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Full text of "Guide to the study of insects, and a treatise on those injurious and beneficial to crops: for the use of colleges, farm-schools, and agriculturists"

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flQ- 



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GUIDE 



TO 



THE STUDY OF INSECTS 



AND A TREATISE ON THOSE 



INJURIOUS AND BENEFICIAL TO CROPS 



FOR THE USE OF 



COLLEGES, FARM-SCHOOLS, AND AGRICULTURISTS 

BY 

A. S. PACKARD, JR., M.D. 

WITH FIFTEEN PLATES AND SIX HUNDRED AND SEVENTY WOOD-CUTS 

SIXTH EDITION 




NEW YORK 
HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 

BOSTON: ESTES & LAURIAT 
1878 



COPYRIGHT BY 
A. S. PACKARD, JR., 
i.l 1876. 



+ 7 3 



JOHN V. TROW & SON, PRINTRRS, 
205-213 EAST i2Tn ST., NEW VQR'K. 



PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. 



MOKE important additions and alterations have been made 
in this edition than in any previous one. The author has de- 
cided to consider the Ilexapoda, Arachnida, and Myriopoda as 
sub-classes of Tracheata, and consequently what have been 
in former editions regarded as sub-orders are called orders. 
The Thysanura, moreover, are separated from the Neuroptera, 
and regarded as a distinct order, comprising synthetic types 
with features allying them to the Orthoptera, Neuroptera, and 
Myriopoda. They are divided into two sub-orders, the lower 
the Collembola of Lubbock ; and for the higher sub-order, 
comprising the Lepismatidae and Campodea>, the term <'!inn-n 
(nivlcj, to move; ovpa, tail) is proposed. The terms tena^n- 
lion and elttter are adopted from the author's previous writ- 
ings for the "holder" and "spring" of the Collembola; and 
for the sucker or organ secreting the adhesive material char- 
acteristic of the Collembola, the term collophore is proposed. 

Brief mention has been made of the Pycnogonidae, which 
are placed among the mites ; also of the Peripatidea, which 
are given a place next to the sucking Myriopoda, since they 
have been proved by the researches of Mr. Moseley to be 
Tracheata. 

On page 240 the discovery by Mr. Swinton of an auditory 
apparatus at the base of the abdomen of Lepidoptera has 
been noticed, as well as Mr. Mason-Wood's discovery that 
Mygale and Scorpio stridulate (page 628). A number of minor 
changes and corrections have been made in the plates. 

Some important changes have been made in the classifica- 
tion of the Coleoptera which do not appear in the text. The 
weevils, Curculionidce, should, in accordance with the views 
expressed by Dr. Le Conte, be placed at the end of the group. 
The Coceinettidce and Erotylidoe, should also, in accordance 
with the views of Mr. G. R. Crotch (Check-List of the 



PREFACE. 

(Joleoptera of America north of Mexico, 1H74), be placed in 
the Clavicorn series, those aiid allied families being placed in 
the following succession: JJ< >-i<xtId<i, Endomychidoe, Cioidn, 

(Jn<-nj!<l<i , < 1 <>li/dii<l , Rhizophagidve, 
Coccinellidce, Cistelidce, etc. At the 
end of the series the succession of families is as follows . 
r<inil>i/<-id<i , Brut-Tilda, C//r</xi>nielid^ Tcnebr)<tid , 

Pyrochroidce, 



u, 



Jfyrtt /(<?/ 1, Pytlddw, Citrc>di<m!d ^ 
and Anthril>i<l, Br< i<1lii<!', being the last. 

Since the publication of the last edition of this work, our 
knowledge of American fossil insects has been much extended. 

O 

Mr. Scudder has described ten more species from the carboni 
ferous strata of Nova Scotia and Pennsylvania, some of them 
of peculiar interest, thus increasing the number of known 
palaeozoic forms to thirty-two. The carboniferous insect- 
fauna of America is now so Avell known that we may note a 
close, affinity between it and that of Europe at the same 
epoch. Tertiary localities exceedingly rich in fossil insects 
have been discovered in new parts of the West ; more than 
one hundred species have already been described by Mr. 
Scudder from Eastern and Western Colorado, Wyoming, and 
British Columbia, but these are a mere fragment of what have 

y ^ 

been found. Among those described are many of an interest- 
ing character, especially a wonderfully preserved butterfly 
(Prodryas Per* />Ji<,<) and egg masses of a huge Neuropteron 
allied to Corydalus, together with others which indicate a 
partially tropical fauna at that time. Of post-tertiary insects, 
Dr. Horn has described ten beetles from a bone cave in 
Pennsylvania, and Mr. Scudder two from the interglacial 
clays of Ontario. 

A. S. PACKARD, JK. 
SALEM, MASS., April, 187s. 



PREFACE . 



THIS introduction to the study of insects is designed to . 
teach the beginner the elements of entomology, and to serve 
as a guide to the more elaborate treatises and memoirs which 
the advanced student may wish to consult. Should the 
book, imperfect as the author feels it to be, prove of some 
service in inducing others to study this most interesting and 
useful branch of natural history, the object of the writer will 
have been fully attained. 

In order to make it of value to farmers and gardeners, 
whose needs the writer has kept in view, and that it may be 
used as a text book in our agricultural colleges, concise ac- 
counts have been given of insects injurious or beneficial to 
vegetation, or those in any way affecting human interests. 

When the localities of the insects are not precisely given, 
it is to be understood that they occur in the Eastern Atlantic 
States from Maine to Pennsylvania, and the more northern of 
the Western States. When the family names occur in the 
text they are put in spaced Italics, to distinguish them from 
the generic and specific names which are Italicized in the usual 
way. 

The succession of the suborders of the hexapodous insects 
is that proposed by the author in 1863, and the attention of 
zoologists is called to their division into two series of sub- 
orders, which are characterized on page 104. To the first 
and highest may be applied Leach's term METABOLIA, as 
they all agree in having a perfect metamorphosis ; for the 
second and lower series the term HETEROMETABOLIA is pro- 



Vlli PREFACE. 

posed, as the four suborders comprised in it dirt'er in the 
degrees of completeness of their metamorphoses, and are 
all linked together by the structural features enumerated 
on page 104. 

The classification of the Hymenoptera is original with the 
author, the bees (Apidai) being placed highest, and the saw- 
flies and Uroceridee lowest. The succession of the families 
of the Lepidoptera is that now generally agreed upon by en- 
tomologists. Loew's classification of the Diptera, published 
in the ' Miscellaneous Collections" of the Smithsonian 
Institution, has been followed, with some modifications. 
Ilaliday's suggestion that the Pulicichv are allied to the 
M \cetophilido3 gives a clue to their position in nature 
among the higher Diptera. Leconte's classification of the 
Coleoptera is adopted as far as published by him, i.e., to 
the Bruchidae. For the succeeding families the arrangement 
of Gerstaecker in Peters and Cams' "Handbuch der Zoo- 
logic" has been followed, both being based on that of Lacor- 
daire. The Hemiptera are arranged according to the author's 
views of the succession of the families. The classification of 
the Orthoptera is that proposed by Mr. S. H. Scudder. This 
succession of families is the reverse of what has been given 
by recent authors, and is by far the most satisfactory yet 
presented. The arrangement of the Neuroptera (in the Lin- 
mean sense) is that of Dr. Hagen, published in his "Synop- 
sis," with the addition, however, of the Lepismatidre, Cam- 
podere and Poduridoe. 

The usual classification of the Arachnida is modified by 
placing the Phalangidee as a family among the Pedipalpi, and 
the succession of families of this suborder is suggested as be- 
ing a more natural one than has been previously given. 

The arrangement of the Araneina, imperfect as authors 
have left it, is that adopted by Gerstaecker in Peters and 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. 



FIGS. 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 40, 84, 86, 87, 91, 93-106, 124, 
126, 130, 131, 132, 142, 144, 146, 151, 180, 191-196, 201, 202, 204, 205, 
201.;, 207, 208b, 209, 212, 213, 215, 219, 220. 221, 224, 225, 226, 246, 256 
-260, 267, 320, 321, 332, 333, 379, 404, 408, 409, 42], 422, 442, 455, 480, 
481, 484, 485, 487, 493, 500, 501, 502, 509, 513, 518, 519, 521, 531, 534, 
535, 552, 561, 5G2, 576, 579, 593, 601 and 651, were borrowed from the 
American Entomological Society, at Philadelphia. 

FIGS. 2, 14, 15-24, 27, 48, G3-67, 69, 181, 216, 217, 222, 230, 231, 233 
-235, 247, 369, 389, 420, 424, 427, 435, 436, 438, 497, 508, 578, 630 and 
631 were loaned by the Boston Society of Natural History. 

FIGS. 25, 36, 37, 55, 83, 128, 136, 237, 242, 269, 350, 352-357, 362, 368, 
372, 373, 380, 511, 512, 514, 542. 54:5, 544, 545, 546, 556, 585-587, 589, 
590, 591, 594, 602, 603, 604 and 605, were borrowed from the report of 
the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture for 1862. 

FIGS. 155-165, 169-179, 270, 271, 285-296, 300, 303-306, 345-348, 358, 
359, i;:;2. 633 and 634, were loaned by the Smithsonian Institution. 

FIGS. 1, 5, 8, 10, 30, 31, 32, 51, 52, 57, 58, 62, 64, 68, 72, 79, 80, 81, 82, 
85, S9, 92, 110-121, 127, 185, 186, 227, 22S. 239, 248, 250, 252, 262, 263, 
273, 278, 298, 307-314, 317-319, 322, 324-327. 329-331, 334-343, 361, 
3G3a, 375, 387, 412, 413, 425, 426, 428, 430, 432, 433, 437, 439, 447-451, 
456-458, 463, 464, 474, 475, 504, 516, 576, 577, 580-584, 588, 592, 60s, 
613, 615, 627, 636, 637, 638, 639, 641, 642, 646-649, were taken from the 
" American Naturalist." 

FIGS. 41, 70, 71, 88, 129, 138, 143, 152, 200, 232, 249, 253, 255, 349, 
492, 554, 618, and 645 were borrowed from the "Report of the Maine 
Board of Agriculture for 1862." 

FIGS. 73-78, were kindly loaned by Prof. Jeffries Wyman. 

FIGS. 570, 571, 574, 575, 617 and 635, were loaned by the Illinois 
Geological Survey. 

I am also indebted to Prof. Sanborn Tenney for the use of Figs. 
189, 190, 198, 315, 323, 563-567, from his "Manual of Zoology." 

The publishers of Hardwick's " Science-Gossip," London, afforded 
me stereotypes of Figs, 517, 557, 569, 573, 606, 607. 609-611, 616. 62<i 
-622, 628, 629 and 640. 

.Electrotypes of Figs. 119, 261, 281, 281r-284, 328, 344, 351, 360, 363, 
367, 374, 376, 414, 429, 434, 452-454, 466, 468-471, 477, 479, 494, 506 1 . 
506-', 510, 522-526, 530, 532, 533, 536-541, 547-551, 564, 568, 595-598, 
were purchased of the publishers of the " American Entomologist." 

The following figures were engraved expressly for the work, viz : 
Figs. 11, 12, 13, 26. 28, 29, 42, 43-47, 49. 50, 53, 54, 56, 59-61, 80, 107- 



XI 1 EXPLANATION OF 1'LATK, 

109. 122, 123, 125, 133-135, 137, 139-141, 145, 148-151, Uili-168. 182- 
184, 187, 188. 197. 203, 208, 210. 211, 214, 218, 223, 230, 243, 244. 254, 
264-206, 272, 280, 297, 299. 301, 302, 308, 310, 364-366, 370, #71, 377, 
378, 381-386, 388, 390-397. 399-403, 405-407, 410, 411, 415-419. 423, 431. 
440, 441, 443-446, 459-462, 465, 467, 472, 473, 476, 478, 482, 483, 485a, b, 
488, 489, 490, 491, 495, 496, 49s. 499. 503, 505, 507, 515, 520, 527-529, 
555, 558-560, 5J65, 572, 599, 600, 612, 614, 619, 623-626, 643, 644 and 650. 
Of these, 119 were drawn from nature, mostly by Mr. J. H. Emerton, 
and a few by Messrs. C. A. Walker and L. Trouvelot. These are num- 
bered: 11, 12, 13-20, 26, 28, 29, 42, 51, 52, 57-63, 64-67, 79-82.90. 107- 
109, 122, 123, 125, 133, 137, 139, 141, 145, 148, 149-151, 166. 167, 168, 
182-184, 187, 188, 197, 203, 208 a, b, 210 a, 211, 214, 218, 236, 254, 265, 
266, 299, 301, 308, 316, 364-366, 378, 383, 384, 386, 392, 393, 396, 397, 
400, 402, 403. 405, 413, 415, 419, 423, 431, 443, 441, 443-44(1. 465. 473, 
476, 482 a, 483, 485 a, b, 489, 490, 491, 496, 49s. 499. 503. 505,507,515 
520, 555, 560, 565, 599, 600, 612, 614, 619. 

Of the remainder, Fii;>. 131. 459-462, 495, 506. were copied from 
Harris; 43, 45, from Leidy: 46, 47, 49. 50, from Straus-Durckheim ; 
44, 53. 54 and 650, from Newport ; 135. 140, from Fitch : 223. 243, 244. 
528, 529, from Glover: 264, 467. from Curtis; 623-626, from Clapa- 
rede: 643, 644, from Poyere : 56 from Gerstaecker : 297. from Mec/.- 
nikow: 302. from Brauer: 417, 418, from Leprieur: 527. 558 559, 
from Gnerin-Meneville: 572 from Dohru : 394, from Blisson: 388, 
from Candeze; 377, 381, 382, 385,390, 391, 395, 399, 401, 406. 407. llo. 
472 and 488, from Chapuis and Cande/.e. 

PLATES 1, 2, 3, 4, 6. 7, 9, 10 and 11, were taken from the "American 
Naturalist." Plates 5 and 8. are original, and drawn from nature by 
Mr. J. H. Emerton. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 8. 

Fn;. 1. Empretia stimulea; la, larva. 

FIG. 2. Leucania unipuncta; 2, larva. 

FIG. 3. Xanthoptera semicrocea; 3, larva. 

FIG. 4. Catocala ultronia ; 4 a, larva. 

FIG. 5. Angerona crocataria, male ; 5 a, larva. 

FIG. 6. Ennomos subsignaria; larva. 

Fir;. 7. Nematocampa filamentaria; 7o, larva (enlarged twice), 

FIG. 8. Abraxas ribearia. male. 

FIG. 9. Anisopteryx vernata, male: 9o, female (enlarged). 9ft, larva. 

FIG. 10. Cidaria diversilineata; 10 a, larva. 

FIG. 11. Galleria cereana. 

FIG. 12. Lozotsenia rosaceana; 12 a, larva. 

FIG. 13. Penthina pruniana. 

FIG. 14. Pepressaria robiniella. [its mine. 

FIG. 15. Lithocolletis geminatella: a, larva: ft, pupa (enlarged three times), 15c, 

FIG. Ifi. Buccnlatrix pomifoliella. 

FIG. 17. Coleophora: larva. 

FIG. 18. Tjyonetia saccatella : 18 ft, larva: 18ft, case (enlarged). 

FIG. 19. Lithocolletis nidificansella (enlarged) ; 19, oocoon. 

FIG. 20. Aglossa cnprealis. 

FIG. 21. Anchvlopera vacciniana. 

FIG. 22. Penthina vitivorana (enlarged). 

FIG. 23. Pterophorns periscelidactylus: a, larva; ft, pupa (enlarged three times). 



PREFACE. ix 

Cams' "Handbuch der Zoologie." In the succession of the 
families of the Acarina, the suggestions of Claparede, in his 
"Studien der Acariden," have been followed, and in the 
preparation of the general account of the Arachnids the 
writer is greatly indebted to Claparede's elaborate work on 
the "Evolution of Spiders." 

In the preparation of this "Guide" the author has con- 
sulted and freely used Westwood's invaluable "Introduction 
to the Modern Classification of Insects ; " Gerstaecker's 
" Arthropoden" in Peters and Cams' "Handbuch der Zoo- 
logie;" Siebold's "Anatomy of the Invertebrates" (Burnett's 
translation, 1854) ; Newport's Article "Insecta" in Todd's 
Cyclopaec i; a of Anatomy and Physiology ; and Dr. T. W. 
Harris' "Treatise on Insects injurious to Vegetation." He 
would also acknowledge his indebtedness to Professor L. 
Agassiz for many of the general ideas, acquired while the 
author was a student in the Museum of Comparative Zoo- 
logy at Cambridge, regarding the arrangement of the orders 
and classes, and the morphology of the Articulates. 

For kind assistance rendered in preparing this book, the 
author is specially indebted to Baron R. von Osten Sacken, 
who kindly read the proof sheets of the chapter on Diptera ; 
to Mr. F. G. Sanborn for the communication of many speci- 
mens and facts ; and also to Messrs. Edward Norton, S. H. 
Scudder, J. H. Emerton, C. T. Robinson, A. R. Grote, G. D. 
Smith, E. T. Cresson, P. R. Uhler, C. V. Riley, Dr. J. L. Le- 
conte, Dr. Hagen, W. C. Fish, and E. S. Morse. For much 
kind assistance and very many favors and suggestions, and 
constant sympathy and encouragement during the printing 
of the work, he is under special obligation to his valued 
friend, Mr. F. W. Putnam. The types of the new species 
noticed here are deposited in the Museum of the Peabodv 
Academy of Science. He would also express his thanks to 



X PREFACE. 

the American Entomological Society, the Society of Natural 
History at Boston, the Secretary of the Massachusetts Board 
of Agriculture, the Essex Institute, the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, the Secretary of the Maine Board of Agriculture, and 
to Mr. R. Harchvicke, the publisher of "Science-Gossip," 
Prof. Sanborn Tenney, the author of "A Manual of Zo- 
ology," and to his coeditors of the "American Naturalist," 
for the use of many of the cuts, a list of which may be 
found on the succeeding pages. 

PEABODY ACADEMY <F SCIENCE, 

SALEil. Nov. 10, 1869. 







GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF INSECTS. 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

THAT branch of the Animal Kingdom known as the Aimcu- 
LATA, includes all animals having the body composed of rings 
or segments, like short cylinders, which are placed successively 
one behind the other. Cuvier selected this term because he 
saw that the plan of their entire organization, the essential 
features which separate them from all other animals, lay in the 
idea of articulation, the apparent joining together of distinct 
segments along the line of the body. If we observe carefully 
the body of a AVorm, we shall see that it consists of a long 
cylindrical sac, which at regular intervals is folded in upon 
itself, thus giving a ringed (annulated, or articulated) appear- 
ance to the body. In Crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, etc.) 
and in Insects, from the deposition of a peculiar chemical 
substance called cjiffitu', the walls of the body become so ^ 
hardened, that when the animal is dead and dry, it 
readily breaks into numerous very perfect rings. 

Though this branch contains a far greater number of 
species than any other of the animal kingdom, its myr- 
iad forms can all be reduced to a simple, ideal, typical 
figure ; that of a long slender cylinder divided into 
numerous segments, as in Fig. 1, representing the larva 
of a Fly. It is by the unequal development and the 
various modes of grouping them, as well as the differ- 
ences in the number of the rings themselves, and also in Fi ^- * 
the changes of form of their appendages, i.e. the feet, jaws, 
antenna 1 , and wings, that the various forms of Articulates are 
produced. 

Fit!. 1. Worm-like larva of a Fly, Scenopinus. Oriijinnf. 
I 




THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 




Articulated animals are also very distinctly bilateral, i.e. the 
body is symmetrically divided into two lateral halves, and 

not only the trunk but the limbs also 
show this bilateral xi/niii'tr>/. In a less 
marked degree there is also an ant^ra- 
postvrlnr Hiiniiiivtry, i.e. eaeh end of 
the body is opposed, just as each 
side of the body is, to the other.* 
The line separating the two ends is. 
however, imaginary and vague. The 
antenna 1 , on the anterior pole, or head, 
are represented by the caudal, or anal, 
stylets (Fig. 2), and the single parts 
on the median line of the body corre- 
spond. Thus the labrum and clypeus 
are represented by the tergite of the 
eleventh segment of the abdomen. 
Fjg L , In all Articulates (Fig. 3) the long, 

tubular, alimentary canal occupies the centre of the body ; above 
it lies the "heart," or dorsal vessel, and below, upon the under 
.side, rests the nervous system. 
The breathing apparatus, or 
iw lungs," in Worms consists of /| 
simple filaments, placed on the 
front of the head ; or of gill-like 
processes, as in the Crustaceans, 
which are formed by membran- 
ous expansions of the legs ; or, Fig. 3. 
as in the Insects (Fig. 4), of delicate tubes (trachea:), which 

* Professor Wyman (On Symmetry and Homology in Limbs, Proceedings of the 
Boston Society of Natural History, 1867) has shown that antero-posterior symmetry 
is very marked in Articulates. In the adjoining figure of Jcera (Fig. 2) the longi- 
tudinal lines illustrate what is meant by bilateral symmetry, and the transverse 
lines "fore and aft" symmetry. The two antero-posterior halves of the body arc 
very symmetrical in the Crustacean genera Jtern, Oniscus, Porcellio, and other 
Cru.-tacea, and also among the Myriopods, Scutiyera, 1'olydesmus, " in which the 
limbs are repeated oppositely, though with different degrees of inequality, from the 
centre of the body backwards and forwards." "Leuckurt and Van Beneden have 
shown that My sis has an ear in the last segment, and Schmidt has described an eye 
in the same part in a worm, Amphicora." From Wyman. 

FIG. 3 represents an ideal section of a Worm. / indicates the skin, or mus- 
cular body-wall, which on each side is produced into one or more fleshy tubercles, 
usually tipped with bristles or hairs, which serve as organs of locomotion, and 




THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 



ramify throughout the whole interior of the animal, and con- 
nect with breathing pores (stigmata) in the sides of the body. 
They do not breathe through the month as do the higher ani- 
mals. The tracheae and blood-vessels follow closely the same 




a Fig. 4. 

course, so that the aeration of the blood goes on, apparently, 
over the whole interior of the body, not being confined to a 
single region, as in the lungs of the vertebrate animals. 

Thus it is by observing the general form of the body-walls, 
and the situation of the different anatomical systems, both in 
relation to themselves and the walls of the bod}-, or crust, 
which surrounds and protects the more delicate organs within, 
that we are able to find satisfactory characters for isolating, in 
our definitions, the articulates from all other animals. 

AVe shall perceive more clearly the differences between the 
three classes of Articulates, or jointed animals, namely, 
the WORMS, CRUSTACEANS, and INSECTS, by examining 

often as lungs. The nervous cord () rests on the floor of the cylinder, sending a 
lilament into the oar-like feet (/), and also around the intestine or stomach (ft), to a 
supplementary cord (rf), which is situated just over the intestine, and under the 
heart or dorsal vessel (e). The circle c and e is a diagram of the circulatory sys- 
tem; c is the dorsal vessel, or heart, from the side of which, in each ring, a small 
vessel is sent downwards and around to e, the ventral vessel. Original. 

FIG. 4. An ideal section of a Bee. Here the crust is dense and thick, to which 
strong muscles are attached. On the upper side of the ring the wings grow out, 
while the legs are inserted near the under side. The tracheae (</) enter through the 
stir/nut, or breathing pore, situated just under the wing, and their branches sub- 
and are distributed to the wings, with their live principal veins as indicated 



THK CLASS OF INSKCTS. 




Kig. :.. 



their young stages. tVoin the time of their exclusion from the egg, 
until they pass into mature lite. A more careful study of this 
period than we are now able to enter upon would show us how 
miieli alike the young of all articulates are at h'rst, and how 
soon they begin to differ, and assume the shape characteristic 
of their das.-,. 

Most "NVorms, after leaving the egg. are at first like sonic 
infusoria, being little saolike animalcules, often ciliated over 
nearly the entire surface of the infinitesimal body. 
Soon this sac-like body grows longer, and con- 
tracts at intervals; the intervening parts become 
unequally enlarged, some segments, or rings, 
formed by the contraction of the body-wall-*, 
greatly exceeding in size those next to them; and it thus 
assumes the appearance of being more or less equally ringed, 
as in the young YVyWWA* (Fig. ">). where the 

cilia' are restricted toa single circle surrounding 
tin' body, (iradually (Fig. <> ) the cilia- disap- 
pear and regular locomotive organs, consisting 
of minute paddles, grow out from each side; 
feelers (antenna 1 ), jaws, and eyes (simple rudi- 
mentary eyes) appear on the few front ring's 
of the body, which are grouped by themselves 
into a sort of head, though it is difficult, in a 
large proportion of the lower worms, for un- 
skilled observers to distinguish the head from 
the tail. 

Thus we see throughout the growth of the 
worm, no attempt at subdividing the body 
into regions, each endowed with its peculiar 
I, functions; but only a more perfect system of 
Fifr rings, each relatively very equally developed, 

in the figure, also to the elm-sal vessel(<-), the intestine (&), and the nervous cord (a . 
The trachea 1 and a nervous lilament are also sent into the legs and to the wings. 
The trachea 1 are also distributed to the dorsal vessel and intestine by numerous 
branches which serve to hold them in place. Original. 

Fui. ">. Young Tt'i-i-hella, soon after leaving the egg. From A. ,-l//.s.s/:. 

KKJ. <> represents the embryo of a worm (Autolytiis cornntus) at a later st.u 
of growth, a is the middle tentacle of the head; e, one of the posterior tentacles ; 
h, the t\vi> eye-spot* at the base of the hinder pair of feelers; c is one of a row of 
ear-like organs (cirri) at the base of which are inserted the locomotive bristles, 




THE CLASS OF INSECTS. } 

but all becoming respectively more complicated. For example, 
in the Earth-worm (Lumbricus) , e&ch ring is distinguishable into 
jui upper and under side, and in addition to these a well- 
marked side-area, to which, as for example in marine worms (e. g. 
JVV/Y'/x), oar-like organs are attached. In most worms eye-spots 
appear on the front rings, and slender tentacles grow out, and 
a pair of nerve-knots (ganglia) are apportioned to each ring. 

In the Crustaceans, such as the fresh-water Crawfish (A*t- 
c^.s), as shown by the (German naturalist R at like ; and also in 
the earliest stages of the Insect, the body at. niu-c assumes a, 
worm-like form, thus beginning its embryonic life from the goal 
reached by the adult worm. 

The young of all Crustaceans (Fig. 7) lirst begin life in the 
egg as oblong flattened worm-like bodies, each end of the body 
being alike. The young of the. lower Crustaceans, such as the 
Barnacles, and some marine forms (Copepoda), and some 
lowly organized parasitic species inhabiting the gills of 
fishes, are hatched as microscopic embryos which would readily 
be mistaken for young mites (Antrim/). In the higher Crus- 
taceans, such as the fresh-water Crawfish, the 
young, when hatched, does not greatly differ 
from the parent, as it has passed through the 
worm-like stage within the egg. 

Fig. 7 represents the young of the fresh- 
water Lobster (Crawfish) before leaving the 
egg. The body is divided into rings, ending 
in lobes on the sides, which are the rudiments 
of the limbs, b is the rudiment of the eye- Fig. 7. 

stalk, at the end of which is the eye ; a is the fore an ten me ; 
< is the hind antenme ; d is one of the maxilla-feet ; e is the 
lirst pair of true feet destined in the adult to form the large 
"claw." Thus the eye-stalks, antenna*, claws, and legs are 
moulded upon a common form, and at first are scarcely distin- 

with the cirri serving as swimming and locomotive organs: it, the caudal stylus, or 
tail-feelers. In this figure we sec how slight are the differences between the 
feelers of the head, the oar-like swimming organs, and the caudal filaments; we 
an easily see that they are but modifications of a common form, and all arise 
from the common limb-bearing region of the body. The alimentary canal, with 
the pi'oventriciilus, or anterior division of the stomach, occupies the middle of the 
body ; while the mouth opens on the under side of the head. From A. Agassi:;. 
Fi:;. 7. Embryo of the Crawfish. From Ruthke. 

I* 




6 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 



guishable from each other. Here we see the embryo divided 
into u head-thorax and a tail. 

It is the same with Insects. Within the egg at the dawn of 
life they are flattened oblong bodies curved upon the yelk- 
mass. Before hatching they become more cylindrical, the 
limbs bud out on the sides of the rings, the head is clearly 
demarked, and the young caterpillar soon steps forth from the 
egg-shell ready armed and equipped for its riotous life. 

As will be seen in Fig. 8, the legs, jaws, and antennae are 
first started as buds from the side of the rings, being simply 

elongations of the body-wall, 
which bud out, become larger, 
and finally jointed, until the 
buds arising from the thorax or 
abdomen become legs, those 
from the base of the head be- 
come jaws, while the antenna; 
and palpi sprout out from the 
front rings of the head. Thus 
while the bodies of all articulates 
are built up from a common em- 
bryonic form, their appendages, which are so diverse, when we 
compare a Lobster's claw with an Insect's antenna, or a Spider's 
spinneret with the hinder limbs of a Centipede, are yet but 
modifications of a common form, adapted for the different uses 
to which they are put by these animals. 

FIG. 8. A Caddis, or Case-fly (Mystacides) iu the egg, with part of the yolk 
(x) not yet inclosed within the body -walls, a, antenna; ; between a and b the mandi- 
bles; 6, maxilla; c, labium; d, the separate eye-spots (ocelli), which afterwards in- 
crease greatly in number and unite to form the compound eye. The "neck" or 
junction of the head with the thorax is seen at the front part of the yolk-mass; e, 
the three pairs of legs, which are folded once on themselves;/, the pair of anal legs 
attached to the tenth ring of the abdomen, as seen in caterpillars, which form long 
antenna-like filaments in the Cockroach and May-fly, etc. The rings of the body are 
but partially formed; they are cylindrical, giving the body a worm-like form. 
Here, as in the other two figures, though not so distinctly seen, the antennae, jaws, 
and last pair of abdominal legs are modifications of but a single form, and grow 
out from the side of the body. The head-appendages are directed forwards, as 
they are to be adapted for sensory and feeding purposes; the legs are directed 
downwards, since they are to support the insect while walking. It appears that the 
two ends of the body are perfected before the middle, and the under side before the 
upper, as we see the yolk-mass is not yet inclosed and the rings not yet formed 
above. Thus all articulates differ from all vertebrates in having the yolk-mass 
situated on the back, instead of on the belly, as in the chick, dog, or human em- 
brvo. From ZaddacU. 




Fig. 8. 




w 



p 



Hi 


02 



w 

w 



a 

E 



c 

03 



o 



B 



w 




CD 
<! 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. J 

The Worm is long and slender, composed of an irregular 
number of rings, all of very even size. Thus, while the size of 
the rings is tixed, their number is indeterminate, varying from 
twenty to two hundred or more. The outline of the body is a 
single cylindrical h'gure. The organs of locomotion are fleshy 
filaments and hairs (Fig. 3,/) appended to the sides. 

In one of the low intestinal worms, the Tape-worm (Tcenia), 
each ring, behind the head and "neck," is provided with organs 
of reproduction, so that when the bod}- becomes broken up 
into its constituent elements, or rings (as often occurs naturally 
in these low forms for the more ready propagation of the 
species, since the young are exposed to many dangers while 
living in the intestines of animals), they become living inde- 
pendent beings which "move freely and somewhat quickly 
like Leaches," and until their real nature was known they 
were thought to be worms. This and other facts prove, that, 
in the Worm, the vitality of the animal is very equally dis- 
tributed to each ring. If we cut off the head or tail of some 
of the low worms, such as the Flat Worms (Planurni, etc.), 
each piece will become a distinct animal, but an Insect or Crab 
sooner or later dies when deprived of its head or tail (abdomen). 

Thus, in the Worm the vital force is very equally distributed 
to each zoological element, or ring of the body; no single 
part of the body is much honored above the rest, so as to sub- 
ordinate and hold the other 
parts in subservience to its 
peculiar and higher ends in 
the animal economy. 

The Crustacean, of which 
the Shrimp (Fig. 9) is a 
typical example, is com- 
posed of a determinate 
number (21) of rings which Fig. . 

are gathered into two regions ; the head -thorax (cephalo- 
thorax) and hind -body, or abdomen. In this class there 
is a broad distinction between the anterior and posterior ends 
of the body. The rings are now grouped into two regions, 
and the hinder division is subordinate in its structure and 

FIG. 9- A Slmmi>. Pandalus annulicornls. a, cephalothorax ; b, abdomen. 




8 TMK CLASS OF 1NSKCTS. 

uses to the forward portion of the body. Hence the nervous 
power is transferred in some degree towards tin- head ; the 
cephalothorax containing the nervous centres from which nerves 
are distributed to the abdomen. Nearly all the organs perform- 
ing the functions of locomotion and sensation reside in the front 
region : while the vegetative functions, or those concerned 
in the reproduction and nourishment of the animal, are mostly 
carried on in the hinder region of the body (the abdomen). 

The typical Crustacean cannot be said to have a. true head, 
in distinction from a thorax bearing the organs of locomotion, 
but rather a, group of rings, to which are. appended the organs 
of sensation and locomotion. Hence we h'nd the appendages 
of this region gradually changing from antenna- and jaws to 
foot-jaws, or limbs capable of eating and also of locomotion; 
they shade into each other as seen in Fig. ( J. Sometimes the 
jaws become remarkably like claws ; or the legs resemble jaws 
at the base, but towards their tips become claw-like; gill-like 
bodies are sometimes attached to the foot-jaws, and thus, as 
stated by Professor J. D. Dana in the introduction to his great 
work on the Crustacea of the United States Exploring Expedi- 
tion, the typical Crustaceans do not have a distinct head, but 
rather a head-tin >rax " ( cephalothorax ) . 

When Ave rise a third and last step into the world of Insects, 
\ve see a completion and final development of the articu- 
late plan which has been but obscurely hinted at in the two 
lowest classes, the Worms and Crustaceans. Here Ave first meet 
Avith a true head, separate in its structure and functions from 
the thorax, which, in its turn, is clearly distinguishable from 
the third region of the body, the abdomen, or hind-body. 
These three regions, as seen in the Wasp (Fig. 10), are each 
provided with three distinct sets of organs, 
each having distinct functions, though all are 
governed by and minister to the brain force, 
now in a great measure gathered up from the 
Fig. 10. posterior rings of the body, and in a more 

concentrated form (the brain being larger than in the lower 
articulates) lodged in the head. 

Here, then, is a centralization of parts head wards ; they are 

Fni. 10. Fhilititthus i'eiitil<ibri.<tVn\>r. A AVood-wasp. From Say. 




COMPOSITION OF THE INSECT-CRUST. 

brought us it' towards a locus, and that focus the head, which 
is the meaning of the term " cephalization," proposed by Pro- 
lessor Dana.* Hint/ distinctions have given way to regional 
distinctions. The former characterize the Worm, the latter 
the Insect. In other words, the division of the body into three 
parts, or regions, is in the insect, on the whole, better marked 
than the division of any one of those parts, except the abdo- 
men, into rings. 

COMPOSITION OF THE IXSKCT-* IM;ST. Before describing the 
composition of the body-wall, or crust, of the Insect, let us 
briefly review the mode in which the same parts are formed in 
the lower classes, the Worms and Crustaceans. We have seen 
that the typical ring, or segment (called by authors zooiiule, 
zudnlt<\ or somite, meaning parts of a body, though we prefer 
the term arthromere, denoting the elemental part of a jointed 
or articulate animal), consists of an upper (tergite), a side 
(pleurite), and an under piece (sternite). This is seen in its 
greatest simplicity in the Worm (Fig. 2), where the upper and 
ventral arcs are separated by the pleural region. In the Crus- 
tacean the parts, hardened by the deposition of chitine and 
therefore thick and unyielding, have to be farther subdivided to 
secure the necessary amount of freedom of motion to the body 
and legs. The upper arc not only covers the back of the ani- 
mal, but extends down the sides ; the legs are jointed to the 
vpimvm, or flanks, on the lower arc ; the episternum is situated 
between the epimerum and sternum ; and the sternum, form- 
ing the lireast, is situated between the legs. In the adult, there- 
fore, each elemental ring is composed of six pieces. It 
should, however, be borne in mind that the terguin and ster- 

* In two papers on the Classification of Animals, published in the American 
niiiriKit nf Science and Arts, Second Series, vol. xxxv, p. U5, vol. xxxvi, July, lS(i:i, 
and also in his earlier paper on Crustaceans, "the principle of rcphaliztition is 
shown to be exhibited among animals in the following ways : 

]. By a transfer of members from the locnuiotire to the cephalic series. 

.!. By the anterior of the locomotive organs participating to some extent in ce- 
phalic, functions. 

:!. By increased abbreviation, concentration, compactness, and perfection of 
structure, in the parts and organs of the anterior portion of the body. 

4. By increased abbreviation, condensation, and perfection of structure in the 
posterior, or gastric and caudal portion of the body. 

5. By an upward rise in the cephalic end of the nervous system. This rise 
reaches its extreme limit in Alan." 



10 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

num each consist, in the embryo, of two lateral parts, or halves, 
which, during development, unite on the median line of the 
body. Typically, therefore, the crustacean ring consists pri- 
marily of eight pieces. The same number is found in all insects 
which are wingless, or in the larva and pupa state ; this applies 
also to the Myriopods and Spiders. 

In the Myriopoda, or Centipedes, the broad tergum overlaps 
the small epimera, while the sternum is much larger than in 
the Spiders and Insects. In this respect it is like the broad 
flat under-surface of most worms. Hence the legs of the 
Centipede are inserted very far apart, and the "breast," or 
sternum, is not much smaller than the dorsal part of the crust. 
In the Julus the dorsal piece (tergum) is greatly developed 
over the sternum, but this is a departure from what is ap- 
parently the more t} T pical form of the order, i. e. the Centipede. 
In the Spiders there is a still greater disproportion in size 
between the tergum and the sternum, though the latter is very 
large compared with that of Insects. The epimera and episterna, 
or side-pieces of the Spiders, are partially concealed by the 
over-arching tergum, and they are small, since the joints of the 
legs are very large, Audouin's law of development in Articu- 
lates showing that one part of the insect crust is always 
developed at the expense of the adjoining part. In the Spider 
we notice that the back of the thorax is a single solid plate 
consisting originally of four rings consolidated into a single 
hard piece. In like manner the broad solid sternal plate 
results from the reunion of the same number of sternites cor- 
responding, originally, to the number of thoracic legs. Thus 
the whole upper side of the head and thorax of the Spider is 
consolidated into a single hard horny immovable plate, like 
the upper solid part of the cephalothorax of the Crab or 
Shrimp. Hence the motions of the Spiders are very stiff com- 
pared with those of many Insects, and correspond to those of 
the Crab. 

The crust of the winged insect is modified for the per- 
formance of more complex motions. It is subdivided in so 
different a manner from the two lower orders of the class, that 
it would almost seem to have nothing in common, structurally 
speaking, with the groups below them. It is only by examin- 



COMPOSITION OF THE INSECT-CUUST. 



11 




Kflll ptlll 

Fig. 11. 



Fig. 12. 
m$ scm ms" 



ing the lowest wingless forms such as the Louse, Flea, 
Podura, and Bark-lice, where we see a transition to the Or- 
ders of Spiders and Myriopods, that we can perceive the plan 
pervading all these forms, uniting them into a common 
class. 

A segment of a winged six-footed insect (Hexapod) consists 
typically of eight pieces which we will now examine more 
leisurely. Figure 12 represents a side-view of 
the thorax of the Telea Polyphemus, or Silk- pt 3r 
worm moth, with the legs and wings removed. 
Each ring consists primarily of the tergum, the 
two side-pieces (epimerum and episternum) and 
the sternum, or breast-plate. But one of these 
pieces (sternum) remains simple, as in the lower orders. The 
tergum is divided into four pieces. They were named by Au- 
clouin going from before backwards, 
the jwwscutum, scutum, sen f din in, 
and postscutellum. 

The scutum is invariably present 
and forms the larger part of the 
upper portion (tergum) of the tho- 
rax ; the scutellum is, as its name 
indicates, the little shield so promi- 
nent in the beetle, which is also 
uniformly present. The other two 
pieces are usually minute and 
crowded down out of sight, and placed between the two oppos- 
ing rings. As seen in Fig. 11, the prsescutiun of the moth is 
a small rounded piece, bent vertically down, so as not to be 
seen from above. In the lowly organized Hepialus, and some 

FIG. 11. Tergal view of the middle segment of the thorax of Telea Polyphemus, 
prm, priescutum; ms, scutum; scm, scutellum; ptm, postscutellum; pt, p.itagium, 
or shoulder tippet, covering the insertion of the wings. Original. 

FIG. 12. Side view of the thorax of T. Polyphemus, the hairs removed. 1, Pro- 
thorax ; -2, Mesothorax ; 3, Metathorax, separated by the wider black lines. Tergum 
of the prothorax not represented, ms, mesoscutum; scm, mesoscutellum; ms" , 
metascutum ; scm", metascutellum ; pt, a supplementary piece near the inser- 
tion of patagia; IP, pieces situated at the insertion of the wings and surrounded by 
membrane ; em, epimerum of prothorax, the long upright piece above being the 
episternum; epm", episternum of the mesothorax; em", epimerum of the same: 
epm", episternum of the metathorax; em", epimerum of the same, divided into two 
pieces; c, c", c", coxae; te', le", le", trochautines ; tr, tr, tr, trochanters. 
Original. 




tr te c" tr c"' tr 
1 2 3 



12 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 




such as the PotystoecJiotes (Fig-. 13 a), the pne- 
scutiun is largo, well developed, triangular, and wedged in 
between the two halves of the scutum. The little 
piece succeeding the scutellum, i. < j . the postscu- 
tellum, is still smaller, and rarely used in descrip- 
tive entomology. Thus tar \ve have spoken of the 
middle, or mesothoracic, ring, where these four 
pieces are most equally developed. In the iirst, " 
or prothoracic, ring, one part, most probably the 
scutum, is well developed, while the others are 
aborted, and it is next to impossible to trace them 
in most insects. The prothorax in the higher in- Fi ~- 1:i - 
sects, such as the Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera is 
very small, and often intimately soldered to the succeeding or 
mesothoracic ring. In the lower insects, however, such as the 
Coleoptera, the bugs (Ilemiptera), grasshoppers and their 
allies (Orthoptera). and the Xeuroptera, the large broad pro- 
thorax consists almost entirely of this single piece, and most 
writers speak of this part under the name of "thorax," since 
the two posterior segments are concealed by the wings when 
the animal is at rest. The metathorax is usually very broad 
and short. Here we see the scutum split asunder, with the 
pra'sciitum and scutellum wedged in between, while the post- 
scutellum is aborted. 

On the side are two pieces, the upper (epimernm) placed 
just beneath the tergum, which is the collective name for the 
four tergal, or dorsal, pieces enumerated above. In front of 
the epimerum and resting upon the sternum, as its name im- 
plies, is the ejiixfcnmiii. These two parts (pleurites) compose 
the flanks of the elemental ring. To them the legs are articu- 
lated. Between the two episterna is situated the breast-piece 
(sternum), which shows a tendency to grow smaller as we 
ascend from the Neuroptera to the Bees. 

In those insects provided with wings, the epimera are also 
sul (divided. The smaller pieces, hinging upon each other, as 
it were, give play to the very numerous muscles of flight 

l-'iu. 13. A terjral view of thorax of Heputliis(Sthenojiis'); 1, prothorax; '2, meso- 
ihorux; 3, iiu'tathor.'ix. The prothorax is very small compared with that of l'<>ly- 
vtifi-litites (13 tt, 1), whirr it is nearly as long as broad. Orif/inaf. 



COMPOSITION OF TIIK I NSKOT-CltUST. J ;{ 

needed by the insect to perform its complicated motions 
while on the wing. 

The insertion of the fore wing is concealed by the "shoulder 
tippets," or patoyia (Fig. 11). which are only present in the 
mesothorax. The external opening of the spiracles just under 
the wing perforates a little piece called by Audouin the j<ri- 

tr&mk. 

A glance at Figures 11 and 12 shows how compactly the 
various parts of the thorax are agglutinated into a globular 
mass, and that this is due to the diminished size of the lirst 
and third rings, while the middle ring is greatly enlarged to 
support the muscles of flight. There are four tergal, four 
pleural, two on each side (and these in the Hymenoptera, Lepi- 
doptera, and Diptera subdivide into several pieces), and a 
single sternal piece, making nine for each ring and twenty- 
seven for the whole thorax, with eight accessory pieces (the 
three pairs of pen'fremes and the i\\o iKit<i<ji<i). making a total 
of thirty-five for the entire thorax ; or, multiplying the four 
tergal pieces by two, since they are formed by the union of two 
primitive pieces on the median line of the body, we have 
thirty-nine pieces composing the thorax. 

TABLE OF THE PARTS OF TIIK TIIOHAX APPLIED TO THE PKO-, 
MESO-. AND METATHOHAX, IIESPECITVELY. 

, Pravsc'iitum, 
( Dorsal S Scutum. 
I Surface J Scutelluin, 

- Postscutclluin. 

,, , C Epimeruin. 

Thorax <j Pleural S E |,i 8U . nuini . 

( Episternal apophysis. Sti.irina, IVntreme. 
I Sternal < Stmnun . 
L Surface 

We must remember that these pieces are rarely of precisely 
the same form in any two species, and that they differ, often in 
a very marked way, in different genera of insects. How sim- 
ple, then, is the typical ring, and how complex are the va- 
rious subdivisions of that ring as seen in the actual, living 
insect, where each part has its appropriate muscles, nerves, and 
tracheae ! 

We have seen how the thorax is formed in Insects generally, 
let us now advert to the two types of thorax in the six-footed 



14 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

insects. In the higher series of suborders, comprising the Dip- 
tera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, placing the highest last, 
the thorax shows a tendency to assume a globular shape ; the 
upper side, or tergum, is much arched, the pleural region bulges 
out full and round, while the legs conceal at their insertion 
the sternum which is minute in size. 

In the lower series, embracing the Coleoptera, Hemiptera, 
Orthoptera, and Neuroptera, the entire body tends to be more 
flattened. ; in the thorax the tergum is broad, especially that of 
the prothorax, while the pleurites (episterna and epimera) are 
short and bulge out less than in the higher series, and the ster- 
num is almost invariably well developed, often presenting ;i 
large thick breast-plate bearing a stout spine or thick tubercle, 
as in (Eilipo'ht. We can use these characters, in classifying 
insects into suborders, as they are common to the whole order. 
Hence the use of characters drawn from the wings and mouth- 
parts (which are sometimes wanting), leads to artificial dis- 
tinctions, as they are peripheral organs, though often convenient, 
in our first attempts at classifying and limiting natural groups. 

The abdomen. In the hind body, or third region of the 
trunk, the three divisions of the typical ring (arthromere), are 
entire, the tergum is broad and often not much greater in ex- 
tent than the sternum ; and the pleurites also form either a 
single piece, or, divided into an epimerum and episternum, 
form a distinct lateral region, on which the stigmata are sit- 
uated. The seo-ments of the abdomen have received from 

O 

Lacaze-Dntliiers a still more special name, that of vrite, and 
the different tergal pieces belonging to the several rings, 
but especially those that have been modified to form the genital 
armor have been designated by him as tergites. We have 
applied this last term to the tergal pieces generally. The typi- 
cal number of abdominal segments is eleven. In the lowest 
insects, the Neuroptera, there are usually eleven ; as we have 
counted them in the abdomen of the embryo of Diplax. In 
others, such as the Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera, there may 
never be more than ten, so far as present observation teaches 
us. 

The formation of the sting, and of the male intromittent 
organ, may be observed in the full-grown larva and in the in- 




7ft 



INJURIOUS INSECTS. 



Plate 13. 






No. 2. 



No. 10. 







%Mt m 

VSr-^f.^r^!; ii A\* 




No. 4. 





No. 9. 



No. 8, 




No. 6. 



No. 11. 



INJURIOUS AND BENEFICIAL INSECTS. 



COMPOSITION OF THE OVIPOSITOR. 



15 







Fig. 14. 

us iii Fiii'ures 14- 



Fig. 17. 



complete pupa of the Humble-bee, in id. other thin-skiuned 

Ilymenopterous larvae, and in a, less satisfactory way in the 

young Dragon-flies. 

If the larva of -the Humble-bee be taken just after it has 

become full-fed, and as it is about to enter upon the pupa state, 

the elements 
(stern v- rhab- 
clites Lacaze- 
Duthiers), or 
tubercles, 
destined to Fig. ie. 
form the ovipositor, lie in 
separate pairs, in two groups, 
Fig. iu. exposed distinctly to view, 
The ovipositor thus consists of three 

pairs of slender non-articulated tubercles, situated in juxta- 
position on each side of 

the mesial line of the 

body. The first pair arises 

from the eighth abdominal 

ling, and the second and 

third pair grow out from 

the ninth ring. The ends 

of the first pair scarcely 

reach beyond the base of 

the third pair. "\Vitli the 

growth of the semi-pupa, 

the end of the abdomen 

decreases in size, and is 

FIG. 14. Rudiments of the sting, or ovipositor, of the Humble-bee. 8, 9, 10, 
Semites of eighth, ninth, and tenth abdominal rings in the larva, a, first pair, situ- 
ated on the eighth sternite ; b, second and inner pair ; and c, the outer pair. The let- 
tering is the same in figures 14-22. The inner pair (6), forms the true ovipositor, 
through which the eggs are supposed to pass when laid by the insect, the two 
outer pairs, it. and c, sheathing the inner pair. Ganin shows that in the embryo c 
/V>.'(/;i<7:i(Fig. <i.x>), the three pairs of tubercles arise from the 7th, Sth and 9th sy- 
menta respectively. FIG. 15, l(i. The same a little farther advanced. 

FIG. 17. The three pairs now appear as if together growing from the base of the 
ninth segment; 17 , side view of the same, showing the end of the abdomen grow- 
ing ^-mailer through the diminution in size of the under side of the body. 

FIG. 18. The three pairs of rhabdites now nearly equal in size, and nearly 
ready to unite and form a tube; 18 a, side view of the same; the end of the abdo- 
men still more pointed ; the ovipositor is situated between the seventh and tenth 
rings, and is partially retracted within the body. 




1G 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 





gradually incurved toward the- base (Fig. IS), and the three 
pairs of rhabdites approach each other so closely that the two 
outer ones completely ensheath the inner, until a complete 
extensible tube is formed, which is gradually withdrawn entirely 
within the body. 

The male genital organ is originally composed of three pairs 
(two pairs, apparently, in ^".s- 
i'/nni. Fig. ID) of tubercles all 
arising from the nint/i abdominal 
ring, being sternal outgrowths 
and placed on each side of the 
mesial line of the body, two be- F '.~- -" 

ing anterior, and very unequal in size, and the 
Fiji-, in. third pair nearer the base of the abdomen. The ex- 
ternal genital organs are to be considered 
as probably homologous with the limbs, as 
damn has shown that they bud out in the 
same manner from (see p. 704 
tig. 655) the arthromere.* 

This view will apply to the 
Fig. 21. genital armor of all Insects, so 
far as we have been able to observe. It is 
so in the pupa of ^Ex<-hn<i (Fig. 21), and 
the pupa of Af/ritni (Fig. 22), which com- 
pletely repeats, in its essential features, the 
structure of the ovipositor of Bombus. Thus in ^EscJnifi and 
Ayrion the ovipositor consists of a pair of closely appressed ensi- 
form processes which grow out from under the posterior edge of 
the eighth abdominal ring, and are embraced between two pairs 

*This term is proposed as better delining the ideal ring, or primary zoological 
element of ;m articulated animal than the terms somite, or zoonite, which seem too 
vague; we also propose the term arthroderm for the outer crust, or body walls, of 
Articulates, and arthropleura for the pleural, or limb-bearing region, of the body, 
being that portion of the arthromere situated between the tergite and sternite. 

FIG. 19. The rudiments of the male intromittent organ of the pupa of ^Esehna, 
consisting of two flattened tubercles situated on the ninth ring; the outer pair 
large and rounded inclosing the smaller linear oval pair. 

FIG. 20. The same in the Humble-bee, but consisting of three pairs of tubercles, 
a;, y, z , 8, ii, 10, the last three segments of the abdomen. 

FIG. 21. The rudimentary ovipositor of the pupa of ^Eachnct, a Dragon-fly. 

FIG. 22. The same in pupa of Agrion, a small Dragon-fly. Here the rudiments 
of the eleventh abdominal ring are seen, d, the base of one of the abdominal false 
gills. Tile ovipositor of Cicada is formed in the same way. Fir/*. 11-22 originti!. 





Fig. 22. 




COMPOSITION OF THE OVIPOSITOR. 17 

of thin lamelliform pieces of similar form and structure, arising 
from the sternite of the ninth ring. These outgrowths appar- 
ently also hornologize with the filiform, antennae-like, jointed 
appendages of the eleventh ring, as seen in the Perlid;e and 
most Neuroptera and Orthoptera (especially in Manti* tes- 
selhtfa where they (Fig. 23) closely 
resemble antennae), which, arising as 
they do from the arthroplenral, or limb- 
bearing region of the body, i. e. between 
the sternum and episternum, are strictly homologous with the 
abdominal legs of the Myriapoda, the "false legs" of cater- 
pillars, and the abdominal legs of some Xeuropterous larva: 
((.'iH-t/daUsi Phryganeidce, etc.). 

It will thus be seen that the attenuated form of the tip is 
produced by the decrease in size of certain parts, the actual 
disappearance of others, and the perfection of those parts to 
be of future use. Thus towards the extremity of the body 
the pleurites are absorbed and disappear, the tergites overlap 
on the sternites, and the latter diminish in size and tire 
withdrawn within the body, while the last, or eleventh sternite, 
entirely disappears.* Meanwhile the sting grows larger and 

larger, until finally we 
have the neatly fashioned 
abdominal tip of the bee 
concealing the complex 
sting with its intricate 
system of visceral ves- 
Fig. 24. sels and glands. 

The ovipositor, or sting, of all insects, therefore, is formed 
on a common plan (Fig. 24). The solid elements of the arthro- 

* In Ranatra, however, L.acaze-I>uthiers has noticed the envious fact that in 
order to Ibrni the long respiratory tube of this insect, the tergite and sternite of the 
pregenital (eighth) segment are aborted, while the pleurites are enormously en- 
larged and elongated, so as to carry the stigmata far out to the end of the long tube 
thus formed. 

FIG. 23. End of the abdomen of Mantis tessellata ; p, many-jointed anal style 
resembling an antenna. 5-11, the last seven abdominal segments; the8-llth ster- 
uites being obsolete. From Lacaze-Duthiers. 

FK;. 24. Ideal plan of the structure of the ovipositor in the adult in.-sec.t. 1-7', 
the tergites, connected by dotted lines with their corresponding sternites. b, the 
eighth tergite, or anal scale; c, epimerum; ', , two pieces forming the outer pair 
of rhabdites; /, the second pair, or stylets; and/, the inner pair, or sting; </, the 







18 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

mere are modified to form the parts supporting the sting alone. 
The external opening of the oviduct is always situated between 
the eighth and ninth segments, while the anal opening lies at 
the end of the eleventh ring. So that there are really, as 
Lacaze-Duthiers observes, three segments interposed between 
the genital and anal openings. 

The various modifications of the ovipositor and male organ 
will be noticed under the different suborders. 

THE STRUCTURE OF THE HEAD. After studying the com- 
position of the thorax and abdomen, where the constituent 
parts of the elemental ring occur in their greatest simplicity, 
we may attempt to unravel the intricate structure of the head. 
We are to determine whether it is composed of one, or more, 
segments, and if several, to ascertain how many, and then to 
learn what parts of the typical arthromere are most largely 
developed as compared with the development of similar parts 
in the thorax or abdomen. In this, perhaps the most difficult 
problem the entomologist has to deal with, the study of the 
head of the adult insect alone is only guesswork. We must 
trace its growth in the embryo. Though many writers consider 
the head as consisting of but a single segment, the most emi- 
nent entomologists have agreed that the head of insects is com- 
posed of two or more segments. Savigiry led the way to these 
discoveries in transcendental entomology by stating that the 
appendages of the head are but modified limbs, and homol- 
ogous with the legs. This view at once gave a clue to the 
complicated structure of the head. If the antenna? and biting 
organs are modified limbs, then there must be an elemental 
segment present in some form, however slightly developed in 
the mature insect, to which such limbs are attached. But the 
best observers have differed as to the supposed number of such 
theoretical segments. Burmeister believed that there were two 
only ; Cams and Audottin thought there were three ; McLeay 
and Newman four, and Straus-Durckheim recognized seven. 
From the study of the semipupa of the Humble-bee (Bombux) 

support of the sting; e, the support of the stylet ('). n, the anus ; O, the outlet of 
the oviduct. The seventh, eighth, and ninth sternites are aborted. From Lacaze- 
Duthiers. 



THE STKUCTrUE OK THE HEAD. 1!) 

and several low Neuropterous forms, as the larva of Ephemera, 
but chiefly the embryos of Diplux, Chrysopa, Attelabus, Nema- 
tns, and Pnlex, we have concluded that there are four such ele- 
mental segments in the head of hexapodous insects. 

On reference to fig. 57 it will be seen that there is a sternal 
portion on the under side of the two posterior segments of the 
head, and in the embryo of Attdalmx we have seen sterna also 
developed in the antennal and mandibular segments, so that we 
may conclude that there are four segments in the head of all 
six footed insects, corresponding to the jointed appendages, 
i. e. the labium, or second maxilhe, the first maxilhe, the man 
dibles, and the antennae. Though having, in accordance with 
the generally received opinions of Milne-Edwards, Dana, and 
others, believed that the eyes of Crustacea, and therefore of 
Insects, were the homologues of the limbs, and developed on 
separate segments placed in front of the antennal segment, as 
stated in the previous editions of this work ; I have, however, 
on farther study of the subject, been led to reconsider the mat- 
tir, and decade that the eyes are but modified dermal sense 
cells, and in certain articulates developed on limb-bearing seg- 
ments. Thus in the King Crab (Liiiiith(s) a pair of ocelli are 
situated on the first segment of the body, and the large com- 
pound eyes grow out on the back of the third segment, both 
bearing limbs. In the embryos of all the insects yet exam- 
ined, the eyes arc groups of specialized cells of the skin which 
grow out on the upper, or tergal, side of the same segment 
which bears the antenna;. In certain mites, as Hydrachna, and 
its allies, the simple eyes arc situated over the second pair of 
legs, and at a considerable distance behind the head. Among 
the worms, also, organs of sight, as in Polyophthalmus, are 
developed on each segment of the body ; or, as in certain Pla- 
narians, scattered irregularly over the body. 

The three ocelli, when present, are developed after the eyes 
Appear. Each of these three ocelli is situated upon a distinct 
piece ; but we must consider the anterior single ocellus as in 
reality formed of two, since in the immature pupa of Bombus 
the anterior ocellus is transversely ovate, resulting from the 
fusion of two originally distinct ocelli. There are, therefore, 
apparently two pairs of ocelli. The clypeus and labrum are 







20 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

simply a fold of the skin of the front part of the antennarv 
segment, and are not to be compared with the tergite or rudi- 
ment of the eleventh segment of the abdomen. 

Now, since the arthropleural is the limb-bearing region in 
the thorax, it must follow that this region is quite well devel- 
oped in the head, while the tergal region, bearing the organs of 
sight, sometimes of enormous size, is perhaps still more largely 
developed ; and as all the parts of the head are subordinated 
in their development to that of the appendages of which they 
form the support, it must follow logically that the larger por- 
tion of the body of the head is pleural and tew/fil, and that the 
sternal parts are very slightly developed. Thus each region of 
the body is characterized Ivy the relative development of the 
three parts of the arthromere. In the abdomen the upper 
(tergal) and under (sternal) surfaces are most equally devel- 
oped, while the pleural line is reduced to a minimum. In the 
thorax the pleural region is much more developed, cither quite 
as much, or often more than the upper, or tergal portion, while 
the sternal is reduced to a minimum. In the head the tergites 
form the main bulk of the region, and the sternites are reduced 
to a minimum. 

TABLE OF THE SEGMENTS OF THE HEAD AND THEIU APIM:ND.\(;ES, 
BEGINNING WITH THE MOST ANTEIJIOU. 

Preoral. 

First Segment > ^ < K^^Z 

> I clypeus, eyes, and ocelli. 

Pastoral. 

Second Segment ) ^ 

* > Pleural, Mandibles. 

Third Segment ) ,. 

(First M- " Pleural, First maxilla 1 . 



Fourth Segment ) Tergal (occiput), 

( Second Maxillary, or} > Pleural (gena) , 

toWaJ), Sternal (gula), 



The Appendages. We naturally begin with the thoracic 
appendages, or ler/x, of which there is a pair to each ring. The 
leg (Fig. 25) consists of six joints, the basal one, the coxa, in 
the ITymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, consisting of two 




THE APPENDAGES. 21 

pieces, i.e. the coxa and tro<-lintiiu j (see Fig. 12); the tro- 

<-lnnttci' ; the femur; the tibia , and, lastly, the MAS^.S, which is 

Mibdivided into from one to live joints, the latter being 

the normal number. The terminal joint ends in a pair E 

of claws between which is a cushion-like sucker called 

the piilcillnx. This sucking disk enables the Fly to 

walk upside down and on glass. 

Jn the larva, the feet are short and horny, and the Fijj. -25. 
joints can be still distinguished. In Myriopods, each segment 
of the abdomen has a pair of feet like the thoracic ones. We 
must consider the three pairs of spinnerets of Spiders, which 
are one to three-jointed, as homologous with the jointed limbs of 
the higher insects. In the six-footed insects (Ilexapoda), the 
abdominal legs are deciduous, being present in the Coleopterous 
grub, the Dipterous maggot, the caterpillar, and larva of the 
Saw-fly, but disappearing in the pupa state. They are often, 
as in most maggots, cither absent, or reduced in number to the 
two anal, or terminal pair of legs ; while in the Saw-Hies, there 
are as many as eight pairs. These "false" or "prop-legs"' 
are soft and fleshy, and without articulations. At the retrac- 
tile extremity is a crown of hooks, as seen in caterpillars or the 
hind-legs of the larva of Cliiroiioiinix (Fig. 2G), in which the 
prothoracic pair of legs is reduced to inarticu- 
late fleshy legs like the abdominal ones. 

The /Htxition of the different pairs of legs 
deserves notice in connection with the principle 
of " antero-posterior symmetry." The fore- 
legs are directed forwards like the human arms, *'ix-*>- 
but the two hinder pairs are directed backwards. In the Spiders, 
three pairs of abdominal legs (spinnerets) are retained through- 
out life ; in the lower Hexapods, a single pair, which is ap- 
pended in the eleventh segment, is often retained, but under 
a form which is rather like an antenna, than limb-like. In 
some Neuropterous larvre. (PJiryganea, Corydalus, etc.) the 
anal pair of limbs are very well marked ; they constitute the 
u anal forceps" of the adult insect. They sometimes become 
true, many-jointed appendages, and are then remarkably like 

Fie. 2."). A, coxa; B, trochanter; C, femur; 1), tibia; F, tibial spurs; E, tarsus, 
divided into live tarsa! joints, the lillh ending in a claw. From Sauborn. 




2-2 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 




antennas as in the instance of Mantis tcxselhtta described by 
Lacaze-Duthiers (Fig. 23). In the Cockroach these append- 
ages, sometimes called u anal cerci," resemble the antenna? < ' 
the same insect. In the Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera they 
do not appear to be jointed, and are greatly aborted. 

The Winys. The wings of insects first appear as little soft 
vascular sacs permeated by trachea?. The}* grow out in the 
preparatory stages (Fig. 27) of the pupa from the side of the 
J: thorax and above the insertion of the 

legs, i.e. between the epimerum and 
...' tergum. During the pupa state they 
are pad-like, but when the pupa skin is 
thrown oft' they expand with air, and 

n 

in a few minutes, as in the Butterfly, 
enlarge to many times their original 
size. The wings of insects, then, are 
simple expansions of the crust, spread 
over a framework of horny tubes. 
These tubes are really double, consist- 
ing of a central trachea, or air tube, 
inclosed within a larger tube tilled with 
blood, and which performs the functions of the veins. Hence 
the aeration of the blood is carried on in the wings, and thus 
they serve the double purpose of lungs and organs of flight. 

The number and situation of these veins and their branches 
(veinlets) are of great use in separating genera and species. 
The typical number of primary veins is five. They diverge 
outward at a slight angle from the insertion of the wing, and 
are soon divided into veinlets, from which cross veins are 
thrown out connecting with others to form a net-work of veins 
and veinlets, called the venation of the wing (Figs. 28, 20). 
The interspaces between the veins and veinlets are called cell a. 
At a casual glance the venation seems very irregular, but in 
many insects is simple enough to enable ns to trace and namo 
the veinlets. The five main veins, most usually present, arc 

FIG. 27. The semipupa of Jioi/iliits, the larva skin having been removed, show- 
ing the two pairs of rudimentary wings growing out from the niesothorax (/,), am;' 
metathorax (m). n and the seven succeeding dots represent the eight abdominal 
stigmata, the first one (n) being in the pupa situated on the thorax, since the first 
ring of the abdomen is in this stage joined to the thorax. Original. 



Fig. '27 



THE WINGS. 



Fig. 28. 



called, beginning at the costa, or front edge, the costal, subcoxtaf, 
median, tmbinediaiti and internal, and sometimes the median 
divides into two, making six 
veins. The costal vein is un- 
divided ; the subcostal and me- & 
dian are divided into several 
branches, while the snbmedian 
and internal are usually simple. 

The venation of the fore- 
wings affords excellent marks 
in separating genera, but that 
of the hind wings varies less, 
and is consequently of less use. 

The wings of many insects 
are divided by the veins into 
three well-marked areas ; the 
coital, median, and internaL 
The costal area (Fig. 31 b) forms 
the front edge of the wing and 
is the strongest, 
since the A'eins are 
nearer together than 
elsewhere, and thus 
afford the greatest 
resistance to the air Fi<T <><, 

i i_. ^,.j. 





FIG. 28. Fore and hind wings of a Butterfly, showing the venation. I. fore wing: 
, costal vein; b, subcostal vein; bi, &-', 63, 64, bs, five subcostal veinlets; c, inde- 
pendent vein (it is sometimes a branch of the subcostal, and sometimes of the me- 
dian vein); d, median vein; rfi, rf->, ds, dA, four median veinlets ; e, submedian vein ; 
/, internal vein; h, interno-median veinlet (rarely found, according to Doubleday, 
except in Papilioand Morpho); b and d are situated in the "discal cell;" g*,g2, r/?,, 
the upper, middle, and lower discal veinlets. In the Bombycidse and many other 
moths gi and g* are thrown off from the subcostal and median veins respectively, 
meeting in the middle of the cell at #2. They are sometimes wholly absent. 

II. The hind wing; the lettering and names of the veins and veiulets the same 
as in the fore wing. Slightly changed from DmibUday. 

FIG. 29. Fore wing of a Hymenopterous insect, c, costal vein; sc, subcostal 
vein; m, median vein; sm, submedian vein; i, internal vein; c, 1,2,3, the first, 
second, and third costal cells; the second frequently opaque and then called the 
2)terostignui. sc, 1, 2, 3, 4, the four subcostal cells; m, 1, 2, 3, 4, the median cells; 
sm, 1, 2, 3, the three submedian cells ; ii, the internal cell ; this is sometimes divided 
into two cells, and the number of all but the costal cells is inconstant, the outer 
row of cells (4, 4, 3) being the first to disappear. 

The costal edge extends from c to c ; the outer c, the apex the outer edge extends 
from the apex (<) to a, and the inner edge extends from a, the inner angle, to the 
insertion of the wing at i. Original. Figs. 30-32 from Scudder. 



24 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 



during flight. The median area (Fig. 31 a) is the largest. It is 
in the grasshoppers and crickets sometimes modified to form a 




musical organ, 



being 




Fi<r. 30. 



drum-like, as in the 
(Ecu nth ns (Fig. 30), or 
rasp-like, as in .J/r////y/- 
tera (Fig. 31 a). The 
internal area (c) is tlie 
smallest, and less dis- 
c tinctly marked than tin- 
two other regions ; the musical file-like or- 
gan of Phaneroptera ctirvicauda, a grass- 
hopper (Fig. 32d) is situated on this area. 

The limits of the edges of the wing vary 
in almost every genns, and their comparative length affords 
excellent generic characters. The front edge (Fig. '20) is called 
the roxtaf. its termina- 
tion in the outer angle 
of the wing is called 
the njie.r; the miter edye 
is situated between the 
apex and the inner an- 
gle, between which and 
the base of the wing is 
the inner, or internal. 
edge. These distinc- 
tions are of most use 
in describing the butter- 
flies and moths. 

The Ajijteiidafjes of 
v\?.:ti<i. t} ie Head. These organs 
are divided into two groups, 
the first of which comprise the 
sensory organs, i. e. the ocelli, 
eyes, and antenna 1 , which are attached to the region in front 
of the mouth, or preoral region of the head. The second 
group consists of the sensorio-digestive appendages, combining 
the power of finding and seizing the food and preparing it fof 
digestion. They are inserted behind the month and belong 




to the 



region of the head. 



THE APPENDAGES OF THE HEAD. 25 

We will first describe the ocelli, which are theoretically the 
most anterior organs of the head, ending with the basal appen- 
dages, the labium (second maxillae) being the hindermost. 

The simple eye, Ocellus, or Stemma, is the simplest form of 
the eye. Its most elementary form (seen in the larva of the 
Bot-fly and the Cecidomyian larva of Miastor) is that of a brown 
spot, or group of pigment-cells lodged under the skin and 
against which a nerve-filament impinges. Over this spot New- 
port states that the tegument is transparent and convex, 
resembling a true cornea, or eye-lens. A well-developed 
ocellus consists, according to Newport, of a " very convex, 
smooth, single cornea, beneath which is a spherical crystalline 
lens, resting upon the plano-convex surface of the expanded 
vitreous humor, the analogue of the transparent cones of the 
compound eyes." Miiller believes that the function of the ocelli 
is the perception of nearer objects, while that of the compound 
eyes is to see more distant objects. The, ocelli constitute the 
only visual organs in the Myriapods (except Cermafa'a), the 
Araclinida, and the larva- of many Six-footed Insects ; they 
are usually from one to six on a side. In adult insects 
they are generally three in number, and 
are generally present except in the large 
majority of Coleoptera. Their normal site 

J 

is in front of the ej'es, but they are usually Fig. 33. 

thrown back, during the growth of the insect, behind the eyes, 
on the vertex, or topmost part of the head (Fig. 33). 

The Compound Eycx are a congeries of simple ej-es. During 

the growth of the insect the simple eyes of the larva increase 

<jr^ in number, and finally coalesce to form the compound 

v^Ir eye, or compound cornea, the surface of which is 
Fig. 34. very convex and protuberant in the predaceous insects. 
or those requiring an extended field of vision. 

The number of facets, or cornea', vary from fifty (in the Ant) 
to 3,650, the latter number being counted by Geoffrey in flu- 
eye of a Butterfly. These facets are usually hexagonal, as in 
the Dragon-fly (Fig. 34), or, rarely, quadrangular. 

FIG. 3:5. Ocelli ol" three species of Saml-wasus, I'otupilus. l-'nini < '/VSSOM. 
FIG. 34. Three hexagonal facets of the compound eye of a fossil Dragon-fly, 
greatly mugiiiliud. From 





2(5 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

The Antenna 1 (Figs. 35, 36) are inserted usually in the adult 
insect between, or in front of the eyes, though in the embryo 
they are inserted below and in front of the eyes. 
It is normally a long, filiform, slender, many- A 
jointed appendage, undergoing great changes 
in form. When it is highly specialized, as in -^&ST\ 
Coleoptera and Ilymenoptera, it is divided \J J 
into three parts, the basal or scape * the middle -^^=^ 
or pedicel * and the terminal part or fimjelhnn, V} '*- :; ' ; 
Fig. 35. or clavohi, which usually comprises the greater part of 
the antenna. 

It is believed by some that the sense of hearing is lodged 
in the antenna?, though Siebold has discovered an auditory 
apparatus situated at the base of the abdomen of some, and 
in the fore-legs of other species of Grasshoppers. 

Mr. J. B. Ilicks has made the latest studies on the auditory 
apparatus. According to him "it consists first of a cell, sac, 
or cavity filled with fluid, closed in from the air by a mem- 
brane analogous to that which closes the foramen orafe in the 
higher animals ; second, that this membrane is, for the most 
part, thin and delicate, but often projects above the surface, in 
either a hemispherical, conical, or canoe-shaped, or even hair- 
like form, or variously marked ; thirdly, that the antennal nerve 
gives off branches which come in contact with the inner wall of 
the sacs ; but whether the nerve enters, or, as is most probable, 
ends in the small internally projecting papilla which I have 
shown to exist in many of these sacs, it is very difficult to say. 
The principal part of the nerve proceeds to these organs, the 
remaining portion passing to the muscles, and to the roots of 
the hairs, at least to those of the larger sort." On the other 
hand, Lefebvre, Leydig, and Gerstaecker regard this so-called 
"auditory apparatus" as an organ of smell. 

The antennas have also the sense of touch, as may readily be 
observed in Ants, Bees, and the Grasshopper and Cockroach. 
"The Honey-bee, when constructing its cells, ascertains their 
proper direction and size by means of the extremities of these 

FIG. 35. Filiform antenna of Amphizoa. From Horn. 

FIG. 36. A, lamellate antenna of a Lamellicorn Beetle; B, antenna of a Fly, 
with the bristle thrown off from the terminal joint; C, bristle-like antenna of a 
I>ragon-fly, Libeliii/a. I'rour Simliorn. 



THE APPENDAGES OF THE HEAT). 



27 



organs ; while the same insect, when evidently affected 1 >y 
sounds, keeps them motionless in one direction, as if in the act 
of listening." (Newport.) 

After cutting off one or both antennae of the June beetle, 
Lachvosterna, the insect loses its power of directing its flight 
or steps, wheeling about in a senseless manner. Dr. Clemens 
observed that the Cecropia moth was similarly affected after 
losing its antennae. 

The Mandibles (Fig. 37) are inserted on each side of the 
mouth-opening. They usually consist of but a single joint, 




representing probably the basal part of the ideal limb. This 
part, however, is often subdivided by two longitudinal furrows 
into three parts, each ending in a "tooth" of unequal size for 
tearing and cutting the food. This tripartite form of the man- 
dibles, to which attention has been called by Mr. Scudder, is 
more fully carried out in the maxilla, where each portion is 
highly specialized. The mandibles vary greatly in form and 
size. The two cutting edges are usually opposed to each other, 
or frequently overlap in the carnivorous forms. Their base is 
often concealed by the clypeus 
and labrum. Their motion is 
transverse, being the reverse of 
the motion of the jaws of Ver- 
tebrates. 

Fig. as. b The Maxilla? (Figs. 38^,39) are rig. so. 

much more complicated organs than the mandibles. They are 

FIG. 37. Different forms of mandibles. A, mandible of Cicindela purpurea ; !' 
/'hylloptera, a green grasshopper; C, Libelluta trimacitlata; D, J'espa maculata, or 
paper-making Wasp ; E, " rostrum" or jointed sucker of the Bed-bug, Cimex lectti- 
larius, consisting of mandibles, maxilla?, and labinm; F, proboscis, or sucker, of a 
Mosquito, Culex, in which the mandibles are long and bristle-like. From Sanborn. 
G, mandible of Ampltizoa; H, mandible of Acratus,& genus of Cockchafers. From 
Horn. 

FIG. 38. a, men turn and labial palpi; b, one maxilla, with its palpus, of Acra- 
tus. From Horn. 

FIG. 39. Maxilla of AmpMsoa, with the two lobes (stipes and lacinia), and the 
palpifer bearing the four-jointed palpus. From Horn. 





28 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

iiiserteu on the under side of the head and just behind the 
month. The maxilla consists of a basal joint, or cardn. 
beyond which it is subdivided into three lobes, the stipes, or 
footstalk ; the i><tlj'f(>r, or palpus-bearer: and the laciitia, or 
blade. The stipes forms the outer and main division of the 
organ. The laeinia is more membranaceous than the other 
parts, and its upper surface is covered with tine hairs, and 
forms a great part of the side of the mouth. It is divided 
into two lobes, the superior of which is called the (jalea, or 
helmet, which is often a thick double-jointed organ edged with 
stiff hairs, and is used as a palpus in the Urthoptera and many 
Coleoptera. The inferior lobe is attached to the internal angle 
of the laeinia. It terminates in a stiff minute claw, and is 
densely covered with stout hairs. The nui.i-i/}r>/ palpi are 
long, slender, one to four-jointed organs. In P<',ia I have found 
that both pairs of palpi bear organs probably of smell. 

The maxilhv vary greatly in the different groups. Their oflice 
is to seize the food and retain it within the mouth, and also to 
aid the mandibles in comminuting it before it is swallowed. 
This function reminds us of that of the tongue of vertebrate 
animals. 

The lb!nm. oi' <<<< >n<l /iid.n'llft' (Fig. 40). is placed in front of 
the (jnhi. which forms the under part of the head, and is bounded 

ou each side by the <jcn\ or cheeks, and 
posteriorly by the occiput. The gena* are 
bounded laterally by the epicraniuni and 
^^^^ the under side of the eyes. In front are 

situated the basal parts of the labium, or 
second maxilhe, which embraces the subim-nttim and mention 
(or labium proper). The labial palpi are inserted into the 
mentum, but often the latter piece is differentiated into two. 
the anterior of which takes the name of jHiIjiif/a; called by 
Dr. Leconte (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections) the ligula, 
and from which the palpi originate. The liyula is the front 
edge of the labium. being the piece forming the under lip. 
It is often a fleshy organ, its inner surface being continuous 

FIG. 40. Ligula and labial palpi of Amphizon, an aquatic- beetle. It is quadrate 
and without paraglossw ; , meiitmn of the same, being deeply incised, and with a 
tooth at the bottom of the excavation. /Vow Horn. 




THE APPENDAGES OF THK 1 1 HAD. 



with the soft membrane of trie mouth. In the Bees, it is enor- 
mously developed and covered with soft hairs. It is often 
confounded with the palpiger. In Hydrous it is divided into 
two lobes. In most of the C<i r<il'<l<t> and Bees it is divided 
into three lobes, the two outer ones forming the 'jHtrui/lnw 
(Fig. 41 ///), and acting as feelers, while the middle, usually 
much longer, forms the lingua, or tongue, being the continuation 
of the ligula. In the bees, where 
the ligula is greatly developed, 
it performs the part of the tongue 
in Vertebrates, and aids the max- 
illa 1 in collecting nectar and 
pollen. 

The roof of the mouth is 
formed by the labrtim and the 
epij)]Kir)/>i.K (Fig. 42 c), a small 
fleshy tubercle concealed beneath 
the labrum. It is seen in the 
bees on turning up the labrum. 
It probably corresponds to the 
"labellum" of Schiodte. The 
labrum ( Fig. 4 1 e) is u s u a 1 1 y 
transverse and situated in front 
of the <-h/pevs (Fig. 41 b). The 
shield-like ch/peits is the broad, 
visor-like, square piece forming usually the front of the head. 
Behind it is the clypeiis posterior, or swpra-clypeus, a subdivision 
of the clypeus, and especially observable in the Ilymenoptera. 
The epicnnu'nm forms a large part of the head ; it is bounded 
posteriorly by the occiput, on the sides by the eyes, and in 
front by the clypeus, and though usually described as a 
single piece, is really composed of several. The ocelli often 
appear to be situated upon it, though in reality they are placed 
upon a distinct piece or pieces. The " epicranial suture" is the 
line of junction of the two "procephalic lobes" (Huxley). 

FIG. 41. Front view of the head of a bee, Anthophora. a, compound eyes: r, 
three simple eyes, situated upon the epicranium; b, clypeus; e, labrum; (/, an- 
tennas/, mandibles: i, maxilla?; h, maxillary palpi; /, palpifer; j, labial palpi: w, 
paraglossae; k, ligula. From Ken-port. 
3* 




Fig. 41. 



30 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 




(These lobes will be explained farther on when speaking 
of their development in the embryo.) Behind the epicra- 

nium is the occijmt, 
or base of the head. 
It belongs to the la- 
bial, or second max- 
illary segment, and 
helps to form a com- 
plete ring, articulat- 
ing with the thorax. 
It is perforated by a 
foramen to afford a 
connection between 
the interior of the 
head and thorax. It 
is sometimes, as in 
many Coleoptera, Or- 
thoptera, and Ilemip- 
tera, elongated be- 
hind and constricted, 
thus forming a neck." It will be seen beyond, that the 
labrum and clypeus are in the embryo developed from a 
"tongue-like process whose inferior part eventually becomes 
the labrum, while superiorly it sends a triangular process (the 
rudiment of the clypeus) into the interval between the proce- 
phalic lobes."* This part (i.e. the clypeus and labrum) is the 
most anterior part of the head, and in the embryo, as in the 
adult, is normally situated in front of the ocelli, but is not to 
be compared with the " anal plate," or eleventh tergite, of the 
larva, or with the telson of the scorpion, as Huxley f supposes. 

FIG. 42. Side view of the front part of the head, together with the niouth- 
]i;irts of the Humble-bee (Bombns). ft, clypeus covered with hairs: ?/, labnnn; 
c, the Ik-shy epipharynx partially concealed by the base of the mandibles (</) ; 
-, lacinia, or blade of the maxillae, with their two-jointed palpi (/) at the ba.-c: ./', the 
lahiuin to which is appended the ligula (//); below are the labial palpi; h, the two 
basal joints, being greatly enlarged; /;, the compound eyes. Original. 

* These lobes are folded back upon the top of the base of the head, and they 
seem to form the tergal portion of the antennary ring, to which they respectively 
belong, and do not seem to us to be the sternal portion, as suggested by Huxley, 
for they are apparently developed in front of the month-opening, and form the roof 
of the mouth. 

t " Lastly, there are certain parts developed singly in the median line intiieArtir.- 
nlntii. Of this nature are the frontal spines of Crustacea, their telson, and the sting 



THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM. 31 

In describing Insects the vertex, or crown, of the head is the 
highest part ; and the front is the part usually in front of the 
insertion of the antennae. 

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM lies just beneath, and is continuous 
with the integument. It consists of numerous "distinct isola- 
ted straight fibres, which are not gathered into bundles united 
by common tendons, or covered by aponeuroses [or tendinous 
sheaths] to form distinct muscles, as in the Vertebrata, but 
remain separate from each other, and only in some instances 
are united at one extremity by tendons." (Newport.) These 
minute fibres form layers, which Newport regards as separate 
muscles. "Each fibre is composed of a great number of very 
minute fibrillae, or fasciculi of fibrillee," and has been observed 
by Wagner and Newport to lie often striated as in Vertebrates. 
The muscular system is simplest in the lower insects and the 
larvae of the higher forms, and is more complex in the head 
than elsewhere, and more complex in the thorax than in the 
abdomen. These minute muscles are exceedingly numerous. 
" Lyonnet, in his immortal work on the anatomy of the larva 
of Cossus liynipenla, found two hundred and twenty-eight dis- 
tinct muscles in the head alone, and, by enumerating the fibres 
in the layers of the different segments, reckoned 1,647 for the 
body, and 2,118 for the internal organs, thus making together 
3,993 muscles in a single larva. In the larva of Sphinx ligus- 
tri we have found the muscles equally numerous with those 
discovered by Lyonnet in the Cossus." (Newport.) 

The muscular system corresponds to the jointed structure of 
insects, as do the other internal systems of organs. Of the 
muscles belonging to a single ring, some stretch from the front 
edge of one segment to the front edge of the next, and others 

of the Scorpion, whose mode of development appears to be precisely similar to 
that of a telson. In the same category we must rank the labrum iii front of the 
mouth, which in the Crustacea (at least) appears to be developed from the sternum 
of the anteunary, or third somite, the metastoma (or so called labium, or lingua) 
of Crustacea, and the lingua of Insecta, behind the oral aperture. 

"However much these appendages may occasionally simulate, or play the part 
of appendages, it is important to remember, that, morphologically, they are of a 
very different nature, and that the confusing them with true appendages must 
tend completely to obscure the beautiful relations which obtain among the dif- 
ferent classes of the Articitlata." Huxley, Linnfean Transactions, vol. xxii. 
London. 



32 THE CLA!SS OF INSECTS. 

to the hinder edge; there lire also sets of dorsal and ventral 
muscles going in an oblique or vertieal course. The muscles 
are either colorless and transparent, or yellowish white ; and 
of a soft, almost gelatinous consistence. In form they are 
simply flat and thin, straight, band-like, or pyramidal, barrel 
or feather-shaped. They act variously as rotators, elerdfurx, 
dcjiri'xxorx, refriirtors, protrusors, flexors, and extensors. 

The muscular power of insects is enormous. The Flea will 
leap two hundred times its own height. Certain beetles can 
support enormous weights. Newport cites the case of Gco- 
trupes stercorarius which is "able to sustain and escape from 
beneath a pressure of from twenty to thirty ounces, a prodi- 
gious weight when it is remembered that the insect itself docs 
not weigh even so many grains." Some beetles have been 
known to gnaw through lead-pipes, and the Stag-beetle of 
Europe, Lin-anvs cermtt, has, as stated by Mr. Stephens, 
gnawed u a hole an inch in diameter through the side of an 
iron canister in which it was conlined." 

"The motions of the insect in walking as in flying are 
dependent, in the perfect individual, entirely upon the thoracic 
segments, but in the larva chiefly upon the abdominal. Al- 
though the number of legs in the former is always six, and in 
the latter sometimes so many as twenty-two, progression is 
simple and easy. Miiller states (Elements of Physiology, p. 
970, Translation) that on watching insects that move slowly 
he has distinctly perceived that three legs are always moved at 
one time, being advanced and put to the ground while the 
other three propel the body forwards. In perfect insects, those 
moved simultaneously are the fore and hind feet on one side, 
and the intermediate foot on the opposite ; and afterwards the 
fore and hind feet on that side, and the middle one on the 
other, so that, he remarks, in two steps the whole of the legs 
are in motion. A similar uniformity of motion takes place 
in the larva, although the whole anterior part of the body is 
elevated and carried forwards at regular distances, the steps of 
the insect being almost entirely performed by the 'false,' or 
abdominal legs." 

"Inflight the motions depend upon the meso- and meta- 
thoracic segments conjointly, or entirely upon the former. The 



THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 



sternal, episternal, and epimeral pieces, freely articulated 
together, correspond in function with the sternum, the ribs, 
and the clavicles of birds.* The thorax is expanded and con- 
tracted at each motion of the 
wings, as in birds and other ani- 
mals, and becomes fixed at each 
increased effort as a fulcrum or 
point of resistance upon which 
the great muscles of the wings 
are to act, thus identifying this 
part of the body in function as 
in structure with that of other ani- 
mals." (Newport.) 

TIIK NKIJVOCS SYSTKM. In its 
simplest form the nervous system 
consists of two longitudinal cords, 
each with a swelling (nerve-knot, 
or ganglion,) corresponding to 
each segment (Fig. 4:5). This 
cord lies on the ventral side of the 
body, but in the head it passes 
upwards, sending a filament from 
each side to surround the resoph- 
agus.f As in the Vertebrates, 
tin- nervous cord of insects is 
composed of two distinct columns 
of fibres placed one upon the other. ''The under or external 
column, which is nearest to the exterior of the body, is that in 
which the ganglia, or enlargements, are situated. The upper 
one, or that which is I'liternal and nearest to the viscera, is 
entirely without ganglia, and passes directly over the ganglia 
of the under column without forming part of them, but in very 

* B'ennet on the Anatomy of the Thorax in Insects, and its Function during 
Flight. Zoological Journal, vol. i, p. 394. 

fThe brain of insects is formed of several pairs of ganglia, corresponding, 
probably, to the number of primitive segments composing the head. The nervous 
cord is thus, in the head, massed together and compacted to form a brain. 

Fir;. 43. Nervous System of Corydahis cornutus. , "cerebrum;" l>, "cere- 
brellum:" c, thoracic, ganglia, which distribute a nerve to each leg; ft, eight pairs 
of abdominal ganglia. The dotted lines represent the wings. From Li-iil;/. 

3 ' 




Fig. 43. 



34 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

close approximation to them." Newport also believes that the 
ganglionless upper, or internal, column of fibres is analogous 
to the motor column of Vertebrata, while the external, or under 
one, corresponds to the sensitive column, thus representing- the 
i-erebro-spinal system of the Yertebrata. 

From each pair of ganglia are distributed special nerves to 
the various organs. In the larva of Sj^tinx the normal num- 
ber of double ganglia is thirteen, and the nervous cord of the 
Neuroptera and other lowly organized and attenuated forms of 
insects corresponds in the main to this number. In the adult 
insect, especially in the Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and 
Hymenoptera, the three thoracic ganglia are fused together, 
following the fusion and general headwise development of the 
segments of the tegument. Besides the central nervous cord, 
corresponding to the spinal cord of the Vertebrates, there is a 
r<njHs, or visceral nerve, representing the sympathetic nerve of 
higher animals. This nerve "arises, in the larva, from the 
anterior part of the cerebrum, and, forming a ganglion on the 
upper surface of the pharynx, always passes backward beneath 
the brain, along the middle line of the oesophagus." In its 
microscopic structure the nervous cord, like that of Vertebrata, 
consists of a central "gray" substance, and an outer or periph- 
eral part, the "white" substance. 

In the embryo the ganglia are very large and close together, 
the commissures, or connecting filaments being very short, and 
small in proportion. 

ORGANS OF NUTRITION. These consist of the alimentary canal 
and its appendages, or accessory glands (Fig. 44). We have 
already treated of the external appendages (mouth-parts) 
which prepare the food for digestion. The simplest form of 
the alimentary canal is that of a straight tube. In the larva 
of titylops and the sedentary young of Bees, it ends in a blind 
sac, as they live on liquid food and expel no solid excretions. 
When well developed, as in the adult insect, it becomes a long- 
convoluted thick muscular tube, subdivided into different parts 
which perform different functions and have distinct names, 
taken from analogous organs in the vertebrate animals. This 
digestive tube is composed of three coats, the outer, or peri- 



ORGANS OF NUTRITION. 



35 



toneal; the middle, or muscular; and the inner, or mucous. The 
mucous coat is variously modified, being plaited or folded ; or, 

h f k 




" 



in 



as in the Orthoptera and carnivorous Coleoptera, it is solidified 
and covered with rows of strong horny teeth, forming a sort of 
gizzard. The alimentary canal is held in place by retractor 
muscles, but principally by exceedingly numerous branches of 
the main tracheae. 

This canal (Fig. 45) is subdivided into the mouth and plia- 
i; the oesophagus, supplementary to which is the crop, or 

sucking stomach" of Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera ; 
theproventriculus, or gizzard ; theventriculus, or true stomach, 
and the intestine, which consists of the ilcum, or short intes- 

FK;. 44. Anatomy of Sphinx ligustri. in, i, q, the nervous cord resting on 
the floor of the body; at e, the ganglia form a brain-like organ, much larger than 
the ganglia of the thorax (m) and abdomen (</). From the brain is sent off the 
.subresophageal nerve which surrounds the gullet into which the food is conveyed 
by the maxilla;, or spiral tongue ()> which, when at rest, is rolled np between the 
labial palpi (b). 

From the nervous cord is also thrown off a pair of nerves to each pair of legs 
(as at n, o,p] and a branch, d, is sent off from above, distributing nerves to the 
muscles of flight. 

The heart, or dorsal vessel (e,f), lies just beneath the median line of the body, 
and is retained in place by muscular bauds (as at /) as well as by small trachea! 
branches. 

The alimentary canal (h,j, y], forms a straight tube in the head and thorax; /;, 
the crop, or sucking stomach, which opens into the oesophagus ; j, the true, chyle- 
forming stomach, which contracts posteriorly, and then dilates near its anal outlet 
into a cloaca (indicated at g, but not distinctly, as it is concealed by the numerous 
urinary vessels). The urinary vessels also indicated at g, form long tubes (which 
correspond to the kidneys of Vertebrates), opening into the pyloric end of the 
.stomach. The position of the testes (/j)is the same as that of the ovary, and the 
dotted line I shows the course of the efferent duct (vas deferens) and also of the 
oviduct of the female. 

The figure represents a longitudinal section of the insect, the legs and ends of 
tho antennae having been removed. From Newport. 



at; 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 




tine, and the colon and rfrtnni. The hitter part, as well as the 
crop and proventricnlus, are sometimes absent. 

Of k\\s appendages of flu' mm//, the first 
are the .s/////v//v/ ////////As, which are usually 
long simple tubes, which in the larva, ac- 
cording to Newport, form the silk /v.s,sW.s. 
They " empty themselves by a single duct 
through the spinneret on the floor (hibiuni) 
of the month^' In the Ant-lion (Myrmeleon) 
the silk is spun from '-a slender telescopic- 
like spinneret, placed at the extremity <>i 
its body." and Westwood also states that the 
larva of Chn/xojH.i spins a cocoon "-from the 
spinneret, at the extremity of the body." 

These silk glands when taken out of the 
larva, just as it is about ready to transform, 
are readily prepared as "gut" lor lish-lines, 
etc.. l>v drving on a board. 

In the IJees these glands are largely de- 
veloped to produce a snllicient amount of 
salivary fluid to moisten the dry pollen of 
45. flowers, before it enters the (esophagus. 

"Bee-bread" consists of pollen thus moistened and kneaded 
by the insect. The Honey-bee also dissolves, by the aid of the 
salivary fluid, the wax used in making its cells. Newport 
believes this fluid is alkaline, and forms a solvent for the other- 
wise brittle wax, as he lias seen this insect " reduce the per- 
fectly transparent thin white scales of newly secreted wax to 
a pasty or soapy consistence, by kneading it between its man- 
dibles, and mixing it with a fluid from its month, before apply- 
ing it to assist in the formation of part of a new cell." 

Insects have no true liver; its functions being performed 
by the walls of the stomach, the internal tunic of which is 
composed of closely-aggregated hepatic cells." (Siebold.) In 
the Spiders and Scorpions, however, there is a liver distinct 
from the digestive canal. In the Spiders it is very large, 
enveloping most of the other viscera. 

Ki<;. 4f>. Alimentary tube of Cnri/ihittts ciiriiittits. a, rt'SOph.'ijni* ; '', proven- 
triruhis; c, vciitriruliis ; */, large intestine; r, urinary tubes; /, cu-cuiu ; ,</, te.^tis or 
ovary. l-'rom l.rhh/. 



THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. 37 

Siebold states that in some insects the ilemn has glandular 
appendages whose product is perhaps analogous to the jxntcre- 
<i fir fluid. In the larva of insects is found the corpus adipoNimt, 
or fat-body, in the form of large lobes of fat-cells which spread 
through the intervals of the viscera in the general cavity of 
the body. It is interpenetrated and retained in place by 
numerous trachea?. 

TIIK C'IKCULATOKY SYSTEM. The vascular, or circulatory, 
system is not a closed sac as in the Worms and Vertebrates. 
The organs of circulation consist of a contractile, articulated 
dorsal vessel, or so-called "heart," which terminates in a, 
cephalic aorta. The dorsal vessel receives the venous current 
through the lateral valvular openings and pumps the blood into 
its prolongation or cephalic aorta, whence it escapes, traversing 
the body in all directions, in regular currents, which do not, 
have, however, vascular walls. "In this way, it penetrates the 
antennas the extremities, the wings, and the other appendages 
of the body, by arterial currents, and is returned by those of a 
venous nature. All the venous currents empty into two 
lateral ones, running towards the posterior extremity of tin- 
body, and which enter, through lateral orifices, the dorsal 
vessel." (Siebold.) 

"The blood of the Insecta is usually a colorless liquid, 
though sometimes yellowish, but rarely red. In this liquid are 
suspended a few A'ery small, oval, or spheroidal corpuscles, 
which are always colorless, have a granular aspect, and arc 
sometimes nucleated. 

"The dorsal vessel, which is constricted at regular intervals, 
is always situated on the median line of the abdomen, being 
attached to the dorsal wall of its segments by several trian- 
gular muscles whose apices point outwards. Its walls contain 
both longitudinal and transverse fibres, and, externally, arc 
covered by a thin peritoneal tunic. Internally, it is lined by 
another very fine membrane, which, at the points of these con- 
strictions, forms valvular folds, so that the organ is divided 
into as many chambers as there are constrictions. Each of 
these chambers has, at the anterior extremity on each side. ;i 
valvular orifice which can be inwardly closed. The returning 



38 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 



blood is accumulated about the heart and enters into it during 
the diastole of each of its chambers, through the lateral 
orifices (Fig. 46?)- It then passes, by the regularly successive 





FL-. -17. 



IM-. 4H. 

contractions of the heart, from behind forwards into the aorta, 
which is only a prolongation of the anterior chamber. This 
aorta consists of a simple, small vessel, situated on the dorsal 
surface of the thorax (Fig. 4-4 e), and extending even to the 
cephalic ganglion, where it either ends in an open extremity, or 
divides into several short branches which terminate in a like 
manner. The length of the dorsal vessel depends, in all the 
three states of insects, upon that of the abdomen. The number 
of its chambers is very variable, but is, most usually, eight. 

"The blood, after leaving the aorta, traverses the body in 
currents which are also extravascular, and in this way bathes 
all the organs. The newly-prepared nutritive fluid passes 
through the walls of the digestive canal in which it is found, 
into the visceral cavity, and thence directly into the blood. 
Latterly, this extravascular circulation has been called in 
question, but its presence may be easily and directly observed 

FIG. 40. Part of the dorsal vessel or heart of Luoums cerrns ; a, the posterior 
chambers (the anterior chambers are covered by a part of the ligaments which hold 
the heart in place), i, the auriculo-ventricular openings; g, f/, the lateral mus- 
cles fixed by the prolongations li,h,tn the upper side of the abdomen. /'Vom 
Straus Durckheim. 

FIG. 47. Interior of the dorsal vessel; a, the inner walls with their circular 
fleshy fibres; c, the auriculo-ventriculav opening: with its semihmar valve (c), in 
front of which is </, the interventricular valvule. From Straus Durckheim. 



THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. ;59 

with very many perfect Insecta and their larvae. The vascular 
walls, supposed to have been seen at certain points, are, un- 
doubtedly, the result of some error of observation or interpre- 
tation. This is also true of the pulsatile organs supposed to 
have been observed in the legs of many water-bugs, and which 
were thought to affect the circulation." 

Blanchard and Agassiz believe in a " peritracheal circula- 
tion," and other observers agree that the course of the circula- 
tion is along the tracheae, i.e. that the blood circulates in the 
space between the loose peritoneal envelope and the trachea 
itself. Professor H. J. Clark objects to this view that the blood 
disks are too large to pass through such an exceedingly minute 
space as the distance between the trachea and its enveloping, 
or peritoneal, wall. 

Newport thinks that there are actual blood vessels distrib- 
uted from the heart and "passing transversely across the 
dorsal surface of each segment in the pupa of Spliin.v. If 
they be not vessels distributed from the heart, it is a some- 
what curious circumstance that the whole of the blood should 
be first sent to the head of the insect, and the viscera of the 
abdominal region be nourished only by the returning blood, 
which has in part passed the round of the circulation." 

Newport also describes in Xpliiiiv the siqtni-xpinul, or great 
ventral vessel which lies in the abdomen just over the nervous 
cord, and which is also found in the Scorpion and Centipede. 
He believes "this vessel to be the chief means of returning 

~ 

the blood from the middle and inferior portion of the body to 
the posterior extremity of the dorsal vessel or heart." He 
strongly suspects that anteriorly this great ventral vessel is 
connected with the aorta. The circulation of Insects, there- 
fore, is probably as much a closed one as in the Myriapods, for 
he states that the "blood certainly flows in distinct vessels, at 
least in some parts of the bod}' in perfect insects, and that 
vessels exist even in the larva." Observations on the vascular 
system are exceedingly difficult from the delicate structure of 
the vessels, and the subject needs renewed observations to 
settle these disputed points. 

The blood is forced through the vessel into the body by regu- 
lar pulsations. Herold counted thirty to forty in a minute in a 



40 THE CLASS OK INSECTS. 

full-grown caterpillar ; we have counted about sixty a minute 
in ihc recently hatched larva of J)ij>/ti.r. During excitement, 
the number of pulsations increases in rapidity. Newport found 

tin- pulsations in a bet 1 , ^iiitli<t/>li<>r<i. wlii'ii quiet, to lie eighty a 
minute ; but when "the inserts wore quite lively, and had been 
exposed to the sun for an hour or two, the number of pulsa- 
tions amounted to one hundred and forty." 

lie found that the iittiiilicr of pulsations decreased after eaeli 
moult of the larva of >'/</////..; lii/nnfri. but inereased in force; 
when it was full grown and had ceased feeding it was thirty. 
''After it had passed into the pupa state the number fell to 
twenty-two, and afterwards to ten or twelve, and, during the 
period of hibernation, it almost entirely ceases; but in the per- 
fect insect it rose from forty-one to fifty, and when excited by 
flight around the room it was from one hundred and ten to one 
hundred and thirl v-niue." 

<)i;<..\\> OF IvKM'iK.vrioN. All insects breathe air. or, when 
they live in the water, respire, by means of branchhe, the 
air mixed mechanically with water. Respiration is earned on 

by an intricate system of tubes (pul- 
monary trachea-) which open by pores 
(spiracles or stigmata) in the sides of 
the liodv: or. as in aquatic insects, by 
branchia 1 , or gill-like flattened expan- 
sions of the body-wall penetrated by 
trachea.- (branchial trachea'). 

There are normally eleven spiracles, 
or breathing-holes (Fig. 4$), on each side 
of the body; each consisting of an oval 
horny ring situated in the poritreme 
F 'fe r - 4S - and closed by a valve, which guards 

the orifice (Fig. 4U). Within this valve is a chamber closed 
within by another valve which covers the entrance into the 
trachea'. The air-tube itself (Fig. ;"><)) consists of "au external 

FIG. 48. Larva of the Humble-bee just beginning to change to a pupa, showing 
eleven pairs of stigmata. In the ailult bee, only the third pair is apparent, the 
remaining pairs being concealed from view, or in part aborted. In most insects 
there are usually only nine pairs of stigmata. Original. 




ORGANS OF RESPIRATION. 



41 





serous, and an internal mucous membrane, inclosing between 
them a spirally convoluted fibre, thus giving great strength 
and flexibility to the tube." 

Nearly all the air enters through the thoracic and first 
abdominal spiracles, so that on pinching most insects on 

the thorax they can be 
\y easily deprived of 
breath and killed. 

k * In some aquatic 
larva 1 such as those 
of D>/tfcid\ J^fiKta/ifi i 
Fig. 49. (Fjo-. 51, pupa), and 

, and also in some perfect insects, 
as in Nepa and ltn<itr<i, the parts sup- 
porting the stigmata are prolonged into slen- Fig. r.o. 

rler tubes, through which the insect, on rising to the surface, 
breathes the atmospheric air. 

Affi-ioii (Fig. .">:>) affords a good instance of branchia 1 
or gill-like expansions of the crust, or skin. It is 
supposed that these false gills, or branchia>, "absorb 
the air from the water, and convey it by the minute 

ramifications of the trachea! ves- 
sels, with which they are abun- 
dantly supplied, and which ter- 
Fig. si. minate in single trunks, into the 

main trachea?, to be distributed over the whole body, 
as in insects which live in the open atmosphere." 
(Newport.) 

Of branchiae there are three kinds. The first, as in 
the larvae and pupa 1 of Gnats, consist of slender fila- 
ments arranged in tufts arising from a single stem. Fi ^- '-' 
In the larva of Gi/rhius and the aquatic caterpillar of a moth, 




I 



I 
I 
I 



FIG. 49. Chamber leading- into the trachea; a, a, external valve protecting the 
outer opening of the stigma, or breathing hole; b, e, c, inner ami more complicated 
valve closing the entrance into the trachea (I, /j); ;, conical occlusor muscle 
closing the inner orifice. Front Strniix Dirrckhe-im. 

Fi<;. 50. Portion of a trachea divested of its peritoneal envelope, a, spirally 
convoluted fibre, closely wound around the trachea, as ate; c, origin of a secondary 
traclieal branch. From Strnitx Dtircfcliciin. 

FIG. 52. One of the three gill-like appendages to the abdomen of the larva and 

pupa of Ayrion enlarged, consisting of a broad leaf-like expansion, permeated by 

trachea: which take up by endosmosi.s the air contained in water. O 

4* 



42 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

Ilijdrocampa *tr<itiolata, they form short stiff bristles placed 
along the side of the body, ^lyrivii and Epltemero, in their 
larval stages, afford the second kind of branchi;e, and LiWIiiln 
the third kind, or internal gill, situated in the colon. The 
Mosquito 1 treat-lies both by branchiae which form large club- 
shaped organs, and by lateral filaments. 

In those insects that fly, most of the trachea 1 are often dilated 
into <iir-i-<'xi<-l<'H, so that by lilling and emptying them of air the 
insect can change its specific gravity. That their use is also 
to lighten the body is shown by their presence in the heavy 
mandibles and head of the male of LH<:UIIHK *v/v//,s. In the 
adult Humble-bee there are two very large vesicles at the base 
of the abdomen. These vesicles are not found in the larva', 
or in the adult forms of creeping insects. 

The act of respiration consists in the alternate dilation and 
contraction of the abdominal segments, the air entering the 
body chiefly at the thoracic spiracles. As in the Vertebrates the 
frequency of the acts of breathing increases after exertion. 
"When an insect is preparing itself for flight, the act of res- 
piration resembles that of birds under similar circumstance^. 
At the moment of elevating its elytra and expanding its wings, 
which are, indeed, acts of respiration, the anterior pairs of 
spiracles are opened, and the air rushing into them is extended 
over the whole body, which, by the expansion of the air-bags, is 
enlarged in bulk, and rendered of less specific gravity ; so that 
when the spiracles are closed at the instant the insect endeavors 
to make the first stroke with and raise itself upon its wings, it 
is enabled to rise in the air, and sustain a long and powerful 
flight with but little muscular exertion. In the pupa and larva 
state respiration is performed more equally by all the spiracles, 
and less especially by the thoracic ones." 

During hibernation the act of breathing, like the circulation 
of the blood, almost entirely ceases, and the heat of the body 
is greatly lowered. Indeed Newport has shown that the dewl- 
<>j>ment of heat in Insects, just as in Vertebrates, depends on the 
"quantity and activity of respiration, and the volume and 
velocity of the circulation." The Humble-bee, according to 
Newport, possesses the voluntary power of generating heat, In- 
breathing faster. He says, confirming Huber's observations. 



ORGANS OF SECRETION. 4:5 

"the manner in which the bee performs her incubatory office is 
by placing herself upon the cell of a nymph (pupa) that is 
soon to be developed, and then beginning to respire at lir^t 
very gradually. In a short time the respirations become more 
and more frequent, until at length they are increased to one 
hundred and twenty, or one hundred and thirty per minute. 
The body of the insect soon becomes of a high temperature, 
and, on close inspection, is often found to be bathed with per- 
spiration. AVhen this is the case the temperature of the insect 
soon becomes reduced, and the insect leaves the cell, and an- 
other bee almost immediately takes her place. AVhen respira- 
tion is performed less violently, and consequently less heat is 
evolved, the same bee will often continue on a cell for many 
hours in succession. This extreme amount of heat was evolved 
entirely by an act of the will in accelerating the respiratory ef- 
forts, a strong indication of the relation which subsists between 
the function of respiration and the development of animal heat." 

ORGANS OF SECRETION. The urinary vessels, or what is 
equivalent to the kidneys of the higher animals, consist in In- 
sects of several long tubes which empty by one or two common 
secretory ducts into the posterior or "pyloric" ext remit}' of 
the stomach. There are also odoriferous (jltoirlx, analogous t<> 
the cutaneous glands of vertebrates. The liquid poured out is 
usually offensive, and it is used as a means of defence. The 
Bees, "Wasps, Gall-flies, etc., and Scorpions, have a poison-sac 
(Fig. 54 g) developed in the tip of the abdomen. The bite of 
the Mosquito, the Horse-fly, and Bed-bug is thought by New- 
port to l)e due to the simple act of thrusting their lancet-like 
jaws through the skin, and it is not known that these and 
other insects which bite severely eject any poison into the 
wound. But in the spiders a minute drop of poison exudes from 
an orifice at the end of the mandibles, "which spreads over the 
whole wound at the instant it is inflicted." This poison is 
secreted by a gland lodged in the cephalo-thorax, and which 
is thought 1 y Audouin to correspond in position to the salivary 
apparatus and the silk glands of the Winged Insects. 

ORGANS OF GENERATION. AV~e have already described the 
external parts. The internal parts of the male insect consist, 



44 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 




or fertilizing fluid, contains 



V 



of a duct, the dwti($ i'j<_-nlt<n-ntx. which opens into the external 
intromittent organ. This duct extends backwards, connecting 
with the rw'cttlH'. ,wntiii<iI< j N, which lead by 
the fiiwt, dcferentia to the testvs (Fig. .">.">). 
The latter are usually rounded glandular 
bodies, (sometimes, as in Melolontha and 
J.iiniiiiix. numbering six on a side. These 
organs lie in the abdominal cavity, usually 
above and ou each side of the alimentary 
canal. 

The sperm, 
very active 
spermatic par- 
ticles which 
are developed 
in large cells 
in the testes, 
where thev are 



Fig. 53. 

united into bundles of various 
forms. 

In the female, the internal re- 
productive organs (Fig. 54) are 
more simple than those of the 
other sex. The external open- 
ing of the female is situated at 
the end of the oviduct, that 
leads by two tubes to the ovary, 
which consists of two or more 
tubes (in the Queen Bee one hundred and sixty to one hundred 
and eighty) in which the ova are developed. On the upper side 

FK;. 53. Male organs of Athaliu centir'nliir. h, the penis, or external portion, 
in which the diiftns ejucitlatoriint (/) terminates, which extends backwards, and is 
connected with the rexicula- sx-mlntilvs (e), and rasa deferentia ((/) which are con- 
nected with the epidiiti/mis (6), and the t<-sti>s (ti). i and I, two pairs of horny plates, 
.surrounded by a horny ring (/.). i, horny prehensile hooks attached to /. //;, two 
elongated muscular parts inclosing the penis (/<). From Newport. 

FK;. 54. Female organs of generation of Aflutlui. centifnUte. a, b, c, the eighteen 
ovarial tubes originating from each of the two oviducts (?), and containing the im- 
mature eggs;/, the spermatheca; g, poison-sac, the poison being secreted in the 
secretory vessels h. The poison flows through the oviduct into the sting and thence 
into the wound made toy the Sting. 10, the terminal ganglia of the nervous cord. 
From Xcirport. 




Fig. 54. 



OlfGANS OF GENERATION. 45 

of the oviduct arc from one to five appendages, the most impor- 
tant of which is the tf^nimtheca (the others being sebaceous 
glands), which receives the fertilizing fluid of the male during 
sexual union, and in which, according to Darwin, the male ele- 
ment k 'is enabled to keep alive four or five years." 

Iiiwtx hitu'.i'iiul. \Yith the exception of the Tardigrade.-!, 
which are doubtfully referred to the Mites (^Inirfixi), there are 
no hermaphrodites among Insects, that is, there are no individ- 
uals having both male and female organs, and capable of self- 
impregnation. On the contrary, the sexes are distinct : Insects 
are bisexual. 

Hermaphrodites, so-called. Cases not unfrequently occur in 
which from arrest of development of the embryo, the sexual 
organs are imperfectly developed, so as to present the appear- 
ance of being both male and female. "Sicbold has investigated 
some hermaphrodite Honey-bees belonging to the Italian race, 
obtained from a Dzierzon hive at Constance. lie found in 
many of them a combination of sexual characters, not only in the 
external parts, but also in the generative organs. The mixture 
of the external characters is manifested sometimes only in the 
anterior or posterior part of the body, sometimes in all parts 
of the body, or only in a few organs. Some specimens pre- 
sent male and worker characters on the two sides of the body. 
Tin- development of the internal organs is singularly correla- 
ted with these peculiarities of external organization. The sting, 
with its vesicle and gland, is well developed in hermaphrodites 
with the abdomen of the worker; soft in those with the drone- 
abdomen. The seminal receptacle, when present, is empty. 
The ovaries contain no ova. In the hermaphrodites with the 
drone-abdomen, the male sexual organs are well developed, and 
the testes contain spermatozoids. Frequently with testicular 
and ovarian organs present on each side, the epididymis and 
copulatory apparatus are well developed, and an imperfect 
poison-apparatus exists. In these cases the tube contains 
spermatozoids, but there are no ova in the ovaries. The her- 
maphrodites are thrown out of the cell by the workers as soon 
as they emerge, and speedily perish. Siebold ascribes the pro- 
duction of these hermaphrodites to an imperfect fecundation 
of the ovum." (Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 
1864. p. 70. See Gimther's Zoological Kevievv for 18G4.) 



4(1 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

Mr. Dunning describes ti specimen of Fidonia 
which was sexually a female, and the abdomen was appar- 
ently distended with eggs ; the general color was midway be- 
tween the colors of the ordinary male and female, but the size 
and markings were those of the male. (Transactions Ento- 
mological Society, London, Aug. 7, 1865.) Professor West- 
wood states that tk he had an Orange-tip Butterfly (Anthocharis 
cardamines), which was female in every respect, except that 
on the tip of one fore-wing were about a dozen of the bright 
orange scales which characterize the male." 

THE P>;. Professor H. J. Clark (Mind in Nature) defines 
an egg to be a globule surrounded by the vitelline membrane, 
or yelk-envelope, which is protected by the chorivn, or egg- 
shell, consisting of "two lands of fluid, albumen and o<7, which 
are always situated at opposite sides or poles." ''In the earli- 
est stages of all eggs, these two poles shade oft' into each 
other," but in the perfectly developed egg the small, or albu- 
minous pole, is surrounded by a membrane, and forms the 
Purkinjean (germinal) vesicle ; and thirdly and last, the inner- 
most of the three globules is developed. This last is the 
Wagnerian vesicle, or fjerininal dot. The oily matter forms the 
//O/A-. Thus formed, the egg is the initial nhnaL It becomes 
an animal after contact with the male germs (unless the product 
of organic reproduction), and the egg-shell or chorion is to be 
considered as a protection to the animal, and is thrown oft' 
when the embryo is hatched, just as the larva throws off its 
skin to transform into the pupa. So that the egg-state is 
equivalent to the larva state, and hence there are four stages 
in the life of an insect, i. e. the egg, the larva, the pupa, and 
the imago, or adult state. 

The egg is not always laid as a perfect egg (Clark). It 
sometimes, as in the Ants, continues to grow after it is laid by 
the parent, like those of frogs, which, according to Clark, "Are 
laid before they can hardly be said to have become fully formed 
ex i-i/i/K." 1 Again, others are laid some time after the embryo 
lias begun to form ; and in some, such as Melophagus and 
J>i-anla, the larva is fully formed before it is expelled from the 
oviduct. 




THE EGG. 47 

Eggs arc usually small in proportion to the size of the 
parent; but in many minute forms (i.e. Pulex, Pediculus, etc.) 
they are proportionately much larger. In shape eggs are 
either spherical or oblong. In some there are radiating append- 
ages at one end, as in those of Nepa and Ranatra ; or they are 
provided with a single stalk, as in Chrysopa^ Cynips, and 
Ophion. 

The eggs of most Hymenoptera, Diptera, and many Coleop- 
tera arc usually cylindrical ; those of Lcpidoptera are more 
generally spherical. The eggs of the Mosquito are laid in a 
boat-shaped mass, which floats on the surface of quiet pools, 
while those of the Chrysopa, or Lace-winged Fly (Fig. 55), are 
supported on long pedicels. 
They are almost invariably 
laid near or upon objects des- 
tined to be the food of the Fig. 55. 
future larva. Thus the Copris, or "Tumble-bug," places its 
egg in a ball of dung which it rolls away to a secure place; 
the Flesh-fly oviposits on meat ; and all vegetable-feeders lay 
their eggs on the food-plant where the larva, upon its exit 
from the egg, shall readily find an ample supply of food. 

The posterior end of the egg is more often the fixed one, and 
it may thus be distinguished from the anterior pole. In the 
eggs of some Diptera and Orthoptera. the ventral side of the 
embryo, according to Gerstaecker, corresponds to the convex 
side of the egg, and the concave side of the latter corresponds 
to the dorsal region of the embryo. 

The surface of the chorion, or egg-shell, which is dense and 
brittle, is often covered by a mosaic-work of more or less regu- 
lar facets. In many small eggs the surface is only minutely 
granulated, or ornamented with ribs and furrows, as in those 
of many Butterflies. 

The Micropyle. On the anterior end (though sometimes 
at both ends) of the egg is one or more pores of exceeding 
minuteness, through which the spermatozoa (more than one 
of which, according to Darwin, is requisite to fertilize an 
ovule) enter to fertilize the egg-contents. In some cases 
these micropyles are scattered over the whole surface of the egg. 
Fig. 56 a represents the micropyles of Nepa cinerea, consisting 




4H THK CLASS OF INSECTS. 

of a whorl of long bristles. Those of Locustn r//vV//.s.s//,m ( Fig. 
.")('>/>) slightly resemble toadstools. Fig. /JOr represents the an- 
terior pole of the egg with 
the micropyles of J'i/rrlio<-nrix 
apteniN. (From, Grrstaeckcr.) 
This contact of a male 
sperm-cell with the yolk is 
the fertilization of the egg. 
From this moment begins tin- 
life of the embryo. Fertiliza- 
tion of the female germ bv 
means of the male sperm, 

through the congress of the sexes, is the rule with bisexual 
animals, but there are exceptions among insects. An embryo 
may start into being without the Intel-position of the male; to 
this mode of generation has been applied by Lenckart the term 
Partln'iiixji'iii'xix. Among certain species of insects there are 
some individuals which, by a sort of budding process, and with- 
out the aid of the male element, throw off summer broods, con- 
sisting of "asexual" individuals, which, as winter approaches, 
arc succeeded by a brood of true males and females, the hitter 
of which lay eggs. This phenomenon, called by Steeiistrnp 
''alternation of generations." has been observed among a com- 
paratively few species, and the apparent design of such an 
anomalous mode of reproduction is to afford an immense num- 
ber of individuals, thus providing for the continuance of the 
species. The individuals in whom this budding process takes 
place are called "asexual" because, though they may resemble 
the female sex outwardly, their sexual organs are only partially 
developed. This budding process is the same in kind with that 
observable in the Jelly-fish, which throw off by parthenogen- 
esis, or alternations of generations, summer broods of immense 
extent, but in winter propagate by true eggs. Huxley has 
studied the development of Aphis by parthenogenesis, the 
anomalous nature of which had previously been discovered by 
Bonnet. Trembly. Lyonet. Degeer. Kyber. and others, and 
arrives at the following conclusions : 

" 1 . Ova deposited by impregnated female Aplnde* in autumn 
are hatched in the spring. 



ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS. 49 

2. From these ova viviparous, and, in the great majority of 
cases, apterous forms proceed. 

3. The broods to which these give rise are either winged or 
apterous, or both. 

4. The number of successive broods has no certain limit, but 
is, so far as we know at present, controlled only by tempera- 
ture and the supply of food. 

5. On the setting in of cold weather, or in some cases on the 
failure of nourishment, the weather being still warm, males 
and oviparous females are produced. 

6. The males may be either winged or apterous. 

7. So far as I am aware, there is no proof of the existence 
of any exception to the law that the oviparous female is apte- 
rous. 

8. Viviparous Aphidf* may hybernate, and may co-exist with 
oviparous females of the same species." (Linntean Transac- 
tions, xxii, p. 198.) 

The origin of the viviparous, asexual, or agamic (from the 
Greek a, without ; game, marriage) individual, as it may be 
more properly called, is, up to a certain stage, the same as 
that of the true egg, i.e. until the germ (pseudovum) of 
the former is detached from the false ovary (pseudovarium). 
"From this point onwards, however, the fate of the pseudovum 
is different from that of the ovum. The former begins at once 
to be converted into the germ ; the latter accumulates yelk-sub- 
stance, and changes but little. Both bodies acquire their mem- 
branous investment rather late ; within it the pseudovum 
becomes a living larva, while the ovum is impregnated, laid, 
and remains in a state of rest for a longer or shorter period. 

"Although, then, the pseudovum and the ovum of Aphis 
are exceedingly similar in structure for some time after they 
have passed out of the condition of indifferent tissue, it cannot 
be said that the sole difference between them is, that the one 
requires fecundation and the other not. When the ovum is of 
the size of a pseudovum which is about to develop into an em- 
bryo, and, therefore, long before fecundation, it manifests its 
inherent physiological distinctness by becoming, not an em- 
bryo, but an ovum. Up to this period the influence of fecunda- 
tion has not been felt ; and the production of ova, instead of 
4 



THE CLASS OV INSECTS. 



pseudova, must depend upon a something impressed upon the 
constitution of the parent before it was brought forth by its 
viviparous progenetrix." (Huxley.) 

Siebold has also shown that the wt ova of the Queen-bee pro- 
duces females or males, according as they are fecundated or 
not. The fecundated ovum produces a queen or a neuter 
according to the food of the larva and the other conditions to 
which it is subjected ; the unfecundated ovum produces a 
drone." This is analogous to the agamic reproduction of 
Aphis, and demonstrates still more clearly the impossi- 
bility of drawing airy absolute line of demarcation histologi- 
cally between ova and buds." 

This process of reproduction is not known in the Myriapods. 
It occurs among the mites (A<-<trin<i)* and occurs in isolated 
genera of Hemiptera (Aphis, Chermex, Lvcunium, and Aspidi- 
otitH according to Gerstaecker). 

Among Lepidoptera the .Silk-moth sometimes lays fertile 
eggs without previous sexual union. This very rarely hap- 
pens, for M. Jourdain found that, out of about 58,000 eggs 
laid by unimpregnated silk-moths, many passed through their 
early embryonic stages, showing that they were capable of 
self-development, but only twenty-nine out of the whole 
number produced caterpillars. (Darwin.) Several other moths * 
have been found to lay fertile eggs without previous sexual 
union, and among Ilymenoptera, Nematus -centr'n-usus, Cynijix, 
Neuroterus, perhaps Apophyllus (according to Gerstaecker), 
and Cynips sponyijica (according to Walsh, Proceedings of 

* We give a list from Gerstaecker (Bronn's ClassenundOrdnangend.es Thier- 
reichs) of all the known cases of agamic reproduction in this suborder, with the 
number of times the phenomenon has been observed, and the names of the ob- 
servers. 

Giistropncha quercus, once (Plieninger). 

Liptiris tlinpiir, once (Carlier). 

" Kfffffrmuth" (1 Liparls disptir], (Tardy, 

Westwood). 

I.i/Kiris ochropoda, once (Popoff). 
Orgyia pudibunda, once (Werneburg). 
Fvi/che apiforniis, once (Rossi). 

" helix (Siebold). 
Solenoblu. liclienella (Siebold). 

triquetrella (Siebold). 
Bomlnjx mori, several times. 



Sphinx lif/ustri, once (Treviranus). 
Smerinthus populi, four times (Nord- 

mann). 

Smerinthus ocellntus, once (Johnston). 
Euprepla caja, live times (Brown, etc.). 

" villica, once (Stowell). 
Tclert Polyphemus, twice (Curtis). 
Gastropacha pint, three times (Scopoli, 

etc). 

Gastropacha ijuernfolia, once (Easier). 
" potatoria, once (Burmeis- 

ter). 



The subject has been also discussed by Siebold in his work entitled, A true Par- 
thenogenesis in Lepidoptera and Bees; by Owen, in his "Parthenogenesis," and 
Ijy Sir J. Ltibbock in the Philosophical Transactions, London, vol. 147, pt. 1. 



ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS. 51 

the Entomological Society of Philadelphia). Parthenogenesis, 
or agamic reproduction, is, then, the result of a budding pro- 
cess, or cell-growth. This process is a common mode among 
the Radiates, the low AVorms, and the Crustaceans. Metamor- 
phosis is simply a series of marked stages, or periods, of 
growth ; and hence growth, metamorphosis, and agamic re- 
production are morphologically identical. All animals, there- 
fore, as well as plants, grow by the multiplication of cells. 

After hearing the surprising revelations of Bonnet, Reaumur, 
Owen, Burnett, and Huxley on the asexual mode of generation 
in the Aphis, we are called to notice still a new phase of repro- 
duction. None of the observers just mentioned were accus- 
tomed to consider the virgin aphis as immature, but rather as 
a wingless adult Plant-louse. But Nicolas Wagner, Professor 
of Zoology at Kasan,* supported by able vouchers for the 
truth of his assertions, both in Russia and in Germany, who 
have repeated and thoroughly tested his observations, has 
observed an asexual reproduction in the larva of a Cecidomy- 
iau fly, MlaMor metraloas (Fig. 297), and Meinert has observed 
it in this species and the OUgarces paradoxus Meinert. 

Says Dr. R. Leuckart, whose articlef we have drawn largely 
upon in the present account, "-This reproduction was said to 
commence in autumn, to continue through the winter and 
spring, giving origin, during the whole of this period, to a 
series of successive generations of larva 1 , until, finally, in June, 
the last of them were developed into perfect and sexually 
mature animals. The flies, then, as usual, after copulation, 
lay eggs, and thus recommence the developmental cycle just 
described." 

Professor Leuckart has observed these facts anew in the 
larva 1 of a species of dipterous gall-fly, and which he believes 
distinct from the Russian species, found under the bark of a 
half dead apple-tree that was attacked by fungi. The young 
are developed within the body of the larva-like parent from a 

*K. E. Von Baer, " Report on a New Asexual Mode of Reproduction observed 
by Professor Wagner in Kasan." Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg-, 1803, pt. vi, p. 239. 
Also, Wagner in the Journal of the University of Kasan, 18(il. 

fOu the Asexual Reproduction of Cec.idomyia Larva?. Annals and Magazine 
of Natural History, March, 1800. Translated from Xeitschrift fiir Wissenschaftlidie 
/oologie, Bd. xiv. 



52 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

"germ-ball" essentially agreeing with the ovary, and the asex- 
ual larva? begin lil'e as egg-like bodies developed from this 
germ-ball, jnst as eggs are developed in the little tubes of 
which the ovary is an aggregation. Hence these worms Ond 
out from the germ-stock, just as we have seen in the case of 
the Aphides. Leuckart and "Wagner farther agree, that " the 
so-called chorion never being formed in either of them, the 
vitellns [yelk] remains without that envelope which has so re- 
markable and peculiar a development in the true egg of in- 
sects." .... "The processes of embryo-formation agree in 
all essential points with the ordinary phenomena of devel- 
opment in a fecundated egg, exactly as has been proved (by 
Huxley) to be the case in the Aphides.'" .... "The only 
difference consists in the germ-chambers of the Cecidomyide 
larv.e separating from the germ-stock, and moving about freely 
in the cavity of the body, whilst in the Aphides they remain 
permanently attached, and constitute an apparatus which, in 
its form and arrangement, reproduces the conditions of the 
female organs." 

Another case of psedogenesis, which unites that of Miastor 
with the parthenogenesis of the Coccidw, has been discovered 
by Grimm who found, in the spring of 1869, the pupa of a 
species of Chironomus laying eggs. But in the autumn other 
pupre become flies without laying eggs, while the fly itself de- 
posits a larger number of eggs than the spring pupa. Grimm 
also found that on removing from the perfectly developed in- 
sect, before it has left the pupa-case, the eggs which would 
otherwise have been fertilized, and preserving them in water, 
the development of the larva took place in them also, but 
lasted a little longer (about six days). Previous to the forma- 
tion of the primitive band, the germ develops as in the Coc- 
cidce ; afterwards it resembles that of other Diptera (Simu- 
lium and C h i rono m i dee ) . 

Dimorphism is intimately connected with agamic reproduc- 
tion. Thus the asexual Aphis, and the perfect female, may be 
called dimorphic forms. Or the perfect female may assume 
two forms, so much so as to be mistaken for two distinct spe- 
cies. Thus Cynips quercus-spongifica occurs in male and female 
broods in the spring, while the fall brood of females were 



DIMORPHISM. 53 

/Inscribed as a separate species, C. aciodata. Mr. B. D. Walsh 
considers the two sets of females as dimorphic forms, and he 
thinks that C. aciculata lays eggs which produce C. qnercus- 
spongificcti. 

Huber supposes there are two sizes of the three forms (/. e. 
male, female, and worker) of Bombus, one set being a little 
larger than the other. 

Alfred Wallace has discovered that there are two forms of 
.emales of Papilio Memnon of the East Indies ; one is normal, 
having its wings tailed and resembles a closely allied species, 
P(tpilio Coon, which is not dimorphous, while the other is tail- 
less, resembling its tailless male. Papilio Pammon has three 
sorts of females, and is hence " trimorphic." One of its forms 
predominates in Sumatra, and a second in Java, while a. third, 
(described as P. Romulus) abounds in India and Ceylon. P. 
Of menus is trimorphic, as Mr. Wallace obtained in the island 
of Waignion, tk a third female quite distinct from either of the 
others, and in some degree intermediate between the ordinary 
male and female." Much the same thing occurs in the North 
American P. Tartuis. Papilio Glaticus is now known to be a 
dimorphic form of the former butterfly, both having, according 
to Mr. Uhler, been bred from the same batch of eggs. Mr 
W. H. Edwards has found that Papilio Ajax is polymorphous, 
the same batch of eggs giving rise to P. Ajax, and varieties 
Walsh ii, Telamonides, and Marcellus. The male sex also pre- 
sents dimorphic forms. Mr. Pascoe states that there are di- 
morphic forms of Anthribidce; that they occur in the males 
of Stenocerus and Mtcoceros. Six species of Dytiscus have two 
female forms, the most common having the elytra deeply sul- 
cate, while in the rarer forms the elytra are smooth as in the 
male. 

There is a tendency, we would observe, in the more abnor- 
mal of the two sexual forms, to revert to a lower type. Thus 
the agamic Aphis is more generally wingless, and the tailless 
female butterfly mimics the members of a lower genus, Pieris. 
The final cause of Dimorphism, like that of agamic reproduc- 
tion, is the continuance of the species, and is, so far as yet 
known, an exceptional occurrence. 

Mimetic forms. Many insects often resemble, in a remark- 



54 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

able manner, those of other groups. They are called mimetic 
forms. Insects are related to each other by analogy and affin- 
ity. Thus the truly tailless species of Papilio, i. e. those where 
the tail is absent in both sexes, are related by affinity to Pic- 
/v'.s, which has rounded hind wings. They also stand next to 
Pieris in the system of Nature. But there are, on the other 
hand, mimetic forms, which borrow the features of groups far 
above them in the natural system. Thus the Sesia resembles a 
Bee, Bo'iubylins and Laphria resemble Bambus; the Sj'rphus 
flies are easily mistaken for AVasps. 80 in the second series 
of suborders of Insects, Forficula resembles the Staphylinus ; 
Termes resembles the true Ant ; Psocus, the ApJn'a; Ax<-<.tl<ipJtnH 
resembles Papilio ; 31<.tntixj><.< recalls the OrthopterousJfaw^'s, and 
Panorpa reminds us of the Tipiilw (Bittacus being strikingly 
analogous to the Dipterous BittacomorpJia). Thus these lower, 
more variable groups of insects strive, as it were, to connect 
themselves by certain analogous, mimetic forms, with the more 
stable and higher groups. 

Comprehensive types are mimetic forms which combine tin 
characters of other and generally higher groups. Thus each 
Neuropterous family contains mimetic forms which ally them 
strongly with some one of the six other suborders of insects. 
The early fossil insects are remarkable for combining the char- 
acters of groups which appear ages after. The most remark- 
able comprehensive type is a Carboniferous insect, the Eurjereon 
Boeckingi mentioned farther on. 

HYBRIDITV. Hybrids are sometimes produced between differ- 
ent species, but though it is known that different genera unite 
sexually, we know of very few authentic instances of the pro- 
duction of hybrids therefrom. One is related by Mr. Midford, 
who exhibited at the March 4th (1861) meeting of the London 
Entomological Society, hybrids produced from a male Phiiju- 
lia pilosaria, and a female Nyssiu Jiixpidaria. "The males 
resemble N. higpidaria, but in color have the lighter and 
greener tint and transparency of wing of P. pilosaria.'" 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSECTS. Immediately after the fer- 
tilization of the egg, the first act in the organization of the 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSECTS. 



future embryo is the formation of the germinal layer, or />/*- 
toderm (from the Greek, meaning primitive skin). This layer 
is formed at the surface out of a surface-layer of larger, often 
nucleolated, cells which nearly encompass the yolk-mass. At 
one point there is a break in this cellular layer, and the yolk 
granules reach to the surface, so that it appears darker thaii 
the other parts of the egg. This cellular la}-er is soon resolved 
into the blastoderm, or germinal layer, which thickens and 
narrows, forming a longitudinal band. This is the first stage 
of the embryo, which lies as a thin layer of cells upon the outer 
surface of the yolk. Both ends of the body are alike, and we 
shall afterwards see that its back lies next to the centre of the 
egg, its future ventral side looking outwards. The embryo is 
thus bent on itself backwards. 

In the next stage the blastoderm divides into a certain num- 
ber of segments, or joints, which appear as indentations in the 
bod}' of the embryo. The head can now be distinguished from 
the posterior end chiefly by its larger size, and both it and the 
tail are folded back upon the body of the embryo, the head 
especially being sunk backwards down into the yolk-mass. 

In a succeeding stage, as we have observed in the embryo of 
Diplax, a Dragon-fly (Fig. f>7), the head is partially sketched 




Fig. 57. 




Fig. 58. 



out, with the rudiments of the limbs and mouth-parts ; and the 
sternites, or ventral walls, of the thorax and of the two basal 
rings of the head appear. The anterior part of the head, in- 
cluding the so-called "procephalic lobes" overhangs and con- 

FIG. 57. Side view of embryo. The procephalic lobes are not shown. 1, antennae; 
2, mandibles; 3, maxilla; ; 4, second maxillae (labium); 5-7, legs. These numbers 
and letters are the same in all the figures from 57-60. The under-side (sternum? 
of six segments are indicated. FIG. 58. Ventral view of the same. 



56 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

ceals the base of the antenna?. It is probable that more 
rareful observation would have shown the end of the abdomen 
folded back upon the dorsal region, as usual at this period in 
the embryos of those insects whose embryology has been 
studied. 

The antenna?, mandibles, and maxilla? form a group by them- 
selves, while the second maxilla? (or labium) are very much 
larger and turned backwards, being temporarily grouped with 
the legs. 

There are traces only of the two basal sterna of the abdo- 
men. This indicates that the basal abdominal segments grow 
in succession from the base of the abdomen, the middle ones 
appearing last. The post-abdomen (Fig. 59 A) has probably 
been developed synchronous with the procephalic lobes, as it is 
in all insect and crustacean embryos yet observed. As stated 
by Zaddach, these two lobes in their development are exact 
equivalents; antero- posterior symmetry is very clearly de- 
marked, the two ends of the body at first looking alike. But 
in this stage, after the two ends of the body have been evolved 
from the primitive cell-layer, development in the post-abdomi- 
nal region is retarded, that of the head progressing with much 
greater rapidity. 

In the next stage (not figured) the yolk is completely walled 
in, though no traces of segments appear on the back or side of 
the embryo. The revolution of the embryo has taken place ; 
the post-abdomen being curved beneath the bod}', and the back 
presenting outwards. 

The rudiments of the eyes appear as a darker, rounded mass 
of cells indistinctly seen through the yolk-granules, and situ- 
ated at the base of the antenna?. They consist of a few epithe- 
lial cells of irregular form, the central one being the largest. 

The second maxilla? are a little over twice the length of the 
first maxilla? and are grouped with the legs, being curved back- 
wards. They are, however, now one-third shorter than the an- 
terior legs. The second maxillary sternum is still visible. 

The tip of the abdomen (or post-abdomen) consists of four 
segments, the terminal one being much the larger, and ob- 
scurely divided into two obtuse lobes. 

The abdominal sternites are now well marked, and the ner- 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSECTS. 



57 



2 E 




1 C 



vous cord is represented by eight or nine large oblong-square 
'seen sidewaj-s) ganglia, which lie contiguous to each other. 

The formation of the eyes, the post-abdomen, the sternites, 
and median portion of the nervous cord seems nearly synchro- 
nous with the closing up of the dorsal walls of the body, though 
the division of the tegument into segments has not apparently 
taken place over the yolk-mass. 

The succeeding stage (Fig. 59) is signalized by the appear- 
ance of the rudiments of the intestine, 
while the second maxilhe are directed 
more anteriorly. 

In form the body is ovate-cylin- 
drical, and there is a deep constric- 
tion separating the post -abdomen 
from the anterior part of the abdo- 
men. 

The terminal (eleventh) ring is 
immensely disproportioned to its size in the embryo just pre- 
vious to hatching (see Fig. 61, where it forms a triangular piece 

situated between its appendages, 
the anal stylets). At a later 
period of this stage two more ab- 
dominal segments have been added, 
one to the end of the main body 
of the abdomen, and another to 
the post- abdomen. They have 
been apparently interpolated at the 
junction of the post-abdomen to 
the abdomen proper. Should this 
observation be proved to be correct, it may then be considered 
as a rule that, after reaching a certain number of segments, all 
additional ones are interpolated between the main body of the 
abdomen and its terminal segment or segments. This is the 
law of increase in the number of segments in Worms, and in 
Myriopods (lulus, according to Newport's observations), in 
Arachnids (Claparede), and Crustacea (Rathke). 

The next stage (Fig. 60), is characterized by the differentia- 




4 N A 

Fig. 60. 



FIG. 59. An embryo much farther advanced, c, clypeus; E, eye; A, bi-lobed 
extremity of the abdomen; i, the rudiments of the intestines. 



f>8 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 



tiou of the head into the rudiments of the antennary ring, and 
the supraclypeal piece, and clypeus, together with the appro x. 
imation of the second pair of maxillae, which, when united, form 
the labium, the extremities of which are now situated in the 
middle of the body. 

The antenn;e now extend to the middle of the labium, just 
passing beyond the extremities of the mandibles and maxilla-. 
The oesophagus can also be seen going from the mouth-opening 
situated just beneath the labium. It curves around just behind 
the eyes. There are at this period no appearances of movable 
blood-disks or of a dorsal vessel. 

The abdomen is now pointed at the extremity and divided 
into the rudiments of the two anal stylets, which form large, 
acute tubercles. The yolk-mass is also almost 
entirely inclosed within the body walls, form- 
ing an oval mass. 

Another embryo, observed July 27th, had 
, T reached about the same stage of growth. The 
front of the head, including the antennary 
segment, is farther advanced than before. The 
entire head is divided into two very distinct 
regions ; i. e. one before the mouth-opening 
(the preoral region, including the antennary, 
or first segment of the head, carrying the 
organs of vision ; namely, the ocelli and com- 
pound eyes, and the organs of sense, or an- 
tennae) ; and the other btftiiid the month 
(pastoral) consisting of the mandibular, or 
second segment, thejlrsf maxillary, or third segment, and the 
second maxillary, or labial, being the fourth and last segment. 
At a later period the embryo is quite fully formed, and is 
about ready to leave the egg. The three regions of the body 
are now distinct. The articulations of the tergum are present, 
the yolk-mass being completely inclosed by the tergal walls. 

FIG. 61. The embryo taken from the egg, but nearly ready to hatch. T, the 
dotted line crosses the main trachea, going through the yolk-mass, now restricted 
to the thoracic region. At x, the trachea- send off numerous branches around an 
enlargement of the intestine (colon), where the blood is aerated; better seen in fig. 
f>2. The abdomen consists of eleven segments, the last being a minute triangular 
piece. 




Fig. 61. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSECTS. 



59 



The body is so bent upon itself that the extremities of the 
second maxillae just overlap the tip of the abdomen. 

The two limbs of the labium are now placed side by side, 
with the prominent spinous appendage on the outer edges of 
the tip. These spines are the rudiments of the labial palpi. 

The general form of the embryo at a still later period (Fig. 
Gl), on being taken from the egg and straightened out, re- 
minds us strikingly of 
the Thysanura, and, in 
these and other re- 
spects, tend to prove 
that the Podurae and 
Lepisma?, and allied 
genera, are embryonic, 
degraded forms of Neu- 
roptera, and should 
therefore be considered 
as a family of that sub- 
order. Seen laterally, 
the body gradually ta- 
pers from the large N 
head to the pointed ex- 
tremity. The body is 
flattened -from above 
downward s . At this 
stage the appendages 
are still closely ap- 
pressed to the body. 

Just before the ex- 
clusion of the embryo, 
the legs and mouth- 
parts stand out freer Fig. 62. 
from the body. The labium, especially, assumes a position at 
nearly right angles to the body. The antennae, mandibles, 
and maxilla? have taken on a more definite form, being like 

FIG. 62. The larva just hatched and swimming in the water. N, ventral cord or 
nervous ganglia: i>, dorsal vessel, or "heart," divided into its chambers. The 
anal valves at the end of the abdomen, which open and shut during respiration, are 
represented as being open. Both of the dotted lines cross the tracheae, x, net- 
work of the trachea;, surrounding the cloaca. 




60 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 



that of the young larva, and stand out free from the body. 

The head is much smaller in proportion to the rest of the 

body, and bent more upon the breast. 

The Larva (Fig. (52) 
when hatched is about 
five hundredths of an 
inch in length. The 
head is now free and 
the antennfe stand out 
free from the front. 
The thorax has greatly 
diminished in size, 
while the abdomen has 
become wider, and the 
limbs very long ; and 




Fig. 63. 




the numerous minute tubercles, seen in the preceding stage, 
have given origin to hairs. The dorsal vessel can now, for the 
first time, be seen. When in motion, the resemblance 
to a spider is most striking. The flow of blood to 
the head, and the return currents through the lacunar 
or venous circulation along the side of the body were 
easily observed. The vessels were not crowded with 
blood disks, the latter being few in number, only one 
Fig. 64. or two passing along at a time. Two currents, pass- 
ing in opposite directions, were observed in the legs. 

FIG. 63. Side view of the head of the larva of Diplax before the first moult, c, 
deciduous tubercles terminating in a slender style; their use is unknown: they 
have not been observed in the full-grown larva, e, the compound eyes. 1, the 
three jointed antenna;, the terminal joint nearly three times as long as the two 
basal ones. 2, the mandibles, and also enlarged, showing the cutting edge divided 
into four teeth. 3, maxilhe divided into two lobes : </, the outer and anterior lobe, 
J -jmted, the basal joint terminating in two seta?; and a, the inner lobe concealed 
from view, in its natural position, by the outer lobe, d. 4, the base or pedicel of 
the second maxilla?, or labium, the expanded terminal portion being drawn sepa- 
rately ; d and , two movable stout styles representing, perhaps, the labial palpi; 
the lobe to which they are attached is multidentate, and adapted for seizing 
prey ; on the right side the two styles are appressed to the lobe, x represents, 
perhaps, the lignla; but we have not yet studied its homologies carefully: this 
part is attached to a transversely linear piece soldered to the main part of the 
laliium. ij, the llth abdominal ring, with its pair of conical anal styles, s, the 
last tarsal joint and pair of long slender claws. 

FIG. 64. The pupa of Diplax, having rudimentary wings, in which the eyes are 
miii-h larger, and the legs much shorter than in the recently hatched larva; in- 
troduced to be compared with the young larva. Figs. 57-64, original. 



TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE INSECT. lil 

On review it will be seen how remarkable are the changes in 
form of the insect before it is hatched, and that all are the 
result of simple growth. We have seen that the two ends of 
the body are first formed, and that the under side of the body 
is formed before the back ; that the belly is at first turned out- 
wards, and afterwards the embryo reverses its position, the 
back presenting outwards. All the appendages are at first 
simple protrusions from the body-walls, and new segments an- 
interpolated near the tip of the abdomen. These changes take 
place very rapidly, within a very few days, and some of the 
most important and earlier ones in a few hours. We can now 
better understand that the larva and pupa stages are the result 
of a similar mode of growth, though very marked from being 
in a different medium, the insect having to seek food and act 
as an independent being. 

TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE INSECT. We have seen that 
during the growth of the embryo, the insect undergoes remark- 
able changes of form, the result of simple growth. The meta- 
morphoses of the animal within the egg are no less marked 
than those which occur after it has hatched. It will also be 
seen that the larva and pupa stages are not always fixed, defi- 
nite states, but only pauses in the development of the insect, 
concealing beneath the larva and pupa skins the most impor- 
tant changes of form. 

The process of hatching. No other author has so carefully 
described the process of hatching as Newport, who observed 
it in the larva of Meloe. "When the embryo larva is ready 
for its change, the egg-shell becomes thinned and concave on 
that side which covers the ventral surface of the body, but is 
much enlarged, and is more convex on the dorsal, especially 
towards the head. The shell is then burst longitudinally along 
the middle of the thoracic segments, and the fissure is ex- 
tended forwards to the head, which then, together with the 
thoracic segments, is partially forced through the opening, but 
is not at once entirety withdrawn. The antennae, parts of the 
mouth, and legs are still inclosed within separate envelopes, 
and retain the larva in this covering in the shell. Efforts are 
then made to detach the posterior segments of the body, which 



62 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

are gradually released, and with them the antenna?, palpi, and 
legs, and the larva removes itself entirely from the shell and 
membranes. In this process of evolution the young Mi-lm'- 
throws off two distinct coverings : first, the shell with its linin^ 

O C> 

membrane, the analogue of the membrane in which, as I have 
elsewhere shown,* the young Myriopod is inclosed, and re- 
tained several days after the bursting of the ovum, and which 
represents in the Articulata, not the allantois, but apparently 
the amnion, of Vertebrata ; next, the first, or foetal deciduation 
of the tegument, analogous probably to the first change of skin 
in the Myriopod, after it has escaped from the amnion, and 
also to the first change which the young Arachnid;) n invariably 
undergoes a few days after it has left the egg, and before it- 
can take food. This tegument, which, perhaps, may be analo- 
gous to the vemi.i- m.xro.s-a of Vertebrata, thrown off at the 
instant of birth, is left by the young Meloe with the amnion 
in the shell; and its separation from the body, at this early 
period, seems necessary to fit the insect for the active life it 
has commenced." (Linn. Trans, xx. p. ;j(J(J, etc.) 

The larva state. The larva (Latin lrr<i, a mask) was so 
called because it was thought to mask the form of the perfect 
insect. The larvae of Butterflies and Moths are called cl< j r- 
2)iUarx; those of Beetles, ijrubx ; and those of the two-winged 
Flies (Diptera) ma(j<jotx ; the larvae of other groups have no 
distinctive common names. 

As soon as it is hatched the larva feeds voraciously, as if in 
anticipation of the coming period of rest, the pupa state, for 
which stores of fat (the fatty bodies) are developed for the 
supply of fat globules out of which the tissues of the new 
body of the pupa and imago are to be formed. 

Most larva? moult, or change their skin, four or five times. 
In the inactive thin-skinned larva?, such as those of Bees, 
Wasps, and Gall-flies, the moults are not apparent ; as the 
larva increases in size it out-grows the old skin, which conies 
off in thin shreds. But in the active larva?, such as cater- 
pillars, grasshoppers, and grubs, from the rapid absorption of 
vessels in the outer layer of the skin, just before the change, 

* Philosophical Transactions, Pt. 2, ]S41, p. 111. 



TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE INSECT. 63 

it becomes hard and dry, and too small for the growing in- 
sect, and is then cast off entire. 

A series of bee-larvae can be selected showing a graduation 
in size and form from the egg and recently hatched larva up to 
the full-grown larva. In the caterpillar and other active larvae, 
there are usually four or five stages, each showing a sudden and 
marked increase in size. Newport states that the caterpillar 
of /S2>hinx liijustri moults six times, and at the last moult be- 
comes a third larger than at any earlier period; the larva of 
Arctia caja moults from five to ten times. 

A few days before the assumption of the pupa state, the 
larva becomes restless, stops eating, and deserts its food, and 
usually spins a silken cocoon, or makes one of earth, or chips, 
if a borer, and there prepares for the change to the pupa state. 

During this semipupa period (lasting, in many insects, only 
for a day or several days, but in some Saw-flies through the 
winter) the skin of the pupa grows beneath that of the quies- 
cent larva. While the worm-like larva exhibits no trire- 
gional distinctions, the muscles of the growing pupa contract 
and enlarge in certain parts so as to modify the larva form, 
until it gradually assumes the triregional form of the adult 
insect, with the differentiation of the body into a head, thorax, 
and abdomen. 

In a series of careful studies, abundantly illustrated with 
excellent plates, Weismann has recently shown that Swammer- 
dam's idea that the pupa and imago skins were in reality 
already concealed under that of the larva is partially founded 
in truth. Swammerdam states, "I can point out in the larva 
all the limbs of the future nymph, or Culex, concealed beneath 
the skin," and he also observed beneath the skin of the larvae 
of bees just before pupating, the antenna?, mouth-parts, wings, 
and limbs of the adult. (Weismann.) 

During its transformations the pupa skin is developed from 
the hypodermis, or inner layer of skin. This peals off, as it 
were, from the inner layer of the old larva skin, which soon 
dries and hardens, and is thrown off. Meanwhile the muscles 
of the body contract and change in form, thus causing the origi- 
nal segments of the larva to infold and contract at certain parts, 
gradually producing the pupa form. If, during this period, the 



64 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

insect be examined at intervals, a series of slight changes of 
form may be seen, from the larva to the imago state. In some 
cases each change is accompanied by a moult, as in the "ac- 
tive" Ephemera, where Lnbbock counted twenty one moults. 

As a general rule, then, it ma} r be stated that the body of 
the larva is transformed into that of the imago ; ring answer- 
ing to ring, and limb to limb in both, the head of the one 
is homologous with that of the other, and the appendages of 
the larva are homologous with the appendages of the imago. 

"VVeismann has shown that in the larva of the Meat-fly, MVK<- 
voviitnriu, the thorax and head of the imago are developed 
from what he calls '"imaginal disks." These disks are minute 
isolated portions of the hypodermis, which are formed in the 
embryo, before it leaves the egg, and are held in place \\ ithin 
the body-cavity of the larva by being attached either to nerves 
or tracheae, or both. After the outer layer of the larva skin. 
dries and hardens, and forms the cask-shaped pupa ri inn, the 
use of which corresponds to the cocoon of moths, etc., these 
imaginal disks increase in size so as to form the tegument of 
the thorax and head. The abdomen of the Meat-fly, however, 
is formed by the direct conversion of the eight hinder segments 
of the body of the larva, into the corresponding segments of 
the imago. 

Accompanying this change in the integument there is a 
destruction of all the larval system of organs ; this is either 
total or effected by the gradual destruction of tissues. Now 
we see the use of the "fatty body;" this breaks up, setting 
free granular globules of fat, which, as we have seen in the 
embryo, produces by the multiplication of cells the new tissues 
of the pupa. Thus the larva-skin is cast aside, and also the 
softer organs within, but the formation of new tissues keeps 
even pace with the destruction of the old, and the insect pre- 
serves its identity throughout. The genital glands, however, 
are indicated even in the embryo, and are gradually developed 
throughout the growth of the insect, so that this liistolysis, or 
destruction of tissues, is not wholly complete. The quiescent 
pupa-state of Musca is long-continued, and its vitality is latent, 
the acts of respiration and circulation being almost suspended. 
(Weismann.) 



TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE INSECT. (>f> 

Iii the metamorphosis of Corethra, a Mosquito-like Fly, which 
is active both in the larva and pupa states, ''the segments of 
the larva are converted directly into the corresponding seg- 
ments of the body of the imago, the appendages of the head 
into the corresponding ones of the head of the imago ; those 
of the thorax are produced after the last moult of the larva 
MS ilirerticula of the hypodermis round a nerve or trachea, 
from the cellular envelope of which the formation of tissue in 
the interior of the appendages issues. The larval muscles of 
the abdominal segments are transferred unchanged into the 
imago ; the thoracic muscles peculiar to the imago, as also 
some additional abdominal muscles, are developed in the last 
larval periods from indifferent cellular cords which are indi- 
cated even in the egg. The genital glands date back to the 
embryo, and are gradually developed ; all the other systems of 
organs pass with little or no alteration into the imago. Fatty- 
body none or inconsiderable. Pupa-state short and active." 
(Weismann.) 

As the two types are most clearly discriminated by the 
presence or absence of true imaginal disks, Weismann suggests 
that those insects which undergo a marked metamorphosis 
might be divided into Insecta cliscota (or Insects with imaginal 
disks), and those without, into Insecta adiscota. 

The metamorphosis of Corethra may prove to be a type of 
that of all insects which are active in their preparatory stages ; 
and that of Musca typical of all those that are quiescent in the 
pupa-state, at least the Lepidoptera and those Diptera which 
have a coarctate * pupa, together with the Coleoptera and those 
Neuroptera in which the metamorphosis is complete, as P/iry- 
ganea, Hemerobius, etc. 

The transformations of the Humble-bee are easily observed 
by taking a nest after the first brood have matured, when we 
shall find individuals in all stages of development from the 
larva to the imago state. The figures below show four stages, 
but in reality there is eveiy gradation between these stages. 

* The larvze of some of the higher Diptera spin a slight cocoon, while the true 
flies, such as the Muscidse and Syrphidse, etc., change to pupae within the larvu 
skin which contracts into a cylindrical "puparium" corresponding in use to the 
cocoon; such pupae are called "coarctate." 

5 



66 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 



Fig. 64 shows what we may call the semipupa, concealed by 
the old larval skin. There are ten pairs of stigmata, two 
thoracic and eight abdominal. The head of the semi-pupa 
lies under the head () and prothoracic ring (b). The basal 
ring of the abdomen (c), or fourth ring from the head, is un- 
changed in form. This figure also will suffice to represent 





Fig. 64. 



Fig. 05. 




m 



c 




Fig. 66. Fig. 67. 

the larva, though a little more produced anteriorly than in 
its natural form. 

In another stage (Fig. 65) of the semi-pupa, the larval skin 
is entirely sloughed off, the two pairs of wing-pads lying paral- 
lel, and very equal in size, like the wings of Nenroptera. The 
thoraco- abdominal ring, or propodeum (c), is distinguished by 
its oblong spiracle (H), essentially differing from those on 
the abdomen. At this point the body contracts, but the head 



TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE INSECT. 67 

and thorax together are yet, as still more in the previous 
stage, much smaller than in the pupa, and there is still a con- 
tinuous curve from the tip of the abdomen to the head. (0, 
antenna; //, lingua, maxillae, and palpi; ?', fore-legs; j, mid- 
dle legs ; A-, meso-scutum ; ?, ineso-scutellum ; ?i, spiracle of 
the propodeum.) 

In a succeeding stage (Fig. 66) of the semi-pupa, the head 
and thorax together nearly equal in size the abdomen, and the 
propodeum (c) has become entirely transferred to the thorax. 
The head has become greatly enlarged ; the rings are very un- 
equal, the hinder pair are much smaller, and overlaid by the 
anterior pair ; the three terminal pair of abdominal rings, so 
large in Fig. 65, have been absorbed, and partially inclosed in 
the cavity of the abdomen ; and there has been a farther dif- 
ferentiation of the ring into the sternite (rf), pleurite (e), and 
tergite (/). (, eye; A, lingua; o, ovipositor, two outer 
rhabdites exposed to view.) The abdominal spiracles in Figs. 
65 and 66, are represented by a row of dots. In the pupa 
they are concealed by the tergites, which overlap the sternites. 

Fig. 67 represents the pupa state, Avhere the body has become 
much shorter, and the appendages of the head and thorax greatly 
differentiated ; the external genital organs are wholly retracted 
within the cavity of the abdomen ; the head is freer from the 
body, and the whole bulk of the head and thorax together, in- 
eluding the appendages, greater than that of the abdomen. 
These changes of form, assumed by the insect in its passage 
from the larva to the pupa state, are nearly as striking as 
the so-called " hypermetamorphosis " of Mdoe. and S items 
described by Newport and Fabre. (/, mesoscutellum ; p, cly- 
peus ; <j, maxilla? with the palpi ; r, lingua.) 

We have also observed similar changes in the semi-pupa of a 
Tineid larva, which we found in the mud-cells of Ortynerus 
alboplial&ratus. There were over a dozen specimens in different 
stages of growth from the larva to the pupa, which were but 
partially paralyzed by the well-directed sting of the intelligent 
wasp, so that some continued to transform into perfect pupae. 

The following changes were noticed : the larva straightened 
out, and became a little shorter, the prothoracic ring remaining 
the same ; the head of the pupa being beneath it ; the meso- 



IIS THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

thoracic ring' enlarged, swelling and rounding above and on the 
sides, and with this increase in size drawing the meta-thorax 
forwards. The first visible portion of the pupa beneath is the 
mesothorax. The thoracic legs of the larva are now con- 
stricted at their base, and have become useless. 

In the next stage, the most important change noticed is in 
the metathorax, which now becomes broadly heart-shaped. In 
a succeeding stage, the whole thorax bulges out, and is much 
larger and clearly distinguished from the head and abdomen. 
The prothorax of the larva disappears, and that of the pupa 
takes its place. The occiput of the pupa, just before the larva- 
skin is thrown off, can be distinctly seen under the larval occi- 
put, pushing aside each half of the latter. 

In the last stage of />'"/// //.s just before the imago leaves its 
cell, the body and limbs are surrounded by a thin pellicle. 
This pellicle also envelops the moth, just before it leaves the 
pupal state, and is cast off when it moults the pupn-skin. This 
is probably identical with the skin cast by the active subimago 
of Ephemera, soon after it has taken its flight. Westwood also 
considers this subimago skin identical with that covering the 
bodies of coarctate Diptera, as in Erixtnlis. 

Newport states, that when the imago of Sphinx is about to 
cast off the pupa-skin the abdominal segments are elongated 
beyond their original extent, this being the first part of the 
insect that is entirely freed from its attachment within the 
pupa-case. After this the thorax slits down, and the body is 
drawn out of the rent. In the Butterfly the wings mature in a 
few moments, but those of Sphinx being thicker, require two 
or three hours. 

Newport (Philosophical Transactions, London, 1832 and 
1834) has detailed with great minuteness the internal changes 
of Sphinx liynstri while transforming. The most marked 
changes are in the nervous and digestive systems. 

Several anomalous modes of metamorphosis have been ob- 
served, one in Diptera and the other in Si'taris and Meloe. The 
development of the latter insect will be noticed beyond. 

Sir John Lubbock has described the singular metamorphosis 
of Lonchoptem, which he considers to be allied to Soryvs, 
though the adult stages differ greatly. The larvae are oblong 



TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE INSECT. 69 

ovate, flattened, with four long setae in front and two behind, 
with the sides of the body emavginate and spinulated. They 
were found under logs. "AVhen the larva is full grown, it de- 
taches itself from the skin, which retains its form, and within 
which the insect changes into a white opaque fleshy grub con- 
sisting apparently- of thirteen segments which gradually dimin- 
ish in size from one end to the other. There are no limb-cases. 
According to analogy the pupa should be k incomplete ; ' it is 
probable, therefore, that the legs and wings make their appear- 
ance at a later stage. If this be so the perfect form is only 
attained after passing through three well-marked stages. I re- 
gret, however, that the specimens at my disposal did not enable 
me to decide this point." (Trans. Ent. !Soc. London, Third 
Ser. i, 18G2.) 

Ilaliday states that Thrips goes through & propupa and pupa 
stage. There are five well-defined stages in the Ilomopterous 
Typhlocybo,) and more than three in Apltix. Yersin has noticed 
several stages in the development of Gnjllus wunpextrix^ and 
the genus Psocus has four such stages. 

The duration of the different stages varies with the changes 
of the seasons. Cold and damp weather retards the process of 
transformation. Reaumur kept the pupa of a Butterfly two 
years in an ice-house before, on being removed to a warm place, 
it changed to a butterfly. Chrysalids survive great alter- 
nations of heat and cold ; they may be frozen stiff on ice, and 
then, on being gradually exposed to the heat, thaw out and 
finish their transformations. 

Retrograde Development. There are certain degradational 
forms among the lowest members of each group of Insects 
which imitate the group beneath them. The Tardigrades (which 
are considered by some authors to be allied to the Mites) are 
mimicked by the low parasitic worm-like Demodex folliculorum ; 
the low Neuroptera, such as Lepisma, imitate the Mvriopoda ; 
and the wingless Lice remind us of the larvae of the Neuropter- 
ous Hemerobius. 

Among the Coleoptera, the history of Stylops affords a strik- 
ing example. The active six-footed larva is transformed into 
the strange bag-like female which takes on the form of a cylin- 
drical sac, the head and thorax being consolidated into a 



70 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

minute flattened portion. The process of degradation here 
seems carried out to its farthest limit. 

Thus the degraded forms of the lower series of Hexapods 
take on a Myriopod aspect. Jn the more highly cephalixed 
Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Ilymenoptera the degraded forms 
are modelled on a higher articulate type. The idea of a divis- 
ion into three regions is involved. Thus the wingless forms 
of Flies, such as the Bird-louse, \irnnix; the Bat-tick, X>/<-t<- 
ribio ; the Bee-louse, Braula; and Chionea resemble strikingly 
the biregional Arachnids. 

In the wingless female of Oryyia and the Canker-worm moth, 
the head is free, but the thorax is merged into the abdomen. 
The resemblance to the lower insects is less striking. The 
worker ants and wingless Ichneumons. 7V;.n//, </<// //N, still more 
strictly adhere to the type of their suborder, and in them the 
triregional form of the body persists. Among the first of the 
examples here cited we have seen the workings of a law, by 
which most degraded forms of insects (and this law is exerted 
with greatex force in Crustacea) tend to revert to the worm-like, 
or. as we may call it. the <.ir<-]i<'f>[f><il. form of all Articulata. 

We have seen that many winged forms mimic the groups 
above them, whereas the wingless degraded species revert to a 
worm-like form. In either case, the progress is towards a 
higher or a lower form. The latter is the more exceptional, as 
the evolution and growth of all animals is upwards towards a 
more specialized, differentiated form. 

Tin* Imago. After completing its transformations the adult 
insect immediately seeks to provide for the propagation and 
continuance of the species. The sexes meet, and, soon after, 
the male, now no longer of use in the insect economy, perishes. 
The female hastens to lay her eggs either in, upon, or near 
what is to be the food of the young, and then dies. This 
period generally occurs in the summer and autumn, and during 
the winter the species is mostly represented by the egg alone. 
Rarely does the adult insect hibernate, but in many species 
the pupa hibernates to disclose the adult in early summer. 
The larva seldom, as such, lives through the winter. 

Reaumur kept a virgin butterfly for two years in his hot- 
house. From this it would seem that the duration of the life 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 71 

of an insect ma}' be in this way greatly prolonged. Most in- 
sects live one year. Hatching from the egg in early summer, 
they pass through the larva state, and in the autumn become 
pupae, to appear as images for a few days or weeks in the 
succeeding summer. Man}' Lepidoptera are double-brooded, and 
some have even three broods, while the parasitic insects such as 
Lice and Fleas, and many Flies, keep up a constant succession 
of broods. Warmth, Mr. R. C. R. Jordan remarks in the Ento- 
mologists' Monthly Magazine, has much to do with rapidity 
of development, as insects may be forced artificially into hav- 
ing a second brood during the same season. Some Coleoptera, 
such as the Larnellicorns, are supposed to live three years in 
the larva state, the whole time of life being four years. The 
Cockchafer (Meloluntha) of Europe is three years in arriving 
at the perfect state, and the habits of the Goldsmith Beetle 
(Cotatya lanigera), according to Rev. Samuel Lockwood 
(American Naturalist, vol. 2, p. 186), and of the June Beetle, 
and allied genera, are probably the same. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The insect-fauna of a coun- 
try comprises all the insects found within its limits. The 
Polar, Temperate, and Tropical zones each have their distinct 
insect-fauna, and each continent is inhabited by a distinct 
assemblage of insects. It is also a curious fact that the insect- 
fauna of the east coast of America resembles, or has many an- 
alogues in, that of the Eastern hemisphere, and the west coast 
of one repeats the characteristics of the west coast of the 
other. Thus some California insects are either the same spe- 
cies or analogues (i.e. representative species) of European 
ones, and the Atlantic coast affords forms of which the ana- 
logues are found in Eastern Asia and in India. This is corre- 
lated with the climatic features which are repeated on alternate 
sides of the two hemispheres. 

The limits of these faunae are determined by temperature and 
natural boundaries, i.e. the ocean and mountain ranges. Thus 
the insect-fauna of the polar regions is much the same in 
Europe, Asia, and North America ; certain widely spread polar 
species being common to all three of these continents. 

When we ascend high mountains situated in the temperate 



72 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

zone, whose summits nearly reach the snow-line, we find a 
few insects which are the same or very similar to those of the 
polar regions ; such an assemblage is called an Alpine fauna. 

The insect-fauna of each great continent may be divided into 
an Arctic, or polar, a Temperate, and a Tropical fauna, and an 
Alpine fauna if there are mountains in the warm latitudes which 
reach near the snow-line. Mountain barriers, inland seas, des- 
erts, and peculiarities in the flora (or collection of plants 
peculiar to a certain district), are boundaries of secondary 
importance in limiting the distribution of species. 

On the other hand insects are diffused by winds, rivers, 
oceanic currents, and the agency of man. By the latter im- 
portant means certain insects become cosmopolitan. Certain 
injurious insects become suddenly abundant in newly cultivated 
tracts. The balance of nature seems to lie disturbed, and 
insects multiplying rapidly in newly settled portions of the 
country, become terrible pests. In the course of time, how- 
ever, they seem to decrease in numbers and moderate their 
attacks. 

Insect-faunae are not limited by arbitrary boundaries, but 
lade into each other by insensible gradations corresponding in 
a general way to the changes of the temperature of different 
portions of the district they inhabit. 

The subject of the geographical distribution of insects, of 
which we have as yet but given the rudiments, may be studied 
to great advantage in North America. The Arctic insect-fauna 
comprises Greenland, the arctic American Archipelago, and the 
northern shores of the continent beyond the limit of trees. A 
large proportion of the insects found in this region occur in 
arctic Europe and arctic Asia, and are hence called circum- 
polar, while other species are indigenous to each country. 
Again, the arctic fauna of Labrador and Hudson's Bay differs 
from that of the arctic portions of the region about Behring's 
Straits, certain species characterizing one side of the continent 
being replaced by representative species which inhabit the 
opposite side. 

The Alpine fauna of the White Mountains consists, besides 
a very few peculiar to them, of circumpolar species, which are 
now only found in Labrador and Greenland, and which are 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 73 

supposed to be relies of a glaeial fauna which formerly inhab- 
ited the northern part of the temperate zone, and in former 
times followed the retreat of a glacial, or arctic climate from 
the low-lands to the Alpine summits. These patches, or out- 
liers, of an Arctic fauna, containing however a preponderance 
of subarctic forms, also occur in the colder parts of New 
England. 

The subarctic fauna is spread over British North America, 
stretching north-westerly from the interior of Labrador and the 
northern shores of the St. Lawrence, following the course of 
the isothermal lines which run in that direction, and north of 
which no cereals grow. There are subarctic forms which inhabit 
the shores of the Bay of Fundy, especially about Eastport, 
Maine, where the fogs and cold arctic marine currents lower 
the climate. 

Dr. J. L. Leconte, in a paper on the Coleoptera of Kansas 
and Eastern New Mexico (Smithsonian Contributions to Knowl- 
edge), thus subdivides the Coleopterous fauna of the United 
States, and gives a useful map to which the reader is referred. 

"The whole region of the United States is divided by merid- 
ional, or nearly meridional lines into three, or perhaps four, 
&reat zoological districts, distinguished each by numerous 
peculiar genera and species, which, with but few exceptions, do 
not extend into the contiguous districts. The eastern one 
of these extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the arid prairies on 
the west of Iowa, Missouri, and Arkansas, thus embracing 
(for convenience merely) a narrow strip near the sea-coast of 
Texas. This narrow strip, however, belongs more properly 
to the eastern province of the tropical zoological district of 
Mexico. 

"The central district extends from the western limit of the 
eastern district, perhaps to the mass of the Sierra Nevada of 
California, including Kansas, Nebraska, Utah, New Mexico, 
Arizona, and Texas. Except Arizona, the entomological fauna 
of the portion of this district west of the Rocky Mountains, 
and in fact that of the mountain region proper, is entirely un- 
known ; and it is very probable that the region does in reality 
constitute two districts bounded by the Rocky Mountains : and 
the southern continuation thereof. 



74 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

"The western district is the maritime slope of the continent 
to the Pacific, and thus includes California, Oregon, and Wash- 
ington Territories. 

"These great districts are divided into a number of prov- 
inces, of unequal size, and which are limited by changes in 
climate, and therefore sometimes distinctly, sometimes vaguely 
defined." 

"The method of distribution of species in the Atlantic and 
Pacific districts, as already observed by me in various memoirs, 
is entirely different. In the Atlantic district, a large number 
of species are distributed over a large extent of country ; many 
species are of rare occurrence, and in passing over a distance 
of several hundred miles, but small variation will be found in 
the species obtained. In the Pacific district, a small number 
of species are confined to a small region of coimtrv ; most 
species occur in considerable numbers, and in travelling even 
one hundred miles, it is found that the most abundant species 
are replaced by others, in many instances very similar to them ; 
these small centres of distribution can be limited only after 
careful collections have been made at a great number of locali- 
ties, and it is to be hoped that this very interesting and im- 
portant subject of investigation may soon receive proper atten- 
tion from the lovers of science of our Pacific shores. 

"In the Central district, consisting, as it does to a verv 
large extent, of deserts, the distribution seems to be of a mod- 
erate number of species over a large extent of country, with a 
considerable admixture of local species ; such at least seems to 
be the result of observations in Kansas, Upper Texas, and 
Arizona." 

There are a very few species which range from New England 
to Brazil, and fewer still (Xyleutes robiniw, according to Bois- 
duval, is found in California) range from New England to 
California. Junonia coenia, according to authors, is found both 
in the Southern States and California, and Pyrrhawtia iscibella 
of the Eastern States would be easily confounded with P. Culf- 
fornica. 

r nation. Islands afford more variable forms than conti- 
nents ; the Madeiran insects and those of Great Britain vary 
more than the same species found on the continent of Europe. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 75 

A species spread through two zones of temperature also varies ; 
many European species, according to McLachlan, becoming 
" melanized " in going northward, while others become paler. 
Such varieties have been described as different species. 

Mr. Alfred Wallace finds that the most constant forms of 
species are those the most limited in their geographical range- 
as to a particular island, while those species, which range over 
a large part of the Malayan Archipelago, vary very consider- 
ably. It is a general rule throughout the animal and vegetable 
world, that the most widely spread species are those capable of 
withstanding the greatest climatic changes, and adapting them- 
selves to the greatest diversities of topography. 

While the most widely distributed species are thought to be 
the most variable, Mr. Scudder finds in the genus (.'Jitminbaa 
that C. ftemidea, restricted to the summit of Mt. AVashington 
varies almost as much as C. Oeno, which is circumpolar, being 
found both in Labrador and Northern Europe. 

Mr. Wallace (Transactions of the Linmvan Society, xxv. 
1865, p. 14) mentions the following facts "as showing the 
special influence of locality in giving a peculiar fades to the 
several disconnected species that inhabit it." 

" On examining the closely allied species, local forms, and 
varieties distributed over the Indian and Malayan regions, I 
find that larger or smaller districts, or even single islands, give 
a special character to the majority of their Papilionidjv. For 
instance: 1. The species of the Indian region (Sumatra, Java, 
and Borneo) are almost invariably smaller than the allied spe- 
cies inhabiting the Celebes and Moluccas ; 2. The species of 
New Guinea and Australia are also, though in a less degree, 
smaller than the nearest species or varieties of the Moluccas : 
3. In the Moluccas themselves the species of Amboyna are larg- 
est ; 4. The species of Celebes equal or even surpass in size those 
of Amboyna; 5. The species and varieties of Celebes possess 
a striking character in the form of the anterior wings, differing 
from that of the allied species and varieties of all the surrounding 
islands ; 6. Tailed species in India or the Indian region become 
tailless as they spread eastward through the archipelago." 

Variety breeding. Varieties may be produced artificially ; 
thus negro varieties of insects may be raised "from parents 



7f. THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

more or less tainted with melanism, and according to Knaggs,. 
there is a "frequent recurrence of individuals wanting a hind 
wing, which may be noticed even at large in Macaria notato." 
'Few species are liable to the same extent of variation, and 
many apparently to none at all." Certain species vary "ac- 
cording as they may have reproduced, generation after gen- 
eration, on a chalky, peaty, gravelly, or other soil." Food also 
exerts an influence in inducing variation, according as cater- 
pillars of the same species feed on different plants ; this occurs 
most commonly in the Micro-lepidoptera. (Knaggs, in the 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, London.) 

Introduced species of insects, like those of plants, often thrive 
more vigorously than the native forms. This is instanced by 
native insects which abound in unusual numbers in newly 
cleared districts where the former presence of forests and 
their natural foes kept them under. The Potato-beetle, C 'an- 
ker- worm, and ClmocomjHi must have lived formerly in mod- 
erate numbers on our native plants, where now countless hosts 
affect our introduced plants. Among species introduced from 
a foreign country we have only to instance the Hessian Fly, 
the Wheat-midge, the Coddling-moth, the Clothes-moth. tin- 
Apple Bark-louse, and the Grain-weevil. Mr. W.' T. Brio-- 

O 

ham informs us that some of the most abundant insects in the 
Hawaiian Islands are introduced species carried by vessels 
from Em-ope. Vanessa Antiopa, Pyrameis carditi, and P. 
Atalaitta, so abundant in this country, are supposed to be intro- 
duced butterflies. Apliodius Jimetarhts, found by us living in 
dung on Mt. Washington, is one of our most common beetles, 
and the Asparagus-beetle, introduced from Europe a few years 
since, is common in gardens in Eastern New York, while Mr. 
Walsh has recorded the appearance of the European Gooseberry 
Saw-Fly, which ravages the Gooseberry and Currant. Pieris 
rapee, the Cabbage-butterfly, introduced from Europe into 
Quebec about 1859, soon became abundant within a circle of 
forty miles radius about that city, and has even spread into 
Maine and Vermont along the railroads leading from Quebec. 
Jn.wt Yearn. There are insect years as well as "apple 
years," seasons when insects most abound. Every collector 
knows that there are certain years when a particular species of 



GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION. 77 

insect is unusually common. The Army-worm, Leucavn'a vni- 
puncta, swarms in countless numbers in a summer following 
a dry and warm spring-. After a cold and rainy spring, insects 
are less abundant. Mr. F. Smith remarks that in England the 
summer and autumn of 1860 were unusually wet. which dis- 

/ 

abled the bees, wasps, and fossorial hymenoptera generally, in 
building their nests. We know how ants are hindered from 
building their nests by rain, and in a yery rainy season num- 
bers probably die. A succession of rainy seasons caused tlu- 
Andremx', or Spring bees, to disappear from the vicinity of 
London. While a severe winter, if the cold be continuous, is 
not injurious to insects, mild periods in winter, when it is warm 
enough to rouse them from torpidity, are as fatal to insects as 
to vegetation, should severe cold immediately follow. 

GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION. The geological distribution of 
insects corresponds generally with that of other animals, 
though insect-remains are few in number, owing naturally to 
the difficulty with which their fragile forms are preserved 
in the rocks. Professor C. F. Hartt has discovered near St. 
John, New Brunswick, the oldest insect-remains in the world. 
They occur in some plant-beds of the Upper Devonian forma- 
tion, and consist of six species of Neuroptera. Mr. Scudder, 
who has referred to them in vol. 1 of the American Naturalist, 
states that with the exception of one or two Ephemeridie, or 
May-Hies, they mostly represent families which are now extinct. 
He describes a gigantic May-fly, Platephemera ant f qua (PI. 1, 
fig. 3) ; Lithentomum Harttfi (PI. 1, fig. 5) ; Homothetus /ox.s/- 
//,s (PI. 1, fig. 7) ; and Xenoneura antiquorum which is supposed 
to bear a stridulating organ like that of the Grasshoppers, 
so that he "is inclined to believe there were chirping Neti- 
roptera in those days." 

Ascending to the Carboniferous rocks, insect-remains appear 
more abundant. At Morris, Illinois, have been collected some 
remarkable forms. Among them are Miamia Sronsonu Dana 
(PI. 1, fig. 1), allied to the White Ants and Hemeristia occi- 
dentalis Dana, allied to Hemerobius and Chryso2)a. From the 
same locality Mr. Harger has described Arthrolycosa antiqita 
(Fig. 68), a singular form with a jointed abdomen. 




THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

Iii the Coal-beds of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, sev- 
eral interesting Myriopodons, Neuropterous 
and Orthopterous insects have been found ; 
among them a Cockroach, Arcliimulacris 
AcacUca (PI. 1,* fig. 2). In Europe, Car- 
boniferous insects have been discovered at 
Wettin, Saarbri'ick, etc. 

The insects from these two formations 
show a tendency to assume gigantic and 
strange shapes. They are also compre- 
Fig. 68. hensive types, combining the characters of 

different families and even different suborders. The most. re- 
markable instance is the Eugereon Boeckhigh' Dohrn, from the 
Coal Formation of Germany . It has been referred by Dr. 
Hagen, with some doubt, to the Hemiptera, from its long im- 
mense rostrum into which all the mouth-parts are produced, the 
labium ensheathing them as usual in the Hemiptera. Its fore- 
legs are large and raptorial ; but the filiform many-jointed an- 
tennae, and the net-veined wings are Neuropterous characters. 
Hence Dohrn considers it as a comprehensive type uniting 

* EXPLANATION OF TI.ATK 1. 

Fig. 1. Mlamia Sronsonii. A Nexiropterous insect found in iron-stone concre- 
tions in the Carboniferous beds at Morris, Illinois. The figure is magnified one- 
third, and has all its parts restored; the dotted lines indicate the parts not existing 
on the stone. Reduced from a figure in the Memoirs of the Boston Society of Nat- 
ural History, Vol. I. 

Fig. 2. Archimulacris Acadica. Wing of a Cockroach observed by Mr. Barnes 
in the coal-formation of Nova Scotia. 

Fig. 3. 1'latrphemera antiqua. A gigantic May-fly obtained by Mr. Ilartt in the 
Devonian rocks of New Brunswick. 

Fig. 4. Xi/lobiits sigillarhe. The Myriopod (or Gally-worm) found in the coal- 
formation of Nova Scotia, by J. W. Dawson. Copied from a figure in Dr.Dawson's 
Air-breathers of the Coal-period. Magnified. 

Fig. 5. Lithentomum Hartii. A Neuropterous insect, the specimen first dis- 
covered by Mr. Hartt in the Devonian rocks of New Brunswick. This fossil, and 
those accompanying it, are the oldest insect-remains in the world. 

Fig. <!. Three facets from the eye of an insect, considered by Dr. Dawson a 
Dragon-fly. It was found in coprolites of reptiles in the rocks containing the My- 
riopod, represented in Fig. 4. Copied from Dr. Dawson's figure, greatly magnified. 

Fig. 7. Ffomothetus fossilis. A Neuropterous insect from the Devonian rocks of 
New Brunswick ; it was discovered by Mr. Hartt. 

i. Haplophlebium Barnesii. A curious Neuropterons insect, of large size, 
probably allied to our May-flies ; taken by Mr. Barnes from the coal of Cape Bre- 
ton. 

These figures, with the exception of 1, 4, and fi, are of life size, and borrowed 
from the new edition of Dr. Dawson's Acadian Geology.' 



Plate 1. 



Fig. 1 




Fig.2. 



Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 





r-Ox 

-P /3~>' ^J 

i -H, - , - 



-i- 





Fig. 5. 




Fig. G. 

if 



Fig. 7. 




Fig. 8. 










GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION. 79 

the characters of the Neuroptera and Hemiptera. It is a 
large insect, spreading about two inches ; its body must have 
measured over an inch in length. 

In the Mesozoic rocks, the celebrated Solenhofen locality in 
Bavaria is rich in Liassic insect-remains. Dr. Ilagen (Ento- 
mologist's Annual, London, 1862) states that among the Solen- 
hofen fossils the Neuroptera and Orthoptera are most largeby 
represented ; as out of four hundred and fifty species of insects, 
one hundred and fifty are Neuroptera, of which one hundred 
and thirty-six are Dragon-flies, and besides "there is a Cory- 
dalus, one Clirysopa, a large Apochrysa, and a beautiful 
Nymplies. The last two genera, which do not seem very remote 
from Chrysopa, are now found only in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere, Xi/mphes is peculiarly an Australian genus." 

The Lias of England is very rich in fossil insects, especially 
the Purbeck and Rhoetic Beds (see Brodie's AVork on Fos- 
sil Insects and also AYestwood in the Geological Journal, etc. 
Vol. X.). 

In the Trias, or New-Red Sandstone of the Connecticut 
Valley, Professor Hitchcock has found numerous remains of 
the larva of an aquatic Coleopterous insect. 

The insects of the Tertiary formation more closely resemble 
those of the present day. The most celebrated European 
locality is CEningen in Switzerland. 

According to Professor O. Heer, over five thousand specimens 
of fossil insects have been found at CEningen, comprising 844 
species, of which 518 are Coleopterous. From all Tertiary 
Europe there are 1,322 species, as follows: 166 Hymenoptera, 
18 Lepidoptera, 166 Diptera, 660 Coleoptera, 217 Hemiptera, 
39 Orthoptera, and 56 Neuroptera. 

"If we inquire to what insect-fauna of the present period 
the Tertiary fauna is most analogous, we shall be surprised to 
find that most of the species belong to genera actually found in 
the old and the new world. The insect-fauna of CEningen con- 
tains 180 genera of this category, of which 114 belong to the 
Coleoptera. Of these last, two (Dineutes and Caryborus) re- 
main in Europe, while all the others are now found living both 
in Europe and in America. The whole number of Coleopterous 
genera furnished by CEningen, and known to me, amount to 



ftO THK CLASS OF INSECTS. 

158 ; those that are common to both hemispheres forming then 
more than two-thirds of the whole number, while of the actual 
Coleopterous fauna of Europe, tic-cording to the calculation of 
M. Laeordaire, there is only one-third. The genera found to-day 
in both parts of the world have then during the Tertiary epoch 
played a more important part than is the case now ; hemv 
the knowledge of the character of the fauna is rendered more 
dillicult. We find at CEningen but a very small number (five) 
of genera exclusively European ; seventeen are found to-day 
in Europe, in Asia, and in Africa, but not in America. For the 
most part they belong to the Mediterranean fauna (comprising 
eight genera) and give to the insect-fauna of (Eningen a strong 
proportion of Mediterranean forms. In this fauna I only know 
of one exclusively Asiatic genus ; two are peculiar to Africa, 
and two others (Anoplftes and Naupactus) are American. 

u There are now living, however, in Europe certain genera, 
which, without being exclusively American, since they are found 
in Asia and in Africa, belong more peculiarly to America ; such 
are Belostomwn , Hypselonotus, Diplonychus, EVm/o/v.s, <sy^//- 
opoda, Plecia, Caryborus, and Dineutes. . . . The genera peculiar 
to our fauna of Tertiary insects amount to forty-four, of which 
twenty-one belong to the Coleoptera ; among the Orthoptera 
there is one, and six Hymenoptera, six Diptera, and eleven 
Hemiptera. They comprise 140 species." (Ileer.) 

An apparently still richer locality for Tertiary insects has 
been discovered by Professor Denton west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, near the junction of the White and Green Rivers, Colo- 
rado. According to Mr. Scudder ''between sixty and seventy 
species of insects were brought home, representing nearly all 
the different suborders ; about two-thirds of the species were 
Flies, some of them the perfect insect, others the maggot-like 
larva', but, in no instance, did both imago and larva of the 
same insect occur. The greater part of the beetles were quite 
small ; there were three or four kinds of Homoptera (allied to 
the tree-hoppers), Ants of two different genera, and a poorly 
preserved Moth. Perhaps a minute Thrips, belonging to a 
group which has never been found fossil in any part of the 
world, is of the greatest interest." 

lie thus sums up what is known of American fossil insects. 



THE DISEASES OF INSECTS. Ml 

"The species of fossil insects now known from North America, 
number eighty-one : six of these belong to the Devonian, nine 
to the Carboniferous, one to the Triassic, and sixty-five to the 
Tertiaiy epochs. The Hymenoptera, Homoptera, and Diptera 
occur only in the Tertiaries ; the same is true of the Lepidop- 
teru, if we exclude the Morris specimen, and of the Coleoptera, 
with one Triassic exception. The Orthoptera and Myriopods 
are restricted to the Carboniferous, while the Neuroptera occur 
both in the Devonian and Carboniferous formations." Mr. 
Scudder describes from the Carboniferous formation of Nova 
Scotia, besides Xf/'o^in^ m'f/ilkiriti' Daws., four additional spe- 
cies (X. similis, fractus and Da/r.^inf, and AirJtn.tlitx xylobio- 
ides, n. g. and sp.), forming the family Arcliiuliilo-. 

THE DISEASES OF INSECTS have attracted but little atten- 
tion. They are so far as known mostly the result of the attacks 
of parasitic plants and animals, though epidemics are known 
to break out and carry off myriads of insects. Dr. Shinier 
gives an account of an epidemic among the Chinch bugs, which 
u was at its maximum during the moist warm weather that fol- 
lowed the cold rains of June and the first part of .Inly, 1865." 

Species of microscopic plants luxuriate in infinitesimal for- 
ests within the alimentary canal of some wood-devouring insects, 
and certain fungi attack those species which are exposed to 
dampness, and already enfeebled by other causes. Among the 
true entophyta, or parasitic plants, which do not however ordi- 
narily occasion the death of their host, Professor Leidy describes 
Enterobryus elegans, E. npiniifts^ E. altematus, Artliromitus 
cristatus, Cladophytum coinatum, and Cot'ynocladus radiotim, 
which live mostly attached to the mucous walls of the interior 
of the intestine of Jtdus margmatus and two other species of 
Julus, and Passahts cornutits. Eccrina longu Leidy, lives in 
Polydesmns Virginiensis ; and E. moniliformis Leidy in 1\ 
gramdatus. 

But there are parasitic fungi that are largely destructive to 
their hosts. Such are Spliaeria and Isarfa. "These fungi 
grow with great rapidity within the body of the animal they 
attack, not only at the expense of the nutritive fluids of the 
latter, but, after its death, all the interior soft tissues appear 



SL > THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

jo IK- converted into one or more aerial receptacles of spores." 
(Leidv.) These fungi, so often infesting caterpillars, are hence 
railed caterpillar fungi." They fill the whole body, distend- 
ing even the legs, and throw out long filaments, sometimes 
longer than the larva itself, giving a grotesque appearance to 
the insect. Leidv has found a species which is very common 
in the SevcMiteen-year Locust, Cicada septendecim. He found 
"ainoim myriads of the imago between twelve and twenty 
specimens, which, though living, had the posterior third of the 
abdominal contents converted into a dry. powdery, ochreous- 
yellow, compact mass of sporuloid bodies." He thinks this 
Cicada is very subject to the attacks of these fungi, and that 
the spores enter the anal and genital passages more readily 
than the mouth ; thus accounting for their development in the 
abdomen. 

The most formidable disease is the " Jfwscaj'dme," caused by 
a fungus, the Botrytus Batmiana of Balsamo. It is well known 
that this disease has greatly reduced the silk crop in Europe. 
Ilalhiani has detected the spores of this fungus in the eggs of 
Jioniht/.i- mori as well as in the different parts of the body of 
the insect in all stages of growth. Extreme cleanliness and 
care against contagion must be observed in its prevention. 

Among plants a disease like Muscardine, due to the presence 
of a minute fungus (Miicor mdlitophorus) , tills the stomach 
of some insects, including the Honey-bee, with its colorless 
spores, and greatly weakens those affected. Another fungus, 
Sporendon&na 'imiscce, infests the common House-fly. 

Another Silk-worm disease called " Pebrine" carries off many 
silk-worms. Whether it is of pathological or vegetable origin 
is not yet settled. 

There are also a few intestinal worms known to be para- 
sitic in insects. The well-known "Hair-worm" (Gordius) 
in its young state lives within the body of various insects in- 
cluding the Spiders. The tadpole-like young differs greatly 
from the parent, being short, sac-like, ending in a tail. Upon 
leaving the egg they work their way into the body of insects, 
and there live on the fatty substance of their hosts, where they 
undergo their metamorphosis into the adult hair-like worm, 
and make thvir way to the pools of water in which they live 






THE DEFORMITIES OF INSECTS. 83 

and beget their species, and lay "millions of eggs connected 
together in long cords." Leidy thus writes regarding the 
habits of a species which infests grasshoppers. 

" The number of Gordii in each insect varies from one to live, 
their length from three inches to a foot ; they occupy a position 
in the visceral cavity, where they lie coiled among the viscera, 
and often extend from the end of the abdomen forward through 
the thorax even into the head ; their bulk and weight are fre- 
quently greater than all the soft parts, including the muscles, 
of their living habitation. Nevertheless, with this relatively 
immense mass of parasites, the insects jump about almost as 
freely as those not infested. 

"The worms are milk-white in color, and undivided at the 
extremities. The females are distended with ova, but I have 
never observed them extruded. When the bodies of Grass- 
hoppers, containing these entozoa, are broken and lain upon 
moist earth, the worms gradually creep out and pass below its 
surface." 

Goureau states that Filarta, a somewhat similar worm, in- 
habits Hibcntni bnimata and Vanessa j>rors. (Ann. Ent. Soc. 
France.) 

Siebold describes Gonliux subbifurcus which infests the 
Honey-bee, especially the drones, though it is rather the work- 
ers, which frequent the pools where the Gordii live, that we 
would expect to find thus infested. Another entozoan is Mer- 
r in.ix aJbicans of Siebold, which is a very slender whitish worm 
much like Gordius, and about five inches long. It is found in 
the drone of the honey-bee and in some other insects. 

Deformities of Insects. Numerous instances of supernume- 
rary legs and antenna? are recorded. The antennae are some- 
times double, but more commonly the legs. "Of these As- 
muss has collected eight examples, and it is remarkable that in 
six of them the parts on one side are treble." Newport, from 
whom we have quoted, states that "the most remarkable ex- 
ample is that given by Lefebvre of Scarites Pyraclimon in which 
from a single coxa on the left side of the prosternum two tro- 
fha liters originated. The anterior one, the proper trochanter, 
supported the true prothoracic leg ; while the posterior one, in 
the form of an oblong lanceolate body, attached to the base of 




,SJ THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

the first, supported two additional legs equally well tunned as 
the true one." 

The wings are often partially aborted and deformed ; this is 
especially noticeable in the wings of butterflies and moths. 

Mr. F. G. Sanborn has described and 
figured a wing of a female of LibeUnln 
lurtuoisa Burin. (Fig. <>9), in which 
among other deformities ''the ptero- 
F{ s- (i9 - stigma is shorter and broader than that 

of the opposite wing, and is situated about one-eighth of an inch 
only from the nodus, only on( j cubital vein occurring between 
them, instead of fourteen as in the opposite wing." (Proceed- 
ings of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. xi. p. :}>(>.) 

DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS. 
Insects differ sexually in that the female generally appears to 
have one abdominal ring less (one ring disappearing during the 
semi-pupa state, when the ovipositor is formed), and in being- 
larger, fuller, and duller colored than the males, while the lat- 
ter often differ in seulpture and ornamentation. In collect- 
ing, whenever the two sexes are found united they should be 
pinned upon the same pin, the male being placed highest. 
When we take one sex alone, we may feel sure that the other 
is somewhere in the vicinity ; perhaps while one is flying about 
so as to be easily captured, the other is hidden under some 
leaf, or resting on the trunk of some tree near by, which must 
be examined arid every bush in the vicinity rigorously beaten 
by the net. Many species rare in most places have a tn<'t ><> )><>!! * 
where thev occur in u'reat abundance. During seasons when 

~ 

his favorites are especially abundant the collector should lav 
up a store against years of scarcity. 

At no time of the year need the entomologist rest from his 
labors. In the winter, under the bark of trees and in moss he 
can find many species, or on trees, etc., detect their eggs, which 
he can mark for observation in the spring when they hatch out. 

He need not relax his endeavors day or night. Mothing is 
night employment. Skunks and toads entomologize at night. 
Early in the morning, at sunrise, when the dew is still on 
the leaves, insects are sluggish and easily taken with the hand ; 



COLLECTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS. 85 

so at dusk, when many species are found flying, and in the 
night, the collector will be rewarded with many rarities, many 
species flying then that hide themselves by day, while many 
caterpillars leave their retreats to come out and feed, when the 
lantern can be used with success in searching for them. 

Wollaston (Entomologist's Annual, 1865) states that sandy 
districts, especially towards the coast, are at all times prefer- 
able to clayey ones, but the intermediate soils, such as the 
loamy soil of swamps and marshes are more productive. Near 
the sea, insects occur most abundantly beneath pebbles and 
other objects in grassy spots, or else at the roots of plants. 
In man}* places, especially in Alpine tracts, as we have found 
on the summit of Mt. Washington and in Labrador, one has to 
lie down and look carefully among the short herbage and in 
the moss for Coleoptera. 

The most advantageous places for collecting are gardens and 
farms, the borders of woods and the banks of streams and 
ponds. The deep, dense forests, and open, treeless tracts are 
less prolific in insect life. In winter and early spring the moss 
on the trunks of trees, when carefully shaken over a newspaper 
or white cloth, reveal many beetles and Hymenoptera. In the 
late summer and autumn, toadstools and various fungi and rot- 
ten fruits attract many insects, and in early spring when the 
sap is running we have taken rare insects from the stumps of 
freshly cut hard-wood trees. Wollaston says, "Dead animals, 
partially-dried bones, as well as the skins of moles and other 
vermin which are ordinarily hung up in fields are magnificent 
traps for Coleoptera ; and if any of these be placed around or- 
chards and inclosures near at home, and be examined every 
morning, various species of Nitidnlcv , ftilphidw., and other 
insects of similar habits, are certain to lie enticed and cap- 
tured.' 

"Planks and chippings of wood may be likewise employed 
as successful agents in alluring a vast number of species which 
might otherwise escape our notice, and if these be laid down 
in grassy places, and carefully inverted every now and then 
with as little violence as possible, many insects will be found 
adhering beneath them, especially after dewy nights and in 
showery weather. Nor must we omit to urge the importance 



tfg THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

of examining the under sides of stones in the vicinity of ants' 
nests, in which position, during the spring and summer months, 
many of the rarest of our native Coleoptera may be occasion- 
ally procured." Excrementitious matter always contains many 
interesting forms in various stages of growth. 

The trunks of fallen and decaying trees offer a rich harvest 
for many wood-boring larva?, especially the Longicorn beetles, 
and weevils can be found in the spring, in all their stages. Nu- 
merous carnivorous Coleopterous and Dipterous larvie dwell 
within them, and other larva; which eat the dust made by the 
borers. The inside of pithy plants like the elder, raspberry, 
blackberry, and syringa, are inhabited by many of the wild 
bees, 0*mia, Ceratina, and the wood- wasps, Crabro, Y/>/ /;<>/*, 
etc., the habits of which, with those of their Chalcid and Ich- 
neumon parasites, offer endless amusement and study. 

Ponds and streams shelter a vast throng of insects, and 
should be diligently dredged with the water-net, and stones 
and pebbles should be overturned for aquatic beetles, Ile- 
miptera, and Dipterous larva?. 

The various sorts of galls should be collected in spring and 
autumn and placed in vials or boxes, where they may be rear- 
ed, and the rafters of out-houses, stone-walls, etc., should be 
carefully searched for the nests of Mud-wasps. 

Collecting Apparatus. First in importance is the net. This 
is made by attaching a ring of brass wire to a handle made 
to slide on a pole six feet long. The net may be a foot in 
diameter, and the bag itself made of thin gauze or mosquito- 
netting (the finer, lighter, and more durable the better), and 
should be about twenty inches deep. It should be sewed to a 
narrow border of cloth placed around the wire. A light net 
like this can be rapidly turned upon the insect with one hand. 
The insect is captured by a dexterous twist which also throws 
the lx>ttom over the mouth of the net. The insect should be 
temporarily held between the thumb and fore-finger of the hand 
at liberty, and then pinned through the thorax while in the net. 
Tin- pin can be drawn through the meshes upon opening the 
net. The beating-net should be made much stouter, with a shal- 
lower cloth bag and attached to a shorter stick. It is used for 
beating trees, bushes, and herbage for beetles and Hemiptera 




COLLECTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS. 87 

and various larva-. Its thorough use we would recommend in 
the low vegetation on mountains and in meadows. The water- 
net may be either round or of the shape indicated in Fig. 70. 
The ring should be made of brass, and 
the shallow net of grass-cloth or coarse 
millinet. It is used for collecting aqua- 
tic insects. 

Various sorts of forceps are indispen- Fig. "o. 

sable for handling insects. Small delicate narrow-blacled for- 
ceps with fine sharp points in use by jewellers, and made 
either of steel or brass, are excellent for handling minute 
specimens. For larger ones long curved forceps are very con- 
venient. For pinning insects into boxes the forceps should be 
stout, the blades blunt and curved at the end so that the insect 
can be pinned without slanting the forceps much. The ends 
need to be broad and finely indented by lines so as to firmly 
hold the pin. With a little practice the forceps soon take the 
place of the fingers. They will have to be made to order by 
a neat workman or surgical-instrument maker. Some persons 
use the ordinary form of pliers with curved handles, but they 
should be long and slender. A spring set in to separate the 
handles when not grasped by the hand is a great convenience. 

Various pill-boxes, vials, and bottles must always be taken, 
some containing alcohol or whiske}-. Many collectors use a 
wide-mouth bottle, containing a sponge saturated with ether, 
chloroform, or benzine, or bruised laurel leaves, the latter be- 
ing pounded with a hammer and then cut with scissors into 
small pieces, which give out exhalations of prussic acid strong 
enough to kill most small insects. 

Besides these the collector needs a small box lined with 
corn-pith, or cork, and small enough to slip into the coat- 
pocket ; or a larger box carried by a strap. Most moths and 
small flies can be pinned alive without being pinched (which 
injures their shape and rubs off the scales and hairs), and then 
killed by pouring a little benzine into the bottom of the box. 

Kilt ing Insects for the Cabinet. Care in killing affects very 
sensibly the looks of the cabinet. If hastily killed and dis- 
torted by being pinched, with the scales rubbed off and other- 
wise mangled, the value of such a specimen is diminished 



R8 



TIIK CLASS OF INSECTS. 



either lor purposes of study or the neat appearance of the col- 
lection. 

resides the vapor of ether, chloroform, and benzine, the 
fumes of sulphur readily kill insects. Large specimens may 
IK- killed l.y inserting a pin dipped in a strong solution of ox- 
alic acid. An excellent collecting bottle is made by putting 
into :i wide-mouth bottle two or three small pieces of cyanide 
,,r pota-ium. which may be covered with cotton, about half- 
tilliu- the bottle. The cotton may be covered with paper 
liirhtlv attached to the glass and pierced with pin-holes; this 
keeps the insect from being lost in the bottle. For Diptera, 
J.MCW recommends moistening the bottom of the collecting box 
with creosote. This is excellent for small flies and moths, as the 
mouth of the bottle can be placed over the insect while at rest ; 
the insect flies up into the bottle and is immediately suffocated. 
A bottle well prepared will, according to Laboulbene, last 
several months, even a year, and is vastly superior to the old 
means of using ether or chloroform. He states, "the incon- 
venience of taking small insects from a net i.s well known, as 
the most valuable ones usually escape ; but by placing the end 
of the net. tilled with insects, in a wide-mouthed bottle, and 
putting in the cork for a few minutes, they will be suffocated." 
I 'in H in'/ Inserts. The pin should be inserted through the 
thorax of most insects. The Coleoptera, however, should be 
pinned through the right wing-cover; many Hemiptera are 
be-t pinned through the scutellum. The specimens should all 
lie pinned at an equal height, so that about one-fourth of the 
pin should project above the insect. 

The best pins are those made in Berlin by Klager. They are 
of live sixes. No. 1 being the smallest; Nos. 1, 2, and 5 are 
the most convenient. For very minute insects still smaller pins 
are made. A very good but too short pin is made by Edles- 
lon and Williams, Crown Court. Cheapside, London. Their 
Nos. I'.i and 20 may be used to impale minute insects upon, 
and then stuck through a bit of cork, or pith, through which a 
\". > Klager pin may be thrust. Then the insect is kept out 
of the reach of devouring insects. Still smaller pins are made 
by cutting off bits of very line silvered wire at the right length, 
which may be thrust by the forceps into a piece of pith, after 
the injects have been impaled upon them. 



COLLECTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS. 89 

Small insects, especially beetles, may be mounted on cards 
or pieces of mica through which the pin may be thrust. The 
French use small oblong bits of mica, with the posterior half 
covered with green paper on which the number may be placed. 
The insect ma}*- be gummed on the clear part, the two sexes to- 
gether. The under side can be seen through the thin mica. 

Others prefer triangular pieces of card, across the end of 
which the insect may be gummed, so that nearly the whole un- 
der side is visible. 

Mr. Wollaston advocates gumming small Coleoptera upon 
cards. Instead of cutting the pieces of cards first, he gums them 
promiscuously upon a sheet of card-board. "Having gummed 
thickly a space on your card-board equal to, at least, the entire 
specimen when expanded, place the beetle upon it, drag out 
the limbs with a pin, and, leaving it to dry, go on with the 
next one that presents itself. As the card has to be cut after- 
wards around your insect (so as to suit it), there is no advan- 
tage in gumming it precisely straight upon your frame, though 
it is true that a certain amount of care in this respect lessens 
your after labor of cutting-otf very materially. AVhen your 
frame has been tilled, and yon are desirous of separating the 
species, cut out the insect with finely pointed scissors." 

For mending broken insects, i.e. gumming on legs and an- 
tenna? which have fallen off, inspissated ox-gall, softened with a 
little water, is the best gum. 

For gumming insects upon cards Mr. Wollaston recommends 
a gum "composed of three parts of tragacanth to one of 
Arabic, both in powder ; to be mixed in water containing a grain 
of corrosive sublimate, without which it will not keep, until 
of a consistency just thick enough to run. As this gum is of 
an extremely absorbent nature, nearly a fortnight is required 
before it can be properly made. The best plan is to keep add- 
ing a little water (and stirring it) every few days until it is 
of the proper consistency. It is advisable to dissolve the grain 
of corrosive sublimate in the water which is poured Jirst upon 
the gum." 

Preservative Fluids. The best for common use is alco- 
hol, diluted with a little water ; or whiskey, as alcohol of full 
strength is too strong for caterpillars, etc., since it shrivels them 



DO THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

up. Glycerine is excellent for preserving the colors of cater- 
pillars, though the internal parts decay somewhat, and the 
specimen is apt to fall to pieces on being roughly handled. 

Laboulbene recommends for the preservation of insects in a 
fresh state plunging them in a preservative fluid consisting of 
alcohol with an excess of arsenious acid in fragments, or the 
common white arsenic of commerce. A pint and a half of al- 
cohol will take about fourteen grains (troy) of arsenic. The 
living insect, put into this preparation, absorbs about -n$y<y * its 
own weight. When soaked in this liquor and dried, it will be 
safe from the ravages of Moths, Anthn j )nis, or Dermestes. This 
liquid will not change the colors of blue, green, or red beetles 
if dried after soaking from twelve to twenty-four hours. Ile- 
miptera and Orthoptera can be treated in the same way. 

A stay of a month in this arseniated alcohol mineralizes the 
insect, so that it appears very hard, and, after drying, becomes 
glazed with a white deposit which can, however, be washed oil' 
with alcohol. In this state the specimens become too hard for 
dissection and study, but will do for cabinet specimens designed 
for permanent exhibition. 

Another preparation recommended by Laboulbene is alcohol 
containing a variable quantity of corrosive sublimate, but the 
latter has to be weighed, as the alcohol evaporates easily, the 
liquor becoming stronger as it gets older. The strongest solu- 
tion is one part of corrosive sublimate to one hundred of alco- 
hol ; the weakest and best is one-tenth of a part of corrosive 
sublimate to one hundred parts of alcohol. Insects need not re- 
main in this solution more than two hours before drying. Both 
of these preparations are very poisonous and should be handled 
with care. The last-named solution preserves specimens from 
mould, which will attack pinned insects during damp summers. 

A very strong brine will preserve insects until a better liquor 
can be procured. Professor A. E. Verrill recommends two sim- 
ple and cheap solutions for preserving, among other specimens, 
the larva? of insects "with their natural color and form remark- 
ably perfect." The first consists of two and a half pounds of 
common salt and four ounces of nitre dissolved in a gallon of 
water, and filtered. Specimens should be prepared for perma- 
nent preservation in this solution by being previously immersed 



COLLECTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS. 91 

in u solution consisting oi' u quart or*"the first solution and 
two ounces of arseniate of potash and a gallon of water. (Pro- 
ceedings Boston Society Nat. Hist., vol. x, p. 257.) 

The nests, cocoons, and chrysalids of insects may be pre- 
served from injury from other insects by being soaked in the 
arseniated alcohol, or dipped into benzine, or a solution of car- 
bolic acid or creosote. 

Preparing Insects for the Cabinet. Dried insects may be 
moistened by laying them for twelve or twenty- four hours in 
a box containing a layer of wet sand, covered with one thick- 
ness of soft paper. Their wings can then be easily spread. 
Setting-boards for spreading the wings of insects may be made 
by sawing deep grooves in a thick board, and placing a strip 
of pith or cork at the bottom. The groove may be deep enough 
to allow a quarter of the length of the pin to project above 
the insect. The setting-board usually consists of thin parallel 
strips of board, leaving a groove between them wide enough to 
receive the body of the insect, at the bottom of which a strip 
of cork or pith should be glued. The ends of the strips should 
be nailed on to a stouter strip of wood, raising the surface of 
the setting-board an inch and a half so that the pins can stick 
through without touching. Several setting-boards can be made 
to form shelves in a frame covered with wire gauze, so that 
the specimens may be preserved from dust and destructive in- 
sects, while the air may at the same time have constant access 
to them. The surface of the board should incline a little to- 
wards the groove for the reception of the insect, as the wings 
often gather a little moisture, relax and fall down after the 
insect is dried. Moths of medium size should remain two or 
three days oil the setting-board, while the larger thick-bodied 
Sphinges and Bombycidce require a week to dry. The wings 
can be arranged by means of a needle stuck into a handle 
of wood. They should be set horizontally, and the front mar- 
gin of the fore-wings drawn a little forward of a line perpen- 
dicular to the body, so as to free the inner margin of the hind 
wings from the body, that their form may be distinctly seen. 
When thus arranged, they can be confined by pieces of card 
pinned to the board as indicated in figure 71, or, as we prefer, 
by square pieces of glass laid upon them. 




92 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

After the insects havi been thoroughly dried they should not 
be placed in the cabinet until after having been in quarantine 

to see that no eggs of Dennestes or 
Anthrenus, etc., have been deposited 
on them. 

For preserving dried insects in the 
cabinet Laboulbene recommends plac- 
ing a rare insect (if a beetle or any 
other hard insect) in water for an hour 

until the tissues be softened. If soiled, an insect can be 
cleansed under water with a tine, hair-pencil, then submit it to 
a bath of arseniated alcohol, or, better, alcohol with corrosive 
sublimate. If the insect becomes prune-colored, it should be 
washed in pure alcohol several times. This method will do 
for the rarest insects ; the more common ones can be softened 
on wet sand, and then the immersion in the arseniated alcohol 
suffices. After an immersion of an hour or a quarter of an 
hour, according to the size of the insect, the pin is not affected 
by the corrosive sublimate, but it is better to unpin the insect 
previous to immersion, and then pin it when almost dry. 

For cleaning insects ether or benzine is excellent, applied 
wit! i a hair-pencil ; though care should be taken in using these 
substances which are very inflammable. 

After the specimens are placed in the cabinet, they should be 
farther protected from destructive insects by placing in the 
drawers or boxes pieces of camphor wrapped in paper perfo- 
rated by pin-holes, or bottles containing sponges saturated with 
benzine. The collection should be carefully examined every 
month ; the presence of insects can be detected by the dust 
beneath them. Where a collection is much infested with 
destructive insects, benzine should be poured into the bottom 
of the box or drawer, when the fumes and contact of the ben- 
zine with their bodies will kill them. The specimens them- 
selves should not be soaked in the benzine if possible, as it 
renders them brittle. 

/ii.wt-nthiiH't. For permanent exhibition, a cabinet of shal- 
low drawers, protected by doors, is most useful. A drawer 
may be eighteen by twenty inches square, and two inches deep 
in the clear, and provided with a tight glass cover. For constant 



COLLECTING AND PRESERVING INSECTS. 



93 



use, boxes made of thin, well-seasonec'Ood, with tight-fitting 
covers, are indispensable. For C'oleoptera, Dr. Leconte reeom- 
mends that they be twelve by nine inches (inside measurement ). 
For the larger Lepidoptera a little larger box is preferable. 
Others prefer boxes made in the form of books, which may be 
put away like books on the shelves of the cabinet, though Un- 
cover of the box is apt to be in the way. 

The boxes and drawers should be lined with cork cut into 
thin slips for soles ; such slips come from the cork-cutter about 
twelve by four inches square, and an eighth of an inch thick. A 
less expensive substitute is paper stretched upon a frame. Mr. 
E. S. Morse has given in the American Naturalist (vol. I, p. 
1 .">(>) a plan which is very neat and useful for lining boxes in a 
large museum, and which 
are placed in horizontal 
show-cases (Fig. 72). "A 
box is made of the re- 
quired depth, and a light 
frame is fitted to its in- 
terior. Upon the upper 
and under surfaces of this 
frame, a sheet of white 
paper (drawing or log- 
paper answers the pur- 
pose) is securely glued. 
The paper, having been previously dampened, in drying con- 
tracts and tightens like a drum-head. The frame is then 
secured about one-fourth of an inch from the bottom of the 
box, and the pin is forced down through the thicknesses of 
paper, and if the bottom of the box be of soft pine, the point 
of the pin may be slightly forced into it. It is thus firmly held 
at two or three different points, and all lateral movements art- 
prevented. Other advantages are secured by this arrangement 
besides firmness; when the box needs cleaning or fumigation, 
the entire collection may be removed by taking out the frame, 
or camphor, tobacco, or other material can be placed on the 
bottom of the box, and concealed from sight. The annexed 
figure represents a transverse section of a portion of the side 
and bottom of the box with the frame. A, A, box ; B, frame ; 




Fia 



94 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

'k" 

P, P, upper and under sheets of paper ; C, space between 
lower sheet of paper and bottom of box." 

Other substitutes are the pith of various plants, especially 
of corn ; and palm wood, and " inodorous felt" is used, being 
cut to fit the bottom of the box. 

Leconte recommends that "for the purpose of distinguish- 
ing specimens from different regions, little disks of variously 
colored paper be used ; they are easily made by a small punch, 
and should be kept in wooden pill-boxes ready for use ; at 
the same time a key to the colors, showing the regions em- 
braced by each, should be made on the fly-leaf of the catalogue 

/ */ o 

of the collection." He also strongly recommends that the 
"specimens should all be pinned at the same height, since the 
ease of recognizing species allied in characters is greatly in- 
creased by having them on the same level." 

He also states that "it is better, even when numbers with 
reference to a catalogue are employed, that the name of each 
species should be written on a label attached to the first speci- 
men. Thus the eye is familiarized with the association of the 
species and its name, memory is aided, and greater power given 
of identifying species when the cabinet is not at hand." For 
indicating the sexes the astronomical sign $ (Mars) is used for 
the male, and <j> (Venus) for the female, and 9 for the worker. 

Transportation of Insects. While travelling, all hard-bodied 
insects, comprising many Hymenoptera, the Coleoptera, Ile- 
miptera, and many Neuroptera should be thrown, with their 
larva?, etc., into bottles and vials filled with strong alcohol. 
When the bottle is filled new liquor should be poured in, and 
the old may be saved for collecting purposes ; in this way the 
specimens will not soften and can be preserved indefinitely, and 
the colors do not, in most cases, change. Leconte states that 
"if the bottles are in danger of being broken, the specimens, 
after remaining for a day or two in alcohol, may be taken out, 
partially dried by exposure to the air, but not so as to be brit- 
tle, and these packed in layers in small boxes between soft 
paper ; the boxes should then be carefully closed with gum- 
paper or paste, so as to exclude all enemies." 

Lepidoptera and Dragon-flies and other soft-bodied insects 
may be well preserved by placing them in square pieces of pa- 



REARING LARV.K. !)5 

per ibkled into a triangular form with the edges overlapping. 
Put up thus, multitudes can be packed away in tin boxes, and 
will bear transportation to any distance. In tropical climates, 
c-lu'sts lined with tin should be made to contain the insect- 
boxes, which can thus be preserved against the ravages of 
white ants, etc. 

In sending live larvae by mail, they should be inclosed in lit- 
tle tin boxes, and in sending dry specimens, the box should b- 
light and strong, and directions given at the post-office to 
stamp the box lightly. In sending boxes by express they 
should be carefully packed in a larger box, having an inter- 
space of two inches, which can be filled in tightly with hay or 
crumpled bits of paper. Beetles can be wrapped in pieces of 
soft paper. Labels for alcoholic specimens should consist 
of parchment with the locality, date of capture, and name of 
collector written in ink. A temporary label of firm paper with 
the locality, etc., written with a pencil, will last for several 
years. 

Preservation of Larvce. Alcoholic specimens of insects, in all 
stages of growth, are very useful. Few collections contain al- 
coholic specimens of the adult insect. This is a mistake. Many 
of the most important characters are effaced during the drying 
process, and for purposes of general study alcoholic speci- 
mens, even of Bees, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Dragon-flies are 
very necessary. 

Larvoe, generally, may be well preserved in vials or bottles 
of alcohol. They should first be put into whiskey, and then 
into alcohol. If placed in the latter first, they shrivel and 
become distorted. Mr. E. Burgess preserves caterpillars with 
the colors unchanged, by immersing them in boiling water 
thirty or forty seconds, and then placing them in equal parts 
of alcohol and water. It is well to collect larvie and pupa 1 
indiscriminately, even if we do not know their adult forms ; we 
i-an approximate to them, and in some cases tell very exactly 
what they must be. 

REARING LARVAE. More attention has been paid to rearing 
Caterpillars than the } r oung of any other suborder of insects, 
and the following remarks apply more particularly to them, but 



IM> THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

very much the same methods ma}' be pursued in rearing the 
larvae of Beetles, Flies, and Hymenoptera. Subterranean 
larva; have to be kept in moist earth, aquatic larva? must be 
reared in aquaria, and carnivorous larva; must be supplied 
with flesh. The larva? of Butterflies are rare ; those of 
moths occur more frequently, while their images may be 
scarce. In some years many larvae, which are usually rare, 
occur in abundance, and should then be reared in numbers. 
In hunting- for caterpillars bushes should be shaken and 
beaten over newspapers or sheets, or an umbrella; herbage 
should be swept, and trees examined carefully for leaf-rollers 
and miners. The best specimens of moths and butterflies are 
obtained by rearing them from the egg, or from the larva or 
pupa. In confinement the food should be kept fresh, and the 
box well ventilated. Tumblers covered with gauze, pasteboard 
boxes pierced with holes and fitted with glass in the covers, or 
large glass-jars, are very convenient to use as cages. The bot- 
tom of such vessels may be covered with moist sand, in which 
the food-plant of the larva may be stuck and kept fresh for 
several days. Larger and more airy boxes, a foot squa) , with 
the sides of gauze, and titted with a door, through whic a bot- 
tle of water may be introduced, serve well. The obje< is to 
keep the food-plant fresh, the air cool, the larva out of \ ie riun, 
and in fact everything in such a state of equilibrium that the 
larva will not feel the change of circumstances when fc"-ot in 
confinement. Most caterpillars change to pupae in the'! "> ; 

and those which transform in the earth should be covered with 
earth, kept damp by wet moss, and placed in the cellar until the 
following summer. The collector in seeking for larvae should 
carry a good number of pill-boxes, and especially a close tin 
box, in which the leaves may be kept fresh for a long time. 
The different forms and markings of caterpillars should be 
noted, and the}' should be drawn carefully together with a leaf 
of the food-plant, and the drawings and pupa skins, and per- 
fect insect, be numbered to correspond. Descriptions of cat- 
erpillars cannot be too carefully made, or too long. The 
relative size of the head, its ornamentation, the stripes and 
spots of the body, and the position and number of tubercles, 
and the hairs, or fascicles of hairs, or spines and spinules, 



ENTOMOLOGICAL WOIMvS. \)1 

which tirise from Uiem, should be noted, besides tlic general 
form of the body- The lines along the body are called f/oy.sr//, 
if in the middle of the back, subdorsal ; if upon one side, lnf~ 
era?, and ventral when on the sides and under surface, or fttfi/- 
mated if including- the stigmuta or breathing pores, which are 
generally parti-colored. Indeed, the whole biography of an 
insect should be ascertained by the observer; the points to 
be noted are : 

1. Date, when and ho\v the eyys are laid ; and number, size, 
and marking of the eggs. 

2. Date of hatching, the appearance, food-plant of lurnt, 
and number of days between each moulting ; the changes the 
larva undergoes, which are often remarkable, especially before 
the last moulting, with drawings illustrative of these ; the hab- 
its of the larva, whether solitary or gregarious, whether a day 
or night feeder ; tne Ichneumon parasites, and their mode of 
attack. Specimens of larvae in the different moultings should 
be preserved in alcohol. The appearance of the larvae when 
full-fed, the date, number of days before pupating, the forma- 
tion and description of the cocoon, the duration of larvae in the 
cocoon before pupation, their appearance just before changing, 
their appearance while changing, and alcoholic specimens of 
larvae in the act, should all be studied and noted. 

3. Date of pupation ; description of the pupa or chrysalis ; 
duration of the pupa state, habits, etc. ; together with alcoholic 
specimens, or pinned dry ones. Lepidopterous pupa; should be 
looked for late in the summer or in the fall and spring, about 
the roots of trees, and kept moist in mould until the imago 
appears. Many Coleopterous pupae may also occur in mould, 
and if aquatic, under submerged sticks and stones, and those 
of borers under the bark of decaying trees. 

4. Date when the insect escapes from the pupa, and method 
of escape ; duration of life of the imago ; and the number of 
broods in a season. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL WORKS. The titles of a few of the most im- 
portant works on Insects are given below. The more advanced 
student should, however, possess Dr. Hagen's Bibliotheea En- 
tomologica, 8vo, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1862-3, which contains a 

7 



98 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

complete list of all entomological publications up to the year 
1K62. Besides these he should consult the annual reports on 
the progress of Entomology published in Wiegmann's Archiv 
fur Naturgeschichte, begun in 1834, and continued up to the 
! present time ; and also Gimther's Zoological Record (8vo, Van 
: Voorst, London) , beginning with the year 1864. Occasional 
articles are also scattered through the various government re- 
ports, and those of agricultural societies and agricultural 
papers. 

GENERAL WORKS. 

The works of Swammerdam, Malphighi, Leeuwenhoek, Ly on-net, Serres, Mecl-el, 

Ramdohr, Suckow, Merian, and Herbst. 
Reaumur, Renv A nt. do. Memoires pour servir a 1' Histoire des Insectes. Paris, 1734 

-1742, 7 vols. 4to. 
Jioesel, Aug. Joh. Dermonatlich herausgegeben Insekten-Belustigung. Numberg, 

174(5-1761, 4 vols. 4to, illustrated. 
Geer, Carl de. Memoires pour servir a 1' Histoire des Insectes, 1752-1778, 7 TO!S. 

4tO. 

Linnmis, Carolus. Systema Naturae, 1735. 12th edition, 1766-1768. 
Hilii-tcius, Joh. Christ. Systema Entomologiae, 1775, 8vo. 

. Genera Insectorum, 1777, 8vo. 

. Species Insectorum, 1781, 2 vols. 8vo. 

. Mantissa Insectorum, 1787, 2 vols. 8vo. 

. Entomologia Systematica., 4 vols. 8vo, 1792-94. 

Cramer, P. Papillons exotiques des trois parties du monde. 4 vols. 4to, 1775-82. 
Stoll, Casper. Supplement to Cramer's Papillons exotiques. 4to, Amsterdam, 

1787-1)1. 
Smith, J. E. t and Abbot, John. The Natural History of the Rarer Lepidopterous 

Insects of Georgia. Fol. Plates. London, 1797. 
LntreiUe, Pierre Andre. Precis des caracteres generique des Insectes, 1796, 8vo. 

Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum, 4 vols. 8vo, 1806-1809. 

. Consideration generates sur 1' Ordre naturel des Animaux composant 

les Classes des Crustaces, des Arachnides et des Insectes. 

. In Cuvier's Regne animal, 8vo, 1810. 

. Families naturelles du Regne animal, 8vo, 1825. 

Cours d' Entomologie, 8vo, 1831. 



Fubi-icius, Otho. Fauna Groenlaudica. Hafnia 1 , 1780, 8vo. Contains Libellula 

rirgo (erroneously), Phryganea rhombica, Termes dirinatoritt>,rtf. 
ttriiry, Drew. Illustrations of Natural History, etc. London, 1770-1782, 4to,3 vols. 

(ed. Westwood, 1837). Numerous species are figured and described. 
Trrriranus, G. fi. Vermischte Schriften anatomischen und physiologischen Inhalts 

lid. 1 u. 2. Gottingen, 1816-17, 4to. 

Mm- Lean, T. .S'. Hor Entomologies?, 2 vols. London, 181!). 
AfcifU'ii, F. ir. Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europiiischeu zweinii- 

geligen Insecten. 7 vols. Aachen and Hamm, 1818-1835. (Although this work 

contains only European species, many of them are common to both continents.) 
,s///, T. American Entomology. 3 vols. With plates. Philadelphia, 1824, 25, 28. 
. Complete Writings on the Entomology of North America, edited by J. L. 

Leconte, M. D. 2 vols. 8vo, colored plates. New York, 1859. 
n<ier, A". K. i: Beitrage zur Kentniss der niederen Thiere. (Extracted fro.n Nova 

Acta A cad. Leopold. Carolin. xiii. 2, 1827.) 



ENTOMOLOGICAL WORKS. 99 

Palisot de Beauvais, A. J. Iiisectes recueillis en Afrique et en Amerique, clans les 
royanmes d' Oware et de Benin, a Saint-Doiningue et dans les Etats-Unis, pen- 
dant les amices, 1786-97. Fol. with 90 plates, Paris, 1805-2] . 

Stn-ir/iiy, ./. c. de. Description de 1' Egypte. Histoire natnrelle. Crustaces, 
Arachuides, Myriapodes et Insectes, 5:5 pi. in gr. fol. Paris, 1809-1838. Ex- 
plication sommaire des planches par J. V. Audouin, Paris, 1820, fol. 

Curtis, John. Description of the Insects brought home by Commander James 
Clark. Ross's Second Voyage. App. Nat. Hist., 1831, 4to, plates. (Several Arctic 
species are described.) 

Kirby, W. <j' W. Spence. An Introduction to Entomology; or, Elements of the Nat- 
ural History of Insects. 4 vols. Svo, 1828. Seventh edition (comprising vols. 3 
& 4 of the early editions). London, 1856, post 8vo. 

Wiedemann, C. li. W. Aussereuropaische Zweifliigeligelnsecten. 2 vols. Hamm, 
LS2S-30. With plates. 

Curtis, John. Farm Insects ; being the Natural History and Economy of the Insects 
injurious to the Field Crops of Great Britain and Ireland. 8vo. With plates and 
wood-cuts. 1860. 

Chevrolat, Aucj. Coleopteres du Mexique. Strasbourg, 1834-5. 

Stephens, J. F. Illustrations of British Entomology. London, 8vo, 1835. Sev- 
eral species of European Insects mentioned in this work have been found in 
North America. 

Kirby, W. Fauna boreali- Americana, etc. Norwich, 1837, 4to. 

Kollar, V. Naturgeschichte der schaedlichen Insekten. Wien, 1837, 4to. Contains 
Termes flavipes, injurious in the hot-houses of Schoenbrumi and Vienna. This 
description has been omitted in the translation of this work by Mr. London, 
London, 1840. 

Mucquart, J. Dipteres Exotique nouveaux on pen connus. 2 vols. en 5 parties, et 
5 supplements, Paris, 1838-55. AVith numerous plates. (Published originally in 
the Memoires de la Societe des Sciences et des Arts de Lille, 1838-55.) 

Burmeister, H. Manual of Entomology, translated by W. E. Shuckard. London, 
8vo, 1836. 

Jiiirmeister, Hermann. Zoologischer Hand Atlas. Berlin, 1836-43 fol., 41 plates. 

irestwood, J. O. An Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects. 2 vols. 
8vo. London, 1839-40. 

Cuvier, G. Le Ri-gne animal distribue d'apres son Organisation. Nouvelle edi- 
tion, accompagnee de planches gravees, representaut les types de tons les Gen- 
res, etc., publiee par nil reunion de Disciples de G. Cuvier. Paris, 1849, 8vo. 
Insectes, Arachnides, Crustaces par Audouin, Jilanchard, Doyere, Milne-Ed- 
wards et Dtiye's. 4 vols. Texte et 4 vols. atlas. 

Guerin-Meneville, F. E. Iconographie du Regne Animal de G. Cuvier, ou repre- 
sentation d'apres nature de 1'une des especes les plus remarquables et souvent 
non encore figurees de chaque genre d' animaux, vols. 6 et 7 : Annelides, Crus- 
taces, Arachnides et Insectes, Paris, J. B. Bailliere, 1829-44, 164 pi. 8vo. 

Griffith, E. The Animal Kingdom, described and arranged in conformity with its 
organization. London, 1824-33, Svo. Class Insecta, 2 vols. with 140 pi. 1832. 
Classes Annelida, Crustacea et Arachnida. 1 vol. with 60 pi. 

Suites a Buffon et Nourelles suites a Jiuffon. Formant avec les ffiuvres de cet 
auteur un Cours complet d' Histoire naturelle. Paris, Dufart, 1798-1807. Paris, 
Roret, 1834-1864, Svo. (Insectes, Crustaces, Arachnides etc., par Latreille, Lacor- 
daire, Amyot, Audinet-Serville, Jioisdtival, Guenee, Rambur, Lepeletier de St. 
Fargeau, Macquart, Milne- Edwards, IPalkenaer, et Gervais). 
Gosse, P. H. Canadian Naturalist. London, 1840. 

Zftterstedt, J. W. Insecta Lapponica. Lipsia;, 1840, 4to. Several species from 
Lapland have been found in the Arctic regions of North America. 

Pictet, F. Histoire naturelle, etc., des insectes Neuropteres, Part I, Perlides; Part 
II, Ephemerines. Geneve, 1841-45, 8vo, with colored plates. 



100 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

Doiibtedny, E., rind Wf.at n'ooil , J. <>. The Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera. so col- 
ored plates, 2 vols. Ibl. London, ls4(i-5:>. 

Walker, F. List of the specimens of Lepiilopterous, Dipterous, Neuropterotis, ami 
Homopterous Insects in the Collection of the liritish Museum. London, 1848-07. 

Amyol, ('., and Si-rrille, A. llemipteres. Svo, Paris, Roret, 1S4.">. 

Rntzebiirg. J. T. C. Die Eorstinsekten. 4to, .'{ vols. Berlin, 1837-44. 

1'n ii ili r Ifn-ren, J. Handbook of Zoology, English translation. 2 vols. Svo, 1850. 

(,'i'i-xtaecker, A. Ilandbnch tier Zoiilogie (in connection with V. Cams), 2 vois. 
Svo. (vol. 2, Arthropoda). Leipzig, IN;:;. 

f>e Sehj.t I.onychamps', E. Revue des Odonates on Libellules d'Enrope avec la col- 
laboration de II. Hagen. Paris, 1850, Svo. (Memoir. Soc. R. Science de Liege, 
vol. vi.) (Two species, Lib. HtKlxouicit, p. r>:;, and Agrion Doublcdayi, p. 209, are 
described in this work.) 

Hiigen, If. Revue des Oilonat.es; Monographic des Calopterygines; Monographic 
des Gomphines (cf. Selys Lougchamps). 

Ar/ussiz, L. Lake Superior, its Physical Character, its Vegetation, and its Animals, 
Boston, 1850. With Catalogue of Coleoptera, by Dr. J. L. Leconte, and of the 
Lepidoptera, by Dr. T. W. Harris. 

I:.!'- Diiflih'rs, H. Recherchcs snr i- arniure geuitale femelle des Insectes. 
Plates. Svo. Paris, 185:;. 

imer, F. E. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of the United States. 
Smithsonian Institution. 8vo, is.Yi. 

DuUns, ir. S. Catalogue of Hemipterous Insects in the I'.ntish Museum. 1, 2. 
Illustrated. London, 1852. 

Fitch, Ana. The noxious, beneficial, and other Insects of the State of New York, 
Reports 1-8, ls:>n- ;i;. 

Smith, l''r*'(1eric. Catalogue of Hymenoptera in the British Museum. Parts i-\i. 
Plates. London, 1857-58. 

Fallen, ('. /'., Still, C., and Fieber. Various papers on Ilemiptera in Scandinavian 
ami German periodicals. 

Hiilnier, ./. Saminlung Kxotischer Schrnetterlinge. 5 vols. 4to. Plates. 180U. 

Gin'iK'i', .(. Species general des Lepidopteres. (Noctuidae, Phala^nida* and Pyia- 
lida>) Suite a Buflon. Paris, 8vo, 18.VJ-57. 

Sffiiiiton, Jf. T. The Natural History of the Tineina. 8vo, with many plates. Lon 
don, vols. 1-8, 1855-04, 8vo. 

LiK-oriluire, J. T. Genera des Coleopteres. Svo, tomes 1-7. Paris, Roret, 1854. 

Jioisdnral, J. A. Ilistoire generale et Iconographie des Lepidopteres et des Che- 
nilles de 1'Amerique septentrionale. Svo. Paris, Roret, 1829-42. 

. Species generale des Lepidopteres. 8vo. Roret, Pans, 185G. 

. Kssai sur rEntomologie horticole. Svo. Paris, 1807. 

Practical Entomologist. Entomological Society of Philadelphia. Vols. 1, 2, 4to, 
1865-G7. 

Harris, T. W. A Treatise on some of the Insects of New England, which are 
injurious to Vegetation. Third edition, illustrated. Boston, 1802. 

Leronte, J. L. Classification of the Coleoptera of North America. Part I, 1801-2. 
Smithsonian Institution. 

. List of Coleoptera of North America. 8vo, 180:i-fi. Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. 

. New Species of North American Coleoptera. Svo. Part I, 1803-0. Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

. Coleoptera of Kansas and Eastern New Mexico. 4to. 3 plates. 1859. 

Smithsonian Institution. 

Hagen, H. Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America. Svo. 1801. Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

Morris, .T. G. Catalogue of the described Lepidoptera of North America. 8vo. 
18GO. Smithsonian Institution. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL WORKS. 101 

Oaten Sackcn, /?. Catalogue of the described Diptera of North America. 1R58. 

Smithsonian JnMittition. 
Loew, II., and Oxtrii Uticken, Jl. Monograph of the Diptera of North America. 

Part* 1,2. Svo, 1S(;2-G4. Smithsonian Institution. 
Trimble, 1. I'. A Treatise on the Insect Enemies of Fruit and Fruit Trees. The 

Curculio and Apple moth. 4to. Plates. New York, 180.5. 

MORPHOLOGY. 

Snrigny, J. C. Memoires sur les Animaux sans Vertebras. 1 Partic. Description 

et Classification des Animaux invertebres et articuk-s, 1. Fascicule. Tin-one des 

Organes de la Bouchc des Crustaees et des Insectes. Paris, 1816. 
Andouin, ./. r. Recherches anatomiques sur le Thorax des animaux articult'-s et 

celui des Insectes hexapodes en particulier. (Annales d. Scienc. natur. 1, 1824, 

p. 97 and 416.) 
J-'nf)iwholts, /. F. Beschreibung des inneren Skeletes einiger Insekten aus ver- 

schiedenen Ordnnngen. Dorpat, 1820, Svo, p. 24-49, "2 Taf. 
Jiacr, K. E. ('. Ueber das aussere und innere Skelet (Meckel's Archiv. f. Anatom. 

u. Physiol. 182<i, p. 327-374). 
Erichson, ir, F. Ueber zoologische Charaktere iler Insekten, Arachniden und 

Crustaceen. (Kn tomograph ien, S. 1-2S.) Berlin, 1840, Svo. 
liriillv, A. Recherches sur les Transformations des Appendices dans les Arti- 

cules (Annales de.s Sciences naturellcs,:.. ser. II, 1844, p. 271-374). 
Leuckart, J!. I'eber die Morphologic und die Verwandtschaftsverhaltnisse der 

Wirbellosen Thierc. liraunsdnveig, 1848, Svo. 



ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 

Straus-DnrcfcJieim, If. Considerations gt'-nerales sur 1' Anatomic compart-c des 
Animaux articuk-s, auxiuelles on a joint 1' Anatomic descriptive du Melolontha 
vulgaris. Paris, 1S28, 4 to. 10 pi. 

Jtiifvnr, L. Numerous anatomical papers in the Annales des Sciences naturelles, 
Paris. 

SirboM, C. Tli. r. Lehvhuch der Verglcichenden Anatomic dev wirbelloscn Tliiere. 
Berlin, 1848, Svo. Translated by W. I. Uurnett. ISoston, 1851, Svo. 

Gegenbaur, ('. Gmnrlziige der vergleichendfen Anatomie. Leipzig, 1850, Svo. 

Geoffroji St. ininirf, Etienne. Considerations philosophiques sur la determination 
du Systeme solide et du Systeme nerveux des Animaux articuk-s. (Annal. d. 
scienc. natur. II, 182t, p. 295 fl'., Ill, p. 199 u. p. 433 flT.) 

Newport, G. On the Structure, Relations, and Development of the nervous and 
circulatory Systems, and on the existence of a complete Circulation of the Blood 
in Vessels, in Myriapoda and Macrourous Arachnida. (Philosoph. Transact- 
1843, p. 243-302.) 

. On the Structure and Development of the Blood, I. ser. The Development 

of the Blood Corpuscle in Insects and other Invertebrata, and its Comparison 
with that of Man and the Vertebrata. (Annals of Nat. Hist. XV, 1S45, p. 281-284.) 

. On the Nervous System of the Sphinx ligustri Lin. and on the Changes 

which it undergoes during a Part of the Metamorphoses of the Insect. (Philo- 
soph. Transact. 1832, p. 383-398, and 1834, 38!)-423.) 

On the Temperature of Insects and its Connexion with Functions of Res- 



piration and Circulation in this class of Invertcbrated Animals. (Philosoph. 
Transact. 1837, p. 2.">il-338.) 

JSlanchard, E. Recherches anatomiques et zoiilogiqnes snr le Systeme nervenx des 
Animanx sans vertebres. Du systeme nerveux des Insectes. (Annal. d. scienc-. 
natur. 3. ser. V, 1846, p. 273-37'J.) 



102 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

Itlancliard, E. Du Systeme nerveux chcz les Invertebres dans ses rapports avec la 

Classification de ces Animaux. Paris, 1S4'.), Svo. 
3rUnc-J-:ilu-<inl.t, H. Lecons sur la Physiologic ctl' Anatomic comparee de 1'Honime 

et tics Aaimanx. Paris, Masson 1857-04, Svo. 

EMBRYOLOGY. 

Jlntlikc, IT. Untersuchungen iiber die Bildung und Entwickelung des Flusskreb- 

ses, Leipzig, Yoss. 1829, Fol. mil 5 Taf. 
. Zur Morphologic, Reisebcnierkungcn nus Taurien. Riga, 1837, 4to, niit ."> 

Taf. 
Jlcrohl, J. ]\f. Exercitationcs de animalium vertebris carentium in ovo formationo 

J. De generatione Aranearnm in ovo. Untersuchungen iiber die Bildungsge- 

schichte der Wirbellosen Thieve im Ei. 1. Th. Von der Erzeugung dev Spinnen 

im Ei. Marburg, Krieger, 1824, fol. mit 4 Taf. 
. Disquisitiones de animalium vertebris carentium in ovo fovmatione. De 

generatione Insectorum in ovo. Fasc. I, II, Frankfurt a Main, 1835-38, fol. 
Kvlliker, A. Observationes de prima Insectorum genesi, adjecta articulatorum 

evolutionis cum vertcbratorum comparatione. Dissert, iuaug. Turici, Meyer et 

Zeller, 1842, 4to, c. tab. 3. 
Zntblfirlt, G. Untersuchung iiber die Entwickelung und den Ban der Gliederthiere. 

Heft 1. Die Entwickelung des Phryganiden-Eies. Berlin, Reimer. 1854, 4to, c. 

tab. 5. 
Leuckart, It. Die Fortpflanzung und Entwickelung der Pupiparen nach Beobach- 

tungen an Melophagus oviuus. (Abhandl. d. naturf. Gesellsch. zu Halle IV, 1858 

8. 145-22(5.) 
Huxley, T. On the agamic Reproduction and Morphology of Aphis (Transact. 

Linnean Soc. of London, XXII, p. 193-23ti.) 
LubbocJ.; J. On the Ova and Pseudova of Insects (Philosophical Transactions 

of the Royal Soc. 1859, p. 341-369. 

Clapari'tle, E. Recherches sur 1' evolution des Araignees. 4to. Utrecht, lsi;->. 
Wi'iaiiiinin, A. Ueber die Entstehung des vollendeten Insekts in Lavveiuul Puppe. 

Ein Beitrag zur Metamorphose der Insekten, Frankfurt a Main, 1803, 4to. 
. Die Entwickelung der Dipteren im Ei, nach Beobachtungen an Chirono- 

nuis, Musca vomitoria und Pulex canis (Zeitschrift fiir Wissenschaftliche Zo- 

ologie XIII, p. 107-204.) 
. Die nachembryonale Entwickelung der Musciden nach Beobachtungen an 

Musca vomitoria uud Sarcophaga carnaria. (The same, XIV, p. 187-33U.) 



FOSSIL INSECTS. 

Giebel, C. Fauna rler Vorwelt mit steter Beriicksichtigung der lebenden Thiere. 
2. Bd. Gliederthiere. 1. Abtheilung. Die Insekten und Spinnen der Vorwelt mit 
steter Beriicksichtigung der lebenden Insekten und Spinnen. Leipzig, 185G, Svo. 

Berendt, C. G. Die im Bernstein beflndlichen organischen Reste der Vorwelt, go- 
sammelt und in Verbindung mit Mehreren herausgegeben. 1. Band. 2, Abth. 
Die im Bernstein befindlichen Crustaceen.Myriapoden, Arachniden undapteren 
der Vonvelt, bearbeitet von C.L.Koch und C. G. Berendt. 2. Band. Die im 
Bernstein beflndlichen Hemipteren, Orthopteren, und Neuropteren dev Vorwelt, 
beavbeitet von E. F. Germar, F. J. Pictet, und H. Ilagen. Berlin, 1854-5(i, fol. 

ffeer, O. Die Insecten-faunader Tertiaergebilde von CEningenund Radoboj. Leip- 
zig, 1849, 4to, 3 vols. 

Scudder, S. H. An inquiry into the Zoological Relations of the first discovered. 
Traces of fossil Neuropterous Insects in North America. From the Memoirs of 
the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. I, 1M7, with a plate. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL JOURNAL. KKJ 



PERIODICAL WORKS (now in course of publication). 

Edwards, If. If. Butterflies of North America. Colored plates. Commenced 1868. 

Annales de la Societe entomologique de France, Paris. Commenced 183'2. 

Transaction* of the Entomological Society of London. Commenced IS.'U. 

L' Insectologie, Agricole, Monthly Journal, Paris. Commenced 1867. 

Z<-itung. Entomologische Vereiu, Stettin. Commenced 1840. 

Linncea entomoloffica. Entomologische Verein, Berlin. Commenced I84i;. 

Xeitschrift. Entomologische Vereiu, Berlin. Commenced 1857. 

Annaies de la Societe entomologique Beige, Brussels. Commenced 1857. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Commenced I8p.i. 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Commenced 1817. 

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. New Series. Commenced 
1818. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. Commenced 1834. 

Journal of the Boston Society of Natural History. Commenced 1834. 

Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. Commenced 18:24. 

Proceeding* and Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Philadel- 
phia. Commenced 1861. 

Proceedings and Communications of the Essex Institute, Salem. Commenced 

American Naturalist, Salem. Commenced March, 1867. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL JOURNAL. Every collector should keep u 
daily journal of his captures and observations, noting down 
every fact and hint that falls under his notice. In this book, 
commenced as soon as the season opens in early spring, can 
be placed on record the earliest appearance, the time of great- 
est abundance, and the disappearance of every insect in any of 
its stages. Also the descriptions of larvae, with sketches, and 
observations upon their habits ; though drawings had better 
be kept upon separate pieces of paper for easier reference. 
The insects, when captured and unnamed should be numbered 
to agree with corresponding numbers in the note-book. At 
the close of the season one will be surprised to see how much 
material of this kind has accumulated. He can then make a 
calendar of appearances of perfect insects and larvae, so as 
to have the work of the next season portioned out to him ; 
he will thus know when and where to look for any particular 
insect or caterpillar. 

THE NUMBER OF SPECIES OF INSECTS. Oswald Heer estimates 
that the Insects comprise four-fifths of the whole animal king- 
dom. While there are about 55,000 species of animals known, 
excluding the Insects, the number of this last single class 
amounts to upwards of 190,000 known species, according to 



104 THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 

Gerstaecker's estimate. lie reckons that there are at least 
2"). 000 species of Ilymenoptera, from 22,000 to 24,000 Lepidop- 
tera, about 24,000 Diptera, and !>0,000 Coleoptera ; the number 
of the other suborders cannot be easily estimated. Besides 
these there are about 4,000 Arachnida, and 800 Myriopods. 



MNi; OF INSECTS INTO ORDERS AND SrnoitDEiis. Be- 
fore beginning an account of the .Six-footed Insects, we 
present the following tabular view of the Classification of In- 
sects. The idea that the Myriopods, Spiders, and Six-footed 
Insects formed orders and not classes was first proposed by R. 
Leuckart in 1848, and afterwards supported by Agassiz and 
Dana,. The arrangements proposed by these and other authors 
are put in tabular form on page 106. 

THE CLASS OF IXSECTS. 

Sub-class {.Segments grouped into three distinct re- "| 

gions; eyes compound and simple; two pairs of I HKXAPODA 
wings:* three pairs of thoracic legs; one pair of f (Six-footed In- 
jointed abdominal appendages. A more or less | sects). 
complete metamorphosis, ..... } 
-clux* //.Segments grouped into two regions, a ") 
false cephalothoraxf and an abdomen; no antenna-: | 
eyes simple; wingless; four pairs of thoracic legs ; J> Al = ACIINI|)A 
three pairs of jointed abdominal appendages (spin- | 
lie rets) often present. No metamorphosis, . . } 
i-i-l/rxs /"//.Body cylindrical, worm-like. Segments "1 
not grouped into regions. Head free; eyes sim- ,,, 
pie; antennae present; wingless; numerous ab- }~ /p U 
dominal legs present; yelk-sac present for a | 
short period after hatching. No metamorphosis. J 



THK ORDERS OK SIX-FOOTED INSECTS J 

Metabola. The body usually cylindrical; prothorax 1 

small; mouth-parts more generally haustellate | HYMENOPTERA 

(formed for sucking) ; metamorphosis complete; } LEPIDOPTERA. 

pupa inactive; larva usually cylindrical, very | DIPTERA. 

unlike the adult, ...... \ 

H<-tcrometabola. The body usually flattened; pro- ^ COLEOPTERA. 

thorax large and squarish ; moiith-parts usually | HEMIPTERA. 

adapted for bitiug; metamorphosis in a large } ORTIIOPTERA. 

number incomplete; pupa often inactive; larva | NEUROPTERA. 

flattened, often resembling the adult, . . J TIIYSANUKA. 

* The uumbei-of wingless forms is comparatively few. The Diptera have but 
one pair. 

t The so-called " cephalotliorax" of Spiders is not like that region in the Crabs, 
the head being much freer from the thorax. 

J Leuckart's classification is an advance on others in his considering the Hexa- 
poda, Arachnida, ami Myriapoda as orders instead of classes, but he says nothing 



OF INSECTS. 



105 



The following diagram shows, in a rude way, the relative 
rank and affinities of the eight orders, and of the two series 
of Six-footed Insects. 



OJ 



Neuroptera. 

Thysamira. 

Through l^epistna, and Podura which are wingless Thysa- 
nurous insects, the lower series is connected with the Myriopods, 
the minute degraded Pauropus and Scolopendrella perhaps 
forming the connecting links; and through the wingless 
flies, Braula, Chionea, and Nycteribia, the Diptera, belonging 
to the higher series, assume the form of the Spiders, the head 
being small, and sunken into the thorax, while the legs are 
long and slender. The first and highest series culminates in 
Apis, the Honey-bee ; and the second, or lower, in CicunMa, 
the Tiger-beetle. 

regarding the rank and value of the minor groups. Professor Agassiz extended 
Leuckart's views in considering the seven grand divisions of the order of Hexapods 
as suborders. In 18U3 (How to Observe and Collect Insects, Maine Scientific Sur- 
vey, and Synthetic Types of Insects, Boston Journal of Natural History), we 
proposed a new classification of these divisions, by which they are thrown into 
two main groups headed by the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera respectively. These 
two groups, as represented in the diagram, are nearly equivalent in value, and 
stand in a somewhat parallel relation. There is nothing like a linear series in the 
animal kingdom, but it is like a tree. The higher series of orders form more 
of a linear series than the lower series, so that in the diagram the Neuroptera, 
Orthoptera, llemiptera, and Coleoptera form a more broken series than the Hy- 
menoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. A Bee, Butterfly, and House-fly are much 
more closely allied to each other than a Beetle, a Squash-bug, a Grasshopper, 
and a Dragon-fly are among themselves. The Neuroptera are the most indepen- 
dent, and stand at the bottom of and between the two series, though by the Orthop- 
tera they arc very intimately linked with the Jleiniptera and Coleoptera. 



106 



THE CLASS OF INSECTS. 



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HYMENOl'TERA. 1()7 



HYMENOPTEEA. 

THE Bees, Wasps, Saw-flies, Ants, and other members of this 
suborder differ from all other insects in having, in the higher and 
more typical forms, the basal joint of the abdomen thrown for- 
ward upon and intimately united with the thorax. The head 
is large, with large compound eyes, and three ocelli. The 
month-parts are well developed both for biting, and feeding on 
the sweets of plants, the lignla especially, used in lapping 
nectar, being greatly developed. The other regions of the 
body are more distinct than in other insects ; the wings are 
small but powerful, with comparative!}- few and somewhat 
irregular veins, adapted for powerful and long-sustained flights ; 
and the genital appendages retracted, except in the Ichneu- 
mon parasites and Saw-flies, within the body, are in the female 
modified into a sting. 

The transformations of this suborder are the most complete 
of all insects ; the larvae in their general form are more unlike 
the adult insects than in any other suborder, while the pup;e, 
on the other hand, most clearly approximate to the imago. 
The larva? are short, cylindrical, footless (excepting the j'oung 
of the Saw-flies, the lowest family, which are provided with 
abdominal legs like Lepidopterous larvae), worm-like grubs, 
which are helpless, and have to be fed by the prevision of the 
parent. The pupa has the limbs free, and is generally contained 
in a thin silken cocoon ; that of the Saw-flies, however, being 
thick. 

The Hymenoptera exhibit, according to Professor Dana, the 
normal size of the insect-type. "This archetypic size is be- 

NOTE to page 10G. Ray divided the Hexapods into Coleoptera and Aneloptera , 
the latter division embracing all the other suborders except the Coleoptera. His 
Ametamorphota Hexapoda contained the wingless hexapoda; while the Ametamor- 
phota polypoda comprise the Myriopods, and the A. octopoda the Arachnids. Lin- 
na3iis' Aptera (with numerous feet) are equivalent to the Myriopods, and his Aptera 
(with S-14 feet) to the Arachnids. In Fabricius' system the Eleuthcrata are equiva- 
lent to the Coleoptera ; the Ulonata to the Orthoptera ; the Synistata to the Neurop- 
tera; the Piezata to the Hymenoptera; the Odonata to theLibellulida;; the Glossata 
to the Lepidoptera ; the llliyngota to the Hemiptera; the Antliata to the Diptera. 
The Mitosata are the Myriopods, and the Unogata, the Arachnids. In Latreille's 
system the Suctoria,or Fleas, are now referred to the Diptera; the Parasita or 
Lice, to the Ilemiptera, and the Thysanura to the Neuroptera. 



HYMENOPTERA. 

tween eight and twelve lines (or twelfths of an inch) in length, 
mid two and a half and three lines in breadth." This size is 
probably a smaller average than in any other suborder ; thus the 
Ilvmenoptera while being the most cephalized, consequently 
comprise the most compactly moulded insectean forms. 

Besides these structural characters, as animals, endowed 
with instincts and a kind of reason differing, perhaps, only in 
drijw from that of man, these insects outrank all other Articu- 
lates. In the unusual differentiation of the individual into males 
and females, and, generally sterile workers, with a farther dimor- 
phism of these three sexual forms, such as lluber has noticed 
in tin- Humble-bee, and a consequent subdivision of labor 
among them ; in dwelling in large colonies, thus involving new 
and intricate relations with other insects (such as Aphides, 
ant-hill-inhabiting beetles, and the peculiar bee-parasites) ; 
their wonderful instincts, their living principally on the sweets 
and pollen of flowers, and not being essentially carnivorous 
(i.e. seizing their prey like the Tiger-beetle) in their h; bits, as 
are a large proportion of the other suborders, with the exception 
of Lepidoptera ; and in their relation to man as a domestic an- 
imal, subservient to his wants. the Bees, and Ilymenoptera 
in general, possess a combination of characters which are not 
found existing in any other suborder of insects, and which 
rank them first and highest in the insect series. 

The body-wall of the Ilymenoptera is unusually dense and 
hard, smooth and highly polished, and either naked, or covered 
with hair as in a large proportion of the bees. The head is 
large, not much smaller than the thorax, and its front is verti- 
cal. The antenna; are short, filiform, often geniculate, very 
rarely pectinated. The mandibles are large, stout, toothed, and 
the maxilla? are well developed into their three subdivisions, 
the palpi being usually six-jointed ; the labial palpi are usually 
four-jointed, and the prolongation of the under lip, or lignla, 
is highly developed, being furnished with a secondary pair 
of palpi, the paraglossa?, while in the pollen-gathering species 
the lignla is of great length, and thus answers much the same 
purpose as the spiral tongue (maxilla?) of the Lepidoptera. 

Reaumur states that the Bee does not suck up the liquid 
sweets, but laps them up with its long slender hairy tongue. 



HYMENOPTERA. 10',* 

-'Even hi the drop of honey the bee fiends the end of its 
tongue about, and lengthens and shortens it successively, and, 
indeed, withdraws it from moment to moment." The liquid 
passes along the upper surface of the pilose tongue, which is 
withdrawn between its sheaths, the palpi and maxilhe, and thus 
"'conveys and deposits the liquid with which it is charged 
within a sort of channel, formed by the upper surface of the 
tongue and the sheaths which fold over it, by which the liquid 
is conveyed to the mouth." (Shuckard.) 

The thorax forms a rounded compact oval mass, with the 
prothorax and metathorax very small, the mesothorax 1 icing- 
large, and also the propodeuni, to which the pedicel of the ab- 
domen is attached. The pleurites are large and bulging, 
while the sternum is minute. The coxa? and troclmntines are 
large, and quite free from the thorax ; and the trochanters 
are small, while the rather slender legs are subject to great 
modifications, as they are devoted to so many different uses 
by these insects ; thus, in the Sand-wasps they are strongly 
bristled for the purpose of digging, and in the Bees, the 
basal joint of the tarsi is much enlarged for carrying pollen. 

"The manner in which the bee conveys either the pollen, or 
other material it purposes carrying home, to the posterior 
legs, or venter, which is to bear it, is very curious. The 
rapidity of the motion of its legs is then vr y great ; so great, 
indeed, as to make it very difficult to follow them; but it 
seems first to collect its material gradually with its mandibles, 
from which the anterior tarsi gather it, and that on each side 
passes successively the grains of Avhich it consists to the inter- 
mediate legs, by multiplicated scrapings and twistings of the 
limbs ; this, then, passes it on by similar manoeuvres, and de- 
posits it, according to the nature of the bee, upon the pos- 
terior tibia? and tarsi, or upon the under side of the abdomen. 
The evidence of this process is speedily manifested by the pos- 
terior legs gradually exhibiting an increasing pellet of pollen. 
Thus, for this purpose, all the legs of the bees are more or less 
covered with hair. It is the mandibles which are chiefly used 
in their boring or excavating operations, applying their hands, 
or anterior tarsi, only to clear their way ; but by the construc- 
tive, or artisan bees, they are used both in their building and 



110 HYMENOPTEHA. 

mining operations, and are worked like trowels to collect moist 
clay, and to apply it to the masonry of their habitations." 
(Shuckard.) 

The four wings are present, except in rare instances. They 
are small ; the hinder pair long, narrow, ovate, lanceolate. 
The costal edge of the fore-wing (Fig. 29), is generally 
straight, becoming a little curved towards the apex, which 
is obtusely subrectangular ; the outer edge is bent at riu'ht 
angles, while the inner edge of the wing is long and straight. 
The veins are often difficult to trace, as in the outer half of the 
wing they break up into a system of net-veins, which are few 
in number, yet the continuations of the subcostal, median, and 
submedian veins can be distinguished after careful studv. 

In some low Ichneumonidce, the Proctotrupidce, and 
Ohalcididce, the veins show a tendency to become obsolete, 
(uly the simple subcostal vein remaining; and in Ptemtomus, 
the veins are entirely obliterated, and the linear feather-like 
wings are in one pair fissured, reminding us of the Plume- 
moths, Pterophorus. 

The abdomen is composed in the larva state of ten segments, 
but in the adult stinging Hymenoptera, of six complete seg- 
ments in the females, and seven in the males ; while in the 
lower families the number varies, having in the Tentliredi- 
n idw, eight tergites on the upper side and six sternites on the 
lower side. The remaining segments are, during the transfor- 
mations of the insect, aborted and withdrawn within the body. 
The ovipositor and corresponding parts in the male have 
been described on pp. 14-18. 

The nervous system consists in the larvae of eleven ganglia, 
in the adult five or six of these remain as abdominal ganglia, 
while the remainder, excluding the cephalic ganglia, are placed 
in two groups in the thorax. The cerebral ganglia are well 
developed, evincing the high intellectual qualities necessary in 
presiding over organs with such different uses as the simple 
and compound eyes, the antennae, and lingua and palpi, and 
mandibles, especially in those sociable species which build 
complete nests. 

The digestive system, in those bees which sip up their food, 
consists, besides the external mouth-parts, of a "long ojsoph- 



1IYMENOPTEK A . Ill 

iigus which dilates into u thin-walled sacking stomach," which 
in the Apiarin; and Vex pi <l<v may be simply a lateral Ibid, 
or, as in many Crabronidce, "attached solely by a short and 
narrow' peduncle." In Formica, Cynips, Leucospis, and X>/phi<l- 
//, there is a globular uncurved callous gizzard, which is i-u- 
veloped by the base of the stomach, according to Siebold, who 
also states that "those Hymenoptera which are engaged during 
a long and active life in labors for the raising and support of 
their young, have a pretty long and flexuous stomach and in- 
testine, and the first has, usually, many constrictions ; " while 
the Cynipidw, Ichneumonidoe, and Tenthredinidce, 
which take no care of their young, have only a short small 
stomach and intestine. The salivary glands consist of two 
rather short ramified tufts, often contained entirety in the head. 

The tracheae consist, as in other insects, of two main branches, 
from which numerous transverse anastomosing branches are 
given off, with numerous vesicular dilatations. Two such vesi- 
cles of immense volume are situated at the base of the abdo- 
men, which according to Hunter and Newport "serve chiefly 
to enable the insect to alter its specific gravity at pleasure dur- 
ing flight, and thus diminish the muscular exertion required 
during these movements." 

The urinary vessels are very numerous in the Hymenoptera ; 
they are usually short and surround the pylorus in numbers of 
from twenty to one hundred and fifty. 

The two poison glands (Fig. 54, h,g) are composed of long 
ramose tubes, resembling the salivary glands in their minute 
structure. The poison is poured from these into a pyriform 
sac lodged near the base of the sting, which is provided with a 
peculiar muscular apparatus for its sudden extension and with- 
drawal. The poison, in the Ants, Bees, and Wasps, consists, 
according to Will, of "formic acid, and a whitish, fatty, sharp 
residuum, the former being the poisonous substance." (Bur- 
nett.) 

The Avax-secreting apparatus consists of special dermal 
glands, as Milne-Edwards supposed. Glaus has shown (see 
G-egenbaur's Verg. Anatomic) that these minute glands are 
mostly unicellular, the external opening being through a fine 
chitinous tube on the outer surface of the integument. In the 



112 HYMENOPTERA. 

wax-producing insects these glands are developed in great 
numbers over certain portions of the body. In the Aphides, 
whose bodies are covered with a powder consisting of line waxv 
threads, these glands are collected in groups. Modifications of 
them appear in the Coccidnj. In the Avax-producing Hymen- 
optera the apparatus is somewhat complicated. The bees 
secrete wax in thin, transparent, membranous plates on the 
under side of the abdominal segments. Polygonal areas are 
formed by the openings of an extraordinarily large number of 
tine pore-canals, in which, surrounded by very numerous tra- 
cheal branches, the cylindrical gland-cells are densely piled 
upon each other. These form the wax organs, over which a 
fatty layer spreads. In those bees which do not produce wax, 
the glands of the wax organs are slightly developed. Wax 
organs also occur in the Humble bees. 

The honey is elaborated by an unknown chemical process, 
from the food contained in the proventriculus, or crop, and 
which is regurgitated into the honey-cells. 

The ovaries consist of many-chambered, four, six, or a hun- 
dred, short tubes. "The ri j ri'j>t<trt<!<i #cminis is nearly always 
simple, round or ovoid, and necked, and is prolonged into a 
usually short seminal duct." The gland ula appendicularis con- 
sists of a bifurcate tube which opens into the dttctns semhi/ix, 
and only rarely into the cajjsxla seminalis itself. 

In the Tenthretlinidce , " this apparatus is formed on a 
different type ; the seminal vesicle is a simple diverticulum of 
the vagina, and more or less distinct from it, besides it is defi- 
cient in the accessory gland. The copulatory pouch is absent in 
all the Ilymenoptera, as are also the sebaceous glands with those 
females which have a sting and a poison gland," while in other 
insects the sebaceous glands are present, and it would be nat- 
urally inferred, therefore, that the two are homologous, but 
modified for diverse functions. 

The two testes of the male are "composed of long follicles, 
fasciculate and surrounded, together with a portion of the 
torose deferent canal, by a common envelope ; but more com- 
monly the two testes are contained in a capsule situated on the 
median line of the body." (Siebold.) 

The eggs are usually long, cylindrical, and slightly curved in 



HYMENOPTERA. 113 

the Boos ; in the Wasps they tire more globular, and affixed by 
their smaller somewhat pedicelled end to the side, near the bot- 
tom of the cell in which they are laid. The eggs of the lower 
families tend to assume a spherical form. The eggs of dif- 
erent species of Bombus present no appreciable differences. 

The larvre of the Bees and Wasps, especially the social 
species, which live surrounded lay their food, are of a very 
persistent form, the various genera differing but slightly, while 
the species can scarcely be separated. Such we have found to 
be the case in the Bees and Wasps (Fespidce) and Fossorial 
Wasps. The sexes of the species with a very thin tegument, 
such as A2)i$, Bombus, and Vespa, can be quite easily distin- 
guished, as the rudiments of the genital armor can be seen 
through. 

The Hymenoptera are mostly confined to the warmer and 
temperate regions of the earth; as we approach the poles, the 
Bees disappear, with the exception of Bombus, and perhaps 
its parasite Apatlms ; a species of Vespa is found on the Lab- 
rador coast, which has a climate like that of Greenland. No 
fossorial species of Wasps are known to us to occur in the arc- 
tic regions, while a few species of Ants, and several Chalcirfi- 
dce and Ichneumonidce are not uncommon in Northern 
Labrador and Greenland. Our alpine summits, particularly 
that of Mt. Washington, reproduces the features of Northern 
Labrador and Greenland as regards its Hymenopterous fauna. 
The tropics are, however, the home of the Hymenopteni, and 
especially of the Bees. 

There are estimated to be about twenty-five thousand living 
species of this suborder, and this is probably a much smaller 
number than are yet to be discovered. 

In geological history, the Hymenoptera do not date far back 
compared with the Neuroptera and Orthoptera, and even the 
Coleoptera. Indeed they were among the last to appear upon 
the earth's surface. The lower forms, so far as the scanty 
records show, appeared first in the Jura formation ; the Ants 
appear in the Tertiary period, especially in amber. 

As we have noticed before, the Hymenoptera are more purely 
terrestrial than any other insects. None are known to be 
aquatic in the early stages, and only two genera have been found 

8 



114 HYMENOrTEKA. 

swimming in the adult state on the surface of pools, and they 
are the low, minute, degraded Proctotrupids, Prestv:i<-1n<i 
nattnts and Polynema nutaim described by Mr. Lubbock. The 
Hymenoptera do not imitate or mimic the forms of other in- 
serts, but, on the contrary, their forms are extensively copied in 
the Lepidoptera, and especially the Diptera. A partial excep- 
tion to this law is seen in the antennae of the Australian genus 
T/HtiiiHtitnstmHi, where they are long and slender, and knobbed 
as in the butterfly, and also in 7V//Wo///W nu'rahHi's of Smith, 
from Brazil. 

The Hymenoptera, also, show their superiority to all other in- 
sects in the form of their degraded wingless species, such as 
J'<'Z<>ni<t<-/inx. the workers of Fonitira and the female of 3fntiUd. 
In these forms we have no striking resemblances to lower orders 
and suborders, but a strong adherence to their own Hymenop- 
terous characters. Again ; in the degradational winged forms, 
we rarely find the antennsv pectinated ; a common occurrence 
in the lower .suborders. In a low species of the Apiaria 3 , 
Lamprocolletes rlmlm-cms, from Australia, that land of anom- 
alies, the antenna? are pectinated. This, Mr. F. Smith, the 
best living authority on this suborder, says, " is certainly the 
most remarkable bee that 1 have seen, and the only in- 
stance, to my knowledge, of a bee having pectinated antenme ; 
such an occurrence, indeed, in the Aculeate Hymenoptera is 
only known in two or three instances, as in Psammotherma flub- 
eUttta amongst the MutiUidw, and again in Ctntvwntx Khujii 
in the Pompilidce; there is also a modification of it in one or 
two other species of PompiUdw ." Among the Tenthre- 
d i a )(lu>, the male Lopltyrus has well-pectinated antenna?, as 
also has Cladomacra macropus of Smith, from New (riiinea 
and Celebes. 

The wings of perhaps the most degraded Hymenoptera, the 
Proctotrupidce, are rarely fissured; when this occurs, as in 
Pteratomus Pudnimii, they somewhat resemble those of Ptvro- 
pJwrus, the lowest moth. It is extremely rare that the com- 
pound eyes are replaced by stemmata, or simple eyes ; in but 
one instance, the genus Antliopliorabia, are the eyes in the 
male sex reduced to a simple ocellus. This species lives in the 
<larkness of the cells of Anthophora. 



Al'lARI.'E. H5 

By reason of the permanence of the type, due to the high 
rank of these insects, the generic and specific characters are 
founded on very slight differences, so that these insects, and 
particularly the two higher families, the Wasps ( T>-s/>/doe) and 
Bees (Apiariw) are the most difficult insects to stud}". The 
easiest characters for the recognition of the genera, lie in the 
venation of the wings ; though in the fossorial families the legs 
vary greatly. The best specific characters lie in the sculptur- 
ing and style of coloration, but the spots and markings are apt 
to vary greatly. The great differences between the sexes are 
liable to mislead the student, and hence large collections are 
indispensable for their proper study. Bees act as "marriage 
priests" in the fertilization of plants, conveying pollen from 
flower to flower, and thus insuring the formation of the fruit. 
It is said that many plants could not be fertilized without 
the interposition of Bees. 

Their interesting habits deserve long and patient study; it 
is tor their observations on the insects of this suborder that the 
names of Reaumur, the two Ilubers, and Latreille will be ever 
held in special remembrance. 

Most Hymenoptera love the sun, and they may be caught 
while flying about flowers. The nests of bees, wasps, and ants 
should be sought for and the entire colony captured, together 
with the parasites. The hairy species should be pinned while in 
the net, and the naked ones can be put in the collecting-bot- 
tle. The larger species may be pinned, like other insects, 
through the thorax ; but the minute Chalcids, etc., should be 
gummed, like small Coleoptera, upon cards. 

The nests of bees and of wasps and ants and the young iu 
various stages of growth should be collected, and in such num- 
bers as to show their different stages of construction, to serve- 
as illustrations of insect architecture. 

APIARIJE Latreille (Apidcc Leach). This and those families 
succeeding which are provided with a true sting, were called 
by Latreille Hymenoptera Aculeata. The male antennae are 
mostly thirteen-jointed, while in the female they are twelve- 
jointed. The females (and the workers, when they exist) 
feed the larvae, which mostly live in nests or cells. 



11(5 HYMENOrTEKA. 

Iii the social Bees, besides the normal male and female forms, 
there are asexual females, whose inner genital organs are partly 
aborted, though externally only differing in their smaller size 
from the true females. The male antenme are longer, tapering 
more towards the tips, and the eyes of the male approach each 
other closer over the vertex than in the opposite sex, though 
these are characters which apply to other Hymenoptera. The 
mouth-parts are in the higher genera greatly elongated, the 
labium being long, with the lingua of great length, and the 
lobes of the maxilla? long and knife-shaped ; but these parts. a> 
well as the form of the jaws, are subject to great modifications 
in the different genera : the labial palpi are four-jointed, and 
the maxillary palpi are from one to six-jointed. The hind 
tibia and basal joint of the tarsi are, in the pollen-gathering 
species, very broad ; the tibia is in Apis and Bombus hollowed 
on the outside, and stiff bristles project over the cavity from 
each side of the joint, forming the honey-basket (eorbiailnm), 
on which the u elodden masses of honey and pollen" are con- 
veyed to their nests. In the parasitic genera, such as Aptlms, 
the tibia is, on the contrary, convex, rather than concave, 
though of the usual width ; while in Nomada, also parasitic, 
the legs are narrow, the tibia not being dilated. 

In Andrena and its allies, Halictus and Colletes, the mouth- 
parts, especially the tongue, are much shortened, thus afford- 
ing a passage into the Vespiclce . In these genera the tongue 
is folded back but once between the horny encasement of the 
maxillae, but in the higher Apiariw the part formed by the 
union of the lingua and maxilla is twice bent back, and thus 
protected by the horny lobes of the inaxill*. The fore-wings 
have two or three subcostal (cubital) cells. 

There are two thousand species of this family. The differ- 
ences between the larvae of the various genera of this family 
are very slight, those of the parasitic species are, however, 
readily distinguished from their hosts. 

The higher Apiarim, comprising the subfamily Apinix, have 
the ligula long, cylindrical, while the labial palpi have two 
very long, slender, compressed basal joints, and two short 
terminal joints. 

The genus Apis has no terminal spurs on the hind tibi;e, 



APIAKI^E. 117 

while the fore-wings have three subcostal (cubital) cells, the 
middle of which is elongated and acutely wedge-shaped. The 
eves iu the male are united above ; the mouth-parts are nearly 
aborted, and the hind legs are smooth. In the female there 
are two paraglossaf on the lignla, and the maxillary palpi 
are one-jointed. The worker only differs externally from the 
female in the shorter abdomen. 

The larva of the Honey-bee closely resembles that of Bom- 
bus, but the body is shorter, broader, and more flattened, while 
the head is less prominent, and the lateral tubercles along the 
body are, perhaps, less prominent than in the young Humble- 
bee, otherwise the two genera are, in the larval state, much 
alike. In its natural position, the larva lies at the bottom of 
the cell doubled upon itself. 

Though the larva? are said usually to feed upon pollen, 
Mr. Desborough states that honey alone is the food of the 
grub, as he reared 729 larva> with no other food than honey. 
But as with the wild bees they may extract honey from the 
pollen provided for them. He says the matured bees may be 
observed feeding at night on the bee-bread (pollen). Lang- 
stroth (The Hive and Honey-bee), however, states that "pol- 
len is indispensable to the nourishment of the young. It is 
very rich in the nitrogenous substances which are not contained 
in the honey." 

The Honey-bee, Apis mellifica, is now distributed over the 
civilized world. It was introduced into this country during 
the seventeenth century, and into South America in 1845 (Ger- 
staecker). The Italian, or Ligurian, bee is considered by F 
Smith as being a climatic variety. 

The cultivation of the Honey-bee is rapidly increasing in this 
country, but the German Bee-masters have made the most pro- 
gress in theoretical and practical Bee-culture. Convenient 
hives are now constructed by which all the operations of the 
bees can be observed at leisure. Gersta?cker thus sums up 
the habits of the Honey-bee : A fertilized queen which, with a 
few workers, has wintered over, lays its eggs in the spring first 
in the worker, and afterwards, at a later period, in the drone- 
cells (both arranged in two perpendicular rows of cells). Early 
in summer, the workers construct the larger flask-shaped queen- 



US HYMENOPTERA. 

cells, which are placed on the edge of the comb, and in these 
the queen-lame are fed with rich and choice nourishment. 
As soon as the first of the new brood of queens is excluded 
from its cell, which it indicates by a peculiar buzzing noise, the 
old queen deserts the nest, carrying away with her a part of the 
swarm, and thus forms a new colony. The recently excluded 
queen then hikes its marriage flight high in the air with a 
drone, and on its return undertakes the management of the 
hive, and the duty of laving eggs. When another queen is 
disclosed, the same process of forming a new colony goes on. 
When the supply of young queens is exhausted, the workers 
fall upon the drones and destroy them without mercy. The 
first brood of workers live about six weeks in summer, and 
then give way to a new brood. Mr. J. G. Desborough states 
that the maximum period of the life of a worker is eight months. 
The queens are known to live five years, and during their whole 
life lay more than a million eggs (V. Berlepsch). Langstroth 
states that 'during the height of the breeding season, she 
will often, under favorable circumstances, lay from 2,000 to 
3,000 eggs a day." According to Von Siebold's discovery 
only the queens' and workers' eggs are fertilized by sperm- 
cells stored in the receptaculum xemhns, and these she can 
fertilize at will, retaining the power for four or five years, 
as the muscles guarding the duct leading from this sperm-bag 
are subject to her will. Drone eggs are laid by unfertilized 
queen-bees, and in some cases even by worker-bees. This last 
fact has been confirmed by the more recent observations of 
Mr. Tegetmeier, of London. 

Principal Leitch, according to Tegetmeier, has suggested the 
theory that a worker egg may develop a queen, if transferred 
into a queen-cell. "It is well known that bees, deprived of 
their queen, select several worker-eggs, or very young larvae, 
for the purpose of rearing, queens. The cells in which these 
eggs are situated are lengthened out and the end turned down- 
ward." He suggests that the development into a queen was 
caused by the increased temperature of the queen-cell, above 
that of the worker-cells. 

But Messrs. F. Smith and Woodbury (Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of London, January 2, 1862) support F. 



AI'IAKIJE. H9 

Huber's theory, that the change is due to "'the quality as well 
as quantity of food with which the royal larva i.s supplied," 
though Dr. Leitch objects, that it has been by no means con- 
clusively proved " that the so-called royal jelly differs in any 
respect from the ordinary food supplied to the worker larva ; " 
and Mr. Woodbury cites the experiments of Dzierzon, as 
quoted by Kleine, "that as Huber, by introducing some royal 
jelly in cells containing worker-brood, obtained queens, it may 
be possible to induce bees to construct royal cells, when the 
Apiarian prefers to have them, by inserting a small portion of 
royal jelly in cells containing worker-larva'." Kleine takes "an 
unsealed royal cell which usually contains an excess of 
royal jelly and removes from it a portion of the jelly, on 
the point of a knife or pen, and by placing it on the inner 
margin of any worker cell, feels confident that the lame in 
them will be reared as queens." 

Before these points are settled we must study the habits of 
the Wild Bees, and of the other social Hymenoptera and White 
Ants, together with the social Aphides more carefully. Mr. F. 
W. Putnam pertinently states, "at present I cannot believe 
that the peculiarity of food, or the structure of the cells, pro- 
duces a difference of development in Humble-bees, for the lar- 
vae, as has been previously stated, were seen to make their own 
cells from the pollen paste. Is it not more natural to believe, 
as has been suggested to me by Professor J. Wyman, that the 
difference in the development of the eggs is owing to their be- 
ing laid at various times after impregnation? Thus, if I urn 
right in supposing that the queens are impregnated by the 
males late in the summer, the eggs, laid soon after, produce 
the large queen larva? ; * the next set of eggs, laid in the spring, 
produce the workers, or undeveloped females, while from those 
deposited still later, male bees are principally developed." 
(Proceedings of the Essex Institute, Salem, vol. iv, 18G4, p. 
103.) 

Referring to Mr. Putnam's statement that there are both small 
and large queens (besides the workers), Dr. Gerstaecker infers, 

*Dr. Gerstaecker, on the other hand, states that "from the brood-cells of a nest 
of Rambus muscorum, found by him on the 18th of September, there were devel- 
oped at the end of the same month only workers." 



120 11YMENOPTEUA. 

'from the examination of numerous individuals found flying in 
tin- spring after hibernation, that these could not be considered 
as true queens, since their ovaries were only moderately devel- 
oped, though larger than those of the workers, while in the 
true queen, captured in the summer, the ovaries were perfectly 
developed. This corresponds almost entirely to what we find 
in the wasps, whose spring females have only moderately de- 
veloped ovaries." 

How the Honey-bee builds its cells, and whether they are ex- 
actly hexagonal, are questions that have interested the best 
observers from Maraldi who wrote in 1712, and Reaumur, 
whose Jlemoires appeared in 1740, down to the present date. 
Their solution involves not only the closest observation of the 
insect while at work, but also the shrewdest judgment to ex- 
plain the facts observed and deduce a legitimate theory. Does 
the bee intelligently plan her work out beforehand, or does she 
follow the guidance of what is called instinct? Does she 
construct hexagonal cells which are mathematically exact, 
or does she vary the proportions of each cell, so that it is per- 
fect only in its general ideal form? Again, in making the cell, 
is the bee actually capable of making such a cell alone, or is it 
due to the resultant action of several bees? Professor J. Wy- 
man is of the latter opinion, as he thinks ''that if left alone to 
build a single cell, this would most probably be round. In the 
cells of Melipona, as Huber's plate shows, they are only hex- 
agonal when in contact with the adjoining cells." (Proceed- 
ings of the Boston Society of Natural Histoiy, x, p. 27-s, 
1866.) 

A similar view is that proposed in 1862 by the Rev. Samuel 
llaughton, in a paper read before the Natural History Society 
of Dublin, where he says, according to Mr. F. Smith, that the 
hexagonal form of the cell " may be accounted for simply by the 
mechanical pressure of the insects against each other during 
the formation of the cell. In consequence of the instinct that 
compels them to work with reference to a plane, and of the 
cylindrical form of the insect's body, the cells must be hex- 
agonal." 

Mr. G. R. Waterhouse (Transactions of the Entomological 
Society of London. Third series, vol. ii, p. 129, 18G4) has 



121 

proposed what has been called the ''circular theory," or what 
the author himself terms "the principle of working in seg- 
ments of circles." He contends " that the hexagonal form of the 
cells of certain bees and wasps may, and does, arise out of this 
mode of action when under certain conditions ; that those condi- 
tions are, that the cells are so commenced that their natural cir- 
cumferences, as the work proceeds, are either simply brought 
into contact with each other, or that the cells are so placed that 
the (we will say theoretical) circumferences must intersect. 
Contact with adjoining cells, then, is an essential condition to 
bring about the hexagonal form as I have before pointed out 
(See Proceedings of the Entomological Society, 1858, p. 17) ; 
but for this result it is not necessary that a hexagonal cell 
should be completely surrounded by other cells." 

Is not this theory, after all, too mechanical? Is not our bee 
more of a free agent ? Does it not have a mind to design its 
work ? Mr. F. Smith, who has devoted years to the study of 
Ilymenoptera, especially the higher forms of this suborder, the 
Bees and Wasps, replies to both theories of Waterhouse and 
Ilaughton, by bringing in the case of the Wasps which also 
build hexagonal cells, showing that a solitary wasp will build 
its cells in very regular hexagons. Thus the nest of the soli- 
tary Wasp, Icaria guttatipennis, "consists of a double row, the 
number of cells being ten ; I now direct your attention to the 
fact that all the cells are perfectly hexagonal, the exterior 
planes being as beautifully finished as those in contact with 
the inner planes of the opposing cells. I have placed a draw- 
ing of this nest (Plate 5, Fig. 7) in the box on the table, and I 
particularly wish you to observe, that the first cell is carried 
up in a perfectly hexagonal form above the adjoining cells ; a 
proof that, if Wasps never build perfect isolated hexagonal cells, 
they certainly possess the capability of doing so. The exterior 
of all the cells, as I before observed, is hexagonal, not cylindri- 
cal, until fresh cells are added on the outer side, as was ob- 
served to be the case in combs of the Hive-bee, by 31 r. 
Tegetmeier." (Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
London. Third series, ii, 18G4, p. 135.) 

An examination of the cells of three species of Polistes (the 
female of which begins alone in the spring to build her nest 



122 HYMKNOPTEKA. 

the cells of which are afterwards greatly increased in number 
after the first brood of females appeal 1 ), convinced us that 
the Wasp begins with the circular cup-shaped form of cell, and 
when about depositing an egg in it, changes her mode of ope- 
rating, builds up the edges into a hexagonal form, and carries 
up the rim of each cell independently to its required height. 
She thus apparently changes her plan at a certain stage of the 
work, and is so far a free agent. 

Mr. Smith also exhibited a portion of the nest of another 
wasp, Tatua Morio (Plate 5, Fig. 9), that proved to his mind 
the primary intention of the wasp instinctively to build cells 
with exactly six sides. The figure represents part of one of 
the fiat floors, on which the foundations of the cells are laid in 
regular hexagons, instead of beginning in hemispherical cups. 

Mr. Smith (p. 141) concludes, '"that all hexagonal cells are 
not constructed upon a circular principle, and that the primary 
idea of all social bees and wasps is not to produce cylindrical 
cells with hemispherical bases." 

In this connection the following extract from Mr. Smith's 
remarks is of interest : tk lt may not be known that in order to 
expedite the building of honey -combs, it is a common practice 
with bee-keepers in Germany to furnish hives with artificial 
foundations for the cells ; these consist of sheets of wax, upon 
which is impressed a series of pyramidal hollows ; in fact, the 
counterpart of a comb built by the bees themselves, entirely 
deprived of the cell-walls ; and it is from such a piece of comb 
that the casts for the artificial foundations are obtained. A 
piece of casting of this description I lay before you, and I par- 
ticularly call your attention (addressing the members of the 
Entomological Society of London) to the commencement of the 
outer cells ; you Avill see, in some instances, a single plane of 
the hexagonal cell commenced, in others two or three are in 
progress ; here you have a ground-plan supplied, or, I may say, 
the foundations of the habitations ready prepared, upon which 
the laborers are to raise the walls, and you may see how admi- 
rably they have done it. Instinct enables the bee to construct 
hexagonal cells without teaching, and, we are told, in one un- 
ileviating manner. Surely the example before us exhibits an 
amount of intelligence on the part of the bees in availing them- 



!:>:> 

selves of such adventitious aid. Must we not henceforth, 
when speaking of the marvels of the hive or the vespiary, erase 
from our vocabulary such terms as blind instinct ; and must we 
not cease to stigmatize the bee as a mere machine?" 

At the meeting of the same society held Feb. 1, 18G4, Mr. 
F. Smith exhibited a collection of Wasps' nests, one of T>.sy" 
/v(/, the rest of T 7 ". vulgaris ; they were in various stages of 
formation, the earliest consisting of only a single cup contain- 
ing the first egg, others consisting of three or four cups, whilst 
others again were more complete. The whole had been arti- 
ficially obtained by Mr. Stone, who tempted the wasps to build 
by excavating holes in banks and furnishing them with foot- 
stalks ; in fact, Mr. Stone appeared to possess the power of 
inducing wasps to build nests of almost any shape he 
pleased. 

But to return to the cell of the Bee. It should first In- 
proved that the cells are not exactly and mathematically per- 
fect hexagons, though sufficiently so for the purpose for which 
they are used. In the Proceedings of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, vol. vii, 1866, Professor Wyman has, by 
a most careful as well as novel and ingenious mode of investiga- 
tion, proved that the cells are all more or less imperfect, and 
that a hexagonal cell mathematically exact, does not exist in 
nature, but onl}' in theory. 

The form of the cell is liable to marked variations, chief 
among which the following may be mentioned, in the author's 
own words : 

" 1. The diameters of workers' cells may so vary, that ten 
of them may have an aggregate deviation from the normal 
quantity equal to the diameter of a cell. The average varia- 
tion is a little less than one half that amount, namely, nearly 
0.10 inch, in the same number of cells. 

U 2. The width of the sides varies, and this generally in- 
volves a variation of the angles which adjoining sides make 
with each other, since the sides vary not only in length but in 
direction. 

"3. The variation in the diameters does not depend upon 
accidental distortion, but upon the manner in which the cell 
was built. 



124 



HYMENOPTERA. 




B 



4. The relative size of the rhombic faces of the pyramidal 
base is liable to frequent variation, and this where the cells are 
not transitional from one kind to another. 

' k 5. When a fourth side exists in the basal pyramid, it may 
be in consequence of irregularity in the size of the cells, or of 
incorrect alignment of them on the two sides of the comb." 

Sometimes one of the faces is lost, and a new one formed, 
so that all the basal portion of the cell becomes reversed, as 
ABC will be seen by refer- 
ence to Figs. 73 and 
74 ; the first repre- 
7:J - senting the cells when 

the base is viewed, and the second when looked at perpendic- 
ularly to one of the sides. In both figures A indicates the 
ordinary form of the cell. The whole 
scries of Fig. 74 shows the gradual 
introduction of the new face, which 
is seen on the lower border, and the 
elimination of one of the original faces, 
which is seen on the upper border. At 
B, which is intermediate between the 
two extremes, the four faces consist of two equal rhombs, 
one of which is the outgoing and the other the incoming one, 

and two equal hexagons. B, Fig. 
74, represents the sides of the same 
cell, which, instead of forming three 
trapeziums, as at A, , b, c, now 
form two pentagons, a' and c', and a 
parallelogram, b'. At C, Figs. 73 
and 74, the forms are in all respects 
the reverse of those of A. A and C 
are symmetrical with each other, and 
B is symmetrical in itself. No pre- 
Fig. 75. cise number " of cells is necessary 

for the purpose of making this transition, for it may take 
place in two or three, or extend through a long series, as in 
Fig. 73. 

"0. Ordinarily, the error of alignment does not amount to 
more than one or two diameters of a cell. But occasionally 



a v 
Fig. 



c 

4. 



C " 





APIARI^E. 



125 



the rows of cells on one side of the comb may deviate from 
their true direction with regard to those on the other, to the 
extent of 30." 

"Thus, if a piece of normal comb be held in the position in 
which it was built, two of the opposite angles of the hexagon, 
Fig. 75, A, ft, will be in the 
same vertical line, and two 
of the sides will be parallel 
to this. The same is true 
of the opposite side of the 

g.. ; T "I f 

comb ; and thus all the cor- 
responding parts of the cells 
on the two sides will be par- 
allel. In the deviation we 
are now noticing, the change 
is like that represented in A, 
where the cell is in its 
true position, while the cell 
/>, which is from the oppo- 
site side, and is in contact 
with ft, varies from it by 
about 30. If we look at 
these two cells in the direc- 
tion of their sides as at B, 

g 

the prism a will have one Fig. 70. 

of its angles towards the eye, and b one of its sides. 

In consequence of this deviation and the continual crossing 
of the rows on opposite sides, the pyramidal base is not made, 

and the cell is shortened. 

" 7. In curved or bent combs the 
cells on the concave side tend to be- 
come narrower, while those on the 
other tend to become broader to- 
wards their months. In Fig. 7(> 
(this and Figs. 77 and 78 are made 
from impressions obtained directly 

from the comb and transferred to wood ; they represent the 
form of the cells exactly), as in the central line of cells, there 
are a variety of hexagons, each resulting from the union 





12f> 



HYMENOPTJSRA. 



of two cells, the base being double while the mouth is 
single. That 011 the line o, 1>, has three sides at one end, 
united by two long sides with one at the other, and thus two 
of the opposite sides are not parallel ; at c, d, two sides at 

6 




' ff 



either end are united by two long sides, these last being par- 
allel ; and at e, /, the mouth of the compound cell has seven 
sides. Each has a partition at its base, separating the two 
originally distinct cells, and each was lined with a cocoon, 
showing that it had been used for rearing young. At y, not 
oulv has the partition between the combining cells disappeared, 
but also three of the sides of each cell." 

The bees do not appear to have any systematic way of mak- 
ing a transition from worker to drone cells, which are one-lifth 
larger than the former. More commonly, they effect it by a 
gradual alteration of the diameters, thus enlarging a worker 
into a drone, or narrowing a drone into a worker cell. This 
alteration is usually made in from four to six rows. In one ease 



APIATCOR. 127 

"Professor Wyman noticed tlie transition made with only one 
cell, as in Fig. 78, bnt not without destroying the regularity of 
the two adjoining rows. 

u ln consequence of the, gradual narrowing or widening of 
the transition cells, the comb tends to become more or less tri- 
angular and the cells to become disturbed. The bees counter- 
act this tendency by the occasional intercalation of an additional 
row, of which two instances are given in Fig. 78, at a and A, 
where three rows of worker cells are continuous with two of 
drone cells, f, d and ?, /'; or, reversing the statement, and 
supposing the transition, as in the building of the comb, is 
from worker to drone-cells, a row of the latter is from time to 
time omitted as the rows a and 1> ; in this way, the regularity of 
the comb is preserved." 

Honey-cells are formed either by enlarging the ordinary 
brood-cells, or adding them to others often larger, or by con- 
structing a new comb, devoted entirely to the storing of honey. 
"While the cells of this last are built unequivocally in accord- 
ance with the hexagonal type, they exhibit a range of variation 
from it which almost defies description." 

No Ichneumon-flies are known to attack the larva of the 
Honey-bee, nor in fact, with few exceptions, any of the wild 
bees, owing, probably, to the difficulty of their gaining across 
to them, since Anomalon resparum has been reared from the 
cells of wasps which are more exposed than those of bees. 
But the Honey, as well as the wild bees, are afflicted by a 
peculiar assemblage of insect-parasites, some of which have 
the most remarkable habits. The most formidable pest of the 
Hive-bee is the Bee Fly, Phora incmssata, which in Europe 
sometimes produces the well-known disease called "foul- 
brood." The Bee-louse, Braula cwca, is, in Europe, sometimes 
troublesome to the adult bee, while Tricliodcs npiarins, a beetle, 
devours the larva 1 . The larva? of Mdoe and Styhps are known 
in Europe to infest the Honey-bee, and among the low intesti- 
nal worms Assmus enumerates Gordlns subbifurcus which in- 
fests the drones of the Honey-bee as well as other insects. 
Professor Siebold has also described Mermis albicanx, which 
is a similar kind of hair-worm, from two to five inches long, 
and whitish in color. This worm is also found, strangely 



128 HYMENOPTERA. 

enough, only in the drones, though it is the workers which 
frequent watery places (where the worm deposits its eggs) to 
appease their thirst. The Wax-moths, Galleria cereana ami 
Achroia alrearia, do much harm by consuming the wax and 
thus breaking down the cells, and by tilling the hive with 
their webs.* 

The genus Apis is indigenous in South America, though the 
Honey-bee has been extensively introduced into the AVest In- 
dies. Our Honey-bee is replaced in the tropics by the stingless, 
minute bees, which store up honey and live in far more numer- 
ous colonies. The cells of Melipona are hexagonal, nearly 
approaching in regularity those of the Hive-bee, while the 
honey-cells are irregular, much larger cavities, which hold about 
one-half as much honey as a cell of the Humble-bee. From a 
paper on the Brazilian Honey-bees, read by Mr. F. Smith be- 
fore the Entomological Society of London, March, 18G3, he 
states that the Meliponas are small insects, having winrjs shorter 
tfiaii the abdomen, the latter being very convex and oblong; 
their mandibles never being dentate ; while the Trir/onas have 
the wings more ample, and longer than the abdomen, which is 
short, somewhat triangular, while the mandibles are serrated, 
denticulate, or sometimes edentate. The Meliponas are re- 
stricted to the new world, while Tri<joiw extends into Africa, 
India, and Australasia. 

"All these bees are honey gatherers, but the honey collected 
by the different species varies greatly in quality: from the 
nests of some it is excellent ; from others, worthless. The 
honey of the species ^ Mombnm' is said to be black and sour, 
the quality being dependent on species of flowers from which 
the honey is collected. This great difference in the honey of 
the various species is apparently confirmatory of the fact that 
each species confines itself to particular flowers, never visiting 
any other kind. The different relative length of the tongue in 

* EXPLANATION OF PLATE 2. Parasites of the Honey-bee. Fig. 1, 1'hnra incrnx- 
sata; Fig. 2, pupa; Fig. 3, larva. Fig. 4, Branla cceca; Fig. 5, larva. Fig. C, Tri- 
choiles ctpiarius .- a , larva ; l>, pupa. Fig. 7, Afelov angusticollis : Fig. 8, freshly hatche< 1 
larva; Fig. 9, second stage of larva; Fig. 10, first stage of semi-pupa; Fig. 11, 
pupa. Fig. 12, Stylops Child-rent in the body of a wild bee, Andrena; Fig. i:, top 
view of the same removed from its host; Fig. 14, male of the same; a, side view. 
Fig. 15, Mucor mellitophorus, a parasitic, fungus. Fig. 16, unknown larva found in 
nest of Humble-bee. Descriptions of the insect parasites will be given beyond. 



Plate 3. 



3a 




.PARASITES OF WILD BEES. 



Al'lAKI.E. 129 

llu- species is also confirmatory of the same supposition; in- 
deed, the great diversity in this respect observable in these 
bees, appears to me to be analogous to a similar diversity in the 
length of the bills of humming-birds, which, it is well known, 
are always adapted for reaching the nectaries of the particular 
flowers which they usually frequent." 

In regard to the immense numbers of individuals in a col- 
onv, Mr. Stretch, who collected them at Panama, "found a 

J ' 

nest several feet in length in the hollow of a tree, containing 
thousands of individuals, their numbers being, as he informs 
me, apparently countless. 

"Gardner, in his travels, gives a list of such species (of 
Melipona) as he met in the provinces of Piauhy and Goyaz, 
where he found them numerous ; in every house, he says, 'you 
find the honey of these bees ; ' many species, he tells us, build in 
the hollow trunks of trees, others in banks ; some suspend 
their nests from branches of trees, whilst one species constructs 
its nest of clay, it being of large size ; the honey of this spe- 
cies, he says, is very good." (Smith.) 

In a nest of Trigona carbonana from Eastern Australia, 
Smith, of the British Museum, found from 400 to 500 dead 
workers crammed in the spaces between the combs, but he 
did not find a female among them. The combs are arranged 
precisely similar to those of the common wasp. The number of 
honey-pots, which are placed at the foot of the nest, amounted 
to 250. 

Smith inclines to the opinion that the hive of Trigona con- 
tains several prolific females ; "the accounts given of the mul- 
titudes inhabiting some nests is too great, I think, to render it 
possible that one female could produce them all. Mr. Stretch 
described a hive that he saw, occupying the interior of a decay- 
ing tree, that measured six feet in length, and the multitude of 
bees he compared to a black cloud. M. Guerin found six fe- 
males in a nest of Melipona fulvipes" 

Hill states, in Gosse's Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica, 
"that the wax of these bees [Trigona] is very unctuous and 
dark colored, but susceptible of being whitened by bleaching. 
The honey is stored in clusters of cups, about the size of 
pigeon's eggs, at the bottom of the hive, and always from the 



l;',0 HYMENOPTERA. 

brood-cells. The brood-cells are hexagonal ; they are not 
deep, and the young ones, when ready to burst their casement, 
just h'll the whole cavity. The mother bee is lighter in color 
than the other bees, and elongated at the abdomen to double 
their length." Smith also states that the female of this genus 
has the abdomen greatly distended, reminding one of the 
gravid female of the White Ant. (Smith. Proc. Iv.-.t. Sue., 
London, Dec. 7, 1800.) 

In North America, our nearest ally, as regards its habits, of 
the true Honey-bee, is the Humble-bee (Bvitihiix), of which 
over forty species are known to inhabit North America. 

The economy of the Humble-bee is thus : the queen awakens 
in early spring from her winter's sleep beneath the leaves or 
moss, or in deserted nests, and selects a nesting-place generally 
in an abandoned nest of a field-mouse, or beneath a stump or 
sod, and "immediately," according to Mr. F. "NV. Putnam, 
"collects a small amount of pollen mixed with honey, and in 
this deposits from seven to fourteen eggs, gradually adding to 
the pollen mass until the first brood is hatched. She does not 
wait, however, for one brood to be hatched before laying the 
eggs of another ; but, as soon as food enough has been collected, 
she lays the eggs for a second. The eggs [Plate 4, Fig. 2] 
are laid, in contact with each other, in one cavity of the mass 
of pollen, with a part of which they are slightly covered. They 
are very soon developed ; in fact, the lines are nowhere dis- 
tinctly drawn between the egg and the larva, the larva and 
pupa, and again between the latter and the imago ; a perfect 
series, showing this gradual transformation of the young to the 
imago, can be found in almost every nest. 

"As soon as the larva? are capable of motion and commence 
feeding, they eat the pollen by which they are surrounded, and, 
gradually separating, push their way in various directions. 
Eating as they move, and increasing in size quite rapidly, they 
soon make large cavities in the pollen mass. "When they have 
attained their full size, they spin a silken wall about them, 
which is strengthened by the old bees covering it with a thin 
layer of wax, Avhich soon becomes hard and tough, thus form- 
ing a cell. [Plate 4, Figs. 1, 2.] The larva? now gradually 
attain the pupa stage, and remain inactive until their full (level- 



* 



Plate 2 



Fig. 1. 



. 3. Fig. 2. 




Fig. 9. 




Fig. 10. 





Fig. 4. 



Fig. 8. 




Fig. 14. 




Fig. 1-2. 






Fig. 15. 



Fig. 13. 




PARASITES OF THE HONEY BEE. 



APIARI^E. l;51 

opmont. They then cut their way out, and arc ready to assume 
their duties as workers, small females, males or queens. 

"It is apparent that the irregular disposition of the cells is 
due to their being constructed so peculiarly by the larva*. 
After the first brood, composed of workers, has come forth, 
the queen bee devotes her time principally to her duties at 
home, the workers supplying the colony with honey and pollen. 
As the queen continues prolific, more workers are added, and 
the nest is rapidly enlarged. 

u About the middle of summer eggs are deposited which 
produce both small females and males." . . . "All eggs laid 
after the last of July produce the large females, or queens ; 
jind, the males being still in the nest, it is presumed that the 
queens are impregnated at this time, as, on the approach of 
cold weather, all except the queens, of which there are several in 
each nest, die." (Putnam, Com. Essex lust., vol. iv, p. 98, 1804.) 

Besides Apathus, the larva? of various moths consume the 
honey and waxen cells ; the two-winged flies, Volucella and 
Conops, and the larvae of what is either an Anthomyia or 
Tachina-like fly ; several species of Anthrax, the Coleopterous 
Anobium paniceum of Europe, Meloe, Stylops, and Anthero- 
phagus ochraceus are parasitic on Humble-bees.* 

The habits of the genus Apathus are not clearly known, but 
they are supposed to prey, in the larva state, upon the larva 1 of 
Bombus, being found in their nests ; their habits, so tar as 
known, ally them with Nomarla. The species are distinguished 
by the tibire being convex, instead of concave, as in Bombus, 
while the mandibles of the females are acute, triangular, biden- 
tate, being spatulate and three-toothed in Bombus, and they 
have no pollenigerous organs. There are males and females 
only, as in all the remaining genera of the family. Apufhiis 
Ashtouii (Plate 3, Fig. 1) is found in the Northern States. 

* EXPLANATION OF PLATE 3. Parasites of the Humble and Leaf-cutter Bees. 
Fig. 1, Apathus Ashtonii. Fig. 2, Nephopteryx E<lman<Mi; ft, larva; b, pupa. Fig. 
3, 3, Microgaster nephoptericis, an Ichneumon parasite of Nephopteryx. Fig. 4, 
Antherophagus ochraceus. Fig. 5, Anthomyia ? larva ; a, side view. Fig. (i, Re- 
cently hatched larva of Stylops Childrenii; a, side view. Fig. 7, larva; a, pupa of 
Anthophorabia megachilis, a Chalcid parasite on Megachile. Fig. 8, rteratomn* 
Putnamii, an exceedingly minute Proctotrupid fly, supposed to be parasitic on An- 
thorphorabia megachilis ; a, a hind wing. Fig. !>, a Mite found in the nests of 
Humble-bees. 



132 HYMENOPTERA. 

Xi/Jo<'tip<i. the C'arpenter-bee. is "tin. 1 largest and most bulky 
of all known bees," but less hirsute than liombus, while the 
basal joint of the labial palpi is almost four times as long as 
tlie second; and the maxillary palpi are six-jointed, the mouth- 
parts being very highly organi/ed. The larva of X. Fm/ ////'<" 
(Plate 4, Fig. 3, adult ; Fig. 4, larva ; Fig. 3, nest) is slenderer 
than that of Bombus, the body tapering more rapidly towards 
eaeh end. 

The power of boring the most symmetrical tunnels in solid 
wood reaches its perfection in the large Virginian Carpenter- 
bee (Xi/1<i<-<>j>- Virt /illicit). AVe have received from Mr. James 
Angus, of West Farms, X. Y., a piece of trellis for a grape- 
vine, made of pine wood, containing the cells and young in 
various stages of growth, together with the larvre and chrysa- 
lids of Antlirox xin.iiuxa (Plate 4, Fig. (I, larva ; Fig. 7, pupa). 
a speeies of fly parasitic on the larva of tin- bee, and which 
buries its head in its soft body and feeds on its juices. 

Mr. Angus thus writes us regarding its habits, under date of 
July 1!> : "I asked an intelligent and observing carpenter yes- 
terday, if he knew how long it took the Xylocopa to bore her 
tunnel. lie said he thought she bored about one-quarter of an 
inch a day. I don't think myself she bores more than one- 
half inch, if she does that. If I mistake not, it takes her 
about two days to make her own length at the iirst start; but 
this being across the grain of the wood may not be so easily 
done as the remainder, which runs parallel with it. She always 
follows the grain of the wood, with the exception of the en- 
trance, which is about her own length. The tunnels run from 
one to one and a half feet in length. They generally run in 
opposite directions from the opening, and sometimes other gal- 
leries are run above the iirst, using the same opening. I 
think they only make new tunnels when old ones are not to be 
found, and that the same tunnels are used for many years. 
Nome of the old tunnels are very wide. I have found parts of 
them about an inch in diameter. I think this is caused by 
rasping oil' the sides to procure the necessary material for con- 
structing their cells. The partitions are composed of wood- 
raspings, and some sticky fluid, probably saliva, to make it 
adhere. 



A PI A KIM. I.)., 

"The tunnels arc sometimes taken possession of by other 
bees and wasps. I think when this is the case, the Xylor<>|>:i 
prefers making a new eell to cleaning out the mud and rubbish 
of the other species. I frequently find these bees remaining 
for a long time on the wing close to the opening, and bobbing 
their heads against the side, as if fanning air into the opening. 
I have seen them thus employed for twenty minutes. Whether 
one bee, or more, makes the tunnel, that is, whether the}- take 
turns in boring, I cannot say at present. In opening the cells, 
more than one are generally found, even at this season. About 
two weeks ago, I found as many as seven, I think, in one."* 

The hole is divided by partitions into cells about seven-tenths 
of an inch long. These partitions are constructed of the 
dust or clippings made by the bee in eating out her cells, for 
our actiA'e little carpenter is provided with strong cutting jaws, 
moved by powerful muscles, and on her legs are stiff brushes 
of hair for cleaning out the tunnel as she descends into the 
heart of the solid wood. She must throw out the chips she 
bites off from the sides of the burrow with her hind legs, pas>- 
ing the load of chips backwards out of the cell with her fore- 
limbs, which she uses as hands. 

The partitions are built most elaborately of a single flattened 
band of chips, which is rolled up into a coil four layers deep. 
One side, forming the bottom of the cell, is concave, being 

* " Since writing the above I have opened one of the new holes of Xylocopa 
which was commenced between three and four weeks ago, in a pine slat used in 
the staging of the greenhouse. The dimensions were as follows : Opening fully 
0-8 wide ; depth 7-l( ; whole length of tunnel i> and 5-16 inches. The tunnel branched 
both ways from the hole. One end, from opening, was 2 and 5-8, containing three 
cells, two with larva and pollen, the third empty. The other side of the opening-, or 
the rest of the tunnel, was empty, with the exception of the old bee (only one) at 
work. I think this was the work of one bee, and, as near as I can judge, about 
twenty-five days' work. Width of tunnel inside at widest !)-16 inch. 

For some days this bee has been discharging a great quantity of saw-dust and 
pollen, which I had collected by placing a vessel under it. It would seem that she 
had cells constructed also in the opposite side of the hole, and that she removed 
them to enlarge the tunnel. Among the stun" thrown out, I find a partition of a cell 
nearly entire. 

I have just found a Xylocopa bobbing at one of the holes, and in order to ascer- 
tain the depth of the tunnel, and to see whether there were any others in them, 1 
sounded with a pliable rod, and found others in one side, at a depth of live and one 
half inches ; the other side was four inches deep, without bees. The morning- wa- 
cool, so that the object in bobbing could not be to introduce fresh currents of air. 
bnt must have had some relation to those inside. The legs on such occasions are, 
as 1 have noticed, loaded with pollen/' American Naturalist, vol. 1, p. 370. 



1,')4 HYMENOPTERA. 

l)eaten down and smoothed off by the bee. The other side of 
the partition, forming the top of the cell, is flat and rough. 

At the time of opening the burrow. July <sth, the cells con- 
tained nearly full-grown larvae, with some half developed. 
They were feeding on the masses of pollen, which were as large 
as a thick kidney-bean, and occupied nearly half the cell. Sa- 
pyga repanda is parasitic in the cells of Xi/lorojxt riolawa of 
Southern Europe. 

The habits and structure of the little Cemthta ally it closely 
with Xylocopa, as it hollows out the stems of plants, and builds 
in them its cylindrical cells. This bee is oblong in form, with 
tridentate mandibles, and a short labrum. The maxillary palpi 
are six-jointed, and the labial palpi are two-jointed. Ceratimf 
(htpla Say is a common small bright-green smooth-bodied species, 
which, in the middle of May, according to Dr. Harris' MS. notes, 
tunnels out the stems of the elder or blackberry, syringa, or any 
other pithy shrub, excavating them often to a depth of six or 
seven inches, and also, according to Mr. Haldeman (Harris 
MS.), bores in Cocorus. She makes the walls just wide enough 
to admit her body, and of a depth capable of holding three or 
four, often five or six cells (Plate 4, Fig. 11 ). The finely built 
cells, with their delicate silken walls, are cylindrical and nearly 
square at each end. though the free end of the last cell is 
rounded off. They are four and a half tenths of an inch long, 
and a little over one-third as broad. The bee places them at 
nearly equal distances apart, the slight interval between them 
being tilled in with dirt. 

Dr. T. W. Harris* states that, "May 15, 1832. one female 
laid its eggs in the hollow of an aster-stalk. Three perfect in- 
sects were disclosed from it July J.Xth." The observations of Mr. 
Angus, who saw some bees making their cells, May 18th, also 
confirms this account. The history of our little upholsterer is 
thus cleared up. Late in the spring she builds her cells, fills 
them with pollen, and lays one or more eggs upon each one. 
Thus in about two months the insect completes its transforma- 
tions ; within this period passing through the egg, the larval 
and chrysalid states, and then, as a bee, living through the win- 
tcr. Its life thus spans one year. 

* According to a note iu MSS. deposited in the Library of the Boston Society of 
Natural History. 



APIARLflS. 135 

The lawn (Plato 4, Fig. 10) is longer than that of Mega- 
chile, and compared with that of Xylocopa, the different seg- 
ments are much more convex, giving a serrate outline to the 
I >ack of the worm. The pupa, or chrysalis, we have found in 
the cells the last of July. It is white, and three-tenths of an 
inch long. It differs from that of the Leaf-cutter bee in having 
four spines on the end of the body, and in having a much 
longer tongue and maxillae, both being almost twice as long. 

In none of the wild bees are the cells constructed with more 
nicety than those of our little Ceratina. She bores out with 
her jaws a long deep well just the size of her body, and then 
stretches a thin delicate cloth of silk, drawn tight as a drum- 
head, across each end of her chambers, which she then fills with 
a mixture of pollen and honey. 

Her young are not, in this supposed retreat, entirely free 
from danger. The most invidious foes enter and attack 
them. Three species of Ichneumon-flies, two of which belong- 
to the Chalcid family, lay their eggs within the body of the 
larva, and emerge from the dried larva and pupa skins of the 
bee, often in great numbers. The smallest parasite, belonging 
to the genus Anthophorabia (so called from being first known 
as a parasite on another bee, Anthophora), is a minute species 
found also abundantly in the tight cells of the Leaf-cutter bee. 

The species of Anthiclium, according to Smith, are gaily 
marked with yellow bands and spots ; the ligula is almost twice 
as long as the labial palpi, and acutely pointed ; the paragloss;e 
are short, the maxillary palpi are two-jointed, and there are two 
subcostal cells. The males are longer than the females, with an 
elongated and stoutly toothed abdominal tip. The female lines 
her nest, situated in any hole convenient for its purpose, with 
down from woolly-stemmed plants. They pass the winter in 
the larva state, and the bees do not appear until mid-summer. 
The species mostly occur in the old world. 

In Anthophora, which approaches nearer to Bombus in its 
plump and hairy body than the two preceding genera, the lig- 
ula is twice as long as the labial maxillae, ending in a bristle- 
like point ; the basal joint of the hind tarsus is thickly hirsute, 
while the middle tarsus of the males is generally elongated. 
The species are gregarious, their numerous cells, while indepen- 



\ 



136 HYMENOPTERA. 

dent, are crowded together in grassy banks. Species of 
Melecta are parasitic on them, ovipositing in their cells. The 
larva? are infected by the Chalcid flies, AiithophoraMa and 
Monodontomerus, and by a peculiar species of Mite, Ilete- 
rqpus ventricosns, described by Newport. Say has described 
Antlioplioru bniptu and A. tatirea from Indiana. 

In E'twra the antenna? are very long, while the body is still 
plump and hairy : our more common form in the Middle States 
is Ew-era nuiaildta St. Fargeau. The species are likewise 
gregarious, and. according to Smith, their habits are precisely 
the same as those of Anthophora. 

In Meyacltile, the Leaf-cutter Bee. the head is broad, the 
body stout, oblong, the ligula is about one-half longer than 
the labial palpi, being quite stout, while the paraglossiv art- 
short and pointed; the maxilla? are long and sabre-shaped, 
while their palpi are short and two-jointed. There are two 
subcostal cells in the fore wing. It is a thick-bodied bee, with 
a large square head, stout scissor-like jaws, and with a thick 
mass of dense hairs on the under side of the tail for the pur- 
pose of carrying pollen, since it is not provided with a pollen 
basket as in the Honey and Humble-bees. The larva is broader 
and natter than that of Bombus, the raised pleural region is a 
little more prominent, and the raised, thickened tergal portion 
of each ring is more prominent than in Bombus. 

The Megachile lays its eggs in burrows in the stems of the 
elder (Plate 4, Fig. 9), which we have received from Mr. 
James Angus ; we have also found them in the hollows of the 
locust tree. Mr. F. "VV. Putnam thus speaks of the economy 
of M. centuncularis, our most common species. kt My attention 
was first called, on the 26th of June, to a female busily en- 
gaged in bringing pieces of leaf to her cells, which she was build- 
ing under a board, on the roof of the piazza, directly under 
my window. Nearly the whole morning was occupied by the 
bee in bringing pieces of leaf from a rose-bush growing about 
ten yards from her cells, returning at intervals of a half minute 
to a minute with the pieces which she carried in such a manner 
as not to impede her walking when she alighted near her hole. 
[We give a figure of the Leaf-cutter bee in the act of cutting 
out a circular piece of a rose-leaf (Plate 4, Fig. 8). She 



aliii'hts upon the lent', and in a few seconds swiftly runs her 
scissors-like jaws around through the leaf, bearing off the 
piece in her hind legs.] About noon she had probably com- 
pleted the cell, upon which she had been engaged, as, during 
the afternoon, she was occupied in bringing pollen, preparatory 
to laying her single egg in the cell. For about twenty days 
the bee continued at work, building new cells and supplying 
them with pollen. . . .On the 2Sth of July, upon removing 
the board, it was found that the bee had made thirty cells, 
arranged in nine rows of unequal length, some being slightly 
curved to adapt them to the space under the board. The 
longest row contained six cells, and was two and three-quarters 
inches in length : the whole leaf-structure being equal to a 
length of fifteen, inches. Upon making an estimate of the 
pieces of leaf in this structure, it was ascertained that there 
must have been at least a thousand pieces used. In addition 
to the labor of making the cells, this bee, unassisted in all her 
duties, had to collect the requisite amount of pollen (and 
honey?) for each cell, and lay her eggs therein, when com- 
pleted. Upon carefully cutting out a portion of one of the 
cells, a full-grown larva was seen engaged in spinning a slight 
silken cocoon about the walls of its prison, which were quite 
hard and smooth on the inside, probably owing to the move- 
ments of the larva, and the consequent pressing of the sticky 
particles to the walls. In a short time the opening made was 
closed over by a very thin silken web. The cells, measured on 
the inside of the hard walls, were .35 of an inch in length, and 
.15 in diameter. The natural attitude of the larva is some- 
what curved in its cell, but if straightened, it just equals the 
inside length of the cell. On the 31st of Juby, two female 
bees came out, having cut their way through the sides of their 
cells." In three other cells "several hundred minute Ichneu- 
mons [Anthophorabia megachilis] were seen, which came forth 
as soon as the cells were opened." (Com. Essex Inst., A'ol. iv, 
p. 105, 1864.) 

Megachile integer Say MS., according to Dr. Harris (MS. 
notes), forms its nest of leaves the first of August. This spe- 
cies is twice as large, but closely resembles Megachile brevis of 
Say. The front of the head is covered with dense ochreous 



138 HYMEXOPTERA. 

hairs, becoming shorter and black on the vertex. The ne.st, 
preserved in the Harris collection, now in the Museum of the 
Boston Society of Natural History, is made of rose-leaves, and 
is scarcely distinguishable from that of M. centuncularis, 

ON //</<(, the Mason Bee, is another genus of Carpenter or 
I'pholsterer bees. The species are generally bluish, with 
greenish reflections, with smooth shiny bodies, and the species 
are of smaller size than in Megachile. The tongue in this 
genus is three times as long as the labium, tapering from the 
base to the acute apex, and clothed Avith short hair. 

Mr. F. Smith states that the larva of the English species 
hatch in eight days after the eggs are laid, feeds ten to twelve 
days, when it become.s full-grown, then spins a thin silken 
covering, and remains in an inactive state until the following 
spring, when it completes its transformations. 

The habits of the little Mason-bees are quite varied. They 
construct their cells in the stems of plants and in rotten posts 
and trees, or, like Andrena, they burrow in sunny banks. An 
European species selects snail-shells for its nest, wherein it 
builds its earthen cells, while other species nidificate under 
stones. Curtis found two hundred and thirty cocoons of a 
British species (Osmia paretina) , placed on the under side of 
a flat stone, of which one-third were empty. Of the remainder, 
the most appeared between March and June, males appearing 
first ; thirty-five more bees were developed the following spring. 
Thus there were three successive broods for three succeeding 
years, so that these bees lived three years before arriving at 
maturity. 

Mr. (T. R. Waterhouse, in the Transactions of the Entomo- 
logical Society of London, for 1X64 (3d series, vol. 2, p. 121 ), 
states that the cells of Osmia leucomelana ''are formed of mud, 
and each cell is built separately. The female bee, having de- 
posited a small pellet of mud in a sheltered spot between some 
1 lifts of grass, immediately commences to excavate a small 
cavity in its upper surface, scraping the mud away from the 
centre towards the margin by means of her jaws. A small 
shallow mud-cup is thus produced. It is rough and uneven on 
the outer surface, but beautifully smooth on the inner. On 
witnessing thus much of the work performed. I was struck witli 



Al'IAEI^E. 139 

three points. First, the rapidity with which the insect worked ; 
secondly, the tenacity with which she kept her original position 
whilst excavating ; and thirdly, her constantly going over 
work which had apparently been completed. . . . The lid is 
excavated and rendered concave on its outer or upper surface, 
and is convex and rough on its inner surface ; and, in fact, is a 
simple repetition of the first-formed portion of the cell, a part 
of a hollow sphere." 

The largest species of Osmia known to us is a very dark-blue 
species which seems to be undescribed. We will call it the 
wood-boring Osmia (Osmia liynivora). It is larger than 
the Osmia lignaria of Say, being just half an inch long. The 
head is much shorter, and less square than in Say's spe- 
cies. The front of the head below the antenna' is clothed with 
dark hairs, but above and on the thorax with yellowish ochreous 
hairs. The body is deep blackish blue, with greenish reflec- 
tions. We are indebted to a lady for specimens of the bees 
with their cells, which had been excavated in the interior of a 
maple tree several inches from the bark. The bee had industri- 
ously tunnelled out this elaborate burrow (Plate 4, Fig. 12), 
and, in this respect, resembles the habits of the Carpenter-bee 
(Xijlocopa} more closely than any other species of its genus. 

The tunnel was over three inches long, and about three- 
tenths of an inch wide. It contracted a little in width between 
the cell, showing that the bee worked intelligently, and wasted 
no more of her energies than was absolutely necessary. The 
burrow contained five cells, each half an inch long, being 
rather short and broad, with the hinder end rounded, while the 
opposite end, next to the one adjoining, is cut off squarely. 
The cell is somewhat jug-shaped, owing to a slight constriction 
just behind the mouth. The material of which the cell is com- 
posed is stout, silken, parchment-like, and very smooth within. 
The interstices between the cells are filled with rather coarse 
chippings made by the bee. 

The bee cut its way out of the cells in March, and lived for 
a month afterwards on a diet of honey and water. It eagerly 
lapped up the drops of water supplied by its keeper, to whom 
it soon grew accustomed, and whom it seemed to recognize. 

The female of Osmia liynaria Say MS., according to Dr. 



140 HYMENOPTERA. 

Harris' MS. notes, was found in the perfect state in cocoons 
within earthen cells under stones, April lf>th. The cell she con- 
structs is half an inch long, oval, cylindrical, and contracted 
slightly into a sort of neck jnst before the opening for the exit 
of the bee. From Mr. James Angus I have received the pellets 
of pollen, about the size of a pea, in which it deposits its eggs ; 
the larvae were about one-third grown in August. 

This species is larger than Osmia siiniUin< of .Smith, while 
the male antenna; are much paler, being fuscous. The front 
of the head is covered with long dense yellow ochreous hairs. 
The vertex is not of so dark a green as in 0. simittima, and 
is covered with coarse punctures. The thorax is heavily clothed 
with yellow ochreous, thick hairs. The abdomen is yellowish, 
and much more hairy. The legs are stout, fuscous, with yel- 
lowish hairs. Length, .35 inch. 

Our smallest and most abundant species is the little green 
Osniia siixilliinH of Smith. It builds its little oval, somewhat 
urn-shaped cells, against the roof of the large deserted galls of 
the oak-gall fly ( Diplolepis confluentus), placing them, in this 
instance, eleven in number, in two irregular rows, from which 
the mature bees issue through a hole in the gall (Plate 4,* Fig. 
14. From specimens communicated by Mr. F. G. Sanborn). 
The earthen cells, containing the tough dense cocoons, were 
arranged irregularly so as to fit the concave vault of the larger 
gall, which was about two inches in diameter. On emerging 
from the cell the Osmia cuts out with its powerful jaws an 
ovate lid, nearly as large as one side of the cell. Both sexes 
may be found in April and May in the tlowers of the willow 

* KXIT. \\ATION OF PLATE 4. Fig. 1, a cell of the Humble-bee; natural .-i/c, 
with tlu' pollen mass upon the top. Fig. 2, end view of the same mass, showing 
the three eggs laid in three divisions of the cavity. Fig. 3, Xi/loropa 1'iryinicfi, the 
Carpenter Bee. Fig. 4, the larva of Xylocopa Virginia! : natural size. Fig. 5, 
the nest containing the cells of the same, with the partitions and pollen musses, 
on which the young larva is seen in the act of feeding; natural size. Fig. (I, 
young larva of Anthrax sinuosa; side view. Fig. 7, pupa of Antlirii.c sinm>*<i, 
side view; natural size. Fig. 8, the Leaf-cutter Bee (MeyaehUe), on a rose leal, 
in the act of cutting out a circular piece. Fig. 9, cells of Megachile, in the elder: 
natural size. Fig. K), larva of ('criitiiin (li//,l,i, the little green Upholsterer Bee; 
enlarged. Fig. 11, cells of the same in the stem of the elder; natural size. Fig. 
1-J, cells of Osmiii lii/iiinini, new species, the wood-devouring Mason-bee, exca- 
vated in the maple : natural size. Fig. I,'!, cells of Oxmitt simillima, the common 
green Mason-bee, built in the deserted gall of the Oak-gall Fly. Fig. 14, a single 
earthen cell of the same: natural si/.c. Fig. 15, pollen mass, or bee-bread of 
Oxiiiin Hi/ii<ii-iii: natural si/e. It is made up of distinct pellets of pollen, which 
are probably stuck together with saliva. 



Plate 4. 




ARCHITECTURE OF BEES. 



:. ill 

and fruit trees which blossom Inter. The antennae are black, 
and the green body is covered with fine white hairs, becoming 
yellowish above. 

In the Harris collection are the cells and specimens of O.s//<m 
p(-ijka. Say, the peaceful Osmia, which, according to the man- 
uscript notes of Dr. Harris, is found in the perfect state in 
earthen cells (Plate 5, Fig. 2) beneath stones. The cell is oval 
cylindrical, a little contracted as usual with those of all the spe- 
cies of the genus, thus forming an urn-shaped cell. It is half 
an inch long, and nearly three-tenths of an inch wide, while the 
cocoon, winch is rather thin, is three-tenths of an inch long. 

The following genera, called Cuckoo Bees, are parasitic on 
other bees, laying their eggs in the cells, or nests, of their host. 
In Ccetioxys the body is stout, and the bee closely mimics its 
host, Megachile. The ligula is very long, being almost three 
times the length of the labium, and the paraglossffi are wholly 
wanting ; the maxillary palpi are short, three-jointed, and the 
abdominal tip of the male is variously toothed. Codioxys octo- 
dentata Say, is abundant late in the summer about flowers. An 
allied genus, Melecta, is parasitic on Anthophora, and Epeolnx is 
parasitic on Colletes. 

The species of Nomada are very numerous ; in all, the tongue 
is long and acute, with paraglossae about one-fourth as long- 
as the tongue ; the maxillary pair of palpi are six-jointed ; 
and there are three subcostal cells. The species in their slen- 
der, smooth, gaily colored bod}*- resemble the wasps. These 
Cuckoo-bees lay their eggs in the nests of Andrena and Ha- 
lictus, and, according to English authors, Panurgus and Eucera, 
where they may be found in all stages of development corre- 
sponding to those of their hosts. The females do not sting 
severely. The species emit sweet, balmy, or balsamical odors. 
Shuckard states that these bees should be killed with burning- 
sulphur to preserve their bright colors. 

The larvae differ greatly from those of their hosts, Andrena. 
the head being much smaller, the body being smoother and 
rounder, and belonging to a more degraded, lower type. The 
whole body is more attenuated towards both extremities. 
The pupa differs from those of any other genus of this family 
known to us, except Andrena, by having three conspicuous 



142 HYMENOPTERA. 

spines on the upper and posterior edge of the orbit, which are 
also found in the pupa of Stigmus, a Crabronid genus, and which 
evidently aid in locomotion. Thus the same law of degrada- 
tion obtains in these highly organized bee-parasites as in the 
lower parasitic species, though in a much less marked degree. 

From specimens found in the nests of Andrena and Ilalictus, 
collected at .Salem by Mr. J. H. Einerton, and now in the Mu- 
seum of the Essex Institute, we have been enabled in great 
part to clear up the history of this bee. We have found in the 
nests of Andrena vicina both sexes of Nomad a imbrlcata Smith, 
and several females of Nomada pulchella of Smith ; and in the 
cells of Halictus parallelus Say, specimens of Nomada imhri- 
cata. Both full-grown larvae and pupae of different ages, up 
to the adult Nomada, ready to take leave of its host, were 
found in the cells of the Andrena vicina. It seems, there- 
fore, that the newly hatched young of Nomada must feed 
on the pollen mass destined for the Andrena. But there 
seems to be enough for both genera to feed upon, as the young 
of both host and parasite were found living harmoniously to- 
gether, and the hosts and their parasites are disclosed both at 
the same time. Does not this mild sort of parasitism in No- 
mada throw much light on the probable habits of Apathus, the 
Humble-bee parasite? It is more than probable that the Apa- 
thus larva? simply eat the food of the Bombus larva?, and do 
not attack the larva? of their hosts. Both Nomada and Apathus 
in their adult stages live harmoniously with their hosts, and 
arc seen gathering food from the same flowers, and flying about 
the same nest. 

In the second subfamil}-, Andrenetce, the ligula, or tongue, is 
for the most part short and broad, and the maxillary palpi 
have four joints of equal size. 

In Sphecodes the body is smooth and wasp-like, and in its 
habit of running and flying in dry sandy places, it resembles 
Sphex, whence its generic name. The abdomen is generally 
light red, farther aiding in the resemblance to the Spliegidci' . 
The ligula is short, lancet-shaped, fringed with seta? ; the para- 
glossa? are not so long as the tongue, while the labial palpi are 
shorter than the paraglossa?, and the maxillae are broad, lan- 
ceolate, with six-jointed palpi. The antenna? of the males are 



APIAUI^E. 143 

short and sometimes moniliform. Sphecwl's dickroa I Ian-is is 
our most common species. Mr. F. Smith, from direct observa- 
tion, states that this genus builds cells, though earlier authors 
have stated that it is parasitic on Ilalictus and Andrena. 

Prosopis is generally yellow on the face, and is "less pubes- 
cent than airy of the bees." The tongue is broad, subemar- 
ginate, the paraglossae reach a little beyond the tongue ; the 
labial palpi are as long as the tongue, while there are two sub- 
costal cells in the fore wings. Smith states that the genus is 
not parasitical as formerly supposed, as he has "repeatedly 
bred them" from cells laid in a regular order in the hollow of 
bramble stems. Mr. S. Saunders has also raised them in Alba- 
nia where '"they construct their cells in bramble sticks (which 
they bore in the same manner as Colletes) with a thin transpa- 
rent membrane, calculated for holding semi-liquid honey, which 
they store up for their young. The species are much attacked 
by Stylops." Like Sphecodes and Ceratina, this genus, accord- 
ing to Smith, is unprovided with pollenigerous organs. We 
have several species in this country of which P. affinis Smith, 
and P. elUptica Kirby, are found northward. The habits of 
our species are not known. 

Augochlora comprises beautiful shining metallic green spe- 
cies, very commonly met with. The thorax is globose, and 
the anterior wings have one marginal and three submarginal 
cells ; the first submarginal cell as long as the second and third 
united. Augochlora pur us Smith is a small, green, rather 
common species. Mr. J. H. Emerton has found its nests in Sa- 
lem, near those of Andrena. The mouth of the hole opened 
under a stone, and was built up so as to form a tube of sand 
(Plate 5, Fig. 1). The burrow on the 28th of June was four 
inches deep. 

Andrena is a genus of great extent, and the species are often 
difficult to distinguish. The lanceolate tongue is moderately 
long, and the paraglossse are half as long as the tongue itself, 
while the six-jointed maxillary palpi are longer than the maxilla* 
themselves. The wings have three subcostal cells, with the 
rudiments of a fourth one ; the second is squarish, and the 
third receives a recurrent nervure near the middle. The pos- 
terior legs u have a long curled lock upon the trochanter be- 




]44 HYMENOPTERA. 



neath, and the anterior upper surface of the femora is clothed 
with long loose hair, which equally surrounds the whole of the 
tibia?." (Shuckard.) The abdomen is banded more or less 
conspicuously with reddish. 

The larva ( Fig. 80) is stout and thick, with a head of moder- 
ate size, and the mouth-parts are a little shorter than usual, the 
maxillae and labium especially. The segments of 
the body are much more convex (angularly so) 
than usual, giving a tuberculate outline to the 
body. It is stouter than that of Halictus, the 
wino-s are less convex than in that genus ; while the 

o "^ 

maxilloe are much stouter and blunter. The pupa 
is distinguished from the other genera by much the 
same characters as the imago, except that there 
Fig. 70. are WO tubercles on the vertex near the ocelli. 
From a comparison of all its stages, this genus stands inter- 
mediate between those placed above, and Halictus, which, in 
all its characters, is a more degraded form. The males often 
differ widely from the other sex, in their broad heads and widely 
spreading bidentate mandibles. 

.Mr. Emerton has observed the habits of our most common 
species, Andrena vicina Smith, which builds its nest in grassy 
fields. The burrow is sunken perpendicularly, Avith short pas- 
sages leading to the cells, which are slightly inclined downwards 
and outwards from the main gallery. The walls of the gallery 
are rough, but the cells are lined with a mucus-like secretion, 
which, on hardening, looks like the glazing of earthen-ware. In 
Fig. 80 Mr. Emerton gives us a profile view of natural size of 
the nest showing the main burrow and the cells leading from it ; 
the oldest cell, containing the pupa (a) is situated nearest the 
surface, while those containing larviB (b) lie between the pupa 
and the cell (e) containing the pollen mass and egg resting 
upon it. The most recent cell (/) is the deepest down, and 
contains a freshly deposited pollen mass. At c is the begin- 
ning of a cell ; y is the level of the ground. The bees were 
seen at work on the 4th of May, at Salem, Mass., digging their 
holes, one of which was already six inches deep ; and by the 
loth, hundreds of holes were observed. On the 28th of May, 
in unearthing six holes, eight cells were found to contain pol- 



145 



len, and two of them a small larva. On the 2'Jth of June six 
full-grown larva- were exhumed, and one about half-grown. 
About the first of August the 
larva transforms to a pupa, and 
during the last week of this month 
the mature bees appear. 

In Halicttis, which is a genus 
of great extent, the head is trans- 
verse, and fiattish ; the month- 
parts are of moderate length, the 
tongue being very acute, with 
acute paraglossre half the length 
of the tongue, while the labial 
palpi are not quite so long as 
the paraglossas. There are three 
subcostal cells in the wings, with 
the rudiments of a fourth often 
present, and the second cell is 
squarish. The abdomen is ob- 
long ovate, with a longitudinal 
linear furrow on the tip in the 
female. In the males the body l 
is longer and the antenmv more 
filiform and slender than usual in 
this family. 

The larvae are longer, and with 
more acutely convex segments 
than in Andrena. The pupa? 
differ much as the adult bees from 
Andrena, especially in the shorter 
month-parts. Fig. so. 

Halicttis parallelus Say excavates cells almost exactly like 
those of Andrena ; but since the bee is smaller, the holes are 
smaller, though as deep. Mr. Emerton found one nest, in a 
path, a foot in depth. Another nest, discovered September Uth, 
was about six inches deep. The cells are in form like those of 
Andrena, and like them are glazed within. The egg is rather 
slender and much curved; in form it is long, cylindrical, ob- 
tuse at one end, and much smaller at the other. The larva 

10 






HYMENOPTERA. 

(Figs. 79, <S1) is longer and slenderer, and quite different from 
the rather broad and flattened larva of Andrena. The body is 
rather thick behind, but in front tapers slowly 
towards the head, which is of moderate size. Its 
body is somewhat tuberculated, the tubercles aid- 
ing the grub in moving about its cell. Its length 
is .40 of an inch. On the pupa are four quite dis- 
tinct conical tubercles forming a transverse line 
Fig. si. j us ^ i n f ro nt of the ocelli ; and there are also 
two larger, longer tubercles, on the outer side of each of 
which an ocellus is situated. Figure 82 represents the pupa 
seen from beneath. 

Search was made for the nests on July 16th, when 
the ground was very hard for six inches in depth, 
below which the soil was soft and fine, and over 
twenty cells Avere dug out. lk The upper cells 
contained nearly mature pupae, and the lower ones 
larvae of various sizes, the smallest being hardly 
distinguishable by the naked eye. Each of these 

Fi" 82 

small larvae Avas in a cell by itself, and situated 
upon a lump of pollen, Avhich Avas of the size and shape of a 
pea, and Avas found to lessen in size as the larva grew larger. 
These young Avere probably the offspring of several females, 
as four mature bees were found in the hole." (Emerton.) 
The larva of an English species hatches in ten days after the 
eggs are laid. 

Another brood of bees appeared the middle of September, 
as on the ninth of that month (1864) Mr. Emerton found SCA*- 
eral holes of the same species of bee made in a hard gravel 
road near the turnpike. When opened, they Avere found to 
contain several bees with their young. September 2, 1867, the 
same kind of bee Avas found in holes, and just ready to leave 
the cell. 

Like Bombus, the females are supposed to hybernate, the 
males not appearing until late in the season. Like Andrena, 
these bees suffer from the attacks of Stylops, and according to 
Shuckard, an Ichneumon preys upon them, Avhile certain spe- 
ries of Cerceris, Philanthus, and Crabro carry them off to store 
their nests Avith. 



VESPARI^C. 147 

In Colletes the females, as Shuckard observes, resemble the 
workers of the Honey-bee, while there is considerable disparity 
between the sexes, the males being much smaller, the tongue 
and maxilla? very short ; and the four-jointed labial palpi 
much shorter than the paraglossae. There are three subcostal 
cells, with the rudiments of a fourth. These bees form large colo- 
nies, burrowing in the earth eight or ten inches deep, lining their 
cells "atthe farther end with a very thin transparent mem- 
branaceous coating, resembling goldbeaters' skin." They thus 
furnish six or eight cartridge-like cells, covering each with a 
cap, lt like the parchment on a drum-head." Smith, from whom 
we have been quoting, states that Miltogramma punctata, which 
is a Tachina-like fly, and the Cuckoo-bee, Epeolus variegatus, 
have, in Europe, been reared from their cocoons. 

VESPARI.E Latreille, Wasps. In this family, which comprises 
about 900 species, the body is more attenuated, more cylindri- 
cal, with a harder and smoother tegument than in the Apiariw . 
In the species with densely populated colonies, such as Vespa 
and Polistes, there are workers which are often very numerous, 
while in Eumenes and Odynerus, etc., there are only males and 
females. The antennae are elbowed, the mandibles are large, 
stout ; the maxillae and labium of varying length ; the maxil- 
lary palpi are six-jointed ; while on the labial palpi, which are 
four-jointed, there are well-developed paraglossae. The pro- 
thorax is prolonged on each side to the insertion of the wings 
which are long and narrow, and once folded longitudinally 
when at rest ; the fore pair have two or three subcostal cells ; 
the hind shanks and tibiae are smooth. The eggs, when first 
laid, are globular, soon becoming oval. 

The larvae of this family are soft, fleslry, with larger heads in 
proportion to the rest of the body, than in the Apiariw; 
the antennal tubercle, or rudimentary antennae, are more dis- 
tinct, and the mandibles are larger. The surface of the body 
is smoother in Vespa and Polistes, but more tuberculated in the 
solitary genera, Odynerus and allies, while the end of the body 
is more acute. 

As in the Apiarice the higher genera are social, building 
papery nests, while the lower are solitary and build cells of mud 
or sand in protected places. 



148 HYMENOPTEKA. 

Ill Vespa, the Paper Wasp, the ligula is squarish, with the 
paraglossae nearly as long as the tongue, the outer maxillary 
lobes rounded oval, half as long as the palpi, and the labial 
inaxilhe are scarcely longer than the tongue. The abdomen 
is broad at base, acutely conical. The nests are either with or 
without a papery covering, supported by a short pedicel. 

.Such females as have cybernated, begin to make their 
cells in the early part of summer. Smith states that the soli- 
tary female wasp " begins by making three saucer-shaped re- 
ceptacles, in each of which she deposits an egg ; she then 
proceeds to form other similar -shaped receptacles, until the 
eggs first deposited are hatched and the young grubs require a 
share of her attention. From the circular bases she now be- 
gins to raise her hexagonal cells, not building them up at once, 
but from time to time raising them as the young grubs grow. 
(Proc. Ent. Soc., London, 1858, p. 35.) 

Waterhouse states that the cells formed by the solitary fe- 
male early in the season appear " to be built entirely of glisten- 
ing, whitish, silk-like threads which I have little doubt are a 
secretion from the insect, all the threads being firmly attached 
together as if they had originally been of a glutinous nature." 
The cells formed later in the season by the workers, differ 
in consisting of masticated rotten wood. "Almost simultane- 
ously with the commencement of the cells, it appears that the 
nest-covering is commenced. At first it has the appearance of 
a miniature umbrella, serving to shelter the rudimentary cells." 
Plate 5, Fig. 3, shows a group of cells surrounded by one 
layer of paper, and the beginning of another. As the nest 

grows larger the cells are ar- 
ranged in galleries, supported by 
pedicels, and the number of 
layers in the outside covering 
greatly increases in number. 

While our common and largest 
species, Vespa tnaculata Linn. 
(Fig. 83), and the yellow wasp, 
Fte- 83- Fl areraan'aFabr., build papery 

nests consisting of several galleries, with the mouth of the cells 
directed downwards, the East Indian species, V. orientalis, 







VESPARI^E. 149 

builds its cells of clay, and, according to Waterhouse, "the 
work is exceedingly beautiful and true." Another species, 
according to Smith, makes its nest of sand}' loam, the exterior 
being so hard that a saw used in opening one of its sides was 
blunted. 

The larva of Vespa arenaria is long and cylindrical, not 
so much curved as in Polistes. Its position in its cell corre-- 
sponds to its form, as the cell is longer and narrower than that 
of Polistes. Each segment of the body is posteriorly some- 
what thickened, as is the lateral (pleural) ridge of the body. 
The tip of the abdomen is rather blunt, the last sternite be- 
ing large and transverse. The pupa is provided with a single 
tubercle on the vertex, where there are two in the Crabroii- 
idte and Sphegidm. 

By the time the nest of V. arenaria is large enough to 
contain ten full-grown larvae, and has about fourteen cells in 
all, being about an inch in diameter, the occupants of the two 
or three central cells will have changed to pupae, and one wasp 
will have been excluded. 

In a nest of the same species two inches in diameter, there 
were a second brood of larvae. The outer row of cells were 
occupied by pupae, while the central ones, emptied of the first 
brood, were filled with a second brood of larva?. Evidently as 
soon as an imago leaves its cell, the female deposits an egg 
therein, as very minute larvae were found occupying cells next 
to those containing large full-grown larvae. 

In comparing a number of pupae from a large nest, they 
will be found to be in all stages of perfection, from the 
larva which has ceased feeding, and is preparing to transform, 
to the imago, still veiled by its thin subimago pellicle. It is dif- 
ficult to draw lines between these stages. Also when com- 
pared closely side bj* side, it is difficult, if not impossible to find 
any two pupae just alike, the development proceeding very un- 
equally. Thus the limbs may be more perfect than the antennae, 
or certain parts may be less perfect in some than in others, while 
the limbs may be more highly colored like the imago. 

Like the bees, Vespa suffers from numerous parasites, includ- 
ing Rhipiphorous paradoxus, which i^ a beetle allied to Stylops, 
and Lebia (Uromius) linearis. The larva of Volucella is said 



150 HYMENOPTEKA. 

to teed on the Vespa-larvse, and Mr. Stone sa}'s that Anthomvia 
incana is also parasitic in A\ r asps' nests, while two species 
of Ichneumons, one of which is Anomalon vespartun, also in- 
fest the larvne. No parasites have been as yet detected in this 
conn try. 

The Hornet, V. crabro Linn., has, according to Mr. Angus, 
become domesticated about New York. This and the smaller 
wasps are sometimes injurious by eating into ripe fruit, but the 
injury is more than counterblanced by the number of flies and 
other insects they feed their young with. 

Indeed, as Saussure states, the species of Vespa are moiv 
omnivorous in their tastes than any other wasps. They live by 
rapine and pillage, and have obtained a worse repute than other 
insects more injurious. In spring and early summer they feed on 
the sweets of flowers ; but later in the season attack strawber- 
ries, plums, grapes, and other fruits, and often enter houses and 
there help themselves to the dishes on the table. They will eat 
raw meat, and then aid the butcher by devouring the tiles that 
lay their eggs on his meats. They will sometimes destroy Honey- 
bees, attacking them on their return from the fields laden with 
pollen ; they throw themselves upon their luckless victims, and 
tear the abdomen from the rest of the body, and suck their 
blood, devouring only the abdomen. They fall upon ihes :md 
butterflies, and, biting otf their wings, feet, and head, devour 
tin- trunk. In attacking insects they use only their powerful 
jaws, and not the sting, differing in this respect from the 
fossorial wasps. 

Saussure states that though wasps do not generally lay up 
food, yet at certain periods they do fill the cells with honey. 

The females feed their young with food chewed up and re- 
duced to a pulp. Saussure questions whether the larva- of one 
sex are not fed on animal and the other on vegetable food, 
since Huber had shown u what a great influence the kind of 
food exerts on the sex of Bees." But it is now known that the 
sexes of some, and probably all insects are determined before 
the larva 1 is hatched. I have seen the rudiments of the ovi- 
positor in the half-grown larv;e of the Humble-bee, and it is 
most probable that those rudiments began to develop during 
embryonic life. It is far more probable that the sexual differ- 
ences are determined at the time of conception. 



VESPARLE. 151 

Westwood states that the larva?, which live head-downward 
from the reversed position of the comb, retain their position in 
the cell, while young, by a glutinous secretion, and afterwards 
"by the swollen front of the bod}" which fills the open part of 
the cell." "The female cells are mostly placed apart from 
those of the males and neuters, those of the males being often 
mixed, but in a small number, in the neuter combs. The egg 
state lasts eight days, the larva state thirteen or fourteen, and 
that of the pupa about ten. After the imago has been produced, 
one of the old workers cleans out the cell, and fits it for the 
reception of a fresh inhabitant. The upper tier of cells, being 
first built, serves for the habitation of the workers ; the females, 
being produced at the end of the summer, occupy the lowest 
tiers." When about to transform the larvae spin a thin cover- 
ing, thus closing over the cell. 

In Polistes the paraglossse are slender, and a little longer 
than the long, or as in one instance noticed by us in P. C<nm- 
densis, barrel-shaped ligula, which is split at the end ; the palpi 
are stouter, while the whole body is much longer than in Vespa ; 
the abdomen is subpedunculate, and the thorax is rather ob- 
long than spherical, as in Vespa. 

The larva differs from that of Vespa in its much larger head, 
and shorter, more ovoid form of the body, which is dilated in 
front so as to retain the insect in its cell, while the tip is 
more acute ; the antenna! tubercles are closer together ; the 
clypeus is more regularly triangular and more distinct, while 
the labrum is much larger and excessively swollen, as are the 
mouth-parts generally. The mandibles are bidentate, where in 
Vespa they are tridentate. The pupa differs from that of Vespn , 
besides the usual generic characters, in having the tubercle on 
the head smaller. 

The nests of Polistes (Plate 5, Fig. 4, nest of P. uiiinilnrix 
Fabr., from Saussure) are not covered in by a papery wall as in 
Vespa, but may be found attached to bushes, with the mouth 
of the cells pointed downwards. While at Burksville Junction, 
Va., in the last week of April, I had an opportunity of watch- 
ing three species beginning their cells on the same clump of 
bushes. They all worked in the same method, and the cells 
only differed slightly in size. The cells were formed mostly of 



l.')2 HYMENOPTERA. 

crude silk, and the threads could be seen crossing each other, the 
.same structure being observed at the top and bottom ol' each 
cell. 

In the three-celled nest of Polistes (Plate 5, Fig. .">, 5 a) 
first noticed April 29th, there were but two eggs deposited, the 
third cell being without an egg, and a little smaller, and 
the rim not so high as in the other two. The outer edge did 
not sei-in to be perfectly circular, though stated by Water- 
house to be so in the incipient cells, for in some cases we de- 
tected two slight angles, thus making three sides, which, 
however, would be easily overlooked on casual observation ; 
as there are only two sides within, the cell, from being at its 
earliest inception hemispherical, or * saucer-shaped," becomes 
five, and subsequently six-sided, and thus from being cir- 
cular, it is converted by the wasps into a hexagonal cell. In 
some cells, perhaps a majority, both in this and the other spe- 
cies, the newly made rim of the small cells is thinner than the 
parts below, and slightly bent inwards : thus being quite there- 
verse of the thickened rim of the cells of the Hive Bee. It 
would seem that the wasp plasters on more silk, especially on 
the angles, building them out, and making them more promi- 
nent, in order to complete, when other cells are added, their 
hexagonal form. The three cells are of much the same size 
and height when the third egg is laid, as we observed in another 
nest, that of l^olistes Canadensis (Linn.), built at the Defences 
of Washington, near Munson's Hill, June 9th. 

Again, when one or two more cells have been added to the 
nest, and there are four or five in all (Plate 5, Fig. (i ; G, top 
view, in which there are lour cells), two of them are nearly 
twice as large as the others, Avhile the fifth has been just begun, 
and is eggless. The form of the two which run up much higher 
than the others is the same as that of the smaller and shorter 
ones, i.e. they are on one side nearly semicircular, and on the 
other, partly hexagonal, and the angular sides show a tendency 
to be even more circular than when the others are built around 
them, for the little architect seems to bring out the angles 
more prominently when carrying up the walls of the other cells. 
Tims she builds, as if by design, one and the same cell both 
by the kk circular" and "hexagonal" methods, afterwards adopt- 






VESPARKK. If,;', 

ing only the hitter, and if she devotes her attentions specially 
to plastering the corners alone, with the design of making the 
cell six-sided, then we must allow, contrary to Mr. Water- 
house's views, that the wasp builds the hexagon by choice, and 
not as the mere result of her blindly "working in segments of 
circles ;" for if our point be proved, and the most careful obser- 
vation of the wasp while at work is needed to prove it, then it 
may be shown that the wasp is a free agent, and can abandon 
one method of working at a certain stage of her work, and 
adopt a different mode of operating. 

The eggs are oval, pointed at the end,' and glued to the in- 
side of the cell. They are situated midwaj' from the top and 
bottom of the incipient cell, and placed on the innermost sides, 
so that in a group of several cells the eggs are close together, 
only separated by the thin cellular walls. In a completed cell 
the egg is placed very near the bottom. 

For several days a Polistes Canadensis \\&s engaged in build- 
ing its nest in my tent in camp near Washington. When first 
noticed on June 9th, there were three cells, two of which con- 
tained eggs ; and it was not for two days, the 1 1th, that the 
third cell was completed, and a third egg deposited in it. The 
wasp paid especial attention to strengthening the pedicel, going- 
over it repeatedly for an hour or two with its tongue, as if lay- 
ing on more silken matter, and then proved the work by its 
swiftly vibrating antennae. It would often fly out of the tent, 
and on its return anxiously examine each cell, thrusting its head 
deep down into each one. It gradually became accustomed to 
my presence, but eventually abandoned the nest, without adding 
more cells. The others, while at work on the bushes, abscond- 
ed at my approach, and seemed very wary and distrustful, as 
if desirous of concealing their abodes. Mr. Smith has found 
Triymatys bijmstulatus to be a parasite on Polistes lanio Fabr. 
(P. Canadensis Linn.), from St. Salvador, S. A. 

Saussure arranges the higher Vespidae into two parallel series. 
Vespa is offset by Chartergus and Nectarina ; lower down we 
find Tatua and Synoeca, while Polistes is offset by Polybia. 
These five genera are tropical, and in their habits, the general 
appearance of their nests, and in the number of individuals 
represent Vespa and Polistes of the temperate zone. The 



154 HYMEXOPTERA. 

genus Nectarina is a short plump wasp, somewhat like Odync- 
rus iu shape ; its distinguishing mark is the concealment of 
the postscutellum by the scutellum. Nectarina mellifica Say, 
of Mexico, builds a large nest externally like that of a wasp, 
but it is more irregular, and the papery covering consists of 
but one layer. The interior of the nest is very different, the 
galleries of cells, instead of being parallel, being arranged in 
concentric spheres. 

Chartergus has the tip of the clypeus slighted excavated, and 
an oval sessile abdomen. C. charturius Olivier makes an ex- 
ceedingly thick tough nest, attached by a broad base to the 
bough of a tree, about twice as long as thick, and ending in a 
cone, pierced in the centre by the entrance which passes 
through the middle to the basal gallery ; the other galleries are 
formed by a continuation of the sides of the nest, and arranged 
in a conical plane. 

In Tatua, the abdomen is pedicelled, but the petiole is not 
enlarged, and the abdomen itself is very regularly conical. T. 
m.orio Cuvier, from Cayenne, forms a nest like that of Charter- 
o;us ; but the galleries form a flat floor, and each gallery has tin 

~ O 

entrance from the outside of the nest, where in the latter there is 
one common entrance. Plate 5, Fig. 9, shows how the base -4 
of the cells are laid out on the edge of a gallery. In ,S'//>'"' (- " 
the peculiarly shaped abdomen is cordate and compressed. The 
curious nest of /S. c;/anea Fabr. is formed of a single layer of 
cells fixed against the trunk of a tree, and covered in with a 
dense covering made from the bark of dead trees. Some nests 
of Symeca are three feet long. In the very extensive genus 
Poli/bia, which resembles Polistes in its general shape, the abdo- 
men is pedicelled, and the mandibles are four-toothed. The nests 
are somewhat like those of Chartergus, but much smaller. Sev- 
eral species occur in Mexico, and in Brazil the number of 
species is very great. In Apo'ica the abdomen is very long, 
and the third segment is as long as the second. Plate f>. Fig. 
11, represents the nest of Apo'icii /mlHda Olivier, from Cayenne. 
It is unprotected, with a conical base, and with a single row 
of cells. 

In Icaria we have an approach to Polistes in the slender 
series of cells composing the nest, forming two or three rows 



VESPARI^E. 

only. Plate 5, Fig. 7, represents the nest of /. (f 
Saussure, from Senegal ; 8, ground plan of a similar nest. These 
wasps are mostly distinguished from Polybia by the petiole 
ending in a globular mass. Plate 5, Fig. 10, represents 
the elegant nest of Mischo<'ijttrns labiatus Fabr., from Cay- 
enne and Brazil, which consists of a few cells supported by a 
long pedicel. The wasp itself much resembles Polistes, but 
the petiole is very much longer. 

The remaining genera noticed here are solitary, building 
separate cells, and with only males and females. There are 
three subcostal cells in the fore wings, and the maxillae and 
labium are much elongated. 

In Eumenes the abdomen has a long pedicel, being sessile in 
Odynerus. While authors place Eumenes higher than Ody- 
nerus, we would consider the latter as a higher, more cepha- 
lized form, since the abdomen is less elongated, and the head 
is larger. 

In Odyiierus the ligula is long, deeply forked at the 
slender extremity, while the slender paraglossa? are shorter, 
ending in a two-toothed claw-like tip ; the maxilla 1 are slender, 
and the palpi have an elongated basal joint ; the clypeus is 
nearly circular, toothed on the front edge. The larva ditTers 
from those of the higher Ve sp a r i w , in its more elongated head, 
the square clypeus, the unusually deep fissure of the bilobate la- 
brum, and in the larger tubercles of the body, as the larva is 
more active, turning and twisting in its cell, while feeding on 
its living food ; and in this respect it is more closely allied to 
the young Crabro n iflw . In the pupa of 0. cdbopJialeratus, 
the tip is more incurved than in the pupa of Vespa, so that the 
hind legs (tarsi) reach to the tip, and the abdomen is rounded 
ovate, while in Vespa it is oblong. 

The cells (Plate 4, Figs. 13, 14) of Od'/iterus alboplwl erotic 
Sauss. have been detected like those of Osmia in a deserted gall 
of Diplolepis confluens, where several were found in a row, 
arranged around one side of the gall, side by side, with the holes 
pointing towards the centre of the gall. The cells are half an 
inch long, and one-half as wide, being formed of small pellets 
of mud, giving a corrugated, granulated appearance to the 
outside, while the inside is lined with silk. 



1 .-)<, HYMENOPTERA. 

We have- received from Mr. Angus deserted cells of Cera- 
tina in a syringa stem, in which we detected a pupa of an 
Odynerus, perhaps 0. IciK-nimJas; the cell was a little shorter 
than that of the Ceratina it had occupied. The cocoon of 
the Odynerus was of silk, and almost nndistinguishable from 
the old cocoon of Ceratina. The wasp had dispensed with the 
necessity of making a mud cell. If future research shows that 
either this or any other species makes a mud cell or not at 
will, it shows the intelligence of these little "free-agents;" 
and that a blind adherence to fixed mechanical laws does not 
obtain in these insects. 

The larvie of Odynerus and Eumenes are carnivorous. I 
found several cells of O. cdbophaleratus, June 22d, in the 
deserted nest of a Clisiocaii~q><.<, which were stored with micro- 
lepidopterous larvae and pupa?, still alive, having been para- 
lyzed by the sting of the wasp. The larvae of the wasp was 
short and thick, being, when contracted, not more than twice 
as long as broad ; the rings of the body are moderately convex, 
and the pleural region is faintly marked. Prof. A. E. Verrill 
has discovered the cells of an Odynerus at New Haven, forming 
a sandy mass (Plate 5, Fig. 12) attached to the stem of a 
plant. 

In Elements the lingua is very long. 1 icing narrower and 
more deeply divided than in Odynerus: the second subcostal 
space of the wings is long and narrow, while in Odynerus it is 
triangular. The genus is easily recognized by the very long 
pedicel of the abdomen. EmiicnCK fri<>rnu Say constructs a 
thin cell (Plate o,* Fig. lf>) of pellets of mud, and as large 

* EXPLANATION OF PLATE ">. Fit:. 1. Mouth of the tunnel of AugoMoru imnitt .- 
from Emerton. Fig. 2. Cells of Osm'ut ]>:icijictt : communicated by Mr. Sanborn. 
Fig. :5. Vertical section of nest of f'espn, with a group of primitive cells surrounded 
by one layer of paper, and part of another; from Saussure. Fig. 4. Nest of /'<>- 
listen tiiiHitltirix ; from Saussure. Fig. 5. Three primitive cells of Polistes; 5<v, to]> 
view of the same, one being eggless. The sides adjoining are angular. Figs. <! and 
c<n, a cell farther advanced, consisting of four cells, each containing an egg, and 
with the edges of the cells built up higher and more decidedly six-sided ; original. 
Fig. 7. ( 'ells of Icfiria guttutipeiinis. showing that each cell is built up independently 
m regular hexagons. Fig. S. (Jround plan of a similar nest. Fig. '.. Ground plan 
<>f cells of Tittiia morio ; from Smith. Fig. 10. Nest of Mischocyttams Itiliititn.t : 
from Saussure. Fig. 11. Nest of Apo'ica pall'nhi ; from Saussure. Fig. 12, Nest of 
Odynerus birenimaculatus. Fig. 13. Nest of Odynerux nlbophaleratus ; original.' 
Fig. 14. Mud cell of Pelopceus flavipes; original. Fig. !.">. A row of spherical cells 
of Enmcnes fraterna, with the female; from Harris. 



Plate 5. 




ARCHITECTURE OF WASPS. 



OUABUONIDyE. 157 

as a cheriy. It is attached by a short stout pedicel to bushes, 
and the cavity is filled with the larvae of small moths. 

Raphiylossa odyneroides, from Epirus, described by S. S. 
Saunders, makes elongated cells in galleries in briars, storing 
them with the larvae of what he supposed to be weevils. Tin- 
dark brown dense tough cocoon of a Chrysis was also found in 
the cells. 

In Masaris, which connects the Vesparion with the succeed- 
ing family, the wings are not completely folded when at rest : 
there are but two subcostal cells ; the maxillae are rudimen- 
tary ; and the antennae are clavate and eight-jointed. M(is<.tr>x 
vespoides Cresson, inhabits Colorado Territory. 

CUABKONIDJE Latreille. Sand-wasps, Wood-wasps. In the 
more typical genera the head is remarkably large, cnboidal, 
while the clypeus is very short, and covered for the most part 
with a dense silvery or golden pile. The antennae are genicu- 
late, the long second joint being received, when at rest, in a 
deep frontal vertical groove ; the mandibles are large, and of 
oven width throughout, and the mouth-parts are rather short, 
especially the lingua, which is often, however, well developed. 
There is only one subcostal cell, except in the Philanfhiim'. 
The thorax is sub-spherical, and the abdomen is either short 
and stout, or more or less pedicellate. The forefeet are 
adapted for digging and tunnelling, the forelegs in the females 
being broad and flat, and in the males, which are supposed to 
<k> no work, they are sometimes, as in Thyreopus, armed with 
vexhillate expansions. 

The larva is rather short and thick, a little flattened on the 
under side, but much rounded above ; the segments are convex- 
above, the thoracic segments differing from the abdominal seg- 
ments in not being thickened posteriorly on each ring. They 
spin either a very slight cocoon, or a thin dense brown oval 
cylindrical case, generally reddish brown in color. The pupa- 
have much the same character as the imago, with prominent 
acute tubercles above the ocelli. 

The members of this family afford, so far as we are ac- 
quainted with their habits, most interesting examples of the 
interdependence of structure and the habits of insects. Most 



HYMENOPTERA. 

of the species are wood-wasps, making their cells in cy- 
lindrical holes in rotten wood, or enlarging nail-holes in 
posts, as is the case with Crabro singularis, according to the 
observations of Mr. C. A. Shurtleff", thus adapting them to the 
requirements of their young. Other genera (Rhopalum pedicel- 
latum, Stigmus fraternus, and Crabro stirpicola) avail them- 
selves of those plants whose stem has a pith which they can 
readily excavate and refit for their habitations. The females 
provision their nests with caterpillars, aphidiv, spiders, and 
other insects. 

This family is most difficult to classify ; it consists rather of 
groups of genera, some higher and some lower, though as a 
general rule those genera with pedunculate abdomens are the 
lowest in the series. In illustration, we regard Stigmus, with 
its elongated decephalized body, as inferior to Blepharipus, 
which again is subordinate to the more cephalized Crabro, 
where the body is shorter, the abdomen sessile, the anterior 
part of the body more developed headwards, while its nests 
are constructed more elaborately. The genus Psen, for the 
same reason, is lower than Cerceris, of which it seems a de- 
graded form. 

Some of the most useful characters in separating the genera 
of this family are to be found in the form of the clypeus, its 
sculpturing and relative amount of pubescence or hirsuties ; in 
the form and sculpturing of the propodeum (Newman), or tho- 
racico-abdominal ring of Newport; while the tip of the abdo- 
men presents excellent generic and also specific characters, 
depending on its grooved or flattened shape. 

The species of this family are mostly found in the north 
temperate zone, being very abundant in North America and in 
Europe. The Pemphredomnse occur far north in abundance, 
while Cerceris occurs farthest towards the tropics. 

The subfamily PliilantliincB includes the three genera, J'hi- 
lonthus, Eucerceris, and Cerceris, In Philanthus (Fig. 84, wing), 
the head is short, transversely suboval, the clypeus longer 
than broad, Avith the first joint of the abdomen nearly as broad 
when seen from above as the succeeding one. Our more com- 
mon form southward is Philanthus vcrtilabris Say (Fig. So). 
In Europe P. apioorus provisions its nest with honey-bees. 



CRABRONHXaE. 




Fig. St 





Fig. s:i. 




Fig. 8fia. 



Fig. 85. 




Cresson remarks that Encerceris (Fig. 80, fore wing of male ; 
, female) (litters from Cerceris in the venation, which differs 
greatly in the two sexes. E. zonatus Say 
occurs in the west. 

The species of Cerceris (Fig. 87, wing) 
have transversely oblong heads, the front of 
the head is flattened and destitute of hairs, 
and the rings of the abdomen are contracted, 
the middle part being un- 
usually convex and coarsely 
punctured, while the basal 
ring is nearly one-half nar- 
rower than the succeeding 

ones. Cerceris deserta Say is our most com- 

mou form. In Europe some species are Fig. 87. 

known to store their nests with bees, and the larva: of Cn ' >'- 
citlio H idw and Buprestidce. Dufour unearthed in a sin- 
gle field thirty nests of C. bupresticida which were filled with 
ten species of Buprestis, comprising four hundred individuals, 
and none of any other genus. Cerceris tuberculata provisions 
its nest with Leucosomus ophthalmicus ; and C. tricincta with 
Clythra. 

In the subfamily Crabronince, there is a great disparity in 
the sexes, the form of the females being the most persistent. 
In the male the head is smaller, narrow behind, with shorter 
mandibles, and a narrower clypeus ; the body is also much 
slenderer, especially the abdomen, and the legs are simple in 
Crabro, but in Thyreopus variously modified by expansions of 
the joints, especially the tibia. The 
species of Crabro (Fig. 88) are readily 
distinguished by the large cubical 
head, and the sharp mucronate abdo- 
minal tip of the female. The more 
typical form of this very extensive 
genus is Crabro sex-maculatus Say, 
so-called from the six yellow spots 
on the subpedunculate abdomen. According to Dr. T. W. 
Harris (MS. notes), this wasp was seen by Rev. Mr. Leonard, 
of Dublin, N. H., burrowing in decayed wood, June 10th. 




Fig. ss. 



100 HYMENOPTERA. 



shigularis Smith, was discovered by Mr. C'. A. Sluutlrtl' 
boring in a post. 

In Thyri'opus, the body is slender, and the forelegs are 
curiously dilated in the males, often forming a broad expansion, 
and so dotted as to present a sieve-like appearance, while the 
head is much shorter, being more transverse. T. latipes Smith 
is known by the broad, long, acute, mucronate, shield-like ex- 
pansion of the fore tibia, which is striped with black at the 
base. 

The species of Khopalum are usually blackish, without the 
gay colors prevalent in the genera before mentioned ; the legs 
are simple, and the abdomen is long and slender, with a long- 
peduncle. The body of the larva is short and thick, tapering 
rapidly towards each extremity ; the segments are convex, 
those of the thorax especially being smooth, broad, and regu- 
larly convex, while the abdominal rings are provided with 
prominent tubercles. The tip of the body is quite extensible, 
and when protruded is subacute, terminating in a small knob- 
like body, formed by the last ring. The larvae of this genus 
ditter from those of the Vesparicv undApiarice known to us 
by having a few hairs scattered over the body. 

In the pupa the antenna?, in their natural position, do not 
quite reach to the second pair of trochanters, and reach only 
to the tip of the maxillary palpi. The tip of the abdomen is 
very acute and elongated unusually far beyond the ovipositor. 
On the head, between the ocelli and antenna?, are two very 
prominent, acute tubercles, and the abdominal segments are 
dentate on the hind edge. Thus both the larva and pupa 
would seem, by their anatomy, to be unusually active in their 
loose, illy-constructed cells, which do not confine their food so 
closely as in the other wasps, as the insects on which they prob- 
ably feed have a greater range in their rather roomy cells. April 
18th we opened several stems grown in the open air, and 
found both larva? and pupa? ; the latter in different stages of 
development. The cells were placed in the closely packed 
dust made by the larva of an ^Egeria, or directly bored in the 
pith of the plants. There were six such cells, eacli with its 
inhabitant, within a space an inch in length, some laying cross- 
wise, others along the middle. The larva? spin but a very 



CRABRONIDJE. K>1 

slight cocoon, not at all comparable with that of Crabro ; the 
walls of the cell being simply lined with silken threads. I'mler 
other circumstances, i.e. where the cells are more exposed, it 
is not unlikely that a more elaborate cocoon may be spun. 

Mr. James Angus has bred numerous specimens of Wtojxi- 
lum pedicellatuin Pack., from stems of the Rose, Corcorus, Ja- 
ponica, and Spiraea, grown in hot-houses at West Farms, N. Y. 
The larva is a quarter of an inch long. 

The following genera belong to the subfamily PempJirc- 
donince: 

The genus Stigmus, as its name indicates, may at once be 
known by the very large pterostigma, as well as the unusually 
small size of the species. The bod}' of the larva is moderately 
long and slender, cylindrical, tapering slowly towards both ex- 
tremities. The rings are short, very convex, subacutely so, 
and the larva is of a beautiful roseate color, titigmiis frater- 
nus Say burrows in the stems of the Syringa, of which speci- 
mens have been received from Mr. Angus with the larva and 
pupa?. 

In Cemonus the front narrows rapidly towards the insertion 
of the mandibles, and there is a short triangular enclosure on 
the propodeum, while the abdomen is shorter and thicker than 
in Pempliredon, a closely allied genus ; the pedicel is also 
longer. The larvae of Cemonus inornatus Harris live in irregu- 
lar burrows in the elder, like those of Rhopalum from which 
they have been reared by Mr. Angus. They are known by the 
broad flattened head and body, serrate side and tergum of the 
body, and large, conspicuously bidentate mandibles, as well as 
by the peculiarly flattened abdominal tip. 

In Passalaecus the labrum is very prominent, while the man- 
dibles are very large, widening towards the tip, and in the com- 
mon P. mandibnlaris Cresson they are white, and thus very 
conspicuous. This species burrows in company with the other 
wood-wasps mentioned above in the stems of the elder and 
syringa. The cells are lined with silk. The wasps appear 
early in June. Their nests are tenanted by Chalcids. The 
female stores her cells with Aphides, as we have found them 
abundantly in stems of plants received from Mr. Angus. 

The genus Psen seems to be a degraded Cere-ens, but the 
11 



1(52 HYMENOPTERA. 

abdomen is pedicelled, and differs 1'rom J/7msr/, a still more 
slender-bodied genus, in having the tip of the abdomen more or 
less grooved, while in Mimesa it is tint mid not grooved at all. 
Psen leuwpits Say has a dense silvery pile on the front of 
the head, with black antennae and the pedicel is rather short. 

XYSSOXIIKK Leach. In this family the head is transversely 
longer and less cubical than in the preceding group ; the ver- 
tex is higher and more convex, while the front is narrow, the 
Ivpeus long and narrow, the eyes long and narrow, and the 
antenna? are more clavate than in the Crabronidce, and 
the propodemn is sometimes armed with acute spines, while 
the enclosed space is smoothly polished or striated. The wings 
are long and narrow, and the abdomen is sessile in the typical 
genera, where it is obconic, but clavate when pedicellate. 

In TnjpoxyloH the body is long, with a pedicellate clavate 
abdomen. In Europe "Mr. Johnson has detected it frequent- 
ing the holes of a post pre-occupied by a species of Odynerus, 
and into which it conveyed a small round ball, or pellet, con- 
taining about fifty individuals of a species of Aphis ; this the 
Odynerus, upon her return, invariably turned out, flying out 
with it, held by her legs, to the distance of about a foot from 
the aperture of her cell, where she hovered a moment, and then 
let it fall ; and this was constantly the case till the Trypoxylon 
had sufficient time to mortar up the orifice of the hole, and the. 
Odynerus was then entirely excluded; for although she would 
return to the spot repeatedly, she never endeavored to force 
the entrance, but flew off to seek another hole elsewhere." 

T. polition Say has purplish wings, and no enclosure on the 
propodeum. 

T. frifjidnm. Smith lives in the stems of Syringa, from which 
it has been reared by Mr. Angus. The thin, delicate cocoon is 
long and slender, enlarging slightly towards the anterior end. 

The genus MeUhnis (belonging to the third subfamilv, J/W- 
Hninw,) is known by its broad front, and slender antenna 1 , 
and its pedunculate abdomen, while in Aly*<m. a slender- 
bodied genus, it is sessile. IMlhuis bim<mhitns Say has a 
black head, with pale tipped antenna 1 , and two ovate yellow 
spots on the abdomen. Ahjson oppositus is black, with two 



NYSSON II ).K. 

collow spots on the abdomen, which lias the basal ring yel- 
lowish red in the female. 

The fourth .subfamily is the A">/.s.so /*//?, so named from >'ys- 
son, a typical genus. 

The genus Gorytes is truly a mimetic form, closely simulat- 
ing the genus Odynerus, one of the Vesparim. The front ol' 
the head is narrow, while the clypeus is larger than usual. The 
species are numerous, occurring late in the summer on the 
flowers of Spiiwa. Gorytes flavicornis Harris is polished russet 
In-own, Avith narrow yellow rings on the abdomen, the propo- 
deum is smooth and polished, and the basal ring of the abdomen 
is black. A species has been observed in Europe protruding 
her sting into the frothy secretion of Tettigonia- living on 
grass, and carrying off the insect to provision its nest with. 

Oxybdus is a short, stout, Mack genus, with whitish abdomi- 
nal spots, and stout spines on the thorax, while the sessile 
abdomen is distinctly conical. k> lts prey consists of Diptera, 
which it has a peculiar mode of carrying by the hind legs the 
while it either opens the aperture of its burrow or else forms a 
new one with its anterior pair. Its flight is low, and in skips ; 
it is very active." (Westwood.) 

Oxybelus emarginatus Say has two oval membranous appen- 
dages to the metathorax, and is a common black species found 
abundantly on the flowers of the Virginia Creeper. 

In Ni/xtion the body is a little longer, narrow compared with 
Miat of Oxybelus, while the terminal joint of the antenna? is 
Jiickened, flattened, and excavated beneath. Nystson lateralis 
Say is dull black, with six light spots on the abdomen. 

The species of Stiz-tts are of large size and easily recognized 
by their hirsute body, stont legs, triangular silvery clypeus, 
and the high transverse vertex of the head. The propodeum 
has a faintly marked triangular enclosure. The species are 
very rapacious, paralyzing grasshoppers and other large insects 
with their formidable sting, and carrying them off to provision 
their nests. Professor S. Tenney has sent us a specimen of 
the Dog-day Cicada (C. canicularis) which Stizus spedosus had 
thus stung. Mr. Atkinson has observed the same fact, and has 
found the deep burrows of this species, the hole being three- 
fourths of an inch in diameter. He has observed it feeding on 
sap running from a tree. 



1 G4 HYMENOl'TERA . 

The species of Larra are smaller, and differ from those of 
Stizus in the long, narrow, very prominent labrum, the shorter 
clypeus, broader front and longer abdomen, the tip of which is 
without the broad subtriangular area which is present in Stizus 
and the other genera of this family. Larra vn icincta Say is black- 
ish, with a single reddish band on the second abdominal ring. 

BEMBECID^E Latreille. We have but two genera, Bembex 
and Moneclula, which have large heads and flattened bodies, 
bearing a strong resemblance to Syrphus flies from their similar 
coloration. The labrum is very large and long, triangular, like 
a beak. The species are very active, flying rapidly about 
flowers with a loud hum. "The female Bembex burrows in 
sand to a considerable depth, burying various species of Dip- 
tera (Syrplmhv, Muscida% etc.), and depositing her eggs at the 
same time in company with them, upon which the larva' , when 
hatched, subsist. When a sufficient store has been collected, 
the parent closes the mouth of the cell with earth." " An 
anonymous correspondent in the Entomological Magazine, states 
that B. rostrata constructs its nests in the soft light sea-sands 
in the Ionian Islands, and appears to catch its prey (consist ing 
of such flies as frequent the sand; amongst others, a bottle- 
green Ay) whilst on the wing. lie describes the mode in 
which the female, with astonishing swiftness, scratches its hole 
with its forelegs like a dog. Bembex tarsata, according to 
Latreille, provisions its nests with Bombyln." (Westwood.) 
Dufour states that two Diptera, Panopea carnea and Toxophora 
fasciata, the latter allied to Systrophus, are parasites on Bem- 
bex. Mr. F. G. Sanborn has noticed the exceedingly swift 
flight of our common Bembex fasciata Fabr. on sandy beaches 
where it is found most abundantly. 

Moneclula differs from Bembex in its slenderer body, more 
clavate antennae, and its shorter, very obtuse labrum. The 
body is smoother, and most generally more highly colored and 
more gaily spotted than in Bembex. 

Moneclula Carolina Fabr. and M. 4-fasciata Say are common 
southwards of New England. 

LAKRID^K Leach. Mr. F. Smith defines this family as having 
"mandibles notched exteriorly near the base ; the labrum con- 



LAKR1D.E. 



165 



coaled, with a single spine at the apex of the intermediate 
tibise ; the abdomen is ovoid-conical." 

The genus Astata is a large hairy form, with long antennae 
and palpi and an elongated prothorax. Its spiny legs show its 
nc.ir relationship to the Sphegidce. Astata unicolor Say repre- 
sents the genus in this country. 

Tachytes is also of larger size than the following genus. 
It is covered with long dense golden short hairs, with a trap- 
ezoidal front. Tachytes aurulentus Fabr. is rare ; it frequents 
the flowers of the Asclepias, as we have found pollen masses at- 
tached to the spines of its legs. We figure 
(89) a tarsus of a wasp belonging probably to 
this genus, received from Mr. V. T. Chambers, 
showing the pollen masses of Asclepias at- 
tached to the spines. 

The genus Larrada "contains those species 
which have the marginal cell truncated at the 
apex and appendiculated, and three submarginal 
cells, the first as long as the two following ; 
.... the metathorax [propodeum] truncated 
posteriorly, elongate, the sides being generally 
parallel ; the mandibles are large and arcuate, 
with a tooth on their exterior towards the base ; abdomen 
ovate-conical, acuminate at the apex." Larrada argentata 
Beauv. is covered with silvery pile. It is a slender form, with 
short, nearly unarmed legs. 

A Brazilian species of Larmda, according to Mr. H. W. 
Bates, builds a nest composed apparently of the scrapings of 
the woolly texture of plants ; it is attached to a leaf, having a 
close resemblance to a piece of German tinder, or a piece of 
sponge. The cocoons were dark brown, and of a brittle consist- 
ency. The reporter, Mr. F. Smith, adds : "I am not aware of 
any similar habit of building an external nest having been pre- 
viously recorded ; our British species of the closely allied 
genus Tachytes, are burrowers in the ground, particularly in 
sandy situations ; their anterior tarsi are strongly ciliated, the 
claws bifid and admirably adapted for burrowing. On examin- 
ing the insect which constructed the nest now exhibited, I find 
the legs differently armed; the anterior pair are not ciliated, 




Fig. 89. 



ICC HYMENOPTERA. 

:i,nd the claws are simple and slender, clearly indicative >f a 
peculiar habit differing from its congeners, and how admirably 
is this illustrated in the nest before ns?" 

SFHEGIDJE Latreille. Smith defines this family as having 
''the posterior margin of the prothorax not prolonged back- 
wards to the insertion of the wings, and anteriorly produced 
into a neck, with the abdomen petiolated." The very fossorial 
legs are long and spiny, the posterior pair being of unusual 
length. The mandibles are large, curved, narrow, and acute, 
the base not being toothed externally, and the antennae arc 
long and filiform. The species are often gaily colored, being 
<>i i lamented with black and red. brown and red, or are entirely 
black, or blue. They love the sunshine, are very active, rest- 
less in their movements, and have a powerful sting. 

The sting of these and other wasps which store up insects for 
their young, penetrates the nervous centres and paralyzes the 
victim without depriving it of life, so that it lives many days. 
A store of living food is thus laid up for the young wasp. 
After being stung the caterpillars will transform into chrys- 
alids, though too weak to change to moths. Mr. (iueinzius, 
who resides in South Africa, observes that "large spiders 
and caterpillars became immediately motionless on being stung, 
and I cannot help thinking that the poisonous acid of Ilymen- 
optera has an antiseptic and preserving property ; for cater- 
pillars and locusts retain their colors weeks after being stung, 
and this, too, in a moist situation under a burning sun." 

These insects either make their nests in the sand, or, like the 
succeeding family, are "mud-daubers," building their cells of 
mud and plastering them on walls, etc. 

The tropical genus Ampnhx is more closely allied to the 
preceding family than the other genera. The species are 
brassy green. Dr. G. A. Perkins has described in the Ameri- 
can Naturalist, vol. 1, p. 293, the habits of a wasp, probably 
the Ampnlex tiilrirka Fabr., which inhabits Sierra Leone, and 
oviposits in the body of the cockroach. The dead bodies of 
the cockroaches are often found with the empty cocoon of flu- 
wasp occupying the cavity of the abdomen. 

A species of this genus, abundant at Zanzibar at certain sea- 






SIMIEGID.K. 



1(57 



sons, WHS frequently observed by Mr. C. C'ooke to attack the 
cockroach. The cockroach, as if cowed ut its presence, im- 
mediately yields without a struggle. The Ampulex stings 
and paralyses its victim, and then flies away with it. 

('/i/i>rinn is closely allied, containing blue and metallic green 
species, often with golden yellow wings. Chlorion i->f<in^mii 
Dahlb., a blue species, is found in the Southern States. 

The genus Pn'ononyx "differs from the genus Sphex in hav- 
ing the claws qnadridentate beneath at their base; the neura- 
tion of the wings and the form of the abdomen are the same as 
in /I((r}>actf>i>iiN," which is found only in the tropics and Aus- 
tralia. Priononyx Thomw. is found from South Carolina to 
Brazil, including the West Indies. 

The genus tfpJtrx is quite an extensive one. The head is as 
wick' as the thorax ; the antenna 1 are filiform, mandibles large 
and acute, bidentate within, the teeth notched at their base, 
forming a rudimentary tooth, the apical tooth being acute. 
The thorax is elongate-ovate, truncated behind, with a trans- 
verse collar (prothorax). The fore wings have one marginal 
and three submarginal cells ; the marginal cell elongate, rounded 
at its apex ; the 
first submarginal 
cell as long as the 
two following. The 
abdomen is pedun- 
culated, conic-ally 
ovate, and the an- 
terior tarsi are cili- 
ated in the females. 

iSphex iclmeinno- 
nea Linn. (Figure 
90) is a large rust- 
red species, with a 
dense golden pu- Fig. no. 

bescence. It is common from Massachusetts southwards. In 
the last week of July, and during August and early in Sep- 
tember, we noticed nearly a dozen of these wasps busily en- 
gaged in digging their holes in a gravelly walk. In previous 
seasons they were more numerous, burrowing into grassy 




HYMENOPTERA. 

banks near the walk. The holes were four to six inches deep. 
In beginning its hole the wasp dragged away Avith its teeth a 
stone one half as large as itself to a distance of eight inches 
from the hole, while it pushed away others with its head. In 
beginning its burrow it used its large and powerful jaws almost 
entirely, digging to the depth of an inch in five minutes, com- 
pleting its hole in about half an hour. After having inserted 
its head into the hole, where it loosened the earth with its 
jaws and threw it out of the hole with its jaws and fore 
legs, it would retreat backwards and push the dirt still 
farther back from the mouth of the cell with its hind legs. In 
cases where the farther progress of the work was stopped by a 
stone too large for the wasp to remove or dig around, it would 
abandon it and begin a new hole. Just as soon as it reached 
the required depth the wasp flew a few feet to the adjoining 
bank and falling upon an Orchelimum vulgare or O. gracile, 
stung' and paralyzed it instantly, bore it to its nest, and was out 
of sight for a moment, and while in the bottom of its hole 
must have deposited its egg in its victim. Reappearing it be- 
gan to draw the sand back into the hole, scratching it in quite 
briskly by means of its spiny fore tarsi, while standing on its 
two hind pairs of legs. It thus threw in half an inch of dirt 
upon the grasshopper and then flew off. In this Avay one Sphex 
will make two or three such holes in an afternoon. The walk 
was hard and composed of a coarse sea-gravel, and the rapidity 
with which the wasp worked her way in with tooth and nail was 
marvellous. 

Sphex tibialis St. Fargeau is a black, stout, thick insect. 
Mr. J. Angus has reared this species, sending me the larva' in 
a cavity previously tunnelled by Xylocopa Virginica in a 
pine board. The hole was six inches long, and the oval cylin- 
drical cocoons were packed loosely, either side by side, where 
there was room, or one a little in advance of the other. The 
interstices between them were filled with bits of rope, which 
had perhaps been bitten up into pieces by the wasp itself ; while 
the end of the cell was filled for a distance of two inches with a 
coarse sedge arranged in layers, as if rammed in like gun- wad- 
ding. The cocoons are eighty to ninety hundredths of an inch 
long, oval lanceolate, somewhat like those of Pompilus. They 



consist of tAvo layers, the outer very thin, the inner tough. 
parchment-like. The larvst hybernate and turn to pupa> in 
the spring, appearing in the summer and also in the autumn. 

The larva is cylindrical, with the pleura! ridge prominent, 
and with no traces of feet ; the head, which is small and not 
prominent, and rather narrow compared Avith that of Pelopoeus, 
is bent inwards on the breast so that the mouth reaches to the 
sternum of the fourth abdominal ring. The posterior half of 
each ring is much thickened, giving a crenulated outline to the 
tergum. The abdominal tip is obtuse. 

Xphex Lanierii Guerin, according to Smith (Proceedings 
of the Entomological Society of London, Feb. 7, 1859), con- 
structs its nest of a cottony substance, filling a tunnel formed 
by a large curved leaf. The species of the genus are sup- 
posed to burrow in the ground, and the two cases above 
cited show an interesting divergence from this habit. Mr. 
Smith adds, that in "the Sphex which constructs the nest in 
the rolled leaf, the anterior tarsi are found to be very slightly 
ciliated, and the tibire almost destitute of spines, thus affording 
another instance proving that difference of structure is indica- 
tive of difference of habit." 

The genus Pelopwus is of a slighter form than in Sphex, the 
body being longer and slenderer ; the clypeus is as broad as 
long, triangular above, in front convex, or produced and end- 
ing in two teeth. The outer costal cell is lanceolate oval, the 
second subcostal cell subtrapezoidal, being widest above ; it is 
also somewhat longer than broad. The first median cell is very 
long and narrow, much more so than usual. The pedicel of 
the abdomen is long, the first joint in the male being often as 
long as the remainder of the abdomen. 

The larva of P. cceruleus Linn, is much like that of Sphex, 
having a cylindrical body with the rings thickened posteriorly. 
It differs from that of Pompilus in its longer and narrower head, 
the short broadly trapezoidal clypeus, and the distinctly marked 
exserted labrum. The mandibles are long and tridentate. 

The pupa (of P. flavipes) differs from that of the Vespn rice 
in having the head more raised from the breast ; the palpi are 
not partially concealed, as they may be easily seen for their 
whole length. The long curved mandibles cover the base of the 



170 HYMENOPTEEA. 

maxilhe and lingua, and the antenna? reach to the posterior coxa-. 
The maxilla' are slender, not reaching to the tip of the labinni. 

The female usually provisions her cells (Plate 5, Fig. 14) with 
spiders. The- cells are constructed of layers of mud of unequal 
length, and formed of little pellets placed in two rows, and di- 
verging from the middle. They are a little over an inch long, 
and from a half to three-quarters of an inch wide, and are some- 
what three-sided, the inner side next the object, either stone- 
walls or rafters, to which it is attached, being flat. As the 
earthen cells sufficiently protect the delicate larva 1 within, the 
cocoons are very thin, and brown in color. 

The cells of Pelopwus flavipes from Brownville. Texas, col- 
lected by an United States officer and presented to the Boston 
Society of Natural History, contained both spiders and numer- 
ous pupa* of a fly, Sarcophaga nudipennis Loew (MS) which is 
somewhat allied to Tachina. These last hatched out in mid- 
summer a few days before the specimens of Pelopanis. It is 
most probable that they were parasitic on the latter. These 
specimens of P. flavipes were more highly ornamented with yel- 
low than in those found northwards in the Atlantic States, 
the metathorax being crossed by a broad yellow baud. 

~ / 

The genus Ammophila is a long slender form, with a petio- 
late abdomen, the tip of which is often red. The petiole of the 
abdomen is two-jointed, and very long and slender, being 
longer than the fusiform part. In the males the petiole is in 
some species much shorter. The wings are small, with the apex 
more obtuse than usual ; the second subcostal cell is pentag- 
onal, and the third is broadly triangular. 

Westwood states that "the species inhabit sandy districts, 
in which A. sabulosa forms its burrow, using its jaws in bur- 
rowing ; and when they are loaded, it ascends backwards to 
the mouth, turns quickly around, flies to about a foot's distance, 
gives a sudden turn, throwing the sand in a complete shower 
to about six inches' distance, and again alights at the mouth 
of its buiTow." 

1 ' Latreille states that this species provisions its cells with 
caterpillars, but Mr. Shuckard states that he has observed the 
female dragging a very large inflated spider xip the nearly per- 
pendicular side of a sand-bank, at least twenty feet high, and 



rOMPILID.K. 



171 



that whilst burrowing it makes a loud whirring buzz ; and, in 
the Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, he 
states that he has detected both A. sabidosa and A. hirxittn 
dragging along large spiders. Mr. Curtis observed it bury 
the caterpillars of a Noctua and Geometra. St. Fargeau, how- 
ever, states that A. sabidosa collects caterpillars of large sixe, 
especially those of Noctiue, with a surprising perseverance, 
whereas A. arenaria, forming a distinct section in the genus, 
collects spiders." (Westwood.) 

Ammophila cementaria Smith, and A. urnaria Klug, are the 
more common species in this country ; they are red and white, 
while A. htctuosa Smith is a black, shorter, stouter, more hirsute 
species. They may all be seen flying about hot sandy places, 
and alighting near wells and standing water to drink. 

POMPILIUA: Leach. In this family the body is oblong, the 

sides often compressed, and the head shorter, when seen from 

above, being more trans- 
versely ovate than in 

the preceding family. 

The antennae are long, 

not geniculate, and in 

the males are stouter 

and with shorter joints 

than in the females. 

The eyes are narrow 

oval, and the maxillary 

palpi are six, and the 

labial palpi four-jointed. 

The prothorax is ex- 
tended on the sides back 

to the base of the wings, 

which latter are large and broad, the fore pair having three 
subcostal cells. The legs are very long and slender, with thick 
slender spines. The Pompilidce , of which about seven hun- 
dred species are known, have a wide geographical range, from 
the temperate zone to the tropics. Like the Sphegidw, they 
oviposit in the body of other insects, storing their nests, usually 
built in the sand, Avith spiders and caterpillars. 

The head of Pompihix (Fig. 91) is a little longer, seen from 




172 



HYMENOPTERA. 



above, than in the other genera ; the front of the head is about 
a third longer than broad. The antennae are long and fili- 
form and sometimes crenulate, as in Figure 91 o, in the 
[\ males ; the mandibles are stout, broad, sabre-shaped, 
being much curved, with low flattened teeth, and the 
maxillary palpi are longer than the labial palpi. The 
wino-s are rather broad, with the three subcostal cells 
Ivino- in a straight row. The abdomen is slightly com- 

J & 

pressed, and equals in length the remainder of the 
body. The sting is very large and formidable, and ex- 
cessively painful, benumbing the parts it enters. They 

Fijr !l1 a - are exceedingly active, running and flying over sandy 

places like winged spiders. 

There are about five hundred species of this genus described. 

They are usually shining black or deep bluish black, with 




Fig. 92. 

smoky or reddish wings, and sometimes a reddish abdominal 
band. This genus is interesting, as affording in its form a 
mean between the globular thorax and short body of the 
Apt ((riff and the elongated body of the Iclineumonidtv. 

The Pompilus formosus Say (Fig. 92), called in Texas the 
Tarantula-killer, attacks that immense spider the Mygale Hentzii, 
and. according to Dr. (1. Lincecum (American Naturalist, May, 



POMPILID^E. 



17;; 



1867), paralyzes it with its formidable sting, and inserting an 
egg in its body, places it in its nest, dug to the depth of five 

inches. There is but a single brood, 
produced in June, which is killed off by 
the frosts of November. This species 
feeds in summer "upon the honey and 
pollen of the flowers of the Elder, and 
of Vitfs ampelopsis, the Virginia Creeper ; 
but its favorite nourishment is taken from 
the blossoms of Asdepias quadr! folium" 




Fig. 93. 




Fig. 94. 



(Lincecum.) P. cylmdricus Cresson (Fig. 93, wing) is one of 
our smallest species, being 
from three to five lines 
long. It occurs in the 
South and West. P. arctus 
Cresson (Fig. 94, wing) in- 
habits Colorado Territory. 
P. Mar ice Cresson (Fig. 95, 
enlarged) is a beautiful 
and rare species found in 
Pennsylvania. The genus 
Priocnemis is characterized 
by the two hind pair of 
tibia. 1 being serrated ( 5 , 
Fig. 96, a, wing ; b, pos- 
terior leg ; c, anterior leg), and by the want of spines on the an- 
terior legs. P. unifasciatus Say is a wide-spread species and 

readily recognized by the deep black 
color of the body, the yellow an- 
tennae and the large yellow spot at 
the tip of each anterior wing. 

The genus Agenia (Fig. 97, , 
wing ; &, posterior leg) differs in 
having smooth legs. A. brevix Cres- 
son (Fig. 98, wing) is a little spe- 
A. congruus Cresson (Fig. 99, wing) 




Fig. 95. 




Fig. 96. 

cies found in Georgia, 
was captured in AVest Virginia ; and A. acceptus Cresson (Fig. 
100, wing) in Georgia. The genus Notocyphus (Fig. 101, 
$,wing) is found in Brazil and Mexico. Planiceps (Fig. 102, 



174 



HYMENOPTERA. 





rig. 99. 




Fig. 101. 



wing) contains a few specie's, of which P. nitjer Cresson. an 
entirely black species, is found in Connecticut. Aporus (Fig. 

103, wing) contains a single American 
species, ^1. fasciatus Smith, taken in 
North Carolina. 

From Mr. F. (J. Sanborn we have re- 
ceived the larva and cocoon of P<npilux 
Flg - 9 ~- fit a ere us St. Farg., a small black spe- 

cies, which builds its nest in fields. The larva is short and 
broad, with the lateral region rather prominent, and the tip of 
the abdomen rather acute. It differs 
from Pelopaeus in its stouter, rather flat- 
tened body, and thickened segments, 
though as our specimen is preserved in 
alcohol these characters may have be- 
come exaggerated. It more nearly re- 
sembles Pelopaeus in its transverse 
clypeus, thin bilobate labrum, and the 
stout mandibles, which are, however, 
much stouter than in Pelopjeus, while 
the whole head is shorter, broader, and 
rounder. It is probable that this pecu- 
liar form of the head (which as in Sphex 
is bent beneath the breast), together Fig. 10:;. 

with the broad transverse clypeus. and broad, short, bilobate, 
thin, transparent labrum, and especially the nnidentate short 

broad mandibles are family characters, sep- 
arating the larva? of this group from those of 
the Sphegidce . The cocoon is ovate, long, 
and slender, much smaller at one end than 
the other, not being so regularly fusiform 
as in Sphex. 

CeropaZes differs from the foregoing gen- 
era in its broad head, its much shorter ab- 
domen ; and also in the eyes being a little excavated, in the 
depressed labiutn. the narrow front, which dilates above and 
below the middle, and in the greatly elongated hind legs, gen- 
erally banded with red or whitish, ('empales hipinictata Say 
is generally distributed throughout the United States. It 




Fig. 10-2. 





Fig. its. 




SCOL.IAIU-:. 



r 




Fiar. 104. 



is easily recognized by the black body and legs, and red pos- 

terior femora, and is six lines long. C. Robinsonii Cresson 

(Fig. 104, $ ) is an elegant 

species found in West 

Virginia. An allied genus 

is Jlt/ynimia (Fig. 105, 

wing) containing M. Me.v- 



icana Cresson and 37. .s- 

tulataT)ahlb., two Mexican 

species. 

In the genus J*cpsis 

(Fig. 106, wing) the max- 

illary and labial palpi are 

of equal length. The spe- 

cies are large, some of 

them being among the lar- 

gest of Hymenoptera, and 

are generally indigo-blue in color. Pepsis heron Dahlbom is 

found in Cuba ; it is two inches long. P. cyanca Linn., 

which is blackish-blue, with 
blue abdomen and wings, 
the latter reddish at the 
apex, has been described by 
Beauvois from the United 
States, while P. elryanx St. 
Farg. also occurs in the 
Southern States. 

P. formosa Say affords 
another example of a species 
common to both sides of the 

Rocky Mountains, as it has been found both in Texas and Cal- 

ifornia. It is black, with bluish or greenish reflections, with 

bright fiery red wings, and is thirteen to eighteen lines long. 

SCOLIAD.K Leach. This family forms a group very easily 
distinguished from the Bembecidw or Chrysiclidw , as weli 
as the Pomp Hi dee , by the broad front, the small indented 63 T es, 
and the great sexual differences in the antenna?, those of the 
male being long and slowly thickened towards the tip, while in 




Fig. 105. 




Fig. 10(5. 



176 HYMENOPTERA. 

the female the}' are short, thick, and elbowed on the second 
joint. The clypeus is large, irregularly quadrilateral, becom- 
ing shorter in the lower genera, and the labrum is small, 
scarcely exserted, while the mandibles are, in the female es- 
pecially, large and broad. The prothorax is very square in 
front. In the fore-wings are three subcostal spaces. The 
abdomen in the typical genus (Scolia) is broad and Hat, longer 
than the rest of the body. The abdomen of Mutilla approaches 
that of the Chrysididce in having the second ring much en- 
larged over the others. The males usually have the anal 
stylets very prominent, while the sting of the female is very 
powerful. The body and legs are generall}- very hirsute, and 
the first tarsal joint is as long as the tibia?. 

The genus Sapyga is easily recognized by its smooth slender 
body, being ornamented with yellow, with transverse bands on 
the abdomen. The head is long, very convex in front, and 
the antennae are clavate ; the prothorax is very broad, giving 
an oblong appearance to the thorax. The legs are slender and 
smooth. It is said to be parasitic, laying its eggs in the cells 
of Osmia. Sapyga Martinii of .Smith is found northward. 

The species of Scolia are often of great size, being black 
and very hirsute, with the labium composed of three linear di- 
visions ; the abdomen alone being banded or spotted with 
yellow on the sides. They are found in the hottest places 
about strongly scented flowers. In Europe, Scolia b>ci>tct 
"makes its burrows in sand-banks, to the depth of sixteen 
inches, with a very wide mouth;" and it is probable that the 
nest is stored with grasshoppers. 

Scolia quadrimaculata Fabr. is found in the Middle and 
Southern States. The larva of Scolia Jlavifrons was found by 
Passerini to live in the body of the lamellicorn beetle, Oryctes 
nasicornis. In Madagascar, Scolia oryctophaga lives on 
Oryctes simia, according to Coquerel. 

Professor Sumichrast states that at Tehuacan (Department 
of Puebla) the Scolia Azteca Sauss. is very common ; and is 
particularly abundant in the leather tanneries, which leads him 
to think that the females of this species also deposit their eggs 
under the epidermis of the larva which abounds in the tan. 

Tiphia is black throughout and rather hirsute. The anteinue 



MUTILLARIJS. 177 

are shorter than in Scolia or Myzine ; the clypeus is also shorter, 
while the prothorax is longer. In the fore-wings the outer cos- 
tal cell is short, broad, angulated, oval; and of the two sul>- 
costal cells, the outer one is broad and triangular, twice as long 
as broad, while the first median cell is regularly short rhoin- 
boidal, much more so than in the other genera. 

The females, according to Westwood, '-make perpendicular 
burrows in sandy situations, for the reception of their eggs ; 
but the precise food stored up for the larvae has not been ob- 
served." Tipltia inornate Say is a common species with us, 
and flies low over sandy places early in the season. 

The short oval head, the large eyes, short meso-scutum, 
large meso-scutellum, and the flattened, rather smooth body, 
characterize the genus Myzine. The females are very different 
from the males, the two sexes being for a long time considered 
as separate genera. The female, especially, differs in the great 
length of the square prothorax, which is very broad and convex 
in front. In the male the eyes are lunate, while in the female 
they are small, entire, and remote. In its general form the fe- 
males much resemble Scolia, while the males are long and nar- 
row, with broad yellow bands, especially on the abdomen, and a 
large exserted sting-like organ. Myzine sexcinrfa Fabr. is seen 
from New England southwards, flying low over hot sandy places. 
The genus Elis is closely allied. Sumichrast (American Nat- 
uralist, vol. 2), surmises that Elis costalis St. Farg. lives on 
certain Scarabseides, which undergo their metamorphosis in the 
formicary of CEcodoma in Mexico. 



Latreille. This interesting family is character- 
ized by the females alone being wingless, though Morawitz says 
that wingless males occur in two species ; and by the absence, 
generally, of the three ocelli. In Mutilla and Myrmosa the 
thorax is still high, compressed, and oblong cuboidal, and ex- 
cept in the closely united tergal pieces the females do not greatly 
recede from the type of the winged males. The species are 
very equal in size, are black, or black and red, and either 
smooth or hirsute. 

The antennas are inserted low down on the front, the clypeus 
being very short and broadly ovate (especially in Myrmosa), 
12 






178 



HYMENOPTERA. 



or it is indented, as in Mutilla. The tongue is shorter than usual. 
The sides of the thorax contract in width, both before and be- 
hind. The meso-scutum is squarer than usual, while the rneso- 
scutellum is much narrower and longer, and the propodeum is 
squarely truncated behind, thus presenting a full convex surface. 
The abdomen is not much longer than the rest of the bod}', be- 
ing shorter than usual. In all these characters this family shows 
its affinities to the Ants. The wings are very dissimilar in the 
different genera. In Myrmosa the neuratioii closely approaches 
that of Sapyga, while in the larger, more acute primaries of 
Mutilla, and especially in the short outer costal cell, and short 
open pterostigma, the latter genus differs from the others. 

The male of Xderodenna closely mimics the Procto- 
t r yj> i (I <>> , the veins of the wings being absent, while the 
form of the head and abdomen also reminds us of some genera 
in that family. The wingless female is veiy different, having 
more of the form of Mutilla, with a large oblong head and long- 
acutely conical abdomen. The species are minute and rarely 
met with. S. contracta Westwood is found in kt Carolina." 

In the female Methoca the eyes are very long, and the seg- 
ments of the abdomen are widely separated, much as in the 

ants. Methoca Canadensis Smith is shin- 
ing black, and slightly villose. 

The species of Myrmosa may be known 
by the very short clypeus, the broad ver- 
tex, and the rings of the abdomen of the 
male being unusually contracted. The 
abdomen of the female is cylindrical, 
about twice as long as broad, and thickest on the second ring. 
The rings are densely hirsute on the hinder 
edge. Myrmosa nuicolor Say (Figs. 107, 
male ; 108, female) is widely distributed. We 
have taken this species in Maine, while sex- 
ually united, early in June. The wingless 
female is like an ant, and is pale reddish on 
the thorax and basal ring of the abdomen, 
and the; antennae and feet are concolorous, while the head and 
remaining abdominal rings are much darker. It is .20 inch 
long. The male is .2 inch long and entirely black. 




107. 




Fig. 108. 



FOUMICAKI^E. 179 

The genus Muttlla is a very extensive one, and enjoys a wide 
geographical range. It is throughout stouter than Mynnosa, 
the head is more cubical, and the thorax and abdomen is 
shorter, the tip of the latter being somewhat truncated. 

The wingless female closely resembles, both in its form and 
motions, a worker ant. The body is coarsely granulated and 
either naked or densely hirsute, and of a scarlet, black, or pale 
red, or brown-black color. The females are found running in 
hot sandy places, and hide themselves quickly when disturbed, 
while the males frequent flowers. Mntilla 
occidentalis is a large species. It is of a 
beautiful scarlet color and is armed Avith a 
very powerful sting. According to Profes- 
sor A. E. Verrill this species was found by 
him. at New Haven, to construct deei) 

with insects. This species is also said by Fig. 109. 

Kirby to be very active, "taking flies by surprise." (West- 
wood.) Mr. Verrill noticed that this insect makes a slight 

' ~ 

creaking noise. The larva* of J/. Enroptua are said to live 
parasitic-ally in Humble-bees' nests. MtitiUa ferrugata Fabr. 
(Fig. 10'J) is found frequently in New England. 




Latreille. The family of ants would seem 
naturally to belong with the truly fossorial Hymenoptera, both 
from their habits and structure. 

Both males and females are winged, but the males are much 
smaller than the females, while the wingless workers are smaller 
than the males. In these wingless forms the segments of the 
thorax become more or less separated, making the body much 
longer and slenderer, and less compact than in the winged nor- 
mal sexual forms, the prothorax being more developed than in 
the males and females. The workers often consist of two 
forms : one with a large cubical head, or worker major, some- 
times called a soldier, and the usual small-headed form, or 
worker minor. 

The head is generally triangular. The eyes are large in the 
males, smaller in the workers, and in those of some genera 
(Ponera, Typhlopone, etc.) they are absent ; while in the 



1<SO 



IlVMEAOrTEKA. 



workers the ocelli are often wanting, though present in the 
winged individuals of both sexes. The antenna: are long, 
slender and elbowed. The mandibles are stout, and toothed, 
though in those species that do not themselves labor, but en- 
slave the workers of other species, they are unarmed and 
slender. The maxillary palpi are from one to six-jointed, and 
the labial palpi two to four-jointed. The fore-wings usually 
have but a single complete subcostal (cubital) cell. The sting 
is often present, showing that in this respect as well as their 
fossorial habits the ants are truly aculeate Hymenoptera. The 
larva is short, cylindrical, with the end of the body obtuse. 
The rings of the body are moderately convex. The he;id i> 
rather small and bent upon the breast. The larva- are fed by 
the workers with food elaborated in their stomachs. 

The larvae of the stingless genera usually spin a delicate 
silken cocoon, while those of the aculeate genera do not. Both 
Latreille and Westwood, however, state that sometimes, ;is in 
Formica fusca, of Europe, the pupa- tire naked, and at other 
times enclosed in a cocoon. 

The colonies of the different species vary greatly in si/e. In 
the nests of Formica sanyuinea the number of individuals is very 
great. The history of a formicarium, or ant's nest is as follows : 
The workers only (but sometimes the winged ants) hibernate, 
and are found early in spring, taking care of the eggs and 
larvoi produced by the autumnal brood of females. In the 
course of the summer the adult forms are developed, swarming 
on a hot sultry day. The little yellow ants, abundant in paths 
and about houses in New England, generally swarm on the af- 
ternoon of some hot day in the first week of September, when 
the air is iilled towards sunset with myriads of them. The 
females, after their marriage night in the air, may then be seen 
entering the ground to lay their eggs for new colonies, or, as 
Westwood states, they are often seized bj* the workers and 
retained in the old colonies. Having no more use for their 
wings they pluck them off, and may be seen running about 
wingless. According to (iould, an early English observer, 
the eggs destined to hatch the future females, nudes and 
workers, are deposited at three different periods. 

The nests of some species of Formica are six feet in diameter 



FOKMICAKl^E. 181 

mid contain many thousand individuals. Ants also build 
nests of clay or mud, and inhabit hollow trees. They enjoy 
feeding upon the sweets of flowers and the honey of the Plant- 
lice, which they domesticate in their nests. Several species of 
beetles, including some of the StaphylinidcK , take up their 
abode in ants' nests. Ants are useful as scavengers, feeding 
on decaying animal matter. A good method of obtaining the 
skeletons of the smaller animals, is to place them on a densely 
populated ant-hill. The habits of the ants, their economy and 
slave-making habits, are described in the works of Huber, La- 
treille, and Kirby and Spence. 

Upwards of a thousand species of ants have already been 
described ; those of this country have still to be monographed. 

The first group of this extensive family consists of Dorylus 
and its allies, and Formica and the neighboring genera, all of 
which are distinguished by having only the first abdominal seg- 
ment contracted, while in the second group (Mynnicaria'), the 
two bas;i 1 rings are contracted into knot-like segments. 

The genus Dorylus was, by Latreille, King, and others, in- 
cluded in the M n t i liar ice . The head is very short, the 
ocelli are large and globular. The thorax and abdomen are 
elongated, the last is cylindrical, with a small, round, basal 
joint. The legs are short, with broad compressed femora and 
feather-like tarsi. In the wings the outer subcostal cells are 
wanting. The females are not yet known. Mr. F. Smith says 
that Dorylus was found by lion. W. Ellliot to live in the man- 
ner of ants, under the stone foundation of a house in India. 
The society was very numerous. The difference in size of the 
male and worker is very remarkable. The males are of large 
size and are found in tropical Asia and Africa. 

TypJilopone is an allied genus. T. >a7?(/>fs Ilaldeman is 
found in Pennsylvania. 

To the genus Anomma belong the Driver-ants of Western 
Africa. They march in vast armies, driving eveiy thing before 
them, so formidable are they from their numbers and bite, 
though they are of small size. They cross streams, bridging 
them by their interlocked bodies. Only the workers are known. 
Two species only, A. Burmeisteri Shuckard, and A. fcrcois 
Westwood, are described from near Cape Palmas, West Africa. 



182 



HLYMENOPTEKA. 



The genus Ponera is found distributed throughout the 
tropics. The females and workers are armed with spines ; the 
abdomen is elongated, the segments more or less diminished 
in size, the first comparatively large and often cubical. The 
legs are slender. P. ferrwginea Smith is a Mexican species. 

The allied genus Odontomachus springs like some leaping 
spiders. It uses for this purpose its unusually long mandibles, 
which are bent at right angles. 0. darns Roger lives in Texas. 

Formica includes the typical species of ants. Over two hun- 
dred species of this genus have been already described. The 
body is unarmed. The abdomen is short, oval or spherical, 
the scale-like first segment being lenticular in form, with a 
sharp upper edge. The subcostal cell of the fore-wings ends in 
a point. Formica sangvinea Latr. is one of our most abundant 
species, making hillocks of sand or clay, according to the nature 
of the ground. From the formicary walks, and underground 
galleries, radiate in all directions. This species has been ob- 
served making forays upon each others colonies. We have 
found a variety of this species in Labrador, where it is com- 
mon. It does not throw up hillocks, but tunnels the earth. 

This species has been observed in Europe by P. Iluber, to 
goon slave expeditions. They attack a "negro-colony" be- 
longing to a smaller black species, pillaging the nest, and carry- 
ing on" merely the larvae and pupae. The victors educate them 
in their own nests, and on arriving at maturity the negroes take 
the entire care of the colony. Poly erg us rufescens is also a slave- 
making ant, and '' Latreille very justly observes that it is physi- 
cally impossible for the rufescent ants (Poh/ergus rufescens), 
on account of the form of their jaws, and the accessory parts of 
their mouth, either to prepare habitations for their family, 
to procure food, or to feed them." Formica sanguinea sallies 
forth in immensely long columns to attack the negro ant. Ilu- 
ber states that only five or six of these forays are made within 
a period of a month, at other seasons they remain at peace. 
Iluber found that the slave-making Polyergus rufescens when 
left to themselves perish from pure laziness. They are waited 
upon and fed by their slaves, and when they are taken away, their 
masters perish miserably. Sometimes they are known to labor, 
and were once observed to carry their slaves to a spot chosen 



FORMICARY. 



183 




for a nest. The F. sanguined is not so helpless, "they assist 
their negroes in the construction of their nests, they collect their 
sweet fluid from the Aphides ; and 
one of their most usual occupations 
is to lie in wait for a small species 
of ant on which they feed ; and when 
their nest is menaced by an enemy 
they show their value for these faith- 
ful servants, by carrying them down 
into the lowest apartments, as to a 
place of the greatest security." 
(Kirby.) Pupae of both of the slave- 
making species were placed in the 
same formicary by Huber, where they Fig. no. 

were reared by the "negroes," and on arriving at maturity 
"lived together under the same roof in the most perfect amity," 
as we quote from Kirby. Darwin states that in England, F. 
sanguinea does not enslave other species. 

In this country Mr. J. A. Allen has 
described in the Proceedings of the 
Essex Institute, vol. 5, 1866, a foray 
of a colony of F. sanauinea upon a 
colony of a black species of Formica, 
for the purpose of making slaves of 
them. 

Formica Pensytvanica, our largest 
species, is found in oaks and decay- 
ing trees, while F. herculanea Latr. 
burrows in the earth, its hole opening beneath stones and sticks. 
Gould, who wrote in 1747, states that there are two sizes of 
workers of the common European Formica rufa, and fara; 
one set of individuals exceeding the other by about one-third. 
Kirby states that in his specimens "the large workers of For- 
mica rufa are nearly three times, and of F. flava, twice the 
size of the small ones." Mr. E. Norton describes F. fulrucea 
(Fig. 110, worker minor), and also Tapinoma tomentosa (Fig. 
Ill, worker major; antennae broken off), from Mexico. 

The tropical genus Polyrhachis includes, according to Smith, 
all those species that closely resemble Formica, but which 




Fig. 111. 



184 



HYMENOPTERA. 




11-2. 



have the thorax and node of the peduncle armed with spines 

or hooks. The}' construct small semicircular nests, of a kind 

of net-work, on the leaves of trees and 

shrubs. Their communities are small, sel- 4, 

dom exceeding twenty individuals. Mr. 

Norton describes P. arboricola (Fig. 112, 

worker major) from Mexico. An allied 

genus is Ectatomma (Fig. 113, worker major 

of E. fcrrnyima Norton, from Mexico). 

Mr. F. Smith has described a new genus, 
(Ewphylla, which is allied to Formica. 
They are green ants, found building in trees Fi 

in the tropics of the old world. The nest of (E. 
Smith is "formed by drawing together a number of green 
leaves, which they unite with a fine web. Some nests are a 
foot in diameter. They swarm, says Mr. Wallace, in hilly for- 
ests in New Guinea. Their sting is not very severe. This 
genus forms a link between Formica and Myrmica ; it 

agrees with the former in hav- 
ing a single node to the pe- 
duncle, and with the latter in 
having the ocelli obsolete in 
the workers, and in being fur- 
nished with a sting." 

The curious Honey-ant of 
Texas and Mexico, Mtfrtiteco- 
ct/stus Mexicanus Westwood, 
has two kinds of ' ' workers of 
very distinct forms, one of the 
usual shape," according to 
Smith, " and performing the 
active duties of the formica- 
rium ; the other and larger worker is inactive and does not quit 
the nest, its sole purpose, apparently, being to elaborate a kind 
of honey, which they are said to discharge into prepared recep- 
tacles, which constitutes the food of the entire population of 
the community. In the honey-secreting workers the abdomen 
is distended into a large globose bladder-like form. From 
this honey an agreeable drink is made by the Mexicans." 




Fig. 113. 



FOKM1CAK1 JE . 1 So 

The second subfamily, Myrmicaruv, includes those species 
in which the two first abdominal segments are contracted and 
lenticular. In ^lynnica the females and workers are armed 
with spines, and the ocelli are absent in the workers. The 
species are very small, and mostly bright colored. Mijrmica 
niolesta Say is found in houses all over the world. 

G-. Lincecum describes the habits of the Agricultural Ant of 
Texas, Myrmica molefadens. It lives in populous communi- 
ties. "They build paved cities, construct roads, and sustain 
a large military force." In a year and a half from the time 
the colony begins, the ants previously living concealed beneath 
the surface, appear above and "dear away the grass, herbage, 
and other litter, to the distance of three or four feet around the 
entrance to their city, and construct a pavement, .... con- 
sisting of a pretty hard crust about half an inch thick," formed 
of coarse sand and grit. These pavements would be inun- 
dated in the rainy season, hence, " at least six months pre- 
vious to the coming of the rain," they begin to build mounds 
rising a foot or more from the centre of the pavement. Within 
these mounds are neatly constructed cells into which the 
"eggs, young ones, and their stores of grain, are carried in 
time of rainy seasons." No green herb is allowed to grow on 
the pavement except a grain-bearing grass, Aristida stricta. 
This grain, when ripe, is harvested, and the chaff removed, 
while the clean grain is carefully stored away in dry cells. 
Lincecum avers that the ants even sow this grain. They also 
store up the "grain from several other species of grass, as 
well as seeds from many kinds of herbaceous plants." 

PhehMe is distinguished by having workers with enormous 
heads. P. notabilis Smith, from the Island of Bachian, Indian 
Archipelago, is noted for the enormously enlarged, cubical 
head of the worker major, which is at least six times the size 
of the abdomen, while in the worker minor, the head is of 
the ordinary size. An Indian species, P. providens Westwood, 
according to Col. Sykes, "collects so large a store of grass 
seeds as to last from January and February, the time of 
their ripening, till October." 

The genus Atta is also well-armed, while the Avorkers have 
a very large, deeply incised and heart-shaped head, without 



180 



HYMENOPTEKA. 




ocelli, and the second abdominal knot-like ring is very trans- 
verse. A. dypeata Smith is a Mexican species. 

In Eciton the man- 
dibles nearly equal 
the length of the in- 
sect itself. This ge- 
nns is the most 
ferocious of all the 
ants, entering the nest 
of species of Formica 
and tearing them, 
limb from limb, and 
then carrying off the 
remains to their own 
houses. 

Ecitini Mexirtinn 
Roger (Fig. 114, 
worker major, a, front 
view of head, show- 
ing the immense 
sickle-like mandibles, and only the two basal joints of the 
antemife ; Fig. 115, worker minor, with a front view of the 
head, showing the mandi- 
bles of the usual size). 
This species, with Eciton 
Sumichrasti Norton, (Fig. 
116, worker minor) has 
been found by Professor 
Sumichrast at Cordova and 
Orizaba, Mexico. 

The males of Eciton are 
not } r et known. Smith 
supposes that Labichis (a 
genus allied to Dorylus) is 
the male form, and Sumi- 
chrast thinks this conjec- 
ture is "sustained by the Fig. iw. 
fact that it is in the season when the sorties of the Eciton 
are the more frequent that the Labidus also show themselves." 



Fig. 114. 




FORMIC ARL<E. 



187 




An allied genus is Pseudomyrma. P. bicolor Guerin (Fig. 
117) is found in Central America. P. flaridula Smith, found in 
Central and South America, in Mexico lives, according to 
Sumichrast, within the spines which arm the 
steins of certain species of Mimosa. These 
spines, fixed in pairs upon the branches, are 
pierced near the end by a hole (Fig. 118 a), 
which serves for the entrance and exit of the 
ants. 

The genus (Ecodoma differs from Atta in 
having the thorax armed with spines. (E. Fig. in;. 

Mexicana Smith (Figs. 119, female; 120, worker major) is 
abundant on the Gulf Coast of Mexico. In many places, ac- 
cording to Sumichrast, the natives eat the females after hav- 
ing detached the thorax. The intelligence of these 
ants is wonderful. They are seen in immense num- 
bers transporting leaves. Sumichrast states that 
"the ground at the foot of the tree, where a troop of 
these 'arriems,' or workers, is assembled for despoil- 
ing it of its leaves, is ordinarily strewn with frag- 
ments cut off with the greatest precision. And if the 
Fig. in. tree is not too loft}', one can satisfy himself that a 
party of foragers, which have climbed the tree, occupies itself 
wholly in the labor of cutting them ojf\ while at the foot of 
the tree are the carriers which make the journeys between the 
tree and the nest. This manage- 
ment, which indicates among these 
insects a rare degree of intelligence, 
is, perhaps, not a constant and in- 
variable practice, but it is an incon- 
testable fact, and one which can be 
constantly proved." 

"It is specially in the argillaceous 
countries that the CEcodomas build 
their enormous formicaries, so that 
one perceives them from afar by the 
projection which they form above the level of the soil, as 
well as by the absence of vegetation in their immediate 
neighborhood. These nests occupy a surface of many square- 





118. 



1H8 



HYMENOPTERA. 



metres,* and their depth varies from one to two- metres*. 
Very many openings, of a diameter of about one to three in- 
ches, are contrived from the exterior, and conduct to the inner 
cavities which serve as storehouses for the eggs and larva 1 . 
The central part of the nest forms a sort of funnel, designed 
for the drainage of water, from which, in a country where 
the periodical rains are often abundant, the}- could hardly es- 

cape without be- 
ing entirely sub- 
merged, if they 
did not provide 
for it some out- 
let. 

"The system 
which reigns in 
the interior of 
these formicaries is extreme. The collection of vegetable 
debris brought in by the workers is at times considerable ; 
but it is deposited there in such a manner as not to cause any 
inconvenience to the inhabitants, nor impede their circulation. 
It is mostly leaves which are brought in from without, and it 
is the almost exclusive choice of this kind of vegetation which 
makes the CEcodoma a veritable scourge to agriculture. At 
each step, and in almost every place in the 
elevated woods, as on the plains ; in desert 
places as well as in the neighborhood of 
habitations, one meets numerous columns 
of these insects, occupied with an admirable 
zeal in the transportation of leaves. It 
seems even that the great law of the din'- 
of labor is not ignored by these little 





. 120. 

creatures, judging from the observations which I have often 
had occasion to make." (Sumichrast.) 

"The (E. cephalotes" says H. "W. Bates, "from its immeusr 
numbers, eternal industry, and its plundering propensities, be- 
comes one of the most important animals of Brazil. Its immense 
hosts are unceasingly occupied in defoliating trees, and those 
most relished by them are precisely the useful kinds. They 

* A metre is about thirty-nine (39.07) inches. 



FORMIC ARIvE. 

have regular divisions of laborers, numbers mounting the trees 
and cutting off the leaves in irregularly rounded pieces the size 
of a shilling-, another relay carrying them off as they fall." 
"The heavily laden fellows, as they came trooping in, all de- 
posited their load in a heap close to the mound. About the 
mound itself were a vast number of workers of a smaller size. 
The very large-headed ones were not engaged in leaf-cutting, 
nor seen in the processions, but were only to be seen on dis- 
turbing the nest." Bates also says, "I found, after removing 
a little of the surface, three burrow's, each about an inch in 
diameter ; half a foot downward, all three united in one tubular 
burrow about four inches in diameter. To the bottom of this I 
could not reach when I probed with a stick to the depth of four 
or five feet. This tube Avas perfectly smooth and covered with 
a vast number of workers of much smaller size than those oc- 
cupied in conveying the leaves ; they were unmixed with any 
of a larger size. Afterwards, on probing lower into the bur- 
row, up came, one by one, several gigantic fellows, out of all 
proportion, larger than the largest of those outside, and which 
I could not have supposed to belong to the same species. Be- 
sides the greatly enlarged size of the head, etc., they have an 
ocellus in the middle of the forehead ; this latter feature, added 
to their startling appearance from the cavernous depths of the 
forrnicarium, gave them quite a Cyclopean character." 

Of another species, the (Ec. sexdentata, Mr. Smith quotes 
from Rev. Hamlet Clark, that at Coiistancia, Brazil, the pro- 
prietor of a plantation used every means to exterminate it and 
failed. "Sometimes in a single night it will strip an orange or 
lemon tree of its leaves ; a ditch of water around his garden, 
Avhich quite keeps out all other ants, is of no use. This spe- 
cies carries a mine under its bed without any difficulty. In- 
deed, I have been assured again and again, by sensible men, 
that it has undermined, in its progress through the country, the 
great river Paraiba. At any rate, without anything like a nat- 
ural or artificial bridge, it appears on the other side and con- 
tinues its course." This testimony is confirmed by Mr. 
Lincecum (Proceedings of Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, 1867, p. 24) in an interesting account of the (Ec, 
Texana, Avhich he has obsen'ed for eighteen years. He states 



190 HYMENOPTERA. 

that they often carry their subterranean roads for several hun- 
dred yards in grassy districts, where the grass would prove an 
impediment to their progress. On one occasion, to secure ac- 
cess to a gentleman's garden, where they were cutting the 
vegetables to pieces, they tunnelled beneath a creek, which was 
at that place fifteen or twenty feet deep, and from bank to bank 
about thirty feet. He also observes that the smaller workers 
which remain around the nest do not seem to join in cutting or 
carrying the leaves, but are occupied with bringing out the 
sand, and generally work in a lazy way, very differently from 
the quick, active leaf-cutters. Also, that the pieces of leaves- 
are usually dried outside before being carried in, and that if 
wet by a sudden shower are left to decay without. He also- 
thinks that their lives are dependent upon access to 
water, and that they always choose places where it 
is accessible by digging Avells. In one case, a well 
was dug by Mr. Pearson for his own use, and water 
found at the depth of thirty feet. The ant-well 
which he followed was twelve inches in diameter." 
Fig. 121. (Norton, American Naturalist, vol. 2.) 
The genus Cryptocerus is remarkable for its flattened head, 
with the sides expanded into flattened marginal plates, con- 
cealing, or partly hiding the eyes. C. multispinosus Norton 
(Fig. 121) is the most common species about Cordova, Mexico, 
where they live, according to Sumichrast, within the trunks of 
trees. 




Latreille. In this small group the thirteen- 
jointed antennae are elbowed, the eyes are oval and the ocelli 
distinct. The maxillary palpi are five, and the labial palpi 
three-jointed. There are about four hundred species known. 

These insects are very different from the ants in their oblong 
compact form, their nearly sessile, oblong abdomen, having only 
three to five rings visible, the remaining ones being drawn with- 
in, forming a long, large, jointed sting-like ovipositor, which 
can be thrust out like a telescope. The abdomen beneath is 
concave, and the insect can roll itself into a ball on being dis- 
turbed. They are green or black. The sting has no poison- 
bag, and in this respect, besides more fundamental characters, 



CHRYSIDHXE. 1'Jl 

the Chrysis family approaches the Ichneumons. They best 
merit the name of "Cuckoo-flies," as they fly and run briskly 
in hot sunshine, on posts and trees, darting their ovipositor into 
holes in search of the nests of other Hymenoptera, in which to 
lay their eggs. Their larvae are the first to hatch and devour 
the food stored up by other fossorial bees and wasps. "St. 
Fargeau, however, who has more carefulty examined the econ- 
omy of these insects, states that the eggs of the Chrysis do 
not hatch until the legitimate inhabitant has attained the greater 
part of its growth as a larva, Avhen. the larva of the Chrysis 
fastens on its back, sucks it, and in a very short time attains 
its full size, destroying its victim. It does not form a cocoon, 
but remains a long time in the pupa state." (AVestwood.) 

" In the Entomological Magazine has been noticed the dis- 
covery of Hedychrum bidentulum, which appears to be parasitic 
upon Psen caliginosus ; the latter insect had formed its cells in 
the straws of a thatched arbor, as many as ten or twelve cells 
being placed in some of the straws. Some of the straws, per- 
haps about one in ten, contained one or rarely two, of the 
Hedychrum, placed indiscriminately amongst the others. 
Walkenaer, in his Memoirs upon Halictus, informs us that 
Hedychrum luciduluui waits at the mouth of the burrows of 
these bees, in order to deposit its eggs therein ; and that when 
its design is perceived by the bees, they congregate together 
and drive it away. St. Fargeau states that the females of 
Hedychrum sometimes deposit their eggs in galls, while H. 
regium oviposits in the nest of Megachile muraria ; and he 
mentions an instance in which the bee, returning to its nearly 
finished cell, laden with pollen paste, found the Hedychrum 
in its nest, which it attacked with its jaws ; the parasite im- 
mediately, however, rolled itself into a ball, so that the Mega- 
chile was unable to hurt it ; it, however, bit off its four wings 
which Avere exposed, rolled it to the ground and then deposited 
its load in the cell and flew away, whereupon the Hedychrum, 
now being wingless, had the persevering instinct to crawl up 
the Avail to the nest, and there quietly deposit its egg, which it 
placed between the pollen paste and the Avail of the cell, which 
prevented the Megachile from seeing it." (Westwood.) 

In Cleptes the underside of the abdomen is not hollowed out ; 



102 HYMENOPTERA. 

it is acutely oval, and with five rings in the male. Ch'pte* 
semia a, <!?<! La.tr. is found in Central Europe. AVe have no na- 
tive species. In Chm/sis and the other genera, Stilbum, Parno- 
pes, and Hedychrum, the abdomen is hollowed beneath, and 
the tip is broad and square. CVov/.s/.s hi'lan's Dahlb. (Fig. 122) 
is a short, thick, bluish green species, .32 inch in length. It 
is not uncommon in New England. 

In Hedychrum the maxillary palpi and ligula are rather short, 
the last cordate ; the mandibles are three-toothed within. The 
abdomen is broad and short, almost spherical, the second seg- 
ment being the largest. H. dimidiatum Say is found in the 
Middle States. 

The European Stilbum splendidum, Fabr. according to l)u- 
four, lives in the cells of Pelopanis spirifex. It makes oblong 

cocoons of a deep brown, with rounded 
ends ; they are of great tenacity, being 
mixed with a gummy matter. 

Mr. Guenzius states that in Port 
Natal ''a species of ^tiJhiini lays its 
eggs on the collected caterpillars stored 
up by Eumenes tinctor, which con- 
structs a nest of mud and attaches it to reeds, etc.. not in a 
single, but a large mass, in which cells are excavated, similar 
to the nest of Chalicodoma micraria?* First, it uses its ovi- 
positor as a gimlet, and when its point has a little penetrated, 
then as a saw or rasp ; it likewise feels with its ovipositor, and, 
finding an unfinished or an empty cell it withdraws it immedi- 
ately, without laying an egg." 

ICHNEUMONID^E Latreille. The Ichneumon-flies are readily 
recognized by the usually long and slender body, the long ex- 
serted ovipositor, which is often very long, and protected by a 
sheath formed of four stylets of the same length as the true 
ovipositor. The head is usually rather square, with long, 
slender, many-jointed antenna 1 which are not usually elbowed. 
The maxillary palpi are five to six-jointed, while the labial 

*A query (?) after the name of a species indicates a doubt whether the insect 
really belongs to that species; so with a ? after the name of a genus. A '? before 
both the genus and species expresses a doubt whether that be the insect at all. 




ICHNEUMONIDJE. I'.CJ 

palpi are three to four-jointed. The abdomen is inserted im- 
mediately over the hind pair of trochanters, and usually consists 
of seven visible segments. The fore-wings have one to three 
subcostal (cubital) cells. 

The larva is a soft, fleshy, cylindrical, footless grub, the 
rings of the bocty being moderately convex, and the head rather 
smaller than in the foregoing families. The eggs are laid by 
the parent either upon the outside or within the caterpillar, or 
other larva, on which its young is to feed. When hatched it 
devours the fatty portions of its victim which dies gradually of 
exhaustion. The ovipositor of some species is very long, and 
is fitted for boring through very dense substances ; thus Mr. 
Bond, of England, observes that Rhyssa jwrsnasoria actually 
bores through solid wood to deposit its eggs in the larva- of 
Sirex ; the ovipositor is worked into the wood like an awl. 
When about to enter the pupa state the larva spins a cocoon, 
consisting in the larger species of an inner dense case, and a 
looser, thinner, outer covering, and escapes as a fly through 
the skin of the caterpillar. The cocoons of the smaller genera, 
such as Cryptus and Microgaster, may be found packed closely 
in considerable numbers, side by side, or sometimes placed up- 
right within the body of caterpillars. 

The Ichneumon-flies are thus very serviceable to the aoricul- 

C* 

turist, as they must annually destroy immense numbers of cat- 
erpillars. In Europe over 2,000 species of this family have 
been described, and it is probable that we have an equal num- 
ber of species in America ; G-erstaecker estimates that there 
are 4,000 to 5,000 known species. 

The Ichneumons also prey on certain Coleoptera and Hymen- 
optera, and even on larvae of Phryganidce, which live in the 
water. In Europe, Pimpla Fairmairii is parasitic on a spider. 
Clubione holosericea, according to Laboulbc-ne. Boheman 
states that P. ovivora lives on a spider, and species of Pimpla 
and Hemiteles were also found in a nest of spiders, according to 
Gravenhorst. Bonche says that Pimpla rufata devours, during 
winter and spring, the eggs of Aranea cliadema, and Ratzburg 
gives a list of fourteen species of Ichneumons parasitic on 
spiders, belonging to the genera Pimpla, Pezomachns, Ptero- 
malus, Cryptus, Hemiteles, Microgaster, and Mesochorus. Mr. 
13 



1JI4 



HYMENOPTERA. 




Emerton informs me that he has reared a 1'ezomachus from 
the egg-sac of Attus, whose eggs it undoubtedly devours. They 
ure not even free from attacks of members of their own family, 
us some smaller species are well known to prey on the larger. 
Being cut off from communication with the external world, 
the Ichneumon larva breathes by means of the two principal 

trachea?, which 
terminate in the 
end of the body, 
and are placed, 
according to G er- 
st aecker, in com- 
munication with a 
stigma of its host. 
From the com- 
plete assimilation 
of the liquid food., 
*"* l - :{ - the intestine ends 

in a cul de sc, as we have seen it in the larva? of Humble-bees 
and of Stylops, and as probably occurs in most other larva? 
of similar habits, such as young gall-flies, weevils, etc., which 
live in cells and do not eat solid food. 

The first subfamily, the Ecanii(ht\ are insects of singular and 
very diverse form, in which the antennae are either straight or 
elbowed, and thirteen to fourteen- 
jointed ; the fore-wings have one to 
three subcostal (cubital) cells, and the 
hind wings are almost without veins. 
In Evania and Fn'itnn the. abdomen 
has a very slender pedicel, originating 
next the base of the metanotum. The 
former genus has a remarkably short 
triangular compressed abdomen in the 
female, but ovate in the male. The 
species are parasitic on Blatta and allies. 
Olivier (Fig. 123, $ and pupa) is a black species, and is para- 
sitic, on the cockroach, Periplaneta, from the eggs of which we 
have taken the pupa and adult. The eggs of the cockroach are 
just large enough to accommodate a single Evania. This speeies 







N'HNKUMONIDJK. 




is widely distributed, and in Cuba, according to Cresson. it 
devours the eggs of Periplaneta Americana. 

The genus Autocodes of Cresson, "forms a very close con- 
necting-link between the minute Ichneumons and the Evania'." 
.1. nigriventris Cresson (Fig. 124, a; &, metathorax; <>, inser- 
tion of the abdomen) lives in Cuba. 

Faeiins is quite a different genus, as the abdomen is very long 
and slender. Fmnus jaculator Linn, is known in Europe to 
frequent the nests 
of Crabronidce, 
ovipositing in the 
larvae. 

JWwiitiix is a fa- 
miliar insect, the im- 
mensely elongated, 
linear abdomen of 

the female easily Fig. 1-2.1. 

distinguishing it. The male is extreme!}- rare ; its abdomen 
is short and clavate. It strikingly resembles Trypoxylon, 
though the abdomen is considerably larger. Pelwhnis j>/>/- 
<-c>-tor Drury (Fig. 125, $ and ?) is widely distributed 
throughout this country. 

The genuine Irfn>t'Hioiti<I<i'. have long, straight, nniltiartini- 
late antenna. 1 . The first subcostal (cubital) cell of the fore- 
wings is united with the median 
cell lying next to it, while the 
second is very small or wholly 
wanting. There are two recurrent 
veins. Mr. Cresson has described 
the genus Eiphosoma (Fig. 12<i ). 
Fig. i2ii. which he states may be known by 

the long, slender, compressed abdomen, and the long posterior 
legs, with their femora toothed beneath the tips. E. <I.H:IH- 
/(itnm Cresson, a Cuban species, is, according to Poey, "para- 
sitic upon a larva of Pyralis." (Cresson.) 

In Ophion the antennae are as long as the body, the abdo- 
men is compressed, and the species are honey-yellow in color. 
O. macrurum Linn. (Fig. 127) attacks the American Silk- 
worm, Telea Polyphemus. Atiomalon is a larger insect and 
usually black. A. iwspa.rum is, in Europe, parasitic on Vespa. 




ffi 



196 



HYMENOPTEKA. 




The genus Rhyssa contains our largest species, and frequent 
the holes of boring insects in the trunks of trees, inserting its 

remarkably long ovipositor 
in the body of the larva- 
deeply embedded in the 
trunk of the tree. Harris 
states that Wn/ssa (Pimpla) 
(itrntii and Immtnr (Fig. 128. 
male) of Fabricius, " may 
frequently be seen thrusting 
their slender borers, measur- 
ing from three to four in- 
ches in length, into the 
trunks of trees inhabited 
by the grubs of the Tiv- 
mex, and by other wood- 
F 'S'- '-" eating insects ; and, like 

the female Tremex, they sometimes become fastened to the 
trees, and die without being able to draw their borers out 
again." The abdomen of the male is very slender. 

Pimpla has the ovipositor half as long as the abdomen. P. 
pedalis Cresson is a parasite on Clisiocampa. 

The genus Troy us leads to Ichneumon. The antenmu are 
shorter than the body ; the abdomen is slightly petiolate, fusi- 
form, and the second subcostal cell 
is quadrangular. Troyns e.vesorii(s 
Brulle is tawny red, and is a para- 
site of Papilio Asterias. 

The genus Ichneumon (Fig. 129) 
is one of great extent, probably 
containing over three hundred spe- 
cies. The abdomen is long ami 
slender, lanceolate ovate, slightly 
petiolate. The second subcostal cell 
is five-sided, and the ovipositor is 
either concealed or slightly exserted. 
Ichneumon snttirah's Say is a very common form, and has been 
reared in abundance from the larva of the Army-worm, Leu- 
cania unipuncta. The body is pale rust-red, with black sutures 
on the thorax. Another common species, also parasitic on the 




ICHNEUMONID^E. 



197 




129 - 



Army-worm, is the Ichneumon para&us, which is blackish, 
handed and spotted with yellow. 

The singular genus Grotea, established by Mr. Cresson, has 
a long and narrow thorax (Fig. 130 a), and a very long and 
petiolated abdomen (c). We have 
taken G. anyitiita Cresson, the only 
species known, from the cells of 
Crabro in raspberry stems received 
from Mr. Angus. 

dryptus is a genus of slender 
form, with a long, cylindrical abdo- 
men, which is petiolate. In the fe- 
male it is oval with an exserted 
ovipositor. Cresson figures a wing 
(Fig. 131) of C. ? ornaMpennis, a Cuban species, which has the 
wings differently veined from the other species. Westwood 
remarks that in Europe a species of this genus preys on the 
larvae of the Ptinidw. 

Pezomaclius is usually wingless, and might at first sight read- 
ily lie mistaken for an ant. The body is small, the oval abdo- 

men petiolate, and the wings, when pres- 
ent, are very small. The species are very 
numerous. Gersteecker suggests that 

Fig. 131. 

some may be wingless females, belong- 
ing to winged males of allied genera. 

The third subfamily is the Braconidce, containing those 
genera having long multiarticulate antenna?, and with the first 
subcostal cell separate from the first median, lying just behind 
it. The second subcostal cell is usually 
large, and there is only one recurrent vein. 

The genus Bmcon is distinguished by the 
deeply excavated clypeus. The first sub- 
costal cell is completely formed behind, 
Avanting the recurrent nerve ; the second cell 
is long, and four-sided. More than five 
hundred species, mostly of bright, gay 
colors, are already known. The genus Rhopalosoma of Cres- 
son connects Bracon and other minute genera (Braconidse) 
with the true Ichneumons. R. Poeyi Cresson (Fig. 132) is a 






198 HYMENOPTERA. 

pale honey-yellow species, with a long club-shaped abdomen 
It lives in Cuba. 

Rogus is a genus differing from Bracon in having the three 
first abdominal rings long, forming a slender petiole. 

In Microgaster, a genus containing numerous species, the 
antenna* are eighteen-jointed, and the abdomen is shorter than 
usual, and clavate. There are two or three 
subcostal cells, the second very small. Mi- 
crogaster nephoptericis (Plate 3, figs. 3, 3 a) is 
parasitic on Nephopteryx Edmandsii, found in 
the cells of the Humble-bee. 

Aphidiiix, the parasite of the Plant-lice, is 
a most valuable ally of man. It is known by 
its small size, and by having the second and 
third segments of the abdomen moving free on 
Fig. i.u. each other. There are three cubital cells, though 

the wings are sometimes wanting. Aphidius (Praon) avenu- 
phi* of Fitch, the Oat-louse Aphidius, is black with honey- 
yellow legs, and is one-tenth of an inch long. Aphuliu* 
(Toxares) tritwapJn'x Fitch, the Wheat-louse Aphidius, is black, 
shining, with thread-like antenna' composed of twenty-five 
joints. Its length is .08 inch. Frequently the large size of 
the parasite causes the body of the dead Aphis to swell out 
into a globular form. 

PROCTOTRYPIDJE (Proctotrupii) Latreille. Egg-parasites. 
In this family are placed very minute species of parasitic Ich- 
neumon-like Ilymenopters which have rather long and slender 
bodies, with straight or elbowed antemue of various lengths, 
often haired on the joints, usually ten to fifteen, sometimes only 
eight in number, while the wings are covered with minute hairs 
and most of the nervures are absent. The maxillary palpi arc 
three to six, the labial palpi usually three-jointed. The abdo- 
men has from five to seven joints, and the tarsi are mostly five- 
jointed, rarely four-jointed. These insects are often so minute 
that they can scarcely be distinguished by the naked eye unless 
it is specially trained ; they are black or brown, and very 
active in their habits. They may be swept off grass and 
herbage, from aquatic plants, or from hot sand-banks. They 



I'UOCTOTU YPI I )/!: . 1 <)'ji 

prey on the wheat-flies by inserting tlieir eggs in their larvae, 
on gall-midges, and gall-flies, and on fungus-eating flies. In 
Europe, species of Teleas lay their eggs in those of other 
insects, especially- butterflies and moths and hemipters, where 
they feed on the juices of the larvte growing within the egg, 
coming out as perfect Ichneumons. We probably have many 
species of these insects in this country. They usually occur in 
great numbers where they are found at all. They are almost 
too small to pin, and if transfixed would be unfit for sttidv. 
and should, therefore, be gummed on mica, or put into small 
vials with alcohol. 

In Proctotrupes the antenme are long, feathered, twelve- 
jointed. The fore-wings have the beginning of a cubital cell, 
and two longitudinal veins on the posterior half. The abdo- 
men is spindle-shaped and very acutely pointed, the terminal 
joints being tubular in their arrangement, 
and thus, as Westwood states, approaching 
the Chrysididce. An unknown species 
(Fig. 133) we have taken at the Glen, in 
the White Mountains. 

The head of Diapria is horizontal and 
longer than broad; the ocelli are moved forward on to the 
front edge ; the long, filiform antennae have a projection on 
the under side, with the basal joint much elongated ; in the 
male they are thirteen or fonrteen-jomted, with one joint less 
in the female. The wings are without stigma or veins. The 
abdomen is long, oval, pedicelled. In Europe, 1). cecidomyi- 
arnm Bouche is parasitic on the larvae of Cecidomyia arte- 
misiai. Esenbeck considers that this genns is also parasitic on 
the earth-inhabiting Tip u I i d w . 

Gonatopus is a wingless genus, with the head very broad, 
transverse, and the front deeply hollowed out. while the ten- 
jointed antennas are long, slightly clavate, and the thorax is 
much elongated, deeply incised, forming two knot-like portions. 
Pronatopus hinatus Esenbeck, found in Europe, is one and a. 
half lines long;. 

~ 

Ceraphron has the antennas inserted near the month : they 
are elbowed, and eleven-jointed in the male, and ten-jointed in 
the female. The abdomen has a very short pedicel. The fore- 





200 HYMENOPTEKA. 

wings have a very short, bent costal (radial) vein. C. arum- 
in ni Say was described from Indiana. 

The egg-parasite, Teleas, has the elbowed twelve-jointed an- 
tennae inserted very near the front of the head, and slightly 
hairy and simple in the male, but in the female terminated in a 
six-jointed club. The thorax is short, the legs thickened and 
adapted for leaping, and the abdomen is pedicelled. Many- 
species have been found in Europe. According to Westwood, 
"the type of this genus is the Ichneumon ovulorum of Linnaeus 
(Teleas Linncei Esenbeck), which Linnaeus and 
De Geer obtained from the eggs of moths." It 
has been raised from the eggs of several Bom- 
b;icid(M. " Bouche observed the female deposit 
Fijr. m. ;U1 e o-g in each of the eggs of a brood of Bom- 
l>yx neustria. He describes the larva as elliptical, white, 
.shining, rugose, subincurved, and one-third of an inch long." 
(Westwood.) 

Of the extensive genus Platygaster over a hundred European 
species are already known. The body, especially the abdomen, 
is generally flattened, the antennas are ten-jointed, and in the 
female clavate. The wing veins are absent ; the rather slender 
legs are not adapted for leaping, and the tarsi are five-jointed. 
A species of Platygaster (Fig. 134) not yet named, oviposits 
in the eggs of the Canker-worm moth, Anisopteryx vernata, 
and by its numbers does much to check the increase of this 
caterpillar. We have seen several of these minute insects 
engaged in inserting their eggs into those of the Canker- 
worm. 

Dr. Harris, in speaking of the enemies of the Hessian-fly, 
states, that "two more parasites, which Mr. Herrick has not 
yet described, also destroy the Hessian-fly, while the latter is 
in the flax-seed or pupa state. Mr. Herrick says, that the egg- 
parasite of the Hessian-fly is a species of Platygaster, that it is 
very abundant in the autumn, when it lays its own eggs, four 
or five together, in a single egg of the Hessian-fly. This, it 
appears, does not prevent the latter from hatching, but the 
maggot of the Hessian-fly is unable to go through its trans- 
formations, and dies after taking on the flax-seed form. Mean- 
while its intestine foes are hatched, come to their growth, spin 



PKOCTOTEYPID^E. 201 

themselves little brown cocoons within the skin of their victim, 
and in due time, tire changed to winged insects, and eat their 
way out." P. error Fitch (Fig. 135) is closely allied to P. 
n'puke Kirby, which, in Europe, destroys great numbers of the 
Wheat-midge. Whether this is a parasite of the midge, or 
not, Dr. Fitch has not yet determined. 

The habits of the genus Bethylus remind us of the fossorial 
wasps. Betliylus fuscicornis, according to Halidajr, "buries 
the larvae of some species of Tinea, which feed upon the low 
tufts of Rosa spinosissima, dragging them to a considerable 
distance with great labor and solicitude, and employing, in the 
instance recorded by Mr. Haliday, the bore of a reed stuck in 
the ground instead of an arti- 
ficial funnel, for the cells which 
should contain the progeny of 
the Bethylus, with its store of 
provision." (Westwood.) 

The genus Inostemma is re- 
markable for having the basal 
segment of the abdomen of the 
females furnished with a thick 
curved horn, which extends over the back of the thorax and 
head. Dr. Fitch states that /. inserens is supposed by Kirby to 
insert its eggs into those of the Wheat-midge. In the genus 
Galesus of Curtis, the mandibles are so enlarged and length- 
ened as to form a long beak, and Westwood farther states that 
in some specimens the anterior wings have a notch at the ex- 
tremity. Say's genus Coptera has similar wings. C. polita 
Say was discovered in Indiana. 

In the very minute species of Mymar and its allies, the head 
is transverse, with the antennae inserted above the middle of 
the face ; they are long and slender and elbowed in the male, 
but clavate in the female. There are no palpi, while the very 
narrow wings have a very short subcostal vein and on the 
edges are provided with long dense cilia?. The antenna? of 
Mymar are thirteen-jointed in the male, and nine-jointed in the 
female ; the club is not jointed. The tarsi are four-jointed, 
and the abdomen is pedunculated. Mymar piilchellus Curtis 
is a quarter of a line long. It is found in Europe. An allied 




202 HYMENOPTEKA. 

form Polynesia ovulorum Linn, lays numerous eggs in a single 
butterfly's egg. 

In Anaphes the male antemue are twelve-jointed, those of 
the female nine-jointed, and the abdomen is subsessile and 
ovoid. In Anayrus the male antennas are thirteen-jointed, 
those of the female nine-jointed, while the tarsi are four-jointed, 
and the acutely conical abdomen is sessile. No native species 
are known. 

The smallest Hymenopterous insect known, if not the most 
minute of all insects, is the Pteratomus Patnamii Pack. (Plate 
3, figs. 8, 8 a, hind wing), which we first discovered on the 
body of an Anthophorabia in the minute eggs of which it is 
undoubtedly parasitic. It differs from Anagrus in the obtusely 
conical abdomen, and the narrower, very linear wings, which 
are edged with a fringe of long, curved hairs, giving them a 
graceful, feathery appearance. The fore-wings are fissured, 
a very interesting fact, since it shows the tendency of the 
wings of a low Hymenopterous insect to be fissured like 
those of Pterophorus and Alucita, the two lowest Lepidop- 
terous genera. It is one-ninetieth of an inch in length. 

CHALCIDIDJE Westwood. This is a group of great extent ; 
the species are of small size ; they are often of shiny colors, as 
the name of the principal genus implies, being either bronxen 
or metallic. They have also elbowed antennae with from six 
to fourteen joints, and the wings are often deficient in veins. 
In some genera, including Chalcis, the hind thighs are thickened 
for leaping. The differences between the sexes, general!}' very 
marked in Hymenoptera, are here especially so. The abdo- 
men is usually seven-jointed in the male and six-jointed in the 
female, the other rings being aborted. The male of several 
species has the joints of the antennae swelled and furnished with 
long hairs above. Some of the species of Pteromalus are wing- 
less, and closely resemble ants. They infest eggs and larva*. 
Some species prey upon the Aphides, others lay their eggs in 
the nests of wasps and bees. One species is known in Europe 
to be a parasite of the common house-fly. Others consume 
the larva? of the Hessian-fly, and those Cecidomyia? that pro- 
duce galls, and also the true gall-flies (Cynips). Some are 



CILALCUDID/K. 




parasites on other Ichneumon parasites, us there are species 
preying on the genus Aphidius, which is a parasite on the 
Aphis. Mr. Walsh has bred a species of Hockeria and 01' 
Glyphe, which are parasitic on a Microgaster, which in turn 
preys upon the Army-worm, Leucania unipimcta ; and Chalcis 
albifrons Walsh, was bred from the cocoons of Pezomachus, an 
Ichneumon parasite of the same caterpillar. 

The pupai of some species are said to have the limbs and 
wings soldered together as in Lepidoptera, and the larvae sel- 
dom spin a silken compact cocoon. We have 
probably in this country at least a thousand 
species of these small parasites, nearly twelve 
hundred having been named and described in 
Europe alone. They are generally large enough 
to be pinned or stuck upon cards or mica ; some 
individuals should be preserved in this way, 
others, as wet specimens. Fig. 136. 

Chalcis is known by the abdomen having a long pedicel, its 
much thickened, oval thighs, and curved tibise. Chalcis bra- 
<-ata (Fig. 136), so named by Mr. Sanborn "in allusion to the 
ornamental and trousered appearance of the posterior feet" 
is about .32 inch in length. ''Reaumur has described and 
figured a species of Chalcis, which is parasitic in the nest of 
the American wasp Epipone nitidulans and which he regarded 
as the female of that wasp." (Westwood.) 

The genus Leucospis is of large size. It is known by having 
the large ovipositor laid upon the upper surface of the abdo- 
men, and being spotted and banded with 
yellow, resembling wasps. One of our more 
common species is the L. qffinis (Fig. 137) of 
Say. The Cuban L. Poet/i Guerin is para- 
sitic on the Megachile Poeyi of Guerin. 

The well-known Joint-worm, Enri/toma, 
(or Isosoma Walsh) produces galls on wheat- 
stems. The antennae are, in the male, slender and provided 
with verticils of hairs. The acutely oval abdomen has a 
short pedicel. The hind legs are scarcely thicker than the 
fore limbs. E. hordei Harris (Fig. 138) is found in gall-like 
swellings of wheat-stalks. It is still a matter of discussion. 




Fis,'. 137. 



204 HYMENOPTERA. 

whether it directly produces the galls, or is parasitic, like 
many of the family, on other gall-insects. Dr. Harris, who has 
studied the habits of the Joint-worm, states that the body of 
the adult fly is jet black, and that the thighs, shanks (tibiae), 
and claw-joints, are blackish, Avhile the knees and other joints 
of the feet, are pale-yellow. The females are .13 inch long, 
while the males are smaller, have a club-shaped abdomen, and 
the joints of the antennae surrounded with a verticil of hairs. 
The larva is described by Harris from specimens received from 
Virginia, as varying from one-tenth to nearly three-twentieths 
of an inch in length. It is of a pale yellowish white color, 
with an internal dusky streak, and is destitute of hairs. The 
head is round and partially retractile, with a distinct pair of 
jaws, and can be distinguished from the larvae of the dipterous 
gall-flies by not having the v-shaped organs on the segment 

succeeding the head. During the sum- 
mer, according to Mr. Gourgas's observa- 
tions reported by Dr. Harris, and when 
the barley or wheat is about eight or ten 
inches high, the presence of the young 
Joint-worms is detected "by a sudden 
rig. i3s. check in the growth of the plants, and 

the yellow color of their leaves," and several irregular gall- 
like swellings between the second and third joints, or, accord- 
ing to Dr. Fitch, " immediate!}- above the lower joint in the 
sheathing base of the leaf;" or, as Harris states, in the joint 
itself. The ravages of this insect have been noticed in wheat 
and barley. During November, in New England, the worms 
transform into the pupa state, according to the observations of 
Dr. A. Nichols, and "live tlnxmgh the winter unchanged in 
the straw, many of them in the stubble in the field, while others 
are carried away when the grain is harvested." In Virginia, 
however, the larva does not transform until late in February, 
or early in March, according to Mr. Glover. From earl}- in 
May, until the first week in July, the four-winged flies issue 
from the galls in the dry stubble, and are supposed to im- 
mediately lay their eggs in the stalks of the young wheat or 
barley plants. The losses by this insect has amounted, in 
Virginia, to over a third of the whole crop. The best remedy 




CHALCIDIDyE. 205 

against the attacks of this insidious foe, is to burn the stubble 
in the autumn or spring for several successive years. Plough- 
ing in the stubble does not injure the insects, as they can 
work their way out of the earth. 

It has been objected by Westwood, Ratzburg, and more 
recently by Mr. Walsh, (who afterwards changed his views), 
that as all the species of this family, so far as known, are para- 
sitic, the Eurytoma cannot be a gall-producer, and that the 
galls are made by a dipterous insect (Cecidomyia) on which 
the Eurytoma is a parasite ; but, as they offer no new facts to 
support this opinion, we are inclined to believe from the 
statements of Harris, Fitch, Cabell, T. Glover (Patent Office 
Report for 1854), and others, that the larva of the Eurytoma 
produces the gall. We. must remember that the habits of 
comparatively few species of this immense family have been 
studied ; that the genus Eurytoma is not remotely allied to 
the Cynipidse, or true gall-flies (which also comprise animal 
parasites), in which group it has actually been placed by Esen- 
beck, for the reason that in Europe "several species of 
Eurytoma have been observed to be attached to different 
kinds of galls." (Westwood.) Dr. Fitch also describes the 
Yellow-legged Barley-fly, Eurytoma fiannpes, which produce^ 
similar galls in barley, and differs from the Wheat Joint- worm 
in having yellow legs, while the antenna? of the male are not 
surrounded with whorls of hair. The Eurytoma secalis Fitch 
infests rye. It differs from E. hordei in '" having the hind pair 
of. shanks dull pale-yellow, as well as the forward ones." We 
shall also see beyond that several species of Saw-flies produce 
true galls, while other species of the same genus are external 
feeders, which reconciles us more easily to the theory that the 
Eurytoma hordei, and the other species described by Dr. Fitch, 
differ in their habits from others of the family, and are not ani- 
mal parasites. Indeed the Joint-worm is preyed upon by two 
Chalcid parasites, for Harris records finding the larva?, proba- 
bly of Torymus, feeding on the Eurytoma larvae, and that a 
species of Torymus (named T. Harrisii, by Dr. Fitch, and per- 
haps the adult of the first-named Torymus) and a species of 
Pteromalus are parasites on Eurytoma. 

In Sfonodontomerus (Torymus) the third joint of the an- 



20C. HYMENOPTEKA. 

teinue is minute, and the liind femora are thick, but not ser- 
rated, and beneath armed with a tooth near the tip. 

The wings are rudimentary so that it does not quit the cell. 
Newport states that the larva is fiat, yen- hairy, and spins a 
silken cocoon when about to pupate. It is an ''external feed- 
ing parasite" consuming the pupa as well as the larva of An- 
thophorabia. The imago appears about the last of June, 
perforating the cell of the bee. Jt also lives in the nests of 
Osinia, Anthophora, and Odynerus. 

The genus Anthopliorabia is so-called from being a parasite on 
Anthophora. The males differ remarkably from the females, 
especially in having simple instead of compound eyes, besides 
the usual three ocelli. ^1. mw/itchilis Pack. (Plate 3; tig. 7. 
larva; IK. pupa) is a parasite on a species of Megachile. 
The larva is white, short and thick, cylindrical, with both 
extremities much alike ; the segments are slightly convex, and 
the terminal ring is orbicular and rather large. Length. .04 
inch, being one-third as broad as long. On opening the cells 
of Megachile, we found nearly a dozen containing these para- 
sites, of which l."iu larva? were counted clustering on the out- 
side of a dead and dry Megachile larva. In England they 
occur, according to Newport's observations, in much less num- 
bers, as he found from thirty to lifty in a cell of Anthophora. 
A few females hatched out in the middle of October, and there- 
were a, few pupae left, but the majority wintered over in the 
larva state, and a new and larger brood appeared in the spring. 

J'crtlfiitipiis is a beautiful genus, with its shining, metallic 
tints. The eleven-jointed antenna; are short, lying Avhen at 
rest in a dee)) frontal furrow. The head is large, while the 
abdomen is slightly pedicelled, being short, contracted, with 
the ovipositor concealed. P. pldtiiyuxtcr Say and /'. triamjit- 
/((//.s Say were described from Indiana. 

The numerous species of Pt< j ro)iialnN often oviposit in the 
larva* of butterflies. In this genus the antenna? are inserted 
in the middle of the front. The abdomen is nearly sessile, ob- 
tusely triangular, or acutely ovate in form, with the ovipositor 
concealed. The femora are slender. There are about three 
hundred species known to inhabit Europe. Ptcromalus >- 
Harris is a parasite on Vanessa Antiopa. P. rlisio- 



CIlALCIDIDyE. 



207 




<-<tinj>(t j Harris infests Clisiocampa. " Pternnniliis J,I/IH, is 
parasitic in the nests of the Mason-bee." (AVestwood.) A spe- 
cies of this or an allied genus (Fig. 139) 
infests the eggs of the Clisiocampa Ameri- 
cana. Its eggs are probably laid within 
those of the Tent-caterpillar moth early 
in the summer, hatching out in the autumn, 
and late in the spring or early in June. 

An allied genus, ftiphonum, is a para- 
site on galls. It resembles a beetle, Mor- 
della, from its very peculiar scutum. Fi s- 1:J!) - 

The antennae of Semiotellus are twelve-jointed. S. (Ceraph- 
roii) ih-xtriictor Say (Fig. 140), according to that author, 

destroys the Hessian-fly, while lying 
in the "flax-seed" state. Fitch de- 
scribes it as being a tenth of an 
inch long, black, with a brassy 
green reflection on the head and 
thorax, while the legs and base of 
the abdomen are yellowish. 

In Encyrtus, which comprises 
over a hundred species already 
known, usually rather small in 
size, the body is short and rounded. 
The eleven-jointed antennae are inserted near the mouth. The 
thorax is square behind, and the sessile abdomen is short and 
broad at the base. Encyrtus Bolx* 
and E. Iteate are described from 
North America by Mr. F. Walker, f 
EiicyrtH* rariconu's is in Europe ^~ 
found as a parasite in the cells of 
Enmenes coarctata. 

The antenna? of Evlophns are nine- Fig- U1 

jointed, with a long branch attached to the third, fourth, and 
tifth joints. The abdomen is flattened, sessile. E. 7>o.sv///.s- 
Say was described from Indiana. We figure a Chalcid (Fig. 
141, (?), allied to Eulopus, which preys upon the American 
Tent Caterpillar. 

A species of Blastophaga (B. grossorum Grav.) is interest- 
ing as it is the means of assisting in the fertilization of the Fig 




Fisr. 140. 




208 



HYMENOPTERA. 



blossoms, which act, as applied to this instance of the fertiliza- 
tion of flowering plants by insects, has been called by Mr. 
Westwoocl " capriflcation." 

CYXIPID^E "Westwood. (Diploleparirv Latreille.) Gall-flics. 
In this most interesting family we have a singular combination 
of zoological and biological characters. The gall-flies are closely 
allied to the parasitic Chalcids, but in their habits are plant- 
parasites, as they live in a gall or tumor formed by the ab- 
normal growth of the vegetable cells, due to the irritation iirst 
excited when the egg is laid in the bark, or substance of the leaf, 
as the case may be. The generation of the summer broods is 
also anomalous, but the parthenogenesis that occurs in these 
forms, by which immense numbers of females are produced, is 
necessary for the work they perform in the economy of nature. 
When we see a single oak hung with countless galls, the work 
of a single species, and learn how numerous are its natural 

v. 



JIT. 



6 5*3 






Fig. U-2 / 

enemies, it becomes evident that the demand for a great nu- 
merical increase must be met by extraordinary means, like the 
generation of the summer broods of the Plant-lice. 

The gall-flies are readily recognized by their resemblance to 
certain Chalcids, but the abdomen is much compressed, and 
usually very short, while the second, or the second and third seg- 
ments, are greatly developed, the remaining ones being imbri- 
cated or covered one by the other, leaving the hind edges 
exposed. Concealed within these, is the long, partially coiled, 
very slender ovipositor, which arises near the base of the abdo- 
men.* Among other distinguishing characters, are the straight 

*Fig. 142. I, abdomen of Ci/nips quercus-aciculata Osten Sacken, with the ovipos- 
itor exserted ; II, the same with the ovipositor retracted ; III, the abdomen of the 
female of Figites (Diplolepis) 5-Kneattts Say; IV, the same showing the ventral 
portion, in nature covered by the tergal portion of the abdomen ; V, end view of the 



CYNIPIDyE. 200 

(not being elbowed) thirteen to sixteen-jointed antenna?, the 
labial palpi being from two to four-jointed, and the maxil- 
laiy palpi from four to six-jointed. The maxillary lobes are 
broad and membranous, while the lignla is fleshy, and either 
rounded or square at the end. There is a complete costal cell, 
while the subcostal cells are incomplete. The egg is of large 
size, and increases in size as the embryo becomes more devel- 
oped. The larva is a short, thick, fleshy, footless grub, with 
the segments of the body rather convex. When hatched they 
immediately attack the interior of the gall, which has already 
formed around them. Many species transform within the gall, 
while others enter the earth and there become pupa?. 

It is well known that of many gall-flies the males have never 
been discovered. "Hartig says that he examined at least 
15,000 specimens of the genus Cynips, as limited by him, with- 
out ever discovering a male. To the same purpose he collected 
about 28,000 galls of Cynips divisa, and reared 9,000 to 10,000 
Cynips from them ; all were females. Of C. folii, likewise, he 
had thousands of specimens of the female sex without a single 
male." (Osten Sacken.) Siebold supposes in such cases that 
there is a true parthenogenesis, which accounts for the immense 
number of females. 

Mr. B. D. Walsh has discovered (American Entomologist, 
ii, p. 330) that Cynips quemis-aciculata 0. Sack., which pro- 
duces a large gall in the autumn upon the black oak, in the 
spring of the year succeeding lays eggs which produce galls 
disclosing Cynips qmrcus-spongijica O. Sack. He proved this 
by colonizing certain trees with a number of individuals of 
C. quercus-aciculata, and finding the next spring that the eggs 
laid by them produced C. qmrcus-spongifica. The autumn 
brood of Cynips consists entirely of agamous females, while 
the vernal brood consists of both males and females, and Mi- 
Walsh declares after several experiments that " the agamous 
autumnal female form of this Cynips (C. q. aciculata) sooner 
or later reproduces the bisexual vernal form, and is thus " a 
mere dimorphous female form" of (7. q. spongifica. 

abdomen of Cynips, showing the relations of segments 7-8, the sternal portion of 
the eighth segment being obsolete; sp.the single pair of abdominal spiracles; VI, 
terminal ventral piece, from which the sheaths (s s) and the ovipositor (o) take 
their origin ; it is strongly attached at m to the tergites of the sixth and seventh 
rings; o, ovipositor; s, s its sheaths; a, an appendage to v, the terminal sternite. 
From Walsh. 

U 



210 HYMENOPTEEA. 

Jn this connection he refers to the discovery of Clans, in 
1867. of several males of Psyche helix, which had been sup- 
posed to be parthenogenous, thousands of specimens having 
been bred by Siebold, all of which were females. 

Baron Osten Sac-ken (in the Proceedings of the Entomol- 
ogical Society of Philadelphia, vol. 1, p. 50) says that "a 
strong proof in confirmation of my assertion is, that in 
(hose genera, the males of which are known, both sexes 
are obtained from galls in almost equal numbers ; even 
the males, not unfrequently, predominate in number (see 
Ilartig, 1. c. iv, -'VJ'J). Now the gall-flies, reared by me 
from the oak-apple, were all females. Dr. Fitch, also, had 
only females; and Mr. B. 1). Walsh, at Hock Island, 
Illinois, reared (from oak-apples of a different kind) from 
thirty-five to forty females, without a single male. This 
leads to the conclusion that the Cynipes of the oak-apples 
belong to the genera hitherto supposed to be agamous." 
For an account of the habits and many other interesting 
points in the biology of these interesting insects, we further 
quote Baron Osten. Sacken. ' Most of the gall-flies always attack 
the same kind of oak; thus, the gall of C. seminator Harris, 
is always found on the white oak ; C. tubicola Osten Sacken on 
the post oak, etc. Still, some galls of the same form occur on 
different oaks ; a gall closely resembling that of C. qiicrcuf- 
ijlolmliiH Fitch, of the white oak, occurs also on the post oak, 
and the swamp chestnut oak; a gall veiy similar to the com- 
mon oak-apple of the red oak occurs on the black-jack oak. etc. 
Are such galls identical, that is, are they produced by a gall-fly 
of the same kind? I have not been able to investigate this 
question sufficiently. Again, if the same gall-fly attacks dif- 
ferent oaks, may it not, in some cases, produce a slightly differ- 
ent gall ? It will be seen below, that C. quercus-futilix. from :, 
leaf-gall on the white oak, is very like C. quercus-pap'illato from 
a leaf-gall on the swamp-chestnut oak. I could not perceive 
any difference, except a very slight one in the coloring of the 
feet. Both gall-flies may belong to the same species, and 
although the galls are somewhat different, they are in some 
respects analogous, and might be the produce of the same gall- 
fly on two different trees. 



CYNIPIDJK. 211 

"Some gall-flies appear very early in the season; Cynips 
quercus-palustris for instance, emerges from its gull before the 
end of May ; these galls are the earliest of the season ; they 
grow <jiit of the buds and appear full grown before the leaves 
are developed. May not this gall-fly have a second generation, 
and if it has, may not the gall of this second generation be 
different from the first produced, as it would be under different 
circumstances, in a more advanced season, perhaps on leaves 
instead of buds, etc? 

"A remarkable fact is the extreme resemblance of some of 
the parasitical gall-flies with the true gall-fly of the same gall. 
Thus, equips quereus-futilix, O. Sacken, is strikingly like Aulux? 
futilis, the parasite of its gall. The common gall on the black- 
berry stems produces two gall-flies which can hardly be told 
apart at first glance, although they belong to different genera." 
(Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia.) 

Ilartig has divided this family into three sections : First, 
Cynips and its allies, the true yaH-flies (Psenides) in which the 
second (counting the slender pedicel as the first) segment of 
the abdomen is longer than half its length, and the subcostal 
area is narrow, the basal areolet (cell) being opposite the base 
of the former. 

Ci/nips conjluens Harris forms the oak-apple commonly met 
with on the scrub-oak. There is a spring and summer brood. 
These galls, sometimes two inches in diameter, are green and 
pulpy at first, but when ripe have a hard shell with a spongy 
interior, in the centre of which, lodged in a woody kernel, 
which serves as a cocoon, the larva transforms, escaping 
through a hole, which it gnaws through both the kernel and 
shell. We have found the fly ready to escape in June, and Dr. 
Harris has found it in October. Two galls are represented on 
Plate 4, fig. lo ; the larger of which has been tenanted, after 
the gall-flies had escaped, by an Odynerus. Cynips gallce-tinc- 
torkv Olivier produces the galls of commerce, brought from 
Asia Minor. 

Biorhiza (Apophyllus Ilartig) is a wingless genus, and lives 
beneath the earth in galls formed at the roots of oak trees. 
Biorhiza nigra Fitch is black throughout, including the antennae 
and feet, and is but .08 inch long. 



212 HTMENOPTERA. 

Galls arc often found on the blackberry, tenanted by another 
genus, Diastroplms, which has usually fifteen-jointed antenna' 
in the male, and one joint less in the female. On opening a 
gall containing this fly, we often find an inquiline gall-fly, 
Anlax, "showing the most striking resemblance in size, color- 
ing and sculpture, to the Diastroplms, their companion. The 
one is the very counterpart of the other, hardly showing any 
ditferences, except the strictly generic characters." (Osten 
Sacken.) These galls are also infested b}' Chalcid parasites, 
Callimome (two species), Ormyrus, and Eurytoma. 

Osten Sacken. enumerates "eight cynipidous galls on the dif- 
ferent kinds of roses of this country." The flies all belong to 
the genus JRhodites, which is distinguished by the under side 
of the last abdominal segment being drawn out into a long 
point, while the antennae are fourteen-jointed 
in both sexes. _R. rosce produces the bede- 
i/iuir gall ("from the Hebrew bedeguach, said 
to mean rose- apple"). It was formerly used 
as a medicine. The galls form a moss-like 
mass, encircling the rose branch. Rliodites 
Fig. 1-1:5. dichlocerus of Harris (Fig. 143), produces 

hard, woody, irregular swellings of the branches. 

We now come to the second section, the Guest gall-flies (In- 
quiliiuv), which are unable to produce galls themselves, as they 
do not secrete the gall-producing poison, though possessing 
a well developed ovipositor. Hence, like the Nomada, etc., 
among bees, they are Cuckoo-flies, laying their eggs in galls 
already formed. 

This group may generally, according to Mr. Walsh, be dis- 
tinguished from the preceding by the sheaths of the ovipositor 
always projecting, more or less, beyond the "dorsal valve," 
which is a small, hairy tubercle at the top of the seventh ab- 
dominal segment. This dorsal valve also projects greatly. 
In almost all the species, the ovipositor projects from between 
the tips of the sheaths. 

Among the Inquiline genera are Synophrus, Amblynotus, 
Synerges, and Aulax, which are guests of various species of 
Cynipides. 

In Figites and allies (Figitidie), the third section of the 




TENTHREDINID.E. 



213 



family, the second segment is shorter than half the length of 
the abdomen, being much longer and less high and compressed 
than in the Cynipides, and the ovipositor is retracted within 
the abdomen. These insects are true internal parasites, re- 
sembling the Chalcids. Ibalia is a parasite on a wood-beetle. 
This genus has, by Walsh, been placed in the Cynipides. 
Figites has feather-like antennae in the male ; it is a parasite 
on the larvae of Sarcophaga. The genus Allot ria is a para- 
site on Aphis. 

Walsh states that two genera, which he has identified as 
Kleidotoma and Eucoila are true Ffgitida>, and "have the 
wings fringed like a My mar, and the former has them emargi- 
nate at tip with the radial area in my species distinctly open, 
and the latter simple at tip with the radial area in my species 
marginally closed by a coarse brown vein." Eucoila is sup- 
posed to be parasitic on some insect attacking the turnip. 

TENTHREDINID^E Leach. The Saw-flies connect the Ilymen- 
optera with the Lepidoptera. In the perfect state they con- 
form to the Hymenop- , 
terous type, but as 
larvae they would often 
be mistaken for Lepi- rf 
dopterous larvae, and 
in their habits closely 
resemble many cater- 
pillars. The three 
divisions of the bod}', 
usually so trenchantly 
marked in the higher 
Hymenoptera, are here Fi s- 144 - 
less distinct, since the abdomen is sessile, its basal ring being 

/ o fj 

broad and applied closely to the thorax, while the succeeding 
rings are very equal in size. The head is broad and the thorax 
wide, closely resembling that of the Lepidoptera. The wings 
(Fig. 144, fore-wing) are larger in proportion to the rest 
of the body than usual ; they are more net- veined, the cells 
being more numerous and extending to the outer margin. * 

*In treating of this family we avail ourselves largely of the important work on 
the American species, publishing at the time of writing, by Mr. E. Norton, in the 
Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vols. 1, 2. WQ therefore 




214 HYMENOPTERA. 

All these characters show that the saw-fly is, n degraded 
Hymenopter. 

The antennoe are not elbowed ; are rather short and simple, 
clavate. but in rare instances fissured or feathered. The ab- 
domen consists, usual]}', of eight external segments, the two 
last being aborted on the under side, owing to the great develop- 
ment of the ovipositor. The ovipositor or a saw" (compare 
Fig. 24) consists of two lamella?, the lower edge of which is 
toothed and fits in a groove in the under side of the upper one, 
which is toothed above, both protected by the usual sheath-like 
stylets. On pressing, says Lacaze-Duthiers, the end of the 
abdomen, we see the saw depressed, leave the direction of 
the axis of the body, and become perpendicular. By this 
movement the saw, which both cuts and pierces, makes a gash 
in the soft part of the leaf where it deposits its eggs. 

The eggs are laid more commonly near the ribs of the leaf, 
in a series of slits, each slit containing but a single egg. 
"Some species, 011 the other hand, introduce their eggs by 
means of their saws into the edges of leaves (_A>/?mf/'s conjn- 
gatus Dahlb.), and others beneath the longitudinal ribs of the 
leaves. A few, indeed, merely fasten their eggs upon the outer 
surface of the leaves (Nematiix yrossiilarice, etc.), attaching them 
together like a string of beads (Reaumur, vol. v, plate 10. lig. 
<S), whilst a few place them in a mass on the surface of the leaf 
(ibid, plate 11, figs. 8, 9)." (Westwood.) The irritation set up 
by the saws in the wounded leaf, causes a flow of sap which is 
stated by Westwood to be imbibed by the egg, so that it swells 
gradually to twice its original size. It is known that the eggs 
of ants increase in size as the embryo develops, and we would 

copy his diagram (Fig. 144), showing the venation of the wing (compare Fig. -2'.) 
and our nomenclature), with the explanation of parts given by him. 

a, stigma; b, costa or costal margin; c, apical margin; </, costal and po-t- 
costal veins; e, extern omedial; /, g, anal; h, posterior margin; /, marginal vein; 
;. submarginal vein; /.-, first, second, and third (transverse) submargiual iiervures; 
/, recurrent nervures (discoidal) ; m, discoidal vein ; i, first and second inner api- 
cal or submarginal nervures. Bulhv or clear spots, on the veins or nervures, with 
bullar or clear lines crossing them. 1,2, marginal or radial cells : :;, 4, .">, ii, submar- 
ginal or cubital cells; 7, 8, 9, discoidal cells ; 10, costal cell; 11, 12, brachial or me- 
dial cells; 13, 14, inner and outer apical cells. (Hinder cell*. Ilartig. Cellule du 
limbe, St. Farg.) No. 11 is sometimes the medial, and Xos. 12 and r; the siibinedial 
cells ; Xos. 9 and 14 the apical cells : Xos. 7 and 13 discoidal; Xos. 10. 11, 12, 1", the 
first, second, third and fourth brachial cells; 15, lanceolate cell. 1, open; _', con- 
tracted; 3, petiolate; 4, subcontracted; .">, with oblique cross nervure; ", with 
straight cross nervure. 



TEXTTIREDINID^E. 

question whether the increase in size of the eggs of the Saw- 
fly is not rather due to the same cause. 

The punctures in the plant often lead, in some genera, to tin- 
production of galls, in which the larva? live, thus showing 
the near relationship of this family to the gall-flies (Cynipida> ) . 

The larvae strongly resemble caterpillars, but there are six 
to eight pairs of abdominal legs, whereas the caterpillar has 
but five pairs. Many species curl the hind body up spirally 
when feeding or at rest. They are usually green, with lines 
and markings of various colors. They usually moult four 
times, the last change being the most marked. Most of the 
larva? secrete silk and spin a tough cocoon, in which they hiber- 
nate in the larva, and often in the pupa state. The pupa has 
free limbs, as in the other families. The eggs are usually do- 
posited in the leaves of plants, but in a few cases, according 
to Norton, in slender or hollow stems. While some are slug- 
shaped, like the Pear-slug, others like Lyda inanita, mentioned 
by Westwood, live on rose bushes, and construct a "portable 
case, formed of bits of rose-leaves arranged in a spiral coil ; " 
and other species are leaf-rollers, like the Tortricids. The 
larva of CepJn/s does injury to grain, in Europe, by boring 
within the stems of wheat. A remarkable instance of the care 
of the saw-fly for her young, is recorded by Mr. R. II. Lewis, 
who observed in Australia, the female of Perga Lewisii deposit 
its eggs in a slit next the midribs of an Eucalyptus leaf. They 
were placed transversely in a double series. "On this leaf 
the mother sits till the exclusion of the larvae ; and as soon as 
these are hatched, the parent follows them, sitting with out- 
stretched legs over her brood, protecting them from the attacks 
of parasites and other enemies with admirable perseverance." 
(Westwood.) 

The species are mostly limited to the temperate zone, but 
few being found in the tropics. The perfect insects mostly 
occur in the early summer, and are found on the leaves of the 
trees they infest, or feeding on flowers, especially those of 
the umbelliferous plants. 

The genus Cimbex contains our largest species, the antenna 1 
ending in a knob. C. Americana Leach is widely distributed, 
and varies greatly in color. The large whitish larva, with a 



21(j HY3IENOPTEKA. 

blackish dorsal stripe, may be found rolled up in a spiral on 
the leaves of the elm, birch, linden and willow trees. When 
disturbed it ejects a fluid from pores situated above the spira- 
cles. It constructs a large tough parchment-like cocoon, and 
the fly appears in the early summer. 

The genus Trichiosoma is recognized by its hairy body, and 
the antennae have five joints preceding the three-jointed club. 
T. triangulum Ivirby is found in British America and Colorado, 
and a variety, T. bicolor Harris, on Mount Washington ; it is 
black, except the tip of the abdomen, with the fourth and fifth 
joints of the antenna? piceous, and the thorax is covered with 
ash-colored hair. 

In Abia the antennae are seven-jointed, with the club obtuse ; 
the body is villose, the abdomen having a metallic silken hue. 
The Abia caprtfolii Norton (Fig. 145, larva) is very destruc- 
tive to the Tartarian Honeysuckle, sometimes stripping the 

bush of its leaves during successive sea- 
sons in Maine and Massachusetts. It 
hatches out and begins its ravages very 
soon after the leaves are out, eating cir- 
cular holes in them. It lies curled up 
on the leaf and when disturbed emits 
drops of a watery fluid from the pores in 
the sides of the body, and then falls to 
the. ground. During the early part of 
August it spins a pale yellowish silken 
cocoon, but does not change to a pupa, 
Mr. Eiley states, until the following 
Flg - 14r> - spring. He describes the larva as being- 

common about Chicago ; that it is "bluish green on the back, 
and yellow on the sides, which are pale near the spiracles, and 
covered with small black dots. Between every segment is a 
small, transverse, yellow band, with a black spot in the middle 
and at each end. Head free, of a brownish black above and 
color of the body beneath." The fly is described by Norton 
as being black, with faint greenish reflections on the abdomen ; 
there are two white bands at the base of the metathorax, and 
the wings are banded. It is .30 inch long and the wings ex- 
pand .70 inch. The larva? can easily be destroyed from their 




TENTHREDINIDvE . 217 

habit of foiling to the ground when the bush is shaken, where 
they can be crushed by the foot. Dr. Fitch has reared Abia 
<<'!< i si from one or two cocoons found on the wild cherry, the 
fly appearing in New York during March. 

Hylotoma is a much smaller genus ; the basal joint of the 
antenna is oval, while the second is small and round, and 
the terminal joint is very long. The larva is twenty-footed, and 
when eating curves the end of the body into the form of an 8. 
The pupa is protected by a gauzy, doubly enveloping cocoon. 
H. McLeayi Leach is wholly black, sometimes with a tinge of 
blue. It is found throughout the Northern States. 

The genus PristipJiora, closely allied to Nematus, is known 
by its nine-jointed antennas, and the single costal cell ; the first 
submarginal (subcostal) cell having two recurrent veinlets. 
P. identklem Norton has been discovered by Mr. W. C. Fish to 
be destructive to the cranberry on Cape Cod. He has reared 
the insect, and sent me the following notes on its habits, while 
the adult fly has been identified by Mr. Norton, to whom I 
submitted specimens. The larvae were detected in the first 
week of June, eating the leaves ; "they were light or pale yel- 
lowish green when first hatched," and grew darker with age. 
The head of the young was dark, but in the full-grown worm 
lighter. When full-grown they were about .30 of an inch in 
length, and had two lighter whitish green stripes running along 
the back from head to tail. They had spun their cocoons by the 
20th of June in the rubbish at the bottom of the rearing bot- 
tles. On the 29th of June they came out in the perfect state. 
We would add to this description that the body, in two alco- 
holic specimens of the larvae, was long, cylindrical, and smooth, 
with seven pairs of abdominal feet. The head is full, rounded 
and blackish, but after the last moult pale honey-yellow. The 
male is shining black, and Mr. Norton informs me that it is 
his P. idiota. P. grossidarice Walsh is a widely diffused species 
in the Northern and Western States, and injures the currant 
and gooseberry. The female fly is shining black, while the 
head is dull j-ellow, and the legs are honey-yellow, with the tips 
of the six tarsi, and sometimes the extreme tips of the hinder 
tibiae and of the tarsal joints pale dusky for a quarter of their 
length. The wings are partially hyaline, with black veins, a 



218 HYMEXOPTERA. 

honey-yellow costa, and a dusky stigma, edged with honey- 
yellow. The male differs a little in having black coxae. Mr. 
Walsh states that the larva is a pale grass-green worm, half 
an inch long, with a Mack head, which becomes green after 
the last moult, but with a lateral brown stripe meeting with 
the opposite one on the top of the head, where it is more or 
less confluent; and a central brown-black spot on its face. 
It appears the last of June and early in July, and a second 
brood in August. The}- spin their cocoons on the bushes on 
which they feed, and the fly appears in two or three weeks, the 
specimens reared by him flying on the 2Gth of August. P. 
sycophcmta Walsh is an "inquiline," or guest gall-saw-fly, 
inhabiting a Ceeidomyian gall on a willow. 

The genus Euura comprises several gall-making species. It 
differs from the preceding genus in the second, instead of the 
first, submarginal cell having two recurrent veiiules. Mr. 
Walsh has raised E. orbitaHs Norton (E. genuina Walsh) from 
galls found on Salix humilis. This gall is a bud which is 
found enlarged two or three times its natural size, before it 
unfolds in spring. The larva is twenty-footed, is from .13 to 
.19 of an inch long, of a greenish white color, and the 
head is dusky. It bores out of its gall in autumn, descending 
an inch into the ground, where it spins a thin, silken, whitish 
cocoon. The gall of E. salicis-ovtim Walsh is found on Salix 
cordata. The female is shining yellow, while the ground color 
of the male is greenish white. The gall of this species is an 
oval roundish, sessile, one-chambered, green or brownish swell- 
ing, .30 to .50 of an inch long, placed lengthwise on the side of 
small twigs. The larva is pale yellowish, and the fly appears 
in April. The fly is, according to Walsh, " absolutely undistin- 
guishable by any reliable character from the guest gall-saw-fly. 
Euura perturbans Walsh," which inhabits dipterous galls made 
by Ceeidomyian flies on the willow and grape (Walsh). If these 
two "species" do not differ from each other, either in the larva 
or adult state, "by any reliable characters," then one must 
question whether the variation in habits is sufficient to separate 
them as species, and whether E. salicis-OA-um does not, some- 
times, instead of forming a new gall, lay its eggs in a gall ready- 
made by a dipterous gall-fly. We have seen that Odynerus 



TENTHREDINID.E. 2 ID 

albophaleratus, which usually makes a mud cell situated in the 
most diverse places, in one case at least, makes no cell at all, 
I mt uses the tunnel bored out by a Ceratina ! and yet we should 
not split this species into two, on account of this difference 
in its habits. We had written this before meeting with Mr. 
Norton's remark that k 'it is difficult to give a hearty assent 
to Mr. Walsh's iuquilines or guest-flies, without further inves- 
tigation." (Transactions of the American Entomological 
Society, vol. i, p. 194.) 

In Nematus the nine-jointed antennae have the third joint 
longest. There is one costal and four subcostal cells, the 
second cell receiving two recurrent veinlets ; the basal half 
of the lanceolate cell is closed ; the hind wings have two mid- 
file cells, and the tibiae are simple. 

The larvae are hairy with warts behind the abdominal feet. 
They have twenty feet, the fourth and eleventh segments (count- 
ing the head as one) being footless. They are either solitary, 
feeding upon the leaves of plants, or social and generally found 
on pine trees, while some species live in the galls of plants. The 
pupa, according to Hartig, is enclosed in an. egg-shaped cocoon, 
like that of Lophyrus, but less firm, though with more outside 
silk. It is generally made in the earth, or in leaves which fall 
to the ground. N. vertebratus Say is green, with the antenna- 
and dorsal spots blackish, the thorax being trilineate. There 
are fifty species in this country, of Avhich the most injurious 
one, the Gooseberry saw-fly, has been brought from Europe. 
This is the N. ventricosxs King which was undoubtedly imported 
into this country about the year 1860, spreading mostly from 
Rochester, N. Y., where there are extensive nurseries. It does 
more injury to the currant and gooseberry than any other native 
insect, except the currant moth (Abraxas ribearia). Professor 
Wine-hell, who has studied this insect in Ann Arbor, Michigan, 
where it has been very destructive, observed the female on 
the 16th of June, while depositing her cylindrical, whitish and 
transparent eggs, in regular rows along the under side of 
the veins of the leaves, at the rate of about one in forty-live 
seconds. The embryo escapes from the egg in four days. 
It feeds, moults and burrows into the ground within a period of 
eight days. It remains thirteen days in the ground, being 



220 



HYMENOPTERA. 



most of the time in the pupa state, while the fly lives nine days.. 
The first brood of worms appeared May 21, the second brood 
Jnne 25. Wine-hell describes the larva as being pale-green,, 
with the head, tail and feet, black, with numerous black spots 
regularly arranged around the body, from which arise two or 
more hairs. Figure 14G, 1, shows the eggs deposited along the 
under side of the midribs of the leaf; 2, the holes bored by the 
very young larvae, and 3, those eaten by the larger worms. 

In transporting gooseberry and currant bushes, Walsh recom- 
mends that the roots be carefully cleansed of dirt, so that the 

cocoons may not be car- 
ried about from one gar- 
den to another. The leaves 
of the bushes should IK- 
examined during the last 
week of May, and as_ only 
a few leaves are affected 
at first, these can be de- 
tected by the presence of 
the eggs and the little 
round holes in them, and 
should be plucked oft' and 
burnt. The female saw- 
fly is bright honey-yellow, 
Fi s- li(5 - with the head black, but 

yellow below the insertion of the antennae. The male differs 
in its black thorax, and the antennae are paler reddish than in 
the female.* 

The genus Empltytus has nine-jointed antennae ; the third 

* Mr. Norton has communicated the following description of the larva of another 
saw-fly of this genus which infests the weeping-willow. 

; < Nematus trUineatus Norton. The larvce of this were first seen upon the weep- 
ing-willows about August 1st, in immense numbers, almost wholly stripping large 
trees of their leaves. They begin upon the edge of the leaf and eat all of it except 
the inner midrib. They' are very sensitive to disturbances, very lively, and are 
generally found with the hinder part of their bodies bent up over the back. They 
are twenty-footed, of a bright green color, palest at head and tail, with five rows of 
black dots down the back, the outer row upon each side irregular and with inter- 
vals. On each side above the feet is another row of larger black dots, and the three- 
anterior pair of feet are black at the base, middle and tip. 

" A great number of the saw-flies were found flying about the trees, August I'.ith. 
in the proportion of about ten males to one female. The males being almost 
wholly black upon the thorax." 




TENTHREDINID^E. 



221 



and fourth joints of equal length ; the wings have two subcos- 
tal and three median cells, the first as long as the second, gen- 
erally longer ; the first receiving one recurrent vein, the second 
two. AVe have found the larva of E. maculatus Norton on the 
cultivated strawberry, to which, in the Western States, it some- 
times does considerable damage, but it can be quite readily 
exterminated by hand-picking. Mr. Riley has carefully ob- 
-servecl the habits of this insect, and we condense the follow- 
ing remarks from his account in the Prairie Farmer : Early in 
May, in Northern Illinois, the female saw-fly deposits her eggs 
in the stem of the plant. The}' are white and .03 of an inch 
long, and may be readily perceived upon splitting the stalk ; 
though the outside 
orifice, at which 
they were intro- 
duced, is scarcely 
perceptible, their 
presence causes a 
.swelling in the 
stalk. By the mid- 
dle of May the 
worms will have 
eaten innumerable 
small holes in the 
leaves. They are 
dirty yellow and 
gray green, and at rest curl the abdomen up spirally. They 
moult four times, and are, when full-fed, about three-fourths of 
-an inch in length. The} r make a loose, earthen cocoon in the 
ground, and change to perfect flies by the end of June and 
the beginning of July. A second brood of worms appears, 
and in the early part of August descend into the ground and 
remain in the larva state until the middle of the succeeding 
April, when they finish their transformations. The fly is pitchy 
black, with two rows of dull, dirty white, transverse spots upon 
the abdomen. The nine-jointed tmtenna? are black, and the 
legs are brown, and almost white at the joints. Fig. 147 rep- 
resents the Strawberry Emphytus in all its stages of growth. 
1, 2, ventral and side-view of the pupa; 3, the fly enlarged ; 




2-2-2 



HYMEXOPTERA. 



5, the same, natural size ; 8, an antenna enlarged ; 4, the 
larva" while feeding ; G, the same, at rest ; 7, the cocoon ; 9, an 
egg enlarged. 

Of the genus Dolerus, known by the second snbmarginal cell 
receiving two recurrents, 1). arcensis Say, is a common blue- 
black species found in April and May on willows. 

The genus Selaiidria is the most injurious genus of the 
family. It embraces the Pear and Rose-slugs, the Vine-slug 
l> and the Raspberry slug. The flies are small, 

black, with short and stout nine-jointed au- 
tennoe, and broad thin wings. "The larva' 
are twenty and twenty-two-footed, present- 
ing great differences in appearance and habit, 
being slimy, hairy or woolly, feeding in 
companies or alone, eating the whole leaf as 
they go, or, removing only the cuticle of the 
leaf, and forming sometimes one and some- 
times two broods in a year. Selandria r/f/.s-, 
the Vine-slug, is twenty-footed ; it has a 
smooth skin, and the body is somewhat thick- 
ened in the middle but slender towards the 
tail. "While growing, the color is green 
above, with black dots across each ring, and 
yellow beneath, with head and tail black. 
They live upon the vine and arc very destruc- 
tive, feeding early in August in companies, on 
rig. 148. ] ie } wer s j c j e o f the leaf, and eating it all as 
they go from the edge inwards. There are two broods in a 
season. The fly is shining black, with red shoulders, and 
the front wings are clouded." (Norton.) 

8. rubi Harris feeds on the raspberry, appearing in May. 
The larva is green, not slimy, and feeds in the night, or early 
iii the morning. 8. tillw feeds on the linden. The Pear-slug, 8. 
cerasi Peck (Fig. 148, larvae feeding on a leaf of the pear, and 
showing the surface eaten off in patches; , enlarged; b. fly), 
is twenty-footed ; it narrows rapidly behind the swollen thorax, 
and is covered with a stick}' olive-colored slime. It feeds on 
the upper side of the leaves of both the wild and cultivated 
cherry and pear trees, and has been found on the plum and 





TKNTHKKDIMDJE. 22'.} 

mountain-ash. It appears in June and September. The fly is 
shiny black, with the tips of the four anterior femora, and the 
tibi;v and tarsi, dull white. An egg-parasite, belonging to the 
genus Encyrtus, renders, according to Peck, a great number 
of its eggs abortive. 

The Rose-slug, Selawlrid, yo.sv. Harris, is longer than the Pear- 
slug, the body being scarcely thickened anteriorly, and not 
covered with slime. It is pale-green and yellowish beneath. 
It appears in July and August, and does great injuiy in dis- 
ligtiring and killing the leaves of the 
rose, which remain dried and with- 
ered on the bush. AVhen full-fed, 
the larva, like the Pear-slug, makes 
a cocoon beneath the surface of the 
ground. The flies are seen in abund- 
ance about the rose-bushes as soon ri s- 
as the leaves are expanded, when they may be caught with 
nets, or the hand on cloudy days. Hand-picking, and the 
application of a very weak solution of carbolic acid, coal oil, 
whale oil soap, or quassia, are useful in killing the larvae. 

( )n the 25th of July a young friend brought me a large num- 
ber of some remarkable larva' (Fig. 149, natural size) of a 
saw-fly, which I surmised might belong to this genus. It pre- 
sented the appearance of an animated, white, cottony mass, 
about an inch long and two-thirds as high. The head of the 
larva is rounded, pale whitish, and covered with a snow-white 

powdery secretion, with prominent 
black eyes. The body (Fig. 150, 
naked larva) is cylindrical, with eight 
Fig. 150. pairs of abdominal legs, the segments 

transversely wrinkled, pale pea-green, with a powdery secre- 
tion low down on the sides, but above and on the back, arise 
long, flattened masses of flocculent matter (exactly resembling 
that produced by the woolly plant-lice and other Homopterous 
Hemiptera) forming an irregular dense cottony mass, reaching 
to a height equal to two-thirds the length of the worm, and con- 
cealing the head and tail. On the 27th and 28th of July the 
larva 1 moulted, leaving the cast skins on the leaf. They were 
then naked, a little thicker than before, of a pale-green color, 




2-24 



HYMENOPTERA. 




and were curled on the leaf. They cat out the edge of the 
leaf of the butternut tree. Sometime during August, two 

cocoons were spun between the 
leaves, but I did not succeed in 
raising the saw-fly. On describing 
the larva, in a letter to Mr. E. Nor- 
ton, he kindly sent me alcoholic 
specimens of larvae (without the 
woolly substance, which dissolves 
and disappears in alcohol) found 
feeding on the hickory, which are 
Fi g- 151 - apparently, from the comparison of 

alcoholic specimens, identical with the Butternut Selandria. 
The adult fly (Fig. 151, <?, o, cocoon), he has named 8. car>/'. 
of which he has kindly furnished 
me with the subjoined description.* 
AUantus is closely related to Se- 
landria j both in its structure and its 
habits, but differs in having the an- 
tenme short and somewhat clavate. 
A. basilaris Say is a common species. 

The Pine saw-fly, Lophyms, may be known by the feathered 
antennae of the male. L. abietis Harris (Fig. 152, female) 
infests the fir and pitch-pine. The male is black above and 
brown beneath, while the female is yellowish brown above, 

* Selandria cnryce Norton, nov. sp. (Belonging to tribe 2. Under wings with one 
middle cell. Div. A. Antenna; filiform, short). 

Female. Color shining black. The pro- and mesothorax and scutellum rufous, 
the apex of the latter black ; the nasus and legs white, with their tarsi blackish ; the 
base of coxae and a line down the upper side of the legs black. Antennae short, 
the second joint as long as the first; the four final joints together, not longer than 
the two preceding. Xasus slightly incurved. Claws of tarsi apparently bifid. 
Wings subviolaceous. Lanceolate cell petiolate, the first submedial cell above it, 
with a distinct cross vein. Under wings with one submarginal middle cell (all 
other species have this cell discoidal), the marginal cell with a cross nervure, and 
all the outer cells closed by an outer nervure, which does not touch the margin. 
The submedial cell extended nearly to margin. Length, .25 of an inch. Expanse 
of wings .40 of an inch. 

" The male resembles the female, but the under wings are without middle cells. 
The larva; feed upon the leaves of the hickory (Juglans squamosa.) They are 
found upon the lower side of the leaf, sometimes fifteen or twenty upon one leaf, 
which they eat from the outer extremity inward, often leaving nothing but the 
strong midribs. They cover themselves wholly with white flocculent tufts which 
are rubbed off on being touched, leaving a green twenty-two legged worm, about .75 




15-2. 



TENTHEEDINID^E . 



225 




with a short black stripe on each side of the thorax. The 
larvae are about half an inch long, of a pale dirty green, yel- 
lowish beneath, striped with green, and when full-fed yellowish 
all over. They are social, and may often be found in consider- 
able numbers on a single needle of the pitch-pine. The larva: 
spin tough cocoons 
among the leaves, 
and the flies appear 
during August, but 
probably in greater 
numbers in the 
spring. 

These slugs can 
be best destroyed 
by showering them 
with a solution of 
carbolic acid, pe- 
troleum, whale oil Fig. 153. 
soap, or tobacco water. Mr. Fish has sent me the larvre of a 
saw-fly, allied to L. abietis, which, in Eastham, Mass., ravaged 
the young pitch-pines planted in the sandy soil of that region.* 
The eggs are laid singly in the side of a needle of the pine ; 
though sometimes an egg is inserted on each side of the 
leaf. 

Mr. Riley has described the habits of the White-pine saw-fly, 

of ail inch in length when full}- grown; darkest above, and with indistinct black- 
ish spots upon the sides. The head is white with a small black dot upon each side. 

" Specimens were taken upon the leaves July 4th. Went into the ground about 
the 20th of July. The cocoon is formed near the surface of the ground of a little 
earth or sand drawn together. Four specimens came forth about August 22 d, all 
seeming very small for so large larvae." 

* On sending specimens of the male and female to Mr. Norton he writes that 
this is an undescribed species, of which he has prepared the following description : 

" Lophyrus pini-rigidce Norton. New Species. Female. Length, 0.30; expanse 
of wings, 0.6.5 of an inch; antennae seventeen-jointed, short, brown; color, luteous 
brown, with a black line joining the ocelli, a black stripe down each of the three lobes 
of the thorax above, and the sutures behind; body paler beneath; the trochauters 
and base of the tibia waxen; claws with an inner tooth near the middle; wings 
very slightly clouded; cross nervure of the lanceolate cell straight. Male. Length, 
0.25; expanse of wings, 0.55 of an inch; antenna; fifteen-jointed, black, quite short, 
with twelve branches on each side, those at the base nearly as long as the sixth 
and seventh ; apical joint simple, enlarged at base; color of insect black, with the 
abdomen at apex and beneath yellow- brown; legs the same color at base; below 
the knees whitish. 

15 



HYMENOPTERA. 



L. Abbot it Leach. The flies appear early in June, and there is 
but u single brood of larva?, which remain on the trees, in Illi- 
nois, until November, and hibernate before changing to pupa'. 
The female is honey-yellow, with pale rufous legs, and the 
male is jet black. Fig. 153 represents, after Riley, the trans- 
formations of this species, whose habits closely resemble those 
of L. abietis. 1, is the fly somewhat magnified; G, magnified 
antenna of the male ; 7, female antenna ; 2 and 3, pupa 1 ; 
4, larva? in different positions, natural size ; 5, cocoon. The L. 
L< j contei Fitch has been found feeding on the Scotch and Aus- 
trian pines in New Jersey, and has been described by Mr. 
Kiley. The larva is an inch long, dirty or yellowish white, 
with dorsal black marks wider before than behind, and usually 
broken transversely in the full-grown individuals ; they are 
farther apart than in L. Abbotii. "The lateral spots are some- 
what square, Avith an additional row of smaller black marks 
below them, and the last segment is entirely black above. The 
antenna? of the male fly are twenty-one-jointed, and have on 
one side seventeen large, and on the other seventeen small 
branches, there being eighteen on one side and fifteen on the 
other in L. Abbotii. The female may at once be distinguished 
from L. Abbotii by her abdomen being jet-black above, witli a 
small In-own patch at the end, and a transverse line of the 
same color just below the thorax." 

There are several allied genera, such as Ckidius (C. isoin< j r<i 
Harris), Li/da (L. scripta Say), and Xyela (X. infuscata Har- 
ris), which belong here. The last genus, Cepliun, which by some 



" The females of Lophyrus are all much alike and I have found the number and 
forms of the joints of the antennae, so far, the only reliable guide. The male looks 
precisely like that of L. (ibietig,]nit the form of the antenna; differs in being much 
shorter. The female looks much like L. abdominalis Say, taken on the pine near 
New York. The following list will show how the species may be distinguished by 
counting the number of joints." 

male, not described, 



L. Fabricii Leach, 
L. compar Leach, 
L. pini-rigidw Norton, 
L. Abbotii Leach, 
L. abietis Harris, 
L. abdominalis Say, 
L. pinetum Norton, 
L. Americanus Leach, 
L. insularis Cresson, 
L. Lecontei Fitch, 



15 joints 
not described 
21 joints, 
not described, 
Hi joints, 
not described, 
17 joints, 
17 " 



female, 1C joints. 

l(i " 

" 17 " Pine. 

" 17 " 

" 18 " 

" 18 " Pine. 

" 18 " 

" 1!) " 

" 20 " Pine. 

" 21 " 



UROCKKIIXflS. 227 

authors is placed in the next family, is retained by Norton in the 
present group. The larva is, in Europe, injurious to rye and 
wheat, boring in the stems of the plant. (Jeplms abbreviates Say 
is our more typical form, though rarely met with. C. trimaci(l<itnn 
Say is found in New York early in June, according to Dr. Fitch. 

UKOCEKID.K Leach. The family of " Horntails" are so-called 
from the long prominent horn on the abdomen of the males, 
while the ovipositor or "saw," resembling that of the true saw- 
flies, is attached to the middle of the abdomen, and extends far 
be3'ond its tip. They are of large size, with a long cylindrical 
body and a large head, square next the thorax, but much 
rounded in front. The antennae are long and filiform. The 
larvae are ''cylindrical fleshy grubs, of a whitish color, with a 
small rounded horny head, and a pointed horny tail. They have 
six very small legs under the fore-part of the body, and are pro- 
vided with strong and powerful jaws, wherewith they bore long 
holes in the trunks of the trees they inhabit. Like other borers 
these grubs are wood-eaters, and often do great damage to pines 
and firs, wherein they are most commonly found." Harris 
farther states that, when about to transform, the larvae make 
thin cocoons of silk in their burrows, interwoven with little 
chips made by the larva. "After the chrysalis skin is cast otf, 
the winged insect breaks through its cocoon, creeps to the 
mouth of its burrow, and gnaws through the covering of bark 
over it, so as to come out of the tree into the open air." 

Xiphidria is so-called from the sword-like ovipositor, which 
is much shorter than in the succeeding genera. The body is a 
little flattened, somewhat turned up behind, and the tip of the 
abdomen ends in an obtuse point, while the antennae are short, 
curved and tapering at the end. Xiphidria albicornis Harris is 
black with yellowish legs and white antennae, with the two 
lowest joints black. It is nearly three-fourths of an inch long. 

The typical genus of the family is Urocerus, which has a large 
body, with a large ovipositor and long, sixteen to tweiity-four- 
jointed antenna 1 , while the body of the male ends in a stout 
acute horn. U. ulbiconu's Fabricius has white antennae, and the 
female is of a deep blue-black color, while the male is black. 
It is found on pine trees in July. It is an inch in length. 



228 HYMENOPTEKA. 

The genus Tremex is known by the wings having two mar- 
ginal and three snbmarginal cells. Tremex Cohimba Linn, in- 
fests the elm, pear and button-wood. The female is an inch 
and a half long, rust-red, varied with black, while the abdomen 
is black with seven ochre-yellow bauds on the upper side, all 
but the two basal ones being interrupted in the middle. They 
fly during the last of summer. 

"Dr. Harris thus describes the habits of this interesting in- 
sect. The female, when about to lay her eggs, draws her borer 
out of its sheath, till it stands perpendicularly under the middle 
of her body, when she plunges it, by repeated wiggling motions, 
through the bark into the wood. When the hole is made deep 
enough, she then drops an egg therein, conducting it to the 
place by means of the two furrowed pieces of the sheath. The 
borer often pierces the bark and wood to the depth of half an 

inch or more, and is sometimes driven 
in so tightly that the insect cannot 
draw it out again, but remains fast- 
ened to the tree till she dies. The 
eggs are oblong oval, pointed at 
each end, and rather less than one- 
twentieth of an inch in length. 
li>4 "- "The larva, or grub, is yellowish 

white, of a cylindrical shape, rounded behind, with a conical, 
horny point on the upper part of the hinder extremity, and it 
grows to the length of about an inch and a half. It 13 often 
destro}~ed by the maggots of two kinds of Ichneumon-flies 
(Rhyssa atrata and lunator of Fabricius). These flies may 
frequently be seen thrusting their slender borers, measuring 
from three to four inches in length, into the trunks of trees 
inhabited by the grubs of the Tremex, and by other wood-eat- 
ing insects ; and like the female of the Tremex they some- 
times become fastened to the trees, and die without being able 
to draw their borers out again." 

We have noticed the trunk of an elm, at Saratoga Springs, 
perforated by great numbers of holes, apparently made by these 
insects. T. hititarsus Oessou (Fig. 154 ; a, antenna ; ?>, wing ; 
c, hind leg) is remarkable for the expansions on the hind legs. 
It lives in Cuba. 




LEPIDOPTERA. 



229 



LEPIDOPTEEA. 

BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS are readily recognized by their 
cylindrical, compact bodies ; their small head, with its large 
clypeus ; by the maxillae being prolonged into a tubular 



n 




lL 



n--.- 




Fig. 155.* 



Fig. 156. 



"tongue;" the obsolete mandibles; and the broad, regularly 
veined wings, which are covered with minute scales. 

Their transformations are complete ; the active larvae assum- 
ing a cylindrical, worm-like form, being rarely footless, and 



al 



am 



ab 





aid 
Fig. 157. Fig. 15S. 

having from one to five pairs of fleshy abdominal legs, besides 
the three pairs of corneous jointed thoracic limbs. A large 
proportion (butterflies excepted) spin silken cocoons before 

*For explanation of cuts, 155 to 171, see pages 233 anil 234. 



LKPIUOPTKUA. 



changing to pupae (chrysalids, nymphs). In the pupa state 
the limbs and appendages of the head are soldered together, 
and the head and thorax tend to form one region, upon which 
the third region, or abdomen, is more or less movable. Three 




Fiar. 1/59. 




or four genera of the lower families are partially aquatic, while, 
as a whole, the suborder is purely terrestrial. 

The three regions of the body are very distinct, but the head, 
though free, is smaller and with its parts less equally developed 



^ ? E 

12 iU/10/ c, 



ran 





la la 



Fig. KJ-2. 

than in the Hymenoptera, and the "propodeum" has now be- 
come plainly the first abdominal ring. The abdomen is also 
longer, with the genital armor partially exserted, thus showing 
a tendency to decephalization. In fine, the whole body is 





Fig. KW. 



Fig. 1G4. 



loosened and less compact than in the Hymenoptera. Their 
broad wings ; obsolete mouth-parts, with the abnormally devel- 
oped maxillre ; and active larvae, with their worm-like shupe. 



LEPIDOPTERA. 




are also characters which show that they are more degraded than 
the Ilymenoptera. There is also a greater disproportion in the 
relative size of the three thoracic rings. In the abdominal rings 
the pleurites are much larger than in Ilymenoptera, where they 
are partially obsolete. They 
scarcely use the legs, the fore 
pair (so remarkably differen- B 

tiated in the higher Hymenop- 
tera) being partially obsolete 
in some butterflies (Vanessa, 
etc.). They are . essentially 
fliers, not having the great 
variety in the mode of loco- Fig. Kin. 

motion observable in the Ilymenoptera. No parasites are 
known to occur in this suborder. They are only social while in 
the larval state, and then merely because their eggs, in such in- 
stances, are laid in bunches, and on distinct food-plants to 
which the larvre are confined. The adults rarely 
take an active part in the economy of nature, 
and have but little opportunity for the mani- 
festation of instinct and reason, though the 
larvae in seeking for suitable places in which 
to undergo their transformations often exhibit 
Fig. 100. wonderful instinct. 

The readiest method of determining the natural position of 
groups is by a comparison of their degradational forms. Thus 
we find that in the degraded Hymenoptera the tripartite form 
of the body is preserved ; while, on the contrary, in the wing- 
less Lepidoptera (such as the female 
of Orgyia and Anisopteryx) the body 
is either oval, the head being less 
free and smaller than in the winged 
form, and the thorax and abdomen 
continuous, their respective rings 
being of much the same size and 
shape, while the legs are feeble : 
or, as in the female of CEketicus, 
the body is elongated, and worm-like. The wingless moths, 
then, are much lower than the worker ants, the female Scolia, 




Fig. 107. 



232 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



etc., giving us an unfailing test of the difference in rank of the 
two suborders. In their habits and transformations, and 

in their external 
anatomy, the Lep- 
idoptera vary less 
than other insects. 
T h e Lepidop- 
tera, while in the 
perfect state, can 
be scarcely said to 
walk much, com- 
pared with beetles 
Fi =- 1G8 - and other walking 

insects, the legs being only used to support them while at rest, 
and not for locomotion. They move almost entirely by their 
broad wings, which 
with them are more 
highly specialized 
than in other in- 
sects. Their fore 
wings are usually 
triangular in form, 
while 




wings 



their 
are 



hind 
some- 





Fiff. 170. 



what square or rounded. The anterior wings are the most 
typical in form and venation. 

The surface, from the costa to the inner edge, may be 

ABC 




c.--- 





iff. 171. 



divided into three areas, the costal, median, and internal. 
There are five principal veins : the costal and subcostal are 



LEPIDOPTERA. 233 

grouped together, and form the costa or front edge of the wing ; 
the median occupies the middle of the wing ; and the sub- 
median and internal, the hinder, or internal, area of the wing. 
The costal vein is usually simple, and joins the costa near its 
outer third. The subcostal, near the middle of the wing, is 
usually subdivided into five branches, which are called ven- 
ules, while the median is usually subdivided into one venule 
less, and the submedian and internal are simple. The last, or 
fifth, subcostal venule, and the first median venule, generally 
each throw out a sinall venule, which meet to form the discal 
venule, thus enclosing a large central area called the discal area, 
or cell. There are rarely any cross venules present. Some- 
times, as in Hepialus, there is a transverse costal venule, and 
an interno-submediaii venule. They are usually found onl}' in 
degraded Lepidoptera, and recall the net-veined style of vena- 
tion of the Neuroptera. 

The legs are slender, cylindrical, and weak. The cox?e are 
closely united with the thorax, the trochanters are spherical, 

FIGS. 155, 151, give a general view of the body of a butterfly denuded of scales. 
FIG. 155. , antenna ; 1, prothorax ; m, patagia, or shoulder-tippets ; k, mesoscutum ; 
M, abdomen; A, costal edge of fore- wing; D, apex; C, outer edge excavated; E, 
enter angle; B, inner edge; al>, discal cell; am, discal venules, throwing off the 
independent vein, al. The dotted lines indicate the inner, middle and outer third 
of the wing. FIG. 157 illustrates the mode of ornamentation of the wings 
of moths; nb, am and al, the inner, the middle, and outer third of the wings. The 
capitals are the same as in FIG. 155; sd, the basal line; sa, the inner line; sp, 
the outer, and ms, the marginal line variously waved, scalloped and angulated. 
In most of the Xoctnidae are the dentiform spot, 1 b; mo, the orbicular, and mr, the 
reniform spots ; between the two latter often runs the transverse shade, um. In 
FIG. 158, hind wing, fr indicates the "bristle" which fits into the "hook" on 
the fore-wing, uniting the two wings during flight; cm, situated in the discal cell, 
indicates the " luuule," and beyond are the outer and marginal dusky bands. 
FIG. 150, la, internal vein; 1 b, submcdiau vein; 2, 3, 4, 5, the four branches 
(vonules) of the median vein (in FIG. 100, 5 becomes the independent venule); 
(i to 12, branches of the subcostal (in FIG. 101, xii, is the costo-subcostal recurrent 
venule). In FIG. 102, wings of the Hepialus, the venation is more irregular, and in 
the fore-wing the discal cell is divided into an anterior and posterior discal 
cellule, by the disco-longitudinal vein ; sd, x, and s, accessory cells. In the Tiiieids 
the venation is very simple. In FIG. 103, the submedian and internal veins have 
disappeared; 9 is the costal vein; 2, 3, the two branches of the median vein; 4 to 
8, branches of the subcostal vein. In FIG. 104, the internal vein is shortened, and the 
submedian forked, while the median and subcostal are merged together. From 
Heinemann, in Morris's Synopsis, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Compare 
also FIG. 29 on page 23. 

FIGS. 150 and 165. a, antenna, on one side wholly, and on the other partially, 
pectinate; b, eye:/, ocellus; h, labial palpus; y, maxilla? or "tongue;" o, coxa; 
/>, trochanter; q, femur; r, tibia; V, single anterior spur; r*, two middle tibial 
spurs ; 2, 3, two pairs of posterior tibial spurs ; s, tarsus. 



2o4 LEPIDOPTERA. 

and the femora, tibia? and tarsi, slender and very equal in 
length. There are usually two tibial spurs. The tarsus is 
five-jointed, the terminal joint ending in two slender claws. 

The scales covering the body of Lepidoptera are simply 
modified hairs. In studying the wing of the C'ecropia moth, 
we find the hairs of the body and base of the wing gradually 
passing into the forms represented in Fig. 1G(>. They are 
attached to the wings and laid partially over one another like 
the tiles on a roof (Fig. 1G7). They are inserted in somewhat 
regular lines, though, as seen in the figure, these lines are often 
irregular, as shown by the line of scars where the scales have 
been removed. The scales are beautifully ornamented with mi- 
croscopic lines. ~\Ye find, on removing the scales, that the 
head consists of three well-marked pieces,* i. e. the occiput 
or basal piece Avhich lies behind the ocelli ; the epicrauium, 
lying behind the insertion of the antennae, and carrying the eyes 
and ocelli, and the clypens, which constitutes the front of the 
head. The latter piece is larger than in all other insects, its 
size being distinctive of the Lepidoptera. There is a general 
form of this piece for each family, and it affords excellent 
characters in the different genera, especially among the butter- 
flies (as Mr. L. Trouvelot has shown us in a series of drawings 
made by him), and the Zygcenidce and Bombycidce. It is 
largest, and most perfect!}- shield-shaped, in the Attach In the 
Phalcenidce, it is smaller, and square; and in the Tinci<ln> 
it is smaller still, while the occiput and epicranium are 
larger. 

The labrum is remarkably small and often concealed by the 
overhanging clypeus. The labium is small, short, triangular, 
and the mentum is nearl}- obsolete. The lingua is obsolete, its 
place being supplied by the tongue-like maxilla?. The labial 
palpi are feebly developed, sometimes rudimentary, and consist 

*FIG. 108. A, head of Ctemicha Virginica denuded; or, occiput; cc, epicranium, 
with the two ocelli, o, and the base of the antenna-, at ; c, eye; <;, clypens; /, la- 
brum; m, mandible; m,r, tongue, or maxilla', with the end split apart; B, rudimen- 
tary maxilla of Actias Luna, with its single-jointed rudimentary palpus, showing 
the mode of attachment to the base of the maxilla ; C, two-jointed, rudimentary 
labial palpus of A. Luna; D, the same, single jointed, of Platysamia Cecropia. 

FIGS. 169, 170. Head of a moth in relation to the prothorax (1). FK;. 171, A, B, side 
view and (C) front view of the head of a moth ; o, antenna ; b, eye ; rf, the '' front ; " 
e, orl-it of the eye; /, ocellus; r/, maxilla situated between li, the three-jointed la- 
bial palpi ; i, the maxillary palpus, sometimes very large and three-jointed. 



LEPIDOPTEKA. 



of from one to three joints, the terminal one being small and 
pointed. The}' are recurved in front of the head, on each side 
of the spiral tongue, and are 
covered with hairs ; their func- 
tion, as touchers or feelers, 
seeming to be lost. The man- 
dibles are rudimentary, consist- 
ing of a pair of horny tubercles, 
partly concealed by the front 
edge of the clypeus. The 
maxillae, on the other hand, 
are remarkably developed. In 
their rudimentary state, as in Attacus, they form a pair of 
grooved blades, the hollowed sides being opposed and held 







Fig. 173. Fig. 174. Fig. 17:.. 

together by a row of minute teeth, thus forming a canal. 



The 



insect sucks through this long tube the sweets of flowers. 




Fig. 176. 



Fig. 177. Fig. 178. Fig. 17!>. 

The "tongue" is often nearly as long as the body of the insect 
itself, and when at rest, is rolled up and held between the 
palpi. At its base are the minute rudimental maxillary palpi, 



236 LEPIDOPTERA. 

which are generally concealed, but are apparent in the smaller 
and lower moths, Crambus and the Tineids. They are usually 
from two to three-jointed, and even five to six-jointed, as in 
Tinea granella, and longer than the maxillae, thus resembling 
the Phryganeidcs , or Caddis flies. 

In seeking for honey with their long maxillae, the Lepidop- 
tera play an important part in the fertilization of plants., 
especially the Orchids. 

The ocelli are often present, though they do not form a tri- 
angle on the vertex, as there are only two, the third and most 
anterior one being absent. The eyes are large and globose, 
and vary in their distance apart in different families. 

The antenna? vaiy greatly ; they are either filiform (Fig. 1 72. 
u), or setiform (Fig. 172, &), or fusiform, as in the Sphinges 
(Fig. 172, c), or club-shaped, as in Papilio (Fig. 172, d). They 
are rarely entirety naked, but are finely ciliated (Fig. 173), or 
have a pair of bristles on each joint (Fig. 174), which are 
sometimes tufted (Fig. 175). The joints are sometimes toothed 
(Fig. 176), lamellate (Fig. 177), serrate (Fig. 178), or pec- 
tinate (Fig. 179). 

The thorax in Lepidoptera is remarkable for the small size 
of the first, or prothoracic ring, the mesothorax being highly 
developed. In Telea (Figs. 11 and 12, on page 11) the char- 
acteristic form is well shown. The tergal arch of the pro- 
thorax is almost obsolete, the scutum alone being represented 
by a corneous piece, while the pleural parts are more developed 
as supports for the forelegs. In the mesothorax the prse- 
scutum is present, but is usually vertical, being bent down 
and concealed between the two rings, becoming visible, how- 
ever, from above in Hepialns (Sthenopis), in which respect it 
strikingly resembles the position and development of the same 
piece in the neuropterous Polystoechotes. The scutum is large r 
with convex sides, broadest behind the middle, and deeply 
notched for the reception of the triangular scutellum, which 
is about one-fourth the size of the scutum. The postscutellum 
is transverse, and situated out of sight, unless the two hinder 
thoracic rings are separated, under the scutellum. The epi- 
sterna and trochantines are large, and the whole mesothoracic 
flanks nearly twice as wide as those of the metathorax. The* 



LEPIDOPTERA. 1>;',7 

luetathorax is much compressed antero-posteriorly. The scu- 
tum is thrown aside as it were by the scutellum into two lat- 
eral, nearly square halves, the remaining tergal pieces being 
usually obsolete and membranous, but in Sthenopis the pra> 
.scutum and scutellum (Fig. 13, page 12) are large, and meet 
in the middle of the segment, much as in the neuropterous 
*$' i a I i d ce and He m erob i i d ce . 

The abdomen is oval in Papilio, becoming long and linear in 
the Tineids. In the Zygcenidce, especially, the basal ring is 
membranous and is partly adherent to the thorax, and somewhat 
inflated on each side. The number of abdominal segments 
varies, being either eight or nine ; the variation occurring, as 
stated by Lacaze-Duthiers, in closely allied genera ; thus the 
genital and anal openings are placed more usually behind the 
eighth, but sometimes behind the ninth segment. 

The genital armor is very simple, consisting of two valve- 
like pieces. The parts beyond (anal stylets, etc.) are aborted, 
so that the anus and external opening of the oviduct are 
brought closely together. In the male the parts are more com- 
plex, the anal forceps often, as in the Callosamia Promethea, 
forming long curved hooks for clasping the abdomen of the 
female. 

The nervous system of Lepidoptera, and its changes during 
the transformations of the larva, have been studied most 
thoroughly by Herold (in Pieris) and Newport (in Sphinx 
ligustri and Vanessa urticae). In the imago the ventral cord 
consists of seven ganglia, while in the larva there are eleven. 
This decrease in their number is due to the fusion, during the 
pupa state, of the first, second, third and fourth ganglia of 
the larva, exclusive of those situated in the front part of the 
head ; these form the two thoracic ganglia which distribute 
nerves to the legs and the muscles of the wings. Meanwhile 
the fifth and sixth ganglia of the larva have either disappeared 
entirely, or been united with the others. 

The digestive system (see Fig. 44, on page 35) of butterflies 
and moths is modified to suit their peculiar habits. They draw 
in the sweets of plants through the "tongue" by a sucking- 
stomach which opens into the hinder end of the oesophagus. 
4 'The ileuni is long, small, and nearly always forms several 



23.S LEPIDOPTEEA. 

convolutions. The colon is constantly of a large size, and is 
often dilated into a ca?eum at its anterior portion." (Siebold.) 
The salivary glands are composed of two simple tubes, which 
are very large in the larval state, extending into the abdomen. 

The respiratory system is normal and well developed. In 
the larva the stigmata are wanting on the second and third 
thoracic and last abdominal segment. In those species of 
SpliingiddBi Bomb yd dee and Noctnulrt* * which have a 
long-sustained flight there are numerous vesicular dilatations 
of the trachea 3 . 

The urinary tubes are six in number; they are long, free, 
and open into the stomach by two excretory ducts. 

The silk-glands consist of two long, Hexuous, thick-walled 
sacs, situated on the sides of the body, and opening by a 
common orifice on the under lip (labium) usually at the 
extremity of a short tubular protuberance (Siebold). They 
are most developed when the larva approaches the pupa st:ite. 

We once found a larva of Clisiocampa Americana that had 
just spun its cocoon, and to ascertain whether the silk had been 
exhausted, we removed the worm from its cocoon, when it spun 
another, but thinner one ; and upon removing it a second time 
it spun a third very thin cocoon, before the supply of silk was 
entirely exhausted. 

The ovary consists of four very long, spiral, multilocular 
tiibes. The receptaculum semhifft is pyriform. and often lias a 
long, spiral <1ix-tttH scmhtaUs. At its luise is situated a large, 
double sebaceous gland ; and there are two small ramose 
glands, perhaps odoriferous, situated at the orifice of the vagina. 
The copulatory pouch is a remarkably large, pyriform reservoir, 
having for the reception of the male intromittent organ a 
canal, which opens by a special orifice, situated below and 
behind the external opening of the oviduct. (Siebold.) 

The testes form two round or oval follicles, and the two 
short deferent canals unite with two simple and very flexuoiis 
accessory glands, to form the long dncti<s ejaaihttorhis. 

Several interesting cases of hermaphroditism in butterflies 
and moths have been published by European entomologists. 
31 r. Edwards has noticed two remarkable instances in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Philadelphia Entomological Society (vol. iv. 



LEPEDOPTERA. 2o9 

p. 380), the latter of which we have also seen. k ' A specimen of 
Papilio Asterias is in my collection, and was captured by Mr. 
J. Meyer of Brooklyn, L. I., two or three years since. It is a 
tine instance of a perfect hermaphrodite. The right wings are 
both male, the left wings both female, distinctly marked upon 
both surfaces with no suffusion of color. The size is that of 
the largest specimens of Asterias. The Saturnia Promethea 
is in the collection of Mrs. Bridgham of New York, and is a 
curious instance of an imperfect hermaphrodite. The left an- 
tenna and left primary are male ; the right antenna and left 
secondary are female ; the right primary is also female, but the 
right secondary is something between the two, neither male 
nor female. The color of the upper surface is nearly the same 
as the under surface of the male. On the under side the 
color and markings of the left primary are male, but the other 
three wings are female. The color and markings of the male 
Promethea are quite different from those of the female, and on 
this hermaphrodite the confusion of the sexes is conspicuous. 
It is a bred specimen. The body had been viscerated, so that it 
is impossible to determine its sex." 

The larva of Ctenucha, which resembles that of Arctia, con- 
structs its cocoon out of the hairs of its body, without spinning 
any silken threads, so far as we could ascertain by microscopi- 
cal examination. The hairs of this, as of probably most hairy 
caterpillars, but more especially the Bombycid larvae, are 
thickly armed with minute spinules, so that by being simply 
placed next to each other, they readily adhere together. The 
cocoon is finished in about twelve hours. We once noticed 
a Ctenucha larva just beginning its cocoon. Early in the 
morning it described an ellipse upon the side of the glass jar in 
which it was confined, out of hairs plucked from just behind its 
head. From this elliptical line as a base, it had by eight o'clock 
built up, rather unequally, the walls of its cocoon, in some 
places a third of the distance up, by simply piling upon each 
other the spinulated hairs, which adhered firmly together. At 
four o'clock in the afternoon, the arch was completed, and the 
larva walled in by a light partition, and soon afterwards the thin 
floor was made. No silk is spun throughout the whole opera- 
tion, while in the cocoon of Pyrrharctia Isabella there is a 
slight frame-work of silk upon which the hairs are placed. 



240 LEPIDOPTEKA. 

Trouvelot states that the Polyphemus larva constructs its 
cocoon by drawing the leaves together as a support for the 
threads, forming the foundation of the cocoon. "This seems 
to be the most difficult feat for the worm to accomplish, as after 
this the work is simply mechanical, the cocoon being made of 
regular layers of silk united by a gummy substance. The silk 
is distributed in zig-zag lines of about one-eight of an inch 
long. When the cocoon is made, the worm will have moved 
his head to and fro, in order to distribute the silk, about two 
hundred and fifty-four thousand times. After about half a 
day's work, the cocoon is so far completed that the worm can 
hardly be distinguished through the fine texture of the wall ; 

/ 

then a gummy, resinous substance, sometimes of a light brown 
color, is spread over all the inside of the cocoon. The larva 
continues to work for four or five days, hardly taking a few 
minutes of rest, and finally another coating is spun in the 
interior, when the cocoon is all finished and completely air- 
tight. The fibre diminishes in thickness as the completion of 
the cocoon advances, so that the last internal coating is not 
half so thick and so strong as the outside ones." 

In those moths which spin a thick cocoon, the pupa, a few 
days previous to its exit, secretes an acid fluid from two glands 
opening into the mouth. This fluid, according to Mr. L. Trou- 
velot (American Naturalist, vol. i. p. 33). in his account of the 
Polyphemus silk-worm, dissolves the hard gummy substance 
uniting the silken threads, until after the expiration of half an 
hour, the moth is able to push the fibres aside, and work its 
way out, without breaking a thread. 

Trouvelot says that the larvre of the Polyphemus moth 
seem entirely unable to discern objects with their simple eyes, 
but can distinguish light from darkness. A supposed auditory 
apparatus is situated at the base of the abdomen in moths. 

In their adult state butterflies and moths take but little food, 
consisting of honey, though Papilio Turnus, according to a 
Canadian observer, is attracted to heaps of decaying fish. 

Caterpillars grow very rapidly, and consume a great quantity 
of food. Mr. Trouvelot gives us the following account of the 
gastronomical powers of the Polyphemus caterpillar. "It is 
astonishing how rapidly the larva grows, and one who has no 
experience in the matter could hardly believe what an amount 



LKI'IDOI'TEItA. 241 

of food is devoured by these little creatures. One experiment 
which I made can give some idea of it : when the young silk 
worm hatches out, it weighs one-twentieth of a grain ; when 

10 days old it weighs 1-2 a grain, or 10 times its original weight. 

20 " " " " 3 grains " 60 " " " 

;)0 " " " " 31 " (20 " " 

40 " " " " 90 ' " 1800 " " 

.Vi " " " " -Ml " " 4140 " " 

When a worm is thirty days old it will have consumed about; 
ninety grains of food ; but when fifty-six days old it is fully 
grown and has consumed not less than one hundred and twenty 
oak leaves weighing three-fourths of a pound ; besides this it 
has drank not less than one-half an ounce of water. So the 
food taken by a single silk-worm in fifty-six days equals in 
weight eighty-six thousand times the primitive weight of the 
worm. Of this, about one-fourth of a pound becomes exci-e- 
mentitious matter ; two hundred and seven grains are assimi- 
lated and over five ounces have evaporated. What a destruction 
of leaves this single species of insect could make if only a one 
hundredth part of the eggs laid came to maturity ! A few 
years would be sufficient for the propagation of a number large 
enough to devour all the leaves of our forests." The Lepidop- 
tera are almost without exception injurious to vegetation and 
are among the chief enemies of the agriculturist. 

They are rarely found fossil owing to the delicacy of their 
bodies. Remains, doubtfully referred to the Lepidoptera, have 
been found in the Jura formation. A Sphinx-like moth has 
been discovered in the Tertiary formation of Europe, and a few 
minute forms have occurred in Amber. 

Butterflies are easily distinguished from the other groups by 
their knobbed antennae. In the Sphinges and their allies the 
feelers are thickened in the middle : in the Moths they are fili- 
form and often pectinated like feathers. Lepidoptera have 
also been divided into three large groups, called Diurnal, Cre- 
puscular and Nocturnal, since butterflies fly in the sunshine 
alone, most Sphinges in the twilight (some of them, however, 
fly in the hottest sunshine), while the moths are generally 
night-fliers, though many of them fly in the day time, thus 
showing that the distinctions are somewhat artificial. 

The larger Lepidoptera (butterflies and the larger moths) 
16 



242 LEPIDOrTERA. 

have been called Macrolepidoptera, while the smaller ones, 
including the smaller Pyralidce, the Tortricidoe, and the 
Tineidce, are called Microlepidoptera. 

In studying these insects the best generic characters will be 
found in the antenna? , the shape of the head-parts, the vena- 
tion and proportions of the wings : very slight changes in these 
parts separating genera and species. Size and coloration, 
which are usually very constant, afford good specific characters. 

A good method of preserving larvae dry, adopted at Dresden, 
is to squeeze out the intestines through a hole made near the 
anal extremity of the larva, then to insert a fine straw, after 
which it may be placed in a glass vase, itself placed in a tin 
vessel and held over a lamp ; the larval skin is blown while 
suspended over the lamp, by which the skin dries faster. It 
may be done with a small tube or blow-pipe fixed at the end 
of a bladder, held under the arm or between the knees, so as 
to leave the hands at liberty ; and the straw which is inserted 
into the body of the larva may be fastened by a cross-pin stuck 
through the skin, and thus retained in its proper position 
throughout the process of blowing. The small larva?, such as 
those of the Tinea?, may be put alive into a hot bottle, baked 
until they swell to the proper extent and dry, when they can be 
pinned Avith all their contents inside. (Westwood, Proceed- 
ings of the Entomological Society of London, Sept. 7th, 1863.) 

Dr. Knaggs has, in the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 
given some directions for managing caterpillars. Very young 
caterpillars, which will not eat the food provided, and become 
restless, should be reared in air-tight jam-pots, the tops of which 
are covered with green glass to darken the interior of the ves- 
sel. When small larva? hide themselves by mining, entering 
buds and spinning together leaves, they should have as small a 
quantity of food as possible. In changing larva? from one plant 
to a fresh one, a slight jar or puff of breath will dislodge them, 
and they can be transferred to the jam-pot, or the glass cylin- 
der, covered at one end with muslin, can be turned muslin end 
downwards for them to crawl upon. The duplicate breeding 
cage, pot or tube, should be "sweetened" by free currents of 
fresh dry air and then stocked with fresh food. 

Dr. Knaggs advises that "hiding places," or bits of chips, 



LEPIDOPTERA. 243 

etc., be provided for such Noctuid larvae as naturally lie con- 
cealed, such as Orthosia, X.nthia, Noctua, etc., "while for 
Ay rot is and a few others a considerable depth of fine earth or 
sand is necessary." 

"Larvae, which in nature hibernate, must either be stimulated 
by warmth and fresh food to feed up unnaturally fast, or else 
through the winter must be exposed to out-door temperature." 
For such larvae as begin to eat before the trees are leaved 
out, the leaves of evergreens must be provided, pine leaves, 
duckweed, grasses and mosses. Hibernating, living larvae, 
must during the winter be kept diy, otherwise the damp seems 
to hang about their fur, and causes them to be attacked by a, 
white fungus ; while smooth larvae require the natural damp- 
ness of the soil. Mr. Gibson strongly recommends that during 
the winter all cages containing larvae be placed in front of a 
window facing the east or north-east, so that the inmates may 
be kept as cool as possible. 

When the moth is fairly out of the pupa, as remarked by Mr. 
Sanborn, their wings often tail to properly expand, on account 
of the want of moisture, "the insect being unable to expand its 
wings in a heated, dry room. He has avoided this difficulty 
by placing the insect just emerged, or about to come forth, 
beneath a bell-glass, within which he had placed moistened 
pieces of bibulous paper." 

Mr. Trouvelot has noticed that the difference in size of the 
wings of moths or butterflies is due to the fact that some of 
the fluid thrown into the wings during their development 
escapes from a break in the surface of the wing, so that this 
wing is smaller than the other. He has, by pinching a wing 
while thus developing, caused the fluid to "flow from the punc- 
ture, and immediately the wing so wounded ceased to grow, 
while the three others continued their development to its full 
extent." "I have sometimes advanced the development of the 
wings of Telea Polyphemus. I selected for this purpose, 
pupae very far advanced in their transformation, as is shown by 
the looseness of the pupal skin, and by the color of the wings 
of the moth, which can be seen through it. I took carefully 
the pupal skin from around the moth and suspended the insect 
in the position that Lepidoptera take when emerging from the 



L' ! 1 LEI'IDOI'TERA. 

chrysalis. It is very rare that the wings of such an insect, 
are developed, though I have obtained some perfect specimens 
in this way : and iu one instance the development of the wings 
took place only three days after the pupul skin had been 
removed. Success is more certain if the insect is put under a 
glass jar with a moistened sponge, and something for the insect 
to hang from; the dampness of the air in the jar will prevent 
the soft wings from drying too fast, and when the time arrives 
for the insect to accomplish its transformation, the fluid will be 
active. Such an insect has much analogy with a vertebrate 
born prematurely ; the insect, like the quadruped, remains 
almost motionless till the natural time for its birth arrives." 

PAPILIONIIKK Latreille. The Hutterflies, or Diurnal Lepi- 
doptera, are at once distinguished from the moths by their 
knobbed antenna*, though they are sometimes nearly filiform. 
The body is small, but there is a greater equality in the size of 
the three regions than in the moths, the abdomen being much 
shorter and smaller, as a general rule, than in the lower fami- 
lies. The ocelli are usually wanting ; the spiral tongue or 
iiuixilke, are long and well developed ; and the wings are car- 
ried erect when in repose, and are not held together during 
flight by a bristle and socket as in the moths. 

The larva; vary greatly in shape and in their style of orna- 
mentation, but they uniformly have, besides the thoracic legs, 
five pairs of abdominal legs. The pupa is called a "chrysalis" 
or "aurelian" from the bright golden hues which adorn those 
of many species. They disappear as the wet tissues beneath the 
pupa-skin harden just before the fly appears. The pupa is usu- 
ally angulated on the sides of the thorax and along the upper 
side of the abdomen. A few species, such as those of Vanessa, 
hibernate, while several species, such as Vanessa Antiopa, arc- 
social as young larva 1 . The most "perfect state of society is ex- 
hibited by a Mexican butterfly (Eucheira socialis Westwood). 
the caterpillars of which construct a very strong parchment-like 
bag, in which they not only reside, but undergo their change to 
the pupa state." Butterflies also occasionally swarm while 
in the perfect state, such as species of Colias, Cynthia and 
Danais, multitudes of which are sometimes seen passing over- 



I Al'ILIONIDJE. 

head in long columns. They are truly tropical insects, since 
Gerstaecker mentions that three times as many species (600) 
occur at a single point (Para, Brazil) as in all Germany, where 
scarcely 200 species live. There are about o,000 species known ; 
!M)0 inhabit North America and probably the number will be 
increased to a thousand, while about 125 species have been 
found in New England and its immediate border. 

The noble genus Omithopterah&svery long, slightly knobbed 
antennae, and a well developed prothorax ; while the fore- 
wings are very large, elongated, triangular, and the hind wings 
are relatively smaller and rounded. 0. Prianms Linn, is found 
in the Moluccas. There are twenty species known. The larvae 
as in some species of Papilio have an external forked sheath 
for the "tentacles." The pupa is sustained by a silken thread 
as in Papilio (Wallace). 

Of the extensive genus J f j>ilio, or Swallow-tail." over 300 
species are known. The larva is rather short and stout, with a 
v-shaped scent-organ, or " tentacles." The pupa is supported 
by a filament passed entirely around it. The common P. As- 
f<'i-i<t.s Drury appears in New England in June, when it lays its 
eggs on the leaves of parsley and other umbelliferous plants. 
From this brood a new set of butterflies appear in August. 
The larva is yellow, striped and spotted with black, and when 
irritated, pushes out, from a slit in the prothoracic ring, a 
v-shaped, yellow, fleshy, scent-organ, used as a means of de- 
fence. The chrysalis is free, attached by the tip of the abdo- 
men and supported by a loose silken thread, which is passed 
over the back. It lives in this state from nine to fifteen days. 
It has two ear-like projections on each side of the head and a 
prominence on the back of the thorax. 

Mr. W. Sannders has received from St. John's, Newfound- 
land, several specimens of a butterfly, one of which I have before 
me, and instead of being a very remarkable variety of P. As- 
lerias, seems to be a distinct and undescribed species, as 
supposed by my friend to whose collection it belongs. lie 
writes me, after giving a detailed description, presented below, :; 

" I'apilio brevicauda Saiinders. Female. Kxpands three and onc-lil'tli inches; 
head, palpi and antenna? black; thorax black, fringed with yellow hairs on each 
side, for about half its length; body above black, with a row of seven or eight 
yellow spots along each side which arc largest about tin; middle of the row: under 



246 LEPIDOPTEKA. 

that "this species resembles P. Asterias, but differs from it 
in many points. In P. Asterias the palpi are edged within with 
yellow ; in P. brevicauda they are black. P. Asterias has two 
yellow spots above at the base of the antenna-, which are either 
wanting, or exceedingly faint in the other species. P. Asterias 
has a spot of bright yellow on the anterior edge of each side of 
the thorax ; P. brevicauda has a fringe of duller yellow, extend- 
ing fully half the length of the thorax. On the primaries the 
discal bar in P. Asterias is much narrower, and the inner row 
of spots smaller and bright yellow, the upper one in the row 
being divided ; in P. brevicauda the spots are fulvous, the upper 

side of the body black, the abdomen being furnished with two rows of yellow spots 
corresponding with those above, with several additional spots within near the tip ; 
feet black. Primaries above brownish black, with a bar of yellow across the end 
of the discal cell; just beyond this is a row of eight spots, extending across the 
wing nearly parallel with the outer margin ; the upper one, which rests on the sub- 
costal vein, is yellow, elongated and irregular, with a blackish dot beyond the mid- 
dle ; the lower ones are fulvous ; the second and third smaller than the first and of 
an elongated, triangular form, with the apex pointing inwards; the fourth, fifth 
and sixth are similar in shape, but larger, the latter with its apex partially wanting; 
the seventh spot is wider and slightly concave on both the inner and outer edges, 
the inner edge is broken ; the eighth is long, narrow and irregular, with its lower 
edge close to the hind margin of the wing. Behind the upper spot in this row is a 
second yellow spot nearly round. Between these and the outer margin is a second 
row of spots, eight in number, but much smaller in size. These are all yellow, the 
three upper ones nearly round, the lower ones more or less elongated, the lowest 
contracted in the middle as if composed of two spots joined together; the fringe 
of the wing is also spotted with yellow, the spots corresponding in number and 
position with those forming the second row. 

"Secondaries above brownish black, with a row of seven large spots nearly con- 
fluent beyond the middle, in continuation of those on primaries, all more or less 
triangular in form, the middle ones somewhat elongated; these spots are yellow 
above and at the sides, fulvous from near the middle to the outer edge ; the fulvous 
marking is less distinct on the second and third spots ; within the margin is a sec- 
ond row, all yellow excepting the upper one which is tinged with fulvous; the up- 
per spot is oblong, the second nearly round ; third, fourth and fifth lunular, nearly 
equal in size; the sixth similar in form, but much smaller; while the inner one is 
irregularly concave above, holding in the cavity the eye-like spot at the anal angle. 
On the outer edge are six yellow spots, larger and more striking than those form- 
ing part of the fringe on the primaries. The space between the two inner rows of 
spots is sprinkled with metallic blue atoms. At the anal angle is a round, red spot, 
with a black dot in it below the middle, and a crescent of bluish atoms above; 
tails very short, scarcely one-eighth of an inch long, not more than half the 
length of those of P. Asterias. 

"Under surface of wings somewhat paler in color, with spots coiTesponding to 
those above. The upper spot of the inner row on the primaries is tinted with 
fulvous; the spots composing the inner row on the secondaries are more decidedly 
and uniformly fulvous; the four upper spots in the second row are also streaked 
with the same color; the bluish atoms between the rows are partially replaced by 
green ones." Taken at St. John's, Newfoundland. 



PAPILIONID^E. 247 

one is undivided. The inner row of spots on the secondaries 
are also entirely yellow in P. Asterias, smaller and very differ- 
ent in form from those 011 P. brevicauda. The second row of 
spots is also smaller in P. Asterias, and the red spot at the 
anal angle paler, with a smaller black dot in it, and a wider 
crescent of bluish atoms above. The length of the tail, which 
is one of the most striking points of difference, has already 
been noticed." 

We have compared some interesting varieties of P. Asterias 
in the Museum of the Boston Society of Natural History, col- 
lected about Boston by Mr. Shurtleff, which approach (in the 
reddish hue of the spots, usually yellow, especially on the under 
side, and the shortness of the tail) the Newfoundland speci- 
men kindly sent us by Mr. Saunders, and strongly suggest the 
inference, with which Messrs. Scudder and Sanborn agree, that 
P. brevicauda is a very remarkable 
species allied to P. Asterias. 

The yellow Papilio Turnus Linn, flies 
in June and July through woods and 
about lilacs. Its larva feeds on the 
apple and wild thorn ; it is green with 
two eye-like spots on the thorax, and 
pupates in the middle of August. The 
black dimorphic ? form, P. Glaucus, 
is found in the Southern States. P. 
Daunus Boisd. (Fig. 180) originally Fi s- 18 - 

found in Mexico, has been found in Kansas, near the Rocky 
Mountains, by Mr. James Ridings. He states that it strikingly 
resembles P. Turnus, but has longer antennae, with longer, more 
curved fore-wings, besides differing in other characters. It ex- 
pands nearly five inches. P. Troilus Linn, appears more com- 
monly southward. The larva feeds on the sassafras and lilac- 
trees, and was found by Mr. Saunders feeding, rolled up on 
a leaf, on the spice bush, August 3d. "Its length was about 
one and three-fourths inches, the body being thickest from the 
third to the fifth segments. The head is rather small, flat in 
front, slightly bilobed, dull flesh color, with a faint tinge of 
brown. The bocby is bright pea-green, with a yellow stripe 
across the anterior part of the second segment ; edged behind 
with dull black. On the fourth segment are two prominent 




24S 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



eye-like spots, of dull yellowish or yellowish buff', encircled 
bv a tine ring of black, and a large black pupil rilling most 
of the lower portion. The posterior portion of this black 
pupil is encircled by a shining bluish black ring, the anterior 
portion of which strikes a little beyond the- middle of the 
pupil ; there is also a line of black in front of the pupil ex- 
tending nearly across the yellow portion, and a pale pinkish 
spot in the upper part of the yellow which is edged with a 
slightly darker shade. On the fifth segment are two large, 
irregular spots of the same color, pale buff', encircled by a faint 
ring of black, and having a faint pinkish spot on the anterior 
portion of each ; these spots are nearer to each other than 
those on the fourth segment, a portion of the space between the 
fifth and sixth segments being deep black ; each segment, from 

the sixth to the eleventh in- 
clusive, has four blue dots, 
encircled with black, those on 
the seventh, eighth and ninth 
segments being largest. On 
each side, close to the under 
surface, is a wide yellow 
stripe, gradually softening 
into the green above, and 
Fi *- 1S1 - edged below with blackish 

brown, immediately below the spiracles is a row of blue dots 
edged with black, one on each segment from the sixth to the 
twelfth inclusive. The under surface is dull, pale greenish, or 
yellowish white, having a decided reddish tinge as it approaches 
the yellow stripe on the sides. The. feet partake of the same 
general color." P. 1'liili'nur Fabr. is black, with a greenish 
reflection towards the outer border, with whitish spots on the 
margin, and on the hind wings six whitish Inimles. The larva 
is brown, with two lateral rows of small, reddish tubercles. 
:md two long tubercles on the prothoracic segment. The 
chrysalis (Fig. 1^1, side and dorsal view) is grayish violet, yel- 
lowish on the back, with the head ending in a truncated cone. 
The genus Poratt.s.s/".s has short, thick antenna?, with :i 
rounded club, and the fore-wings are much rounded at the 
apex; it inhabits mountains. /'. Sminftit^in Doubleday, with 
three other species, is found in the Rocky Mountains. 




2-1 II 



The White Turnip, or Cabbage butterfly, Pieris oleracea Harris 
(Fig. 182 ; a, larva), is well known as being often destructive to 
cruciferous plants. In this genus, and its allies, the wings are 
rounded and entire on the edges, and are grooved on the inner 
edge to receive the abdomen. The greenish caterpillars are 
slender, "'tapering a very little toward each end, and are spar- 
ingly clothed with a short down which is quite apparent, how- 
ever, in Pieris oleracea." We have found the larva; of this 
species on turnip leaves in the middle of August, at Chamber- 
lain Farm in Northern Maine. They are of a dull green, and 
covered with dense hairs. They suspend themselves by the 
tail and a transverse loop ; and their chrysalids are angular 
at the sides, and pointed at both ends. (Harris.) Pieris 
oleracea is white, with the 
wings dusky next the body, 
the tips of the fore- wings are 
yellowish beneath, and the 
hind wings are straw-colored 
beneath. The yellowish, pear- 
shaped, longitudinally ribbed 
eggs, are laid three or four 
on a single leaf. In a week 
or ten days the larvae are 
hatched. They live three 
weeks before becoming full-fed. The chrysalis state lasts ten 
to twelve days. There is an early summer (May) and a late 
summer (July) brood. Pieris rapes Schrank has been intro- 
duced from Europe and is now found in the vicinity of Quebec 
and the northern parts of New England. 

P. Protodice Boisd. and Lee. is found southward. The 
head of the chrysalis, kindly sent me by Mr. Saunders, is pro- 
longed into a tubercle, which is equilaterally triangular, seen 
in outline, Avith two small tubercles near the base. On the 
thorax is a high, thin dorsal ridge, edged with red. On each side 
of the abdomen is a ridge, largest anteriorly, and rising into 
a thin tubercle on the second ring. There is a thin dorsal 
ridge on the posterior half of the abdomen. The tip is deeply 
excavated by a furrow extending the whole length of the ter- 
minal ring. There are seven rows of black dots on each ring. 




250 LEPIDOPTERA. 

It is pale whitish straw yellow throughout, with thick, black 
dots on the anterior half of the body. It is .70 of an inch in 
length. It also occurs in California. 

The Sulphur-yellow butterflies, Colias, of which C. Ph)ln(li<->> 
Godart, our most common butterfly, is a type, occur everywhere. 
There are three broods, one appearing in April and May, and 
the other in July ; while a third brood appears late in August 
(Scudder). "The female deposited her eggs on the 24th of 
July ; they were very long, tapering at each end, with twelve 
or fourteen raised, longitudinal ribs, and smaller cross lines in 
the concave spaces between them. They hatched on the 31st. 
The freshly hatched larva is about a thirteenth of an inch long ; 
the head is black, and the body dull yellowish brown. AVlu-n 
five-eighths of an inch long, it is nearly the same as when ma- 
ture ; the head being dark green and slightly down}-, with 
minute hairs, which also give a downy appearance to the whole 
body, which is also dotted minutely with paler points. There 
is a 3 r ellowish white stripe, on each side close to the under sur- 
face. Beneath, the bod}- is slightly paler than above. The full 
grown larva is t an inch long, and differs from the young in hav- 
ing an irregular streak of bright red running through the 
whitish lateral line. It feeds on the clover and lupine, and on 
the cultivated pea. It is not unlike a saw-fly larva in its ap- 
pearance and movements, feeding on the upper surface of the 
leaves and twisting its body into a coil when disturbed. The 
chrysalis is about seven lines long, girt with a silken thread 
across the greatest diameter of the body, which is full and bulg- 
ing on the sides. The head is pointed coniealby, with a purplish 
red line on each side, running to the tip and margined behind 
with yellow. The body is pale green, with a yellowish tinge, 
and a ventral line of a darker shade formed by a succession of 
minute, yellowish dots ; a yellow stripe runs along the side on 
the five hinder segments. Beneath, on the seventh, eighth and 
ninth rings, is a blackish brown line on each side, deepening 
in color about the middle of each segment, and a dorsal line 
of dark green about the same length. It remains in the chrys- 
alis state about ten days." (Saunders.) 

Mr. Scudder has described three species of this genus from 
the north. Colias Pelidne we have taken abundantly in 



PAPILIONID7E. ">')\ 

Labrador. It represents our C. Philodice. C. interior lives 
north of the Great Lakes, and C. occfdentalis ranges from 
Fort Simpson to the Gulf of Georgia. 

The species of a closely allied genus, Terias ( T. Lisa and 
T. Delia}, are much smaller and are more tropical. 

The genus Danais has antennae with a long and curved knob, 
the head and thorax are spotted with white, and the wings are 
round and entire. The caterpillars have projecting, thread-like 
horns, arranged in pairs on the top of the second and eleventh 
segments, and the body (D. Archippus) is banded with yellow, 
black and white. The oval chrysalids are short and thick and 
decked with golden spots. The larva of D. Archippus Harris 
feeds on the silk-weed, Asclepias, and matures in about two 
weeks, changing its skin three times, while the chiysalis state 
lasts for ten or twelve days. The butterfly appears from July 
to September. 

A very beautiful and quite aberrant tropical genus is Heli- 
conia, in which the wings are small, very narrow and often very 
transparent, while the antennae are nearly as long as the body. 
The larvae are either long, cylindrical and spinose (Acraea 
viola?) , or furnished with several pairs of long fleshy append- 
ages, and the chrysalids are often brilliantly spotted with 
golden and suspended by the tail. 

According to H. AY. Bates (Transactions of the Entomolog- 

o v 

ical Society, 1857), the venation of the wing in many species 
of Mechanitis and Ithomia, which are allied to Heliconia, varies 
in different individuals of the same species. The sexes have 
the closest resemblance in color and markings. They are 
very gregarious in their habits. The Brazilian ;t H. Melpomone 
varies in a curious manner. I have no doubt they are hybrids 
(i. e. the varieties), and I can almost point out the species with 
which it hybridates. Strange to say, the hybrids occur in one 
district and not in another, and one style of hybrids only occur 
in one district and not in the others, the species being equally 
abundant in all the districts." 

Argynnis is readily recognized by the numerous round and 
triangular silver spots on the under side of the hind wings. 
The very spiny caterpillars have a round head, and the spines 
are branched, two of the prothoracic ones being the largest and 



252 LEl'IDOPTERA. 

reaching over the head. The angular arched chrysalids have 
the head either square, or slightly notched, with a smooth 
thorax, while on the back of the abdomen are two rows of 
usually gold colored tubercles. They usually feed on violets, 
and may be found from May to July. Argynnis Idalia Drurv 
is found the last of summer. ^1. Cybele Fabr. is found in the 
Middle States, and A. Atlantis Edwards in the White Moun- 
tain valleys and the colder portions of New England. 

Mr. C. A. Shurtleff discovered the larva and pupa of the lat- 
ter, July 17th, at Eastport, Maine, and being with him at the 
time, we made the following description of them : The larva 
is uniformly cylindrical, tapering alike towards each end of the 
body. On each side of the vertex of the head is a small low 
spine, giving the head an oblong shape when seen sidewise. 
The front is broad, somewhat square, flattened, with scattered 
hairs. On the first and second thoracic rings are two large 
subdorsal spines and minute lateral warts bearing small bris- 
tles, and on the hind edge of these rings are two large spines. 
On the third thoracic ring are three large spines. On each 
abdominal ring are six stout spines of the same size and placed 
equidistant on the upper surface. The bristles on the spines 
are nearly one-half as long as the spines themselves. Small pa- 
pilla', giving rise to bristles, are scattered over the body, with 
a row of them above the abdominal feet. The triangular anal 
plate is small, papilliform and prominent. The larva is dark 
velvety purple, the base of the head being of a pale horn color : 
the body beneath is scarcely paler than above ; the spines are 
pale livid on the basal half. They were full-fed and ready to 
pupate July 17th. The head of the pupa is square in front. 
On the prothorax are two subdorsal spines, and an elevated 
mesial ridge on the mesothoracic ring, rising highest behind. 
At the base of each wing is a sharp, conical, prominent papilla, 
immediately succeeded by a broad, thin-edged dilatation, con- 
stricted and appressed to the base of the abdomen ; this is the 
internal angle of the wings. On the abdomen are two lines of 
subdorsal sharp papilla-, one on each side. The wings extend 
to the fifth abdominal ring, and from this point the abdomen 
rapidly tapers to the tip. The surface of the body is wrinkled 
with conspicuous black spiracles. Its general color is chest- 



PAPILIONID.2E. 253 

nut brown, mottled with black; the wings being Muck at the 
base. The sexes of the rare and superb A. Diana Cramer differ 
remarkably, the male being dark velvety brown, with a deep 
orange border, while the female is blue-black, with lighter blue 
spots and patches on the border of the wings. It has been 
taken in West Virginia, Georgia and Arkansas. 

A. ApJirodfie (Fig. 183*) abounds in the Northern States. 
According to Scudder, it is double-brooded, appearing about 
the middle of June, and fresh specimens late in August. A. 
Monti-mts, a more diminutive species, was discovered by Mr. 
Scudder on the lower half of the barren summits of the AVhite 
Mountains. Allied to this last species by their size, are ^1. 
Myrina Cramer and A. JBeUona Fabr. found in damp meadows 
late in summer. 
A. Myrina has 
tawny wings bor- 
dered with black 
above, and ex- 
pands from one 
and three-fourths 
to one and eight- 
tenths of an inch. 
A. Bellona differs 
from the other 
species by not Fi - 183 - 

having any silvery spots on the under side of the wings. Mr. 
Sannders has reared A. Myrina from eggs deposited June 24th, 
by a specimen confined in a box. "The egg is pale green, 
elongated, shaped something like an acorn, with the base 
smooth, convex and the circumference striated longitudinally, 
with about fourteen raised striae which are linear and smooth : 
the spaces between are about three times wider than the strue, 
depressed, concave in the middle, and ribbed by a number of 
cross lines, fifteen to twenty between each stria, and distinctly 
indented. The egg is contracted at the apex, the striae protrud- 
ing at the tip all around a little beyond the body of the egg. 
The larva hatched in six or seven days, and when fresh from the 

*The upper side of the wing-8 is figured on the left side, and the under side 
on the right, in this and in FIGS. 184 and 188. 




254 LEPIDOPTERA. 

egg was about one-tenth of an inch long. The head is medium 
sized, black, and shining ; the body above is dark brown, with 
transverse lines of a paler color, especially on the anterior seg- 
ments ; it is thickly covered with stout hairs of a pale brownish 
color ; between the first and second moult it is one-fourth of an 
inch long. The head is bilobed, shining, black and hairy, and 
the body above is greenish black, the greenish tinge most 
apparent on the second and third segments, with a few small 
yellowish dots along each side, and transverse rows of strongly 
elevated, black tubercles, emitting numerous short, black hair- 
like spines. 

11 The under surface is similar to the upper ; the feet are black 
and shining, and the prolegs are black, tipped with a paler hue. 
After the second moult there are two fleshy tubercles on the 
second segment much longer than the others, being three or 
four times their length, which are covered throughout with 
small hair-like spines. The yellowish spots along the sides of 
the body assume more of an orange tint, and there are one or 
two faint, longitudinal streaks of the same color along the sides 
close to the under surface, and between the rows of large, raised 
tubercles, are many smaller ones which are also black and 
appear but slightly raised. August 7th the larva was full- 
grown. The head is, at this period, slightly bilobed, black, 
shining, and covered with short, fine, black hairs. 

"The body above is dark greyish brown, beautifully spotted 
and dotted with deep velvety black ; the second segment, has 
two long, fleshy horns, yellowish white at base, black above, 
covered with minute, blackish, hair-like spines. The third and 
fourth segment, have each four whitish spines tipped with 
black, those on the sides placed on the anterior portion of 
the segment, those above about the middle. All the other seg- 
ments have six whitish spines, excepting the terminal one, 
which has four. All the spines have fine branches of a black 
or brownish black color and are about one-third the length of 
the fleshy horns on the second segment. A pale line extends 
along each side from the fifth to the terminal segments close to 
the under surface. The under surface is brownish black, darker 
on the anterior segments ; feet black and shining ; prolegs 
brown, with a shining band of brownish black on the outside. 



PAPILIONID.*;. 



255 




The duration of the pupa stage was ten or eleven days." The 
pupa, received from Mr. launders, has two large, conical tuber- 
cles in front of the insertion of the antemuie, and two acute 
tubercles on the pro- 
thorax. The thorax is 
acutely bituberculated 
on the sides, with an 
acute thin dorsal ridge, 
on each side of which 
are two small, sharp 
tubercles. Along the 
back of the abdomen Fig. 184. 

are two rows of tubercles, those on the third abdominal ring 
being much larger. It is half an inch long, and pale ash, 
with black dots and irregular lines. 

MelitoM differs in not having silver spots beneath, while the 

caterpillars are covered with 
blunt tubercles which give rise 
to short stiff bristles. They 
feed on different species of 
Fig. 185. plantain. The chrysalids are 

like those of Argynnis, but spotted with black or brown, and 
not with golden. 

Melitcea Phaeton Drury (Fig. 184) is found in damp bogs. 
We have taken the young larva less than one-half of an inch 

t/ 

long, early in spring under leaves, where it had 

doubtless hibernated. The mature larva (Fig. 

185, enlarged, the specimen from which the 

drawing was made, is too contracted, the head 

being drawn in unnaturally ; fig. 186, pupa) is 

cylindrical, and the head is slightly angulated. 

There are nine rows of black spines which are 

fleshy and surrounded at the tips with rather 

.:>ng, thickset spinules. The head and thoracic 

;iud last three abdominal rings are black ; the rest 

of the body being deep orange, with black lines between the 

spines, and dots along the side. Towards the last of May and 

early in June it changes to a chrysalis, which is white with a 

slight bluish tinge, with yellow papillae, and scattered black 





256 LEPIDOPTERA. 

spots, giving it a guy and variegated appearance. The butter- 
fly rises from cold, swampy places the last of June and early 
in July. Its wings are velvety black, with orange red civs- 
cents and spots. It expands from two to two and a quarter- 
inches, being our largest species. 

M. Thai'os Boisd. and Leconte is a very abundant species in 
New England. There are two broods, one appearing in June 
and early in July, and the second one late in August and Sep- 
tember. It has short, broad wings which are tawny orange 
above, with black, irregular lines and spots ; it expands from 
one and three-tenths to one and a half inches. 

Mr. Saunders has sent us a remarkable and undescribed but- 
terfly, under the name of Melitoea Packardii Saunders, with the 
following description: "It resembles M. Tharos in size, and 
expands IA'2 of an inch. The palpi are pale brown above, yel- 
lowish below ; antenna; black above, dotted with white and 
tipped with red ; below white tipped with red. Head, thorax 
and abdomen, black above, clothed with brownish hairs ; white 
underneath ; feet brownish yellow ; wings above brown, with a 
cupreous tinge, sprinkled with fulvous atoms, with a wide band 
of dark brown on the outer margin, faintly edged on each side 
with black. The primaries have a fulvous macular band a short 
distance from the base, extending nearly across the wings, and 
a patch of the same hue a little beyond and towards the front 
margin. Beyond the middle is a wide band of the same, 
divided by the veins into a series of seven spots ; the upper one 
is very small, a mere dot with a whitish hue ; the second is much 
larger ; the third and fourth are nearly uniform in size, larger 
and more elongated than the second ; the fifth and sixth are the 
largest and wider and longer than any of the upper ones : the 
seventh is nearly of the same width as the sixth, but not more 
than half the length ; the fringe is clotted with white, especially 
about the tip. 

' ' On the secondaries a wide fulvous patch covers the inner 
part of the wing, extending from near the base to near the 
middle of the wing, and bounded towards the inner margin by 
a brown edging ; within this patch are three rounded blackish 
spots, one most distinct about the middle, the others near the 
inner margin and partly lost in the brown edging of the wing 



PAPILIONID^E. 



257 



Beyond this is an imperfect band of fulvous spots, in continua- 
tion of those on the primaries ; the upper ones faint and indis- 
tinct, and two of the lower ones prominent and nearly round ; 
the last small and linear. The inner margin is edged with 
fulvous, having a yellowish tinge which encroaches on the outer 
brown marginal band at the anal angle. The fringe of the 
secondaries is dotted with dull white. The primaries below 
are fulvous, with a single wavy, brown line across the wing a 
short distance within the outer margin ; base yellowish, costal 
margin sprinkled with dark brown atoms, and a streak of the 
same along the middle of the wing near the hind margin. At 
the tip is a yellowish patch, occupying the space between 
the brown line and the margin, and within this, one of silvery 
white nearly equal in size. Below the white are three indis- 
tinct, yellowish patches, the lower one extending to the outer 
margin ; a large patch of yellow at the lower corner where the 
outer and hinder margins meet. The secondaries below are 
yellowish from the base to near the middle, with streaks and 
spots of brown ; the yellowish color extending down the inner 
to the hinder margin. Beyond the middle the wings are 
silvery white, sprinkled with yellow and brown scales, divided 
by the brown veins and partially crossed by an irregular streak 
of brown. There are also two brown patches on the hind mar- 
gin, the smaller one nearly round and occupying the space 
between the first and second median venules ; the larger being 
irregular and resting on the median vein, and extending across 
the third to the second subcostal venule." (Canada.) This is 
now known to be a suffused variety of M. Tharos. 

Melitwa Nycteis Scudder is rarely found in Maine and Mas- 
sachusetts ; it is pale fulvous above, with blackish brown 
markings, and expands from one and three-fifths to one and 
four-fifths inches. M. Harrisii Scudder ma}^ be readily distin- 
guished from M. Nycteis by the under surface of the hind wings 
being cinnamon-red, with bands and spots of white margined 
with black. It expands one and three-fourths inches and is 
found in New England, though rather a rare species. The larva 
has been reared in Norway, Maine, by Mr. S. I. Smith. It feeds 
on Diplopappus umbellatus, pupating from the middle to the 
last of June, and remaining in the chrysalis state from ten to 
17 




2i3X LEPIDOPTERA. 

sixteen days ; the butterfly appears from June 20th to Aug. 
1st. The larva (Fig. 187, with the chrysalis, after Mr. W. H. 
Edwards) closely resembles that of Melitwa Phaeton, but, 

sa3 7 s Mr. Scudder in a letter, it is 
smaller, and the orange color pre- 
dominates over the black. Like that 
of M. Phaeton the caterpillar lives in 
swarms on its food plant, covering 
the whole summit of the plant with a 
web, which at all times is foul with 
excrement, and presents a most un- 
sightly appearance. The chrysalis, he also states, may be best 
described by saying that it is a miniature copy of that of 
Phaeton. 

M. Ulialcedon Doubleday is found in California and the 
Rock} T Mountains, while M. Anicia Doubleday, the under side 
of which is much like that of Chalcedon, occurs not only in 
California and the Rocky Mountains but also in Kansas. M. 
7V.m/m Edwards is a Texan species expanding one and one- 
half inches 1 . 

In Vanessa the wings are notched and angulated or tailed on 
the hind edges, while the palpi are long and beak-like. The 
larva is cylindrical and stoutly spined, the spines being long 
and branched. The caterpillars are gregarious during the early 
stages. 4 'The head of the chrysalis is deeply notched, or fur- 
nished with two ear-like prominences ; the sides are very angu- 
lar ; in the middle of the thorax there is a thin projection, in 
profile, somewhat like a Roman nose, and on the back are two 
rows of very sharp tubercles of a golden color." (Harris.) 
Vanessa Antiopa Linn, is one of our most abundant butterflies, 
being much more common in this country than in Europe, 
whither it has probably been carried. Its wings are purplish 
brown above, with a broad buff yellow border in which is a row 
of pale blue spots. The butterfly hibernates, appearing before 
the snow is off the ground. It is seen until June, and then 
not until the middle of August. The larva is black, spotted 
minutely with white, with a row of eight dark, brick-red spots 
on the back. The chrysalis is dark brown, with large tawny 
spots around the tubercles on the back. The caterpillar defoli- 



PAPILIONID^E. 2.09 

ates the willow, poplar and Balm of (iilead. Vanessa Mil- 
bt'iiii Godart is much smaller and is rather rare. It occurs 
about roadsides in May, July and August. The larva feeds 
on nettles. Mr. Saunders informs me that "it was found feed- 
ing on the nettle, nearly full grown, July 20th. It was from 
one to one and one-eighth inches long. The head is black, 
thickly covered with line, brownish white hairs, and sprinkled 
with many minute whitish dots. The body is black, thickly 
sprinkled with whitish dots and with small, fine, white hairs, 
each segment, excepting the second, with a transverse row of 
branching spines. A greenish yellow lateral line runs close to 
the under surface, with a second broken line of a brighter yel- 
low color. All the spines and their branches are black, except- 
ing the lower row on each side from the fifth to the twelfth 
segment, springing from the greenish yellow lines ; these are of 
a greenish yellow color. Under surface dull greenish, minutely 
dotted with whitish dots. There is a wide, central, blackish 
stripe covering anteriorly, nearly the whole of the under sur- 
face." V. Californica Boisd. is bright fulvous, with three black 
bands on the anterior edge of the fore-wings, and there are no 
black crescents in the black border of the wings. 

The genus Grapta differs from the preceding in its deeply 
incised wings, its smaller size, and red and brown colors. 
The under side of the hind wings has usually a silvery or 
golden dot and curved line, or both, imitating different punc- 
tuation marks. Grapta interrogation-is Doubleday is one of the 
largest species, and has a golden semicolon beneath. It is found 
in May, August, and in autumn. The caterpillars injure the 
foliage of the elm and lime trees, and also the hop vine, some- 
times defoliating the whole vine. The larva has been found, 
by Mr. Saunders, feeding on the hop, August 7th. "When 
full grown its length is one and one-fourth inches. The head 
is reddish black, flat in front and somewhat bilobed, each lobe 
tipped with a tubercle emitting five single, black, pointed 
spines ; it is covered with many small, white, and several black- 
ish tubercles. The body is cylindrical, black, thickly covered 
with streaks and dots of yellowish white ; the second segment 
is without spines, but with a row of yellowish tubercles in their 
place ; the third segment has four branching spines, all black, 



2<>0 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



with a spot of dark yellow at their base ; and on the fourth 
segment are four spines, as there are on all the others, except- 
ing the terminal, which has two pairs, one posterior to the 
other. The spines are yellow, with blackish branches, except- 
ing the terminal pair which is black ; and there is a row of 
reddish ones on each side. The under surface is yellowish grey, 
darker on the anterior segments, with a central line of blackish 
and many small, black dots." The chrysalis state lasts from 
twelve to fourteen days. It is ash brown, with the head deeply 
notched, and eight silvery spots on the back. Grapta c-aryvn- 
teum Kirby (Fig. 188, G. Progne Harris) is a small species 
with a silvery L in the middle of the under side of the hind 
wings. It is our most common species northward. It appears 
the last of summer. The larva lives on the hop and elm. 

Grapta comma Double- 
day is more common 
southward. It is known 
by having a silvery- 
comma in the middle 
of the hinder wings. 
The caterpillar lives on 
the hop and elm. Mr. 
AV~. H. Edwards h;i- 
Fig. iss. found the larva? on the 

broad-leaved nettle. He says "my attention was first attracted 
by observing certain leaves drooping, and more or less eaten. 
On the under side of these I usually found the caterpillar 
inactive, ajul never more than one upon the same plant. The 
half-grown larva? were black, with a yellowish stripe along the 
side from the third segment to the tail, and with yellow stripes 
across the back, and spots of the same color at the base of 
the dorsal spines, which were yellow, tipped with black. The 
mature larva} were white, mottled or striped with grey or 
ashen, and with red spiracles." 

The chrysalis is brownish gray or white, variegated with 
pale brown, and ornamented with gold on the tubercles. The 
fly appears in May, July, August and September. In the colder 
and mountainous portions of New England and New York, 
these species are replaced by the Grapta Fannus of Edwards, 




PAPILIONII)^. 261 

who states that ''comparing Faunas with c-albam, the former 
is deeper colored by many degrees ; it is one- fifth larger, the 
black spots and margins much heavier, and, owing to this and 
the depth of the ground-color, the general hue of the surface is 
much darker than either c-album or any of the American spe- 
cies." The under side of G. Faaiius is beautifully marbled in 
several colors. 

The genus Pymmeis differs from Vanessa in having the 
wings simply scalloped, not notched ; beneath, they are not 
marked with metallic colors, and the long, tapering palpi curve 
upward. The larvae are covered with branched spines, corre- 
sponding in size, and often wanting on the first and last seg- 
ments ; the head is heart-shaped. They are solitary, hiding 
under a rolled leaf or spinning a slight web, and hang by the 
hind feet alone when about to transform. The chrysalids are 
angular on the sides, with two or three lateral rows of sharp, 
golden tubercles, and a short, thick tubercle on the top of the 
thorax. P. cardui Linn, feeds on thistles and the sunflower, 
the hollyhock, burdock and other rough-leaved plants, in June 
and July. It remains in the pupa state twelve days, the but- 
terfly appearing in Maine, about the 20th of July. ] J i/riii<'is 
Ifniit( j r<i Fabr. has much the same habits, while P. AtaJanta 
Linn, feeds on the nettle. These species are all double- 
brooded, first appearing in May and then in July, August 
and September. 

Junonia is closely allied to Vanessa. J. witia Boisd. and 
Lee. is found in the Southern States, the West Indies, Mexico 
and California. 

In Limenitis the antennae are. very slender, and the hind 
wings are scalloped, Avhile on both wings the discal area is 
open. The caterpillar and chiysalis are like those of Danais. 
L. Misippus Fabr. (Fig. 189) is tawny yellow above, and of a 
paler yellow beneath, with a broad, black border, spotted with 
white, and black veins. It expands from three to three and a 
half inches and flies from June to September. The larva is 
pale brown, variegated with white on the sides, and some- 
times with green on the back ; the prothoracic ring has two 
slender, blackish, spinulated horns, and on the tenth and 
eleventh rings are short tubercles. It feeds on the poplar and 



262 



LEPIDOPTEKA. 



willow. The pupa is known by a thin, almost circular, projec- 
tion standing out from its back. The young larvae winter in 
cases "composed of the leaf of the willow, 011 which the larva 
feeds, neatly joined by its longest opposite margins, so as to 
form a cylindrical tube closed at one end and lined with silk." 
(Trouvelot.) L. Epliestion Stoll is blue black, with three black 
lines on the hind edges, and just within the outer border is .- 
row of orange colored spots. It lives on the scrub-oak (Quercus 
ilicifolia) in June, and also on the whortleberry and the cherry. 
Limenitis Arthemfs Drury is smaller and has an oblique, broad, 
white band, crossing both wings. It is common in the "White 
and Adirondack Mountains, where it is double brooded, ap- 
pearing late 
in June, and 
again late in 
August. 

Th<e superb 
and regal ge- 
iius Morpltn 
is the Atlas 
among but- 
terflies. The 
broad wings 
spread nearly 

six inches, and are usually of a brilliant blue above, and brown 
beneath, with eye-like spots. MorpJio Mendaus Linn., from 
Brazil, expands five and a half inches. M. Polyphemus Chenu 
is a Mexican species. M. Epistrophis Hiibner is of a delicate 
pale green, with two rows of lunate brown spots on the hind 
wings. The apex of the fore- wings is brown, and the discal 
spot is connected with the brown costa. It inhabits Brazil. 

The genus tiatyrnx, and its allies, CMonobas, Hipparclna and 
Neonymplia, are wood brown and ornamented, especially be- 
neath, with eye-like spots, and have the wings entire, with the 
A r eins of the fore-wings swelled at their base, and the discal 
area open on the hind wings. They have a short, quick, jerky 
flight. The caterpillars are green and smooth, spindle-shaped, 
or cylindrical, tapering at both ends ; the hind end is notched, 

* FIGS. 189, 190 and 198, are from TenneyV Zoology. 




Fis?. 189.* 



PAPILIONHXaS. 



263 




Fig. 190. 



and the head entire or notched. They live mostly on grasses. 
"The chrysalis is either oblong and somewhat angular on the 
sides, with the head notched, and two rows of pointed tuber- 
cles on the back, or short and rounded, 
with the head obtuse." (Harris). Cln'o- 
iinlm* is found on Alpine summits jind 
in the Arctic regions and on subarctic 
mountains. C. semidea Say (Fig. 100; 
Fig. 191, hind wing) lives on the summit 
of Mount Washington. It feeds on 
sedges, according to Scudder. 

Mr. Scudder, has in the accompanying 
figures, closely exhibited the differences 
between the Alpine and Arctic species 
of Chionobas. C. Jutta Moschler (Fig. 192) we took in 
Northern Labrador ; it extends as far south as Quebec, accord- 
ing to Edwards. C. Chrixus Doubleday, (Fig. 193) is found 
on Pike's Peak, Colorado Territor}^ ; C. Calais Scudder (Fig. 
194) is found on Albany River, Hudson's 
Bay; C. Bore Schiodte (Fig. 195) we 
have collected in Hopedale, Labrador, 
as also C. (Eno Boisd. (Fig. 196). 

Satyrus Alope Fabr. is our largest spe- 
cies. It is dark brown, with a broad, 
ochre-yellow band beyond the middle. Fig ' lfl2 ' 
It is abundant in open fields in July and August. The pale 
green larva is striped with dark, the head is round, and the tail 
is forked. The chrysalis is rather long, rounded on the sides 
and with the head notched. S. Nepliele Kirby is the more 









Fig. 193. Fig. 194. Fig. 195. Fig. 190. 

northern form, and in the upper Middle States, as about the 
Catskill mountains, occupies higher ground, according to Mr. 
Edwards, while S. Alope, which prevails southward, is found 
in the lowlands and valleys. S. Nepliele is smaller, darker, and 



264 LEPIDOPTERA. 

there is no yellow band on the fore-wings, though, sometimes, 
each eye-like spot is surrounded by a yellowish diffuse ring. 

Neonymplta Eurytris Fabr. flies low, with a jerky sort of 
motion, in thick woods, in June and July. The larva is like 
that of S. Alope, while the chrysalis is shorter with the head 
obtusely rounded. The adult is dark brown, with two black 
eye-spots, pupilled with a lead-colored dot, and surrounded 
with an ochre-yellow ring. On the hind wing is a smaller, simi- 
lar spot. It expands one and seven-tenths of an inch. 

The aberrant genus LWytltea^ with its long, snout-like palpi, 
reminds us of the Pj-ralids. It is small and the wings are 
irregularly notched. L. Bachmanii of Kirtland is not a common 
butterfly. It occurs southward, and in Central America is re- 
placed by L. carinenta. 

The small, delicate Theclas and Lycrenas are often of great 
beauty and interest. The palpi are elongated, the wings 
entire, and the hind pair are often once or double tailed. 
The larvae are slug-like, as when moving on their short feet, 
sixteen in number, they seem rather to glide than walk. They 
are oval, flat below and rounded above, both extremities being 
much alike, with the small head retracted within the bod}-. 
The short and thick chrysalids are flat beneath, but very con- 
vex above and rounded at each end. Chrysoplianus Ameri- 
camis Harris, our most abundant form, is coppery red above. 
Its given larva feeds on the sorrel, and there are three broods 
of butterflies in the year. The chrysalis is usually suspended 
under a stone. One sent by Mr. Saunders, is smooth, with 
no fine hairs. The head and thorax, including the wings, is 
dull reddish brown, dotted with black ; the abdomen is much 
lighter cinereous, with very distinct, and irregular black dots, 
and a lateral row of twin black dots, one dot being a little 
behind its mate. On the middle of the back are three rows of 
smaller black dots. It is .45 of an inch in length. Cliryso- 
pliaims Thoe Westwood is (mite a rare species. Mr. Saunders 
describes the eggs as being "nearly round, a little flattened at 
the apex and flattened also at the base, where it is fastened to 
the box. They are greenish white, and thickly indented ; at the 
apex is a considerable depression ; immediately around this, 
the indentations are small, growing larger towards the base." 



The genus Lyctvna is azure blue throughout, with dark mark- 
Lyccena neglecta Edwards (Polyommatus pseudargiolus 
Harris) is very common about the Kalniia and Rhodora in 
May, and a new brood appears in June and July. It has been 
reared by Mr. Saunders, from whom I have received the pupa, 
which is a little hairy, being much smaller than in Thecla 
Acadica and paler ashy. It is spotted quite thickly with black 
blotches, and on each side of the abdomen is a subdorsal row 
of rather large, black, contiguous blotches, more distinct than 
in T. Acadica. It is .30 of an inch long. 

L. comyntas Harris is quite common southward. It differs 
from the other species in having a little tail on the hind wings, 
at the base of which are two deep, orange-colored crescents. 
It flies in July and August. The caterpillar lives on the Lespe- 
deza. It is green with three darker stripes. The brown chrys- 
alis has three rows of black spots on the back. 

Thecla differs from the two preceding genera, in its conspic- 
uous tails and the longer clubs of the antennae and its dusky 
brown hues. The larvae are longer and flatter, and they usually 
live on trees. Thecla 1 cumuli Harris feeds on the hop-vine. 
It flies in July and August. Thecla niphon Godart, a dusky 
rust-red butterfly, feeds 011 the pine. The larva is green, with 
a dorsal yellow stripe, and a white one on each side. It 
changes to a short, thick, greyish pupa, with two rows of 
blackish dots, and beyond these a row of rust-red ones. Mr. 
Saunders has sent us the following description of the cater- 
pillar and chrysalis of Thecla Acadica Edwards, found by him 
at London, Canada West, feeding on the willow, June llth 
and 18th. "It AVRS .63 of an inch in length, with a very small, 
pale brown head, withdrawn within the prothoracic segment, 
when at rest. The body is rather dark green, and is thickest 
from the mesothoracic to the sixth abdominal segment. There 
is a darker green, dorsal line, the dorsal region being flat, 
rather wide, and edged on each side with a raised, whitish yel- 
low line, and the sides of the body are inclined at almost an 
acute angle, and striped with faint, oblique lines, of a greenish 
yellow. A whitish yellow line borders the under surface, be- 
ginning at the anterior edge of the second segment (the head 
is, for convenience, counted as a single ring, or segment) and 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

extending entirely around the body. The chrysalis is .32 of 
an inch long, and .!;"> wide. It is fastened with a silken 
thread. The abdomen is thickened and somewhat raised. It 
is minutel}' hairy, pale brown, with many dots and patches of 
a darker color ; the upper edge of the wings being quite dark, 
with a dark ventral stripe, and four or five short, dark lines on 
the side. It remains in the chrysalis state eight or nine days, 
the caterpillar turning dark July 3d, just before pupating." 
The body, especially the abdomen, is thicker and fuller than in 
Chrysophanus Americanus. 

Theclu Mopsvs Hubner is' found in New England and Canada. 
Mr. Sannders sends me the following description of the larva 
taken June 9th, by beating bushes, at London, Canada. ''It 
was .40 of an inch in length. The head is small, of a shin- 
ing black color, with a pale stripe across the front just above 
the mandibles, and is drawn within the second ring when at 
rest. The body above is green along the middle rings, deep rose 
color at each extremity, and is thickly covered with short, brown 

, ' 

hairs. The second segment is rosy above, greenish yellow at 
the sides, with an edging of the same color in front ; the third 
segment is entirely rose colored ; from the third to the tenth 
segments is a dorsal stripe of rose which is wide on the fourth, 
fifth, eight and ninth segments, but narrow and linear on the 
intermediate ones ; on the tenth segment the green encroaches 
on the rose color on the sides of the body, extending more than 
half-way upon the segment behind the tenth. The body is 
rose colored with a dorsal streak of a darker shade. The rose 
color at each extremity is united by a rosy line along each side 
close to the under surface which grows fainter on the middle 
segments. The under surface is dull green, with a yellowish 
tint ; the feet and prolegs (abdominal legs) are yellowish 
green. June 24th, the larva has now become quite large and 
will probably soon go into the chrysalis state. I found it 
would readily eat the plum and cherry. 

4,' t/ 

"Its length is now .70 ; its width about .20 of an inch. The 

O 

head is very small, bilobed, black and shining, with a streak of 
dull white across the front above the mandibles, which are 
reddish brown. The body above is dull green, with a yel- 
lowish tint, especially on the anterior segments, which are 



-2(\~ 

thickly covered with very short, brown hairs, scarcely visible 
without a magnifier ; these hairs arise from small, pale, yel- 
lowish dots which appear slightly raised ; there is a dorsal streak 
of dark green arising from the internal organs showing through 
the semitransparent skin. There is a patch of dull pink, or 
rosy color, on the anterior segments from the second to the 
fourth inclusive ; it is faint on the second ring, and covering 
but a single portion of its upper surface, and nearly covering 
the dorsal crest on the third segment, and reduced again to a 
small, faint patch on the fourth. On the posterior segments is 
a much larger ros}* patch, extending from the hinder part of the 
ninth segment to the end of the body. The hinder part of 
the ninth segment is merely tinged. On the tenth segment it 
becomes a rather large patch, widening posteriorly. Behind 
this the bod} T is entirely covered with rosy red. The sides of 
the tenth segment, close to the under surface, have a streak of 
the same color, and there is a faint continuation of this on the 
ninth segment. The head is drawn within the second segment 
when at rest. The second segment is smaller than the third ; 
there is a wide dorsal crest, or ridge, from the third to the tenth 
segments inclusive ; behind this the body is suddenly flattened, 
the sides suddenly sloping. The under surface is yellowish 
green, with a few very fine brownish hairs; the feet and 
prolegs are greenish, semitransparent. 

"On June 29th it fastened itself to the lid of the box, chang- 
ing to a chrysalis July 1st, which was .45 of an inch in 
length, and its greatest width .20 of an inch. The body is 
pale brown and glossy, with many small, dark brown or black- 
ish dots distributed over the whole surface ; they are thicker 
along the middle above, with a faint, imperfect, ventral stripe 
from the seventh to the eleventh segments ; the surface is 
thickly covered with very short, brown hairs, invisible without 
a magnifier. The imago appeared July 13th." 

Mr. Saunders has found the larva of TJieda strfgosa Harris, 
a rare species in Canada and New England, feeding on the 
thorn, Cratsegus, July 13th. "The head is small, greenish, with 
a faint tint of brown, and a black stripe across the front below 
the middle, and a patch of white between this stripe and the 
mandibles, which are brownish black above. The body is of a 



26S LEPIDOPTEBA. 

rich velvety green, with a yellowish tinge, slightly paler be- 
tween the segments, and a dorsal stripe of a darker shade, 
centred along the middle segments with a faint, j-ellowish 
line. The anterior edge of the second segment is yellowish 
brown, with a few dots of a darker color. The body is thickly 
covered with minute hairs which are brown above and white 
below, being scarcely visible to the naked eye. The body is 
flattened above (dorsal crest not bordered with yellow as in T. 
Acadica), steeply sloped at the sides, where it is striped with 
faint oblique lines of ^yellowish, two or three on each segment. 
The two last segments have a patch of yellowish on each side? 
making the dark dorsal line appear much more prominent. A 
faint yellowish line close to the under surface from the fifth to 
the terminal segments. The under surface is bluish green, 
with a darker patch on the last two segments. 

" The chrysalis changed June 19th, and is nearly oval in form. 
The head-case is rounded, and the body is dark reddish brown, 
with black markings thickly covered with fine, short, whitish 
hairs, rather more numerous on the anterior and posterior 
segments. Anterior segments with many thickly set patches 
of blackish, and a dark ventral line from the sixth to the 
twelfth segments. It is bound by a few silken threads on 
the anterior portion of the seventh segment." 

The accompanying cut (Fig. 1!)7) represents the pupa of a 
Thecla, found in July by Mr. Sanborn, on the Glen road to 
Mount AVashington. The body is smooth and tapers gradually 
from the mesothorax, and the venation of the wings is 
very apparent. Another pupa, probably T. niplion, found 
by Mr. Stillborn, is very different, being much stouter, 
and thicker through the abdomen, by a third of its 
19 '' diameter, than the chrysalis figured. It is rough and 
covered with short, fine, stiff hairs ; the tegument is so thick, 
that there are no traces of the veins of the wing, while the 
sutures between the segments and the appendages are not 
nearly as distinct. The larva, according to Mr. Sanborn's 
notes, was found feeding upon the A\ r hite Pine, July loth. 
k> lt was .45 of an inch long; the head was retracted, yellow- 
ish, and the body pale, transparent green, with four longi- 
tudinal, white stripes, and one transverse, lozenge-shaped 



2(10 

patch, of the same color, on the eleventh segment. The rings 
were all somewhat elevated in the middle of their diameter and 
thinly covered with yellowish brown, short hairs." He did not 
succeed in rearing the butterfly, but this description will be 
useful to any entomologist who may be fortunate enough to 
rear it hereafter. 

The Hesperians, or Skippers, are a large group of small, 
dark, dun-colored butterflies, whose antennae have the knob 
curved like a hook, or ending in a little point bent to one side, 
reminding us of the antennae of the Sphinges. They are moth- 
like in their motions, form, and larval characters. They are 
stout bodied, with large heads and prominent eyes, and thick 
palpi, almost square at the end. The larvae are spindle-shaped, 
naked, and with a remarkably large head. They are solitary, 
and often hide in folded leaves like the Tort rid <l<.*> , trans- 
forming in a rude cocoon of dead leaves or stub- 
ble, held together by silken threads. The pupae 
are, somewhat conical, like those of moths, 
smooth and generally covered with a bluish 
white powder. They are fastened by the tail 
and a slight band of threads within their rude 
cocoons. We have many species in this country ; the largest 
forms occurring southwards. 

Eadamus Tityrus Cramer feeds on the locust and is our largest 
species northward. E. Bathyllus flies in June and July. It feeds 
on Glycine and Hedysarum in May and June. In Hesperia 
the knobs are shorter, and end in a point turned sidewise. 
The upper wings are raised, and the lower spread out flat when 
at rest. The chrysalis has a long tongue-case free at the end, 
in this respect showing a transition to the hawk-moths. They 
are snuff-brown, with dark spots. 

Mr. W. Saunders has been very successful in raising the 
larvae of H. Hobomoc Harris and other butterflies and moths, 
by watching for the fertile eggs in captured specimens, which 
are often deposited on the sides of the collecting box. The 
food-plant of the larvae can usually be discovered after experi- 
menting with those plants on which other species of this or 
allied genera are known to feed. "The egg, deposited June 
17th, is nearly round, flattened on the lower side, and of a 




270 LEPIDOFTERA. 

pale green color. Under the microscope it appears plainly 
reticulated, with fine, six-sided markings, strongly resembling 
the cornea of a fly's eye. The larva on finding its way out, 
.June 27th, began to eat the egg-shell at the centre above. 
It feeds on grass, on the inside of the leaves near the joints, 
drawing portions of the leaves together with silken threads. 
When placed on a strongly ribbed blade of grass, it spins a 
few threads from rib to rib, and stations itself behind the 
threads. By the 14th of July the caterpillars were three- 
eighths of an inch long and resembled those of H. Mystic 
of the same age." Mr. Saunders did not succeed in raising 
the caterpillars to maturity as they were unfortunately lost. 

The most abundant species in New England is H. Wainwtta 
Harris (Fig. 198) which frequents roadsides throughout the 
summer. According to Mr. Saunders' notes, from "eggs de- 
posited July 10th, the young larva was hatched July 24th, the 
eggs growing darker about two or three days previous. The 
egg is pale greenish yellow, or yellowish green, strongly con- 
vex above, and flattened at the place of attachment. The flat- 
tened portion is slightly concave and very faintly reticulated 
under a power of forty-five diameters. 

The young larva, when first hatched, is about the same as 
that of Mystic and Ilobomoc, probably .10 of an inch, and is 
scarcely distinguishable from them, excepting that it is slightly 
darker in color. The head is large and prominent and of a 
shining black color. The second segment has a ring of brown- 
ish black, encircling it above. The body is dull brownish yel- 
low, very faintly dotted with black, each dot emitting a single, 
rather long, brownish hair. The under surface is rather paler 
than the upper. 

Mr. .Saunders has also reared the larva of //. Mystic Edwards 
from the egg, which is ' L strongly convex above, flattened below 
and depressed in the centre of the flattened portion. Under 
a magnifying power of eighty diameters, the surface is seen 
to be faintly reticulated ; it is pale yellowish green. The eggs 
were deposited about the 20th of June and hatched on the 
28th and 29th of June. When hatched it was .10 of an inch 
long, with a large, black head, and was white, becoming yel- 
lowish brown, especially towards the end of the body. It feeds 



SPHINGID^E. 271 

on grass, and at this stage can scarcely be distinguished from 
the young larva ot'H. Hobomoc. When an inch long the head 
is not large in proportion to the body, though it is prominent 
and wider than the second segment ; it is dull reddish brown 
and black posteriorly. The body above is semitransparent, 
dull brownish green, with minute, whitish hairs, similar to 
those on the head, Avith a dorsal line and many darker dots 
over the surface. The second segment is pale whitish, with a 
line of brownish black across the upper surface, with a faint, 
pale, lateral line close to the under surface : the terminal seg- 
ments are paler than the rest of the body. The feet are 
whitish, semitransparent. This species is found from Canada 
to Maryland. 

SPHINGID/E Latreille. The Hawk-moths or Humming-bird 
moths are among the largest and stoutest of Lepidoptera. The 
body is very stout, spindle-shaped, with narrow, powerful wings. 
Their flight is, consequently, exceedingly swift and strong. 
The antennae are prismatic in form and thickened in the mid- 
dle. The tongue, or maxilla?, is remarkably long, so that the 
insect is able, while on the wing, to explore the interior of 
deep flowers. This habit of remaining for a considerable time 
poised in the air on their rapidly vibrating wings, causes them 
to be mistaken for humming-birds. At rest the wings are 
folded, roof-like, over the body. The larvae have sixteen legs, 
and on the last segment is an acute horn, sometimes represented 
by a simple tubercle. At rest they stand with the forepart 
of the body elevated in a supposed Sphinx-like attitude. The 
larvae descend into the earth and transform, often in rude, 
earthen cocoons, moulded into form by the pressure of the 
body. The tongue-case is usually free. 

There are between 300 and 400 species known, a large part 
of which are tropical American. Most of the species fly in 
June and July. The larvae transform in the latter part of 
August and in September. 

In Ellema the bocty is small. The head is small, narrow and 
somewhat tufted, and with small eyes. It might be passed over 
on a hasty view for a Noctuid. The larva of Ellema Harrisii 
Clemens is green, has no caudal horn, and lives on the pine. 



272 LEPIDOPTERA. 

Mr. Sounders writes me that he has found it feeding 011 the 
pine, about the middle of September. "It is two inches long, 
the body being smooth and nearly cylindrical and thickest in 
the middle of the body. The head is large, pointed above, flat 
in front and green, with a yellow stripe on each side. The 
body is bright green, with a dorsal row of dark red spots on 
the fifth to the twelfth segments inclusive, with a bright yel- 
low stripe on each side of the reddish spots and a lateral 
white stripe mixed with yellow." The moth is a very small, 
ash grey species, only expanding two inches. It frequents 
flowers at dusk in June. 

The genus /Sphinx, as now limited by systematists, is much 
larger bodied, with a long and narrow head, small eyes and 
long and narrow wings. The head of the larva is rather 
large, semi-oval and flattened in front. The body is cylin- 
drical, smooth and obliquely banded on the side, with an 
arching, caudal horn. It transforms in a subterranean earthen 
cell. The tongue-case of the pupa is short and free, instead 
of being soldered to the body. Sphinx gordius Cramer is dark 
brown, with a roseate tinge, and the thorax is blackish brown 
above. The larva feeds on the apple. 

/Sphinx kalmice- Smith is hoary and rust-red, and on the hind 
wings are a median and marginal black band. The caterpillar 
feeds on the lilac and laurel. It is pale green, with seven 
oblique, lateral, pale yellow bands, edged above with black, 
which is again bordered with pale blue. /Sphinx drvpiferarum 
Smith has the fore- wings blackish brown, with the discal dot 
and outer edge of the wing whitish fawn-color. The larva 
feeds on the different species of plum. The body is pale green, 
with lateral purple bands, edged beneath with white. /Sphinx 
chersis Hiibner (S. cinerea Harris) is the largest species we 
have, and is pale ashen, and reddish gray beneath. The larva 
feeds on the lilac. 

The large "potato worm" belongs to the genus Macrosiht, 
containing our largest species of the family ; the head is pro- 
portionally large, and the wings are rather broad, with the 
interior angles dilated. M. cingulata Fabr. has pink hind 
wings and pink spots on the abdomen. It feeds on the sweet 
potato. M. qninque-maculata Haworth (Fig. 199, moth ; a, 



SPHLNGOXE. 



273 




18 



274 



LEPIDOPTERA. 




200. 



larva ; b, pupa) is gray ; the fore-wings are immaculate at the 
base, and on the hind wings are two distinct angulated bands. 
The larva feeds on the tomato and potato vines. It is dark 
ii'reen, with a series of greenish yellow angular bands on the 
side. The tongue-case is long and much arched. M. Carolina 
Linn, is cinereous, with a white spot at the base of the fore- 
wing, while the central band of the hind wings are indistinct. 

The larva (Fig. 200) 
feeds on the tobacco 
and tomato. It is dark 
green with lateral, 
oblique, white bands, 
edged above with blu- 
ish and short trans- 
verse black stripes. 
The tongue-case is shorter and less curved than in M. f>-macu- 
lata. The tongue of a Madagascar hawk-moth, M. duwttinx, 
Wallace states, is nine and a quarter inches long, probably 
adapted for exploring the long nectaries of some Orchids. 

In Cemtomia the body is thick, with the head and eyes small ; 
the thorax is .short and round, while the abdomen is rather 

long. The larva is easily known by the 
four thoracic horns, besides the usual 
caudal horn. The tongue-case is not 
free. C. Amyiitor lli'ibner (quadricornis 
Harris) feeds on the elm. 

We now come to the more aberrant 
forms of the family. Under the name 
of Cressonfa Mr. Grote has separated 
Fig. 201. from the genus Smeriiithus, a species in 

which the wings are more notched than in the latter genus, and 
the antenna are slightly pectinated. Cressonia juglandis Smith 
(Fig. 201, venation) is of a pale fawn-color, and has no eye-like 
spots on the hind wings, as in Smeriiithus. The larva is bluish 
green, with a row of subdorsal and stigmatal reddish brown 
spots, and six oblique, lateral, bright yellow bands. It lives on 
the wild cherry. 

In Fnicrinthits the body is stout, the head sunken and the 
maxilla are only as long as the palpi, being almost obsolete. 





Sl'HINGIDJE. 275 

The species are said to fly heavily and only in the night. The 
head of the larva is semi-oval or pyramidal, acute above, and 
the thoracic rings are obliquely banded on each side. The 
pupa is smooth, cylindrical and somewhat conical in form. S. 
iiKxlcxtns Harris is a very large species, expanding nearly six 
inches. It feeds on the Lombardy poplar. S. exccecatus Smith 
has the hind wings rosy on the inner angle. The "ocellus" or 
eye-like spot is black, with a large, pale blue pupil. The 
larva is apple green, with seven oblique, yellowish white lines 
on the sides, and a bluish caudal horn. It feeds on the apple 
and the Rosa Carolina. S. geminatus Say (Fig. 202, venation 
of the hind wing) is so called from the two sky-blue pupils in 
the black ocellus on the roseate hind wings. 
The pupa has been found at the roots of 
willows. 

lu the genus I'lu'/ampc/HN, or lover of the vine, 
as its name indicates, the tongue is again as long Fi s- - 02 - 
as the body. The antennae have a long hook tapering to 
the end, bearing cilia? in the male. The abdomen is large and 
thick, and the wings are deeply concave on the inner border. 
The larva has a tubercle in place of a caudal horn. The 
tongue-case of the pupa is not free. P. vitis Harris is olive 
green, with pale green hind wings, which are rose-red towards 
the inner margin. The larva is flesh-colored mixed with yel- 
low, and with short, transverse, black lines, and lateral, semi- 
oval, yellowish white bands, edged with black. 

In Deilephihi the abdomen tapers suddenly at the tip and 
the fusiform antennae end in a minute hook. The gaily colored 
larva has a straight and rather short caudal horn. There are no 
oblique bands on the sides of the body, but a row of subdorsal 
spots on each side. Clemens states that the anterior segments 
are much attenuated, and are capable of being withdrawn or 
shortened, or much extended. "When disturbed they fall from 
their food-plants, shorten the anterior segments and bend the 
head inwards." They transform in a cell excavated from the 
surface. The tongue-case of the pupa is not free. D. lhi(><tt 
Fabr. is olive green, with six white lines on the thorax. The hind 
wings are black with a rose colored central band. The larva is 
yellowish green ; the subdorsal spots consisting of two curved, 



LEJP1DOPTERA. 




short, black lines, with yellow above and beneath. It is double 
brooded in Texas. The larva feeds on the purslane and turnip, 
and will, in confinement, eat the apple. D. chamcenerii Harris 
has a white line on each side of the head and thorax. The 
larva feeds on the willow-herb (Epilobinm angustifolinm). It 
is bronze green, dull red beneath, with nine round cream- 
colored spots, pupilled with black, and a dull red caudal horn. 
The genus Thyreus has a lateral tuft on each side of the tip of 
the flattened, oval abdomen, and the head is broad and obtuse, 
while the fore-wings are excavated just below the tips. The 

body of the 
larva tapers 
gently from 
the first ab- 
dominal ring, 
and the last 
segment has a 
lenticular tu- 
bercle instead 
of a true horn . 
When at rest 
it throws its 
head from side 
to side thus 
producing a 
crepitating 

noise. It transforms in a cell on the surface. T. Ai>l><>i!i. 
Swainson (Fig. 203 and larva) is dull chocolate brown, with 
dull sulphureous hind wings, with a dark brown terminal band 
broken up into short lines on a roseate spot at the inner angle. 
The larva is reddish brown, with numerous patches of light 
green. The tubercle is black, encircled at base by a yellowish 
line and a blackish cordate patch. It feeds on the wild and 
cultivated grape-vines and on the Ampelopsis quinquefolia, or 
woodbine. 

The Bee-moth or Clear-wing, Sesia, is smaller than the fort-- 
going genera, and the body is flattened, oval and gaily colored 
with yellow, black and red, while the wings are transparent in 
the middle, The larva tapers in front, has a dorsal stripe just 




Fi- _>(. 




277 
I 

above the row of stigmata, and a short recurved horn. It 
transforms in an imperfect cocoon at the surface of the earth. 
tiesia dffiii.ix Boisd. is pale greenish yellow, with the abdomen 
black beneath, and the legs black. The larva is 
pale green, reddish beneath. Sesia Thy she Fabr. 
is a more common species northward. The thorax 
is deep olive green, with the abdomen reddish be- 
neath, and with whitish legs. It is abundant, flying in June 
in the hot sun about the lilac and Bhodora Canadensis. 

Under the name of Lepisesia Mr. Grote has separated L. 
Jlavofasciata Barnston (Fig. 204, -venation of fore-wing) found 
in Canada, from the genus Macrogiossa, repre- 
sented in Europe by M. stdlataru.m Linn. 
Mr. Grote also separates from the latter 
genus, under the name of Eupyrrfioglossum, Fig 205. 

a Cuban moth, which has larger, fuller eyes, and larger hind 
wings than in Macrogiossa. E. Sagra (Fig. 205, venation of 
fore-wing) is a handsome form described by Professor Poey. 




Harris. These elegant and gaily colored moths, 
which by the arrangement of their colors and their clear wings, 
look like bees and wasps, are readily recognized by their small 
size, narrow wings, thickened antenna', and by the tufts at the 
end of the body, which they can spread out fan-like. They fly 
very swiftly in the hottest sunshine. The larva- are borers, 
living mostly in the hollowed stems of plants. They are whit- 
ish, cylindrical, with sparse, short, inconspicuous hairs, and 
they have no anal horns. They transform in a rude, oblong, 
oval cocoon, constructed of the chips they make in boring out 
their tunnels, cemented by a gummy secretion. The pupae are 
chestnut-brown, with transverse rows of short teeth on the 
abdominal rings, by which they make their Avay out, partly 
through the hole previously made by the larva for the exit of 
the moth. The shell of the chrysalis is often left protruding 
from the hole. This family is, therefore, quite injurious to 
gardeners. 

^Egeria exitiosa Say (Fig. 206. c? ) the Peach-tree borer, ha>; 
caused the death of many peach trees and also, according to 
Fitch, occasionally attacks the plum. It is a slender, dark 




27X LEPIDOPTERA. 

blue moth, expanding an inch and a hall', or more. The male 
is much smaller than the female (Fig. 207), expanding one inch. 
She deposits her eggs near the root of the tree. The larvae are 
hatched and bore in to feed upon the inner bark and sap wood. 
When one year old they make their cocoon tinder the bark or 
at the root of the tree. Borers of all sizes, Harris states, will 
be found in the trees throughout the year. 

The trees should be protected by wrapping sheathing paper 
around the bottom of the trunk, and putting fresh mortar around 
the roots. The wounded part may be cov- 
ered with clay. ^Egeria pyri Harris infest > 
the pear tree. It is purple black above and 
golden yellow beneath, with three yellow 

dj / / 

bands across the abdomen, the middle band 
Fig. 20(i. being the larger. 

The habits of the Grape-root borer, ^E. polistifnrmix Harri>. 
resemble those of the Peach-tree borer. It sometimes de- 
stroys grape-vines in the Middle and Western States, but does 
not attack the Scuppernong variety. The larva lives under 
ground, the female, according to Walsh, "depositing her i-iii; 
on the collar of the grape-vine, close to the earth; the young 
larvae, as soon as they hatch out, immediately descend into 
the roots." They attack the sap-wood and bark of the roots, 
eating irregular furrows. The cocoons are oval, and covered 

with bits of wood and dirt. They are 
found, through the summer, in the earth 
near the roots of the grape, and the moths 
fly from the middle of June until the mid- 
dle of September, according to Dr. Kron. 
Harris describes the moth as being dark- 
Fig. 207. brown, tinged with tawny orange on tin- 
sides, and banded with bright yellow upon the edge of the 
second abdominal ring. The thorax and fourth abdominal 
ring are faintly tinged with yellow, or tawny orange, as are 
the palpi, under side of the antennae, and the legs. The female 
has a little orange colored tuft on each side of the tail, and 
the males have two tufts on each side. The wings expand 
from one to one and a half inches. Another species, 
caudata Harris, inhabits the wild currant. 




279 



Tlie currant borer, ^Egeria tipidiforme Linn. (Fig. 208 ; 6, 
larva ; a, pupa, enlarged) has been introduced from Europe, and 

is a great pest in our gar- 
dens, injuring the currant 
bushes. It is a slender. 
agile, dark blue moth, found 
flying in July in the hot sun. 
about the currant leaves. 
The larva bores in the stems, 
and by splitting them open, 
in the fall and spring, we 
shall find the larva, which 
pupates towards the last of May. 








. -Jus. 



Mr. James Ridings describes from Virginia ^E. qninque 

caudata (Fig. 209) Avhich has 

five filaments at the tip of 

the abdomen. Its body is 

blue black, with a transparent 

spot at the base of the hind 

wings, while the third abdom- 

inal segment is red above. 

The Squash-vine borer, Fi s- m 

Melittia cucurbitw Harris (Fig. 210 ; a, larva), often kills, very 

suddenly, the squash plant. The moth is orange colored, 
spotted with black, and its hind legs are 
fringed with long, orange and black hairs. 
She oviposits on the vine close to the roots, 
from the tenth of July to the middle of Au- 
gust. The larva eats out the interior of the 
vine, and usually transforms in a rude earthen 

Fig. 209. 

cocoon near the roots, but as we have no- 
ticed, within the stem, beginning to spin its cocoon the first 
of October. 




Latreille. This interesting group connects the 
diurnal with the nocturnal Lepidoptera. Some of the forms 
(Castnia) remind us strikingly of the butterflies. The group 
may be recognized by the rather large free head, and the 
simple antenna? which are slightly swollen in the middle, or 



2U L.EPIDOPTERA. 

partially clavate, as in Zygtena. The wings are long and nar- 
row in the typical genera, becoming shorter and broader in the 
lower genera, such as Eureiiua, from India. The scales are 
line, powdeiy and scattered thinly over the surface, often leav- 
ing naked spots on the wings. The species are usually green 
or deep blue, with scales of purplish black, or entirely black, 
alternating with gay colors, such as golden, bronze, or white 
and red. They fly in the hot sunshine. 

The sixteen-footed, greenish larvre are short, cylindrical, the 
l)od}- being obtuse at each end. The head is very small and 
when at rest is partially drawn into the prothoracic ring. The 
segments are short and convex, with transverse rows of un- 
equal tubercles which give rise to thin fascicles of very short 
and evenly cut hairs, which are often nearly absent. The 
larvae are either naked, as in Alypia, Eudryas and Castnia, or, 
as in the lower moth-like species, they are hairy, like those of 
the Lithosians and Arctians in the next family. Before trans- 
forming, the larvae usually spin a dense, silken cocoon, though 
Eudryas and Castnia make none at all, and Ctenucha a slight 
one of hairs. The pupa of ZygaMia, especially, is intermediate 
in form between that of ^Egeria and Arctia, being much 
stouter than the first, and somewhat less so than the last. 
The head is prominent, and the tips of the abdomen sub-acute. 
Ctenucha is more like Arctia. while Castnia and Alypia are 
elongate, slender, with the head made especially prominent by 
a tubercle on the front of the clypeus. 

In common w r ith the Sphingidce and .sEgeriadw, the 
Zyg;enidae are confined to the temperate and tropical regions. 
The family type, Zygoma, has its metropolis about the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, and thence spreads to the north of Europe, and 
southward to the Cape of Good Hope. Zygw-iHi cxtdans is 
found as far north as Lapland, and in vertical distribution rises 
C.OOO to 7,000 feet in the Alps of Styria. 

Castnia is, however, a tropical American genus. Alypia is 
the most northern genus, extending into the Hudson Bay ter- 
ritories. Glaucopis and allies, which comprise a large number 
of species, are almost exclusively tropical American. In Aus- 
tralia, as King observes, Castnia is represented by Synemon. 
The American genus Eudryas is represented by very closely 
allied South African genera. 



Castnia closely resembles the Hesperians, though much 
larger. The species are of large size and of brilliant hues, and 
fly in the day time, like the butterflies. The head is, however, 
much narrower in front, and the antennae inserted higher up. 
The larva is a borer, living in the stems of Orchids ; it is not 
known, but probably has the usual form of boring caterpillars, 
tiiid the pupa is said by King to resemble that of Cossus. 

Alypia comprises black moths, ornamented with white and 
yellow patches on the wings. The antenme are long, and a 
little thickened in the middle. The wings are short and broad. 
The body of the pupa is not contracted at the base of the 
abdomen as in Eudryas. The larva feeds on the grape and 
constructs an earthen cocoon, like that of -ZEgeria, according 
to Harris. A. octo-iim<-ii/<tt<t Fabr. is black, with eight spots. 
two on each wing, those on the fore wing being yellowish, those 
on the hind wing white. 

The genus PsycJiomoiyha is allied to Alypia, but differs in 
the broadly pectinated antenme, and the shorter palpi, which 
do not pass beyond the front of the 
head. P. epiniaii* Drury (Fig. 211) is 
found from Connecticut southwards. 
It is black, with a broad, yellow, white, 
irregularly lunate patch crossing the 
outer third of the wing, and on the un- 
der side is larger, being triangular, 

with two square black spots connected with the costa ; on the 
hind wings is a little larger, mostly regular crescent-shaped 
brick-red spot; it expands 1.10 inches. Doubleday (Harris 
Correspondence) states on the authority of Abbot, that the 
larva feeds on Bigiionia radicans, in (ieorgia. "It is pale, 
with black lines, and though having the full complement of 
legs, seems to be a semi-looper in its walk, like Brephos." 

Eudryas is a peculiar form, gaily colored, and easily known 
t 'y the densely tufted forelegs, and the short tufts of metallic 
scales on the thorax and abdomen. The antenmv are filiform, 
and the abdomen is tipped with hairs. The larva of E. grata 
Fabr. is gaily colored with orange and blue, dotted with black. 
The body is long and widens towards the eighth ring, which is 
humped, from which the body rapidly narrows to the tip. 




282 LEPIDOPTERA. 

Across each segment is a row of tubercles which give rise to 
three fascicles of hairs. The pupa is rather long, with a promi- 
nent tubercle on the front of the head, and the abdominal tip 
ends in four tubercles. The larva feeds on the grape dur- 
ing midsummer and at the end of August creeps down, bury- 
ing itself three or four inches, without making any cocoon. 
Mr. L. Mitchell of Norwich, Connecticut, has had the kind- 
ness to send me "a piece of wood burrowed by the E. grata 
with one of the pupae in position." As E. unio is now known 
to burrow in the stems of plants, our opinion that Eudryas is 
allied to Castnia would seem to be confirmed by the habits of 
the larvae which seem, at least occasionally, to bore into wood. 
Eudryas unio Hiibner according to Mr. Kirkpatrick, burrows 
in the stems of Hibiscus, thus resembling Castnia in its habits. 
Mr. Grote establishes the genus Euscirrhopterus for a moth 
closely allied to Eudryas. E. Poeyi Grote (Fig. '212, fore 

wing ; the venation of the hind wing 
being "almost identical with that of 
Eudryas " ) is a brown and yellow 
Cuban species. 

Zygvena is a European genus, and 
- 1 - its characters have been indicated 

in describing those of the family. The antennae are much 
thickened towards the end, the wings are long and narrow, 
and the species are usually entirely blue black, or green with 
red, or white and red bands and spots. 

AcoloitJms represents the Procris (P. vitis) of Europe, but 
the wings are longer and narrower, and the hind wings are 
very ovate. The gregarious larva of A. Americana is a little 
over half an inch long, being short and thick. It is yellow with 
a transverse row of black spots on each ring. Before pupating 
it spins a dense cocoon in crevices. The moth is deep blue 
black, with a saftron collar. Riley states that the "eggs are 
deposited in clusters, and in twenty-five to thirt}* days from the .. 
time of hatching, the worms, which then measure rather more 
than half an inch, spin dirty white, flattened cocoons, mostly 
in clusters on the leaf. Three days afterwards they become 
chrysalids, also somewhat flattened, and of a shiny yellowish 
brown ; while in ten days more the moths issue." 




BOMB YCID^E . 

The genus Pyromorpha has thin, oblong wings, very broad 
at base, the hinder pair being as broad as the fore-pair ; with 
a small, slender bod}'. P. dimidiata Herrich-Sehseff'er (after- 
wards described by Clemens under the name of Malthaca per- 
lucidula) is blackish brown, with the basal half of the costal 
region of both wings yellowish. It expands one inch, and is 
found sparingly in the Middle States, but has been detected 
near Boston by Mr. Sanborn. 

The species of Glawopis and its allies, abounding in tropical 
America, are represented in the Northern States by Otenuclia^ 
which has pectinated antennae, long, slender, acutely pointed 
palpi, and rather broad wings ; the apex of the fore-pair being 
much rounded. The thick-bodied larva feeds on sedges and 
grass, and is very hairy, like an Arctian. The pupa is short 
and thick, and much like that of Arctia. Ctenvcha Virfjiniva 
Charpentier is of a deep indigo blue, with a smoky tinge on the 
fore wings, a lighter blue abdomen and a saffron collar. It 
flies in the hottest sunshine. The female lays 
her smooth, green, spherical eggs in a broad mass. 

Lycomorpha has dentated antennae, the body 
is unusually slender, and the wings long and nar- 
row. L. Pliolus Drury is deep blue, the wings 
being saffron at base. The larva feeds on lichens. From Mr. 
E. Bicknell I have received the eggs of this moth. The 
larva? hatched August 10th, and closely resembled the larva 1 
of the Arctiaus when of the same age. 

The genus CaMalucia, according to Grote, differs from its 
better known ally, Ctenucha, by its antennae not being so 
broadly pectinated, its shorter palpi, and by important differ- 
ences in the venation of the wings. C. vermiculata Grote (Fig. 
213, hind wing) occurs in Colorado Territory. 

BOMBYCID^E Latreille. This large and handsome family com- 
prises some of the largest and most regal of moths. Their 
thick heavy bodies, and small sunken heads, and often obsolete 
mouth-parts (the maxillae or tongue being especially short com- 
pared with other moths), and the broadly pectinated antenna;, 
together with their broad, often falcate wings and sluggish 
habits, notwithstanding numerous exceptions, afford good 




284 LEPIDOPTERA. 

characters for distinguishing them. The elypeus is large, the 
antennae are inserted higher up than in other moths, so that 
when in doubt as to the position of some aberrant forms, a ref- 
erence to these characters enables us to determine quite readily 
as to their affinities. The larvae are thick, usually more hairy 
than other moths, or, as in the typical forms, Attacus, etc., are 
thick, fleshy and with seven longitudinal rows of long tubercles, 
crowned with spines. The hairs, especially of the Arctians. 
are thickly spinulated, so that the cocoons of the hairy species 
are very dense and made with but little silk, while the naked 
larva 1 , of which the silk-worm is a type, spin very dense co- 
coons of the finest silk. It is probable that the caterpillars are 
usually developed in the egg soon after it is laid in autumn. 
Dr. Burnett has noticed that the embryos of the American Tent 
caterpillar are developed before winter sets in, and "Guerin- 
Meneville has found that the larvae of the Japanese silk-worm 
(Samia Yama-mai) are developed in the egg within a few days- 
of their deposition in autumn, although they are not hatched 
until the following spring." (Zoological Record. 1864.) 

.Several moths of this family (Arctia pudica, Setiua aurita, 
Ilypoprepia fucosa, etc.) have been known to produce a stridu- 
lating noise by rubbing their hind legs over a vesicular expan- 
sion situated on the sides of the thorax, and the Death's-head 
Sphinx has long been known to produce a creaking sound. 
The pupae are very short and thick and easily recognized l>y 
their plump form. "Bar mentions the occurrence in Cayenne 
of an aquatic caterpillar, which produces a moth, resembling 
Bombyx plui'tlima of Cramer. This larva lives at the bottom 
of the water, and feeds on the roots of an abundant weed." 
(Bulletin Societe Entomologique de France, 1864.) 

LitJiosia and its allies (Lithosiinae) have very narrow wings, 
the antennae filiform, and the bod}' slender. The larva? are 
cylindrical and covered with short, spinulated hairs. Some of 
them do not spin cocoons, so far as we know, the pupa of Cro- 
cota being found under stones with the dried larva skin still 
adhering to the tip of the abdomen. Lfthosia argiUacea Pack, 
is slate-colored, w r ith yellow palpi and pro thorax. The base of 
the wings and the tip of the abdomen are yellowish. 

Lfthosia casta Sanborn (Fig. 214) is an undescribed species 



BOMBYCID/K. 



285 




of great beauty, discovered by Mr. Sanborn at Berlin Falls, 
N. H., August 10th, and also at Ausable Chasm, N. Y. It is 
pure milk white, with a slight slate -colored tinge on the hind 
wings, and is slate-colored beneath, especially on the fore 
wings, and white on the inner edge of the hind wings. Just 
behind the middle of the white abdomen are tufts of tawny 
hairs, and the tip is white. It ex- 
pands one and a quarter inches. 

CramMdia has still narrower 
wings. C. pallida Pack, is of an 
uniform drab color and would be 
easily mistaken for a Crambus. 
Nudaria has broad wings like a Fi "- - 14 - 

geometrid moth, with hyaline spots. The larva is hirsute and 
makes a thin cocoon of interwoven hairs. N. mundana is a 
European moth. It is represented in this country by Evplm- 
jtcfma 'inendica Walk., which has broader wings and longer 
palpi. The wings have two rows of smoky transparent spots. 
Iltlpoprepia has rather broader wings than Lithosia. //. 1'n- 
cum Hiibner is deep scarlet, with three leaden stripes on the 
fore wings, the middle stripe situated at the apex of the wing. 
The larva, Mr. Saunders informs me, is "spiny and black, 
sprinkled lightly with yellow dots and short lines ; there is a 
dorsal row of yellow dots from the fifth to the twelfth segments. 
The head is black." Early in May, according to Harris, it 

makes its cocoon, which is thin 
and silky, and the moth appears 
twenty days afterwards. 

Crocota is red, or yellowish red, 
throughout, with black margins 
and dots on the wings. The an- 
tenure are filiform and the wings 
are broad, being triangular in form. Our most common 
species is Crocota ferruginosa Walk., which is pale rust-red, 
with two dusky broad bands on the outer half of the wing. A 
much larger form is Utetheisa bella Linn. (Fig. 215), a beautiful 
moth, whose yellow fore wings are crossed by bands of white, 
encircling black dots, while its scarlet hind wings are edged 
irregularly with black. 




280 LEPIDOPTEEA. 

Tlie genus Oallimorpha is still larger, with broad wings. 
C. Lecontei Boisdnval is white, the fore wings being almost 
entirely bordered with brown. The caterpillars of this genus 
are usually dark colored, with longitudinal yellow stripes. By 
day they hide under leaves or stones and feed by night on 
various shrubby and herbaceous plants. C. interrupto-marginata 
Beauv. (Fig. 210, fore wing) has an anchor-shaped black spot 
when the wings are folded, one side of the anchor being seen 
in the figure. 

Arctia and its allies are stout-bodied, with short, moderately 
broad wings, and simple or feathered antenna 1 . The hairy 
larva 1 are covered with dense whorls of long, spinulose hairs. 
They make a loose cocoon of interwoven hairs under the 
shelter of some board or stone. The pupa is short and thick. 
Arctia virgo Linn, is an exceedingly beautiful insect. Its fore 
wings sometimes expand two inches and a half, and are flesh- 
red, streaked thickly with broad, black slashes, and on the 
vermilion-red hind wings are seven or eight large black spots. 

The caterpillar is brown. ^1. Anita Grote 
is allied, but differs in the wholly black ab- 
domen and black hind wings. It was de- 
scribed first from Pennsylvania, and has 
been detected by Mr. B. P. Mann on the 
Alpine summit of Mount Washington, N. II. 

The common black and reddish, very hairy caterpillar, found 
feeding on various garden weeds, is the young of Pyrrliar<-ti<i 
ixabeUa Smith, a stout-bodied, snuff colored moth. The cater- 
pillar hibernates, as do most of the others of the group of 
Arctians, and we have kept it fasting for six Aveeks in the 
spring, previous to pupating in the middle of June ; it re- 
mained twenty-seven days in the pupa state, the moth appear- 
ing early in June. 

Leucarctia differs from Spilosoma in having narrower wings, 
and the outer edge much more oblique. Leucarctia acrcea Smith 
is white and buff colored. Its caterpillar is the salt-marsh cat- 
erpillar, which at times has been very injurious by its great 
numbers. It is yellow, Avith long hairs growing from yellow 
warts, and it makes a coarse, hairy cocoon. 

Hijpliantria textor Harris is entirely white. The caterpillar, or 




HOMBYCID^E. 287 

"fall web worm," is slender, greenish yellow, dotted with black, 
with thin, silken hairs. It spins a thin and almost transparent 
cocoon, or almost none at all. H. cunea Drury is white, spot- 
ted with black dots. Mr. Saunders informs me that the larva 
"will feed on Chenopodium album. The head is small, black, 
shining, bilobate. The body is black, with a slight shade of 
brown, and sprinkled with very small, whitish dots. Each seg- 
ment has a transverse row of shining black tubercles, each 
giving rise to a tuft of hairs of the same color ; on each side 
of the body is a double row of orange-colored spots from the 
sixth to the twelfth segment inclusive." 

The "yellow bear" is the caterpillar of fyiilosoma Viiyinica 
Fabr. The moth is white, with a black discal dot on the 
fore wings and two black dots on the hind wings, one on the 
middle and another near the inner angle. 

Halesidota has a more slender body, with longer antenna? and 
palpi, and longer wings than Arctia, being thin and yellowish, 
crossed by light brownish streaks. The larva is very short 
and thick, usually white, with dark pencils and tufts of hairs, 
arising from twelve black tubercles on each ring, 
placed as seen in the cut (Fig. 217). H. tessel- 
hirls Smith, the ''checkered tussock moth," is 
oclire-yellow, with its partially transparent fore- 
wings crossed by five rows of dusky spots. H. 
can/ce Harris is light ochreous, with three rows Fig - ' 2n 
of white semitransparent spots parallel to the very oblique 
outer margin. ''The chrysalis, according to Harris, is short, 
thick, and rather blunt, but not rounded at the end and 
not downy." Mr. Saunders writes me, that the larva of //. 
maculata Harris "feeds on the oak. It is 1.30 inches in 
length ; the body is black, thickly covered with tufts of bright 
yellow and black hairs. From the fourth to the eleventh seg- 
ments inclusive is a dorsal row of black tufts, the largest of 
which is on the fourth segment." The moth appears early in 
'Tune ; it is light ochre-yellow, with large, irregular, light, 
transverse, brown spots on the fore wings. 

These tufted larvae lead to the tussock caterpillars, which, as 
in Orgyia, have long pencils of hair projecting over the head 
and tail. The pretty larvae of this genus are variously tufted 




LEPIDOl'TE KA . 

and colored, and feed on the apple tree and various garden 
vegetables. The males have very broad wings, with very 
broadly pectinated antenna, and fly in the hot sunshine in 
September. The females are wingless and often lay their eggs 
on the outside of the cocoon, and then die, scarcely moving 
from their eggs. 0. antiqua Och. is tawny brown, while 0. leu- 
costigma Smith is dark brown, witli a lunate white spot near 
the outer angle. 

The thick and woolly-bodied, pale yellowish, crinkled-haired 
Layua is an interesting genus. The tip of the abdomen is very 
broad, and the antennae are curved and broadly pectinated, 
while the wings are short and broad. The larva is very densely 
pilose with short, thick, evenly cut hairs, those at the end being 
longer and more irregular. It is broadly oval, and might easily 
be mistaken for a hairy Limacodes larva, for, like it, the head is 
retracted and the legs are so rudimentary as to impart a glid- 
ing motion to the caterpillar when it walks. Layoa crispata 
Pack, is so named from the crinkled woolly hairs on the fore 
wings. It is dusky orange and slate-colored on the thorax and 
low down on the sides. Previous to the last moult it is whitish 
throughout and the hairs are much thinner. The larva (Fig. 
218) feeds on the blackberry, and, according to a cor- 
respondent in Maryland, it feeds on the apple. The 
cocoon is long, cylindrical and dense, being formed of 
the hairs of the larva, closely woven with silk. The 
pupa is veiy thin, and after the moth escapes, the 
thin skin is found sticking partially out of the co- 
coon, as in Limacodes and its allies (Cochlidise) . 
Fig. -218. This last group of genera is as interesting as it is 
anomalous, when we consider the slug-like, footless larva-, 
which are either nearly hemispherical, boat-shaped, or oblong, 
with large fleshy spines, and are painted often with the gayest 
colors. The pupae are very thin skinned, and the cocoons are 
nearly spherical. The moths are often diminutive, the larger 
forms being stout, woolly-bodied and with short, thick antenna', 
pectinated two-thirds their length, while the smaller genera 
with slender bodies have simple filiform antennae, ami closely 
resemble some of the Tortrices. 

Eudea is a very stout and woolly genus : the anteiuue are 




BOMIJYCID^C. 289 

tliree- fourths us long us the fore wings and pectinated on their 
basal hull'. The fore wings are a little shorter than the body and 
the hind wings reach to the tip of the broadly tufted abdomen. 
Euclea Monitor Pack, is cinnamon brown, with a large irregular 
green patch in the middle of the fore wings. We named 
this species from the striking resemblance of the larva to the 
iron-clad "Monitor." It is very regularly elliptical, flattened 
above, and a broad conspicuous brown spot in the middle of 
the back reminds one of the "cheese-box" or turret. Long, 
fleshy, bristling spines arise from each end of the larva. 

Empretia stimulea Clemens (Plate 8 ; Fig. 1 ; 1 , larva) is 
onr largest species of this group. The moth is rarely found by 
collectors, and is of a rich, deep velvety brown, with a reddish 
tinge. There is a dark streak along the basal half of the me- 
dian vein, on which is situated a golden spot, while there are 
two twin golden spots near the apex of the wing. It expands 
an inch and a half. The larva is thick and elliptical, the body 
being rounded above, but flattened beneath, arid a little fuller 
towards the head. There is a pair of densely spinnlated tuber- 
cles on each side of the segments, the subdorsal pair on the 
metathoracic ring, and a pair on the seventh abdominal ring, 
being two-thirds as long as the bod}- is wide. There are three 
pairs of small, but well developed thoracic legs, while there are 
none on the abdominal segments. The body is reddish, with 
the upper side green between the two largest pair of spines, 
centred with a broad elliptical reddish spot, edged with white, 
as is the green portion along the side of the body. According 
to Mr. S. I. Smith, of New Haven, from whom the specimen 
figured was received, the larva feeds on the raspberry. He 
states that the hairs sting, as its specific name indicates. The 
cocoon is rounded, almost spherical, and is surrounded with a 
loose web, the whole structure being over three-fourths of an 
inch in length. The moth appeared June 18th. 

Phobetrum has narrow wings, and the male is very unlike the 
female, which has been raised by Mr. Tronvelot, and was con- 
founded by us with the Thyridopteryx ephemeneformis of Ha- 
worth. Its antennae are very broadly pectinated, and the 
remarkably long, narrow fore wings are partly transparent. 
TTiyridopteryx m'yricans Pack, must be considered as belonging 

19 



290 



LEPIDOPTEKA. 




219. 




to this genus. The cocoon of the latter species is tough, leath- 
ery, brown, and nearly spherical. The larva of P. pithed mn 
Smith is broad, ovate, flattened, with six long, tongue-like. 

fleshy lateral appendages. It feeds on the 
plum, cherry and apple. 

In Limacodes the fore wings are oblong, 
the costa being straight, while the hind 
wings scarcely reach to the tip of the ab- 
domen. The fore wings are often crossed 
by straight lines forming a V. L. sca-pha Harris (Fig. 219) is 
light cinnamon brown, with a (Jark tan-colored triangular spot, 
lined externally with silver, which is continued along the costa 
to the base of the wing and terminates sharply on the apex. 
The larva, as its specific name indicates, is boat-shaped, being 
of the form of a castana nut, and is green, spotted above with 
brown, and pale beneath, while the sides 
of the body are raised, the dorsal surface 
being flattened. It constructs a dense, oval, 
spherical cocoon, surrounded by an outer 
thin envelope. 

Callochtora chtoris H-Sch. (Fig. 220) is a pale brown moth, 
allied to Euclea, and with a broad, pea-green band crossing 
the fore wings. 

Lithacodes (L. fasciola Boisd. Fig. 221) and Tort>-!<-<l<-*, 
strikingly resemble the genus Tortrix, from their narrow 
wings, slender bodies, and filiform antennae. 

The subfamily Psychiiuv, embraces some remarkably diver- 
gent forms. The two genera, Phryganidia, and Thyridop- 
tcr>/.r, differing so much in the breadth of their 
wings and thickness of their bodies, are, how- 
ever, connected by many intermediate forms 
occurring in Europe. Psyche is a hairy-bodied 
moth, with broad and thin wings, the female of 
which is wingless and closely resembles the larva, and inhabits 
a case, which is constructed of bits of its food-plant. The 
female of Pst/che helix has been known to produce young from 
eggs not fertilized by the male. It lives in a case of grains of 
sand arranged in the form of a snail shell, thus resembling 
some Phryganeids in its habits, as it does structurally. 



Fig-. 2-20. 




221. 



BOMHYCIl).!.. 



The male of Thyridopteryx (T. eplieiner'j'nnni* Haworth), 
the "basket-worm," is stout-bodied, with broadly pectinated 
antenna; and a long abdomen ; the anal forceps and the adjoin- 
ing parts being capable wf unusual extension in order to roach 
the oviduct of the female, which is wingless, cylindrical, and in 
its general form closely resembles its larva, and 
does not leave its case. On being hatched from 
the eggs, which are, so far as known by us, not 
extruded from its case by the parent, the young- 
larva; immediately build little, elongated, bas- 
ket-like cones, of bits of twigs of the cedar, on 
which they feed, and may then be seen walking 
about, tail in the air, this tail or abdomen cov- 
ered by the incipient case, and presenting a 
comical sight. The case (Fig. 222) of the full 
grown larva is elongated, oval, cylindrical, and 
the fleshy larva transforms within it, while it 
shelters the female through life. The genus 
(Eveticus comprises large species, with much 
the same habits, growing in tropical America 
and in Australia. 

A basket-worm, allied to (Eeetkus, has been 
discovered in Florida, by Mr. Glover, feeding upon the orange, 
and we give the following account of it from the study of 
his admirable drawings. With much the same habits, it lie- 
longs to quite a different and uudescribed genus. The body 
of the male resembles that of the broad winged Psyche, and 

indeed, this moth may be regarded as a 
connecting link between the latter genus 
and CEceticus. It may be called the 
Phitawtlriis Gloverii (Fig. 223). Its 
body is slender, with pectinated an- 
tennae ; the wings very broad, irregular. 
!'>* -2-23. an ,i the hind wings are broad and 

much rounded, reaching a third of their length beyond the tip 
of the abdomen. It is dark brown throughout, and expands 
three-fourths of an inch. The wingless, cylindrical, worm-like 
female (Fig. 223 &) is acutely oval in form, and whitish, 
larva (Fig. 223 c) is rather flattened and resembles that of 





LKITDOPTKUA. 




Thyridopteryx. It constructs tin oval cocoon (Fig. 223 d) 
which hangs to the edge of the leaf. 

The genus PeropJtom, another sack-bearer (P. Melsheimerii 
Harris), is a gigantic Psychid, being about the size of the silk- 
worm moth, which it closely resembles in the imago state. It 
also lives in a case during the larva state, formed of two oblong 
pieces of leaf, fastened together in the neatest manner by their 
edges, and lined with a thick and tough layer of brownish 
silk. The larva is cylindrical, as thick as a common pipe-stem 

and light reddish brown in color. 
The head has extensible, jointed 
feelers which, when extended, are 
kept in constant motion, while be- 
hind is a pair of antenna-like organs, 
broad and flattened at the end. The 
tail is widened and flattened, form- 
ing a circular horny plate, which like the operculum of a whelk, 
closes up the aperture of the case. Before transforming Avithin 
its cuse, the larva closes each end with a circular silken lid. 
The pupa is blunt at the hinder end and with a row of teeth on 
each abdominal ring. Both sexes are winged. Our species, 
P. Mdxlu'i'inerii Harris, is reddish ash grey, sprinkled with 
blackish points, and with a common oblique blackish line. 

Notodonta and its allies (Ptilodontes Hi'ibner) are mostly 
naked in the larva state, with large humps on the back, and the 
hind legs often greatly prolonged, as 
in Cerura, the "fork-tail." The pupa 
and moths are best described by stat- 
ing that they bear a close resemblance 
to the Noctuids. for which they are 
often mistaken. 

Ccelodasys (Notodonta) -HH ten mis Fi - 22r> - 

Smith derives its specific name from the horn on the back of 
the caterpillar, and its generic name from the large conical tuft 
of hairs on the under side of the prothorax. The moth is light 
brown, with irregular green patches on the fore wings. The 
cocoon is thin and parchment-like, and the caterpillars remain 
a long time in their cocoons before changing to pupae. N< j r><''' 
bidentata Walker (Fig. 224) is a closely allied moth. 




BOMBYOID.K. L> ( J."> 

nlbifrons Smith (Fig. 225) is known by the costa being white 
on the outer two-thirds. It feeds on the o:ik, to which it is oc- 
casionally destructive. Mr. Riley (American Entomologist, 
vol. i, p. 39) describes the larva as being of a '"bluish white 
ground-color, marked longitudinally with yellow bands and 
fine black lines, with the head and a hump on the eleventh seg- 
ment either of a light coral or dark flesh color." It generally 
elevates the end of the body. It pupates during the last of 
September, the moth appearing about the middle of April, in 
the vicinity of Chicago. 

P/at//j>t<'i'i[Xi a small geometra-like moth, with its broad fal- 
cate wings, seems a miniature Attacns. Its larva is slender, 
with fourteen legs, and naked, with several little prominences 
on the back, and the tail is forked like 
Cernra. The pupa is enclosed in a co- 
coon among leaves. J\ <jciii<-nlt<i 
Walker, and Y>/7/o/>/r/v.s- /o.sm (irote, 
represent this interesting group. AVe 
also give a rude sketch, traced from 
Abbot's drawings, from the advanced 
sheets of the Harris Correspondence, of 
an nndescribed species of Dryopteris 
(Fig. -226, and its larva). Doubleday 
states that the moth is rose-colored, with a few red dots in the 
yellow portion of the hind wings. 

The Chinese silk- worm, Bo'iiibt/.i- niori Linn., has white falcate 
fore wings, while the hind wings do not reach to the tip 
of the abdomen, and the antennae are well pectinated. The 
larva is naked, rather slender compared with those of the next 
group, and cylindrical ; the second thoracic ring is humped, and 
there is a long horn on the tail. It is three to three and a half 
inches long. It is of an ashy or cream color, but "in almost 
every batch of worms there will be seen after the first moult 
lias occurred, some dark colored, which, at the first glance, 
appear to be a distinct species," but Captain Ilntton, of India, 
shows that w -so far. however, are they from being a mere pass- 
ing variety that thej' are actually types of the original species, 
and merely require to be treated according to the established 
rules of breeding in order to render them permanent and 
healthy." 




294 LEPIDOPTERA. 

"He attributed the enormous loss of silk-worms by mus- 
cardiue and other diseases, and the consequent diminution 
of the crop of silk, to the combined effects of bad and scanty 
food, want of sufficient light and ventilation, too high a tem- 
perature, and constant interbreeding for centuries of a debili- 
tated stock. He asserted that there was 110 such thing now in 
existence as a perfectly healthy domesticated stock of silk- 
worms ; and moreover, that it was useless to seek for healthy 
seed, for whether in Europe, Persia, India or China, the worms 
were all equally degenerated, or, if there were a difference at 
all, it was in favor of the European race. He had for several 
years been experimenting on Bombvx mori, with a view, if 
possible, to reclaim the worms, to restore to them a healthy 
constitution and to induce them to revert from their present 
artificial and moribund condition to one of vigor and perma- 
nent health. The occasional occurrence in a brood of one or 
more dark grey or blackish-brindled worms the 'vers tigres' 
or 'vers zebres' of the French contrasting strongly with 
the pale sickly hue of the majority, must have been noticed by 
all who have had experience in rearing silk-worms ; such occur- 
rences have been always spoken of as indicating varieties aris- 
ing from domestication. The author had endeavored, b} r a series 
of experiments, to ascertain the cause of this phenomenon, his 
conviction being, either that the species had at some time or 
other been crossed by another of different colors, and that Na- 
ture, as sooner or later she always would do, w r as making an 
effort to separate them, or that the original color of the worm 
had been dark, and an effort was being made to rerert from a 
sickly condition to the original healthy starting point. He ac- 
cordingly picked out all the dark colored worms and reared 
them separately, allowing the moths to couple only inter se, and 
the same with the white worms. In the following spring the one 
batch of eggs produced nearly all dark brindled worms, whilst 
the other batch produced white worms, sparingly interspersed 
with an occasional dark one ; these latter were removed into a 
dark batch, which was also weeded of its pale worms. In the 
third year the worms were still darker than before, and were 
always larger and more vigorous than the pale ones, giving 
larger and better stuffed cocoons. He finally succeeded in 



BOMBYCID^E. 29-3 

getting an entire brood of dark worms, which he regarded as 
a sign of increased health and strength in the larvae, thus 
proving that the dark worms were of the original race, which 
also agrees with the colors of the numerous species of the genus 
of which he has, with others, made known nearly twenty. The 
author also considers the white cocoons as a strong sign of de- 
generacy, arguing that the good quality of the silk produced, 
was no proof of the general health of the insect, as the mala- 
dies affected rather the quantity produced, and the present great 
fineness was due likewise to the disease." (Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of London.) The silk- worm is an an- 
nual, though some species of this group yield two and three 
broods in the warmer parts of India. It moults four times, but 
occasionally only three times. 

The cocoon of the silk-worm is white or whitish yellow and 
is over an inch long and nearly half as broad ; 360 cocoons 
weigh a pound and a half. In France and Italy about thirty- 
six days elapse between the hatching of the larva and the for- 
mation of the cocoon, it taking four days for the spinning of 
the cocoon. In England and certain parts of India it requires 
forty-six days for its formation. 

The above remarks apply to Bombyx mori Linn., the Chinese 
silk-worm, which feeds on the mulberry, originally derived from 
the mountainous provinces of China. It is the largest and 
strongest of the domesticated species. There are, however, as 
shown by Captain Hutton, twelve species of silk-worms, most 
of which have been confounded under the name of B. mori, 
and which belong to the genera Bombyx of Schrank, Ocinara 
of Walker, and Tnlocha Moore. There are six domesticated 
species of Bombyx. There is not silk enough in the cocoon 
of Ocinara to make it worth cultivating (Hutton). 

Captain Hutton, speaking of the larvae of B. Huttoni, re- 
marks that it "is curious to observe the instinctive knowledge 
which these worms appear to possess of the approach of a hail- 
storm. No sooner are the peals of thunder heard, than the 
whole brood seems to regard them as a warning trumpet-call, 
and all are instantly in motion, seeking shelter beneath the 
thicker branches, and even descending the trunk of the tree to 
some little distance, but never proceeding so low down as to 



296 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



lose the protecting shelter of the boughs. For rain they care 
nothing, but appear to be able to distinguish between the coin- 
ing of a heavy shower, and the more pitiless pelting of the hail." 
Attacus and its allies (Attaci) form the central and most 
typical group of the family. They are among the largest of 
insects. The genus Attacus is found in China, the East Indies 
and the South Sea Islands, and in Brazil. Its immense size, 
falcate wings, with the large triangular transparent spot in the 
centre, readily distinguish it. A. Atlas Linn., from China, 
expands from seven to nine inches. Samia is a smaller genus 
and with a partially transparent lunate spot in the middle of 
the wings. Hantia Cynthia Linn, has been introduced from 
China and is a hardy worm, quite easily raised, and the silk is 




of a good quality. Mr. W. V. Andrews urges, in the American 
Naturalist (vol. ii. p. oil), the cultivation of the Cynthia silk- 
worm in this country, as it is double-brooded, our native spe- 
cies bearing but a single crop of worms. It feeds on the ail- 
anthus, and can be reared in the open air. Among many allied 
forms, generally referred to the genus Attacus but which still 
need revision, are the A. M>/litt(t (Tussah worm), from China 
and India ; A. Pernyi, from Manchouria, which feeds on the oak. 
and which has been raised in France, and the Japanese AntJtercea 
Yama-mai, all of which produce silk, though less reared in 
Europe than the Cynthia worm. The silk of the Yama-mai 
moth approaches nearest that of B. mori, and as it feeds on 



BOMBYCIDJE. 



297 




the oak, and can be raised in the open air, its cultivation lias 
gained much attention in Europe. A. Aurota Beauv. is com- 
mon in Central and South America. In Brazil it could be 
raised with success for home use, but is too delicate for a 
northern climate. 

Tclea Polyphemus (PI. G, male ; PL 7, female) is brown, with 
large transparent eye-like spots in the centre of the wings. 
Tue thread of which the cocoon is 
spun is continuous, and is readily 
unwound. It is coarser than that 
of the Bombyx mori, but has a rich 
gloss and can be used very exten- 
sively in commerce. Its larva 
(Fig. 227), which feeds on the *"w- %* 

oak, is thick, fleshy, striped obliquely with white on the sides, 
with angulated segments, on which are tubercles giving rise 
to a few short hairs. The pupa (Fig. 228) is very thick, and 
the cocoon (Fig. 229) is regularly oval cylindrical. 

Mr. L. Trouvelot gives an account in the American Natural- 
ist (vol. i) of this silk-worm, which is our most hardy native 
worm. So successful was he in rearing them that in a single 
season "not less than a million could lie seen feeding in the 
open air upon bushes 

covered with a net." ^^j/^ ' >^ ; 
The moths leave the co- 
coons late in May, ap- 
pearing until the middle 
of June. They then lay 
their eggs, generally 
singly, on the under side vig. *M. 

of the leaves. In ten or twelve days the caterpillars hatch ; the 
operation usually takes place early in the day. The worm 
moults five times, the first four moultings occurring at intervals 
often days, while about twenty days elapse between the fourth 
and fifth moults, this process usually occurring late in the after- 
noon. It makes its cocoon late in September, and in six or 
eight days after beginning its cocoon assumes the pupa state, 
and in this condition passes the winter. 

The genus Act fas is at once known by the hind winu's oe- 




298 LEPIDOPTERA. 

ing prolonged into a long tail which reaches far behind the tip 
of the abdomen. Actias Luna Linn, is green and the larva 
closely resembles that of Telea ; it is, however, banded ob- 
liquely with yellow instead of white, and spins a cocoon that is 
of much the same shape. It is not so hardy a worm as the 
Polyphemus caterpillar. It lives on the walnut, hickory and 
maple. In the Museum of the Peabody Academy is a closely 
allied and undescribed species from the west coast of Guate- 
mala, which we would call Actias Azteca. It differs from A. 
Luna in its much smaller size, expanding only three and a half 
inches, and in the shorter fore wings, the apex being much 
rounded and with shorter veins, while the "tails" on the hind 
wings are only half as long as those of A. Luna. It also dif- 
fers in having the origin of the first subcostal venule much 
nearer the discal spot than in A. Luna, being very near that 
of the second subcostal venule. It is whitish green, with 
markings not essentially differing from those of A. Lima. 

Callosamia is a genus with broader wings and no transpa- 
rent e}^e-like spots. The larva has large tubercles and is very 
plump. Its characters are intermediate between those of 
Samia and Platysamia. C. Promethea Drury is a smaller spe- 
cies than the others. Its larva is pale bluish green, with the 
head, tail and feet yellow, with eight warts on each ring, those 
on the two first thoracic rings being the largest, much longer 
than the rest and coral red. The cocoon is hung by a stout 
silken cord to the stem of the leaf which is then wrapped 
around it. It ma}- be found attached to the twigs of the 
wild cherry, Azalea and Cephalanthus, or button bush, in 
winter after the leaves have fallen. 

Our most common species of this group is the Cecropia moth, 
belonging to the genus Platysamia, which has a broader 
head and wings than the foregoing genera. The caterpillar of 
P. Cecropia Linn, is longer, with long spinulated tubercles, 
especially marked on the thoracic rings ; the large, very dense 
cocoon is open at one end and thus the silk cannot be un- 
wound so well as that of the Polyphemus worm, but it is still 
useful, and Platysamia Ewyale Boisduval is cultivated in Cali- 
fornia for its silk, though the cultivation of the Chinese silk- 
worm (B. mori) is carried on there very largely. 




BOMBYCIU^E. 299 

The next group, the Ceratocampadse of Harris, is composed 
of large moths, in which the hind wings scarcely extend beyond 
the tip of the abdomen, and the wings are often ocellated. 
The larvae are longer than in the Attaci and more hairy. 

Eucronia Maia Drnry has a narrow, lunate, curved white- 
line in the centre of each wing ; it expands from two and a 
half to three inches, and is black with a common, broad, yel- 
lowish white band. The caterpillar is elongated, with six 
long branched prickles 011 each ring. It feeds on the oak. 

Hyperchiria To of Walker ( Saturnia lo of Harris) is a little 
larger than the preceding. The male is yellow and the female 
reddish brown, with a faint eye-like spot on the fore 
wing, and on the hind wings a large round blue 
spot, margined with black and pupilled with white. 
The caterpillar is green, with spreading tufts of 
spines, very sharp, stinging severely when the insect 1 
is handled, and arising from a tubercle, of which there are six 
on each ring ; the fascicles on the side are as represented in 
Fig. 230. The pupa is thick, pointed at the tip of the abdo- 
men, and the cocoon is thin, being made under leaves on the 
ground. It feeds on the corn and cotton, to which it is very 
harmful southwards, and also on the maple, elm, etc. 

Citheronia regaUs Hiibner expands from five to six inch's, 
and its fore wings are olive colored, spotted with yellow and 
veined with broad red lines, while the hind wings are orange 
red, spotted with olive, green and yellow. The caterpillar is 
spiny, having four large acute spinulated 
spines on the anterior thoracic segments. It 
feeds on the walnut, hickoiy and the persim- 
mon tree, and spins no cocoon. A second spe- 
cies, C. Mexicana Grote and Robinson, has 
been described, as its name indicates, from Mexico : it is 
more orange and less red, with duller yellow patches. Fig. 
231 is a rude sketch (from the Harris Correspondence) of the 
young larva, with two of the peculiar long hairs next the head 
magnified. A much smaller species, which expands only 3.10 
inches, is the C. sepulcralis G. and R., which was discovered 
at Andover, Mass., by Mr. J. O. Treat. It is purplish brown, 
without any yellow spots, and with a diffuse discal spot, centred 




300 LEPIDOPTEHA. 

Avith reddish scales. Mr. Treat has raised this line moth front 
the larva found on the common pitch pine ; it resembles that 
of C. regalis. It also occurs in Georgia, as it has been figured 
in the unpublished drawings of Abbot, now in the possession 
of the Boston Society of jSatural History. 

E<ides hnperialis Hubner has broader wings, expanding from 
four and a half to over five inches. The wings are yellow with 
purple brown spots. The larva is but slightly tuberculated, 
Avith long, fine hairs. Its chrysalis is like that of Anisota. 

The genus Aiiisutu is much smaller than the foregoing, with 
variously striped larva 1 , which are naked, with two long, 
slender spines on the prothoracic ring, and six much shorter 
spines on each of the succeeding segments. They make no co- 
coons, but bury themselves several inches deep in the soil just 
before transforming, and the chrysalids cud in a long spine, 
with the abdominal rings very convex and armed with a row of 
small spines. The species have much smaller, narrower wings, 
with less broadly pectinated antennae than in the foregoing- 
moths. A. rubicunda Fabr. is rose colored, with a broad, 
{ale yellow band on the fore wings. Anixota xnidtorid Smith 
is pale tawny brown, with a large, white, round dot in the cen- 
tre of each fore wing. 

The next group of this extensive family embraces the Lach- 
neides of Iliibner, in which the moths have very woolly stout 
bodies, small wings, with stoutly pectinated antenna 1 , while the 
larv:u are long, cylindrical and hairy, scarcely tuberculated, and 
spin a very dense cocoon. The pupa? are longer than in the 
two preceding subfamilies. G<ixtr<>ii<n-li (Fig. 159, hind wing) 
has scalloped wings, and a singular grayish larva whose body 
is expanded laterally, being rather flattened. 6'. Am^rii-dixi 
Harris is rusty brown, slightly frosted, and with ashen bands 
on the wings. 

In T'n/i/pc the wings are entire. T. Vcllwln Stoll is a curi- 
ous moth, being white, clouded with blue gray, with two broad, 
dark gray bands on the fore wings. The larva is hairy and is 
liable to be mistaken for an excrescence on the bark of the 
apple tree, on which it feeds. 

The American Tent Caterpillar is the larva of r7/,s7om//;f. 
well known by its handsome caterpillars, and its large, con- 



BOMBYCIIXiE. 



301 



spicuous webs placed in neglected apple trees and on the wild 
-cherry. The eggs are laid on the twigs, in bunches of from 
300 to 400, placed side by side and covered with a tough 
gummy matter ; they are sometimes infested by chalcid para 
sites. 

The larva: of C. Americana Harris hatch out just as tin 1 
leaves are unfolding and soon form n web, under which the col- 
ony lives. They may be destroyed by previously searching 
for the bunches of eggs on the twigs before the tree is leaver\ 
out, and the caterpillars may be killed with a brush or mop 
dipped into strong soap-suds, or a weak solution of petroleum. 

The larvse become full grown about the middle of June, then 
spin their dense white cocoons, under the bark of trees, etc., 
and the moths appear about the 
first of July. The larva of C. 
Americana is about two inches 
long, hairy, with a dorsal white 
stripe, with numerous tine crin- 
kled black lines on a yellow 
ground, united below into a 
common black band, with a blue 
spot on the side of each ring. 
The moth (Fig. 232, and larva) Fi - -*- 

is reddish In-own, with two oblique, dirty white lines on the 
fore wings. It expands from an inch and a quarter to an inch 
and a half. The Forest Tent caterpillar, C. dissiria Hiibner 
(C. sylvatica Harris) differs in the apex of the fore wings 
being much longer, with two transverse rust brown, nearly 
straight, parallel lines. It is sometimes destructive to the 
apple and oak trees. 

The Hepiuli. are a group of boring moths, the larva? boring 
in the stems of plants or in trees. The wings are narrow, both 
pairs being very equal in size, and show a tendency to recur to 
the net-veined style of venation of the Neuroptera. Xyleutes is 
a large moth, with a stout vein passing through the middle of 
the discal space, and the short antennas have two rows of short 
teeth on the under side. X. robinim Peck is gray, with irregu- 
lar black lines and dots on the wings, and a black line on the 
inside of the shoulder tippets. The hind wings of the male 




o()2 LEPIDOPTEKA. 

(X. crepera Harris) are distinctly triangular and yellow on the 
outer half. The larva is nearly three inches long, is reddish 
above and covered with sparse long hairs. It bores in various 
directions through the red oak and locust, and spins a dense 
cocoon. The pupa is much elongated, with the suture between 
the segments well marked, and the head and thorax rather small. 
Sthenopis is a gigantic moth, with more falcate wings than 
in Hepialus. S. argenteomaculata Harris expands nearly 
three inches, and is ashy gray, variegated with dusk}' clouds 
and bands, with a small, triangular, silvery spot and round 
dot near the base of the fore wings. Hepialus is smaller, with 
a larger head and straighter wings. H. humuU Linn, is 
injurious to the hop vine in Europe. Our most common spe- 
cies, H. musteUnus Pack., is sable brown, with slight silvery 
lines on the fore wings. It expands a little over an inch and 
a quarter. 



Latreille (Noctuidai). Owlet moths. There 
is a great uniformity in the genera of this family, which are 
characterized by their thick bodies, the thorax being often 
crested, by the stout and well developed palpi, and the simple 
and sometimes slightly pectinated antenna 1 . The fore wings 
are small and narrow, and the rather large hind wings are 
when at rest folded under them, so that the moth looks much 
smaller than when flying. They fly swiftly at night, and are 
attracted by light. The fore wings have almost invariably a 
dot and reniform spot in the middle of the wing, and the moths 
are generally dark and dull colored. The larvte taper towards 
each end, and are striped and barred in different ways. They 
have sixteen feet, except those of the loAver genera, such as 
Catocala and other broad-winged genera, which have fourteen, 
and look when they walk like the Geometers. The} r make 
thin earthen cocoons, and the pupae generally live under 
ground. In these and other more essential characters, this 
family is intermediate between the Bombycida? and the Phala-- 
nidtv. There are about 2,500 species known. 

These moths can be taken at dusk flying about flowers, while 
they enter open windows in the evening, and dnring the night 
are attracted by the light within. When alighted on the table 



NOCTU^LIT^E. 303 

under a lamp a slight tap with a ruler will kill them without 
injuring the specimens. In warm, foggy evenings, they enter 
in great numbers. The moths fly in July and August, but 
many species occur only in autumn, while others hibernate and 
are taken early in the spring. An English writer says, "moths 
are extremely susceptible of any keenness in the air ; a north 
or east wind is very likely to keep them from venturing abroad. 
Different species have different hours of flight." 

An English entomologist states, that "after dusk the flowers 
of the willow are the resort of several species of moths (Noc- 
tuidse), some of which have hibernated, and others have just 
left their pupa state. It is now some fifteen years since the 
collectors first took moths in this way, that were likely long to 
have remained deficient in the collections but for the discovery, 
by Mr. II. Doubleday, of the attractive powers of the sallow 
blossoms. I believe it was the same gentleman who found out 
about the same time that a mixture of sugar and beer [or rum 
and sugar or molasses, etc.], mixed to a consistence somewhat 
thinner than treacle, is a most attractive bait to all the Noc- 
tunlw. The revolution wrought in our collections, and our 
knowledge of species since its use, is wonderful." 

"The mixture is taken to the woods, and put upon the 
trunks of trees in patches or stripes, just at dusk. Before it is 
dark some moths arrive, and a succession of comers continue 
all through the night, until the first dawn of day warns the 
revellers to depart. The collector goes, soon after dark, with 
a bull's-eye lantern, a ring net, and a lot of large pill boxes. 
lie turns his light full on the wetted place, at the same time 
placing his net underneath it, in order to catch any moth that 
may fall. The sugar bait may be used from March to October 
with success, not only in Avoods, but in lanes, gardens, and 
wherever a tree or post can be found to put it upon. The best 
nights will be those that are warm, dark and wet ; cold, moon- 
light, or bright, clear and dry nights are always found to be 
unproductive. It is also of no avail to use sugar in the vicinity 
of attractive flowers, such as those of the willow, lime or ivy. 
Sometimes one of the Geometridce or Tine idee comes, and 
occasionlly a good beetle." The virgins' bower, when in blos- 
som, is a favorite resort of Noctute. Many can be taken by 



804 



LEPIDOPTERA. 




carrying a kerosene lamp into the woods and watching for 
whatever is attracted by its light. 

Thyatira and Cymatophora are allied by their small, liaiiy 
heads, to the Notodontse in the preceding family. In Thyra- 
tira the palpi are long and depressed, and tin- 
fore wings are dark, with five or six large light 
.3^ spots, and the larva is like that of the Noto- 
Fig. -r>3. doutfe, the segments being humped, and the 
anal legs raised while at rest, while Cymatophora is pale ashen, 
the fore wings being crossed by four or five waved lines. The 
larva is smooth, rather flattened beneath, with a large head. 
It feeds on trees, between two leaves united by silk. C. canf- 
playa Walker describes from Canada. Gramatoplioni fr>xi</- 
iHtta. Doubleday (Fig. 233, fore wing) is a gaily colored spe- 
cies, greenish, marbled with 
black, with three large, round, 
brown spots on the fore wings. 
The larva (Fig. 234) is 
humped, giving it a zig-zag- 
outline, and is brown with the 
third to the sixth abdominal 
rings much paler. It has the unusual power of boring very 
smooth, cylindrical holes in solid pine wood. We have re- 
ceived specimens of its tunnels from Mrs. .1. Brigham. We 
have found the larvre just moulting on the leaves of the lilac, 
September 12th. 

In Acroi/t/cta the head becomes large and broad, the fore 
wings are broad and short, with dark streaks and a dark mark. 

like the Greek letter Psi on the 
inner margin. The larvie vary 
in being humped or cylindrical, 
downy, slightly hairy, or very 
hairy, and feed exposed on shrubs. The pupa lies in a co- 
coon made in moss or in crevices of bark. A. ohlinita Smith 
(Fig. 235, larva) is whitish gray, with darker streaks on the 
fore wings. 

Apatela American i Harris is a large, pale gray moth, without 
black streaks, whose woolly, yellowish caterpillar, with long, 
slender pencils of black hairs, feeds on the maple. 




Fi --- - :!4 





We have received from Mr. Sanborn a singular caterpiller 
allied to this genus (Fig. 236), which is figured in the Harris 
Correspondence as Acronycta acris? var. Americana. "It is 
greenish brown," according to Harris, "each segment above 
with a transverse oval greenish yellow spot ; the body is beset 
with a few long black bristles, dilated at the end, which do not 
grow, as usual, from small warts ; 
there are no long bristles on 
the second and third thoracic, 
or on the tenth abdominal rings. 

O 

It moves very quickly, and rests 
with the fore part of the body Fig. w,. 

bent sideways. The chrysalis was found under a log fastened 
to another with a few threads. The moth appeared June 28th." 
In Leucan.ia, the fore-wings are short, the onter margin nearly 
straight, while the hind wings are usually white. L<>>i<-tn>i<i 
unipuncta Haworth (Plate 8, fig. 2; a, larva) is the ''Army- 
worm" of the Northern States. Its larva is smooth, cylindri- 
cal, tapering rapidly towards each end, and striped with fine, 
dark, longitudinal lines. It feeds on grasses, and in certain 
years has greatly ravaged wheat fields. It hides by day among 
tufts of grass. The moth is rusty, grayish brown, peppered 
with black scales, and with an oblique row of about ten black 
dots running towards the apex, and a white discal spot. It 
expands a little over one and a half inches. It constructs, in 

the middle of August, a rude earthen 
cocoon, or cell of dry grass. The moth 
appears the last of August northwards. 
Six species of Ichneumon, and one of 
Tachina, prey upon this species. To pre- 
vent the too great accumulation of this 

TP! o* f)V7 

very destructive caterpillar, the grass land 

should be burnt over in autumn. When on the march their 
armies may be kept out by ditching, and hogs and fowl should 
be turned into fields during the middle of August, while they 
are transforming, to prevent their attacks the succeeding year. 
Agrotis, the Dart-moth, is known bj* its crested thorax ; 
the palpi are broad and truncated, level with the front, and 
the antennae are either somewhat pectinated or distinctly cili- 




ft I \ I ' 

duu 



LEPIDOPTEKA. 




atcd. The dot mid renitbrni spot are very distinct, beiug sit- 
uated on a black ground, and there is a basal, median, black 
streak on the lore wing. The apex of the hind wings is much 

produced. The larvjne, 
called "cutworms," are 
thick, with a distinct, 
horny, p rothoracic 
plate, like that in the 
Tortrices, or leaf-rol- 
lers : they are marked 
with shining and warty, 
or smooth and concolor- 
ous spots, and often lon- 
gitudinal dark lines, and live by day hidden under sticks and 
the roots of low plants; feeding by night. The pupa is found 
living under ground. Ay rot is tessellata of Harris (Fig. 237) 
is dark ash colored ; the two ordinary spots on the fore wings 
are large and pale, and alternate with a triangular and a square, 
deep, black spot. It expands an inch and a quarter. Ayrbtis 

devastator Harris is the moth of 
the cabbage cut-worm. Another 
very abundant species, often seen 
flying over the blossoms of the 
l Golden-rod in autumn is the Aym- 
tis subgothica (Fig. 238). Mr. 
Eiley states that this moth is the 
"parent of a cut-worm which very 
closely resembles that of A. Coch- 
rani, but which has the dark side 
divided into two stripes. The 
chrysalis remains somewhat longer 

in the ground, and the moth makes its appearance from four 
to six weeks later than A. Cochrani." 

A. sujfusa Den. and Schief. (A. telifera of Harris, fig. 239) 
is so named from the lance-like streaks on the fore wings. It 
appears late in July, and probably attacks corn, as Mr. Uhler 
has found the chrysalids at the roots of corn in Maryland. 
Riley describes the larva under the name of the Large Black 
Cut-worm. It is an inch and a half in length when crawling. 




307 

"Its general color above is dull, dark, leaden brown, with a 
faint trace of a dirty yellow white line along the back. The 
subdorsal line is more distinct, and between it and the stigmata 
are two other indistinct pale lines. There are eight black, 
shiny, piliferous spots on each segment ; two near the subdorsal 
line, the smaller a little above anteriorly ; the larger just below 
it, and a little back of the middle of the segment, with the line 
appearing especially light above it. The other two are placed 
each side of the stigmata, the one anteriorly a little above, 
the other just behind, in the same line with them, and having a 
white shade above it." 

While cut-worms have usually been supposed to feed upon 
the roots of grasses and to cut oft" the leaves of succulent 
vegetables, Mr. Cochran, of Calumet, 111., has discovered that 
one species ascends the apple, pear and grape, eating off the 
fruit buds, thus doing immense damage to the orchard. Mr. 
Cochran, in a letter published in the "Prairie Farmer," states 
that ' ; they destroy low branched fruit trees of all kinds except 
the peach, feeding on the fruit buds first, the wood buds as a 
second choice, and preferring them to all things, tender grape 
buds and shoots (to which they are also partial) not except ed ; 
the miller always preferring to lay her eggs near the hill or 
mound over the roots of the trees in the orchard, and if, as is 
many times the case, the trees have a spring dressing of lime 
or ashes with the view of preventing the operations of the May- 
beetles, this will be selected with unerring instinct by the mil- 
ler, thus giving her larvae a fine warm bed to cover themselves 
with during the day from the observation of their enemies. 
They will leave potatoes, peas and all other young, green 
things, for the buds of the apple and the pear. The long, 
naked, young trees of the orchard are almost exempt from 
their voracious attacks, but I found them about midnight, of a 
dark and damp night, well up in the limbs of these. The 
habit of the dwarf apple and pear tree, however, just suits 
their nature, and much of the complaint of those people who 
cannot make these trees thrive on a sandy soil, has its source 
and foundation here, though apparently, utterly unknown to 
the orchardist. There is no known remedy ; salt has no prop- 
erties repulsive to them ; they burrow in it equally as quick as 



:',() LEPIDOPTERA. 

in lime or ashes. Tobacco, soap and other diluted washes do 
not even provoke them ; but a tin tube, six inches in length, 
opened on one side and closed around the base of the tree, fit- 
ting close and entering at the lower end an inch into the 
earth, is what the lawyers would term an effectual estoppel to 
further proceedings. 

'If the dwarf tree branches so low from the ground as not to 
leave six inches clear of trunk between the limbs and ground, 
the limbs must be sacriticed to save the tree, as in two nights 
four or five of these pests will fully and effectually strip a four 
or five year old dwarf of every fruit and wood bud, and often 
when the tree is green utterly denude it of its foliage. I look 
upon them as an enemy to the orchard more fatal than the can- 
ker worm when left to themselves, but fortunately for man- 
kind, more surely headed off." 

Mr. Riley has named this cut-worm Agrotis Cochrani (Fig. 

240, and larva) and de- 
scribes the larva which, 
1 according to the obser- 
vations of J. Townley 
of Marquette, Wis., 
also ascends standard 
trees, not confining 
Kiff - - n " its injuries to dwarf 

trees. The cut-worm is 1.07 inches in length. "It is slightly 
shagreened and the general color is of a dingy ash gray, with 
lighter or darker shadings. The bnck is light, inclining to flesh 
color with a darker dingy line along the dorsum. The sides, 
particularly along the subdorsal line, are of a darker shade 1 . 
On each segment there are eight small, black, shiny, slightly 
elevated points, having the appearance of black sealing-wax, 
from each of which originates a small black bristle. The stig- 
mata are of the same black color and one of the black spots is 
placed quite close to them anteriorly. The head is shiny ;m<l 
of the same dingy color, with two darker marks ; thick and 
almost joining at the upper surface, becoming thinner below 
and diverging towards the palpi. The upper surface of the 
first segment is also shiny like the head. The ventral region is 
of the same dingy color, but lighter, having a greenish tinge 




NOCTU^ELIT^E. 309 

anteriorly and inclining to yellow under the anal segment. 
Prolegs and feet of the same color. It has a few short bristles 
on the anterior and lateral segments. 

"The head is light brown, with a dark brown spot on eacl 
side and dark brown above, leaving the inverted Y mark in the 
middle light brown, and having much the appearance of a. 
goblet, as one looks from tail to head. The cervical shield is 
dark brown, except a stripe above and on each side. There 
are sparse, short, white bristles laterally and posteriorly. 
The venter and legs are of a glaucous glassy color, and the 
feet are light brown." 

"The moth in its general appearance bears a great resem- 
blance to Hadena chenopodii, but the two are found to differ 
essentially when compared. From specimens of II. chenopodii, 
kindly furnished me by Mr. Walsh, and named by Grote, I am 
enabled to give the essential differences, which are: 1. In 
A. Cochrani, as already stated, the middle area exceeds some- 
what in width either of the other two, while in II. chenopodii 
it is but half as wide as either ; 2. In the Agrotis the space 
between the spots and between the reniform and transverse 
posterior is dark, relieving the spots and giving them a 
light appearance, whilst in the Hadena this space is of the 
same color as the wing, and the reniform spot is dark. The 
claviform spot in the Hadena is also quite prominent, and one 
of its distinctive features ; while in the Agrotis it is just about 
obsolete. 

Another larva is called by Mr. Riley the W-marked cut- 
worm. "It measures one and an eighth inches, and its gen- 
eral color is ash gray, inclining on the back and upper sides 
to dirty yellow : it is finely speckled all over with black 
and brown spots. Along the back there is a fine line of a 
lighter color shaded on each side at the ring joints with 
a darker color. Subdorsal line light sulphur yellow, with a 
band of dirty brownish yellow underneath. Along the stig- 
rnatal region is a wavy line of a dark shade with flesh colored 
markings underneath it ; but the distinguishing feature is ? 
row of black velvety marks along each side of the back, on al 
but the thoracic segments, and bearing a general resemblance 
(looking from tail to head), to the letter W. The ventral region 



LEI'IDOPTEIJA. 

is greenish gray ; prolegs of the same color ; thoracic feet brown 
black. Head black with white lines in front, resembling an in- 
verted Y, and white at the sides. The thoracic segments fre- 
quently have a greenish hue." It is the Noctua dandestina. 

Still another, of which the moth is unknown, is described 
by Mr. Riley under the name of the Pale Cut-worm. * w lt 
is of the same length as Cochran's cut- worm, and the general 
color is pale gray, with a lilac colored hue, caused by innumer- 
able light purplish markings on an almost white ground. 
There is no particular shading on the back, and it is very slight 
along the subdorsal line. The stigmata! line, however, being 
destitute of the above mentioned markings, is almost white. 
Above this line there is a band of a darker shade than the rest 
of the body. At first sight this worm appears quite smooth and 
uniform in color, the most striking feature being the second 
segment, which is shiny black, with three white lines. One of 

these lines is on the 
top. and continues 
to some extent on 
the head ; the others 
are placed on each 
side of this and do 
not run down as far. 
*"te. wi. a The muil segment 

has also two black shiny marks on its surface. The stigmata 
are black and the head is gray, below light shiny, and brown 
above. Legs and feet of the same color as the under side of 
the body which is nearly white with a glaucous tinge. There 
are a feM r scattering hairs near the tail. This worm is 
smoother than the others." 

In Gortyua the antennae are crenulated in the male, and the 
fore wings are yellow with darker markings. The larva is dull 
colored with warty spots. That of G. flavago, an European 
species, feeds in the steins of thistles and the burdock, chang- 
ing to a pupa inside the stem. G. leucostigina attacks the colum- 
bine (Harris). The habits of the Dahlia and Aster stalk borer 
(Gortyna nitela Guenee) have been described by Mr. Riley. 
who states that the fore wings of the moth (Fig. 241 ; a, larva) 
are lilac gray, speckled with minute yellow dots, with a dis- 




NOCTU^ELITJE. :!11 

fcinct white band running across them. The caterpillar is gen- 
erally of a livid or purplish brown, though varying much as to 
depth of shading and is darker before than behind. Ck The 
young worm hatches about the first of July and immediatelv 
commences its work of destruction. It works in such a sur- 
reptitious manner as to be too often unnoticed till the vine is 
destroyed. The plant does not generally show any signs of 
decay until the worm is about fully grown, Avhen it wilts and is 
past recoveiy. This occurs about a month after the worm is 
hatched, and it then crawls just under the surface of the ground, 
fastens a little earth together around itself by a slight web and 
changes to a chrysalis of a very light mahogany brown color, 
and three-fourths of an inch long. The moth comes forth t In- 
fore part of September. The careful culturist need fear nothing 
from this troublesome insect, as an occasional close inspection 
of the plants about the first of July will reveal the hole where 
the borer has entered, which is generally qnite a distance from 
the ground, and by splitting downwards one side- of the stalk 
with a penknife it may be found and killed. If this inspection 
be made at the proper time the worm will be found but a short 
distance from the hole and the split in the stalk will heal by 
being kept closed with a piece of thread." (Prairie Farmer.) 

Achatodes differs from Gortyna in not having the fore wings 
falcate. A. z< j ' , described by Harris, is rust-red with gray 
clouds and bands on the fore wings and yellowish gray hind 
wings ; it expands an inch and a half. The larva feeds inside 
the stalks of corn, within which it transforms ; it is a little 
over an inch long, smooth and naked, with the head and the 
top of the first and last rings of the bod}* black, and with a 
double row of small, smooth, black dots across each of the 
other rings. It also infests the dahlia and elder. 

The genus Mainestra comprises rather large moths in which 
the antennae are rather long and simple in the male ; the front 
of the head is smooth and convex, and the reniform dot is 
very distinct, while the outer margin of the fore wings is rather 
oblique. The larva is longer than usual and feeds on the 
leaves of low plants, remaining concealed by day. The pupa 
is subterranean, the cocoon being made of earth. 

Mamestra arctica Boisd. (Hadena arnica) is common north. 



J12 LEPIDOPTERA. 

ward, and is found in the colder subarctic regions of America 
and Europe. It cuts oft' the leaves of roses and other shrubs. 
Fitch states that the larva, late in May in New York, cuts off 
the young shoots of the currant. It is an inch and a half long, 
of a shining livid color, with faint dots, from which arise a very 
short, fine hair. It remains in the pupa state about a month be- 
neath the ground, the moth appearing in July. It is found also 
in Labrador and in Europe. The moth expands an inch and 
three quarters and is of a deep Spanish brown, variegated with 
gray, with a very conspicuous reniform dot ; the outer edge is 
bordered with blue gray. Harris also describes M. picta, a red- 
dish brown species, with a conspicuous white / on the outer 
edge of the fore wing. The larva is yellow, gaily variegated 
with three longitudinal stripes. It feeds on garden vegeta- 
bles, and Mr. Fish informs me that it feeds on the cranberry. 

The genus Plusid is quite unlike the foregoing genera, as 
the palpi are long and slender, and the fore wings are acute, 
with silver marks and lines, usually a dot and dash, like a 
semicolon; the inner angle is tufted, and the hind wings are 
triangular. 

Our most common species is Pluxid pwti-u-nix Guenee. 
the larva of which, according to Mr. Saunders, feeds on the 
hollyhock in August. kt lt is one and a half inches long, 
the body tapering anteriorly and thickening in the middle 
and towards the end. The head is small, smooth, shining 
green, with a black stripe on each side. The body is green 
with dull whitish, longitudinal lines above and a whitish stripe 
somewhat more distinct on each side near the spiracles. It 
changed to a chrysalis August 9th." A species of Pluxia, like 
P. pnecationis, is figured by Mr. Glover in his unpublished 
plates of insects injurious to the cotton plant. It has a much 
curved, semicircular discal spot, with a distinct dot just beyond, 
the two spots arranged thus <* . The caterpillar is pule 
green, the bod}' increasing in size from the head to the tail and 
with a lateral row of brown dots. "It was found, eating the 
cotton flower in Georgia the last of October." It forms :i loose, 
thin cocoon among the leaves, and the pupa is pale green, 
spotted above with irregular brown spots. Mr. Glover also 
figures quite a different species of Plusia. which has the same 



NOCTU^ELITJE. 313 

habits as the species just mentioned. It belongs, however, to 
a different section of the genus, and on the discal area is an 
oblique, golden, irregular oval patch, containing two unequal 
dots. The larva is pale green and has a broad, lateral, white 
stripe. The chrysalis is brown and protected by a thin, loose 
cocoon. P. divergens Fabr. lives on the Alps, in Finmark, and 
in Labrador. Mr. F. G. Sanborn found, July 6th, a closely allied 
species on the summit of Mount Washington, N. II., which dif- 
fers from P. divergens in the forked, golden, discal spot being 
a third smaller, while the two branches of the spot go off" at 
right angles to each other. On the fore wings the second line 
from the base is acutely dentate on the submediau vein, where 
in P. divergens it is straight, and the outer line is also den- 
tate, not being so in P. divergens. The hind wings are yel- 
lowish at base, with a wide black margin. It may be called 
Plusia montana. Mr. Grote has described P. ignea (P. alticola 
of Walker) from Pike's Peak, which is closely allied 
to P. divergens. Plusia cerea Hiibner (Fig. 242, side 
view) is a reddish brown moth, with obscure markings, 
and without the usual metallic spots. It expands a 
little over an inch, and is not uncommon in the North- 
ern States. 

Anotnis is a slender-bodied genus, with triangular Fig. 242. 
fore wings. A. xi/ttna Say feeds upon the cotton. It is a 
brown moth with a dark discal oval spot centred by two 
pale dots. She deposits, according to Mr. Glover, a low, much 
flattened, vertically ribbed egg upon the surface of the leaf. 
The larva is a looper, whence it can be readily distinguished 
from the army and boll worms, and its body is thickest in the 
middle, very hairy, green, dotted with black along a subdorsal 
yellowish line, and with black dots beneath. It matures early 
in the season, and a second brood becomes fully grown in Sep- 
tember and October. When about to transform it gathers a 
leaf together by a web, thus forming a rude cocoon. (Glover.) 

Like our northern army worm (Leucania unipuiicta) the 
Army worm of the South (Fig. 243,' egg and larva, Riley), 
makes its appearance in great numbers in a single day, 
committing the greatest havoc in a few hours. Professor J. 
Darby, of Auburn. Ala., writes me that l> Saturday, Septem- 




314 LEPIDOPTERA. 

ber 19th, I was in the field examining the forms (buds before 
flowering) and the young bolls (fruit after the floral organs 
have fallen off). I examined all carefully, with no signs of eggs 
or worms. On Sunday I did not see it. On Monday I passed 
it as usual and observed nothing unusual. On Tuesday morn- 
ing I passed it and noticed nothing unusual. On Tuesday noon 
every plant in the field was stripped of all its upper leaves ; 
not one remaining as far as could be seen, and the plants were 
covered with millions of worms. I counted on one plant forty- 
six worms. They commence at the top of the plant, eating 
every leaf. When the leaves were gone they attacked the 
young bolls, eating through the perianth and consuming the 
young cotton. In the course of four days the work was done. 
They did not touch the grape, nor any other plant in the field. 

Many left the field and thousands 
were in the road and on the fences, 
hut not one in a thousand thus 
escaped. To-day, September 23d, 
there is scarcely one to be seen. 
Their disappearance is as myste- 
rious as their coming. The}' have 
left no signs that I can see, either 
on the stalks or in the ground. 
They have extended over hundreds of miles, and nothing 
has proved a barrier to them, having been as destructive 
on islands in the river, as elsewhere. One-third of the 
cotton crop has been destroyed. Nothing of the kind has 
occurred in thirty years past to iny knowledge." The larva 
is reddish brown, with distinct black spots, the dorsal line 
being streaked with yellow and blnck. It hibernates as a 
moth. The presence of this caterpillar in the West Indies 
caused the cultivation of cotton to be abandoned. The same, 
or another species, also appears often in Guiana and other parts 
of South America. A good remedy against the worm is a mix- 
ture of two parts of carbolic acid with 100 of water, to be 
sprinkled on the leaves of the plant. IMiothis has pubescent 
antenna?, the thorax and abdomen are smooth, and the fore 
wings slightly acute at tip. The larva is elongated, but not 
attenuate, with a large head and distinct lines along the body. 




\ 



NOCTILICLIT.K. 





It feeds exposed on low plants, preferring the flowers. The 
pupa is conical and subterranean. H. armt'gera Linn. (Fig. 
244; a, larva) is the "boll 
worm" of the Southern States, 
so destructive to cotton crops. 
Riley states that it also feeds 
on the fruit of the tomato, and 
in Southern Illinois on the silk $ 
and green kernels of corn and 
also the phlox, tomato ;iiid 
corn-stalks, and, according to 
Mr. T. Glover, it bores into the 
pumpkin. Mr. Riley, in the 
"Prairie Farmer," describes H. pldoxiphaga Grote under the 
name of the "Phlox worm" (Fig. 245, and larva). He states 
that there are two broods in a year, the first appearing in July, 
, and becoming moths by the middle of August, 
the second passing the winter in the chrysalis 
state. The eggs are deposited singly on all 
Pig. 246. portions of the plant, and the caterpillar, 

when about to become a chrysalis, enters the ground, and in- 
terweaves grains of sand with a few silken theads, forming a 
very slight elastic cocoon." The genus Hdiocheilus differs 
from Heliothis in its broader and shorter wings and its vena- 
tion. H. paradoxus 
Grote (Fig. 246, vena- 
tion of fore wing) is a 
pale testaceous moth, 
with the fore wings 
darker. It inhabits 
Colorado Territory. 

Anarta is rather a 
small moth, with a 
hairy body and small 

head ; the fore wings Fig. 245. 

are thick and velvety, with confused markings, and the hind 
wings are yellow or white, often bordered with black. The 
larva is short and smooth in repose, with the anterior portion 
of the body bent under the breast. The pupa is enclosed in a 




316 LJ3PIDOPTERA. 

cocoon of silk mixed with earth. The genus is arctic or sub- 
arctic, and inhabits Alpine summits. A. algida Lefebvre in- 
habits Labrador and Lapland. A closely allied and undescribed 
species, seems to be peculiar to the summit of Mount Wash- 
ington, N. II., where it has been detected by Mr. Sanborn. 

Xanthoptera win icr< ><<><.!. G-uenee (Plate 8, fig. 3 ; a, larva) is 
brown, with the base of the wings saffron yellow ; it expands 
a little less than one inch. Dr. A. W. Chapman, of Appalachi- 
cola, Fla., states in a letter to Mr. Sanborn, that the larva 
feeds on the leaves of the Pitcher plant, Sarracenia. It is red 
and cylindrical, with short black tubercles on the top of each 
segment, and a black cylindrical spine on each side of the 
four basal rings of the abdomen, surmounted by fine hairs. 
It does not spin a cocoon but hangs loosely by a few silken 
threads within the pitcher-like leaf, and the moth is the only 
insect that can get out of the bristly and narrow opening of 
the "pitcher." 

The little slender-bodied genus Eraafrid has filiform antennas 
jind a, sh-nder crested abdomen, with the usual lines and dots 
quite distinct. The larva is smooth and slender, with only 
three pairs of abdominal legs. The pupa is enclosed in a co- 
coon among leaves or moss. E. c.arneola Guenee is a common 
species, with the outer edge of the fore wings flesh colored. 

In Br< j j>lt<>N the hind wings are bright orange, the body is 
hairy and the antenme are ciliated ; the abdomen is slender, 
and the wings are broader than usual. The larva is smooth, 
elongate, with sixteen legs, though the first two abdominal 
pairs are useless for walking, hence the larva has a semi- 
looping gait. It feeds on trees and makes a slight cocoon 
in moss or under bark. B. infans Moschler inhabits Labrador 
and New England. It flies early in April before the snow has 
left the ground. 

Catocala is a beautiful genus, the species being numerous 
in this country and of very large size, often expanding three 
inches or more ; the wings are broad, and in repose form a 
very flat roof. The larva is elongate, slender, flattened beneath 
and spotted with black, attenuated at each end, with fleshy 
filaments on the sides above the legs, while the head is flat- 
tened and rather forked above. It feeds on trees and rests 



NOCTU^ELIT^E. ;H7 

attached to the trunks. The pupa is covered with a bluish 
efflorescence, enclosed in a slight cocoon of silk, spun amongst 
leaves or bark. C. piatrix Grote is brown on the anterior 
wings and varied with black, while the hind wings are yellow 
with a broad median and marginal band. It is common in the 
Middle and Eastern States. 

C. ultronia Hubner (Plate 8, fig. 4 ; a, larva) expands two 
and a half inches and is of a rich umber color, with a broad 
ash stripe along the middle of the wings, not extending to- 
wards the apex, which is brown. The hind wings are deep red, 
dusky at base, with a median black band, and beyond is a red 
band a little broader than the dark one, while a little less than 
the outer third of the wing is blackish. The larva feeds on 
the Canada plum. It is gray with black punctures, and the 
head is edged with black. The segments are transversely 
wrinkled, and on each one are two whitish and two brownish 
papillae ; the two brown ones on 
the eleventh ring are much en- 
larged, and on the ninth ring is a 
small brownish horn. On the 
sides of the body, before the spir- 
acles is a line of light pink fila- Fi - - 17 
ments fringing the scalloped sides. On July 15th the larva 
changed to a chrysalis in an earthen cocoon, and the moth ap- 
peared on the 2d of August. 

Dmsteria is a small, grayish moth, with two geminate black 
dots near the apex, and a broad diffuse line on the fore wing. 
The larva is a looper, and the body is attenuated t each end. 
D. erechtea Cramer flies very abundantly in grass lands in May 
and early summer. Mr. Saunders informs me that the larva 
(Fig. 247) is "one and a quarter inches long and walks- 
like a geometer; the body is thickest in the middle, being 
somewhat smaller towards the head, but tapering much 
more posteriorly, while the head is not large and is rather 
flattened in front and is pale brown, with darker longi- 
tudinal lines. The body above is reddish brown, with many 
longitudinal darker lines and stripes ; there is a double whitish 
dorsal line, with a stripe on each side of the darker shade, 
another stripe of the same hue on each side close to the stig- 




318 LEP1DOPTERA. 

inata. and between these stripes are faint longitudinal lines. 
It fed on clover and went into the chrysalis state Sept. 21st.'* 

The two remaining genera have broad wings, and are black- 
ish, with numerous transverse waved lines. The edges of the 
wings are scalloped, the palpi are very long, and the head nar- 
row between the eyes, thus showing their affinities to the- 
rinilu'nida'. The species of Homoptera are of a dark ash 
color. //. lii)ita Drury has a lunate cliseal spot. 

Erebus is a gigantic moth, with the outer margin very 
oblique and a large, incised, discal spot and sublimate margi- 
nal spots. Our large, blackish species, dark as night, is Er< j - 
liitx odora Drury ; it expands about five inches. The magnifi- 
cent, pale gray Erebus Agrippina Cramer (E. strix of 
Fabricius) inhabits Brazil ; it expands nearly ten inches. 



JE Latreille (Geometrido 1 } . The Geornetrids are- 
easily known by their slender, finely scaled bodies and broad 
thin wings, which in repose are not folded roof-like over the 
body, but are spread horizontally and scarcely overlap each 
other. The antenna' are usually pectinated. They are deli- 
cate, pale, often greenish or yellowish moths, and fly more by 
day than the Noctuids. The palpi are short and slender, and 
the tongue, or maxillre, is weak and short. 

The larvae rarely have more than ten legs, some having four- 
teen, and a few (Metrocampa and Ellopia) twelve. Thus from 
the absence of legs on the basal rings of the abdomen, the larva? 
are loopers, or geometers, as grasping the object on which they 
are walking with their fore legs, they bring the hind legs close 
up to the fore legs, thus making a loop like the Greek letter 
Omega. They usually let themselves down by spinning a 
silken thread, hence they are sometimes called " Drop- worms.'* 
When about to pupate, the larva either spins a slight, loose, 
silken cocoon, or conceals itself under a covering of leaves 
fastened together with silk, or buries itself in the ground 
without any cocoon, while Harris states that a very fe\v fasten 
themselves to the stems of plants and are changed to cl inva- 
lids, which hang naked and suspended by the tail. The pupa- 
is long, slender, conical, generally smooth, sometimes with 
lateral protuberances on the head, and usually dark In-own, but 



otten variegated. The species, of which there are about 1,800 
described, are widely distributed, and more are found in the 
arctic regions than of the preceding family. 

We place at the head of this family the genus Urania and 
its allies. From their large size, splendid colors, swallow- 
tailed wings, the fore pair of which are elongated towards the 
tips, while the outer edge is very oblique, as in Papilio ; their 
habit of flying by day and other resemblances to the butter- 
Hies Latreille placed them among the butterflies immediately 
after the Hesperians. They have also been supposed to belong 
to the same group as C'astnia, but the shape of the head, the 
long geometriform antenmie, the palpi and the conical pupa and 
other characters ally them with the Urapteryx and the higher 
Phalsenidae. Crania, Leilus is velvet black, the fore wings 
crossed by emerald green stria 1 , and the hind edge of the hind 
wings are banded with light blue and golden, while the fringe 
and long tail are white. It is found in Surinam and Brazil. 

Urapteryx is a true Geometrid, with very square hind wings 
extending beyond the abdomen, with their outer margin pro- 
longed into a short tail. C. politia Cramer is a yellow species 
found in Mexico and the West Indies. The larva of the 
European U. Mtmbucaria feeds on the oak, elder, bramble, 
etc., and is elongate, with projections from the eighth and 
twelfth segments. The pupa is elongate and enclosed in a net- 
like cocoon suspended by threads. 

In Choerodes the hind wings are still angulated, the angle 
reaching be3'ond the tips of the abdomen; the falcate apex of 
the fore wings is acute, and the outer margin is entire and 
angulated just above the middle. The species are usually pale 
ochreous, with short transverse striga? and two darker lines, 
the outer one of which is obtusely angulated just before the 
apex. C. transrersata Drury is a pale ochreous species, which 
we have found resting on red maple leaves. 

The genus Angerona comprises the single species A. cro<-a- 
turia Fabr., the larva of which (Plate 8, fig. 5 ) we have found 
feeding on the cultivated strawberry during the last of June. 
It is an inch and a half long and when at rest extends itself 
straight out. The body gradually increases in size to the first 
pair of abdominal less. The head is flattened so as to be 



;;_>() LEPIDOPTEKA. 

square above, and whitish green, with three longitudinal brown 
lines. The prothoracic ring is concolorous with the head, from 
which two brown lines extend, forming an inverted V on the 
hinder edge. The bod} r is pale grass green above, with the 
sides bulging. There are four minute black dots on each ring, 
a whitish, indistinct subdorsal line, and a lateral white line ex- 
tending to the sides of the anal legs. The body is greenish 
white. The moth (Plate 8, fig. 5, male) is of a rich yellow, 
with brown patches on the wings, and appears in July. 

In Endropia, which is closely allied to Choerodes, the outer 
edge of the wings is deeply notched. E. tigrinaria Guem':e 
is dirty ochreous, the wings being sprinkled with black ; the 
outer line is nearly straight, ferruginous, paler within, with 
some submarginal spots, and the basal line on the fore wings 
is angulated, while the apex is pale and margined externally 
with blackish. 

Metrocampa is pearly white, with the wings a little bent in 
the middle. M. perlata Guen. is pure white, with two darker 
oblique lines not angulated ; it is found not uncommonly north- 
ward. The larva of the English M. margaritata has twelve 
legs, and like Catocala has fleshy filaments on the sides just 
above the legs. The pupa lives on the surface of the earth. 

Ettopia has pectinated antennae and exceedingly thin, trans- 
parent wings, wiiich are angulated in the middle of the outer 
edge, and with an inner and outer line, the latter bent nearly 
at right angles. The larva has twelve legs, but is smooth. 
The English E. fasdaria feeds on firs. Ellopia flagitiaria 
(iuenee is pale ashen ochreous, with the speckles and two bunds 
pale brown. It expands from six to eighteen lines. 

In Caberodes the antenna? are broadly pectinated, and the 
apex of the fore wings is nearly rectangular. The species 
are pale ochreous with thick wings, and the outer line termi- 
nates near the apex. C. metrocamparia Gueiu-e is common 
northwards; with a blackish discal dot and outer dusky line 
arcuated and margined with white. 

The genus Nematocampa is characterized by the four fila- 
ments on the back of the larva. N. jilamentaria Gnen. (Phite 
8, fig. 7 ; 7 a, larva) is a small moth of a pale ochreous color, 
with reddish brown lines and dots, a ring in the discal space, 



321 

and just beyond a dark lead-colored band which becomes a 
broad squarish patch on the inner angle, and which is continu- 
ous with a broad band of the same color on the hind wings. 
It expands three quarters of an inch. Its singular larva we 
have found feeding, late in June, on the straw beny. It is .70 
of an inch long, C3 r lindrical and with two pairs of long curled 
filaments, situated on the third and fifth abdominal rings re- 
spectively ; its general color is wood gray, and the pupa is 
pale reddish gray. The moth appeared on the 27th of July. 

The genus Eiifitchia, to which our currant worm belongs, may 
be known by the whitish or ochreous wings being covered with 
dark, often partially transparent blotches, and the larva being 
gaily speckled with black and golden spots. E. ribeuria Pitch 
is ochre-yellow, with two rows of dark spots, the inner row be- 
ing incomplete and the outer row with a large blotch in the 
middle of the wings. As soon as the leaves of the currant 
and gooseberry are fairly expanded, late in May or early 
in June, the young caterpillar may be found busily eating 
them. In about three weeks after hatching it becomes 
fully grown, being about an inch long, and bright yellow 
with black dots. The chrysalis may be found under the 
bushes, either upon the ground or just under the surface. 
In two weeks after pupating the yellowish moth may be seen 
flying about the garden. Kiley states that by sprinkling 
powdered hellebore upon the leaves, or applying a solution of 
eight or twelve ounces to a bucket of water, the larvae will 
be killed, while hand-picking and shaking the bushes will also 
reduce their numbers. 

The genus Ennomos is stouter and much more hairy than 
any of the preceding genera ; the antennae are well pectinated 
in the male, the wings are not so broad as usual and are den- 
tate. The larva is rather long and twig-like, either smooth or 
humped, and spins a cocoon consisting of leaves drawn to- 
gether by silk. E. magnaria Guen. is yellow, punctured with 
black, with two dusky lines, and the fringe is partly blackish. 
E. subsignaria Hiibner (Fig. 248, moth ; Plate 8, fig. 6, larva) 
is a delicate, white, widely distributed species, and in the city 
of New York, where it is free from the attacks of its natural 
enemies, it is very destructive to the elm trees. 

21 



32-> LEPIDOPTERA. 

A writer in the " Practical Entomologist" (vol. i, p. 57) states 
that the caterpillars are hatched as soon as the leaves unfold, 
and live unobserved for a week or so in the young shoots in 
the tree-tops, and wheu half grown are seen crawling about the 
tree. Towards the end of June they pupate, and in about :i 
week after the moth appears. The importation of the English 
sparrow is said to have very effectually checked the ravages of 
this caterpillar, which may be recognized by its resemblance to 
the twigs of the tree on which it feeds, while its rather large 
head and the terminal ring of the body are bright, red. 

In AmpMdasys the body is very stout and the triangular 
wings are inclined to be small (in Nyssia, an European genus, 
the female has minute rudimentary wings) and narrow, while 
the antennae are broadly pectinated. The larva is stout, twig- 
like, being dark brown and 
warted ; it is swollen at each 
end, and the head is often bifid. 
The pupa is subterranean. Such 
are the habits of A. c<><///<it<(ria 
Guen. which is white and very 
thickly sprinkled with ashy 
black. We have found the 
larva feeding on the "Missouri 
currant," the gooseberry, and 

the red Spinea. It went into the pupa state on the 22d of 
September. 

Bom-mitt, has pectinated antenna', the tip being generally 
simple, while the abdomen is rather slender and the wings are 
dusky gray and crossed by dentate lines. The larva, is twig- 
like, elongate, with small humps and lateral projections, and 
lives on trees. The pupa is subterranean. -B. ynopharia Guen. 
is ashen, the wings clouded with fuscous, and dusted with black 
scales, with four black dentate lines. A species of Boarmia, 
figured by Mr. Glover, "eats the flowers of the cotton, being- 
found early in October." The larva is of the same thickness 
throughout, with a rather large head angulated above, and two 
tubercles near the tip. It is brown, with a double lateral 
pale stripe. The chrysalis is brown and enclosed in an under- 
ground cocoon. The moth expands nearly an inch and a half. 




rilAL.'ENID.K. 323 

and is ash colored, sprinkled densely with brown speckles, with 
three angulated, transverse, black stripes. 

Geometm and its allies (Nemoria, lodis, and RacheOopila), 
have smooth, round or angular, entire wings, which are green 
often with whitish lines. Geometra is the largest genus; "it 
has pectinated autenme, and the larva is rather short, downy, 
with several dorsal humps. The pupa is enclosed in a trans- 
parent cocoon amongst moss." (Stainton.) G. iridaria Guen. 
is pea green, with two broad bands, and the costa of the fore 
wings is white sprinkled with rust red. 

A great man}' species, often difficult to identify from the 
sameness in their markings, are comprised in the genus An'ila- 
//, which is known by its rather thin wings, with the edges 
usually entire, and with stripes and bands and other nun-kings 
common to both. The hind wings are often slightly angulated. 
The larva is smooth, slender, and feeds concealed under low 
plants. The pupa is subterranean, or lives in a cocoon among 
leaves. A. rnvosaria Guen. is pure white. A. enndeatq Gueu. 
is whitish yellow; its wings are speckled with brown, and 
with pale lines and submarginal spots. 

Macaria is easily recognized by its falcate wings, which 
have a rounded excavation below the hooked tip. mid there is 
a rather prominent angle on the hind wings. 
There are usually two large blotches, one in 
the middle of the wing, and the other on the 
outer third of the costa. The larva is rather 
short and smooth, and feeds on trees and vig. 'w. 
shrubs. The pupa is protected by a cocoon. M. granitata 
Guen. is gray, with indistinct darker bands and minute black 
speckles, with a rust red costnl spot in front of a black disc.-d 
spot. 

Zerenf is a beautiful genus, with feathery antenna? and broad, 
thin, white wings. Z. eatenarin Drury is white with black 
discal dots, and two black scalloped lines. The larva is a gen- 
eral feeder, eating sedges, the goldenrod, blueberry, waxwork, 
and according to Mr. Fish, is injurious to the cranberry. It is 
a pretty caterpillar (Fig. 249) and is straw colored, the seg- 
ments being wrinkled and thickened, with two subdorsal darker 
threads ; the head is yellow with six black dots ; the spiracles 




324 LEPIDOPTEUA. 

are black, situated in a white field, and with a black dot on 
each side. In Maine it pupates about the middle of August, 
making a thin gauzy cocoon, consisting of 3'ellowish green 
silken threads. The pupa is white, with scattered black dots 
and black stripes ; it remains thirty-two days in the pupa 
state, the raoth appearing during the middle of September. 

In Anisopteryx the male anteun;e are simply pubescent, the 
wings are ample, and rounded at the tip, while the hind wings 
are rounded. The female is wingless, the head small and the 
body is oval. The male of A. vernata Peck (Plate 8, fig. 9 ; 
9 a, female; 96, larva), the moth of the Canker worm, is ash 
colored, with a whitish costal spot near the tip of the fore 
wings which are crossed by two jagged whitish bands dotted 
with black on the outside ; they expand about one inch and a 
quarter. In the early spring and late in autumn the male flies 
about and couples with the wingless female, which lays a patch 
of short, cylindrical eggs, from sixt} T to one hundred or more, 
arranged in rows, and glued to the surface of the bark. The 
larvae hatch from the first to the middle of May, or as Harris 
states, about the time of the flowering of the red currant, and 
the leaving out of the apple tree. Almost before the presence 
of the larvae is known they often nearly strip an orchard of its 
leaves. They also attack the cherry, plum, elm, and other 
trees and shrubs. The canker worm (Plate 8, fig. 9?>) when 
mature is about an inch long, ash colored on the back, black 
on the sides, and beneath yellowish. It varies greatly in the 
intensity of its markings. It ceases eating when four weeks 
old, and late in June creeps down, or lets itself down by a 
thread, and burrowing from two to six inches in the loose earth, 
there forms a rude earthen cocoon, fastening the grains of earth 
together with silk. Twenty-four hours after the cocoon is liu- 
ished the worm becomes a chrysalid, which, in the male, is 
slender, rather pointed in front and light brown in color. Com- 
ing forth in the autumn and following spring, its progress up 
the tree can be arrested by the application of coal oil or prin- 
ter's ink, by the well known methods, around the trunk, while 
the bunches of eggs should be picked off and burnt. The ^1. 
pometaria Harris is as abundant as A. vernata ; it has thinner 
wings, wanting the whitish bands and spot, and having an 



PHALJENID^E. 325 

oblique, dusky, apical line. We are inclined to think that it is 
simply a variety of A. vernata. Harris has detected an ich- 
neumon parasite which preys upon the canker worm, and a 
species of Tachin-a also attacks the caterpillars, and we have 
noticed a minute species of Platygaster (Fig. 134), first dis- 
covered by Herrick, ovipositing in its eggs. The Calosomas 
also devour them, and probably other ground beetles ; and cer- 
tain wasps (Eumenes) store their nests with them. (Harris.) 

Allied to the canker worm is the Hybernia tiliaria Harris, the 
male of which is much larger and has feathered antennae. The 
female is larger and slenderer than that of the canker worm, 
and along the back are two rows of black dots on a pale gray- 
ish ground. The moth flies late in the autumn. The larva is 
1 (right yellow, with ten crinkled black lines along the top of the 
back, and is an inch and a quarter in length. It feeds on the 
lime, apple and elm, and is sometimes very destructive. 

Eupitheeia is a diminutive form, with very small rounded 
hind wings, while the fore wings are much elongated towards 
the apex, and at rest both pairs are spread out and pressed 
closely to the surface on which the moth rests. The larva is 
rather short, stiff, often marked with dorsal lozenges, and the 
head is small and rounded. It feeds on trees or low plants ; 
sometimes on seeds of plants. The pupa is slender, conical and 
pointed. E. miserulata Grote is clear silky grayish, with a 
black interrupted outer line and a grayish fringe, interrupted 
with black. 

Cidaria numbers mairy species in which the antennae of the 
male is simple or slightly pubescent, and the fore wings are 
rather pointed at the tip, while the hind wings are rounded. 
The larva is elongate and slender, with the head often notched. 
It feeds on trees or shrubs, and the pupa is of variegated 
colors. Cidaria diversilineata Hi'ibn. (Plate 8, fig. 10, 10a, 
larva) is yellowish ochreous, Avith brownish angular lines, and 
at rest the abdomen is curved over the back. Mr. Saunders 
has found the larva feeding on the woodbine. According to 
his notes "the body above is dark brown, with a slightly 
reddish tint, and patches of a darker shade along the dorsal 
region, being the color of the twigs of its food plant. It 
remains in the pupa state about a week." We have also 



3 2 (.5 LEPIDOPTEKA. 

found both brown and green specimens feeding on the grape 
vine in midsummer. The worms can be removed by hand-pick- 
ing as they are rather conspicuous objects. A larva, probably 
of Cidaria, has been found by Mr. "VV. C. Fish, stripping the cran- 
berry plants in Harwich, Mass., late in August. Mr. Fish 
writes, "I have never met them that I am aware of before, but 
on one bog in this place they destroyed nearly two acres of 
cranberry vines, eating off all the green leaves, the bog being 
as black in spots as though a fire had been over it." They 
were not numerous elsewhere in that town, but may prove at 
times to be a great pest to cranberry growers. We failed to 
rear the larvae sent by Mr. Fish. They are about the size of 
the canker worm. The head, which is no wider than the rest 
of the body, is deeply indented, on each side rising into a tu- 
bercle ; the anal plate is long, acute, and beneath it are two 
minute acute tubercles, tinged with reddish. It is dull reddish 
brown, simulating the color of the twigs of the cranberry, and is 
finely lineated with still darker lines. The head is speckled with 
brown, with a conspicuous transverse band across the vertex, 
and two rows of pale spots across the front. Just above the 
spiracles is a broad dusky band. Beneath, the body is paler, 
with a mesial clear line edged with brown. It is .80 of an inch 
in length. Mr. Fish states that the owner of the bog flowed it 
with water so that it was completely covered and the worms 
were killed. This is a rapid and the most effectual way to ex- 
terminate insects ravaging cranberry lots. 

rvK.VMD.E Latreille. The Snout-moths, so called from their 
very long and slender compressed palpi, are very easily recog- 
nized by this character alone. The more typical forms have 
triangular fore wings, and a slender abdomen and long 
slender legs, the front pair of which are often tufted. They 
are usually dull ash gray, with a marked silken lustre. The 
larger genera. Ilypena and Herminia, etc., are called Deltoidx. 
as when at rest the wings form a triangle of the form of the 
Greek letter Delta. Their antennae are sometimes pectinated 
in the male. They are usually gregarious in their habits, and 
often extremely local. They haunt moist grassy places, are 
readily disturbed by day, and fly before dusk, while some are 



PYKALID^E. 8-27 

true day-fliers. The larvae are generally known by their remark- 
ably glassy appearance, and the few hairs on them have an un- 
usually bristly look. Many spin a cocoon. The pupa is long, 
slender, and conical. 

The largest form is 7////^/m, in which the male antenme are 
hairy, and the palpi are long, ascending, and the fore legs are 
not tufted, and there are often slight tufts of raised scales on 
the fore wings. The larva is elongate, cylindrical, with four- 
teen legs, and feeds on low or climbing plants, making a slight 
cocoon among leaves. 

The Hop vine moth, //. Jtirniuli Harris (Fig. 250; a, larva 
and pupa) is very destructive to the hop. It is marbled with 
gray beyond the middle of the fore wings, with a distinct 
oblique gray spot on the tip ; the}' are crossed by two wavy 
blackish lines formed of elevated black tufts, and there are two 
similar tufts in the middle of the wings ; it expands one inch 
and a quarter. The ^^ ^ ^ ../^^ 
larva is glassy pea- 
green. The body is 
long and slender, 
with rather convex 
rings, and with long 
sparse hairs. The head is rather large and deeply divided into 
two lobes by the median suture ; it is a little more yellowish 
green than the body, which tapers gradually towards the tail, 
while the anal legs are long and slender, there being but two 
pairs of abdominal legs, so that the caterpillar walks with a 
looping gait. The body is striped with a narrow whitish line, 
edged broadly below with dusky, and with two white lines on 
the sides of the body, though specimens vary in the number of 
lines, some having no lateral whitish stripes. It is .4o of an 
inch in length. When half grown the larva is pale livid flesh 
color, not greenish, with a broad dark dorsal line, bounded on 
each side by a whitish line. It is double-brooded, the first lot 
of caterpillars appearing in May and June, the moths coming- 
out late in June and early in July ; while the second brood of 
larvae appear in July and August, the moth flying in Septem- 
ber. It is very active, leaping off the leaf to the ground when 
disturbed. When fully grown it forms a loose silken cocoon 




32* 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



within a folded leaf or any crevice, the moth appearing in three 
weeks. We have raised a species of Tachiua from the pupa. 
The vine should be showered with a solution of whale oil, and 
soapsuds, and the plants shaken to rid them of these pests. 
Herminia differs from Hypeua in its tufted fore legs ; the 
larva is short, slender towards each end, covered with small 
spots ; it has sixteen legs, and feeds concealed among dry 
leaves, making a narrow cocoon among them. H. jnccliusi- 
alis Gueuee is one- of our most common species. 

Pyralis has narrow wings, the fore wings being oblong, with 
distinct lines, and the palpi are short, ascending. The Meal 
moth. P. farinaUs Harris, is reddish gray at the base and hind 
edge of the fore wings, becoming more reddish towards the tip. 

with two whitish cross 
lines, the space between 
being ochreous. The 
larva is dull whitish, with 
a reddish brown head. 
and having reddish pro- 
thoracic and anal plates. 
It feeds on straw and 
corn, and Mr. Riley has 
found it feeding on clover. 
The Clover w o r m . 
or A*<>]>i I'oxtalis Fabr. 
(Fig. 251 ; 1, 2, larva in 
different positions; 3, 7, cocoon; 4, pupa; 5, 6, moth), ac- 
cording to Riley, "attacks and spoils clover for feeding pur- 
poses, both in the stack and mow, by interweaving and 
covering it with abundant white silken webs and black excre- 
ment that much resembles coarse gunpowder. The parent of 
these clover worms is a pretty little lilac-colored moth, with 
wide golden fringes," and has been introduced from Europe. 
The moths fly late in June and in July, and they creep into all 
parts of the stack, as the larva* have been found eight feet from 
the ground, though they are mostly found at the bottom. The 
hirva is three-fourths of an inch long and is dull dark brown, 
with an olivaceous hue. Mr. Riley thinks there are several 
broods through the year, and suggests as a preventative to 




PYRALIDvK. 

stack the clover on a good log or rail foundation so as to allow 
the air to pass up through from beneath. 

In Aglossa pinguinalis Harris, the Grease moth, the palpi are 
rather long, the fore wings are grayish brown clouded with a 
darker hue, and are crossed by two indented lines. The larva 
is of an uniform dark brown, with a darker head and pro tho- 
racic plate, and feeds on greasy horse clothes, etc. 

Another species of Aglossa (perhaps A. cuprealis) has been 
sent me by Prof. A. E. Verrill, who writes me that the larva does 
great damage to the old leather bound volumes in the library 
of Yale College, by eating out great patches and galleries in 
the leather covers, and also, in some cases, some of the glue 
and pasteboard. It spins a silken cocoon. The moth (Plate 8, 
tig. 20) differs from A. pinguinalis by the hind wings being- 
pale whitish gray, instead of grayish brown. The palpi have 
the third joint one-third as long as the second. It is pale 
brown, with a slight reddish 
tinge, and the wings are 
crossed by two pale bands, 
with several pale costal 
spots. The outer band is 
heaviest on the costa and 
inner angle, and faint in KJ-. 252. 

the middle of the wing. The hind wings are pale, shining 
whitish, with no bands. It expands .90 of an inch. 

In Europe, Mr. Curtis states, the Aphomia colonel/a Linn. 
(Fig. 2f>2) which also occurs with us, is a formidable foe of the 
humble bee, feeding upon its honey. AVhen fully fed it spins a 
tough web of a close woolly texture, in which the caterpillar 
turns to a chrysalis (a). "The female moth creeps into the 
nest in June to deposit 'her eggs, and the caterpillars live in 
families sometimes of five hundred, to the total destruction of 
the progeny of the poor humble bees. The moths are of a dirty 
white, the upper wings have a greenish and rosy tinge, with a 
line of black dots round the margin, a whitish space near the 
base, and two black lines near the costa in the male. The fe- 
male has two distinct, indented, transverse bars, and two black 
(spots on the disc." 

Ilydrocampa and its allies are exceedingly interesting from 




;i->() LEPIDOPTERA. 

the aquatic habits of the larvae, which remind us of the Caddis 
worms. Cataclysta is at once known by its slender body and 
narrow wings, the hinder pair of which have a row of eye-like 
spots along the hind margin. The larva is elongate, with a pule 
head, and is aquatic, feeding beneath the leaves of the Duck 
weed, living in a cylindrical silken case covered with leaves. 
The pupa has a long ventral projection, and is enclosed in the 
case of the larva. C. ftilicalis Clemens has, on the outer mar- 
gin of the hind wings, a row of five black lunules connected 
by intermediate metallic violet blue spots, and behind them a 
row of orange yellow dots. 

The larva of Paraponyx is provided with branchiae and spira- 
cles ; the pupa residing in a cocoon among leaves under water. 
Hydrocampa has large white spots 011 the outer edge of the 
fore wings. The larva is rather thick, attenuated at each end, 
with a black head. It is aquatic, living in a flat case under 
the leaves of water lilies. The pupa resem- 
bles that of Cataclysta. 

The genus Bntyx (Fig. 253) includes 
many species, in which the conical abdomen 
is longer than the wings, and the tip of 
Fi. 2~)3. the front pair is often prolonged. The larva 

is said by Stainton to be lively, attenuated at each end and 
semitransparent. with warty spots. It feeds in rolled up 
leaves. The pupa is elongate, smooth, enclosed in a slight co- 
coon among leaves. B. verticalis Albin is whitish, with the 
outer edge of the fore wings dark grayish. The larva feeds on 
the nettle. B. dtriita G. and R. is a bright j^ellow species. 

The genus Desmia is at once known by its resemblance to 
Botys, and by its black body and wings, spotted with broad 
white patches, while the male antennae are swollen in the middle. 
D. )ii<-it/<i!fx West wood, the Grape leaf folder, is shiny black, 
with a white fringe on its wings, which are spotted in the mid- 
dle with white patches, and with two white bands on the abdo- 
men of the female. It is found chiefly in the Southern States, 
where it attacks the grape. The larva, according to Uiley, who 
observed the moth in Southern Illinois, is "glass-green, and 
folds a leaf, or attaches two, that may be close together, by aid 
of a few silken threads. It is very active, jumping and jerk- 




ing at the least touch. It acquires a flesh-colored hue 
prior to changing to a chrysalis, which it usually does just 
within the leaf. Many which thus changed with me on the 
21st of July, became moths on the 29th of the same month." 

To the genus Phycita belongs the Apple leaf crumpler, or 
P. nebido of Walsh, which in the West is known to strip thr 
trees of their early leaves. It draws the leaves together by a 
web, and about the middle of June becomes fully grown, 
when it closes up its horn-like case, and at the end of the 
.same month and early in July appears as a long, narrow-winged 
moth, somewhat like Nephopteryx, but with broader fore wings. 

Nephopteryx is a genus with very narrow wings, with the 
male antenna; sinuous at the base. It feeds on various trees, 
while the larva of JV. Edni(iii(l*ii Pack. (Plate 3, fig. 2; 2 a, 
larva ; 26, pupa), feeds on the cells of the humble bee. 

The genus Myelois closely resembles Nephopteryx. Our 
most injurious species is the Goosebenr worm, which is very 
common. It may be called the M. 
convolutelhi (Fig. 254 ; a, cocoon) 
and is an importation from Europe 
(Zeller). Though familiar with the in- 
sect, and having niised the moth, our 
specimens were too much rubbed for identification, and we are 
indebted to Mr. Saunders of London, Canada, for very perfect 
specimens of the moth, and notes regarding its habits, confirma- 
tory of our own observations. The moth is pale gray, with a 
dark, transverse, diffuse band on the inner third of the wing, 
enclosing a zig-zag white line not reaching the costa. There is 
a discal discoloration, and beyond, a white zig-zag line with a 
long, very acute angle on the internal margin, and a row of 
marginal black dots, while the apex is white, and the veins and 
their branches white ; it expands nearly an inch. As soon 
as gooseberries and currants are well formed, many turn pre- 
maturely red and dull whitish, which is due to the presence 
of a pale green, smooth worm, which, after eating out the inside 
of one berry, leaving a hole for the passage of the excrement, 
enters another berry making a passage-way of silk until it 
draws together a bunch of currants, or two or three gooseber- 
ries. During the last of June it pupates, while the moth does 




382 LEPIDOPTERA. 

not appear until the spring of the following year, Mr. Saim- 
tiers' specimens having left the chrysalis May 8th. 

Crambus, so abundant throughout the summer in grass, is at 
once known bj r the long narrow wings being rolled around the 
body in a tubular form. The larva has sixteen legs, is whit- 
ish or dull colored, with large shining spots, and feeds on moss 
in silken galleries. Mr. Saunders has hatched the larva? from 
the eggs. "They feed readily on grass, the blades of which 
they fasten together with silken threads, under which they live 
concealed; they will also feed on clover." Crambus mulnhilix 
Clemens is grayish fuscous, the palpi a little darker, while the 
fore wings have a grayish median stripe, not extending beyond 
the disk, and the discal dot is dark brown. It is a variable :md 
a common species. Other kinds are variously streaked with 
silvery white. 

The Bee moth, (jailer '/a, luis rather broad wings, which are 
indented on the outer edge. G. cereana Fabr. (Plate 8. iig. 
1 1 ) is dusky gray, streaked with purple brown on the outer 
edge, with a few dark brown spots on the inner margin. The 
larva is yellowish white, with brownish dots. It constructs 
silken galleries running through the comb, iu which it feeds. 
It spins a thick white cocoon. Two broods of moths appear, 
one in April and May, the other in August. They lay their 
eggs at evening while the bees are resting. The caterpillars 
mature in about three weeks. 

TORTRICIDJE Leach. The "Leaf-rollers" are best character- 
ized by the shortness of the palpi, which project beak-like, and 
are rarely long enough to be curved in front of the 
head ; and by the oblong fore wings. They are of small 
size, rarely expanding over an inch, and are folded 
roof-like (Fig. 255) over the body. The fore wings are 
''''- -"'"' broad, compared with those of the Tin eid' , and 
are much rounded on the costa. They are variegated with 
bands and spots, often of brilliant metallic hues, while the hind 
wings are dull colored like the body, the inner edge being folded 
fan-like against the body. The antennae are filiform and the 
legs are much shorter than in the Pyralids. They fly mostly by 
night, resting during the day upon the plant on which the larva 




TOETRICID2E. 333 

feeds. They most abound in summer, though a few species 
arc found in the spring and autumn. 

The larvae are cylindrical, usually transversely wrinkled, and 
nearly naked. The pupa is slender, and the rings of the 
abdomen armed with transverse rows of teeth. Many of 
the larger species roll up the leaves of trees, or gather them 
into a rude tent, with silken threads ; others devour the inte- 
rior of fruit buds and seeds, or live in the tender shoots, or 
under the bark, or in the roots, while some live exposed on the 
leaves of plants. 

In Antithesia the palpi are longer than the head, and the 
thorax is tufted behind ; the fore wings are more than twice as 
long ns broad, the costa being regularly arched, while the apex 
is obtuse, and the apical third of the costa is white or ochreous. 
A. bipartitana Clem, has white fore wings, with a dark brown 
basal patch, and a central concolorous band, with two or three 
dark brown spots on the outer third of the costa. The tip of 
the wing is spotted with brown, and there 
is a pale brownish spot in the middle of 
the white apical third of the wing. It is 
not uncommon northwards. 

Another species has been detected on 
the rose by Mr. F. W. Putnam. The larva Fig. -256. 

is yellowish green with a jet black head and pro thoracic shield, 
and pupates late in June, the moth appearing during July. It 
is identical with the Antithesia pruniana of Hiibner (Plate 8, 
tig. 13, natural size) a destructive moth in Europe, where it 
devours the plum, as its specific name indicates. The inner- 
two thirds of the fore wings are marbled with black and lilac 
colored scales ; the apical third being white, with three costo- 
apical dark spots, and the extreme apex black. 

The genus Siderea has rather long fore wings, the costa be- 
ing regularly arched, and the tip rather pointed, the outer edge 
being concave below the tip. Clemens, doubtfully, refers his 
S. ? nubilana (Fig. 256, 7a, head) to this genus. The fore 
wings are brown, with dark brown markings, and there is a 
dark brown basal line and a central irregular dark brown band, 
which becomes ochreous brown in the middle of the wing, and 
seems to be separated from a conspicuous dark brown triangu- 




834 



LBPIDOPTERA. 




lar patch, which is edged narrowly with ochreous. Near the 
inner angle are two dark brown oblique stripes. 

The typical genus Tortrix has the palpi much longer than 
the head, with the fore wings about twice as long as broad, and 
the costa arched abruptly at the base, while the outer edge is- 
truncate and sometimes hollowed out below the tip. T. gcJi- 
dana Moschler is a common arctic form, and occurs commonly 
in northern Labrador, and has been detected 
on the Alpine summit of Mount Washington 
by Mr. F. G. Sanborn. He has also detected 
a new species which leeds on the cranberry, 
for which we suggest the name Tortrix oxi/coc- 
c<ina. Its body is dark brown, with lighter 
hairs on each side of the abdominal segments, 
and fuscous at the tip. The fore wings are 
of a peculiar glistening gray, mottled with red- 
dish brown scales, especially towards the outer edge. There 
are no well defined spots or bands. The hind wings and body, 
and under surface of the wings are slate colored. The wings 
expand .04 inch. 

The Leptorfs breviornatana of Clemens (Fig. 257 ; a, side 
view of the head and labial palpi ; b, fore wing ; <. hind wing), 
which is referred to the genus Tortrix by Mr. C. T. Robinson, 
has tawny yellow fore wings, with the A r eins brown. An oblique 

brown band arises on the basal 
third of the costa, and runs to 
the middle of the inner margin, 
but does not reach it. On the 
costa is a brown patch. It lives 
in Virginia. Mr. Robinson also 
informs me that in a forthcom- 
ing paper on this family he re- 
fers the I'h/choloma ? semiju*- 

of Clemens (Fig. 258; o, head; />, fore wing; <, hind 
wing) to the present genus. "The fore wings are white along 
the costa and hinder margin, marked with pale brown, ochreous 
and tarnished silvery stripes and spots." It ranges from 
Maine to Virginia. 

The genus Lozotoenia ha,s palpi rather longer than the head. 





TOHTH1CID.K. 335 

Jt differs from Tortrix in the mule having a fold or flap of .scales 
extending nearly to the tip of the fore wing, while the outer 
edge is indented below the tip, which is rather produced up- 
wards. The larvae of this genus feed in leaves, the edges of 
which are drawn together by silken threads, or in the stems and 
seeds of plants. L. ro.^aceana Harris (Plate 8, fig. 12; 12 a, 
larva) is pale brown, with two oblique, darker reddish brown 
bands, and a triangular spot of the same color on the costa near 
the tip. The hind wings are ochreous yellow, and blackish 
within. The larva, early in June, binds together the leaves of 
the rose, apple and strawberry. It is plump and rather large, 
and of a pale yellowish green. We found, on the 23d of June, 
the fully grown larva on the leaves of the strawberry, doubling 
them up and binding them together by a few silken threads. 
The worm is pale livid, greenish above and paler beneath, with 
a conspicuous black dot on each side of the hinder edge of the 
prothorax. The head is A r ery pale honey yellow, with two black 
spots : one near the insertion of the mandibles, and the other 
on the side near the base of the head. The posterior half of 
each segment is transversely wrinkled a few times. The body 
is scattered over with a, few minute tubercles, each giving rise 
to a fine hair. It is .80 of an inch long. One specimen spun 
its slight cocoon on June 26th, the pupa appearing June 30th. 
It is sometimes attacked by Ichneumons. The pupa is pointed 
on the vertex of the head, and on the back of each abdominal 
ring are two rows of spines. The moth usually appears the 
last of June. There is a second brood in August. 

We have reared another species from the wild strawberry. 
It may be called the LozotoBnia fragariana. It is a very pretty 
moth expanding .80 of an inch, with red fore wings, darker on 
the outer half and with a large triangular white spot near the 
middle of the costa ; the outer edge of the spot is hollowed out. 
The outer edge of the wing is pale, especially in the middle, 
and concolorous with the head and palpi, and thorax. The 
hind wings and abdomen are whitish butt'. The hind wings 
arc whitish beneath. The larva may be found in Maine, early 
in June, folding the leaves, and the moth appears in the mid- 
tile of the same month. 

The Lozotfvnia gossypiana, or Cotton Leaf-roller, we describe 



336 LEPIDOPTERA. 

from the very characteristic drawings of Mr. Glover. The 
larva closely resembles that of L. rosaceana and is about the 
same size. It rolls up the leaf of the cotton into a loose cir- 
cular fold, and when fully grown spins a thin, loose, transpar- 
ent cocoon between the leaves. On the abdominal tip of the 
brown cocoon are three pairs of minute hooks, the two outer 
pairs supported on a pedicel, by which the chrysalis is re- 
tained in place in the cocoon. The moth is the size of the 
L. rosaceana, being pale reddish brown, and with three darker 
bars, the inner one crossing the costal two-thirds of the wing, 
the middle and broadest crossing the wing obliquely, and ter- 
minating near the outer angle, while the third bar cuts off the 
apex of the wing. The hind wings are paler, but dusky along 
the inner side. 

The species of PentMna may be recognized by the oblong 
fore wings, the apex being obtuse, sometimes a little falcate. 
An interesting species, according to information received from 
Mr. M. C. Reed of Hudson, Ohio, rolls up the leaves of the 
grape, and Avheu the fruit becomes formed, eats the pulp and 
seeds, thus doing a two-fold injury to the vine. It may be 
called the PentMna vitivorana* (Plate 8, fig. 22, enlarged). 
The head, thorax, and palpi, and basal half of the antennae are 
fulvous. The fore wings are dark slate brown. From the mid- 
dle of the costa proceeds a blackish band which curves to the 
middle of the outer third of the wing : beyond is a linear curved 
costal band succeeded by another broader but quite short costal 
line ; the costa is tawny beyond, sending a tawny patch obliquely 
inwards. Near the margin is an irregular blackish patch and 
two dark spots on the costa, and a larger one at the apex. The 
hind wings and body are dark slate color. It expands .40 of an 
inch. The first brood of caterpillars feeds on the leaves, ap- 
pearing in May (in Ohio), or as soon as the leaves are grown. 
The second brood appears when the grapes are nearly filled 
out, and then they feed on the pulp and seeds. Mr. Reed writes 
me that "in every instance where a grape was opened contain- 
ing a fully grown larva, the seeds were mere shells. They con- 
tinue their work until the grapes are fully ripe, and at that 
time on removing to a new berry, seem to make their home in 
the old one, which is attached by a web." The larva turns 

* It is the Lobesia botrnnn of Southern Europe according to Prof. Zeller. 



TORTKICID^E. 337 

over the edge of a leaf to form a rude cocoon for the chrysalis. 
Mr. Read suggests destroying the leaves thus affected before 
they fall in autumn, as the larvae do not descend to the earth 
to undergo their transformations. 

Halonota differs from Tortrix in having the apex of the fore 
wings rather obtuse, and there is a pale blotch usually present 
on the middle of the inner margin. H. simulana Clemens is 
brownish ochreous, with dull ochreous palpi, reddish at the 
tip ; the fore wings are brown, with a slight brassy hue, and 
with an ochreous dorsal blotch ; the costa is streaked with 
ochreous, and there are two violet streaks, one running be- 
neath the tip and the other to a faint eye-like patch, behind 
which, on the hinder margin, are three black spots. 

The genus Grapholitha is characterized by Stainton as hav- 
ing the palpi longer than the head, with the fore wings more 
than twice as long as wide, the costa being 
slightly arched, and the apex rather pointed, 
while the outer edge is a little hollowed out 
below the apex, and rounded at the inner an- 
gle. The larviie live in the folded leaves of 
shrubs, or in the tops of herbaceous plants, 
or in their roots. Mr. Robinson refers the 
Steganoptycha? oclireana of Clemens, to Gra- 
pholitha (Fig. 259 ; a, head ; 6, fore wing ; c, 
hind wing.*) The fore wings are pale yel- 
lowish, and the outer half of the costa is 
streaked with ochreous brown, and there is an eye-like patch 
which is white, and contains two ochreous brown streaks and 
two black dots. It was discovered in Virginia. Robinson also 
refers Clemens' Euryptychia saligneana (Fig. 256 ; 8 ) to this 
genus. It was bred by Mr. B. D. AValsh, in Illinois, from a 
willow gall. The fore wings are white, tinted with yellowish, 
with a dark brown basal patch, the wing bevond being nearly 
white varied with lead colored speckles, and striped over the 
venules with dull, leaden gray, transverse stripes, two of which 
near the anal angle, form a white eye-like patch. (Clemens.) 

Under the name of Callimosema scintillana, (Fig. 256; 9 a), 

* The artist has represented the last branch of the median vein forked at the 
tip. It should have been the middle branch. (Clemens.) 

22 




338 



LEPIDOPTERA. 



Ctemens describes a moth with narrow fore wings, and a large 
eye-like spot across the inner angle, the venation being the 
same as in loplocama. In this latter genus (Fig. 250 ; 10 a, 
I. formosana Clemens) the wings are broader and have the 
costa of the fore wings dilated at the base, while the labial 
palpi are broad, and reach far beyond the front of the head. 

In Anchylop&ra the palpi are 
shorter than the head, with the 
fore wings broader than usual, 
and the costa somewhat obtusely 
arched towards the base, while 
the tip is often hook-like and 
the outer edge concave. The 
larva feeds between the united 
leaves of plants. A. spirecefoli- 
iu(, Clemens is white on the fore 
wings, with a large, reddish 
brown dorsal patch extending 
from the base to the middle of 
the wing, and an oblique band 
from the middle of the costa to 
about the centre of the wing ; 
the costa beyond is streaked 
alternately with white and red- 
dish In-own to the apex. The 
larva feeds on the leaves of 
Spiraea opulitblia, or Nine-bark. 
It is pale green with a yellowish 
tinge. (Clemens.)* 
* Fig. -2<;o. Mr. Fish has discovered an un- 

described species which feeds on the cranberry, and which we 
may call the Cranberry Aiiehylopera, A. vucciniana (Plate 8, 
lig. 21, enlarged). The moth is dark ash, the fore wings being 
whitish, dusted with brown and reddish scales, with white nar- 
row bauds on the costa, alternating with broader yellowish 

*FiG. 2(50; la, represents the head of A. nubeculana, desci-ibed by Clemens in 
the Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia : 1 fc, the vena- 
tion of the fore wing; and 1 c, the hind wing; 2a, the head of A. ocellana Clemens; 
2fr, the fore wing; 2 c, the hind wing; 3<7, the head of A. mediofasciana Clemens; 
37) the fore wing; and 3c, the hind wing. 




TORTRICID^E. 339 

brown bands, five of which are several times larger than the 
others, and from four of them irregular indistinct lines cross 
the wing. The first line is situated just beyond the inner third 
of the wing, and is often obsolete. The second line is the 
largest and is slightly bent once in the middle of the 
wing. There is a large brown spot parallel to the costa, 
being situated on the angle. The third line is oblique and 
stops before reaching the inner angle and is forked on the 
costa, while the fourth line is a short apical diffuse irregular 
line. The apex of the wing is dark brown, and is a little more 
acute than usual in the genus. The length of a fore wing is .20 
of an inch. It lays its eggs on the leaves during the month 
of August and a new brood of larvae appear in September, 
though they hatch mostly in the following spring, or early in 
June, and become fully grown in July. 

The larva seen from above is much like that of Lozotamia 
rosaceana, but the head is a little larger in proportion to the 
rest of the body, being as wide as the body in its thickest part. 
The body is more hairy, while the prothorax is not dark. The 
chrysalis is rather slender, the body being contracted at the 
base of the abdomen, on the rings of which there are dorsal 
rows of fine spines. 

Mr. Fish writes me that " these larvse, called the Cranberry- 
viue worms, hatch about the first of June from eggs that have 
remained upon the leaves of the plant all winter. They com- 
mence to feed upon the tender growing shoots of the plant, 
drawing the leaves together with their web for shelter, conceal- 
ing themselves and feeding within. Before reaching their 
full size they, if very numerous, almost wholly destroy the 
leaves and tender shoots, giving the whole bog a dark dry ap- 
pearance as though a fire had been over it. This is why they 
are in some places known as lire-worms.' Having reached 
then- full size they spin up among the leaves or among the 
dead leaves upon the ground. After remaining in the pupa 
state about ten or thirteen days the moths come out and de- 
posit their eggs upon the leaves. 

"This year the moths were out the last of June and first of 
July. In five or six days the eggs hatched and this second 
brood, which is usually the most destructive, mostly changed 



340 



LEPIDOPTEKA. 



to pupa on the 20th of July. On the 26th of July the 
first moth came out and most were out before the 4th of 
August. I saw the moth at Sandwich as late as the 20th of 
August. Most of the eggs laid in August do not hatch until 
the following spring. I did succeed in finding two or three 
lame in September, but they were rare at that time. The 
only sure means known of destining them, is to let water upon 
the bog for twenty-four hours." 

Another Tortricid larva, which seems to differ generic-ally 
from the vine worm, in being thicker and having a larger, 
squarer prothoracic ring, and a less hairy body is called the 
" Fruit-worm." According to Mr. Fish, these worms appear the 
first of August and work all through the month. The first signs 
of their presence are seen in the berries that are attacked turn- 
ing prematurely red. Most of them reach their full size before 
the first of September. In some places where the vines have 

been retarded by be- 
ing kept under water 
until the first of June 
previous (it is com- 
mon to cover the bogs 
with water when con- 
venient), they do not 




t 



cc. & c 

Fig. 2(i 

reach their full size until a few weeks later. When fully 
grown they enter the ground and spin their cocoons within a 
few inches of the surface. The cocoons are covered with grains 
of sand and are hardly distinguishable from small lumps of 
earth. They remain in the ground all winter. I do not know 
positively the perfect insect, as I have never been able to rear 
it in-doors. In the spring of 1867 I bred two species of Ich- 
neumons from these cocoons that had remained in the house 
over winter." 

The Strawberry leaf- roller (A. fragarise Riley. Fig. 261 ; o, 
lines showing the dimensions of the moth ; a, larva, natural 
size ; b, the head and four succeeding rings of the body ; rf, 
the terminal ring of the abdomen, showing the raial legs) has, 
according to Riley, recently been doing much injury to straw- 
berry plants in Illinois and Canada. "It crumples and folds 
the leaves, feeding on their pulpy substance, and causing them 



TOKTR1CIDJS. 341 

to appear dry and seared, and most usually lines the inside of 
the fold with silk. There are two broods during the year, and 
the worms of the first brood, which appear during the month 
of June, change to the pupa state within the rolled up leaf, 
and become minute reddish brown moths during the fore part 
of July. After pairing in the usual manner, the females deposit 
their eggs on the plants, from which eggs in due time hatches 
a second brood of worms. These last come to their growth to- 
wards the end of September, and changing to puptv, pass the 
winter in that state. The moth expands from .40 to .45 of an 
inch. The head and thorax are reddish brown, with pale palpi 
and legs, and dusky antennae, while the tarsal joints are dusky 
at the tips. The fore wings are reddish brown and streaked 
and spotted with black and white, as in the figure, while the 
hind wings and abdomen are dusky." (American Entomologist, 
vol. i, p. 89.) 

The Coddling moth, Carpocapsa, has palpi longer than the 
head ; the apex of the fore wings is rather obtuse, and the 
outer edge is suddenly hollowed out below the tip. The larvae 
feed in the interior of fruits. C. pomonella Linn. (Fig. 256, 
11 a) is gray, with numerous darker, transverse lines, and with 
a curved black line before the ocellated patch on the inner an- 
gle, which line is edged with a coppery tint. The moth lays its 
eggs on apple and pear trees early in summer in the blossom- 
end of the fruit, and the larva hatches in a few days, burrowing 
into the core. It matures in three weeks, when the apple drops 
to the ground and the larva transforms in a thin cocoon in 
crevices in bark, etc., and in a few days another brood of moths 
appear, though most of them remain in their cocoons through 
the winter as larvae, where we have found them under the loos- 
ened bark early in May. 

This formidable pest may be partially destroyed by gather- 
ing "wind-falls," though the larva often deserts the worm-eaten 
apple before it falls. The best remedy is that suggested by 
Dr. Trimble, who binds bands of hay about the trees from 
July until the middle of September. The larvae crawl under 
these bands and there spin their silken cocoons, when every 
few days the bands can be removed and the worms de- 
stroyed. 



342 LEPIDOPTERA. 

TINEID^E Leach. The Tineids are a family of great extent, 
and the species are very destructive to vegetation, having in- 
numerable modes of attack. They may be distinguished 
from the Tortricidce by their smaller size, while the narrow 
wings which lie on the top of, or are rolled around the body 
when at rest, are often falcate, or pointed acutely, and edged 
with a long fringe of exceeding delicacy. The maxillary palpi 
are greatly developed, while the labial palpi are of the usual 
si/.c, and usually recurved in front of the head. The antenna; are 
long and iiliform. The larvae are cylindrical, variously 
wrinkled transversely, and with from fourteen to sixteen feet. 
They often construct cases in which they live, and usually spin 
a slight, silken cocoon. About 1,200 species are already known 
in Europe alone. Those of this country have been mostly de- 
scribed by Dr. Clemens. 

In studying this interesting family, Stainton remarks that 
"the elongated wings, the slender body and the long or very 
long fringes to the wings, are characters by which the Tineida? 
may generally be recognized at once ; and the development of 
the palpi and their variety in form and structure, offer most 
tangible grounds for separating the greater number of the gen- 
era. Indeed, if the student will look at the head of a species 
to see whether it is hairy or smooth, if he will then notice the 
palpi, whether the maxillary palpi are developed and to what 
extent, and whether the labial palpi are slender, ascending or 
drooping, whether the second joint is densely clothed with 
scales, or bears a long protruding tuft, and if he will farther 
notice the form of the hind wings, which are either well rounded 
or very pointed, or indented towards the tip, he will be per- 
fectly surprised to see how easily he will arrange these insects 
into genera by their structure." 

The larvae vary excessively in the number of legs, sixteen 
being the usual number, but in several genera (Gracilaria, Lith- 
ocolletis, etc.), we only find fourteen; in Nepticula, though 
the legs are but poorly developed, they number eighteen ; on the 
other hand the larva? of a few of the smaller genera ( Antispila, 
Tinagma, etc.) are absolutely footless. 

For collecting and preserving these minute and delicate 
moths, which are called by collectors, micro-lepidoptera, especial 



TINEID^E. 343 

instructions are necessary. When the moth is taken in the 
net, it can be blown by the breath into the bottom. "Then 
by elevating the hand through the ring, or on a level with it, a 
common cupping glass of about two inches in diameter, or a 
wine glass carried in the pocket, is placed on top of the left 
hand over the constricted portion, the grasp relaxed, and the 
insect permitted to escape through the opening into its interior. 
The glass is then closed below by the h?ft hand on the outside 
of the net, and may be transferred to the top of the collecting 
box, when it can be quieted by chloroform" (Clemens) ; or the 
moths may be collected in pill boxes, and then carried home 
and opened into a larger box filled with fumes of ether or ben- 
zine or cyanide of potassium. In pinching any moths on the 
thorax, as is sometimes done, the form of that region is inva- 
riably distorted, and many of the scales removed. In search- 
ing for "Micros" we must look carefully on the lee side of 
trees, fences, hedges, and undulations in the ground, for 
they avoid the wind. Indeed, we can take advantage of 
this habit of many Micros, and by blowing vigorously on the 
trunks of trees start the moth off into the net so placed as to 
intercept it. This method is most productive, C. G. Barrett 
states, in the "Entomologist's Monthly Magazine," while a 
stead}' wind is blowing. 

In seeking for the larvae we must remember that most of 
them are leaf miners, and their burrows are detected by the 
waved brown withered lines on the surface of leaves, and their 
"/W.SYS," or excrement, thrown out at one end. Some are found 
between united leaves, of which the upper is crumpled. Others 
construct portable cases which they draw about the trunks of 
trees, fences, etc. Others burrow in the stems of grass, or in 
fungi, toadstools, and in the pith of currant or raspberry bushes. 
Most are solitary, a few gregarious. A bush stripped of its 
leaves and covered with webs, if not done by Clisiocampa (the 
American Tent Caterpillar), will witness the work of a Tineid. 
Buds of unfolded herbs suffer from their attacks, such as the 
heads of composite flowers which are drawn together and con- 
sinned by the larvae. 

After some practice in rearing larvae it will be found easier 
and more profitable to search for the leaf miners, and rear the 



344 LEPIDOPTEKA. 

perfect, fresh, and uninjured moths from them. In this 
many species never found in the perfect state can be secured.* 
In raising ^ micro" larvae it is essential that the leaf in 
which they mine be preserved fresh for a long time. Thus 
a glass jar, tumbler or jam-pot, the top of which has been 
ground to receive an air-tight glass cover, and the bottom 
covered with moist white sand, will keep a leaf fresh for a 
week, and thus a larva in the summer will have to be fed but 
two or three times before it changes ; and the moth can be 
seen through the glass without taking off the cover ; or a glass 
cylinder can be placed over a plant inserted in wet sand, hav- 
ing the top covered with gauze. Dr. II. G. Knaggs in treat- 
ing of the management of caterpillars in breeding boxes, 
enumerates the diseases, beside muscardine and cholerine, to 
which they are subject. Among direct injuries are wounds and 
bruises, which may be productive of deformities in the future 
imago ; the stings of ichneumon flies, whose eggs laid either 
upon or in the body may be crushed with finely pointed scis- 
sors or pliers ; frost bites, and suffocation chiefly from drown- 
ing. If the caterpillar has not been more than ten or twelve 
hours in the water it may be recovered by being dried on a 
piece of blotting paper and exposed to the sun. Larvae may 
also starve to death even when food is abundant, from loss of 
appetite, or improper ventilation, light, etc. ; or they may eat 
too much, become dropsical, and die. Caterpillars undoubt- 
edly suffer from a contagious disease analogous to low fever. 
Many die while moulting, especially the larvae of Butterflies, 
Sphinges, and Bombycids ; others are carried off by diarrhoea, 
which is generally caused by improper feeding on too juicy or 
relaxing food, when oak leaves or dry stunted foliage should 
be given them. To relieve constipation they should be fed 
with lettuce and other natural purgatives, and lastly, they may 
be attacked by fungi, especially, besides those previously men- 

*" In general, it may be said, tlie mines of the leaf miners are eharactei-istic or 
the genus to which the larva may belong. A single mine mice identified, enables 
the collector to pronounce on the genus of all the species lie may find thereafter. 
This added to the ease with which the larva; are collected, and the little subsequent. 
care required to bring them to maturity, except to keep the leaves in a fresh and 
healthy state, makes the study of this group, iu every respect, pleasant and satis- 
factory to the entomologist." (Clemens.) 



TINEMhE. 345 

tioued, a species of Oidium. Such patients should be put in 
direct sunlight or dry currents of air. (Entomologist's Monthly 
Magazine, June, 1868.) The pupae easily dry up ; they should 
be kept moist, in tubes of glass closed at either end, through 
which the moth can be seen when disclosed. 

In setting micro-lepidoptera : "If the insect is very small I 
hold it by its legs between the thumb and finger of the left 
hand, whilst I pierce it with the pin held between the thumb 
and finger of the right hand ; if the insect is not very small I 
use a rough surface, as a piece of blotting-paper, or piece of 
cloth, for it to lie upon and prevent its slipping about, and 
then cautiously insert the point of the pin in the middle of the 
thorax, as nearly as possible in a vertical direction. As soon 
as the pin is fairly through the insect, remove it to a piece of 
soft cork, and by pressing it in, push the insect as far up the 
pin as is required. 

"For setting the insects I find nothing answers as well as a 
piece of soft cork, papered with smooth paper, and with 
grooves cut to admit the bodies. The wings are placed in the 
required position by the setting needle, and are then retained 
in their places by a wedge-shaped thin paper brace, placed over 
them till a square brace of smooth card-board is placed over the 
ends of the wings." (Stainton.) A small square of glass can 
also be laid on the wings to keep them expanded, and thus 
serve the same purpose as the paper braces. Linnams first set 
the example of having the specific names of the Tortricids 
end in ana and of the Tineids in etta, and at the present day 
the rule is generally followed by entomologists, who have also 
given the same terminations to the names of the smaller spe- 
cies of Pyralids, such as Pempelia, Crambus and allied genera. 

In the group of Tineids proper, the head is roughly scaled, 
with short and thick labial palpi, while the maxillary palpi are 
generally extremely well developed, and the antenna? some- 
times (Adela) extremely long. The larvae live in a portable 
case and feed on wool, hair, etc., and fungi, or decayed wood. 

Solenobia has very short labial palpi, which are almost con- 
cealed in the hairs of the mouth, and the case of the larva is 
shorter than usual. The unimpregnated females of this genus 
lay fertile eggs, so that one may breed a species for years with- 



346 



LEPIDOPTERA. 




out ever seeing a male. (Stainton.) Solenobia? Walsltella 
Clemens is gray, varied with fuscous. The silken case is gran- 
ulated with line sand ; the larva is probably lichenivorous. 

In Tinea the head is rough, the maxillary palpi are usually 
folded and five jointed, while the labial palpi are cylindrical, 
hairy and sometimes bristly. The fore wings are 
oblong ovate, and the hind wings ovate and clothed 
with scales. 

The common Clothes moth, Tinea flavifrontella 
Linn. (Fig. 262 ; fig. 263, a, larva, with its case, b ; c, chrysa- 
lis, enlarged) is of a light buff color, with a silky iridescent lus- 
tre, the hind wings and abdomen being a little paler. The head 
is thickty tufted with hairs and is a little tawny. The wings are 
long and narrow, pointed acutely, with the most beautiful and 
delicate long silken fringe, which increases in length towards 
the base of the wing. The moth begins to fly about our apart- 
c i> ments in May, individuals 

remaining through the sum- 
mer. They lay their eggs 
in woollens, though we have 
reared numerous specimens 
which had attacked a mass 
of cotton. Early in June 
we found numbers of the 
Fig. 263. caterpillars in their flattened 

cylindrical cases which in this instance were white, the color 
of the substance they fed upon. The larva is whitish with a 
tolerably plump body, which tapers slightly towards the end 
of the body, while the head is honey yellow. The segments 
of the body are thickened above by two transverse folds. The 
bod}' of the chrysalis is considerably curved, with the head 
smooth and rounded. The antennae, together with the hind legs, 
which are laid on the breast, reach to the tip of the abdo- 
men. On the upper surface of each ring is a short trans- 
verse row of minute spines, which aid the chrysalis in moving 
towards the mouth of its case, just before changing to a moth. 
"\Vhen about to transform, the skin splits open on the back, 
and the perfect insect glides out. The skin is moulted with 
great rapidity. To avoid the ravages of this destructive moth, 




TINEHVK. 



347 



woollens and furs should be carefully shaken and examined 
early in June. Dr. Harris states that "powdered black pep- 
per strewed under the edge of carpets is said to repel moths. 
Sheets of paper sprinkled with spirits of turpentine, camphor 
in coarse powder, leaves of tobacco, or shavings of Russian 
leather, should be placed among the clothes when they are laid 
aside for the summer ; and furs and other small articles can be 
kept by being sewed in bags with bits of camphor wood, red 
cedar, or of Spanish cedar, while the cloth lining of carriages 
can be secured forever from the attacks of moths by being 
washed or sponged on both sides with a solution of the corro- 
sive sublimate of mercury in alcohol, made just strong enough 
not to leave a white stain on a black feather." The moths can 
be most readily killed by pouring benzine among them, though 
its use must be much restricted from the disagreeable odor 
which remains, and c 

its inflammable na- 
ture. The use of a 
weak solution of car- 
bolic acid is also rec- 
ommended. Tinea 
tapetzella Linn., the 
Carpet moth, is black- 
ish at the base of the 
fore wings, the re- 
mainder being yellow- 
ish white, while the 
hind wings are dark gray, and the head white. The larva 
feeds on carpets, etc. 

Tinea gmneUa Linn. (Fig. 2G4 natural size, and enlarged, 
with the wings spread ; , larva, natural size and enlarged ; />, 
pupa, natural size and enlarged ; r, grains of wheat held to- 
gether with a firm web) the Grain moth, is found flying in 
granaries during the summer. The female lays thirty or more 
minute eggs, one or two on each grain of wheat. The white 
worm hatches in a few days, eats its way into the grain, clos- 
ing the entrance with its castings, and after it has devoured 
the interior of one grain, unites others in succession to it, until 
it binds together by a fine web a number of them. AVhen 




348 LEPIDOPTERA. 

nearly full grown they cover the grains with a very thick web. 
According to Curtis the larva? retire to cracks and crevices in 
the floor and walls of the granary, and construct their cocoons 
by gnawing the wood and working it up with their web until it 
has the form and size of a grain of wheat, wherein it remains 
through the winter, changing to a chrysalis early in the spring ; 
while two or three weeks after the moth appears. It is creamy 
white, with six brown spots on the costa, and with a long- 
brown fringe. To prevent its attacks empty granaries should 
be thoroughly cleansed and whitewashed, or washed with coal 
oil, and when the moths are flying numbers may be attracted 
to the flames of a bright light ; also when the larvae are at work, 
the grain should be shovelled over frequently to disturb them. 

The beautiful genus Adela is at once known by its exces- 
sively long antenna?. The larva makes a flat case, and feeds 
on the leaves of various low plants, such as the wood Anemone 
and Veronica. The A. liklingsella of Clemens has coppery 
brown fore wings, with a pale grayish brown mesial patch 
dusted with black, and four or five black spots at the inner 
angle, while the hind wings are fuscous. 

Hyponomeuta has a smooth head, with rather short, slender, 
reflexed, subacute labial palpi ; the fore wings are white, dotted 
iu rows with black, and on the base of the hind wings is a 
transparent patch. The larvae are gregarious, and the pupa is 
enclosed in a cocoon. H. millepunctatella Clemens is white, 
with the base of the costa blackish, and with longitudinal rows 
of distinct black dots, two of which, one along the inner mar- 
gin, and one along the fold, are plain. The hind wings are 
blackish gray. 

In Depresses ia the fore wings are unusually oblong, being- 
rounded at the apex ; and the hind wings are broader than 
usual, with the inner edge emarginate opposite the subme- 
dian vein, and rounded opposite the internal vein. The abdo- 
men is flattened above, with projecting scales at the sides. 
The larva 1 of this genus are extremely active, and feed on a 
variety of substances ; some in rolled up leaves of composite 
plants, some in the leaves and others in the umbels of the 
umbelliferous plants. Many of the worms descend from the 
plant on the slightest agitation, so that considerable caution is 



TINEIl^E. 349 

necessary in attempts to collect them. The full-fed larvae de- 
scend to the ground and change to pupae among the fallen 
leaves. The perfect insects have the peculiarity of sliding 
about when laid on their backs. D. atrodorseUa Clem, is yel- 
low ochreous, with six or eight black costal dots, with a red- 
dish patch extending from the disc towards the tip of the wing. 
The head is rufous above, with the face blackish brown above 
and yellowish beneath. 

During the last summer we observed a locust tree which had 
some of the branches well nigh defoliated b}' an imdescribed 
species of this genus which we may call the Depressaria rob in - 
iella (Plate 8, fig. 14, natural size). The head, palpi and fore 
wings are light brick red, spotted irregularly with yellow, and 
the antennas are slate brown. The fore wings are a little 
darker in the middle, especially towards the inner edge. There 
is a submarginal darker brown band near the outer edge, which 
does not reach the costa, and on the outer edge is a row of 
minute black dots. The hind wings and abdomen are of a pale 
slate gray, and of the same color beneath, while the legs are 
of a very pale straw yellow. It differs from most of the spe- 
cies of the genus in having the apex of the fore wing less 
rounded than usual, and in this and other respects it is allied 
to the European D. laterella. The larva is thick-bodied, with 
a black head, and is green, the cervical shield being green. It 
devours the leaves, drawing them together by threads, and 
also eats the flower buds. It was most abundant in the last 
week of June. It turned to a chrysalis July 8th, and in about 
two weeks the moth appeared. 

In Gelecliia the fore wings are rather long and pointed, and 
the hind wings are trapezoidal and more or less excavated below 
the tip. The terminal joint of the labial palpi is slender, al- 
most needle-like, smooth and pointed. This genus is of great 
extent and comprises a considerable diversity of species. The 
moth is extremely active. Clemens states that "the habits of 
the larvae are extremely varied, feeding upon leaves, flower- 
buds, young shoots, and in the interior of grain and seeds. The 
species that feed in buds and shoots are mostly in the larva 
state in spring and the beginning of summer ; those that feed 
in and upon leaves are met with in summer and autumn, and 



350 



LEPIDOPTEKA. 



those that feed on seeds do so in the autumn and winter." 
The Angoumois Grain moth, G. cerealeUa Linn. (Fig. 2G5), is 
ochreous, with a fuscous streak towards .the base, and a few 
fuscous dots towards the tip of the wing, while the hind wings 
arc grayish ochreous. The wings are sometimes unspotted. 
It feeds in wheat granaries, where it secretes itself within 
the grain, devouring the mealy substance. Reaumur, according 
to Mr. Stainton, thus speaks of the economy of material in the 
food of the larva of Gelechia cerealella. "A grain of wheat 

or of barley contains the precise quan- 
tity of food necessary to nourish the 
larva from its birth till it is full fed. 
For if we open a grain inhabited by 
a younger and smaller larva, we find 
that there is more or less of the sub- 
stance of the grain still to be consumed, 
according to the size of the larva. 
But what is remarkable is, that in the latter case, we find 
at least as much and probably more excrement, and in larger 
pellets, than we find in a grain tenanted by an older larva." 
It is thus driven to eat its excrement over once and perhaps 
more than once ! We have received from Mr. F. G. Sanborn 
the larva (Fig. 2G6, much enlarged) of this moth, which had 
eaten out the kernel of grains of parching corn, leaving but a 
thin shell. The body is unusually short, thick and white, the 
tegument being very thin and transparent. Gelechia funrjim- 

rella Clem, has 1'oseate white 
fore wings, dusted and banded 
with brown. Walsh states that 




Kiir. 205. 




"the larva mines a cabbage- 



like gall (C. salicis-brassicoides), 

Fig 206. peculiar to Salix longifolia, and 

a pine-cone-like gall on Salix cordata, named C. salicis-stro- 

biloides by Osten Sacken." The larva of a similar species, 

G. roseosuffasella , inhabits the fruit panicles of the sumach. 

Coleopliora is a beautiful form, with long fringes to the 
wings, which are long and lanceolate, especially the hinder pair. 
The head is smooth above and in front, and the slender, simple 
antennae are sometimes thickened with scales as far as their 



;. 351 

middle. The labial palpi are slender, rather porreeted, with a 
slender prolonged tuft from the second joint, and the third 
joint is pointed. The larva is a case-bearer, changing to a 
pupa within the case. While these moths abound in the larva 
state, the adult insects are rarely met with. The leaf-feeding 
larvae are very easily found, as their presence ma}^ be detected 
by the pale blotches they form on the leaf they feed upon, 
while the seed-feeding larvae are much better concealed. 

"Coleophora larvae do not well bear confinement in the hu- 
mid air of the breeding jar. To be successful in rearing the 
larvae, one must use a pot of moistened sand, in which the food 
plant is placed, covered with a glass cylinder, Avith fine gauze 
tied over the top ; or the plant may be kept in water and cov- 
ered with a cylinder of glass. For this purpose old chimney 
tops to lamps answer very well. The larva? of this genus, taken 
in the fall of the year, hibernate in their cases until the fol- 
lowing spring, and feed upon the first leaves that put forth. 
They must not, therefore, be kept in a warm room during 
the winter. The pupae of the fall brood of larvae thrive much 
better, likewise, if not kept in a warm room during the cold 
months. The spring, or early summer brood of larvae, produce 
imagos in a few weeks after entering the pupa state, and hence 
it is much more satisfactory to collect early in the 3'ear than 
during the latter part." (Clemens.) 

In C. rosaffoliella Clem, the head and thorax are white, while 
the fore wings are pale grayish towards the base, clouded with 
dark brown from the middle to the tip, and the hind wings are 
dark brown. The case is silken, covered with granulations, 
cylindrical, slightly compressed, the mouth slightly deflexed 
and the opposite hook-like end turned clown slightly. Its color 
is brown, varied with gray and reddish-brown granulations. 
The larva feeds in the spring on the common garden rose, and 
the case was found in winter attached to a thorn on one of the 
stems. C. rosacella Clem, also feeds in the spring on the rose 
and sweet briar. The case is made of the cuticle of the rose- 
leaf on which the larva feeds. It is a compressed cylinder, and 
dilated slightly in the middle of the under edge. Color dark 
ochreous. (Clemens.) Coleopliora coruscipennella Clemens is 
a beautiful bronzed green species, with the terminal half of the 



352 



LEPIDOPTEEA. 



antenna- Avhite, ringed with brown. The fore wings are reddish 
violet on the apex, and the hind wings are dark brown. An 
unknown species is represented on Plate 8, fig. 17. It Avas 
found feeding on the pear the 5th of September, carrying about 
a flattened case of the form indicated in the figure, which is 
enlarged about fiA 7 e times. We have also found another Col- 
eophora larva, with a long, flattened, cylindrical case, alike at 
each end, constructed of tho outer skin of the leaf. It was 
found late in September feeding on the apple. 

In the genus Batrachedra the wings arc narroAV, especially 
the hind ones which are sharply pointed, with a tuft near the 
base of the costa. B. salidpomoneUa Clemens (Fig. 267, vena- 
tion and side view of the head, enlarged), in its lai'A r al state, 
according to Mr. Walsh, inhabits the gall 
made by a saw-fly on the willow. 

Elachista is a very extensive genus charac- 
terized by the long and slender, slightly re- 
curved palpi. The fore wings are smooth, 
elongate and rarely oblong, and the hind 
wings are narrow and pointed. The larva 
mines the lea\ r es of grasses and allied plants. 
Over fifty species haA^e been described in 
Europe. Clemens refers doubtfully to this genus, a Virginian 
species, Elachista? orichakella, which is of a beautiful metallic 
coppery color, while the hind wings and fringe are rather pale 
ochreons. 

The genus Litliocolletis comprises very minute but most richly 
colored moths. The head is rough, the labial palpi filiform 
and drooping, while the fore wings are elongate, and the hind 
wings are linear lanceolate, Avith long fringes. They are often 
excessively abundant, are rather sluggish, but fly readily in the 
early morning. In Europe they are double-brooded, and hiber- 
nate in the pupa state (Clemens states that some hibernate as 
moths), appearing in the perfect state in spring, Avhile a second 
brood of moths appear in August. The larvae have fourteen 
feet, and mine the leaA^es of trees, shrubs or low plants, sepa- 
rating either the upper or loAA^er cuticle and feeding on the 
inner substance of the leaf. When the mine is on the upper 
surface, or at least most frequently when it is in this position, 




Fig. 2(i7 



TINEID^E. 353 

the leaf becomes folded and curved at the place mined, and the 
separated cuticle is gathered into folds, or covers the curved 
portion so as to make a capacious habitation. Some of the 
miners of the upper surface of leaves make large blotches, or 
tracts, and when the mines are fresh the separated cuticle is 
whitish and very noticeable. The miners of the under surface, 
cause the upper cuticle to become discolored in patches, and 
this with the fold of the side of the leaf is often sufficient to 
indicate the presence of a mine. Usually the species are con- 
fined to a single plant ; some, however, feed on several allied 
plants. The larva seldom quits the mine and changes in it 
to a pupa. Some species either make no cocoon or only a very 
slight one, and others make one of grains of excrement woven 
together with silk. L. Fitchella Clemens (Argyromiges querci- 
foliella Fitch) is silvery white, with pale reddish saffron fore 
wings, slightly tinged with a brassy hue. It feeds on the oak, 
according to Dr. Fitch. 

L. salicifoliella Clemens during the latter part of June or 
early in July mines the under surface of the leaves of the yel- 
low willow (Salix vitellina var. alba). L. juglandieUa makes 
an elongated, rather wide tract on the upper surface of the 
leaves of the black walnut. 

During the last summer the larva of an undescribed species, 
which Ave may call Lithocolletis geminateUa (Plate 8, fig. 15 ; , 
larva ; i>, pupa ; c, its mine, the first three figures enlarged six 
diameters) was abundant on the apple and pear trees. The 
moth is of a dark slate gray, without any prominent markings, 
with ochreous hairs on the top of the head. There is a black 
round spot 011 the middle of the inner edge of the wing (omit- 
ted in the figure, which is drawn from a slightly rubbed speci- 
men). On the outer edge is an eye-like spot, pupilled with 
black, like the "eye" in a peacock's tail. The antennae are 
dark, ringed with a pale slate color. It expands .30 of an inch. 
The larva is pale livid reddish with a black head and cervical 
shield, and .14 of an inch in length. It was first discovered 
about the middle of August, hanging from a branch suspended 
by a thread. From this time it became abundant, until the 
leaves began to fall in the first week of October ; nearly even- 
leaf on some of the pear and apple trees having a mine like 

23 



354 LEPIDOPTERA. 

that represented in Plate 8, fig. 15c. Usually the larva draws 
two leaves together, or folds one up, and as it eats its way 
along the surface of the leaf, leaves its excrement filling up the 
space behind, thus making blotches and otherwise disfiguring 
the leaves. In this mine it transforms into a long slender 
pupa, which may be found surrounded with the castings of the 
larva. The moths first appeared August 19th, and flew in-doors 
at night attracted by the light. 

Bucculatrix pomonella Clem. (Plate 8, fig. 16, enlarged) is a 
pale whitish species with yellowish scales, with a black line, 
which beginning on the middle of the costa, curves around to- 
wards the apex, ending in the usual ej'e-like spot on the outer 
edge, beyond which is a dark marginal line ; in the middle of 
the wing near the inner side is a longitudinal black oval spot, 
paler within. The hind wings are pale gray, and the body and 
legs pale whitish yellow. The wings expand .30 of an inch. 
We never met with the larva, but the cocoon is long and slen- 
der, a little blunt at each end and white, with slight longitudinal 
ridges. It may be found attached to the bark on the branches 
of the apple tree in May and also in the autumn and winter. 
Besides differing from L. geminatella in making a regular co- 
coon, the pupa is a little stouter and the top of the head is 
blunter. 

Another species, which appears to be undescribed, we would 
call the LithocoUetis nidijicansdla (Plate 8, fig. 19, moth; 19 a, 
cocoon) from the singular way the cocoon is suspended in a 
leaf like a hanging nest, by silken cords. The single speci- 
men figured was found early in September, the moth appearing 
on the llth. The larva feeds on the pear, and when about to 
transform had evidently drawn the edges of the leaf together 
by a few threads, and then suspended its thin cocoon in the 
manner indicated in the figure, the position of the chrysalis 
being represented by the black line in the centre of the cocoon. 
The moth is silvery white, with gray hind wings. The fore 
wings are white, with golden bronze streaks and spots. The 
costa is white, with three oblique golden lines running out- 
wards from the edge of the wing towards the outer margin, the 
inner one being minute, and the outer one broad and less 
oblique than the others. Beyond, are three apical straight 



TINEIDJS. J355 

thread-like lines next the eye-like black dot, near which arises 
a slender pencil of long hairs. Below the costa the wing is 
spotted with gold, and there is a broad oblique golden dark 
band directed outwards and reaching to the middle of the 
wing. The costa is golden on the outer third of its length. 
The wings expand .36 of an inch. 

Lyonetia is closely allied to the preceding genus, and nuiy 
be distinguished from it by the head being smooth, the scales 
being broad and flattened down. Mr. F. G. Sanborn first 
drew our attention to this moth, having reared it from cocoons 
found on the apple. From the singular habit of the larva in 
making a case instead of living in a mine in leaves, we would 
call it the Lyonetia saccatella (Plate 8, fig. 18 ; 18 a, the larva ; 
18 &, the larva with its case, all a little enlarged). The moth 
is a perfect gem ; its head and short antennae are pale gray 
and its fore wings are light slate gray on the basal half, and 
beyond bright orange, enclosing two white bands, one costal 
and the other arising from the inner edge, both nearly meeting 
in the middle of the wing, and edged externally with black. 
There is a square, black, very conspicuous spot near the fringe, 
in which is a long pencil of black hairs, not shown in the 
figure. The outer angle of the wing is dusky. It expands 
.20 of an inch. The larva is a little flattened green worm, 
and constructs a flattened oval case of the skin of the leaf 
which it draws about. The case is open at each end, and 
is roomy enough for the larva to turn around in. It be- 
comes fully grown by the last of August, and in Octo- 
ber we have found the cocoons attached to the bark of the 
tree, where they may also be seen through the Avinter and in 
the spring. 

The last important genus, Nepticula, contains the smallest 
known lepidopterous insects. "Many of them are excessively 
beautiful, resplendent with burnished copper, gold and silver 
scales. They may be observed in May and June, sitting on 
the trunks of trees or palings ; but to see these atoms requires 
an experienced eye. Most of the species appear to be double- 
brooded, and are easily collected in plenty in the Inrva state. 
A nut-leaf, containing from twenty to thirty larva) of Nept!<-i<l<i. 
microtherieUa, is no unusual sight. In Nepticula the antennae 



356 LEPIDOPTEKA. 

are not halt' as long as the fore wings, which are rather broad 
while the hind pair are lanceolate. 

k 'The larva* mine very narrow serpentine paths in the inte- 
rior of leaves, the mine being always on the upper surface. 
They vary much in form, being sometimes a slender gallery or 
line, either simple, or enlarged towards the end into a blotch. 
When the larva is full-fed it quits the mine, cutting for this 
purpose the separated cuticle, in order to weave a minute co- 
coon." (Clemens.) N. corylifoliella Clemens mines the hazel. 
N. platanella Clemens mines the button-wood tree, or s}-ca- 
more, and JV. amelanchierella Clemens mines the leaves of the 
June berry in June and July. 

PTEROPHORID^E Latreille. The small group of Plume-moth* 
may be at once known by their fissured and plumed wings. 
The bod}' is long and slender, with long antennae and legs. 
They are the lowest moths, the long slender abdomen and lis- 
sured wings being marks of degradation. The larvae have six- 
teen legs and are rather hairy. They form no cocoon, but, 
fastening themselves b}^ the tail to a leaf or stem, shed their 
larva-skins and appear in the pupa state. Some of the pupa- 
are nearly as hairy as the larvae, others are quite naked. Most 
of the larvae feed in the early summer months, and the perfect 
insects appear rather later, though some maybe seen in spring. 
(Stainton, Manual of British Butterflies and Moths.) 

In Pt&ropliorus the hind margin of the fore wing is more or 
less deeply cleft, while the hind wings are almost divided into 
three separate slender lobes or plumes. The larva j live in the 
flowers and stems as well as on the leaves of plants. P. peri- 
scelidactylus Fitch (Plate 8, fig. 23 ; , larva ; b, pupa, enlarged) 
is tawn}* yellow, the fore wings having three large white spots 
and two bands beyond ; the outer line is thread-like, the inner 
line being much broader on the costal division of the wing, re- 
appearing at the base of the split in the wing, and below 
extending out to the lower half of the outer line. The hind 
wings are darker brown than the rest of the moth, while the 
third and shortest division of the wing is white, but brown at 
the end, with the fringe on the outer fourth of the wing still 
darker brown. The legs are white with tufts of brown scales 



PTEROPHOEI D-K . 



357 



surrounding the hind legs. It expands .65 of an inch. The 
larvae, received from Mr. M. C. Reed, of Hudson, Ohio, were 
pale green, with a greenish yellow head. Along the bod}' is a 
double dorsal paler line, and whitish tubercles, from which pro- 
ceed very long uneven hairs, and the body is also covered with 
very short white hairs, giving a frosted appearance to the 
worm. They are about half an inch long. About the middle 
of June it changes to the singular chrysalis represented on the 
plate, and in about a fortnight appears as one of the most deli- 
cate and graceful of moths. It may be seen frying about our 
graperies in midsummer, and is attracted to our apartments 
after nightfall by the lights within. It feeds upon the young 
leaves of the grape, hiding itself in a hollow ball made of 
leaves drawn together by threads. The pupa is slender, coni- 
cal, obliquely truncated at the head, with two long compressed 
horns placed side by side, and jutting upwards from the mid- 
dle of its back, and numerous smaller projecting points and 
ridges. It reminds one of the chrysalids of the butterflies, 
in its habit of remaining attached by its tail to the plant on 
which it feeds. 

In Alucita the wings are still farther subdivided, each wing 
being divided from the base into six distinct feathers. The 
larva of the European A. potydactyla feeds in the unopened 
buds of the honey-suckle. It is not hairy, and spins a co- 
coon. 




Fig. '2C.O. 
ius Thoc Wot wood, 



DIPTEEA. 



DIPTERA 

FLIES may be easily recognized by their having but a single 
pair of wings, the hinder pair being aborted, and existing in a 
rudimentary state under the name of "halter" The more es- 
sential character of the Uiptera, however, consists in the greatly 
centralized, more or less globular thorax. Both the prothorax 
and metathorax are greatly aborted, and the legs are somewhat 
weak. As the second pair of wings are obsolete, the muscles 
adapted for flying are not developed. 

When the wings are entirely wanting, as in Chionea, the 
Spider fly, and the Spider-like Bat-tick (Nycteribia), the tho- 
rax becomes still more globular, and the head of Nycteribia 
shows a tendency to become immersed in the thorax, as in the 
spiders. 

The abdomen is either short, conical and broad at the base, 
being rarely pedicellate ; or long and cylindrical, or flattened 
either horizontally or laterally. The conical form of the abdo- 
men accords with the quick jerky flight of the House fly, ;is 
compared with the steady slow flight of Tipula, whose abdomen 
is very long. The abdomen is composed of from five to nine 
distinct segments. As Lacaze-Duthiers states, the Diptera as 
a rule have no true ovipositor like that of bees, etc., though the 
three terminal rings are retracted within the abdominal cavity, 
and are capable of being thrust ont like the joints of a telescope. 
When about to lay their eggs they simply place them in cracks 
or upon the substances that are to form the future food of the 
larva, having no organs for boring, though the female Tipulids 
are able to work the hard tip of the abdomen into the ground 
where they deposit their eggs. The terminal ring of the abdo- 
men in the males is provided with clasping organs. 

The head is very free from the thorax in the true flies, and 
is spherical, hemispherical or conical. The eyes are large, with 
very numerous facets, and often approach each other closely on 
the front of the head, especially in the males. The ocelli, when 
present, are placed on the vertex, and the antennae are in- 
serted below, in the middle (antero-posteriorly) of the front. 



DIPTERA. 

They are either long and evenly jointed, as in the 

often with long cilia, and sometimes verticillate, as in Ce- 

cidomyia ; or, as in the House fly, the typical form is a 

short and stout, two to three-jointed antenna, ending in a 

bristle. 

In the Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera only a portion of the 
mouth parts are used for sucking in food, but in the present 
group, the labrum, with the two pairs of appendages, i. e., the 
maxillae and mandibles, are (when all are well developed, as 
in the Mosquito) ensheathed partially within the labium, and 
with the last form a channel for the passage of the fluid food 
into the mouth. 

The labium forms the under side of the sheath, while the 
mandibles and maxillae are represented by simple setse, though 
the one, two, or three-jointed maxillary palpi are present, and 
in this last character the rostrum of the flies differs from the 
beak of the Hemiptera. As in the Hymenoptera, the lingua 
is well, though differently developed, terminating in a large 
fleshy knob which is divided into two fleshy flaps called the 
labelloB. 

The wings are naked, as in the Hymenoptera, though fine 
hairs may be detected by the microscope on the veins, becom- 
ing most apparent in the Psychodre, where the wings are very 
hairy. In form they are long and narrow, the costal edge 
being straight, the apex of the wing obtusery rounded, while 
the oblique outer edge is very long and nearly parallel with 
the costa, where in the Lepidoptera it is nearly at right an- 
gles to it. The veins are six in number, and in their direction 
and branches (Fig. 270-271) correspond more closely with the 
venation of the Lepidoptera than any other suborder. The 
veins are straight, and with fewer branches than in the Lepi- 
doptera, but with more cross venules, which in the wing of 
the Tipulidce, remind us of the net-veined Neuroptera. 
When, as in the Cecidonryise, the veins become in part ob- 
solete, only three veins remain, the costal, subcostal and 
median. The form and size of the cells, especially the submar- 
ginal ones, are of much use in distinguishing the species, while 
the changes in the costal and basal portion of the wing are 
the most important in classifying the genera and families. 



360 



DIPTERA. 



The function of the halteres, or "poisers," is still problema- 
tical. Hicks and Leydig consider them as organs of hearing, 
while Goureau and Loew think they are concerned in the act 
of respiration. 

Besides the well known wingless genus Chionea, and the 
Flea, Sheep-tick, and Braula, Loew, the eminent German ento- 
mologist, enumerates several European species of Tipula, the 
females of which have the wings rudimentary ; and also a spe- 
cies of Liinnobia (Idioptera). Epidapus is wingless in both 
sexes. " Psyllomyia, Apterina and Elachiptera, and species 
of Tachista, Chersodromia and Geomyza have rudimentaiy 
wings in both sexes ; in other forms the wings are only abbre- 
viated in both sexes (Sciomyza), or in those. of the male or fe- 
male are smaller than in the other sex (species of Empis, 
Rhamphomyia, Idioptera and Tipula)." 

FIG. 270. Diagram of a wing with two submarginnl and fire posterior cells (Clcidiirn 
indivlsii). Cells : 1, costal; 2, subcostal; 3, marginal ; 3*, inner marginal ; 4, sub- 
marginal; 5, second submarginal; 6-10, first to fifth posterior; 11, discal; 12, lirst 
basal; 13, second basal; 14, anal; 15, axillary; 1(5, spurious. Veins: b I, auxiliary ; 
c m, first longitudinal; h, n, o, second longitudinal; h i, praefurca; k 11, anterior 
branch of the second longitudinal vein ; J: o, posterior branch of the second longi- 
tudinal vein; ik, petiole of the first submarginal cell; / p, third longitudinal: d q 
r x t, fourth longitudinal; q r, fork of its anterior branch; the posterior branch of 
this fork, ending in r, is Mr. Loe\v's ai/ti-rtur intercalary rein; s t, fork of the )><>-- 
terior branch of the fourth vein ; the branch of this fork, ending in t, is Mr. Loe\v'> 
posterior intercalary vein ; e it, fifth longitudinal; / v, sixth longitudinal; (j w, 
seventh longitudinal. Oox.s-n 7//x : .r, humeral; a; *, subcostal; area:, marginal; 
*, small, or anterior cross-vein; a;**, great cross-vein. From Osten Sack<-. 



\\\ 




H 



Fig. 270. 

FIG. 271 (1). Wing of Ortalis. , transverse shoulder-vein ; b, auxiliary vein ; c, 
<1, c, f, (/ and h, first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth longitudinal veins; i, 
small or middle transverse vein; J:, hinder transverse vein; I, m, n, o, costal vein; 
p, anterior basal transverse vein; q, posterior basal transvei'se vein; r, rudiment 
of the fourth trunk; s, axillary incision; A, B, and C, first, second and third costal 
cells; I), marginal cell; E, submarginal cell; F, G and H, first, second and third 
lterior cells; 7, discal cell; K, first or large basal cell ; L, second basal cell, <>r 



DIPTERA. 



361 



M. Marey has determined that a common fly when held cap- 
tive moves its wings 330 times a second; a honey bee 190 
times, and a cabbage butterfly (Pieris) nine times. The wings 
describe a figure 8 in the air. (Cosmos.) Laudois, calcu- 
lating the rapidity of the vibrations by the sound produced 

anterior of the small basal cells ; M, third basal cell, or posterior of the small 
basal cells; N, anal or axillary comer of the wing; O, alar appendage, (alula). 

FIG. 271 (2). Wing of Empis. t, anterior branch of the third longitudinal vein; 
M, anterior intercalary. 




Fig. 271. 

FIG. 271 (3). Wing of Dasypoyon. t, anterior branch of the third longitudinal 
vein; u, anterior intercalary vein; r, posterior intercalary vein. From Loew. 

Comparing the wing of Ortalis with that of the bee and butterfly figured oil 
page 23, we should prefer to use the same terminology and call Z, m, n, the margi- 
nal vein ; A, b, the costal ; c, d and e the three branches of the subcostal vein ; /, the 
median vein; /*, the submedian ; and r, the internal vein. In Macquart's system, 
modified slightly by Sacken (fig. 270), b, I, is the costal; cm, the subcostal; d and e, 
the median ; /, the submediau, and g the internal vein. 



362 DIPTERA. 

thereby, states that the fly, which produces the sound of F, vi- 
brates its wings 352 times a second, and the bee, which makes 
the sound of A', 440 times a second. u On the contraiy a tired 
bee hums on E', and therefore vibrates its wings only 330 times 
in a second. This difference is probably involuntary, but the 
change of 'tone' is evidently under the command of the will, 
and thus offers another point of similarity to a true ' voice.' 
A bee in the pursuit of honey hums continually and content- 
edly on A', but if it is excited or angry it produces a very dif- 
ferent note. Thus, then, the sounds of insects do not merely 
serve to bring the sexes together ; they are not merely ' love 
songs,' but also serve, like airy true language, to express the 
feelings. (Sir John Lubbock's Address before the London 
Entomological Society, 1868.) 

Landois describes the sound-producing organs in several 
genera of flies. "He distinguishes three different tones as 
emitted by these insects : during flight, a relatively low tone, 
a higher one when the wings are held so as to prevent their 
vibrating, and a higher still when the fly is held so that all mo- 
tion of the external parts is prevented. The last mentioned 
is the true voice of the insect ; it is produced by the stigmata 
of the thorax, and may be heard when every other part of the 
body is cut away. The first sound is caused by the rapid vi- 
bration of the wings in the air ; the second is caused, or at all 
events accompanied, l)y the vibration and friction of the abdo- 
minal segments, and by a violent movement of the head 
against the anterior wall of the thorax." The halteres also 
assist in producing the sound. The vibration of the head in 
the Diptera during the emission of sound is regarded by this 
author as due to the transmission of movement from the tho- 
rax. (Zoological Record, 1867.) Landois also states that 
there are small species which give a deeper note than larger 
ones, on account of the wing-vibrations not being of the same 
number in a given time. (Lubbock.) 

The legs are slender, unarmed, except with stout bristles, as 
in Asilus ; the joints are simple, cylindrical ; the tarsi are five- 
jointed, the terminal joint ending in two claws (ungues), be- 
tween which is the cushion, or pvlvUliis, consisting of two or 
three fleshv vesicles, often armed with hairs, which are tubular, 



DIPTERA. 303 

and secrete an adhesive fluid, which is said to aid the fly in 
walking up-side-down on polished surfaces. 

The nervous system in the Diptera is characterized by a 
grouping of the thoracic ganglia into a single mass, from which 
proceed nerves to the abdomen ; the abdominal ganglia being 
for the most part aborted. Thus in some Muscidw, CEstrus, 
and Hippobosca, the nervous cord behind the cephalic portion, 
consists of a single thoracic ganglion, which gives out nerves 
in different directions. The higher Muscids, such as Syrphus 
and Conops have in addition one or two ganglia situated at 
the base of the abdomen. The higher groups, such as the 
Tabanidce, As Hi dee and Bombylidce have six ganglia, 
and the Empidw, Tipulidce, and Culicidce have more. 
The larvae usually have one more pair than the adult, having 
ten and sometimes eleven ganglia, with long commissures, 
which are often double. 

The digestive system is less complex than usual. As in the 
two preceding suborders, on one side of the oesophagus is a 
pedicellate sucking stomach Avhich extends into the abdomen 
near the true chyle-making stomach. The latter is of the 
usual intestinoid form, enlarging a little anteriorly, with two 
coecal appendages beneath on each side, near the cardiac ex- 
tremity. 

The four, rarely five, Malpighian vessels which correspond 
to the kidneys of vertebrates, are united before they open into 
the single or double common outlet. 

There are two main trachese, and two large air-sacs, one on 
each side, at the base of the abdomen. The system of tracheae 
is simplest in the aquatic Tipulid larvae, resembling in this 
respect the Phrygauese, where the tracheae are subcutaneous 
and designed to extract the air from the water. 

The testes are generally colored, being provided with a pig- 
ment layer. They are oval, curved or tortuous glands, with 
a short efferent vessel (vas differens). The ovaries consist of 
three to four chambered tubes, and a short oviduct. The r<>- 
ceptaculum seminis is generally triple. A true bnrsa copulotri.r 
is wanting in the Diptera, but in "rnairy Muscidce the vagina 
has, as a seminal receptacle or uterus, a spacious and sometimes 
two-lobed reservoir in which the fecundated eo-gs are accumu- 



3C.4 DIL'TERA. 

lated in great numbers, and remain until the larva.' are suffi- 
ciently developed to lie hatched, so that these animals are 
viviparous. In the pupiparous Hippoboscae, the female organs 
are formed on an entirely special type, corresponding with the 
remarkable mode of reproduction in these animals." (Siebold.) 
Near the external opening of the oviduct is a pair of glands 
designed to secrete the gummy matter coating the eggs. 

The eggs of the Diptera are usually cylindrical, elon- 
gated and slightly curved, and the surface is smooth, not being 
ornamented as in the Lepidoptera. In the Tipulidce, the 
eggs become mature as soon as the pupa skin is thrown off, 
when they are immediately laid. 

The larvre are footless, white, fleshy, thin skinned, cylindrical 
and worm-like, spindled or linear in shape. They have, in the 
higher families, as in the Tipulidce, a distinct head ; but they 
are often headless, as in the Muscidce, and are then called 
maggots. They live in mould, decaying organic substances, or 
in the water. Mairy maggots are provided with two corneous 
hooks, probably the mandibles, with which they seize their food. 
The pupa is either naked (Pupa obtecta, Fig. 276), like the 
chrysalids of moths, with the limbs exposed, as in the Tipu- 
lidm ; or they are coarctate (pupa coarctata, Fig. 
272) as in the flies generally, the skin of the larva 
serving to protect the soft pupa within, as during 
the growth of the pupa the old larval skin separates 
from the newly formed pupa skin, which contracts 
slightly. It is then called the puparium, and is 
usually cylindrical and regularly rounded at each end 
like the cocoon of moths. Those which have the 
Fig. 27-2. pnpne obtected, when aquatic and active, are provided 
with gill-like filaments permeated with tracheae. 

The semipupa stage of Diptera, corresponds generally with 
that of the Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. By an ingenious 
device Dr. Fitch succeeded in observing in the living insect 
the processes by which the larva of the willow Cecidomyia 
(C. sulicis) turns to a pupa, and which is usually accomplished 
during the night. He states that "as the first step of this 
change, at the anterior end of the larva the ctitis or opake 
inner skin becomes wholly broken up and dissolved into a 




DIITEKA. 

wateiy fluid, whereby the thiii transparent outer skin or cuticle 
is elevated like a vesicle or blister, which occupies about 
a fourth of the length of the worm on its under side, but 
is much shorter on its back. The insect is now in its em- 
bryo-pupa state, having lost its larva form and having not 
yet assumed its pupa form. In the fluid contained in this vesi- 
cle, the wings, legs and antennae of the future fly now begin 
to be developed, whereby the sheaths of the wings at length 
come to be discerned immediately under the skin. This skin 
is exceedingly thin, delicate and transparent, like the tunica, 
arachnoides of the human brain, a mere film, as thin as a spi- 
der's Aveb. Eventually the insect, by gently writhing, ruptures 
this film at its anterior end, and gradually crowds it off down- 
wards to the lower end of the vesicle, carrying the minute 
black jaws of the larva with it. It there remains, becoming 
dry and torn into shreds which flake and fall off by the con- 
tinued motions of the insect. At the same time from the 
remainder of the surface not occupied by this vesicle, a still 
more slight and delicate film, appearing as though the worm 
had been wet in milk which had dried upon it, forming an ex- 
ceedingly thin pellicle or scurf, becomes separated by the same 
motions of the insect and drops off in minute scales scarcely 
to be perceived with a magnifying glass. And now the insect 
has acquired its perfect pupa form." 

Frederic Brauer has proposed in his " Monographic der 
CEstriden," a division of the Diptera into two large groups. 
This division is much more natural than the old one into those 
with coarctate and obtected pupte. The first group is the Dip- 
tera orthorapha, comprising the Nemocera, or flies with long au- 
teimne, together with the /Stratiomyidce, Xylophagidce, 
Tabanidce, Acroceridce (?), Bombylidce, Asilidce , 
Leptidw, Therevidce, Empidce and Dolicliopidoi (pass- 
ing over some small families whose metamorphoses are not 
known). In these families the larva skin at the last moult 
splits down along the middle of the back of the three thoracic 
rings, while a transverse split on the first thoracic ring makes a 
T-shaped fissure. Through this the mummy-like pupa with free 
limbs escapes ; or it remains within the loose envelope formed 
by the old larval skin, when this author calls it a "false pu- 
parium." 



DIPT ERA. 

In the second group, the Diptera cydorapha, the true coarc- 
tate, cylindrical, smooth pupariuni is formed by the contraction 
of the larva skin, but is A'ery different in shape from the ma- 
ture larva ; while this pupariuin remains in vital connection by 
means of trachea?, with the enclosed pupa, which escapes from 
the pupariuni through a curved seam or lid in the anterior 
end, and not by a slit in the back. This group includes the 
Pipunciilidce , Syrpliidw, Conopidce, (E strides, Mus- 
cidce and P up i par a. 

Certain Diptera are injurious to crops, as gall producers, but 
indirectly the Tachinidce are beneficial since they prey on cat- 
erpillars ; while the greater number act as scavengers in the 
water and on land, and thus as sanitary agents. Diptera enjoy 
a wider geographical range than other insects. None of the 
larger families are exclusively tropical; the Muscidce and 
mosquitoes are found in the circumpolar regions in abundance, 
as well as in the tropics. They are the earliest to appear in 
spring and the latest to disappear in autumn. They are 
active at all times, in rain or sunshine, day or night, though 
the greater number prefer the sunshine. 

From their habit of living in vegetables, flowers, and other 
substances sometimes eaten by persons, physicians occasion- 
ally are called to treat cases where dipterous larvae have been 
swallowed and produced sickness. Among those most fre- 
quently vomited are larva? of various Muscids, especially An- 
thomyia. " C. Gerhardt records a case in which a patient, after 
four days illness, vomited about fifty larvae of some dipterous 
insect, probably a large species of Muscida?. A. Laboul- 
bene describes and figures in the Annals of the Entomologi- 
cal Society of France, a larva of Teichonvyza fusca Macquart, 
which is exceedingly abundant in the public urinals in France, 
and which lives in human urine. He identifies it with the 
larvae described and figured by Davaine in 1857, as having been 
evacuated from the intestines of a woman after she had suffered 
much pain. (Zoological Record for 18G7.) Four other cases 
are on record of larvae having been voided by the urinary pas- 
sages, or found living in urine, though, as suggested to us by 
Dr. Hagen, it is possible that in such cases, the worms were 
not A'oided, but lived in the urine previous to the time they 
were detected by the reporters of such cases. 



DIPTEKA. ;}(J7 

Dr. J. Leidy reports in the Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for 1859, a case where a num- 
ber of specimens which "appeared to be the larvae of the Blue- 
bottle fly," were given him by a plrysician, having been vorni- 
ited from the stomach by a child. Also, a second case where 
numerous larvae of a species of Anthomyia, " were given to him 
for examination by a physician who had obtained them from 
his own person. He had been seized with all the symptoms 
of cholera morbus, and in the discharges he had detected nu- 
merous specimens of this, to him, unknown parasite. It was 
in the latter part of summer, and the larvae, it is suspected, 
had been swallowed with some cold boiled vegetables. Dr. 
Leidy had observed the same kind of larva in another case, 
accompanied with the ordinary phenomena of cholera mor- 
bus." 

Isidore Geoftroy Saint Hilaire records a case of a larva of 
the common fly found living in the skin of an infant ; while 
Dr. Livingston, according to Cobbold, detected a "solitary 
larva of a species which had taken up its residence in his leg. 
Dr. Kirk removed this parasite by incision ; and on a second 
occasion he obtained a similar specimen , from the shoulder of 
a negro." 

There are about 2,500 species of North American flies de- 
scribed, and it is probable that the number of living North 
American species amounts to 10,000. In Europe there are also 
about 10,000 known species, belonging to about 680 genera. 

The flies of this country, compared with the other groups, 
have been but little studied, though the habits of many are so 
interesting and the species very numerous. The different parts 
of the body vary much more than in the Hymenoptera and 
Lepidoptera, and in such a degree as to often afford compara- 
tively easy characters for discriminating the genera. 

Their habits are very variable. Fresh water aquaria are 
necessary for the maintenance of aquatic larvae. If quantities 
of swamp mud and moss with decaying matter are kept in boxes 
and jars, multitudes of small flies will be hatched out. Leaf- 
mining and seed-inhabiting species can be treated as micro- 
lepidoptera, and earth-inhabiting larvae like ordinary cater- 
pillars. Dung, mould in hollow trees, stems of plants and 



. DIPTERA. 

toadstools contain numerous larvae or maggots, as the young 
of flies are called, which must be kept in damp boxes. 

Flies can be pinned alive, without killing them ~by pressure, 
which destroys their form ; and numbers may be killed at once 
by moistening the bottom of the collecting box with creosote, 
benzine or ether, or putting them into a bottle with a wide 
mouth, containing cyanide of potassium. Minute species can 
be pinned with very slender pins, or pieces of fine silver wire, 
and stuck into pieces of pith, which can be placed high up 
on a large pin. In pinning long-legged, slender species, it is 
advisable to run a piece of card or paper up under their bodies 
upon which their legs may rest, and thus prevent their loss 
by breakage. Of these insects, as with all others, duplicates 
in all stages of growth should be preserved in alcohol, while 
the minute species dry up unless put in spirits. 

In the genuine flies the thorax is highly centralized ; the 
maxilla} are covered by the labrurn, and the lab him is not pro- 
vided with palpi. The females lay eggs from which the larva' 
are hatched. They are also divided into the Nemocera, com- 
prising those flies having long, thread-like, many-jointed an- 
tennae, and embracing the higher families, i.e. the C-nUcidw, 
Tip u 1 i d w , Bibion i d ce and E h yp li i d vc ; while the remain- 
ing families of this division are included in the Brachyceru. or 
flies with short antenna, such as the Muscidce, etc. But the 
fossil genera, Electra and Chryothemis, discovered b t y Profes- 
sor Loew in the amber of the Tertiary formation, and a North 
American genus of Xylophagidw , and the genus Rachieerus, 
have intermediate characters combining these distinctions, 
which are thus shown to be somewhat arbitrary. 



Latreille. The family of Mosquitoes or Gnats 
have the mouth-parts very long and slender ; the maxilla? and 
mandibles are free and lancet-like. Figure 274 (A, larva ; c, 
its respiratory tube ; B, pupa ; c?, the respiratory tubes ; o, the 
end of the abdomen, with the two oar-like swimming leaves, 
seen in profile at B, from drawings made by Mr. E. Burgess,) 
illustrates the transformations of a species inhabiting brackish 
water in the vicinity of Boston. The larva 1 remain most of 
the time at the bottom feeding upon decaying matter, thus act- 



CULICIDvK. 




Pis-. 



ing as scavengers and doing great benefit in clearing swamps 
of niiasms. Occasionally they rise to the surface for air by a 
jerking movement, inhaling it through the star-like respiratory 
tube which connects with the tracheae. 

The pupae have club-shaped bodies owing to the greatly en- 
larged thorax, with two respiratory tubes like those of Corethra, 
situated on the thorax. They 
remain near the surface of 
the water wriggling towards 
the bottom when disturbed, 
aided by the two broad 
swimming caudal leaves. 
Though active in their hab- 
its they do not eat. The eggs 
are laid in a boat-shaped 
mass, which floats on the surface of the water. About four 
weeks after hatching the imago appears, so that there are 
several broods during the summer. The females alone bite, 
the males not coming into our apartments but spending their 
lives in the retirement of the swamps and woods. 

This genus abounds in the high Arctic regions as well as in 
the tropics. Culex pipiens 
Linn, inhabits Europe, and 
there are over thirty North 
American species described in 
various works. 

Figure 274 represents a ver- 
tical and side view of the head 
(greatly magnified) of a com- 
mon species of Culex found in 
Labrador. The antennae (a) 
do not reach as far as the tip 
of the beak, and are supplied 
at each joint with a thin ver- 
ticil of hairs (by an oversight 
partly omitted in the upper fig- 
ure). The beak consists of a stout bristle-like labrum (not 
shown in the figure), the bristle-like maxillae (mx, with their 
rather large three-jointed palpi mp) with the mandibles (?n) 
24 




Pi"- -'74. 



370 DIPTEKA. 

which are thicker than the maxilla? and barbed at the tip, and 
the single hair-like lingua, or tongue (/</). These five bristle- 
like organs are folded together within the hollowed labium (/), 
which is a little enlarged at the tip, and forms a gutter-like cast' 
for the rest of the month-parts. The mosquito, without any 
apparent effort, thrusts them, thus massed into a single awl-liko 
beak, into the flesh, and draws in the blood through the chan- 
nel formed by the tine bristles, AVestwood stating that the la- 
bium does not penetrate the flesh, but becomes bent upon 
the breast of the fly. He adds "it is supposed that, at 
the same time it instils into the wound a venomous liquid, 
which, while it enables the blood to flow faster, is the chief 
cause of the subsequent irritation." So far as we are aware 
no poison glands have been demonstrated to exist in the head of 
flies, or other six-footed insects, and we are disposed to doubt 
whether any poison is poured into the wound, and to question 
whether the barbed mandibles are not sufficient to produce 
the irritation ordinarily accompanying the punctured wound 
made by the mosquito as well as other flies. 

A large mosquito, with two light spots on each wing (Ano- 
pheles quadrimaculatus Say), bites fiercely. It is abundant 
very early in the spring before other mosquitoes appear. It 
seems to hibernate in houses. The genus Corethra has the 
male antennae very long and densely hairy. The wings are 
finely ciliated as in Culex, and the inner edge has a short 
fringe. The beautifully transparent and delicate whitish larva' 
may be seen in early spring in quiet pools. Early in April 
the pupa state is assumed, disclosing the flies late in the 
month. 

CHIRONOMID.E Westwood. Of this small family the genus 
Chironomus includes some small species which are mosquito- 
like, with feathered antennae, and abound in swarms in early 
spring before the snow disappears. The larvae are long, slen- 
der, worm-like ; sometimes of a blood-red color, and aquatic in 
their habits. While most of the larvae of this genus live in 
fresh water, we have observed multitudes of the young of C. 
oceanicus Pack, living on floating eel-grass and in green sea- 
weeds at low water mark in Salem harbor. There are two 



CECIDOMYID^E. 



371 




broods of the larvae, the first becoming fully grown the last of 

April, the other the last of September, b 

the flies appearing about the middle of 

October. The larva (Fig. 275, a, en- 

larged about three times, with the head 

greatly magnified ; b, the labrum ; c, 

the mandibles ; f?, the labium) is cy- 

lindrical, whitish and about a quarter 

of an inch long. The single pair of 

fore legs (Fig. 276) are provided with Fj - -""> 

about twenty-five longitudinal rows of hooks, while the anal 

legs (Fig. 277 ; o, a portion of the dorsal vessel) terminate in 
a single crown of hooks which can be drawn 
in out of sight. The worms were found either 
creeping over the surface of the weeds, or if 
about to pupate, concealed in a rude thin case 
or tube, formed of the debris collected on the 
weeds. It feeds on sea-weeds and small 
worms. It remains in the pupa state (Fig. 
276) about two weeks, transforming into a fly 
(Fig. 278 male, and head of the female) which 
differs from the true Chironomi in having 
shorter antennae and smaller palpi, and also in 

the venation, and the longer thoratf. Tauypus 

resembles Culex in its larva and pupa state, 

being of similar form. Lyonnet figures a 

larva which spins a movable case of silk and 

moss. The eggs of T. variits are laid on the 

leaves of aquatic plants, and fastened together 

with gluten. Some species of Ceratopogon, like the mosquito, 

are blood suckers. The larvae are, however, terrestrial, living 

in mushrooms, or under the bark of decaying trees. 

CECIDOMYID^ Westwood. The group of Gall-flies comprises 
minute, delicate, slender-bodied species, whose bodies are 
clothed with long hairs. The wings have usually three or 
four longitudinal veins, and are folded over the back. 
They are gall-flies, the female laying her eggs in the stalk of 
cereals, and in the stems, leaves and buds of various plants 




Fi<*. 27H. 




' 277 - 



DIPTEUA. 



which produce gall-like excrescences inhabited by the larv;v. 
The Wheat-midge or Hessian-fly does not, however, produce 
such an enlargement, while other larvae only produce a folding 
of the leaf, swelling of a leaf-rib, or arrest the growth of a 
bud or stalk. 

Before giving a special account of the Wheat-midge, so de- 
structive to wheat crops, let us, with the aid of Baron Osten 
Sacken's resume in the Smithsonian Monographs of North 
American Diptera, Part 1, take a glance at the habits of the 
family. As a rule the species prefer living plants, though sev- 
eral species of Epidosis and Diplosis live in decaying wood, and 

C. fuscicollis Meigen 
( ? ) has been reared 
by Bouche from de- 
caying bulbs of tulips 
and h y a c i n t h s . 
Others live under the 
bark of trees, in the 
cones of pines, or in 
fungi. Each species 
is, as a rule, confined 
to a peculiar species 
of plant. Some of 
the larva- 1 live as 
guests or parasites 
in galls formed by other Cecidoinyiae. Thus C. acrophila and 
C. pavida live socially in the deformed buds of Fraxinus ; and 
Diplosis socialis inhabits the gall of Lasioptera rubi. The 
larvae of some species of Diplosis are parasitic among the plant- 
lice (Aphis). Some of the larvae live on the surface of leaves, 
C. glutiuosa having been found by Osten Sacken living on the 
surface of hickory leaves. 




27S. 



The 



rather long, cylindrical eggs laid on the surface c\' 



leaves, etc., are generally hatched in a few days, though this 
period may be hastened or retarded by heat or cold. The 
young larvae are colorless and transparent, with age becoming 
reddish or yellow, or white. They are fourteen-jointed, a 
supposed supernumerary joint being placed between the head 
and the first thoracic segment. The last abdominal ring in 



CBCIDOMYIDJE. 373 

sometimes provided with bristles or horny spinules, frequently 
curved, which aid the larvae in leaping, as they have been 
observed by Dufour to do. The head and month-parts are 
exceedingly rudimentary, consisting of a ring with two pro- 
cesses extending backwards ; the soft fleshy labium protrudes 
through this ring ; and from the upper part of the ring 
arise a pair of two-jointed organs, supposed to be rndirnental 
antenna 1 . On the under side of the body at the juncture of 
the first or prothoracic segment with the supernumerary seg- 
ment, is a horny piece called, provisionally, the breast-bone 
(Fig. 284, a), and which is present in most of the larvae of this 
group. The larvae having no jaws, must suck in the sap and 
moisture through the mouth, or absorb it through the skin. 
They make no excrement, like the larvae of the Hive bee and 
Humble bee. Though their motions are ordinarily slow, just 
before pupation they are very active. The larvae are not 
known to moult, though probably the larva skin is shed by 
gradually peeling off in shreds, in this respect resembling the 
thin-skinned larvae of bees. 

Some larvae of C'ecidomyia before becoming pupae, leave 
their galls and descend to the ground, while others remain in 
them, where they spin a slight silken cocoon. Dr. Harris has 
described the mode of pupation of the larva of C. solids Fitch, 
stating that "-the approaching change is marked b}' an altera- 
tion of the color of the anterior segments of the larva, which 
from orange become red and shining, as if distended by 
blood. Soon afterwards, rudimentary legs, wings and antennae 
begin, as it were, to bud and put forth, and rapidly grow to 
their full pupal dimensions, and thus the transformation to the 
pupa is completed." This process is undergone beneath the 
larva skin, out of which the pupa does not draw its body, as in 
the obtected diptera generally. The larva skin, dried and cy- 
lindrical in shape, thus serves as a cocoon to preserve the soft 
pupa from harm. The semi pupa of C. destructor thus "takes 
the form and color of a flax-seed. While this change is going 
on externally, the body of the insect gradually cleaves from its 
outer dry and brownish skin. When this is carefully opened, 
the included insect will be seen to be still in the larva state.* 

*This " larva " is probably the semipupa, or "beginning- of the pupa state" 
(Harris), ami may be compared with the semipupa of the Bee. (Fig. '27.) 



374 



DIl'TKUA. 



It does not change its condition and become a true pupa until 
a few days before it discloses the winged insect." 

The pupa resembles that of the fungus-eating Tipulids. 
such as Sciara. The bases of the antennae are often produced 
into horn-like points, which aid the pupa in working its wax- 
out from the gall before assuming the fly state, and for the 
same purpose the back of the abdomen is spinose. and often 
there are a few bristles at the tip. 

According to Dr. Harris, the Cecidomyia, destructor Say, or 
Hessian-fly (Fig. 279), has two broods, as the flies appear in 
the spring and autumn. At each of these periods the fly lays 

twenty or thirty eggs in a 
crease in the leaf of the young 
plant. In about four days, 
in warm weather, they hatch 
and the pale red larvae (a) 
"crawl down the leaf, work- 
ing their Avay in between it and 
the main stalk, passing down- 
wards till they come to a joint, 
just above which the}' remain, 
a little below the surface 
of the ground, with the head towards the root of the plant" (<). 
Here they imbibe the sap by suction alone, and by the simple 
pressure of their bodies they become embedded in the side of 
the stem. Two or three larva 1 thus embedded serve to weaken 
the plant, and cause it to wither and die. The larva 1 become 
full grown in five or six weeks, then measuring about three- 
twentieths of an inch in length. About the first of December 
their skin hardens, becomes brown and then turns to n 
bright chestnut color. This is the so-called flax-seed state, or 
puparium. In two or three weeks the "-larva" (or more truly 
speaking, the semipupa) becomes detached from the old case. 
In this puparium the larva remains through the winter. To- 
wards the end of April or the beginning of May the pupa (Fig. 
279, 6) becomes fully formed, and in the middle of May, in New 
England, the pupa conies forth from the brown puparium, 
"wrapped in a thin white skin," according to Herrick, "which 
it soon breaks and is then at liberty." The flies appear just as 




Fijr. -279. 



CECIDOMYID.K. y75 

the wheat is coining up : they lay their eggs for a period of 
three weeks, and then entirely disappear. The maggots hatched 
from these eggs take the flax-seed form in June and July, and 
are thus found in the harvest time, most of them remaining on 
the stubble. Most of the flies appear in the autumn, but others 
remain in the puparium until the following spring. By burn- 
ing the stubble in the fall, their attacks may best be prevented. 
Among the parasites on this species, are the egg-parasites, 
Platygaster, and Semiotellus (Ceraphron) destructor Say (Fig. 
140), the latter of which pierces 
the larva through the sheath of the 
leaf. Two other Ichneumon para- 
sites, according to Herrick, destroy 
the fly while in the flax-seed or 
semipupa state. The ravages of the 
Hessian-fly have been greatly 
checked by these minute insects, so 
that it is in many localities not so 
destructive as it was formerly. Dr. 
Fitch has suggested that the Euro- Fi "- 14ft - 

pean parasites of this insect and the C. tritici, could be im- 
ported and bred in large quantities, so as to stop their ravages. 
With proper pecuniary aid from the State this seems feasible, 
while our native parasites might perhaps also be bred and 
multiplied so as to effectually exterminate these pests. 

The Wheat-midge, C. tritici Kirby, attacks the wheat in the 
ear. When the wheat is in blossom the females lay their eggs 
in the evening by means of the long retractile tube-like extrem- 
ity of the body, within the chaffy scales of the flowers, in 
clusters of from two to fifteen or more. In eight or ten days 
the eggs disclose the transparent maggots, which with age be- 
come orange colored, and when fully grown are one-eighth of an 
inch long. They crowd around the germ of the wheat, which 
by pressure becomes shrivelled and aborted. At the end of 
July and in the beginning of August the maggots become 
full fed, and in a few days moult their skins, leaving the old 
larva skin entire, except a little rent in one end of it. " Great 
numbers of these skins are found in the wheat ears immediately 
after the moulting process is completed." Sometimes the 




370 



DIl'TERA. 



135. 



larva descends to the ground und moults there. Harris states 
that "it is shorter, somewhat flattened, and more obtuse 
than before, and is of a deeper yellow color, with an oblong 
greenish spot in the middle of the body. In this state, which is 
intermediate between the larva and pupa states, which has by 
Dr. Fitch been termed the "embryo-pupa," and by us "semi- 
pnpa," the insect spins a minute silken cocoon, which, ac- 
cording to Dr. Fitch, is smaller than a mustard seed and 
remains in the ground through the winter, situated at the 
depth of an inch beneath the surface. In the next June 

they are transformed to pupa;, 
with the limbs free. When about 
to assume the adult state the 
pupa works its way to the surface 
in June and July. Its chief para- 
site, P. tipulw, which in Europe 
destroys great numbers of the 
midge, is allied to the Platygaster 
error Fitch (Fig. 135). 

It is evident that deep plough- 
ing in the fall or spring will destroy many of the insects, and 
grain sown after the 15th or 20th of May. in New England,, 
will generally escape their attacks. 

The wings of the Hessian-fly are blackish ; those of the C. 
tritici are transparent. This last species is orange colored, with 
long, slender, pale yellow legs, and the joints of the antenna' 
are twenty-four in number in the male, and twelve in the fe- 
male. 

The Cecidomyia rig idee Osten Sacken (C. salicis Fitch) forms 
a gall surrounded by the dry and brittle terminal bud at the 
end of the twigs of the willow. The single larva discloses the 
fly early in the spring. The bright yellow larva of (\ grossn- 
larice Fitch, causes the gooseberry to turn red prematurely and 
become putrid. The pupa of C. pini-inopis is supposed by 
Osten Sac-ken to be coarctate, the larva fastening itself to a 
pine leaf and remaining motionless until the resinous exuda- 
tion resulting from its attacks hardens, forming a cocoon-like 
pupa case or pnparium. 

Mr. AValsh describes in the ' American Entomologist," vol. i, 




CECIDOMYIlXi;. 



77 





Fig. 281. 

Walsh also 



-."so. 



p. 105, the gall formed by C. strobiloides O. Sacken (Fig. 280 ; 
a, natural size ; b, antenna ; 281, gall) which is simply an en- 
larged and deformed bud of Salix cordata. 
The fly appears in April, or early in May, 
oviposits in a terminal bud, and the gall attains 
its full size by the middle of July. The larva 
hibernates in a thin cocoon, changing to a pupa 
in the spring. (Walsh.) Another Avillow gall 
made by C. salicis-brassicoides Walsh occurs 

on the Salix longi- 
folia, the galls 
forming a mass 
(Fig. 282) like 
the sprouts on a 
cabbage stalk. Mi 
describes the Grape-vine Apple 
Gall (Fig. 283, gall of ('.? vitis 
ponium ; a, natural size ; 6, a 
section), the fly of which is 
The gall is divided into numerous cells, each con- 
taining a larva. It occurs on the wild Frost grape. The 
G rape-vine filbert gall (C.? vitis-cory- 
loides Walsh, fig. 284 ; a, head of larva, 
showing the clove-shaped breast bone ; 
6, a bunch of galls, natural size ; c, sec- 
tion of a gall, showing the cell the 
larva inhabits) is found on the wild 
Frost grape in Illinois. 

Walsh has described fourteen addi- 
tional species of Cecidouiyiai inhabiting 
eight different species of willow. The 
specific character of the insects them- 
selves, are in all their stages of the 
slightest possible character, but the dif- 
ferent galls can be readily distinguished. 
These galls, according to Walsh and 
other authors, also afford a shelter to so- Ki -~- '*- 

called " inquiline," or guest species, such as the larva 1 of other 
species of Cecidomyia and species of Scatopse and Drpsophila, 



unknown. 




378 



DIPTKUA. 




CurculionidoB and minute Lepidoptera, together with 
Aphides and species of Thrips, which last are thought by 

Mr. Walsh to prey 

i <*, //J^S^W^v upon the cecidomyioiis 

larvae. 

The subdivisions of 
the large genus C'eei- 
domyia are noticed by 
Osten Sacken in Part 
1 of the Smithsonian 
Monographs of Dip- 
tera. As the student can refer to that work, we simply intro- 
duce the cuts showing the venation of the wing of each genus, 
without farther characterizing them. (Fig. 285, Cecidomyia ; 
286, Diplosis ; 287, Colpodia ; 288. Epidosis ; 289, Asynapta ; 

290, Spaniocera ; 

291. Lasioptera). 
Another group of 

, || this family are 

'l ~f'L j Anarete and its 

allies (Fig. 292, 
Zygoneura ; 29:5, 
Anarete; 294, Ca- 
tocha ; 295, Cain- 
pylomyza : 296, 
Lestremia) which 
are also related to 
the Mycetophi- 
lids. 

We have al- 
ready referred, <>n 
page 51, to cer- 
tain c e c i d o > 
myians, which in 
the larval condi- 
tion prod n c e 

Ki^r. -jst. young. We figure 

(297) a species whose metamorphosis has been traced by 
Nicholas Wagner. The larva is cylindrical in form, like most 




CECIDOMYID^E. 



379 



cecidonryian larvae, with the division between the segments in- 
dicated by rows of minute spines. From the germ-balls (a^ 
nearest the posterior end of the body) the embryo is gradually 
formed (as at a in the eighth and ninth rings of the body), 
when they assume a cylindrical form like the eggs of the adult 
tlv of this family. These eggs ma}' be compared with the 





Fit;'. 285. 



Fig. 28fi. 





Fiir. -28s. 




Fig. 28! I. 



Fig. _".). 






Fig. 2!)1. 



Fig. 2112. 



Fig. -2!):!. 






Fig. 21)4. Fig. 2!0. Fig. 290. 

"pseudova" of the Aphis, and are developed from the two 
large fattjr bodies (corpora adiposa) which are situated one on 
each side of the body. These " false eggs" increase in num- 
ber and develop until the entire cavity of the mother larva be- 
comes distended with young worms like itself, and which are 
finally born and may be compared with the wingless broods of 
Plant-lice.* 

* Grimm thinks that the term "pseudova" is objectionable, as in the psedo- 
genetic Chironomus the winter ova, as well as the summer, or false ova, develop 
without previous fertilization by the male. 



380 DIPTEKA. 

Several species have been found in Europe under the bark 
of apple trees, etc. Loew states "that the species on which 
Wagner made his observations is uearty allied 
to the genus Heteropeza, but still more closely 
to the genus Monodicraua, from the amber of 
the Tertiary formation on the shores of the 
Baltic. (Zoological Record, 1865.) Meinert de- 
scribes a similar species of worm and its imago, 
under the name of Miastor metroloas, and charac- 
terizes the fly as having very short two-jointed 
palpi, and mouiliform eleven-jointed antennae. 
The wings have three veins, the middle one of 
which does not reach the apex of the wing. 

PSYCHODIDJE Zetterstedt. The principal genus 
in this small family is Psychoda, comprising 
small flies with broad, A'eiy short, oval whitish 
Fig. 207. wings, which, like the body, are very hairy. 
They nuiy be seen flying and leaping on the banks of, or on the 
surface of pools, and on windows. The larvae live in dung. 
The larva of the European P. phalcenoides (so named from its 
resemblance to a moth) is "long, subfusiform and depressed, 
with a slender, straight cylindrical tail, longer than the pre- 
ceding segment. The pupa has two short appendages, thick- 
ened at the tips behind the head. The abdomen is tapering." 
(Westwood.) 




Latreille. The Daddy-long-legs or Crane-flies 
are well known by their large size and long legs, and from their 
close resemblance in form have probably given rise to the 
humorous stories of giant mosquitoes, which sometimes appear 
in newspapers. They are characterized by their slender an- 
tennae and palpi, and their remarkably long legs, while the 
abdomen is very slender and cylindrical in shape ; the group 
chiefly differs, however, from other flies, according to Baron 
Osten Sacken (Monograph of "the Diptera of North America, 
Part iv), in the presence of a transverse V-shaped suture 
across the mesonotum ; by the completeness of the venation, 
and the presence of a well developed ovipositor, "with its two 



TIPULII^E. 

pairs of long, horny, pointed valves." The larvae (Fig. 298, 
natural size, a larva of this family found living under stones 
in a running brook at Burkesville Junction, Va. In the 
American Naturalist, vol. ii, it was 
referred to Tabanus) differ from 
those of the neighboring families in 
having but a single pair of spiracles Fig-. ^'8- 

at the anal end of the body. The head is rather large, and 
" embedded nearly up to the mouth in the first thoracic seg- 
ment ; the mandibles are horny and strong, and forked at thcs 
end." The body is grub-like, of a uniform grayish, brownish, 
or whitish color, and consists of twelve segments. 

"The larvae of Ctenophoru, living in wood, have a soft, 
white, smooth skin, similar to that of the larvae of longicorr. 
beetles, or of the Asi1id>, living in similar conditions. 
The larva of Tipula living in the soil, or the larvae of those 
species of Ctenophora which are found in wood so far de- 
composed as to be like soil or vegetable mould, have a much 
tougher skin, and are covered with a microscopic, appressed 
pubescence. This toughness, as well as some stiff bristles, 
scattered over the surface of the skin, is probably useful in 
burrowing. Thus the larva of Trichocera, digging in vegeta- 
ble mould or in fungi, is covered, according to Ferris, with mi- 
croscopic erect bristles. The larva of Ula, living in fungi, has, 
according to the same author, still longer bristles. Those larva 1 
living in water (as some Limnobina) are soft and slimy, of a 
dirty greenish color, and with a peculiar clothing of appressed 
microscopic hairs, not unlike those of the larvae of Stratiomys. 
The most anomalous of all the Tipulideous larvae are those of 
the Cylindrotomina. That of Cylindrotoma distinctissinui 
lives upon the leaves of plants, as Anemone, Viola, Stellaria, 
almost like a caterpillar. It is green, with a crest along the 
back, consisting of a row of fleshy processes. The larva of 
Cylindrotoma (Phalacrocera) replicata, according to Degeer, 
lives in the water, on water plants, and is distinguished by nu- 
merous filaments, which, although resembling spines, are flexi- 
ble and hollow on the inside. Degeer took them for organs of 
respiration." (Osten Sacken.) 

The larvae move bv means of minute stiff bristles arising 



382 



DIPTERA. 




from transverse swellings on the under side of the body. 
"'The end of the body is truncated, and the two spiracles are 
placed upon the truncature," from the edge of which part arise 
usually four retractile processes. 

In the aquatic larva, of Ptychoptera there is a long respira- 
tory tube at the end of the body. The pupae (Fig. 299, under 
side, enlarged twice, represents a pupa of this family) 
have usually on the thorax two horn-like processes, 
representing the thoracic spiracles, and in Ptychoptera 
one of these processes acquires a great length, in order 
to allow the pupa to breath under water. 

The Tipulids, like other flies with soft bodies which 
contract in drying, should, as Osten Sacken suggests, 
be studied from fresh specimens, especially when the 
thorax and abdomen, with the ovipositor, are to be ex- 
Fig, as, amined. The Tipulids of the United States, east of the 
Mississippi river, closely represent those of Europe, while Os- 
teu Sacken states that a few species are found to be common to 
both countries ; and he farther states, with regard to the Tip- 
nil dw. that "whenever the North American fauna differs from 
the European in the occurrence of a peculiar generic form, or in 
a marked prevalence of another, this difference is due, either to 
an admixture of South American forms, or of forms peculiar 

to the amber fauna." 

The genus Tipula com- 
prises the largest individuals 
of the family, and the species 
may be seen early in May fly- 
ing over grassy fields. The 
larvae live in garden mould and under moss in fields and woods. 
T. frh-ittata Say is one of our most common species. 

In the genus Limnobia the body is very slender and delicate, 
though stouter than in Dicranomyia, a closely allied genus, the 
larvae of which are probably aquatic. " The larvae live in de- 
caying vegetable matter, especially in wood and fungi." "Van 
Roser discovered the larvae of the European L. anmtlus (closely 
allied to L. cinctipes Say) in decayed wood. They are like an 
earth-worm in size, as well as in color, and line their burrows 
with a kind of silken web." (Osten Sacken.) 




Fur. 300. 



383 




The genus tit)/riii(j<>nii/i<i (Fig. 300, wing) is an anomalous ge- 
nus found in gum copal brought from Zanzibar. Of three other 
anomalous genera belonging here Osten Sacken 
describes lihaiiipliklui, of which the rostrum is 
long, but shorter than the thorax, with species 
common to Europe and America, and also found 
in amber ; Toxorrhtna which is found both in 
North and South America, and Elepliiituintii 
which occurs only in North America, and has ai 
very slender filiform rostrum, almost as long as 
the body. E. Westicoodii O. Sacken is found in 

pj<r ;j(y| 

the Northern States and Canada. 

Erioptcru and its allies have two submarginal cells and the 
tibia.' are without spurs at the tip. In Erioptvra the wings are 
pubescent along the veins only, giving the whole wing a hairy 
appearance. E. renusta O. Sacken has yellowish wings, with 
two brown bands, and is a common species in the Atlantic 
States. According to Osten Sacken Chionea is 
closely allied to Erioptera. It is wingless, with six- 
jointed antennae of anomalous structure, and stout, 
hairy feet, and a short abdomen, which, according to 
Harris is provided with a "sword-shaped borer, 
resembling that of a grasshopper." u These insects 
occur on snow in winter, the larvae live underground, 
apparently upon vegetable matter, and have been de- 
scribed in detail by Brauer in the Transactions of 
the Zoological and Botanical Society of Vienna for 
1854." C. valga Harris (Fig. 301, enlarged; fig. 
302, larva of the European C'. araneoides Dalman) 
is reddish brown, with paler legs. 

Another section of this large family is represented 
by the genus Limnophila, in which there are two 
submarginal cells, usually five posterior cells, and 
the wings and eyes are smooth, and the antenna? sixteen- 
jointed. The larva? live in decayed wood. The larva of the 
European L. dispar digs longitudinal burrows in the dry stems 
of Anglica sylvestris. " It is cylindrical, glabrous, of a livid 
gray, with a horny black head." (Osten Sacken.) 

The anomalous genus Triclwcera has pubescent eyes and 





Fig. 302. 




384 DIPTERA. 

distinct ocelli on the sides of the frontal tubercle. The species 
appear in swarms, flying up and down in their mazy dances, 
especially at twilight early in spring, though they may be seen 
late in autumn and on warm days in winter. They live in de- 
caying vegetable matter. Pedirfn 
is a gigantic crane-fly, embracing 
the largest flies of the family, 
d and with Trichocera is the only 
F] s- 303 - genus of this family having ocelli. 

P. ulbicitta has hyaline wings, with the costa, the fifth longi- 
tudinal vein and the central cross veins margined with brown. 
The body is 1.4 of an inch in length. The larva of an Euro- 
pean species lives in well water. 

The genus Cylindrotoma and its allies, resemble Tipula in 
the course of the veins lying in the vicinity of the stigma, and 
Osten Sacken illustrates the re- 
semblances by the accompanying 
drawings, of which Fig. 303 rep- 
resents the venation near the 
stigma of Cylindrotoma ; Fig. Fig. 301. 

304 that of the European Phalacrocera replicata, closely allied 
to the preceding genus, and Fig. 305 that of a genuine Tipula. 
Ptychoptera is rather stout-bodied and has a singular mem- 
branous spatulate organ, ciliated on the margin, which is 
inserted at the base of the halteres. (Osten Sacken.) P. ni- 
focincta O. S. is black with reddish bands on the feet. 

The larva of the European P. paludosa has a long respira- 
tory tube at the end of the body, which it raises to the surface 

of the water, and in the pupa 
"one of the horny processes 
which distinguishes the thorax of 
all the pupre of the Tipulidrr, 
is enormously prolonged, like- 
Fi s- 303- wise, for the purpose of breath- 

ing under water. (Osten Sacken.) The very singular genus 
Bittacomorpha is an aberrant form, resembling the neu- 
ropterous Bittacus. The antennae consist of twenty joints, 
and the first joint of the tarsi is very much thickened, while 
the abdomen is very long and slender. B. davipes Fabr. is 





MYCETOPIIILIDyE. 385 

black with a white stripe on the mesonotum, the metanotum 

and flanks being white, and the legs banded with white. It is 

a Avidely diffused species, 

and presents a most sin- 

gular appearance when fly- 

ing, as it moves slowly, 

with its feet variegated Fi s- 306 - 

with snow-white, and extending like the radii of a circle. (Os- 

ten Sacken.) In the genus Protoplasma (Fig. 306, wing) there 

are six posterior cells in the wing. P. Fitchii O. Sacken is 

brownish gray, with brown bands on the wings. 




Macquart. This family comprises small 
flies, capable of leaping to a considerable height, and provided 
with two or three ocelli, but not having a proboscis. While 
the antennae are usually simple, as in all other Diptera, those 
of Platyroptilon Miersii Westwood are forked, having a 
branch one-half as long as the antenna itself. The thorax does 
not have a transverse suture, and the wings are without a discal 
cell, while the coxae are greatly elongated, and the tibiae are all 
armed with spurs. The larvae are subcylindrical and smooth, 
with locomotive bristles beneath, and eight pairs of stig- 
mata ; they are in color white or yellowish. They are gregari- 
ous, living in decaying vegetable matter, fungi, or in dung, one 
species forming a gall. They shed their skin several times be- 
fore becoming fully grown. Osten Sacken states that the larva 
of Sciopliila which covers the surface of the fungus it feeds in 
with a web, is long and almost serpentiform, while those of 
Bolilophila and Mycetopliila are shorter and stouter, and that 
of Sciara is intermediate. The pupae of this family are 
smooth, with rounded angles and edges, whereas those of 
Tipula are sharp and pointed. They are enclosed in a silken 
cocoon. Some species of Sciara do not, however, spin cocoons. 
The larva of Mycetopliila scatophora Ferris ' ' carries on its 
back a sheath formed of its own excrements and moulded by 
means of a peculiar undulatory motion of the skin. The 
pupae remain within the sheath, but before assuming this state 
the larva extends the sheath anteriorly in a short neck, and 
tapestries it on the inside with a pellicle, which renders it 
25 



386 DIPTERA. 

more tough and resisting'." The larva? of one genus sometimes 
live gregariously with those of other genera. Thus Osten 
Suckeii found that the " larvae of Sciophila appeared in a de- 
caying fungus only after the transformations of Mycetophila 
were entirely completed. For two or three weeks the eggs of 
tlie former remained apparently dormant among the bustle of 
so many larvae of the other species." (Osten Sac-ken.) Lvj 
resembles Sciophila in its habits. The lame of AV/om have 
no bristles on the tubercles of the under side of the body, usu- 
ally present in the family. They arc more gregarious than 
the other genera, and have the singular propensity of sticking 
together in dense patches, generally under the bark of trees. 
When fully grown they sometimes march in processions in a 
dense mass, sometimes several feet long, and two to three 
inches broad, and half an inch in thickness, whence the Ger- 
mans call them " Army-worms." To the same genus belongs 
the />'. (Molobrus) m.li of Fitch, the apple midge, Avhose larva 
is glassy white and devours the interior of apples. 

Professor E. 1). Cope describes in the Proceedings of the 
Philadelphia Academy, 1N67, page 222, a procession of a spe- 
cies of ficiam observed in September by William Kite, in Ches- 
ter County, Penn., where he had observed this army-worm for 
three consecutive years. "This company (consisting by rough 
estimation of about 2,400) extended over a length of about. 
twenty-two inches, with a breadth of from three-fourths of an 
inch in the thickest part, to about one-eighth of an inch at the 
head, and one-tenth at tail ; live or six worms deep in thicker 
parts. They advanced at the rate of four inches in live 
minutes, the hinder ones working their way over the top of 
the rest." These larvae were about one-half an inch long, 
semitransparent, with black heads. Mr. Kite observed another 
procession July Nth, which was six feet six inches long. These 
trains were attacked by larvae of Staphylinids, ants, dipterous 
larva? and other predaceous insects. Seven other persons in 
this country have witnessed similar trains, one of which was 
observed in Lee, Mass. 

The larva of Mi/vetobia , which agrees closely with that, of 
Ivhyphus, is found living in putrescent sap under the bark of 
the elm tree. We have found, through the summer, great num- 



MYCETOPHILlDvE. 



387 




a 



:!07. 



bers of .an undescribed species (Fig. 307 ; a, larva ; 6, pupa, 
magnified three times. Fig. 308, head of the larva greatly en- 
larged ; <f, antenna; /, labruni ; /><, mandible; /y/.r, maxillae? 
mp, maxillary palpi? ^/, gena?) which seems to differ from 
Dufour's iigure of the European M. pallipes in the form of the 
wings and their venation, as well as in the 
form of the pupa. The larvae were first seen 
in abundance on the 2<>th of June in the 
crevices of the bark of the elm from which 
flowed a sour sap mingled with dust, and in 
this pntrescent mass the slender white worms 
glided swiftly about. The body is long and 
slender, scarcely tapering towards either end, 
and consists of twelve segments besides the 
head. Like the larva of Scenopinus and 
Thereva, each abdominal ring is subdivided 
by a well defined false suture ; but the hinder 
division in this larva is about one-fourth 
shorter than the rest of the ring. It is .36 
of an inch long. The head is pale honey yellow, and the body 
pure white. The three thoracic rings are marked posteriorly 
with honey yellow, with a pair of large round pale spots low 
down on the side of each ring. It moves with great activity, 
keeping its mouth-parts constantly moving, pushing them into 

the dirt. The pupa 1 were found sticking 
straight out from the bark, being attached 
by the spines on the tail. They were 
straight, long, cylindrical, the thorax 
being but little larger than the base of 
the abdomen. The head is square in 
front, ending in two lateral horns, and 
the abdomen is covered with stout 
spines, especially at the tip. It is .20 
of an inch long, and is pale hone}' yel- 
low and covered with dirt. The flies appeared June 27th, and 
for six weeks after flew about the trees. The head is black, 
the thorax and abdomen brown, with a, leaden hue ; the abdo- 
men is a little paler, being whitish beneath, but darker towards 
the tip. The legs are pale, a little darker externally, especially 




388 



DIPTEEA. 



towards the tips of the joint, and the hind tarsi are a little 
dusky. Its length is .10 of an inch, not including the au- 
tenme. It may be called the Mycetobia sordida. 




Westwood. While this group has been considered 
by many writers as forming a distinct "order," or suborder of 
insects, equivalent to the Diptera, under the name of Aphanip- 
tera, we prefer, with Straus Durckheim, to consider them 
as wingless flies, and perhaps scarcely more abnormal than 

N} r cteribia or Braula. Instead of placing 
them at the foot of the suborder, we prefer, 
in accordance with a suggestion made by 
Haliday (Westwood, Class. Insects, vol. 
ii, p. 495, note), who places them near the 
Mycetophilids, or " fungivorous Tipulids," 
to consider them as allied to that group. 
The body is much compressed ; there are 
two simple eyes which take the place of the 
compound eyes, the epicrauial portion of 
the head being greatly prolonged, while the 
labrum is wanting, and the labium is small and membranous ; 
the four-jointed labial palpi, always absent in other diptera, 
are long and slender. The form of the larva, including the 
shape of the head and its habit of living in dirt, and its way 
of moving about, as also its transformations, certainly ally the 
flea with the Mycetophilids. 

We have received from Dr. G. A. Perkins of Salem, the eggs 
and larvae of the species infesting the cat, from which we have 
also hatched the young larvae. The eggs (of which, according 
to Westwood, eight or ten are laid by one female) were shaken 
from the cat's fur, whence they are said to fall upon the floor 
and there hatch, the larvae living in the dust and dirt on the 
floor, and feeding on decaying vegetable substances. The 
egg is oval cylindrical, and one forty-fifth of an inch long. 
The larva when hatched is .06 of an inch long (Fig. 309, the 
larva four days old ; a, antenna ; b, end of the body) white, 
cylindrical, the sides of the body being a little expanded, 
giving it a slightly flattened appearance when seen from above. 
The segments are rather convex, the sutures being deeply im- 



PULICID^E. 



389 



pressed. There are four long hairs on the side of each ring, 
becoming longer towards the end of the abdomen, where they 
are longer than the bod}* is thick. The terminal segment of 
the body is considerably smaller than the one preceding it, and 
has two long spines arising from the tergal part of the ring ; 
these spines seem to assist the larva in moving through the 
hairs and dust in which it lives. The well developed head is 
rounded, conical, narrower than the prothoracic ring, pale 
honey j'ellow, and with long three-jointed antenna?. 

Mr. Emertou, who made the drawings here given, informs 
me that the larvae, when fifteen days old, did not differ from 
those freshly hatched. I have been unable to discover that it 
moults. Westwood states that ''when fully grown, which 
occurs in summer in about tweh'e days, the larva? enclose 
themselves in a 
small cocoon of 
silk. Rosel, how- 
ever, observed 
that some of the 
larvae underwent 
their transforma- 
tions without 
forming any co- 
coon." ' ; The pu- 
pa is quite inac- 
tive, with the legs 
enclosed in separate cases. The period of the duration of 
the pupa state varies from eleven to sixteen days." Our 
specimens were hatched early in October, and they probably 
pass the winter before changing, as Westwood states that 
they pass the winter in the larva state. The species here rep- 
resented (Fig. 310, b, maxilla?, and their palpi, ; rf, the man- 
dibles, which are minutely serrated ; c, labial palpi, the labium 
not being shown in the figure) was found on the person of a 
man, though it seems to differ specifically from Westwood's 
figure of P. irritans Linn., the human flea; other species live 
on the dog, cat, squirrel, and other quadrupeds and various 
birds. The antennae are concealed in a small cavity situated 
behind the simple eyes and are four-jointed: in P. 




Fig. .310. 



o9() 



DII'TEKA, 



Duges, the}' arc external. Kirby describes a gigantic species two 
lines long, from British America. As a preventive measure in 
ridding dogs of fleas we would suggest the frequent sweeping 
and cleansing of the floors of their kennels, and renewing of 
the straw or chips composing their beds chips being the best 
material for them to sleep upon. Flea-afflicted dogs should In- 
washed every few days in strong soapsuds, or weak tobacco, or 
petroleum water. A writer in the ' Science-Gossip" recom- 
mends the use of Persian Insect Powder 1 , one package of 
which suffices for a good sized dog. The powder should be 
well rubbed in all over the skin ; or the dog, if small, can be 
put into a bag previously dusted with the powder; in either 
case the dog should be washed soon after." 

One of the most serious insect torments of the tropics of 
America is the Sarcopsylla (Rynchoprion of Oken) penetrate 
Linn., called by the natives, the Jigger. Chigoe, Bicho, Cinque, 

or Pique. (Fig. oil much en- 
larged ; (/, the gravid female, 
natural size). The female during 
the dry season, bores into the. 
feet of the natives (though it also 
lives in dogs and mice, which 
accounts for its presence in houses), the operation requir- 
ing but a quarter of an hour, usually penetrating under the 
nails, and lives there until her body becomes distended with 
eggs ; the abdomen swelling out to the size of a pea. Tin- 
presence of the insect often causes distressing sores. The 
Chigoe lays about sixty eggs, according to Karsten, deposit- 
ing them in a sort of sac on each side of the external opening 
of the oviduct. The larvse do not live in the body of the 
parent, or of its host, but, like those of Pulex, live free on 
the ground. The best preventives against its attacks aiv 
cleanliness and the constant wearing of shoes or slippers when 
in the house, and of boots when out of doors. 




SIMILIZE Loew. ShiniUinn mole*twn (Fig. 312; c, larva 
of this or an allied species, magnified), the Black-fly, represents 
this family. Its antenna 1 are eleven-jointed : the palpi are 
four-jointed, with long, fine terminal joints, and the ocelli are 



BIBIONID^E. 





wanting, while the posterior tibiae, and first joint of the hind 
tarsi are dilated. The body is short and thick.- The labrum 
is free, sharp as a dagger, and the proboscis is well 
developed and draws blood profusely. The species 
are numerous. The ' Black-fly, so well known as 
the torment of travellers in the North, is black, 

with a broad silvery ring on 
the legs. We have received a 
large species from Mr. E. T. 
Cox, called in the West the 
Buffalo fly. On the prairies 
of Illinois it has been known 
to plague horses to death by 
its bite. The S. (Rhagio) 

Columbaschense Fabr. in Hungary abounds in im- 
mense numbers, often killing cattle. Other species 
abound in the American tropics where they are a 
<>reat scourge. The cylindrical larva of the Euro- Fi -- "''- "- 

J~t O 

pean species is furnished with short antenna? and two flabelli- 
form appendages. On the under side of the prothorax is a 
thick conical and retractile tubercle, and there are several 
curved filaments at the end of the body. The pupa has eight 
very loni>' lateral filaments on the front of the thorax, and the 

/ 

posterior end of the body is enclosed in a semioval membra- 
nous cocoon, open in front, and posteriorly attached to some 
plant. The fly leaves the pupa beneath the water. 




E Macquart. This group is characterized by hav- 
ing three ocelli and the prothorax much developed ; the wings 
have no discal cell. The coxae are not prolonged and the em- 
podiuin (supplementary cushion) is proportionally long, while 
the pulvilli are sometimes wanting. The typical genus, Bibio 
of Geotfroy, has short, nine-jointed antennae, five-jointed palpi, 
and the eyes of the male are large and contiguous, while those 
of the females are small. The larvae are cylindrical, footless. 
with ten spiracles, and furnished with transverse rows of short 
hairs, being found in- dung, but they mostly feed on the roots 
of grass, whole patches of which appearing as if winter-killed. 
Robins destroy immense numbers of them. Westwood has 



392 DIPTERA. 

found the pupae enclosed in smooth oval cells ; they are naked, 
the thorax gibbous, with the rudimeutal wings and legs very 
short. Bibio albipennis Say, a white-winged species, is double- 
brooded, and flies in swarms in June uiid October, alighting 
slowly on the passer-by. 

RIIYPHID.E Loew. This family is known b} 7 the wings hav- 
ing a perfect discal cell, while the empodium resembles a 
pulvillus ; the pulvilli being wanting. The single genus 
Khyphus has short fourteen-joiuted antenna?, the second joint 
of the palpi swollen, and the legs are not spiny. Rhyplm* 
alternatus Sa} T , is common on windows. 

The succeeding families belong to the Brackyeera, or short- 
horned flies. 

XYLOPHAGIIXE (Macquart). This family is known b} T the 
three basal cells of the wings being very prolonged, the an- 
nulated third joint of the antennae always without a style or 
terminal bristle, and b}~ the spurred tibiae. Xylophagits has 
ten-jointed antennae, with the ovipositor veiy long. The larva 
is cylindrical, with an oblique scaly plate on the tail, while the 
head ends in an acute horny point. Loew doubtfully refers 
the genus Bolbomyia, found fossil in the Prussian Amber, to 
this group. 

STRATIOMYID^E Latreille. The wings in this group have the 1 
three basal cells much prolonged, and the costal vein reaching 
only to the middle of the wing. The third joint of the an- 
tennae is sometimes subdivided into several portions. The 
tibiae are spurless and the pulvilliforrn empodium is much 
developed. The coarctate pupa retains the larva skin nearly 
in its original form. The genus Beris is easily distinguished 
by having seven, instead of five (the usual number) abdominal 
segments visible. In Saryus the eyes of the males approxi- 
mate much closer than in the females. They are showy insects, 
with bright metallic colors, and are widely distributed over the 
earth. The larva lives in the earth, is oval oblong, narrowing 
before : the head is scaly, with two ocelli, and armed with two 
hooks, while the body is hairy. Fig. 313 represents a pupa 




TABANIDvE. .',!);; 

belonging probably to this family. Stratiomys has a broad flat- 
tuned abdomen, and the scutellum spined. The larvae are 
aquatic, being apodal and flattened, and slen- 
der especially at the end of the body, which is 
elongated and has a simple terminal spiracle 
"surrounded by a great number of bearded 
hairs, which form a coronet, and which are 
capable of being closed up so as to retain a 
bubble of air, and by the assistance of which 
the insect suspends itself at the surface of the ' _ J^Tj TjVT 

x^\Lx\ y^ ^"*" 

water for respiration. On assuming the pupa ^Ov_v>o^ 
state, the insect floats at liberty in the water, ( ) 

the enclosed pupa occupying only the anterior Fig. : ^^_ 
portion of its larva skin." 

TABANID.E Latreille. In this important family the three 
basal cells of the wings are much prolonged ; the third longitu- 
dinal vein is furcate, and the tegulae are rather large. The pro- 
boscis of the male has four, that of the female six bristles. The 
third joint of the anteume is annulate and always without 
style or bristle. The eyes are large, and the thorax oblong and 
flattened above. The female Horse-flies are troublesome from 
their formidable bite. The pupa 1 are obtected, resembling the 
adult flies. Pangonia has a proboscis often longer than the 
body itself. Chrysops, the Golden-eyed fly, is very trouble- 
some, unceasingly itying about one's head, striving to alight 
and draw blood. The two basal joints of the antenna- :nv 
prolonged, hairy, the third spindle-shaped. Chrysops niijcr 
Mac-quart and C. vittatus Wiedemann are the two most abun- 
dant species. 

Tabanus, the Horse-fly, is known by its large size and 
powerful biting and sucking apparatus. Like the mosquito, 
the male horse-fly does not bite, but lives on the sweets of 
flowers. The accompanying sketch shows the structure of the 
proboscis of the female of the Green-head fly, Tabanus lineola 
Fabr. (Fig. 314 ; a, five terminal joints of the antennas ; #>, 
labrum ; m, mandibles ; mx, maxillae ; mp, the two-jointed, 
large, stout, maxillary palpi ; I, the tongue). Its bite is most 
painful and poisonous to many. Mr. Walsh has shown, 



DIPTEEA. 




Fin-. : 



however, that in its larval state the horse-fly is useful to man, 
as it feeds on snails and probably the larva' of other root- 
eating insects. The larva; of other species are aquatic, living 
under submerged objects. Walsh describes 
a greenish transparent larva which is cylin- 
drical, twelve-jointed, the body being most 
slender towards the head, which is small. 
truncate, conical, the anterior part capable 
of extension, with short, fleshy, exarticulate 
antenna 1 and without ocelli. There are six 
pairs of dorsal fleshy tubercles. On the un- 
der side of the abdominal segments are six 
retractile false legs, and a single anal retractile proleg. It 
is, when disturbed, vigorous and restless, swimming quickly, 
often elevating the anal slit, in which the stigmata are probably 
placed, out of the water to take in the air. The pupa is cylin- 
drical, obtuse at the head, tapering a little posteriorly, and is 

of a pale yellowish brown. There are six 
tubercles at the mouth, above which are 
the trigonate three or four-jointed antenna'. 
The abdominal segments are furnished with 
a ring of appressed bristles directed buck- 
wards, and the anal spine is large, trun- 
cated, and terminates in six small, stout spines. T. (itrnfii.-i 
Fabr. is a common species ; it is black, covered with a whitish 
bloom, and expands nearly two inches, while the Tabanus chtc/n.-i 
Fabr., or Orange-belted horse-fly, is smaller and less abundant. 
Of the smaller species the Talxnnix liiirultt Fabr. (Fig. 315) 
is so named from the whitish line along the abdomen. This 
fly is our most common species, thousands of them ap- 
pearing during the hotter parts of the summer, when the sun 
is shining on our marshes and Western prairies ; horses and 
cattle are sometimes worried to death by their harassing bites. 
In cloudy weather they do not fly and they perish on the cool 
frosty nights of September. 




Fur. 



Meigen. This family is easily distinguished from 
the preceding by the simple third joint of the antenna, which 
are provided with a simple or thickened styliform bristle. 



The tibise are spurred ; the larva slender, cylindrical ; the 
body widening posteriorly, terminates in two points, while 
the pupa is naked, incomplete, with transverse rows of 
spines on the abdomen, becoming largest at the tip. The 
larva of Leptis vermHeo Fabr. lives at the bottom of holes 
which it makes in sand, and thus, like the ant-lion, entraps 
other insects. 

CYRTID/K Loew. Known by the greatly inflated thorax and 
abdomen this family is of but small extent, comprising species 
which have the proboscis rather obsolete, or long and bent be- 
neath the body. Such are the genera ( 1 >/rtns, Acrocera and 
Oncodes. The genus Hirmoneura represents the family IIiu- 

MONEURIDyE of LoCW. 




Leach. This family, represented in this country 
by the single genus Midas, is easily known by the large size of 
the species, and by the long clavate antennae, the fleshy labiurn, 
and the minute empodium. The larva and pupa are 
said by Harris to almost exactly resemble those of 
the rapacious AsilicLv. The larva of Midas clurufux 
Drury is cylindrical, whitish, tapering before and 
almost rounded behind, with two spiracles in the last 
segment but one of the abdomen, and is two inches 

O 

long. It lives and undergoes its transformations in 

decaying logs. (Harris.) The pupa (Fig. 316, drawn 

from a specimen in the Harris collection) is about 

an inch and a quarter long, brown, nearly cylindrical, 

with a forked tail ; there are eight spines on the forepart of 

the body. Midas fulvipes Walsh has similar habits and its 

transformations are similar ; the larva is insectivorous. 

Asihii),E (Asilici) Latreille. These large, stout, Robber-flies, 
as the Germans style them, are covered with stiff hairs, and 
have long abdomens. The third joint of the antennre is sim- 
ple ; the labium forms a horny sheath, and the empodium is 
like a horny bristle. They are rapacious, seizing other insects 
and flying off with them, like the fossorial hymenoptera. 7>"- 
sypogon (Fig. 271, 3, wing) has the second longitudinal vein 



396 DIPTERA. 

nniiiing into the border of the wing, while the anterior tibia? 
(.ml in a hooked spine. 

The genus Laphria is large, stout-bodied, very hirsute, the 
second longitudinal vein runs into the first, arid the style of 
the antennas is either thick and stout, and generally wanting, or 
entirely obsolete. In their loud buzz, swift, peculiar flight and 
general appearance, the species strikingly resemble humble 
bees. Lapln-ia thoracica Fabr. is nearly an inch long, and is 
black with yellow hairs on the thorax. Asilus is much longer, 
with an acutely pointed prolonged abdomen, and the species are 
often nearly naked, while the more essential characters lie in 
the union of the second longitudinal vein with the first, and the 
termination of the antennae in a distinct bristle. The larva' 
of Asilus sericeus Say, which feed on roots of the rhubarb 
plant, according to Dr. Harris, are yellowish white, about 
three-quarters of an inch long, a little flattened and tapering 
at each end, with a small brown, retractile head, which is pro- 
vided with two little horny brown hooks. The brown pupa is 
naked, with a pair of tubercles on the front of the head, three 
spines on the side, a forked tail, and a transverse row of fine 
teeth across each abdominal segment, by which they are en- 
abled to work their way to the surface. The Tntpanea apiroro 
Fitch, or Bee-killer, captures the honey bee on the wing, one 
1 laving been known to kill 141 bees in a day. (Riley.) 

THEREVID/E Westwood. This small group is characterized 
by the wings having the three basal cells much prolonged ; the 
third longitudinal vein is furcate, and the antennae have a ter- 
minal style of variable form, sometimes wanting. There is no 
empodium, and the labiuni is fleshy. The larva is very long 
and slender, the abdominal rings having a double segmented 
appearance, with two respiratory tubes at the end of the body. 
They are found in garden mould and rotten wood. The pupa is 
oblong, with two spines on the front of the head, and three on 
the side of the thorax. Westwood states that the larva of a 
species of Thereva, which is like a wire-worm in shape, feeds 
on the pupae of some moths. 

Latreille. These pretty flies are very hirsute. 






SYRPHIDJE. 397 

with an oval bod}' and long proboscis ; the wings have the 
three basal cells much prolonged, with the anterior intercal- 
ary vein present almost without exception, the posterior always 
wanting. The third joint of the antennae is simple, and the 
empodium quite rudimentary. They are exceedingly swift on 
the wing and are found in sunny paths and glades early in the 
spring and throughout the summer. They can only be cap- 
tured when alighted on the ground. The eggs are laid in the 
nests of bees, and the half cylindrical, long, fleshy, smooth, 
unarmed larvae devour the bee larvae, while the pupa is spiny, 
armed on the head with horny lamellae. In the genus Bomby- 
lius the body is ovate, with long dense hairs and a small head. 
The eyes of the male are grown together, and the legs are very 
slender. A species is known in England to lay its eggs at the 
opening of the holes of Andrena, whose larvae and pupae are 
devoured by the larvae of the fly. Systropus is very long and 
slender, and wasp-like, as in Conops, with the proboscis equal- 
ling the thorax in length. The genus Anthrax is more flattened 
and oblong in shape than Bombylius, with a short proboscis ; 
the eyes are not connected in the males. The species are 
gaily colored, the wings often partially black ; they fly in paths 
in the hottest days of summer. The larvae are parasitic on 
bees, and in their transformations closely resemble those of 
Bombylius. Audouin has found Anthrax morio in the nest of 
Anthophora, and Westwood has found the pupa-skin in the 
nest of Megachile, while the larva has, in England, more re- 

O * ' 

cently been found to be parasitic in the nests of certain An- 
dreuido?. We have received from Mr. J Angus the larva and 
pupa (Plate 4, figs. 6, 7) of Anthrax sinuosa Wiedemaiin, 
which is parasitic in the nest of Xylocopa Virginica. 

SYRPHID.E Leach. These gaily colored flies, so useful to ag- 
riculturists from their habit of feeding upon Plant-lice, closely 
resemble the wasps in form and coloration, having hemis- 
pherical heads, large broad eyes, and rather flattened bodies 
ornamented with yellow bands and spots. The wings have the 
three basal cells much prolonged, the third longitudinal vein 
simple, a spurious longitudinal vein between the third and fourth 
longitudinal veins ; while the fourth longitudinal vein is united 



s 



.',9-S 



DIPTERA. 





Fig. J'.l' 



at its end with the third, and there is no intercalary vein. The 
genital armor of the male is uusyrnmetrical, and there is no 

empodium. They hover in the hot sun 
over and about flowers, resting upon 
them to feed on their sweets. The 
larvae either live in the water, when the 
body ends in a long extensile breathing 
tube ; or are terrestrial, living in decay 
ing wood, or parasitic-ally in nests of 
bees, or, as in Syrphus, live among plant- 
lice. The singular spherical larva of J//- 
crndon, globosus (Fig. 317 ; a, puparium ; 
x, spiracular tubercles ; r, vent ; h, 
anterior view of the same ; c, larva just 
before pupation) is found, according to 
Mr. Sanborn, under sticks in company 
with shells. 

Mllesia strikingly resembles, in its style of coloration and 
form, the common large yellow wasp. The antennae are short, 
drooping, with a stout oval terminal joint, and a subterminal 
bristle. M. exrentrica Harris, with its yellow spots and bands 
resembles a wasp. 

EriKtalis is well known by its aquatic "rat-tailed" larvae, the 
abdomen terminating in a long respiratory tube equalling the 
body in length, with two stigmata at the end, which they pro- 
trude out of the water. There are seven pairs of prolegs, more 
distinct than in any other genus in the entire suborder. The 
pupa is found buried in the earth. The body of the larva shor- 
tens and hardens, forming the puparium, which is provided 
with four horns, serving as organs of respiration. 

The species of EristctHfi* are seen flying abundantly about 

*.Tules Kunckel has recently detected a true peritrachial circulation in Kris-tails, 
thus confirming the discoveries of Blanchard and Agassiz. He saw the blood 
imprisoned between the inner air tube and the envelope of the trachea, and pene- 
trating into the capillary termination of those tracheae, and saw the flow of the 
blood globules in the peritraclieal space. Thisperitrncheal circulation thus seems 
t<> correspond with the arterial circulation of the vertebrate animals, and the mi- 
nute branches of the trachea? are capillaries, and the blood is arterial. " /.' 
n'muiie, the tracheae of insects, air tubes in their central portion, blood vessels in 
their peripheral portion [i. e., the space surrounding the air tube] become at their 
extremities true arterial capillaries." "The blood in the peritracheal space re- 
mains through all its course in contact with the oxygen; it arrives at the capilla- 



SYKPHID.E. 




flowers in the spring, and are common throughout the spring 
They scoop up the pollen of the flowers with their maxilla? 
We have received from Mr. E. T. Cox the 

a v 

puparium (Fig. 318) of a species which in- 
habits the salt vats of the Equality Salt 
Works of Gallatin County, 111. The pupa- ^^teJ 

V i ' * 1 X 

Hum of a species of Helophilus closely re- 
sembling that figured by Westwood (Class. Insects, Fig. 131, 
8), has been found living in the salt water canal of the 

Naumkeag Factory leading 
into Salem Harbor, and is in 
the Museum of the IVnbody 
Academy. 

Closely allied to Eristalis is 
the genus Merodon, of which 
,!/. Inii-dHif Say (Fig. 319 ; a, 
puparium, natural size) is fre- 
Ki.n-. :;is. quently met with. Its thorax, 

the first abdominal ring and the side of the second are cov- 
ered with short yellow hairs ; it is .70 of an inch in length. 
The puparium is of the same length, and 
is cylindrical, ending suddenly in a re- 
spiratory filament a little longer than the 
body; it is quite stout, contracting be- 
yond its middle into a slender filament. 
On each abdominal ring is a pair of small, 
low. flattened tubercles crowned by a 
number of radiating spinules. Its larva 
is undoubtedly aquatic, like that of Eris- 
talis. Mr. Sanborn has also reared from the 

Narcissi, which probably lives in the soil about 
decaying bulbs, as the puparium has no respira- 
tory tube, but instead a very short sessile trun- 
cated projection, scarcely as long a-; it is thick, 
Fig. 321. w j tn a p n | v of s tjo. m ata in the end ; the body is 
cylindrical and rounded alike at each end, with a slight con- 

ries perfectly vivified; it is ;i true arterial blood. These capillaries are not in 
communication with the venous capillaries; the blood is taken up by the tissues, 
it nourishes them and flows into the venous lacuna?, and the lacunar currents 
carrv it to the dorsal vessel." Annali-a dcs Srie.itci'x Naturelles, 




Fiji-. ::.'(). 



pupa state 




400 DIPTEUA. 

traction behind the middle of the head ; its surface is rough- 
ened with transverse wrinkles, but no regularly marked sutures, 
indicating the divisions between the segments, are apparent. 
It has been introduced from Europe, according to Mr. Sanborn, 
by the importers of Dutch bulbs. 

The well known genus Syrphus (Fig 320, S. politus Say) so 
useful in reducing the immense numbers of plant-lice, lays a 
single egg in a group of plant-lice, which hatches out a footless, 
eyeless, flattened, transversely wrinkled, gaily colored green and 
purple maggot (Fig. 321) having a veiy extensile body, which 
enables it to reach np and grasp the Aphis by the peculiar 
sucking mouth-parts. When fully grown the larva adheres by 
means of a glutinous secretion to a leaf, its body contracts and 
hardens, forming a half cylindrical puparium. 

The species of VoluceUa are parasitic in their habits, the 
larvne feeding on those of Bombus. They are long, u narrowed 
in front, transversely wrinkled, with line lateral points, and the 
tail is armed with six radiating points ; the mouth is armed 
with two bifid mandibles, and three pairs of tentacnla." 
(Westwood.) The pupae are not known. The fly would be 
easily mistaken for a bee, nearly attaining the size of the 
worker Humble-bee, being remarkably plump and hirsute. J. 
Kimckel states that in Europe two species are known to live 
in the nests of Vespa. 

CONOPIDJK Leach. The species of this family bear some 
resemblance to the wasp, Eumeues, from their long, slen- 
der, pedicelled abdomen. The three basal cells of the wings 
are large, the third closed, more or less remote from the pos- 
terior border, and all the longitudinal veins are simple. The 
eyes in both sexes are smaller than in the preceding family, 
being separated. The proboscis is, with a few exceptions, 
much prolonged, and the third joint of the antennae has either 
an apical style or a thick dorsal bristle. The male genital 
armor is symmetrical and turned beneath the abdomen. The 
flask-shaped larva of Conops is kl soft, whitish, eleven-jointed, 
with a long neck and a mouth armed with lips and hooks (man- 
dibles), and two lateral elevated plates supporting the two 
spiracles." It was found by Lachat and Audouin living in the 



CONOPIDJ3. 



101 



abdomen of Bombus. It is also said by St. Fargeau to live in 
the nest of Yespa, and Conors Jlavipes w:is bred, according to 
Curtis, from the body of Osmia. 

]\lr. S. S. Samiders has observed in Epirus the habits of a 
species which lives in the abdomen of Pompilus audax Smith. 
The fly lays its eggs in June in the adult Pompilus, probably 
ovipositing between the abdominal segments. During August 
tin- larva? become fully grown, probably in ten or fifteen days. 
The puparium is oval, of an uniform, deep, piceons hue, and the 
fly works its way through the first and second abdominal rings 
of the wasp, whose abdomen then breaks in two. Saunders 
also found a similar Couops larva in Spliex flavipennis, cap- 
tured at the same time and place as the Pompilus ; also a 
smaller species of 
C'onops was bred 
from the abdomen 
of Odynerus. 
We have also 
bred a species 
from one of two 
species of Bom- 
bus, either B. 
vagans or B. fer- 
vid us. 

lu Myopa the anteuual bristle is subterminal, and the probos- 
cis is twice elbowed. Westwood has observed Myopa atrv Hy- 
ing about sand-banks in which were the burrows of various bees, 
and by other authors the genus is said to be parasitic on bees. 

The genus Pipuneulus represents a small group in which 
the head is almost entirely occupied by the eyes, the front and 
face being exceedingly narrow, while the antennae have a basal 
bristle. 

Loew considers the genus Scenopinus as the type of a dis- 
tinct family, hinting at its relationship with the Bombyliida>, 
The genus is known by the short antennae, without style or bris- 
tle ; and by the short proboscis with its broad fleshy end. The 
larvae are long, very slender, much like those of There va, and 
the pupa is much like that of Leptis. Mr. Sanborn has reared 
AS'. paUipes Say (Fig. 322 ; o, larva). The larva is found under 




402 DIPTEKA. 

carpets, and is remarkable for the double segmented appearance 
of all the abdominal segments, except the last one, so that the 
body, exclusive of the head, seems as if twenty -jointed instead 
of having but twelve joints. The head is conical, one-third 
longer than broad, and of a reddish brown color, while the 
body is white. It is .05 of an inch in length. The larva is 
also said to live in rotten wood, and is too scarce to be destruc- 
tive to carpets. The fly is 1 thick, with a metallic hue, and 
with pale feet 

The genus Platypeza also represents the Platypezidce of 
Meigeu, the antenna? of which have an apical bristle, with the 
7iiale genital armor (hypopygium) turned symmetrically under 
the abdomen. The middle tibia? are provided with spurs, and 
the empodinm is wanting. The larva is flat, with rigid curved 
bristles along the side. It lives in rotten mushrooms. 

KMPID.K Leach. The species of this family closely resemble 
the Asilida; in their long body, incumbent wings, and rapaci- 
ous, carnivorous habits. The flrst joint of the antenna? is not 
much shortened, and the third joint has an apical or dorsal 
bristle, while the empodium is usually membranaceous and of a 
linear form. The head is small, spherical, the eyes united in 
the male ; the proboscis is horny, without a distinct tongue, 
and bent vipou the breast. The slender larva?, whose segments 
are much constricted, arc found in garden mould. The species 
hover in swarms over standing water, ftying backwards and for- 
wards as if by a common impulse. They appear very early in 
the spring, or in autumn. The genera Hybos and Tachydromia 
represent small groups which are closely allied to Empis. 



E Latreille. Loew has characterized this 
well marked family as generally comprising metallic green, 
brisk and restless Diptera of small or medium size, predatory 
on other insects, and living principally in damp situations ; the 
larva? living under ground or in decaying wood. The head is 
hemispherical, the eyes large and hairy, the antenna? are 
stretched straight out, with a two-jointed bristle. The probos- 
cis is short and stout, concealed above by the single jointed, 
usually scale-shaped palpi, with a wide opening which can be 



CESTRID^E. 403 

shut by the protruding suctorial flaps. The wings do not have 
the auxiliary vein running towards the anterior margin ; the an- 
terior basal cell is very short ; and the tliscoidal cell coalescent 
with the second basal cell, while the posterior basal cell is very 
small. They are mostly "found on the leaves of aquatic plants, 
on stones partly overflown with water, on dams and near water- 
falls ; some of them are able to run rapidly over the water, even 
when it is rippled by the wind (JL/dophorus) ; others are fond 
of salt or brackish waters (Aphrosi/his, Tliinophilus and some 
Hydrophorus) ; the species of Medeterus prefer dry situations, 
and are found on stumps of trees, fences, etc., even in very 
dry and hot weather." 

(KMKID.I: Leach. Bot-flies, Breeze-flies. In these flies, so 
interesting in their- habits, the body is .stout, hairy, like the 
Humble bees, and they are easily recognized by having the 
opening of the mouth very small, with rudimentary oral or- 
gans. The middle part of the face is exceedingly narrow, and 
the minute antenme are inserted in rounded pits. The eggs 
hatch very soon after laying, and Uiley (First Annual Report 
on the Noxious Insects of Missouri, p. 164) thinks, from the 
testimony of three independent witnesses, that the sheep bot- 
fly is viviparous, the larvae hatching within the body of the 
parent, Avho deposits in the nostrils of the sheep the "perfectly 
formed and living grub." 

The larvae are, in general, thick, fleshy, footless grubs, con- 
sisting of eleven segments exclusive of the head, which arc 
spined and tuberculated, the former in rows, which enable them 
to move about readily when living under the skin or in the 
frontal sinus and thus greatly irritate the animals on which they 
live. The stigmata are placed in a scaly plate on the thick- 
ened posterior end of the body. The mouth of the cutaneous 
larva? consists simply of fleshy tubercles, while in those species 
that live in the stomach and frontal sinuses of their hosts, it is 
provided with horny hooks. While in this state they moult 
twice, and then attain their full size. The}- feed on the puru- 
lent matter originating from the irritation produced by the 
movements of their bodies. Just before assuming the pupa 
state, the larva leaves its peculiar habitat, descends into the 



40 1 



DIITKUA. 




ground, and there becomes a coarctate pupa, enclosed within 
the old larva skin, and remaining in connection with it by 

means of four trachea?. 

The genus Gastrophilus has very small 
mouth-parts, the deep lying palpi being 
somewhat spherical, and the 
proboscis nearly obsolete, 
while the abdomen is sessile. 
The species are of medium 
size, short and thick, and very hairy. The female 
deposits her eggs on the horse's hips and legs, 
whence the lame are introduced into the stomach. 
The body of the larva, widens posteriorly; the 
mandibles are not visible, and the maxilhe con- 
stitute the so-called mouth-hooks, by which the 
larva grapples and adheres to the walls of the 
horse's stomach. The rudimentary antenna 1 are 



Fiji. :a:{ 




indicated by an ocellus-like point. The Horse Bot-fly, 
tnifrfifhis eqtn Fabr. (Fig. ;>2;> ; fig. 324, larva), in its perfect 
state is pale yellowish, spotted with red, with a grayish yellow 
hirsuties ; the thorax is banded with black, or sometimes. 





though rarely, reddish hairs. The hinder trochanters are 
hooked in the males, and tuberculated in the females, and the 
wings are banded with reddish, with two spots at the apex. 
The larva 1 live from May till October, and when fully grown, 
hanii' bv their mouth-hooks on the edge of the rectum, whence 



40. r ) 

they arc carried out in the excrement. The pupa state lasts 
from thirty to forty days, and the perfect fly appeal's the next 
season from June to October. 

In Hypoderma the palpi are entirely wanting. The species are 
either very large, or of medium size, and often quite small, cov- 
ered with fine dense hairs. The legs are long and slender. The 
JIt/podenna bovis Degeer (Fig. 325, , larva) or Bot-fly of the ox, 
is black, densely pilose ; the front of the head is dirty ashen, 
with whitish yellow hairs. The naked black thorax is twice 
broadly banded with yellow and white ; the scutellum has 
slight tubercles ; the abdomen is black, with a l)asal white or 
yellowish baud, a mesial black band, and at the end is a reddish 
orange band of hairs. The larvae are found during the month 
of May and in the summer in the tumors on the backs of cattle, 
and when fully grown, which is generally in July, work their 
way out and fall to the ground. 
They exist in the puparium twen- 
t3'-six to thirty days, and the fly 
appears from June to September. 
This species is found over all the 
civilized portions of the world. 
//!/l>o(l< j nii<i tarandi Linn, infests, 
in like manner, the Reindeer. 
The genus (Extroiirt/ia is thought 
to inhabit the Hare. (Estrusoms 
Linn., the Sheep Bot-fly, is of a Fi &- :! -' ; - 

dirty ash color, with a fuscous ashen, banded, and obscurely 
spotted thorax. The abdomen is marbled with yellowish and 
white flecks, and is hairy at the end. The larva lives, during 
April, May and June, in the frontal sinus of the sheep, and also 
in the nasal cavity, whence it falls to the ground. It changes 
to a pupa in twenty-four hours, and the fly appears during the; 
summer. Cuterebra, lias the third joint of the antennae oval or 
elliptical and the bristle is dorsal and feathered ; the species 
are short, very plump and hairy flies, with a proboscis elbowed 
at the base, and with a metallic shining rounded abdomen. 
The larvae live in subcutaneous bots beneath the skin of vari- 
ous animals. One species (the C. emasculator of Fitch) lives 
in the scrotum of the squirrel, which it is known to emasculate. 




DIPTEKA. 



Mr. S. S. Rathvon has reared C. biiccata Fabr. (Fig. 326, and 
side view) from the body of a striped squirrel, the larvae having 
emerged from the region of the kidneys." (American Ento- 
mologist, p. IK!.) Other species live in the Opossum and 
different species of field-mice. Cuterebra liorripilvm Clark is 
found throughout the United States, and C. cwniculi Clark lives 
in the hare and rabbit, in the Southern States, and is found, 
according to Coquerel, in the bots of horses. 

The genus Dermatobia includes the Ver macaque^ of Cayenne 
and Mexico, found beneath the skin of man in tropical America , 
and it is disputed whether it be a true indigenous u CEstrns 
hominis," or originally attacks the monke}-, dog, or other mam- 
mal. In Cayenne the species attacking man is called the Ver 
Macaque ; in Brazil (Para) lira ; in Costa 
Rica, Torcd ; in New Grenada, Gustnm 
peludo, or Muche. The I), iioxialis Goudot? 
(Fig. 327) Ver moyocuil, lives on the dog, 
and is found in Mexico and New Grenada. 
The larva- are long, cylindrical, S-shaped, 
differing greatly in form from others of this 
family. The flies are closely allied to thoso 
of the preceding genus. 

Dr. Leidy states in the Proceedings of the 
Philadelphia Actulemy (1859), that several 
specimens of the larva of a bot-fly were ob- 
tained by Dr. J. L. Leconte in Honduras, 
from his travelling companions. They were " usually found be- 
neath the skin of the shoulders, breasts, arms, buttocks and 
thighs, and were suspected to have been introduced when the 
persons were bathing." lt Dr. Leconte informs us that his com- 
panions were not aware of the time when the eggs of the larva-, 
obtained by him, were deposited in their bodies. He also states 
that the presence of the larva gave rise to comparatively little 
uneasiness." 

According to Krefft a species of Bcitruchomyia is parasitic 
upon four species of Australian frogs. The larva* are found 
between the skin and the flesh behind the tympanum ; they are 
of a yellow color and may be squeezed through a small open- 
ing that exists over them. When they quit the frog the latter 




MUSCID^K. 407 

dies. The change to the pupa state is usually effected OH the 
lower surface of a piece of rock in some damp locality. The 
perfect insect emerges in thirty-two days. (Giinther's Zoologi- 
cal Record, 1864.) 



: Latreille. The common House-fly, the Blue-bottle 
fly, and the Flesh-fly, at once recall the appearance of this 
family, which is one of great extent, and much subdivided by 
entomologists. The antenna; are three-jointed, the terminal 
joint being flattened and with a plumose bristle in the typical 
species. The proboscis ends in a flesh}' lobe, with porrect 
single-jointed maxillary palpi. The four longitudinal veins of 
the wing are simple ; the first of the two veins on the hinder 
edge often approaching that on the apex of the wing ; the tarsi 
have two pulvilli, and the abdomen is five-jointed. The larva 1 
are footless, cylindrico-conic, narrowing in front, with a head 
variable in form, and with hook-like mandibles. There are often 
two -pairs of spiracles, one on the terminal ring of the body, 
and the other pair on the prothoracic segment. The pupa is 
enclosed in the puparium, generally cylindrical, but sometimes 
preserving the original shape of the larva. The celebrated 
"Tsetze" fly (Glossina morsitans Westwood) is a member of 
this family. It kills cattle by its painful bite, though its in- 
jurious nature is said to have been overrated. It is allied to 
Stomoxys, the species of which bite very sharply. 8. cdltrirtmx 
has a well developed proboscis, enabling it to bite severely. 
It is often found in houses. 

The species of the genus Tachina, like the Ichneumonidse, are 
parasitic in caterpillars, and others are found in the nests of 
bees. They are stout flies, covered with bristles, with the eyes 
much larger in the males than in the other sex. The bristle 
of the antenna? is bare or with a very short pubescence. The 
thorax is short, and the first posterior cell is closed, or but 
slightly opened, and the legs are short. The abdomen is oval 
or cylindrical, and the first segment is much shortened. The 
larvae are oval, with the segments much constricted ; they have 
no head ; the last segment bears two spiracles. T. (Senomet- 
opia) militaris Walsh lays its eggs, from one to six in num- 
ber, on the Army worm (Leucania unipuncta), "fastening 



408 



DIPTERA. 




them by an insoluble cement on the upper surface of the two 
or three first rings of the body. The eggs hatch often after 
the caterpillar has gone under ground to transform, and in 
fifteen to nineteen days, or the last of September, the flies ap- 
pear. T. (Lydelhi) doff/phorcv Riley (Fig. 328) preys on the 

larvae of the Colorado potato 
beetle. Other species of gen- 
era allied to Tachina, accord- 
ing to Dufour, are parasitic on 
beetles, etc ; thus, Cassidomyia 
preys on C'assida, 
on Braehyderes, and 
attacks Pentatoma : and he 
thinks that Clt<trfoj>]iil,Jtoi-}'/K 
feeds either on the food or the 
young itself of Andrena. 
SarcopJiaga, the Flesh-fly, has a small head, with the antennal 
bristle plumose or hairy, naked at the tip ; the first posterior 
cell only slightly opened, or closed, with large, teguhv and 
stout legs. The flesh-fly, Sarcophaga i-uriKirid, Linn., is black, 
the thorax streaked with gray, and the abdomen checkered 
with whitish. The female is viviparous, that is, the 
larv;e hatch and live within the oviduct. The ova- 
ries are large, arranged in a spiral manner and con- 
tain sometimes 20,000 eggs. We have reared S<(.r<-<>- 
ji/i<uja nadipeiinis Loew from the cells of Pelopa-us 
flavipes, the Mud-dauber, which had been stored with 
spiders, the flies making their appearance on the lirst 
of .Inly, a few days before the wasps issued from the 
cells. The parent flies had probably laid their eggs 
in the spiders before the cells were closed by the 
wasps. The nests were brought from Texas. 
Fig. :;.>!). 3/^.sw lias plumose antennas, while in >S7o;//o,r//.s 
they are pectinated. Dufour states that the allied genera. 
Crania, Dc.cia and Xipho-iiio are also viviparous. 
(Lncilia) (W//- Linn, the Blue-bottle fly, and J/".sm 
(Calliphora) coinitnrui Linn, the Meat-fly, deposit their eggs 
(fly-blows') upon meat and decaying animal substances, and 
during the late war were grievously tormenting to our soldiers, 





MUSCIDJE. 



409 



laying their eggs in the wounds, especially of those left on the 
field over night. The larva of M. Caesar (Fig. 329) is of very 
rapid growth. It is of an "elongated conical form, pointed 
towards the head, which is furnished witli two fleshy horns," 
and horny mouth-parts, and a pair of rudiments of branchiae 
on the prothoracic ring. The body is suddenly truncated, the 
cud being furnished with a pair of stigmata. The pupa trans- 
forms in the ground, within a puparium of the usual long, cy- 
lindrical form. 

Dr. Chapman of Appalachicola, writes to Mr. Sanborn that 
this fly, < attracted by the stench of a mass of decaying insects 
which have perished in the leaf of Sarraceuia, ventures in and 
deposits its eggs, and the larvae devour the festering heap. 
These in turn, on becoming flies, are 
unable to get out of their prison, perish, 
and are added to the putrefying mass 
that had nourished them." 

F. Smith notices in the Transactions 
of the Entomological Society of Lon- 
don, 1868, the "Warega" fly of Brazil, 
Avhich is said to be the "pest of both 
man and animals ; it is a species of 
Mnsca, and is said to lay its eggs in the 
skin ; large and terrible swellings are 
formed. The mode of extracting the 
maggot is to cut an opening, and to press it out a most 
painful operation. These wounds are very difficult to cure." 

The House-fly, Mnsca domestica Linn., is common in the 
warmer parts of the year, and hibernates through the winter. A 
study of the proboscis of the fly reveals a wonderful adaptability 
of the mouth-parts of this insect to their uses. We have already 
noticed the most perfect condition of these parts as seen in the 
horse-fly. In the proboscis of the house-fly the hard parts are 
obsolete, and instead we have a fleshy tongue-like organ (Fig. 
330), bent up underneath the head when at rest. The maxilla 1 
are minute, and the palpi (-nip) are single-jointed, and the man- 
dibles (?) are comparatively useless, being very short and 
small compared with the lancet-like jaws of the mosquito or 
horse-fly. But the structure of the tongue itself (labium, /) is 




Fiir. 



410 



DIPTEKA. 



most envious. When the fly settles upon a lump of sugar or 
other sweet object, it unbends its tongue, extends it, and the 
broad knob-like end divides into two flat, muscular leaves (/), 
which thus present a sucker-like surface, with which the fly 
laps up liquid sweets. These two leaves are supported upon a 
framework of chitinous rods, which act as a set of springs to 
open and shut the muscular leaves. The inside of this broad 
fleshy expansion is rough like a rasp, and as Newport states, 
"is easily employed by the insect in scraping or tearing 
delicate surfaces. It is by means of this curious structure 
that the busy house-fly occasions much mischief to the covers 

of our books, by 
scraping off the 
albuminous polish, 
and leaving trac- 
ings of its depre- 
dations in the soil- 
ed and spotted ap- 
pearance which it 
occasions on them." 
The house-fly 
breeds in August 
about stables. The 
s are deposited 




in horse-dung. The larva (Fig. 331*) hatches twenty-four 
hours after the eggs are laid ; it moults twice, and in about 
a week pupates, and in six or seven days more the fly 
appears. In Europe it is infested by minute Chalcids. 

Id! a Hi got i, according to Coquerel and Mondiere, produces 
a disease in the natives of Senegal, probably by ovipositing 
on the skin, thus giving rise to hard red fluctuating tumors, 
in which the larva of this fly resides. 

The species of the genus Anthomyia, seen about flowers, in 

* Fig. 3ol, A, larva of Mwa domcstica, just hatched, showing the distribu- 
tion of the two main tracheae, and the anterior and posterior commissures 
(a, a), dorsal view. B, the larva in the second stage; sp, spiracle. C, spiracle 
enlarged. F, head of the same larva, enlarged ; 6Z, labrum (?); mil, mandibles; 
mx, maxillae ; at, antennae. E, a terminal spiracle much enlarged. D, pupa- 
rium ; sp, prothoracic spiracle. All the figures much enlarged. 



MUSCII^E. 



411 



the larva state live in deca} T ing vegetable matter and in privies. 
They are smaller flies than the foregoing genera, with smaller 
alulae, and the fourth longitudinal vein of the wing is straight, 
thus leaving the first posterior cell fully open. The larva- are 
generally much like those of the meat-fly, but are thicker, 
while others, belonging to the genus Jlbmalomyia, are flat- 
tened and hairy. 

The Radish-fly, Anthomyia raplnmi Harris, abounds in the 
roots of the radish, the fly appearing towards the end of June. 
Another species, the Onion-fly, Anthomyia ceparum (Fig. 332), 
causes the leaves of the onion to turn yellow and die from 
the attacks of the larvae in the roots. The larvae mature in 
two weeks, transform in the root, and two Aveeks later disclose 
the flies. Mr. Walsh 
suggests that the 
larvae may be de- 
stroyed by pouring- 
boiling hot water 
over the young 
plants, which, with- 
out injuring the on- 
ions, destroys the 
m a g g o t s . The Fig. 332. 

Seed-corn Maggot, the larva of Antliomyia zea? Riley (Fig. 344, 
p. 419, , larva; &, puparinm ; c, kernels eaten), destroys, 
in New Jersey, the kernels of sprouted corn before it comes up. 
The Cabbage maggot, the larva of A. brassicce Bouche, a com- 
mon fly in Europe, has been found in Michigan to be injurious 
to the cabbage. (Riley.) The hairy maggots of Homalomyia 
cunicularis live in rotten turnips. (Harris.) The puparium 
(Plate 3, fig. 5, 5 a) of another species has been found by Mr. 
F. W. Putnam in the nests of the humble bee. 

In Ortalis the front is quite prominent, the clypeus is greatly 
developed, the opening of the mouth wide, and the proboscis 
much thickened. This genus comprises variously banded and 
spotted flies, which may be seen walking along leaves vibrating 
their wings. They feed on the leaves, and afterwards the 
pulpy fruit of the cherry, olive and orange. Another Onion- 
fly, discovered by Dr. Shinier in Illinois, is the Ortalis flexa 




412 



DIPTERA. 




of AViedemann (Fig. 333 ; , larva). The fly differs from the 
Anthomyia ceparnm, besides more important respects, in hav- 
ing black wings with three broad curved bands. The maggot 
feeds in the root thus killing the top of the plant. 

A species of Trypeta, according to F. Smith, which in Brazil 
is called the " Berna" fry, deposits its eggs in wounds, both 
on man and beast. "It is remarkable from having the apical 

segment of the ab- 
domen elongated 
into a long oviposi- 
tor. Mr. Peckolt 
says the negroes 
suffer much from 
the attacks of this 
fly, which freqtient- 
" Fi -- :J:W - ly deposits its eggs 

in their nostrils whilst they are sleeping, and such are the 
effects of its attacks, that, in some cases, death ensues." 
(Transactions of the Entomological Society, London, 1808, 
p. 135.) 

To the genus Loiir/iva, Osten Sacken refers, with consider- 
able cloubt, a fly, which I have found in abundance, raising 
blister-like swellings on the twigs of the willow. They were 

fully grown in April. 
The larva (Fig. 334, 
fly ; a, the larva ; 6, 
the pupa) is curved, 
cylindrical, tapering 
nearly alike towards 
each extremity, 
F>?. :534. though the thoracic 

region is the thickest. The rings are thickened upon their pos- 
terior edges, so that they appear contracted in the middle. It 
is glassy green, with two little elongated tubercles placed near 
each other at a little distance from the end, where in the pupa 
they are terminal. It is .15 of an inch long when fully ex- 
tended. The pupa-case, found late in May, is oval, long, cy- 
lindrical and obtuse at both ends ; the anterior end is more 
blunt ; the first segment of the body is minute and forms the 




lid, which opens when the fh r makes its exit, and boars two 
small slender tubercles which project upwards. The posterior 
end bears two terminal spine-like tubercles similar to those on 
the head, but projecting horizontally. The puparium is glassy 
green, and the limbs of the enclosed pupa can be partially seen 
through the skin. The rings are (especially on the thorax) 
spinose, being the remnants of the rows of spines around the 
hind edge of the larval segments. It is .15 of an inch long. 
The pupa lies a short distance from the opening of its burrow, 
which is about half an inch long, and is situated between the 
wood and the bark. 
The larva before pupa- 
ting eats away the bark, 
leaving a thin outer 
scale, or roundish black 
space which can be 
folded back like a lid. 
Avhich the fly pushes 
open when it emerges. 
Several swellings occur 
on the twig in the space Kl ~- :!1 ' 

of six inches. The fly appeared the 25th of June. Dufour 
states that in Europe Lwicltwa nigra lives in the outer bark of 
the oak, and another under the bark of the poplar, while still 
another species makes a sort of gall in the dogsgrass. 

The genus iSphyracephala is remarkable for its stalked eyes, 
which are placed on long steins going out from the sides of 
the head. Some species are found fossil in the Prussian 
amber. $. brevicornis Say is rather rare. 

The Cheese maggot is the larva of Piopliila casei (Fig. 335) 
a shining black fly, three-twentieths of tin inch long, with the 
four posterior legs yellowish, and with transparent wings. 
The whitish larva is cylindrical, and .22 of an inch in length, 
and is acutely pointed towards the head and truncated behind, 
with two long horny stigmata in the middle of the truncaturc, 
and two longer fleshy filaments on the lower edge. When 
moving it extends its mouth-hooks, and pulls itself along by 
them. Mr. F. W. Putnam has called my attention to the 
power of leaping possessed by the maggot. When about to 




414 



DIPTEEA. 




leap the larva brings the under side of the abdomen towards 
the head, while laying on its side, and reaching forward with 
its head, and at the same time extending its month- 
hooks, grapples by means of them with the hinder edge 
of the trnncature and pulling hard, suddenly with- 
draws them, jerking itself to a distance of four or 
live inches. The AVine-fly (Fig. 330, pupariuin) also 
belongs to the same genus, and with its pupariuin 
IIKIV be found floating in old wine and cider. 

Several species of the genus Ephydm have been 
Fig. 336. found living in salt water. Mr. E. T. Cox has sent 
us specimens of Ephydm halopliila Pack. (Fig. 337 ; a, wing ; 
6, pupariuin), which in the pupa state lives in great numbers 
in the h'rst graduation house of tlic Equality Salt Works of 
(iallatin Count}', Illinois. The larva itself we have not seen, 
but the pupariuin is cj'lindrical, half an inch long, the body 
ending in a long respiratory tube forked at the end. The fly 

" itself is coppery green, 

with pale honey yellow 
legs, and is .15 of an inch 



in length. Another spe- 
cies has been found by 
Professor B. Silliman liv- 
ing in great abundance in 
Mono Lake, Cal., and in 
the Museum of the Pea- 
body Academy are pu- 
paria of this genus from 
Labrador, and from under 
sea-weed on Narragansett 
Bay, and a pool of brack- 
ish water at Marblehead ; 
Fig. :r. they are noticed by the 

author in the "Proceedings of the Essex Institute," vol. vi. 

The Apple Ely, or Drosophila, has habits like the apple 
midge. Mr. W. C. Fish has described in the "American 
Naturalist," the habits of an unknown species (Fig. 338 ; , 
larva), which he writes me has been very common this year in 
Barnstable County, Mass. He says that "it attacks mostly 





MUSCID.E. 415 

the earlier varieties, seeming to have a particular fondness for 
the old fashioned Summer, or High-top Sweet. The larva? en- 
ter the apple usually where it has been bored by the Apple- 
( worm (Carpocapsa), not uncommonly through the crescent-like 
puncture of the curculio, and sometimes through the calyx, 
when it has not been troubled by other insects. Many of 
them arrive at maturity in August, and the fly soon appears, 
and successive generations of the maggots follow until cold 
weather. I have frequently found the pupae in the bottom of 
barrels in a cellar in the winter, and the flies appear in the 
spring. In the early apples, the larva? work about in every 
direction. If there are 
several in an apple, they 
make it unfit for use. 
Apples that appear per- 
fectly sound when taken 
from the tree, will some- 
times, if kept, be all alive ^/ \, 
with them in a few FI.U-. :s. 
weeks." Other species are known to inhabit putrescent 
vegetable matter, especially fruits. Mr. B. D. Walsh also des- 
cribes in his "First Annual Report on the Noxious Insects of 
Illinois," another apple fly, Tn/peta pomonella Walsh, which 
destroys stored apples, and lias been found troublesome in va- 
rious parts of the countiy. 

In England Oscinis granarius Curtis lives in the stems of 
wheat. The Oxcfnis vastator Curtis does serious damage to 
wheat and barley crops in England, by eating the base of the 
stalk. The larva? are fully grown late in June, and a month 
later, the fly appears. Their attacks are restrained by numer- 
ous Pteromali, and a minute Proctotrupid (Sigalphus caudatus) 
oviposits in the egg of the Oscinis. Other allied species in the 
larva state cause the stems of wheat and barley to swell twice 
their usual size, which disease is termed in England the goaf. 

The larvae of Chlorops Uneata Eabr. in Europe, destroy the 
central leaves and plant itself, the female laying her eggs on 
the stems when the wheat begins to show the ear. In a fort- 
night the eggs hatch, and the fly appears in September. Curtis 
also states that Chlorops Herpinii Guerin, attacks the ears of 



416 



DIl'TERA. 




:{ "'' 



barley, from six to ten larvae being found in each, and by de- 
stroying the flowers render the ear sterile. Osciitis frit Linn. 
in Europe inhabits the husks of the barle} r , and destroys one- 
tenth of the grain. Linnaeus calculated the annual loss from 
the attacks of this single species at half a million dollar.-,. 
Ploughing and harrowing are of no use in guarding against 
these insects, as they do not transform in the earth ; the best 
remedy lies in the rotation of crops. Many of these small 
flies, like the micro-lepidoptera, are leaf-miners, and are not 

readily distinguished from 
them when in the larva state. 
Of the genus Pliora, a 
European species (P. incras- 
sata Fig. 339 ; o, larva ; fr, 
puparium) frequents bee 
hives, and is thought by some 
to produce the disease 
which is known among apiarians as "foulbrood." 

In the pupiparous Diptera, namely, those flies which are born 
as pupae from the body of the parent, the larva state having 
been passed within the oviduct, the thorax is more closely 
agglutinated than before ; the head is small and sunken in 
the thorax, and in the wingless species this consolidation of 
the head and thorax is so marked as to cause them to bear a, 
remarkable resemblance to the spiders. Spider-like in their 
looks, they are spider-like in their habits, as the names Spider- 
flies, Bat-ticks and Bird-ticks, imply a likeness to the lower 
spiders or ticks. The antennas are very deeply inserted and 
partially obsolete ; the labrum is ensheathed by the maxilla% 
and the thoracic nervous ganglia are, as in the Arachnida, 
concentrated into a single mass. 

HIPPOBOSCID^E Westwood. The Forest-flies and Sheep 
Ticks are characterized by the horny and flattened body, the 
horizontal flattened head received into the front edge of the 
thorax, the large eyes, the rudimentary papilla-like antenna? 
placed very near together, and the proboscis is formed by the 
labrum and maxillae, whose palpi are wanting ; the labium is 
very short ; wings with the veins present only on the costal 



HIPPOBOSCID^E. 



417 




Fiji-. :UO. 



edge, the others either aborted or only partially developed. 
They resemble the lice in their parasitic habits, living beneath 
the hairs of vertebrates, especially of bats, and are abundant 
beneath the feathers 
of birds. 

These flies differ 
from all other insects 
in their peculiar mode 
of development, which 
reminds us of the 
intoa-uterine life of 
the vertebrate fuetns. 
According to Dufour 
and Lenckart they 
have an irregular uterus-like enlargement of the oviduct, which 
furnishes a milk-like secretion for the nourishment of the 
larvoe. The body of the larva?, for each female produces but 
one or two young, when first hatched is not divided into rings, 
but is smooth, ovate, egg-like, forming a puparium-like case in 
which the larvae transform to pupae immediately after birth. 

The Forest-fly or Horse-tick, Hippobosca Latreille, has no 
ocelli, with five stout veins on the costal edge of the wing ; 
thorax broad, and the proboscis short and 
thick. We figure a species* of this genus 
(Fig. 340) which was found on the Great 
Horned Owl. Its body is much flattened, 
adapted for its life under the feathers, where 
it gorges itself with the blood of its host. 
The genus Lipoptena, which has ocelli, with 
only three costal veins, a long slender probos- 
cis, and a small thorax, is remarkable for living in its wing- 
less state on the Deer, but when the wings are developed it is 
found on the Grouse (Tetrao). The Bird-tick, Ornitliomyia^ 
has ocelli, a short proboscis and six costal veins, and there 
are numerous species, all bird parasites. 

* Hippobosca Imbonittn. sp. female. Uniform horn color, with a reddish tinge, 
and blackish hairs; legs paler, with dark tarsi, body beneath paler; tip of abdo- 
men black, with long bristles. Length of body .30 inch; of a wing .34 inch. Dif- 
fers from H. equiiue in being larger, and in its uniform reddish color. Taken Oct. 
5; Museum of the Peabody Academy of Science. 

L'7 




418 



DIPTERA. 



In the wingless Sheep-tick, Mdophagm orinus Linn, which 
is often very troublesome (Fig. 341, and puparium), 'the head 
is wider than the thorax, the proboscis is as long as the head 
itself, the limbs are short and thick, and the bristty abdomen 
is broad and not divided into joints. 

The genus Carnus, which was placed in the Conopidceby 
Nitzsch, seems rather to belong here. C. hemapterus Nitzsch, 

is "of the size of a flea, with minute rudi- 
ments of wings, and is parasitic on birds 
of the o'emis Sturnus." 




.i: Leach. The Bat-ticks are 
remarkably spider-like, with a beaker-like 
head, without eyes, having four ocelli, 
or else entirely blind. The linger-like, 
two-jointed antenna 1 are situated on the 
under side of the head. The proboscis is 
feather-like, the palpi very large and por- 
Flgl ' ! rect ; the legs are of great size, with the 

basal joint of the tarsi of remarkable length, and the hairy 
abdomen is composed of six segments. They are very small 
parasites, one or two lines in length. Westwood has extracted 
the puparium from the body, showing the close relationship 
of these strange forms to Hippobosca. Nyctcribia WestiruiKlii 
Guerin (Fig. 342) is an East Indian species. 

BUAULINA Gerstaecker. The Bee-lice are wingless, minute, 
blind insects, with large heads ; the thorax is transverse, ring- 
shaped, half as long as 
the head ; the abdomen 
is round, five-jointed, 
and the legs are thick, 
with long claws ena- 
bling them to cling to 
the hairs of bees. 

The genus Braula 
may be compared with 
Fi - 14;! the flea, its body being- 

flattened vertically, while that of the flea is flattened lat- 




BRAULINA. 419 

orally. While the transformations of Braula show it to be 
undoubtedly a degraded Muscid, with a true puparium ; those 
of the flea, with its worm-like, more highly organized larva, 
and the free obtected pupa show that, though wingless, it 
occupies a much higher grade in the dipterous series. Braula 
<<><(!, Nitzsch (Fig. 343, and larva) is found living parasitically 
on the honey bee in Europe, and has not been detected in this 
country. 

The antenmu are short, two-jointed and sunken in deep 
pits. It is from one-half to two-thirds of a line long. The 
larva is headless, oval, eleven-jointed and white in color. On 
the day it hatches from the egg it sheds its skin and changes 
to an oval puparium of a dark brown color. It is a body para- 
site, oue or two of them occurring on the body of the bee, 
though sometimes they greatly multiply and are very trouble- 
some to the bee. 

Fig. : 





'C 

Anthomyia zetK Riley. 



We now take up the second series of suborders of the hexa- 
podous insects, in which the different segments of the body 
shoAv a strong tendency to remain equal in size, as in the larva 
state ; in other words there is less concentration of the parts 
towards the head. In all these groups the prothorax is greatly 
developed, generally free, while the wings tend to conceal the 
two posterior thoracic segments, and the body generally is 
elongated, flattened or angulated, not cylindrical as is usually 
the case in the preceding and higher series. The degraded 
wingless forms resemble the worm-like Myriapods, while, as we 
have seen above, the wingless flies resemble the Arachnida. 
The imago (especially in the Hemiptera, Orthoptera and cer- 
tain Neuroptera) resembles the larva ; that is, the metamor- 
phosis is less complete than in the preceding groups. 



420 



COLEOPTERA. 



COLEOPTERA, 

IN the highest suborder of this series, the Coleoptera, we 
find the most complete metamorphosis and the greatest .speci- 
alization of parts, with 
a more complete con- 
centration of them to- 
wards the head than in 
the lower suborders. 
They are at once rec- 
ognized by the elytra, 
or thickened horny fore 
wings, which are not 
actively used in flight 
(the hind wings being 
especially adapted for 
that purpose), while 
they cover and encase 
the two posterior seg- 
ments of the thorax 
and the abdomen. The 
p r o t h o r a c i c ring is 
greatly enlarged, often 
excavated in front to re- 
ceive the head. The>e 
characters are very per- 
sistent ; there are few 
aberrant forms and the 
suborder is remarkably 
homogeneous and easily 
limited. 

The head is free from 
the thorax, but less so 
than in the preceding suborders ; it is scarcely narrowed behind, 
and its position is usually horizontal. The eyes are usually 




:n.v 



FIG. 345, under surface of Ilarpalus calijcinosus. (After Leconte.) , 
b, paraglossae ; c, supports of labial palpi; il, labial palpus; e, nientum ; /, inner 
Jobe of maxilla ; g, outer lobe of maxilla; h, maxillary palpus; i, mandible: I; 



COLEOPTERA. 



421 



quite largo, and there is bat a pair of ocelli, when present, or 
there may be but a single ocellus. The antennae are generally 
inserted just in front of the eyes, and rarely between them as 




Fig. 3-tti. 

in the previous suborders. They are either filiform where the 
joints are cylindrical, as in the Carahidw, not enlarging 
towards the end, or serrate, as in the Elaten'dto, where the 

Iniccal opening; I, gula or throat; m, m, buccal sutures; n, gular suture; o, pro- 
sternum; p, episternum of prothorax; p>, epimeron of prothorax; q, q', q", coxae; 
*, ?', ;", trochanters ; s,s',s", femora or thighs; t, ',<", tibiae; v,v-,v*, etc., ventral 
abdominal segments; w, episterna of mesothorax (the epimeron is just behind it); 
x, mesoternum; y, episterna of metathorax; /, epimeron of metathorax; s, meta- 
stern urn. 

Fin. 340, upper surface of Necrophorus Americanus. (After Leconte.) a, man- 
lilile; 6, maxillary palpus; c, labrum ; d, epistoma; e, antennae; /, front; g, vertex; 
ft, occi])ut ; i, neck ; A-, eye ; I, pronotum (usually called prothorax) ; m, elytron ; n, 
hind wing; o, scntellum (of mesothorax) ; p, metanotum (or dorsal surface of nifta- 
tliorax); </, femnr or thigh: r, r, r, tergites of the abdomen; s, s", '*, spiraclt^ <>r 
btigmata; t, t', t", tibia' ; r, tibial spurs; w, tarsi. 



i-22 



COLEOPTEKA. 



joints are triangular and compressed, giving thereby a serrate 
outline to the inner edge; or clavate, as in the 8 il phi due-, 




Fig. :U7. 

where the enlarged terminal joints give a rounded club-shaped 
termination ; lamellate, when the terminal joints are prolonged 




Fig. .'548. 

internally, forming broad leaf-like expansions, as in the Sr<i- 
ruheidw , while the geniculate antenna is produced when 

FIG. 347. Different forms of antennae : 1, serrate; 2, pectinate; 3, capitate (ami 
also geniculate); 4, 5, 0, 7, clavate; 8, 9, lamellate; 10, serrate (Dorcatoma); II, ir- 
regular (Gyrinus): 12, two-jointert antenna of Aclranes caecus. 

FIG. 348. 1, bipectinate: 2, flabellate antennae; 8, maxilla 1 of Bembirlium; 4. of 
Hydrophilus ; 5, of Pselaphus ; 6, maxillary palpus of Ctenistes ; 7, of Tmesipho- 
rus; 8, of Typhus. From Leconte. 



(OLKOI'TERA. 

the second and succeeding joints make an angle with the first. 
The mandibles are always well developed as chewing organs, 
becoming abnormally enlarged in Lucanns, while in certain 
Scarabeidae they are small and membranous. 

The maxillae (Fig. 348) are supposed to prepare the food to 
l>e crushed by the mandibles. The body of the maxilla con- 
sists of the cardo ; a second joint, stipes, to which last are 
attached two lobes and a palpus. In certain Cicindelidce 
and Carabidce, the outer lobe is slender and two-jointed like 
a palpus. The maxillary palpi are usually four-jointed, some- 
times with one joint less, and in but a single instance is there 
any additional joint, as in Aleochara. 

The mentum is generally square or trapezoidal, varying in 
size. The labium bears the ligula, and supports the labial 
palpi, and varying much in form, is thus important in classifi- 
cation. The labial palpi are usually three-jointed, sometimes 
two-jointed, or with no joints apparent, as in certain tftapltf/- 
U-iiidw , according to Lecoiite. 

The greatly enlarged prothorax is free and very movable, 
the pronotnm or dorsal piece, considered to be formed origi- 
nally of four pieces, is usually very distinct from the pieces 
composing the flanks, though sometime they are continuous. 
The two hinder rings of the thorax are covered up by the 
wings and do not vary in form so as to be of much use in 
classification. They are respectively composed of a pnescutum, 
scutum and scutellum, and postscutellnm, the first and fourth 
pieces being more or less aborted. The pieces composing the 
flanks are partly concealed by the great enlargement of the 
dorsal parts of the segment, much more so than in the prece- 
ding suborders, the side pieces being much smaller and more 
difficult to trace ; and these flank-pieces (pleurites) help form 
the under surface of the body, where in the Hymenoptera, 
Lepidoptera and Diptera, they are greatly enlarged, forming 
the bulging sides of the body. 

The epimera and episterna of both the meso- and metatho- 
rax, Lecoiite states, are of much value in classification, especi- 
ally those of the mesothorax, " according as they reach the 
middle coxte, or are cut off from them by the junction of the 
spisterna with the metasternum." The thickened horny an- 



COLEOPTEKA. 

terior pair of wings (elytra), often retain traces of the original 
veins, consisting of three or four longitudinal lines. Their 
office in flight seems to be to assist the hind Aviugs in sustain- 
ing the body, as but rarely when the insect is on the wing do 
the elytra remain quiet on the back. The membranous hind 
wings are provided with the usual number of principal veins, 
but these are not subdivided into veinlets. The wing is long, 
narrow and pointed, with the costal edge strong, being evi- 
dently adapted for a swift and powerful flight. 

In the running species, such as many Caraln'tld' , the 
hind wings being useless, are aborted, and very rarely in some 
tropical Lampyridw and Scarabceidce are both pairs of 
Avings wanting in both sexes, though, as in the (Mow-worm 
and some of its allies the females are apterous. The legs 
are well developed, as the beetles are among the most power- 
ful running insects. The coxai are large and of much use in 
distinguishing the families. The trochantine is usually present 
in the forelegs, but often absent in the middle pair ; the tro- 
chauters, or second joint of the leg, is small, circular, ob- 
liquely cut off, and the femur and tibia lying next beyond 
are of varying form, correlated with the habits of the insect, 
the hinder pair becoming oar-like in the swimming Dytin<-i<l<i' 
and some Hydrophilidce , while in the Gyrinidon both 
pairs of hind legs become broad and flat. The, number of 
tarsal joints varies from the normal number, flve, to four and 
three joints, the terminal joint as usual being two-clawed. 
These claws are only known to be wanting in Phananis, a 
Scarabseid, and the aberrant family Stylopidce. According 
to the number of the tarsal joints the families of Coleoptera 
have been grouped into the Pentamera (five-jointed), the Tft- 
rameru (four-jointed), the Trimera (three-jointed), and ttrt< j - 
j'ontt'i'a, which are four-jointed in the hind pair, while the first 
and second pairs are five-jointed. 

The abdomen, usually partly concealed by the wings, is ses- 
sile, its base broad ; in form it is usually somewhat flattened. 
The tergal and sternal portion of each ring is connected 
usually by the membranous pleura! piece, which represents 
the epiinera and episterna of the thorax, and on which the stig- 
mata are situated. While in the other suborders the typical 



COLEOPTEKA. 425 

number of abdominal segments is ten, no more than nine have 
been traced in the Coleoptera. 

A few genera are capable of producing sounds by rubbing 
the limbs or elytra over finely wrinkled surfaces, which in 
Trox are situated on the side of the basal segments of the ab- 
domen, and in Strategus on the tergum of the penultimate seg- 
ment of the abdomen, while such a surface is found in Ligyrus 
on the surface of the elytra. 

The nervous system is subject to great variation in the Cole- 
optera. The ganglia may be fused into three principal mas- 
ses, as in the Lamellicorns, Curculionidos and X<-/ t/ti<l<v , 
where the first mass corresponds to the prothoracic ganglia, 
the second and larger to the second and third thoracic ganglia, 
usually separated in the other suborders, while the third oblong 
mass represents the whole number of abdominal ganglia, from 
which radiate the nerves which are distributed to the muscles 
of the abdomen and the reproductive system. In the Cistel- 
i<lw, CEde inert dee and Cerambycidoi , the abdominal por- 
tion of the nervous cord occupies the whole body, and there 
are five ganglia in the abdomen. These two types of the ner- 
vous cord sometimes run into each, but are always distinct in 
the larva state. 

The alimentary canal is very simple in the flesh-eating spe- 
cies, going directly, without many convolutions to the anus, 
but in the vegetable feeders it is very long and greatly con- 
voluted. The gizzard is oval in shape, its internal folds being 
armed with hooks. There are two salivary glands. The urin- 
ary tubes are either four or six in number. 

u The phosphorescent organs of the Lampyridie and cer- 
tain Elateridce consist of a mass of spherical cells, tilled 
with a finely granular substance and surrounded by numer- 
ous trachean branches. This substance which, by daylight, 
.appears of a yellow, sulphur-like aspect, fills in the La-tn- 
j>ifridw, a portion of the abdominal cavity, and shines on tin- 
ventral surface through the last abdominal segments, which are 
covered with a very thin skin ; while with the E later f <l -. the 
illumination occurs through two transparent spots, situated 011 
the dorsal surface of the prothorax. The light produced by 
these organs, so remarkably rich in trachea?, is undoubtedly the 



4 j>() COLEOPTERA. 

result of :i combustion kept up by the air of these vessels. 
This combustiou explains the remission of this phosphores- 
cence observed with the brilliant fire-flies, and which coin- 
cides, not with the movements of the heart, but \vith those of 
inspiration and expiration." (Siebold.) 

The trachea- of the Coleoptera are always highly developed. 
In the larva state they arise from two principal trunks. In the 
adult, however, they branch out directly near each stigma and 
distribute branches which communicate with other main trunk*. 
In those species which fly most, both the fine and larger 
tracheae end in vesicles, which are distributed in great abun- 
dance all over the body. In the Lucanidw they are especi- 
ally numerous, thus lightening the bulk of the enormously 
developed head. 

The ovaries are arranged in the form of 1 tranches of few or 
numerous tri- or multilocular tubes; the receptaculum sentim'* 
is wedge-shaped and often arcuate, communicating with tiie 
copulatory pouch by a long flexuous spiral seminal duct, and 
there is a l>urx<t <-<>i>tit<ttn'.>' usually present. The testes vary in 
consisting of two long coeca, or two round or oblong folli- 
cles, or pyriform and placed like a bunch of grapes on the 
extremity of the rs<t defereutia, or as in the Lamelli corns, 
Cerambycidce , Curculionidce and Crioceridce, they are 
round, flattened, disc-like, and are situated, two to twelve in 
number, on each side of the body. The organ of intromission 
is very extensible, composed of the terminal segments of the 
body, which form a broad flattened, hairy canaliculated piece. 

The larva 1 when active and not permanently enclosed (like 
the Curculio) in the substances that form their food, are elon- 
gated, flattened, wormlike, myriapodous-looking, with a large 
head, well developed mouth-parts, and with three pairs of tho- 
racic feet, either horny, or fleshv and retractile, while there is 
often a single terminal prop-leg on the terminal segment of the 
body and a lateral horny spine. The larva? of the Ceram- 
bycidcf are white, soft and more or less cylindrical, while 
those of the Curculionidoe are footless or nearly so, and 
resemble those of the Gall-flies, both hymenopterous and dip- 
terous. 

The pupju have free limbs, and are either enclosed in cocoons 



COLEOPTEKA. 4j?7 

of earth, or if wood-borers in rude cocoons of fine chips and 
dust, united by threads, or a viscid matter supplied by the in- 
sect. None are known to be coarctate, though some Cocci n- 
elhe transform within the old larva skin, not rejecting it, as 
usual in the group, while other pupae are enclosed in the cases 
in which the larvae lived. In some /Staphylinidce the pupa 
shows a tendency to become obtected, the limbs being soldered 
to the body as if it were enclosed in a common sheath. Gen- 
erally, however, the antenna? are folded on each side of the 
clypeus, and the mandibles, maxillae and labial palpi appear as 
elongated papilla 1 . The wing-pads being small, are shaped 
like those of the adult Meloe, and are laid upon the posterior 
femora, thus exposing the meso- and metathorax to view. 
The tarsal joints lie parallel on each side of the middle line 
of the body, the hinder pair not reaching to the tips of the 
abdomen, which ends in a pair of acute prolonged forked in- 
curved horny hooks, which must aid the pupa in working its 
way to the surface when about to transform into the beetle. 

The number of living species is between GO, 000 and 80,000, 
and over 8,000 species are known to inhabit the United States. 
There are about 1,000 fossil species known. They are found 
as low down as the Coal Formation, though more abundant in 
the Tertiary deposits and especially the Amber of Prussia. 

Coleoptera have always been the favorites of entomologists. 
They have been studied, when in their perfect state, more than 
any other insects, but owing to the difficulty of finding their 
larvae, and carrying them through their successive stages of 
growth, the early stages of comparatively few species are 
known. 

The most productive places for the occurrence of beetles are 
alluvial loams covered with woods, or with rank vegetation, 
where at the roots of plants or upon their flowers, under leaves, 
logs and stones, under the bark of decaying trees, and in 
ditches and by the banks of streams, the species occur in the 
greatest numbers. Grass lands, mosses and fungi, the surfaces 
of trees and dead animals, bones, chips, pieces of board and 
excrement, should be searched diligently. Many are thrown 
ashore in sea-wrack, or occur under the debris of freshets on 
river banks. Many Carabidw run on sandy shores. Very 




428 COLEOPTERA. 

early in spring stones can be upturned, ants' nests searched, 
and the muddy waters sifted for species not met with at other 
times of the year. 

For beating bushes a large strong ring-net should be made, 
with a stout bag of cotton cloth fifteen inches deep. This is a 
, very serviceable net for many purposes. Vials of 
alcohol, a few quills stopped with cork, and close 
tin boxes for larvae and the fungi, etc., in which 
they live, should be provided ; indeed, the collector 
should never be without a vial and box. Beetles 
should be collected largely in alcohol, and the 
;i49. colors do not change if pinned soon after being 
taken. Coleoptera should be placed liifjh up on the pin, as in- 
deed all insects should. The pin should be stuck through the 
right elytron (Fig. 349) so that it shall come out beneath or 
between the middle and hind pair of legs. Small species 
should be pinned with minute pins, which can be afterwards 
mounted on higher ones. 

CICINDELID.E Leach. The Tiger Beetles have very large 
heads, much broader than the prothorax, very long curved jaws 
and long, slender legs. The outer lobe of the maxilla; is Inar- 
ticulate, the inner usually terminated by an articulated hook. 
The eleven-jointed antennae are inserted on the front above 
the base of the mandibles. They are brownish or 
greenish with metallic and purplish reflections, marked 
with light dots and stripes. They abound in sunny 
paths and sandy shores of rivers, ponds and the 
ocean, flying and running swiftly, and are thus very 
t5 ' )(K difficult to capture. The larvre (Fig. 350) are hideous 
in aspect ; the head is very large with long jaws ; the thoracic 
rings large and broad, and the ninth ring has two large tuber- 
cles each ending in two hooks, by which the hunch-backed 
grub can climb up its hole, near the entrance of which it lies 
in wait for weaker insects. These holes may always be found 
in sandy banks frequented by the beetles. 

While all the species living in the United States are ground 
beetles, in the tropics there are some which live on trees. II. 
W. Bates states that Ctenostoma and its allies have a greater 




OICINDELID^E. 



129 



resemblance to ants than to the Cicindela? proper, so much so 
that when the insects are seen prowling in search of prey along 





Vis. 351. 




Fig. 352. 

the slender 1 (ranches of trees, the^y can scarcely be distinguished 
from large ants of the Ponera group. 

The genus Aniblyclnlu has the third joint of the maxillary 







Fig. 354. Fig- ."-.->.-). Fig. 356. Fig. 357. 

palpi longer than the fourth, and the first joint of the labial 
palpi veiy short, while the cpipleurte are wide. Omus differs 
in the wider epipleur.ie ; lioth genera inhabit the Pacific States, 




Fig. 358. 

and the former is found as far east as Kansas. Tetracha (Fig. 
351, T. Virginica Hope) has the first joint of the labial palpi 
elongated. In Cicindela and allies, the third joint of the max- 



430 



COLEOPTEKA. 



illary palpi is shorter than the fourth. This country is very 
rich in species, among the most common of which are C. gen- 
rrosa Dejean (Fig. 352) ; C. vulgaris Say (Fig. 353) ; C. pur- 
purea Olivier (Fig. 354) ; C. Mrticollis Say (Fig. 355) ; C. 
sexguttata Fabr. (Fig. 356), a bright green active species with 
six golden dots ; and C. punctulata Olivier* (Fig. 357). 



Leach. This is a family of very great extent. 
and one very difficult to limit. In form the species vary 
greatly ; the antennae are inserted behind the base of the man- 
dibles under a frontal ridge ; maxilla? with the outer lobe p;il- 
piform, usually Inarticulate, while the inner lobe is usually 




Fig. 359. 

curved, acute and dilate, with spines. The epimera and epi- 
sterna of the prothorax are usually distinct ; the three anterior 
segments of the abdomen, usually six, rarely seven or eight in 
number, are connate. The legs are slender, formed for run- 
ning ; anterior and middle coxoe globular, posterior ones dilated 
internally, and the tarsi are five-jointed. | 

* FIG. :J58 illustrates the external anatomy of this family : 1, head of Cicindeln ; 
2, maxilla' of Cicimlela ; .>, mentum of Oimis; 4, meutum of Tetracha; 5, mentum 
of Cicindcla; 6, antenna? of the same; 7, abdomen of the male of the game; S, pos- 
terior coxa of the same; 9, anterior tarsus of Omiis (male); 10, anterior tarsus of 
Cicindela. From Leconte. 

fFiG. 359 illustrates the external anatomy of the Carabidan l, extremity of 
the anterior tibia of Carabus, inner face : -J, maxillse of Cychrus : 3, head of Cychrus; 
4, head of Carabus ; 5, antenna and part of head of Uorieera ; 6, mentum of Carabus ; 
7, maxilla of Carabus; 8, under surface of Pasimachus; 0, under surface of meso- 
and metathorax of Metrius; 10, anterior tibia of Metrins; 11, under surface of 
meso- and metathorax of Physea; 12, antenna? of Pasimachus: 1:>, mentum of 
Pasimachus; 14, maxilla of Pasimachus ; 15, anterior tibia of Pasimachus; 10, 
iiead of Promecognathus ; 17, mentum of Pseudomorphus, showing the indistinct 
pular suture. From Leconte. 



CARABIDJE. 



431 





They are, with few exceptions, predaceous beetles ; they are 
runners, the hind wings being often absent. Their colors are 
dull metallic or black. They run in grass, 
or lurk under stones and sticks, or 
under the bark of trees, whence 
they go out to hunt in the night- 
time. They may be found also 
in great numbers under the debris 
V-J..J of freshets and under stones in 

n the spring. 
Fig. :*in. Tne 1^.^ are f omi( i j n much 

the same situations as the beetles, and are 

generally oblong, broad, with the terminal 

ring armed with two horny hooks 
or longer filaments, and with a 
single false leg beneath. 

The genus Omophron, remark- 
able for its rounded convex 
form, and wanting the scutellum, 
is found on the wet sands by 
rivers and pools, where also El- 
l>lmitt occurs, which somewhat 
resembles Cicindela. It lias 
slightly emarginate anterior 
j- tibhe, with large prominent eyes, 
Fij?. 3C.2. and rows of large shallow ocel- 

fate holes on the elytra. The 

genus Ctiloxoma is well known, 

being common in fields, where it lies 

in little holes in the sod, in Avait for its 

prey. 1 have seen C. ralidum Fain*. 

(Fig. 360) attacking the June bug 

(Lachnosterna fusca) tearing open 

its sides. Its larva (Fig. 361) is 

black. (J. scrutator Fabr. (Fig. 362) 

is a still larger species with bright 

green elytra. It is known, accord- " Fi - :{(i:! - 

ing to Harris, to ascend trees in search of canker-worms. 
Carabus has similar habits, but differs in having the third 





COLEOPTERA. 



joint of the antennae cylindrical, while that of Calosoma is 
greatly compressed. C. serratus Say (Fig. 363 ; , pupa of the 
European C. aurouitens) is black bordered with 
purple. The closely allied species of Cyclirus, of 
rich purple and blue tints, differ in the longer head, 
the deeply bilobate labrum, and in having four of 
the antennal joints smooth, with thickly striated 
elytra. (We figure some unknown larva? of this 
family which are allied to 
C'arabus ; Fig. 364, natural 
size ; Fig. 365, a little en- 
larged ; a, mouth parts ; 6, 
end of the body, and Fig. 
366. a larva apparently of the 
KI,U. :;m. same genus.) Pasimachus 
Lee. (Fig. 367) has been 





found, according to Walsh, to prey on 
the Doryphora. or Potato beetle. 

The o-enus Scarites and its allies have 

the anterior toothed palmate tibia 1 more 
or less produced at the apex, with a 
pedunculate abdomen. In Scar- 
ites and Pasimachus the basal 
joint of the antenna is very long ; 
the former having the maxilhv 
rounded at the tip, and the tho- 
rax rounded behind, while in 
\ Pasimachus, the thorax is dis- 
tinctly angulated, and the max- 
illa* are hooked. In Cli-vina the basal joint of the an- Fi - :!li(i - 
tenure is short, the mandibles flat and acute, and the clypeus 
is not emarginate. 

In Harpalus and allies the epimera of the mesotho- 
rax do not extend to the coxa 1 , and the mesosternum 
is large, widely separating the middle coxa\ Of this 
group BmcMnus (B. fumans Fabr. Fig. 368), the 
Bombardier beetle, with its narrow head and cordate 
Fig. ;?68. prothorax, is remarkable for discharging with quite 
an explosion from its anal glands a pungent fluid, probably 








CAEABHME. 





of use as a protection against its enemies. They are yellow- 
ish red. with bluish and greenish elytra. Hettuomorplict 
(EL praeusta Lap. Fig. 369 ; a, mentum) has a 
large montnm and much compressed antennae. 

Galerita is s i m i 1 a r but 
mnch larger, with a red 
thorax, and blue or black ' 
elytra. Fig. 370 represents 
the larva ; Fig. 371 the pupa 
of G. Lecontei Dejean, a Southern species. 
Casnonia has a rhomboidal head, with 
a long narrow neck and a cylindrical tho- 
rax. C. Pensylvanica De- 
jean (Fig. 372) is not un- 
common, being found 
under stones. The species 
of Lebia are found upon 
flowers, especially the 
golden rod, in August and 
September. They are gaily 
colored, with the head con- 
stricted behind and the 
thorax pedunculate. The species of 
Platynus (P. cupripenne Say, Fig. 373) 
are often of brilliant metallic green and red colors. In Cymiii- 
dis, which is hairy, the head is not constricted behind, and the 
last joint of the labial palpi is dilated. In Pterostf- 
chus, which is a genus of great extent, the three basal 
joints of the antennae are smooth, the 
anterior tibiae are thickened at the ex- 
tremity, and the dilated tarsal joints are 
triangular or cordate. The species are . Fig. 
black and of common occurrence. Amara differs 
in the head not being narrowed behind, the slightly 
emarginate labrum and the elytra being without 
the usual punctures. Zimmerman states that the species are 
annual, or double brooded annually ; the eggs, which are laid 
beneath the surface of the soil, do not mature for several 
daj-s after coupling ; the larvae moult once, live six to eight 
28 




FiL 





Fig. 373. 



431 



COLEOPTEKA. 





Fiar. :?74. 




weeks, and the pupa lives half that time ; the beetles often 
hibernate. The larva has the general form of that of Poecilus. 

The species of Harpalus are large, 
with a very square pro thorax. H. 
caliginosus Say (Fig. 374) is bene- 
ficial in eating cut-worms and other 
injurious larvae. Fig. 375 represents 
a larva supposed to belong to this or 
an allied genus. The blind Anopli- ^r- 
ilnilinus Tellkampfii Erichs. from the jU 
Mammoth Cave, has no eyes, while 
the legs are very long, especially 
the narrow fore tibia; ; but in Tre- 
chtix, which is closely allied to the blind Cave Beetle, 
the eyes are as large as usual, and the legs stouter. Fig. 375. 

Sembidium com- 
prises species of 
- very small size 
a n d variable in 
form, in which t he 
anterior tibia' are 
not dilated at the 

base. They are found abundantly under the refuse of 
freshets and tides, preying upon dead animal matter 
and other insects, and a species of Cillenum, 
closely allied to Bembidium, is known to seize ^ ^ 
the beach-flea, Gamniarus, and devour it. 
Fig. 376 (A, a little enlarged ; B, head ; c, 
mandible ; e, antenna ; /, labiurn and its two- 
jointed palpi ; f/, maxilla? ; A, /, ,/, under side 
of different abdominal rings) represents the 
larva of a Ground beetle, which, according to 
Fig. 377. Walsh, preys upon the larva of the Plum cur- 
culio while under ground. Fig. 377 represents the Fig. m 
supposed larva of a European species of Clilcenius, and Fig. 
378 what we suppose is the larva of a beetle allied to Cillenum. 

AMPHIZOID.E Leconte. The genus Amphizoa (Fig. 379. A. 
insolens ; a, antenna ; b. labrum : <-. mandibles ; d. maxilla; ; e, 






435 



ligula : /, mentum ; g, prosternum, front, and /<, side view ; ?', 
under side of the rest of the body, showing the six ventral seg- 
ments of the abdomen ; J, anterior tarsus : from Horn) found 
in Northern California, is the sole representative of this family 
and differs from the preceding family in the metasternum be- 

/- d i i 




Fig. 379. 

ing truncate behind, and not reaching the abdomen. A. inso 
/(-//.s- Lee. is an anomalous form, being subaquatic, and in its 
structure and habits connecting the Car a bid IK with the suc- 
ceeding family. 

DYTISCID.E McLeay. The Diving Beetles, or AVater Tigers, 
are oval flattened elliptical beetles, which differ from the Car- 
<(hid<i j in the form of the hinder coxa*, which are A'ery large, 
touching each other on the inner edge, and externally reaching 
the side of the body, entirely cutting off' the abdominal seg- 
ments from the metathorax, while the oar-like swimming legs 
are covered with long hairs, and the hinder pair are much flat- 
tened. The larvae are called "water tigers," being long, cy- 
lindrical, with large flattened heads, armed with scissor-like 
jaws with which they seize other insects, or snip off' the tails 
of tadpoles, while they are even known to attack young fishes, 
sucking their blood. They are known to moult several times, 
four or five days intervening between the first two periods of 
moulting, and ten days between the latter. The body ends in 
a pair of long respiratory tubes, which they protrude into the 
air, though eight pairs of rudimentary spiracles exist. AVhen 
about to transform the larva creeps on to the land, constructs 
a round cell, and in about five days assumes the pupa state, 
and in two or three weeks the beetle appears, if in summer, or 



if in ;iutuniu hibernates as :i pupa, to transform to a beetle iu 
the spring. 

In HaUplus the antennae are ten-jointed, bristle-shaped, and 
the legs are scarcel}* adapted for swimming, being narrow. 
The body is very convex, spotted with black or gray, while 
the elytra are covered with rows of punctures. In the remain- 
ing genera, the types of the family, the antenme are eleven- 
jointed and the hind legs oar-like. "The larvae differ not only 
l>v their dorsal segments being armed with spines, which gives 
them a very grotesque appearance, but by their possessing only 
one claw, and by their anal segment (which is rudimentary 
in all other Dytiscidae) being enormously elongated and forked, 
so that the anus is placed on the under side of this pe- 
culiar tail, and the spiracles of the eighth pair, which are ter- 
minal and tube-like in other Dytiscidcp here become lateral 
and quite plain." (Schiodte.) In Colymbetes and Ayubus the 
anterior tarsi of the males are broad, oblong, and covered be- 
neath with cups of equal, or nearly equal, size. Agabus differs 
in having the thorax as wide at the base as at the middle, or 
still wider. In Dytiscus the ovate, not very convex body is 
usually broader behind the middle, and the last joint of the 
palpi is not elongated, while in Aci1ins which is usually 
banded, the intermediate tarsi of the male are not dilated. 
The males of these two genera often have the elytra deeply 
furrowed, while those of the females are smooth. //y//.sr//.< 
fasdventris Say and Acilius mediatus Say are common in all 
our ponds northward. 

GYUINID/E Latreille. Whirligigs. These oval bluish black 
beetles are easily distinguished b}* their peculiar form and 
habits. They are always seen in groups, gyrating and circling 
about on the surface of pools, and when caught, give out a 
disagreeable milky fluid. Like the previous family, upon being 
disturbed, they suddenly dive to the bottom, holding on by 
their claws to submerged objects. They carry down a bubble 
of air on the tip of the abdomen, and when the supply is ex- 
hausted rise for more. 

The cylindrical eggs are placed by the female, end to end, 
in parallel rows on the leaves of aquatic plants, and the larvae 



IIYDROPIIILID^E. 



437 



are hatched in about eight days. They are myriapodous in 
form, with a pair of large, long, lateral respiratory filaments 
on each segment, much as in the larva of 
Corydalus. They become fully grown in Au- 
gust, crawl out of the water and spin an oval 
cocoon, within which the pupa remains a 
month, and then appears as a beetle. In (*>/- 
rinus (Fig. 380, G. borealis Aube; Fig. 381, 
larva of a European species) the scutellum is 
distinct ; the species of Dineutus, of which I). Ameri- 
r.anus is a type, are larger, and lack the scutellum. 
Schiodte states that the larvae of Carabidce , 
D/ftiscida* and Gyrinida 1 differ from those of other Coleop- 
tera in having double claws, while in the others the tarsus is 
undivided and claw-like. 





Fig. 381. 



HYDROPHILID^E Leach. Carnivorous as larva-, but. when 
beetles, vegetable eaters, and living on refuse and decaying 
matter, this family unites the habits of the foregoing families 
with those of the scavenger Silphids. They are aquatic, small, 
convex, oval, or hemispherical beetles, in which the middle and 
posterior feet are sometimes adapted for 
swimming ; the antenna? are short, and the 
palpi very long and slender. The females 
spin a silken, turnip-shaped nidus for their 
eggs, fifty to sixty in number, which ends 
in a horny projection, serving as a respira- 
tory tube to supply the young larva? with 
air as they are hatched. Others carry the 
cocoon about with them on the under side 
of the body. To spin this large amount of 
silk, they are provided with two large silk 
glands, with external spinnerets. The larvae 
hatch in from two to six weeks, and moult 
three times ; when mature they are long, cy- 
lindrical, tapering rapidly towards the pos- 
terior end, with short legs, while the head is 
flattened above and very convex beneath, with the mandibles 
elevated much as in the larva of Cicindela, enabling them to 




Fig. ->82. 



438 



COLEOPTERA. 



seize their food by throwing their heads back and extending 
the jaws. The larva of the European //. jn'eews Linn. (Fig- 
382) matures in two months, then ascends to the bank, forms 
an oval cocoon, and transforms to a beetle in about forty days. 
In the genus Sperrlit'ii* (S. tessellatus Mels.) the middle and 
hind tarsal joints are equal in length. Hydrophilus is large, 
oval, olive-black and with smooth eh'tra. In the larva the 
lateral appendages of the abdomen are soft, flexible, ciliated, 
and assist in buoying up the heavy, fleshy bod}' (for which 
purp<>M' the antenna? are ciliated) but they do not serve for 
respiration as in B<>rxnx, another extensive genus of this 
family. (Schiodte.) H. triangularis Say is a lai'ge, pitchy 
black species. In Hydrobius the last joint of the maxillary 
palpi is longer than the preceding. Sphceridium and its allies 
are characterized by an ovate, convex or hemispherical form, 
with ten rows of punctures or strut 1 , though in Cyclonotmn 
there are no stria;. In Cercyon the mesosternum is not pro- 
duced, and the prosternum is keeled over. " In the larvae of 
Cercyon and Sphceridium, which represent the Hydrophiline 
type modified for life on dry land (though in humid places), 
we find neither lateral abdominal appen- 
dages, nor even true feet, the animal wrig- 
gling its way through the debris amongst 
which it lives, whilst the last abdominal 
segment is the largest of all and is often 
armed with hooks." (Schiodte.) 

PLATYPSYLLIIM-: Leconte. The only spe- 
cies of this family known is a small brown 
insect, -16 inch long (Platypsylla cantoris 
Ritsema, Fig. 382 1 , enlarged), found on 
the American beaver. The body is broad. Fi *?- 3S -' 

flattened, eyeless, with short elytra, and spin}' on the legs and 
salient parts of the body, as in the flea. Leconte remarks that 
its affinities are " very composite, but all in the. direction of the 
Adephagous and Clavicorn series, though chiefly with the latter.' 

SILPIIID^K Leach. The Carrion or Sexton beetles are useful 
in burying decaying bodies, in which they lay their eggs. 




SCYDM^ENID^E. 




The larvae are crustaceous, flattened, with the sides of the 
body often serrated, black, and of a fetid odor. They undergo 
their transformations in an oval cocoon. In Necropliorus (Fi^. 
346, N. Americauus Oliv.) the antennae have ten Mpparent 
joints, and the rounded club is 
four-jointed. The genus Silpha, of 
which 8. Lapponica Ilerbst (Fig. 
383, larva ftilly grown ; 384, young, 
from Labrador) is a common spe- 
cies, differs in the third joint of 
the antenna being no longer than 
the second, but shorter than the 
first. In Necropldlus the third joint 
is as long as the first. N. Xnrin- 
mensis Fabr. has a yellow thorax 
with a central irregular black spot. 
Catops and its allies live in fungi, 
carrion and ants' nests, and are 
small, black, oval insects. The 
;f * 4 eyeless Adelops liirtus Tellk. is blind, wanting the 
eyes, and is found in Mammoth Cave. Anisotoma and allies, 
with eleven-jointed antennae, are oval and sometimes hemis- 
pherical, and capable of being rolled up into a b;dl. 
They are of small size and found in fungi, or under 
the bark of dead trees. Agathidrum (Fig. 385, larva 
of the European A. seminulum) has the club of the 
antennae three-jointed. Clambus and allies comprise 
exceedingly minute species, found in decaying vege- 
table matter. 

An aberrant form is Brathinus, two species of which. 
B. nitidnit Lee. and .B. varicornis Lee., have been 
found from Lake Superior to Nova Scotia, about the Fi <m 
roots of grass in damp places. According to Leconte, they arr 
small shiny insects of graceful form, and distinguished by the 
prominent middle coxae. 

SCYDM.ENID.E Leach. The species of this small group differ 
from the Pselaphidce to which they are closely allied by their 
long elytra and distant conical posterior coxa-. They are mi- 




440 COL EOPTEEA . 

rmte, oval, brown, shiny insects found under stones near water, 
under bark and in ants' nests. Scydmcenus is the typical genus. 

PSKLAPHID.E MacLeay. In this group the labial palpi are 
very small, while the four-jointed maxillary palpi are of re- 
markable length : the eyes are composed of large lenses, and 
are sometimes wanting ; the elytra are short, truncated, beneath 
which the wings, when present, are folded and the legs are 
long and the femora are stout, while beyond the leg is usually 
slender. -'The species are very small, not exceeding one- 
eighth of an inch in length, and are of a chestnut-brown color, 
usually slightly pubescent ; the head and thorax are most fre- 
quently narrower than the elytra and abdomen, which is con- 
vex and usually obtuse at tip. Many are found flying in 
twilight; their habits at other times are various, some being 
found in ants' nests, while others occur under stones and bark. 
North America seems to be rich in this family ; more than iifty 
species are known to me. and several of the genera have not 
occurred in other countries. This family closely approaches 
the Staphylinidoe, but the ventral segments are fewer in 
number, and not freely moving, and the eyes are composed of 
large louses." (Leconte.) The genus Ckin't/cr and its allies 
Adranes <-<wnx Leconte, which is found in ants' nests in North- 
ern Georgia, have antenine with less than six joints ; it is 
blind, and the antenme have only two joints. Pselaphvs and 
its allies have eleven-jointed, rareVy ten-jointed antennae. 

Si APIIYLIMD.K Leach. The Rove-beetles are easily recog- 
nized by their long linear black bodies, with remarkably short 
elytra, and seven to eight visible horny abdominal segments. 
The maxilla- are liilobate, usually ciliated, with four-jointed 
palpi, except in Aleochara, when there is an additional joint ; 
I he antennae, variable in form and insertion, are usually eleven- 
jointed, and while the legs are variable in length and form, 
the anterior coxa; are usually large, conical, prominent and 
contiguous. Though sometimes an inch in length, they are 
more commonly minute, inhabiting wet places under stones, 
manure heaps, fungi, moss, under the bark or leaves of trees. 
Many species inhabit ants' nests, :md should be carefully 



JSTAPIIYLIMD.K. 441 

sought for on dewy mornings under stones and pieces of wood, 
which should be taken up and shaken over a white cloth or 
paper ; or the whole nest should be sifted through a rather 
coarse sieve, when the small beetles will fall through the 
meshes. The eggs are very large. The larva 1 (Fig. .'}S(.I, un- 
der side of a larva probably belonging to this family, from 
Maine, enlarged twice) closely resemble the beetles, being 
narrow, the segments of very equal size, the terminal ring 
forming a long prop-leg, on each side of which there 
is a long ciliate seta. In the pupa? the hind wings 
are not folded beneath the elytra, but extend below, 
meeting upon the breast. 

In the true Staphylini the anterior coxa? are promi- 
nent and their coxal cavities are open behind. Aleo- 
chara and its allies are difficult to distinguish, as the 
characters separating them are but slightly marked ; 
they have the maxillary palpi moderate in length, with ,, 
the second and third joints also of moderate length, || 
the fourth small, subulate, distinct, and in Aleochara Fis- ;!8<> ' 
itself there is an additional very small fifth joint. In Homa- 
](>t<;< numerous in species, the ligula is short and bifid, and the 
first to the fourth joints of the hind tarsi decrease in length. 
In 7\irli//i>ttnitt and allies the prothoracic spiracles are visible ; 
the anterior coxa? are large, conical and prominent, with the 
trochanters very distinct, while the antenna? are inserted under 
the lateral margin of the front. The species are 
usually convex above, with the thorax always ample, * U^Jj 
arched and highly polished, and the abdomen conical, 
sometimes very short. They are found partly in 
fungi, partly under bark. Dr. Leconte, whom we 
have been quoting, states that the species of Bolitv- 
binti usually have the head much elongated ; when, 
however, the head is oval, they approach closely to 
the genus (JuwliiiK of the next tribe, but are recog- 




nized by the antenna? being inserted at the lateral Flff - :fs7 - 
margin of the front, near the eyes, and not at the anterior 
angle of the frontal margin, as in Quedius. 

In Staphylinus the antenme are inserted on the anterior mar- 
gin of the front, inside of the base of the mandibles, but dis- 



442 



OOLEOPTEKA. 




tant from each other ; the thorax is punctured and pubescent, 
the middle coxa? slightly separate, while the abdomen is nar- 
rowed at the tips. Fig. 387 represents the larva of this or a 
closely allied genus found in a humble bee's nest. Philonthus 
(litters in having the femora unarmed. The species 
live in decaying matters and excrement. The spe- 
cies of Pwderus (Fig. 388, the larva of the European 
P. tempestivus Erichs.) are found under stones, etc., 
near water. 

In /Stenus, of which S. stygicus Say and fit. Juno 
Fabr. are types, the eyes are large and prominent, so 
that the head resembles that of Cicindela and the 
antenna} are inserted upon the front between the 
the labrum is entire and rounded anteriorly, the para- 
glossae are dilated, rounded, and the body is coarsely punctured, 
while that of its nearest ally Dianous is finely punctured and 
, the paraglossae are connate and indistinct. 
Another small group of genera is repre- 
sented by Oxyporus, which is found in fungi, 
and which has a large head, with 
large long mandibles crossing each 
other, and five-jointed tarsi ; and 
OxyteUis which is found in wet 
places and in dung, and has three- 
jointed tarsi, with a row of spines 
on the front tibiae, and the middle coxa' 
separated. 

Anthophagus ccesus?, Harris Correspond- 
ence (Fig. 389 ; a, maxilla), is found in wet ground where 
spearmint grows, of which it diffuses a strong odor. 

In Omalium the antennae are inserted under the lateral mar- 
gin of the front, the elytra are long, and the tibiae finely spi- 
nous. Micralymma is closely allied, but differs in the elytra 
being very short. The genus Micropeplus is squarish in form 
and connects the present family with the one following. 





Leach. As stated by Leconte, "this is a very 
well defined family of insects, moderately numerous, nearly all 
of a shining black color, with the elytra variously sculptured 



TKICHOPTERYGID^E. 44o 

with striae ; some few species of Hister and Saprinus have the 
elytra marked with red, and a few of the latter genus are 
metallic in color. The form of the body is variable ; those of 
the first group are oblong and flat, with prominent mandibles ; 
the others are round, oblong oval, globose, some depressed 
and some convex. The species live under the bark of trees, in 
excrement and in carcasses. When disturbed the insects 
retract the antennae and feet, appearing as if dead. The an- 
tennae are geniculate, the eighth and following joints forming 
a compact anuulated, rounded or (rarely) triangular club. 
The elytra are truncate behind, leaving two segments of the 
abdomen uncovered. The linear flattened larvae have the ter- 
minal ring ending in two biarticulated appendages, and a 
single anal prop-leg. The larva of the European Hitter 
'(n<T<1,rii<x (Fig. 390) lives in cow clung, forming a cell in 
which it transforms, and like Anthrenus, the pale brown 
pupa retains the larva skin about it. In Hister the head 
is retracted and bent downwards, and the club of the 
antenna is round and annulated. Hister interruptus 
Keauv. and A. marginicollis Lee. are common northward. Fig. 390 
The genus Hetwrhis differs in the antennal club being 
obconical, truncate and solid. The species are found only in 
ants' nests earl}- in the spring. In Saprinus the antennae are 
inserted under the margin of the front ; the antennal cavities 
being at the sides of the prosternum proper. The species are 
mostly found in carrion. 

SCAPHIDIID^ MacLeay. "-This family," according to Dr. 
Leconte, "contains small oval or rounded oval, convex, very 
shining insects, living in fungi. The sides of the thorax are 
oblique, and the head small, so as to make the body somewhat 
pointed in front ; the thorax is very closely applied to the 
front, and the elytra are broadly truncate, permitting the tip 
of the conical abdomen to appear." In ScapMdium the an- 
tennae are clavate, the eyes emarginate, the posterior tibiae are 
not spinous, and the first joint of the posterior tarsi longest. 

TRICHOPTERYGID.E (Trichopterygia Erichson). This incon- 
siderable family comprises the smallest beetles known. The 



444 COLEOPTERA. 

eleven-jointed antenna 1 . wliich are verticillate, with long hairs, 

are inserted at the margin of the front, and the club is long 
and loosely articulated. The beetles live under the bark 
of trees and in ants' nests. The larvae are carnivorous, 
being very active, without ocelli, and with cylindrical 
bodies, with four-jointed antenna; and long four-jointed 
legs. Trickopteryx is known by its pubescent body. 
and laminate posterior coxae. One species is one-third 
of a line long ; others are still smaller. The larva 

Fi f . u of the E ur0 p ean p. intermedia Gillmeister (Fig. 391, 

enlarged) feeds on Podune. 



Erichson. "A small number of oval or 
rounded oval, convex, shining insects, constitute this family. 
They are found on flowers, and sometimes under bark. The 
elytra have sometimes approximate rows of small punctures, 
but more usually only a sutural stria. The scutellum is larger 
than usual, triangular. One of the four genera (Tolyphus) 
of this family is wanting in our fauna. The other three are 
separated by the form of the posterior tarsi." (Leconte.) In 
Phalacrus the anterior and posterior tarsi are of the same 
length. The larva 1 are vegetable feeders, living in the flowers 
of composite plants. 



AKI.I; Latreille. This family includes small oval or 
elliptical, flattened beetles, which are sometimes almost globu- 
lar. The he;id is suddenly narrowed before the insertion of 
the antenna?, thus forming a short beak, and the antenna. 1 may 
be partially retracted into a groove under 
s-jwifl the eyes. The larva? are both carnivorous 
*]T V 1 and A-egetable-feeders ; the}' are elongated, 
-, with two to four-jointed antennae, three ocelli 
K, on each side, with a flattened hairy body, 
ending in four small, horny, recurved tuber- 
cles. The pupa? may be found under the 

.,r 

surface of the ground in earth and sawdust. 
Carpopllllus has the second and third abdominal segments 
short, while the first, fourth and fifth are longer, and the claws 
are simple. Ccvrpophilus antiguus .Mels. is a well known spe- 




COLY 1)11 IMC. 



cies. NiUdula and its allies arc elliptical depressed, often 
with a broad margin ; the elytra covers the whole abdomen, or 
leaves merely the tips exposed. In Nitidnla the last joint of 
the labial palpi is not thicker than the preceding, and the 
species often have two red spots on the elytra, as in Nitiilula, 
bipnxfn!<it<i Fabr. In Epmwt, which is found under stones and 
bark, the last joint of the palpi is large and thick. Omosftn. 
colon Fabr. is also spotted twice with red ; the genus may be 
recognized by the antennal grooves diverging behind, following 
the outline of the eyes, while in the males the sixth abdominal 
segment is wanting. Ips is much longer and larger, with trun- 
cate elytra, and the head is immersed in the thorax to the 
eyes. Ips sanguinolentus Say has a broad red band on the 
elytra, with two large round dots. Ipx /(.iscfattis Say (Fig. 
391, and larva ; found in the roots of the squash by Mr. M. C. 
Read) has two broad interrupted yellow bands on the elytra ; 
both species occur about flowing sap in spring. Ips fernuji )><><>, 
of Europe lives on the young of Hylesinus ligniperda. Rliizo- 
phagnx depressus is known in Europe to attack the larvae of 
Hylurgus piniperda, according to Dufour. 

MONOTOMID^E Chaudoir. The species of this inconsiderable 
group are much like the preceding family in form, but as Le- 
conte states, differ from them in the anterior coxae being small, 
rounded and separated. They occur under the bark of trees. 

TKOUOSITIDJE Kirby. This group, usually united witli the 
preceding family, is distinguished by the bilobate maxillae, with 
the short, four-jointed maxillae and the short undilated tarsi. 
They generally live under bark, but some have been trans- 
ported over the whole world in grain. In Trogosita, which 
comprises long insects, with the thorax narrowed behind, the 
ligula is entire, the tibiae are not spinous, and the thorax is 
prominently angulated in front. 



COLYDIID.E Erichson. The small globular anterior and 
middle coxae, and the four-jointed simple tarsi will enable them, 
Leconte states, to be readily distinguished from any of the 
neighboring families. The species are of small size, usually 



446 COLEOPTE KA . 

rather long and cylindrical, and occur in fungi, in the earth, or 
under the bark of trees. Colydium is slender, with finely 
striate elytra, and the anterior tibiae have one spur enlarged 
and hooked : while the first joint of the tarsi is elongated. 
C. elongatum is stated by European authors to attack the larva; 
of Platypus, a genus allied to Scolytus. 

RHYSSODID.K Erichson. This group, by some authors united 
with the preceding family, simulates the form of the Carabids. 
The antenna 1 are, however, composed of equal globular joints, 
and the head is strongly constricted behind into a neck. They 
are found under bark. In Rht/xsodex the e^yes are placed upon 
tlu- side, and in the other genus, Clinidium, upon the upper 
surface of the head. 



E Latreille. The species of this family are very 
much flattened long insects, with flat, strongly emarginated 
dura, and the abdomen has five full segments, equal in length. 
They are found under bark. The larvae are quite transparent, 
with the terminal joint ending in two horny curved hooks. 
The antennae are four-jointed, the limbs provided with a single 
claw, and there are five ocelli on each side of the head. In N///- 
ritintx, which is of small size, the nine to eleven-jointed an- 
tennae do not have the first joint elongated as usual, while the 
terminal ones are enlarged. Sylvanus Surinamensis Linn, is 
one-ninth of an inch long, of a rusty brown color, and covered 
with short yellowish hairs. The larva is a flattened yellowish 
white grub, with the terminal joint somewhat conical. It breeds 
in bran, rice and wheat. Cucujus is a bright scarlet flattened 
insect, with punctured elytra, and three faintly marked smooth 
lines. The larvae differ from those of Sylvanus by having two 
horny tubercles at the end of the abdomen ; they are often 
found in granaries. 



GiD-iE Kirby. This family differs from the pre- 
ceding group in the greater length of the first abdominal ring. 
the thickened body, and in the thorax being as wide as the 
elytra. Antherophagus is readily known by its resemblance to 
Epuraea among the Nitid id !<1<t> . as its head and body is flat. 




MYCETOPHAGIDyE. 447 

the front not prolonged, and in the male is deeply excised at, 
the tip. The antennae of the female are clubbed as usual, and 
the mandibles are prominent and suddenly incurved at 
the tips. It is often found on flowers in the perfect 
state. We have found the larvae (Fig. 393 ; o, end 
of abdomen) of Antheropfiagus ochraceus Say (Plate 
3, fig. 4) in the nests of humble bees during July and 
August. They are whitish, and .32 of an inch in 
length. The beetles are of a pale honey yellow, with v, 
little darker antennae, legs and elytra, while the ends /i 
of the antennal joints, the base of the coxae and tibiae, Fig. 393. 

and tip of the terminal joint of the tarsi are black. 
i The larva of the European Cryptophagus hirtus Gyll. 

(Fig. 394) is found in cellars. 

DEKODONTID.E Leconte. In these insects the 
transverse form of the anterior and posterior coxae 
Fig. 3!)i. (which latter are slightly separated), dilated inter- 
nally, forming a small plate to protect the insertion of the 
thigh, distinguishes this group from all the preceding 
families, and approximates it somewhat to the families 
following the Elateridai. 





Redtenbacher. Leconte states that 
the insects of this small family are of very small size, 
found flying in twilight, and also under bark and 
stones ; they are of graceful form, the elytra being 
usually wider than the thorax ; the species of Bonroii- 
loiria and most of the species of Lath rid ins (Fig, 
395, larva of L. minutus Linn., enlarged) are very Fifr - :VJ ' } - 
remarkably sculptured, with elevated lines on the thorax. 

OTHNIID^E Leconte. Othnius umbrofnia Lee. is the type of 
this family. It occurred in Nebraska, near the Rocky Moun- 
tains. 

MYCETOPHAGID.E Leach. The genus Mycetophagus is finely 
punctured with closely appressed hairs ; the anterior coxal 
cavities are open ; the tarsi are four-jointed and filiform, the 




U-S COLEOPTERA. 

anterior pair in the males having but three joints; the frontal 
suture is always distinct and usually deep ; the eyes are trans- 
verse and the antennae gradually enlarged externally. 

DEHMESTID.E Leach. These well known insects have the 
hend small and detiexed, with short mandibles, rounded eyes, 
with a single ocellus ; the prothorax is short, sometimes exca- 
vated for the reception of the antennae, which are in- 
serted in front of the eyes and are usually eleven-jointed, 
and the legs are short, somewhat contractile, the tarsi 
being five-jointed. In Byturus the mandibles have sev- 
eral teeth, and the claws are armed with a large basal 
Fig. 396. tooth. They are small oval brown beetles found eating 
flowers. Mr. J. L. Russell of Salem, has called mv attention 
to the ravages committed by B. unicolor Say on the raspberry ; 
it eats the flowers, being most abundant during June, and for 
two or three summers has been very abundant. Hand picking 
was found to be the best remedy. Every entomologist dre:ids 
<, the presence of Dermestes and Anthrenus in his cabinet. 
The ugly, bristly, insidious larva, which so skilfully hides 
in the body whose interior it consumes, leaving only 
the shell ready to fall to pieces at the slightest jar. can 
lie kept out only with the greatest precautions. ])<>r- 
mestes lardariiix Linn., the larger of the two, is oblong 
oval, with short legs, black, with the base of the elytra 
gray buff, covered by two broad lines. It is timid and 
Fiir ;)7. slow in its movements, and when disturbed seeks a 
shelter, or mimics death. We have found the larva (Fig. 
396) of probably another species of Dermestes, crawling up 
the side of an out-house. It was nearly twice the size of 
1). lardarius. Attagenus pcUio Stephens is another insect 
which infests museums. It is shorter than Dermestes, black, 
with two dots on the wing covers. The larva (Fig. 397, en- 
larged three times) is long and slender, cylindrical, with red- 
dish In-own hairs closely appressed to the body, giving it a 
silky, shining appearance. The abdomen ends in a long pen- 
cil of hairs. It has been known to eat holes in carpets. 

Anthrenus ron'tix Fabr. (Fig. 398; a, larva; 1>. pupa) is 
rounded oval, with transverse waved lines. Its larva is thick, 



GEORYSSID-dE. 



449 




with long- bristles, which are largest on the end of the body. 
They are general^ destructive in museums, and prey on stuffed 
specimens of all sorts. The beetles fly about early in spring 
and then lay their eggs. The insect is found in all its stages 
through the year. They may be killed like the Clothes-moth, 
also found in museums, by saturating the specimen infested 
by them with benzine. To pre- 
vent their attacks, they should 
be kept out of collections In- 
keeping benzine in constant 
evaporation in open vessels. 
Camphor and turpentine and 
creosote are also very useful. 
Insects recently prepared should 
be placed in quarantine, so we may be sure none of the mu- 
seum pests will be introduced into the drawers or cases of the 
cabinet while either in the egg or larva state. Their presence 
in cabinets may be detected by the dust they make falling on 
the white surface beneath. Specimens thoroughly impregnated 
with carbolic acid, or arsenic, or corrosive sublimate, will not 
be attacked by them. 

BVHRHID.E Leach. Pill Beetles. This group has the head 
retracted under the thorax, with the parts of the mouth more 
or less protected by the prosternum ; the legs are short, stout 
and retractile, and the antennae are clavate. The typi- 
cal species are "oval or rounded, very convex, dull 
black or bronzed insects, covered with a fine, easily 
removed pubescence, forming varied patterns." In 
Byrrhus all the tarsi are retractile. We have taken 
ByrrJnis Americanus Lee. in Labrador, on the stems 
of the "Labrador tea." They are found in cold 
mountainous districts. The larvre (Fig. 399, larva 
of B. pittxla Illiger, a European species found in moss) are 
fleshy, cylindrical, with the last two rings of the body larger 
than the others. 




Heer. This family consists of but a single 
genus, characterized by Leconte as comprising small, rounded. 



29 



450 



COLEOPTERA. 





mi. 



convex, roughly sculptured, black insects, found at the mar- 
gins of streams, on wet sand ; they cover themselves with a 
mass of mud, so that no part of the insect is visible. Georys- 
sus pusflliift Lee. is our only species. 

PARNID.E MacLeay. These are aquatic beetles, having a 
retractile head, and are often found clinging to submerged 
stones, both in the larval and pupal states. The body of 
the beetle is u clothed with a fine pu- 
bescence, enabling a film of air to be 
preserved beneath the water." The 
larvae are hemispherical like a basin. 
"The larva of Pseplieimx Lerontei 
I laid. (Fig. 400, under side, enlarged 

/' / \ > V'' 

throe times) is an elliptical object, 
Fig. 400. \\-\t\i the margins widely extended be- 
yond the body, and is seen on stones under the water of rapid 

+7 v * 

streams ; it is especially abundant in the rapids of Niagara, 
and ditt'ers in no important particular from the larva of Heli- 
cJtitx of the next subfamily. It respires by branchial fila- 
ments." (Leconte.) Elmis (Fig. 401, larva, of a European 
species) is known by the narrow, elongate scutellum. 

METKHOCKIMD.K MacLeay. "This family consists of but a 
single genus, HctcrorerHn ; it is represented in every portion 
of our territory. The species are numerous, but very similar 
in form and color, so that care is necessary in distinguishing 
them. They are oblong or subelongate, oval, densely clothed 
with short, silky pubescence, very finely punctuate, and of a 
brown color, with the elytra usually variegated with undulating 
bands or spots- of a yellow color. They live in galleries 
which they excavate in sand or mud at the margin of bodies 
of water, and, when disturbed, run from their galleries and take 
flight, after the manner of certain species of Bembidium." 
(Leconte.) 



Latreille. This family is closely allied to the 
next, and is often united with it, as it differs chiefly from 
the outer lamellate joints of the antenna 1 not being so closely 



SCAllABvElDJE. 



451 



united into :i compact club, as in the Scarabeidce, and the 

mcntum is usually large. The genus Lucanim, called the Stag- 

horn beetle, is of large size, with enormously developed jaws 

in the male, as in Lucanus 

(ItniKi Fabr. (Fig. 402, 

<?). The larva of Lu- 

canus danui (Fig. 403, and 

cocoon, natural size) is 

long, thick, nearly cylin- 

drical, and the corneous 

rust-colored head is armed 

with two large jaws. Liv- 

ing in rotten wood, like 

the Oe r a m byci d w , it 

constructs a cocoon of the 

chips it makes. The larva 



Fig;. 402. 




of the European L. c 

is stated by Roesel to live 




six years. Harris states that they lay their eggs in crevices of 
the bark of trees, especially near the roots. The larvae resem- 
ble the grubs of the Scarabaeans in color and form, but are 

smoother, being less 
wrinkled. Dorcas bre- 
>v'.s- Say (Fig. 404) is 
an exceedingly rare in- 
sect whose habits are 
unknown. In PastHthi.x 
t-ornutus Fabr., belong- 
ing to a more aberrant. 
genus, the body is long- 
Fig. 40:;. and flattened with a 

short bent hook on the head, and the elytra deeply striate. 
Madam Merian describes the larva of Passalus us being a 
thick fleshy worm, with a small scaly head, six legs, and 
slender posteriorly : it lives in decaying wood. 

SCARAB A.ID.E Erichson. This family, the Lamellicornia of 
Latreille, is one of immense extent, being divided into more 
than 700 genera, comprising some 6,000 species, or three- 




452 



COLEOPTERA. 




401. 



fourths as many Coleoptera as are known to live in this 
country. They comprise the mammoths among insects, and it 
is in the tropics that we meet with the most numerous mid 

bizarre, as well as gigantic forms. Always 
readily recognized by their clubbed lamel- 
late antenme, the terminal joints being- 
expanded into broad flat leaves, which, at 
the will of the insect, can be closely shut 
into a compact club, or loosely expanded 
fan-like, and laid under the projecting cly- 
peus, so overhanging the mouth-parts :is 
to give rise to the terms beetle-horned, 
and "beetling;" these insects, by their 
robust, thick, often square body, short fos- 
sorial legs, with large hooked claws for seizing leaves and 
stems, have been well known to all observing persons, however 
slight their entomological knowledge. The larva? are thick 
and fleshy cylindrical grubs, with a corneous head, and rather 
long four-jointed antennae ; the ocelli are generally wanting ; 
the legs are stout and long, without claws, and the last- ab- 
dominal segment is soft and baggy. The body 
is often very transparent, the tracheae appear- 
ing through. Fig. 405 represents a singular 
larva (magnified twice) of this family from 
Mr. Sanborn's collection. 

The genus Copris and allies are known by 
their rounded form, and the broadly expanded 
clypeus, which covers in the mouth-parts. In 
some species (those of Deltochilum) the anterior 
tarsi arc wanting either in the females or both 
sexes ; and in some species a stridulating ap- 
paratus is found on the upper surface of the 
Fi,?. 405. abdomen. In Copris the labial palpi are diluted, 
the first joint of the autennal club does not receive the others, 
and the claws are distinct. The larva of C. Coroliim Fabr., 
while, according to Osten Sacken, having the general appear- 
ance of the larvae of the Lamellicorns, is much thicker and 
curved up, the back being much swollen and "distended into 
ii hump-like expansion. It is about two inches long and of a 




SCAKAB^EIDJE. 4/>3 

dirty yellowish white. Each larva was found enclosed in 
a globular case of dung or earthy matter, about an inch and a 
quarter in diameter." (Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Philadelphia, vol. i, pi. 1, fig. 1.) 

The closely allied Phaneus carnifex MacLeay is common 
southward, and easily known by its brilliant copper colored 
thorax and bright green elytra, and by the large horn on the 
head of the male. These insects are called kk Tumble-bugs," as 
they enclose their eggs in pellets of manure, holding them be- 
tween their hind legs, and rolling them away to a place of safety. 
The species of Aplioditis live also in manure ; they arc quite 
small, nearly cylindrical, with the mouth-parts concealed by 
the clypeus ; the antenna} are nine-jointed, the club consisting 
of three joints, and the lobes of the maxilhe are membrana- 
ci'ous, unarmed, while the upper parts of the eyes are visible in 
repose. Apliodius fimetarius Linn., which is black with bright, 
red elytra, has been introduced from Europe, and is abundant 
in woods, flying over dung ; it is now common in the carriage 
road of Mount Washington. Fig. 406 represents the larva of 
the European JL fossor Linn. Chapuis and Candeze 
found it in manure in spring. Geotrupes has eleven- 
jointed antenna?, with the club three-jointed, the mid- 
dle coxa; are contiguous, and while the club of its 
nearest ally, BoViocerus, a shorter insect, is large 
and lenticular in form, that of the present genus 
is lamellate, as usual. Geotrupes splendid us Fabr. is 
a common beetle, with a I night shining green body, flying in 
paths and wood roads late in 'the summer. The species of 
Trox differ in having slightly fossorial legs ; they are oblong 
convex, the surface being very rough and covered with dirt, 
which is scraped off with difficulty. They live in dried decay- 
ing animal matter, and, according to Leconte, "possess a dis- 
tinct stridulating organ ; it is an elliptical plate, with peaiiy 
reflections, occupying the upper part of the external face of 
the ascending portion of the first ventral segment, and is cov- 
ered by the elytra ; on the inner surface of the elytra, near the 
margin, about opposite the thorax, is an oval, smooth, polished 
space, which has, probnbly, some connection with the. stridu- 
lating organ." The larva of " Tro.c Carol! mi Dej." (T. scabrcx 




454 



COLEOPTERA. 





sus Beauv. Fig. 407), is described by Chapuis and Candeze as 
coming from New Orleans. 

Mdolontlia and its allies come next in the series. They feed 
exclusively on living plants. The gemis Acratus was estab- 
lished by Dr. Horn for A. flavipennis Horn (Fig. 
408; , antenna; b, maxilla; c, mentum ; (/, mandi- 
ble ; e, anterior leg and tarsal claw) found in Ari- 
zona. The genus Dichelonycha is distinguished by 
the front margin of the thorax being narrow and 
Fig. 407. membranous, with equal claws, cleft at the tip. D!~ 
chdonycha eloitgnfii/a. Schonh. Is a long green beetle, with long- 
legs, and of a metallic green color ; it is found in June on the 

leaves of the birch. 

Ma crodartf/f n .s s f>- 
spinosus Fabricius, tlie 
well known Rose-bug 
or Rose- chafer, is 
brown, covered with 
ochreous scales ; the 
legs, tarsi and claw-; 
are very long and slender. It overruns garden plants, especi- 
ally injuring the rose leaves. Dr. Harris has observed the 
transformations of this insect. The nearly globular whitish 
eggs, about thirty in number, are deposited by the female 
from one to four inches beneath the surface of the soil, and are 
1 latched in about twenty days. The whitish 
larva becomes fully grown in the autumn, and 
is then three-quarters of an inch long and an 
eighth of an inch wide. In October it descends 

^ 

below the reach of frost, and in the next 
May is transformed to a pupa in an oval 
earthen cell. The pupa is yellowish white, 
somewhat of the form of the beetle, with short wings ; its 
antennre and legs folded on its breast, with its white body 
surrounded by a thin film. The beetles may be often seen in 
clusters on low bushes in partially cleared fields having just 
appeared from their cocoons. Dr. Horn has described the 
genus PIftctrodes for a Californian species, P. pubescens Horn 
(Fig. 409; a, maxilla and palpus; />, tarsal claw). The well 



40S. 




SCARAB.EID^E. 



455 




Fifr< il() - 



known June-bug or Dor-bug, Lachnostema fiwu. Frohl. (Fig. 
410, 411, larva; 412, side view of pupa), lives as a larva on 
the roots of grass and is often turned up b}" the spade or 
plough. It is then a large fleshy grub, very com- 
monly met with, and is injurious to growing corn 
and wheat. The pupa is found in its rude earth- 
en cocoon in May. The beetles are very injuri- 
ous to the leaves of fruit trees. They are chest- 
nut brown, with yellowish hairs beneath, and 
nearly an inch in length. There are several 
smaller, closely allied species. Melolontha (Poly- 
phylla) variolosa Harris differs in its enormously developed 
six-jointed lamellate antennal club, that of the female being 

much smaller. 

In Auomala the body is small, the an- 
tennae nine-jointed, and the mandibles when 
at rest do not project beyond the clypeus. 
Such is Anomola variant} Fabr., which is 
very injurious to the vine in June and 
July. Pelidnota punctata Linn, has similar 
habits. It is oblong oval, very convex 
Ki tf- 411> above, with dull brownish yellow elytra, 

with three large black dots, on each side. It is often abun- 
dant on grape-vines in July and August, and proves very 
injurious. 

The Cotalpa kmigera Linn. (Fig. 413 ; a, larva) or the Gold- 
smith beetle, is nearly an inch long, bright yellow, with long 
white, woolly hairs beneath, where it is metallic 
green. It often injures fruit and shade trees, and 
Mr. S. Lock wood states that in the larva state it 
destroys the roots of the strawberry plant. He 
remarks that on the 16th of June a pair of Cotal- 
pas coupled, and 111 the evening the female bur- 
rowed beneath the dirt, reappearing the next 
morning, having meanwhile laid at different 
depths, and singly, fourteen white, long, oval eggs ; 
on the 13th of July the larva? hatched, being five-sixteenths 
of an inch long. (American Naturalist, vol. ii, p. 441.) 
In Dynasties the labial palpi are inserted on the sides of the 





Fisr. 412. 



45(5 



COLEOPTERA. 



mentum, which is acuminate in front ; the head and thorax arc 
armed with large horns in the males ; the first joint of the pos- 
terior tarsi is not elevated, and there are no stridulating or- 
gans. Our only species is Dynastes Tityus Linn., found in 
the .Southern States. It is over two inches long, of a greenish 
gray color, with black spots scattered irregularly over the ely- 
tra. Dynastes Here ales Linn., one of the giants of the familv. 
is about six inches long. 

The genus (. 1 <'f<>ni and its allies are flower beetles; their 
mandibles are feebly developed and in part membranous and 
concealed with the other oral organs beneath the clypeus ; and 
in flying they "'do not raise or expand the elytra, as most Colc- 
optera do, but pass the wings from the side, under the elytra, 

which do not at nil 
embrace the sides of 
the body." (Lecontc.) 
The immense Go- 
liath beetles of the 
western coast of 
Africa belong to the 
genus Goliathus, in 
which the clypeus of 
the males is generally 
Fig - 41:J> forked or armed with 

horns. Dr. Harris has proposed the name of Hegemon '"for 
the subgenus, including the princely Scarabwus Goliath-us of 
Linmeus, together with the still more magnificent G<>litli* 
Drtirit of Westwood, and the G. Cacicits of Gory and Per- 
clierou." Of Hope's subgenus Mwynorhina, the Scarabaeus 
Polyphemus of Fabricius is the type ; it is velvet green above, 
with a pale buff head and markings, and is two and a half 
inches long, exclusive of the horns. Dr. Harris has also 
described as new to science M. Savagif which has a velvet 
green thorax, and velvet black elytra, with tawny bands and 
spots ; it is about two inches long. The G. GoUatJms is per- 
haps the largest of all the Coleoptera ; specimens measuring 
nearly four inches. Dr. G. A. Perkins of Salem, Mass., who 
collected a large part of the fine series of specimens of these 
Goliath beetles in the Museum of the Peabody Academy of 




SCARAB.KID.K. 457 

Science, informs me that they are found in the tops of trees 
where they feed oil flowers and on sup exuding- from wounds 
in the bark, like the Cetonia', and that the natives obtain 
them by jarring the trees. Harris states that "it appears, 
from the observations of Dr. Savage, that the food of the 
Goliath beetles is fluid, like that of the Trichii and Cetonue, 
insects belonging to the same natural family, but the latter live 
chiefly on the nectar of flowers, and the former on the sap of 
plants. The long brushes on their jaws, and the diverging 
rows of hairs that line their lower lips, are admirably litted for 
absorbing liquid food ; while their horny teeth attbrd these 
beetles additional means for obtaining it from the leaves and 
juicy stems of plants, when the blossoms have disappeared." 
From Cetonia, Lacordaire has separated the genus E'unjomiu, 
distinguished by the uutoothed maxilhv, by the clypeus being 
usually parabolic, sometimes parallel and rarely emarginatc in 
front. Euryomia Inda Linn, attacks 
ripe peaches, spoiling them for the 
market. They are found about run- 
ning sap in April and flying in fields in 
May, and a new brood appears in Sep- 
tember. In Osmoderina the elytra are 
not sinuate on the sides, the prothorax 

is narrower than the elytra and usually rounded on the sides. 
Osmoderina scabra Dej. is a large long-legged beetle of a cop- 
pery purplish black color. The larva lives in decaying cherry 
and apple trees. According to Harris it is a whitish flesh; 
grub, with a reddish corneous head, and closely resembles the 
grub of the common dor-beetle. In autumn it forms an oval 
cocoon by gluing together the chips it makes, and the beetle 
appears in July. 

BUPRESTID^E Leach. This very extensive family is known 
by the serrated antennae, the outer joints of which are usually 
furnished with pores, which are either diffused on the sides, 
or concentrated in a cavity (fovea) on the under side or at the 
tip. The head is deeply sunken up to the elliptical eyes, and 
the labrum is small and prominent, while the mandibles are 
short and stout. The legs are short, the tibia- arc usually 




458 



COJLEOPTERA. 





slender, and the species are generally long, flattened beetles 
of very tough thick consistence, and are found on flowers, or 
sunning themselves on the bark of trees in midsummer. The 
larvje are flattened footless grubs, with the 
prothoracic ring greatly enlarged. 

In Chalcophora the antennal pores are dif- 
fused on the sides of the joints, or only on 
the lower margin ; the mesosternal 
suture is indistinct ; the antennae are 
inserted in small foveae, and the pos- 
terior tarsi have the first joint elon- 
gated. C. Virginiensis Drury is one 
of our most common species, and 
may be seen flying about pine trees 
in hot days in May and June. Its 
larva bores into pines, often proving 
very injurious. Fig. -nr>. 

Dicerca is noted for having the tips of 
the elytra lengthened out and diverging 
from each other. Diccrcu divaricata Say is 
frequently met with ; it is smoother than 
usual and highly polished with a 
bronzed hue. The elytra are 
marked with numerous fine irregu- 
lar impressed lines and small ob- 
long square elevated black spots. 
The larvae attack the wild cherry 
and the garden cherry and peach. 
Dicerca lurida Fabr. is found on 
the trunks and limbs of the 
hickory. 

The genus C7r/-//.sW;o///r/.s dilfers in having the 
antennae inserted at the inner extremity of two short 
oblique grooves, by which the front is narrowed ; 
the anterior femora are strongly toothed, the third 
joint of the tarsi is truncate, while in the hind tarsi the first 
joint is elongated. The species are rather broad and flattened, 
with impressed bands and spots on the elytra. Chrysobotln-i* 
femorata Fabr. (Fig. 414; a, larva; Fig. 415, larva of the 



HC. 




Fiir. 



BUPRESTID^E. 45ft 

same genus, found under bark of oaks) is greenish black above, 
with a brass}- polish ; it infests the apple and oak, in which it 
lives one year. C. Harrisii Ilentz inhabits the small limbs of 
the white pine. It is also very injurious to apple trees and red 
maples. To prevent its attacks Fitch recommends placing a 
piece of soap in a fork in the tree so that it will be washed 
down by the rains over the bark, while young trees may bo 
rubbed with soup ; this is an excellent remedy against the 
attacks of all kinds of borers. 

The genuine species of Buprestis occur in Europe. The 
largest species of this family known to us is the Euchroma 
Columbica Mann, which occurs in Central and 
South America. It is two and a half inches 
long and metallic green. Mr. McNiel has sent 
to the Museum of the Peabody Acadenvy sev- J 
eral immense white larvae (Fig. 410, natural 
size), from Nicaragua, which are, without much 
doubt, the young of this gigantic beetle. 

The small, flattened, ovate, angular Brachys Fig. 418. 

is probably a leaf miner, as such are the habits of the closely 
allied genus Trachys (T. pygnuea, Fig. 417, larva; 418, pupa), 
as observed in Europe where it mines the leaves of the Malva, 
and Alcita, according to M. Leprieur. 

TIIKOSCIIX*: Laporte. This small group has been separated 
from the succeeding family ; the species differ in not having 
the power of leaping, owing to the immovable thorax. In 
the antennae are terminated by a three-jointed club. 




Leach. A very large and easily limited family, 
in which the serrate, eleven-jointed antennae, are inserted upon 
or under the margin of the front, in grooves, while the head is 
retracted, though sometimes free as usual from the prothorax, 
between which and the mesothorax is a loose articulation, 
enabling the species to leap in the air by a sudden jerking 
movement, which Dr. Leconte thus describes : " a few of the 
species of the first subfamily (Eucnernidae) and a majority of 
those of the third (Elateridae), possess the singular power 
of springing in the air when placed on the back. This is 



400 



GOLBOPTERA. 



effected by extending the prothorax so as to bring the proster- 
ual spine to the anterior part of the mesostenml cavity, then 
suddenly relaxing the muscles so that the spine descends 
violently into the cavity, the force given by this sudden move- 
ment causes the base of the elytra to strike the supporting 
surface, and by their elasticity the whole body is propelled 
upward." 

The larva 1 , known by the name of Wire-worms, are vegetable 
feeders, living on the roots of grass, wheat, corn, potatoes, 
turnips and other garden vegetables. Fig. 419 (enlarged 
four times) represents a larva of this family found by 
Mr. Sanborn in the roots of the squash vine. The eggs 
are laid probably in pastures and fallen ground where 
the surface is undisturbed, or in the vicinity of rotten 
wood. The larvae inonlt three times, and some species 
are known to live in this state five years. When fully 
grown they transform in an earthen cocoon, and may 
be seen rising out of the ground during the summer. 
D - especially in June. The larva 1 are very long cylin- 
drical (Avhence their name wire-worm), hard -bodied and diffi- 
cult to kill, and are generally pale testaceous, or yellowish red 
in color. They have only six thoracic legs, and a slight anal 
prop-leg ; the body is flattened towards the head and tail. 

Eticmmis differs from the true Elaters in the serrate an- 
tennae being inserted in approximate grooves at the margin of 
the thorax beneath, which makes the clypeus narrow. Tin- 
species do not leap so vigorously as those of 
other leaping genera. Foritax differs from 
Eucnetnis in the antennae being filiform. 
In Adelocera (Fig. 420, A. obtecta Say) the 
f &$.$:$$ A. > third joint of the antennae is equal to, or 
JpP^ I larger than the fourth. In Elater and its 
A. SUSa > allies, the antennae are widely separated, 
being inserted in small cavities (foveae) 
under the margin of the front, and before 
the eyes. Alaus oculatus Esch. is the largest 
Elater we have, the scutellum is oval, and the elytra have a 
broad margin. The genus Elater has the front of the head 
convex and margined quite broadly, and the thorax is always 




Fij;. 4-20. 




ELATKIMD.K. 401 

narrowed in front, with the tarsi eiliate beneath, and entirely 
simple. Elatt'i' obliguus Say is a small species about a quarter 
of an inch long, of a leathery brown color, and j-ellowish red 
on the prothorax and base of the elytra. In 
Agriotes and allies the front is very convex, 
the edge of which is higher than the labrnm ; the 
antenna; are slender, scarcely serrate, the first 
joint being a little longer than usual. 

In Lwlius the front is convex, but not mar- 
gined behind the labruin, the angle of the hind 
cox.e are acute and prominent, while the meso- 
sternum is not prominent. Mr. Walsh has found the larva of 
L. attenuates Say (Fig. 421 ; fig. 422, larva) which lived in 
decaying wood for two years in his breeding jar. The 
genus Agriotes has the margin of the prothorax bent 
down in front, while in Dolopius it is straight. Ayriotf* 
mancus Say is a pale reddish brown species, while A. 
stabilis, much more abundant northward, is slend