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^ ^OV7'^' 






In Cro7vn 8vo, Clofhy with Map^ Price 5s, 


ART, AND LIFE. By John Lomas. 

Second Edition. 

" Mr. Lomas writes with a sober serenity of enthunasm, and entire absence of 
the cant of art criticism. . . . How well he epitomises the perfections and short- 
comings of Murillo I ... Of the other great artists of Spain the author writes 
with vtat same wise and measured discrimination." — Tne Saturday Review^ 
Jan. 17, 1885. 

"There is here little or no hasty jotting down of impres^ons formed from a 
single visit. Nearly every building or work of art has been carefully examined 
and paused over. . . . The work ... is one which every lover of art, and especi- 
ally of architecture, should take as a companion in a tour in Spain." — Tke 
Academy^ Jan. 31, 1885. 

"Although the Author conducts his readers along the highway, he has the 
discretion to dwell as little as possible upon hackneyed scenes, and he dilates 
upon objects of interest which lie apart from the beaten track. . . . Would that 
there were more works of the kind, written in the same friendly, philosophiod 
spirit \"—The Athenaum^ April x8, 1885. 

*' * Sketches in Spain, from Nature, Art, and Life,' deserves a good place for its 

fraiseworthy and elaborate effort to point out that which is attractive in the 
'eninsula. The scenery, of what is too much a terra incognita^ receives graphic 
description."— T'A^ Contemporary Review^ May 1885. 

" Mr. Lomas is evidently no passing visitor, snatching up first impressions." 
— Guardian. 

"Evenr one who cares for the architecture of Spain will find something to 
interest him in this book." — Builder, 

London, 1890. 




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The Passport Begulations have recently been much more 
rigidly enforced on the Continent, and all travellers are advised 
to provide themselves with a Passport, and to have it duly visi, 
for the countries they propose to visit. 

British Subjects can have a Passport obtained, without further 
trouble to themselves, by sending the necessary " Recommend- 
ation *' to Edward Stanford, Passport Agent, 26 & 27, Cockspur 
Street, Charing Cross, London, whose experience and long- 
established arrangements enable him to ensure Passports in 
proper form and duly visS^ without personal attendance. The 
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country can have Passports obtained, completed, and forwarded 
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Tourists' Writing-cases, Polyglot Washing Books, Lnggage 
Labels, Foreign Writing Paper, Patent Inkstands, &o. 

Edward Stanford, 26 & 27 Cockspur Street, S.W. 





iiaiaf / 





\<S> M^^-^ 



Although it is not yet four years since the Seventh Edition 
was issued, O'Shea's Guide to Spain and Portugal has once more 
been thoroughly revised upon the spot, and from the latest 
official information. 

Beyond the extensive and necessary corrections thus made, 
the chief alterations which I have introduced consist (1) in a 
recasting of considerable portions of the Introduction, such as 
the chapters upon Language and Literature, in order to make 
these short, and it is to be hoped useful, essays really worthy of 
their purpose, and of a high-class handbook ; (2) in the careful 
revision of the lists of books of reference, and the inclusion 
therein of the chief literary and scientific works of the last ten 

I have again to record my belief that the Peninsula has a 
great future before it, not only politically and commercially, but 
also as one of the favoured European playgrounds. The face of 
the country is rapidly changing, with ,the spread of its railway 
system, its commercial development, and the beneficent influence 
of a stable Grovemment; and nearly every place or object of 
interest can now be visited with ease, and in security and comfort. 

One outcome of this constant change in the direction of im- 
provement is an extreme difficulty in keeping a Guide Book 
accurate up to date in such details as hotels, routes, conveyances, 
etc. ; and I shall therefore value all information which travellers 
may be pleased to address to me, under cover to the publishers. 

John Lomas. 


Genbbal Information— TraveUing— Hotels— Arcliitectiire, etc 


AloalA (de Hen&res) . . 1 

Alicante 5 

Almaden 13 

Almeria 14 

Andaliisia 16 

Aragon (Spanish Pyrenees) . 18 

Aranjucz 20 

Astnrias 24 

Avila 28 

Balearic Islands ; see Palma. 

Barcelona 81 

Basque Provinces ... 58 

Bilbao 63 

Burgos 68 


Cadiz 91 

Cartagena . . . . . 103 

Castiles (New and Old) . . 105 

Catalufia 106 

Cordova 110 

Corolla (La) .... 122 




Galioia 145 

Gibraltar 149 


Granada and Alhambra 

Graiga (La) 

Pages i-cxiii 


. 159 

. 161 

. 209 





IAadbxd S42 

CliiBate i56 

History 267 

Hotels 868 

GeneialDescription . 
Royal Palace . 
Gallery of Sculpture . 
Minor Picture-Galleries 
Private Galleries 
Public Buildings 
Streets, etc. . 
Theatres, bull-rings, etc. 
Directory , , 
£nviix>ns • • 


. 287 
. 287 
. 806 
Mnrcia 820 

Nayarrb 827 

Oyisdo 880 


Palma and Balearic Islands 

Santiago . 
Segovia . 
Seville . 





The Lonja 

The Alcazar 

Private Buildings 


is . 841 

Seyille— continued. 



. 410 

. 856 

Streets . 


. 861 


. 413 

. 864 


. 415 

. 868 

Tangier, Tetuan, etc. (Morocco) 417 

. 871 


. 424 

. S82 

Toledo . 

. 480 

. 894 

. 896 


. 469 

. 400 


. 498 

• ^8 Yigo 
. 405 

. 506 

. 408 ZaRAGOZA 

. 509 


Badajoz 586 





Pages 529-555 
. 545 

Porto (Oporto) 

. 550 




General Map of Spain and Portugal . RndcfVoiwmt. 

Balbabio Islands ..... 841 

Plans of Towns— 

Barcelona ..... 


Cadiz . 















• J f . 



BuRQOs Cathedral .... 


ESCORIAL ..,.., 


The Alhambra .... 



ERT (Madrid) 



Madrid to Toledo, Albacete, Alicante, Marcia, Cartagena, and 

Valencia ....... 5 

Madrid and Bilbao to Zaragoza, L^rida, and Barcelona . . 31 

Madrid to Cordova, Seville and Cadiz, and Malaga and Granada 91 

Great Northern Railway — from the French frontier to Madrid . 242 
Mediterranean Line — Barcelona to Gerona, Tarragona, Valencia, 

and Alicante ...... 473 

Madrid to Badajoz, Lisbon, and Oporto . . . 629 


Agriculture, p. xxxiv. 
Architecture, Ixi. 
Arms, ciiL 
Botany, xxxi. 
Bull-Fights, xcviL 
Churches, Ixvii. 
Cigars, ci. 
Climate, xxviii. 
Coins, civ. 
Costume, xci. 

Dances, p. xcii. 
Duties, cv. 
Festivals, Ixxxvi. 
Finances, cv. 
Geography, xix. 
Geology, xxi. 
Glossary, liv. 
History, xlvii. 
Hotels, xviii. 
Language, Hi. 

Literatiure, p. lix. 
Lotteries, xcix. 
Measures, cix. 
Mineral Springs, xxx. 
Mines, xxv. 
Money, cvi. 
Mountains, xxiv. 
Music, Ixxxvi. 
Olives, xxxix. 
Oranges, xxxix. 

Passports, p. xiv. 
Pictures, Ixix. 
Porcelain, Ixxxiii. 
Post OfiSce, XV. 
Sculptures, IxxL 
Sport, xcix. 
Telegraph, xviL 
Theatre, xciv. 
Travelling, ix. 
Wine, xliv. 

Travelling in Spain: Hints. 

When to Travel. — The best seasons of the year for travelling in Spain 
are autumn, winter, or spring in the South ; spring in the Centre and 
East ; and summer or early autumn in the North and West. Andalusia 
and Castile, Valencia and Estremadura, must not be thought of in summer, 
as the heat is then intolerable, and riding out of the question. In winter 
Seville, Malaga, Alicante, Barcelona, or Valencia are pleasant residences. 
Spring is delightful in Seville, Eonda, and Granada ; and Asturias, 
Galicia, and the Spanish Pyrenees may be visited in April, May, and 
June. It must be borne in mind that, with the exception of Andalusia 
and Valencia, winter in Spain is almost as severe as it is in the northern 
countries of Europe ; and in Asturias the snow makes the roads literally 
impracticable, and diligences cease running during the severest months. 
Tourists will do well not to dare the arrowy sunbeams in July and 
August, and even September, nor to expose themselves to the icy blasts 
of Castile and the N. during winter. Invalids who intend wintering in 
the S. of Spain can either proceed thither by Barcelona and Valencia, 
along the Mediterranean, or by sea from Marseilles to either Valencia or 


Alicante and Malaga, or by Atlantic steamers direct to Lisbon, Cadiz, or 
Gibraltar. The direct railway route through France and by Castile 
and Madrid is more expensive and more exposed to cold, but the 
express through trains are admirably appointed. 

How TO Travel — The finest scenery in Spain is in Andalusia and 
in the N.E. and N.W. portions ; the most interesting cities are in 
Andalusia and Castile. Spain may be entered in a variety of ways, and 
this must be decided by the tourist himself. The cheapest is by sea 
from Southampton or London to Cadiz. In this way the principal 
cities might be visited, except Granada, at a comparatively small expense, 
and in about a fortnight — viz. 

Cadiz (where stay) i day. 

Seville, by rail . . . ~ . . . 2 , , 

Cordoba, rail i ,. 

Madrid (Toledo, Escurial), rail . . . • 3 ,, 

Burgos, rail I ,, 

Bayoime, rail., and embark to London or Liverpool here or at 
Bordeaux; the cost would be about £$0. 

1. Direct from England to Spain by sea, either yVom Southampton or 
London to Cadiz or Gibraltar, 4 or 5 days ; or from Liverpool to Coruna, 
Vigo, Lisbon, or Gibraltar. 

2. From France, A, by Paris, Bordeaux, and Bayonne. 

Time, — Paris to Bordeaux, 9 hrs. by express and 14 hrs. by slow (omnibus) 
train. Bordeaux to Bayonne, 4^ hrs. by express and 6 hrs. by slow. 


CoaX^s International Travelling Tickets are available for one or more tourists by any 
train, steamer, or diligence. 

There, are, besides, cheap services of tickets for circular journeys in Spain and Portugal, by 
using which travellers may effect a great saving. These are duly and from time to time set 
forth in the * Guia Oficial de los Ferro-Carriles de Espaiia y Portugal,' and in the French 
* Livret-Chaix,' etc. There is a considerable choice of routes, from short tours of 30 days, costing 
about £(i, to complete viajes circulares of 85 days, costine about £^^ (first class). Tickets may 
be obtained at the principal termini, or through any good tourist agent. 

B. From Paris by Lyons, 

Avignon, Montpellier, 


Paris to Lyons .... 


Tarascon (branch line to ^ 

Montpellier and Cette) . ) 



Otte (branch to Bordeaux, \ 

9 hrs.), 476 kil. . 
Narbonne (branch to Tou- ) 

louse), 140 kil., 3 hrs. .J 

Eil. Miles. 

Express Train. 


2d Qass. 1 3d aass. 












XI hrs. 20 min. 
5 hrs. 36 min. 

3 hrs. 5 min. 
5 hrs. s min. 

S6fr. 80C. 
sSfir. zoc 

iifr. 7SC. 
I4fr. 65c. 

42fir. 60C. 
3xfr. xoc 

ixfr. oc 

r^c 45c 

6fr. 4SC. 
8fr. 5C.^ 

looa \ 633 

2$ hrs. 6 min. 

iiifr. 30C. 

83fr. soc. ' 6ifr. 30c. 


C. From Marseilles to Barcelona, Malaga, or Alicante bj sea (see 
those cities). 

D. Paris to Bordeaux, Toulouse, Narbonne, to Perpignan, in 24 hrs. 
29 m. 

At Perpignan, rail to Barcelona (see latter). 

A Complete Tow through Spain can be performed in about 70 days 
to 3 months, staying 1 day generally in most places. The principal cities 
and most interesting scenery are comprised. 

Bayonne to Bilbao, by steamers, dil., riding, or rail. 

Santander, do. do. do. 

Gijon, do. do. do. 

Oviedo, rail (whence either to Leon by railX or ^^ 

CoruSa, dil., riding along sea-coast, steamer from Guon, or by Leon raiL 

Santiago, dil. 

Vigo, tail and diL 

L<K>n by rail. 

Buigos, rl. (by Valencia and V. de Banos). 

VaUadolid, rl., and to Medina, rl., whence rail to Salamanca, and back to Valladolid, or 

direct to 
Madrid, rL 
Cordova, rL 
Seville, rl. 
Cadiz, rl. 

Gibraltar, st, dil., or ridine (excursion to Tangier). 
Malaga, bv St., riding, by Marbella, or by Ronda. 
Granada, by rL or rimng. 
Murcia by rail or dil. or ride to Almeria, whence to C^artagena, by st. and rl., to Murcia, 

or avoid it by st. from Mai. to Alicante.^ 
Alicante, by rail through Orihuela, or by rail through Chinchilla. 
Valencia, vy rail or st. 
Tarragona, by raiL 

Barcdona, by rail (to Perpignan by rail), or 
Zaragoza, by rail. 
Bayonne (by ri. through Pamplona and S. Sebastian). 

A Short Tour — the easiest and most rapid. 

Bayonne to Burgos (cathedral), by rl. ; stay z day. 

Madrid, Picture-Gallery, rl. — 4 days (z for Toledo : Cathedral ; i for Escorial : Church). 

Cbrdova, rail (mosque), z day. 

Seville (Cathedral, Murillos), a days. 

Cadiz, rl. (the bay) half-day. 

Gibraltar, st. (or avoid it and come back to (Cordova, whence by rl. to), half-day. 

Malaga st. Tsoenery). z day. 

Granada, rail (Alhambra), a da3rs. 

Valencia, ri. from Gran. ; return by rl. to O)rdova, whence to Alcazar Branch St., and dir. 

to Valencia (Huerta Gardens), z day. 
Tarragona, rl. (cathedral), z day ; general tourists may avoid it, and continue on to 
Barcebna, rl. (churches, scenery), z day. 

Zaragoza, rL (two cathedrals}, z day, or enter France by Perpignan to Toulouse and Lyons. 
Bayonne, rl. (cath. ezc to Biarritz), z day, whence to Faris by Bordeaux. 

This tour, which allows one to see the cr^me of Spain, may be accom- 
plished in 30 days ; and is besides, on the whole, the cheapest. 

If coming from Marseilles, and including the Balearic Islands and 
Portugal in the tour, the following is suggested : — ^Marseilles to Barce- 
lona ; then to Balearic Islands, Valencia, Malaga, Granada, Cordova, 
Seville^ Cadiz ; embark there for Lisbon, whence by rail to Madrid 
(Toledo, Aranjuez, and Escorial), and return to^ France by Burgos and 


RAiLWATa — ^A net of railways is fast spreading over Spain, and the 
lines now connect all the principal cities and traverse most pictnresqne 
provinces. To those, therefore, who do not intend to make a dose sur- 
vey of every nook and comer, but wish merely to see the cream of Spain, 
in a comfortable, safe, and speedy manner, we certunly recommend to 
foUow, as much as possible, the lines of ferr(hcairrUe$, which will save 
time, jolting in diligences, imposition, and trouble. Now, travellers can 
reach Cadiz from Paris (through Madrid, Cordova, Seville, and Jerez), 
without quitting the traio. The lines are well managed, partly by 
Frenchmen ; the carriages are good and spacious, and hours of departure 
and arrival observed as punctually as can be expected. Travellers 
should not forget to employ the very cheap circular tickets whenever 
available (see advertisements in Time-tables, Papers, etc.) ; also to send 
their luggage by 'double pequena' if very bulky. The principal 
companies are, * Ferro Carril del Norte,' Madrid to Bayonne, and ' F. C. de 
Zaragoza,' Madrid to Zaragoza and Barcelona ; the Msulrid and Alicante 
to Valencia, and the Seville and Cordova in tiie South. They were con- 
structed by foreign engineers, French especially, and with English and 
French capital They are well organised, on the French system. The 
average rate of speed is about 15 miles an hour. The buflfets are not 
extortionate, are good, and kept by French restaurateurs. The monthly 
Indicador de los Caminos de Hierro de Espana y Portugql is fairiy accu- 
rate and usefuL 


DiLiaBNOBS and MaUe-poete, — ^Dils. are generally divided into three 
compartments. The first is called herlina (in French coup^), and holds 
three persons. It is the most agreeable in summer, but cold in winter, 
and the dearest of the three. The seats are thus placed : — 1, 3, 2. The 
2d compartment is called el interior^ and holds three or four, and some- 
times is made to hold six persons, and corresponds to 2d class by rail : 
the movement is the best of the three. The 3d compartment is ^ ro- 
tonda: the movement is very bad, and the society not very select The 
dickey, above, called cowpl, or imperial (in French, banquette), is the 
cheapest, and we recommend it to men or ladies who do not mind climb- 
ing, as it is the pleasantest in spring and summer ; but in winter it is 
the last place to take. Some dils. have two berlinas. The rate of speed 
is about 2 leagues an hour, more usually 2J, and the price 6 to 7r. a 
league. The coachman or conductor is called mayoral; he has the 
responsible care of travellers and carriage, and usually drives himself. 
The zagal is the man who runs by the side of the mules, whipping the 
laggards, and encouraging them with oaths, and calling to them by their 
names. The postilion is called 'el delantero,' and is usually a boy 
between 12 and 19, who has sometimes to ride for three days and three 
nights incessantly. The mayoral is paid 20r. a day, the zagal 14r., 


Mid the post-boy lOr. It is usual to give him a fee, 2, 4, 6r. ; if a long 
journey, and he has been ciyil, give the mayoral a 6£ piece. The muleS| 
8, 10, and sometimes even 14 to a team, are strong, hardy, but vicious 
animals, worth about 2000r. to 5000r. and 6000r. The baggage allowed 
is 15 kils. (30 lbs.) The ezc^ de poids is high. We caution travellers 
against unfair weighing in different dU. offices, to avoid which they had 
oetter see it weighed before leaving on their journey, and note it down. 
Ladies had better carry as little as possible, and if they intend to ride 
some time, had better be provided with a small portmanteau to fasten on 
a horse, and strong leather bags. Sacs de voyage, travelling toilet-cases, 
and the like, are cumbersome, and exposed to rough handling. 

Riding is the most pleasant way of travelling, provided one is strong 
and disposed to rough it Always attend to the provend — ^fill the beta, 
and become friends with your guide, who, if you give yourself any 
' humos (airs), will either leave you in the lurch, or not make it plea- 
sant ; instead of which, with some pu^'w, and a compliment to the horses 
and the country, you may obtain a deal of ioformation, and often some 
capital and well-told stories fiill of salt and couleur locale, to beguile the 
way. The usual charges are 30r. to $2 a-day for a horse, not paying his 
keep ; and one dollar to the guide, without x>ftyii^ his feeding or lodgings. 
The price for a bed and supper at a venta is about from 12r. to 20r. a 
night in the South, and even cheaper in the North. Always, allow the 
guide to settle about the inns to put up at, and the hours of starting, but 
attend yourself to the provend, and girt the saddle and see to the bridle 
and shoeing of your horse. As for robbers, none are to be found in 
Spain, but a revolver is a companion commanding respect. 

It will be as well to acquaint the riding tourist with several terms 
used in such expeditions to design bridle-roads, etc Trocha, a short cut 
out of the common road ; eamino de herradwra^ bridle-road, literally 
horsenshoe road ; genders or aenday a pathway — a way just marked out by 
the foot of the smuggler and labourer ; eamino 4^ perdiceSf road of par- 
tridges—difficult, found out rather by instinct than otherwise ; eamino 
real or carretera, Qove?nment road — highroad; arredfes^ name given 
in Andalusia to high roads or causeways— chauss^es ; travesia and eamino 
de eUajo, a short out — a bye-way ; rambla^ a sort of road ; or better, bed 
of liver, which being dry in summer serves as a road, etc. The ordinary 
pace is 1^ league an hour. Mules are sometimes preferable to horses, as 
having a better and steadier pace and surer foot 

Side-saddles for ladies are recommended iu preference to a chair, 
sometimes placed on one side, which, however, may be adopted, except 
where hilly districts are to be traversed. Ketum of horses and men is 
always imderstood in the bargain, where the contrary has not been speci- 
fied. The principal riding tours are in Andalusia and Asturias, and 
some in the Spanish Pyrenees. Where the country abounds in pictur- 


esque scenery, and when undertaken in autumn or Bpnng^ this mode (A 
travelling will prove a source of great enjoyment, of health and manly 
exertion. Without a ride in the South a voyage to Spain cannot be called 
complete, and we must say with Lord Byron — 

Though sluggards deem it but an idle chace, 
And marvefmen should quit their easy chair, 
The toilsome way, and lone, long lea^e to trace, 
Oh ! there is sweetness in ue mountam air> 
And life, that bloated ease can never hope to share. 

Pasting is no longer resorted to now-a-days. 

Galeroi, — ^Waggon-carts covered over, without springs, performing 7 
or 8 leagues a-day, at a slow pace, and dragged by some 8, 10, or 12 
mides. They stop for the night at the posada, ventas, or ventorillo. It 
is a very slow and fatiguing way of travelling, and riding is by fEu: pre- 

FedesHanidm is unknown in Spain, and scarcely to be thought of, 
except in Asturias, Qalicia, and the Pyrenees. Arrieros may be joined in 
long riding-tours ; they are, together with cosarios, ordinarios, and ma- 
lagatos, the regular muleteers and carriers that are met with on Span- 
ish roads. 

Velocipede tours are in many districts favoured hy long stretches of 
flat and excellent roads. They are especially agreeable in Portugal and 
the N.W. Spain, and no longer excite undue curiosity. 


The P. and 0. steamers, the Boyal Mail, Cunard, and Pacific Steam 
Co. have superior speed and accommodation. Messrs. Hall's steamers 
leave London weekly for Lisbon, Gibraltar, Malaga and Cadiz. Messrs. 
MacAndreVs steamers run at frequent intervals to the principal ports on 
the Atlantic and Mediterranean. There is r^^ular steam communication 
between Seville, Cadiz and Marseilles ; also between Marseilles, the east 
ports and Oran. The boats of the Compania Trasatldntica can be utilised 
for most of the Mediterranean and western ports. 

The Spanish steamers, except those of the Company Lopez, are 
neither fiEuit nor comfortable. The cabins are called camarote$ de la, 2a, 
y 3 a close. Children under three years of age do not pay ; from 3 to 
7, only half-passage. The luggage dlowed to each first and second class 
passenger varies from 80 to 100 kilog. Meals are generally not included 
in the ticket ; 10 to 12r. a breakfast, and 14 to 16r. dinner. 

Yachting. — ^The principal ports to visit are Bilbao, Gijon, Coru&a, 
Vigo (Portugal, Oporto, Lisbon), Seville, Cadiz, Gibraltar, Malaga, Ali- 
cante, Valencia, and Barcelona. The Commandante del Puerto is the 
chief authority. The best season is simimer and autumn. 


According to decree of December 17^ 1862, no passports are required 
from foreigners entering Spain, or from Spaniards going to England or 


France. Foreigners are, however, liable to be called upon bj local 
Spanish authorities to declare their nationality, and object of their jour- 
ney. Any document establishing the identity, or a declaration signed 
by two witnesses, residents at the place where it may be required, and 
purporting their knowledge of the traveller's name, will suffice. These 
are scarcely ever required ; but an English passport, vis^ by a Spanish 
Ck)nBul, is the safest companion. 


Until the 15th century, news, letters, and Government orders were 
transmitted in Spain by horsemen, and more especially by foot messen- 
gers, andarines (pedestrians), like the hemerodromea of the Greeks, and 
the Eoman cursores, Philip the Fair and his Queen Dona Juana were 
the first to establish posting regulations, and made the office of Maestro 
Mayor de Hostes, Postas y Correos, a very important one, which became 
hereditary. In the busy reigns of Charles Y. and Philip IL this appoint- 
ment was no sinecure, as couriers were always ' on the wing,' carrying 
orders to all parts of the world. Letters were entrusted to especial esta- 
fetas, but subsequently the Government couriers took charge of them. The 
first vehicles used were light carts (about 1642), and the first mail- 
coaches, sillas de Posta (postchabes), b^;an to run in 1739. Offices were 
established only in the principal cities, and until 1759 only one distri- 
bution of letters made a week. The first daily post establishment be- 
tween Bayonne and Madrid was begun in 1844. Shortly after a diligence 
service was established, and we remember going from Madrid to Bayonne 
by that last means in six days, sleeping, hadendo noche, every night. Be- 
fore 1840 those about to undertake a journey in Spain called a priest, a 
doctor, and an Escribano, confessed, took medicine, and wrote their wilL 
Letter-writing has of late years increased in proportion as letter-boxes have 
been established, the distribution made daily, and the stamps (seUos) di- 
minished in price. The total number of letters in 1846 was 19,044,958 ; 
in 1886, 128,417,000. 

• Letters, — Their delivery is well regulated, and, foreign letters some- 
times excepted, most of them end by arriving al puerto. Letters are 
never opened save during exceptional |)ronunciamte7ito moments and elec- 
tioneering time. Letters are addressed either to the correspondent's resi- 
dence, to which they are taken by the postman {el cartero)^ or left at the box 
till called for, poste restcmte, in Spanish Gorreo, Sr. Don stands for Senor 
Don (usual mode of letter address) ; PraL for Principal, the first floor ; 
2^ the 2d floor ; dha. for derecha, door on the right ; izda. for izquierday 
left K writing to a foreigner, poiU reetanU (write Lieta del correo at the 
bottom of the envelope), omit as much as possible all such words as Chris- 
tian, names, titles, Esq,, etc, and confine yourself to writing very legihly the 
surname. This will avoid loss of letters, and the confusion often arising 
from the difficulties experienced by the Spanish post-office clerks in de- 


dphering English names, and besides it facilitates research^ as all letters 
addressed paste reatante {correct are sorted alphabetically, or according as 
they arrive. Thus^ also, the addresses are copied and exposed on boards 
at the post-offices. Let the tourist, who wiU visit this building before 
any other, look into these lists ; when he finds his name down, let him 
take the number corresponding to it, write it clearly, and give it to an 
empleado. The passport is sometimes asked for, or in lieu an old letter- 
cover, or a card, wiU be sufficient to establish identity. We also advise 
tourists to go themselves to claim their letters, and also to post them, as 
* les voyageurs ont toujours tort.* If staying any time in the same town, 
letters had better be addressed to the residence. A cuarto is then paid 
to the cartero for every letter or newspaper. There is also a cwreo inte- 
rior distributed gratis in the town with a 2-cuartos stamp. The address 
consists then of the Senor Don, Christian name, surname, street, number, 
floor, etc., and at the foot ' correo interior.* Travellers and residents may 
also have a separate division for their letters, and an earlier delivery of 
them, by paying a fixed sum for this division, called el apartado — ^viz. 
240r. per annum in Madrid ; 200r. in some cities ; 160r., lOOr., and 80r 
only in others. The charge for postage is by weight, irrespective of dis- 
tance. The stamps are called sellos\ to fwink, franquear; an address, 
sobrescrito and las serias. 

Vocabulary for the Post-Office. 

The office, el despadw, 

A letter, wna carta. 

Postage-stamps, sellos del correo, 

A telegram, un telegramo (or) un parte telegrafieo. 

Where is the post-office ? Ddnde estd el correo ? 

Where is the telegraph-office ? D6nde estd la ofidna del telegrafo f 

Are there any letters for me ? Hay cartas para mi 9 

Here is my name (or) passport JEste es mi apellido (or) pasaporie. 

Where is the list ? D&nde estd la lista f 

Give me postage-stamps. Deme usted sellos defrcmqueo ; foreign stamps, 

sellos para el e,vtrangero ; Spanish stamps, seUos pa/ra el interior 
Is this letter too heavy 1 So^epesa esta caHa ? 
How much is it ? Oudnto vale ? 

Must this letter be prepaid ? Ha/y que franquear esta carta ? 
Will this telegram go to-day ? Se puede rmndar hoy este deapacho ? 
Is the office closed ? Mstd c&rrado el despaeho ? 
The postman* El cartero. 


Stamp Tariff, 

Letters for the Penvnmla and Isles, — 15 centimos for 15 grammee. 
Bat if withm same town 10 cents, for any weight. 

Do. to England, France, Germany, Kussia, and United States — 26 
cents, for every 16 grammes. 

Newspapers — 5 centimos for every 60 grammes. 

Pamphlets and papers fastened with an open band (faja) for directing. — 
To any part of Spain 1 cent, for every 60 grammes. To England, Prance, 
etc., 6 centimos for every 50 grammes. 

Post-ca/rds, — ^All parts 10 centimos. 

All letters must be prepaid, or they will be charged double. 

Fee for registration. — 76 centimos. 

N.B, — A single letter must not exceed 15 gramos. The tariff is 
likely to undergo changes. Stamps are to be found at aU tobacconists 
(estancos). The boxes are called Ivaones. Eegistered letters are called 
cartas certificadas^ and require special stamps obtained at and from the 


Telegraphs began to be established about 1855, and now ccmnect 
the whole country. The lines are all in the hands of the Government. 
There are day and night services in all the principal cities. A tde- 
gram, un despaeho telegrdfUo, may be written in French, but we advise 
correspondents in Spam to write theirs in Spanish. The tariff is as 
follows : — For messages of 15 words, including address and signature, 
for any part of Spain 1 peseta; for every word beyond fifteen 10 
cents. (For places within the same province only half these rates are 
charged.) For telegrams to France, 20 centimos per word, with a 
tax upon each message — liable to variation— of about 1 peseta 50 
cents. To England, 44 centss, per word, with a tax of about 2 pesetas 
upon each message. Special telegraph stamps are required ; Ihey may 
be obtained either in an adjacent office or in an estanco. Every 
word put down — address, signature, etc. — is counted ; also all syl- 
lables or words connected by a hyphen or apostrophe. The maximum 
extension of a word for European correspondence is fifteen characters, for 
extra-European ten characters. The writer of a message, by paying the 
cost of a telegram of ten words, may obtain from the office with which 
he is communicating an " acuso de recibo," by which he may know 



whether his telegram has been received at the office to which it was sent. 
He has then to add after the text^ and before the signature, the words, 
' Acuso de recibo.' By putting in the same place the words, * Colecci- 
6neee,' and by paying over again half the cost of- the telegram, he will 
obtain a duplicate of it sent by the office to which he transmits it For an 
dnewer paid, he ^inU write in the same place * repuesta (so many) palab- 
ras.' A receipt is always given by the office clerk to the telegram writer. 
The carriage of a telj^ram to the residence of the parties to whom it is 
addressed is 2r. ^el^rams can be sent poete restante (^ correo ') and fol- 
low the tourists who have informed the postmaster of the place they are 
going to, etc 


A hotel is generally called La Fonda (from fondak, Arabic^, a cara- 
vanserai). Posada (rest, repose, which it seldom afiforcls) is the hotel at 
small country places, of carriers, and is but a degree higher than a mesony 
the arrieros* usual inn. A Venta is a bye-way meson, where the accom- 
modation and food are equally bad. A Ventorro and VentoriUo are mere 
roadside pot-houses, where a bed is seldom to be found. La Tabema is 
the cabaret, the wine-shop. A Fonda is called sometimes a Parador^ 
from its being the inn where diligences stop {parar) for meals at differ- 
ent hours : lodging, meals (with wine), and service are usually included in 
the price. The charges in large cities vary from 35r. to 45r., but 30r. 
may be taken as an average. The table d'hdte (me«i red(mda) is gener- 
ieJly resorted to, although the company is often of a mixed character ; to 
put on a good face and pass on the dish to a neighbour is the surest way to 
avoid remarks and a bad dinner. The cuisine is now-a-days al estUo de 
Francia, and does not deserve the critique of the fastidious traveller. 
The Puchero is always served ; it is wholesome, abundant, and devoid of 
garlic and oiL The wine can be drunk with water. Never ask for either 
tea or coffee, except in the fhrst-dass hotels, but take them with you from 
England or Paris, and renew the provision at Gibraltar. Waiters at hotels, 
called camareros, are paid 2r. a-day ; the maid, doncella or eriaday about 
the same. 

There are in cities casas de ptipilos and de httespedes, or lod^^ngs, 
where meals at mesa redonda are included. The terms vary from 20r. 
to 34r. a-day. A very comfortable room can be obtained for 20r. arday. 
Those that are to let have a piece of white paper placed on a comer of 
the balcony. When not fnrmshed, the paper is placed in the middle. 
Living is in this latter way exceedingly cheap. Indeed, by knowing how 
to manage, an economical bachelor (and there are such beings in the 
world) can live at the rate oi £8 to £10 a-month. Young artists who 
have to make their way in the world, and to whom economy is a great 
object, often re&ain from a journey to this land of art, from fear of the 


expenses of travelling. This consideration should not deter them. Let 
them travel two or three together, learn a few of the most usefal phrases 
in Spanish ; they can go 2d dass by steamers from England to Cadiz. 
There, if they do not prefer the railway, and wish to see the scenery at 
leisure, they will purchase mules for ^^20 each, which will be sold for 
£16 ; and by roughing it a little, joining the arrieros, etc, they will be 
able to live for 4s. a-day, keeping besides the macho. M. Desbaiolles, a 
French painter, went thus with a brother artist all over Spain, and pub- 
lished his tour, ' Deux Artistes en Espagne.' 

Qeography and StatistiiMu 
Spain is situate between north lat 36^—43" 47", and west long. 9*^ 
17' to east long. 3"^ 20^ Its greatest length, from east to west, is 560 
miles, and breadth, from north to souths 540 miles Eng. The surface 
contains 193,000 sq. miles (three times more than England). The 
longest days and nights are — ^in the northern portion, of 15 hrs. 15 
min., and in the south, of 14 hrs. 30 min. Qeographical division, 
based on climate, is out of the question in a country that contains such 
variety of temperature under the same d^p^ee of latitude : that based on 
the physical configuration is easer. According to Mr. Bory de St Vin- 
cent, Spain may be divided into seven distinct chains of mountains : — 

1. PyreMBan — Comprises the Pyrenees, and the Asturian or Cantabric 

2. Iherian — Contains the Sierra de Molina, Moncayo, Oca, Albar- 
razin, and Cuenca, which form that vast reservoir from which the four 
largest rivers flow into the Mediterranean and the Atlantic ocean — namely, 
Guadalaviar or Turia, Cabriel, Jucar, and the Tagua The Sierra de 
Espadan rises here also, extending to tiie sea-coast 

3. CarpetaruhVettonUm — Constituted by the reunion of the Sierras de 
Quadarrama and Somosierra, which thus divide the Castiles. It com- 
prises also the group of the Gredas hills. Sierra de Ckkta, extending to 
Portugal Here are especially foimd those immense, denuded^ wind- 
blown table-lands called paramos^ which have a great influence on this 

4. The Lusitanian zone is the lowest and less important of all the 
Sierras, and belongs more especially to New Castile and Estremadura. 
It IB placed between S(miosierra on the north, the Molina and Cuenca 
ranges to east and south-east, Quadarrama to north-east, and Sierra 
Morena to south. 

5. Marian (Montes Mariani) is constituted by the Sierra Morena. It 
is the most metalliferous of all in Spaiu. 

6. Ctmcean — ^Formed by the range of hills that extend from Porta- 
legre, towards the south, between the Alemtejo and Algarves. It is but 
a prolongation of the Lusitanian zone. 


7. The BceUcan comprises the extreme southern or Andalusian poi- 
tion — namely, the ranges of Ronda, Alhama, Tejada, and Siena Nevada. 

Thus the whole country, a vast agglomeration of mountains, com- 
parable to a gigantic pyramid half-way severed, rises on an average in 
the central portions 2000 to 3000 ft above the sea (the central table- 
land is about 93,000 square miles). There are valleys situated con- 
siderably above 6000 ft These lofty ranges, were they seen from a 
baloon, would give one the idea of the mighty skeleton or carcase of a 
shipwrecked leviathan, whose bones protrude through the tawny skin 
and verdant soiL These intersect the surface in every sense, and have 
been most effective in creating differences of race, laws, and history. 

RrvsBS. — ^The Elro rises near Beynosa, flows for 450 miles, and 
empties its waters into the Mediterranean near Amposta. The Duero 
(Douro in Portuguese) rises in the Sierra de Urbion, north of Soria ; flows 
by Zamora for 460 mUes, and is emptied into the Atlantic below Oporto. 
Tie Tagu8 (el Tcgo) rises in the hills of Albarrazin, and after a course of 
600 miles, flows into the Atlantic at Lisbon. The Ottadtana rises in the 
Mancha, near Ahnagro, crosses Estremadura, and flows — after a course of 
620 miles — ^into the ocean at Ayamonte. The Chuzdalquivir rises in the 
gorges of Sierra de Cazorla, then, after a course of 400 miles, empties 
itself into the Atlantic near Cadiz. There are besides 60 to 70 minor 
ones, with thousands of tributaries. The beds of rivers in Spain are 
generally dry in sunmier, and become torrents in the winter and spring. 

Canals. — Canal Imperial de Aragon, begun in the reign of Charles 
in., formed with the waters from the Ebro, navigable from El Bocal to 
Almenara, and beyond used only for irrigation. Carud of Castile^ 162 
kiL long, from Alar del Hey to VaUadoUd ; navigable ; begun 1763. 
Canal of San Fernando^ not completed : the object is to make all the 
Guadalquivir navigable. CanaL de la AUmfera (Valencia) not concluded ; 
30 kiL long ; begins at Sueca. Canal de Urgel, for irrigation. Canal 
de Isabel II,; the most important ; the object, to supply Madrid and the 
provinces with water. Cawil de Esla, begun in 1864 by English 
engineers, and finished in the (for Spain) remarkably short space of five 
years, for irrigation purposes. 

Spain was formerly divided into fourteen large provinces, called by 
different names — Beinos (kingdoms), Senorios, Principados, etc In 1841 
this classification disappeared, and the country is now divided into forty- 
nine provinces. 

"Hie provinces are : Alava, Albacete, Alicante, Almeria, Avila, 
Badajoz, Balearic Islands, Barcelona, Burgos, Cdceres, Cadiz, Canary 
Islands, Castellon, Ciudad Real, Cordova, CoruSa, CJuenca, Gterona, 
Granada, Qaudalajara, Guipuzcoa, Huelva, Huesca, Jaen, Leon, Ldrida, 
Logrono, Lugo, Madrid, Murcia, Malaga, Navarra, Orense, Oviedo, 
Palencia, Pontevedra, Salamanca, Santander, Segovia, SeviUe, Soria^ 


Tarragona, Teruel, Toledo, Valencia, Valladolid, Vizcaya, Zamora, Zara- 
goza. It IB ecclesiastically divided into nine archbishoprics and forty- 
six bishoprics, and miHtarily into seventeen Capitanias-Generales. 

The Population amounted in 1884 to 17,000,000, or 88 inhabitants 
to the square mile. In the reign of Philip U. it was only 8,206,791. 

The standing army numbers 100,000 men ; the navy comprises 126 
ships (7 ironclads) with 366 guns, 14 torpedoes, and about 22,000 
men. For details on the trade, education, and everything connected 
with statistics, we refer our readers to the 'Anuario Estadistico de 
Espana,' which is published annually ; to the ' Bevista de Estadistica/ 
published at Madrid and Barcelona ; to Sr. Qarrido's excellent ' Espagne 
Oontemporaine ;' Bruxelles, 1862 ; Nervo's ^Espagne en 1867.' 

Maps. — ^The best maps of Spain are those published by Sr. D. 
Francisco Coella His Atlas of Spain and Ultramarine possessions, on 
the scale of ^0^359 iB being completed. The map of Spain, ordered by 
Qovemment and entrusted to an especial Commission of Officers, is fax 
from being finished. We recommend Cabanes' map, found in his ' Quia 
C^eral,^ useful as a general travelling-map ; but those who seek for 
more details and greater exactitude, those travelling in especial districts, 
riding or walking tourists, will do well to provide themselves with the 
Atlas of Madoz's Diotionaiy. Mcmsieur Dufour has also published 
separate maps of provinces, with routes. We recommend also, * Dic- 
cionario Qeografico-estadistico Historico' of Madoz and Coello, 16 vols. 
4ta Madrid 1848-60. Its price is high, but the contents are of great 
value and the statements are generally trustworthy. The Mapa Itinerario 
MUUar is detailed and fiGdriy accurate, but c^ows no mountain ranges. 

Of the Pyrenees — ^M. list's general map (Paris, Chaix), or that 
drawn up by the French Military En^eers. 


It would be a mistake to suppose that Spain is terra moognita to geolo- 
gists. Many regions there are, doubtless, where the hsoumer has not 
as yet sounded, but many more have been studied with care and intelli- 
gence, as weU. by native geologists as by foreign, and the list of works we 
subjoin will leave little doubt on the subject According to the aaoarUs 
who have explored this country, Spain is a most interesting field, and 
the study of its geological formations of a nature to enrich the science 
generally. Bounded on the N. by the Pyrenees and Cantabrio range, 
Spain is traversed obliquely, from KN.E. to W.S.W., by four orological 
systems or ranges, viz. — 1. The Sierra Quadarrama, which is joined to 
the Sierras de Qredas, Qata, Estrella, and extends to the ocean. 2. The 
Montes de Toledo. 3. Sierra Morena, forming the promontory to S.W. 
called Cape St Vincent 4. The Southern range, which comprises the 


Sierra Nevada, Tejada, and Ronda. They are, of course, of different perioda 
The earliest are in the centre of the Peninsula — viz, Montes of Toledo and 
Sierra Morena. This nucleus is entirely palssozoic. No portion of the 
secondary period is noticeable, not even the oldest triassic limestone. 

The carboniferous deposits are situated on the southern part of the 
range. They generally contain in the lower portion limestone, with 
fossils : among them ihe Frodwtue aemireticulatvs. The coal is found 
with conglomerates and limestone. The most important deposits are those 
of Belmez, Espiel, and YiUanueya del Bio, near Seville. As in Asturias, 
the strata are raised and often vertical. Devonian rocks are well de- 
veloped in the N. and S. of Almaden, and appear alternately with Silurian 
strata. The fossils are found in grit and limestone, more rarely in 
schists. The principal are : Froductus aubaciUeatvSy Zq>tama dutertrvi, 
Spirifer vemeUij Spirigera conoentrica, etc The upper Silurian rocks 
are not so fully represented as the Devonian. There are traces some 
19 miles N.E. of Cordova. But the lower Silurian rocks are well 
characterised in this range and the Montes de Toledo. They follow an 
ascendant direction, N. to S. The lower strata are composed of schists 
and prammites, then comes a thick mass of quartzite, not unlike the 
Stiperstone found near Caradoc. This rock forms the summits or edges, 
extending from E. to W., and also 10' to 16' N., 10' to W., or 16' S. 
At their base are situated the rich quicksilver mines of Almaden. The 
Silurian fossils fOQ found in dark-coloured schists. The trilobites are 
better preserved ; the principal are : Calymenetnstani, Asaphus nobilis, 
Dalmania, Fhillipaia, etc. 

1. Ouadarrama Eange, — ^Towards the S. and E. slopes carboniferous 
schists are met, especially near Tamajon, Yaldesotos, Betienda, and 
Sierra of Burgos, where there are also traces of vegetable fossils (ferns). 
Fossil deposits are found also on the way &om Hinarejos (province of 
Ouenca) to the coal-mines of El Vapor, at the points called ^ El Castel- 
lano/ and ' El Cerro del Hierro ' (the Devonian rocks contain iron here 
as well as in the Cantabric range). The principal fossils are : BdXmxmia 
{cryphams) OaUiteks, Spirifer, Terebr(Uitla gtberangeriy L&ptasna mwr- 
ekiioniy etc The GuacUmrama range crosses obliquely the great central 
plateau of Spain. It is one of the highest and l^est in this country. 
The gneiss and other crystalline schists that compose it are often mixed 
with granite. These represent some of the earliest rocks in Spain. 
According to Sr. Cas. del Prado, the crystalline rocks are crowned, to- 
wards the east, by schists and quartzite rocks, Silurian in all likelihood. 
Bilobites and saccharoid limestone are found. The strata of limestone 
which flank the Sierra have been by oscillation raised and again distorted 
by another, posterior to the miocene period ; and this explains the 
derangement of the deposits of that epoch. The ranges that frame the 
Peninsula to north and south are the most modem. 


^e Jurassic rocks, are not generally as well represented as the 
tertiary deposits and limestone* Those in tlie province of Ouenca, Va- 
lencia, of Burgos, etc., a^ interesting. . A very rich region of Jurassic 
fossils is situated north of Molina ; and beyond the Silurian axis of 
Pardos, Concha, Anchuela del Oampo, Maranchcm, eta, are worth visit- 
ing. All the species belong to the lias, and none indicate the presence 
of Oxfordshire rocks. ^ There are 104 Jurassic fossils in Spain. The lias 
and Oxfordshire stages are found in the Jurassic formation. The latter 
extend over t)ie east and south portions of Spain — Oatalonia, Valencia, 
Malag£^ Eonda — and lie i^n red sandstone. 

The Gantabric range, or prolongation of the Pyrenean system. — Here 
Devonian rocks contain great Palaeozoic riches. The Devonian period 
would seem to have been accompanied by great displacements of the sea, 
for the deposits are often of sandstone and conglomerates. Bed sandstone, 
in thick masses, seems to be the base in Spain of the Devonian system. 
They are impregnated with iron ; whence the establishments of Mieres in 
Asturias, and of Sabero in Leon. The sandstone rocks are surmounted 
with thick calcareous rocks, which form those sharp indented peaks of so 
picturesque an effect in the plains of Castile. The road from Leon to 
Oviedo is very interesting to geologists. The districts that are richer 
in fossils are : Sabero in Leon, and Ferrones and Avil^ in Asturias. Of 
these three there are about seventy-seven species known. They are 
indicative of the base of the Devonian formation, and constitute the Oerman 
*Jiingere Qrauwacke.' The upper portion of this series is composed 
of red limestone. There are also schists near Sabero and the fossil 
CcMrdivm paknatiim. The Devonian rocks extend over most of the south 
portion of the Cantabric range, in the province of Leon. Its fuller 
development is towards the north region of Asturias, and lies to the east 
under the carboniferous strata. The longitudinal axis of the Pyrenees is 
surrounded by cretaceous deposits. On the north slopes, from Font- 
arabia, across San Sebastian to Cape Penas, the sea-coast is flanked by 
limestone cliffo, the strata sink imder the sea, rise against the Cantabric 
axis, not without irregularity and dislocations. From north to south the 
cretaceous deposits extend 112 m. These abound mostly in the north 
of Spain, and are seldom met in the south, except near Malaga. The 
most important carboniferous deposits in Spain are situated on the two 
slopes of this range, especially in Asturias. The base is formed by thick 
limestone, very like Devonian rocks, and not unlike the scar limestone in 
the north of England. Above this there are some thin banks of the same 
alternately found with the first coal strata. In these are found well- 
preserved marine fossils, such as the Frodtu:tu8 semireticulattis, Productus 
pwndatus, Prodibctus cora, Spirifer Tmsqueims, etc., and the Fusulina 
eylindrica. The fossil plants belong to the ordinary flora found in most 
carboniferous deposits. Above are conglomerates and sandstone mixed 


with clay schists, to a depth of 2000 or 3000 metres. There are more 
than 80 coal-beda The stratification is irregular, and the strata often 
raised up to a vertical position. The Nalon traverses tiie richest por- 
tion. The limestone, which forms the base, rises to the summits of the 
Cantahric or Asturian range, and constitutes the hills of Cabrales, 
Covadonga, the picachos (or peaks) de JSuropa, as fiar as the sea, near 
Bibadesella, tiien continues to the east by the province of Santander and 
Palencia. According to several distinguished geologists (Mr. Forbes, etc.), 
Iieland must have been once joined, or very nearly so, to Spain, and to 
that cause is ascribed the similarity between portions of the flora and 
£auna of these two countriea 

Heights of the Frinoipal Banges. 
Spanish Pyrenees^ East 
PeakNMou, Ii,i68ft 
Monte Perdido, 10,994 ft. 
La Maladetta, 10,866 ft 

Pass d*oo, between valleys of Larbouste and de Lassera (Vdnasque), 9843 ft. 
Pass of Bielsa, between valleys of Neste d'Hune (Aragon), and of Puer* 
tolas, 8396 ft. 

Spanish Pyrenees^ Wcstf or Cantabric {^Asturian) Range. 
PeSa de Peflaranda (Leon), 1 1,03 1 ft. (?) 
Peak of Pefiamerata, 9450 ft. 
Cum de Poyales (Santander), 4559 ft. 

Sierra Morena, 
Puerto del Rey (Prov. of Jaen), 2251 (auth. Betancourt). 

PeSialara (Segovia), 8240 (auth. Bauzd). 
Monte del Leon de los 2 Castillas (Prov. of Madrid), 4657. 
Ciim de Mondalindo (Prov. Gaudalajara), 6045 (auth. Bauza), 
Peak of Sierra Cebollera (Prov. Soria), 6929 (auth. Conde de Villa Fuentes). 
Siete Picos (Segovia), 7298 (auth. Bauza). 

Sierra Nevada, 
Mula Hacen (Granada) 11,781 (auth. Clemente). 
Picacho de la Veleta (Granada) 11,597 (auth. Clemente). 
Alberea de Dueilas, 6272 ft. (auth. R. Clemente). 
Sierra Gador, 7130 ft. (R. Clemente). 

Lower line of snow on Sierra Nevada (15th August 1804), 9064 ft. (auth. 
R. Clemente. 

PeSas Blancas, 7605 ft. (auth. R. Clemente). 

For other heijsfats of Sierra Nevada see j 
See also for a more amp! 
Soci^uS de Geographie of f 

> or other heights of Sierra Nevada see oage sea. 

mole list of heiehts, besides Bauzi's, that published about 1831 by the 

r Paris, in ' OroTogie Francaise.' 

Pilb^Q, 73 ft. 
Burgos, 2873 ft. 
Escorial, 3683 ft 
Granada, 2681 ft. 

Heiqht op some Cities. 
Gibraltar (Rock), a94 ft- 

Madrid, 9384 ft. 
Murcia, 447 ft 

Segovia (Castle), 9209 ft. 
Zaragoza, 899 ft. 


Books of Reference,— /. B, Carrasco*s * Geografia general de Espafla ' (1861), 
contains a general account of the geology of the country. < Spain,* in Sampson 
Low's * Foreign Countries ' gives^ also a good brief sketch of the subject. The 
geologist will find in the Boletin and Memoires of the < Comision del Mapa 
Geol6gico de Espana,' published in yearly volumes, sketch maps and care^l 
descriptions of the geology of most of the provinces, with a great deal of useful 
topographical information. Many of these can be bought separately. The best 
Geological Map of Spain is that of Botella (Madrid, 1880). On the geology 
of Galicia and the Asturias a splendid work has been published by M. Charles 
Barrois (Lille, 1882). On the geology of the Pyrenees there are numerous 
papers, and a geological map of the Basque country in the < Bulletins of the 
Soci^t^ Ramond V.Y.' (Bagn^es de Bigorre), and in the * Bulletins of the 
Society G^ologique de France,* by P. W. Stuart Menteath. 

The above are new and reliable books of reference ; but there are older 
works which, if somewhat behind recent investigations, the student may pro- 
fitably consult. The following may be mentioned : — 

1. VemeuiPs 'Coup d'oeil sur la Constitution g^logique de plusieurs 
Provinces de PEspagne ' (Paris, 1853). M. Vemeuil was a collabomteur with 
Sir Roderick Murchison, and his large and complete geological map of Spain is 
still of great value. 

2. Ezquerra del Bayo : • On the Geology of Spain,' Quarterly Journal^ vol. 
vi., 1850. By the same author, * Estructura Geologica de EspaSa,* Memorias 
de la Real Academia de Ciencias de Madrid^ 1850, vol. ix. 

3. The * Memoirs of the Barcelona and Madrid Academy of Sciences ; * the 
• Dictionaries ' of Madoz and Miflano, etc. 

4. Hausmann: <De Hispaniae Constitutione Geognostica Dissertatio* 
(Gottingen, 1829) ; also his papers < Sur la Constitution G^l(^que de I'Espagne ' 
in the Annales des Mines^ 2d series, vol. iii., p. 375. 

5. WilkomnCs * Die Strand,* etc., on the Steppes of the Peninsula (Leipzig, 
1852) contains a map which botanists may also find useful 


Thb mining wealth of Spain has been always far famed. The Phoo- 
nicians weie the first people who worked the ezhanstless mines of 
Tarshish (Andalusia), and the accounts of writers such as Strabo (book 
iii.), Ovid, Siculus, Justin, Pliny, etc, do but confirm, if it were needful, 
the descriptions of the Spanish mines which we find in Scripture 
(1 Maca viii 3 ; 1 Kings x. 21 ; Jer. x. 9, etc) Love of gold has been 
often, almost always, the prime mover of all projects of conquest, war, 
and discovery, and Spain was the Peru of the Phoenicians and Romans. 
When America was discovered, a narrow policy prohibited the working 
of the Spanish mines, and exclusively favoured those of the New World. 
The quicksilver mines of Almaden were exempted, because they sent to 
Mexico yearly 6000 to 6000 quintals of ore (quintal rr-.lOi lbs.), neces- 


sary for the extraction of the precious metals. Government had the 
monopoly of mines until 1820, when it ceased. The precious metals 
imported by the Government from America between 1492 and 1803 
amounted to the value of ninety millions of dollars, according to 
Humboldt and Ustariz. The consequent stimulus given to the mining 
interest was soon felt. Thus, before 1820, the Royal ofjcina» only pro* 
duced 30,000 to 40,000 quintals a-year. ^ 1823 the produce rose to 
500,000 quintals. In 1824 the miniTig legislation was assimilated to 
that of France. In 1826 there were more than 3500 mines being 
worked in the Sierras of Gkidar and Lagar alone, and in 1827 the produce 
exceeded 800,000 quintals. Mining schools {Escvidm de Minos) were 
established at Almaden and Madrid. Several young men were sent to 
study the most approved systems at Freyberg, in Saxony, etc. Foreign 
capitalists have undertaken the working la esplotacion of several of the 
richest mines ; foreign machinery, worked by foreign miners, has been 
introduced, and the wealth derived has been very considerable. The 
mining fever or mania commenced to rage here about 1825, just when it 
was in the wane in England. . Many, most indeed, of the managers of 
the companies formed in the outset were ignorant, rash, over-coi^dent^ 
and in many cases dishonourable. Companies became hotbeds of law- 
suits and compromises, and, like the augurs of old, two managers could 
not meet each other without a laugh. This mania has subsided into a 
more business-like system, and the lesson has been profitable to alL The 
importation of Spanish ores to England is very considerable. Almost all 
the mercury supplied to England is derived from Spain — from the great 
Almaden deposits. 

Although Spain now exports minerals to a very large and daily 
increasing amount, the production might be enormously enhanced 
were tramways and roads established. The improved processes for 
smelting, etc., will also augment the produce. Thus recently the Spanish 
homo economico (economical furnace) has been substituted for the slag 
hearth, etc. ; by this a better produce of lead is obtained from the refuse 
products of the mines. Again, a great deal of lead and silver is saved 
by Pattinson's desilvering process ; and when Mr. Burnett applied suc- 
cessfully the process introduced by Mr. Richardson at Blaydon (hard lead 
converted into soft lead by calcining) to the softening of Spanish lead, 
this discovery led to a very extensive trade between England and Spain. 
The ores on the east coast of Spain are smelted with Newcastle coal, and 
the hard lead is brought to England to be there softened and refined. 
Our annual imports are about 25,000 tons, mostly from Linares. This 
Linares lead contains but a small quantity of silver, but many Spanish 
lead mines are exceptionally argentiferous. There is also importation 
into England from Spain of cupreous pyrites, used by alkali makers for 
the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 



In 1860 there were in Spain 1988 productive mines — that is, that 
were worked — occupying an area of 220,389,352 square metres. There 
were 3294 pertenenciaB, or rights of mining properties. 28,554 work^ 
men employed, and thirty-nine steam-engines, lie produce was : — 







Iron . 
Lead . 














Barilla . . 
Antimony . 
Zinc . . . 
Asphalte . . 
Manganese . 












How much these figures have altered in twenty-nine years may be 
gathered from the fact that the Kio Tinto mines, near Huelva, alone 
raise over a million tons of cupreous pyrites in the year ; in 1887 the 
export of iron ore from Bilbao was 4,361,332 tons ; while the produce, 
of quicksilver at Almaden during the year 1884 amounted to 43,100 
frascoes, or 1,487,266 kilogrammes. (This exceeds the production of 
the famous Califomian mines by over 1 1,000 frascoes. Since 1884 the 
production has remained almost stationary.) 

Hellin produces a variable quantity — sometimes up to 2000 tons 
per annum — of sulphur. Salt, a great monopoly, amounts to 
3,916,919*02 quintals, value of lll,249,661-14r. The total revenue 
of the Government from its own mines, and contributions from others, 
amounts to 140,051,7l8-37r. 

The miner and mineralogist should visit principally the mines ol 
Almaden, Linares, Rio Tinto, Logrosan, the salt pans of Minglanilla, the 
coal-fields of Gijon, and marble quarries of Granada and MacaeL The 
best season is spring and summer. An order from the Ministerio de 
Fomento will be requisite to visit the Government establishments. The 
collection at the Madrid Museo de Historia Natural is one of the finest 
in Europe, and that of the Escuela de Minas at Madrid will not fail to 
interest mineralogists. 

Books of Referenu, — 'The Anales de Minas.* 

Sullivan and O'Reilly : * On the Province of Santander.* London, 1863. 

Gcetschmann: * Bergbaukunst.' Leipzig, i866. 

Botella: *Descripcion Geologica Minera de las Provincias de Murcia of 
Albacete.* Madrid, 1868. 

VonGroddeck: * Lagersfatten der Erze.' Leipzig, 1879. 

y. A, Phillips: * Ore Deposits.* London, 1884. 

Nordenstrom : * Berg und Huttenmoenische Zeitung.* 1886- 1887. 

P, W, Stuart Menteath : * Sur les gisements metallifbes des Pyr^n^es 
Occidentales.* Bulletin Soc. GeoL, France, 1886. 


The Annual Commercial and Consular Reports for Spain. (London.) 

Various papers in the Revista Minera and in the < Boletin de la Comision 
del Mapa Geol6gico de Espana.* 

The older works which may be consulted, but which need continual correc- 
tion by reference to recent researches and operations, are : — 

Bowles : * Natural History of Spain. * 

Hoppensack : * Carte des Filons d*Almaden.* 

C. de Prado: 'Minas de Almaden' (Madrid, 1846). 

y. E. de Bayo: 'Apuntes,* etc 

Leplay: 'Observations sur THistoire Nat. et la Richesse Min^rale de 
TEspagne* (Paris, 1834). 

Cantalapiedra : * Guia del Minero.' 

The existence of gold mines in Spain is an old and favourite dream with 
Spaniards. Besides the supposed California said to be hidden in the barrancos 
near Granada there are other portions of the Peninsula that have attracted 
attention. See many papers in the Revista Minera by Maestre, Naranjo y 
Gaza, etc; also Viadera*s 'Terrenos aurfferos de la Prov, de Leon.' See also 
Burat's < Sur la Terrain m^tallif^e de TEspagne,' in the Institute 1846. 


The dimate of Spain has not been as yet sufl&dently studied. It is 
superior in all respects to that of Italy, being more southern, more 
sheltered from the north winds by the elevated sierras running east and 
west, and characterised by a more bracing, genial atmosphere. If we 
dassify the more important medical stations according to the prevalent 
atmospheric influence, we shall divide Spain into three main zones. 

1. Exciting climates, such as those of Nice, Montpellier, Florence, 
Naples — in Spain, Alicante^ Malaga, Valencia, Cadiz, SeviUe. 

2. Sedative, such as Pan, Rome, Arcachon, etc — Vigo, Granada, 

3. Relaxing, such as Madeira, PiBa, etc — Oviedo, Q^'on and all the 
north-west coast. 

Thermometrical and barometrical observations are no doubt very 
reliable indicators of the climate, but statistics in Spain are not suffidently 
advanced to allow us to gather any series of data. Zatittide, again, is not 
always the only rule to go by. Aititude, situation, and soil, are so 
many considerations to which attention must be drawn before a medical 
station be dedded. The warm, simny, still air that is constantly breathed 
in Spain ; the pure crystalline water that is drunk ; the doudless, deep- 
blue sky ; the wholesome dry wines, without acidity ; the quiet life that 
is usually led ; all contribute most powerfully to bring relief — often to 

The climate of Spain will benefit more generally patients suffering 



&om consmnption, bronchitis, and dyspepsia. The selection of a place of 
residence is most important, as mistakes arising from hasty decisions, or 
an imperfect acquaintance with the peculiarities of each, bring with them 
fatal consequences. We subjoin a list of the best works to consult on 
the matter. 

M</rtaliiy Table, showing the proportion of deaths to the number of 
the population in some of the principal medical stations : — 


I in 40 dies annually. 

In Nice 

[ in 31 




I „ 32 


I M 45 


I „ 224 


I ,,26 


I „ 25 


I „ 25 


I „ 28 

Barcelona i 



I „ 29 

Valencia J 

». 31 


I „ 34 

Alicante ] 

t ,,26 

Mean Tevrvperatv/rt oi some of the principal medical stations. 

Med. Stations. 









Torquay . 





Pau . 















Madeira . 










The annual amount of rain at — 

Nice is 26 inches 
Madeira ,, 29 „ 
Rome „ 29 „ 

London is 

Torquay is 28 inches 
Malaga „ 15^ „ 
Pau „ 43 „ 
27 inches. 

Invalids should undertake the journey to Spain about the middle of 
September, at that season when atmospheric changes become more 
sensible in England, and when acclimatisation in so different a latitude i£ 
more easily effected, the great summer heat having then considerably 
subsided in many points. After a winter's residence in a Spanish 
medical station, we may be pennitted to recommend, on good authority, 
to avoid by all mean's a sudden change by a hasty and untimely return 
to England, or any other country with a similar climate. "Kie transition 
might be made gradually by residences at Seville, Granada, or Barcelona, 
or at Nice, Pau, or Mentou. 

The best authorities on the climate of Spain are the following : — 




* Change of Climate, etc, with an Account of the most eligible Places 
of Residence for Invalids in Spain, Portugal, Algeria, etc.,' 
By D. J. T. Francis, MJ). ; London, 1853. 

* Du Climat de I'Espagne sous le Rapport MMical,* par 
le Docteur E. Cazenave (an Eaux Bonnes physician) ; 
Paris, 1863. 

' Spain and its Climates,' by Edwin Lee, Esq. ; London 

' Efemerides Barometrico-Medicas-Matritenses,* by Drs. 
Navarrete, etc. See also ' Memorias de la Real Academia- 

* Topografia M^dica,* etc., by Dr. V. Martinez y Montes ; 
4to. Malaga, 1852. Very valuable to the invalid who 
selects Malaga. 

Minano's ' Diccionario de Espana y Portugal,* Madoz's 
' Diccionario,* and the * ASo Cllnico de Cirugia,* etc., contain 
weather-tables, which may be consulted. 

Meteorological observations are made all over Spain 
with great care and intelligence, and sent by telegraph 
daily from the different stations to the central one, the 
Royal Observatory at Madrid, and published in the ofBicial 
' Gaceta.* 

Meteorology is not a novel science in Spain. Those 

curious to know more of this matter, and become acquainted 

with some now almost-forgotten Spanish meteorologists (see 

Cent, Fahr. Salv^ Pifialvcr, Garrido, etc.), may consult the interesting 

* Estudios Meteorologicos del Siglo XVIII.,' by Manuel Rico Sinovas ; 

Madrid, 1858. 

The accompanying diagram shows the corresponding degrees of the Centigrade 
Thermometers. C. Centigrade ; F. Fahrenheit. 

and Fahrenheit 

Mineral Springs and Sea-bathing. 

* Of all the countries in Europe, Spain is the richest in mineral 
springs.* Such is Dr. Cazenave*s opinion, and that of every competent 
person who has studied the subject ; and when communications are 
rendered more easy, and the accommodation improved, the celebrated 
springs of Germany and France will meet with considerable competition. 
There are upwards of 2000 springs — that is, 232 more than in France. 
Of these, eighty only are placed under a medical inspector. The bathing 
estahlecimientos are, generally speaking, defective, and the comforts attend- 
ing a cure made at Luchon, Vichy, Carlsbad, Swalbach, etc., are totally 
wanting here. But the efficacy of the water, and that is the principal 
object in view, is very great. The Romans and Moors, both great 


bathers^ and who would not, therefore, have understood the Spanish 
advice, *De los cuarenta arriba, no te mojes la barriga,* knew many 
springs and restored to them ; and they have left vestiges of their pre- 
ference. Thus, Alhama, a word applied to many springs, is the Arab 
'Al hdm&n* (Alhama de Aragon, Alhama de Granada); and Caldas, 
from the Eoman Calidas, is found in others, * Caldas de Monbuy, Caldas 
de Beyes, Caldetas, etcw The best season to go to the Ba&os is June to 
September. The establishments belong either to the State, private 
individuals, or companies. There is usually great cleanliness, and whole- 
some food is to be expected. 

A full and descriptive list of tiie baths and mineral waters is given 
in ihQ *Gula Oficial de Espana,' 1888, pp. 669-666. The list numbers 
171 establishments. Due care should be taken in any selection. See 
also a list at the beginning (^ the ^ Quia Oficial de los Ferro-Carriles."' 

Sea-bathing can be enjoyed during summer and autumn on the N.W. 
ooasta of Spain, at Gijon, Santander, Bilbao (Portugalete), and Zarauz, a 
wild little Guipuzcoan hamlet near San Sebastian. The latter is the 
most fashionable sea-side resort in Spain. On the shores of the Medi- 
terranean there is excellent sea-bathing at Valencia, Malaga, Alicante, 
and Barcelona. The most fa^ionable is the GabanM of Valencia. More 
south, the bathing and bathing edahUoimiento of Cadiz will tempt 
amateurs. There are, of course, difiEerences in the temperature, mineral 
composition, etc., of the two seas. The Mediterranean waters are warmer, 
less agitated, and contain a greater proportion of magnesium, etc., salts 
(2*2 5 more), etc., than the Atlantic. The wave is often imperceptible 
on the Mediterranean coasts ; and swimmers have never any distance to 
go to meet the open sea. The Mediterranean water acts, also, as a 
sedative, and must be preferred by certain temperaments, weak con- 
stitutions ; whilst the Atlantic is exciting, produces great and sudden 
reaction, and its use requires especial constitutions. There are no 
bathing-machines, but thatched huts, tents, or barraques, made of boards. 
The heat during summer at Alicante and Malaga is too intense to allow 
sea-bathing to be beneficial. Autumn would be a more appropriate 


As a science, has been very much neglected in Spain, though the number 
of publications on some branches is very great The Spaniard is not 
fond of gardens^ in our sense of the word, and ja/rdines are more seldom 
heard and seen than huertas (Jmertos also, from hortvs), * orchards.' That 
there were Botanical Gardens in the time of the Moors there is little 
doubt, and that of King Nasr, at Cadiz, under the direction of the botanist 
Al Shafrah, is mentioned more than once. Medicine, as usual, introduced 
the establishment of Botanical Gardens, and Doctor Laguna, in 1666, in 


his translation of Dioscorides, which he dedicated to Philip IL, entreats 
the king to found one, which he curiously says would turn to the benefit 
of Bis Majesty's health, besides encouraging ^la disciplina herbaria.* 
This request was acceded to, and a portion of the Aranjuez gardens was 
allotted to that object Subsequentiy were formed the private gardens 
of Simou Tovar (1695), Cortavilla, and Jaime Salvador, who, at tiie end 
oi the 17th century formed a most remarkable one at San Juan d^Esp^, 
on the banks of the Llobr^gat, and whose herbary (at Barcelona) is one 
of the most interesting, and contains a goodly collection of plants sent to 
him by his friends Toumefort, Boerhaave, Jussieu, eta, with the latter 
of whom he botanised in Spain. A Botanical Garden was established at 
Seville in the beginning of the 18tii century. That established at 
Madrid by Quer, 1755, was augmented by the addition of the French 
botanist Rigueur's collection. The present one was founded by Charles 
in., in 1774. Several were subsequentiy formed, and are still kept up, 
though rather neglected and weedy. The principal are at Madrid, Val- 
encia, Barcelona. There is a School of Forestry near the Escorial, 
with Herbarium, gardens, and all appliances for f^est culture and 
engineering. The botany of Spain, although imperfectiy known, is very 
varied and rich, the range extending over all the zones of vegetation 
known, from the fungus, Uredo nivalis, foimd under the glaciers of the 
Pyrenees, to tropical plants, such as the sugar-cane, banana, tobacco, etc 
The colour of the flowers in Spain is very riclT, deep, especially the reds 
and yellows. The odour, when the plant is not watered, is ddicate and 
subtie, but of no great intensity ; the size enormous, when properly 
cultivated on irrigated ground ; but this at the expense of odour, and, in 
fruits, of savour. At such heights even as 8950 to 12,762 ft. (Mula- 
hacen, ' Granada *), the flora is not destitute of interest The cryptogam- 
ous plants are munerous, and many quite novel The Alpujarras^ herbal 
is one of the richest in Europe, and its variety most striking as one 
ascends, witnessing in a few hours all the phases of vegetation, and all 
the climates. At elevations varying from 7000 to 9000 ft. we find the 
jumper, brushwood, PotentiUa nivalis, varieties of saxifrage, firs and 
birch-trees. From 6000 to 7000 ft. the coniferous, leguminous, rosace- 
ous, and cyperaceous plants are found, perennials of great variety, but 
annuals more especially, which do not grow much above this height 
From 3000 to 6000 ft. the vine ceases to ripen. But we find apple, 
pear, and walnut trees, barley and oats. The zone comprised between 1 200 
and 3000 ft contains oak forests, chestnuts, beech, cereals. At this 
elevation the vine and maize begin to cease in the northern regions, but 
not in the central, southern, and eastern latitudes ; and the olive and vine 
grow and ripen admirably about the plateaux of Toledo, Madrid, etc 
(2412 ft and more above the sea). From 1000 to 1200 ft is the region 
of all cruciferous and umbelliferous plants — ^the palm, sugar-cane, th« 

iK)TANY. XXXill 

otange, goyave^ wild gerauiuuis, wild crocuses, jonquils, rhododendrons, 
the palmito (Chanueraps humilU), etc. The botanist ^ould visit care- 
Mly the Sierras, about Cordova, where Dr. Amor y Mayor has collected 
some 1500 phanerogamous and cryptogamous varieties. The Sierras 
Morena and de Cuenca have been also little visited. The Pinares of Yal* 
sain, the forests of Cuenca, and those of the Cantabric range are very fine. 
The zones may be thus classified : the Northern, or Cantabric, which offers 
plants that belong to temperate Europe ; the Central region is a transition 
between the former and that of most Mediterranean continents within 
the same latitude ; the Eastern, which is essentially Mediterranean ; and 
the Southern, that bears an African character ; to which may be added 
the Western regions, very moist, and less warm than the Central and 
Eastern portions. Trees once abounded everywhere : the causes of their 
scarcity may be sought, not only in the despotism of the Mesta Monopolist 
Company of sheep-owners, whose flocks prevented plantations, but in the 
* Ordenanzas de Montes,' a law by which every two trees out of five that 
were planted belonged by right to the crown. The amount of timber in 
Spain is detailed in Mariana's 'De regis Institutione ;' Toledo, 1699, 
4to, p. 332, very scarce. 

There are several good Spanish herbaries which botanists may consult 
Sherard*s, kept at Oxford, contains plants sent from Spain by Salvador. 
The Linnsean Society of London possesses that of Linnaeus, which includes 
a large number of plants collected in Spain by Loeflfling and Alstroemer. 
In the British Museum may be seen part of the very complete Spanish, 
Peruvian, Chilian, and Philippine herbary of Pavon, Mutes, and Ruiz ; 
many portions from that of Sess^ y Mocino. The Madrid Botanical 
Garden possesses some curious ones of Pavon, Ruiz, Sess^, and other early 
Spanish botanists, of Haenke (South American plants), etc. The 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Barcelona contains portions of Pavon's 
herbary. In the School of Pharmacy, at Madrid, there ia an interesting 
Galidan herbary, collected by Pourret We may also mention, in Cadiz, 
that of Cabrera, belonging to Sr. Chape ; at Malaga, of Sr. Prolongo and 
Haenseler ; at Mahon^ of Sr. Hernandez ; in Madrid, of Sr. QraeUs, of 
Cutanda, and of Sr. Soils ; in Granada, of Sr. Aneo y Campo ; in Seville, 
that of the University. In the Escorial library, the one which is 
supposed enxmeously to be Mexican, and formed by Hernandez, Philip 
IL's doctor, proceeded in reality from Mendoza's Library, and the plants 
are European. It is placed in the Upper Library. In the lower one 
there is a Spanish herbary, raised by Ls^^asca, and shown to Toumefort 
when he visited Spain in 1688. In the Madrid Academy of History 
there is a small one of Fernandez Navarrete, who be^an a Spanish flora 
before Quer. 

Gardens, — The public flower-gardens, properly so called, are not very 
good, but flowers are grown largely for sale and are cheap. The roses 


and claveUi (pinks) are particularly abundant and in great variety. The 
best public gardens are tiiose of Bjurcelona and Valencia, together with the 
gtum-public grounds of the San Telmo palace at Seville and the royal de- 
mesnes at La Qranja and Aranjuez. The latter are in the formal Italian 
style, introduced with the cinquecento fashion, and adopted by Charles 
v., Philip II., etc ; and which the pseudo Louis-Quatorzised Philip V. 
encouraged considerably. The finest private gardens are about Valencia, 
Barcelona, and in Andalusia ; and the best gardeners are all Valencianos. 

BooJ^ of Reference. — * Curse de Botanica,' etc., by Dr. Miguel Cohneiro ? 
Madrid, Callega ; 3 vols. 1854; with woodcuts. The text is mostly taken 
from French authors ; but the organological vocabulary (with the Spanish 
equivalents for botanical terms), and his notes on the Spanish methods introduced 
by Kayo in 1632, 'Rivinos,' etc., as well as on botanical works, are useful ; 
and his 'Cuadro de las Familias Naturales' will be of some use to those 
botanising in Spain. 

Boissier*s 'Voyage Botanique dans le Midi de TEspagne,* Paris, 1839-45 ; 
*Catilogo Met6dico de Plantas Observadag en Catalufia,' etc., by Colmeiro ; 
Madrid, 1846, I vol. ; useful for the Catalonian Flora and local nomendature. 
A sketch of the history of Spanish botany may be found in same author's 
* Lusago Historio,* etc ; Barcelona, 1842 ; and a paper on the formation of a 
Spanish flora by same, in Italian, 'Prindpi che devono regolare una Flora,' 
etc., published at Lucca, 1843. 

Rossmassler's * Reise-Erinnenmgen aus Spanien.' Leipzig, 1854, 2 vqIs. 

* Manual de Botanica descriptiva,* by Cutanda y Amo. 2 vols. 54r. 
Schimper's * Voyage Geologico-Botanique dans le Sud de PEspagne,* in the 

review * L'Institut,* p. 189 ; and Moritz Willkomm's * Die Strand,* etc., on the 
steppes or baldios of Spain ; with a botanical map. Leipzig, 1852. 

< Diagnoses Plant nov. Hispanise,' by Renter, who travelled in Spain in 
1 841, and wrote an interesting < Essai sur la V^tation de la Nouvelle Castille.' 
* Flora Hispanica,' Willkomm and Lange, 3 vols. 8vo, Stuttgardt, 1 861 -1880. 
Most reliable. 

'Notes sur un Voyage Botanique dans les lies Baleares et en Valence.' 
Par E. Barnat et W. Barbey. Geneva, 1882. 

* Dicdonario de los nombres Euskaros de las Plantas en correspondencia con 
los vulgares Castellanos y Franceses y cientificos Latinos.' Por D. J. M. de 
Lacoizqueta. Pamplona, 1888. 

Annual Reports of School of Forestry in Spain. (London.) 

The 'School of Forest Engineers in Spain,' by Dr. J. Crombie Brown 

(Edinburgh, 1886, Oliver and Boyd), gives usefUl information and references, 

with catsJogue of recent Spanish works on the subject. 


A LiGHi; easily- worked, and most fertile soil, a combination of great heat 
and moisture, absence of untimely frosty vast extents-all contribute to 


make Spain a pre-eminently agricultural country ; and the Spaniard, a 
man of few wants, has always preferred agriculture to trade and industry. 
The reason is obvious : the sol criador^ the sun — ^that great natural feumer 
of Spain — supplies every want, clothes, feeds, and makes a perpetual 
summer and harvest ; besides which, the Spaniards were obliged to limit 
themselves to agriculture by the circumstances of their history and 
character. Constant wars on one side, and on the other want of roads, 
hindered the steady development of trade. Commerce, which requires 
order, regularity, keeping accounts, intercourse with strangers, and some 
knowledge of tongues — all things which a ' labrador ' knows not, he 
naturally despised. Trade, moreover, was scorned by proud hidalgos, 
whilst farming has always been considered by them a gentleman's pursuit 
like all soldiers, the Spanish hidalgo did not disdain to occupy his leisure 
hour, between campaigns, with the cares of looking alter his estate, thus 
living as the Romans did, ense et aratro. But even that fanning was 
prosecuted chiefly with a view to increasing the rude sinews of war, by 
the production of flour and wool ; and, like other warlike nations, the 
Spaniards put great value on their flocks, which they could move from 
place to place, as the exigencies of the time required. 

Omnia secum 

Armentarius Afer agit ; tectumque, laremque, 
Armaque, Amycloeumque canem, Cressamque pharetram. 

Virgil, GVt^. 

Even when permanent conquests fixed them anywhere, their farm- 
houses became castles, their meadows fields of battle, and their plough- 
men and drovers all fighting men. Thus a peasantry, all guerilleros to 
the bone, living amid perpetual border warfare, exposed to the raids of 
the Christians and talas of the Moor, was not likely to possess artificial 
pasture and forests, and rather adopted extensive than intensive agricul- 
ture. The methods and implements employed were preserved as the 
traditions of the earlier races handed them down, with such changes only 
as the nature of the soil and climate might suggest The different races 
who settled in Spain did so in those parts which were more congenial to 
their temperament, and possessed of greater similarity to their own native 
land ; and to this day the practices of i^culture are but the slow growth 
of the seeds sown by the passing rulers. The Basque and Asturian 
agriculture is still that introduced by Celts and Cantabrians ; the Greek 
and Carthaginian methods are now in use in Cataluna and the Mediter- 
ranean coast The Goth and Moor live in the rural methods, and the 
farmer^s calendar of Central and Southern Spain ; and the Berber and 
Bedouin farmer, if landed in the hueria of Valencia, would have little to 
forget and nothing to learn anew. Varro, Columella, Virgil, and Abu- 
Zakarias — nay. Homer and Hesiod — seem to have written for the ^>aniAb 


farmers of the niB^teenth century. The descriptions of the cultivatiou 
of vines, olive, and rural festivities now in use will be found in the books 
of Amos, Joel, and Deuteronomy. The plough, trilla^ and other imple- 
ments resemble those seen on the monuments of Egypt and Asia Minor. 
The causes of this were constant war, which thinned the population to 
such an extent that it once did not reach eight millions (though Spain is 
almost twice as large as England, and only one-tenth smaller than 
France) ; religious intolerance, which drove away the industrious Moor 
and wealthy Jews, the marrow of the nation ; hatred to foreigners, of 
which four hundred and fifty thousand were expelled under Philip IL, 
at the suggestion of the Council of Castile, who declared ' que es conveni- 
ente excusar el trato y comercio con eUos, porque solo sirven hacer 
d^truir el reino/ adding the charitable hope that the king may oblige 
them, ' que se vayan & sus tierras ;' misffovemment, and the heavy taxes, 
tithes, and vexations of which the farming class was the object ; the 
institution of La Mesta and other privileged societies of ganaderos 
(breeders), creating a monopoly detrimental to husbandry ; the ahsorpti^m 
of property hy the few, which chiefly arose from the distribution of the 
land conquered from the Infidel among the principal military chiefs ; the 
absenteeism of those courtiers who remembered that they had estates only 
to exact soldiers or to raise money from ; the discovery of America and a 
thirst for gold, which made the farmer leave his hard-earned crop for the 
Eldorados of the New World ; and, finally, insecurity and centralisation. 
These, we repeat, are the causes which have paralysed the development 
of the natural resources. When a pause ensued after the Peninsular War, 
a desire for rest, which so strenuous an effort commanded, and the irre- 
sistible influence of progress, b^an to be felt ; and though France had 
fattened the Spanish soil with the bodies of its generous sons, the seeds 
that she had dropped in the furrows which her sword had opened now 
grew and prospered. Church property was sold and divided ; the law of 
primogeniture was aboHshed ; 8,470,008 acres of forests belonging to the 
State were declared desamortizables ; and the produce in the year 1850 
alone of the Bienes Nacionales amounted to <£l,0 19,360. The conse- 
quence has been that a middle class, a bou/ryeoisie, has sprung up, eager 
of power, of wealth, of liberty, that scorns an impotent nobility, and 
tenders the hand to the hardy, though indifferent lower classes. The price 
of good land is increasing, wages have risen, security has been guaran- 
teed by the organisation of the Guardia Civil. Kailways are contributing 
powerfully to the prosperity of the agricultural classes. French books 
are studied, and English machines are introduced ; several Government 
agricultural schools and model farms have been established at Vitoria, 
Tolosa, Barcelona, Aranjuez, Nogales (province of Leon), of which the 
directors have studied at Oriynon, and the pupils have been sent aa 
eapatazes all over Spain to manage large farms according to the most 


approved system. A gtuto or fieuBhioii for gented farming ib even affecting 
some of the nobility, who now go as far even as three miles whenever 
their estates are within that distance of the Corte. Agricultural exhibi- 
tions take place periodically in the principal cities of Spain, while several 
fanners^ dubs, (uocicusumesy arise here and there, publish reviews, and make 
experiments. Free-trade is discussed, though not as yet adopted. In a 
word, the wheel has been set in motion — it turns and advances. May 
Government, the hostile ignorance of the peasantry, and civil strife, not 
drive it again into the rut. 

Taking the range of climate which prevails, and the principal product 
which it determines, we shall classify Spain into five agricultural regions— 
viz. that of the North, or of maize ; that of the East, or the orange ; 
that of the South, or tiie vine ; that of the West, or pasture ; and that of 
the Centre, or com. 

The North Region, or of Maize, 

Includes the northern portion of Cataluna, Aragon, Navarre, Basque Pro- 
vince, Astuiias, Galicia. The principal products are : — ^Maize or Indian 
com, fruit-trees, cattle. Com scarcely ripens, and the vine produces an 
inferior wine, the acidity of which, caused by a relative want of sun and 
certain minerals in the soil, unfits it generally for exportation. There 
are marked exceptions, of course, and some good wine is produced and 
exported in Cataluna, Aragon, and Navarre. Maize is cultivated chiefly 
in the Basque Province, Asturias, and Qalicia, where it constitutes the 
principal food of the people. A hectare (2^ acres) produces on an average 
50 to 58 hectoL (137 bushels), weighing 60 to 70 kiL (140 lbs.) ; the 
straw is used for fodder and food of cattle ; the grain produces more 
butter than milk, and fattens quickly. It is sown in May and June, in 
lines at intervals, ploughed in or buried with the foot Weeding takes 
place once (July), and the reaping in August or September. The ears of 
maize are exposed for some time to the air, and hang in thick golden 
clusters around the feurm-windows, and from under the projecting roofs. 
The thrashing takes place with flails, or a special machine. The produce 
reaches 700®/o ; and requires irrigation in the centre and south of Spain. 
Although there are very large estates in Aragon and Cataluna, property 
is very much divided ; farms seldom extend over seven acres. The 
wooden plough is used, with an orejera, or share ; but cultivation is more 
practised with a two-pronged fork, laya, the identical mattocks mentioned 
in Froissart's * Chronide,* and Churchill, * The Duellist,' book 11. The 
Aragonese make use of the azadon, or pickaxe, and are first-rate at digging. 
Green hedges divide property in tiie Basque Provinces and West — an old 
tradition, handed down by their forefathers, the Celts and Cantabrians 
(Virgil, Georg. book 2, v. 370 ; Csesar, 217) ; but in Cataluna there are 
none, as neither in Castile, for ' the hidalgo cannot wall in Spain,' says 



the pioud legislation of ancient times, and instead they have land-marks. 
moj<me9 — ^that is, mere stones placed de comwn acuercto, and never trans- 
gi^essed — ' Thou shalt not remove thy neighbours land-mark which they 
of old have set in thine inheritance ' (Dent xix. 14) ; and in the Gothic 
legislation, he who dared to break through a hedge received fifty lashes 
(For. Tur. b. 8, tit 2, cap. 6 and 7) ; the Basques, therefore, make them, 
as Chaucer says, ^ a hegge as thicke as a castel walU The hills are 
clothed with timber ; chestnuts, pears, and apple-trees grow plentifully on 
the slopes ; and excellent cider, pomarada, is made. The rotation of 
crops is biennial : frst year, wheat or clover, turnips, and red clover ; 
sectmd year, Indian com, beans, and turnips. The cattle are short-homed, 
small ; us^ for milk, and the plough in lieu of oxen and mules ; mostly 
imported from Brittany and Santander ; and 3rield 4 to 10 quarts a-day. 

The South Region, or o^Viner, 

Indudes Seville, Cadiz, Granada, all Andalucia. The soil here teema 
with generation ; the fertility is especially great in irrigated soils, where 
abundance and size make up for want of flavour and delicacy. The hills 
abound with timber. An aramada (an English acre all but a tenth) is 
valued in the province of Seville to produce as in the following table : — 

Irrigated Soil. 


For Cereals. 













>f 9/17/3 

Property is very little divided, and some estates in the province of Cadiz 
amount to 36,000 aianz., in which 800 mules plough the land, and are 
valued about J&l 60,000, such as that of Enrile and Velazquez. The 
wages are 4 to 8r. (lOd. to Is. 8d.) a day ; the produce 4 to 5 per cent. 
The Vine* — Spain possesses a soil especially suited to its cultivation, 
and though grown all over the country, this is its native district. The 
different modes of cultivating it were introduced by the Bomans. The 
ground is first deeply ploughed, then large and deep hoyos (pits), two to 
three yards distant, are dug, the intervals being shorter if the soil is turned 
with the pickaxe. Wine is produced in two and a half to four years after 
the planting, an aranzada yielding from 80 to 300 arrobas of grape, con- 
stituting a earga, or load ; that is, 8 arrobas of grape produce 3 arrobas 
of wine. In some parts, however, 2 arrobas of grape make 1 of wine (an 
arroba, 3 J gallons). The cost of vintage (vendeja) — ^treading (pisa) yielding 
the most (arregio de mosto) — ^averages 3r. (7d.) per cai^ The vineyards 
are guarded by sheds and turrets, just as in Numbers xxii. 26. 

* For fuller particiilars on Spanish wine, see page xliv. 


The Olivb grows everywhere in Spain, but more especially in Uie 
region of the south. The most celebrated are in Coidoya, the olivaru of 
Calera, Lucena, and Montoro in the province of Jaen ; those of Andujor, 
Bailen, and La Aldea ; those in the neighbourhood of Granada are also 
excellent ; howbeit, the Sevillanas bear the palm. The cultivation is ill 
understood. The best soil for the olive is that where limestone prevails, 
and the best species is the comicabra. A fanega (1^ bushel) of olives 
gives 15 to 18 lbs. of oil. An aranzada produces 12 arrobas, which 
make 325 lbs. of oil ; this is the minimum type. The value of 12 
arrobas produced by an aranzada is 550r.,the cost to produce them 350r. 
The liquid amount is about 1200r. {£\2 : lOs.) ; each olive*tree gives 
half-a-fanega of olives per year, and the aranzada 20 to 25 ; but trees 
are knoWn to yield as much as 8 and more. They are plants in rows ; 
a branch is cut in January, the end opened by four slits ; it is then 
planted, banked, and watered for two or three years, and pruned into 
four or five branches. They begin to produce at the eighth year, but 
twelve and eighteen are necessary to reach the highest produce. The 
berry in the central and northern regions of Spain does not ripen till the 
end of December, but in Andalusia early in the autumn. The process 
for making oil is stiU very primitive, though hydraulic and other 
machinery is being gradually introduced. Olives are also preserved to 
be eaten whole ; for this they are picked before they are quite ripe, and 
steeped in brine. The olive is nutritious, but heating. Most of the 
sorts used now bear the old Eoman names (Columella, 5-8). They are 
dearer now than they were at Eome, when *olei librsB duodenes assibus' 
(Pliny, 15, 1). Oil, acdte, the Arab's azzait, is a substitute for butter 
and grease in Spain. They make with it a dish called vrdgaSj which is 
a compound of crumbs of bread fried with oil, salt, and pepper — the 
Latin poet's * mica vocor quid sim cemis csenatio parva ;' and gazpacho, 
or bread soaked in oil. The oil consumed in Spain amounts to 6,556,500 
gallons, being 4 gals. 6 pints per head ; while the consumption of meat 
is 23-03 lbs. 

Li this district the vegetables are excellent, some of enormous size. 
The Cordovese artichokes were a relish at Eome (Pliny, 19, 8). Melons 
{andrejuelai) and water-melons (sandtas), citrons and limas, are most ex- 
quisite ; so are the pomegranates {granadas) which were sent to Abdur-r- 
rh^an from Baghdad, and therefore called jafaries — ^Arabicfe, travellers. 

The East Region, (n' of Orange-Trees, 

Licludes £. and S. Cataluiia, Valencia, Alicante, Murcia, Malaga. This 
is tiie paradise of the fetrming Moor, the richest soil in Europe, and one 
of the best cultivated ; every tropical plant grows and thrives admirably 
—rice, sugar, cotton, wine, oil, silk, com. Taking Oastellon for average 


type, the hanegada (32 square poles) is valued from 2000r. {£2\) to 4000r. 
( J42), if irrigated ; the rent and value of the Huerta (orchard) are in pro- 
portion to tiie period and growth of the plantations. The naranjales 
(orange*grounds) are divided intd three classes on an average ; the hec- 
tare is valued at 98,000 reals, each tree produces 700 reals, and the 
hanegada contains ahout twenty trees. The arrendamiento (farming-lease) 
of a hanegada planted with orange-trees, from 15 to 20 years old, is 250 
reals (£2 : 12s.) — ^viz. 1220r. per hectare (2^ acres) ; the trees begin to bear 
fruit after the sixth year, and improve up to 20 years, after which they 
degenerate ; they flower in March. * It rarely happens to find a plant 
vigorous enough to have, like the orange-tree, at once beautiful shining 
leaves, fragrant flowers, and delicious nourishing fruit * (Spectator ^ mem. 
155). The exportation is very large. Including lemons, the value of 
the trade with Great Britain alone during the year 1887 amounted to 
.£1,014,650 (other fruits ^1,237,964), and exportation to Germany and 
other countries is on the increase. The oranges are picked in a some- 
what desultory manner from October to March, wrapped in paper, and 
packed in boxes containing 700 to 1000 each, and worth to the 
importer from twenty- five to thirty shillings; they ripen during the 
voyage. The finest naranjales are at Ricote, Murcia, at Cullera, Alcira, 
Gandia, Carcagente. 

Rice, — Considerably produced and consumed in this region ; intro- 
duced by the Carthaginians and cultivated by the Arabs, who called it 
arrdz, and sowed it on both irrigated and non-irrigated soil : it is now 
principally produced in marshy swamps, called marjales or currcwzalet^ 
ague-feeders, that produce great mortality among the cultivators. A hec- 
tare produces 20 to 50 hectolitre of grain (a hect. = 5^ qrs., and the 
stalks weigh 85 cwt.) The fertility which 100 kilogrammes of rice-grain 
and straw draw from the soil is equal to that contained in 135 kiL of 
good manure. 

Bugar-CwMy introduced by the Arabs, is limited to the province of 
Malaga ; the cultivation does not extend, owing to American competition ; 
grows only on irrigated soiL The sugar produced is only 10 per cent, 
whilst in Cuba 15*4 to 17*6 ; a hectare of sugar-cane yields 2900 kiL of 
sugar. This Arab mkhir and Sanscrit sarkara was, according to some, 
imported from Sicily by the Carthaginians, and exported by the Spaniards 
to St. Domingo, though indigenous in that country. 

The Raisin, — There are pasas of three sorts — ^moscatel, de sol (sim 
raisin) and lejias, so called from the liquor ley in which they are dipped, 
composed of water, ashes, and oil, after which they go through the usual 
process of drying in the sun. The finest are those from Malaga, which 
fetch a third more than any other in the London market. Tlie annual 
exportation is about 2,500,000 boxes, 22 lbs. to a box. 

Batatas (Gorwolvulus batatas, L.) — Another produce of Malaga, ira- 


ported from Sonth America ; used as a sweetmeat, aiid excellent when 
boiled, planted in spring, and taken up in autumn. A hectare yields 
thirty to sixty thousand kiL The leaves are eaten by cattle. 

StUks, — Chiefly at Valencia, where the mulberry grows admirably, and 
the silk is excellent. The methods practised are antiquated ; the PhdUena 
hombyx is commonly employed. The cocoon weighs only 2 grammes, whilst 
that of the Borribyx cUlas, at the Vincennes model-&rm, weighs 9. The 
trade is slightly on the increase. 

Cotton. — ^Ilie soil and climate are favourable, but man is unequal to 
either. In Motiil (province of Granada), towards the end of the last 
century, 1781 marjales produced 12,000 arrobas (300,000 fbs.) The 
Arabs cultivated it on the Andalusian sea-shore. We have seen fine 
specimens at Elche (Alicant). A hectare (2^ acres) yields in a quin- 
quennio, or period of five years, 6200 kil. (102 cwts.), which, at Uie lowest 
price (4r. 25c. per kiL, 10^.), arc valued at 26,100r. (;£272), the expenses 
to 18,495r., the net produce being therefore 1540r. (XI 5 : 16 : 6) per hec- 
tare ; whilst in Algeria the maximum produce is 1 200r. (£1 2 : 1 Os.) per hec- 
tare. In 1808 there were as many as forty thousand maijales planted in 
Motril ; it decreased again during the Peninsular war, and is very slowly re- 
covering. Land is veiy cheap, and were English companies to buy up a large 
extent, and cultivate cotton, the result would, no doubt, prove satisfactory. 

Irrigation. — The huertas of Valencia, Murcia, and vegas of Granada, 
are the great centres of irrigation. The celebrated tribunal de las 
Aguas, at Valencia, applies to this day the code of laws introduced by the 
Goths and Arabs. The noria, or Arab anaoura, is a large water-wheel, 
armed with jars (alcahuces) which descend into the well, and, as they rise, 
following the motion of the wheel, discharge their contents into a reservoir. 
There is irrigation by agua de pi^ (running water) and agua de noria, 
artefacto, arte, as these wheels are called, according to the province where 
they are employed. By means of irrigation, Alfalfa (Lucerne) is mowed 
twdve to sixteen times. Guano is now much employed by farmers in 
the Huerta of Valencia and other enterprising districts. The neces- 
sity of irrigation, and when obtained, in this parched-up soil, the aug- 
mentation of the value of land, will appear evident when we state that, 
whilst in the province of Murcia unirrigated (secano) land sells from ;£12 
to £30 per acre, irrigated (^egadio) land fetches prices varying from ;£300 
to £600. In the Huerta of Valencia, the proportion is £6 to £12 in the 
first case, and £300 to £400 in the second. Again, while the value of 
a cubic foot of water per second is in Lombardy £8, and in Piedmont 
ITs. 6d., it is often sold in Spain at the rate of £300 the cubic foot per 
second, and sometimes exceeds this price. 

The West Region, or of Pasture, 

Includes Estremadura and portions of Leon : contains little more than 
59 inhabitants per square league ; consists of large wastes, valdios, and 


pasture-land. The agriculture is strictly pastoral. A company of sheep 
proprietors, called Concejo de la Mesta, was established in 1556, to which 
most exclusive and arbitrary privileges were granted. In the 16th cen- 
tury they possessed seven millions of sheep, in the 17th century only 
two and a half. It was suppressed in 1834, and the remnant, the now 
unprivileged Associacion de Gkmaderos, possesses only five millions. The 
flocks are divided into estantes (stationary) and troshiMnantes, or migratory, 
and divided into detached cabanas (from the Greek kapane, a stable), of 
about 10,000 head each. The highland summer pastures are called 
agostaderos (August, from agostar, to be parched witti heat, aa mesta comes 
from mestaly a barren uncultivated land), and are quitted about October 
for the tnvemadores, winter quarters, in the warm plains ; each cabana is 
directed by a Mayoral, or Merino, who has under his orders fifty shep- 
herds. The free sheep-walks, * Canada de Paso,* now suppressed, were 
90 ft. wide, and were left on each side of the highway, an organisation and 
custom well known to the ancients. (Pliny, 21, 10 ; Varro, 22, 10 ; 2, 2.) 
The merino breeds were so called from the conductOT^s name (whence those 
jurisdictional districts called merindades, et3rmolpgically to divide, to 
separate, as in Navarre, to this day). Spanish sheep were always cele- 
brated, and some fetched at Bome as much as ;£200 (Columella, B.C. 42). 
Gteorge in. was a great patron of the breed, and the late king of Saxony 
imported it. Indeed, such has been the care and intelligence shown by 
English and Germans, and the neglect of Spanish breeders, that the wool 
trade with Spain has become insignificant compared with that of Ger- 
many and Brazil, and merinos are now imported from those countries to 
regenerate the Spanish breeds ! Spain in 1859 possessed about seven- 
teen and a half million head. The net produce of a sheep is 4r. to 6r., 
and the price 33r. to 36r. 

Swine are another produce of this region, and the bacon and hams of 
Montanches and the strong chorizos are celebrated all over Spain. 

The Central Region, or of Corn, 

Includes the Castiles S. of Leon, Mancha, etc. This region consists of vast 
treeless plains, where com thrives wonderfully, and might indeed become 
the granary of the world. An aranzada (nearly an acre) is in general 
sown with a fanega and 6 cuartillos (1| bushel) ; in Andalusia it yields 
from 13 to 20 fanegadas. A fanegada of land in Castile yields 9 to 30. 
There are a gleat many varieties of com, all divided under the heads of 
caMvanos and caTiimacizos — that is, hlandos and duros ; 90 lbs. weight of 
wheat yield 115 lbs. of bread. Much barley is also grown, but is princi- 
pally given to horses and cattle. The great wheat districts are Psdenda, 
Valladolid, Zamora, with Old Castile, * tierras de pran llevar* is applied to 
land which grows it more especially. All com is sown broadcast on fallow 
land and ploughed in ; the sowing takes places from October to Novem- 
ber, In the spring the escarda (weeding) takes place and in July and 


August the Teaping begins, which is done with the sicUe, not the scythe, 
a slower but surer process in this climate. The thrashing-floors (eroa), 
la trilla, the wooden or stone roller nsed in some disticts, and in others 
the treading the com with mules or oxen, are all Eastern importations, 
and such as practised now in Egypt and Asia Minor. The plough is an 
elm^tree, alamo negro ( Ulmns nigra), stripped of its bark and branches, 
save a lower one, which is sharpened and coated with a thin sheet of 
iron ; the trunk forms the pole, and lies obliquely between the oxen or 
mules' heads ; no traces, no reins are needed, the voice alone suffices to 
guide the yunta, and the gamm follows rather than directs the plough, 
holding the single handle with his left hand, and with a short goad 
(^avilan) scrapes off the mud, roots, etc. But the goad he manages to 
leave behind in the apero, which is often two or three leagues distant ; 
and he will go on singing, as he ploughs, some wild ditty to the winds 
and his lass, looking back rather than forward, contrary to the injunc- 
tion of the Bible. The vertedera (versoir), or iron-share plough is little 
known, nor rollers and harrows, as we understand them. The ploughing 
is very light, what the Eomans called scari/catio. The furrows seldom 
exceed eight inches ; its different operations are reduced to 4 rejas ; the 
plough costs from 50r. to 75r. (lOs. 5d. to 15s. 7d., and weighs 25 lbs.), 
and weighs one arroba ; ploughing otherwise is scorned, ' arado rabudo 
y labrador barbudo.' The rotation of crops is unknown, and would 
scarcely be possible without manure or water. The most usual system 
IB that of ano y vez (every other year). Thus the soil cmly bears a crop 
every second year, and resU — ^that is, is manured by the air — ^the other. 
Wages vary firom 4r. to 8r. (from lOd. to Is. 6d.) The Castilian labra- 
dores are far from indolent, rise with the cock, and are harder workers 
than is generally believed. 

Sajff^f azafran (Arabic^ saffrd, yellow), is also extensively grown ; 
and garbanzos (cioer, undt Cicero, whose wart was like one). This chick- 
pea, the French poig-chiche, is farinaceous, somewhat fade, but JlUs the 
(mche, aadihat is all that is required. It is, moreover, grown without 
irrigation, and yields plentiful crops. This pea, quite a Spanish pro- 
duce (' Espana, la tierra de los garbanzos *), enters largely into the daily 
food of the poor and rich man alike, for the oUa or puchero appears on 
the queen's table every day, as it does between the crossed legs of the 
squatting albafUl, or ploughboy. The oUa (oUa, a pot, a pipkin) or 
pnchero, and also eoetdo, is the Spanish staple dish. It is a compound 
of stringy, dried-np beef, boiled garbanzos, bacon, cabbage, chicken 
(victims generally of rapid decline), relevis by highly-spiced diorizo, etc, 
all boiled and served together. Quantity replaces qnaUty, and it satisfies 
all Spanish stomachs, even that of the fastidious Cura, whose happiness 
is summed up in it. 

Su oUa, su misa, 
V su Dofta Luisa. 


The algarroba {Crium minanthos, L.) is very much grown, and ia 
especially used for cattle ; 10 to 15 hectols. are produced in a hectare. 
The flour made with it is excellent for milk-cows ; grows on non-irri- 
gated soil ; two species, black and white ; the grains aie sometimes called 

Books of Reference. — * Curse de Economia rural EspaSola,' by Tablada. 
Excellent, in course of publication. Madrid, Cuesta, 1864. 

' Manual de la Construccion de las Maquinas aratorias,' by same. Madrid, 

* Manual de Riegos y Prados,' by same. 

Consular and Commercial Reports for Spain. London, 1888. 

* Abu Zakaria*s Moorish Agric* (dates 12th century), and was written fox 
the use of the Sevillian Moors, found in Ebnu-1-Awm^*s Book of Agriculture. 
Translated by Sefior Banqueri. Madrid, 2 fol. vols., 1802. Republished in 
2 vols. i2mo; Seville, 1872, in the series Biblioteca-Cientifico-Literaria. 

The best periodicals are ' La Espa&a Agricola,' and ' £co de la Ganaderia.' 


The celebrity of Spanish wine was great even in olden times. That 
it was exported to England and France as early as the 16t^ century 
there is no doubt Spanish wines have lately superseded Madeira and 
other white ones ; the export to the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
alone in 1887 amounting to £1,013,760. The principal character- 
istics of the Spanish wines are — fulness of body (cuerpo), strength derived 
from its natxiral spirituosity (enaaluzado), absence of acidity, owing to 
the power of the sun, very high flavour or bouquet, and great durability, 
in the whites more especially. The principal white wines are — Jerez, 
Malaga, Manzanilla ; the rct^Valdepenas, Arganda, Benicarl6. 

White, — Jerez, or Sherry, pronounced * Haraz,' was introduced into 
Englimd in the reign of Henry VIL, and became a general favourite in 
the time of Elizabeth. The sack mentioned so often in the works of 
Beaumont and Fletcher (Hhe vertue of sack') ; of Ben Jonson (* An 
Epigram,' etc.); and in Shakspeaxe (Hen. IV., pt 1, etc.) alludes to 
Canary only. The favourite drink of Sir John Falstaff was, however, - 
Xerez, not Canary ; and Shakspeare plainly marks the difference : — ^ A 
good 8herri8-e»x^i hath a two-fold operation in it : it ascends me into the 
braine ; the second propertie of your excellent sherris is, the wanning of 
the blood ' (Hen. IV., pt. 2, act iv.) Whether, now, sack comes from 
eeco, dry, or otherwise, as Ducange expresses it, we leave to the learned. 
The exportation has more than doubled in twenty years, and that is the 
best commentary upon its value and favour. In 1841 there were ex- 
ported from Jerez to all parts, 14,773 butts of 30 arrobas each, value 
^440,000; in 1860 there were 30,726 butts, value ;£] ,400,000; in 
1 883, 37,1 60 butts. The declared value seems to have risen steadily until 
1882 — up to £2,200,000 — ^but since then has declined. The demand. 


however, for old sherry is enormous ; suid the prices are likely to 
increase. Moreover, the vintages for some time past have been 
scanty, owing to scorching African winds, absence of rain, and other 
causes. Sherry is made with Jerez grapes, but of great many sorts and 
difference of flavour. The process for making this wine is thus carried 
on : — The grapes are carefully gathered and sorted, and exposed upon 
reed mats, where the sun dries them ; eight or ten days suffice, according to 
the strength of the sun and varieties of fruit — a process mentioned by 
Hesiod, lib. ii, v. 229. The grapes are then taken to the la^ar, and 
submitted to the action of presses (prensas), before which they are 
trampled under foot, just as was done thousands of years ago in Palestine 
(Isaiah xviL 10 and Jer. xlviil. 33), and by the Greeks and Bomans, and 
all Eastern nations, for where the w/n rules paramount, most agricultural 
practices, and others indeed, never vary ; and of these it may be truly 
said, nil novum ttib sole, as most inventions and innovations of the frost- 
bitten Northerner tend to making artificial sims with coals, manures, forests, 
glass, etc The system of trampling the grape under £pot was prohibited 
in Charlemagne's time (Cap. year 800). The must or juice (mosto) is put 
into botas, where it undergoes fermentation. When the latter is com- 
pleted (in January), and the must is made wine, it is racked from the 
lees and left to itself for four or five years — the age requisite for ex- 
portation. When it enters this stage (maduracion), it is clarified ; which 
process is done by dissolving a fatty substance in the whites of twenty 
eggs per bota, and the compost poured into it and stirred for mixing, 
then allowed to settle, and afterwards racked off into another bota (a 
butt, not a skin). Now an important operation takes place ; the wine 
(el caldo, as it is technically called) receives a small addition of madre 
vino {madre, mother), or very rich old wine, the crime de la crime, and 
treasured up, as the old Dutchmen kept with jealous eye their bulbs of 
tulips. The quantity of mother wine is every year made up by other 
wine, old too, but younger than the alma mater itsell To bear exporta- 
tion, a fiftieth or sixtieth part of brandy is added — that is, about l7o J 
This for genuine sherry. Imitations receive 5% and 7^/^ of spirit, and 
sometimes more. 

There are, under the sorts of dry and sweet sherry, two varieties of 
each. IsK I)ry Sherry — Jerez seco, or, properly, English Shprry. There 
is pale, Jerez daro, sometimes called amlnir, and brown or golden, Jerez 
oscuro. The former is generally new raw wine (from four to five years 
old) ; the latter ow€« its rich colour to age. There is between the straw- 
(pajizo) coloured and the deep golden a golden sherry, which partakes 
of the nature of both ; we believe Tio Fepe also belongs to this class. 
This latter is as yet but little known, and produced in smaU quantities ; 
but let the real connoisseur, whose palate is not used up by fashion and 
prejudice, taste it, and he will have no other. The second is Jere2 
Amontillado^ so called from the peculiar highly aromatic filbert or alir 


like aroma of the wine grown near Montilla (near Cordova). It is also 
dher ; the colour is more or less deep pajizo, the lightest being the oldest 
wine. These two dry sherries, sa different in colour and flavour and 
scent, proceed, however, from the same grapes (whose sorts have not pro- 
bably been sufficiently studied separately), and thus often several botas 
contain must from the same press, and yet part becomes amontillado and 
the other dry sherry. The latter is richer than the former, but inferior 
in bouquet. The transformation takes place during the first or second 
year ; by what means has never been ascertained. The amontUlado is less 
abundant and dearer, and serves to enrich poorer sherries — that is, not to 
add cuerpo (body), but aroma. The grapes from which these two dry wines 
are made are exposed to the sun for two or three days only ; the sweet 
wines require ten or twelve, so that they become almost raisins (poms). 

Sweet Sherry consists of three sorts ; Pajarete, Moscatel, and Pedro- 
Gimenez. The Pajarete is made from the Pedro-Gimenez grapes, which are 
sweeter than the sherry grape, and are left exposed to the sun from ten to 
twelve days, and thus become in a way sun-raisins, or pasas. The name 
comes from that of the * hamlet of Pajarete,' where it was first made. There 
is scarcely any difference between it and J?edro-Gimenez, both proceeding 
from the same grape. Its colour is dark, its flavour that of the natural grape. 

Moscatel is made with the Muscat grapes, which are sweeter still than 
the two former, and darker also. There is, besides, a delicious sweet 
sherry, called 'Malvasia/ superior in aU respects to Lachryma-Ghristi, 
not unlike Pajarete, but not abimdantly produced, and dear. 

Sherries, when genuine, keep for an infinite time, there being botas of one 
hundred years old^ Age darkens the colour of sweet sherries and lightens 
that of dry ones. The wine can be bottled in a very few days after its airivaL 

It forms no deposit {peso). The basis of adulterated sherry consists, 
on an average, of pale malt, sulphuric acid, flavoured from the bitter 
almond oil, with a high percentage of alcoholic spirit. 

The most celebrated wine in Spain, after sherry, is Malaga, There 
are two sorts — dry and sweet The latter is the well-known * Mountains * 
of olden time. The annual produce amounts to about 2,250,000 gala. 
(1 arroba = in round figures 3 J gals.), of which, however, not more than 
one half is exported. The average price is £6 per butt, and excellent 
Frasanejo — ^very old — may be obtained for £\ the arroba. About one- 
twelfth part of dry Malaga consists of brandy. Lagrvmaa, the sweetest 
and most delicious of all, is, as its name poetically indicates, the teovn 
or droppings of the ripe grape hung up and dried in the sun, and obtained 
without pressure. They are of different qualities, varying from 60r. to 
lOOr. the arroba. Besides these, several liqufeurs and brandies are 
manufactured in the district, and Curasao, Anisette de Bordeaux, etc, 
well imitated. 

Manzanilla. — ^A most delicious, highly flavoured, and stomachic white 
wine, made at San Lucar de Barrameda, near Cadiz, and so called from 


the light camomile (mamaniUa) flavour, contained in the grape. It Ib a 
light wine, very wholesome^ and seldom adulterated. It ought to bo 
preferred to inferior made-up sherriea 

MontUla, — White, dry, exquisitely flavouredi made at Montilla, near 
Cordova ; deserves to be better known. There are several other good 
light white wines made in Cataluna — such as Malvasia de Sitjes^ CuUera, 
Alella, Taya, etc. Champagne is made at Logro£io and in Aragon. 

Red Wines, — ^The best vin ordinaire, vino de paatOf is Valdepenas, 
near Madrid. Were the vines better cultivated and the eldboracion better 
attended to, this wine, the produce of Buigundian vines transplanted 
here, would bear exportation and enjoy great reputation. It is very rich, 
fruity, but encabezado generally. It is sold for 6r. and 8r. a bottle in 
Madrid, and £4 the butt on the spot 

Among other red wines we may mention Argandd^ near Madrid, fidl 
bodied^ and highly coloured, used as the former, to mix with water, 
which, in Spain, where the latter is so exquisite, is to spoil two good 
things. BenicarU (18 leagues from Valencia) is very full-bodied, and so 
deeply coloured that French weak clarets are dyed and strengthened with 
it ; the native amateurs like it to be as dark as ink, and they spill a drop on 
the white shirt-sleeve to see whether it stavM or not ! We may also men- 
tion the excellent Priorato (sweet and diy sorts), La Eioja, TinkUa de Rota 
(near Cadiz), Cari^ena (near 2iaragoza), FondiUon, Ahque^ etc., at Alicante. 

Spanish wines are exported in double-bottomed casks ; but the 
common ones, especially red ones, sent about in the country, are contained 
in goat-skins, which, when not tanned, communicate an impleasant taste 
to the wine. These pellejos or borrachas are the early Greek aaxhi, the 
Roman uter^ French otUre* They are used for liquids in Arabia, and in 
Persia are saturated with pitch. They are mentioned in Homer (Od. vi 
78, IL iii 247), and in Virgil's Qeorg. iL 384. They were, however, 
introduced into the north of Spain by the Celts, who called them Cupa 
(whence perhaps cuba^ cuve), (CsBsar, lib. viil 34). In some out-of-the- 
way districts, the want of barrels causes the cosecheros, when the vintage 
is at hand, to throw the old wine away ; and it is no conte de voyagewr, 
that it often is used instead of water to mix with mortar. Since the 
spread of the phylloxera an enormous trade in red wines has sprung up 
with France to supply the demand for * Bordeaux.* 

There are many good recent Spanish publications upon the cultivation 
of the vine and the processes of wine manufacture. Vizetelly's * Facts 
about Sherry ' is a useful authority upon one section of the trade. 


It would be foreign to the nature of this guide-book to enter into details 
respecting the history of Spain, which is suitably noticed in the local 
descriptions further on. We only subjoin, therefore, a concise tableau 
of the kin gs, to a ssist research. 



Gothic Spain. 



General History. 


The Wisigoths or W. Goths, 

Invasion of the Barbarians in 

Conquest of Spain by Ataulphus 
The Aiani, under Gonderic, 


Italy, Gaul, etc. . 


settle in N.E. .... 


The St/evi. under Hermanric, 

settle in the N.W. . . . 


The yandalSf under Genseric, 

Rome taken by Alaric 


settle in S., pass to Africa* and 

thence to Rome. 


The Visigoths, who settled in the 
centre. til>sorbedthe other races, 

and oecame sole undisturbed 

The Heptarchy in Brittany . 
Fall of the Western Empire . 


rulers of all Spain. Barcelona is 


at first the capital, and then 


Chronology op the Gothic Kings. 





Sieerico .... 


Pope Boniface I. 


Teodoredo . 


Turismundo ... 


Attila in Italy . 


Teodorico .... 




Alarico .... 


Gesaleico .... 


Amalarico .... 


Death of Qovis in France 


Teudis, or Theudio . 


Teudiselo . 


Code of Justinian . 




Atanagildo .... 


Luva, or Liuva 1 


Leo^gildo .... 

Birth of Mahomet 


Recaredo I. . . . 

Liuva, or Leuva If.. 


Witonoo .... 




Heraclius, Emperor of the Ea'-.t 


Sisebuto .... 


Recaredo II 


Suinttla .... 


Hijra of Mahomet . . . 


Sisenando .... 


Chmtila .... 


Tulga. . . ... 


Chindasuindo, or Chindasvinto 


Recesvinto .... 


Wamba .... 


Ervigio .... 

Esica .... 
Witiza . . . 



Roderilc .... 


Pope Gregory II. 


His death 


Duration of the Gothic Empire m Spain, 

300 years. The battle of Jeres, 

or of the 

Guadalete, a.d. 711, won by the Moors, puts 

an end to the Gothic rule. 



Moorish Spain. 


Christian Monarchies— Kings 
of Asturias and Leon. 

Year of 

The Berbers' Arabs land at Gib- 
raltar, under Tank. 
The Moorish dynasties are 

usually divided into four pe- 




Alfonso I., el Cat<51ico . 


Aurelio . . ■ . . 


Mauregato .... 
Bermudo I., el Dihcono . 
Alfonso II., el Casto . 

Ramiro I. . . . 

OrdoSo I 

Alfonso III., el Magno . 




Alfonso IV., el Monje 

Ramiro II 


Sancho I. 






I. jtx to 756— Spain was go- 
verned by the Khahfs of Damas- 
cus, under Amirs or Sheiks 

Cordova, independent of Da- 
mascus. Seventeen Sultans, all 
of the UmmeyUi family . 

3. 1036 to la^s—the dynasty 
of the Almohadea, and AJmora- 
vides, succeeded to the former, 
and the Khalifate of Cordova 
fell when that city was taken 
by St. Ferdinand, Jtme 30w 1335 

4. Khali&teof GianadafouncU 
ed by Ibnu-1-Ahmar, 1338 to 1493, 
when the city surrendered to Uie 
Catholic kings .... 


Christian Monarchies. 

Pelayo . 

Alfonso (el Catdlico) 
Fruela I. . 
Aurelio . 

Bermudo I. (el Dik- 

Alfonso II. (el Casto) 

Ramiro I. 

OrdoBo I. 
Alfonso IIL (el 
Magno) . 

Ordoik) II. . 

Alfonso IV. 













Defeat of , the 

Moors at Poitiers 


Charlemagne (768) 

Charles the Bald 


Egbert (800). 

Alfiied the Great 

Rone, etc. 

Haroun al Ra^id 
(780) in the East 

Khalifate of Cordova 

Abdurham III., Khii- 
life of Cordova (gta). 


Christian Monarchies — Continued. 

Kingdom of 
Castile and Leon. 






Rome, etc 

Ramiro II. 


Ordofioin. . . 


Sancho I. 


Ramiro IIL . 


BermudoIL . 


Hugh Capet (987) 


Gregory V. (996). 

AlfonsoV. . . 


Bermudo IIL . . 




End of KhaUfate of 

DoSa Sancha . . 



Fernando I. and 


Do&a Sancha 


Sancho IL . . 


Philip L 

William the Con- 

Pope Gregory VI L 

Alfonso VL . . 



The first Crusade 

DofiaUrraca . 


Alfonso VII. (Em- 

eado) . '. . 
Alfonso VIIL 


Louis VII. 

Henry II. 

Pope Adrian IV. 



Enrique I. 



Fourth Crusade (X904) 

Fernando II. . 



Richard rCceurde 

Alfonso IX. . . 


San Fernando III. 


St. Louis 

Henry III. 

Pope Innocent IV. 

Alfonso X. (el Sabio) 
Sancho IV. (el 


Pope Boniface VIIL 

Bravo) . 



Rudolph of Hapsburg 

Fernando IV. (el 

Emplazado . . 


Alfonso XL . . 


Philip VI. 

Edward III. 

Pope Benedict VL 

Pedro I. (el Cruel) . 


Jean II. 

Edward III. 

Riena (Z347). 
Ixmocent VL 

Enrique II. . 


JuanL . 


Enrique IIL . 


Juan IL . . . 


LouU XL 

Taking of Constanti- 
nople by Mahomet 
IL— The Medici at 

Enrique IV. (el 

Impotente) . 



Castile and Aragon 

Isabel la Cattflica . 


Charles VIIL 

Henry VII. 

imited (1474) 
P. Innocent VIIL 

F'emandoV. . 


Francis I. 

Henry VIIL 

Leo X., Pope. 

Juana (la Loca) 
Charfes' L of Spain 



Battle of Pavia(z53s) 




Luther (xsz7). 

and V. of Germany 

—Carlos Quinto • 


Henry II. 

Edward VI. 

Paul III. 

Philip J I. . . 


Charles IX. 

l>ay(«S72). » 


Christian Monarchies — Contintted, 

Kingdom of 
Castile and Leon. 





Rome, etc 

PbiUp III. . 
PhiUp IV. . . 



Louis XIV. 


Pope Innocent X. 

Charles II. . 


PhiKpV. (aMic.) . 

Luis I. . 

Philip v.. . . 




Louis XV. 


Pope Qement XI. 

Fernando VL . 
Charles in. . 


Louis XVI. 

George IIL 

Dement XIIL 

Charles iy.(abdic.) 
Fernando VII. 


Napoleon I. 


Pius VII. 



William IV. 


Isabel IL (fled) . 
Provisional Govern- 


Napoleon IIL 




Amadeo(abdic) . 



Provisional Govern- 

ment . 
Alfonso XIL 



Alfonso XIIL . 

Spanish GJironology. 
Tlie Roman date sera (era) was in use in Spain until the 12th 
century. It began on December 25. To make it correspond with the 
Anno Domini, thirty-eight years must be added to the latter. The New 
Style was adopted in 1582 ; ten days must be added of the New Style 
to any day of accord to the Old Style. The Hijra of the Moors begins 
Friday, July 16, A.D. 622, era 660. 

Principal Monastic Orders in Spain. 





Au£^ustuies > 
Cartujos (Carthusians) 
Franciscans • 
Capuchins • 

St Augustine . 

St Benedict . 

St Bruno . 

St Francis of Assise 

St. Domingo . 

Mateo Baschi . 

San Ignaciode Loyola 

Followed the rule of 
St Jerome: four 
orders ; that of 
Spain founded by 
Thomas of Sienna 
in . . , . 



In the reign of Philip III. there 
were upwards of 9000 conrents, con- 
taining 60,000 m<Miks, besides 988 
nunneries. In the dioceses of Pam- 
plona and Calahorra alone there 

and cleivy. In Castile, the Church 
possessed za millions of fanegas of 
land, that produced 161 millions of 
reals (end of xjth century). The 
revenues of the Spanish Church 
in Z807 were about six millions 

BooJh of Reference, — The earliest records of Spanish history are fonnd in 
general and local provincial chronicles. The period in which they were written, 
native prejudice, and pressure from without, render many of these sources not 
trustworthy. The first writers who deserve the name of historians are ; — 
Zurita^ Morales^ Mendota^ Siguenza^ RibwUnegra^ ZufUga, Mariana, Sandoval^ 
Herrera, etc. Coloma, Melo, and Solis's works are all trustworthy and interest- 
ii^, though wanting in investigation. The best modern works are those of 
Prescotty Robertson^ Denham^ St, Hilaire^ Lafuente^ Gayangos, Castelar, Dan- 
TfUa, Dozy^ Gachard, Cdnoiras del Castillo, 



The only remams of the language spoken in Spain at the dawn of 
history are probably to be found in the Basque {Euskard) still preserved 
in Vizcaya and Guipuzcoa^ in the northern parts of Alava and Navarra, 
and in some portions of the adjacent French department of the Basses 
Pyr^n^s. The student may be referred to the works of Van Eys, 
Professor J. Vinson, and especially to those of the Prince L. L. Bona- 
part, for information on this subject. The last and most complete 
grammar is in Spanish, by Don Arturo Campion, *Gramdtica de los 
Cuatro Dialectos Literarios de la Lengua Euskara' (Tolosa, 1884). Be- 
sides the Basque, inscriptions and numerous legends on coins, as late, 
probably, as tiie 3d century a.d., in unknown characters, have been 
found almost throughout the Peninsula. The title * Keltiberian ' is 
often given to these, but they still await a decipherer. The subject is 
well worth the attention of the archaeologist, as the interpretation may 
throw a flood of light on the early history of southern and western 

After the Iberian and Keltiberian and Kelt, the Phoenician, Cartha- 
ginian, and Greek were the next foreign races whom we find on the 
soil of Spain. They have, however, left but few traces of their speech 
in the present language. 

Far different was it with the succeeding people, the Romans, whose 
language is the foundation and material of the Spanish tongues. No 
country was more completely Latinised than Spain. No one of the 
Eomaunce dialects keeps closer to the mother tongue. A few names of 
the Spanish writers of the silver age of Latinity will show how prevsdent 
the limguage must have been in Spain, though the coins and inscriptions 
show that Keltiberian still lingered on beside it. Seneca, Lucan, 
Martial, Quintilian, and Florus were all Spaniards ; so also were the 
best of the earliest Christian Latin poets, Prudentius and Juvencus. 
After the Eomans, came the Barbarian tribes which broke up the empire. 
Of these the Vandals have left their name to (V) Andalucia ; the 
Suevi held possession of Galicia and the north-west ; while the Visigoths, 
who succeeded them, reigned from 416 to 711 A.D. over the greater 
part of Spain and south-eastern France. These have left £eu: deeper 
marks in the laws and institutions of Spain than in the language. The 
so-called Gothic manuscripts, Gothic liturgies, Gothic architecture, are 
merely names applied to certain modes of writing, liturgies, and styles 
of architecture which are not really of Gothic origin at aU ; but the use 
of these terms has led to a great exaggeration in the work of the Goths 
in Spain. After their arrival, as before, the bulk of the nation remained 
linguistically and ethnologically Iberian, Kelt, and Boman. The oon* 


qnerors of the ViBigoths, the Arabs, Berber tribes, and Moors, who 
ruled in the south from the eighth to the end of the fifteenth century, 
have had far greater influence on the language. A glance at any 
modem map will show how many geographical names, up to and 
occasionally even beyond the Ebro, are still Arabic. The glossaries of 
Dozy and Engelmann (Leyden, 1869) and of Eguilaz y Yanguas 
(Granada, 1886) wiU show how; many Arabic or Oriental words were 
added by them to the Spanish vocabulary. This influence, however, 
has been only on the vocabulary and the speech ; very slightly on the 
grammar. Tlie Jews were numerous in Spain, even in Yisigothio times 
or earlier ; but no foreign race except the gypsies has since taken root in 
the Peninsula. 

We may now take a brief survey of the dialects actually spoken in 
the Peninsula. For ordinary travellers these resolve themselves into 
two, the Spanish or Castilian, and the Portuguese. From the Pyrenees, 
in Aragon, in the centre, and throughout the whole of the south, the 
Spanish prevails. The Portuguese is spoken in Portugal ; and the 
Galician or Gkdlegan, the language of Gkdicia, is merely a dialect of the 
Portuguese. The Basque, as said above, obtains only in las provincias 
Vascongadas and in Navarra. The Catalan, which is a dialect of the 
Provencal, is spoken in Cataluna, Valencia, Alicante, and the Balearic 
Islea In addition to these, there are the patois, or Bable, of the Asturias ; 
and slighter differences from the literary idiom occur in Leon, Aragon, 
and Andaluda. The Flamenco and the Qermania must not be confused 
with the Komany, or true speech of the gypsies. The former, in the 
Cantos Flamencos, is simply the Andalucian dialect as spoken by the 
gypsies ; the Gerinania is only thieves' slang. 

Practically the tourist will need an acquaintance with Spanish and 
Portuguese only, in his wanderings through the Peninsula. Even 
among the Basques, it is much more rare to find a Basque in Spain who 
cannot understand Castilian than it is' to find a French Basque who 
cannot understand Trench. 

The grammar and the pronunciation of Spanish are comparatively 
easy. The guttural j, the jota, is difficult to an Englishman, but easy 
to a Scotch or Irishman ; the written or printed h is not pronounced. 
The n produces the pronunciation of the gn of the French (gagnei), and 
of the Italian Spa^pna. There are twenty-eight letters. The masculine 
article is d; feminine, la; neuter, lo; but for the sake of euphony el is 
always used before a vowel — ^as el agua (for la agua), el azucar, etc. The 
augmentatives are expressed by the final azo, am; on, ona ; ote, ota, 
added to the substantive : the diminutives by ico, ica ; illo, iUa ; ito, 
ita; uelo, uela. The comparatives are — ^better, m^or; worse, peor ; 
greater, mayor; lesser, menor, and superior, inferior. The adverbs tow, 
as much, mds, more, menos, less, are very constantly used. The super- 



latdves end in isimo, isima ; errimo, errma. The s is the usual sign of 
the plural. * This * is este ; * that,' ese; * that yonder,* aqud ; with the 
fe^^nine8 esta^ esa, aqudla. ' Mine ' is mdo (el mio, etc.) ; ' thine,* 
tuyo (el tuyo'y etc.) ; 'yours,' w£stro, or, usually, de Vstedy which stands 
for the old Vuatra Mercedy * your worship,* written in abbreviation Vd. 
The accent is usually on the last or the penultimate syllable, and closely 
follows the Latin. In compounds, words, and inflexions Spanish has 
not the richness of some of the more northern tongues. The vocabulary, 
however, is very full, and it is long before a dictionary can be dispensed 
with in the study of the best authors. Still, for ordinary purposes, 
Spanish is easy of acquirement, and without some knowledge of it the 
greater part of the enjoyment of a tour will be lost Grammars and 
methods abound ; the best of the latter being those of Ollendorff and 
Del Mar, and the best grammars the < Academia * and Salvd. In default 
of any of these, the following glossary may be of use : — 



Indicative Present 



Ttt hasCfamiliar) thou hast 
£1 (elk) ha . JU(ortkt)Aas 
NoBotros hemos «v have 
Vosotros habds you have 
EUoshan . thoyhavo 


Indicative Present. 

Yo tengo . / have 
Tu denes thou hast 

£1 dene . ho hat 
Nosotros tene- 

mos . wohavo 

Vosotros XKoxsa you have 
(Usted dene, 
usually used) 
Ellosdeneu . they have 

N.B.— 7> have (possessiYe) is Tenor. I hare seen, He visto. 


Indicative Present, 

Yo soy . . / am 
Tu eres (familiar) thou art 
El(deUsOes . ho{fa*ho)ix 
Nosotros somos we are 
VosoCrotsois you are 

(more usually 

Ustedes son) 
EUos(dellas)son thoy are 

I have a stick, Tetigo un Batton. 

The other tenses are : — 

Prtt Imp. 


Sub. Pre/. 
Sub. Prei. Imp 

Yohabia; yoera 
Ydhube; yofud 
Yo habia habido; yo 

Yo habr£ habido; yo 

Haya yo ; sea yo 
Yo hava ; yo sea 
Yo huSiera, habria, hubi- 

ese ;ftiera, seria, fuese 

Sub. Pret. Per/. 
Sub. Phuquampetf. 

Sub. Put. Imp/ . 
Sub. Segundo Per/. 


Infin. Per/, . 


Yo habia habido ; yo 

Yo hubiera, habria, hulu- 

ese, habido; do. do. 

do. side 
Yo hubiere ; yo fuere 
Yo hulnere habido ; yo 

hubiere sido 
Haber; ser 

Haber habido, haber side 
Habiendo ; 

Monday, Lunei 
Tuesday, Maries 
Wednesday, MiAvoles 

Thursday, yut 

Friday, Viem 


Saturday, Sdbaae 
Sunday, Dominzo 
A holiday, dia do fiesta 
Fast-day, dia de ayuno 

Once a-day, una vestal dia 
Each dajj cada dia 
To-day, hoy 
To-morrow, matlanc 
Yesterday, <o«^ 




a, do* 

5, cinco 

6, uu 




A year, un oMo 
A century, uh tigh 
A fortnight, wta quiMcena 
A week, unaumattm 


9, nueve 

10, dUM 

11, OHce 
xa, doce 

Z4, caiorce 
15, gmtice 
x6, duM-y-tti* 
XT, tlin-y-tuU 
x8, difw-y-ccho 

(or v*iHhu$t0) 
j/o, ireinta 
40, cuareuia 

60, usenta 
60f uitnta 

90^ ncventa 
too, emtio 
xooo^ mil 

1,000^000^ HH IHiliiM* 


Half, la tmtad 
Third, #/ Urcw^ la 

Quarter, fourth, el euario, la 

cuarta parte, etc 
Double, #/<A^ 

Txfi\Ait, el triple 
First, elprimero 
SeooiA, el ugundo 


^nring, laprimavera 
Smnmer, ei vera$to (or estio) 
Autunm, el otoHo 
Winter, elinvitmo 
Cold, eljrio 
YLtaX, el caior 

Rain, lalluvia 

Snow, la nieve 


MimI, elbarro, lodo 

'DMXtt el poHfo 

Thunder, el trueno 

Lightning, el reldmpago 
Storm, la tempestaa 
It is going to rain, va d Uevet 
How cold it is 1 pUfrio kacel 
Too hot, demeuiado caliente 
How warm 1 fM/ calorl 

To trard, viajar 
A railway, unferro carril 
A train, Mntren 
By the railway-omnibus, per 
el omMibu* del/errv carril 
The luggage* eleauipage 

(cous) parcels? 

How maiiy (c< 
cuantos bultot I 

A bagga^receipt, tin taUm 
tlel equipage 


Booking-office, un desptuhode 

How is this station called? 

c&moee llama etta estacioa t 
How long does the train stop 

here? cuante tiempo *e 

detiene aqulel tren t 
A first-class carriage^ mt cvcke 

de primera elate 

A refreshment-room, una /on- 

da, buffet (not Spanish, bui 

To start, marchar, salir 
To arrive, llegar 
A porter, umportador 
Do we change carriages here ? 

*e camUa aqui de coche 

(or de tren) t 


To embazk, emiarcarse I A boat, una lancha 

To land, desembarcar, £r il A berth, un camarote 
tterra | 

The rooms, loscuarto* 

A flow, un pise, principal, 

segundo, bajo, etc. 
Abed, iMMAMwa 
Are the sheets dry? estdn 

secas Uu tdianatt 
Clean, limpio 
To brush the clothes, sacudir 

la TPpa^ limpiar (to dean) 
Housemaid, criada 
Ladys-maid, doncella 
\ralet de chambre, ayuda de 

Landlord, elamo, el/endista 
The bill, la cuenta 
How much ? euante t 


Bring the breakfast, Traiga 

Vd. elalmuemo 
A dean towd, una toatta Hm' 

To dean the shoes, limpiar el 

A glass, un vaso 
Hot water, agua caliente 
Boiling water, apta hirviendo 
Wash-nand basm, la co/aina 

A bottle of drinking-water,«^iM 

boteHa de agua para beber 
Chair, la silla 

Arm-chair, la butaca, el sillon 
A sofa, un sofd 

The deck, elpuente 
Sea-sickness, el mareo 

A sitting-room, un gabinete 
To call one up, de^ertar 
To rise early, niaarugar 
To light Uie fire, encender 

A chimney, una chimenea 
A night-lignt, una lampstrilla 
Oil, el aceite 
Walter, camarero 
Soap, eljabon 
W. C, elescusado 
Shut Uie door, cierre Vd. la 

Call my maid, llame Vd J 

mi doHcella 
Bathing-house, casa de ballot 




Let us have some dinner im- 
mediately, Denos Vd, de 
camtr en ctumto antes 

Dinner is ready, ettd lisia la 

Beef, carne de vaea 

Boiled meat, came cocida 

Salt meat, came talada 

Roast, asado 

Beer, la cervexa 

Bottk^ la boUUa 

Biscuit, vnbixcocko 

Bacon, el tocino 

Brandy, el aguetrdienU, 

Fresh butter, la vutnieca 

Clheese, elqneto 

A chicken, nna gaUinet nn 

Actum, tmackmletm 

A candle, nnavela 

Qaret, vino de Bnrdeos 

Vin ordinaire vmo comun, de 

Tocarre, trmckar 


Chocolate, el chocolate 

A cup of cnocolate, unajkara 

de chocolate 
A cup, nna tasa 
The dessert, lospostre* 
The dining-room, elcomedor 
A dish, nnplato 
Table dlidte, la mesa redonda 
Where is my cover ? donde 

estd mi cmnerto t 

A h3a tgg, nn hnevo fresco 

A fish, el^scado 

Af<»1c, nn tenedor 

Grapes, lasnvtu 

Hare, la tiehne 

Hanij eljamon 

A knife, nncnchiUo 

Lamb, la temera 

Alanqs MM I dn^ a r m 

A lemon, nn limon 

Liquenr, el Hcor 

Meat, Income 

Cold meat, camefieunAre 


Mineral waXtT,elagna mmeras 

Mutton, el camero 

An omdet, nna tortilia 

Oysters, lasostras 

naxxjf fasteleria 

Acaikc, nnfastel 

A. pc9CD, nn a^ridor 

Potatoes, las /atataf--/a/as 

A plate, unplato 

A urge dish, nnafmente 

AraMMt, nn conejo 

To serve, servtr 
KwgatMk^ nnacnciam 
A serviette, nna servilleta 
A tea-spoon, nna cncharita 
Sweet, dnlce 

A u poim li d, nna cncharada 
Soup, letsopn 
Sugar, elaxncar 
Supper, lacena 
A tumUer, nn vaso 
A wine-glas& nnacoj^ 
V^etables, las legwnbres 
Water, elapta 

The office or borean, el dot- 

A letter, nna carta 
Are diere any letters for me t 

hay aortas fara m£f 
Here is vn name, este es mi 


Postage stamps, sellos del 

Single letter, m 

Where is dw Mst ? donekesU 

Is the office doaedt esid cer- 

radoel dltsfachot 

Is it too heavy t hay esceso de 

this letter be prq[»aidi 

Must t] 

hay one fnmqnear esta 
The poMman, edcartero 

An enqiloy^ nn em/ieadOf nn 

Is the luggage examined here t 

aere g isir a eiqnieloqnipage ? 
Clothes, Zs nr^ 
For my own use, para mi nso 


A carpet-bag, nn mco de 

tariff, elre gla m eni o 

The duty, los derechot 
What must Ipay? cnantohay 

Contraband, elconimiando 
The keys, lasUaves 
Shut the trunks, cierre Usted 

las maletas 
A dressing-case, nn nientmire 

(not Spanish, but used) 

A box, nn ianl, nmt caja 
A hat-hox, nna wondrtrera 
A very laige box, nnmnndo 
Linen, ro*a blanca 
To aeardi, visitetr, r eg ist r a r 
To plonber, foner los/lomoi 


Stable, 2s nnuAv i 

Hones and mules, MAai2rrMr 
Ptast-hottse, iSs /«ni^ | 

Ptet-boy, ei fostiilon, deinn- , 

Driver, el mayorai, e on dmt ot j 
What IS the name of this vil- 

laget coneo ar Uetnoa este 

Are we fiurt estamos tefosf 

The dra&^>toKA« 

A«dieel, nnameda 

The pole, la lanaa 

A team of mules, nn tiro de 

A saddle, nna silla 

Stop \ /are yd,: alto I 
To stop, pamr 
To post, correr la /osta 
AyofuAniaK, nna propina 
When shall we get to— 
cnand o Ue gnr emot d < 
Abridle^a * " 

A radng-saddle, nn galmMge 
Stim;^ iosestrOos 
A whqi, nn Idtigo 

> Is thore any danger} hay p^ 

' Hgrof 

\ Forward, odeinuit 

I Take care, tenga Yd. midaei 




A. pen, una piuma 
A steelpen, utta^uma de acero 
Direction, sobretcrito, seMas 
Note-paper, ^^l de cartas 

Envelopes, los sobres 

Sealing-wax, «l lacrt 

A wafer, una obUa 

To put a letter into the P.O., 

echar una carta en el c^rret: 
A letter-box, un hu»on 
Take this letter to the P.O., 

llexfe Vd. esta cartaalcorreo 


Drive me to Street, No. — , 

vaya Usted d la calle , 


Are you engaged? ettd Vd. 

By the hour, ^or hora 

Where i»— I dandeesta—^ 
The theatre, el Uatro 
The bank, el banco 
Cab-stand, la ^arada de caches 

de alquiler 
The museum, gallery^ el museo 
The garden, eljardtn 
The public walk, eipaseo 
The palace, elfalacio 

The washerwoman, la lavan- 

An apron, un delantal 
A cap, una gorra 
A collar, un cuello 
Cotton, el algodon 
A crinoline, un mtriHtt^ue 
A cravat, una corbata 
Dirty linen, ropasucia 
Drawera, lot cahonxilhs 
A dressing-gown, una baia 
An under-petticoat, una ena- 


Stop here, pare Vd. agui 
Go farther, vaya Vd. mas lejos 
Go back, vuelva Vd. 
Go fiast, XHiya Vd. dejnisa 
Go slower, vaya Vd. mds 

By the covawt,pcr una correra 

What is the fare? cuantot 
It is too much, es demasiado 
I shall not pay more, no pa- 

gari nuts. 
Not engaged, se alguila 
Coachman, cochero 

IN A TOWN (en una CIUDAD). 

The magistrate, el numtrado 
The Mayor, el alcalde 
Which IS Uic way to— t por 

donde se va d 1 

Turn to the right, vuelva Vd 

dla derecha 
Turn to the left, vuelva Vd. d 

la itquierda 
A poUceman, un agents depo- 


An upper-petticoat, un guard- 

A mmnel waistcoat, un chaleco 

interior^ dejlanela 
A napkin, una toalla 
A night-shirt, una camisa de 

A pocket-handkerchief, un 

PaHuelo de la nutno 
A neckerchief, lospaMuelos 
Sheets, las sabanas 
A shirt, la camisa 

A street, una calle 

A gendjurme, unruardia civil 

A square, una/tasa 

I wish to see, deseo ver, visUar 

I do not imderstand, no com- 

I do not speak Spanish, no 

hablo EspaHol 
1 am an Englishman, soylngUs 

StaySf el corse, lafaja 

Stockmgs, los caketines, las 

Washing, lavar 

Washinff-billj la cuenia de la 
rcpa limpta 

Let us count, contemos 

Bring the clean linen immedi- 
ately, iraiga Vd la ropa 
blanca en cuanto antes 

The stains, las mancAas 

Starch, elalmidon 

To iron, pianchar. 

Pronunciation.— The following are the chief peculiarities '.—a moA; eas a, and sotmdeJ 
at the end of words ; iasee; uasoo; das tAi (tocmopron, totJueno) \ cuasqu (Cntncai^pron. 

Quenka) ; g before e and i 

WadaUceveer) ; A is silent : / as A (^ , . 

initial as y (Llama, pron, Yahma); ^ as im (Seik>r, ptvn, Sanior); qu as k (Quixote, ptron. 

..,„ h (Gerona, pron. Herona); gu 2& w (Guadalquivir^ pron. 

:eveer) ; A is silent : /as A (Jerez, pron. Harez) ; U as It (Sevilla, pnm. Seveeliaj ; LI 



A few useful Wards and Compressions translated into Spanish for the use oj 


Api*le, mamatia 

Bacon, tocino 
Bath, baHo 

Hot, caltenie 

Foot, defucs 


Bedroom, dormitorio 
Beef, came de vaca 
Beer, cervesa 
Beer-shop, tabema 
BUI (account), cuenta 
Book, libra 
Black, negro 

Blue, azul 
Bolster, cabecera 
Boots, botas 
Bottle, botella 
Braces, ttrantrt. 
Brandy, cofiac 
Bread, A»t 



Breakfast, almuerzo 
Bug, chifidu 
Bunch of grapes, racimo 
Butter, manteca 
Button, hoUm 

Cab, cache eU alquiler 
Candle, vela 
Candlestick, candelero 
CsuTiage, caruag^e 
Cauliflower, colt/lor 
Cheap, barato 
Chamber-pot, oUa 
Chambemuud, criada 
Change, cambio 
Cheese, qtteso^ 
Chiurch, i fiesta 
Claret, vtno de Burdeos 
Qock, reloj 
Coat^ frock, levita 
Cod, bacalac 
Coffee, ea/t 

with milk, con leche 

Cork, corcAa 
Cork-screw, tirabuzou 
Counterpane or blanket, 

Cup, taza 
—— small, tazita 
Custom-house, aduana 
Custom-house Officer, adu- 

anero or vista 
Cutlet, ckuleta 

Dear, caro 

Dining-room, comedtfr 

Dirty, sticio 

Door, ^uerta 

Drawers (to wear), calaonzillos 

Drawers (chest of), comoda 

DraMring-room, sala 

Driver, cochero 

Duck, pato 

Early, temfratio 
Eatinz-house, restaurant 

Egg, boiled, Attevo pasada per 

Fish, pescado 


Flesh, came 

Foot, pie 

Fore cabin, segunda catnara 

Fork, tenedor 

Fowl, ave 

Fritters, buHuelas 

Glass (wineX copa 
Glass tumbler, vaso 
Gloves, guantes 
Goose, ganso 
Grape, wa 
Gravy, salsa 
Guard guatda 

Hairdresser, peluquer^ 

Hand, mana 
Handkerchief, paHuelo 
Hard, duro 
Hare, liebre 
Hat, sombrero 
Heat, color 
Horse, caballo 
Hot, caltente 


Ice, hielo 

Ices, helados 

Iced water, agua con hielo 

Ink, tinta 

Kby, Have 
Kidneys, riflonet 
Knife, cuchillo 

Lamp, lampara 
Landlord, el auto 
Late, tarde 
Laundress, lavandera 
Linen-draper, novedades 
Liver, higado 
Luggage, equipage 
Luggage, articles of, bultos 

Mackbrbl, maquerel 
Matches (lucifers),^{^>n»* 
Mdon (water), scuidia 
Milk, Uche 

Midnight, medianoche 
Milliner, modista 
Money tplaia 
Monung, maHana 
Mustard, mostaza 
Mutton, came de camera 

Napkin, servilleta 
Needle, aguja 

Oil, aceite 

Oil (lamp), aceite de quiiique 

Oyster, ostra 

Papbr. papel 

Partridge, perdiz 

Vestry, pasteleria 


Peas, guisantes 

VtSLfPluma ^ 

Pepper, pintienta 

Physic, medicina 

Pickles, picles 


Pin, al/iler 

Pillow, almohada 

Vlztt, plato 

Plate (silver), >i^/it 

Plated goods, plaqui 

Pork, cerdo 

Porter, cargador or mozo 

Post-office, buzon 

Post-office (general), correo 

Postage stamp, sello 

Postman, cartero 

Post-paid, franqueado 

Pound, Ubra 

Potato, Pataia 
Poultry, gallinas 
Preserves, conservas 

Railway, camino de hierro 
Rat, rata 

Reading-room, sola delectura 
Red, Colorado 
Refreshment-room, fonda 
Roast, asado 

Salmon, saltnon 


Saucer, platiUo 

Scissors, til eras 

Sheets, sahanas 

Shirt, camisa 

Shop, tienda 

Sid^ enfermo 

Slippers, chinelas 


Socks, botines 

Soft, blando 

Sole (fish), lenguado 

Soup, sopa 

Spoon, cuchara 

Station (railway), estacion 

Steamboat, vaPor 

Strawberries, /resets 

Street, caHe 

Stsing, cordon 

Sugar, « 

Tablbcloth, cubierto 
Thread, hilo 
Ticket, billeU 
Trsun, tren 

Train, express, tren esprea 
Toast, tostada 
Tobacco, taiaco 
To-day, hoy 
To-morrow, nusHana 
Towel, toalla 
Trousers, pantalones 
Turkey, pabo 

Umbrblla, paraguas 

Veal, came de temero 

Waistcoat, chaleco 
Waiter, mozo 
Waiting-room, sala de ds 

Washing, ropa 

Watch, rehj 

Water (hot) agua caliente 

Water for feet, agtia para los 

Water-closet, retrete 
Wick, mecha 
White, bianco 
Wine, vino 
Wine-glass, copa 

Yellow, amarillo 
Yesterday, ayer 
You. usted 


Foe ihe/iufnladds when the word ends with a vowel, and es when with a consonant. 

What, which ? fur, cttait 
Where? adoudet 
Where is T d<mde estd t 
When? cuando t 
Will you ? quiere usted f 
Have you? tunt usted f 
By here, por agui 
By there, ^ar olid 
Are you? estd tuiedt 

How ? C0mo t 

"Why 1 ^guet 

That, «^m/ 

How much ? cuanio t 

Too dear, demasiado caro 

Can you ? pued* usted i 

I want, \ yo necesiio (regoire) 
, yo quiero (desire) 

How many? cuantos f 

How do you do / como leva} 

Quite well, thank you, muj 

hienpara servir a usted 
Which is the Way to? ^ 

donde sevaat 

yo echodemenos (miss)j First floor, primer piso 

Second floor, se/i^undc 
Make haste, de prisa 


It is impossible to attempt in a Quide book a history of the literature 
of a country, nor will sensible readers look for it here. All that can be 
done is to name the masterpieces, to direct to the best sources of infor- 
mation about them, and to the booksellers where they may be most 
easily procured. 

The earliest great literary works of Spain are the 'Poema,' the 
*Cr6nicas' and VRomanceros del Cid/ the *Cantigas,' and *Las Siete 
Partidas' of Alfonso the Wise. These may be well studied by those 
who wish to become acquainted with the earlier phases of the language. 
In addition to the * Poema * Spain has only one Epic, the * Araucana ' of 
Ercilla. In lyric verse the * CJoplas ' of Manrique are unrivalled at the 
date (1479) ; so, too, the tragi-comedy of * La Celestina* (1480), in spite 
of its freedom, is far in advance of any drama in the literature of otiier 
nations, and is the first to show what modem comedy might become. 
In later dramatic literature Spain is very rich. Cervantes (though his 
dramas have been put into shade by the Quixote), Lope de Vega, 
Alarcon, Tirso de Molina, Calderon, and others are worthy of all study. 
The fame of Don Quixote is world-wide. (Contemporary with Cer- 
vantes, Gin^ Perez de Hita wrote the first modem historical novel, 
* Las Guerras de Granada.' In another style the first part of * Lazarillo 
de Torm^,* the 'picaresque novel attributed to Hurtado de Mendoza, is a 
masterpiece. Spain is rich in narratives of historical episodes, and 
especially in works relating to the conquest of the Americans ; but there 
is no really good general history. For beauty of language and expres- 
sion nothing can surpass the writings of the best mystics, on whatever 
side they wrote — Luis de Granada, Fray Luis de Leon, or the almost 
Protestant Juan de Vald^s. Of aU this ancient literature, a fuller 
account may be found in Ticknor's or Bouterwek's histories of Spanish 
literature, or even Sismondi's * Literature of Southern Europe.' 

The modem literature of Spain is far from scanty. In Poetry, 
Zorilla and Espronceda are excellent disciples of Byron and Scott ; of 
living poets Nunez de Arce is probably the best The modem Drama 
is by no means so far behind the ancient as is commonly supposed. 


The best pieces of Echegaray, and of Tamayo y Baus, of the Catalan 
dramatists, are well worth study. The historical school is still mainly 
occupied with the collection and study of authentic materials — ^a thing 
which has been possible only lately, since the throwing open of the 
archives of Simancas, of the Indies, and other great collections of docu- 
ments. Foreigners have joined hands with Spaniards in this toiL Of 
Economic writers we may mention Colmeiro and Azcarate, whose works 
well repay careful reading, as also do the essays of Cdnovas del Castillo. 
The Arabic and Hebrew writers on Spain are now zealously studied in 
the country. The Spanish Jews never forgot the tongue which they 
spoke in tiie Peninsula ; and translations of the Old Testament and 
many curious works by these exiles have been published in Ferrara, 
Venice, Amsterdam, London, and Constantinople. In the Novel, which 
claims so large a space in modem literature, Spain has some really good 
writers ; and the best of these works, unlike those of France, niay be 
read by alL The romances of Fernan Caballero give rose-coloured 
pictures of Andalucian peasant life. In beauty of style Juan Yalera 
approaches the Mystics, whom he professedly imitates ; but he does not 
write for women only. Perez Qald6s imitates Erckmann-Chatnan in 
his 'Episodios Nacionales,' Jos^ Selgas, whose novels are less known 
than they ought to be, deserves honourable mention. The * Tales of 
Becquer * shoiQd be read by all who visit Seville or Toledo. Pereda's 
novels describe the province of Santander, his * Sotileza ' being the best ; 
while the Senora Pardo Bazan does the same for Leon and Galicia. 
Alarcon's finest work, *E1 Sombrero de tres Picos,* is a humorous 
version of a very old theme. 

Barities and first editions, original copies of the older literature, 
etc, can be procured almost as well in London as in Spain ; for the 
secondhand booksellers, as a rule, know the full market values, and are 
not disposed to sell at a lower rate. There is no lack, however, of 
handy modem editions at rates to suit all purses. Spain is not, like 
France or England, possessed of only one great literary centre. She has 
two, if not three, — ^Madrid, Barcelona, and Seville. First and cheapest 
of these modem issues are the tiny but fairly printed volumes of 
the 'Biblioteca Universal,' at 2 reals, or 5d. each (Leganitos, 18, 
Madrid). In these are to be found a really good selection of the best 
Spanish authors of all time. Other excellent collections are those 
published by D. Cortezo and Co. of Barcelona, the *Biblioteca Cldsica 
Espanola' at 6 reals (2 francs) a volume, and the series *Arte y 
Letras,* of more recent authors, at 12 reals, or 3 francs the volume. 
The same house also publish some good illustrated works. At Barcelona, 
too, is issued a series of rarer historical and theological works — ^*La 
Verdadera Ciencia Espanola* at 5 and 6 reals per volume. At a 
slightly higher price, 4 and 6 pesetas (francs) per volume, are the 


nicely printed 'Coleccion de Escritores Castellanos,' published by 
Dubrull at Madrid, and the well-known 'Biblioteca de Autores Es- 
panoles' in 70 yolumes, 4to, at about 10 pesetas per yolume, published 
by Rivadeneyra. Of foreign editions we may mention the * Coleccion 
de Autores Espanoles/ by Brockhaus, Leipzig, at 3 marks per volume. 
Some cheap collections, mostly of Andaludan or Arabic authors, are 
published at Seville. 


Spain stands pre-eminent among nations for the number and importance 
of its religious, civil, and military edifices. It has been surpassed by 
no other country in this respect and equalled by very few, and even 
these — ^we mean Italy, Germany, and France — possess neither the same 
variety of styles nor yet the first-rate excellence of the examples of 
each. The different races that settled here in turn, whose sway lasted 
several centuries — ^the Komans, Qoths, and Arabs — were all builders, all 
artists, each with their own peculiar style. Edifices were, besides, likely 
to be more numerous in this than in most other countries, in a land 
where quarries of beautiful soft and hard stone seemed to invite the 
builder's hand ; where oak and pine forests abounded ; where the glo- 
rious light of sun and stars give such relief to outlines, such depth to 
shadows, such brightness of tints to stone and marble ; where the soft 
air, but rarely moistened, embalms the ruin and preserves the monument 
better and more generously than the hand of man ; where rich mines 
exist everywhere, and yielded treasures to defray the expenses and mate- 
rials to heighten the effect 

The architecture of Spain has been comparatively free from that 
foreign influence and fashion which in other countries have crippled 
native genius. It may be said to have seldom been imitative, or the 
result of adaptation and comparison. Foreign styles, no doubt, were 
implanted with new races in the rich soil of Spain ; tiiey grew luxuriously, 
but never lost the standard original type ; and when it did at any 
period adopt new accessories, not general forms, the phase was native — 
that is, belonged to races predominating exclusively and for centuries in 
Spain. Although placed so near Italy and France, yet Spain stood for 
centuries a stranger to both. Hence that abrupt difference in art, which 
observers may remark between France and Spain as they cross the 

Spanish architecture during the middle ages was almost exclusively 
religious, palaces being little else than the chieftain's stronghold, and 
public edifices not required where the people were slaves ; its history 
has been to a certain extent that also of the Spanish Church. The 
vidssiturles of the latter may be traced in the numberless edifices that 


were erected ; the antagonism between the regular and secolar clergy, 
and final supremacy of the latter, determining the early generalisation of 
cloistered conventual bnildings, and the subsequent erection, in their 
stead, of parish churches and cathedrals — facts that influenced not a 
little the architects of these ages. The Church was an impervum in 
imperio ; the cathedrals were the centres of all the movement, the heart 
of the people. Within its precincts the cortes often assembled, the kings 
were christened, anointed, and buried. The mystical Autos, or Sacred 
Plays, were frequently performed. They were also museums of natural 
history, where stuffed animals of rare species were carefully preserved, . 
beside specimens of precious marbles, corals, elephants' tusks, etc., sent 
as presents by Eastern princes or successful navigators. The greatest 
architects, painters, sculptors, were employed to erect and decorate 
them. The finest specimens of wood-carving, of iron and silversmiths' 
work, and glass, were to be sought for within their walls. 

In Spain, therefore, the student of architecture has a great deal to 
see, to admire, and to learn ; and despite the n^lect and vandalism 
which have strewn the land with ruins and injured many a peerless 
relic, the number of edifices extant is very considerable, and the state of 
preservation remarkable. The circle is extensive, comprising, as it does, 
so many periods and styles, from the vast proportions of the Koman 
ruins of M6rida and Murviedro ; the mysterious and gloomy Romano- 
Byzantine churches of Asturias ; the pomp of decoration, and lacelike 
ornamentation, never surpassed in Baghdad or Damascus, of the mosques 
and palaces of the Khalifs of Cordova, Seville, and Granada ; the bold- 
ness and sveltezza of the Tedesque (Gk>thic) cathedrals of Toledo, Leon, 
Seville, and Burgos ; the majestic Qrsaco-Boman of the Escorial, to end 
with the artistic anarchy and absurd caprices of the churrigueresque in 
modem times. The domestic architectwre has some very fine examples, 
mostly belonging to the 16th and 17th centuries. Their style is Moro- 
ItaHan in the South, and Gk>tho-plateresque in Aragon, Catalonia, etc. 
Seville, Zaragoza, Barcelona, Segovia, contain several excellent specimens. 

The castellated architecture of Spain has not been as yet properly in- 
vestigated. There are, nevertheless, very interesting remains of walls, 
fortifications, cubo-towers, military roads, barracks, magazines, etc, of 
the Roman, Arab, Qothic, and Castilian periods at Almeria, Murviedro, 
Tarragona, the Leonese and Asturian cities, Seville, Qranada, Segovia, 
etc. etc. They abound in Castile, as that very name evinces sufficiently ; 
and ' ch&teaux en Espagne,' likened to ' castles in the air/ was a saying 
which originated with the difficulties attending their capture. 

We subjoin a short classification of Spanish architecture, including a 
list of the principal examples of each period and style, finishing with a 
list of the most celebrated architects, the date in which they flourished, 
and their most important works. 


1. Roman Period, 

This favourite Boman province was filled with splendid monuments, 
mostly dating from the reign of Octavianus to Sept Severus. They 
have been ill treated by Qoth and Arab. Spanish neglect and distaste 
for yesterday have done the rest Excavations are rare, and undertaken 
without plan or funds. The medals and coins of that period are of 
great value, to complete what remains and reproduce what is no more. 

ExampleB, — Bridges of Alcdntara (the finest), of Mdrida, Badajoz, 
Martorell, Tudela, Alconetar (near Coria) ; the Aqueducts of Segovia, 
M^rida, Tarragona, Carmona, Fuente Ovejima ; the Military Roads of 
M^rida to Cadiz, the Via Lata between M^rida and Salamanca, Aldea 
Nueva de Banos, Vinueso ; the Walls^ Towers, etc, of Coria, Lugo, Tar- 
ragona, Seville ; Triumphkal Arches of M^rida, Bara, Cabanes, Martorell, 
Torredembarra ; the Amphitheatres of Mdrida, Murviedro, Cartagena, 
Italica, Acinipo, Toledo. Besides the excavations in Salave Mines and 
Pyramidal Toicers of Augustus, near El Padron, both in Asturias, Torres 
de Este (E*rov. Coruna), the principal cities which antiquaries can make 
headquarters are — M^rida, Murviedro, Italica, Talavera la Vieja. 

2. Zatin-Oothic Style, 4th to 8th Century. 

The Roman style, as altered by the Goths, and with the Byzantine 
modifications it alrcady possessed when they adopted it From conver- 
sion of Constantine, 323 to 714, or Invasion of Arabs. The tjrpe of the 
Romano-Byzantine and Asturian. 

Examples, — ^But few, principally at Toledo. Sr. de Assas' excellent 
work on Toledo (' Album Artistico de Toledo*) may be consulted and 
relied upon. The Arabic translations are by S. Qayangos. 

3. Asturian, Sth to llih Century. 

A peculiar style usually classed as Gothic, but more truly ' Romane,* 
allied to the Romane of S. France. Apparently an independent de- 
velopment of the Ckdlo- Roman, as the true Romanesque was of the 
Byzantine. Its characteristics are the round arch, single (sometimes 
three) narrow naves, barrel or very early-pointed roofs, good foliage, and 
occasionally animal enrichment The ^ basilica ' arrangement is common. 

Examples. — Santa Maria de Naranco and San Miguel de Lino (Oviedo) 
of 9th century; San Salvador de Valdedios, Penalva, of the 10th 
century ; Santa Cristina de Lena, churches of Abamia, Barcena, etc., 
all in the province of Oviedo. 

4. Romano-Byzantine, or Byzcmtine (Romanesque), divided into 2 periods : 
Ist, nth to I2th Century. Dawn; 2d, \2th to \Zth — Its Acm£. 

In the 2d period the contact with the Arabs orientalised accessories 


The pointed arch appears, and the transition to Qothic or Ogival is 
evident. It is always the original Latin forms, as modified in Asturias. 
but of superior art. 

Examples of the Ist — San Isidoro of Leon, San Daniel of Qerona, 
cathedral of Jaca, San Cucufate del Valles and San Pablo of Barcelona. 
Of the 2d — San Juan de Amandi (Asturias) ; churches of Santiago, 
de Zamora, Veruela (Aragon) ; those that mark the transition to 
Gothic are — Cathedrals of Tarragona, Salamanca, Zamora, Colegiata of 
Toro, San Vicente at Avila. The Norman is evident in several churches 
of this period in N.W. and E. of Spain. This style, modified by the 
different races that introduced it from Byzantium and Italy, is called 
Saxon in England, Romanesque and Romane in France, Lombard in 
Italy, Teutonic in Germany, Norman, etc We have called it Byzantine 
throughout this work, as this is the usual appellation in Spain and will 
facilitate research. 

5. Gothic, IZth to l^th Century, 

It is called sometimes in Spain Tedesco, as thought to be of Germanic 
origin ; was generalised mainly by St. Ferdinand and his queen, aided 
powerfully by French allied sovereigns, foreign bishops, and artists. It 
was not, nevertheless, a mere adoption of new and foreign forms, but a 
gradual combination with the Byzantine of the end of the 12th century. 
There is, however, little doubt that portions of the finest Gk>thic cathe- 
drals in Spain are admirable copies of French churches Is divided into 
three periods. 1st. (13th century) Transition, Dawn. 2d. The French 
Rayonnant (14th century), in all its purity, majesty, and originality. 
3d. The Flamboyant, florid, orientalised (16th, and beginning of 16tb 
century). Was rapidly adopted and successfully cultivated, the examples 
being among the most glorious in the world. 

Examples o{ the 1st (1 3th century). — Earlier portions of cathedrals of 
Leon, Burgos ; the cathedral of Cuenca, of Segorve, of Corio, of Badajoz, 
Santa Maria de la Antigua (at VaUadolid). Of the 2d (14th century). — 
Cathedrals of Leon Burgos, Toledo, Murcia, Barcelona, Gerona, Tortosa, 
Seu of Zaragoza, Oviedo. Of the 3d (1 6th to beginning of 1 6th century). — 
Cathedrals of Huesca, Segovia, Salamanca (Nv£va% and the Cartuja of 
Miraflores ; belfries of the Cathedrals of Burgos, Leon, Oviedo, Capilla 
del Condestable in the Cathedral of Burgos, etc. 

6. Revival or Plateresque, I6th Century. 

The Italian Cinquecento (so called from the 1 6th century, when it 
sprung) ; the French Renaissance, introduced into Spain under the 
Catholic Kings. The constant communications and wars with Italy ; the 
revival of learning, etc., aided very powerfully to its general adoption 
It was called esiilo platerescoy from its surface-ornamentation and ara 


besqueSy wluch were as earefullj wrought aa a chiselled piece of plate. 
It might almost be divided intp Qotho-plateresque (begimiing of 16th 
eentury) and Italian-plateresqne (end of 16thy beginning of 17th). 

Examples, — Hospital de Santa Cruz (Toledo), Colegio Mayor de Santa 
Cruz (Valladolid), transept of the cathedral of Cordova, ditto of the 
cathedral of Burgos, San Marcos at Leon, town-hall at Seville, Sacristia 
Mayor of the cathedral of Seville. Private houses and patios at Seville, 
Zaragoza, Barcelona, etc. 

7. Grceco-BoTnan, I6thand 17th CerUuries, 

Thia pseudo-classical style, never entirely un-Qothicised in Spain, 
denuded of all ornamentation, pedantic, pagan, and cold, was generally 
adopted in the reigns of Charles Y. and Philip IL The imitation was 
dtmisy in general, out of keeping with the times and wants. There are, 
however, some exceptions which reveal genius, and are characterised by 
vast proportions and majesty. 

Examples. — Palace of Charles Y. at Granada ; Escorial ; palaces of 
Madrid, AJanjuez, La Granja ; S. facade of Alcazar of Toledo ; cathedrals 
of Granada, YaUadolid. It is sometimes called estilo de Herrera, from 
this great architect's exclusive use of it. 

The decline of art in Spain followed that of the monarchy. Borro- 
minrs school was followed, and the principles exag^'erated. Rococu 
became the * beau id^,' and the so-called classic edifices were over- 
loaded with gilding, plastered on wood, marble, and bronze, tortured into 
most ridiculous shapes. It was the faithful transcript of the age. Bacinc 
and Comeille's periwig — Bomans dressed witji ruflBes and jabot It may 
be defined the Gk)ngorism of architecture, just as Gongora's poetry can be 
called literary churrigueresque — a name genemlly applied to designate 
this bad taste, as being that of Jos^ Churriguera, an otherwise able 
architect, who used and generalised it Y. Bodriguez, with others, endea- 
voured in vain to regenerate the style, and built several edifices that 
evince his good intentions. The examples are scattered cdl over Spain. 
Cathedral of El Pilar at Zaragoza ; palace of San Telmo at Seville ; and 
most of the churches of Madrid. 

Moorish Architecture* 

The fundamental elements belong to the Bomano-Byzantine and 
Persian schools. Many, if not all, the principal characteristics are clearly 
defined in Scripture as already used in Palestine. The examples that are 
scattered in the breadth and length of the land, but more especially in 
the south, are of the highest order, and were never surpassed in the East, 
Sicily, or Africa. 

The style first introduced partook somewhat of the Berber character. 



was simple, soberly decorated, the basilica ground-plan of the £yzantine 
being adopted for mosques — great multiplicity of arches, baseless colunms, 
being some of its features ; then, gradually advancing in splendour, it 
acquired more elegance and lightness at the cost of originality. Constant 
intercourse with Asia, and antagonistic hatred to the Christian, prevented 
mixtures with Gothic, with which its love of detail, minute ornamenta- 
tion, etc, had more than one similarity ; and many of its accessories — 
stalactite ceilings, horseshoe arches, mosaic dados, etc. — ^were readily 
adopted by the victorious Chnstians, and the combinations of their own 
with it were called Muzarabic 

Moorish architecture may be divided into three periods and styles. 
1st, Byzantine -Arabic ; 2d, Mauritane-Almohade ; 3d, Mudejar or 

Examples, — Of the 1st period (8th to 10th century), mosque of 
Cordova, remains of Medina Azzahra, near Cordova, walls of Ubeda, eta 
Of the 2d (11th to 13th century), Giralda of Seville, chapel of Villa- 
viciosa in the cathedral of Cordova, great hall in the Alcazar of Seville, 
remains of a great mosque in the cathedral of Seville, Sta. Maria la Blanca 
at Toledo. Of the 3d (1 3th to 1 5th century). Alcazar of Seville, Alham- 
bra, Generalife, Cuarto Real (Granada), Transito at Toledo, Casa de 
Pilatos at Seville, etc. 



Ticda, 8oa (iEra, 840). Ch. del Salvador at 
Oviedo ; San Tirso. 

Viviano. gth century. San Pedro de los 

Gino. oSa San Salvador de Ballot 

VitamSen (Pedro). Z065. San Isidoro, at 

Gniberto Gtdtardo. 1x17. Qoisten of San 
Pablo del Campo, Barcelona. 

Mateo (M^tsxxo). xi6o. Portions of Cath., 

Sanchez (Benito). Cath. , Ciudad Rodrigo. 

Cristt^ (Pedro). Gualterio (probably 
Walter). Jordan, etc 

xiil and xiv. centuries. 

xaa6. Early portions 


Perez (Pedro). 
Cath. of Toledo. 

Salvat (Pedro). 1300. Castle of Bellver. 

Andrea CPt6xo). X348. Works in Navarre. 

Arias (Lope). 1372. Alcazar of Gudad 

Alfonso (Rodrigo). 1390. Cath., Toledo. 

Martinez (Alfonso). 1386. Cath., Seville. 

Fabra (Layme). 1392. Cath., Barcelona. 

Franch (Juan). 1381. Cath., Valencia. 


Gonuz (Alvar). 14x8. Cath., Toledo 
Anequin de Rgasi^f^'S^'dccCi. X454. C^th., 

Enrique dt Egos (his son). 1494. Otth.. 

Garcia (Pedro). 1421. (>ith., Seville. 

Norman {\yasik\. 1462. Ditto. 

Pedro de Toledo. 1472. Ditto. 

Simon Cfihueatro). 1496. Ditto. 

yuan Colortia. 1442. Cath., Burgos. 

Gumiel {VtAio). 1492. Works at iUcaU de 


HontaHon (Juan Gil), xsxx. Cath., Sala- 

^<*S«»(Guill&ide). Ob.i43x. Cath., Leon. 

Gual (Bartolom^. Ob. X4i6. Cath., Bar- 

Com^U iVtdro). Ob. 1486. Cath., Valencia. 

Revival and Platbrbsqub. 

A I BerrugueU, 1500. Sculpture more 

MarttndeGainza, Z555. (]as. ReaL (Cath., 

Diego RiaMo. xsaa Sc Mayor. (Cadii., 

Covarrubias {A^onso). 1512-3X. Works at 

Escovedo (Fray Juan). 1481. Works at 

Ibarra (Pedro de). 1521. Works at Sala: 

Ruiz (Feman). 1523. Works at Cordova. 

Badajoz (Juan de). 15x2. San Marcos, 
Leon, etc 




Borgotta (Felipe Vigarni^. 1535. Toledo, et& 
Blay (Pedro). 1435. Works at Barcelona. 
yaldeivtm {Pedro ae), 1525. Cath.,Jaeii. 


Machmca (Pedro). 153d. Pftlace of Charies 

V. of Granada. 
Siloe (Diego). 1539. Cath., Granada and 

ViilaHando (lad.) Z56a Divert woiks. 
Toleao (Juan de). 1563. EscoriaL 
Herrera ( ruan de][. 1563. EscoriaL 
Vergara (Juan Diego, Nicolas, and Martin 

de). 1568. Works at Seville and Toledo. 

Vega (Luis and Caspar de). 1568. Alcasai 
of Seville, etc. 

Jlf<0ns (^Francisco). 1596. Works at Segovia, 
Escorial, Madrid. 

Mtmegro (J. Ba.) 158a Escorial, Alcazar 
of Toledo. 

^^ubara (Felipe). 1735. Royal Palace, Ma- 

Rodrimuz (Ventura). Z75a Divers worics. 

i'o^a/Mu (Francisco). Z76a Works at Madrid. 

.Ch urjuguxsbsqub. 
Cfutrrigttnu, Josd 1785. 

The following Spanish tenns, applied to different portions, etc, of 
churches, will be found useful : — 

Colegiata often stands for cathedral, as well as Iglma Mayor. They 
are generally dedicated to the Virgin Mary. A collegiate church is 
composed of dignitaries and canons, who celebrate divine service as in 

Fachadas, facades ; lonjOy a long platform which often surrounds the 
churches exteriorly, and which is ascended by steps or grees, escaUnata or 
gradas. The font is pila hautUmal ; jdla de agua hendita is the stoup 
or font containing holy water. 

Coro (choir) ; trcucoro^ the back to it, often profusely decorated ; the 
respaldos del coro are the lateral sides of it The stalls are eiUaSf forming 
silleria alta or baja, as the case may be. The choristers' desks are called 
atriles^ the lectern fadttol. Transept (Crossing), Orueero. — Over it often 
rises a dome or lantern called cvmborio^ and from its shape, media nanK^a. 
The pordose or railings, rejtu, are most remarkably executed, and deserve 
close inspection. The apse, absidey contains a capiUa men/or^ with the high 
altar, aUar mayor; the reredos, or screen rising from it, is called retablo. 
The latter are generally very magnificently gilt and sculptured* The right 
side of the altar — ^that is, the right of the celebrant looking from the altar 
— is called lado del evangelio; the left is lado de la epistola. Most cathe- 
drals have a parish church, parroqma {cwra parroco is a parish priest), 
attached to them, and a capilla reed, for tlie entombment of princes. The 
chapter is el cdbUdo. The sagrario is a special chapel, where the Holy of 
HoHes is often placed, de manijleeto, or displayed. The vestry is la sacristia, 
the sexton el sacrutan. The relics, vestments, plate, etc., are kept in what 
is called d rdicario. MonaguiUos are the choir boys. Misa Mayor, High 
Mass. The belfry is la torre, el campanario. 

The princix>al objects to see in a Spanish church are : the high altar, 
stalls in the choir, lateral chapels, the relics and vestments in tiie sacristia. 
Ask for the sacristan, and explain the object of your visit In case of 
unwillingness, address yourself to any priest attached to the church. The 
fee may vary from a peseta to five &ancs. In a cathedral, the Sacristan 


Mayor muBt be applied to. The hours to visit are from 8 am, to 12, and 
from 4 to 5 J P.M. The finest rejas are by T. Ba. Celma, 1600 ; Villal- 
pando (Fco.), 1561 ; Cristobal Andino, 1540. The finest chnrch plate, 
custodier (where the Host is kept on fbstivals), calices, or sacramental cups^ 
etc., are by the Aifes of Yalladolid, 1500 ; Becerxil, 1534 ; Juan Euiz^ 
15d3> etc The painted glass is among the most splendid in Europe, 
though not often met with, as it was not a Spanish art, but imported from 
France, Belgium, and Germany. It was practised by Spaniards in the^ 
middle of the 15th century. The earliest and finest examples date 
from 1418 to 1560, and are to be sought in the cathedrals of Toledo, 
Leon, Seville, Buigos, Barcelona, etc. The composition is usually simple, 
vigorously conceived, broadly executed ; the forms following those of the 
sculpture, that served as models ; the colouring very rich and deep. The 
ornamentation at its earliest period was treated conventionally, in later 
periods nature was more directly imitated ; shades and shadows were 
introduced, and Moorish dietails mixed with the Gothic 
The principal vtdrieros, or painters on glass, were : — 

P^/JSm (Maese). 14x8. Cath., Toleda 

Holanda (Alberto de). 1520. Cath. Avila, 

Holanda (Nicolas de), his son. 1535. Ditto. 

Vasco de Troya. iw. Cath., Toledo. 

Ctrdova (Gonzalo de}. 1S10-X3. The b^t 
work in Cath., Toledo. 

Vergara (Nicolas de). 1549, and his sons, 
Nicolas and Juan» 1574-90. CstUu, Toledo. 

List of Biwks of R^ence on Spanish Architecture, 

1. *£nsayO) Hist^rico sobre lo&diyeisos Generos de Arquitectura, etc» en 
EspaSa,' by Jo6(^ Caveda; Madrid, Saunague, 1S4S,, i vol. Carefiilly written, 
saore literajy thm critical. 

2. *Sumario de las Antigiiedades Romanas en EspaSa,' by J. A. Cean 
Bermudez» i vol. fol. ; Madrid, 1832. Very usefU and reliable ; the indexes 
well drawn up. This, with 'Ponz's Morales* and Carballo's works, and 
Florez*s Espafla Sagrctda^ etc., forms an indispensable collection to antiquaries. 
The works of Yepes, Argaiz, Sandoval, and Berganza may be also consulted. 

3^ * Noticia de los Arquitectos y Arquitectura, ' by J. A. C. Bermudez \^^ vols. 
4to ; Madrid, 1829. It is an improYCKl edition of Uiat written by Uaguno y 
Amirola, useM and reliable, but devoid of critical investigation, and written 
with that ignorance and indifference of the early styles which were current in 
his time. 

4. • Esp^a Artistica y Monumental,* 3 fol. vols. ; published at Paris ; 
1846, by Villamii. The drawings are the only important portion, and by 
Carderera, whose knowledge of Spanish art is. well known. The work com- 
prises only the Castiles. 

5. 'Some Account of Gothic Architecture in Spain' by G. E. Street^ 
London, J. Murray, 1865 ; most competently written by this the able authoi 
of Brick and Marble Architecture in Italy^ and profusely illustrated. The 
author has omitted the Arch, of S. and S.W. of Spain. His judgment is 
somewhat biassed by too exclusive a preference for one or two styles. 

Micer Cristobal AUmoH, 1504. Dith., Se- 
ville. The finest in Spain. 

Maestro (Enrique). 1478. Ditto. 

GelandiaifitrnacriLO^). 15x8. H. Chapel, 

A mao de Flandes. 158$. Cath., Seidlle. 

Vicente Mtnandro. X56(>69. Cath. ^ Seville^ 
One of the best painters. 

Diego de Valaivieso. 1562. Cath., Cuenca, 
etc. etc. 

painhngs. box 

6. 'MoBumeiitos Ar^tect6niG08 dt Espafia,' etc*» pablished by the Spanish 
Government orders, Madrid 1859-68. This great work, most valuable and 
splendidly got up, is in course of publication. Want of method, and, it is to be 
expected, eventual want of funds, will make this, an otherwise most valuable 
work, comparatively a faUure. 

* Recuwdos y Bellezas de EspaBa,* in several vds., by Madrazo, Quadrado, 
ftc. The <teiwings by Parcerisa. The text is generally mdiflferent. A v<cdume 
for each province. * Toledo Pxnteresco ' and 'Album Aftistico de Tolecilo ' (see 
T<^edo) are valuable works on the Gothic, Romano-Byzabtine, and Moorish 
remains in that city. The Moorish architecture can be fully studied in 
Owen Jones* 'Plans etc, of the Alhambra,' London, 1842. It is considered 
one of the most important and accurate works that has ever been written on 
MoOTish art. 'The Alhambra Court in the Crystal Palace,* one vol {6d.) 
1854, is ihe Sttbstsmce of that able architect's laxger ttroik. ^AnHgUedada 
Arabes^ by Lozano, 4 vols. 1785, 2 edidons; it has been cof^ed by Murphy 
in his ' Aral»aa Antiquities,' London, 1816. * Eiinneruigen von Wilhefan von 
Gail/ Munich ; magmficently got up. Upon Arabic architecture the < Discurso' 
of SeBor Riaiio at the Academy of San Fernando, i6th May 1880 (Arriban, 
Madrid) will be found useful. The same author's *The Industrial Arts of 
Spain ' (London, Chapman and Hall) now embraces most of the provinces, and 
is well done. Didron's valuable • Iconographie * will be of use to amateurs in 
explaining several passages tJiat appear dimly in the stone pages of the eariy 
Romano-Byzantine and early Gothic, dead langui^es now with us. Mr. 
Feigasson's • IlL Handbook of Architecture * wffl prove useful. There are, 
be^des, several minor works and papers : Mr. Waring's * Architectural Studies 
in Buigos,' etc. ; *• Sketches in Spain, from Nature, Art, and Life,' John Lomas> 
1884, etc. A new work by Corteza of Barcelona, < £spa8a : sus Monumentos 
y Artes/ is good. 


Paintino has not followed is Spaia the gradual growth that is notice- 
able elsewhere; its period was indeed most glorious, but resembled 
that of a meteor, and after a short reign of splendour, passed awaj, 
leaving no traces behind. Spanish art was never cultivated for its own 
sake, but as merely instrum^tiad in illustrating the most striking subjects 
of religion. The early period of Spanish painting, if any distinct one can 
be traced, followed the cliaracter and fate of scidpture. As long as the 
churcH was truly mUitemt, all t^ose features that characterised the 
hostUe rival religicm of the Pagans were carefaUy proscribed. Moses, 
Mahomet, Luther, were all opposed to images of the Deity, and the early 
Council of Illiberifl (near Granada), in its 36th Canon, says — ' Pkcuit 
picturas in ecdesia esse non debere, ne quod colitur et adoratur in 
parietibus depingatur.' When, however, the church became triumphant, 
sculpture and painting were largely resorted to. Images of saints, and 
that of the Virgin more especially, were rapidly multiplied, and have to 
this day superseded that of GodL Painting in its earlier period was 
•tridly sculptural and conventional It was used to decorate crypts, tb^ 


apse, with Btibjects from the Old Testament, and ^e ordinary ones of 
saints, the Creation of the World, Paradise, the Last Judgment, and 
Pnrgatory. The mmiature painting in the missals, in the iUnminated 
MSS., and on the stained glass, must have influenced its style and developed 
its resources. We think that early Byzantine painters were the first 
models that were copied from, and that Flemish and Qerman painting 
was not without influence during the 14th and 151h centuries, and that 
from that period henceforth the elements were either completely national 
or borrowed from Italy. The principal period of Spanish painting is 
between the 16th and I7th centuries. The power and wealth of the 
enlightened churchmen that were its most munificent patrons, the pros- 
perity of the monarchy at that time, the constant intercourse with Italy, 
the influence of the renaissance, and, not a little, the high fayour that 
foreign artists enjoyed at the Courts of Charles Y. and the Philips con- 
tributed most powerfully in creating emulation and raising the national 
schools to great eminence and repute. Artists were treated on the same 
footing as the haughty warriors, the aristocracy of blood. Art followed, 
as usual, the fate of the Empire, and declined when the sun of the House 
of Austria went down. Under the Bourbons, the French school was 
servilely copied, and has continued to be so to this day. The Eoyal 
Academy of San Fernando has produced no genius. There are yearly 
exhibitions, juries, prizes, and speeches, but few purchasers to encourage 
and reward the merit often displayed. Yet the land can boast of 
imperishable names ; — Moro, Coello, Juan de Juanes, Navarrete El Mudo^ 
Eibera, Eibalta, Yelazquez, Murillo, Ztirbaran, Cano, Boelas, and Yald^ 
Leal in the palmy days of its art life ; Goya, Fortuny, and Madrazo in 
the time of its decline. 

On the Idth of June 1844, a royal decree established a central com- 
mission, * de Monumentos Historicos y Artisticos del Beino.* The section 
for painting applied its labours to collecting the best pictures that had 
been overlooked by foreign dealers and amateurs at the suppression of 
convents and the time of civil war. About 4500 pictures, mostly 
rubbish, were collected, and formed the nucleus of the different Museos 
Provinciales that were established at several of the most important cities, 
the principal of which are those of Madrid, Seville, Yalenda, and 
Yalladolid. Besides these, the Boyal Museo at Madrid, the Boyal Palace 
there, and the pictures scattered in the noblemen's mansions in the 
metropolis, there are few important collections. Many of the finest 
Spanish pictures decorate the gsdleries of English noblemen, and others 
are to be seen in the Louvre. 

Spanish painting differs widely in style from any other. Its charac- 
teristic is, we should say, naturalism, realism, in one sense of the word. 
It is characterised by monotony of subject, of handling, and of colouring. 
Spanish painters studied Tnan^ not nature, and of man only two types ox 
varieties of the hero — ^viz. the martyr and the warrior; but the former 


almost exclusively. Home and rural scenes are generally wanting. Its 
productions bear the stamp of the solemn and ascetic spirit and heavy 
gloom that pervaded the cloister. The study of the treatment of 
Madonnas by Raphael, compared with that of the same subject by 
Murillo, will teach more than volumes ; for while the latter in his 
images of Virgins ' raised a mortal to the skies/ the former always ' drew 
an angel down ;' and most of the Spanish pictures of saints were portraits. 
This monotony of subjects, arising from want of Imagination, as well as 
from the invaiiable nature of the demand, is clearly evidenced in the list 
of the pictures of any Spanish master. Zurbaran's Carthusians, Boelas' 
Jesuits, Muiillo's Ooncepciones and Infant Deities, Bibera's Martyrdoms, 
Juanes' well-known Heads of Christ, and most others, excepting Velazquez, 
who was Italian in many things. Animal life they knew Httle of, 
though the few bodegones that exist reveal their proficiency in that line. 
Sea paintings were equally overlooked by painters bom in a peninsula 
whose shores are so varied in aspect, so full of character, and picturesque. 
Landscape was treated only as an accessory, and seldom resorted to. 
Velazquez painted a few, but they are merely views intended as frames to 
groups. Iriarte (1620) who, Murillo said, was worthy of painting scenery 
in Paradise, was the only landscape painter, and he painted nature 
unnaturally ; and in modem days, Villamil, though effective and improved 
by the study of Roberts, is stiff, pseudo-classical, and places nature always 
* en sc^ne.* The colouring is also monotonous, being that suggested by 
nature around ; the blues are, of course, very beautiful, rich, deep, and 
fuminous — those of the sky ; the tawny red-bumt soil has indicated a 
similar colour ; the greens, that only exist in Asturias, where there never 
was much art, are, consequently, poor and defective. In general they 
will, on close examination, appear greater draughtsmen than colourists. 
A quality of Spanish painters, never surpassed an^ seldom equalled even 
by the best Italian masters, lies in the cast of the draperies, for which 
the long and many-folded dresses of the monks, and the capa universally 
worn, were such good models. Mr. Schepeler thinks, however, that in 
this respect they never attained to the simplicity and dignity exemplified 
by the Italians in their draperies, and evinced even in the fantastic 
tubular folds of the German schooL There are in Spanish pictures extra- 
ordinary life, tmth to nature, a deep feeling of piety, and a simplicity 
and power that speak to the heart of the observer. 

The composition is generally excellent and simple, though evincing 
carelessness in the handling of secondary figures, and failing in the few 
instances of large groups and complicated action. The background is 
deficient, the details most correct and minute. Such are, we think, the 
principal characteristics of Spanish painting. As commentators of Chris- 
tian mythology, as portrait-painters, the Spanish masters stand unrivalled ; 
and such glorious names as Velazquez, Murillo, Zdrbaran, and Alfonso 
Cano are sufficient to assign to the sdiools of Spain the first rank aftp^ 


those of Italy, and place them on a par with those of Qennany, Flanders, 
and Holland. Spanish painting may be divided into three great 
schools, viz., Seville, Madrid, Valencia, which are in turn susceptible of 
subdivisions, such as Aragonese, Gatalonian, Estremadura, etc. Their 
differences of style are not, however, dearly defined. 

Schod of Valencia, 

Juan de Juaafus (or Joaneijy bom at Fuente la Higuera (province of 
Valencia) in 1623 ; died at Bocairente, December 21, 1579. His real 
name was Macip ; he Latinised his Christian name according to the 
habit of the age. He studied at Rome, and was a pupil of Giulio Ro- 
mano and Perin del Vaga. 5t*5y«:<#.— -Saviour's Heads^ lives of the 
Saints. Style, — The founder of the schooL He was one of the first to 
introduce the knowledge of Italian art into Spain, and was conddered by 
some as Raphael's most successful imitator. Correct drawing, good 
modelling, power of expression ; his perspective falls rather short, but is 
exact to truth. His colouring is warm, golden, luminous ; his draperies 
elegantly folded ; the details, even the hair and beard, most delicately 
touched. His Christs and saints have all an expression of mystic inspira- 
tion, love, and tender softness. Principal Worke, — These are at the 
Public Picture Galleries of Valencia ; also in the Cathedral, and the 
Church of San Nicolds ; at the Picture Galleiy of Madrid a Last Supper, 
No. 765, and portrait of Castelvy, No. 754. NJB, — ^He had a son, Juan 
Vicente Joanes^ who imitated his father's style. 

Francisco Ribaka, bom at Castellon dela Plana (province of Valenda) 
1551 ; died Jan. 14, 1628, at Valencia. He studied first at Valencia, 
then at Rome, under the GaraccL Style. — Imitated the Bolognese 
masters, and his style is after Sebastian del Piombo. His reds are those 
of the soil of the rich Huerta of Valencia ; fine attitudes, good composi- 
tion, deep knowledge of anatomical drawing. Principal Worh. — ^At the 
Picture Gallery at Valencia, at Corpus Christi College at Valencia, and 
Four Evangelists at the Kcture Gallery oi Madrid. 

Juan RibaUa (his son), bom 1679 ; died 1628. PupU of his fether, 
and painted so like him that it is next to impossible to detect the differ- 
ence. Pictures by him may be seen at Valencia and Madrid Picture Gal- 
lery, and a Cracifixion at S. Miguel de los Reyes, at Valencia. 

Jos^ Ribera {11 Spagnoletto), bom at Jdtiva, January 12, 1588; died 
at Naples, 1656. Pupil of Ribalta. Studied principally in Italy under 
Caravaggio and the naturalists. Style, — Martyrdoms and Lives of the 
Saints. Adopted three styles — 1. when he studied Caravaggio ; 2. when 
he imitated Correggio ; 3. more personal, greater expression in physical 
pain and moral beatitude, power of drawing, profound knowledge of 
anatomy. Great force of colour and effect. Principal Works, — ^At 
Madrid Picture Gallery, No 989, Martyrdom of St Bartholomew ; 982, 
Jacob's Ladder ; 1004, Prometheus ; 986, a dead Christ At Osuna, a 


Oracifizioii ; at Salamanca, a Ooncepoioii and seyeial others. His inest, 
a Piet^ is in San Martdno at Naples* 

Jacinto Oeranimp Espinosa, bom at Oooentaina (proTinee of Valencia) 
1600 ; died 1680 ; son of Bodrignez, also a painter, and pupil of Eibalta 
(Miguel Espinoea, his son). Style. — Excellence of drawing, well chosen 
and natural attitudes of his %ures, power of chiaroH>BOuro. He imitated 
the Caracci schooL Principal Picturce. — At the Picture Qallery at Ya 
Lencia and Madrid, where a Magdalen (No. 722), and Mocking of Christ 
(No 723), Transfiguration, and Death of St Luis Beltran, are to be seen. 

Pedro Orrente, bom at Montealegre (province of Murda) 1560 ; 
died at Toledo in 1644. Style, — ^Imitated Bassano successfully ; a 
good colourist ; painted principally cattle and Adorations of Shepherds. 
Principal Work*. — ^At Picture Qallery, Valencia (fire pictures), and 
at Rcture Gallery, Madrid. 

Esteban March, died 1660. He was pupil of Orrente. J^.B, — A 
son of his, Miguel, also painted, and died at Valencia, 1670. Style, — 
Imitated Orrente and Bassano. His usual subjects battles and soldier- 
life ; his executicm tee and powerfiiL Principal Works, — ^At Valencia 
and Madrid, where is his Camp (Na 781) 

Pahlo PontonSy was a pupil of Orrente His works only seen at Valencia. 

Zariiiena — Several painters of this name. Of inferior merit, and 
principally seen at Valencia. 

School of Toledo. 

Feman Oonealeg (1400). 

Juan Alfon (1418). Painted several retablos at tiiie Cathedral of 

Pedro Berruguete, Father of Alonzo, the great sculptor, and painter, 
and architect. 

Antonio del Rincon, bom at Guadalajara 1446. His works are few. 
Portraits of Ferdinand and Isabella, at Chapel de la Antigua, Cathedral 
of Granada. Some of the richness and transparency of the Venetian 

Fernando dd Bvneon, — Son and pupil of former. No work known. 
He worked with Juan de Borgona at the great retablo of the Cathedral 
of Toleda, and at Alcald de Henares. 

Comontes, bom 1495 ; died 1529. Antonio and Inigo, who were 
brothers, were both scholars of Ant del Bincon. Inigo painted the 
history of Pilate cm the wall at the side of one of the doors of the 
cathedral of Toledo, etc. Francisco, also a painter, son of Inigo (died 
1565), was painter to the Chapter of Toledo in 1547. 

Luis Morales (sumamed ' el Divino' as much from the subjects he 
treated as from the excellence of the execution), bom at Badajoz 1509 ; 
died at Badajoz 1566. No picture of his earlier than 1546. Style, — 
Might be called the Spanish Perugino ; colouring warm and brilli^"*^ 


His pictures of Christ breathe the most sublime expression of self- 
sacrifice and resigned love ; hard in the outlines ; his modelling wants 
relief ; too minute in details, such as the hair and beard ; good ana- 
tomy, correct drawing, and the half-tints very well understood and 
rendered. Principal Pictures, — At Madrid Picture Gkdlery, which 
contains six specimens ; sacristy of church at Osuna : at Alcantara, over 
high altar of the church of the convent of the order ; at cathedral of 
Badajoz, and at parish church of Arroyo del Puerco, a village between 
Mdrida and Placencia, where there are sixteen of the finest he ever 

Bias del Pradoj bom at Toledo 1497 ; died about 1593. Contem- 
porary of the former, and said to have been a pupil of Berruguete. 
Works, — Founding of the Church of Our Lady of Loretto, at Royal 
Academy, Madrid, and Picture Gallery, Madrid, No. 944. 

Sanchez-Cotan, his pupiL — Painted illustrations of lives of Saints in 
cloisters of Carthusian convents (Granada, etc.) 

Zuis de Carhajdlj or Garabajal, bom at Toledo 1534 ; died about and 
after 1613. Painted with Bias del Prado at Toleda, at the Escorial, and 
the Pardo. A Magdalen by him is to be seen at the Madrid Rcture 

Domenico Theotooopuli (El Greco), bom in Greece, studied under 
Titian. He lived at Toledo in 1577, and died there 1625 ; also a good 
sculptor and architect His son, Jorge Manuel Theotocopuli, was a 
sculptor and architect Style, — At first imitated Titian successfully. 
The personal second style he adopted was extravagant in length, and 
often in composition ; his colouring ashen-grey ; it was marked by great 
affectation. His last manner, when he became mad, is simply absurd. 
Principal Works. — At sacristy of the cathedral o£ Toledo, Churdi of Sto. 
Tom^ in same city. Burial of Count Orgaz (his masterpiece) ; at the 
Escorial ; and ten pictures at the Picture Gallery of Madrid. 

Jttan Bautista Mdyno, bom 1569 ; died at Madrid 1649. He was a 
pupil of El Greco, and was employed by the Chapter of Toledo. His 
works may be seen at Picture Gallery, Madrid. Imitated Veronese. 

Zuis de Velasco. — ^Resided at Toledo in 1564 ; died 1606. Three 
pictures in the cloisters of Cathedral of Toledo. 

Luis Tristan, bom near Toledo 1586 ; died 1640. The fetvourite 
pupil of El Greco. His principal works are at Toledo and in the parish 
church of Yep^s. 

School of JSeviUe. 

Juan Sanchez de Castro, — 15th century; a fresco in Church of San 
Julian, Seville (exec. 1484), and a Holy Fainily; died about 1516. 

Ped/ro Sanchez, — ^Worked in the cathedral of Seville ; died about 1462. 

Juan Nwnez^ a pupU of Sanchez de Castro. A Virgin and Christ in 
Ouarto de los Subsidios, attached to cathedral of Seville. 


Lads de Vargou, bom at Seville 1602 ; died 1568 ; may be considered 
as the foander of llie school of Seville ; went to Italy, where he remained 
twenty-eight years, and studied under Perin del Vaga, whose style he 
imitated. His earliest work at Seville is the altar-piece of chapel of the 
Nativity in the cathedral ; and perhaps his best La Qamba, or Generation, 
in the S. aisle of the same church. 

Pablo de CSspedes^ bom at Cordova 1538 ; died 1625 ; in 1608 studied 
in Italy. Imitated Correggio, and was a great colonrist " The painters 
of the school of Seville learnt from him the fine tone of their flesh-tints." 
Frindpal Works. — Cathedral of Cordova, Chapter House and Contadnria 
Mayor of the Cathedral of Seville. His best pupils were Zambrano, 
PeSalosa, Contreras, Vela, Mohedano. Excelled in fruit^eces. 

Alonso Vazquez, bom at Eonda ; died 1650. Worked withMohedeno 
in the convent of St Frauds, Seville ; also excelled in frnit-piecea 

Pedro de ViUegaa Marmdejoy bom at Seville 1520; died 1597. Studied 
in Italy, and imitated the Florentine schooL A Yisitadon in cathedral, 

Juan de las Roelas, bom in 1558 or 60; died 1625. Studied at Venice 
with the pupils of Titian and Tintoretto. He was Zurbaran's master. 
Style. — ^His colouring is very fine and rich ; great softness of execution 
*< No one ever painted the sleek grimalkin Jesuit like Roelas." Had great 
influence in the Seville school. Principal Works. — ^At Olivares (collegiate 
church). Cathedral of Seville, Hospital de la Caridad, Seville, Picture 
Gkdlery of Seville, University of Seville, Church of San Isldoio, Seville. 

Luis Femandsz, lived during end of 16th century. He is known not 
by his pictures, but as the master of Juan del Castillo and his brother 
Augustin, also of Herrero and Pacheco. 

Juan del CastiUo, bom at Seville 1584. He was the master of Alonso 
Cano, Pedro de Moya, and MuriUo. ^x fine specimens at the Picture 
Gallery, Madrid, and at the Museo, Seville. 

Agustm del Castillo, brother of Juan del Castillo, and pupil of Fer- 
nandez. No works extant except an Adoration of the Kings, at the Ca- 
thedral of Cadiz. 

Antonio del CastiUo, the son of Juan del Castillo, and pupil of Zur- 
baran. He died, in 1667, from the effects oi envy and annoyance caused 
by the sight of Muiillo's pictures in the Cathedral of Seville. 

Francisco Pacheco, bom 1579 ; died 1654. The father-in-law and 
teacher of Velazquez, and a remarkable writer on painting. He was a 
pupil of Fernandez. Style. — Correct drawing, good and equal style, 
natural and noble attitudes of his figures ; he was intimately acquainted 
with all the effects of light and perspective. His colouring was some- 
what hard and stony, and the execution often constrained. Princifol 
Pictures. — Picture QaUery, Madrid, and at the Churches of San Sebastian 
and Santiago at Maid de Guadaira. 

Luis Pascv^l Gn/udin, a Carthusian monk* died 1621 ; worked at 


Seville. His * Mamage of tihe Yizgm* offended Paoheeo's sense of pro- 
priety in the representation of holy perscmages, as he dressed the Viii^n, 
without any mantle, in a Venetian petticoat, etc. 

Fremcitco Herrera (d Vi^'o, or the elder), l>oin at SeTille 1576 ; died 
1656. A fellow-pupil of Pacleoo at the sdiool of Fernandez. He also 
engraved on copper, and painted frescoes. Style. — * Introduced into the 
school of Seville that bold and vigorous touch which was adopted by 
Velazquez.' His drawing is coirect, his knowledge of anatomy and pro- 
portions of the human body remarkable ; expression, symmetry in the 
groups, good and vigorous colouring, often laid on with an extraordinary 
impcuto. Principal Works, — Picture of San Hermenegildo at the Picture 
Gallery, Seville, and a Last Judgment in the Church of San B&mado, 

* FrcmciKO Eerrera {el Mozo\ bom 1622; died 1665; son of the 
former. (His elder brother, Hemau el RuUo (the fedr), was also a painter, 
lees known). He studied in Borne, and, like his elder broliker, painted 
almost exclusively fish, and still-life pieces, and was called at Rcnne 
^ n Spagnuolo degli pesci.^ Style, — ^Imitated his father's style ; surpassed 
him in the painting of flower-pieces and bodegones ; inferior in his 
colouring, where the reddish half-tints predominate, and was wdl ac- 
quainted with the happiest effects of chiaro-oscura Prineipal Pictures, 
— Picture Gallery, Madrid, No. 744 ; Cupola of the Church of Atocha, 
Madrid ; and Cupola of Clunr of the Church of San Felipe el BeaL NJB, 
— His uncle, Bartolom^, painted portraits at Seville. 

AUmso Ccmo^ bom 1601 at Granada; died 1667. Studied under 
Pacheco and Juan del Castillo, and was also a great sculptor and an 
architect. Style, — ^It is doubtful whether he was not greater as a sculptor 
than as a painter. His manner is soft, ridi, and pleadng, and he might 
be called the Spanish Correg^o. His pendl was free and fertile, yet 
correct and natural ; his colouring rich and fine, but a little smoky ; the 
outlines consequently appear somewhat indistinct when one is close, 
though the detail and purity of the form may be seen at a certain dis- 
tance from the picture. In the expression of his figures he was fidl of 
sentiment and tenderness, without being feeble or affected. The taste of 
his draperies and his forms in general pure. PrincvpcH Works, — Cathedral 
of Granada, Picture Gallery, Madrid (dght specimens), Church of Monte 
Sion, Seville, Cathedral of Seville, University of Seville, Church of San- 
tiago, Malaga, Church of San Girus, Madrid. 

Pedro Atanasio Bocanegira, bom at Granada. Was a pupil of Oono, 
and studied also Pedro de Moya's style. Worked at the Catliedral of 
Granada, where see Virgin and San Bernardo, the Scourging at the 
Escorial, and Picture Gallery, Madrid. 

Sebastian de Llanos y ValdSs^ lived in 1667. A pupil of Herrera el 
Viejo, and was killed by Cano in a duel His works are very seldom 
found ; they are very rich in colouring. 

PAIinilfG-— SCHOOL OF 8BVILLE. Ixxvii 

Pedro de M&ya^ bom at Qfanada 1610 ; died 1666. Fellow-pupil ol 
AIddso Cano and Mniillo under Oaatillo. Principally imitated Van 
Dfcky. whom be went to study in England in 1641. His succesflfal imi- 
isJdoD. of this master is said to bave exercised some influence on the style 
of Murillo. 

I^neiaoo Zwrharofa^ bom at Fuentes de Cantos (Estremadnia) 1598 ; 
died 1662. Was a pu]^ of Las Boelas. SiyU. — ^Most correct drawmg ; 
called the Spanish Caiayaggio. Equal to Cano in reputation, not so 
tender but more vigorous ; great loftiness of wonderM finisb of the 
details in dress, and beauty and truth of the beads ; generally seyere in 
style, simple in composition ; a peculiar pinky tone, espedaDy in female 
cheeks. The {Hrevalent use of rouge at that time influenced his eye, as it did 
that of Velazquez. Prineipal Works, — ^Picture Oalleiy, Seville, Cathedral 
of Seville. At the Picture Qallery, Madrid, there are fourteen specimens. 

Juan de ValdSs Leal, bom at CordoTa in 1630 ; died 1691. A pupil 
of Antonio del Castillo, and the rival, or ratber adversary, of Murillo. 
/Si^20.-— Forced and vicdent attitudes, sombre and gloomy subjects, a 
vigorous and brilliant colouring, somewhat exaggerated, and tinted with 
violent and green tones. Principal Works, — ^La Caridad, Seville ; Pic- 
ture Qallery, Seville ; Piotnre Gallery, Madrid, Na 1049. 

Bartolomi EsUban Mttbillo, bom at Seville, Jancary 1, 1616 ; died 
at Seville, April 3, 1682. Was a pupil of Castillo, never visited Italy, 
and began by imitating Boelas and Zurbaran. Style, — ^Has three recog- 
nised different manners : — 1. The frio, or cold ; 2. The cdlido^ or warm ; 
3. The vaporosoy or nusly. Li the first, ' the outline was decided, if not 
hard, and the tone of the shadows and ^e treatment of the lights remind 
us of Zurbaran or Caravaggio.' The second, which he adopted about 
1648, is chaiacteriBed by a softer outiine and a more mellow colouring. 
His third style, which is the most characteristic of his works (thou^ 
the painter preferred the second, or edltdo himself), exhibits softness and 
vigour with the finest colouring. He now painted rather hastily, which 
produces a vaporous, hazy eSect thrown over tiie whole— a sort of 
luminous veil He was pre-eminent as a colourist The colour of the 
flesh in contact with linen h very fine ; and he has an object distinct 
firom most of his countrymen, and ' aims at the gena»l character of 
flesh when tinged with the glow of the sun. It is never minute or par- 
ticular, but a general and poetical recollection of nature ; and when sue- 
cessM it is of the same class, and, in no remote degree, an approach to 
Titian and Correggio.' (WiUke,) His most successful works have for 
subjects the Virgin and Infant Deity. He was, therefore, called ' El 
pintor de los concepciones,' and the children and cherubs be painted, 
< los ninos de Murillo.' Principal Works. — ^His own favourite painting is 
St Thomas giving Alms, at the Picture Qallery, Seville — ^he is better 
studied here than at Madrid ; — Picture Gallery, Seville ; Cathedral, 
ditto ; La Caridad, ditto, and Picture Qallery, Madrid. 


Sebcutiam, Oomez. A pupil and the mulatto slave of Murillo. 

Pedro Nunez de VUlavtcencio, bom at Seville 1636 ; died 1700. He 
was a pupil of Murillo, and was, with Tobar, the best pupil and imitator 
of the master's style, and their works are often mistaken as being by 
him. (See at the Picture Gallery, Madrid, No. 1119.) 

Francisco Meneses Ossorio, died beginning of 18th century. Pupil 
of Murillo. He painted at Seville, and finished at Cadiz the picture 
his master was painting when he fell from the scafifold and soon after died. 

Jttan Oarzon, died at Madrid in 1729. A pupU of Munllo. 

Ignacio de Iriarte, bom at Azcoitia 1620 ; died 1685. Pupil of 
Herrera el Yiejo. Painted almost exclusively hmdscapes. 

Tohar, bom 1678 ; died 1768. Pupil of Fajardo and successful imi- 
tator of Murillo. Specimens at Chapel del Consuelo (Cathedral, Seville) ; 
two at Picture Gfalleiy, Madrid. 

School of Madrid. 

May be also called of Castile, and is composed of painters from Sala- 
manca, Burgos, Yalladolid, Madrid. 

Oaspar Becerra, bom 1620 at Baeza ; died 1570. Studied in Italy, 
and was made by Philip XL, in 1563, his court-painter. Introduced witii 
Bemiguete the Italian taste in Spain« Most of his works have perished. 
A retablo in the Cathedral of Astorga ; very Florentine style. 

Alfmso /Sanchez Codlo, bom, beginning of 1 6th century, near Valencia ; 
died 1590. Was probably of Portuguese origin (Coelho) ; became a 
pupil of Antonio Moro, and studied in Italy. JSt^/le, — * "Was peculiarly 
distinguished in portraits. Great life and truth to nature.' He enjoyed 
great distinction from Philip IL Principal Works. — ^At Picture Gallery, 
Madrid, eight fine pictures, all portraits, save a St Catherine, painted on 
cork ; Escorial 

Juan Pantoja de la Cruzy bom at Madrid 1551 ; died at Madrid 
1610. The best pupil of A. S. Coello. * These pictures, by Coello and 
Pantoja, of InfSants and InfEuitas, bristling with the stif&iess and formality 
of the old Spanish Court, indepeiidently of their merit as works of art, 
are in themselves most interesting.' Several pictures, mostly portraits, 
in the Picture Gallery, Madrid.- 

J, Fernandez Navarrete, sumamed El Mvdoy bom at Logrono, 1626 ; 
died 1579. He studied in Italy, and worked in the EscoriaL ^ One of 
his best is the Baptism of Christ at Madrid Picture GaUery, horn, the 
EscoriaL A colourist of the Titian school.' 

Laie de Carbajaly or Carahajaly bom at Toledo 1634; died b^pun- 
ning of 17th century. Painted at the Escorial, Pardo, and Cathedral, 
Toledo, with Bias dd Prado (1591). His Magdalen, a masterpiece, is in 
Madrid Picture Gallery (No. 675). He was named painter to Philip II. 

VEiiAZQXJBZ {Dim Diego Velxszquez de Silva)^ bom at Seville 1599 ; 


died at Madrid 1660. Became a pupil of Herrera the Elder and Pacheco^ 
and studied also in Italy. Style, — He first imitated Caravaggio and 
Bibera, of wMch tlie Aguador de SeviUa, now in Apsley House, and an 
Adoration of Shepherds, in the Louvre, are examples. He was essentially 
a * naturalist' He stands as a portrait-painter side by side with Yandyck 
and Titian. He often falls short of the elegance of the former, and he is 
inferior to the latter in brilliancy and colour ; but the feeling and spirit 
of his subject are admirably conceived and executed. Every touch has 
meaning, and nothing is conventlonaL ' For handling no one surpasses 
him, but in colour Reynolds is much beyond him, and so is Muiillo. In 
painting an intelligent portrait, Velazquez is nearly imrivalled y but 
where he attempts simple nature or sacred subjects he is fear inferior to 
MuriUo.* (WUMe) Principal Works.— At the Madrid Gallery, his 
Lanzas, Meninas, and Bonachos ; besides others in some noblemen's 
houses at Madrid. 

Fareja, bom 1606 ; died 1670. A pupil, and first the slave of 
Velazquez. The ^ Call of St Matthew,' by him, is at the Picture Qallery, 

J. Bavtistadel MazOy bom at Madrid 1630 ; died 1687 ; Velazquez's 
son-in-law, and his most successful pupU. His works may be seen at 
Madrid and the EscoriaL 

Mateo Oerezo, bom at Burgo* 1635 ; died 1675. A pupil of Carrena 
Celebrated for his nxmierous pictures of the Immaculate Conception. 
VaJladolid, Madrid (Caiapel of Atocha). 

J". Ca/rreno, bom at Avil^ 1614 ; died 1685. Pupil of Las Ouevas. 
"Worked at the Escorial and Royal Palace of Madrid. 

Claudio Goelloy died at Madrid 1693. A pupil of Rizzi and Carrena 
Bis masterpiece is ' La Santa Forma,' at the Escorial. His genius was 
crippled by the prevalent bad taste of his times. 

Misi (Francisco), bom at Madrid 1608 ; died 1686. Pupil of Vin- 
cenzio Cwrducho. The Ricd, Carducci, Cajeci (Caj^), etc., were all of 
Italian descent, and their works are of no great merit. 

Faloimno, bom at Bugalance 1653 ; died 1726. A pupil of Valdes 
Leal, but worked almost exclusively in Castile, Madrid, and Salamanca. 
Painted the cupola of sacristy of La Cartuja at Granada. More cele- 
brated for his literary than artistic works. He was the author of ' El 
Miis6o Pictorico,' etc. 

Menendez (M. Jacinto), bom at Oviedo 1679 ; died 1752. Studied 
in Italy, and was especially a miniature-painter. Zuis Menendez, the son 
and pupil of the former, and his younger brother, Francisco Antonio, 
were also painters. Ltiis, bom 1716; died 1780. TTiere are thirty-eight 
paintings by him at the Madrid Picture Gallery. 

Ooya, — ^Parated a great deal at Madrid. Bom 1746 ; died 1828. 
One of the few really original Spanish painters who stmck out a new 


path. Oreafc imagination. ' Skilled as well in the managem^it of colour 
and brush as in that of the bnrin, aquafortis, and the lithographic stone ; 
his effects in scenes of common life are inimitable for their sorpiising 
truth and force.' Respecting this master see Friarte's * (Euvre de Goya.' 
There are, besides the above, several so-called Escuelas, as, for example, 
that of Aragon, whose chief artists were — R Torrente (died 1323) ; 
Guillen Fort, his pupil ; Bonant de Ortiza (1437) ; Pedro de Aponte 
(1479), who studied in Italy under Ghirlandajo ; F. Pellet, who 
studied with P. Caravaggio ; Domin Forment, the Cellini of Aragon ; 
A. Golcovan (1588); Geronimo de Mora (1587) ; Ximenes (died 1666). 
Then, in the 18th century, the more inferior Artiga, Piano, Eabiella, 
Almor, Casanova, etc, ending with Martinez, Bayeu, and Goya, the best 
of whom belong more properly to the Madrid school, if there was any at 
that time. In Cataluna, the Yiladomat, Baylon, Perramon, Cesilles, etc., 
have been said by native critics to constitute a school ; but the fact is> 
that what is generally understood by that name hardly ap|dies even to the 
group of paintera that flourished at Seville, Toledo, Yalenda, and Madrid. 

Books of Reference, — ^Mr. Stirliiig's ' Annals of Spanish Painters,' is the 
most important and accurate historioil work upon Spanish painters. It has 
been translated into Spanish, with notes, by Maldonado Macanaz. It is 
based on Cean 6ermudez*s *Diccionario.* 

Captain Cooke Widdrington's ' Spain in 1843,' contains some useful infor- 

* Les Musses d*£spagne,' by L. Viardot (Paris, i860, 3d ed.), was the first 
work that called the attention of foreign cognoscenti to Spanish |»ctares. The 
substance is based on Palomino and Cean Bermudez. The appreciations are 
considered most trustworthy, and we have transcribed many of them ahnost 

* Handbook of Painting' by Sir Ed. Head, vol ii., containing the Spanish 
and French schools; London, Murray, 1854. Most reliable for information, 
and with an account of the Spanish pictures out of Spain. 

Passavant's 'Die Christliche Kunst in Spanien,* 1853 ; Ldpzig. 

R. Cumberland's ' Anecdotes of Eminent Spanish Painters,' 2 vols. i2mo ; 
London, 1 782. (Contains a catalogue of the pictures oi the King of Spain in 

A, Palomino^ * Museo Pict6rico y Escala Optica,* 3 vols. fol. ; Madrid, 
1795-6-7. (An abridged edition published in London in 1744.) Somewhat 
inaccurate^ but useiiil. 

F. Pacheco^ * El Arte de la Pintura, su Antigiiedad y Grandezas ;' Sevffle, 
1649. Very scarce, and of great importance for the history of Spanish paint- 
ing. The substance of muc£ has passed into other works. He wrote a MS. 
' Descripdon de Retratos Autenticos,* etc. — a series of biographical sk«tdifi» 
of the painters and literati who frequented his studia The original MS. has 
been lost ; a copy is, we believe, in the hands of the Sevillian poet, SeSor 
D. I. Maria Bueno. 

Fdipe de Guevara, 'Comentarios de la Pmtura' (published by Ponz). 
Madrid, 1788. 


Cean Bermudez^ 'Dicdonario Hist6rico de los mas ilustres Profesores de 
las Bellas Artes en Espafia,* 6 vols. i2mo ; Madrid, 1800. This work is now 
being supplemented by a series of papers l^ the Conde de Viilaza in the Revista 
de Ciencias Histdricas^ Barcelona, 1888. 

Consult, also, Madrazo*s Catalogue of the Madrid Museo (two vols.), and, for 
the Aragonese school, Miiiano*s 'Diccionario Geografico,' which contains a 
paper on it by Cean Bermudez. 

Spanish sculptare has been overlooked by most tourists, but deserves 
their attention. The Spanish sculptor, until the reign of Charles V., 
was deprived by law of the study of anatomy, as the Church forbade 
dissection. The indifference evinced by all towards the Roman remains 
of art contributed also to paralyse the progress of sculpture. Besides, 
nudity was supposed to be indecent, and accordingly prohibited, although 
* rien nTiabille comme le nu,' said Voltaire. Scidpture would, indeed, 
never have existed had not tlie notion of bodily representations of the 
heroes and events of sacred history prevailed, which called it into exist- 
ence. Painted sculpture, a peculiarity of Spanish art, always prevailed 
over the simple marble, ghost-like statuary. The statues were to be as 
like to Hfe as possible, whence they were clothed often with stu£k ; the 
beards, hair, eyelashes, sometimes were reaL They are not thus wanting 
in effect ; more effective, indeed, in the churches, upon the altars for 
which they were intended, than the cold, monotonous marble would have 
been, for they are in keeping here with all the rest around them, — the 
warm rich varied tints of the painted glass, the heavy gilt and painted 
railings, the many-coloured pavement, the draperies and pictures. 

These statues and sacred groups once removed from their appointed 
station must naturally appear, what they really are, <mt of place ; ' Les 
hommes,* says La Bochefoucault, ' sont comme les statues, pour les juger 
il faut des voir en place.' On the altars they should have been left, for 
that was their place. Spanish sculpture exerted itself principally in the 
magnificently carved and estofado (gilt) retablos, usually filled up with 
series of basso-relievo scenes &om Scripture, the Virgin's life, or that of 
the tutelar patron of the higar; groups in the Trascoro and Trasaltar, 
besides single statues of saints with their attributes in the chapels dedi- 
cated to them. Alto-relievo medaUions over doors, statues (never painted) 
in niches, recumbent or kneeling effigies on tombs, etc, were also objects 
of the sculptor's chisel that deserve attention. The carved sillerias or 
stalls in the choirs are among the finest in the world. Sculpture here, 
as elsewhere, in some d^ee, has followed the gradations of architecture 
and painting. In the dark ages art disappeared through the oblivion of 
classical principles, and during the Byzantine and early Gothic periods 
sculpture in Spain was rude, symbolical, and conventional The most 
brilliant period was the 16th century, when the study of Italian models, 
and a growing gusto for the Revival, introduced new ideas and created 



emulation. Towards the end of tlie 17th century art became hastaidified, 
and followed the precepts of the bad taste prevalent at that period, and 
in the present day sculpture may be safely said not to exist in Spain. 
In the 16th century its character was very peculiar, the life-like appear- 
ance of groups and statues was most startling ; the vigour, breadth, and 
expression are usually very remarkable ; the composition, especially of 
groups, £i*eely conceived and generally well carried out ; the execution of 
details very exquisite, the attitudes theatrical and exaggerated. The 
general characteristic is action, which the impassioned, fiery Southeners 
like and understand better than re^se, a more difficult and intimately 
SBsthetic sentiment The greatest sculptors have been Leon Leoni, and 
his son P(ympeyo Ltoni, natives of Italy, whose gilt-bronze statues at the 
Escorial and Valladolid are among the finest of their kind ; Alfonao 
BerrugueUy the Spanish Benvenuto Cellini; Becerroy who was a great 
anatomist, and even made the designs for an anatomical work published 
at Rome, 1554, the text by Dr. J. de Yalverde, and executed two anato* 
mical statues (Cean Bermudez considers him as the first of Spanish 
sculptors ; his masterpieces are La Yirgen de la Soledad, and a grand 
retablo in the Cathedral of Astorga, etc) ; the fiery and grandiose Juan 
de Junty the Michael Angelo of Spain ; Chjefforio Hernandez, whose style 
is so elevated, graceful, and refined ; Montanes, sumamed the Phidias of 
Seville, all grace, exquisite delicacy, and tenderness ; Aljmso Cano, his 
pupil, whose works exhibit much of his master's taste and elegance, com* 
bined with originality, expression, and excellent careful modelling. 

Sculpture in Spain was seldom considered otherwise than as an 
accessory to architecture. It became the tongue of edifices, which the 
unlettered could read, ' lAhii idiotarum,' all symbolical, and whose earlier 
impotency has been sometimes defined as conventional The examples 
are scattered all over Spain, in churches, ruinous convents, noblemen's 
houses, and some museos ; in that of Valladolid there is the best collec- 
tion ; and it is in that city and Seville and Toledo that Spanish sculpture 
has to be principally studied. 

List of the principal Spanish sculptors, with the period of ^eir death, 
or that when they flourished : — 

TudeKlIa, 1566 
Morel, Bart, 1566 
Becerra, Caspar. X566 
Ancheta, Miguel de, 1575 
Juni, Juan de, 1585 
Jordan, Estbau, 1590 
Leoni, Pompeyo, 1605 (a Florentine) 
Hernandez. Gresorio, 1635 
Pereyra, ManueL 1645 
Montafies, Juan M. Z., Z645 
Cano, Alfonso, X650 
Roldan, Pedro, 1650 

Tom^, Nardso, and Simon Gavikn Taai4 

Mateo, el Maestro, xx88 
Aleman, Juan, X460 
Dancart, el Maestro, 1495 
Florentin, Mieuel, 15 10 
Bartolom^, el Maestro, 1530 
Forment, Damian, 1525 
Valdelvira, Pedro, 1540 
Copin, Diego and Nliguel, X540 
Bemigiiete, Alfonso, 1545 
Tordesillas, Caspar, 1545 
Machuca, Pedro, 1545 
Xamete (Hammlbd) 1550 
l^eoni, Leon, 1555 
Villapando, Franco, 1561 
Siloe, Diiego de, 1563 


Terra-cotta we have omitted mentioniDg, as foreign, in one sense, to 
our subject There are, however, seveiral excellent specimens in churches, 
over portals in cathedrals (Seville), and the spirited, freely-modelled, 
coloured groups and statuettes of bidl-fighting subjects at Malaga. 

Books of Reference, — ^We know of no Spanish works on iconography. Those 
of our readers who are curious of deciphering the now dead language expressed 
b^ scu^tuie in the early churches may consult Didron's ' Manuel d'Iconographie 
Chretienne,* and the Abb^ Crosnier*s work on the same subject. A translation of 
the former, with valuable additions by Miss Stokes, has been published by Bell 
and Sons, London, 1886. Most of the early sculptors, until perhaps the 
b^[inmng of the 14th century, were also and especially architects, and belonged 
to monasteries, where men lost all individuality. Cean Bermudez*s ' Diccionario * 
may be consulted. 


Porcelain amateurs cannot look upon Spain without interest, as it has 
contributed a generous share to the potter^s art Such names as Majolica, 
Buen Betiro, and Moorish Azulejos, are sufficient to awaken their 
sympathies and excite their zeaL 

The Carthaginian pottery, which principally flourished at Saguntum 
(now Murviedro, see Valmdd}^ was very celebrated in the time of the 
Romans, and produced the 'Cadices Saguntini' of Martial (xiv. 108), that 
were of that beautiful jasper-red, which Pliny mentions, in the manufac- 
ture of which, he adds, 1200 workmen were employed. {Vide Pliny, 
Hist. Nat., lib. zxzv. c 12.) 

Fragments are still foimd here (beware of the usual impositions prac- 
tised on credulous travellers), and exhibit great elegance of design, being 
most Oriental in the outline. The Cond^ de Lumiare*s work, ' Barros 
Saguntinos/ with prints (Valencia, Orga, 1779, 8vo.), throws some light 
on the subject ; but the names of the manufacturers, etc., are all un- 
known, for, alas . — 

True hsaa, WtpordlaiH. earth, for yean must Uy 
Buried and mix'd with elemental day.— Hart. 

We know the Phoenicians excelled in the manufacture of earthenware 
cups, chalices, the *mT7\^m of the Greeks, which, in the middle ages, 
were all made after the Greek and Roman models. Ilie Romans did 
not neglect the manu&etures of Spanish pottery, but the Mohammedans 
raised it to a high degree of excellence by the introduction of the 
general use of tiles of enamelled earthenware, called azulejos, from the 
Arabic ' Zuleija, zuleieh,' a varnished tile. They are of Persian origin 
(the lazurad blue). We do not think that the early Moors knew them, 
and there are few vestiges of these tiles in the Mosque of Cordova ; 
those that exist must have been posterior to the 10th centiuy. In the 
Mihr&b (Mosque of Oordova), the enamelled vitreous mosaics, the finest 


of tlieir kind in Europe, were a Byzantine produce, the Qreek •v|/»;p«(r/f, 
and Arabic Fsefys^h, or Sofeysaf^h. The Alhambra tiles are among the 
finest in the world. The Moorish buildings at Seville and Toledo were 
also adorned with this style of decorative pottery. 

The sun-dried bricks made in Spain, an Arab importation, are called 
adohey mud-wall, Cob. 

The Spaniards learned the art of tile-pottery from the more refined 
Easterns, and became very proficient As examples, we may mention 
the Dados in the Casa de Pilatos at Seville, the Portal de las Monjas de 
Sta. Paula, the cinquecento azulejos found here and there in the Alcazar 
of Seville, the azulejo picture in the chapel at this Alcazar, put up by 
Isabella the Catholic ; the fine azulejo pictures in the principal fa9ade of 
the Hospital de la Caridad, after designs by Murillo (Seville), at Barce- 
lona, Convent de la Merced, cinquecento Dados, representing the victories 
of Jayme L of Aragon, portion of exterior of La Sen at Zaragoza, etc. 

'Thia charming fasldon fell off in the 17th century, but the manufac- 
ture of them still continues to prosper in Spain, at Manises, near 
Valencia, and at Seville, and considerable importation takes place from 
Morocco. They are used in courts, passages, gardens, bath-rooms. They 
are seen in butchers' shops, fishmongers' stalls, etc. ; but they deserve 
all the attention of architects and men of taste. From the progress that 
porcelain-painting has made, which has great analogy with enamel-paint- 
ing, the processes used at Limoges, the superior means disposed of now, 
of making the tiles of almost any size and thinness, they might be in 
many cases a substitute for cold, meaningless, heavy stone ; superior to 
frescoes, that do not generally last in the open air, and preferable to 
bricks ; they adapt themselves to all climates. Ceramic decoration for 
the exteriors of buildings ought to be developed, and when applied 
soberly, and with intelligence, wiU not be found, we think, foreign to 
dignity and repose. 

' Nunca har^ casa con azulejos,' shows, however, that this decoration 
is attended with expense. They are of a pale clay, backed, squeezed 
. into moulds, glazed on the surface with a white opaque enamel, upon 
which designs are executed in colours. The Moorish tiles were painted ; 
the Spanish ones are generally stamped. The usual tints of the earliest 
were blue or brown. The secondary colours, purple, green, and orange, 
were also used. About the 16th century, whites and yellows were the 
fEushion, and in the beginning of the 1 7 th century, yellow, almost exclu- 
sively. But these tiles were not the only production of Moorish pottery. 
The jars (jarras) and the water-coolers {alcarazai)^ all Oriental in shape, 
were elaborately ornamented. These porous clay drinking-vessels, bxxm 
Al-Earazah, are of course a Moorish importation, and differ little horn 
the Egyptian hardachs made at Ehermeh. The Arabs' eady ioolehf 
which hold and keep the water so well, were the prototypes of the botya 


Martial's TruUa (ziv. 106 ; iv. 46), who mentions all the particnlan of 
iikoBe made at Sagontom ; they are i^ery like the Oenohic ^arixd. They 
were probably introduced by the Phcsnicians, and were made in Seville 
as early as 304 aj>« They are generally placed on taUa$j or stands, and 
kept cool by being covered with linen. The most characteristic are made 
at Andujar, They are of different colouis — ^yellow, brown, and white. 

Of Moorish ceramic art, the beautiful and cdebzated vase at the 
Alhambra is a good specimen ; it dates about 1320 ; the companion of it 
was broken, and the fimgments carried away by a French lady connois- 
seur. There is a copy at Sevres. The Hispano- Arabic pottery flourished 
till the beginning of the 17th century, the period of the final expninon 
of the Moors ; its influence has been permanent To this day all earthen- 
ware pots and vases are of Moorish form. The cdntaros and botijas of 
that particular peculiarly-scented bitoaro day, the Gargantua-like TiviajiMs, 
where the wine and oil are kept, the alcarzazas of Yalentia, caeuekuy etc., 
at Elche, are all of Eastern, very early forms. 

Besides, the Moors' pottery is considered to be the prototype of the 
Italian Majolica. The Hiepano-Arabic pottery has been divided into three 
classes. 1st. Of the transition period between strictly Moorish and 
Spanish, a yellow groxmd with lustred-reddish ornaments, flowers, and 
birds. 2d. Of 13th to 14th century, generally ornamented with shields 
of Castile, Leon, Aragon, of a uniform golden yellow tone. 3d. 14th to 
end of 15th century, with patterns in coloured enamel, with golden yellow 
ornaments, escutcheons, foliage, cyphers, sometimes animals. This is - 
thought by Mr. Marryat to be the style copied by Italian artbts in the 
1 6th century. ' Spain had the priority over Italy in the manufacture of 
enamelled pottery' (Marryai), The Moorish pottery passed from Valencia 
to Majorca, whence Majolica, and finalLy to Pisa and Pesaro. This seems 
undeniable from all that the highest authorities have stated (ScaHger, 
Fabio Ferrari, etc.), but no doubt the ground had been well prepared by 
the Sicilian Saracens (aj). 827), who decorated the mosque at Palermo. 
The day that was used in the manufacture of Miyolica ware is found in 
Majorca at Puigpunent and at Estellenchs. 

On the succession of the House of Bourbon, French pottery was in- 
troduced and imitated, and the Granja Porcelain Factory, an appendage 
to the Fabrica de Cristales, was established in 1688 by the French 
Thevart, and enlarged by Charles III. But a more important one was 
established by this latter sovereign at Madrid, in the Gardens del Buen 
Betiro, about 1759. The models and workmen came from the Nea- 
politan manufactory of Capo di Monte. The influence of the Sevres, of 
which specimens were sent constantly as presents to the Spanish court, 
was fdt in the workmanship of the new Spanish porcelain. The build- 
iugs were destroyed during the French occupation. It is like Capo di 
Monte ware. Groups of figures, mostly mythological subjects, were also 


made. The marks are : a fleor-de-lys, dth^ in bine or stamped in 
relief, and the monogram of Charles m. The china cabinet in the 
Queen of Spain's palace at Aranjnez is certainly one of the best examples 
of the tastefol and the rare application of porcelain to the decoration of 
rooms. All the walls, ceilings, doors, are fitted np with high relievo 
Bnen Betiro ware. The effect is admirable. The china-mann&cture 
established at La Moncloa by Ferdinand YIL, notwithstanding Senor 
Sureda's efforts, no longer exists. — Consult Ch. Davillier^s excellent work 
on the subject^ besides Manyafs 'History of Porcelain and Pottery,' 
London, 1857, which has been recently translated into French, with 
Yalnable notes ; Jac^nemarf s Researches, etc 


* DANOiKa,' says Mr. Ticknor, * has been to Spain what music has been to 
Italy — a passion with the whole population.' Spanish national music is, 
therefore, strictly rmmqtie dansanie, composed to accompany dances, 
eniremeset, roystering ballads, whence called damas hahlacUu, baylea 
entrtmetados. Most of the Spanish missical instruments have an Eastern 
derivation, the rdbel, zambomba, pandereta, guitarra, and gaita. Musical 
instruments, peculiar to some provinces, may be earlier still than the 
former, such as the gaita in Asturias, and the tamboril of the Basque. 
The emphatic instrument is the guitar, the xtddga of the Greeks, and 
kinoor common to all the East The words mean little or nothing. 
The character of this Eastern music may be studied in Alfarabi's 
' Elements of Music,' in the Escorial Library (Casiri 1, 34). It contains, 
besides the principles of the art, the forms of the Arabic musical notes, 
and prints of thirty different instruments ; there is also an interesting 
collection of the lives of celebrated Spanish singers, both male and 
female, and of early Spanish airs. The Archives of the Cathedrals of 
Toledo and Seville contain also curious and numerous collections of 
church music, mostly plain-chant Li the Colombine Library, Seville, 
see also Caspar de Aguilar's ' Arte de Principios de Canto Ellano en 
EspaSoL' With the exception of a few good composers of sacred music, 
there is little here that will interest the music- collector. We might 
mention several collections of Yillancicos, sung in churches at Christmas 
time, as early as the 1 6th century, the words of which teem with piety : 
—See, for example, *Villancicos y Coplas curiosas,* by Francisco de 
Avila, Alcali, 1606, one of which begins — 

O que bien que haJHa. Gil 
Yioado al niSo entie las pajas I 

The Moors had difli^rent moods or harmonic phrases which they called 
roots (oussohl); that called doughi&h was applied to sorrowfal subjects to 
which the Spanish canas {^wtia of the Moors, a song) belongs, which 


tenninates with an Ay ! lahko expressed love, and its maltu partidoB, 
They are said to have derived this system from the Persians. There was 
little variety, and really, as they themselves defined it, their music was 
' Ilm el edwar,' the science of cerdes. La Borde's * Essai snr la Musiqae 
Ancienne et Modeme,' voL i. pp. 177-182 ; and Villoteau's 'Essai snr la 
Mnsique des Arabes ' in his work on Egypt, wiQ give further particulars. 

^rzuelas, or Operas Comiques, have been recently introduced in the 
Spanish theatre, and meet with &vour. The operas are mostly imita- 
tions from Verdi, Auber, etc., and of little value. 

The old airs are full of character (gracia y safy A poetical vein 
which runs throughout renders them very attractive. To appear in all 
their glory, they must be heard in Andalusia on a summer's evening. 

There are also political airs of great effect, such as the ' Himno de 
Riego,* and the wild Basque * Ay, Ay, Ay, mutOa chapelligorriya I' 

In many churches the Gregorian or plain-chant is still in practice, 
but the present execution is far from giving the exact impression of the 
grand effect that this kind of music can produce. 

For the popular Spanish songs, with music, see * Poesias Populares ' 
colegidas por D. Tomas Segarra (Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1862). The Coplas, 
Seguidillas, etc, have been well collected by F. R. Marin, in * Cantos 
populares Espanolas,' 5 vols., Seville, 1884. The Andalucian Gipsy 
songs are to be found in the *Coleccion de Cantos Flamencos,' by 
Demofilo (Machado y Alvarez). A good collection of Spanish coplas, 
etc, with originals and French translations, is the * Chants Populaires 
Espagnols,' by A Fouquier (Paris, 1882). On early Spanish and Visi- 
gothic music a good work has been published in the 'Critical and 
Bibliographical Notes on Early Spanish Music/ by J. F. Riano (Quaritch, 
London, 1887). 

In Spain, the dias de fiesta are almost exclusively of a ireligious character. 
Besides the great fMas de precepto, instituted by the Santa Madre Iglesia 
to gladden the heart and amuse her children, there are diets de ecmtos 
fixed upon in honour of some saint, and varying according to his or 
her nationality. Several saints, mostly Spanish, have been made 
patrons and tutelars, patronos of cities, of which several were natives, 
hijos — viz. San Isidro, that of Madrid ; at Seville, Stas. Justa y 
Rufina ; at Valencia, San Vicente Ferrer, etc The smallest village, the 
most out-of-the-way, insignificant hamlet, has its particular saint. These 
festivities take place everywhere on the grandest scale that the means of 
the place can afford. The Church, all powerful and wealthy, exacted 
sacrifices from the pious or the superstitious; and thus its great festivities, 
especially in Italy and Spain, are remarkable for the wondrous dii^lay 
of pageants over which the sovereign presides, and in which the humblest 


subject joins. Fonctions in the dmrdies, procesdons throngli the streets^ 
dedked with flowers and shaded by awnings, all served to bring religion 
before the eyes, if not to the hearts, of the people. The painter, the 
sculptor, the poet even contributed to augment the effect of fwncUma. 
Trade profited hugely by them. Great periodical gatherings from distant 
points brought men who could have some sort of interchange of ideas, etc., 
together. Pilgrimages to celebrated shrines have been to this day great 
favourites with lelic-loving Spaniards. The most feishionable shrines in 
the middle ages were Jerusalem, Rome, Lor^tto, aud Santiago de Oom- 
postella. The last, from the 12th to 14th century, was the resort of 
kings, heroes, and the pious rabble. In the ' Fabliaux,' it is called ^ Le 
P^lerinage d'Asturies,' and is Froissarf s ' P^lerinage du Baron St Jacques,' 
el Santo Va/ron, The reputed death-place of St James the Apostle is 
not yet without attractions to the devout both in Spain and abroad, and 
pilgrims flock thither in considerable numbers in the month of July. 
We shall briefly describe the most noteworthy festivities in the year, both 
religious and civil. 

January, — The Jour-de-l'An is not as important here as it is in 
France, Christmas being the great public festivity. On the 6th, eve of 
Twelfth-day, Dia de Reyes (Jour des Rois), according to a very old 
tradition, groups of urchins and vagabonds go about the streets and to 
the gates of cities, escorting gallegos and other simples, who are, or pre- 
tend to be, persuaded that the Magi are coming, to receive whom they 
cany ladders, torches, and drums. In the middle and upper classes, 
estreckos and motes are the fashion, and the cake (2ei torta) is duly eaten ; 
and the haha (bean) makes kings here, as elsewhere. On the 23d, San 
ndefonso, patron of Toledo, at which city great festivities take place. 

On tiie 17th, another popular fiesta, Las VueUas de San Antonio — 
the patron of cattle, horses, and mules. It is more especially a Madri- 
lenian festivity. 

On the 23d, Bias or Saints'-day of the Prince of Asturias. Levee 
at the palace of Madrid, reviews and illuminations. 

February. — Carnival takes place and continues during several days, 
especially on the 16th ; masks go about the streets, intriguanty as the 
French say, acquaintances, friends, and enemies, all with good taste and 
sucmter in m/xio. Balls in the theatres. Miercoles de Ceniza (Ash 
Wednesday) closes the gaieties. 

On the 12th, Santa Eulalia, Tutelar of Barcelona. Great festivities 
in that city. 

On the 23d, Santa Marta» Tutelar of Astorga, Interesting to artists 
for holiday costumes. 

March, — ^The Ctuxresma (Lent) is religiously observed. Sermons in 
the churches ; sacred music in Madrid and the lai^er cities. 

On the let, San Hiscio, Tutelar of Tarifa. On the 10th, St Joseph 


— a ver J general name in Spain. Cards, bonbons, and bouquets, are 
sent to those whose dia it is ; and an omission is a grave sin in the eyes 
of the fedr sex. On that day, great fiesta at Badajoz. 

On or about the 22d, Passion Sunday — ^Visit churches (High Mass) ; 
a sermon in the open air at Seville ; Domingo de Bamos ; Palm Sunday ; 
High Mass in cathedrals ; blessing of palms, which remain suspended 
round the balconies during the rest of the year. 

April, — Holy Week is the most interesting period of the Festival 
Fear. The tourist must omit no fimciony as they are aU very peculiar, 
national, and generally impressive. Endeavour to witness them in a 
large ci^, espedally at Seville ; if not, at Valencia, Toledo, or Madrid. 
The period begins on Wednesday the 1st, and lasts till Sunday, called de 
Pascua de Besurreccion. On Thursday, Jueoes Santo at Madrid, the 
Lavatorio takes place, in commemoration of Christ washing the disciples' 
feet. The ceremony takes place at the palace, and after the morning 
service or ojicios. The Queen goes through the unpleasant process i)f 
washing the feet of some dozen paupers, who partake afterwards of a 
royal limosna. In the afternoon, the Queen goes in state to make the 
round of the churches, vititar las eitaciones. On Friday, Yiemes Santo, 
a grand procession takes place through the streets. The best is at 
Seville, where it is 'irreverently but not inappropriately' called 'El 
Camaval Divino.' The great peculiarity of the procession consists in 
the ' Pasos,' or groups of sculptured effigies, painted, and often dressed 
up, intending to represent the different passages of the Passion of Christ, 
and borne on men's shoulders. 

These ' Pasos' are the property of religious associations, Cofi»dias 
(fitim frater), several of them still very wealthy, which sprang up about 
the 14th century. These 'Pasos,' many of great intrinsic value as 
works of art, b^an to be introduced in processions in the early portion 
of the 17th century. They were originally borne on the shoulders of 
penitents (nazarenos). Their dress — ^long, white, or black robes, with 
high pointed caps, and faces covered — is still worn in remembrance of 
them — names surviving things. The Co&adias vie with each other in 
producing the greatest effect at these processions. The principal Cofradia 
at Seville is that of ' El Santo Entierro,' of which the Sovereign is Her- 
mano Mayor, and its Paso is the finest. It dates from the conquest ^f 
Seville by St Ferdinand. Visit the * Monumento' in the churches — a 
gigantic temple of painted wood-work, often that of great artists, upon 
which the Host is placed for the Mass on Good Friday. Attend, also^ 
to the ' Miserere,' sung after dark in the churches. At Valencia it is 
particularly impressive. The Holy Week functions are believed to be 
superior in pomp and interest at Seville to those at Rome. 

About the middle of the month the animated ' Feria' (fair) takes 
place at Seville, outside the Puerta de San Fernando. It should not }>«= 


overlooked by artists, and is most peculiar and national. On tlie 5th, 
San Vicente, Tutelar of Valencia — great festivities there. 

May, — ^At Madrid, the political fSte dd Dos de Mayo, and on the 
1 5th San Isidro, Tutelar of the metropolis ; a Bomeria takes place outdde 
the town. 

20th. Grand Fiesta at Ronda. 

Ju7ie, — ^The verbenas, veladas (wakes or virgils), of San Juan ; on the 
24th, of San Antonio de Padua ; 14th, at Madrid. 

18th. Sau Ciriaco and Santa Paula, Tutelars of Malaga. 

El Dia del Corpus, Corpus Christi Day (La F§te-Dieu), generally takes 
place the first Thursday after Trinity Sunday. It is celebrated with 
great pomp in all capitals. The middle and lower classes prepare their 
best and new toilettes for that day. Streets are covered with awnings. 
Flowers or fine gravel soften the hard pavement for tiny feet to move 
slowly about, and processions take place. 

July, — On the 25th, Santiago, Patron of Spain. Tourists in the 
North should endeavour to be at Santiago on that day, or on the 2d at 

August — On the 6th, Fiesta at Oviedo and Avila ; on the 16th, Jjfi 
Ascension, the Blessed Virgin's Day — Church functions — High Mass at 
cathedrals. On the 20th, Fiestas of St Greiras and San Koque, near 

September, — ^The Feria at Madrid begins on the 21st and lasts a 
fortnight. It is scarcely worth while mentioning it, and is falling ofiF 
every year. 

October, — 5th. San Froilan, Tutelar of Leon. 
9th. Fiesta at Jerez. 

Nwernher, — On the 1st and 2d the cemeteries are visited, the tombs 
are decorated with funeral wreaths. 

December, — 6th. Fiesta at Alicante. The last week. Fiestas de 
Navidad, Christmas. Christmas Eve, La Noche Buena, is more import- 
ant than Christmas-day. The churches are profusely lighted up. Music 
of all descriptions fiUs the air. Great slaughter of 'pavos* (turkeys) 
takes place, and there begins an universal gargantuism of popular merri- 
ment, bonfires, etc* ; pastrycook-shops are decked out with ribbons, 
flowers, and literally burst with mazapanes, jaleas, and turron ; the mar- 
ket-places exhibit pyramids of oranges, melons — ^the * Nacimientoe,* or 
pasteboard representations of the Nativity, with tierra-cotta figures, 


eagerly pnrdiaBed by children, and lighted up in every hoose, rich or 
poor. Suppers take place that night, and at midnight mass, la Mim del 

Besides the aboye, there are very cnrions and early enstoms stUl in 
fashion in many out-of-the-way cities and shrines. Mo^ were established 
in honour of the Virgin Santisima, whose name changes acccnrding to 
the different attributes (A her intercession, such as Kuestra Se&ora del 
Pilar, de la 0., del Buen Viege, La Blanca, del Buen Oonsejo, de las 
Nieves, de k Merced, del Milagro, del Amporo, de la Correa, del Bemedio, 
de 1a Paz, etc. etc, in all upwards of thirty. The principal P%l<pimage$ 
are — ^to Montserrat^ Santiago de Oompostella and S. N. del Pilar, at 
Zaragoza. Our rcutders wiU find &e following an interesting book 
upon such matters : * Belaciones de Solemnidades y Fiestas Piiblicas de 
Espana,' by Don Qo. Alenda ; Mad. 1866. It has deserved the < premio ' 
awwLed by the Biblioteca NadcmaL 

Costmnee— National Press. 

Thb low^ classes still retain their picturesque national dress. The 
upper orders have adopted the prosaic chimney-top hat, wmhrero de copa, 
and other such-like abominations in the artisf s eye. Ladies, alas ! are 
also fast divesting themselves of the gracefdl veil, the lace mantilla, 
which become their espedal cast of beauty ; and the provincials alone 
have been preserved from the invasion of bonnets and mantelets. Each 
province has a peculiar dress, the populations of the south and south-east 
approaching more to the original type, the Moorish dress — ^those of the 
eastern coast wearing the head-gear of their Phrygian fathers, etc. 

The TrtuftntilU is worn especially in the morning to go to mass and 
shopping d tiendas. The white fine blond or lace one is now seldom used, 
and only at the bull-fight and Dia de Ccrpue; the one more usually put 
on is made of black lace, or of ratOf satin^ or silk — ^the latest fashion has 
introduced the antiquated manto, which is a mantilla with a silken casco^ 
and a lace or blond veil that just covers the feice ; cocas, or the coiffdre 
& rimp^trice is adopted, to which tiny side-curls are added, called 
picardias, caracdes de amor, etc, with a stripe or two of black velvet, to 
which a fringe (Jleoo) of passementerie, with jet beads, is sometimes added. 
The. best places to purchase one are at Madrid, Margarit and Fabrica de 
Almagro, and at Seville and Barcelona. The prices vary from 500r. to 
3000 and 4000r. ; but a good one maybe had for 1200r. Large pins 
on the sides fasten it to the hair. We may be permitted to advise our 
(air readers not to adopt it, unless they wish to be stared at, for, how- 
ever graoefolly they will put it on and wear it^ the aquely ceje ne 9ctU 
pudy is sure to be wanting and ca\ise more attention than admiration. 


It is almost exclusively tlie headgear worn in cliurclie& Travellers whs 
possess sufficient reliable knowledge of the article, together with the 
faculty of bargaining, should search diligently in the larger towns for 
second-hand laces. 

In the male costume, the capa (cloak) is stUL very much used ; but 
without a cape or esclavina ; the quietest colours are worn by gentlemen 
— invisible green, brown, black, with a black or green velvet lining, forro 
and vtieltas. The usual price is 20 to 30 dolh^ We likewise advise 
our male readers to abstain appearing in it. It is a whole science to know 
how to emhozarze in the folds, ^ere being at least seventeen different ways. 
There is some difficulty in finding prints, coloured or otherwise, of Spanish 
costumed. An allmm des costumes espagnols (one separately for army uni- 
forms) may be purchased in Paris and Bayonne, and is reliable. 

Fans are worn as much as ever, and are used not only for protection 
from the heat, but as a formidable instrument of coque^. The Louis 
XIV. and Louis XY. fans, gems of miniature and workmanship, are very 
rarely met with in Spain, most of the best having been sold to foreign 
amateurs, and the rest being heirlooms. The more conmion fan (abanico), 
with Spanish subjects, roughly painted, but quaint and full of couleur 
locate, may be purchased at Madrid, Colomina, Calle del Carmen, and at 
Seville and Barcelona. Bull-fights, and the recent AMcan campaign, 
furnish the subjects. Fans with figures, landscapes, etc, are called 
ahanicos apaisados; the handle is called dptmo. Fans are of all sizes, 
prices, and materials. Sandal-wood, studded with inlaid steel arabesques, 
are in great request Ivory and bone fans from China, de Filipinos, are 
to be purchased reasonably in Madrid, Barcelona, etc There is also a 
huge, umbrella-sized, circular, 1-real fan, which is exclusively used at 
the bull-fight. Prices of fans vary from 3 to 50 pesetas. 

Spanish garters, Ugas, are very quaint, with mottoes replete with gal- 
lantry and * Honi soit qui hien y pense,' Andalucian grcuyia. 


SA.VE on the stage, or in a provincial fiesta, the baile nadonal has well- 
nigh disappeared, and even there it no longer is the racy cosa de EgpaM 
which it formerly was. With the upper classes, the dances are of course 
those in fashion in the salons of Paris, London, and Vienna. The 
traveller may chance here and there to meet with a romeriob, merienda, or 
picnic party, in the suburbs of cities, where the bolero and fandango are 
still duiced, but mmiLs the sparkling gold lace and silver filigree costume 
and motley sa^ Spanish dancers were celebrated in all times, especially 
the Cadiz dancing-girls, whose grace and kdssez aUer delighted the Boman 
voluptuaries, and have been sung by Martial (B. 3, Ep. 63, v. 79 ; vi 71), 

DANCES. xciii 

hj Javenal (S. 2, y. 162) ; Strabo, etc The dances differ in each pn>- 
Tince. The dariM prima is peculiar to Asturias ; thejota Aragcnetay to 
Aiagon ; the miMkiray to Qallida ; leu hdbaa verdes^ to Leon, etc ; but 
Andalucia is the land of the jciUo de Jerez — the cachucha of Cadiz, 
rcndakiB of Bonda. 

Dancing was always a national amusement in Spain ; and figures 
belonging to very early dances of a religious and heroic character may 
still be seen in seyersd parts of the country. They were mostly, what 
they now are, graceful and yoluptuous, as the weakening effect of l^e sun 
on limbs predisposes the body to be pliant and elastic They are gener- 
^y 8^y> especially in the South ; and the fandango and cachucha date 
from times prior to the Romans — ^the castagnettes {ecuta^uelai) being 
mentioned by Juyenal, who calls the clicking of them 'Tertarum 
crepitus.' The Pyrrhic, or sword-dance, was an Iberian and Celtic 
amusement, and is now sometimes performed in the Basque Proyinces. 
In the North, men, almost exdusiyely, were the performers ; whilst in 
the South, dancing was a woman's department, as it is stiU in the East 
As now happens, there were few plays that ended without the hoMe 
nadanal: — 

Al fin, con un baylezito, 
Iba la gente contenta. 

RoxAS, yiag^e, 1614. 

Dances, composed expressly for the occasion, besides the usual ones, 
formed part of the earliest performances of the Spanish theatre ; and as 
an actor says in one of Lope de Vega's plays ( * La Gran Sultana ' ) — 

There ne'er was bom a Spanish woman yet, 
But she was bora to dance. 

Persons of all ages and ranks shared in the fashion ; and just as Cardinal 
Bichelieu used to dance the Sarabande to captiy^te the fair Anne 
d'Autriche, so also the Duke of Lerma, being premier to Philip IV., 
was reckoned the best dancer of his day. The dances of the 17th cen- 
tury, laying aside the graye courtly minuet and subsequent gayotte, 
retained so much of the Cancan style introduced in the South by the 
Gaditan Bigolboches, that Gueyara declares that the deyil inyented them 
all, which Ceryantes admits, especially of the Zarabanda (probably an 
Alm^e Moorish dance) ; and in 1621 goyemment endeayoured to put 
them down, and well nigh succeeded. The Zarabanda b^an to be known 
in 1588 at Seyille, and was, says Mariana, inyented by a deyil in woman's 

The gipsies' dance has retained part of the freedom of those times, and 
must not be omitted by amateurs. It is a most graceful dislocation of 
the human body. 

Headers who may feel disposed to know more on the subject of Spanish 


dances are referred to the following works : — * Donayres de Teraicore,' 
by Deia j Avila; 1663. 'GifEbrd's Notes* in voL ii p. 169 ol 
' Juyenal's Satires ; ' PMadelphia, 1803. Bupere's Notes on the same 
passage in JuYenal ; LipsisB^ 1801 ; 8yo. S. xL ^ PoUicer's Origen/ etc.; 
voL L in the 'Diablo Cojuelo/ Tranco L, etc *Eilo8of(a Antigua 
Poetica/ by Pinciano ; 1596. 

The Theatre. 

Thb Spanish theatre in many of its attributes and characteristics stands 
by itsell It takes no c(^;nisance of ancient example, for the spirit of 
antiquity could have little in common with materials so modem, christian, 
and romantic It borrowed nothing from the drama of France or of Italy, 
for it was in advance of both when its final character was not only de- 
veloped but settled. And as for England, though Shakspeare and Lope 
were contemporaries, and there are points of resemblance between them, 
which it is pleasant to trace and difficult to explain, still they and their 
schools, undoubtedly, had not the least influence on each other. The 
Spanish drama is, therefore, entirely national Many of its best subjects 
are taken from the chronicles and traditions familiar to the audience that 
listened to them, and its prevalent versification reminded the hearers, by 
its sweetness and power, of what had so often moved their hearts in the 
earliest outpourings of the national genius. With all its faults, this old 
Spanish drama, founded on the great traits of the national character, 
maintained itself in the popular favour as long as that character existed 
in its original attributes; and even now it remains one of the most 
striking and one of the most interesting portions of modem literature. 
(KckDor's * History of Spanish Literature,' voL ii chap, xxvi) The drama 
is the mirror of a nation's character, and the best handbook to the manners 
and customs of a period is the lecture of its dramatic literature at that 
time. As over all manifestations of the popular mind, so over the spirit 
of the drama, the Church stood sentinel, watched its progress with jealousy, 
and, unable to confine it within the narrow religious channel, declared 
open war against it, visiting those who attended representations with 
excommunication, denying Christian burial to actors (the first time by 
67th canon of the niiberian Council), not allowing them to many, etc., 
a reminiscence of the Roman contempt for histrions. The earliest form 
of the drama was therefore the religious representations of scriptural 
events — the Mysteries (misterios), which were in fashion till the time of 
Philip IL The theatres were closed oftentimes for years through ecclesi- 
astical influence, and then re-opened by the caprice of an amateur monarch, 
or the impulse of the growing popularity that they were daily obtaining. 
The religious dramas, many of them very gross and licentious, were also 
acted in nunneries and monasteries. The real founder of the Spanish 


dzama was Lope de Baeda (1644-67), who boldly abandoned all lemini* 
Bcences of the myitmes and struck oat a new path. The theatrical 
resonxses were those of the most meagre character. A numager's whole 
appaiatos was, according to Cervantes, contained in a large sack. The 
theatre consisted of f onr benches arranged in a square, with boards laid 
across ^em, and raised a Httle ftom the ground. The furniture was an 
dd blanket^ drawn aside by two cords. Behind it stood the musicians, 

< who sang old ballads without a guitar.' A public square was the site 
chosen for the temporary erection of the theatre. The audiences were 
collected around; the p^ormance took place by daylight; and the plays 
themselyes were colloquies, with Httle or no action, but divided into 
several scenes, written with spirit, humour, and so as to display the ialt 
(sal) of the ffraeioto, or simpUs as they were first called, on whose perform 
mance the success mainly depended. Cervantes and Lope de Vega raised 
the drama to a higher sphere and placed it in a wider range ; but the 
implacaUe Church compelling him to relinquish secular plays, he had 
resort to the Comedias de Santos, from subjects found in their lives, and 
Autos SacrameniaUt (a forensic term from actuSy a decree) or sacramental 
acts ; these religious plays used to be performed in the streets and squares 
on great church holidays ; Lope de Vega wrote 400 of them. The period 
when Madrid became the real metropolis of the kingdom, about 1660, 
the drama commenced a career of progress and prosperity ; playhouses 
were established under the patronage of the nobility, and Lope de Vega's 
genius gave life to them. To his school belong some of the greatest 
dramatic writers that Spain has possessed, such as Tirso de Molina 
('Burlador de Sevilla,' ' Vergonzoso en Palado,' etc.) ; Quillen de Castro 
('Mocedades del Cid,' imitated by Comeille, ' Le Cid *) ; Guevara (' Mds 
pesa el Bey que la Sangre ') ; Montalvan (' Qrf eo,' ' Amantes de Teruel,' 
and ' Don Carlos *) ; Alareon (' Tezedor de Segovia,' ' Verdad Sospechosa'), 
etc. Calderon de la Barca was, with Lope, the great luminary of the 
Spanish drama, and the most national of its writers. Besides Autos 
Sacramentales {^ Devocion de la Cruz,' and others), he wrote ' Capa y 
Espada ' comedies and purely heroic ones (' Amar despues de la Muerte,' 

< El M^co de su Honra,' * £1 Mayor Monstruo, los Zelos,' etc) The 
Spanish drama reached the acme of its prosperity in Ihe reign of 
Philip lY., from 1621 to 1666. The glorious sun thus rose from among 
the medisdval darlmeRB of the mutmos, expanding gradually, until it set 
magnificently towards the death of CMderon, when decay began. But 
even then we have such men as Moreto ('Desden con el Desden*), 
Boxas (' Del Bey abazo ninguno/ etc.), besides a host of minor tn^enwt, 
conspicuous only like the stars, whose light shines the more when the 
sun has set 

In the beginning of the 1 8th century, just as the French had previously 
imitated the Spanish drama, the Spaniards now strove to adopt the style 


of the French plays. Comeille's * Cinna ' was translated, 1713 ; Badne's 
^Athalie'in 1747, etc. Of this period we may mention Moratin the 
elder (^ Guzman el Bueno"), Cadahalso (' Sancho Garcia*), Iriarte (' The 
Hl-br^ Miss,' etc.), Moratin the younger, one of the most successful comic 
writers (* SI de Las Ninas/ * El Caf6 *). In the present day the drama haa 
fallen very low, and the plays are mostly French translations. The melo- 
drama finds favour with the lower classes ; and the zarzuelas, or operas 
comiques, are preferred to plays of the old school. We must except some 
original and national authors, whose productions we recommend to the 
playgoer, however much he may feel * new* to their peculiar character and 
effect — ^viz. the Duke of Bivas, whose * Fuerza del Sino ' has become 
Verdi's libretto of the opera * La Forza del Destino ;' Garcia Gutierrez, 
whose stirring ^Trovador' is another of Verdi's triumphs; Bodriguez 
Bubi (* La Bueda de la Fortuna *) ; Ventura de la Vega (* Hombre de 
Mundo ') ; Jos6 Zorilla (* D. Juan Tenorio *) ; Luis Eguilaz (* Verdades 
Amargas *) ; Hartzembush (* Amantes de Teruel *) ; Ech^aray ; Tamayo 
y Bans ; Nunez de Arce, etc. i The vein of enthusiasm that runs 
through Spaniards, their love of romance and the marvellous, their 
natural quickness of apprehension and sense of the ridiculous, their 
childish delight in tinsel and effect, all fit them to succeed in the drama. 
The play-houses themselves naturally shared the fate of the drama. 
But they have never reached in Spain, to this day, the space, commodity, 
and the display of mechanical means employed to enhance the scenic 
effect. It is true that to resort to the latter was deemed contemptible, 
and the plays requiring them were called ' comedias de ruido,' pidces d 
machines, Madame D'Aulny, who was in Spain in 1679-80, mentions 
in her amusing letters a sun made of oiled paper, actors quietly climbing 
ladders, placed in view of the spectators, to reach the stage. The site of 
the theatre was a court-yard, jwifio, or corral; in front of the stage were 
benches for those who bought single tickets ; the crowd stood in the open 
air and paid three maravedis. Here stood the noisiest and disorderly 
part of the audience, called ' mosqueteros ' (moscon, a large fly), from the 
constant buzzing, on whose approbation the success of new plays always 
depended (Alcazar, Ortographia Castellana, Pellicer, Origen, etc). Behind 
were the gradas, ' grees,' or rising seats, for the men ; and the cazuela, 
literally ' stew-pan,' exclusively used by the women of the lower orders, 
and which we have seen not many years ago at the Teatro de la Cruz, 
Madrid, in all its glory. Above were ike desvanes and aposentos — ^that is, 
balconies and rooms, our modem boxes, still called in Spain the first and 
second floors, the rez-de-chauss^. The lower ones were generally railed, 
as all ground-floor windows are in Spain, rejas, whence the present 
French logea grilUcs and vapour bath, baignoires. These rooms, belong- 
ing to houses placed round three sides of the court-yard, were filled by 
the Court, and held as an heirloom from generation to generation — as it 


Still happens at Barcelona. The audiences were noisy — tlie hissing and 
' victors ! ' were signs of discontent or applause ; rattles, bells, and 
crackers, often augmenting the expression of the former. The first play- 
bill was put up at Granada in 1600. The performances took place by 
daylight, and consisted of a loa, or prologue, followed by the first jomado, 
or act of the principal comedy or drama ; entremeses came after, amusing, 
light ^ levers de rideau ; ' the second act of the comedy ensued, and was 
followed by another entremes^ music, and dancing ; and the finale was 
usually a saynete or farce, in which Spanish actors always excelled 
Last of all, as even is now often the case, a halle nacumal terminated the 
fiesta, and was a,jln defimcum. Besides the splendid Buen Retiro play- 
houses and floating theatres, the most celebrated have existed till very 
lately, such as the Corrales de la Cruz and Del Principe, which were 
erected at the request of Isabel Famese, in 1743, 1745. The actors of 
early times were admirable interpreters of the genius of Lope and Oal- 
deron, and the names of Figueroa, Pinedo, Prado, are associated with 
their greatest success ; Barbara Ooronel, Maria de Cordova, Baltasara, 
and, more latterly, Maiquez, Queral, la Rita Luna, la Llorente, Rodri- 
guez, and the gracioso Guzman. 

Books of Reference, — The best critiques on the Spanish theatre have issued 
from Germany. Garcia's, Pellicer*s, Martinez de la Rosa*s, Moratin*s (Z.) 
origins of the Spanish theatre may be looked to for general inforaiation. See 
also *Tesoro del Teatro Espanol,' 5 vols. (Baudry's Coll.), and *Autores 
Dramdticos Contemporaneos,' by D. Pedro de Novo y Colson, 2 vols. fol. ; 
Madrid, 1887. 


This is the national fiesta of Spain, at which the lower classes are seen 
in all their character, as the English are at the Derby. We shall leave 
aside all reflections on the crmliyy bad example, bloodshed, of this 
spectacle, and allow our readers to judge for themselves. We shall only 
remark that bull-fights are still the fashion, that they have lost few of 
their former charactenstics, and that tourists should not fail to see one 
at least. The best bull-fights — corridas de toros — take place at Seville, 
the great centre of Tauromachia, and at Madrid. The * season ' begins 
the first Sunday after Lent, a * foncion ' taking place on every Sunday — 
* si el tiempo lo permite.' There is a pause during the height of sunmier, 
and a second season begins again from the end of August to the early 
part of October. Each corrida costs upwards of £400 at Madrid and 
Seville, and not much less in the minor cities. The bull-fighters are 
divided into four classes — espadas (swords, rapiers), those who kill the 
bulls with a sword ; they are the * maestros ' of the art, men of great 
daring, a quick eye, firm wrist, and presence of mind j they rise from 


the lower class, without passing by that of picadores, and follow the 
especial rules laid down by some great master, or found a new Bchool 
themselvea ' Aficionados ' (amateurs), alone can see the differences be- 
tween the suertes. The most celebrated maestros have been Monies, 
BcmerOf Cdndido, Pepe lUo, El Chidanero. The present ones are paid 
from 5000r. to 6000r. for each corrida, and there are always two at each 
funcion, besides a ' sobresaliente,' in case of accidents. The second class, 
the BanderiUeros, from bamderilla, a small flag, or barbed dart, are paid 
lOOOr. to 1500r. each corrida. They require swiftness of foot and great 
dexterity. The third class are the Picadores^ from pica^ a lance. They 
receive 2000r. They ride jaded Rosinante-hacks, in lieu of the noble 
steeds of yore, and scarcely defend them against tiiie ^ embestida ' of the 
bulL They are rather looked down upon, as a set of drunkards and 
' holgazanes.' The 'Chulos' and 'Capas' form the fourth class. They 
are picked men, as their business requires great activity — ^ ojo y condi- 
cion.' They are paid from $15 to $20 (300r. to 400r.) The spectacle 
is a drama in three acts. First, after a shrill trumpet has announced 
the beginning, the Toril door is opened, and the wretched beast rushes 
into the arena, decorated with the bright-ribboned mo9ui. The picadores 
advance, each in turn, and attack, or rather receive the bulFs attack. 
After a few varas have been split, and several tumbles duly taken place, 
the banderillos, at the sound of another trumpet, come in for their share, 
and dart their arrows about the bull's gory neck. Sometimes, when the 
hicho is phlegmatic, these darts are provided with crackers, which ex- 
plode on their being affixed, and madden the animaL A few minutes 
after, at the sound of a trumpet, the Espada is seen advancing towards 
the bull, after having pronounced a speech before the AtUoridad presid- 
ing over the plaza, in which he asks, pro formd, permission to kill the 
foe, and offers to peiform the suerte in a way that shall do honour to 
'El pueblo de Madrid, or el Senoria' On his left hand he holds the 
muleta, a small staff with a deep red flag that serves as a lure, and in his 
right a good Tolexian blade. This is the stirring scene — the dud, the 
denouement. After the bull's death, the cacketero sits on the prostrate 
foe, and removes all doubts by dartdng a small sharp-pointed dagger, el 
cachete into the animal's spine. A team of mules, gaily attired, drag 
away the foredoomed vencido (v» victis 1) to the mulador or dung-heap, 
where the flesh is sold. From an economical point of view, buU-fights 
may by some be regarded as detrimental ; but, after all, the greater the 
consumption the greater the benefit to the producers. Something like 
2400 bulls are killed annually, and 3600 horses. The money value of 
these ftTiimflla will amount perhaps to 1,800,000 pesetas. About 460 
corridas take place annually, and the tickets sold amount to about 
3,000,000 pesetas. The different ways of killing a bull, and of placing 
banderillas, are called mertes. A whole especial vocabulary is in constant 
use, and may be soon acquired. The best works are : — 


* Tanromaquia Completa,' by Franco Montes ; Madrid, 1836. 

' Carta historica sobre el Origen y Progresos de las Fiestas de Toros, 
by N. F. de Moratin ; Madrid, 1777. 

' Tauromaquia, 6 Arte de Torear ; Madrid, 1804, por un aficionado. 

Gk>ya's caricatttres on the subject are first-rate, as he was most con- 
v^ersant with the matter, and patronised by the great ajtcianada, Dachess 
de Alba. 

Alcocer's * Tratado del Fuego, etc., Salamanca, Portonariis,* ii. 1668, 
examines them, along with tournaments, etc., in a religious light 


The lottery was introduced into Spain by Charles IIL, and became a 
great source of revenue. There were till lately two lotteries — La An- 
tigua, on the French system, and La Modema ; the former was suppressed 
in 1861 from fear of a * combinadon* between players and the bureau 
clerks, by which, had the large prize come out, tiie treasury would have 
been exhausted ; and, as it was, £20,000 had been abready lost by Go- 
vernment in a preceding sorteo of La Modema. There are two — 
occasionally three — sorteos a montL The ticket costs from $10 to $30. 
On great holidays, such as Christmas Day, the ticket costs lOOOr., and 
the large prize is then of 200,000 duros, about £40,000, besides several 
minor prizes, the number of tickets being then from 25,000 to 30,000. 
The maximum premio heretofore has been of 1,020,000 franca It has 
been calculated that of late years 1100 persons who had got prizes have 
become landed proprietors. Be this as it may, it is legal gambling — 
fevers the peasant and workman's head with dreams, and empties his 
larder of realities. It is immoral, and will some day be suppressed. 
The net produce to the State is about 38,000,000r. The winning tickets 
that have never been claimed amount to a large sum. All but the 
State lotteries were abolished in 1882. 


Spain is eminently a country of the rod and the gun. Spaniards have 
been always great sportsmen (cazadaresjy first-rate shots owing to the 
clearness of the landscape that allows all distant objects to be so much 
relieved, and the constant guerilla warfare, that second nature of the 
Iberian, who, come what may, rule who will, ia always * de la oposicion.' 
From the careless way in which game is preserved, and its wild- 
ness, the sportsman has to exert himseK in search of it, and not wait till 
it meets him, as in the fashionable slaughter-covers of England and 


The rabbit {c(mejo) is abundant. Indeed, some trace the origin of 
the name of Spain, Hispania, to the Hebrew sephariy a rabbit Hares 
(liehres), red and white legged partridges (perdices), multiply with asto- 
nishing prolification ; the codomiz (quail), aUmdras (larks — taken with the 
espefmlo, or mirror), are most plentiful There is ccua mayor, such as 
wHd boars (javidies), deer (venadas) ; and caza menor, such as the minor 
tribes of the partridge, the rabbit, and hare. The shooting-season begins 
in September. There is excellent caza de paso, birds of passage, in Sep- 
tember, October, and November, of codomice$y and gallinetas (sand-piper), 
and chochas (woodcocks), about Tarife, Gibraltar, the baldios of Andalucia, 
whose thick brushwood affords good cover, and the newly-ploughed 
campos of Castile. In November, winter shooting begins, and, besides 
gallinetas, bustards, snipe (offachadiza) (whence, ' hacer la agachadiza,' to 
stoop down and conceal one*s-self), ansares (wild geese), wild duck (patos), 
of all sorts abound in shoals in the marshes {marigmas) and lagoons 
(lacunas) of Albufera, near Valencia, of Alicante ; and, near Gibraltar, 
of Taivilla, Ketin, Haudar, Casavieja, etc.; where 8000 to 10,000 head 
can be brought down by four or five guns in one month, say December. 
There is most excellent wild-boar hunting, on foot with ojeadares (or 
battue), and SaJmesos dogs, in Sierra Morena, Sierra de Yaldecabras, and 
that of Cuenca. In the Montes de Toledo, the hospitable Nimrod, lord 
of a great portion of its best districts, the Marques de Malpica, has battues 
that often result in the death of several head of wild-boar. In Asturias, 
another nobleman, the Marques de Oamposagrado, has capital sport with 
bears, wolves, etc. Javatos, deer, and stags abound in the Sierra Morena. 
In Sierra Bermeja, besides these, there are multitudes of corzos (roe-deer), 
cobras numtesas, wild goat (^ La cabra siempre tira al monte), like the 
chamois (ibex). The Conde de Luque possesses whole districts where 
they are found, which are situated between Estepona and MarbeUa. 

On the Spanish side of the I^renees, another sort of wild goat, the 
rupricahray also called cabra montesa (the French bouqicetin, buck), and 
the izard and bears in winter afford excellent sport, now so rare in the 
French Pyrenees. 

There is likewise some first-rate fishing, and salmon abounds in the 
N. and N.W. coasts of Spain. Trout is equally plentiful in the rapid 
crystalline rivers in the Pyrenees, Gallicia, and Asturias, Near Madrid 
the angler will do well to visit the country about Avila, Plasencia, and 
Cuenca, which also afford excellent localities. The Spanish Mediterranean 
coast is well provided with fish, such as the delicious boquerones of 
Malaga, miyoles, and planosrayas. The Guadalquivir containa several 
good species. There are excellent oysters at el Padron (Ckdlicia). 

Tackle, hooks, rods, and flies are not to be obtained in Spain, where 
fly-fishing is not practised except in the North. 


Cigars and Tobacco. 

A Spanish satirist has said that real progress will not begin in Spain 
until a decree comes out prohibiting the use of cloaks, knives and 
cigarettes. * Vamos d echar un puro' is worse than twenty tragoiy for 
the wine ends by being drained, but the puro never ends. A puro nay 
a humble pita, or paper cigar, goes a great length here. It serves as a 
letter of introduction, a shaking of the hands — ^ un cigarre fait des amis 
et rapproche des ennemis.' A Spaniard smokes always and everywhere ; 
when he is shaving, at meals, in the Paseo, the couloirs of the Opera-' 
house, at the bull-fight, etc. It often is a substitute for meat and the 
*copa* of the poor man, and is always the wealthier man's dessert. 
Towards the middle of the 16th century Spain and Portugal received the 
first samples of tobacco from America. The Spaniards called it tabaco 
from the island of Tabago, one of the Antilles, near the coast of Cardca^ 
Monsieur de Nicot, French ambassador at Lisbon (1660), sent some leaves 
of it to Catherine of Medici, who took a liking to it, using it as snuflf 
and the fashion began for ladies to take snuff, thanks to which we are 
now in possession of whole collections of exquisite miniatures and 
chiselling with which snuff-boxes were ornamented. A reaction how- 
ever, afterwards ensued ; and although Moli^re said, * quoi que puisse 
dire Aristote et toute la philosophie, il n'y a rien d'^gad au tabac/ French 
doctors of his day wrote against it, especially Fagon. Pope Urban VIIJ. 
(1624) excommunicated those who took snuff in churches. Sultan 
Amurat IV. had smokers condemned to death, and snuff-takers had their 
noses, as being the corpi de dilit, cut off. In 1661, the Senate of Berne 
published a Decalogue, in which smoking was announced as prohibited 
by God. In 1603, James L of England wrote his pamphlet against 
smoking, calling it a habit, * disgusting to the sight, repulsive to the 
smell, dangerous to the brain, unwholesome for the chest,' etc., and his 
proclamations against it were couched in very severe terms. Dr. 
Almiron Zayas wrote, in 1623, a book (see below) on the abuses and 
bad consequences of smoking and taking snuff, and Dr. Arias another. 
But the use continued and has become very general 

Children of five and six years old are seen smoking in Spain. There 
are men who smoke ten to fourteen puros arday. Epileptio fits, consump- 
tion, dyspepsia, and nervous affections, are the more usual effects attending 
excesses. Dr. Ayo (1645) mentions it as an excellent medicine, a 
liqueur being extracted from it called * miszela.' Chilblains are cured, he 
says, by rubbing them with dry tobacco-leaves, and then washed with 
warm brine. 

Tobacco is a monopoly of the State, there being about half a dozen 
huge fectories — in some of the principal towns, Sevilla, Valencia, Sant- 
ander, etc. The cultivation of the plant is forbidden in Spain — where 


it would succeed admirably — ^for the sake of benefiting the Habanas 1 
The consumption of tobacco, in its various forms, amounts to some 
twenty millions of pounds per annum. Travellers will do well to 
remember the subjoined observations. Fairly good and very low-priced 
cigars may be got occasionally from ship captains, coriderges, etc. etc., but 
it is at the expense of throwing away a goodly proportion If one's palate 
is at all fastidious. 

Qood Habana cigars are an article seldom met with in the countiy 
that rules the island of Cuba. They are sometimes to be found at 
restaurants or clubs. The surest way is to write for them to Cuba, or 
purchase them at the Cadiz Custom-House. iVLi?. — ^Boxes sent from 
Cuba to parties are often changed at the Custom-House. The best cigars 
in the world are sent to London, New York, and St. Petersburg. Impo- 
sition, not always to be detected by connoisseurs, takes place in tiiis 
trade. Thus the tripa^ or inside, is often of inferior quality, whilst the 
capa^ or external leaf, is of the very best sort Again, such poor 
materials as Holandilla, made at Vitoiia, bum snow-white ashes, which 
is effected by means of potash and soda. A false aroma can also be 
communicated by means of steeping the leaves in opium (that is a general 
practice with most cigars), or with vanille. The requisites for a fost-rate 
cigar are : that it should bum by itself when lighted without going out 
for some time — ^that the ashes be whitish-grey, without thick grains, and 
leaving but a faint ring round the burning ends — ^that the smoke should 
ascend freely — that the taste should be agreeable to the palate, soft, and 
not add. The colour of the cigar generally indicates the degree of strength 
— * Colorado daro, oscuro.' The strength of a cigar also denotes the flavour, 
and when proceeding from a good manu&cturer the stronger are always 
the best. The names, like those of Bordeaux wines, distinguish the vegaa 
that produce very disftimilar weeds. The Yudta de Abajo is generally 
the best district There are 9482 vegas, or tobacco-plantations. The 
principal types for sizes and shapes are : Lnperiales, Prensados, Regalia, 
half-Begalia, Trabucos-damas ; the extremer being purones of 25 centi- 
metres long, the smallest of 5 centimetres. The best Fabricas at the 
Habana are : Partagas, Cabanas^ La Lidia, and La Espanola. The prices, in 
Spain^ vary from 3 duros to 25 duros the hundred. Average really good 
dgars cannot be had under 8 doUars. Let them not be too dry, as the aroma 
then is gone ; nor too wet, or new, as they are more difficidt to smoke. 

Paper cigars (pigarillo^ are made with picado (chopped) tobacco- 
leaves; from the Habana or United States, and called, according to its 
sort, superior, suave, or entrefnertes, and sold in cajetillas, already 
made. Those who prefer smoking them will purchase papel de Alcoy, 
and avoid spurious, very unwholesome prepared paper. Tliere are also 
pajillasy or cigarettes, made with Guatemala Indian com, or the rice 
paper. Filippinos are an inferior produce and Spanish rap4 snuff is not 
worth the Paris CiveUe 

ARMS. ciii 


SwoBDS. — Spanish steel has been always celebrated, and the mines that 
produce now the finest ore were originally worked by the Romans and 
Qoths. The best swords were made about the 1 4th, 1 5th, and 1 6th centuries. 
The Zaragoza, Toledo, and Valencia swordmakers, etpaderos, were the 
most celebrated, and used especial marks, such as el perriUo, a miniature 
dog, placed by the Toledan Moor, Julien del Rei, upon all lus blades ; 
the monlloy at Zaragoza, the loba (the she-wolf), etc Armourers (armeros) 
formed a guild, but worked separately, and concealed from each other 
the secrets for tempering, etc, which they employed to make those master- 
pieces so remarkable for the chiselling and damascene ornament introduced 
by the Moors. The principal swordmakers at Toledo were : Nicolas 
Orduno, Juan Martinez, Antonio Ruiz, Dionisio Corrientes. Those of 
Zaragoza were also held in great repute. A sword is called espada (ffva^a) ; 
the blade is la hoja ; the sheath, la vaina ; the handle, pimo and pomo, 
sable, the modem curved cavalry sword. The introduction of firearms 
dealt the first blow to sword-manufacture 'in Spain, and those now made 
at Toledo, although good weapons stUl, are no longer works of art. On 
the whole, the old blades, * Toledo's trusty,' a * soldier's dream,' which 
Othello * kept in his chamber,' were unequaJled save in the East, but for 
form and design they were inferior to the Milanese and Florentines. All 
the celebrated swords of heroes had names, as well in France and Italy 
as in Spain: ^ La Durandal ' and ' La Colada,' of the Oid, etc The best 
examples of Spanish swords are collected in the Madrid Armeria. The 
Artilery Museo, the Armouries of the Dukes de MedinaceH, Alba, Feman- 
Nunez, Osuna, are all very remarkable, as much for the intrinsic value 
as for the historical traditions attached to them. That formed by Cardinal 
Mendoza at Gaudalajara was one of the finest in Europe ; 4000 men 
and 4000 horses could be armed with its contents. Some war-horse 
anieses cost 6000 ducats ; it was sold and partly stolen. 

Daggers. — La the 16th and 1 7th centuries duels took place with the 
long rapier in one hand, and the long hroqiiel, or dagger, with cazoleta 
hilt, in the other. The combat began with the former, and the thrusts 
were parried with the hroquel, which served especially to Jmish the fallen 
foe, and was called in consequence miserere, the lYench coup de grdce. 
The broquel was subsequently changed for tiie Italian poignard, punal, 
and became the favourite weapon of the lower orders, who were not 
allowed the use of rapiers. La navaja, or cuchillo, often as long as a 
common sword, settles at once all differences of opinion, blood being 
thought to wipe off any petty rancour. It is used very frequently, and 
has become an art in which the barateros are proficient A baratero 
(from harato, cheap) lives by his knife. He frequents gambling circles, 
and receives some coins from the cowed-down players whom he has 
threatened to disturb if they should not grant his boon. This is called 


* cobrar el barato/ to get change. In some cases, one of the challenged 
parties gets up and refuses to pay ; upon which the champion fights. 
Death often ensues, as the stomach is aimed at Those curious to learn 
more particulars may consult * Manual del Baratero,' with prints. The 
best specimens of knives can be had at Madrid and Seville ; they are 
principally manufactured at Albacete ; they have bright colours on the 
blade, with mottoes — a muelle or catch ; the price varies from 6r. to 30r. 

Firearrns. — Spanish fowling-pieces now-a-days are manufactured in 
very small quantities, at the manufactories of Trubia and Eybar, together 
with indifferent field-pieces. Yet the poorest peasant has a retaco of all 
sizes and for all objects ; from the blunderbuss, trabucoy to the escopeta de 
caza. They are all sportsmen and excellent shots. The firearms made 
in Spain in the reign of Philip IV. and V. were excellent, and among 
the finest then in the world ; and revolvers were more frequently made 
than may be generally believed. The Madrid Armeria, and Artilery 
Museo, contain a complete collection of examples of the arcabuceros de 
Madrid, pistolas de rueda. The best jumaourer of the present day in Spain 
is Sr. Zuloaga at Madrid. 

The best works to consult on the above subjects are : — an extensive 
work recently published in England, on * Arms and Armours/ by Hewitt 

* Catdlogo de la Real Armeria ;' Madrid, latest issue ; very accurate. 
An important French work, with excellent engravings by Sensi and 
Jubinal ; the text not always reliable ; Paris, 1838. An Essay on ancient 
Spanish arms in Mohedano*8 * Historia Literaria,' 3d voL, etc The Arab 
work of Mohammed-Ben-Ali, El-Erani, etc Details also may be fotmd 
in Parro*s * Toledo en la Mano,' 2d voL p. 596, etc General Conde de 
Cleonard's work on the History of Spanish Arms, ^ Historia de Armas en 
Espana/ costs 1056r. 


This is not a virgin land for numismatics, as the science is old in Spain, 
and there have been always collectors. Many false coins, besides the 
currefat ones, are sold to the unexperienced traveller, especially on the sites 
of celebrated ruins. The collection at the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid, 
exceeds 150,000 in number, and is one of the most important in Europe ; 
especially as illustrating some otherwise obscure facts of the history of 
Spain. It abounds in a most complete and admirably classified m(metajno9 
of very early Spanish, Roman, Gtothic, and Moorish coins. There were 
upwards of a hundred cities in Roman-Spain that had the privilege of a 
mint The municipii coins are not very often met with. The best 
places to make purchases — but caveat efiwptor ! — are Granada, Seville, 
Valencia, and M^rida. There are several fine private collections, but 
one of the fjiest that was ever made in Spain — ^that formed by the 



Swedisli Charg^ d' Affaires, Le Ohevalier Lorichs — was dispersed at his 

The most interesting to collect are the Keltiberian coins, the coins of 
the Municipii and Colonise immnnes. Boman and Moorish silver coins 
are easily obtained ; not so, gold ones. Coppers, often interesting, can 
be picked up for a few reals at tobacconists'. 

The best works on the subject are : — 

* Medallas vde Espafia,' by Father Henrique Florez ; 3 vols, folio. Madrid, 
1757-73; with plates. One of the most important works ever published on 
the matter. 'Medallas de Proclamadones of Juras,* by Herrera, 1884. 
Delgado, * Monedas Aut6nomas de Espafla ' ; the works of Zobel y Zangroniz 
on Keltiberian coins, of Codera and Stanley Lane Poole on Arabic ; Heiss's 
great work, 'Description g^nerale des Monnaies antiques de TEspagne,* and 
* Les premiers Ages de Metal dans le Sud-est de TEspagne,* by Henri and Louis 

Finanoes and Funds. 

The Finances of Spain have always been the stumbling-block of her 
progress in the path of civilisation. When mistress of the world, she 
was poor, embarrassed, the slave of expediency. She has had great 
theoretical financiers, who make poems out of budgets ; and ^ Tart de 
grouper les chiffres ' is admirably practised here ; but the public chest 
partakes sadly of the nature of Pandora's box, chiefly through dishonest 
local assessment and imperfect collection of the Revenue. Justice is, 
however, rarely done to the immense improvement that has been estab- 
lished in this as in every other department of State under the wise 
administration of King Alfonso. The National Debt has been consoli- 
dated, and now consists of the following stocks : — £68,000,000 Interior, 
redeemable at par in 38 years by quarterly drawings ; £90,000,000 
Perpetual Interior, and £80,000,000 Exterior; altogether £238,000,000, 
bearing interest at 4 per cent, requiring £9,620,000 per annum for 
interest, together with £1,000,000 for Sinking Fund, There is only a 
small floating debt. Revenue and Expenditure now as nearly as possible 
balance at, in round figures, £36,000,000. 

Duties — Tarifll 

The following ordinary tourist's articles pay duty upon entering 
Spain : — 

Brandy ^ eic^ i peseta per litre. 

Books and other ^nted matter, xo pesetas 
per 100 kilos. (If in Spanish 4a pesetas.) 

Boots and all articles of attire if unused, 
according to the material, with 50 % added. 

Carriages, from 313 to 1000 pesetas. 

Cigars and Tobacco, prohibited. 

Guns, 5 pesetas per kila Cartridges, 60 

Horses, from 30 to 128 pesetas, according to 
kind and size. 

Maps, plans, etc., s reals per kilo ; pictures, 
I peseta each.^ 

Perfumery, 3 pesetas per kilo. 

Saddlery, etc, 3.75 per kilo. 

Scientific Instruments, about 3 pesetas 


Everything is admitted free into England except cigars^ tobacco, 
liqueurs, spirits, plate, tea, and wine. 

Lace and silk stuffs, jewellery and goldsmith's work, porcelain and 
arms are charged rather heavily in the French custom houses if 

The " Arancel de Aduanas " is a useful little companion in Spain. 
In England the "Ketums of the Rates of Import Duties levied in 
European countries, etc.," price Is. 6d., should be consulted for all 

N,B, — The above duties are liable to somewhat arbitrary infliction 
and variation. As a matter of fact few articles save cigars and ladies' 
new attire are looked for with any strictness. Courtesy and Mendliness 
will smooth away almost all custom-house difficulties. 

Money — ^Measures and Wei^hta 

Monet. — The monetary unit is the peseta, a coin composed of ^ths 
of silver and ^th of copper. Its value is, as nearly as possible, lOd. 
in English money. Accounts are kept in pesetas, reals, and c^ntimos, 
but the old och(WOy cuaaio, and doe euartos pieces are still largely used. 
The following table gives a list of the coins at present in circulation, with 
their equivalents in English money : — 

Ochavo • • B z| centimos of a peseta. 

;^ S. D. 

Cuarto . • • B i Real =000^ 

Dos Cuartos . * ^ \ *% ^000^ 

Cinco Centimos. = ^ Peseta s o o o^ 

Diez Centimos . • » ^ )> =001 

Real . . . .81 Real a o o 2^ 

Media Peseta • • a a Reals s o o 5 

Peseta . , • a 4 „ s o o zo 

Dos Pesetas • .bS,, soz8 

Escudo . • • s 10 „ s o a oj 



5 Pesetas (duro) . . a ao „ s o 4 z 

zo „ . . . . = 40 „ = o 8 a 

Doblon (disused) . '. — 80 „ = o z6 4 

as Pesetas (zoo Reals) . — zoo „ = z o 6 

Media Onza . . . « z6o „ ^ z Z3 o 

Onza . . . . = 330 „ =360 

The duro in accounts is often marked $. 




PoBTUouBss, Spanish, Fbenoh, English, and Ambrioan Monbt. 











£ t. d. 

% cents. 

Coroa, 10,000 reis . 







J-Coroa . 





I 3 


i-5th Coroa . 





9 2j 


i-ioth Coroa • 






1. 10 

Moeda . 



I 7 


. Meia Moeda • 




13 6 



Five Tostao, 500 reis 





2 3J 







\ Teston, 50 reis . 






JV. A— The five-franc 

piece is worth zooo reis. The sovereign is worth 4500 reis. | 

MoNSY Table fob Ready Reckoning. 










JS: ^-^ 









• • 



• • 





• • 


.. 45 

• • 



. . 


• • 




• • 



• . 


. . 135 





. . 180 

• • 


• . 




.. 225 

• • 



• . 



.. 250 

• • 




• . 




• • 



• • 



.. 315 

• • 



. . 




. . 360 

• • 




• . 




.. 405 





.. 445 








(T) 500 

• • 







.. 668 




• . 




. . 890 





• • 



. . 1000 

• • 















• • 

2 225 







• • 

2 450 








Bills of Exchange, — Banking. 

The exchange on the principal markets in Europe is daily published 
in most Spanish papers. The 'Change at par between Spain and Eng- 
land is 50d. 45c. for a duro (20r.) The simplest rule to ascertain how 
many pounds sterling will be given in London for Spanish duros is the 
following : — ^Multiply the number of duros by the 'Change, and the 
product will be the quantity desired, expressed in pence and a fraction ; 
viz. — 

756 duros 
50.30 rate of exchange 


3,802.680 pence and fractions. 

Which we reduce to shillings by dividing the above product by 12 
(12d. in Is.) the result being 3162s., which again reduced to pounds by 
dividing by 20, gives us £158 : 8s. The same operations will suffice for 
ascertaining the value of reals in ^1 on London. The usual change 
given for a pound sterling is 97r. — ^pico mas 6 pico menos. They are 
also drawn at three days. A cheque is called una letra; a draft, 
lihrama; to draw, lihrar. The par between France and Spain is 5fr. 
26ic. for one duro (20r.) The same rule subsists for knowing the result 
of 'change as shown above. Travellers will do well to provide them- 
selves on leaving England with circular notes, and not letters of credit, 
as they thus avoid paying commission. Travellers proceeding out of the 
beaten track will do well to procure small letters of credit from Spanish 
bankers, ou those of other small towns, where circular notes are not so 
much respected. The numerous agency offices of the Giro Mutuo Bank 
may be also resorted to. The usual form of receipt is this : — 

' He recibido de (^me or place) la cantidad de (fhe swn in letters) 
valor en cuenta {or valor por) such and sitch an object, 

' Son, rs. vn (sum in numbers) (siffnaturey with a rubrica. 

ir.5. — A rubrica — ue, a flourish or dash with the pen under the name 
— and always the same, is necessary. Without it legal documents in Spain 
are not regularly drawn, and these garabatos are often most intricate and 
long to execute ; all the Royal Decrees end with the formula : ' Estd 
rvhricado de la real mano.' He who ' no sabe ni poner una rubrica ' is 
indeed worse than an * infeliz.' He is * tm majadero de marca mayor.' 

Endeavour to obtain no change from bankers for circular notes, except 
money, gold especially, as bank-notes are not easily changed in shops, 
and are not legal tenders as soon as the bearer is out of the province. 
Indeed, in Madrid, the Banco de Espana notes are not accepted outside 
the very gates of the capital except at a discount French Napoleons 



are current almost everywhere. The principal cities to change money 
are Bayonne, Barcelona, Madrid, Cadiz, and Gibraltar. The Lettre 
4JPIndicaH(m that accompanies the circular notes ought to be kept separate 
for greater security. Be always provided with small change^ silver and 
copper, and avoid Spanish bank-notes. 

We have purposely omitted mentioning the coins peculiar to each 
province, as they are now extant but in few, and are very rapidly 

iO. — Foreign mcney can always he pvrchated en better terme the 
farther the seller tajrom the country where the money circulates. 

Thb French metrical decimal system has been introduced by decree of 
July 13, 1849, and is the only official one ; but its use has not as yet 
become quite general, and the vara, legua, cuartillo, etc., are still pre- 
ferred to the metro, kilometro, litro, etc 

Old Spanish measures still in use, — The vara is the base ; it consbts 
of 3 piis (feet), each of 12 puXgados ^ches), each of 12 IvneaSy and is 
equal to 836 millimetres, or about 2782 English feet 

English Spanish 

ICG 3rards make • • 109 varas and 30 pulgadas 

12 feet „ • . 13 pi^ 

12 inches „ . • 13 pulgadas 


•03937 inches 
•3937 ». 
3*937 », 
39*371 ».» aiid I vara 7 pulgadas, 74 
cents, of a linea. 
I '9884 poles 
4*971 furlongs 
6*214 uiiles 
A m^tre is therefore about 3^ inches longer than an English yard, and a 
myriam^tre about 6^ miles. 

I millim^e is equal to 
I centim^re ,, 
I d^im^tre „ 
I m^e ,, 

I d^camkre (10 m.) 
I kilometre „ 

I m3niam^tre 

Rbduotion of Yabas into MkratES and Yards. 


M^tns. Yards. 


Metres. Yards. 

I . . 

0,835 exact -91 

9 . . 

7,515 about 8 

2 . 

1,670 about 2 

10 . 

8,350 „ 8j 

3 . . 

2,505 ,» 3 

20 . . 

16,700 „ 17 

4 . . 

3,340 „ 3 

50 . . 

41,750 „ 42 

5 . . 

4»I75 ,, 4i 

100 . 

83,500 „ 84 

6 . . 

5,010 „ 5i 

500 . . 

417,500 „ 420 

7 . . 

5,845 „ 6 

1000 . 

835,000 „ 840 

8 . . 

6,680 „ 7 


I m^e sa I vara, 7 pulgadas, 74 cents, of a linea. 

I millimetre = 50 cents, of a linea, or half-linea. 
I centimetre. 

The followiiig is a rale to reduce all ancient measures into modem — 
that is, varas, leguas, etc., into metres, kilometres — viz. one Spanish 
league is 5 kiL 555 metres ; .therefore, to ascertain how manj kilometres, 
multiply the 5 kil. 555 metres hy the number of leagues you wish to 
reduce ; then separate the three last numbers on the right by a comma, 
and the remaining total forms the Mlometres, whilst the three numbers 
to the right constitute the metres. 

Example : How many kilometres are there in 12 leagues ? 

IdL m. 

5 555 multiplied by 
12 leagues, produce 

II no 

55 55 

66 660 ; viz. 66 kiL 660 metres. 

To reduce metres to varas, the same rale stands good. Multiply 1 
vara 7 pulg. 74 cents, of a linea by the number of metres desired. The 
varas differ considerably according to the provinces, and are still in 
use : — 

zoo canasofCataluSa equal 185 CantilianTaias. 
too varas of Valencia „ 108 ditto (or zo6) 
xoo „ Aragon ,, 91} ditto 


Navane „ 94} 
Balearic Isles 185 
Portuguese,, X36 


6 feet 

too English Yards equal 100 varas, 30 puL etc 

The toesa 

X estado, or braia 

X codo 

X palmo 



I cord< 


9 pulgadas 


5 pasos geomet 

The Spanish league (le^ua), of 20 to a degree, is of 20,000 geomet- 
rical feet (paaos), equal to the nautical league of 3 geographical miles = 5 
kilometres and 555 metres, about 3*45 English m. The old Spanish 
league of 171 to the degree = nearly 4 English m., often familiarly 
called legtias largos by the guides and all caminanUt. A statute English 
mile = 1760 yds. = 5280 ft. = 69 to a degree. 

Stiperficial Meamres, — ^The official one is the French hectare, equal to 
10,000 square metres, 2*471 acres, or^ roughly, 21 acres, or thereabouts. 

The fianega is the usual Spanish land measure. It is thus com- 
posed : — 


B X2 estadales 

— 16 varas cuadradas 

(9 estndiks make z are and ac6s). 

■= 0^0069,873,716 ares 



Rbduotion of Superficial Faneoab to Hbctaebs. 





1 . . . . 

2 . . . . 

5 . . . . 



10 . • . 

50 . . . 

100 .. . 


iV.j?.— The fanega of Castflla is different from that of tlie other nnovinoes. The vusada 
Oiterally yoked, or yoking), the land that two hullodcs can plou|^ in a oay. The journal of the 
South (^France, the ahnu^ etc, varies considerably. An aransada is as mudi as a pair of oxen 
can plough in a day. 

The square centimetre is equal to * 155 square inches, or rather less 
than ^th of a square inch. 

I m^tre carr^= 1*196 sq. yards, or 10,000 sq. centimetres. 
A Spanish sq. foot a 7-746 d^dmetres dUres. 

The vara cnadrada =s 6 pi^ cuadradas. 

I pi^ coadrado &= 144 pulgadas cuadradas. 

I polgada cuadrada»i44 Uneas cuadradas. 


t quintal = 4 aixobas 


= x6c 

X „ =: x6 adarmes 

= 3 tommes 

X „ = X2 


0. centig. mil 


KiL centig. mil 

1 arroba . . . 

2 „ ... 

3 », • . • 


5 arrobas . . 
10 „ 
50 „ 


575* "6 

Approximately, i kilog. is somewhat more than 2 libras; 46 kilog., 100 
IJbras (pounds) ; the gramme, 15-4340 English grains; i cwt., about I io| libras. 

I tonelada (tons) bs20 quintales, or 920 kilog. 186 centig. 
5 „ = 4,601 kilogs. 

10 „ = 9,202 „ 

100 „ =92,119 „ 

I kilog. is equal to 2*2055 ^bs. English; 100 kilog. to 1*97 cwt ; looo 
kilog. (or tonneau), to 19-7 cwt. 



Grain, or Dry Measxtres. 
t cahiz SB 12 fanegas 

I „ =12 celemines (or almudes) 
I f, =4 cuartillos 

I „ =4 ochavos 

I „ =s 8 ochavillos 

I cuartillo . . 1. 156 litre 

I cahiz • . . 666 „ 

I fanega ... 55J „ 

The hectolitre = i fanega, 9 celemines, 2 cuartillos, 486 mil. of cuartilla 

I litre = 865 -thousandths of a cuartillo 

I fanega *= about 1 4 bushel 

5 fan<^[as = about I quarter 

0.5550 hectols. 

50 fanegas 

27.7505 hectol 

2.7751 », 

100 „ 

. 55.5010 „ 

5.5501 „ 

1000 „ 

. 555.0100 „ 


5 .. 
10 „ 

46 pi^s cubicos sO '995 '096 mil. cuh. 
50 „ SB I m^tre cube and 081*626 miL cub. 

The cubic m^tre s= 35*317 cubic feet (English) 
The cubic centimetre s= 0*06100 cubic inches 
I decalitre is about an English peck, and 2,' hectolitres about I English quart. 

Liquid Measures. 

T moyo (seldom used) a zo c^taras (arrobas of ^ libras each) 

z „ « 4 cuartiiros (seldom used) 
z |« ^2 a2umbre8 

I „ Es 4 cuartillos 

X ,, B 4 copas. 

The arroba or cdntara = 3*55 English gallons, or 16 litres, l3io 
centilitres ; I litre approximately somewhat more than 1 coartilo— viz. 
1 cuartillo, 3 copas, 92 centesimos of a copa. 

The litre = ^ths of an English gallon, or 2*11 wine pints, or *97 of 
an English quart. The arrobe is marked @, In oil measures : the 
arroba contains 25 libras, and each 4 paniUas. 1 arrobe = 12 litres, 
6610 centil. 

1 litre = 1 libra, 3 panillas, 96 centesimos of a paniUa. 

Oil: — I aiTobe 
2 „ 

5 »> 

10 „ 

100 „ 

s about no to 115 gallons. 

rbota de vino or pipe 

s marco a 8 onzas (equal to the light marc each of 8 dracmas) 

12-563 litres. 

25*126 „ 

62*815 ., 

125*630 „ 

1256*300 „ 

It will botde about 53 doaaa 

K 8 ochavas, or dracmas 
I „ as 3 adarmes 

s tommes 

K isgianos. 


a tomines = 1.198 grammes ; i gramme = 15.4340 English grains. 

I marco = aascxH^s kilogrammes. 

5 marcos = 1.150333 „ 

X kilate = 4 granos ; z grano s 8 partes de grano =s 51.4 milligrammos. 

5 kilates = 1.037 grammes* 

Far Medkitu : — 

I libra medicinal =s is onzas 

X „ s: 8 dfacmas, or ochavas 

I „ ss 3 escmpulos 

I „ =34 granos. 
X libra medicinal a345kilog. 

5 » .... X.735 „ 

xo „ .... 3.45X „ 

The gramme is s 15.44 English grains. 
3| French grains are equal to 3 English grains. 
About 6 codos cubicos = x cubic m^tre. 

X tonelada de araueo = x.5x8 cubic metres. The lastre = a toneladat. 
I tonelada (ships) = 30 cwt. or z ton. 


alcalA (de henAres) 

(birthplace of CERVANTES). 

Province of Madiid, — Population, 
15,000, diocese of Toledo, 

Boutes. — Ist, From Madrid, by rail, 
21 i miles, 1\ hr. by mail train, about 
1 hr. by dir. tr. ; fares, Ist cl., P. 3.96 ; 
2d cL, P. 3.06. It is on the direct R. 
line from Zaragoza to Madrid, its last 
largest town. The befit plan is to visit it 
whilst at Madrid andretum the same day, 
to avoid discomfort at the posada (inn). 
Besides, there is but little hereto interest 
the general tourist. It is about sLx 
leagues from Madrid by the carretera 
(high road). 

HoteL — Fonda de Universo. 

General Desoription.— Alcald stands 
in a plain, on the right bank of the He- 
nires, which winds its way, hiding, as 
if for shame, its muddy thin sheet of 
water behind some stately elms. Seve- 
ral lofty sandy cerros screen it from the 
N. winds, but it is nevertheless a very 
cold and wind-blown place in winter. 
The former town, or rather village, that 
was grouped aroimd a castle built by 
the Moors, whence it received its actual 
name — ^Al-Kalat, the Castle — ^was al- 
ready known in Ihe time of the Romans, 
who called it Complutum, and, accord- 
ing to Pliny, was a stipendiary city, 
subjected to the Jurid. Conventus of 
Cffisar- Augusta (Zaragoza) : several 
vases and coins that turn up now and 


then would seem to confirm this state- 
ment Guadalajara, nevertheless, is, 
or rather was formerly, the rival of Al- 
cald, and disputed with it the right of 
being Pliny's Complutum. The citadel 
stood on the site now called Alcald la 
Vieja. About 1118, the first archbishop 
of Toledo, Don Bernardo, built a rival 
fortress on the hiU now called Mai Ve- 
cino, and the Moors, who possessed the 
city, had to surrender. This prelate 
was the real conqueror of Alcald, which, 
in reward, was given to him with all 
the land around by King Alonso VI., 
and confirmed to Ms successor Ruimun- 
do. This last, a truly-styled prince of 
the Church, thus became the absolute 
sovereign of this petty principality,, 
which, however, never ceased to be, 
ecclesiastically, dependent on the see of 
Toledo. Among many other curious 
illustrations of those times which we 
read in the Fueros or charter that he 
gave to his people (they are found in a 
fine codex of the 13th century in the 
municipal archives of that city), is the 
following law : * The man who will pull 
another by the beard is to be fined four 
maravedis, and have his own cut away ; 
and if he should have none, let him 
have an inch deep of flesh cut into his 
chin.* Strange to say, great tolerance 
was shown by these archbishops towards 


alcalA (de henAres). 

the Jews, and a perfect equality between 
them and Christians established before 
the law, *peche como pechan por ve- 
zino cristiano i cristiano ; ' but this 
spirit of moderation did not extend to 
the hated infidels, the Moors, who were 
treated always as the conquered people, 
and dealt with accordingly. The see of 
Complutum is one of the earliest in 
Spain, and its two celebrated martyrs, 
Santos Justo y Pastor, lived in the time 
of Dacian. Those who are curious in 
martyrology and modern miracles may 
consult on this subject, * La Vida, Mar- 
tirio, etc., de los NiHos SS. Justo y 
Pastor,* by A. Morales. Alcald, 1568, 
4to (rare). It contains, besides, some 
very curious information relative to the 
antiquities of Alcald. 

Several kings have often resided at 
Aloald, where, moreover, the Cortes of 
the kingdom were held in former times 
and on various occasions ; but it has 
been chiefly one of the battle-fields of 
the all-grasping, all-powerful theocracy 
of Spain, and celebrated for Arch. Teno- 
rio's efforts to obtain the regency during 
Enrique III.'s minority ; for Cerezuela's 
partizan warfare on behalf of Don Al- 
varo de Luna, and Carrillo's intrigues 
in favour of La Beltraneja against the 
interests of Ferdinand and Isabella, in 
the arrangement of whose marriage he 
had played so principal a part Their 
daughter, Catherine of Aiagon, whom 
Shakspeare makes Henry YIII. define 
as *the queen of earthly queens,' was 
bom at Alcald, and so was the same 
Catholic king's grandson Ferdinand, 
subsequently Emperor of Grermany, 
whose birth caused his mother Juana 
the loss of her reason ; . but Alcaldes 
greatest glory must for ever be to have 
given birth to Cervantes. The prospe- 
rity of Alcald, inaugurated by the 
Church, attained its acm^ under the 
wise protection of Card. Ximenes, more 
generally known by Spaniards as Cisne- 

ros, who studied here, and founded the 
celebrated university in 1510, endow- 
ing it generously, and filling its colleges 
with some of the most learned scholars 
of his age. When, in obedience to the 
spirit of centralisation — a bad importa- 
tion from France — the university was 
removed to Madrid in 1836, AlcaU fell, 
never to rise again, and is now but a 
shadow of its former self, a backward, 
solitary, abandoned city, without re 
taining any quaintness or originality 
or even environs, to compensate for all 
its other losses. Alcala was indeed pros- 
perous as the seat of learning, when 
its halls were thronged by eleven thou- 
sand students, when Cervantes, study- 
ing here before he removed to Madrid 
and Salamanca, called it the 'famoso 
Compluto' (* Galatea,' voL i p. 121), 
and it counted nineteen colleges. Then, 
on the banks of the river, 'las riberas 
del famoso Henar^s ' (Cervantes, * Gala- 
tea,' voL i p. 66), the estudiantina, or 
Burschenschaft, held merry assemblies. 
These were the Spanish estudiantes, who 
studied principally for the Church, and 
belonged to the middle and lower classes. 
Their want of funds and continual re- 
sort to expedient, mingled with gaiety 
and laziness, has given them a peculiar 
character, style, and reputation. Dur- 
ing vacations and carnival, they went, 
and still continue to go, in bands about 
the streets with their usual and now 
antiquated cloaks in rags, and torn two- 
comer hats, and singing with a guitar 
imder the windows beg for pence and 
smiles from regas. 

Un estudiante tunante 
Se puso i. pintar la luna, 
Y de hambre que tenia 
Pintd un plato de aceitunas. 
Anda, vida mia, abre la ventana, 
Mira qu^ lucida llevo la sotana. 

Sights.— Colegio de San Ildefonso 
(Capilla del Cardinal Cisneros), Archi- 
episcopal Palace, La Colegiata (cathe- 
dral). Church of Santa Mario. 


de San /Zde/cmjo. — This 
oolegio mayor waa the seat of the for- 
mer uniyersity. It has a grand effect 
when seen from a distance, bat on doser 
examination beoomes clumsy and mass- 
ive. It was magnificently built and 
endowed l^ Ximenes. The few remain- 
ing halls, patios, and galleries are deso- 
late and lonely, but still bear yestiges 
of their former grandeur. Of the Para- 
ninfo, where degrees were conferred, 
and which was richly ornamented in 
the 16th century, there exists littie now 
except the ceilUigs and the ornamented 
galleries which run round. 

The principal curiosity here is the 
chapel built by 611 de Onta&on in a 
semi-Moorish Gothic style with great 
magnificence and taste. The tomb of 
the founder should be noted. It is of 
marble, very elaborately and delicately 
chiselled, tiie work of Domenico of 
Florence. One of the most remarkable 
men the world has ever produced — 
remarkable alike for integrity, indomi- 
table perseverance, self-denial, devotion 
to his religion, and the extraordinary 
versatility of his talents — Ximenes, 
Francis de Cisneros, was throughout 
his long life pre-eminently one of the 
people. He was born of humble stock 
at Torrelaguna, in 1437, educated at 
Alcald and Rome, and became success- 
ively Vicar-General of the great Men- 
doza. Confessor of Isabella la Catdlica, 
Archbishop of Toledo, Cardinal, and 
Regent of Spain. The primacy he 
steadily refused until his acceptance of 
it was commanded by Pope Innocent 
VIII., and to the end he remained in 
all his private ways the simple and 
stem Franciscan monk. Some of his 
enterprises were naturally dictated and 
stained by the uncharitable and lawless 
spirit of the age, but, upon the whole, 
his defado government of the country 
— especially during the troublous days 
succeeding the death of Isabella— was 

characterised by consummate wisdom 
and enlightenment The usual &te of 
all great men finally overtook him, and 
he died, Nov. 6, 1617, in semi-diBj^race, 
broken-hearted at the ingratitude of 
Charles V. His latter years were spent 
at Alcald, in the production, at a cost 
of 80,000 ducats, of his famous Com- 
plutensian Polyglot Bible (Complutum, 
or Gonfluvium, the Roman name of the 
dty), printed here in 6 vols, folio in 
1517, but not published until 1522. 
Over this his most cherished work 
Cisneros spared neither pains nor ex- 
pense in collecting authentic MSS. 
and bringing together the finest avail- 
able scholars of the day. It contains, 
besides the Hebrew text, the Septuagint 
Greek, the Chaldee (each with a literal 
Latin version) and the Vulgate ; and, 
while no longer held in great esteem 
for its own sake, is entitied to the 
greatest honour as the first work of its 
kind, and an almost superhuman labour 
of love and energy. 

The place has lost most of its literary 
treasures, but one may still find here 
some curious books and MSS. — among 
others the celebrated Alphonsine Tables, 
drawn up by order of Alfonso X. The 
work is written in Spanish, and is one 
of the earliest of Western science written 
in a modem language ; the introduction 
is the catalogue of the fixed stars, 
celebrated as *Las Tablas Alfonsinas.' 
This work was a great step towards 
the di£fusion of knowledge in the 13th 
century. These books contain, besides 
methods, etc, and the tables, eloquent 
and poetical explanations. Hie follow- 
ing passage will show the style and 
quaint manner of the king. Speaking 
of Frsa Major, he says, * Some astron- 
omers have taken it for a wain with its 
pole ; others say it has the form of an 
animal, which might as well be a lion, 
a wolf, or a dog, as a male or a female 
bear. Here, then, are heavenly animals 


inhabiting that part of the sky where 
this constellation is to be found, and 
recognised by ancient astronomers be- 
cause they saw four stars forming a 
square, and three in a right line. They 
must have been endowed with a better 
eyesight than ours, and the sky must 
have been very clear. Since they say 
it is a she-bear, let it be one ; they were 
lucky in being able to distinguish it.' 
The ancient astronomers did not err in 
their estimate of the Alphonsine Tables. 
Regiomontanus says, ' Beware lest you 
trust too much to blind calculation and 
Alphonsine dreams.* Tycho Brahe says 
that the 400,000 ducats expended upon 
the tables would haye been better laid 
out in actual observation of the heavens. 
In point of truth, Alfonso had littie or 
nothing to do with the tables that bear 
his name. (See also about these tables, 
Ticknor's 'History of Spanish litera- 
ture,* voL i. p. 35, note.) 

Archiepiscopal Palace. — Observe the 
second patio and staircase built by the 
primates Fonseca and Tavera, both of 
them of good plateresque ; also the 
Berruguete-like windows of the first 
patio and garden fa9ade. The archives 
now housed here — Archive Hi8t<Srico— 
should be visited for the sake of their 
literary curiosities, and, especially, the 
series of documents relating to the 
Great Inquisition. 

La Oolegiata, or San Justo y Pastor. 
— ^This church is the oldest parish in 
Alcald, and was raised to a colegiata 
in 1479. The edifice was considerably 
enlarged in 1497 and 1509 under Pedro 
GumieL It was styled Magistral by 
Pope Leo X., when Cisneros caused all 
its prebendaries to be doctorsin divinity. 
It is situated in a plazuela, and presents 
a plain fa9ade with an indifferent stone 
tower. Its three naves are deficient in 

beauty and proportions ; the reja which 
leads into the presbytery was elabor- 
ately worked by Juan Ffano^ The 
principal retablo in the presbytery is 
barroque, and all around is modernised, 
churrigueresque, paint, and bad taste ; 
under it is a crypt, where the remains 
of the martyr boys,. Justo y Pastor, 
are kept with great veneration. The 
paintings of Carducho, etc., are very 

TAs Church of Santa Maria should be vi- 
sited by all readers of Don Quixote, as it was 
here that Miguel de Cervantes Saaverda was 
christened. We read in the r^:istry of births 
of this chiuxh, in the book which begins in 
X533 and ends 1550 : * On Simday, 9th Oct. 
of the year of our Lord 1547, was baptized 
Miguel, son of Rodrigo de Cervantes, and of 
his wife Doila Leoner. Juan Pardo was god- 
father, and he was baptized by the BachiUer 
Serrano, curate of Our Lady. The witnesses 
being the sacristan (sexton), Baltasar Vazquez, 
and I who baptized him. Signed, Bachiller 
Serrano.' In this same book are also the 'par- 
tidas de bautismo ' of his brother Andr^ bap- 
tized 2543, and his sisters, Andrea, 1544, and 
Luisa, 1546. 

The Mineral Baths o/Loeches (sulphates of 
soda and magnesia) are situated xx kiL from 
the Alcald station. Dominican convent, palace 
and tomb of the Duke of Olivares, Philip IV. 's 
minister. Diligence from Alcali during the 
bathing season, June xsth to Sept xsth. 

Books of Reftrence—x. ' Vida, Martirio, etc., 
de los gloriosos Ni&os Martires SS. Justo y 
Pastor,' by Amb. de Morales ; Alcali, Angulo, 
X568 — scarce, and containing curious informa- 
tion on the antiquities of the town. 

2. * Descripcion de la Universidad de AlcaU,' 
by Vergara (MS.) 

3. ' Seminario de Nobles, Taller de Vener- 
ables,' etc ; * El Colegio Mayor de San Pedro 
y San Pablo,' with a life of Ckrd. Cisneros, by 
Alcolea (Madrid.) Martin, X777); another 
' Life ' by Albar Gomez, and an incomplete one 
by Vergara. 

For the history of Cardinal Ximenes, * Vida 
de Ximenes,' etc., by Eugenio Robles, 4to, 
Toledo, X604 ; Pr^ott's ' Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella ' or Hefele's * Der (^dinal Ximenes und 
die Kirchlichen ZustSnde Spaniens,' etc., Tu- 
bingen, X85X. 


iL& C Blaci. Edin-lTir^lj.. 


lat From Madrid, By railway in 
13J hours by mail train, about 17 hours 
by omnibus train ; distance, 282 miles 
or 456 kil. ; two trains a day ; fiures, 
Ifft cl., Pes. 52.35 ; 2d cl., Pes. 40.60 ; 
3d cL, Pes. 24.90. Station at Madrid, 
Puerta de Atocha ; same road as Madrid 
to Valencia as far as La Encina (see 
VdUnda), At La Encina a good buffet. 
The road from La Encina is not pictur- 
esque, and the villages uninteresting. 
At FUlena (12,000 inhabitants, once 
the appanage of the celebrated Mary of 
that name) there is on a hill an old 
historical castle of no artistic merit; 
the slopes (tf the hills around are clothed 
with vines, and the great annual fair, 
held Sept 29 to Oct 5, is of consider- 
able importance, the sales amounting 
then to about £120,000. A road here 
leads to Alcoy, where the best cigarette- 
paper in Spain is manufactured, with 
woollens, coarse and inferior. The 
river is the Vihalap<S. Three miles 
from Sax the YinalapiS is crossed, and a 
tunnel begins of 530 yards (485 metres) 
long ; 2 kil. after Morwvar the Vinalap<5 
is crossed again on a bridge which is 
considered the most important work on 
that line. Novelda (pop. 8100) is one 
of the most picturesque valleys in this 
part of Spain. This, with the country 
around Elche, and the whole valley of 
the Seguras, has been compared to the 
delta of the Nile, and its natural pro- 
ductions are the orange, the palm, 
Indian com, fruits of all sorts, aniseed, 
oil, wine, etc Three miles from it is 
an almost ignored sulphureous spring. 

Dil. here to Murcia, Elche, etc. (See 

2d. From Valencia, A, By rail. 
Take tickets to Alicante. At La 
Encina carriages are changed, and 
travellers have ordinarily to wait for 
train from Madrid to Alicante. Only 
two trains (the mail and slow) leave 
daily from Valencia to La Encina. 
Time, 4 hrs. by mail, and about 7 by 
slow train; fares, 1st cL, 53r. 35c.; 
2d cl., 40r. 40c ; 3d cL, 23r. 60c Dis- 
tance, 113 kils. JV.^.— Hours of trains 
should be carefully combined, so as to 
avoid delay at La Encina, and even 
passing the night there ; but if the 
latter be the case, the French people 
who keep the Buffet supply some very 
decent rooms, and the fare is tolerable 
The inn close by is very wretched. 
From La Encina to Alicante, time about 
3 hrs. by either train ; distance, 97 kil. ; 
fares, 1st cl., 43r. ; 2d cl., 33r. (For 
details of road from Valencia to La 
Encina, see Valencia B.) £, — By sea, 
12 hrs. by steamers of the Compaiiia 
(general TrasatUntica, and others 
occasionally, which are advertised in 
papers of Valencia and Alicante, llOr., 
80r., and 40r. 

3(1. From Murcia (see Murcia), by 
rail, through Elche and Orihuela ; two 
trains per day ; time, 3} hours ; fares, 
1st cl., 34r. 60c. ; 2d cL, 26r. 20c ; 3d 
cL, 17r. 30c 

Also from Barcelona, Malaga, etc., 
by steam. (For particulars, see adver- 
tisements in daily papers and railway 


Capital of the proinnce of Alicante, stxport, fortified place. Pop. 36,0 

Bailway Station. — ^At the station^ 
omnibuses and carriages in attendance 
at fixed fares. A special omnibus of 
Fonda del Vapor. N,B, — To avoid 
luggage being visited, fee of 8r. to 12r. 
to officials. 

At the pier, on landing from or to 
steamer, 2r. per passenger, and 2r. 
ordinary-sized packages, a tariff. Agree 
nevertheless before taking a boat. 

Hotels. — ^De Bossio, Calle del Duqne 
de Zaragoza. Yery good ; charges 
moderate ; excellent table. La Marina, 
Del Vapor, near the harbour ; both fair 
commercial houses, not so good as the 
Bossio ; slightly lower rates. At all 
hotels the price of pension includes 
everything save speciidities — carriages, 
etc. The table d'hdte wines are suffi- 
ciently good for ordinary drinking. 
Reduction of prices for a long stay. 

Casino. — Calle San Fernando: French 
and English papers ; admission readily 
obtained upon a good introduction. 
^ Bat?i8, — Ba&os de Bonanza, 6r. ; sea- 
bathing during summer. 

Wines.— Of Fondillol, Belemeta, 
Aloque, Malvasia de Alicante, Moscatel, 
very rich, some sweet, and all strong 
and heady. 

Post- Office. — Plaza d6 Isabel II. 
Letters take four days to England. 

Telegraph Office. — Calle Gravina. 

Theatres. — ^El Principal, Plaza del 
Teatro, and El Espaliol, Calle de 

Caf^s. — Suizo ; Calle S. Fernando ; 
Comercio, on the Quay. 

Qobierno Militar. — Calle Castaflos. 

Qobierno OiviL — Calle Gravina. 

N.B. — Letters and parcels can often 
be despatched conveniently by certain 
lines of steamers : see advertisements, 
and inquire of agents. 

Olimate.— Alicante would justly de- 
serve to be ranked among the southern 
cities better suited to invalids. Its 
latitude is 38' 18' 80* Paris, and 88' 20' 
41* N. longitude, 0' 80' W. Greenwich. 
It is sheltered from the N. and W. 
winds by a high ridge of mountains, of 
which tlie highest is El Mongo. The 
air is warmer than at Valencia, but more 
dry. There is an occasionally marked, 
but not injurious, depression in the 
thermometer about nightfall, and that 
very dryness is somewhat tempered by 
the cool sea-breeze, to which the city, 
by its position, is favourably exposed. 
It is, nevertheless, exposed to all the 
violence of the S. and S.W. winds. 
There is a certain analogy between this 
climate and that of Nice, which is all 
in favour of Alicante. According to 
local and foreign doctors, this climate 
is very well suited to invalids sinking 
under a debilitated organism. Scrofu- 
lous and lymphatic persons, conva- 
lescents, and all those predisposed to 
consumption, but without any symp- 
toms, wUl derive great benefit from this 
balmy air. 

Meteorvldgical ohservaHons mad* at the 
Observatory at Alicante. 

Average yearly barometrical height o 
Average annual temperature . . 17.5 cent 
Temperature, maxima Qn\y xo) . 37.3 „ 
„ minima (February 7) 0.6 „ 

Number of rainy days in the year . 24 
Quantity of rain fallen . . . 77 mil xo 


Meteorological Observations made at the Institute of 
Alicante (an average Year). 

Temperature of Air. 

Direction of Winds. 

























y . 












a- 4 







































































Totals . . 












im te 
m te 





■wre, Ai 

ic press 
re . 
igust 2 
arch zo 

sure . 


17.5 Number of rainy days 
38.4 Quantity fallen 

• 447.3a 

Meteorological Observations made at the Institute of 
Alicante (a dry Year). 

Temperature of Air. 

Direction of Winds. 

































January . 
February . 


























March. . 













April . . 
May . . 


























June . . 














37. J 




















XT. 3 











October . 





























Average pressure of atmosphere 













Number of rain] 



Maximum temperatiure, August 9 . 



Quantity fallen 



Minimum temperature, January ax 





*The grand objection to Nice is its 
dryness and the exciting and irritating 
nature of its atmosphere.* — (*0n the 
Climate of Nice,' by W. Farr, M.D., 
p. 10.) But if, in some diseases, these 
are found to aggravate the malady, in 
others, of an opposite tendency, they are 
productive of much good. The death- 
rate is about 1 in 82, varying consider- 
ably with the seasons. 

Elche (12 m. from Alicante, see p. 
10) has not been as yet studied as a 
medical station. It might, nevertheless, 
be considered superior to Alicante in 
many respects. The sky is heavenly, 
the air pure and genial, and the forests 
of palms, orange-trees, pomegranates, 
and oHves, are sufficient to indicate the 
temperature in winter. It is very dry, 
but not as much, perhaps, as Alicante, 
owing to constant and abundant irriga- 
tion, the Vinalap6 river, and the neigh- 
bourhood of the Pantano or lake, situated 
3 miles N. There is also a cool shade 
under the palms ; but it must not be 
forgotten that it is exposed to the influ- 
ence of the E. and N. winds, which 
prevail especially during the winter, 
although at rare intervals. In the 
summer, intermittent fevers are not un- 
frequent (a consequence of emanations 
from the irrigated huerta) which more 
particularly seize the labourers, who 
stand all day in the water under a 
scorching sun. The houses are not com- 
fortable, certainly, but arm-chairs, car- 
pets, and doors and windows closing 
hermetically, are a useless luxury, nay, 
a nuisance, in these Oriental climates. 
Living is very cheap, fruit and vege- 
tables are sold for a song, and its prox- 
imity to Alicante renders supplies easily 
obtainable. There is, we do not deny, 
a total lack of society, amusements, and 
comforts, the absence of which is often 
felt by invalids ; but the real advantages 
of clinate, combined with very great 
cheapness, are objects not to be despised, 

and must compensate for others. Doc- 
tors may safely send here all invalids 
suffering from catarrh, rheumatism, and 
consumption, accompanied by abundant 
expectoration, in the first stages of the 
malady, and in all cases where the irri- 
tability of the patient (especially in lym- 
phatic temperaments) cannot endure 
the more exciting air of the sea-side 
medical stations. 

General Description. — ^Alicante is 
situated on the sea-side, extending along 
and around the spacious open bay, and 
at the foot of the lofty, bleak, chalky 
hin, crowned by an old and now much 
ruined castle. Its houses, low, gay, 
whitewashed, look picturesque from the 
steamer as one entcoB the port, and the 
background is formed by a striMngrange 
of mountains. The environs are bare, 
and the soil salinons. A few palms and 
fig-trees add to the Oriental appearance 
of the place. It is, on the whole, a very 
backward, uninteresting city, with little 
or no society save that of a few English 
merchants, old residents in the place, 
and the usual humdrum old-fashioned 
Spanish provincial tertulia (easy evening 
parties). There is a pretty good theatre, 
a plaza de toros, a fine market-place, 
opposite to Fonda del Vapor, and the 
town-hall has some sort of an appear- 
ance, but without any determined style 
or definable effect The tobacco-manu- 
factory employs some 4000 women, 
many of whom are perfect types of the 
semi-Moorish Alicantina beauty. The 
Alameda is the fashionable walk. Out- 
side the town are two other promenades, 
the Alameda of San Francisco and that 
of Los Capuchinos. There are two pretty 
gardens, which should be visited rather 
by botanists than by amateurs accus- 
tomed to English or French gardens — 
we mean the Jardin of Pinohermoso and 
that of Peiiacerrada. For permits (ad- 
mission), apply to the landlord of the 



The Port is spacious, situated between 
Cabo de la Hnerta on the N.E. and 
Cabo de Sta. Pola on the S., distant 
from each other S.W. and N.E. about 10 
m. It is secure, and though large ships 
moor K and S., distant from j( m. to 
1 m. from shore (in from four to eight 
fathoms water), they are never driven 
from their moorings, however much they 
are exposed to all winds from E. N.E. to 
a by W. , because the holding-ground is 
first-rate. The trade is not very active, 
although it has of late somewhat in- 
creased, from facilities being afforded to 
transport by the railway to Madrid. 
The principal export is raisins, which 
are mostly taken to England. The other 
chief exports are liquorice, brandy, wine, 
almonds, esparto goods and lead. 
The exportation of barilla formerly 
amounted to 100,000 cwt, but has 
now almost ceased from its having 
been superseded by artificial soda. 
The imports are, sugar, coffee, cotton 
and linen stuffs, coals and railway 
material. The value of English direct 
legitimate imports into Alicante 
amounts to about £800,000, the port 
being visited by an annual nett 
British tonnage of 80,000 tons. Ali- 
cante is a great smuggling centre, 
and the contrabandistas, those armed 
and bold free-traders of all times and 
cHmes, are very much looked up to, 
sympathised with, aided and overlooked 
by all here. An English company has 
been formed for melting and refining the 
rich argentiferous lead ores of Almagera 
and other parts of the province of Mur- 
cia. The schools for the lower classes 
are very few and not attended : crime is 
therefore frequent — about 1 in 879 ; and 
according to statistical returns, of 847 
brought for trial, 780 were able neither 
to read nor write, and the Valencian 
dialect, the old langue d'oc, is still 
chiefly spoken by the lower and many 
of the middle classes. Agriculture is 

very backward, and although the fanner 
has certainly to contend against drought, 
which often lasts for seven and nine 
months in the year, his ignorance and 
indolence prevent his alleviating this 
condition by making more pantanoSf 
canals, wells, and by planting trees— 
those hated enemies of the Spanish 

Bights. — Church of San Nicolas de 
Bari — Churches of Santa Maria and Sta. 
Clara— The Castle— Elche. 

Church of San Nicolas de Bart, the 
titular saint, *el patron,' of Alicante, 
was built in 1616, in the Herrera style 
(Grseco-Roman). It is of very good pro- 
portions, well conceived and executed, 
but not completed, and ornamented 
with very bad taste. The church of 
Sta. Maria is very indifferent ; that of 
Sta. Clara was originally founded to 
receive the sacred sudario, * one of the 
three napkins or kerchiefs with which 
the Veronica wiped our Saviour's face 
on his way to the Calvary.' It was 
brought from Rome in the 15th cen- 
tury, and its authenticity is undoubted 
by the Alicantinos, who hold it in great 
veneration. See, for more details, * Di- 
sertacion historico-dogmatica sobre la 
sagrada Reliquia de la serenisima Faz,' 
etc., by a Jesuit called Fabiani Murcia, 
1763, 4to. 

The pictures of the Marquis del 
Angolfa, formerly well worthy of a 
visit, are now dispersed, owing to the 
death of the Marquis. Their value 
was, however, greatly overrated. They 
consisted of about 1000 pictures of 
Spanish and Dutch schools. The 
Italian paintings were nearly all of 
them copies ; but there were some 
good Snyders, and a good copy 
of Rubens's 'Deposition from the 
Cross,' at Antwerp. The best paint- 
ings of the Spanish school were the 
'Good Shepherd,* by Orrente, a soi' 
disarU Murillo, and a fine "Virgin 



and Sleeping Saviour by Alonso 

GasiU» — ^To see it, apply with card 
to the Gobemador. The Castillo de 
Santa Barbara commands the town and 
bay ; its situation is good, but the con- 
tinued dilapidations to which it has 
been subject have rendered it almost 
useless for defence, and of no interest 
to the military tourist ; it is composed 
of four emplaaami^fUoa (plateaux), the 
highest of which overlooks the city, 
and is strong. It is about 400 ft. high. 
The castle of San Fernando crowns on 
the N. side the cerro (height) of Tosal, 
and defends that position which com- 
mands the fortress ; the Isla Plana, on 
the S. of the city, and distant 3^ 
leagues from Cabo de Santa Pola, is 
1180 varas long by 500 wide, and de- 
fended by the Torre de San Jos6. 

Antiquities, — ^There are no antiqui- 
ties collected at Alicante that we know 
of, although several persons possess 
coins, medals, etc. Alicante, never re- 
markable in history, is the ancients' 
lUice, erroneously ascribed to Elche, 
and has sometimes also been called 
Alona. The Lucentum which some au- 
thors mention as the former name of 
Alicante, was not this city, but one 
situated at Tusal de Manises, close to 
Alicante, where many ruins, coins, etc., 
have been found. The * Cr6nica de la 
Ciudad de Alicante,' by Dr. Don Vic. 
Bendicho, MS. foL, in Acad, de la His- 
toria, D. 107, dated 1640 ; and 'Illice 
Ilustrada, ' b^gun by Malt^ and finished 
by Lorenzo Lopez, both Jesuits — MS., 
very scarce ; * Lucentum, hoy Alicante,' 
proving that Lucentum was the origin 
of Tusal de Manises, by Pio de Saboya, 
Count of Lumiares, Valencia, 1780, 4to, 
with cuts ; ' De la Iglesia de Illice, hoy 
Elche,' by Florez, in his 7th voL of 
*Esp. Sagrada ;* *Recopilacion,'etc., by 
Sanz, MS., in Bib. Nac. (Ooleccion Bohl 
de Fabcr). 


(7(m«*Z».— Of .Ewgrtom?.— Jasper W. 
Cummings,Esq., Vice-ConsuL United 
Statea.'-A, W. Leach, Esq., Consul; 
John Leach, Esq., Vice-ConsuL Aus- 
tria - Hungary, — G. Raymunds, Vice- 
Consul Belgiwm. — ^H. Carey, ConsoL 
ItcUy. — G. Ravello, ConsuL Norway 
and Sweden,. — P. E. Daklander, Vice- 
ConsuL Russia, —k, Faes, ConsuL 
Holland, — A. Salvetti, ConsuL 

No foreign doctor. 

Bankers, — Cummings Brothers (suc- 
cessors of Jasper White and Co.) ; 
agents for several English (uid Ameri- 
can banks. Succursale of the Bank of 

Diligence Offices, — For Alcoy, Villena, 
Crevillente, Elche, Torrevieja, etc, 
Calles Mendez Nu&ez and Calatrava. 

ExouBSioN TO Elche. 

A visit to this town of most 
Oriental character, situated amid a 
forest of palms, should by no means be 
omitted ; indeed, it is worth a journey 
to Alicante. The distance is 4 leagues 
(12 miles) from the town, and 2 leagues 
(6 miles) from the sea. The drive is 
charming ; for though the country is 
flat and never green, there is a com- 
pensating novelty and picturesqueness 
about the ruddy soil, the clumps of 
stately palms and fig-trees that shade 
the doors and avenues to Tangerine- 
looking houses. The old diligence 
services are now superseded by the 
direct railway between Alicante and 
Murcia, whereby a long day may be 
spent at Elche — the second station 
out — at a cost of 5 pesetas, 1st class ; 
3.50c, 2d class; and 2.50c, 3d. 
For those who prefer to drive, how- 
ever, there are also small omnibuses 
and tartanas, that may be hired for a 
conventional price; time, from 2} to 



3} hours, aooordingto state of the road, 
which is not good. 

XOohe, some say,* was originally the 
ancient Ulice, but according to otiiers^ 
and with more likelihood, it was merely 
an Arab village, whose name in Arabic 
would mean tdmadixo (whirlwind, and 
also turncoat, deserter), (see ' Tesoro de 
la Lengua Castellana,' by Dr. Sebast 
de OoTarrubias, etc. It is situated 
dose to the ravine formed by the Vina- 
lap6» which runs through it, and which 
called into existence tMs charming 
oasis in the desert, as the Arabs used 
its waters with their usual ingenuity 
for the irrigation of the huertos and 
palms. The works to insure this iiri- 
gation to the plains around Elche are 
a panicmo (marsh), situated about 3 
miles N. of the town, and placed across 
a gorge of the Vinalap<S water ; the 
wall that shuts up this gorge is 68 ft 
3 in. high, 34 ft. thick at its base, and 
26 ft at the summit, thus forming a 
terrace of 228^ miles long, from one 
hiU to another. The town is long and 
clean, the houses whitewashed, of one 
or two storeys ; the roofs flat, with few 
openings on the streets, and most with 
a patio or open court in the interior. 
The costume of the people, their fea- 
tures and attitudes, the absence of 
females in the streets, save on holidays, 
the lofty stately palms, which, like so 
many jets of verdure, spring up above 
the roo& between the edifices, are all 
Oriental The only good inn is Posada 
Nueva del Sol, where decent beds 
and very cheap living are to be ob- 
tained, coupled with civility. The 
population is about 20,000. 

Bii^ts. — ^There is little to see in the 
town itsdf. The Church of Sta. Maria 
has a very fine portico ; the interior is 
well proportioned and not over-orna- 
mented. The tabemade is made of 
precious marbles, with an efl&gy of the 
Virgin of the Assumption, which is 

held in great veneration. It is often 
dressed in beautiful rich mantos, has 
several fine jewels, and is even a landed 
proprietor, for the finest palms are seen 
in her orchards, called ' Huertos de la 
Yirgen,' over the entrance of which is 
her crown and monogram. The pro- 
duce goes to pay for the dresses and 
candles ; and tiie priests and sextons, 
who take care of the image, have mass 
said, and celelH*ate unciones on her 
special festivals, etc. Do not omit 
ascending the belfry {companario); the 
height is not great, though the steps 
are much worn and slippery. The 
view is veiy pleasing. On the one side 
is seen, in tiie distance, the lagoon, 
or albufera of Elche, which is smaller 
than that of Valencia, but equally well 
stored with fish and game ; on the 
other are the Huertos de la Virgen and 
palm grounds, the tawny barren plains 
all round, and below the many hundred 
terraces, each a perfect picture. From 
this is also seen the Calandura, now a 
prison, once an alcazar, whose tower is 
crowned by two bronze figures larger*^ 
than life, representing a man and a 
child, which, by hidden combinations 
with the clock, are made to strike the 
hours and the quarters. 

Palm Trees. — Now proceed to visit 
the gardens close by ; the date-tree 
{Phomix dadylifera, Linn.) is called 
here palmera^ and the fruit ddtU, To 
prosper, they require this sandy soil, 
well watered, and the warm genial 
atmosphere ; they grow very well, too, 
near the sea, provided it be about the 
same latitude, and are an importation 
probably from that portion of Barbary 
where they abound most, and which is 
therefore called Biledulgerid. In Hol- 
land's * Plinie,' b. xiii c. 4, it is said 
'Date-trees love a light and sandie 
ground, and specially (for the most 
part) if it stand much upon a veine of 
nitre besides.* The Arabs sow the 



kernel about the end of Marcli, but 
they and the Spaniards prefer multi- 
plying them from the shoots taken 
from the roots, or just under the leaves; 
they are sheltered from the sun, and 
watered often until they have taken 
root. This mode has the great advan- 
tage of obtaining female plants (which 
are the only ones that yield fruit), as a 
few males are sufficient to fecundate a 
whole forest. When, about April and 
May, the male flowers are blooming, 
the labourers cut these off, and shake 
the dust (pollen or farina) over the 
females, wMch are thus impregnated. 
This artificial fecundation, which is now 
being experimented upon in France, to 
extend it to com, etc., is not a new 
discovery, and Theophrastus mentions 
it in his 'History of Plants,' while 
PUny leaves little or no doubt about 
it. This would show that the ancients 
were cognisant of the existence of sexes 
in plants long before Linnseus and 

The best dates are the yellowish- 
ooloured ones. They ripen about No- 
vember, when they hang in rich golden 
clusters all round the summit. It is 
curious to watch the dexterous hor- 
telanos (gardeners), when they gather 
the fruit, reaching the top of the 
branchless trunk by means of a rope, 
which they pass loosely round their 
waists and the trunk, resting on it all 
their body in a horizontal position, 
while their bare feet, pressing the 
tree, tighten the rope, and thus leave 
their hands free. The produce is abun- 
dant, averaging 4 to 8 arrobas yearly 
(though some exceed 15 and 20), which 
are sold from 8r. to 40r. each. The 
trunk is often used for light timber, 
and is very hard, firm, and almost incor- 
ruptible. There is scarcely a part of 

the tree that has not some use, although 
the Arabs derive greater utility from 
them than the Splouards. The male 
leaves or palms on the summit are tied 
together from April to June, and 
blanched, as gardeners say; that is, 
by this continued compression, they 
lose, so to speak, the circulation of 
their sap and become whitish. They 
are then cut, and sold separately on 
Palm Sunday — some twisted into 
shapes of crowns, with ribbons, etc — 
and when blessed by the priest are 
hung up at the balconies and over the 
doors, and taken about on Palm Sun- 
day processions. 

Pilgrims, formerly, as is known, were 
holy travellerSf who visited one parti- 
cular shrine and then returned home, 
but the pcUmer made it his sole pro- 
fesdon to visit several shrines, and 
lived on charity ; and as Jerusalem was 
one of them, they used, once there, to 
make a palm staff and go with it thence 
about the world. 

The defective palm-leaves are sent to 
cigar manufactories to be converted into 
cigarettes — often mistaken, together 
with the maize leaf, for the genuine 
Guatemala pajillas. The annual crop 
averages — Palm-leaves sold on Palm 
Sunday, £2000 ; dates, £14,000. This 
old Catholic custom is tending to wearoff. 
Visit the palm-plantation of one of the 
most intelligent palm-growers at Elche, 
whose name is almost as long as the 
highest of his trees — Don €kspar Bo- 
teUa de Pomares. He has the best 
nursery here, and sells them, wh6n of 
8 to 6 years old, for about lOr. to 12r. 
each, journey to Alicuite included, 
whence they can be sent to Marseilles 
by Lopez's steamers for a trifle. Cotton 
is grown here, but in small and insigni- 
cant quantity. 



Province of Ovudad BeaL Diocese 
of Toledo-'l^l inhab. 

Boutes, Conv. — 1. From Madrid, 
by the Madrid and Badajoz line ; two 
trains a day. Book throughout ; time, 
about 12 hours. Fares, 1st cL, Pes. 
30.85 ; 2dcl.,Pes. 23.15; 3dcL, Pes. 15.45. 
A slow and uncomfortable journey, 
passing by Toledo and Oiudad ReaL 

2. From Valencia, Alicante and 
Murcia, vid Alcdzar, Manzanares and 
Ciudad Real ; two trains per day. A 
cross-country and slow journey, but 
may be taken en rotUe for Lisbon. 

8. From CiSrdoba, by rail through 
Almorchon, one train per day in about 
9 hrs. ; or riding— roads not very good, 
and accommodation by the way bad. 

RomU: Cordova to AlmadoH, ridingt 
x8 UagueSf 3 doj^s. 

Cordova to Villarta . 
Villanueva del Duque 
Viso de los Pedroches 
Santa Eufemia 

. 6 


The ride is over a wild country, in- 
teresting alike to botanist and miner- 
alogist Sleep 1st night at Villarta; 
2d night sleep at Viso de los Pedroches. 
The first day's ride is through the 
sierras and pine-forests. At Viso there 
is abundant mica-slate, followed by 
granite. There is a bridle-road from 
Almaden to Seville, by Fuente de Can- 
tos, Aracena, and Rio Tinto ; distance 
about 50 leagues. 

Inn.— The Fonda de Leopoldo (in- 
different). Get, before you leave for 
Almaden, letters of introduction to the 
superintendents of the mines, and lodge 
in some private house. The village 
is perfectly uninteresting ; a good hos- 

pital and several achools, mining and 

QoioksilTer Mines. — The quicksil- 
ver mines of Almaden are considered 
to be the oldest known in Europe, as 
affording most curious matter of in- 
formation to science, and, what is 
more, as the richest in the world. 
They are deemed inexhaustible^ and 
are a source of great revenue to the 
State, to which they belong. The 
principal vein or flow actually worked 
is about 25 ft deep, and is found amid 
a soil composed of rocks of quartz and 
strata of schist, virgin quicksilver being 
also found in pyrites and homstein. 
A depth of 815 metres has been 
reached. The ore yields, on an aver- 
age, 10 per cent quicksilver. The 
total produce in 1887 was 44,000 
frascoes (about 1,500,000 kilos), ex- 
ceeding by 80 per cent the produce 
of the great Galifomian mines. The 
quicksilver is nearly all consigned to 
Messrs. Rothschild in London. The 
mines employ about 3500 hands. The 
work goes on night and day. The 
arched stone galleries and the wells 
called tomos are well deserving of close 
attention ; the machinery is not worthy 
of the rest 

Books of Reference, — 1. Minas de 
Almaden,' by Casimo de Prado; Ma- 
drid, 1846. 

2. Plans and Maps of the Filones 
(veins) of Almaden, in Hoppensack's 
* Ueber den Berghau in Spanien. ' 1796. 

8. * Details G^olog. sur Almaden, 
par Ezquerra del Bayo,' Bull of French 
GeoL Soc, vol x. p. 107 (1889). 

4. 'Sobre las Minas de Almaden,' 
by Rafael Oabonillas in 'Anales de 
Minas,' voL 11858. 

5. 'Diccionario,* etc. by Pascual 
Madoz, etc., vol. ii. p. 21. 



Capital of proyince of same name. 
PopTilation 45,030. 

Boute8,ConT. — 1. From Granada by 
Guadiz ; distance, 25i leagues. There 
is a small diligence called a gondola, 
which holds eight people, and performs 
that jonmey in 8 days, stopping at 
Guadiz for the first night, and at Y enta 
de Delia Maria. For the road to Guadiz, 
see Murcia, The road is very bad, 
especially in winter, when it is often 
impracticable ; it is also uninteresting, 
though the villages have all soft, roman- 
tic names of Moorish origin, such as 
Alboladuz,* AlcubillaSy Gador, Benaha- 
duz. For those who prefer riding we 
subjoin another itinerary. 

Granada to Almeriay riding', distance ^ 35)- 

leagues^ 3 days^ or a 



To Farguc 


Huetor de Santillan 


Cruz del Puerto 




. li 

VentadelRio. . 


Guadix . . . 



Ventorillo del BarranquiU 

. 3 

OcaBa .... 





Gador .... 




Almeria .... 



2. From Murcia. Unless proceeding 
to Guadiz to wait for and go by the 
above No. 1 gondola, we know of no 
direct service ; if riding, stop at Baza, 
and go direct across to join the No. 1 
road. 8. From Alicante and Cartagena, 
Cadiz, and Gibraltar, there are occa- 
sional steamers that touch at Almeria ; 
they are advertised in local papers, and 
may be averaged about once a fortnight : 

time by steamer from Cartagena, 12 
hrs ; from Malaga, about the same. 

Inns.^- Grand Hotel Tortosa, Paseo 
del Principe ; fair and reasonable ; 
Vapor ; Mfdaqueiia, inferior. 

General Description. — Almeria, the 
Al-Maiiyat of the Arabs, is situated on 
the sea-shore and in a valley formed 
by two hiUs crowned by a castle and an 
alcazaba ; it is surrounded by high walls 
of moat picturesque appearance that 
eztend from the sea to the hill ; then 
follow the undulating ground, and from 
the valley ascend to the other hill and 
back to the city. These walls, with 
their cubes or towers, are an ezcellent 
specimen of mediaeval and Moorish mili- 
tary architecture and engineering ; the 
forts still subsist, though the Al-Kazaba 
is in ruins, and the Torreon delffoTnenaje, 
that overloc^ yawning precipices, has 
better escaped the unrelenting hatred of 
the rival Goth and of time, and was even 
repaired in the 15th century. Its two 
Gothic facades are decorated with the 
escutcheons of the Catholic kings, and 
it contains several low and sombre haUs 
and corridors with miradores. 

The iHX>vince of Almeria is not very 
prosperous, and yet the soil is rich, and 
yields plentiful crops of maize and com. 
At Adra the sugar-cane abounds ; at 
Albanchez and Rioja ezcellent oranges 
and lemons are produced, and many 
varieties of American fruits grow almost 
spontaneously in the plains around Al- 
meria itself. Several very rich mines 
are found in the different sierras which 
intersect it in every direction. In that 
of Gata, £. of Ahneria, jaspers, agates, 
basaltic banks. In Sierra Nevada, W. 
of the province, are the celebrated quar- 
ries of Macael marble. In Sierra Ca- 
breramay be found antimony, malachite, 
gypsum, magnetic iron, etc. The Sierra 



Almagrera, K of province, teems with 

The climate is proverbially mild, and 
winter is not known, except in the ridge 
of hills to N., where snow often £eJ1s, 
and the cold is strongly felt 

The harbour ia fine and safe, vessels 
of heavy tonnage being able to load 
alongside the mole, which is being 
rapidly extended. There are several 
projected lines of railway, but none in 
prospect of completion. The chief 
exports consist of grapes (about 800,000 
barrels), esparto (10,000 tons), refined 
lead (2000 tons), calamine (300 tons), iron 
ore (8000 tons), and sulphur (2000 tons). 

There is little here to interest the 
ordinary tourist. The chief sight is 

The CathedraL — This e<fifice, of 
about the end of the 15th century, par- 
takes of the character of the fortifica- 
tions ; four massive and once formidably 
built and armed towers are placed at 
its angles ; the apse has the shape of a 
polygon, and its walls are crowned with 
battlements. In 1517 the warlike chap- 
ter rebuilt the military works, if they 
may be so called, of the cathedral, 
spending 20,000 marvedis upon them ; 
and when, on September 22, 1522, an 
earthquake had battered the whole edi- 
fice, they lost no time, and spared neither 
money nor workmen, in repairing their 
walls. The principal fa9ade is placed 
between two buttresses or pilasters, 
that bear on their basements alto-relievo 
angels of indifferent execution, with 
capitals composed of mascarons and 
jarros. Between them nms a gallery 
with arabesque open work ; the portal 
is effective and of quadrangular shape, 
much and ill ornamented ; the second 

or upper stage is ornamented with an 
imperial escutcheon, the statues of St. 
Peter and St. Paul, and a Virgin in a 
niche. The interior belongs to the 
period of Gothic Decline, the capitals of 
the pillars being almost Corinthian in 
style. In a chapel situated in the apse 
is a rich marble tomb of a great bene- 
factOT of this church, called Fray Diego 
de Yillola. It is on the whole of meagre 
appearance. The stalls are the work of 
Juan de Orca, and the date 1668-60 ; 
they are elaborately sculptured, but 
witiout much skill or taste. This 
church has no definite style, but is rather 
a medley of several 

The other churches, San Domingo 
and San Pedro, are uninteresting. 

The Barrio de los Huertos is the most 

The promenade on the muelle or jetty 
is pleasant, t«id the view from it of the 
port and bay picturesque. 


Brit, FicS' Consul, — Ph. Barron, Esq. 

U,S,A. Consular AgerU.—B., F. 
Fischer, Esq. 

Post OJice,—TlaLZ& de la Glorieta. 

Telegraph Office, — Plaza de San Se- 

Cafis, — ElSuizo; Universal ;Cervece- 
ria Inglesa; all on the Paseo del Principe. 

Casino and Ateneo^ with foreign 
papers. Visitors admitted upon mem- 
ber's introduction. 

Theatres, — El Prmdpal; Novedades, 
Paseo del Principe ; ApolOf Calle Cal- 
deron ; Calderonf Calle san Pedro. 

For details of the mining industries 
of the province, see the 'Boletin 
Oficial de Minas.' 



The kingdom of Andolasia, the espe- 
cially fayoored land, La Tierra di 
Maria Santinma, is now divided into 
eight provinces, viz. — 



Sevilla . 




Malaga . 


Jaen . . 






Cadiz . 


Huelva . 


Total . . 8,268,171 
All these provinces are under the judi- 
cial jurisdiction of the Audiendas of 
Seville and Granada, and ecclesiastically 
under the sufiragans of Seville and 

They constitute a capitania general, 
whose centre is Seville, and which is 
subdivided into as many comandancias 
generales as there are civil gobiemos 
or provinces. 

Climate. — This is varied. Granada 
and Ronda are, from their altitude and 
proximity to the snow-capped moun- 
tains, well suited for the summer 
months, whilst the genial temperature 
of Malaga, Seville, Cordova, etc., makes 
them the fittest residences for winter. 
On the whole, the climate much re- 
sembles that of the N. and portions of 
the W. coasts of AMca, from which 
South Andalusia was probably severed 
at Gibraltar by some great geological 
convulsion. Suffice it to state that the 
palm, the sugar-cane, orange, citron, 
are among the commonest plants ; that 
com and barley are reaped when they 
are just about to flower elsewhere, and 
these examples, with many others, will 
convince our readers, if they are not 
already aware of the fact, that in climate 
Andalusia has been most especially 
favoured by Providence. 

The cities are all of very great interest 
to artist, painter, ecdesiologist, and 
antiquary, for aU this country is still 
full of the most glorious monuments of 

taste, grandeur, and engineering skill 
which the Moors erected during their 
sway of seven centuries. Seville and its 
alcazar, cathedral, and giralda ; Granada 
and the Alhambra-; Ck>rdova and its 
wonderful mosque, cannot fail to attract 
close attention and untiring admiration. 
As for the picturesque, Ronda and 
Alhama, Sierra Nevada, the Alpujarras, 
etQ., will suffice. 

The people themselvesarenottheleast 
interesting feature in Andalusia ; they 
are the Irish, the Gascons, the Athenians 
of Spain ; with them all is gay, light, 
wit, love, dolcefarniente ; lifeis pleasure, 
the bull-fight, pelar la pa/oa, puff the ci- 
garrito. Go therefore to study this type 
where it isfoundin all itsimsophlsticated 
raciness. Repair to the fairs which are 
annually held at Mairena and Ronda, 
where you will see the majeza in all its 
glory, and scenes will presentthemselves 
worthy of antique vases and bassi-relievi 
— ^the song in the cort^o, the dance on 
the hera, and many others. They have, 
withal, their dark sides of character — 
exaggeration, superstition, insurmount- 
able laziness, and middling courage 
when massed together ; but &eir gene- 
rosity, veiging on ostentation, and their 
gentlemanly manners, are remarkable. 
However low in station, the Andaluz 
may be 'canaille,' but he cannot be 
vulgar ; for that is never to be found 
where l^ere is a blue heaven, a bright 
glowing sun, no starving, and a guitar. 
The beauty of the women is proverbial. 
In a word — 

La terra moUe e lieta, e dilettosa, 
Simili a se gli abitator jMtxluce. 

The excellent methods of irrigation 
and agriculture introduced by the Arabs 
have been neglected, and here are seen 
despoblados or wastes, some of 2 or 3 
leagues in extent, where not a house. 



not a beast or tree, save the lentisk and 
palmito, are to be seen. The principal 
rivers are the Guadalquivir (the Bstis 
Olivifera of Martial), which has for tri- 
bntaries the Sanlucar, Biar, Hnelva, 
and the Genii ; the Gnadaira, which 
the summer heat dries up every year ; 
the Gaudalete, which flows through the 
Sierra de Ronda into the Bay of Cadiz 
in an almost parallel direction to the 
Guadalquivir, which rises in the Sierra 
Nevada, and whose course is of about 
400 miles. The mountains are — ^the 
Sierra Nevada, Sierra Morena (the 
Montes Mariani of the ancients), and 
their ramifications. The mineral wealth 
of these provinces is very great, and 
Tarshish was the Eldorado to which 
Solomon used to send his ships for gold 
and silver. It was called also Turde- 
tania before the Carthaginians founded 
colonies on all its shores on the Medi- 
terranean. Tartessus is indifferently 
applied to Cadiz or Gadir (Avienus), to 
sev^al other cities, and even to the 
Betis of Strabo (p. U8). The Tarshish 
of Scripture was, according to Betham, 
Bochart, Florez, and others, applied to 
all the S.W. region from l^e Guadal- 
quivir to the Straits. The Romans 
drove away the Carthaginians, and it 
became a senatorial province after the 
capture of Seville by Julius C»sar (43 
B.O.) Under the Romans, the cities of 
Eqja, Seville, Cordova, Cadiz, Italica, 
etc., rose to great importance. At the 
downfall of the Roman Empire, the 
Vandals, on their way to AMca, sacked 
the cities and burned the crops. B»tica 
then took the name of Yandalusia, 
which was preserved by the Arabs when 
they, in their turn, invaded it ; though 
some authors derive the name ' Belad-al- 
Andalosh,' from the 'Land of the West.' 
It then became an empire called the Eali- 
fate of Cordova. At the downfall of the 
Ummeyah dynasty, Andalusia was di- 
vided into the kingdoms of Granada, 
Jaen, Seville, and Cordova, of which the 

first was the last to fall into the hands 
of the Catholic kings, who added these 
kingdoms to that of Castile. 

Travelling is easy now. We suggest 
the following routes : — 

jst Tour, coming from Madrid— 'Sprit^^ or 

Jerez . 


aen ^ . 




Jerez . 




Jaen . 




R. adayi. 




St., riding 







%d Tour ^ from Gibraltar avoiding the ride. 

St. X day to visit it. 

5^*' ■ V " 

R., 3 days „ 

R. a days „ 

R. I day „ 

S- ' ." 

D. 5 days „ 

R., X day 


This portion of Spain may thus be 
easily visited, and at the seaports and 
Seville the constant flow of English 
visitors has introduced comforts. The 
fmeti Moorish mowummts are at — ^Ist, 
Granada; 2d, Cordova; Sd, Seville. 
Ths fiMSt chv/rches are at — 1st, 
Seville ; 2d, Granada ; 8d, Jaen ; 4th, 
Malaga. The most pid/wresqus scenery 
at — 1st, road between Gibraltar and 
Ronda ; 2d, road between Malaga and 
Granada, by AlhaI^a, and also by Loja, 
Lanjaron, the Bay of Cadiz, Motril, 
and Gibraltar. With respect to mines, 
forests, and agriculture, we must draw 
attention to the copper-mines of Rio 
Tinto, the quicksilver at Almaden, 
phosphate of lime at Logrosan, lead at 
Linares^ marbles of Macael and Pur- 
chena, lead at Adra, iron at Marbella ; 
the forests of Segura, the sugar-cane 
plantations of General Concha between 
Marbella and Gibraltar, the vines of 
Jerez, the raisin-making at Malaga, the 
Salinas of Cadiz. The dress is most 
picturesque, but too well known to ne»^ 
I description. 




This former Beino (kingdom) has been 
divided into the three proyinces of 
Zaragoza, Huesca, and Teruel, which 
sum up a population of 880,643 inhabit- 
ants. Its nucleus was the former king- 
dom of Sobrarbe (Sobre-Arbe), which, 
situated in the heart of the Spanish 
Pyrenees, occupied a space of 12 leagues 
long by 10 wide. To this and to the 
mountains of Asturias the yanquished 
Goths fled for refuge. Here in time 
several petty states arose, the prize of a 
bold chieftain ; and in the 11th century 
Sancho II., whose sway now extended 
over Aragon, which had grown out and 
around Sobrarbe and Navarra, gave these 
separately to his sons, one of whom, 
Ramiro, thus became the first king. It 
was in the 12th century annexed by mar- 
riage to Catalonia, and was governed by 
its counts until 1469, when the mar- 
riage took place of its king, Ferdinand 
the Catholic, with Isabella of Castile. 
The Aragonese have been remarkable in 
history for their love of independence 
and public liberty, and a law in the 
fueros of Sobrarbe was to the effect that 
' whenever the king should infringe the 
fueros, any other might be elected in his 
stead, even should he be a Pagan. ' The 
authority of the king was limited by 
that of the justida, or high magistrate 
named by the people to watch over 
their liberties, and who was the link 
between the king and the popular 

Aragon is a most fertile country, 
though sadly depopulated. Rivers in- 
tersect it in all directions, and there are 
plains of considerable beauty around 
several large towns. Com, barley, the 
olive, and the vine, are much and very 
Successfully cultivated. The woollens 
of Venasque and Albarracin are good, 

and the silkworm has of late been very 
successfully introduced. The mineral 
riches are not very important The 
principal mining districts are : — 

Teruel — sulphur. 

Torres, Remolinos — salt 

Grustau, Graus— coals. 

Jaca, Canfranc, Hecho— marbles. 

Alcaniz — alum. 

Cetrillas, Daroca— jet 

Almoaja, Torres, Nogucra— copper. 

Calcena, Venasque, Bielsa — silver. 

Zoma, Venasque, Salient — ^lead. 

The Aragonese are a cold,, serious, 
obstinate, daring race. There is little 
or no industry, lett^*s and arts are nei- 
ther studied nor practised ; they are 
solely agriculturists, soldiers, sports- 
men, smugglers, and guerrilleros^wr ex- 
ceUence. The Spanish Pyrenees are to 
the traveller one of the many hidden 
treasures in Spain, for they have seldom 
been trodden save by the smuggler, 
the flying Carlist, and the buck or 
izard. The scenery is very grand, the 
plants met with of great variety, and 
some species little known. There is 
good sport and angling ; the bear, the 
wolf, and the cabra montesa or izard 
(ibex), abound. Trout and salmon 
thrive unmolested, and there is here a 
virgin land aHkd for geologists, alpen- 
stocks, and artists. The best season to 
visit the Spamsh Pyrenees is summer 
and spring. The latter must be avoided 
by mountaineers, on accoimt of the 

The principal rivers are the Jiloca, 
Jalon, Cinca, Gillega. The cities in 
Aragon have no very great interest for 
the artist, (uid Ara^n has produced 
but very few, and mostly indifferent, 
architects, sculptors, and painters. The 
finest churches are at Zaragoza and 
Huesca; the cities are poor in monu* 



ments, and those of little importance. 
Zaragoza nerertheleaB has a great ea^d 
of the 16th and 17th centuries. We 
shall advise the general tourist to limit 
his vidt to Zaragoea, and, maybe, Hn- 
esca ; the ecdesiologiBt can extend his 
investigations to Jaca, Teniel, Daroca, 
Barbastro. The railroad crosses the 
most interesting portion of Aragon; the 
carreteras, or high roads, are very ill 
kept; the monntain-passes, often im- 
practicable, requiring a guide ; and ac- 
commodations limited to hovels and 
miserable possadas (inns). For routes 
across the Pyrenees and mountain- 
passes, heights, etc, see Zaragoza and 
Barcelona, and Jaca, Yenasqae, Can- 
franc, Barbastro, Huesca, etc. 

The Pyrenean range in its largest 
extent stretches from Cape Creux on 
the Mediterranean to Cape Finisterre 
on the GaHcian coast, a distance of 
about 650 miles, comprising the Astu- 
nan portions, as well as isthmian part 
of the chain, which latter forms the 
mountain -wall dividing Spain from 
France ; the mean altitude of this is 
6000 ft, the maximum height is at- 
tained almost midway where the Pic 
de N^thou rises 11,168 ft. above the 
sea. Between this and the Pic du 
Midi d'Ossau, 70 m. "W., are the high- 
est peaks of the chain, many of them 
above 10,000 ft, and four or five little 
inferior to Pic de N^thou. From a 
comparative survey of the chain on the 
Spanish and French sides, it will be 
seen that while four-fifths of the waters 
that rise on the French side have their 
outpouring in the Atlantic Ocean, as 
tributaries of the Adour and Qaronne, 
all the streams on the Spanish side are 
received by the Ebro and flow into the 
Mediterranean. The highest' moun- 
tains on the Spanish frontier are Monte 
Perdido (Mont Perdu), 10,994 ft ; the 
granite peaks of Posets, 11,046 ft ; 
and K^thou, 11,168 ft. From th^ 

higher mountains spurs are thrown out 
on eitho* side 20 or 80 m. towards the 
plain. There are but five carriage- 
roads across the chain, all lying to the 
extreme K or W. The gaps (puertos), 
with their French equivalents, eo^ 
briehe, howrque, etc, in the main wall 
between the two countries are generally 
higher than the ordinary Alpine passes, 
and present exceedingly wild andgrand 
scenery; the cirques or orleSf large 
natural rocky ba^ns, have a peculiar 
beauty not to be found in the Alps ; 
but on the Spanish side, being destitute 
of snow, by reason of the steeper de* 
clivity on this side, they do not present 
the same aspect with those on the 
French side. The scenery, on the 
whole, together with the dress of the 
peasants, the style of houses and 
churches, the botany, etc., tend to 
establish a curious but real contrast 
between the two sides. There is better 
sport iu the Spanish Pyrenees ; and the 
mineral-springs, of which Panticosa is 
the most celebrated, are perhaps supe- 
rior to those issuing on the French side; 
but the want of communications, the 
wretched accommodationat the Stdblisse' 
merUSj and absence of the most ordinary 
comforts, are all so many drawbacks to 
a journey through the Spanish Pyre- 
nees. We have at ' Barcelona ' enu- 
merated the most important routes 
from the French Pyrenees on that side 
into Catalufia, and describe at Zara- 
goza those which comprise the main 
routes leading to Aragon and Navarre ; 
the former therefore treating of the £., 
andthelatterof the W. range. The ex- 
cursions do not usually exceed four days. 
The best and safiest guides to con- 
sult, and firom which, besides personal 
experience, we have derived the above 
information, are-*Dr. Lambron's excel- 
lent and detailed work on the ' Pyre- 
nees oi Luchon ' ; the portable, concise, 
and most practical * Guide to the Pjm*- 


nees,' which was written especially for 
the use of mountaineers by Chas. Packe, 
Esq., with maps, etc. ; Joanne's 'Itin^- 
raire Descriptif et Hist, des Pyr^n^ ;* 
'Souvenirs d*un Montagnard' (1868-88), 
by Count Henry Russell, Pau, 1888. 

Dreaa or Costvme of the Aragoneae, 
— It is not unlike the Yalencian, and 
differs from any other in Spain. The 
men wear knee-breeches, generally of 
the common cotton yelvet called pana, 
ornamented about the pockets and ex- 
tremities with filigree buttons and old 
medios reales in silyer, blue woollen 
stockings and sandals. The upper 
man is clad in a black velvet waistcoat, 
which is a substitute for a coat or 
jacket, decorated also with filigree but- 
tons, and very short, so as to show the 
wide silk or cotton red or vtvid blue 
faja, which is a whole sac de voyage, 
containing and concealing cigars, na- 
vajas, money, etc. The slouched hat 
is not often worn, and a coloured ker- 
chief is fastened like a band or diadem 
round their foreheads, leaving the upper 
portion alfresco ; the mantas in which 
they are most gracefully draped are of 

various colours, white streaked with 
blue and black being much worn. The 
women's dress is not nearly so pictur- 
esque nor complicated ; it is very like 
that of the Catalonian women. Ob- 
serve their antique ear-rings, crosses, 
rosaries, etc. 

Books of Beference, — 1. * Anales de 
la Corona de Aragon,' by Ger. Zurita, 
Chronista del Keino, Zaragoza, Bermoz, 
1562, foL Two other editions of 1610 
and 1669-70, found in several public 
libraries. It is the most important 
work ever written on Aragon, fidl of 
erudition, free from bombast, excelling 
in the selection of the most trustworthy 

2. Argensola's excellent sequel to 
Zurita's 'Anales, Zaragoza, Lanaja,' 
1630, foL The author is a standard 
classical Spanish historian. The in- 
formation is reliable. 

3. ' Historia de la Economia Politica 
de Aragon,' by Asso del Rio, Zaragoza, 
Magallon, 1798. Contains curious and 
accurate information respecting the 
ancient legislation, wealth, etc., of this 


Prov. of ifflK^rui— Population, 8000. 

Boutes. — From Madrid by rail ; 
time, 1^ hr. by mail train, and 2 hrs. 
by ordinary train. It is on the line 
from Madrid to Alicante and Valencia ; 
distance, 30^ m. ; fares, 1st cl., Pes. 
6.66 ; 2d, Pes. 4.40 ; 8d, Pes. 2.70. Six 
trains a day, and one or two more dur- 
ing the Jornada (the season when the 
Court resides there). From Toledo, 
distance, 42 kil. ; fares, 1st cl.. Pes. 
4.35 ; 2d, Pes. 3.36 ; 3d, Pes. 1.95 ; 
awkward delays at Castillejo. From 
Alicante and Valencia, dist. 407 kil., 
and 444 kiL 

Hotels, Houses. — At station, a mid- 
dling buffet; Fonda (Hotel) de las 
cuatro Nadones, formerly de la Begima, 
kept by this well-known, good-hu- 
moured, and extortionate hostess. The 
situation is not good, as to reach the 
gardens the square is to be crossed, 
which is no joke when the thermometer 
is 80** Fahr. Rooms decent ; cooking 
pretty good ; private caHrinets, Fonda 
de EmJbajadores, kept by Suarez, a con- 
cierge at the Palace of Aranjuez, situ- 
ated in a street, but very close to gar- 
dens ; clean and cool in summer ; 
fire-places in winter ; a restaurant ; 
civil people ; charges moderate. Fonda 



do los Milaneses eontdgaons ; view on 
the gardens. There are houses to let 
daring the season. 

Hired Carriages, — Calces, very 
good, with two horses ; a stand close to 
tiie latter Fonda ; fares^ 16r. the first 
hr., 14r. the second, and following; 
lOr. the course, if within the village or 
from station, where there are omnibuses 
also during the summer only. 

i\M<-Cyfc«.— Open from 7 to 11.30 
A.M., and from 7 to 11 p.m. Letters 
delivered at 9 A.M. and 10 p.m., and an 
extra delivery during Queen's stay at 
12 'A. M. Letters leave at 6 A.M. and 
9.15 A.M., and an extra ditto at 8 p.m. 

Telegraph at the station. 

Oeneral Desoription. — ^The illustri- 
ous and wealthy Order of Santiago held 
several large estates situated on the 
banks of the Tagus, of which the finest 
was an aldea, called Aranzuel or Aran- 
zueje, happily placed at the confluence 
of the Tagus and Jarama. Trees were 
planted, vines and olives cultivated, 
and near the spot now occupied by the 
palace, a villa, partaking of both the 
convent and l^e castle, was erected in 
the 15th century, by the Maestro of the 
Order, Suarez de Figueroa. When the 
Maestranza was incorporated to the 
crown, it became the temporary summer 
residence of the Catholic kings, and the 
Isla was a very favourite resort of Queen 
Isabella in her promenades. Charles 
Y. improved the palace, purchased land 
and kept it up for shooting. Under 
Philip II. several additions were made 
by the architects Toledo and Herrera. 
The marshes of Ontigola were con- 
verted into a lake now pompously 
called a mar (a sea) ; and it was a 
pleasant and a regal residence as far 
back as 1575. Two consecutive fires 
destroyed the greater portion of the 
piJace, when Philip V. caused, in 1727, 
a new set of buildings to be erected in 
imitation of the Louis XIV. style, and 

the older and remaining portions be- 
came absorbed in the new works. 
One Pedro Caro was the architect of 
this Spanish Fontainebleau, which is 
as inferior to its model (though even 
this one is no gem) as La Grai^ja 
(excepting the gardens) is below Ver- 
sailles. Fernando VI. improved on it, 
and Charles III. added the two salient 
aisles at the extremities of the principal 

The village was built after an impree- 
sum de voyage of Marquis Grimaldi, who 
had just returned from his embassy to 
the Hague. It was a ludicrous idea to 
apply Ihitch architecture to a Spanish 
climate, and the effect is curious, cold, 
and unpleasant The streets are per- 
fectly straight, very wide, and treeless, 
and formed by miserable houses, all on 
the same plan, two storeys, small win- 
dows without shutters, and low roofs. 
The desertion of Aranjuez by the 
Court, in favour of La Granja, has 
deprived the place of what little life 
it used at times to possess. Several 
people have recently built villas around 
or close to the gardens, the best being 
that of Sefior Salamanca, the Spanish 
Hudson, who made the first railway 
in Spain (that of Araiyuez). The 
villas of Marshal Narvaez, Count of 
Ofiate, Marquis of Miraflores, are also 
lions of the place, but not worth the 
trouble of seeing. The only sights 
here are : — 

The Palace. — ^Apply for permit to 
the Sefior Intendente del Palacio Real, 
whose oflSce is in the long line of outer 
buildings close by the palace. But if 
the visitor is staying in one of the 
hotels, the landlord will save all trouble. 
Fee to porter who shows the palace, 
from lOr. to 20r. The principal fa9ade 
is the best, and is not wanting in good 
proportions and effect. The facade 
towards the parterre is something be- 
tween a poorhouse in Holland and a 


convent or fabrik. The situation is 
channing, as it is surrounded by regal 
avenues of stately elms and sycamores, 
at the confluence of the Tagus and 
Jarama, which form small islands here 
and there, clothed with trees, a fine cas- 
cade boiling down close under the win- 
dows. The iTtterior is very indifferent, 
and the furniture, numberless clocks 
and candelabra, belong to the stiff un- 
meaning Greco-Roman style, adopted 
by Charles IV. and Ferdinand VII. 
Tliere are a few pictures by Jord{b, as 
the Spaniards call Lucca Qiordano, 
alias Lucca Fa Presto ; a series of 
pictures representing scenes from the 
story of the Prodigal Son, Orpheus 
and Ax>ollo, Bathsheba and Judith, by 
Conrado Bayeu ; several frescoes by 
Mengs, Amiconi, and other worthies 
of the worst period of Spanish painting. 
There is, nevertheless, a fine Titian in 
the chapel, representing the Annunci- 
ation of the Virgin, wWch the master 
gave to Charles V. The Odbinete de la 
China is the most elegant boudoir that 
could be dreamed of in Belgravia ; the 
walls, doors, ceilings, are all fitted up 
with Capo di Monte porcelain, in high 
relief. This gem was placed here by 
Charles III. The colours, composition, 
and execution are wonderful ; the artist, 
Joseph GriccL It is dated 1762. There 
are two rooms in the Alhambraic style. 
In the queen's despacho there is a good 
Teniers, and her toilet-room has some 
mosquettine and large mirrors. 

Casa del Iiabrador. — A special per- 
mit to see this other palace, to be ob- 
tained as before. Hsr A silver key opens 
all these gates and doors. This farm- 
house, as the name implies, is an 
affected modesty, for it is nothing but a 
palace, and, though small, is better frir- 
nished than the larger one ; but, unlike 
the Esoorial Cell, which is a suite of 
stately rooms, this Cottage is a series of 
boudoirs— a Petit Trianon, built by 

Charles III., and worthy of a Pompa- 
dour. The ceilings are all painted by 
Zacarias Velasquez (not the great man), 
Lopez, an B. A., Maella^ etc The 
walls of the back staircase are painted 
with scenes and personages of the time 
of Charles I. ; the dress of the period 
and other details are the only interesting 
feature. On the top is figured a balcony, 
on which are leaning the handsome wife 
and children of the painter, Zac. Velas- 
quez. The bannister on the front stair- 
case contains £3000 value of gold, and 
the marbles over the doors, etc. , are very 
fine. The ceiling of large saloon re- 
presents the four parts of the world, by 
Maella. There are some fine Sevres 
vases, anda chair and table in malachite, 
a present of Prince Demidoff's, valued 
at about £1500. Visit the gabinete de 
plaHna, inlaid with this metal, ivory, 
and ebony; and the one next to it, 
where mirrors have been profrisely 
placed where they are least required. 
There are beautifiilly-embroidered silks 
and damasks on the walls, representing 
views in Italy and Greece, marines, etc. 
The ceilings and doors ore very low. 

Oordens. — De la Isla, — Those so 
called are situated around the larger 
palace. They were originally laid out 
under Philip II., and an idea of their 
style at that epoch may be formed from 
the picture taken of them by Velasquez, 
now in the Royal Gallery at Madrid, 
under Nos. 1109 (representing the Last 
Fountain in the Garden de la Isla), and 
1110 (representing the Avenue or Calle 
delaReina). Much was modified after- 
wards in the Lendtre style of Ver- 
sailles ; now they are in great neglect 
and weedy, the fountains mostly dry, 
the leaves unswept up, and little more 
done than the sowing of rye grass 
and the making of narrow walks and 
plots. There are some magnificent 
elms and planes, of the species Uhna 
nigra and Flatanua orientalia (Linn.) 



These trees (originally brought from 
England) were once as great rarities 
here as the-orange tree, the olire, and 
the pahn would be in a garden at Wind- 
sor or Kensington. Parterre. — ^The 
Fountain of Hercules, with the columns 
of Calpe and Abyla (Gibraltar and 
Ceuta) ; round the pedestal are sculp- 
tured the labours of the god, and above 
his statue and Anteus. The Fotmtaina 
of Bacchus, de la Alcachofa, are of in- 
different execution. Close to the sus- 
pension bridge isalarge £nglish-looking 
flour-mill, the property of Mr. Drake 
del Gastillo, Marquis of Yegamar. In 
the Gardens del Principe, where the 
Casa del Labrador is situated, the trees 
are also very fine, and make of Aran- 
juez a charming oasis in the midst of 
the dusty scorched-up desert wherein 
Madrid is placed, and to which the 
foreign residents at Madrid — ^for the 
Spaniard is no lover of trees and nta — 
escape at times to breathe in summer, 
and hear the choirs of sweet-tongued 
nightingales, a n»ra avis for Madrile&os. 
There are some fine cedars of Lebanon 
and colossal elms. Visit the Islas 
Americanas, peopled with several in- 
teresting species imported from America 
under Charles IIL The usual cockney- 
fied montoMs rusas, and suims, grot- 
toes, kiosks, fountains, labyrinths, etc., 
found in the gardens of that period of 
bad taste, abound also here. On the 
banks of the river, which flows some- 
what rapidly, are some paddocks of the 
crown, where the cream-coloured Aran- 
juez breed are reared, and also several 
camels, llamas, etc. According to the 
journal kept by Lord Auckland, am- 
bassador to Charles III., there was 
great animation here; at that time, the 
court and ministers dined between twelve 
and two o'clock, and drove to the Calle 
de la Reina at five, in landaus drawn 
by six or ten mules, and four footmen 
behind, There was much shooting. 

hunting, balls, and intrigues, and fre- 
quent exhibitions of horsemanship called 
parkas, where the princes and young 
nobleman played the most prominent 
part, in tiie presence of 10,000 or 
12,000 spectators. The horses, to the 
soimd of music, formed into various 
figures 'resembling a very complicated 

The most interestingdrives are Camino 
de las Rocas to Lago de Ontigola, eto., 
and to the Bodega or wine-cellars, 
made on a very great scale by Charles 
III. in 1788 ; they are curious for their 
size. The wine made in the environs is 
of inferior quality, which has not been 
improved by such good connoisseurs and 
landed proprietors as Sefiores Marin, 
Zayas, eto. The caballerizas (stables) 
are in the village itself, and deserve a 
visit The Arab sires are most pure, 
and the crossed breed fine. 

There is a theatre open during the 
season, which begins about April and 
ends in June, when all who can depart, 
as then the heat is very great, and the 
ague resulting from the great evapora- 
tion and stagnant waters to be dreaded, 
causing many deaths amongst the inha- 
bitants. The buU-ring is large, and 
there are occasionally very good corri- 
das. The sporting world of Madrid 
contrive now and then to get up a 
steeplechase, which is about what a 
bull-fight would be in England. 

At very rare intervals the court resides 
at this sitio real in the early sum- 
mer. There is then some animation in 
this otherwise dull and monotonous 
place ; but Araiijuez, even then, cannot 
recover ite past splendour and gaieties, 
and well may we exclaim with Schiller, 

Die schSnea Tage in Aranjuez sind nun zu 
Endc 1—D0H Carlos. 

Books of Beference. — 1. *Obras Li- 
ricas y C6micas, Divinas y Humanas,' 
ete., by Hurtado de Mendoza; Madrid, 
Zuliiga, about 1728. A verse and prose 



description of the gardens and palaces ; 
contains, moreover, one of a fiesta in the 
time of Charles II. of Spain. 

2. 'Descripcion Historica de la RL 
Casa y Bosque de Aranjuez,' hy Gnin- 
dos y Bnena; Madrid, Impta. Real, 

8. 'Descripcion de los Jardines Fu- 
entes, Estatuas Palacio, Casa del La- 

brador/ etc., by M. Aleas; Madrid, 

4. ' Guia Pintoresca Descripcion,' 
etc., by E. de K y R ; Madrid, Rnfino, 
1864. The mineral springs ( !) and flora 
of the cerros aroond Aranjuez have been 
given by Doctor Gamez in his ' Ensay o 
sobre las Agoas Medicinales de Aran- 
juez,' 1771. 


If we are to believe Silius Italicus and 
others, the Astunans descend by name 
and race from Astyr, a follower, or rather 
servant, of Memnon, and fugitive from 
Troy. Father Sota, in his * Cr6nica de 
los Principes de Asturias,' too proud to 
admit of Astyr for his low origin, con- 
verts him into Jupiter Cretensis and 
Mercury Trismegistus, etc. But the real 
origin of the name comes from the river 
Astura^ afterwards called Extula and 
Stola, and finally Ezla ; and the Astuni 
were then the different peoples that 
dwelt between the Cantabric Sea and the 
Duero, which latter separated them from 
the Vetoni, as the Ezla from the Yacci, 
etc. The most warlike amongst them 
were the Transmontane Asturii, who 
lived between the ocean and the Erba- 
sian hiUs, which to this day are called 
Arvas, and whose limits correspond ex- 
actly to those of the present principal- 
ity of Asturias. They were originally 
peopled by the Liguri of Italy (see 
Avienus), and are mentioned in Himil- 
car's * Journey round Spain. * The Celts 
expelled them and settled here, and a 
portion of them became the Asturii ; 
they were a most warlike, independent 
race, and the Romans had great trouble 
to overcome them. Augustus himself 
came in 27 B.C. with that object, and 
had to retire, dejected, out of humour 
and patience, to Tarragona, and, as is 
well known, the Cantabric war lasted 
upwards of five years, at the end of 

which time Agrippa subdued them. The 
riches of this country did not escape the 
shrewd Roman, who knew that money 
is the nerve of war. Lucan, Martial, 
S. Italicus, mention the mines that 
abounded : 

Astur avarus 
Visceribus laurae telluris mergitur imis, 
Et redit infelix effoso concolor auro. 

PUny was not ignorant of them, and 
Florus says : ' Circa se omnis aurifera, 
miniique et chrysocall» et aliorum, co- 
larum ferax. ' The Roman Treasury was 
in the yearly receipt of 20,000 libras of 
gold from Asturias. The sure-footed, 
gentle, and untiring ^o^i^, called by 
them AstwrooneSf are praised by S. 
Italicus as 

Ingentes animi, membra hand prooera de- 

Corporis exiguum ; sed turn sibi fecerat alas, 
Condtus, atque ibat campo indygnatas habenas. 

The Romanised Asturians, so to say, 
made great resistance to the Goth, and 
it was not until the 7th century that 
they submitted. When the hour of the 
downfall of the Gothic monarchy had 
sounded for all Spain, the mountains 
between the Atlantic and the Mediter- 
ranean became the refrige of those who 
had not bent before the Berber, and 
in a community of danger, the descend- 
ant of the Roman, the blue-eyed Goth, 
and the tall Iberian, aU became one and 
the same race, and were regenerated, 
and found unity and strength, by seek- 



ing in common a country and liberty. 
Pelayo, a Roman by name, but whose 
father, FaviUa, was a Goth, and of the 
blood royal, came from Toledo, where 
he commanded Witiza's body-guard, and 
roused his countrymen to fight. The 
love of Ms country moved him to it, as 
well as the outrages his sister had bden 
exposed to at the hands of Munuza. 
The Berbers sent Al-Kaman to reduce 
the independent tribes. Felayo headed 
his troops, and succeeded in drawing 
the Arabs into the recesses and danger- 
ous gorges of Covadonga, where he mas- 
sacred them by thousands — 187,000, 
according to Bishop Sebastian, and 
80,000, to the Tudense. The chief 
Pelayo was now p*oclaimed king, and 
during nineteen years endeavoured to 
consolidate a kingdom, which was 
created in a day of victory. To achieve 
his work he was not a little aided by the 
divisions amid the Arabs, their defeats 
in the south of France, and more espe- 
cially by the inaccessibility of those 
natural barriers which, moreover, led to 
no wealthy cities. The monarchy thus 
founded, and formed of scatter^ and 
different populations into one strong 
body like the bundle of arrows of La 
Fontaine's fable, was afterwards divided 
into several kingdoms, and as the con- 
quered ground became daily more exten- 
sive, was to be once more united, under 
Ferdinand and Isabella, after eight cen- 
turies of struggle with that very race 
whose first onset had united them also. 
Oviedo was the capital, after Cangas de 
Onis and Pravia had ceased to be such, 
and after becoming in turn the victim 
and head of its neighbours, Leon and 
Galicia, were absorbed in the kingdom 
of Castile, When Juan I. married his 
son Henry to Catherine, daughter of 
the Duke of Lancaster, the Cortes of 
Briviesca (1388) decreed that the Astu- 
rias would henceforth become the ap- 
panage of the heirs to the cn>wn, and 

they have ever since been styled iVtw- 
eipes de AstvHas, 

Asturias is situated on a much lower 
level than Castile, and is intersected by 
hills, which form rich Swiss-like vales, 
where pasture is abundant. The sierra 
on the S. rises like a gigantic wall, and 
is but a prolongation of the Pyrenean 
system, and impracticable save by the 
Puerto de Pajares, It closes in a line 
parallel to the sea, which forms its na- 
tural barrier on the N. It occupies a 
surface of 388 square leagues, with a 
somewhat dense population of 524,529, 
giving 341*80 per Spanish mile of 20 to 
the degree. The aspect of Asturias 
varies, but it is in general woody, with 
fruit trees, planes, the chestnut, and ash 
in the valley region. The mountainous 
districts abound in Salvator Bosarlike 
rocks and ravines, foaming torrents 
gushing from the summits into yawning 
precipices, virgin forests of oaks, the 
Quercus robur (Linn.), and beech-trees, 
and the bear and the wolf are not unfre- 
quentiy met with. In the coast-line 
the vegetation changes, and there are 
between sheltering MUs bosomed vales 
where the orange grows. 

The climate is generally damp and 
cold, on account of the icy blasts from 
the snowy hills, and the cierzo or N. 
wind which blows from its denuded 
shores. There is much fog and con- 
tinued rains, a consequence of the high 
hills, the abundance of trees, and water. 
These vapours, which in some portions 
and at certain periods hang over the 
valleys, produce an absence of chiaro 
oscuro, which deprives tiie scenery, 
otiierwise grand and varied, of anima- 
tion and relief. 

Agriculture is the principal occupa- 
tion of the people ; the ceTtteno (rye) 
grows well on the slopes of the moun- 
tains, com has been of late years much 
cultivated, especially the species called 
ccmdeal or escandaj and the Indian 



com, called here borotiOy is grown. The 
vine, which was cultivated in the middle 
ages, has been superseded by the poTna- 
racUif or apple-trees, from which toler- 
able cider is extracted. Cattle and sheep 
are the object of much attention, and 
t)i& picwas of pigs are celebrated. The 
hills and spurs of the sierras abound 
with game, wild boars, and deer, and 
the rivers with trout and salmon. The 
Ayuntamientos, or Commons, are sub- 
divided into feligresias, and these again 
into lugares (from locus). The houses 
in these country places are clean, tidy, 
and white-washed ; close to them are 
the orrios or granaries (from the Latin 
^orrei^m), which are made of wood, ajid 
rise upon pillars, so as to keep out rats 
and moisture. 

The people are a hardy, humble, 
good-hearted race, celebrated for their 
honesty and industry, and of patriarchal 
habits. In this comer of Spain, where 
railways and the press have hardly yet 
penetrated, there are treasures of noyel 
scenes, costumes, and customs in store 
for the artist ; as, for example, the ro- 
meriaSf or pilgrimages to the princi- 
pal shrines of this piously-minded 
people. There is heard the old war-cry, 
iji\j^ 1 and the dance, worthy of a bass- 
relief^ called danza prima, takes place, 
which consists of two choirs, one exclu- 
sively composed of men, who move hand 
in hand and slowly round in a drole, 
keeping time with the melancholy ro- 
mcmce which is sung by a choir of women. 
This, the nvufleira, and others not less 
poetical and antique in character are 
danced also after the caida, or fruit- 
gathering (harvest). On the long win- 
ter nights, when the snow lies so thick at 
the door that the very stars seem shiver- 
ing in the amethyst heaven, and the big 
round moon peeps ghost-like at the win- 
dow, the elders of the village or farm 
sit round the shining liar, and frighten 
t^e maidens and amuse the lads with 

legends of a truly German cast, wherein 
are mentioned the doings of the xcmas, 
or diminutive fairies that rise from 
fountains and springs at night time, 
and dry their slimy hair in the moon- 
beams ; and the evil and mischief-mak- 
ing htiestes, that appear in the woods 
anH over marshes, messengers of sorrow 
and death. The meetings in the open 
air, the oUada, or eating-oflfering at 
funerals, are likewise curious. 

The idiom is a dialect of the Romance, 
the only one possessing a distinct form 
for the neuter gender in adjectives. 
It has great analogy with the Galidan 
and Portuguese, and also with the 
Italian and Limousin. It is called 
Babh, a word not unlike the French 
bdba, and Dutch habelen, for which the 
Spanish has no equivalent save ekarla 
and gerigonza. In this dialect the j 
sounds y, and often like eh, the /is in- 
stead of h aspirate (falar for hdblar, 
far for luicer). With but few modifica- 
tions it is almost the same language in 
which Berceo, Segura, and the Arci- 
preste de Hita wrote ; the number of 
augmentatives and diminutives give to 
it great charm, strength, and tenderness. 
There are no vestiges of Bable ballads 
anterior to the 17th century, and those 
sung or found in Asturias dating before 
are in Castilian. Of the latter we may 
be allowed to give an example : it is 
the most popular ballad in Asturias, 
and in quaintness and plaintive strain 
is not unlike some Scottish ballads. 
It is sung by alternate choirs, at their 
dances, and is a Castilian romance : 

Ay un galan de esta villa, 
Ay un galan de esta casa . 
Ay &. por aqui venia. 
Ay <1 por aqui Uegaba. 
—Ay diga lo que &. queria 
Ay diga lo que €1 buscaba. 
—Ay busco la blanca niSa, 
Ay busco la niBa blanca, 
La que el cabello tejia 
La que el cabello trenzaba. 


Que time voz delgadita, 
Que dene la voz delgsula. 
— ^Ay que no la hay n'esta villa, 
Ay que no la hay n'esta casa. 
Si no era una mi prima. 
Si no era una mi hermana, 
Ay del marido pedida, 
Ay del marido velada. 
Ay la tiene all! SeviUa, 
Ay la tiene alii Granada, 
Ay bien qu'ora la castiga. 
Ay bien que la castigaba, 
Ay con varillas de oliva. 
Ay con varillas de malva. 
— ^Ay que su amigo la cita, 
Ay que su amigo I'aguarda, 
Ay el que le di<5 la cinta, 
Ay el que le did la saya, 
Al pi^ de una fuente fria, 
Al pi^ de una fuente clara, 
Que por el oro conia, 
Que por el oro manaba. 
Ya su buen amor veuia, 
Ya su buen amor Uegaba, 
Por donde ora el sol salia, 
Por donde ora el sol rayaba, 

Y celos le despedia, 

Y celos le demandaba. 

Dress of ihe Peaatmtry. — The men 
wear white felt caps enlivened by green 
trimming, and the black velvet montera 
of the GkiUegoB is seen here and there. 
The maragcUos wear a special dress, 
wide knee-breeches called zaragaeUes 
tied on the knee by red cotton garters, 
large slouched hats, long brown cloth 
gaiters polamas, leather jerkins, jubo- 
netas with a d/niuron of leather, em- 
broidered and colonred red, and a black 
long undercoat in cloth. The wealthy 
inhabitants wear almost the same cos- 
tume, but without the jerkin, and the 
doth is replaced by silk. The women 
wear a peculiar dress, very picturesque 
also, and when married, a sort of head- 
gear called ellcaramiello. 

With the exception of its principal 
towns Asturias is very backward in 
civilisation, but enormously interesting 
to the ecclesiologist, sportsman and 
lover of fine scenery. The country is 
quite Swiss-like, and we recommend it 
to enterprising pedestrians and horse- 

men, — though they must be prepared to 
rough it, as inns and post-houses are 
things unknown in the mountains of 
Asturias. But the unbought hospitality 
in the farms is very great and heartfelt. 

The season for travelling in Asturias 
is spring, summer, or not at all— except 
on the sea-coast, where autumn is not 
so much to be feared. 

Asturias abounds in very rich mines ; 
but through ignorance, bad faith, often 
neglect, and want of fands, Asturian 
mines have been neither sought for nor 
worked as they deserve. The subsoil 
of most of the extent of the province 
consists of deep beds of excellent coal, 
inferior to no other in the world save 
that from Newcastle ; the principal beds 
are at Langreo, Mieres, Santo Firme, 
Ferrofk^ etc A railroad carries the 
ore from ihe former to the quay at 
G^on, where they are embarked. The 
exportation of the Asturian ports ex- 
ceeds 70,000,000 kil. There is a rich 
copper mine at Lobiana, cobalt at Fe« 
iiameUera, tin at Salave, antimony at 
Cangas do Tineo, quicksilver at Fo de 
Cabrales, Carabia, eta 

To those coming from Madrid we 
recommend :— Begin tour at Leon, 
proceed to Oviedo, whence by Cangas 
de Tineo, Fonsagrada, Lugo, riding ; 
there take the rail to Corulla, ride round 
the extreme N.W. point by Ferrol and 
Vivero to Bivadeo, or proceed by dil. 
or riding from Corufia to Rivadeo by 
Mondoiiedo, Castropol, Avil^s, and Gi- 
jon (or back to Oviedo), Infiesto, Can- 
gas de Onis, Covadonga, Abandares 
(near is Feikamelera), S. Vicente, San- 
tillana, Santander. Tourists coming 
from France may either take the inverse 
route, or, if pressed for time, limit their 
excursion to a ride through Santillana, 
Covadonga, and Oviedo, returning either 
by one of the steamers that ply between 
Gijon and Santander, or by rail from 
Oviedo to Leon. The churches are 



among the earliest known in the Penin- 
sula^ and of very high interest to the 
ecclesiologist. The style is peculiar to 
Asturias, and portions of Galicia and 
Leon. The best examples are cited in 
our General Information, Architecture. 

The principal rivers and streams, 
aboundiug with salmon, are : at Sella, 
near Cangas de Onis ; the salmon-pools 
of Pazo de Monejo, near Abandares ; 
on the Deva river, the points called Car- 
reras, Abandones, and Arenas. There 
is excellent trout in the Cares, near 
Mier, and in the Yemesga, between 
Oviedo and Leon. 

Books of Jteference, — 1. 'Antigiie- 
dades concemientes & la Region de los 
Asturos Transmontanos,' (only to the 
10th century), by Bisco, in the 87th 
vol. ofhis'EspafiaSagrada.' The 37th, 
88th, and 89th vols, of ' EspaSia Sagrada' 
contain the most accurate, critical, and 
extensive information that exists upon 

2. 'Historia Natural y Medica del 
Principado de Asturias,' by D. Casal; 
Madrid, Martin, 1762, 4to., well spoken 
of by Sempere in his 'Ensayo de una 
BibL £spaiia de Escritores del Reinado 
de Carlos IIL,' vol. ii p. 152. 

8. ' Coleccion de Poesias Asturianas, 
Oviedo, 1889, contains the best ex- 
amples of the poets of the 17th and 
18th centuries, with a good philological 
discourse on the dialect. 

4. For the natural history of this 
region, see Bowles' 'Introduccion a la 
Histona Natural,' etc., and Casal's 

5. *Minas de Carbon de Piedra de 
Asturias,' 8vo., Madrid, with a map and 
sections, by Ezquerra del Bayo, Bauza, 
etc., 1831. 

6. 'Resefia geognostica del Princi- 
pado de Asturias,' by 6. Schultz, in the 
' Anales de Minas,' 1838, voL i 

7. 'On the Coal Deposits of the 
Asturias,* by S. Pratt, a paper pub- 
lished in t^e 'AthensBum,' 1845, p. 

8. ' Notice sur les Fossiles d^voniens 
des Asturies,' by De Vemeuil, d'Ar- 
chiac, 'Bulletins de la Soci^t^ 66o- 
logique de France,' 1845, 2d series, 
vol. ii. p. 458. 

Also Parcerisa's 'Recuerdos y Bellezas 
de Espalia ' ; the ' Monumentos Arqui- 
tect6nicos'; the publications of the 
Spanish Folk -Lore Society and the 
annual official mining statistics. 


Capital of province of same nam©^ 
9500 inhab. ; bishopric. 

Houtes and Conveyances. — 1. 
From Madrid, by rail ; distance, 50} 
miles ; time, 3} hrs. by express ; 5 hrs. 
by slow train. Fares, 1st cl. , Pes. 1 3.15 ; 
2d, Pes. 9.85. A buffet ; breakfast, 12r. ; 
dinner, 14r. — pretty good. Trains stop 
20 minutes. It is on the line from 
Bayonne to Madrid, by Burgos and 
Valladolld. It is also reached from 
Escorial by rail direct 27 J miles ; time 
about 1^ hours by express, and tourists 
may thus combine the hours so as to 
visit Avila, avoiding, if possible, to 

sleep there, though the inn is improved. 
2. Antiquaries d otUraTice who wish to 
visit the antiquities at Guisando, on the 
way to Avila, can hire horses at Esco- 
rial and perform the following tour :— : 

Route a. ' Leagues 

£scorial to San Martin deValdeiglesias a 

Guisando i 

Tiemblo i 

Berraco a 

Avila a 

Or, £scorial to Navas del Marques . 3 
Urraca si 



And 8, also from or to Segovia, by 
the Escorial, Guadarrama, San Ilde- 
fonso, 18^ leagues. Yery hard riding 
over uninteresting country. The old 
diligence service between Avila and 
Salamanca has been superseded by 
the railway route vi& Medina dd 

Desoriftion op 2d Route.— Very 
near San Martin de Yaldeiglesias is 
the Bemardine convent of that name, 
which was founded in the 12th century 
by Alfonso YIL, and whose gem, a fine 
plateresque silleria, the master-piece of 
Toledano, 1671, has been removed to 
the University of Madrid. 

One league farther is the convent of 
San Geronibio de Guisando, situated on 
A slope, amid laurels and cypresses, from 
which the view extends over the V^ 
and Villa of San Martin. Its grottoes 
and caves served as cells to the Italian 
hermits who founded with some Spanish 
brethren the Order of St Gerome. In 
a vineyard at the base of the hill are 
scattered sculptures which, from their 
apparent, though very rude, imitation 
of bulls, or rather boars, have been termed 
lo8 toraa de Guisando, Their origin and 
purpose are alike doubtful Some 
authOTities regard them as the ancient 
deities of the natives ; more likely they 
were landmarks. Eeltiberian characters 
of doubtful authenticity have been found 
upon certain of these toros ; but, almost 
illegible to old Pedro de Medina, even 
as fieir back as the 16th century, they 
are entirely so now. These toros would 
seem at one time to have been numerous 
in Central Spain, as old writers mention 
a considerable number of them. 

General Description. — (Inn: 
Fonda del Ingl^ — fair.) This city, 
which still preserves much of the Gothic 
style in its edifices, houses, and aspect, 
is one of the most backward in the world. 
Its origin, as of all other cities in Spain, 
is attributed to fftbulous heroes and 

semi-gods, and it is curious to see how 
seriously such learned men as the Bene- 
dictine Luis Ariez in his grandezas de 
AviU (* AlcaU de Hen&res,' foL 1607, 
the MS. ' Historia de Avila, ' ascribed to 
Bishop Pelayo of Oviedo, in the Biblio- 
teca Nadonal, G. 112) could lose their 
time in writing volumes to prove which 
of the forty-three Hercules of Paganism 
was king of Spain, and married an 
African princess cidled Abyla, whose 
son founded Avila. But by whomsoever 
the city was founded and peopled, 
trustworthy chronicles allow us to sup- 
pose that it was repeopled by Count 
Don Remond, by order of King Alfonso 
VI., his father-in-law. Its massive 
walls are still extant, and form a fine 
specimen of the military architecture 
and engineering of the 11th century, 
some of which are 42 ft. high and 14 ft 
thick. The gloomy aspect of this de- 
cayed city is increased by the dark 
colour of the granite employed in the 
construction. The chief sight is 

The OftChednl. which partakes of the castle, 
from its massiveness and capabilities of defence. 
(See especially the exterior of the apse, with its 
bold nuu^colatioQS, which forms actually a 
part of the city walls.) Commenced xogx, by 
one Alvar Garcia, a Navairese architect, the 
cathedral church of San Salvador was ready 
for consecration only ttxteen years afterwards'; 
bat was slowly perfected during the w^ole of 
the zath and part of the Z3th centuries. The 
interior, of rery pure Gothic and good propor- 
tions^ is somewhat marred, both in detail and 
accessories, by bad late work and restoraticMi. 
The finest portion is the exquisite double able 
round the CapiIlaMay<w. The exterior western 
fagade, with its towers, crocketed pediment and 
ball enrichmoit, is very imposing, as is also 
the facade of the north transept. Note especi- 
ally the sculpturing of the north doorway, 
representing the Coronation of the Virgin, the 
Betrayal in the Garden and the Institution 
of the Hessed Sacrament The stained glass 
throughout is very rich and good, notably that 
by Santillana*suid Valdivieso in the zsth cmtury 
Capilla del Cardinal opening out of the E. side 
of the sadly-defaced cloisters. The fine retablo 
of the high ahar is late zsth century, with three 
stages of paintings by Juan de BorgoSa, Pedro 



Bemiguete and Santos Cruz. The solitary 
figures of SS. Peter and Paul, with the four 
Evangelists and four doctors of the Church, 
which occupy the lowest stage, are full of life 
and vigorous conception. The more ambitious 
compositions above — first the Annimciation, 
Nativity, Transfiguration, Adoration of the 
Mag^ and the Presentation in the Temple, and 
then the Scotu-ging, the Agony, the Crucifixion, 
the Descent into Hades and the Resurrection — 
are not so satisfactory. The choir-stalls, l^y 
Comielis, 1536-47, are elaborately Renaissance, 
as are many other fittings of the church. Ob- 
serve carefully the tombs and monuments, 
especially that of the learned Bishop of Avila, 
Alfonso £1 Madrigal (also called ' El Tostado' 
and 'El Abulense'), ob. 1455; the exquisite 
Renaissance alabaster monument to San Se- 
gundo on the S. side of the Crossing (his tomb 
is in the hideous Churrigueresque diapel on 
the S.£. of the apse) ; the sepulchre ' de los 
imagenes ' in the San Nicolas chapel, and the 
fine X3th century monument in the San Miguel 
chapel. The Relicario should be inspected for 
the sake of Juan de Arfe's classical silver 
monstrance, and a goodly array of church 
plate. (Juan de Arfe was the best of a great 
Leonese family of artists of the name, speci- 
mens of whose work may be seen in most of 
the Spanish cathedrab.) 

The three most remarkable churches after 
the cathedral are those of San Vicente, San 
Pedro, and Santo Tomis. The first stands 
just outside the walls on the road to the station, 
and is of the finest Romanesque of the 13th 
century. It is dedicated to the three martyrs 
Vicente, Sabina and Cristeta, who, for dese- 
crating an attar of Jupiter, were executed by 
order of the Emperor Dacian at the beginning 
of the 4th century, upon the rock which may 
still be seen in the crypt below the Capilla 
Majror. Note carefully four {toints : — ^the ad- 
mirable way in which, in both interior and 
exterior treatment, the difficulties <^ a rapidly 
sloping side are overcome ; the noble west end, 
with its lofty double porch and double portal, 
all just suffidently and beautifully decorated ; 
the open cloistering carried along the outside 
of the south wall, and the zath century monu- 
ment to the three martyrs on the S. side of the 
Crosnng. The late baldachin covering this 
tomb is poor, but the ii/t—thc intense expres* 
sion— of the sculptured representadons of the 
martyrdom set forth upon the panek of the 
•hrine is beyond all praise. 

San Pedro stands in the Plaza del Mercado, 

and is similar in style to San Vicente, but of 
rougher workmanship. Santo Tomis lies half 
a mile outside of the city on the S. E. Founded 
1489 by Ferdinand and Isabella, at the insti- 
gation of the Inquisitor Torquemada, the 
monastery became a favourite residence of the 
monarchs, and the educational home of their 
only son. Prince Juan. It has lately been 
restored, and handed over to the Dominicans 
for seminarial purposes. Both church and 
cloisters are worth seeing. The former is of 
very iminressive Gothic, with clever arrange- 
ment of light and shade. Note the carved 
silleria of the choir (by Comielis), and the 
paintings of the retablo (perhaps by Fernando 
Gallegos), but especially the glorious Renais- 
sance tomb of Prince Juan, before the high 
altar, together with that of his attendants, 
Juan de Avila and Juana Velazquez, in a 
chapel on the north side of the nave. Prince 
Juan's tomb is by Domenico El Firaentino, 
and .is one of the finest pieces of Renaissance 
work in the world. 

Visit also the small Romanesque church of 
San Segundo, situated at the N.W. angle of 
the city, near the Adaja bridge, upon the spot 
where the bishop -saint is said to have cast 
down a recalcitrant Moor from the turret 
above (the effigy of the bishop, by Bemiguete, 
is noteworthy); also the churches of San 
Esteban, San Andr& and Mosen Rubf — with 
its tofvs de Guisando — and the quaint old 
houses of the Condes Polentinos, Onate and 
'Petrus Avila.' Finally, a walk through the 
Plaza del Mercado on a maricet-day^for the 
sake of its groups of country-folk in character- 
istic costume— the circuit of the city walls, and 
a visit to the Santa Casa, close by the S.W. 
gate, should on no account be omitted. The 
latter, now only a gaudily decorated convent- 
churdi, is the birthplace of the Santa Teresa 
de Jesus to whom Avila owes its greatest 
glory, and whose records and religious houses 
may here be met with more plentifully than in 
any other part of Spain. The strange life <A 
the saint is well known— -her childlike gracious- 
ness smd fervent devotion, her innumerable 
visions and exalted mysticism, her supremely 
patient work and final triumphing. The 
memorials of one who in a ceaseless fight of 
forty -seven years conquered sdf, conquered 
suffering, conquered persecution and conquered 
Time, would alone call for a vi^t to Avila, even 
if the city of itself were not a place of deep 
interest and usefullest study. 

BADAJOZ. See p. 536. 


■ > 


1.A C BI.xa-.T^v.b.-^-^T: 



Capital of proyince of same name, for- 
merly of Catala&a(see latter), residence of 
Capitania-Oeneral of Catalnfta ; bishop's 
see, suffragan of Archbishop of Tarra- 
gona.» Fop., with suburbs, 480,000. 

Boutes and Conveyanoes. — 1st, 
from Madrid, by rail ; thus — ^Madrid to 
Zaragoza, distance, 213^ m. ; fares, Ist 
cl., Pes. 39.26; 2d cl., Pes. 80.40; 
time, 18J hrs. by slow train ; lOJ by 
mail ; fast express twice a week. See 
for details of road, buffets, etc., * Madrid 
from Zaragoza.' At Zaragoza there are 
trains in connection with Barcelona ; 
see as follows for details, etc. 

Cont. from Zaragoza (line from Pam- 
plona), distance, 226 m. ; time, 12J 
hrs. by mail ; lOJ by express; fares, Ist 
cl.. Pes. 42.10; 2d cl., Pes. 81.60; 8d 
cL, Pes. 23.15. 

Buffets, — 1st at L^rida, about 6 hrs. 
from Zaragoza — good, dear; 2d, at 
Manresa, not quite so good, about 4 
hrs. from L^rida. 

Description of Boute.-~The country 
is not very interesting. The principal 
features are, great scarcity of trees, ex- 
cept some olires here and there ; scarcity 
of villages and towns on the way ; plains 
very extensive, and some hills, on slopes 
ofwhich vines are cultivated. At FWfas- 
nv^va the Gdllego is seen on the tight. 
At Zuera it is crossed on a bridge. 
TardiefiUa, reached about two hours 
after leaving Zaragoza. Branch rail 
from here to Huesca, 94 m., from whence 
dil. to Barbastro, 8 leagues, from 
which (me may return to take up R. line 
from Zaragoza to Barcelonaatthestation 
of Monzon. Huesca is an interesting 
excursion for ecclesiologists, as the ca- 
thedral is fine. To those who visit 
Huesca and Barbastro, see end of Zara* 
goza. At one hour's ride from the 
station of Sariikena is a fine Carthoniin 

convent of good style ; the pictures 
once here have been taken to Huesca 
and to SariHena, and a fine Christ to 
the village of Lanaja. Not far from it 
the country is much broken up, as if by 
convulsions, and here and there appear 
lofty masses of red earth not unlike 
some mouldering Titanic fortresses, or 
ruins of castles, worthy of the pencil 
of Salvator Rosa. Sdgua, — Branch 
line to Barbastro, 6^ miles. Monaxm, 
— Conveyances to Barbastro 8^ miles* 
The Cinca river, which passes here, 
divides Aragon from Catalulia. The 
castle, on a height, is very old ; was 
enlarged by Templars in 1148, to whom 
it was granted by Count Ramon Ber- 
enguer. The ruins on another height 
close by are ascribed to the Romans. 

lArida (see Tarragona from Zaragoza). 
Cap. of L^da. Pop. 30,000. HoteU, 
de£spafia and San Luis, fair. TheSegre 
is crossed by a fine bridge. Bdlpuig, 
about I hr. from L^rida. This was the 
solar or family mansion of the Angle- 
solas, whose castle crowns a hill. Close 
toitis thecelebrated Franciscan convent, 
now deserted and going to utter ruin. 
The exterior is indifferent. It was 
founded in the 16th century by Don 
Ramon de Cardona, Viceroy of Naples. 
The gem of it are the cloisters, which 
are formed by three galleries ; the two 
lower ones belong to the decline of 
Gothic, and the third is classical. The 
pillars of the second gallery, which 
|»resentB a somewhat strange appearance^ 
are not unlike those of the Lonja of 
Valencia, and the capitals are orna- 
mented with foliage, fruit, and figures. 
The spiral staircase leading from the 
cloister to the church is of great merit, 
from its well-combined proportions. 

In this church, and on one side of the 
altar, is a very fine mausoleum, the 



tomb of the founder. The style is 
classic. The relievi representing scenes 
from his Life in Italy, AMca, etc. ; 
genii, medallions, allegorical figures, 
and all other such ornament appropriate 
to this style appear well executed. The 
relievi will interest the artist as pre- 
senting a rich collection of the military 
costumes worn at the beginning of the 
16th century. The Virgin and child 
above are of bad effect. The sarco- 
phagus is placed within a deep recessed 
niche, the external arch of which is 
supported by caryatatides with dolorous 
countenances. The relieyo on the back 
of the niche represents a Virgin and 
dead Christ, with the Magdalen and 
angels. The tomb is of most elegant 
design. Upon a broad pedestal are two 
sirens kneeling. The basement is sculp- 
tured with finely modelled horses and 
marine monsters. On the central front 
of the urn are sculptured mythological 
subjects, fine in composition, well 
grouped, and with movement and life. 
The lying eflELgy, armed cap-k-pie, is 
holding a staff. The soldier's sword, a 
presentfrom Julius II., wassacrilegiously 
carried off by the French. Ponz, Celles, 
and other sure connoisseurs, consider 
this monument as a very fine specimen 
of architectural ornamentation. There 
is an excessive profusion of details, 
worked out to a Chinese scrupulosity 
on the helmets, escutcheons, vases, etc. ; 
the figures are natural, graceful, pleas- 
ing, and weU executed. This magnificent 
in metnoriam on stone was erected by 
the wife of Ramon de Cardona. It is 
of Carrara marble ; the sculptor, Juan 

Manresa (Buffet. Inn : Posada de 
Sol), most picturesquely situated on the 
left bank of the Cardoner; pop. 17,000. 
One of the largest manufacturing cities 
in Catalulka. Cloth, cotton weaving^ 
and distilling are the principal fabrics. 
The Col^giata is interesting, of Gothic 

architecture, with some fine painted 
glass. The Cuevade San IgnaeiOy where 
San Ignacio de Loyola, the founder of 
the Order of Jesuits, wrote his book 
and did penance, may be visited. Con- 
veyances : diL to salt mines of Cardona, 
belonging to Duke of Medinaceli ; to 
visit them obtain an order from his 
steward at Cardona. The mine is a 
mountain of salt, 500 feet high, and a 
league in circumference. Some of the 
grottoes are most effective. Tarras<i, 
pop. 12,000; manufactories of cloth, 
paper, woollens. Sabcuiell, pop. 18,000. 
One of the wealthiest and most manu- 
facturing cities in Catalulia. A good 
theatre; streets lighted with gas. A 
great number of manufactories, woollen 
and cotton spinning. Busy, eager life, 
full of enterprise and with a daily in- 
creasing trade. The sea shortly after 
appears on the left, and Barcelona is 

2d. From Bayonne : A, by Iran and 
Pamplona (see Madrid); B, by the 
valley of Baztan, Pamplona, and Zara- 
goza (no longer any public conveyance). 

3d. Prom Perpignan vift Oeroziay 
A, By BaMway (h/roughcmL The fron- 
tier lies between the stations Cerb^re 
(French) and Port Bou (Spanish). 
Distance, Barcelona, 184 miles south* 
west. Perpignan to Port Bou, 2 trains 
daily, in 1 hr. (express) ; here 40 m. 
stoppage ; buffet To Oerona, 2 hrs. 
20m. (express) ; Gerona to Barcelona, 
4 hrs. : in all about 8 hrs. The princi- 
pal city traversed is Figueras, where 
travellers change who go to Junquera. 

Perpignan. — Hotels : Bosc : Europe 
et du Midi : Grand Hotel : Nord et 
Petit Paris. Coffee-house : Cafg Fran- 
9ais. This is a chief lieu of the Pyr6- 
n^es Orientales, 28,360 inhab. It is a 
dull and backward town, with little or 
nothing to interest the tourist, save 
perhaps the Citadelle, which was ori- 
ginally begun by the kings of Aragon, 



and conaddorably strengthened by 
Charles V. The river Tit crosses the 
city. Fine church of San Juan ; this 
with the Exchange, Library, Picture 
Grallery, Maison de Yille, etc., with 
the more interesting Botanical Gardens, 
constitute the principal sights. Jtail- 
vjay to BarceUma, On leaving the city 
to the left, observe the arches of an 
aqueduct made by a king of Majorca, 
to bring the waters of the Tit to the 
royal palace. The river Oanterane is 
then crossed ; &rther on that of the 
Beart, with ruins of a castle on left 

ELNB, 8 m. (pop. 2764). A village 
with a cathedral of eleventh century, on 
an eminence above the river Tech. Han- 
nibal encamped under its walls. 

ARGBLSSSUR-MBB, 18} m. (pop. 
2833). In the midst of a fertile plain. 
The line now approaches the sea, and 
passes through a promontory by a tunnel 
610 yards long to 

COLLIOUBB, 17 m. (pop. 3409). A 
fishing- village hemmed in between cliffs. 
On the summit of the liiH behind is 
Fort St Elmo. Very good Rousillon 
wine is grown in the neighbourhood. 

POBT VBNDBB8, 18 m. (pop. 2040). 
A port with docks and quays. The 
telegraph cable to Algiers commences 
here. Sardines are caught and cured. 

BANYULSSUB'MEB, 21 m. (pop. 8609). 
Hotels: Pujol and Grand HoteL A 
fishing- village frequented in summer 
by bathers. It has an ancient church, 
St Jean d'Amont, 11th cent. The 
wine Abb6 Roux, used in the Mass, is 
grown here. The winter is mild, dry, 
and sedative, and the place is well 
suited for people out of health. Sardine 

CBBBBBBf 25^ UL French custom- 
house station. Money may be changed 
here. Buffet 

POBT'BOU, 26i m. Spanish custom- 
house station, and Madrid time — 25 
minutes behind Paris. Buffet The 
village lies in a picturesque bay be- 
low the station. 

One hour at least is lost here in ex- 
amining the luggage. Have your trunks 
plomb^f to avoid their being examined 
again, for which a fixed sum (a trifle) 
is paid. 

Resuming the journey after passing, 
among other small stations, Llansa, a 
small port, we arrive (16 nules from 
Port Bou) at 

Figneras.— Hotels: Dessaya, Fonda 
del Comercio — 18,000 inhab. A de- 
cayed old town, with no fine monu- 
ments ; the CitadeUe is the most im- 
portant one in Catalufka, and is con- 
sidered hj foreign as well as Spanish 
engineers as almost impregnable, if 
such a thing is possible in the days of 
Armstrong and Whitworth. The city 
is situated in a plain where the olive 
now grows, but where formerly rice 
was cultivated. The castle of San 
Fernando, crowning the height, was 
erected by Ferdinand VI. and enlarged 
by Charles III. It is built in the rock, 
and its shape is an irregular pentagon. 
It was the work of the military engi- 
neer Cermilio. The circumference is 
7380 feet (about) ; its length, N. to S., 
3090; breadth, E. to W., 1938. Its 
magazines and arsenals (bomb-proof), 
barracks for 20,000 men, and stables 
for 500 horses, are all wonderfully con- 
trived. The water-cisterns are inex- 
haustible. The weakest point is the 
bastion of San Roque, close to the 
principal entrance, and the imfinished 
I cahaZlero of Santa Barbara, which latter 
I leaves the fortress exposed to the 



heights of Mounts Sana, La Ferdera, 
Avinonet, and Sierra Blanoa. It is 
visited by malignant fevers yearly in 
summer md autumn. These are caused 
by stagnant ponds and marshes in the 
plains below, which might easily be 
removed. The cost of this fortress 
amounted to £286,000. Its situation 
renders it the key of the frontier. In 
1794 it was cowardly surrendered to 
the French by Andres Torres, before a 
single shot had been fired. On March 
18, 1808, this citadel was taken by 
surprise by the French under General 
Duhesme, who introduced 200 soldiers 
under a false pretext. It was recap- 
tured on April 10, 1811, by Rovira, a 
doctor in theology, also by surprise, 
and with a handful of men. In May 
of the same year it was retaken by the 
French General, Baraguay d'HiUiers, 
at the head of 4000 men. The view 
from the summit is ezt^isive. For 
permit, apply to Sefior Gobemador de 
la Pla:!a, 

A curious procession takes place at 
Figueras on the last Monday in May or 
the first in June. It is called Profas6 
de la Tramontana> a name given to the 
N, wind, which is to be compared only 
to the Biighton easterly in violence 
and continuity. This procession, which 
dates 1612, is rather a pilgrimage to 
the church of N. Sta. de Requesens, 
which is in the mountains dose by, 
and lasts three days. Bascara, on a 
hill, and dose to the river Fluvia. 
Here it was that on March 21, 1814, 
King Ferdinand YII. was restored to 
his kingdom after his captivity at 
Valen9ay, and escorted hither by 
Suchet's army. 

Oerona. 65 m. from Barcelona. — 
Capital of the province of Grerona and 
part of Cataluiia. The population 
numbers 17,149 inhabitants. InTis : 
—Fonda de Espafia; Fonda de los 
Italianos ; both indifferent. 

This town is built upon a hill, the 
slopes of which extend to the Vega, 
and form a barrio called El Marca(kL 
The 0!ia crosses it, and the three-arch 
bridge over it Is picturesque from a 
distance, as well as the wooden bal- 
conies looking upon the river, and full 
of flower-pots. It is a very old and 
quaint city, a desolate, silent place, 
without trade, manufactures, books^ or 
any monument worthy of a lengthened 
visit, if we except the very interesting 
cathedral, one of the best examples of 
Catalonian style. It is said to have 
been founded by the Bracati Celts 
about 930 B.O., and was never important 
under either Goths or Arabs. The 
ddest sons of the kings of Aragon were 
styled Marquises of Grerona ; and this 
predilection, by making this city the 
habitual residence and court of those 
princes, caused its depopulation and 
ruin by the many sieges it had to 
undergo. In 1285 it was besieged by 
the king of France, Philippe le Hardi, 
when the garrison, being starved out, 
surrendered. This fact is recorded in 
Catalan over the gate to the S. of the 
dty, called Fuerta de la CarceL The 
inscription states that the French took 
it not * per forsa, mes per fam.' 

GathedraZ of Oerona. — The ascent 
to this building is by a wide flight of 
steps, forming an imposing approach, 
worthy of a laiger and handsconer 
church. The fa9ade is a plain wall, 
with a front composed of three stages 
that belong to the pseudo-dassic style ; 
the whole most indifferent In the 
centre of the fa9ade is a circular rose^ 
window, with statues of Hope, Faith, 
and Charity. This work, with its 
niches^ statuettes, and other details, 
dates 1733. Only one of the two in- 
tended towers exists, and is heavy and 
incongruous. The primitive cathedral 
was very ancient, and the Moors con- 
verted it into a mosque. When Ludovic 



PiuA reoaptnred the city it was restored 
to its original use. It was so minous 
in the lltii century that Bishop Pedro 
Boger and his sister, the Countess 
Ermesinda, undertook to rebuild it at 
their expense, and in 1088 the new 
church was consecrated. This second 
one was pulled down also, and left no 
vestiges behind save the cloisters and 
the belfiry ; the chapter resolyed to re- 
build it at their own expense. The 
extremity of the edifice was begun in 
1316 ; the architect is supposed to haye 
been Enrique of Narbonne, whose name 
is ^und as maestro do obras in the 
'liber Kotulomm' (arehiyes of the 
eathedral of Oerona) as far back as 
1320. His successor was Jaime de 
Fayaiiis, also from Narbonne. He was 
eucceeded by Aigenter, who, it is be- 
lieved, completed this portion of the 
church in 1846. At this time the 
original plan of prdonging the three 
naves was abandoned. Several of the 
most celebrated maestros mayores of 
Spain were called to a junta, and their 
opinion asked as to the expediency of 
continuing the work with one or more 
naves ; the plan of one single nave pro- 
posed by Guillelmo Boffiz was adopted, 
and the woric completed between 1417 
and 1579. 

The style is Gothic ; the nave is 78 
ft. wide ; the arches are of an elegant 
ogival, with a rose-window of stained 
glass over each, which is novel and of 
pleasing effect The lateral naves meet 
and blend into one behind the presby- 
tery, which is surrounded by pillars in 
shape of a semicircle, and support the 
cupola. The arches are pointed ; the 
thoir is indifferent ; the "high aUar be- 
longed to the former church, dates 11th 
century, and is original as to form. 
The frontal is alabaster, but cannot be 
seen, as it is all over concealed under a 
silver chapa, except in the front, which 
is covered with gold. In the centre are 

some figures of saints, and in a niche a 
Virgin and Child. All of it is dotted 
with stones that shine like precious 
stones. There are, besides, several ol^er 
figures g£ prophets, apostles, etc. The 
retdbHo is a mass of silver gilt, and 
forms three stages divided into com- 
partments, with figures and a relievo 
representation; the lower stage has 
saints and two bishops at the sides ; 
the seccmd, scenes from the life of 
Christ ; the third, scenes from life of 
the Yiigin. The whole is crowned 
with statues, silver gilt, of the Virgin, 
St Narcissus, and St Felise. Over 
this rotable is a baldachin or dais of 
silver, which rests upon four very thin 
pillars covered with silver also. Thisfine 
rUablo is by Pedro Renes ; the balda- 
chin is of the 14th century. On the left 
of the H. Chapel, or apse, is a marble 
tomb of Bishop Berenguer, ob. 1408. 
It is Gothic, and has finely-executed 
niches and figures. Between the chapels 
of Corpus Christ! and San Juan is a fine 
Gothic tomb, of the 14th century, of 
the great benefactress of the cathecfral, 
Countess Ermesinda, who was married 
990 to Count Bamon Borrell IIL, and 
was celebrated for hw virtue, great 
beauty, and wisdom in political a&irs ; 
ob. 1057. In the chapel of San Pablo, 
which is the first to the left on entering 
by the principal door, is another fine 
sepulchre of Bishop Bemado de Pau, 
ob. 1547. There is a great profusion 
of details, rendered most minutely, 
and divided into horizontal compart- 
ments, filled with numberless figures ; 
dates 15th century. Over the door of 
the sacristy is the tomb of Count 
Ramon Berenguer II., cap de estopa, 
with his effigy upon it It is of the 
end of the 14th century. The daisUrs 
are anterior to the church, and Byzan- 
tine ; they are large with a heavy low 
roof. The capitals of the pillars are 
very elaborately carved and deserve 



very careful study. The patio is in- 
different and weedy ; the S. door, called 
de los Apoatoles, has slender pillars 
richly sculptured, and of the coarse 
execution characteristic of the Byzan- 
tine, although here and there the Gothic 
may be seen already dawning; the 
arches have the best specimen of 
sculpture in the cathedral ; the statues 
of the Apostles are inferior to the leaf 
ornamentation— date 1458. The cathe- 
dral was finished by one Pedro Costa, 
an B.A. of S. Fernando, ob. 1761, 
who also made the Orseco-Roman front 
of the edifice. The Sacristy has some 
fine church plate, and several highly 
interesting MSS., richly illuminated. 

The Golegiata de San FeliUf dating 
from the 14th century (see especially the 
southern porch), is rendered a conspicu- 
ous object by its remarkable western 
belfry tower. This is divided into three 
stages, the spire dating only from the 
16th century, but the lower portions 
being'perhaps 150 years older. In 1581 
it was struck by lightning and seriously 
damaged, but has been since repaired ; 
the fa9ade of the church is of the 18th 
century. Thegeneralandoriginaldesign 
of the church is Byzantine ; it consists 
of nave and aisles, transepts, apse and 
apsidal chapels ; the pillars are heavy 
and almost shapeless. The principal 
object of interest is the sepulchre of San 
Felice (or St Felix). It is of the 13th 
century. The relievi on it, with per- 
sonages in the Roman dress, represent 
scenes from the saint's life. There are 
two bassi- relievi, said to be Roman 
work ; one represents a lion-hunt, and 
the other * Night,' with the choir of 
Hours, and the Graces, etc., well pre- 
served, but of little merit 

See also the archaic and mterestins^ church 
of San Pedro de los Galligans (GalU Cantio) 
lying a little to the N.W. of the cathedral, and 
close by San Feliu. It is of very early Roman- 
esque, with considerable portions dating back 
certainly to the xoth century. Note especially 

the W. doorway, and the rose window above ; 
also the E. end, built partly of volcanic scoriae, 
and all the line of city wall of which the apse 
forms actually a section. In the cloisters is 
now placed the Museo Provincial, which con- 
tains some fine early sarcophagi, fragments of 
Roman and other early sculpture, and a number 
of relics of the sieges of x8o8 and 1809, when 
Gerona defended herself vainly against over- 
whelming forces of the French with deeds of 
heroism and amid scenes of horror rivalling 
those of the great siege of Zaragoza. Look 
also at the now desecrated 12th century church 
of San Daniel (so called), close to San Pedro ; 
at the old houses in the cathedral plaza and 
the Plaza de las Coles, and at the windows of 
the Fonda de EspidUu 

From Gerona, the railway to Barcelona 
branches between Sils and MartorelL 
A. One line goes to Barcelona by the 
sea-coast, crossing Arenys and Matar6, 
and is called Linea de MatanS and del 
litoral ; distance, 65 m. ; time about 8 
hrs. to 34 hrs. ; three trains a-day ; fares, 
1st cL, 40r. ; 2d cL, 32r. ; 8d cL, 22r. It 
is the pleasanter of the two, as it fol- 
lows the charming Mediterranean coast; 
the cool sea-breeze tempering the heat 
in summer, and the many white lateen 
sails and steamers gladdening the eye. 

Aren/ys de Mar, pronounced Arens in 
Catalan (i.e, sea-sand), is a small and 
pretty town of some 5000 inhab., 
situated on the Mediteiranean, at the 
foot of some hills clothed vdik trees, 
and studded with gardens, orange- 
groves, and gay looking torres; above 
rises Arenys de Munt. Here are several 
linen, lace, and blonde manufactories ; 
brandies and soap, ' ce luxe de la par- 
fumerie modeme,' are considerably 
exported. Besides, there are three 
fine dock3rards, and Charles III. esta- 
blished here a good nautical or naval 
school, now kept up by the Chamber 
of Commerce of Barcelona. There is 
good bathing in the summer ; the en- 
virons are pleasant, and excursions may 
be made to the hermitages del Cal- 
vario and el Remedio. A tunnel some 
600 ft long is entered on leaving 




Arenys. On tlio right we see the large 
and new mineral establecimiento, called 
*Ba&os de Tito/ excellent in diseases 
of the skin and rhenmatism. The 
small river of Oaldetas is trayersed. 
To right, on a height, stands the pic- 
turesque Torre de los Encantados, con- 
sisting of some ill-kept-up fortifications. 
CcUdetas, 631 inhab., is a pretty, dean, 
indifferent hamlet, with some good 
thermal springs ; close to it, on a height, 
stands the ruined castle of Hocaberti, 
the name of which is associated with 
several romanesque legends of border 
life and piratical inroads of Algerines, 
etc. The Llevaneras is crossed ; on a 
height rises the ancient castle of Kofre 
Aman, now in ruins. 

Matard, pop. 16,600. Inns : Meson 
de la Fuerte, Parador Nuevo. The 
name is derived from San Miguel de 
Mata; the armorial bearings being or 
4 bars gules, a hand holding a sprig 
(Mata), with the word R6. This very 
thriving, busy, manufacturing town is 
divided into two portions ; Sie older. 
La Ciudad Yieja, occupies a bill^ and 
preserves its ancient character, in its 
gates, sombre narrow streets, etc. ; the 
modem part extends down to the sea, 
on the slopes of that same hill, the 
streets being wide, the houses lofty, 
clean, and many elegantly furnished, 
well built, and painted outside and in 
with dauby but eflfective frescoes. Visit 
the parish church for its silleria, and the 
six fine pictures by.Viladomat (chapel 
de los Dolores), representing Passion of 
Christ. * Jesus bearing the Cross, * has 
been compared by connoisseurs to 
Murillo's best style. There are some 
others by Montafta. There is a pretty 
theatre, an admirably well-oiganised 
'Colegio de Catalulia,* a large and 
regular Plaza de la Constitucion, etc. 
The town was cruelly sacked in 1808 
by the Franco-Italian division under 
Lecchi, and it was saved from being set 

on fire by the intercession of Don Felix 
Guarro, who entreated the general to 
spare l^e town. Had he lived in the 
18th or 14th century he would have 
been eanomaed by the mUitcmt Church, 
just as his city was by the triwmphant 
French army ; as it was, the mercifrd 
conquerors managed to cany away some 
780,000rs. as a souvenir. On leaving 
the city, the traveller sees on a hill to 
the right the ruins of the Moorish tower 
Borriach, at the foot of which is the 
mineral spring of Argentona. The 
waters are carbonated, and most effica- 
cious in the treatment of nervous com- 
plaints. (Conveyance by tartanas, in 
f hr., from station of Matar6 during the 
temporada.) All the district between 
this and Yilasar produces beautiful roses 
and strawberries, etc, which are sent 
to Barcelona. 

On leaving the station of Yilasar, and 
not far from several Moorish atalayas or 
watch-towers on same hills, observe 
the castle of Yilasar, one of the best 
preserved examples of medieval palatial 
fortresses in Catalufta. The railway 
continues to follow the seaboard, stud- 
ded with small, pretty, and thriving 
hamlets. On leaving Masnou, the 
Aleya is crossed, and a tunnel entered, 
some 420 ft. long. At Mongat, observe 
on the hill the castle of that name, 
which is celebrated for the heoric re- 
sistance of its few inhabitants in 1808 
against the whole of Lecchi's division, 
numbering eight guns of heavy calibre. 
The siege lasted four days — ^It fell at 
last, and all its brave inmates were cut 
down one after the other. 

One hour off stand the ruins of the 
Cartuja of Montalegre, amid wild 
scenery. The legend of its foundation 
runs thus : — Two school-fellows, who 
had completed their studies at Barce- 
lona, were comiog home, when they 
chanced to halt in the pleasant valley 
of Montalegre. * This is fine scenery. 



and worthy of a convent. ' * The situa- 
tion is fine indeed.* * Well/ quoth the 
fonner, *if I ever become a Pope, I 
•hall build one here.' * In that case,' 
answered the other, * I must become a 
monk, and liye in it.' Years and years 
had elapsed, when Fray Juan de Nea 
was sent to Rome by command of his 
superior, who had received an order 
fipom the Pope to that effect. The 
good monk, in the act of kissing the 
Pontiff's foot, raised his head, and lo, 
the Pope, Nicolas v., was no other than 
his old school-fellow of Barcelona. 
Need we add that the convent was 
built, and the funds generously given 
by the Santo Padre ? Alfonso V. and 
his queen embellished and aggrandised 
it, and the three cloisters, paintings, 
library, and plate subsisted, and were 
celebrated until 1835, when it was mostly 
destroyed during the civil war. The 
ruins — cells, garden-like cloisters and 
chapels — ^now partly restored and well 
kept, are interesting and deserving of 
a visit. The surrounding country, too, 
with its breezy undulations and wide 
views over the tossed -up Catalonian 
hUl region, is beautiful in the extreme. 
Badalona — pop. 14,200 — theBetulo 
of the Romans, on the Nesos, amid a 
fertile plain, gardens and orange-groves. 
As we approach the capital the railway 
passes close under the citadel ; to the 
left is Barceloneta and the bull-ring, 
and we stop at the E. side of Barcelona. 
B. The second line passes Hostalrich 
and GranoUers, and is called Linea del 
Interior and of Granollers. Distance, 
61 J m. ; time same as by former ; fares, 
1st cl., 40r. ; 2d cl., 82r. ; 8d cl., 22r. 
Hostalrich, on the Tordera, a strongly 
fortified place, very picturesque. 8i 
m. westwards is Breda, from whence 
the ascent of Montseny is best made : 
a fair posada. Cam Pons, where guides 
and mules may be hired for the ascent 
Granollers. — Province of Barcelona, 

capital of the Vall^s, population 6000. 
A rather interesting church is here of 
12th century, but with portions prob- 
ably of -14th and even 15th century, a 
nave of five bays ; an apse of seven sides, 
with a tower at the north-west angle. 
Observe staircase, and especially the 
iron hand-railing, leading to the groined 
gallery (late 15th century) in west bay, 
a charming newel staircase in the angle 
of the tower, a remarkable late wooden 
pulpit with rich woodwork, a fine pic- 
ture representing the martyrdom of St, 
Bartholomew. Branch line to Vich 
(pop. 13,100 ; fine cathedral and clois- 
ters ; birthplace of Balmes) and Ripoll 
(see p. 40 for description). In the en- 
virons, several excursions. Ruins of 
the castle of La Roca ; the Romanesque 
Church of San Felice de Canovellas 
(dist. 1 m. ) ; the snowy hills of Mont- 
seny, and the picturesque ruins of the 
Santuario de San Miguel del Fay, to 
reach which some wild country has to 
be crossed. 

Ftom Marseilles by several good lines 
— Frassinet ; Compagnie Generale 
Transatlantique ; Ibarra y Compafiia. 
Regular sailings, for which see adver- 
tisements in time-tables and news- 
papers, in about 22 hrs. Fares, Ist 
cl., 55fr. ; 2d cl., 37fr. ; 3d cl., 20fr. 
First and second class passengers are 
entitled to 100 kilog. luggage free; 
children under 3 years gratis; from 
3 to 7 years old pay half -fare. 
Meals extra. Table d^hdte breakfast 
and dinner at tariff prices. Private 
cabins if desired. 

From Valencia, A, By sea. By 
steamers (good) of the Spanish Trans- 
atlantic Company (formerly A. Lopez 
y Compa&ia) and the Compagnie His*! 
pano-fVan9aise. Regular sailings : 16 
to 20 hrs. Frequent special and 
direct steamers, for which see local 
advertisements. Fares, 1st class, 80 
pesetas ; 2d class, 20 pesetas. 




B. fey rail. Valencia to Tarragona 
twice daily; 7 J hrs. by express (1st 
and 2d class), 11^ hra. by slow. Tar- 
ragona to Barcelona in 8 hrs., three 
times daily. Total, through from 
Valencia to Barcelona, 9^ hrs. by 
express; 14^ hrs. by Aow. See 

From Liverpool. Frequent sailings, 
not recommended. From CadiZf 
Malaga f Alicante, steamers of the 
Spanish Transatlantic Company (A. 
Lopez and Co. ) 

From Balearic Islands : from Pulma 
twice a week, in 16 hours. Fares, 
28 pesetas and 20 pesetas. From 
Menorca {Pt>rt Mahon), touching at 
Alcvdia, weekly ; fare, 40 pesetas. 
From Tortosa, touching at SUjes, 
Fillanuevaj Tarragona (in 5 to 6 
hrs., twice a week), and Amposta, 
twice a month, no fixed day ; oflSces 
Calle de Ases No. 1. There are also 
direct steamers from Hamburg, South- 
ampton, etc., and others, stopping at 
intermediate ports, which have no 
regular days, and are advertised in the 
local papers. N.B, — For all these and 
several other steam services consult 
advertisements in daily papers and rail- 
way guides, as they are constantly 
changed. Also inspect steamer, if 
possible, before securing passage, as 
accommodation is uncertain. 

From the French PyreneeSf walking' and 
riding.— A. Toulouse m: Ax to Barcelooa by 
PujTcenU and Valley of Andorre. Toulouse to 
Ax. The railway is open between Toulouse 
and Foix ; trains run in 3 hrs. 15 min. Fares, 
xst cL, gfr. 30C. ; 3d cL, 6fr. 950. ; 3d cl., sfr. 
There are 3 daily dil. between Foix and 

Ax during the season, 

and one (?) daily all the 

year round. 


Kil. Miles. 

Toulouse to Foix 

82 51 

Tarascon . 

x6 xo 

Ussat . . 

3 3 

Les Cabannes 

7 4 

Ax - 

16 10 

"4 77 

At Ussat, Hdtel Cassagne. From \jt% 
Cabumes, the Pic St Barth^Mmy or Pic de 
Tabe, 7707 ft., which presents an admirable 
panofama, may be conveniently ascended; 6 
hrs. to ascend, and 4 hrs. to reture. Ruins of 
the casde of Lordart, also worth a visit Ax, 
a small diermal establishment, 2339 ft abov« 
the sea. Hotel : Sicre ; room and board, 6fr. 
per diem. It is one of the most remarkable 
thermal sites in the French Pyrenees. The 
scenery is extremely beautiAiL The hottest 
spring is i68'4* Fahr. Now proceed to valley 
of Andorre by the Port de Salden, 16 hours' 
journey. Better to make two days, and sleep 
at Canillo, 9 hrs. 30 min. Carriage road as far 
as Merens, 8 kil. 5 m. ; thence mountain path 
practicable for horses. The road ascends the 
right bank of the Ari^e, crosses the stream by 
a stone bridge, and x hr. 30 min. after again 
crossing, is Merens, which has 700 inhab., 
and is 3560 ft in height by a rough ascent ; a 
hrs. mon to Hospitalet, the last French village. 
About 5 min. bring you to the bridge of Cerda 
and douane station. Here branch two roads ; 
that to the left crossing the Ari^ge, leads by 
Puycerda. Continue to ascend to the right ; 
8^ hrs. to Rochers d'Avignoles or Pourtailles, 
where the Ariige takes its rise. Here two 
gorges open ; that to the left leads, by a longer 
though somewhat easier road, into die valley 
of Andorre, over the Port de FramigueL Take 
to the right : cross a plateau, follow the stream 
of the y alira, and descend into the upper valley 
of Andorre. The narrow gorge to the left, with 
forests, is the Spanish issue of Port FramigueL 
Before you rises the snowy Mount Rialp ; the 
Port of Salden is 8203 ft. ; 3^ hours' descent to 
the wretched hamlet of Salden. Follow the 
course of the stream, and reach Canillo to 
sleep ; 600 inhab. ; belongs to Andorre ; lodg- 
ings. Next morning cross, on leaving, the 
stream of the Valira, pass by Chapel of Miri* 
chel, a shrine high in repute ; pass also villages 
of En Camp, picturesquely placed, and Las 
Escaldas, a thermal establishment. 3 hrl. 
after leaving Canillo, Andorre is reached, 
which is the capital of the republic. This 
worthy pendant of the republic of San Marino, 
which Napoleon is said to have spared because 
it was *une curiositd politique,' extends to 
35 m. to W., and 30 m. N. to S. ; population 
about 6000, and the army is of 600 men ; drums, 
flags, imiforms, etc, we should say arms, 
almost, are not required. The republic was 
first enfranchised by Charlemagne, and a 
charter granted by Louis le ^D^bonnaire. It 
pays a yearly tribute of 48ofr. to France, and 
gfiofr. to the Prince Bishop of Urgel. There 
are no monuments, no manufactures, Ad trade 
to speak of. The people are quiet, and occu- 



piod in pastoral or agricultural pursuits. The 
capital, Andorre, has 850 inhab. From Andorre 
to Urgcl a mule-path along the Valira, in 6 hrs. 
Urgel to Puycerdd along the river Segre, 25 
m. in 6 hrs. , whence to Barcelona. 

B. Ax to Barcelona by Puycerdd.— "Distance 
33} m. ; time xo hrs. mule-track. As far as 
Hospitalet, see above. Cross the stream by 
Pont de Cerda, and take to left, ascending to 
Col de Piqmorin by a zigzag road. After hav- 
ing crossed (45 min.) between a peak on left 
and flat-topped summit on right, traverse a 
plateau, and 15 min. after reach the Col, 
height, 6293 ft., between Pic de Fronfride, 
8380 ft to the S., and the Pic Sabarthe, 
8365 ft to the N., forming the limits of the 
departments of Ariige and the Pyrfo^es Orien- 
tales. Close by is the douane station. De- 
scend into the valley of the S^gre, as m. after is 
reached village of Port^, and ruined castle of 
Cardogne on opposite side of the gorge of 
Fondvive, at the head of which are, mountain 
of Lanoux, 9374 ft., and of Pedroux, 931 x ft 
Follow down the stream, 30 min. after reach 
Port& on left bank of S^gre, 4950 ft Here 
the gorge becomes very wild, a chaos of huge 
rocks showing conspicuous traces of glacier 
action. Farther down are the Tours de Carol, 
erected in commemoration of a victory here 
gained by Charlemagne over the Moors. Cross 
the canal, leave on left the route to Bourg 
Madame, and reach Puycerdi, whence to 
Perpignan by daily dil., 63 m. 

C. From Bagn&res de Luchon, by the valleys 
of La Noguera, Pallareza, and of Aran. Lu- 
chon to Portillon ; this pass is practicable in all 
weather, and a guide is not indispensable ; dis- 
tance, X hr. 5 min. To Bosost, 3 hrs. (Hdtel 
du Commerce, decent but dear), quite a Spanish 
town, indifferent. There are three routes from 
Luchon to Bosost, one by the Portillon is the 
shortest ; on horse or foot, 8f m., 3I to 4 hrs. ; 
another by La Bacailere, on foot ; the scenery 
is finer, fatigue greater. The third is by Pont 
de Roi, and St B^at ; good carriage-road, 95 
m. A Um/s couvert is recommended to avoid 
heat and dust To Viella, x hr. from Artias ; 
from this to Salardu, first French village, x hr. 
10 min. Now reach Col de Plat de Berch. 
To Alos, last French douane station in valley 
of Aneu, about 3 hrs., then Gil, 40 min. ; 
Giuren, 20 min. ; Isabsure, \ hr. ; Esterri de 
Ancu, 40 min. Of the two roads here, take 
the left one : to Escalo, 2 hrs. ; to Llaborsi, 2 
hrs. ; sleep there. Next day, to San Juan de 
Lerra, and leaving to right road to Sort, pro- 
ceed tlutnigh the Col de la Besseta, then to 
Castellbo, then by a good mule-path to Villa- 
mitjana; to Urgel and Barcelona there is a 
road from Aiu^«-Ies-Bain8, distance X47^ kil. 

Am^ie to Aries .... 4 

La Tech la 

The Canigou, 9144 ft , may 
be ascended from tUf by way <^ 
Prats de Mollo .... 7 
Camprodon. . . . •» Z9I 
Barcelona T05 

72i m. 147^ 

N.B. — Pedestrians may ascend the Canigou, 
by way of Prats de Mollo to Vemet, 9 hrs. 
From Vemet to Perpignan, daily public con- 
veyances, price 8ft'., 33I m. ; time 4 hrs. as m. 
For more details and other routes, see Joaime's 
* Itindraire,' z vol. with plans and maps, zofr. ; 
Dr. Lambron's work, together with Mr. Packe's 
Guide to the Pyrenees^ Longman, London, 
X867, new edition with maps, diagram, and 
tables. For ascensions in this part of the 
Pyrenees, we very warmly recommend Comte 
H. Russell Killough's special work on the sub- 
ject, ' Les Grandes Ascensions,' with za maps, z 
vol. 4fr. Also for other Pyrenean routes fixMn 
France into Spain, see Zaragona^ *Aragon,* 

From Camprodon and Vich.—CamprodoHf 
ipQo inhab., on left bank of the Riutort, most 
uninteresting ; dil. to San Juan de las Abadesas, 
which is close to an important coal mine, 
one hr.'s distance, of xx kiL extent. RipoII 
to Puycerdi, a very bad carretera road. The 
gorge called Las Cobas de Ribas is very 

RipoU, — 1200 inhab. — ^at the confluence <tf 
the Ter and Fresser. During the civil war this 
city was entirely burnt up, and is being slowly 
rebuilt again. See the ruins of a magnificent 
Benedictine monastery founded by Count 
Wifred El Velloso, which became the Escorial 
or burial-house of the Counts of ^Barcelona. 
The capitals of columns are most elaborately 
worked out with human and allegorical heads ; 
the central nave is of 9th and zoth century, 
the transept and apse of the xxth. 

Vich,—-Inn: Fonda de la Plaza, fair. 
x3,ioo inhab.. Bishop's See : the plains around 
are watered by the Ter, and'from them the Mon- 
seny and Pyrenees may be seen. Vich, the Ro- 
man Ausa, and Gothic Ausona, became Vicus- 
AuS(me, and was under the exclusive jurisdic- 
tion of the Bishop, though the upper portion 
belonged to the Moncada family. It finally be- 
came the property of the crown, under Jaime 
IL, about Z45a The streets are narrow and 
ill-paved ; the only interesting sight here is the 
cathedral^ which was built about Z040, but re- 
paired and modernised about the end of the xSth 
century ; who the architect was is not known. 
We only know that in X3a5, the maestro mayor 

i I 








mte 1 

vb- . 

5,* , 

A.& C.BlaxtJi 

:, EimbtirgL.. 



was Runoa Despiog, and in 1333 on« Lademosa. 
The outside is very indifferent ; the interior is 
divided into three naves, whidi are bold and 
eleganL The transept is formed by lofty pillars, 
somewhat thin ; the Gothic cloisters are of the 
richest and most el^pant character. They were 
completed in 1340. Most of the former sepul- 
chres disappeared when the cathedral was re- 
paired, and then also were blocked up the sub- 
terraneous chapels, amongst which was the 
celebrated Capita dt San NicoUu^ where the 
matutine or popular masses were celebrated, 
in the beginning of the X4th century, on the 
festival of St. Stephen, and the epistle of his 
martyrdom was sung in Limousin of the Z3th 
century. The O^illa del Santo Espiritu is a 
fine building, and dates Z344-Z35Z. In the ar- 
chivo and library are kept a Bible of the Z3th 
century, very richly illuminated, the poem of 
Dande de Prades, and a curious book on 
Ceireria, In the centre of the cloisters observe 
the fine monument to the Catalan philosopher 
Balmes. Some quaint old houses in the Plaza 

Granollers, capital of the ValMs, 6oooinhab., 
is uninteresting : church of the xath century. 
In the vicinity are the celebrated springs of 
Caldas {hot springs) de Monbuy (see Mineral 
Establishments, General Information^ 

From Puycerdd and UrgeL — Puycerdd} 

3500 inhab., za4a metres (4085 ft.) high ; a very 
wretched, dirty village, with an indifferent 
church of Sta. Barbara. From this to Urgel 
by a mule-path; excellent trout-fishbg and 
shooting. Go to Bellver by a carriageable 
road. Bellver, Z9Z9 inhab., ruins of a medisDval 
castle; magnificent and extensive views are 
obtained from the town, whence its graphic 
name. Then through a defile to Puente da 
Var, after crossing Martinet ; then by the rig^i 
bank of the S^gre to Urgel. Urgult or Seu 
(see of UrgelX is a bishop's see, 3000 inhab. 
The cathedral is indifferent; the cloisters of 
Z3th century. Two m. W. are the three forts 
which defend the city, the CiUdel, the Castillo, 
and the Torra de Solsona. Proceed to Soisona, 
367Z inhab. Cardona^ 4366 inhab., close to 
river Cardoner. Its Castillo is very strongly 
built, and situated N.E. DiL for and from 
Puycerda two a week. From Cardona to 
Manresa, and then by rail to Barcelona in 3 hrs., 
five trains a day : line from Zaragoza to Barce- 
lona. There is a second road from and to Vich. 
Vich to GranoUers by rail. 

From or to Martorell, — ^By rail ; dis- 
tance, 83 ML ; time, about 1 hr. ; fares 
from 14r. 82c. to 9r. 85c. Six trains 
per day, and one more on holidays. 
(For subsequent descrip. see p. 478.) 


Capital of Province of same name. Population, 430.000. 

Distances— Madrid, 440 miles (23 hours) ; Paris, 25 hours ; Pamplona, 339 miles (14 hounX 

Connected by rail with all the principal towns on the coast 

Steamers to various Mediterranean ports, including the Balearic Islands. 

Bailway Stations, &o. — For the 
French line, GranoUers, Valencia, Tar- 
ragona, etc, the Central Station behind 
the Plaza del Falacio ; for the Zaragoza 
and Madrid line, Calle de Yillanneya ; 
for Sarrid, Plaza de CatalnHa ; for the 
Yillanueva (coast) line, Muelle San 
Bertran. Omnibuses, 2r. per person ; 
Ir. to 4r. each parcel, according to size 
and weight, a tariff; porters (called 
faquines) carry luggage to or from 
hotels for 6r., a tariff also ; to boatmen, 
2r. per person, 2r. per parcel ; to load 
or unload, 2r. a parcel. Settle price 
beforehand, or ask for tariff. 

Hotels. — 1st, Delas Cuatro Naciones, 
on Rambla del Centre, kept by Italians ; 
excellent situation, aspect to east ; few 

fireplaces. A good hotel, pension and 
service from 60 reals per day upwards ; 
continental papers taken ; commissioii- 
aires: Central yFal€onhnd.J)elOrUfUet 
both on the Bambla, fair, not so good 
as the Cuatro Kaciones, pension from 
30 reals upwards : Peninsular and De 
Espafla, good Spanish hotels, Spanish 
cookery. Several good Casas de Hu^s- 
pedes (boarding-houses) ; the two best 
are La Jmericana, Rambla del Ontro, 
36, and the Dormitorio San Frftncisco, 
6. In all, French and Italian spoken. 
N,B, — There are usually no female 
servants in the hotels kept by Italians, 
but ladies may obtain them by applica- 
tion at the bureau. 
Iiodeingrs.— Are all very second-rate ; 



pretty villas, mostly unfumislied, are 
to let in Paseo de Graeia aad other 
suburbs for £8 to £5 a-montii : they 
are adrertised in loCal papers. 

Post Oflace.— Plaza de Catalufia, 
close to the Paseo de Graeia ; open from 
8 A.M. to 4 P.M., and again for an un- 
eertain time at 8 p.m. Passports asked 
for. Letters can also be posted at all 
estancoa. Three collections and de- 
liveries daily. English letters delivered 
at noon, and must be posted before 1 
o'clock. Two days' post to London. 

Telegraph Offlce.— Bambla de Santa 
Monica^ 22 ; open day and night. 

History. — ^Barcelona k said by the 
learned to have been founded by the 
Carthaginian Hamilcar, sumamed Barca 
{fuZinen Latin6), a common family name 
with the Carthaginians, according to 
Niebuhr, Heeren, etc., about the year 
237 B.O., according to Romey. Ceesar 
Augustus raised it to a < colonia,' with 
the names of JuHa Augusta, Pia, Fa- 
ventia, etc Its importance now daily 
increased, and there are many vestiges, 
such as slabs, fragments of altars, col- 
umns, eta, of that time, which are so 
many evidences of its prosperity under 
the Romans. Ataulfo, the first king of 
the Goths, chose it as his court, and made 
it the capital of Hispana-Gothia, sub- 
sequently callied Septimania. Shortly 
after 718, Barcelona fell into the hands 
(^ Abdul- Aziz. The Moors did not 
retain it long ; for Charlemagne, on the 
deiith of his father, thought the oppor- 
tunity a favourable one to extend his 
dominions, and with the pretext of 
coming in aid to his Christian brethren, 
he and his son Ludivic expelled the 
infidel in 801, who had ruled for 88 
yMn only, and then quietly added the 
diy he had come to free to his duchy 
of Aoquitaine, of which it became the 
head. * DioB me libre de mis amigos, 
que yo me library de mis enemigos.' 
Bttfoelona was now governed by counts, 

who in 874 became hereditary, when 
Charles the Bold made it an independ- 
ent kingdom in favour of and to reward 
Count Wilfred el Yelloso, who had so 
effectually aided him against the Nor- 
mans. One of its greatest counts, 
Ramcai Berenguer IT. (12th century), 
united the crowns of Catalufia to Ara^pm 
by marriage with Petronila, the heiress 
to this latter kingdom. In his reign, 
Barcelona became the emporium of 
Southern Europe, and the caj^tal of the 
most powerM of maritime nations. 
Dockyards, arsenals, and warehouses, 
were numerous, and on a grand scale, 
for the trade, especially with the Levant^ 
was very great ; and Barcelona was the 
rival of Genoa and Venice. It became 
part of the kingdom when Ferdinand 
of Aragon espoused Isabella of Castile. 
Always more or less ill-disposed, but 
more especially since Philip III., Cata- 
lufia has often endeavoured to regain 
her former independence, and gave her 
interest and money at one time to the 
French, at another to the Spaniard, 
whichever held out the better prospect 
of attaining that end. The principado 
has been always a focus of revolution, 
democracy, and pronunciamientos. 
Barcelona, in the middle ages, was 
Idironged with proven^al troubadors 
*de ]a gaye sciense,' and councillors 
and statesmen who framed the laws of 
the ' Consulado del Mar,' a commercial 
code which dates 1279, and was re- 
spected and imitated eversrwhere. 

With reference to this, see Me Codigo de las 
Costumbres Maritimas de Barcelona/ etc., in 
Spanish and the original Limousin, by Cap- 
mani y Monpolau ; Madrid 1791, a vols, in 4to : 
and about the early trade and navy, see 
'Memorias hutoricas sobre la Marina, Co- 
merdo,' etc, of Barcelona by same author ; 
Madrid, Sancha, 1779, 4 vols, in 4to, one of the 
most important worics ever published on trade 
and navy in the middle ages. D. Victor Balag- 
ner's ' Historia de Catalufia,' of which a new 
edition has been published in z888, should also 
be consdted. 



In tnftny and importent aimitdas, some 
nombering 200 sail, 80 and more large 
galleys were often equipped here. Ara- 
gon (when comprising Catalnfla) was 
rery prond, and justly so, of its pre* 
eminence on the sea ; and such was the 
jealousy fielt at Barcelona when the 
rival Castile had lent its aid, money, 
and fleet to Colimibus, that tiiough it 
was here that he was received hy the 
Catholic kings, to whom he had given a 
world, with all 'the pomp and circum- 
stance* so brilliantly described by W. 
Irving, there is no notice of such an 
event to be found either in the archives 
of the city or those of Aragon. The 
DUtwria of 1492 is likewise disdainftilly 
silent on this point (See Mfgor's 
'Select Letters of Christ Columbus,* 
Hackluyt Soc 1867. Barcelona was 
at an early period a centre of learning, 
and one of the first cities of Spain 
where printing was introduced, and 
some of the best publishers, especi- 
ally of illustrated and artistic works, 
Catalan and Spanish, are still to 
be found here. [The bibliophile 
should not neglect to secure their 
catalogues and visit their establish- 
ments.] Here, also, January 17, 1548, 
a ship of 200 tons was launched, 
which was made to move by means 
of steam. Its inventor was Blasco 
de Garay, and the experiment took 
place in the presence of a committee 
named by Charles Y. and Philip II. 
(The memoir which contains these 
and other details is at Simancas. ) The 
invention consisted of a large boiler, 
which moved by steam two wheels 
placed at the sides of the vessel The 
experiment seems to have answered, 
but the trial was discouraged by the 
king's treasurer, Rdvago, who was, for 
some personal motive, hostile to the 
inventor, and drew up a report in 
which he states that the speed did not 
exceed two leagues in three hours, that 

the machinery was too complicated, and 
the boUer likely to burst Charles Y., 
who WM then «lMorbed in politioa) 
sdiemes of greater moment, did not 
exMniAe the thing with a*tenttoB» bat 
paid Garay aU expenses, and gave him 
promo^on and a presmt of 200,000 
marayedia But he was discouraged, 
and the secret, whatever it Was, died 
wi^ him. Andrea Navagero^ Yenetian 
ambassador to Charies Y., speaks thus 
of Hiisoity, which he visited in 1520 : 
' ]b bellissima dtt^tedin bellissimo ^to ; 
ed ha gran copiadi giardini bft1issimi» 
di mirti, aranci, e oedri; le case bnone 
e eomode, fabbricate di jHietra^ « no& 
di terra, ocMne nel resto di Catalogna.* 

General 3>esoription.—T Barcelona 
is the seccn^ largest ciiy in Spain, and 
the first in a commercial view. It is 
most prosperous and improving, and 
although called the Manchester of Span- 
ish L ancashire (CataluAa), it is free 
from the usual annoyances and appear* 
ances characteristic of manufacturing 
towns. The mills (cotton, silk, and 
woollen) are situated at some distance 
outside the walls, and the sons of toil, 
waggoners, wharfingers, and the sea- 
faring population, are confined within 
the suburbs. The happy situation of 
the dty on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, and communicating at the same 
time with the Atlantic ports by railway ; 
its vidnity to France and Italy; the 
fkdlities of Hvin^ the climate mild in 
winter and agreeable at all seasons ; 
the enlightened, kind, and bold-hearted, 
enterprising people who are seen in so 
thriving a c(mdition, are all so many 
inducements for the invalid and 
general tourist to linger here. We 
must add the no less important advan- 
tages of which other medical stations, 
such as Malaga,. Alicante, etc.', are de*> 
prived,vi2., several wtU^oiganised libra- 
ries, and cdikctions of natural history 
and antiquities, a first-rate ox>era-house, 



and a yariety of excnrsions in the envi- 
rons. Of society, which is after all the 
least interesting feature in a country, 
there is little, thon^ the Barcelonese 
are passionately fond of mnsic, dancing, 
and dress. On the other hand, mere 
sight-seers most remain comparatively 
idle here, as most of this handsome 
city has been either modernised or en- 
tirely rebuilt, saving the tortuous and 
narrow but picturesque quarters in- 
habited by tiie lower classes ; and 
besides the cathedral and one or two 
other churches (which are certainly in- 
teresting examples of Oatalonian- 
Gothie architecture), there are few ob- 
jects that deserve the attention of 
the artist. On quitting Barcdcma, 
July 1844, Washington Irving gave 
his opinion of the city thus : — * I leave 
this beautiful dty with r^et . . . 
Indeed, one enjoys the very poetiy of 
existence in these soft southern climates 
which border the Mediterranean. All 
here is picture and romance. Nothing 
has giv^ me greater delight than occa- 
sional evening drives wil£ s(»ne of my 
diplomatic colleagues to those country- 
seats, or torreSy as they are called, situ- 
ated on the slopes of the hills, two or 
three miles from the city, surrounded 
by groves of oranges, citrons, figs, po- 
megranates, etc., with terraced gardens 
gay with flowers and fountains. Here 
we would sit on the lofty terraces over- 
looking the rich and varied plain, the 
distant city gilded by the setting -sun, 
and the blue sea beyond. Kothtog can 
be purer and softer and sweeter than the 
evening air inhaled in these favoured 
retreats.* Cervantes, who knew eveiy 
town in Spain, and was a great traveller 
for his day, describes it enthusiastically 
as the 'flor de las beUas dudades del 
mundo, honra de Espafia, regak y de- 
licia de sus moradores y satisfaecicm de 
todo aqnello que de una gnnde, famosa, 

rica y bien fundada ciudad puede pedir 
un discrete y curioso deseo.' 

Climate. — ^Though sheltered on the 
western dde by the high hill of Mont- 
juich, Barcelona is somewhat exposed 
to the north and east winds. The tem- 
perature is very mild ; it snows very 
seldom ; the heat in summer seldom ex- 
ceeds 81' Cent (87 Fahr.), or falls be- 
low 2* under zero (28 Fahr). The 
average of rainy days in the year is 69. 
The climate is sufficiently dry, with 
occasional fogs however ; it is not so 
bracing as Tarragona, but almost en- 
tirely free from cold winds. The 
most prevalent diseases are catarrhal, 
rheumatic, dyspeptic, and nervous 
affections. January is about the only 
month to avoid, especially in bronchitd 

Barcelona is lat. 41° 22' 58" K, long. 
2° 8' 11" E. The orange and palm grow 
vei'y welL 



Centigrade Thermometer . 

Temperature of Air. 







April . 
A^y , 
June • 


























Average pressure of atmosphere . 760.59 
„ temperature of year . . 16.9 
Maximum temperature, August zo 31.0 
Minimum temperature, December 2.8 
Whids in year:-W. 06 days; E. 51 : S.E 

^9; S.W. 40; N.asTN.i 37: N.W. 34; 




streets. Squares, etc. — The priu- 
dpal streets are very well paved, wide, 
and long, such as OcUle de Femcmdo, 
which is the handsomest, and where there 
are some Parisian-looking shops ; OalU 
Ancha, which runs parallel with the 
Muralla del Mar ; the Bamhla, which is 
a fine broad bonleyard, with trees and 
a promenade in the centre, and receives 
different names to designate portions of 
it, such as Ecmbla del OerUro, de loa 
Capwshvnoa, etc. It is 1120 metres 
(1100 yards) long^ and runs in a straight 
line to the sea. It is a constant pro- 
menade, especially towards the evening ; 
and here the best hotels, theatres, dili- 
gence offices, etc., are situated. CaZU 
de la Plateria is the loeaU of the silver- 
smiths, in whose shops amateurs of 
vertii now and then pick up a fine speci- 
men of silversmith-work of former times. 
See also the earrings worn by the payesas 
or country-women, of antique form. 
The principal squares axe—Plaza de 
Palacio, with a Carara marble fountain 
in the c^itre, representing the genii of 
the four provinces of CataluSla, with 
attributes, flowers, etc, executed by 
Italian artists. A winged genius crowns 
the monument, on the principal front 
of which is the escutcheon of the Mar- 
quis of Campo-Sagrado, formerly Capt.- 
Gkneral of Catalu&a, with the proud 
motto of his family, * Despues de Bios 
la Oasa de Quirds.' Plaza Seal, sur- 
rounded by handsome new houses with 
arcades, in imitation of IJie Palais Royal 
in Paris, with a fine monument in the 
centre erected to the memory of the 
Catholic kings, with bassi-relievi repre- 
senting some of the principal events of 
their reign, and Ferdinand the Catholic's 
statue on the summit Plaza del Teairo, 
close to Hotel de las Coatro Naciones ; 
in centre an Egyptian-looking pyramidal 
monument crowned with an allegorical 
statue of Barcelona; this fountain is 
called ' Font del Yell ' in Catalan. In 

Plaasa de MMnaodi there is a paltry 
statue raised in 1851 to Ghdceran Mar- 
quet, one of the greatest seamen Cata- 
luAa has produced. The obelisk in P^oea 
de San Pedro dates 1072, and the statue 
is of Sta. Eulalia, the tutelar of Bar- 

Fortress. — ^From its situation and 
importance, Barcelona has been very 
strongly fortified. On the S. side are 
the Atarcusanas near Monjuich. The 
Atarazanas were built by Jaime el 
Conquistador, 1243, as arsenals for the 
navy, and extended formerly to Plaza 
de Palacio. The name AraMc6 means 
dockyards, whence the Catalan dressana 
and the Spanish d&rsena. These could 
hold already, in the time of James II., 
25 large gdleys under shelter and se- 
cure. A large galley used to cost then 
(lith century) about 28,780r., and the 
yearly expense (seamen, riggings etc) 
about 18,120r. Now the Atarazanas 
comprise infantry and cavalry barracks 
(7000 men in all). Its construction, 
though ancient, is interesting. The 
citadel was begun in 1715, and designed 
by Philip V.'s minister, Olivares, to 
have command over the dty. It has 
long been a simple cuartel, and is 
now in process of demolition. The 
Fuerte de Carlos and Fuerte Pio 
were destined to cut communications 
between Barcelona and the country 
and attacks by the old French road. 
The Castle of Monjuiehy S. of the 
town, is placed on an isolated hill 
about 785 ft. above the level of the sea. 
It is of irregular form, with a redwU 
composed of four fronts, to the sea, and 
port, and to the country. This is truly 
the most important fortificati<m, and he 
who holds it holds the whole city in 
check and in his power, for from its 
great elevation and proximity the 
curved fires (the direct ones woidd not 
be so certain) could destroy the dty. 
The name is said by some to mean 



Hont Joiia, from a temple raiaed to 
Jupiter on that hill, and by others HIU 
of the Jew% whoee cemetery was for- 
merly sitoated between the hill and the 
city. When the Archduke, C5harles of 
Austria, who claimed from Philip V: 
the Spanish crown, landed close by 
Badalona (Sept 1706), Lord Peter- 
borough attacked Monjuich, and, by a 
daring surprise, took it on the 14th of 
that same month, obliging the Spanish 
general Yelasco to abandon Barcelona. 
In the Peninsular war it was taken by 
Duhesme, by a stratagem not unHke 
that used towards Pamplona (1808), 
and surrendered to Marshal Monee by 

. T^ Fort.--The port has been,^ and 
continues to be, yearly improved. It 
IB huge, commodious ; but the bar at 
the entrance is not without danger, and 
the assistance of pilots is deemed neces- 
sary to enter or go out. Hie harbour 
is formed by a jetty of conuderable 
length, with a lighthouse and some 
batteries. On one side, K, extends 
the well-peopled barrio or quartier 
called Barceloneta, and on the opposite 
is the fort of Atarazanas, and the quays 
called MuraUa del Mar. In the 14th 
and 15th centuries, when the port was 
always crowded with fleets of merchant- 
men, the entrance was not above 8^ ft 
deep^ and the sandbanks or bar called 
tasca (cttasear, from stcmeare) was a 
great natural defence. Though granted 
in 1438 by Alfonso Y. of Aragon, the 
works for the mole did not begin before 
the 20th September 1474, after the de- 
signs and under the direction of an 
engineer from Alexandria, called Itacio; 
but this mole was a very imperfect work, 
and even after several augmentations 
and much expense, it was, we read in 
Oapmany, about 600 feet long in the end 
of 17th century ; though in the acoa- 
rate 'Life of the Duke of Osuna,' 
written in Italian by Leti, Amsterdam, 

1700, 400 only. The works were re- 
newed in 1758, and ccnnpleted in 1754. 
Several additions have been but re- 
cently finished. The depth of water 
wHMd. the mole is from 18 ft;, to 20 ft 
Vessels of no great size moor at a short 
distance from the mole, but larger ships 
must anchor outside. 

The Trade is brisk, and the railways, 
which now centre in Barcelona, will 
increase it. The {nincipal imports are 
raw cotton and colonial products, prin- 
cipally from Cuba and Puerto lUco ; 
iron, machinery, coal, from England. 
Catalufka is the greatest manufacturing 
centre in Spain, and principal seat of 
the cotton trade, in which over 100,000 
persons are engaged. The exports are 
wrought silks, cotton stuffs, soap^ 
chemicals, firearms, paper, etc,, al- 
monds, nuts, etc. The annual number 
of ships of all nations entering and 
leaving the port is about 4500, with a 
tonnage of about 1,700,000. See for 
more details, ' Bevista de Estadistica,' 
the Oatalonian one as well as that pub- 
lished at Madrid ; aUo the Consular and 
Commercial Reports published yearly 
in England. The great International 
Exhibition of 1888 was a failure so 
fgkr as its immediate financial results 
were concerned, but has already yielded 
practical value in the encouragement of 
trade and the development of liberal 
opinions. Barcelona has ever be^i a 
fierce opponent of Free Trade, of which 
Bilbao is the Spanish champion. 

Sights. — The Cathedral ; Churches ; 
Lonja; Casa de la Diputacion, etc. ; 
University ; Public Gardens ; old houses 
and antiquities. 

The Cathedral— (la Sen or Seo).— 
The old cathedral of Barcelona was con- 
verted by the Moors into a mosque, and 
partly rebuilt and augmented by Count 
Bamon Berenguer I. But as the im- 
portance of the city grew with the 



establiahment of the Court of An^on, 
James 11., in 1298, laid the first stone 
of a new cathedral, which was finished 
in 1448. ^^2^^— The style is Gothic, 
or what we should more appropriately 
call Catalonian, and it e^diibits the 
characteristics of the first and latter 
period of that style in Spain. It is 
sober, elegant^ harmonious, and simple; 
not crowded with sculpturing and orna- 
mentation, as was the case at the dose 
of the 14lii century, and it mostly be- 
longs to the best and purest period of 
ogival architecture, There are portions 
left unfinished, such as the grand portal, 
etc., and others of the vilest chunigue- 
resque, as the lateral chapels, etc On 
the whole, there are here no great speci- 
mens of genius or especial taste. 

Sxterior. — ^It is approached, as is 
usual in Catalulia^ by an elevated flight 
of steps^ which renders the edifice more 
efiectiYe^ The principal fa9ade was 
never finished. The design for the 
portal is ^ept in the archives of the 
cathedral Though much effaced by 
time and neglect, it exhibits a magnifi- 
cent specimen of the florid style of the 
l$th century. It is ascribed to Barto- 
lom^ Gual and Boque. The dow lead- 
ing to the doister from Calle del Obispo 
is Bysantine, as is the small belfiry, tiie 
beU of which is the oldest in Barcelona. 
The helfrv towers are very lofty, and 
date end of 14th century. The present 
clock is comparatively modem, but the 
former one was the oldest known in 
Spain, dated 1393, and therefore older 
than that at Seville. (Capmany, *Mem. 
Hist,* book iv.) At each side of the 
PortoZ de la Inquindon is a slab with 
inscription containing ^e date Hay 
1298, when the cathedral was begun» 
and the other the continuance or prose- 
cution of the works in 1329. Over the 
portal there is a relievo, representing, 
though most rudely rendered, the le- 
gendary fight between Vilardell and the 

Pragon. Thi» monster was let loose by 
the Moors, when this hero was obliged 
to abandon to them his easUe in the 
Yal^s. God appearing to him under the 
garb of a pauper, tried first his charity, 
»and being satisfied, gave him a miracu- 
lous sword, which cleft rocks and the 
thickest trees. He then met the dragon 
and killed him, upon which, as he was 
more of a huntsman than a pious gentle- 
man, he gave vent to his joy, and 
exclaimed, * Well done, mighty sword, 
and not less mighty arm of Vilardell ! ' 
Just then he felt on his arm some drops 
from the drain's blood which dripped 
from, the blade he held up in exultation ; 
and as it was the subtest poison he 
died instantly. God thus ^CAstigando 
su vanagloria. 

The name of the architect who de- 
signed the cftthedral is not ascertained. 
The Mallorquin Jaime Fabre (1317) is 
known to have directed the works in 
the beginning. In 1388, the Maestro 
Eoque succeeded him. Escudsr (middle 
of 15th century) is the last architect 
mentioned in the archives. The cathe- 
dral was first named Sta. Cruz, to which 
the name of Sta. Eulalia was added 
when this saint's body was brought to 
this church. 

Interior. — The plan iscrucifonn. The 
church, though exclusively Catalan as 
to details, is not Spanish in plan, but 
approaches rather the French arrange" 
ment of an aisle and chapels round the 
apse. Such is at least Mr. Street's 
opinion. It is divided into three spa- 
cious naves, formed by somewhat mas* 
sive pillars, with elegant shafts semi* 
attached and topped by elaborately- 
worked capitals, from which nineteen 
arches spring to forma vaulted root The 
presbytery is surrounded by ten columns 
of a good style. The portion between 
the choir and the principal entrance 
dates 1420; but some authors are of 
opinion that it is of 1329. Observe the 



bold and effective arch which rests upon 
the two first piers, and the open-work 
clerestory or balustrade over the portal 
and its lateral chapels. 

Under the' high altar is a crypt called 
Capilla and Sepulcro de Sta. Eulalia. 
It is not always shown to visitors, and 
is not remarkable. It was built and 
completed 1338, by Fabre, and the 
body of the saint removed in following 
year from the church of Sta. Maria del 
Mar, where it had been kept since 878. 
The general plan and design are like 
that of the sepulchre of SS. Peter and 
Paul in the Vatican. The um is of 
alabaster, with many mezzi-relievi re- 
presenting scenes from the life of the 
saint. It is lighted up by lamps, which 
bum without intermission. ' The plan- 
ning of the nave,' says Street, * is very 
peculiar. The chapels in the south 
aisle have a row of other chapels, which 
open into the cloister, placed back to 
back with them, and the windows which 
light the former open into the latter, 
showing, when seen frt>m the nave cha- 
pels, their glass ; and when seen from 
the cloister chapels, the dark piercings 
of their openings. The arrangement is 
eztaremely picturesque.' The transepts 
show themselves only on the ground- 
plan, where they form porches. 

High Altar, — ^The arches of the apse 
are too narrow and poor ; indeed, the 
columns throughout are deficient in the 
distribution of their very thin mould- 
ings. The high altar forms a pleasing 
ensemble of pillarets and open-work 
ornamentation. The form is that of a 
templ^ in the centre of which, above 
the tabernacle, is a picture of the cruci- 
fixion. The colour of the stone adds 
to the general sombre effect 

The Choir is of good proportions, 
and deserves attention. The canopies 
of the stalls of the upper row are by the 
German sculptors, Michael Loker and 
Johan Friedrich (1487). The work is 

most excellent. The pinnacles and 
canopies were pronounced faulty by the 
chapter, who id not pay the sculptor 
the full amount agreed upon. The 
lower row was sculptured by Matias 
Bonafe, 1483. In the agreement passed 
between him and the chapter, a curious 
clause occurs, by which the sculptor 
was forbidden to introduce images, 
figures, or beasts of any kind, and to 
limit himself to the leaf ornamentation. 
The pidpit is rich, but indifferent. The 
staircase leading to it, with its arched 
doorway, traceried handrail, and open 
iron-work door, should be carefully 
noticed. On the back of each stall is 
the painted shield of each of the knights 
of the Golden Fleece, who held in this 
choir a general assembly or chapter, 
presided over by Charles V., March 6, 
1519. This was a grand scene, fit for a 
painter to take up. The walls were 
hung with rich tapestries and velvets. 
On one side rose the vacant throne, 
canopied with black velvet hanging of 
Maximilian I. On the opposite side, 
on one of brocade, sat Charles Y., then 
only king of Spain, and around him 
Christian King of Denmark, Sigismund 
King of Poland, the Prince of Orange, 
Duke of Alba, of Frias, Cruz, and the 
flower of the nobility of Spain and 
Flanders. Kings, on entering Barcelona 
for the first time, were obliged to take 
the oath to defend and never transgress 
the popular laws (fueros) of Barcelona ; 
the councils (Jura) used to take place 
in different parts of the city, and before 
the High Altar in this cathedral When 
Charles V., in 1519, visited the city, 
he wished to be received, not as a king, 
but as one of the former counts ; ' for,' 
said he, * I would rather be count of 
Barcelona than king of the Romans.' 
Several councils have taken place here. 
On June 20, 1525, Francis I. of France, 
then a prisoner, heard mass in the 
chapel of Sta. Eulalia. 



The Trascoro is a good Bpecimen of 
the Revival in Spain, and the work of 
Pedro Vilar of Zaragoza, who followed 
the designs of Bartolomi Ordano, date 
1564. It is composed of a series of 
bassi-relievi representing scenes from 
the life of Sta. Eulalia, on white marble, 
and with columns of the Doric order. 

The tombs in the cathedral are mostly 
indifferent. Close to the sacristy are 
those of Berengaer el Yiejo and Almodis 
his wife ; the inscriptions are modem. 
In a chapel, close to that of San Olaguer, 
is an elegant tomb of Doiia Sancha de 
Cabrera, Setkora de Novalles ; a finer 
one is that of Bishop Escalas, in the 
Chapel de los Innocents, very elaborately 
sculptured, the details of dress, beard, 
hair, etc., being veiy delicate--Gothic. 
That of San Olaguer, whose body eight 
centuries have not been able to decom- 
pose, is indifferent ; his body may be 
easily seen, dressed in pontificalibus, 
from the camarin of the altar. 

The stained windows are amongst the 
finest in Spain, and date between 1418 
and 1660. They are not of large size, 
but the richness of their blues, purples, 
and reds, is as fresh as when first they 
were painted. The ehapeU are indif- 
fer^t, mostly churrigueresque. See 
behind the apse (which is itself one of 
the best things in the cathedral) the 
crucifix called Cristo de Leponto. It 
was carried on the prow of the flagship 
of D. Juan of Austria, at the battle of 
Lepanto. It is violently inclined, be- 
cause as the Moors directed their mus- 
ketry against the sacred image, the 
image turned aside, and thus avoided 
the infidels' bullets. The ultra faithful 
believe that the small gaUey placed here 
also moves and turns according to the 
wind ! Amongst the curiosities {pwrio- 
sidades), see an infant Jesus, to which 
Ferdinand VII. gave the insignia of 
field-marshal, and his queen, Amelie of 
Saxony, the badge of Maria Luisa. The 

reliquaries are fine. The paintings, few 
and of no great merit, are — ^in Capilla 
de San Olaguer, some pictures by Ant. 
Yiladomat (1678 to 1766) ; the rest in 
this chapel also, and in that of San 
Pablo and San Marcos, are by Fraa 
Tramullas of Perpignan, who lived in 
the 18th century, and his son Manuel. 
The cloisters are interesting ; they were 
begun by Boque. In 1432, Ctual suc- 
ceeded him, and they were finished in 
1448; they were jaincipally the work 
of Bishop Sapera. Observe the elegant 
ogival door on the Calle del Obispo, the 
first door to left, and Capilla de Sta. 
Lucia ; this portion is the oldest in the 
whole edifice. The tombs are indif- 
ferent Notice, nevertheless, that of 
Mossen (abbr. for Mossenyer, or Mon- 
senyor, my lord) Borra, the nom de 
guerra of Antonio Tallander, the buffoon 
of Alfonso V. elSabio of Aragon, ob. about 
1433; see his jocose epitaph, calling him 
Milesgloriosus, and thebeUson his dress. 
In the chapel of La Concepclon there 
used to be a picture ordered by the 
municipality (1661) to be painted in 
thanksgiving for her intercession in be- 
half of the city at the time of the plague. 
It ceased some days after, and the keys 
of the city, made in silver for the occa- 
sion, were presented to her. See the 
fountain de las Ocas (of the Geese). It 
stands in the centre of a pleasant court 
full of orange-trees and flowers. The 
£ishop*s Palace, on the S. side of the 
cloister, retains portions of good late 
Romanesque arcading. 

Church of Sta. Maria del Mar. — 
This church is preferred by some to the 
cathedral in an architectural light. It 
was built on or near the site formerly 
occupied by a smaller church raised, 
A.D. 1000, by Bishop Accio, to keep the 
body of St. Eulalia (nowin cathedral). It 
wa^ b^un in March 1829, and is one of 
tiie few churches built entirely at the ex- 
pense of the working-daasesi the baa* 




taizos or faqulnes even contributing to it 
— ^the latter fact being recorded on the 
door of the principal fa9ade, where there 
are sculptured two small bronze figures 
carrying stone, wood, etc. The name 
of the architect is not known. In 1379, 
a great fire burnt up the vestry, altar, 
choir, and portion of the roof, but by 
the aid of Pedro IV. el Ceremonioso, 
the church was repaired and completed, 
Nov. 9, 1383. The style is Gothic, 
with a few churrigueresque alterations 
in the chapels, etc. The church is situ- 
ated in a square ; the principal facade 
is plain but elegant, with statues on the 
sides and over the door. The rose- 
window is very fine, and was repaired 
after it had been almost destroyed by 
an earthquake in 1428. There are four 
entrances in all ; the portal and side 
looking towards the market-place, called 
Bom, is quaint. The church is divided 
into three naves, the piers and shafts 
are veiy lofty and elegant, the arches 
sharply pointed ; the high cUtar, though 
it has cost 100,000 ducats, is in bad 
taste and out of keeping with the rest ; 
it dates 1637. The chovr, by a too rare 
exception, is happily placed behind the 
presbytery ; there is a royal pew opposite 
to the huge organ. The general style 
of the church is very good and pure, the 
painted gkss fine ; there are five pictures 
of y iladomat, representing scenes from 
the Passion, behind the altar, and two 
others in chapel de San Salvador, Four 
pictures by Tramullas (son), in chapel 
de los Corredores de Carnbio ; a St Peter, 
by Juan Amau of Barcelona (1595- 
1693), in chapel of SL Peter, A good 
statue of San Alejo, in the Trascoro, by 
A. Pujol of Villafranca, about 1643 ; the 
Virgin and Christ Dead, in same por- 
tion, is by Miguel Sala (1627-1704). 
The indifferent retablo mayor is by a 
sculptor who ornamented the poops of 
the galleys. The sculpture on tiie organ 
is of 1560. 

Sta. Maria del Pino, a fine speci* 
men of the Gothic, dates 1329-1413. It 
is also called N. Sra. de los Reyes. The 
name, del Pi, or Pino, pine, is derived 
from a tradition, according to which an 
image of the Virgin was found in a trunk 
of a pine, some say because the pine \p 
the emblem of the Catholic faith, ever- 
green, ever soaring to heaven ; accord- 
ingly a pine, blessed on Palm Sunday, is 
every year placed on the highest point 
of the belfiy. It is also said that one 
of these trees was planted close to it in 
1768, and cut down in 1802. The church 
is of good proportions and elegant. The 
belfry-tower is fine, massive, and very 
lofty. The nave consists of seven bays, 
is 54 ft. wide in the clear, and has an 
eastern apse of seven sides, is high and 
spacious, and lighted up by good ogival 
windows with stained glass. On the 
altars of the chapels of San Pancracio 
and San Clemente, Jews had a right to 
take an oath in any suit with a Chris- 
tian, validity of wills, etc. The prin- 
cipcd portal is very rich. The relics are 
curious and kept in silver cases, and 
rich reliquaries ; amongst them are two 
thorns from the crown of Jesus, once at 
St. Denis ; a portion of Christ's gar- 
ment ; a bit from the pillar against 
which He was jscourged, etc. etc Be- 
tween the third and foupth altar, to the 
right, a tablet on the wall marks the 
spot where the Barcelonese painter, 
Viladomat, is buried— ob. 1755. 

The ecclesiologist may also visit Sa/i^ 
Migtielf which belongs to the transition 
between the Byzantine and Gothic The 
interior indifferent ; a curious mosaic, 
white and blue, on the pavement, said 
by the learned to be a remnant of the 
Temple of Neptune that existed on this 
spot, and a fine sepulchre of Fran. Coll, 
a councillor of the Catholic kings and 
Charles V.— ob. 1536. A divine Shep- 
herdess, by Viladomat, and a painted 
cupola also by him. 



Iios Martires, or San Justo 7 San 
Pastor, the earliest Christian church in 
Barcelona^ is a good specimen of Gothic; 
one nave lofty and wide ; good stained 
glass ; begun in 1345. A poor facade 
and a pretty tower on one side. The 
altar of San Felio had the privilege of 
serving for the oath taken by Jews on 
the decalogue placed upon it, also for 
witnesses of wills made at sea or battle, 
etc, and of knights before engaging in 
a * battala juzgada,* not to use any but 
fair means, and swords neither constel- 
lated nor enchanted, etc. Five bays ; 
an apse of five sides. The nave is 43 ft. 
6 in. in width in the olear, by some 130 
in length. The vaulting quadripartite, 
with large bosses at the intersection of 
the ribs, on which are carved subjects 
from the New Testament A fine but 
undersized High Altar. 

In the Chwrch of MorUesion (14th 
century) is the flag (festum) of D. Juan 
de Austria and the image of our Lady 
of Victory, both carried by horse at the 
battle of Lepanto. In SarUa Ana (1146) 
is the tomb of Miguel de Boera, who 
fought at Ravenna under the Catholic 
king's reign, and commanded Charles 
V.'s galleys at the conquests of Tripoli, 
Bugia, Gran, etc. The cloister is more 
modem than the other portions of the 

San Pedro de las Puellas (< of the 
Maiden ') is extra-mural, and on the site 
where Ludovic Pio encamped his troops 
in 801, and built a former church. It 
was so called because destined for a 
nunnery. The date of its building, and 
names of founder and architect, are un- 
known ; about the beginning or middle 
of the 10th century is the most pro- 
bable ; the circular dome, vault of S. 
transept, nave, and western portion of 
the chancel, are the parts that have been 
the least altered. The sculpture of the 
capitals j» remarkable, and most Eastern 
in character. It is said that when the 

nuns were aware of the probable inva- 
sion of their convent by Al Mansoiir's 
soldiers, who were recruiting for the 
Balearic harems, they most heroically 
disfigured themselves, to avoid this 
shame, by cutting off their noses. 

Belen. — A fine Italian church on 
the Rambla ; very rich marbles ; Lo- 
yola's sword. 

San Pablo del Campo. — A most in- 
teresting relic of the Catalan Roman- 
esque architecture of the second period. 
This church — originally a Benedictine 
convent^ founded 914 by the Count of 
Barcelona, "Wifred II.— was severely 
injured by Al Mansoiir in 986, but re- 
stored by one G. Guiterdo and his wife 
in 1117, in a way which has allowed it 
to retain most, if not every portion, of 
the primitive structure. It is cruciform, 
with three parallel apses, an octagonal 
vault on pendants over the crossing. 
The nave and transepts are covered witii 
a waggon-vault The W. front is in- 
teresting and purely Byzantine, with the 
exception of the circular window, which 
has been added. Observe the rude sym- 
bolical sculpture on and within the 
massive arch — on the sides, the usual 
figures symbolising the Evangelists, and 
above the arch a hand, with a cruciform 
nimbus, giving the benediction. The 
small cloister on S. side is of 11th cen- 
tury, very Arabic in its details, cusp- 
ing, and stone work. Observe a 14th 
century doorway, W. of cloister, and 
everything, indeed, connected with this 
important, though to many tourists not 
striking, little church. 

The Iionja, or Exchange. — This 
building rises on the site formerly called 
* dels Cambis,' where merchants trans- 
acted business *al fresco.' There was 
in very early times an Exchange in all 
the principal cities of Spain, such as 
that of Madrid, established 1652, Seville 



1635, Burgos and Bilbao 1494, but the 
Exchange of Barcelona dates from about 
1382, and was established by Pedro IV. 
of Aragon. The former Exchange was 
situated near the sea, and was built in 
1357. There was a chapel added to the 
building in 1452, and a portico in 1562. 
Of this edifice nothing remains save the 
hall (sala), which was finished in 1383, 
and escaped the general sweeping modi- 
fication which began its avenging work 
in 1772 under the Solers. The style of 
the modem building is the so-called 
classic, and of the Tuscan and Ionic 
orders. The principal entrance is by 
the plaza of the palace. The facade is 
fine and effective, and the whole edifice 
is of stone, with marble here and there. 
In the court (patio) are statues symboli- 
cal of the four parts of the world, and 
several others in the Hall of Sessions, 
etc. — all modem and indifferent, the 
work of Catalonian sculptors. The 
Gothic haU is lofty and of good propor- 
tions, about 116 ft. long by 75 ft. wide. 
Men of business meet here daily from 
1 tiU 4 P.M. 

Oasa de la Diputacion. — ^Built in 
the beginning of the 15th century — 
was considerably enlarged at different 
epochs, which explains the variety of 
styles, taste, and execution exhibited. 
It was destined and served as a popular 
local institution for the Commons of 
CataluSka^ until abolished by Philip V. 
in 1714. The name of the architect of 
the first plan is not known. About 
1598, a great portion of the edifice had 
to be pulled down for enlargement, but 
Pedro Blay, the architect who carried 
on the works, left fortunately intact the 
best portions of the primitive building, 
such as the lateral facade of St. George, 
in Calle del Obispo, the gallery round 
the court of the orange-trees, and the 
garden. The Roman or classic fa9ade, 
seen from the Plaza San Jaime is not 
elegant, but heavy, clumsy, and out of 

keeping. The work of Blay extends 
from this fa9ade to the beginning of the 
grand staircase ; the older portion be- 
gins at the patio. The front of the 
chapel of St. George is fine. In the 
centre is a small ogival door, between 
two pointed windows separated by pil- 
larets ; the wall between is worked out 
like a damask cloth in relievo, and is of 
two diflFerent patterns. This is crown- 
ed with delicate foHage, and a series of 
animals, of indifferent execution and 
out of place. Over them rise ogival, 
placed within circular, arches, and orna- 
mented on the sides with cherubs* heads, 
and surmounted by an antepecJio balus- 
traded with Gothic open-work, tending 
in character to the plateresque. In the 
centre of a medallion is mdely sculp- 
tured St. Oeorge and the Dragon ; there 
are four Evangelists at the angles. The 
galleries, however much admired for 
their ingenious constraction, were evi- 
dently the contrary, as the pillars, al- 
ready bent under the ill-calculated 
weight, show too well. The chapel it- 
self is uninteresting, though in it are 
preserved some curious arUiguallas, 
such as the frontal of St. George, on 
which is represented his straggle with 
a lion in defence of a maiden. St. 
George was the tutelar of the Diputacion, 
as tradition would have it that he fought 
the Moors in behalf of the Aragonese 
and Catalans, and there used to be 
jousts and tournaments on St George's 
Day, which latter is kept up every year. 
In the Salones del Tribunal of the Audi- 
encia are some rich artesonados of the 
15th century, and good, but wom-out 
and cfflEiced, tapestries. The portraits 
of the kings of Spain, beginning with 
Ataulfus, are prior to the 16th century. 
See, too (Salon de Sesiones), a good but 
unfinished painting by Fortuny, the 
great Catalan artist, representing the 
battle of Tetuan. There are other 
salones and halls, all modern and indif- 



ferent. Observe from Calle del Obispo 
the elegant Gothic fagade of St George. 

The Town Hall (Casas Consistori- 
ales) is Gothic, of 1373 ; the patio is 
fine, the principal fa9ade modem. The 
Council Chamber {Salon de CierUo)^ 
92 ft. X 45 ft., contains a series of por- 
traits of Catalan celebrities. In the 
Municipal Archives are a valuable col- 
lection of documents, dating from 1300. 
See especially the Hubrica de Brunt- 
qiier, the Li^ vert, and Lilre vermeil^ 
containing the ancient royal privileges, 
fueroB, etc., of the city. 

The Palace has been mostly repaired, 
and this in a very paltry way. The 
older portion was the palace of the 
counts of Barcelona, and was built in 
the 12th century. The church is of a 
somewhat later period. The painting 
outside imitates the style of the former 
facade of stone. The interior is not 
interesting. The cuarto nave was built 
in 1549. The former Salon de Emba- 
jadores is now the church of Sta. Clara. 
The chapel of Sta. Agueda was the for- 
mer royal chapel, and exhibits fine 
specimens of the early Gothic. It is 
now the Museo ArqueoMgico provin- 
cial, with over 1000 specimens of 
Roman sculpture, mosaics, pottery, 
etc., and deserves a visit. 

The TTniversity. — A conspicuous 
pile of buildings of quasi »Bjzaxitiue 
character, dating from 1873, stands 
near the Plaza de Catalu&a. While 
leaving much to be desired in the way 
of curriculum, this is perhaps the most 
advanced of all Spanish universities, 
with a stafif of really enlightened pro- 
fessors, some 2500 students and a fair 
library of 200,000 vols, and MSS. It 
has upwards of 80 primary schools 
attached to it Every attention is paid 
to visitors. See especially the fine stair- 
case, the Para/ninfo, Sala Bectoral, 
paintings of the modem Spanish school, 
and MSS. in the library. 

Private Buildings. — There are 
many mansions of the 14th and 15th 
centuries well worth visiting. The 
Casa Dalmases, Calle Moncada 20, has 
a notable fa9ade and most exquisite 
Renaissance patio ; also some fine but 
sadly neglected salas within. In the 
same street are several other specimens 
of Italian and transitional Gothic man- 
sions of the Middle Ages, but* none so 
fine as the Dalmases. The houses of 
Gralla and Despli have lost most 
of their ancient magnificence. The 
former was built about 1306 l^ the 
well-known Aragonese architect, Da^ 
mian Forment The fiigade is a good 
specimen of transitional Gothic. See 
especially the 14th centuiy patio, still 
well preserved, with its elegant Corinth- 
ian columns and (jk>thio balustrade. 
Observe also the entrance doon On 
the pedestals of the columns may be 
traced the inscriptions, * Publicae venus- 
tati* and *Privat® utilitati ' — for public 
adorning and private use. 

The Casa de Dusay stands on the 
site of a castle where the Wali Ghamir 
was confined. The patio is no longer 
that which Forment built at the begin- 
ning of the 16th century. There are 
still some good specimens of ornament 
of the Revival Casa Cardonas, dose 
to Bigada de San Miguel, has also a 
fine patio, good artesonados, a noble 
staircase, and windows much orna- 

Antiquities. — These are most seen 
in museums and private galleries. The 
older portion of the city lay aboat the 
present cathedral The line of fortifica- 
tions followed this course — Calle de la 
Tapineria, Esoalas de la Sen, Plaza 
Nueva ; here there was a gate to N.W. 
flanked by towers, then behind la Palla, 
Calle des Banys, el Call, to the palace, 
Plaza de Arrieros, and continuing by 
the upper part of the hUls that are 
here, went by Calle de Basea and San 



JuBto to join and meet the other 
extremity of the circuit at the Arco de 
la Bajada de la CarceL In a house 
No. 10 Calle de Paradis, behind the 
apse of the cathedral, is a remarkable 
series of six Roman columns and 
an architrave, usually assigned to a 
* Temple of Hercules ' ( !), more probably 
the remains of some great public work. 
There are magnificent cloacae, a work 
ascribed to the Scipios, which run un- 
der the Rambla (from Rami and Ram- 
bula, rivula), and through which a man 
on horseback can easily pass. Of Arab 
architecture there are no monuments, 
and the five Moorish baths in Calle 
del Banys Frets hare long disappeared. 
The Roman amphitheatre was close to 
Calle Fernando, of which the vonUtoria 
looked on the present Calle Boqueria. 
In the Call (Latin^ callis, whence ccUle, 
Spanish for street, and also avenue and 
garden-walk), and thereabouts was the 
Ghetto, or quarter of the Jews, who had 
several synagogues, large depdts, and a 
great trade with the East The Bom, 
where tournaments took place, and the 
other markets, will interest the artist. 
The most important hospitals, etc. 
are — La Caridad, a well-managed poor- 
house ; Misericordia, for poor girls, who 
are brought up to be servants or work- 
women ; Sta. Oruz, for convalescents, 

Places of Public Besort. — Pro- 
menades. — The Rambla is much fre- 
quented in the evening. In the summer, 
the Paseo de Colon is a very cool walk ; 
the Paseo de Gracia is the Hyde Park 
and Rotten Row of Barcelona, hours 
tvom 2 to 5 P.M. The Park (de la ex- 
Ciudadela) really deserves the name of 
Botanical Gardens. See especially the 
exotic shrubs ; also the lake, Cascade, 
and Museo MartorelL The Paseo del 
Cementerio and the many Yauxhallian 
gardens are interesting for study of 
costume and character. 

Theatres. — The Liceo, or Opera- 
house, has been rebuilt on the site, 
and we believe the same proportions 
as the former, which was burnt down. 
It is on the model of La Scala of Milan, 
but larger than either it or the San 
Carlo of Naples, and accommodates 
upwards of 4000 spectators at their 
ease ; the boxes are large, and well 
adapted to show ofif dresses : first-rate 
Italian opera in winter. Ladies gener- 
ally attend with bonnets on the lower 
tiers ; half-dress is usual Gentlemen 
can dress ad libitwn. The principal 
boxes, being private property, can sel- 
dom or never be obtained. Price of a 
box, ;ilOr. ; a stall, 18r. Tea^o Prin- 
cipal. A pretty theatre ; Spanish 
comedy, drama and dancing, opposite 
to Hotel de las Cuatro Naciones. 
Odeon, second-rate ; the peiformers are 
generally amateurs ; dramas, etc. (Hreo 
Ba/rcdoniSy concerts and soirees de 
magie, etc. Butl-fights. — These are 
very inferior here to those in Anda- 
lusia, Madrid, eta, and Catalans are 
no lovers of tauromachia. The Plaza 
was built in 1833, on the plan of that 
at Madrid ; it holds 10,000 spectators. 
The Carnival is veiy gay. The local 
great holidays are Feb. 12th, Sta. 
Eulalia, tutelar of the city (go to Sar- 
ria, etc.) ; Jan. 17, San Antonio, horse- 
races ; April 23, San Jorge (tiie fSte 
take places in gardens, courts, chapel 
of the Audiencia) ; on Easter Monday, 
at CoU and Gracia, great merriment^ 
fairs, booths, etc. Club, — There is a 
very good Casino, comfortably fitted 
up, foreign papers and reviews taken 
in ; presentation by a member neces- 
sary; several public reading-rooms, but 
no Ihiglish papers. 

Directory. — Apothecaries. — Borrell, 
Calle Conde del Asalto. Bankers, — 
Girona hermanos, Clav^ and Co., cor- 
respondents of London and Westmin* 
ster ; Compte and Co. , agents of Messrs. 



Hoaro and Co. Baths, — Pasaje de la 
Paz, 3 ; Rambla do Estudios, 8 ; from 
8r. to lOr., linen included, both good. 
Booksellers, — Verdaguer, Lopez, and 
Bonnebault, all on Rambla. Cafis. 
— Coffee-houses at Barcelona are lai^ 
establishments, fitted up with great 
luxury ; and ices, agraz, horchata, are 
very well prepared. The handsomest 
and most frequented are the Colon, 
Barcelona and Suizo, all on Rambla. 
"Waiters are called by clapping one*s 
hands, and not by striking the glass, 
as in Paris. There are some good 
restaurants, where one can dine d la 
ca/rte and so much a head, French 
cooking ; the best are Martin, Rambla 
del Centro 6, and de Francia, Plaza 
Real 12, Grocer and Wine Mer* 
chanti Martignole, Calle Escudillers 
10. C^«c^io7t^, Llibre, comer of Calle 
Fernando and Rambla. Blondes and 
Lace. — ^Yery good. Fiter, Plaza Real 1 ; 
Jaime Viv^s, Calle Fernando. Silks, — 
Fine Spanish produce, manufactured in 
Catalonia and Valencia, etc., and foreign 
— Escuder, Calle Fernando. Glovers, — 
£1 Siglo, Rambla de Estudios. 

Consuls. — ff. B, M,*s Constdate, 
Calle Plata 7 (F. Wooldridgo, Esq.) 
United Staies, — haaXU) 57 (F. H. 
Scheuck, Esq.) 

English Doctor, — None. Several 
French and Spanish speak English. 

Chwrch of England, — Divine service 
every Sunday, at 11 and 6 o'clock, at 
No. 346 Calle Cortes. 

Money - changers. — Several, equally 
good, on the Rambla. N,B. — French 
gold and silver current Giro Mutuo, 
— ^A banking company; money from 
the smallest possible sums remitted 
all over Spain for 2 per cent pre- 
mium, in the Plaza de Palacio; open 
from 9 till 4. Perfximer. — Roviralta, 
5 Calle Fernando. Wines. — The Cata- 
louian wines are strong, not very 
delicate, but rich and juicy. Beni- 

Carl(S is sent to France, where it 
is mixed with very light Bordeaux. 
This red wine is susceptible of ameli- 
oration. Malvasia de Sitjes, Taya, 
Atella, Cullera, Priorato, ought to 
be tasted. Manila shawls and gene- 
ral china warehouse, fims, ivory, etc, 
Quer, Calle Boters, 6. 

Picture Galleries, Collections, Mt^ 
seums. — The Catalan is no connoisseur 
of painting, and the Museo is unim- 
portant. Of Yiladomat there are 
some good specimens, especially Sta. 
Clara, La Stigmata, etc. There are 
many libraries, private and public, rich 
in MSS. and local history. Arehivo 
Genl, de la Corona de Aragon, — It is 
one of the oldest, best-arranged, and 
most important archives in Europe. It 
was established by Pedro IV. del Pun- 
yalct. The admirable classification is 
due to the late keeper of the archives. 
The documents date from the 9th 
century. This establishment is pub- 
lishing a collection of political and ad- 
ministrative documents of value, espe- 
cially for the history of the kingdoms 
of Valencia, Catalufia, Aragon, Majorca, 
and their dependent portions in southern 
France, Italy, etc. Free admittance. 

Libraries, Picture Galleries, etc, — 
Besides those already mentioned, the 
Episcopal Library, 15,000 vols., 2000 
MSS. of Spanish romance, coins, speci- 
mens of minerals and natural history. 
The library of the Ateneo (the Casino) 
on the Rambla, Plaza del Teatro 7, 
15,000 vols. ; fine rooms ; admission 
only by a member. The Biblioteca del 
Seminario Condliar, in the Calle Di- 
putacion, 18,000 vols. Bibliotecas 
Populures (people's libraries), Calle Alta 
de San Pedro, and in the Casas Consis- 
toriales. Biblioteca de Jurisprudencia, 
de Medidna, etc. Museo Salvador, a 
good collection of the natural history of 
Catalufia, geology, minerals, antiquities. 
Museo del Sr. de Belloch, Paseo de 



Gracia. Escuela and Museo de Bellas 
Artes, Casa Lonja ; see especially paint- 
ings of Fortuny, Viladomat, and other 
representatives of the Catalan and 
Valencian schools. Museo of Sr. 
Bosch y Pazzi, Calle Ripoll, 22. 

Fiiblic Instruction, — It is very well 
organised here, and education is very- 
general and popular. There are 85 
schools of primary instruction ; and 
several higher schools, mostly founded 
and supported by the town, Chamber 
of Commerce, etc. "We shall mention 
the larger schools : Escolapios, Oolegio 
Barcelon^s, Seminario ConcUiar; be< 
sides Faculty of Medicine, College of 
Surgeons, etc. 

Cab Fares, — Stands in all the prin- 
cipal plazas — De la Constitucion, Santa 
Ana, de Palacio, del Teatro, de Cata- 
lufia,etc. Comfortable caleches. Cabbies 
apt to be extortionate unless bargained 


From 6 A.M. to xo p.m. 

The Course— I Horse. 
Do. 2 Horses. 

The Hour— I Horse. 
Do. a Horses. 

From ID P.M. to 6 a.m. 

The Course — x Horse. 
Do. a Horses. 

The Hoiu>— I Horse. 
Do. 3 Horses. 

JV.A— Omnibuses and trsuns run through 
the city in all directions. 

Suburbs. — ^Visit the barrio or quar- 
tier called Barceloneta, S.E. of city, and 
built in the beginning of this century. 
It is on a perfectly regular plan, the 

« fl 


g ^ 

o I 

'^ s 

b ^ 

H i> 
































straight line being the rule, composed 
of houses of the same size and shape, 
containing a population of upwards of 
15,000, mostly sailors and lower classes. 
Orada, N.W. of city, at the foot of 
the hill Tibidabo, close to the most 
fashionable promenade, a flourishing 
town of 85,000 inhabs., with restaur- 
ants, tea-gardens, etc. Sarrid is 
another favourite resort of the Bar- 
celonese on holidays and summer 
evenings. There are several pretty 
villas, called in Catalufia torres, scat- 
tered about the country with charming 
gardens and vistas. See especially El 
Laberinto and the Torre of Sr. An- 
glada, near Horta. Rail to Sarrid, 
through Gracia, 17, 12, 8 cuartos, in a 
few minutes. 

£xcursioHs,— To baths of Montbuy, of La- 
puda, etc. To JHonserrat.— An exctursion to 
this celebrated monastery, and picturesque 
hills around it, ought not to be omitted. Con- 
veyances: — is^ by rail from Barcelona to 
Martorell, about x hr., 13 reals. At Mar- 
torell take a carriage to Collbatd, 2 hrs. ; from 
Collbat<5 (an inn, Posada Nueva de las Cuevas) 
to Mohserrat, riding (donkeys and horses). 
N.B.—-U carriages be preferred to riding, 
there are carriages to Monserrat, but this is 
the longest way. ad mode, Barcelona to 
Monistrol by rail, 31 J m.; fares, zst cL, Pes. 
5.90; 2d. cL, Pes. 4.40; time, 2 hrs.; from sta- 
tion of Monistrol to the village, \ hr.; Moni- 
strol to Monserrat, riding, 2 hrs. Fares to 
ascend Monserrat :— A guide and donkey, 8r. 
for a man, xor. if a lady riding ; a guide to 
show the grottoes X4r., a torch xor.; for Ben- 
gal fire, used to illuminate the grottoes, etc., 
i6r.; half an hour requisite to reach the grot- 
toes. A whole day is indispensable to see the 
principal sights, but two would fatigue less. 
The inn at Collbat6 is fair. At Monserrat visi- 
tors are assigned rooms in the Hospederia, but 
meals must be taken in the Fonda adjoining. 
A stay of three days may be made, or longer by 
special permission. Payment is made by a 
donation, 5 pesetas a day being usuaL 

Description. — Monserrat, Mons Serratus, 
or the Jagged Mountain, is so called from 
its form; it is about 8 leagues in circum- 
ference, and the pinnacles range some 3500 



ft high. It is one of the most celebrated 
shrines in Spain, and the object of yearly pil- 
grimages, which once numbered upwards of 
60,000 pilgrims, but are gradually thinning in 
proportion as true piety is becoming more 
enlightened. According to the legend, Bishop 
G<Hidemar, hearing a report spread by some 
shepherds that mysterious lights were seen, 
and music heard, both coming from the Jagged 
Mountain, visited it in 880 to find out the 
truth. A small statue of the Virgin was dis- 
covered in a grotto. This image (the one now 
here) is said to be the work of St Luke, and 
to have been brought to Spain by St Peter. 
It was concealed here by the Bishop of 
Barcelona when the Arabs invaded CataluSa. 
As it was being carried toManresa by the 
bishop, he soon fancied he discovered strong 
and weighty proof that it was the statue's par- 
ticular wish not to travel farther. An altar was 
then raised, a chapel built, and an anchorite 
placed to watch over it Now the devU came 
en ^ersonm to inhabit a grotto close by, with 
the determination to lead astray the pious man. 
Wilfred, then Count of Barcebna, had a beau- 
tiful dmighter, Riquilda, who, having become 
possessed by die evil s{Hrit, declared that the 
latter would not leave her until Juan Guarin, 
the godly anchorite, gave him leave tQ do so. 
The count then took her to the hermit, and 
left her to his care. Guarin was perversely 
inspired, and finally cut her head off, and 
buried the body. Gnarin, all repentance, 
parted company with his wicked friend, and 
fled to Rome. The Pope gave him absolu- 
tion, but ordered him to return to Monserrat, 
never to. look up to heaven, but that he should 
walk and feed like the beasts and never utter 
a word. Heaven seems to have confirmed the 
Pope's verdict, for shortly after he was turned 
into a wild beast The htmtsmen of Count 
Wilfred captured the strange animal, and took 
him to the palace, where he became a great 
lion. But not long after, at a banquet given 
by the count, the wild beast being introduced 
for the gaze of the guests, a child cried out to 
it, * Arise, Juan Guarin ; thy ans are pardoned 
thee.' ITie beast then became once more the 
former Monserrat anchorite, was pardoned by 
the count, and a search being made by the 
father and Guarin, led to the discovery of fair 
Riquilda, who, notwithstanding having had her 
throat cut and being buried for ei^^t years in 
a deep hole, reappeared alive, and with only 
% red rim on her throat, more like a silk thread 
than a woimd, and more becoming than other- 
wise. Count Wilfired founded a nunnery, of 
which Riquilda became the lady abbess, and 
Guarin head butler or mayor domo. The 
miracles performed by the lK)ly image at- 

tracted thousands of pilgrims, and the nuns 
were removed and monks placed in their stead. 
It has been ever since a favourite shrine 
with kings, popes, great captains, etc., and 
was especially patronised during the xsth and 
i6th centuries. The Te$ero of the Virgin was 
truly magnificent and amoimted to upwards of 
aoQ,ooo ducats. The ostensorium given by 
Philibert of Savoy contained upwards of zooo 
diamonds, 100 pearls, zoo sajaphires, opals, 
etc. One of her numberless crowns was en- 
riched with 3500 emeralds. Don Juan of 
Austria placed around it the flags and banners 
he had captured at Lepanto ; and when Philip 
V. visited the chapel there were no precious 
lamps of massive silver before the altar. Most 
of die riches were carried away when Suchet's 
troops kq;)t garrison at the monastery for three 
months. Portions of the builduigs were pulled 
down, the library burnt, and the monks hanged 
or htmted out of their cells. In 1837, Ferdi- 
naod VII. granted ^^5000 for the reconstrnc- 
ricm of the edifices; and Queen Isabella, on 
her visit in 1857, made the Virgin several 
loesents and left money. The former diurch 
and monastery no longer exist ; the only 
vestige is a Byzantine portal and a small por- 
tion of the Gothic cloisters of X476. The present 
convent is well situated ; the cluster of buildings, 
some of them eight storeys high, is placed on a 
terrace overlooking a gorge, where rocks are 
jumbled together in Salvator Rosa Ityle, with 
plains at the end coloured witl^a greyish 
yellow, amd dark forests scattered in the dis- 
tance. At the back there are lofty and preci- 
pitous masses of conical rocks rising to a great 
height The Llobregat winds through the 
plain below, and the background of this grand 
tableau- is formed by the distant Pyrenees, 
blending with the clouds. There is little to 
see here save the scenery, which is wild and 
grand. The hermitages, once very numerous, 
and placed in almost inaccessible and retired, 
solitary, lofty spots, are no longer what they 
were : most have disappeared, and the rest are 
crumUing fast Visit the rock-walled garden ; 
the chiurch, where there is a good retablo, 
the work of Esteban Jordan, and a reja, a 
masterpiece of Cristobal de Salamanca, 1578. 
The celebrated image is of inferior execution, 
made of dark wood. The Cneva^ or Grata de 
la Esperanza, is a very large grotto, with a 
stalactite-roofed grotto adjoining called El 
Camarin. This latter leads to Tocador de las 
Silfides (Boudoir of the Sylphs). At the 
bottom of the larger grotto is the Pozo (well) 
del DiahlOt so yards deep. Descend into it 
and cross several grottoes, all curious, and 
rendered effective by the stalactite roof and the 
calcareous incrustations on the walls The 



largest is called GaUria de San BartoltmS. 
To the right of it is another, Claustro eU los 
MoHJeSi where the stalactites with the stalag- 
mites have, by blending, formed slender pillars. 
From it proceed to the Gruta eU las Estalac- 
Htas. The spectacle presented here by the 
thousand diflferent fantastical forms assumed 
by the crystallisation and incrustations is 
greatly enhanced by the light of the torches 
and Bengal foe generally lighted up for the 
greater eflfect Hence to Gruta del Ele/aHte, 
io called from the seeming form of that animal 
placed in the centre, and formed by an im- 
posing mass. Observe in it besides a strikingly 
regular ogival arch, naturally formed. Here 
ladies may limit their excursion to this curious 
underground palace. Those whom nothing 
daunts'-atisl is, neither mud nor dampness — 
we advise to proceed to Boca deljnfiomoy 
56 mitres deep ; to Gruta de la Dama Blanca, 
where the lady in white is a large white rock, 
my^eriously wrought by nature. Thence, 
after crossing several other curious halls full of 
stalactites, the Salon, del Absido Gotico is 
attained, which is the last The temperature 
varies a good deal, and we advise tourists 
setting out on the complete groftd tour 
(which takes 6 hrs. ) of this subterraneous coun- 
try to provide themselves with wrappers, as, 
whilst it is 30 degrees centigrade in the last- 
named grotto, it is 15 in that of Las Estalacti- 
tas, and only 9 in the Vestibule. The church 
is mostly modernised. Visit the Camarin, or 
wardrobe, of the Virgin, where her cosdy and 
beautifully embroidered mantos are carefully 
kept ; and the devotees (devotos de la Virgen) 
may kiss her statue's hand. The mountain 
is jailed, ox separated into two portions or 
hills, forming thus the small valley, where the 
winter torrents have formed a ravine, which 
serves as a line of demarcation between the 

bishoprics of Vich and Barcelona. This violent 
rent or separation was im)duced, say religious 
legends, at the moment of the crucifixion. 
Geology explains it by the eruption of a vol- 
cano, and the waters which filled the summits 
forming an immense basin or lake. 

The 13 hermitages formed what is called a 
Xfia cruets and scala ceeli^ which began at the 
hermitage of Santiago and ended at that of St. 
Teronimo. The views from the former are 
extensive. The mountain itself, which is after 
all the lion here, is formed by several huge 
clustering conical hills, through which all access 
is difficult These ' aiguilles' consist of rotmd 
calcareous stones, of various colours, and 
hewn, so to speak, by a sort of natural bitumen 
mixed with sand. Continued rains gradually 
destroy by decomposition this glutinous fossil 
pitch; they thus render these peaks more 
pointed, carry away the soil and sand, and 
plough the slopes of the mountain in all direc- 
tions, filtering through the mass and producing 
these stalactites whidi we see in the gro^oes of 
Collbatd. Tlie detritus accumulated at the 
base of the mountain has at last become an 
excellent vegetable soil, which produces &ie 
wheat and vines ; and though the summits are 
rugged, denuded, and sterile, the slopes, within 
an extent of 35 kiL circumference, are clothed 
with vegetation, and present a series of 200 
varieties of plants. Tlie motmtain stands 
isolated. Itn spurs extend N.W., and are of 
great height also, and the whole mass forms 
part of the Pyrenean range. The greatest 
height is about 3390 ft above the sea, and 8 
leagues in circumference. The mountain b 
rent the third part ^ its whole height, forming 
thus two hills or summits separated by a nar- 
row valley, where the rains have dug a small 
ravine W. to E. 


Geoorafhioal Administrative Di- 
visions. — These three provinces, Alava, 
Vizcaya, Guipuzcoa (capitals, Vitoria, 
Bilbao, San Sebastian) are commonly 
called *Las Provincias,' to which Vas- 
congadas is often added ; they consti- 
tuted the ancient Cantabria (from Kent- 
Aber, comer of the water), the inhabit- 
ants of which were never expelled 
from their native soil, and proved as 
indomitable as the Astnrii and all 
mountaineers generally are. Thelai|i^t 

of the three is Biscay, which measures 
some 814 m. fiom N. to S., and 39 m. 
K to "W., with a seaboard of 52i m. in 
extent. The smallest, that of Guipuz- 
coa, contains only 62 square leagues, 
and Alava 116 square leagues. The 
population is : — Vizcaya, 190,000 j 
Alava, 104,000; Guipuzcoa, 186,000; 
total 479,000. The principal rivers 
are: — the Bidassoa, which rises on 
the S.W. slopes of the Pico de Les- 
sete, in the range of the Alduides, some 



3386 ft above the level of the sea ; the 
Ibaizabal, Arratia, Oidu&a, and Cadag- 
na, in Biscay, which uniting their waters 
form the Kervion that crosses Bilbao 
and empties itself into the Atlantic. 
The principal towns, besides the capitals 
already mentioned, are : Tolosa, Iran, 
and Yergara. The principal ports those 
of Lequeitio, Portugalete, and Laredo. 
The three provinces are placed under 
the military jurisdicton of a Capitania- 
General de las Provincias Yascongadas 
and Navarre, whose residence is at 
Pamplona. There is a gobemador for 
each, and judicially and ecclesiastically 
they depend on the audiencia of Burgos 
and the dioceses of Santander and Cala- 

History. — ^The Basques are said to 
be the descendants of the earliest in- 
habitants of the Peninsula, and to this 
day they have preserved intact the 
character, customs, and language, of 
their forefathers. With all justice they 
can lay claim to the title of the oldest 
race in Spain. They call their language 
Eskara or Euskani, and themselves 
Escualdunac, meaning, perhaps, strcmg 
hand. From the first they constituted 
small republics, ruled by chiefis elected 
among themselves, and according to 
especial codes or fueros, which breathed 
fierce independence, parochial exclusive- 
ness, and stem but patriarchal regula- 
tions. This national code has been 
respected at all times, and by every 
ruler, forming an imperium in imperio, 
with its especial House of Commons, 
Diputacion Provincial, tariffs, tolls, 
police, and army. There is now some 
talk of abolishing these fueros, and the 
moment seems to have come when they 
may be suppressed without causing any 
real and lasting disturbance. The 
Basques have played no important part 
in the annals of Spain. In 1106 those 
on the French side purchased the La- 
board for 3306 gold florins, and were 

incorporated with France in 1451, tmder 
Charles YIL, but continued to enjoy 
certain exemptions from taxes, enlist- 
ment in the army, etc In 1330 and 
1333, the Spanish Basque Provinces 
submitted to the authority of Alfonso 
XI. of Castile, and were annexed to 
Castile by Pedro the Cruel, who put to 
death Juan of Aragon, husband of the 
heiress to the lordship (sefiorio) which 
these provinces constituted. 

Charaoteb, Lanouage, and DbE88. 
— ^The Vaacuenses are a most noble, 
high-minded, and interesting race ; a 
haughty, stem, independent people, 
noted for truthfulness and honesty, and 
unbounded hospitality. They are ad- 
dicted to agriculture and smith-work, 
make excellent sailors, and have be- 
come most remarkable discoverers. £1- 
oano, who commanded one of Magel- 
lan's ships ; Legazpia, who made the 
conquest of the Philippine Islands, and 
founded the first Spanish town at Zebu, 
Loaira, etc. ; and the discovery of 
Greenland, Canada, Newfoundland, etc., 
have been ascribed to Basques. They 
were certainly the earliest whale-fisher- 
men on record, and to this day man tiie 
French and Spanish whalers that leave 
Bayonne, Bordeaux, and the Spanish 
northern ports. They are good soldiers, 
especially when tmder the immediate 
and exclusive orders of a countryman 
(paisano), and the tercios Yascongados 
were always held in great repute. 
Though deficient in wor^ of imagina- 
tion, taste, and art, they are excellent 
mathematicians, learned scholars, and 
stout reasoners. Physically, they are 
a very superior race, tall, muscular, 
well-proportioned, wiry, and swift- 
footed. Fair hair and blue eyes are 
frequent — a feet explained by the long 
and constant intercourse and partial 
amalgamation with the Northmen dur- 
ing the 9th century, and their Celtic 
origin. The women are very handsome, 



fair-complezioned, and with magnificent 
long hair, worn in l/remaas banging over 
the back. They are reserved and 
haughty before strangers. Their claims 
to be the descendants of Koah and 
Tubal, the most noble race in the world, 
and of pure and earliest nobility, are 
prominent features in their character. 
Every Yascongado is bom a ealallero a 
goicoa, and proud armorials are very 
frequently seen sculptured in stone over 
a humble cottage or a dilapidated ho veL 
Their customs, games, etc., are all in- 
teresting and evince antiquity. For 
instance, com and bread are offered to 
the dead on the anniversary day of their 
death. At Elizondo, San Sebastian, 
etc. , we have often seen some poor fisher- 
man's daughter, in a church, praying 
for a dead relative, amid baskets fiQl of 
firuit, loaves of bread, and com, and 
kneeling upon the tomb of her ancestors, 
bearing an escutcheon with canting 
arms. The dances on holidays must 
also be noticed for their originality and 
antiquecharacter,the2!orcu:o, thecomca, 
the espcUcit and others, are all interest- 
ing to witness. The bagpipe, tam- 
bourine, fife, and the silbato are the 
usual rude Berber-like instruments that 
accompany l^em. The wild cries of 
outbursting joy, the clashing of the 
chestnut iron-ended ma^7za,the delight 
of the dancers, bring back to our recol- 
lection their definition by Voltaire : — 
' Les Basques sont un petit peuple qui 
saute et danse au sommet des Pyr6n^.' 
The great national amusement is the 
iuego de pelota, fives-court, which is 
met with in the most insignificant 
hamlet They are the best players in 
Europe, and have frequently beaten the 
French Basques, renowned alike in this 
game. The dress is picturesque but 
plain. The men wear short velvet 
jackets, mostly dark green or brown, 
long loose trowsers of the same material, 
alpai^tas (sandals) or wooden shoes, 

in winter, called madreflas, A blue or 
vivid red sash girds the loins, and the 
head-gear consists of the picturesque 
baina, generally blue. 

The women cover their heads in the 
cold and rainy months, or when they 
go to church, with the cloth hood, black 
or brown, worn in Navarre, the Pyre- 
nees French and Spanish, the south of 
France, and Bruges in Belgium. 

The LAK6UA.aE is said by some philo- 
logists to be akin to Mandchu and Mon- 
golian, and, according to Humboldt, 
was formerly spoken throu^out all 
Spain. It certainly is a primitive 
tongue, without the least analogy with 
any of Latin or Teutonic origin. Its 
vigour, word-painting, and locutions 
are most remarkable, and it is consi- 
dered the richest of all. There are 
some 4000 words of one, two, and three 
syllables, and some of them contain as 
many as sixteen ! The pronunciation 
is harsh, tmharmonious, and most diffi- 
cult to leam. The devil is said to have 
studied it, and could not leam above 
three words after several years' labour ; 
while one of the best authorities on it 
is a prince of the Bonaparte family, who 
succeeded in speaking it after a short 
residence in the country. The nouns, 
pronouns, and adjectives change into 
verbs at will, and likewise verbs may be 
transformed into nouns and adjectives. 
All prepositions, adverbs, conjunctions, 
interjections, the very letters of the al- 
phabet, are declined like nouns or adjec- 
tives and conjugated like verbs. The 
substantive changes according to the 
condition ci the being or thing to de- 
signate, expressing graphically the 
sense of objects to which they are ap- 
plied, thus : — 

Gad is called yatn Goicoa^ that is, the good 
Master who dwells on high. 
Moan „ /TtfyyAj, light of the dead. 
Cemetery „ Nerria, the land of the dead. 
Science .. Icashide, road to learning. 



k new house is called EicAtverry, and any- 
body's house — say Raymond's 
house — Erremunteghia. 

Lope de Vega, who traced Ms origin 
to one of these provinces, says ; — 

Para noble nacimiento 
Hay en EspaSa tres partes, 
Galicia, VizcayOy Asturias, 
O ya montoHas las Ilaman. 

Indeed, every Basque claims a descent 
at least from IToah, and maintains it as 
seriously as any Scotchman : As is told 
of one who, on being infonned that we 
all descended from Noah, asserted that 
his family * didna do so,' for they had 
at the time of the deluge ' a little ark 
of their own,' a story similar to one 
told of some of the members of the Due 
de Levi's family, who seriously pretend 
to be nearly related to the Virgin Mary, 
who was one of the tribe of Ltfoi, But 
the sensible Spaniard remarks, *hay 
parentescos que no les aleanza un galgo. ' 
Aqeicultural Peoduob, Mines, etc 
— The country is very hilly, containing, 
but as exceptions to the rule, some 
charming green valleys embosomed 
amid chestnut-clad slopes, oaks, and the 
blue arrowy pine. The scenery, cottages, 
villages, and houses, are most Swiss- 
like. The tinkling of beUs hung 
around the velvet-coated black and 
white cows, mostly imported from 
Brittany or Navarre ; the wild, shrill, 
joyful cries of the cowherds calling to 
each other across the valleys ; the blue- 
green meadows watered by sparkling 
riUs, fringed by English -looking hedges; 
the slopes of clustered hills gilt by the 
waving maize ; whitewashed cottages 
studded about : how different aU from 
the dusty, dreary, deserted, savage 
Castile which we have crossed or are 
about to enter] the well-kept roads, 
secure bridges, regular pretty villages, 
with a tidy plaza, a shady alameda, and 
the school-house and church, frill of 

sunshine ; all bespeak good self-govern- 
ment, habits of order, and honest toil 
There are several manufactories of paper, 
soap, matches, cotton and linen, woollen 
stuffs, etc., at Imn, Renteria, Tolosa, 
Lasarte, and Vergara. Iron-foundries 
at Irura and Tolosa. Mines are not 
veiy abundant. Iron is found at Ciz- 
urquil and Alzo, and especially at So- 
morrostro, mentioned by Pliny, where it 
is most abundant, producing upwards 
of 2,000,000 tons of ore annually. 
That of Balmaseda is also considerably 
worked and abundant. Pyrites of cop- 
per are found close to Bilbao, lead at 
Monte Haya, etc Chalk, alabaster, 
baryta, and calcareous spar are very 
common, and galine is extracted from 
the rich mines of Elarrio, Mafiaria, 
Guadalcano, etc (N. of Bilbao) ; coals 
have not been found, and are brought 
from Asturias. 

Some of the best TrUneral springs are 
to be met with in these provinces, such 
as Santa Agueda, near Mondiagon (sul- 
phate of caldom and chlorure of so- 
dium), Alzola ; Arechavaleta (sulphu- 
ric acid gas and sulphate of calcium), 
near Vergara; Cestona (chlor. sod.), 
not far from Azpeitia ; Molinar de 
Carranza (ac carb.) ; Cortezubi, near 
Murquiiia (sulph. hydrog.), Zaldivar, 
etc. The principal products of the 
province are maize, red and white ; ex- 
ceUent fruit, such as the pavia peaches 
of the valley of Gardegnek, near Bilbao; 
l^e ddicions Busturia cherries; juicy 
apples from Durango, and chestnuts. 
Com is not much grown, as the climate 
does not allow it to ripen sufficiently. 
The exports are null ; the imports con- 
sist chiefly of com, cheap French wines, 
etc The Chacoli wine produced here 
is sour, and strangers cannot drink it 
without water. Some crystal is manu- 
factured at La Piedad de Ibaizabal ; 
linen at Begoiia ; porcelain, ropes, pa« 
per, etc, at Buistoria. The villages 



are comprised in ante-iglesias or dis- 
tricts, so called from being generally 
grouped * before/ or rather around the 
parish church, which is the citadel, the 
palace, the hospital, the seat of govern- 
ment and wisdom in the eyes of the 
religious, simple-minded, patriarchal 
Yascuenses, who readily beliere with 
Napoleon * tout ce que croit mon cur6. * 
The municipalities, parientes mayores 
or infanzones (not the lordSf but, accord- 
ing to the Basque etymology, the first 
occupants of the land, the elders), meet 
under the porch of the church to de- 
liberate on parish matters ; the merin- 
dades, or larger political districts, com- 
prising each several ante-iglesias, meet 
at different large cities of the provinces 
to treat on general matters important 
to the interest of ihe commonwealth. 
But however republican and democratic 
the Basques pretend to be, they retain 
certain aristocratic privileges and prin- 
ciples ; thus, though all bom gentle- 
men, the master of a house is alone 
etcheco-yauna, the equivalent for hi- 
dalgo. Bight of primogeniture also 
exists, which is applied to the first-bom, 
whether a male (etcheco-premua), or a 
female (etcheco-prima). A time-ho- 
noured oak, el arbol de Guernica, is 
from time immemorial the rendezvous 
of the political assemblies of the pro- 
vinces which meet under its shady 
branches (Guernica is near Bilbao), and 
altemately also at Iran, Yittoria, etc. 

Boutes» eto< — The cities are not very 
interesting, save to military tourists who 
may wish to visit the celebrated fields 
of Yittoria, Emani, Iron, San Sebas- 
tian, etc. ; the most picturesque portions 
lie about Yergara, Zarauz, Salinas, 
Mondragon, and maybe visited, follow- 
ing the old coach-road. There is some 
good trout-fishing and caza menor ; the 
country is free from robbers, and the 
local rural police, los miqueletes, are a 
trustworthy, good-natured tribe, always 

ready to aid the traveller, as we have 
personally experienced more than once. 
For a tour in the provinces we should 
suggest the following routes : — 

Irun to Sebastian, c. or. ri.* 
Zarauz, c. 
Bilbao, c 
Orduila, rL 
Vittoria, c. or rL 
Salinas, c. 
Mondragon, c. 
Tolosa, c. 
Irun, c. or ri. 

* C carriage or dil. ; rl. railway. 

There are small caliches to be found in 
every lai^ village, and the wiry, sure- 
footed hack of the country will be often 
preferred to the close stuffy diligence 
and too rapid railway ; the inns are 
everywhere tidy, clean, and the charges 
most reasonable ; the climate is rainy 
and damp — summer and autumn are 
the best seasons for travelling. 

Books op Eeperencb.— The Basque 
literature is of little importance, and 
none is earlier than the 16th century. 
The Souletine Pastorals partake of 
the character of the mediaeval Mysteries, 
and are still performed. Here again, 
however, there is nothing older than 
the middle of the last century. The 
subjects are generally historical and 
legendary, and satire is often happily 
introduced. The Basques, like most 
mountaineers, are proficient in the com- 
position of songs, both historical and 
religious, but more especially satirical 
and light Their proverbs are very 
racy, and have been collected by the 
Souletine Basque, Oihenart, in the 
17th century ; they are contained in 
the MS. copy at the Paris Biblio- 
th^ue Imp^riale, but have been 
printed, Bordeaux in 1847, and at 
Bayonne in 1872. The poetical 
works of Goyhetche, Heribarren, and 
Istneta, also exist Several proverbs, 
and information respecting Basque 



Ktarature, etc., are found in Ohah6's 
' Biarritz, entre les Pyr^n^ et 
rOc^an,* 2 vols. ; Bayonne. And- 

1. * Voyage Arch^ologique et Histo- 
rique dans le Pays Basque, le Labourd, 
et le Guipuzcoa, par M. C^nao Hon- 
cant ;' Paris, Didron, 1867. 

2. Good and authentic information 
may be derived from 'Diccionario geog.- 
historico de EspaSla,' published by the 
Acad, of Hist, in 1802 ; Madrid Ibarra. 
The seccion 1^ comprises these pro- 
vinces and ITavarre, 2 vols. 4to. 

8. * Historia de la Provincia de Gui- 
puzcoa,' by Baroja; San Sebastian, 
1847 (written in Basque). The author 
wrote in 1824 and 1826 (published at 
San Sebastian) two interesting papers on 
the music and dances of this province. 

4. The history of Guipuzcoa has been 
written by Isasti (1626), Velazquez, 
Eccheverri, etc. They are of little 
importance, being founded on fables, 
and many facts distorted by local par- 
tiality. An exception to this is the 

32d vol. of Kisco's 'Espafla Sagrada,' 
and Iturriaza y Zabala's * Historic Gen. 
deVizcaya,' 1786, foL MS. Acad. Hist, 
Madrid (C. 160), and 'Compendios 
hist6ricos de la Oiudad y Villas de 
Alava,* by Landazuri ; Pamplona, Cos- 
oulluela, 1798, 4to. 

The Basque language has been the 
object of very learned investigations by 
Bar. Humboldt. Chah6's ' Dictionnaire 
Basque, Fran^ais, Espagnol, et Latin,' 
may be recommended. The best gram- 
matical treatise is ' Le Verbe Basque en 
Tableanx,' by Prince Bonaparte, Lon- 
don, 1869. Of. also a linguistic map 
of the country by the same author. 
Other grammars are * Essai sur la Langue 
Basque,' by J. Ribary, translated by 
Vinson, Paris, 1877 ; * Grammaire Oom- 
par^e des Dialectes Basques,* by Van 
Eys, Paris, 1879 ; and his simplified 
Basque Grammar in Triibner's series. 
The most complete work is D. Arturo 
Oampion's 'Gramdtica de los cuatro 
Dialectos literarios de la Lengua Eus- 
kara,' Tolosa, 1884. 


Oipital of province of VuEcaya (Biscay), a seaport. Pop. 37,000. 
Routes and Gonve7anoeB.~l8t, from Madrid, by rail throughout, thus :— 

KiL Hme (express.) Fares, zst and sd cL 

Madrid to Miranda (branch buffet, 

carriages changed) by rail . 
Miranda to Bilbao t> • 



The route is uninteresting, though 
the scenery is wild, and the engineering 
ranks among the finest in Europe for 
daring and boldness. 

2d, From Barcelona and Zaragoza 
by Tudela, by rail throughout. Bar- 
celona to Zaragoza, by rail ; Zaragoza 
to Oastejon (rail line of Zaragoza to 
Alsdsua), distance, 94 kil. Time, about 
8 hours 20 min. Fares, Pes. 10.85 ; 
Pes. 8.15. Stops at Oastejon, a good 
buffet. Ohange carriages for Miranda, 

Hme (express.) 
h. m. 


ao8 40 
48 o 

156 40 
36 o 

356 40 X93 40 

by Logrofio. Oastejon to Miranda and 
Bilbao, distance 249 kil. Time, 9 hours 
55 min. Fares, Pes. 28.75; 21.60. 
Junction -station, Miranda. Buffet, 
about 80 min. stops. This journey is 
not interesting. We shall describe it 
very briefly. 

Besoription of Boute. — CaZdhorra 
(Posada de Espinosa), on the river 
Cidacos, was the birthplace of Quin- 
tilian, the rival of Numantia and of 
Zaragoza for dogged resistance against 



the enemy. Here Sertorios sustained a 
long siege against Pompey (b. o. 678), 
when the latter, after a loss of 8000 
men, was compelled to retire. Four 
years after, it was besieged by Apranius, 
and finally taken and destroyed after a 
most desperate resistance. Provisions 
being at an end, human flesh was 
resorted to rather than surrender, and 
at Rome * Fames Calagurritana' became 
a proverb. Indeed, Alfonso el Salrio, 
in his *Partidas,' iv. 17, 8, sets down 
as a law that a father, whilst defending 
a castle, may eat his own son rather 
than surrender : — * Seyendo el padre 
cercado en algun castillo que toviesse 
de se&or, si fuesse tan cuytado de fambre 
que non oviesse al que comer, puede 
comer al ^'o, sin mal estran9a, ante 
que dlesse el castillo sin mandado de su 
seikor.' The town is a thing of the 
past, and perierent ruince* At Castejon 
vehicles may be obtained to baths of 
Fitero, and at Calahorra for those of 
Almedillo. On the Lera, two leagues 
from Logrofko, took place the battle of 
Clavijo, at which Santiago, notwith- 
stancUng having been stoned to death 
some 800 years before, managed to kiU 
60,000 Moors. 

LogrofU). — Inn : Fonda del Universo, 
Pop. 14,000. Capital of province of 
same name. On the right bank of the 
Ebro, on a very fertile plain, well cul- 
tivated and planted, producing the 
good but heady vino de la Rioja. The 
church of Santa Maria la Redonda(!) 
is said to have been erected by order of 
Constantine (?), and is therefore styled 
imperial ; it is Grothic and indifferent, 
the stalls finely carved. The cloisters 
are very early. In the church of San- 
tiago is said to have b^n established 
the order of Santiago. Engineers as 
well as antiquaries and artists should 
examine attentively the bridge over the 
Ebro, built by a Dominican friar called 
San Juan de Ortega, in 1138. Logroiio 

was the residence chosen by General 
Espartero, E.C.6., Duke of Morella, 
etc. etc., and the hero of the Vergara 
Convention. This true patriot, a model 
of honesty and disinterestedness, re- 
tired. Garibaldi-like, to this other Cap- 
rera, where his greatest ambition was 
to rear the largest cherries and cauli- 
flowers in Spain, and to mi^e the best 
wine. Shortly after leaving Logrofko 
Futnmayor is reached. Close to it is 
the small town of Navarrete, whose 
name is familiar to readers of Spanish 
history, on account of the celebrated 
battle which was fought not far from 
its walls, at N&ger% between Enrique 
de Trastamara, aided by the French, 
Duguesclin, and Don Pedro el Cruel, 
who won the day, tianks to his Eng- 
lish allies, headed by the gallant Black 
Prince, April 3, 1367. Some excellent 
silk is produced at Laguardia, near 
Station of Cenicero. The fertile 'Campos 
de la Rioja,* watered by the Ebro, are 
crossed, as well as this river, on nearing 

8d, From Bayonne. A. By land, 
by rail to Miranda, 8^ hours, and then 
to Bilboa, 4 hours — 12 J hours. 

B. By land, by'dH. del Norte y Mediodia in 
i6 hrs., by Vogara <me day, and the other by 
Zarauz and Azcoitia. (Railroad in progress). 

First Ititurary. By Vergara. 


I San Sebastian to Andoai . . a 

Tolosa 3 — 4 

Villairanca 3 

Villareal 3 

Veigara a 

Elgneta z 

Elorrio z 

Durango a 

Zomoza. 3 

Bilbao a 

Fares : berlina, laor. ; interior, xoor. ; im- 
periale, gor. ; no rotunda ; good carriages, 
generally leave at 6 p.m. every other day; 
offices at Hotel de la Posts. Same for either 

r«/&f»a/.— Vehicles for baths of Cestona. 



Vergara.-J^wA inn, de la Posta. A Swtas- 
like town ; manufactories, an excellent colegio, 
situated on the Deva (a good trout stream). 
Pop. 57t6. Sculpturo-amateun may examine 
a fine Dying Christ by Juan Marts Montafict in 
church of San Pedro ; and an excellent statue 
of St. Ignatius in the colegio. In church of 
Sta. Marina, a much-thought-of painting by 
Mateo Cerexo^-subject, the Cristo de Burgos. 
Daily dil. service to Deva, a f as hion a b le sea^ 
side and bathing-place on the river of same 
name; good accommodadon, excellent beach 
for bathing; 3500 souls, 8 leagues, 6 hrs. by 
either Placenda (Government gun manufactory) 
or by Elzoybar and Alzola (mineral waters). 

Tohsa. — Province of Guipuzcoa,9ooo inhab., 
situated in a narrow vale between the Montes 
Emio and Loazu, on the rivers Orio and Arages. 
An improving, tidy, dean, and busy town, as 
most of these provinces are. A good Parador 
de las Diligencias. The old, once Gothic 
church of Sta. Maria was modernised in 1814. 
The magnificent retablo once here, and 90 ft 
high, disappeared, together with the archives of 
the town, etc., during a fire in xjSz. 

Durango. — ^An important military position, 
with 6x90 inhab., charmingly ntuated on a 
plain watered by the Durango. Its church of 
San Pedro de Tavira is one of the earliest in 

Zomoxa. — Close to it, on March ax, 1837, an 
action took place between Espartero, wiUi the 
legion under Sir de Lacy Evans and the Car- 
lisu, which lasted xz hrs., and ended in the 
victory of the former. C The second route 
runs thus: — 

Second Ittrterary. By Zarata amd A aeoiti». 
San Sebastian to Orio . . 3 

£axaux z 

Cestona 4 

Axpeitia x 

Azcoitia x 

Elgoybar a 

Eyfaar x 

Durango 3 

Zomoxa 3 

Bilbao 3 

In z6 hrs. ax 
The scenery is very picturesque, and the 
roads good, though hilly and often narrow. 

ZoraMs.— 3300 inhab. A new fonda; good 
lodging-houses. A sea-side place, becoming 
every day more and more fashionable, situated 
near some very picturesque hills, dotted with 
chestnut and other trees; there are several 
marine villas, built by some Madrid noblemen 
and gentlemen of wealth. The castle-like 
Casa of Cosdes de Narros is die most fire- 

quented evening tertulia, besides those of the 
Duke of Villahermosa, Granada, Count SoHna, 
Sr. D. Pascual Madoz, etc. The playa is 
good and secure, and several pretty excursions 
can be made in the environs. 

Cestona. — ^Mineral spring, very much resorted 
to. The establecimiento can hold a 10 persons ; 
charges moderate, aor. a-day all included. Fre- 
quented by 800 to zooo bathers a-year. 

AzpeiHa. — On the Urriola, 7000 inhab. A 
mile fJBUther is the convent and $anta eata^ 
where Ignatius de Loyola, the founder of the 
Jesuits, was bom in 1491. The former is a 
handsome building, raised in 1683 by Maria 
Ana of Austria, Philip IV. 's wife, on the fine 
old domain of Ignatius. It was built by the 
Roman architect Fontana. There is a grand 
public festival and romeria in honour of the 
saint, towards the end of July, with a great con- 
course of pilgrims. (Fonda de Arteche, Azpeitia, 
poor ; Fonda de Miguel Aracena, close to the 
Santa Casa, good. Travellers should stay at 
the latter.) 

Azcoitia (5000 inhab.) is charmingly situated 
amid woodland, and on the banks of the Urola. 
The stalls of iu church of Sta. Maria la Real 
are elaborately carved, but the chapels tawdry 
and in vile taste. Qose to Elsoybar is the 
mineral spring of Alzola, which has good accom- 
modation, and is much firequented by invalids 
suffering firom die stone, etc. 

J?>^»r.— 4000 inhab. In^wrtant Government 
manufactory of firearms, swords, etc ; the 
machinery is all English, the produce good 
enough, the activity in the works and prosperity 

4th. By steam from the principal 
English ports, Bordeaux, Bayonne, San 
Sebastian, Nantes, Santander, Coruiia, 
Vigo and Lisbon, at frequent but ir- 
regular times. These sea-routes are 
often very delusive, and are only to be 
at all relied upon after actual inquiries 
at the agents' offices. See also adver- 
tisements in local papers, etc., and 
wall placards. 

Hotels.' — Fonda de Inglaterra ; 
Fonda de Antonia ; both very good i 
charges from SO reals per day. Hotel 
Americano; Fonda de las Navarras; 
fair, but not nearly so comfortable. 
Charges from 26 reds. 

Cafi. — £1 Suizo^ on the Arenal. 



Cawtu), — Very good ; in the Plaza 
Nueva. English newspapers. Stran- 
gers readily admitted upon intro- 

Post Office^ in the Plaza Nueva. 

Telegraph Ojgke,—C\o9& by the Post 

^a7iiE;er«.— Espalza and Son, Estufa 9 ; 
Arellano, Arenal 18 ; Succursale of the 
Bank of Spain. 

B<U7h8j Calle Ascao. 

British Consulate, — Opposite the 
railway station. H,B,M, Consul, Hor- 
ace Young, Esq. U,8,A, Consular 
Agmt, Edward Asnar, Esq. 

English Church, Portuf^ete. 

Climate. — ^The city is sheltered from 
the N. winds by the hills of Archanda, 
from the E. by the Morro, from the S. 
by those of Maravilla, but is exposed to 
the icy north-western winds which 
sweep across the ocean. Owing to its 
low situation in a gorge of hills, Bilbao 
is very damp, and from its exposure to 
N.W., S.E., and N.E., the climate pro- 
duces disorders in the respiratory or- 
gans. The air is nevertheless bracing, 
moist, invigorating, and suited to 
weakened constitutions, not predis- 
posed to_ phthisis. The mortdity is 

General BoBoription. — ^This thriv- 
ing and improving mercantile city is 
situated on the right bank of the Ner- 
vion, in a gorge formed by the hills of 
Archanda on the N., the Morro on the 
E.; Moravilla to W., and exposed only 
to th6 K. W. The streets are remarkably 
elean, the houses with projecting gables, 
the Plasa Nueva is large, and formed 
by rows of fine houses, among which is 
the Palace de la Diputacion Provincial 
It is a purely trading town, with little 
or no society, with no edifices to inter- 
est the traveller, and few historical 
associations of importance. Eormerly, 

under the name of Belh Vas, oi 
'beautiful bay ;' it was founded in 
1308 by Diego Lopez de Haro. It 
played no part in the annals of the 
middle ages, showed towards the Eng- 
lish the same hostile spirit as Santander 
during the beginning of this century, 
and sustained two destructive sieges 
against the Carlists, at one of which, 
in June 1835, Zumalacarregui — the 
only hero that civil war ever produced 
— received a mortal wound. Espartero, 
in 1886, coming to the rescue of the 
city, fought and won (close to the 
Luchana bridge) the aedoii^ which was 
raised to a haitle, ashe was in turn raised 
to a grandeza and earldom of that name. 
The most frequented promenade \& 
the Arenal dose to the port, and near 
the small and wretched theatre. The 
Campo Yolantin and the Monton are 
equally charming paseos. The river 
joins the sea at Portugalete, distant 
about 6 m., and which is in reality 
the Port of Bilbao, and a fashionable 
sea-bathing place, 'but de promenade.' 
The bull-fights are much frequented in 
summer by Bordeaux and Bayonne 
amateurs, but the bulls are seldom 
anything but torUos noAKLrros, sdltarines, 
and a small feeble ganado. The Bilba- 
inas, excepting the female carriers 
(Ca/rgueras), who here do all the porters' 
work, are handsome, statuesque in their 
attitudes, and amiable in their temper. 
The living is very cheap; and fish, 
fruit, and meat all excellent The 
Chacoli wine is reckoned among the 
best in the world, more especially by 
those who sell it The chestnut's fame 
does not 'pasar de castafio oscuro,' and 
as for the nuts, we may say, 'mucho 
ruido y pocas nueces.' 

Neither carts nor carriages are al- 
lowed about the streets, with a view to 
cleanliness more than comfort or trade, 
and the object is attained * en honor de 
laverdad' with Dutch-like scrupulosity. 



for we have never seen at Amsterdam 
or the Hague anything to compare to it. 
There are carroaw, or passage-boats, 
plying constantly between Bilbao and 
Portugalete. Passengers by sea land at 
Olaviaga, where conveyances are easily 
procured to the town. Okviaga is 4 
m. distant. 

The Port. — ^The bay stretches be- 
tween Punta Galea and Punta de Luz- 
nero, on its W. side, distant about 3 m. 
The awkward shifting bar at Portu- 
galete has been greatly dredged away, 
so that now ships of 14 feet draught 
can come up and discharge at Olaviaga. 
The trade has rapidly'increased during 
the last 10 years, the port being visited 
now .by some 3000 vessels, of a total 
tonnage of 2, 600, 000 tons. The amount 
of exports is £3,250,000, and of imports 
£2,586,000. Since the discovery of 
the immense iron deposits (chiefly red 
hematite) of the Somorrostro, etc., dis- 
tricts, this has become the chief trade 
of the place, and has completely trans- 
lormed the face of a large portion of 
what was formerly purely an agricul- 
tural country. The mines at Somor- 
rostro, situated about 12 kiL from 
Bilbao on the Santander road, are 
especially deserving of a visit, on 
account of their picturesque surround- 
ings, and the perfection of their me- 
chanical arrangements. The ingenious 
aerial wire tramway, for transporting 
the ore over the hills to its shipping 
destination, may here be seen in active 
operation. The amount of iron ore 
exported annually — two-thirds to Eng- 
land—amounts to upwards of 3,500,000 
tons. There are also several large iron- 
works on the river, the principal being 
those of Ybarra and Co., who have six 
blast furnaces. The output of pig- 
iron and castings amounts to about 
100,000 tons per annum. Shipbuilding 

and repairing also employ a large 
amount of capital 

Bilbao, being a purely commercial 
place, possesses, apart from its pretty 
clean self, and fine surrounding country, 
few objects of interest. It may, how- 
ever, be veiy well made a pleasant 
resting-place for a few days en route for 
less civilised regions. Visit the fine 
12th century bridge of San Antonio, 
the church of Arrichinaga, the prettily 
restored church of Santiago, the mar- 
kets upon the Plaza Yieja, the lovely 
little cemetery which overhangs the 
town, and the (rather weak) Gothic 
church of Santa Maria de BorgoSka 
which stands a quarter of a nule further 
along the hill side. The prosperous 
suburban town of Portugalete should 
also be visited (trams run every few 
minutes down both sides of the river) 
for the sake of its fine sea-views and 
good late Gothic parroqina of Santa 
Maria. Kote in the latter the cleverly 
carved oak rotable of the CapiPa Mayor, 
and, coming out, the glorious vista of 
sea and country obtainable from the 
N. doorway. Portugalete was very 
roughly treated during the Carlist War 
of 1873-75, but has long since put 
away all trace of the mischief then 
wrought It is now a bright and busy 
town, lK>th the resort and the home of 
a great number of Bilbao folk. 

There are two coaches per day to 
Santander vid' Castro, Laredo and 
Solares. These start on alternate days 
from opposite the Fonda Antonia, and 
the church of San Nicolas upon the 
Arenal. For description of route see 
Santander. It is a journey that is 
worth taking for its own sake, through a 
country where coast and inland scenery 
are combined in the rarest perfection. 
The day coach should be chosen, start- 
ing at about 6.30 a.m. 



Capital of the province of tlie same 
name, and of the former of Old Castile 
— an archbishop's see. Pop. about 
82,000. N. lat. 42* 21', W. long. S** 88' 
Greenwich. 2867 ft. above the sea, 
according to Humboldt, and 8076 ft, 

Boutefl and Conv. — 1st, from Bay^ 
(mne. For details of route, see Madrid^ 
By rail in 10 hrs. (exp.) ; distance, 190 
m., fares, 1st cl., 86fr. 80c. ; 2d cl., 26fr. 
00c. ; 8d cl. 15fir. 85c. Three trains a 
day. By leaving Bayonne at 11.21 
A.M. arrive at Burgos at 9. 10 that same 
evening. Tickets at railway station ; 
buffets at Imn, Alsdsua, and Miranda. 

2d. From Madrid, By rail (for de- 
tails of route see Madrid) ; time, 10 hrs. 
exp. ; distance, 226 m. ; fares, 1st cL, 
Pes. 41.75 ; 2d cl.. Pes. 81.85. There 
are five trains a day ; buffets at Avila, 
Medina, Valladolid, V. de Bafios. 

8d. From Valladolid, Distance, 76 m. ; 
time, 8 hrs. ; fares, 1st cl., 55r. 60c. ; 
2d oL, 42r., etc. For details, see Madrid, 

4th, From Logrofio, To Miranda, 
whence by rail in 8 hrs. See Bilbao. 

5th. From Bilbao, 7 J hrs. by rail, 
vid Miranda. See Bilbao, 

6th. From Santander, 9J hrs. by 
rail, vid Alar and Yenta de Batios. See 

7th. From Leon, By rail, vid Pa- 
lencia. Leon to Palencia, 4 hrs. Pa- 
lencia to Baftos, 16 m. (by mail) ; Bafios 
to Burgos, 2] hrs. ; total 7 hrs. 

Hotels. — De Paris, opposite to 
cavalry barracks. A furbished -up 
diligence parador, decent but extor- 
tionate ; make your prices beforehand ; 
table d'h6te, 14r., good; carriages to 
hire. Fonda del Norte, indifferent but 
clean ; an obliging landlord ; bedroom 
and sitting-room 12r., breakfast lOr., 

dinner 14r. ; in all, pay from 80r. to 40r. 
a day; good sherry for 20r. a bottle. 

Post OfElce. — Close to the Hotel de 
Paris; open from 9 A.M. to 12 p.m., 
and from 4 a.m. to 6 a.m. Hours of 
delivery vary according to those of 
trains. The train from Madrid comes 
in at 12 and leaves at 2.20 p.m. ; that 
from France comes in at 8 p.m. and 
leaves at 11.80 A.M. 

Telegraph Office. — Calle San Juan 
44, near the Plaza de la Audencia; 
open day and night 

Promenades, Theatres, — There are 
some pretty promenades by the river- 
side, especially the shady EspolonNuevo 
and La Isla and its salon. The prin- 
cipal Gafis are El Suizo and El Iris, 
both on the Espolon. The Casino, first 
floor above the CafS Suizo, is a poor 
concern; French papers taken in. The 
theatre, built in 1858, is spacious and 
elegantly fitted up, and can contain 
about 1200 spectators. 

Climate, — Dull, damp, cold, and 
windblown ; from its elevation and 
scarcity of trees it is very much ex- 
posed to the N.K. W. and N.K ; the heat 
in summer is never great — ^nay, there 
are days in June and July when em^o- 
zarse en la capa is deemed prudent by 
the inhabitants. The cold lasts seven 
or eight months. Indeed, the cele- 
brated saying of * Diez meses de invi- 
emo y dos de infiemo,* now reversed 
when applied somewhat unjustly to Ma- 
drid, originated at Burgos and in 1526, 
Navagero, in 'Viaggio in Ispagna* 
(Padua, 1718, p. 887), mentions it, add- 
ing how cold and wretched he thought 
the climate, and quotes this other 
saying, *E1 sol como las otras cosas 
viene d Burgos de Carreo.' Neverthe- 
less, though certainly disagreeable, 



itr is not onwliolesomei amd the mor- 
tality tables show an annual death-rate 
of only 1 in 30. May and October are 
the best months for a visit. 

Directory,— 13iired carriages at both 
the hotels; no tari£ Excursions to 
Cartcga, 20r.; to Las Huelgas, 10r.» also 
at 45 Calls de San Juan, and at the 
Dorado, Calle de Abellanos. Morses 
may be hired opposite the cavalry bar- 
racks, and at No. 8 Calle de Lain Calvo. 
Government caballos padres for the 
army may be seen at Calle Sta. Clara, 
opposite to the convent Baths, — Bafios 
del Recuerdo at Los Tadillos, marble 
and jasper baths ; and de los Jardines, 
in Calle de la Puebla. Photographers, — 
Views of Burgos may be obtained at 
Plaza Mayor, No. 9. Messrs. Aparicio, 
Plaza de Santander, have some pretty 
good views also. Lodgings. — Few and 
very indiflfere^t ; Casa de los Dos Her- 
manos, on the Paseo de la Isla, cheap 
and relatively clean. 

General Desoription. — ^Tourists, in 
their eagerness to reach Madrid, or, it 
may be, Bayonne, are too apt to pass 
by this city without visiting it. The 
well-merited reputation of dulness and 
desolation as a back-going provincial 
capital, and its second-rate hotels, have 
undoubtedly contributed to this indif- 
ference; but as in Spain the past alone 
is to beisou^t, we advise travellers to 
put up with this, and not miss Burgos. 
It is among the interesting cities of 
Spain, as possessing one of her most 
msgnificent cathedrals, several curious 
■churches, the bones of the Cid, that 
popular hero of legendary Spain, and 
mcmum^its, streets, and houses which 
.still retain, though fading fast, the style 
and character of the Gotho-Castilian 

Not entering into the early history of 
the city, and leaving aside Vilamor's as- 
sertion that Burgos was founded by 
King Brigo, and re-peopled by Alfonso 

the Catholic, and called JBriga, we shall 
be content to follow Rodriguez, Florez, 
etc., who state that Burgos was founded 
(884) by Diego Porcelos, a Castilian 
knight, and bis son-in-law, the Ger- 
man (?) Nu&o Belchides, who, with the 
object of repelling the infidd and serv- 
ing Santiago, to whose shrine he was de- 
voutly going, halted here some time, 
when the fair daughter of Porcelos, 
Sulla Bella, won his heart ; upon which 
they both decided on concentrating 
into one fortified place the scattered 
villagers and serfs, and built up Burgos, 
so csdled from the German Burg (a 
fortified place ; Gothic, Bargain ; An- 
cient Saxon, Borgan, and Byrgans). 
Under Fruela II. (926) the descendants 
of Porcelos were traitorously massacred 
by the orders of the former. Burgos 
continued to be governed by a sort of 
oligarchical council composed of judges 
elected by the people, and amongst 
whom Lain Calvo, Nu&o Basuro, etc, 
were the most celebrated. Feman Gon- 
zalez was the first who assumed the 
title of Count of Castile, which be- 
came hereditary. He shook off the 
yoke of Leon, and thus began the 
monarchy, or reino, which, by the 
marriage of his granddaughter to the 
King of Navarre, united in the latter's 
son, Ferdinand I. (1067), the crowns of 
Leon and Castile. Burgos was the birth- 
place of the Cid, and the scene of many 
of his acts of prowess and legendary 
deeds, as also that of Pedro el Cruel, of 
San Julian, and San Lesme. The Cas- 
tellano Viejo, the true type of the ranch 
Spaniard, is to be seen here in all the 
glory of his tattered cloak, worn like 
the toga of a Boman senator, and truly, 
as Thiophile Gauthier deiSnes it, 'la 
sublimite du haUlon.' The Burgalcse 
is one of the most unprogressive of 
Spanish provincUmos; the railway, now 
at the gates of this city, calls forth from 
him no energy, or spirit of emulation, 



and besides some paltry manufacturer or 
two of paper and cloth, the gtoeso de 
Burgos (a cream cheese made with 
sheep's milk) would seem to be the 
staple produce of the land. The city 
is crossed by the Arlanzon. The Pico, 
a smaller stream, passes through some 
portions, and is divided into seyeral 
water-courses called esguevas. 

Sights. — Cathedral, S. Agneda, Huel- 
gas, et&; Castle ; old houses ; LaCartiga. 

Cle Oat^eHrsl— The see of Oca (Auca), 
a place situated 8 leagues from Burgos, 
is said to have been founded by San- 
tiago (the Apostle St. James), when 
on his way from Galicia to Zaragoza 
he stopped in this Roman colony, 
whose foundation some Spanish his- 




torians gravely ascribe to the sons of 
Tubal, Noah's grandchildren. In 1075 
Alfonso VI. caused it to be removed to 
Burgos, and gave to the church about 
to be built several of his palaces. From 
political motives it was declared exenta^ 
and depended directly from Rome until 
it became metropolitan in the reign of 
Philip II., who obtained from Pope 
Gregory XIII. the grant of this privi- 

General Style, — This cathedral is un- 
doubtedly one of the finest in Europe, 
and one which must be looked upon, 
saving portions which belong to subse- 

quent periods, as a grand and perfect 
specimen of the 13th century Grothic in 
Spain. The principal characteristics 
are, great purity of style, harmony 
between the parts, great pomp and 
beauty of ornament. It is not so grace- 
ful, elegant, and airy as the cathedral 
of Leon, but more sublime, richer in 
details, both outside and in the inte- 
rior, and possessing more striking out- 
ward picturesqueness and character, 
notwithstanding its unfortunate posi- 
tion on uneven ground, and the vicinity 
of choking hovels. The cathedral 
belongs chiefly to the earliest period 



of ogival arcliitectare in Spain, thoogh 
in it may be studied the ogive in its 
different modifications irom the 18th to 
the 16th centaiy» The ornamenta* 
tion is overdone in parts, but it is 
always chaste and beautiful. The 
sculpture is very good and effective. 
There are fbw paintings. F&widation,'^ 
Ferdinand d Santo founded this church 
in honour of his marriage irith DoAa 
Beatrice, dau|^ter of the Duke of 
Suable Bishop Maurice, an English- 
man by birth, laid the first stone, to- 
gether with the king and the Infante 
AntoniodeMolina, July 20, 1221. The 
Bishop it yna who had negotiated the 
marriage and accompanied the princess 
to Burgos. He had also aided iJie king 
with his counsel and influence in civil 
wars, and done much towards inclining 
his mind to undertake the building. It 
wasnotyhowever, Llagunaasserts, during 
Bishop Maurice's rule, and under his 
active direction, zeal, and lofty spirit, 
thatthemain bodyof theedificewas com- 
pleted, but only a portion of it, which is 
distinct in style from the rest The name 
of the architect is unknown. When 
descried from a distance, the impres* 
sion is that of a most striking edifice. 
The towers and filigree pinnacles are 
then seen rising into the blue ether, so 
airy and open-worked, that by night the 
stars may be seen through them. The 
elegant curve formed on tiie £. side by 
the prolongation of the lateral naves 
round the apse is somewhat concealed 
by the chapel of the Constables, a 
church in itself, and the quadrangular 
one of Santiago. The lateral ou^es 
of the building have lost also some of 
their original symmetry on the N. side, 
although they gained variety from the 
several additions made to the main body 
of chapels and offices. But a remark- 
able trait of architectural beauty, not 
always observed in buUdings of any 
sort, is here very admirably effected; we 

mean that the forms should be bold 
projections or reproductions in relief 
of the internal parts, as in embossing. 
Thus in this catiiedral the eye embraces 
the inward distribution at one glance 
from the shape of the parts outside ; we 
see the Constable's chapel plainly, with 
its delicate open-worked turrets at the 
anises and thirty-two statuettesofsoints, 
forming a separate portion, differing in 
ornaments and appearance from the 
rest The transept or crucero, which 
belongs to the Renaissance, rises higher, 
and has an octagonal shape, with eight 
turrets ornamented with twenty-four fall 
relievo heads, and twenty-four full-sized 
statues of female saints, tiie virtues, etc. , 
all canopied ; each turret is crowned 
with an angel holding on iron cross. 
There are numberless statues, statuettes 
of kings and saints and prophets, placed 
between or under the corridors that run 
round the crucero outside. On the four 
large pilasters at the angles are laige 
open-worked capitals; all the rest of 
this portion of the cathedral rests on 
the four toral arches. 

JRifodw.— The principal fa^eW. is 
thePuerta del Perdon, or of Sta. Maria, 
composed of three portals corresponding 
with the three naves ; at each side of 
the fagade are two towers of goodly 
size, very light and airy. The por- 
tals have pointed arches. This portion 
of the fa^e was formerly richly de- 
corated with statues, etc., which dis- 
appeared in 1794, wh«?n the chapter, 
seized by the contagious spirit of inno- 
vation and modernising, removed much 
of what constituted the beauty of this 
fagade, and introduced a paltry Greco- 
Roman front. Theonlyfemnontsof the 
former sculpture ore the Coronation of 
the Virgin, on the portal to the right ; 
the Conception on the left one ; and at 
the sides of the central portal the statues 
of King Alfonso VI., Ferdinand III. (the 
Saint), and the Bishops Maurice and 



Arterio of Oca. The second tier or 
stage of this facade is foimed b j an open- 
worked balustrade corridor, with turrets 
and a fine rose-window with trefoils ; 
over this portion there are large ogival 
windows with Gothic tracery, and the 
third and last stage consists of two 
very richly ornamented windows, some- 
what like agimeces, and divided into 
different compartments by pointed mi- 
nute arches, pillaiets, and open-worked 
roses, with eight statues of youths with 
crowns. This stage is finished by a 
balustrade which links the two lateral 
towers, and whose open-work composes 
the words, 'Pulchra es et decora,' in 
praise of the Virgin, whose image, hold- 
ing the Infant Deity and surrounded by 
angels, is in the centre and under a 
canopy. On the capitals on the sides 
are llie words * Paz robis' and the Vir- 
gin's monogram; on the left, 'Ecoe 
Agnus Dei,' and the monogram of Christ 
The statuesof the Saviour and of St John 
the Baptist are here, and correspond 
with the inscription. There are around 
the lateral towers, at different stages, 
not less than seventy-three statues, life- 
size, representing the Evangelists, doc- 
tors of the church, and saints. The 
towers themselves are dOO ft high, 
and rise (separately from the main 
body) from the porch only, this lower 
part being the only one ascribed to Bp. 
Maurice. The higher portions of these 
towers are the work of Juan de Colonia, 
who had just arrived in Spain, and who 
undertook them in 1442. The two 
towers were built by Bishops Cartagena 
and AcuSa, whose shiislds are placed at 
the base and summit ; they are admi- 
rable examples of the Gothic in its 
purest and richest forms, and the effect 
produced is enhanced by the warm, 
white, marble-like, and transparent 
stone of Ontoria, out of which they 
are cut and worked. 
ThePuertaAUa, also called de la Co- 

rtmeria, or Los ApBetoUSf is one of the 
transept ingresses on the N., and the 
-j^ndfmt to that of SI SarmenUU, It is 
harmonious in composition and of good 
style. The portal is ogival, with con- 
centric arches, profusely decorated wr^i 
effigies of saints and fiantastical figures. 
In the centre of the arch is a Christ 
seated ; on His rigbt the Virgin, and on 
His left St J(^ both lifting up thdr 
hands to Him in a supplicant manner ; 
different other figures representing the 
good and evil angels, with details, are 
said to represent the struggle of good 
and evil ; and man praying his Maker 
to intercede on his behal£ The eze^ 
cution is very rude. Over the door 
is exhibited a church witii its belfiy, 
with statues on the sides: those on the 
left are said to represent St Domingo of 
Guzman and St Francis of Assise ask- 
ing the King of Castile to grant 
to them the papal buUs to found 
the orders of Dominicans and Francis- 
cans. The upper and second stage of 
this fia9ade consists of two large ogival 
windows of early Gothic. In the third 
are agimez lights, sixteen statues in 
niches and otherwise. This door is 
some 80 ft above the level of the nave. 
To the right is a railed-in chapel, with 
an effigy of our Lady of Joyitilness 

The Puerta delaPdlegeria ia situated 
inanangleof thetransepttowardstiieE. ; 
the style is plateresque, and the comi)06i- 
tion of the whole, including el^ance of 
form and richness of details, renders this 
portal a magnificent specimen of the 
Spanish silversmith work as applied to 
the revival of architecture, whence the 
plateresque derived its name. It is di- 
vided into three perpendicular compart- 
ments. In the lateral are statues of Sant- 
iago, St John the Baptist, etc That of 
the centre is subdivided into two partS; 
the lower occupied by the door, the 
sides of which are profusely decorated 



with minute details and ftataettes, and 
the upper portion is filled with eonlptnre 
representing the martyrdom of SS. 
J<^m tiie Baptist and the Evangelist 
Orer tiiis is a Virgin and Child, a 
bishop kneeling^ and angels playing on 
flutes and other instroments. On the 
sides are the effigies of Sa Peter and 
Faral ; a eotnice runs over this sort of 
reUMoy and is crowned with the eaont- 
cheon of Bishop Fonseca, who defrayed 
the expenses (tf this heautifdl portaL 
Its name, 'pellQgeria,' is derired from 
a street that once ezirted there, and was 
duefly inhabited by feUmongers. 

Fmrta dd Samimidl, also called dd 
Arzobitpo, is dirided into three por- 
tions, and corre^onds witJi the p<n:tal 
ol the ApotUei. It is ascended from 
ihe transept floor by a staircase of 
twenty-eight steps ; tl^door is decorated 
with statues of Moses and Aaron, and 
the Apostles SS. Peter and Paul, etc. 
In the tympanum of the doorway is the 
Sayiour amid the four Evangelists in 
the act of writing the Gospels, with 
their attributes ; below this are twelve 
ApoeUes. Around the same arch are 
forty-five images of seraphs^ cherubs, 
and angels, holding candles, censers, 
and musical instruments. In the third 
stage there are three windows, with 
piUarets, angels^ and arches, inter- 
twined in the style of the Qothic at its 
third and latter period. The rose- 
window is magnificent, with painted 
glass of 14th centnry, of rich hue and 
good execution. There are about sixty- 
four statues in all. It is called Sarmen- 
tal from the name (sarmimtos, vine- 
shoots) of a wealthy family who gave 
up the houses they held hereabouts to 
the cathedral 

There are some Gothic tombs of good 
style, belonging to the 14th century, at 
the sides of the steps leading to the 
Puerta del SarmentaL They contain 
the bodies of prelates ; and are very 

curious for their sculpture, and the 
manner and spirit ot the scenes repre- 
sented—the torments of Hades, delights 
of Heaven, etc 

Int$nor.^The fonn is a Latin cross. 
The dimensions are : — Length, 800 ft. 
(Spanish), from the door of Sta. Maria 
(Perdon) to Ohi^pel del Condestable ; 
width, 218 ft between the door of the 
Sannental to that of La Ckffoneria, 98 ft 
bdng the average Inreadth throu^out, 
and 193 ft. its greatest height There 
are three naves, which are cut perpen- 
dienlailj by that which runs paiallel 
to the principal facade. The central 
one is lofty, airy, and bold ; the lateral 
ones are lower and of smidler propor- 
tions. They are separated by twenty 
pillars of octagonal form, strong and 
massive^ yet neither heavy nor incon- 
gruous, but rather made light slender, 
andelegantbythe engaged shafts. The 
interior generally breathes a spirit of 
solemnity, serenity, grandeur, and noble 
strength. The natural whiteness of 
the stone, augmented by the light 
caused by the absence of painted glass, 
gives it a new appearance, as if the 
building had been but yesterday com- 
pleted. The stained i^Uiss, mostly put 
up in the 14th centmy, was veiy beau- 
tifuL It was destroyed by the explo- 
sion of the castle in 1818. The ptwe' 
mmUf unworthy of the rest is about to 
be removed and replaced by beautiful 
Carrara, towards which expense the 
Queen of Spain has recently given 6000 
dollars (about £1200). The minor bay, 
which, with the larger, forms the cross, 
begins at the Portal del Sarmental, 
and ends at the Puerta Aha. The 
Lantern. — At the point of intersec- 
tion of these two bays is placed the 
crucero or LanUnif the gem of the 
whole edifice, which was called so by 
Charles Y., who added that it ought to 
be placed in a case, and not be seen as 
other ordinaiy works, and Philip II. 



said it was lather the work of angels 
than of man. The lofty dome, or cim- 
borio, was finished on December 4, 
1567, and replaced the prior one which 
fell in in March 1539. To the present 
one all the Borgalese contribnted with 
their pnrse, and especially so Card. 
Juan Alvarez de Toledo, son of the 
Dnke of Alva, and his mother, whose 
escntcheons are displayed with that of 
Charles Y. on the pillars towards the 
presbyteiy. It was designed by Maese 
Philip Vigami cUias De Borgcfia, and 
executed by him and Juan Casta&eda 
and Juan de Yallejo, both from Burgos. 
Philip Yagami was also a Bmgalese. 

The Tromsept, — ^Thetranseptisformed 
by four very large pier^ which rise like 
so many towers, and are decorated with 
a profusion of sculpture of great deli- 
cacy, taste, and richness. These may 
be ^vided into four stages ; the lower 
one is octagonal, and forms the pedestal 
or basement, and is decorated with six- 
teen mezzo-relievo figures, allegorical of 
Prudence, Justice, Charity, Prayer, 
eta, and Prophets. In the second the 
pillars are fluted, and bear shields of 
the said Archbp. Alvarez de Toledo and 
those of the cathedral. In the third 
and fourth are twenty fall-dzed statues 
of doctors of the church, apostles, etc. 
From the cornice spring the four ioral 
or main arches from amid bunches of 
fruit. They are richly decorated, and 
bear four angels holding scrolls with 
date of build^g. At each angle there 
is a statue, size of life, supporting the 
cimborio, and over them angels, sheUs, 
and busts. At the eight angles there 
are seraphs, waving banners bearing 
arms of the cathethul, round which is 
the versicle, * I will praise Thee in Thy 
temple, and wiU glorify Thy name, 
Thou whose works are miracles. ' There 
are numberless statues of prophets, pin- 
nacles, etc., under the galleries, over 
the windows, etc. This lantern is 

ro<^ed in by an elegant dome, the pat- 
tern of which is a star ; tiie height of 
this from the pavement is 178 ft The 
style of this magnificent work is Re- 
naissance, with traces of the Gothic or- 
namentation of the liiird period ; the 
composition and execution of the sculps 
ture 18 classic and pure. There is in 
the whole a splendour, a breadth, a 
boldness seldom equalled in any ol^er 
work. The exterior is very beautiful 
also ; the stone of Ontoria, out of which 
it has been made, enhances the effect 
^Tt^A ^Ztor. --The style of tiie retail 
belongs to the Revival, and compiisiBS 
the thm orders. It is full of relievos, 
with subjects drawn from the life of 
the Yirgin, and statues of aposfiea and 
saints. The elaborate sagrario is de- 
corated with relievos rqyresentingscenes 
frcnn the Old and New Testament. This 
retablo was designed and executed by 
Bodrigo and his brother Martin del 
Haya for 40,000 ducats. It was gQt 
and estofado by Urbina of Madrid and 
Martinez of Yalladolidforll,OOOducats, 
which were given by Bishop Yela, 1596. 
The sculpture was begun in 1577, and 
completed in 1593, and is generally con- 
sidered good. To the right of the altar 
are the tombs of the Infante Don Juan 
(son of Alfonso the Learned), Count 
Don Sancho, and his wife Beatrice. For 
this reason it is called a Capilla Beal, 
In the Trcmsagrcurio are alto-relievos 
representing the Passion of Christ. 
These spirited ivory-like compositions 
date 1540, and are the work of Juan de 
Boigofia. Between the pillars of the 
central nave are six rejas, which are 
fixed on jasper pedestals and grees. 
Those on eadi side of the presbytery 
are of bronze wrought for Archbishop 
Navarretto by a lay monk called P. 
Martinez. They are all very beautiful. 
On the outside of the above-mentioned 
pillars of the central nave are statues of 
saints, etc., the size of life. 



The Chair is rery fine, and is com- 
posed of 108 wftlnut stalls divided into 
two tiers. In the LotMr Tiarthe anns, 
back, and seat are ornamented with 
delicate box scnlptnre. Between them 
are pilasters full of motddings, and all 
literally covered with flowers, ornaments, 
human figores, chimeras, fimtastio ani- 
mals and foliage, tiie pasamanos or 
halnsters being most originally deco- 
rated with qnaint figures. The backs 
are ornamented with relievo medalli<ms 
representing scenes from the life of the 
Yirgin, and mart3rTdoms of different 
saints. In the Upper jTidf there are also 
abundant monldings, inlaid and figured. 
The backs and respaldos are ornamented 
with relievos from the New Testament, 
crowned with a bnst In this tier runs 
a series of altemately-plaoed columns 
varied in sculpture with figures, and 
terminated by a sort of canopy. In the 
front are medallions representing scenes 
from the Old Testament, ^d in the 
intermediate spaces are statuettes of 
apostles, sibyls, and various saints. Ob- 
serve all the phases of the Creation, 
the legend of the deluge, the poem of 
Abraham, and the story of Jacob. On 
the backs of this nipper tier are scenes 
from the New Testament. On those of 
thelower tier are scenes alreadydeaeribed, 
and statuettes of saints, the third being 
St. Atendio riding the devil, who, ac- 
acoording to leg^ds and Father Fe^^o 
<* Cartas Eruditas,' etc., vol. i, p. 24), 
took him from Jaen to Rome in one 
night The stalls are of different 
periods and aridsts ; the lower is the 
best and most classical This fine Re- 
naissance Italian-like work dates 1497- 
1512. The ch(nr was formerly near 
the high altar, and Bishop La Fuerte 
Ampudia had it removed to satisfy cer- 
tain ideas of precedence. The archi- 
episcopal stall or throne is a copy of 
that of Granada, and much ornamented 
with statuettes, scenes from Scripture, 

etc. Card. Zapata, a great benefactor 
of the cathedi^ had it enclosed and 
railed in. The trasooro or reredot was 
put up at a cost of 10,000 ducats^ but 
as it did not please those artist-prelates 
of the times^ it was pulled down, and 
the present one, costing a similar sum, 
substituted. The splendid r^'o, which 
cost 5500 ducats, is the work o( J. B. 
Celma (1602), and the gift of Cardinal 
Zapata, whose canting arms, boots and 
shoes, are placed here. 

The traeooro pillars rise upon jasper 
grees and pedestals ; there are two statues 
of SS. Peter and Paul, of white marble^ 
brought from Italy. The relievo repre* 
sents St Piiul in the desert, fed miracu- 
lously with loaves brought by jMlan- 
thropic crows. The sculptor was a 
Carthusian numk called Leiva, ob. 1637. 
All the rdievos, columns, statues of 
saints, and altar-pieces, were the work 
of Bishop Manso of Zuniga, who gave 
16,000 ducats towards it, and the sculp- 
tor was one Fray Juan de Razi, a Bene- 
dictine monk. 

I^e organs are inferior in style, but 
good as instruments ; one is of 1706, 
the other of 1806. Under the first 
leeCerrif pUoed at the entrance of ch<nr» 
is the jacent effigy of Bishop Maurice, 
<Ponti£8Z et Fundator,' ob. 1240, of 
whose family little is known eLse than 
that he was an FiUglishman by birth, 
and that he was elected Bishop of Bur- 
gos in 1214. The Virgin on the second 
ledem is by Ancheta, and considered 
very fine (1578). 

Ghapels. — These number fifteen, but 
differ in style and propcnrtions, as they 
were built at different periods, and are 
therefore not in keeping with the main 
portion of the churdi. Chapd of Sta. 
Teda.'^A church in itself; tawdry, 
though much admired by the natives, 
whom glitter and gaudiness delight, of 
churriguresque style, founded by Arch- 
bishop Samaniego in 1734. The medio 



Qarai\ja» or dome, is well executed, the 
ooloxm are fresh as the first day. On 
the site of the present baptist^, old 
and curious in its way, there was for- 
merly a small chapel of Santiago, in 
which Alfonso XI. instituted the order 
of knighthood of La Yanda (the hadge) 
in 1880, of which the CathoHc kin^ 
were brothers, cdfradea (oompanionf). 
C?uipel ofSta, Ana,— "Not rery interest- 
ing in itself, but see round the wna the 
sculptured genealogical tree of Christ, 
beginning with Abniham and finishing 
at Christ. Founded by Bishop Acufta, 
1474, of florid Gothic s^le. The statu- 
ary here is not very good. There is a 
Holy Family, ascribed to Andrea del 
Sarto ; a St Philip Neri and St. Francis, 
by M. Cerezo ; the few others here are in- 
herent Bosarteandol^erconnoisseurs 
mention with encomium the small Go- 
thic altar and retablo, with tomb of 
Archdeacon Fuente Pelayo, ob. 1492, 
enriched with sculptured scenes firom 
the New Testament ; the otiber sepul- 
chres, including that of the founder, 
are not t^^ fine, and date 15th century. 
Eacdlera (stairoase) de la Puerta AUa, — 
This staircase of 88 steps was rendered 
necessary from tiie uneven site upon 
which the cathedral stands. It is a 
magnificent specimen of its kind, and 
of Renaissance style, not exempt from 
Gothic details. The plan is novel, the 
work most elaborate, and the effect 
charming. It is ascribed to Diego SUoe, 
whose handling of foliage, children, 
lion's claws, griffins, draperies, etc., 
are, says Bosarte, 'not be mistaken 
with those of any other sculptor. * The 
iron balustrade was wrought by Cristobal 
Andino. The sepulchral altar of Ber- 
nardino Gutierrez is remarkable for the 
exquisitely-sculptured children over the 
arch ; the artist's name is not known — 
•omeascribeittoToirigiano, M. Angelo's 
livaL In the same nave is the very old 
chapel of San Nicolds. On the left 

entering is a tomb, with standing effigy 
of Bishop Yillahoz, ob. 1 275 ; as bodies 
used at that time to be interred standing 
and embedded in walls, these tombs 
were hence called 'annarios.' There 
are some portraits here of Pope Gregory 
XL, Canon of Burgos (1871), md 
Alexander YI., arehdeacon of the same 
cathedral, 1492, etc — CsBsar Borgia, and 
Neither of Lu^rezia Borgia. Close to it 
is a fine and richly-sculptured tomb of 
the learned Arehdeac<ni Fernandez Yil- 
legas (1536), who translated Dante into 

OapUla del Cbndestable, — ^A eonni* 
tdble^ eondestable (from whidi con^able), 
as the Latin etymology ex^ains it 
somewhat {eomei stabtUif Ducange, 
etc.), was ' an officer, so called, because, 
like the Lord High ConstaUe of Eng^ 
land, he was to r^ulate all mattere of 
chivalry — tQts, tournaments, and feats 
of arms — ^which were performed on 
horseback.' (Blackstone's Com. 355.) 
He also commanded the cavalry, and 
bore the royal standard in battle. TMs 
chapel was founded, as the inscription 
relates, ' by D. Pedro Fernandez de Ye- 
lasco. Count of Haro, of the House of 
the Infiuites of Lara, five times Yiceroy 
of these realms, who was present at the 
wars of Portugal and Granada, and con- 
tributed to the Catholic kings obtaining 
these kingdoms, etc.' The Duke of 
Fiias is the present heir to this founder, 
and is the patron and possessor of the 
chapeL It is the largest and most 
beautiful in the cathedral It was 
built by Juan de Colonia, and parts, 
though very few, of his works are as 
German as his name. The style is the 
Gothic florid (with somewhat of the 
Saracenic ornament) of the 15th century, 
and the ground-plan is octagonal, with 
a bold cimborio and large ogival win- 
dows. The entrance is magnificent, and 
formed by a semicireular arch frill d 
details, and of that peculiar and intri- 



eate ornament called eresUria (crest- 
work or niche-work); abore it are seve- 
ral charming clusters of pinnacles, with 
statuettes and larger subjects under most 
richly-worked canopies, looking like 
piled-up lace of point d'Angleterre. 
Below this portion of the arch there are 
numberless pillarets, figures, and child- 
ren, supporting cornices; then come 
other statuettes placed at the side of 
children with crowns of laurel ; in the 
centre of one of the latter is a sun and 
Jesus' name; in the other, a cross. Over 
this the Annunciation of the Virgin, 
St Gabriel (m one side and the Virgin 
on the other. The railing, orreja, is one 
of the finest specimens of Renaissance 
extant, though age and n^lect haye 
done much to efface its primary splen- 
dour and tarnish the colouring, etc. It 
was the masterwork of Cristobal Andino, 
and was wrought in 1528. It is com- 
posed of two bodies and an attic, 
crowned by an asp or cross of San 
Andrea Observe everything here : — 
The two kneeling figures holding an 
escutcheon; the heads of Jesus and 
Maiy ; and the inscription on the other 
side of them — the '!^b(o sum Alpha et 
Omega,' and statue of the Saviour; 
the four-sided columns, then the ba- 
lustraded pillars higher up. The lock 
is so contrived that nobody can open 
the reja who does not possess the 
secret of pulling back a certain spring 
ingeniously concealed. The principal 
retdblo is of the Revival, with traces of 
the grutesto, and some remnants of 
the primitive Gothic one, which was 
removed and replaced by the present 
one. It forms two stages ; the first is 
formed by the Purification and figures 
of the Virgin, St Joseph, Infant Deity, 
etc., and a girl carrying doves in a 
basket On the coniice and (m one 
side is a statue representing the Law 
of 'Gracia' (Holy Grace), personified by 
% young woman with eyes lifted up to 

heaven ; as a pendant, is another of thfi 
Written Law, represented by an aged 
man holding a book. The upper por- 
tion is filled by relievos of scenes from 
the New Testament Over it all are a 
small shell and a skull There are a 
few other figures of saints, ascribed by 
some to Becerra, and by others to Juni 
There are four large stone escutcheons 
with arms of the Velascos on the walls, 
supported by wild men and women. 
There are fourteen windowsin the chapel, 
with painted glass, representing scenes 
from Passion and arms of founders. The 
statues of St Austin and St Jerome 
close to the pillars are good, but in- 
ferior to the same latter saint placed in 
a retablo of a small chapel on the left. 
It is by Becerra, one of Spain's few and 
great sculptors. The Gothic retablo 
opposite is Yesj ancient Close to the 
steps of the h^h altar are the magnifi- 
cent tombs <^ ^e founders, all of jasper 
except the effigies, which are of Car- 
rara marble. They were sculptured in 
Italy in 1540. The effigy of the etm- 
stable, who died in 1492 when he was 
Viceroy of Castile, etc., is lying armed 
eap-ii-pid, full length, and the muscles 
of his hands, elaborate details of his 
mailed armour, cushion, etc, are won- 
derful There is a huge block of po- 
lished jasper close to it, now without 
object, and weighing about 200 cwt 
The effigy of the constable's wife, * La 
muy ilustre Se&ora Dolla Mencia de 
Mendoza, Condesa de Haro' (ob. 1500, 
set 79), is also full length, and lying 
on richly-embroidered cushions, with 
elaborately-embroidered gloves, and a 
lapdog at her feet, emblem of fiddity. 
The vault is under these tombs. In the 
sacristy is the picture of a Magdalen, 
ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci ; the 
colouring ia beautiful Beneath it is 
the little portable ivory altar, which the 
constable carried about with him in his 
campaigns ; the other pictures and por- 



traits are inferior. Ask for a fine work 
of Arfe's, a cross, and several other 
jealously-guarded relics. (N.B,—Tlna 
chapel must be visited before 12. 30, 
or by special arrangement) 

T?i6 Ghapel of Santiago is the largest 
in the cathedral, and serves as the 
fonaih church. The r^'a, which rests 
on jasper pedestals, is crowned by a 
statue of the patron of Spain. There is 
a fine tomb of J. 0. de Yelasco, Abbot 
of San Quirce, ob. 1557 ; it is placed on 
the left on entering. There is also a 
tomb of the Lesmes, whose father, 
Pedro de Astudillo, founded the cele- 
brated chapel of the Ma^ Kings in the 
cathedral of Cologne. In the high 
altar there is the apostle on horseback. 
In the centre of the chapel lies Bishop 
Juan de Yillacreces, ob. 1463, in an 
alabaster tomb j dose to it a jasper one 
of the Regidor of Burgos, Melgosa, ob. 
1523, and hiswife. There are some other 
tombs, of 1^0 great merit either in the 
chapel or its sacristy ; observe, never- 
theless, Bishop Cabeza de Yaca's plater- 
esque tomb, 1512, and that of his 
brother Don Pedro (literally cow's head, 
an illustrious family in Spain — ^Front 
de Boeuf). The five altars here are in- 

SacristiaNueva. — Formerly composed 
of two chapels. There are some old 
mirrors and indifferent pictures ascribed 
to Giordano (Nativity of Christ), a 
Christ and Ecce Homo to Murillo, and 
in the ante-vestry a St Francis, as- 
scribed to Mateo Cerezo— all doubtful. 
The cajoneria, or chest of drawers to 
hold the church and priest's ornaments, 
etc., are finely carved ; all the rest is 
churrigueresque and tawdry. There are 
some curious objects : a jasper table, a 
rich specimen of braseros, a fine proces- 
sional cross, etc. 

Chapel of San Emrique, — ^Founded by 
Archbp. Peralta, at the cost of 100,000 
ducats. Observe the magnificent kneel- 

ing elfigy and tomb of the founder, ob. 
1679 ; the Ivonze lectern is good ; the 
pavement and steps are of alabaster; the 
stalls are inlaid. In the sacristy is a 
veiy curious table, and a Dolorosa and 
Christ ascribed to Cerezo. 

Chapel of San Jtum de Sahagwiu — 
Here is the much-venerated Yirgin de 
Oca. Here is the tomb also of the 
Beato Lesmes, 'hijo de Burgos, abo- 
gado del dolor de ri&ones,' who is be- 
lieved to cure pains in the kidneys, and 
said to have earned this privilege by 
the patience with which he bore the 
same complaint, which had been caused 
by constantly bending when he distri- 
buted com to the poor. See a picture 
of a Christ de la Agonia, by Theoto- 
copuli, il Greccq, whose signature is 
placed at the foot of the cross. In its 
sacristy is the ground-plan of the cathe- 
draL The Belicario was formerly a 
chapel of St Peter, and abounds in the 
tisi^al gifts of kings and great personages, 
consisting of legs, toes, arms, jaws, 
teeth, and other parts of the bodies of 
saints ; here is kept the image of the 
Yirgin de Oca, who nodded assent to a 
devoutsefioritawhomade her awitnessto 
her faithless lover's promise of marriage. 

Chapel of la Fteaentacum, — Spacious ; 
founded by Canon Lerma in 1519. 
Over the modem high altar is a Yirgin, 
ascribed by Pouz and other good con- 
noissuers to Michael Angelo; others say 
it is rather by Sebastian del Piombo, 
but all concur in considering it very 
beautifully executed and composed. It 
was sent hexe by a wealthy Florentine, 
MozzL A fine white marble tomb oif 
Canon Jacobo de Bilbao, who, a good 
son, and therefore a righteous man, 
erected a mausoleum to his ' matri di- 
lectsB* and himself with the Christian 
and simple epitaph : ' Because I have 
hopedinthee, Lord,and haveentrnsted 
to Thee my soul. ' Tomb of the founder, 
with effigy, said to be a portrait. 



Ckapd of Sofhtiamo Oristo de la Ago- 
ma. — ilero is kept the celebrated and 
much-venerated Oristo de Bvrgos, which 
was, according to Florez, carved by Nico- 
demus, shortly after he, with Joseph 
of Arimathea, buried our Lord. It was 
found inside a box floating in the sea, 
and after many eventfal journeys and 
mishaps, was finally lemored to this 
cathedral from the convent of St Agus- 
tine in 1836. It certainly is of very 
«arly date, and most admirably model- 
led ; the anatomy perfect, a deep ex- 
pression of pain ; the hair, beard, eye- 
lashes, thorns, are all reil To this 
image are ascribed numberless miracles, 
■and it is said to sweat on Fridays, and 
«ven to bleed now and then. ^Rien 
n*est plus lugubre, 'says a French writer, 
<et plus inquiitant 4 voir que ce long 
fanl^me crucifix avec son faux air de vie 
et son immobilite morte.' The image 
is girt with a richly embroidered crino- 
line. The pictures are indifferent ; the 
Descent from the Cross is ascribed to 
Ribera (Spagnoletto). The docks of 
the cathedral are not very old ; they are 
furnished with small figures that come 
out and strike the hour, and slide in 
again, etc 

The Cloisters are interesting, and date 
middle of 14th century. Thsy are spa- 
cious, and occupy a quadrangle, each 
gallery being of 89 ft long by 22 ft. 
broad. The walls from the outside are 
pierced with doublearches pointed in the 
shape of agimeces (Moorish windows), 
subdivided by smaller ones, and richly 
ornamented with lancet-work, trefoil, 
pillarets, roses, etc The principal en- 
trance is of an early date, and the sculp- 
ture and details abundant and curious. 
On the doors is a mezzo-relievo repre- 
senting Christ's entrance into Jerusa- 
lem, and other biblical and allegorical 
scenes and statues of samts, the Evan- 
gelists, etc ; these doors were given by 
Bishop Acufia. Round the arch are two 

rows of statues, and in the keystone 
angels holding arrows. In the centre 
is represented the Baptism in the Jor^ 
dan. A peculiarity distinguishing this 
from other similar scenes is that our 
Lord is seated and does not stand. It 
is tiiought the Gktthic sculptor resorted 
to this innovation to avoid the some- 
what irreverent representation of the 
act by immersionf and not by ablution ; 
the limbs of the Saviour are actually 
immersed, to be true to tradition, and 
yet the figure is seated with dignity and 
ease. Four statues of David, Isaiah, 
St Gabriel, and the Virgin, decorate 
this splendid door. There is also a 
head of St Francis of Assis, said to be 
an extempore portrait by the sculptor, 
taken at the m(»nent the saint was 
passing by. It is probable that all the 
figures on this door were formerly 

In the interior the ogives of the win* 
dows are very pure in shape, and deco- 
rated profusely with foliage, and in the 
centre with statues of saints and Chris- 
tian heroes, <^ good and correct Gktthic 
style. There are, besides, a great num- 
ber of tombs of different periods and 
styles, some with good sculptures. 
There are five chapels alsa On enter- 
ing to the right, is the tomb of Canon 
Aguilar, with his effigy in sacerdotal 
robes, a dog at his feet, and a dosed 
book in his hands ; thedate 1482. The 
tomb of Canon Gadea, chaplain of the 
Catholic kings, and before of Don En- 
rique, ob. 1488. The epitaph ends, 
* Yirtus soda vitas fuit Gloria mortis 
comes.' The dress of a knight at one 
side of the tomb, railed in, is curious ; 
on the back is a Christ seated, with fig- 
ures and angels. The pictures are in* 
different in the chapd de los Reyes. 
Proceeding on^ is the tomb of Sepul- 
veda, chaplain of the kings Don Juan 
and Don Enrique of Castile. Observe 
especially the tomb of Canon SantandeTf 



ob. 1528 — a magnificent work, full of 
details delicate and chaste. See the 
channiTig; yonthfol, loving Y irgin and 
Child, fonning a relieyo in the centre 
of the arch, and carved ont of the bean- 
tifid white Ontoria atone ; the attitude 
of the head, breathing maternal love, 
and the ecstacy at being chosen the mo- 
ther of God, remind one somewhat of that 
in Raphael's 'Yergine deUa Seggiolo.' 
There is a freedom, a boldness of com- 
position and execution seldom attempt- 
ed by artists of those timea She holds 
with her right hand a book opened, with 
her left the Infant, of exquisite model- 
ling; There are escutcheons with flenis- 
de-lys, etc. 

In the third gallery is a door leading 
up to the archives, which contain very 
early and curious documents concerning 
the cathedraL In a chapel lies the 
tomb of Juan Cuchiller. He was ser- 
vant, or rather a knight trenchant (cu- 
ehUUr^ euehillo) to Henry III. el Enfer- 
mo, and a rara avis amongst his kind, 
who sold his coat to buy de cmar for 
his master. Happy times ! for now it 
is rather masters who have finally to 
sell their coats to procure sui^>ers for 
their flunkeys. The effigy is of alabas- 
ter ; a dog, the emblem of fidelity, lies 
at his feet On the wall is affixed a 
heavy dark-looking trunk, called £1 
cofre del Cid. This is supposed to be 
one of the tioo trunks which he filled 
with sand and left as security to the 
Burgalese Jews, Rachel and Yidas, for 
a loan <^ 600 marks, assuring them that 
they contained all his jewels and gold, 
but that they were not to open them 
until Mb return. There is no proof or 
evidence in the * Romancero,' ' Ordnica 
Rimada,' eta, of his having ever repaid 
either tiie principal or interest But 
Mio Gid was then in want of money for 
the conquest of Yalencia, and this hero, 
who ' fought for his bread,' was as un- 
scrupulous as heroes have always been. 

and always will be. He, a Christiau 
knight, headed infidel annies against 
his fellow-Christians; he, a CastUian 
lord, rebelled and fought against his 
king; he betrayed not only these 
money-lenders, thus out-Jewing the 
Jews (for to do so was a merit in those 
times), but Alfonso, the Moorish kings, 
his allies, everybody, and practised but 
too well the Al-harbo Khod'aton of 
Bfahomet (Arabic^, to wage war is to 
betra3r). His fiEkvourite author, Mohal- 
lab, was styled 'The liar;' but then 
he knew also the Prophet's words: 
'There are three sorts of lies which wiU 
not be taken into accoimt at the Last 
Judgment : — 1st, that which is concoct- 
ed inith on object to recondle two per- 
sons who have quarrelled ; 2dly, that 
which a husband tells when he promises 
anything to his wife; and, 8dly, a 
chieftain's word in time of war. ' This 
old trunk is undoubtedly, says a French 
writer, 'La doyenne des malles du 
monde, ' and contained some parchments 
till very recently. 

Sola GapUuUxT contains some paint- 
ings ascribed to Giordano, and a 'St 
John the EvangeUst,' also ascribed to 
Murillo. The waUs on great holidays 
are hung with fine old tapestry. The 
roof forms a fine artesonado : around 
the cornice run versides from the 8d 
chap, of the Book of Proverbs. In the 
Sacriatia Fieja are some fine Yenetian 
mirrors and two coral branches. An 
admirably carved cajoneria (presses), to 
keep the beautifully embroidered ter- 
nos, carved by a Benedictine monk 
called Pedro Martinez. There are 128 
portraits of the bishops and archbishops 
of Buigos. The eighth arcade of the 
fourth gallery was supposed to have 
contained the former Royal Chapel, 
where Ferdinand was married to Beat- 
rice by Maurice, the EngUsh Bishop of 
Burgos, November SOOi, 1219. Ob- 
serve their two former statues, and 



opposite four statuettes representing 
this king's sons, and in the third angle 
of the cloister a statuette of Bishop 
Maurice, also St. Ferdinand, and two 
other figures. There are other cloisters 
beneath with good sculptures and an 
infinity of tombs, statues, and epitaphs 
of 13th and 14th centuries. 

The cathedral contains 7 staircases, 
112 windows, 36 railings, 144 pictures, 
upwards of 60 tombs (worked out and 
raised aboye the ground), 7 organs, 9 
baptismal fonts, 9 choirs, and 9 lec- 
terns, 10 confessionals, 44 altars, with 
nearly 100 full-length statues. On en- 
tering the cathedral, Sta. Tecla is the 
first chapel on the right, and the Chapel 
del Cristo that on the left Church 
opened from 5 a.m. to 8 p.m. High 
mass with organ music at 9.30 P.H. on 
Sundays and holidays; organs good. 
To see jewels, apply to capellan mayor. 
To be seen only after 8.30 p.m. To 
visit the archives, make copies of pic- 
tures, and the like, apply to the cabildo. 

Churches. — Sta. Agv^eda or Gadea, 
deserves a visit, as an historical monu- 
ment associated with the poetic and 
chivalrons legend of the Cid. It was 
one of the iglesias juraderas — ^that is, of 
purgation by adjuration. It was there- 
fore in this chapel that Alfonso VI. was 
obliged, in the presence of the Cid, to 
swear that he had no part in the mur- 
der of his brother Don Sancho at the 
si^e of Zamora. According to authen- 
tic history— if such there be— the king 
swore on the cerrojo, or a lock, which 
was the touchstone of his veracity; 
other authors say on the Gospels. 

According to the * Romancero/ it runs thus : 
' In Sta. Agueda, at Burgos, where knights are 
firont to take the oaths, the oath of Alfonso 
ivas also taken after his brother's death. The 
gallant Cid, who held a crucifix, made him 
swear the truth upon an iron lock, a cross- 
bow, and the Gospels. The words he speaks 
ar« so awful that the king shudders at them. 
'Tf tibou sbouldst not speak the truth on 

what is asked thee, namely— if thou hadst any 
part in the murder of thy brother— may knaves 
kill thee,-— knaves from Astiirias, and not from 
Castile; may thee kill thee with iron-p<»nted 
bludgeons, and not with lances nor shafts; 
with horn-handled knives, and not ^th gilt 
poniards. May those that do so wear dogs, 
and not laced shoes ; may they wear rustics' 
cloaks and not the Cburtray cloaks, or those 
made of curled silk ; canvas shirts, and not 
Hollands embroidered ; may each of them be 
mounted on an ass, and not on a mule or a 
horse : may they make use of rope-bridles, and 
not of leathern ones well tanned ; may they kill 
thee in the fieUs, and not in a city or a vil- 
lage ; and may they tear thy heart all panting 
from thy breast!* The oath was so awful 
that the king did not venture to take it. But 
a knight, a friend of the king, said unto him : 
' Swear, and fear naught, brave king, for 
never was a king perjurious nor a pope ex- 
conmumicated.' The gallant long then took 
the oath, and swore he had had no hand in 
his brother's assassination ; but even then he 
was filled with anger and indignation : ' Thou 
wast wrong, O Cid, to make me take that oath, 
for later Uiou wilt have to kiss my hand.' 
* To kiss a king's hand is no honour to me.' 
' Get thee hence from this my land, thou Cid, 
false knight, and come not back till a year has 
elapsed,' ' etc. 

The church is uninteresting, com- 
posed of a single ogival nave of a pure 
style, and a fine Revival tomb. The 
famous lock of the Cid was affixed up 
out of reach by Bishop Don Pascual de 
la Fuente. 

S(m .Esfe&aw.— Gothic (1280-1360) ; 
formerly a convent. The portico is com- 
posed of three stages of ogives with 
figures canopied, and of good effect 
The interior is formed of three spacious 
naves. The lofty arches are orna- 
mented with the Byzantine pattern 
called Orecas by the Spaniards. The 
retablos are modem; a plateresque 
tomb on the left of the vestry door ; 
pictures inferior. San Fablo (1415-35, 
now cavalry barracks) contains some 
fine Revival tombs, of the middle of 
16th century, and a good cloister. In 
San Nicolas there is a stone retablo 
richly carved, and tombs of the 15th 
and beginning of 16th century. 




San Oil (14tli century). — Some fine 
specimens of Gothic sepulchres ; a very 
interesting and elegant iron pulpit and 
fine retablos in chapels N. and S. of 

Streets. — ^The principal street of Bur- 
gos is the Espolon, which also forms a 
promenade along the banks of the river. 
The Plaza Mayor is a large square, de- 
signed by Ventura Rodriguez, the last 
great (?) architect of Spain (1783). In 
the centre is a very mediocre bronze 
statue of Charles III. ; the fashionable 
barrio in former days was in and about 
the Oalle Alta. The older streets are 
Calle San Lorenzo, Avellanos, and San 
Juan ; the widest street is del Huerto 
del Rey. The streets, ill-paved and 
prosy for one's feet as they are, abound, 
many of them, with associations of the 
ever-poetic past, and their names are 
well known to the reader of Castilian 
history — Calle de Lain Calvo, Feman 
Gonzalez, Cid, Diego Porcelos, Nuilo 
Rasura, etc. 

The Town Hall is a modem building, 
ciontaining some very middling modem 
portraits, said to be likenesses of Bur- 
galese worthies. The gcUes are most 
picturesque; especially the Arco de 
Santa Maria, which is said to have 
been erected by the Burgalese on the 
occasion of the visit of Charles V., and 
to reconcile him to them after the part 
they had taken in the Comunero move- 
ment. It was decorated with the statues 
of the popular heroes of the city, the 
Cid, Lain Calvo, Feman Gonzalez, etc., 
and that of the Coesar was placed in the 
centre. Over the arch, which was origi- 
nally painted and gilt, is the image of 
the Virgin, to whom it was ostensibly 
dedicated. The gate is ornamented with 
turrets and battiements, and, with the 
circular (cubo) bastions of the former 
walls of tills once mighty capital, forms 
a very effective and interesting spot. It 
was erected on the site of the Torre de 

Santa Maria, from which Don Pedro el 
Jiistidero hurled the Justiaia Mayor 
Garci Laso de La Vega. The rooms 
placed over the arch were the former 
Town Hall of the city ; these have two 
horseshoe doors with stucco patterns. 
The Arco de Feman Gonzalez was 
erected to the memory of that hero 
by Philip II. It is of Doric style, and 
effective. Close by in the Calle Alta 
was the solar, or mansion of the Oid, 
on the site of which Charles III. erected 
(1784) the present paltry and insignifi- 
cant monument. On the obelisks are 
the shields of Burgos and of the Cid. 

The Cid was bom here in 1026, was 
baptized in the Church of San Martin, 
now no longer extant, and died at 
Valencia in 1099. His body was re- 
moved from the latter town to the 
monastery of Cardena, near Burgos, 
whence once more it was conveyed to 
the Town HalL The bones of the hero 
and those of his faithful and heroic 
Jimena are shown to visitors on obtain- 
ing the verbal permiso of the secretary 
of the Ayuntamiento. The bones are 
kept in a common walnut urn, placed 
in a room fitted up as a chapeL 

The CasUe of Burgos is interesting in 
an historical point of view. It was the 
early palace of the Counts of Castile. 
In 959, Count Feman Gonzalez brought 
Garcia, King of Navarre, a prisoner here, 
and confined him for thirteen months. 
The bridal of the Cid took place within 
it. Alfonso VI. of Leon was taken here 
after he was made a prisoner by the Cid 
in the Church of Carrion. Here St 
Ferdinand received St Casilda, daugh- 
ter of the Moorish King of Toledo, 
who was converted to Christianity. It 
was the birthplace of Pedro the Cmel : 
Don Fadrique, son of Enrique II. and 
the first Spanish duke, was imprisoned 
here; and here again Edward I. of 
England espoused Eleanor of Castile. 
It was in those times a magnifioent 



palace, as well as a strong fortress, 
which was considerably strengthened 
in the succeeding reigns. The state- 
rooms were destroyed by a fire which 
happened in 1786. In Kov. 1808, 
on Napoleon's yictorions march from 
Yitoria to Madrid, at the head of the 
second corps d'arm^e, nnder Soult, 
Bnrgos was defended by Count Belye- 
der, at the head of 12,000 men. Las- 
salle, after a reconnoissance, retired to 
his quarters, pursued by half the Spanish 
army, which was at GamonaL The 
French horsemen then turned sud- 
denly upon the assailants, defeated these 
and the rest, and entered the town 
p^le-m^e. It then became the head 
quarters of Napoleon. The Duke of 
Wellington, after the battle of Sala- 
manca, laid siege to Burgos; but, being 
iU supported by Balesteros, had to raise 
the siege, to avoid falling into the hands 
of Soult, who was advancing at the 
head of overwhelming numbers. On 
Sept. 1, 1812, Wellington began this 
siege, at the head of very few troops, 
and with only three 18-pounders. The 
castle was garrisoned by 1800 infantry, 
besides artillerymen, commanded by 
the gallant Dubreton. It was de- 
fended by five enclosures, which a 
heavy casemated work called the Na- 
poleon battery cannonaded on every side 
except to the N., where at some dis- 
tance another height, San Miguel, was 
weakly palisaded. The JPrench pos- 
sessed twenty-six guns, besides the re- 
serve artillery of the army of Portugal. 
The position taken by the English 
extended from San Miguel on the leffc 
of the old camino real to Vitoria, up to 
the island of San Pedro. On the 19th, 
notwithstanding the strong batteries 
commanding the Arlanzon, this river 
was forded by the first division, and the 
first assault made by Major Somers 
Oodks, supported by Pack's Portuguese. 
Thougih the loss was great, the hill of 

San Miguel was gained. The plan of 
the siege now became clearer. Head 
quarters were fixed at Villa Toro. CoL 
Burgoyne conducted the operations of 
the engineers, and the artillery was 
placed under Robe and Dickson. They 
had only three 18-pounders and five 
24-pound howitzers. The second as- 
sault met with no success ; the third 
was also a failure, owing to the darkness 
of the night and the fault of the con- 
ducting engineers ; the fourth seemed 
at first to be attended with better suc- 
cess, but each time the troops had ad- 
vanced, Dubreton 'came thundering 
down from the upper ground, levelling 
all the works, carrying off all the tools, 
etc. ' Major Cocks was killed, with 200 
killed or wounded. After the fifth as- 
sault, the French regained some import- 
ant positions, gallantly obtained by 
the English, who had once more to fall 
back on their former lines. The news 
came now that Soult was marching 
from Granada, King Joseph was mov- 
ing upon Madrid, and Souham concen- 
trating CaffareUi's troops with his own 
at aiviesca. The English army, with- 
out ammunition, ill - provisioned, de- 
spondent, and even growing insub- 
ordinate, had to raise the siege, and 
Wellington determined to endeavour to 
join Hill. This retreat was effected 
after thirty-three days of investment, 
and a loss of upwards of 2000 men. 
The movement was skilfully concerted, 
and boldly carried out on the 21st In 
June 1813, the castie, still in posses- 
sion of the French, had not been re- 
paired, but rather so neglected that it 
was declared untenable. Before the 
advancing duke. King Joseph retreated. 
The castie was mined, but the mines so 
hurriedly or unskilfully exploded that 
they destroyed about 800 French, ruined 
several streets, and thousands of shells, 
being ignited and driven upwards, fell 
on several buildings, which they < 



pletely destroyed or mutilated. It was 
then, and by that terrific explosion, 
that the beautlM painted glass windows 
in the cathedral were destroyed. The 
castle is now in ruins, and the fortifi- 
cations quite insignificant. 

PrivcUe Houses, — ^There are still a 
few mansions, curious and interesting 
specimens of the ciyil architecture of 
l^e 14th to the 16th century. Visit 
especially the ' Casa del Cordon' (16th 
century), now the residence of the Cap- 
tain G^eral. It belongs to the Duke 
of Frias, who is a descendant of the 
Count of Haro, who erected it^ and was 
Constable of Castile. It dates from 
the end of 15th century. Orer the 
portal is the rope or cordon of the Teu- 
tonic Order which links the arms of 
the houses of Yelasco, Mendoza, and 
Figuera with those of royalty. The 
magnificence of tl^i« royal mansion must 
hare equalled that of the chapel of the 
Constable in the Cathedral erected by 
the same nobleman, and there are still 
some fine azulejos, artesonado ceilings, 
the patio with two series of galleries, 
arms, turrets, etc., besides some family 
portraits in the administrador of the 
duke's rooms ; but much was plundered 
and destroyed by the French. Ckua de 
Minmda.^ln Calle de laCalera, £. of the 
barrio de la Vega. Observe liie noble 
patio and pillars. Casa d$ AngtUo. — 
dose to the former, of 16th century ; a 
fine portal In Calle de los Ayellanos, 
Casa del Conde de Yillariezo, of the 
10th century, where the powerful con- 
stable Alvaro de Luna was imprisoned. 
The archiepiscopal palace is plain. 

Subu/rhs, — lliose which travellers 
should not faQ to vlBit consist of the 
convent of Las Huelgas ; Cartiga of 
Miraflores ; and San Pedro de CaidetUi) 
where the Cid's tomb used to be. 

Las Huelgas. — This convent is situ- 
ated on the high road to Yalladolid, 
and was founded by Alfonso VIIL and 

his queen Leonora, daughter of Henry 
II. of England, in 1180, on the site of 
some pleasure-grounds (huelgas, from 
holgaTy to rest = Sans Souci). It has 
been often augmented and repaired in. 
subsequent periods, and is therefore not 
homogeneous in either style or shape. 
Of the former palace or villa, nothing 
more, it is said, remains than the small 
cloister with fSemtastical capitals, and 
Byzantine semicircular arch. The 
church was consecrated in 1279, and 
was the work of King St Ferdinand. 
It is of a good pure Gothic, severe, and 
well charocterised. The interior of 
the church is worth careful studying^ 
though disfigured by tinsel ornamenta- 
tion and furniture, churrigueresque 
altars, etc. The abbesses of Huelgas 
used formerly to be most powerful, 
and inferior to no one in dignity 
besides the queen ; they were mitred, 
*SeSoras de horca y cuchillo' (i.e, 
with right of life and death), lorded 
over fifty-one villages and boroughs, 
named their alcaldes, curates, chap* 
lains, and possessed the style of ' For 
la grada de Dios ' and ' nuUius 
diocesiB.' It is one of the few re- 
maining convents which have pre- 
served, though considerably diminished, 
extensive landed property, amounting 
to some 15, 000 fanegas, several villages, 
and many thousand head of merino 
sheep. The order is Cistercian, and 
to gain admission the nuns must, besides 
the ordinary exigencies of the rule, 
bring adowryand belong to the nobility. 
The clausura (confinement) is most strict, 
and the nuns can only be visited by 
ladies. On Sundays, during high mass, 
they may be neverUieless seen sitting 
in their magnificently carved stalls, 
singing and praying, clad in a most 
becoming dreas. As the building was 
also intended for the burial-house of 
the Ejngs of Castile, there are several 
tombs worthy of a rapid glanot. Is 



this Escoiial of the North are buried, 
amongst others, the Emperor Alfonso 
YIL, Alfonso YIIL, and his queen 
Leonora, Alfonso the Learned, Hen- 
rique L, etc. In this church the 
marriage took place of the Li&nte 
de la Cerda (who is buried here) with 
Blanche, daughter of St. Louis of 
France, at which the Kings of Castile, 
Aragon, Nayaire, the Moorish King of 
Granada, Prince Edward of England 
(son of Heniy IIL), the Empress of 
Constantinople, the French Dauphin, 
and twenty or thirty other crowned 
heads and princes were present A- 
mongst the nuns of rank that hare 
lived and died here, were Berenguela, 
dau^ter of St. Ferdinand ; Maria of 
Aragon, aunt to Charles Y., etc. In 
the Chapel de Santiago is preserved an 
image of this warrior saint, in which 
some springs move the arms. Here 
aspirants to knighthood used to 'velar 
las armas' (keep the vigil), and when 
they w^<e knighted, a sword was fas- 
tened to the right hand of the image, 
which, by moving a spring, fell genUy 
on the recipient' s shoulder, and thus 
their dignity was saved ; for otherwise 
it was an offence to receive the accolade 
(dub of knighthood) from a man. In 
the nun's choir is preserved the banner 
of Alfonso YIIL, which waved at Las 
Navas de Tolosa. 

Xa Oa/rtfuja,, — This convent is one of 
the lions of Burgos, and well deserves 
a visit The distence is half-an-hour's 
drive frtmi the centre of the city ; a 
cal^he there and back, 20r. Shown 
only from 8 A.M. to 12 a.m., and from 
3 P.M. to sunset. The convent, once a 
very wealthy one, has suffered greatly 
since the suppression of religious com- 
munities in Spain, and is now inhabited 
by four or five poor, slovenly, ezclau- 
strado Carthusian monks, who are just 
tolerated and looked upon with hostile 
suspicion by that rival of the regular 

cleigy, d euro. The railway is carried 
over an arch called Puerta de la Yieja, 
which was built by Enrique III., but 
repaired in 1831. The site originally 
formed some hunting-grounds called 
El Pargue JUcU, whi^ were purchased 
by Enrique III., who built the palace 
of Miraflores. At his death it was 
seen that, by his will, he had intended 
founding a monastery. Much opposi- 
tion was offered to the accomplishment 
of his vow, which was finally carried 
out by his son Juan II., who granted 
the grounds and palace to the CarUiusian 
order in 1442. The convent then built 
was burnt down to the ground (1452), 
and the present one, designed by Juan 
de Colonia, whom Bishop Cartagena had 
brought with him for the works of the 
cathedral, was continued with great 
activity and completed by Isabella, 
who, at the death of Juan de Colonia, 
emjdoyed his sons Simon and Matienzo. 
The style of the church is exceedingly 
simple, with pointed arched windows, 
and a few transition pinnacles and other 
details. The style of both the exterior 
and interior belongs to the florid Gothic, 
with somewhat of the plateresque. The 
exterior, with its worked-out flying but- 
tresses and pinnacles, is, however, rather 
bald. The principal facade is deco- 
rated with the arms of Castile and Leon. 
Ths Interior ia divided into three por- 
tions, according to the rule observed by 
the Carthusian order in all its churches. 
One portion is allotted to the monks, the 
other to the legos (laity), and the third 
to the people, each railed in, and the two 
first with choirs and stalls. The AUaar 
was designed by Gil De Siloe and Diego 
de la Cruz ; b^un in 1486, finished in 
1499. It was ordered by Queen Isabella, 
and gilt with the gold brought from 
America after the second journey of 
Columbus. It is quadrangular in shape, 
and crowned by a circle formed of saints, 
and in the centre are scenes from the 



Passion. Before it is a crucifix, of little 
merit. Over the sagrario is a Virgin in 
an nm, which, being placed on a wheel, 
reyolves, presenting seven scenes of the 
Scripture, sculptured upon its seven 
sides. The Tombs are the principal 
sight in the convent, and may be ranked 
among the finest in Europe. In the 
centre of the nave is the tomb of Juan 
II., and that of Queen Isabella of Por- 
tugal. The mausoleums are octagonal 
in shape; sixteen lions, two at each 
angle; support eight escutcheons bearing 
the royal arms from the base ; the sides, 
upper angles, etc., are crowded with 
numerous statuettes imder filigree cano- 
pies, open-worked leaves, and fruit, be- 
sidesnumberless birds and other animals, 
and the whole charmingly composed 
and executed with such delicacy of de- 
tail and abundance of subjects, that la 
vista sepierde amongst all that intricacy. 
The statues are in a recumbent attitude. 
Observe the wonderful workmanship of 
the cushions and robes, as well as the 
sitting figures of the four Evangelists, 
and the group of a lion, dog, and child 
at the queen's feet. Close to these 
tombs, in a recess in the wall, is that 
of their son, Don Alfonso (ob. 1470, set. 
16), who, at his death, was succeeded 
by his sister Isabella. The Infante is 
kneeling; a vine, from around which 
children are hanging, whilst they are 
plucking the grapes, winds in festoons 
round the Gothic arch which frames 
that poetical composition. There are 
also numberless specimens from the 
vegetable and animal kingdoms, fruit, 
branches, leaves of all sorts, etc., all 
admirably executed. These tombs, 
raised by Isabella to the memory of her 
sires and brother, were designed by Gil 
de Siloe, who began them in 1489, and 
finished them in 1493 ; they cost 602, 406 
maravedis. The stalls in the first choir, 
close to the altar, are of walnut, and 
decorated only with leaf ornaments. 

The prior's stall, with its Gothic canopy, 
is fine ; it dates from 1488, and is the 
work of Martin Sanchez. The second 
choir, coro de los legos, has stalls more 
elaborately worked and bemeguete-like 
in the style and execution — (1558) — ^by 
Simon Bueras. The retablo over the 
high altar is a grand composition, with 
subjects from our Saviour's life ; at the 
bottom, on each side, are Imeeling 
effigies of the king and queen. There 
is a crowd of subjects and figures on 
either side of the tabernacle ; above this 
latter is the Assumption of the Virgin ; 
and above, a circle formed of clustered 
angels. In the centre stands a fine 
Crucifix, surmounted by the allegorical 
subject of the Pelican, ruining her 
breast. The sculpture is excellent 
throughout, and does credit to Maestro 
Gil de Siloe, who designed it (1496-99), 
and executed most of it, the rest being 
the work of Diego de la Cruz. The 
elaborate reja is by Santillana. The 
painted glass is not very remarkable, 
though expressly made in and brought 
from Flanders in the 15th century. 
The burial-ground is truly a * champ du 
repos' — nay, of oblivion and neglect 
41 9 Carthusian monks lie there in death 
as they lived, humble and forgotten, 
without a name or a date, amongst the 
weeds, and shaded by some tall and 
sombre cypresses, which ndse up their 
arrowy and motionless spires into the 
blue heavens. All is calm and quiet 
there, and silence is only interrupted by 
the trickling tear-like drops of water 
from a fountain in the centre. Weeds 
grow thick and quick around graves in 
Spain ; in that land of sun and blue 
sky, shadows do not linger long over 
the heart, and the poor dead are soon 
forgotten. Visit the cells and adjoining 
gardens and workshops of the monks. 
In a chapel is a fine statue of the founder 
of the order, St. Bruno, by Manuel Percy- 
ra, which was foimerly in the cathedral 



San Pedro de Cardetia is a conyent of 
the Benedictme order, founded by Queen 
Sancha, mother of the Gothic Theodoric. 
In the time of Alfonso el Casto (9th 
century), the Moors, during one of their 
forays, razed the edifice to the ground, 
and killed 200 monks who inhabited it 
It was a £B,yourite conyent with the Cid, 
and at his dying req^uest (1099), his 
body was conyeyed hither, and buried 
before the high altar, together with his 

Y& San Pedro de CardeBa 

If ando que mi cneipo Ileven, etc. 


The empty monument now stands in a 
small side-chapel ; on the stone pedestal 
are placed the effigies of the great hero 
and Jimena, side by side in death as 
they had liyed. On the upper part is 
an inscription, placed by order of Al- 
fonso the Learned. On the walls are 
blazoned the escutcheons of the Cid's 
relatiyes and companions in anns. But 
the convent has been modenused ; this 
yery chapel only dates from 1786, and 
on the whole we do not adyise tourists 
to undergo the dreary driye across wind- 
blown, rocky downs for this edifice, of 
which little remains of former days. 


Capital of province of same name ; 
pop. 14,i66. 

Boutes to — Ist, from M^rida, by 
rail or riding : distance, 72 kiL One 
train per day ; 1st cl., Pes. 9.16 ; 2d 
cL, 6.86; 3d cL, 4.66. But riding 
oyer all this country to be preferred 
if possible. On leaving Merida, a 
Roman aqueduct repaired and cany- 
ing water to the town : through an 
uninteresting tract of country, reach 
the miserable hamlets of Alguc^u,, and 
its stream ; skirt the Sierra de San 
Pedro, and Caaas de Don Antonio, 
Close to latter, 6 miles distant, lies the 
town of Montanches, celebrated for its 
hams, jamones, the most succulent in 
Spain ; along with those of the Alpu- 
jirras, they were great favourites with 
Charles V. during his ' Retire * at Yuste. 
Much of their delicacy was then as- 
cribed to the different sorts of reptiles 
which it was supposed constituted the 
ordinary food of the Montanches pigs. 
Acorns are certainly not abundant in 
this part of the country. Cross the 
rivers Ayuela and Rio Solar, 

2d, From Badajoz \sj riding or 
galeras — 
Badajoz to C&ceres, 14 leagues. 
(If ridbg» take a local guide, as then 
you cross the Puerto de Sancho 
Caballo, whilst by galeras that of 
Qovin is traversed.) 
Badsgoz to Roca . . 6 

Puebla de Ovando . . .1 

C^eres .... 7 

In a long day's ride, leagues . 14 
A league after leaving Badajoz tiie 
Ehora is crossed by a fine bridge, then 
the Ribera de Periquoitos is forded. 
The other rivers which the traveller 
meets are, the Ayuella, 2^ leagues be- 
fore arriving at C&ceres, and the Salar, 
half-a-league. The Ribera del SaltiUo 
has to be forded near Puebla de Ovando, 
a village of 871 iahabitants, also called 
£1 Zangano, which name would reflect 
no flattering credit on the inhabitants. 
8d, By TruJUlo, riding from Naval* 
Tnijillo to Venta de Masilla, leagues 3 
C&ceres .... 5 

Across hills planted with oaks ; the 
rivers Magusca and Tameja are crossed 



Reached by galeras or riding. In both 
tours take a local gnide, and attend to 
the provender. 

4th, Yrom Madrid, By the recently ' 
opened Tagus Railroad vid Torrijos, 
Talavera de la Reina, Navalmoral and 
Arroyo (change) ; distance, 347 kil. ; 2 
trains j)ev day ; 12 hrs. ; fares, Ist cl., 
200r. 20c. ; 2d cl., 150r. 20c.; Legan^s, 
a large Innotio asylum ; Torrijos, 2000 
inhab. in a damp and fever-stricken dis- 
trict A Palace of Altamira contains 
some fine mudejar artevonado ceilings. 
Talavera de la Iteina, Hotels: Amistad, 
Petra Ferrer, both fair. This, the 
Roman Tala-Briga, is now a decayed 
city deserving of a better fate, for it is 
charmingly situated on the Tagus, which 
waters its verdurous vega and beautiful 
gardens and orchards. There are re- 
mains of the Roman circumvallation ; 
of the Moorish fortifications, The Torres 
AlbarrouaSf built 10th cent, and of a 
Pagan temple, etc. An indifferent 
Gothic Ch. of Sta, Ma. la Mayor; a 
much ruined bridge of 15th cent , built 
by Card. Mendoza ; acharming Alameda, 
and a Dominican Convent with some 
fine tombs. On the hill to the left of 
the town, and on the Madrid road, was 
fought, 27th and 28th July 1809, the cele- 
brated battle of Talavera, between the 
French under Marshals Victor, Jourdan, 
and King Joseph, and the Anglo-Span- 
ish army, under the great duke's per- 
sonal command. The French finally 
abandoned the field, losing 20 cannon, 
and 10,000 killed and wounded. 
Oropesa, pop. 1880, a small and most 
decayed Httie town crowning an ilex 
and olive-clad MIL A dilapidated 
palace and castle, the property of the 
Dnke de Frias. NavalmoraZ, pop. 8000. 
Here, if desired, the railway may be 
conveniently left, and Cdceres reached 
by riding vid Trujillo. In this case Al- 
maraz is passed in IJ hrs. Here the 
Tagus is crossed. This little town gave 

a title to Lord Hill, who, May 18, 1812, 
* conducted here' with consummate abi- 
lity one of the most brilliant actions of 
the Peninsular War,' which consisted in 
forcing the defile of La Cueva, cutting 
off Soult firom Marmont, thus preparing 
the victory of Salamanca. 

At Jaraicejo cross the river Almotite 
and reach TrviUlo, Pop. 6800. Tinis 
Parador. This, the Turris Julia, be- 
cause said to have been founded by 
Julius Csesar, is built upon a granite 
hill, and is divided iato the castie 
quarter, the old dty, and the town 
proper. The chief curiosities are: — 
the Arch of Santiago, the Ch. of Sa. Ma. 
La Mayor, the picturesque Plaza, Ch. 
of San Martin, Ch. and tombs of Sa. Ma. 
del Concepcion, the houses of Duke de 
San Carlos, and C-del Puerto. In La 
Concepcion note especially the tomb of 
Pizarro. See also his house in the Plaza. 

Caceres. — Inns— most indifferent- 
Posada Nueva and that of Los Cabal- 
leros. The climate is excellent ; the air 
pure and soft. The winter is scarcely 
felt, and lasts but a few weeks ; the 
mortality is 1. 31. The country around 
is the most fertile in the province. 
The older portion of Caceres occupies 
the summit of the height on which the 
town is placed, and is flanked by old 
quaint massive walls with ciibos and five 
gates, of which latter that of Xa Estella 
is the most interesting. Hie newer 
portion is built around the former, but 
slopes down to the plain, which is W9^ 
teredbythe'cawdoioso'ifarco. Though 
abounding with wine, com, fruit, and 
delicious hams and bacon, and rich 
succulent sausages of all kinds (which 
we recommend to the gastronomic 
tourist), C&ceres, from its out-of-the 
way situation and want of roads, lies in 
an ignored nook of Fstremadura, and 
is dull, lifeless, dirty, and sombre. The 
antiquary and artist will nevertheless 
not lack subjects worthy of attention, 



pen, and pencil ; not so mnch from any 
particular edifice, as for *Prout'-bit 
nooks and comers, and private houses, 
aU well preserved and strongly charac- 
terised, belonging to the feudal times, 
and boEuring i^oud annorials. Do not 
fail to visit the VeleUts, the Moorish 
Alcazar ; the houses of the Duque de 
Abrantes, Conde de la Torre, de los Gol- 
fines, de los Carbajales, etc. The plaza is 
decorated with a Roman Ceres and a Di- 
ana (the head is modem). There are, be- 
sides, the Bishop's Palace ; the Gothic 
chvaih of Santa Ma/ria^ rebuilt in 1556, 
where notice the retablo of that period 
andthesepulchresoftheFigueroas, Pare- 
des, etc. ; SanMaUo, intheupper or older 
town, close to house de los Yeletas, and 
the work of Pedro de Ezqueira (its 
tower and tombs) ; and in Santiago a 
fine reja (1563). The bull-ring, all of 
granite, and situated K. W. <^ the town, 
is a magnificent building 9m generis. 
There are antiquities constantly dug 
up and reburied in the ' Dehesa de los 
Arrogates' 3 leagues off. Odceres was 
founded, 74 B.O., by Q. C. Metellus, 
and named by him Castra CssariB^ 
whence its present name is derived. 

Excursion to Alo&ntara. — ^A 6 hrs.' 
ride, amid wild oaks and dehesas, by 

Alo&ntara.— Pop. 4000. On a rocky 
height over the Tagus, and girdled by 
waUs 6 m^t high and 2 m^t wide. Al- 
Eaatar^ (the bridge in Arab.) was the 
Norba Cceaarea of the Romans, and 
belonged subsequently to the military 
order of Alcdntara, to whom it was 
granted by Alfonso IX. of Castile, in 
1212. Visit the Convent of San Benito, 
built in 1506, and enlarged and em- 
bellished by Philip 11. Observe, over 
and above the collateral altar, some 
fine pictures by Morales, who must be 
studied in Estremadura, his native land. 
Also notice the sepulchres of the knights, 
the dolstera^ etc The great lion here is 

the Bridge, a wonderful work built for 
Tr^an, a.d. 105, by the architect Caius 
Julius Lacer, who was buried near it 
It was repaired by that other great em- 
peror, Charles Y., in 1543. It consists 
of six arches, vaiying in size, and is 
entirely built with blocks of granite, 
without cement ; the widest arches in 
the centre have a span of 110 ft ; the 
length is 670 ft ; the height 210 ft 
There is a tower in the middle some 18 
m^. hi^ The second arch on the 
right bfmk was blown up in 1809 by 
CoL Mayne, was repaired in 1812 l^ 
CoL Sturgeon, and destroyed a second 
time in 1836 ; it has never been repaired 
since, and the river is crossed in a ferry- 
boaty and this near and under one of 
the grandest engineering works of the 
Romans in Spain, which it is a na* 
tional duty to preserve as a monument, 
and a government's obligation to make 
available. A decent Casa de huespedes, 
kept by Don Oisto PeSia, near the Plaza 
de Toros, and a tolerable posada, Nueva 

XSxouTsion to Plasenoia, by rail ; ot 
by road including Alcantara. 



Cdcercs to Malpartida 


Arroyo del Pucrco . 


Brozas .... 


Aldbitant (sleep) . 


Alcantara to Garrovillas ■ 




Coria (sleep) . 

. 4 



Riding ; take a local guide and int>- 
vender. Interesting only to artists and 

Arroyo del Pu&roo. — Posada de la 
Cacerana. In the parish church are, 
or were till but very recently, sixteen 
very fine authentic and undefiled pic- 
tures by Morales. The subjects are, 
Christ in the Garden, Bearing the 



Cross, the Annunciatioii, Kativity, 
Christ in Limbo, St John, Saviour 
Bound, Descent, Burial, Christ and 
Joseph of Arimathea, Adoration of 
Kings, Circumcision, Ascension, Pen- 
tecost, Saviour with the Reed, St 

Alcd7Uara,—ride p. 89. 

Ooria. — Posada de Juan Lopez : in- 
different Pop. 2500. Is the Roman 
Caurium, of which the walls still sub- 
sist, and are interesting ; they are 30 ft 
high and 19 ft thick on an average. 
Visit the Paredon, the Aqueduct, Torre 
de San Francisco, the Gothic Cathedral 
of granite, with a fine plateresque en- 
trance and quaintly carved stalls, dat- 
ing 1489, and tombs of Bishop Galorza, 
Prescamo, Do&a Catalina, Diaz, etc., 
most of them of the beghming of the 
16th century and end of the 15th. 

Plasenoia.— Inns : Posada de las tres 
Puertas and Parador Nuevo. 6000 in- 
habitants, bishop's see as well as Coria, 
on the banks of the Jerte and in the 
prov. of CAceres. The town is hooped 
in by a massive wall, built in 1197 by 
Alfonso VIII. of Castile, and strength- 
ened by sixty-eight oubo towers and 
with six gates, all most picturesque, 
and excellent specimens of medisBval 
Castilian military engineering. Besides, 
on the N.K side, and overlooking the 
rest, rose a strongly-built fortress, of 
which the ruins subsist The flint- 
made streets are straight, and the 
houses of the earlier periods are worth 
a visit, especially that of Marques de 
Miravel. Observe the grand staircase, 
the pillars and statues; l^t of the 
Marqu^ de Santa Cruz de Paniagua 
(literally, bread and water), with a fine 
balcony. The principal sight is the 
CathedrcU, It was built in 1498, and 
belongs to the florid Oothic ; but has 
been modernised and altered in several 
portions, while other parts- have re- 
mained imfimafied. Observe the fine S. 

entrance, the plateresque door, * Puerta 
del Enlosado ; * the interior is some- 
what disfigured by the over-sized pil- 
lars which support the roof of the 
central aisle ; notice more especially the 
colossal and fine reja del coro, 6 ffc. 
high (1664), by Celma ; the finely-carved 
Tedesque stalls by Aleman ; the retablo 
of the high altar, a masterpiece of 
Gregorio Hernandez (1626), four large 
pictures by Ricci ; the plateresque se- 
pulchres of Bishop Ponce de Leon and 

Besides the cathedral may be visited 
the Church of San Nicolas, with a fine 
tomb of Bishop Pedro de Carvt^al ; San 
Ildefonso for the tomb of Cristobal de 
Villalba ; the Church of San Vicente 
for another <^ Martin Kieto (1597), etc. 
Prout-bits that will tempt the sketcher 
are not wanting about the cathedral, 
biahc^'s palace, etc. Antiquaries wOl 
study and trace from what remaios the 
beautiful Roman Via Lata, going from 
M^rida to Salamanca, which is more 
strongly marked on nearing Merida 
and the Charca, where still subsist the 
military columns, 7 ft. high, generally 
well preserved. 

Excursion to Convent of Kjw/f.^Travellcrs 
desirous of routing this out-of-the-way convent, 
the site of the refuge and death of Oiarles V., 
will do well to obtain beforehand inf<»ination 
respecting the administrador of £1 Monasterio 
de San Geronixno de Yuste, at Cuacos, as 
changes are now taking place in the lesseeship 
of the convent, which has been recently pur- 
chased by the Duo de Montpensier, and is 
undergoing repairs. Yuste lies some 8 leagues 
from Plasencia, across the Xerte, the Calzones 
hill, the charming valley of Vera, to pictur- 
esque Pasaron. Soon after the latter has been 
left, the Hieronymite Convent appears a little 
above the Magdalena farm, and near the small 
stream of the Yuste. Visit the Nogal Grande, 
a large walnut-tree, under which Charles used 
to sit ; his bedroom, where once hung Titian's 
Gloria, now at the Madrid Gallery, No. 463. 
In the chapel observe the finely-carved silleria 
by Mateo Aleman; visit likewise the Plaza 
del Palacio, the stm-dial erected by Juanelo 
Turriana, the pleasure- grounds ~ sadly ne- 



John BartKolomsw > Co^F.ila^ 


Ziufluh JGIa* 
o j^ ^tp »f> *f> .y 

A.* C.Jil8c-Ic,£rinabiirjfii. 



glected— and its Cenador de Belem. The 
convent was sacked and almost destroyed by 
Soult's soldiers; and the brutal peasants of 
Cuacos, the constant enemies of the convent 
even during Charies's life, have done the rest . 
In the vicinity of Yuste game abounds, such 
as deer, roebuck, wild boars, cabras montesas 
(chamois), and wolves. There is also some ex- 
cellent fishing about the Xerte, Yuste, etc. 

From or to Salamomca^ 42 leagues by 
Ciudad Eodrigo. (See Salamanca.) 

Books of Eeferenu, — ' Historia de 
Caoeres con. sus Priyilegios,' by Ulloa 
y Golfin, MS. in Acad. Hiat (D. 49), 
the best work written on this city. 

Alcdniara. — * Descripcion de la 9im- 
taosay celebre Puentede Alcantara ; ' 4to, 
MS., BibL Kacionale (yoL 159, foL 96). 

Yuate, — ^1. 'Fnndaoion del Monas- 

terio de Yuste,' by Hernando del Cor- 
ral, MS. of the 16th century, BibL of 
£scorial (L. j. 18, fol. 25), and Signon- 
za's ' Hist, of the Order of St. Jerome,' 
2 vols., i, p. 29. 

2. And for details on ihe life of 
Charles Y . at Yuste, see ' History of the 
Order of St Jerome,' by Siguenza* voL 
i., p. 86 ; * Cloister life of tiie Em- 
peror Charles Y*.,* by Stirling, 1852, 
etc. ; Se&or Tomas Gonzalez's important 
work, * Retiro, ' etc., extracted from do 
cuments at Simancas^ and M. Mignet's 
'Charles Quint' etc, the last edition 
(1862), in which we haye remarked 
very interesting new documents, not 
comprised in the former editions ; San- 
doval's 'Hist' etc. 


Capital of proyince of the same name ; 
bishop's see ; trading and military sea- 
port P<^. about 65,000. 

Boutes and Oonveyanoes. — 1st, 
From Madrid, by rail throughout, cros- 
sing Cordova, Seville, and Jerez ; dis- 
tance, 726 kil ; time, 24 hours. Fares, 
1st cL, Pes. 84.15; 2d cl., 64.10. 
From Madrid to Alcazar, the Alicante 
Railway is followed. At Alcazar change 
carriages. A buflfet Madrid to Cor- 
dova, 15i hours ; Cordova to Seville, 
8f hours ; Seville to Cadiz, 4} hours. 
Buffet at Cordova. For description of 
route see Alicante, Cordova, etc. 

2d, From Seville, A. By rail, 6 J 
hours ; distance, 153 kil. For details 
see Seville and Jerez. 

B, By the river ; offices, Salmon, 
Calle Nueva, 7. Time, 6i to 7 hours ; 
see Seville (seldom adopted). 

3d, From Cordova, 8 hours; two 
trains ; distance, 285 kil. Fares, 1st 
cl., Pes. 30.65 ; 2d cL, 22.70; 3d cl., 
13.60. For details see Cordova, 

4th, From Malaga, A. By sea. See 
Malaga; also advertisements in papers 
and bills. A pleasant route, calling 
either at Gibraltar or Algedras. The 
best lines are the * Hall * (weekly) ; the 
Compafiia Trasatlintica (Lopez) twice 
a month; the Segovia -Cuadra (bi- 
weekly) ; and the Compagnie Havraise 
Peninsular (every 10 days). The time, 
direct, is about 15 hours. B. By land, 
vi4 Bobadilla, La Boda, Oai/^fUt, Utrera, 
etc. ; or drive from Oav^ia to Moron, 
through an interesting country, and 
from thence take train to Seville. Also 
by rail through Montilla (finely situ- 
ated ; great sherry district ; birthplace 
of El Gran Capitan, Gonsalvo de C<Sr- 
doba), and from thence vi& Ihija and 
Marchena to Seville. 

5th, From Lisbon, By John Hall 
and Company's boats, weekly, or by 
the fine steamers of the Ligne Penin- 
sulaire. Also by numerous coasting 

6th, From Eavre, by the boats of the 



Compagnie Havraise P^ninsolaire twice 
a month. 

7tli, From Alicante, Cartagena, Barce- 
lona, Marseilles, etc. ; from tlie chief 
British ports — ^London, Liverpool, Bris- 
tol, Glasgow, Dublin, etc. ; from Genoa 
and Leghorn ; from the ports of Ger- 
many and Denmark — with all these 
there is constant steam communication. 
Address in Cadiz to Alcon and Ca, Calle 
de la Adnana 16 ; Joaquin del CuyUIo, 
Calle de Antonio Lopez 24; Messrs. 
Haynes, San Francisco 87 ; D. Mac- 
pherson, San Gin^ 4, or JO06 Esteban 
Gomez, Calle Marguia 85. 

Cadiz, Barcelona, and Bilbao are the 
most important ports in Spain, and the 
points of departure and centres of com- 
mimication for yessels going to and fro 
between all parts of ti^e world. The 
principal lines leaving or touching here 
are the following : — The Pacific Steam 
Navigation Company, twice a month 
for Jlio Janeiro, Monte Video, and 
Buenos Ayres; agents in Cadiz, Alcon 
and Co. ; The National Steamship 
Company for New York and Boston — 
agent, D. Macpherson ; The Peninsular 
and Oriental Company for various des- 
tinations — an office at Cadiz for tickets, 
etc., but passengers must proceed to 
Gibraltar to embark; The Compa&ia 
Trasatldntica (Lopez line) for Puerto 
Rico, Mdbana, Colon, and the Pcbdfic 
ports; as also for Manila, Singapore 
and the East ; office of the Company, 
Isabel la Cat61ica 8; The Italian 
Transatlantic line of Piaggio and Co.— 
agents in Cadiz, Sres. Qdero y Ferro, 
Ahumada 8. 

Tourists at Cadiz, however, are most 
interested in tiie routes to or from 
Gibraltar, by sea and land. A. By 
sea. The first-class occasional steamers 
are not to be depended upon. Messrs. 

Haynes' boats run regularly twice a 
week, in about 10 hours, but should be 
avoided ; the steamers of the Segovia 
Cuadra line, trading between Seville 
and Malaga, run twice a week; and 
the Hall line, from London, passes 
weekly — the former anchoring at Alge- 
ciras, not Gibraltar. These two last- 
named lines are a little dearer, but the 
boats are larger and more comfortable 
in every way, and, moreover, only take 
8 hours to the passage. As a start is 
made about 6 A.M., it is a great con- 
venience to go on board overnight 
The accommodation is good, in the case 
of the larger steamers, and one avoids 
thereby the early rising at the hotel, 
and the awkward chartering of a small 
boat from the Muelle, with the accom- 
panying struggle over the luggage. The 
trip is a very pleasant one when the 
weather is fine, the Spanish coast being 
rarely lost sight of. The first thing to 
attract attention is the peculiar situa- 
tion of Cadiz, of which an excellent 
idea may be obtained while slowly, as 
if reluctantly, tiie city is l)eing left be- 
hind. Then comes the Isla of San Fer- 
nando, and a long stretch of low-lying, 
sandy coast, varied, however, by fine 
views of the uprising inland country 
about Chiclana, etc. By the time 
Cape Trafalgar is sighted {see B,, p. 
94), the Straits may be said to have 
been reached, and henceforward there 
is no lack of interest. Tangier is seen 
lying far away to ihe right ; while on 
the left appears Tarifa, with its white- 
washed houses, its imposing but tooth- 
less fortifications, and its lighthouse 
apparently set in the midst of the sea. 
The African coast-line is now extremely 
picturesque, stretching from Cape Spar- 
tel to the Apes' Hill over Ceuta, and 
with the gray mass of the Gibraltar 
rock rising up full in view. For 
further description of the route, see p. 



B. By land. Two routes; one crosses 
Algedras and Tariia, the other leaves these on 
the left, and cuts across Los Barrios, Casa Vieja, 
Medina Sidonia. The first continues along the 
sea-coast, and is practicable only during some 
seasons. It traverses Tarifa and Trafalgar, 
and b to be prefenred when ladies are in the 
case. The second is shorter, wilder, and crosses 
a woody portion of country. 

First Itinerary. Miles. 

Gibraltar to Algeciras . . 9 

Tarifa 12 

VentadeTaibilla ... 16 
VcntadeVcjer ... 14 

Chiclana 16 

Cadiz 13 

The ride to Tarifa is 9 to xo hrs. Leave San 
Roque to the right, follow the sands and bay. 
Algeciras. — ^Pop. 18,216 inhab., prov. of Cadiz. 
This Portus Albus of the Romans, and the Erin, 
the Green Island (Jeziratu-l-Khadri), of the 
Moor, a name which has been preserved to the 
Isla Verde, also called de las Palomas, was 
strongly fortified by the Moors, and suffered 
sereral sieges, until it was taken in 1344 by Al- 
fonso XI. The capture was considered of great 
importance, and the see of Cadiz was removed 
here by a bull of Clement VI., the bishops being 
henceforth, and still, ' of Cadiz and Algeciras,' 
and the kings of Spain were styled ' Reyes del 
Algecira.' It was retaken 1379 by Mahomet 
II. of Granada, and destroyed, not to be rebuilt 
before 1760, under Charles III., as a watch- 
tower to spy the doings dipirfida A Unon, The 
town is straggling, the streets dirty and silent ; 
the houses with low balconies and rejas closely 
latticed, jalousies indeed, worthy of the former 
Moor and irritable hidalgos. The port nught 
be made excellent ; but alas I altnough facing 
Gibraltar, where all is trade, activity, order, and 
improvement, there are here neither moles, 
quays, nor works of defence, for the pasteboard 
fort and few guns which we see are only a use- 
less show. There is a Plata, with a i>altry 
statue of CastaBos, field-marshal and Duke of 
Baylen, a small theatre, some baxracks, and an 
indifferent church. Algedras might become, 
from its situation, one of the most flourishing 
ports in Spain ; there is some trade with Africa 
and the ports on the coast, the exports and im- 
ports averaging some £6o,oco annually. The 
oranges of Algeciras are exquiute, and next to 
them the greatest attraction here is the £ur sex, 
who are celebrated for their beauty. A new 
railway line from Bobadilla, viA Ronda, is in 
course of construction. 
There are two fair inns here, the 'Victoria' 

and the 'Marina.' The road between this 
and Tarifa is wild and beautiful, and from the 
hills the view sweeps over the bay, to the 
proud and majestic PefUn de Gibraltar, the 
cork-tree forest (alcomoques), the boiling 
Guadalmacil rushing through and lighting it 
up with flashes of sunlit water on the left, and 
before us, and to the right, the ocean, unfurl- 
ing its wide tranquil sheet of water between 
Africa and Europe, like an illuminated, gilt- 
edged page, bearing some of the greatest deeds 
of man : for these shores have witnessed the 
battles of Munda and Trafalgar, also the land- 
ing of the Berber, the merchants of Tjrre and 
Sidon, the departure of Columbus, foreshadow- 
ing the discovery of a new worid. {Algtciras 
to Gibraltar, setp, 152.) 

Tarifa.— Pop. zx,863 inhab., W. of the Bay 
of Gibraltar, is the most Moorish-looldi^ town 
in an Spain. The women are celebrated for 
their grace and beanty. They wear the man- 
tilla, as the Egyptians the tab and KkAiarih, 
—and, at Lima, the tapadas, that is leavmg 
only one eye discovered, of which each flash is 
a pufialada from which few are said to recover. 
It is said to have been built by the Phoenicians, 
and then called Cartama and Tariesia; it be- 
came a Greek colony, and was raised to a Colo- 
nia Libertina by the Romans, being colonised 
by 4000 sons of Roman soldiers and l^>anish 
women, not their wives, and called Julia Tra- 
dticta. It obtained its present name from 
Tarif-Ben-Malik, the first Berber sheikh who 
landed in Spain. After a long nege it was cap- 
tured, 1993, by Sandio IV. Alfonso Perez de 
Guzman, an ancestor of the Empress Eugenie, 
was entrusted with its defence. Itwasbesi^ed 
by the Moors, aided by the treacherous Infante 
Don Juan, who, to cause Don Alfonso to sur- 
render, brought the bitter's son to the foot of the 
walls, and threatened to kill him if his father 
did not give up the city ; seeing which Don 
Alf<»80, according to the old ballad — 

' Luego tomaado el cuchillo, 
Por dma el muro lo ha echado. 
Junto caytf del real 
De que Tarifri es cercado, 
Dijo : ' Matadlo con esta, 
Sulo habeis determinado. 
Que mas quiero hoiura sin hijo. 
Que hijo am mi honor manchado.' 

The son was put to death, but the Moors retired, 
and Tarifa was saved. But the story, as ob- 
tianed firom the ' Ilustradones de la Casa de 
Niebla' of Barrantes Maldonado(Bibliot Acad. 
Hist of Madrid), and other authentic sources, 
reconciles us with the father^s heroism. The 
celebrated battle of Ml Saled^t 



the kings of Castile and Portugal against 
the Moors, took place under its walls. Its 
old walls and gates, and twenty-six towers, 
its narrow winding streets, low houses, balconies 
full of flower-vases, are all Oriental, novel, and 
incturesque. The Guzman Castle will tempt 
the sketcher. 

The panorama from the Tower of Ptfta del 
Ciervo is among the grandest in Spain. Africa 
lies opposite, Tangier a little to the right, Tarifa 
comes out into the open sea on the left, at a 
distance, and the heacUand yonder to the right 
is Cape Trafalgar. After crossing Venta de 
Taivilla, a mile inland is the Laguna de 

Here the Berbers first met the disorganised 
armies of Roderick, the last of the Goths, July 
19, 7ZZ ; the action not being decided tUl the 
a6th, on the Guadalete, near Jerez. After 
crossing Vejer, the Moorish Bekker^ which re- 
tains all its AfHcan character and comforts, the 
scenery becomes monotonous and dreary. We 
come in nght of the Cabo de Tra£dgar ( Taraf- 
al-ghStr^ the promontory of the cave), and Pro- 
numtarium yunonis of the Romans. In these 
waters took place, Oct ax, 1805, the celebrated 
battle of Trafalgar. Nelson, at the head of 
twenty-seven small ships of die line and four 
frigates, encountered the French fleet under 
Villeneuve and the Spanish imder Gra^na, both 
of thirty-three sail of the line, and seven frigates. 
The secret of the victory lay in Nelson's novel 
manoeuvrii^, an inspiration of genius. He 
divided his fleet into two compact columns, so 
as to bear at once on the same point of resistance. 
He thus succeeded in breaking the line of batde 
of Villeneuve, who, as well as Gravina, had scat- 
tered his ships, isolating them too much from 
each other. The fighting on all sides was most 
heroic. Nelson was mortally wounded, and 
died s| hours after receiving his wound, but 
lived long enough to see his triumph. On his 
deathbed, Gravina (who died shortly after firom 
his wounds) told Dr. Fellowes that he was going 
to join Ndson, the ' greatest man the world has 
ever produced.' 

OhleU]ia,andontoCadiz. See No. a Itiner- 
ary. Sleep at Vejer ; a decent inn near the 
bridge over the Barbate. The journey can be 
performed in two days. 

IHnerary S 

Gibraltar to Los Barric 
Venta de Oj^n . 
Venta Lobalbarro 




. '^ 

, X 





San Fernando 
Cadiz . 


It has been performed in one long day, trot- 
ting part of the journey, but can be easily ridden 
in two, slewing at Casavieja. Leave Gibral- 
tar at 7.30 ; if much luggage, send pack-horse 
earlier to Spanish custom-house with keys, to 
avoid delay. Follow the beach; avoid San 
Roque, leave Algeciras to the left, and make 
for Rio Guadarranque, along a tramway con- 
structed to carry timber to the arsenal of Car- 
racas firom the Sierra de Almorayma. By xa 
at noon get to Venta and stream de la Polvor- 
eda, which is good 4^ leagues firom Gibraltar. 
Lunch in the wood or at the tidy little Venta, 
and get in between five and six to the Gil Bias 
sort of inn at Casavieja, on the Barbate. Around 
this hamlet there is excellent shooting, and offi- 
cers of the garrison at Gibraltar often visit it 
Leave next morning at eight ; Vejer is seen in 
the distance to the left, which Is not worth visit- 
ing, and about xx.30 to xa A.M. get to foot 
of die hill on which Medina Sidonia rises ; \ hr. 
to ascend. This old town, the Asido of the 
Romans, and Medinatru Schidunah, the city 
of Sidon, or Phoenician Asidon, iwas a stronghold 
during the wars between the Moors and Chris- 
tians, and the court of the puissant dukes of the 
same name (now better known as Marqueses de 
Villafranca), one of whom commanded the In- 
vincible Armada. The ruins of its Casde de la 
Mota are associated with early amorous Span- 
ish ballads. Here was confined the favourite 
of Alfonso XI., and here also Pedro el Cruel 
shut up the fsur and ill-fated Blanche de Bour- 

But, except for its picturesque, airy situation, 
we do not advise travellers to visit it Its 
churches are clumsy, its streets narrow, steep, 
and dirty. Ladies may be, periiaps, glad to 
know that they may leave their horses here, if 
they choose, and tsdce a caUsa on springs, and 
a small diL leaves also for La Isla (office, Calle 
San Juan), daily in summer, and in winter only 
on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. The 
road is excellent to Chiclana. From Medina to 
La Isla, 4 hrs. 

Chiclana. — 9004 inhab. ; an old Phoenician 
town, conquered from the Moors by St Ferdi- 
nand, in xasx, and rebuilt by Alfonso Perez de 
Guzman, 1303. There are some sulphureous 
baths at Fuente Amaiga and Pozo de Braque, 
between June and October. It is a favourite 
resort with the Cadiz lower classes, and a great 
bull-fighting centre, bemg the pairia of the 
celebrated Chidalnero, Monies' rival There 



is a gcod and very decent large Fonda in the 
square, and numerous vehicles, caliches, and 
omnibuses to the station at La Isia (San Fer- 
nando), J hr. N.B.—Pl daily dil. for Gibraltar 
leaves San Fernando Stat, at 6.30 A.M., passmg 
by Chidana, Vejer, Tarifa and Algedras. The 
Administraciones in Cadiz and San Fernando 
also let out carriages and horses for the journey. 


Cadiz is one of the most charmingly 
situated cities in the world. It lies at 
one extreinity of a long peninsula, and 
is joined to the continent on the S. by 
a very narrow strip of land It rises, 
as the poet says, over the dark blue 
sea, as if by a fairy's wand, with its 
shining white walls, its long rows of 
elegant houses, crowned with terraces, 
with glass and gilt balconied miradores. 
In the centre rise the high towers of its 
cathedral It may be compared to a 
white pearl set in a crown of sapphires 
and emeralds, or, as the Gaditanos call 
it, *tazita de plata,' a silver cup, just 
as Babylon was likened to a cup of 
gold (Jer. li. 7). "Walk round its granite 
ramparts, the Muralla del Mar, a series 
of spacious terraces, which form a de- 
lightful evening paseo; sail across its 

busy bay, the ontlines of which have 
the greatest beauty ,* traverse its streets, 
Dutch — clean, and formed by high, 
brightly •coloured, and gay -looking 
houses, with azoteas or terraces, and 
a turret oftentimes or belvedere at an 
angle. There is movement and life 
on the quays, port, and in the town. 
Cadiz, once the emporium of the world, 
must, from its very situation, recover 
some day part at least of its former 
prosperity. By the ocean it conmiuni- 
cates with Portugal, the Gallician 
ports, France, England, Holland, and 
is one of the European ports nearest 
to, and best placed for, the trade with 
America. By the straits it is in the 
neighbourhood of the principal ports 
of Morocco, Algiers, Italy, the east 
and south of France. A lengthened 
residence in Cadiz may, in the end, 
appear monotonous to the invalid and 
traveller, as there is but little society, 
and, consequently, no great variety of 
faces, topics of conversation, or those 
petty events which are, after all, *la 
grande affaire' of the man of pleasure. 
Some intimate tertulias at the hos- 
pitable merchants' houses, the play at 
the tolerable theatre, and a chit-chat 
or almost solitary lecture at the com- 
fortable casino ; a ball, perhaps two 
subscription dances at the casino, ex- 
cursions to Puerte Sta. Maria, Jerez, 
Rota, etc. — this is all that must be 
expected. For there is little art ; the 
architecture of houses, churches, and 
public edifices is mostly modem, paint- 
ings are rare, and, as the witty French- 
man said, *ici les lettres de change 
sont les belles lettres,' and the only 
man of letters one cares to see is the 
postman, el cartero. But Cadiz, in a 
more positive sense, affords many com- 
forts, which continued intercourse with 
foreigners, especially English, has in- 
troduced, and that are unknown in the 
more inland and larger Spanish cities. 



Historical Noticb. — Cadiz was the 
'ultima teme/ \h.Q Biblical Tarshish, 
the fortunate Erythrea and Island of 
Juno, tiie happy Iberian region of 
Homer, Anacreon, etc. It is conjec- 
tured tiiat shortly after the destruction 
of Troy, some Phoenician traders sailed 
in search of new d^bouch^ along the 
coast of the Mediterranean, and came 
as feu: as Cadiz. Here, they thought, 
were the limits of the world, and here, 
probably, almost ended the sea, AMca 
being separated from the European con- 
tinent by a very narrow channel ; they 
tiierefore erected, more auo, two high 
pyramids, on the promontories of Aby- 
la (Ceuta) and Calpe (Gibraltar), ex- 
tending in subsequent times their jour- 
ney as far as Gluidir. GMdir now 
became an important trading port A 
magnificent temple was erected to the 
Lybian Hercules. Gllddir, when the 
Carthaginians became powerful, be- 
trayed its rulers, siding with the 
former. It fell likewise an easy prey 
to the Bomans. The first colonia was 
established 171 B.O. Cflesar considered 
its situation most important, fortified 
it, and made it the head of Tingitane, 
or Transpetane Spain ; its inhabitants 
enjoyed all the privileges of free Roman 
citizens, and it was called Augusta IJrbs, 
and Julia Gaditana. Cadiz and Seville 
were then important naval arsenals. 
Csesar says : ' Naves longas decem 
Gaditanis nt facerent imperavit ; com- 
plures prseterea Hispali faciendas cu- 
ravit' Und^ the Bomans Cadiz be- 
came the emporium of the world ; its 
salt-fish monopoly, most of the tin of 
England and amber of the Baltic, its 
marble palaces, amphitheatres, and aqne- 
ducts (that of Terapul especially) ; its 
ViaLata, which went to Rome by Seville, 
Merida^ Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca, 
Leon, south of France and Italy ; its 
merchant princes, its fleets of war and 
of commerce, have all been sung by 

the poets of Rome, and pmsed by its 
writers. It was the Venice of mediaeval 
Europe, the Paris of our days, was in- 
habited by 500 Roman equites, which 
Rome alone and Padua could boast of 
possessing— more the city, say Martial 
and Juvenal, of Venus than of Diana, 
the gastronomic purveyor of the Lu- 
culli and other Brillat Savarins of 
Rome, renowned for its ballet-girls, 
the improboB ChdUa/MBy whose move- 
ments turned every head. 

In the 6th century it fell into the 
hands of the Goths, and in the 8th into 
those of the Arabs, who called it Djezi- 
rkh-KkUs, and retained it in their power 
for upwards of 500 years. It was retaken 
by Don Alfonso the Learned, September 
14, 1262, rebuilt by him, and peopled 
with families brought from the moun- 
taius of Santander, Laredo, etc., a sad 
mixture with the Attic * Sal de Anda- 
lucia. ' Its prosperity revived with the 
discovery of America, being made with 
Seville the entrepdt of its gold and 
merchandise. In 1509, Queen Dofia 
Juana, by suppressing the monopoly 
which Seville enjoyed of sending fleets 
to the Indies, added greatly to its wealth 
and importance, and Barbarossa, at the 
head of a fleet of piratical galleys, at- 
tacked the city, gorged, as he knew, 
with gold. It was saved by Doria's 
activity ; but the pirates of Alters and 
Morocco never lost sight of the treasure, 
and attacked it oftentimes after, espe- 
cially in 1553 and 1574, when it was 
almost taken, and saved only by 
chance — ^that Providence of fools and 
the imprudent In 1587 Cadiz was 
attacked by Drake, who destroyed its 
ships and dockyards, and was cruelly 
sacked in 1596 by Lord Essex, the 
booty amounting to thirteen ships of 
war, and forty enormous galleons loaded 
with American gold, etc Two subse- 
quent English attacks, in 1625 and 
1702, failed before a well-armed gar- 



rison, and through ill-planned and 
worse executed manoBuyres. During 
the Peninsular war, Cadiz was made 
the centre of the Spanish resistance, 
and seat of its celebrated Cortes. Its 
wealth and conunercial importance were 
very great, even as recently as the mid- 
dle and end of the last century. Erery 
banking and mercantile house in the 
globe had its agents here. Adam Smith, 
in 1770, wrote that the merchants of 
London had not yet the means to com- 
pete with the wealth of those of Cadiz. 
In 1792, the gold and silver imported 
from America to this port amounted to 
125 millions ; the general importations 
being that year (from America alone) 
175 millions. Its arsenal employed 
upwards of 5000 men, and the 'Cales* 
or *Callice* of the English eiyoyed a 
world-wide reputation. The war of 
1793 was the first blow dealt to its 
prosperity; the independence of the 
Spanish colonies, the second; French 
invasion, intrigues, and civil war have 
done the rest. But its importance not 
depending on the whim of a monarch 
or the caprice of an hour, but resting on 
the more solid advantages and favours 
of situation and climate, will, we 
have no doubt, come back, when rail- 
ways, religious tolerance, and home, 
not foreign colonisation have borne 
their fruit. 

Olimate.— Cadiz lies open to every 
wind, which consequently exposes it to 
sudden and frequent changes in the 
temperature. The most prevalent winds 
come from the sea. According to D. 
Francis, the land winds, ranging be- 
tween N. to S.K, prevailed daring 109 
days, and the sea winds (S. S. W. by W. ) 
during 240 days, — ^based on 6 years* 
observations. The maximum preva- 
lence of the sea winds is during the 
spring : the land winds reach it in win- 
ter. Their influence on the thermo- 
meter is indiffinrent ; they give tone to 

phlegmatic constitutions, and last some- 
times five or six days. The Levanter, 
soft and invigorating at Malaga and 
Valencia, is here hurtful to weak con- 
stitutions, and precursoiy of storms and 
rain. The sirocco (S.E.) is as bad, and 
the thermometer rises tmder its in- 
fluence six to seven degrees. The 
nervous system is excited, irritated, 
and the sick suffer greatly during its 

But as to temperature, Cadiz is supe- 
rior to any medical station both in Italy 
and Spain. ' The mean temperatm^ of 
winter,* says Dr. Francis, *is four de- 
grees warmer than Bome or Naples, and 
six than that of Pisa. The -same may 
be said of spring, the temperature of 
which being 60 '28 Fahr., exceeds that 
of Bome and Pisa by three degrees and 
two ; the mean diurnal range is ten, 
being identical with Madeira.* Sum- 
mer is very tolerable, owing to the 
constant sea-breezes, and the tem- 
perature is as soft and warm in the 
end of February as it is in the end 
of March in the most favoured of other 
Spanish medical stations. Autumn is 
less subject than other seasons to sud- 
den changes, and as to winter, Decem- 
ber and January, the coldest winds 
never bring down the thermometer 
under 41** Fahr. 

Cadiz is more rainy than any part of 
the Mediterranean coast of Spain, but 
this statement need not deter invalids 
from choosing it as a residence, for the 
average number of rainy days is 99, the 
quantity of rain 22 in., and at Madeira 
the quomt'Uy of rain exceeds considerably 
that at Cadiz, though it is not so /re- 
qtient. It seldom lasts here but a few 
hours, and, as Lee and others say, is 
made up of showers, with intervals of 
sunshine. A curious fact arises from 
a comparative study of rain in England, 
Italy, and Spain — viz. that while the 
rainy days in England are more frequent, 




tlie quantity that falls is greater in Italy 
and Spain. In a word, Cadiz is one of the 
most fEkYOored medical stations in Spain, 
and that which unites most advantages 
to general inyalid& Its defects are, 
variability and the sirocco, but these do 
not affect constitutions seriously, except 
in cases of irritable nervousness. The 
water is not good, which is for some a 
great drawback. Where great weak- 
ness and emaciation prevail, and in the 
advanced stages of phthisis, the mor- 
tality rate was 1-28. In 1860, of 2493 
dealJiB, 20 were aged between 91 and 
100. In 1862, 55 died aged between 
91 and upwards of 100. The deal^ 
rate is now 1-80. 

Hotels. — Hotel de Cfadiz, in the open 
Plaza de la Constitucion ; Hotel deParis, 
in the narrow Calle de San Francisco. 
Both good, but dear. French and 
English papers taken in. Fonda de las 
CiuUro Nadones, good cuisine. Fonda 
de Amirica^ quiet and well ordered. 

Cafds. — Apolo, in the Plaza de la 
Constitucion : SuizOf Calle de San Jos^, 
Del Correo, Bosario 41 : Cerveceria Ing- 
lesa, *El Tinte,* Armagura 1. 

Baths. —Melendez, Calle de la Cere- 
ria 21. Sea-water baths may be had 
at the establishments on the Alameda 
de Apodaca and at the Muelle, and 
warm baths near the Plaza de Mina. 

Tariff f»r hired Carriages, 
Carriages of the first-class (la>^ caliches) .• 

First hour .... 2or. 

Second and every other . xsr. 

No course. 
Carriages of the second dass \— 

First hour .... xsr. 

Second and every other . xor. 

Street cabs, one horse, 8 reals per 
hour and course. 

Hired horses may be had at El 
ricadero, Plaza del Balon. 

Telkqbaph Office. —Open day and 
night at the Admin. Principal, Calle 
Antonio Lopez, number 2. 

Post Offiob.— Admin. Principal, 
Calle de Bilbao, number 9. The hours 
depend a good deal on those of the 
trains, and so are apt to vary. For 
/xMfo resUbvJte business, from 11 to 12 
A.M. and 2 to 3 p.m. For apartado an 
hour and a half after the arrival of the 
mails. For registered letters 11 to 3, 
and 8 to 9 in the evening. There are 
also boxes in all the Estancos, railway 
company's offices and stations. The 
general maU leaves at 5.80 A.M., and 
arrives at 7.35 P.M. For ship-mails 
see special announcements. 

For Directory, OonsuUf Addressei, 
etc, seep, 101. 

Taeiff fob Boats.— -To and from 
steamers, 4r. a person, 8r. a portman- 
teau. Pay the porters, called here de- 
mandadwos, for a portmanteau carried 
from mole to custom-house, 4r. ; from 
custom-house to any part of town, 2r. 

Steamers to Moguer, 8 hrs. ; ditto 
to Hudva, 9 hrs. Neither are of great 
interest Palos, a port near Moguer, is 
celebrated for the convent of la Rabida, 
which received Columbus in 1484, and 
whose prior, Perez de Marchena, en- 
couraged hnn to follow Ms plans and 
ideas. Columbus having discovered 
America, returned to this port Mais^h 
15, 1493. The convMit has been very 
much improved lately by the Duo de 

The Port, Bat, akd Trade.— -Tlie 
entrance to this magnificent bay lies 
between the city and the small town and 
cape of Bota. The bay is most spaci- 
ous, and affords excellent anchorage in 
the inner portion, the outer one being 
exposed to the S.W. The port is placed 
on the E. side of the town, where three 
moles project— that of *Sevilla' in front 
of the custom-house ; the Muelle diil 



Pv^rto PicjOf wMch leads into the city 
tlirough the Puerta de San Carlos, and 
the * Principal,* dose to the Puerta de 
Tierra, another of the four principal 
entrances to Cadiz (the two others are 
Puerta de SeviUa and Puerta de la 
Caleta, which leads to the castle and 
lighthouse (S. W. of San Sebastian). This 
Principal is of considerable extent, and 
has been recently prolonged by some 
550 ft. The water is not sufficiently 
deep to allow large vessels to approach 
nearer than J of a mile, where fire and 
seven fathoms are reached. There are 
some dangerous rocks opposite the town ; 
the * Cochinos ' and ' Puercas ' lie f ths 
of a mile ; the ' Diamante ' lies 1^ bl 
off the cit^, aikL is not so dangerous. 
At spring-tide the water rises 10 or 11 
ft., but often does not exceed 6 ft. The 
inner bay is divided naturally from the 
outer one by the promontory, having at 
its extremity the castle of Matagorda, 
which aj^roaches within } of a mile of 
the Puntales castie on the Isla de Leon. 
In the inner portion is the arsenal of 
Carracas, and the small ' Poblacion de 
San Carlos,' a naval dep6t» established 
1776, on the plans of Marq. de Urefia. 
Here is a fine naval college, and the 
Panteon de Marines Ilustres, the Alpha 
and Omega, the cradle and the tomb. 
In its chapel are preserved an image of 
the Yirgen del Bosario, which Don 
Juan of Austria carried on his galley at 
Lepanto, and a chalice with his crest 
and arms. Here is also the canal of 
Trocadero, celebrated for the victory of 
Duke ofAjigoulSme in 1823. The trade 
is gradually reviving; railroads com- 
municating with central Spain, new 
lines of steamers plying between the 
principal Spanish and foreign ports, 
manufactories arising here and there, 
banks and credit companies being daily 
established, will tend to increase it. 
The number of ships of all nationalities 
entered at the port is about 2800, 

of the aggregate tonnage of 1,285,881 ; 
827 of these being British vessels. The 
chief exports are — cork, about 80,000 
kilos; figs, about 1,000,000 kilos; 
lead, in bars, about 820,000 kilosT; 
olives and olive oil, to a very large 
amount ; salt, about 97,000 lasts ; and 
wine, about 40,000,000 litres: also 
oranges, raisins and other fruits. The 
chief imports are — coal, 70,000,000 
kilos ; iron, about 6,000,000 kilos ; 
wheat, 11,000,000 kilos; also spirits 
(chiefly for adulterative purposes), 
tobacco, sugar, machinery, etc., to a 
very large amount See General In- 
formatum, Wines, etc. 

Sights. — Cathedral (the old and 
new) ; Convent de los Capuchinos (Mu- 
rilloa) ; excursions to Puerto Sta. Maria, 
Rota, etc. 

Cathed&Mi. — The old cathedral. La 
Yieja, now abandoned for the new one, 
was built in the 13th century, in Alfonso 
XL's reign, and by him erected to a 
cathedral, the See of Sidonia having 
been removed hither by a bull of Pope 
Urban IV. New chapels were added 
in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was 
almost all destroyed by fire during the 
sack of the city by Lord Essex. It was 
immediately repaired, or rather rebuilt, 
and thirteen chapels erected. The edi- 
fice is low and mean, with a facade 
of bastardised Bevival, decorated with 
statues, some of which have been re- 
moved to the new cathedral It is most 

Qatlttral VntH, OB dx la. Santa 
Cbuz, was begun 1720, on the plans of 
Messrs. Acero and Cayon, pupik of the 
so-called Salamanca school, founded by 
ChurrigueraandTom^. The works were 
interrupted from want of funds till 1832, 
when they were resumed at the expense 
of the privy purse of the late most 
virtuous and zealous bishop, Don Do* 
mingo de Siloe, the edifice costing i 




£300,000. The style is classical, the 
exterior plain, not wanting in effect ; 
the interior over-ornamented, very chnr- 
rigaeresque in its details, and decorated 
with precious marbles from Genoa, and 
jaspers from Arcos and Manilva. It is 
of the Corinthian order, and measures 
305 feet long, 216 feet wide, and 189 
feet to the cupola. The turrets outside 
are 207 feet high. Some portions are 
still unfinished. The tastelesshigh altar, 
of white marble, cost upwards of £7000, 
one half being the gift of the ex-Queen 
Isabella. The paintings are few, and all 
indifferent ; a good copy of one of Mu- 
rillo's Concepciones, by Clemente de 
Torres, and a San Lucas, ascribed to 
Ribera. The Custodia is yalued at 
£10,000. The silleria del coro, once in 
the Carthusian conyent of Sta. Maria 
de las Cuevas of Seville, and then in 
the Seville Picture Grallery, has been 
removed here in 1859. It is one of the 
finest in Spain, and the masterpiece of 
Pedro Duque Comejo, a pupil of Rol- 
dan's. The chapels, relics, and jewels 
are all indifferent 

Los Capuchinos, formerly a convent, 
was built 1641. The church is unin- 
teresting, but contains paintings which 
are gems. Over the high altar is the 
celebrated Marriage of St Catharine, 
MuriUo's last work, executed 1682, and 
about to be finished when he fell from 
the scaffolding; dying shortly after. 
Meneses Osorio, at his request, finished 
it. The San Juan Bautista, St Michael, 
and other minor subjects, are by Meneses 
Osorio, after designs by Murillo. Ob- 
serve over a lateral altar a grand Mu- 
rillo, St Francis receiving the Stigmata. 
The head, hands, colouring — all is per- 
fect In the Capilla del Sagrario there 
is another, but inferior Murillo, and a 
small Concepcion. 

San Felipe Neri. — A Concepcion 
over high altar, by Murillo, and a Padre 
Etemo, by Clemente de Torres. In Los 

Descazlos some good carvings by Ver- 
gara and Roldan. 

Picture Gallery (El Museo) in 
Plaza de Mina. Amid great rubbish 
observe a good San Bruno, by Zurbaran ; 
an admirable copy of Murillo's Virgen 
de la Faja, now the property of the Due 
de Montpensier, by Tovar ; a San Agus- 
tin, by Giordano ; and a Last Judgment, 
much thought of here ; Eight Monks, 
by Zurbaran, from the Cartuja of Jerez ; 
The Four Evangelists, by San Lorenzo ; 
The Baptist by Zurbw^n. 

The other buildings are all indifferent 
El Carmen is churrigueresque. The huge 
Aduana is out of proportions with the 
present trade, and out of place in a land 
of smugglers. The Casa de Misericordia 
is a large edifice by Cayon ; as a poor- 
house it is admirably organised. 

Prcmienades, Theatres, etc. — ^The prin- 
cipal street is the broad and fine CaZle 
Ancha, lined with well-supplied shops. 
The CcUla de la Aduarut. begins at 
Plaza Isabel II., and runs under the 
Muralla del Mar, parallel to the fine 
custom-house edifice. 

The Ploixa de la CmstfUueion and de 
Mina are the principal squares. The 
Mwratta del Mar is a charming summer 
promenade. Las Ddidas is the winter 
paseo from 2 to 4.30 p.m., with a band 
on holidays, and during the summer the 
Alameda de Apodaca, from 6. 80 to 9 p.m., 
with music every night, the paseo closing 
atPlazadeMina. There are two theatres; 
the PHndpal, which holds 1400 8j[)ecta- 
tors, is elegantly fitted up. Italian 
operas, zarzuelas, and dramas are well 
performed. The BaUm, in Calle Ancha, 
is not so well friquenU ; comedies, 
dances, etc. The bull-ring, not so fash- 
ionable as that of Puerto de Sta. Maria, 
was built by Montes, the king of *maes- 
tros. ' The carnival is a gay season, and 
in the Casino, which is handsomely 
fitted up, several good and well-attended 
subscription ballstake place. Foreigners 



are introduced to it by their consuls and 

Directory — Contuls, — JST. B, M,*s, 
Patrick Henderson, Esq. Vice-Consul, 
Henry Macpherson, Esq., Calle Gin^s 
4 (Cburch of England serrice at the 
Consulate). Yice-Consul at Algeciras, 
John H. Haynes, Esq. ; at San Lucar, 
Adolph. J. Aparicio; at Puerto Sta. 
Maria, B. J. Pitman, Esq. ; at San 
Boque, Geo. Fred. Comwell, Esq. 
Consul for France, Mons. A. A. Pon< 
signon ; for Germany, Ernest Eropp ; 
for the United States, D. Ingraham, 

Doctor, — Ger6nimo Ceballos, Kosario 
Cepeda 26 — ^speaks French. 

Chemist, — Viercio, Calle San Fran- 
cisco 25. 

Homoeopathic De^, — Calle Come- 

BaTtkers.-^yfm, Shaw and Company, 
Consulado Viejo ; Succursale of the 
Bank of Spain, Cruz de la Madera 4 ; 
Duarte (Coutts), 14 Calle Rosario. 

Giro MvMw, — Calle de la Amar- 
gura 12. 

Casa de Cambio, — Calle San Fran- 
cisco 16. 

Cadiz is celebrated for fans, ladies' 
shoes, gloves, and guitars. Spanish 
music, guitars, castagnettes, may be 
purchased at Quirell's, 17 Bosario; 
fans, Biyera, Calle de la Constitucion ; 
Casanoya» Murguia 5; gloves in the 
Calle Tetuan. TaUora, several good in 
the Calle San Francisco. Hairdresser, 
Bey, Bosario 10. Groceries, etc., 
Gomez y Bemal, Calle de la Constitu- 
cion 106. Wines, Arana, Plaza de la 
Constitucion 16. Jevjellers, Caraban, 
Bosario 20; Gundersen, Plaza de la 
Constitucion 7. Shoemaker^ Vega, 

Duque de Tetuan 26. Silks, linen, 
Manila shawls, etc., Calle Cristobal 
Colon 6 and 12. 

Booksellers.— Zo^ Vid^, San Fran- 
cisco 28 ; Joly y Velasco (La Revista 
M^dica), Ceballos 1. A good assortment 
of maps, plans, etc, may be met with 
at the Litografta Alemana, Bosario 

Cadiz possesses no good public lib- 
raries. The best are the Provincial, 
containing about 80,000 vols., open to 
the public from 10 A.M. to 8 P. M. (closed 
on holidays), and that of the Bishopric, 
with about 8000 vols., and open upon 
presentation of card. The private 
picture galleries, etc., are but poor. 
There are, however, several fair liter- 
ary and aiiistic societies and circles. 
Besides the Academia de las Bellas 
Artes, in the Plaza de Mina, there is 
the Beal Academia Gaditana de Cien- 
cias y Letras, in the Calle Gamonales ; 
the Academia Gaditana de Ciencias y 
Artes, in the Calle de los Doblones ; 
an excellent Philharmonic Society in 
the Calle San Frandsoo ; and a Cfrculo 
literario in the Calle San Jos^ Not 
the least interesting bit of the city is 
the small but well ordered Joftdvn, 
Botdnico, situated in a small square 
behind tiie Paseo de las Delicias. It 
is uninviting at first sight, but contains 
many valuable trees and plants. Notice 
especially some specimens of the Dragon 
Tree of India {Dracoena Draco), one 500 
years old, and a 'Trasparente' tree of 
New Zealand (Myoporum lacteum) ; 
also a fine array of tree geraniums and 

Bxoursions. — ^To Puerto de Sta. 
Maria, conveyances two and three times 
a day ; steamers leave near the railway 
station, Puerto del Mar, 6r. and 8r. ; it 
is 2 leagues by sea. By rail, 18} m., 



1st cL, 16r.; 2d d., 12r.; 3d. cL, 7r.; 
in 1^ hr., four trains a day. Inns. — 
Vista- Alegre and La Torre ; population, 
21,714 ; on right bank of the Guadalete. 
It was the Greek port of Mnesthea. 
This small, clean, uninteresting city is 
very popular with the majos and bull- 
fighters. Its plaza de toros holds 1 0,000 
spectators. Visit the house of Marques 
de Purullena, which contains some good 
paintings and carving. Excellent wine, 
much lie but inferior to that of Xeres, 
is produced here. The bodegas are in- 
teresting. The principal houses are 
Oosens, de Mora, Duff Gordon, Gon- 
zalez and Co., etc San Femundo, 20 
minutes by rail, is also called La Isla 
de Leon, and is an island which the 
bridge of Zuazo connects to the main 
land, and oyer which one crosses the 
salted river of Saneti Petri. Observe 
all around the white snowy mounds 
shining in the sun, for here are the salt- 
pans (salinas) that bring in so important 
a revenue to the state. The observa- 
tory of San Fernando is the oldest in 
Spain, and is well provided with instru- 
ments, mostly English (Frooghton and 
Simms's and Newman's). 

Iia Carrltoa. — Steamers twioe a-day, 
in 14 hr., and by rail to San Fernando, 
and then by omnibus (2r.) Leave to 
see it easily granted. This is one of the 
most impor^t Government dockyards 
in Spain, and though considerably de- 
cayed, is fiEust recovering part at least of 
its former prosperity. It was esta- 
blished 1760. Visit the Caldeieria, 
Arboladura, Forjay Fundicion, rope- 
walks, etc. There are three docks, two 
of which can hold ships with keels mea- 
suring 230 feet long. During the work- 
hours there are some 900 men variously 
employed, of whom 800 are presidarios. 
The edifices, cisterns, etc., are all on a 
large scale, and its whole area is of 
949,580 square varas. 

To La Bota. — By steamer to Puerto 

Sta. Maria, whence by special diL or 
across the bay in a sailing boat, 3 leagues 
by sea and 8 leagues by land. DU. at 
the Puerto in attendance on the Muelle. 
The wine called Tintilla de Rota is made 
here, and when pure and aikejo, is not 
to be despised by connoisseurs. 7266 
inhab. The interior of its parish church 
is Gothic and spacious. This Phoeni- 
cian-built town was never of any im- 
portance, and is dull and uninteresting. 

Puerto Beal. — By rail, | hr. ; 
founded in 1488 by Queen Isabelle. A 
small village, all regularity, ennui, and 
dirt ; a good new basin for steamers. 
On the firat days of May there is a fair 
held here, much frequented by the lower 
classes, and abouncQng then in pictur- 
esque groups, dresses, etc. 

Sanluoar (de Barrameda). — ^9 leagues 
by land and 1\ by sea. A gondola 
(small vehicle, and another name for a 
cart on springs) service between Puerto 
de Sta. Maria and Sonlucar daily, there 
and back ; offices on Paseo del Vergel ; 
16r. berlina, 13r. interior, lOr. imperi- 
ale, in combination with hours of trains 
By sea, steamers about two a-week, lOr. 
and 8r. Population, 19,943. It was 
founded by the Andalusian Tartesians 
about 3557 hefcyre Christ I It was re- 
covered from the Moors by Alfonso the 
Learned, who called it San Lucas, plac- 
ing it tmder the patronage of that saint. 
How this is to be reconciled with its 
Roman name, Lucifer^ is difficult to 
guess ; however, the latter is a 7ruxtek\Ai 
the otiier in puzzling etymologies. The 
canting arms are a castle with a star 
above, and at the foot of it a bull and 
an inkstand, the attributes of St. Luke, 
and the motto ' Luciferi fani Senatus.' 
The climate is delightful, and the Due 
de Montpensier has here a charming 
summ^ villa. There is an ancient 
parish church of the beginning of the 
14th century, a good example of Mude- 
jar architecture. Observe the fafade, z 



rich Moorish roof studded with stars. 
It was built by Doiia Isabel de la Cerda. 
It is dedicated to Our Lady of the 0, 
There is also a classical church of San 
Francisco. The wines vie with those of 
Xerez and the Puerto ; the bodegas are 
large and curious, the exports consider- 

Ezonnion to Hiielv«» and th» minM of 
Bio Tlnto, eto.» 'bj Sea.— A small steamer 
runs to Huelva two or three times per week, in 
about 5 hrs. From thence railway into the 
mining distoct. Pop. of Huelva, 23,000. 
Hotel de Colon, first-rate ; moderate charges. 
H.B.M. Vice -Consul, E. Diaz, Esq. This 
ancient town is rapidly increasing in import- 
ance, owing to the ^pping, etc., trade, con- 
nected with the mines. There is also a laige 
exportation of wine. The climate is delicious 
and well suited to invalids. Excursion by boat 
to Palos and the convent of Santa Maria la 
R^bida. From die former, Columbus set sail, 
Aug. 3, 1493, to discover his new world, return- 
ing here again March 15, 1493. Here, too, 
Hernando Cortes landed. May X528, after his 
conquest of Mexico. At the convent of La 
R&bida Columbus was received and sheltered 
by Perez de Marchena, the ^ur-sighted prior, 
to whose influence Isabella's patronage of the 
seemingly visionary scheme of discovery was 

presently due. (See Prescott, etc. ; also a 
small work 'La lUbida y Cristdbal Colon,' 
published by Reyes y Moreno, Huelva, 1855.) 
The mines, of which Rio Tinto stands at the 
head, are situated some 30 m. inland, and, 
while not posstosing any q)ecial attraction for 
the ordinary tourist, deserve a visit from aU 
who are interested in colossal industrial under- 
takings. The work consists in the quarrying 
{icr the ore fies in almost inexhaustible masses 
near the surface) of inm pyrites, containing 
50% of sulphur, and about 4% of copper. It is 
shipped to England, France and Germany, for 
the manufacture of sulphuric acid and extrac- 
tion of copper ; and, inasmuch as the demand 
for the former b necessaifly limited, immense 
quantities of the an are cdcined on the spot 
for the copper alone. As the process is carried 
on in the open every trace of vegetation for 
miles round is destroyed by the fumes of sul- 
pluiroos add. Every attention is shown to 
visit<M:a» who may find accommodation m seve- 
ral private houses. The Rio Unto CO. em- 
ploys upwards of 4000 men, and raises over a 
million tons of ore in the year. The next 
largest concern is the Tharsis Co. (Tarshish 
of the ancients), situated nearer to Palos. Both 
these mines were wcvked by Phaemdans, 
Romans and Moors, and have been resusci- 
tated by English capital. No less a sum than 
;^3,7ao,ooo was paid in 1873 by the Rio Tinto 
Co. for its concession. 


Province of ifwrcia— (pop., 1885, 
about 80,000). 

From Madrid, By raiL Two trains 
a day : 16 hrs. 625 kil. ; fares, 1st cl., 
Pes. 60.40; 2d cL, 46.80. By the 
Madrid-Alicante Rail, as far as Chin- 
chilla Junction, Here the line to 
Murcia and Cartagena branches to the 

The scenery is most uninterest- 
ing. See for detail Murcia, 2d from 
Madrid. There are also occasional 
steamers to Alicante, Malaga, Valencia, 
Almeria, etc., about three a fortnight. 
To Alicante, 6 hrs. To Almeria, 13 

General Description. — This port is 

the largest in Spain after that of Vigo. 
It is l£e best and securest along the 
whole coast, sheltered from all danger- 
ous winds, and well protected by 
nature. The best inn is the Fonda 
Francesa, but the Hotel del Universo 
and Fonda de Bamos are both fair- 
especially the latter. The town, dull 
and uninteresting, consists mainly of 
a long street, the CaUe Mayor, which 
terminates in the Plaza de la Constitu- 
cion ; it is broad and relatively clean, 
but presents little to attract the travel- 
ler's notice. Cartagena was the Carth- 
ago Nova, founded by the Carthaginian 
family of the Barcas, who always 
founded cities near the sea. This port 



was the most important the Oartha- 
gmians possessed in Spain, and became 
their great arsenal and general entrepdt 
Its secure bay and situation facing the 
Mediterranean, half-way between Gaul 
and Tingitania, was not overlooked by 
the far-sighted Romans, who fortified 
it, and called it Colonia Victrix Julia. 
The Goths almost destroyed it. When 
the navy of Spain was flourishing (I7th 
century), Cartagena contained upwards 
of 60,000 inhabitants. Charles III. 
endeavoured, but in vain, to restore it 
to its former prosperity, and during 
the subsequent reigns it has gradually 
dwindled to but an unsatisfactory con- 
dition ; but life will, we trust, soon 
come back and fill those noble arsenals, 
magnificent docks, and admirable port, 
where nothing is wanting save ships 
and sailors ; articles not so easily made 
as the former. 

Among the very few sights is the 
arsenal, to visit which an order is neces- 
sary from the Comandante de Marina. 
The fortifications, basins, barracks, 
hospitals, rope-walks, foundries, are all 
built on a grand scale ; but they are ne- 
glected and left to decay, liere are 
some few but interesting ruins in the 
vicinity, altogether neglected by anti- 
quaries. Trade, though checked lately 
by the low prices prevailing; is in a 
healthy state, and shows signs of revivaL 
The iron, copper, and lead mines in the 
vicinity are actively worked, and many 
vessels arrive from England laden with 
coal to be employed in them ; the copper, 
silver, and lead are of excellent quality, 
and the filones abound. There ia a 
small theatre and casino, into which 
travellers are easily admitted. As a 
residence the town is most dull, and 
there is no society. To obtain a fine 
view of the town, port, and surrounding 
scenery, we advise travellers to ascend 
Las Galeras, La Atalaya, or San Julian. 

The only church is that of Sta. Maria 
de Gracia, the old cathedral of 13th 
century being ruinous. 

Trade and Mines.— The commercial 
importance of Cartagena has been 
greatly enhanced of late years by the 
development of the mining industries. 
The principal exports are minerals, 
lead and esparto, to the extent of 
about 650,000 tons of mineral, 31,000 
tons of refined lead and 10,000 tons of 
esparto. The chief imports are coal and 
coke, to the amount of about 130,000 
tons. The mines would yield ten- 
fold what they do now were they better 
managed ; the local miners and specu- 
lators prefer extracting what they can 
from the scoriae of ancient mines worked 
by the Romans, and which are found 
in considerable quantities buried under 
a thin stratum of alluvial soil. They 
thus extract, with little expense, from 
4 to 10 per cent of lead. The beds of 
the numerous ravines, torrents, etc., 
in the vicinity, are also the object of 
lucrative speculation, and the sands 
and soil often yield, by washing, etc., 
a very large percentage of lead in an 
almost pure state. 

The climate, formerly very unwhole- 
some, when the ague-stricken inhabit- 
ants used to die 'como chinches,' 
owing to the brackish water, the emana- 
tions of the ill-drained Almajar (a lake 
formed by the rains, near the town), 
etc., has been considerably modified and 
improved by the complete drainage of 
this focus of fevers, the waters of which 
now flow into the sea, and by several 
other works. 

E,B.M. Fiee-ConsiUf Wm. Milvain, 
Esq.; U.8,A, Ficc-CoTWMZ, D. Albert 

Post Office, — Calle de Ignacio Garcia. 

Telegraph Q^.— Calle de Jara. 

Gafis, — Imperial, De la Marina and 
Del Puerto. 



Ca«tilla-La-Nueva and Castilla-La- 
Vieja, the two largest provinces in 
Spain, have been divided into the pro- 
vinces of Burgos, pop. 855,000 ; Log- 
roHo, pop. 183,000 ; Soriu, pop. 
169,000; iS'egroma, pop. 161,000; Avila, 
pop. 176,000 ; Saniander, pop. 242,000 ; 
Palenda, pop. 185,000 ; and FcUladolidf 
pop. 244,000 (forming part of Old Cas- 
tile), and Madrid, pop. 489,000 ; Otui' 
dcUajara, pop. 209,000; Toledo, pop. 
843,000, and Cuenca, pop. 240,000 
(New Oastile), summing 2,976,000. 
These two great divisions are placed 
under the military jurisdiction of the 
Captain-General of New Castile, who 
resides at Madrid, and of that of Old 
Castile, who resides at Yalladolid, and 
are ecclesiastically dependent of the sees 
of Toledo and Burgos. 

Historical K'otioe. — ^The earliest in- 
habitants were the Celtiberi, Carpetani, 
Oretani, etc. The name Castile was 
derived from the numberless castles 
placed on the frontiers, and serving as 
defences against home and foreign ene- 
mies. CastUla la Vieja was one of the 
first Christiankingdoms that rose against 
the invading infideL The condado, or 
county of Burgos became a kingdom in 
1035, and New Castile was annexed to 
it by Ferdinand I., the subsequent 
reigns of Alfonso VI. and VIII. 
strengthening the union ; and though 
turned for a time into chaos in the 
reigns of Peter the Cruel and Enrique 
IV., they were finally consolidated, and 
at the marriage of Isabel with Fedinand 
of Aragon were with this latter merged 
into one vast monarchy, 1479. 

Rivers, MourUains, etc. — The princi- 
pal mountains are the Sierra Guadar- 
rama, to the N.E. of New Castile ; the 
snow-capped Somosierra to E. ; the 
ranges of Molina and Cuenca, which 
are joined to those of Alcarraz and 

Murcia ; the Montes de Toledo, which 
rise between the Tagus and Guadiana ; 
and to the S. a portion of the Sierra 
Morena, which divides it from Anda- 
lusia. The most important rivers are 
the Ebro, Duero, Tagus, etc. The 
mountainous distncta are picturesque, 
highly interesting for their botany and 
geology. The rest of the country is 
composed of trackless, lonely, wind- 
blown plains, most fertile, though much 
exposed to drought, and thinly peopled. 
The heat is excessive in summer, and 
the icy blasts in winter come sweeping 
down from the lofty mountains, checked 
in their course by neither forests, 
hedges, nor cultivation. 

The People, Character, Dress. — The 
Castilians are a grave, loyal, st«m, 
trustworthy, and manly race, silent and 
proud ; poverty, ignorance, and bigotry 
are their lot, but not their work ; and 
their excellent qualities, and even de- 
fects, might be easily turned to good ac- 
count. They speak the purest Spanish, 
el CastelUmo, which Charles V. said was 
the only tongue in which man could 
presume to address the Divinity. They 
wear long cloaks, ariguarinas, and a 
curiously-shaped cap or rrumtera. 

The cities retain mostly all the cha- 
racteristics of the mediseval Gotho- 
Castilian style, and abound in magnifi- 
cent examples of Grothic and Byzantine 
churches, and of military palatial archi- 
tecture. Andalusia is the land of the 
Moor, but Castile is alone truly and 
exclusively Spanish. 

Routes, etc 
The following comprises the principal cities :— 

Madrid to Alcali 

Olmedo, r. 

de Henares, r. 

S^ovia, r. 

Guadalajara, r. 

Avila, r. 

Siguenza, r. 

Escorial, r 

Soria, dil. 

Madrid, r. 

Alfaro, r. 

Toledo, r. 

LogroHo, r. 

Albacete, r. 

Btusos, r. 
Valfildolid, r. 

Cuenca, r. 
Huete, r. 



We have entirely omitted such cities 
as Aranda, Lerma, Buitrago, Talayera, 
Belmonte, etc., because, besides the 
difficulty of reaching them now, and 
the wretched accommodation, to which 

we can testify, their contents are mostly 
indifferent to the general tourist. The 
best season is the spring and early part 
of summer.' 


G^eograpliioal and Administrative 
Division. — CatalufLa, a captaincy- 
general, el prindpado, as it is often 
called, has the shape of a triangle, the 
summit of which is formed by the 
Pyrenees and the base by the Mediter- 
ranean. It has an extent of 140 m. E. 
to W., and 154 m. N. to S. The 
population, which amounted to 826,970 
in the 1 5th century, numbers now (1886): 
in Gerona, 882,000 inhab. ; Barcelona, 
771,000 ; Lerida, 886,000 ; Tarragona, 
862,000 ; in all, 1,840,000 souls— these 
four present provinces constituting 
formerly all CatalufLa. It is a region 
of hills and valleys, the seaboard ex- 
tending some 889 kiL from Cape Cer- 
vera to the embouchure of Cervera, the 
principal ports being Barcelona, Tarra- 
gona, Salou, Rosas, Palamos, etc. 

The People, Character, Dress, etc, — 
The Catalans are the most industrious, 
business-like, enterprising people in 
Spain ; they are the Scotch of this 
country, as the Andalusians are the 
Irish, and theAsturians the Welsh. 
They are sober, laborious, honest, en- 
thusiastic for progress, proud of their 
own, looking up to France for example 
and competition, and down on the sur- 
rounding provinces with contempt and 

pity. Wherever there are trade, fabrics, 
enterprise, there you are sure to find 
Catalans ; in England, in America^ in 
the East, they have everywhere, and in 
all ages and times, carried their insa- 
tiable love of enterprise and activity. 
They are vehement, austere, revengeful, 
and generally not capable of great feel- 
ing or lasting friendship, and egotism 
seems to be a pivot aroimd which all 
their actions turn. They are besides 
destitute of stability in their own poli- 
tical principles, and have sold them- 
selves always to the highest bidder ; 
but it must not be forgotten that in 
their hearts and souls they are neither 
Spaniards nor French, they are Cata- 
lans ; and in their eyes, there is only 
one Catalu&a, and Barcelona is its pro- 
phet Their religion reaches supersti- 
tion ; their activity degenerates into 
feverish craving ; their love of liberty 
has led them to bloodshed, excesses, 
and rapine. They hold the commerce 
of Spain in their hands, and have been 
justly defined, as a province, the Spanish 
Lancashire. Catalu&a has been always 
the centre of rebellion, the focus of re- 
publicanism and democracy ; it is the 
feeder of Spain, its stomach, which is 
the centre and cause of all disease in 



the great body. They are patient and 
daring soldiers, excdAent sailors, and 
model smugglers and guerrilleros. The 
dress is plain and unpictnresqne. The 
women — ^las payesas — who are not a 
handsome race, but strong, masculine, 
angular, and rong^ diamonds, wear a 
tight boddice, short dress, and an un- 
becoming handkerchief moeadOf on 
their heads, which is generally red. 
The men's dress consists of a very short 
velvet or doth jacket, long loose dark 
trousers, which come up very high, and 
the sandal, eapardinya ; the head-gear 
is a reminiscence of thcdr Carthaginian 
forefathers, and is a very long red or 
purple cotton nightcap-shaped 'gorro,' 
not unlike that worn by the Genoese 
and Neapolitan fishwmen; the end 
either hangs on one side, or is douUed 
up and brought over the forehead : the 
red predominates. Indeed, the different 
provinces might be characterised by 
tints ; red would stand for Catabitka, 
blue and black for Andalusia, light 
green and white forYalencia, brown 
for Asturias, dark purple for Aragon, 
etc The Catalans sjre, say their de- 
tractors, very egotistical, prosaic, and 
grasping — money (dirheros) is their 
god. This is exaggerated, for allowing 

Poderoso caballero 
£s Don Dinero, 

to them the Roman satirist could not 
say :— 

O cives, dves I quaerenda pecunia primum est. 
Virtus post nununos ; 

for they are very generous, spend their 
fortunes in works of art, patronise music 
especially, their popular poetry is even 
elhereal and Q^man in its style and 
feeling, and the most straightforward 
maxims rule without exception. 

History. — The Catalans are descend- 
ants of the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, 
and GreekSi who colonised all Medi- 

terranean Spain. It was considered, 
from its position, a very important pro- 
vince of Roman Spain ; Tarragona be- 
came the capital Catalufia was divided 
into different minor states — Cerretania, 
Ansetania, Castellania, etc When 
Rome fell, and Spain was invaded by 
the Alani, Sueves, etc, the Goths fixed 
their first colonies here, and called 
it their own land, Gotha-lunia. When 
the Moors invaded it, dispossessing the 
Goths, the Franks crossed the Pyrenees^ 
were repulsed, and driven back to Nar- 
bonne, but mustering great numbers, 
came again and took Barcelona. The 
Moors were defeated, and retired, and 
the French conquerors estabUshed a 
feudal condado, or county, calling it 
the Spanish Marche, and divided into 
nine smaller states. Wifred, governor 
under Charles the Bald, of France, 
raised the standard of revolt, and be- 
came the independent chief of the pros- 
perous and extensive condado of Bar- 
celona. The independence of the county 
lasted from the 9th to the 12th cen- 
tury. This was the greatest period of 
the prosperity, wealth, and power of 
Cataluika. It was then that the oele« 
brated maritime expeditions against 
the pirates of the Balearic Islands and 
Corsica took place, as well as the war 
with Minorca (then possessed by the 
Moors), which was carried on by Ramon 
Berenguer III. and the Catalan nobility 
— the expeditions against the Moors in 
Spain — the capture of Tortosa — the 
alliances with the puissant republics 
of Genoa and Pisa, etc. By the mar- 
riage in 1187 of Ramon Berenguer IV. 
witii Petronila, daughter and heiress of 
Ramiro el Monje, king of Aragon, 
Cataluika was merged in the crown of 
the latter country, and lost its inde- 
pendence. Annexed to Castile by the 
marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
Cataluika no longer possessed the pro» 
perity and power of ancient times. Its 



energies, spirit of trade, and independent 
pretensions were crippled, scorned, and 
put down by the haughty courtier- 
warriors of Castilla. Rebellion, the 
well-known sublevaciones, motines, so- 
matenes, pronundamientos, and other 
suchlike outbursts, with which Catalan 
political vocabularies abound, began 
now never to cease. In 1640 l£ey 
threw off the yoke of Philip 17., and 
offered their allegiance to Louis XIII., 
* qui ne se fit pas prier, ' but hastened to 
proclaim himself Count of Barcelona. 
Put down in 1652, the rebellion was 
renewed in 1689, when they resisted 
Charles II., but were obliged to sur- 
render to the French army under the 
orders of Due de Yenddme. In the war 
of succession they sided with Austria, 
and in 1714 Philip V. bombarded Barce- 
lona, and destroyed one-third of it. But 
their want of success has not deterred 
them from indulging to this day in civil 
wars and revolutions. They are per- 
petual grumblers, and have taken to 
meetings, associations, political discus- 
sions, representaciones to Government 
and the Queen, couched often in ener- 
getic terms, etc. Free trade and Pro- 
tection are here at loggerheads, and the 
tariff and its grievances call forth the 
eloquence of its deputies at the Cortes, 
and the diatribes of its press-writers at 
home. Catalulia is with all this very 
prosperous, her manufactures increas- 
ing, and her trade thriving, especially 
with France. 

MineSt AgricuUwre, etc, — Catalutka 
abounds in mines, thou^ they are of 
no very great importance. /S'aZ^ is found 
in great quantities at Cordona and 
Gerri, lead at Falset, lead and copper 
at Bassagoda, La Bisbal, Sellera, Yi- 
dresas ; tin, zinc, and cobalt are more 
scarce; coal is found at Ripoll and 
San Juan de las Abadesas; and the 
marbles of Tortosa and Tarragona are 
excellent, and in great repute. 

There are several excellent and bene* 
ficial mineral springs called Caldas (ca/. 
das, hot), such as the Caldas de Mont- 
buy, Caldas d'Estrach, de Malavella, 
the sulphurous waters of La Puda, 
over the Llobregat, and of N. Sra. de 
Caldas. Idnen, blondes, and lace are 
extensively produced, and besidespaper- 
manufactures, soaps, spirits, etc., cot- 
ton-spinning has of late years acquired 
great importance, and mills are being 
established everywhere. The principal 
centres are Barcelona, Sabadell, Reus, 
etc. Agriculture is far from being 
neglected ; and Catalan energy has 
transformed the arid ravined soil into 
gardens and orchards, the example 
being given by the wealthy proprie- 
tors, who, un-Spanish-like, love to 
dwell on their estates, where they 
build handsome houses, called torres. 
The plains of the Ampurdau, the 
country about Gerona, Vioh, Cerdafia, 
IJrgel, Tarragona, the Mediterranean 
board, are celebrated for the fertility 
of the soil, their olives, vines, and pas- 
tures. Wine of infinite varieties and 
tastes is likewise produced, among 
which we may name the delicious 
malvasia de Biijia, those of Allera, 
Cullera, Trdna, Taya, the heady Beni- 
carlo, sent to France to flavour and 
dor cu^erpo to the spiritlessacid piquette, 
Priorato (near Tarragona), etc. The 
rich red common wine, when matured 
by age, and then called ram>cio, is ex- 
cellent, especially with water. The 
principal rivers are, the Fluvia, Ter 
Ebro, Llobregat, Francoli, and Cerria, 
most emptying themselves into the 

The recent revival of Art and Litera- 
ture in Catalulia is remarkable. The 
province has produced a succession of 
good names — the painters Fortuny and 
Viladomat, the writers Balmes, Bo- 
faniU y Balaguer, Soler, Verdaguer, etc. 

Boutes.— The cities have a very 



distinct character of their own, though 
mostly modernised. The monuments 
belong to the worst period of art, or, 
if ancient, have been sadly disfigured 
or neglected. This is speaking in 
a general sense, for there are some 
and very important exceptions, such 
as the cathedral and cloisters of Tarra- 
gona, the ruinous but interesting Po- 
blet, Cucufate del Yalles, cathedrals of 
Barcelona, Gerona, L^rida, etc. These 
are as interesting as anything in the 
Peninsula, though some of them, as 
Poblet and Cucufate, lie so far out of 
the broad road that they are practically 
beyond the reach of the ordinary, hurried 
tourist. The best season to travel in 
Gatalufia is the spring and autumn, 
and the mountainous districts in the 
summer. Barcelona is a good winter 
quarter for invalids. 


Perpignan to Figue- i Reus, r. 

las, r. 

Matar6, r. 

GcroDa, r. 

Barcelona, r. 

Tortosa, r., indiffer- 

Tarragona, r. 




Cervera, r. 
Solsona, d. 
Urgel, rid. d. 
French Pyrenees, 

rid. d. or walk. 
Puigcerdi, rid. or 

Montblanch, r. 

Poblet, d. r. 
Lirida, r. 

Camprodon,dil. and r. 
Olot, r. 
Ripoll, r. 
Granollers, r. 
Barcelona, r. 

And a shorter, from Barcelona to Tarragona 
and Reui, then to Ltfrida and Manresa, and 
Monserrat (from stat of), in a week's time. 

Books ofBrfermu, — 1. * Los Condes 
de Barcelona vindicados,' by the 
learned Bofarull; Barcelona, 1886, 2 
4to vols. Highly important 

2. ' Becuerdos y Bellezas de Espatia.' 
The portion relating to Catalu&a has 
been ably written by Messrs. Piferrer 
and Pi y Margall. 

3. ' Yiage literario ft las Iglesias de 
Espafia,' by Villaneuva. Vols. 6 to 21 
relate to the churches and ecclesiastical 
history of Catalufia. 

4. ' Espafia Sagrada,' zxiv., Partei.2. 
' Historia de Catalu&a,' by D. Victor 

Balaguer, 1887-88; 'Las Ruinas de 
Poblet,' Madrid, 1886. * Historia del 
Ampurddn/ by D. Jos^ Pella y Forgas 
(Illustrated), Barcelona, 1888. 



Capital of province of same name, 
bishopric, commandancia general ; pop. 
50,802 (1878). 

Oommiinioations. — 1. From Mad- 
rid. By rail thronghout, distance, 442 
klL Time, 14 J hrs. ; fares, Ist cL, Pes. 
63.60 ; 2d cl., 41.40 ; fair restaurant 
at Alcazar. Fast exp., Monday, Wed- 
nesday, and Friday evenings. 

Description ofltotUe. — Between Alca- 
zar and Cordova the conntry is most 
uninteresting — treeless, stony, wind- 
hlown, are indeed the endless ' Campos 
de la Mancha,' a name, however, very 
femiliar to all readers as being so closely 
associated with Cervantes' immortal 
hero, £1 Hidalgo Don Quixote de la 
Mancha. Argamaailla de Alba, which 
is crossed soon after leaving Alcazar, is 
supposed to have been the place where 
Cervantes, thrown into its prison by 
the irascible debtors whose rents he had 
been sent to collect, began to write his 
novel, maidng his hero a native of the 
village which had so ill treated him. No 
one doubts here of the real existence of 
the gallant old knight, and there are 
several families who claim descent from 
that wisest of fools, and that shrewdest 
of madmen. One of the best and most 
recent editions has been printed in that 
very prison, the former town jail. Short- 
ly after we leave this station are seen, 
rising on our right, the foremost alturas 
of Sierra Morena. Mcmzanwres. — ^Tra- 
vellers to Lisbon change carriages. 
VaMepefUis (Inn : Posada del Medio- 
dia), 11,200 thirsty souls, who almost 
live upon the excellent but improvable 
wine of that name— the best common 
red wine in Spain. It originated with 
some vines brought from Burgundy, and 
which thrive in that flinty tract of 
cmrntry (Val de Pefias, literally, Vale 

of Rocks). Vmta de Cdrdenma, — This 
name is also familiar to readers of Don 
Quixote as being that of the venta to 
which Cardenio, the curate, and Doro- 
tea took the penitent knight on his 
giving up his solitary life. Linares, 
Close by are the celebrated lead and 
copper mines of that name, a national 
property. Cross the Guadalquivir at 
Menjtbar, and we then reach Andujar, 
about 10,000 inhab., sombre, backward, 
and unwholesome. In its church a fine 
Sto. Sepulcro in relief ; around are very 
extensive olive -grounds, and close by 
flows the Guadalquivir. The Conven- 
tion of Bailen, July 23, 1808, was signed 
here. After crossing the bridge, one 
enters the province of Cordova. Not 
far from Pedn^ Ahad is El Carpio, with 
a Moorish tower, built in 1326. Close 
to Casa Blanca is a very fine black 
marble bridge of 20 arches. The Guad- 
alquivir to the left. Cordova soon ap- 
pears, in not a striking situation. To 
S.E. of the valley is the large conical 
rock and castle of Almodovar, one of 
Don Pedro's fortresses, where he kept 
his treasures, sometimes amounting to 
70 million ducats. 

Now the Guadalbarbo is crossed, the 
orange and the palm mingle with the 
dusty ungainly olive, and Cordoba is 

2. From Seville (see Seville), 4 hrs. 
from Cadiz ; by rail through Seville, 
9 hrs. ; both by rail direct 

3. 'FiojD.Chimada. Granada by Loja, 
Anteguerato BobadUla, by rail, about 
4 hrs. ; at latter station take up the 
Malaga to Cordova train, 6 hrs. For 
description of route, see Granada from 

4. From or to Almaden mines. By 
rail vid Almorchon, or riding, 18 leagues. 






Cordova to Villabarta 
VUlanueva del Duque 
Los Pedroches 
Santa Eufemia 

6. From Malaga. By rail direct ; 
distance, 195 kil. ; time, 6 hrs. (mail 
train, correo) ; fares, Ist cl., Pes. 24.45 ; 
2d cl., Pes. 18.36. For description of 
route, see Malaga from Cordova. 

6. From Ja£fn^ By branch line to 
Menjibar or Espelny, where change 
into Madrid train. Two trains per 
day. Distance from Jaen to Menjibar, 
83 kil. Time, about 1 hr. A continua- 
tion of the Jaen branch to Granada 
has been long projected. In the mean- 
time a diL runs daily in about 8 hrs. 

Hotels. — Fonda Suiza, same pro- 
prietors as the hotels de Paris in 
Madrid, Serille and Cadiz. Very 
good. Prices from 8 pes. per day up- 
wards. Fonda de Oriente, Fonda 
Espaflola, both feir ; prices from 7 pes. 
upwards. One or two fair Casas de 
Huespedes ; No. 18 San Pablo, «nd 
No. 4 Marmol de Bafiuelas. 

Carriages may be hired at the hotels 
for 26 P. a day, and 12J P. half the day. 
Horses, for promenades and travel, are 
readily procured. 

Casino and Library, — ^A good club. 
Strangers admitted for a fortnight upon 
member's introduction. French and 
Spanish papers. The Biblioteca [Pro- 
vincial is small (8000 vols.), but worth a 
visit. Some good MSS. Admittancefree. 

Post Office, — Plazuela de Benavente. 

Cafis. — Del Gran Capitan, on the 
favourite promenade of same name, 
Cafe Suizo. 

H,B.M. Fice-ConsuL—Wmiam Poole, 

Protestant chapel and school. 

N,B. — Those desirous of visiting 
an olive farmhouse, etc«, will do well 

to go to Bigalance, Cabra or Montoro- 
Aguilar, etc. For details of the pro« 
ceedings, etc., see Gen. Int : Agri* 

Climate. — Owing to the low and 
somewhat sunk situation of the dty in 
a valley, the utter want of trees, the 
scanty irrigation, etc., the heat in sum- 
mer is very great — ^indeed almost insup- 
portable—and the wealthy inhabitants 
migrate to veranear in the cool valleys 
of the Sierra. The climate is, however, 
wholesome, and the sipriiig and autumn 
are delightful. The most conmion Ul- 
neeses are catarrh, intennittent fevers, 
inflammatory fevers, and pulrMwicB. 
The average temperature is — 


In spring 

. . X5' 

In summer . 

. ax* 

In autumn 

. . 14** 

In winter 

. 5' to 6* 

The ti^rmometer has never been known 
to rise above 88" to 34° in summer, or 
to fkll below 8° under zero. As to 
wind, it is eacposed to the N. wind. 
The Sierra, extending from E. to W., 
screens the town a good deal from the 
S. burning blast ; tiie most prevalent 
are K, S.W., W., N.W. Mortality is 
1.25 ; great age is seldom reached. 
The elimate has changed con^derably 
since the time of the Moors, when Cor- 
dova and its districts were held to be a 
perfect paradise upon earth, of which 
its black-eyed women were the houris. 
Cordova is situated 37* 42' N. lat., 
4** 46' W. long. 

General Description. — Cordova, 
once the centre of European civilisation, 
the successful rival of B^hdad and Da- 
mascus, the seat of learning and reposi- 
tory of arts, sank long ago into a third- 
rate provincial city, backward, dull, 
ill-provided, depopulated and silent — a 
city of the dead. The very labourer, 
forgetful of the golden rules practically 
laid down by the industrious Moor for 



converting wastes into gardens and or- 
chards, looks slaggishly on his treeless, 
waterless, parched up valley, confident 
that what little seed falls from his lazy 
hands will ripen under the generous sun 
into an abundant crop. Thus it is that 
the extent of the Strict (Termino), 
being 184,238 fiuiegas (Gen. Inf.) of land, 
yields only about £206, 000 yearly. The 
peasants' antipathy to trees is shown by 
the fact that out of the above extent they 
cover a surface of scarcely 4000 fanegas ! 
In the 16th century, the district of Sta. 
Clara yielded half-a-million fiEUiegas of 
com a-year ; and the silk, once a source 
of wealth to the khalifate, scarcely yields 
4000 lbs. a-year. 

The celebrated Cordovan breed of 
horses, called Oel-mefki, and worthy of 
the Prophet's beautiful description of a 
horse in the Koran, have also degene- 
rated ; and though they are still elegant, 
swift-footed, shining with lustrous hair 
and beautifol tail and mane, yet their 
size, high legs, thick ' acamerada ' head 
and neck, bespeak neglect and sad cros- 

^e city, once the abode of the flower 
of AudalufflaTi nobility, is inhabited 
chiefly by the administradores of the 
absentee sefiorio, their 'solares ' are de- 
sert and wretched, the streets ill paved 
though dean, and the whitewashed 
houses, unimpoortaiit, low, and denuded 
of all art and meaning, either past or 

There are now but few and fast- 
fadiug vestiges of the glorious Moslem 
dominion. Indeed, artists and poets 
will feel here as elsewhere that their 
progress through Spain is, as it were, 
little else than following the long funeral 
of that Eastern genius that left no heirs 
behind save such like cities as this one, 
that sit in widowhood pointing to some 
great monument as an eloquent record 
of the past. 

But, as Victor Hugo justly remarks, 

Cordoue aux maisons YieOlcs 
A sa mosqu^ oil Toeil se perd dans les mer- 

and that magnificent edifice — a town in 
itself— with its many streets formed by 
marble pillars, like alleys of trees, com- 
pensates for the absent life from the 
body, whose limy, white, and calcined 
skeleton lies before us. For the passing 
tourist who is busy doing Spain, a few 
hours will suffice ; but the artist, the 
antiquary, the lover of the beautiftil, of 
the poetry and music infused in stones, 
must linger more, and visit the mosque 
oftentimes and at various hours of tiie 
day. The environs, valley, and sierra 
teem with magnificent fruit of excep- 
tional size and exquisite flavour, abound 
with game — ^the boar, deer, and even 
lynx ; and the botanist will meet with 
a very extensive flora, comprising up- 
wards of 1500 sorts of plants, many of 
which will be new to him and deserve 

Cordova will appear most Oriental to 
the traveller coming from the North, 
and who has not seen Seville, Granada, 
etc., and has, at all events, a most un- 
European character about its streets, 
narrow and winding, its flat-roofed 
houses, the stately palm waving in the 
silent air from beldnd a garden wall, 
over which enormous oranges, citrons, 
and limas cluster and fall like golden 
balls. The appearance and colouring 
of the suburbs and sierra by evening 
time will tempt many a painter and 
poet besides Boberts and Southey. 

Hi8tor7.-4Ik>rdova, whose name. Bo- 
chart supposes, is derived from the 
Syrian coUb^ 'oil-press,* and, accord- 
ing to Conde, Carta-tuba, an * import- 
ant city, ' was but little known under the 
Phoenicians. Silius Italicus mentions it 
in his poem on the second Punic War, 
* Nee decus aurifene cessavit Corduba 
terns,' when Hannibal disposed of 
troops formshed by that city. Martins 



first, 206 B.O., and A. Marcellus after, 
gave it importance, and the latter 
founded here the first Roman colony, 
which was called Fatrida, from the 
number of patrician fiunilies that came 
from Rome and established here their 
home. Cordova subsequently became 
the capital of Ulterior Spain, and sub- 
sequently of Bffitica. It sided with 
Pompey, which opinion cost the lives of 
28,000 of its inhabitants, who were put 
to death by Cffisar, after his victory of 
Munda. Under the Goths the city lost 
its importance, to regain it, and reach 
its highest acme, when it became Moor- 
ish. It was taken shortly after the battle 
of the Guadelete by Mugueith El Rumi, 
who, through the assistance of the Jews 
inside, obtained possession of it, and 
entrusted part of its garrison to the sons 
of Israel, ever ready to open the doors 
to let in the enemy and divide the spoils. 
Subject at first to the khalifate of 
Damascus, Cordova about 756 declared 
itself independent, and became the capi- 
tal of the Moorish Empire of Spain, 
under the Ummey^ Abdu-r-rh&man. 
Under the princes of this dynasty, this 
city (10th century) contained 300,000 
inhabitants (including the suburbs), 
600 mosques, 50 hospitals, 800 public 
schools, 900 . baths, and 600 inns ; a 
library of 600,000 volumes, besides 70 
private ones in the rest of the kingdom. 
The revenue amounted to six millions 
sterling. Discord now b^gan to weaken 
the extensive kingdom ; the factions 
among the sheiks, aided by the progress 
of the Christians, soon put an end to 
the prosperity of the kii^dom, and on 
June 80, 1235, St Ferdinand entered 
the city. Ever since that time, and 
notwithstanding the many privileges 
granted to its inhabitants and the no- 
bility that resided here, Cordova nevei* 
recovered even the shadow of its former 
prosperity. In the 17th century the 
population did not re^h 70,000, and | 

has now dwindled to little more than 

EnwnmtNaHvea,'-' Cordova, theabode 
and cradle of many of the noblest 
Spanish houses, <la poblacion de Europa 
de mas limpia y apurada nobleza,' as 
Gonzalo de C^pedes has i1^ has been 
the birthplace of several great writers, 
such as Seneca (6 A. a), the master of 
I^ero ; the stoic philosopher Lucan (89 
A. a), the author of 'Pharsalia ;* Aver- 
roes (12th century), the erudite trans* 
lator of Aristotle ; Moses Maimonides 
(1139), the rabbi ; Juan de Mena (1412), 
the author of 'El Laberinto ;' Sepul- 
veda, Grongora, C^pedes, A. de Morales, 

The French, under Dupont, June 
1808, entered the unresisting city, 
which they sacked, murdering the in- 
habitants in cold blood. The plunder, 
according to Maldonado, exceeded 
£100,000, of which £25,000 alone were 
found among Dupont's luggage. 

Sights.— The cathedral (or mosqne). 
Alcazar, El Triunfo, churches^ ndnor 
sights, and the environs. 

Cathedral, or Mosque: its His- 
tory.— On entering the city, the Moors, 
as was always the case, assured to the 
Christians the liberty of their religion, 
and by treaty allowed them the use of 
their cathedral, dedicated to San Vi- 
cente, bmlt on the site of a temple of 
Janus. All the other churches were 
destroyed but this one, which was ex- 
tant in 745, as the author of the Akhbdr 
Madjmona asserts most formally. 

But the augmentation of population 
which soon arose obliged the Moors to 
adopt here the plan already followed at 
Damascus and Emesia, and half the 
cathedral was wrested from them and 
converted into a mosque, jijst as half 
their mosque was, centuries after, con- 
verted into a Christian church. In 784 
Abdu-r-rh&man I. insisted on obtaining 



the other half, and a traasaotion ensued 
by which the Christians were allowed 
to relMxild all their former churches, 
and received for their cathedral the sum 
of 100,000 dinars (£40,000, but equal 
now to £440,000). That x»^nce had 
determined, from political as well as 
religious motives, to build a magnifi- 
cent moaque on the plans of that of 
Damascus, to exceed the then new one 
of Bagdad in splendour and extent, 
and comparable only to the Aoksdh of 
Jerusalem. It was to be the Mecca of 
the West, and to be called the Zeca, or 
House of Purification, and pilgrimages 
to its wondrous Mih-rkb were to be 
considered equivalent to those made to 
the Calba of the Prophet The khalif 
in person designed the edifice, gave up 
for its section a large portion of his 
revenue, and is said to have worked at 
it himself for a few hours every day. 

It was begun in 786, and the follow- 
ing year, on the untimely death of the 
founder, it was already much advanced. 
Haabem or Bixem, his son, continued 
it on the same jdans, and with such ac- 
tivity that it was completed in 796 — 
that is, ten years after the first stone 
was laid. At the death of the founder 
100,000 gold doblas had already been 
spent. Abdu-r-rh&man III. erected the 
fountains and its most elegant minaret. 
The mosque now consisted of eleven 
naves, 642 ft long by 298 ft. wide. Al 
Massoiir, the hadjeb of Hashem II., 
ordered eight more naves to be added, 
and ereeted the chapel where the Imans 
assembled, now called Capilla de Yilla- 

On entering the captured city, St 
Ferdinand had the mosque purified and 
dedicated to the Virgin. Several chapels, 
altars, sacristies, etc., were now added, 
and about July 1521 the transept and 
choir were begun ; but when Charles V., 
who had allowed these works to be 
made, came to Ck>rdova in 1526, and 

saw what had taken place, he excldmed 
indignantly : ' I was not aware of this ; 
for had I known you intended to touch 
the ancient portion, 1 would not have 
permitted it You have built here 
what can be built anywhere else, but 
you have destroyed what was unique in 
the world.' Heman Ruiz, on Septem- 
ber 7, 1523, had begun the works ; the 
elegant alminar or belfry, built by Ab- 
du-r-rhftman, and which had also been 
disfigured by Heman Ruiz, fell to the 
ground and was replaced by the present 

Its Style and Proportions. — The 
Mosque of Cordova may be considered 
as the most perfect specimen extant, or 
ever erected, of the religious architec- 
ture of the Moors of Spain. Indeed, it 
is generally thought to be 'the finest 
type in Europe of the true temple of 
Islam ;' and as the result and expres- 
sion of one age, one plan, one idea, the 
consequent imity of design is evident. 
In shape it is the Basilica, adapted to 
the Moslem worship. Its characteris- 
tics are : vastness, originality, great 
simplicity in the distribution, solidity 
severe and massive, great elegance in 
the curves and profiles, a happy com- 
bination of lines producing vistas. What 
this edifice must have been in its palmy 
days, when its roof was higher and glis- 
tening with gilding and vivid colours, 
and thousands of gold and silver lamps ; 
when its walls were worked like lace, 
and looked like Cashmere shawls illu- 
minated from behind, and its arches like 
so many gigantic bows, studded with 
emeralds and rubies, resting on mosaic 
trunks of porphyry, jasper, and other 
precious marbles, may be imagined ; 
but now whitewash has obliterated the 
past magnificence, and ignorance and 
neglect have done the rest. 

The area is 642 ft. long N. to S., by 
462 a wide, E. to W. (this being the 
last measurement made in 1811), 



EBctmior. ^'Sht aiclodng walls are 
meat pictoresqiiey and pnserFe all their 
Moocish diaracter. They are in tapia, 
ayoBging from 30 to 60 ft in height, 
and 6 ft in thicfrnesa, and strengthened 
here and there by square buttresa towers. 
In the S. wall, which, by the deolivity 
ei the site, reached a great he^ht^ were 
built as many as nineteen towers, their 
whole number amounting to forty-eight 
towers, of which most remain. There 
wwe sixteen entrances, and twenty-one 
interior doors. The external ones were 
generally square, with horseshoe arches, 
and vecy richly decorated. The boul- 
ders^ stones, siUcmes, of which the walls 
and great part of the towers are built^ 
were of the size used by the Romans, 
4 ft long and 2 ft wide. The almenas 
(buttresses indented) crowning the 
walls and concealing the roof are about 
8 ft. high, and are indented and trian- 
gular, except here and there on the 
towers, where they assume an unfinished 
large flower-vase form. Half of those 
towards the patio have the shape of a 
fleur-de-lys, but they are modem ; whilst 
the former are of Persian origin, with- 
out models in Greece or Italy. The 
Court of Oranges, Puerta del Perdon, 
and cistern are most Moorish. All the 
former ingresses are now blocked up and 
closed save one. Observe those on the 
K side, with their rich spandrils, pillar- 
ets^ and agimeces — Puerta del Pardon is 
the largest and most beautifuL These 
entrances, very common in Spanish 
cathedrals, were so called from the in- 
dulgences granted to those who passed 
under them. On the sides of it are the 
coats of arms of Castile ajid Leon, and 
the inscription around it is : 


OF March, of the era of CiESAR, 
141 5 (1377 A.C. ), IN the reign of the 
Most High and Puissant Don En- 
"kiQUE, King of Castile.* 

The doors tiiMnaelrea are cnrioiiflly orna- 
mented with bronze artesonilks^ form< 
ing different patterns, and in Gk>thic 
letters the word ' Dens,' and in Aralnc 
characters, ' The Empire belongs toGod : 
all is His. ' In the 16th century several 
fresco paintings were placed over this 
portal, but they were defaced, and 
wretched ones put up in the 17tii and 
18th centuries. 

OovH of 0range8,-^T)m patio, 4S0 ft. 
by 210 ft., is divided into three cnadros 
or quarters ; in the centre of each is a 
fountain. There were always trees in 
it, especially palms and cypresses, many 
of which were destroyed in a hurricane 
(1822.) Most of the present orange- 
trees date 16th century. At each end, 
except the S., of this court is a colon- 
nade of marble pillars, supporting cir- 
cular arches. They date from after the 
capture of Cordova by the Christians. 
The dstem, used for ablutions, was put 
up in 945 by Abdu-r-rh&man, and the 
court is the work of Said Ben Ayub, 937. 
On each side of the entrance to the ca- 
thedral is a Boman military column, 
found in the mosque in 1582, with an 
inscription stating the distance (114 m. ) 
to Cadiz from the Temple of Janus, 
which stood on this site. 

The Belfry, — ^The former Muezzin 
tower, built by the Khalif Abdu-r-rh&- 
man III. on the site of a still eifflier 
one, was modernised by the Christians, 
and then thrown down by a storm, and 
the present bastard insignificant struc- 
ture erected in 1589 by Heman Ruiz, 
crowned by a gilt statue of St Rafael 

Interior, — ^The first impression is that 
of bewilderment and astonishment, pro- 
duced by the interminable and ^seem- 
ingly confusedmazesof pillars, compared 
by a French writer to a roofed-in fwest 
The roof is 35 ft. high ; the cupolas are 
modem, and put up in 1713. The 
Moorish roof was flat, the beams appa- 
rent, painted and gilt, and made of alerr^ft 



(which is the Thm artiaUaia or Arbor 
vitcB, a wood considered incorruptible), 
which when taken down were found as 
sound as when placed there eleven cen- 
turies before. The pillars numbered 
once upwards of 1200, now reduced to 
850 ; but if we include those embedded 
in the walls and others absorbed, so to 
say, in works of repair, etc., there may 
even now be said to be about 1000. 
They are all monolithic (of one block), 
and came, abready shaped, capitals and 
all, from different countiies, Roman 
temples, mosques, etc. ; in Spain, chiefly 
from Seville and Tarragona ; in France, 
from Kismes and Narbonne ; from Car- 
thage in Africa; from Constantinople, 
whence 140 were sent as a present by 
the Emperor Leo ; and hence the diver- 
sity of styles, sizes, etc. They are all 
of marbles of different hues and species 
—the jasper, green and blood jasper, the 
deep black, white, red, rose, emerald, 
porphyry. The basements were sup- 
pressed, probably to shorten their height 
The capitals are generally Composite, 
almost all those on the K side Corin- 
thian ; but this character is vaguely ex- 
pressed and rudely conceived. Others 
have purely Arab and African capitals. 
These pillars form nineteen spacious 
naves, from E. to W., and twenty-nine 
from N. to S., which, intersecting each 
other at right angles, produce great 
variety of perspectives, enhanced by the 
elegant ultra-semicircular or horseshoe 
arches, most originaUy placed one upon 
another, and which, used in this mosque 
for the first time, add to its architectural 
value. The important additions made 
by Al-Manssoiur are in the African style 
of transition, and characterised by the 
presence of the ogival arch, used here 
for the first time in the Moorish monu- 
ments of Spain and the type of the 
Spanish ogival style. 

The Mth-riUby or Samdwvry of the 
Mosqtte, — In this small and most beau- 

tiful recess, the Othmanic Koran wai 
placed, and the Kh^li^ the Prince of 
the Faithful, Defender of the Faith, 
Pope and Autocrat at the same time, 
used to perform his chotbd or public 
prayer at the window towards the ceca> 
or holy of holies, and placed to the 
Kiblah, pr S. — ^that is, in the direction 
of Mecca. This Mih-rib forms a 
heptagon 13 ft in diameter, and 27^ ft 
high to the cupola. The pavement is 
of white marble, as weU as the base- 
ment and the shell-shaped roof (all of 
one block). The six sides of the hepta- 
gon are decorated with three-lobed 
arches resting on marUe pillarets, with 
gilt capitals of most excellent workman- 
ship. These stand upon a low cornice, 
under which runs an inscription in gold. 
Inside was kept the pulpit of Al-Ha- 
kem II., unparalleled in Ihe world. It 
was all of ivory and precious woods and 
stones, inlaid, and fastened with gold 
and siLver nails ; it cost some £250,000, 
equal, certainly, now to a million 
sterling 1 In it was kept the famous 
copy of the Koran made by Olhman, 
and stained with his blood. It was 
contained in a box covered with gold 
tissue, embroidered with pearls and 
rubies, and placed on a lectern made 
of aloe, with gold nails. This pulpit 
disappeared not very long ago. At 
the hour of the Azalkh this book was 
opened and read by the Iman, and 
then taken to where the gold and silver 
sacred vases were placed, which appeared 
in the illuminations of the month of Ra- 

To right and left; of this sanc- 
tuary were the habitations of the cleigy. 
To the right was also a door leading by 
a passage to the Khalif s Palace, which 
was close by. Al-Hakem II., who built 
the Mih-rkb and Maksurkh, began 
these works about 961 a.o. (according 
to the historian of Magreb, Ibn Adzari, 
published in the ori^^ial by Dozy of 



Leyden, and translated by S. Gayangos 
for Sr. Madrazo, 'Cordova,* pp. 173-4). 
The cupola or *cnbba* of the Mih-r^b 
was put up in 965, according to some 
hitherto unedited documents. 

The mosaic ornamentation surpasses 
all the finest examples of this Byzantine 
art elsewhere in Italy, Africa, or the 
East • It was the Greek Psephdsis and 
Moorish Sofeysafah. The Emperor Leo 
sent the earliest examples of it to Ab- 
du-r-rhdman for his palace of Azzahra. 
The Cordovan khalif, Hakem, sent an 
embassy to Constantinople, asking for 
artists skilled in this peculiar way of 
giving to glass, flint, and metals the 
effect and appearance, and almost the 
texture, of a velvet and gold brocade. 
The artists came, bringing as presents 
325 quintals of this enamelled mosaic. 
The designs are Byzantine, as all ob- 
jects of art and luxury were in Western 
Europe in the 10th century already. 
This as well as the rest of the mosque 
must have shone like a palace of the 
'Arabian Nights,' when in the festi- 
vities of the Rhamadhkn this Mih-rkb 
alone was lighted up by a lamp number- 
ing 1454 lights, and the 601bs. -taper 
placed by the khalif. The rest of the 
mosque was lighted by 4 lamps like the 
above ; 280 candelabra, most of bronze. 
The total number of lights was 10,805, 
and 750 arrobas of oil were used per 
month. (See * AL Makkari, voL i. book 
3d, chapter ii.) The Cufic inscription 
refers to the two columns placed at the 
entrance in 965 A.O. by Al-Hakem. , 

" When last I visited this mosque, 
Muley-Abbas, a brother of the Em- 
peror of Morocco, had just been through 
it. He went seven times on his knees 
round the sanctuary, as was wont with 
the Moors here and at Mecca, and 
sighed and prayed, and then wept 
loudly, sobbing like a child. All this 
splendour had been the work of his 
ancestors. They had raised this won- 

der, and now the degenerate Moor 
could not even read the Arabic in- 
scriptions ! *'— jy. O'S. 

The formal erection of the mxtsque 
into a cathedraZ took place in 1238, 
under the usual name of Sta. Maria. 
The lateral aisles were converted into 

High Chapel. — "^MMt in 1547, by 
Hernan Ruiz, and finished by his son 
and Diego de Praves, 1599. The style 
of it is Morisco-Gothic and plateresque. 
The fine retablo, which cost 50,000 
ducats, is the work of the Jesuit Matias 
Alonso, who began it in 1618, and 
finished it ten years after. It is made 
out of the rosy jasper from Carcabuey, 
with gilt bronze ornaments. The 
painting is by Antonio Palomino. The 
statues indifferent. The tabernacle, 
also by Alonso, aided by Sebastian 
Vidal (1658), is very rich, and well 
executed. Observe the magnificent 
silver lamp hanging from the roo^ and 
weighing 16 arrobas (1636). 

Choir, — This is the work of Hernan 
Ruiz, who commenced it in 1528, and 
finished it in 1539. The style is pla- 
teresque and effective. The staXU are 
sixty-three in number, and by Isabel 
Famesio's favourite sculptor, Pedro 
Duque Comejo, 1257— churrigueresque, 
but there is great finishing in the 
elaborate details. The mahogany /n^- 
pits^ with attributes of the Evangelists, 
are clumsy— the work of Miguel Verdi- 
guier (1766). EiUre loa coros lies Lope 
de Rueda, the great comic writer, 
superior in many points to Moli^re. 

Chapels. — The forty-five chapels and 
offices around the naves are mostly 
very indifferent. They date generally 
&om a period unfavourable to taste in 
art, and their pictures, statues, etc., 
are very indifferent. Notice notwith- 

Capilla de San Andr4s (1628).— A 
picture of St. Eulogio, by V. Carducho. 



C. SanEstebom. — Martyrdom of the 
saint by Luis Zambrano. 

(7. dd CardenaZ SoUaaar. — ^Finished 
1706 ; founded by Cardinal Salazar ; 
chuTrigaeresqtie. In the sacristia 
mayor inquire for the fine Costodia of 
Ar^s (Gothic), for the Orva AnHgua, 
full of florid Gothic details, but ill re- 
paired. The relics are kept here. The 
beautiful Custodia of Arf^s was begun 
1518, and finished 1518. 

Observe especially the chapel of 
ViUaviciosa, most interesting for its 
Moorish decoration of the 14th century. 
This was the Maksurah once, or Seat 
of the Ehalif, all paved with silyer. 
C^spedes is buried in front of Chapel 
of San Pablo (ob. 1608). Observe 
this artist's paintings of St. John, St 
Andrew, and The Last Supper, his 
masterpiece. Over altar de San Raftiel 
hangs the Apparition of the saint, a 
fine painting by the same master. A 
pillar is shown with a rudely traced 
Crucifixion, said to have been the work 
of a Christian captive, who executed 
this wonder with his nail, and whilst 
he was for years fastened to this pillar ; 
an improbable story, as the Moors never 
could have tolerated a Christian captive 
within a mosque. 

Observe a fine Moorish chapel adjoin- 
ing the Villaviciosa, formerly the Capilla 
Mayor of the first Christian church. 

Minor Ohurches. — Oolegtata de San 
HipSUto. — ^Dates middle of 14th cen- 
tury. Built by Alfonso XI., in thanks- 
giving for his victory at Tarifa, when 
he won the battle del Salado, 1340. 
PhiHp v., in 1728, removed to this 
church the Capilla Real, formerly in 
the cathedral, and founded in 1871 
by Henrique II. Ferdinand lY. and 
hJB son, the chivalrous and gallant 
Alfonso XI., He buried here. This 
church was modernised in 1729, Mid is 
in the vile taste of that period. In the 

High Chapel lie the bodies of the father, 
mother, and brother of the gran capUam^ 
Gk>nzalo de Cordova, luckier than this 
great hero, whose ashes were scattered 
to the winds during the French inva- 
sion. H^« also lies ^e erudite * cro- 
nista' Ambrosio de Morales, in a plain 
tomb erected by his pupil. Cardinal 
Sandoval y Rojas, Ardibishop of To- 
ledo. The privileges, eta, of the Royal 
Chapel and Colegiata were suppressed 
by government in 1852. 

Gtvwrck of Sta. Marina de Aguaa 
SotUcu. — ^Modernised, except on tiie 
outside. Founded in 7th century, but 
rebuilt after the conquest Some in- 
diffinrent pictures and tombs of tiie 
Benavides, and of a Marquesa de Gua- 
dalcazar (ob. 1803), who (a rare in- 
stance in Spain) was a blue stocking, 
Doctora en FUosofia y Letras EwnafiuUf 
Fellow of the Spanish Royal Academy, 
etc., and died aged thirty-five. Most 
of the parish churches date 13th and 
14th centuries, but have been so ill re- 
paired and churriguerised that they 
have lost most of tieir importance. 

The Belfry Tower of San Nicolas is 
very pretty and Moorish-like. Upon 
it are the words, *Paciencia» obedi- 
encia, ' said to have been put up as a re- 
proof to the nuns of San Martin, for- 
merly in this square, who objected to 
this church being erected opposite to 
them, as it would impede the prospect 
they then enjoyed. Visit the cloisters 
and staircase of San Pablo ; Alo. Cano's 
Jlcce Homo, in Chapel of Sam. Pedro el 
Jteal, now a doth-manufactory ; and 
outside the town is the picturesquely- 
situated Santuario de N. Sra. de Fuen- 
santa (8th, 9th, and 10th September 
are great holidays, kept up here with 
pomp and pious jollification). Observe 
four copper paintings, ascribed to 
Teniers, one <^ which represents tho 
* Crowning Christ with Thorns. * 

Th4 Aloagar, or Ehalif s Palace, was 



rery extentiye, and occupied the site 
of the present jnison, bishoprick, etc. 
Now nothing remains save a £bw walls 
and orchards. It was situated W. of 
the citj, and S. of the rirer. It was 
the fonner palace of the Ootiiio kings, 
where the khalifs lodged first, and tiien 
repaired and modified it, enjaiiging it 
eonsiderablj. The litde we Imow of 
tills palace, doubtless magnificent and 
spacious, is derired from Al-Makkari 
Ibn-Bashkuwal, and Aben Hayykn, 
who mention its wonderful gardens and 
halls, and its baths proyided with water 
brought from the Guadalqidyir thromgh 
a hydraulic brick machine, caUed Albo- 
lafia. These baths existed till the end 
of the 15th century, when the machine, 
probably in the shape of a huge hy- 
draulic wheel, was destroyed because its 
noise kept Queen Isabella awake, when 
she was lodged in the Alcazar. The 
Alcazar Nuevo, now a prison, was for- 
merly the residence of the Santo Ofida 
(Inquisition), and built in 1328 by Al- 
fonso XI. It is a square, enclosed by 
a thick wall, with towers at the angles. 
The interior, with its twenty dungeons 
(calabozoa) and seyen patios, we advise 
readers to abstain from visiting, for it 
is now the abode of misery, vice, filth, 
and neglect The gardens of the Al- 
cazar are most indifferwt and weedy. 
In the chapel is a good Crucifizion by 
A. del Castillo. 

The Bishop's Palace dates of 15th 
century, but was considerably repaired 
and almost rebuilt in 1745, in the chur- 
rigueresque style. Ferdinand YII., 
whose £a^ seems to have been to dwell 
in confinement, was kept here a pri- 
sons in 1823, and attempted to escape. 
In the Town EaZl are kept the archives 
of the city, deficient in general interest 
and ill arranged. 

i/ttf^.^-Oordova never produced 
great painters — Pablo de C^pedes, 
Arbasia, and their pupils, Mohedano, 

Zambrano, Raphaelesque in his style, 
Vela, who imitated Carducci, Contreras 
and Pefia, and the modem Monroy, are 
the only names we know of, The style 
they adopted was Italian and Bevilliaa. 
The present picture-gallery owitauifl 
some 230 paintings — all robbith. 
Among other curiosidades, we may 
menti<»i a miall bronze deer, said to be 
Moorish work, and to have been found 
in the gardens of Azzhanu 

WoUa and Oates.-^The walls are ell 
of Moorish workmanship, though re- 
paired since. They are of tapia, and 
strengthened by bold turrets, square, 
octagon, etc The gates have lost 
much, and many all their picturesque 
former character ; notice, nevertheless, 
that of Almodovar; of El Osario, 
flanked by turrets ; that of El Puente, 
after designs by Herrera ; the two good 
bassi-relievi above are ascribed to Torri- 
giano. Julius CsBsar describes the ori- 
ginal drcumvaUation, of which little 
has been changed since (b.c. 11-19). 
Around the Almodovar gate lay the 
ancient Juderia, or Jews' quarters, and 
it was called by the Moors after them 
* Bab-1- Yahud. ' The tower close to it, 
Torre de la Mala MuerU, dates li06. 

The Bridge, — The bridge over the 
Guadalquivir is said by the Arab writers 
to have been originally built by Octa- 
vius Cesar, but it was entirely rebuilt 
by the khsdifs of Cordova. It is c<mi- 
posed of sixteen arches, and is very 
picturesque, as well as the Moorish 
mills close to it, and the CalahOTra 
(Ealat horrekh) toww, with its poly- 
gcmal barbican and buttresses, is most 
effective, and played an important 
part in the siege of Cordova by Pedro 
of Castile. 

The streets of Moorish Cordova are 
the first that were ever paved in Europe, 
and irett so by order of Abdu-r-rhftman, 
in 850. The principal ones are the 
Oalle de k Feria, now de San Fanaado, 



San Pablo, Camiceria, Sta. Victoria, el 
Potro, etc. Visit the quaint and very 
old square of La Corredera, so called 
because it was the site where tourna- 
ments and cmrvr toros took place. The 
wooden galleries, etc., date 1683, and 
are the work of the popular and famous 
Alcalde Bonquillo. Headers of * Don 
Quixote' will not fail to visit the Potro, 
a popular quarter, so called because 
formerly a horse-market {potro, a filly). 
Visit the Chapel of Hospital del Car- 
denal, which was part of the mosque 
built by Al-Manssoiir, near his palace. 

El Triunfo is a heavy, clumsy monu- 
ment, erected by Bishop Barcia in com- 
memoration of the miracnlouB apparition 
of St. Rafael, the tutelar of Cordova, 
whose statue crowns this wretched 
monument (1765). 

PrmUe Houses omd Proutbits. — ^Most 
of the fine old solares built in the 15th 
and 16th centuries no longer exist, or 
are so disfigured as to deserve no atten- 
tion. Observe the house of the Mar- 
queses del Carpio (13th century), and 
that which belonged to the family of 
Paez de CastUlejo. 

Of the 900 baths, remains of two only 
may be seen, in Calle del Bafto Alta, 
No. 5, and Calle del Bafio Baja, No. 10. 
They have been sadly disfigured, but 
still preserve their marble columns, the 
square lumbreras {lou/vres, loopholes), 
eta In the Calle de las Cabezas is also 
a house called de las Cabezas, from the 
heads of the Infantes de Lara, that were 
placed on the fa5ade. The ballad, 
mentioning how these heads, treache- 
rously cut ofl^ were served before the 
Infantes' father, is very characteristic 
of that time : — 

Un costoso plato falta. 
Ay, fruta temprana I etc. 

(See A. de Morales' *Cr6n.,' Kb. xxvi., 
etc.) Visit the Moorish houses, called 
Casa de la Cuadra^ in the Plazuela de 

San Nicolas, remarkable for its gal- 
lery of jasper columns, with Byzantine 
capitals, and a beautifid arch, sadly 
whitewashed. That of Las Campanas, 
opposite to Church de Santiago, also 
preserves vestiges of past splendour and 

Within the city is also the Campillo 
(now Campo Santo), where Christian 
martyrs were put to death, and the site 
of the Roman fortress and Moorish Al- 
cazar. It was hereabouts that grew 
the celebrated plane-tree, planted by 
Julius CsBsar after the battie of Munda, 
and which Martial mentions : — 

In Tartessiacis domus est notissima terns, 
Qua dives pladdum Corduba Baetin amat 
JSp. 62, book ix. 

The house of El Conde del Aguila 
(Plaza Anto. Cabrera) is also curious. 

Ezcarsions. — ^Three miles N.W. of 
Cordova in a dehesa belonging to 
Marq. de Guadalcazar, and where now 
but very rare fragments of broken 
pillars are found, rose once the fairy 
palace of Azzkhra, built by Abdu-r- 
rh&man An-nasir, for his sultana of 
that name. It was aU of marbles, 
jasper, and stone, with great richness 
of decoration — ^the statue of the favour- 
ite being placed over the door. The 
architect was the most famous that 
Stamboul could produce, and this royal 
village, a Moorish Versailles, sprang 
forth, as if by magic, under Ihe wand 
of the Louis XIV. of that period. His 
harem contained 6800 women and 300 
baths. His body-guard amounted to 
12, 000 men. His household consumed 
13,000 lbs. of meat daily. The works 
were begun in 986-7 A.O., and lasted 
many years. 3000 mules, horses, and 
camels weredaily employed, with 10,000 
workmen, who were paid from one to 
three dirhems a-day (about £1). The 
khalif was so absorbed by the works 



that he even missed three Fridays' Za- 
l&h at the mosque, upon which the the- 
ologian Mundhdr threatened him pub- 
licly with hell fire. 4800 marble 
columns were brought firom Rome, Nar- 
bonne, Tunis, etc. The total cost 
amounted to 7} millions of dinahrs 
(524 millions sterling), which were de- 
frayed by the third of the emperor's 
revenue. Many other details concern- 
ing this wondrous palace and its two 
mosques may be found in Al-Makkart's 
histories — 'Hist, of Magreb,' by Ben 
Adzari, etc There is here a buried 
mine of Moorish art, that calls loudly 
fer a Mariette or a Layard. See JReeuer- 
dos, etc, de Espafta, Cordova, p. 407. 

An excursion maybe also made, espe- 
cially in summer or spring, to the Arri- 
zaftt, J league from Cordova, on the 
slopes of the Sierra, and in a charming 
situation. It was the Rizzefah, a villa 
erected by Abdu-r-rh&man, but of which 
nothing now remains. The "present 
edifice and gardens belong to the land- 
lord of Hotel Suizo, who lets it on very 
moderate terms. An omnibus daily in 
summer. The country around is woody, 
and pleasant paseos can be taken. The 
carob-tree, evergreen oak, variegated 
cistus, myrtles, and palms grow forest- 
like. According to Conde, that master 
in erudite errors, the first palm ever 
seen in Spain was planted here by Abdu- 
r-rhftman, who is said to have composed 
to it the melancholy verses in which he 
compares his life to that of the tree 
transplanted from other lands : — 

To tambien, insigne palma, 
Eres aqui forastera, eta 

Close by are the Hermitages of Val- 
paraiso, The Ermitas are very pic- 
turesquely situated, and enclosed by a 
low wall. The head hermit, or hermano 
mayor, has a larger house than the rest. 
The chapel is indifferent. Monastic 
and eremitical life in Cordova is of great 

antiquity, and, it is thought, was intro- 
duced by the celebrated Bishop Hosius, 
who had seen it in Egypt. These 
wretched hovels, now chiefly inhabited 
by laziness and ignorance, were once 
the refrige to which worn-out valour, 
deluded ambition, and often repentant 
crime, fled during the middle ages. 
Around are several lovely rides, through 
rose-gardens, pine-forests {Pinuspvnea), 
chestnuts, and olives. The rosales of 
Cordova were once the pride of the Moor, 
and sung by their poets. They culti- 
vated them with great care and inge- 
nuity. Ebn-el-Amam*s 'Hadji,* 'Abdu- 
el-Sfdr,* and other special treatises, are 
curious to consult on this matter. 

Another ride takes one to the ruins 
of a hieronymite convent, looking over 
the Campi&a, and lying amid orange- 
groves, evergreen oaks, and luxuriant 
olives. These latter are reckoned the 
best in Andalusia, though some prefer 
the Sevillanas. Lope de Rueda, in his 
charming 'entremes,' called 'Las Acei- 
tunas,' praises those of Cordova ; and 
Lope de Vega, in his ' Battle of the 
Cats,' 'La Gatomaquia,' says, 'Las 
sabrosas de Cordoba aceitunas.* The 
coscoja, or scarlet oak (from which the 
kermes proceeds), the madro&os, or 
strawberry-tree, quejigo, the purple 
sauge, the straw-coloured gualda, woad 
blue, splendid nigela, will draw the at- 
tention of all botanists and lovers of 
flowers. Indeed, the mineralogist need 
not be idle ; immense coalfields, copper 
mines, etc., abound in the Sierra Al- 
magrera, besides very important quarries 
of porphyry, white and black marbles, 
etc. Nor will the sportsman lose here 
his time, for the sierra abounds with 
game ; there are 242 species of birds 
the lynx (Felix pardinti^ ; the melon 
(or fferpedes widringtonii), almost un 
known to naturalists ; the grifo {Oipas- 
tus harhaius) ; the wild boar, deer, 
chamois, hares, and especially rabbits, 



Anglers will not find much to do in the 
Goadalquiyir and afflaents, which, 
nevertheless, produce tencas (tenches), 
harbos (barbel), and exquisite eels, 

About 2 m. N. of the city lie the 
lead-smelting works of the Linares and 
Alamillos Company. The visitor is 
shown oyer with a permit from the 
city offices. 


Interesting for itt wine-cellars, as being the 
birthplace of £1 Gran Capitan, Gonsalvo de 
C6rdoba, and for the palace of the Pukes of 
Medina -Cell Fourth station on the Malaga 
line. Faros, xst cl., 9sr. 40c. ; sd d., x8r. 

MoHttUa. — ^A decent posada. This small and 
now unimportant city, pop. 14,654, is pictur- 
esquely situated on the two hills of £1 Castillo 
and Las Sileras, from which the view is exten- 
sive. Its churches are indiflferenL In the 
highest part stood once the most glorious castle 
in all Andalusia, which was built by the Gran 
Capitan's father, Pedro Fern, de Cdrdoba, and 
demolished by order of Ferdinand the Catholic, 
to punish its owner, Marqu6s del Arigo, for 
having imprisoned within its dungeons Feman 
Gomez de Hena. The site is now occupied by 
some large granaries. This, the Roman Munda 
Betica, is now a dull, backward town, celebrated 
only for its exquisite Montilla, a peculiar, most 
fiavoury sort of dry, light shenry, with much 
body, and which communicates aroma to all the 

wines, it is mixed with, tmd especially sherry. 
The amontillado sherry indicates a class of 
wine which in flavour somewhat resembles that 
of Montilla. It is almost ignored elsewhere 
than here, but must some day rival sherry itself, 
and there are fortunes to be made here, were 
speculation and industry to venture establish- 
ments. There are several wine-growers, whose 
bodegas may be visited ; among them we shall 
mention &>. Alvear, a gentleman of Anglo- 
Spanish origin. l*hese wmes have no other 
rivals in Spain, save, perhaps, those of Pc^ dt 
Rio FriOf near Cobra, 3 leagues from Baena. 

Books of Reference, — 1. *Corograf!a 
de la Provincia y Obispado/ by Casas- 
Deza. First yoL only published. Cor- 
doba, Nogu^ y Mant^, 1838. 

2. * Breve Tratado de G^eografla de 
la Provincia de Cordoba,' by same ; 
Cordoba, Garda, 1841. Both excellent 

3. * Indicador Cordobes,* etc., written 
especially for travellers by Las-Casas- 
Deza ; Cordoba, Rodriguez, 1857. Ex- 
cellent and accurate. 

4. * Resuerdos y Bellezas de Espafia,' 
by Pedro de Madrazo ; * Guia de Cor- 
doba,* 1876; 'Manualito de Cor- 

5. * Estudio Descriptive de los Monu- 
mentos Arabes de Granada, Sevilla y 
C6rdoba,' con grabados y pianos, Rafael 
Contreras, Madrid, 1883. A careful 
and valuable work. 


La CoRUif a (English Corunna) is the 
capital of the province of the same 
name ; suffragan of Santiago. Popula- 
tion about 42,000. Capitania-General 

Boutes and Oonveyancea. 

1. From Madrid in 30 hours; dis- 

tance, 837 kil. Fares, 1st cl.. Pes. 
82.45; 2d cl., 61.85; 3d cl., 37.10. 
Only one train per day ; one of the 
most comfortable lines in Spain. 
Scenery fine. Buffets at Avila, Medina 
del Campo, Valladolid, Venta de Balios, 
Leon, Monforte and Lugo. 



Route (to Leon, p. 218).— Or^o. 
— ^The bridge over the Orbigo was. on 
the 10th July 1434, the site of theiMW 
i^arme$ called £1 Paso Honroao, per- 
fonned by Don Suero de QniHonet, 
whan he challenged and fon^t during 
ten dajB aU kni^^ who passed on their 
way to the grand jubilee at Santiago ; 
and this he did in order to be entitled 
to remove an iron link which he wore 
round his neck every Thursday in token 
of his captivity to the lady of his love. 
177 lances were split, seventy-eight 
knights having accepted the challenge, 
and, though called a gmitie pais, one 
knight was killed and eleven wounded ; 
but Don Suero proved victorious, and 
the Imk was removed by heralds amid 
great pomp and ceremony. His sword 
is at the Madrid aimonry, No. 1917. 

The country is flat and most unin- 
teresting, glaring and dusty in summer, 
and wind-blown in the wintiy months. 

Aatorga (Prov. of Leon). — Bishop's 
see, 4803 inhab. Fonda del Norte.-^ 
This very ancient city, the Attwrica 
Augusta of Pliny, was an important 
centre of communication in the time of 
the Romans, and four vim diverged, 
leading to Braga, Zaragoza, Tarragona, 
and to Aquitaine, across the Pyrenees. 
Its walls, oi Roman work, were re- 
spected by Witiza, an exception which 
he extended only to Leon and Toledo. 
They still subsistinall theirpicturesque- 
ness and strength, linked here and there 
by massive cubes, and forming a pro- 
longed oblong square, extending from 
E. to W., and following the level of 
the ground. On the E. extremity, 
several Roman sarcophagi are embedded 
in them. The part played by this 
city in the annals of Spain is very 
second-mte. It fell a iptej to Moussa's 
sddiers, was recovered by Alfonso I., 
rebuilt and peopled again byOidofto 
IL with the inhabitants of the Yierzo, 
tiien taken by Al-Manssoiir, etc. Dur- 

ing the Peninsular war it offered a 
heroic resistance first to Loison (1810), 
and next to Junot, who was obliged to 
retire, but subsequently entered, aca|M- 
tulation being offered. Its capabilities 
of resistance, were, however, scanty, 
and the surrender excusable. Astorga 
is the capital of La Karagateria, a dis- 
trict of some four leagues square, situ 
ated between the Picos of El Teleno 
and Foncebadon, to S.W. of Astorga, 
and exclusively peopled by the honest, 
active, and interesting race of Maragatos 
(Mauri Capti), who are descendants, it 
is supposed, from the Moors, whose wide 
breeches and part of their costume they 
have preserved. The principal sight 
here is 

Th€ Cathedral.-— Th^ see of Astorga 
is as old as 847, when its bishop^ Domi- 
tian, was present at the Council of 
Sardes. The cathedral dates 1471, and, 
owing to several repairs, has been 
modernised, and presents a medley of 
Gothic, churrigueresque, and plater- 

The interior is divided into three 
naves, the lateral ones being very nar- 
row and lower than the centraL It is 
58 metres long by 23 wide. The stdlU 
of the choir are elaborately carved in 
imitation of the early period of Gothic ; 
they date 1651, and are the work of 
Tomas and Roberto. The lower row 
consists of busts of saints of Old Testa- 
ment ; it is infarior to the upper row, 
in which admire the male saints on the 
right, and female saints on the left, 
according to etiquette, all of the New 
Testament Some of the stained glass 
is good, but not early. The trascoro 
was churriguerised in 1732. The rqa 
and pulpit are fine, and date 1622, by 
Ldzaro Azcain, of Bilbao. The finest 
thing here is the retcMo mayor, the mas- 
terpiece of Gaspar de Becerra, 1569, 
and for which the chapter paid 41,000 
ducats. It is of pentagonal shape, each 



of the five compartments consisting of 
three tiers ; the centre of the principal 
tier is occupied by a tabernacle adorned 
with figures, and under a canopy sup- 
ported by two angels ; that of the se- 
cond represents the Assumption of the 
Virgin, who is seated on a throne 
formed by cherubs ; that of the third 
is her coronation. This grand, simple, 
and beautiful sculptured poem is 
crowned with groups representing the 
Passion. The relievos represent the 
diflferent episodes of the Virgin's life, 
and are of the three orders. Observe 
and admire the execution, drap^es, 
attitudes, and expression ; tiie grouping 
and general composition are forcible 
and classical. 

The cloisters were modernised, and 
not ineffectively, by Gaspar Lopez, end 
of 18th century ; the sacristy is of 1772. 

The remaining churches at Astorga 
are indifferent. The agimeces and 
early Gothic of San Francisco may be 
looked at. On the site of the ruined 
castle stood once the proud Palacio 
of the Marqueses de Astorga. The 
rtlins exhibit good specimens of medi- 
fieval military architecture. Observe 
its cubos and buttresses, and the osorio 

Do naevo logar posieron — 
Moverla jamas podieron ; 

with a rope and shield, all very pictur- 

The streets are ill-paved ; all is back- 
ward and desolate. The Paseo Nuevo 
is pretty. 

J?«?iW&r«.— 686 inhab., situated on 
the confluence of the Nocedaand Baeza. 

VUlafranca del Fierao.— This all 
tourists who intend to make an ex- 
cursion into the Vierzo will make their 
head -quarters; pop. 8800; a decent 
posada (La Nueva). 

Ijugo. — Pop. 21,298 ; capital of pro- 
vince of same name ; bishop's see ; 
on the Mitio. Fondas — ^Mendez Nufiez, 

Espagnol. The best is indifferent. 
The Lucus Augusti of the Romans, who 
frequented its sulphur baths on the 
Mi&o, and of which some remains can be 
seen, as well as a dyke. The walls are 
very interesting, 30 ft. to 40 ft. high, 
and about 20 ft. thick, flanked by 
cubos, formerly eighty-five in number. 
The ramparts are now the paseo, and 
from them the view is pleasant and ex- 
tensive. The streets are clean. The 
Plaza Mayor, with arcades on one side, 
is the rendezvous of local types— Mara- 
gotas and arrieros. The Library del 
Obispado contains some 7000 volumes, 
proceeding from suppressed convents. 
The only interesting edifice h^e is 

The Caihedml,— It dates 1129, when 
it was built by Maestro Raymundo, 
whose contractwiththe Chapter is dated 
that same year. It was finished 1177. 
The exterior has been modernised, as 
well as the incongruous towers and 
cloisters, of which only two lateral 
doors retain the former style. The 
interior consists of three naves, well 
lighted up, with low arches, and a 
gallery above. The Silleria of 1624 is 
a good sample of the gall^ sculptor, 
Frandsco de Moure. This cathedral 
shares with San Isidoro of Jjeon the 
privilege of having the consecrated 
host permanently de momifUsbo, The 
N. doorway is early and interesting; 
within a vesica in the tympanum is a 
figure of Our Lord, and bdow is, as a 
pendant, the Last Supper. The high 
altar is modem and indifferent. Be- 
hind is a chapel dedicated to Our Lady 
of the Large Eyes 1 Ecclesiologists may 
visit the conventual churches of Los 
Capuchinos and Sto. Domingo; they 
are 14th century buildings, and though 
partly modernised, and the former de- 
secrated, still contain well-preserved 

The mineral spring is about 10 min. 
walk from the town. Its temperatuTP 



LB 36^ Cent, and it is most efficacious 
in nenroiu complaints, diseases of the 
skin, etc 

General Moore, in lus retreat on 
Oorofta, halted here (Jan. 6, 1809), 
and gave his worn-out troops some 
days of rest Soult, who had been sent 
in his pursuit, came up soon after, and 
hesitated to accept the battle presented 
by the English. Ignorant of the state 
and numbers of the enemy, the French 
general adopted a defensiye line, and 
lost time in partial attacks and manoeu- 
vring. On the 9th the British forces 
retired in good order, and fell back on 
La Coruika, unmolested by the French, 
who were for some time unaware of the 
retreat of an army which they could so 
easily hare annihilated, had they, with 
their forces and fresh troops, attacked 
it at once, and boldly. 

Betamos.-^ViOY. of Corufia ; 7919 
inhab. Kear the rivers Mendo and 

2. From Santiago, 2 diligences daily. 

Santiago to Siqueiro 


Corufia . 


. 3 

• 5 

3. From Ferrol (see at end of Corufia, 
Excursion to Ferrol). 


4. From Bayonne in about 40 hrs. ; 
from Vigo in 16 hrs. ; from Gijon in 
18 hrs. ; from Santander ; also from 
Liverpool, Southampton, Plymouth, 
London, Havre and Marseilles. For 
all these and other routes see advertise- 
ments in time-bills and papers and 
wall placards. The coasting vessels 
are very slow and uncomfortable, while 
the larger steamers — such as those of 
the Royal Mail (calling only on their 

outward passage), the Anglo-Dominion 
Company, and tiie Internationale — are 
exceedingly uncertain. 


Inns.— Fonda de Paris, Calls San 
Andres; Fonda Ferro-Carrilana, Calle 
Real. Both good. The coaches for 
Santiago start from the latter. 

Ca/^.— El Suizo, Calle Real 

Post Office, —PhLZSL Nueva de Maria 

Telegraph Office. — Calle Luchana, 
adjoining the theatre. 

ff,B. M, Consul — E. H. Walker, Esq. 
United States. — Seftor Carricarte. 

Bankers, — T. F. Barrie and Co., cor- 
respondents for several English banks. 

Casinos. — Two, both good. Casino 
Corua^s and the Tertulia de Coufianza. 

Coruiia is the chief seaport of Galicia, 
and rival of Vigo. Her trade, however, 
after many fluctuations, shows a decided 
falling off. The total imports for the 
year 1887 were of the value of 99,886,169 
pesetas; the total exports 9,974,829 
pesetas. The number of British trad- 
ing ships entering the port in 1887 
was 249, of a total tonnage of 62,817 
tons. The number of Spanish vessels 
in the foreign trade entering the port 
was 228, with a tonnage of 278,865 
tons, and in the coasting trade 1392, 
with a tonnage of 218,308 tons. It 
lies half-way between Capes Ortegal 
and Finisterre, in a situation most 
favourable to trade. The bay is 
spacious and most secure, ships being 
able to enter it at all times and in all 
weather. The port itself is defended 
by the Castillo de San Anton and that 
of San Diego, and the roadstead by 
Castillo de Sta. Cruz (eight guns) and 
battery de la Oza. The climate is 
delicious, and can be strongly recom- 
mended to invalids. The mortality is 
1.32. The sea-bathing is first-rate. 
Living is good and very cheap. Fruit 



and excellent fish aboond. Indeed, 
anglers can make this their head- 
quarters, and sconr the trout -streams 
which flow into the bay; the best 
being the Lamia, £o, Turia, and 
AIlone& A little roughing -it is still 
necessary inland, but matters have 
greatly improved in that respect. It 
must be borne in mind, too, here as in 
in all the north-west, that, with the 
enhanced means of communication now 
available, the old uncertain stoppages 
in out-of-the-way spots may be avoided. 
The city is divided into two very 
different portions—the upper, aUa, por- 
tion and a lower one, baja, called Pes^ 
caderia, and which, once but a refage 
of fishermen, has giuduaJly outstripped 
the former and older part, and is im- 
proving and prosperous. The Calle 
Real and CaUe Espoz y Mina are 
broad, handsome, and much frequented. 
La Marina is the evening summer 
paseo, and a most charming one it is. 
Englishmen will not fail to visit the 
Jardin de San Carlos, in the centre of 
which stands the tomb of General 
Moore, with the inscription ; ' Joanes 
Moore. Ezerdtus Britannid Dux. 
Pwelio occisus A.D. 1809.' The Paseo 
de Sta. Margarita commands extensive 
views on the Bay del Orzan and Torre 
de Hercules, on the site of a Phoenician 
pharos, which rises 1 m. N.W. of the 
town, and was repaired by order of 
Trajan. The present one has been con- 
siderably improved, is 898 ft. high, and 
can be seen at a distance of 12 m. 
There is a small theatre (Teatro Nuevo) ; 
a large tobacco manufactory, established 
1808, which turns out some 898,000 lbs. 
annually, employs 3000 women, and is 
worth a visit The public edifices are 
most indifferent The churches are: 
Santiago, in the upper town, of the 11th 
century ; observe lie S. door, the apse 
and pulpit The OoUgiata, Gothic 
(1256), but with a good Byzantine W. 

porch, and a 1(^ tower. Convflst ef 
8Ul JBarbara, a fine baaio-reUeiTo of 
15th century, over a lateral door. Con- 
vent of San Francisco, where Philip II. 
lodged when he came here to embail 
f<Nr England, 1551, and now turned into 
a presidio; and in the San Jorge, an 
old Jesuit church, some pictures (An- 
nunciation and Purgatory) of Peter 

Historical Notice. — La Corufia, for- 
merly called La Crulia (corona), and 
Groyne by the English, is said to have 
been founded by the Phoenicians, and 
was taken by the Romans, A.V.O, 693. 
Here, July 26, 1886, John of Gaunt 
landed, to daim the crown of CaatOe in 
right of his wife, the daughter of Pedro 
el CrueL Here, May 1588, the Invin* 
cible Armada was refitted. It was com- 
posed of 186 ships (59,120 tons), armed 
with 8165 guns, and manned by 8252 
sailor^ 2000 volunteers, 2088 galley* 
slaves, 20,000 veteran troops, and ac- 
companied, besides, by 290 monks, 
piests, .and familiars, sent to convert 
the English people, and also attend 
to the spiritual want of the army ; but 
the Drakes, Frobishers, and Hawkinses 
made great havoc among the Spaniards, 
and completed the work of destruction 
which the elements had begun. No 
doubt can be entertained but that this 
expedition was, and may be again, a 
great lesson to England, for had not 
the Spaniaxdslosttime in waiting for the 
Duke of Parma's flotilla, the invading 
army would have landed undisturbed 
on the 7th August, and, under the 
most favourable circumstances of sea 
and weather, would have marched on 
to London, and easily have destroyed 
the capital of the hated ' Inglesa;' for 
the so-often-repeated 'BeUona-like' ap- 
pearance of the Queen, her address to 
the troops, etc., was not till eleven days 
afterwards, and on the 5th no army, not 
even the body-guard of the Queen, had 



btm aiMmblod; snd Leicester, with 
only 4000 men to oppose to 20,000, wae 
bat just commendng his entrenched 
camp at Tilbury. Philip XL, on learn- 
ing the fiEite of that expedition, which 
had been framed with so much care 
and at so great an expense, betrayed 
as little concern as he did again when 
the victory of Lepanto was announced 
to him at the Escoiial. Both erents 
were but the will of God, and on both 
occasions of joy and sorrow his great 
Christian soul checked his pride, and 
made them weigh equally before God. 

La Ck>ru!ia UH a prey to Drake and 
Noiris, AiptiL 20, 1589 ; and here again 
was fought the battle of La Corulia, 
Jan. 16, 1809, between 1^ John Moore, 
at the head of 14,300 men, and Soult, 
who commanded 20,000. The British 
infantry occupied the inferior range 
of the Elvira hills. The right, formed 
by Baird's division, approached the 
enemy, while the centre and left were of 
necessity withheld in such a manner 
that the French battery on the rocks 
raked the whole of the line. General 
Hope's division, crossing the main 
road, prolonged the line of the right's 
wing. The reserve was drawn up near 
Airis, in the rear of the centre. General 
Eraser's division remained on theheights 
immediately before the gates of the city. 
The action was hard. General Baird 
defeated Foy at Elvira, and Paget re- 
pulsed La Houssaye ; and had Ganeral 
Fraser's division been brought into 
action towards night, and when the 
French were already falling back in 
confusion, they would have been most 
signally defeated ; but Sir John Moore 
was wounded, and so wa» General Bidrd ; 
and Sir John Hope, who now com- 
manded the forces, pursued the original 
plan of embarking during the nighty 
which operation took place in the most 
admirable order, so that when the 
French approached the town, which the | 

inhabitants faithfully maintained foi 
some hours, the Euf^iah, to their snr- 
pris^ were seen sailing lustily on the 
main. The English lost about 806 
men, and the French seme 3000. This 
battle and retreat have been the cause 
of much and (^ten angry controversy. 
Setting aade the opinions of the highest 
English military authorities, all favour- 
able to Moore, we shall only quote 
what his opponent, Marshal Soult, has 
said of him, 'Ses dispositions farent 
toiy'ours les plus convenables aux cir- 
eonstances, et en profitant habHem^t 
des avantages que les locality pouvaient 
lui foumir pour seconder sa valeur, il 
m'opposa partout la resistance la plus 
^nergique et la mieux caleul^e ; c'est 
ainsi qu'il trouva une mort glorieuse 
devant La Oorogne au milieu d'un com- 
bat qui doit honorer son souvenir.' 

'WMst being carried to his lodgings, 
the gallant wounded soldier used to ask 
at intervals if the French were beaten, 
and being to)d they were, he exinressed 
a great satisfaction. 

*HiB countenance continued firm, and 
his thoughts eleaat ; once only, when he 
spoke of his mother, he became agi- 
tated.' His last words were, 'I hope 
the people of England will be satisfied. 
I hope my country will to-day do me 
justice.* ^ The battle was scarcely ended 
when his corpse, wrapped in a military 
doak, was interred by the officers of his 
staff in the citadel of Corulia. ' — ^Napier's 
Htatory of the Peninsular War, voL i 

Excursion to El Ferrol, — A. By 
land, 33 m. Bail as far as Betanzos. A 
charming ride, amid orange groves, 
through Puentedeuma, on the kfl bank 
of the Euma, with a fine bridge. Cape 
Prior is seen in the distance on the 
1^, standing N. W. of Ferrol and next 
Cape Priorino, which form the entrance 
to the port Follow up the beadi to 
the city. 



B. By sea. A steamer leaves twice 
a-day ; the passage is 1^ hr. 

JfferroZ.— Pop. about 26,000. (Prov. 
of Corofia.) Cadiz, Cartagena, and 
Ferrol are the three great naval depart- 
ments into which Spain is divided, 
which are themselves subdivided into 
eleven terdos, then provincias, and 
lastly, distritosmaritimos. The present 
departamento comprises all the ports 
and arsenals of northern Spain. 

Inn: Fonda Suiza, Calle BeaL £1 
Ferrol, the name of which is derived 
from el farol^ the lighthouse, was 
a mere fishing village before 1752; 
when its excdlent port and situation 
drew the attention of Government 
Very extensive dockyards (daisenas) 
were built, which exceed forty acres in 
extent The town itself is divided into 
three parts^the old, the new, and the 
esUiro, It is strongly fortified, and 
considered impregnable; notwithstand- 
ing which, it ought and would have 
been taken in August 1800, by Ad- 
miral Warren and General Pulteney, 
had they not lost time and good 
weather in obtaining possession of 
minor and unimportant points, such as 
Gra2ia and Fort San Felipe. It was 
taken by Soult in 1809, alter six days' 
blockade ; and the same year Hotham 
took possession of it with a mere hand- 
ful of men. The town is slowly im- 
proving, but would do so much more 
rapidly if the Government made it a 
trading port, and not exclusively mili- 

The dockyards are also gradually i 
recovering from their former desolation j 
and absence of TruUeridl, and the most i 
recent improvements introduced in 
ship-building by England and France 
are being adopted with intelligence and 

Admittance to visit the darsenas, 
astilleros, etc., is to be easily obtained 
on application to the authorities. They 
are entered at Puerta del Parque, leaving 
to the right the Salas de las Armas. 
The dockyard is divided into a smaller 
outward and a larger inward portion. 
Behind ore the dwellings of the opera- 
tives, and in the K angle are the found- 
ries, rope-walks, and magazines. Visit 
the gradas de construccion or ship-slips, 
the esteiro, the timber depdts of Cairan- 
za, Carragon, etc. 

There is a pretty Alameda and Fuente 
del Dique (water here is delicious), a 
weU-proportioned church of San Julian, 
and some well-conducted naval estab- 
lishments, such as the Hospital, Bar- 
racks, de Guardas Marinas, etc. 

Boohs of Etfer&Me.-^!, * Historia y 
descripcion de la C. de la Coruiia,' by 
Vedia and Goossens ; Corolla, Puga, 
1845. Very well written, and abound- 
ing in curious and useful information. 

2. Ferrol, — * Historia y Descripcion' ; 

3. The novels of Dofia K Pardo de 
Bazan ; also the 'Cancionero Gallego,' 
by Perez Ballesteros, in the Biblioteca 
de Tradiciones Populares. 


Prov. of Madrid, diocese of Toledo, 
pop. 1726, including both villages. 

Boute and Oonv. — ^It wUl be advis- 
able to visit the Escorial whilst at 
Madrid. There are six trains a day, 
two in the morning, four in the after- 
noon, besides extra ones on holidays ; 

distance, 51 kil. ; fares, 1st d., 23r. 
60c ; 2d cl., llr. Time, li hr. 

Omnibuses are found in attendance 
at the station, which convey travellers 
to the village of Escorial in 20 min. for 
2r. a head, and 2r. large trunks, Ir. 
smaller, and ^r. for hat-boxes, etc. 



iPriiMlptl entruce and p<»rtloa. 
Coart of t&e ktngs (Ai/fo tU /dt 
8. Ve^lbale of the charch. 
4. Cboir of the teminarista. 

6. Centre of the church attd F^lec- 

tion of the dome. 
C Greater chapeL 

7. Hiich altar. 

8. Chapel of St John. 
». Chapel of St Michael 

10. Chapel of St Manrtoe. 
11 Chapel of the Rosary. 
12. Tomb of Louisa Carlota. 
13 Chapel of the Po/roc^aiio. 

14. Chapel of the CrUto de la bmva 

15. Chapel of the Eleven Tboiisaiid , 

1«. Former Chapel of the Patmeini^ 
17. Sacristy. 



il I ■■•^>«I J 



,-XJi i^l 1 

la Principal conrt of the wlaoe. 
19. Ladles* tower. 
SO Court of the maaki. 
it. Apartments of the royal cbUdren. 
22. Royal oratory. 
n, Oiatory where Philip VU dM. 

94. Entrance to seiBliuury. 

25. Classrooms. 

26. Old phUosophlcal halL 

27. Old tbeotoRf cal hall. 

28. Chamber of secrets. 

29. Old refectory. 

80. Entrance to tbe ooOeRn. 

81, College yard. 


82- Clock tower. 
33. Prindpaldolater. 

84. Court of the evaogeOalik 

85. Prior's celL 

86. Archives. 
37. Old church. 

88. Visitors* haO. 

89. Manuscript library. 
401 Consent refectory. 




Inns. — ^There has been a great change 
for the better in this respect La 
Miranda is a really good hoteL La 
Bosa fair. Every attention. Charges 
moderate. Good cafi& asidj:ercle at the 

A cicerone is no longer a necessary 
evil, as each portion of the building is 
shown by an intelligent officiaL 

N.B. — The FarUheon is at preaeni 
(1889) closed for altercUion and rqniin. 
Inquiry should he made. 

One day will hardly suffice to allow 
more than a hurried view, although 
many deyote only that time to it. 

The hours for visiting the different 
potions of the Escorial are — Church 
and Pantheon^Oyea from 10 a.m. to 
12 P.M., and from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. ; 
Palace shown about 1 p.m. The usual 
order is, Church and Pantheon, Palace 

General Description. — Th^re are 
two small villages close to each other 
which bear the name of El Escorial, 
derived from the scorise of iron, vestiges 
from former iron-mines. They are dis- 
tinguished by Escorial de Abajo and 
that of Arriba, which latter comprises 
several miserable granite-built houses 
and half-ruined edifices, used in other 
times as cavalry > barracks, etc. The 
Escorial is a sitio real, or royal residence, 
and is called from that, and from the 
Palace and Monastery, 'San Lorenzo 
el ReaL' There is still a season or 
temporada during the summer months, 
and were there better hotels and some 
comforts, its pi&ares and chestnut woods 
would be a great resource to the parched- 
up Madrilelios ; and if the archives of 
the kingdom could be removed hither 
from out-of-the-way Simancas, many 
advantages would be gained by travel- 
lers, nacionales, the villagers themselves, 
and not a little for the edifices, which 
are sadly neglected. 

Tlie Sights axe, the MonasUryy 

comprising the Church, Pantheon, 
Library, and the Palace ; the Casita del 
Principe ; the more indifferent SUla de 
Felipe II., La Fresneda, etc. 

Monastery. — This stupendous edi- 
fice — a mountain of granite shaped into 
a palace^ a church, and a convent, the 
leviathan of architecture— is reckoned 
by Spaniards as the eighth marvel of 
the world. It nevertheless belongs to 
that class of the oppressive sublime and 
gigantic, which, whether in nature or 
art, awes or strikes at firsts and then 
very soon only causes ennui. To under- 
stand the Escorial it is necessary to have 
studied deeply and most impardally the 
character and genius of its founder ; for 
this is not a monument which is the 
expression of an age or a people, but 
bears the stamp of a man of a special 
train of thou^t and feeling. Philip 
II. must be judged not in the light of 
the 19th, but in that of the 16tih cen- 
tury. There is no doubt that the Esco- 
rial existed already, ideally, in the. 
mind of his grandmother, Crazy Jane, 
whose morbid devotion verged on in- 
sanity, and in Charles Y.'s early and 
constant desire to retire into seclusion, 
and his death in a convent. Spain must 
be in a manner exjdained by the East, 
and never by the Korth, as it too often 
is. And thus, after the fashion of the 
Eastern sultans, the Spanish kings have 
always sought the seclusion of their 
pala^ which their piety and the bur- 
den of sovereignty turned into convents. 
The Monastery of the Escorial is the 
expression of Philip's character, never 
perfectly understood by historians. Suf- 
fice it, for the present, to observe that 
as he was the proudest among kings, 
and the most devout amongst monks, it 
was not all his fault if he built convents 
that look like palaces, and palaces that 
were also convents. The Escorial was 
built in compliance with the desire 



often expressed by Charles V. to Philip, 
to have a burial-house for him and his 
descendants, and as a solemn act of 
gratitude to his patron saint, St. Law- 
rence, to whose protection he ascribed 
the victory of San Quintin, which hap- 
pened on that saint's very day (Aug. 
10, 1557). It was not a panic-inspired 
vow, as has so often been repeated, 
made during the Action, nor was there 
any church of St Laurent destroyed 
during the action. The battle was won 
by Philibert of Savoy, and Philip II. 
arrived only fotir days after the victory. 
The founder's 'Carta de Dotacion,* in 
Cabrera's • Vida de Felipe II.,' written 
and signed by Philip, contains all his 
reasons for founding the EscoriaL It 
runs thus : — 

'In acknowledgement of the many 
and great blessings which it has pleased 
Gk>d to heap on us and continue to us 
daily, and, inasmuch as He has been 
* pleased to direct and guide our deeds 
and acts to his Holy service, and in 
maintenance and defence of His holy 
faith and religion, and of justice and 
peace within our realms ; considering, 
likewise, what the emperor and king, 
my lord and father, in a codicil which 
he lately made, committed to our care, 
and charged us with, respecting his 
tomb, the spot and place where his 
body and that of the empress and 
queen, my lady and mother, should be 
placed ; it being just and meet that 
their bodies should be most duly hon- 
oured with a befitting burial-ground, 
and that for their souls be said continu- 
ally, masses, prayers, anniversaries, and 
other holy records, and because we 
have, besides, determined that when- 
(BVer it may please Ctod to take us away 
to Him, our body should rest in the 
'same place and spot near theirs . . . 
for all these reasons we found and erect 
th6 Monastery of St. Lorenzo el Beal, 
near the town of £1 Escorial, in the 

diocese and archbishopric of Toledo, 
the which we dedicate in the name oi 
the Blessed St. Lawrence, on account 
of the special devotion whidi, as we 
have said, we pray to this glorious 
saint, and in memory of the favour and 
victories which on his day we received 
from God. Moreover, we found it fc»r 
the order of St. Jerome, on accountof our 
specialaffection andrespect fortius order, 
«nd that which was also bestowed upon 
it by the emperor and king, my father. ' 
For two years he was looking for 
some spot, in the vicinity of Madrid, 
which might be favourable to his pur- 
pose, and at last fixed on the wild, 
rocliy, and secluded pine-clad slopes of 
the Guadarrama — ^the very frame for 
such a picture. Juan Bautista de To- 
ledo was called from Naples, and en- 
trusted with the design. The first 
stone was laid on April 23, 1565, and 
on August 20 the church was begun. 
The r^ designer was Philip himself, 
who was a man of great and pure taste, 
an enlightened and generous patron of 
artists. He used to come frequently 
from Madrid to watch the progress of 
his creation from the summit of a hill 
dose by, and suggested changes, and 
advised different details. The erection 
of this, the largeut and first great edi- 
fice in Spain into which the Grseco- 
Roman element was cast, constituted 
an important epoch in the history of 
Spanish art. Its characteristics are : 
vast proportions, admirable harmony 
and unity of design, simplicity, mas- 
siveness, grandeur. Whatever defects 
or qualities are noticeable must be as- 
cril:«d to Philip, who influenced the 
architect's decision ; but it must never 
be forgotten what its object was, the 
means employed to attain it, and the 
general effect attending the execution. 
In 1567 Toledo died, and his first ayu- 
dante, Juan de Herrera, succeeded 
him. This other great man mnde 



feveral hacppy alterations, but, on tlic 
whole, followed the original designs. 
He was ably aided by Fray Antonio de 
Yillacastln, and the building rapidly 
advancing, was completed 13th Sept. 
1584, twenty-one years after it had 
been b^nn, and at the then enormous 
cost of about £660,000. 

The edifice itself— that is, without the 
offices, etc. — ^is a rectangular parallelo- 
gram, of 744 ft. (Span.) long, N. to S., 
and 580 ft E. to W. The square 
covers 3002 ft, and a surface ground 
of 500, 000 ft. It is of the Doric order, 
and made entirely of Berroquetia stone 
and of granite, of which there are quar-. 
ries' in the vicinity. The distribution 
is thus : — The quadrangles were divided 
into three parts from E. to W. ; that 
in the middle formed the church, por- 
tico, and principal entrance ; that 
towards the S. was made into five 
cloisters ; the part to the N. was di- 
vided into two portions, one allotted to 
the habitation of ladies and gentlemen 
of the household, and the other to the 
convent and offices. On the E. side 
Toledo drew forth and out from the 
line another square for the palace, 
which also comprised the high chapel 
of the church, so that tribunes should 
be made into it from the royal apart- 
ments. Thus the colossal edifice was 
divided ; from its angles and centre 
spring eight towers, about 200 ft high, 
and it is crowned by the cupola or 
cimborio of the church. 

The fa9ades are majestic, but some- 
what, as a French author says, ' of an 
awful simplicity.' The western one is 
the finest, 60 ft high and 740 ft long. 
It has two towers at the angles, and 
three noble entrances. The eastern 
facade has nothing to characterise it 
except the back of the high church and 
its front. The S. fa^e is the most 
denuded, and looks not a little like a 
huge poor-honse or barracks ; and bar- 

racks they were, indeed, for 800 Jeroni- 
mites, a portion of the vast army of 
monks, the sturdy soldiers of the faith, 
who fought and won the battle of the 
mind against barbarism, and handed 
down the knowledge and the practice 
of Christianity. The N. side has three 
spacious entrances, leading to the Cole- 
gio and Palace. Everything in the 
edifice is on a colossal scale. Suffice it 
to state that there are 16 courts, 40 
altars, 1111 windows outside, 1562 
inside ; 1200 doors, 15 cloisters, 86 
staircases, 3000 ft. of fresco-painting, 
89 fountains, and about 32 leagues of 
surface to walk upon. It is an error to 
suppose that the strong-minded archi- 
tects ever intended to represent in its 
general shape a reversed gridiron, the 
instrument of St Lorenzo's martyrdom 
— ^it is purely imaginative. The roofs 
are covered with slates and lead. 

Principal Entrance is the W. one. 
Over the portico are the libraries. 
Enter now the 

Patio de los Reyes,— Is 230 ft. long 
by 136 ft. wide— so called from six 
colossal statues representing the six 
kings of the house of David ; indifier- 
ently executed by Monegro in granite, 
with portions in white marble and 
crowns and insignia in gilt bronze. 
That of the tutelar saint, placed over 
the portal, is also by the same. 

The Church (Templo) was begun 
in 1563 and finished in 1586. It is 
considered the masterpiece of Herrera, 
and the triumph of the Qneco-Roman 
applied to Christian temples. It is 
320 ft long, 230 ft. wide, and 320 
ft high to the top of the cupola. It is 
all granite and of the Doric style ; the 
greatest simplicity prevails, and ma- 
jesty, height, and vast proportions are 
its characteristics. The form is a 
square basilica, assuming the shape of a 
Greek cross. The roof rests on four 



very massive square piers, which corre- 
spond to eight others placed in the walls. 
Over aU these run twenty-four arches, 
forming six naves, so combined that 
three naves are seen from every part of 
the temple. The two principal naves 
form the Greek cross, and are 53 ft 
wide and 118 ft. high. 

The Chapels and Altars.— The first 
on the left, called De los DoctoreSt has 
five altars with pictures of saints by 
Alonso Sanchez Goello and two by Luis 
de CarbajaL The tomb and statue of the 
Infanta Dotka Carlota are indifferent. 
In that of El Pairocinio are also several 
pictures of female saints by the same 
painters. See, besides, several others 
by Pelegrino Tibaldi, and by Luca 
Cangiagi, and Luis de Carbajal, who 
followed El Mudo's manner. No- 
tice especially aU those by this latter 
(Juan Fernandez Navarette), who is to 
be sought for here ; admire his St. 
Philip and Santiago, St Barnabas and 
St Mathias on the last pier, Santiago 
and St. Andrew (signed and dated 
1577), SS. Simon and Judas, SS. Bar- 
tholomew and Thomas, etc., aU very 
fine, richly-coloured Titian -like, and 
powerfully rendered. The others are 
by Zuccharo, Gomez, and Sanchez 
Coello, who painted the following : — 
SS. Paula and M6nica, SS. Catherine 
and In^s, SS. Ambrosio and Gregorio, 
SS. Basilio and Atanasio, Geronimo 
an. I Augostin, the former as a cardinal 
and the latter as a bishop, looking at- 
tentively at a child who is filling a hole 
in the sands with water issuing from a 
shell (signed and dated 1580) ; SS. 
Paul and Anthony in the Wilderness 
fed by a crow (signed and dated 1582) ; 
SS. Lorenzo and Esteban, and dressed 
as deacons (signed and dated 1580) ; 
St. Vincent and St. George, etc. 

Observe here the small chapel on the 
gospel side of the high altar where lies 
the late Queen Mercedes. Also the gold 

cross presented by the British residents 
in Madrid. The pulpits, which replaced 
the portable one originally used, were the 
gift of Ferdinand VII. ; they are made of 
alabaster and the richest marbles, orna- 
mented with mezzo-relievo medallions, 
pillarets, etc. , in gilt bronze. They are 
sadly out of keeping with the other 
sober, quiet, simple portions of the 
church, and are of no artistic value in 
themselves, though exhibiting glorious 
specinrens of the Spanish marbles. 

The Organs. —There are two — one 
upon either side of the nave. Origin- 
ally the work of the Flemish builder 
Maese Gil, they are said to have been 
some time very good. Now, however, 
they are hopelessly out of repair — in 
fact can no longer be used. 

The va/uUed roof^ or boveda, was ori- 
ginally stuccoed white and dotted with 
blue stars. In the reign of Charles II. 
its compartments were painted alfresco 
by Giordano, happily sumamed Lucca 
Fa Presto, who is said to have finished 
all his work in the Escorial in seven 
months. There are eight compositions, 
representing subjects from Holy Writ 
and allegorical. The composition is 
good, the execution hurried, yet faith- 
ful, and the colouring very fine, though 
somewhat tarnished by damp. 

The High Chapel is 70 ft. wide by 60 
ft. long, and comprises the high altar 
and oratorios. In the centre rises a 
flight of red-stained steps, steeper than 
was intended, but to afford space for a 
cupola under it for the panllieon, and 
that in this manner the wish of Philip 
might be accomplished, that mass should 
be daily said over the bodies of the 
kings. The altar is made of precious 
mari)les and inlaid jasper, covered with 
a jasper stone of one whole piece. It 
stands isolated. At the sides are doors 
with jasper jambs, etc., and beautifully 
inlaid mahogany, which lead to the 
sagrario. On the back of the altar i» 



tlie consecration stone of the church, 
which act was performed by Clement 
YIII. 's nondo. The retaNo ia glorious, 
and the pictores deserve close inspec- 
tion, however difficult it be on account 
of tiie bad light and dark wood and 
jaspers. It is 93 ft high and 94 ft 
wide, of tiie four orders^ and composed 
of red granite, precious jaspers, and gilt 
bronze. It is the masterpiece of tiie 
Milanese Giacomo Trezzo, who here em- 
ployed to perfection and great effect all 
the orders of classic architecture except 
the Tuscan. The tabemaculo waa de- 
signed by Herrera and executed by 
Trezzo, who finished it in seven years. 
The pictures, <^ no great merit, are by 
PeUegrino Tibaldi (subjects. Nativity, 
Adoration, Martyrdom of St Lorenzo), 
andtherestby Zuccharo. The 'Scourg- 
ing' is the best work of Zuccharo's at 
the Escorial, and not as dry, cold, and 
raw as his paintings always are. The 
statues are by Leon Leoui and his son 
Pompeio, 1588. The altar cost about 

Sagrwrio. — ^There are some indifferent 
frescoes by Tibaldi, and some very rich 
Spanish marbles and jaspers. The sag- 
rario constitutes the coulisses of the 
religious spectacle on great festivals 
offered to devout and sensual piety; and 
here from behind these screens, walls, 
and curtains, the sacristanes, those able 
scene-shifters, prepare the lights, incen- 
sories, place and remove the vases, and 
alternately draw, diminish, or change 
the curtains and many-coloured veils, 
placed before the window and calculated 
to mitigate or graduate the light, ac- 
cording to the nature of the festival. 

The relicario is one of the richest in 
Spain : much of the valuable matter, 
gold vases, ornaments, precious stones, 
etc., were carried away by General 
Houssaye and his troops ; they took the 
flesh and left the bones. However, these 
constitute the real value, and are gold 

and caviare to the vulgar. Amongst 
other buUn deguerrewaa a statue called 
La Matrona or La Mesina, given by the 
inhabitants of Messina to Philip III., 
weighing 220 lbs. silver, which held in 
her right hand a golden custodia weigh- 
ing 26 lbs., besides a heavy crown with 
rubies and other predous stones, and, 
moreover, forty-seven of the richest 
vases. There are now about 7421 relics, 
amongst which are ten whole bodies, 
144 heads, 806 whole arms and legs, etc. 
See the fine Area del Mbnumento, which 
formerly possessed twenty-six invalu- 
able Greek cameos, one of the real bars 
of San Lorenzo's gridiron, the femur of 
this saint with portions of his flesh 
roasted and broiled {tostado y asado), 
and one of his feet with a bit of coal 
between the toes, etc. 

Oratorios amd EnUerroe Beaiea, — On 
each side of the altar are placed the ora- 
torios, low chambers or tribunes of dark 
marble for the use of royal persons when 
they c<mie to hear mass. That on the 
left was used by Philip II., and in a 
smaU and narrow room close to it he 
expired. Above, and about 12 ft high, 
are placed the bronze gilt and painted 
effigies of the kings, all kneeling. On 
the right of the altar are five statues. 
The first is that of Charles Y., kneeling 
on a cushion, and close to him are, to 
the right, the Empress Isabella, mother 
of PhUip II. ; behind, his daughter the 
Empress Maria, and his sisters Eleonora 
and Maria. On tiie leftof the altar are 
the statues of Philip II. ; on his right is 
his fourth wife, Anna, mother of Philip 
III. ; behind, his third wife, Isabella ; 
on tlie right of latter his first wife, Dofia 
Maria of Portugal, moth^ of Don 
Carlos, and behind her is this prince, 
immortalised by Schiller, but who was, 
historically speaking, a poor imbecile 
much taken care of by his father. These 
statues are portraits, and very remark- 
able for the execution, likenesses, and 



details of embroidery ; observe also the 
plumage of the eagles, etc. They were 
all the work of Pompeio Leoni, who was 
paid for them about £15,000. The Latin 
inscriptions are by Arias Montano. 

ArUe SaerisHa, — ^Indifferent ceiling; 
finely painted by Granello and Fabricio. 
The pictures are mostly copies from the 
Italian schools— a Sibyl, the Prophet 
Isaiah, a Virgin and Child, etc. There 
are, however, one or two paintings 
worth looking at :— a San Juan Onsds- 
tomo, by the Toledan Carvajal ; a San 
Juan de Dios, sketch or duplicate by 
Giordano ; an Adoration by the same ; 
and a San GenSnimo ascribed to Ribera. 
Below the pictures are some tables setting 
forth the manifold advantages, in the 
shape of indulgences, to be gained by 
visiting the church in an orthodoxspirit. 

From this anteroom we pass into the 
SaerisUOf a fine room 108 feet long and 
32 feet wide. Note the arabesques of 
the frescoed ceiling, by Granello and 
Fabricio. Twenty -six of the finest 
paintings formerly here were removed 
to the Picture Gallery of Madrid, and 
some others have been put in the Salas 
Capitulares. The best of those remain- 
ing are the following : — 

68. St Francis of Assisi, by Do- 
menichino, £1 Greco. 

64. St. Peter of Alcdntara, by Zur- 

66. St. Francis of Assisi in the 
desert, by Zurbaran. 

66, St. Paul, by Zurbaran. 

71. A copy of Raphael's Trans- 

76. St. Peter in Gaol, said to be a 
replica by Ribera. 77. The two St. 
Johns, ascribed to Greece, are of his 
early style. 

81. Jesus bearing the Cross, ascribed 
to Guide Rent 

83. Si Gerome, ascribed to Ribera. 

85. Descent from the Cross, by Yero- 

86. A Mystical Subject, by Tinto- 

88. Crucifixion, by Titian. 

89. Mystical Subject, by Veronese. 

90. St. Eugenic, Archbishop of To* 
ledo, by £1 Grecco. 

92. San Onofre, by Ribera ; signed. 

93. Magdalen Penitent, Tintoretto. 
98. St John in the Desert, Titian. 
101. Virgin and St. Joseph. Watching 

the Child adeep, Veronese. 

103. Burial of Christ, Ribera. 

The No. 84 is called La Santa Forma, 
placed at the S. end of the room. On 
the altar is kept the wafer which, bled 
miraculously at Gorcum (Holland) in 
1525, when it was trodden under foot 
by Zuinglian partisans. It was taken 
up, and after being some time at Prague 
and Vienna, was sent to Philip II. by tiie 
Fmperor Rudolph II. in 1592. The large 
painting was first sketched by Rizzi, and 
at his death taken up and modified by 
Claudio Coello, who, after seven years' 
labour, made it his masterpiece. The sub- 
ject is tiie procession and ceremony which 
took place in this very sacristia in the 
presence of Charles II. All the heads 
are portraits ; the prior's, holding tiie 
custodia, is Santos, one of tiie earliest 
and best historians of the Escorial. 
Behind Charles are the Duke of Me- 
dinaceli, his prime minister, the Duke 
of Pastrana, etc It is a very fine pic- 
ture, full of expressive vigour, excel- 
lent perspective, and forms a page of 
history worth volumes. It has been 
touched up in 1846, and well copied by 
Lopez for the Madrid Picture Gallery 
(No. 773). There are some fine temos 
and other church stufGs, beautifully em- 
broidered, and exhibiting pictures from 
Holy Writ embroidered in silk. Spain 
was always celebrated for this kind of 
embroidery, and the bordaderas en oro 
of this day continue the good tradi- 
tions of that art, which originated in 
Ciudad Rodrigo. Many of the vest- 



ments, etc., in the £8Corial were em- 
broidered after designs by Ehnudo, 
Tibaldi, etc. There is one valued by 
Signenza at £45,000. 

The Cwmfwvn, was erected in 1692 by 
Olmo and Bici, or BizzL There is a 
glorious collection here of precious 
marbles, unrivalled anywhere else. 
There is a custodia containing above 
10,000 precious stones, and which cost 
£5000 ; it is a present oi Queen Isa- 
bella and the King Consort, made to 
the monastery in 1856. 

In the OapUvZcvrio is a fine old folio, 
written by the monk Martin de Pa- 
lencia, and containing eighteen fine 
miniatures by Andres de Leon, Sala- 
zar, and other great miniaturists of the 

The Choir. — Visit first the cmU-coros 
placed on the sides of the choir. The 
statue of San Lorenzo is an indifferent 
Roman statue sent from Rome, and 
accommocU to represent the Christian 
hero ; the four lunetos or divisions are 
painted by Giordano. In the other 
ante-coro is a St. Peter and St. Andrew, 
by El Mudo, and fresco ceilings, also 
by Giordano. Close to this the Libre- 
ria del Coro, where are kept the colos- 
sal choral books, some of them being 
two yards wide ; each leaf was made 
out of the skiu of a calf. The Psalms 
of Maitines are by Cristobal Ramirez 
and others. The style of letter or 
writing is that csXLedpecmes by the Span- 
ish monkish caligraphers, all very able 
hands, and the books date from the 
foundation of the Escorial. They were 
magnificently illuminated by Andr^ 
de Leon and his pupils, Julian de Fu- 
ente-el-Saz and Ambrosio de Salazar. 
See especially, and as specimens, the 
three Pasionarios and Oficio of the 
Apostle Santiago by Fuente-el-Saz, and 
the Beginning of the Mass on the Bay 
of St Simon and St. Judas, by Salazar. 
Though many are wanting, and others 

are torn, there are still fine specimens 
of monkish bookbinding by the Pa- 
rises and Pedro del Bosque. No. 128, 
A Christ Crucified, by Navairete, <k 
little value, and a curious diptych by 
Bosch, representing the Delights of this 
World and Punishment of the Wicked. 
The choir is placed at the entrance of 
the church, and continues the c^tral 
nave, and though 80 ft. above the pave- 
ment, is still low enough to allow spec- 
tators to follow the mass with ease. It 
is large and brightly lighted ; there are 
two series or rows of stalls, both be- 
longing to the Corinthian order, and 
designed by Herrera himself, and made 
out of ebony, cedar, box, and other 
choice sorts of wood ; they are simple 
and unadorned, but very elegant and 
well carved, especially the prior's stall. 
To the S., and dose to a small concealed 
door, is the stall which was used by 
Philip II. ; and here he was kneeling, 
absorbed in fervent prayer, when 
through that small door a messenger 
glided in bearing the news of the vic- 
tory of Lepanto ; but, as when he re- 
ceived the tidings of tiie destruction of 
the Armada, his countenance remained 
impassible, and he resumed his in- 
terrupted prayers. The lateral fres- 
coes by Romulus Cincinato, represent 
subjects from life of the tutelar and of 
St. Gerome, founder of the order, to 
whose care the monastery was entrusted 
by Philip, as they were in great fa- 
vour with him, and had been so also 
with Charles V. at Yuste. The other 
frescoes are by Luqueto ; the ceiling 
is also by him, and represents the 
Bliss of Heaven; in a comer is the 
portrait of Father Villacastin, one of 
the Escorial architects, and behind it 
the painter introduced his own ; upon 
observing which, Siguenza said tiiat 
he was glad to see that the artist 
(whose way of living was not very or- 
thodox) had placed himself in Paradise 



beforehand, for he was much afraid 
that he was in so great a hurry to make 
money that this could never become 
a reality. The crystal chandelier, 
though much ill-treated by the French, 
is a fine specimen, made at Milan, and 
given by Charles II. 

The fadstol (lectern) is a present 
from Charles II. The eagle, with 
spread wings, forming it, carries in its 
beak the gridiron, emblematic of the 
tutelar's martyrdom. It is classical in 
style, but indifferent in execution. The 
gem of this choir is the beautiful Car- 
rara marble crucifix. It was made by 
Cellini, and is signed ' Benvenutus Ze- 
linus Civis Florentinus faciebat, 1562.' 
The great Florentine carved it for his 
lord and master, the Duke of Tuscany, 
who gave it to Philip II. The artist 
prized it much, and in his autobio- 
graphy he says: — * Although I have 
made several marble statues, I shall 
only mention one, from its being of a 
kind most difficult for art to render — 
that is dead bodies ; I speak of the 
image of Our Lord Crucified, for which 
I studied a great deal, working upon 
it with the diligence and love that 
so precious a sirmtlacre deserves, and 
also because I knew myself to be the 
first who ever executed crucifixes in 

Pantheon, — Descend a few steps, 
which are, as well as the waUs, of 
precious marbles. On the second land- 
ing the door to right leads to sacristia 
of the Pantheon, and that on left to 
Pantheon de los Infantes. Philip II. 
built a plain vault, but Philip III. and 
Philip IV., who did not inherit the 
ideas of simplicity of their sire, built 
these theatrical show-rooms — ^this al- 
most ironical gilding of bones, and 
most pagan-like series of urns. There, 
is the icy blast of death that chills 
one's very bones, sombre darkness, 
something oppressive and repulsive 

amid these shining marbles and gilt 
bronze ; nothing of the feelings that 
fill the soul and mind in the presence 
of the truly Christian, yet regal and 
beautifid tombs in medi»val cathedrals, 
with their sculptured effigies praying 
or asleep. 

This pantheon (the very name is 
pagan) was completed in 1654. Over 
the portal is the history of its erection, 
' Locus sacer mortalibus exuviis,' etc. 
At the sides are Roman statues, alle- 
gorical. One is Nature, and the other 
represents Hope, with the words, 
* Natura occidit, ' * Exaltat Spes. ' The 
Pantheon itself is some 46 fk. diameter, 
and 38 ft. high. The cupola is low, 
owing to its being placed just under 
the steps leading to the high altar. 
It is of the Composite order, after 
designs by Marquis CrescencL It is 
entirely made of marbles from Tortosa 
and Biscay, and jasper from Toledo, etc. 
The altar is also made of the same mate- 
rial, heightened here and there, as else- 
where too, by gilt bronze ornaments, 
and an indifferent basso-relievo, repre- 
senting the Burial of Christ, by two 
Hieronymite monks. 

All round the octagonal chamber are 
placed in rows, within niches, twenty- 
six marble urns, identically sized, and 
not imlike an anatomical collection. 
The kings are placed on the right of 
altar, and queens on left, and none save 
kings and mothers of kings are buried 
here, all according to etiquette and strict 
classification, worthy of any French 
bureau. There are wanting Philip V., 
Ferdinand VI., and their queens, who 
are buried at La Granja and Madrid. 
Upon one of the urns Maria Lomsa, 
wife of Philip, wrote her own name 
with scissors. When Queen Isabella 
comes to the Escorial, she makes it a 
point to hear midnight masses in the 
Pantheon ; it is also what Ferdinand 
VIl. liked to do, as well as his mother. 



Jn the Infantes Pantheon, disgostingly 
called *E1 Pudridero,* pudrm, are 
placed in most familiar confusion the 
bones of all the Princes and Queens of 
Spain whose sons did not reign — ex- 
cept the late Qae^ Mercedes. Here lie 
Isabelle de Yalois and Maria of Portn- 
gal, close to the ill-fated Don Carlos, 
son of Philip ; the son of Charles Y., 
Don Juan of Austria^ who entreated 
to be buried here, 'as the fittest re- 
ward for his services' (his body was 
brought from Namur, May 1579) ; 
Louis XIY.'s natural son, the Due de 
Yenddme, etc. We understand there is 
some talk of reforming this portion of 
the Pantheon. 

The Ctonvent. — ^Enterfrom the ves- 
tibule of church into Sala de Seeretos, 
so called, because even whispers may 
be heard from any angle, owing to the 
form of tiie ceiling. Claustro Principal 
Ba$o. — ^All of granite, except the marble 
pavement ; its style Doric This lower 
cloister is a square of 212 ft each side. 
The frescoes with the subjects from 
life of Christ are by Tibaldi, or after 
his designs, but executed by other 
artists. The £. side is all by 1dm, but 
none deserve attention, and they have, 
moreover, been wretchedly restored by 
Poler6, Marin, Argandolla, k Co. 

Patio de los Evcmgdistas. — 166 ft. 
each side of the square, and 60 ft. high. 
There are some indifferent statues of 
the Apostles, by Monegro. 

The Sola de CapUulos, or Chapter- 
house. — Three rooms, an antechamber 
and the Salas Vicarial and Prioral, 
In the antechamber are no paintings 
worthy of note, but in the other two 
rooms are collected some of the finest 
pictures yet left in the EscoriaL Note 
especially : — In the Sala Vicarial, 

68. Jacob watching Laban's Flocks, 

72. Christ Washing the Apostles' 

Feet, Tintoretto. This picture was 
painted for the Church of Santa Mar- 
cella, at Yenice, and belonged to Charles 
I. of England, at whose sale Philip lY.'s 
ambassador, Cdrdenas, purchased it for 

837. The Satyr Marsyas, Giordana 
Yery fine. 

839. Nativity and Adoration, by Ri- 
bera; signed 'Giuseppe de Ribera, 
Espaliol Yalenciano, de la Ciudad de 
J4tiva, Academlco, Romano. F. 1640.' 

841. The Sons of Jacob, by Yelaz- 
quez; painted by him at Rome, and 
during his first journey thither, and 
sent to Spain, together with Yulcan*s 
Forge (Mad. P. GaL, No. 195), and his 
own portrait for Pacheco. 

848. Nativity, by Ribera ; 844, 847, 
848,by Giordano. ThelatterTitianesque. 

849. St Gerome Penitent, by Ribera 

476. The Martyrdom of Santiago, El 
Mudo ; in the background, Battle of 
Clavijo (signed and dated 1571). The 
executioner's face is a portrait of a 
blacksmith, Apaisano of the painter's. 

478 and 479. An Annunciation and 
an Adoration of the Shepherds, 'Hn- 
toretto. Both painted for the high 
chapel, but found too large. 

871. Crowning Christ with Thorns, 
by Bosch, either a copy or replica of 
that in gallery of Yalencia. 

Sola Prioral— 

Two or three Bassanos. 

883. Ecce Homo, Tintoretto. 

836. Noah Intoxicated, Giordano. 

53. El Descendimiento, Yander 

62. Gloria, Purgatorio i Infierno, 
ascribed to El Greco, and known as 
the Dream of Philip II. 

396. An Entombment, Tintoretto. 

442. Lot and his Family, ascribed to 

443. St. Peter, Giordano. 
I 444. Christ at the Pharisee's house, by 



Tintoretto^ purchased at Charles I.'s 
sale for £100. 

446. The Lord's Supper, by Titian, 
formerly in the refectory (repainted). 

448. Queen Esther, by Tintoretto, 
purchased at sale of Charles I. of Eng- 
land for £100. 

453. Hades, by Bosch. A pendant 
in Mad. P. Gall., No. 460. 

458. Flowers, by Mario dei Fiori 
(signed 1650). 

IgUsia Fieja, — Used as a chapel until 
the completion of the larger actual 
church. On each side of the :altar 
are an Ecce Homo and Adoration of 
Magi, by Titian, perhaps only a copy 
or replica of No. 484, in Mad. P. Gall., 
ill treated, if not altogether disfigured 
and spoilt, by restorers, and a copy of 
Titian's Burial of Christ, formerly 
here, and now at the Mad. P. Gall., 
No. 464. In the high altar is a large 
painting by Titian, representing San 
Lorenzo's Martyrdom — ^very fine, but 
ill restored, placed in a bad light, and 
the picture itself very sombre. It has 
been engraved by Cornelius Coort. 

The chapel is a spacious room, 109 
feet long and 34 wide. It communi- 
cates also, directly, with the lesser 
cloisters. Of the paintings formerly 
placed here but few remain, and they 
of slight merit. They are as follows 
— all by Pantoja de la Cruz : — 

468. Interment (effigy, etc) of Charles 

474. Interment of Philip IL 

477. \ 

480. I Escutcheons of the House of 

484. j Austria. 

486. ; 

The two interments are copies of 
those in the Capilla Mayor of the 
church. The escutcheons are a set of 
sketches intended for the same position 
— ^to be placed over each enterramiento. 
It was while he was at his devotions 
here, some authorities say, and pot in 

the Coro of the great church, that 
Philip the Second received the news of. 
the victory at Lepanto. There is 
nothing of value to detain the visitor 
here, and we may pass on at once ta 
the great staircase, or 

Escalera Principal^ which leads from 
the court to the upper cloisters. It is 
magnificent, and the work of J. Bant, 
de Toledo, and J. Baut. Castillo, sur- 
named El Bergamasco, and father of 
the fireseo-painters, the Granelli. The 
frescoes on the walls are by Luqueto 
and Tibaldi, of no merit, and scenes 
from the battle of San Quintin, by 
Giordano, and an allegory of the foun- 
dation of Escorial by Philip. All the 
figures are portraits. 

GUmstro Principal Alto contains but 
few good pictures. No. 144. Christ 
Appearing to His Mother after the He- 
surrection is ascribed to El Mudo. 
The series from life of St. Lorenzo are 
by Carducci, and indifferent, and the 
scenes from History of St. Gerome, by 
Gromez. A fine St. Gerome Penitent 
(No. 174), by El Mudo, signed, and a 
once ma^iificent Nativity and Adora- 
tion of Shepherds, by same (No. 175), 
before which Siguenza says he often 
heard Tibaldi ezdaim, 'Oh, gli belli 
pastori 1 ' 

176. Saoifice of Abraham, a copy of 
Andrea del Sarto's in Vienna P. GalL 
(a replica in Mad. P. GalL, under No. 
387). This original picture, of which 
the Madrid one is a replica, was sent 
to Francis I. of France, by A. del 
Sarto. The replica was, at Andrea's 
death, purchased by Marq. del Yasto, 
or Guast, whose portrait Titian painted. 

187. Holy Family, by El Mudo, was 
a great favourite of Philip's. 

188. The Scourging of Christ, by the 
same ; the head of the Saviour, fine. 

189. Descent from the Cross, by 
Veronese (?). 

Aula de Moral.— Thh Hall. of Mo- 



ralUy was used by the monks to hold 
conferences on points of morality and 
theology, and solve casuistic contro- 

IHdwes.-'lOS, The Besuirection of 
Christ ascribed to Yeronese. 

111. Burial of San Lorenzo, by £1 
Mudo ; used to be hung in his own 
rooms at the EscoriaL 

113. Descent from the Cross, signed 
by Veronese. 

114. Charles V., an early copy from, 
Titian's at Vienna. 

116. John of Austria, copy by Car- 

Camarin. — ^little remains here of 
the former treasures, most of the best 
pictures having been removed to Mad- 
rid. There are some MS. by Santa 
Teresa, the works of St Austin, written 
in the 8th century, and some relics. 

905. A Crucifixion, ascribed to 
Titian, and 910, a Vitellum, painted 
and stuck on wood, ascribed to Holbein, 
Lucca of Holland, etc (it was a present 
to Philip fix)m Philibert of Savoy). 
There are, besides, several miniatures 
by Leon and Fuente-el-Saz. 

Cdda Frioral AUa, — Some good mar- 
queterie ; the windows look on the gar- 
dens and fish-ponds. 293 is a copy by 
Carre&o of Sanchez CoeUo's very fine 
portrait of Father Jos^ de Siguenza, 
the learned and earlier historian of the 
Escorial ; the rest are copies. Close to 
this cloister is a room where Ferdinand 
VIL was confined, having been arrested 
for high treason. It contains a few 
pictures: a copy of Baphael's Trans- 
figuration by a Flemish painter ; an ex- 
cellent one of that great master's * Perla,' 
by Santos. 221. A Virgin, by Carlo 
Dolce, etc. 

In the Ctlda Prionil Baja is a por- 
trait of Charles V. by Pantoja, aged 
forty-seven, signed (No. 419). 

420. Philip II., aged twenty-five, by 
Antonio Moro (signed). 

424. Portrait of Mariana of Austria, 
Philip II. 's wife, by Carriiio. 

426. Portrait of Charles II., aged 
fourteen, by the same, replica, copy, oi 
original of No. 250. 

The rest of tiie convent is occupied 
by eight smaller cloisters, the apothe- 
cary's hall, kitchens, etc. — ^all on the 
same colossal scale. 

Iiibrary. — ^TMs portion of the edifice 
bears most completely and strongly 
marked the stamp of the founder s 
and architect's mind. As the Escorial 
was intended to be the largest convent, 
the noblest church, and, besides, the 
emporium of the fine arts, sciences, and 
letters of the age, there were seminaries 
and schools formed, and a magnificent 
library, collected with care and dili- 
gence, and containing at length invalu- 
able treasures of Arab art and science, 
Gredc and Hebrew MSS., etc. The 
Biblioteca is placed above the porch of 
the Patio de los Beyes. It is 194 ft. 
long by 32 ft wide (Spanish). The 
arched ceiling is painted by Tibaldi and 
Carducho with subjects personifying 
the sciences and arts. The composi- 
tions and allegories, etc, were the work 
of Siguenza. The bookcases ana 
shelves are made of ebony, cedar, orange, 
and other choice woods, and were de- 
signed by Herrer ; the pavement is of 
white and dark marbles. In the middle 
of this long and beautiful room, very 
well lighted up^ are five large marble 
and jasper tables, with smaller ones in 
porphyry, for the use of readers, a pre- 
sent from Philip IV. There are several 
portraits here ; that of Charles V., aged 
forty-nine, is a fine copy of Titian's, by 
Pantoja. Opposite is that of Philip II., 
aged seventy-one, ascribed by some to 
Pantoja, and by others to Moro ; Philip 
III., aged twenty-three, by Pantoja; 
and Charles II., aged fourteen, by Car- 
re&o. There is, besides, a marble bust 



of Cicero, said to have been found at 
Herculaneum ; a plaster bust of the 
great Spanish seaman Jorge Juan, and 
two bassi-relievi representing the two 
sides of the medal given by Philip II. 
to Herrera, and engraved by Giacomo 
Trezzo. A portrait of Herrera, one of 
Isabelle of Portugal, Charles V.'s wife, 
by Cranach (?), and of Fray Ceballos, 
who wrote * False Philosophy is a State 
Crime,* etc., complete the catalogue 

The library itself once one of the 
richest in Europe, has been sadly dimi- 
nished through neglect, invasion of the 
French, and thefts, but still amounts to 
some 66,000 vols. The basis of it was 
formed by Philip's private library, num- 
bering 4000 vols., of which the index 
or catalogue still exists, with notes in 
the king's hand. Most of the books are 
bound in black or dark purple leather. 
A year after they were placed here (1575), 
Philip's ambassador to Rome, Don 
Diego de Mendoza, died, bequeathing 
to his master his careMly collected 
library. The collection was consider- 
ably augmented by gifts, bequests, and 
additions made up with books from 
several Inquisitions, convents, and the 
Chapel Royal of Granada. Alfonso del 
Castillo was ordered by Philip to pur- 
chase every good Arab work he might 
fall upon. The catalogue of all the 
Arab works in the Escorial extant then, 
may be seen in Hettinger's * Promptu- 
arium sive Bibliotheca Orientalis,* pub- 
lished at Heidelberg in 1668, in 4to. 
The original catalogue was classified by 
Arias Montano and Father Siguenza. 
In 1614 the valuable library of the 
Emperor of Morocco, Muley Zidan, 
amounting to 3000 volumes, was con- 
veyed here, having been found on board 
a ship that was captured near Sallee. 
Most of them were burnt in the fire 
which took place in 1691, lasted fifteen 
%ys, and destroyed whole portions of 

the Escorial. Of the MSS. thus lost 
no index was formed. In Charles III. 's 
time the Maronite Casiri published an 
index of the Arab MSS. extant in his 
time — ' Bibliotheca Arabico-Hispana 
EscurialensiB,' folio, 2 vols. ; Madrid, 
1760-70, but which is generally con- 
sidered inaccurate. The Greek MSS. 
were classified by Fray J. de Cuenoa^ 
* Bibliotheca Graeca,' etc., 26 vols, folia 
Strange to say, Spanish libraries, that 
ought to possess the richest and largest 
collection of Arab MSS., are, through 
neglect, hatred to the Moor, and oppo- 
sition of the clergy, among the poorest 
in Europe, and there are petty German 
University libraries richer in this than 
the Escorial, where there are but some 
1824 MSS. Amongst the books shown 
to visitors is the *Codice Aureo,' con- 
taining the four Gospels in gold letters. 
It was begun under Conrad II. , Emperor 
of the West, and finished about the 
middle of the 11th century ; the illu- 
minations are fine and curious. There 
is a fine Koran. Amongst the Greek 
MSS. there are many treasures that call 
for a patient Hellenist There are very 
interesting 'Spanish Chronicles,' a col- 
lection of councils of the 10th and 11th 
centuries, a work on chess, dice, and 
other games, written by order of Alfonso 
the L^uned, and with many illumina- 
tions ; Seville, 1321. The * Censo Gene- 
ral,' under Philip II., and a magnificent 
herbary, in 18 vols., time of Philip II., 
comprising American plants. There 
are idso valuable collections of sketches, 
etchings, and engravings by Raphael, 
M. Angdo, A. Diirer, Titian, Breughel, 
etc The Upper Library is not public, 
and contains prohibited books, missals, 
and the Arab MSS. 

There is close to the library a reading- 
room, for the use of those who consult 
the MSS. and books. There is also a 
'Catalogns prsecip. auctor. ineditor. 
MSS.' in the Escorial, by Barvaeti, etc 



A pennission, signed by the intendente 
de la Real Casa, at Madrid, and counter- 
signed by the bibliotecario, etc., is in- 
dis];)en8able. As for the rest, patience 
and ordinary ciyility will help the 
student more than royal orders, intro- 
ductions, or catalogues. In this room 
there are some portraits of learned Span- 
iards, very indifferent, and one of Arias 
Montano, ascribed to Zurbardn. 

The Palace is placed in the angle to 
N, and £. of the whole edifice. The 
principal staircase is by Yillanueya, 
and was made for Charles lY., as the 
former one was not conyenient. 

The rooms in the palace were origin- 
ally most plainly fitted up, 'Philip 
wishing, he said, but for a cell in the 
palace he. had built to God.' They 
were subsequently altered, and the waUs 
hung with very beautiM tapestiy made 
at the Fabrica of Madrid after designs 
by Groya, Bayeu, Maella, and others, 
under the direction of Stuyck ; besides 
161 made in Flanders from designs by 
David Teniers, and some twenty Gobe- 
lins and Italian. The subjects were 
most happily chosen, and such as it is 
to be regretted were not offcener adopted 
by the great Spanish masters. 

Philip II. *8 own room is indeed a cell, 
and here allis plainness. Itwassoplaced 
that he might be dose to the high altar, 
and hear and see the mass from his bed 
when HI. There are but a few remains 
of tiie furniture dating of that time : a 
chair used by him when suffering from 
gout, a stool, said to be that on which 
Antonio Perez, hiswell-known secretary, 
used to sit, are all that now remain. 
But his mind u still to be seen every- 
where. Philip worked very hard, went 
to bed late, and the monks' chants 
awoke him every morning at four, when 
he heard mass, and so devoutly and 
fervently did he pray that tears were 

often seen streaming down his cheeks. 
For two months previous to his death 
he endured excruciating pain with firm- 
ness and patience. On feeling his 
death approach, he was taken in a litter 
all over the buUding of his creation, to 
see once more, and bid adieu for the 
last time to all those portions which 
were more especially his favourites, and 
on Sunday the ISth September 1598, 
he expired during the usual morning 
service, with his eyes turned towards 
the high altar and the host, and grasp- 
ing in his hands the very crucifix 
wMch his father, Charles Y., held when 
he died. 

Sola de Uu BataUas. — On the S. side 
of the palace, so called from frescoes 
on the walls painted by Granello and 
Fabricio, and representing important 
battles and sieges. One of these has for 
subject the battle of La Higueruela, 
where Juan II. defeated the Moors, 1431. 
This fresco dates 1587, and was copied 
by ord^ of Plulip from a chiaro-oscuro 
canvass some 180 ft long, found in a 
Imnber-room in the Alcazar of Segovia. 
It is most important to artists on 
account of the costume, arms, and 
military disposition of troops in those 
times. The other frescoes represent 
several battles and naval expeditions of 
Philip IL in Flanders, Terceira Islands, 
the Battle and Siege of St. Quintin, 
Lepanto, etc. ; all very curious and 
interesting. There are rooms richly 
ornamented with inlaid wood and fine 
specimens of ironmonger's work in 
Spain ; see the locks and handles, with 
inlaid gold. The four rooms containing 
them date from Charies lY.'s time, and 
cost some £280,000. They are called 
'piezas de maderas finas.' Among 
otiier pctures scattered in different 
rooms, we may mention : — 

In the Cuarto de los Infantes, 1. A 
Yirgin, by A. Cano ; and a small por- 
trait of Philip II. by Pantcga. 



In the Despacho, Portrait of Charles 
III., by Mengs ; a view of Venice, by 

In Sala de Corte, a half-length por- 
trait of Olivares, ascribed to Velas- 

In the Queen's Oratory, a Virgin, by 
Juan de Juanes, besides several Mengs, 
Maellas, etc. 

Compafia. — So called because it did 
xwomya/R/ir in its way the rest of the 
edifice. It is an edifice placed on the 
-W. side, and communicating with the 
palace by a gallery. Here were the 
mills, slau^ter-houses, cloth-factory, 
and other offices and trades that fed 
and clothed the population inhabiting 
the convent, which was a town in 

The K and W. sides of the building 
front the village and mountains, and 
have a paved platform or terraces called 
lonja (lounge ?) On the N. side is also 
a fine lonja, with a subterraneous 
gallery, 180 ft. long and 10 fL high, 
made in 1770 by a monk called Pon- 
tones, to avoid the winter hurricanes 
whilst crossing to or from the village. 
To the E. and W. are fine terraces 
overlooking hanging gardens and fish- 
ponds. The slopes around and below 
are planted with elms said to have been 
brought from England by Philip II. 
Visit especially the Herreria and Fres- 
neda, which are, or rather were once, 
thickly planted. The Escorial (that is 
the convent, palace, etc.) belongs to the 
queen's patrimony ; several monks have 
recently been allowed to return, but 
their number does not suffice to say the 
17,538 masses for which money was 
left by the sovereigns of the House of 
Austria, etc., and Ferdinand VII. 

The view ftt)m the towers of the 
Escorial embraces extensive but melanx 
choly wastes, treeless, trackless, and al- 
most at our feet, that odd contrast (now 
daily losing its first force) of a railway 

and stations, Newcastle coal and iron, 
and trains running thirty miles an hour, 
close to this monument of bygone ages, 
in whose cold granite bosom sleep the 
mighty representatives of the genius, 
power, grandeur, and backwardness, of 
their age. Only imagine Charles V. and 
Philip rising from their tombs, and 
seeing their old rival Henty de Beam's 
descendant^ the Catholic Queen of 
Spain, passing by Hke a whirlwind in 
an express train, amid heretical engine- 
drivers and Voltairian stock-jobbers ! 

Before we bid adieu to the Spaniards' 
eighth marvel of the world, we may be 
allowed to make someremarks suggeasted 
by its style. The Escorial is a very 
important work in the history of archi- 
tecture, as it constitutes one of the 
earliest and most perfect types of the 
Grseco-Roman school, the principles of 
which the Spanish architects were 
taught to admire and copy from the 
ruins of antiquity and the modem 
edifices of Italy, at the period when 
the intercourse with that country 
became so frequent. Mr. Fergusson 
(* History of the Modem Styles of Archi- 
tecture, etc.,' London 1862) TnainfaM'Tia 
that in this, as in most Spanish pseudo- 
classical edifices, the influence of Teu- 
tonic art is evident, as well as the 
ignorance of classical detail. 'The 
sombre but magnificent pile of the 
Escorial exhibits a series of solecisms 
which would have shocked the disciples 
of Vignola and Palladio ; but the whole 
design shows more of Gothic character 
than the masterpieces of Wren and 
Michael Angelo. This 'grandest and 
gloomiest failure of modem times, ' with 
its forcible outlines and massive group- 
ings, puts utterly to shame the miser- 
able monotony of the stiU more modem 
palace of Madrid. ' The first impression 
it usually produces is that of disap- 
pointment ; the last is often that of 
ennui, and delight to come out fA the 



damp, heavy, sombre necropolis of 
stone once more into sunshine and air. 
This building, with its great height, 
and long, endless, horizontal, unbroken 
lines, destitute of mouldings, relief, 
moyement, and variety, is an evident 
illustration of this fact — ^that the purely 
classical style, divested of the resources 
that the Bevival ushered in, is as ill 
adapted to edifices of any great size as 
the Gothic to small ones. But the 
Escorial must be considered as a con- 
vent, and not itpile built for ostentation 
or effect, as the inspiration of a great 
mind tainted with melancholy, of deep 
piety, which sought rather to ponder 
on the sombre, awful, retributive side 
of religion, than on tiie sunnier one of 
mercy, hope, bliss, and love. The man 
explains the edifice, and the edifice is 
the picture of the man. Those granite 
towers, resting on deep, massive foun- 
.dations, rise boldly into the heaven — 
lofty, aspiring, plain, Hke the prayers 
his stem heart sent forth to Grod. Those 
spacious halls, without pictures or 
stonework to distract the eye^ lighted 
up, and leading finally all to the church 
and the altar, are like the avenues 
of his mind. Each part has a signifi- 
cance and a meaning, and aU blend 
into one harmonious whole, Hke the 
notes of Mozart's Bequiem or the Stabat 
Mater of Rossini 

Here Philip came, not to live as a 
prince, but to die as a monk — 

' )^th age, witih cares, with maladies oppressed, 
He sou£^ the refuge of monastic rest' 
Johnson, Th£ Vanify ef Human Wishes. 

to 'carry' as he said, 'his own bones 
to the grave.' 

Philip* 8 Chapel, — ^About l^ m. is the 
Silla del Key, a seat formed by granite 
boulders, whence Philip used to watch 
the progress and effect of the rising 

Oasita del Principe.— Built in 1772 

for Charles IV. by Villanueva, and 
placed on the slope of the hill on which 
the convent rises. It is surrounded by 
gardens and shrubberies, neglected and 
weedy. It was intended for a toy or 
show-house, rather than for a residence, 
and containes a few curiosities. In the 
ante-room are some Giordanos and a 
Caracci ; the others have fine names, 
and many are certainly original daubs. 
There are some bits of good marble 
mar<quetry, ivory-work worthy of Chi- 
nese patience, jaspers and gilding, 
clocks, faded silks, and furniture of 
that Renaissance Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum style so long the fashion with 
Napoleon and the Spanish Bourbons. 
The Casa del Infante is another house, 
but most indi£Rerent, built for the 
Infante Don GabrieL 

Books of Meferefnce. — 1. 'Memorias 
sobre la Fnndacion del Escorial y su 
Fdbrica,' by Fray Juan de San Geroni- 
mo (MS. in Library of Escorial, K. j. 7); 
also published in the valuable * Colec- 
cion de Documentos ineditos para 
la HistOTia de Espafta,' vol. vii The 
author was one of the first monks 
sent by Philip II. to found the mo- 

2. * Sumario y Breve Declaracion de 
los Disefios y Estampas de la Fdb. 
de S. Lorenzo del Escorial, por Juan 
de Herrera ;* Madrid, 1589, 8vo ; most 
rare, and of great value, as being the 
handbook to Escorial by its architect 
A copy in library of Duke of Osuna, 

8. * Descripcion de la Octava Mara- 
villa de el Mundo,' etc., by Alfonso 
de Almela, dedicated to Philip II. ; MS. 
foL in BibL NacL (G. 194), dates 

4. * Descripcion Breve,' etc., with 
the additions to the edifice by Philip 
IV., by Father de los Santos ; Madriii^ 
Impta. Real, 1667, fol ; several edi- 



5. *Descripcion,' by Ponz, in his 
* Viage de Espaila,' vol. ii 

6. Qaeyedo's detailed 'Hista. del 
Real Monasterio, etc ; Madrid, Mel- 
lado, 1849. The author was librarian 
of the Escorial, and therefore could dis- 

pose of every document in it relatiiig to 
the subject. It is superior to R/)tondo 
and Romajo's works. 

7. A series of articles on the MSS. of 
the Escorial in the Revista Contempor- 
anea, 1888. 


Q-eograpldoal and Administrative 
Divisions, etc. — This out-of-the-way, 
dull, and most uninteresting region 
comprises now the provinces of Cdceres 
and Badajoz. It derives its name fix)m 
Extrema-Oria, the last and extreme 
conquest of Alfonso IX. (1228). The 
length is 162 m. from Sierra de Gata 
to Sierra Morena, and the breadth 123 
m. from E. to W., occupying a surface 
of some 1211 square leagues, with a 
population of— Cdceres, 303,721 ; Ba- 
dajoz, 431,922 : total, 735,643. The 
Sierra Morena separates it on the 
S. from Andalusia ; to the N. it is 
bounded by Leon and New Castile ; to 
the E. by the hUls of Bejar and the 
Batuecas and Sierra de Francia ; and to 
"W. by Portugal, from which it is sepa- 
rated by the Eljas, Tagus, and Sierra 
de Gata. Badajoz is the residence of 
the Captain-General of Estremadura and 
Cdceres, the see of the bishop and Au- 
diencia. It is mostly very flat, and con- 
sists of boundless, trackless plains, with 
villages like happy days, * few and far 
between,' and an indolent, simple, pas- 
toral, ignorant population, given ex- 
clusively to pasturing and rearing 
swine. The cities are very poor, and 
lack objects of interest to the tourist. 
The want of roads, wretched accommo- 
dation, and absence of subjects of in- 
terest to attract tourists, have made us 
write so brief a description of its towns. 
However, the very features of this 
country, its loneliness and silence, its 
unexplored natural history, may tempt 

some tourists of a peculiar class and 
disposition. "We refer them, therefore, 
to Madrid, from Lisbon to Cdceres. 
We must not foiget to recommend 
most especially to antiquaries an ex- 
cursion to Merida, Alcantara, Coria, 
etc., which abound in very important 
Roman antiquities; and Yuste will 
attract all admirers of Charles Y., who 
lived and died in tiie monastery of this 
name (see Cdceres), The spring and 
autumn must be selected as the best 
periods of the year for visiting this 
seldom-visited region of Spain. 


Madrid to Almaden, 

Merida, r. 
Badajoz, r. 
TrujiUo, diL 

Alc^tara, rid. 
Coria, rid. 
Plasencia, r. 
Talavera, r. 
Toledo, r. 
Madrid, r. 

The Estremefios are dull holgazanes 
to the backbond improgressive, honest, 
and trustworthy. Their dress is dark 
and unpicturesque. 

BooksofJReference. — ^1. 'Observacion^s 
sobre las Antig. de Extrem., by the 
Marquds de Yaldeflores ; fol. MS. in 
the Academia de Historia, Madrid. 
Important to antiquaries. 

4. ' Situacion, Limites, Historia, Mi- 
nas, Ganados, etc., de Estremadura,* 
vols. 25 to 35 of Larruga's valuable 
'Mems. Econ. y politicas de Espafia,' 
Madrid, 1795-97. 

Fomer's Antigttedades (MS.) ; tiie 
most important work on the subject, 
according to Yaldeflores and othem. 



Oaographleal and AdminiitratiTe 
DlTiBioiifl, Birers, etc.— The former 
Eeino de Ckilicia now contaiiii four 
large and thickly peopled proyinces — 
viz. Corulia, capital Ia Corufia, popu- 
lation, 631,500 ; Pontevedra, capital 
Pontevedra, population 481,000 ; 
Orense, capital Orense, population 
402,500 ; and Lugo, capital Lugo, popu- 
lation 473,000 : total, 1,988,000 souls. 

Coruika is the residence of the cap- 
tain-general, under whose military ju- 
risdiction the four provinces are placed, 
and the seat of the Audienda. It is 
bounded on the N. by the Bay of Bis- 
cay, £. by Astnrias and Kew Castile, 
S. by Portugal, and W. by the Atlantic. 
Its extent is some 1082 square leagues; 
which, when w& consider its population, 
li an evident proof that, compared with 
other provinces, Galicia is by far the 
most densely peopled of Spain. The 
principal rivers are : The Mifio (Portu- 
guese Mimho), which crosses the whole 
reino from N. to S., an extent of 80 
kil. ; and the Tambre, flowing from £. 
to W., intersecting the country, and, 
together with numberless tributaries, 
watering its valleys to excess. The 
country is hilly. The Sierras de Loba, 
Testeiro, Sierra de Porto, de St. Ma- 
met, Sena, etc., are lofty and woody, 
and l&e Ilco Ancaxes and Pefia Tre- 
vinca on the eastern boundary are 
covered with snow almost all ^e year. 
The lower valleys are warm and 
sunny, and several of them, especially 
about the Mi&o, most beautiful and wild. 

History. — ^That of Galicia is the 
least interesting in Spain ; indeed, there 
scarcely exist any annals : ' heureux les 
peuples qui n'ont pas dldstoirel' The 
reino was founded by the Suevi, 409 ; 
conquered by Leovigil, 685, and by the 
Arabs in 713, It was subsequently an- 

nexed to Leon, and also to Asturias, and 
even became the appanage of Juan 
Garcia, the son of Ferdinand I. of 
Portugal Placed between contending 
parties, their victim and their prey in 
turn, devoid of any great riches, living 
principally amid the mountain fast- 
nesses, where their poverty tempted 
none, and their fierceness kept most at 
bay, the Gallegos were never or little 
troubled by conquerors, scorned by 
the rest of the more civilised Span- 
iards, and lived under the rule of pre- 
datory chiefs. Santiago or Compos- 
tella, founded in the 9th century, when 
the body of St. James is said to have 
been miraculously discovered by Bp. 
Theodomir, became an important city, 
of world-wide repute, and frequented 
by pilgrims who flocked to the shrine 
of tills saint Galicia was declared an 
Audiencia territorial by Ferdinand and 
Isabella, and Santiago chosen for the re- 
sidence of the justicia mayor. This im- 
portant royal commissary governed the 
country in the name of the king. The 
seat of this authority was subsequently 
removed to Orense and to Corufia, till 
the radical organisation of the kingdom 
in 1885. 

Ch/muiUT of the People; Lemguage, 
Dress, Oustoms, — ^The Gallegos are the 
Boeotians or Auvergnats of Spain ; they 
are a tall, muscular race, hardy, la- 
borious when their interest is at stake, 
but otherwise indolent and dirty. They 
are very honest, and may be depended 
upon. They supply all Spain with ser- 
vants, mozos de cordel, cabbies, flunkeys, 
(lacayos), marmitons, aguadores (water- 
carriers), and all effices of beasts of 
burden, and much exposed to kicks, 
ptmtapieSf liveries, and other signs of 
servitude and degradation, which the 
^oud Castellanos, independent Yasca- 



ences, and fiery Andaluces despise, and 
leave to tliis more hnmble race ; fonder 
also of lucre, of * affuinaldos ' and savings, 
which after three or four years* exile (to 
them) in Madrid, Seville, and other hrge 
cities, they carry back to their damp, 
dirty mountain hovels and secluded val- 
leys, where they realise their constant 
dream to own land (fincarse), however 
small a patch, however unproductive 
the soil may be, and the borono (millet) 
bread, darker and harder than the 
snow-white golden-crusted * pain de la 
servitude' of Castilian 'grandes.' 

Love of home, la tierrOf sickens the 
emigrant Gallego a year or two after he 
has quitted it, even if he has reached the 
highest station in flunkeyism, when the 
fiimes of his grandeur, the glitter of the 
gold-laced hat and coat, are dispelled 
from his eyes, which see now distinctly, 
and not without a tear, in the camera 
osewra of the heart, tiie little white 
choza under the old, well-known chest- 
nut, by the laughing rill on the green 
slopes ; and when the noise of the heavy 
coach-wheels and the hum of the corte 
are no longer loud enough to drown in 
his ear the discordant tune of the gaita, 
the rough deep soprano voice of his 
Marusiiia, the hollow barking of his 
perm, all calling to him, and sweet as 
music to his lonely heart. In the sum- 
mer, at harvest-time, flocks of sturdy 
Gallegos spread over the corn-teeming 
plains of Castile and northern Portugal, 
armed with a short hoz (sickle), like 
the Irish in England. The reaping 
once done for the indolent CastUian 
labourer, who wants arms only because 
he will not employ them, they return 
gladly to their free hills and homes. 
The women meanwhile have not been 
idle, and when the nuca (distaff) rests, 
the field is ploughed, maize and potatoes 
sown, etc The Gallegos make good 
soldiers, brave, patient, and ^isily 
managed. The dark side of their 

chaiticter is formed by a suspicioas 
mood, jealousy and envy, love of gossip 
and meddling, avarice and ingratitude. 
Their language is a patois between Old 
Castilian and Portuguese, and their 
ludicrous pronounciation of the Spanish, 
not less than their proverbial fiaiveU, 
often cunningly put on, has made tbem 
the laughing-stock of the more etdtos 
Spaniards. They use the u for o, the i 
for e, etc, say sifiuritu for se&orito ; and 
one of their war speeches, during the 
Peninsular war, began, ' Kusutrus dicia- 
mus d vusutrus, murrimus in il campu 
di gloria T * I have been treated as if 
I were but a Gallego,' says the proud 
Castilian ; and in Fray Gerundio's 
satirical newspaper on the constitution 
of Spain, publie^ed some years ago, the 
first article ran thus : * All those who 
are bom in Spain are Spaniaids, and 
the Gallegos besides.' 

Their customs are plain, patriarohal ; 
they are given entirely to rearing fine 
cattle and cultivating their too-much- 
divided properties. Pilgrimages are 
still the feshion here and tiiere, more as 
pretexts for jollification than devout 
excursions (though the natives are most 
pious and superstitous), and the Bo- 
merias are now but village fiestas, when 
the slow, grave, antique mu&eira If 
performed, the couples dancing back tu 
back to the tune of the bagpipes, when 
the heady wines of the country are 
absorbed in prodigious quantities, and 
those of each pueblo loudly proclaim iXn 
superiority over the others : * Viva 
Briallus !' * Nu, mas viva Amil I' * Viva 
Catoira 1 ' — discussions which usually 
end and are settled by the introduction 
of 'porros,' a sort of shillelah, and 
other suchlike striking arguments ad 

The dress is sombre, and suited to the 
rainy, damp climate The men wear 
short Hght-brown doth jackets, knee- 
breeches of tbe same stuff, and polainaa 



or doth gaiten, either of Uaok or light 
brown doth, for which woollen stock- 
A donble-breasted waistcoat of the same 
colour and material, with a few rows of 
brass buttons, enlivens the monotonous 
costume; wooden shoes, the French 
sabota, madrefku, are used by the 
peasants. The head-gear connsts of a 
pointed doth or vdyet cap tamed up 
at the sides, and very like those worn 
in the time of Louis XL of France. The 
dress of the women are still plainer ; on 
working days they are dad in white or 
striped linen, tiirown oyer their heads 
for mantillas, and dark sayaa i but their 
dress, as wdl as that of the men, is most 
pictmresque and handsome, when worn 
by the wealthiest farmers on great holi- 
days, marriage-dances, etc. 

In some of the yalleys goitre, paperas 
or Imcio, and its accompaniment, cretin- 
ism, are found. This awful and dii^gust- 
ing infirmity seems to be peculiar to 
every hilly country, Switzerland, Savoy, 
the Pyrenees (French and Spanish), the 
Ari^, Andes, N. Navarre, N. Basque 
Provinces, Asturias, and Galida. The 
causes of goitre, which produces cretins 
— those bastardised, rachital beings, a 
degree lower in the scale of the human 
race, whom we always find side by side 
with healthy, luxuriant, proud-soaring 
trees and vegetation— have never been 
ascertained. Those aMcted with this 
hypertrophy of the gland are known to 
inhabit flat and low districts, 40 ft. to 
70 ft. only above the levd of the sea 
(Elbceuf, Dax, S. of France), as well as 
the highest plateaux of hilly districts, 
in the ventilated, opened Maurienne, 
Le Yalais, and Lombardy ; among people 
who live well, and with comforts around 
them ; and also in countries where snow 
never falls, such as parts of Africa, 
Sumatra, etc. In reply to those who 
have stated that they are exclusively 
met in countries where snow and glaciers 

abound, it has been uiged that cases 
of goitre are totally unknown in the 
highest valleys of the Alps, Norway, 
Sweden, etc. Dr. Orange is of opinion 
that the soil of countries where goitre 
prevails is formed of magnesian rocks, 
or contains dolomite and sulphate of 
lime and magnesia. D. Moretin derives 
the malady from certain organic sub- 
stances found in some waters ; D. Chatiu 
ascribes it entirdy to the absence of 
iodine in the soil, waters, or air of dis- 
tricts where goitre is common, and 
iodine preparations invariably cure or 
mitigate the goitre by absorption ; yet 
bread, vegetables, and meat, all contain 
iodine, etc. In Galicia and Navarre, 
the cretins, who do not however abound, 
are looked upon with pity and disgust, 
but sddom succoured. 

The exemptions from the army on 
account of goitre and other glandular 
affections in this kingdom exceed by far 
those in other provinces, viz. — 

Coruiia 35 

Orense 37 

Pontevedra . . . zxz 

Lugo 66 

Total . 349 

The total number in the forty-nine 
provinces amounting to 805, of which 
Asturias comes in for 818, and Catalufia 
nearly the rest. 

Mineral Springs. — ^Although not so 
rich as Asturias, yet this province pos- 
sesses several mineral springs most 
abundant and efficient, which, were they 
properly managed, would be an import- 
ant source of prosperity to the province. 
The saline spring of Camoudes de Bro- 
garin, the hot waters of Caldas de Reyes, 
Caldas de Cundes, Orense, Lugo, Cor- 
tegada, etc., are excellent. The prind- 
pal are, Arteyo, near Corufia, very like 
those of riombi^res, St Gervais (Savoy), 
Baden (Austria), etc., and the sulphu- 
reous spring of Carbidla, near Ooruha .' 



tempemtare, 24 to 84 centigrades. For 
dettdls, gee GmercU Information, 

Agriculture, Mines, Trade, etc. 
—What little is produced is consumed 
on the spot, and trade, without excess 
of production, and absence of wants and 
capital, must necessarily be an idle 
word. Yet the ports are secure, nume- 
rous, and admirably situated for com- 
merce. Vivero, Rivadeo, and Ferrol, 
on the Bay of Biscay, are sheltered and 
deep -bottomed. The Bay of Vigo is 
among the finest in the world ; Corufia 
is perfectly placed, of easy access ; Ca- 
m^riftflii^ oneof the most secure in Spain ; 
and Comubion, Noya, Muros^ etc, are 
aU excellent. The soil is rich and 
generally well cultiyated, the products 
of the land yaried ; thus, fine com is 
reaped in the Yegas of Orense, Mon- 
terey, and the banks of the XJlla. 
Oranges, the citron, maize, and flax 
grow plentifully about RedasdiUo, Tuy, 
and Rosamonde. Hemp, flax, oats, 
chestnuts, abound near and about Hon- 
do&edo, Lugo, and Betanzos. The 
olive is also met here and there, and 
the wines grown in the districts of 
Orense, Yigo, Amandi, Yaldeorras, etc., 
equal and would surpass those produced 
in Portugal, were more pains taken in 
the ektboraeion. There are excellent 
pasture-lands about the Ulla and hilly 
districts ; goats, sheep, and a smaU 
hardy breed of cows, are reared with 
skill, and sent in large quantities to the 
Spanish ports and London. The mines, 
those at least that have been worked, 
are insignificant ; copper, iron, and 
tin, are nevertheless said to exist in 
vast proportions. There are no fabrics 
save a few crystal, petroleum and linen 
works at Coruiia, Ferrol, Yivero and 
Tuy. The hills produce excellent timber 
for shipping and building. The bacon 
is delicious, and the Bayona bams (near 
Yigo) are celebrated, and not to be con- 
founded with those of French Bayonne. 
Those of Candelas are equally good. 

General Desoription. — ^The citLes 
are devoid of interest, if we except Sant- 
iago, the greatest pilgrimage centre in 
medisBval times, and interesting for its 
churches, etc., Lugo and the unrivalled 
Bay of Yigo and scenery around. The 
botany is worthy of study, and possesses 
great variety, owing to the difierence of 
temperature. There is capital trout and 
sahnon fishing, and wolves, boars, and 
caza menor are met with in the hills. 
The mountain scenery is Swiss-like, but 
tameTf and less varied in aspect. The 
climate is damp, rainy, and very cold 
in winter, when the mountain-passes 
and tracks are impracticalde. The 
roads, few in number, are not well kept, 
and the mountaineers often prefer tiie 
beaten tracks (smderos), which are both 
softer to their own and thdr horses' 
feet, and considerably shorten distances. 
Excursionists will find great hospitality 
among the simple-hearted cheerful 
highlanders, and the sturdy, sure- 
footed, long-maned jaecu gailegas 
(hacks) are excellent for expeditions 
in the hilly districts. The best period 
for visiting Qalicia is from the end of 
April to the middle of September. The 
routes we suggest are as foUows, and 
have been chosen with a view to com- 
bine mountain scenery, fishing, and 
city sight-seeing : — 

Leon to Villafranca del 

Vierzo, r. 
Ponferrada, r. 
La BaBeza, rid. 
Lago de Castaneda, rid. 
Montereyj diL 
Orense, ail. 
Rivadavia, r. 
Tuy, r. 
Vigo, r. 

Pontevedra, diL 
Santiago, du. 
Coruiia^ diL 
Ferrol, s., or r. and rid. 
Betanzos, r. 

Or, Lugo, r. 

Cangas de Tineo, rid. 
Monto&edo, diL 
Rivadeo, dU. 
Oviedo, diL 

The Lago de Castaikeda, Puente San 
Domingo de Flores, the Upper and 
Lower Cabreras, etc., will gratify the 
lover of scenery. The trout-rivers are: 
— ^The Tubia, Ladra, between Ferrol 
and Mondofiedo ; the Ulla and its tribu- 
taries, Furdos, Mora, etc., between Lugo 
and Santiago ; the Miflo, Tambre. The 
Sierra Candau abounds in wolves. 


GERONA. See Barcelona— iZow^ 

English seaport and fortress; lat. 
36* 6' 30^ N. ; long. 5' 21' 12* W. 
Greenwich. Population about 20,000, 
exclusive of the garrison. With the 
garrison, about 25,000. 

Boutes and GonveTanoes. — From 
/-^p^ London, 1151 m. By the 
m^aBi^ boats of the Hall line, 
weekly ; fare, £8, 1st. cl. ; calling at 
Vigo or Lisbon and Cadiz. Agents in 
Gibraltar: S. Peacock and Co., Irish 
Town. Or, better, by the first-class 
steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Steam Navigation Company ; Head 
Offices, 122 Leadenhall Street, E.C. 
Agents in Gibraltar: Smith, Imossi, 
and Co., Irish Town. Time, 5 days 
(Wednesday to Monday); fares, 1st 
cl., £9 ; children three years and under 
ten, £4 : 10s. ; 2d cl., and passengers' 
servants, £5 : 10s. Horses, £10 ; dogs, 
£2. Leave Gravesend every Thursday 
about 1 P.M. A special train Arom the 
Liverpool Street Station of the Great 
Eastern Railway to Tilbury (L. T. S.), 
from whence passengers are taken on 
board by the Company's river steamers. 
A surgeon on board. Divine service 
on Sundays. These steamers do not 
now touch at Vigo, but proceed direct 
to Gibraltar, where they remain for 6 
to 12 hours, then leave for Malta, etc. 
Also by the steamers of Messrs. Mac- 
Andrews and Co., by the Spanish line 
of Se&ores Saenz y Compafiia, and by 
many other irregular sailings, for which 
see advertisements. 

"From.Liverpool, By the Cunard lin e, 
weekly ; fares, £8 and £5. Agents in 
Gibraltar : M. H. Bland and Co., Irish 
Town. Also by Bums and Maclver*5 
steamers (same agents) and the Moss 
line. Agents : Smith, Imossi, and Co., 
Irish Town. 

From Glasgow, By the Anchor line, 

every 10 days. Agents at Gibraltar: 
Henderson and Co., Waterport Street 

From Havre, By Ligne Peninsulaire. 
With first-class lines to Gibraltar the 
traveller should pause before commit- 
ting himself to second-class boats. 

Description of Sea-Passage, — By this 
mode of reaching Spain, a good deal 
of trouble and expense is avoided, and, 
if undertaken in fair weather, the voyage 
is, on the whole, very pleasant Two 
days after leaving the port we enter 
'Biscay's troubled waters.* The first' 
land made is the N.W. coast of Spain, 
Cape Finisterre, after Cape OrtegaL 
The coast of Portugal is now descried, 
and, wind and weather permitting, we 
pass within a few cable-lengths of Cape 
»St Vincent A bold, rocky headland 
gives the Cape a very picturesque ap- 
pearance, enhanced by the deep red 
colour contrasting with the green of the 
sea. A huge mass of rock, detached 
in front of the headland, adds to the 
tableau, the background of which is 
formed by the noble range of the 
Montchique mountains. A lighthouse 
with a rotary light rises on one side, 
and a romantic monastery on the cliff. 
Cape St Vincent was the Roman * Mons 
Sacer,' a name which a neighbouring 
Portuguese hamlet (Sagres) has pre- 
served, which was reformed in 1416, by 
Prince Henry of Portugal. The Arabs 
called the convent Henisata-1-gorab, 
the Church of the Crow, from the re- 
ligious tradition of some crows who 
watched the body of St Vincent, who 
was put to death at Valencia in 804, 
but removed here during the Moorish 
invasion. This cape is particularly in- 
teresting, in connection with the battle 
fought Feb. 14, 1797, between the 
Spanish fleet, under Don Jos^ Cordova, 
and Admirals Jervis and Nelson, in 



which fifteen small English defeated, 
after one day's hard fighting, twenty- 
seven large Spanish ships, among which 
was * La Sta. Trinidad,' of 136 guns, four 
of the largest falling into Jervis's hands. 

The steamer rounds the cape and 
steers S. E. Cadiz and the lowflat shores 
of Andalusia are left westward, and now 
we enter the Straits of Gfibraltwr, Pass 
off Cape Trafalgar; in front project 
Tarifa and the yellow plains of the 
Salado, famous for the victory won by 
the Christians over the Infidel. A 
small block of white buildings and a 
lighthouse are aU that attract the eye 
on land, but here is the precise site of 
the battle of Trafalgar, Oct 21, 1805. 
Our readers are too well acquainted 
with the facts of this Waterloo of the 
seas, that we should venture to recall 
them to their minds. 

The Straits, the Arab * Gate of the 
Narrow Passage' (Bab-ez-zakak), *el 
estrecho,' are about 12 leagues frt>m 
Cape Spartel to Ceuta, and from this 
Cape of Trafalgar to Europe Point, in 
Spain. The narrowest point is at Ta- 
rifa, about 12 m. A constant current 
sets in from the Atlantic at the rate^of 
2 J m. per hour. Across to the right rise 
the low hills of Africa, Tangier being 
almost visible to the naked eye. Geo- 
logists, who in their conjectures go so 
far as to admit the possibility of America 
and Europe once forming one vast con- 
tinent, find it an easy matter to connect 
Europe with Africa by a supposed isth- 
mus, which must, they say, have existed 
about this point. They prove this by 
the variations of soundings, by the Phoe- 
nician tradition of a canal which was 
cut between the two continents, and 
over which a bridge was built, the canal 
gradually widening; and by urging 
that the geological composition of several 
rocks and headlands (that of Gibraltar 
included) on the Spanish portion, be- 
long exclusively to the N. African for 

mation, differing in this and other re- 
spects from the surrounding Spanish 
continent, etc. Now we soon run dose 
in under Spanish land, Sura being seen 
away on the hill-top, and the fort and 
lighthouse of Tarifa (see Cadiz) close 
to us. Gradually steering westward, 
we enter into stiller waters ; and before 
us rises majestically, grand, aU-mighty, 
bristling with 2000 cannon, the grey 
rock on which proudly waves the red 
fiag of England. Algeciras is on our 
left, San Roque a little to the W., and 
the glorious range of Spanish hills in 
the distant background* Upon the 
right the long line of the African coast, 
charmingly diversified, reaches away 
as far as the shadowy Apes' Hill, which 
towers above where Ceuta lies, while 
the hitherto bare Spanish shores put 
on an unwonted beauty of shape and 
greenness. For boat fares at Gibraltar 
see p. 153. 

From KCalaera. — By land, riding either by 
<^ Casarabonela, 6 leagues : ElBurgo, 

^.AJL a; Ronda, 3 = II ; whence by route 
^Cp^ descxihed Granada, or SishoTter-wsiy, 
J^BltJim and one we can recommend, as {(A- 

Malaga to Churriana 


Torremolinos . 

Arroyo de la Miel 

Benalmedina . 


MarbeUa . . 

(long) 4 

Venta de QuiRones 

Venta Casasol 

Estepona . 

Venta de la Torre 

Venta de la Sabinilla 

Venta de Rio Guada 

ro . . } 

San Roque 

. aj- 


. 1 


Horses are found at Mirallas (Malaga). The 
journey is paid io and dock, horses and men. 
One guide is sufficient when there are no 
ladies or considerable luggage in the case Oug- 
gage can be mostly sent by sea to Gibraltar, 
and addressed to the hotel). Guides may b* 
obtained at the Hotel de Roma, etc., who speak 
English, and understand French ; charge, 4or. a 



day, meab and bed included, exclusive of his 
horse. Side-chaincanbeprocuredforladie8,and 
are less fatiguing, but not quite so safe. There 
is a short cut by Coin, Monda, Ojen, to Mai^ 
bella, and then following the same route, but it 
is not so {feasant as the one recommended, the 
only attraction being the site of the batUe of 
Monda, where, on March 17, a.c 47, Julius 
Caesar rooted the sons of P(»npey, and thus 
obtained the mastery of the world. The jour* 
aey can be performed in two days, sleeping at 
Marbella. (We rode it in 2^ days, leaving 
Malaga at 3.30 p.u., and driving as far as 
Arroyo de la Miel, where we rode the horses 
sent beforehand, and arrived at La Fuengirola 
at 7 P.M.) 

Vuenclrola. — Thh: Posada del Salvador; 
dean beds, and no need for zoological researdies 
—trust to the gazpacho and rice. This small 
village and castle stand most picturesquely on 
a crag. As one approaches it the heights of 
Sierra Blanca are descried to the right, and to 
the left roll the quiet blue waves of the Medi- 
terranean, ^th the sandy beach glimmering in 
the distance, and studded with isolated watch- 
towers, mostly of Moorish style, dating from 
the troubled times of constant siuprises, inroads, 
and rebellions, characteristic of th^ protracted 
war between the Crescent and die Cross. 
Fuengirola was the Sual of the Romans, and 
Sohail oi the Moors, so called because from its 
neighbouring hill the star Sohail, the Canopus, 
is the only point in Spain from which it can be 
seen. Ibn-Al-K4thib says it was the object of 
constant landings .of Christians, and that its 
inhabitants were a bad sort of people. 

Leave Fuengirola at 6 A.M., glancing, as you 
pass, on the Castillo de Calahorra (Kalat- 
Horr^di) and the wild Monte and Puerto de 
M^as, reach Castillo de Cafia del Moral, 8.30, 
and Casa Fuerte or Castillo dd Moro at xo 
A.M. Observe this, and a little beyond the 
Torre de los Ladrones, which is doorless, and 
entered by means of ladders. These are each 
and all associated ^th traditions, mosUy tales 
of war, bold deeds, and scenes of bloodshed. 
The scenery is wild, die paths now and then 
precipitous. Sierra de Marbella rises on the 
right, pregnant with rich iron-mines, which are 
worked by Malaga enterprise. 

Marbella i^txe^xae) is charmingly situated 
amidst orange ^gardens; pop. 8000. Ibn-Al- 
K&thib and Idrisi praise MarbalUdi for its tm- 
rivalled grapes and figs, but call it a tent of strife, 
where blood was shed constandy by the enemies 
of IsUtm, as it was peopled by true believers, 
whence its other figurative name of ' the Land 
of Predicaticm in the sacred months,' etc The 
views from its Alameda are extensive ; the wlute 
walls of Tangier glitter on the opposite shore. 

and the rock of Gibraltar rises in the distance. 
On beholding the sea from this spot, Isabella is 
said to have exclaimed, in rs^ture with the 
scene, *Q}x€ mar bellal' whence the name 
Matitlla has been erroneously derived by 
some. Hotel accommodation in this rapidly 
increasing town— increasing with the develop- 
ment of the vast mineral wealth of the district 
-leaves much to be desired, but the Fonda de 
Sandalio Chicote is fair. H.B.M. Vice-Consul, 
Dn. M. Caliada The dimate is delidous and 
wholesome, the sur more genial and moist than 
at Malaga, and when the commtmications be- 
tween Gibraltar and Malaga become more 
I»acticable, this will deservedly become a 
favourite medical station. The town has a 
good port, and rapidly increasing trade. The 
4 leagues from Fuengirola to Marbella appear 
much longer than the 5 leagues between this 
and £stepona, an anomaly frequent on Spanish 
roads. To right extends the thickly planted 
PcsesioH of Marshal Concha, Marqu^ dd 
Duero, near the unwholesome ague-stricken 
hamlet of San Pedro Alcantara. Observe the 
* sugar-canes how luxuriandy they grow and 
) thrive in this dimate — the best thermometer to 

I consult There is excellent shooting between 
this and Estepona, which is mosdy a preserve 
) of the Marshal's. Ford the Guadalmansa twice, 
pass by a Torre of same name, and turning to 
right by Venta de la Tia, Estepona will be 
reached at 7 p.m., shordy afker crossing the Rio 

Xatepona.— 93x6 inhab. N.E. of Sierra 
Bermeja; seiqiort— 'the Esthebbun^ of the 
Moors, but of earlier foundation (Cilniana of 
the Romans), as, according to the history of 
this dty written by Abn Bekr-d-Idrisi Al&rabi, 
and what Ibn-Al-K&thib states, it contained in 
thdr time mins <ii several monuments. The 
casde was built by the Romans, and there are 
some ruins of an ancient aqueduct of Salduba 
at Las Bovedas. The best inn is that of the 
Alcalde (dear; widiout ordinary meat to offer 
the hungry travdler). Estepona, a small, 
dean town, supplies Gibraltar with fruit and 
vegetables. Its sierra and that of Casares 
abound with cabras montesas, roebucks, etc. 

Leave next morning at 9, or, what is better, 
at 7, so as to reach Gibraltar eariy. (There is 
a road from Estepona to Ronda, which lies 7 
leagues across a hilly district, and to N.W. 
another to Gaucin.) Castillo de las Sabinillas 
will be reached at xx A.M. Ford the Guadiaro 
(Fluvius Barbesulse), if not swollen by rain. 
There is a ferry-boat, a few yards farther, from 
which passengers are landed on men's shoulders. 
Fares, 4 cuartes each party, and same for each 
horse. Riders may save an hour by avoiding 
San Roque. San Roque.-'^nmoce of Cadiz 



8,434 inhab. Macre's hotel, an £nglish inn, 
small, but comfortable ; another in Calle de la 
Plata. This smuggling population and most 
indifferent town is so called from a former her- 
mitage dedicated to San Roque (y su perro). 
It is the caheza departido of tfie Campamento, 
which cross, and proceed through the lines to 
Gibraltar. At the gates, passports, luggage, 
etc., are strictly examined. 

From Malaga and Cadiz. By the 
steamers of Messrs. John Hall and Co., 
weekly, in about 8 hrs. ; fares, 1st cL, 
£1 ; 2d cL, 12s. The French Com- 
pagnie Gen^rale Transatlantique, trad- 
ing between Gibraltar and Oran weekly, 
call at Malaga. The excellent steamers 
of the Spanish Segovia Cuadra line may 
be taken weekly, from or to Algeciras, 
from whence small ferry boats across to 
Gibraltar. The steamers of Messrs. 
Haynes run about three times per week 
in 10 hrs. ; fares, 18s. and 10s. For 
other less regular steam communica- 
tions see announcements upon the walls 
and in papers. 

From and to Tangier^ etc. See 

It may be said generally that there 
are steamers constantly plying between 
this and the principal ports of the 
United Kingdom, France, coasts of 
Spain, Malta, Egypt, etc. 

Between Gibraltar and Algeciras. — 
In summer (1st April to 30th Septem- 
ber) steamers leave Gibraltar for Alge- 
ciras at 9 and 10.30 A.M., and 5 p.m. 
on Sundays ; leaving Algeciras for 
Gibraltar at 7 and 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. 
On week-days the hours are 9 a.m., 12 
nooD, and 5 p.m. to Algeciras ; 7 and 
10 A.M. and 3 p.m. to Gibraltar. In 
winter (1st October to end of March), 
Sundays, to Algeciras, 9 and 10.30 a.m. 
and 4 P.M. ; from Algeciras, 7 and 10 
A.M. and 3 p.m. The remainder of the 
week 9 A.M., 12 noon, and 4 p.m. from 
Gibraltar, and 7 and 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. 
from Algeciras. Fares, Ist el, 5 rvn. ; 
2d cL, 8 rvn. 



ScalCf 1 inch to the mOe (Engli&h], 

Hotela.— 1. Boyal Hotel in tbe 
main street ; 148. a-day without extras. 

2. Europa Hotel on the New Mole 
Parade. Both these hotels are fairly 
comfortable and well managed, but 
their charges are too high. 

3. The King's Arms, close to the 
Royal Hotel ; excellent attendance and 
cuisine ; good wines ; charges reason- 

Begulations. — Strict regulations 
concerning foreigners and British sub- 
jects are observed here, and martial 



lav mles on the rock. Ko foreigner 
can reside withont his consul or a house- 
holds heooming his security. Pennits 
of residence are granted hy the police- 
magistrate for ten, fifteen, and twenty 
days ; military officers can introduce a 
stronger for thirty days. The gates are 
shut at sunset, and 5 to 15 min. after 
the evening-gun has been fired. 

Hours of gun-fire (minimum time), 
when the gates are opened and closed. 
Opened in the morning^ Jan., 6.15 to 
6.10 ; Feb., 6.10 to 5.40 ; March, 5.40 
to 5; April, 5 to 4.15; May, 4.15 to 
8.45 ; June, 8.45 to 8.50 ; July, 8.50 
to 4.10 ; Aug., 4.10 to 4.40 ; Sept., 4.40 
to 5.5 ; Oct, 5.5 to 5.80 ; Not., 5.80 
to 6 ; Dec, 6 to 6.15. 

Evening Owu—Jan., 5.85 to 6 ; Feb., 
6.5 to 6.80; March, 6.85 to 6.55 ; 
April, 7 to 7.20; May, 7.25 to 7.50; 
June, 7.55 to 8 ; July, 8 to 7.40 ; Aug., 
7.36 to 7.5 ; Sept, 6.55 to 6.20 ; Oct, 
6.10 to 5.40 ; Nov., 5.85 to 6.20 ; Dec., 
6.20 to 6.36. 

The second evening gun is fired at 
half-past 9 o'clock throughout the year. 
N.B, — These tables are most VLseful to 
those riding into the country, as the 
gates are afterwards shut for the night. 

Post OfiEloe,Main Street ; the general 
overland mail and Algedras estafette 
are received and despatched daily. 

All letters for Spain must be prepaid 
by British postage stamps. Letters for 
England go in a sealed bag vid Madrid. 
The mail is despatched at 9 A.M., reach- 
ing London on the fifth day, Paris on 
the fourth day, and Madrid on the 
third day. A letter, therefore, posted 
in Gibraltar early on Monday morning 
is delivered in London on Friday night, 
or in the provinces on Saturday mom- 
ing. Letters from London are despatched 
twice daily, but the evening mail waits 
for the early despatch of the following 
mornings and both are delivered together 
m Gibraltar on the evening of the fifth 

day. Letters for the United States, West 
Indies, the States of South America, 
Canada, etc., are sent in the London 
closed bag, unless some other route is 
specially named on the envelope. 

Correspondence for Malta, Egypt, 
and the East, with Australia and New 
Zealand, is forwarded weekly. 

The postal rates are :— For Spain and 
Tangier, Id. for a letter not exceeding 
J oz. ; 2d. for 1 oz. Newspapers, Jd. 
for 2 oz. and every additional 2 oz. 
For countries within the Postal Union, 
2id. for letters not exceeding i oz. ; 
5d. for 1 oz. Newspapers, Jd. fwr 2 
oz. and for every additional 2 oz. 

Telegraph.— Telegrams to England 
vid France or Bilbao (but route must 
be specified), 4 pesetas 70 cts. for 10 
words ; 9 pesetas 40 cts. for 20 words, 
with a ground tax of 5 words. 

Carriages, Cabs, etc.— For fares by 
distance see tariflF supplied. By time : 
Is. 6d. per hour for one or two persons, 
with 9d. for every additional half-hour ; 
each additional passenger to pay an 
extra 6d. per hour. Horses, 2 dols. 
per day; 1 dol. for the afternoon. 
Qood hired carriages of all descriptions 
can be had, from heavy clarences to 
jaunting-caro and hansoms. Avoid the 
Spanish calesa, fit only to crack one's 
bones to pieces. From hotel to port 
2s. is the customary charge. 

Boats, Tariff 


To Bay and back, not exceeding half 

an hour a 6 

Every extra half-hour . . . i o 

To Ragged Staff Stairs . . . a 6 

New Mole 36 

If more than two persons, for each . . z o 

General Description.— This famous 
fortress (the Calpe of the ancients) is 
situated on the W. side of a lofty pro- 
montory or rock, which 'projects into 
the sea in a southerly direction, some 
8 miles, being one-half to three qnar- 




teis of a mile in width. The town 
lies on the western slopes of the rocky 
mountain, the highe^ portions of 
which (1430 ft.), though apparently 
naked, are, on closer survey, found to 
be clothed with AMcan vegetation. 
What, however, is most remarkable is, 
that this rock, outwardly so harmless 
in appearance, is all undermined and 
tunnelled with wonderM ingenuity 
and at enormous expense, and now and 
then, behind a palmito, or between two 
prickly pears, 1^ yawning mouth of a 
cannon will just peep out, like a bull- 
dog at bay. The £. and S. sides are 
very rugged, and almost perpendicular, 
and their being fortified is quite a 
display of defiance, as they are totally 
inaccessible. Its northern side, front- 
ing the narrow isthmus which connects 
it with Spain, is precipitous, and not 
less accessible ; yet perhaps the only 
one by which an army could begin the 
assault The circumference is 6 miles, 
the length, N. to S., about 3. 

The W. side, facing the sea, is ap- 
parently the weakest, and the portion 
to right of Ragged Staff Stairs, and all 
about Jumper's Battery, was certainly 
not as strongly fortified as the rest 
before the new works were begun, and 
here the English landed under Admiral 
Rooke. One of the extreme ends of 
the rock, facing the sea, is Europa 
Point, where a lighthouse and batteries 
have been erected; the other, on the 
opposite extremity, is called Punta de 
Espafia. The 'mvJML gnmnd is the 
strip of land dividing the rock from 
the mainland, the portion belonging to 
England being all undermined ; it could 
also be instantly submerged. A little 
beyond is the Campo de Gibraltar, and 
the lines (lineas) where the Spanish 
sentry, the bumt-up, black-eyed, thin, 
ill-fed, but picturesque child of the sun 
monnts lazily guard side by side with 
the fair-haired, blue-eyed, and prosaic 

son of fog and ndn. The jnecipi- 
tons sides of the grey limestone rock 
are verdant in spring and autumn, and 
the scattered orchards produce excellent 
fruit ; in summer they become tawny 
and bare. There is, at that season oi 
the year, a want of circulation of air, 
which, added to the extreme heat, 
scorching Levanter, and absence ot 
trees, makes Gibraltar next to intoler- 
able. The rock, moreover, rising be> 
hind the town, reflects the heat, and 
checks the currents of air. 

The highest point of the rock is called 
the Signal, or El ffacho. From it the 
panorama is unrivalled. The eye, from 
this eagle's 03^10, sweeps over two seas, 
two quarters of the world, and what 
four hundred years ago constituted five 
kingdoms— viz., Granada, Seville, etc. 
Beyond the straits looms tiie mysterious 
verdant (not arid) Africa, with its king- 
doms of Fez, Mequinez, Morocco, and 
its ports of Tangier and Ceuta— the 
Abyla of the Phoenicians. 

When first seen from the sea, the 
great rock bursts suddenly into the blue 
air, a height of 1430 ft., rising, as it 
were, from under the waves, as the land 
about it is all flat, low, and does not 
appear linked to it ; it rises like a mon- 
strous monolith, a fragment of some 
shattered world dropped here by chance, 
and not ill> compared, by a foreign 
writer, to a gigantic granite sphiiuc, 
whose shoulders, groins, and croup 
would lie towards Spain, with the long, 
broad, loose, flowing, and undulating 
outlines, like those of a lion asleep, and 
whose head, somewhat truncated, is 
turned towards Africa, as if with a 
dreamy and steadfast deep attention. 
Towards the W., in tiie distance, we 
can descry the high summits of the arid 
Cuervo, the hills of Ojen and Sonorra ; 
to K. the range of the Sierra de Ronda ; 
and towards the E., following the wide 
outline of land formed by the Mediter- 



ranean, all the creeks, miniatare har- 
bours, and promontories of the indented 
coast, the small town of Estepona, part 
of Marbella, farther on the hazy peaks 
of Sierra Bermeja, and finally, blending 
with the luminous skies, tiie snowy 
heights of Alpigarras and Sierra Ne- 
vada. At our feet lies the now almost 
imperceptible town of Gibraltar, and 
yonder, in the bay, the three-deckers at 
anchor, which look like so many play- 
things, or miniatare ships, whilst, 
sweeping across the quiet blue sheet of 
sunlit water, the eye rests pleasantly on 
the terraced gay-looking iJgeciras, and 
to the right San Roque and its cork-tree 

The FortifiGoUons, — ^Apply for permit 
Lane. A master^gunner conducts the 
visitor. Ladies, and parties who dread 
fatigue, are provided with donkeys. The 
defences of tiie rock are wonderfully con- 
trived ; the result of constant and close 
investigation of every nook and comer 
liable to surprise. In the course of this 
visit we pass first the Moorish castle 
(which is not shown), one of the earliest 
Moorish works in Spain, having been 
erected, according to the Arabic inscrip- 
tion over the S. gate, in 725, by Abu 
Abul Htgez. The Torre del Homenage, 
which is riddled with shot-marks, is 
picturesque, with a fine circular arch. 

The OcUleries. — ^Near this are the 
'galleries, ' excavated along the N. front, 
and in tiers. These contain thirty-seven 
guns of dififerent calibre, some mounted 
on stocks, in order to change the level 
when required. The smoke when the 
guns are fired issues freely, causing no 
serious inconvenience to the gunners, 
save when strong easterly winds prevail. 
Visit the Comwallis and St George's 
Hall, the latter of which is 50 ft. by 85 
ft The engineering of these tunnelled 
galleries, the distribution of the guns, 
the lighting up, the deposits for shot and 

powder, are admirable, though exceediug, 
perhaps, all the strict requirements ; it is 
'le luxe et lacoquetterie de rimprenable.' 
Signal Tower. — Upon leaving the 
galleries viators should ascend to the 
Signal Tower, along zigzag roads. 
On the way they are likely to meet, 
or rather descry in the distance, some 
of the advanced guard of the maraud- 
ing monkeys, the tenants of the rock, 
who, as first occupants of the soil, 
have been always respected both by 
Spaniards and English. The bravest 
come down from the tops at night-fall, 
and lurk about the orchards in search 
of fruit and stray chickens ; others, more 
prudent, keep to the palmitos and 
prickly pear, which they cany with 
them to discuss on the rocks. At the 
Signal Tower telescopes and refresh- 
ments are provided. From this point 
(the view from which has been already 
described) proceed to the stalactite 
Cave of St. Michael, which presents 
a fine sight when illuminated. The 
ruins of the O'Hara Tower, or Folly, 
may next be seen, situated on the S. 
point of the rock, and which was built 
by that officer to watch the movements 
of the Spanish fleet at Cadiz, and de- 
stroyed by lightning soon after its com- 
pletion. The view it affords of the S. 
district is very fine and extensive. Then 
return by the geranium-planted avenues 
and narrow Isuaes into the dty. Those 
who interest themselves in military de- 
fences may visit, in the lower portion of 
the rock, the Devil's Tongue Battery, 
close to Land Port, then following the 
sea or line wall to King's Bastion, after- 
wards by the gate and walls built by 
Charles V., passing on to South Port, 
Victoria Battery, and Orange Bastion, 
to the gardens. On their right are the 
Ragged Staff Stairs and Jumper's Bat- 
tery. Ascend Scud Hill, as far as Wind- 
mill HilL Visit the Naval Hospital, 
South Barracksi Pavilion, etc 



The City is most uninterestiiig and 
dull. It consists of tqiiform white- 
washed huge barracks, and low, flat- 
roofed, and darkly-painted houses, 
mostly made of bricks, plaster, and 
wood, after an Italian, or rather no 
style. The streets are narrow and 
winding ; the principal one is Water- 
port Street, which is lined with very in- 
different shops, where prices are higher 
than in England. English comforts, 
however, can be procured, including 
excellent tea, ales, cigars, English 
medicines, firearms, saddlery, etc. 

The Alameda is the pride of Gib- 
raltar, and is truly charming, being 
laid out in the English style, and 
abounding in beautiful geraniums and 
bowers. It commands fine views of 
the straits and coast of Africa. At the 
entrance is the drilling-ground, where 
the regimental bands play in the 
evening. The monuments to the Duke 
of Wellington and General Elliot are 
mean and tasteless. The Alameda 
then becomes the fashionable lounge, 
and the spectacle presented by the 
close contrast of populations of ex- 
treme points of Europe is quite novel 
and curious. The London bonnet and 
Mrs. Brown's hats are seen side by side 
with the mantilla de tiro ; blue eyes and 
rosy complexions next melting black 
eyes and olive-dark cu4i8. The different 
mien, toilette, language, and walk are all 
striking. Th^ophile Gauthier thus de- 
scribes the effect produced on his 
humorous mind by this scene: — *Je 
ne puis exprimer la sensation d^sagr^- 
able que j%rouvai k la vue de la pre- 
miere Anglaise que je rencontrai, un 
chapeau It voile vert sur la tSte, mar- 
chant comme un grenadier de la garde, 
au moyen de grands pieds chauss^ de 
grands brodequins. Ce n'^tait pas 
qu'elle fat laide, au contraire, nuus 
j'^tais acoontum^ h, la puret^ de race, 
^ la finesse du eheval arabe, k la grftce 

exquise de d-marche, k la mignonnerie 
et k la gentiQesse andalouses, et cette 
figure rectiligne, au regard ^tonn^, i 
la physionomie morte, auz gestes angu- 
leux, avec, sa tenue exacte et m^tho- 
dique, son parfum de 'cant,' et son 
absence de tout naturel, me prodnisit 
un effet comiquement sinislre. II me 
sembla que j'ltais mis tout-k-coup en 
prince du spectre de la civilisation, 
mon ennemie mortelle.' 

There are no buildings of particular 
interest. The governor's house is in- 
different, the synagogues poorly de- 
corated, the English and Spanish 
churches not worth visiting. Religions 
toleration rules side by side with liberty 
of commerce. There are two bishops, 
one Protestant and the other Catholic. 

Tourists should not neglect, en pas- 
sarvty to visit the several markets, if 
possible early in the morning ; not for 
the nicknacks, mouldering bedsteads, 
worm-eaten chairs and tables which are 
sold, but on account of the tjrpes and 
dress of the motley crowd. Moors, Turks, 
Greeks, Jews, the Spanish smuggler, 
the Catalan sailor, the red coat of the 
English private, all mingle together, 
bawling, disputing, bargaining, and 
cheating in their different tongues, 
ways, and gestures. The fish-market 
is another sight not to be omitted. The 
fish is excellent and varied. There is 
always a good supply cif fruit from 
Spain and Morocco; the Tangerine 
oranges are exquisite. 

The Bay of OibraUar is spacious, 
and sheltered from the most dangerous 
winds. It is formed by two head- 
lands — Europa Point on the rock, and 
Cabrita in Spain. Two moles have 
been constructed for the protection 
of ships ; the old one, offering none 
but to small craft, projects from the 
N. end of the town, 1100 ft. into the 
sea. Along the new mole, which is 1| 
m. more to the S., and extendi 700 ft 



01ltwaKdl^ line-of-battb ahipB can easily 
be moored. The greatest length of the 
bay N. tc S. is 8 m. ; the width K to 
W. of 5 in., and the Idepth in the 
centre exceeds 100 fathoms, the tide 
rising some 4 ft. ; the anchorage is 
good, the bay being exposed only to 
S.W. There is a good deal of trade at 
Gibraltar, as it is a &ee port^ hampered 
with but few restrictions. 

The Talne of British products ex- 
ported to Gibraltar amounts to about 
£660,000. The revenue cdlected in 
the town amounts to from £30,000 to 
£40,000, which is sufficient to defray 
the public civil expenditure. But 
since a more liberal system has been 
introduced by Spani^ ministers of 
finance, the exports of British products 
have declined. 

History, — When the Phoenicians (see 
Cadiz), in their bold and distant naval 
expeditions, arrived thus far, they con- 
sidered this to be the end of the world, 
and called it Alube, or (according to 
many) Calpe or Calph, a ' caved moun- 
tain.' Here they erected one of the 
two Pillars of Hercules, the other being 
that of Abyla, Abel (Ceuta), which 
rises on the African coast some 2200 
ft. high. Taiik, the one-eyed Berber 
invader, attacked and took the place^ 
April 80, 711, and to commemorate his 
first victory called it after his own 
name^ * Ghebal-Tarik.' It was re- 
covered by Guzman el Buenb in 1809, 
but surrendered to the Moors some 
years after. Another Guzman in 1462 
dispossessed the Infidel, who never re- 
covered it after that time. During the 
war of succession, in 1704, when the 
garrison consisted of only eighty men. 
Sir George Rooke, by a sudden attack, 
surprised and obtained an easy posses- 
sion of it. Since that time, and not- 
withstanding repeated efforts made by 
Spain and France, and a siege which 
'Asted four yeare, England has main- 

tained this fortress at a lavish expendi- 
ture of gdd. Of late years there has 
been some idle talk about restoring 
Gibraltar to Spain, and, not better 
founded, offers of compensation from 
the Spanish Government. Gibraltar 
is a thorn in the side of every Spaniard, 
just as the possession of Dover by the 
French would be one to every English- 
man. In the eyes of some Spanish 
patriots and statesmen it is a 'C!ar- 
thago delenda est,' and they have en- 
deavoured to show that it would be for 
the interest of England to give up this 
steonghold. Pamphlets, squibs, and 
leaders have been launched on the sub- 
ject, armed with Armstrong arguments, 
and with no better success thui D'Ar- 
tois' floating batteries before the rock. 
In England Mr. Bright, who was the 
first to open the discussion, declared in 
Parliament that in his opinion Gibraltar 
ought to be given back, and he drew 
es^cial attention to the expenses* in- 
curred by England, which are upwards 
of £200,000 annually in time of peace 
(5000 men), exclusive of material— the 
total outlay having been fifty millions 
sterling upon its defences. Burke held a 
different opinion of its importance, and 
referred to it *as a post of power, a post 
of superiority, of connection, of com- 
merce ; one which makes us invaluable 
to our friends, and dreadful to our ene- 
mies.' Its importance has increased as 
a coal depdt since the propagation of 
steam. It affords also a convenient 
and secure station for the outfit and 
repair of British ships of war and mer- 
chantmen. There are stores and water- 
cisterns which would supply a garrison 
of 150,000 men during two years. 

OUmate.— Here the Levanter, the 
* tyrant of Gibraltar,' rules with more 
power and intensity than elsewhere, 

* According to the last army estimates, Gib- 
raltar figures for 4980 men, at y. cost of jC3(.«6.a6a 



the town lying open to its influence. 
Its prevalence lasts sometimes for six 
weeks, and even two months. It is 
peculiarly fatal to children, and to 
advanced stages of phthisis, nervous 
constitutions, and generally where 
debility prevails. The W. wind is also 
termed the * liberator.' There is an 
epidemic malady, called * Gibraltar 
fever,' which breaks out in the autumn, 
but its visitation is at rare intervals. 
According to local military doctors, 
one of the causes of pulmonary diseases 
frequent among the garrison is to be 
ascribed to ' the peculiar nature of a 
soldier's life, which is not favourable, 
when compared to that of a civilian, to 
the enjoyment of any exemption from 
chest diseases, which a warm climate 
may be calculated to afford.' Thus 
the soldiers, after drinking and amus- 
ing themselves in the town, which is 
warm and sheltered, hasten, when the 
retreat is sounded at ni^tfall, to their 
barracks, which are situated on the 
higher and more airy parts of the rock. 
The extreme change of temperature 
then occasions diseases erroneously 
attributed to the climate. The rate of 
mortality has been steadily decreasing 
of late years. Thus while in 1862 it 
was 31*40 per 1000, in 1884 it was only 
19 per 1000. 

Money at Gibraltar.— By an order 
in Council of May 2, 1881, the follow- 
ing currency has been settled : — 

Goldpieces. — 100 pesetas ; 50 pesetas ; 
25 pesetas; 10 pesetas; 5 pesetas (com- 
monly called dollars) ; with the doblon 
de Isabel, value 25 pesetas; the 4 
escudo, or 2 dollar piece; and the 2 
escudo, or gold dollar piece. 

Silver. — 6 pesetas; 2 pesetas; 1 
peseta ; 50 centimes ; 20 centimos ; 
with the 2 escudo, or peso dure ; the 1 
escudo, or half-dollar; and 8 reals of 
plate, or i dollar. 

Bronze, — 10 centimos; 5 centimos; 
2 centimos ; 1 centime. 

Calculations are also made in reals 
de vellon, 20 of which are equal to a 
dollar of 5 pesetas; and in an imaginary 
coin called real de plate, 12 of which 
are taken as being equal to a dollar 
of 5 pesetas. The following table 
gives a useful expression of current 
values : — 1 dollar = 5 pesetas = 12 
reals de plate = 20 reals de vellon 
(rvn.) = 48 pence = 192 farthings = 
500 centimes. 

Though not legal tender, all Spanish 
and British coins are taken in ordinary 
transactions. £1 is reckoned as equal 
to 25 pesetas ; 4 shillings as equal to 
5 pesetas ; 1 shilling as 125 centimos 
(1' 25 pesetas) ; and one penny as 10 

Bamkers, — ^Messrs. Archbold, John- 
ston and Power, Irish Town. 

Consuls. — Frcmce, M. de Trobriand. 
MoroccOf Hadj Said Guesus, Waterport 
Street Gerrrumyf F. Schott, Esq. 
Spain, E. Mediano de Blasco. United 
StcUes, H. J. Sprague. 

Doctors. — Patron, Market Street ; 
Triay, Tumbull's Lane. 

i?a^.— Market Street 

Bookseller and iS'to^ioner.— Beanland, 
Church Street 

Morocco, etc., fancy articles. — Beno- 
liel. Gunner's Lane. 

Wines and Cigars, — Saccone, Market 

^mt««nenfe.— Theatre Royal,Tennis, 
Polo, Cricket and Rowing Clubs. The 
Oa/rrison Library, 45,000 vols. Visitors 
admitted upon introduction. Adjoining 
is the Pavilion, with bar, smoking, 
billiard, card and dressing rooms. 
Several good Clubs and Philharmonic 
Societies, to which admission upon 
introduction is readily obtained. The 
bands play on the Alameda on Mon- 
days and Thursdays, at 9 p.m. in the 
summer, and 4 p.m. in the winter. 



SwUing Cflub. -^The Oalpe Hunt 
Club was founded by Admiral Fleming 
in 1814, who brought here a pack of 
hounds, which became the property of 
the dub. There is a secretary, to whom 
apply for admittance. The sport is 
good, and there are excellent covers. 
A good hack can be hired for the day 
for 2 dollars. The best meets are now : 
2d Venta, Pine Wood, Malaga road, 
Duke of Kent's farm. There is like- 
wise some shooting, woodcocks espe- 
cially, in the cork -wood, and cabras 
montesas, partridges, and wildfowl are 
found in the vicinity of Estepona and 
the convent de la Abnorayma, 14 m. 

Excuraions, — To Carteya. — ^An early 
Carthaginian dty ; remains of anamphi- 
theatre, and two miles* circuit of wadls ; 
some very interesting coins are often 
dug up, and sold to visitors. To Jimena, 
— Curious grottoes and ruins of a pic- 
turesquely-situated Moorish castle. Ex- 
cursion to Tari/a, (See Cadiz,) To 
the convent of Almoraima 14} m. by 

For Tangiers, etc, see Morocco. 

San Roque, and 18} m. by the straight 
road, and 4 m. on to the Castle of Cas- 
tellur, owned by the Duke of Medina- 
CelL At San Pedro Alcantara, an ex- 
tensive estate recently bought by Mar- 
shal Concha, the sugar-cane is being 
cultivated on a very large scale. The 
town is unwholesome; parts of the 
grounds abound with game. Algedras, 
A special steamer plies dally between 
Gibraltar and Algeciras. In a boat, 
with favourable wind and oar, about 8 
to 4 hrs. going and returning, which 
can be done for 80r. (vellon) per head, 
for a small party (see pp. 98, 152). 

Distances to tkt most frequented points. 


Waterport Gate to Lines . . . . zi 

„ Campo . . .31 

„ San Roque ... 6 

„ First river called 

Guadarranque 5I 

„ Ximena . •24 

„ Tarifa by the land . 94 

„ Los Barrios. . . xa 

„ Algeciras, by the beach zo 

, , Algeciras, across the bay s\ 

Ourteya • • • 5 


Province of Oviedo, capital of a con- 
cejo, Asturian sea -port {hahilitado). 
Pop. 20,600. 

Inins : Fonda de la Iberia, Fonda del 
Commercio. Both fair and reasonable. 

Post and Telegraph Offices, Calle de 
Jovellanos 46. 

H,B,M, Fice-Consuly W. Penlington, 

Boutes and Gonv. — From Oviedo 
and Zeon, by rail, one through train 
per day both ways (three from Oviedo). 
Distance, 171 kil. Time, 8 hours. 
Fares, IstcL, Pes. 17.70 ; 2dcl., 13.30 ; 
3d cl., 8.00. For description of route 
as far as Oviedo, see Oviedo. 

From Santander. By land (see Ovi- 
edo), By steamer frequently in~about i 

9 hours. Ditto from Vigo, Corutla and 
Ferrol, in 12 to 20 hrs. 

From Bayonne, Nantes, Bordeaux, 
Havre, London and Liverpool (Mac- 
Andrews' line), and Southampton. For 
these, as for all other steamer routes, 
apply to the agents at the various 
ports and see advts. , etc They are all 
very unreliable. 

From Rivadeo, Aviles, etc By daily 

Gijon is usually reached from Oviedo 
by raU or road. The road traverses 
the pretty country about the feligresias 
of Lngones, and the small sierra close 
to Yenta de la Campana, which forms 
part of the Asturian mountains. Half- 
way is the ruined very early church of 



VillardoYeyo. It is of the Latin or 
Romano -Byzantine style. Close to 
Venta de Veranes are the ruins of a 
Templar's monastery. From the Vega 
of Porceyo one can already descry Gy on. 

Oeixeral Description. — Gijon is 
situated on the slopes of a hill or head- 
land, surrounded almost on every side 
by the Mar Cantabrica. The annual 
value of imports and exports is about 
£225,000. Its excellent port deserves 
more prosperity, the entrance being 
easy at all times, and the bottom good. 
It is hdbUitado; that is, enjoys the 
privilege of trading with America — a 
privilege seldom granted, and which 
such ports as Bilbao and St Sebastian 
do not possess. The roadstead is de- 
fended by the small promontories of 
Capes San Lorenzo and Torres, and it 
has become one of the many fashion- 
able sea-bathing resorts of the north- 
west. The coalfields, which abound 
close by, at Langreo and elsewhere, are 
a great source of trade, and the more 
so since the opening of the railway 
from Sama. 

Historically, it is not the Gigia of 
Ptolemy, but the early G^o of the 
Romans. Easily taken and retained by 
the Moors, it became the residence of 
Munuza, its Moorish governor, who 
surrendered the town to Pelayo, after 
the loss of the battle of Canicas. Some 
writers have asserted that Pelayo's suc- 
cessors were styled Kings of G^on, but 
it is an erroneous interpretation of the 
Carta de Fundacion of Obona ; ' Adel- 
gaster filius regis Gegionis' ought to bo 
read, 'regis SUonis.' At the time of 
its prosperity the city was confined to 
the headland that projects between the 
ensenidas. The sea isolated it, and 
the only communications between were 
carried on by a large and wide/oso, and 
by a lago<m, or JmmedcU, with an almost 
impracticable embouchure. In Philip 
II. 's time Gijon possessed good arsenals, 
and the Invincible Armada was re- 

paired here. In 1552-54, Charles V. 
granted money to the burghers to build 
a cay, or quay, and a new one was 
built in 1766 by Pedro Menendez. 

Sights. — On entering the town ob- 
serve the fine gate del InfwnU, erected 
by Charles III. in commemoration of 
Pelayo, Infans Pelagius, and which 
opens on the largest street here, called 
'La Corrida,' which crosses the whole 
city, and leads to the port or mueUe. 
The town is clean and improving, but 
wanting in objects of interest. The 
Colegiata and San Pedro (1410) are in- 
different. In the latter is the tomb of 
JoveUanos and his marble bust This 
great and true patriot was a native of 
Gijon (bom January 5, 1744), who died 
at Vega, 1811. Cean Bermudez, one of 
the few good critical writers on art 
that Spain can boast of, was also bom 
here. The houses of Marq. of ReviUa- 
gigedo, Casa Yald^s, and San Esteban, 
are not early, but goodish mansions. 
The Institute Asturiano, founded by 
JoveUanos (1797), possesses a fair li- 
brary. The tobacco-manufacture em- 
ploys upwards of 1400 female hands. 

BxonraJk)n to Iisngreo. — Distance, 39 
kil. Time, 2^ hrs. Fares, xst cL, x6r. ; ad cL, 
xar. 90C ; 3d cl., 8r. aoc. Two trains a day. 
This railroad, which has been made especially 
for the coal-pits, was the work of Sefior Aguado, 
an enterprising capitalist,— a gentleman of good 
birth and connections in Andalusia, who died 
in the winter of 1843, on his journey to Gijon, 
from cold and starvation. The rail goes only 
to Osiura, whence conveyances can be had to 
the mines. The latter are no longer worked 
by any but Spanish capital. The coal-beds in 
some places run 13 ft. thick, the average being 
between 3 and 4 ft. The coal is considered 
inferior only to the best English, but is not now 
much exported. Anglers can try the Nalon 
near which is the fine palado of the Marq. de 
Campo Sagrado. 

Bxouraion to Devft.— x league. Visit the 
diurch, dates X006. Also, near Gijon, visit 
Church of Sta. Maria de Valdedios, founded 
899 by Alfonso el Magno. ■ The newer church 
was built by Alfonso IX. 



Capital of province of Granada, re- 
sidence of Captain-GeneraL Pop. of 
province, about 478,000; of city, about 
Boutes and Conveyanoes. — From 
Madrid, By rail as far as 
Mer^ibar, on the Madrid to 
' Cordova line. Time, llj 
hrs. Pares, 1st cL, Pes. 88.65; 2d 
cl., 29.95; 3d oL, 18.40; 2 trains 
per day, and bi-weekly 1st cl. exp. 
Change at Me^jibar (or 
Espelny) for branch line 
to Jaen ; dist 88 kiL 8 
trains per day. From Jaen dil. daily 
to Granada, 16^ leagues (49^ miles). 


Jaen to Venta del Chaval 
Campilo de Arenas 
Cortijo de Andar . 
Venta de Mitagalan 




This road, most of which was opened 
in 1828,i8 excellent and well-engineered, 
and passes through a country wild and 
picturesque in certain portions. There 
are some dwarfish oaks, broom, and 
heather. The aloe appears for the first 
time, and Andalusia — the Moor's earthly 
paradise, the enchanted land— now lies 
before you ; and truly. 

La terra molle e Ileta, e dilettosa, 
Simili a se gU abbitator produce. 

Jaen. — ^Capital of province of same 
name; population, 22,938. Inns, — 
Fonda Madrilena ; Fonda de Europa ; 
fair. The province of Jaen (Ara- 
bic^, Jayyin), was an independent 
Moorish kingdom of 268 square 
leagues. It produces the olive and 
vine) which yield inferior oil and 

common heady wine. The fruit is 
exquisite, especially the melons of 
Gra&ena, peaches of Alcaudete, pome- 
granates from Jimena, and pears from 
Jandulilla. There are no cattle, and 
but few sheep. The formerly celebrated 
breed of bulls has disappeared, as also 
the swift, thin-legged, bMutiful horses 
of the Loma de Ubeda, whose original 
Arab blood can scarcely now be traoed 
in the jaresent ' jacas de terciopelo,* as 
the song has it, of Jaen. There are 
abundant lead-mines, yielding upwards 
of 28,000 metrical quintals per annum. 
Public instruction is at so low an ebb 
that, out of a population of 862,466, 
only 60,731 are supposed to be able to 
read 1 The consequence is, that there 
occur from 350 to 400 murders and cases 
of lesfUmea eorporaUs a-year, and 250 to 
300 robberies, etc. 

Jaen, the Boman Auringi, was the 
head-quarters of the Carthaginians, and 
became tlie terror of the Bomans until 
the capture of it by Lucius Sdpio Afri- 
canus (T. livy, 1. 28, cap. iii.) The 
city became prosperous under their rule, 
but no vestiges remain of their passage 
save a few i^bs, with inscriptions show- 
ing the former existence of baths and a 
temple of Apollo. But such is the fate 
of this city, that, although the Moors 
ruled over it for five centuries, nothing 
remains of their mosques, walls, etc. 
It was the key of the kingdom of Gra- 
nada on the N. side. St Ferdinand, 
after three sieges, became possessed of 
it, and pulled down the great mosque 
to build a church, and Juan II. gave up 
the Moorish palace to some monks. 
Towards the end of the 15th century, 
the ballad hero, 'El Moro Beduan,' 
ofifered Boabdil to undertake the recap- 
ture of Jaen, and consented, were he to 




fail, to be exiled from Granada. The 
ballad on that subject and wager, in G. 
Porez de Hita's *Guerras Civiles de 
Granada,* is graphic, and savours of 
those chivalrous times, deeds, and men. 
*Reduatt, bien te acuerdas. — Que me 
diste la palabra, — que me darias a Jaen. 
En una noche ganada.' And one can 
actually watch Boabdil riding slowly 
out of the gate of Elvira, amid his 
numerous followers, gaily attired, * En 
medio de todos ellos — ^va el Rey Chico 
de Granada mirando las damas moras 
de las Torres del Alhambra.' 

The city rises on the slopes of a cerro 
crowned by ruins of a castle. It is 
washed on the £. by the Guadalbullon, 
and stands amid gardens fall of fhiit 
and vegetables, with a few palms here 
and there. The city walls are fast 
crumbling down. There are some curi- 
ous gates, especially the ogival Portillo 
del Arroyo de San Pedro, the horseshoe 
Puerta de Martos, etc. The fortified 
line of walls extended from the castle 
towards the S. by Puerta de Granada, 
of which last but little remains ; then 
went by El Portillo los Adarves, Puerta 
Barreros, and back again by Puerta de 
Martos, to castle, which waa defended 
from E. to S. by precipitous hills. The 
castle is indifferent ; the Torre del Ho- 
menage contains a few rooms, some with 
Gothic ceilings and agimeces. Close 
by is the Moro-Gothic Ermita of Sta. 
Catalina, built by St Ferdinand. The 
streets are narrow and winding, the 
walls and houses whitewashed, the iron- 
wrought balconies clothed with vine and 
ivy, at the comers of which are placed 
the Moorish fashioned jarras de Andu- 
jar. There are cool courts inside, with 
fountains and plants. In the streets 
the tra;veller will notice that silence and 
solitude of all Oriental populations, that 
fly from the heat, have nothing to do, 
and doze away life in a cool comer. 
The Alameda forms a charming prome- 

nade, from which there are picturesque 
views. There are an indifferent theatre 
and a bull-ring for 8000 spectators. 

The Cathedral dates 1532, and is one 
of the first churches bmlt in Spain after 
the Graeco-Roman style. It is the work 
of Pedro Valdelvira, who erected it on 
the ruins of a former church built by 
St Ferdinand on the site of the great 
mosque. It is a noble structure, very 
pure in its design and details. Some 
of the latter, however, Mr. Fergusson 
(H. Modem Styles) considers to possess 
an unmistakable Gothic character, 
especially the imposts and clustered 
shafts. There are fbur entrances. The 
principal one, W., stands between two 
massive towers with cupolas, only effect- 
ive from a distance. The interior is 
noble, and composed of three naves, but 
sadly defaced by whitewash, colour, too 
profrise ornaments, foliage, arabesques, 
and the like. The doors in the transept 
leading to the sacristy, etc., are finely 
decorated, formed of circular arches 
with Corinthian pillars, statues, and re- 
lievos representing scenes from the life 
of Christ. The C%otr is most indifferent. 
The Trascoro is richly ornamented with 
marbles found in the province, and in 
the retablo is a poor Holy Family by 
Maella. On the left on entering, in a 
chapeX just below the tower, is kept an 
image of the Virgin, which Cip. Zuliiga 
used to carry on his standard in time of 
war. It is very old, but HI repaired. 
In the high chapel is kept the relic, of 
which the inhabitants of Jaen are very 
proud, though similar relics may be 
found at Alicante, Chapel of P. Pio at 
Madrid, etc., without counting the au- 
thentic ones at Rome, Lucca, Germany, 
etc It is called El Santo Rostro, the 
Holy Face of Christy as impressed on 
the handkerchief of Santa Veronica, 
who lent it to wipe the sweat from the 
Saviour's face on His road to Calvary. 
This is saidyby the best authorities, to he 



merely a copy of the one at Rome, and 
it is a very indifferent painting. 

There is a fine portal, by Valdelvira, 
at Church of San Miguel, a very old 
Gothic Church of San Juan. There are 
a few specimens of civil private archi- 
tecture of 16th century. See house of 
Conde de Villar, the portal of which is 
a medley of the Moorish, ogival, and 
Roman styles, but of good and novel 
effect ; the plateresque fajade of the 
house of Bishop La Fuente del Sauce, 
and those of Vilches, Quesada Ulloa, 
and the Grseco-Roman Casa de los Ma- 
sones. On leaving Jaen, the road be- 
comes wilder, mountainous, and atunnel 
33 yards long, the Puerta de Arenas, 
runs through a gorge. There are a few 
ventas and pretty hamlets. The bridge 
of Beiro is cn^sed, and Granada is 

X. From Gibraltar. By sea to Malaga, 
thence by rail and dil. 

3. From Gibraltar by land. By R<mda or 
Antequera. This is one of the most picturesque 
N» and beautiful rides in Spain, and the 
f^^ scenery is wild and very grand. 
^fv^ The roads, and in their absence, 
^'''■'*"" the moimtain-paths, are tolerably 
easy. Everything reminds us most forcibly 
of Moorish Spain, die appearance and situa- 
tion of the villages, the names, the peasantry 
and their dress, etc. There are treasures here 
for die landscape-painter. The usual way is 
by San Roque, Gaucin, 13 leagues ; but there U 
a short cut by the Angostura de Cortes, which 
we recommend, tmd which saves two long 
leagues, and is more picturesque and interest- 
ing. The whole ride ma^ be. performed in three 
days and a half; but four good days are re- 
quired to get over the ground with comfort, 
^^pecially if there are ladies in the party. 

Hinerarytfrom Gibraltar to Granada. 

(By San Rogue.) Leagues. 

San Roque to La Venta de la Loj4 . i 

Venta de Aguadelquehizo (Longstables) 

Bocaleones ^ 

Ventodllo del Cagajon 

Barca de Cuenca 

Venta de MoUano or Moyano 

Bait horses. 
Barca de Cortes 
Hermit a de la Salud y. 


Cueva del Gato i 

Ronda i 

Alora, a railway station of line, Malaga 
to Cordova, lies about 10 leagues from 
Ronda. — 

In one day, rising early. xx 

Barranco Hondo 
Cuevas del Becerro 
VenU del Ciego 
Venta de Teba 
Campillos . 

Sleep either here or at the following, 8 

Antequera 5 

Archidona 3| 

Venta de Riofrio .... (lo^s) ^ 
Loja X 

Sleep here, and next day early to Granada. 

VenU del Pulgar x^ 

Venta Nueva x 

Venta de Cacin .... (short) x 

Lachar (long) 3| 

Santa F^ . . .... 3 

Granada 3 


The road crosses the Monte de Castillar and 
its cork-wood, at the end of which is the Paso 
de Boca Leones, the former focus of Andalusian 
bandidos, and the scene of their celebrated chief 
Jos^ Maria's exploits. The scenery now, as far 
as Ronda, is almost tmrivaUed, and travellers 
have to wind their way along precipices, tmd 
across small rivers, which are passed on ferries 
(barcas). Those going by Gaucin and Ata^jate 
sleep at the former, and get next day early to 
Ronda, between a and 3 p.m., starting at 
6 to 6.30 A.M. Gaucin. — Inn : Posada In- 
glesa, clean and decent There are some clean 
and quiet Casas de Pupilos on the Mercadillo, 
close to the bull-ring. The view from the 
ruined casde, the situation of die village, sure 
well worthy of a visit when there is time to 
spare. By leaving Gibraltar at 7 a.m. you 
can easily get in to Gaucin at 5 p.m. ; but die 
road avoiding Gaucin is far easier and more 
picturesque. By coming from Ronda to Gib- 
raltar, you may avoid two leagues' uninteresting 
road by striking off to the lefl, close to the 
cork-wood ; and bear in mind that the gates of 
Gibraltar close at cannon hour. SeeGtbmltar. 
33,396 inhab. Eonda Rond ega.,, 
best. Casino and iJUil-ring liere. 
Good place for Andalusian costumes and 
fcM- fruit. Capital of the Jerrania. Ronda 
is uniquely situated on a very high rock, 

/V'^rVKjCit oil- ?/CaA^^ 



cleft in twain by volcanic action, and between 
whose precipitous sides or walls flows the 
boiling Guadiaro, which girts the city, and 
takes here the name of Guadalvin, and divides 
the new city (Ronda la Nueva) firom the older 
(Ronda la Vieja). The country round, on 
ai>proaching this town, is quite charming. 
Vsdleys green and fresh. On the left, hills 
covered with die olive, the vine; and on the 
right, well-cultivated fields, bursting with 
fecundity and studded with pretty flat-roofed 
Oriental white cottages glittering in the sun, 
and the Sierra itself rising before one, with its 
warm, deep rich tints, and eflective grouping, 
and bold outlines greet the tourist. 

The streets of Ronda are clean, and the rejas 
of the houses project into the street, and con- 
tain quantities of flowers. The market-place 
overhangs die Tajo or Chasm, and should be 
visited, as exhibiting all the varieties of deli- 
cious fruit, for which the neighbouring orchards 
of Ronda are £u: famed throughout Andalusia. 
The Alameda commands an tmrivalled view of 
the moimtains, crowned by the lofty Cristobal. 

The main curiosity and the lion of Ronda is 
the Chasm, or Tajo. The bridge thrown 
across was built in 1761, by Jos6 M. Ald^^uela, 
and b 376 ft (Spanish) above the waters of the 
river: the only arch it consists of is zzo ft. 
diameter or span, and is supported by two 
pillars 17 ft. deep. The view, looking down 
from the bridge, and that also looking up to 
this grand and wild cascade of liquid ^vet 
from the lowest mill, are not to be equalled, 
and we do not even attempt to describe the 
effect, for it baffles pen and pencil. The other 
and older bridge is z3o ft. high. Vi^t, besides, 
the Dominican Convent; a Moorish tower in 
Calle del Puente Viejo; the Casa del Rey 
Moro, built X042 by Al. Motadhed ; the * Mina 
de Ronda,' which is a staircase of 400 steps, cut 
out in the rock by order of Ali Abu Melee, in 
1342, who employed Christian slaves. The 
handsome bull-ring is built of stone. The bull- 
fights here are certainly the best in Spain for 
true couUur locale^ costumes, and aficionados, 
as the Ronda population is composed of hardy 
and bold mountaineers, bandidos retired fix>m 
business, smugglers (that polite name for the 
former occupation or trade), and bull-fighting 
and horse -dealing are their passion and 
favourite occupation. There is a celebrated 
fair held every year (20th May), when the 
majeza, bull-fighters, the small swift horses, 
the ruddy-cheeked pretty women, are seen in 
all their force, bloom, and beauty. It is a 
capital time and place for acquisitions of 
mantas, embroidered gaiters and garters, etc. 

Excursions, not very interesting, may be 
made to Cueva del Gato (two leagues N.W.), 

which is full of stalactical caverns, and to the 
ruins of Ronda la Vieja. Ronda is recom- 
mended to tourists in the S. of Spain, who may 
seek a cool summer residence. A railway 
from Bobadilla to Algeciras, passing through 
Ronda, is begun ; and there is a daily coach 
to and firom Gobantes. 

Next day the mid-day halt had better t)e at 
Vento del Ciego. Leaving Teba on the right, 
which is only interesting as being the tide worn 
by die Empress Eugenie, who is Countess of 
Teba in her own right, Campillos may be 
reached from 7 to 9 hrs. after leaving Ronda. 
Inns: La Corona, Jesus Nazareno, etc. Two 
leagues from this village is the Salina, or Salt 

▲nteqnera.— Pop. 27,340. /«»: Posada de 
la Castafia. The Anticaria of the Romans, 
is placed on a height, and was a strong- 
hold of the Roman and the Moor. Of the 
ancient town^Antequera la Vieja— there are 
but very few vestiges, such as some vague 
traces of a theatre and a palace, removed in 
Z585 and embedded in the walls close to the 
Arco de los Gigantes. There is litde to see 
here. Tourists who have time to s^xn may 
ascend to the casde, built by the Romans and 
considerably enlarged by the Moors, from 
whom the city was recovered by the Regent 
Fernando, hence called ' El In&nte de Ante* 
quera,' in Z4za Visit here some Roman re- 
mains at the entrance ; the Barbican twd 
Torre -macha are curious. The Colegiata of 
Sta. Maria is indifiierent, both outside and in- 

Here diere is rail to Granada, two tndns 
per day, in about 4 hrs. ; diL to Malaga (9 
leagues) by the Boca del Asno and Venta de 
Galvez, etc, and rail to Malaga viA Bobadilla 
junction, in about 5 hrs. 

The 'Cueva del Menzal* outside the town, 
as we continue our way to Granada, may be 
examined by antiquarians. It is one of the few 
montmients found in Spain of the Celtic period 
or Druidical times. It is 70 ft. deep. It was, 
so to say, discovered and cleared away by a ■ 
Malaga architect, SeHor Mitjana, in Z842, who 
has written a description of it (8vo ; Malaga, 

A short way out, upon the Malaga road, is 
El Torcal, a fantastic group of stones resem- 
bling the Enchanted City near Cuenca. 

For the rest of route to Granada, see Malaga 
to Granada. 

From Malaga by raiL— Two trains 
per day in about 8^ bra By tbe 06r- 
doba line as far as Boba- 
dilla. (Fair buffet, half an 
ioar*B stay.) Change here 



for Granada, vid Anteqnera and Loja. 
See for Antequera, Gibraltar to Granada. 
On leaving that city the lofty range of 
the Torcales hills ia left on our right 
The train passes close to an immense 
rock called, romantically, ' La Peiia de 
los Enamorados ' — Lovers* Rock. Two 
lovers, it is said, a Moorish girl and a 
Spanish knight, being pursued by the 
former's father's attendants, fled for 
refnge hither, and next day threw 
themselves from the rock, dasped in 
each other's arms. Ardhidona, an 
ancient bnt uninteresting town. All 
these places, and the towns between 
here and the coast — Alhama, Yelez- 
Malaga, etc. — suffered greatly from the 
earthquakes of 1884-85. 

Lcg'a, — Pop. 17,128. Fonda de los 
Angeles — ^the Roman Lacivis, and Arab 
Lauxa, once very prosperous, and a 
favourite with the Moor, is a sadly de- 
cayed town. It is placed in a narrow 
valley formed by the Periquetes hills (a 
prolongation of the Sierra de Ronda) 
and the Hacho, with the Genii waters 
running through it and below the city 
with a stupendous noise. The Manza- 
nil, which rises close by, forms a fine 
cascade on joining the Genii. From 
the fertility attending on the abundance 
of waters, ev^ything grows here in 
abundance. The mulberry thrives won- 
derfully, and the sUk produced is fine. 

Not far from station of Toeon lies the 
historical but otherwise unimportant 
city of Scmta FL This town was built 
by Queen Isabella, during the siege of 
Granada, in 1492, to shelter her army 
during the winter, and show the enemy 
how very firm she and the king were in 
their purpose to capture the town, the 
last bulwark of the Moor. It was de- 
signed after the general outlines and 
plan of Briviesca (a wretched small town 
of Castile, not far from Burgos), and 
Seville, Cordova, and other large cities 
contributed with their frmds to the 

building of it, wHich was concluded in 
eighty days. Sta. Yk was the scene of 
many important political acts, such as 
signing the capitulation of Granada^ etc. 
On arriving at Granada by this route, 
the first impression will be almost a 
disappointment. The Alhambra is seen 
rising on the lefL 

Riding firom Malaga^ by Alhama; dis- 
^ tance, x8 leagues ; two days, sleep- 
%f ing at Alhaiiia. Hones oiay be 
^fipK^ readily procured at Alameda; fitres, 
JiAMhH4or. a-day per hone, staUing in- 
cluded, and 4or. to guide, and about lar. to 
aor. to second guide with the pack-horse (if 
die party be numerous). Useful guides and 
travelling senraats may be obtained. 

/Htterwy. Leagues 

Malaga to Veles-Malaga . . sk 

LaViftuela . . 
Venta de Juan Alameda 
ZafiuTaya . 

Venta Cadn x^ 

From latter to visit Bafios de Alhama z 

From Baths to town of Alhama . i 

Ventas de Huelma .... a 

La Mala (mineral baths and salinas) x 

Gavia f 

Ahnilla i 

Granada i 

Two dib. leave Malaga daily for Velex- 
Malaga, and perform the jour- 
ney in 3^ hrs. for asr. Ladies 
and not over-strong horsemen 
will do well to take thisccmvey- 
ance thus tax ; arrive there early, see the town, 
and sleep ; have the horses waiting and fresh, 
with side-saddles, <Mr side-chairs, and fwoceed 
thence to Alhama, where sleep. Next day ar- 
rive at Granada. The journey thus will be 
rendered less fatiguing, and the scenery is so 
beautiful that die one day more will be amply 
compensated. The inns are tolerably good, but 
travellen should attend to the provender. 

For riding all the way 5 hrs. are necessary 
to reach Veles-Malaga, where break&st and 
bait horses. Seven hovars (Jive to well-girt 
horseman) are required between Velez-Malaga 
and Alhama (where sleepX An hour and a 
half may be given to see the baths of Alhama. 
Next moming leave at 6 A.M., and (Granada 
may be reached in 8 hrs. Some tourists prefer 
to sleep at Velex, and go on the remaining 
fourteen houn next day. 



VeUz-Malaga. — Inn i Fonda de Aguilar. 
15,000 inhab., 3 kil. from the sea, and at the 
foot of a hill which fonns part of the S. range 
of the Sierra Tejada. The Rio Velex is crossed 
on entering it. The plsu:e greatly ruined by 
the earthquakes. There is little to see, except 
the ruined castle with its solitary small tower. 
The vegetation around Velez is most luxuriant, 
owing to the constant moisture and African 
sun. The aloe, palm, sugarcane, prickly pear, 
the orange, the vine and oil, indigo, and the 
celebrated sweet potato (batata de Malaga), grow 
here without almost any cultivation. The air is 
salubrious, and the climate 'that of heaven,' to 
use an Andalusian hyperbole. Velez -Magala 
is linked in Spanish history with many great 
events in Moorish warfare and chivalrous 
legends. The town, after a l<Mig si^e, was 
taken by Ferdinand the Ca t holic, who killed a 
Moor with his own hand. Lovers of legends 
and romantic history should read Washington 
Irving's 'Conquest of Granada;' historical 
feicts may be gathered from Bemal's ' Cura de 
los Palucios,' ' Crdnica de los Reyes Catolicos,' 
Vedmar's ' Bosquejo .^;>olog^tico,' etc. ; Ma- 
laga, x64a Hb 'Historia y Grandezas,' Gra- 
nada, 1653, and Rengifo's 'Grandecas,' a MS. 
in Marqu^ de la Romana's library, may be 
also consulted. 

The road <m leaving Velez winds up along 
the river, and through verdant valleys, wild 
mountain passes, and orange-groves. To the 
right rise the mountabs of Tejada, the arid 
slopes and heights of which are dotted with 
villages. Now the pass called Puerto de 
Zafarraya (Arabic^, the fidd of the shepherds) 
is crossed. The snowy Sierra Nevada soon 
after breaks upon the traveller, shining in the 
distance like a wall of silver. The road be- 
comes dreary and monotonous ; here and there 
the eye is saddened by the melancholy sight of 
heaps of stones, with Uie small rough cross well 
known to tourists in Spain, as records of 
murders committed there. 'Aquf nmtaron,' 
etc., and often raised by the penitent murderers 

Alhama.—YMX. up at the Bath Hotel ; much 
the best. Alhama in Arabic means ' the Baths,' 
whence several alhamas or mineral springs 
bearing the same name in Spain, such as 
Alhama de Aragon, etc. Alhama stands most 
picturesqudy on the edge of a rent in the 
mountain. The streets rise like so many 
terraces, one above another, and behind, as a 
background, rises the Sierra de Alhama, in 
which the Tejada rises 8000 ft above the sea. 
It is seen to most advantage coming from 
Granada. The Marchan winds round the 

hills, and the rocks rise almost perpendicularly 
from its bed, forming the sides of the gorge. 

Alhama was one of the most important strong- 
holds of the Moor, and the land-key of Granada. 
Its importance did not escape either the Moor 
or the Christian, and it was the scene of many 
sieges and gallant deeds towards the decline of 
the Mussulman's rule in Spain, and ended in its 
capture by the heroic Marauis of Cadiz, Feb- 
ruary 88, Z48X The ballad, ' Ay de mi Alhama !' 
which Lord Byron translated, laments die loss 
of this city, the news of which, says the ballad, 
the King of Granada would not believe in, and 

Las cartas echd en el fuego, 
V al mensagero matava ; 

so strong and impregnable did he consider it. 
The baths may be visited, on riding by next 
morning. Observe in Alhama (the Roman 
Artigis Juliensis), renuuns of an aqueduct on 
the Plaza, with circular arches, of Roman, 
some say Moorish, origin. The church is in- 
different. Around it are bits of fine archi- 
tectiu^ of many varieties in the facades of 
grandees' houses, now decayed and tenantless. 
The tigo, or chasm, of this miniature Ronda is 
very picturesque, and worthy of a Turner. 
Below, the Marchan boils and rushes amongst 
wild rocks and foliage, mills and bridges, and 
Moorish-looking houses on the brink of the 

The ^Mx.— Probably known to the Romans, 
were much frequented by the Moors, whose 
favourite bath, ' £1 BaHo Fuerte,' is well pre- 
served. The bath, ' de la Reyna,' with a dome, 
is probably *a Roman constructbn. The sul- 
phurous spring is 43* to 43* cent, and strongly 
impregnated with nitrogen gas, and is benefidad 
for dyspepsia and rheumatism. The visitors 
who in former times annually flocked hither, as 
is said, to the number of 14,000, have now 
dwindled to 700 or 800. The accommodation 
is tolerably good. The road becomes dreary 
and uninteresting, and the miserable Cadn, 
Venta de Huelma, etc., are passed. Around 
La MaI4 are several important salt-fats (salinas). 
The hills separating it from the Vega of Granada 
are composed of gypsum, strongly impregnated 
with salt. From the brow of the hill here 
before us we obtain our first view of Granada, 
and the verdant, inexhaustibly rich vega lies 
spread before us. To the left rise hills which, 
becoming loftier, break into the cliffs of Alfacar. 
The sight is truly Alpine. Descending the hill, 
Gavia la Grande is reached, and a hrs.' ride 
across the vega brings the traveller to Granada, 
through a succession of corn-fields, orchards^ 
twd hemp plantations, etc 

JV: A— There is a coach every other day from 
Alhama to Granada. 



Moiril to Granada. — Daily coach. Not 

to be recommended save for economy. Prcfer- 

ably by riding; 73 kiL, 13^ 

\dfL Spanish leagues. The portion of 

&S!k road as far as Beznar has been i«- 

Miamimt paired. 



Motril to Velez de Benadulla . a 

Izbol a 

Beznar ..... 2 

Talara x 

Padul 3 

Granada 3 

The journey may be performed in one long 
day ; if not, sleep at Beznar. 

The road is interesting on account of the 
scenery. DiL from Beznar to Granada and to 
Laiyaron ; berlina, 4or. ; int., aor. ; to Granada 

MoiriL—vj^oQo inhab. Inn: La DoroCea. 
In a valley close to the sea. The cfimate 
ot this valley is truly delicious, and is con- 
sidered as the most salubrious on the whole 
coast of Granada. In winter the thermometer 
never falls below xi' cent, and in summer rises 
very seldom above 34' to- 25* cent. There is 
nothing to see at Motril, excepting a few ves- 
tiges of walls and an indifferent church. Close 
to the city is a small bay. El Puerto de Motril, 
but really called Calahonda. A small village 
so called is built aroimd it, and inhabited by 
poor fishermen and sailors. The plains around 
Motril abound with oil, vines, sugar-cime, 
cotton, Indian com, etc. There is a bridle road 
to Malaga by Ahnufiecar and Velez -Malaga 
(distance, about 64 m.). 

Velez de BenaduUa.-^zoa inhab., dose to 
Guadalfea, a Moorish town (Arabic^ ' the Land 
of the Childem of Andalla '}. It is also called 
Velezillo. The castle is most effective. Close 
by is a mill, with some colossal olive trees 
planted by Uie Moors. The scene is most 
picturesque and romantia 

Beznar is a wretched hamlet composed of 
crumbling houses ; the posada is said to be 
tolerable. Here it is optional to take the road, 
either by Durcal and Padul or by the Pinos del 
Rey. ITie latter is a prettier road, but longer 
by 4 leagues. 

Alhendin.—0!asit to this otherwise un- 
interesting hamlet, is one of the low hills which 
form the boundary on this side of the Vega de 
Granada, and is celebrated alike in history and 
romance by the melancholy name of *E1 ultimo 
suspiro del Moro ' (the last sigh of the Moor). 
It was here that Boabdil halted after leaving the hands of the Catholic kings, 
and was seen weeping as he took a farewell 
glance. His mother, then the haughty Aze- 
rhah, rebuking him, said, 'Weep not as a 
woman for the k>ss of a kingdom which you 
knew not how to defend like a man.' ' AlUth, 
achbar 1' replied the fugitive monaich, *(3od is 
great, but what misfortunes were ever to be 
compared to mine?' He was really most 
appropriately sumamed 'El Zogoibi,' the ill- 
starred, for the lord of the golden Alhambra 
saw his children at Fez bulging at the doors of 
mosques I 

6. From Murcia, by Guadix, Baza, 
and Lorca, 47 leagues, 3 days. This 
wretched coach route is nearly a thing 
of the past. The railway is begun. 

7. From Cdrdoba, — By rail, vid 
Bobadilla, in 8} hrs. 

From Cordova by road. — ^A very interestug 
^ riding-tour may be made from Cor- 
JL|^ dova to Granada. The route passes 
^CHft across wild romantic districts, mag- 
JMmmb nificent mountain scenery, quite 
Alpine in character; the climate delicious, and 
the soil teeming with fruit, wine, com, and the 
olive. The posadas are bad, and one must 
rough it No important towns or historical 
sites of importance are 'passed ; but there are 
treasures for the botanist, mineralogist, and 
lovers of the picturesque. The journey can be 
performed in two days, if in summer ; but dur- 
ing the winter three are necessary. Sleep at 
Baena, and, if in winter, at AlcaU la Real, 22^ 

^.-5.— From Baena there is a short cut to 
Antequera, 12 leagues. (See description given 
below, and Malaga from Cordova). 


Cordova to Sta. Crudta \ . 4 
C!astro del Rio .... 2 

Baena 2I 

(10 hrs.* ride — long, from the 
many hills). 
LaR&pita .... 4 
Venta de Palancares 
Ventas de Puerto Lope 
Pinos Puente . 
Granada ... 

From Cordova to C^tro del Rio the route is 
monotonous, but the cornfields will interest the 
English firmer ; not for their mode of cultiva' 
tion, but for the produce, which in quality and 
quantity is perhaps tmrivalled in the worid. 



The only river, which often meets the tourist, 
is the poor Guadahoz. Castro is the Castra 
Posttunia of Caesar's 'Commentaries.* In the 
Town Hall is to be seen a jasper slab <^ the 
fonner Temple of Augustus. 

Baetta. — xz,ooo inhab. A wretched posada. 
The castle on the height was the property of Gon- 
zala de Cordova, 'el gran capitan,' as the Duke 
was 'el gran lor.' It is situated in the old town 
above. There are some funereal urns found in 
1833, u> ^ sepulchre said to have belonged to 
the Pompeya family. In the castle, which, with 
the pcUadot belongs to the Altamira fisimily, 
Pedro el Duel, having invited the Moorish 
King of Granada to a series of fStes, traitorously 
murdered him with all his folloMrers. Muley- 
Bahadaei, another King of Granada, was con- 
fined here in 1483. In the vicinity grows a very 
pretty yellow orchis. The Marbella produces 
a tench called arriguela. 

AlceUd la Real. — Seven hrs. hard riding 
are necessary to reach Alcali from Baena, 
though the d^tance is short Inns all bad ; the 
best is San Anton^ on the Alameda. This 
Al-Kalat (the castle) was a strongly fortified 
dty in the hands of die Moors, and was taken 
in Z340 by Alfonso XI., whence called La Real 
La Mota. el Parol, or beacon -tower, was 
erected by the Conde de Tendilla to guide the 
Christian prisoners who might escape from the 
Moors. A mountain defile to the left leads to 
JaMi. Close to Illora, which is left to the 
right, on a hill, the Sierra Nevada is first seen, 
and tJie Vega de Granada appears after passing 
the Venta del Puerto. It was on the bridge of 
Pinos that Cdumbus, having been discouraged 
in his offers of a new world, was proceeding to 
England, when he was stopped by a messenger 
sent by Isabela, who entreated him to come 
back, adding that she would favour his scheme. 
To the right lies Soto de Roma, the estate 
granted by Spain to the Duke of Wellington, 
and to the left Sierra Elvira. 

Branch road from Baeua to Granada 
by Anteguera, xa leagues, one day's ride. 

Itinerary. Leagues. 

Cabra 3 

Lucena a 

Benameji 3 

Antequera .... 4 

Cadra, 9000 inbab., is the ^gabrum, 
Greek Aizagros— from cabra months a wild 
goat or chamois. Its sierra is celebrated for 
the production of valuable medicinal plants, 
and some that will be new to the botanist ; also 
for its marbles, jasper, and alabaster. The 

Sima (cavern) into which die ' Don Quixotic * 
hero, Caiallero del Bosque, leapt, is close by. 
It is about Z40 yards long and was examined in 
X84Z, when nothing was fotmd but ftogs. 
Sights.— TYit Plaza de Armas is worthy of a 
visit The tower of Homenage was built tm 
the Z4th century. In the Church de las Ascen- 
sion (formerly a mosque) are some curious 
pasos. Ask for the Vitgen de la Soledad, by 
Juan de Mena, and a Saviour in silver. The 
extinct crater of Los Hoyones and the Cueva 
de Jarcas will interest geologists. Tlie fruit 
groMm in the neighbouring orchards is deli- 
cious, and the wine firom the Pago de Rio Frio 
is excellent 

Lncena. — Z7,ooo inhab. This, the Roman 
Egitera, was granted with the former city by 
Alfonso XL to his ' arnica.' The ogival church 
of San Mateo (Z498), the house of the Medina- 
celis, are wordiy of nodce. It is surrounded 
by fields and orchards teeming with fruit (taste 
the ^ricots), corn, etc., and sheltered fnm. the 
N. wind by the beautiful Sierra of AnoeU. 
Not far is Benameji, with a fine iNridge built 
X556 by the Mariscal Di^go de Bemin Orense. 
The rest of the route is most tminteresdng. 

8. From Seville, — By rail «(4 Utrera, 
Marchena, Osniia and Bobadilla; tlio 
most direct route. One train per day 
in a little over 8 hrs. First-class 
passengers go throngh without change. 
Half an hour's stay at Bobadilla, where 
fSedr buffet Or — if that portion of 
Andalucia has not yet been visited — 
by rail vid C6rdoba and Montilla. {See 
C6rdoba.) Or, lastly, in the old-fesh- 
ioned way, on horseback, in four days, 
across wild scenery and by poor roads. 
Fair stopping places en route, the road 
following the railway most of the way. 

Itinerary. Leagues. 

Seville to Alcali de Guadaira . a 

Mairena a 

Marchena 5 

Osuna 5 

Pedrera 3 

LaRoda a 

MoUina a 

Antequera .... a 

Ventas de Archidona . a 

Loja 3 

Lachar 4 

Santa F<< a 

Granada . . . • . s 




[If tiine allows, a visit to Ecija may 
be conyeniently made in passing from 
Sevilla to Granada, either by road or 
rail. There is a branch line from 
Marchena, 44 kil., one train per day, 
both ways, in 1^ hrs. There is also an 
excellent road from Carmona. Inn: 
Parador de las Diligendas. Pop. 
25,000. This city was once the rival 
of Sevilla and c3rdoba, but has long 
lost all importance. It is well built, 
however, and clean, with a couple of 
pretty alamedas, one or two interesting 
churches, and one of the finest bull- 
rings in Spain.] 

Description qf Route. — Leave Seville by 
Puerta de Carmona. Follow the aqueduct, 
A Icald de Gnadaira^ also called de los Pana* 
deros, because all Seville provides itself with 
the Inread made here; 7000 inhab., on right 
bank of the Guadaua. It was rebuilt by the 
Ahnahade Moors. The towers of its castle are 
a very interesting specimen of Moorish oulitary 
architecture. It was the land-key of Seville, 
and surrendered to St Ferdinand on Sept ax, 
X246, )R^en its Moorish garrison, composed of the 
King of Jean's troops, traitorously turned 
against their own race within the city. There 
is little to see, beyond the church of San Sebas- 
tian, for the sake of the pictures by Pacheco, 
Velasquez's &ther-in-law ; diat of Santiago pos- 
sesses a fino PuxgatcMrio painted by the same, 
and the convent of Sta. Clara contains a good 
retablo and six small bassi-relicvi by Montanes. 
Alcali de Guadaira (in Arab, the castle of the 
river Aira), sui^Kes Seville with bread, most 
delidousy wholesome, and well-baked, and with 
water, for which the hill has been perforated 
urith tunnels some a leagues long. The works 
are Roman and Moorish ; the aqueduct called 
Ca2k>s de Carmona is carried on 400 arches. 
The valley of the Guadaira is pleasant, the 
climate soft and delicious, and so salubrious that 
convalescents are often sent thither /tfm tomar 
los aires. A little to the N.£. of Alcali is 
Gaundul, widi its picturesque Moorish castle, 
amid pafans and orange groves. We pass 
Mairena, where Htnt/eria takes place every 
year on April asth, 36th, and a/th, when it is 
the rendezvous of Chalanes (horse-dealers). 

gitanos, and majos ; the Carmona road is lefi 
on the left, and Marckena is reached. 

Marchena was the seat of the powerful house 
of Arcos (better known to the Spanish reader 
as Ponce de Leon). There are still a few cubos 
and turrets, only remains of the former formid- 
able fortifications of the Moors. The palacio 
of the Dukes of Arcos is sadly neglected. Ob- 
serve its fine &9ade of the xsth century, with 
its richly ornamented square portal, and its 
escutcheon with the two Herculeses and lion. 
There are some rooms with fine artesonado 
ceilings, a shady garden with foimtains and 
ponds, etc The Church <^ Sta. Maria, which 
is opposite, is Gothic ; it has three naves : the 
interior indifferent, and the boveda ill painted. 
The principal fitgade and lateral one on the left 
of San Juan looks most Oriental with its azu- 
lejos, alminares, etc The interior is divided 
into five naves ; the high altar dates of decline 
of (Sotluc, but is most effective ; the pictures 
are of no merit There is a fine custodia (X586) 
by Francisco Alfaro. The dress of the women 
u curious. 

Osuna.—xj, 000 inhab. Imu: Del Caballo 
Blanco and Del Rosario. The seat of one of 
the most noble houses in Europe, la casa de 
Ginm, of which the Diike of Osunaiftthe head. 
This, the Roman (jemina Urbanorum, was 
taken from the Moors in 1240^ and given by 
Philip II. to Don Pedro Tellez Giron, and it 
became the appanage of his family. The 0)1- 
legiate Church was built in 1534, by a Giron, 
who also founded (x549> the University. The 
former charming terra cotta relievos on its W. 
facade were destroyed by Soult*s soldiers, great 
iconoclasts in their way. In the retablo are 
four pictures of Ribera. See the patio del Se- 
pulcro, berruguete-like, and a very fine Christ 
of Morales, retouched, in the sacristy. The 
Pantheon or bxurial-house of the Girones, some- 
what neglected. Flower amateurs will do well 
to look at the splendid carnation pinks here, 
called claveles. 

Roda.^K decent posada. The country be- 
tween Pedrera and Venta de Archldona was 
the scene of Jos^ Maria's fetes. 

The roads here are bad, but the Kenery 
about Antequera, Archidooa and Loja is very 
interesting. (See route from Gibraltar to 
Granada.) The Venta de Archidona, C^rtijo 
de Orezal, and Venta de (^balea were Jos^ 
Maria's Cavourite haunts, and are far-famed 
in bandido annals. Perfect security, how- 
ever, exists. 

N.B, — Railway opened from Seville to AlcaU and C^armmia, 




City Anns, a Pomegranate, ' Granada* in Spanish, stalked and proper. 

A Ititude.—a^s ft. above the sea. Latitude.— n^ sa' N. Lat. 3' 46' W. long., Greenwich. 
Population. — 775000 inhabitants. 

HotelB.— 1. De la Alameda, very 
well situated, close to the Alameda and 
Carrera de Genii ; good accommoda- 
tion, fair cuisine, attendance indifferent, 
good exposure for winter ; small and 
large apartments; bedroom on the patio, 
25r., all included ; sitting-room ditto, 
35r.; bedroom on the street, 35r.; 
sitting-room, 40r. Fire-places in most 
rooms ; clean beds and comfortable 
rooms. It has the inconvenience of a 
very noisy coffee-room in the interior 
of the house. 

2. De la Victoria, in a square close 
to Carrera de Genii ; good exposure for 
summer, cold in winter, central situa- 
tion. Charges same as in the previous. 

8. Hotel de los Siete Sttelos. Upon 
the Alhambra Hill, and within the 
gardens. Half an hour's drive from 
the station, but omnibus to meet all 
trains. Very comfortable. Pleasant 
company met with most of the year. 
Good guides. Either this or the hotel 
Washington Irving on the opposite 
side of the road (not quite so good, 
but English spoken) is very much 
to be preferred to any of the hotels in 

the city. Prices from 7i pesetas per day 
upwards, everything included. 

Lodgings; ffouses to hire,^-'We do 
not recommend tourists to stop at any 
casas de pupilos (the best, however, is 
that opposite the Hotel de la Victoria, 
14r. to 20r., everything included), for 
all is discomfort and filth. There are 
several fine large houses to let be- 
longing to the nobility ; but we advise 
our readers most strongly, if they should 
intend making any sojourn, to take a 
villa near the Alhambra. Villas here 
are called cdrmenes (carmen, singular), 
from kdrm, Arabic^ a vineyard. The 
cicerones usually know of those unoc^ 
cupied, although it must be borne in 
mind that they are in the interest of 
the hotels. They are often let unfur- 
nished, but hiring furniture is cheap 
and easy ; besides, little is required in 
such a climate as this. We can recom- 
mend a carmen called de Cdmara or de 
San Antonio, close to the Torres Ber- 
mejas, where several English families 
have lived. The house is small but 
comfortable; there are portions orna- 
mented in the style of the Alhambra. 
It was here Lady Louisa Tenison re- 





aided for a long time ; she mentions it 
in her 'Castile and Andalnoia,' and 
says : ' A more charming place than 
this for a sommer residence it would 
be difficult to select ; and its yioinity 
to the Alhambra enabled us to enjoy 
the latter without the fatigue of as- 
cending to it from the town.' The 
usual terms are 500r. (about £5) a-month 

Cafis,—1SL Suizo, Puerta Real ; Del 
Pasaje in the Zacatin ; Del Callejon in 
the Calle de los Mesones. 

^a^iJketv.— Bodriguez y Acosta, CaUe 
do los Beyes Gat61icos ; Hijos de Agrela, 
Calle de los Frailes. 

C7anno. —On the Carrera del GeniL 
Admission upon introduction by a 

Caariages stand at the Carrera and 
Plaza del CArmen—te*^, the course, 
6r. ; to any part of town, 12r., except 
to Alhambra and Gtoneralife, to which 
lOr. extra ; to Albaidn or Monte Santo 
20r. ex. 

Cv/riosiiy Shope.^Fe^'a and Mar- 
selan's are the best. Moorish scarfs and 
cloaks at Ribot's, 4 CaUe de Zacatin. 

Photographs, — A Capelini, close^ to 
the Alhambra hotels. 

Theatres, —M Principal, Plaza de 
Campillo ; De Isabel la Cat<Slica, Plaza 
Santo Domingo. 

Post Ofioe. — Plaza del Cdrmen (or 
de Ptim). 

Telegraph — Calle de la Duquesa, No. 
1 4, second floor. 

English Fice-Cofuul and U,S. Con- 
sul resident here. 

General Desoription. — Qranada, 
like Toledo, Burgos, Oviedo, and most 
Spanish towns, is now but a dull, un- 
social, depopulated and inert provin- 
cial capital There is about it, not- 
withstanding its sun and sky, an air of 
stillness and decay, a mournful silence, 
so peculiarly noticeable that the mind 
is filled with sad reveries, and almost 
led to sigh forth regret for the departed 

Goth or Moor, who left no heirs of 
their greatness behind them. Indeed, 
the whole of Spain is now but a vast 
cemetery, wherein the * disjecta membia' 
of the dead past lie bmied in cities 
which are like so many tombs. Gra- 
nada is thus truly a living ruin, but as 
the widowed capital of the Moor full 
of interest It carries us back from the 
jo'esent to the age of Ibn-1-Ahmar and 
of Yusuf, to the voluptuous magnifi- 
cence of their eastern paUoes. 

This city stands on four hiUs, which 
are divided somewhat like a pome- 
granate, and rises to the height of 
2245 ft, above the wsl It is situated 
at the extremity of a very extensive and 
beautiful plain (v^), and intersected 
by ^ rivers Darro (called by the Moors 
Hadar6h), the Boman (T^^om, and the 
OenH or Singilis of the ancients. The 
town extends in an amphitheatre from 
the river, clothing the gradual ascent 
of the hills, which are crowned by the 
Alhambra. The plain, dotted now and 
then with sparkling whitewashed villas 
like so many sails, stretches to the base 
of the distant mountains, composed of 
the migestic Sierra Nevada (the Xolair 
of the Arabs), which, with towering 
snowy heights and Alpine peaks, con- 
trast beautifully withtiie deep blue sky 
above and the rich green meadows be- 
neath. To use the metaphoric expres- 
sion of the Granadine Arab poets, ^ese 
mountains may be compared to a mass 
of sparkling mother-of-pearl, a picture 
never to be forgotten. 

The N. portion of the city, which was 
built after the conquest, is called Barrio 
de San L&zaro; tiie principal street* 
Calle Beal, leads to the Cartoga. Here 
were erected dwellings for the Moors, 
and barracks for troops to watch their 
movements. The Albaidn, so called 
from the fugitives from Baeza (when 
their city was taken by St Ferdinand, 
1227), is situated on a hill close to the 
former bairio. It once contained about 



10, 000 inhabitants, and beautiful houses 
and garden& In the centre was a mag- 
nificent mosque, of which there are still 
some yestiges in the courtyard close to 
the Church of San Salvador. The 
Moors carried a stream from the Al- 
facar to the very heights of this hill, 
and provided the houses with fountains 
and a supply of water for the vines and 
gardens on the terraced slopes. It is 
now a ruinous locality, inhabited by 
the poor. Another and very early por- 
tion constitutes the AUxutaJba^ a line of 
fortresses formerly called KAdim«> or 
the New ; the castle of Hysn-Al-Rroman 
stood here, and there are some remains 
of the andeut walls at the Puerta 
Monaita. Ascend the height of San 
Christoval to obtain a good view of the 
walls and <niiho8 that extend from the 
Puerta Monaita to the Plaza Larga. 
The district of Anteqiteruela hangs over 
the Genii, and was so called because 
assigned to the Moors who fled from 
Antequera in 1410. The Churra, or 
Mauror (Arabic^, district of the water- 
carriers), was also close by it, and on 
the slopes of the hill crowned with the 
Alhambra. The new portion of the 
city lies at the base of the different 
hills. There is little or nothing Euro- 
pean about the old town, and the 
Eastern, Moro-Andelusian aspect of its 
houses guarded with rejas, ^e many- 
coloured awnings stretched in summer 
over the balconies, the patios with 
fountains and orange-trees are very 
characteristic Many of the houses are 
gaudily painted outside, the effect of 
which is not generally displeasing ; the 
streets are rather lanes, are purposely 
narrow and winding, to keep out the 
arrowy sunbeams of June and July. 
The new portion has been awkwardly 
built with wide streets and birdcage- 
like houses, with an infinity of windows. 
The principal streets are, Zacatin, Car- 
rera del Daro, and Calle Keal. The 
Darro flows under the Plaza Nueva, in- 

tersects the town, and joins the Genii 
at the extremity of the Carrera and 
Accra de GeniL 

The climate is wholesome, the water 
delicious and slightly aperient, the 
markets well provided, especially with 
vegetables and exquisite fruit, and living 
is very cheap. 

The name may have been originally 
applied by the Wisigoths, who probably 
rebuilt and enlarged the primitive for- 
tress. Cazidini, voL ii. ; Maocar!, voL i» 
both cited in Dozy's ' Recherches,' say—* 
Gam&thameans rommona (pomegranate 
in Arabic) in the Spanish tongue. Of 
the Wisigothic period, the only im- 
portant remains are the consecration- 
slabs of some churches built by the 
Wisigoth, Gidula, between the yeajn 
694 and 607. They were found on the 
site now occupied l^ the Church of Sta. 
Maria de la Alhambra, uid have been 
placed on its southern facade. The 
churches mentioned on the slabs were 
situated in a portion of the city, pro- 
bably Ihe earliest, called Nativola. 

Sights.— -1. The Alhambra, Gene* 
ralife, and Moorish remains. 2. Cathe- 
dral uid Capilla de los Reyes. 8. Car- 
tuja, churches, hospitals, public and 
private edifices. 4. Zacatin, Alcaiceria, 
squares, gates, etc 

Cathedral — 8 A.M. to 12 p.if., and 
2 P.M. to 4 P.M. To be shown it apply 
to the sacristan ; hours, 2 p. m. to 4 p.m. 
High mass, with organ and chanting, 
on Sundays, at 10 a.m. 

OapUla de lot Meyes.— 9 A.u.tollA,u. 
and after 4 p.m. Apply to the sexton 
at the special sacristy of this church. 

Cariuja. — Closes late in the day. 
Apply to one of the sextons. 

Qenerdlife. --O^en all day. Apply 
to the gardener. 

See Plan 

of the 


The Alhambra.— Open practically 


A.& C. Black, Edmlrar^. 



at all hours, but permission of Se&or 
Contreras, the Gonseryator, necessary 
for yisit after dark. A small fee given 
to attendant for the^r^ yisit only. 

SittuUion. — The AJhambra is situated 
to the extreme N. of the town, and be-, 
tween the Darro and Genii, which it 
divides, rises a long single ridge, called 
£1 Oerro del Sol, and also de Sta. Elina. 
At a point called La Silla del Moro, 
which is dose to Generalife, the Cerro 
slopes downwards, and after being deft 
in twain by a wooded ravine, is inter- 
sected by a long avenue of dm-trees. 
It then spreads out into two tablelands 
or extensive terraces, bordered by pre- 
dpitons ravines. On the western ter- 
race stands the Alhambra, its base 
washed by the Darro. The Torres 
Bermejas rise on the extreme point of 
the eastern esplanade, occupied, further- 
more, by the Campo de los Martires, 
the declivities of which, being less 
violent than those of the one opposite, 
fall gently towards the town, a part of 
which they become. These two terraces 
were formerly girt by walls and towers, 
and connected with each other by 
-winding, and, maybe, walled-in lanes. 
Within this fortified circuit stood the 
palaces and villas of the Ealifs of Gra- 
nada, as wdl as the prindpal fortresses ; 
and so numerous were the buildings 
clustering on these hdghts that it was 
called a city — ^Medinkh alhdmra. The 
magnificent palace of the AlijareSf cele- 
brated for its gardens, was situated not 
far from Genmlife, and close to a sum- 
mer villa, Daralharoca (Arabic^, the 
Bride's Mansion). Besides those and 
the Dar-Al-Wad, or Palace on the 
Biver, Ch&teau d'Eau, where there was 
an avifuy—on which account it is called 
by Marmol * Casa de las Gallinas ' — there 
were many other villas belonging to the 
sultans and their court, all situated 
without tho fortifications ; but the 
EUMihira, or Court of the Ealifs, within 

the walls and on the western plateau, 
constituted the Alhambra proper, or 
what is still often called *La Casa 

Historical Notice. — The name Alham- 
bra is a very early one, anterior to the 
palace that we ^miliarly call so. As 
early as A.D. J64-5 i t is mentioned in 
Ibn-r Alabbu>'8 biography of Suwar 
Ibn Hamdim (who commanded the 
Arabs against the berieging forces of 
Mulades and Mostkrabes). In some 
verses copied by the same, which were 
composed by Said Ebn Chudi, and ad- 
dressed by him to Suwar, he pndses the 
latter for having erected the Red OasUc, 
Eal'at Al-hamri ; and during the si^ 
already mentioned, the besiegers one 
day shot over the walls an arrow, to 
which was tied a paper with the fol- 
lowing verses, which were written by 
Abderrhaman Ibn Ahmed of Abla : — 

Deserted and roofless are the houses (of our 
enemies), swept by the whirlwinds of dtist that 
the tempestuous winds raise up. 

Let diem within the red castle hold their 
mischievous councils ; the dangers of war and 
woe surround them on every side. 

The sons of those that our lances transfixed on 
their tottering walls will also disappear, etc* 

The author asserts that he was told 
this fact by one Obada, who in his 
turn had obtained the intelligence from 
an eye-witness. This Eal'at Alhamrd 
may be no other than the Torres Ber- 
mejas (Red Towers), which were pro- 
bably so called when they were used 
by the Jews as a fortress, the name 
being derived from the colour of the 
ferruginous tapia-work. In A.D. 1019- 
20, Habus Ibn M&kesen erected a Eas- 
skbah, or fortified enclosure — ^which this 
Arab word signifies — which stood on the 
W. side of the town, over the Puerta 
de Elvira, and was called Ekdimah, or 
the *old' to distinguish it from the 

* Ibn Hayy&n 'History of Mohammedan 
Spain,' Bodleian Library, Hunt Na 464* 



Jedidkb, or * new * one, built by Bkdis, 
his successor (1037-8 A.D.), and whicb 
extended from the former to the Dairo. 
The Alcazaba, properly so called, formed 
part of the Kaasab^ erected l^ Bkdis 
Ibn Habus, within which this king, 
having removed his court from Elvira 
to Granada, usually resided with his 
wazirs and officers, and it subsequently 
continued to be the plaoe of residence 
appointed to the governors of Granada. 
This Eassab^ih received in addition to 
its appellation of Al-hamrd, the name 
of the Kal*at (now Torres Bermejas 
Fortress) which could be as justly 
applied to all the buildings within this 
Mediniih, as the colour of the earth on 
and with which they were built, was 
eventually the same, owing to the pre- 
sence of oxide of ii'on. 

The founder of the Masrite dynasty, 
Ibn-1-Ahmar, enlarged considerably the 
former palace erected by Bkdis, within 
the Kassabkh, and built a new portion, 
which he determined should surpass 
in magnificence the most celebrated 
edifices of the kind in Damascus, Fez, 
and Baghdad. The works began about 
1248^ and the palace was called Kasru- 
l-hamrd, which means the Sultan*s 
Mansion (Easr being a corruption of 
Kaiser, Csesar) or the palace of the 
Alhambra. Thus it is as erroneous to 
suppose that the name comes from this 
prince's (as it would then have been 
called Easr-al-hamrk) as it is that he 
was the origin of the Al-hamares ; in- 
deed no such tribe or clan ever existed. 
Ibn-1-Ahmar's son and successor, Mo- 
hammed II., continued his father's 
work, and repaired the fortifications of 
the Castle of Torres Bermejas ; according 
to Ibnu-1-Ehattib, the royal historio- 
grapher of Granada, 'be added con- 
siderably to the building, and lavished 
his treasures upon the several artists he 
employed to decorate its gilded halls.' 
Tsma'il Ibn Faraj (1300) built the little 

mosque withm the palace. Yusuf I. 
(Abu-1-hajaj), ob. 1854, whose revenues 
were so vast that he was reputed to 
owe his riches to the transmutation of 
metals, spent these on the building of 
many new suites of apartments in the 
palace, and in repainting, gildings and 
repairing of the older portiona Ac- 
cording to Ibnu-1-Ehattib, quoted by 
Sr. Gayangos, the gold was procured 
from the interior of Africa, and beaten 
into thin strips ; the expense of the 
new works and repairs exceeded, says 
the same author, the bounds of calcula- 

After the surrender of Granada, the 
Catholic kings remained but a veiy 
short time at the Alhambra^ which be- 
came the property of the crown, formed 
an independant jurisdiction, and a 
separate parish. When they left, they 
intrusted its custody to' Don Ifiigo 
Lopez de Mendoza, Count of Tendilla, 
who had been appointed governor or 
alcaide on the very day of the surrender 
of the Moors. Under Isabella and 
Ferdinand, the monks and soldiers who 
were left in and around the mosques 
and fortresses of the hated Moor, who 
had threatened their altars and diluted 
their castles for so many centuries, 
vented their spite and hatred upon the 
inoffensive stone and iron. The open- 
work was filled up with whitewash, the 
painting and gilding effaced, the furni- 
ture soiled, torn, removed, and never 
replaced. Charles Y. rebuilt portions 
in the modem style of the period, and 
destroyed what was fortunately an 
unimportant part to make room for 
his intended and never finished palace. 
Philip y. Italianised the rooms, and 
completed the degradation by run- 
ning up partitions which blocked up 
whole rooms, gems of taste and patient 
ingenuity, and concealed the Tarkish 
and azulejos under such deep coats of 
whitewash that the pickaxe is necessary 



to remove it. It became subseqaently 
an asylum for debtors and state 
prisoners ; the French in 1810-12 tamed 
it into barracks and magazines for 
their troops. The magnificent Moorish 
mosqne^ Meq'id Aljami, that was built 
by Mohammed III. in the early part of 
the. 14th century, was destroyed by the 
French. According to Ibnu-1-Ehattib 
it was considered to haye no rival in 
the wodd. The French blew up several 
towers, and if the whole Alhambra which 
they luid mined was not blown up, it 
was not l^eir merit, but due to the 
courage of a corporal of invalidos, who 
put out the fusees. The gobemadores, 
before and after this period, until re- 
cently, speculated on the interest and 
curiosity that was daily awakening for 
the Alhambra^ and made their fortunes, 
selling whaj could be easily removed, 
and all went on fast to utter n^n. In 
1842, by the care of the Progresista 
minister, Arguelles, a miserable sum 
was destined fiwm the queen's privy 
purse for repairs ; somewhat later the 
sum of 10,000r. (£100) was assigned 
and ill paid. Things now, however, 
looked brighter ; and on her visit to 
Granada, which took place in 1862, the 
Queen Isabelle was so struck with her 
visit to the Alhambra that she de- 
termined to repair and restore it as 
much as possible to its former state, 
and enacted measures calculated to 
realise that royal and generous resolu- 

The repairs were entrusted to Sr. Don 
Rafael Contreras, a native of Granada, 
whose zeal and patriotic enthusiasm 
towards the completion of this wwk can 
only be compared with his perfect know- 
ledge and acquaintance with Moorish 
art. Much has been already achieved, 
and in a manner highly creditable. 
The Patio de la Alberca, Sala de De- 
scanso, and Sala de las Dos Hermanas 
are finished, and likewise several por- 

tions in the Hall of Comares or Ambas- 
sadors, Council Hall (del Tribunal), 
and Court of lions ; and he has but 
recently found out, so to speak, another 
beautiM hall, the walls of which, ex- 
quisitely painted and gilt, were con- 
cealed under plaster. (Consult Sr. 
Contreras' ' Estudio Descriptivo de los 
Monumentos Arabes de Granada Sevilla 
y Cordoba,' Madrid, 1883). 

StyU, — ^The general style of the Al- 
hambra belongs to the third period 
of Moorish architecture. It is want- 
ing in that unity of design, typical 
fcHins, lofty inspiraticm, and breadth, 
for which the Mosque of Cordova 
and other edifices t>f that time are 
so remarkable. The early phase in 
Moorish art, of which the latter were 
the growth, arose with a peculiar 
state of civilisation, marked by an 
ascetic and stem spirit which shunned 
vain ornament, scorned firivoloua effects, 
and sought rather vast proportions, 
simplicity, harmony, strength — trae 
signs of power and genius. Now, at 
the time when the Alhambra was 
raised, the dissolution of the Moslem 
empire had already begun, and en- 
gendered a similar state of decadence 
among architects, and oblivion of the 
primary principles of their art Thus 
whilst the edifices of Cordova were the 
work of an age of mosques and fort- 
resses (of conquest and unity of faith), 
the Alhambra must be looked upon as 
the salient ezamfde of an age of pa- 
laces, which was also one of religious 
indifference. The Berber and invading 
Arab built massively to root deejay, 
as it were, a new race, that settled by 
main force in the enemy's land, whilst 
the more refined Granadine, who had be- 
come the permanent possessor, sought 
rather to embellish and enjoy the 
dearly-won kingdom, peopling it with 
marble palaces, gardens, and groves. 
Eza^Sgeration in tibie outlines of arches, 



excess of ornamentation (that sore test 
of decadence in art), an exuberance of 
relievi or surface-decorations, paltry 
proportions, generalisation and abuse 
of plaster arcbes and walls — sncb are 
the most characteristic defects which 
a hypercritical spirit may discover in 
the construction of the Alhambra. 
But granting all this, granting, too, 
the lack of originality and absence 
of monumental stonework, it will 
yet be preferred by the generality of 
travellers to any other Moorish struc- 
ture in Spain, for it must be admitted 
that it stands unrivaUed in the gorgeous 
splendour of its haUs, and that no- 
where, nor at any time^ has its decora- 
tive art been ex(^eded. This is shown 
in that taste, effeminate elegance, ex- 
quisite grace, wondofol variety of the 
patterns — all most cunningly executed. 
Happy and novel appliances of poetical 
concetti and Alcoranio passages to en- 
hance and form part of tiie ornamenta- 
tion; airy lightness, veil-like trans- 
parency of filagree stucco, partitions 
coloured and gilt like the sides of. a 
Stamboul casket — such, with many 
others, are the main features of this 
the worthy palace of the voluptuous 
Irhftliffa of Granada^ who held dominion 
over the sunny land which their poets 
defined 'a terrestrial paradise.' De- 
scriptions of what it must have been 
once can only be found in the ' Arabian 
Nights,' though even in this respect, 
refllity, no doubt, must have beggared 
their fantastical creations. 

Everything interests us in the Al- 
hambra, for besides the intrinsic value 
as a monument of this romantic pile, 
how many poetical legends of love and 
war, how many associations has it with 
stirring scenes of harem dramas, politi- 
cal intrigues, and bloody executicms. 

E/Urcmces, — ^The principal entrances 
into the Medinah Alhambra were for- 

merly the Gate of the Law, of the 
Seven Stories of the Catholic Kings 
of the Armoury, and Bab-'el-Ujar ; 
that of Los Coches and Puerta de 
Hierro are modem. We shall proceed 
by the steep Calle de los Gomeres, 
which is terminated by the clumsy, 
massive Puerta de las Granadas, so 
called from the pomegranates that are 
placed over it, and are the canting 
arms of the city. This gate, an awk- 
ward monument of the Tuscan style, 
was built under the reign and by order 
of Charles Y., when the avenues inside 
were laid out» and intended to lead up 
to his palace. It is on the site of the 
Moorish gate of Bibj or Bab-el-Ujar. 
At each extremity is a reclining figure, 
much disfigured, and intended to sym- 
bolise Peace and Plenty. This oncb 
passed, we enter the jurisdiction of the 
Alhambra. Three avenues lie before 
us : the main one in the centre leads 
up to Generalife ; the narrow one, on 
the right, winds up to the Torres Ber- 
mejas, which rise high above in that 
direction. By a more precipitous 
ascent to the left, we will proceed at 
once to the principal entrance, the 
Gate of Judgment 

N.B, — ^We advise tourists, uid ladies 
especially, to go up in a carriage as far 
at least as this last-named point, as the 
ascent is steep and long, and one ar- 
rives to the top heated and fatigued, 
just when all the attention and activity 
are required. 

The grounds of the Alhambra are 
woody, and at spring-time full of sweet- 
scented wild flowers, which numerous 
riUs of snow-water, gushing from the 
Sierra, keep up green and blossoming. 
Flocks of nightingales seek at that 
season the shade of the secluded 
bowers, and their joyous songs blend 
with the murmur of fountains and the 
buzz of myriads of insects. These so- 
called gaidens, weedy and ravined as 



they be, are a most chamuDg resort in 
the sultry hours of spring and sununer, 
and a place of untiring enjoyment. 

Pilar de Carlos F. {Qwmioj.^ThiB 
small and now degraded fountain is 
placed against the wall, close to the 
Gate of Justice. It was erected for the 
Emperor Charles V. by the then Al- 
caide of the Alhambra, Marquis of 
Mondejar. The style is the Gweco- 
Roman, or rather Tuscan, which was 
beginning to be adopted in Spain. 
The stone is from Sierra Elvira. The 
crowned heads of the genii are intended 
to represent the Darro, Genii, and 
Beiro which fertilise the vega. Observe 
the escutcheons of the house of Monde- 
jar, and the mezzo-telievo ornaments, 
the emperor's shield, marine genii, dol- 
phins, and the columns of Hercules. 
The wall against which it rests is 90 
ft. long by 15 ft. high, and ornamented 
with Doric pillars. Between these are 
four medallions with mythological sub- 
jects. It is a fine specimen of the 
berrueguete style, although the Escuzar 
stone being over-porous and sandy, the 
medallions cannot be seen to advantage. 
Juan de Mena was employed in some 
portions, but certainly the genii were 
not his work. It was completed in 
1624, and has been well repaired by 
the governor, Sr. Parejo. 

Puerta Judiciaria{GaU of Judgment). 
This is a plain, massive, and somewhat 
clumsy monument, which served as an 
outwork to the fortress and an arch or 
entrance-hall to the Alhambra, but was 
principally used as, and expressly built 
for, an open-air court of justice, held, 
as usual in the East, by the khalife or 
his kaid, whose duties as pontiff (Emyr- 
al-Moumenyn, king and chief magis- 
trate, made it incumbent upon him to 
give audience to the humblest of his 
subjects, settle disputes, and dispense 
judgment personally. This patriarchal 
custom is still prevalent in most cities 

in the East, and was, with many others, 
received by the Arabs from the Hebrews 
(* Judges shalt thou make in all thy 
gates,' Deut zvi. 18 ; and also, 'Then 
he made a porch where he might judge, 
even the porch of judgment,' 1 Kings 
vii 7. In the book of Job xxix. 
7, 8, 9, the patriarchal magnate is re- 
presented as going forth to the 'gate,' 
amidst the respectful silence of elders, 
princes, and nobles, (xxxii. 9, and 
Ruth iv. 2). Hence came the usage 
of 'la Sublime Porte' in speaking of 
the Government of Constantinople, 
being considered also places of public 
deliberation and halls to give audience 
to ambassadors. ('Early Travels'). 
Over the arch runs an inscription 
in African letters, which records its 
elevation by Abu-1-wklid Yusu^ and 
the date, 1348. It is there called the 
' Gkite of the Law,' and ' a monument 
of eternal glory. ' It is one of the many 
buildings erected in the Alhambra by 
its great decorator, the Khalife Yusuf 
I., who was their architect himsell 
The tower is almost a perfect square, 
measuring about 47 ft wide by 62 ft 
high. The horseshoe arch is 28 ft 
high to the hand which is engraven 
above it The marble sculptured pil- 
lars on each side of the gate are termi- 
nated by capitals ornamented with 
sculpturing, and bearing the following 
inscription : — 

* There is no God but Allah : Mo- 
hammed is the envoy (prophet) from 
Al-lah. There is no power or strength 
but in Al-lah.' 

The walls are built with limestone 
from Loja and Sierra Elvira in concrete 
or tapia-work. Over the outer horse- 
shoe arch is part of an arm, with out- 
stretched hand placed upwards, which, 
according to some writers, is considered 
typical of the five principal tenets of 
the Mussulman's creed : 1. Belief in 
God and Mohammed. 2. To pray (and 



ablutions). 8. To give alms. 4. To 
keep the fitst of Rhamadan. 6. Pil- 
grimage to Mekka and Medina. The 
numb^ of the commandments corre- 
sponding with that of the fingers, as we 
read in Dent. vi. 8, speaking of the 
commandments, ' And thou shalt bind 
them for a sign upon thine hand, and 
they shall be as frontlets between thine 
eyes.' But it is more likely that the 
hand was placed on the entrance, as is 
now the custom (and we have often seen 
it so) on every door in Morocco, to 
avert the evil eye. Probably both 
these meanings must be understood to 
be e<Hnbined in this symbol* 

The small image of the Yirgin in a 
niche over the arch is indifferent and of 
wood. Turning on the staircase before 
the second doorway is the place where 
the khalife sat to give judgment. 
Here is a guardroom, and the soldiers 
you see may have be^ some of the 
brave Spanish army, who but a few 
years ago defeated the descendants of 
the founders of these very walls roimd 

* This supenddon was shared by every nadon 
of the earth. Virgil, in his third iEneid, says : 

Vix ossibus hserent : 

Nescia quis teneros ocuhis mihi fascinat agnos. 

And there was also the supersddon concerning 
knots made in a particular manner, and said to 
have been breathed upon by Jewish sorcerers. 
Mohammed himself was bewitched by a Jew, 
who held a thread over a well with eleven knots 
on it ; the mystery of which was revealed to 
him by the angel Gabriel, and which led to his 
writing the xx3th and xx4th Suras, called ' the 
preserving.' These were inscribed on amulets, 
and hung round the neck. The first acted as a 
ta lismjin against evils to the body, and the se- 
cond preserved the soul from all danger. Similar 
hands in coral, sufficiently smalt to wear roond 
the ne<^, are found in Naples ; and in Tangier, 
Tetouan, and other cides in Morocco, rings and 
ear-rings are sold with a golden or silver hand 
upon them. According to Pedraza, * Hist, de 
Granada,' and Argote, 'Paseos,' vol. iL, the 
use of these and other suchlike amulets by the 
Moors was prohibited in 1526 by order of 
Charles V. and his mother, Dofia Juana. 

which they now keep sentry, for in 
Spain the Moor seems destined never 
to die. 

Over the second arch is a key sculp- 
tured — another symbol <rf the power 
granted to the Prophet to open or shut 
the gates of heaven. In one of the 
Suras it is distinoUy said : ' Did not 
Al-lah give him the keys with the rank 
of doorkeeper, that he (the Prophet) 
should be entitled to usher in the 
elected ones?— a statement whose ori- 
gin is evidently to be found in the 
Christian's New Testament The key 
was also a sign of knowledge and of 
power, and was used as a badge by the 
Moors soon after they had invaded 
Spain, and occurs more tiian once over 
doors within the Alhambra. The cham- 
berlains of the kings of Spain wear a 
gold key on their coats, a mark of their 
office. The passages between the outer 
and inner gate are winding and tortu- 
ous, as appears in many other outworks 
of the same kind, either Arab or medi- 
aeval, and were so contrived to check 
the advancing foe in his entrance, and 
augment the means of defence. The 
three inner arches were built with 
brick, and angular forms, and an empty 
space of about six yards was left from 
the turrets to the door, the latter made 
with an opening over it to facilitate 
throwing all sorts of projectiles. The 
words in the inscription, *May God 
make this (the gate) a protecting bul- 
wark,* together with its massiveness 
and position, do not leave a doubt as to 
its being intended also as the key to a 
powerful line of defence. The door 
consists of two leaves, strengthened 
by iron plates, closed with peculiar 
locks, and fastened with transverse 
metal bars. 

Turning now sharply to the right, 
we pass an altar placed in the wall, 
with an indifferent painting represent- 
ing the Virgin and Child. Although 



anserted by some too credulous and 
most ignorant admirers to be the replica 
of the identical portrait of the Virgin 
Mary, painted by St Lnke, the mere 
fact of its being in oil colours is enough 
to contradict such a statement, without 
entering into the style, draperies, etc 
On 1^6 wall to the right is an inscrip- 
tion, on a marble slab, which records 
the conquest of Granada, and appoint- 
ment of Count Tendilla as its governor 

Phmt de loa Algibes {Place of the 
CHsteTTts), — ^The walled-in plateau or 
terrace on which the Alhambra stands 
is the highest hOl of the four on which 
Granada has been buiH^ and commands 
the town and plain, from which it is 
divided by the Darro. It is 2480 feet 
long by 674 ft in its \ndest part. The 
red wflils, 6ft. thick by 30 Wgh, on an 
average, girdle the hill on the E. side, 
linked and strengthened by buttresses 
and towers, many of which formed the 
detached residences of sultanas and 
great officers. If you stand on the pla- 
zuela which is in front of the Church 
of San Nicolas, and from which the 
best view of the Alhambra is to be ob- 
tained, you win notice clearly the long 
lines of irregularly-buHt walls following 
the sinuosities of the ground, termi- 
nating on the left by the Tower de las 
Infantas, and followed up to the right 
by the Torre de la Cautiva, de los 
Picos, portions of the Tower c^ the To- 
cador, rising somewhat more than the 
rest, and hanging over the romantic 
ravine. Of the three separate portions, 
the first on the left is composed of the 
Torre de Comares and the palace ; at 
the extreme right is the Alcazaba, or 
fortress, with its dismantled castle, and 
in the space between, the Plaza de los 
Algibes, on which the palace of Charles 
III. rises, extending its square un- 
broken lines a little to the left (see plan). 
The aspect of the exterior of those 

towers id severe, plain, and of uniform 
structure, yet fax from appearing iiMmo- 
tonoua. The ^ect is most picturesque, 
and the deep orange colouring contrasts 
happily with the emerald green slopes. 
The simplicity and absence of oma. 
mentation and windows were intended to 
guard off the three greatest enemies of 
the Moor— heat, the evil eye, and the 
enemy's projectile. This plaza is truly 
an epitome of the history of Spain, and 
evidence in stone of its changing dy- 
nasties, races, and creeds. The vestiges 
that remain of Illiberis mark the Ro- 
man period, as the Torres Berm^as 
andPuertadel Sol recall,though vaguely, 
the Carthaginian's rule. 

By the side of the Mussulman's 
eastern palace rises the Tuscan palace 
of the German Charles V.; the parish 
church of Sta. Maria is on the site of 
the former mosque, and dose to the 
still standing Mihrkb, now called Puerta 
del Vino. The crumbled walls of 
towers and devastation of the gardens 
are a memorial of Bonaparte's soldiers ; 
and the line of hovels, the residence of 
oily, vacant, iU-fed, and ill-paid em- 
pleados, together with the ruinous 
walls, never propped up, are but too 
plainly characteristic of Spanish ne- 

The Plaza de los Algibes is so called 
from the cisterns or tanks which receive 
the waters of the Darro, and are about 
125 ft. long by 26 ft. broad. They are 
deep, built with vaults and horse-shoe 
arches. A draw-well in the comer of 
the square is used to raise the water, 
which is carried by aguadores into the 
town, and is much esteemed for its 
freshness and purity. The plaza is 
about 225 ft. long by 187 ft. wide. To 
the left rises the fortress of the Al- 
hambra, the Kassabkh, and to the right 
the Puerta del Vino, the palace of 
Charles V., and almost behind the 
Casa Real, or palace of the Moors. 



We adviae our readers to leave the 
Tuscan Palace and Alcazaba, for the 
end of their visit, and proceed at once 
to the Alhambra^ after a glance at the 

Puerta del Vino {Gate of the Wine). 
— So designated because there was here, 
probably, a storehouse for the peUejoa 
or skins of wine which were brought 
from AlcaU. Here, too, was the cMef 
entrance of the town of the Alta Alham- 
bra, with the house of the Kadi, and 
minor palaces of the aristocratic hangers- 
on to the Court This puerta is most 
massive and beautiful. Notice especi- 
ally the azulejos of the posterior arch. 
It was built by Mohammed V. The 
inscription over the arch begins : — 

' I flee to God for protection from Satan, the 
pelted with stones.* In the name of God, the 
merciful and compassionate. May the blessing 
of God rest on our lord and master Mohammed, 
and upon his family and followers.' 

Then follow the 1st, 2d, and Sd 
verses of the 48th Sura of the Koran, 
and praises to the Sultan Abu, Abdil- 
lah, Al-gani, Bil-lah (the contented 
with Qod), who erected this monument. 

Jalaa of l^e g,l^amln:». — The palace 
proper, as will be seen at a glance, oc- 
cupied but a very small comer of the 
great Alhambra enclosure. There were, 
besides, the Alcazaba, occupying the 
whole of the western extremity, and 
the town of the Alta Alhambra, on the 
south and east, capable of containing 
some 20,000 souls. (It had a popula- 
tion of 6000 as late as the year 1625.) 
The palace — or rather palaces, for there 
were three of them (1) the older, mez- 
quita portion, on the west ; (2) the 
central Court of the Berkkh and the 

* This expression, which often recurs in in- 
scriptions in the Alhambra, is found in the 
Koran. According to a tradition among the 
Moors, Abraham being often molested by the 
repeated temptations of the devil, was wont to 
take up stones and pelt the intruder, who then 
withdrew, struck, we suppose, with so weighty 
an ar£tmtentum ad . , , diabolum. 

rooms lying to the north of it ; (3) the 
Lion Court and all its dependencies — 
hung over the Darro, and the princi- 
];>al entrance was by a zaguan lead- 
ing past the mosque into the Court of 
the Berkkh. The present entrance is 
by a small, insignificant door, placed 
at the S. W. corner of the Court of the 
Berkkh, and which is reached through 
a narrow lane formed by the palace of 
Charles V. on the right, and the partly 
modem and partly Moorish house in- 
habited by the gobemador. Entering 
a small corridor, a staircase to the left 
leads up to the fimctionaTy's haibita^ 
dones, which, have been repaired, but 
possess little interest. The archives of 
the Alhambra are kept here, as well as 
two slabs of white marble exquisitely 
sculptured ; they are erroneously called 
Mesas — tables — and from the inscrip- 
tion were probably placed in the wjJl 
or over some arch in a mihritb or 

The other table has no inscription 
except the well-known * Wa la ghaliba- 
ilia- Allah,' 'There is no conqueror but 

This corridor has been modernised, 
but bears traces here and there of the 
Moorish period. There are some elegant 
arches and exquisite niches, erroneously 
called hdtmcheros (from hainLche, slip- 
pers) by Echavarria and others, who 
assert that the slippers, which in the 
East are always left on entering a habi- 
tation, were placed inside. It is an im- 
memorial Eastern custom : ' And he 
said : Draw not nigh hither ; put off 
thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place 
whereon thou standestis holy ground.' 
(Exodus iii. 5. and Josh. v. 15, etc.) 
From their usual inscriptions, and 
being usually placed within the inner 
apartments, together with what we 
have seen so often in Morocco, there is 
no doubt that they were used to hold 
porous al-carrazas, full of fresh water. 



and lights placed in cryBtal cases or 
transparent porcelain. Now, taming 
to the right, we shall enter the 

FaHo de la Berk&h, or de los Arra- 
ganea (Gowrt of the Blessing, or of the 
Myrtles). — ^Although some authors have 
derived the Spanish designation aZberea 
from dl'beerkehf a tank, a pond, we 
think the derivation from berkdh, the 
blessing, applies more accurately to 
this court, because it was used for 
ablutions by the royal family, and all 
others who were present at the zal^ 
held in the private mosque of the pa- 
lace, which is close by. This patio is 
140 ft long by 74 ft. broad, of an ob- 
long form. In the centre is a large 
pond, set in the marble pavement, and 
now ftdl of goldfish. Along the sides 
are edges of myrtles, carefully trimmed, 
and kept low, and the court hence has 
often been called * de los Arrayanes ' 
(Arrabic^ arr-aydn, myrtle). There 
are galleries on the N. and S. sides ; 
that on the right as you go in (the S.) 
is 27 ft high, and is supported by a 
marble colonnade ; over this gallery 
rises a second, forming a sort of entresol, 
8 ft high to the ceiling. Underneath 
it, to the right, was one of the en- 
trances; the door was inutilizada, as 
the Spaniards graphically express it, 
when Charles V.'s palace blocked up 
all that side. Over it are three elegant 
windows with arches, and six miniature 
pillars; the two large niches at the 
extremities are 3 ft. deep, and deli- 
cately ornamented with oval arches, 
resting on white Macael marble. The 
azulejos under the niches, that rise 
about 1 J ft. from the floor, ran formerly 
along the walls of the rest of this court, 
and are of a pretty pattern. The eight 
pillars supporting the gallery, and close 
to the mosque, are of great lightness, 
and the ornamentation of the capitals 
varies in each. Arches, slender and 
pliant like palms, spring from the capi- 

tals, and bend most gracefully oiw 
towards another until they meet. At 
the base of each, which is divider 1 intn 
four sides, are medallions, with tha 
words, 'Perpetual Salvation,* in Cufic 
characters. The ceiling of the gii.Ilcrie3 
is plain, inlaid with wood carved into 
angular patterns, all of which used U 
be painted and ^t; the externa.! onxa^ 
mentation of the gaUery is fomied by 
a stucco tapestry, interwoven with 
flowers and leaves ; the walls are liigh, 
and were tolerably restored in lSi2. 
Observe the six oval doors and ngimex 
windows. The upper gallery was re- 
stored by Se&or Contreras, the father, 
we believe, of Don RafaeL Hie 
tank is a parallelogram, 124 ft. long, 
and 27 ft. wide, and 6 ft deep j at eoflh 
extremity is a tazza of white marbk, 
from which the water oozes rather tban 
flows into the reservoir. Thig court 
was built by Ibn-1-Ahmar, bnt richly 
decorated, painted, and gilt by Yu£uf L 
Like most of the halls and courts in 
this palace, this one has been tb^ scene 
of many a deadly deed of vengfianca 
and jealousy. Mohammed IIL, who 
had hastened to Granada on hearing the 
report of the presumed death of the 
usurper Nasr, was astonished, on 
alighting at the gate of the Alhambra, 
to find that Nasr had recovered from 
the apoplectic fit which had caused the 
report to be spread. Mohammed wik& 
instantly seized and confined in a 
dungeon, whence he was removed to 
this court, executed, and hia body 
thrown into the pond, April 1311. 
From this court the imposing walla of 
the Torre de Comares are seen rising 
over the roof and to the N. Th is to wer 
and the colonnades are reflected in the 
crystal mirror of the water, and truly 
* lend enchantment to the riew. * 
Optical effects, produced by water, 
light and shade, and combined ^adiml 
elevation, with an almost inaeuaible 



inequality in the floors of apartments, 
were often most happily treated and 
rendered by Moorish architects. This 
must have been a fairy entrance into a 
palace, when it was sparkling all oyer 
with gilding and virid colours. The 
shield of the Moorish kings of Granada 
rectm rery often. It is a plain escut- 
cheon with a b^d, once red, and tiie 
motto, ' There is ko oonqtjerob but 
God.' This is the origin of the motto 
and shield. Ibn-l-A^mar, who had 
been the vassal of Ferdinand, was 
present at the surrender of Seyille, and 
contributed to the victory obtained by 
the Christians. On his way back to 
Granada, where he had determined to 
build the Al-hamr^ his subjects, who 
held him in great veneration, greeted 
him, Galib, the conqueror, to which 
he replied, * WalaghaUbillaAl-lah'- 
'There is no conqueror but God.' 
According to another legend, on the 
eve of the battle of Alarcos, which 
proved fatal to the Christians, an angd 
appeared in the heavens, riding a spark- 
ling white horse, and waving in his 
hand a flag which reached from pole to 
pole, and bore these same words. As 
modest a reply was made by the Black 
Prince, after the battle of Nagera, 
' Thank me not, but rather praise God, 
for His, not mine, is the victory.' 
Ibn-1-Ahmar, on his being knighted 
by St. Ferdinand, adopted this motto 
(^note) on his coat-of-arms, which was 
heraldically a field, ore and Bend 
argent, with the above motto sable, 
but the bend and field varied at differ- 
ent periods. The real origin may be, 
that it was the tahlil, or war-cry of the 
Prophet, and was inscribed on the 
standard of Yacub-al-Mansur, at the 
battle of Alarcos. 

O* We do not follow strictly the 
course of the cicerone porter. 

AnU'Sala de Embajadores {Ante* 
CkUlery to the Hall of Ambassadors), — 

Sometimes called de la Barca (of the 
boat), from the figure of the room. 
This is a very elegant and well-pre- 
served specimen. The azulejos are fine. 
At each side of the entrance, which ie 
very elaborate; is a small niche ; that 
on the right has a pretty poem, in all 
the Oriental gallantry. The roof ii 
bespangled with stars and other pat- 
terns, coloured. It was shattered in 
1590. In the angles th«<e is charming 
stalactical work, with miniature pillars, 
Lilliputian cupolas, half-moons^ and 
the words, ' Blessing' * Salvation,' 
* God alone the Conqueror,' 'Glory be 
to our Lord Abu Ab-dillah.* On each 
side are recesses, 22 ft. high, 9} ft 
wide, and supported by eight pillars, 
the capitals of which are formed by 

Sola de Embajadores {Hall of Am' 
hassadors.^U the largest in the Al- 
hambra, and occupies all the Tower of 
Comares. It is a square room, 37 ft. 
by 75 ft. high to the centre of the 
dome. This was the grand reception- 
room, and the throne of the sultan was 
placed opposite the entrance. Observe 
the azulejos, nearly 4 ft. high all round, 
the colours of wMch vary at intervals. 
Over this is a series of oval medallions 
with Cufic inscriptions interwoven with 
flowers and leaves ; there are nine win- 
dows, three on each facade. The arte- 
sonado is very fine, and rests on a 
wooden cornice ; the ceiling, of alerce 
wood, is admirably diversified with 
inlaid work of distinct coloiirs, espe- 
cially white, blue, and gold, made in 
the shape of circles, crowns, and stars, a 
sort of imitation of the vault of heaven. 
The recesses of the windows are small 
cabinets in themselves, such is the 
thickness of the walls. The shutten 
and balconies were added by Charles Y ., 
and the view frx>m them is splendid. 
From the one looking on the Darro^ 
Ayeshah is said to have let down 



Boabdil in a basket, to save him from 
her rival Zoraya's relentless vengeance, 
and Charles V., leaning out of one, is 
said to have exclaimed, as he beheld 
the glorious panorama spread at his 
feet, * Ill-fated tli« man who lost all 
this f* In the embrasures of the two 
north windows there may be studied 
the finest remnants of the old work 
in the whole palace — the best inlaid 
azolejos, the richest bits of blnej ver- 
milion and gold colouring, and the most 
delicate column caps. Over the arch 
of entrance, and between the ornaments, 
runs the inscription t'* 
* Glory be given to our 
lord,AbulHachach. May 
God help him in his en- 
terprise.* And round the 
niche to the right the in^ 
scription : — * Praise to the 
only God. I will remove 
upon Yusuf the malefice 
of the evil eye,' with five 
sentences: — *Say, I flee 
to the Lord of the rising 
sun, thanks (be given) to 
God,' etc. * Praise be to 
God,' etc. The inscrip- 
tion round the one on the 
right is almost identical. 
This hall is also called 
Sala de Comcbres, because 
its peculiar workmanship 
resembled that at Coma- 
rech in Persia, and the 
artists employed came 
purposely from that 
country. The present roof was a sub- 
stitute for the original of wonderful 
stalactite work in stucco, but which 
fell down along with an arch made of 
mother-of-pearl, jasper, and porphyry* 
The ceilings of the window-recesses are 
plain, of inlaid wood, and badly re* 
stored. The balconies were added in 
1682. Theif use was not known to 
the Moors. The floor was of beautiful 

alabaster, and it is said there was an 
alabaster fountain in the centre. At tlio 
end of 6th century there was a partial 
restoration of the gilding and pamting. 
This magnificent hall, the work of Ibn- 
1-Ahmar, is higher, more solid and 
grandiose than the rest, and of a differ- 
ent period in the style and epoch. The 
walls seem to be covered with an infinity 
of guipures placed over each other. 

PaHo de losLetmes (Oowrt oftheLionB. ) 
—This celebrated portion of the palace 
has been almost completely restored by 
Sr. Contreras with very great tastift and 


ability. Although possessing as charac- 
teristics the most exquisite elegance in 
all its parts, it has not the imposing, 
majestic, and elevated style of the Hall 
of Ambassadors, and is attributed to 
other architects. It was built in 1377 
by Mohammed, who, after being de- 
throned by Ismael, was a second time 
replaced on the throne with the aid of 
Don Pedro the Cruel, who murdered the 



king, his former ally, at Tablada, close 
to Seville. According to Cean Bermu- 
doz, 'Arquit./ Yol. i, the architect was 
called Aben Concind. It is neverthe- 
less a perfect model of Moorish patio 
architecture. Observe those open-work 
circular gall^es to keep off the sun ; 
the li^tness in the columns, the sym- 
metry in the proportions, variety in the 
patterns, and filigree - worked walls 
through which the blue heaven is seen, 
filling the interstices with colour as 
if it were painted. The court is an 
hypffithral quadrilateral oblong of 126 
feet (Spanish) long by 73 feet wide, 
and 224 ^^^ ^^ under the galleries. 
It is surrounded by a low gallery, 
which is supported on 124 white marble 
columns, not counting the four em- 
bedded in the inner walls. The width 
between the waUs and the pillars in 
the galleries is 7i feet The pillars 
here are irregularly placed ; alternate- 
ly isolated and in pairs. A pavilion 
projects into the court at each ex- 
tremity, most elaborately ornamented 
and made with filigree walls; the 
domed roofs are very light and of 
that shape so poetically and justly 
called by those sons of tiie Arabs, the 
Spaniards, medias narcmjas; they are 
surmounted by a spear with a flow- 
ing horsehair, surmounted by tiie cres- 
cent. There are three stalactite arches 
on each side, which have three columns 
at the angles and two single ones be- 
tween each cluster. The ornamentation 
of the inner walls has almost all disap- 
peared. It consisted of a eenefa, or 
fringe, of azulejos running up from the 
pavement, and then covered by stucco 
diaper varying in pattern at each mo- 
ment, and not unlike that in theCk>mares 
HalL Observe the effect of the tiles, 
coloured in different hues, and the 
painted and gilt shafts projecting, and 
called canes. The capitals are of differ- 
ent patterns, and were coloured and gilt 

The irregularity of the pillars was in- 
tended, and the result of study of effects. 
The fringe of the centre arch of the 
court is formed of the stalactite bricks 
placed radiating to the centre, supported 
by a charming bracket, whi(^ is a bean- 
tiful example of the constructive idea 
carried out in the decoration of the sur- 
&ce. The design of the 'lozenge' in 
the arches is most judicious ; it is so 
arranged that by the repetition of a 
single tile, two or three patterns grow 
out of the combination. The capitals 
of the columns show various transitions 
in forms, but all gradual, and the con- 
structive idea is never lost sight of. 
Over the capitals is the Cufic inscrip- 
tion, * God done the Conqueror.* The 
ornament on the piers contains in centre 
the shield of the founder, surrounded 
by the word * Grace.* The main lines 
of the pattern are admirably adapted for 
giving height to the piers. The general 
form of the piers, arches, and columns, 
is most graceful ; the mere outline of the 
voids and solids is perfect The side 
arches are stilted, and struck from two 
centres, yet so slightly pointed that 
they are only just sufficient to relieve 
them from l^e compressed appearance 
of a semicircular arch. The middle one 
is also from two centres. 

The Fotmtain oflAvnfi, — In the centre 
of the court is the celebrated Fauniain 
or Tazza. It is a dodecagon basin lOi 
ft (Spanish) in diameter, iemd 2 ft deep, 
from which springs a pedestal support- 
ing a second tazza 4 ft. in diameter and 
14 ft. deep. We venture to think that 
originally there was only the lowei 
tazza, which rests on the lions, and was 
at a convenient height for ablutions, for 
which all fountains were made. The 
workmanship of the higher tazza is in- 
ferior, and the vain efforts of an unskil- 
ful, 18th century artist to imitate 
the Arabic patterns can be easily de- 
tected. The present marble pavement 



conceals the lower portion of the dado, 
and is, therefore, now on a higher level 
than it was originally, even if it he the 
same ; around the lower tazza mns a 
poem in Tawil metre ; many of the 
verses were copied from the poem writ- 
ten in praise of the founder of this court, 
Mohammed V., by the "Wazir Abu 
Abdil-UOi Mohamed Ebn Yiisuf Ebn 
Zemrec, a disciple of the celebrated his- 
torian Ebnul Ekthib. 

The fountain is a magnificent ala- 
baster basin. The twelve lions must be 
looked upon not in a sculptural way, but 
heraldically, as emblems of strength, 
power, courage. The lion in the East 
was a sign of power, and was always 
used heraldically by the Egyptians, and 
very often in Spain. They are in white 
marble, barbecued, with their manes 
cut like the scales of a griffin. They 
were probiibly the work of Spanish 
prisoners or renegades. According to 
Marmol and other historians, the child- 
ren of Abu Hasen by Ayeshah were 
all beheaded over the fountain by order 
of their father (excepting the oldest, 
subsequently Boabdil). 

Sola (U los Abmcerrages {EaU of the 
AbeTicerrages), — ^Derives its name from 
a legend, according to which Boabdil, 
the last king of Granada, invited the 
chiefs of this illustrious line of the 
Beni-Serrii, better known as the Aben- 
cerrages, to a banquet, and had them 
taken out one by one after the feast, 
through a small wicket, to the foun- 
tain of the Court of lions, where they 
were beheaded ; a massacre which con- 
tributed to his ruin, as they were the 
main support of his kingdom, and had 
helped to place him on his throne. The 
wicket, which had beautiful folding 
doors, was removed in 1837, and partly 
destroyed by the then governor of 
Alhambra. The dingy ferruginous 
qK)t8 on the marble pavement near the 
fountain are said by the cicerone to be 

stains of blood. Others assert that 
they were murdered here, which would 
be an Irish way of killing them in this 
room, whilst they were beheaded in the 
Court of lions. This legend has no 
other authority than a * romance, ' ' His- 
toria de las Guerras Civiles de Gra- 
nada.' That severcU of the Abencer- 
rages were treacherously murdered in 
eitiier this or some other hall is certain, 
but it was by Abu Hasen's orders, and 
not Boabdil's ; the reason being that 
the Abencerrages had sided with Aye- 
shah, and the pretext that one of them 
had outraged his sister. (See Marmol, 
• Rebellion de los Moriscos,' lib. L cap. 
12; *Hist. de Granada,* by Lafuente 
Alcantara, voL iv. etc.) The orna- 
mentation was identical with that of the 
Hall of the Two Sisters ; it has under- 
gone many restorations. Enter by an 
oval door, which leads into a very 
narrow anteroom with a small door at 
each side, communicating with inner 
halls, and on the arch the usual inscrip- 
tion, * There is no conqueror but God,' 
and 'Blessing,* eta, 'Glory be to our 
lord Abu AbdH-lkh.' There are but a 
few inscriptions here, and several are 
out of the poem of the HaU of the 
Two Sisters, which Lafuente Alcintara 
{* Inscripciones Arabes de Granada,* vol. 
i. p. 126) thinks must have been 
placed there when, in the 16th century, 
this hall was repaired ; it had given way 
after an explosion of a gunpowder ma- 
gazine situated dose to San Francisco. 
When the restoration was directed by 
Alfonso Bermguete, at the time several 
ornaments belonging to other parts of 
the palace were then recast, and placed 
without regard to their original desti- 
nation. Observe how exquisitely the 
arch form gradually grows out of the 
shaft of the column, the stalactite too{ 
crowning this hall, and the penden- 
tives of the two arches leading into the 
hall and those over the alcoves. The roof 



Is most exquisite — the blues, brown, 
red, and gold, are most effective ; the 
green at the sides is blue deoayed. 
With the back to the wall, the view 
over tiie fountain through the three 
arches to the foimtain in the Court of 
the lions is strikingly beautiful. It is 
a perfect square. Its cupola or dome is 
very lofty, half round and half conical ; 
at its base there are small treUised win^ 
dows, behind which the women could 
hear music without being seen. Many 
of its azulejos are of Spanish workman* 
ship) made and designed by Antonio 
Tenorio, 1636 ('Archives of the Al- 

Salas del Tribunal (Council Hall of 
Justice). — ^On the eastern side of the 
Patio de los Leones is a long gallery, 
divided into alcoves, or divans, con- 
nected with each other and called dd Tri- 
bunal, from the doubtful tradition that 
the khdlif used to give audience here, or, 
more likely, treat of state affairs. In the 
centre one, observe the six fine stalactite 
arches rising from small columns. It was 
restored in 1 841. Observe the medallions 
mixed with the rest of Atab patterns, 
bearing the badges of the Catholic 
kings, the yoke and bundle of arrows, 
with the motto, * Tcmto monta.* Three 
arches lead into the hall of the Council 
Room, 15 feet high