka then it was we thus engaged in battle. 



1. Says Darius the king afterwards Naditabira with 
(his) faithful ? horsemen went to Babylon; afterwards 
I went to Babylon; by the grace of Auramazda I both 
seized Babylon and seized that Naditabira; afterwards 
I slew that Naditabira at Babylon. 

2. Says Darius the king while I was in Babylon 
these (are) the provinces which became estranged 
from me, Persia, Uvaja, Media, Assyria, Armenia, 
Parthia, Magus, Thatagus, Saka. 

3. Says Darius the king there (was) one man Mar- 
tiya by name, the son of Cicikhris — there (is) a town 
in Persia Kuganaka by name — here he halted; he 
rose up in Uvaja; thus he said to the state; I am 
Imanis king in Uvaja. 

4. Says Darius the king then* I was near by Uvaja; 

afterwards from me the people 

of Uvaja seized that Martiya who was chief of them 
and slew him. 

*01d Persian ad<7k^iy. For various theories respecting the meaning 
and derivation of ad;7K<7iy, cf. F. Miiller (Wiener Zeitschrift fur d. k. 
des Morgenlandes in), 150, Bartholomae (Bezz. Beiter X. 272). The 
theory contained in a late number of the Zeitschr. f. vergl. Sprchfg. 
is especially deserving of mention. The first element of the compound 
is Ava (Cf . Skt. adh^, Lat. inde, Gr. pvOa) and the second contains the 
stem of the interrogative pronoun, Ka, (Cf. Skt. ca, Lat. que, Gr. rs) 
Cf. Lat. TUN-c. ,,Den indefiniten und enclitischen gebrauch des 
fragestamms finden wir abgesehen von andern sprachen (z. b. gr. 
Ttoiy 7t7]) auch im apers. ciy (*qid), welches einerseits den interro- 
gativstaram selbst indefinit macht (k^rshsciy), andererseits adverb eine 
indefinite nebenbedeutung verleiht (p^/ruv^/mciy ,,fruher'). Genau 
wiedas eben angefiihrte p^ruv<?mciy ist unser ad(^?k^7iy gebildet: das 
dem -ciy entsprechende kaiy hat nur eine andere casusform. Deren 
locativische function ist bewahrt (,,in einem gewissen punkte"), hat 
aber in verbindung mit der zeitpartikel eine temporale bedeutungs- 
modification erhalten. ad<^?-krtiy bedeutet demnach ,,da zu einer ge- 
wissen zeit" ,,da einmal" d. i. ..damals. " Die deutsche partikel 
,'damals" und adr?k<7iy stimmen also nicht nur in der bedeutung, 
sondern auch in der bildungsweise und bedeutungsentwicklung voU- 
koramen tiberein." 


5- Says Darius the king one man Fravartis by- 
name, a Mede, he rose up in Media; thus he said to 
the state; I am Khshathrita of the family of Uva- 
khshatara; afterwards the Median state which was in 
clans became estranged from me (and) went over to 
that Fravartis; he became king in Media. 

6. Says Darius the king the Persian and Median 
army, which was by him, it was faithful ? (lit. a faith- 
ful (.?) thing); afterwards I sent forth an army; Vi- 
darna^ by name, a Persian, my subject him I made 
chief of them; thus I said to them; go smite that Me- 
dian army which does not call itself mine; afterwards 
this Vidarna with the army went away; when he came to 

Media there (is) a town in Media by 

name — here he engaged in battle with the Medes; 
he who was chief among the Medes did not then hold 
(the army) faithful.?; Auramazda bore me aid; by 
the grace of Auramazda the army of Vidarna smote 
that rebellious army utterly; on the 6th day of the 
month Anamaka then it was the battle (was) thus 
fought by them; afterwards my army — there (is) a 
region Kafmjpada by name — there awaited me until 
I went to Media. 

7. Says Darius the king afterwards Dadarsis by 
name, an Armenian, my subject, him I sent forth to 
Armenia; thus I said to him; go, the rebellious army 
which does not call itself mine smite it; afterwards 
Dadarsis went away; when he came to Armenia, after- 
wards the rebellious ones having come together went 

against Dadarsis to engage in battle a village 

by name in Armenia; here they engaged in 

battle; Auramazda bore me aid; by the grace of Aura- 
mazda my army smote that rebellious army utterly; 
on the 6th day of the month Thuravahara then it wa^ 
thus the battle (was) fought by them. 

*Cf. Grammar, 6i, A, and note i. 


8. Says Darius the king a second time the rebel- 
lious ones having come together went against Dadar- 
sis to engage in battle; there (is) a stronghold, Tigra 
by name, in Armenia — here they engaged in battle; 
Auramazda bore me aid; by the grace of Auramazda, 
my army smote that rebellious army utterly; on the 
1 8th day of the month, Thuravahara then it was the 
battle (was) thus fought by them. 

9. Says Darius the king a third time the rebellious 
ones having come together went against Dadarsis to 
engage in battle; there (is) a stronghold, U. . . .ama 
by name, in Armenia — here they engaged in battle; 
Auramazda bore me aid; by the grace of Auramazda 
my army smote that rebellious army utterly; on the 
9th day of the month, Thaigarcis then it was thus the 
battle (was) fought by them; afterwards Dadarsis 
awaited me until I came to Media. 

10. Says Darius the king afterwards Vaumisa by 
name, a Persian, my subject, him I sent forth to Ar- 
menia; thus I said to him; go, the rebellious army 
which does not call itself mine, smite it; afterwards 
Vaumisa went away; when he came to Armenia 
afterwards, the rebellious ones having come together 
went against Vaumisa to engage in battle; there (is) 

a region, by name, in Assyria — here they 

engaged in battle; Auramazda bore me aid; by the 
aid of Auramazda my army smote that rebellious 
army utterly; on the 15th day of the month Ana- 
maka, then it was thus the battle (was) fought by 

1 1. Says Darius the king a second time the rebel- 
lious ones having come together went against Vaumisa 
to engage in battle; there (is) a region Autiyara by 
name in Armenia — here they engaged in battle; 
Auramazda bore me aid; by the grace of Auramazda 

ihy army smote that rebellious army utterly; 

of the month Thuravahara thus the battle 


(was) fought by them; afterwards Vaumisa awaited me 
in Armenia until I came to Media. 

12. Says Darius the king afterwards I went from 
Babylon; I went away to Media; when I went to 
Media — there (is) a town Kudurus by name in Media 
— here this Fravartis (i. e., Phaortes) who called him- 
self king in Media went with (his) army against me to 
engage in battle; afterwards we engaged in battle; 
Auramazda bore me aid; by the grace of Auramazda 
I smote the army of Fravartis utterly; on the 26th 
day of the month Adukanis then it was we engaged 
in battle. 

I J. Says Darius the king afterwards this Fravartis 
with faithful ? horsemen — in that place (was) a region 
Raga by name in Media — here went; afterwards I 
sent forth my army against them; Fravartis was seized 
(and) led to me; I cut off (his) nose and ears and 

tongue, and to him I led; he was held 

bound at my court; the whole state saw him; after- 
wards I put (him) on a cross at Ecbatana, and what 
men were his foremost allies, these I threw within a 
prison at Ecbatana. 

14. Says Darius the king one man, Citra(n)takhma 
by name, a Sagartian, he became rebellious to me; 
thus he said to the state; I am king in Sagartia, of 
the family of Uvakhshatara; afterwards I sent forth 
the Persian and Median army; Takhmaspada by name, 
a Mede, my subject, him I made chief of them; thus 
I said to them; go, the rebellious army, which does 
not call itself mine, smite it; afterwards Takhmaspada 
went away with the army (and) engaged in battle 
with Citra(n)takhma; Auramazda bore me aid; by the 
grace of Auramazda my army smote that rebellious 
army utterly and seized Citra(n)takhma (and) brought 
(him) to me; afterwards I cut off his nose and ears, 
.and to him I led; he was held bound at mv 


•court; the whole state saw him; afterwards I put him 
on a cross in Arabia, 

15. Says Darius the king this (is) what (was) done 
by me in Media. 

16. Says Darius the king Parthia and Hyrcania 

of Fravartis called himself; 

Hystaspes my father army after- 
wards Hystaspes . . . allies town ... by name 

they engaged in battle thus 

the battle (was) fought by them. 



1. Says Darius the king afterwards I sent forth the 
Persian army to Hystaspes from Raga; when this 
army came to Hystaspes, afterwards Hystaspes with 
that army went away — there (is) a town Patigrabana 
by name in Parthia — here he engaged in battle with 
the rebellious ones; Auramazda bore me aid; by the 
grace of Auramazda Hystaspes smote that rebellious 
army utterly; on the first day of the month Garmapada 
then it was that thus the battle (was) fought by them. 

2. Says Darius the king afterwards it became my 
province; this (is) what (was) done by me in Parthia. 

3. Says Darius the king there (is) a region Margus 
by name; it became rebellious to me; one man Frada, 
a Margianian, him they made chief; afterwards I sent 
forth Dadarsis by name, a Persian, my subject, satrap 
in Bactria against him; thus I said to him: go, smite 
that army which does not call itself mine; afterwards 
Dadarsis with the army went away (and) engaged in 
battle with the Margianians; Auramazda bore me aid; 
by the grace of Auramazda my army smote that re- 
bellious army utterly; on the 23rd day of the month 
Atriyadiya then it was thus the battle (was) fought 
by them. 

4. Says Darius the king afterwards it became my 
province; this (is) what (was) done by me in Bactria. 

5. Says Darius the king one man Vahyazdata by 
name — there (is) a town Tarava by name; there (is) a 
region Yutiya by name in Persia — here halted; he a 
second time (i. e. , after Gaumata) rose up in Persia: 
thus he said to the state; I am Bardiya the son of 
Cyrus; afterwards the Persian army which (was) in 
clans departed from duty; it became estranged from 
me (and) went over to that Vahyazdata; he became 
king in Persia. 

6. Says Darius the king afterwards I sent forth the 


Persian and Median army which was by me; Artavar- 
diya by name, a Persian, my subject, him I made 
chief of them; the other Persian army went with (lit. 
after) me to Media; afterwards Artavardiya with the 
army went to Persia; when he came to Persia — there 
(is) a town Rakha by name in Persia — here this 
Vahyazdata who called himself Bardiya went with 
(his) army against Artavardiya to engage in battle; 
afterwards they engaged in battle; Auramazda bore 
me aid; by the grace of Auramazda my army smote 
that army of Vahyazdata utterly; on the 1 2th day of 
the month Xhuravahara then it was thus the battle 
(was) fought by them. 

7. Says Darius the king afterwards this Vahyazdata 
with faithful.? horsemen then went to Paishiyauvada; 
from thence he went with an army again against Arta- 
vardiya to engage in battle; there (is) a mountain 
Paraga by name — here they engaged in battle; Aura- 
mazda gave me aid; by the grace of Auramazda my 
army smote that army of Vahyazdata utterly; on the 
6th day of the month Garmapada then it was thus the 
battle (was) fought by them and they seized that 
Vahyazdata and what men were his foremost allies, 
they seized. 

8. Says Darius the king afterwards — there (is) a 
a town is Persia Uvadaidaya by name* — here, that 
Vahyazdata and what men were his foremost allies, 
them I put on a cross. 

9. Says Darius the king this Vahyazdata who called 
himself Bardiya he sent forth an army to Harauvatia 
— there (was) Vivana by name, a Persian, my subject, 
satrap in Harauvatis — against him (he sent an army) 

♦The reader has noticed the constant use of paratax. Instead of 
bringing the words of the sentence into syntax independent construc- 
tions are employed. In no other language is this loose arrangtment 
(which we must feel was original to speech) shown to better advantage 
than in the old Persian inscriptions. Cf. Grammar, 59, 


and one man he made chief of them; thus he said to 
them: go, smite that Vivana and that army which 
calls itself of Darius the king, afterwards this army, 
which Vahyazadata sent forth, went against Vivana, 
to engage in battle; there is a stronghold Kapisha- 
kanis by name — here they engaged in battle; Aura- 
mazda bore me aid; by the grace of Auramazda my 
army smote that rebellious army utterly; on the 13th 
day of the month Anamaka then it was thus the battle 
(was) fought by them. 

10. Says Darius the king again the rebellious ones 
having come together went against Vivana to engage 
in battle; there (is) a region Ga(n)dutava by name — 
here they engaged in battle; Auramazda bore me 
aid; by the grace of Auramazda my army smote that 
rebellious army utterly; on the 8th day of the month 
Viyakhna then it was thus the battle (was) fought by 

11. Says Darius the king afterwards this man, who 
was chief of that army which Vahyazdata sent against 
Vivana, this chief with faithful ? horseman went away 
— there (is) a stronghold Arshada by name in Harau- 
vatis — he went beyond thence; afterwards Vivana, with 
an army on foot went (against) them; here he seized 
him and what men were his foremost allies he slew. 

12. Says Darius the king afterwards the province 
became mine; this is what was done by me at Harau- 

13. Says Darius the king when I was in Persia and 
Media a second time the Babylonians became es- 
tranged from me; one man, Arakha by name, an 
Armenian son of Han(i*)dita,* he rose up in Babylon; 

♦The N in Handita as well as the N in Dubana conjecture has sup- 
plied. The combination of wedges in the cuneiform text resembles no 
other characters on the stone and perhaps is the sign for L which 
otherwise would be wanting in the Old Persian alphabet. I, however, 
feel that it is simply a careless writing of the nasal. 


there (is) a region, Duban(?)aby name — from there he 
rose up; thus he lied; I am Nabukudracara, the son of 
Nabunita; afterwards the Babylonian state became es- 
tranged from me (and) went over to that Arakha; he 
seized Babylon; he became king in Babylon. 

14. Says Darius the king afterwards I sent forth my 
army to Babylon; Vi(n)dafra by name, a Mede, my 
subject, him I made chief; thus I said to them; go, 
smite that army in Babylon which does not call itself 
mine; afterwards Vi(n)dafra with an army went to 
Babylon; Auramazda bore me aid; by the grace of 

Auramazda, Vi(n)dafra seized Babylon 

on the 2d day of the month then it was thus. . . 



1. Says Darius the king this (is) what was done by 
me in Babylon. 

2. Says Darius the king this (is) what I did; by the 
grace of Auramazda it was (done) wholly in (my) 
way;"^ after that the kings became rebellious I engaged 
in XIX battles; by the grace of Auramazda I smote 
themt and I seized IX kings; there was one, Gaumata 
by name, a Magian; he lied; thus he said; I am Bardiya 
the son of Cyrus; he made Persia rebellious; there 
(was) one, Atrina by name, in Uvaja; he lied; thus 
he said; I am king in Uvaja; he made Uvaja rebellious 
to me; there (was) one, Naditabira by name, a Baby- 
lonian; he lied; thus he said; I am Nabukudracara the 
son of Nabunita; he made Babylon rebellious; there 
(was) one, Martiya by name, a Persian; he lied; thus 
he said; I am Imanis king in Uvaja; he made Uvaja 
rebellious; there (was) one Fravartis byname, a Mede; 
he lied; thus he said; I am Khshathrita of the family 
of Uvakhshatara; he made Media rebellious; there 
(was) one, Citra(n)takhma by name, in Sagartia; he 
lied; thus he said; I am King in Sagartia, of the fam- 
ily of Uvakhshatara; he made Sagartia rebellious; there 
(was) one, Frada by name, a Margianian; he lied; thus 
he said; I am a king in Margus, he made Margus re- 
bellious; there (was) one, Vahyazdata by name, a 
Persian; he lied; thus he said; I am Bardiya the son 
of Cyrus; he made Persia rebellious; there (was) one, 
Arakha by name, an Armenian; he lied; thus he said; 
I am Nabukudracara the son of Nabunita; he made 
Babylon rebellious. 

*HAMAHYAYA TH«RDa is of doubtful intetpetation. Rawl suggested 
• 'the performance of the whole"; Oppert "dans toute ma vie; dans 
toute I'annie, toujours"; Spiegel "in aller Weiser." Many attempts 
have been made to connect tharda with the Sanskrit 9arad, autumn 
used in the Veda metaphorically for year. Cf . Grammar, 80, c. 

I Or smote theirs^ i. e., their forces. Cf. Grammar, 83, b. 


3- Says Darius the king these IX kings I seized 
within these battles. 

4. Says Darius the king these (are) the provinces 
which became rebellious; a lie made them* .... that 
these deceived the state; afterwards Auramazda made 
them in my hand; as desire (moved) me, thus 

5. Says Darius the king O thou who wilt be king in 
the future, protect thyself strongly from deceit; what- 
ever man will be a deceiver, him punish well (lit. him 
well punished punish. Cf. , 1. 8), if thus thou shalt 
think **may my country be firm." 

6. Says Darius the king this (is) what I did; by the 
grace of Auramazda I did (it) wholly in (my) way;t 
O thou who shalt examine this inscription in the 
future, let it convince thee (as to) what (was) done by 
me; do not deceive thyself. 

7. Says Darius the king Auramazda (is) a witness.? 
that this (is) true (and) not false (which) I did wholly 
in my way.| 

8. Says Darius the king by the grace of Auramazda 

(what) else (was) done by me to a 

great extent, that (is) not inscribed on this inscription; 
for this reason it (is) not inscribed lest whoever will 

examine this inscription in the future 

it may not convince him (as to) what (was) done by 
me (and) he may think (it) false. § 

9. Says Darius the king who were the former kings, 
by these nothing (was) done to a great extent as (was) 

*Perhaps we can supply with Spiegel hamitriya a He made them 

fCf. IV. 2. 

XQi. IV. 2. 

§Although much has become obliterated yet we have enough to 
enable us to gain the sense of the passage. The idea is: should I 
write the memorial of all my achievements, they would be so many 
that men would lose faith in the testimony of this stone. 


performed* wholly by me through the grace of Aura- 

10. Says Darius the king let it convince 

thee (as to) what (was) done by me; thus 

for this reason do not hide (this monument); if thou 
shalt not hide this monument (but) tell (it) to the state, 
may Auramazda be a friend to thee and may there be 
to thee a family abundantly and live thou long. 

11. Says Darius the king if thou shalt hide this mon- 
ument (and) not tell (it) to the state, may Auramazda 
be a smiter to thee and may there not be to thee a 

12. Says Darius the king this (is) what I did wholly 
in (my) way;t by the grace of Auramazda I did (it); 
Auramazda bore me aid and the other gods which are. 

13. Says Darius the king for this reason Auramazda 
bore me aid and the other gods which are, because I 
was not an enemy, I was not a deceiver, I was not a 

despot family above law, above me 

I did that whoever for me 

helped those belonging to my race, him well supported 
I supported; whenever. . . '. him well pun- 
ished I punished. 

14. Says Darius the king O thou who art king in 

the future, whatever man shall be a deceiver 

shall be (be) not a friend to these; punish 

these with severe punishment. 

15. Says Darius the king O thou who shalt see this 
inscription in the future which I inscribed or these 
pictures, thou shalt not destroy (them) J as long as 
thou shalt live; thus guard them. 

*Cf. IV. 2, but here THaRDa fails to appear. 

fCf. IV. 2. 

JOld Persian yava. ..Fflr das auffallige — a scheinen mir und zwei 
mOglichkeiten offen: es konnte yava nach abfall des t als flectierbarer 
a-stamm vom sprachgeftihl aufgefasst an das femininum t^uma sich 
formell anschliessen (mit einbusse der conjunctionalen bedeutung), 


l6. Says Darius the king if thou shalt see this in- 
scription or these pictures (and) shalt not destroy 
them and shalt guard them for me as long as (thy) 
family shall be, may Auramazda be a friend to thee 
and may there be to thee a family abundantly and live 
thou long and whatever thou shalt do, this for thee 
(let) Auramazda let him grant thy prayers. 

19. Says Darius the king if thou shalt see this 
inscription or these pictures (and) shalt destroy them 
and shalt not guard them for me as long as (thy) fam- 
ily shall be, may Auramazda be a smiter to thee and 
may there not be to thee a family and whatever thou 
shalt do this let Auramazda destroy for thee. 

18. Says Darius the king these (are) the men who 
were there then when I slew Gaumata the Magian who 
called himself Bardiya; then these men co-operated as 
my allies; Vi(n)dafranaby name, the son of Vayaspara, 
a Persian; Utana by name, the son of Thukhra, a Per- 
sian; Gaubaruva by name, the son of Marduniya, a 
Persian; Vidarna by name, the son of Magabigna, a 
Persian; Bagabukhsha by name, the son of Daduhya, 
a Persian; Ardumanis by name, the son of Vahauka, 
a Persian. 

19. Says Darius the king O thou who art king in the 
future, what what Darius 

I did. 

Oder es hat nach analogic von yfl-tha, yata {,,bis, warend")und andern 
auf -a ausleutenden conjunctionen selbst langen auslaut erhalten. 

Wenn allerdings Bh. IV, 71 yava ji[vahy ] zu lesen ist, so bleibt 
die zweite erklarung allein iibrig. Die gegenseitige beeinflussung von 
partikeln bietet nichts auilallendes: es kann avSV? (Brugmann Griech. 
Gramm. §200) neben avev, ngr. avtU neben avtiy Torffneben 
tore u. a. nach analogic von yUfjpi-^ etc., sowieiiberhauptdasum- 
Bichgreifen des auslautenden -s in griech. partikeln {OVtOD-<sy 00? y 
etc.) verglichen werden." (A. T.) 

J. Schmidt explains yava as neuter plural (172). 



I. Says Darius the king this (is) what I did 


king province; this became 

estranged from me; one man ..imina by name; the 
(people) of Uvaja made him chief; afterwards I sent 
forth (my) army to Uvaja; one man Gaubaruva by 
name, a Persian, my subject, him I made chief of 
them; afterwards this Gaubaruva with an army went 
to Uvaja; he engaged in battle with the rebellious 

ones; afterwards 

and to him 

he seized and led to 

me provmce 

thus it 

2. Says Darius the king 

Auramazda by the grace of 

Auramazda I did. 

3. Says Darius the king whoever in the future .... 

4. Says Darius the King I 

went against Saka 

Tigris to the sea 

I seized the enemy to 

Saku(n)ka by name, him I seized 

there another as chief 


5. Says Darius the king not 

Auramazda if by the grace of Auramazda 

I did. 


6. Says Darius the king worship? Auramazda 

Kossowicz remarks: "Notatu dignum, omnium, quantum scio, im- 
peratorum, qui armorum vi atque gloria celebres extiterant, nisi 
duo, Darium Hystaspi nerape et Napoleonem I — mum, commilitonum 
nomina; victorias suas recensendo, in publicis monumentis memoriae 
tradidisse. ' * 


The Smaller Inscriptions of Behistan. 


I (am) Darius, the great king, king of kings, king of 
Persia, king of the countries, the son of Hystaspes, the 
grandson of Arshama, the Achaemenide. Says Darius 
the king my father (is) Hystaspes, the father of Hystas- 
pes (is) Arshama, the father of Arshama (is) Ariyaram- 
na, the father of Ariyaramna (is) Caispis, the father of 
Caispis (is) Achaemenes. Says Darius the king there- 
fore we are called Achaemenides; from long ago we 
have extended; from long ago our family have been 
kings. Says Darius the king VUI of my family (there 
were) who were formerly kings; I am the ninth IX; in- 
dividually we are kings. 


This Gaumata the Median lied; thus he said; I am 
Bardiya, the son of Cyrus; I am king. 



This Atrina lied; thus he said; I am king in Uvaja. 



This Naditabiralied; thus he said; I am Nabuk(u)- 
dracara, the son of Nabunita; I am king in Babylon. 



This Fravartis lied; thus he said; I am Khshathrita 
of the family of Uvakhshatara; I am king in Media. 

♦Cf. I. 1-4. 



This Martiya lied; thus he said; I am Imanis, king- 
in Uvaja. 


This Citra(n)takhma lied; thus he said; I am king 
in Sagartia, of the family of Uvakhshatara. 



This Vahyazdata lied; thus he said; I am Bardiya, 
the son of Cyrus; I am king. 



This Arakha lied; thus he said; I am Nabuk(u)dra- 
cara, the son of Nabunita; I am king in, Babylon. 



This Frada lied; thus he said; I am king in Margus. 



This (is) Saku(n)ka, the Sakian. 

*Herodotus mentions the high cap which was peculiar to the garb 
of the Sakians. It is interesting to note that the figure lis represented 
on the stone wearing this national head-dress. 


The Inscription of Alvend. (O.) 


This inscription is engraven upon two niches on a 
large block of stone near the base of Mt. Alvend. Not 
only is the monumental fame of Darius perpetuated 
by the Behistan mountain, but in different parts of the 
Persian empire this monarch caused to be inscribed 
historic records of his reign. At Persepolis the pal- 
aces declare the name of their founder and his prayers 
for the protection of heaven. To Darius beyond all 
others we are indebted for what we have of the Paleo- 
graphy of Persia. 


A great God (is) Auramazda who created this earth, 
who created yonder heaven,* who created man, who 
created thet spirit? of man, who made Darius king, 
one king of many, one lord of many. I (am) Darius 
the great king, king of kings, king of the countries 
possessing many kinds of people, king of this great 
earth far and wide, the son of Hystaspes, the Achae- 

*AsMAN {heaven) is literally a stone as we know from its cognate in 
Sanskrit. Probably the Persians regarded the sky as a solid dome; 
cf. the Hebrew word raqi(a) (Gen. I, 8.) and our firmament (firma- 

f The old Persian shiyatis is the Avest. shaiti. The Assyrian trans- 
lates the word by dumqu ' 'blessing. ' ' But cf . Fick, idg. Wb. I' 233, 
and J. Schmidt Plur. d. idg. Ntr. 418. 

The Inscriptions of Suez. (SZ.) 


A crowned head is carved upon the stone together 
with the following legend: 


Darius the great king; king of kings, king of the 
countries, the son of Hystaspes, the Achaemenide. 

Above are a dozen lines of Persian cuneiform text 
the translation of which follows: 


A great god (is) Auramazda, who created yonder 
heaven, who created this earth, who created man, 
who created the spirit*? of man, who made Darius 
king, who gave the kingdom to Darius; what great 

I (am) Darius the great king, king of kings, king of the 
countries possessing many people, king of this great 
earth far and wide, son of Hystaspes, the Achaemen- 
ide. Says Darius the king I am a Persian; with (the 
help of) Persia I seized Egypt; I commanded to dig 
this canal, t from the Nile by name a river which flows 
in Egypt, to the sea which goes from Persia; after- 
wards this canal was dug there as I commanded .... 

»Cf. note under (O). 
tCf. Herodotus, IV. 39. 


The Inscription of London, 


The following short inscription can be seen in the 
British Museum on a cylinder which furnishes a fine 
specimen of gem engraving. A warrior in his chariot 
is represented as attacking at full speed a lion,* the 
symbol of power. This warrior from his crown we 
can interpret as King Darius. ,He holds his bow 
ready for action, while the charioteer urges on the 
steeds. This cylinder was carried to England from 


I (am) Darius the king. 

*On the Persian sculptures, the lion and bull occur often, as em- 
blems of strength. Metaphors of this kind are frequent in all oriental 
literature. In making a list of the epithets of the god Indra in the 
Veda, one is struck with the repeated comparisons of this sort. How- 
ever, the Vedic poets drew from the stall as the most fertile source of 
metaphors, and it was the later Sanskrit which used the beasts of the 
forest more extensively for that purpose, (e. g. , the tiger of men, etc. ) 
In Biblical literature the reader is referred to Ezekiel i. lo. "As for 
the likeness of their faces, they four had the faces of man, and the 
face of a lion on the right side.'* Daniel vii. 4. "The first was like 
a lion and had eagles' wings." The familiar national emblems of 
later date, the Roman eagle, the British lion, etc., all had their origin 
in this early conception. 

«F run 


143 ^N..£^H£0^^ 

The Inscriptions of Darius at Persepolis. 

(PERSIAN, [median, ASSYRIAN.]) 

The inscriptions of Persepolis show that same spirit 
of patriotism which characterizes the record on Mt. 
Behistan. The superiority of Persia over the pro- 
vinces of the empire is set forth by the monarch with 
the purpose of elevating the feelings of his country- 
men and of keeping alive ever in their hearts the 
love of country. The palace of Darius shows the 
ruins of several departments with external chambers 
which were evidently guard-rooms. The roof of a 
large room, fifty feet square, was supported by pillars, 
the bases of which remain to-day. This edifice is 
one of those ruins which represent the combined work 
of several successive Achaemenian kings. All the 
structures stand upon the same platform around which 
are great walls of hewn stone. Two inscriptions are 
found above the wall and one on two pillars, which 
read as follows: 




The great Auramazda, who (is) the greatest of the 
gods, he made Darius king; he gave to him the king- 
dom; by the grace of Auramazda Darius (is) king. 
Says Darius the king this (is) the country Persia 
which Auramazda gave me, which, beautiful, posses- 
sing good horses, possessing good men, by the grace 
of Auramazda and (by the achievements) of me 
Darius the king, does not fear an* enemy. (.?) Says 
Darius the king let Auramazda bear me aid with (his) 
fellow gods and let Auramazda protect this country 
from an army, from misfortune, from deceit; may not 
an enemy .... come unto this country, nor an army, 

*0r, THE Other (i. e., Ahriman). Cf. note to (I). 


nor misfortune nor deceit; this I pray of Auramazda 
.... with (his) fellow gods; this let Auramazda give 
me with (his) fellow gods. 


I (am) Darius the great king, king of kings, king 
of many countries, the son of Hystaspes, the Achae- 
menide. Says Darius the king by the grace of 
Auramazda these (are) the provinces which I subdued 
with (the help of) that Persian army, (and) which 
feared me (and) brought to me tribute; Uvaja, Media, 
Babylon, Arabia, Assyria, Egypt, Armenia, Cap- 
padocia, Sparda, Ionia, which (are) of the dry (land) 
(and) which (are) of the sea, and the provinces which 
(are) in the east, Sagartia, Parthia, Zara(n)ka, Har- 
aiva, Bactria, Sugda, Uvarazamiya, Thatagus, Harau- 
vatis, India, Ga(n)dara, Saka, Maka. Says Darius 
the king if thus thou shalt think **may I not fear an 
enemy,"* protect this Persian state; if the Persian 
state shall be protected, may this goddess (namely) 
this spirit (of patriotism) for a long time unharmed^ 
descend upon this race. 



Darius the great king, king of kings, king of the 
countries, the son of Hystapes, the Achaemenide, 
who built this palace. ' 

* Dr. Julius Oppert understood the Old Persian word ANiYd: (other) 
to be the only notion of ah rim an found in the inscriptions. He ar- 
gued that the word ANiYa never means "enemy:" The prayer he 
translated ' ' The good Principle, which has always destroyed the 
Hater (DUvaisaTaM) will descend on this house." 

The Inscription on the Tomb of Darius. (NR.) 


Naqshi — Rustam is the burial place of Darius. 

On the face of a mountain which rises to the per- 
pendicular height of 900 feet are cut the excavations 
which are doubtless tombs. These relics have a com- 
mon external appearance. They are carved into the 
rock fourteen feet deep in the form of a cross, the 
upright section of which is about ninety feet, the 
transverse division about fifty feet. Four pilasters 
about seven feet apart ornament the transverse sec- 
tion, in the midst of which is the door of the tomb. 
On the division above the fa9ade of this sepulchre 
are the sculptures. A double row of fourteen figures 
supports two cornices. Two bulls form the pillars at 
each end of the upper cornice. On an elevated ped- 
estal of three steps stands a figure dressed in a flow- 
ing robe, holding his bow in his left hand. Without 
doubt this is the effigy of him who lies buried be- 
neath. Opposite the standing form, on a pedestal 
of three steps, is an altar, upon which the sacred fire 
is burning, while above is a disk, probably represent- 
ing the sun, of which the fire blazing at the shrine is 
the symbol. Above is the image of Auramazda. One 
of these structures Ker-Porter visited, and with great 
difficulty explored its interior. Although he was not 
able to read the inscription, yet he conjectured that 
this was the tomb of Darius. I quote him at this 
point. **The second tomb is the only one whereon 
the m.arks of an inscription can be traced; but over 
the whole tablet of the upper compartment letters 
are visible wherever they could be introduced; above 
the figures, between them and the altar, along the 
side, from top to bottom; in short, everywhere we see 
it covered with the arrow-headed characters and in 
good preservation. What a treasure of information 


doubtless is there to the happy man who can de- 
cipher it. It was tantalizing to a painful degree to 
look at such a sealed book in the very spot of mys- 
tery, where probably its contents would explain all. 
But it certainly is a very distinguishing peculiarity 
of this tomb that it alone should contain any inscrip- 
tion, and that the writing on it is so abundant; a cir- 
cumstance that might warrant the supposition of this 
being the tomb that was cut by the express orders of 
Darius Hystaspes to receive his remains." (Travels 
in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, ancient Babylonia, etc., 
etc., by Sir Robert Ker-Porter, vol. I, p. 523.) 

Before translating the inscription I wish to call the 
attention of the reader to Herod. Ill, 88. 


A great god is Auramazda, who created this earth, 
who created yonder heaven, who created man, who 
created the spirit* of man, who made Darius king, 
one king of many, one lord of many. I (am) Darius the 
great king, king of kings, king of the countries possess- 
ing many kinds of people, king of this great earth far 
and wide, son of Hystaspes the Achaemenide, a Per- 
sian, the son of a Persian: an Aryan, an Aryan off- 
spring. Says Darius the king by the grace of Aura- 
mazda these (are) the provinces which I seized afarf 
from Persia; I ruled them; they brought tribute to me 

what was commanded to them by 

me, this they did; the law which (is) mine that was 
established; Media, Uvaja, Parthia, Haraiva, Bactria, 
Suguda, Uvarazamis, Zara(n)ka Harauvatis, Thatagus, 
Ga(n)dara, India, Sakae, Humavarkae, Sakae Tigrak- 
haudae, Babylon, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, 

*Cf. note to (O). 
f Or, EXCEPT Persia. 


Cappadocia, Sparda, Ionia, Sakae]beyond the sea, the 
lonians wearing long hair* Patians Kusians, Macians, 
Karkians. Says Darius the king Auramazda when he 

saw this earth afterwards gave 

it to me; he made me king; I am king; by the grace 
of Auramazda I established it on (its) foundation; 
what I commanded to them, this they did as desire 
came to (lit. was) me. If perchance thou shalt think 
that manifold (lit. a manifold thing) are these provinces 
which Darius the king held, look at the picture (of 
those) who are bearing my throne, t in order that 
thou mayest know them; then to thee will be the 
knowledge (that) the spear of a Persian man hath 
gone forth afar; then to thee will be the knowledge 
(that) a Persian man waged battle far from Persia. 
Says Darius the king this (is) what (was) done; all 
this by the grace of Auramazda I did; Auramazda 
bore me aid until this was done, let Auramazda pro- 
tect me from and my race and this 

country; this I pray of Auramazda; this let Auramazda 
give me. O man, what (are) the commands of Aura- 
mazda, may he (make them) revealed to thee; do not 
err; do not leave the right path, do not sin.ij: 

*Cf. the Homeric KaptjKOJ^GJOvreS. 

fThe northern throne of the great palace contains five tiers of ten 
warriors supporting the platform on which the king is represented sit- 
ting, surrounded by his attendants. 

JCf. Bartholomae Bezz. Beitr. X. 269, and Kern (ZDMG. XXIII, 
222). For meaning of. ma STaRaya, cf . Melanges, Asiat. Ill, 344. 
Thumb (Zeitschrift fiir vgl. Sprachforsch, 1891) translates ,,0 
mensch! lass dir die lehre des Auramazda gesagt sein. Verabscheue 
sie iiicht den richtigen weg (d. h, die lehre des A.), beflecke ihn 
nicht. " I quote an extract, 

"Zunachst halte ich dieerklarung von gaista: als,,stinkend — wider- 
wSrtig" wegen der raerkwurdigen bedeutungsiibertragung insethische 
fiir unwahrscheinlich und ziehedie von selbst sich aufdrangende zuge- 
horigkeit zu ai. gad ,,sagen, sprechen" vor. Kern hat dies schon 
langst gesehen und in dem worte das part, auf -ta erkannt; aber bei 
einem transitiven verbum durch die annahme medialer bedeutung 



A great god (is) Auramazda who 

made spirit ? of man 

above Darius the king 

Says Darius the king 

by the grace of Auramazda 

... .is violence 

jenes verbaladjectivs den activen sinn ,,(er) hat gesagt" herauszu- 
bringen, ist nicht weniger gezwungen. g^?sta ist regelmassiges passives 
particip und muss mit hya zusammenconstruiert werden, welches ich 
als optativ der copula (*siet) fasse. Es istdaher zu iibersetzen: ,,m6ge 
dir gesagt sein die lehre des Auramazda," ,,lass dir gasagt sein, " 
d. h. ,,halte fest an- ... ". Einen optativ hat in hya schon Bopp 
(Lautsystem d. apers. p. 149) vermutet, wenn auch seine weitere 
erklarung eine ganz andere, verfehlte ist. Wir gewinnen durch die 
von uns vorgeschlagene constructionsweise eine genaue parallele zu J. 
22 f. hya duv^/istrt'm shiyatis akhsata: in beiden fallen ist hya von dem 
nachfolgenden passiven particip getrennt und das subject in die mitte 
genommen; nurder gebrauch des optativs ist verschieden. An unserer 
stelle bezeichnet er den einer aufforderung fast gleichkommenden 

Eine gewisse wahrscheinlichkeit, dass hya das pronomen hy^; nicht 
sein kann, sehe ich in dem umstand, dass mit ausnahme des einen 
hya amakh(7m t.7uma (in gleicher v^^iederholung Bh. I 8 und A 12) die 
verbindung hy^ + genetiv+ substantiv durchaus ungewQnlich ist. (Ein 
solches hya (oder tya) is dagagen beliebt zv^^ischen subst. und nachfol- 
genden gen. Bh. I, 85. 89. 95. II, 69. Ill, 38 Bh. I, 69. 71. II, 
27- 35-40. 46. 55.) 

Die positiv ausgedriickte aufforderung wird mit den folgenden in- 
junctiven nochmals in negativer form wiederholt. Die alte erklarung 
von ma thadaya ist nun natiirlich unmoglich gewordeu; es ist die 2. 
pers sing, des injunctivs wie die folgenden formen auch. Ich ziehe 
th'd zur ai. wurzel ^ad. ,,abfallen" und sehe dieselbe wurzel im ger- 
man, hatjan ,,hassen", fiir das man meines wissens noch keine an- 
knupfung in den vervvandten sprachen gefunden hat (s. Kluge, Etym. 
Wb. s. v.). Die bedeutungsentwicklung ist,, abf alien, verwerfen, ver 
abscheuen, hassen ' ' An imserer stelle haben wir die wahl zu tiber- 
setzen ,,falle nicht ab" oder , , verabscheue nicht". Im letzern fall© 
bildet ap. thad den tibergang in der bedeutungsentwicklung von ai. 
pcd zu german. hassen. Die zweite bedeutung ..verabscheuen" darf 
auf grand des durch die medische tibersetzung festge&tellten sinns 


As this volume goes to press an article (published 
in 1893) comes from the pen of the distinguished 
scholar Hiibschmann. He insists on "iibel" as the 
signification of Ga^^Ta (NRa) against Thumb's argu- 
ment (published in 1891) which I have quoted at some 
length on p. 147. I add a few extracts. 

" Auf diese erklarung Kern's greift nun A. Thumb 
zuriick, ohne die griinde, die fiir Spiegel's deutung 
sprechen, zu erwagen. Diese griinde aber sind durch- 
aus stichhaltig und werfen Thumb's erklarung um. 
GaS>Ta ist in der keilschrift 2. gattung durch ein wort 

iibersetzt, das fruher siyiuiika, von Oppert 

visnika, von Weisbach niiisJuiika gelesen wird, 

dessen bedeutung aber nicht zweifelhaft ist 

und sein aequivalent im Babylonischen text ist bi-i-shi, 
das ,,bose" bedeutet."^ 

Wie mit Oa'$r\:a, steht es auch mit TY^axyaYa; die alte 

erklilrungt ist die richtige Meine iibersetzung 

lautete: O mensch, der befehl des Ahuramazda, er soil 
dir nicht iibel erscheinen." t 

*BiSHU seems to render into x\ssyrian the Persian arika (ARr?^^?) 

fi. e., As an augmentless imperfect third singular (Cf. Grammar 
95B.) and connected with Avestan s^m "seem". 

:j:Cf. Oppert' s translation of the Median "homo quae est Oromazis 
doctrina, ilia tibi mala ne videatur". Also cf. translation of the 
Median given in foot note on p. 149. 


Gaubaruva, a Patisuvarian, spear-bearer of Darius 
the king. 


Aspacana, quiver-bearer?, a server of the arrows of 
Darius the king. 


This (is) a Macian. 

vorgezogen werden, warend ich andererseits die richtigheit meiner 
erklarung der ganzen stelle mit der med. und assyr. iibersetzung mehr 
in iibereinstimmung finde als die friihere interpretation: Med. quae 
Oromazdis doctrina earn ne malam putes. Assyr. ,,was Ormuzd be- 
fiehlt, lehne dich nicht dagogen auf" (Bezold). 

Fiir ma starava scheint mir weder Bollensens iibersetzung ,,falle 
nicht ab" noch Bartholoraae's ahnliche ,,verliere, verlasse nicht den 
pfad" geniigend von den vorhergehended aufforderungen sich abzu- 
heben, und ich haltedaherBartholomae's zweiten vorschlag ,,beflecke 
ihn (den pfad) nicht'' (zu avest. a-star«ieti) fiir richtiger." For 
Thumbs' connection between O. P. thad and Skt. fad, cf. Brugmann, 
Grunde. I, 397. 






A great god (is) Auramazda who created this earth, 
who created yonder heaven, who created man, who 
created the spirit? of man, who created Xerxes king, 
one king of many, one lord of many. I (am) Xerxes 
the great king, king of kings, king of the countries, pos- 
sessing many kinds of people, king of this great earth 
far and wide, the son of Darius the king, the Achae- 
menide. Says Xerxes the great king by the .grace of 
Auramazda, this entrance possessing all countries I 
made; much else (that is) beautiful (was) done by* this 
Persian (people) which I did and which my father did; 
whatever (that has been) done seems beautiful, all 
that we did by the grace of Auramazda. Says Xer- 
xes the king let Auramazda protect me and my king- 
dom and what (was) done by me and what (was) 
done by my father, (all) this let Auramazda protect. 


Xerxes the great king, king of kings, the son of 
Darius the king, the Achaemenide. 

*I have followed the old interpretation, (Cf. Oppert, Journal Aslat 
XIX, 177 "avec cette Perse, aid^ par ce peuple Perse"). If wo 
can regard ana as the equivalent of the Avest. prep, ana (of. Gr. ava) 
we can translate "through Persia" (Parsa being the instr. sing, or bet- 
ter ace. plr.; Cf. Grammar, 86, B. Note i.) Cf. Zeitschrift ftlr ver- 
glelcbende Sprachforschung. p. 127 [1891]). 



A great god (is) Auramazda who created this earth, 
who created yonder heaven, who created man, who 
created the spirit? of man,, who made Xerxes king, 
one king of many, one lord of many. I (am) Xerxes 
the great king, king of kings, king of the provin^ 
ces possessing many kinds of people, king of this great 
earth far and wide, son of Darius the king, the Achae- 
menide. Says Xerxes the great king by the grace of 
Auramazda this palace (lit. seat) I made; let Aura- 
mazda protect me with the gods and my kingdom and 
what (was) done by me. 


The above inscription is repeated on the western 
stairs of the palace, 



A great god (is) Auramazda who created this earth, 
who created yonder heaven, who created man, who 
created the spirit ? of man, who made Xerxes king, 
one king of many, one lord of many. I (am) Xerxes 
the great king, king of kings, king of the provinces 
possessing many kinds of people, king of this great 
earth far and wide, son of Darius the king, the Achae- 
menide. Says Xerxes the great king by the grace of 
Aura* Mazda this palace (lit. seat) Darius the king 
made who (was) my father; let Auramazda protect 
me with the gods and what (was) done by my father 
Darius the king, (all) this let Auramazda protect with 
the gods. 

* Notice that the two members of the compound are separated. CI 
Original Text of the Inscriptions. 



The above inscription is repeated upon the walls of 
the southern stairs. 


A great god (is) Auramazda who created this earth, 
who created yonder heaven, who created man, who 
created the spirit ? of man, who made Xerxes king, 
one king of many, one lord of many. I (am) Xerxes 
the great king, king of kings, king of the provinces 
possessing many kinds of people, king of this great 
earth far and wide, the son of Darius the king, the 
Achaemenide. Says Xerxes the great king what (was) 
done by me here and what (was) done by me afar, all 
this I did by the grace of Auramazda; let Aura- 
mazda protect me with the gods and my kingdom and 
what (was) done by me. 


The Inscription of Xerxes at Alvend. 



The following inscription is engraven upon two 
niches cut into a small rock: 


A great god (is) Auramazda, who (is) greatest of 
the gods, who created this earth, who created yonder 
heaven, who created man, who created the spirit ? of 
man, who made Xerxes king, one king of many, one 
lord of many. I (am) Xerxes the great king, king of 
kings, king of the provinces possessing many kinds of 
people, king of this great earth far and wide, the son 
of Darius the king, the Achaemenide, 


The Inscription upon the Vase of Count Caylus. 



This vase contains the three customary forms of 
cuneiform writing and a line of Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics. The relic is preserved in Paris. Four 
fragments of similar alabaster vases containing the 
same quadrilingual inscription have been found by W. 
K. Loftus in Susa, and are to be seen to-day in the 
British Museum. 


I (am) Xerxes, the great king. 


The Inscription at Van. 


This inscription is about sixty feet from the plain 
below, engraven upon a niche in an enormous rock 
which rises to the perpendicular height of one hundred 


A great god (is) Auramazda who (is) the greatest 
of [the gods, who created this earth, who created 
yonder heaven, who created man, who created the 
spirit? of man, who made Xerxes king, one king of 
many, one lord of many. I (am) Xerxes the great king, 
king of kings, king of the provinces possessing many 
kinds of people, king of this great earth far and wide, 
the son of Darius the king, the Achaemenide. Says 
Xerxes the king, Darius, the king who (was) my father, 
he by the grace of Auramazda did what (was) beautiful 
to a great extent, and he commanded to carve this 

place ? he did not make the inscriptions inscribed; 

afterwards I commanded to inscribe this inscription; 
(let Auramazda protect me with the gods and my 
kingdom and what (has been) done by me.*) 

^Supplied from the Assyrian version. 




This inscription, which is quadrilingual is engraven 
upon a vase which is preserved in the treasury of St. 
Mark's at Venice. 


Artaxerxes,* the great king. 

*The cuneiform text spells the name of the monarch on the vase 
ARDAKHCASHCA. This spelling must be due either to foreign pronun- 
ciation or to the ignorance of the workman. Elsewhere the cunei- 
form characters given the regular artakhshatra. Cf. Original 
Text of the Inscriptions. 






(This) lofty stone structure (has been) made by (one 
belonging to) the race of Darius the king.^ 

*The Median and Assyrian translate the last of this legend "in the 
house of Darius the king." 




This inscription is upon the base of one of the col- 
umns in the ruins of what once must have been a great 
palace. Much of this building was used for the pave- 
ment of other edifices by the races which in after time 
possessed this spot. 



I (am) Artaxerxes, the great king, king of kings, 
the son of Darius* the king. 



This palace seems to have been fashioned after the 
model of that of Darius at Persepolis. In connection 
with this edifice it is interesting to refer to Dan. viii. 
2. **And it came to pass when I saw, that I was in 
Susa (or Shushan) in the palace," etc. 


Says Artaxerxes the great king, king of kings, 
king of the countries, king of the earth, the son of 
Darius the king; Darius (was) the son of Artaxerxes 
the king; Artaxerxes (was) the son of Xerxes the 
king: Xerxes (was) the son of Darius the king; Darius 
(was) the son of Hystaspes, the Achaemenide; this 

building Darius, my ancestor made 

Artaxerxes (my) grandfather Anakata 

and Mithra by the grace of Auramazda the 

building I made; let Auramazda, Anahata and Mithra 
protect me 

♦Cf. Grammar, 24. DARaYava(H)usH (Darius) although having a stem 
in u is treated like nouns whose stems end in a. So in Prakrit there 
is a strong tendency for the so-called first declension to trespass upon 
the others, thus breaking down the barriers which were observed by 
the Sanskrit. 






A great god (is) Auramazda who created this earth, 
who created yonder heaven, who created man, who 
created the spirit? of man, who made me, Artaxerxes, 
king, one king of many, one lord of many. Says 
Artaxerxes the great king, king of kings, king of 
countries, king of the earth. I (am) the son of Arta- 
xerxes, the king; Artaxerxes (was) the son of Darius 
the king; Darius (was) the son of Artaxerxes the 
king; Artaxerxes (was) the son of Xerxes the king; 
Xerxes (was) the son of Darius the king; Darius was 
the son of Hystaspes by name; Hystaspes was the son 
of Arshama by name, the Achaemenide. Says Artax- 
erxes the king this lofty stone structure (was) made 
by me during my reign (lit. under me). Says Artax- 
erxes the king let Auramazda and the god Mithra 
protect me and this country and what (was) done by 






Arsaces by name, son of Athiyabaushana. 




For the sake of convenience in comparison, the same method of 
transliteration is adopted for Sanskrit and Avestan words as for Old 


A, — prefix, to. Skt., a; Avest. , a; Lat. a(?) 'from'. 
(For postpositive a, cf. Bezz. Beitr. XIII.) 

Ai, — pron. root in ait<2, aiv<^. 

Ait<7, — n. pr., this, that. Skt. et^t; Avest., aet^d; 
Lat., iste; Goth., thata; Eng., that. 

K\na, — name of the father of Naditabira. 

Aiv^, — one. Skt., ek^; Avest., aev<^. 

Autiyar^, — name of a country in Armenia. 

Aur^ or A(h)ur^, — i) m., master, ruler) 2) f., god- 
dess. Skt., asur^; Avest., ahur^. 

Aur^m^zda or A(h)ur^m^zda, — the name of the 
greatest deity. Aur^, see above; m^izda, com- 
pound of m^z, great: Skt., m^h^t; Lat., mag- 
nus; Goth., mag; AS., magan; Eng., might; and 
da, give: Skt., da; Avest., da; Lat., do: or da, 

Akhsh, — to see, Skt., akshi; Lat., oc-ulus. (Cf. 
Paul Kretschmer in Zitsch. fiir vergl. Sprach- 
forsch, p. 432 [1 891]). 

— with p^ti, to oversee, rule. 

Akhsh^ta,- — whole, entire, perfect. Fern, of an ad- 
jective, akhsh^t^. Skt., aksh<3:t^. 

1 64 

Ag^ta, — nomen 2igQr\t\s', coiner^ frtend{}). Cf. g^m. 

Aj(?), — drive, do. Skt., aj; Lat., ago. (It is pos- 
sible to refer 3.]ata to j^n, smite.) 

Atiy, — yerhsX^r&^i'K, beyo7td, across. Skt. . ati; Lat., 
et; Old German, anti(.?); Germ., und(.?); Eng. , 

Ath<3:(n)g^in<3;, — stony ^ built of stone, 

Athura, — Assyria. 

Atrin<3;, — proper name. 

Atriyadiy<^, — name of a month. 

Ad(^, — then, thereupon. 

Ad<^k<a:iy, — then. 

Ad<^m, — /. Skt., ah^m; Avest., azem; Lat., ego; 
Goth., ik; AS., ik or I; Eng., L (For kh in 
amakham, cf. idg. Forschungen, p. i86 [1892]; 
for position of m^iy and mam, cf. Wachernagel, 
Uber ein Gesetz der idg. Wortstell, ibid.). 

Aduk^nish. — name of a month. 

An^^h^t^, — Genius of the waters. 

Anam<3:k<3;. — name of a month. 

Aniy<^, — i) indef. pron., another] 2) enemy} Skt.^ 
a.nya; Avest., any a. 

Anuv, — prep, with loc, along, by. Skt., anu. 

Anushiy^, — follower. See anuv and shiyu; cf. Lat., 
comes (con-eo). 

A(n)t^r, — prep, with diCc, within, in. Skt, ant^r; 
Avest., ant<3:re; Lat., inter; Goth., undar. 

Ap<2, — verbal prefix, /r(?;;/. Skt., ap<3:; Avest., ap^; 
Lat., ab; Goth., af; Eng., of. 

Ap^t^r^, — remote, another. Comparative of ap^-. 


Ap^dan^, — work^ temple^ building. 

Ap^^nyak^, — ancestor. 

Ap<3:r^m, — adv., afterward. 

Ap^riy, — near by. 

Api, — zvater. Skt., ap; Avest. , ap. 

Apiy, — to, also. Skt., api; Avest., api. 

Abac<3;rish, — commerce. 

Ab^shta, — law. 

Abiy, — prep, with ace, to, against. Skt., abhi; 
Avest., aibiy; Lat., ob(.?), ambi. 

Abish, — prep, with loc, by, at. 

Amuth^, — there, then. Skt., amutr^. 

Kya<\aVia, — ace. pi., ay<^d<^na, sanctuaries, homes. 

Ay^sta, — adv. or prep, with ace, according to, withy 
unto (?). 

Ar^k^drish, — name of a Persian mountain. 

Ar^kh^, — name of an Armenian. 

Ar^bay^, — i) Arabian; 2) Arab, Arabia. 

Arik<3!, — enemy. Skt., ari. 

Ariy^, — i) Aryan; 2) noble. Skt., ary^; Avest., 
airya; New Persian, Iran; Keltic, erin; Eng., 

Ariyar^mn^ or Ariyaramn^, — name of the great- 
grandfather of Darius. Ariy^ and r^m, to rejoice. 
(For change of stem, cf. Bartholomae, idg. 
Forsch., p. 180 [1892]). 

Aruv^st^m (.?) 

Art^khsh^tra, — Artaxerxes. Arta (Avest., areta), 
lifted up; and khsh^tr^, kingdom. 


Artavardiya, — name of one of the commanders of 
Darius Hystaspes. 

Ard^khC(^shch^, — name of Artaxerxes as pronounced 
by the Egyptians. 

Ard<3:stan<^, — /li^-Zi structure. 

Ardum<^nish, — name of one of the Persians who swore 
with Darius against Smerdis. 

Arbira, — Arbela\ a city upon the confines of Media. 

Arm^niy<7, — i) Armenian\ 2) Armenia, 

Arming, — name of Armenia. 

Arminiy^, — Armenian. 

Arsh<3:k^, — Arsaces. 

Arshada, — name of a fortress in Arachasia. 

Arsham<3!, — name of the grandfather of Darius Hys- 

Arshtish, — spear. Skt., rshti; Avest., arsti. 

Arshtib^^r*^;, — spear-bearer. 

Ava, — dem. pron., this, that. Avest., avrt:; Slav., 

Av^, — verbal prefix, /r^;/^. Skt., av^. 

Ava, — so long. Correl. to yava. 

Av^tha, — thus. 

Av^da, — i) there'y 2) thither. 

— In ablative sense with sufifix sa, from thai place ^ 

Av^p^ra, — thence. 

Av^shciy, — whatever, anything, all. Awa-oXy. 

Av^h. — aid, guard. Avest., avo. 


Av^h, — denom. from preceding. 

— with prefix p^tiy, to seek aid. 

Av^hy<3;radiy, — for this reason^ therefore. Composed 
of gen. of pron. av^, and loc. of rad. 

Av^h^n^m, — village] from root v^h, to dwell. Skt., 
vas; Lat., vesta; Germ., woh-nen; AS., wesan; 
Eng., was. 

Ksagavta, — Sagartian. 

As^g<2rtiya, — Sargartian. 

As^bari, or asbari, — soldier) properly, a horseman. 

Asp^c^na, — a proper name in Persia. Probably 
from asp^, horse; according to Herodotus, the 
name of a man. (For asp^, cf. Meyer in idg. 
Forsch., p. 329 [1892]). 

Asm^n, — heaven. Skt., a9m<3;n. 

Ashn^iy, — near. 

Azda, — knowledge. 

Ah, — to be. Skt., as; Avest, ah; Lat., es-t; Goth., 
is-t; Eng., is. 

Ahifr^stad, — severe punishment, 


I, — to go. Skt., I; Avest, I; Lat.. i-re. 

— with prefix atiy, to go beyondy carry farther. 

— with nij, to go forth. 

— with p^tiy, to go against. 

— with p^ra, to proceed. 

— with ap(^ri, to follow, obey. 

Ida, — here. Skt., ih^; Avest., idha. 


Ima, — pron., Ms. Skt., ima; Avest., ima. 

Im^ni, — name of a man in Susa, who excited a tumult 
against Darius. 

Ish, — to send. Skt, ish; Avest., ish. 

— with prefix fr^, to send forth, 

Ishu, — arrow. Skt, ishu. 

Izav<3;, — tongue. 


(H)u, — good, well. It occurs only in the beginning 
of a compound. Skt., su; Avest., hu. 

Uta, — and. Skt., uU; Avest., ut^. 

Utan«, — name of one of the six who dethroned false 

Ud, — verbal prefix. Skt., ud. 

Up^, — prefix, under, to. Skt, up^; Avest, upa; 
Lat., sub. 

Upa, — prep, with ace, under. Cf. above. 

Up^d^r^(n)m^, — name of a man in Susiana. 

Up^riy, — prep, with ace, above, over. Skt., up<3:ri; 
Avest., upara; Lat., super; Goth., ufar; Eng., 

Up^sta, — aid, help. Upa and sta; cf. Germ., bei- 

(H)ufr^st^, — see p^rs. 

(H)ufratu, — Euphrates. From u, well; and fra (per- 
haps a Semitic root), to flow. 

(H)ub<3!rt^, — see b^r. 

(H)um«rtiy<2, — possessing good men. 

(H)uv^khsh^t^r<3;, — name of a king of Media. 

1 69 

(H)uv^j^, — Susiana. 

(H)uv^jiy^, — an inhabitant of Susiana. 

(H)uv^sp^, — possessing good horses. 

(H)uvaip^shiy^, — one's own pleasure, independence, 
(h)uva, self; Skt., sv^; Lat. , suus. 

Uvad^id^y^, — name of a city in Persia. 

(H)uvam<3:rshiyush, — committing suicide. (h)uva, 
self; Skt., sv<3;: and m^rsh; Avest., meresh, to die. 

(H)uvar<2z^mi or (H)uvar^z^miy^, — Chorasmia. 

Us,— cf. ud. 

Us^t^sh^n^, — lofty building, temple. Us (see above) 
and t^sh; Skt., t^^ksh; Avest., t^sh, to form; 
Lat., tig-mum. 

(H)ushk«, — dry. Avest., hushka. (Cf. idg. 

Forschungen, Bartholomae, p. 488 [1892]). 

Uz^ma, — cross. 

Uhyam^, — name of a castle in Armenia. 


K^, — interrog. pron., who. Skt., k^; Avest., Va\ 
Lat., qui. 

— with personal or relative pronoun having an in- 
definite force: {whomever. 

Y^UMia, — mountain. 

K«t^p^tuk<3:, — Cappadocia. 

Y^an, — to dig, scratch. Skt., kh^n; Avest, Vax\\ 
Lat., cun-iculus. 

— with prefix av^, to throw down with violence^ 

— with ni, to dig down, destroy, 

— with vi, to destroy. 


Kamana, — de sir ouSy faithful. Skt, Vava^ to desire; 

K<3;(m)p^d^, — name of a province in Media. 

K^(m)bujiy/3:, — Cambyses. 

K^r, — to do. Skt., kr; Avest.. Vax\ Lat., cre-o. 

— with prefix p<3;ri, to guard. 
K^shciy, — indef. pron., whoever, 

— with preceding n^^-iy, no one. 
Karkay — name of a people. 

Kapish<3:kani, — name of a fortress in Arachasia. 

Kam^, — wishy desire. Skt., kam^. 

Kar<3:, — i) people] 2) army. Cf. kar. 

Kug^n<7:ka, — name of a city in Persia. 

Kud(u)ru, — name of a city in eastern Media. 

Kuru, — Cyrus. 

Kushiy<3;, — name of a people. 


Khsh^tr^ — nom. and ace, khsh^tr^m; rule, king- 
dom. Skt., ksh^tr^; Avest., \i\\s\ia\}i\ra. 

Khsh^tr^^pav^n, — nom., khsh(2tr<2pava; satrap. From 
khsh^tr<aj (cf. above) and pa (to guard, protect). 

Khsh^thrit<3;, — name of a man who excited a tumult 
against Darius in Media. 

Khsh^p^, — ace, khsh^p^; night, Skt, ksh^p; 
Avest., khsh^p. 

Khshay^thiy^, — king. (Cf. Brugmann in idg. 
Forschungen, p. 177 [1892]). 

Khsh^y arsha, — Xerxes. 


Khshi (?) 

— with prefix p^ti, to rule, reign. (It is possible to 
refer patiy^khsh^iy to akhsh, see). 

Khshnas, — to know. (Perhaps connected with Skt. , 
J;2a; Avest., khshna; Lat., co-gno-sco; Goth., 
kaun; Germ., kann; Eng. , know, can). 


G^^itha, — flock, herd. 

Qa\}S:>axwva, — Gobryas. The name of a man. 

G^umat^, — name of a Magian. 

G^ushrt:, — ace. dual, g^usha; ear. Avest., g<3:osh^. 

G^(n)dut<^v^, — name of a country in western Ara- 

Qia{yi)Aaxa, — name of a country near the Indus. 

G^m, — to go. Skt., g^m; Avest., g^m; Lat.,veniD 
(for guemio .?); Goth., quam; Germ., kommen; 
Eng. , come. 

— with prefix a, to approach, come. 

— with h^m, to gather ones self together, 

— with p^ra, to depart. 

G^rb, — to seize, take. Skt., gr^bh; Avest., g^rep; 
Germ., greif-en (J); Eng., gripe (.?). 

G<^rm<3;p^d^, — name of a month. 

G^st^, — revealed, declared. Skt., g^d. 

G<^thu, — \) foundation, firm place', 2) throne. Avest., 

Gud, — Skt., guh; Avest., guz. 

— with prefix ap<^, to conceal. 

Gub, — to speak) middle, to be called ox named. 



Cmshpi, — son of Achaemenes. 

C^shm^, — eye. 

Ca, — end., a7id. Skt., Q.a\ Avest, ca; Lat., que. 

Ciy, — neut,, ciy and cish; who, what. Skt., cit; 
Avest., ci. 

— cishciy, whatever. (For change of etym. t to sh 
before c, cf. idg. Forschungen, p. 488 [1891]). 

— anivrtshciy, some other. 
Ciya(n)k^r^m, — how many, manifold, 
Cicikhri, — name of a man. 

Cita, — so long as. 
Citr^, — seed, offspring. 
Citr^(n)t^khm^, — name of a man. 


J^, — to supplicate, pray; to grant prayer, 
Jatar, — nom. j^ta, enemy. Cf. j^n. 
J^n, — to smite. Skt., h^^n; Avest., ]axi. 

— with prefix av^, to smite down, kill. 

— with fr^, to cut off. 

Jiv, — to live. Skt., jiv; Avest., jiv; Lat., vivo. 
Jiv^, — life. 


T^iyiy^ or maly'iya, — doubtful word (witness ?). 

T^uma, — race, family. Avest., t^okhma. 

T«k^b<3;r^, — epithet of the Greeks, wearing crowns, 
wearing long hair. 


Takhmaspsida, — name of one of the commanders of 

Tt^khs, — fo construct^ build. Skt. , trt:ksh ; Avest. , 

— with prefix h<^m, to work together, help, work. 

Tacava, — building, temple. 

Tar, — to cross, put across. Skt., tr ; Avest. , t^r; 
Lat., in-tra-re, trans; Old German, durh; Eng., 

— with prefix fr^, to go forward. 

— with vi, to put over or across. 

Taradaraya, — across the sea) from t^r<3;, across, and 
davaya, the sea. 

T^rs, — to tremble, fear. Skt., tr^^is; Avest., t^rs-ti. 

Tar<3;va, — name of a city in Yutia of Persia. 

Tigr^, — name of a fortress in Armenia. 

Tigra, — Tigris] perhaps feminine of an adjective, 
tigr^, sharp. Skt., tij. Cf. Dionys. perig. v. 
984, ''The Medes call the Tigris an arrow." 

Tigr<i:kh<^ud^, — name of a Scythian tribe. 

Tuv<^m, — thou. Skt., tv^m; Avest., thw^m; Lat., 
tu; Germ., du. (Cf. Wachernagel, tiber ein Ge- 
setz der idg. Wortstellung, idg. Forsch., p. 403 

Ty^, — rel. pron., who, that. Skt., y^; Avest., hy^; 

— ty^patiy, whatever. 



Thai^^rci, — name of a month. 

Thakata., — t/ien (?). (This meaning is a conventional 
one. A recent theory proposes a widely differ- 
ent signification, but at present both the etymol- 
ogy and interpretation of the word are doubtful). 

Thatagush, — name of a people. 

Th^d, — ^0 £•{?, err(?). (Perhaps connected with: Skt., 
sad; Lat., sideo; Got., sat; Eng., sit). 

Th<3:h, — U say^ speak. Thatiy for Th^h^tiy. 

Thukhr^, — name of a Persian. 

ThwraYshara, — name of a month. 

Th^rd, — kind, sort, manner, 



— with prefix ni, to restore. 

Tritiy^, — third. Skt., tritly^; Avest., thrity^; 
Lat., tertius; Goth., thridya; Eng., third. 


D(3;usht^r, — friend, 

D<3:n, — to flow. 

D^r, — to hold, to hold one's self) to delay, halt, 
Skt. , dhr ; Avest. , d^r. 

D^r^y^, — sea. 

D^rsh,— /^ dare, subdue. Skt., dhrsh; Avest, 
d^resh; Eng., durst. 

D^rsh^m, — strongly, very. 

D^rsh^m^, — insolence, ferocity ^ violence. 


D^st^, — hand. Skt., \ias\.a\ Avest., zasta. 
D^sh<3;bari, — stretching out the hand^ submissive, 

D^hyaush, — region^ province. Skt., d<a:syu; Avest., 


Da, — to give. Skt., da; Avest., da; Lat., da-re. 

Da, — to place y create, do, make. Skt., dha; Lat., 
con-do, cre-do; AS., dom; Eng., doom. 

Da, — to know, understand. Avest., da. 

Dat^, — law. Cf. da. 

Dad^^rshi, — a name of an Armenian and Persian. 

Daduhy<3:, — one of the six who, with Darius Hystas- 
pes, deprived false Smerdis of his kingdom. 

Dar^y^V(^(h)u, — Darius. Cf. d^r; for second mem- 
ber of the compound, cf. Skt. v<7su, good; as a 
noun, wealth: perhaps from was, to shine (like 
Eng. splendid). Cf. Lat., us-tus, Ves-uvius; 
Eng., East. 

Dasy^m^n, — he who stretches forth, serves; an at- 
tendant (perhaps). 

Di, — pron. root, this. (Cf. Wachernagel, iibdi- ein 
Gesetz der idg. Wortstellung, idg. Forsch., p. 
405 [1892]). 

Di, — to see. Avest., di. 

Di, — to remove, take away, 

Dida, — castle. 

Dipi, — letter, inscription. Perhaps connected with 
Skt., lip. 

Duban<3!, — name of a country in Babylonia. 

Dur^, — loc. durmy, dur<3:y, and dur^^i; far^ distant. 
Skt., dur<^. 


Duru j, — to deceive, be false. Skt. , druh ; Avest. , druj. 

Duruv^, — firm, well, sound, secure. Skt., dhruv^. 

Duv^isht^m, — a long time. 

Duv^r, — to make, accomplish (?). 

Duv^ra, — door, court. Skt., dvar<^; Avest, ^vata, 

Duv<3:rthi, — gate. 

Duvitat^rn^m, — separately (?), for a long ti7ne {J). 

Duvitiy^^, — second. Skt., dvitiy^; Avest., bity<^; 
Lat., duo, bis; Goth., tvai; AS., twa; Eng., 

Dushiyar^, — misfortune, from dush. Skt., dus, ill, 
and yar<3;; Avest., yare. 

TixaM^a, — lie, falsehood. Cf. duruj. 

T>xa\x\axia, — false, deceiving, 

Dr<a;(n)g<3J, — a long time, 


N^ib<3;, — beautiful, pretty. 

N<^iy, — not. 

N^dit^bir<^, — name of a man who excited opposition 

against Darius in Babylon. 

N^pa, — grandson. Skt., n^pat; Avest., napat; 
Lat., nepo(t)s; AS., nefa. 

N^bukudr^c^r<3;, — name of a Babylonian king. 

N^bunit^^, — name of the last Babylonian king. 

N^v^m^, — ninth. Skt., n^v^m^; Avest., n<?v^zn; 
Lat., novem; Goth., niun; AS., nigan; Eng. , 


Nam^n, — name. Skt., nam^n; Avest., nam^n; 
Lat., nomen; Goth., namo; Eng., name. 

Nau, — ship. Skt., naus; Lat., navis. 

Nah<3:, — nose. Skt., nasa. 

Ni, — to conduct, lead. Skt., ni. 

Nij, — verbal prefix, /r^w. Skt., nis; Avest., nish. 

Nip^d. — loc. nip^diy, footprint, on foot. Ni, down 
(Skt., ni; Lat., in; AS., in), and p<^d, foot (Skt., 
p<^d; Avest., p^dh^; Lat., pe(d)s; Goth., fotus; 
Eng., foot). 

Nisay^;?, — name of a country in Media. 

Ny<2k^, — grandfather. Avest., nyak^, 

Nur^m, — nozv. 


P^^ishiyauvada, — name of a region. 

P^t, — to fall. Skt., p^t; Lat., peto. 

— with prefix ud, to rise up. 

YaXXy, — prep, and verbal prefix. \) in \ 2) against \ 
3) throughout. Often postpositive. Skt., pr^ti; 
Avest., p<?iti. 

Ya\Skaxa, — image, effigy. 

P^tigr^^b^na, — name of a cit}^ in Parthia. 

P^tiprt:d^m, — in its own place. From p^tiy (cf. 
above) and p^d (cf. nipcid). 

P^tish, — with ace, tozuards. Cf. p<^tiy. 

P^thi, — way, road. Skt., p^-zth^^; Avest., p^nth^n; 
Lat., pon(t)s; Old Germ., pad, fad; AS., padh; 
Eng., path. 

P^r^uv^, — eastern. 


Taragay — name of a Persian mountain. 

"Parana, — former. 

Tara, — prep., postpositive, and verbal prefix, from, 
backward. Skt., p^ra; Lat., per; Goth., fra; 
Old Germ., fer; Germ., ver; AS., for, as in 
Eng. , forgive. 

P^riy, — prep, and verbal prefix, around, about, con- 
cerning. Skt., p^ri; Avest., pairi. 

P^ru, — gen. plur., p<3:runam and p<^ruvnam; much, 
many. Skt., puru; Avest., pouru; Lat., plus; 
Goth., filu; Germ., viel. 

Yarwva, — anterior eastern; ace. neut., paruv<a:m: be- 
fore. Avest., "^aoViXYa. 

YarMviya, — before, anterior', in abl. sense, h<7ca p<«- 
ruviy^ta. Skt. Ved. , purvy^; Avest., p/^ourvy^. 

P<3;ruz^n^, — gen. plur., p^ruz^nanam and p^ruvz^na- 
nam; possessing many kiyids of peoples. 

Tarthava, — Parthia. 

P^rs, — i) to ask', 2) to inquire about something. 
Skt., pr^ch; Avest., p^res; Lat., preco; Goth., 
frah; Germ., fragen. 

— with preceding (h)u, to examine carefully^ punish'y 
part. (h)u-fr<2st^m. 

— with prefix p^ti, to examine, read. 
P^sa, — after. 

P^sav<3:, — afterwards, thereafter. P^sa and av^. 

Pa, — to protect, sustain. Skt., pa; Avest., pa; Lat., 
pa-vi, pa-scor. 

Patishuv^ri, — a race inhabiting a portion of Persia. 

Pars^, — Persia, Persiaft. 


Titar, — father. Skt., pitr; Avest., pit^; Lat., pa- 
ter; Goth., fadar; Germ., vater; AS., faeder; 
Eng., father. Cf. pa. 

Pish, — to scrape, graze. Skt., pish; Lat., pinso. 

— with prefix ni, to zurite on. 

Pirav^. — Nile. 

Putiy^, — name of a people. 

Putr^, — son. Skt., putr<^; Avest., puthr^; Lat., 
puer (.''). 

¥ra, — verbal prefix, before, for. Skt, pr^; Avest., 
ira] Lat., pro; Eng., fore. 

Fr^^t^m^, — first, leader. 

Fr^mana, — authority, command, precepts. 

Fr^v^rti, — proper name, PJiraortes. 

Fr^h^rv^m, — ace. neut. in adverbial sense, altogether. 
From fr^ and h^rv^:, h^ruv^. 

Frad^, — name of a ruler in Margia. 

B^g^, — god. Skt., bh<^g^; Avest., b^gh^; Goth., 

B^g^bukhsh<^, — name of one of those who with Da- 
rius dethroned false Smerdis; Megabyzos. 

B^gabign^, — name of a Persian. 

B^(n)d, — to bind, Skt., b^ndh; Avest., b^nd; 
Goth., bindan; Eng., bind. 

B<^(n)d<3:k<2, — subject, servant. 


B^r, — to bear ^ sustain^ protect, Skt. , bhr; Avest. , 
b^r; Lat., fero; Goth., bairan; AS., beran; 
Eng., bear. 

— with prefix p^ti, to bring back^ replace^ restore. 

— with p^ra, to bear azvay. 

— with iva, to carry off, assign. 

B^rdiy^, — name of the brother of Cambyses, Smerdis. 

Bakhtri, — Bactria. 

Bag^yadi, — name of a month. 

Baji, — tribute', from root \>a). Skt., bh^j, to allot. 

Babiru, — Babylon. 

Babiruviy^, — Babylonian. 

Bu, — to be. Skt., bhu; Avest., bu; Lat., fuo, fui, 
perhaps bam (in amabam); AS., beom; Germ., 
bin; Eng., be. 

Bumi, — ground, earth. Skt., bhumi; Avest., bumi. 

Brat^r, — brother. Skt., bhratr; Avest., brat<7r; 
Lat., frater; Goth., brothar; AS., brodher; 
Eng., brother. 


yidka, — name of a people. 

yiagu, — Magian, a Median people from whom the 
priests were elected. 

M^ciy^, — name of a people. 

M^thisht^, — the greatest, leader. 

yian, — to thijik. ponder. Skt., m^n; Avest., m^n; 
Lat., mens; Germ., meinen. 

M^zn, — to remain. Avest., man; Lat., maneo. 


M^r, — to die. Skt., mr; Avest., m^r; Lat., mo- 
rior; AS., mordh. 

M^irgu, — name of a region east and north of Areia. 

M^rtiy^, — i) mortal, man\ cf. vaax above. 2) name 
of a man who excited a tumult against Darius. 
In P. the gen. sing, is contracted to m^rtihy^a:. 

M^a-rduniy^, — name of a man, Mardoniiis. 

Ma, — to measure. Skt., ma; Avest., ma; Lat., 

— with prefix a, past part., am^t^, tested^ triedy 

Ma, — prohibitive particle, 72^/. Skt. , ma; Avest., ma. 

Maty^, — that not, lest. 

Mad^, — Median, Media. 

Maniy<3:, — place of remaining, dwelling. Qi. m^zn. 

Marg^y^ or Marg<2v^, — Margianian. 

Mah^, — montJr, contracted gen. mahya. Skt., mas^; 
Lat., mensis; AS., mona; Eng., month. 

M(i)thr^, — name of a Persian God. 

Mudray^, — Egypt', nom. plur., Egyptians. 


Y^una, — Ionian, Ionia. Skt., Y^v^n^. 

Y^tha, — i) as, when; 2) because', 3) in order that^ 
that. From rel. root, ya. 

Y<a:da, — duty. 

Y<3:diy, — i) ^y*; 2^ when. Skt., y^di; Avest., yedhi. 

— with p^diy, if perchance. 
Y^n^iy, — (i') 

1 82 

Yata, — i) during, while) 2) until. From rel. root, ya. 
Yan^, — favor. Avest., yan<3;. 
Yava, — as long as. Skt., yav<^t. 
Yutiya, — name of a region in Persia. 
Yuviya, — canal. 

R^uc^, — ace. sing., rauca; day. Connected with 
Skt. , rue, to shine; Lat., luceo; AS., leoht; 
Eng., light. 

R^ut^, — river. 

Rrtkha, — name of a city in Persia. 

R^ga, — name of a district in Media. 

R^d(?),— Skt, r^h. 

— with prefix av^, to relinquish, leave. 

R<7s, — to come. Desiderative: cf. Brugmann in idg. 
Forsch., p. 173 (1892). 

— with prefix p<^ra, to arrive. 

— with prefix ni, to descend. 
Rad, — joy, delight. 

— loc. sing., radiy with gen., for the sake of 

— av<^hyaradiy, for the sake of this thing, for this 

Rast^, — right. 


V^in, — to see, behold. The middle is used in the 
passive sense. Avest., vaen. 

V^umis^, — name of a Persian. 


V^j, — to lead. Skt., v^h; Avest., vaz\ AS., wegan. 

V^y^spar^, — name of a Persian. 

V^r, — to declare, make {o7te) believe^ convince, 

V^rkan^, — Hyrcania. 

Yardana, — nom. sing., v^rd^n^m, fortified town,, 
city, state. Connected with Skt. vr dh, to increase; 
Avest., va-red; AS., waldan, weald. 

V^siy, — much, very, greatly. (Possibly connected 
with Greek incoVy "nach Wunsch". Barthol- 

V^shn^, — desire, power, grace. Cf. v^s, to desire. 

Vrtzr^k^, — great. 

Yahyazdata, — name of a man who excited a tumult 
against Darius Hystaspes. 

Vrt:h^uk<^, — name of a Persian. 

Va, — enclitic particle, or. Skt., va; Lat., ve. 

Vith, — i) clan; 2) race, fellow. 

Vithiy^, — pertaining to the same race. 

Vithin(i'), — possessifig the same race. The instr. 
plur. vithibish, which alone justifies the sup- 
position of the existence of this adjective, I have 
explained in grammar (86, c) as from noun vith. 

V\da,— {J) 

Vid<3:rn^, — name of a Persian. 

Vi(n)d^fra, — name of a Mede. 

Vi(n)drtfr^na, — name of a Persian. 

Viy^khn^, — name of a month. 

Viy<3:t^r^y^m, — see t^r. 

Vivan^, — name of a Persian. 

1 84 

Vis^, — all, every, Skt., vi9va. 

Vis<3:d<7hyu, — ace. sing, ra'3.'=>z.v\sa^a\iy\xv(\, possessing 
all provinces. 

V\s>i^azax\a, — g-en. plur. masc. visp<3:zanam, possessing 
all kinds of peoples. 

Vishtasp<3:, — Hystaspes, the father of Darius. 


Saka, — Scyth ian, Scyth ia. 

S<2ku(n)k<7, — name of a man who excited opposition 
among the Sakae against Darius Hystaspes. 

S^n,— (.?) 

— with prefix vi, to destroy. 
^av,— to kill.ij) 

Sik^y^uv^ti, — name of a fortress in Media. 

Sugud<^, — Sogdiana. 

Skudr^, — name of a people. 

St(3;r, — to sin.Q) 

Sta, — to stand. Skt., stha; Avest., sta; Lat., sta-re; 
AS., standan; Eng., stand. 

— with prefix av^ (caus.), to establish, constitute. 

— with ni (caus.), to enjoin, command. 
Stan^, — place. 

Sp<2;rd^, — name of a people. 


Sh^ and Shi, — stem of a pron. end., 3 pers. Skt., 
s^; Avest., he. (Cf. Wackernagel, iibcr ein Ge- 
setz der idg. Wortstellung, idg. Forsch., p. 404 


Sharastihara, — hozv-bearer\ or perhaps for arshti- 
\iaxa, spcar-bearer. 

Shiyati, — spirit, intelligence, wisdom. (J) (shay<7- 
tim, P.) 

Shiyu, — to go, set out. 

Shugud^?, — see Sugud^. 

Z{x\)Va, — Drangiana. 

Z<7zan<7, — name of a fortified town near Babylon. 

Zur^, — power. 

Zuvakara, — despot. From zur^ (see above) and kara 

(see krtr). 


H<7ina. — army. Skt., sena; Avest. , haen^. 

H^uv, — tJiis. Skt., a-sau; Avest. hau. 

H^kham^ni, — Ac h aeme nes, ox\^\vi?i\.or oi \.\\^ race of 
the Achaemenides. 

H<?kham^nishiy(^, — of the race of Achaemenides. 

H^ngmrt:tan<7, — Ecbata?ia; leading city of Media, at 
the foot of the mountains of Alvend. From 
hrt-m (together), and g<7m (to go). 

Hrtca, — prep, with ablative, /?'^;>^. Avest., hac-ei. 

Hrt'(n)j, — to draw throiv. 

— with fr^;, to throw forth. 

H^7d, — to sit. Skt., s^d; Avest., hrtd; Lat., sedeo; 
AS., sittan; Eng. , sit. 

— witn prefix ni (caus.), to constitute, establish. 

1 86 

H^da, — prep, with instrumental, witJi. Skt., ?>a\\a\ 
Avest., \\a<\\\a. 

H^dish, — place, dwelling, royal scat, palace. Cf. h<7d. 

H^(n)duga, — edict. 

Waxi(X\\.a, — name of a Babylonian. 

Y\.avs\, — verbal prefix, together with. Skt., s<7m: 

Avest., h^m. 
H<7m^, — together, all. Skt., s^^m^:; Avest., \\.avc\a. 

Lat., simul; Goth., sama; Germ., zusammen; 

AS., same. 

H^mrt-pitrtir, — having a co^nmon father. From h^m^ 
and pit<^r. 

Yiavaara, — ivar. Skt., s^^m^-r^;. 

Wavciaxawa, — nom. and ace. sing., h^m^r^rn^'rm; con- 
flict, battle. 

H^mat^r, — having a conimo7i mother. From h^m 
and mrtJt^r. Skt., matr; Lat., mater; Fng., 
mother. Cf. ma. 

WamitrWa, — rebellious. 

Viavdiwa, — name of a country. Area. 

H^r^uv^ti, — loc. Waxa\xva\.a\y2i, Arachosia. 

Hrt-ruv^, — all, every. Skt., s^rv^; Avest., h^^ruv^?; 
Lat., salvus. 

H^shitiyrt', — rebellious. 

H^shiy/^, — neut. h^-shiy^m, trtie. 

Hin(d)u, — India; region near the river Indus. Skt., 
sindhu; Avest., hindu. 

Hum^v^rk^, — appellation of the race of the Scythians. 

Hyap^r^, — ace. in adverbial sense; also witfj R^tiy, 

again. From hy^ and 2c^axa. il Q d ^ 1^ *-