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Full text of "A guide to the study of the United States of America : representative books reflecting the development of American life and thought : supplement 1956/1965"

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LIBRflRY OF C/GUIDE TO THE STUI 

11-S9-06338-X ffE&Stf 9/1 

STRflND BOOK STORE 



A GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF 





Representative Books Reflecting the Development of 
American Life and Thought 



Supplement 
1956-1965 



Prepared Under the Direction of Roy P. Easier 

by Oliver H. Orr, Jr., and the Staff of the 
Bibliography and Reference Correspondence Section 

GENERAL REFERENCE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY DIVISION REFERENCE DEPARTMENT 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Washington: 1976 



Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data (Revised) 

United States. Library of Congress. General Reference and Bibliography 
Division. 

A guide to the study of the United States of America. 



Supplement, 1956-1965. 

Includes index. 

Supt. of Docs, no.: LC 2.8:Un3/supp. 

i. United States Bibliography. I. Mugridge, Donald Henry. II. McCrum, 
Blanche Prichard, 1887- . III. Orr, Oliver Hamilton. 
21215^53 Suppl. [156] 016.973 6060009 
ISBN 0844401641 



FOR SALE BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS, U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20402 - PRICE $12 
STOCK NUMBER 030-010-00042-7 



Contents 



Introduction 



CHAPTER I 



Page IX 
hem Nos. 

i-33 

34-57 
58220 
221-499 
500-717 
718-1110 



Literature (1607-1965) 

A. The Thirteen Colonies (16071763) 

B. The Revolution and the New Nation 

(1764-1819) 

C. Nationalism, Sectionalism, and Schism 

(18201870) 

D. The Gilded Age and After 

(1871-1914) 

E. The First World War and the Great 

Depression (19151939) 

F. The Second World War and the 

Atomic Age (19401965) 

CHAPTER H 

Language 

A. Dictionaries 11111114 

B. Grammars and General Studies 11151119 

C. Dialects, Regionalisms, and Foreign 

Languages in America 11201123 

D. Miscellaneous 11241126 

CHAPTER III 

Literary History and Criticism 

A. Anthologies and Series 11271156 

B. History and Criticism 11571264 

C. Periodicals 12651270 

CHAPTER IV 

Biography and Autobiography 1271-1303 



CHAPTER v Item Nos. 

Periodicals and Journalism 

A. Newspapers: General 13041308 

B. Newspapers: Periods, Regions, and 

Topics 13091314 

C. Individual Newspapers 13151318 

D. Newspapermen 13191330 

E. Foreign-Language Periodicals 13311332 

F. The Practice of Journalism J 333 J 34 2 

G. Magazines: General J 343 J 345 
H. Individual Magazines 13461348 
I. The Press and Society 13491352 



CHAPTER VI 

Geography 

A. General and Physical Geography J 353 ! 

B. Geology and Soil 13581361 

C. Climate and Weather 13621364 

D. Plants and Animals 1365-1371 

E. Historical Geography and Atlases 13721375 

F. Polar Exploration 13761378 



CHAPTER VII 

The American Indian 

A. General Works 

B. Archeology and Prehistory 13861391 

C. Tribes and Tribal Groups 13921395 

D. Religion, Art, and Folklore 13961398 

E. The White Advance 13991406 

F. The Twentieth Century 14071410 



IV / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Item Nos. 

CHAPTER VIII 

General History 

A. Historiography 14111425 

B. General Works 14261445 

C. The New World 1446-1450 

D. The Thirteen Colonies 1451-1469 

E. The American Revolution 14701483 

F. Federal America (17831815) 14841496 

G. The "Middle Period" (181560) 14971511 
H. Slavery, the Civil War, and 

Reconstruction (to 1877) 15121536 

I. Grant to McKinley (18691901) 15371546 
J. Theodore Roosevelt to Wilson 

(1901-21) 1547-1557 

K. Since 1920 15581570 



CHAPTER IX 

Diplomatic History and 
Foreign Relations 

A. Diplomatic History 

Ai. General Works 1571-1590 

Aii. Period Studies 15911600 

Aiii. Personal Records 1601 

Aiv. The British Empire 16021607 

Av. Russia 1608 

Avi. Other European Nations 16091612 

Avii. Latin America: General 1613 
Aviii. Latin America: Individual 

Nations 16141617 
Aix. Asia, Africa, and the 

Middle East 1618-1628 

B. Foreign Relations 

Bi. Administration 16291636 

Bii. Democratic Control 16371641 

Biii. Policies 16421645 

Biv. Economic Policy 16461647 



CHAPTER X 

Military History and the Armed Forces 



hem Nos. 

D. The Air Force 16661667 

E. Wars of the United States 

Ei. The Revolution 16681671 

Eii. 1798-1848 1672-1673 

Eiii. The Civil War 16741684 

Eiv. The Spanish- American War 1685 

Ev. World War I 1686-1688 

Evi. World War II 1689-1694 

Evii. The Korean War 16951697 



CHAPTER XI 

Intellectual History 

A. General Works 

B. Periods 

C. Topics 

D. Localities 

E. International Influences: General 



16981701 
17021706 
1707-1714 
17151716 
17171720 



F. International Influences: By Country 17211722 



A. General Works 

B. The Army 

C. The Navy 



16481654 
1655-1659 
16601665 



CHAPTER XII 

Local History : Regions, States, Cities 

A. General Works, Including Series 17231726 

B. New England: General 1727-1728 

C. New England: Local 17291737 

D. The Middle Atlantic States 1738-1759 

E. The South: General 1760-1772 

F. The South Atlantic States: Local 1773-1781 

G. The Old Southwest: General 1782-1785 
H. The Old Southwest: Local 1786-1795 
I. The Old Northwest: General 1796-1801 
J. The Old Northwest: Local 1802-1809 
K. The Far West 1810-1825 
L. The Great Plains: General 1826-1829 
M. The Great Plains: Local 1830-1835 
N. The Rocky Mountain Region: 

General 1836-1838 
O. The Rocky Mountain Region: Local 1839-1846 

P. The Far Southwest: General 1847-1848 

Q. The Far Southwest: Local 1849-1856 

R. California 1857-1862 

S. The Pacific Northwest: General 1863-1865 

T. The Pacific Northwest: Local 1866-1868 



CONTENTS / V 



U. Alaska and Hawaii 
V. Overseas Possessions 



Item Nos. 

1869-1871 
1872-1874 



CHAPTER XIII 



Travel and Travelers 

A. General Works 

B. 19 Selected Travelers, 17541898 

(chronologically arranged by the 
date of their travels) 



CHAPTER XIV 

Population, Immigration, and 
Minorities 

A. Population 

B. Immigration: General 

C. Immigration: Policy 

D. Minorities 

E. Negroes 

F. Jews 

G. Orientals 

H. North Americans 
I. Scandinavians 
J. Other Stocks 



CHAPTER XV 

Society 

A. Some General Views 

B. Social History: Periods 

C. Social History: Topics 

D. Social Thought 

E. General Sociology; Social Psychology 

F. The Family 

G. Communities: General 
H. Communities: Rural 

I. Communities: Urban 
J. City Planning; Housing 
K. Social Problems; Social Work 
L. Dependency; Social Security 
M. Delinquency and Correction 



1875-1877 



18781915 



19161921 
19221925 
19261928 
1929-1934 
1935-1954 
1955-1959 
19601962 

1963-1965 

1966 

1967-1975 



1976-1983 
1984-1985 
19861994 
1995-1999 
20002006 
20072014 
20152017 
20182020 
20212027 
20282034 
20352041 
20422046 
20472056 



CHAPTER XVI 

Communications 

A. The Post Office; Express Companies 

B. Telegraph, Cable, Telephone 

C. Radio, Television: Broadcasting 

D. Radio, Television: The Audience 

E. Government Regulation 

F. Mass Communications 



CHAPTER XVII 

Science and Technology 

A. General Works 

B. Particular Sciences 

C. Individual Scientists 

D. Science and Government 

E. Invention 

F. Engineering 



Item Nos. 



20572060 
20612063 
20642076 
20772079 
20802081 
20822086 



20872099 
21002105 
21062113 
21142118 
21192120 
21212124 



CHAPTER XVIII 

Medicine and Public Health 

A. Medicine in General 

B. Physicians and Surgeons 

C. Psychiatry 

D. Other Specialties 

E. Hospitals and Nursing 

F. Medical Education 

G. Public Health 

H. Medical Economics 



CHAPTER XIX 

Entertainment 

A. General Works 

B. The American Stage 

Bi. History 

Bii. Criticism 

Biii. Particular Stage Groups, 

Theaters, Movements, etc. 
Biv. Biography: Actors and 

Actresses 
Bv. Biography: Directors, 

Producers, etc. 



21252131 
2132-2139 
21402143 
21442146 
21472151 
2152-2154 
21552164 
21652168 



21692172 

2173-2177 
21782180 

21812184 
2185-2189 
21902193 



VI / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Item Nos. 

C. Motion Pictures 

Ci. History 21942197 

Cii. Special Aspects and Analyses 21982202 
Ciii. Biography: Actors and 

Actresses 2203 
Civ. Biography: Directors, 

Producers, etc. 2204 

D. Other Forms of Entertainment 

Di. Radio and Television 2205 

Dii. The Dance in America 22062208 

Diii. Vaudeville and Burlesque 22092210 

Div. Showboats, Circuses, etc. 22112213 

CHAPTER XX 

Sports and Recreation 

A. General 22142220 

B. Community and Scholastic Activities 22212224 

C. Particular Sports and Recreations 

Ci. Auto-Racing and Motoring 22252227 

Cii. Baseball 22282235 

Ciii. Boating 22362240 

Civ. Boxing 22412247 

Cv. Football 22482254 

Cvi. Golf and Tennis 22552258 

Cvii. Horse-Racing 22502260 

Cviii. Miscellaneous 22612267 

D. General Field Sports 22682274 



CHAPTER XXI 

Education 

A. General Works 

Ai. Historical and Descriptive 22752282 
Aii. Philosophical and Theoretical 22832289 

B. Primary and Secondary Schools 

Bi. General and Historical Works 22902296 
Bii. Preschool and Primary 

Grades 22972298 

Biii. Secondary Schools 22992302 

C. Colleges and Universities 

Ci. General and Historical Works 23032318 
Cii. Individual Institutions 23192323 

D. Education of Special Groups 23242327 

E. Teachers and Teaching 23282332 

F. Methods and Techniques 23332338 



hem Nos. 

G. Contemporary Problems and Con- 
troversies 23392348 
H. Periodicals and Yearbooks 23492353 



CHAPTER XXII 

Philosophy and Psychology 

A. Philosophy: General Works 2354-2366 

B. Representative Philosophers 23672403 

C. Psychology 2404 



CHAPTER XXIII 

Religion 

A. General Works 

B. Period Histories 

C. Church and State 

D. Religious Thought; Theology 

E. Religious Bodies 

F. Representative Leaders 

G. Church and Society 
H. The Negro's Church 

CHAPTER XXIV 

Folklore, Fol^ Music, Foll^ Art 

A. Legends and Tales: General 

B. Legends and Tales: Local 

C. Folksongs and Ballads: General 

D. Folksongs and Ballads: Local 

E. Folk Art and Crafts 



2405-2417 
24182421 
24222430 
2431-2436 

2437-2450 
2451-2456 
2457-2465 
2466 



2467-2473 
2474-2487 
2488-2498 
24992506 
25072510 



CHAPTER XXV 



Music 

A. General Histories and Reference 

Works 25112516 

B. Contemporary Surveys and Special 

Topics 25172521 

C. Localities 25222523 

D. Religious Music 2524 

E. Popular Music 25252530 

F. Jazz 2531-2534 

G. Orchestras and Bands 2 535 

H. Opera 2536-2540 



I. Choirs 

J. Music Education 

K. Individual Musicians 



hem Nos. 

2541 

2542-2543 

2544-2546 



M. Labor: General 
N. Labor: Special 



CONTENTS / VII 

Item Nos. 
2724-2732 
2733-2738 



CHAPTER XXVI 

Art and Architecture 

A. The Arts 2547-2554 

B. Architecture: General 25552560 

C. Architecture: Special 25612568 

D. Interiors 25692571 

E. Sculpture 25722573 

F. Painting 25742583 

G. Painting: Individual Artists 25842594 
H. Prints and Photographs 25952596 
I. Decorative Arts 25972600 
J. Museums 26012602 



CHAPTER XXVII 

Land and Agriculture 

A. Land 26032609 

B. Agriculture: History 26102616 

C. Agriculture: Practice 26172622 

D. Agriculture: Government Policies 26232627 

E. Forests and Forestry 26282632 

F. Animal Husbandry 26332637 

G. Conservation: General 26382641 
H. Conservation: Special 26422649 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

Economic Life 

A. General Works: Histories 26502657 

B. Other General Works 2658-2662 

C. Industry: General 26632664 

D. Industry: Special 26652671 

E. Transportation: General 2672 

F. Transportation: Special 26732683 

G. Commerce: General 26842686 
H. Commerce: Special 26872693 
I. Finance: General 26942698 
J. Finance: Special 26992710 
K. Business: General 2711-2715 
L. Business: Special 27162723 



CHAPTER XXIX 

Constitution and Government 

A. Political Thought 

B. Constitutional History 

C. Constitutional Law 

D. Civil Liberties and Rights 

E. Government: General 

F. The Presidency 

G. Congress 

H. Administration: General 
I. Administration: Special 
J. State Government 
K. Local Government 



CHAPTER XXX 

Law and Justice 

A. History: General 

B. History: The Supreme Court 

C. General Views 

D. Digests of American Law 

E. Courts and Judges 

F. The Judicial Process 

G. Administrative Law 

H. Lawyers and the Legal Profession 



CHAPTER XXXI 

Politics, Parties, Elections 

A. Politics: General 

B. Politics: Special 

C. Political Parties 

D. Local Studies 

E. Machines and Bosses 

F. Pressures 

G. Elections: Machinery 
H. Elections: Results 

I. Reform 



2739-2747 
2748-2755 
2756-2761 
27622772 
27732780 
2781-2786 
2787-2796 
2797-2799 
28002803 
2408-2807 
2808-2812 



2813-2817 

2818-2834 

28352841 

2842 

2843-2850 

2851-2859 

2860-2862 

2863-2870 



2871-2873 
2874-2881 
28822900 
29012906 
29072909 
29102912 
29132916 
29172922 
2923 



VIII / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

hem Nos. Item Nos. 

CHAPTER xxxn D. Book Selling and Collecting 2 933~ 2 935 

j T -L E - Libraries 2936-2937 

and Libraries R Librarianship and Library Use 



A. Printing and Publishing: General 29242926 

B. Individual Publishers 2927-2930 p 

C. Book Production: Technology and 

Art 2931-2932 Index 479 



Introduction 



WHEN A Guide to the Study of the United States 
yf America was published in 1960, the Library 
anticipated updating it with supplements or revi- 
sions. A supplement covering books published dur- 
ing the decade 1956-65 was decided upon, and a 
guideline limiting its contents to approximately half 
the number of entries contained in the 1960 Guide 
was adopted. 

With only occasional exceptions, the Supplement's 
designated time period, 1956-65, has been adhered 
to throughout. A few works appearing before 1956 
are mentioned in annotations and headnotes because 
of their special relevance to the numbered entries, 
but they themselves are not regarded as entries in 
the formal sense. A few other pre-1956 publications 
are entered as parts of series or multivolume studies 
that began before 1956 and continued into the 
decade encompassed here. Also included in some 
instances are reprints or revisions, containing newly 
contributed annotations, bibliographies, textual al- 
terations, or biographical or critical essays, of works 
first published before 1956. Although occasional pro- 
jected works are referred to in the Supplement's 
annotations, no books published after 1965 are men- 
tioned, and no events occurring subsequent to that 
date are noted. Various chapters in the 1960 Guide 
describe books that appeared after its theoretical 
cutoff date of 1955; those books are excluded from 
the Supplement. 

"Selected Readings in American Studies," an ap- 
pendix to the 1960 Guide, has been omitted from the 
Supplement, inasmuch as scholarship in this field 
has begun to develop its own surveys and bibliogra- 
phies. 

The reader who seeks information about the 
origins of this bibliographic project, the manner in 
which books are selected for inclusion, and the na- 
ture of the bibliographic style and the annotations, 
should consult the -general introduction in the 1960 
Guide and the individual introductions to each of 
its chapters. The slight modifications in the 1960 
Guide's structure that were adopted in the Supple- 
ment are explained in the introductions to the chap- 
ters affected. The index follows the pattern of the 
one in the 1960 Guide. 

The 1960 Guide lists a few publications that were 



not represented in the collections of the Library of 
Congress at the time the volume was compiled. All 
numbered entries in the Supplement are held by the 
Library, and the catalog card number and classifica- 
tion number or location are given for each. 

No listing of names along with units of work 
accomplished can accurately reflect the contribution 
made by each of the many staff members of the 
General Reference and Bibliography Division who 
participated in the compilation of this Supplement. 
Some performed multiple piecemeal tasks (selecting 
books, writing portions of chapters, substituting new 
annotations for old); others concentrated on a few 
large undertakings, in many instances compiling en- 
tire chapters. Those given piecemeal tasks collec- 
tively compiled five chapters VIII, General 
History; XV, Society; XVII, Science and Technol- 
ogy; XVIII, Medicine and Public Health; and 
XXVIII, Economic Life; they also contributed in 
one way or another to virtually every part of the 
Supplement. Foremost among them were Edward 
P. Cambio, Judith R. Farley, Betsy M. Fleet, Baiba 
Garoza, Stefan M. Harrow, John W. Kimball, Mar- 
vin W. Kranz, Sandra N. Pantages, Marie Schilling, 
Jerome L. Segal, Richard N. Sheldon, and Ruth E. 
Wennersten. Miss Garoza also prepared the index. 

The basic content of each of the following chap- 
ters was determined by the person or persons indi- 
cated: I, Literature, Judith L. Richelieu and Donald 
H. Cresswell; II, Language, Dan O. Clemmer; III, 
Literary History and Criticism, Katherine M. 
Hanna; IV, Biography and Autobiography, Evalyn 
K. Shapiro; V, Periodicals and Journalism, Lucia J. 
Rather; VI, Geography, Suzy M. Slavin; VII, The 
American Indian, Lucia J. Rather; IX, Diplomatic 
History and Foreign Relations, Joyce Holland; X, 
Military History and the Armed Forces, Victor P. 
Margolin; XI, Intellectual History, William J. Stu- 
der; XII, Local History, Donald A. Baskerville; 

XIII, Travel and Travelers, Evalyn K. Shapiro; 

XIV, Population, Immigration, and Minorities, the 
late Donald H. Mugridge; XVI, Communications, 
William J. Studer; XIX, Entertainment, Lucia J. 
Rather; XX, Sports and Recreation, William J. 
Studer; XXI, Education, Natalie L. Miller; XXII, 
Philosophy and Psychology, Rande B. Langdon; 



IX 



X / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



XXIII, Religion, Lucia J. Rather; XXIV, Folklore, 
Folk Music, Folk Art, Gail Shulman; XXV, Music, 
Alma S. Mather; XXVI, Art and Architecture, 
Lucia J. Rather; XXVII, Land and Agriculture, 
Suzy M. Slavin; XXIX, Constitution and Govern- 
ment, Henry J. Silverman; XXX, Law and Justice, 
Joyce Holland and John J. Beall; XXXI, Politics, 
Parties, Elections, Joyce Holland; and XXXII, Books 
and Libraries, Evelyn M. Timberlake. 

Members of the Library staff outside the General 
Reference and Bibliography Division offered pre- 
liminary suggestions and criticized portions of the 
bibliography as the work progressed. Particularly 
helpful were personnel in the following offices: 
American-British Law Division, Law Library; Eco- 
nomics Division, Education and Public Welfare 
Division, and Senior Specialist Division, Congres- 
sional Research Service; and Geography and Map 
Division, Manuscript Division, Music Division, 
Prints and Photographs Division, and Science and 
Technology Division, Reference Department. 

From outside the Library came the thoughtful 
assistance of Robert H. Walker, Professor of Amer- 
ican Civilization, George Washington University, 
on Chapter I, Literature; Robert W. Burchfield, 
Editor, Oxford English Dictionary Supplement, Ox- 
ford, England, on Chapter II, Language; John 
Blake, Chief, History of Medicine Division, Na- 
tional Library of Medicine, on Chapter XVIII, 
Medicine and Public Health; Nelson R. Burr, au- 
thor of bibliographical and historical works on 
religion in America and a retired LC staff member, 
on Chapter XXIII, Religion; and Benjamin A. Bot- 
kin, author and compiler of numerous books on 
folklore and a former LC staff member, on Chapter 

XXIV, Folklore, Folk Music, Folk Art. 

The Specialist in American History in the Gen- 
eral Reference and Bibliography Division functioned 
as the editor of the Supplement. Donald H. Mug- 
ridge, co-compiler of the 1960 Guide, held the posi- 
tion of specialist until his death in November 1964. 



He was succeeded by James E. O'Neill, who re- 
signed in August 1965. Oliver H. Orr, Jr., replaced 
O'Neill and, although he transferred to the Manu- 
script Division in 1969, served as editor until the 
Supplement was completed. 

Helen D. Jones, Head of the Bibliography and 
Reference Correspondence Section, rendered inval- 
uable help to the Supplement staff as general critic, 
as authority on bibliographical procedures and style, 
and especially after the death of Mr. Mugridge 
as repository of information about the compila- 
tion of the 1960 Guide. After Mrs. Jones' retirement 
in January 1969, her successor as Head of the Bibli- 
ography and Reference Correspondence Section, 
Ruth S. Freitag, was a constant source of encour- 
agement, advice, and bibliographical expertise. The 
Supplement's index was prepared under the succes- 
sive supervision of Mrs. Jones and Miss Freitag. 

A second supplement, covering books published 
during the decade 1966-75, is now being compiled 
under the editorship of Marvin W. Kranz, the cur- 
rent Specialist in American History. 

As Director of the Reference Department and, 
after October 1968, in my present capacity, I was 
able to devote to every chapter of the Supplement, 
at each stage of development, the same overall edi- 
torial attention that I gave to the 1960 Guide. I 
would be remiss, however, if I failed to acknowledge 
that chief credit for sustained accomplishment must 
go to Dr. Orr, and to the late Mr. Mugridge. The 
bridge between their respective terms was ably held 
by Dr. O'Neill. I would also be remiss if I failed to 
acknowledge that Robert H. Land, Chief of the 
General Reference and Bibliography Division, gave 
the best of supervision to the labors of all concerned, 
and I am sure he will join in a declaration that both 
the 1960 Guide and this Supplement are a monu- 
ment to the special talent of Donald Mugridge, 
whose work enlightened both. 

Roy P. Easier 

Chief, Manuscript Division 



i 



Literature (1607-1965) 



The Thirteen Colonies (16071763) i 33 

The Revolution and the New Nation (17641819) 34 57 

Nationalism, Sectionalism, and Schism (18201870) 58 220 

The Gilded Age and After (18711914) 221 499 

The First World War and the Great Depression (19151939) 500 717 

The Second World War and the Atomic Age (19401965) 7181110 



OF THE 1960 Guide's 340 authors in Chapter I, 233 are represented here. Nineteen new 
authors who achieved prominence during the years 1956-65 have been added to Section 
F, which retains its original title except for an extension of the coverage dates from 1940-55 
to 1940-65. The new authors, entered alphabetically among the others in Section F, are Edward 
Albee, John Earth, William Burroughs, John Cheever, James Dickey, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, 
Allen Ginsberg, Herbert Gold, Jack Kerouac, Bernard Malamud, James Michener, Vladimir 



Nabokov, Howard Nemerov, Flannery O'Connor, 
Philip Roth, Isaac Bashevis Singer, M. B. Tolson, 
John Updike, and Kurt Vonnegut. The criteria for 
their selection are those stated on page i in the 1960 
Guide. 

Headnotes for the new authors appear in the Sup- 
plement as they do for each author in the 1960 
Guide. Some pre-1956 publications of the new 
authors are mentioned in their headnotes, but only 
their 195665 works are listed as formal entries. 
No headnotes are offered in the Supplement for the 
authors carried over from the 1960 Guide; instead, 
the entry numbers for their respective headnotes in 
the 1960 Guide are supplied. 

Whereas the 1960 Guide usually omits biograph- 
ical and critical works, referring the reader to in- 
clusive publications such as the Literary History of 
the United States (no. 1214 in the Supplement) and 
The Literature of the American People (no. 2496 in 
the 1960 Guide), the Supplement seeks to be as 
representative of biographical and critical studies as 
of literary works. The chief reason for this change 
in policy is that the above-mentioned general his- 
tories are outdated for our purposes. The biblio- 
graphy in the Literary History of the United States 
terminates with the year 1958 and The Literature of 



the American People has not been revised since its 
publication in 1951. 

From the large number of reprints and revised 
editions of literary works, we have attempted to 
select those accompanied by such significant contri- 
butions as textual revisions, annotations, bibliogra- 
phies, or essays about the author or the work. If the 
earlier edition appeared in the 1960 Guide, its entry 
number is supplied. From the biographical and 
critical studies, we have tried to choose those that 
develop fresh interpretations or provide syntheses of 
scholarship, or both. 

Sections C and D, covering the periods often 
called the "American Renaissance" and the "Gilded 
Age," respectively, include large numbers of analyt- 
ical works reflecting the influence of the New 
Criticism. More biographical and critical studies 
appear in these two sections than in the other four 
sections combined. Section F is distinctive for its 
understandable shortage of critical writings and its 
great body of new books by living authors. 

The arrangement of entries under each author's 
name follows the pattern described on page 2 of the 
1960 Guide. 



2 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



A. The Thirteen Colonies (1607-1763) 



1. ANNE DUDLEY BRADSTREET, 1612?- 

1672 

No. 7 in 1960 Guide. 

2. Piercy, Josephine K. Anne Bradstreet. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1965] 144 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 72) 

64-20722 PS7I2.P5 

Bibliographical notes: p. 121128. Bibliography: 
p. 129-137. 

Mrs. Bradstreet's poetry and prose are examined 
as reflections of her spiritual and artistic develop- 
ment. 

3. WILLIAM BYRD, 1674-1744 
No. 12 in 1960 Guide. 

4. The London diary, 1717-1721, and other writ- 
ings. Edited by Louis B. Wright and Marion 

Tinling. New York, Oxford University Press, 1958. 
647 p. illus. 57-10389 F229.B9685 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

CONTENTS. The life of William Byrd of Vir- 
ginia, 1674-1744. The secret diary of William 
Byrd of Westover from December 13, 1717, to May 
19, 1721. History of the dividing line. A journey 
to the land of Eden. A progress to the mines. 

The third section of Byrd's diary, the other two 
sections of which are no. 15 and 16 in the 1960 
Guide, is published here for the first time, contain- 
ing "all the passages that can be deciphered." 
Transcribed from a shorthand notebook in the 
library of the Virginia Historical Society, it portrays 
London under George I and describes life in Vir- 
ginia during the development of its agrarian aris- 
tocracy. The last three works in the volume appear 
in an abridged text based on The Westover Manu- 
scripts (1841), no. 13 in the 1960 Guide. 

5. JOHN COTTON, 1584-1652 
No. 17 in 1960 Guide. 

6. Emerson, Everett H. John Cotton. New York, 
Twayne Publishers [1965] 176 p. (Twayne's 

United States authors series, 80) 

65-13000 BX726o.C79E5 

Bibliographical notes: p. 159-162. Bibliography: 
p. 163-170. 

Cotton's treatises, sermons, pamphlets, and other 



writings are examined to indicate their literary and 
cultural significance within a historical context. 

7. Ziff, Larzer. The career of John Cotton: Puri- 
tanism and the American experience. Prince- 
ton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1962. 280 p. 

62-7415 6X7260.07975 
"Bibliographical note": p. 261271. 
A sociopolitical biography treating Cotton's career 
in England and America, his times, and his works. 

8. JONATHAN EDWARDS, 1703-1758 
No. 21 in 1960 Guide. 

9. The mind; a reconstructed text by Leon How- 
ard. Berkeley, University of California Press, 

1963. 151 p. (University of California publica- 
tions. English studies, 28) 63-64061 6871^5 

Appendix: The essays "Of Being" and "Of the 
Prejudices of Imagination": p. 137148. 

Note on sources: p. 149. 

Using the holograph index to a lost manuscript, 
Howard has rearranged the earliest printed edition 
of Edwards' collection of notes entided "The Mind." 
The reader is guided by an introduction, running 
commentary, and conclusion. 

10. Works. Perry Miller, general editor. [New 
Haven, Yale University Press] 195759. 2 v - 

57-2336 6X71 17X3 1957 
CONTENTS. v. i. Freedom of the will. v. 2. 
Religious affections. 

The 1754 edition of volume i and the 1746 edi- 
tion of volume 2 are no. 26 and 25, respectively, in 
the 1960 Guide. 

11. The select works of Jonathan Edwards; with 
an account of his life by Iain H. Murray. 

[London] Banner of Truth Trust [1958-61] 3 v. 
59-2646 BX7H7.E3 1958 

Bibliography: v. i, p. 6062. 

CONTENTS. v. i'. Memoir, by I. H. Murray. A 
narrative of surprising conversions. Sermons. v. 2. 
Sermons. v. 3. Treatise concerning the religious 
affections. 

The 1737 edition of A Faithful Narrative of the 
Surprizing Worf( of God in the Conversion of Many 
Hundred Souls ... is no. 22 in the 1960 Guide, and 
the 1746 edition of A Treatise Concerning Religious 
Affections is no. 25. 



12. Select works, v. i. London, Banner of Truth 
Trust [1965] 244 p. 

66-4638 BX7H7.E3 1965 
The Distinguishing Mar\s of a Wor\ of the Spirit 
of God and An Account of the Revival of Religion 
in 'Northampton, 1740-1742 have been added to 
this edition of volume i, and Iain H. Murray's 
"Memoir" has been omitted. 

13. Aldridge, Alfred O. Jonathan Edwards. New 
York, Washington Square Press [1964] 181 p. 

(The Great American thinkers series, W88i) 
65-935 

Bibliography: p. 167172. 

A study of Edwards' philosophy in relation to the 
intellectual currents of his time. 

14. El wood, Douglas J. The philosophical theol- 
ogy of Jonathan Edwards. New York, Colum- 
bia University Press, 1960. 220 p. 

6012503 BX726o.E3E5 . 1960 
"Bibliography of Jonathan Edwards": p. [199] 

202. Bibliography: p. [203] 214. 
Whereas other studies tend to concentrate on 

either the religion or the philosophy of Edwards, 

this one combines analyses of both. 

15. COTTON MATHER, 1663-1728 
No. 40 in 1960 Guide. 

1 6. The diary of Cotton Mather, D.D., F.R.S. for 
the year 1712. Edited, with an introduction 

and notes, by William R. Manierre, II. Charlottes- 
ville, University Press of Virginia [1964] xxvii, 
143 p. 6413720 F67.M42I4 

This portion of Mather's diary had never before 
been printed in its entirety, although extracts ap- 
peared in the Panoplist and Missionary Magazine 
between 1816 and 1820. 

17. Wendell, Barrett. Cotton Mather; the Puritan 
priest. New York, Harcourt. Brace & World 

[1963] xxxi, 248 p. (A Harbinger book) 

63-12740 F67.M452 1963 

Bibliography: p. [231 3-233. 

Alan Heimert's introduction reveals the continu- 
ing significance of this biography, first published in 
1891. 

1 8. SAMUEL SEW ALL, 1652-1730 
No. 56 in 1960 Guide. 

19. Winslow, Ola E. Samuel Sewall of Boston. 
New York, Macmillan [ C i964] 235 p. illus. 

63-16140 ^67.8547 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 3 

Bibliographical notes: p. 209220. Bibliography: 
p. 221224. 

A narrative biography stressing material found in 
Sewall's Diary (no. 57 in the 1960 Guide). 

20. JOHN SMITH, 1579/80-1631 
No. 66 in 1960 Guide. 

21. Barbour, Philip L. The three worlds of Cap- 
tain John Smith. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 

1964. xix, 553 p. illus. 64-10543 F229.S7I45 
Bibliographical notes: p. [397] 490. Bibliog- 
raphy: p. [4931-527. 

Smith's career as adventurer, colonist, and promo- 
ter is examined in the light of hints and clues pre- 
viously ignored. 

22. Wharton, Henry. The life of John Smith, 
English soldier. Translated from the Latin 

manuscript with an essay on Captain John Smith in 
seventeenth-century literature by Laura Polanyi 
Striker. Chapel Hill, Published for the Virginia 
Historical Society by the University of North Caro- 
lina Press [1957] 101 p. illus. 

57-13884 F229.S7W4 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Written in 1685, Wharton's manuscript is pub- 
lished here for the first time in English translation. 
An essay on "Early American Interest in Wharton's 
Manuscript," by Richard Beale Davis, is included. 

23. EDWARD TAYLOR, 1642-1729 
No. 72 in 1960 Guide. 

24. Christographia. Edited by Norman S. Grabo. 
New Haven, Yale University Press, 1962. 

xlviii, 507 p. 6210317 6X7117^3 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A series of 14 related sermons, delivered between 
1701 and 1703, with correlative meditations in verse. 
The editor's introduction provides both history and 
interpretation. 

25. Poems. Edited by Donald E. Stanford, with 
a foreword by Louis L. Martz. New Haven, 

Yale University Press, 1960. Ixii, 543 p. 

606432 PS850.T2A6 1960 

Bibliographical references included in appendixes. 

The complete text of the author's major work, 
Preparatory Meditations, is printed here for the 
first time. 

26. Grabo, Norman S. Edward Taylor. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1962, C i96i] 192 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 8) 

61-15668 6X7260/12867 1962 



4 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

Bibliographical notes: p. 174182. Bibliography: 
p. 183-187. 

27. MICHAEL WIGGLES WORTH, 1631-1705 
No. 79 in 1960 Guide. 

28. Crowder, Richard. No featherbed to heaven, 
a biography of Michael Wiggles worth, 1631 

1705. [East Lansing] Michigan State University 
Press [1962] 299 p. 6116933 6X7260^4807 
Bibliographical notes: p. 271282. Bibliography: 
p. 283-293. 

29. ROGER WILLIAMS, ca. 1603-1683 
No. 84 in 1960 Guide. 

30. Complete writings. New York, Russell & Rus- 
sell, 1963. 7 v. 

63-11034 BX6495.W55A2 1963 
Volumes i 6 are reprints of the Narragansett 
edition, no. 89 in the 1960 Guide. Volume 7 con- 
tains five tracts not printed in that edition, together 
with an introductory essay. 

CONTENTS. v. 7. Roger Williams: An essay 
in interpretation by Perry Miller. Christenings make 
not Christians. Experiments of spiritual life and 
health. The fourth paper presented by Major But- 
ler. The hireling ministry none of Christs. The 
examiner defended in a fair and sober answer. 



31. Winslow, Ola E. Master Roger Williams, a 
biography. New York, Macmillan, 1957. 328 

P- 57-10016 F82.W692 

Bibliographical notes: p. 293312. Bibliography: 
p. 313-316. 

Miss Winslow seeks to avoid the myths, legends, 
and exaggerations surrounding her subject, for "His 
story is better as he lived it." Sources include Wil- 
liams' letters and sermons, his Worlds (published in 
six volumes of the Narragansett Club Publications, 
no. 89 in the 1960 Guide), colony records, personal 
accounts of contemporaries, and pamphlet literature 
of the 1640'$ and 1650'$. 

32. JOHN WINTHROP, 1588-1649 
No. 90 in 1960 Guide. 

33. Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan dilemma; 
the story of John Winthrop. Edited by Oscar 

Handlin. Boston, Little, Brown [1958] 224 p. 
(The Library of American biography) 

58-6029 F67.W798 

Bibliographical notes: p. [207] 215. 

Interprets Winthrop's answer to the central Puri- 
tan problem involving man's responsibility to soci- 
ety. The author's principal sources are the 1853 
edition of Winthrop's Journal (no. 91 in the 1960 
Guide) and the Winthrop Papers (see biographical 
note, no. 90 in the 1960 Guide). 



B. The Revolution and the New Nation (1764-1819) 



34. JOEL BARLOW, 1754-1812 
No. 101 in 1960 Guide. 

35. Woodress, James L. A Yankee's odyssey; the 
life of Joel Barlow. Philadelphia, Lippincott 

[1958] 347 P- 58-11128 PS705.W6 

Bibliographical notes: p. 309328. 

A full-scale narrative biography. Primary sources 
include the major collection of Barlow manuscripts 
in the Harvard University Library. An appendix 
contains examples of Barlow's poetry. 

36. HUGH HENRY BRACKENRIDGE, 1748- 

1816 



No. 105 in 1960 Guide. 



37 



Modern chivalry, containing the adventures of 
Captain John Farrago and Teague O'Regan, 
his servant. Edited for the modern reader by Lewis 
Leary. New Haven, College & University Press 



335 p. (The Masterworks of literature 
series) 6528257 PZ3.B7233Mo6 

Reproduces the first four volumes of Modern 
Chivalry, published in 1792, 1793, and 1797. Subse- 
quent additions and revisions have been omitted, 
although spelling and punctuation have been regu- 
larized and, when appropriate, modernized. See 
no. 106108 in the 1960 Guide. 



38. 



39 



CHARLES BROCKDEN BROWN, 1771- 
1810 

No. 109 in 1960 Guide. 



Arthur Mervyn; or, Memoirs of the year 1793. 
Edited, with an introduction, by Warner 
Berthoff. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston 
[1962] 430 p. (Rinehart editions, 112) 

62-9499 PZ3.B8i4Ar8 
Bibliography: p. xxv-xxvii. 
The text is based on that of the original edition, 



published in two parts, 17991800 (no. 116 in the 
1960 Guide). Minor changes have been made in the 
interest of typographic uniformity and orthographic 
consistency. 

40. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, 1706-1790 
No. 122 in 1960 Guide. 

41. The autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. 
Edited by Leonard W. Labaree [and others]. 

New Haven, Yale University Press, 1964. 351 p. 
illus. 6412653 E302.6.F7A2 1964 

Bibliography: p. 323325. 

Edited from the original manuscript in the Henry 
E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery. Aids to 
the reader include an introduction, footnotes, a 
Franklin chronology, Franklin's oudine, and bio- 
graphical notes concerning persons mentioned in the 
Autobiography. Descriptions of other editions may 
be found under no. 123127 in the 1960 Guide. 

42. Representative selections, with introduction, 
bibliography, and notes, by Chester E. Jorgen- 

son and Frank Luther Mott. Rev. ed. New York, 
Hill & Wang [1962] clxxxix, 544 p. (American 
century series. American writers, ACW48) 

62-9491 PS745.A3M7 1962 

Bibliography: p. cli-clxxxix. 

A revised edition of no. 131 in the 1960 Guide. 
"The Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure 
and Pain, never before printed in an edition of 
Franklin's works or in a book of selections, is here 
printed from the London edition of 1725, retaining 
his peculiarities of italics, capitalization, and punc- 
tuation." 

43. Amacher, Richard E. Benjamin Franklin. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1962] 192 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 12) 

6118069 PS75I.A5 

Bibliographical notes: p. 159-178. Bibliography: 
p. 179-187. 

A study of Franklin the writer, treating represen- 
tative works in various literary genres, among them 
scientific papers, political journalism, and religious 
and philosophical tracts. 

44. Granger, Bruce I. Benjamin Franklin; an 
American man of letters. Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell 

University Press [1964] 264 p. 

6423360 PS75I.G7 

Bibliographical footnotes. "Bibliographical note": 
p. 253-255. 

Assesses Franklin's achievement in the world of 
letters, focusing "on those writings that have belle- 
tristic qualities, not on scientific and official papers 
except as they are treated incidentally." 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 5 

45. THOMAS JEFFERSON, 1743-1826 
No. 149 in 1960 Guide. 

46. Notes on the State of Virginia. Introduction 
to the Torchbook ed. by Thomas Perkins 

Abernethy. New York, Harper & Row [1964] 
228 p. (Harper Torchbooks. The University li- 
brary) 64-2956 F230.J5I02 1964 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A reprint of the edition published as part of 
volume 8 of The Writings of Thomas Jefferson 
(New York, H. W. Derby, 1861), edited by Henry 
A. Washington. Information regarding other edi- 
tions is contained in the introduction and in no. 
150153 in the 1960 Guide. 

47. THOMAS PAINE, 1737-1809 
No. 154 in 1960 Guide. 

48. Thomas Paine; representative selections, with 
introduction, bibliography, and notes, by Harry 

Hayden Clark. Rev. ed. New York, Hill & Wang 
[1961] clxiii, 436 p. (American century writers, 
ACW43) 61-16873 JCi77.A5 1961 

Bibliography: p. cxxv-clxiii. 

The bibliography has been updated in this re- 
printing of no. 158 in the 1960 Guide. 

49. Gimbel, Richard. Thomas Paine, a biblio- 
graphical check list of Common sense, with an 

account of its publication. New Haven, Yale Uni- 
versity Press, 1956. 124 p. 56-5942 28654.65 
Facsimiles of title pages from various editions of 
Common Sense illustrate the detailed introductory 
account. The checklist describes editions of the 
pamphlet and contains a list of materials relating to it. 

50. SUSANNA HASWELL ROWSON, 1762- 

1824 

No. 161 in 1960 Guide. 

51. Charlotte Temple, a tale of truth. Edited for 
the modern reader by Clara M. and Rudolf 

Kirk. New York, Twayne Publishers [1964] 163 
p. (Twayne's United States classics series) 

64-14446 PZ3.R799C35 

Originally published by William Lane at his Mi- 
nerva Press, London, in 1791, the first edition is 
reprinted here with an address entided "To Ladies 
and Gendemen, Patrons of Entertaining Literature" 
as preface. Two other editions are no. 162163 ^ n 
the 1960 Guide. 

52. JOHN TRUMBULL, 1750-1831 
No. 165 in 1960 Guide. 



6 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



53. Satiric poems: The progress of dulness and 
M'Fingal. With illustrations from engravings 

by E. Tisdale. Edited, with a preface and notes, by 
Edwin T. Bowden. Austin, University of Texas 
Press [1962] 229 p. 6115829 PS852.P7 1962 
Presents "for the first time, an accurate reproduc- 
tion of the first complete edition of each poem." 
The Progress of Dulness was first published in New 
Haven, Conn., in 177273. The text of M'Fingal 
is taken from the first complete version, published 
by Hudson and Goodwin, Hartford, Conn., in 1782. 
A revised edition of Trumbull's Poetical Worths ap- 
peared in 1820 (no. 167 in the 1960 Guide). 

54. MASON LOCKE WEEMS, 1759-1825 
No. 171 in 1960 Guide. 

55. The life of Washington. Edited by Marcus 
Cunliffe. Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press of 

Harvard University Press, 1962. Ixii, 226 p. illus. 



(The John Harvard library) 

6220253 E3 1 2^3893 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The text is based on that of the ninth edition, 
published in 1809 (other editions are no. 172-176 in 
the 1960 Guide). An extensive introduction honors 
Weems and his work, providing biographical and 
critical comment as well as a detailed publishing 
history of The Life of Washington. 

56. JOHN WOOLMAN, 1720-1772 
No. 178 in 1960 Guide. 

57. Cady, Edwin H. John Woolman. New York, 
Washington Square Press [1965] 182 p. 

(The Great American thinkers series) 

65-1754 6X7795^703 

Bibliography: p. 173178. 

A sympathetic evaluation of Woolman, illustra- 
ting his contributions to American culture in the 
20th century as well as in his own time. 



C. Nationalism, Sectionalism, and Schism (182.0-1870) 



58. LOUISA MAY ALCOTT, 1832-1888 
No. 1 88 in 1960 Guide. 

59. Hospital sketches. Edited by Bessie Z. Jones. 
Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard Univer- 
sity Press, 1960. xliv, 91 p. (The John Harvard 
library) 6013289 621^34 1960 

Reprinted from a copy of the first edition (1863) 
in the Houghton Library of Harvard University. 
The sketches are based on Miss Alcott's brief experi- 
ences as a volunteer nurse at a Georgetown, D.C., 
hospital during the Civil War. 

60. Worthington, Marjorie M. Miss Alcott of 
Concord, a biography. Garden City, N.Y., 

Doubleday, 1958. 330 p. 5811330 PSioi8.W6 
Bibliography: p. 323326. 

61. TIMOTHY SHAY ARTHUR, 1809-1885 
No. 190 in 1960 Guide. 

62. Ten nights in a bar-room, and what I saw 
there. Edited by Donald A. Koch. Cam- 
bridge, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 
1964. Ixxxiii, 240 p. (The John Harvard library) 

6425051 PZ3-A79Teio 

The editor's introduction discusses Arthur's life 
and work in relation to the 19th-century temperance 
crusade. The text is a facsimile reprint of an 1854 



edition bearing the combined imprint of L. P. 
Crown, Boston, and J. W. Bradley, Philadelphia. 
Another 1854 edition carries only the Bradley im- 
print (no. 191 in the 1960 Guide). 



63. 



64. 



ROBERT MONTGOMERY BIRD, 1806- 
1854 

No. 20 1 in 1960 Guide. 



Dahl, Curtis. Robert Montgomery Bird. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1963] 144 p. 
(Twayne's United States authors series, 31) 

6219475 PSio99.B5Z62 

Bibliographical notes: p. 128131. Biblography: 
p. 132140. 

Sources include the collection of Bird manuscripts 
at the University of Pennsylvania as well as previ- 
ously published biographical and critical material. 



65. 



66. 



CHARLES FARRAR BROWNE ("ARTE- 
MUS WARD"), 1834-1867 

No. 209 in 1960 Guide. 



Austin, James C. Artemus Ward. New York, 
Twayne Publishers [1964] 141 p. (Twayne's 
United States authors series, 51) 

63-20610 PSii43-A9 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 7 



Bibliographical notes: p. 122131. Bibliography: 
p. 132-138. 

An examination of Browne's career as a journal- 
ist, satiric lecturer, and letter-writer, demonstrating 
his contribution to the American comic tradition. 

67. WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT, 1794-1878 
No. 216 in 1960 Guide. 

68. McLean, Albert F. William Cullen Bryant. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1964] 159 

p. ( Twayne 's United States authors series, 59) 

6413955 PSn8i.M3 

Bibliographical notes: p. 139148. Bibliography: 
p. 149-151. 

The author contends "that William Cullen 
Bryant, as a poet, is far different from the gentle- 
manly man-of-letters handed down to us by his 
nineteenth-century admirers." 

69. WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING, 1780- 

1842 

No. 230 in 1960 Guide. 

70. Brown, Arthur W. Always young for liberty; 
a biography of William Ellery Channing. 

[Syracuse, N.Y.] Syracuse University Press [1956] 
268 p. 56-94 6 4 6X9869.04684 

Reappraises Channing, focusing on his life and 
work "for a generation which knows him almost 
solely by association with other, more familiar 
names." Lacks footnotes but contains a critical 
essay on "Literature and Sources" (p. 245261). 

71. Rice, Madeleine H. Federal Street pastor; the 
life of William Ellery Channing. New York, 

Bookman Associates [1961] 360 p. 

61-15676 BX9869.C4R5 
Bibliographical notes: p. 303332. Bibliography: 

P- 333-345- 

The sources consulted by the author of this com- 
prehensive study include manuscript collections, 
magazines, newspapers, published letters, diaries, 
and memoirs. 

72. LYDIA MARIA FRANCIS CHILD, 1802- 

1880 



No. 239 in 1960 Guide. 



73 



Baer, Helene G. The heart is like heaven; the 
life of Lydia Maria Child. Philadelphia, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania Press [1964] 339 p. illus. 

6410895 449.05383 
Bibliography: p. 317333. 
Emphasizes Mrs. Child's efforts for social reform 



and the abolition of slavery, examining her relation- 
ships with prominent figures within these move- 
ments. 

74. Meltzer, Milton. Tongue of flame; the life of 
Lydia Maria Child. New York, Crowell 

[1965] 210 p. 65-14903 449.05393 

Bibliography: p. [197] 204. 

A narrative account based chiefly on Mrs. Child's 
books, articles, and correspondence. Unpublished 
letters and scrapbooks were also consulted. 

75. JOHN ESTEN COOKE, 1830-1886 
No. 245 in 1960 Guide. 

76. Outlines from the outpost. Edited by Richard 
Harwell. Chicago, Lakeside Press, 1961. 

xxxiv, 413 p. (The Lakeside classics, 59) 

626657 470.2.072 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A collection of Civil War sketches and narratives, 
planned as a book that was described in the author's 
diary but never published. Many of the "Outlines" 
originally appeared in The Southern Illustrated 
News; others first appeared in Wearing of the Gray 
(1867), which also contained revised versions of 
sketches published earlier. One essay is printed here 
for the first time. 

77. JAMES FENIMORE COOPER, 1789-1851 
No. 252 in 1960 Guide. 

78. The bravo. Edited for the modern reader by 
Donald A. Ringe. New York, Twayne Pub- 
lishers [ C i963] 382 p. (Twayne's United States 
classics series) 6317405 PZ3-C786Br3o 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Cooper examines the relative values of democratic 
and autocratic governments in a romance of i8th- 
century Venice. Modern practice has been followed 
with regard to spelling and punctuation in a text 
based on that of the first American edition (Phila- 
delphia, Carey & Lea, 1831. 2 v.). 

79. The crater; or, Vulcan's Peak. Edited by 
Thomas Philbrick. Cambridge, Belknap Press 

of Harvard University Press, 1962. xxx, 471 p. 
(The John Harvard library) 

62-11397 PZ3.C786Cri5 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The establishment of a Utopian community in the 
Pacific provides the background for an explication 
of Cooper's views concerning socialism and democ- 
racy. The text is that of the first edition (New 
York, Burgess, Stringer, 1847. 2 v.). Minor typo- 



8 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



graphical errors have been corrected and the spelling 
of foreign words regularized. 

80. Letters and journals. Edited by James Frank- 
lin Beard. Cambridge, Belknap Press of Har- 
vard University Press, 196064. 4 v. illus. 

60-5388 PS 1 43 1. A3 1960 

CONTENTS. v. i. 18001830. v. 2. 18301833. 
v. 3. 18331839. v. 4. 18401844. 
Bibliographical footnotes. 

Complete texts of all available letters and journals 
are included, as well as letters to editors and brief 
articles or notes written for newspapers and periodi- 
cals. Approximately two-thirds of the material has 
not been previously published. Entries are grouped 
in accordance with the periods of Cooper's life and 
are arranged chronologically. 

8 1. Philbrick, Thomas. James Fenimore Cooper 
and the development of American sea fiction. 

Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1961. 329 p. 
illus. 6115276 PSi442.S4P45 1961 

Considers the nautical novels of Cooper and his 
contemporaries up to 1851, when Moby-Die ^ was 
published; includes explanatory notes (p. [287] 
326) and an extensive bibliography (p. [2691-286). 

82. Ringe, Donald A. James Fenimore Cooper. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1962] 175 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, n) 

61-18068 

Bibliographical notes: 157164. Bibliography: 
p. 165171. 

The author concentrates on Cooper's later novels, 
stressing "the thematic interpretation of his tales 
and the means, sometimes highly successful, by 
which he gave his themes expression." Biographical 
and historical information is kept to a minimum. 

83. RICHARD HENRY DANA, 1815-1882 
No. 274 in 1960 Guide. 

84. Two years before the mast; a personal narra- 
tive of life at sea. Edited from the original 

manuscript and from the first ed., with journals and 
letters of 18341836 and 18591860, and notes by 
John Haskell Kemble. With original illustrations 
by Robert A. Weinstein, and illustrated from con- 
temporary paintings, prints, and charts. Los 
Angeles, Ward Ritchie Press, 1964. 2 v. illus. (part 
col.) 6420444 6540.02 1964 

The 1840 edition is no. 275 in the 1960 Guide. 

85. Shapiro, Samuel. Richard Henry Dana, Jr., 
18151882. [East Lansing] Michigan State 

University Press, 1961. xi, 251 p. 

6113704 415.9.01585 



Bibliographical notes: p. 199240. Bibliography: 
p. 241-244. 

Literature played a relatively minor role in Dana's 
life, as it does in this biography. Although his legal 
and political careers receive major emphasis, his 
literary achievement is spotlighted in the final chap- 
ter, "The History of a Book." The author's princi- 
pal source is the collection of Dana papers divided 
between the Massachusetts Historical Society in 
Boston and the Longfellow House in Cambridge. 

86. JOHN WILLIAM DE FOREST, 1826-1906 
No. 277 in 1960 Guide. 

87. Kate Beaumont. With an introduction by 
Joseph Jay Rubin. [State College, Pa., Bald 

Eagle Press, 1963] 424 p. (Monument edition, 3) 

6 3-753 i PZ3-D363Kat 

This realistic portrayal of life in South Carolina 
before the Civil War first appeared in serial form in 
The Atlantic Monthly, January-December 1871; a 
book set from the corrected sheets was issued the 
following year. De Forest then added his own 
changes and revisions, and the text printed here is 
from this third and final version. The editor used 
a photostat of the novelist's corrected copy in the 
Yale University Library. 

88. Honest John Vane. With an introduction by 
Joseph Jay Rubin. [State College, Pa., Bald 

Eagle Press, 1960] 232 p. (Monument edition, i) 
60-5478 PZ3.D363H02 

This indictment of political corruption in Wash- 
ington during the Grant administration first ap- 
peared in five installments in The Atlantic Monthly 
in 1873. With the exception of minor mechanical 
changes, the present text is that of the only book 
edition, published by Richmond & Patten, New 
Haven, 1875. 

89. Playing the mischief. With an introduction 
by Joseph Jay Rubin. [State College, Pa., 

Bald Eagle Press, 1961] 452 p. (Monument edi- 
tion, 2) 61-10502 PZ3-D363P1 
This sequel to Honest John Vane began appearing 
serially in Fran\ Leslie's Chimney Corner in 1874. 
Harper & Brothers printed the book the following 
year, and De Forest revised it, as was his custom. 
The text printed here is based on Yale University's 
copy containing the author's corrections. 

90. Light, James F. John William De Forest. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1965] 192 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 82) 
65-13002 



Bibliographical notes: p. 178183. Bibliography: 
p. 184-188. 

De Forest's major works are analyzed at length in 
a study which attempts "to reveal the relationship 
between the life and the work and by doing so to 
exhibit each a little more clearly." Primary sources 
include the De Forest materials in the Yale Collec- 
tion of American Literature. 

91. RALPH WALDO EMERSON, 1803-1882 
No. 280 in 1960 Guide. 

92. Selections from Ralph Waldo Emerson. Edited 
by Stephen E. Whicher. Boston, Houghton 

Mifflin [1957] 517 p. (Riverside editions, Ai3) 
5714108 PSi6o3-W45 

Includes an introduction, a chronology, and full 
bibliographical notes (p. 469510). The text is 
based on several previous publications, including 
the centenary edition of Emerson's Complete Wor\s 
(no. 297 in the 1960 Guide) and Ralph L. Rusk's 
edition of the Letters (no. 296 in the 1960 Guide). 
Selections from the Journals (no. 294 in the 1960 
Guide) have been corrected and amplified from 
manuscript sources. 

93. Early lectures. Edited by Stephen E. Whicher 
and Robert E. Spiller. Cambridge, Harvard 

University Press, 195964. 2 v. 

59-5160 PS 1 602. W5 

Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: v. i, p. 
389-391; v. 2, p. 367-368. 

CONTENTS. v. i. 18331836. v. 2. 18361838. 

This collection is newly edited from the Emerson 
papers in Harvard's Houghton Library. Publica- 
tion of the lectures delivered through 1847 is con- 
templated for this edition. 

94. Journals and miscellaneous notebooks. Edited 
by William H. Oilman [and others] Cam- 
bridge, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 
196065. 5 v. illus. 6011554 PS 1 63 1. A3 1960 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Planned for completion in approximately 16 vol- 
umes, this edition is based on the Emerson papers 
in Harvard's Houghton Library. Regular journals, 
composition books, collections of quotations, and 
volumes on special topics will be included, the order 
of publication favoring personal and intellectual 
records. The first five volumes cover the years 
181938 and include such items as a "Pocket Diary" 
and a "Catalogue of Books Read" in addition to the 
regular journals. The text "represents what Emer- 
son wrote, in the way he wrote it, including can- 
cellations, revision, and variants." An earlier 
edition, containing many alterations and deletions, 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 9 

was edited by Emerson's son, Edward Waldo, and 
his nephew, Waldo Emerson Forbes, and was pub- 
lished during the years 190914 (no. 294 in the 1960 
Guide). 

95. The correspondence of Emerson and Carlyle. 
Edited by Joseph Slater. New York, Columbia 

University Press, 1964. 622 p. illus. 
63-17539 

Bibliography: p. [591] 60 1. 

Treating the letters "as if they were sacred scrip- 
ture," the editor presents unaltered texts based on 
manuscript copies, most of which are owned by the 
Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association. A 
broad introduction (p. [3194) adds biographical 
and historical information. 

96. Berry, Edmund G. Emerson's Plutarch. 
Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1961. 

337 P- 61-7389 PS 163 1. 84 

Bibliographical notes: p. [2931323. Bibliog- 
raphy: p. [2891292. 

Plutarch's works often provided anecdotes, expres- 
sions, and topics for Emerson's essays. Berry en- 
deavors to "explore the exact extent of the influence 
of Plutarch on Emerson," maintaining that it ex- 
tends to literary form as well as content. 

97. Bishop, Jonathan. Emerson on the soul. 
Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 

1964. 248 p. 6425052 PS 1 642^465 

98. Nicoloff, Philip L. Emerson on race and his- 
tory; an examination of English traits. New 

York, Columbia University Press, 1961. 315 p. 

617361 PSi6o7-N5 1961 

Bibliographical notes: p. [2731295. Bibliog- 
raphy: p. [2961300. 

The author argues that "English Traits was not 
just an eccentric production contemporaneous with 
the great lecture series 'The Conduct of Life,' but 
an important complement to that series and a sig- 
nificant philosophical adventure in its own right." 

99. TIMOTHY FLINT, 1780-1840 
No. 307 in 1960 Guide. 

100. Folsom, James K. Timothy Flint. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1965] 191 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 83) 
6513003 

Bibliographical notes: p. 171179. Bibliography: 
p. 180-186. 

Analyzes Flint's current reputation in relation to 
the excessive praise accorded his works during his 
lifetime. 



10 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



1 01. (SARAH) MARGARET FULLER (MAR- 

CHESA D'OSSOLI), 1810-1850 

No. 313 in 1960 Guide. 

102. Margaret Fuller: American Romantic; a selec- 
tion from her writings and correspondence;. 

Edited by Perry Miller. Garden City, N.Y., Double- 
day, 1963. 319 p. (Anchor books) 

6313082 PS2502.M5 

Manuscripts in the Harvard University Library 
and the Boston Public Library were used in the 
preparation of this work. Holographs were fol- 
lowed whenever possible, with minimal editing. A 
biographical essay and a bibliography are included. 

103. Brown, Arthur W. Margaret Fuller. New 
York. Twayne Publishers [1964] 159 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 48) 

6320612 PS25o6.B77 

Bibliographical notes: p. 135147. Bibliography: 
p. 148-153. 

Attempts to soften the harsh judgments of Mar- 
garet Fuller's contemporaries by basic reevaluation. 

104. JAMES HALL, 1793-1868 
No. 319 in 1960 Guide. 

105. Randall, Randolph C. James Hall: spokes- 
man of the new West. [Columbus] Ohio 

State University Press [1964] 371 p. 

63-18578 PSi779.Hi6Z86 

Bibliographical notes: p. [281] 321. Bibliog- 
raphy: p. [3231-358. 

Undertakes "to correct errors and misunderstand- 
ings in previous accounts, to present knowledge 
from hundreds of manuscripts not used before in 
studies of Hall, and to add nearly three hundred 
items to the list of his known writings." 

1 06. NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE, 1804-1864 
No. 333 in 1960 Guide. 

107. The scarlet letter; an annotated text, back- 
grounds and sources, essays in criticism. 

Edited by Sculley Bradley, Richmond Groom Beatty 
[and] E. Hudson Long. New York, Norton 
[1962] 375 p. (Norton critical editions, ^03) 

629570 PZ3.H3i8Sc95 

A critical edition containing the novel in a first- 
edition text, as well as Hawthorne's preface to the 
second edition, records of primary sources, and arti- 
cles by noted scholars. Editions of 1850, 1947, and 
1950 are no. 341344 in the 1960 Guide. 



1 08. The scarlet letter, a romance. Edited, with 
an introduction by Larzer ZifT. Indianapolis, 

Bobbs-Merrill [1963] 247 p. (The Library of 
literature, i) 62-21260 PZ3.H3i8Sc97 

The centenary edition text (no. no below) is re- 
printed here, with a Hawthorne chronology, a bibli- 
ography, and the author's preface to the second 
edition. 

109. The house of the seven gables. With an in- 
troduction and newly edited text by Hyatt H. 

Waggoner. Boston, Houghton Mifflin [1964] 
xlvi, 281 p. (Riverside editions, A89) 

6 4-557 6 5 PZ3.H3i8Ho78 

Bibliography: p. xlv xlvi. 

An entirely new critical text, produced by collat- 
ing the manuscript with the first edition. Primary 
authority is given the manuscript, located in the 
Houghton Library at Harvard. Earlier editions are 
no. 345347 in the 1960 Guide. 

no. The centenary edition of the works of 
Nathaniel Hawthorne. [Editors: William 
Charvat, and others. Columbus, Ohio State Univer- 
sity Press, 196365, C i962 65] 3 v. 

63-750 PSi85o.F63 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

CONTENTS. v. i. The scarlet letter. v. 2. The 
house of the seven gables. v. 3. The Blithedale 
romance. Fanshawe. 

The centenary edition provides established texts 
of the romances, tales, and shorter works in un- 
modernized form. The texts have been constructed 
through comparative critical use of early editions 
and examination of extant manuscripts. Historical 
and explanatory material is included in each vol- 
ume, as well as a literary and textual introduction 
to each work. 

in. Bell, Millicent. Hawthorne's view of the 

artist. [Albany] State University of New 

York [1962] 214 p. " 62-13566 PSi888.B4 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The frequent appearance of the artist within 
Hawthorne's fictional framework is examined with 
reference to 19th-century Romanticism. 

112. Fogle, Richard H. Hawthorne's fiction: the 
light & the dark. [Rev. ed.] Norman, Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma Press [1964] 240 p. 

64-23334 PSi888.F6 1964 
This revised edition of no. 361 in the 1960 Guide 
is enlarged with two new essays. The bibliography 
which appeared in the first edition has been dropped 
in declared deference to Walter Blair's survey of 
Hawthorne scholarship, supplemented by J. Chesley 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / II 



Mathews, in a new edition of Eight American 
Authors (see no. 1253 in this Supplement). 

113. Hoeltje, Hubert H. Inward sky; the mind 
and heart of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Dur- 
ham, N.C., Duke University Press, 1962. 579 p. 
illus. 6210052 PSi88i.H6 1962 

Bibliography: p. 563571. 

The entire range of Hawthorne's writing is ex- 
amined, including letters, journals, and fiction, in 
an effort to correlate his inner thought patterns with 
the facts of his outward experience "to disclose, as 
far as possible, the whole man." 

114. Male, Roy R. Hawthorne's tragic vision. 
Austin, University of Texas Press [1957] 

187 p. 57-7560 PSi888.M3 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Although an essentially tragic view of life is ex- 
pressed in Hawthorne's fiction, "the final mood of 
Hawthorne's tragedy is a tempered hopefulness." 
This study indicates the variety of technique and 
metaphor to be found in Hawthorne's work but 
stresses the unity and organic wholeness of its de- 
sign. 

115. Martin, Terence. Nathaniel Hawthorne. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1965] 205 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 75) 

64-20725 PSi88i.Ma8 

Bibliographical notes: p. 181184. Bibliography: 
p. 185201. 

Evaluates Hawthorne's literary achievement by 
exploring "the contours and issues of his career as 
a writer," his "method of imaginative creation," and 
"the pervasive thematic concerns" of his tales. The 
four major romances and six representative tales re- 
ceive individual treatment. 

1 1 6. Wagenknecht, Edward C. Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne: man and writer. New York, Oxford 

University Press, 1961. 233 p. 

61-6301 PS 1 88 1. W 3 

Bibliographical notes: p. 203220. Bibliography: 
221223. 

This account of Hawthorne's character and per- 
sonality, based on his writings, letters, and journals, 
is described by the author as a psychograph, "neither 
a chronological biography nor a critical study." 

117. Waggoner, Hyatt H. Hawthorne: a critical 
study. Rev. ed. Cambridge, Mass., Belknap 

Press of Harvard University Press, 1963. 278 p. 

63-17215 PSi888.W3 1963 
Bibliographical footnotes. 
Extensive revisions, including the addition of one 



entirely new chapter, have been made in this new 
edition of no. 364 in the 1960 Guide. 

1 1 8. OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, 1809-1894 
No. 368 in 1960 Guide. 

119. The autocrat's miscellanies. Edited by Albert 
Mordell. New York, Twayne Publishers 

[1959] 356 p. 59-8382 PSi952.A8 

A group of 30 previously uncollected articles on 
diverse topics, reflecting the kaleidoscopic aspects 
of Holmes' character and career. The editor's notes 
provide bibliographical and anecdotal information. 

120. Small, Miriam R. Oliver Wendell Holmes. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1963, C i962] 

176 p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 29) 
6219473 PSi98i.S5 1963 

Bibliographical notes: p. 154165. Bibliography: 
p. 166172. 

Holmes' public image as a writer is chronologi- 
cally examined in relation to his professional career 
and private life. The author consulted published 
and unpublished materials, including the rich hold- 
ings of the Harvard University Library. 

121. WASHINGTON IRVING, 1783-1859 
No. 381 in 1960 Guide. 

122. A history of New York. Edited for the 
modern reader by Edwin T. Bowden. New 

York, Twayne Publishers 1/1964] 352 p. 
(Twayne's United States classics series) 

6419644 Fi22.i.I835 1964 

Bibliography: p. 2122. 

Irving's first major revision of this work appeared 
in the second edition, published in New York and 
Philadelphia in 1812. As reprinted here, the second 
edition contains new material but preserves "the 
youthful drive and daring and nerve of the first." 
No. 382 in the 1960 Guide has information concern- 
ing the first edition (1809); a much later edition 
(1927) is described in no. 383. For the present text, 
spelling has been modernized and punctuation al- 
tered in the interest of clarity. 

123. A tour on the prairies. Edited, with an in- 
troductory essay, by John Francis McDermott. 

Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [1956] 
xxxii, 214 p. (The Western Frontier library [7]) 
5611232 F697.I743 1956 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Irving's brief circuit of the Oklahoma prairies in 
1832 provided the material for this frontier narra- 
tive. Based on the 1859 text, this edition includes 



12 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



the author's original introduction to the American 
edition of 1835. 

124. Astoria; or, Anecdotes of an enterprise beyond 
the Rocky Mountains. [New ed.] Edited 

and with an introduction by Edgeley W. Todd. 
Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [1964] xlix, 
556 p. illus. (The American exploration and travel 
series, 44) 6420765 F88o.l75 

Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 524 

534- 

The text is that of the author's revised edition 
(1860 61), which has been collated with the first 
edition of 1836 (no. 391 in the 1960 Guide); differ- 
ences between the two are indicated in the footnotes. 
The author's introduction and a lengthy prefatory 
essay by the editor are included. 

125. The adventures of Captain Bonneville, U.S.A., 
in the Rocky Mountains and the Far West, 

digested from his journal. Edited and with an in- 
troduction by Edgeley W. Todd. Norman, Univer- 
sity of Oklahoma Press [1961] liv, 424 p. illus. 
(The American exploration and travel series, no. 34) 
6115144 F592.I73 1961 

Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 401 
408. 

Based on Captain Benjamin de Bonneville 's rec- 
ords of his Northwest travels, 183235, this sequel 
to Astoria was first published in 1837. The text of 
the author's revised edition is reprinted here, re- 
taining Irving's footnotes and appendix. The maps 
which appeared in the first edition are also reprinted. 

126. Hedges, William L. Washington Irving: an 
American study, 18021832. Baltimore, 

Johns Hopkins Press, 1965. 274 p. (The Goucher 
College series) 65-11663 PS2o8i.H35 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Attempts to define Irving's major literary contri- 
butions in relation to the context and influence of 
his intellectual environment. Claiming that, after 
1832, Irving "kept on writing but not developing as 
a writer," Hedges does not treat the final 27 years 
of his subject's life. 

127. Reichart, Walter A. Washington Irving and 
Germany. Ann Arbor, University of Michi- 
gan Press [1957] 212 p. (University of Michigan 
publications. Language and literature, v. 28) 

57-7102 PS2o8i.R4 

Bibliographical notes: p. 165191. 

In 182223, Irving toured Germany and Austria 
to collect materials for a "German Sketch Book," 
which became Tales of a Traveller (no. 390 in the 
1960 Guide). The background of this tour and its 



influence on his subsequent work are examined in 
depth. An appendix contains related material, 
including a catalog of the German books at Sunny- 
side, the Irving estate in Tarrytown, N. Y. 

128. Wagenknecht, Edward C. Washington Irv- 
ing: moderation displayed. New York, Ox- 
ford University Press, 1962. 223 p. 

62-9833 PS2o8i.W2 

Bibliographical notes: p. 191205. Bibliography: 
p. 207212. 

This literary portrait explores Irving's personality, 
which the author sees as "considerably more com- 
plicated than it is generally supposed to have been." 
Wagenknecht consulted manuscript material in the 
collections of several libraries, including the New 
York Public Library and the Sterling Library of 
Yale University. 

129. JOHN PENDLETON KENNEDY, 1795- 

1870 

No. 405 in 1960 Guide. 

130. Swallow barn; or, A sojourn in the Old Do- 
minion. With introduction and notes by 

William S. Osborne. Illustrations by Strother. 
New York, Hafner Pub. Co., 1962. Iv, 506 p. 
(Hafner library of classics, no. 22) 

6211037 PZ3.K-383S 15 

Bibliography: p. [xliv] xlv. 

Follows the text of the revised second edition of 
1851 and includes the preface to the first edition, a 
letter of dedication to William Wirt, and Wirt's 
reply. Published here for the first time are two 
fragments from Kennedy's Swallow Barn manu- 
script: "An Inn" and "Hoppergallop House." The 
first and second editions mentioned above are no. 
406 and 407 respectively in the 1960 Guide; a 1929 
reprint of the second edition is no. 408. 

131. Rob of the bowl; a legend of St. Inigoe's. 
Edited for the modern reader by William S. 

Osborne. New Haven, College & University Press 
[1965] 363 p. (The Masterworks of literature 
series) 6525630 PZ3.K383R 5 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The editor has supplied an introduction (p. 527) 
and has corrected printer's errors in this text of the 
revised second edition of 1854. Later editions are 
no. 412413 in the 1960 Guide. 

132. Bohner, Charles H. John Pendleton Ken- 
nedy, gentleman from Baltimore. Baltimore, 

Johns Hopkins Press [1961] 266 p. 

6110735 415.9X3566 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 13 



Bibliography: p. 238241. Bibliographical notes: 
p. [2431-258. 

A comprehensive biography surveying Kennedy's 
literary, political, and business careers. The major 
source consulted is a collection of 130 volumes of 
John Pendleton Kennedy papers in the Peabody 
Institute, Baltimore. 

133. CAROLINE MATILDA STANSBURY 

KIRKLAND, 1801-1864 

No. 415 in 1960 Guide. 

134. A new home who'll follow? Glimpses of 
western life. Edited for the modern reader 

by William S. Osborne. New Haven, College & 
University Press [1965] 233 p. (Masterworks of 
literature series) 6525629 PZ3-K635N 10 

Bibliography: p. 25. 

The first edition of this work is no. 416 in the 
1960 Guide, followed by a 1953 edition as no. 417. 
The 1840 text of the second edition, incorporating 
revisions made by the author, is followed here. The 
editor's introduction appears on p. 524. 

135. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, 1809-1865 
No. 419 in 1960 Guide. 

136. Warren, Louis A. Lincoln's Gettysburg decla- 
ration: "A new birth of freedom." Fort 

Wayne, Lincoln National Life Foundation, 1964. 
xix, 236 p. illus. 64-56025 475.55^39 

Bibliography: p. [215] 222. 

A detailed chronology of the events surrounding 
the writing, delivery, and reception of Lincoln's 
most famous address. An appendix contains the 
comparatively long oration delivered by Edward 
Everett, who preceded Lincoln on the platform at 
Gettysburg. 

137. DAVID ROSS LOCKE ("PETROLEUM 

V. NASBY"), 1833-1888 

No. 422 in 1960 Guide. 

138. The struggles of Petroleum V. Nasby 
[pseud.] Original illustrations by Thomas 

Nast. Abridged ed. selected, edited, and with 
an introduction by Joseph Jones. Notes to the 
chapters by Gunther Earth. Boston, Beacon Press 
[1963] 246 p. (Beacon paperback) 

638275 PN6i6i.L6373 1963 

Bibliography: p. 246. 

An abridged version of The Struggles (Social, 
Financial and Political) of Petroleum V. Nasby, 
no. 425 in the 1960 Guide. This abridgment con- 
tains one of the lectures, a selection of the illustra- 



tions, and approximately one-third of the letters 
published in the original collection of 1872. 

139. Austin, James C. Petroleum V. Nasby 

(David Ross Locke). New York, Twayne 

Publishers [1965] 159 p. (Twayne's United States 

authors series, 89) 6518908 PS2248.L8Z59 

Bibliographical notes: p. 141147. Bibliography: 
p. 148-154. 

Emphasizing analysis rather than biography, the 
author offers an overall view of Locke's works, 
illustrated by quotations from the collected and un- 
collected writings. 



HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW , 

1807-1882 

No. 427 in 1960 Guide. 



141. Kavanagh, a tale. Edited for the modern 
reader by Jean Downey. New Haven, Col- 

lege & University Press [1965] 125 p. (Master- 
works of literature series) 

65-25631 PZ3.L86K 15 

Bibliography: p. 22. 

An introduction has been added and minor tech- 
nical corrections have been made in the text, which 
is based on that of the first edition (no. 430 in the 
1960 Guide). 

142. Arvin, Newton. Longfellow: his life and 
work. Boston, Little, Brown [1963] 338 p. 

63-8312 PS228i.A6 

143. Williams, Cecil B. Henry Wadsworth Long- 
fellow. New York, Twayne Publishers 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 68) 
[ C i964] 221 p. (Twayne's United States authors 
series, 68) 64-20718 PS228i.W 4 7 

Bibliographical notes: p. 201207. Bibliography: 
p. 211214. 

Hoping to present "a truer picture of the real 
man and writer than any available hitherto," Wil- 
liams explores the shifting nature of Longfellow's 
image and reputation. Both biography and criti- 
cism are offered, with emphasis on the interrelation- 
ship between Longfellow's literary and academic 
careers. 

144. HERMAN MELVILLE, 1819-1891 
No. 470 in 1960 Guide. 

145. Moby-Dick; or, The whale. Edited, with an 
introduction and annotation, by Charles 

Feidelson, Jr. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill [1964] 
xlv, 730 p. illus. (The Library of literature, 5) 

64-16178 PZ3.M498Mo 73 



14 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Bibliography: p. xxv-xxvi. 

The first American edition of Moby-DicJ^ ap- 
peared in November 1851. With the exception of 
typographical changes, its text has been followed, 
supplemented by one short passage published in the 
first English edition of October 1851. The editor's 
notes define terms and expressions, explain allusions, 
explicate obscure or difficult passages, and suggest 
relationships among images and ideas. Editions of 
Moby-Dic\ and works of critical commentary are 
described in no. 481483 in the 1960 Guide. 

146. The confidence-man: his masquerade. Edited, 
with an introduction, by Hennig Cohen. 

New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston [1964} 
xxxiii, 275 p. (Rinehart editions, 126) 

6412514 PZ3.M498Cp 5 

Bibliography: p. xxxi-xxxiii. 

The text follows that of the original American 
edition (no. 485 in the 1960 Guide), with typo- 
graphical errors corrected and spelling and punctua- 
tion emended for the sake of consistency. 

147. Battle-pieces; [poems]. Edited, with intro- 
duction and notes, by Hennig Cohen. New 

York, T. Yoseloff [1963] 302 p. illus. 

6214910 PS2384.B3 1963 

Bibliography: p. [297] 299. 

The first-edition text, published in 1866 under the 
title Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War (no. 486 
in the 1960 Guide), is reproduced and illustrated 
with contemporary Civil War drawings, principally 
from the Waud Collection in the Library of Con- 
gress. 

148. Clarel, a poem and pilgrimage in the Holy 
Land. Edited by Walter E. Bezanson. New 

York, Hendricks House, 1960. cxvii, 652 p. 

61569 PS2384.C5 1960 

CONTENTS. Jerusalem . The wilderness. Mar 
Saba. Bethlehem. 

The text of the first American edition of 1876 is 
followed, with minor changes and with Melville's 
own revisions incorporated for the first time. The 
editor's long introduction is supplemented by maps, 
a chronology, a critical index of characters, and 
numerous explanatory and textual notes. 

149. Billy Budd, sailor (an inside narrative). 
Reading text and genetic text, edited from the 

manuscript, with introduction and notes, by Harri- 
son Hayford and Merton M. Sealts, Jr. [Chicago] 
University of Chicago Press [1962] 431 p. 

62-17135 PZ3.M498B1 

Bibliography: p. 203212. 

Through interpretive analysis of the manuscript 



in Harvard's Houghton Library, the editors have 
prepared an annotated text for the general reader 
as well as a second text for the scholar. Notes to 
the reading text appear on p. 133202, and the 
genetic text is accompanied by elaborate commen- 
tary and detailed description of the manuscript. 
The first edition of Billy Budd is no. 487 in the 
1960 Guide. 

150. The letters of Herman Melville. Edited by 
Merrell R. Davis and William H. Gilman. 

New Haven, Yale University Press, 1960. xxxi, 
398 p. illus. 60-7822 PS2386.A57 

This edition of 271 letters presents Melville's re- 
coverable correspondence, whether in manuscript or 
printed form, including "letters to the editor," frag- 
ments, and first drafts. Fifty-fivt letters are pub- 
lished in full for the first time, and 42 are previously 
unpublished. Aids to the reader include an intro- 
duction, a checklist of unlocated letters, and exten- 
sive textual notes. 

151. Selected poems. Edited by Hennig Cohen. 
Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1964. xvi, 

259 p. (Anchor books) 6318037 PS2382.C6 
In establishing this text, first editions were ex- 
amined, as well as manuscripts in Harvard's Hough- 
ton Library. Selections were made on the basis of 
literary distinction. "Poems of lesser merit have 
been included, however, because they show Mel- 
ville's artistic development, the range of his ideas, 
or important relationships to his prose." 

152. Baird, James. Ishmael. Baltimore, Johns 
Hopkins Press, 1956. xxxviii, 445 p. 

56-8064 PN56.P7B3 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

An exploratory study of "modern primitivism," 
emphasizing Melville's focal role as a symbolistic 
writer. 

153. Berthoff, Warner. The example of Melville. 
Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 

1962. 218 p. 637065 PS2386.B4 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Shunning the special concerns of literary criti- 
cism and scholarship, the author of this general 
study takes a direct look at Melville's exactness, 
explicitness, and urgency as defining elements of 
his artistic significance. 

154. Bowen, Merlin. The long encounter; self 
and experience in the writings of Herman 

Melville. [Chicago] University of Chicago Press 

[1960] 282 p. 607232 PS2387.B6 1960 

Considers Melville's works in the light of a per- 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 15 



vading concern with the problem of self-discovery 
and self-realization, which influenced his choice of 
subject matter, his imagery, and the shape of his 
narratives. 

155. Brodtkorb, Paul. Ishmael's white world; a 
phenomenological reading of Moby Dick. 

New Haven, Yale University Press, 1965. 170 p. 
(Yale publications in American studies, 9) 

65-11176 PS2384.M62B7 

Bibliography: p. 149150. Bibliographical notes: 
p. [i5i]-i66. 

Within the critical framework of phenomenology, 
Ishmael's consciousness is analyzed as "the vessel 
that contains the book." 

156. Finkelstein, Dorothee M. Melville's Orienda. 
New Haven, Yale University Press, 1961. 

317 p. illus. (Yale publications in American 
studies, 5) 61-6312 PS2386.F5 

Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 
[2831-302. 

Explores Melville's use of material and sources 
relating to the Near East, which in Mardi he called 
"old Orienda." 

157. Fogle, Richard H. Melville's shorter tales. 
Norman, University of Oklahoma Press 

[1960] 150 p. 607741 PS2387.F6 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A collection of critical essays offering general and 
individual analyses of the tales. Among those 
treated are "Bartleby," "The Encantadas," and 
"Benito Cereno." 

158. Hetherington, Hugh W. Melville's reviewers, 
British and American, 18461891. Chapel 

Hill, University of North Carolina Press [1961] 
304 p. illus. 6112305 PS2387.H45 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Examines numerous reviews which appeared dur- 
ing Melville's lifetime, demonstrating contemporary 
critical response to six major novels, including 
Moby-Diet^. 

159. Hillway, Tyrus. Herman Melville. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1963] 176 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 37) 

6310954 PS2386.H5 

Bibliographical notes: p. 154161. Bibliography: 
p. 162170. 

Without attempting to identify and answer the 
many questions surrounding Melville and his writ- 
ing, Hillway presents a body of authentic informa- 
tion, a review of recent literature, and a summary of 
his critical judgment. 



1 60. Sealts, Merton M. Melville as lecturer. Cam- 
bridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 

1957. 202 p. illus. 585542 PS2386.S4 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Following his Mediterranean trip of 1856 and 
1857, Melville traveled in the United States as a 
lecturer for three seasons. The lectures themselves 
were not printed after delivery, and the manuscripts 
have apparently been destroyed. Sealts analyzes 
this period of Melville's career and presents lecture 
texts reconstructed and annotated on the basis of 
contemporary newspaper reports. 

161. Stern, Milton R. The fine hammered steel 
of Herman Melville. Urbana, University of 

Illinois Press, 1957. 297 p. 576959 PS2387.S7 
Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 
[2511-291. 

Traces thematic and perceptual patterns devel- 
oped throughout Melville's work, classifying his 
writings as "naturalistic" on the basis of interpreta- 
tions of Typee, Mardi, Pierre, and Billy Budd. The 
comprehensive checklist of Melville studies includes 
dissertations. 

162. JAMES KIRKE PAULDING, 1778-1860 
No. 511 in 1960 Guide. 

163. Letters. Edited by Ralph M. Aderman. 
Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 

1962. xxiv, 631 p. illus. 

6217397 PS2528.A45 1962 
Includes all of the "available significant surviving 
correspondence," transcribed from manuscript 
sources when possible. 

164. EDGAR ALL AN POE, 1809-1849 
No. 520 in 1960 Guide. 

165. Selected writings. Edited, with an introduc- 
tion and notes, by Edward H. Davidson. 

Boston, Houghton Mifflin [1956! xxxii, 508 p. 
(Riverside editions, An) 5613895 PS2602.D3 

Bibliography: p. xxix. Bibliographical notes: p. 
487506. 

In addition to a selection of poems, essays, and 
criticism, this volume contains 16 tales and The 
Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantuc\et. 
In most cases, the individual writings appear in 
texts bearing Poe's final revisions or approval, with 
exceptions indicated in the notes. 

1 66. Poems. Edited, with an introduction, variant 
readings, and textual notes, by Floyd Stovall. 

Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia [1965] 
xxxvii, 361 p. 6523455 PS26o5.Ai 19653 



l6 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



The poems are chronologically arranged accord- 
ing to the date of first publication, insofar as that is 
known. Bibliographical notes and variant read- 
ings, constituting a history of the textual changes in 
the poems, appear on p. [147] 298. The com- 
plete text of Poe's poetic drama, Politian A Trage- 
dy, is included in an appendix. 

167. Buranelli, Vincent. Edgar Allan Poe. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1961] 157 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 4) 

61-9855 PS263I.B8 

Bibliographical notes: p. 134143. Bibliography: 
p. 144-151. 

1 68. Davidson, Edward H. Poe, a critical study. 
Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard Uni- 
versity Press, 1957. 296 p. 5712965 PS2638.D3 

Bibliographical notes: p. [263] 290. 

Poe's mind and writings are examined within the 
philosophic context of 19th-century Romantic 
thought, with particular reference to the esthetic 
principles of Coleridge. 

169. Moss, Sidney P. Poe's literary battles: the 
critic in the context of his literary milieu. 

Durham, N. C., Duke University Press, 1963. 
266 p. 639010 PS2638.M6 1963 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The author focuses on Poe's journalistic conflicts 
and their effect upon his characteristics and re- 
sponses as a literary critic. 

170. Parks, Edd W. Edgar Allan Poe as literary 
critic. Athens, University of Georgia Press 

[1964] 114 p. (Eugenia Dorothy Blount Lamar 
memorial lectures, 1964) 6425841 PS2638.P3 

Bibliographical notes: p. 97108. 

Maintaining that Poe's critical theories grew out 
of his work as a magazine editor and reviewer, the 
author discusses the development and nature of 
Poe's demand for a rhythmic harmony and unified 
design in literature. 

171. Quinn, Patrick F. The French face of Edgar 
Poe. Carbondale, Southern Illinois Univer- 
sity Press, 1957. 310 p. 56-10476 PS2638.Q5 

Bibliographical notes: p. 279293. Bibliography: 
p. 295-299. 

This interpretation of the French response to Poe 
is mainly concerned with his importance as a 
writer of tales. Emphasis is placed upon the role 
played by Baudelaire and later French critics in 
revealing Poe to a European audience. 

172. WILLIAM GILMORE SIMMS, 1806-1870 
No. 546 in 1960 Guide. 



173. The Yemassee; a romance of Carolina. 
Edited, with an introduction and notes, by 

C. Hugh Holman. Boston, Houghton Mifflin 
[1961] xxxi, 377 p. (Riverside editions, A65) 
61-66407 

"Bibliographical note": p. [xxv] xxvii. 

Reprints the "new and revised" third edition of 
1853, retaining the author's original punctuation 
with slight editorial changes indicated and ex- 
plained. A Simms chronology and his poem "The 
Last of the Yemassees" are included. Other editions 
of The Yemassee are no. 548549 in the 1960 Guide. 

174. Edited for the modern reader by 

Joseph V. Ridgely. New York, Twayne 

Publishers [1964] 415 p. (Twayne's United 
States classics series) 6210274 PZ3-S592Yn 42 
The text of the 1853 edition is again followed, 
with some alterations in spelling and punctuation. 
Simms' career is discussed in the editor's introduc- 
tory essay. 

175. Views and reviews in American literature, 
history and fiction: first series. Edited by 

C. Hugh Holman. Cambridge, Belknap Press of 
Harvard University Press, 1962. xliii, 292 p. (The 
John Harvard library) 6217226 PS2850.V52 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A reprint of the 1845 edition of n essays origin- 
ally published in southern literary journals in the 
1 840'$. The editor's notes identify individuals, 
places, and quotation sources whenever possible. 
A one-volume edition of the first and second series 
of this work is no. 551 in the 1960 Guide. 

176. Woodcraft; or, Hawks about the dovecote; a 
story of the South at the close of the Revolu- 
tion. Introduction by Richmond Groom Beatty. 
New York, Norton [1961] xvi, 518 p. (The 
Norton library, ^07) 61-8921 PZ3-S592Wo 8 

Bibliography: p. xv-xvi. 

Reprinted from the revised edition of 1854, this 
work was first published in 1852 under the tide 
The Sword and the Distaff. 

177. Letters. Collected and edited by Mary C. 
Simms Oliphant, Alfred Taylor Odell [and] 

T. C. Duncan Eaves. Introduction by Donald 
Davidson. Biographical sketch by Alexander S. 
Salley. Columbia, University of South Carolina 
Press, 195256. 5 v. illus. 

522352 PS2853.A4 1952 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

This edition of Simms' letters, no. 554 in the 
1960 Guide, was completed with the publication in 
1956 of volume 5, covering the period 1867-70. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / IJ 



178. Parks, Edd W. William Gilmore Simms as 
literary critic. Athens, University of Georgia 

Press, 1961. 152 p. (University of Georgia mono- 
graphs, no. 7) 61-9795 PS2854.P3 

Bibliographical notes: p. 114144. 

This monograph is the first of a three-volume 
study of antebellum southern critics; the final vol- 
ume is Edgar Allan Poe as Literary Critic (no. 170 
above). Parks examines Simms' criticism of fic- 
tion, poetry, and drama, concluding that "he was a 
good but not a great critic." 

179. Ridgely, Joseph V. William Gilmore Simms. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [ C i962] 144 

p. ( Twayne 's United States authors series, 28) 

62-16823 PS2853.R5 

Bibliographical notes: p. 131-137. Bibliography: 
p. 138141. 

Treats Simms as a celebrator of the South who 
tried to create through fiction "the vision of an ideal 
Southern social structure." Biographical, historical, 
and source materials are reduced to a minimum. 

1 80. HARRIET BEECHER STOWE, 1811-1896 
No. 562 in 1960 Guide. 

181. Uncle Tom's cabin; or, Life among the lowly. 
Edited by Kenneth S. Lynn. Cambridge, 

Mass., Belknap Press, 1962. xxviii, 460 p. (The 
John Harvard library) 629431 PZ3.S89Un 85 
The text is that of the first American edition, 
published in Boston by J. P. Jewett, 1852 (no. 563 
in the 1960 Guide; later editions are no. 564567). 
The editor has contributed a lengthy introduction, 
a textual history, and a chronology of Mrs. Stowe's 
life. 

182. The annotated Uncle Tom's cabin. Edited, 
with an introduction, by Philip Van Doren 

Stern. New York, P. S. Eriksson [1964] 591 p. 
illus. 64-15781 PZ3.S89An 

Mrs. Stowe and her celebrated novel are dis- 
cussed in the introduction, p. 737, and informative 
notes appear on p. 562591. A selection of illustra- 
tions from the original edition is included. 

183. Adams, John R. Harriet Beecher Stowe. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [ C i963] 

172 p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 42) 

63-17370 PS2956.A6 

Bibliographical notes: p. 143158. Bibliography: 
p. 159-167. 

"In a resolute effort to avoid myth-making," 
Adams focuses attention on Mrs. Stowe's writings 
(including more than 200 uncollected articles and 
stories). 



184. Wagenknecht, Edward C. Harriet Beecher 
Stowe; the known and the unknown. New 

York, Oxford University Press, 1965. 267 p. 

65-15615 PS2956.W3 

Bibliographical notes: p. 221251. Bibliography: 
p. 253-258. 

This psychograph or character study of Mrs. 
Stowe regards her principally within the context of 
her familial relationships. The author has had 
access to a wide array of unpublished letters, many 
of which are contained in the collection of Stowe 
papers in the Women's Archives at Radcliffe 
College. 

185. HENRY DAVID THOREAU, 1817-1862 
No. 585 in 1960 Guide. 

1 86. A week on the Concord and Merrimack 
Rivers. Edited, with introduction and notes, 

by Walter R. Harding. New York, Holt, Rinehart & 

Winston [1963] xxiii, 340 p. (Rinehart editions) 

63-7886 F72.M7T5 1963 

Bibliography: p. [xix] xx. 

The first edition of this work was published by 
James Munroe of Boston in 1849 (no. 587 in the 
1960 Guide', a 1921 edition is no. 588). A "new 
and revised edition," published in 1868 by Ticknor 
& Fields, is followed here, with small revisions 
carefully noted. 

187. The variorum Walden. Annotated and with 
an introduction by Walter R. Harding. New 

York, Twayne Publishers [1962] 320 p. 

62-10273 PS3048.A1 19623 

Bibliographical notes: p. 267-319. Bibliography: 
p. 320. 

The text is based on that of the first edition 
(Boston, Ticknor & Fields, 1854), no. 589 in the 
1960 Guide. The editor's notes provide a collation 
of Thoreau scholarship and incorporate for the first 
time all the corrections made by Thoreau in his 
personal copy of Walden. Selected editions of this 
work are no. 590593 in the 1960 Guide. 

1 88. Walden and Civil disobedience. Edited, 
with an introduction and notes, by Sherman 

Paul. Boston, Houghton Mifflin [1960] xlvi, 266 p. 
(Riverside editions, Ai4) 

60-16148 PS3048.A1 1960 

Bibliography: p. [xlv]-xlvi. 

The Walden text printed here follows the 1889 
Riverside edition (Boston, Houghton Mifflin), 
which first included many of Thoreau's corrections 
and revisions. The reader is guided by an ex- 
tended introduction, a Thoreau chronology, and a 
brief essay on the composition of Walden. Charles 



l8 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Lane's article, "Life in the Woods," from The Dial, 
April 1844, has been appended. 

189. Consciousness in Concord; the text of 
Thoreau's hitherto "lost journal," 18401841, 

together with notes and a commentary by Perry 
Miller. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1958. 243 p. 

587303 PS3053.A26 

Bibliographical notes: p. 221240. 

Based on a manuscript owned by the J. Pierpont 
Morgan Library, the text retains Thoreau's revisions 
and often eccentric punctuation, with textual vari- 
ants indicated in the notes. 

190. Correspondence. Edited by Walter R. Hard- 
ing and Carl Bode. [New York] New York 

University Press, 1958. xxi, 665 p. 

58-11447 PS 3 053.A3 1958 
The first inclusive edition of Thoreau's corre- 
spondence, chronologically arranged, contains 
"every available surviving letter written by and to 
Thoreau." The texts are based on original manu- 
scripts whenever possible, with sources identified 
in the annotations. 

191. Collected poems. Edited by Carl Bode. Enl. 
ed. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1964. 

xxii, 413 p. 6412730 PS3O4I.B6 1964 

This enlarged edition of no. 598 in the 1960 
Guide incorporates the miscellaneous poems which 
have appeared since the original volume was pub- 
lished in 1943. Textual and explanatory notes 
appear on p. 281377, with notes for the added 
poems on p. 400404. 

192. Christie, John A. Thoreau as world traveler. 
New York, Columbia University Press with 

the cooperation of the American Geographical So- 
ciety, 1965. 358 p. illus. 6524586 PS3056.C4 

Bibliographical notes: p. [275] 310. 

Christie traces Thoreau's vicarious global adven- 
tures, exploring the influence and reflection of his 
"travel" through reading. The long bibliography 
of travel works read by Thoreau is partial evidence 
of the author's painstaking research. 

193. Harding, Walter R. The days of Henry 
Thoreau. New York, Knopf, 1965. xvi, 

472 p. 6518766 PS3O53.H3 

Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 471 
472. 

A general and comprehensive biography, with 
"no thesis to present, no axe to grind." The text is 
augmented by a number of illustrations, including 
reproductions of photographs, daguerreotypes, and 
sketches. 



194. Harding, Walter R. A Thoreau handbook. 
[New York] New York University Press, 

1959. 229 p. 599918 PS3O53.H32 

This guide to Thoreau scholarship is divided into 
five sections, summarizing Thoreau's life, his works, 
the sources of his ideas, the ideas themselves, and 
the course of his fame. Each section presents an 
evaluation of previous work on the subject and in- 
cludes an extended bibliography of related materials. 
A Thoreau chronology and a list of Thoreau bib- 
liographies are included. 

195. Meltzer, Milton, and Walter R. Harding, eds. 
A Thoreau profile. New York, Crowell 

[1962] 310 p. 6216548 PS3053.M4 

Bibliographies: p. 294297. 

A pictorial biography featuring every known life 
portrait of Thoreau in addition to photographs, car- 
toons, news clippings, drawings, maps, and charts. 
The text is mainly derived from Thoreau's own 
writings, occasionally supplemented by the writings 
of his contemporaries. 

196. Paul, Sherman. The shores of America: 
Thoreau's inward exploration. Urbana, Uni- 
versity of Illinois Press, 1958. 433 p. 

58-6998 PS3053.P3 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Through an examination of Thoreau's inner life, 
which was guided by the tenets of Transcendental- 
ism, the author presents a work which "might be 
called a spiritual biography or a biography of voca- 
tion." 

197. Shanley, James L. The making of Walden, 
with the text of the first version. [Chicago] 

University of Chicago Press [1957] 207 p. 

576990 PS3048.S5 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Having established the proper manuscript order 
of Thoreau's first version of Walden, written in 
184647, the author indicates how the work was 
rewritten and reshaped between 1848 and its publi- 
cation in 1854. The text of the first version printed 
here is a transcript from the Huntington Library 
manuscript. 

198. Stoller, Leo. After Walden; Thoreau's chang- 
ing views on economic man. Stanford, Calif., 

Stanford University Press, 1957. 163 p. 

5712516 PS3O53-S8 

Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 
[i57]-i63. 

Traces the evolution of Thoreau's economic philo- 
sophy and the development of his views concerning 
social legislation during the years following his stay 
at Walden Pond. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 



199. THOMAS BANGS THORPE, 1815-1878 
No. 612 in 1960 Guide. 

200. Rickels, Milton. Thomas Bangs Thorpe: 
humorist of the Old Southwest. Baton 

Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1962. 275 
p. illus. 62-8018 PS3o6i.T6R5 

Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 
[257] -267. 

A comprehensive biography of a versatile and 
lively observer of the mid- 19th-century South. 

201. HENRY TIMROD, 1828-1867 
No. 614 in 1960 Guide. 

202. Collected poems. A variorum ed. edited by 
Edd Winfield Parks and Aileen Wells Parks. 

Athens, University of Georgia Press [1965] 206 p. 
6525289 PS3O70.A2 1965 
The primary textual source is the memorial edi- 
tion of Timrod's poems (no. 617 in the 1960 Guide), 
which in turn was based on the 1873 edition (no. 
616 in the 1960 Guide). The notes appearing on 
p. 142203 contain the publication record of each 
poem, explanatory comments, and variant readings. 

203. Parks, Edd W. Henry Timrod. New York, 
Twayne Publishers [1964] 158 p. (Twayne's 

United States authors series, 53) 

6320607 PS3O73.P3 

Bibliographical notes: p. 117145. Bibliography: 
p. 146-149. 

A blend of biography and criticism, relating Tim- 
rod's life to the literary activities of Charleston in 
the 1850'$. 

204. WALT WHITMAN, 1819-1892 
No. 619 in 1960 Guide. 

205. Leaves of grass, ist (1855) ed. Edited, with 
an introduction, by Malcolm Cowley. New 

York, Viking Press, 1959. xxxvii, 145 p. 

5913502 PS32OI 1959 

A reprint of the 1855 text (no. 620 in the 1960 
Guide), with obvious typographical errors corrected. 
Facsimiles of the first-edition frontispiece and tide 
page are included, as well as Whitman's prose in- 
troduction. 

206. Leaves of grass. With an introduction by Roy 
Harvey Pearce. Facsim. ed. of the 1860 text. 

Ithaca, N.Y., Great Seal Books [1961] li, 467 p. 
6114850 PS320I i86ob 

A cross-index of the 1860 and 1892 poems has 
been added to this facsimile reprint of the third edi- 
tion (no. 622 in the 1960 Guide). 



207. Leaves of grass. Edited by Harold W. Blod- 
gett and Sculley Bradley. Comprehensive 

reader's ed. [New York] New York University 
Press, 1965. Iviii, 768 p. illus. (The Collected 
writings of Walt Whitman) 

651625 PS320I 1965 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

This edition contains the 189192 text (no. 626 
in the 1960 Guide), with typographical errors cor- 
rected in the footnotes. In addition, the editors have 
included the annexes, prefaces, "A Backward Glance 
O'er Travel'd Roads," "Old Age Echoes," and un- 
collected and excluded poems and fragments. Var- 
ious editions of Leaves of Grass are no. 620630 in 
the 1960 Guide. 

208. Memoranda during the war [&] Death of 
of Abraham Lincoln. Edited, with an intro- 
duction, by Roy P. Easier. Bloomington, Indiana 
University Press, 1962. 1 v. (various pagings) 

62-8978 PS32i6.Ai 1962 
Memoranda During the War, published in 1875 
76, is reproduced in facsimile along with the text 
which Whitman used in delivering his lecture on 
Lincoln. Additional facsimiles of letters, manu- 
scripts, and related material illustrate the volume. 
The introduction outlines the literary and historical 
background of each work. 

209. Complete poetry and selected prose. Edited, 
with an introduction and glossary, by James 

E. Miller, Jr. Boston, Houghton Mifflin [1959] 
516 p. (Riverside editions, A34) 

59-2805 PS3200.F59 

Contains all of the poetry written and published 
as Leaves of Grass, including the 29 poems which 
Whitman rejected from edition to edition. The text 
of the 189192 version is followed. Democratic 
Vistas and several of Whitman's prefaces are printed 
as prose selections. 

210. The correspondence. Edited by Edwin Havi- 
land Miller. [New York] New York Uni- 
versity Press, 196164. 3 v. illus. (The Collected 
writings of Walt Whitman) 

65-9834 PS323I.M48 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

CONTENTS. v. i. 1842-1867. v. 2. 1868-1875. 
-v. 3. 1876-1885. 

This edition includes all available letters, post 
cards, and notes, published in unabridged form and 
in chronological sequence, through 1885. The ma- 
jority of the letters are based on original manu- 
scripts, with editorial modifications made in the 
interest of readability. Additional materials include 
checklists of lost letters, manuscript sources, and 
letters written to Whitman. 



2O / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



211. The early poems and the fiction. Edited by 
Thomas L. Brasher. [New York] New York 

University Press, 1963. xxii, 352 p. (The Collected 
writings of Walt Whitman) 653935 PS32O3.B7 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Most of Whitman's early poems were published 
between 1838 and 1850 in New York or Long Island 
newspapers; his 24 tales appeared in periodicals be- 
tween 1841 and 1848. The texts in this volume are 
based on Whitman's last printed versions, with vari- 
ants indicated in the footnotes. 

212. Prose works, 1892. Edited by Floyd Stovall. 
[New York] New York University Press, 

196364. 2 v. illus. (The Collected writings of 
Walt Whitman) 653934 PS3202 1963 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

CONTENTS. v. i. Specimen days. v. 2. Collect 
and other prose. 

Except for the juvenile pieces, these two volumes 
contain all the material printed in Whitman's Com- 
plete Prose Worlds of 1892 (no. 638 in the 1960 
Guide). The text of the 1892 edition is followed, 
with variant readings recorded in the notes and the 
appendix. A collection of prefaces, notes, and arti- 
cles not in the earlier work has been added to this 
edition. 

213. Allen, Gay W. Walt Whitman as man, poet, 
and legend. With a check list of Whitman 

publications, 19451960, by Evie Allison Allen. 
Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press 
[1961] 260 p. 61-10924 PS323I.A698 

Bibliographical notes: p. [247] 260. 

Several of the essays in this collection are reprints 
or adaptations of previously published material. 
The comprehensive checklist records translations, 
theses, and uncollected writings, in addition to books 
and articles by and about Whitman. A number of 
notable letters concerning Whitman, the majority 
of which are in the Slocum Library of Ohio Wes- 
leyan University, are printed in full for the first 
time. 

214. Asselineau, Roger. The evolution of Walt 
Whitman. Cambridge, Belknap Press of 

Harvard University Press, 196062. 2 v. 

6013297 PS323I.A833 

Bibliographical notes: v. i, p. [2733362; v. 2, 
p. [2731-379. Bibliography: v. 2, p. [26i]-27i. 

CONTENTS. v. i. The creation of a personality. 
[v. 2] The creation of a book. 

The English translation of a work originally pub- 
lished in French in 1954. The first volume, trans- 
lated by Richard P. Adams and the author, is 
essentially biographical; the second, translated by 



Burton L. Cooper and the author, is devoted to 
criticism of Whitman's work. 

215. Dutton, Geoffrey. Whitman. New York, 
Grove Press [1961] 120 p. (Evergreen pilot 

books EPi2) 61-17200 P>323i.D8 1961 

Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 
118120. 

Divided into three sections, this concise study 

treats Whitman biographically in relation to his 

prose, analyzes his poetry, and discusses the reac- 
tions of individual critics. 

216. Miller, James E. A critical guide to Leaves 
of grass. [Chicago] University of Chicago 

Press [1957] 268 p. 57-6982 PS3238.M5 

Focusing on poetic structure, Miller's individual 
analyses of 10 Whitman poems and a panoramic 
view of Leaves of Grass "help dispel the common 
notion that Whitman was a formless, even a chaotic 
poet." 

217. Miller, James E. Walt Whitman. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1962] 188 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 20) 

62-13674 PS323I.M5 

Bibliographical notes: p. 165175. Bibliography: 
p. 176181. 

"Entrances" to Whitman's poetry are provided 
through discussions of its language, imagery, struc- 
ture, wit, and wisdom. 

218. JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER, 1807- 

1892 

No. 662 in 1960 Guide. 

219. Leary, Lewis G. John Greenleaf Whittier. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1962, '1961] 

189 p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 6) 
61-15667 PS3288.L4 1962 

Bibliographical notes: p. 172179. Bibliography: 
p. 180184. 

This review of his major poetry seeks "to discover 
what Whittier, who spoke so clearly to his own 
time, has to say to ours." 

220. Pickard, John B. John Greenleaf Whittier, 
an introduction and interpretation. New 

York, Barnes & Noble [1961] 145 p. illus. 
(American authors and critics series, AC4) 

61-14752 PS328i.P48 

Bibliography: p. 135137. 

Appraises Whittier's poetic achievement, correlat- 
ing his literary, political, and humanitarian activities. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 21 



D. The Gilded Age and After (1871-1914) 



221. ANDY ADAMS, 1859-1935 
No. 683 in 1960 Guide. 

222. Why the Chisholm Trail forks, and other tales 
of the cattle country. Edited by Wilson M. 

Hudson. With illustrations by Malcolm Thurgood. 
Austin, University of Texas Press, 1956. 296 p. 

56-11769 PZ3.A2iWh 
Includes previously unpublished material. 

223. Hudson, Wilson M. Andy Adams, his life 
and writings. Dallas, Southern Methodist 

University Press, 1964. xv, 274 p. illus. 

6416632 PS35oi.D2i52H8 

Bibliographical notes: p. 227-258. Bibliography: 
p. 259-265. 

Describes Adams' friendships with Walter Pres- 
cott Webb, J. Frank Dobie, Emerson Hough, and 
Eugene Manlove Rhodes and evaluates his place in 
western fiction. 



224. 



225 



HENRY ADAMS, 1838-1918 
No. 688 in 1960 Guide. 



A Henry Adams reader. Edited and with an 
introduction by Elizabeth Stevenson. Garden 
City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1958. xvi, 392 p. (Double- 
day anchor books) 58-5929 AC8.A22 
A selection from his letters, essays, biographies, 
histories, and poetry. 

226. Hochfield, George. Henry Adams, an intro- 
duction and interpretation. New York, 

Barnes & Noble [1962] 150 p. illus. (American 
authors and critics series, AC5) 

62-15370 175.5^1749 
Bibliography: p. 145147. 

227. Levenson, Jacob C. The mind and art of 
Henry Adams. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 

X 957- 43 P- iUus. 57-6946 175.5^1765 

228. Samuels, Ernest. Henry Adams; the major 
phase. Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard 

University Press, 1964. xv, 687 p. 

64-21790 175.5^1776 

"The writings of Henry Adams from 1892": 
P- [59 r ]-594- Bibliographical notes: p. [595]- 
660. Bibliography: p. [66 1] 667. 



Concludes Samuels' three-volume biography of 
Adams. 

229. Samuels, Ernest. Henry Adams; the middle 
years. Cambridge, Belknap Press of Har- 

vard University Press, 1958. 514 p. 

58-12975 175.5^1777 

The writings of Henry Adams, 1878-1891": p. 
[423] -426. Bibliographical notes: p. [427] -488. 
Bibliography: p. [489] 497. 

This sequel to Samuels' The Young Henry 
Adams (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 
1948. 378 p.) concentrates on Adams' life from 1877 
to 1890. 

230. GEORGE ADE, 1866-1944 
No. 701 in 1960 Guide. 

231. Artie, and Pink Marsh; two novels. Draw- 
ings by John T. McCutcheon. Introduction 

by James T. Farrell. Chicago, University of Chi- 
cago Press [1963] 224 p. (Chicago in fiction) 

63-22584 



232. The America of George Ade, 18661944; 
fables, short stories, essays. Edited, with an 

introduction, by Jean Shepherd. New York, Put- 
nam [1960] 284 p. illus. 

608120 PSioo6.A6A6 1960 

233. Coyle, Lee. George Ade. New York, 
Twayne Publishers [1964] 159 p. (Twayne's 

United States authors series, 63) 

64-20713 PSioo6.A6Z6 

Bibliographical notes: p. 141-149. Bibliography: 
p. 150-153. 

Devotes considerable space to Ade's previously 
neglected career as a playwright. 

234. JAMES LANE ALLEN, 1849-1925 
No. 716 in 1960 Guide. 

235. Bottorff, William K. James Lane Allen. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1964] 176 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 56) 

63-20615 PSi036.B6 

Bibliographical notes: p. 156166. Bibliography: 
p. 167-172. 



22 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



236. EDWARD BELLAMY, 1850-1898 
No. 726 in 1960 Guide. 

237. Bowman, Sylvia E., and others. Edward Bel- 
lamy abroad; an American prophet's influ- 
ence. Preface by Maurice Le Breton. New York, 
Twayne Publishers [1962] xxv, 543 p. illus. 

61-15672 HX8o6.B68 

Bibliographical notes: p. 449478. Bibliography: 
p. 479-528. 

238. Bowman, Sylvia E. The year 2000: a critical 
biography of Edward Bellamy. New York, 

Bookman Associates [1958] 404 p. illus. 

A 58-3939 HX84.B37B6 

Bibliographical notes: p. 317344. Bibliography: 
P- 345-393- 

239. AMBROSE (GWINNETT) BIERCE, 1842- 

1914? 

No. 732 in 1960 Guide. 

240. Ambrose Bierce's Civil War. Edited and 
with an introduction by William McCann. 

Chicago, Gateway Editions; distributed by H. Reg- 
nery Co. [1956] 257 p. (A Gateway edition, 
6015) 563957 601.6594 

CONTENTS. War memoirs. War stories. 



241. The sardonic humor of Ambrose Bierce. 
Edited by George Barkin. New York, Dover 

Publications [1963] 232 p. 

6319487 PS 1 097. A6 1963 

A new collection of verses and prose sketches 

selected from The Collected Worf(s of Ambrose 

Bierce (New York, Neale Pub. Co., 190912. 12 v.). 

242. Ghost and horror stories. Selected and intro- 
duced by E. F. Bleiler. New York, Dover 

Publications [1964] xxi, 199 p. 

6413459 PZ3-B479Gh 

A new collection of short stories selected from The 
Collected Worlds of Ambrose Bierce (New York, 
Neale Pub. Co., 190912. 12 v.). 



243. Woodruff, Stuart C. The short stories of 
Ambrose Bierce, a study in polarity. [Pitts- 
burgh] University of Pittsburgh Press [1965, '1964] 
193 p. (Critical essays in modern literature) 

6422147 PS 1 097.25 W6 

Bibliographical notes: p. 165180. Bibliography: 
p. 181191. 
Analyzes representative works. 



244. GEORGE WASHINGTON CABLE, 1844- 

1925 

No. 745 in 1960 Guide. 

245. Butcher, Charles P. George W. Cable. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1962] 189 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 24) 

62-16819 PSi246.B78 

Bibliographical notes: p. 168177. Bibliography: 
p. 178181. 

246. WINSTON CHURCHILL, 1871-1947 
No. 762 in 1960 Guide. 

247. Titus, Warren I. Winston Churchill. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [ C i963] 173 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 43) 

6317371 

Bibliographical notes: p. 151162. Bibliography: 
p. 163168. 

248. SAMUEL LANGHORNE CLEMENS 

("MARK TWAIN"), 1835-1910 

No. 768 in 1960 Guide. 

249. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, an anno- 
tated text, backgrounds and sources, essays in 

criticism. Edited by Sculley Bradley, Richmond 
Groom Beatty [and] E. Hudson Long. New Yofk, 
Norton [1962] 451 p. (Norton critical editions, 
N304) 62-9571 PZ3.C59A68 

Bibliography: p. 449451. 

A photographic reproduction of the first Ameri- 
can edition, no. 788 in the 1960 Guide, with an- 
notated corrections of typographical errors. Other 
editions are no. 787 and 789793. 

250. The adventures of Colonel Sellers, being Mark 
Twain's share of The gilded age [ist ed., ist 

issue] , a novel which he wrote with Charles Dudley 
Warner. Now published separately for the first 
time and comprising, in effect, a new work. Edited 
and with an introduction and notes by Charles 
Neider. New York, Doubleday, 1965. 244 p. 

65-11053 PZ3.C59Ac 
The Gilded Age is no. 775-777 in the 1960 Guide. 

251. The complete short stories of Mark Twain. 
Now collected for the first time. Edited, with 

an introduction, by Charles Neider. Garden City, 
N.Y., Hanover House, 1957. xxiv, 676 p. 

57-5536 



252. The complete humorous sketches and tales of 
Mark Twain. Now collected for the first 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 23 



time. Edited and with an introduction by Charles 
Neider. Drawings by Mark Twain. Garden City, 
N.Y., Hanover House [1961] 722 p. 

616503 PSi303.N37 

253. The complete essays of Mark Twain. Now 
collected for the first time. Edited and with 

an introduction by Charles Neider. Drawings by 
Mark Twain. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 
1963. xxv, 705 p. 637714 PS 1 302 .N3 8 

254. The complete novels of Mark Twain. Edited, 
with an introduction, by Charles Neider. 

Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1964. 2 v. 

64-19239 PZ3.C59Cg 

The text of each novel is that of its first American 
edition. Minor changes have been made in the text 
where necessary, as in the case of obvious typo- 
graphical errors. 

255. Mark Twain of the Enterprise; newspaper 
articles & other documents, 18621864. 

Edited by Henry Nash Smith with the assistance of 
Frederick Anderson. Berkeley, University of Cali- 
fornia Press, 1957. 240 p. illus. 

57-6543 PS 1 302.85 

Bibliographical notes: p. 209224. Bibliography: 
p. 232-234. 

256. Traveling with the innocents abroad; Mark 
Twain's original reports from Europe and 

the Holy Land. Edited by Daniel Morley Mc- 
Keithan. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press 
[1958] xviii, 324 p. 58-6858 PSi33i.A3 1958 
These journalistic sketches and letters, largely 
written for the San Francisco Daily Alta California, 
provided the raw material for The Innocents Abroad, 
no. 769771 in the 1960 Guide. 

257. Mark Twain-Howells letters; the correspon- 
dence of Samuel L. Clemens and William D. 

Howells, 18721910. Edited by Henry Nash Smith 
and William M. Gibson with the assistance of Fred- 
erick Anderson. Cambridge, Belknap Press of 
Harvard University Press, 1960. 2 v. (xxv, 948 p.) 
illus. 605397 PSi33i.A3H6 

Bibliographical references included in "Note on 
editorial practice" (v. i, p. xxi xxv). "Calendar of 
letters": v. 2, p. 883903. "Index of works by 
Samuel L. Clemens and William D. Howells": v. 2, 
p. 943-94 8 - 

258. The travels of Mark Twain. Edited, with an 
introduction and notes, by Charles Neider. 

New York, Coward-McCann [1961] 448 p. 

615434 



Selected descriptions from American and foreign 
travels. 

259. Life as I find it. Essays, sketches, tales, and 
other material, the majority of which is now 

published in book form for the first time. Edited, 
with an introduction and notes, by Charles Neider. 
Garden City, N.Y., Hanover House [1961] xvii, 
411 p. 6115327 PSi302.N4 

Bibliography: p. [3971-399. 

260. Letters from the earth. Edited by Bernard 
De Voto. With a preface by Henry Nash 

Smith. New York, Harper & Row [1962] 303 p. 
6214550 PSi33i.A3 1962 
"Bibliographical note": p. 303. 
A selection of Twain's unfinished writings. 

261. Blair, Walter. Mark Twain & Huck Finn. 
Berkeley, University of California Press, 1960. 

436 p. illus. 59 15693 PSi305-B5 

Bibliographical notes: p. 389422. Bibliography: 
p. 423-427. 

Depicts the creation of Twain's Adventures of 
Huckleberry Finn, no. 787793 in the 1960 Guide, 
by discussing the author's life, his reading, his think- 
ing, and his writing between 1874 and 1884. 

262. Leary, Lewis G., ed. A casebook on Mark 
Twain's wound. New York, Crowell [1962] 

351 p. (Crowell literary casebooks) 

6210282 PSi33i.L42 
Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 

337-34 6 - 

Van Wyck Brooks' The Ordeal of Marf( Twain 

(1920) portrays Twain as a genius who was 
wounded and handicapped by his frontier environ- 
ment. Bernard De Veto's Mar\ Twain's America 
(1932) argues that Twain profited from his Western 
heritage and utilized it in creating his literary art. 
Leary offers a selection from each of these books, 
together with comments by other critics upon the 
two conflicting views. 

263. Long, Eugene Hudson. Mark Twain hand- 
book. New York, Hendricks House [ C i958] 

454 p. 582265 PS 1 33 1. L6 

Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliographies at ends 

of chapters. 

Summarizes and evaluates Twain scholarship. 

264. Meltzer, Milton. Mark Twain himself, a pic- 
torial biography. New York, Crowell [1960] 

303 p. 6011545 PSi33i.M38 

"Picture sources": p. 295297. 
Among the pictures reproduced are daguerreo- 



24 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

types, tintypes, stereographs, photographs, prints, 
drawings (including Twain's), paintings, broad- 
sides, posters, cartoons, caricatures, illustrations from 
first editions, maps, news clippings, holographs, and 
even Twain's handprint. 

265. Smith, Henry Nash. Mark Twain: the de- 
velopment of a writer. Cambridge, Belknap 

Press of Harvard University Press, 1962. 212 p. 

6219224 PSi33i.S55 1962 
Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. [i8 9 ]-2o8). 

266. STEPHEN CRANE, 1871-1900 
No. 821 in 1960 Guide. 

267. The red badge of courage, an annotated text, 
backgrounds and sources, essays in criticism. 

Edited by Sculley Bradley, Richmond Groom Beatty 
[and] E. Hudson Long. New York, Norton 
[1962] 344 p. (Norton critical editions, ^05) 
62-9572 PZ3.C852R 27 

Bibliography: p. 342344. Bibliographical foot- 
notes. 

Uses the text of the 1895 edition, no. 825 in the 
1960 Guide. Other editions are no. 826829. 

268. Complete short stories & sketches. Edited, 
with an introduction, by Thomas A. Gulla- 

son. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1963. 790 p. 

63-20507 



269. Stephen Crane: letters. Edited by R. W. 
Stallman and Lillian Gilkes. With an intro- 

duction by R. W. Stallman. [New York] New 
York University Press, 1960. xxx, 366 p. 

5915192 PSi449.C85Z54 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Reproduces 184 letters and autographs for the first 
time. 

270. The war dispatches of Stephen Crane. Edited 
by R. W. Stallman and E. R. Hagemann. 

[New York] New York University Press, 1964. 
xv, 343 p. illus. 6412559 PSi449.C85Z5 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Narratives by Crane and his contemporaries from 
the Greco-Turkish War, the Spanish- American War, 
and the South African War. 

271. Hoffman, Daniel G. The poetry of Stephen 
Crane. New York, Columbia University 

Press, 1957 [ C i956] 304 p. 

57-11017 PSi449.C85Z65 

"Further uncollected poems of Stephen Crane": 
p. [281] 284. Bibliography: p. [285] 295. 



272. EMILY DICKINSON, 1830-1886 
No. 838 in 1960 Guide. 

273. Complete poems. Edited by Thomas H. 
Johnson. Boston, Little, Brown [1960] 770 

p. 6011646 PSi54i.Ai 1960 

The editor has selected one form of each poem 
from the variorum edition (no. 846 in the 1960 
Guide) and has corrected some obvious textual 
errors. 

274. Letters. Edited by Thomas H. Johnson. As- 
sociate editor: Theodora Ward. Cambridge, 

Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1958. 
3 v. (xxvii, 999 p.) illus. 

58-5594 PS 1 54 1. Z5 A3 1958 
This companion to Poems (no. 846 in the 1960 
Guide) collects all of the letters known to have sur- 
vived, including about 100 that are published for 
the first time. 

275. Anderson, Charles R. Emily Dickinson's 
poetry: stairway of surprise. New York, 

Holt, Rinehart & Winston [1960] xviii, 334 p. 

60-9546 PSi54i.Z5A63 
Analysis of selected poems. 

276. Blake, Caesar R., and Carlton F. Wells, eds. 
The recognition of Emily Dickinson; selected 

criticism since 1890. Ann Arbor, University of 
Michigan Press [1964] xvi, 314 p. 
6410612 

277. Gelpi, Albert J. Emily Dickinson: the mind 
of the poet. Cambridge, Harvard University 

Press, 1965. 201 p. 6513844 PS 1541^564 

Bibliography: p. 179180. Bibliographical notes: 
p. 181195. 

Analysis of the ideas of Emily Dickinson in rela- 
tion to American imaginative thought. 

278. Leyda, Jay. The years and hours of Emily 
Dickinson. New Haven, Yale University 

Press, 1960. 2v. illus. 6011132 PSi54i.Z5L4 
"The sources": v. 2, p. 4854818. "Locations of 
manuscripts, illustrations, memorabilia": v. 2, p. 
489-503. 

A collection of chronologically arranged docu- 
ments from manuscript and printed sources. 



279. FINLEY PETER DUNNE 
DOOLEY"), 1867-1936 

No. 862 in 1960 Guide. 



("MR. 



280. Mr. Dooley on ivrything and ivrybody. Se- 
lected and with an introduction by Robert 



Hutchinson. New York, Dover Publications [1963] 
244 p. 63-2652 PN6i6i.D8257 

281. EDWARD EGGLESTON, 1837-1902 
No. 867 in 1960 Guide. 

282. Randel, William P. Edward Eggleston. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [ C i963] 190 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 45) 

6 3-'7373 PSis83.R28 

Bibliographical notes: p. 160-171. Bibliography: 
p. 172-187. 

283. HAMLIN GARLAND, 1860-1940 
No. 890 in 1960 Guide. 

284. Crumbling idols; twelve essays on art dealing 
chiefly with literature, painting, and the 

drama. Edited by Jane Johnson. Cambridge, Bel- 
knap Press of Harvard University Press, 1960. 
xxxi, 150 p. (The John Harvard library) 

60-7994 PS 1 732.07 J 96o 
A new text (accompanied by explanatory and 
bibliographical footnotes and biographical glossary) 
recognizing variations in the periodical, lecture, and 
book versions. Earlier editions are no. 896-897 in 
the 1960 Guide. 

285. Holloway, Jean. Hamlin Garland, a biog- 
raphy. Austin, University of Texas Press 

[1960] 346 p. illus. 59-8124 PSi733.H6 

"Chronology of major Garland publications": p. 

[3 M] -332. Bibliography: p. 333-334. 
Presents in chronological sequence the genesis 

and composition of Garland's various works and 

the critical reactions of his contemporaries. 

286. LAFCADIO HEARN, 1850-1904 
No. 945 in 1960 Guide. 

287. Children of the levee. Edited by O. W. 
Frost. Introduction by John Ball. [Lexing- 
ton] University of Kentucky Press [1957] in p. 
illus 57-5834 F499.C 5 H39 

Newspaper sketches of Negro life on the Ohio 
River from the Cincinnati Enquirer and Cincinnati 
Commercial during the period 1874-77. 

288. Mordell, Albert. Discoveries: essays on Laf- 
cadio Hearn. [Tokyo] Orient/ West [1964] 

240 p. 64-47174 PSi9i8.M6 

Bibliographical footnotes. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 25 

289. Stevenson, Elizabeth. Lafcadio Hearn. New 
York, Macmillan, 1961. xvi, 362 p. 

61-10337 PSi9i8.S75 
A biography. 

290. Yu, Beongcheon. An ape of gods; the art 
and thought of Lafcadio Hearn. Detroit, 

Wayne State University Press, 1964. 346 p. 

64-10090 PSi9i8.Y8 

Bibliographical notes: p. [2951324. Bibliogra- 
phy: p. [3251-336. 

291. ROBERT HERRICK, 1868-1938 
No. 956 in 1960 Guide. 

292. Nevius, Blake. Robert Herrick; the develop- 
ment of a novelist. Berkeley, University of 

California Press, 1962. xvi, 364 p. 

6217569 PSi923.N4 

Bibliographical notes: p. [3451-351. Bibliogra- 
phy: p. [3521-357. 

293. EDGAR WATSON HOWE, 1853-1937 
No. 959 in 1960 Guide. 

294. The story of a country town. Edited by 
Claude M. Simpson. Cambridge, Belknap 

Press of Harvard University Press, 1961. xxxi, 
347 p. (The John Harvard library) 

61-13736 PZ3.H8364S 12 

Bibliography: p. xxxi. 

The text is that of the 1884 edition published by 
J. R Osgood & Company of Boston. The editor 
has corrected misprints, normalized contractions, 
and made slight changes in punctuation. Other 
editions are no. 960-963 in the 1960 Guide. 

295. WILLIAM DEAN HO WELLS, 1837-1920 
No. 964 in 1960 Guide. 

296. Complete plays. [Edited, with an introduc- 
tion, byl Walter J. Meserve. Under the gen- 
eral editorship of William M. Gibson and George 
Arms. [New York] New York University Press, 
1960. xxxiii, 649 p. 59-15239 PS2026.Ai 1960 

Bibliography: p. 641643. 

"With the exception of the unpublished plays, 
which are printed here in what seems the most 
readable form, the texts of the plays in this volume 
are taken from the last American versions which 
Ho wells had an opportunity to revise." Intro- 
duction. 

297. Criticism and fiction, and other essays. 
Edited, with introductions and notes, by 

Clara Marburg Kirk and Rudolf Kirk. [New 



26 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



York] New York University Press, 1959. xix, 
413 p. 596248 PN345I.H6 

Bibliographical notes: p. 385-395. 

Reprints the 1891 edition of Criticism and Fic- 
tion, no. 977 in the 1960 Guide, together with essays 
in criticism from numerous other sources. 

298. Brooks, Van Wyck. Howells, his life and 
world. New York, Dutton, 1959. 296 p. 

illus. 59-10782 PS2033-B7 

Bibliographical footnotes. 
An impressionistic study. 

299. Cady, Edwin H. The road to realism; the 
early years, 1837-1885, of William Dean 

Howells. [Syracuse] Syracuse University Press 
[1956] 283 p. 56-11892 PS2033.C25 

"Bibliographical notes": p. 247276. 

A study of Howells' emergence as an artist. 

300. Cady, Edwin H. The realist at war; the ma- 
ture years, 1885-1920, of William Dean 

Howells. [Syracuse] Syracuse University Press 
[1958] 299 p. 58-13106 PS2033.C23 

"Bibliographical notes": p. 273292. 

Concentrates on Howells' achievements and sig- 
nificance. 

301. Eble, Kenneth E., ed. Howells; a century of 
criticism. Dallas, Southern Methodist Uni- 
versity Press [1962] 247 p. 

62-13275 PS2034.E2 
Bibliographical notes at the ends of articles. 
A collection of articles showing trends in the 
critical appraisal of Howells' work since 1860. 

302. Kirk, Clara M. W. D. Howells and art in his 
time. New Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers Uni- 
versity Press [1965] xvi, 336 p. illus. 

6424736 PS2O33.K49 
Bibliographical notes at the ends of chapters. 
Analysis of the interrelationship between Howells' 

views on social questions and his attitudes toward 

the various art theories of his day. 

303. Kirk, Clara M. W. D. Howells, Traveler 
from Altruria, 1889-1894. New Brunswick, 

N. J., Rutgers University Press [1962] 148 p. 
illus. 62-13762 PS2025/T72K5 

Bibliographical notes at the ends of chapters. 

A study of Howells' social and religious attitudes 
during the period of his association with the 
Church of the Carpenter in Boston. 

304. HENRY JAMES, 1843-1916 
No. 986 in 1960 Guide. 



305. Confidence, 1880. Now first edited from the 
manuscript. With notes, introduction, and 

bibliography by Herbert Ruhm. With contempo- 
rary reviews, and excerpts from the notebooks. 
New York, Grosset & Dunlap [1962] 238 p. 
(The Universal library, ULi46) 

62-52943 PZ3.j234Co 5 

The text of James' fifth novel is taken from one 
of the two complete surviving manuscripts of his 
novels. 

306. The ambassadors: an authoritative text, the 
author on the novel, criticism. Edited by 

S. P. Rosenbaum. New York, Norton [1963, 
C i964] 486 p. (Norton critical editions) 

63-8035 PZ3.j234Amb 17 

"Bibliographies": p. 485486. 

The text is taken from Novels and Tales, New 
York edition, no. 1004 in the 1960 Guide. Rosen- 
baum contributes textual notes and an essay, "Edi- 
tions and Revisions." Other editions of The Am- 
bassadors are no. 998999 in the 1960 Guide. 

307. The complete tales of Henry James. Edited, 
with an introduction, by Leon Edel. Phila- 
delphia, Lippincott [196265, C i964] 12 v. 

6211335 PZ3.J234C1 2 

Reproduces the first texts to be published in book 
form. 

308. The house of fiction, essays on the novel. 
Edited, with an introduction, by Leon Edel. 

London, R. Hart-Davis, 1957. 286 p. 

58-1584 PN3499.J28 
Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 281. 

309. Literary reviews and essays, on American, 
English, and French literature. Edited by 

Albert Mordell. New York, Twayne Publishers 
["1957] 409 p. 58-249 PS2I20.L5 1957 

Bibliographical notes: p. 354402. 

Contains criticism by James never collected 
before. 

310. Parisian sketches; letters to the New York 
tribune, 1875-1876. Edited, with an intro- 
duction, by Leon Edel and Use Dusoir Lind. [New 
York] New York University Press, 1957. xxxvii, 
262 p. 57-79*4 DC 735-J3 

311. Anderson, Quentin. The American Henry 
James. New Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers Uni- 
versity Press, 1957. 369 p. 

57-6220 PS2I24.A43 1957 
Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 
[3551-36I. 



An analysis of James' works as a reflection of his 
father's philosophy. 

312. Cargill, Oscar. The novels of Henry James. 
New York, Macmillan, 1961. xviii, 505 p. 

617434 PS2I24.C25 

Bibliographical notes at the ends of chapters. 

Reviews "the best that has been said and written" 
about James' major fiction and contributes addi- 
tional analysis. 

313. Crews, Frederick C. The tragedy of man- 
ners; moral drama in the later novels of 

Henry James. New Haven, Yale University Press, 
1957. 114 p. (Yale University. Undergraduate 
prize essays, v. 10) 5710151 PS2I24.C7 

314. Edel, Leon. Henry James. Philadelphia, 
Lippincott [195362] 3 v. illus. 

53-5421 PS2I23.E33 
Bibliographical notes at end of each chapter. 
CONTENTS. [i] The untried years, 1843-1870. 
[2] The conquest of London, 18701881. [3] 
The middle years, 18821895. 

Volume i is no. 1020 in the 1960 Guide. The 
author has continued the story of James' life and 
times. Two additional volumes are in preparation. 

315. Geismar, Maxwell D. Henry James and the 
Jacobites. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1963. 

463 p. 63-10550 PS2I23.G4 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A vigorously adverse criticism of James and his 
admirers. 

316. Holland, Laurence B. The expense of vision, 
essays on the craft of Henry James. Prince- 
ton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 1964. 414 p. 

63-18644 PS2I24.H64 
Bibliographical footnotes. 

Formal analysis of the interaction among James, 
his characters, and his audience. 

317. Krook, Dorothea. The ordeal of conscious- 
ness in Henry James. Cambridge [Eng.] 

University Press, 1962. 422 p. 

62-5617 PS2I24.K7 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A "collection of purely elucidatory studies of a 
selected number of James's works, connected by the 
theme of 'being and seeing' the exploration and 
definition of consciousness in James's particular 
meaning of the term." 

318. Lebowitz, Naomi. The imagination of lov- 
ing; Henry James's legacy to the novel. De- 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 27 

troit, Wayne State University Press, 1965. 183 p. 

6514595 PS2I28.L4 

Bibliographical notes: p. 161176. Bibliography: 
p. 177180. 

319. Stone, Edward. The battle and the books: 
some aspects of Henry James. Athens, Ohio 
University Press [1964] 234 p. 

64-22886 PS2I24.S79 
Bibliographical notes: p. [221] 228. 
Reviews the critical battles over James and ex- 
amines selected works by him and his contempor- 



320. Vaid, Krishna B. Technique in the tales of 
Henry James. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard 

University Press, 1964. 285 p. 

6422723 PS2I24.V3 1964 
Bibliographical notes: p. 267281. 

321. Wright, Walter F. The madness of art, a 
study of Henry James. Lincoln, University 

of Nebraska Press [1962] 269 p. 

62-14665 PS2I42.W7 

Bibliographical footnotes. Bibliography: p. 255 
266. 

Presents a theory of the creative process in James' 
work and analyzes the ways in which ideas take 
form in the novels. 



322. SARAH ORNE JEWETT, 1849-1909 
No. 1023 in 1960 Guide. 

323. Letters. Edited, with an introduction and 
notes, by Richard Gary. Waterville, Me., 

Colby College Press, 1956. 117 p. illus. 

57181 PS2I33.A3 1956 

"Books by Sarah Orne Jewett": p. [16] Biblio- 
graphical footnotes. 

Ninety-four letters; more than half appear in 
print for the first time. 

324. The world of Dunnett Landing, a Sarah Orne 
Jewett collection. Edited by David Bonnell 

Green. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press 
[1962] 420 p. (A Bison book, 66147) 

A62-8703 PZ3.J55Wo 

The 1896 edition of The Country of the Pointed 
Firs (no. 1029 in the 1960 Guide) is reprinted, to- 
gether with four additional sketches. The second 
part of the book contains critical essays about Miss 
Jewett by Martha H. Shackford, Mary Ellen Chase, 
Hyatt H. Waggoner, Warner Berthhoff, and David 
B. Green. 



28 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



325. JACK (JOHN GRIFFITH) LONDON, 

1876-1916 

No. 1048 in 1960 Guide. 

326. Stories of Hawaii. Edited by A. Grove Day. 
New York, Appleton-Century [1965] 282 p. 

65-11682 



327. Letters from Jack London, containing an un- 
published correspondence between London 

and Sinclair Lewis. Edited by King Hendricks and 
Irving Shepard. New York, Odyssey Press [1965] 
502 p. illus. 6522039 1*83523.046253 

Selections from London's voluminous correspond- 
ence. 

328. O'Connor, Richard. Jack London, a biogra- 
phy. Boston, Little, Brown [1964] 430 p. 

64-21486 PS3523.O46Z84 

Bibliography: p. [411] 414. Bibliographical 
notes: p. [415] 419. 



329. JOHN MUIR, 1838-1914 
No. 1072 in 1960 Guide. 

330. Smith, Herbert F. John Muir. New York, 
Twayne Publishers [1965] 158 p. (Twayne's 

United States authors series, 73) 

6420723 PS2447-M5Z85 

Bibliographical notes: p. 148151. Bibliography: 
p. 152-153- 



331. (BENJAMIN) FRANK(LIN) NORRIS, 

18701902 

No. 1089 in 1960 Guide. 

332. Letters. Edited by Franklin Walker. San 
Francisco, Book Club of California, 1956. 

98 p. 56-31 56 PS2473.A45 1956 

333. Literary criticism. Edited by Donald Pizer. 
Austin, University of Texas Press [1964] 

xxiv, 247 p. 63-17618 PN99.U5N6 

"Bibliographical note and Checklist of Norris' 
literary criticism": p. [2333240. 

A thematic survey, with interpretive introduc- 
tions, covering the full range of Norris' critical 
writings. 



334. French, Warren G. Frank Norris. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1962] 160 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 25) 

6216820 PS2473.F7 

Bibliographical footnotes: p. 142147. Bibliogra- 
phy: p. 148-154. 

335. WILLIAM SYDNEY PORTER ("O. 

HENRY"), 1862-1910 



No. mi in 1960 Guide. 



336. 



Current-Garcia, Eugene. O. Henry (William 
Sydney Porter). New York, Twayne Pub- 
lishers [1965] 192 p. (Twayne's United States 
authors series, 77) 6512997 PS2649-P5Z64 

Bibliographical notes: p. 167181. Bibliography: 
p. 182-187. 

Analyzes representative stories and summarizes 
the growth and decline of O. Henry's reputation. 

337. Langford, Gerald. Alias O. Henry; a biog- 
raphy of William Sydney Porter. New York, 

Macmillan, 1957. xix, 294 p. 

578270 PS2649-P5Z7I26 
Bibliographical notes: p. 259286. 
Concentrates on O. Henry's life. 

338. OWEN WISTER, 1860-1938 
No. 1145 in 1960 Guide. 

339. Owen Wister out west: his journals and let- 
ters. Edited by Fanny Kemble Wister. 

[Chicago] University of Chicago Press [1958] 
xix, 269 p. illus. 589609 PS3346.A3 

"A Wister bibliography": p. 262264. 

A biographical introduction and the previously 
unpublished western memoirs provide a personal 
background to the writing of The Virginian (no. 
11461148 in the 1960 Guide). 

340. CONSTANCE FENIMORE WOOLSON, 

18401894 

No. 1 149 in 1960 Guide. 

341. Moore, Rayburn S. Constance Fenimore 
Woolson. New York, Twayne Publishers 

[1963] 173 p. (Twayne's United States authors 
series, 34) 62-19478 PS3363-M6 

Bibliographical footnotes: p. 143-162. Bibliog- 
raphy: p. 163165. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 29 



E. The First World War 
and the Great Depression (1915-1939) 



342. SAMUEL HOPKINS ADAMS, 1871-1958 
No. 1155 in 1960 Guide. 

343. Tenderloin. New York, Random House 

[ Cl 959] 37 2 P- 59-57 02 

A novel set in New York City in the 1890'$. 

344. CONRAD POTTER AIKEN, 1889- 
No. 1161 in 1960 Guide. 

345. Mr. Arcularis, a play. Cambridge, Harvard 
University Press, 1957. 83 p. 

57-13535 PS35oi.I 5 M 5 

346. Sheepfold Hill, fifteen poems. New York, 
Sagamore Press [1958] 62 p. 

58-9145 PS350I.I5S45 

347. A reviewer's ABC; collected criticism of Con- 
rad Aiken from 1916 to the present. Intro- 

duced by Rufus A. Blanshard. [New York] Meri- 
dian Books [1958] 414 p. (Greenwich editions) 

58-12328 PR99.A46 

"Checklist of Conrad Aiken's critical writings": 
P- [395]-48. 

Selections and excerpts representing the critical 
writing that Aiken wished to preserve. 

348. Collected short stories. Preface by Mark 
Schorer. Cleveland, World Pub. Co. [1960] 

566 p. 60-10537 PZ3.A29i2Ck 

349. The morning song of Lord Zero, poems old 
and new. New York, Oxford University 

Press, 1963. 130 p. 63-11915 



350. Collected novels: Blue voyage, Great circle, 
King Coffin, A heart for the gods of Mexico 
[and] Conversation. Introduction by R. P. Black- 
mur. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston [1964] 
575 p. 63-20431 



351. Hoffman, Frederick J. Conrad Aiken. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1962] 172 p. 
(Twayne's United States authors series, 17) 

62-13671 PS350I.I5Z68 

Bibliographical notes: p. 156163. Bibliography: 
p. 164-168. 



352. Martin, Jay. Conrad Aiken: a life of his art. 
Princeton, N. J., Princeton University Press, 

1962. 280 p. 62-11958 PS350I.I5Z75 

Bibliographical notes: p. 251258. 

353. MAXWELL ANDERSON, 1888-1959 
No. 1172 in 1960 Guide. 

354. Bailey, Mabel D. Maxwell Anderson; the 
playwright as prophet. London, New York, 

Abelard-Schuman [1957] 200 p. 

576380 PS350I.N256Z57 1957 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The first full-length evaluation of Anderson, 
structured with reference to his dramatic themes. 



355. SHERWOOD ANDERSON, 1876-1941 
No. 1178 in 1960 Guide. 

356. Winesburg, Ohio. Introduction by Malcolm 
Cowley. [New ed.] New York, Viking 

Press, 1960. 247 p. 6010867 PZ3-A55Win 7 
The first new trade edition of this book of short 
stories since its original publication in 1919 (no. 
1179 in the 1960 Guide). 

357. Short stories. Edited and with an introduc- 
tion by Maxwell Geismar. New York, Hill 

& Wang [1962] xxiii, 289 p. (American century 
series, AC52) 6215213 PZ3.A55SJ 

Bibliography: p. [291]. 

Stories first published in earlier collections such 
as The Triumph of the Egg (no. 1181 in the 1960 
Guide). 

358. Burbank, Rex J. Sherwood Anderson. New 
York, Twayne [1964] 159 p. (Twayne's 

United States authors series, 65) 

6420715 PS35OI.N4Z55 

Bibliographical notes: p. 144147. Bibliography: 
p. 148152. 

359. SAMUEL NATHANIEL BEHRMAN, 

1893- 

No. 1204 in 1960 Guide. 



30 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



360. The cold wind and the warm, a play. Sug- 
gested by his New Yorker series and book, 

The Worcester account. New York, Random 
House [1959] 142 p. ill us. (A Random House 
play) 59-94 8 4 PS3503.E37C6 

361. Lord Pengo; a comedy in three acts. Sug- 
gested by his New Yorker series, The days 

of Duveen. New York, Random House [1963] 
132 p. illus. 6314141 PS3503.E37L6 

362. But for whom Charlie. New York, Random 
House [1964] 150 p. 

64-17944 PS3503.E37B8 
A play in three acts. 

363. The suspended drawing room. New York, 
Stein & Day [1965] 253 p. 

65-22989 PS3503.E37S8 
Essays. 

364. STEPHEN VINCENT BENET, 1898-1943 
No. 1222 in 1960 Guide. 

365. Selected poetry and prose; edited, with an 
introduction, by Basil Davenport. New York, 

Rinehart [1960] 336 p. (Rinehart editions, 100) 
605174 PS35O3.E5325A6 1960 
Bibliography: p. xiv. 

366. Selected letters. Edited by Charles A. Fen- 
ton. New Haven, Yale University Press, 

1960. 436 p. 6011231 PS35O3.E5325Z54 

367. Fenton, Charles A. Stephen Vincent Benet; 
the life and times of an American man of 

letters, 1898-1943. New Haven, Yale University 
Press, 1958. xv, 436 p. illus. 

58-11252 PS3503. 5325262 
Bibliographical notes: p. 375409. 

368. KAY BOYLE, 1903- 
No. 1242 in 1960 Guide. 

369. Generation without farewell. New York, 
Knopf, 1960 [ C i959] 300 p. 

59-11822 PZ3.B69796Gc 

A novel about occupied Germany after World 
War II. 

370. Collected poems. New York, Knopf, 1962. 
105 p. 6214759 PS3503.C9357Ai7 1962 

Poems from the periods 195461 and 192643. 



372. Imperial woman, a novel. New York, J. 
Day Co. ['1956] 376 p. 

55 TI 37 



373. Letter from Peking, a novel. New York, 
J. Day Co. [1957] 252 p. 

57-9389 PZ 3 .B8 55 5Le 

374. Command the morning, a novel. New York, 
J. Day Co. [1959] 317 p. 

59-7169 



375. Fourteen stories. New York, John Day Co. 
[1961] 250 p. 6112716 



376. A bridge for passing. New York, John Day 
Co. [1962] 256 p. 

6210937 PS353-Ui98Z53 1962 
The filming in Japan of her novel The Big Wave 
(1948) provides a basis for Miss Buck's comments 
on contemporary Japanese life. 

377. The living reed, a novel. New York, John 
Day Co. [1963] 478 p. 

63-10220 



378. Doyle, Paul A. Pearl S. Buck. New York, 
Twayne Publishers [1965] 175 p. (Twayne's 

United States authors series, 85) 

65-18904 PS3503.Ui98Z64 
Bibliographical notes: p. 157168. Bibliography: 
p. 169170. 

379. JAMES BRANCH CABELL, 1897-1958 
No. 1261 in 1960 Guide. 

380. Between friends; letters of James Branch 
Cabell and others. Edited by Padraic Colum 

and Margaret Freeman Cabell. With an introduc- 
tion by Carl Van Vechten. New York, Harcourt, 
Brace & World [1962] xvi, 304 p. 

6010935 PS355-Ai53Z53 

"Books by James Branch Cabell": p. 291292. 

Correspondence between Cabell and various liter- 
ary figures, including Sinclair Lewis, F. Scott Fitz- 
gerald, and Hugh Walpole. 

381. Davis, Joe L. James Branch Cabell. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1962] 174 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 21) 

6216816 PS35O5.Ai53Z62 
Bibliographical notes: p. 152161. Bibliography: 
p. 162166. 



371. PEARL SYDENSTRICKER BUCK, 1892- 
No. 1252 in 1960 Guide. 



382. ERSKINE CALDWELL, 1903- 
No. 1270 in 1960 Guide. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 3! 



383. Gulf coast stories. Boston, Little, Brown 
[1956] 248 p. 56-10634 



384. Men and women; twenty-two stories selected 

and with an introduction by Carvel Collins. 

Boston, Little, Brown [1961] 313 p. 

61-12810 



385. Around about America. Drawings by Vir- 
ginia M. Caldwell. New York, Farrar, 

Straus [1964] 224 p. 6416620 Ei69.Ci6 

Observations and impressions recorded during a 
journey from St. Johnsbury, Vt., to Rheem Valley, 
Calif. 

386. WILLA SIBERT GATHER, 1873-1947 
No. 1276 in 1960 Guide. 

387. Willa Gather in Europe; her own story of the 
first journey. With an introduction and 

incidental notes by George N. Kates. New York, 
Knopf, 1956. 178 p. 5610906 PS3505.A87Z53 
Essays written for newspaper publication during 
the author's 1902 European tour. 

388. April twilights (1903); poems. Edited, with 
an introduction, by Bernice Slote. Lincoln, 

University of Nebraska Press [1962] xxxxviii, 
72 p. 62-8899 PS3505.A87A8 1962 

Bibliographical notes: p. 53-58. Bibliography: 
p. 59-72. 

The origins of Willa Gather's first book are dis- 
cussed in the introduction, which also examines her 
poems in relationship to her prose. The first-edition 
text, published in Boston by Richard G. Badger, is 
reprinted. 

389. Willa Gather's collected short fiction, 1892 
1912. Introduction by Mildred R. Bennett. 

Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press [1965] 
xli, 594 p. 65-10547 PZ3.C2858Wi 

Bibliography: p. 593594. 

CONTENTS. The Bohemian girl. The troll gar- 
den. On the Divide. Appendix: Pseudonymous 
stories. 

Forty-four early stories, only three of which were 
included by the author in the "Library Edition" of 
her work (no. 1277 in the 1960 Guide). 

390. Bennett, Mildred R. The world of Willa 
Gather. New ed. with notes and index. 

Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1961. 285 
p. illus. (A Bison book, BB 1 12) 

61-7235 PS3505.A87Z58 1961 
A revised edition of no. 1279 in the 1960 Guide. 



391. Bloom, Edward A., and Lillian D. Bloom. 
Willa Gather's gift of sympathy. With a 

preface by Harry T. Moore. Carbondale, Southern 
Illinois University Press [1962] 260 p. (Cross- 
currents: modern critiques) 

62-7231 PS3505.A87Z583 

The authors draw on the full Gather canon in 
examining her major themes: the frontier spirit, 
materialistic threats to that spirit, and the nature of 
the artist. Death Comes for the Archbishop re- 
ceives special attention. 

392. Randall, John H. The landscape and the 
looking glass; Willa Gather's search for value. 

Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1960. 425 p. illus. 

60-6225 PS3505.A87Z78 

Bibliographical notes: p. 381410. Bibliography: 
p. 413-415. 

Applying techniques associated with the New 
Criticism, Randall analyzes theme, structure, tone, 
and imagery in Willa Gather's work in relation to 
the cultural influences of her time. 



393. MARY ELLEN CHASE, 1887- 
No. 1284 in 1960 Guide. 

394. The edge of darkness. New York, Norton 
[i957] 2 35 P- 57- Io6 37 PZ3-C39oiEd 

A novel. 

395. The lovely ambition, a novel. New York, 
Norton [1960] 288 p. 

605843 



396. A journey to Boston, a novel. New York, 
Norton [1965] 114 p. 

64-23875 



397. Westbrook, Perry D. Mary Ellen Chase. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1965] 176 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 86) 

65-18905 PS3505.H48Z96 
Bibliographical notes: p. 163165. Bibliography: 
p. 166171. 

398. JAMES GOULD COZZENS, 1903- 
No. 1298 in 1960 Guide. 

399. By love possessed. New York, Harcourt, 
Brace [1957] 570 p. 

57-10062 
A novel. 



32 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



400. Children and others. New York, Harcourt, 
Brace & World [1964] 343 p. 

64-22665 PZ3.C83983Ch 
Short stories. 

401. Bracher, Frederick G. The novels of James 
Gould Cozzens. New York, Harcourt, 

Brace [1959] 306 p. 5910245 PS35O5.O99Z57 
Bibliographical notes: p. 283292. Bibliography: 

p. 293-297. 
Evaluates Cozzens' achievement as a novelist with 

reference to his style, form, and point of view. 



402. 



403. 



HART CRANE, 1899-1932 
No. 1303 in 1960 Guide. 



Quinn, Vincent G. Hart Crane. New York, 
Twayne Publishers [1963] 141 p. (Twayne's 
United States authors series, 35) 

6310952 PS3505-R272Z78 
Bibliographical notes: p. 129134. Bibliography: 
p. 135-138- 

A survey of the themes of Crane's major poems, 
his attitudes toward poetry, and the opinions of his 
principal critics. 

404. EDWARD ESTLIN CUMMINGS, 1894- 

1962 

No. 1309 in 1960 Guide. 

405. 95 poems. New York, Harcourt, Brace 
[1958] 95 p. 

58-10909 PS3505.U334N5 1958 

406. 73 poems. New York, Harcourt, Brace & 
World [1963] i v. (unpaged) 

63-20271 PS3505.U334S4 

407. A selection of poems. With an introduction 
by Horace Gregory. New York, Harcourt, 

Brace & World [1965] xiv, 194 p. (A Harvest 
book) 6524992 PS3505-U334Ai7 1965 

408. E. E. Cummings: a miscellany revised. 
Edited, with an introduction and notes, by 

George J. Firmage. Foreword by the author. New 
York, October House [1965] 335 p. illus. 

6413163 PS35O5.U334Ai6 1965 

A collection of short pieces originally published in 

a 1958 limited edition, reprinted with corrections 

and additions, including previously unpublished 

line drawings by the author. 

409. Baum, Stanley V., ed. 'E<m: e e c; E. E. 
Cummings and the critics. East Lansing, 



Michigan State University Press [1962] 220 p. 

61-13699 PS3505.U334Z56 

Bibliography: p. 195203. 

A collection of essays by various writers, includ- 
ing Edmund Wilson, R. P. Blackmur, Karl Sha- 
piro, and Randall Jarrell, designed to indicate the 
diversity of critical opinion concerning Cummings' 
work. 

410. Friedman, Norman. E. E. Cummings; the 
growth of a writer. With a preface by 

Harry T. Moore. Carbondale, Southern Illinois 
University Press [1964] 193 p. (Crosscurrents: 
modern critiques) 6411165 PS3505-U334Z66 
Bibliography: p. [187]-: 88. 

411. Norman, Charles. E. E. Cummings, the 
magic-maker. [Rev. ed.] New York, 

Duell, Sloan & Pearce [1964] 246 p. 

64-12438 PS3505.U334Z8 1964 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

This revised and somewhat abridged version of 
Norman's 1958 biography conveys a profound affec- 
tion for and knowledge of Cummings as writer and 
painter. 

412. HAROLD LENOIR DAVIS, 1896-1960 
No. 1314 in 1960 Guide. 

413. The distant music. New York, Morrow, 
1957. 311 p. 57-54 2 4 PZ3.D29355Di 

A novel. 

414. Kettle of fire. New York, Morrow, 1959. 
189 p. 5911706 F88i.2.D3 

History, nature, and personal reminiscence are 
combined in a collection of essays on Oregon and 
the Northwest. 

415. HILDA DOOLITTLE, 1886-1961 
No. 1319 in 1960 Guide. 

416. Selected poems. New York, Grove Press 
[1957] 128 p. 

57-8646 PS3507.O726Ai7 1957 



417. Bid me to live, a madrigal. New York, 
Grove Press [1960] 184 p. 

60-6345 PZ 4 .D688Bi 

418. Helen in Egypt. Introduction by Horace 
Gregory. New York, Grove Press [1961] 

315 p. 6112764 

A poem. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 33 



419. Swann, Thomas B. The classical world of 
H. D. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 

1962. 217 p. 62-16782 PS3507.O726Z87 

Bibliographical notes: p. 195199. Bibliography: 

p. 201206. 

Investigates H. D.'s life and work in relation to 

her classical background, settings, and characters. 

420. JOHN RODERIGO DOS PASSOS, 1896- 
No. 1325 in 1960 Guide. 

421. The great days. New York, Sagamore Press 
[1958] 312 p. 58-6966 PZ3.D74Gt 

A novel. 

422. Midcentury. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin, 
1961. 496 p. 615359 PZ3.D74Mi 

A novel. 

423. Occasions and protests. [Chicago] H. Reg- 
nery Co., 1964. 323 p. 

64-7914 PS3507.O743O25 
Essays and observations on the American socio- 
political situation between 1936 and 1964. 

424. Wrenn, John H. John Dos Passes. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1962, C i96i] 208 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 9) 

61-15669 PS3507.O743Z93 1962 
Bibliographical notes: p. 188197. Bibliography: 
p. 198205. 

425. THEODORE DREISER, 1871-1945 
No. 1333 in 1960 Guide. 

426. Sister Carrie. Edited, with an introduction, 
by Claude Simpson. Boston, Houghton Mif- 
flin [1959] xxi, 418 p. (Riverside editions, A36) 

59-1819 PZ3.D8i4S 31 

A contents page has been added to the text of the 
first edition (no. 1334 in the 1960 Guide) and 
minor misprints have been corrected. 

427. Letters of Theodore Dreiser: a selection. 
Edited, with preface and notes, by Robert H. 

Elias. Consulting editors: Sculley Bradley and 
Robert E. Spiller. Philadelphia, University of Penn- 
sylvania Press [1959] 3V. (1067 p.) illus. 

58-8203 PS3507.R55Z54 

Selects nearly 600 letters, written between 1897 
and 1945, primarily from the Dreiser collection in 
the University of Pennsylvania Library. The let- 
ters chosen "should contribute to an understanding 
in particular of Dreiser as writer that is, to 
Dreiser as man thinking." 



428. Shapiro, Charles. Theodore Dreiser: our 
bitter patriot. With a preface by Harry T. 

Moore. Carbondale, Southern Illinois University 
Press [1962] xv, 137 p. (Crosscurrents: modern 
critiques) 62-16696 PS35O7.R55Z83 

Bibliographical notes: p. [1241129. 

Examines Dreiser's sprawling novels of hope and 
failure in the quest for the American dream. 

429. Swanberg, W.A. Dreiser. New York, 
Scribner [1965] xvii, 614 p. illus. 

65-13661 PS3507.R55Z84 

Bibliographical notes: p. 535581. 

A comprehensive biography of "one of the most 
incredible of human beings, a man whose enormous 
gifts warred endlessly with grievous flaws." 

430. RICHARD EBERHART, 1904- 
No. 1350 in 1960 Guide. 

431. Great praises. New York, Oxford University 
Press, 1957. 72 p. 

57-2572 PS3509.B 4 56G7 
Poems. 

432. Collected poems, 19301960, including 51 
new poems. New York, Oxford University 

Press, 1960. 228 p. 

6014636 PS35O9.B456A6 1960 

433. Collected verse plays. Chapel Hill, Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Press [1962] 167 p. 

6216088 PS35O9.B456Ai9 1962 



434. The quarry, new poems. New York, Oxford 
University Press, 1964. 114 p. 

64-15009 PS3509.B456Q3 

435. Selected poems, 19301965. [New York] 
New Directions [1965] 115 p. (A New Di- 

rections paperbook, NDPi98) 

6517453 PS35O9.B456A6 1965 

436. THOMAS STEARNS ELIOT, 1888-1965 
No. 1357 in 1960 Guide. 

437. On poetry and poets. New York, Farrar, 
Straus & Cudahy, 1957. 308 p. 

57-12154 PN5ii.E435 

A collection of 16 essays written during the 
period 192656. Eliot's Selected Essays is no. 1358 
in the 1960 Guide. 

438. The elder statesman, a play. New York, 
Farrar, Straus & Cudahy [1959] 134 p. 

59-6590 PS3509.L43E4 



34 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



439- Collected plays. London, Faber & Faber 
[1962] 355 p. 

633627 PS35O9-L43Ai9 1962 
CONTENTS. Murder in the cathedral. The fam- 
ily reunion. The cocktail party. The confidential 
clerk. The elder statesman. 

440. Collected poems, 19091962. New York, 
Harcourt, Brace & World [1963] 221 p. 

6321424 PS3509.L43Ai7 1963 

441. Knowledge and experience in the philosophy 
of F. H. Bradley. New York, Farrar, Straus 

[1964] 216 p. 6312865 Bi6i8.B74E48 1964 
Bibliographical notes: p. 170176. Bibliography: 
p. 208213. 

Originally submitted to Harvard University in 
1916 as a doctoral dissertation entitled Experience 
and the Objects of Knowledge in the Philosophy of 
F. H. Bradley. Eliot did not complete the require- 
ments for a doctor's degree, although his dissertation 
was officially approved. Two 1916 essays on Leib- 
niz are included in this volume. 

442. To criticize the critic, and other writings. 
New York, Farrar, Straus & Giroux [1965] 

188 p. 65-25139 PS3509-L43T6 

CONTENTS. To criticize the critic. From Poe to 
Valery. American literature and the American 
language. The aims of education. What Dante 
means to me. The literature of politics. The 
classics and the man of letters Ezra Pound: his 
metric and poetry. Reflections on Vers libre. 

443. Howarth, Herbert. Notes on some figures 
behind T. S. Eliot. Boston, Houghton Mif- 

flin, 1964. 396 p. 62-8139 PS3509.L43Z684 

Bibliographical notes: p. [3431386. 

444. Jones, Genesius. Approach to the purpose; 
a study of the poetry of T. S. Eliot. New 

York, Barnes & Noble [1965, C i964] 351 p. 

65-3788 PS3509.L43Z686 1965 
Bibliography: p. 342346. 

445. Kenner, Hugh. The invisible poet: T. S. 
Eliot. New York, McDowell, Obolensky 

[1959] 346 p. 597118 PS3509.L43Z69 

Contends that "opinion concerning the most in- 
fluential man of letters of the twentieth century has 
not freed itself from a cloud of unknowing. He is 
the Invisible Poet in an age of systematized literary 
scrutiny, much of it directed at him." 

446. Kenner, Hugh, ed. T. S. Eliot; a collection 
of critical essays. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 



Prentice-Hall [1962] 210 p. (A Spectrum book: 
Twentieth century views, S TC 2) 

629290 1*83509^4376913 

447. Smith, Carol H. T. S. Eliot's dramatic theory 
and practice, from Sweeney Agonistes to The 

elder statesman. Princeton, N. J., Princeton Uni- 
versity Press, 1963. 251 p. 

63-7161 PS3509.L43Z867 
Bibliography: p. 241246. 

448. Thompson, Eric. T. S. Eliot, the metaphysi- 
cal perspective. With a preface by Harry T. 

Moore. Carbondale, Southern Illinois University 
Press [1963] 186 p. (Crosscurrents: modern 
critiques) 62-16697 PS3509.L43Z877 

Bibliographical notes: p. [161] 180. 

An exploration of Eliot's doctoral dissertation on 
F. H. Bradley (no. 441 above), tracing Bradley's 
influence on Eliot's poetry. 

449. JAMES THOMAS FARRELL, 1904- 
No. 1372 in 1960 Guide. 

450. A dangerous woman, and other stories. New 
York, Vanguard Press [1957] 160 p. 

5712256 



451. The silence of history. Garden City, N. Y., 
Doubleday, 1963. 372 p. 

6112518 PZ3-F2465SJ 
A novel. 

452. What time collects. Garden City, N. Y., 
Doubleday, 1964. 421 p. 

64-11695 PZ3.F2465Wf 
A novel. 

453. Selected essays. Edited by Luna Wolf. With 
an introduction by Don M. Wolfe. New 

York, McGraw-Hill [1964] xxiii, 199 p. 

6416289 PS35ii.A738Ai6 1964 
Bibliographical footnotes. 

454. The collected poems of James T. Farrell. 
New York, Fleet Pub. Corp. [1965] 82 p. 

6516314 PS35ii.A738Ai7 1965 



455. WILLIAM FAULKNER, 1897-1962 
No. 1379 in 1960 Guide. 

456. As I lay dying. [New ed.] New York, 
Random House [1964, C i957] 250 p. 

6412609 PZ3.F272As 3 
Contains corrections based on a collation of the 



first edition (no. 1384 in the 1960 Guide) with 
Faulkner's original manuscript and typescript. 

457. The town. New York, Random House 
[ J 957] 37 1 P- 57-6656 PZ3.F272To 

The second volume of the "Snopes" trilogy. 

458. New Orleans sketches. Introduction by 
Carvel Collins. New Brunswick, N. J., Rut- 
gers University Press, 1958. 223 p. 

57-12807 PZ3.F272Ne 

Sixteen short pieces first published in 1925 in the 
New Orleans Times-Picayune and a group of 
sketches printed during the same year in a New 
Orleans literary magazine, The Double Dealer. 

459. The mansion. New York, Random House 
[1959] 436 p. 5910811 P 

The third volume of the "Snopes" trilogy. 

460. The reivers, a reminiscence. New York, 
Random House [1962] 305 p. 

62-10335 PZ3.F272Re 
A novel. 

461. William Faulkner: early prose and poetry. 
Compilation and introduction by Carvel Col- 
lins. Boston, Little, Brown [1962] 134 p. 

6217953 PS35H.A86A6 1962 

Bibliographical notes: p. 123134. 

Material published during the author's years at 
the University of Mississippi and shortly thereafter. 
Includes numerous drawings by Faulkner. 

462. The hamlet. [3d ed.] New York, Random 
House [1964] 366 p. 

647972 PZ3.F272Ham 6 
Earlier errors have been corrected through a col- 
lation of the author's typescript with the first edition 
of 1940 (no. 1391 in the 1960 Guide) and the sec- 
ond edition of 1956. The Hamlet is the first volume 
of Faulkner's "Snopes" trilogy. 

463. The marble faun, and A green bough. New 
York, Random House [1965] 51, 67 p. 

6527492 PS35U.A86M3 1965 
Faulkner's two volumes of poetry reproduced 
from the original editions published in 1924 (The 
Marble Faun) and 1933 (A Green Bough). 

464. Brooks, Cleanth. William Faulkner; the 
Yoknapatawpha country. New Haven, Yale 

University Press, 1963. xiv, 499 p. 

63-17023 PS35H.A86Z64 
Bibliographical footnotes. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 35 

465. Hoffman, Frederick J., and Olga W. Vickery, 
eds. William Faulkner: three decades of 

criticism. [1960 ed. East Lansing] Michigan State 
University Press, 1960. 428 p. 

60-11481 PS35U.A86Z8 1960 

Bibliography: p. 393428. 

A revised and updated edition of no. 1399 in the 
1960 Guide. 

466. Howe, Irving. William Faulkner: a critical 
study. 2d ed., rev. and expanded. New 

York, Vintage Books [1962] 299 p. 

622290 PS35H.A86Z84 1962 
A new edition of no. 1400 in the 1960 Guide. 

467. Runyan, Harry. A Faulkner glossary. New 
York, Citadel Press [1964] 310 p. 

6415959 PS35H.A86Z965 

An alphabetical guide to titles, characters, and 

places in Faulkner's writings. Seven appendixes 

offer critical and genealogical information as well 

as detailed bibliographies. 

468. Tuck, Dorothy. Crowell's handbook of 
Faulkner. Lewis Leary, advisory editor. 

New York, Crowell [1964] xx, 259 p. (A Cro- 
well reference book) 6416536 PS35H.A86Z978 
Bibliography: p. [247] 250. 

469. Vickery, Olga W. The novels of William 
Faulkner; a critical interpretation. [Rev. ed. 

Baton Rouge] Louisiana State University Press 
[1964] 318 p. 64-23150 PS35H.A86Z98 1964 

470. Waggoner, Hyatt H. William Faulkner: 
from Jefferson to the world. [Lexington] 

University of Kentucky Press [1959] 279 p. 

59-13268 PS35H.A86Z985 

Bibliographical notes: p. [267] 274. 

"The most significant meanings in Faulkner all 
start in Jefferson and radiate outward to meanings 
as various and as inexhaustible as myth." 



471. EDNA FERBER, 1887- 
No. 1403 in 1960 Guide. 

472. Ice Palace. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 
1958. 411 p. 58-5936 PZ3.F38oIc 

A novel. 

473. A peculiar treasure. Garden City, N. Y., 
Doubleday, 1960. 383 p. illus. 

60-8865 PS35H.E46Z5 1960 
Autobiography. 



36 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



474. A kind of magic. Garden City, N. Y., Dou- 
bleday, 1963. 335 p. 

6318030 PS35H.E46Z52 
Sequel to A Peculiar Treasure. 

475. DOROTHEA FRANCES CANFIELD 

FISHER, 1879-1958 

No. 1411 in 1960 Guide. 

476. A harvest of stories, from a half century of 
writing. New York, Harcourt, Brace [1956] 

352 p. 56-11298 PZ3-F53Har 

477. VARDIS ALVERO FISHER, 1895- 
No. 1420 in 1960 Guide. 

478. Jesus came again, a parable. Denver, A. 
Swallow [1956] 359 p. (His The Testa- 

ment of man [8] ) 56-13625 



479. A goat for Azazel; a novel of Christian 
origins. Denver, A. Swallow [1956] 368 p. 

(His The Testament of man [9] ) 

56-14254 PZ3.F539G1 

480. Pemmican; a novel of the Hudson's Bay 
Company. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 

1956. 319 p. 56-7740 



481. Peace like a river; a novel of Christian asceti- 
cism. Denver, A. Swallow [1957] 316 p. 
(His The Testament of man [10] ) 

58-16346 



482. My holy satan; a novel of Christian twilight. 
Denver, A. Swallow [1958] 326 p. (His 
The Testament of man [n] ) 

5813022 



483. Tale of valor; a novel of the Lewis and 
Clark Expedition. Garden City, N. Y., Dou- 

bleday, 1958. 456 p. 58-7356 PZ3.F539Tal 

484. Love and death; the complete stories of Vardis 
Fisher. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 

1959. 2ii p. 5910666 



485. Orphans in Gethsemane; a novel of the past 
in the present. Denver, A. Swallow [1960] 
987 p. (His The Testament of man [12] ) 

60-6113 



486. Mountain man; a novel of male and female in 

the early American West. New York, Mor- 

row, 1965. 372 p. 6522970 



487. Flora, Joseph M. Vardis Fisher. New York, 
Twayne Publishers [1965] 158 p. (Twayne's 

United States authors series, 76) 

6512996 PS35H.I744Z63 

Bibliographical notes: p. 145148. Bibliography: 
p. 149-152. 

488. FRANCIS SCOTT KEY FITZGERALD, 

18961940 

No. 1425 in 1960 Guide. 

489. Afternoon of an author, a selection of uncol- 
lected stories and essays. With an introduc- 
tion and notes by Arthur Mizener. Princeton, 
Princeton University Library, 1957. 226 p. illus. 

58-3 PS35U.I9A6 1957 

490. Six tales of the jazz age, and other stories. 
New York, Scribner [1960] 192 p. 

60-6410 PZ3.F5754Si 

Written between 1920 and 1924, these stories de- 
pict the era Fitzgerald named. 

491. The Pat Hobby stories. With an introduc- 
tion by Arnold Gingrich. New York, Scrib- 
ner [1962] 159 p. 62-16655 PZ3.F5754Pat 

These 17 previously uncoil ected stories provide 
a full-length portrait of one of Fitzgerald's tragi- 
comic characters. 

492. The Fitzgerald reader. Edited by Arthur 
Mizener. New York, Scribner [1963] 509 p. 

62-9632 PS35H.I9A6 1963 
Presents the entire text of The Great Gatsby (no. 
1428 in the 1960 Guide) and portions of Tender Is 
the Night (included in The Portable F. Scott Fitz- 
gerald, no. 1429 in the 1960 Guide) and The Last 
Tycoon, a novel left unfinished at Fitzgerald's 
death. A selection of stories, two novelettes, and 
four essays complete the anthology. 

493. Letters. Edited by Andrew Turnbull. New 
York, Scribner [1963] xviii, 615 p. illus. 

63-16755 PS35H.I9Z54 
A selection. 

494. Miller, James E. F. Scott Fitzgerald, his art 
and his technique. [New York] New York 

University Press, 1964. xiv, 173 p. 

64-16900 PS35H.I9Z688 
Bibliography: p. 163165. 

495. Mizener, Arthur. The far side of paradise, 
a biography of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Boston, 

Houghton Mifflin, 1965. xxviii, 416 p. illus. (Sen- 
try edition, 46) 65-19307 PS35H.I9Z7 1965 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 37 



Bibliographical notes: p. [3531399- Bibliogra- 
phy: p. [400] -407. 

A new edition of no. 1431 in the 1960 Guide, re- 
vised to include material made available since 1951, 
when the work was originally published. 

496. Piper, Henry D. F. Scott Fitzgerald, a criti- 
cal portrait. New York, Holt, Rinehart & 

Winston [1965] 334 p. 65-14435 PS35 11.19282 

Bibliographical notes: p. 301323. 

Focuses on Fitzgerald's career as an author and 
sheds light on the position of the professional Ameri- 
can writer during the twenties and thirties. 

497. Trunbull, Andrew. Scott Fitzgerald. New 
York, Scribner [1962] 364 p. illus. 

62-9315 PS35H.I9Z88 
A full-scale biography. 

498. WALDO DAVID FRANK, 1889- 
No. 1445 in 1960 Guide. 

499. Bittner, William R. The novels of Waldo 
Frank. Philadelphia, University of Pennsyl- 
vania Press [1958] 222 p. 

58-6449 PS35H.R258Z57 1958 
Includes bibliography. 

500. ROBERT FROST, 1874-1963 
No. 1451 in 1960 Guide. 

501. In the clearing. New York, Holt, Rinehart 
& Winston [1962] 101 p. 

62-11578 PS35ii.R94l5 
Poems. 

502. The letters of Robert Frost to Louis Unter- 
meyer. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Win- 
ston [1963] 388 p. 63-15383 PS35U.R94Z53 

503. Selected letters. Edited by Lawrance Thomp- 
son. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston 

[1964] Ixiv, 645 p. illus. 

64-10767 PS35H.R94Z52 1964 

504. Cook, Reginald L. The dimensions of Robert 
Frost. New York, Rinehart [1958] 241 p. 

58-9351 PS 3 5ii.R 9 4Z 5 85 

A personal interpretation of Frost's poetry by a 
close friend and director of the Bread Loaf School 
of English at Middlebury, Vt. 

505. Cox, James M., ed. Robert Frost; a collection 
of critical essays. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 

Prentice-Hall [1962] 205 p. (A Spectrum book: 



Twentieth century views, S TC 3) 

62-9283 PS35H.R94Z588 

506. Lynen, John F. The pastoral art of Robert 
Frost. New Haven, Yale Univeristy Press, 

1960. 208 p. (Yale studies in English, v. 147) 

60-7826 PS35H.R94Z77 
Bibliography: p. 191202. 

507. Mertins, Marshall Louis. Robert Frost; life 
and talks-walking. Norman, University of 

Oklahoma Press [1965] 450 p. illus. 

65-11238 PS35H.R94Z786 
A portrait of Frost constructed from conversations 
which occurred over a period of 30 years. 

508. Sergeant, Elizabeth S. Robert Frost; the trial 
by existence. New York, Holt, Rinehart & 

Winston [1960] xxvii, 451 p. illus. 

608792 PS35H.R94Z92 

A biography with frequent quotations from 
Frost's works. 

509. ZONA GALE, 1874-1938 
No. 1453 in 1960 Guide. 

510. Simonson, Harold P. Zona Gale. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1962] 157 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 18) 

62-13672 PS35I3-A34Z85 

Bibliographical footnotes: p. 141146. Bibliogra- 
phy: p. 147-150. 

511. ELLEN ANDERSON GHOLSON GLAS- 

GOW, 1874-1945 

No. 1460 in 1960 Guide. 

512. Collected stories. Edited by Richard K. 
Meeker. [Baton Rouge] Louisiana State 

University Press [1963] 254 p. 

6313240 



513. McDowell, Frederick P. W. Ellen Glasgow 
and the ironic art of fiction. Madison, Uni- 

versity of Wisconsin Press, 1960. 292 p. 

609551 PS35I3-L34Z68 

514. CAROLINE GORDON, 1895- 
No. 1464 in 1960 Guide. 

515. The malefactors. New York, Harcourt, 
Brace [ C i956] 312 p. 

56-6653 
A novel. 



38 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



516. Old Red, and other stories. New York, 
Scribner [1963] 256 p. 

63-17607 PZ3.G6525<Di 

517. PAUL ELIOT GREEN, 1894- 
No. 1473 in 1960 Guide. 

518. The Confederacy; a symphonic outdoor drama 
based on the life of General Robert E. Lee. 

New York, S. French [1959] 123 p. 

59-2086 PS35I3.R452C65 

519. The Stephen Foster story, a symphonic drama 
based on the life and music of the composer. 

New York, French [1960] 107 p. 

60-1922 PS35I3.R452S83 

520. HORACE VICTOR GREGORY, 1898- 
No. 1482 in 1960 Guide. 

521. Collected poems. New York, Holt, Rinehart 
& Winston [1964] 226 p. 

6414359 PS35I3.R558A6 1964 

522. ALFRED BERTRAM GUTHRIE, 1901- 
No. 1488 in 1960 Guide. 

523. These thousand hills. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1956. 346 p. 

56-13458 PZ3.G95876Th 
A novel. 

524. The blue hen's chick; a life in context. New 
York, McGraw-Hill [1965] 261 p. 

64-66368 PS35 13.1185575 
Autobiography. 

525. MOSS HART, 1904-1961 
No. 1491 in 1960 Guide. 

526. Act one, an autobiography. New York, Ran- 
dom House [1959] 444 p. 

59-10813 PN2287.H27A3 

527. ERNEST HEMINGWAY, 1899-1961 
No. 1494 in 1960 Guide. 

528. A moveable feast. New York, Scribner 
[1964] 2ii p. illus. 

64-15441 PS35i5.E 3 7Z52 5 
Sketches of the author's life in Paris, 192126. 

529. Baker, Carlos H., ed. Hemingway and his 
critics, an international anthology. Edited, 



with an introduction and a checklist of Hemingway 
criticism. New York, Hill & Wang [1961] 298 p. 
(American century series, AC36) 

61-7565 PS 3 5i5.E3 7 Z577 
Includes bibliography. 

530. Baker, Carlos H. Hemingway: the writer as 
artist. [3d ed.] Princeton, N. J., Princeton 

University Press, 1963. xx, 379 p. 

63-25656 PS35I5.E37Z58 1963 

Bibliographical footnotes. "A working check-list 
of Hemingway's prose, poetry, and journalism, with 
notes": p. [3491366. 

A revised edition of no. 1502 in the 1960 Guide. 

531. Hemingway, Leicester. My brother, Ernest 
Hemingway. Cleveland, World Pub. Co. 

[1962] 283 p. illus. 62-9043 PS35I5.E37Z62 

532. Weeks, Robert P., ed. Hemingway; a col- 
lection of critical essays. Englewood Cliffs, 

N. J., Prentice-Hall [1962] 180 p. (Twentieth 
century views. A Spectrum book, S TC 8) 

6213652 PS35I5-E37Z94 
Bibliography: p. 179180. 

533. JOSEPH HERGESHEIMER, 1880-1954 
No. 1506 in 1960 Guide. 

534. Martin, Ronald E. The fiction of Joseph 
Hergesheimer. Philadelphia, University of 

Pennsylvania Press [1965] 288 p. 

6522570 PS35I5.E628Z74 
Bibliography: p. [271] 283. 

535. ROBERT SILLIMAN HILLYER, 1895- 

1961 

No. 1515 in 1960 Guide. 

536. The relic & other poems. New York, Knopf, 
J957- 93 P- 57-10308 PS35i5.I6 9 R 4 

537. Collected poems. New York, Knopf, 1961. 
235 p. 61-8531 PS35i5.I69Ai7 1961 

538. LANGSTON HUGHES, 1902- 
No. 1521 in 1960 Guide. 

539. I wonder as I wander; an autobiographical 
journey. New York, Rinehart [1956] 405 p. 

56-7254 



540. Simple stakes a claim. New York, Rinehart 
[1957] 191 p. 57-9628 PS35 1 511274854 
Short stories. 



54i- The Langston Hughes reader. New York, 
G. Braziller, 1958. 501 p. 

58-7871 PS35I5.U274A6 1958 

542. Selected poems. Drawings by E. McKnight 
Kauffer. New York, Knopf, 1959. 297 p. 

5810967 PS35 1 5.1)274 A6 1959 

543. Ask your mama: 12 moods for jazz. New 
York, Knopf, 1961. 92 p. 

6115039 PS35I5/U274A8 
A poem. 

544. Five plays. Edited, with an introduction, by 
Webster Smalley. Bloomington, Indiana 

University Press [1963] 258 p. 

63-7169 PS35i5.U274Ai9 1963 
CONTENTS. Mulatto. Soul gone home. Little 
Ham. Simply heavenly. Tambourines to glory. 

545. Simple's Uncle Sam. New York, Hill & 
Wang [1965] 1 80 p. 

65-24717 PS35I5.U274S6 
Short stories. 



546. FEDERICO SCHARMEL IRIS, 1889- 
No. 1530 in 1960 Guide. 

547. The seven hills of the dove. With a foreword 
by Padraic Colum. Boston, Bruce Humphries 

[1957] 72 p. illus. 56-6558 PS35I7.R5S4 

Poems. 

548. A singing reed. [Chicago] R. F. Seymour 
[1963] 64 p. 64-444 PS 35 I 7- R 5S5 

Poems. 

549. ROBINSON JEFFERS, 1887-1962 
No. 1532 in 1960 Guide. 

550. The beginning & the end, and other poems. 
New York, Random House [1963] 74 p. 

63-9347 



551. Squires, James Radcliffe. The loyalties of 
Robinson Jeffers. Ann Arbor, University of 
Michigan Press [1956] 202 p. 

56-11031 PS35I9.E27Z78 

Bibliographical notes: p. 192-198. Bibliography: 
p. 199-202. 

552. MACKINLAY KANTOR, 1904- 

No. 1541 in 1960 Guide. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 39 

553. Spirit Lake. Cleveland, World Pub. Co. 
[1961] 957 p. 61-8164 PZ3.Ki42Sp 

A novel. 

554. OLIVER LA FARGE, 1901-1963 
No. 1551 in 1960 Guide. 

555. A pause in the desert; a collection of short 
stories. Boston, Hough ton Mifflin, 1957. 

235 p. 57-6381 PZ3.Li29Pau 

556. The door in the wall, stories. With a fore- 
word by William Maxwell. Boston, Hough- 

ton Mifflin, 1965. 303 p. 

6424641 



557. RING WILMER LARDNER, 1885-1933 
No. 1554 in 1960 Guide. 

558. Elder, Donald. Ring Lardner, a biography. 
Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1956. 409 p. 

illus. 56-7656 PS3523.A7Z65 

559. SINCLAIR LEWIS, 1885-1951 
No. 1559 in 1960 Guide. 

560. Schorer, Mark. Sinclair Lewis, an American 
life. New York, McGraw-Hill [1961] 867 

p. illus. 61-12961 PS3523-E94Z78 

Bibliography: p. 815826. 

561. Schorer, Mark, ed. Sinclair Lewis, a collec- 
tion of critical essays. Englewood Cliffs, 

N. J., Prentice-Hall [1962] 174 p. (Twentieth 
century views. A Spectrum book, S-TC-6) 
6293 1 1 



562. NICHOLAS VACHEL LINDSAY, 1879- 

i93i 
No. 1580 in 1960 Guide. 

563. Ruggles, Eleanor. The west-going heart; a 
life of Vachel Lindsay. New York, Norton 

[1959] 448 p. 59~ II 337 PS3523.I58Z76 

"Sources and acknowledgments": p. 437441. 

564. AMY LOWELL, 1874-1925 
No. 1583 in 1960 Guide. 

565. Gregory, Horace. Amy Lowell; portrait of 
the poet in her time. Edinburgh, New York, 

T. Nelson [1958] 213 p. illus. 

58-1 1 247 PS3523.O88Z67 



40 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



566. ARCHIE ALDMAcLEISH, 1892- 
No. 1585 in 1960 Guide. 

567. J. B., a play in verse. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1958. 153 p. 

58-1148 PS3525.A27J2 1958 

568. Poetry and experience. Cambridge, Riverside 
Press, 1961 [ C i96o] 204 p. 

6012742 PNio3i.M33 
Criticism. 

569. JOHN PHILLIPS MARQUAND, 1893- 

1960 

No. 1589 in 1960 Guide. 

570. Stopover: Tokyo. Boston, Little, Brown 
[ C i 95 7] 313 p. 57-5508 PZ3.B 344 66St 

A novel. 

571. Women and Thomas Harrow. Boston, Lit- 
tle, Brown [1958] 497 p. 

58-10691 PZ3.M34466Wo 
A novel. 

572. Gross, John J. John P. Marquand. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1963] 191 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 33) 

62-19477 PS3525.A6695Z68 
Bibliographical notes: p. 176-180. Bibliography: 
p. 181-185. 

573. HENRY LOUIS MENCKEN, i88o- I95 6 
No. 1602 in 1960 Guide. 

574. The bathtub hoax, and other blasts & bravos 
from the Chicago tribune. Edited, with an 

introduction and notes, by Robert McHugh. New 
York, Knopf, 1958. xvi, 286 p. 

58-12629 PS3525-E43B3 

575. Letters. Selected and annotated by Guy J. 
Forgue. With a personal note by Hamilton 

Owens. New York, Knopf, 1961. xxxviii, 506, 
xxii p. 61-12312 PS3525.E43Ai6 1961 

576. The American scene, a reader. Selected and 
edited and with an introduction and com- 
mentary by Huntington Cairns. New York, Knopf, 
1965. xxvii, 542 p. 

6511127 PS3525.E43A75 1965 
Bibliography: p. 541542. 

577. HENRY MILLER, 1891- 
No. 1611 in 1960 Guide. 



578. Big Sur and the oranges of Hieronymus 
Bosch. [New York, New Directions, 1957] 

404 p. illus. 57-554 2 PS 35 2 5- I 5454 B 5 

Partly autobiographical nonfiction. 

579. The Henry Miller reader. Edited by Lawr- 
ence Durrell. [New York] New Directions 

['9591 397 P- 59- I 5 22 p S35 2 5- I 5454 A " 1959 
Bibliography: p. 395397. 

580. Stand still like the hummingbird. [Norfolk, 
Conn.] New Directions [1962] 194 p. 

6210408 PS3525.I5454S75 
Essays. 

581. The rosy crucifixion. New York, Grove 
Press [ C i965] 3 v. 

65-23919 PZ3.M6i468Ro 
Autobiographical. 

CONTENTS. Book i. Sexus. Book 2. Plexus. 
Book 3. Nexus. 

582. Letters to Anai's Nin. Edited and with an 
introduction by Gunther Stuhlmann. New 

York, Putnam [1965] xxvi, 356 p. 

65-10859 PS3525.l54 54 Z57 
Covers the period 193146. 

583. MARGARET MITCHELL, 1900-1949 
No. 1618 in 1960 Guide. 

584. Farr, Finis. Margaret Mitchell of Adanta, 
the author of Gone with the wind. New 

York, Morrow, 1965. 244 p. 

65-22974 PS352 5 .I 9 72Z6 7 

585. MARIANNE MOORE, 1887- 
No. 1620 in 1960 Guide. 

586. A Marianne Moore reader. New York, Vik- 
ing Press, 1961. 301 p. 

61-17409 



587. Engel, Bernard F. Marianne Moore. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1964] 176 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 54) 

63-20613 PS3525.O56i6Z65 
"Notes and references": p. 165166. Bibliogra- 
phy: p. 167169. 

588. MERRILL MOORE, 1903-1957 
No. 1623 in 1960 Guide. 

589. The hill of Venus; poems of men and women 
reacting to, puzzled by, and suffering from 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 4! 



love, its fulfillments and its frustrations. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1957] 71 p. 

57-4764 PS3525.O563H5 

590. Poems of American life. With an introduc- 
tion by Louis Untermeyer. New York, Philo- 
sophical Library [1958] 275 p. 

58-3315 PS 35 25.0 5 6 3 P63 

591. OGDEN NASH, 1902- 
No. 1629 in 1960 Guide. 

592. You can't get there from here. Drawings by 
Maurice Sendak. Boston, Little, Brown 

[1957] 190 p. 57-7 8 3 8 PS3527.A637Y6 

Poems. 

593. Everyone but thee and me. Illustrated by 
John Alcorn. Boston, Little, Brown [1962] 



60 1. Falk, Doris V. Eugene O'Neill and the 
tragic tension; an interpretive study of the 

plays. New Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers University 
Press, 1958. 211 p. 5810830 PS3529.N5Z64 

A combination of psychological analysis and liter- 
ary criticism. 

602. Gassner, John, ed. O'Neill; a collection of 
critical essays. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 

Prentice-Hall [1964] 180 p. (A Spectrum book. 
Twentieth century views, S TC 39) 

64-19679 PS3529.N5Z648 
Bibliography: p. 177180. 

603. Gelb, Arthur, and Barbara Gelb. O'Neill. 
New York, Harper [1962] 970 p. illus. 

61-13602 PS3529.N5Z653 
A biography. 



171 p. 
Poems. 



62-16957 PS3527.A637E85 604. Raleigh, John H. The plays of Eugene 

O'Neill. With a preface by Harry T. Moore. 
Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press 
[1965] xvi, 304 p. (Crosscurrents: modern cri- 
tiques) 65-12387 PS3529.N5Z79 
Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. [286] -297). 



594. Marriage lines; notes of a student husband. 
Illustrated by Isadore Seltzer. Boston, Little, 
Brown [1964] 108 p. 

6417471 PS3527.A637M35 
Poems. 



595. ROBERT GRUNTAL NATHAN, 1894- 
No. 1635 in 1960 Guide. 

596. The Mallot diaries. New York, Knopf, 
1965. 174 p. 65-17384 PZ3.Ni95Mal 

A novel. 

597. EUGENE GLADSTONE O'NEILL, 1888- 

'953 
No. 1647 in 1960 Guide. 

598. Long day's journey into night. New Haven, 
Yale University Press, 1956 [ C i955] 176 p. 

56-5944 PS3529.N5L6 
A play. 

599. A touch of the poet. New Haven, Yale 
University Press, 1957. 182 p. 

57-6342 PS352 9 .N5T6 1957 
A play. 

600. Cargill, Oscar, Nathan Bryllion Fagin, and 
William J. Fisher, eds. O'Neill and his 

plays; four decades of criticism. [New York] New 
York University Press, 1961. 528 p. 

61-17631 PS3529.N5Z576 
Bibliography: p. 487517. 



605. KATHERINE ANNE PORTER, 1894- 
No. 1659 in 1960 Guide. 

606. Ship of fools. Boston, Little, Brown [1962] 
497 p. 629557 PZ3-P82i5Sh 

A novel. 

607. Collected stories. New York, Harcourt, Brace 
& World [1965] 495 p. 

65-14706 



608. Hendrick, George. Katherine Anne Porter. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1965] 176 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 90) 

65-18909 PS353I.O752Z68 
Bibliographical notes: p. 156160. Bibliography: 
p. 161171. 

609. Nance, William L. Katherine Anne Porter 
& the art of rejection. Chapel Hill, Universi- 

ty of North Carolina Press [1964] 258 p. 

6422525 PS353I.O752Z79 1964 
Bibliography: p. [2511253. 

610. EZRA LOOMIS POUND, 1885- 
No. 1664 in 1960 Guide. 



42 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



611. Section: rock drill, 8595 de los cantares. 
[New York, J. Laughlin, 1956] 107 p. (A 

New Directions book) 

56-4113 PS353i.O8aS4 1956 
Half tide: Cantos 8595 f Ezra Pound. 

612. Thrones; 96109 de los cantares. [New 
York] New Directions [1959] 126 p. 

59-13172 PS353I.O82T5 
Half title: Cantos 96709 of Ezra Pound. 

613. Translations. With an introduction by Hugh 
Kenner. [Enl. ed. Norfolk, Conn.] New 

Directions [1963] 448 p. (A New Directions 
paperbook, 145) 64-1552 PN6o2O.P6 1963 

An updated edition of no. 1667 in the 1960 
Guide. Includes some original poems, with trans- 
lations on opposite pages. 

614. Da vie, Donald. Ezra Pound: poet as sculp- 
tor. New York, Oxford University Press, 

1964. 261 p. 64-24860 PS353I.O82Z58 

Bibliographical footnotes. 
A critical discussion of Pound's works. 

615. Dekker, George. The cantos of Ezra Pound, 
a critical study. New York, Barnes & Noble 

[1963] xvi, 207 p. 

63-23827 PS353 1. 0826284 1963 

First published in 1963 under title: Sailing After 
Knowledge. 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

6 1 6. Norman, Charles. Ezra Pound. New York, 
Macmillan, 1960. 493 p. 

60-13141 PS353 1. 0827785 
Notes: p. 469477, 
A critical biography. 

617. Stock, Noel. Poet in exile: Ezra Pound. 
New York, Barnes & Noble [1964] 273 p. 

64-4258 PS353I.O82Z84 
Bibliography: p. 261266. 

6 1 8. JOHN CROWE RANSOM, 1 888- 
No. 1675 in 1960 Guide. 

619. Selected poems. [2d] rev. and enl. ed. New 
York, Knopf, 1963. no p. 

63-12791 PS3535.A635A6 1963 
A revised edition of Selected Poems (1945), men- 
tioned in no. 1679 in the 1960 Guide. 

620. MARJORIE KINNAN RAWLINGS, 1896- 

'954 
No. 1680 in 1960 Guide. 



621. The Marjorie Rawlings reader. Selected and 
edited with an introduction by Julia Scribner 

Bingham. New York, Scribner [1956] 504 p. 

5610198 PS3535.A845A6 1956 

622. EUGENE MANLOVE RHODES, 1869- 

'934 
No. 1686 in 1960 Guide. 

623. A Bar Cross man; the life & personal writings 
of Eugene Manlove Rhodes [by] W. H. 

Hutchinson. Norman, University of Oklahoma 
Press [1956] xix, 432 p. illus. 

56-6001 PS3535.H68Z54 

"Check list of Eugene Manlove Rhodes' writing": 
p. 392-407. 

624. ELMER L. RICE, 1892- 
No. 1688 in 1960 Guide. 

625. Cue for passion, a play in five scenes. New 
York, Dramatists Play Service [1959] 121 p. 

illus. 594693 PS3535-I224C8 

626. Minority report, an autobiography. New 
York, Simon & Schuster, 1963. 473 p. 

63-15364 PS3535.I224Z5 

627. Hogan, Robert G. The independence of 
Elmer Rice. With a preface by Harry T. 

Moore. Carbondale, Southern Illinois University 
Press [1965] 164 p. (Crosscurrents: modern cri- 
tiques) 65-16535 PS3535.I224Z68 
Bibliography: p. [155] 157. 

628. CONRAD MICHAEL RICHTER, 1890- 
No. 1691 in 1960 Guide. 

629. The lady. New York, Knopf, 1957. 191 p. 

575660 PZ3-R4i7Lad 
A novel. 

630. The waters of Kronos. New York, Knopf, 
1960. 175 p. 60-7297 PZ3-R4i7Wat 

A novel. 

631. ELIZABETH MADOX ROBERTS, 1886- 

1941 

No. 1697 in 1960 Guide. 

632. McDowell, Frederick P. W. Elizabeth Madox 
Roberts. New York, Twayne Publishers 

[1963] 176 p. (Twayne 's United States authors 
series, 38) 6310955 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 43 



Bibliographical notes: p. 164-168. Bibliography: 
p. 169172. 

633. Rovit, Earl H. Herald to chaos; the novels of 
Elizabeth Madox Roberts. [Lexington] Uni- 

versity of Kentucky Press [1960] i 80 p. 

6013722 PS3535.Oi72Z8 

Bibliography: p. [165] -169. Bibliographical 
notes: p. [171]- 178. 

634. EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON, 

1869-1935 

No. 1713 in 1960 Guide. 

635. Selected early poems and letters. Edited by 
Charles T. Davis. New York, Holt, Rinehart 

& Winston [ C i96o] 238 p. (Rinehart editions, 
107) 6015097 PS3535-O25A6 1960 

636. Selected poems. Edited by Morton Dauwen 
Zabel. With an introduction by James 

Dickey. New York, Macmillan [1965] xxviii, 
257 P- 65-23550 PS3535.O25A6 1965 

"Editor's note and bibliography": p. 247254. 

637. Smith, Chard P. Where the light falls; a 
portrait of Edwin Arlington Robinson. New 

York, Macmillan [1965] xx, 420 p. illus. 

65-11479 PS3535.02 5 Z85 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(P- 39 I -4 8 )- 

638. ARCHIBALD HAMILTON RUTLEDGE, 

1883- 

No. 1724 in 1960 Guide. 

639. Santee paradise. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill 
Co. [1956] 232 p. 

5613274 F279.H25R82 
Autobiographical. 

640. Deep river, the complete poems. Columbia, 
S.C., R. L. Bryan Co. [1960] 635 p. 

61280 PS3535.U87Ai7 1960 



641. CARL SANDBURG, 1878- 
No. 1727 in 1960 Guide. 

642. The Sandburg range. New York, Harcourt, 
Brace [1957] 459 p. illus. 

57-12373 PS3537.A6i8A6 1957 
Selections from the author's works. 



643. Honey and salt. New York, Harcourt, Brace 
& World [1963] in p. 

63-9836 PS3537.A6i8H63 
Poems. 

644. Crowder, Richard. Carl Sandburg. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1964] 176 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 47) 

63-20606 PS3537.A6i8Z555 
Bibliographical notes: p. 159162. Bibliography: 
p. 163168. 

645. ROBERT EMMET SHERWOOD, 1896- 

'955 
No. 1749 in 1960 Guide. 

646. Brown, John Mason. The worlds of Robert 
E. Sherwood; mirror to his times, 18961939. 

New York, Harper & Row [1965] xviii, 409 p. 
illus. 6520424 PS3537.H825Z63 

"Works of Robert E. Sherwood": p. 387390. 

647. Shuman, Robert Baird. Robert E. Sherwood. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1964] 160 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 58) 

64-13954 PS3537.H82 5 Z87 
Bibliographical notes: p. 147150. Bibliography: 
p. 151-156. 

648. UPTON BEALL SINCLAIR, 1878- 
No. 1754 in 1960 Guide. 

649. My lifetime in letters. Columbia, University 
of Missouri Press [1960] xxi, 412 p. 

59-14141 



650. Autobiography. New York, Harcourt, Brace 
& World [1962] 342 p. illus. 
62-19592 



651. LILLIAN EUGENIA SMITH, 1897- 
No. 1759 in 1960 Guide. 

652. One hour. New York, Harcourt, Brace 
[1959] 440 p. 57-5 2 99 PZ3-S6536On 

A novel. 

653. GERTRUDE STEIN, 1874-1946 
No. 1766 in 1960 Guide. 

654. The Yale edition of the unpublished writings 
of Gertrude Stein. [Under the general edi- 

torship of Carl Van Vechten. New Haven, Yale 
University Press, 195158] 8 v. 

51-6628 PS3537/T323A6 
CONTENTS. v. i. Two: Gertrude Stein and her 



44 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



brother, and other early portraits, 190812. v. 2. 
Mrs. Reynolds, and five earlier novelettes. v. 3. 
Bee time vine, and other pieces, 19131927. v. 4. 
As fine as Melanctha, 19141930. v. 5. Painted 
lace, and other pieces, 19141937. v. 6. Stanzas 
in meditation, and other poems, 19291933. v. 7. 
Alphabets and birthdays. v. 8. A novel of thank 
you. 

The first volume of this edition is no. 1772 in the 
1960 Guide. 

655. Brinnin, John M. The third rose; Gertrude 
Stein and her world. Boston, Litde, Brown 

[1959] 427 p. illus. 59-13732 PS3537.T 3 23Z57 
"A selected bibliography of the works of Ger- 
trude Stein": p. 411413. 

656. Reid, Benjamin L. Art by subtraction; a dis- 
senting opinion of Gertrude Stein. Norman, 

University of Oklahoma Press [1958] 224 p. illus. 
58-6852 PS 3 537.T323Z 7 9 
Bibliography: p. 209216. 

657. JOHN STEINBECK, 1902- 
No. 1775 in 1960 Guide. 

658. Travels with Charley; in search of America. 
New York, Viking Press [1962] 246 p. 

6212359 169.882 
A travel account. 

659. French, Warren G., ed. A companion to The 

f rapes of wrath. New York, Viking Press 
. ._ . 243 P- 63-17069 PS3537/T3234G85 

Bibliography: p. 229235. 

660. Lisca, Peter. The wide world of John Stein- 
beck. New Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers Uni- 
versity Press, 1958. 326 p. 

57-10965 PC3537.T3234Z72 
Includes bibliography. 

A biographical and critical study which analyzes 
symbolism, style, and structure in Steinbeck's works. 

661. WALLACE STEVENS, 1879-1955 
No. 1782 in 1960 Guide. 

662. Opus posthumous. Edited, with an introduc- 
tion, by Samuel French Morse. New York, 

Knopf, 1957. 300 p. 

57-7548 PS3537.T 4 75 3 A6 1957 
Poems, plays, and prose. 



adelphia, Lippincott [1962] 287 p. 

62-10543 t PS 3537- T 4753 Z62 
"For further reading: a bibliography of books 
and articles about Wallace Stevens and selected re- 
views of his work": p. 271287. 

664. Fuchs, Daniel. The comic spirit of Wallace 
Stevens. Durham, N. C., Duke University 

Press, 1963. 201 p. 639008 PS3537/T4753Z64 
Bibliography: p. [1931196. 

665. Pearce, Roy Harvey, and Joseph Hillis Miller, 
eds. The act of the mind, essays on the poetry 

of Wallace Stevens. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins 
Press [1965] 287 p. 

65-11666 PS 3 537.T4753Z75 
Bibliographical footnotes. 

666. Riddel, Joseph N. The clairvoyant eye; the 
poetry and poetics of Wallace Stevens. Baton 

Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1965. 308 
p. 65-24679 PS3537.T4753Z76 

"Index to Stevens tides": p. 299303. 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 279-298). 

667. RUTH SUCKOW, 1892-1960 
No. 1796 in 1960 Guide. 

668. The John Wood case, a novel. New York, 
Viking Press [1959] 314 p. 

598615 



669. NEWTON BOOTH TARKINGTON, 

18691946 

No. 1802 in 1960 Guide. 

670. On plays, playwrights, and playgoers; selec- 
tions from the letters of Booth Tarkington to 

George C. Tyler and John Peter Toohey, 1918 
1925. Edited by Alan S. Downer. Princeton, 
N. J., Princeton University Library, 1959. 100 p. 
illus. (Occasional publications sponsored by the 
Friends of the Princeton Library) 

59-15575 PS2973.A38 

67 1 . ALLEN T ATE, 1 899- 
No. 1809 in 1960 Guide. 

672. Collected essays. Denver, A. Swallow [1959] 
578 p. 59-i5 66 4 PN37.T27 



663. Brown, Ashley, and Robert S. Haller, eds. 
The achievement of Wallace Stevens. Phil- 



673. Poems. New York, Scribner, 1960. 224 p. 

62-3826 PS3539-A74P56 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 45 



674. Meiners, R. K. The last alternatives; a study 
of the works of Allen Tate. Denver, A. 

Swallow [1963] 2 17 p. 

63-14649 PS3539.A74Z7 
Bibliography: p. 207214. 

675. S AR A TEASD ALE, 1884-1933 
No. 1813 in 1960 Guide. 

676. Carpenter, Margaret H. Sara Teasdale, a bi- 
ography. New York, Schulte Pub. Co., 1960. 

377 p. illus. 60-9646 



677. JAMES GROVER THURBER, 1894-1961 
No. 1815 in 1960 Guide. 

678. Alarms and diversions. New York, Harper 
[1957] 367 p. illus. 

57-8181 PS 3 539.H 94 A 7 

Essays, parables, stories, and drawings, some of 
which appear here in book form for the first time. 

679. The years with Ross. With drawings by the 
author. Boston, Little, Brown [1959] 310 p. 

58-11443 PN4874.R65T5 

A biography which describes the close personal 
and working relationships between the author and 
Harold Ross, founding editor of The New Yorker. 

680. Lanterns & lances. New York, Harper 
[1961] 215 p. illus. 

616444 PS3539-H94L3 
Selected short pieces. 

68 1. Morsberger, Robert E. James Thurber. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1964] 224 p. 
(Twayne's United States authors series, 62) 

64-13958 PS3539.H 94 Z77 
Bibliographical notes: p. 200206. Bibliography: 
p. 207218. 

682. MARK ALBERT VAN DOREN, 1894- 
No. 1823 in 1960 Guide. 

683. Autobiography. New York, Harcourt, Brace 
[1958] 371 p. illus. 

58-10897 PS3543.A557Z52 

684. The last days of Lincoln, a play in six scenes. 
New York, Hill & Wang, 1959. 152 p. 

59-6708 PS3543.A557L27 

685. The happy critic, and other essays. New 
York, Hill & Wang [1961] 177 p. 

61-14476 PS3543.A557H3 



686. Collected stories. New York, Hill & Wang 
[1962-65] 2 v. 62-15221 PZ3.V28686Co 

687. Collected and new poems, 19241963. New 
York, Hill & Wang [1963] 615 p. 

63-18480 PS3543.A557Ai7 1963 



688. Narrative poems. New York, Hill & Wang 
[1964! 335 P- 64-24238 PS3543.A557N3 

CONTENTS. Jonathan Gentry. A winter diary. 
The eyes. The Mayfield deer. Mortal sum- 
mer. Anger in the room. 

689. CARL VAN VECHTEN, 1880-1964 
No. 1828 in 1960 Guide. 

690. Lueders, Edward G. Carl Van Vechten, 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1965] 158 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 74) 

6420724 PS3543-A653Z79 
Bibliographical notes: p. 143147. Bibliography: 
p. 148152. 

691. GLENWAY WESCOTT, 1901- 
No. 1839 in 1960 Guide. 

692. Rueckert, William H. Glenway Wescott. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1965] 174 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 87) 

65-18906 PS3545.E827Z86 
Bibliographical notes: p. 157162. Bibliography: 
p. 165171. 

693. NATHANAEL WEST, 1902-1940 
No. 1842 in 1960 Guide. 

694. Complete works. New York, Farrar, Straus 
& Cudahy [1957] 421 p. 

57-6259 PS3545.E8334 1957 

695. Light, James F. Nathanael West; [an in- 
terpretative study. Evanston, 111., Northwest- 

ern University Press, 1961] 220 p. 

61-8746 PS3545.S8334Z75 

696. EDITH NEWBOLD JONES WHARTON, 

18621937 

No. 1845 in 1960 Guide. 

697. Best short stories. Edited, with an introduc- 
tion by Wayne Andrews. New York, Scrib- 

ner [1958] 292 p. 5810825 



698. Bell, Millicent. Edith Wharton & Henry 
James, the story of their friendship. New 



46 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



York, G. Braziller [1965] 384 p. 
6510196 
Includes bibliographical references. 



699. Howe, Irving, ed. Edith Wharton; a collec- 
tion of critical essays. Englewood Cliffs, 
N. J., Prentice-Hall [1962] 181 p. (A Spectrum 
book. Twentieth century views, S TC 20) 
63-7990 



700. Lyde, Marilyn J. Edith Wharton: conven- 

tion and morality in the work of a novelist. 

Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [1959] 

194 p. illus. 59-7965 



701. JOHN HALL WHEELOCK, 1886- 
No. 1857 in 1960 Guide. 

702. The gardener, and other poems. New York, 
Scribner [1961] 94 p. 

61-11582 PS3545.H33G3 

703. ELWYN BROOKS WHITE, 1899- 
No. 1859 in 1960 Guide. 

704. The points of my compass; letters from the 
East, the West, the North, the South. New 

York, Harper & Row [1962] 240 p. 

62-15724 PS3545.H5i87P6 
Contains articles originally published in The New 
Yorker and an essay which first appeared in The 
Yale Review. 

705. THORNTON NIVEN WILDER, 1897- 
No. 1864 in 1960 Guide. 

706. Burbank, Rex J. Thornton Wilder. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1961] 156 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 5) 

61-9854 PS3545.I345Z57 

Bibliographical notes: p. 146149. Bibliography: 
P- 



708. Paterson. [New York, New Directions, 
1946-58] 5 v. 46-5910 PS3545.I544P3 

The fifth volume completes this poem, the first 
four volumes of which are no. 1876 in the 1960 
Guide. 

709. Pictures from Brueghel, and other poems; 
including The desert music & Journey to love. 

[Norfolk, Conn., J. Laughlin, 1962] 184 p. (A 
New Directions paperbook, 118) 

6210410 PS3545.I544P45 

710. The collected later poems. Rev. ed. [New 
York] New Directions [1963] 276 p. 

62-19398 PS3545.l544Ai7 1963 



707. WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS, 1883- 
1963 

No. 1872 in 1960 Guide. 



711. Selected letters. Edited, with an introduction, 
by John C. Thirlwall. New York, McDowell, 

Obolensky [1957] 347 p. 

57-121 12 PS3545.I544Z53 

712. THOMAS WOLFE, 1900-1938 
No. 1887 in 1960 Guide. 

713. Short novels. Edited, with an introduction 
and notes, by C. Hugh Holman. New York, 

Scribner [1961] xx, 323 p. 

61-7212 PZ3.W83i4Sh 

CONTENTS. A portrait of Bascom Hawke. 
The web of earth. No door. "I have a thing to 
tell you." The party at Jack's. 

714. Kennedy, Richard S. The window of mem- 
ory; the literary career of Thomas Wolfe, 

Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press 
[1962] 461 p. 6216110 PS3545.O337Z737 

Includes bibliography. 

715. Nowell, Elizabeth. Thomas Wolfe, a biog- 
raphy. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1960. 

456 p. illus. 608689 PS3545.O337Z74 

716. MARY A ZATURENSKA, 1902- 
No. 1905 in 1960 Guide. 

717. Collected poems. New York, Viking Press 
[1965] 210 p. 

65-23955 PS3549.A77Ai7 1965 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 47 



F. The Second World War and the Atomic Age (1940-1965) 



718. JAMES AGEE, 1909-1955 
No. 1907 in 1960 Guide. 

719. A death in the family. New York, McDow- 
ell, Obolensky [1957] 339 p. 

57-12114 
A novel. 

720. Letters of James Agee to Father Flye. New 
York, G. Braziller, 1962. 235 p. 

6216270 PS35OI.G35Z54 i962 

721. EDWARD FRANKLIN ALBEE, 1928- 

Albee's first one-act plays brought him im- 
mediate recognition as a spokesman for the symbolic 
and satiric theater of the absurd. His major themes, 
often veiled in obscure yet potent symbolism, are 
self-deception, hypocrisy, and alienation. Both The 
Zoo Story and The Death of Bessie Smith had their 
premieres in Berlin; The Sandbox was first pro- 
duced in New York. Full length, three-act dra- 
mas by Albee, including adaptations of fictional 
works by other writers, have appeared regularly on 
the Broadway stage. 

722. The zoo story; The death of Bessie Smith; 
The sandbox; three plays, introduced by the 

author. New York, Coward-McCann [1960] 
158 p. 60-12478 PS35oi.Li78Z3 

723. The American dream, a play. New York, 
Coward-McCann [1961] 93 p. [Coward- 

McCann contemporary drama, CM-6] 
6115067 



724. Who's afraid of Virginia Woolf? A play. 
New York, Atheneum, 1962. 242 p. 
62-17691 



725. The play, The ballad of the sad cafe. Carson 

McCullers' novella adapted to the stage by 

Edward Albee. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1963. 

150 p. 63-23325 



726. Tiny Alice, a play. New York, Atheneum, 
1965. 190 p. 65-15904 



728. The great world and Timothy Colt. Boston, 
Houghton Mifflin, 1956. 285 p. 

56-9384 PZ3.A898Gr 
A novel. 

729. Venus in Sparta. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 
1958. 280 p. 58-9052 PZ3.A898Ve 

A novel. 

730. Pursuit of the prodigal. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1959. 292 p. 

59-9633 PZ3.A898Pu 
A novel. 

731. The house of five talents. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1960. 369 p. 

60-8761 PZ3.A898Ho 
A novel. 

732. Portrait in brownstone. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1962. 371 p. 

62-8116 PZ3.A898Po 
A novel. 

733. Powers of attorney. Boston, Houghton Miff- 
lin, 1963. 280 p. 639077 PZ3.A898Pq 

Short stories. 

734. The rector of Justin. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1964. 341 p. 

64-14523 PZ3.A898Re 
A novel. 

735. JAMES BALDWIN, 1924- 
No. 1914 in 1960 Guide. 

736. Giovanni's room, a novel. New York, Dial 
Press, 1956. 248 p. 56-12125 PZ4.Bi8Gi 

737. Another country. New York, Dial Press, 
1962. 436 p. 61-7367 PZ4.Bi8An2 

A novel. 

738. Blues for Mister Charlie, a play. New York, 
Dial Press, 1964. 121 p. 

64-15223 



727. LOUIS AUCHINCLOSS, 1917- 
No. 1909 in 1960 Guide. 



739. Going to meet the man. New York, Dial 
Press, 1965. 249 p. 

65-15331 
Short stories. 



/ A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



CONTENTS. The rockpile. The outing. The 
man child. Previous condition. Sonny's blues. 
This morning, this evening, so soon. Come out 
the wilderness. Going to meet the man. 

740. SHIRLEY FRANCES BARKER, 1911-1965 
No. 1916 in 1960 Guide. 

741. Swear by Apollo. [New York] Random 
House [1958] 306 p. illus. 

58-5282 PZ3.B2457Sw 
A novel. 

742. The last gentleman. New York, Random 
House [1960] 341 p. 

60-6377 PZ3.B2457Las 
A novel. 

743. Strange wives. New York, Crown Publish- 
ers [1963] 377 p. 

6312062 PZ3. 6245781 
A novel. 

744. JOHN SIMMONS BARTH, 1930- 

Barth's native Maryland, past or present, is 
often chosen as the setting for his fiction, which has 
been received with fascination, confusion, admira- 
tion, and occasional distaste. His curious plots, 
filled with digressions and sparked by Rabelaisian 
humor, are considered unique and undeniably the 
product of a masterful imagination. Earth's writ- 
ing is concerned with matters of choice, value, and 
meaning in man's life, even when it takes the form 
of parody. 

745. The floating opera. New York, Appleton- 
Century-Crofts [1956] 280 p. 

56-10340 PZ4.B284F1 
A novel. 

746. The end of the road. Garden City, N.Y., 
Doubleday, 1958. 230 p. 

58-9381 PZ4.B284En 
A novel. 

747. The sot-weed factor. Garden City, N.Y., 
Doubleday, 1960. 806 p. 

60-9467 
A novel. 

748. SAUL BELLOW, 1915- 
No. 1921 in 1960 Guide. 



749. Seize the day, with three short stories and a 
one-act play. New York, Viking Press, 1956. 

211 p. 56-10686 PS3503.E4488S4 

Seize the Day is a brief novel previously published 
in Partisan Review. 

750. Henderson, the rain king; a novel. New 
York, Viking Press, 1959. 341 p. 

59-5649 



751. Herzog. New York, Viking Press [1964] 
341 p. 64-19794 PZ3.B4i937Hh 

A novel. 

752. The last analysis, a play. New York, Viking 
Press [1965] 118 p. 

65-16904 PS3503.E4488L3 

753. JOHN BERRYMAN, 1914- 
No. 1923 in 1960 Guide. 

754. Homage to Mistress Bradstreet. With pic- 
tures by Ben Shahn. New York, Farrar, 

Straus & Cudahy [1956] 1 v. (unpaged) 

56-6168 PS3503.E744H6 
A poem. 

755- 77 dream songs. New York, Farrar, Straus 
[1964] 84 p. 6414107 PS35O3-E744S4 
Poems. 

756. ELIZABETH BISHOP, 1911- 
No. 1925 in 1960 Guide. 

757. Questions of travel. New York, Farrar, 
Straus & Giroux [1965] 95 p. 

65-22553 PS3503.l785Q 4 
Poems. 

758. PAUL FREDERIC BOWLES, 1910- 
No. 1927 in 1960 Guide. 

759. A hundred camels in the courtyard. [San 
Francisco] City Lights Books [1962] 63 p. 

62-51513 PZ3.B6826Hu 
Short stories. 

760. RAY BRADBURY, 1920- 
No. 1932 in 1960 Guide. 

761. Dandelion wine, a novel. Garden City, N.Y., 
Doubleday, 1957. 281 p. 

577824 



762. Something wicked this way comes, a novel. 
New York, Simon & Schuster, 1962. 317 p. 

629604 1^3.67245380 

763. The vintage Bradbury; Ray Bradbury's own 
selection of his best stories. With an intro- 

duction by Gilbert Highet. New York, Vintage 
Books [1965] 329 p. 65-18936 PZ3.B72453Vi 

764. GWENDOLYN BROOKS, 1917- 
No. 1937 in 1960 Guide. 

765. The bean eaters. New York, Harper [1960] 
71 p. 60-7521 PS3503.R72 44 B 4 

Poems. 

766. Selected poems. New York, Harper & Row 
[1963] 127 p. 

63-16503 PS3503.R7244A6 1963 

767. WILLIAM SEWARD BURROUGHS, 

1914- 

Burroughs discarded the conventional style of his 
first novel, Junkie (1953), to adopt the radical sur- 
realistic approach which has characterized his 
subsequent work. He achieved international promi- 
nence as a result of the controversy surrounding 
The Nafed Lunch, a novel first published in Paris 
in 1959. This account of the protagonist's years as 
a drug addict has been condemned as the vilest 
pornography by some critics and acclaimed as the 
greatest innovation in recent literature by others. 
The Soft Machine (1961) and Nova Express (1964) 
continued Burrough's freestyle approach to the 
novel, while The Yage Letters (1963) established 
his affinity with the beat writers. 

768. Naked lunch. New York, Grove Press 

[i962, c i959] 255 p. 

60-11097 



769. The soft machine. Paris, Olympia Press 

[1961] 181 p. (The Traveller's companion 

series, no. 88) 64-5780 



770. The yage letters [by] William Burroughs & 
Allen Ginsberg. [San Francisco] City 

Lights Books [ C i963] 68 p. illus. 

63-12222 PS35 5 2.U 75 Y3 

CONTENTS. In search of yage, 1953: William 
Burroughs to Allen Ginsberg. Seven years later, 
1960: Allen Ginsberg to William Burroughs. Bur- 
roughs' reply. Epilogue, 1963. 

771. Nova express. New York, Grove Press 
[1964] 187 p. 64-10597 

A novel. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 49 

772. TRUMAN CAPOTE, 1924- 
No. 1944 in 1960 Guide. 

773. Breakfast at Tiffany's, a short novel and three 
stories. New York, Random House [1958] 

179 p. 58-10956 PZ3.Ci724Br 

774. JOHN CHEEVER, 1912- 

A novelist and prolific writer of stories, 
Cheever observes contemporary urban and suburban 
life with facility and sophisticated style. He chal- 
lenges the standards of a materialistic society in 
cynical, melancholy, and sometimes humorous 
tones. Early collections of his stories, which have 
appeared in Esquire and The New Yorker, include 
The Way Some People Live (1943) and The Enor- 
mous Radio (1953). Cheever won a National Book 
Award in 1958 for his first novel, The Wapshot 
Chronicle. The further adventures of this New 
England family were traced in The Wapshot Scan- 
dal, a sequel published in 1964. 

775. The Wapshot chronicle. New York, Harper 
[1957] 307 p. 56-11100 PZ3.C3983Wap 

A novel. 

776. The housebreaker of Shady Hill, and other 
stories. New York, Harper [1958] 185 p. 

58-11397 



777. Some people, places, and things that will not 
appear in my next novel. New York, Harper 

[1961] 175 p. 61-7597 PZ3.C3983So 

Short stories. 

778. The brigadier and the golf widow. New 
York, Harper & Row [1964] 275 p. 

6420543 PZ3.C3983Br 
Short stories. 

779. The Wapshot scandal. New York, Harper 
& Row [ C i964] 309 p. 

63-20301 PZ3.C3983War 
A novel. 

780. JOHN CIARDI, 1916- 
No. 1948 in 1960 Guide. 

781. I marry you; a sheaf of love poems. New 
Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University Press, 

1958. 44 p. 58-9102 PS3505.I27I2 

782. 39 poems. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers 
University Press, 1959. 86 p. 

59-15628 PS3505.I27T5 



50 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



783. In the stoneworks. New Brunswick, N.J., 
Rutgers University Press [1961] 83 p. 

6110256 PS35O5.Ia7l5 
Poems. 

784. In fact. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers Uni- 
versity Press [1962] 68 p. 

62-18947 PS35<>5.l27l48 
Poems. 

785. Dialogue with an audience. Philadelphia, 
Lippincott [1963] 316 p. 

6315440 PNio64.C5 

All but two of the articles collected here appeared 
in The Saturday Review. 

786. Person to person. New Brunswick, N.J., 
Rutgers University Press [1964] 83 p. 

64-18873 PS3505.I27P4 
Poems. 

787. AUGUST WILLIAM DERLETH, 1900- 
No. 1959 in 1960 Guide. 

788. The house on the mound. New York, Duell, 
Sloan & Pearce [1958] 335 p. 

58-5563 PZ 3 .D445Hq 

This novel is a sequel to Bright Journey, no. 1962 
in the 1960 Guide. 

789. The hills stand watch. New York, Duell, 
Sloan & Pearce [1960] 337 p. 

605450 PZ3-D445Hi 
A novel. 

790. West of morning. Francestown, N.H., Gold- 
en Quill Press [1960] 64 p. 

60-16459 PS3507.E69W4 
Poems. 

791. Walden West. Woodcuts by Grisha Dot- 
zenko. New York, Duell, Sloan & Pearce 

[1961] 262 p. 61-14127 PS3507.E69W3 

Vignettes of village life in Sac Prairie, Wis. 

792. Wisconsin in their bones. New York, Duell, 
Sloan & Pearce [1961] . 

61-6918 PZ3.D445Wk 
Short stories. 

793. Countryman's journal. Illustrated by Grisha 
Dotzenko. New York, Duell, Sloan & Pearce 

[1963] 215 p. 63-16819 

Descriptions of life in Sac Prairie, Wis. 



794. The shadow in the glass. New York, Duell, 
Sloan & Pearce [1963] 471 p. 



A novel. 



62-8520 



795. Wisconsin country; a Sac Prairie journal. 
With decorations by Frank Utpatel. New 

York, Candlelight Press, 1965. 232 p. illus. 

65-4011 F589.P83D4 

796. JAMES LAFAYETTE DICKEY, 1923- 

Dickey is a personal poet who looks into 
ordinary experience to re-create incidents from life. 
Free-verse images of his youth in the South, motor- 
cycle-riding, World War II, Korea, hunting, and 
other aspects of his past are used to create what he 
calls a "stripped kind of simplicity in verse in order 
to make effective statements." Dickey's first col- 
lection of poetry, "Into the Stone, and Other Poems," 
was published in Poets of Today, v. 7 (New York, 
Scribner, [1960]), p. 3392, and he has since en- 
joyed an unusually successful career. The Wesleyan 
University Press has published several volumes of 
his poetry, the most acclaimed of which is Euc\- 
dancer's Choice (1965). Dickey is also noted for 
his strong opinions as a critic. 

797. Drowning with others, poems. Middletown, 
Conn., Wesleyan University Press [1962] 

96 p. 62-10570 PS3507-I268D7 

798. Helmets, poems. Middletown, Conn., Wes- 
leyan University Press [1964] 93 p. 

64-13610 PS3507.I268H4 

799. The suspect in poetry. [Madison, Minn.] 
Sixties Press, 1964. 120 p. 

62-21968 PS324.D5 
Essays on recent poetry and poets. 

800. Buckdancer's choice, poems. Middletown, 
Conn., Wesleyan University Press [1965] 
79 p. (The Wesleyan poetry program) 

65-21079 PS3507.I268B8 

801. RALPH ELLISON, 1914- 
No. 1966 in 1960 Guide. 

802. Shadow and act. New York, Random House 
[1964] xxii, 317 p. 

64-18928 PSi53.N5E4 1964 
Essays. 

803. PAUL HAMILTON ENGLE, 1908- 
No. 1968 in 1960 Guide. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 5! 



804. For the Iowa dead. [Iowa City] State Uni- 
versity of Iowa, 1956. [24] p. 

5627481 PS3509-N44F6 
Poems. 

805. Poems in praise. New York, Random House 
[ J 959] 97 P- 5910822 PS3509.N44P6 

806. A woman unashamed, and other poems. 
New York, Random House [1965] 109 p. 

65-11277 PS3509.N44W53 

807. HOWARD MELVIN FAST, 1914- 
No. 1973 in 1960 Guide. 

808. The story of Lola Gregg. New York, Blue 
Heron Press [1956] 219 p. 

563199 PZ3.F265Ss 
A novel. 

809. Moses, Prince of Egypt. New York, Crown 
Publishers [1958] 303 p. 

58-8324 PZ3.F265Mo 
A novel. 

810. The Winston affair. New York, Crown Pub- 
lishers [1959] 221 p. 

59-14020 PZ3.F265Wi 
A novel. 

8 1 1. April morning, a novel. New York, Crown 
Publishers [1961] 184 p. 

6110306 



812. Power, a novel. Garden City, N. Y., Double- 
day, 1962. 378 p. 6215943 



813. The hill, an original screenplay. Garden 
City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1964. 123 p. 

64-11381 PS35U.A784H5 

814. LAWRENCE FERLINGHETTI, 1919- 

After receiving a doctoral de I'universite from 
the Sorbonne, Ferlinghetti returned to the United 
States, where he became a founder of the San Fran- 
cisco City Lights Bookstore, reportedly the Nation's 
first all-paperback shop. He has been both an 
advocate and a practitioner of experimentation with 
literary forms and oral presentation of poetry. His 
first book of poems was Pictures of the Gone World 
( I 955)- An editor as well as a poet, he became 
the leading publisher of writers identified with the 
beat generation. Howl of the Censor (San Carlos, 
Calif., Nourse Pub. Co. [1961], 144 p.), a tran- 
script of the trial in which he defended himself 



against charges of publishing obscene literature, 
indicates his concept of the poet's role in society. 

815. A Coney Island of the mind, poems. [New 
York] New Directions [1958] 93 p. (New 

Directions paperbook no. 74) 

58-7150 PS35H.E557C6 

Includes new poems as well as selections from 
Pictures of the Gone World. 

8 1 6. Her. [New York, New Directions, 1960] 
156 p. (New Directions paperbook no. 88) 

60-9221 PZ4.F357He 
A novel. 

817. Starting from San Francisco. [Norfolk, 
Conn.] New Directions [1961] 79 p. and 

phonodisc (2 s. 7 in. 33^3 rpm. microgroove) in 
pocket. 61-14897 PS35U.E557S8 

Poems. 

8 1 8. Unfair arguments with existence, seven plays 
for a new theatre. [New York, New Direc- 
tions Books, 1963] 118 p. (A New Directions 
paperbook ND 143) 

63-21384 PS35H.E557U5 1963 

819. Routines. [New York, Published for J. 
Laughlin by New Directions Pub. Corp., 

52 p. (A New Directions paperbook 
NDPi87) 64-23652 PS35H.E557R6 

Experimental plays. 

820. JEAN GARRIGUE, 1912- 
No. 1981 in 1960 Guide. 

821. A water walk by Villa d'Este. New York, 
St. Martin's Press [1959] 96 p. 

59-15274 
Poems. 

822. Country without maps. New York, Macmil- 
lan [1964] 82 p. 

64-22600 PS35I3-A72I7C6 
Poems. 

823. ALLEN GINSBERG, 1926- 

Ginsberg has been considered the leading 
poet of the beat generation. In a first prophetic 
volume entitled Howl, and Other Poems (1956), he 
used loosely structured lines, mystical obscurity, and 
a vocabulary sometimes selected for its shock value 
to discuss drug addiction, sex, jazz, alcohol, suicide, 
and materialism in American life. He has con- 
tinued writing and publishing, especially in radical 



52 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



magazines, and has become widely known for his 
nonconformist views as well as for his poetry. 

824. Howl, and other poems. San Francisco, City 
Lights Pocket Bookshop [1956] 44 p. (The 

Pocket poets series, No. 4) 

56-8587 PS35I3.I74H6 

825. Kaddish, and other poems, 1958-1960. [San 
Francisco] City Lights Books [1961] 100 p. 

(The Pocket poets series, no. 14) 

60-14775 



826. Empty mirror, early poems. Introduction by 
William Carlos Williams. [New York] 
Totem Press [1961] 47 p. 

61-14983 



827. Reality sandwiches, 1953-60. [San Francis- 
co] City Lights Books; [distributed by Paper 

Editions Corp., 1963] 98 p. (The Pocket poets 
series, no. 18) 63-12219 PS35I3.I74R4 

828. HERBERT GOLD, 1924- 

Gold has gained widespread critical acclaim 
for his novels, short stories, and essays dealing with 
modern American life. In his first novel, Birth of a 
Hero (1951), Gold experimented with a stream-of- 
consciousness technique. His second novel, The 
Prospect Before Us (1954), exhibits his skill with 
colorful, colloquial language. In general, his writ- 
ing has tended to emphasize theme and feeling over 
plot and structure. 

829. The man who was not with it. Boston, Little, 
Brown [1956] 314 p. 

56-5623 PZ4.G6i8Man 
A novel. 

830. The optimist, a novel. Boston, Little, Brown 
[ J 959J 395 P- 59-6475 PZ4.G6i8Op 

831. Love & like. New York, Dial Press, 1960. 
307 p. 60-8397 PZ4.G6i8Lo 

Short stories. 

CONTENTS. The heart of the artichoke. Su- 
sanna at the beach. A celebration for Joe. The 
burglars and the boy. Encounter in Haiti. Ti- 
Moune. Paris and Cleveland are voyages. Aris- 
totle and the hired thugs. The panic button. 
Sello. What's become of your creature? Love 
and like. A tale of two husbands. Jim the man. 
Postface: An aftermath about these stories. 

832. Therefore be bold, a novel. New York, Dial 
Press, 1960. 256 p. 60-13431 PZ4.G6i8Th 



833. The age of happy problems. New York, Dial 
Press, 1962. 238 p. 6216333 169.1.658 

Essays. 

834. Salt, a novel. New York, Dial Press, 1963. 
318 p. 63-10553 PZ4.G6i8Sal 

835. WILLIAM GOYEN, 1915- 
No. 1984 in 1960 Guide. 

836. The faces of blood kindred, a novella and ten 
stories. [New York] Random House 

[1960] 167 p. 60-12124 



837. The fair sister, a novel. Garden City, N. Y., 
Doubleday, 1963. 104 p. 

63-17274 



838. LILLIAN FLORENCE HELLMAN, 1905- 
No. 1988 in 1960 Guide. 

839. Toys in the attic, a new play. New York, 
Random House [1960] u6p. illus. 

6012144 PS35I5.E343T6 

840. My mother, my father and me. Based on 
Burt Blechman's novel How much? New 

York, Random House [1963] 98 p. illus. 

6320244 PS35I5-E343M9 
A play. 

84 1 . JOHN RICH ARD HERSE Y, 1914- 
No. 1992 in 1960 Guide. 

842. A single pebble. New York, Knopf, 1956. 
181 p. 567209 PZ3.H4385Si 

A novel. 

843. The war lover. New York, Knopf, 1959. 
404 p. 59~ I 3 I 77 PZ3.H4385War 

A novel. 

844. The child buyer; a novel in the form of hear- 
ings before the Standing Committee on Edu- 

cation, Welfare, & Public Morality of a certain State 
Senate, investigating the conspiracy of Mr. Wissey 
Jones, with others, to purchase a male child. New 
York, Knopf, 1960. 257 p. 

60-13850 



845. Here to stay. New York, Knopf, 1963 
[ C i962] 335 p. 63-9123 0525^43 1963 
A selection of previously published articles. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 53 



846. White lotus. New York, Knopf, 1965. 
683 p. 65-11104 PZ3.H4385WH 

A novel. 

847. WILLIAM MOTTER INGE, 1913- 
No. 1995 in 1960 Guide. 

848. The dark at the top of the stairs, a new play. 
With an introduction by Tennessee Williams. 

New York, Random House [1958] 108 p. illus. 
58-8057 PS35I7.N265D3 

849. A loss of roses, a new play. With a foreword 
by the author. New York, Random House 

[1960] 127 p. illus. 60-8376 PS35I7.N265L6 

850. Splendor in the grass, a screenplay. New 
York, Bantam Books [1961] 121 p. (A 

Bantam book, 72204) 61-65785 PS35I7.N265S6 

851. Summer brave, and eleven short plays. New 
York, Random House [1962] 299 p. 

62-12730 PS35I7.N265P5 1962 
The lead play in this volume is the rewritten ver- 
sion of the author's Picnic, no. 1997 in the 1960 
Guide. 

852. Natural affection. New York, Random 
House [1963] 115 p. 

63-16855 PS35I7.N265N3 
A play. 

853. RANDALL JARRELL, 1914-1965 
No. 1999 in 1960 Guide. 

854. The woman at the Washington Zoo, poems 
& translations. New York, Atheneum, 1960. 

65 p. 60-11039 PS35I9.A86W6 

855. A sad heart at the supermarket, essays & 
fables. New York, Atheneum, 1962. 211 p. 

62-11681 PS35I9.A86S3 

856. Selected poems, including The woman at the 
Washington Zoo. New York, Atheneum, 

1964. xxii, 205, vii viii, 65 p. (Atheneum paper- 
backs, 66) 64-54618 PS35I9-A86A6 1964 

857. The lost world. New York, Macmillan 
[ c i965J 69 p. 6420736 PS35I9.A86L63 

Poems. 

858. JAMES JONES, 1921- 
No. 2003 in 1960 Guide. 



859. The pistol. New York, Scribner [1959, 
C i 95 8] 158 p. 59-5785 PZ4-J77Pi 

A novel. 

860. The thin red line. New York, Scribner 
[1962] 495 p. illus. 

6212099 
A novel. 



861. JOHN ("JACK") KEROUAC, 1922- 

Kerouac's fiction has taken the form of a 
series of autobiographical novels and reminiscences. 
His first work, The Town & the City (1950), is 
the story of a Massachusetts family during the pe- 
riod from 1910 through the years of World War II. 
Additional episodes from his youth form the basis 
for Doctor Sax (1959) and Visions of Gerard 
(1963). American beat life is portrayed in his most 
famous work, On the Road (1957), an episodic 
novel about the aimless wanderings of an author. 
Later works about the beat generation, a term 
Kerouac is credited with coining, are The Dharma 
Bums (1958), The Subterraneans (1958), Big Sur 
(1962), and Desolation Angels (1965). 

862. On the road. New York, Viking Press, 1957. 
310 p. 57-9425 

A novel. 



863. 



. The Dharma bums. New York, Viking 
8 2 . 



Press, 1958. 244 p 



58-11734 



5-11734 3.459 

A novel of the beat generation's search for a state 
of mind approximating the Buddhist concept of 
Dharma. 



864. The subterraneans. New York, Grove Press 
[1958] 1 1 1 p. (Evergreen books, -99) 

58-6703 PZ3.K4596Su 
A novel. 

865. Mexico City blues. New York, Grove Press 
[1959] 244 p. 59-12222 PS352I.E735M4 

Poems of a "jazz poet." 

866. Doctor Sax; Faust part three. New York, 
Grove Press [1959] 245 p. 

59-9806 PZ3.K4596Do 
A novel. 

867. Excerpts from Visions of Cody. [New York, 
New Directions, 1959, C i96o] 128 p. 

604490 PZ3-K4596Ex 

A character study of the renamed hero of On the 
Road. 



54 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



868. Big Sur. New York, Farrar, Straus & Cud- 
ahy [1962] 241 p. 

62-14957 PZ3-K4596Bi 
A novel. 

869. Visions of Gerard. New York, Farrar, Straus 
[1963] 151 p. illus. 

63-16472 PZ3.K4596Vi 3 
A novel. 

870. Desolation angels, a novel. Introduction by 
Seymour Krim. New York, Coward-McCann 

[1965] xxviii, 366 p. 

65-17524 PZ3.K.4596De 

871. ROBERT LOWELL, 1917- 
No. 2007 in 1960 Guide. 

872. Life studies. New York, Farrar, Straus, & 
Cudahy [1959] 90 p. 

59-9174 PS3523.O89L5 
Verse and prose. 

873. Imitations. [New York, Noonday Press, 
1962?] 149 p. (Noonday 233) 

62-52845 PS3523.O89I4 
Poems. 

874. For the Union dead. New York, Farrar, 
Straus & Giroux [1964] 72 p. 

64-21495 PS3523.O89F6 
Poems. 

875. The Old Glory. New York, Farrar, Straus 
& Giroux [1965] xix, 193 p. illus. 

65-24026 PS3523.O89O4 

"Theater trilogy . . . based on stories by Haw- 
thorne and a novella by Melville." 

CONTENTS. Introduction, by Robert Brustein. 
Director's note, by Jonathan Miller. Endecott and 
the red cross. My kinsman, Major Molineux. 
Benito Gereno. 

876. Mazzaro, Jerome. The poetic themes of 
Robert Lowell. Ann Arbor, University of 

Michigan Press [1965] 145 p. 

65-20349 PS3523.O89Z77 
Bibliography: p. 137140. 

877. ROBERT JAMES COLLAS LOWRY, 

1919- 

No. 201 1 in 1960 Guide. 

878. What's left of April. Garden City, N.Y., 
Doubleday, 1956. 247 p. 

56-9399 
A novel. 



879- New York call girl. Garden City, N.Y., 
Doubleday, 1958. 237 p. 

5810029 PZ3-L9564Ne 
Short stories. 

880. MARY THERESE McC ARTH Y, 1912- 
No. 2017 in 1960 Guide. 

881. Memories of a Catholic girlhood. New York, 
Harcourt, Brace [1957] 245 p. 

57-8842 
Memoirs. 



882. The group. New York, Harcourt, Brace & 
World [1963] 378 p. 

63-15316 
A novel. 



883. Theatre chronicles, 19371962. New York, 
Farrar, Straus [1963] xxi, 248 p. 

6318449 PN2277.N5M22 1963 
Most of the selections were originally published in 
Partisan Review and also in the author's Sights and 
Spectacles, 19371956 (1956). 

884. CARSON SMITH McCULLERS, 1917- 
No. 2023 in 1960 Guide. 

885. The square root of wonderful, a play. Bos- 
ton, Houghton Mifflin, 1958. 159 p. 

58-6501 



886. Clock without hands. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1961. 241 p. 

61-10351 
A novel. 



887. Evans, Oliver W. Carson McCullers; her life 
and work. London, P. Owen [1965] 220 p. 

66-45393 PS3525.Ai772Z6 1965 
Bibliographical footnotes. 

888. NORMAN MAILER, 1923- 
No. 2025 in 1960 Guide. 

889. Advertisements for myself. New York, Put- 
nam [1959] 532 p. 

591 1 020 PS3525- A4 1 52Z52 
Short stories, articles, and essays, connected by an 
autobiographical narrative. 



890. BERNARD MALAMUD, 1914- 

In much of his fiction Malamud has drawn 
heavily upon his familiarity with Jewish culture, 
traditions, and folkways in America. The social 
implications of his work are by no means limited 
to a single ethnic group, however. His first novel, 
The Natural, was published in 1952. The critical 
response to this comic treatment of a baseball hero's 
attempt to achieve the American dream was mixed. 
He received the 1959 National Book Award for The 
Magic Barrel (1958), a volume of short stories, and 
has since won other prizes as well as popular 
acclaim for his novels and short stories. 

891. The assistant, a novel. New York, Farrar, 
Straus & Cudahy [1957] 246 p. 

57-7397 



892. The magic barrel. New York, Farrar, Straus 
& Cudahy [1958] 214 p. 

58-6841 PZ4.M23yMag 

Short stories. 

CONTENTS. The first seven years. The mourn- 
ers. The girl of my dreams. Angel Levine. 
Behold the key. Take pity. The prison. The 
lady of the lake. A summer's reading. The bill. 
The last Mohican. The loan. The magic 
barrel. 

893. A new life. New York, Farrar, Straus & 
Cudahy [1961] 367 p. 

61-11416 PZ4.M237Ne 
A novel. 

894. Idiots first. New York, Farrar, Straus [1963] 
212 p. 6319562 PZ4-M237ld 

Short stories and a scene from a play. 

CONTENTS. Idiots first. Black is my favorite 
color. Still life. The death of me. A choice of 
profession. Life is better than death. The Jew- 
bird. Naked nude. The cost of living. The 
maid's shoes. Suppose a wedding (a scene of a 
play). The German refugee. 

895. WILLIAM KEEPERS MAXWELL, 1908- 
No. 2029 in 1960 Guide. 

896. The chateau. New York, Knopf, 1961. 
401 p. 617125 

A novel. 

897. THOMAS MERTON, 1915- 
No. 2034 in 1960 Guide. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 55 

898. The strange islands, poems. [New York, 
New Directions, 1957] 102 p. 

57-8600 PS3525.E7I74S8 

899. Secular journal. New York, Farrar, Straus 
& Cudahy [1959] 270 p. 

59-6588 BX4705.M542A28 
A previously unpublished journal written by 
Merton before he became a Trappist monk. 

900. Disputed questions. New York, Farrar, 
Straus & Cudahy [1960] 297 p. 

60-12636 6X89 1. M45 
Essays. 

901. The behavior of Titans. [New York] New 
Directions [1961] 106 p. 

60-10879 PS3525.E7I74B4 
Meditations. 

902. New seeds of contemplation. [Norfolk, 
Conn.] New Directions [1962, C i96i] 

297 p. 61-17869 6X2350.2^46 

A revised edition of no. 2038 in the 1960 Guide. 

903. A Thomas Merton reader. Edited by Thom- 
as P. McDonnell. New York, Harcourt, 

Brace & World [1962] 553 p. 

62-16737 PS3525.E7I74A6 1962 

904. Emblems of a season of fury. [Norfolk, 
Conn., J. Laughlin, 1963] 149 p. (A New 

Directions paperbook, no. 140) 

63-18635 PS3525.E7I74E4 
Poems. 

905. Seeds of destruction. New York, Farrar, 
Straus & Giroux [1965, C i964] xvi, 328 p. 

64-19595 BT734.2.M 4 

CONTENTS. Black revolution: Letters to a white 
liberal. The legend of Tucker Caliban. The 
diaspora: The Christian in world crisis. The 
Christian in the diaspora. A tribute to Gandhi. 
Letters in a time of crisis. 

906. The way of Chuang-tzu. [New York] New 
Directions [1965] 159 p. 

6527556 BLi9oo.C483M4 
Bibliography: p. 158. 

Free renderings of selections from various trans- 
lations of the works of Chuang-tzu. 

907. JAMES ALBERT MICHENER, 1907- 

Much of Michener's work has been based 
upon his studies of the islands in the Pacific. His 
first book of short stories, Tales of the South 
Pacific (1947), won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 



56 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



1948. A series of novels followed. Michener de- 
scribed Return to Paradise (1951) as "half fiction, 
half hard reporting," The Bridges at To\o-ri (1953) 
as "an intense, bitterly controlled novel," and 
Sayonara (1954), as "a novella in an antique style." 
His epic work, Hawaii (1959), is a saga about the 
island complex and its inhabitants from geological 
beginnings to the present. In recent years, Mich- 
ener has expanded his scope to include the Near 
and Middle East. 

908. Hawaii. New York, Random House [1959] 
937 p. 59-10815 



909. Caravans, a novel. New York, Random 
House [1963] 341 p. 

63-16152 PZ3.M583Car 2 
Set in Afghanistan. 

910. The source, a novel. New York, Random 
House [1965] 909 p. 

65-11255 PZ3.M583So 
Set in Israel. 

911. ARTHUR MILLER, 1915- 
No. 2043 in 1960 Guide. 

912. A view from the bridge, a play in two acts. 
With a new introduction. New York, Vik- 

ing Press [1960] 86 p. (Compass books, 073) 

60-4782 PS3525.I5I56V5 1960 
A revised and enlarged edition of the tide play in 
no. 2049 in the 1960 Guide. 

913. The misfits. New York, Viking Press 
[1961] 132 p. 61-6089 PZ3.M6i224Mi 

A "story conceived as a film." An earlier version 
appeared as a short story in Esquire. 

914. After the fall, a play. [Rev. final stage ver- 
sion] New York, Viking Press [1964] 

114 p. 661903 PS3525.I5I56A66 19643 

915. Incident at Vichy, a play. New World, Vik- 
ing Press [1965] 70 p. 

65-12025 PS3525.I5I56I5 

916. Huftel, Sheila. Arthur Miller: the burning 
glass. New York, Citadel Press [1965] 

256 p. 65-15492 PS3525.I5I56Z7 

A critical account of Miller's plays. 

917. Welland, Dennis S. R. Arthur Miller. New 
York, Grove Press [1961] 124 p. (Ever- 



green pilot books, EPn) 

61-12358 PS3525. I5I56Z95 1961 
Bibliography: p. 123124. 
A brief biography with criticism. 

918. WRIGHT MORRIS, 1910- 
No. 2052 in 1960 Guide. 

919. The field of vision. New York, Harcourt, 
Brace [1956] 251 p. 

56-8525 PZ3.M8346Fi 
A novel. 

920. Love among the cannibals. New York, Har- 
court, Brace [1957] 253 p. 

57-10060 PZ3.M8346Lo 
A novel. 

921. Ceremony in Lone Tree. New York, Athen- 
eum, 1960. 304 p. 

60-7775 PZ3.M8346Ce 
A novel. 

922. What a way to go. New York, Atheneum, 
1962. 310 p. 62-17278 PZ3.M8346Wh 

A novel. 

923. One day. New York, Atheneum, 1965. 
433 p. 6512403 PZ3.M8346On 

A novel. 

924. Madden, David. Wright Morris. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1965, C i964] 191 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 71) 

64-20721 PS3525.O7475Z7 
Bibliographical notes: p. 172-176. Bibliography: 
p. 177-184. 

925. VLADIMIR VLADIMIROVICH NABO- 

KOV, 1890- 

Nabokov left Russia in 1919, acquired his higher 
education in England, resided at various times in 
Berlin and Paris, and came to the United States in 
1940. His early works were written in Russian. His 
first novel in English, The Real Life of Sebastian 
Knight (1941), is the story of a Russian emigre in 
Paris. Nabokov taught in various universities while 
continuing to publish works such as Bend Sinister 
(1947), a novel; Conclusive Evidence (1951), an 
autobiography (entided Spea\, Memory in Eng- 
land); and Poems 1929-1951 (1952). His novel 
Lolita, first published in Paris in 1955, became an 
overwhelming success. In all his works novels, 
short stories, poems, translations, biography, and 
autobiography Nabokov has displayed unusual 
skill in the creative use of language. His composi- 
tional acrostics represent a delightful challenge to 
many of his readers. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 57 



926. Pnin. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1957. 
191 p. 576299 PZ3.Ni2iPn 

A novel. 

927. Lolita. New York, Putnam [1958, C i955] 
319 p. 5810755 PZ3.Ni2iLo 2 

A novel. 

928. Nabokov's dozen, a collection of thirteen 
stories. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1958. 

214 p. 5810032 PZ3.Ni2iNab 

Includes those published in Nine Stories (New 
York, New Directions, 1947. 126 p.). 

929. Invitation to a beheading. Translated by 
Dmitri Nabokov in collaboration with the 

author. New York, Putnam [1959] 223 p. 

5911024 PZ3.Ni2iIn 

A novel originally written in Russian in 1938, 
translated by the author's son. 

930. Poems. Drawings by Robin Jacques. Gar- 
den City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1959. 43 p. 

59-10681 



931. Pale fire, a novel. New York, Putnam 
[1962] 315 p. 627351 PZ3.Ni2iPal 

932. The gift, a novel. Translated from the Rus- 
sian by Michael Scammell with the collabora- 

tion of the author. New York, Putnam [1963] 
378 p. 63-9667 PZ3.Ni2iGi 

The first Russian version appeared in Sovre- 
mennyia zapisty, annales contemporaines (Paris), 
ir I935-3 6 - 

933. The defense, a novel. Translated by Michael 
Scammell in collaboration with the author. 

New York [1964] 256 p. 

64-13017 PZ3.Ni2iDc 
Originally written in Russian in 1930. 

934. HOWARD NEMEROV, 1920- 

Nemerov is a versatile writer of novels, short 
stories, plays, poetry, and criticism. His novels 
The Melodramatists (1949), Federigo; or, The 
Power oj Love (1954), and The Homecoming 
Game (1957) have satirized various aspects of life 
in America. In his poems, on the other hand, he 
treats such universal themes as life and death, the 
mind and science, nature and man, and myth and 
reality. Early volumes of his poetry include The 
Image and the Law (1947), Guide to the Ruins 
(1950), and The Salt Garden (1955). 



935. The homecoming game, a novel. New York, 
Simon & Schuster, 1957. 246 p. 

57-5679 PS3527.E5H6 

936. Mirrors & windows, poems. [Chicago] 
University of Chicago Press, 1958. 101 p. 

58-5683 PS3527.E5M5 

937. A commodity of dreams & other stories. New 
York, Simon & Schuster, 1959. 245 p. 

59-6015 



938. New & selected poems. [Chicago] Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press, 1960. 115 p. 

60-14236 PS3527-E5Ai7 1960 



939. The next room of the dream, poems and two 
plays. [Chicago] University of Chicago 

Press [1962] 143 p. 62-22328 PS3527.E5N4 

940. Poetry and fiction, essays. New Brunswick, 
N. J., Rutgers University Press 

381 p. 63-16301 

Critical lectures and book reviews. 

941. JOHN FREDERICK NIMS, 1913- 
No. 2060 in 1960 Guide. 

942. Knowledge of the evening: poems, 1950 
1960. New Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers Uni- 

versity Press [1960] 96 p. 

60-11524 PS3527.I863K6 

943. FLANNERY O'CONNOR, 1925-1964 

Miss O'Connor's work is admired for its 
acute sense of irony, insight, and comic nuance. 
Her Southern gothic tales of the macabre and gro- 
tesque, although seldom pleasant, are greatly re- 
vealing of character and setting. An overtone of 
religious conflict permeates her fiction. Wise Blood, 
which first appeared in 1952, is described in the 
author's preface to the second edition as "a comic 
novel about a Christian malgre lui, and as such, 
very serious, for all comic novels that are any good 
must be about matters of life and death." Miss 
O'Connor's 1955 collection of short stories, A Good 
Man Is Hard To Find, was published in London 
under the title The Artificial Nigger (1957). 

944. The violent bear it away. New York, Farrar, 
Straus & Cudahy [1960] 243 p. 

60-6752 PZ4.Oi83Vi 
A novel. 

945. Wise blood. [2d ed.] New York, Farrar, 
Straus & Cudahy [1962] 232 p. 

62-5776 PZ4.Oi83Wi 5 



58 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



946. Everything that rises must converge. New 
York, Farrar, Straus & Giroux [1965] xxxiv, 

269 p. 65-13726 PZ4.Oi83Ev 

A memoir by Robert Fitzgerald introduces this 
collection of short stories. 

947. CLIFFORD ODETS, 1906-1963 
No. 2063 in 1960 Guide. 

948. Shuman, Robert Baird. Clifford Odets. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [ C i962] 160 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 30) 

6219474 PS3529-D46Z87 
Bibliographical notes: p. 149-151. Bibliography: 
p. 152-155. 

949. JOHN HENRY O'HARA, 1905- 
No. 2069 in 1960 Guide. 

950. A family party. New York, Random House 
[1956] 64 p. 56-10932 PZ3.O3677Fam 

A short story. 

951. From the terrace, a novel. New York, Ran- 
dom House [1958] 897 p. 

58-12336 



952. Ourselves to know, a novel. New York, 
Random House [1960] 408 p. 
60-5528 



953. Sermons and soda-water. New York, Ran- 
dom House [1960] 3 v. 

60-16572 PZ3.O3677Sg 

Three related novellas. 

CONTENTS. v. i. The girl on the baggage truck. 
v. 2. Imagine kissing Pete. v. 3. We're friends 
again. 

954. Assembly. New York, Random House 
[1961] 429 p. 61-12172 PZ3.O3677As 

Short stories. 

955. Five plays. New York, Random House 
[1961] xiv, 473 p. 

61-14888 PS3529.H29Ai9 1961 
CONTENTS. The farmers hotel. The searching 
sun. The champagne pool. Veronique. The 
way it was. 

956. The Cape Cod lighter. New York, Random 
House [1962] 425 p. 

62-8455 
Short stories. 



957. Elizabeth Appleton, a novel. New York, 
Random House [1963] 310 p. 

6314140 PZ3.O3677E1 

958. The hat on the bed. New York, Random 
House [1963] 405 p. 

6320247 PZ3-O3677Hat 
Stories. 

959. The horse knows the way. New York, Ran- 
dom House [1964] 429 p. 

64-7751 PZ3.O3677Hr 
Twenty-eight short stories. 

960. KENNETH PATCHEN, 1911- 
No. 2079 in 1960 Guide. 

961. When we were here together. [New York] 
New Directions [1957] 112 p. 

57-13081 PS353I.A764W5 
Poems. 

962. Selected poems. Enl. ed. [New York] New 
Directions [1958, C i957] 145 p. illus. 

(The New classics series) 

58590 PS353I.A764A6 1958 
A revised and enlarged edition of no. 2083 in the 
1960 Guide. 

963. FREDERIC PROKOSCH, 1908- 
No. 2087 in 1960 Guide. 

964. A ballad of love. New York, Farrar, Straus 
& Cudahy [1960] 311 p. 

6012517 PZ3-P9424Bal 
A novel. 

965. The seven sisters. New York, Farrar, Straus 
& Cudahy [1962] 405 p. 

62-18414 PZ3.P9424Sc 
A novel. 

966. The dark dancer. New York, Farrar, Straus 
[1964] 305 p. 

64-11268 PZ3.P9424Dar 
A novel. 

967. Squires, James Radcliffe. Frederic Prokosch. 
New York, Twayne Publishers [1964] 158 

p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 61) 

64-13957 PS 3 53i.R 7 8Z87 

Bibliographical notes: p. 148-150. Bibliography: 
p. 151-152. 

968. KENNETH REXROTH, 1905- 
No. 2098 in 1960 Guide. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 59 



969. In defense of the earth. [New York] New 
Directions [1956] 93 p. 

56-13352 PS3535.T923l 4 8 
Poems. 

970. Natural numbers; new and selected poems. 
[Norfolk, Conn.] New Directions, 1963. 

119 p. 6318636 PS3535.E923Ai7 1963 

97 1 . THEODORE ROETHKE, 1 908-1 963 
No. 2103 in 1960 Guide. 

972. Words for the wind, the collected verse. Gar- 
den City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1958. 212 p. 

5810039 PS3535.O39W6 1958 

973. The far field. Garden City, N. Y., Double- 
day, 1964. 95 p. 64-12105 PS3535-O39F3 

Poems. 

974. On the poet and his craft; selected prose. 
Edited with an introduction by Ralph J. Mills, 

Jr. Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1965. 
xvi, 154 p. 6522387 PNio64.R6 

975. Stein, Arnold S., ed. Theodore Roethke; 
essays on the poetry. Seattle, University of 

Washington Press [1965] xx, 199 p. 
65-23914 



976. PHILIP MILTON ROTH, 1933- 

Roth received a National Book Award in 1960 
for his first book, Goodbye, Columbus. Containing 
five short stories as well as the title novella, this 
collection conveys Roth's sharp sense of the pathos 
and humor in Jewish middle-class life in America. 
Roth has since become well known for his distinc- 
tive portrayals of this milieu. 

977. Goodbye, Columbus, and five short stories. 
Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1959. 298 p. 

59-7579 PZ 4 .R845 4 Go 

978. Letting go. New York, Random House 
[1962] 630 p. 62-8472 PZ4-R8454Le 2 

A novel. 

979. MURIEL RUKEYSER, 1913- 
No. 2105 in 1960 Guide. 

980. One life. New York, Simon & Schuster, 
: 957- 33 P- 57-5680 E748.W7R8 

An imaginative work about Wendell Willkie, 
containing a blend of stories, poems, documents, 
and newspaper quotations. 



981. Body of waking. New York, Harper [1958] 
n8p. 57-11788 PS3535.U4B6 

Poems. 

982. Waterlily fire: poems, 19351962. New 
York, Macmillan, 1962. 200 p. 

62-13595 



983. JEROME DAVID SALINGER, 1919- 
No. 2107 in 1960 Guide. 

984. Franny and Zooey. Boston, Litde, Brown 
[1961] 201 p. 6114542 PZ4.Si65Fr 3 

Two stories previously published in The New 
Yorker. 

985. Raise high the roof beam, carpenters, and 
Seymour an introduction. Boston, Litde, 

Brown [1963, C i959] 248 p. 

63-8969 PZ4.Si65Rai 5 

Two stories previously published in The New 
Yorker. 

986. French, Warren G. J. D. Salinger. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1963] 191 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 40) 

6310957 PS3537.A426Z6 

Bibliographical notes: p. 171178. Bibliography: 
p. 179186. 

987. Grunwald, Henry A., ed. Salinger; a critical 
and personal portrait. New York, Harper 

[1962] 287 p. 62-11222 PS3537.A426Z62 

988. Laser, Marvin, and Norman Fruman, eds. 
Studies in J. D. Salinger: reviews, essays, and 

critiques of The catcher in the rye, and other fiction. 
New York, Odyssey Press [1963] 272 p. 

63-14023 PS3537.A426Z7 
Includes bibliography. 

989. WILLIAM SAROYAN, 1908- 
No. 21 10 in 1960 Guide. 

990. The whole voyald, and other stories. Boston, 
Little, Brown [1956] 243 p. (An Adantic 

Monthly Press book) ' 56-10653 



991. Mama, I love you. Boston, Little, Brown 
[1956] 245 p. 567051 PZ3.S246Mam 

A novel. 

992. Papa, you're crazy. Boston, Litde, Brown 
[1957] 165 p. 57-7840 PZ3.S246Pap 

A novel. 



60 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



993. The cave dwellers, a play. New York, Put- 
nam [1958] i 87 p. 

58-8902 PS3537.A826C3 

994. Here comes, there goes, you know who. 
New York, Simon & Schuster, 1961. 273 p. 

61-17926 PS3537.A826Z53 
Autobiography. 

995. After thirty years: the daring young man on 
the flying trapeze. New York, Harcourt, 

Brace & World [1964] 312 p. 

64-7446 PZ3.S246Af 

Saroyan's reminiscences of his life since the 1930'$, 
together with a reprint of The Daring young Man 
on the Flying Trapeze and Other Stories. 

996. One day in the afternoon of the world. New 
York, Harcourt, Brace & World [1964] 

245 p. 6420194 PZ3.S246On 

A novel. 

997. MAY SARTON, 1912- 
No. 2123 in 1960 Guide. 

998. The birth of a grandfather. New York, 
Rinehart [1957] 277 p. 

579630 PZ3.S249Bi 
A novel. 

999. In time like air, poems. New York, Rinehart 
[1958] Sop. 58-5012 PS3537.A832I45 

1000. I knew a phoenix; sketches for an autobiog- 
raphy. New York, Rinehart [1959] 222 p. 

59-6569 



1001. Cloud, stone, sun, vine: poems, selected and 
new. New York, Norton [1961] 144 p. 

61-13040 PS3537.A832C55 

1002. The small room, a novel. New York, Nor- 
ton [1961] 249 p. 

6111347 



1003. Mrs. Stevens hears the mermaids singing, a 
novel. New York, Norton [1965] 220 p. 

65-18016 PZ3.S249Mi 

1004. DELMORE SCHWARTZ, 1913- 
No. 2133 in 1960 Guide. 

1005. Summer knowledge: new and selected 
poems, 19381958. Garden City, N. Y., 

Doubleday, 1959. 240 p. 

59-10689 PS3537.C79S8 



1006. Successful love, and other stories. New 
York, Corinth Books, 1961. 242 p. 

6114981 PZ3.S405Su 

1007. KARL JAY SHAPIRO, 1913- 
No. 2139 in 1960 Guide. 

1008. In defense of ignorance. New York, Ran- 
dom House [1960] 338 p. 

605607 PS3537.H27I5 
Essays in literary criticism. 

1009. The bourgeois poet. New York, Random 
House [1964] 1 20 p. 

64-10356 PS3537.H27B6 
An autobiographical prose poem. 

1010. IRWIN SHAW, 1913- 
No. 2145 in 1960 Guide. 

ion. Lucy Crown, a novel. New York, Random 
House [1956] 339 p. 

55-8168 



1012. Tip on a dead jockey, and other stories. 
New York, Random House [1957] 242 p. 

57-5382 PZ 3 .S 5 357Ti 

1013. Two weeks in another town. New York, 
Random House [1960] 372 p. 

60-5560 
A novel. 

1014. Voices of a summer day. New York, Dis- 
tributed by the Dial Press [1965] 223 p. 

65-13414 PZ3.S5357Vo 
A novel. 

1015. ISAAC BASHEVIS SINGER, 1904- 

Singer was educated at a rabbinical school 
in Warsaw, Poland. He came to the United States 
in 1935. His novels and short stories, written in 
Yiddish, convey a picture of the vanished world of 
Polish Jewry. His first work to be translated into 
English was The Family Masqat (1950), a conven- 
tional narrative about a family of Polish Jews during 
the period from the late i9th century until World 
War II. In 1955 he published a translation of Satan 
in Goray, a novel written in 1935. This work intro- 
duced his American audience to the elements of 
fantasy, irrationality, and the grotesque that pervade 
much of Singer's fiction. 

1 01 6. Gimpel the fool, and other stories. New 
York, Noonday Press [ C i957] 205 p. 

58-1234 
Translated by Saul Bellow and others. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 6l 



1017. The magician of Lublin. Translated from 
the Yiddish by Elaine Gottlieb and Joseph 

Singer. New York, Noonday Press [1960] 246 p. 
6010006 PZ3.S6i657Mag 
A novel. 

1018. The Spinoza of Market Street. New York, 
Farrar, Straus & Cudahy [1961] 214 p. 

61-13676 PZ3.S6i657Sp 3 
Short stories, translated by Martha Glicklich and 
others. 

1019. The slave, a novel. Translated from the 
Yiddish by the author and Cecil Hemley. 

New York, Farrar, Straus & Cudahy [1962] 311 p. 
62-10501 



1 020. Short Friday, and other stories. New York, 
Farrar, Straus & Giroux [1964] 243 p. 

64-23122 
Translated by Joseph Singer and Roger Klein. 

1021. HARRY ALLEN SMITH, 1907- 
No. 2149 in 1960 Guide. 

1022. The pig in the barber shop. Boston, Little, 
Brown [1958] 316 p. 

5811441 
A humorous account of a journey in Mexico. 

1023. Let the crabgrass grow; H. Allen Smith's 
suburban almanac. Illustrated by Donald 

Madden. [New York] B. Geis Associates; dis- 
tributed by Random House [1960] 256 p. 

60-10125 PS3537*M4655L4 
Anecdotes of suburban life. 

1024. How to write without knowing nothing; a 
book largely concerned with the use and 

misuse of language at home and abroad. Boston, 
Little, Brown [1961] 179 p. 

61-12813 PN6i62.S65733 
Essays. 

1025. To hell in a handbasket. Garden City, 
N. Y., Doubleday, 1962. 341 p. ill us. 

62-7680 PN4874.S56A26 
Autobiography. 

1026. A short history of ringers, and other state 
papers. Illustrated by Leo Hershfield. 

Boston, Little, Brown [1963] 301 p. 

63-17425 
A collection of articles. 



1027. JEAN STAFFORD, 1915- 
No. 2156 in 1960 Guide. 

1028. Bad characters. New York, Farrar, Straus 
[1964] 276 p. 64-23037 PZ3.S7783Bad 

Short stories. 

1029. WALLACE EARLE STEGNER, 1909- 
No. 2161 in 1960 Guide. 

1030. The city of the living, and other stories. 
Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1956. 206 p. 

56-12088 PZ3.S8i8Ci 

1031. A shooting star. New York, Viking Press, 
1961. 433 p. 61-7037 PZ3.S8i8Sh 

A novel. 

1032. JESSE STUART, 1907- 
No. 2166 in 1960 Guide. 

1033. The year of my rebirth. Illustrated by Bar- 
ry Martin. New York, McGraw-Hill 

[1956] 342 p. 56-12275 RC682.S8 

A journal kept while recovering from a heart 
attack. 

1034. Plowshare in heaven, stories. New York, 
McGraw-Hill [1958] 273 p. illus. 

58-11194 PZ3.S9306P1 

1035. God's oddling; the story of Mick Stuart, my 
father. New York, McGraw-Hill [1960] 

266 p. 60-15006 P$3537.T925i6G6 

Biographical stories. 

1036. Hold April, new poems. Woodcuts by Wal- 
ter Ferro. New York, McGraw-Hill [1962] 

114 p. 6118440 PS3537-T925i6H6 1962 

1037. Daughter of the legend. New York, Mc- 
Graw-Hill [1965] 249 p. 

6525553 PZ3.S93o6Dau 
A novel. 

1038. WILLIAM STYRON, 1925- 
No. 2174 in 1960 Guide. 

1039. Set this house on fire. New York, Random 
House [1960] 507 p. 

60-5568 PZ4.S938Se 
A novel. 

1040. PETER HILLSMAN TAYLOR, 1917- 
No. 2176 in 1960 Guide. 



62 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



1041. Tennessee Day in St. Louis, a comedy. New 
York, Random House [1957] 177 p. 

57-6463 PS3539.A 9 633T 4 
A play. 

1042. Happy families are all alike, a collection of 
stories. New York, McDowell, Obolensky 

[1959] 305 p. 59-!537 6 PZ3.T2i767Hap 

1043. Miss Leonora when last seen, and fifteen 
other stories. New York, I. Obolensky 

[=1963] 398 p. 63-20872 



1049. The same door, short stories. New York, 
Knopf, 1959. 241 p. 

59-9776 



1044. MELVIN BEAUNORUS TOLSON, 1900- 

In an introduction to Tolson's Harlem Gal- 
lery, Karl Shapiro states: "A great poet has been 
living in our midst for decades and is almost totally 
unknown, even by the literati, even by poets." 
Tolson was born in Missouri, won a national poetry 
competition of the American Negro Exposition at 
Chicago in 1940, and published his first book of 
poems, Rendezvous with America, in 1944. He was 
named Poet Laureate of Liberia in 1947 and was 
commissioned to write the Libretto for the Republic 
of Liberia celebrating that country's centennial. 
Poetry magazine (Chicago) published a section of 
the poem in 1950; in a preface to the book (1953), 
Allen Tate expresses his appreciation of Tolson's 
talent, saying that "there is a great gift for language, 
a profound historical sense, and a first-rate intelli- 
gence at work in this poem from first to last." 
Tolson received Poetry magazine's Bess Hokin 
prize in 1951 for his poem "E. & O. E." 

1045. Harlem gallery. With an introduction by 
Karl Shapiro. Book i. The curator. New 

York, Twayne [1965] 173 p. 

64-25063 PS3539.C-334H3 

1046. JOHN HOYER UPDIKE, 1932- 

Since the first appearance of his stories, 
sketches, and verse in The New Yorker, Updike has 
been hailed as a master stylist and precocious tech- 
nician. His fiction, which is often set in the small 
Pennsylvania town of his childhood, displays a 
special understanding of the sorrows of youth and 
old age. His novel The Centaur (1963) won the 
1964 National Book Award. 

1047. The carpentered hen, and other tame crea- 
tures, poems. New York, Harper [1958] 

82 p. 58-6158 PS354I.P47C3 

1048. The poorhouse fair. New York, Knopf, 

959 [ C i95 8 l 185 P- 

59-5431 
Updike's first novel. 



1050. Rabbit, run. New York, Knopf, 1960. 
307 p. 60-12552 PZ4-U64Rab 

A novel. 

1051. Pigeon feathers, and other stories. New 
York, Knopf, 1962. 278 p. 

61-17831 



1052. The centaur. New York, Knopf, 1963. 
302 p. 63-7873 PZ4.U64Ce 2 

1053. Telephone poles, and other poems. New 
York, Knopf, 1963. 83 p. 

631 1 047 PS354 1 . 



IO54- Of the farm. New York, Knopf, 1965. 
173 p. 65-18763 PZ 4 .U64Of 

A novel. 

1055. Assorted prose. New York, Knopf, 1965. 
326 p. 65-13460 PS354i.P47Ai6 1965 

Collected nonfiction, including parodies, personal 
reports, and book reviews, most of which originally 
appeared in The New Yorker. 

1056. GORE VIDAL, 1925- 
No. 2180 in 1960 Guide. 

1057. A thirsty evil, seven short stories. New 
York, Zero Press, 1956. 154 p. 

56-11329 PZ3.V6668Th 

1058. Visit to a small planet, and other television 
plays. Boston, Litde, Brown [1956] 278 p. 

57-5030 PS3543.I26V5 

The title play of this volume was expanded for 
theatrical production and published as Visit to a 
Small Planet; a Comedy A\in to a Vaudeville 
(Boston, Litde, Brown [1957] 158 p.). 

1059. The best man; a play about politics. Boston, 
Little, Brown [1960] 168 p. illus. 

60-13970 PS3543.I26B4 

1060. Rocking the boat. Boston, Litde, Brown 
[1962] 300 p. 6213912 PS3543.I26R6 

Essays. 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 63 



1 06 1. Julian, a novel. Boston, Little, Brown 
[1964] 503 p. 

64-15048 PZ3.V6668Jw 2 
Bibliography: p. 503. 

1062. The city and the pillar revised, including 
an essay: Sex and the law, and An afterword. 

[Rev. ed.] New York, Dutton, 1965. 249 p. 

65-18637 PZ 3 .V6668Ci 2 
A revised edition of a novel mentioned in no. 
2180 of the 1960 Guide. 

1063. Messiah. [Rev. ed.] Boston, Little, Brown 
[1965] 243 p. 

65-17660 PZ3.V6668Me 3 
A revised edition of no. 2188 in the 1960 Guide. 

1064. PETER ROBERT EDWIN VIERECK, 

1916 

No. 2189 in 1960 Guide. 

1065. The persimmon tree, new pastoral and lyri- 
cal poems. New York, Scribner [1956] 

80 p. 5610206 PS3543-I325P4 

1066. The tree witch, a poem and play (first of all 
a poem). New York, Scribner [1961] 

126 p. 617221 PS3543.I325T7 1961 

A verse play. 

1067. KURT VONNEGUT, 1922- 

In his first novel, Player Piano (1952), 
Vonnegut established the science-fiction approach to 
location and situation which has characterized much 
of his subsequent work. His fusion of satire with 
serious morality has appealed to an increasingly 
wide circle of readers. 

1068. The sirens of Titan. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1961 [ C i959] 319 p. 

61-6895 PZ4-V948Si 2 
A novel. 

1069. Cat's cradle. New York, Holt, Rinehart & 
Winston [1963] 233 p. 

63-10930 PZ3.V948Cat 
A novel. 

1070. God bless you, Mr. Rose water; or, Pearls 
before swine. New York, Holt, Rinehart & 

Winston [1965] 217 p. 65-16434 
A novel. 

1071. ROBERT PENN WARREN, 1905- 
No. 2193 in 1960 Guide. 



1072. Promises: poems 19541956. New York, 
Random House [1957] 84 p. 
57-7894 



1073. Selected essays. New York, Random House 
[1958] 305 p. 58-7674 PSi2i.W3 

1074. The cave. New York, Random House 
[1959] 403 p. 59-5719 PZ3.W2549Cav 

A novel. 

1075. All the king's men, a play. New York, 
Random House [1960] 134 p. 

608377 PS3545-A748A7 1960 
Based on the 1946 novel of the same name, no. 
2197 in the 1960 Guide. 

1076. You, emperors, and others: poems, 1957 
1960. New York, Random House [1960] 

81 p. 60-12123 PS3545.A748Y6 

1077. Wilderness; a tale of the Civil War. New 
York, Random House [1961] 310 p. 

61-6248 PZ3.W2549W1 
A novel. 

1078. Flood; a romance of our time. New York, 
Random House [1964] 440 p. 

64-10357 PZ3.W2549F1 
A novel. 

1079. Casper, Leonard. Robert Penn Warren: 
the dark and bloody ground. Seattle, 

University of Washington Press, 1960. 212 p. 

60-14114 PS3545.A748Z65 
A critical survey of Warren's novels and poems. 

1080. Longley, John L., ed. Robert Penn Warren, 
a collection of critical essays. [New York] 

New York University Press, 1965. xix, 259 p. 

65-13207 PS3545.A7 4 8Z77 
Bibliography: p. 247257. 

1081. Strandberg, Victor H. A colder fire; the 
poetry of Robert Penn Warren. [Lex- 

ington] University of Kentucky Press [1965] 

292 p. 6527009 PS3545-A748Z87 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 

(p. [28 3 ]-28 5 ). 

1082. EUDORA WELTY, 1909- 
No. 2202 in 1960 Guide. 

1083. Appel, Alfred. A season of dreams; the 
fiction of Eudora Welty. Baton Rouge, 



64 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Louisiana State University, 1965. xvi, 274 p. 
(Southern literary studies) 

65-20298 PS3545.E6Z56 
Bibliography: p. 265267. 

1084. Vande Kieft, Ruth M. EudoraWelty. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1962] 203 p. 

(Twayne's United States authors series, 15) 

62-10272 PS3545.E6Z9 

Bibliographical notes: p. 191194. Bibliography: 
p. I95-I99- 

1085. JESSAMYN WEST, 1907- 
No. 22 1 o in 1960 Guide. 

1086. South of the Angels. New York, Harcourt, 
Brace [1960] 564 p. 

60-6714 PZ3.W5i903So 
A novel. 

1087. RICHARD PURDY WILBUR, 1921- 
No. 2215 in 1960 Guide. 

1088. Things of this world, poems. New York, 
Harcourt, Brace [1956] 50 p. 

566655 



1089. Advice to a prophet, and other poems. New 

York, Harcourt, Brace & World [1961] 

64 p. 61-15813 



1090. TENNESSEE WILLIAMS, 1914- 
No. 2218 in 1960 Guide. 

1091. Baby Doll: the script for the film, incor- 
porating the two one-act plays which sug- 

gested it: 27 wagons full of cotton [and] The long 
stay cut short; or, The unsatisfactory supper. [New 
York] New Directions [1956] 208 p. 

56-13347 PS3545.l536 5 B3 1956 



1092. In the winter of cities, poems. [Norfolk, 
Conn.] New Directions [1956] 117 p. 

56-13961 PS3545.l5365Ai7 1956 



1093. Orpheus descending, with Battle of angels; 
two plays. [New York] New Directions 

[1958] 238 p. 57-i3 8 3 PS3545.I5365C-7 

1094. Suddenly last summer. [New York] New 
Directions [1958] 90 p. 

58-9512 
A play. 



1095. Sweet birth of youth. [New York] New 
Directions [1959] 114 p. 

59-9492 PS3545.l5 3 65S87 
A play. 

1096. Period of adjustment; high point over a 
cavern, a serious comedy. [New York] 

New Directions [1960] 120 p. 

60-53248 



1097. The night of the iguana. [New York] 
New Directions, 1962 [ C i96i] 128 p. 

62-10409 P$3545. 15365^ 
A play. 

1098. The eccentricities of a nightingale, and Sum- 
mer and smoke; two plays. [New York, 

New Directions Pub. Corp., 1964?] 248 p. (A 
New Directions book) 

64-23654 PS3545.I5365E2 1964 

1099. The milk train doesn't stop here anymore. 
[Norfolk, Conn.] New Directions, 1964. 

118 p. 6313641 PS3545.I5365M5 1964 

A play. 

noo. Falk, Signi L. Tennessee Williams. New 
York, Twayne Publishers [1962, C i96i] 
224 p. (Twayne's United States authors series, 10) 

6115670 PS3545-I5365Z64 1962 
Bibliographical notes: p. 191205. Bibliography: 
p. 206 221. 

noi. Jackson, Esther M. The broken world of 
Tennessee Williams. Madison, University 
of Wisconsin Press, 1965. xxiii, 179 p. illus. 

64-8489 PS3545.l536 5 Z 7 

Works of Tennessee Williams: p. 161163. Bib- 
liography: p. 165169. 

An Aristotelian analysis which places Williams' 
major dramas in a perspective with the theater of 
the Western World. 

1 1 02. Tischler, Nancy M. P. Tennessee Williams: 

rebellious Puritan. New York, Citadel Press 

[1961] 319 p. 61-16975 PS3545.I5365Z85 

A biography, with discussions of Williams' works 

and summaries of the plots of his major plays. 

1103. HERMAN WOUK, 1915- 
No. 2229 in 1960 Guide. 

1104. Nature's way, a comedy in two acts. Gar- 
den City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1958. 134 p. 

58-8463 PS3545.O98N3 



LITERATURE (1607-1965) / 65 

1105. Youngblood Hawke, a novel. Garden City, 1108. The long dream, a novel. Garden City, 
N.Y., Doubleday, 1962. 783 p. N.Y., Doubleday, 1958. 384 p. 

62-7698 PZ3.W923Yo 58-12059 



1106. Don't stop the carnival. Garden City, N.Y., II09 . Eight men. Cleveland, World Pub. Co. 

Doubleday, 1965. 395 p. [ I9 6j] 250 p. 

64-22324. PZ3.W923Do 61-5636 

A novel. Short stories. 



" 7 ' RIC Q H ARD NATHANIEL WRIGHT, mo> Lawd today New Yofk> Walkef 

189 p. 63-11769 PZ3.W 9 3 5 2Law 

No. 2232 in 1960 Guide. A novel. 



II 



Language 



A. Dictionaries 

B. Grammars and General Studies 

C. Dialects, Regionalisms, and Foreign Languages in America 

D. Miscellaneous 



11111114 
11151119 
11201123 
1 1241 126 



PERHAPS the most significant trend in recent studies of American English has been the shift 
away from a normative grammatical approach toward an acceptance of wide variation 
within standard English. The validity of the traditional Latin-based English grammar is being 
questioned by those who favor an exposition of the language within the framework of Ameri- 
can structural linguistics. The linguists have contended that grammar should be descriptive 
rather than prescriptive and have included in their analyses "substandard" constructions and 
"incorrect" words which are in common usage. In 

so doing, they have encountered opposition from haps most clearly discernible in Webster's Third 
those who consider that a grammar should represent New International Dictionary of the English Lan- 
a standard to be followed. The new trend is per- guage (no. 1114). 



A. Dictionaries 



mi. Evans, Bergen, and Cornelia Evans. A dic- 
tionary of contemporary American usage. 
New York, Random House [1957] 567 p. 

57-5379 PE2835.E8 4 

"Designed for people who speak standard English 
but are uncertain about some details," this lucid dic- 
tionary of current English in the United States 
comments on grammar, idiomatic expressions, dis- 
puted usage, and common errors. The authors' 
approach is based on the findings of modern linguis- 
tic investigation, which reveal wide variations in 
standard English. Evans and his sister categorize 
usages with phrases such as "generally preferred," 
"acceptable in this country," and "nonstandard in 
the United States." Their preferences are influenced, 
however, by an admitted prejudice in favor of the 
forms used by the great writers of English rather 
than those found only in technical journals. Al- 
though Current American Usage (New York, Funk 
& Wagnalls [1962] 290 p.), edited by Margaret M. 

66 



Bryant, is narrower in scope and contains fewer 
entries than A Dictionary of Contemporary Ameri- 
can Usage, it is based on a similar approach and has 
citations to sources of quotations and to scholarly 
studies. 

1 1 12. Nicholson, Margaret. A dictionary of 
American-English usage, based on Fowler's 
Modern English usage. New York, Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 1957. 671 p. 57-5560 PE2835.N5 
Miss Nicholson's dictionary is intended as an 
adaptation of, not a replacement for, H. W. Fowler's 
monumental A Dictionary of Modern English 
Usage, first published in 1926. Many of the long 
articles have been shortened, and entries for words 
and expressions which occur rarely in American 
usage have been entirely omitted. New words and 
idioms that have come into the language since the 
initial publication of Modern English Usage have 
been added, as well as discussions of differences 



LANGUAGE / 



between American and 'British spelling and pro- 
nunciation not recorded by Fowler. 

1113. Thornton, Richard H. An American glos- 
sary; being an attempt to illustrate certain 

Americanisms upon historical principles. With an 
introduction by Margaret M. Bryant. New York, 
F. Ungar Pub. Co. [1962] 3 v. 

61-13641 PE2835.T6 1962 
The separately published parts of no. 2240 in the 
1960 Guide are here united in a three-volume set. 

1 1 14. Webster's third new international dictionary 
of the English language, unabridged. A 

Merriam-Webster. Editor in chief: Philip Babcock 
Gove and the Merriam-Webster editorial staff. 
Springfield, Mass., G. & C. Merriam Co. [1961] 
563, 2662 p. illus. 6165336 PEi625.W36 1961 
Both denounced and praised by reviewers for its 
attitude toward pronunciation and usage, this dic- 
tionary marks a significant shift of direction in 
American lexicography. It assumes that change in 
language is continuous and normal and that "cor- 
rectness" can be based only on usage, which itself is 



continuously changing. Consequently, the editors 
attempt to describe rather than prescribe current 
usage and pronunciation and to indicate acceptable 
variations. The definitions are based chiefly on 
examples collected since publication of the second 
edition (see the annotation for no. 2236 in the 1960 
Guide) in 1934. In an attempt to provide "precise, 
sharp defining," the editors have developed a new 
dictionary style of "completely analytical one-phrase 
definitions." Various labels "slang," "substand- 
ard," "nonstandard," "dialect" are used, but the 
label "colloquial," which appeared in the second 
edition, has been dropped. Many of the reviews 
which greeted the arrival of the third edition are 
collected in Dictionaries and That Dictionary; a 
Caseboo]^ on the Aims of Lexicographers and the 
Targets of Reviewers (Chicago, Scott, Foresman 
[1962] 273 p.), edited by James H. Sledd and 
Wilma R. Ebbitt. The most recent edition of ~Fun\ 
& W agnails New Standard Dictionary of the Eng- 
lish Language (New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 1963. 
2816 p.) incorporates slight changes that distinguish 
it from the 1952 edition noted in the discussion of 
no. 2236 in the 1960 Guide. 



B. Grammars and General Studies 



1115. Francis, Winthrop N. The structure of 

American English. With a chapter on 

American English dialects by Raven I. McDavid, Jr. 

New York, Ronald Press Co. [1958] 614 p. illus. 

58-5647 PE28n.F67 

Bibliography: p. 598602. 

A textbook for a graduate or undergraduate in- 
troductory course in the structure of English, par- 
ticularly American English. Although Francis 
presents some original material, his stated purpose 
is to synthesize the work of many other structural 
linguists in order to bring it together in one volume. 
An introductory chapter entitled "Language, Lan- 
guages, and Linguistic Science" is followed by 
others on phonetics, phonemics, morphemics, gram- 
mar, graphics, and the use of linguistics by teachers 
of English. McDavid contributes a chapter sum- 
marizing the work on a projected linguistic atlas of 
the United States and Canada, to be composed of 
several regional atlases (see the annotation for no. 
1123 in this Supplement). Henry A. Gleason's 
Linguistics and English Grammar (New York, 
Holt, Rinehart & Winston [1965] 519 p.) is de- 
signed to interpret linguistics to teachers of English. 



1116. Marckwardt, Albert H. American English. 
New York, Oxford University Press, 1958. 
194 p. illus. 585374 PE28o8.M3 

A popular historical account of the development 
of English in the United States. The first English- 
speaking colonists tended to preserve words, mean- 
ings, and pronunciations long after they had dropped 
out of use in England. American English moved 
even further away from British English as it was 
supplemented by words borrowed from the Ameri- 
can Indians, the early explorers, and immigrant 
groups. In addition, Marckwardt suggests, the vig- 
or, the disregard for convention, and the ingenuity 
of the frontiersmen were among the factors con- 
tributing to the creation of many compound forma- 
tions ("carpetbagger," "land office") and "mouth- 
filling" terms ("rambunctious," "cata wampus"). 
The author also discusses the American tendency to 
glorify the commonplace ("saloon," "opera house"), 
to extend indiscriminately the use of honorifics 
("doctor," "professor," and "honorable"), and to 
find euphemisms for delicate topics ("comfort sta- 
tion," "unmentionables," and "mortician"). 



68 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



1 1 17. Mencken, Henry L. The American lan- 
guage; an inquiry into the development of 

English in the United States. The 4th ed. and the 
two supplements, abridged, with annotations and 
new materials, by Raven I. McDavid, Jr., with the 
assistance of David W. Maurer. New York, Knopf, 
1963. xxv, 777, cxxiv p. 6313628 PE28o8.M43 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A one-volume abridgement, condensation, and 
updating of Mencken's three volumes (no. 2248 in 
the 1960 Guide). Most of the editorial commentary 
and new material is enclosed in brackets. Aspects 
of American English (New York, Harcourt, Brace 
& World [1963] 272 p. Harbrace sourcebooks), 
compiled by Elizabeth M. Kerr and Ralph M. Ader- 
man, is a collection of essays on the historical, 
regional, literary, colloquial, and social aspects of 
American English by authorities in these fields. 

1118. Myers, Louis M. Guide to American En- 



lish. 3d ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 
Prentice-Hall, 1962. 446 p. 

639823 PEi in .M954 1 962 
A thoroughly updated edition of no. 2249 in the 
1960 Guide. The major revisions were made in the 
second edition, published in 1959. 

1119. Roberts, Paul. Understanding English. 
New York, Harper [1958] xvii, 508 p. 
illus. 585110 PEiin.R736 

Offered as a college text for freshman composi- 
tion, this book also serves as an introduction to the 
analysis of American English. Roberts' point of 
view is that of linguistic science, and his writing is 
informal and frequently humorous. Among the 
various topics discussed are phonetics, the idiosyn- 
crasies of English spelling, the approach of tradi- 
tional grammarians, sentence patterns, punctuation, 
speech communities, disputed usage, slang, and 
etymology. 



C. Dialects, Regionalisms, and Foreign Languages in America 



1 1 20. American Dialect Society. Publication, no. 
i + Apr. 1944+ University, Ala. [etc.] 

Published for the Society by the University of 
Alabama Press [etc.] 2 no. a year (irregular) 

721707 PEi7O2.A5 

A continuation of no. 2254 in the 1960 Guide. 
Two of the longest publications appearing in the 
1956-65 period are Dwight L. Bolinger's Interroga- 
tive Structures of American English: The Direct 
Question (1957 [i.e. 1958] 184 p. no. 28) and 
Einar I. Haugen's Bilingualism in the Americas: 
A Bibliography and Research Guide (1956. 159 p. 
no. 26). Among the topics covered in the other 18 
publications issued during the period are expres- 
sions from Herman Melville and words and 
expressions designated in Webster's Third New 
International Dictionary of the English Language 
as nonstandard, substandard, or chiefly substandard. 

1 121. Atwood, Elmer Bagby. The regional vo- 
cabulary of Texas. Austin, University of 

Texas Press [1962] 273 p. illus. 

62-9784 PE3IOI.T4A85 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A study of the vocabulary of rural Texans of 
middle age and older. The data were collected by 
several of Atwood's advanced graduate students, 
who employed a questionnaire of items taken from 
the worksheets of the linguistic atlas of the United 



States and Canada (see the annotation for no. 1123 
in this Supplement} as well as items designed to 
elicit vocabulary used mainly in the Southwest. 
Responses to the questionnaire are recorded in a 
chapter entitled "Topical Survey of the Vocabulary." 
On the basis of a comparison of vocabulary usage 
in Texas with that in eastern areas, it is concluded 
that the "regional vocabulary of Texas is basically 
Southern, with some admixture of Midland words 
and a considerably smaller proportion of Northern 
ones." Vocabulary occurrences are shown in a 
"Word Atlas," consisting of more than 120 pages 
of maps of Texas and surrounding States. 

1 1 22. Eliason, Norman E. Tarheel talk; an his- 
torical study of the English language in 
North Carolina to 1860. Chapel Hill, University of 
North Carolina Press [1956] 324 p. maps. 

56-58593 PE3IOI.N76E4 

Written for both the linguist and the general 
reader, this book is based on a study of manuscript 
materials legal papers, commercial accounts, plan- 
tation records, church records, letters, children's 
writings, student writings, diaries, and journals. 
Usage since 1860, Eliason asserts, can best be de- 
rived from living informants. The chapter entitled 
"Language Attitudes and Differences" reveals a 
concern, among the writers represented in the manu- 
scripts, for good English, particularly correct spell- 



LANGUAGE / 69 



ing, but also shows that very few of them comment 
on the differences in pronunciation and vocabulary 
which they have encountered. The central chapter 
on vocabulary includes discussions of Americanisms, 
names, forbidden words, euphemisms, tides, and 
obsolete, slang, and local terms. A 5o-page section 
on usage of some five hundred words is appended. 

1123. Kurath, Hans, and Raven I. McDavid. The 
pronunciation of English in the Adantic 
States; based upon the collections of the linguistic 
adas of the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor, 
University of Michigan Press [1961] 182 p. 
(Studies in American English, 3) 

605671 PE28o2.M53 v. 3 

This study of speech in the Eastern United States 

focuses on the pronunciation of both cultured and 



uncultured speakers from Maine to South Carolina. 
Materials are drawn from the collections of the 
linguistic adas of the Eastern States, part of the 
planned linguistic adas of the United States and 
Canada. This latter atlas project was begun in 
1930 and has resulted thus far in one publication, 
Linguistic Atlas of New England (no. 2268 in the 
1960 Guide), edited by Kurath. In The Pronuncia- 
tion of English in the Atlantic States, symbols repre- 
senting sounds are based on the International 
Phonetic Alphabet. Dialects, U.S.A. (Champaign, 
111., National Council of Teachers of English [1963] 
62 p.), by Jean Malmstrom and Annabel Ashley, is 
a brief survey intended primarily for students in 
secondary schools but useful as well for the 
general reader. 



D. Miscellaneous 



1124. Bronstein, Arthur J. The pronunciation of 
American English; an introduction to pho- 
netics. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts [1960] 
320 p. illus. 60-6750 PEi 137.677 

Bibliographies at the ends of chapters. 

Part i deals with the International Phonetic 
Alphabet, the sound system, phonemes, dialects, 
and standard and disputed usage. Consonants, 
vowels, and complex consonant and vowel clusters 
are discussed in part 2. Part 3 covers the nature 
and types of sound change, pronunciation and influ- 
ences affecting pronunciation; pitch levels, stress, 
and pause; and the melodies of American English. 
A brief historical survey of the development of the 
English language is appended. A comparison of 
the chief regional types of cultivated American pro- 
nunciation with standard British English can be 
found in Hans Kurath's brief survey of American 
English phonetics, A Phonology and Prosody of 
Modern English (Ann Arbor, University of Michi- 
gan Press [1964] 158 p.). Claude M. Wise's 
Applied Phonetics (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Pren- 
tice-Hall, 1957. 546 p.) is a wide-ranging survey 
of the most important characteristics of general, 
southern, and eastern American speech; standard 
southern British speech; British regional dialects; 
American provincial dialects; and dialects of Eng- 
lish spoken by foreigners or related to foreign 
languages. 



1125. Evans, Bergen. Comfortable words. Illus- 
trated by Tomi Ungerer. New York, Ran- 
dom House [1962] 379 p. 

62-10775 PEi46o.E9 

The author provides provocative comments on 
usage, pronunciation, etymology, idioms, and often- 
confused words in American English. He insists 
throughout on reason and naturalness in the use of 
language and eschews both artificiality and slavish 
obedience to norms. The entries are arranged 
alphabetically by the keywords in the phrases. 



1126. Wentworth, Harold, and Stuart B. Flexner. 
Dictionary of American slang. New York, 
Cro well [1960] xviii, 669 p. 

60-6237 PE3729.U5\V4 

A scholarly treatment of American slang, "the 
body of words and expressions frequendy used by or 
intelligible to a rather large portion of the general 
American public, but not accepted as good, formal 
usage by the majority." The authors consider all 
slang used in the United States to be "American," 
regardless of its origin. Many quotations are pro- 
vided, with dates, to indicate usage for various 
meanings. The source of each quotation is cited, 
and, when the citation is abbreviated, fuller infor- 
mation is given in an extensive bibliography. Vari- 
ous wordlists are appended. 



Ill 



Literary History and Criticism 



A. Anthologies and Series 

B. History and Criticism 

C. Periodicals 



11271156 
1157-1264 
12651270 



A LTHOUGH American literature of the 20th century is the major concern of recent literary 
-L\- scholarship, every period, many themes, and a wide variety of categories of writing 
receive attention in the books chosen for this chapter. 

Among the broad categories of literature, fiction is the subject of the largest number of 
books. The novel of violence, the college novel, the social novel, the grotesque novel, the 
Negro novel, the realistic novel, and the short story each of these is the topic of individual 
studies. Other specialized works deal with such 
themes as homicide in American fiction, the quest 
for paradise in American literature, human isola- 
tion and the American novel, psychoanalysis and 
American fiction, love and death in the American 
novel, and technology and the pastoral ideal in 
American literature. Poetry is examined in fewer 
works than fiction but in a similar manner. Gen- 
eral appraisals are complemented by scrutinies of 
rhetoric and poetry, the influence of music on 
poetry, social themes in poetry, and the continuity 
of poetry. Recent drama is analyzed for, among 



other attributes, its political themes. Criticism and 



literary history are themselves the objects of critical 
review. 

Regional studies concentrate on, for example, the 
early novel of the Southwest, the western farm 
novel, antebellum northern views of the South, and 
writers of the modern South. Cross-cultural ties 
with other nations are traced in studies of the 
Japanese tradition in British and American litera- 
ture, the influence of German culture on American 
literature, the Mexican in American literature, 
American writers and artists in Italy, and Soviet 
attitudes toward American writing. 



A. Anthologies and Series 



1127. Allen, Donald M., ed. The new American 
poetry, 19451960. New York, Grove Press 
[1960] 454 p. 60-6342 PS6i4.A59 

The 44 poets represented in this collection make 
up "our avant-garde, the true continuers of the 
modern movement in American poetry." Their 
unity, according to Allen, lies in their "total rejection 
of all those qualities typical of academic verse." The 
editor has divided the 44 poets into five groups: 
those identified with the magazines Origin and 
Elac\ Mountain Review; those of the 194749 San 
Francisco renaissance, such as Lawrence Ferlinghetti 

70 



and Brother Antoninus; the poets of the "beat 
generation," including Allen Ginsberg and Jack 
Kerouac; the New York poets; and, finally, those 
who fit into no particular group. Concluding sec- 
tions feature autobiographical notes from each of 
the poets, individual bibliographies, and statements 
on poetics. 



1128. 



William Van 
New York, 



American literary forms. 
O'Connor, general editor. 
Crowell [195960] 5 v. 

Those specific attitudes, topics, and qualities re- 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 71 



vealed in outstanding authors and legitimately re- 
ferred to as "American" are studied in this series. 
Each volume, edited by a distinguished literary 
personality, is both a critical introduction to the 
literary history of a particular genre and an anthol- 
ogy which illustrates creative directions from coloni- 
al days to the mid-20th century. The volumes are 
as follows: American Short Novels ( [1960] 398 p. 
60-6314 PZ i. 656 Am), edited by Richard P. 
Blackmur; American Drama ([1960] 261 p. 60 

6315 PS625.D6), edited by Alan S. Downer; 
American Literary Essays ([1960] 318 p. 60 

6316 PS682.L4), edited by Lewis G. Leary; Amer- 
ican Poetry ([1960] 265 p. 606317 PS586.S43), 
edited by Karl J. Shapiro; and American Short 
Stories ( [ C i959] 267 p. 60-6318 PZi.W^Am), 
edited by Ray B. West. 

1129. Auden, Wystan Hugh, ed. The Criterion 
book of modern American verse. New 

York, Criterion Books [1956] 336 p. 

56-11366 PS6i 4 .A8 

An anthology of 82 poets of the 2oth century, 
arranged chronologically according to date of birth, 
from Edwin Arlington Robinson to Anthony Hecht. 
Although many of the poets are well known, 
several are minor figures who, in Auden's opinion, 
have achieved a measure of success in one or two 
poems. The poems represent a personal choice by 
the compiler and are often among the poet's less 
widely known works. Comparing English poets 
with those of the United States, Auden asserts that 
"from Bryant on, there is scarcely one American 
poet whose work, if unsigned, could be mistaken for 
that of an Englishman." The book appeared in 
England under the title The Faber Boo^ of Modern 
American Verse (London, Faber & Faber [1956] 
336 p.)- 

1130. Best American plays, [ist] + ser.; 1939+ 
New York, Crown Publishers. 

51-12830 PS634.B4 

Title varies: ist ser., Twenty Best Plays of the 
Modern American Theatre. 2d ser., Best Plays 
of the Modern American Theatre. 

Editor: ist-4th ser., John Gassner. 

Supplementary volume, 19181958. 

Edited, with introduction, by John Gassner. New 
York, Crown Publishers [1961] xvi, 687 p. 

PS634.B4I2 

The first three series of Best American Plays are 
no. 2333-2335 in the 1960 Guide. 

CONTENTS of the fourth series. Introduction: 
and still it moves, by John Gassner. I am a camera, 
by John Van Druten. Cat on a hot tin roof, by 
Tennessee Williams. The rose tattoo, by Tennes- 



see Williams. A moon for the misbegotten, by 
Eugene O'Neill. A hatful of rain, by Michael V. 
Gazzo. Picnic, by William Inge. Bus stop, by 
William Inge. Tea and sympathy, by Robert 
Anderson. A view from the bridge, by Arthur 
Miller. The crucible, by Arthur Miller. Inherit 
the wind, by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee. 
The Caine mutiny court-martial, by Herman 
Wouk. The fourposter, by Jan de Hartog. The 
seven year itch, by George Axelrod. The Match- 
maker, by Thornton Wilder. No time for ser- 
geants, by Ira Levin and Mac Hyman. The solid 
gold Cadillac, by George S. Kaufman and Howard 
Teichmann. A selective bibliography. A sup- 
plementary list of plays. 

CONTENTS of the supplementary volume. Intro- 
duction, by John Gassner. Clarence, by Booth 
Tarkington. Rain, by John Colton. The adding 
machine, by Elmer Rice. Green grow the lilacs, 
by Lynn Riggs. The house of Connelly, by Paul 
Green. Children of darkness, by Edwin Justus 
Mayer. Biography, by S. N. Behrman. On bor- 
rowed time, by Paul Osborn. Morning's at seven, 
by Paul Osborn. Ethan Frome, by Owen Davis 
and Donald Davis. Men in white, by Sidney 
Kingsley. Yellow jack, by Sidney Howard. 
Awake and sing!, by Clifford Odets. Here come 
the clowns, by Philip Barry. Harvey, by Mary 
Chase. The teahouse of the August moon, by 
John Patrick. The diary of Anne Frank, by 
Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett. 

1131. Blair, Walter, Theodore Hornberger, and 
Randall Stewart, eds. The United States in 

literature. Introduction to modern poetry by Paul 
Engle. Composition guide by Don Otto. Novel 
discussion guides by Kenneth Sickal. Chicago, 
Scott, Foresman [1963] 820 p. 

63773 PS507-B527 1963 
A revised edition of no. 2323 in the 1960 Guide. 

1132. Bradley, Edward Sculley, Richmond C. 
Beatty, and Eugene Hudson Long, eds. 

The American tradition in literature. Rev. New 
York, Norton [1961] 2 v. 

618916 PS5O7-B74 1961 

CONTENTS. v. i. Bradford to Lincoln. v. 2. 
Whitman to the present. 

A new edition of no. 2324 in the 1960 Guide, 
revised to include two full-length novels The 
Scarlet Letter and The Adventures of Huckleberry 
Finn and additional selections from the writings 
of Melville, James, Emerson, Whitman, Howells, 
Jonathan Edwards, and others. Robert Lowell, 
Richard Eberhart, Muriel Rukeyser, Richard Wil- 
bur, and Marianne Moore are among those included 
in a new section on mid-2Oth-century poets. 



72 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



1133. Brooks, Cleanth, and Robert Penn Warren, 
eds. Understanding fiction. 2d ed. New 

York, Appleton-Century-Crofts [1959] 688 p. 

59-12844 PN3335.B7 1959 
A revised edition of the influential teaching an- 
thology mentioned in the annotation for no. 2378 
in the 1960 Guide. The same publisher issued a 
shortened version in 1960 under the title, The Scope 
of Fiction (336 p.). 

1134. Cerf, Bennett A., ed. Six American plays 
for today. Selected and with biographical 

notes by Bennett Cerf. New York, Modern Library 
[1961] 599 p. (The Modern library of the 
world's best books [38] ) 61-11189 PS634.C4i8 

CONTENTS. Camino Real, by Tennessee Wil- 
liams. The dark at the top of the stairs, by William 
Inge. Sunrise at Campobello, by Dore Schary. 
A raisin in the sun, by Lorraine Hansberry. The 
tenth man, by Paddy Chayefsky. Toys in the attic, 
by Lillian Hellman. 

Paul Kozelka has edited 75 American One-Act 
Plays (New York, Washington Square Press [1961] 
308 p. The ANTA series of distinguished plays), 
which includes "Thursday Evening," by Christo- 
pher Morley, "The Devil and Daniel Webster," by 
Stephen Vincent Benet, "Red Carnations," by Glenn 
Hughes, and "Trifles," by Susan Glaspell. Two 
anthologies of period plays from the Laurel Drama 
Series are Famous American Plays of the 1930$ 
([New York, Dell Pub. Co., C i959] 480 p.), 
edited by Harold Clurman, and Famous American 
Plays of the i^os ([New York, Dell Pub. Co., 
1960] 447 p.), edited by Henry Hewes. 

1135. Edel, Leon, and others, eds. Masters of 
American literature. Boston, Houghton 

Mifflin [1959] 2 v. 59-1824 PS507.E3 

According to the editors, the student of literature 
profits more through "close familiarity with a few 
writers than through superficial acquaintance with 
many." Further, "he will profit more from regard- 
ing the works he reads to be studied and enjoyed 
on their own terms than he will from viewing them 
as illustrations of the course of literary or cultural 
history." This anthology offers substantial selec- 
tions from the works of writers from Jonathan 
Edwards to Faulkner and Frost. 

1136. Elliott, George P., ed. Fifteen modern 
American poets. New York, Rinehart 

[1956] 315 p. (Rinehart editions, 79) 

56-7952 PS6i4.E55 

"This book aims," the editor noted in his 1956 
preface, "to represent the middle generation of 
American poets," all of whom "have been known 
for several years." The oldest of the 15 poets is 



Richard Eberhart and the youngest Richard Wilbur. 
Short biobibliographical notes on poets and poems 
are appended. Selections from the works of 82 
poets are presented in The Modern Poets, an 
American-British Anthology (New York, McGraw- 
Hill [1963] 427 p.), edited by John M. Brinnin 
and Bill Read, with 80 photographic portraits by 
Rollie McKenna. 

1137. Engle, Paul, ed. Midland; twenty-five years 
of fiction and poetry selected from the writ- 
ing workshops of the State University of Iowa. 
New York, Random House [1961] 600 p. 

6012132 PS536.E55 

The university workshop in creative writing, a 
comparatively recent phenomenon, has caused con- 
siderable controversy among people interested in 
literature. The editor's introduction to this collec- 
tion praises a pioneering institution in this field, but 
the anthology itself is the more convincing argu- 
ment. Flannery O'Connor, Jean Stafford, Wallace 
Stegner, William Dickey, Jean Garrigue, Anthony 
Hecht, Donald Justice, W. D. Snodgrass, Leonard 
Unger, and Tennessee Williams are among the 
writers who have been associated with the program 
at the State University of Iowa during the last 25 
years. Engle and Joseph Langland are the editors 
of Poet's Choice (New York, Dial Press, 1962. 
303 p.), the result of an invitation to each of a hun- 
dred poets to select a favorite or crucial poem from 
his works and to comment about his selection. 

1138. Fiedler, Leslie A. , ed. The art of the essay. 
Edited with introductions, notes and exercise 

questions. New York, Crowell [1958] 640 p. 

58-7917 PS682.F5 

In this anthology, the editor aspires to restore the 
essay to its rightful place among literary forms. A 
noted practitioner of the art himself, Fiedler pref- 
aces the general sections of his book with remarks 
on the history of the essay in Western culture. 
Letters, book reviews, extracts from lengthy prose 
works, and articles are arranged chronologically 
from Montaigne through such 20th-century Ameri- 
can masters as Lionel Trilling, Constance Rourke, 
and Jacques Barzun. Each of the 60 essays is 
preceded by a short introduction to the author and 
his work. 

1139. Foerster, Norman, ed. American poetry and 
prose. 4th ed., complete. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin [1957] 1664 p. 

5713836 PS507-F6 1957 

A revised edition of no. 2331 in the 1960 Guide, 

including additional works of substance by major 

authors, fewer selections from minor authors, and 

fuller notes accompanying individual selections. 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 73 



Foerster and Robert P. Falk are coeditors of an 
abridged and revised edition, American Poetry and 
Prose (Boston, Houghton Mifflin [1960] 1223 p.). 

1140. Foerster, Norman, and Robert P. Falk, eds. 
Eight American writers, an anthology of 

American literature. New York, Norton [ C i963] 
xvi, 1610 p. 62-20920 PS535.F6 

Bibliography: p. 15891605. 

Selections from the works of eight authors whom 
the editors regard as constituting the classic core of 
American writing. The eight are Poe, Emerson, 
Thoreau, Hawthorne, Melville, Whitman, Mark 
Twain, and Henry James. Famous poems, stories, 
notebooks, letters, and chapters are reprinted here, 
along with substantial scholarly introductions to 
each author. A wider but still basic selection of 
standard figures is presented in Classic American 
Writers (Boston, Little, Brown [1962] 620 p.), 
edited by Harrison Hayford. The writers listed 
above are supplemented by Edward Taylor, 
Jonathan Edwards, Irving, Bryant, Longfellow, 
Whittier, Holmes, James Russell Lowell, Emily 
Dickinson, and Howells. 

1141. Gordon, Caroline, and Allen Tate, eds. The 
house of fiction; an anthology of the short 

story, with commentary. 2d ed. New York, Scrib- 
ner [1960] 469 p. 606360 PZi.G653Ho 

Includes bibliography. 

The formalist technique of textual analysis is 
demonstrated in this anthology of 23 stories. Each 
story is accompanied by a commentary on the fiction- 
al techniques at work in the selection, and a 20-page 
appendix explains the approaches used in the fore- 
going text. American short stories include "Young 
Goodman Brown," by Nathaniel Hawthorne; "The 
Fall of the House of Usher," by Edgar Allan Poe; 
"The Beast in the Jungle," by Henry James; "The 
Open Boat," by Stephen Crane; "Haircut," by Ring 
Lardner; "Old Mortality," by Katherine Anne 
Porter; "Spotted Horses," by William Faulkner; 
"Lions, Harts, Leaping Does," by J. F. Powers; 
"The Headless Hawk," by Truman Capote; "A 
Good Man Is Hard To Find," by Flannery 
O'Connor; "The Killers," by Ernest Hemingway; 
"Where a Man Dwells," by Herbert Gold; and 
"The Proud Suitor," by James Buechler. Another 
short-story anthology is A New Southern Harvest 
(New York, Bantam Books [1957] 294 p. A 
Bantam book, Fi556), edited by Robert Penn 
Warren and Albert Erskine and featuring famous 
stories by recent southern writers. 

1142. Hall, Donald, ed. Contemporary American 
poetry. Baltimore, Penguin Books [1963, 



C i962] 201 p. (Penguin poets) 

631971 PS6i4-H23 1963 
Robert Lowell and Richard Wilbur are viewed as 
marking "the real beginning of postwar American 
poetry because they are the culmination of past 
poetries." In addition to the two mainstreams of 
modern poetry identified with William Carlos 
Williams and T. S. Eliot, Hall perceives the emer- 
gence of "a new kind of imagination" distinguished 
by a subjective attitude directed toward the external 
world. The postwar poets represented in this 
collection include John Ashbery, Reed Whittemore, 
Howard Nemerov, Robert Creeley, W. D. Snod- 
grass, Robert Lowell, and James Wright. With 
Robert Pack and Louis A. M. Simpson, Hall co- 
edited New Poets of England and America (New 
York, Meridian Books, 1957. 351 p. Meridian 
books, M5o). In New Poets of England and Amer- 
ica: Second Selection (Cleveland, Meridian Books 
[1962] 384 p. Meridian books, Mi35), Hall 
edited the English poets and Pack the American. 
Sixteen poets under the age of 40 are represented in 
American Poems; a Contemporary Collection (Car- 
bondale, Southern Illinois University Press [1964] 
200 p. Crosscurrents; modern critiques), edited by 
Jascha F. Kessler. 

1143. Jones, LeRoi, ed. The moderns; an anthol- 
ogy of new writing in America. New York, 

Corinth Books, 1963. xvi, 351 p. 

63-11408 PS536.J6 

Bibliographical references included in "Acknowl- 
edgments" (p. [vii-viii]). 

The contemporary American poet who gathered 
these selections states that he has had more in mind 
a "prose medium" and quality of excitement than 
a record of a generation. The writers in this vol- 
ume, says Jones, "exist out of a continuing tradition 
of populist modernism that has characterized the 
best of twentieth-century American writing." 
Rather than categorize the writers, Jones empha- 
sizes the general and common qualities of the selec- 
tions, which together make up "a body of work that 
seeks its identification and delineation as a depar- 
ture from the main body of popular American 
fiction." Among the "moderns" included are 
William Eastlake, Edward Dorn, John Rechy, 
Michael Rumaker, Paul Metcalf, Robert Creeley, 
Diane Di Prima, Hubert Selby, and William Bur- 
roughs. Some of the same writers are represented 
in Writers in Revolt, an Anthology ( [New York] 
Berkley Pub. Corp. [1965, C i963] 384 p. A 
Berkley medallion book), edited by Richard Seaver, 
Terry Southern, and Alexander Trocchi. 

1144. Malin, Irving, and Irwin Stark, eds. Break- 
through: a treasury of contemporary 



74 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



American-Jewish literature. New York, McGraw- 
Hill [1964] 376 p. 63-13261 PS508.J4M3 
Ranges from Howard Nemerov and Allen Gins- 
berg to Philip Rahv, Alfred Kazin, and Philip Roth. 
An introductory essay on Jewish literature in the 
United States offers an abbreviated version of the 
ideas discussed in Malin's Jews and Americans 
(Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press 
[1965] 193 p. Crosscurrents: modern critiques). 

1145. Hill, Herbert, ed. Soon, one morning; new 
writing by American Negroes, 19401962. 

Selected and edited, with an introduction and bio- 
graphical notes, by Herbert Hill. New York, 
Knopf, 1963. 617 p. 62-15567 PS5o8.N3H5 

Essays, fiction, and poetry. Among the writers 
included are Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin, 
Langston Hughes, Richard Wright, Ann Petry, 
Gwendolyn Brooks, LeRoi Jones, and J. Saunders 
Redding. Arna Bontemps has edited an anthology, 
American Negro Poetry (New York, Hill & Wang 
[1963] 197 p.), showing the accomplishments of 
numerous Negro poets, including James Weldon 
Johnson, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Claude McKay, 
Jean Toomer, Countee Cullen, Margaret Walker, 
and Richard Wright. 

1 146. Miller, Perry, ed. Major writers of America. 
New York, Harcourt, Brace & World [1962] 

2 v. 62-12181 PS507.M48 

To "vindicate the study of American literature," 
this anthology includes those writers who have made 
their mark on world literature. Twenty-three noted 
literary specialists have individually edited chapters 
on 28 men of letters from William Bradford to 
William Faulkner. There are lengthy introduc- 
tions for each author, generous selections from his 
shorter works, and suggestions for further reading. 
Among the editors and their subjects are Samuel 
Eliot Morison on William Bradford; Marius Bewley 
on Cooper and Bryant; R. W. B. Lewis on Whit- 
man; Richard Wilbur on Poe; Richard Chase on 
Melville; Northrop Frye on Emily Dickinson; Eric 
Bentley on Eugene O'Neill; R. P. Blackmur on 
T. S. Eliot; and Irving Howe on Faulkner. Miller 
has also edited materials for The Golden Age of 
American Literature (New York, G. Braziller, 
1959. 514 p.). He contends that a "golden age" 
in American literature was an actuality for the two 
decades prior to the Civil War and supports his 
contention with selections from Poe, Emerson, 
Thoreau, Hawthorne, Melville, and Whitman. 

1147. Miller, Perry, and Thomas H. Johnson, eds. 
The Puritans. Rev. ed. New York, Harper 

& Row [1963] 2 v. (Harper torchbooks. The 



Academy library) 631710 PS53I.M5 1963 

A revised edition of no. 2345 in the 1960 Guide, 

with bibliographies updated by George McCandlish. 

1148. Olson, Elder, ed. American lyric poems, 
from colonial times to the present. New 

York, Appleton-Century-Crofts [1964] 166 p. 
(Goldentree books) 6417762 PS593-L8O53 

Observations on the qualities and history of 
American lyric poetry precede a collection of lyrics 
by 79 American poets. Olson traces the develop- 
ment of this poetic form from Edward Taylor and 
Anne Bradstreet to present-day lyricists. 

1149. Partisan review. The Partisan review an- 
thology. Edited by William Phillips and 

Philip Rahv. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston 
[1962] 490 p. 6212136 AC5.P35 

The first anthology of writings in the Partisan 
Review to draw selections from its entire history, 
beginning in 1937. Included are stories by Delmore 
Schwartz, Saul Bellow, Bernard Malamud, James 
Purdy, and others; among the American poets repre- 
sented are Karl Shapiro, William Carlos Williams, 
Robert Penn Warren, Robert Lowell, and Elizabeth 
Bishop. Essays and reviews on literature and so- 
ciety are by Lionel Trilling, Irving Howe, T. S. 
Eliot, James Baldwin, Alfred Kazin, Daniel Aaron, 
and Leslie Fiedler. Anthologies of writings in other 
periodicals listed in the 1960 Guide have also been 
published recently: Jubilee; One Hundred Years of 
the Atlantic (Boston, Little, Brown [1957] 746 p.), 
selected and edited by Edward Weeks and Emily 
Flint; Gentlemen, Scholars, and Scoundrels; a 
Treasury of the Best of Harper's Magazine From 
1850 to the Present (New York, Harper [1959] 
696 p.), edited by Horace Knowles; Opinions and 
Perspectives From The New Yorf^ Times Boof( 
Review (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1964. 441 p.), 
edited by Ernest Francis Brown; The Saturday 
Review Gallery (New York, Simon & Schuster, 
1959. 481 p.), compiled by Jerome Beatty, Jr., and 
the editors of the Saturday Review. "Little maga- 
zine" anthologies include Anthology (New York, 
Vintage Books [1961] 461 p. A Vintage book, 
V 197), compiled by Frederick Morgan from The 
Hudson Review; The Chicago Review Anthology 
([Chicago] University of Chicago Press [1959] 
251 p.), edited by David Ray; and A Country in the 
Mind; an Anthology of Stories and Poems From 
The Western Review (Sausalito, Calif., Contact 
Editions [1962] 290 p. Contact editions, 2), 
edited by Ray B. West. 

1150. Solomon, Eric, ed. The faded banners; a 
treasury of nineteenth-century Civil War 



fiction. New York, T. Yoseloff [1960] 336 p. 

60-6839 PZi.S688Fad 

1151. Steinmetz, Lee, ed. The poetry of the 
American Civil War. [East Lansing] 

Michigan State University Press [1960] 264 p. 

5915220 647.885 

The change from a romantic idealization of battle 
to the grudging acceptance or hostile rejection of 
the realities of war is captured in Solomon's an- 
thology of Civil War fiction. Literary merit was 
the first criterion for the selections included; there 
is no unity of viewpoint or sectional preference, and 
most of the works focus on the combat itself and 
the psychological impact of civil war upon ordinary 
Americans. Lee Steinmetz, in his anthology, has 
chosen 30 representative poems from among more 
than 200 poems written by Americans during the 
i86o's. He gives preference to the less familiar 
poets and emphasizes subject matter and theme 
more than esthetic quality. Each of five sections 
contains a general introduction to the subject matter 
of the poems and the historical background of the 
poetry, and each poem is, in addition, also related to 
the whole body of Civil War poetry. 

1152. Twayne's United States authors series. 
Sylvia E. Bowman, editor. New York, 

Twayne Publishers, 19614- 

A series of more than a hundred biographical and 
critical volumes, each approximately 175200 pages 
in length, which discuss the accomplishments, repu- 
tation, and themes of a wide variety of American 
authors. Most of the books in the series have been 
written by professors at American colleges and uni- 
versities and include selected bibliographical refer- 
ences and biographical chronologies. Each text is 
shaped according to the individual author being 
studied. For a little-known author, the Twayne 
authors series volume is often the only general bio- 
graphical and critical treatment available. In the 
case of writers about whom many works have been 
published, the Twayne volume frequently serves to 
synthesize known facts and previously expressed in- 
terpretations. Many volumes in the Twayne series, 
each volume of which is separately cataloged, are 
listed under the individual authors in Chapter i, 
"Literature," in this Supplement. 

1153. University of Minnesota pamphlets on 
American writers. William Van O'Connor, 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 75 

Allen Tate, and Robert Penn Warren, editors. 
Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1959+ 
A growing series of brief, inexpensive paperbacks 
which treat major and minor American authors and 
literary forms. Although most of the volumes are 
devoted to individual authors, some cover general 
topics, for example, Glauco Cambon's Recent 
American Poetry ([1962] 48 p. no. 16. 6262784 
PS324-C27), Alan S. Downer's Recent American 
Drama ([1961] 46 p. no. 7. 61-62514 PS35I. 
063), Jack B. Ludwig's Recent American Novelists 
([1962] 47 p. no. 22. 62-63700 PS379.L82), 
and The American Short Story ( [1961] 47 p. 
no. 14. 6163843 PS374-S5R6 1961), by Danforth 
R. Ross. 

1154. Untermeyer, Louis, ed. The Britannica li- 
brary of great American writing. Edited, 

with historical notes and a running commentary. 
Chicago, Britannica Press; and distributed in asso- 
ciation with J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia [1960] 
2 v. (xvii, 1764 p.) 6014545 PS507-U5 

Excerpts from the narratives, short stories, poems, 
and essays of American men of letters. Untermeyer 
has also edited Modern American Poetry \_an<\ 
Modern British Poetry, a combined new and en- 
larged edition (New York, Harcourt, Brace & 
World [1962] 701, 541 p.). 

1155. Weber, Brom, ed. An anthology of Ameri- 
can humor. New York, Crowell [1962] 

584 p. 62-10284 PN6i62.W4 

Includes bibliography. 

1156. Carlisle, Henry C., ed. American satire in 
prose and verse. New York, Random House 

[1962] 464 p. 6212727 PN623I.S2C3 

American literary humor from the colonial period 
to the late 1950*5 is represented in Weber's compila- 
tion. Benjamin Franklin, Mark Twain, James 
Thurber, and George Washington Harris are among 
the widely recognized humorists included. Special 
attention is devoted to the humor of the masters of 
classic literature, including Hawthorne, Melville, 
Poe, James, Eliot, and Hart Crane. The writers 
represented in Carlisle's collection were chosen pri- 
marily for their skill in unmasking American folly 
and revealing the incongruities in American char- 
acter and institutions. Selections range from the 
pre-Civil-War period to the present and are ar- 
ranged according to objects of satirical criticism. 



76 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



B. History and Criticism 



1157. Aaron, Daniel. Writers on the left; episodes 
in American literary communism. New 

York, Harcourt, Brace & World [1961] xvi, 460 p. 
(Communism in American life) 

61-13349 PS228.C6A2 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 401-448). 

In his "social chronicle" of American literary 
radicalism between 1912 and the early 1940'$, Aaron 
traces the infatuation and ultimate disenchantment 
of a selected group of American writers with left- 
wing movements and ideologies. The earliest 
rebels, rooted in the tradition of Emerson and Whit- 
man, rejected intellectual socialism and looked hope- 
fully to the anarchism and syndicalism of the day 
for salvation. World War I and the Bolshevik 
Revolution ended this phase and opened a 2O-year 
period of dalliance with communism, shattered only 
by the Russo-German pact of 1939. Although 
Aaron sees few writers or critics unaffected by com- 
munism between the wars, he regards his story as 
but "one more turn" in the longer cycle of literary 
revolt like the others, beginning in hope and end- 
ing in disillusion. 

1158. Allen, Walter E. Tradition and dream; the 
English and American novel from the twen- 
ties to our time. London, Phoenix House [1964] 
xxii, 346 p. 644173 PR88i.A42 1964 

The "dream" in Allen's tide belongs to America; 
the "tradition," to England. The English writer of 
the 2Oth century has been constantly reminded, says 
the author, of his personal limitations and of his 
indebtedness to a mature literary and cultural heri- 
tage, while the American writer seems to have been 
impressed instead by his independence, his loneli- 
ness, his cultural isolation. Notable American ex- 
ceptions have been regionalists like Ellen Glasgow 
and William Faulkner and, more recently, fiction 
writers examining America's Jewish and Negro 
communities, such as Saul Bellow and Ralph Ellison. 

1159. Alvarez, Alfred. Stewards of excellence; 
studies in modern English and American 

poets. New York, Scribner [1958] 191 p. 

5812492 PR6o3.A4 1958 

The London edition (Chatto & Windus) has the 
title The Shaping Spirit. 

A young British critic, in comparing eight out- 
standing figures in modern American and British 



poetry, stresses the differences between the two 
traditions and the effect of cultural dissimilarities on 
poetic tradition. Yeats, Auden, Empson, and 
Lawrence are the English poets compared with 
Eliot, Pound, Hart Crane, and Stevens. 

1160. Bewley, Marius. The eccentric design; form 
in the classic American novel. New York, 

Columbia University Press, 1959. 327 p. 

59-13769 PS37I.B4 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 3 14-324). 

Having made a number of controversial state- 
ments in an earlier work, The Complex Fate (1952), 
the author devotes this study to detailing "the ec- 
centric design" of the fate shared by major Ameri- 
can writers. Abstraction and intelligence are the 
main characteristics of this tradition, and no room 
is left for "the so-called realists and naturalists" 
whose symbols are "exterior frosting." John Adams, 
Hamilton, and Jefferson are interpreted as being the 
first great figures who sought to resolve the conflicts 
inherent in American society. 

1161. Bigelow, Gordon E. Rhetoric and Ameri- 
can poetry of the early national period. 

Gainesville, University of Florida Press, 1960. 77 p. 
(University of Florida monographs. Humanities, 
no. 4) 60-63133 PS3I4.B5 

Includes bibliography. 

A literary history of American poetry and rhetoric 
from 1775 to 1815, concentrating on the major 
poets of the period. The author cites the rhetorical 
devices in the poetry of Freneau and other literary 
figures to support his charge that the young Nation 
encouraged politics and philosophies incompatible 
with "the emotional and imaginative insight which 
are necessary to poetic expression." A major part 
of the discussion concerns the relationship of poetry 
to rhetoric, the history of rhetoric, and the attitudes 
of the populace to these two disciplines. 

1162. Blanck, Jacob N. Bibliography of American 
literature. New Haven, Yale University 

Press, 1955-63. 4 v. 54-5283 71225.655 

A monumental undertaking in American bibliog- 
raphy, supervised by the Bibliographical Society of 
America. Four volumes of the projected eight- 
volume series, to encompass American authors who, 
"in their own time at least, were known and read," 
had appeared by 1965. Some 35,000 items will ulti- 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 77 



mately be included. The entries are limited to writ- 
ings by the selected authors, who are arranged 
alphabetically. The coverage of the first four vol- 
umes extends from Henry Adams through Joseph 
H. Ingraham. Blanck's preface in volume i de- 
scribes the plan of the bibliography. 

1163. Bode, Carl. The half-world of American 
culture; a miscellany. Preface by C. P. Snow. 

Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press 
[1965] xii, 259 p. 64-20257 PSi2i.B596 

In this volume of essays, the author writes chiefly 
about popular literature, analyzing such subjects as 
19th-century pornography and the 20th-century 
"parish" of Lloyd C. Douglas. While serving as 
cultural attache to the American embassay in Lon- 
don, Bode organized two series of lectures in which 
noted American scholar-critics discussed prominent 
figures and topics in American literature. The 
lectures were edited for publication by Bode and 
appeared as The Young Rebel in American Litera- 
ture (New York, Praeger [1960, C i959] 170 p. 
Books that matter) and The Great Experiment in 
American Literature (New York, Praeger [1961] 
151 p. Books that matter). Bode is also the author 
of The American Lyceum (New York, Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 1956. 275 p.). 

1164. Bone, Robert A. The Negro novel in 
America. New Haven, Yale University 

Press, 1958. 268 p. (Yale publications in American 
studies, 3) 58-11249 PSi53.N5B6 

Bibliography: p. 233250. 

The author believes that there is a distinctly 
"Negro" novel existing within and yet apart from 
the broader traditions of American fiction and de- 
riving its distinctiveness from the uniqueness of the 
Negro experience in America. His book discusses 
Negro novelists from 1890 to 1952 and divides the 
subject into four distinct periods: 18901920, when 
the rising middle class dominated Negro literature; 
1920-30, the days of the "Negro Renaissance" and 
the formation of a Negro intelligentsia; 193040, a 
period dominated by the weight of the depression, 
the flirtation with communism, the little magazines, 
and the Federal writers' projects; and 1940-52, when 
the Richard Wright school, raceless novels, and 
portrayals of Negro life and culture all occurred 
simultaneously and resulted in a flowering of the 
Negro novel. An appendix ranks the novelists 
from each of the four periods; a bibliography of 103 
full-length Negro novels is included for specialists. 
The American Negro Writer and His Roots (New 
York, American Society of African Culture, 1960. 
70 p.) comprises selected papers from the first Con- 
ference of Negro Writers, held in New York in 



March 1959, and features addresses by leading 
Negro writers. 

1165. Bowden, Edwin T. The dungeon of the 
heart; human isolation and the American 

novel. New York, Macmillan, 1961. 175 p. 

61-8262 PS374.I8B6 

Twelve American works of fiction which "form 
together an extended essay" on human isolation 
within American life are discussed, and the cultural 
conditions on which they are based are reviewed. 
They are The Deerslayer; The Scarlet Letter; Huc\- 
leberry Finn; Moby DicI^; My Antonia; The 
Portrait of a Lady; The Rise of Silas Lapham; 
Winesburg, Ohio; The Grapes of Wrath; Loo\ 
Homeward, Angel; Light in August; and The 
Catcher in the Rye. 

1166. Brooks, Cleanth. The hidden God; studies 
in Hemingway, Faulkner, Yeats, Eliot, and 

Warren. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1963. 
136 p. 63-9308 PS228.C5B7 

Lectures originally delivered in 1955 to the Con- 
ference in Theology for College Faculty at Trinity 
College, Hartford, Conn. Although they were de- 
signed for a Christian audience, the emphasis is not 
upon Christian writers in any orthodox sense but 
upon the religious vision implicit within some litera- 
ture which has been criticized as amoral or im- 
moral. Brooks illustrates the kinship of these 
writers with the Christian theologian Paul Tillich 
and with the French existentialists: the theme com- 
mon to all is a protest against the dehumanization 
of man and against the denial of free will. 

1167. Brooks, Van Wyck. Days of the phoenix; 
the nineteen-twenties I remember. New 

York, Dutton, 1957. 193 p. 

57-5335 



1168. Brooks, Van Wyck. From the shadow of 
the mountain; my post-meridian years. New 
York, Dutton, 1961. 202 p. 

6111417 PS3503.R7297Z5 
The first volume of Brooks' autobiography, Scenes 
and Portraits: Memories of Childhood and Youth 
(one of the tides listed in the annotation for no. 
2380 in the 1960 Guide), began the life story of 
this pioneer in the study of a national literature. 
Days of the Phoenix continues the story through the 
1920'$ and is particularly notable for the account of 
the days he spent in a mental institution. The final 
volume of the trilogy, From the Shadow of the 
Mountain, begins in 1931 with his emergence from 
the institution and continues to his 75th year. 
Essays, aphorisms, sketches, and reminiscences, most 



/ 



A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



of them previously out of print, were published in 
From a Writer's Noteboo^ (New York, Dutton, 
1958. 182 p.). 

1169. Brooks, Van Wyck. The dream of Arcadia; 
American writers and artists in Italy, 1760 

1915. New York, Dutton, 1958. 272 p. 

58-9597 DG 4 57.A6B 7 

As a repository of Old World culture, Italy stimu- 
lated the minds and imaginations of generations of 
American artists and intellectuals who found there 
the "just taste" still wanting in the youthful United 
States. Through a discussion of mid-i8th-century 
visits by painters and the later travels of Irving, 
Cooper, Longfellow, Hawthorne, James, Howells, 
and others, Brooks re-creates the scenes and atmos- 
phere as they registered upon the impressionable 
minds of eager Americans who drew upon their 
Italian experiences in their writing. Nathalia 
Wright treats more directly the appearance of these 
influences in the fiction of American writers in her 
study American Novelists in Italy (Philadelphia, 
University of Pennsylvania Press [1965] 288 p.). 

1170. Broussard, Louis. American drama; con- 
temporary allegory from Eugene O'Neill to 

Tennessee Williams. Norman, University of Okla- 
homa Press [1962] 145 p. 6216479 PS35I.B7 

Includes bibliography. 

A study of 20th-century American reenactments 
of the "Everyman" theme by 10 "expressionistic" 
dramatists. Although focusing upon a limited num- 
ber of plays, the author also touches on other plays 
which embody similar allegorical themes and on 
other art forms concerned with the same problems 
and conclusions. Following an introductory chap- 
ter on "The Motivating Force of Expressionism," 
the study examines playwrights Eugene O'Neill, 
Elmer Rice, John Howard Lawson, Philip Barry, 
T. S. Eliot, Thornton Wilder, Robert Sherwood, 
Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller, and Archibald 
MacLeish. 

1171. Brown, Deming B. Soviet attitudes toward 
American writing. Princeton, N.J., Prince- 
ton University Press, 1962. 338 p. 

62-11954 PSi59-R8B7 

Includes bibliography. 

A broad and authoritative investigation by a pro- 
fessor of Slavic literature and languages who also 
holds a degree in American literature. Brown made 
two trips to the USSR while gathering information 
on Soviet criticism of American literature. The 
book has several uses. It offers a description of the 
publication and reception of American books in the 
USSR, discussing censorship, the popularity of dif- 
ferent American authors, and Soviet critical evalua- 



tion of books from the 1920*5 to 1960; it presents 
ideological, esthetic, and political aspects of Soviet 
criticism, summarizes its strengths and weaknesses, 
and considers the effectiveness of critical propaganda 
in dictating esthetic choice to the reading public of 
the Soviet Union; and, finally, it evaluates the 
effectiveness of American writers in communicating 
a cultural understanding of the United States within 
a country where avowed opposition to American 
culture and values has been a virtue. 

1172. Cambon, Glauco. The inclusive flame; 
studies in American poetry. Bloomington, 

Indiana University Press [1963] 248 p. 

63-16612 PS305.C3I3 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. [2291-245). 

This work was originally published in 1956 as 
an introduction to American poetry for an Italian 
audience. The author translated his volume into 
English and has offered it to American readers as 
a scholarly contribution expressing the personal 
viewpoints of a native Italian who became a pro- 
fessor of comparative literature at Cambridge. 
Cambon takes his title from the effort of American 
poets to capture the totality of American experience 
through poetry. Nine American poets from Poe 
to Robert Lowell are studied in this search for 
"Americanness." 

1173. Chase, Richard V. The American novel 
and its tradition. Garden City, N. Y., 

Doubleday, 1957. 266 p. (Doubleday anchor 
books, An6) 57-11412 PS37I.C5 

Includes bibliography. 

A study in the comparative traditions of fiction 
in England and the United States. Although the 
American tradition inevitably sprang from its Brit- 
ish parent, it is seen as coming under the influence 
of the romantic French and Russian writers during 
the i88o's and i89o's. The author's purpose is to 
assess "the significance of the fact that since the 
earliest days the American novel, in its most original 
and characteristic form, has worked out its destiny 
and defined itself by incorporating an element of 
romance." The result is a "freer, more daring, 
more brilliant fiction that contrasts with the solid 
moral inclusiveness and massive equability of the 
English novel." The romanticism of Brockden 
Brown, Cooper, Hawthorne, Melville, James, Mark 
Twain, Fitzgerald, Frank Norris, and Faulkner is 
studied in 10 essays. Two appendixes enlarge upon 
the text. 

1174. Contemporary authors; the international bio- 
bibliographical guide to current authors and 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 79 



their works, v. i+ Detroit, Gale Research, 1962+ 

6252046 Z 1 224.06 

A compendium of information on major and 
minor living authors in fields other than science and 
technology. Arranged alphabetically by author, the 
sketches are based on responses to questionnaires. 
Both personal and professional information is in- 
cluded, as well as lists of published writings and 
works in progress. Fourteen volumes had been 
published by the end of 1965. Indexes are cumula- 
tive, and information on authors is updated when 
new works appear. 

1175. Cowley, Malcolm, ed. After the genteel 
tradition; American writers, 19101930. 

With a preface by Harry T. Moore. Carbondale, 
Southern Illinois University Press [1964] 210 p. 
(Crosscurrents; modern critiques) 

6411608 PS22I.C645 1964 

This revised edition of no. 2406 in the 1960 Guide 

includes a new foreword, an expanded "literary 

calendar" for the years 191130, and a new chapter 

on Robinson, written by the editor. 

1176. Cunliffe, Marcus. The literature of the 
United States. [Rev. ed.] Baltimore, Pen- 
guin Books [1961] 384 p. (Pelican books, A2&9) 

62-788 PS92.C8 1961 

A critical-historical account of American litera- 
ture from colonial times through the 1 950*5, written 
by an English scholar sympathetic to literary tradi- 
tions in both Britain and the United States. Noting 
that his British readers often find the notion of a 
distinctly American literature difficult to accept, 
he makes a point of stressing the peculiarly Ameri- 
can qualities of our national letters. In addition to 
discussing the traditional genres, the author shows 
enthusiasm for the history of American criticism, 
especially in its efforts to claim certain characteristics 
as peculiarly American. 

1177. Davis, David B. Homicide in American 
fiction, 17981860; a study in social values. 

Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University Press [1957] 
xviii, 346 p. 57-4688 PS374.H6D3 

Bibliography: p. 315340. 

A study of American attitudes toward homicide 
as evidenced in both popular and classical novels of 
the 1 9th century. The author states in his preface 
that "this is a historical analysis of certain ideas as- 
sociated with homicide, including beliefs concerning 
the origin and development of human evil, the ex- 
tent of freedom and responsibility, the nature of 
mental and emotional abnormality, the influence of 
American social forces on violence, and the morality 
of capital punishment." 



1178. Deutsch, Babette. Poetry in our time; a 
critical survey of poetry in the English- 
speaking world, 1900 to 1960. 2d ed., rev. and enl. 
Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1963. 457 p. 
(Anchor books) 63-8763 PR6o 1.043 1963 

Babette Deutsch was one of the first critics and 
historians of modern poetry and has been publish- 
ing and updating her studies for the last three 
decades. The best known of these is her Poetry in 
Our Time, no. 2414 in the 1960 Guide, which first 
appeared in 1952. The new edition is a revision 
and enlargement of the entire volume, written with 
the conviction that nothing can deal with the real- 
ities of the 2oth century as meaningfully as the 
poetry of this century. Also revised and enlarged 
is her Poetry Handboof^ (New York, Funk & Wag- 
nails [1962] 181 p.), a "dictionary of the terms 
used in discussing verse techniques and some of the 
larger aspects of poetry, together with examples of 
poetic practice." 

1179. Dickinson, A. T. American historical fic- 
tion. New York, Scarecrow Press, 1958. 

3 14 P-. 58-7803 PS374.H 5 D5 

Bibliography: p. 225-230. 

An annotated bibliography of 1,909 American 
novels, including classic works, popular narratives, 
regional tales, diaries, and chronicles. Annotations 
are objective rather than critical. Robert A. Lively's 
Fiction Fights the Civil War (Chapel Hill, Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Press [1957] 2 3 P-) i s a 
study of over five hundred novels about the war. 

1 1 80. Downer, Alan S., ed. American drama and 
its critics; a collection of critical essays. Chi- 
cago, University of Chicago Press [1965] xxi, 258 
p. (Gemini books. Patterns of literary criticism) 

65-24424 PS35i.D5 9 

Selections ranging from James A. Herne's end-of- 
the-century commentary to the more recent views of 
Eric Bentley, Tom Driver, and Robert Brustein are 
included in an anthology intended to indicate "the 
variety of critical experiences that accompanied the 
development of the modern American theater." A 
similar collection written from the viewpoint of the 
playwright is American Playwrights on Drama 
(New York, Hill & Wang [1965] 174 p. A 
Dramabook), edited by Horst Frenz and featuring 
22 statements by 14 dramatists, including O'Neill, 
Maxwell Anderson, Thornton Wilder, Tennessee 
Williams, William Inge, Archibald MacLeish, Lor- 
raine Hansberry, and Edward Albee. 

1 181 . Dusenbury, Winifred L. The theme of lone- 
liness in modern American drama. Gaines- 
ville, University of Florida Press, 1960. 231 p. 

60-10228 PS338.L6D8 1960 



80 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Twenty-six major American plays since 1920 are 
discussed as they exemplify the theme of loneliness 
in American life. The criteria for the selection of 
plays required that they "meet the test of a truthful 
portrayal of American life" and "through their aes- 
thetic heightening of the truth, have significance for 
modern audiences." The plays are categorized ac- 
cording to the cause of loneliness: personal failure, 
homelessness, an unhappy family life, the failure of 
a love affair, socioeconomic forces, a conflict be- 
tween the material and the spiritual, the isolation of 
a hero, and unhappiness in the South. Arthur Mil- 
ler, Eugene O'Neill, Carson McCullers, John Stein- 
beck, Tennessee Williams, William Saroyan, and 
William Inge are among the 20 playwrights repre- 
sented. 

1182. Eisinger, Chester E. Fiction of the forties. 
Chicago, University of Chicago Press [1963] 

392 p. 6320904 PS379-E4 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. 
368-383). 

The writers of a troubled decade and their search 
for meaning in a rapidly changing world are dis- 
cussed. The author believes that fiction mirrored 
the innermost fears and urges of the American peo- 
ple during the Second World War and the years 
immediately following. Naturalism, liberalism, 
conservatism, the "gothic spirit," and existentialism 
all found their best expression in the personal inter- 
pretations which juxtaposed self and society in a 
desperate struggle to discover both. The writers 
examined most closely include John Dos Passes, 
Nelson Algren, Eudora Welty, Truman Capote, 
James Gould Cozzens, and William Faulkner. An 
appendix gives a chronological listing of some 150 
fiction titles published from 1939 to 1953. 

1183. Falk, Robert P. The Victorian mode in 
American fiction, 18651885. [East Lans- 
ing] Michigan State University Press, 1965 [ C i964] 
1 88 p. 6421643 PS377.F3 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 167-182). 

Victorian realism is interpreted as coloring a dis- 
tinct literary period, existing within its own life 
cycle, and moving from a hesitant Victorian roman- 
ticism to a mature "vision of reality." Falk places 
the novel at the center of his account. Henry James, 
William Dean Howells, John W. De Forest, and 
Mark Twain, the major practitioners of the craft at 
this time, are discussed in relation to the movement 
toward literary realism. Warner BerthofFs The 
Ferment of Realism; American Literature, 1884 
79/9 (New York, Free Press [1965] 330 p.), at- 
tempts to trace the effects of realism in literary, so- 



cial, intellectual, and historical works of a later 
period. The Realistic Movement in American Writ- 
ing (New York, Odyssey Press [1965] 678 p. The 
Odyssey surveys of American writing), compiled by 
Bruce R. McElderry, is an anthology of fiction pub- 
lished during the period 18651900. 

1184. Fiedler, Leslie A. Love and death in the 
American novel. New York, Criterion 

Books [1960] 603 p. 59-12195 PS374.L6F5 
Fiedler draws upon the depth psychology of Freud 
and Jung to explain what he regards as a basic fea- 
ture of American letters. Reflecting American so- 
ciety, the novel retreated into a fanciful world of 
nature and boyhood adventure, avoiding a conscious 
confrontation of sex and savagery. Submerged into 
the subconscious, these primeval forces have found 
symbolic expression in the repeated occurrence of 
thinly veiled homosexuality and demonic violence 
in American fiction. Mark Twain's Huck and Jim, 
along with Ishmael and Queequeg in Moby Dicf(, 
are thus seen as manifestations of repressed libido, 
while Cooper's tales become an outlet for the sav- 
agery lying beneath the surface of American life. 
Fiedler has also written numerous individual essays 
on literature, some of which have been collected in 
No! In Thunder (Boston, Beacon Press [1960] 336 
p.). His Waiting for the End (New York, Stein & 
Day [1964] 256 p.) contains reflections on the 
present and future of American letters. 

1185. Floan, Howard R. The South in northern 
eyes, 18311861. Austin, University of 

Texas Press [1958] 198 p. 

57-8824 F2I3.F55 1958 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The psychological conditioning for the "irrepres- 
sible" Civil War is studied through an examination 
of the views of major northern literary figures in the 
years prior to the conflict. The general pattern dis- 
cerned is one of opposition to the South on the part 
of New England writers, balanced to some extent by 
sympathy among certain New Yorkers. To support 
his conclusions, the author cites the New England 
literary and general magazines as well as various 
regional writers, including Longfellow, Holmes, 
Hawthorne, Emerson, Thoreau, Lowell, Whittier, 
Garrison, and Wendell Phillips. Melville, Bryant, 
and Whitman express the partially sympathetic 
viewpoint of the New York area toward the South. 

1 1 86. Fraiberg, Louis B. Psychoanalysis & Amer- 
ican literary criticism. Detroit, Wayne State 

University Press, 1960. 263 p. 

59-11980 PS78.F7 
The author discusses the use of Freudian theories 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 8 1 



of psychoanalysis and art by various prominent 
American critics, including Van Wyck Brooks, Jo- 
seph Wood Krutch, Ludwig Lewisohn, Edmund 
Wilson, Kenneth Burke, and Lionel Trilling. Tril- 
ling is interpreted as adhering most faithfully to 
psychoanalytic findings. 

1187. Frohock, Wilbur M. The novel of violence 
in America. [2d ed., rev. and enl.] Dallas, 

Southern Methodist University Press [1958, C i957] 
238 p. 57-!47 6 7 PS 3 7 9 .F7 1958 

A substantial revision of no. 2427 in the 1960 
Guide, featuring a new preface and a "radical alter- 
ation" in the treatment of Faulkner and Heming- 
way. Three new chapters have been included: "Mr. 
Warren's Albatross," criticizing Robert Penn War- 
ren's fiction for evasion of the actual; "James Agee 
- The Question of Wasted Talent," on the loss of 
potential novelists to film and magazine writing; 
and "The Menace of the Paperback," in which the 
relation of paperback "gimmick" fiction to the fu- 
ture of the novel is discussed. 

1 1 88. Frohock, Wilbur M. Strangers to this 
ground; cultural diversity in contemporary 

American writing. Dallas, Southern Methodist 
University Press [1961] i8op. 

61-17183 PS22I.F7 

That national fiction affirms national diversity is 
the thesis established in this study of seven writers. 
The author believes that leaving home and begin- 
ning life in a new region and a different cultural 
environment constitute the decisive experience most 
Americans face the "Great American Topos." 
Numerous novelists are cited as dealing with this 
problem, but Frohock concentrates on Fitzgerald, 
Pound, Emily Dickinson, Edna St. Vincent Millay, 
James Gould Cozzens, Lionel Trilling, and Jack 
Kerouac. The concluding essay considers the chal- 
lenge to literary critics within the universities to 
relate literature, broadly conceived, to the cultural 
variety existing in American life. 

1189. Fuller, Edmund. Man in modern fiction; 
some minority opinions on contemporary 

American writing. New York, Random House 
[1958] 171 p. 58-7664 PS379.F8 

Writing from the viewpoint of the Judeo-Christian 
moral tradition, Fuller challenges the tendencies to 
depict deviates as representative of modern man and 
to view man as a godless, depraved creature whose 
life lacks both meaning and nobility. Writers 
singled out to illustrate the "destructive and anti- 
social" nature of much modern fiction and criticism 
include James Jones, Jack Kerouac, John Steinbeck, 
Norman Mailer, Tennessee Williams, and Nelson 



Algren. In BooJ^s With Men Behind Them (New 
York, Random House [1962] 240 p.), Fuller offers 
his candidates for "a renewed literature in the great 
tradition" of man as a rational, free, responsible, and 
purposeful creature of God: C. S. Lewis, C. P. Snow, 
Alan Paton, Thornton Wilder, Gladys Schmitt, 
J. R. R. Tolkien, and Charles Williams. 

1 190. Fussell, Edwin S. Frontier: American liter- 
ature and the American West. Princeton, 

N. J., Princeton University Press, 1965. xv, 450 p. 
64-12181 PSi69.W 4 F8 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The author contends that the frontier was "the 
ideal mimesis for the mid-nineteenth century Amer- 
ican literary problem, an almost perfect instrument 
for blending the most realistic native materials with 
the most far-reaching social criticism, moral com- 
mentary, or philosophical speculation." Accord- 
ingly, in penetrating the meaning of early American 
literature, "the word West, with all its derivatives 
and variants, is the all but inevitable key." Fussell 
begins by tracing possible origins for the various 
metaphors of the West and illustrating how the 
frontier metaphor developed and declined in the 
writings of major American authors. He alludes to 
the many uses of western names and places in the 
writings of Cooper, Hawthorne, Poe, Thoreau, Mel- 
ville, and Whitman and finds the frontier metaphor 
a central factor in each. Wilson O. Clough, in The 
Necessary Earth; Nature and Solitude in American 
Literature (Austin, University of Texas Press [1964] 
234 p.), offers conjectures on the frontier as a favo- 
rite source of native myth and on the extent to 
which this metaphor is influential in the 2oth 
century. 

1191. Gaston, Edwin W. The early novel of the 
Southwest. [Albuquerque] University of 

New Mexico Press [1961] xiii, 318 p. 

6011693 PS277.G3 

"Related studies": p. 288291. Bibliography: p. 
292302. 

A critical history of representative southwestern 
fiction written in the period 18191918 by authors 
who either lived in or had firsthand knowledge of 
the Southwest. A study of 40 novels leads to the 
conclusion that the general development of the early 
regional novel follows the romantic tradition of the 
mainstream of American fiction, evolving from the 
naive to the complex and mature. A general 
survey of the novels is followed by studies of plot 
types, techniques, character portrayal, impressions 
of geography, and intellectual or philosophical con- 
cepts. Appendixes contain synopses of the novels 
and biographical data on the authors. 



82 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



1192. Gohdes, Clarence L. F. Bibliographical 
guide to the study of the literature of the 

U.S.A. ad ed., rev. and enl. Durham, N.C., Duke 
University Press [1963] 125 p. 

6318575 Zi225.G6 1963 
The author's 35 selective lists cover the methodol- 
ogy and technique of literary studies and American 
literary history and criticism as well as the authori- 
tative works in such areas of Americana as biog- 
raphy, art, religion, and comparative literature. 
Brief annotations cover the scope and significance of 
the more than 700 books listed. A useful comple- 
ment is James L. Woodress' Dissertations in Amer- 
ican Literature, 18911955, With Supplement, 1956 
1961 (Durham, N.C., Duke University Press, 1962. 
138 p.). 

1193. Gossett, Louise Y. Violence in recent south- 
ern fiction. Durham, N.C., Duke Univer- 
sity Press, 1965. xi, 207 p. 6513656 PS26i.G6 

That violence is the dominating element in south- 
ern fiction since 1930 is the contention advanced in 
this study of the work of n writers, from the pre- 
1940 writings of William Faulkner, Erskine Cald- 
well, and Thomas Wolfe to the post-i94o work of 
William Styron, Flannery O'Connor, and Eudora 
Welty. Noting that recent southern fiction has been 
discussed in studies of the grotesque by William 
Van O'Connor and Irving Malin, Miss Gossett 
emphasizes the violence that often accompanies the 
incongruities and distortions. She sees violence as 
"part of the total response of creative artists to 
jarring changes in man's view of himself" and as 
an expression of the complicated history of the 
South. 

1194. Haraszti, Zoltan. The enigma of the Bay 
Psalm Book. [Chicago] University of Chi- 
cago Press [1956] 143 p. facsims., port. 

565128 651440.6415^13 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. 
119-139). 

As only 1 1 copies of the original Bay Psalm Boof^ 
of 1640 survive and only five of these are complete 
the University of Chicago issued The Bay Psalm 
Boof(, a Facsimile Reprint of the First Edition of 
1640 ( [295] p.) in 1956. In this companion vol- 
ume, Haraszti has examined the famous book as a 
literary object and has uncovered important facts 
and rectified misconceptions. He notes that, con- 
trary to the usual assumption, John Cotton rather 
than Richard Mather wrote the preface. Haraszti 
also challenges earlier speculations concerning the 
authorship of the Puritan translation and discusses 
the historical background of the translation, the 
text of the book, and problems for the scholar in 



uncovering further clues to the authorship of indi- 
vidual passages. 

1195. Hassan, Ihab H. Radical innocence; studies 
in the contemporary American novel. 

Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1961. 
362 p. 61-7416 PS379.H32 

Fiction after Hemingway and Faulkner is viewed 
as having created a new fictional hero, possessed by 
"radical innocence." As an existentialist who tries 
responsibly to reconcile himself to destructive en- 
counters with experience, this victimized, innocent 
hero struggles to overcome defeat as he is initiated 
into the contradictions of his culture. After devel- 
oping his metaphor for modern literature, Hassan 
considers nine novelists: William Styron, Harvey 
Swados, Norman Mailer, Frederick Buechner, Ber- 
nard Malamud, Ralph Ellison, Herbert Gold, John 
Cheever, and J. P. Donleavy. The last section dis- 
cusses the synthesis between art and meaningful 
reality in the fiction of Carson McCullers, Truman 
Capote, J. D. Salinger, and Saul Bellow. 

1196. Hicks, Granville, ed. The living novel, a 
symposium. New York, Macmillan, 1957. 

230 p. 57-12221 PS379.H5 

As a reply to those who regard the American 
novel as dead or dying, 10 contemporary novelists 
have written essays on their occupation. Although 
the tone varies from anger to detached and critical 
introspection, an intense devotion to craft is empha- 
sized. The contributors are Saul Bellow, Flannery 
O'Connor, Herbert Gold, Ralph Ellison, Mark 
Harris, Paul Boles, John Brooks, Wright Morris, 
Harvey Swados, and Jessamyn West. Hicks con- 
cludes the volume with an afterword on "The 
Enemies of the Novel." 

1197. Hoffman, Daniel G. Form and fable in 
American fiction. New York, Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 1961. 368 p. 618371 PS377-H6 

Ten romances and tales are analyzed to show how 
folklore and mythology expressed the themes of 
19th-century prose and affected the form and con- 
tent of American fiction. Irving, Hawthorne, Mel- 
ville, and Mark Twain, in their attempts to define 
the underlying themes of national life, are said to 
have turned inevitably toward the common arche- 
typal patterns of journey, quest, and initiation. The 
meaning of the term "romance" is amplified and 
explored as Hoffman stresses the significant impact 
of magic, ritual, myth, and folklore upon our writers. 

1198. Hoffman, Frederick J. Freudianism and 
the literary mind. 2d ed. Baton Rouge, 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 83 



Louisiana State University Press, 1957. 350 p. 

57-11542 PN 49 .H6 1957 

Bibliography: p. 331341. 

A complete revision of a 1945 publication men- 
tioned in the annotation for no. 2440 in the 1960 
Guide. Although the substance of the original 
volume remains, Hoffman advises in his preface 
that he has amplified, cut, updated, and refined the 
language. In addition, he has included a detailed 
study of Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night and an 
appendix reprinting an essay entitled "Psychology 
and Literature," first published in the Kenyan 
Review in 1957. 

1199. Hoffman, Frederick J., ed. Marginal man- 
ners; the variants of bohemia. Evanston, 

111., Row, Peterson [1962] 182 p. 

62-4798 PS536.H6 

A collection of essays, stories, and poems defining 
and describing the history of the socially dissident, 
the nonconformist, and the economic failure. 
Among these "marginal men" are beatniks, bo- 
hemians, expatriates, hipsters, bums, hoboes, and 
outsiders types the author has distinguished from 
one another and related to the social history of 
different periods. Excerpts and essays are used to 
show that each group is identifiable on the basis of 
its language, values, and experiences. 

1200. Hoffman, Frederick J., ed. Perspectives on 
modern literature. Evanston, 111., Row, 

Peterson [1962] 242 p. 624217 PR473-H6 

A selection of readings arranged under such 
topics as "Culture and the Intellectual," "The 
Dignity and Responsibility of Art," "The 1930*5 
The Survival Values of Tradition," "The Leftist 
Imperative," and "The Revolt against Ideology." 
Among the authors represented are H. L. Mencken, 
Ezra Pound, Hart Crane, William Faulkner, and 
Norman Mailer. 

1 20 1. Howard, Leon. Literature and the Ameri- 
can tradition. Garden City, N.Y., Double- 
day, 1960. 354 p. 605933 PS88.H65 

A survey of American literature from the time of 
the Puritan and transcendental influences to the 
present, written to answer the question, "Does the 
literary history of America reveal the existence of 
an attitude of mind consistent and durable enough 
to be called an aspect of the national character?" 
Stressing the traditional periods and movements, 
Howard concludes that the key to the best in Amer- 
ican literature lies in the attitude of Faulkner and 
Hemingway their belief in "the creative power of 
the human spirit to endure and prevail and to 
exist in the meanest and queerest of individuals." 



1202. Hubbell, Jay B. South and Southwest; liter- 
ary essays and reminiscences. Durham, 

N.C., Duke University Press, 1965. 369 p. 

65-26839 PSi2i.H83 

"Publications of Jay B. Hubbell": p. 365-369. 

Sixteen essays, including reminiscences based 
upon the author's experiences as a teacher, editor, 
and author, as well as historical and literary studies 
supplementing the materials presented in his earlier 
publications. Among the essays are recollections of 
his years as editor of Southwest Review, 192427, as 
visiting professor in American literature at the 
University of Vienna, 194950, and as one of the 
founders of American Literature, for which he 
served as chairman of the board of editors from 
1928 to 1954. In his Southern Life in Fiction 
(Athens, University of Georgia Press [1960] 99 p. 
Eugenia Dorothy Blount Lamar memorial lectures, 
1959), Hubbell comments upon images of the South 
in literature and history, protesting that the South 
has often been misrepresented in fiction. 

1203. Hungerford, Edward B., ed. Poets in pro- 
gress; critical prefaces to ten contemporary 

Americans. [Evanston, 111.] Northwestern Uni- 
versity Press, 1962. 213 p. 62-10612 PS324.H8 

Bibliography: p. [209] 213. 

Ten American poets who have won critical ac- 
claim since World War II are discussed by current 
or former English professors at Northwestern Uni- 
versity. Each of the contributors writes about a 
personal favorite, and several have previously writ- 
ten longer critical works on their subjects. The 
poets considered are Theodore Roethke, Robert 
Lowell, Stanley Kunitz, Richard Wilbur, Richard 
Eberhart, W. D. Snodgrass, Howard Nemerov, J. V. 
Cunningham, Randall Jarrell, and W. S. Merwin. 

1204. Hyman, Stanley E. The promised end; 
essays and reviews, 19421962. Cleveland, 

World Pub. Co. C ^] 380 p. 

63-18586 PN5ii.H9 

These miscellaneous essays, dating from 1942 to 
1962, treat a wide variety of themes and contexts 
but reflect Hyman's steady interest in American 
folk traditions, mythology, and contemporary writ- 
ing and culture. The author has corrected errors 
of fact in the essays as they were initially published 
and has occasionally noted his disagreement with his 
own original opinions. Some of the writers who 
figure prominently in the essays are John Steinbeck, 
John Peale Bishop, Herman Melville, David 
Daiches, Isaac Babel, Richard Wright, and Ralph 
Ellison; general topics include "American Negro 
Literature and Folk Tradition," "Some Trends in 



/ A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



the Novel," "Stances Toward Mass Culture," and 
"The Child Ballad in America." 

1205. Jones, Howard Mumford. History and the 
contemporary; essays in nineteenth-century 

literature. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 
1964. 176 p. 6414505 PS2OI.J58 

Includes bibliographical references. 

Nine essays emphasizing the lasting qualities in 
the works of some 19th-century men of letters whom 
the author believes contemporary literary historians 
are apt to neglect. Jones holds that the intellectual 
giants of the igth century assumed a responsibility 
for culture and the perpetuation of a literary tradi- 
tion, whereas 20th-century writers have not. Coop- 
er and Thoreau are interpreted as philosophic 
moralists, the former interested in cultural dilem- 
mas and the latter sensitive to human nature. 
Holmes is evaluated as a free-ranging intellectual 
concerned with the great philosophical problems of 
history, while Poe is reread as offering an exercise 
in the psychology of a standard 19th-century hero. 
Whittier reconsidered is found to have given the 
best American expression of faith in the goodness of 
God and to have achieved lasting beauty in his 
poetry. 

1206. Jones, Howard Mumford. The theory of 
American literature. Reissued, with a new 

concluding chapter and rev. bibliography. Ithaca, 
N.Y., Cornell University Press [1965] 225 p. 

66-272 PS3I.J6 1965 

Bibliography: p. 207215. 

An updated edition of no. 2446 in the 1960 Guide. 
The third edition of Guide to American literature 
and Its Backgrounds Since /Spo (Cambridge, 
Harvard University Press, 1964. 240 p.), compiled 
by Jones and Richard M. Ludwig, is a revised and 
enlarged edition of no. 2447 in the 1960 Guide. 

1207. Kaul, A. N. The American vision; actual 
and ideal society in nineteenth-century fic- 
tion. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1963. 
340 p. (Yale publications in American studies, 7) 

63-9309 PS37 4 .S7K 3 1963 

Bibliography: p. 325334. 

A study of the social themes in the fiction of 
Melville, Hawthorne, Cooper, and Mark Twain. 
The author examines the dialectic between the real 
society which formed the background for each 
writer and the idealized society which each envi- 
sioned. A concluding note discusses "Social Real- 
ity and the Form of American Fiction." 

1208. Kazin, Alfred. Contemporaries. [Essays] 
Boston, Little, Brown [1962] 513 p. 

6210528 PS352I.A995C6 



A catholic collection of literary essays, many pre- 
viously published and well known, edited and 
arranged to indicate the intellectual heritage of 
modern American literature. Initial chapters dis- 
cuss the relevance of the American past and the 
19th-century classic writers. Saul Bellow, Robert 
Lowell, Norman Mailer, Karl Shapiro, Nelson 
Algren, James Agee, J. F. Powers, J. D. Salinger, 
Truman Capote, James Baldwin, Kenneth Rexroth, 
and Bernard Malamud are among the 20th-century 
writers included. Other chapters comment on 
"The European Current," "Freud and His Conse- 
quences," "The Puzzle of Modern Society," and 
"The Critic's Task." 

1209. Klein, Marcus. After alienation; American 
novels in mid-century. Cleveland, World 

Pub. Co. [1964] 307 p. 63-19731 PS379-K5 
Bibliography: p. 305 307. 

1210. Baumbach, Jonathan. The landscape of 
nightmare: studies in the contemporary 

American novel. [New York] New York Univer- 
sity Press, 1965. 173 p. 6511761 PS379.B35 

Bibliography: p. 171173. 

These two studies of the American novel in the 
post- World- War-II period share the conviction that 
the possibility of total annihilation, in combination 
with the alternative of dehumanized existence, has 
created a climate of terror which is reflected in 
recent fiction. Klein discusses five writers Saul 
Bellow, Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin, Bernard 
Malamud, and Wright Morris who have had to 
create a "literature of accommodation." Baumbach 
views the imaginative vision of nine modern novels 
in "a world which accommodates evil." The novels 
selected are All the King's Men, The Victim, The 
Catcher in the Rye, Invisible Man, Wise Blood, The 
Assistant, Lie Down in Darkness, The Pawnbroker, 
and Ceremony in Lone Tree. Sidney W. Finkel- 
stein, in Existentialism and Alienation in American 
Literature (New York, International Publishers 
[1965] 314 p.), traces the philosophical develop- 
ment of existentialism in Europe through its mani- 
festations in American literature. 

121 1. Kostelanetz, Richard, ed. On contemporary 
literature; an anthology of critical essays on 

the major movements and writers of contemporary 
literature. [New York, Avon Books, 1964] 638 p. 

6455294 PN77 1 .K6 

Includes bibliographies. 

A collection of more than 50 general essays on the 
major writers and movements in American, Canadi- 
an, and European literature since World War II. 
The initial 16 essays cover developments in the 



leading literary forms in seven countries; the rest 
of the book contains essays on individual writers, 
mostly American. Among the contributors are 
Ihab Hassan, Alfred Kazin, Norman Podhoretz, 
Leslie Fiedler, Randall Jarrell, Walter Allen, R. W. 
B. Lewis, William Barrett, Irving Howe, Eric 
Bentley, and Stanley Edgar Hyman. Individual 
authors discussed include Vladimir Nabokov, James 
Purdy, Theodore Roethke, William Styron, Robert 
Penn Warren, James Baldwin, Edward Albee, and 
Joseph Heller. Other anthologies of recent criti- 
cism on modern writing are The Creative Present 
(Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1963. 265 p.), 
edited by Nona Balakian and Charles Simmons, 
and Contemporary American Novelists (Carbon- 
dale, Southern Illinois University Press [1964] 
232 p. Crosscurrents: modern critiques), edited by 
Harry T. Moore. 

1212. Lenhart, Charmenz S. Musical influence 
on American poetry. Athens, University of 

Georgia Press [1956] 337 p. 

56-7980 PS3IO.M8L4 

Bibliography: p. 314326. 

Walt Whitman, Sidney Lanier, and Edgar Allan 
Poe are the central figures in this study of the 
poetic and musical arts in America during the i7th, 
1 8th, and igth centuries. To support his thesis 
that the "kinds of poetry written in a century often 
have depended upon the kinds of music heard in 
that century," the author identifies poems contain- 
ing direct references to music, imitations of such 
musical forms as the symphony, and attempts to 
create the impression of music in poetry. The first 
chapter is devoted to a brief history of American 
music during three centuries; the following three 
chapters consider lyrical poetry and musical forms. 
The final chapters of the book discuss Whitman, 
Lanier, and Poe in detail. 

1213. Levin, Harry. The power of blackness: 
Hawthorne, Poe, Melville. New York, 

Knopf, 1958. 263 p. 58-5826 PSi888.L4 

Bibliography: p. 249-255. 

The author demonstrates the preoccupation of 
three eminent writers with evil and examines the 
symbols they used. His Contexts of Criticism 
(Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1957. 294 
p. Harvard studies in comparative literature, 22) 
consists of academic essays on a wide variety of 
literary topics, including "Observations on the 
Style of Ernest Hemingway," "Don Quixote and 
Moby Dick," and "Criticism in Crisis." 

1214. Literary history of the United States. Edi- 
tors: Robert E. Spiller [and others] 3d ed., 



rev. New York, Macmillan, 1963. 2 v. 

63-17511 PS88.L522 

Bibliography: v. i, p. 14461481. 

CONTENTS. [i] History. [2] Bibliography. 

In the third edition of this now standard work, 
no. 24602461 in the 1960 Guide, the story of 
American letters is continued through the early 
1960'$. The second volume comprises the compre- 
hensive bibliography published with the first edi- 
tion in 1948 and the bibliographical supplement 
published in 1959, with a common index. Fifty- 
seven American scholars contributed the 83 chap- 
ters. In the revised "postscript" chapter for the 
third edition, Willard Thorp and Robert E. Spiller 
evaluate writers whose careers ended between the 
World Wars, and Ihab Hassan estimates the 
achievements of those who emerged after 1945 (in- 
cluding recent novelists, dramatists, poets, and 
literary critics) and the forces that have dominated 
literature in the postwar world. 

1215. Litz, A. Walton, ed. Modern American 
fiction; essays in criticism. New York, 

Oxford University Press, 1963. 365 p. (A Galaxy 
book, GB roo ) 63-11919 PS379.L5 

Critics representing a multiplicity of approaches 
to literature comment on the modern novel from 
Stephen Crane to Robert Penn Warren. Eleven 
essays are devoted to Fitzgerald, Hemingway, and 
Faulkner; others deal with Dreiser, Lewis, Dos 
Passes, Wolfe, Steinbeck, Sherwood Anderson, and 
Gertrude Stein. Theories of fiction which orig- 
inated in the 19th-century with James, Howells, and 
Garland are balanced by the more recent specula- 
tions of Malcolm Cowley, Ihab Hassan, and Wright 
Morris. Maxwell D. Geismar's American Moderns, 
From Rebellion to Conformity (New York, Hill & 
Wang [1958] 265 p.) is a collection of critical 
essays from various periods. In The Modern Novel 
in America (Chicago, Gateway Editions; distrib- 
uted by H. Regnery Co. [1956] 227 p. A Gateway 
edition, 6035), an earlier edition of which is no. 
2360 in the 1960 Guide, Frederick J. Hoffman 
demonstrates the effects of artistic philosophy and 
technique upon the novel. 

1216. Ludwig, Richard M., ed. Aspects of Ameri- 
can poetry; essays presented to Howard 

Mumford Jones. [Columbus] Ohio State Univer- 
sity Press [1963, C i962] 335 p. 

62-16217 PS305.L8 

Includes bibliography. 

After 43 years of leadership as a teacher, scholar, 
and humanist, Howard Mumford Jones retired in 
1962 as Abbott Lawrence Lowell Professor of the 
Humanities at Harvard University. For the occa- 
sion, friends and former students supplied this 



86 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



festschrift of 12 essays on American poetry, along 
with a bibliography of Jones' writings. Contribu- 
tors and essays are as follows: "The Meter-Making 
Argument," by Edwin Fussell; "Some Varieties of 
Inspiration," by G. Ferris Cronkhite; "Poe: Journal- 
ism and the Theory of Poetry," by William Char vat; 
"The Problem of Structure in Some Poems by 
Whitman," by Marvin Felheim; "Ezra Pound's 
London Years," by Richard M. Ludwig; "Robert 
Frost and Man's 'Royal Role,' " by Claude M. 
Simpson; "Sherwood Anderson's Mid-American 
Chants," by Walter B. Rideout; "The Bridge and 
Hart Crane's 'Span of Consciousness,' " by Albert 
Van Nostrand; "Wallace Stevens' Ice-Cream," by 
Richard Ellmann; "The Situation of Our Time: 
Auden in His American Phase," by Frederick P. W. 
McDowell; "Mr. Tate: Whose Wreath Should Be 
a Moral," by Radcliffe Squires; and "Deliberate 
Exiles: The Social Sources of Agrarian Poetics," by 
Wallace W. Douglas. 

1217. Lyons, John O. The college novel in Amer- 
ica. With a preface by Harry T. Moore. 

Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press 

[1962] 208 p. (Crosscurrents: modern critiques) 

62-17619 PS374.U52L9 

Includes bibliography. 

In this first full-length treatment of the college 
novel as a special literary genre, the author con- 
siders over 200 academic novels whose main char- 
acters are either students or professors. The 
orientation of the study is toward literary history 
rather than qualitative selection, although a critical 
approach is taken in the discussions of trends and 
types. 

1218. Malin, Irving, ed. Psychoanalysis and 
American fiction. New York, Dutton, 1965. 

316 p. (A Dutton paperback, Di62) 

65-2415 PS37I.M26 

Includes bibliographical references. 

Fifteen essays in which the insights of psycho- 
analysis are applied to American writings. Cooper, 
James, Willa Gather, Erskine Caldwell, Faulkner, 
Mark Twain, Poe, Melville, and Frank Norris are 
among the writers considered; the critics include 
Simon Lesser, Patrick Quinn, Richard Chase, Leslie 
Fiedler, Edmund Wilson, Maxwell Geismar, and 
Leon Edel. In his New American Gothic (Carbon- 
dale, Southern Illinois University Press [1962] 
175 p. Crosscurrents: modern critiques), Malin 
treats the private visions of six contemporary au- 
thors: Carson McCullers, Flannery O'Connor, John 
Hawkes, J. D. Salinger, Truman Capote, and 
James Purdy. 



1219. Marx, Leo. The machine in the garden; 
technology and the pastoral ideal in Amer- 
ica. New York, Oxford University Press, 1964. 
392 p. 6424864 169.1.1^35 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 

(P- 367-384)- 

The author seeks "to describe and evaluate the 
uses of the pastoral ideal in the interpretation of 
American experience." After discussing the pas- 
toral ideal in general, he examines its relationship 
to technology as depicted in the writings of Robert 
Beverley, Jefferson, Cooper, Thoreau, Melville, 
Mark Twain, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, and others. 

1220. Maxwell, Desmond E. S. American fiction: 
the intellectual background. London, Rout- 
ledge & K. Paul [1963] 306 p. 

641077 PS37I.M3 19633 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The idea that the American novel is a charac- 
teristic expression of romantic individualism, emerg- 
ing from a shallow social order incapable of 
sustaining realistic fiction, is challenged in this 
account of the American social and literary scene 
from pre-Revolutionary days to the present. Ameri- 
can politics, customs, laws, and social patterns are 
viewed as part of an intellectual dialectic, interact- 
ing with the classical European imagination to form 
a native American tradition more urban and 
civilized than the romantic, revolutionary tradition 
of American fiction. Edward Taylor, Philip Fre- 
neau, Edgar Allan Poe, James Fenimore Cooper, 
Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Mark 
Twain, Ernest Hemingway, John Dos Passos, F. 
Scott Fitzgerald, William Faulkner, and James 
Gould Cozzens are among the writers whose 
receptivity to European thought is examined. 

1 22 1. Meyer, Roy W. The middle western farm 
novel in the twentieth century. Lincoln, 

University of Nebraska Press [1965] 265 p. 

6417221 PS374.F3M4 1965 

"An annotated bibliography of middle western 
farm fiction, 18911962": p. 200242. 

Bibliography: p. 243252. 

A study of 140 novels dealing with rural life 
in the Middle West and published from 1891 to 
1962. The author considers that "farm" fiction is 
significant primarily as a social commentary rather 
than as part of the mainstream of artistic fiction. 
He notes that "the use of rural life as the substance 
of serious fiction was delayed until about the time 
when the United States changed from a predomi- 
nantly rural to a predominandy urban country." 
Beginning with the initial efforts of Joseph Kirk- 
land and Hamlin Garland, the farm novel as a 



genre grew slowly until after World War I, when 
suddenly it burgeoned. 

1222. Millgate, Michael. American social fiction: 
James to Cozzens. New York, Barnes & 

Noble [1964] 217 p. 645659 PS379.M48 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The author evaluates the quality of the social 
novel in America from 1877 to X 957 anc ^ defends 
its right to acclaim. Among the writers whose 
works he examines are Henry James, F. Scott 
Fitzgerald, William Dean Howells, Frank Norris, 
Edith Wharton, Theodore Dreiser, Sherwood An- 
derson, Sinclair Lewis, John Dos Passes, and James 
Gould Cozzens. 

1223. Miner, Earl R. The Japanese tradition in 
British and American literature. Princeton, 

Princeton University Press, 1958. 312 p. 

5711934 PRi29.J3M5 

Includes bibliography. 

An extended analysis of Japan's influence on 
American literature. The author notes that Ameri- 
can impressionism, imagism, realism, and symbol- 
ism are all indebted to Japan for important features. 
The movements in the second decade of the 2Oth 
century toward a "new poetry" are carefully ex- 
plored for the influence of the Japanese haiJ(u. Ac- 
cording to Miner, "Before Japanese poetry became 
known to the West, few poets would have felt they 
dared to write such a short poem about a moth and 
the moon unless they could discover a suitable moral 
to draw from the description." He is careful to 
differentiate between the roles of Pound, Amy 
Lowell, and John Gould Fletcher in the imagist 
movement and to delineate the place of Lafcadio 
Hearn in transmitting poetic influences. Frost, 
Williams, MacLeish, Aiken, Wilder, and Stevens 
are other figures judged to have made use of Japan- 
ese traditions. 

1224. Mizener, Arthur. The sense of life in the 
modern novel. Boston, Hough ton Mifflin, 

1964 [ C i963] 291 p. 6211483 PS37I.M59 

The responsibilities of novelists and critics in 
creating and assessing the realistic novel are dis- 
cussed in this study of English and American 
writers since the mid- 1 gth century. Hemingway, 
Faulkner, Dos Passes, and Cozzens are emphasized. 
The problem for the writer is to reconcile his often 
eccentric sense of personal life with the social 
reality in which fiction must be rooted; the critic's 
problem is to compare the life represented in the 
novel to the actual patterns and deviations of society 
rather than to an abstract theory of "reality." 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 87 

1225. More, Paul E. Shelburne essays on Ameri- 
can literature. Selected and edited by Daniel 

Aaron. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World 
[ C i963] 280 p. 63-19640 PSi2i.M6 

CONTENTS. Paul Elmer More: biographical and 
bibliographical note. Paul Elmer More: introduc- 
tion. The spirit and poetry of early New England. 
Jonathan Edwards. Benjamin Franklin. 
Philip Freneau. The origins of Hawthorne and 
Poe. A note on Poe's method. The solitude of 
Nathaniel Hawthorne. Hawthorne: looking be- 
fore and after. The centenary of Longfellow. 
Whittier the poet. Emerson. The influence of 
Emerson. A hermit's notes on Thoreau. Thor- 
eau's Journal. Walt Whitman. Charles Eliot 
Norton. Henry Adams. 

From the n volumes of Shelburne Essays (1904 
21 ) and The New Shelburne Essays (1928), Daniel 
Aaron has selected and introduced this collection of 
More's writings on American letters. The essays 
exemplify More's neohumanist approach and the 
coherent critical philosophy by which he judged 
literature. 

1226. Morris, Wright. The territory ahead. [New 
York] Harcourt, Brace [1958] 231 p. 

58-10892 PS88.M6 

The sense of the past as it dominated and trans- 
formed literature is the basis of this study of Thor- 
eau, Whitman, Melville, Mark Twain, James, Wolfe, 
Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Faulkner. Morris 
contends that a long line of major American novel- 
ists evaded their immediate present and sought 
refuge in a nostalgic past, which each translated 
through the genius of his craft. Only Henry James 
is considered to have approached the present with 
intellectual alertness and to have used raw materials 
and technique to fuse past and present effectively. 

1227. O'Connor, William Van. The grotesque: 
an American genre, and other essays. With 

a preface by Harry T. Moore. Carbondale, South- 
ern Illinois University Press [1962] 231 p. (Cross- 
currents: modern critiques) 6215004 PSi2i.C*2 
In 1 8 essays the author attempts to reveal the 
ethical philosophy concealed behind the apparent 
grotesqueness and nihilism of many American 
novels. There are discussions of Frost, Stevens, 
Emily Dickinson, Mark Twain, Hemingway, Haw- 
thorne, Faulkner, Eliot, and Caroline Gordon, in 
addition to general essays on traditions in fiction, 
the relationship of the writer to his environment, 
and modern criticism. The concluding essay is an 
imaginative dialogue entitled "The Hawthorne 
Museum." 



/ A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



1228. Ostroff, Anthony, ed. The contemporary 
poet as artist and critic; eight symposia. 

Boston, Little, Brown [1964] 236 p. 

64-18766 PS324.O83 

CONTENTS. On Richard Wilbur's "Love calls us 
to the things of this world." On Theodore Roeth- 
ke's "In a dark time." On Stanley Kunitz's "Father 
and son." On Robert Lowell's "Skunk hour." 
On John Crowe Ransom's "Master's in the garden 
again." On Richard Eberhart's "Am I my neigh- 
bor's keeper?" On W. H. Auden*s "A change of 
air." On Karl Shapiro's "The bourgeois poet." 
Notes and bibliography (p. 217-236). 

A series of symposia, each consisting of an im- 
portant contemporary poem, three critiques of the 
poem by fellow poets, and the poet's response to his 
critics' interpretations. Poets who act as critics, in 
addition to the poets above, are Muriel Rukeyser, 
W. D. Snodgrass, Leonie Adams, Louise Began, 
William Dickey, John Berryman, and Babette 
Deutsch. More general comments by another group 
of American poets may be found in The Sullen Art 
(New York, Corinth Books, 1963. 95 p.), by 
David Ossman. 

1229. The Paris review. Writers at work, the 
Paris review interviews. Edited and with 

an introduction, by Malcolm Cowley. New York, 
Viking Press, 1958. 309 p. illus. 

58-6046 PN453.P3 1963 

In the spring of 1953, a group of young Ameri- 
cans in Paris launched the first issue of The Paris 
Review, an international literary quarterly contain- 
ing fiction, poetry, literary documents, portfolios, 
and articles. Among the most popular contribu- 
tions was a series of interviews with famous writers. 
This collection includes interviews with James 
Thurber, William Faulkner, Robert Penn Warren, 
and Truman Capote. Writers at Wor\, the Paris 
Review Interviews, Second Series (New York, 
Viking Press [1963] 368 p.) offers interviews with 
Robert Frost, T. S. Eliot, Katherine Anne Porter, 
Ernest Hemingway, and Robert Lowell, among 
others. 

1230. Parkinson, Thomas F., ed. A casebook on 
the beat. New York, Crowell [1961] 326 

p. (Crowell literary casebooks) 

60-9938 PS536.P25 

Includes bibliography. 

Selections from the writings of nine spokesmen of 
the beat generation are combined with criticism and 
commentary. Among the authors are Allen Gins- 
berg, Jack Kerouac, William Burroughs, Lawrence 
Ferlinghetti, and Gregory Corso. The commen- 
tators include Kenneth Rexroth, Norman Podhoretz, 



Henry Miller, Herbert Gold, John Ciardi, and 
Thomas Parkinson. 

1231. Pearce, Roy Harvey. The continuity of 
American poetry. Princeton, N.J., Prince- 
ton University Press, 1961. xv, 442 p. 

617424 PS303.P4 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

In this effort to "comprehend as a continuing 
series" the texts of major poems in America, the 
author synthesizes esthetic criticism and cultural 
history and ends by forecasting a break in con- 
tinuity after three centuries of poetry in the Puritan 
tradition. The "Adamic" and "mythic" perspec- 
tives of American poetic genius have been con- 
stant, he argues, but Wallace Stevens and T. S. Eliot 
have taken these traditions to their farthest limit. 
In reaching his conclusions, the author follows 
poetic development from Edward Taylor and the 
Puritans to Emerson and Whitman. From this 
point, all American poetry becomes "in essence, if 
not in substance, a series of arguments with Whit- 



man. 



1232. Pochmann, Henry A. German culture in 
America; philosophical and literary influ- 
ences, 16001900. With the assistance of Arthur R. 
Schultz and others. Madison, University of Wis- 
consin Press, 1957. xv, 865 p. 

556791 E 1 69.1^596 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 495-799). 

A professor of American literature at the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin assesses the role of German intel- 
lectual and cultural movements in the shaping of 
American civilization. The book's scope is broad, 
and Pochmann attempts to balance the German 
contributions with those of native American or 
British origin. Two books which study the German 
reaction to American writing are Harvey W. 
Hewett-Thayer's American Literature as Viewed 
in Germany, 18181861 (Chapel Hill, University of 
North Carolina Press [1958] 83 p. University of 
North Carolina studies in comparative literature, no. 
22) and The American Novel in Germany (Ham- 
burg, Cram, De Gruyter, 1960. 116 p. Britannica 
et Americana, Bd. 7), by Anne M. Springer, who 
examines the critical reception of 20th-century 
novelists between the two world wars. 

1233. Podhoretz, Norman. Doings and undoings; 
the fifties and after in American writing. 

New York, Farrar, Straus [1964] 371 p. 

64-12385 PS22I.P6 

In keeping with his belief that "literature is not 
an end in itself" but "a mode of public discourse 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 



that either illuminates or fails to illuminate the 
common ground on which we live," the editor of 
Commentary, in this collection of occasional essays 
written over a period of some 10 years, strikes a 
middle ground between the critic-scholars and the 
journalists. In the opening section, Podhoretz con- 
trasts the early and current reputations and accom- 
lishments of six American men of letters. The 
other two sections encompass literary, political, and 
social affairs. Among the many writers evaluated 
are Edmund Wilson, James Baldwin, John Updike, 
Norman Mailer, Joseph Heller, and Philip Roth. 

1234. Rabkin, Gerald. Drama and commitment; 
politics in the American theatre of the thir- 
ties. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1964. 
322 p. 64-63003 PS338.P6R3 

Bibliography: p. 297300. 

1235. Himelstein, Morgan Y. Drama was a 
weapon: the left-wing theatre in New York, 

19291941. With a foreword by John Gassner. 
New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University Press 
[1963] 300 p. 6221161 PN2277.N5H5 

Includes bibliography. 

Two scholarly analyses of American drama from 
1929 to 1941, stressing the political and social themes 
prominent in that period. Rabkin's book is of 
wider scope and purpose, treating all the manifesta- 
tions of political activity, whereas Himelstein con- 
centrates upon "leftist" (notably Communist) in- 
fluence. A study of the years 18901959 is Caspar 
H. Nannes' Politics in the American Drama (Wash- 
ington, Catholic University of America Press, 1960. 
256 p.). 

1236. Rahv, Philip, ed. Literature in America; an 
anthology of literary criticism. New York, 

Meridian Books, 1957. 452 p. Meridian giant 
original, MGn) 5710840 PSi2i.R2 

Includes bibliography. 

A collection of 40 essays describing how literary 
figures have utilized native materials and reacted 
to the American heritage, illustrating the close re- 
lationship of talent to native bias. According to 
Rahv, the use of indigenous materials does not mean 
"allegiance simple, uniform, and thoughtless" but 
rather an emotional and intellectual involvement 
which often results in acute criticism. The histori- 
cal scheme of the book permits the reader to witness 
changes in emphasis and problems of the American 
writer; for instance, whereas early writers often 
complained about the absence of cultural institu- 
tions, the later writers discovered that the prolifera- 
tion of institutions outdistanced the progress made 
by the arts, creating unforeseeable problems. 



1237. The Reader's encyclopedia of American lit- 
erature, by Max J. Herzberg and the staff 

of the Thomas Y. Crowell Co. New York, Crowell 
[1962] 1280 p. 6216546 PS2I.R4 

A comprehensive index to authors, titles, per- 
sonages, literary and historical movements, and 
other matters useful in the study of American liter- 
ature. Both the United States and Canada, from 
colonial times to 1962, are covered in articles by 
scholars; many of the longer and more detailed 
essays are signed by the contributors, among whom 
are George Arms, Cleanth Brooks, Lewis Leary, 
Oscar Cargill, Max Lerner, Robert Stallman, and 
Ernest Leisy. Other useful reference works for 
American literature published or appearing in a 
new edition during the 195665 period include 
American Authors and Boofy, 1640 to the Present 
Day (New York, Crown Publishers [1962] 834 
p.), by William J. Burke and Will D. Howe, no. 
2391 in the 1960 Guide, now augmented and revised 
by Irving R. Weiss; The Oxford Companion to 
American Literature, 4th ed. (New York, Oxford 
University Press, 1965. 991 p.), by James D. Hart; 
The Reader's Encyclopedia, 2d ed. (New York, 
Crowell [1965] 1118 p.), edited by William R. 
Benet; and A Library of Literary Criticism: Modern 
American Literature, 3d ed. (New York, F. Ungar 
[1964] 620 p.), edited by Dorothy Nyren. 

1238. Robinson, Cecil. With the ears of strangers; 
the Mexican in American literature. Draw- 
ings by H. Beaumont Williams. Tucson, University 
of Arizona Press, 1963. 338 p. 

63-11971 PSi73.M4R6 

Bibliography: p. 325330. 

The result of the collision of the American mind 
with the alien temperament of Mexico has been re- 
corded in a history of hostility softening to interested 
inquiry. Although many early journals, diaries, 
and novels discounted Mexicans as unclean, back- 
ward, and sensual, by the end of the i9th century 
writers were nostalgically recalling the beauty of 
the old mission culture and the Mexican traditions 
which had colored the Hispanic Southwest. Robin- 
son illustrates, through a wide selection of novels 
and nonfictional accounts, the dawning realization 
that in this people sprung from Indian and Spanish 
progenitors lay a valuable literary source for con- 
tinental myth and tradition. Whitman, Prescott, 
William Carlos Williams, Willa Gather, John Stein- 
beck, and Archibald MacLeish have been among 
the writers who showed interest in America's Mexi- 
can heritage; in addition, a score of enthusiasts have 
recorded in regional literature their hope for the 
fusion of Mexican and U.S. cultures. 



90 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



1239. Rosenthal, Macha L. The modern poets; a 
critical introduction. New York, Oxford 

University Press, 1960. 228 p. 

6013204 PR6oi.R6 

Includes bibliography. 

Poetry and the modern "crisis of personality," 
which created a need for new idioms and voices, are 
related in this study of 20th-century poetry. Follow- 
ing an opening chapter on the poet and the reader 
and a comparison of past and present poetic sensi- 
bilities, Rosenthal devotes three chapters to the 
roles of Yeats, Pound, and Eliot as germinal figures 
in modern verse. He then analyzes the "rival 
idioms of the great generation" of poets, concentrat- 
ing on Robinson, Frost, Williams, Stevens, Moore, 
Cummings, Sandburg, and JefTers. Contemporary 
poets, ranging from Robert Lowell and Theodore 
Roethke to Allen Ginsberg and Charles Olson, are 
discussed in the final chapters. 

1240. Rubin, Louis D. The faraway country; 
writers of the modern South. Seattle, Uni- 
versity of Washington Press, 1963. xiv, 256 p. 

63-19632 PS26i.R63 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 241-247). 

"The faraway country" is the country of the 
imagination whose special population consists of 
displaced Southerners who transcend and transform 
the actual Southern society through writing fiction. 
Three generations of novelists and poets, from 
George Washington Cable to William Styron, are 
interpreted as products of a specific time and place; 
changes in outlook from one generation of writers 
to the next are seen as indicative of changing South- 
ern experiences. Other studies of Southern writers 
are contained in Rinaldo C. Simonini's anthology, 
Southern Writers: Appraisals in Our Time (Char- 
lottesville, University Press of Virginia [1964] 
191 p.), and John M. Bradbury's Renaissance in the 
South; a Critical History of the Literature, 7920 
7960 (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina 
Press [1963] 222 p.). 

1241. Rubin, Louis D., and John R. Moore, eds. 
The idea of an American novel. New York, 

Crowell [1961] 394 p. 61-6174 PS37I.R8 

Includes bibliography. 

An unusual collection of "literary documents that 
bear on our intense and long-standing self-conscious- 
ness about the American novel." This history 
stretches back to early days of the Republic and first 
becomes visible as a conscious "call for a national 
literature" articulated by such prominent figures as 
Cooper, Emerson, Hawthorne, Melville, Whitman, 
and Poe. The dialogue increases in complexity and 



scope after the initial challenge has been met: 
writers in subsequent sections give their views on 
"The Scope of the 'Great American Novel' "; "The 
American Novel and 'Reality' "; "The American 
Character"; "Ideals for the American Novel"; and 
"American Art and American Experience." A long 
final section contains statements about 17 novelists 
from Cooper to William Styron and Robert Penn 
Warren. Throughout the text, commentaries from 
the works of distinguished authors or publications 
are presented. 

1242. Sanford, Charles L. The quest for paradise; 
Europe and the American moral imagina- 
tion. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1961. 
282 p. 616539 169.1.8245 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

An interdisciplinary study of the origins and de- 
veloping traits of the American moral imagination, 
based on a historical theme of mental regression to 
an imaginative former state of paradise. The first 
five chapters describe a "journey pattern of modern 
history" involving an imaginative transfer of para- 
dise from heaven to earth; the last eight essays ex- 
pand the theory and describe its repercussions in 
American literature, society, and foreign and 
domestic affairs. Industrialism, science, the "Ameri- 
can cult of newness," and ideals of nature are among 
the topics related to moral philosophy and in turn 
to literature. The reform movement is studied 
through the writings of Thoreau, Hawthorne, Whit- 
man, Bellamy, Lincoln Steffens, Mark Twain, and 
John Steinbeck. Henry James' theme, presented in 
his international novels, is explained to be "the 
meaning of the fall from paradise as the condition 
of a greater humanity." 

1243. Schneider, Robert W. Five novelists of the 
progressive era. New York, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 1965. 290 p. 6512110 PS379-S36 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes 
(p. [ 2 59]-28i). 

An attempt to reconstruct the intellectual history 
of the years 18901917. The author studies five 
representative novelists and demonstrates that the 
pull of traditional thought and Victorian attitudes 
was as strong an influence as the new scientific 
thought, which many literary historians have claimed 
resulted in a drastic intellectual revolution. Stephen 
Crane, Frank Norris, and Theodore Dreiser con- 
sciously accepted the new thought but unconsciously 
clung to many conventional attitudes. The early 
novels of William Dean Howells and the bestselling 
novels of Winston Churchill are regarded as more 
accurate mirrors of popular thought, which was not, 
according to the author, as progressive as is often 
claimed. 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 



1244. Sensabaugh, George F. Milton in early 
America. Princeton, N.J., Princeton Uni- 
versity Press, 1964. 320 p. 639997 PR3588.S45 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The influence of the English poet John Milton 
upon the intellectual, spiritual, and moral life of 
early America is systematically explored. The 
author concludes that "for a while in American 
history Milton moved through the whole cultural 
community, impressing not only poets but also edi- 
tors and free-lancers, statesmen and lawyers, school- 
masters and doctors and clerics." He is considered 
by Sensabaugh to be a greater influence than other 
writers and philosophers because he affected Amer- 
ican speech, attitudes, institutions, and ideals, aiding 
the colonies and the early Republic in the search for 
national identity and standards of behavior. The 
study proceeds chronologically from the first 25 
years of the Republic, when Milton's influence was 
greatest, concluding with his diminution of stature 
during the Romantic movement that swept the 
country in the middle years of the i9th century. 

1245. Shapiro, Karl J., ed. Prose keys to modern 
poetry. Evanston, 111., Row, Peterson [1962] 

260 p. 624795 PNi 136.846 

An anthology of critical essays, prefaces, and other 
prose selections designed to assist the reader in 
understanding modern poetry. The selections are 
divided into the classical and romantic traditions. 
The former includes pieces by Poe, Eliot, and Pound; 
the latter begins with Whitman and ends with D. 
H. Lawrence. A chronology of significant events 
in poetry between 1817 and 1960 is appended. 

1246. Spencer, Benjamin T. The quest for na- 
tionality; an American literary campaign. 

[Syracuse, N.Y.] Syracuse University Press, 1957. 
xv, 389 p. 57-12017 PS88.S58 

Bibliography: p. 341372. 

As a history of "the national literary will," Spen- 
cer's study charts the explicit and conscious attempts, 
from 1607 to 1892, to forge a national literature dis- 
tinctly separate from British or European literature. 
The American writer's growing awareness of native 
themes and materials is emphasized, and the author 
notes that "scarcely a native author of any impor- 
tance before 1900 failed to engage in the inquiry 
and to declare himself publicly on its issues." Al- 
though the maturing of the sense of nationality led 
to a shift in emphasis, there remained a dedication 
to commemorate a common heritage and to estab- 
lish a "voice of a nation which for the first time in 
history had manifestly embraced a belief in both 
God and Reason." 



1247. Spender, Stephen, and Donald Hall, eds. 
The concise encyclopedia of English and 

American poets and poetry. New York, Hawthorn 
Books [1963] 415 p. illus. 638015 PRi9.S6 

Bibliography: p. 367392. 

Articles on specific poets and poetic terms are in- 
terspersed with lengthier essays pursuing general 
topics in a compendium useful to both scholar and 
student. The editors have endeavored to represent 
complementary or opposing viewpoints where they 
exist. Portraits of many important poets are includ- 
ed in the text. Among the contributors are Marius 
Bewley, Glauco Cambon, Northrop Frye, Hugh 
Kenner, John Crowe Ransom, and Richard Wilbur. 

1248. Spiller, Robert E. The third dimension; 
studies in literary history. New York, Mac- 

millan, 1965. 245 p. 6513122 PSi2i.S6 1965 
The author considers that, in the interpretation of 
literature, the first dimension lies in understanding 
the text, the second in discovering the cultural and 
social patterns of the society, and the third in the 
perspective of history, particularly literary history. 
The 1 6 essays included here were written between 
1929 and 1963, when Spiller was editing the liter- 
ary History of the United States, and express his 
views on the problems of writing American literary 
history. The essays are reprinted as they were orig- 
inally conceived and are presented as historical 
documents of a major movement in American liter- 
ary scholarship. Lewis G. Leary has edited a col- 
lection of papers on various aspects of literary studies 
during the past 30 years entitled Contemporary Lit- 
erary Scholarship: A Critical Review (New York, 
Appleton-Century-Crofts [1958] 474 p.), spon- 
sored by the Committee on Literary Scholarship and 
the Teaching of English of the National Council of 
Teachers of English. 

1249. Stallman, Robert W. The houses that James 
built, and other literary studies. [East Lans- 
ing] Michigan State University Press, 1961. xii, 
254 p. 60-53548 PS379.S7 

Includes bibliographical references. 

As a critic, Stallman has assimilated the methods 
of Henry James, T. S. Eliot, and the New Critics. 
He concentrates on the text of an individual work 
and then looks for linked analogies and ideas 
such as confused identity which can relate novels 
seemingly unrelated. His aim is to "illuminate the 
given work's hidden world, the substructure of mul- 
tiple inter-relationships." He concentrates on the 
major novels of seven writers Fitzgerald, Hem- 
ingway, Faulkner, Crane, James, Hardy, and Con- 
rad in addition to the New Critics and the 
"Marxist" critics, notably Philip Rahv. Essays are 



92 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



published for the first time on Maggie, Tender Is 
the Night, The Snows of Kilimanjaro, and As I Lay 
Dying. Many of the other studies have been ex- 
panded or substantially revised for this collection. 

1250. Stepanchev, Stephen. American poetry since 
1945; a critical survey. New York, Harper 

& Row [1965] 216 p. 6520440 PS324-S68 

Bibliography: p. 211213. 

A general survey of recent trends in poetry, with 
brief introductions to the main characteristics of the 
work of 21 poets. Stepanchev discerns five distinct 
movements in poetry since World War II, starting 
with a period of involvement in the horrors of war 
and moving in the late fifties and early sixties into 
the projective verse of Charles Olson and his con- 
temporaries and the autobiographical rehearsals of 
the "confessional school." Among the poets dis- 
cussed are Robert Lowell, Randall Jarrell, Elizabeth 
Bishop, Denise Levertov, James Wright, John Ash- 
bery, James Dickey, Alan Dugan, LeRoi Jones, 
Louis Simpson, William Stafford, and May Swenson. 

1251. Stewart, John L. The burden of time: the 
Fugitives and Agrarians; the Nashville 

groups of the 1920'$ and 1930'$, and the writing of 
John Crowe Ransom, Allen Tate, and Robert Penn 
Warren. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University 
Press, 1965. xi, 551 p. 6512994 PS255.N3Sy 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A historical and biographical study of the impor- 
tant Nashville writers in the twenties and thirties, 
with an analysis of the work of outstanding individ- 
uals in the group. Louise S. Cowan, in her literary 
history The Fugitive Group (Baton Rouge, Louisi- 
ana State University Press [1959] 277 p.), care- 
fully distinguishes between the Fugitives and the 
Agrarians and confines her study to the 16 poets 
who, "having no particular program, met frequently 
from 1915 to 1928 for the purpose of reading and 
discussing their own work." The Fugitives, a 
Critical Account (Chapel Hill, University of North 
Carolina Press [1958] 300 p.), by John M. Brad- 
bury, uses textual analysis to evaluate the poetry, 
fiction, and criticism of the group on the basis of 
published critical consensus rather than personal 
opinion, devoting most attention to Ransom, Tate, 
Warren, Davidson, and Cleanth Brooks. 

1252. Stewart, Randall. American literature & 
Christian doctrine. Baton Rouge, Louisi- 
ana State University Press [1958] 154 p. 

58-7936 PSi66.S8 

As a latter-day exponent of a moral measure for 
literature, the author challenges the view of man 
implicit in the American doctrines of rationalism, 



exaggerated individualism, and naturalism. He 
criticizes the works of Jefferson, Emerson, and 
Whitman, along with the modern naturalist literary 
school, as forsaking the responsibility to relate art 
to ethics and religion. Contrasted to the philoso- 
phy of these Americans, he finds Christian princi- 
ples in the works of Hawthorne, Melville, James, 
Gather, Eliot, Faulkner, and Warren. Different 
conclusions are reached from a similar perspective 
by a group of Catholic scholars who evaluate 19th- 
century American writers in American Classics 
Reconsidered (New York, Scribner [1958] 307 
p.), edited by Harold C. Gardiner. The ethics of 
critical theory from still another viewpoint that 
of the neohumanist are considered in The Moral 
Measure of Literature (Denver, A. Swallow [1961] 
137 p.), by Keith F. McKean. 

1253. Stovall, Floyd, ed. Eight American authors, 
a review of research and criticism, by Jay B. 

Hubbell [and others] . Bibliographical supplement 
by J. Chesley Mathews. New York, Norton [1963] 
466 p. (The Norton library [Ni78] ) 

70-8568 PS20I.S8 1963 

Intended for advanced students and scholars, this 
collection of bibliographical essays describes the 
scholarly and critical writings on eight classic Amer- 
ican authors. Poe is discussed by Jay Hubbell, 
Emerson by Floyd Stovall, Hawthorne by Walter 
Blair, Thoreau by Lewis Leary, Melville by Stanley 
Williams, Whitman by Willard Thorp, Mark Twain 
by Harry Hayden Clark, and James by Robert Spil- 
ler. J. Chesley Mathews' supplement is a selective 
checklist of works published between 1955 and 
1962. 

1254. Sutton, Walter E. Modern American criti- 
cism. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 

1963. 293 p. (The Princeton studies, humanistic 
scholarship in America) 

63-8462 PN99.U5S8 

A survey of the tendencies in 20th-century Amer- 
ican criticism, combining a historical approach and 
a plea for the integration of formalist concerns with 
historical fact, cultural experience, and language 
studies. Movements surveyed include those of the 
New Humanists, the Marxist critics, the New Crit- 
ics, the neo-Aristotelians, and the psychological and 
myth critics. Learners and Discerners; a Newer 
Criticism ( Charlottes ville, University Press of Vir- 
ginia [1964] 177 p.), edited by Robert E. Scholes, 
contains five papers originally presented as Peters 
Rushton seminar lectures at the University of Vir- 
ginia. Stephen G. Nichols has edited a collection 
of Rene Wellek's essays on literary theory, criticism, 
and history; entitled Concepts of Criticism (New 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 93 



Haven, Yale University Press, 1963. 403 p.), the 
volume contains 13 essays on various methods of 
literary study, several of which relate specifically to 
American literature. 

1255. Thorp, Willard. American writing in the 
twentieth century. Cambridge, Harvard 
University Press, 1960. 353 p. (The Library of 
Congress series in American civilization) 

5914739 PS22I.T48 
Includes bibliography. 

A survey of the standard themes and periods of 
recent literary history. Emphasis is placed on de- 
tailed studies of 10 major writers associated with 
various periods and trends: Edith Wharton, Frost, 
Robinson, O'Neill, Willa Gather, Dos Passes, Hem- 
ingway, Stevens, Faulkner, and Eliot. Lively ac- 
ounts of the "critical wars" and the Southern ren- 
lissance two areas on which the author is an 
uthority are included, along with a discussion 
f naturalism in American fiction. 

256. The Times literary supplement. American 
writing today: its independence and vigor. 
Edited by Allan Angoff. [New York] New York 
University Press, 1957. 433 p. 

5610779 PS22I.T5 1957 
From a special issue published on Sept. 17, 1954, 
The Times Literary Supplement, London's distin- 
guished literary weekly, selected 69 essays designed 
to present "as accurate a picture as we could paint of 
the state of writing in America today." General 
essays on all aspects of the literary scene are bal- 
anced with reprints of reviews on American books 
that made literary history, including Spoon River 
Anthology, The Great Gatsby, An American Trag- 
edy, A Farewell to Arms, Loo\ Homeward, Angel, 
Soldier's Pay, Dodsworth, and Manhattan Transfer. 
Most of the selections are unsigned, following the 
tradition of anonymity long established for regular 
issues. The American Imagination (New York, 
Atheneum, 1960. 209 p.) and The Critical Mo- 
ment: Literary Criticism in the ig6os (New York, 
McGraw-Hill [1964] 164 p. McGraw-Hill paper- 
backs) are other anthologies selected from The 
Times Literary Supplement. 

1257. Walcutt, Charles C. American literary na- 
turalism; a divided stream. Minneapolis, 
University of Minnesota Press [ C i956] 332 p. 

56-12465 PS379.W28 

A study of naturalism as a literary genre, reconcil- 
ing the romantic and scientific attitudes which ap- 
parently collide in critical descriptions of the genre. 
The tension that results from asserting the compati- 
bility of science and intuition has produced an area 



of friction in naturalistic literature, a fact which 
leads Walcutt to trace the genre to its parent philos- 
ophy, American transcendentalism. Both philoso- 
phies run in a "divided stream," one branch ap- 
proaching life scientifically, the other intuitively. 
Zola, Hemingway, Dos Passes, Steinbeck, and 
Faulkner are among the authors studied. 

1258. Walker, Robert H. The poet and the gilded 
age; social themes in late i9th century Amer- 
ican verse. Philadelphia, University of Pennsyl- 
vania Press [1963] xviii, 387 p. 

62-11268 PS3IO.S7W3 1963 
The author contends that the poets of the last 
quarter of the i9th century display a social aware- 
ness, an opinion contrary to that held by most liter- 
ary historians. He supports his conclusion by 
analyzing, both verbally and statistically, the con- 
tent of verse written by secondary poets. The sub- 
ject matter of the poetry, rather than its esthetic 
value or internal form, is the primary criterion in 
this analysis. A more traditional literary review, 
one based on biographical treatment and poetic 
tradition, is Carlin T. Kindilien's American Poetry 
in the Eighteen Nineties (Providence, Brown Uni- 
versity Press, 1956. 223 p. Brown University 
studies, v. 20). 

1259. Warren, Austin. New England saints. Ann 
Arbor, University of Michigan Press [1956] 

192 p. 56-9721 F3.W3 

Includes bibliography. 

A collection of portraits of saintly New England 
writers "men I recognize and celebrate as those 
to whom reality was the spiritual life, whose spiri- 
tual integrity was their calling and vocation." The 
author, himself a native New Englander, writes this 
hagiography with a deep affection for the spiritual 
heritage of the region, finding a continuity in New 
England philosophy and attitudes through four cen- 
turies. The subjects treated include the 17th-century 
Puritan poets, the 18th-century parsons, Bronson 
Alcott and Emerson, the French Catholic Fenelon, 
the elder Henry James, the mariner Methodist 
preacher Edward Taylor, the agnostic Charles Eliot 
Norton, the neohumanist Irving Babbitt, and the 
poet John Brooks Wheelwright. 

1260. Weales, Gerald C. American drama since 
World War II. New York, Harcourt, Brace 

& World [1962] 246 p. 62-14467 PS35I.W4 
Virtually every recent playwright with a claim to 
importance is dealt with in this critical survey of 
American drama, 194560. The author, an aca- 
demic critic, analyzes the literary substance of drama 
and touches only incidentally upon the political or 



94 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

cultural scene, box-office economics, or play-produc- 
tion. Dramatists are grouped, when possible, ac- 
cording to genre, and chapters discuss the various 
groups: poets and novelists who write for the thea- 
ter; "video boys" who write serious drama; play- 
wrights of the 1920'$ and 1930*5 who kept writing 
after World War II; dramatists who specialize in 
the adaptation of fiction to the stage; and play- 
wrights who write for a particular audience. Arthur 
Miller and Tennessee Williams receive special 
attention. Another critical history of modern 
American drama, one which is more personal and 
evaluative in tone, is Allan Lewis' American Plays 
and Playwrights of the Contemporary Theatre 
(New York, Crown Publishers [1965] 272 p.). 

1261. Witham, W. Tasker. The adolescent in the 
American novel, 19201960. New York, 

Ungar [1964] 345 p. 63-8849 PS374-Y6W5 
Bibliography: p. 285-300. "Chronological list of 
American novels dealing with problems of adoles- 
cents": p. 301332. 

Some 500 American novels with plots built around 
adolescent problems form the basis for this study. 
After summarizing the genteel attitudes which dom- 
inated adolescent fiction during the first two dec- 
ades of the century, the author traces the gradual 
acceptance of a new realism in the 1 920*5. Topical 
chapters offer brief discussions of novels whose 
theme or plot concerns sexual awakening, rebellion 
against parents and society, delinquency, educa- 
tional and vocational adjustments, the influence of 
environment, and some "special problems," includ- 
ing mental and physical handicaps, alcohol, drugs, 
and the effects of war. The survey demonstrates 
that most novels with juvenile protagonists are first 
novels and largely autobiographical and that more 
than 90 percent of the best of such books center on 
boys. 

1262. Wright, Austin M. The American short 
story in the twenties. [Chicago] University 

of Chicago Press [1961] 425 p. 

61-14535 PS379.W7 

Includes bibliography. 

The author compares short-story writers from 
1890 to 1919 with those of the 1920*5 and concludes 
that the experimental genius of the latter group 
created the short story's most brilliant period. Over 



200 stories are analyzed on the basis of subject mat- 
ter, form, and technique; 13 appendixes explain the 
criteria used in selection and evaluation. The writ- 
ers of the 1920*5 whose work is considered here in- 
clude Fitzgerald, Faulkner, Hemingway, Anderson, 
and Katherine Anne Porter. The earlier period is 
represented by James, Dreiser, Stephen Crane, Am- 
brose Bierce, and others. The American Short Story 
(Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1964. 213 p.), by Wil- 
liam H. Peden, analyzes the general themes and 
techniques of some 100 writers from 1940 to 1963. 

1263. Yates, Norris W. The American humorist: 
conscience of the twentieth century. Ames, 

Iowa State University Press [1964] 410 p. 

63-22161 PS438.Y3 
Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 

(P- 3 6 3-39i ) 

This study of 20th-century humor is primarily 
concerned with the social values and attitudes of 15 
major humorists. Allowing these writers to speak 
for themselves, Yates offers a picture of an essen- 
tially middle-class America of cracker-barrel philoso- 
phers, "solid" citizens, and "little men" tyrannized 
by the natural facts of matrimony and sex and the 
unnatural facts of technology and science. Humor- 
ists treated include George Ade, Mr. Dooley, Will 
Rogers, H. L. Mencken, Ring Lardner, Don Mar- 
quis, Clarence Day, Robert Benchley, Dorothy 
Parker, James Thurber, E. B. White, and S. J. 
Perelman. 

1264. Zabel, Morton D., ed. Literary opinion in 
America; essays illustrating the status, meth- 
ods, and problems of criticism in the United States 
in the twentieth century. 3d ed., rev. New York, 
Harper & Row [1962] 2 v. (Harper torchbooks, 
TB3OI3 3014. The University library) 

62-52885 PN77I.Z2 1962 
A revised edition of no. 2550 in the 1960 Guide. 
The second edition was distinguished by six biblio- 
graphical lists on recent American criticism up to 
1951; to these have been added a list covering the 
period 195162. The only other changes are the 
inclusion of an essay on Fitzgerald by Arthur Miz- 
ener and the substitution of a critique by Irving 
Howe on Sherwood Anderson for another essay on 
that same writer which appeared in the second 
edition. 



LITERARY HISTORY AND CRITICISM / 95 



C. Periodicals 



1265. Book week. Sept. 15, 1963+ [New York, 
World Journal Tribune] 

666410 21007.671685 

Distributed with the Sunday editions of the New 
Yorl( Herald Tribune, The Washington Post, and 
the San Francisco Examiner. 

A weekly intended to provide "a national literary 
magazine that has the space and the distribution to 
talk about books and those who write and publish 
them with the high standards they deserve." 

1266. Critique; studies in modern fiction, v. i+ 
winter 1956+ [Minneapolis] 

6432236 PN35O3.C7 

Vol. 4, no. 23 published by the Bolingbroke So- 
ciety; v. 5+ distributed by B. De Boer, Nudey, N.J. 
Designed "to notice the best in contemporary fic- 
tion and to throw light on that recent fiction which 
has not received its rightful share of attention from 
perceptive critics." Published three times a year, 
Critique features book reviews and articles on both 
specific and general topics. Special issues have been 
devoted to individual writers, among them Flannery 
O'Connor, J. F. Powers, Wright Morris, and Saul 
Bellow. 

1267. The New York review of books, v. i+ 
[Feb. 25, 1963 ?] + [Milford, Conn., A. W. 

Ellsworth] 68-6716 AP2.N655 

Running tide, Jan. 14, 1964+: The New Yorf( 
Review. 

During the 1963 newspaper strike in New York 
City, a group of well-known critics and scholars 
wrote reviews for the first issue of the sort of liter- 
ary journal which the editors and contributors felt 
was needed in America. In the first issue, Robert 
B. Silvers and Barbara Epstein, editors, note the in- 
tention to allocate neither time nor space to "books 



which are trivial in their intentions or venal in their 
effects, except occasionally to reduce a temporarily 
inflated reputation or to call attention to a fraud." 
A biweekly, The New Yorf( Review encourages 
contributors to treat the book review as a literary 
genre in its own right, using all the passion, pre- 
cision, and intelligence they can muster. 

1268. Poetry northwest, v. i+ June 1959+ 
[Seattle, University of Washington] 

65-32672 AP2.P746 

Vol. 4, no. 3/4+ distributed by B. De Boer, Nut- 
ley, N.J. 

A quarterly hospitable to "the young and inexpe- 
rienced, the neglected mature, the rough major 
talents and the fragile minor ones." Translations, 
drawings, and notes on contributors and poetry 
meetings are included. 

1269. Twentieth century literature; a scholarly and 
critical journal, v. i+ Apr. 1955+ [Den- 
ver, Swallow Press] 561944 PN2.T8 

Published quarterly, with the purpose of gleaning 
from all sources "the most significant of scholarly 
and critical writing dealing with literature of the 
first half of our century" and featuring an annotated 
bibliography of articles appearing in a wide range 
of periodicals. 

1270. Wisconsin studies in contemporary litera- 
ture, v. i+ winter 1960-4- [Madison, 

Wis.] University of Wisconsin. 

64-6922 PN2.W55 

Published three times a year and primarily de- 
voted to a consideration of the new literature which 
has emerged since World War II on both sides of 
the Atlantic. 



IV 

Biography and Autobiography 

tP^ " fc -*l 

4^ Nos. 1271-1303 JL 



THIS chapter includes biographical works which do not fit precisely into other chapters but 
are considered useful for the study of American history and culture. It also encompasses 
the genre of biography and autobiography on the basis of its value as Americana, as history, 
and as literature. The works found appropriate to this chapter were disproportionately fewer 
in number than in the 1960 Guide because the Supplement covers only a lo-year period and 
because, in that period, fewer professional biographers were writing scholarly works. Since 
the chapter is thus limited in scope, the index should 



be used to ascertain whether a specific biography or 
autobiography has been included elsewhere in the 
Supplement. 

1271. DEAN GOODERHAM ACHESON, 1893- 

Dean Acheson, lawyer and public official, 
was Secretary of State from 1949 to 1953 and a 
major proponent of the containment policy imple- 
mented partially by the Marshall Plan and NATO. 
He is the author of A Citizen LooJ^s at Congress 
(1957), Power and Diplomacy (1958), and Sketches 
From Life of Men I Have Known (1961). 

, 1272. Morning and noon. Boston, Houghton Mif- 
flin, 1965. 288 p. ill us. 

6519308 748. A 15 A3 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. [2311-278). 

Reminiscences which are "autobiographical but 
not an autobiography," concerning the author's early 
life and career to 1940. Acheson's strong sense of 
integrity and commitment is apparent in his recol- 
lections of an eventful life among the politically 
famous. He gives an account of his boyhood in 
Middletown, Conn., and his arrival in Washington 
in 1919 as Justice Louis D. Brandeis' law clerk. 
From 1921 to 1933 he practiced law with the firm of 
Covington, Burling, & Rublee, after which he re- 
ceived a succession of Federal appointments, includ- 
ing that of Under Secretary of the Treasury. 

1273. ALFRED OWEN ALDRIDGE, 1915- 

A professor of English and comparative liter- 

96 



ature in various universities in the United States and 
abroad, he is the author of Franklin and His French 
Contemporaries (1957) and Jonathan Edwards 
(1964). 

1274. Man of reason, the life of Thomas Paine. 
Philadelphia, Lippincott [1959] 348 p. 
illus. 59-7777 JCi78.V2A8 

This new study contains information from a large 
number of recently discovered letters and essays by 
Paine, as well as from French, English, and Amer- 
ican documents that were largely unknown to his 
previous biographers. 



1275. IRVING HENRY BARTLETT, 1923- 

Head of the history department at the Car- 
negie Institute of Technology; author of From Slave 
to Citizen (1953). 

1276. Wendell Phillips, Brahmin radical. Boston, 
Beacon Press [1961] 438 p. 

6110570 449^5594 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes": 
p. 402-432. 

Radical abolitionist, intellectual, and eloquent 
crusader, Wendell Phillips (1811-1884) held strong 
Calvinist beliefs. Although born a Boston Brahmin 
and graduated a Harvard lawyer, he repudiated his 
aristocratic background to agitate for social and 
moral reform. His wife introduced him to the abo- 
lition movement, his religious convictions commit- 
ted him to support it, and his masterful oratory 



soon made him a leader in the cause. He also used 
his rhetorical gifts to work for the immediate en- 
franchisement of the Negro, for women's rights, for 
the common laborer, and for currency reform. 
From Bartlett's biography emerges the multifaceted 
personality of a radical who unrelentingly criticized 
the institutions of American democracy out of a 
firm belief in the worth of the American way of life. 

1277. FRANCIS BEVERLEY BIDDLE, 1886- 

Francis Biddle, lawyer, author, and public 
official, was Attorney General under President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1941 to 1945 and a 
member of the International Military Tribunal at 
Nuremberg from 1945 to 1946. He was active in 
the defense of civil liberties and chairman of several 
national organizations. 

1278. A casual past. Garden City, N.Y., Double- 
day, 1961. 408 p. illus. 

61-9480 KF373.B5A3 

1279. In brief authority. Garden City, N.Y., 
Doubleday, 1962. 494 p. illus. 

62-16744 KF 3 73.B 5 A32 

Two volumes of reminiscences, published a year 
apart. In A Casual Past, Biddle brings to life some 
of the odd, lovable, and often eccentric individuals 
who peopled his background and youth. Here are 
the Randolphs of Virginia and the Biddies from the 
North, two families who represent the main lines in 
his American heritage and of whom he is proud. 
He writes of his years at Groton and Harvard and 
of his appointment as private secretary to Justice 
Holmes upon graduation. The volume ends with a 
review of his 20 years of law practice. In Brief 
Authority outlines Biddle's public work in associa- 
tion with Franklin D. Roosevelt, whom he first saw 
as a schoolboy at Groton. His characterization of 
President Roosevelt and other New Dealers includes 
numerous witty insights. Biddle also reports on the 
Nuremberg trial of German war criminals, at which 
he was the only American member of the Interna- 
tional Military Tribunal. 

1280. CATHERINE DRINKER BOWEN, 1897- 
No. 2606 in 1960 Guide. 

X i28i. Adventures of a biographer. Boston, Little, 
Brown [1959] 235 p. 

50-11888 PS3503.O8i4Z52 
Recollections from a career spanning 40 years of 
continuous and successful publication. Mrs. Bowen 
discusses the people she has encountered on her re- 
search travels, the places she has visited, and the 
problems of biographical research. 



BIOGRAPHY AND AUTOBIOGRAPHY / 97 

1282. WILLIAM ORVILLE DOUGLAS, 1898- 
No. 2664 in 1960 Guide. 

1283. My wilderness: the Pacific West. Illustra- 
tions by Francis Lee Jaques. Garden City, 

N.Y., Doubleday, 1960. 206 p. 
60-13519 



1284. My wilderness: east to Katahdin. Illustra- 
tions by Francis Lee Jaques. Garden City, 

N.Y., Doubleday, 1961. 290 p. 

61-12207 QHio4.D68 

These volumes reflect Justice Douglas' intimate 
knowledge and love of the wilderness. East to 
Katahdin concerns some of his favorite places in 
the Southwest, South, and East, including Babo- 
quivari in Arizona, the Everglades, the Smoky 
Mountains, and Mt. Katahdin. The Pacific West 
covers the Brooks Range in Alaska, the Olympic 
Mountains, and the High Sierras, as well as other 
natural areas that have a special appeal for him. 

1285. MARTIN B. DUBERMAN, 1930- 

Professor of American history at Princeton. 
His Charles Francis Adams won the Bancroft Prize 
in 1962, and his In White America, a Documentary 
Play (1964) won the Vernon Rice Award for 1963 
64. 

1286. Charles Francis Adams, 18071886. Bos- 
ton, Houghton Mifflin, 1961 [ C i96o] 525 

p. illus. 61-5366 467.1^208 

Bibliography: p. 401421. 

A biography concentrating chiefly on Adams' 
career as Massachusetts State representative and sen- 
ator, U.S. Congressman, Minister to Great Britain 
during the Civil War, and leader of the Liberal 
Republican Party in 1872. A straightforward and 
exacting work, aided by the availablity of the Adams 
papers, this is the first biography of Adams pub- 
lished since Charles Francis Adams (1900), by 
Charles Francis Adams, Jr. (see no. 2581 in the 
1960 Guide). 

1287. RAYMOND ELAINE FOSDICK, 1883- 

Brother of the spiritual leader Harry Emer- 
son Fosdick, Raymond B. Fosdick was born in Buf- 
falo, N.Y., into an unusually religious and joyous 
household. In his autobiography he presents a por- 
trait of family life in a rural town before the turn of 
the century, together with accounts of his years at 
college, his career as a lawyer and public servant, 
and his friendship with Woodrow Wilson. He also 
describes his role in the League of Nations and his 
presidency of the Rockefeller Foundation. There 



/ A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



are glimpses, sometimes brief and at other times 
lingering, of prominent people such as Edward H. 
House, Newton D. Baker, and Franklin D. Roose- 
velt. 

1288. Chronicle of a generation, an autobiography. 
New York, Harper [1958] 306 p. 

5811 047 748^69 A3 

1289. JOHN ARTHUR GARRATY, 1920- 

John A. Garraty teaches history at Columbia 
University and is the author of several biographies. 
He has also edited The Unforgettable Americans 
(1960). 

1290. Right-hand man; the life of George W. Per- 
kins. New York, Harper [1960] 433 p. 



illus. 6010404 

George Perkins (1862-1920) was one of the most 
successful and controversial Americans of the early 
20th century. Self-made, without a high school 
education, he displayed so much ability and energy 
that at his death it was facetiously said he had lived 
400 years in his span of 58. He revolutionized the 
insurance business, guided the International Har- 
vester Corporation, and became J. P. Morgan's 
right-hand man. He helped organize the Progres- 
sive Party with Theodore Roosevelt, using the same 
methods he had applied to effect business reforms 
but with less success. He was engaged in voluntary 
organizational work in World War I. 

1291. DICK GREGORY, 1932- 

Dick Gregory, the entertainer and civil rights 
leader, whose full name is Richard Claxton Greg- 
ory, was born in St. Louis. His autobiography, 
entided Nigger (he insists upon the use of the word 
to break the taboo), is representative of the struggle 
of American Negroes to escape from crippling pov- 
erty, although he makes the distinction that he was 
"not poor, just broke." One of six children reared 
by a mother who had been deserted by her husband, 
Gregory tells of the abuses and deprivations he en- 
dured. At school he was successful in athletics and 
distinguished himself in track. Later he chose en- 
tertainment as a career and became a successful 
comedian. He then began to devote an increasing 
amount of his time and money to the cause of civil 
rights. His book is a testament to his mother, who 
inspired him but did not live to see his many 
achievements. 

1292. Nigger; an autobiography, by Dick Gregory 
with Robert Lipsyte. New York, Dutton, 

1964. 224 p. illus. 6411067 PN2287-G68A3 



1293. STERLING HAYDEN, 1916- 

Sterling Hayden is a seafaring actor who at 
22, in his first command, took a schooner success- 
fully around the world. His autobiography is an 
extremely personal account of a man in search of 
reason and self. It is a defiant, questioning, occa- 
sionally stumbling, and honest work that derives 
much of its intensity from Hay den's ties to the sea. 
The story begins in 1959 when, in violation of a 
court order, Hayden takes his children on a long sea 
voyage. His previous life emerges in a series of 
sometimes confusing flashbacks. 

1294. Wanderer. New York, Knopf, 1963. 434 
p. 6320142 PN2287.H34A3 

1295. ELEANOR ROOSEVELT ROOSEVELT, 

18841962 

Eleanor Roosevelt's autobiography includes 
abridged selections from three volumes of memoirs 
This Is My Story (1937), This I Remember 
(1949), and On My Own (1958) and several 
additional chapters that bring her account up to 
date. She writes of her childhood, the early years 
of growing up, and her marriage to her cousin, 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt. She gives a picture of 
her ever-broadening activites, from wife and mother 
to political helpmate and First Lady. As a widow, 
Mrs. Roosevelt became the chairman of the Human 
Rights Commission of the United Nations and a 
delegate to its General Assembly. This is a por- 
trait of a shy young girl developing into a famous 
woman who, in accepting the numerous opportuni- 
ties that life afforded her, contributed immeasurably 
to the cause of world peace and to the improvement 
of race relations. 

1296. Autobiography. New York, Harper [1961] 
454 p. illus. 6112222 807.1^35 

1297. ISHBEL ROSS, 1897- 

Mrs. Ross, a former editor of the New Yor^ 
Herald-Tribune, is a professional biographer and 
author whose works include Proud Kate, Portrait 
of an Ambitious Woman (1953), Angel of the Bat- 
tlefield; the Life of Clara Barton (1956), and The 
General's Wife; the Life of Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant 
(i959)- 

1298. Grace Coolidge and her era; the story of a 
President's wife. New York, Dodd, Mead, 

1962. 370 p. illus. 628017 E792.I.C6R6 

Bibliography: p. 353-355- 



BIOGRAPHY AND AUTOBIOGRAPHY / 99 



Grace Goodhue Coolidge (18791957) emerges 
as the perfect complement to her famous but reticent 
husband Calvin Coolidge. She was poised, un- 
affected, natural, and at ease in difficult situations. 
Mrs. Ross' detailed study takes up Mrs. Coolidge 's 
lifelong interest in the deaf. The book also con- 
tributes to our understanding of the personality of 
the 30th President of the United States. 

1299. LOUISE HALL THARP, 1898- 

Author of several biographies, including 
Until Victory: Horace Mann and Mary Peabody 
(1953), mentioned in the annotation for no. 5125 in 
the 1960 Guide. 

1300. Adventurous alliance; the story of the Agas- 
siz family of Boston. Boston, Little, Brown 

1^959] 354 P- illus- 59-11886 QH3I.A2T5 

Includes bibliography. 

A biography of the Agassiz family in 19th-century 
New England. The Swiss-born scientist, Louis 
Agassiz (18071873), whose studies ranged from 
fish to glaciers and who revolutionized the teaching 
of natural history at Harvard, came to the United 
States in 1846. He married Elizabeth Cabot Gary 
in 1850, after the death of his first wife. It was a 
successful union of two creative intellects. Includ- 
ed in their circle were such friends as Longfellow, 
William James, and Emerson. Mrs. Tharp follows 
the Agassiz' productive lives closely and includes 
information on their children and nearest relatives. 
The details of the founding of Radclifle College by 
Elizabeth Agassiz, who became its first president, 
are presented. 

1301. NORBERT WIENER, 1894-1964 
Norbert Wiener was born in Columbus, 



Mo., and is best known for his theory of cybernetics, 
which he explained in Cybernetics; or, Control and 
Communication in the Animal and the Machine 
(1948). He won the National Book Award in 1965 
for God and Golem, Inc. (1964). 

1302. I am a mathematician; the later life of a 
prodigy, an autobiographical account of the 

mature years and career of Norbert Wiener and a 
continuation of the account of his childhood in Ex- 
prodigy. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1956. 
380 p. 56-5598 QA29.W497A35 

This is a companion volume to Ex-Prodigy (1953) 
but can be read independently. Wiener begins 
with what he terms his "mature years," when he 
arrived at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
in 1919 at the age of 24. He remained there until 
his death in 1964. He concentrates on his career as 
scientist and mathematician and avoids the personal 
details of his life, which he preferred to keep private. 

THURMAN WILKINS 

1303. Clarence King, a biography. New York, 
Macmillan, 1958. 441 p. illus. 

58-6965 QE22.K5W 5 

Bibliography: p. 357378. 

A biography of the "debonair adventurer," Clar- 
ence King (18421901), founder of the U.S. Geo- 
logical Survey, explorer, mountaineer, mining ex- 
pert, and good friend of William Dean Howells and 
Henry Adams. Some of his scientific achievements 
are described in his well-known Mountaineering in 
the Sierra Nevada (1872), no. 4210 in the 1960 
Guide. Wilkins attempts to piece together the story 
of King's entire life from letters, papers, diaries, 
fieldbooks, reminiscences, memoirs, court records, 
and contemporary newspapers and periodicals. 



V 



Periodicals and Journalism 



A. Newspapers: General 

B. Newspapers: Periods, Regions, and Topics 

C. Individual Newspapers 

D. Newspapermen 

E. Foreign-Language Periodicals 

F. The Practice of Journalism 

G. Magazines: General 
H. Individual Magazines 
I. The Press and Society 



1304-1308 
1309-1314 
1315-1318 
1319-1330 
1331-1332 
I 333~ I 34 2 
1343-1345 
1346-1348 

1349-1352 



ITS RIGHT to free expression guarded by the Constitution, the press in the United States has 
traditionally served as a trustee of moral values. Another of its major functions is per- 
haps dual in nature: to explain the world we live in and to prepare us for change in that 
world. According to authors entered in Sections A and F, the press no longer adequately 
fulfills these roles; rather, journalism has become big business. Newspaper monopolies, 
some observers fear, by their very nature threaten diversity and freedom of opinion and lower 
the quality of the content of their papers; yet spiral- 
Less thorny aspects of journalism are covered in 
Section D, comprising biographies of newspaper- 
men who have made significant contributions to the 
field, and Sections G and H, devoted to histories of 
magazines which have, except for the political 



ing production costs and labor demands appear to 
encourage monopolies. Section I raises another 
problem, that of the delicate relationship between 
government and the press. Two of the authors 
stress the tendency of governmental bodies and 
agencies on all levels to become increasingly secre- 
tive about their activities and to withhold informa- 
tion from reporters. 



journals, been largely concerned with entertainment, 
culture, and noncontroversial information. 



A. Newspapers: General 



1304. Emery, Edwin. The press and America, an 
interpretative history of journalism. 2d ed. 

Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1962. 80 1 p. 
illus. (Prentice-Hall journalism series) 

6215294 PN4855-E6 1962 
An updated edition of no. 2845 in the 1960 Guide. 

1305. Lindstrom, Carl E. The fading American 
newspaper. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 

1960. 283 p. 6013541 PN4867-L55 

A critical survey of the newspaper industry in 



America today, based on the ideas that the journal- 
istic function has migrated to other communications 
media and that "the major problem for the news- 
paper journalist is to keep his readers from migrat- 
ing too." The author, formerly managing editor 
of The Hartford Times and currently a professor of 
journalism at the University of Michigan, trenchant- 
ly attacks those aspects of newspaper practice 
which he considers to be anachronistic, wasteful, or 
shortsighted. He particularly condemns the futile 
effort to publish the latest news in the shortest time, 



100 



PERIODICALS AND JOURNALISM / 101 



a race already lost to the radio and television indus- 
try; the failure to follow up yesterday's news story, 
thus abandoning a rich field to other journalistic 
media; the lack of competent reviewers in the fields 
of literature and the arts; and the disappearance of 
controversy as a result of the growth of newspaper 
chains and monopolies. 

1306. Mott, Frank Luther. American journalism, 
a history, 16901960. 3d ed. New York, 

Macmillan [1962] 901 p. illus. 

62-7157 PN4855-M63 1962 
An updated edition of no. 2847 in the 1960 Guide. 

1307. Tebbel, John W. The compact history of 
the American newspaper. New York, Haw- 
thorn Books [1963] 286 p. 

63-16771 PN4855.T4 

"Suggested reading": p. 269274. 

A popular treatment by a former newspaperman 
and editor who is now chairman of the Department 
of Journalism at New York University. The author 
views the history of the American newspaper as "a 
record of the Establishment's effort to control the 
news and of private individuals to disclose it with- 
out restriction." From the colonial period to the 
1830'$, the American newspaper was essentially a 
propaganda device; the establishment of James 
Gordon Bennett's New Yor% Herald in 1835 began 
what the author calls "the era of personal journal- 
ism." During the colorful period from 1865 to 
1900, the newspaper enjoyed its heyday, far surpas- 
sing in influence and popularity other printed media. 
Out of the "gaudy struggle" between Pulitzer and 
Hearst emerged the concept of the newspaper as a 



business institution, and a new era began. The 
author sees three formidable problems which are 
causing a crisis in the press today; these are monop- 
oly control (destroying the diversity of viewpoint 
which is the real strength of democracy), the auto- 
mation of the industry (making monopoly control 
a business necessity), and a loss of purpose (the 
proper function of the newspaper being to explain 
the world to the people who live in it by significant 
news, rather than to multiply advertisements and 
entertainment features). 

1308. Weisberger, Bernard A. The American 
newspaperman. Chicago, University of Chi- 
cago Press [1961] 226 p. illus. (The Chicago 
history of American civilization) 

61-8647 PN 4 8 5 5.W 4 

Since the appearance in 1690 of the first and only 
issue of Public}^ Occurrences Both Forreign and 
Domestic^, the American newspaper has evolved 
from a printer's sideline into a multimillion-dollar 
business. Accompanying this process has been a 
transformation of the functions of the individuals 
engaged in daily journalism. Weisberger examines 
the social, political, and technological factors which 
produced the age of the printer, the age of the 
partisan editor, the age of the publisher and per- 
sonalized journalism, and the age of the reporter 
and columnist. In the concluding chapter he con- 
siders the public relations boom as a threat to the 
integrity and independence of the newspaperman. 
A section of "Suggested Reading" (p. 207216) 
provides a brief annotated survey of selected litera- 
ture in the field. 



B. Newspapers: Periods, Regions, and Topics 



1309. Becker, Stephen D. Comic art in America; 
a social history of the funnies, the political 
cartoons, magazine humor, sporting cartoons, and 
animated cartoons. With an introduction by Rube 
Goldberg. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1959. xi, 
387 p. illus. 5913140 NCi420.B4 

Political cartoons became a regular feature of 
newspapers in the latter part of the i9th century, 
and sports cartoons and comic strips followed short- 
ly thereafter. The author presents a chronological 
history of the comic strip, from The Yellow Kid to 
Pogo and Peanuts, and also reviews other forms of 
comic art. Although emphasis is placed on social 
history, Becker shows a considerable knowledge of 



the artistic and technical problems involved as well. 
More critical discussions, as well as an extensive 
bibliography, can be found in The Funnies, an 
American Idiom ( [New York] Free Press of Glen- 
coe [1963] 304 p.), an anthology edited by David 
Manning White and Robert H. Abel, which in- 
cludes both original and reprinted essays. 

1310. Crozier, Emmet. American reporters on the 
Western Front, 19141918. New York, Ox- 
ford University Press, 1959. 299 p. 

59-10968 0632^72 

Military censorship of the news probably reached 
an all-time high during World War I. During the 



102 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



first half of the war, the British and French armies 
allowed little or no press coverage, and news was 
derived from the official communique, from rumor, 
or occasionally from the unauthorized exploits of 
enterprising newsmen. The Allied armies even- 
tually allowed a few accredited reporters to cover 
the war but kept tight control on their dispatches. 
The author, a retired newspaperman, relates the 
activities of such American correspondents as Her- 
bert Corey, Floyd Gibbons, Westbrook Pegler, John 
T. McCutcheon, and Heywood Broun. Crozier 
employed a similar approach in Yankee Reporters, 
186165 (New York, Oxford University Press, 
1956. 441 p.), accompanying it with nine unusual 
Civil War maps which show the disposition and 
movements not of troops but of reporters. 

1311. Forsyth, David P. The business press in 
America, [v. i] 17501865. Philadel- 
phia, Chilton Books [ C i964] xx, 394 p. illus. 

64-10959 PN4784.CyF6 

Bibliography: v. i, p. 363370. 

This study, the first in a projected set, traces busi- 
ness publications from their origins as broadside 
price-currents just before the Revolution down to 
the period preceding their greatest growth. The 
record shows increasing diversification as commer- 
cial, railroad, and banking journals make their ap- 
pearance, and Forsyth discusses each type of paper 
against a background of American economic his- 
tory. A chronological list is given of papers pub- 
lished from 1750 to 1865, with their inclusive dates 
of publication, and it is noted that their survival 
rates have been higher than those of general or 
literary magazines. 

1312. Hohenberg, John. Foreign correspondence; 
the great reporters and their times. New 

York, Columbia University Press, 1964. xix, 502 p. 
64-22762 PN 4 78 4 .F6H6 

Bibliography: p. [475] 480. 

The author, a professor at Columbia University's 
Graduate School of Journalism, explores "the effect 
of the foreign correspondent on his times and the in- 
fluence he has exerted on the jagged course of inter- 
national relations." The study is organized into a 
series of short narratives which together portray the 
origin and evolution of news-gathering abroad. 
Although the study is worldwide in scope, emphasis 
is placed on the United States, which with England 
has been a leader in developing an independent for- 
eign correspondence. Considerable attention is de- 
voted to the growth of the Associated Press, the 
United Press, and the foreign reporting sponsored 
by The New Yorl( Times, the New Yor\ Herald, 



The World (New York), and The Chicago Daily 
News. 

1313. Hohenberg, John, ed. The Pulitzer prize 
story; news stories, editorials, cartoons, and 

pictures from the Pulitzer prize collection at Colum- 
bia University. New York, Columbia University 
Press, 1959. 375 p. illus. 597702 PS647.N4H6 
The Pulitzer Prize was established by Joseph 
Pulitzer in 1903 for the "encouragement of public 
service, public morals, American literature and the 
advancement of education." Since the bestowal of 
the prizes was contingent upon the opening of the 
Columbia University School of Journalism, no 
awards were conferred until 1917, six years after 
Pulitzer's death. Awards are made in letters, 
music (since 1943), and in eight fields of journal- 
ism. Compiled by the executive secretary of the 
Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board, this anthology con- 
tains 64 news stories and editorials which won jour- 
nalism prizes. Notes providing the background of 
the article and biographical information on the 
journalists precede each piece. The material is ar- 
ranged under n general subject headings and is 
accompanied by some of the prize-winning cartoons 
and photographs. An appendix contains a brief 
history of the prize and a complete list of the awards 
made in all fields since 1917. The complete series 
of Pulitzer Prize cartoons, with commentary, is re- 
produced in The Lines Are Drawn; American Life 
Since the First World War as Reflected in the Pul- 
itzer Prize Cartoons (Philadelphia, Lippincott 
[1958] 224 p.), by Gerald W. Johnson. 

1314. Knight, Oliver. Following the Indian wars; 
the story of the newspaper correspondents 

among the Indian campaigners. Norman, Univer- 
sity of Oklahoma Press [1960] 348 p. 

60-8751 83.866X58 

Bibliography: p. 331338. 

A history of the newspapermen who reported 
the military campaigns against the Indians in the 
West from the close of the Civil War to the Battle 
of Wounded Knee, S. Dak. in 1890. Most of these 
campaigns were conducted by small units far from 
their base of supply, and the correspondents perforce 
became members of the expeditions. A professor of 
journalism and former newspaperman, Knight has 
concentrated on the 20 identifiable correspondents, 
accredited between 1867 and 1881, of whom Henry 
M. Stanley is the best known. The treatment is 
chronological by campaign and includes information 
on the reporters' backgrounds. The battles them- 
selves are described and the accuracy of the reporting 
is evaluated. 



PERIODICALS AND JOURNALISM / 103 



C. Individual Newspapers 



1315. Canham, Erwin D. Commitment to free- 
dom; the story of The Christian Science 

Monitor. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1958. 454 p. 
illus. 58-9055 PN4899.B65C53 

The Christian Science Monitor is considered to 
rank among the most influential papers published in 
the United States today. It was established in Bos- 
ton in 1908 by mandate of Mary Baker Eddy, the 
founder of Christian Science, who intended it to be 
a regular newspaper with the "spiritual mission" of 
supplying accurate information and interpretation 
of current events to Christian Scientists and others. 
A policy of "meaningful journalism" has been main- 
tained by the paper. Crime, disaster, and scandal 
are reported only when a "necessary social purpose" 
is involved. This history of the Monitor, written 
by the man who has served as editor since 1945, is 
uncritical of policies and performance but supplies 
much inside information revealing how and why 
the Monitor, "which is to professionals a kind of 
daily astonishment," has grown and developed the 
reputation it holds today. 

1316. Conrad, William C., Kathleen F. Wilson, 
and Dale Wilson. The Milwaukee Journal: 

the first eighty years. With a foreword by Arthur 
Ochs Sulzberger. Madison, University of Wiscon- 
sin Press, 1964. xv, 232 p. illus. 

6419175 PN4899-M37J67 

The Milwaukee Journal was founded in 1882 
and, under the capable editorship of Lucius W. 
Nieman, soon rose to a position of leadership in 
Wisconsin. Through most of its existence the 
Journal has been a fiercely independent paper, 
often to the point of supporting candidates from op- 
posing parties in the same election. Before and 
during World War I, the paper attacked the propa- 
ganda published by the German-language news- 
papers of the area and solidly backed the Nation's 
efforts to prosecute the war. For this crusade in a 
predominantly German area, it won the Pulitzer 
Prize for public service in 1919. In the thirties, the 
paper supported the New Deal; in the fifties it op- 
posed Senator McCarthy in his own State. Today 
the Journal is frequently ranked among the first five 
papers in the Nation on the basis of typographic ex- 
cellence as well as widespread news coverage and 
independence in viewpoint. Appropriately, the his- 
tory of this employee-owned paper is written by 
three former staff members in the simple but posi- 



tive style characteristic of the paper itself. 

1317. Hart, Jim Alice. A history of the St. Louis 
Globe-Democrat. Columbia, University of 
Missouri Press [1961] 298 p. illus. 

61-12425 PN4899.S27G55 1961 

Bibliography: p. 281290. 

The St. Louis Globe-Democrat had its origins in 
the Daily Missouri Democrat, founded in 1852. 
After its merger with the St. Louis Globe in 1875, 
the paper achieved great .influence under the editor- 
ship of Joseph B. McCullagh. "Little Mack," who 
considered the essence of running a newspaper to be 
"the art of guessing where hell is likely to break 
loose next," spent more for telegraphed and cabled 
news than any of his editorial contemporaries and, 
when there was no local news, set about creating it 
by means which have subsequently been imitated by 
the American press as a whole. After McCullagh 's 
suicide in 1896 and a brief fling with yellow journal- 
ism, the paper settled down into conservative, pe- 
destrian ways and by 1950 was overshadowed by the 
more imaginative and hard-driving St. Louis Post- 
Dispatch. In 1955 the Globe-Democrat was sold to 
the Newhouse chain and, despite a crippling strike 
in 1959, seemed to be emerging as a crusading news- 
paper. 

1318. Perkin, Robert L. The first hundred years; 
an informal history of Denver and The 
Rocf^y Mountain News. With a foreword by Gene 
Fowler. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1959. 
624 p. illus. 599786 PN4899.D45R6 

The Rocf(y Mountain News was established in 
1859, during the Pike's Peak gold rush. The paper 
changed hands many times, with corresponding al- 
terations in political and journalistic philosophy. 
The News was purchased by the Scripps-Howard 
Newspapers in 1926, and Roy Howard immediately 
engaged in a newspaper war referred to as the 
"battle of the century" with Fred Bonfils and the 
profitmaking vehicle of his yellow journalism, The 
Denver Past. The exhausted publishers finally 
signed a truce in 1928. Today the News is a 
thriving local tabloid with a lively journalistic style. 
The growth of another western newspaper is de- 
scribed in John Middagh's Frontier Newspaper: The 
El Paso Times (El Paso, Texas Western Press, 1958. 
333 P-)- 



104 



A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



D. Newspapermen 



^/ 1319. Baillie, Hugh. High tension; the recollec- 
tions of Hugh Baillie. New York, Harper 
[1959] 300 p. illus. 59-6299 PN4874.B24A3 
The United Press (now United Press Interna- 
tional) was founded in 1907 by E. W. Scripps to 
compete with the Associated Press, which provided 
news service only to its member newspapers. The 
UP sold news on a contract basis to any newspaper 
that wished to subscribe. The UP was forced to 
scramble for news, and Hugh Baillie, its president 
from 1935 to 1955, lacking the well-established pipe- 
lines of the more sedate AP, maintained a vigorous, 
aggressive agency. Baillie was a writing executive 
who, whenever possible, covered the news himself, 
and this book is an account of his journalistic ex- 
periences, emphasizing his interviews with many 
famous personalities. 

v 1320. [Cockerill] King, Homer W. Pulitzer's 
prize editor; a biography of John A. Cock- 
erill, 18451896. Durham, N.C., Duke University 
Press, 1965. xx, 336 p. illus. 

64-7798 PN4874.C6Z7 

Bibliography: p. [3241-329. 

The New York World was not exclusively the 
product of Joseph Pulitzer's inspiration and effort. 
When Pulitzer installed John A. Cockerill as man- 
aging editor of the St. Louts Post-Dispatch, the 
"Colonel" had had a distinguished record of edi- 
torial work on The Cincinnati Enquirer, The Wash- 
ington Post, which he founded with Stilson Hutch- 
ins, and the Baltimore Gazette. Cockerill and 
Pulitzer were in accord in their crusading zeal to 
publish a fearless, factual, provocative newspaper. 
Pulitzer purchased The World in 1883 and made 
Cockerill managing editor. The latter's willingness 
to experiment throughout his career won him the 
appellation, "father of the new journalism." A 
pioneer in the use of pictures and editorial cartoon 
caricatures and in starting a Sunday newspaper for 
all the family, he discovered and developed Bill 
Nye, Nellie Ely, and Lafcadio Hearn. 

1321. Cooper, Kent. Kent Cooper and the Asso- 
ciated Press, an autobiography. New York, 
Random House [1959] 334 p. illus. 

59-6640 PN4874.C685A3 

Kent Cooper (1880-1965) joined the Associated 
Press in 1910 and was its general manager and exec- 
utive director from 1925 to 1951. Under his leader- 



ship the AP was transformed from a cautious, 
conservative news agency for the United States into 
a dynamic organization serving papers all over the 
world. In this account Cooper covers the many 
tributes which he received from prominent members 
of the press over the years and also singles out many 
AP staff members for special mention. Photographs 
are included of many well-known editors, publish- 
ers, and reporters. Cooper's views on government 
intervention in the communications field are set 
forth in his book The Right to Know; an Exposi- 
tion of the Evils of News Suppression and Propa- 
ganda (New York, Farrar, Straus & Cudahy [1956] 

335 P-)- 

1322. Daniels, Jonathan. They will be heard; 
America's crusading newspaper editors. 

New York, McGraw-Hill [1965] 336 p. 

64-66019 PN4855.D3 

Bibliography: p. 325330. 

The continuing fight by zealous editors for a free 
press is the underlying theme of this work. The 
author dramatizes the persistent struggle to exercise 
in the words used by Andrew Hamilton in the 
famous libel case against John Peter Zenger "the 
liberty both of exposing and opposing arbitrary 
Power by speaking and writing Truth." The dis- 
cussion begins with Benjamin Harris' newspaper, 
Public^ Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestic^, 
which appeared on September 25, 1690, with the 
announced purpose of exposing false rumors. 
Among the later editors who receive attention are 
Edmund Ruffin, Horace Greeley, Joseph Pulitzer, 
and William Allen White. The concluding anec- 
dote concerns the efforts of Carl McGee, against 
vigorous resistance from Secretary of the Interior 
Albert B. Fall, to expose the corruption in the Tea- 
pot Dome oil leases in 1922. 

1323. [Daniels] Morrison, Joseph L. Josephus 
Daniels says . . . An editor's political odyssey 

from Bryan to Wilson and F. D. R., 18941913. 
Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press 
[1962] 339 p. 62-53249 PN4874.D33M6 

Bibliography: p. [3201332. 

Josephus Daniels (18621948), publisher of The 
Neu/s and Observer (Raleigh, N.C.) for more than 
50 years, was a spokesman for the "New South" 
and the Democratic Party. Through his brand of 



PERIODICALS AND JOURNALISM / 105 



personal journalism, the paper gained the largest 
circulation in the State and, although later sur- 
passed by the Charlotte Observer, has remained the 
most influential political voice in eastern North 
Carolina. Daniels was a loyal and liberal Democrat 
who fought against the railroad interests and child 
labor and championed State-supported education and 
nationwide prohibition. He worked for economic 
and educational progress for the Negro while con- 
tinuing to support white supremacy. Morrison has 
confined his attention to Daniels' early career as an 
editor, from the time he took control of The News 
and Observer to his appointment as Wilson's Secre- 
tary of the Navy. Emphasis is placed on his politi- 
cal activities and the controversies in which he and 
the newspaper became involved. 

1324. [Davis] Burlingame, Roger. Don't let 
them scare you; the life and times of Elmer 
Davis. Philadelphia, Lippincott [1961] 352 p. 

61-8669 PN4874.D36B8 

Elmer Davis (18901958) was a newspaperman, 
freelance writer, novelist, public official, and radio 
commentator. Born in a small Indiana town, he 
never lost his midwestern twang or his ability to 
express complicated ideas and events in language 
which was simple, uncommonly clear, and forceful. 
After 10 years with The New Yorf^ Times, he 
turned to freelance writing for Collier's, Harper's, 
and other prominent journals. As World War II 
approached, Davis returned to reporting, this time 
as a news analyst for CBS. During the war, he 
served as head of the Office of War Information and 
became engaged in well-publicized disagreements 
with Robert Sherwood and a group of OWI writers, 
including Henry F. Pringle and Arthur M. Schles- 
inger, Jr. As a radio commentator for ABC in the 
early 1950*5, he was highly critical of the tactics of 
the late Senator Joseph McCarthy. The author ex- 
presses considerable admiration for Davis' broad- 
casting. The professional experiences of another 
newspaperman and radio commentator are related 
in Raymond Swing's "Good Evening!" A Profes- 
sional Memoir (New York, Harcourt, Brace & 
World [1964] 311 p.). 

I 1325. [Hearst] Swanberg, W.A. Citizen Hearst; 
a biography of William Randolph Hearst. 
New York, Scribner [1961] 555 p. illus. 

61-7220 PN 4 874.H4S83 

Controversy characterized most of William Ran- 
dolph Hearst's life (18631951), and this book, the 
latest and largest of the many Hearst biographies, 
has itself been a storm center. In 1962, it was unani- 
mously nominated by the Pulitzer Advisory Board 
for the biography award, but in an unprecedented 



action the trustees of Columbia University vetoed 
the nomination and declined to give any prize for 
biography. Swanberg's account is generally ac- 
knowledged to be an uncommonly thorough analysis 
of this contradictory personality. Although unable 
to gain access to the greater part of the Hearst cor- 
respondence, Swanberg nevertheless amassed a vast 
amount of information through research in news- 
papers, secondary sources, and hundreds of personal 
interviews. 

1326. [Lippmann] Childs, Marquis W., and 
James B. Reston, eds. Walter Lippmann 

and his times. New York, Harcourt, Brace [1959] 
246 p. 5910255 PN4874.L45C5 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A volume of 12 essays honoring Walter Lipp- 
mann (b. 1889) in his 7oth year. Lippmann has 
been writing and commenting on the political scene 
since 1914, when he joined Herbert Croly on The 
New Republic. After World War I he became 
editor of the New York World and, after that 
paper's demise, he undertook a syndicated column 
for the New Yor% Herald Tribune. Two-thirds of 
these essays deal with Lippmann's life, ideas, and 
influence, and the remainder with aspects of foreign 
policy or the democratic press suggested by his 
work. Marquis Childs and James Reston provide 
an introduction to Lippmann the political analyst 
and a picture of Lippmann the man. Allan Nevins 
writes of Lippmann's years at The World, Frank 
Moraes discusses the columnist's influence in Asia, 
and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., treats him as a case 
study in the relationship of the intellectual to prac- 
tical politics. Whereas Lippmann operates from an 
Olympian viewpoint, Joseph and Stewart Alsop 
practice personal and often emotional involvement 
with international events. A description of their 
mode of operation is provided in the first five chap- 
ters of their work, The Reporter's Trade (New 
York, Reynal [1958] 377 p.); the remainder of 
the volume is made up of representative selections 
from their published columns, 194657. 

1327. Newton, Virgil M. Crusade for democracy. 
Ames, Iowa State University Press [1961] 

316 p. 61-10549 PN4899.T35T75 

An account of the newspaper campaigns fought 
by The Tampa Tribune and its editor, Virgil M. 
(Red) Newton, Jr. Newton joined the Tribune in 
1930 and became its managing editor in 1943. Un- 
der his leadership, the paper inaugurated a series of 
crusades that helped turn out the corrupt govern- 
ment which had dominated Tampa for 17 years, 
exposed the existence of a flourishing gambling 
underworld, and aroused public opinion on sub- 



IO6 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



standard schools. With Tampa on the road to re- 
form, Newton turned to State government and 
trenchandy attacked abuses in the prison system, 
campaigned for reapportionment of the legislature, 
and exposed graft and corruption among high offi- 
cials. In 1953 Newton became chairman of the 
Freedom of Information Committee of Sigma Delta 
Chi and thereupon turned his indefatigable energy 
to an investigation of secrecy in the Federal Govern- 
ment, in particular that surrounding the expendi- 
ture of public funds. A man of strong opinion, 
Newton displays an almost total confidence in the 
righteousness of the causes he has espoused. 

, 1328. [Pegler] Pilat, Oliver R. Pegler, angry 
man of the press. Boston, Beacon Press 
[1963] 288 p. illus. 63-11391 PN4874.P43?5 
In an age when newspapers strive to present the 
news impartially, personal journalism has survived 
in the writings of the syndicated columnists who 
are allowed wide scope in giving their own inter- 
pretation of the significance of current events. As a 
sportswriter and nationally known columnist, West- 
brook Pegler took advantage of this freedom to 
write a column notorious for its unrestrained attacks 
on well-known contemporaries. Pegler made his 
reputation in the 1930*5 as an uncompromising op- 
ponent of fascism. During this period, he won a 
Pulitzer Prize for articles on abuses in organized 
labor. His political beliefs subsequently shifted to 
the right, and in the 1950'$ he was a supporter of 
Senator Joseph McCarthy. His columns became 
increasingly intemperate, and in 1962 he terminated 
his contract with King Features as a result of their 
censorship of his column. Later he wrote a monthly 
column for American Opinion, owned and edited 
by Robert Welch of the John Birch Society. This 
biography by an editor of the New Yor\ Post at- 
tempts to provide a rounded and objective picture of 
the controversial journalist. Pilat describes many of 
Pegler 's more famous attacks and his libel suits in 
some detail and tries to show how far the columnist's 
accusations were justified and wherein they were dis- 
torted. The result is a portrayal of a sensitive, emo- 
tional, and vindictive man who sees himself as "the 
reporter who tells the truth and walks alone." 



1329. Seltzer, Louis B. The years were good. 
Introduction by Bruce Catton. Cleveland, 

World Pub. Co. [1956] 317 p. 

56-10431 PN4874.S427A3 
The Cleveland Press, established in 1878 by E. W. 
Scripps, was the first newspaper in what was to be- 
come the Scripps-Howard chain. Since 1928 the 
Press has been edited by Louis B. Seltzer (b. 1897), 
and under his leadership it has maintained its posi- 
tion as a hard-hitting, crusading newspaper. Seltzer 
left school at 13 to become an office boy for The 
Cleveland Leader. He was city editor of the Cleve- 
land Press at 19 and had become its editor before he 
was 31. Through the years, he and the paper 
have become identified with the development, 
growth, and improvement of the city. In crisp 
journalistic style, this autobiography describes Selt- 
zer's personal philosophy of journalism, as well as 
many of the paper's crusades and campaigns. 

1330. [Swope] Kahn, Ely J. The world of 
Swope. New York, Simon & Schuster 

[1965] 510 p. illus. 

65-11976 CT275.S9874K3 

Bibliography: p. 476482. 

An anecdotal, authorized biography by a long- 
time staff writer for The New Yorker. The son of 
German-Jewish parents, Herbert Bayard Swope 
(18821958) was a flamboyant figure of many 
facets. He began his newspaper career at the age of 
17 on the St. Louis Post-Dispatch; he served the 
New York World from 1909 to 1925 with ingenuity 
and distinction. He disclaimed having any rules 
for success but offered a sure formula for failure: 
"Try to please everyone." He was most successful 
in making money and in seeming to know everyone 
of consequence. Woodrow Wilson, Alfred E. 
Smith, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Bernard Baruch 
sought and accepted his advice. High-salaried con- 
sultant of large corporations, member of civic com- 
mittees, founder and director of Freedom House, 
New York Racing Commissioner, consultant to the 
Secretary of War during World War II, he was 
referred to as a "creator of statesmen" and "editor 
emeritus of public opinion." 



E. Foreign -Language Periodicals 



1331. Arndt, Karl J. R., and May E. Olson. 
German-American newspapers and periodi- 
cals, 1732-1955; history and bibliography. 2d rev. 
ed. New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1965] 



810 p. facsims. 662897 Z6953-5.G3A7 1965 
Added t.p.: Deutsch-ameri}(anische Zeitungen 

und Zeitschrijten, 1732-1955. 
German-language newspapers and periodicals 



PERIODICALS AND JOURNALISM / 107 



have probably been the greatest in number and in- 
fluence among America's foreign-language press. 
They flourished at the turn of the century but suf- 
fered a disastrous blow during World War I, when 
public sentiment caused many to cease publication. 
In some cases back issues were even destroyed, and 
with them a great deal of source material on local 
history was lost. To fill this gap, the authors have 
sought to compile a complete bibliography of 
German-language papers published in the United 
States and to locate files of these publications when- 
ever possible. In some cases complete holdings 
could only be found in European libraries. About 
5,000 titles are included, arranged by State and city. 
Each entry includes dates of publication, changes of 
title, names of editors and publishers, and often a 
brief commentary. The section for each State 
begins with a short introductory summary giving 
statistics of the German element. The main body 
of the work is followed by a tide index, an extensive 
bibliography, and an appendix listing 1 1 1 additional 
serials, mostly prisoner-of-war camp papers. 



1332. Hunter, Edward. In many voices; our 
fabulous foreign-language press. Norman 
Park, Ga., Norman College [1960] 190 p. 

60-3673 PN 4 884.H8 

The foreign-language press is not the influential 
voice in America today that it was 50 years ago 
before curbs were placed on immigration, but it is 
still a factor in American political life and a re- 
minder of the diverse national origins of American 
citizens. In 1960, there were 65 daily foreign- 
languge newspapers and more than 200 weeklies in 
33 languages. Since second- and third-generation 
Americans have tended to lose interest in their an- 
cestral lands and languages, many of the surviving 
papers have accepted sponsorship by nationality 
societies or religious groups or have shifted to pub- 
lication in English. A small number are under 
Communist control. Individual publications are 
discussed briefly in this survey, which is the first 
attempt at a general view since The Immigrant 
Press and Its Control (1922), by Robert E. Park, 
no. 2897 in the 1960 Guide. 



F. The Practice of Journalism 



1333. Arnold, Edmund C. Functional newspaper 
design. New York, Harper [1956] 340 p. 

illus. 566442 Z253-A7 

Attractive packaging is one of the most important 
factors in promoting sales of any commodity, and 
newspapers are no exception. The author, who is 
editor of The Linotype News, states that today's 
papers "must make reading as easy as possible and 
make it appear even easier" in order to meet the 
stiff competition from the electronic media. The 
"tools" in the hands of the newspaper designer are 
typography and layout. Both have been modern- 
ized and improved in the 20th century, the most 
notable changes being a larger and simpler typeface, 
tabloid size ("five columns by approximately 15 
inches"), and style. Topics discussed include type- 
face in headlines and in the body of the text, pic- 
tures, layouts in general and on the specialized 
pages, and recent technological changes. Although 
this volume is intended as a manual for professional 
newsmen, its clear style, explanation of technical 
terms, and numerous illustrations make it accessible 
to the nonprofessional reader. 

1334. Brucker, Herbert. Journalist, eyewitness to 
history. New York, Macmillan [1962] 



21 r p. (Career book series) 

62-14794 PN4775.B735 

A description of the journalistic profession today. 
The author is editor of The Hartford Courant 
and a former professor of journalism at Columbia 
University. The discussion covers all types of jour- 
nalism, including radio and television, photo- 
journalism, public relations, and in particular, news- 
paper work. Much of the book is devoted to 
practical advice on educational preparation, job 
availability, and advancement. Opportunities for 
women entering the field are noted, and the re- 
quirements, rewards, and sacrifices of day-to-day 
reporting are oudined. Brucker also analyzes the 
rights involved in the freedom of the press and dis- 
cusses the decline in the number of newspapers, the 
rise in costs, the competition from other journalistic 
media, and the control of the press by businessmen 
rather than editors. 

1335. Byerly, Kenneth R. Community journal- 
ism. Philadelphia, Chilton Co., Book Divi- 
sion [1961] 435 p. 61-7188 PN4784-C73B9 
The term "country weekly" has become passe, 
the cracker-barrel philosopher-editor has disap- 
peared, and the number of smalltown newspapers 



IO8 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



has decreased by more than 40 percent in the last 
50 years, but community journalism nonetheless 
remains a thriving aspect of the newspaper profes- 
sion. The total size and circulation of the surviving 
papers have increased, and new papers are being 
started in the rapidly growing suburban areas. This 
is a practical textbook on how to run a community 
newspaper, written by a newspaperman with many 
years' experience as owner and editor of weekly 
and daily papers in the South and West. Byerly 
considers that the two major functions of a com- 
munity paper are to provide local news and to serve 
as "an influence, voice, and builder" in stimulating 
thought and action on projects and issues. Such 
papers "must be written with more intimacy and 
more concern about the reader's reception" than city 
dailies; they constitute the "last stronghold of per- 
sonal journalism in America." The book's final 
section is devoted to the newspaper as a business, 
with emphasis on public relations and sound ac- 
counting methods. 

1336. Casey, Ralph D., ed. The press in perspec- 
tive. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State Univer- 
sity Press [1963] 217 p. 6316657 PN4857.C27 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 207-213). 

A collection of annual lectures financed by the 
Newspaper Guild of the Twin Cities and delivered 
at the University of Minnesota School of Journalism 
from 1947 to 1962. The lecturers included James 
Reston, Elmer Davis, Pierre Salinger, James Hag- 
erty, John Fischer, Gerald W. Johnson, Eric Seva- 
reid, Herbert Block, Joseph Alsop, Reinhold 
Niebuhr, and Henry S. Commager. In general, the 
series attempts to define the place of the press 
"within a social context." Recurrent themes are that 
the press should devote more emphasis to the back- 
ground and interpretation of the news and should 
improve its own performance "as a trustee of the 
public interest." 

1337. Elfenbein, Julien. Business journalism. 2d 
rev. ed. New York, Harper [1960] 352 p. 

60-5712 PN4784.C7E4 1960 
An updated edition of no. 2902 in the 1960 Guide. 

1338. Hohenberg, John. The professional jour- 
nalist; a guide to modern reporting practice. 

New York, Holt [1960] 423 p. 

60-7795 PN 4 775.H 4 4 

A basic textbook on the problems and techniques 
of reporting the news for newspapers and wire 
services, including sections on the techniques of 
newswriting, newsgathering, and specialized re- 
porting. Emphasis is placed on reporting as a 



public service, but the ethical aspects of determining 
how news is to be gathered and what news is to be 
printed are discussed realistically in the light of 
present practices. Hohenberg's approach is practi- 
cal and detailed; there are several chapters on "news- 
paper style," showing the difference between the 
English found in the newspapers and everyday 
written and spoken English. Hillier Krieghbaum's 
Facts in Perspective (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 
Prentice-Hall, 1956. 518 p. Prentice-Hall journal- 
ism series') is a practical guide to editorial writing 
and news interpretation. Roland E. Wolseley's 
Critical Writing for the Journalist (Philadelphia, 
Chilton Co., Book Division [1959] 207 p.) pre- 
sents a discriminating view of literary and artistic 
criticism as practiced in news media today. 

1339. MacDougall, Curtis D. Newsroom prob- 
lems and policies. [Rev. and enl. ed.] New 

York, Dover Publications [1963] viii, 493 p. 

6317910 PN473I.M27 1963 
An updated edition of no. 2905 in the 1960 Guide. 
MacDougall has also published a slightly modified 
version of the updated text under the title The 
Press and Its Problems (Dubuque, Iowa, W. C. 
Brown Co. [1964] 532 p. Journalism series). 

1340. Nieman reports. Reporting the news; selec- 
tions from Nieman reports. Edited, with an 

introduction, by Louis M. Lyons. Cambridge, Bel- 
knap Press of Harvard University Press, 1965. 
443 p. 65-19825 PN 4 8 5 3.N 5 

Louis M. Lyons, who for 25 years was curator 
of the Nieman Fellowships for newspapermen at 
Harvard University, selected and edited Reporting 
the News from the quarterly publication of the 
Nieman Fellows. The fellowships provide experi- 
enced newspapermen with a year at Harvard to 
pursue studies of their choice and to attend discus- 
sions on journalism with their colleagues. Nieman 
Reports has based its philosophy on the concept of 
"the responsibility of the press." The articles re- 
printed here are objective, realistic, and often 
penetrating. 

1341. Rucker, Frank W., and Herbert Lee Wil- 
liams. Newspaper organization and man- 
agement. 2d ed. Ames, Iowa State University 
Press [1965] xv, 544 p. illus. 

65-!0573 PN4775.R8 1965 
Bibliography: p. 529534. 
An updated edition of no. 2909 in the 1960 Guide. 

1342. Woods, Allan. Modern newspaper produc- 
tion. New York, Harper & Row [1963] 



PERIODICALS AND JOURNALISM / 109 



238 p. illus. 63-12054 PN4734.W6 

A clear and sometimes witty explanation of the 
technical side of newspaper publishing. The 
author, a former production manager of Newsday, 
considers such subjects as printers' unions, the flow 
of work through the composing room and press- 
room, high-speed machines, problems of newsprint 
supply, and the photoengraving processes. The 
final chapter concerns the crisis caused by spiraling 
costs. Woods describes the search for new and 
cheaper production methods as exemplified by the 
Teletypesetter and offset printing. He concludes 



that since most of these new cost-cutting devices can 
only be used effectively for smaller issues, the re- 
sult may be a rise in the number of small local 
papers after many of the large papers have priced 
themselves out of the field. This volume is in- 
tended to familiarize journalism students with the 
technical side of the newspaper business. It is 
written in language which can be understood by 
the nonspecialist, and all technical terms are itali- 
cized the first time they appear and explained in an 
extensive glossary at the end (p. 193223). 



G. Magazines: General 



1343. Davenport, Walter, and James C. Derieux. 
Ladies, gentlemen, and editors. Garden 

City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1960. 386 p. 

6011379 PN487I.D3 

Includes bibliography. 

Biographical essays on some of the more interest- 
ing editors and publishers of the i9th and early 
20th centuries. The authors, former editors of 
Collier's, have chosen strong personalities, without 
regard for the relative merits of their magazines. 
No living editors and no appraisals of existing mag- 
azines in their present form are included. Having 
ruled out all reasonable possibilities of legal re- 
prisal, the authors have produced a collection of 
uninhibited accounts of such people as William 
d'Alton Mann of Town Topics, William Cowper 
Brann of The Iconoclast, William Marion Reedy of 
The Mirror, and Richard Kyle Fox of The Police 
Gazette, as well as such well-known editors as 
Edward William Bok, Sarah Josepha Hale, William 
Lloyd Garrison, and George Horace Lorimer. 
Scholarship has been blended with a racy conversa- 
tional style, replete with colloquial expressions and 
incomplete sentences. An account of Reedy and 
the influence of his St. Louis magazine on American 
literature during the period 18901920 can be 
found in The Man in the Mirror (Cambridge, Har- 
vard University Press, 1963. 351 p.), by Max 
Putzel. Brann's controversial life and violent death 
are described against the background of Waco, Tex., 
in the 1890*5 in Charles Carver's Brann and The 
Iconoclast (Austin, University of Texas Press 
[1957] 196 p.). 

1344. Ferguson, Rowena. Editing the small mag- 
azine. New York, Columbia University 

Press, 1958. 271 p. 57-10746 PN4775.F4 



Small magazines or specialized journals with 
limited circulation constitute 95 percent of the 
magazines published in this country. Generally 
issued by or for organized agencies, these publica- 
tions reflect the needs and interests of the parent 
body and its members. Because of their small size 
and limited budgets, they are often edited by staff 
members with little editorial experience or training. 
This book is designed as a how-to-do-it manual for 
such editors. The first half is a detailed breakdown 
of the technical aspects of editorial work; the second 
section is concerned with the executive functions 
of the editor. There is a brief bibliographic essay 
(p. 259264) on books useful to beginning and 
experienced editors alike. A discussion is included 
of the "litde magazine," a specific type of literary 
magazine appealing to a small, sophisticated audi- 
ence. Reed Whittemore's Little Magazines (Min- 
neapolis, University of Minnesota Press [1963] 
47 p. University of Minnesota pamphlets on 
American writers, no. 32) is a critical and witty 
essay on the aims, influence, and future of this 
class of publication, with which the author has been 
actively concerned during most of his life. 



1345. Peterson, Theodore B. Magazines in the 
twentieth century. [2d ed.] Urbana, Uni- 
versity of Illinois Press, 1964. 484 p. illus. 

64-18668 PN4877.P4 1964 

An updated edition of no. 2918 in the 1960 Guide. 
Roland E. Wolseley's Understanding Magazines 
(Ames, Iowa State University Press, 1965. 451 p.) 
is a revision, with a different theme and a new 
plan of organization, of The Magazine World 
(1951), which is described in the annotation for 
no. 2919 in the 1960 Guide. 



110 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



H. Individual Magazines 



1346. Lyon, Peter. Success story; the life and 
times of S. S. McClure. New York, Scrib- 

ner [1963] 433 p. ill us. 

63-16757 PN4874-M35L9 

"Author's note and bibliography": p. 413422. 

Samuel S. McClure (18571949), an Irish im- 
migrant of brilliant mind but erratic personality, 
organized one of the first successful syndicates for 
the sale of popular fiction to city newspapers when 
he was only 28. In 1893 ne founded McClure 's 
Magazine, which was priced at 15 cents a copy and 
contained high-quality fiction and well-written arti- 
cles on topics of current interest. By 1900 McClure' s 
had the second highest circulation among general 
magazines and had revolutionized the periodical 
world. The January 1903 issue, with articles by 
Ida Tarbell, Ray Stannard Baker, and Lincoln 
Steffens, marked the beginning of the muckraking 
era and the pinnacle of McClure 's success. By 
1912, however, McClure had been ousted from the 
editorship and the magazine had begun the slow 
decline which ended with its demise in 1929. Lyon 
maintains that McClure was "the greatest magazine 
editor this country had yet produced" and that 
McClure' s from 1895 to 1910 was "probably the 
best general magazine ever to be published any- 
where." McClure's My Autobiography (New York, 
Ungar [1963] 266 p. American classics) is a re- 
print, with an introduction by Louis Filler, of the 
original 1914 work ghostwritten by Willa Gather. 

1347. Skipper, Ottis C. }. D. B. De Bow, maga- 
zinist of the Old South. Athens, University 

of Georgia Press [1958] 269 p. ill us. 

58-9172 PN 4 874.D395S 5 3 
Bibliography: p. 248258. 

James Dun woody Brownson De Bow (18201867) 
founded and edited De Bow's Review, for some 
years the most influential and widely circulated 
magazine of the ante bellum South. The Review, 
founded in 1846 in New Orleans, was primarily a 
commercial and statistical magazine, although from 
time to time it included articles on literature and 
history. De Bow was a zealous advocate of slavery 



and, by the middle 1850'$, was proposing secession 
as the only method of preserving Southern unity. 
A year after the outbreak of the Civil War, the 
Review suspended publication because of a lack of 
funds. De Bow revived it in 1866 but died the fol- 
lowing year; the Review was continued irregularly 
by other publishers until 1 880. Its chief importance 
today lies in its value as "interpreter of the ante- 
bellum South." Skipper, a professional historian, 
concludes that the Review was a reflection of the 
thinking of the times rather than an influence upon 
them. 

1348. Turner, Susan J. A history of The Free- 
man, literary landmark of the early twen- 
ties. New York, Columbia University Press, 1963. 
204 p. 6319075 PN49OO.F7T85 

Bibliography: p. [187] 197. 

Few periodicals that have lasted for so short a 
time as The Freeman (New York) of 192024 
have lingered so persistently in memory. In 1917 
Francis Neilson, an English single-taxer who had 
broken with the Liberal Party, married Mrs. Helen 
Swift Morris of the wealthy Chicago meatpacking 
family. Two years later, since the Nation could 
not be purchased, she established The Freeman to 
serve as his vehicle. Neilson allowed most of the 
work of editing and writing to pass into the hands 
of an American single-taxer, Albert Jay Nock, but 
became quite resentful at the outcome. The politi- 
cal viewpoint of The Freeman approached philo- 
sophical anarchism: the state was to wither away 
as the development of ideas left it high and dry. 
This view was uncongenial to the American left of 
the day, however, and the subscribers never ex- 
ceeded 10,000. The magazine's brilliant literary 
department, headed by Van Wyck Brooks, Harold 
Stearns, and Lewis Mumford and aided by a corps 
of reviewers that looks impressive 40 years later, 
won general admiration but did not make up for 
the failure to attract a political following. When 
the Neilsons withdrew support at the end of the 
fourth year, The Freeman ceased publication. 



PERIODICALS AND JOURNALISM / III 



I. The Press and Society 



1349. Cater, Douglass. The fourth branch of gov- 
ernment. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1959. 

194 P- 59-7616 PN4738.C3 

A study of the interaction between the national 
government and the Washington press corps. The 
author, a former special assistant to the Secretary 
of the Army and Washington correspondent for 
The Reporter, maintains that the influence of the 
press is such that it constitutes a fourth branch of 
government. With the proliferation of agencies 
since 1933, the reporter has become "the indispen- 
sable broker and middleman among the subgovern- 
ments." Cater contends that the new generation of 
politicians uses the press to build national reputa- 
tions which are sometimes unrelated to legislative 
accomplishment; officials, on the other hand, 
jealously guard new programs against the glare of 
public exposure until policy has become so set that 
public opinion can no longer affect it. Since the 
press is thus forced to obtain information in un- 
systematic fashion, news is often incomplete and its 
treatment unbalanced. The press itself exercises 
great power by deciding what constitutes important 
news and what will be relegated to the inside pages 
or omitted entirely. Cater offers few panaceas, but 
his postscript describing reporting in Moscow makes 
it clear that conditions could be worse. 

1350. Pollard, James E. The Presidents and the 
press, Truman to Johnson. Washington, 

Public Affairs Press [1964] 125 p. 

64-8753 JK5i8.P6 

"References": p. 121125. 

This supplement to no. 2930 in the 1960 Guide 
treats the press relations of recent U.S. Presidents. 
The author traces the initiation and development of 
the White House news conference, which originated 
in President Wilson's administration and has been 
continued with varying success to the present time. 
Franklin D. Roosevelt, who extended the news 
conference with his "fireside chats" by radio, was 
"unsurpassed in the uses to which he put the device 
or in his skill in managing it." His methods were 
continued and expanded by Harry S. Truman. 
Pollard states that Dwight D. Eisenhower appeared 
to endure the news conferences rather than to enjoy 
them, but was the first to extend them to television. 
John F. Kennedy was convivial, quick in response, 
and ready with word or fact in reply to a question. 
Lyndon B. Johnson proved informal and im- 



promptu; news conferences were likely to be held 
in unusual places and under unaccustomed condi- 
tions at the "L.B.J." ranch, for example, or in a 
rapid walking tour of the White House grounds. 
Another book on the same subject, Presidential 
Leadership of Public Opinion (Bloomington, In- 
diana University Press, 1965. 370 p.), by Elmer E. 
Cornwell, traces relations between President and 
press from Theodore Roosevelt through John F. 
Kennedy. 

1351. Wiggins, James R. Freedom or secrecy? 
New York, Oxford University Press, 1956. 

242 p. 56-11115 JC599-U5W53 

A discussion of the increasing secrecy in govern- 
ment national. State and local, legislative, judicial, 
and executive alike which the author believes is 
threatening freedom of the press. Wiggins, who 
is executive editor of The Washington Post, finds 
that after three centuries of progress in making in- 
formation available to the people events now appear 
to be moving in the opposite direction. He com- 
plains that committees of Congress hold their execu- 
tive sessions behind doors closed to press and public; 
all Federal and many State courts exclude cameras 
from the courtroom; records of the expenditure of 
millions of dollars of Federal funds are held con- 
fidential and privileged; and the military estab- 
lishments keep spreading the cover of security over 
matters to which it has small if any relevance. The 
several elements of freedom of information and the 
press are reviewed, and the history of these rights 
is traced from their beginnings in English law to 
their present status in America, with illustrations 
from pertinent legal cases. The last chapter is 
concerned with various criticisms of newspaper 
practice today. After an analysis of each charge, 
Wiggins concludes that "the professed fears that 
information furnished by government will be dis- 
torted by the press or misunderstood by the people 
are fears that spring from a lack of faith in demo- 
cratic institutions and beliefs." 

1352. Zenger, John Peter, defendant. A brief nar- 
rative of the case and trial of John Peter 

Zenger, printer of the New Yor^ Weekly Journal. 
By James Alexander. Edited by Stanley Nider 
Katz. Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press of Har- 
vard University, 1963. 238 p. (The John Harvard 
library) 6319133 KF223-Z4K38 1963 



112 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Bibliographical notes: 205232. 

The trial and acquittal of John Peter Zenger 
(1697? 1746), printer of the New Yor\ Weekly 
Journal, for criminal libel in 1736 has traditionally 
been considered a foundation stone in the establish- 
ment of freedom of the press in this country. Re- 
cent investigation has brought about a more cautious 
evaluation. Katz reviews the proceedings in their 
contemporary context, notes that the decision was 
considered at the time to be "a politically motivated 
legal anomaly," and concludes that "the reformation 
of the law of libel and the associated unshackling 
of the press came about, when they did, as if Peter 
Zenger had never existed." The importance of the 



case lies in allowing us "to see in dramatic detail 
the nature of the forces developing in the early 
eighteenth century which would end, two genera- 
tions later, in the transformation of both politics and 
the law." Katz points out that the Brief Narrative, 
ostensibly by Zenger, was probably written by James 
Alexander, the actual editor of the Journal. The 
Trial of Peter Zenger ( [New York] New York 
University Press, 1957. 152 p.), edited by Vincent 
Buranelli, presents the text in abridged form, pref- 
aced by a lengthy introduction in which the editor 
describes the trial and takes the traditional view in 
attributing far-reaching consequences to Zenger's 
acquittal. 



VI 



Geography 



A. General and Physical Geography 

B. Geology and Soil 

C. Climate and Weather 

D. Plants and Animals 

E. Historical Geography and Atlases 

F. Polar Exploration 



'353- I 357 
1358-136 
13621364 
1365-1371 



:1 



1376-1378 



BASIC to an understanding of American civilization is the study of the natural setting in 
which it arose and on which it must depend for sustenance. This chapter contains works 
which describe the physical features of the Anglo-American continent and others which 
examine the reciprocal relationship between continent and human culture. Although entry 
no. 1355 in Section A treats geography as a discipline listing variations in American method- 
ology from environmentalism to economic geography the other selections in the section deal 
with specific aspects of the Nation's environment, 

of Chapter XXVII, Land and Agriculture, in which 
works devoted to the conservation of wildlife have 
been placed. As in the 1960 Guide, the brevity of 
Section E indicates that few geographers have ap- 
proached the specialty of historical geography per se. 



such as the diversity of landforms or the cultural 
use of the land. 

Climate and weather are perennial topics; the 
entries in Section C each study an extreme manifes- 
tation: aridity, hurricanes, and hailstorms, respec- 
tively. The books on plants and animals in Section 
D are supplemented by others in Sections G and H 



There are, however, accounts of historic explorations 
in the polar regions in Section F. 



A. General and Physical Geography 



1353. American heritage. The American heritage 
book of natural wonders, by the editors of 

American heritage, the magazine of history. Editor 
in charge: Alvin M. Josephy. [New York] Ameri- 
can Heritage Pub. Co.; book trade distribution by 
Simon & Schuster [1963] 384 p. 

6317026 169^496 

1354. Farb, Peter. Face of North America; the 
natural history of a continent. Illustrations 

by Jerome Connolly. New York, Harper & Row 
[1963] 316 p. 6214598 QHio4.F3 

Readings: p. 299305. 

The editors of American Heritage present the 
spectacular in the American landscape. Each of 



eight writers Peter Matthiessen, William O. 
Douglas, Jan de Hartog, Bruce Catton, Paul Engle, 
Wallace Stegner, George R. Stewart, and Harold 
Gilliam characterizes, with his own particular 
emphasis and personal enthusiasm, a broad region 
of the United States by the dimensions of landscape, 
the diversity of place names, and local color. The 
illustrations are a notable contribution of this vol- 
ume and combine historic American prints and 
paintings, maps and drawings by the early natural- 
ists, and photographs of wildlife, landscapes, and 
natural resource development. Face of North 
America complements the wondrous and remark- 
able in the American landscape with an introduc- 
tory study of the diversity of landforms that label 



114 / A GUIDE To E UNITED STATES 



and link the regions of this continent. Concentra- 
tion on the geological development and ecological 
cooperation involved in the cycle of land formation 
emphasizes impermanence and change, the constant 
"rise and fall of the land." Each section considers a 
broad landform, which is further defined in the sub- 
sections. Numerous drawings and photographs 
clarify the process of development visually. An ap- 
pendix lists the "Outstanding Natural Areas of 
North America, by State and Province." 



1355. Platt, Robert S., ed. Field study in Ameri- 
can geography; the development of theory 
and method exemplified by selections. Chicago, 
1959. 405 p. (University of Chicago. Dept. of 
Geography. Research paper no. 61) 

60205 H3I.C5I4 no. 61 

This volume was compiled on the assumption 
that successive methods of field work during the 
last 150 years of American geography, although 
varying in content from environmentalism to eco- 
nomics, have been progressive and cumulative in 
the development of geographic knowledge. Chosen 
as representative mileposts in geographic research 
where there is direct contact between researcher and 
subject, these selections are drawn from diverse 
sources. The work as a whole is designed for spe- 
cialists and categorizes the materials with such 
terms as "exploratory traverse," "explanatory phys- 
ical," and "analytical economic." At the same 
time, the excerpts themselves are often appropriate 
for the layman, representing, as they do, such read- 
able authors as Lewis and Clark and Ellen C. 
Semple. An introduction places each study and its 
author in historical perspective. William Warntz' 
Geography Now and Then; Some Notes on the His- 
tory of Academic Geography in the United States 
(New York, American Geographical Society, 1964. 
162 p. American Geographical Society research 
series, no. 25) is a survey of the characteristics and 



role of geography as a discipline in this country since 
its colonial beginnings. 

1356. Thornbury, William D. Regional geomor- 
phology of the United States. New York, 

Wiley [1965] 609 p. illus. 6512698 QEjj.T<5 

Chapter references. 

A reference and textbook incorporating new re- 
search data to update Nevin M. Fenneman's Physi- 
ography of Western United States (1931) and 
Physiography of Eastern United States (1938), no. 
2935 and 2936, respectively, in the 1960 Guide. 
This study combines the origin of landforms with 
the regional distribution and geomorphic histories 
of landscapes. Limited in length, the treatment is 
necessarily selective and economical in comparison 
with its predecessors but follows the same general 
classification. Geomorphology Before Dams ( [Lon- 
don] Methuen; [New York] Wiley [1964] 678 
p.), the first volume of The History of the Study of 
Landforms, by Richard J. Chorley, Anthony J. 
Dunn, and Robert P. Beckinsale, is an account of 
the evolution of European and American ideas "re- 
lating to the development of the physical landscape," 
enriched by many excerpts from original sources. 

1357. White, Charles Langdon, Edwin J. Foscue, 
and Tom L. McKnight. Regional geogra- 
phy of Anglo-America. 3d ed. Englewood Cliffs, 
N. J., Prentice-Hall [1964] xvii, 524 p. illus. 

6410071 169^54 1964 

References at the ends of chapters. 

An updated edition of no. 2940 in the 1960 
Guide. Two other textbooks are Earl B. Shaw's 
Anglo- Am erica, a Regional Geography (New York, 
Wiley [1959] 480 p.), a brief and selective survey, 
emphasizing economic geography, and James Wre- 
ford Watson's North America, Its Countries and 
Regions ([London] Longmans [1963] 854 p. 
Geographies for advanced study), which stresses 
historical settlement and cultural use of the land. 



B. Geology and Soil 



1358. Clark, Thomas H., and Colin W. Stearn. 
The geological evolution of North America; 

a regional approach to historical geology. New 
York, Ronald Press Co. [1960] 434 p. 

60-6154 QE7I.C55 

1359. King, Philip B. The evolution of North 
America. Princeton, N.J., Princeton Univer- 
sity Press, 1959. 189 p. illus. 595598 QE7I.K.54 



Reference material: p. vii-ix. 

These two volumes treat the progressive growth 
of North America by region. The first, a textbook 
for students familiar with physical geology, presents 
the three major structural units of the continent: the 
bordering geosynclines, the stable interior, and the 
Canadian Shield. Maps and diagrams are unclut- 
tered and well integrated. The evolution of life is 
discussed in a final section, and appendixes sum- 



GEOGRAPHY / 115 



marize the biological classifications. The Evolu- 
tion of North America, by a geologist with the U.S. 
Geological Survey, was compiled from a lecture 
series for a college course. It does not aim to be 
comprehensive but gives detailed consideration to 
selected regions which illustrate principles of the 
continent's development. The book retains the in- 
formality of its original oral delivery. 

1360. Eardley, Armand J. Structural geology of 
North America. 2d ed. New York, Harper 

& Row [ C i962] xv, 743 p. illus. (Harper's geo- 
science series) 6217482 QE7i.Ei7 1962 

Bibliography: p. 709738. 

A revised edition of no. 2942 in the 1960 Guide. 

1361. Wright, Herbert E., and David G. Frey, eds. 
The Quaternary of the United States: a re- 
view volume for the VII Congress of the Interna- 



tional Association for Quaternary Research. Prince- 
ton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1965. 922 p. 
illus. 6514304 QE696.W93 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A scholarly and technical interdisciplinary report 
on the era of geologic time covering the last ice age 
to the present. This period, which includes the 
evolution of modern man, is "unique among the 
geologic periods for the relative perfection of its 
stratigraphic record." On a basis of uniformitarian- 
ism, the unusual stratigraphy permits a broad selec- 
tion of American scholars in representative fields of 
scientific learning to collaborate in detailing and 
analyzing development. The four major sections 
are devoted to geology, biogeology, archeology, and 
miscellany; subsections defined principally by region 
contain detailed chronological description, summa- 
ries, extensive references, and brief notes on the 
authors' credentials. 



C. Climate and Weather 



1362. American Association for the Advancement 
of Science. Committee on Desert and Arid 

Zones Research. Aridity and man; the challenge of 
the arid lands in the United States. Carle Hodge, 
editor; Peter C. Duisberg, associate editor. Wash- 
ington, American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, 1963. xx, 584 p. illus. ([American 
Association for the Advancement of Science] Pub- 
lication no. 74) 6322003 GB6i4-A5 

Bibliography: p. 555-560. 

One-third of the 48 contiguous States of the 
United States are deficient in moisture. This vol- 
ume, composed of case histories and chapters on 
the relationship of aridity to weather, terrain, vege- 
tation, soils and minerals, and historical settlement 
and development, portrays the sum of U.S. experi- 
ence in arid lands. Conceived as a working tool 
for a UNESCO symposium on arid zones research, 
this interdisciplinary study, scholarly but readable, 
useful to researchers as well as to administrative 
and governmental leaders, emphasizes arid zones 
where development has failed. In a more general 
introduction, The North American Deserts (Stan- 
ford, Calif., Stanford University Press, 1957. 308 
p.), by Edmund C. Jaeger, combines regional de- 
scriptions of the five North American deserts with 
a field guide of common desert flora and fauna. 

1363. Dunn, Gordon E., and Banner I. Miller. 
Atlantic hurricanes. [Rev. ed. Baton 

Rouge] Louisiana State University Press [1964] 



xx, 377 p. illus. 6421598 QC945-D8 1964 

Bibliography: p. 299301, 363368. 

Through meteorological work at the National 
Hurricane Center in Florida, the authors acquired 
experience and familiarity with "the most destruc- 
tive of all weather phenomena." Serving both as an 
explanation for the layman and an analytical 
description for the student, this treatment of the 
tropical storm supplies information on current 
scholarship, as well as on climatology, physical 
processes, tracking, forecasting, hazard intensity, 
and historical storms of the 2oth century. A thor- 
oughly documented specialized study is David M. 
Ludlum's Early American Hurricanes, 14921870 
(Boston, American Meteorological Society [ C i963] 
198 p. The History of American weather, no. i). 

1364. Flora, Snowden D. Hailstorms of the 
United States. Norman, University of Okla- 
homa Press [1956] 201 p. illus. 

56-11231 QC929.HiF4 

Because "hail is even more destructive than tor- 
nadoes," the author has supplemented an earlier 
volume, Tornadoes of the United States (1954), no. 
2948 in the 1960 Guide, with a comprehensive gen- 
eral introduction emphasizing the why, when, and 
where of hailstorms. Employing devices of content 
and format similar to those used in his previous 
work, the author here tabulates damage and risk 
according to States, notes the phenomenal, records 
the past effectiveness of forecasting, and advises on 
the practicalities of insurance. 



Il6 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



D. Plants and Animals 



1365. Bent, Arthur C. Life histories of North 
American blackbirds, orioles, tanagers, and 

allies. Order: Passeriformes; families: Proceidae, 
Icteridae, and Thraupidae. Washington, Smithson- 
ian Institution, 1958. 549 p. (U.S. National Mu- 
seum. Bulletin 211 ) 58-60425 Qu.U6 no. 211 

Bibliography: p. 510531. 

This is the iyth and final title of Bent's unique 
series of life histories of North American birds. 
Issued by the Smithsonian Institution in a total of 
20 volumes over a period of almost 40 years, the 
studies together have been described as the "most 
comprehensive, most complete, and most-used sin- 
gle source of information" on the birds of North 
America. In this volume, as in the others, the 
author interweaves easy narrative with terse facts 
and blends his own findings with those of other 
observers. The text is both readable and useful 
and is accompanied by a section of black and white 
photographic illustrations. Dover Publications has 
reprinted, in paperback, the entire set as it was 
originally issued, complete with pictures. Henry 
H. Collins, Jr., has edited a two-volume abridge- 
ment to which he has given the title Life Histories 
of North American Birds (New York, Harper 
[1960]). 

1366. National Geographic Society, Washington, 
D.C. Boof( Service. Natural science library. 

Washington, National Geographic Society, 1960 
65. 6 v. 

Entries no. 1367 through 1370 below describe 
four of the six volumes thus far published in this 
series. The two volumes omitted are devoted to 
domesticated nature (one is on dogs, the other on 
gardens) rather than to life still relatively wild and 
free. As the titles indicate, three of the four vol- 
umes listed concern birds and fishes; the book on 
animals is restricted to mammals. All of these vol- 
umes combine informative text with drawings, 
paintings, and photographs that are esthetic as well 
as instructive. Two other National Geographic So- 
ciety publications resembling the Natural Science 
Library in subject and presentation are Stalling 
Birds With Color Camera [2d rev. ed.] ([1963] 
351 p.), by Arthur A. Allen and others, and The 
Boo% of Fishes ([1961] 339 p.), edited by John 
O. La Gorce. 

1367. Wetmore, Alexander, and others. Song and 



garden birds of North America. Foreword 
by Melville Bell Grosvenor. [1964] 400 p. 

64-23367 QL68i.W 4 6 
"Acknowledgments and reference guide": p. 



"Bird songs of garden, woodland and meadow, 
by Arthur A. Allen and Peter Paul Kellogg" (12 p. 
and phonodiscs: 12 s. 7 in. 33/3 rpm.) in pocket. 

1368. Wetmore, Alexander, and others. Water, 
prey, and game birds of North America. 

Foreword by Melville Bell Grosvenor. [1965] 464 
p. 65-24605 QL68i.W 4 8 

Bibliographical references included in "Acknowl- 
edgments" (p. 463). 

"Bird sounds of marsh, upland, and shore, by 
Peter Paul Kellogg" (12 p. and phonodiscs: 12 s. 
7 in. 33 ! /3 rpm.) in pocket. 

1369. National Geographic Society, Washington, 
D.C. Boof( Service. Wild animals of North 

America. Foreword by Melville Bell Grosvenor. 
[1960] 400 p. 

60-15019 QL7I5-N3 

1370. National Geographic Society, Washington, 
D.C. Wondrous world of fishes. [Editor- 

in-chief, Melville Bell Grosvenor. Washington, 
1965] 366 p. 65-11482 QL625.N33 

1371. Shelf ord, Victor E. The ecology of North 
America. Urbana, University of Illinois 

Press, 1963. xxii, 610 p. illus. 

63-7255 QH 1 02.85 

Bibliography: p. 495531. 

An extension of a previous work sponsored by 
Nature Conservancy (formerly Committee on the 
Preservation of Natural Conditions, Ecological So- 
ciety of America) and edited by Shelford: Natural- 
ist's Guide to the Americas (1926), no. 2956 in the 
1960 Guide. In the new study, Shelford presents a 
comprehensive picture of plant and animal com- 
munities in 16th-century North America. He 
describes the continent's forest regions in terms of 
their component biomes ecological formations of 
living organisms in their physical environments. 
Biomes are identified on the basis of their character- 
istic flora. This is a technical reference work, 
founded on research data from a vast array of 
sources. A useful tool for conjunctive study is Au- 



GEOGRAPHY / 1 17 



gust W. Kiichler's Potential Natural Vegetation of 
the Conterminous United States (New York, Ameri- 
can Geographical Society, 1964. col. map 95 x 149 
cm. Special publication no. 36) with its Manual To 
Accompany the Map (36, 116 p.), which discusses 
plant-life regions of the United States in a visual 



format with interpretive photographs and descrip- 
tive data. The Natural Geography of Plants (New 
York, Columbia University Press, 1964. 420 p.), 
by Henry A. Gleason and Arthur Cronquist, is an 
introductory discussion of the distribution and clas- 
sification of plants in the United States. 



E. Historical Geography and Atlases 



1372. Lunny, Robert M. Early maps of North 
America. Newark, New Jersey Historical 

Society, 1961. 48 p. 6213718 GA40I.L8 

"Check list of an exhibition: Early maps of North 
America, December 12, 1961 January 20, 1962 at 
the New Jersey Historical Society": p. 4748. 

1373. Rand, McNally and Company. Pioneer 
atlas of the American West; containing fac- 
simile reproductions of maps and indexes from the 
1876 first edition of Rand, McNally & Company's 
Business atlas of the great Mississippi Valley and 
Pacific slope; together with contemporary railroad 
maps and travel literature. Historical text by Dale 
L. Morgan. Chicago [1956] 51 p. 

Map 575 61380^35 1956 
Two map publishers have celebrated company an- 
niversaries with the publication of these volumes of 
maps commemorating historical epochs of setde- 
ment. In the first, C. S. Hammond and Company, 
in cooperation with the New Jersey Historical So- 
ciety, has reproduced maps from a variety of private 
and institutional sources. Lunny's accompanying 
text, although it contains many historical biblio- 
graphical references, is primarily a brief, descrip- 
tive, cartographic history with diverse notes on each 
plate. The maps themselves are revealing examples 
of how the early French, Dutch, English, and Span- 
ish explorers interpreted the New World. Rand, 
McNally and Company, which early specialized in 
railroad mapping, has reproduced an 1876 gazetteer, 
the "first atlas which frankly embraced the West." 
A sketch of the early history of the firm, a historical 
outline of mapping in the transcontinental West, 



detailed maps of 16 Western States with individual 
essays on setdement and mapping, and decorative 
maps, posters, and timetables all of these empha- 
size the role of the railroad in the human geography, 
development, and expansion of the West. 

1374. Rand, McNally and Company. Commercial 
atlas and marketing guide. 96th ed. Chi- 
cago, 1965. 508, 65A p. Map 6-9 Gioi9.R22 

Revised annually, this large volume is probably 
the most widely known and used cartographic ref- 
erence that emphasizes economically oriented geo- 
graphical information on the United States. Its 
maps, tables, and indexes pertaining to the 50 states 
and the territories are supplemented with world 
maps and maps of foreign countries. 

1375. Stewart, George R. Names on the land; a 
historical account of place-naming in the 

United States. Rev. and enl. ed. Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1958, 511 p. illus. 

57-10780 155.88 1958 

Notes and references: p. 442482. 

An updated edition of no. 2976 in the 1960 
Guide. Two additional reference volumes further 
delineate the influences of historical antecedents and 
contemporary commerciality on the geography of 
the United States. In The American Counties, rev. 
ed. (New York, Scarecrow Press, 1962. 540 p.), 
Joseph N. Kane supplies information on each of the 
Nation's 3,072 counties. Kane is also coauthor with 
Gerard L. Alexander of Nicknames of Cities and 
States of the U.S. (New York, Scarecrow Press, 
1965. 341 p.). 



Il8 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



F. Polar Exploration 



1376. Caswell, John E. Arctic frontiers; United 
States explorations in the Far North. Nor- 
man, University of Oklahoma Press [ 1956] 232 p. 

56-11235 G630.A5C3 
Bibliography: p. 216225. 

1377. Mitterling, Philip I. America in the Ant- 
arctic to 1 840. Urbana, University of Illinois 

Press, 1959. 201 p. illus. 5910555 G87O.M67 

Essay on sources: p. 169186. 

Two historical surveys of 19th-century polar ex- 
ploration, each well documented and concise. The 
first describes northern polar expeditions between 
1850 and 1909, the period when, as Vilhjalmur 
Stefansson has written, "explorers tended to become 
pioneers of science if not martyrs of science." After 
brief introductory mention of earlier European 
polar thrusts, this volume emphasizes the historical 
continuity, including the chain of friendships, in 
expeditions from Edwin Jesse De Haven to Robert 
E. Peary and the cumulatively increasing data base 
of scientific knowledge that resulted. Photographs, 
drawings, and maps of persons and places increase 
the historical perspective of Caswell's text. The 
bulk of Mitterling's material covers early 19th- 
century discovery of the South Atlantic islands and 
the coastal rim of a new continent. A synthesis of 
many private papers, this chronological narrative 
stresses the motivations of the explorers, who varied 



widely in purpose, ranging from those who sought 
profits in the fur-seal trade to those who pursued 
information and understanding on scientific and 
governmental missions. In an extensive bibliogra- 
phy, the author evaluates the sources of his facts. 

1378. Siple, Paul. 90 South; the story of the 
American South Pole conquest. New York, 
Putnam [-1959] 384 p. 

5911029 6850 1957.85 

Paul Siple made his first trip to Antarctica as the 
Boy Scout chosen to accompany the Richard E. 
Byrd Expedition of 192830. This reminiscence, 
an intimate and descriptive review of American 
Antarctic exploration in the 20th century, first sur- 
veys the author's five expeditions with Byrd and 
then comprehensively details the 18 months Siple 
spent at the South Pole as the scientific leader of 17 
men undertaking investigations for the U.S. con- 
tribution to the International Geophysical Year. 
An informal narrative, 90 South reveals the prob- 
lems of physical existence in the "deepfreeze" as 
well as the emotional and intellectual reactions it 
provokes. Photographs intensify the description of 
a stark and frigid life. A general historical account 
of the search for the South Pole, by a New Yor^ 
Times correspondent who took part in three expedi- 
tions, is Walter Sullivan's Quest for a Continent 
(New York, McGraw-Hill [ C i957] 372 p.). 



VII 



The American Indian 



A. General Worths 

B. Archeology and Prehistory 

C. Tribes and Tribal Groups 

D. Religion, Art, and Folklore 

E. The White Advance 

F. The Twentieth Century 



13861391 
1392-1395 
1396-1398 
13991406 
14071410 



T TNTIL the 20th century, the general attitude toward the American Indian was characterized 
LJ by the self-contradictory term "noble savage." On the one hand, the Indian was roman- 
ticized through such writings as Longfellow's "Song of Hiawatha." On the other hand, 
public policy, framed on the basis of conquest and premised on the belief that the Indian was 
either a barbarian or a child, became a source of national embarrassment. Neither attitude 
encouraged the objective study of the Indian's ancient cultural heritage. 

Despite increasing governmental efforts, the 
American Indian has continued to fare very poorly. 
He has been deprived of the opportunity to live in 
the manner of his inherited culture and at the same 
time has been denied privileges in the white com- 
munity. Historians, social scientists, and profes- 



sional writers interested in the Indian have, how- 
ever, been more enlightened than the general public. 
Underlying most of the following selections, which 
range from scientific analyses to artistic descriptions 
of various Indian groups, is the assumption that 



American Indians from Alaska to the southern tip 
of South America possess cultural and tribal identi- 
ties which are, in many cases, very rich. 

Among the selections are archeological and an- 
thropological studies; histories, both of tribes and of 
Indian affairs as a continuing aspect of American 
history; critiques of governmental policy toward the 
Indians; and studies of various aspects of Indian 
culture and life. 



A. General Works 



1379. The Civilization of the American Indian 
series. Norman, University of Oklahoma 
Press, 193265. 79 v. 

This long, continuing series "has as its purpose 
the reconstruction of American Indian civilization 
by presenting aboriginal, historical, and contempo- 
rary Indian life." The volumes, some of which are 
unnumbered, range from informal autobiographical 
accounts to scholarly monographs. Several of them 
are entered by subject in the 1960 Guide. Others 
appear elsewhere in this Supplement. Representa- 



tive new volumes reflecting the scope of the series 
are listed below as no. 1380 through 1382. 

1380. Hassrick, Royal B. The Sioux; life and cus- 
toms of a warrior society. In collaboration 

with Dorothy Maxwell and Cile M. Bach. [1964] 
337 p. illus. (no. 72) 6411331 99.0^3 

Bibliography: p. 314319. 

1381. Newcomb, Franc ]. Hosteen Klah, Navaho 
medicine man and sand painter. [1964] 



119 



120 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



xxxiii, 227 p. illus. (no. 73) 
Bibliography: p. 221. 



1382. 



64-20759 E99.N3N37 



Young, Mary E. Redskins, ruffleshirts, and 
rednecks; Indian allotments in Alabama and 

Mississippi, 1830-1860. [1961] 217 p. illus. (no. 

61) 61-15150 98.1,3 Y6 

1383. Driver, Harold E. Indians of North Amer- 
ica. [Chicago] University of Chicago Press 

[1961] 667 p. illus. 61-5604 58.068 

Bibliography: p. 613633. 

In the history of North American Indian groups, 
the high points of cultural development vary con- 
siderably, ranging from the i6th century for the 
Indians in Mexico to the i9th century for those of 
Canada and parts of the United States. Driver dis- 
cusses the primary aspects of these cultural peaks for 
tribes from Central America to Alaska. Topical 
chapters on such subjects as subsistence patterns, 
education, religion, and language are subdivided 
into geographic areas of culture; this arrangement 
facilitates a comparative survey. Thirty-seven maps 
showing the geographic relationships of various cul- 
tural patterns are included. The Native Americans: 
Prehistory and Ethnology of the North American 
Indians (New York, Harper & Row [1965] 539 
p.), by Robert F. Spencer and seven other anthro- 
pologists, covers essentially the same subject but 
offers less comparative analysis of the cultural 
groups. In 1964, Driver edited a short anthology, 
The Americas on the Eve of Discovery (Englewood 
Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1964] 179 p. The 
Global history series, 893), portraying Indian life 
at the time the New World was penetrated by 
Europeans. 

1384. La Farge, Oliver. A pictorial history of the 
American Indian. New York, Crown Pub- 



lishers [1956] 272 p. 56-11375 77.1245 

A comprehensive collection of pictures of the 
North American Indian, with accompanying ex- 
planatory text. It reproduces drawings by John 
White, paintings by George Catlin and Frederic 
Remington, stylized illustrations by contemporary 
Indian artists, 19th-century pictures of reluctant In- 
dian subjects, and colorful publicity photographs of 
contemporary reservation Indians. Other illustra- 
tions show a wide range of artifacts and primitive 
art. The author, a trained anthropologist who lived 
and worked with the Indians, divides his subject by 
geographical area and concludes with a general 
account of the problems facing the Indians today. 



1385. Mead, Margaret, and Ruth L. Bunzel, eds. 
The golden age of American anthropology. 
New York, G. Braziller, 1960. 630 p. illus. 

60-11668 77^48 

"Suggestions for further reading": p. 629630. 

The editors of this anthology have selected the 
years 1880 to 1920 as the "golden age" for anthro- 
pological studies of the United States. A period in 
which the first attempts at systematic and scientific 
study were made, it was also a time when anthro- 
pologists could base their investigations on firsthand 
accounts from Indians who had experienced pat- 
terns of living that have now disappeared. The 
selections actually cover a much greater timespan 
than this 4o-year interval. They begin with reports 
of the early Spanish explorers, continue through ac- 
counts of American missionaries, traders, and art- 
ists, and conclude with anthropological studies of 
the early part of the 2oth century. In general, the 
articles are written in nontechnical language, and 
short introductory paragraphs place the authors of 
the selections in historical context. Particular atten- 
tion is paid to Franz Boas, who dominated Ameri- 
can anthropology for more than 40 years. 



B. Archeology and Prehistory 



1386. Gladwin, Harold S. A history of the ancient 
Southwest. Portland, Me., Bond Wheel- 
wright Co., 1957. 383 p. 57-6941 78.87642 

Bibliography: p. 363372. 

The story of the inhabitants of Colorado, Utah, 
New Mexico, Arizona, and parts of Mexico, em- 
phasizing the period from 200 to 1450. Based pri- 
marily on 30 years of research performed by an 
eminent amateur archeologist and his associates, the 



study is chronologically arranged and is accompan- 
ied by numerous drawings, photographs, and maps. 
A number of Gladwin's theories are at variance 
with the orthodox ideas of professional scholars, but 
he is careful to point out these controversial areas. 

1387. Hibben, Frank C. Digging up America. 

New York, Hill & Wang [1960] 239 p. 

illus. 60-10518 58^49 



THE AMERICAN INDIAN / 121 



"A suggested list of further readings in American 
archaeology": p. 227228. 

Systematic study of prehistoric man in America 
did not really begin until the last of the frontiers 
vanished. Since that time, extensive investigations 
have been inaugurated under the auspices of Gov- 
ernment agencies and educational institutions. 
Delicate techniques of excavation and increasingly 
accurate methods of determining age have been 
developed. In a popular style, Hibben describes 
the theories formulated and then discarded, the 
monumental discoveries, and the uncharted areas 
yet to be explored. He discusses the problems of 
when and from where the first men came, the 
origins of agriculture, the mystery of the mounds, 
the pueblos of the Southwest, the recent discoveries 
of ancient Eskimo cultures, and the highly devel- 
oped Incan, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations. 

1388. Quimby, George I. Indian life in the Upper 
Great Lakes, 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1800. 

[Chicago] University of Chicago Press [1960] 
182 p. 60-11799 78.67(35 

Bibliography: p. 166176. 

When the glaciers disappeared from the region 
around Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron and 
the land became habitable, Indians settled there. 
The first half of Quimby's book describes the pre- 
historic period of those settlements and examines 
the evidence relating to them. In the second half, 
he devotes his attention to the i7th- and i8th- 
century cultures of the Miami, Sauk, Fox, Winne- 
bago, Menominee, Chippewa, Huron, Ottawa, and 
Potawatomi tribes. The book is directed toward 
the general reader or beginning student and includes 
a large number of maps and illustrations and a 
glossary. 

1389. Vaillant, George C. Aztecs of Mexico: 
origin, rise, and fall of the Aztec Nation. 

Rev. by Suzannah B. Vaillant. Garden City, N.Y., 
Doubleday, 1962. 312 p. illus. 

6210466 Fi2i9.Vi3 1962 

Bibliography: p. [257] 297. 

An updated edition of no. 2997 in the 1960 Guide. 



1390. Wauchope, Robert. Lost tribes & sunken 
continents; myth and method in the study of 

American Indians. [Chicago] University of Chica- 
go Press [1962] 155 p. illus. 

6218112 E6i.W33 

Bibliography: p. [139] 145. 

The origins of the American Indians have not 
only been fiercely disputed by scholars but have also 
been the basis for unchecked theorizing by amateur 
anthropologists and archeologists. Some of the am- 
ateurs' theories hold that the earliest inhabitants of 
the New World migrated from ancient Egypt or 
from the lost continents of Atlantis or Mu. Others 
identify the Indians as the Lost Tribes of Israel, or as 
descendants of sailors from the fleets of Alexander 
the Great. Wauchope summarizes the basic argu- 
ments supporting these notions, refutes them, and 
describes their sometimes eccentric proponents in 
informal fashion. In No Stone Unturned, an Alma- 
nac of North American Prehistory (New York, 
Random House [1959] 370 p.), Louis A. Brennan 
accepts the orthodox premise that the first inhabi- 
tants arrived by way of Siberia and the Bering 
Strait but argues for an earlier arrival than is gen- 
erally advanced by professional scholars. 

1391. Wedel, Waldo R. Prehistoric man on the 
Great Plains. Norman, University of Okla- 
homa Press [1961] xviii, 355 p. illus. 

619002 E78.W5W4 

Bibliography: p. 312340. 

Until as recently as 35 years ago, little was known 
about the prehistoric occupants of the Great Plains; 
there was, indeed, some doubt as to their existence. 
In the last three decades, however, a wealth of evi- 
dence relating to ancient cultures in that region has 
been uncovered. The work-relief agencies of the 
1930*5 conducted systematic investigations, and 
Federal dam-building projects have prompted in- 
tensive studies in areas slated to be inundated. A 
summary of the information revealed by these ac- 
tivities, Wedel's volume is designed to serve both 
scholar and general reader. An introductory chap- 
ter describes the tools used by the archeologist; later 
chapters deal with the prehistory of the various 
subareas within the Great Plains. 



C. Tribes and Tribal Groups 



1392. Ewers, John C. The Blackfeet; raiders on 
the Northwestern Plains. Norman, Univer- 
sity of Oklahoma Press [1958] xviii, 348 p. illus. 



(The Civilization of the American Indian series, 
49) 58-7778 E 9 9.S 54 E78 

Bibliography: p. 329336. 



122 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Blackfeet is a group name for the Piegan, Kainah, 
and Siksika tribes who occupied the northern por- 
tions of the Midwest. This historical and ethnolog- 
ical account depicts the progress of these tribes from 
stone-age men who traveled on foot to mobile buf- 
falo hunters on horseback. It also narrates their 
subsequent decline as the white settlers moved into 
their lands and the buffalo vanished. Ewers has com- 
bined recollections of elderly Indians on reservations 
with Government reports, newspaper accounts, and 
scholarly articles to provide a balanced, nontechnical 
survey. 

1393. Hughes, Charles C. An Eskimo village in 
the modern world. With the collaboration 

of Jane M. Hughes. Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell Univer- 
sity Press [1960] xiv, 419 p. illus. (Cornell 
studies in anthropology) 602605 E99.EyH95 

Bibliography: p. 399410. 

In 1940 Alexander H. Leighton and Dorothea C. 
Leighton made an anthropological survey of Eski- 
mo life in Gambell, a small and isolated village on 
St. Lawrence Island off the coast of Alaska. In 
1955 Hughes studied the sociological changes which 
had occurred during the intervening 15 years, a 
period in which the U.S. Government established 
air and military bases in the vicinity and the people 
of the island came into close contact with the 
Alaskan mainland. This volume contains the re- 
sults of that study. The author begins with a short 
history of the village and then discusses population 
growth, economic factors, and cultural change and 
breakdown. A glossary of Eskimo terms is ap- 
pended. A similar study of Barrow, Alaska, can be 
found in The North Alaskan Eskimo; a Study in 
Ecology and Society (Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. 
Off., 1959. 490 p. [U.S.] Bureau of American 
Ethnology. Bulletin 171), by Robert F. Spencer. 

1394. Josephy, Alvin M. The patriot chiefs; a 
chronicle of American Indian leadership. 

New York, Viking Press, 1961. 364 p. illus. 

61-17039 89.178 

Bibliography: p. 349356. 

The story of nine chiefs Hiawatha, King Philip, 
Pope, Pontiac, Tecumseh, Osceola, Black Hawk, 



Crazy Horse, and Chief Joseph who tried to help 
their people retain their liberty and cultural integ- 
rity. Of special interest is Josephy's chapter on Hia- 
watha, an Iroquois chief who inspired his people 
to form a confederation based on democratic prin- 
ciples a hundred years before the first white explor- 
ers appeared. The author, an editor of American 
Heritage, has taken his information from secondary 
sources, most of which are listed in an extensive 
bibliography. Maps at the beginning of each chap- 
ter indicate location of the principal tribes and the 
more significant battles. Full-length biographies of 
many of these chiefs have already been published. 
One of the more recent is Merrill D. Beal's "I Will 
Fight No More Forever"; Chief Joseph and the 
Nez Perce War (Seattle, University of Washington 
Press, 1963. 366 p.). 

1395. Newcomb, William W. The Indians of 
Texas, from prehistoric to modern times. 
With drawings by Hal M. Story. Austin, Univer- 
sity of Texas Press [ 1961] 404 p. 

6014312 E78.T4N4 
Bibliography: p. 365377. 

This anthropological study of the 10 Indian 
tribes known to have occupied the area now called 
Texas was written to help substantiate the thesis 
that all races have basically the same capabilities. 
Tribal differences, Newcomb asserts, were caused 
by varying cultural environments which evolved 
slowly and perpetuated themselves. He describes 
the early savages: Coahuiltecans and Karankawas; 
the horseback-riding warriors: Lipan Apaches, Ton- 
ka was, Comanches, and Kiowas; and the primitive 
farmers: Jumanos, Wichitas, Caddo Confederacies, 
and Atakapans. One chapter is devoted to each 
tribe, with descriptions of appearance, material cul- 
ture, social organization, and religious beliefs. The 
last chapter is a historical account of the defeat and 
extermination of the tribes as the whites moved into 
the area. Newcomb's study is a synthesis of mate- 
rial taken from such primary sources as the journals 
of explorers, soldiers, missionaries, and captives and 
from secondary materials which included scholarly 
ethnological articles and monographs. 



D. Religion, Art, and Folklore 



1396. Dockstader, Frederick J. Indian art in Graphic Society [1961] 

America; the arts and crafts of the North 
American Indian. Greenwich, Conn., New York 



224 p. 

608921 
Bibliography: p. 222224. 



H98.A7D57 



THE AMERICAN INDIAN / 123 



Indian artifacts and decorations presented in 250 
photographs, some of which are in color. The 
author, director of the Museum of the American 
Indian, Heye Foundation, has limited the survey to 
North America, but he tries to show examples from 
every important region and of all major artistic 
techniques. The plates are divided into two sec- 
tions, prehistoric and historic, which are subdi- 
vided roughly by geographic area. Each illustra- 
tion is accompanied by a brief description indicat- 
ing where and approximately when the article was 
made and its size, significance, and present location 
(usually the Museum of the American Indian). 
Especially striking are the colorful carved masks 
and statues made by the tribes of the northern Pa- 
cific coast and the stylized watercolors painted by 
contemporary artists. These watercolors are repro- 
duced and discussed more extensively in Clara L. 
Tanner's Southwest Indian Painting (Tucson, Uni- 
versity of Arizona Press [1957] 157 p.). 

1397. Miles, Charles. Indian and Eskimo artifacts 

of North America. Chicago, H. Regnery 

Co., 1963. 224 p. 6219386 77^62 

Bibliography: p. 238239. 

Drawing heavily on his personal collection, Miles 
has compiled an illustrated catalog of North Ameri- 
can Indian artifacts. He includes items of native 
design, such as tools, clothing, personal decorations, 
musical instruments, toys, and pipes, but omits arti- 
facts inspired by the white man's culture modern 
Southwestern pottery, for example. The objects 
are arranged by function into chapters, each of 
which is preceded by an informative introduction. 
No attempt is made to identify each item by date 



and origin because the evidence needed for reliable 
identification is usually unavailable. 

1398. Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Indian legends 
from Algic researches (The myth of Hia- 
watha, Oneota, the red race in America) and his- 
torical and statistical information respecting the In- 
dian tribes of the United States; edited by Mentor 
L. Williams. [East Lansing] Michigan State Uni- 
versity Press, 1956. xxii, 322 p. 

55-11688 E 9 8.F6S32 

Bibliography: p. 320322. 

Schoolcraft (17931864) was an explorer, geolo- 
gist, Indian agent, and pioneer ethnologist (see 
biographical sketch, entry no. 2892 in the 1960 
Guide). In 1823 he married a halfblood Chippewa. 
From his numerous Indian acquaintances and rela- 
tives by marriage he collected legends and folklore 
of the Algonquian tribes in the Northeast. Long- 
fellow drew upon Schoolcraft's writings for his 
tales of Hiawatha, as did several authors of chil- 
dren's books. Today it is recognized that School- 
craft's informants were sometimes confused in their 
renditions of the tales and also that his transcriptions 
were not always completely faithful. His collection, 
however, remains one of the most authentic avail- 
able. Williams has selected for this volume the 
principal legends from Schoolcraft's major works. 
He provides a short critical history of Schoolcraft's 
life and writings and supplies new footnotes to the 
tales. A collection of California Indian legends 
rewritten with skill can be found in The Inland 
Whale (Bloomington, Indiana University Press 
[1959] 205 p.), by Theodora Kroeber. 



E. The White Advance 



1399. Andrist, Ralph K. The long death; the last 

days of the Plains Indian. Maps by Rafael 

D. Palacios. New York, Macmillan [1964] 371 p. 

64-12545 78^5X593 

Bibliography: p. 355-357. 

An account of the Indian wars on the Great Plains 
from the establishment of the boundary of a "per- 
manent" Indian country in 1840 to the massacre at 
Wounded Knee Creek in 1890. This is a bloody 
tale of broken promises and betrayals by the whites 
and savage atrocities by the Indians who fought to 
save their lands and way of life. Andrist is sympa- 
thetic toward the Indians, and he marshals his facts 
in support of his ideas. He describes the Sioux, wars 



in Minnesota in 1862, Chivington's massacre of the 
Cheyennes at Sand Creek in 1864, the annihilation 
of Captain Fetterman and his men at Fort Philip 
Kearny in 1866, the Modoc War, Custer and the 
Battle of Little Bighorn, and the last stand of the 
Nez Perces under the leadership of Chief Joseph. 
Numerous maps enhance the value of this study. 
Another well-mapped history is The Military Con- 
quest of the Southern Plains (Norman, University 
of Oklahoma Press [1963] 269 p.), by William H. 
Leckie, which is amply footnoted and includes an 
extensive bibliography. The Modocs and Their 
War (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press 
[1959] 346 p. The Civilization of the American 



124 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Indian series, 52), by Keith A. Murray, is a detailed 
account of the Indian war in which Gen. Edward 
R. S. Canby was killed by Indians while he was 
negotiating with them. 

1400. Flexner, James T. Mohawk baronet: Sir 
William Johnson of New York. New York, 

Harper [1959] 400 p. illus. 

59-10581 Ei95-J659 

Bibliography: p. 362368. 

Johnson (17151774) was an Irish emigrant who 
came to the New World in the late 1730'$ to man- 
age his uncle's estate on the Mohawk River. He 
quickly gained the friendship of the Indians in 
New York and for most of his life played a dual 
role as both adopted Mohawk and Iroquois chief 
and British superintendent of Indian affairs. He 
was responsible in large part for keeping the Iro- 
quois on the English side in the French and Indian 
wars and received an English baronetcy in recogni- 
tion of his services. He opened the Mohawk Valley 
for colonization and at his death was one of the 
largest landowners in the Colonies. Johnson tried 
to create a situation in which the Iroquois tribes 
could have stabilized holdings, but he failed to fore- 
see the wave of white settlers who, soon after his 
death, would clamor for more and more land. 
Based on extensive research, this biography provides 
a vivid picture of one of the most influential figures 
in the long history of relations between the Indian 
and the white man. 

1401. Hagan, William T. American Indians. 
[Chicago] University of Chicago Press 
[1961] 190 p. illus. (The Chicago his- 
tory of American civilization) 

61-1555 93^2 

"Suggested reading": p. 175183. 

The author provides a brief but lucid introduc- 
tion to the complex history of the American Indian. 
He graphically portrays the Indian tribes fighting to 
save a way of life, the whites continually pressing 
for more land, and the Government repeatedly fail- 
ing to establish permanent protective boundaries. 
The last chapter is devoted to recent public policy. 
The Indian and the White Man (Garden City, 
N.Y., Anchor Books, 1964. 480 p. Documents in 
American civilization series), edited by Wilcomb E. 
Washburn, is a collection of annotated primary 
sources useful for supplementary reading. 

1402. Leach, Douglas E. Flintlock and toma- 
hawk; New England in King Philip's War. 

New York, Macmillan, 1958. 304 p. illus. 

585467 83.67.1.4 
Bibliography: p. 271290. 



1403. Vaughan, Alden T. New England frontier; 
Puritans and Indians, 16201675. Boston, 

Little, Brown [1965] 430 p. illus. 

6520736 F7-V3 

Bibliography: p. [401] 420. 

In June 1675, after years of comparative peace, a 
number of the Algonquian tribes submerged their 
historic feuds and combined in an uneasy con- 
federation led by King Philip, a Wampanoag chief, 
in an effort to drive out the English settlers. Many 
of the frontier towns were destroyed and more than 
a thousand settlers killed, but by August 1676 King 
Philip was dead and the uprising crushed. Leach's 
study, based on extensive research in primary 
sources, supplies a well-rounded picture of the 
desperate struggle. Vaughan focuses on the rela- 
tionships between Puritan and Indian in the years 
from the settlement at Plymouth up to this destruc- 
tive war. He concludes that, contrary to the widely 
held view of white oppression, the Puritans were 
more enlightened than most of their contemporaries 
and "followed a remarkably humane, considerate, 
and just policy in their dealings with the Indians." 

1404. Pearce, Roy Harvey. The savages of Amer- 
ica; a study of the Indian and the idea of 

civilization. Rev. ed. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins 
Press, 1965. xv, 260 p. illus. 

652719 93 .P4 1965 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

An updated edition of no. 3031 in the 1960 Guide. 

1405. Prucha, Francis P. American Indian policy 
in the formative years: the Indian trade and 

intercourse acts, 17901834. Cambridge, Harvard 
University Press, 1962. 303 p. 

629428 93^965 

"Bibliographical note": p. [279] 292. 

The early Indian policy of the U.S. Government 
consisted of a body of law designed to promote a 
gradual and peaceful westward advance of the 
white settlers and at the same time to reserve to 
the Indians specified liberties and land areas. 
Prucha has studied the emergence, implementation, 
and modification of that policy. He reveals the 
way in which it developed in response to the pres- 
sures of Indians and whites and the manner in 
which it was either executed successfully by the 
Government or frustrated by the land-hungry fron- 
tiersmen. Other studies of the attempts to regulate 
the Indian affairs at various times include Allen W. 
Trelease's Indian Affairs in Colonial New Yor\: 
The Seventeenth Century (Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell 
University Press [1960] 379 p.) and The Move- 
ment for Indian Assimilation, 18601890 (Philadel- 



phia, University of Pennsylvania Press [1963] 244 
p.), by Henry E. Fritz. 

1406. Spicer, Edward H. Cycles of conquest; the 
impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United 
States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533-1960. 
Drawings by Hazel Fontana. Tucson, University 
of Arizona Press [ 1962] 609 p. 

61-14500 78.8786 

"Bibliographic notes to chapters": p. 587599. 

As the Governments of Spain, Mexico, and the 
United States successively obtained political control 
of the Southwest, they attempted, with varying de- 
grees of success, to impose their cultural patterns 
on the Indians. Basing his conclusions on the 



THE AMERICAN INDIAN / 125 

works of historians and anthropologists who have 
studied individual tribes in detail, Spicer analyzes 
the effects of interethnic contact and shows how the 
impact of European civilization on Indian culture 
resulted in changes unexpected by both Indians and 
whites. He traces the instances of contact and con- 
quest as they occurred, examines the policies of the 
conquering groups, and describes the political, lin- 
guistic, social, and economic developments that fol- 
lowed. The Indian Traders (Norman, University 
of Oklahoma Press [ 1962] 393 p.), by Frank Mc- 
Nitt, describes the American traders in the South- 
west, who provided much of the firsthand contact 
between the Indians and the whites. 



F. The Twentieth Century 



1407. Fey, Harold E., and D'Arcy McNickle. In- 
dians and other Americans; two ways of life 

meet. New York, Harper [1959] 220 p. illus. 

58-10368 E93.F37 

The National Government did not, according to 
authors Fey and McNickle, adopt a policy designed 
to meet the needs of the Indians in a constructive 
and realistic fashion until the Meriam survey of 
192628 (the report of the survey is no. 3038 in the 
1960 Guide} and the Indian Reorganization Act of 
1934. The new approach called for promoting 
tribal organization, assisting in economic develop- 
ment, improving educational facilities, and reviving 
Indian cultures. This program did not endure 
long, however. Its opponents strongly favored de- 
creasing public responsibility for the Indians' wel- 
fare. In the 1950'$ the Government began to reduce 
its support and to plan for the eventual division of 
all Indian lands into individual allotments. The 
authors condemn this trend as premature and urge 
continued aids and controls until the Indians, eco- 
nomically and socially, reach a stage of development 
at which they can contend equally in the white 
communities that will assimilate them. 

1408. Kroeber, Theodora. Ishi in two worlds; a 
biography of the last wild Indian in North 

America. Berkeley, University of California Press, 
1961. 255 p. illus. 61-7530 90.18X7 

Bibliography: p. [245] 255. 

Ishi, the last surviving member of the Yahi tribe, 
was found trapped by barking dogs in a corral on a 
farm near Oroville, Calif., in August 1911. Unable 
to speak or understand English and with no direct 
knowledge of the whites, Ishi was a man of the 



Stone Age. Two young anthropologists, T. T. Wa- 
terman and Alfred L. Kroeber, brought him to the 
Museum of Anthropology in San Francisco. Ishi 
adjusted with unexpected ease to 20th-century life. 
The museum paid him a small salary and permit- 
ted him to live in its own quarters. He described 
his primitive early existence to anthropologists and 
ethnologists and patiendy entertained thousands of 
museum visitors by building fires and chipping ar- 
rowheads. By the time of his death in 1916, he had 
made many close friends among the staff members 
of the museum and the people of the city, in which 
he had learned to travel alone. Mrs. Kroeber tells 
with warmth and insight the poignant story of Ishi 
and the demise of the Yahi tribe. 

1409. Lange, Charles H. Cochiti: a New Mexico 
pueblo, past and present. Austin, Univer- 
sity of Texas Press [1960, C i959] xxiv, 618 p. 
illus. 5810852 E99.C84L3 

Bibliography: p. [5751-585. 

A study in depth of contemporary life and cus- 
toms in a single New Mexican pueblo. The author 
spent several summers in Cochiti and has here com- 
bined his observations with information gleaned 
from the reports of anthropologists who studied the 
pueblo between 1880 and 1950. Lange describes 
the village's current economic situation, ceremonial 
life, and social structure and relates them to the 
past, showing the impact of European civilization. 
He also compares the cultural characteristics of 
Cochiti with those of neighboring pueblos in the 
Rio Grande Valley. Extensive appendixes include 
statistics, rosters of members of religious societies, 
pictures of costumes used in religious ceremonies, 



126 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



and choreography and music for ritualistic dances. 
An analysis of European influence on six western 
Indian groups may be found in Perspectives in 
American Indian Culture Change ( [Chicago] 
University of Chicago Press [1961] 549 p.), edited 
by Edward H. Spicer for the Interuniversity Sum- 
mer Research Seminar held at the University of 
New Mexico in 1956. 

1410. Wilson, Edmund. Apologies to the Iroquois. 
With a study of The Mohawks in high steel 
by Joseph Mitchell. New York, Farrar, Straus & 
Cudahy [1960] 310 p. illus. 

59-9177 E99.I7W56 

Well known for his versatility as an author, Wil- 
son became interested in the Iroquois in 1957, when 
their attempts to reclaim their historic tribal lands 



received newspaper publicity. In ensuing years he 
visited reservations in New York and Canada and 
talked with many Indian leaders. This small vol- 
ume contains a collection of articles which he wrote 
as a result of his investigations and which originally 
appeared in The New Yorker. Wilson summarizes 
the history of the Iroquois Confederation, discusses 
the life of the tribes today, describes some of their 
ceremonies, and analyzes the growth of the Iroquois 
nationalist movement. His detailed accounts of re- 
cent Indian struggles to prevent the preemption of 
their lands for public works projects are of special 
interest. Mitchell's brief contribution is an essay 
on the unexpected fondness and talent Indians in 
the New York area have shown for working on the 
high steel frameworks of bridges and buildings. 



VIII 



General History 



A. Historiography 

B. General Worths 

C. The New World 

D. The Thirteen Colonies 

E. The American Revolution 

F. Federal America (17831815) 

G. The "Middle Period" (1815-60) 

H. Slavery, the Civil War, and Reconstruction (to 1877) 

I. Grant to McKinley (1869-1901) 

J. Theodore Roosevelt to Wilson (190121) 

K. Since 1920 



14111425 
1426-1445 
14461450 
1451-1469 
1470-1483 
14841496 
1497-1511 
15121536 

I537-J54 6 
I547-I557 
1558-1570 



THE INTERPRETIVE essay which introduces this chapter in the 1960 Guide places in perspec- 
tive the concept of "general history" as it evolved and as it has been applied in this 
country since its origin. The chapter's entries survey the whole range of historical develop- 
ment in that "portion of the earth's surface which is now the United States" and, in the 
process, take account of the changing attitudes of mind by which successive generations of 
historians conceived their task of recording that development. 



The concept that the historian's approach to his 
subject and his selection and use of materials under- 
go a continuing process of review and revision is 
one which the Supplement also follows with an eye 
to recognizing the shifting currents of historical 
scholarship. This chapter is partly a review of the 
history of history. Section A contains works de- 
voted to historiography, and the remaining selec- 
tions show the increased velocity with which the 
change in viewpoint is taking place, corresponding 
to the rapidly rising volume of historical writing. 
The selections also contain the implications, with 
which few historians today would quarrel, that 
historical perspective in any given period is aligned 
to and conditioned by the social, political, economic, 
and cultural milieu in which it operates and that the 
presuppositions which guide historians in any age 
tend to develop in a process of reaction to the mode 
and temper of their predecessors. 

In the developmental process, for example, that 
began with the birth of "scientific history" before 
the turn of the century, there eventually emerged, 



from the eclecticism of its university environment, a 
corrective "New" history, intended to widen the 
scope of the discipline's purview, to relate it to the 
present, and to link it with the social sciences. The 
new historians, writing through the 1920'$ and 
1930'$, viewed their subject with an abiding sense 
of change and progress and a growing awareness of 
the social and economic conflicts that characterized 
and motivated their own times. In some, this ex- 
perience hardened into an economic determinism. 
Others reacted with a heightened interest in the 
role of contending ideas, ideals, and values as 
dynamic factors in the growth and progress of the 
Nation. With the rise of intellectual history and 
biography, the historian's task moved far beyond 
its traditional preoccupation with military and polit- 
ical events, brought into play a still wider spectrum 
of the social sciences, and extended the burgeoning 
accumulation of historical source material. 

Since the early 1950'$, it has been evident that 
another modification is under way. In some quar- 

127 



128 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



ters the seeming internal contradictions in postwar 
affairs have diminished the status of the liberal faith 
in the idea of progress. The pendulatory swing has 
favored a search for stability, continuity, and tradi- 
tion in American life, a search that is reflected in 
the way historians contemplate the past. In this 
view, sectional divisiveness and class and ethnic 
cleavages are seen to have been more apparent than 
real, and scholars search for national unity and for 
the nature and efficacy of something called the na- 
tional character. 

Just as the complexity of historical thought and 
introspection has increased, so the phenomenal 
growth of historical source materials imposes an 
awesome burden on the modern writer, as the books 
in this chapter reveal. His conscious or uncon- 
scious involvement with the social sciences, new 
techniques of quantitative analysis, and the output 
of data processing requires a painful duty in merely 
"keeping up." The "new self-consciousness" re- 
ferred to in the 1960 Guide now concerns itself with 
the historian's ability to use this pyramiding body of 
research and fact and with the quality and purpose 
of the history he is producing. Journal articles and 
convention papers testify to the profession's desire 
to sustain standards of literary artistry and read- 
ability. The fragmentation and specialization of 
historical inquiry have created conditions that are 
not conducive to the production of what was for- 
merly defined as "general history." The grand de- 
sign is today seldom attempted by an individual; 
rather, it is normally the aim of ventures in coopera- 
tive authorship and of works in series under pivotal 
editorship. 



Yet the fact remains that the zo-year period under 
review has perhaps produced an unprecedented ar- 
ray of skillfully researched, engagingly written, and 
handsomely presented historical works. They pro- 
vide for the bibliographer a new challenge in selec- 
tion and organization. The divisions of labor in 
American historical writing are becoming less dis- 
tinct and more difficult to define. The point where 
intellectual history merges into historiography or 
with the philosophy of history is that point at which 
we attempt to place selections accurately either in 
this chapter or in Chapter XI, Intellectual History, 
or Chapter XXII, Philosophy and Psychology. Bio- 
graphy poses a special dilemma. The vasdy in- 
creased popularity of this genre has resulted in many 
scholarly and well-written even prize-winning 
biographies of relatively minor figures often within 
the context of regional or local history. The stature 
of the subject, rather than the excellence of his 
biographer, must often guide us here, and a great 
many worthy studies must be omitted. Many bio- 
graphical works are placed in chapters on other 
topics or in Chapter IV, Biography and Autobiogra- 
phy. In the section on historiography we have at- 
tempted to choose the broader surveys and represen- 
tative biographies of historians that will make the 
problems and purposes of the craft intelligible to 
those outside. The reader may find that some of 
the books he expects to encounter in this chapter are 
in Chapter XII, Local History. History is being 
writ small, but in microcosm; nearly all, be it noted, 
is posed within the larger framework of national 
relevance. 



A. Historiography 



1411. America, history and life. v. i+ July 1964+ 
[Santa Barbara, Calif.] Published by Clio 

Press for American Bibliographical Center. 

6425630 Z 1 236^48 

Four numbers a year, one of which is the annual 
index. 

Editor: Eric H. Boehm. 

A bibliographic review and abstracting service, 
which surveys about 500 U.S. and Canadian period- 
icals for articles within the entire range of American 
and Canadian history and on current American and 
Canadian life. Abstracts are grouped by topic. 

1412. Beers, Henry P. The French & British in 
the Old Northwest; a bibliographical guide 



to archive and manuscript sources. Detroit, Wayne 
State University Press, 1964. 297 p. 

6413305 F478.2.B4 

The area covered by this guide includes Michi- 
gan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
and the Dakotas, with some reference to the west- 
ern portions of Pennsylvania and New York. It 
presents "an historical account of the acquisition, 
preservation, and publication by American and 
Canadian institutions of the original records created 
by French and British officials in the Old Northwest 
(the region south of the Great Lakes) chiefly during 
the eighteenth century, and of officials and govern- 
ing bodies of Canada relating to that region." His- 
torical notes and introductions also provide descrip- 



GENERAL HISTORY / 



tions of the government of the region, the land- 
grant system, and ecclesiastical organizations. The 
nature, extent, and location of all important archival 
and manuscript materials are recorded, and the 
existence of copies or transcripts is noted. The 
concluding chapter is a 6 1 -page list of bibliograph- 
ical sources. 

1413. Borning, Bernard C. The political and 
social thought of Charles A. Beard. Seattle, 

University of Washington Press, 1962. xxv, 315 p. 

6212129 175.5.8382 

Bibliography: p. 257295. 

The author, a political scientist at the University 
of Idaho, systematically explores the development 
of Beard's ideas from 1898 to 1948. His purpose is 
to describe Beard's impact on the political opinion 
of his time and, by a careful study of his writings 
and the response of his contemporaries, to relate 
the significance of his ideas to the prevailing intel- 
lectual environment. The analytical techniques of 
the social sciences are applied to both Beard and 
Frederick Jackson Turner in Lee Benson's Turner 
and Beard; American Historical Writing Reconsid- 
ered (Glencoe, 111., Free Press [1960] 241 p.). 
Benson reviews their economic writings against a 
background of European influences, in particular 
that of the Italian economist, Achille Loria. He 
finds that the two historians' economic theories tend 
to converge and takes to task not their ideas but 
rather the mistaken conclusions of thir critics. In 
The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl 
Becker and Charles Beard (New Haven, Yale Uni- 
versity Press, 1958. 182 p. Yale historical publica- 
tions. The Wallace Norstein essays, no. 3), Gush- 
ing Strout poses Beard against yet another historian. 
Two temperamentally dissimilar iconoclasts are 
brought together for their common attacks on the 
scientifically oriented historical positivism of their 
times and are carefully examined, in alternating 
chapters, for the internal merits or practical inade- 
quacies of the pragmatic relativism which each 
espoused. 

1414. Cartwright, William H., and Richard L. 
Watson, eds. Interpreting and teaching 

American history. Washington, National Council 
for Social Studies, a Dept. of the National Educa- 
tion Association [1961] xvi, 430 p. (National 
Council for the Social Studies. Yearbook, 3ist, 
1961) 316192 H62.AiN3 v. 31, 1961 

Directed toward improving the teaching of 
American history at all levels, this book is designed 
to update the Council's i7th yearbook, The Study 
and Teaching of American History (1946), no. 
3059 in the 1960 Guide. The greater part of the 



book consists of a series of bibliographical essays on 
all major aspects of American history. Arranged in 
chronological order and intended to balance, in each 
period, interpretation with bibliographical refer- 
ences, the essays seek to introduce the student to a 
wide variety of interpretations by relating these to 
the works and to the scholars responsible. Three 
contributions to this section originally appeared in 
virtually the same form, in the similarly oriented 
pamphlet series published by the Service Center for 
Teachers of History of the American Historical 
Association. 

1415. Curd, Merle E. The making of an Ameri- 
can community; a case study of democracy 

in a frontier county. With the assistance of Robert 
Daniel [and others]. Stanford, Calif., Stanford 
University Press, 1959. 483 p. maps, diagrs. 

59-5051 HN79.W62T73 

"Bibliographical notes": p. 467469. 

Frederick Jackson Turner (18611932) advanced 
the theory that the frontier experience fostered the 
development of a democratic way of life in America. 
Curti examines Turner's thesis by applying it to a 
specific case, the settling of Trempealeau County 
in western Wisconsin. He is of the opinion that 
Turner perhaps underestimated the tremendous 
obstacles to the acquisition of frontier land, over- 
emphasized the frontier as a promoter of democracy, 
and neglected the role of other factors such as indus- 
trialism. Curti believes that Turner probably saw 
more democracy in the relations among frontier 
people than was really there but concludes that, if 
Trempealeau County was a typical frontier area, 
then this investigation bears out Turner's thesis. 
He notes in particular the fostering of such "demo- 
cratic traits" as self-reliance, social equality, and 
tolerance of personal differences. In honor of the 
centennial of Turner's birth, the Wisconsin State 
Historical Society published Wisconsin Witness to 
Frederict( Jackson Turner; a Collection of Essays 
on the Historian and the Thesis (Madison, 1961. 
204 p.), compiled by O. Lawrence Burnette, Jr. 
Frederic^ Jackson Turner's Legacy; Unpublished 
Writings in American History (San Marino, Calif., 
Huntington Library, 1965. 217 p. Huntington 
Library publications), edited by Wilbur R. Jacobs, 
is a selection of speeches, essays, lectures, and 
memorandums. 

1416. Doughty, Howard. Francis Parkman. New 
York, Macmillan, 1962. 414 p. 

6112191 175.51*212 
Bibliographical note: p. 402403. 
A deeply sensitive examination of Parkman's life 
and work, composed with an architecture and style 



130 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



very much like Parkman's own. It is primarily with 
Parkman as a man of letters that the author is 
concerned, and his critical appreciation of the his- 
torian's literary gifts is displayed in a minute tex- 
tual analysis of his works. Parkman's heritage, 
early life, studies, wilderness excursions, and phys- 
ical frailty are described in their manifold relations 
to the development of his narrative artistry. More 
than 400 Parkman letters are annotated and pub- 
lished in Letters of Francis Parkman (Norman, 
University of Oklahoma Press [1960] 2 v.), edited 
by Wilbur R. Jacobs. Two works more conven- 
tional in their biographical approach to eminent his- 
torians are Abraham S. Eisenstadt's Charles Mc- 
Lean Andrews, a Study in American Historical 
Writing (New York, Columbia University Press, 
1956. 273 p. Columbia studies in the social sci- 
ences, no. 588) and Jacob E. Cooke's Frederic Ban- 
croft, Historian (Norman, University of Oklahoma 
Press [1957] 282 p.), which contains three of Ban- 
croft's previously unpublished essays on the coloni- 
zation of American Negroes from 1801 to 1865. 
Milton Berman's John Fis\e; the Evolution of a 
Popularizer (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 
1961. 297 p. Harvard historical monographs, 48) 
portrays a less original but lucid and immensely 
popular historian. 

1417. Posner, Ernst. American State archives. 

Chicago, University of Chicago Press [1964] 

xiv, 397 p. 64-23425 CD3024.P6 

"Basic bibliography of writings on public archives 
administration in the United States": p. 377386. 

The published results of a study of State archival 
programs sponsored by the Society of American 
Archivists under a grant from the Council on Li- 
brary Resources, Inc. On the basis of written ques- 
tionnaires and survey visits to each State, Posner pre- 
sents a State-by-State analysis of the background 
development, organization, and legal status of the 
archival and records programs of all 50 States and 
Puerto Rico. The individual State evaluations are 
preceded by a chapter on "The Genesis and Evolu- 
tion of American State Archives" and followed by a 
chapter entitled "A Summary of Findings" and 
another on "Standards for State Archival Agencies." 
In Support of Clio; Essays in Memory of Herbert A. 
Kellar (Madison, State Historical Society of Wis- 
consin, 1958. 214 p.), edited by William B. Hessel- 
tine and Donald R. McNeil, offers a more selective 
evaluation of prevailing aids to historical study in a 
collection of essays by prominent scholars on such 
topics as the Historical Records Survey, manuscript 
collecting, public archives, mechanical aids in his- 
torical research, foundations and the study of his- 
tory, and historical organizations as aids to history. 



1418. Saveth, Edward N., ed. American histo 
and the social sciences. [New York] Fn 

Press of Glencoe [1964] 599 p. 

6420308 175.8; 
Bibliographical references included in "Note 

(P- 537-59 1 )- 

A selection of essays arranged to illustrate ar 
evaluate the implications of the current confluen 
of history and the social sciences in American schc 
arship. To systematize the essays' mutual scrutii 
of method and approach, the editor has divided tb 
large and close-packed volume into five parts. Tl 
first defines the problem the "difference betwet 
the professional climates of history and the soci 
science disciplines" in terms of what is involv< 
in the social science approach and its relationsh 
to adjacent areas of traditional historiography. Tl 
second part presents views by representatives of tl 
disciplines, and the third deals with a wide range < 
social science concepts, defined for their relevan 
to historical inquiry and illustrating their applic 
tion to the data of American history. Part 4 co 
centrates on "quantitative concepts and machii 
processes applied to historical research." The fin 
part allows selected historians the right of reply 
defining from their own experience the "limits 
the social science approach." Among the contrib 
tors to the volume are Walt W. Rostow, Margar 
Mead, Richard Hofstadter, Oscar and Mary Han 
lin, Henry Steele Commager, Merle Curti, Jot 
Higham, Gushing Strout, and Arthur M. Schlc 
inger, Jr. 

1419. Sheehan, Donald H., and Harold C. Syrei 
eds. Essays in American historiograph 

papers presented in honor of Allan Nevins. Ne 
York, Columbia University Press, 1960. 320 p. 

60-8187 175.8. 

CONTENTS. Allan Nevins: an appreciation, I 
John A. Krout. Scientific history in Americ 
eclipse of an idea, by Edward N. Saveth. Though 
on the Confederacy, by Robert C. Black, III.- 
Radical Reconstruction, by Donald Sheehan. Tl 
New South, by Jacob E. Cooke. American histo 
ians and national politics from the Civil War to tl 
First World War, by James A. Rawley. Reflectioi 
on urban history and urban reform, 18651915, 1 
Mark D. Hirsch. The idea of the robber barons i 
American history, by Hal Bridges. Some aspec 
of European migration to the United States, I 
Carlton C. Qualey. The evolution controversy, 1 
Joseph A. Borome. Pragmatism in America, t 
Sidney Ratner. Populism: its significance i 
American history, by Everett Walters. Imperialisi 
and racism, by James P. Shenton. The mud 
rakers: in flower and in failure, by Louis Filler.- 



GENERAL HISTORY 



A cycle of revisionism between two wars, by Harry 
W. Baehr. An interpretation of Franklin D. 
Roe cp velt ; by Bernard Bellush. 

1420. Social Science Research Council. Committee 
on Historical Analysis. Generalization in 

the writing of history; a report. Edited by Louis 
Gottschalk. [Chicago] University of Chicago Press 
[1963] 255 p. 63-13064 013.8595 

This third report of the Social Science Research 
Council on the nature of history is a set of essays 
dealing with the problem of generalization by the 
historian in several different contexts and from 
several varying points of view. The first report, 
Theory and Practice in Historical Study (1946), is 
no. 3065 in the 1960 Guide. The second is The 
Social Sciences in Historical Study (1954). 

CONTENTS. Reflections upon the problem of gen- 
eralization, by Chester G. Starr. Generalizations 
in ancient history, by M. I. Finley. On the uses of 
generalization in the study of Chinese history, by 
Arthur F. Wright. Comments on the paper of 
Arthur F. Wright, by Derk Bodde. Generaliza- 
tions about revolution: a case study, by Robert R. 
Palmer. Generalizations about national character: 
an analytical essay, by Walter P. Metzger. The 
historian's use of social role, by Thomas C. Cochran. 
Categories of historiographical generalization, by 
Louis Gottschalk. The genealogy of historical 
generalizations, by Roy F. Nichols. Notes on the 
problem of historical generalization, by William O. 
Aydelotte. Explicit data and implicit assumptions 
in historical study, by David M. Potter. Summary, 
by Louis Gottschalk. Bibliography of writings on 
historiography and the philosophy of history, by 
Martin Klein. 

1421. Van Tassel, David D. Recording America's 
past; an interpretation of the development of 

historical studies in America, 16071884. [Chica- 
go] University of Chicago Press [1960] 222 p. 

6014404 175^3 1960 
Bibliography: p. 191212. 

1422. Higham, John, Leonard Krieger, and Felix 
Gilbert. History. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 

Prentice-Hall [1965] xiv, 402 p. (The Princeton 
studies: humanistic scholarship in America) 

64-23563 Di3.H43 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Viewed by the author himself as a mere chapter 
in what a full history of the "whole range of 
American historical studies" could be, Recording 
America's Past explores such developments as the 
colonial origins and formative role of the local 
historian; the early genesis of historical societies on 



the frontier; the impetus for the writing of com- 
munity, territorial, and State history; and, finally, 
the rise of national history. Most striking is the 
author's recognition of the services of the amateur 
historian in broadening the scope of historical in- 
quiry beyond the conventional limits of European 
precedents and in shaping and recording the growth 
and historical sense of the Nation. Whereas Van 
Tassel concludes with the triumph of national his- 
tory, Higham begins with the accession of the pro- 
fessional historian. Their narratives overlap with 
the founding of the American Historical Associa- 
tion in 1884 and the subsequent institutionalization 
of historical study in the universities. From this 
point, Higham and his colleagues seek to interpret 
the progress and present status of the professional 
historians in America in terms of their theories, 
general conceptions, and motivation. Particular 
merits of their work are its broad erudition and the 
large body of information that is packed into a 
volume of reasonable size. 

1423. Whitehill, Walter Muir. Independent his- 
torical societies, an enquiry into their re- 
search and publication functions and their financial 
future. [Boston] Boston Athenaeum; distributed 
by Harvard University Press, 1962. xviii, 593 p. 

631190 172^5 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Under the auspices of the Council on Library 
Resources, Inc., the author visited "three quarters of 
the fifty states" to probe a considerably wider 
range of subjects than is indicated by the title. The 
principal independent historical societies are de- 
scribed and their historical background and evolu- 
tion are outlined. Other allied organizations are 
presented more briefly, with emphasis on their 
present activities. The final chapters, often marked 
by a frank irreverence and wit, concern such topics 
as State-supported societies, historical associations, 
manuscript collections and Presidental libraries, 
genealogists, museums, and State archives. Keepers 
of the Past (Chapel Hill, University of North Caro- 
lina Press [1965] 241 p.), edited by Clifford L. 
Lord, offers a series of biographical essays devoted to 
key figures in various fields of historical preserva- 
tion who pioneered and "made notable things hap- 
pen" in developing historical societies, public ar- 
chives, museums, special collections, and historic 
sites. 

1424. Wilkins, Burleigh T. Carl Becker; a bio- 
graphical study in American intellectual his- 
tory. Cambridge, M.I .T. Press, 1961. 246 p. 

61-7870 Di5.B33W5 
Described by the author "mainly as an exercise in 



132 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



historical understanding," this biography is, in addi- 
tion, a sensitive, perceptive, and at times critical 
study of the intellectual development of this 
philosopher-historian and of the changing dimen- 
sions of his mind in relation to the emerging pat- 
tern of his life. "By relating his 'thoughts' to his 
'environment,'" Wilkins has "tried to see Becker 
'whole' while at the same time discriminating be- 
tween the major and minor aspects of his work." 
The elements of the environment are found by the 
author in Becker's family, its religion and politics; 
in the conditioning influence of a prolonged college 
and university milieu; and in the remarkable circle 
of eminent friends with whom he corresponded all 
his life. The alchemy of these forces, the impact 
of the times in which he lived, the shifting tides of 
political and historical philosophy, the disturbing 
effect of two world wars, and the elements in his 
own character are carefully examined. Charlotte 
W. Smith's Carl Becker: On History & the Climate 
of Opinion (Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University Press, 
1956. 225 p.) centers on American historiography 
and Becker's historical relativism. 

1425. Wish, Harvey. The American historian; a 

social-intellectual history of the writing of 

the American past. New York, Oxford University 

Press, 1960. 366 p. 6013202 Ei75/W5 

Bibliographic notes: p. 351360. 

In a general survey devoted to examining the 



social and intellectual assumptions underlying vari- 
ous stages of American historical writing, the 
author studies representative historians from Wil- 
liam Bradford to Allan Nevins. The traditional 
biographical approach is subordinated to an explora- 
tion of the subjective factors which emerge from a 
study of their writings and of the critical secondary 
literature their writings have evoked. A closer 
look at the environmental influences of the i9th 
century on historical scholarship is provided in each 
of three widely dissimilar but equally incisive works. 
In History as Romantic Art: Bancroft, Prescott, 
Motley, and Part(man (Stanford, Calif., Stanford 
University Press, 1959. 260 p. Stanford studies in 
language and literature, 20), David Levin examines 
the relationship between four historians' assump- 
tions and their literary techniques. Wendell 
Holmes Stephenson's Southern History in the Mat(- 
ing; Pioneer Historians of the South ([Baton 
Rouge] Louisiana State University Press, 1964. 294 
p.), a companion volume to his The South Lives in 
History (mentioned in the annotation for no. 3057 
in the 1960 Guide}, contains detailed studies of nine 
historians of the South. In The German Historical 
School in American Scholarship; a Study in the 
Transfer of Culture (Ithaca, Cornell University 
Press [1965] 262 p.), Jurgen Herbst examines the 
rise and decline of the German historical school of 
social science in the United States between 1876 and 
1914. 



B. General Works 



1426. Adams, James Truslow, ed. Dictionary of 
American history. James Truslow Adams, 
editor in chief; R. V. Coleman, managing editor. 
2d ed. rev. New York, Scribner, 194261. 6 v. 

441876 174^43 1942 

On title page of v. 6: Supplement i; issued with- 
out edition statement. 

Supplement i adds new, revised, and updated ma- 
terial to the five-volume set entered as no. 3071 in 
the 1960 Guide. Also revised and updated is the 
Index Volume (New York, Scribner [1963] 266 p.). 
The Concise Dictionary of American History (New 
York, Scribner [1962] 1156 p.) is a condensed 
version of the Dictionary of American History, 
including Supplement i. Michael R. Martin and 
Leonard Gelber have written The New Dictionary 
of American History (New York, Philosophical 
Library [1965] 714 p.), revised by Arthur W. 
Littlefield, which includes brief biographical studies. 



1427. The Adams papers. L. H. Butterfield, editor 
in chief. Cambridge, Belknap Press of Har- 
vard University Press, 196165. n v. 

When publication is completed, the Adams pa- 
pers will consist of 80 to roo volumes. As of 1965, 
the volumes were divided into three principal 
series: the Adams Diaries, the Adams Family Cor- 
respondence, and General Correspondence and 
Other Papers. The following volumes had then 
been published in the Adams Diaries: John Adams' 
Diary and Autobiography (1961. 4 v. 605387 
322. A3), edited by Butterfield, and the first two 
of an estimated 18 volumes of Charles Francis 
Adam's Diary (1964. 6420588 E467.i.A2Ai5), 
edited by ATda D. Donald and David H. Donald. 
The first two volumes of the Adams Family Corre- 
spondence (1963. 6314964 322.1^27), also 
edited by Butterfield, had appeared. The initial 
volumes in the third series are the Legal Papers of 






John Adams (1965. 3 v. 65-13855 Law), edited by 
L. Kinvin Wroth and Hiller B. Zobel. 

1428. Berger, Josef, and Dorothy Berger, eds. 
Diary of America; the intimate story of our 

nation, told by 100 diarists public figures and 
plain citizens, natives and visitors over the five 
centuries from Columbus, the Pilgrims, and George 
Washington to Thomas Edison, Will Rogers, and 
our own time. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1957. 
621 p. 57-10976 173.638 

"Sources and acknowledgments": p. 618621. 

An assemblage of diary selections spanning 
American history from Columbus to General Jo- 
seph W. ("Vinegar Joe") Stilwell. The diarists 
include persons from all walks of life, whose re- 
corded experiences range from family matters and 
love affairs to travel, entertainment, and politics. 
The American Spirit; United States History as 
Seen by Contemporaries (Boston, Heath [1963] 
964 p.), edited by Thomas A. Bailey, is another col- 
lection of writings, including selections from "let- 
ters, diaries, autobiographies, editorials, propaganda 
leaflets, public debates, and interviews." 

1429. Billington, Ray Allen. Westward expan- 
sion; a history of the American frontier by 

Ray Allen Billington, with the collaboration of 
James Elaine Hedges. 2d ed. New York, Mac- 
millan [1960] xv, 893 p. illus. 

605482 179.5.663 1960 

"Bibliographical note": p. 759854. 

An updated edition of no. 3074 in the 1960 Guide, 
incorporating new viewpoints on the frontier. In 
A Concise Study Guide to the American Frontier 
(Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1964. 269 
p.), Nelson Klose discusses the leading theories of 
the frontier, explains different types of frontiers, and 
analyzes problems of the frontier in general. The 
early history of the West is recounted by Francis S. 
Philbrick in The Rise of the West, 17541830 
(New York, Harper & Row [1965] 398 p. New 
American Nation series). 

1430. Boorstin, Daniel J. The Americans: the 
colonial experience. New York, Random 

House [1958] 434 p. 58-9884 188.672 

"Bibliographical notes": p. 375421. 

1431. Boorstin, Daniel J. The Americans: the 
national experience. New York, Random 

House [1965] 517 p. 6517440 301.66 

"Bibliographical notes": p. 433495. 

In these two volumes, Boorstin attempts to show 
how the experience of settling the United States 
created a unique American character. Together 



GENERAL HISTORY / 133 

they review and interpret American history up to 
the Civil War. The author emphasizes nonpolitical 
history, tracing the development of such activities 
as law, medicine, agriculture, science, warfare, and 
business. 

1432. Carruth, Gorton. The encyclopedia of 
American facts and dates. Edited by Gorton 

Carruth and associates. 3d ed. New York, Cro- 
well [1962] 758 p. (A Crowell reference book) 

6214453 Ei74-C3 1962 
An updated edition of no. 3076 in the 1960 Guide. 

1433. Commager, Henry Steele, ed. Documents 
of American history. 7th ed. New York, 

Appleton-Century-Crofts [1963] 632/739 p. 

639300 Ei73-C66 1963 

A revised and updated edition of no. 3079 in the 
1960 Guide. 

A Documentary History of the United States 
([New York] New American Library [1965] 
336 p. A Mentor 6ook, MT6o5), edited by Richard 
D. Heffner, is a revised and expanded edition of a 
work mentioned in the annotation for no. 3079 in 
the 1960 Guide. 

1434. Dictionary of American biography, pub- 
lished under the auspices of the American 

Council of Learned Societies. New York, Scribner, 
194358. 22 v. 4441895 176.0562 

Volume 22, Supplement Two, an addition to no. 
3080 in the 1960 Guide, contains biographies of 
585 persons who died between 1936 and 1940. The 
Concise Dictionary of American Biography (New 
York, Scribner [1964] 1273 p.) is a short version 
of the Dictionary of American Biography, including 
both supplements, and provides an entry, varying in 
length from "minimal" to "extended," for each 
biographical sketch in the larger work. 

1435. Eisenstadt, Abraham S., ed. American his- 
tory: recent interpretations. New York, 

Crowell [1962] 2 v. 62-10281 Ei78.6.E44 

Designed to meet the need for supplementary 
readings in college courses, these two volumes con- 
tain articles by reputable historians covering various 
aspects and periods of the American past. The ar- 
ticles, most of which were published in scholarly 
journals after 1945, have been selected to represent 
new viewpoints in the interpretation of American 
history. The American Past; Conflicting Interpre- 
tations of the Great Issues, 2d ed. (New York, 
Macmillan [1965] 2 v.), edited by Sidney A. Fine 
and Gerald S. 6rown, is another collection of read- 
ings, including both journal articles and selections 
from books. 



134 / A GUIDE To E UNITED STATES 



1436. Kull, Irving S., and Nell M. Kull. An 
encyclopedia of American history. Newly 

enl. and updated by Stanley H. Friedelbaum. New 
York, Popular Library [1965] 637 p. (Eagle 
books, 725) 65-1251 174.5X8 1965 

An enlarged and updated edition of no. 3077 in 
the 1960 Guide. The previous edition was entitled 
A Short Chronology of American History, 1492 
7950. 

1437. Morison, Samuel Eliot, and Henry Steele 
Commager. The growth of the American 

Republic. [5th ed., rev. and enl.] New York, 
Oxford University Press [1962] 2 v. illus. 

6113567 178^85 1962 

Includes bibliographies. 

A revised and enlarged edition of no. 3103 in 
the 1960 Guide. Other notable two-volume college 
texts include A History of the American People, 2d 
ed., rev. (New York, Knopf, 196061), by Harry 
J. Carman, Harold C. Syrett, and Bernard W. 
Wishy; The Federal Union; a History of the United 
States to 1877, 4th ed. (Boston, Houghton Mifflin 
[1964] 729 p.), by John D. Hicks, George E. 
Mowry, and Robert E. Burke, and The American 
Nation; a History of the United States From /86<> 
to the Present, 4th ed. (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 
1965. 832 p.), a revised edition of no. 3436 in the 
1960 Guide, by the same authors; Empire for Lib- 
erty: The Genesis and Growth of the United States 
of America (New York, Appleton-Century -Crofts 
[1960]), by Dumas Malone and Basil Rauch; and 
A History of the United States, 2d ed., rev. (New 
York, Knopf, 1964), by Thomas Harry Williams, 
Richard N. Current, and Frank Freidel. 

1438. Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Oxford his- 
tory of the American people. New York, 

Oxford University Press, 1965. xxvii, 1150 p. illus. 

65-12468 178^855 

A history of the United States for the general 
reader. Morison does not slight politics but puts 
equitable emphasis on social and economic develop- 
ment. He also includes a brief account of Canadian 
history. Two other broad histories for the general 
reader are A New History of the United States 
(New York, G. Braziller, 1958. 474 p.), by Wil- 
liam Miller, who provides a balanced narrative, and 
The Americans; a New History of the People of the 
United States (Boston, Little, Brown [1963] 434 
p.), by Oscar Handlin, who features the role of the 
immigrant in American life. 

1439. Morris, Richard B., ed. Encyclopedia of 
American history. Updated and rev. New 



York, Harper & Row [1965] xiv, 843 p. illus. 

6522859 174.5.1^847 1965 
An updated edition of no. 3072 in the 1960 Guide. 

1440. Parkes, Henry Bamford. The United States 
of America, a history. 2d ed., rev. New 

York, Knopf, 1959. 783 p. illus. 

596118 178^25 1959 

Bibliography: p. 779783. 

An updated edition of no. 3104 in the 1960 Guide. 
Among other one-volume college texts are The 
American Pageant; a History of the Republic (Bos- 
ton, Heath [1956] 1007 p.), by Thomas A. Bailey; 
The Stream of American History, 3d ed. (New 
York, American Book Co. [1965] 832 p.), by 
Leland D. Baldwin and Robert L. Kelley; The 
United States; a History of a Democracy, 2d ed. 
(New York, McGraw-Hill, 1960. 713 p. McGraw- 
Hill series in American history), edited by Wesley 
M. Gewehr and others; and A History of American 
Life and Thought; Revision of A Short History of 
American Life (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1963. 
622 p. McGraw-Hill series in American history), 
by Nelson M. Blake. 

1441. Problems in American civilization; readings 
selected by the Department of American 

Studies, Amherst College. Boston, Heath, 1949 
[65] 45 v. 

Sixteen new volumes, as well as four revised edi- 
tions, have been added to this series (no. 3107 in the 
1960 Guide). Among the added volumes are The 
Causes of the American Revolution, rev. ed. ( [ 1962] 
131 p. 623817 E2io.W3 1962), edited by John 
C. Wahlke; The Debate Over Thermonuclear Stra- 
tegy ([1965] 114 p. 656618 UA23-W362), edit- 
ed by Arthur I. Waskow; and Desegregation and 
the Supreme Court ([1958] 116 p. 582326 
Law), edited by Benjamin M. Ziegler. 

1442. Riegel, Robert E., and Robert G. Athearn. 
America moves west. 4th ed. New York. 

Holt, Rinehart & Winston [1964] xiv, 651 p. illus. 
6419649 F59I.R53 1964 
Includes bibliographies. 
An updated edition of no. 3137 in the 1960 Guide. 

1443. Schlesinger, Arthur M. Paths to the present. 
With a foreword by Arthur M. Schlesinger, 

Jr., Rev. and enl. Boston, Houghton Hifflin, 1964. 
viii, 293 p. (Sentry edition, 36) 

642185 178.833 1964 

"For further reading": p. [265] 289. 

An updated edition of no. 3140 in the 1960 Guide. 



1444- U.S. Bureau of the Census. The statistical 
history of the United States from colonial 
times to the present. Stamford, Conn., Fairfield 
Publishers; distributed by Horizon Press, New York 
[1965] xxiv, 789 p. illus. 

6521873 HA202.A385 1965 

"Up-dated edition, containing two reference 
works prepared by 125 distinguished scholars under 
the direction of the U.S. Bureau of the Census with 
the cooperation of the Social Science Research Coun- 
cil: Historical statistics of the United States, colonial 
times to 1957, published 1960, and Continuation to 
1962 and revisions, published in 1965." 

The objective of this work is to combine in a 
single volume historical statistics from a multiplic- 



GENERAL HISTORY / 135 

ity of sources. Text annotations refer to sources of 
more detailed information. Broad in scope, the 
book is divided into 24 chapters, among which are 
"Population," "Labor," "Construction and Hous- 
ing," "Agriculture," and "Colonial Statistics." 

1445. Wish, Harvey. Society and thought in 
America, v. 2. Society and thought in 
modern America; a social and intellectual history 
of the American people from 1865. 2d ed. New 
York, D. McKay Co. [1962] 644 p. illus. 

6118349 169.1^652, v. 2 
Bibliography: p. 607629. 

An updated edition of v. 2 of no. 3150 in the 
1960 Guide. 



C. The New World 



1446. Bolton, Herbert E. Bolton and the Spanish 
borderlands. Edited and with an introduc- 
tion by John Francis Bannon. Norman, University 
of Oklahoma Press [1964] xi, 346 p. 

6411336 123.669 
"A Bolton bibliography": p. 333341. 
A collection of essays, many of them previously 
unpublished or relatively inaccessible, by Herbert E. 
Bolton (18701953), one of the pioneer historians 
of the Spanish influence in the Southwest and Flor- 
ida. Bannon has included essays written between 
1911 and 1939, each of which covers one specific 
aspect of the Spanish settlement of the North 
American frontier. Among the topics chosen are 
the initial exploration, the strategic importance of 
the Borderlands, and the mission as a frontier insti- 
tution. The introductory essay defines Bolton's 
place in American historiography. Maurice G. 
Holmes' From New Spain by Sea to the California*, 
1519-1668 (Glendale, Calif., A. H. Clark Co., 1963. 
307 p. Spain in the West, 9), a study of the Span- 
ish politics behind the exploration of California, is 
based on much research in Spain. 

1447. Morison, Samuel Eliot, ed. and tr. Jour- 
nals and other documents on the life and 

voyages of Christopher Columbus. Illustrated by 
Lima de Freitas. New York, Printed for the mem- 
bers of the Limited Editions Club, 1963, xv, 417 p. 

64-1683 Ein.M865 

Bibliography included in "Abbreviations used in 
introductions to documents and in footnotes" (p. 
xvi). 

This edition of Columbian documents is an out- 
growth of several years of research. While work- 



ing on his biography of Columbus, Admiral of the 
Ocean Sea, no. 3164 in the 1960 Guide, Morison 
discovered that most of the translations of the docu- 
ments were untrustworthy. In his own transla- 
tions he chose to sacrifice modern literary style to 
literal accuracy. For inclusion in this work he 
selected those documents which seemed "the most 
informing, interesting, and significant" in his own 
work on the life of Columbus. Many of these have 
not appeared in other collections. The arrange- 
ment is chronological, with emphasis on the estab- 
lishment of Columbus' identity and on the four 
voyages. Benjamin Keen has translated, with anno- 
tations, Fernando Colon's Historic del S. D. Fer- 
nando Colombo (1571) under the title of The Life 
of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by His Son, 
Ferdinand (New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers Univer- 
sity Press [1959] 316 p.). 

1448. Williamson, James A. The age of Drake. 
4th ed. London, A. & C. Black [1960] 

viii, 399 p. maps. (The Pioneer histories) 

63-4459 DA355-W484 1960 

Imprint covered by label: New York, Barnes & 
Noble. 

A revised edition of no. 3173 in the 1960 Guide. 
Williamson has updated parts of the section on the 
events of 1588 and 1589 and has made many minor 
corrections. 

1449. Williamson, James A. The Cabot voyages 
and Bristol discovery under Henry VII. 

With the cartography of the voyages by R. A. Skel- 
ton. Cambridge [Eng.] Published for the Hakluyt 



136 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Society at the University Press, 1962. xvi, 332 p. 

illus. (Hakluyt Society. Works, 2d ser., no. 120) 

63 T 95 Gi6i.H2 2<i ser. no. 120 

"Documents": p. [173] 291. 

Bibliography: p. xv-xvi. 

Although in this volume Williamson uses much 
material from his earlier work, The Voyages of the 
Cabots and the English Discovery of North Amer- 
ica under Henry VII and Henry VIII (no. 3174 
in the 1960 Guide), 30 years of scholarly research 
on the voyages prompted him to make substantial 
changes in the text. The present volume is limited 
primarily to a discussion of the voyages of various 
Bristol merchants and of John Cabot and his son 
Sebastian between 1480 and 1509. The author ex- 
pands his discussion of the background of the Cabot 
voyages, with emphasis on the significance of Bristol 
as a stimulus for exploration. He includes docu- 
ments which were unavailable when he did his 
earlier work and adds an essay, "The Cartography 
of the Voyages," which Raleigh A. Skelton wrote 
expressly for this volume. 



1450. Wright, Louis B. The Elizabethans' Amer- 
ica; a collection of early reports by English- 
men on the New World. Cambridge, Harvard 
University Press, 1965. 295 p. (The Stratford-upon- 
A von library) 65-8877 141^7 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 282-295). 

A collection of early British descriptions of North 
America as recorded by explorers, traders, privateers, 
and settlers. Most of the accounts selected were 
written during the last quarter of the i6th century 
and the first quarter of the i7th century. Because 
one of Wright's principal criteria in making selec- 
tions was the propaganda value of the reports in 
promoting colonization and development of the 
New World, the documents indicate the early image 
of America in Britain, both accurate and inaccu- 
rate. In the introduction, the editor discusses the 
importance of such propaganda in helping to create 
in the British Isles an attitude favorable to the 
colonization of North America. 



D. The Thirteen Colonies 



1451. Akers, Charles W. Called unto liberty; a 
life of Jonathan Mayhew, 17201766. Cam- 
bridge, Harvard University Press, 1964. xii, 285 p. 
illus. 64-21783 6X9869.1^45 A7 

"Bibliography of Jonathan Mayhew, with short 
tides used in the Notes": p. [238] 241. Biblio- 
graphical references included in "Notes" (p. [243] 
-272). 

As the minister of the West Church in Boston 
from 1747 to 1766, Jonathan Mayhew excited con- 
troversy in both England and New England by 
preaching a rational brand of theology and the 
political doctrine of inalienable rights. By 1765, 
when he delivered a sermon against the Stamp Act, 
he was recognized as one of the leaders of colonial 
dissent. Akers' biography of Mayhew is primarily 
intellectual; he explores his religious and political 
views against the background of controversies both 
within New England and between New England 
and the mother country. John A. Schultz' William 
Shirley: King's Governor of Massachusetts (Chapel 
Hill, Published for the Institute of Early American 
History and Culture at Williamsburg, Va., by the 
University of North Carolina Press [1961] 292 p.) 
is a biography of a Massachusetts Governor (1741- 
56) whose administration "brought an era of rela- 
tive good feeling" to the colony. 



1452. Barck, Oscar T., and Hugh T. Lefler. Co- 
lonial America. New York, Macmillan 

[1958] 767 p. illus. 58-5913 188.626 

Bibliography: p. 731747. 

This textbook, which covers the period from the 
first colonization to the ratification of the Constitu- 
tion, is organized primarily as a chonological nar- 
rative with occasional chapters devoted to topical 
problems. Other textbooks are A History of Colo- 
nial America, 3d ed. (New York, Harper [1961] 
745 p. Harper's historical series), by Oliver P. 
Chitwood; The Roots of American Civilization, 2d 
ed. (New' York, Appleton-Century-Crofts [1963] 
748 p.), by Curtis P. Nettels; and A History of 
Colonial America, rev. ed. (New York, Holt, 
Rinehart & Winston [1964] 701 p.), written by 
Max Savelle and revised by Robert Middlekauff. 

1453. Bronner, Edwin B. William Penn's holy 
experiment; the founding of Pennsylvania, 

16811701. New York, Temple University Publi- 
cations; distributed by Columbia University Press, 
1962. 306 p. illus. 6214819 Fi52.B84 

Includes bibliography. 

A chronological study of Pennsylvania politics 
between 1681, when Charles II granted the original 
charter to William Penn, and 1701, when the Gen- 



eral Assembly of Pennsylvania adopted the Charter 
of Privileges. In probing the reasons behind the 
failure of Pennsylvania to become the Quaker 
Utopia envisaged by Penn and its success in estab- 
lishing itself within 20 years as a viable political 
and economic entity, Bronner examines three sets of 
factors: religious, economic, and political dissen- 
sions; relations between William Penn and the colo- 
nials; and the position of Pennsylvania within the 
colonial system as subject to British-French balance- 
of-power politics. In War Comes to Quaker Penn- 
sylvania, 16821756 (New York, Published for 
Temple University Publications by Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 1957. 245 p.), Robert L. D. Davidson 
focuses on the external pressures from the Indians 
and the French which corroded Quaker pacifism 
and resulted in Pennsylvania's entry into war in 
1756. Joseph E. Illick's William Penn, the Politi- 
cian: His Relations with the English Government 
(Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University Press [1965] 
267 p.) ascribes much of Penn's success in establish- 
ing a proprietary colony to his political acumen in 
dealing with the English Government. 

1454. Brown, Richard M. The South Carolina 
Regulators. Cambridge, Belknap Press of 

Harvard University Press, 1963. xi, 230 p. illus. 
(A publication of the Center for the Study of the 
History of Liberty in America, Harvard University) 

63-7589 F272.B75 

Bibliography: p. 161177. 

The Regulator movement consisted of a well- 
organized vigilante group formed in 1767 to put 
down outlawry in the back country of South Caro- 
lina. It assumed virtually full control over back- 
country affairs during the next two years and was 
squelched in 1769 by the Moderators, a movement 
organized for the specific purpose of ending Regu- 
lator domination. Although the Regulators often 
employed terroristic methods, they were instru- 
mental in bringing law and order into the back 
country, which was both socially chaotic and out-of- 
touch with the colonial government in Charleston. 

1455. Dunn, Richard S. Puritans and Yankees; 
the Winthrop dynasty of New England, 

16301717. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University 
Press, 1962. xi, 379 p. illus. 

62-7400 F67-W7957 

"Bibliographical note": p. 359-361. Bibliograph- 
ical footnotes. 

One of the central themes in the history of early 
New England is the discrepancy between the relig- 
ious ideals of its founders and the secular institu- 
tions which they developed. Dunn's study of four 
members of the first three generations of Win- 



GENERAL HISTORY / 137 

throps, who were "indisputably the first family of 
New England," shows how this dynasty reflected 
the secularization of life there. The careers of John 
Winthrop (1588-1649), John Winthrop, Jr. (1606- 
1676), and two of the latter's sons, Fitz J. Win- 
throp (1638-1707) and Wait S. Winthrop (1642 
1717), were integrally bound up with a dual devel- 
opment: the transition of New England from domi- 
nation by a Puritan ethos to domination by a secular 
ethos and the gradual acceptance of a dependent 
status within the British Empire. In Winthrop 's 
Boston; Portrait of a Puritan Town, 16301649 
(Chapel Hill, Published for the Institute of Early 
American History and Culture at Williamsburg, 
Va., by the University of North Carolina Press 
[1965] 324 p.), Darrett B. Rutman considers the 
same problem through an examination of the de- 
veloping institutions of Boston. 

1456. Franklin, Benjamin. Papers. Leonard W. 
Labaree, editor. Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., asso- 
ciate editor. Helen C. Boatfield and Helene H. 
Fineman, assistant editors. New Haven, Yale Uni- 
versity Press, 195965. 8 v. illus. 

5912697 E3O2.F82 1959 

"Sponsored by the American Philosophical Soci- 
ety and Yale University." 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

CONTENTS. v. r. Jan. 6, 1706, through Dec. 31, 
1734. v. 2. Jan. i, 1735, through Dec. 31, 1744. 
v. 3. Jan. i, 1745, through June 30, 1750. v. 4. 
July i, 1750, through June 30, 1753. v. 5. July i, 
1753, through Mar. 31, 1755. v. 6. Apr. i, 1755, 
through Sept. 30, 1756. v. 7. Oct. i, 1756, through 
Mar. 31, 1758. v. 8. Apr. i, 1758, through Dec. 



Projected as a 4O-volume work, this comprehen- 
sive edition is planned to contain the full text of 
every document, signed or unsigned, known to have 
been written by Franklin or by Franklin with 
others. Volume i includes an introduction and a 
genealogy; each volume is indexed and contains a 
chronology. In Benjamin Franklin, Philosopher & 
Man (Philadelphia, Lippincott [1965] 438 p.), 
Alfred O. Aldridge attempts to "synthesize all that 
is known about Franklin's life and character." In 
Benjamin Franklin and Pennsylvania Politics (Stan- 
ford, Calif., Stanford University Press, 1964. 239 
p.), a study of Pennsylvania local politics from 1750 
to 1776, William S. Hanna concludes that Franklin, 
as well as other Pennsylvania public leaders, acted 
on practical expedients as often as on idealistic 
objectives. 

1457. Gipson, Lawrence H. The British Empire 
before the American Revolution. Caldwell, 



138 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Id., Caxton Printers, 193665. 12 v. illus. 

36-20870 DA500.G5 

Vols. 412 have imprint: New York, A. A. 
Knopf. 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Volumes 1012 are a continuation of no. 3188 in 
the 1960 Guide. 

CONTENTS. v. 10. The triumphant Empire: 
Thunder-clouds gather in the west, 17631766. v. 
ii. The triumphant Empire: The rumbling of the 
coming storm, 17661770. v. 12. The triumphant 
Empire: Britain sails into the storm, 17701779. 

In these three volumes, Gipson continues his 
analysis of American colonial development as it was 
affected both by internal circumstances and by the 
relative position of the Colonies within the British 
Empire. Revised editions of v. 13 have been pub- 
lished by A. A. Knopf, 195860. 

1458. Green, Jack P. The quest for power; the 
lower houses of assembly in the Southern 

Royal Colonies, 1689-1776. Chapel Hill, Published 
for the Institute of Early American History and 
Culture at Williamsburg, Va., by the University of 
North Carolina Press [1963] xi, 528 p. 

6321077 JK2 

"Bibliographical essay": p. [496] 504. 

An institutional analysis of the development of 
the lower houses of Virginia, the two Carolinas, 
and Georgia from 1689 to 1783. Greene bases his 
study on an anlaysis of the basic issues of power be- 
tween Great Britain and each colony: control over 
finances, the civil list, legislative proceedings, and 
executive affairs. Although the colonial burgesses 
were apparently not primarily motivated by abstract 
principles of government, their pragmatic assump- 
tion of power prepared them to become the back- 
bone of responsible government after the break from 
Great Britain. 

1459. Hall, Michael G. Edward Randolph and 
the American Colonies, 16761703. Chapel 

Hill, Published for the Institute of Early American 
History and Culture by the University of North 
Carolina Press [1960] 241 p. 

6016352 Ei9i.H29 

"Bibliographical essay": p. 224230. Biblio- 
graphical footnotes. 

Edward Randolph served the Crown as a British 
agent to the Colonies from 1676 to 1703. As a rep- 
resentative of the King, he antagonized the Colo- 
nies by trying to enforce unpopular trade laws and 
by trying to bring the Colonies directly under the 
political control of the King. On the basis of an 
examination of the numerous Crown-colony legal 
cases which Randolph either instigated or in which 



he was implicated, Hall argues that Randolph was 
one of the chief architects of a uniform pattern of 
commercial and legal administration. The Glorious 
Revolution in America; Documents on the Colonial 
Crisis of 1689 (Chapel Hill, Published for the Insti- 
tute of Early American History and Culture at 
Williamsburg, Va., by the University of North 
Carolina Press [1964] 216 p. Documentary prob- 
lems in early American history), edited by Michael 
G. Hall, Lawrence H. Leder, and Michael G. Kam- 
men, includes British and colonial documents, both 
public and private, which demonstrate the effects of 
the Glorious Revolution on internal colonial ad- 
ministration and on Crown-colony relations. 

1460. Labaree, Benjamin W. The Boston Tea 
Party. New York, Oxford University Press, 

1964. 347 p. 64-18337 215.7.1.3 

Bibliography: p. 317330. 

The author portrays the Boston Tea Party as the 
catalyst which brought on the Revolution. It was a 
violent incident that broke the relatively calm rela- 
tions between Britain and America and gave the 
Thirteen Colonies a common cause. The dumping 
of the tea in Boston harbor resulted from the 
American conviction that the East India Company's 
sale of tea temptingly cheap in price but subject 
to a duty was part of a British conspiracy to 
achieve colonial acceptance of Parliament's right to 
tax. Britain's reaction to the Tea Party was ex- 
treme, and she punished Massachusetts with the 
tyrannical Coercive Acts, which the colonists viewed, 
according to the author, as raising the question of 
whether they had any rights at all. The hardships 
inflicted on Boston by these measures aroused sym- 
pathy throughout the Colonies and inspired a fear 
that freedom throughout America was threatened. 
Eighteen months after the Boston Tea Party, the 
colonists united in war against Britain. 

1461. Leder, Lawrence H. Robert Livingston, 
16541728, and the politics of colonial New 

York. Chapel Hill, Published for the Institute of 
Early American History and Culture at Williams- 
burg, Va., by the University of North Carolina 
Press [1961] xii, 306 p. illus. 

6162687 Fi22.L43 

"Bibliographical note": p. 293297. Bibliograph- 
ical footnotes. 

Robert Livingston, the son of a Scotch Calvinist 
who had emigrated to Holland to avoid religious 
persecution, came to Albany in 1674 at the age of 
20. He began his political career as a town clerk 
and secretary of the board of commissioners for 
Indian affairs in Albany and rose, through marriage, 
land acquisition, commercial activity, and political 



acumen, to become one of the leading merchants 
and public servants of New York. When he died, 
he left a political dynasty which remained influential 
until the mid-ipth century. Leder explores Living- 
ston's career against the background of the complex 
social, economic, and political activities of the New 
York aristocracy and its relationship to the British 
colonial government. 

1462. Merrens, Harry R. Colonial North Carolina 
in the eighteenth century; a study in histor- 
ical geography. Chapel Hill, University of North 
Carolina Press [1964] 293 p. 

6 4- J 3555 F257.M4 

Bibliography: p. [266] -288. 

In this study of the human ecology of North 
Carolina from 1750 to 1775, Merrens discusses the 
changing economic patterns resulting from the in- 
terplay of geographic, demographic, and production 
factors. He emphasizes the following features of 
development: the land, immigration and population 
distribution, commerce and the production of naval 
stores, agriculture, and the function of the town as 
a commercial center for rural areas. The work 
presents a picture of North Carolina as a colony in 
which there were many diverse patterns of economic 
development. In The Lower Cape Fear in Colonial 
Days (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina 
Press [1965] 334 p.), Enoch Lawrence Lee ana- 
lyzes the economic and political development of an 
important commercial area of North Carolina from 
the first settlement in 1665 until the end of the 
Revolution. 

1463. Morton, Richard L. Colonial Virginia. 
Chapel Hill, Published for the Virginia Historical 
Society by the University of North Carolina Press, 
1960. 2 v. (xiv, 883 p.) illus. 

6051846 F229.M75 

Bibliography: p. 401408, 833844. 

CONTENTS. v. i. The Tidewater period, 1607 
1710. v. 2. Westward expansion and prelude to 
Revolution, 17101763. 

A comprehensive chronological narrative with 
emphasis on political events. In examining the 
evolution of Virginia from a series of scattered and 
uncertain British settlements to a politically and 
economically mature colony which produced a large 
number of revolutionary leaders, Morton empha- 
sizes the significance of Virginia's contributions to 
the formation of the United States. In Give Me 
Liberty; the Struggle for Self-Government in Vir- 
ginia (Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 
1958. 275 p. Memoirs of the American Philoso- 
phical Society, v. 46), an interpretive essay, Thomas 
J. Wertenbaker traces the evolution of self- 



GENERAL HISTORY / 139 

government and the mounting struggle of the Vir- 
ginians for their rights as Englishmen. William 
Fitzhugh and his Chesapeake World, 1676-1701; 
the Fitzhugh Letters and Other Documents (Chapel 
Hill, Published for the Virginia Historical Society 
by the University of North Carolina Press, 1963. 
399 p. Virginia Historical Society [Richmond] 
Documents, v. 3), edited by Richard B. Davis, pro- 
vides much firsthand information about the life of a 
lawyer, planter, and public servant who emigrated 
from England to Virginia in the early 1670*5. 

1464. Peckham, Howard H. The colonial wars, 
1689-1762. Chicago, University of Chicago 

Press [1964] 239 p. illus. (The Chicago history 
of American civilization) 6412606 195^4 

Bibliography: p. 226231. 

In this survey of the major military and diplo- 
matic events of the four colonial wars, Peckham 
distinguishes between those aspects of the wars 
which were determined by European power con- 
flicts and those aspects which were endemic to colo- 
nial relationships with the Indians and the French 
colonials in Canada. He emphasizes two closely 
related peculiarities of colonial warfare: the develop- 
ment of a nonmilitaristic attitude and the adaptation 
of methods of war to the American environment. 
As a result of British colonial military organization, 
the Colonies built up a foundation for intercolonial 
cooperation and a bias against the British yoke. In 
The French and Indian Wars; the Story of Battles 
and Forts in the Wilderness (Garden City, N.Y., 
Doubleday, 1962. 318 p. Mainstream of America 
series), Edward P. Hamilton emphasizes the condi- 
tions of war in the frontier regions. Harrison Bird's 
Battle for a Continent (New York, Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1965. 376 p.) is a detailed narrative of 
military events on the Canadian frontier during the 
Seven Years' War, 175663. 

1465. Powell, Sumner C. Puritan village; the 
formation of a New England town. Middle- 
town, Conn., Wesleyan University Press [1963] 
xx, 215 p. illus. 63-8862 F74-S94P74 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. 
[149] 161). Bibliography: p. [197] 211. 

An analysis of the development of Sudbury, Mass., 
from 1638, when the land grant for the town was 
made, until 165557, when a large number of the 
younger generation seceded to form a new town 
which was in many ways a replica of Sudbury. 
Powell began his research with a fairly complete set 
of town records from Sudbury and was able to trace 
the English backgrounds of 13 of the 16 original 
selectmen and of 79 percent of the first land grant- 
ees. On the basis of a comparison of the diverse 



140 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



experiences of the settlers in England with their 
activities in Sudbury, especially with respect to the 
three basic institutions of land system, town meet- 
ing, and town church, Powell concludes that, al- 
though the New England town in some respects 
resembled the English village, the settlers succeeded 
in creating a new kind of political community. 
Charles S. Grant's Democracy in the Connecticut 
Frontier Town of Kent (New York, Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 1961. 227 p. Columbia studies in the 
social sciences, no. 601) is a study of economic op- 
portunity and democracy in Kent from its initial 
settlement in 1739 to the end of the i8th century. 

1466. Reese, Trevor R. Colonial Georgia; a study 
in British imperial policy in the eighteenth 

century. Athens, University of Georgia Press 
[1963] 172 p. 63-17349 F289.R4 

Includes bibliography. 

An examination of British colonial policy as it 
was worked out by the administrators in Georgia 
between 1732, when the initial charter was granted, 
and 1765, roughly when Georgia began to enter her 
revolutionary phase. The author focuses on three 
strands of British policy: commercial, strategic, and 
social. Because British policy often operated against 
the interest of the Georgia settlers, the colonial ad- 
ministration was in part responsible for establishing 
conditions conducive to revolutionary agitation. 
Other works on the history of the colonial govern- 
ment of Georgia are The Journal of the Earl of Eg- 
mont; Abstract of the Trustees Proceedings for 
Establishing the Colony of Georgia, 17321738 
(Athens, University of Georgia Press [1962] 414 
p. Wormsloe Foundation. Publications, no. 5), 
edited by Robert G. McPherson; The Journal of 
William Stephens (Athens, University of Georgia 
Press [1958-59] 2 v. Wormsloe Foundation. 
Publications, no. 2-3.), edited by Ellis Merton Coul- 
ter; and The Royal Governors of Georgia, 1754 
/775 (Chapel Hill, Published for the Institute of 
Early American History and Culture at Williams- 
burg by the University of North Carolina Press 
[1959] 198 p.), by William W. Abbot. 

1467. TePaske, John J. The governorship of 
Spanish Florida, 17001763. Durham, 

N.C., Duke University Press, 1964. xiii, 248 p. 

6418659 F3I4/T3 

Bibliography: p. [234] 238. 

An institutional analysis of the administration of 
Spanish Florida from 1700, when control of Spain 
shifted from the Habsburg to the Bourbon dynasty, 
to 1763, when Florida became a British possession. 
The author treats his subject as a case study of insti- 



tutional development on the frontier. By examin- 
ing such problems as finance, Indian policies, the 
church, and balance-of-power politics, he shows how 
the colonial administration functioned primarily as 
a strategic outpost of the Spanish Government in the 
New World. Because internal colonial policies were 
subordinate to Spanish military considerations, 
Spain failed to develop a viable economic and politi- 
cal unit in Florida. 



1468. Ver Steeg, Clarence L. The formative years, 
16071763. New York, Hill & Wang 

[1964] 342 p. illus. (The Making of America) 

64-14682 Ei88.V49 

"Bibliographical essay": p. 307336. 

A survey of colonial development from the found- 
ing of the Colonies until the end of the fourth 
French and Indian War and the beginning of the 
series of incidents which precipitated the War for 
Independence. The author traces the evolution of 
transplanted British and European social, economic, 
political, and religious attitudes and institutions into 
their peculiarly American forms. Although the geo- 
graphic and chronological scope of the survey is 
broad, the developments which characterized indi- 
vidual colonies are taken into consideration. Chang- 
ing patterns in the relationships between the Col- 
onies and Great Britain within the context of the 
European balance-of-power system are also analyzed. 

1469. Wainwright, Nicholas B. George Croghan, 
wilderness diplomat. Chapel Hill, Published 

for the Institute of Early American History and 
Culture at Williamsburg by the University of North 
Carolina Press [1959] 334 P- 

59-2353 F 4 8 3 .C 7 6W 3 

"Bibliographical essay": p. [311] 316. Biblio- 
graphical footnotes. 

George Croghan came from Ireland to Pennsyl- 
vania in 1741 to escape a potato famine. Within a 
few years he established himself as a prominent In- 
dian trader and mediator between Pennsylvania and 
the Indian tribes in the Ohio Valley. He was one of 
the major architects of Pennsylvania's Indian policy, 
which consisted of attempts to draw the Indians 
away from French influence through treaties and 
gifts. Sir William Johnson's deputy superintendent 
of Indian affairs from 1756 to 1772, he served as the 
principal negotiator between the British Empire and 
the Indians of the Northwest. He later became in- 
volved in the organization of a number of Western 
land companies. Wainwright's biography, based 
on Croghan's personal papers, places his colorful 
career in the perspective of colonial frontier develop- 
ment and British-French rivalry. 



GENERAL HISTORY / 14! 



E. The American Revolution 



1470. Bailyn, Bernard, ed. Pamphlets of the 
American Revolution, 17501776, edited by 

Bernard Bailyn, with the assistance of Jane N. Gar- 
rett. v. i. 1750-1765. Cambridge, Belknap Press 
of Harvard University Press, 1965. 771 p. illus. 
(The John Harvard library) 6421784 203.63 
Much of the important characteristic writing of 
the American Revolution appeared, originally or 
ultimately, in pamphlet form. The pamphlets were 
initially concerned with political problems related 
to the conflict with Britain but eventually dealt with 
broader issues. Although the pamphleteers looked 
to past theorists for sources and traditions to but- 
tress their contention that British measures amount- 
ed to an active conspiracy of power against liberty, 
they not only created what is most original in Amer- 
ican political thought but also helped develop the 
American radicalism of the Revolution, a radicalism 
which was unique in that it sought not to change or 
overthrow but to establish in principle the way of 
life that was an existing reality. This is the first 
volume of a planned four-volume set. It covers the 
period 175065 and contains a 2OO-page general in- 
troduction by Bailyn as well as reprints of 14 
pamphlets, from Jonathan Mayhew's A Discourse 
Concerning Unlimited Submission (1750) to John 
Dickinson's The Late Regulations (1765), each with 
a critical essay by the editor. A useful companion 
work is Thomas R. Adam's American Indepen- 
dence: The Growth of an Idea; a Bibliographical 
Study of the American Political Pamphlets Printed 
Between 1764 and 7776 Dealing With the Dispute 
Between Great Britain and Her Colonies (Provi- 
dence, Brown University Press, 1965. 200 p. 
Brown University bicentennial publications: studies 
in the fields of general scholarship). 

1471. Gary, John H. Joseph Warren: physician, 
politician, patriot. Urbana, University of 

Illinois Press, 1961. 260 p. 

6162763 E263.M4W234 

Bibliography: p. 227243. 

Although Warren (17411775) has been known 
chiefly as the man who sent Paul Revere on his mid- 
night ride to Lexington, he played a major role as a 
propagandist in Massachusetts during the critical 
years that culminated in the outbreak of the Revo- 
lutionary War. He was an important figure in the 
incidents following the seizure of John Hancock's 
sloop Liberty in 1768, as well as in the events leading 



to the Boston Tea Party in 1773. He also wrote the 
influential Suffolk Resolves in 1774 and was presi- 
dent of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts in 
1775. Appointed a major general, he went to Bunk- 
er Hill to observe and was killed while heroically 
assisting in the fruitless effort to hold the redoubt on 
Breed's Hill. 

1472. Commager, Henry Steele, and Richard B. 
Morris, eds. The spirit of 'seventy-six; the 

story of the American Revolution as told by partici- 
pants. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill [1958] 2 v. 
(1348 p.) illus. 58-12330 203X^69 

Bibliography: v. 2, p. 12971319. 

A collection of contemporary writings dating from 
1773 to 1783 and drawn from orations, essays, songs, 
ballads, journals, diaries, private correspondence, 
and British and American official papers. Cam- 
paigns and battles receive the most generous treat- 
ment, but material is included on the coming of the 
war and on political and other nonmilitary aspects 
of the war years. Source collections bearing on lim- 
ited phases of the Revolution are The Road to Inde- 
pendence; a Documentary History of the Causes of 
the American Revolution: 77657776 (New York, 
Putman [1963] 314 p.), by John Braeman, and 
The American Revolution Through British Eyes 
(Evanston, 111., Row, Peterson [1962] 180 p.), 
edited by Martin Kallich and Andrew MacLeish, 
which helps to show "how England really felt about 
America." 

1473. Donoughue, Bernard. British politics and 
the American Revolution; the path to war, 

177375. London, Macmillan; New York, St. Mar- 
tin's Press, 1964 [i.e. 1965] 323 p. (England in 
the age of the American Revolution) 

6421438 E2io.D6 1965 

Bibliography: p.295~ 309. 

From the Boston Tea Party to the outbreak of the 
Revolution, the Ministry of Lord North received the 
support of both King and Commons. Confident 
that effective opinion was behind them, the Minis- 
ters met the challenge of the Boston Tea Party with 
a policy based on the belief that the total subordina- 
tion of America was necessary for the maintenance 
of the Empire. The Americans, however, refused 
to be coerced and resorted instead to an organized 
resistance that led to war. In The Chatham Ad- 
ministration, 17661768 (London, Macmillan; New 



142 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



York, St. Martin's Press, 1956. 400 p. England in 
the age of the American Revolution), John Brooke 
tells of the earlier failure of William Pitt, Earl of 
Chatham, to maintain the initial acceptance of his 
Ministry by both King and Commons. This failure 
led to the hardening of political parties into the 
forms they assumed during the Revolution. In The 
End of North's Ministry, 17801782 (London, Mac- 
millan; New York, St. Martin's Press, 1958. 428 p. 
England in the age of the American Revolution), Ian 
R. Christie discusses the undermining and collapse 
of the North Ministry following news of the British 
defeat at Yorktown. 

1474. Ferguson, Elmer James. The power of the 
purse; a history of American public finance, 

1776-1790. Chapel Hill, Published for the Institute 
of Early American History and Culture at Williams- 
burg, Va., by the University of North Carolina Press 
[1961] 358 p. 61-325 HJ247.F4 

"Bibliographical essay": p. [344] 347. Biblio- 
graphical footnotes. 

The traditionally unfavorable view of Revolution- 
ary finance has been based on the writings of the 
19th-century scholars who were "sound money" men 
involved in currency controversies. From his 20th- 
century viewpoint, Ferguson accepts fiat money and 
regulated economies as the norm and portrays Revo- 
lutionary finance as "reasonable if not inevitable." 
The Federal income for the first five years of the 
war came primarily from paper money. This policy 
was based upon the similar and generally successful 
financial system employed during colonial times. 
The problems of public finance were also of major 
importance during the postwar years as they in- 
fluenced the new Nation's political and constitution- 
al development. The question of whether the States 
or Congress should pay the domestic and foreign 
debt, mostly acquired during the latter years of the 
war, was intimately involved in the movement to 
strengthen the Federal Government, a development 
which led to the adoption of the Constitution and 
the rise of political parties. 

1475. Knollenberg, Bernhard. George Washing- 
ton: the Virginia period, 17321775. Dur- 
ham, N.C., Duke University Press, 1964. 238 p. 

6424989 312.2X56 

Bibliography: p. [197] 210. 

This biographical treatment of Washington's 
early life is based solely on contemporary evidence. 
Knollenberg examines Washington's own writings 
critically and finds much in his early career which is 
not wholly praiseworthy. In order to clarify Wash- 
ington's diverse activities, a topical rather than a 
chronological approach is taken. 



1476. Knollenberg, Bernhard. Origin of the Amer- 
ican Revolution: 17591766. New York, 

Macmillan, 1960. 486 p. 5910990 210X65 

Bibliography: p. 397452. 

The author argues that "while the British Stamp 
Act of 1765 greatly contributed to and touched off 
the colonial uprising of 17651766, the colonists had 
been brought to the brink of rebellion by a number 
of other provocative British measures from 1759 to 
1764, most of which persisted after the Stamp Act 
was repealed in 1766 and contributed to the mount- 
ing colonial discontent culminating in the American 
Revolution of 17751783." The first of these acts 
was the Privy Council's order (1759) that any bill 
passed by the Virginia legislature repealing or 
amending an existing act must contain a clause sus- 
pending its operation until approved by the Privy 
Council in England. This order was soon followed 
by the application of the same requirement to Mas- 
sachusetts and South Carolina and by other mea- 
sures, such as general writs of assistance. In 1764, 
new colonial revenue legislation came under the 
jurisdiction of the British vice-admiralty courts in 
America. In The Vice- Admiralty Courts and the 
American Revolution (Chapel Hill, Published for 
the Institute of Early American History and Cul- 
ture, Williamsburg, Va., by the University of North 
Carolina Press, 1960. 242 p.), Carl Ubbelohde tells 
of the colonists' opposition to these courts, which 
he considers "a minor, but persistent, cause of the 
American Revolution." 

1477. Main, Jackson Turner. The social structure 
of revolutionary America. Princeton, N.J., 

Princeton University Press, 1965. 330 p. 

6517146 HN57-M265 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

This statistical study of the American social struc- 
ture from 1763 to 1788 reveals an economic class 
system which was based upon inequalities in proper- 
ty and income and reflected a concentration of 
wealth and great disparity between rich and poor. 
Yet because of material abundance and the absence 
of legal impediments for whites, the system was re- 
markably mobile. Also dependent upon economic 
inequalities was the social hierarchy. It was charac- 
terized by a consciousness of class distinctions and a 
prestige order but was relatively democratic in that it 
set up no barriers that property could not surmount. 
Main concludes that the Revolution at least tempo- 
rarily reversed a long-term trend toward social and 
economic inequality and more marked class distinc- 
tions. 

1478. Morison, Samuel Eliot. John Paul Jones, a 
sailor's biography. With charts and diagrs. 



by Erwin Raisz and with photos. Boston, Little, 
Brown [1959] xxii, 453 p. 59-5285 E2oj.]jM6 

Bibliography^ p. [431] -443. 

"Commodore" Jones (17471792), whose official 
naval rank was captain, has been the subject of much 
romance and controversy but has received relatively 
little scholarly attention. Morison, a retired admiral 
as well as a historian, wrote this Pulitzer-Prize- 
winning biography of Jones in order to tell "what 
a sailor has to say about him." The author presents 
the Commodore's career in the Continental Navy 
and describes in detail the famous battle between 
the Bonhomme Richard and the Serapis in 1779. 
The book also offers a full picture of Jones' personal 
life, including his several romances, and clears away 
longstanding myths, especially those created by a 
few previous biographers whose works Morison con- 
siders to be largely fictional. 

1479. Nelson, William H. The American Tory. 
Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1961. 194 p. 

62-8 E277.N48 

The author discusses the Tory's quarrel with his 
fellow Americans and the totality of his defeat. 
During the years of argument before 1775, the Tory 
leaders were unable to gain sufficient support in the 
Colonies to secure power. With the outbreak of 
hostilities they became Loyalists because they con- 
tinued to hold social or political opinions that could 
be realized in America only with British assistance. 
The war brought disenchantment and defeat to the 
Loyalists. The British neither gave them sufficient 
support nor put down the rebellion, and as a result 
these Americans suffered silencing and expulsion. 
The role of the Loyalists in British military policy 
is described in Paul H. Smith's Loyalists and Red- 
coats (Chapel Hill, Published for the Institute of 
Early American History and Culture at Williams- 
burg, Va., by the University of North Carolina Press 
[1964] 199 p.). The King's Friends (Providence, 
Brown University Press, 1965. 411 p.), by Wallace 
Brown, is a study of the Loyalists through an inves- 
tigation of the extant records of the claims commis- 
sion set up by the British to indemnify these Ameri- 
cans for losses caused by the Revolution. A Tory's 
hostile view of the Revolution is presented in Peter 
Oliver's Origin & Progress of the American Rebel- 
lion (San Marino, Calif., Huntingdon Library, 1961. 
173 p. Huntington Library publications), edited by 
Douglass Adair and John A. Schutz from a pre- 
viously unpublished manuscript by a prosperous 
colonial Massachusetts judge. 

1480. Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the 
American Revolution. Chapel Hill, Pub- 
lished for the Institute of Early American History 



GENERAL HISTORY / 143 

and Culture, Williamsburg, Va., by the University 
North Carolina Press [1961] xiii, 231 p. 

6166795 E269-N3Q3 

Bibliography: p. [201] 223. 

Supporting whichever side locally invoked the 
image of liberty, Negroes in the Revolution fought 
with both British and American forces and benefited 
from an era which Quarles believes "marked out an 
irreversible path toward freedom." The Americans 
were slow to make more than limited use of the 
Negro because of an unwillingness to deprive a 
master of his apprenticed servant or chattel slave 
and from a fear of arming people who, for the most 
part, were not free. Although free Negroes fought 
in the North from the beginning, it took a shortage 
of white manpower plus British appeals to the blacks 
to force Congress and the Northern States to re- 
cruit slaves and grant them freedom as the reward 
for faithful service. The South resisted for a time, 
but all the plantation States except South Carolina 
and Georgia eventually used free Negroes as soldiers 
or sailors, and Maryland provided for the enlistment 
of slaves. The British employed runaway slaves 
and free Negroes primarily as military laborers, 
evacuating them along with the regular troops at 
the end of the war. 

1481. Schlesinger, Arthur M. Prelude to inde- 
pendence; the newspaper war on Britain, 

17641776. New York, Knopf, 1958 [ C i957] 318, 
xvi p. 5712068 PN486i.S3 

"Bibliographical note": p. 316318. Bibliograph- 
ical footnotes. 

Schlesinger's purpose is to "assess the role of the 
newspaper in undermining loyalty to the mother 
country and creating a demand for separation." 
Many factors from the Sugar Act onward helped 
provoke the Revolution, but the movement would 
have failed had not the patriot editors vehemently 
championed the American cause at every crisis and 
personally participated in subversive activities. 
Through the use of propaganda, these editors kept 
the people in constant opposition to Britain while 
preparing them for armed rebellion. In addition to 
fostering the movement toward independence, 
Schlesinger concludes, the Revolutionary newspa- 
pers promoted a freedom of utterance that has 
proved to be a boon to American journalism and the 
democratic process. 

1482. Shy, John W. Toward Lexington; the role 
of the British Army in the coming of the 

American Revolution. Princeton, N.J., Princeton 
University Press, 1965. 463 p. maps. 

6517160 210.85 
Bibliographical footnotes. 



144 / A GUI DE TO THE UNITED STATES 



In responce to the demands of defense, imperial 
regulation, and especially Indian affairs, the British 
maintained a large army on the American frontier 
during the years of peace that followed the Seven 
Years' War. The author notes that this reasonable 
military policy antagonized the colonists and helped 
bring on a constitutional crisis when Parliament de- 
cided to tax the Colonies for part of the soldiers' 
upkeep. In 1768 most of the troops were moved to 
the East, where their presence in peacetime con- 
vinced Americans that the British wanted an army 
not "o defend but to control the Colonies. By this 
tinru the colonial challenge to Parliament's sover- 
eignty was a major problem. Although the British 
we :e united in their refusal to negotiate on the issue 
of parliamentary authority, they were divided on the 
question of the army's role in the Colonies and were 
unable to decide between the alternatives of remov- 
ing the army in adherence to Whig concepts of mili- 
tarism or using it against the colonists. The events 
of 1775 made the decision for them. 

1483. Sosin, Jack M. Agents and merchants; Brit- 
ish colonial policy and the origins of the 
American Revolution, 17631775. Lincoln, Uni- 
versity of Nebraska Press, 1965. xvi, 267 p. illus. 

6513913 210.873 



Bibliography: p. 235250. 

On the eve of the Revolution, Britain's policy on 
colonial America was influenced by the efforts of 
two groups: agents retained by various Colonies to 
represent their interests in London and English 
merchants who traded with the Colonies. Because 
they believed that the prosperity of Britain depended 
upon the well-being of the American Colonies, the 
merchants worked with the colonial agents to modi- 
fy measures considered obnoxious in America. This 
lobby was especially successful during the years fol- 
lowing the French and Indian War. It could count 
among its important accomplishments the repeal of 
both the Stamp Act and the Townshend duties. 
Yet the combination of agents and merchants was 
ultimately unsuccessful. According to the author, 
it failed primarily because the American challenge 
to British authority expanded from a simple ques- 
tion of taxation, on which compromise was possible, 
to one of Parliament's sovereignty, which was not 
negotiable from Britain's point of view. In White- 
hall and the Wilderness; the Middle West in British 
Colonial Policy, 77607775 (Lincoln, University of 
Nebraska Press, 1961. 307 p.), Sosin again ex- 
pounds British administration and policy. 



F. Federal America (1783-1815) 



1484. Bernhard, Winfred E. A. Fisher Ames, 
Federalist and statesman, 17581808. Chap- 
el Hill, Published for the Institute of Early Ameri- 
can History and Culture at Williamsburg, Va., by 
the University of North Carolina Press [1965] xiii, 
372 p. illus. 6523142 302.6^564 

"A note on the sources": p. 355360. 

The appearance of a number of political bio- 
graphies of early second-rank Federalist leaders has 
increased understanding of the formation of Amer- 
ica's first political party and of its attempts to estab- 
lish a balance between local and national interests. 
One of the most notable of such leaders was Fisher 
Ames, Harvard graduate and lawyer, who entered 
politics in 1788 as a member of the Massachusetts 
convention called to consider ratification of the Con- 
stitution. A year later, Ames was elected to the U.S. 
House of Representatives, where he maintained a 
position of leadership by virtue of his legislative and 
oratorical skills until his retirement in 1797. Al- 
though Ames never wholly accepted the party sys- 
tem, he served as a major spokesman for Hamilton's 



fiscal and economic policies and supported the pre- 
dominandy Federalist view that a centralized gov- 
ernment should foster native commerce and indus- 
try. Biographies of other Federalist leaders who 
had careers in Congress from Connecticut, Massa- 
chusetts, and South Carolina, respectively, are as 
follows: Chester M. Destler's Joshua Coit, Ameri- 
can Federalist: 1 758 1798 (Middletown, Conn., 
Wesleyan University Press [1962] 191 p.), Richard 
E. Welch's Theodore Sedgwicl^, Federalist; a Politi- 
cal Portrait (Middletown, Conn., Wesleyan Univer- 
sity Press [1965] 276 p.), and George C. Rogers' 
Evolution of a Federalist: William Loughton Smith 
of Charleston (17581812) (Columbia, University 
of South Carolina Press, 1962. 439 p.). 

1485. Brant, Irving. James Madison. Indianapo- 
lis, Bobbs-Merrill [194161] 6 v. illus. 

41-19279 342.67 
Includes bibliographies. 

CONTENTS [i] The Virginia revolutionist. 
[2] The nationalist, 1780-1787. [3] Father of 



GENERAL HISTORY / 145 



the Constitution, 17871800. [4] Secretary of 
State, 18001809. [5] Tn e President, 18091812. 
[6] Commander in Chief, 18121836. 

The first five volumes of this six-volume biogra- 
phy are no. 3282 in the 1960 Guide. The final vol- 
ume carries Madison's career from 1812, the fourth 
year of his first term as President, to his death in 
1836. More a narrative of the critical events of 
Madison's Presidency than a full-scale biographical 
treatment, this volume heavily emphasizes the mili- 
tary and political strategies and issues of the War of 
1812. Brant's overall assessment of Madison's ad- 
ministration is that it strengthened and consolidated 
the Union without weakening the instruments of 
self-government. The first four volumes of Madi- 
son's Papers ( [Chicago] University of Chicago 
Press [1962-65]), edited by William T. Hutchin- 
son and William M. E. Rachal, cover the years from 
his birth in 1751 to July 1782, when he represented 
Virginia in the Continental Congress. 

1486. Brown, Roger H. The Republic in peril: 
1812. New York, Columbia University 

Press, 1964. 238 p. 6412498 357.688 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes": 

P. [I971-23 1 ; 

On the basis of his analysis of the papers of Re- 
publican Congressmen, Brown presents the thesis 
that by 1812 war was the only alternative to com- 
mercial submission to Great Britain. Beginning 
with Jefferson, the Republican administration based 
its policy on the premise that the proof of republi- 
canism as a viable form of government depended on 
the maintenance of self-regulated commercial enter- 
prise. War was the logical consequence of Great 
Britain's unwillingness to negotiate commercial 
peace despite repeated American pressures on the 
British Government and British commerce. The 
options, as the Republican leadership understood 
them, were either to submit to British domination, 
thus destroying the Republican Party and admitting 
the failure of the republican experiment, or to de- 
clare war. 

1487. Dangerfield, George. Chancellor Robert R. 
Livingston of New York, 17461813. New 

York, Harcourt, Brace [1960] 532 p. 

6010924 302.6X7203 

"A bibliographical note": p. 441450. 

Robert Livingston's political career began in 1775 
when he became a member of the New York pro- 
vincial convention and of the Second Continental 
Congress. In 1777 he was chosen to be the first 
chancellor of the State of New York, a position he 
held until 1801. He was influential in domestic 
politics at the local, State, and national levels and 



held a number of important diplomatic posts, in- 
cluding that of Minister to France from 1801 until 
1805, when he retired from politics. Dangerfield 
deals with his subject almost as the New York an- 
alog of Thomas Jefferson. His picture of Living- 
ston as an aristocratic Republican who based his 
political attitudes on the agrarian ideal and on the 
belief in property rights supports his thesis that dur- 
ing the Federalist period the New York aristocracy 
became both more republican and less democratic in 
resistance to the democratic attempt to purge Amer- 
ican society of aristocratic elements. 

1488. Fischer, David H. The revolution of Amer- 
ican conservatism; the Federalist party in the 

era of Jeffersonian democracy. New York, Harper 
& Row [1965] xx, 455 p. 6514680 331^5 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The author analyzes Federalist organization be- 
tween 1800 and 1816 in order to shed further light 
on the democratization of politics during Jefferson's 
administration. His data, much of which is drawn 
from a study of relatively younger Federalist lead- 
ers, supports his contention that political organiza- 
tion killed the Federalist movement. Fischer sug- 
gests that, whereas the Federalists began as an inter- 
est group based on elitist concepts of political leader- 
ship, the necessity of building up a power base 
against the Jeffersonians forced the adoption of Jef- 
fersonian techniques of party organization. In the 
process of borrowing methods of mass political 
appeal such as the use of conventions, electioneering, 
and widespread publicity, the Federalists were forced 
to compromise their elitist ideals. During the Jef- 
fersonian period, they were unable to find an orga- 
nizing issue strong enough to replace elitism. 

1489. Hamilton, Alexander. Papers. Harold C. 
Syrett, editor; Jacob E. Cooke, associate edi- 

tor. New York, Columbia University Press, 1961 
65. 9 v. illus. 61-15593 302^247 

CONTENTS. v. i. 17681778. v. 2. 17791781. 
v. 3. 1782-1786. v. 4. Jan. i787-May 1788. 
v. 5. June 1788 Nov. 1789. v. 6. Dec. 1789 
Aug. 1790. v. 7. Sept. 1790 Jan. 1791. v. 8. 
Feb. i79i-July 1791. v. 9. Aug. i79i-Dec. 1791. 

These volumes contain letters and documents by 
Hamilton, letters to him, and some additional docu- 
ments that directly concern him. Many routine 
items are simply calendared. In Number 7: Alex- 
ander Hamilton's Secret Attempts to Control Amer- 
ican Foreign Policy (Princeton, N.J., Princeton Uni- 
versity Press, 1964. 166 p.), Julian P. Boyd uses 
documents from his edition of the Jefferson Papers 
(no. 1491 below) to indict Hamilton on the grounds 



146 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



that he deliberately tried to subvert George Wash- 
ington's policy toward England. 

1490. Jackson, Donald D., ed. Letters of the Lewis 
and Clark Expedition, with related docu- 
ments, 1783-1854. Urbana, University of Illinois 
Press [1962] xxi, 728 p. illus. 

62-7119 F592.7.Ji 4 

Bibliography: p. 681694. 

Includes letters written by members of the Lewis 
and Clark expedition and by others who were di- 
rectly interested in it. Most of the letters were writ- 
ten between 1801 and 1816 and cover the details of 
the expedition, its purposes and findings, and for- 
eign reaction to it. More than half the 428 items 
were previously unpublished. Richard H. Dillon's 
biography, Meriwether Lewis (New York, Coward- 
McCann, 1965. 364 p.), focuses on the role of Lewis 
as the commander of the expedition and uses the 
journals and other contemporary literature to de- 
scribe the conditions of exploration. 

1491. Jefferson, Thomas, Pres. U.S. Papers. Juli- 
an P. Boyd, editor; Lyman H. Butterfield 

and [others] , associate editors. Princeton, Princeton 
University Press, 195065. 17 v. illus. 

58-7486 302^63 

Volumes 113 of this multivolume edition and 
the first volume of the Index are no. 3292 in the 
1960 Guide. 

CONTENTS. v. 14. 8 Oct. 1788 to 26 Mar. 1789. 
v. 15. 27 Mar. 1789 to 30 Nov. 1789. v. 16. 
30 Nov. 1789 to 4 July 1790. v. 17. 6 July 1790 
to 3 Nov. 1790. 

A second volume of the Index (Princeton, Prince- 
ton University Press, 1958. 207 p.), compiled by 
Elizabeth J. Sherwood, covers v. 712 of the Papers. 

1492. Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and his time. 
Boston, Little, Brown, 194862. 3 v. illus. 

485972 332^25 

Includes bibliographies. 

CONTENTS. v. i. Jefferson the Virginian. v. 2. 
Jefferson and the rights of man. v. 3. Jefferson and 
the ordeal of liberty. 

The first two volumes of this multivolume biog- 
raphy are no. 3295 in the 1960 Guide. Volume 3 
covers the period from 1792 to 1801, during which 
Jefferson served for three years as George Washing- 
ton's Secretary of State and for four years as Vice 
President under John Adams. Jefferson is viewed as 
a democratic child of the Enlightenment, a philos- 
opher-turned-statesman who was guided by the de- 
termination that "men should be set free and kept 
free in order to move forward in the light of ever- 
expanding knowledge." He was branded as a rank 



opportunist by some critics and as an impractical 
idealist by others; Malone answers both charges. 
Although Jefferson was a founder and leader of the 
Republican Party, Malone considers that he was a 
reluctant partisan who used the party only in the 
service of unity and democracy. Alexander Ba- 
linky's Albert Gallatin: Fiscal Theories and Policies 
(New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University Press, 
1958. 275 p.) concludes that Gallatin, as Jefferson's 
Secretary of the Treasury, "subordinated fiscal con- 
siderations and principles to the political and eco- 
nomic (though nonfiscal) objectives of his party." 

1493. Miller, John C. The Federalist era, 1789 
1 80 1. New York, Harper [1960] 304 p. 

(The New American nation series) 

6015321 310^5 

Bibliography: p. 279298. 

This chronological survey of the chief political 
and diplomatic events during the Presidencies of 
George Washington and John Adams focuses on 
the issues and personalities from which the first 
American party system originated. Two themes 
dominate the study: the search for national unity 
and the demand for individual liberty. In tracing 
the development of these themes, Miller follows with 
special care the activities of Alexander Hamilton 
and to a lesser extent those of Thomas Jefferson. In 
The Nation Ta1(es Shape, 1789-1837 ([Chicago] 
University of Chicago Press [1959] 222 p. The 
Chicago history of American civilization), a de- 
scriptive and interpretive essay, Marcus Cunliffe 
briefly surveys the critical years between the adop- 
tion of the Constitution and the end of Andrew 
Jackson's Presidency. 

1494. Mitchell, Broadus. Alexander Hamilton. 
New York, Macmillan, 195762. 2 v. illus. 

57-5506 E302.6.H2M6 

Bibliography: p. 775792. 

CONTENTS. [i] Youth to maturity, 1755-1788. 
[2] The national adventure, 17881804. 

Volume i of this biography is no. 3291 in the 
1960 Guide. Most of the second volume is a de- 
tailed analysis of Hamilton's economic theories and 
an examination of his fiscal policies. Hamilton was 
motivated by a sense of national honor translated 
into the moral imperative of respecting and dis- 
charging national monetary obligations. As Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, he established public credit 
and introduced order into finance, with the result 
that when he left the Treasury in 1795, the Nation 
was solvent. In Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in 
Paradox (New York, Harper [1959] 659 p.), the 
result of more than a decade of research, John C. 
Miller presents a broader analysis, showing Hamil- 



GENERAL HISTORY / 147 



ton's behavior in relation to the intricate political 
and diplomatic events of Washington's Presidency. 

1495. Monroe, James, Pres. U.S. Autobiography. 
Edited, and with an introduction, by Stuart 

Gerry Brown, with the assistance of Donald G. 
Baker. [Syracuse] Syracuse University Press 
[1959] xi, 236 p. illus. 5913117 372^3 

Brown considers James Monroe (17581831) to 
be the first important professional politician in the 
United States. Monroe began his autobiography 
in 1827 but died before completing it. The manu- 
script, a fragmentary rough draft, covers Monroe's 
career until 1807, by which time he had seen mili- 
tary service in the Revolution and had been a U.S. 
Senator, Governor of Virginia, and Minister to 
France and Great Britain. Nearly half of the auto- 
biography is devoted to his first mission to France, 
1794-96. 

1496. Smith, Page. John Adams. Garden City, 
N.Y., Doubleday, 1962. 2 v. (xx, 1170 p.) 

illus. 63-7188 322.864 



Includes bibliographical references. 

CONTENTS. v. i. 17351784. v. 2. 1784 
1826. 

The author is the first biographer of John Adams 
to have access to the complete papers of the Adams 
family, which provided the basis for his painstaking 
reconstruction of Adams' life, both private and 
public. He has chosen a narrative style and, through 
a copious use of direct quotations, allows Adams to 
tell much of the story. Since it was the author's 
intention to depict John Adams as a three-dimen- 
sional figure and his world as he himself perceived 
and experienced it, the subject matter is arranged 
chronologically rather than topically. The result is 
a constant juxtaposition of slight personal incidents 
and events of major historical significance. Lester 
J. Cappon has edited The Adams-Jefferson Letters; 
the Complete Correspondence Between Thomas Jef- 
ferson and Abigail and John Adams (Chapel Hill, 
Published for the Institute of Early American His- 
tory and Culture at Williamsburg, Va., by the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press [1959] 2 v.). 



G. The "Middle Period" (1815-60) 



1497. Benson, Lee. The concept of Jacksonian 
democracy; New York as a test case. Prince- 
ton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1961. 351 p. 

616286 Fi23.B49 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A study of the relevance of Jacksonian democracy 
to New York State politics, 1816 through 1844, 
coupled with an investigation of group voting pat- 
terns that crystallized in the 1844 presidential elec- 
tion. Benson argues that the traditional portrayal 
of the Jackson Party as a democratic movement op- 
posed by aristocratic, antiegalitarian Whigs is his- 
torically inaccurate. Because the Jacksonian Demo- 
crats adhered to the doctrines of States rights and 
negative government, the Whigs came "closer than 
the Democrats to satisfying the requirements of 
historians in search of nineteenth-century precursors 
to twentieth-century New Dealers." The author 
also finds that New York voters in 1844 were in- 
fluenced by ethnocultural and religious factors rath- 
er than by campaign issues. Jacksonian Democracy 
in Mississippi (Chapel Hill, University of North 
Carolina Press, 1960. 192 p. The James Sprunt 
studies in history and political science, v. 42), by 
Edwin A. Miles, and The Jacksonian Heritage; 
Pennsylvania Politics, 18331848 (Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1958. 



256 p.), by Charles M. Snyder, treat the diverse 
characteristics of Jacksonian politics in these indi- 
vidual States. 



1498. Capers, Gerald M. John C. Calhoun, op- 
portunist; a reappraisal. Gainesville, Uni- 
versity of Florida Press, 1960. 275 p. 

60-15788 E34o.Ci5C25 

"Bibliographical Note": p. 267269. 

The author interprets Calhoun (17821850) as a 
politician motivated by presidential aspirations. Cal- 
houn, South Carolina legislator, Congressman, Sec- 
retary of War in Monroe's Cabinet, and Vice Presi- 
dent under John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jack- 
son, is portrayed as clearly revealing this motive in 
his career. First announcing his candidacy in 1821, 
he actively sought the nomination in later presiden- 
tial campaigns. Calhoun emerges here as a self- 
seeking politician, a nationalist turned sectionalist, 
advocating nullification and States' rights as his prin- 
ciples of government. The first two volumes of the 
projected multivolume set of Calhoun's Papers (Co- 
lumbia, Published by the University of South Caro- 
lina Press for the South Caroliniana Society, 1959 
63), edited by the late Robert L. Meri wether and 
William Edwin Hemphill, contain chronologically 



148 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



arranged letters, speeches, comments, and reports 
of Calhoun from 1801 through July 1818. 

1499. Clarke, D wight L. Stephen Watts Kearny, 
soldier of the West. Norman, University of 

Oklahoma Press [1961] xv, 448 p. illus. 

6115148 403.1X205 

"Notes on sources": p. 401426. 

The 36-year Army career of Stephen Watts Kear- 
ny (17941848) began with his enlistment at the 
outbreak of the War of 1812 and lasted through the 
Mexican War. Kearny served mainly in the West 
and founded many frontier posts. In 1846 he com- 
manded the Army of the West and led the expedi- 
tion to invade and seize New Mexico. His success- 
ful campaign resulted in annexation, and Kearny 
became the first Governor of the territory. Clarke 
believes that Kearny has become a neglected figure 
in history because he brought court-martial charges 
against Lt. John C. Fremont, the popular son-in-law 
of Senator Thomas Hart Benton, and because he 
was too taciturn to defend himself adequately at the 
time and did not leave records that could be used by 
historians for that purpose. 

1500. Clay, Henry. Papers. James F. Hopkins, 
editor; Mary W. M. Hargreaves, associate 

editor. [Lexington] University of Kentucky Press 
[ c i959-63] 3 v - illus- 59- J 36o5 337.8.0597 

CONTENTS. v. i. The rising statesman, 1797 
1814. v. 2. The rising statesman, 18151820. v. 
3. Presidential candidate, 18211824. 

These three volumes are part of a projected 10- 
volume edition. Included are the texts of letters 
written by Clay and of selected letters received by 
him, as well as speeches, financial papers, and other 
documents relating to his career. The first volume 
treats Clay's career through the signing of the Treaty 
of Ghent, the second covers the period when he 
emerged as an influential politician, and the third 
reveals him in his first unsuccessful presidential cam- 
paign and as Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives. 

1501. Dangerfield, George. The awakening of 
American nationalism, 18151828. New 

York, Harper & Row [ C i965] 331 p. illus. (The 
New American Nation series) 6425112 338.03 

"Bibliographical essay": p. 303321. Bibliograph- 
ical footnotes. 

The author characterizes the period between the 
signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December 1814 
and the election of Jackson as President in 1828 as 
a conflict between economic nationalism and demo- 
cratic nationalism. Andrew Jackson emerges tri- 
umphant over Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, 



and their adherents. In his synthesis Dangerfield 
treats presidential elections, the Presidents and their 
Cabinets, the Monroe Doctrine, and the politics of 
the Missouri Compromise, as well as the panic of 
1819, Clay's American system, and the Tariff of 
Abominations. 

1502. Goetzmann, William H. Army exploration 
in the American West, 18031863. New 

Haven, Yale University Press, 1959. xx, 509 p. 
illus. (Yale publications in American studies, 4) 

5912694 F59I.G6 

"Bibliographical essay": p. 461480. Bibliograph- 
ical footnotes. 

The author is. primarily interested in the record 
of the Corps of Topographical Engineers from its 
creation by Congress in 1838 until it merged into 
the Corps of Engineers in 1863. The Topographical 
Engineers led the way in observing, surveying, and 
mapping trails, rivers, and mountain passes in the 
trans-Mississippi West. They also supervised the 
construction of roads, built dams, laid out coastal 
fortifications, and collected, cataloged, and inven- 
toried scientific information. 

1503. Hamilton, Holman. Prologue to conflict; 
the crisis and Compromise of 1850. [Lex- 
ington] University of Kentucky Press [1964] 236 
p. 6413999 423^2 

"Bibliographical essay": p. [209] 216. Biblio- 
graphical footnotes. 

A comprehensive analysis of the personalities and 
politics connected with the adoption of the Com- 
promise of 1850. Researches in the Congressional 
Globe, manuscript collections, and newspapers re- 
veal the complex legislative maneuvers involved in 
securing passage of the compromise as five separate 
acts. The author highlights the roles played by 
President Fillmore and Stephen A. Douglas. He 
also emphasizes the influence of banker William W. 
Corcoran, whose lobbying for Federal assumption 
of the Texas debt strengthened support for the com- 
promise. Tables showing rollcall votes in the House 
and Senate on the compromise measures are ap- 
pended. 

1504. Kirwan, Albert D. John J. Crittenden; the 
struggle for the Union. [Lexington] Uni- 
versity of Kentucky Press [1962] 514 p. illus. 

6219380 E34O.C9K5 
"Critical essay on authorities": p. 481491. 
In his 5O-year career in Kentucky and national 
politics as a State legislator, Governor, Congressman, 
Senator, and three-time Cabinet member, John J. 
Crittenden (17871863) witnessed the major polit- 
ical events of the ante bellum period. A member 






GENERAL HISTORY 



/ 149 



of the Whig Party, he learned the art of politics 
from his fellow Kentuckian Henry Clay. Clay's 
prominence and influence obscured Crittenden until 
the mid- 1 840*5, when he emerged as a capable party 
leader. Well-versed in the tactics of compromise, 
Crittenden sought a settlement of the slavery con- 
troversy to prevent the dissolution of the Union. 
His proposals for settling the issue through consti- 
tutional amendments failed, but he was instrumental 
in keeping Kentucky in the Union. 

1505. Klein, Philip S. President James Buchanan, 
a biography. University Park, Pennsylvania 

State University Press [1962] xviii, 506 p. illus. 

6212623 437X53 

Bibliography: p. 473490. 

With the demise of the Federalist Party, James 
Buchanan (17911868) became a conservative Dem- 
ocrat. Buchanan served as a Congressman and Sen- 
ator, as Minister to Russia and Great Britain, as 
Secretary of State in Folk's Cabinet, and as i5th 
President of the United States. In 1854 Buchanan 
helped draw up the Ostend Manifesto calling for the 
acquisition of Cuba as slave territory. Hostile oppo- 
sition, however, forced President Pierce to repudiate 
the proposal, and Buchanan was discredited. As 
President, Buchanan's efforts at compromise between 
North and South merely alienated extremists of 
both sides. Buchanan lacked the initiative needed, 
Klein believes, to handle the secession crisis. 

1506. Merk, Frederick. Manifest destiny and 
mission in American history; a reinterpre- 

tation. With the collaboration of Lois Bannister 
Merk. New York, Knopf, 1963. 265 p. 

638204 179.5^4 

Includes bibliography. 

The author explores in depth the configuration of 
the ideas, prevalent in America during the years 
1840 through 1890, that resulted in the general na- 
tional spirit of manifest destiny. Proponents of 
manifest destiny, Merk points out, were primarily 
concerned with the extension of the continental lim- 
its of the United States. Later, when this idea was 
transformed into a defense of Caribbean and inter- 
national expansion, involving the assimilation of 
non-Anglo-Saxon people, the doctrine lost its in- 
tense emotional vogue and its political importance. 

1507. Nichols, Roy F. Franklin Pierce, Young 
Hickory of the Granite Hills. [2d ed., com- 
pletely rev.] Philadelphia, University of Pennsyl- 
vania Press [1958] xvii, 625 p. illus. 

58-7750 432^63 1958 
Bibliography: p. 577593. 
An updated edition of no. 3347 in the 1960 Guide. 



1508. Rayback, Robert J. Millard Fillmore; biog- 
raphy of a President. Buffalo, Published for 

the Buffalo Historical Society by H. Stewart, 1959. 
xiv, 470 p. illus. (Publications of the Buffalo His- 
torical Society, v. 40) 5914009 Fi29.B8B88, v. 40 

Bibliography: p. [4471-457. 

Upon the death of Zachary Taylor after 16 months 
in office, Millard Fillmore (18001874) became the 
1 3th President of the United States. As a Whig 
politician from Buffalo, N.Y., Fillmore shared the 
limelight with Thurlow Weed and William H. 
Seward and served in the State Assembly and in 
Congress. Rayback notes that, in his desire to pre- 
serve the Union and to enforce the Compromise of 
1850, particularly the Fugitive Slave Law, Fillmore 
alienated both the North and the South. He failed 
to gain antislavery Whig support and thus lost the 
presidential nomination in 1852 to General Winfield 
Scott. Fillmore ran in 1856, however, as the candi- 
date of the American (Know-Nothing) Party. 
After the Civil War, he retired from politics and 
worked for Buffalo's economic, educational, and 
cultural betterment. 

1509. Seager, Robert. And Tyler too; a biography 
of John & Julia Gardiner Tyler. New York, 

McGraw-Hill [1963] xvii, 68 1 p. 

63-14259 397.84 

Bibliography: p. 647654. 

At the death of his first wife after 29 years of 
marriage, John Tyler (17901862) took as his bride 
Julia Gardiner, 30 years his junior. Their life in 
the White House and at their Virginia plantation, 
"Sherwood Forest," together with their seven chil- 
dren, is the subject of this informal biography. Cor- 
respondence of the proud and ambitious Gardiner 
family reveals both the private and public sides of 
the Tyler-Gardiner alliance. Against the backdrop 
of "the political and sectional history of the United 
States from 1810 to 1890," John Tyler and Julia 
Gardiner are revealed as distinctly warm and sym- 
pathetic individuals. Claude H. Hall's Abel Parser 
Upshur, Conservative Virginian, 17901844 (Madi- 
son, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1963 [i.e. 
1964] 271 p.) examines the career of the man who 
served Tyler first as Secretary of the Navy and then 
as Secretary of State. 

1510. Spencer, Ivor D. The victor and the spoils; 
a life of William L. Marcy. Providence, 

Brown University Press, 1959. 438 p. illus. 

59-6898 E4i5.9.Mi8S6 

Includes bibliography. 

William L. Marcy (17861857), prominent poli- 
tician from New York State, began his long service 
in government as a founder of the "Albany Regen- 



I5O / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



cy," the political machine opposing De Witt Clinton. 
As a loyal Jacksonian Democrat in the U.S. Senate, 
Marcy uttered his statement that "to the victor 
belong the spoils" while defending the confirmation 
of Martin Van Buren as Minister to England. 
Three times Governor of New York, Marcy ably 
met the financial and banking problems of the era. 
He served as Secretary of War in Folk's Cabinet and 
demonstrated administrative acumen during the 
Mexican War. His statesmanship in negotiating 
the Gadsden Purchase, improving trade relations, 
and dealing with England in Central America 
capped his career. 

v 1511. Van Deusen, Glyndon G. The Jacksonian 

era, 1828-1848. New York, Harper [1959] 

291 p. illus. (The New American Nation series) 

58-13810 338^2 

"Bibliographical essay": p. 267283. Bibliograph- 
ical footnotes. 



A survey of American politics from the election 
of Andrew Jackson through that of Zachary Taylor. 
Van Deusen's main emphasis is on national events, 
issues, and personalities. In his analysis the author 
frequently compares and contrasts Whig and Jack- 
sonian political methods and practices. He points 
out that, although the Jacksonian Party understood 
the needs and aspirations of the common man, it 
lacked an adequate economic program. The Whigs, 
on the other hand, had a clear and comprehensive 
program for the economic development of the coun- 
try, but they did not have the means at their dis- 
posal to win the support of the people. Jacksonian 
Democracy and the Wording Class, a Study of the 
New Yorf( Worfongmen's Movement, 18291837 
(Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1960. 286 p. 
Stanford studies in history, economics, and political 
science, 19), by Walter E. Hugins, examines the 
labor movement and its leaders and their relation- 
ship to the Jacksonian Party and program. 



H. Slavery, the Civil War, and Reconstruction (to 1877) 



^71512. Brodie, Fawn M. Thaddeus Stevens: 

scourge of the South. New York, Norton 

[1959] 448 p. illus. 599236 415.9.88467 

Bibliography: p. 401433. 

A member of the U.S. House of Representatives 
during 184953 and 185968, Thaddeus Stevens is 
acknowledged as the father of the i4th amendment 
and the leading architect of Republican Reconstruc- 
tion policy. Mrs. Brodie applies two analytical 
methods in her study of Stevens' tempestuous career. 
In the first quarter of the book, she explores the cir- 
cumstances of Stevens' childhood and early career in 
order to determine the psychological factors behind 
his uncompromising idealism and extreme radical- 
ism. She devotes the remainder of the volume to a 
discussion of the political, social, and economic tem- 
per of the times, with emphasis on those conditions 
which made it possible for Stevens to play a domi- 
nant role. 

1513. Cain, Marvin R. Lincoln's Attorney Gen- 
eral: Edward Bates of Missouri. Columbia, 
University of Missouri Press [1965] 361 p. illus. 

6513690 415.9. B2C3 
Bibliography: p. 334352. 

Although Edward Bates' diary of the war years 
has long been an important source of information on 
the Lincoln administration, Cain is the first historian 
to write a full-scale biography of this conservative 



political leader from Missouri. Cain's study of 
Bates (17931869), whom historians have regarded 
as relatively colorless and unimportant, focuses on 
the transitional rather than the turbulent elements 
of the Civil War decade. According to the author, 
Bates represented a generation "caught between the 
agrarian idealism of Jeffersonian society and the ma- 
terial promise of young America and facing for- 
midable problems engendered by slavery, section- 
alism, and the industrial awakening." Although he 
was not one of the more influential members of 
Lincoln's Cabinet, he did effect some legal and ad- 
ministrative restraints on radical military activity. 

1514. Carter, Hodding. The angry scar; the story 

of Reconstruction. Garden City, N.Y., 

Doubleday, 1959. 425 p. (Mainstream of America 

series) 5&-9377 E668.C3 

Bibliography: p. [411] 414. 

The author, a Southern journalist, takes as his 
point of departure the current conflicts between 
North and South. His study is "essentially an in- 
terpretive synthesis of a considerable body of writing 
on the Reconstruction period," with emphasis on the 
effects of post-Civil-War Republican policy on fu- 
ture generations rather than on explanations for the 
failure of Reconstruction to achieve its objectives. 
Carter believes that, instead of uniting the American 



GENERAL HISTORY 



/ 



people, Reconstruction rigidified Southern white 
culture and hardened Southern opposition to change 
far into the 2oth century. 

1515. Donald, David H. Charles Sumner and the 
coming of the Civil War. New York, 

Knopf, 1960. 392 p. illus. 609144 415.9.8906 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A biography of the Boston lawyer who was one of 
the leading proponents of abolition in the U.S. Sen- 
ate. From 1845, when his antislavery idealism 
brought him actively into Massachusetts politics over 
the issue of the annexation of Texas, until his death, 
Charles Sumner (18111874) gained a reputation 
as a doctrinaire moral crusader and radical extrem- 
ist. Donald approaches his subject primarily as a 
problem of understanding the complex personality 
of a man who was successful in both the intellectual 
circles and the political arenas of mid-i9th-century 
America. The analysis of Sumner's intellectual and 
emotional development is based partly on a study of 
his speeches and writings and the reactions of his 
contemporaries. The volume ends with the year 
1861; a companion volume covering Sumner's later 
career is projected. 

1516. Douglas, Stephen A. Letters. Edited by 
Robert W. Johannsen. Urbana, University 

of Illinois Press, 1961. xxxi, 558 p. illus. 

61-62768 E4I5.9.D73A4 

A complete collection of the known correspon- 
dence of Stephen A. Douglas (1813-1861), an Il- 
linois Democrat whose politics were based on his 
belief in manifest destiny and popular sovereignty. 
The letters cover his active political years (183361) 
during which he held many State and national of- 
fices, including those of Representative and Senator 
in the U.S. Congress, and was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for the Presidency in 1860. This volume is 
intended in part to serve as a corrective balance to 
Douglas' historical image as a rigid supporter of 
States rights, a reputation which he gained in part 
through his debates with Lincoln in 1858. 

1517. Duberman, Martin B., ed. The antislavery 
vanguard; new essays on the abolitionists. 

Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1965. 
508 p. 65-10824 449.084 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A collection of 17 essays which reexamine and re- 
define abolitionism. The essays represent a revision- 
ist swing away from the long-prevalent interpreta- 
tion of the abolitionists as cranks and fanatics. The 
editor notes that, although "most of the contributors 
to this volume may be said to be sympathetic to the 
abolitionists, they have not seen their function as one 



of vindication or special pleading"; the "large ma- 
jority have dealt in neutral terms of analysis." The 
essays cover a wide range of approaches, including 
moral, social, political, and psychological. In The 
Bold Brahmins; New England's War Against Slav- 
ery, 18311863 (New York, Dutton, 1961. 318 p.), 
Lawrence Lader presents a study of that part of the 
antislavery movement which originated and cen- 
tered in Boston. 

1518. Duff, John }. A. Lincoln: prairie lawyer. 
New York, Rinehart [1960] 433 p. illus. 

60-5228 457.2.08 

Bibliography: p. 403413. 

A study of Lincoln's legal career from 1837, when 
he was sworn in before the Illinois bar and com- 
menced practice in Springfield, the State capital, 
until his election as President in 1860. The author 
considers Lincoln's legal career against the back- 
ground of the legal profession in the Middle West 
during the period when that region was passing 
from frontier status to political and social maturity. 
Primary emphasis is given to Lincoln's use of his 
legal practice as preparation for his political career 
and his years in the Presidency. Duff draws much 
of his evidence from an examination of the cases, 
many of which were politically relevant, that Lin- 
coln argued before Illinois and Federal courts, as 
well as from a scrutiny of Lincoln's law partners, 
John T. Stuart, Stephen T. Logan, and William H. 
Herndon. 

1519. Franklin, John Hope. Reconstruction: after 
the Civil War. [Chicago] University of 

Chicago Press [1961] 258 p. illus. (The Chicago 
history of American civilization) 

6115931 E668.F7 

"Suggested reading": p. 232242. 

A survey of Reconstruction policy and its political, 
economic, and social effects during the post-Civil- 
War decade. The author treats the emergence of 
the New South, with its cities, factories, and racial 
problems, in the context of the larger national prob- 
lems posed by industrialization. Much of the vol- 
ume centers on the decline of old socioeconomic 
groups, the emergence of new groups, and the shift- 
ing political interactions between groups. Franklin 
concludes that the failure of Reconstruction was due 
as much to Northern acquiescence in Southern pre- 
judices as to Southern attitudes. 

1520. Gara, Larry. The liberty line; the legend of 
the underground railroad. Lexington, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky Press [1961] 201 p. 

616552 450.622 
Bibliographical footnotes. 



152 / 



A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



The author dissects the legend of the underground 
railroad and poses its elements against the reality of 
escape from slavery. In his attempt to separate fact 
from fancy, Gara examines abolitionist memoirs and 
contemporary newspapers, both Northern and 
Southern. Finding little reason for acceptance of 
the romantic notion of the underground as a well- 
organized conspiracy in which the white abolitionist 
played the hero, he assigns primary importance to 
the legend as propaganda. Even though the under- 
ground railroad was less instrumental in facilitating 
escape than is commonly supposed, the propagation 
of the myth of its utility was an important ingredi- 
ent of abolitionist agitation. 

1521. Genovese, Eugene D. The political economy 
of slavery; studies in the economy & society 

of the slave South. New York, Pantheon Books 
[1965] xiv, 304 p. 65-14583 442.645 

"Bibliographical note": p. 289292. Bibliograph- 
ical footnotes at the ends of chapters. 

The slaveholding system was at the basis of a civ- 
ilization which was not only different from but also 
antagonistic to the more industrially oriented North- 
ern States and European nations. The South was 
thus increasingly put in a defensive posture, but the 
relative inefficiency of its agrarian economic system 
undermined the viability of its institutions. In Slav- 
ery; a Problem in American Institutional and Intel- 
lectual Life ( [Chicago] University of Chicago Press 
[1959] 247 p.), Stanley M. Elkins uses psychologi- 
cal analogies and comparative institutional analyses 
to discuss the effects of slavery on the Negro in 
America. 

1522. McKitrick, Eric L. Andrew Johnson and 
Reconstruction. [Chicago] University of 

Chicago Press [1960] 533 p. 

60-5467 E668.Mi56 

"Selected bibliography, with notes": p. 511521. 

This analysis of Federal Reconstruction policy 
from 1865 to 1869 traces the development of the 
conflict between Andrew Johnson and Congress 
within the context of partisan politics. McKitrick 
argues that the President, by virtue of his uncom- 
promising nonpartisanship, bore major responsibil- 
ity for the inability of the Federal Government to 
achieve a moderate solution for the problems of the 
South. By promulgating Reconstruction policies 
which were unacceptable to his own party, Johnson 
failed to conciliate the South and at the same time 
alienated the North. Politics, Principle, and Prej- 
udice, 18651866; Dilemma of Reconstruction 
America ([New York] Free Press of Glencoe 
[1963] 294 p.), by La Wanda C. F. Cox and John 
H. Cox, examines the development of power blocs 



within the Democratic and Republican Parties dur- 
ing the first year of Johnson's Presidency. 

1523. McPherson, James M. The struggle for 
equality; abolitionists and the Negro in the 

Civil War and Reconstruction. Princeton, N.J., 
Princeton University Press, 1964. 474 p. illus. 

6323411 449^176 

"Bibliographical essay": p. 433450. 

A study of the abolitionist movement in the North 
from 1860 to the ratification of the i5th amendment 
in 1870. McPherson contends that the abolitionists, 
in their struggle for racial equality, served as the 
conscience of the radical Republicans. He traces 
the activities of a number of groups and individuals, 
many of them either Garrisonian or derivative from 
the Garrison movement, which stood for immediate, 
unconditional, and universal abolition of slavery in 
1860. The Negro's Civil War; How American 
Negroes Felt and Acted During the War for the 
Union (New York, Pantheon Books [1965] 358 
p.), also by McPherson, is a collection of documents 
arranged in narrative form, with connecting inter- 
pretive and factual information. 

1524. Merrill, Walter M. Against wind and tide, 
a biography of Wm. Lloyd Garrison. Cam- 
bridge, Harvard University Press, 1963. xvi, 391 p. 
illus. 6310871 449.62557 

Bibliographical references included in "Introduc- 
tion" (p. xiii xvi) and in "Notes" (p. 335377). 

A biography inspired by the author's discovery 
and acquisition of an extensive group of manuscripts 
relating to Garrison. Basing his story on these pa 
pers and the publicly available collections, Merril 
undertakes to "re-evaluate the character and per 
sonality of Garrison the man, and to afford a solk 
basis for appraisal of his position in the American 
antislavery movement." He places Garrison in th 
context of his family and his closest associates, " 
side of Garrison neglected by other biographers, 
and describes "the fiery radical, the orator, the poli- 
tician, the writer of florid editorials as well as th 
man of family, the kindhearted father and friend, 
the vain and humorous punster, and the writer oi 
bad verse." He replies to his subject's recent critics, 
concluding that "As editor and personality, Garrison 
remains the chief symbol of the abolition crusade.' 

1525. Nevins, Allan. The War for the Union 
New York, Scribner [195960] 2 v. illus 

(His The Ordeal of the Union, v. 56) 

593690 468 .N4; 

Includes bibliographical references. 

CONTENTS. v. i. The improvised war, 1861- 
1862. v. 2. War becomes revolution, 18621863. 



GENERAL HISTORY / 153 



A continuation of The Ordeal of the Union, the 
first four volumes of which are no. 33983399 in the 
1960 Guide. The primary theme of these two vol- 
umes, which cover slightly more than the first two 
years of the conflict, is the impact of the war on na- 
tional character. The author contends that the Civil 
War forged a new unity in a nation of individualists 
and that the military exigencies of popular warfare 
demanded new forms of administrative, industrial, 
transportation, political, and social organization. 
Tragic Years, 18601865; a Documentary History 
of the American Civil War (New York, Simon & 
Schuster, 1960. 2 v.), by Paul M. Angle and Earl 
Schenck Miers, uses contemporary accounts to re- 
veal the social revolution which occurred during the 
Civil War. 

1526. Nichols, Roy F. The stakes of power, 1845 
1877. New York, Hill & Wang [1961] 246 

p. illus. (The Making of America) 

61-7560 415.7^5 

"Bibliographical note": p. 231240. 

A survey organized around the theme of the 
struggle between North and South for the control 
of the political and economic power of the Federal 
Government. The author notes that, as America 
expanded and as Americans made more demands 
on the Federal Government, the stakes of power 
grew higher and politics became a serious struggle 
between those who wanted power and those who 
were afraid of losing it. The Civil War and the 
bitterness of Reconstruction, according to Nichols, 
were logical consequences of the "either/or" char- 
acter of national politics during the 1840'$ and 
1 850*5 and the inability to compromise on the issues 
of ideology and lifestyle. 

1527. Quarles, Benjamin. Lincoln and the Negro. 
New York, Oxford University Press, 1962. 

275 p. illus. 629829 457.2.03 

Bibliography: p. 251264. 

Lincoln brought to the Presidency in 1860 "a 
grasp of the political and constitutional aspects of 
slavery unsurpassed by any public person of his 
day." Negroes have almost universally regarded 
him as the hero-liberator of their race, the author 
indicates, and the act of emancipation is one of the 
foundation stones of the Lincoln legend. Lincoln's 
attitude toward the Negro and toward slavery was 
not as consistent as the legend would suggest, how- 
ever. Quarles' study of the development of Lin- 
coln's attitudes toward the Negro issue over his life- 
time reveals a man of "complex and many-sided 
character" and of political astuteness. 

1528. Randall, James G., and David H. Donald. 
The Civil War and Reconstruction. 2d ed. 



Boston, Heath [1961] 820 p. illus. 

6110357 468^26 1961 

Bibliography: p. 703788. 

An updated, revised edition of no. 3408 in the 
1960 Guide. Donald, a student of Randall's, has 
made most of the major changes in the Reconstruc- 
tion section, shifting the emphasis from sectional to 
national problems and issues. The Tragic Conflict; 
the Civil War and Reconstruction (New York, G. 
Braziller, 1962. 528 p. The American epochs ser- 
ies), edited by William B. Hesseltine, is a collection 
of contemporary accounts documenting a variety of 
attitudes toward the war. Two works dealing 
primarily with structural and political weaknesses 
in the Confederacy are Why the North Won the 
Civil War ([Baton Rouge] Louisiana State Univer- 
sity Press [1960] 128 p.), a collection of essays 
edited by Donald, and War Within a War; the 
Confederacy Against Itself (Philadelphia, Chilton 
Books [1965] 177 p.), by Carleton Beals. 

1529. Sewell, Richard H. John P. Hale and the 
politics of abolition. Cambridge, Harvard 
University Press, 1965. 290 p. 

6513849 415.9^1584 1965 

Includes bibliographies. 

Many recent studies of individual abolitionists 
have contributed to an understanding of the com- 
plexity and variety of motivations, attitudes, and 
activities which have been grouped together under 
the generic term "abolition movement." One such 
work is Sewell's biography of John P. Hale (1806 
1873), New Hampshire lawyer, politician, and dip- 
lomat, who gained a national reputation as an anti- 
slavery spokesman. Other studies of prominent 
abolitionists are Hinton Rowan Helper, Abolitionist- 
Racist (University, University of Alabama Press 
[1965] 256 p. Southern historical publications, no. 
7), by Hugh C. Bailey, and Elijah P. Lovejoy, 
Abolitionist Editor (Urbana, University of Illinois 
Press, 1961. 190 p.), by Merton L. Dillon. 

\ 1530. Sharkey, Robert P. Money, class, and party; 
an economic study of Civil War and Recon- 
struction. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1959. 
346 p. (The Johns Hopkins University studies in 
historical and political science, ser. 77, no. 2) 

5915423 H3I.J6 ser. 77, no. 2 
Bibliography: p. 312333. 

An analysis of the financial views of various 
economic and political groups from 1865 to 1870. 
The author accepts Charles A. Beard's general in- 
terpretation that the major historical significance of 
the Civil War and Reconstruction lies in the pro- 
found social revolution which they brought about. 
Sharkey concludes, however, that close examination 



154 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



of the activities of manufacturers, farmers, laborers, 
bankers, and various subgroups within the Repub- 
lican and Democratic Parties with respect to the 
greenback, tariff, and banking issues does not bear 
out Beard's thesis that the crux of the revolution was 
the political overthrow of the Southern planter aris- 
tocracy by a Northern and Eastern capitalist-Repub- 
lican group. The theory of monolithic class revolu- 
tion, Sharkey believes, does not adequately represent 
the diversity and complexity of the economic and 
political groupings of post-Civil-War society. 

1531. Stampp, Kenneth M. The era of Recon- 
struction, 1865-1877. New York, Knopf, 

1965. 228, [i] p. 6413447 668.879 

"Bibliographical note": p. 217 [229]. 
A synthesis of revisionist scholarship on the Re- 
construction period. The author's purpose is to 
dispel the lingering notion that the post-Civil-War 
South was the scene of almost unbridled licentious- 
ness and brutality perpetrated by a group of 
irresponsible Republican politicians who dictated 
Reconstruction policy. The weaknesses and failures 
of Reconstruction leaders are exposed, but their lofty 
intentions and genuine accomplishments, particular- 
ly the adoption of the i4th and i5th amendments, 
are credited with enduring significance. The pro- 
visional governments established in the South by 
Johnson are blamed for introducing the patterns of 
segregation and discrimination. 

1532. Stern, Philip Van Doren. When the guns 
roared; world aspects of the American Civil 

War. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1965. 385 p. 

illus. 65-12826 469.89 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 

(P- r353]-372). 

A study of the international impact of the Civil 
War and of the effect of foreign attitudes on the 
outcome of the war. On the basis of an analysis of 
official and unofficial diplomacy and of popular re- 
actions, the author concludes that the balance of in- 
ternational opinion remained on the side of the 
North. The Confederacy's defeat was in part due 
to her failure to gain England, and hence other na- 
tions, as an ally to her cause. Abroad, the Civil 
War appeared primarily as a conflict between good 
and evil, freedom and slavery, and the Confederacy 
could not overcome this disadvantage. 

1533. Thomas, Benjamin P., and Harold M. Hy- 
man. Stanton; the life and times of Lin- 
coln's Secretary of War. New York, Knopf, 1962. 
642 p. illus. 6117829 E467.I.S8T45 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A biography of the Ohio lawyer (18141869) who 
moved into the Federal Government as Buchanan's 



Attorney General in 1860 and served as Secretary of 
War under Lincoln and Johnson from 1862 to 1868. 
The authors devote most of their study to Stanton's 
activities in the Lincoln and Johnson Cabinets. As 
Civil War administrator of the Army, he was one of 
the key figures in the reorganization of the Govern- 
ment to meet the demands of military supply. As 
a radical reconstructionist in the Johnson Cabinet, 
he was one of the leaders of the movement to im- 
peach the President. 

1534. Wade, Richard C. Slavery in the cities; the 
South, 1820-1860. New York, Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 1964. 340 p. 

6422366 443 .W3 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. 
[2871-323). 

The author traces the decline of the institution of 
slavery from 1820 to 1860. On the basis of his ex- 
amination of various aspects of urban slavery, Wade 
concludes that it began to deteriorate in most South- 
ern cities between 1835 and 1845. Although slavery 
remained as viable economically as it had been be- 
tween 1820 and 1840, when the slave population had 
grown proportionately with the white population, it 
became increasingly difficult to discipline slaves dur- 
ing their off-work hours. As a result, cities began 
to devise schemes for decreasing black populations 
and for exercising rigid controls on Negroes who re- 
mained in the city. 

1535. Warren, Robert Penn. The legacy of the 
Civil War; meditations on the centennial. 

New York, Random House [1961] 109 p. 

617261 649^27 

An impressionistic and discursive essay by the poet 
and novelist. Warren identifies the Civil War as 
the formative American experience. His essay, 
which has both poetic and metaphysical overtones, 
represents an excursion into the national psyche. 
The legacy of the Civil War cannot be cost-account- 
ed; there is no way of balancing the industrialization 
of the North against the backwardness of the South. 
The historical significance of the Civil War contin- 
ues through the mid-2oth century because it serves 
as the American restatement of the classic conflict 
as yet unresolved, between will and inevitability, anc 
because "we see how the individual men, despite 
failings, blindness, and vice, may affirm for us the 
possibility of the dignity of life." 

1536. Welles, Gideon. Selected essays. Compiled 
by Albert Mordell. New York, Twaync 

Publishers [1959-60] 2 v. 60-11329 458^4 

CONTENTS. [i] Civil War and Reconstruction 

[2] Lincoln's administration. 



GENERAL HISTORY / 155 



A collection of essays by the man who served as 
Secretary of the Navy under Lincoln and Johnson. 
Gideon Welles (1802-1878) came to the Cabinet 
with a background in journalism and politics. 
These essays, which originally appeared as articles 
in the Galaxy and the Atlantic Monthly during 



187078, were intended in part to correct contem- 
porary misconceptions about Lincoln's administra- 
tion and in part to vindicate the author's Cabinet 
activities. They serve as a source of information on 
the methods by which Lincoln arrived at some of 
the crucial decisions of the Civil War. 



I. Grant to McKinley (1869-1901) 



1537. Diamond, Sigmund, ed. The Nation trans- 
formed; the creation of an industrial society. 

New York, G. Braziller, 1963. xiv, 528 p. 

63-17876 HN 57 .D53 

Bibliography: p. 524528. 

A selection of writings on the Gilded Age, stress- 
ing its economic, social, and intellectual develop- 
ments. The accelerated growth of industry altered 
the existing environment and created numerous 
problems in American society. At the turn of the 
century, the American people realized that orga- 
nized programs were needed to cope with the chang- 
ing economy and the glaring inequalities that it had 
produced. The Nationalizing of American Life, 
iSjjiqoo (New York, Free Press [1965] 338 p. 
Sources in American history, 6), edited by Ray Ging- 
er, is another series of excerpts pertaining to the 
political, economic, social, and cultural problems of 
the age. The Gilded Age, a Reappraisel ( [Syra- 
cuse, N.Y.] Syracuse University Press, 1963. 286 
p.), edited by Howard Wayne Morgan, consists of 
essays by 10 historians on American life during this 
period. John S. Blay's After the Civil War; a Pic- 
torial Profile of America from 1865 to 7900 (New 
York, Crowell [1960] 312 p.), reflects the trans- 
formation of the United States during this 35-year 
span. 

1538. Faulkner, Harold U. Politics, reform, and 
expansion, 18901900. New York, Harper 

[1959] 312 p. illus. (The New American Nation 
series) 566022 E66i.F3 

Bibliography: p. 281304. 

A descriptive history, concentrating on the politi- 
cal, economic, social, and expansionist activities of 
the United States. Faulkner notes that the shift 
from a predominantly rural and agricultural en- 
vironment to an urban and industrial society caused 
profound changes in the economic and social struc- 
ture of the Nation. During this decade reform 
movements were initiated to cope with the prob- 
lems of a modern industrial state, and the country 
moved from a position of relative isolation to one of 



involvement in world politics. The victory over 
Spain and the imperialism which resulted from it, 
according to Faulkner, signaled the dawn of a new 
age. The 1890'$ were a watershed separating "not 
only two centuries but two eras in American 
history." 

1539. Glad, Paul W. McKinley, Bryan, and the 
people. Philadelphia, Lippincott [1964] 

222 p. (Critical periods of history) 

6411853 710.655 

"Bibliographical essay": p. 211218. 

During the campaign of 1896 both William Jen- 
nings Bryan, the Democratic and Populist nominee, 
and William McKinley, the Republican candidate, 
emerged as spokesmen for a particular economic or- 
der and the social values connected with it. Mc- 
Kinley was a representative of business and industry 
and subscribed to the concept of the "self-made 
man." William Jennings Bryan represented an 
agrarian ideal that stressed the role of the indepen- 
dent yeoman farmer in the tradition of Jefferson. 
The author considers that the election of 1896 sig- 
nified the triumph of industrialism over agrarian- 
ism. Henceforth farmers would no longer play 
their previously powerful role in American politics. 

1540. Hayes, Rutherford B., Pres. U.S. Hayes: 
the diary of a President, 18751881, cover- 
ing the disputed election, the end of Reconstruction, 
and the beginning of civil service. Edited by T. 
Harry Williams. New York, D. McKay Co. [1964] 
329 p. 64-10784 E682.H48 

The diary of Rutherford Birchard Hayes (1822 
1893) C( > ver s his nomination for the Presidency, the 
1876 campaign, the controversial election and its 
outcome, and his record as Chief Executive. Not a 
day-to-day journal, it is significant for Hayes' com- 
ments on the end of Reconstruction, the Republican 
Party, reform in the Gilded Age, the role of the 
President, and his relations with Congress. There 
is much detail on Hayes' views on the money and 
currency question, civil service, and the struggle 



156 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

with Congress over the rider bills. The diary also 
depicts the social activities of President Hayes and 
his wife. This edition, based on a typed copy of the 
original manuscript, includes an introduction, a 
chronology of Hayes' administration, and biograph- 
ical notes on his contemporaries. In Hayes of the 
Twenty-third; the Civil War Volunteer Officer 
(New York, Knopf, 1965. 324 p.), T. Harry 
Williams studies Hayes' four-year service in the 
Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

1541. Hays, Samuel P. The response to indus- 
trialism, 1885-1914. [Chicago] University 

of Chicago Press [1957] 210 p. (The Chicago 
history of American civilization) 

57-6981 HCio5.H35 

The period discussed in this work was marked by 
vast changes in the American economic system. 
Technological innovation and industrial expansion 
greatly altered traditional functions of work and 
employment. The author states that industrialism 
provided for every American an opportunity to en- 
joy a higher standard of living, but it also demanded 
drastic changes in his life. "It forced upon every 
one a new atmosphere, a new setting, to which he 
had to adjust in his thought, play, worship, and 
work." During these years new political parties, 
such as the Populists, Progressives, and Socialists, 
sought in their programs to reform a society increas- 
ingly regimented and dehumanized by industrial- 
ism. Ray Ginger's Age of Excess; the United States 
From 1877 to igi4 (New York, Macmillan [1965] 
386 p.) aims at synthesizing the economic, social, 
cultural, and political issues of the Gilded Age. 

1542. Merrill, Horace S. Bourbon leader: Grover 
Cleveland and the Democratic Party. Edited 

by Oscar Handlin. Boston, Little, Brown [1957] 
224 p. (The Library of American biography) 

5712002 697^4 

"A Note on the sources": p. [209] 210. 

A critical biography reappraising Grover Cleve- 
land (18371908). The first Democratic President 
after the Civil War, Cleveland took office in 1885 
but lost to Benjamin Harrison in 1888. He regained 
the Presidency in the election of 1892. During his 
early years in New York State politics, Cleveland 
had acquired a reputation for efficiency and honesty 
as an elected official. In 1884 he was the choice of 
the Bourbon Democrats, the most influential men 
in the party, to receive the presidential nomination. 
The Bourbon Democrats, "the conservative spokes- 
men of business," backed Cleveland during both of 
his administrations. By following Bourbon strategy, 
Cleveland ran two successful presidential campaigns 



on the platform of ending corruption and waste in 
governmental operations. The Cabinet Diary of 
William L. Wilson, 1896-1897 (Chapel Hill, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press [1957] 276 p.), 
edited by Festus P. Summers, is a private account of 
the last 14 months of Cleveland's second adminis- 
tration from the viewpoint of his Postmaster Gen- 
eral. In "I Am a Democrat"; the Political Career 
of David Bennett Hill ([Syracuse, N.Y.] Syracuse 
University Press, 1961. 315 p.), Herbert J. Bass 
concentrates on Hill's career as Governor of New 
York State, 188591, and his subsequent influence 
in the Democratic Party as U.S. Senator, 189297. 

1543. Morgan, Howard Wayne. William McKin- 
ley and his America. [Syracuse, N.Y.] 

Syracuse University Press, 1963. 595 p. illus. 

6319723 E7U.6.M7 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes to 
chapters." 

This biography presents William McKinley 
(18431901) as a transitional figure in the history 
of the American Presidency. He had neither the 
conservative views of Cleveland, his predecessor, 
nor the modern ones of Theodore Roosevelt, who 
followed him. The author places special emphasis 
on McKinley's 3O-year career in national politics and 
illustrates his role as an internationalist in the for- 
mulation of American foreign policy. He also shows 
that, contrary to current historical interpretations, 
McKinley sympathized with labor and outlived his 
rigid conservatism on the tariff question. The 
25th President, Morgan maintains, was of much 
stronger moral and political vision than is usually 
recognized. McKinley Republicanism helped re- 
store confidence and prosperity to a depression- 
stricken generation. In the Days of McKinley 
(New York, Harper [1959] 686 p.), by Margaret 
Leech, is a detailed review of McKinley's first 
administration. 

1544. Nye, Russel B. Midwestern progressive 
politics; a historical study of its origins and 

development, 1870-1958. [East Lansing] Michi- 
gan State University Press [1959] 398 p. 

58-9111 F354.N8 1959 

An updated edition of no. 3446 in the 1960 Guide. 
In The Populist Response to Industrial America; 
Midwestern Populist Thought (Cambridge, Har- 
vard University Press, 1962. 166 p.), Norman Pol- 
lack considers Populism as "a progressive social 
force" and the Populist Party as a group seeking to 
alleviate the economic and social inequalities createc 
by industrialism. Ignatius Donnelly; the Portrait 
of a Politician ([Chicago] University of Chicago 



GENERAL HISTORY / 157 



Press [1962] 427 p.), by Martin Ridge, is a full- 
length treatment of the Minnesota reformer and 
Congressman. 

1545. Sage, Leland L. William Boyd Allison; a 
study in practical politics. Iowa City, State 
Historical Society of Iowa, 1956. 401 p. illus. 

5663186 664^4383 

"Bibliography: manuscript collections": p. 333 
334. Bibliographical references included in "Foot- 
notes" (p. 335-383)- 

William Boyd Allison (18291908) represented 
the State of Iowa in the U.S. Congress for 43 years. 
His political career began in 1863 with his election 
as a Republican to the House of Representatives, 
where he served for eight years. He was elected 
Senator in 1872 and continued in that office for six 
terms. Allison maintained a high standing in the 
Republican Party and was a serious contender for 
the presidential nomination in 1888. He was of- 
fered Cabinet positions during the administrations 
of Garfield, Harrison, and McKinley but chose to 
retain the chairmanship of the Appropriations Com- 
mittee instead. The Iowa Senator is perhaps best 
remembered for the bill bearing his name, the 
Bland- Allison Act of 1878, which provided for the 
coinage of silver dollars. Shelby M. Cullom, Prairie 
State Republican (Urbana, University of Illinois 
Press, 1962. 328 p. Illinois studies in the social 
sciences, v. 51), by James W. Neilson, is a biography 
of the U.S. Senator from Illinois who was instru- 



mental in establishing the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. 

1546. Sievers, Harry J. Benjamin Harrison. In- 
troduction by Hilton U. Brown. Chicago, 
H. Regnery Co., 1952 [59] 2 v. illus. 

6727226 702.854 

Vol. 2 has imprint: New York, University Pub- 
lishers. 

Bibliography at end of each volume. 

CONTENTS. i. Hoosier warrior, 18331865. 
2. Hoosier statesman; from the Civil War to the 
White House, 1865-1888. 

The first two volumes of this projected three- 
volume study of Benjamin Harrison (18331901) 
chronicle his rise from local political leadership in 
Indiana to his election as the 23d President in 
1888. Volume i covers Harrison's early life 
through his Civil War service as a Union officer. 
After the war Harrison returned to his law prac- 
tice in Indianapolis and reentered State politics. He 
was defeated in the gubernatorial election of 1876 
but was elected U.S. Senator five years later. Har- 
rison was nominated as the Republican presidential 
candidate in 1888 to run against Grover Cleveland. 
Although Cleveland received a plurality of the 
popular vote, Harrison was elected with a majority 
of the electoral votes. A second edition, revised, of 
the first volume of this biography, Hoosier Warrior; 
Through the Civil War Years, 1833-1865 (New 
York, University Publishers [ C i96o] 374 p.) con- 
tains a new preface and an enlarged index. 



J. Theodore Roosevelt to Wilson (1901-11) 



1547. Barck, Oscar T., and Nelson M. Blake. 
Since 1900; a history of the United States in 

our times. 4th ed. New York, Macmillan [1965] 

963 p. illus. 6514074 741.634 1965 

An updated edition of no. 3452 in the 1960 Guide. 

1548. Coletta, Paolo E. William Jennings Bryan, 
v. i. Political evangelist, 18601908. Lin- 
coln, University of Nebraska Press, 1964. 486 p. 

6411352 E664.B87C55 

Bibliography: p. 446477. 

The first volume of this projected multivolume 
biography deals with the political career of William 
Jennings Bryan (18601925) and his effects on the 
domestic and foreign policies of the Nation. Three 
times defeated as the Democratic candidate for 
President, Bryan exemplified agrarian America in 



an era of rapid industrial growth. The author's 
study of published and unpublished material pro- 
vides new insights into Bryan's personality and 
political style. Viewing political and economic 
questions in moral terms, Bryan maintained a pro- 
vincial outlook. He urged, however, that the Fed- 
eral Government play a greater role in the solution 
of national problems, particularly in matters of cur- 
rency reform. In The Trumpet Soundeth; William 
Jennings Bryan and His Democracy, 18961912 
([Lincoln] University of Nebraska Press, 1960. 
242 p.), Paul W. Glad studies Bryan during the 
most important period of his leadership. Defender 
of the Faith: William Jennings Bryan; the Last 
Decade, 79/57925 (New York, Oxford University 
Press, 1965. 386 p.), by Lawrence W. Levine, traces 
Bryan's career after his resignation as Secretary of 
State in 1915. 



1549- Daniels, Josephus. The Cabinet diaries of 
Josephus Daniels, 19131921. Edited by 
E. David Cronon. Lincoln, University of Nebraska 
Press [1963] 648 p. illus. 

62-7874 766.029 1963 

Josephus Daniels (18621948), Secretary of the 
Navy in both of President Wilson's administrations, 
took office on March 5, 1913, and kept a diary for 
the duration of his service. Diary entries for the 
years 1914 and 1916, however, are missing. Daniels' 
diaries record and comment upon Cabinet delibera- 
tions, fellow Cabinet members, and other prominent 
officials, including Franklin D. Roosevelt, his As- 
sistant Secretary of the Navy. Notations are fullest 
for Wilson's second administration, emphasizing 
the debates on preparedness; wartime problems; and 
postwar domestic and foreign issues. 

1550. Grantham, Dewey W. Hoke Smith and the 
politics of the New South. Baton Rouge, 

Louisiana State University Press, 1958. 396 p. 
illus. (Southern biography series) 

58-9209 748.866367 

"Critical essay on authorities": p. 372377. Bib- 
liographical footnotes. 

As lawyer, newspaper publisher, and politician, 
Hoke Smith (18551931) served and represented 
his adopted State of Georgia. Professional and fin- 
ancial success as a damage-suit lawyer turned Smith 
toward politics. The vigorous support of his news- 
paper, The Atlanta Journal, for Grover Cleveland 
brought Smith the Cabinet position of Secretary of 
the Interior in 1893. His belief in sound money, 
however, meant exile from the Democratic Party's 
national leadership for the decade after 1896. Smith 
was inaugurated Governor of Georgia in 1907; he 
failed to win the nomination in 1908 but won again 
in 1910. He resigned from the governorship in 
November 1911 in order to take a seat in the U.S. 
Senate, where he served until 1921. Grantham 
concludes that, from the days of the Bourbon Demo- 
crats through the Progressive Era, Hoke Smith's 
career in Georgia and Washington politics was con- 
structive but marked with "far greater promise than 
fulfillment." 

1551. Link, Arthur S. Wilson. Princeton, Prince- 
ton University Press, 194765. 5 v. illus. 

47-3554 7671.65 

Includes bibliographies. 

CONTENTS. [i] The road to the White House. 
[2] The new freedom. [3] The struggle for 
neutrality, 19141915. [4] Confusions and crises, 
19151916. [5] Campaigns for progressivism 
and peace, 19161917. 



Volumes i and 2 of this multivolume biography 
are no. 3472 in the 1960 Guide. Volumes 35 exam- 
ine Wilson's transformation from a national leader 
interested primarily in domestic reform to an inter- 
national leader in a world on the brink of war. In 
Woodrow Wilson and the Politics of Morality (Bos- 
ton, Litde, Brown [1956] 215 p. The Library of 
American biography), John M. Blum stresses the 
role of Wilson's Calvinist principles in shaping his 
views of domestic and international affairs. In An 
Affair of Honor; Woodrow Wilson and the Occupa- 
tion of Veracruz ( [Lexington] Published for the 
Mississippi Valley Historical Association [by] Uni- 
versity of Kentucky Press [1962] 184 p.), Robert 
E. Quirk details Wilson's decision in 1914 to send 
American troups to Veracruz and the consequences 
of this aggressive act against Mexico. 

..-. 

1552. Lorant, Stefan. The life and times of Theo- 
dore Roosevelt. Garden City, N.Y., Double- 
day [1959] 640 p. illus. 58-10732 757^85 

Bibliography: p. 635. 

A pictorial history of Theodore Roosevelt (1858 
1919) and his era. Reproductions of photographs, 
cartoons, letters, and diary entries, coupled with 
textual information, depict Roosevelt in his youth, 
his early political campaigns, his Presidency, and 
his triumphs and defeats after 1909. This graphic 
presentation shows the diversity of Roosevelt's in- 
terests, re-creating his love for politics, world travel, 
nature, and family. 

1553. Maxwell, Robert S. La Follette and the rise 
of the Progressives in Wisconsin. [Madi- 
son] State Historical Society of Wisconsin [1956] 
271 p. illus. 5658533 E664-Li6M3 

Bibliography: p. 245255. 

A concise history of "the development, the course, 
and the results of the Progressive Movement in 
Wisconsin during its initial phase, the years from 
1900 to 1915." Robert M. La Follette (18551925), 
first as Governor and then as U.S. Senator, domi- 
nated Wisconsin progressivism and inauguratec 
comprehensive political, economic, and social reform 
measures. His political program, known as the 
Wisconsin Idea, served as a model of enlightened 
Midwestern progressivism. Hoyt L. Warner's Pro- 
gressivism in Ohio, iSyjiqij ([Columbus] Ohio 
State University Press for the Ohio Historical Soci- 
ety [1964] 556 p.) provides a specialized study o 
the Progressive Movement in Ohio. 

1554. Mowry, George E. The era of Theodore 
Roosevelt, 19001912. New York, Harpei 

[1958] 330 p. illus. (The New American Nation 
series) 58-8835 756^85 



GENERAL HISTORY / 159 



Bibliography: p. 297316. 

This survey includes an analysis of the origins and 
nature of progressivism and a reevaluation of the 
role of Theodore Roosevelt during this period. The 
author describes the Progressive Movement as "a 
compound of many curious elements" and Theo- 
dore Roosevelt as its foremost national spokesman. 
Roosevelt emerges as a constructive, capable Presi- 
dent, responsive to the changes in the political, eco- 
nomic, and social structure of the Nation. In 
Governor Theodore Roosevelt; the Albany Appren- 
ticeship, 7898-7900 (Cambridge, Harvard Univer- 
sity Press. 1965. 335 p.), G. Wallace Chessman ap- 
praises Roosevelt's governorship and the many 
reforms he inaugurated in New York State. 

1555. Peterson, Horace C., and Gilbert C. Fite. 

Opponents of war, 19171918. Madison, 

University of Wisconsin Press, 1957. xiii, 399 p. 

illus. 575 2 39 780^4 

Bibliography: p. 351371. 

This studv, completed by Fite after Peterson's 
death, describes "what individuals or groups op- 
posed the war, why they acted as they did, and what 
happened to them." Antiwar sentiment bred by the 
Socialists, the Industrial Workers of the World, con- 
scientious objectors, pacifists, and religious groups 
was met with repression and reprisals in the United 
States. Minority groups and aliens as well as the 
clergy, teachers, and the press were subject to vio- 
lations of civil rights and intimidation. The intol- 
erance directed against those who professed antiwar 



beliefs demonstrates how fundamental liberties were 
ignored during this time of crisis. 

1556. Preston, William. Aliens and dissenters: 
Federal suppression of radicals, 19031933. 

Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1963. 352 p. 

63-10873 743.5^7 

"Bibliographical note": p. [2791-286. Biblio- 
graphical references included in "Notes": p. 

[28 7 ]-345- 

Since the late i9th century, according to Preston, 
aliens and radicals living in the United States have 
suffered violations of their personal and political 
liberties. He notes that nativism, born of economic 
depression, social conflict, and international uncer- 
tainties, manifested itself in antidemocratic actions 
by local and Federal authorities. The "red scare" 
of 191920, culminating in the "Palmer raids" in 
those years under the direction of Attorney General 
A. Mitchell Palmer, was merely one episode in the 
history of intolerance and retaliation against radi- 
cals. Stanley Cohen's A. Mitchell Palmer: Politician 
(New York, Columbia University Press, 1963. 351 
p.) treats Palmer as a political opportunist who led 
the Department of Justice to take repressive action 
against radicals in the hope of winning the presi- 
dential nomination of 1920. 

1557. Wish, Harvey. Contemporary America, the 
national scene since 1900. 3d ed. New 

York, Harper [1961] 776 p. illus. 

61-6391 741^78 1961 
Bibliography: p. 747762. 
An updated edition of no. 3474 in the 1960 Guide. 



K. Since i 



92.0 



1558. Baruch, Bernard M. Baruch. New York, 
Holt [195760] 2 v. illus. 

' ; 5711982 E748.B32A3 

Vol. 2 published by Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 

CONTENTS. [i] My own story. [2] The 
public years. 

In these two volumes of autobiography, Bernard 
Baruch (1870-1965) traces the course of his de- 
velopment as a financier, philanthropist, and in- 
fluential adviser to Presidents Wilson, Roosevelt, and 
Truman. In the first volume he recounts his early 
years in South Carolina, his college days in New 
York, and his subsequent career as a Wall Street 
financier. Volume 2 is devoted to his years in public 
service, which began when he was asked by Presi- 
dent Wilson to take charge of mobilizing America's 



industrial resources during World War I. Also 
included in this volume is an account of the author's 
service on the United Nations Atomic Energy 
Commission after World War II, in the course of 
which he proposed a plan for the international con- 
trol of atomic energy. A biography of Baruch based 
on extensive research is Margaret L. Coit's Mr. 
Baruch (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1957. 784 p.). 

1559. Blum, John M. From the Morgenthau dia- 
ries. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 195965. 
2v. illus. 59-8853 HJ257.B6 

CONTENTS. [i] Years of crisis, 19281938. 
[2] Years of urgency, 19381941. 

The first two volumes of a three-volume biography 
of Henry Morgenthau (18911967), who served as 



l6o / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Franklin Roosevelt's Secretary of the Treasury from 
1934 to 1945. Blum's biography is based primarily 
on Morgenthau's diaries, which provide a detailed 
account of his career. Volume i covers the period 
during which Morgenthau worked in the New 
York State government, headed the Farm Credit 
Administration, and served as Secretary of the 
Treasury. Volume 2 discusses Morgenthau's years 
as Secretary of the Treasury. In Minister of Relief; 
Harry Hopkins and the Depression ([Syracuse, 
N.Y.] Syracuse University Press, 1963. 286 p.), 
Searle F. Charles discusses Hopkins' administration 
of three major Federal relief agencies during the 
New Deal years. Rexford Tugwell and the New 
Deal (New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University 
Press [1964] 535 p.), by Bernard Sternsher, con- 
tains a general discussion of Tugwell's thought as 
well as an account of his role during Roosevelt's 
first administration. 

1560. Eisenhower, Dwight D., Pres. U.S. The 
White House years. Garden City, N.Y., 
Doubleday, 196365. 2 v. illus. 

63-18447 E835.E 4 7 

CONTENTS. [i] Mandate for change, 1953 
1956. [2] Waging peace, 1956-1961. 

Dwight D. Eisenhower's personal memoirs of his 
Presidency. Volume i, which includes an account 
of the 1952 presidential campaign, covers the first 
term, and volume 2, which begins with the 1956 
campaign, covers the second. Written in an infor- 
mal style, the memoirs provide insight into Eisen- 
hower's responses to the many significant events 
with which he was confronted as President. Among 
these were the increase and decline of Senator Joseph 
McCarthy's influence, the formation of the South- 
east Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), the 
launching of Sputnik, and the sending of Federal 
troops into Little Rock. The former President also 
describes his personal life during these years. 

1561. Hicks, John D. Republican ascendancy, 
1921-1931. New York, Harper [1960] 

318 p. illus. (The New American Nation series) 

.,,. 60-7528 E 7 8 4 .H 5 

Bibliography: p. 281-301. 

1562. Leuchtenburg, William E. The perils of 
prosperity, 1914-32. [Chicago] University 

of Chicago Press [1958] 313 p. (The Chicago 
history of American civilization) 

58-5680 HCio6.3.L 39 5 7 

Bibliography: p. 277-297. 

Hicks sees the years 1921-33 as an interlude char- 
acterized by a lack of strong political leadership in 
domestic and foreign affairs. A business mentality 



dominated, and the United States experienced the 
most severe economic crisis in its history. Emphasis 
is placed on the economic and political history of 
the period, but Hicks also gives due attention to 
problems of foreign policy. In The Perils of Pros- 
perity, 191432, Leuchtenburg describes the transi- 
tion from Wilson's New Freedom to the policies of 
the succeeding Republican years. He then shows 
how various trends came to a head at the end of the 
1920'$ and resulted in the stock market crash, which 
"was taken as a judgement pronounced on the 
whole era." 

1563. Leuchtenburg, William E. Franklin D. 
Roosevelt and the New Deal, 19321940. 
New York, Harper & Row [1963] 393 p. illus. 
(The New American Nation series) 

63-12053 806^475 
Bibliography: p. 349363. 

The author provides an overview of the New 
Deal years, beginning with Franklin Roosevelt's 
campaign for the Presidency in 1932 and ending 
with his reelection to a third term in 1940. He de- 
votes considerable attention to the political and social 
events of the period and offers insight into such 
phenomena as party politics, social conditions, and 
prominent personalities. Roosevelt's administrative 
programs and his appointees such as Hopkins, Lili- 
enthal, and Tugwell are also discussed. In addition 
to the domestic scene, Leuchtenburg deals with 
events abroad and shows how American foreign 
policy developed during these years in response to 
the threat of involvement in another world war. 

1564. Lilienthal, David E. The journals of David 

E. Lilienthal. Introduction by Henry Steele 

Commager. New York, Harper & Row [1964] 

2 v - ill"*. 64-18056 E7 4 8.L7A33 

CONTENTS. v. i. The TVA years, 1939-1945. 
v. 2. The atomic energy years, 1945-1950. 

Among his various achievements, David Lilien- 
thal (b. 1899) led in the development of the Ten- 
nessee Valley Authority, became the first Chairman 
of the Atomic Energy Commission, and, later, be- 
gan to put the TVA idea to work in the develop- 
ing regions of the world. Volume i of his Journals 
contains an account of the early development of 
TVA and includes selected journal entries from pre- 
ceding years. Volume 2 deals primarily with Lilien- 
thal's years as AEC chairman. In Men and Deci- 
sions (Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1962. 468 
p.), Lewis L. Strauss surveys his life in business and 
public service, emphasizing his association with the 
AEC and his tenure as Chairman during the Eisen- 
hower administration. 



GENERAL HISTORY / l6l 



1565. Link, Arthur S. American epoch, a history 
of the United States since the 1890*5. With 

the collaboration of William B. Catton. 2d ed., rev. 
and rewritten. New York, Knopf, 1963. xxiv, 917, 
xiii p. illus. 63-12398 741X55 1963 

Bibliography: p. [885] 917. 

A revised and enlarged edition of no. 3489 in the 
1960 Guide. The authors adopt a broad perspective 
and include economics, politics, diplomatic relations, 
and the arts. The entire text has been rewritten, 
and new information and interpretations have been 
incorporated. The Shaping of Twentieth-Century 
America; Interpretive Articles (Boston, Little, 
Brown [1965] 682 p.), edited by Richard M. 
Abrams and Lawrence W. Levine, is a collection of 
journal articles which deal with various aspects of 
American history from the late i9th century to the 
mid-i96o's. John Braeman, Robert H. Bremner, 
and Everett Walters have edited Change and Con- 
tinuity in Twentieth-Century America ( [Colum- 
bus] Ohio State University Press [1965, C i964] 
287 p. Modern America, no. i), a selection of 
scholarly essays related to the theme of tradition and 
innovation. The Urban Nation, 79207960 (New 
York, Hill & Wang [ 1965] 278 p. The Making of 
America), by George E. Mowry, offers an introduc- 
tion to the period between the wars, with emphasis 
on the interrelation between urban development 
and politics. 

1566. Morison, Elting E. Turmoil and tradition; 
a study of the life and times of Henry L. 

Stimson. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1960. 686 p. 
illus. 60-10132 E748.S883M6 

Bibliography: p. 657662. 

As a lawyer and statesman, Henry L. Stimson 
(18671950) was active in public life for more than 
50 years. He served as Governor General of the 
Philippines and in the Cabinets of three Presidents. 
Under Hoover he was Secretary of State, and under 
Taft and Franklin D. Roosevelt he was Secretary of 
War. Stimson was President Roosevelt's chief ad- 
viser on atomic energy policy during World War II 
and later served President Truman in the same 
capacity. Morison's detailed biography covers Stim- 
son's entire life. Although the emphasis is on Stim- 
son's career and the events in which he was involved, 
the author also describes his family background and 
school years. 

1567. Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The age of 
Roosevelt. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1957 

60. 3 v. 5610293 806.834 

Includes bibliographies. 
CONTENTS. [i] The crisis of the old order, 



1919-1933. 2. The coming of the New Deal. 
3. The politics of upheaval. 

Volume i of this projected multivolume work is 
no. 3500 in the 1960 Guide. In the second and 
third volumes, Schlesinger concentrates on Roose- 
velt's domestic policy during his first term. Volume 
2 is devoted mainly to domestic events which oc- 
curred during 1933 and 1934, although the narra- 
tive is continued into the following years when 
necessary. In volume 3, the author recounts the 
Roosevelt administration's history through the 1936 
election. Foreign policy during the first term will 
be treated in a later volume. Thomas H. Greer's 
What Roosevelt Thought; the Social and Political 
Ideas of Franklin D. Roosevelt ([East Lansing] 
Michigan State University Press, 1958. 244 p.) is 
an examination of Roosevelt's views on a variety of 
subjects, including human rights, the Constitution, 
and the role of the President. In Roosevelt and 
Howe (New York, Knopf, 1962. 479 p.), Alfred B. 
Rollins tells the story of Roosevelt's relationship with 
Louis Howe, his secretary and assistant for more 
than 20 years. 

1568. Sorensen, Theodore C. Kennedy. New 
York, Harper & Row [1965] 783 p. 

6514660 841.86 

15683. Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. A thousand 
days; John F. Kennedy in the White House. 
Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1965. xiv, 1087 p. 

6520218 841.83 

As former Kennedy staff members, the authors 
of these two books about President Kennedy (1917 
1963) were personally involved in many of the 
events which they discuss. Both volumes are based 
on a combination of firsthand knowledge and ex- 
tensive research. Sorensen concentrates on Ken- 
nedy's years in the White House, but also provides 
ample coverage of the late President's Senate career 
and the 1960 presidential campaign. His account 
of the Kennedy Presidency is, in general, most vivid 
when he deals with domestic affairs. In Schles- 
inger's history of the Kennedy administration, 
which deals in less detail with the events leading up 
to Kennedy's election, the emphasis is on foreign 
policy. 

1569. U.S. President. Public papers of the Presi- 
dents of the United States, containing the 

public messages, speeches, and statements of the 
President. [Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 
1958] -65. 20 v. 58-61050 J8o.A283 

Published by the Office of the Federal Register of 
the National Archives and Records Service. 

A continuing series, based on White House re- 



l62 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

leases and transcripts of news conferences. The 
material ranges from informal statements to nation- 
wide broadcasts. Official documents such as proc- 
lamations and Executive orders are not included, 
however, since they are published elsewhere. As of 
1965, published volumes contained the papers of 
Harry S. Truman, 194551 (7 v.); Dwight D. 
Eisenhower, 1953-61 (8 v.); John F. Kennedy, 
196163 (3 v.); and Lyndon B. Johnson, 196364 

(2V.). 

1570. Warren, Harris G. Herbert Hoover and 
the great depression. New York, Oxford 
University Press, 1959. 372 p. 

59-5663 E8oi.W 2 8 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(P- 305-352). 



The author has attempted a balanced appraisal of 
the Hoover Presidency and seeks to avoid the ex- 
treme praise or deprecation which has dominated 
much of the literature on Hoover's career. A politi- 
cal and economic history of the Hoover administra- 
tion, the book covers not only events in which 
Hoover played a dominant role but also matters in 
which his influence was minor. Warren concludes 
that Hoover's conduct in public office, both as Secre- 
tary of Commerce and as President of the United 
States, indicates that he was "the greatest Republican 
of his generation." Albert U. Romasco's The Pover- 
ty of Abundance; Hoover, the Nation, the Depres- 
sion (New York, Oxford University Press, 1965. 
282 p.) also deals with the years of Hoover's Presi- 
dency and emphasizes the ways in which the depres- 
sion caused the Nation's leaders to change existing 
institutions in order to solve the economic crisis. 



IX 



Diplomatic History and Foreign Relations 



A. Diplomatic History 

Ai. General Worlds 

Aii. Period Studies 

Aiii. Personal Records 

Aiv. The British Empire 

Av. Russia 

Avi. Other European Nations 

Avii. Latin America: General 

Aviii. Latin America: Individual Nations 

Aix. Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 

Foreign Relations 

Bi. Administration 

Bii. Democratic Control 

Biii. Policies 

Biv. Economic Policy 



B. 



1571-1590 
15911600 

1601 
16021607 

1608 
16091612 

1613 

16141617 
1618-1628 



16291636 
16371641 
16421645 
16461647 



THE DUAL title and organization of this chapter are consistent with the general approach 
established for the 1960 Guide. The books classified as Diplomatic History (Section A) 
are primarily but not exclusively retrospective and deal with political relations between the 
United States and other nations from the beginning of the American Revolution to the 
present. Publications on the growing American involvement in Africa and the Middle East 
have been placed under Subsection Aix, the title for which has been changed from Asia to 
Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The entries in 

Section B, Foreign Relations, deal almost entirely eign policy within the framework of the U.S. politi- 
with the process of formulating and executing for- cal system. 



A. Diplomatic History 



Ai. GENERAL WORKS 

1571. The American foreign policy library. Cam- 
bridge, Harvard University Press, 194764. 
19 v. 

A continuation of no. 3501 in the 1960 Guide. 
Five of the original 15 volumes, no. 35023516 in 
the 1960 Guide, have been revised, and four new 



volumes have been added to the series. These nine 
works are listed as no. 15721580 below. 

1572. Brown, William Norman. The United 
States and India and Pakistan. Rev. and 
enl. ed. 1963. 444 p. 

63-13807 08480.84.673 1963 
Bibliography: p. [403] 418. 

163 



164 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 
A revised edition of no. 3503 in the 1960 Guide. 

1573. Cline, Howard F. The United States and 
Mexico. Rev. ed., enl. New York, Athen- 

eum, 1963. 484 p. (Atheneum paperbacks, 40) 
63-24587 Fi226.C6 1963 

"Suggested reading": p. [444]~453- " A biblio " 
graphical supplement, 1953-1962": p. [4541-4.7 1 - 

A revised edition of no. 3504 in the 1960 Guide. 

1574. Fairbank, John King. The United States 
and China. New ed., completely rev. and 

enl. 1958. 365 p. 58-11552 DS735-F3 i95 8 
"Suggested reading": p. [321] -344. 
A revised edition of no. 3506 in the 1960 Guide. 

1575. Gallagher, Charles F. The United States 
and North Africa: Morocco, Algeria, and 

Tunisia. 1963. 275 p. 63-20766 DTi94.Gi5 
Bibliography: p. [2573-263. 

1576. Grattan, Clinton Hardey. The United States 
and the Southwest Pacific. 1961. 273 p. 

61-5583 DU30.G7 

1577. Hughes, Henry Stuart. The United States 
and Italy. Rev. ed. 1965. 297 p. 

65-13845 DG577.H8 1965 
"Suggested reading": p. [276] 286. 
A revised editon of no. 3507 in the 1960 Guide. 

1578. Polk, William R. The United States and 
the Arab world. 1965. xiv, 320 p. 

65-16688 DS63.2.U5P6 
"Suggested reading": p. [297] 311. 

1579. Reischauer, Edwin O. The United States 
and Japan. 3d ed. 1965. xxv, 396 p. 

64-8057 Ei83.8.J3R4 1965 
Bibliography: p. [382] -384. 
A revised edition of no. 3510 in the 1960 Guide. 

1580. Safran, Nadav. The United States and Is- 
rael. 1963. 341 p. 63-17212 183.8.1782 

Bibliography: p. [3191-332. 

1581. Bailey, Thomas A. A diplomatic history of 
the American people. 7th ed. New York, 

Appleton-Century-Crofts [1964] 973 p. 

64-10909 183.7.629 1964 
Bibliography: p. 912-947. 
A revised edition of no. 3517 in the 1960 Guide. 

^582. Bartlett, Ruhl J., ed. The record of Amer- 
ican diplomacy; documents and readings in 



the history of American foreign relations. 4th ed. 
enl. New York, Knopf, 1964. xxiv, 892, xxii p. 

64-23887 183.7.635 1964 

Bibliography: p. 891-892. 

A revised edition of no. 3518 in the 1960 Guide. 

1583. Bemis, Samuel Flagg. American foreign 
policy and the blessings of liberty, and other 

essays. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1962. 
423 p. 62-16561 183.7.644 

A selection of works written since 1918 by the 
noted diplomatic historian. The tide essay poses the 
question whether the diplomatic history of the 
United States can "strengthen our judgment in 
facing problems today which include nothing less 
than the survival of our nation." This the author 
answers in the affirmative. Today's problems, ac- 
cording to Bemis, must be understood in the context 
of their origin and development. Specifically, 
Americans need to relate current policy to historical 
tradition and to the fundamental human values of 
"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." As 
might be expected from the author of two such im- 
portant studies as Jay's Treaty, 2d ed. (1962. 526 
p.) and Pincfoey's Treaty, rev. ed. (1960. 372 p.), 
both published in New Haven by the Yale Univer- 
sity Press, most of the other essays relate to Amer- 
ican diplomacy in the early days of the United States. 
A chronologically arranged bibliography of Bemis' 
writings from 1913 to 1962 is included (p. 417- 

423)- 

1584. Bemis, Samuel Flagg, ed. The American 
Secretaries of State and their diplomacy, v. 

11-14. Robert H. Ferrell, editor. New York, 
Cooper Square Publishers, 196365. 4 v. 

62-20139 183.7.6462 

Includes bibliographies. 

For a description of the first 10 volumes, see no. 
3519 in the 1960 Guide. Volumes 1114 cover tbe 
administrations of Frank B. Kellogg (192529), 
Henry L. Stimson (192933), Cordell Hull (1933 
44), Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. (194445), and James 
F.Byrnes (1945-47). 

1585. 6emis, Samuel Flagg. A diplomatic history 
of the United States. 5th ed. New York, 

Holt, Rinehart & Winston [1965] 1062 p. ill us. 

65-11841 183.7.64682 1965 
6ibliographical footnotes. 
A revised edition of no. 3520 in the 1960 Guide. 

1586. De Conde, Alexander. A history of Amer- 
ican foreign policy. New York, Scribner 

[1963] 914 p. 63-7615 183.7.04 

"Supplementary readings": p. 863896. 



DIPLOMATIC HISTORY AND FOREIGN RELATIONS / 165 



A survey of American diplomatic history from 
colonial times to the Kennedy administration, em- 
phasizing the influence of political, social, and eco- 
nomic developments on foreign policy. A third of 
the book is devoted to the U.S. role in the cold war 
and to contemporary American policy toward the 
Far East, Latin America, the Middle East, Europe, 
and Africa. Useful features of this book are its 
extensive appendixes and a bibliography arranged 
by chapter. A brief introduction to the whole scope 
of American diplomatic history is Ruhl J. Bartlett's 
concise and lucid Policy and Power (New York, 
Hill & Wang [1963] 303 p.). 

1587. Graebner, Norman A., ed. Ideas and dip- 
lomacy; readings in the intellectual tradition 

of American foreign policy. New York, Oxford 
University Press, 1964. 892 p. 

6415011 173.078 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

These documents on American diplomacy were 
chosen for the importance of the concepts and ideas 
they express rather than for their relevance to spe- 
cific historical problems. Although the general stu- 
dent may be unfamiliar with some of the readings, 
as a group they serve to portray the intellectual con- 
flict over diplomacy that has confronted the United 
States since the i8th century. Graebner considers 
that two functional concepts have determined the 
American diplomatic response: the analytical ap- 
proach to diplomacy, corresponding roughly to the 
realism of the i8th- and 19th-century diplomatic 
tradition, and the ideological approach, exemplified 
in the idealism that has characterized the 2Oth cen- 
tury. A short introduction precedes each of the 12 
divisions of the book and indicates the major theme 
of the readings. 

1588. Leopold, Richard W. The growth of Amer- 
ican foreign policy, a history. New York, 

Knopf, 1962. xxii, 848, xxix p. 

6213894 183.7X47 

"Bibliographical essay": p. [819] 848. 

A survey designed for the general reader and col- 
lege student. The principles and practices of the 
first century of U.S. foreign policy are briefly de- 
scribed. Detailed coverage begins with the inaugu- 
ration of Benjamin Harrison in 1889, and the book 
concludes with seven chapters on the diplomacy of 
the Eisenhower administration. Featured through- 
out are character portrayals of the Presidents, their 
Secretaries of State, and congressional leaders in- 
volved in the making of foreign policy. 

1589. Perkins, Dexter. The American approach 
to foreign policy. Rev. ed. Cambridge, 



Harvard University Press, 1962. 247 p. 

62-11400 Ei83.7.P46 1962 
Bibliography: p. 233237. 
A revised edition of no. 3523 in the 1960 Guide. 

1590. Smith, Daniel M., ed. Major problems in 
American diplomatic history: documents 

and readings. Boston, Heath [1964] 677 p. maps. 

63-22521 183.7.856 

Includes bibliographies. 

Smith divides the history of American foreign 
policy into two successive phases: the country's ex- 
pansion until 1889 and its subsequent emergence as 
a great world power. The documents are organized 
around 20 diplomatic problems, each of which is 
discussed in an interpretive essay. Among the prob- 
lems presented are those concerning the Jefferson- 
Hamilton rivalry, the Monroe Doctrine, the Mexi- 
can War, the rejection of the Versailles Treaty, and 
the agreements reached at the Yalta Conference . 
The final chapter considers "currents in American 
foreign policy since 1952" and ends with selections 
from President Kennedy's statements relating to the 
confrontation with the Soviet Union over offensive 
missiles in Cuba and his replies to De Gaulle's chal- 
lenges to American leadership in Europe. 

Aii. PERIOD STUDIES 

1591. Davids, Jules. America and the world of 
our time; United States diplomacy in the 

twentieth century. New York, Random House 
[1960] 597 p. 60-5563 744.025 

Bibliography: p. 563599. 

A general introduction that seeks to place 20th- 
century American foreign policy in the context of 
world affairs. Two main themes of the book are 
the growth of American power and influence in the 
world and the reluctant shift from isolationism to 
internationalism. Emphasis is placed on "the cir- 
cumstances which contributed to America's involve- 
ment in power politics; the great changes that were 
brought about by World War II; and the diplomatic 
background of the Cold War." The neutrality leg- 
islation of the 1930*5 the zenith in American iso- 
lationism in the 2Oth century is examined by Rob- 
ert A. Divine in The Illusion of Neutrality ( [Chi- 
cago] University of Chicago Press [1962] 370 p.). 
Two other general studies of American diplomacy 
since World War I are Jean B. Duroselle's From 
Wilson to Roosevelt (Cambridge, Harvard Univer- 
sity Press, 1963. 499 p.), translated by Nancy L. 
Roelker, and Dexter Perkins' Foreign Policy and the 
American Spirit, Essays (Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell Uni- 
versity Press [1957] 254 p.), edited by Glyndon 
G. Van Deusen and Richard C. Wade. 



l66 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

1592. Feis, Herbert. Between war and peace; the 
Potsdam Conference. Princeton, N.J., 

Princeton University Press, 1960. 367 p. maps. 

60-12230 0734.64 i945ad 
Bibliography: p. 355-357- 

1593. Feis, Herbert. Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin; 
the war they waged and the peace they 

sought. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 
1957. 692 p. maps. 57-547 0748^4 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Two studies in sequence that examine the war- 
time relations between Great Britain, the United 
States, and the Soviet Union. Using a chronological 
approach in the first volume, the author threads his 
way through the complex diplomatic crises taking 
place between 1940 and the German surrender in 
May 1945. He presents a balanced and penetrating 
account of such Allied wartime decisions as the 
doctrine of unconditional surrender, the Normandy 
invasion, and allowing Berlin to fall to the Russians. 
The Yalta Agreement and the corrosion within the 
coalition thereafter are analyzed carefully and dis- 
passionately. The second volume begins by de- 
scribing the events surrounding Germany's surren- 
der to the Allies. Feis then traces the flow of dissen- 
sion which subsequently exposed the long-developing 
fractures within the alliance. With the groundwork 
thus laid, the proceedings at Potsdam are reviewed, 
as unfavorable circumstances pitted two relatively 
inexperienced Western negotiators, Truman and 
Attlee, against the shrewd and intransigent Stalin. 
In an often arresting narrative, the author describes 
the hammering out of the vital questions of Ger- 
many's future, while the grand alliance collapsed 
and the cold war began. Briefer and more concise 
than Feis' studies are two volumes in the America 
in Crisis series: The Reluctant Belligerent; American 
Entry Into World War II (New York, Wiley [1965] 
172 p.), by Robert A. Divine, and Gaddis Smith's 
American Diplomacy During the Second World 
War, 1941-1945 (New York, Wiley [1965] 194 
p.). Important source materials for these works 
were the proceedings compiled by the U.S. Depart- 
ment of State: The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 
1945 (Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1955. 
1032 p. Foreign relations of the United States: dip- 
lomatic papers) and The Conference of Berlin; the 
Potsdam Conference, 1945 (Washington, U.S. Govt. 
Print. Off., 1960. 2 v. Foreign relations of the 
United States: diplomatic papers), issued as De- 
partment of State Publications 6199 and 7015, 
respectively. 

1594. Ferrell, Robert H. American diplomacy in 
the great depression; Hoover-Stimson foreign 



policy, 19291933. New Haven, Yale University 
Press, 1957. 319 P- (Yale historical publications. 
Studies, 17) 57-11913 E8oi.F4 

"Bibliographical essays": p. 283-308. 

The second volume of a projected three-volume 
history of American diplomacy from 1927 to 1937. 
The initial work, Peace in Their Time; the Origins 
of the Kellogg-Briand Pact (New Haven, Yale Uni- 
versity Press, 1952. 293 p. Yale historical publi- 
cations. Miscellany, 55), is a study of the period 
192729 and the efforts to establish a basis for last- 
ing peace through treaty pledges. In this middle 
volume, U.S. foreign policy under President Hoover 
and Henry L. Stimson, his Secretary of State, is 
examined. Drawing much of his material from the 
diaries of William Castle, the Under Secretary of 
State, Ferrell depicts the effect of the great depres- 
sion on the maintenance of world order as cata- 
strophic and declares that never was an economic 
disaster so evident in the shaping of American dip- 
lomacy. Although the crisis explains much of the 
country's policy, the author finds American diplo- 
matic principles of the 1920'$, based on isolationism 
and "moral" leadership, inadequate to meet the in- 
creasingly intricate international problems confront- 
ing the Hoover-Stimson administration. Lewis 
Ethan Ellis notes similar inadequacies in the period 
preceding the Hoover Presidency in his book Fran^ 
B. Kellogg and American Foreign Relations, 1925 
1929 (New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University 
Press [1961] 303 p.). Robert H. Ferrell's Amer- 
ican Diplomacy, a History (New York, Norton 
[1959] 576 p.) is a general introduction to these 
and other periods of U.S. foreign policy. 

1595. LaFeber, Walter. The new empire; an in- 
terpretation of American expansion, 1860 
1898. Ithaca, N.Y., Published for the American 
Historical Association [by] Cornell University Press 
[1963] 444 p. 63-20868 E66i.7.L2 

Bibliography: p. 418426. 

This study of the major period of U.S. overseas 
expansion emphasizes the economic forces motivat- 
ing commercial and territorial aggrandizement. Al- 
though many accounts interpret American expan- 
sionist activity as accidental and spur-of-the-moment, 
LaFeber views it as a natural culmination within a 
maturing nation of the impetus created by the in- 
dustrial revolution. Characterizing Secretary of 
State Seward as one of the great statesmen of the 
era, the author also emphasizes the impact of the 
ideas of such men as Frederick Jackson Turner and 
Alfred Thayer Mahan on the attitudes of the time. 
Foster Rhea Dulles has written a general study of 
the period: Prelude to World Power; American Dip- 
lomatic History, 1860-1900 (New York, Macmillan 



DIPLOMATIC HISTORY AND FOREIGN RELATIONS / 167 



[1965] 238 p. History of American foreign policy 
series). A concise account of the Spanish- American 
War period is Howard Wayne Morgan's American 
Road to Empire (New York, Wiley [1965] 124 p. 
America in crisis), which, in support of LaFeber, in- 
terprets the expansionism of 1898 as the culmination 
of a generation's tendencies in world affairs. 

1596. Link, Arthur S. Wilson the diplomatist; a 
look at his major foreign policies. Baltimore, 

Johns Hopkins Press, 1957. 165 p. (The Albert 
Shaw lectures on diplomatic history, 1956) 

5712120 767X66 

The author, a noted Wilson scholar, attempts to 
answer major questions concerning the President's 
diplomatic role in World War I. Link states that 
until 1917 Wilson was better able to accept the 
Allied maritime blockade than German submarine 
warfare because the former threatened American 
neutrality less than the latter. The Peace Confer- 
ence is seen as a clear clash of Wilsonian idealism 
and Allied ambitions, and the author absolves Wil- 
son of blame for those aspects of the Versailles 
Treaty that failed to fulfill his idealistic aspirations. 
The book concludes with a discussion of the "Great 
Debate" over the acceptance of the League of Na- 
tions by the American people and the Senate. Be- 
cause of his intransigence over compromise on the 
Covenant, Wilson is seen as a "prophet" rather than 
a statesman. The Inquiry; American Preparations 
for Peace, 79/7 79/9 (New Haven, Yale University 
Press, 1963. 387 p.), by Lawrence E. Gelfand, re- 
ceives its title from the name of a little-known Gov- 
ernment agency, created by the President in 1917 to 
plan and gather information for the forthcoming 
peace. 

1597. May, Ernest R. Imperial democracy; the 
emergence of America as a great power. 

New York, Harcourt, Brace & World [1961] 318 
p. 6113354 E66i.M34 

Bibliography: p. 273299. 

Until the late i88o's, according to the author, the 
United States was dealt with as a second-rate power, 
but by the early 20th century Europe was beginning 
to look upon American strength with increased 
respect and concern. Although concentrating pri- 
marily on the events of the Spanish-American War, 
the author amply illustrates a wide range of causes 
contributing to the emergence of the United States 
as a great power. Showing the American people 
themselves as a driving force in this development, 
the book becomes a social and economic history as 
well as one of foreign relations. Of considerable 
interest are the varying views of European govern- 



ments and statesmen toward American imperialism 
and growth during the period. Equally interesting 
is America's ambivalence, which is demonstrated 
during this time of intense nationalism by the coun- 
try's desire to find ways for bringing about peace- 
ful settlement of international conflicts. America's 
efforts to maintain world peace are examined by 
Calvin D. Davis in The United States and the 
First Hague Peace Conference (Ithaca, N.Y., Pub- 
lished for the American Historical Association [by] 
Cornell University Press [1962] 236 p.). In The 
Awkward Years; American Foreign Relations Un- 
der Garfield and Arthur (Columbia, University of 
Missouri Press [ c i962J 381 p.), David M. Fletcher 
shows that the foreign policies of the i88o's, al- 
though inadequately shaped, "foreshadowed atti- 
tudes and expedients of later imperialist years." 

1598. May, Ernest R. The World War and Amer- 
ican isolation, 19141917. Cambridge, Har- 
vard University Press, 1959. 482 p. (Harvard his- 
torical studies, v. 71) 5812971 0619^383 

"Bibliographical essay": p. [439] 466. 

Dealing with the familiar story of President Wil- 
son's dilemma as he reluctantly committed his Na- 
tion to war, this book emphasizes both the domestic 
politics of the United States and the diplomacy of 
the Allies and the Central Powers. Primary in the 
discussion are submarine warfare, the blockading of 
sea transport, and the interaction of Britain's policies 
toward her French and Russian allies with her pol- 
icies toward the United States. Crucial in the 
making of America's decision to join the Allies was 
the triumph in Germany of the proponents of un- 
limited submarine warfare while British leaders 
maintained restraint in executing maritime policies 
that adversely affected the United States. 

1599. Morris, Richard B. The peacemakers; the 
great powers and American independence. 

New York, Harper & Row [1965] xviii, 572 p. 
illus. 65-20435 E249.M68 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 467-552). 

An extensive account of the complicated diplom- 
acy surrounding negotiations for the Treaty of Paris 
which resolved the American Revolutionary War. 
With scholarly care and precision, Morris traces the 
intricate steps by which the American peace com- 
missioners attacked their central problem, that of 
cutting the bonds of the French alliance in order to 
arrive at a settlement with Great Britain. By the 
terms of the peace, the author contends, the United 
States emerged as an undisputed sovereign nation, 
accomplishing possibly "the greatest victory in the 
annals of American diplomacy." In describing the 



l68 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

endeavor, he explores the motivations and objectives 
of the major European powers, as well as their ma- 
neuvers and intrigues. A major part of the story is 
revealed through portraits of the principal diplo- 
matic personalities: American commissioners John 
fay, John Adams, Henry Laurens, and Benjamin 
Franklin; England's Richard Oswald and the Earl 
of Shelburne; the French Foreign Minister, the 
Comte de Vergennes; and Spain's Ambassador to 
France, the Conde de Aranda. Short sketches of 
innumerable opposition leaders, spies, intriguers, 
and self-appointed advisers complete the gallery. 
Further insight and flavor are added to the account 
by occasional glimpses into the "backstairs diplom- 
acy" which characterized relations among European 
nations in this period. 

1600. Varg, Paul A. Foreign policies of the found- 
ing fathers. [East Lansing] Michigan State 

University Press, 1963 [i.e. 1964, C i963] 316 p. 

6319117 310.7. 3 

In a topical narrative tracing the development of 
American foreign policy from 1773 to 1812, the 
author attempts to demonstrate the close relationship 
between domestic and foreign issues in the conduct 
of the Nation's diplomacy. Varg considers that 
foreign affairs played a major role in undermining 
the Government under the Articles of Confedera- 
tion and later, under the Constitution, became a 
focal point of debate that resulted in the rise of 
political parties. During the Jefferson administra- 
tion, the viewpoint on relations abroad shifted, the 
author maintains, from the preeminence of Hamil- 
tonian realism toward an increasing idealism. In 
his book To the Farewell Address (Princeton, N.J., 
Princeton University Press, 1961. 173 p.), Felix 
Gilbert approaches the early development of Amer- 
ican foreign policy from the vantage point of intel- 
lectual history, focusing on the interrelationship be- 
tween the European heritage of the Enlightenment 
and the American colonial experience. 

Aiii. PERSONAL RECORDS 

1 60 1. Murphy, Robert D. Diplomat among war- 
riors. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1964. 

47J p. 64-11305 E 744 .M8 7 

in this nrsthand account the author reviews some 
of the most important historical events of the 2oth 
century. A diplomat in the Department of State 
for more than 40 years, Murphy went in 1921 to 
Munich, where he met Hitler and other members of 
the Nazi leadership and observed their early careers. 
Serving in Paris during the period 1930-40, he 
witnessed ^the fall of France and was then assigned 
as Charge d'Affaires to the Vichy Government. 



President Roosevelt made Murphy his personal rep- 
resentative in Africa, where he conducted exploratory 
missions and made preparations for the entry of 
French West Africa into the war. The author was 
present during the important Casablanca Confer- 
ence in 1942, helped negotiate the Italian surrender 
in 1943, and served as political adviser to the Su- 
preme Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary 
Force in Europe (SHAEF) in planning and carry- 
ing out the occupation of Germany. During the 
Eisenhower administration, this experienced diplo- 
mat, serving as Deputy Under Secretary and then 
Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, took 
part in policy decisions relating to events such as 
the Korean armistice, the Suez crisis, and the U-2 
incident. Because of his role as a participant, 
Murphy is able to present many facts never before 
publicly revealed. 

Aiv. THE BRITISH EMPIRE 

1602. Allen, Harry C. Conflict and concord; the 
Anglo-American relationship since 1783. 

New York, St. Martins Press [1960, C i959] 247 p. 
illus. 59~ 1 55^5 Ei 83.8.67 A47 1960 

A revised and enlarged edition of part i of Great 
Britain and the United States; a History of Anglo- 
American Relations, 1783 1952, no. 3551 in the 
1960 Guide. 

1603. Campbell, Charles S. Anglo-American un- 
derstanding, 1898-1903. Baltimore, Johns 

Hopkins Press [1957] 385 p. 

57-9518 183.8.67028 

"Bibliographical note": p. 369-374. Bibliograph- 
ical footnotes. 

Great Britain and the United States, realizing that 
a comprehensive understanding was in the interest 
of both, resolved a striking number of outstanding 
differences during the relatively brief period encom- 
passed by this study. Under the leadership of Secre- 
tary of State John Hay and British Ambassador 
Pauncefote, settlement was reached on the boundary 
dispute in southeastern Alaska and on hunting 
rights in the Bering Sea, and the basis was laid for 
a final agreement on fishing rights off Newfound- 
land's outer banks. In addition, the two nations 
mutually consented in 1899 to partition Samoa, and 
in 1901 Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty 
renouncing all joint rights with the United States to 
an Isthmian Canal. Although disagreements were 
to arise later, Campbell notes that the Anglo-Amer- 
ican understanding achieved in this period created 
a firm and enduring basis for the relations of the 
two nations in the 2oth century. 



DIPLOMATIC HISTORY AND FOREIGN RELATIONS / 169 



1604. Gelber, Lionel M. America in Britain's 
place; the leadership of the West and Anglo- 
American unity. New York, Praeger [1961] 356 
p. (Books that matter) 6111059 744.645 

A Canadian's analysis of Anglo-American unity, 
written in the light of the shift in Western leader- 
ship from Britain to the United States since World 
War II. Constructively critical toward both coun- 
tries, this work attempts to set American policies in 
contemporary perspective. The author notes the 
deep-rooted capacity of the two countries for work- 
ing together and sees in their unity the basic element 
in the Western alliance. While allowing for diver- 
gence in attitudes and interpretation between Lon- 
don and Washington, Gelber demonstrates, through 
his discussion of the Hungarian and Suez crises in 
1956, the dangers inherent in any wide misunder- 
standing. Another book dealing with much the 
same theme is Herbert G. Nicholas' Britain and the 
U.S.A. (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1963. 191 
p. The Albert Shaw lectures on diplomatic history, 
1961). In The Debatable Alliance (London, New 
York, Oxford University Press, 1964. 130 p. Chat- 
ham House essays, 3), Coral Bell, an Australian, 
considers the Anglo-American relationship as an 
element in the central international balance of 
power. 

1605. Perkins, Bradford. Prologue to war; Eng- 
land and the United States, 1805-1812. 

Berkeley, University of California Press, 1961. 457 
P- 61-14018 E357.P66 

"Notes on the sources": p. 439446. Bibliograph- 
ical footnotes. 

1606. Perkins, Bradford. Castlereagh and Adams; 
England and the United States, 1812-1823. 

Berkeley, University of California Press, 1964. 364 
P- 64-19696 358^4 

Includes bibliographical references. 

Two of three volumes that the author has de- 
voted to the study of Anglo-American relations in 
the critical 30 years after 1795. The initial volume, 
The First Rapprochement (Philadelphia, University 
of Pennsylvania Press, 1955. 257 p.), dealt with the 
lo-year period of generally happy relations between 
the two countries following ratification of Jay's 
Treaty. The second and third volumes are orga- 
nized around the central theme of America's search 
for "national respectability and true independence 
from Europe." Although accepting the common 
interpretation that the War of 1812 finally erupted 
after repeated British violations of American sover- 
eignty on the high seas, Perkins contends that too 
little attention has been given to the influences of 
national pride, sensitivity, and frustration. His 



argument is bolstered by evidence from many here- 
tofore unexploited British sources, especially news- 
papers. As America groped for identity after the 
end of the war, England demonstrated an increasing 
willingness to accept the former colony as a truly 
independent and sovereign nation. Perkins main- 
tains that both countries, wary of ambitious, auto- 
cratic Europe, recognized the mutual benefits to be 
gained from reconciliation. Through the capable 
and bold diplomacy of Castlereagh and Adams, a 
new relationship of cooperation was built. 

1607. Winks, Robin W. Canada and the United 
States: the Civil War years. Baltimore, 

Johns Hopkins Press [1960] xviii, 430 p. 

6014699 469^5 

"A note on sources": p. 382397. Bibliographical 
footnotes. 

Writing on a virtually ignored aspect of Civil 
War diplomacy, the author intersperses scenes of 
Confederate intriguers sipping mint juleps in Mon- 
treal with general analyses of Canadian and Amer- 
ican attitudes and their effects on the delicate prob- 
lems of Anglo-American relations. Of special 
impact was a southern guerrilla raid on St. Albans, 
Maine, launched from across the Canadian border. 
The book also deals with various aspects of British 
colonial administration and with the consolidation 
of Canada as a nation. John S. Dickey has edited 
for the American Assembly a concise background 
study on historical and contemporary American- 
Canadian relations, The United States and Canada 
(Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1964] 184 
p. A Spectrum book, S A A 12). A narrower pe- 
riod is investigated by Robert C. Brown in Canada's 
National Policy, 1883-1900 (Princeton, N.J., Prince- 
ton University Press, 1964. 436 p.), which places 
heavy emphasis on Canadian domestic politics but 
treats diplomacy as well. 

Av. RUSSIA 

1608. Kennan, George F. Soviet- American rela- 
tions, 19171920. Princeton, N.J., Princeton 

University Press, 195658. 2 v. illus. 

56-8382 Ei83.8.R9K4 

Includes bibliographies. 

CONTENTS. v. i. Russia leaves the war. v. 2. 
The decision to intervene. 

An intricate appraisal of Soviet-American diplo- 
matic relations in a critical period. The initial vol- 
ume deals with events between the November 
Revolution of 1917 and Russia's final departure 
from the war in March 1918, following the Brest- 
Litovsk peace agreement with Germany. Kennan 



iyO / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

states that, failing to understand the true motiva- 
tions, needs, and intent of the Bolsheviks, the United 
States and the Western Allies maneuvered to keep 
the Russians in the war as the Russians in turn 
sought an expedient peace which would permit 
them to consolidate their position within. Volume 
2 deals with the first consolidation of the Commu- 
nist forces, British intervention, Japanese activities 
in Siberia, the saga of the Czech Legion, and finally 
the decision of the United States to send troops into 
Russia. This decision, asserts Kennan, was made 
principally in deference to the pressures of the West- 
ern Allies against the better judgment of President 
Wilson. Although ostensibly directed against pos- 
sible German encroachment, the intervention as- 
sumed an anti-Bolshevik character and laid the 
foundations of relations between the West and Rus- 
sia for the next 25 years and beyond. Kennan's 
Russia and the West Under Lenin and Stalin (Bos- 
ton, Little, Brown [1961] 411 p.) is a compre- 
hensive history of these relations. In The Ignorant 
Armies (New York, Harper [1960] 232 p.), Ern- 
est M. Halliday describes the experience of U.S. 
troops in Russia during 1918 and argues that the 
commitment was both unwitting and unfortunate, 
since Allied intent to intervene in Russian internal 
affairs must have been evident to Wilson, if not to 
other American leaders. 

Avi. OTHER EUROPEAN NATIONS 

1609. Beloff, Max. The United States and the 
unity of Europe. Washington, Brookings 

Institution [1963] 124 p. 

6315630 01065^564 

Includes bibliography. 

In this concise study the author describes the main 
currents of U.S. official policy and public opinion 
concerning the movement toward an integrated 
European community since World War II. The 
central force of this concerted effort on the part of 
France, Germany, Italy, and the Benelux nations 
was derived from three initial arrangements: the 
European Coal and Steel Community, the European 
Economic Community, and the European Atomic 
Energy Community. According to Beloff, Ameri- 
can opinion toward European union moved through 
fluctuating phases until 1962, when a position of 
clear commitment to continental integration was 
assumed. 

1610. Blumenthal, Henry. A reappraisal of 
Franco-American relations, 18301871. 

Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press 
[1959] xiv, 255 p. 59-65128 Ei83.8.F8B55 

Bibliography: p. [212] 242. 



"The myth of the uninterrupted historic friend- 
ship between France and the United States has been 
perpetuated in spite of the overwhelming evidence 
against it." Using this idea as his main theme, the 
author explores the diplomatic history of Franco- 
American relations from the July Revolution in 
France through the American Civil War and the 
Maximilian affair, ending with the neutral stance 
of the United States during the Franco-Prussian 
War. A growing rivalry, chiefly commercial in 
nature but heightened by secondary ideological and 
religious suspicions, impelled the two countries to 
the brink of war on several occasions. Influential in 
this increasingly negative relationship was the com- 
petitiveness of the other European powers: Britain, 
Russia, and the emerging German nation. 

1611. De Conde, Alexander. Entangling alliance; 
politics & diplomacy under George Wash- 
ington. Durham, N.C., Duke University Press, 
1958. xiv, 536 p. 58-8500 311.04 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

An extensive monograph centering on the Amer- 
ican alliance with France during President Wash- 
ington's administration. Through a synthesis of 
the themes of foreign policy and domestic politics, 
the author shows how the early bonds of friendship 
between the two countries were weakened and de- 
stroyed, bringing the nations close to war. At the 
same time, this heavily documented study details 
the partisan response of French supporters in Amer- 
ica to the Hamilton-inspired, British-oriented policy, 
a conflict which helped to lay the foundations for 
the formation of political parties. The roles of Jef- 
ferson, Madison, and Monroe are analyzed with 
particular care. 

1612. Kertesz, Stephen D., ed. The fate of East 
Central Europe: hopes and failures of Amer- 
ican foreign policy. Notre Dame, Ind., University 
of Notre Dame Press, 1956. 436 p. (International 
studies of the Committee on International Relations, 
University of Notre Dame) 

56-9731 D376.U6K4 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Although Americans have long maintained a sym- 
pathetic concern for the fate of Central Europe, 
this region has been historically regarded as remote 
from the national interest. As a result, Kertesz 
maintains, "the United States has seldom had a 
comprehensive foreign policy for East Central Eu- 
rope." The authors whose works are included in 
this volume examine the breadth and scope of 
American policy in the area through the years, the 
post- 1 945 political history of the individual coun- 
tries, the economic problems between the Soviet and 



DIPLOMATIC HISTORY AND FOREIGN RELATIONS / 



non-Soviet worlds, and economic trends in the "cap- 
tive countries." Attention is also given to earlier 
postwar relations between the Soviet bloc and non- 
Soviet areas. Contemporary U.S. efforts in the re- 
gion are examined by John C. Campbell in Amer- 
ican Policy Toward Communist Eastern Europe: 
The Choices Ahead (Minneapolis, University of 
Minnesota Press [1965] 136 p.). In the 19.63-64 
Elihu Root lectures, On Dealing With the Commu- 
nist World (New York, Published for the Council 
on Foreign Relations by Harper & Row [1964] 57 
p.), George F. Kennan discusses pertinent considera- 
tions of an American-Soviet coexistence policy in 
central Europe. 

Avii. LATIN AMERICA: GENERAL 

1613. Munro. Dana G. Intervention and dollar 
diplomacy in the Caribbean, 19001921. 

Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1964. 
553 p. 63-18647 Fi4i8.M92 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

"The problems that confronted the United States 
in the Caribbean in the first two decades were much 
like the problems that confront us there today." 
Within the framework of the disorder and economic 
backwardness which existed in these unstable Latin 
nations, the author traces the evolution of the United 
States intervention policy in the early 20th century. 
Maintaining that the motivations were more politi- 
cal than economic, he examines pertinent aspects of 
the Roosevelt Corollary: the military occupation of 
Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic; 
Wilson's doctrine of nonrecognition of revolutionary 
governments; and the use of dollar persuasion. 
Access to Department of State records and Presi- 
dential papers of the time greatly facilitated this 
study of the effects of U.S. policy on diplomatic re- 
lations in the Western Hemisphere. 

Aviii. LATIN AMERICA: INDIVIDUAL 

1614. Carey, James C. Peru and the United States, 
19001962. [Notre Dame, Ind.] University 

of Notre Dame Press, 1964. 243 p. (International 
studies of the Committee on International Relations, 
University of Notre Dame) 

64-23666 

Includes bibliographical references. 

Relations with Peru are examined as representing 
a middle ground in the development of U.S. policy 
toward Latin American countries. Rather than of- 
fering a recital of treaty negotiations, the author 
reviews the history of both public and private activ- 
ities, between which, he notes, there has been no dis- 
tinct line. According to Carey, the incidents during 



Vice President Richard M. Nixon's 1958 visit to 
Peru, at which time he was subjected to demonstra- 
tions of hostility against the United States, repre- 
sented a turning point in the course of relations be- 
tween the two countries. The Peruvian unrest, in 
Carey's view, was generated by the longstanding 
need for internal reform and by heavy U.S. invest- 
ment control in the economy. It is noted that, a 
year before the Nixon visit, the newspaper El Mundo 
called upon the U.S. Government to talk less lyri- 
cally and act more forcefully with respect to an eco- 
nomic program to help eliminate misery in Peru so 
that the chances of communist growth would be 
lessened. 

1615. Clendenen, Clarence C. The United States 
and Pancho Villa; a study in unconventional 

diplomacy. Ithaca, N.Y., Published for the Amer- 
ican Historical Association [by] Cornell University 
Press [1961] 352 p. illus. 

6118097 Fi234-C64 1961 

Bibliography: p. 323339. 

Choosing not to emphasize the more colorful and 
romantic aspects of Villa's life, the author regards 
the Mexican revolutionary leader as one whose ac- 
tivities and policies affected events far beyond the 
borders of his own country. The Mexican revolu- 
tion and its leaders are treated primarily for their 
impact on the formulation and conduct of U.S. 
external policy. The elements of President Wilson's 
policy of "watchful waiting" toward Mexico, coin- 
ciding with his efforts to keep the United States 
neutral during the early years of World War I, are 
traced in the tangled and uncertain diplomatic rela- 
tions south of the border. From contemporary in- 
terviews, news correspondents, and diplomatic and 
consular archives, the author has drawn the ma- 
terials which he uses to examine the sources of 
Villa's influence and to interpret the motives and 
designs behind his varied relationships with U.S. en- 
voys. The American response to such issues as 
expropriation, intervention, and recognition is placed 
within the context of the larger Wilsonian foreign 
policy. The author strongly suggests while ad- 
mitting that the evidence is circumstantial that 
because of the disturbed relations between the United 
States and Mexico, Germany was in some measure 
encouraged to embark upon its policy of unrestricted 
submarine warfare. 

1616. Peterson, Harold F. Argentina and the 
United States, 1810-1960. [Albany] State 

University of New York; [University Publishers, 

New York, sole distributors] 1964. xxii, 627 p. 

illus. 62-21414 

Bibliography: p. 553582. 



172 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

According to the author, the dominant character- 
istic of a century and a half of relationships between 
Argentina and the United States has been more 
often rivalry and estrangement than friendship and 
cooperation. He describes the development of these 
discordant relations in detail, stressing conflicts over 
economic competition, the infiltration of ideological 
totalitarianism into Argentina, and the recent fail- 
ure of American diplomacy to construct a system of 
inter-American solidarity. 

1617. Pike, Fredrick B. Chile and the United 
States, 1880-1962; the emergence of Chile's 
social crisis and the challenge to United States di- 
plomacy. [Notre Dame, Ind.] University of Notre 
Dame Press, 1963. 466 p. (International studies 
of the Committee on International Relations, Uni- 
versity of Notre Dame) 63-9097 Ei83.8.C4P5 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Citing Chile as unique in Latin America for its 
history of political stability, this interpretive account 
begins at 1880 because, according to the author, 
diplomatic relations between Chile and the United 
States were relatively unimportant before that date. 
Through 1933, the discussion is devoted to confer- 
ences, minor incidents, and treaty exchanges. From 
1933 to the 1960*5, the study of Chilean internal de- 
velopment is emphasized, and great importance is 
attributed to the role of Chilean social ferment as an 
influence on relations with the United States. 



Aix. ASIA, AFRICA, AND THE 
MIDDLE EAST 

1618. American Assembly. The United States 

and Africa. Edited by Walter Goldschmidt. 

Rev. ed. New York, Praeger [1963] xvi, 298 p. 

illus. 63-20154 DT38.A65 1963 

Originally prepared as background reading for 
participants in the American Assembly, 1958. 

Problems of the new African nations and U.S. 
policy toward them are discussed in this collection 
of essays. Noting the great diversity among the 
peoples and states of Africa and the pressures work- 
ing upon them, the authors stress that a uniform 
policy toward the continent as a whole would be an 
unrealistic approach. An appendix provides a sum- 
mary of operations of U.S. Government agencies, 
including the Department of State, the Agency for 
International Development, the U.S. Information 
Agency, and the Peace Corps, in Africa. The prob- 
lems and U.S. alternatives in southern Africa are 
examined by Waldemar A. Nielsen in African Bat- 
tleline (New York, Published for the Council on 
Foreign Relations by Harper & Row [1965] 155 p. 



Policy book series of the Council on Foreign 
Relations). 

1619. Darling, Frank C. Thailand and the United 
States. Washington, Public Affairs Press 

[1965] 243 p. 65-16717 Ei83.8.T 4 D3 

Bibliography: p. 229-239. 

An assessment of the influence of American for- 
eign policy on the evolution of Thailand's political 
system since 1945. The author discusses the history 
of 20th-century constitutional government in the 
Southeast Asian nation, with emphasis on the strug- 
gle between civilian liberalism and military rule. 
Darling considers that U.S. policies have often had 
the effect of weakening civilian governments but 
concludes that much has been done to enhance Thai- 
land's national security. The administration of for- 
eign aid and the role of the Southeast Asia Treaty 
Organization (SEATO) are outlined and suggestions 
for future U.S. policies are offered. 

1620. DeNovo, John A. American interests and 
policies in the Middle East, 1 900-1 939. Min- 
neapolis, University of Minnesota Press [1963] 
447 p. maps. 63-21129 0863.2.^04 

Bibliography: p. 397410. 

1621. Campbell, John C. Defense of the Middle 
East; problems of American policy. Rev. 

[i.e. 2d] ed. New York, Published for the Council 
on Foreign Relations by Harper, 1960. 400 p. 
illus. 60-9110 DS63.2.U5D3 1960 

The Middle East was not an area of primary 
diplomatic involvement for the United States until 
the end of World War II. DeNovo contends, how- 
ever, that important cultural and economic ties de- 
veloped over four decades before the war and so 
conditioned the American approach as to compli- 
cate adjustments to a more serious commitment in 
the region after 1945. While the area was domi- 
nated by Ottoman rulers and by the European power 
struggle, official American activities were restricted 
to fostering and protecting the cultural and com- 
mercial interests of her citizens. After a brief ven- 
ture into Middle Eastern politics following World 
War I, the United States acknowledged the area to 
be a British sphere of influence. A major exception 
was the strong American support given to an "open 
door" principle on oil exploitation. Campbell dis- 
cusses U.S. diplomacy in the area since the end of 
World War II. With British and French power 
dramatically reduced, the United States assumed a 
larger role in time to encounter the emotions of ris- 
ing nationalism and Arab hostility engendered by 
the Palestine issue. Campbell asserts that, as a newly 
emerging diplomatic leader in the Middle East, the 
United States fumbled for a policy which would 



DIPLOMATIC HISTORY AND FOREIGN RELATIONS / 173 



help maintain Western presence in this unstable 
area. He seeks a basis for successful American ini- 
tiative, exploring questions of military policy, eco- 
nomic assistance, and conflict with the Soviet Union. 
The United States and the Middle East (Englewood 
Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall [1964] 182 p. A Spec- 
trum book), an American Assembly publication 
prepared under the editorial supervision of Georgi- 
ana G. Stevens, is of value for general background. 

1622. Dulles, Foster Rhea. Yankees and samurai; 
America's role in the emergence of modern 

Japan: 1791-1900. New York, Harper & Row 
[1965] 275 p. illus. 65-20427 183.8.13084 

"Bibliographical notes": p. 255268. 

The year 1791 marked the first recorded contact 
between "the Red Hairs from a Land called Amer- 
ica" and feudal Japan. It was not until 1853, how- 
ever, that Commodore Matthew Perry anchored in 
Yedo (Tokyo) Bay and successfully opened the 
door to commercial and political intercourse between 
the two countries. The author relies on personal 
diaries and accounts of seamen, visitors, and diplo- 
mats, as well as official records and logs of the per- 
iod, to relate the unusual and highly significant 
courtship that ultimately "helped shape the entire 
course of subsequent Far Eastern history." Empha- 
sis is placed on cultural contact, and care is taken to 
separate legend from fact. A general history which 
brings the subject up to the time of the U.S. occupa- 
tion following World War II is William L. Neu- 
mann's America Encounters Japan; From Perry to 
Mac Arthur (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1963. 
353 p. The Goucher College series). 

1623. Evans, Laurence. United States policy and 
the partition of Turkey, 19141924. Balti- 
more, Johns Hopkins Press [1965] 437 p. (Johns 
Hopkins University. Studies in historical and po- 
litical science, ser. 82, no. 2) 

65-11660 Ei83.8.T8E9 

Bibliography: p. 418420. 

Based on extensive investigation of official docu- 
ments, memoirs, and personal papers of partici- 
pants, this study is presented from the viewpoint of 
the President and the Secretary of State as the pri- 
mary formulators of foreign policy. Evans traces 
the development of the U.S. position on the Middle 
East from complete noninvolvement during World 
War I to intense concern during the Peace Con- 
ference and back to noninvolvement following the 
Senate's rejection of the Versailles Treaty. He 
discusses in detail the relationships of the United 
States with the main protagonists: the major powers 
of Europe, the Turks, and the Arabs. President 
Wilson had a deep concern for the mandate solu- 



tion in the Middle East and, according to Evans, 
performed exceptionally well on the matter at Paris. 
Nevertheless, the ultimate settlement was the prod- 
uct of European rather than Middle Eastern political 
factors. After 1920, the U.S. Department of State's 
interest was directed more toward an "open door" 
for commercial exploitation and the protection of 
rights for American citizens than toward the wel- 
fare of the former Turkish possessions. 

1624. Fifield, Russell H. Southeast Asia in United 
States policy. New York, Published for the 

Council on Foreign Relations by Praeger [1963] 
488 p. 63-20144 08518.8^48 

"Bibliographical note": p. 441472. 

In this study of American policy in Southeast 
Asia since World War II, Fifield argues that the 
immediate problem is to mobilize effective oppo- 
sition to the indirect aggression being waged against 
the nations there. At the same time, Communist 
China must be convinced that it cannot accomplish 
its major objective of ultimate supremacy in this 
area through the threat or use of force. Much of 
the book covers the background of a wide range of 
issues influencing U.S. policy, such as problems of 
economic growth and political stability in South- 
east Asia, as well as the role of the Southeast Asia 
Treaty Organization (SEATO). Of particular note 
is the discussion projecting the future influence that 
Indian and Japanese political and economic growth 
might exert in counteracting aggression in the area. 
The role of the Soviet Union and Communist China 
in this region is summarized by Oliver Edmund 
Clubb in The United States and the Sino-Soviet 
Bloc in Southeast Asia (Washington, Brookings 
Institution f^^ 2 ] 173 p.), where numerous alter- 
native U.S. policies are suggested and briefly ap- 
praised. A detailed study of the policies of the 
Southeast Asian countries may be found in Russell 
H. Fifield's The Diplomacy o/ Southeast Asia: 
1945-10,58 (New York, Harper [1958] 584 p.). 

1625. Rappaport, Armin. Henry L. Stimson and 
Japan, 193133. Chicago, University of 

Chicago Press [1963] 238 p. 

63-18847 Ei83.8.J3R3 

"A note on the sources": p. 233234. Biblio- 
graphical footnotes. 

1626. Borg, Dorothy. The United States and the 
Far Eastern crisis of 19331938; from the 

Manchurian incident through the initial stage of the 
undeclared Sino-Japanese war. Cambridge, Har- 
vard University Press, 1964. 674 p. (Harvard 
East Asian series, 14) 

64-13421 08784.665 1964 
Bibliography: p. [547] 561. 



174 / A GUIDE T0 E UNITED STATES 

In summarizing a significant episode in the diplo- 
matic origins of World War II, Rappaport at- 
tempts to explain why the United States and Great 
Britain did nothing to stop Japan in Manchuria be- 
tween 1931 and 1933. He views the U.S. doctrine 
of nonrecognition as essentially "the pistol which, 
unhappily, was not loaded," concluding that the 
fault lay not with Stimson but with public opinion 
both in America and abroad. Neither here nor in 
Europe were people willing to become responsibly 
involved in the affairs of the Far East. Dorothy 
Borg examines the crucial years of American- 
Japanese relations between 1933 and 1938. Rejecting 
the frequently expressed allegation that Roosevelt's 
intransigence was a major cause of the break- 
down of peaceful relations, she underscores the 
President's tendency to look for a means of reaching 
an understanding with Japan. At the same time, 
she demonstrates Roosevelt's clear concern over the 
threat of Japanese imperialism to international order 
and reveals his tendency toward the creation of a 
stiffer policy, which became increasingly manifest 
after the outbreak of the Sino- Japanese War in 1937. 

1627. Taylor, George E. The Philippines and the 
United States: problems of partnership. 
New York, Published for the Council on Foreign 
Relations by Praeger [1964] 325 p. 

64-12080 DS672.8.T3 1964 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A history of U.S. relations with the Philippines as 
a U.S. colony and as an independent nation. Al- 
though several aspects of the experiment with colo- 
nialism were commendable, Taylor asserts that the 
American Government made no serious or effective 
effort to build a sound economic base for political 
democracy in the islands during its half century of 
rule. Thus, until Communist aggressions and con- 



quests in Asia altered the American outlook and 
approach, the colonial policy was generally unsatis- 
factory and contributed to the serious economic and 
political crises which followed achievement of Phil- 
ippine independence in 1946. The search for Phil- 
ippine national identity, with its concomitant ten- 
sions between newly introduced democratic political 
institutions and traditional value systems, is viewed 
as the single most important problem affecting the 
two countries. 

1628. Tsou, Tang. America's failure in China, 
194150. [Chicago] University of Chicago 
Press [1963] 614 p. 63-13072 DS777-53.T866 
According to the author, an unwillingness to use 
military power and an adherence to idealistic objec- 
tives formed the basis of U.S. policy in China. In 
turn, this dual policy was responsible for the mis- 
judgments and faulty assumptions regarding the 
Nationalist Government, the Soviet Union, and the 
Chinese Communists and denied to America any 
chance for lasting success in China. The author 
was born and raised in China and received his 
Ph.D. degree in political science from the University 
of Chicago, where he later taught. The conception 
that American interests in China were not worth a 
war on the mainland, Tsou believes, had its roots 
in the tradition of the "open door." He emphasizes 
policy decisions which put limited military objec- 
tives above broad political goals, names Chiang as 
the single person most responsible for those deci- 
sions, and traces America's failures at each major 
stage. In an effort to promote a general under- 
standing of contemporary problems and policies in 
the area, the American Assembly has issued The 
United States and the Far East, 2d ed. (Englewood 
Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1962] 188 p. A Spec- 
trum book, S A A 6), edited by Willard L. Thorp. 



B. Foreign Relations 



Bi. ADMINISTRATION 

1629. Dulles, Allen Welsh. The craft of intelli- 
gence. New York, Harper & Row [1963] 
277 p. illus. 63-16507 UB270.D8 

Bibliography: p. 265267. 

The author, a former director of the Central In- 
telligence Agency, traces the evolution of intelli- 
gence work from the Israelites in Canaan to the 
present. After justifying the creation and continu- 
ing work of the CIA, Dulles describes the collection 



of information, counterintelligence methods, and 
administrative aspects. He also draws a composite 
picture of the American agent and devotes a chapter 
to defectors, whom he prefers to call volunteers, and 
the information they provide. Reflecting the Amer- 
ican concern over communism, Dulles discusses the 
Soviet espionage network, the intelligence services 
of the European satellites and Red China, the utili- 
zation of intelligence by policymakers in the Depart- 
ments of State and Defense, and the role of intelli- 
gence in the cold war era. By explaining the place 



DIPLOMATIC HISTORY AND FOREIGN RELATIONS / 175 



of the CIA in the Government hierarchy and the 
controls and limitations on its activities, he attempts 
to refute charges that our intelligence system can 
become a threat to our freedoms. 

1630. Dyer, Murray. The weapon on the wall; 
rethinking psychological warfare. Balti- 
more, Johns Hopkins Press [ 1959] 269 p. 

59-14234 E744.D 9 3 

The author outlines the role and nature of psy- 
chological warfare, now used by many nations as a 
major instrument of foreign policy, and discusses 
its major premises and operating principles. The 
American people, he believes, have a distorted con- 
ception of this type of propaganda and thus are 
reluctant to accept it as an appropriate instrument 
of foreign relations. Striving to create a realistic 
perspective, Dyer traces the origins of psychological 
warfare, the difficulties presented by its use, and 
the requirements for developing it as an effective 
and responsible weapon. In Strategic Psychological 
Operations and American Foreign Policy ( [Chica- 
go] University of Chicago Press [1960] 243 p.), 
a study illustrated with case histories, Robert T. 
Holt and Robert W. Van de Velde also express the 
opinion that Americans have never fully under- 
stood the nature of psychological warfare. 



1631. Graebner, Norman A., ed. An uncertain 
tradition; American Secretaries of State in 
the twentieth century. New York, McGraw-Hill, 
1961. 341 p. (McGraw-Hill series in American 
history) 61-8654 E 744- G 7 

Bibliography: p. 309327. 

A symposium of essays on the careers of 14 Sec- 
retaries of State, from John Hay to John Foster 
Dulles. The first essay, "The Year of Transition," 
sets the tone for the collection, depicting 1898 as a 
crucial turning point. In that year, the United 
States shifted from a relatively unblurred diplomatic 
tradition of 19th-century realism to a less easily char- 
acterized viewpoint. The new attitude was shaped 
on the one hand by the complexities of world poli- 
tics and on the other by the American sense of moral 
obligation for the whole world. The essays vary 
according to the importance of each Secretary and 
the length of his term in office. Among the Secre- 
taries included, in addition to Hay and Dulles, are 
Elihu Root, Robert Lansing, George Marshall, and 
Dean Acheson. A bibliographical note for each 
man is appended. A brief historical introduction to 
the office of Secretary of State is Alexander De 
Conde's The American Secretary of State: An Inter- 
pretation (New York, Praeger [1962] 182 p. 
Books that matter). 



1632. Ilchman, Warren F. Professional diplo- 
macy in the United States, 1779-1939; a study 

in administrative history. [Chicago] University of 
Chicago Press [1961] 254 p. 

61-11991 JXi705.l4 

"Bibliographical essays": p. 244-248. Biblio- 
graphical footnotes. 

Part of a larger study by Ilchman on the growth 
of professional U.S. diplomacy, this volume traces 
the evolution of a career service for conducting 
foreign affairs. The diplomatic service is shown to 
have been characterized until the i88o's by the re- 
fusal of the Government either to consider overseas 
missions as permanent or to regard the members of 
a mission as part of a career diplomatic corps. As 
early as the i86o's, however, the demands of Civil 
War diplomacy and the later campaign for admin- 
istrative reform in government caused a noticeable 
change. Ultimately, the emergence of the United 
States as a world power at the turn of the i9th 
century stimulated a professionalization of the serv- 
ice, which largely culminated in reorganization 
under the Rogers Act in 1924. Since then, democ- 
ratization and specialization have been the char- 
acteristic trends. The contemporary organization 
and functions of the Department of State are exam- 
ined by Robert E. Elder in The Policy Machine 
( [Syracuse, N.Y.] Syracuse University Press, 1960. 
238 p.). 

1633. Ransom, Harry H. Central intelligence and 
national security. Cambridge, Harvard Uni- 
versity Press, 1958. xiv, 287 p. 

58-12972 JK468.I6R3 
Bibliography: p. 233256. 

Noting that "one simply can not apply to this 
subject the usual rigorous standards of data gather- 
ing and documentation," Ransom seeks to clarify 
the essential nature of a widely misunderstood field. 
In so doing, he describes the growth and function of 
intelligence as an aspect of U.S. national policy and 
investigates the complex organizational structure, 
which, in addition to the Central Intelligence 
Agency, includes a separate intelligence branch for 
each of the armed services and the Department of 
State and requires shared responsibilities with the 
National Security Agency, the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, and the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion. Besides the problems of coordination that in- 
variably arise, the author analyzes the delicate ques- 
tion of surveillance by Congress. Paul W. Black- 
stock concentrates on the theory and practice of 
covert political operations abroad in The Strategy of 
Subversion (Chicago, Quadrangle Books, 1964. 
35i P.)- 



176 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

1634. Scott, Andrew M., and Raymond H. Daw- 
son, eds. Readings in the making of Ameri- 
can foreign policy. New York, Macmillan [1965] 
551 p. 65-13587 183.7.839 

Includes bibliographical references. 

This volume brings together analytic essays on 
the formulation and execution of American foreign 
policy. The authors some represented by other 
entries in this chapter examine the problems of 
public opinion, pressure groups, and consensus 
within our system. The role of Congress is 
treated, as are the organization, functions, and re- 
sponsibilities within the executive branch. The im- 
pact of military, intellectual, scientific, and research 
communities on policy is also investigated. 

1635. Thompson, Kenneth W. American diplo- 
macy and emergent patterns. [New York] 

New York University Press, 1962. 273 p. (James 
Stokes lectureship on politics, New York Univer- 
sity, Stokes Foundation) 

62-14654 1X1705/1*47 

Includes bibliography. 

Maintaining that the patterns of American di- 
plomacy are not fixed but evolving, Thompson at- 
tempts to determine what part of the Nation's past 
experience is relevant to the present. Topics dis- 
cussed include the philosophy of diplomacy and 
politics, American professionalism, the flexible role 
of the Executive as outlined by the Constitution, 
and the evolution of diplomatic practice throughout 
the Nation's history. The last chapter is devoted to 
diplomacy in a changing world. 

1636. Warren, Sidney. The President as world 
leader. Philadelphia, Lippincott [1964] 

480 p. 6422183 E744/W295 

Bibliographical references included in "Chapter 
notes" (p. 439457). Bibliography: p. 458470. 

The expansion of Presidential powers over the 
years has resulted primarily "from the impact of 
the great Presidents who gave the office new dimen- 
sions, invigorated it and provided a legacy that even 
weaker men could not dissipate." In the 2Oth 
century the expansion has occurred notably in the 
conduct of foreign affairs, according to the author. 
Beginning with the administration of Theodore 
Roosevelt, Warren examines the effect each Presi- 
dent has had on this aspect of Executive power, 
particularly through his responses to specific inter- 
national emergencies. He points out that, in the 
current era of almost perpetual crisis, a distinction 
can no longer be made between a wartime and a 
peacetime head of state. 



Bii. DEMOCRATIC CONTROL 

1637. Carroll, Holbert N. The House of Repre- 
sentatives and foreign affairs. Pittsburgh, 

University of Pittsburgh [ 1958] 365 p. 

58-10705 

Bibliography: p. 35 r -357- 

The Constitution assigns to the House of Repre- 
sentatives a much smaller role in foreign relations 
than is granted to the Senate. The author main- 
tains, however, that the House, beginning in World 
War II, has assumed increased responsibilities. 
Much of this new power, he points out, has evolved 
out of the monetary needs created by complex inter- 
national policies requiring legislative action. The 
purpose of this book is to analyze the nature of this 
expanding role and its influence on the formula- 
tion of U.S. foreign policy. A short history of the 
House precedes a thorough discussion of the or- 
ganization and operation of its internal power struc- 
ture. Particular importance is attached to the 
relationship between the Appropriations and the 
Foreign Affairs Committees. Two short chapters 
are devoted to the external relations of the House 
of Representatives with the Senate and the President. 

1638. Cohen, Bernard C. The press and foreign 
policy. Princeton, N.J., Princeton Univer- 
sity Press, 1963. 288 p. 63-12668 PN4745.C6 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A systematic investigation of foreign affairs re- 
porting in Washington, D.C., based on extensive 
interviews with reporters and foreign policy officials. 
The author emphasizes a basic conflict between the 
two groups. On the one hand, policymakers stress 
the need to conduct delicate negotiations in private; 
on the other, the press maintains the right of the 
people to be informed of the decisions being con- 
sidered before they become irrevocable. The result- 
ing climate of suspicion gives rise to reporting 
which is "spasmodic, piecemeal, impressionistic, 
and oversimplified, sometimes inaccurate and gar- 
bled." Although limited in scope, the book is a 
pioneer study in an increasingly important field. 

1639. Crabb, Cecil V. Bipartisan foreign policy: 
myth or reality? Evanston, 111., Row, Peter- 
son [1957] 2 79 P- 57~ TI 349 E744.C8 

Bibliography: p. 264270. 

An examination of the intricate role played by 
party politics in the formulation of American foreign 
policy. Although agreeing that important programs 
would have failed at the outset without bipartisan 
support, the author contends that the advantages of 
such an approach may at times be outweighed by 
more serious disadvantages. Using case studies of 



DIPLOMATIC HISTORY AND FOREIGN RELATIONS / 177 



major postwar programs developed on a bipartisan 
basis, Crabb discusses difficulties which are some- 
times created by conducting foreign affairs in this 
manner. In Senatorial Politics & Foreign Policy 
( [Lexington] University of Kentucky Press [ C i962] 
214 p.), Malcolm E. Jewell seeks to illustrate the 
transformation that can occur in the voting records 
of both parties when the representative majority 
shifts from one party to the other. 

1640. Robinson, James A. Congress and foreign 
policy-making; a study in legislative influ- 
ence and initiative. Homewood, 111., Dorsey Press, 
1962. 262 p. (The Dorsey series in political 
science) 6211289 JKio8i.R6 

Bibliography: p. 235253. 

The author states that at present the influence of 
Congress upon foreign policy is "primarily (and in- 
creasingly) one of legitimating and amending poli- 
cies initiated by the executive." To a significant 
degree, according to Robinson, this situation is 
attributable to "the changing character of the infor- 
mation or intelligence needs in modern policy- 
making." This trend, he maintains, is not inevitable 
or irreversible, and as one means of offsetting it 
he suggests a more centralized leadership in the 
House and Senate. Reviewing congressional in- 
volvement in major foreign policy decisions since 
the 1930*5, he discusses the concept and use of con- 
gressional influence, legislative-executive liaison on 
foreign policy, and the communications network 
between Congress and the Department of State. 

1641. Thomson, Charles A., and Walter H. C. 
Laves. Cultural relations and U.S. foreign 

policy. Bloomington, Indiana University Press 
[1963] 227 p. 63-7167 744.5/15 1963 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Evolving largely from an initial effort in 1938 to 
counteract Nazi-Fascist penetration in Latin Amer- 
ica, cultural exchange is a rapidly growing facet of 
U.S. foreign relations. This book examines both the 
evolution of the Government's programs and the 
role that cultural activities play in American diplo- 
macy. The authors discuss the often heated de- 
bates surrounding the programs, which by their 
nature tend to generate apprehensions and misun- 
derstandings. The final chapter suggests guidelines 
to increase future effectiveness. Philip H. Coombs 
briefly surveys the same subject in The Fourth 
Dimension of Foreign Policy; Educational and Cul- 
tural Affairs (New York, Published for the Council 
on Foreign Relations by Harper & Row [1964] 
158 p. Policy books). 



Biii. POLICIES 

1642. Bloomfield, Lincoln P. The United Nations 
and U.S. foreign policy; a new look at the 

national interest. Boston, Little, Brown [1960] 
276 p. 60-15453 1X1977.2^5662 

A study initiated for the purpose of reevaluating 
the United Nations from the standpoint of U.S. 
national interests. Among these interests are the 
broad categories of political and military security, 
stability and welfare, and world order. The author 
finds that there are important political advantages 
to be gained by supporting programs of the world 
organization which are consistent with overall 
American policies. The national interest is also 
central to the theme of Richard N. Gardner's In 
Pursuit of World Order; U.S. Foreign Policy and 
International Organization (New York, Praeger 
[1964] 263 p.). Gardner sees in the United Na- 
tions a unique opportunity for debate, negotiation, 
and action. In United Nations and U.S. Foreign 
Economic Policy (Homewood, 111., R. D. Irwin, 
1962. 235 p. Irwin series in economics), Benjamin 
H. Higgins discusses multilateral versus bilateral 
economic aid for underdeveloped countries and 
urges the channeling of more American aid through 
the agencies of the United Nations. 

1643. Kissinger, Henry A. Nuclear weapons and 
foreign policy. New York, Published for 

the Council on Foreign Relations by Harper, 1957. 
455 p. illus. 577801 UA23.K.49 

"Mastery of the challenges of the nuclear age will 
depend on our ability to combine physical and 
psychological factors, to develop weapon systems 
which do not paralyze our will, and to devise 
strategies which permit us to shift the risks of 
counteraction to the other side." The author con- 
tends that, with the nature of warfare vastly changed 
by the technology of nuclear weapons, the basic 
challenge to the United States is to formulate a 
sound strategic doctrine. Topics discussed include 
the dilemma of American security, all-out war and 
limited war, the contemporary challenge to diplo- 
macy, the obsolescence of some traditional military 
concepts, the complexities of disarmament and in- 
ternational inspection, and Sino-Soviet strategic 
thought. 

1644. Osgood, Robert E. NATO, the entangling 
alliance. [Chicago] University of Chicago 

Press [1962] 416 p. 62-8348 UA646.3.O8 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion from its inception in 1949, this study examines 
one phase of contemporary U.S. foreign policy as 



178 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

transformed by the changing conditions of the 
postwar era. Osgood notes that new political, eco- 
nomic, and military developments have either invali- 
dated or introduced complexities into the original 
assumptions upon which the NATO alliance was 
built. Among these changes are the economic re- 
surgence of Europe, the active reassertion of sep- 
arate European purposes, and the growth of Soviet 
power. With these in mind, the author attempts to 
define the role of military power in a nuclear age 
and to assess the alliance within the overall political 
and military purposes of the West. Recognizing 
the continued need for allied cooperation, Osgood 
asks for an enlarged contribution from Europe on 
behalf of its own defense. A study which presents 
both American and European views on the major 
issues confronting the Adantic community is NATO 
in Quest of Cohesion (New York, Published for the 
Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace 
by Praeger [1965] 476 p. Hoover Institution pub- 
lications), edited by Karl H. Cerny and Henry W. 
Briefs. The problems surrounding effective uses 
of military power in the nuclear age are examined 
by Osgood in Limited War; the Challenge to Ameri- 
can Strategy ([Chicago] University of Chicago 
Press [1957] 315 p.). 

1645. Spanier, John W. American foreign policy 
since World War II. Rev. ed. New York, 
Praeger [ 1962] 275 p. 

6213739 744.88 1962 

Bibliography: p. 259267. 

This critical analysis of U.S. policy in the cold 
war is based on the thesis that an intense distaste 
for power politics has hindered an adequate response 
by American policymakers to the ideological, social, 
and strategic challenges of our age. According to 
the author, this underlying national belief that 
power is an immoral, antidemocratic instrument has 
produced an inadequate answer to the Soviet threat 
of expansionism. Supporting this thesis, Spanier 
examines decisions and actions relevant to such 
policy issues as the Truman Doctrine, the North 
Adantic Treaty Organization, the Korean War, the 
Middle East, Cuba, and Berlin. As a solution, the 
author advocates a foreign policy which recognizes 
the mutual relationship between power and diplo- 
macy and a new attempt to understand the social 
changes underlying the "revolution of rising expec- 
tations" throughout the developing areas. In a col- 
lection of essays entitled The Impasse of American 
Foreign Policy ([Chicago] University of Chicago 
Press [1962] 312 p.), the second volume of Politics 
in the Twentieth Century, Hans J. Morgenthau 
criticizes U.S. policy for remaining static since the 
Korean War and failing to meet the new circum- 



stances of the Soviet challenges in various areas of 
the world. In The United States in the World 
Arena (New York, Harper [1960] 568 p. Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology. Center for 
International Studies. American project series) 
Walt W. Rostow seeks to evaluate the manner in 
which the Nation's overall evolution has affected its 
military and foreign policy performance over the 
last 25 years. 

Biv. ECONOMIC POLICY 

1646. Feis, Herbert. Foreign aid and foreign pol- 
icy. New York, St. Martin's Press [1964] 

246 p. 64-18364 HC6o.F35 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The author discusses the need for comprehensive 
planning in American foreign-aid programs, empha- 
sizing the fact that achievement of economic growth 
in the developing areas requires fundamental social 
changes as well as capital investment. Feis provides 
a general review of the evolution of foreign aid and 
notes a growing affiliation between U.S. aid and 
diplomacy, showing the complexities involved in 
pursuing political aims while maintaining feasible 
and balanced economic programs. In The New 
Statecraft; Foreign Aid in American Foreign Policy 
([Chicago] University of Chicago Press [1960] 
246 p.), George Liska counsels the use of foreign aid 
in such a way that optimum control will rest with 
the aid-giving country. Edward S. Mason, in For- 
eign Aid and Foreign Policy (New York, Published 
for the Council on Foreign Relations by Harper & 
Row [1964] 118 p. The Elihu Root lectures, 
1962-63), outlines basic aid principles and gives a 
concise description and interpretation of the Alli- 
ance for Progress program in action. 

1647. Ranis, Gustav, ed. The United States and 
the developing economies. New York, Nor- 
ton [1964] xx, 174 p. (Problems of the modern 
economy) 63-21712 HC6o.R2 

Bibliography: p. 173174. 

A series of essays which investigate the rationale, 
significance, and effectiveness of foreign-aid pro- 
grams. Following a general descriptive introduc- 
tion, "The Poor Nations," by Barbara Ward, the 
book is divided into three major parts: "The De- 
veloping Economies: A New Commitment," "Aid 
Instruments and Allocation Criteria," and "The 
Economics of Foreign Assistance." In addition to 
the contributions of such authorities as Milton Fried- 
man, Robert Asher, and Thomas Schelling, a selec- 
tion is included from the 1963 Clay Committee 
Report examining American assistance programs 
In Witness for AID (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 



DIPLOMATIC HISTORY AND FOREIGN RELATIONS / 179 

1964. 273 p.), Frank M. Coffin, former Deputy purpose of foreign aid in U.S. policy and stresses 
Administrator of the Agency for International De- the vital need for a working consensus to back the 
velopment, notes the continuing confusion over the program. 



X 



Military History and the Armed Forces 



A. General Worths 

B. The Army 

C. The Navy 

D. The Air Force 

E. Wars of the United States 

Ei. The Revolution 

Eii. 1798-1848 

Eiii. The Civil War 

Eiv. The Spanish-American War 

Ev. World War 1 

Evi. World War II 

Evii. The Korean War 



16481654 
1655-1659 
1660-1665 
16661667 

1668-1671 

16721673 

16741684 

1685 

1686-1688 
16891694 
16951697 



BOTH the quality and variety of the books chosen for this chapter reflect the growing interest 
in military affairs evident since the end of World War II. From university study centers, 
the historical units of the armed services, and the commercial presses, come books which 
define and clarify the American military establishment: what it has been, what it is, and 
what it may become. 

Of the three gaps in the literature that were noted in the 1960 Guide, two remain 
unfilled in spite of the current upsurge in scholar- 
is now Section E, Wars of the United States, a new 
subdivision covers the Korean war. Because of a 
dearth of appropriate material in the period covered 
by this Supplement, no subsection is devoted to the 



ship. There is still no adequate general history of 
the Army or comprehensive operational history of 
World War I. But the military history of the 
Revolutionary War, comparatively neglected before, 
has recently begun to receive attention. 

The arrangement of the sections follows the order 
of the 1960 Guide, with two exceptions: a section 
on the Air Force (D) has been added; and in what 



Vietnam conflict. As in the 1960 Guide, this chap- 
ter includes more works on the Civil War than on 
any other, indicating the continuing fascination with 
this era in the Nation's history. 



A. General Works 



1648. Hammond, Paul Y. Organizing for de- 
defense; the American military establishment 
in the twentieth century. Princeton, N.J., Prince- 
ton University Press, 1961. 403 p. 

61-7398 
Bibliographical footnotes. 

180 



This study of defense administration relates the 
organization and functioning of the armed services 
departments to their public and political environ- 
ment. Major emphasis is placed on the roles of 
Congress and the President in influencing the struc- 
ture of military administration. The author covers 



MILITARY HISTORY AND THE ARMED FORCES / l8l 



organizational changes and developments from 
about 1900 to 1960. Particular attention is devoted 
to departmental operations during World Wars I 
and II, when important principles of administration 
were tested, and to the unification of the services in 
the Department of Defense in 1947. A briefer work 
on defense organization is The Management of 
Defense; Organization and Control of the U.S. 
Armed Services (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press 
[1964] 228 p.), by John C. Ries. 

1649. Huntington, Samuel P. The soldier and the 
state; the theory and politics of civil- 
military relations. Cambridge, Belknap Press of 
Harvard University Press, 1957. xiii, 534 p. 

57-6349 UA23.H95 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 469-517)- 

The author looks at civil-military relations as a 
system which involves a complex equilibrium be- 
tween the authority of military and nonmilitary 
groups in a society. The premise of the book is 
that a general theory of the nature and purpose of 
military institutions can be used to analyze the 
civil-military relations of any society and to deter- 
mine the degree to which those relations affect 
military security. The first part of the book con- 
tains a theoretical and historical discussion of mili- 
tary institutions and the state in the Western World. 
In the second and third parts the author applies his 
theories to a historical analysis of civil-military rela- 
tions in the United States. His focus is on the 
officer corps, whose relation to the state, he believes, 
reflects the general relations between the military 
and the rest of society. In The Civilian and the 
Military (New York, Oxford University Press, 1956. 
340 p.), Arthur A. Ekirch examines the traditional 
American tendency to oppose a conscript army and 
a large military establishment. 

1650. Janowitz, Morris. The professional soldier, 
a social and political portrait. Glencoe, 111., 

Free Press [1960] 464 p. 60-7090 UBi47.J3 

Includes bibliography. 

One of the few sociologists to study the American 
military environment, Janowitz examines the mili- 
tary profession as it has evolved during the first half 
of this century. Using sociological concepts, he 
studies the officer corps as a professional group and 
analyzes the social origins of the officers as well as 
their career motivations, political beliefs, and style 
of life. There is a new emphasis, he states, on the 
military professionals' capacity for critical judgment. 
Furthermore, developments in technology have 
created the need for an increasing number of tech- 
nical specialists in the military. Overall, the differ- 



ences between military and nonmilitary organiza- 
tions have been greatly reduced. 

1651. Kaufmann, William W. The McNamara 
strategy. New York, Harper & Row [1964] 

339 P- 64-12672 UA23.K.37 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. 
320-334). 

Under President Kennedy, Robert McNamara, as 
Secretary of Defense, accomplished significant 
changes in defense administration and policy. His 
strategic concept of "multiple options" emphasized 
preparation for both nuclear and nonnuclear war. 
Through the application of a "planning-program- 
ming-budgeting system" within the Defense De- 
partment, he increased the degree of control which 
the Secretary could maintain over the formulation 
and execution of defense policy and initiated a 
large-scale program of cost reduction. Kaufmann 
reviews Secretary McNamara's tenure throughout 
the Kennedy administration, quoting at length from 
the Secretary's speeches as well as from those of 
other officials. Arnold A. Rogow's James Forrestal, 
a Study of Personality, Politics, and Policy (New 
York, Macmillian [ C i963] 397 p.) is a "psycholog- 
ical portrait" of the Secretary of the Navy who be- 
came the first Secretary of Defense. 

1652. Millis, Walter. Arms and men; a study in 
American military history. New York, Put- 
nam [1956] 382 p. 5610240 Ei8i.M699 

Bibliography: p. 367371. 

A commentary on the history of American mili- 
tary policy. The author concludes that military 
force can no longer be "brought rationally to bear 
upon the decision of any of the political, economic, 
emotional or philosophical issues by which men still 
remain divided." American Military Policy, Its 
Development Since 1775, 2d ed. (Harrisburg, Pa., 
Military Service Division, Stackpole Co. [1961] 
548 p.), by C. Joseph Bernardo and Eugene H. 
Bacon, is a slightly revised edition of no. 3643 in the 
1960 Guide. Two other pertinent works are 
American Defense Policy in Perspective, From 
Colonial Times to the Present (New York, Wiley 
[1965] 377 p.), a collection of readings edited by 
Raymond G. O'Connor, and The Minute Man in 
Peace and War; a History of the National Guard 
(Harrisburg, Pa., Stackpole Co. [1964] 585 p.), 
by Jim D. Hill. 

1653. Millis, Walter. Arms and the state; civil- 
military elements in national policy, by Walt- 
er Millis, with Harvey C. Mansfield and Harold 
Stein. New York, Twentieth Century Fund, 1958. 
436 p. 58-11837 744^56 



l82 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

Bibliography: p. 415-420. 

This volume is part of a Twentieth Century Fund 
study of civil-military relations in the United States. 
The period from 1930 to the end of World War II 
is discussed by Mansfield and Stein. The postwar 
period is treated by Millis, who describes defense 
reorganization, the development of the cold war, 
and the war in Korea. American Civil-Military 
Decisions; a Boo\ of Case Studies ([University, 
Ala.] Published in cooperation with the Inter- 
University Case Program by University of Alabama 
Press, 1963. 705 p.), edited by Harold Stein, is 
another volume in The Twentieth Century Fund's 
project. It offers discussions of separate incidents 
exemplifying civilian and military participation in 
the process of decisionmaking. In The Common 
Defense; Strategic Programs in National Politics 
(New York, Columbia University Press, 1961. 500 
p.), Samuel P. Huntington analyzes changes in 
American military policy between 1945 and 1960. 



1654. U.S. Military Academy, West Point. Dept. 
of Military Art and Engineering. The West 
Point atlas of American wars. Chief editor: Vincent 
J. Esposito. With an introductory letter by Dwight 
D. Eisenhower. New York, Praeger [1959] 2 v. 
col. maps. (Books that matter) 

597452 Gi2oi.SiU5 1959 

Includes bibliographies. 

CONTENTS. v. i. 1689-1900. v. 2. 1900-1953. 

Designed initially for use by cadets at the U.S. 
Military Academy, this atlas provides detailed maps 
of battles and campaigns of all wars, up to and in- 
cluding the Korean war, in which the United States 
has taken part. Although American actions are 
featured, each war is treated as a whole, and en- 
gagements in which the United States did not par- 
ticipate, as well as those undertaken with allies, are 
traced. Because air and naval operations do not 
lend themselves to the type of portrayal used in this 
work, the maps, with few exceptions, depict the 
operations of land forces. 



B. The Army 



1655. Dupuy, Richard Ernest. The compact his- 
tory of the United States Army. Illustrated 

by Gil Walker. New and rev. ed. New York, 
Hawthorn Books [1961] 318 p. illus. 

61-7827 181.078 1961 

Bibliography: p. 297300. 

Colonel Dupuy brings to his work many years of 
experience in the Army and writes with enthusiasm 
about his subject. The book covers, in a popular 
fashion, the various wars and campaigns in which 
the United States has been engaged. Uncommon 
Valor; the Exciting Story of the Army (Chicago, 
Rand McNally [1964] 512 p.), edited by James M. 
Merrill, contains a selection of first-hand accounts 
of army life from 1775 to 1962, culled from such 
sources as personal letters, diaries, official corre- 
spondence, and unit histories. A Guide to the 
Military Posts of the United States, 1789-180,5 
(Madison, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 
1964. 178 p.), by Francis P. Prucha, consists mainly 
of regional maps with post locations and a catalog 
of the posts established during this period. 

1656. Ginzberg, Eli, and others. The ineffective 
soldier; lessons for management and the 

nation. New York, Columbia University Press, 
1959. 3 v. illus. 59-7701 UB323.G5 1959 

Includes bibliographies. 



CONTENTS. i. The lost divisions. 2. Breakdown 
and recovery. 3. Patterns of performance. 

Prepared by the staff of the Conservation of 
Human Resources Project at Columbia University. 
A major objective was to discover why, during 
World War II, about 2.5 million men were rejected 
from the Army or, having been accepted, were 
then prematurely separated because of mental or 
emotional disorders. Another significant objective 
was to examine the postwar adjustment of these 
men and to seek to determine why some men re- 
covered early, others after a delay, and some not at 
all. The study was based primarily on medical 
and personnel records, and the volumes include 
both statistical data and case material. 

1657. Progue, Forrest C. George C. Marshall, 
[v. i] Education of a general, 1880-1939. 
With the editorial assistance of Gordon Harrison. 
Foreword by Omar N. Bradley. New York, Vik- 
ing Press [1963] xvii, 421 p. illus. 

6 3~ l8 373 E745.M37P6 

The first volume of a projected three-volume 
biography of George C. Marshall (1880-1959), 
who was chairman of the Allied Chiefs of Staff 
during World War II and who served as Secretary 
of State and Secretary of Defense under President 
Truman. It covers the first 60 years of Marshall's 



MILITARY HISTORY AND THE ARMED FORCES 



life, during which time he carried out various mili- 
tary assignments in the Philippines, France, China, 
and the United States. It ends with his appoint- 
ment as U.S. Army Chief of Staff in 1939. Soldier: 
The Memoirs of Matthew B. Ridgway (New York, 
Harper [1956] 371 p.), by General Ridgway as 
told to Harold H. Martin, is an autobiographical 
account of 38 years of military service, ending with 
the general's retirement as U.S. Army Chief of 
Staff in 1955. 

1658. Risch, Erna. Quartermaster support of the 
Army; a history of the corps, 17751939. 
Washington, Quartermaster Historian's Office, Of- 
fice of the Quartermaster General, 1962. xvii, 796 
p. illus. 62-60012 UC34.R5 

Bibliography: p. [7491766. 

Prepared as part of the Quartermaster Corps' 
historical program, this substantial volume traces 
the growth and evolution of the Corps from 1775, 
the date of its establishment, to 1939. Miss Risch 
shows how an organization that was to a large 
extent civilian in character developed into a mili- 
tarized corps with permanent headquarters in Wash- 
ington. The author also emphasizes the Quarter- 
master Corps' support operations during five major 
wars, from the Revolution through World War I. 
Another contribution to Army administrative his- 
tory is The Story of the U.S. Army Signal Corps 
(New York, F. Watts [1965] 305 p. The Watts 



landpower library), edited by Max L. Marshall. A 
popular account of the artillery is Fairfax D. 
Downey's Sound of the Guns; the Story of Ameri- 
can Artillery From the Ancient and Honorable 
Company to the Atom Cannon and Guided Missile 
(New York, D. McKay Co. [1956] 337 p.). 

1659. Weigley, Russell F. Towards an American 

army; military thought from Washington to 

Marshall. New York, Columbia University Press, 

1962. 297 p. 62-15388 UA25.W4 

Bibliography: p. [2771285. 

A history of ideas concerning the formation of an 
American army. The author discusses and con- 
trasts the concepts of a number of men, mostly in 
military life, from the time of the American Revo- 
lution to the mid-20th century. The debate has cen- 
tered primarily on whether the United States should 
maintain a professional army or rely on a well- 
trained citizen militia, and Weigley shows that this 
problem has not yet been fully resolved. Stephen E. 
Ambrose's Upton and the Army (Baton Rouge, 
Louisiana State University Press, 1964. 190 p.) is a 
study of Emory Upton (18391881), a career officer 
whose writings had a profound influence on the de- 
velopment of a modern army in the United States. 
The early years of the War Department are de- 
scribed in The Department of War, 77577795 
([Pittsburgh] University of Pittsburgh Press [1962] 
287 p.), by Harry M. Ward. 



C. The Navy 



1660. Albion, Robert G., and Robert H. Connery. 
Forrestal and the Navy. With the collabo- 
ration of Jennie Barnes Pope. New York, Colum- 
bia University Press, 1962. 359 p. illus. 

62-9974 E748.F68A6 

Bibliography: p. [335]-342. 

An account of the career of James Forrestal 
(18921949) as Secretary of the Navy from 1944 to 
1947. Combining biographical material with naval 
administrative history, the authors present a case 
study of a civilian executive in charge of a military 
service. They discuss the Navy Department and 
Navy organization during this period and also an- 
alyze the problems of interservice coordination and 
unified theater commands in World War II. For- 
restal's views on postwar military preparedness, as 
well as his role in the movement for a unification of 
the armed forces, are examined. When the new 
position of Secretary of Defense was created in 1947, 
he was chosen to fill it. 



'1661. Braisted, William R. The United States 

Navy in the Pacific, 18971909. Austin, 

University of Texas Press [1958] 282 p. fold, map 

(in pocket) 57-12530 182.673 

Bibliography: p. 247262. 

The author examines the relation between Ameri- 
can naval and diplomatic policies in the Pacific from 
the beginning of the Spanish-American War through 
the end of Theodore Roosevelt's second administra- 
tion. During this expansionist period, the United 
States, pursuing its economic and strategic interests 
in the Far East, formulated basic foreign policies 
which were to make increasing demands on the 
Navy in the years to come. In Prelude to Pearl 
Harbor; the United States Navy and the Far East, 
79277957 (Columbia, University of Missouri Press 
[1963] 212 p.), Gerald E. Wheeler describes the 
manner in which the Navy was readied for action 
during the 1920'$ and the development of its Far 
Eastern policies during that period. Robert E. John- 



184 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

son's Thence Round Cape Horn; the Story of 
United States Naval Forces on Pacific Station, 1818 
1923 (Annapolis, United States Naval Institute 
[ 1 963 ] 276 p. ) chronicles the increasing importance 
of the eastern Pacific Ocean to the Navy and discus- 
ses the policies responsible for the Navy's presence 
there. 

X 1662. Heinl, Robert D. Soldiers of the sea; the 
United States Marine Corps, 1775-1962. 
Foreword by B. H. Liddell Hart. Annapolis, Unit- 
ed States Naval Institute [1962] 692 p. illus. 

61-18078 VE23.H4 

Bibliography: p. 649659. 

Combining sea, land, and air action, the Marine 
Corps represents the prototype of an integrated 
fighting force. Colonel Heinl traces the evolution 
of the Corps from its origin in 1775 to 1962. The 
Marines have served in every major war in Amer- 
ican history and in numerous minor encounters and 
skirmishes. The author amply covers their activi- 
ties, especially in World War II. Taking a broad 
approach to military history, he deals with "plan- 
ning, policy, command, administration, traditions 
and personalities," as well as with battle accounts. 
A more condensed general history of the Marines, 
written by Philip N. Pierce and Frank O. Hough, 
is The Compact History of the United States Marine 
Corps, new and rev. ed. (New York, Hawthorn 
Books [1964] 334 p.). 

1663. Pratt, Fletcher. The compact history of the 
United States Navy. Revised by Hardey E. 
Howe. Illustrated by Louis Priscilla. New and rev. 
ed. New York, Hawthorn Books [1962] 350 p. 

62-9039 182^84 1962 
A popular history of the Navy's formation and 
growth. In addition to describing batdes and en- 
gagements, the book tells the story of the American 
sailor "who he has been and who he is today; 
where he came from at first and where he comes 
from today; what he has done to the Navy; and 
what the Navy has done to him." In the Picture 
History of the U.S. Navy, From Old Navy to New, 
1776-1897 (New York, Scribner, 1956. i v., un- 
paged), by Theodore Roscoe and Fred Freeman, 
more than 1,000 prints, photographs, maps, and 



other visual materials are reproduced. Marshall 
Smelser, in The Congress Founds the Navy, 1787 
1798 ([Notre Dame, Ind.] University of Notre 
Dame Press, 1959. 229 p.), focuses on the political 
origins of the Navy and shows that partisan politics 
was the major influence on naval decisions in the 
Federalist period. The Navy League of the United 
States (Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1962. 
271 p.), by Armin Rappaport, is the history of an 
organization founded in 1902 and dedicated to the 
promotion of a "big navy." 

1664. U.S. Naval History Division. Dictionary of 
American naval fighting ships. Washington, 

195963. 2 v. illus. 6060198 VA6i.A53 

The first two volumes in a multivolume series in- 
tended to present historical and statistical data on 
more than 10,000 ships which have formed part of 
the Continental and U.S. Navies since 1775. The 
information, arranged alphabetically by name of 
ship, includes such data (whenever available) as the 
name of the builder, identity of sponsor, launching 
date, tonnage or displacement, length, speed, class, 
armament, and operational history. The second 
volume carries the list of ships through the letter 
"F" and contains appendixes on aircraft carriers 
and on vessels of the Confederate Navy. 

1665. The Watts histories of the United States 
Navy. New York, Watts [1965] 4 v. 

Four volumes planned as part of a coordinated 
history of the Navy. In A Chronology of the U.S. 
Navy, 1775-1965 (471 p. 65-21636 182^73), 
David M. Cooney provides brief descriptions of sig- 
nificant events in the history of both the Navy and 
the Marine Corps. Daniel J. Garrison, in The Navy 
From Wood to Steel, 18601890 (186 p. 6511939 
591^3), concentrates on the role of the Navy in 
the Civil War. Brayton Harris, in The Age of the 
Battleship, 1890-1922 (212 p. 65-21634 182.- 
H25), follows the Navy through an expansionist 
period, which ended with the convening in Wash- 
ington of the International Conference on the Limi- 
tation of Naval Armaments. The United States 
Nuclear Navy (199 p. 65-21635 VM3 17.65), by 
Herbert J. Gimpel, features the development of naval 
technology since World War II. 



D. The Air Force 



1666. Goldberg, Alfred, ed. A history of the Unit- 
ed States Air Force, 1907-1957. Princeton, 
N.J., Van Nostrand [1957] 277 p. illus. 

UG633.G6 



"Select bibliography": p. 259263. 

Members of the USAF Historical Division pre- 
pared this profusely illustrated volume to mark the 
5oth anniversary of military aviation in the United 



States, and the loth anniversary of the establishment 
of the Department of the Air Force. Because of 
space limitations and the fact that other Air Force 
publications have covered or are planned to cover 
the period through World War II in detail, the book 
emphasizes the period after 1947. The Compact 
History of the United States Air Force (New York, 
Hawthorn Books [1963] 339 p.), by Carroll V. 
Glines, is a general narrative. The United States 
Army Air Arm, April 1861 to April igij ([Mont- 
gomery, Ala.] USAF Historical Division, Research 
Studies Institute, Air University, 1958. 260 p. 
USAF historical studies, no. 98), by Juliette A. 
Hennessy, is the first of three monographs which 
will take the history to 1939. 

1667. Wagner, Ray. American combat planes. 
Garden City, N.Y., Hanover House, 1960 



MILITARY HISTORY AND THE ARMED FORCES / 185 



[i.e. 1961] 447 p. illus. 

60-14913 

This history of military aircraft covers all combat 
planes built in the United States or purchased abroad 
for the American Army, the Air Force, and Navy. 
The book contains photographs of the planes as well 
as information about their dimensions, weight, and 
performance. Two works on specific types of planes 
are United States Army and Air Force Fighters, 
1916-1961 (Letchworth, Herts, Harleyford Publi- 
cations, 1961. 256 p.), compiled by Kimbrough S. 
Brown and others, and Flying Fortress; the Illus- 
trated Biography of the B-ijs and the Men Who 
Flew Them (Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1965. 
362 p.), by Edward Jablonski. In A History of the 
U.S. Air Force Ballistic Missiles (New York, Praeg- 
er [1965] 264 p.), Ernest G. Schwiebert describes 
the development of the Air Force ballistic missile 
program between 1954 and 1964. 



E. Wars of the United States 



Ei. WARS: THE REVOLUTION 

1668. Billias, George A., ed. George Washington's 
generals. New York, W. Morrow, 1964. 

xvii, 327 p. illus. 6412038 206.65 

Bibliographies at the ends of chapters. 
A collection of essays reexamining the careers of 
the most important Continental Army commanders, 
including Washington himself, in the light of recent 
scholarship. The other generals discussed are 
Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler, Horatio Gates, Na- 
thanael Greene, John Sullivan, Benedict Arnold, 
Benjamin Lincoln, the Marquis de Lafayette, Henry 
Knox, Anthony Wayne, and Daniel Morgan, all of 
whom were selected on the basis of the significance 
of their contributions to the war effort and the fact 
that they served with Washington in some capacity. 
Three of the book's contributing historians have also 
published full-length biographies of their subjects: 
Henry Knox (New York, Rinehart [1958] 404 p.), 
by North Callahan; Daniel Morgan (Chapel Hill, 
Published for the Institute of Early American His- 
tory and Culture at Williamsburg, Va., by the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press [1961] 239 p.), by 
Don Higginbotham; and A General of the Revolu- 
tion, John Sullivan of New Hampshire (New York, 
Columbia University Press, 1961. 317 p.), by 
Charles P. Whittemore. 

1669. Mackesy, Piers. The war for America, 
17751783. Cambridge, Harvard University 



Press, 1964. xx, 565 p. illus. 

64-2777 

Bibliography: p. [5281535. 

With sympathy for the difficulties faced by the 
Ministers, Mackesy examines the making and exe- 
cution of England's strategy in the American Revo- 
lution and judges the War Ministry according to 
circumstance rather than results. Problems related 
to space, time, and weather were often complicated 
by uncertainty, miscalculation, and poor communi- 
cations across the Atlantic, and an adequate number 
of ships were not detached to America because of 
the fear that England and her Mediterranean gar- 
risons might be attacked. There were leadership 
problems also. A Ministry divided between aggres- 
siveness and timidity did not have wide popular 
support, and except for Cornwallis the generals 
were characterized by their lack of the boldness 
needed for victory. William B. Willcox' Portrait 
of a General: Sir Henry Clinton in the War of In- 
dependence (New York, Knopf; [distributed by 
Random House] 1964. 534 p.), is a biography of 
the English commander in chief (177881) whose 
personal shortcomings contributed to the British 
defeat. 

1670. Peckham, Howard H. The War for Inde- 
pendence, a military history. [Chicago] 
University of Chicago Press [1958] 226 p. (The 
Chicago history of American civilization) 

58-5685 230^36 



l86 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

Includes bibliography. 

Following a brief survey of the causes for conflict 
between Britain and the Colonies, Peckham sum- 
marizes the military aspects of the Revolution from 
Lexington and Concord in 1775 to the evacuation 
of British troops eight years later. He contends that 
the American victory was primarily due to high 
troop morale, new tactics, and dedication and per- 
severance of a few leaders, and the role of George 
Washington, whose character "prevented the Revo- 
lution from either failing or from ending in tyranny 
and excess." In This Glorious Cause (Princeton, 
N.J., Princeton University Press, 1958. 254 p.), 
Herbert T. Wade and Robert A. Lively relate the 
day-to-day experiences of two Massachusetts com- 
pany officers in the Continental Army from 1775 to 
1779. Hugh F. Rankin, in The American Revolu- 
tion (New York, Putnam [1964] 382 p.), presents 
materials from correspondence, journals, and diaries 
that relate to the land war. Primary sources for the 
first year of the war at sea are found in the U.S. 
Naval History Division's Naval Documents of the 
American Revolution, v. i (Washington [For sale 
by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.] 1964. 
1451 p.), edited by William Bell Clark. 

1671. Thayer, Theodore G. Nathanael Greene; 
strategist of the American Revolution. New 
York, Twayne Publishers, 1960. 500 p. illus. 

608546 207.69X48 

Bibliography: p. 477486. 

From a provincial middle-class Quaker home in 
Potowomut, R.I., Nathanael Greene (17421786) 
rose to become a major general in the Continental 
Army. The author portrays Greene as the master- 
mind of Washington's campaigns in the North and 
the executor of such brilliant Southern victories as 
those at Guilford Court House, N.C., and in South 
Carolina, where Cornwallis was shut within the 
narrow limits of Charleston and the immediate 
neighborhood. Greene was an ardent nationalist 
whose personal ambitions did not impair his loyalty 
to his country's cause or to his commander and 
whose insight into America's political, economic, 
and constitutional problems inspired him to advocate 
the kind of strong central government embodied in 
the Constitution after his death. M. F. Treacy's 
Prelude to Yorfyoivn; the Southern Campaign of 
Nathanael Greene, 1780-1781 (Chapel Hill, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press [1963] 261 p.) 
pictures Greene as an excellent planner but one who 
demonstrated a lack of self-assurance and personal 
force. 



Eii. WARS: 1798-1848 

1672. Forester, Cecil S. The age of the fighting 
sail; the story of the naval War of 1812. 

Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1956. 284 p. 
(Mainstream of America series) 

56 7741 360^69 

A narrative of the naval War of 1812 by the 
author of the Horatio Hornblower stories and other 
novels of the sea. Forester discusses American un- 
preparedness for war and the lassitude with which 
the Executive administration and the Congress built 
an effective fleet. Despite these handicaps, the new 
Nation won memorable victories before an exasper- 
ated England began to even the score. The book 
has no table of contents or chapter titles, but an 
index provides access to specific names and inci- 
dents. The war on the Great Lakes and in Canada 
is the focus for The Incredible War of 1812; a Mili- 
tary History ( [Toronto] University of Toronto Press 
[1965] 265 p.), written from a Canadian viewpoint 
by J. Mackay Hitsman. The War of 1812 (Chicago, 
University of Chicago Press [1965] 298 p. The 
Chicago history of American civilization), by Harry 
L. Coles, is an introduction to the war with an 
emphasis on military aspects. 

1673. Singletary, Otis A. The Mexican War. 
[Chicago] University of Chicago Press 

[1960] 181 p. illus. (The Chicago history of 
American civilization) 607248 404.85 

"Suggested reading": p. 166168. 

A very brief introduction to the first offensive war 
launched by the United States. Singletary concen- 
trates on the military aspects of the war but includes 
brief summaries of the causes of the conflict and of 
the diplomacy preceding and following it. The 
author devotes a chapter each to Zachary Taylor's 
victories in northern Mexico, to the occupation of 
New Mexico and California, and to Winfield Scott's 
capture of Mexico City. The dissension between 
President Polk, a Democrat, and his two ambitious 
Whig generals, Scott and Taylor, is described, with 
none of them emerging untarnished. Further dis- 
cord is the topic of the chapter entitled "The Hid- 
den War." Here the author describes the jealousy 
and rivalry between Scott and Taylor, the hostility 
between the well-trained regular soldiers and the 
undisciplined volunteers, and the friction generated 
by joint operations of the Army and the Navy. 



Eiii. WARS: THE CIVIL WAR 



1674. Barrett, John G. Sherman's march through 
the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, University of 



MILITARY HISTORY AND THE ARMED FORCES / 1 87 



North Carolina Press, 1956. 325 p. 

56-14242 477.7.63 

Bibliography: p. [282] 309. 

Although less well known than the march to the 
sea, Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's march from 
Savannah to Raleigh much of it over dangerous 
terrain was an outstanding military accomplish- 
ment. The Army traveled through swamps, often 
in rainy weather, building bridges and corduroy 
roads as it progressed northward. Sherman con- 
ducted a campaign of "total war," and the destruc- 
tion of the Carolinas was executed with a high de- 
gree of efficiency. Much of this scholarly study is 
based on diaries and correspondence of eyewitnesses. 
A narrative of Sherman's famous marches is Those 
163 Days; a Southern Account of Sherman's March 
from Atlanta to Raleigh (New York, Coward- 
McCann [1961] 317 p.), by John M. Gibson. 
From the Cannons Mouth: the Civil War Letters 
of General Alpheus S. Williams (Detroit, Wayne 
State University Press, 1959. 405 p.), edited by 
Milo M. Quaife, is a record of the general who com- 
manded the 2Oth Corps in Sherman's Army. 

1675. Catton, Bruce. The centennial history of 
the Civil War. E. B. Long, director of re- 
search. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1961-65. 
3 v. col. illus. 6112502 468X^29 

Includes bibliographies. 

CONTENTS. v. i. The coming fury. v. 2. Ter- 
rible swift sword. v. 3. Never call retreat. 

A general history of the Civil War. The first 
volume opens with the Democratic presidential con- 
vention of 1860 and ends after the first Battle of 
Bull Run. Volume 2 continues the narrative 
through Antietam and its aftermath in the fall of 
1862. The final volume concludes with the sur- 
render at Appomattox and Lincoln's assassination. 
The American Heritage Picture History of the Civil 
War (New York, American Heritage Pub. Co.; 
book trade distribution by Doubleday [1960] 630 
p.), edited by Richard M. Ketchum and with text 
by Bruce Catton, reproduces drawings, paintings, 
maps, and photographs. Also by Catton are This 
Hallowed Ground: the Story of the Union Side of 
the Civil War (Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1956. 
437 p. Mainstream of America series) and Grant 
Moves South (Boston, Little, Brown [1960] 564 
p.), a continuation of Lloyd Lewis' Captain Sam 
Grant, mentioned in the annotation for no. 3696 
in the 1960 Guide. 

1676. Cornish, Dudley T. The sable arm; Negro 
troops in the Union Army, 1861-1865. New 

York, Longmans, Green, 1956. 337 p. 

56-6219 E540.N3C77 



Bibliography: p. 316332. 

A history of the use of Negro troops in the Union 
Army. Attempts to allow Negroes to serve, even as 
volunteers, failed at first. As the war progressed, 
however, the Negro was accepted as a fighting sol- 
dier and "was permitted to do more for the freedom 
of his race than drive a supply wagon, cook for 
white soldiers, or labor on fortifications." Conse- 
quently, problems in administrative policy and army 
practice arose. Cornish examines how the Negro 
was recruited, trained, armed, employed, and com- 
pensated for his service in the Union Army and 
assesses his contribution to the war's outcome. 

1677. Foote, Shelby. The Civil War, a narrative. 
New York, Random House [195863] 2 v. 

maps. 58-9882 468^7 

CONTENTS. i. Fort Sumter to Perry ville. 2. 
Fredericksburg to Meridian. 

The first volume traces events from the firing on 
Fort Sumter to the battle at Perryville, Ky., in Oc- 
tober 1862, and the second proceeds from the Fred- 
ericksburg campaign through Grant's appointment 
to command of all the Federal Armies. A third 
and concluding volume is projected. Another gen- 
eral survey is The Compact History of the Civil 
War (New York, Hawthorn Books [1960] 445 
p.), by Richard Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. 
Dupuy. The Civil War Dictionary (New York, D. 
McKay Co. [1959] 974 p.), by Mark M. Boatner, 
is an alphabetically arranged reference work on all 
aspects of the war. 

1678. Jones, Archer. Confederate strategy from 
Shiloh to Vicksburg. Baton Rouge, Louisi- 
ana State University Press [1961] xxi, 258 p. 

617085 470.8. J6 1961 

Bibliography: p. 241249. Bibliographical foot- 
notes. 

The author analyzes the efforts of Jefferson Davis, 
his Secretaries of War George W. Randolph and 
James A. Seddon, and his commanders in the field 
to devise a plan for Confederate operations, particu- 
larly in the West. Southern strategy, based primar- 
ily on territorial defense, called for the creation of 
departments, each charged with defending a specific 
area. Jones concludes that Davis was not "a narrow 
and ignorant despot" but a leader who formulated 
strategy in harmony with the States' rights philoso- 
phy and the limited logistical means at the Con- 
federacy's disposal. Lee's Mavericl^ General, Daniel 
Harvey Hill (New York, McGraw-Hill [1961] 323 
p.), by Leonard Hal Bridges, and General William 
J. Hardee: Old Reliable (Baton Rouge, Louisiana 
State University Press [1965] 329 p. Southern 
biography series), by Nathaniel C. Hughes, concen- 



l88 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

trate on the Civil War careers of their respective 
subjects. 

1679. Jones, Virgil C. The Civil War at sea. 
Foreword by E. M. Eller. New York, Holt, 

Rinehart, Winston [1960-62] 3 v. 

60-14457 591. J6 

Includes bibliographies. 

CONTENTS. v. i. The blockaders, January 1861- 
March 1862. v. 2. The river war, March 1862- 
July 1863. v. 3. The final effort, July 1863- 
November 1865. 

This trilogy describes the naval operations of the 
Union and Confederate forces, emphasizing battles, 
blockade and coastal activities, tactics, and techno- 
logical developments. Volume i is focused on the 
blockade against the South and the Monitor-Merri- 
mac\ engagement. In the second volume Jones 
considers the effects of superior Northern sea power 
as it was used to tighten the blockade, patrol the 
coast, control the inland waterways, and combine 
operations with the Army. Volume 3 carries the 
narrative through the end of the war at sea, when 
the Confederate cruiser Shenandoah landed in Liv- 
erpool months after the South's surrender. Infernal 
Machines; the Story of Confederate Submarine and 
Mine Warfare ([Baton Rouge] Louisiana State Uni- 
versity Press [1965] 230 p.), by Milton F. Perry, 
details the technological advances effected by the 
Confederacy in naval warfare. Mr. Lincoln's Ad- 
mirals (New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 1956. 335 
p.), by Clarence E. N. Macartney, and Mr. Lincoln's 
^ Navy (New York, Longmans, Green, 1957. 328 
p.), by Richard S. West, concentrate on Northern 
naval operations. 

1680. Lamers, William M. The edge of glory; a 
biography of General William S. Rosecrans, 

U.S.A. New York, Harcourt, Brace [1961] 499 p. 
illus. 61-7688 E467.iR7L3 

Bibliography: p. 453471. 

The author devotes most of his biography on "Old 
Rosy" to a study of the general and his battles. 
Rosecrans was an able, although tacdess, command- 
er. His notable victories at Murfreesboro (Decem- 
ber 31, 1862 January 3, 1863) and in the Tulla- 
homa campaign (1863) demonstrated his compe- 
tence on the battlefield. His Army of the Cumber- 
land suffered severely at Chickamauga, and he was 
subsequendy removed from command. The author 
goes into detail on the circumstances of Rosecrans' 
dismissal, which he views as partly stemming from 
the personal animosity of Grant and Secretary of 
War Edwin M. Stanton toward Rosecrans. A biog- 
raphy of the general who assumed command of 
Rosecrans' Army is Education in Violence: The Life 



of George H. Thomas and the History of the Army 
of the Cumberland (Detroit, Wayne State Univer- 
sity Press, 1961. 530 p.), by Francis F. McKinney. 

1681. Lee, Robert E. The wartime papers of R. E. 
Lee. Clifford Dowdey, editor; Louis H. 

Manarin, associate editor. With connective narra- 
tives by Clifford Dowdey and maps by Samuel H. 
Bryant. Virginia Civil War Commission. Boston, 
Little, Brown [1961] xiv, 994 p. illus. (Virginia 
Civil War centennial, 1961-1965) 

6i-5737 4701-49 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. 
[9431-968). 

A collection of 1,006 letters, dispatches, orders, 
and reports. The papers are arranged chronologi- 
cally, beginning with Lee's resignation from the U.S. 
Army on April 20, 1861, and ending with his letter 
to Jefferson Davis on April 20, 1865, calling for the 
"suspension of hostilities and the restoration of 
peace." Also included are letters to his wife and 
family. Three recent books on Lee are Burke 
Davis' Gray Fox: Robert E. Lee and the Civil War 
(New York, Rinehart [1956] 466 p.) and Clifford 
Dowdey's two studies, Lee (Boston, Little, Brown 
[1965] 781 p.) and Lee's Last Campaign; the 
Story of Lee and His Men Against Grant 1864 
(Boston, Little, Brown [1960] 415 p.). 

1682. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in blue; lives of 
the Union commanders. [Baton Rouge] 

Louisiana State University Press [1964] xxiv, 679, 
[i] p. illus. 64-21593 467^29 

Bibliography: p. 673 [680], 

Biographical sketches and portraits of the 583 
men appointed to the rank of general officer in the 
Union Army. Appended are the names of the gen- 
erals grouped together by State or country of birth, 
a roster of brevetted generals, and an alphabetical 
list of campaigns and battles. Warren W. Hassler's 
Commanders of the Army of the Potomac (Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana State University Press [1962] 
281 p.) examines the careers of the seven Union 
generals from McDowell to Grant who led the 
Army of the Potomac. Hassler has also written a 
biography of the most controversial commander of 
the Army of the Potomac: General George B. Mc- 
Clellan, Shield of the Union (Baton Rouge, Louisi- 
ana State University Press [1957] 350 p.). Quar- 
termaster General of the Union Army; a Biography 
of M. C. Meigs (New York, Columbia University 
Press, 1959. 396 p.), by Russell F. Weigley, is an 
account of the supply services of the Union Army 
and the man who presided over the sprawling 
system. 



MILITARY HISTORY AND THE ARMED FORCES / l! 



1683. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in gray; lives 

of the Confederate commanders. [Baton 

Rouge] Louisiana State University Press [1959] 

xxvii, 420 p. illus. 58755 1 467.^3 

Bibliography: p. 401420. 

Biographical sketches and portraits of the 425 
men commissioned to the rank of general officer in 
the Confederate Army. Appended are a roster of 
officers assigned to duty in the Trans-Mississippi 
area but not officially appointed by Jefferson Davis 
and a list of campaigns and battles. Full-length 
biographies of Confederate generals are Stonewall 
]ac\son (New York, W. Morrow, 1959. 2 v.), by 
Lenoir Chambers; A Different Valor, the Story of 
General Joseph E. Johnston, C.S.A. (New York, 
Bobbs-Merrill [1956] 470 p.), by Gilbert E. Govan 
and James W. Livingood; and General Leonidas 
Polk^, C.S.A.: The Fighting Bishop ( [Baton Rouge] 
Louisiana State University Press [1962] 408 p. 
Southern biography series), by Joseph H. Parks. 

'1684. Williams, Kenneth P. Lincoln finds a gen- 
eral; a military study of the Civil War. 
With maps by Clark Ray. New York, Macmillan, 
1949-59- 5 y. 49- II 53<> 470^765 

Includes bibliographies. 

The first three volumes of this multivolume study 
are no. 3706 in the 1960 Guide. Volume 4 covers 
the campaigns from luka to Vicksburg. The author 
died during the preparation of the final volume; he 
had concluded the ninth chapter, which carries the 
account to Chickamauga. His notes indicate that 
he had planned two additional chapters, which 
would have continued the story to March 1864, 
when Grant was made commander in chief of the 
Union armies. Stephen E. Ambrose's Hallec\: Lin- 
coln's Chief of Staff (Baton Rouge, Louisiana State 
University Press [1962] 226 p.) portrays Gen. 
Henry W. Halleck as an able administrator and 
organizer but a poor field commander. Freeman 
Cleaves' Meade of Gettysburg (Norman, University 
of Oklahoma Press [1960] 384 p.) defends Gen. 
George G. Meade against criticism for having failed 
to pursue Lee after the battle of Gettysburg. 

Eiv. WARS: THE SPANISH- AMERICAN WAR 

^1685. Freidel, Frank B. The splendid little war. 
Boston, Little, Brown [1958] 314 p. illus. 
58-10069 715^7 
Bibliography: p. 313314. 

A pictorial history of the Spanish-American War, 
the conflict which John Hay, Ambassador to Eng- 
land at the time, called "a splendid little war." Frei- 
del asserts that, although it may have been "splen- 



did" for those at home reading newspaper accounts 
of the battles, it was as grim and bloody as any war 
in history. Furthermore, it was "litde" only because 
of the ineptitude of the Spaniards and the good luck 
of the Americans. Some 300 reproductions of pho- 
tographs, sketches, and paintings show the toll of 
war on men and the land as well as the more com- 
monplace aspects of military life. Among the pho- 
tographers and artists represented are James Burton, 
Dwight L. Elmendorf, Frederic Remington, and 
Howard Chandler Christy. Whenever possible, the 
author has used the words of participants and war 
correspondents to tell the story. 

Ev. WARS: WORLD WAR I 

1686. Mason, Herbert M. The Lafayette Esca- 

drille. New York, Random House [1964] 

340 p. illus. 6420035 0603^34 

Bibliography: p. 326329. 

The Lafayette Escadrille was a fighter squadron 
created by American fliers who served as volunteers 
in the French Air Corps in the early years of World 
War I while the United States remained neutral. 
The author describes the flamboyant spirit of these 
men and narrates their daring escapades against the 
Germans. The book portrays military aviation in 
its infancy and illustrates the technical problems 
faced by the first fighter pilots. Mason includes many 
anecdotes about the Escadrille's members, their oper- 
ations, and their exploits aloft and on the ground. 
Appended are a list of confirmed victories, the La- 
fayette Flying Corps Roster, and aids to understand- 
ing the language of aerial warfare. Memoirs of 
World War I: "From Start to Finish of Our Greatest 
War" (New York, Random House [1960] 312 p.) 
is the wartime diary of Brig. Gen. William ("Billy") 
Mitchell. 

^1687. Stallings, Laurence. The Doughboys; the 
story of the AEF, 1917-1918. Maps by 
Harry Scott. New York, Harper & Row [1963] 
404 p. 62-14547 0570.875 

"A reader's guide": p. 383-390. 
An account of the American Expeditionary Force 
in Europe from the average soldier's viewpoint. 
The author, a veteran of World War I, details the 
adventures of the AEF, its difficulties and achieve- 
ments, its battlescarred heroes and grim casualties. 
The accounts of Cantigny, Chateau-Thierry, Saint- 
Mihiel, and Meuse-Argonne illustrate the problems 
of command, the strategy of operations, and the ex- 
periences of the men at the front. Over There; the 
Story of America's First Great Overseas Crusade 
(Boston, Little, Brown [1964] 385 p.), by Frank 



/ A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



B. Freidel, is a pictorial history of the AEF. In At 
Belleau Wood (New York, Putnam [1965] 375 
p.), Robert B. Asprey details the tactics of this 
American offensive of June 1918. 

1688. Trask, David F. The United States in the 
Supreme War Council; American war aims 

and inter-Allied strategy, 19171918. Middletown, 
Conn., Wesleyan University Press [1961] 244 p. 

61-14237 0544/17 

The Supreme War Council, organized in 1917, 
coordinated the political and military strategies of 
England, France, Italy, and the United States. As 
military representative on the Council, Gen. Tasker 
H. Bliss devoted great energy to assist in arranging 
an inter-Allied military strategy against the Central 
Powers. Bliss refused to approve Allied proposals 
when they warranted military commitments that 
would jeopardize President Wilson's plan for peace. 
The author charts the Wilson administration's course 
in supporting the Allies and at the same time striv- 
ing to avoid diplomatic entanglements. 

Evi. WARS: WORLD WAR II 

1689. Buchanan, Albert R. The United States and 
World War II. New York, Harper & Row 

[1964] 2 v. (xvii, 635 p.) illus. (New American 
Nation series) 63-20287 0769.68 

Bibliography: p. 595-612. Bibliographical foot- 
notes. 

The author covers the battles and campaigns in 
all theaters, matters of policy and strategy, and war 
mobilization at home. Another overall history of 
the war is Kenneth S. Davis' Experience of War: 
the United States in World War II (Garden City, 
N.Y., Doubleday, 1965. Mainstream of America 
series). In Pearl Harbor; Warning and Decision 
(Stanford, Calif., Stanford University Press, 1962. 
426 p.), Roberta Wohlstetter analyzes the United 
States' lack of preparedness for the Pearl Harbor 
attack. 

1690. Morison, Samuel Eliot. History of United 
States naval operations in World War II. 

Boston, Little, Brown, 194762. 15 v. illus. 

47-I57I D 773 .M6 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Five additional volumes conclude this i5-volume 
work; the first 10 volumes are no. 3721 in the 1960 
Guide. Morison has also written The Two-Ocean 
War, a Short History of the United States Navy in 
the Second World War (Boston, Little, Brown 
li903J 6"n p.), which is not a condensation of his 
larger study but rather a narrative of the Navy's 



most important battles and campaigns. Other as- 
pects of U.S. sea operations during the war are cov- 
ered in Felix Riesenberg's Sea War; the Story of the 
U.S. Merchant Marine in World War II (New York, 
Rinehart [1956] 320 p.) and The U.S. Coast 
Guard in World War II (Annapolis, United States 
Naval Institute [1957] 347 p.), by Malcolm F. 
Willoughby. 

1691. Ryan, Cornelius. The longest day: June 6, 
1944. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1959. 

350 p. illus. 59-9499 D756.5.N6R9 

Bibliography: p. 336339. 

This account of the Normandy invasion centers 
on the events of a single day. Ryan describes the 
landings of the Allied airborne armies and the as- 
sault on the five invasion beaches along the Nor- 
mandy coast. Another book on the Normandy in- 
vasion is Samuel L. A. Marshall's Night Drop; the 
American Airborne Invasion of Normandy (Boston, 
Little, Brown [1962] 425 p.). In The Duel for 
France, 1944 (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1963. 
432 p.), Martin Blumenson covers the fighting in 
France from July to September 1944. John Toland's 
Battle, the Story of the Bulge (New York, Random 
House [1959] 400 p.) describes one of the major 
battles of the war. 

1692. U.S. Air Force. USAF Historical Division. 
The Army Air Forces in World War II. 

Prepared under the editorship of Wesley Frank 
Craven [and] James Lea Gate. [Chicago] Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press [1948-58] 7 v. illus. 

. 48-3657 D 79 o.A 47 

1 he hrst six volumes of this history are no. 3727 
in the 1960 Guide. Volume 7, Services Around the 
World, describes nontactical units such as the Air 
Transport Command, the Aviation Engineers, and 
the AAF Weather Service. Also included are chap- 
ters on medical services and women in the AAF. 

1693. U.S. Dept. of the Army. Office of Military 
History. United States Army in World 

War II. Washington, 1947-65. 62 v. illus., maps. 

47-46404 0769^533 

A continuation of no. 3726 in the 1960 Guide. 
More than 85 volumes were planned for this series, 
and 62 have been published thus far. New sub- 
series added since the publication of the 1960 Guide 
include The Western Hemisphere and The Medi- 
terranean Theater of Operations. The Master Index: 
Readers Guide II (1960. 145 p.) contains brief 
summaries of all volumes in the series as well as 
some projected volumes. American Strategy in 
World War II: A Reconsideration (Baltimore, Johns 
Hopkins Press, 1963. 145 p.), by Kent R. Green- 
field, chief historian of the Department of the Army 



MILITARY HISTORY AND THE ARMED FORCES / 



from 1946 to 1958, deals with such subjects as 
Anglo-American strategy, Roosevelt as commander 
in chief, and strategy and air power. Greenfield is 
also the editor of Command Decisions (Washing- 
ton, 1960. 565 p.), a collection of articles Issued 
by the U.S. Department of the Army, Office of the 
Chief of Military History, analyzing various stra- 
tegic decisions made by the Allied and Axis powers 
during the war. 

1694. U.S. Marine Corps. History of U.S. Ma- 
rine Corps operations in World War II. 

[Washington] Historical Branch, G-3 Division, 
Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps [195863] 2 v. 
illus. 5860002 0769.369^53 

The first two volumes in a projected five-volume 
series. Volume i outlines the development of the 
Marine Corps' amphibious mission and describes 
the defense of Wake Island, the campaign in the 
Philippines, the fight for Midway, and the battle for 
Guadalcanal. The focus in the second volume is on 
the drive to occupy Rabaul. Also described are the 
occupation of the New Georgia Islands, operations 
in the northern Solomons, and the New Britain 
campaign. Robert Leckie's Strong Men Armed: 
The United States Marines Against Japan (New 
York, Random House [1962] 563 p.) is a popular 
history of Marine Corps operations in the Pacific 
during World War II. 

Evii. WARS: THE KOREAN WAR 

1695. Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, 
north to the Yalu; June-November 1950. 

Washington, Office of the Chief of Military History, 
Department of the Army, 1961. xxiv, 813 p. illus. 
(United States Army in the Korean War, i) 

6060043 08918^5246 vol. i 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The first volume in the U.S. Army's official his- 
tory, United States Army in the Korean War. The 
activities of other branches of the military service in 
Korea are described in The United States Air Force 
in Korea, 1950-1953 (New York, Duell, Sloan & 
Pearce [1961] 774 p.), by Robert F. Futrell; James 
A. Field's History of United States Naval Opera- 
tions: Korea (Washington [U.S. Govt. Print. Off.] 
1962. 499 p.); and the first four volumes of a pro 



posed five-volume Marine Corps publication, U.S. 
Marine Operations in Korea, 19501953 (Washing- 
ton, Historical Branch, 6-3, Headquarters, U.S. 
Marine Corps, 1954 [i.e. 1955] 62). 

1696. Leckie, Robert. Conflict; the history of the 
Korean War, 1950-53. New York, Putnam 

[1962] 448 p. illus. 62-10975 08918.1.36 

Bibliography: p. 431434. 

An account of the Korean War for the general 
reader. The author traces the course of the war and 
provides detailed descriptions of the battles and 
operations as well as a discussion of the strategy 
involved. A more scholarly history of the war is 
Korea: The Limited War (New York, St. Martin's 
Press, 1964. 511 p.), by David Rees, a British his- 
torian. Rees discusses the development of American 
policy toward Korea, amply covers the military 
operations, and deals with the British response to 
the war. In Por\ Chop Hill; the American Fight- 
ing Man in Action, Korea, Spring, 1953 (New 
York, Morrow, 1956. 315 p.), Samuel L. A. Mar- 
shall analyzes in detail an encounter in which the 
Americans won an important victory. 

1697. Spanier, John W. The Truman-Mac Arthur 
controversy and the Korean War. Cam- 
bridge, Mass., Belknap Press, 1959. 311 p. illus. 

5912976 08919.862 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. 
281297). Bibliography: p. 298306. 

A major issue during the early part of the Korean 
War was the policy disagreement between President 
Truman and General MacArthur which subse- 
quently led to MacArthur's dismissal from all of 
his commands. Spanier traces the origins of the 
policy differences between the two men and shows 
how and why these differences developed to the 
point at which Truman had no alternative but to 
relieve MacArthur of his duties. The author, in 
addition, uses the controversy to analyze the prob- 
lem of civil-military relations during a limited war. 
A briefer interpretation of the disagreement be- 
tween Truman and MacArthur is Trumbull Hig- 
gins' Korea and the Fall of MacArthur; a Precis in 
Limited War (New York, Oxford University Press, 
1960. 229 p.). 



XI 



Intellectual History 



A. General Worlds 

B. Periods 

C. Topics 

D. Localities 

E. International Influences: General 

F. International Influences: By Country 



16981701 
17021706 
1707-1714 
17151716 
17171720 
17211722 



A TTEMPTS to impose accurate limits upon the scope of intellectual history frequently end in 
L\. frustration. Only a thin line of demarcation separates this chapter from those concerned 
with literature, society, politics, philosophy, and history, all of which may be regarded as 
supplementary. The books described here portray the development and transition of the 
American intellectual and cultural scene from its beginnings, when a knowledge of the 
classics was a prerequisite for being regarded as an intellectual and when the colonists looked 



to Europe as the source of civilization and culture. 
In general, the influence of European thinkers on 
the American mind was overwhelming in the early 
years, but after the American Revolution the flow 
of ideas moved in both directions. 

Diverse and independent trends developed as this 
country went its own way and manifested an in- 
creasing inclination to divorce itself from the tradi- 
tionalism of European countries. The authors 
represented in this chapter display a wide range of 
opinion concerning the people and ideas that have 
most profoundly influenced American thought. 
Many writers have selected Jefferson as a major 
figure in this field, but in his time he was often 



denounced as an atheist and a divisive influence in 
his political concepts. Writing of the decades 
between 1800 and 1860, Perry Miller (no. 1705) 
draws attention to the importance of the drive 
toward moral uplift as a primary force in maintain- 
ing "the grand unity of national strength." The 
Bohemian revolt against narrow middle-class re- 
spectability and convention during the first quarter 
of the 20th century was succeeded in the 1950*5 by 
the beat generation's more sweeping rejection of 
contemporary American life and values. Richard 
Hof stacker (no. 1699) traces a tradition of hostility 
to intellectualism throughout American history. 






A. General Works 



1698. Curti, Merle, E. The growth of American 
thought. 3d ed. New York, Harper & Row 
[1964] xx, 939 p. illus. 

64-12796 169.1.087 1964 
Bibliography: p. 797900. 

An updated edition of no. 3729 in the 1960 
Guide. 



102 



1699. Hofstadter, Richard. Anti-intellectualism in 

American life. New York, Knopf, 1963. 

434, xiii p. 6314086 169.1.1174 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Hostility to intellectualism in America, Hofstad- 
ter maintains, is older than the Nation; it reached 
a cyclical peak in the 1950'$ in an attack led by 



Senator Joseph R. McCarthy. The launching of 
Sputnik by the Soviets shocked the American public 
into a reappraisal of the school system and a protest 
against the slackness of American education. The 
author defines and explains his concept of intel- 
lectualism and traces some of the social movements 
in our history in which "intellect has been dissev- 
ered from its co-ordinate place among the human 
virtues and assigned the position of a special kind 
of vice." He believes the United States possesses the 
only educational system whose vital segments have 
fallen into the hands of people who proclaim their 
hostility to intellect and identify with children who 
show the least intellectual promise. 

1700. Lerner, Max. America as a civilization; life 
and thought in the United States today. 
New York, Simon & Schuster, 1957. 1036 p. 

5710979 169.1. L.532 

Bibliography: p. 955-998. 

A monumental study and interpretation, the pur- 
pose of which is to grasp "the pattern and inner 
meaning of contemporary American civilization and 
its relationship to the world today." .It is not in- 
tended as a history or mere description of life in 
America; neither is it "a celebration of 'the Amer- 
ican way' or a lament about it." In an effort to 
arrive at a composite picture, Lerner has carried 
through an encyclopedic investigation of society and 
its institutions in the United States, ranging from 
religion and cultural patterns to economics and 
political power. Particularly interesting chapters 
dissect "Class and Status in America," the "Life 
Cycle of the American," "Character and Society," 
and "The Arts and Popular Culture." His detailed 
inquiries have led him to conclude that conformism, 



INTELLECTUAL HISTORY / 193 

fanaticism, and rigidity have not dried up the native 
sources of creativity. He sees "still in the American 
potential the plastic strength that has shaped a great 
civilization." Gerald N. Grob and Robert N. Beck 
have compiled and edited the writings of theo- 
logians, philosophers, political theorists, statesmen, 
and historians under the title American Ideas; 
Source Readings in the Intellectual History of the 
United States ( [New York] Free Press of Glencoe 
[1963] 2 v.). 

1701. Whittemore, Robert C. Makers of the 

American mind. New York, Morrow, 1964. 

497 p. 64-12525 6851^48 

Bibliographical references at the ends of chapters. 

This book is neither a history of philosophy nor 
an interpretation of American civilization. Rather 
it is a careful effort "to present in compact form, 
and as much as possible in their own words, the 
essentials of the philosophy of those thinkers and 
doers whose influence upon our culture is, or has 
been, such as justify calling them the makers of the 
American Mind." The author, a professor of 
philosophy at Tulane University, traces the shapers 
of our national consciousness from John Cotton to 
Alfred North Whitehead. Along with the familiar 
names of Franklin, Jefferson, Emerson, Thoreau, 
Santayana, and John Dewey are those of such less 
widely known men as Solomon Stoddard, Theodore 
J. Frelinghuysen, Charles Chauncey, Cadwallader 
Golden, and Abner Kneeland. The author con- 
cludes that no thinker comparable to any of the men 
whose thought he reviews here is "on the scene" 
today and laments what he believes to be a current 
hostility to intellectual excellence. 



B. Periods 



1702. American Studies Association. American 
perspectives; the national self-image in the 
twentieth century. Edited by Robert E. Spiller and 
Eric Larrabee; associate editors: Ralph Henry Gab- 
riel, Henry Nash Smith [and] Edward N. Waters. 
Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1961. 216 p. 
(Library of Congress series in American civilization) 

618841 Ei69.i.A49 

This volume was planned to synthesize the di- 
verse aspects of American culture treated in the rest 
of the Library of Congress series and to answer the 
question, "What do we think of ourselves?" It 
includes essays by specialists in history, literature, 



philosophy, politics, economics, sociology, art, music, 
popular arts, and the mass media. The authors 
express diverse and independent viewpoints in 
attempting to impart "a general impression of the 
emotional and intellectual trends which America 
experienced while living through the vast ideolog- 
ical and technological changes of this half century." 

1703. Gummere, Richard M. The American co- 
lonial mind and the classical tradition; essays 
in comparative culture. Cambridge, Harvard Uni- 
versity Press, 1963. 228 p. 63-20767 Ei62.G88 
Bibliography and notes: p. [2Oi]-223. 



194 / A GUIDE To E UNITED STATES 

A scholarly account of the impact of Greek and 
Roman ideas on the lives and thought of the Amer- 
ican colonists. The author makes it clear that the 
foundations of this country were laid by men who 
possessed sound scholarship; the majority were 
college-educated or were well grounded in the clas- 
sics, from which they derived wisdom and idealism. 
The religious motive was very strong, and the rights 
of the individual under the English law were as- 
sumed. The Bible, the English common law, and 
the classics were basic for the education of the 
colonists, who applied them to illustrate their own 
ideas and to deal with their own problems. 

1704. May, Henry F. The end of American inno- 
cence; a study of the first years of our own 
time, 19121917. New York, Knopf, 1959. 412 p. 
5911236 169.1^496 

An examination of American thought as expressed 
in various areas of the social sciences and humanities 
from politics to philosophy. The author seeks to 
demonstrate that the cultural upheaval and intel- 
lectual revolt commonly associated with the 1920'$ 
and attributed to the disillusioning experiences of 
World War I were already present beneath the sur- 
face of an illusive Victorian calm during the five 
years before the United States entered the conflict. 
The "standard American culture" or consensus 
made up of idealism, moralism, progressivism, and 
optimism was even then crumbling in a ferment 
generated by the ideas of Darwin, Marx, Nietzsche, 
Freud, Shaw, Veblen, John Dewey, Dreiser, Lincoln 
Steffens, and many others. The voices of dissent 
filled such journals as The Smart Set, Little Review, 
The New Republic, The Masses, and Glebe. The 
final chapter considers the war and its aftermath, 
which accelerated the disintegration of the old 
consensus. 



1705. Miller, Perry. The life of the mind in 

America, from the Revolution to the Civil 

War. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World [1965] 

338 p. 65-19065 Ei69.i.M6273 



The author planned an extensive work divided 
into nine books. He wrote book i, on religious 
revivalism and morality, and book 2, on the law, 
but had finished only the first chapter of book 3, on 
science, at the time of his death. The completed 
portions are published here along with a working 
script for the projected chapters of book 3 and a list 
of the six unwritten books. Miller explores the 
search for a character and a national identity worthy 
of the opportunities in the new and unexploited land 
to which the European colonists came. "To elevate 
the moral condition of our race," he concludes, was 
the objective carried out with missionary zeal in 
early 19th-century America. It dominated every 
facet of American life and was the prime force in 
maintaining the "grand unity of national strength." 

1706. Sanford, Charles L., ed. Quest for America, 

1810-1824. Garden City, N.Y., Anchor 

Books, 1964. xxxvii, 474 p. illus. (Documents in 

American civilization series) 6411311 165.825 

"Suggested readings": (p. [47i]~474). 

This novel sourcebook presents the cultural his- 
tory of the period through 108 "documents," 41 of 
which consist of one or more illustrations with a 
page or so of explanatory or interpretative text. 
Through them and a 23-page introduction, the edi- 
tor seeks to depict his book's 15 years as peculiarly 
a period of transition, with 1815 as a turning point 
at which America's homogenous and stable agrarian 
society began to break up. Hugh S. Legare's Fourth 
of July oration delivered at Charleston, S.C., in 1823, 
is chosen to express the view that America, by restor- 
ing the republican simplicity of the classical era, had 
divorced herself from "the antiquated and corrupt 
systems of the old world." Word and image are 
drawn upon to illustrate expressions of national feel- 
ing in^ war and peace, in art (especially John Trum- 
bull's "The Declaration of Independence," the large 
version of which was completed in 1818), science, 
political economy, foreign relations, education, and 
literature. The search for a characteristic American 
style is exemplified in the designs of steam engines 
and steamboats, bridges, and plows. 



C. Topics 



1707. Bode, Carl. The anatomy of American 
popular culture, 1840-1861. Berkeley, Uni- 
versity of California Press, 1959. 292 p. illus. 

59-8759 169.1.8657 



A synthetic treatment of American culture during 
a period when such factors as the mass production 
of printed matter, the advent of general literacy, and 
a rising prosperity were molding that culture into 



its modern shape. The author's aim is to depict the 
popular arts, identify and display the most prom- 
inent varieties of the printed word, and suggest how 
the American character revealed itself through its 
cultural preferences. He finds four sets of qualities 
manifested in the American character in this era: a 
somewhat chauvinistic patriotism counterbalanced 
by a reluctant belief in Europe's cultural superiority; 
an aggressiveness, combined with optimism and rest- 
lessness, which emphasized the importance of mate- 
rial success; a religiosity evidenced by reverence for 
the Bible, a revival of Puritanism, and a humani- 
tarian zeal for reform; and a sentimental preoccupa- 
tion with love, both romantic and filial. 

1708. Churchill, Allen. The improper bohemians; 
a re-creation of Greenwich Village in its hey- 
day. New York, Dutton, 1959. 349 p. illus. 

58-9604 Fi28.68.G8C45 

Bibliography: p. 339-343. 

Drawing on the personal reminiscences of sur- 
vivors of the period, magazine articles, and some 50 
retrospective books, the author has put together an 
anecdotal account of Greenwich Village life from 
1912 to 1930. This was the golden era when such 
revolutionary magazines as The Masses, The Seven 
Arts, and The Quill were born and flourished and 
when Mrs. Mabel Dodge (later Mrs. Luhan of 
Taos) played hostess to the Village intelligentsia, 
whose names read like a who's who in American 
art and letters for these years. The final chapter 
describes the Village's rapid loss of artistic eminence 
after 1930. 

1709. Cleveland, Harlan, Gerard J. Mangone, and 
John C. Adams. The overseas Americans. 

New York, McGraw-Hill [1960] 316 p. (The 
Carnegie series in American education) 

6010598 169.1^56 

A survey by three members of the Maxwell Grad- 
uate School of Citizenship and Public Affairs of 
Syracuse University, undertaken to assess the prob- 
lems of overseas living confronting the more than a 
million and a half American businessmen, mission- 
aries, Armed Forces personnel, government employ- 
ees, teachers, and students employed abroad. After 
analyzing data collected from interviews with 244 
Americans of various professions residing in six 
foreign countries, the authors suggest five elements 
pertinent to successful living abroad: technical skill, 
belief in one's mission, cultural empathy, a sense of 
politics, and organizing ability. The latter portion 
of the book is devoted to an examination of defi- 
ciencies and needed improvements in existing educa- 
tional programs for prospective overseas Americans. 
The lack of competence in foreign languages is 



INTELLECTUAL HISTORY / 195 

emphasized as a particularly serious and widespread 
handicap; it is also desirable that Americans plan- 
ning to be abroad should know their own country 
well. 

1710. Hofstadter, Richard. Social Darwinism in 
American thought. Rev. ed. New York, 

G. Braziller, 1959 [ C i955] 248 p. 

59-9543 HM22.U5H6 1959 
Bibliography: p. [205] 216. 
An updated edition of no. 3755 in the 1960 Guide. 

1711. Kiger, Joseph C. American learned soci- 
eties. Washington, Public Affairs Press 

[1963] 291 p. 6316497 AS25.K5 

Bibliography: p. 246261. 

This study of the 60 foremost learned societies 
and of four councils and five institutes (national 
associations of related learned societies) in the United 
States "is an attempt to set forth and interpret the 
historical development of these organizations, pro- 
vide a compendium on them [origins, purpose, his- 
tory, organization, activities, publications, member- 
ship, etc.], and to shed light on their operations 
and relationships to each other and to other domes- 
tic and international organizations concerned with 
scientific and cultural advancement." The author 
takes into account the changing roles of philan- 
thropic foundations, government, industry, and uni- 
versities as the societies' sources of financial support, 
and he notes that a gradual broadening of scope 
has led to widespread participation by the societies 
in relevant international conferences and congresses 
since World War II. In the final chapter, four ma- 
jor future trends are predicted: an ever-increasing 
involvement with international affairs; a growing 
awareness that national needs must be served; agree- 
ment on the necessity of greater financial support 
from the Federal Government and from industry 
for humanistic and social science societies and coun- 
cils; and an increase in the number and scope of 
organizations established for the purpose of bridg- 
ing outmoded barriers between disciplines. 

1712. Lipton, Lawrence. The holy barbarians. 
New York, Messner [1959] 318 p. illus. 

59-7135 169.1.1.547 

The author, who conducts a poetry and jazz 
workshop in Venice, Calif., and who has associated 
intimately with this particular "community of dis- 
affiliates," has produced a sympathetic analysis of 
beat life. By means of vivid dialogs and case his- 
tories, Lipton reveals many aspects of the beat 
generation's bizarre life and the beats' attitudes 
toward love, sex, morals, art, music, literature, gov- 
ernment, and drugs. He discusses some reasons for 



196 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

their rebellion against a society which they regard 
as dominated by materialism and militarism and 
compares the present-day beats with the bohemians 
of former eras. He concludes that "this is not just 
another alienation. It is a deep-going change, a 
revolution under the ribs." 

1713. Parry, Albert. Garrets and pretenders; a 

history of bohemianism in America. Rev. 

ed. New York, Dover Publications [ C i96o] 422 p. 

iilus. 61-549 PSi38.Ps 1960 

Bibliography: p. 397-406. 

A revised edition of no. 3757 in the 1960 Guide, 
including a new introduction, addenda which serve 
to correct or elaborate the original text, and two 
additional chapters: "Greenwich Village Revisited: 



1948," by the author, and "Enter Beatniks: the 
Boheme of 1960," by Harry T. Moore. 

1714. Wolfe, Don M. The image of man in 
America. Dallas, Southern Methodist Uni- 
versity Press [1957] 482 p. 

57-14766 Ei69.i.W68 

Bibliography: p. 441462. 

Discusses a variety of American answers to the 
question of whether the environmental or the 
genetic factor is dominant in shaping human na- 
ture. The author does not attempt to prove or dis- 
prove these theories but instead analyzes the views 
of such writers as Jefferson, Emerson, Lincoln, Mark 
Twain, William James, John Dewey, and Theodore 
Dreiser and examines the social climates and per- 
sonal backgrounds that gave rise to their beliefs. 



D. Localities 



1715. Davis, Richard Beale. Intellectual life of 

Jefferson's Virginia, 1790-1830. Chapel 

Hill, University of North Carolina Press [1964] 

507 p. 64-13548 F230.D3 

"Bibliography and notes": p. [4391482. 

The author explores the reasons why the period 
between 1790 and 1830 in what he calls Jefferson's 
Virginia "held a political and intellectual primacy 
which was acknowledged and often envied by her 
sister states and indeed by much of the European 
world." Born to privileges, the Virginia planter 
was required by his code of conduct to have .the 
ability to dance, to fence, to know Latin and Greek, 
to be well grounded in the classics, and to be con- 
versant in the theories of law and government. 
Reared under the concept of noblesse oblige, he oc- 
cupied a social position that exacted the acceptance 
of civic responsibilities. He was interested in good 
architecture, fine furniture, religion, educating his 
children, and collecting books. He was especially 
interested in good government. With his fellow 



ferson Image in the American Mind (New York, 
Oxford University Press, 1960. 548 p.), by Merrill 
D. Peterson, is a scholarly treatment of a century of 
interpretation, misinterpretation, and reinterpreta- 
Virginians he was prompted to fulfill the destiny 
for which the forefathers had sacrificed. The Jef- 
tion of Jefferson's ideas and of how they have af- 
fected his image and American intellectual develop- 
ment from the time of his death through the 1930'$. 

1716. Eaton, Clement. The freedom-of-thought 
struggle in the Old South. New York, Har- 
per & Row [1964] xiii, 418 p. ill us. (Harper 
torchbooks. The Academy library, TB 1150) 

65321 F2O9.Ei5 1964 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A new edition of no. 3766 in the 1960 Guide, 
with a modified title, a new preface, and three 
chapters added on censorship of the mails, freedom 
of conscience in politics, and American nationalists 
in the prewar South. 



E. International Influences: General 



1717. Boorstin, Daniel J. America and the image 
of Europe: reflections on American thought. 
New York, Meridian Books [1960] 192 p. (Me- 
ridian books, M8g) 60-6769 169.1.675 



Eight essays treating the misconceptions which 
Americans harbor about their relationship to Euro- 
pean culture, their history, and their national char- 
acter. Boorstin is concerned with showing what is 



unique and distinct about the United States. He 
contends that Americans should stop judging their 
culture by decreasingly relevant European stan- 
dards and should instead view themselves in the 
perspective of the non-European civilizations of 
Asia and Africa, in order to present a clearer image 
of their country to themselves and to the world. 



1718. Jones, Howard Mumford. O strange new 

world; American culture: the formative 

years. New York, Viking Press [1964] xiv, 464 p. 

illus. 64-15062 169.1.7644 1964 

"Reference notes": p. 397449. 

Awarded the 1965 Pulitzer Prize in the general 
nonfiction category, this book is the first of a pro- 
jected two-volume study of the effect of the Old 
World civilizations on the New. Beginning with 
Christopher Columbus' first report from the Nina 
in 1493 and continuing to the 1840*5, the author 
traces European influences on the development of 
American culture. "The Old World projected into 
the New a rich, complex, and contradictory set of 
habits, forces, practices, values, and presuppositions; 
and the New World accepted, modified, or rejected 
these or fused them with inventions of its own." 
Tones marshals large bodies of detailed information 
in illustration of a wide range of provocative ideas. 
Reviewing the economic, political, religious, literary, 
artistic, and sociological aspects of the classical 
Greek and Roman civilizations, he relates them to 
the Spanish, English, Dutch, Portuguese, German, 
and French cultures which contributed to the Amer- 
ican mind. 



1719. Joseph, Franz M., ed. As others see us; the 

United States through foreign eyes. With 

contributions by Raymond Aron [and others] 



INTELLECTUAL HISTORY / 197 

Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1959. 
360 p. 59-13872 169.1. J67 

These essays by visitors from 20 nations on five 
continents resulted from a project of the American 
European Foundation and were written more or 
less simultaneously in 1957. Each author seeks to 
convey his impressions of the United States and to 
relate them to the image of this country which is 
generally held by his countrymen. The depth and 
perceptive qualities of the analyses are uneven and 
there is a remarkable sameness in much of the 
commentary, but valuable questions are posed, in- 
sights into our national character are offered, and 
the impact of modern America on these writers and 
their countries is illustrated. 

1720. Skard, Sigmund. The American myth and 
the European mind; American studies in 
Europe, 17761960. Philadelphia, University of 
Pennsylvania Press [1961] 112 p. (Studies in 
American civilization) 6115199 175.8.864 

Four lectures which summarize and comment 
upon the author's two-volume American Studies in 
Europe: Their History and Present Organization 
(Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 
1958), cited on page 1081 in the 1960 Guide. He 
divides his subject into four periods, ending with 
1865, 1918, 1945, and 1960, respectively, and in each 
describing the major developments in writing about 
America and the teaching of American subjects in 
the several European nations and concluding each 
chapter with thumbnail sketches of representative 
figures such as Johan Kortiim, M. Y. Ostrogorsky, 
and Charles Cestre. He stresses the degree to which 
radical or conservative sentiment has determined 
the fortunes of the subject and shows how American 
studies have been a symbolic issue in the efforts of 
European minds to transcend traditionalism and 
understand the modern world and their place in it. 



F. International Influences: By Country 



1721. Chisolm, Lawrence W. Fenollosa: the Far 
East and American culture. New Haven, 
Yale University Press, 1963. 297 p. (Yale publica- 
tions in American studies, 8) 

63-17024 N8375.F 3 7 5 C5 

Bibliography: p. [ 2553-277. 

The author has written the first full-length biog- 
raphy of Ernest Francisco Fenollosa (1853-1908), 
philosopher, historian, and reforming prophet, who 
"searched the cultures of East and West for the 



outlines of an emerging world civilization." After 
interpreting Japanese art to the Japanese while 
resident professor of Western philosophy, Fenollosa 
returned to the United States to interpret Far 
Eastern civilization to Westerners and to work vig- 
orously toward the fusion of East and West. Con- 
sidered the world's leading authority on the history 
of Japanese art, he is remembered by art historians 
for his pioneer Far Eastern studies; in literary 
circles for his influence, as a translator of Chinese 



A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



poetry and Japanese drama, on Ezra Pound and 
William Butler Yeats; and by museum curators for 
his role in developing the Freer collections now in 
the Smithsonian Institution. He taught Confucius' 
theory of the fundamental relation of art to char- 
acter and to the state: "to keep the soul free through 
art." 

1722. Thistlethwaite, Frank. The Anglo-Ameri- 
can connection in the early nineteenth 
century. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania 
Press [1959] 222 p. (Dept. of American Civiliza- 
tion, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, 
University of Pennsylvania. Studies in American 
civilization) 57~i r 957 183.8.07X4 

Based on lectures delivered at the University of 



Pennsylvania while the author was visiting profes- 
sor of American civilization, this volume explores 
the economic, political, social, educational, and hu- 
manitarian interrelationships between Britain and 
the United States which bound the two countries 
into a closely tied "Atlantic community" between 
the Peace of Ghent and the American Civil War. 
This interchange of goods, ideas, and people flour- 
ished despite the conspicuous animosities on the 
political level. The author notes, however, that the 
connection was limited in America to the Northern 
States and in Britain to the elements seeking to 
overturn the establishment and that it disappeared 
as a result of the vast displacement of forces brought 
about by the Civil War. 



XII 



Local History: Regions, States, and Cities 



A. General Worths , Including Series 

B. New England: General 

C. New England: Local 

D. The Middle Atlantic States 

E. The South: General 

F. The South Atlantic States: Local 

G. The Old Southwest: General 
H. The Old Southwest: Local 

I. The Old Northwest: General 

}. The Old Northwest: Local 

K. The Far West 

L. The Great Plains: General 

M. The Great Plains: Local 

N. TheRocf(y Mountain Region: General 

O. The Roct(y Mountain Region: Local 

P. The Far Southwest: General 

Q. The Far Southwest: Local 

R. California 

S. The Pacific Northwest: General 

T. The Pacific Northwest: Local 

U. Alaska and Hawaii 

V. Overseas Possessions 



17231726 
1727-1728 
1729-1737 



1760-1772 
1 773-i 78 1 
1782-1785 
1786-1795 
17961801 
18021809 
18101825 
1826-1829 
18301835 
1836-1838 



1847-1848 
18491856 
1857-1862 
1863-1865 
1866-1868 
1869-1871 
1872-1874 



THE EFFLORESCENCE of local and regional history is one of the most striking developments in 
the field of historical writing during the period under review. As the production of 
large-scale general studies has declined, regional history in particular has attracted the interests 
of writers and provided them with a forum for a variety of special interests. (The movement 
away from comprehensive national histories has been remarked in the introduction to Chapter 
VIII, where it is noted that the mounting array and diversity of source materials increasingly 
recommends the smaller unit of history and the 

application. Similarly, academic historians are find- 
ing an inexhaustible mine of neglected problems 
and forgotten data as subjects for scholarly research. 
Further, the resources of regional history offer a 
convenient testing site for the resolution of a prob- 



selective view.) 

As this generation proceeds to explore and rein- 
terpret the elements of American growth and civili- 
zation, it is carefully choosing its ground. The 
unexplored areas of local development and the more 
familiar territory of sectional controversy both pro- 
vide manageable targets for the revisionists and may 
be examined in isolation or as a pattern for wider 



lem that is affecting the historian with increasing 
urgency: the need to evaluate the contribution of 
the social sciences to historical inquiry. The reac- 

199 



200 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

dons of professional historians range from defensive 
skepticism to wholehearted acceptance of the demo- 
graphic probes, statistical methods, and behavioral 
studies that appear in carefully selected and con- 
trolled areas of investigation. 

Whether these activities are pursued for their 
own sake or are the logical perhaps inevitable 
extension of the historian's craft, they add to the 
total experience and understanding, and, in the proc- 
ess, local and regional history become at once the 
source and the consumer of an expanding accumu- 
lation of historical knowledge. Somewhat paradox- 
ically, at a time of increasing specialization in 
historical scholarship, the scope of local and espe- 
cially regional studies is being extended. Old 
geographical boundaries become less confining and 
political boundaries less meaningful as common 
cultural, economic, ethnic, historical, and social 
factors are assembled to plot an area distinct in 
itself. Just as the county has all but lost its signifi- 
cance for some types of study, so the history of 
States has assumed additional dimensions. Seldom 
does an author's preface in a modern State history 
fail to indicate that he has attempted to relate the 
internal affairs of his subject with the larger issues 
of national development. 

The many adjacent areas between the pursuits 
of local and national history indicate a greater 
mutual contribution than is perhaps immediately 
apparent. The integrity of this exchange depends 
ultimately on the vision, skill, and purposes of the 



individual historian. And, in this regard, the selec- 
tions that follow here offer considerable promise. 
More and more, the field is being populated with 
prominent and established historians, social scien- 
tists, journalists, and other writers, who are proving 
that history can be both popular and accurate and 
that, in the confluence of many disciplines and in 
concert with the literary and pictorial arts, oppor- 
tunities for variety in selection, approach, and pre- 
sentation are virtually endless. 

This aspect of a rapidly expanding branch of 
history inevitably caused difficulties in the compila- 
tion of the present chapter. With traditional divi- 
sions of labor falling into disregard and new 
guidelines scarcely envisaged by the profession itself, 
the categorization of books becomes almost arbi- 
trary. Tides immediately betray the calculated vio- 
lations of disciplinary lines. Period studies often 
achieve significance by virtue of their regional 
importance. The problem of determining whether 
a closely focused study is to be classified as local, 
general, intellectual, economic, or social history, or 
as one of a number of other categories, can often 
be decided only on the basis of the author's declared 
intent. Works on local history may therefore be 
found elsewhere in this Supplement, in topical 
chapters more appropriate to their special emphases. 

Overseas Possessions, Section U in the 1960 Guide, 
has been changed to Section V in the Supplement 
in order to make room for a new Section U, cover- 
ing Alaska and Hawaii. 



A. General Works, Including Series 



1723. American guide series. [Compiled and writ- 
ten by the Federal Writers' Project and the 

Writers' Program] 1936-43. 155 v. 

Entry no. 3786 in the 1960 Guide describes the 
compilation of this series; the volumes are listed as 
no. 3787-3941, with new editions and reprints 
substituted for original publications. Two substan- 
tially revised editions which have appeared since 
1955 are entered below as no. 1724 and 1725. 

1724. Oklahoma; a guide to the Sooner State, 
compiled by Kent Ruth and the staff of the 

University of Oklahoma Press, with articles by lead- 
ing authorities and photographic sections arranged 
by J. Eldon Peek. [Rev. ed.J Norman, University 
of Oklahoma Press [1957] xxxv, 532 p. illus. 

57-7333 F6 94 .R8 



Bibliography: p. 504511. 

A revised edition of no. 3908 in the 1960 Guide. 

1725. New Mexico; a guide to the colorful State. 
Compiled by workers of the Writers' Pro- 
gram of the Work Projects Administration in the 
State of New Mexico. New and completely revised 
edition by Joseph Miller; edited by Henry G. Als- 
berg. New York, Hastings House, 1962. xxxii, 
472 p. illus. 62-53065 F794-3.W7 1962 

Bibliography: p. 436440. 

A revised edition of no. 3924 in the 1960 Guide. 

1726. The Rivers of America; as planned and 
started by Constance Lindsay Skinner [vari- 
ous editors] New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 
'937-[65] 56 v. 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 201 



For a description of this scries, a listing of 51 
volumes, and an identification of editors, see no. 
3969-4025 in the 1960 Guide. Carl Carmer, who 
edited the last seven volumes entered in the Guide, 
has continued as the series editor. The volumes 
issued before 1962 bear the imprint of Rinehart as 
publisher; thereafter the name is Holt, Rinehart & 
Winston. Volumes appearing since 1955 include 
The Genesee ([1963] 338 p. 63-12079 Fi27.- 



G2C5), by Henry W. Clune; The St. Croix: Mid- 
west Border River ([1965] 309 p. 65-14452 
F6i2.S2D78), by James Taylor Dunn; The Merri- 
mac\ ([1958] 306 p. 58-10701 F72.M6H6), by 
Raymond P. Holden; The Minnesota: forgotten 
River ([1962] 306 p. 62-8340 F6i2.M4J6), by 
Evan Jones; and The Cape Fear ([1965] 340 p. 
65-22461 F262.C2R6), by Malcolm H. Ross. 



B. New England: General 



1727. Dodge, Ernest S. New England and the 
South Seas. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard 
University Press, 1965. xv, 216 p. illus. 

65-19823 DU28.3.D6 

Bibliography: p. 199204. 

The director of the Peabody Museum of Salem 
employs the resources of his institution's distin- 
guished collection and that of the Essex Institute to 
sketch the history of Yankee trade in the Pacific 
during the i9th century. Based on a series of 
lectures delivered in 1962 at the Lowell Institute, 
Boston, the book is devoted primarily to the open- 
ing of the South Seas trade by the merchants and 
seamen of Massachusetts and Connecticut and to the 
dissemination of Yankee products and civilization 
throughout the South Pacific islands. Emphasizing 
"the common facets of New England and South 
Sea history, and the economic, cultural, religious, 
and political effect of the one region upon the other 
but especially of Yankee influence in the Pacific," 
the author traces the continuing impact of mission- 
ary zeal, the political influence of commercial agents, 
and the mutual legacy of native and New England 
artifacts. Selections drawn primarily from the same 
Massachusetts collections have been edited by Nor- 
man R. Bennett and George E. Brooks in New 
England Merchants in Africa; a History Through 
Documents, 1802 to 1865 ([Brookline, Mass.] Bos- 



ton University Press, 1965. 576 p. Boston Univer- 
sity. African research studies, no. 7). 

1728. Holbrook, Stewart H. The Old Post Road; 
the story of the Boston Post Road. New 
York, McGraw-Hill [1962] 273 p. illus. (Ameri- 
can trails series) 629989 F5-H6 

Bibliography: p. 261263. 

An affectionate and nostalgic "account of selected 
places, people, things, and events which seem to 
have been of some special significance in the life of 
the first post road in the present United States." 
Beginning with the first post rider who was dis- 
patched from New York on January 22, 1673, and 
reached Boston on February 5, the historical and 
geographical milestones of early New England 
coach travel are traced through four States. In 
reality, three post roads branched off at New Haven 
to proceed independently to Boston. The original, 
or Old Boston Post Road, went by way of Hartford, 
Springfield, and Worcester; the Lower Road led 
through New London, Bristol, and Attleboro; and 
the Middle Road forked at Hartford past Coventry, 
Pomfret, and Uxbridge. On the basis of his own 
travels and local inquiry, the author takes the reader 
over each, stage by stage, in the manner of a 
historical and biographical Baedeker. 



C. New England: Local 



NEW HAMPSHIRE AND VERMONT 

1729. Hill, Ralph Nading. Yankee kingdom : Ver- 
mont and New Hampshire. Illustrations by 
George Daly. New York, Harper [1960] 338 p. 



(A Regions of America book) 607529 F49.H555 

Bibliography: p. 311324. 

The author takes exception to Arnold Toynbee's 
dismissal of this northeast corner of the United 
States as beyond the line of optimum response and 



2O2 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

as populated with "certain woodmen, watermen, 
and hunters." Hill sets out to establish that the 
region not only has bred some rather singular 
qualities in its inhabitants, but has also supplied a 
high percentage of remarkable figures whose influ- 
ence has been felt far beyond its borders. There fol- 
lows a series of pointed biographical sketches of such 
men as Daniel Webster, Horace Greeley, Stephen A. 
Douglas, Franklin Pierce, and Thaddeus Stevens 
within the context of the historical, geographical, 
and social milieu from which they emerged. A 
particular merit of the work is in the author's 
unusual selection of his material. Something, for 
example, of the laconic quality of the legendary 
Yankee is evident in his portrayal of the religious 
independence of the region through incisive ac- 
counts of the Shaker society and the career of Mary 
Baker Eddy. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

1730. Howe, Henry F. Massachusetts: there she 
is behold her. Illustrations and maps by 

John O'Hara Cosgrave II. New York, Harper 
[1960] 290 p. (A Regions of America book) 

60-13447 F64.H75 

Bibliography: p. 269277. 

With pride and a measure of nostalgia, a 
physician-historian offers a social and economic ac- 
count of the State. Written for the general reader, 
the story is told through a selection of "typical 
incidents and general discussion of characteristic 
problems in each period." Massachusetts' participa- 
tion in the Nation's affairs is presented largely 
through notes on the lives of its great leaders; the 
democratic virtues of its local government are con- 
sidered in relation to the tradition of the town 
meeting. Howe's perspective is extensive, and he 
is at ease in dealing with the i7th and i8th cen- 
turies. He deplores the impact of urbanization and 
suburbanization on the Yankee smalltown culture. 
A studied corrective to the Boston-dominated his- 
tories of the State, his wider view embraces the 
local self-education and self-government and the 
economic arrangements of the peripheral areas: the 
south coast, western Massachusetts, and the Con- 
necticut valley. 

1731. Kirker, Harold, and James Kirker. Bui- 
finch's Boston, 1787-1817. New York, Ox- 
ford University Press, 1964. 305 p. illus. 

6424862 F73.44-K.5 

"Bibliographical notes": p. 275298. 

When Charles Bulfinch sailed for his grand 
European tour in 1785, not a single important 
building had been constructed in Boston for the 



previous 25 years. Thirty years later, according to 
the authors, it was "the most perfect architectural 
city in the nation." This is the story of the archi- 
tectural transformation of Boston in the Federal 
period and of one man's involvement in its local 
affairs for three decades. A product of the aristo- 
cratic Province House set Palladian in taste and 
Royalist in sentiment Bulfinch brought the neo- 
classical revival from the London of Robert Adam 
and the Whig aristocrats. The loss of his own 
fortune was the origin of his participation and 
leadership as chairman of the Board of Selectmen 
and as chief of police in the politics, society, plan- 
ning, and education, as well as in the artistic develop- 
ment, of Boston. The measure of his achievement 
is in his ability to translate the new architectural 
form, along with his own vision and taste, into a 
style appropriate for the meager circumstance and 
reluctant atmosphere of the small colonial town 
then dominated by the commercial Essex Junto. 

1732. Whitehill, Walter Muir. Boston, a topo- 
graphical history. Cambridge, Belknap Press 

of Harvard University Press, 1959. xxix, 244 p. 
illus. 59-12978 F73-3-W57 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. [2071-233). 

A series of eight lectures delivered in 1958 by 
the director and librarian of the Boston Athenaeum. 
The author traces the physical evolution and archi- 
tectural growth of Boston from its founding in 
1630 to the present. The illustrations maps, draw- 
ings, prints, and photographs were chosen pri- 
marily to explain this process of change. The 
designs of Charles Bulfinch receive special attention. 
The author has also written Boston: Portrait of a 
City (Barre, Mass., Barre Publishers, 1964. 112 p.), 
illustrated with Katharine Knowles' photographs of 
the city's present-day appearance in all seasons. 

RHODE ISLAND 

1733. Coleman, Peter J. The transformation of 
Rhode Island, 17901860. Providence, Brown 

University Press, 1963. xiv, 314 p. illus. 

6314420 F83-C6 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

On the basis of a thorough demographic analysis, 
Coleman identifies the central factor in Rhode 
Island's history as the "extraordinary disparity from 
one town to another." Anchoring his interpreta- 
tions in the locally diverse reaction to changing con- 
ditions, he traces the State's transformation from a 
maritime to an industrial society. In the colonial 
period, he notes, a severely limited area, a peculiar 
pattern of population development, and a restricted 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 203 



agricultural potential forced the people to wrest a 
livelihood from the sea. Early in the i9th century a 
manufacturing economy began to emerge. The 
entrepreneurial class, despite its reputation for sharp- 
ish, even piratical, business practices, is credited 
with having responded creatively to the challenge of 
declining sea trade. By 1860, Rhode Island was 
the most highly industrialized State in the Union. 
Numerous tables and maps fortify the author's 
statistical approach and deliberately narrow treat- 
ment. 

1734. Lippincott, Bertram. Indians, privateers, 
and high society; a Rhode Island sampler. 

Philadelphia, Lippincott [1961] 301 p. illus. 

61-8683 F 79-L5 

Bibliography: p. 289294. 

"Little Rhode Island packs more bizarre and in- 
credible history per square foot than any other 
state in the Union." Lippincott's historical sketches 
"attempt to give highlights and sidelights on the 
career of this hectic little state, from the earliest 
times to the present." He has assembled a collec- 
tion of episodes that serve to reinforce his view of 
Rhode Island's singular development. His style is 
informal and his selections are governed by an 
ironic humor and a sense of the dramatic. 

CONNECTICUT 

1735. Van Dusen, Albert E. Connecticut. New 
York, Random House [1961] 470 p. 

616263 F94.V3 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 421-461). 

A general history written by the State historian 
at the request of the State Library Committee. 
Surveying a period of 325 years, it begins with the 
persecution of the Puritans in England and the 
emigration of Thomas Hooker and his followers to 
the New World and concludes with the economic 
and industrial expansion occurring after World 
War II. The arrangement is chronological, and 
the treatment balances political, economic, and 
social aspects. The author traces the strong spirit 
of self-reliance and independence that characterized 
the founding of the theocratic colonies along the 
Connecticut River and that is manifest in the politi- 
cal behavior of the modern State. A generous 
selection of contemporary illustrations accompanies 
the text. 



MAINE 

1736. Rich, Louise Dickinson. The coast of 

Maine, an informal history. Rev. ed. New 
York, Cro well [1962] 340 p. illus. 

6212804 Fi9-R5 1962 



17363. Morison, Samuel Eliot. The story of 
Mount Desert Island, Maine. Boston, Lit- 
tle, Brown [1960] 81 p. ilius. 

60-9352 F27.M9M6 

Originally published in 1956, Mrs. Rich's re- 
vised and enlarged volume is a modern guidebook 
as well as a light, anecdotal, historical narrative. 
Her material on the coastal towns, islands, and re- 
sorts of Maine has been selected with an eye for 
the eccentric and the picturesque and is presented 
with a frank, warm, personal attachment. She 
begins with the earliest prehistoric formation of the 
region and thereafter becomes chiefly concerned 
with latter-day rusticators and the beauty and 
charm of coastal living accumulated and preserved 
to the present time. Similar in approach; Morison's 
The Story of Mount Desert Island, Maine is a short, 
informal history and personal reminiscence of life 
mostly summer life on the rocky island at the 
mouth of the Penobscot River. As the author 
indicates, his small book is a labor of love. The 
island's varied inhabitants are described with a wit 
and amiability usually reserved for friends and 
neighbors. 

1737. Rich, Louise Dickinson. State o' Maine. 

Illustrations by Aldren A. Watson. New 

York, Harper & Row [1964] xvi, 302 p. (Regions 

of America) 6412679 F 19^52 

Bibliography: p. 291292. 

A history of Maine as a way of life emerging 
from the remote and unique environment. Maine 
was a province for a considerably longer period of 
time than it has been a State, and fully half the 
book is devoted to this prolonged formative period. 
For many facets of Maine life, the characteristics of 
this period have continued into statehood. The 
author probes the thin layer of modernity to expose 
the rough-hewn qualities that persist today. There 
are few commercial statistics, and scant attention is 
given to urban development, closely fought elections, 
or machine politics. Instead, the broad currents of 
historical development or lack of it are traced 
against the larger movements of the world outside. 
In an uneven topical arrangement, which in each 
case goes back to beginnings, the effects of geog- 
raphy, climate, occupation, and hoary tradition upon 
the singular deportment of the inhabitants are de- 
scribed and illustrated. 



2O4 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



D. The Middle Atlantic States 



NEW YORK 

1738. Carmer, Carl L., ed. The tavern lamps are 
burning; literary journeys through six re- 
gions and four centuries of New York State. New 
York, D. McKay Co. [1964] xix, 567 p. illus. 

64-13201 PS548.N7C3 

A personal literary anthology that is unusual in 
its scope and design and in the experience and 
authority of its editor. Carmer has devoted the 
greater part of his own study and writings to Ameri- 
can regional history and to the history of New York 
State in particular. That "Upstate" New York 
possesses a unique quality has long been contended 
by many of its residents. Partly in an effort to prove 
this point, Carmer here presents a collection of 
imaginative writings fiction, nonfiction, and verse 
culled from his own wide reading on the subject. 
The selections are grouped according to six geo- 
graphical areas and arranged chronologically within 
each group. The use of the term "literary journeys" 
in the volume's subtide is amply justified; included 
are pieces by Washington Irving, James Fenimore 
Cooper, William Cullen Bryant, Edna St. Vincent 
Millay, Francis Parkman, Herman Melville, Na- 
thaniel Hawthorne, Theodore Dreiser, and Mark 
Twain, among many others. 

1739. Ellis, David M., and others. A short history 
of New York State. Ithaca, N.Y. Pub- 
lished in co-operation with the New York State 
Historical Association by Cornell University Press 
[1957] 705 p. 57-4 J 53 Fii9.E46 

A well-balanced and closely knit summary of 
State history since 1609, prepared over a lo-year 
period by four New York scholars. Coauthors with 
Ellis are James A. Frost, Harold C. Syrett, and 
Harry J. Carman. Book i, divided into three time 
periods, tells the story of New York to 1865. Book 
2, covering the years since the Civil War, is organ- 
ized into three topical divisions, political, economic, 
and cultural, among which the division on economic 
growth is the longest. The volume has an exten- 
sive critical bibliographical essay (p. 655-690). 

1740. Gordon, John, and L. Rust Hills, eds. New 
York, New York; the city as seen by masters 

of art and literature. New York, Shorecrest 
[1965] 403 p. 65-23717 PS509.N5G6 

More than 100 paintings, watercolors, and draw- 
ings of New York City scenes have been selected by 



John Gordon, curator of the Whitney Museum of 
American Art; many are presented in color. 
Although they are chosen for their intrinsic worth, 
their chronological arrangement indicates an evolu- 
tion not only of form but of artistic perception and 
temperament. The progression from an early wood 
engraving to abstract painting includes the romantic, 
the impressionist, and the surrealist. In his selec- 
tion of short stories by a group of well-known 
American writers, L. Rust Hills, fiction editor for 
the Saturday Evening Post, illustrates a number of 
common themes evoked by life in the big city. 
Behind the variety of mood and approach he finds 
a recurring emphasis, for example, on the discrep- 
ancies that emerge between dream and reality and 
between the hope of freedom and opportunity and 
the actuality of loneliness and indifference. 

1741. McKelvey, Blake. Rochester: an emerging 
metropolis, 19251961. Rochester, N.Y., 

Christopher Press, 1961. 404 p. illus. (Rochester 
Public Library. Kate Gleason Fund publications. 
Publication 4) 61-18763 Fi29-R7M228 

Few cities in the United States have been studied 
as carefully by a reliable scholar as has Rochester. 
This volume concludes McKelvey's four-volume ac- 
count. The first three are no. 40504052 in the 
1960 Guide. In his preface the author warns readers 
not to be misled by the tide: he has not attempted, 
as one might expect, a synthetic study of the nature 
and evolution of a metropolis. His purpose, he 
insists, is to present a "biographical review of the 
experiences of a particular community in the throes 
of such a transformation." The dividing line is a 
thin one, however, and he deliberately steps across 
it in the fifth and concluding part of the book, 
where he discusses Rochester's attainment of metro- 
politan economy, government, and culture. 

NEW JERSEY 

1742. The New Jersey historical series. Edited by 
Richard M. Huber [and] Wheaton J. Lane. 

Princeton, N. J., Van Nostrand, 1964-65. 31 v. 

This series was conceived by a committee of Jer- 
seymen Julian P. Boyd, Wesley Frank Craven, 
John T. Cunningham, David S. Davies, and Rich- 
ard P. McCormick and published under the aus- 
pices of the New Jersey Tercentenary Commission. 
Twenty-six numbered volumes and five supplements 
had appeared by the end of 1965. Issued at a rapid 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 205 



rate, the series contains both chronological surveys 
and topical studies. Two major themes are com- 
mon to almost all of the volumes: the elements of 
unity in the historical development of an otherwise 
heterogeneous population and the special identity 
of New Jersey as separate from New York and 
Pennsylvania. Seven of the more general historical 
works are no. 1743 through 1749 below. 

1743. (Vol. i) McCormick, Richard P. New 
Jersey from Colony to State, 1609-1789. 

1964. xv, 191 p. illus. 64-17954 Fi37.M2 

"Bibliographical note": p. 176178. 

A general survey of State history from Hudson's 
voyage of discovery through the ratification of the 
Federal Constitution. 

1744. (Vol. 2) Miers, Earl Schenck, ed. New 
Jersey and the Civil War: an album of con- 
temporary accounts. 1964. 135 p. illus. 

64-2652 E52I.M5 

Collected from letters, diaries, newspapers, and 
other sources, this work begins with Lincoln's visit 
to New Jersey as President-elect in February 1861 
and concludes with a New Jersey officer's description 
of the tragedy at Ford's Theater. 

1745. (Vol. 3) Craven, Wesley Frank. New 
Jersey and the English colonization of North 

America. 1964. 114 p. illus. 

64-2612 Fi37.C896 

"Bibliographical note": p. 103108. 

The founding of East and West New Jersey is 
discussed in relation to the history of the middle 
Colonies and England's developing interest in 
North America. 

1746. (Vol. 9) Pomfret, John E. The New Jer- 
sey proprietors and their lands, 16641776. 

1964. xviii, 135 p. illus. 64-7009 Fi37.P72 

"Bibliographical note": p. 124128. 

Relates the essentially feudal character of the 
proprietary land system to the persistent and con- 
tinuing struggle by the colonists to preserve their 
local assemblies, courts, and rights of protest and 
petition. 

1747. (Vol. 10) Leiby, Adrian C. The early 
Dutch and Swedish settlers of New Jersey. 

1964. xiv, 139 p. illus. 6422336 Fi45-D9L4 

"Bibliographical note": p. 122129. 

The Dutch and Swedish did not settle in New 
Jersey until after the advent of British rule and 
came from other Colonies in America rather than 
from overseas. The origins of their communities 
are discussed, therefore, within the context of the 
history of New Netherland and New Sweden. 



1748. (Vol. n) Bill, Alfred Hoyt. New Jersey 

and the Revolutionary War. 1964. 117 p. 

illus. 64-23965 263^565 

Bibliography: p. 106109. 

An appraisal of the contribution of this bitterly 
and almost equally divided State (the "cockpit of 
the Revolution") amid the pressures and conflicting 
loyalties of its neighbors. 

J 749- ( v l- 21 ) Burr, Nelson R. A narrative 
and descriptive bibliography of New Jersey. 
1964. xxii, 266 p. illus. 65-862 21313.68 

This bibliography is drawn from the Library of 
Congress catalogs, periodical indexes, abstracts of 
dissertations, Writings on American History, and 
the bibliographies in general histories. The author 
sets these references in a running commentary, 
which might stand alone as a brief history of the 
State. 



1750. Pomfret, John E. The Province of West 
New Jersey, 16091702; a history of the 

origins of an American colony. Princeton, N. J., 
Princeton University Press, 1956. xii, 298 p. (The 
Princeton history of New Jersey series) 

55-6700 Fi37.P 74 
Bibliographical footnotes. 

1751. Pomfret, John E. The Province of East 
New Jersey, 16091702, the rebellious pro- 
prietary. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University 
Press, 1962. x, 407 p. (The Princeton history of 
New Jersey series) 627045 Fi 37^73 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

Devoting a separate volume to each of the two 
setdements that were united by the Crown in 1702, 
Pomfret emphasizes their individual historical iden- 
tities. The West Jersey proprietary, a Quaker col- 
ony, developed with deliberation and in relative 
tranquility. It remained essentially a rural society, 
based upon the family unit, with a simple system of 
land tenure. Individual farms were widely dis- 
persed and government was diffused. The West 
Jerseymen had more in common with their Quaker 
neighbors in Pennsylvania than with their partners 
to the east. By sharp contrast, East Jersey was com- 
posed of a heterogeneous population compactly set- 
tled in townships where local government, influenced 
by Puritan and Calvinist religious views, was cen- 
tered. The two areas suffered in common a period 
of slow growth, imposed largely by the uncertain- 
ties and contradictions within the proprietary sys- 
tem. The union resulting from the surrender of 
proprietary charters in 1702 was far from complete. 
West Jersey was largely a part of the hinterland of 



2O6 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



Philadelphia, and East Jersey was dominated by the 
port of New York. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

1752. Burt, Nathaniel. The perennial Philadel- 
phians; the anatomy of an American aristoc- 

racy. Boston, Little, Brown [1963] xiv, 625 p. 
illus. 63-14956 Fi58.3.B97 

Bibliography: p. 604608. 

This book "does not pretend to be a full-length 
study or portrait," the author insists. "This particu- 
lar portrait is of the head only of Philadelphia's 
upper class; a head of such importance in the city 
that the portrait turns out to be a rather elaborate 
one. It can be justified on the assumption that 
Philadelphia, even more than most places, is char- 
acterized and dominated by its head that is, its 
upper class, the 'Old Philadelphians'; what they 
are, how they got that way. But it is not a thesis; 
it is not meant to prove or demonstrate, merely to 
present, to introduce." The author, a novelist and 
poet, portrays this social oligarchy in all its charm 
and parochialism and with its "tinge of decadence." 

1753. Lorant, Stefan, ed. Pittsburgh; the story of 
an American city. Garden City, N. Y., 

Doubleday [1964] 520 p. 

64-23508 Fi59.P6L68 

Bibliography: p. 507-512. 

CONTENTS. Forts in the wilderness, by Henry 
Steele Com mager. Gateway to the West, by Stefan 
Lorant. The city grows, by Oscar Handlin. The 
Civil War and its aftermath, by J. Cutler Andrews. 
The hearth of the Nation, by Sylvester K. Stev- 
ens. Problems of labor, by Henry David. The 
entrepreneurs, by John Morton Blum. The muck- 
raking era, by Gerald W. Johnson. Between two 
wars, by Stefan Lorant. Rebirth, by David L. 
Lawrence (as told to John P. Robin and Stefan 
Lorant). 

The editor devoted 10 years to collecting the 
more than a thousand illustrations reproducing 
maps, sketches, contemporary prints and photo- 
graphs, and original art work and has brought 
together a group of contributors whose combined 
chapters form a unified history of the city. A 50- 
page chronology of events, compiled by Mel Seiden- 
berg, Lois Mulkearn, and James W. Hess, con- 
cludes the volume. 

1754. O'Meara, Walter. Guns at the forks. En- 
glewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall [1965] 

275 p. illus. (The American forts series) 

65-12921 Fi 59 .P60 4 
Bibliography: p. 259-263. 



On the site of today's "Golden Triangle" in Pitts- 
burgh, Fort Duquesne and then Fort Pitt guarded 
three river routes of frontier travel: the Allegheny, 
connecting with Lake Erie by way of a chain of 
French forts; the Monongahela, leading toward the 
Potomac Valley; and the Ohio, opening to the 
Mississippi and the wide frontier beyond. O'Meara's 
book is an account of the part these forts played 
in the French and British colonial rivalry during 
the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War). 
The story begins in 1753 with young Major George 
Washington's mission demanding a peaceful depar- 
ture of all French from the Ohio. Most of the nar- 
rative thereafter concerns the immediate conse- 
quences of that ultimatum within a limited area. 
The shifting fortunes of small armies reach a cli- 
max with the victory of British troops under Col. 
Henry Bouquet at the Battle of Bushy Run in 1760. 
An epilogue briefly traces the history of Fort Pitt 
from the end of the war to the present. 

1755. Stevens, Sylvester K. Pennsylvania, birth- 
place of a nation. New York, Random 
House [1964] 399 p. illus. 6418930 Fi49.S77 

"What to read about Pennsylvania": p. 379390. 

The executive director of the Pennsylvania His- 
torical and Museum Commission, a former State 
historian, wrote this volume to meet his State's 
need for a "good and sound history." Earlier his- 
torical surveys of Pennsylvania, including his own 
lengthy work, Pennsylvania, the Keystone State 
(New York, American Historical Co. [1956] 2 v.), 
were viewed by the author as inadequate. In the 
new study, Stevens places major emphasis upon the 
Pennsylvania story since 1865; three chapters center 
on the history of the State since 1900. The discus- 
sion covers the "growth and even the temporary 
decline of the economy of Pennsylvania," as well as 
social and cultural affairs. The text is extensively 
illustrated, and the appendix contains a detailed 
chronology, a historical sketch of Pennsylvania coun- 
ties, a list of State executives, and a bibliographical 
essay. Stevens also served as coeditor, with Donald 
H. Kent, of the Historical and Museum Commis- 
sion's Bibliography of Pennsylvania History, 2d ed. 
(Harrisburg, 1957. 826 p.), compiled by Norman 
B. Wilkinson. Also written for the general reader 
by another member of the commission, Paul A. W. 
Wallace's Pennsylvania: Seed of a Nation (New 
York, Harper & Row [1962] 322 p. A Regions 
of America book) is a history of the State from its 
geological beginnings to the present. 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 207 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



1756. Aikman, Lonnelle. We, the people; the 
story of the United States Capitol, its past 

and its promise. [3d ed.] Washington, United 
States Capitol Historical Society, 1965. 143 p. 

6520721 F204-C2A45 1965 

17563. The White House; an historic guide. 
Washington, White House Historical As- 
sociation, 1962. 129 p. 6218058 F204-W5W6 
We, the People, which has an introduction by 
Allan Nevins, is the story of the building and site 
where Congress meets. Through the generous use 
of illustrations and the words of eminent law- 
makers, the Capitol is presented as a continuing 
inspiration and a "symbol in stone of the success of 
our republic." The White House is the first official 
guidebook to the Executive Mansion. Mrs. John N. 
Pearce, curator of the White House, wrote the text 
and selected the illustrations. Mrs. Jacqueline Ken- 
nedy states in the foreword that the guidebook was 
originally planned for children, but "as research 
went on and so many little-known facts were 
gleaned from forgotten papers, it was decided to 
make it a book that could be of profit to adults and 
scholars also." Both these volumes were published 
in cooperation with the National Geographic So- 
ciety, which lent the photographic and production 
skills of its staff and for no. 1756 the services of 
Mrs. Aikman of the Senior Editorial Staff as 
author. 

1757. Carpenter, Frank G. Carp's Washington. 
Arranged and edited by Frances Carpenter. 

Introduction by Cleveland Amory. New York, 
McGraw-Hill [1960] 314 p. 60-9844 Fi96.C3 
A collection of early articles by Frank G. Carpen- 
ter, a Washington correspondent for the Cleveland 
Leader who wrote a widely copied column of gossip 
and social commentary on the Washington scene. 
Preserved in scrapbooks by his wife, the articles are 
here arranged and edited by his daughter and pub- 
lished in book form for the first time. Beginning in 
1882 and continuing into "Ben Harrison's era," 
Carpenter's reporting covered the trivia as well as 
the potentially momentous news of Capitol Hill, the 
White House, and both high and low society. 
"Whether considering President Cleveland's love- 



life, the low-cut evening gowns of Washington 
hostesses, the Congressmen's spittoons, or women 
'enameling' themselves, Carp does so with a con- 
temporary, present-tense style that brilliantly brings 
his era to life," Amory asserts in his introduction. 

1758. Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washing- 
ton. Princeton, N. J., Princeton University 

Press, 196263. 2 v. 627402 Fi94.G7 

Bibliography: v. i, p. 405-427; v. 2, p. 513-529. 
CONTENTS v. i. Village and Capital, 1800-1878. 
v. 2. Capital City, 18791950. 

Mrs. Green was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for 
the first volume of this history of the Nation's 
Capital. The overall purpose of the study is to de- 
velop "a better understanding of the nature of 
urban growth in the United States and its place in 
American history." The author examines the evo- 
lution of race relations and problems posed by the 
city's delicate position between North and South; 
the "psychological impermanence" of its inhabitants 
that continues to impede the organization of civic 
energies and is aggravated by the absence of the 
vote and of local participation in city government; 
and above all, the problem of municipal manage- 
ment in a city unable to tax its largest landowner. 
Because of the nature of the source material avail- 
able for the period before 1878, Mrs. Green notes, 
the first volume is "more narrative than analytical." 
The second volume benefits from 20th-century com- 
munity and urban studies and, in drawing upon 
interviews with contemporaries, becomes progres- 
sively more incisive. 

1759. Smith, Arthur Robert, and Arnold Eric 
Sevareid. Washington: magnificent capital. 

Photography by Fred J. Maroon. Garden City, 
N. Y., Doubleday, 1965. 248 p. 

6524912 F200.S63 

A volume of brief, pithy essays by two Washing- 
ton correspondents on the sights, institutions, life, 
culture, and government of the Nation's Capital. 
Topics discussed include the legislators and the 
halls of Congress, the President and his mansion, 
the diplomats on "Embassy Row" and their social 
haunts, the military and its citadel, members of the 
press, Supreme Court Justices, and both high and 
low society. Full-page photographs many of them 
in color illustrate the chapters. 



2O8 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



E. The South: General 



1760. Clark, Thomas D. The emerging South. 

New York, Oxford University Press, 1961. 

317 p. 61-8368 F209.C58 

"Selected bibliography": p. 287303. 

The author, a Mississippian by birth, reviews the 
changes in Southern life since the 1920*5. Aside 
from the sources listed in his bibliography, he writes 
effectively from his own experience. Observations 
from the i9th century travel accounts of Frederick 
Law Olmsted are followed by Clark's analyses of 
such subjects as public health, education, popula- 
tion and the urban movement, the growth of the 
tourist trade, racial integration, agricultural depres- 
sion, and the rise of industry. Although the rapid 
expansion of modern industry is conveyed as the 
most pervasive economic development since the de- 
pression, agriculture receives a larger share of 
attention. Political history is omitted. "The South 
in Cultural Change" was contributed by Clark as 
one of eight papers presented to the 1962 confer- 
ence at Duke University on "The Impact of Political 
and Legal Change in the Postwar South." These 
papers were edited by Allan P. Sindler and pub- 
lished under the title Change in the Contemporary 
South (Durham, N. C., Duke University Press, 
1963. 247 p.). 

1761. Eaton, Clement. The growth of Southern 

civilization, 1790-1860. New York, Harper 

[1961] xvii, 357 p. illus. (The New American 

Nation series) 61-12219 F2i3.Ei8 

Bibliography: p. 325-344. 

A study of the structure of Southern society as 
"a federalism of cultures the Creole civilization, 
the lowland and the upland cultures, the mores of 
the black belts and of the pinelands of the South- 
west, and city life." In an introductory chapter, 
Eaton reviews the ubiquity of the ideal of the 
English country gentleman and sets the stage for 
the rise of the cotton kingdom. Despite his affec- 
tion for the Old South, the author reveals its para- 
doxes, its restrictions on thought, its determination 
to retain slavery, its pursuit of profits, its self- 
centeredness, and its self-esteem. Political history 
after the Jackson era and intellectual history in gen- 
eral are left for other authors in the New American 
Nation Series. A useful supplement to this volume 
is Eaton's book The Mind of the Old South 
r *? n Rou S e ] Louisiana State University Press 
11964] 271 p.), which is based on the Fleming 



Lectures in Southern History which he delivered at 
Louisiana State University in 1961. 

1762. 'Ezell, John S. The South since 1865. New 
York, Macmillan [1963] 511 p. illus. 

63-13126 F2I5.E94 

Bibliography: p. 479492. 

Underlying the task of reintegrating the defeated 
South into the Union after 1865 were "the twin 
problems of the South's attitude toward its new 
citizens the freed Negro slaves who composed 
one-third of the population and its feelings for 
the nation it had tried to destroy. What the mini- 
mum changes were which the North would accept, 
as well as what concessions the South would make 
voluntarily, were the core of Southern history after 
1865 and are the theme of this book." The author 
asserts that, although the legacies of the past were 
still regional characteristics of the South, "the evi- 
dence was clear that the South was moving back 
into the 'mainstream' of American life." He traces 
developments in the realms of urbanization, race, 
religion, education, and politics that have "brought 
the South in line with the prevailing national cul- 
ture to a greater degree than ever before in its 
history." 

1763. Hesseltine, William B., and David L. Smiley. 
The South in American history. 2d ed. 

Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, 1960. 630 p. 
illus. 60-6880 F209.H48 1960 

A revised edition of no. 4071 in the 1960 Guide. 
The "Selected bibliography" appearing at the end 
of each chapter in the first edition has been deleted. 

1764. A history of the South. Edited by Wendell 
Holmes Stephenson and E. Merton Coulter. 

Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 
1947-61. 8 v. 

Entry no. 4072 in the 1960 Guide describes this 
series. The first six volumes issued are no. 4073 
4078. The two volumes that appeared after 1955 
are listed below as no. 1765 and 1766. 

1765. (Vol. 3) Alden, John R. The South in 
the Revolution, 17631789. 1957. xv, 442 

P- j( illus. 57-12096 F2I3-A4 

"Critical essay on authorities": p. 401426. 

The author, James B. Duke Professor of History 

at Duke University, stresses four principal themes: 

"the role of the Southerners (not yet generally 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 209 



called by that name) in the struggle for indepen- 
dence; the rise of sectional controversy between 
North and South, which is as old as the nation; the 
internal reformation below the Mason-Dixon line 
that proceeded from the contest with Britain; and 
the part taken by the South in the making of the 
Federal union formed at the end of the Revolution- 
ary time." 

1766. (Vol. 4) Abernethy, Thomas P. The South 
in the new nation, 17891819. 1961. xvi, 

529 p. illus. 61-15488 F2I3.A2 

"Critical essay on authorities": p. 476499. 
The frontier, the international power politics that 
played upon it, the pattern and process of settle- 
ment, and the side-by-side growth of a democracy 
and a landed gentry receive the emphasis in this 
volume. Sectionalism is a secondary theme, and 
for social and economic development the reader is 
referred to the succeeding volume in the series 
(entry no. 4074 in the 1960 Guide). 

1767. Kane, Harnett T., ed. The romantic South. 
New York, Coward-McCann [1961] 385 p. 

(American vista series) 615424 F2O9-K33 

Author of more than 20 books on the South, 
Kane has here compiled an attractively produced 
literary album of this "most regional of American 
regions." In discussing the South's literary heritage, 
he attempts to represent "all or most schools of 
thought and writing" and "to strike a balance be- 
tween classic material and the less familiar." The 
volume as a whole is chronological, but the selec- 
tions are divided into six categories, some of which 
overlap or parallel each other in time, and the 
writers are entered by subject. For example, part i, 
entitled "Finders and Founders," covers the period 
from the explorations of the i6th century through 
the age of Jefferson; the writers range in time from 
Giovanni da Verrazzano to Marshall Fishwick. 
Parts 2-6 deal respectively with "flush times" in 
the Southeast, 1815-1860; plantation life in the 
deep South and the Southwest; the rise of Texas; 
Civil War and Reconstruction; and the recent 
South. Part 6 reflects the high literary productivity 
of Southerners in the 2Oth century. 

1768. Sellers, Charles G., ed. The Southerner as 
American. Chapel Hill, University of North 

Carolina Press [1960] 216 p. 604104 F2O9.S44 

Bibliographical notes: p. 203216. 

CONTENTS. "As for our history . . . ," by John 
Hope Franklin. Americans below the Potomac, 
by Thomas P. Go van. The travail of slavery, by 
Charles Grier Sellers, Jr. The Southerner as a 
fighting man, by David Donald. Reconstruction: 



index to Americanism, by Grady McWhiney. The 
central theme revisited, by George B. Tindall. The 
Negro as Southerner and American, by L. D. Red- 
dick. An American politics for the South, by 
Dewey W. Grantham, Jr. The Southerner as 
American writer, by C. Hugh Holman. 

Nine writers who "share a common approach to 
Southern history" reexamine the region's traditions 
and institutions and attempt to determine the extent 
to which they are compatible with the "American 
way of life." The rationale for this cooperative 
effort is briefly as follows: the South is facing a 
period of severe crisis; the manner in which it 
responds to this crisis depends to a large degree upon 
its image of itself; in the past historians have con- 
tributed to a distorted image by a preoccupation 
with the differentness of the South; historians must 
now help the South to form a new image, one in 
which the region's bonds with the Nation are high- 
lighted. 

1769. Simkins, Francis Butler. A history of the 
South. 3d ed. New York, Knopf, 1963. 

xiii, 675, xxiv p. 6316714 F2O9.J>5 1963 

Bibliography: p. 635675. 

1770. Simkins, Francis Butler. The everlasting 
South. [Baton Rouge] Louisiana State Uni- 
versity Press [1963] xv, 103 p. 

6320407 F2O9.S488 

A History of the South is a revised edition of no. 
4082 in the 1960 Guide. In The Everlasting South, 
a volume of five brief essays, Simkins renders 
explicit and succinct his conservative statement of 
the South's position that is the pervading theme of 
his textbook and appeals for the continued realiza- 
tion of the South's identity as a region with a dis- 
tinct culture and behavior of its own. "Indeed," he 
asserts, "it can be argued that the region, despite 
many changes, is as much different from the rest 
of the United States today as it was in 1860." 

1771. Southern Historical Association. The pur- 
suit of Southern history; presidential ad- 
dresses of the Southern Historical Association, 1935- 
1963. Edited by George Brown Tindall. Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1964. xxi, 
541 p. 64-21595 F209.S74 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 

(P- 495-534)- 

Although all of the addresses are devoted to the 
history of the South, they were not planned to be 
related in content. Tindall's introduction places 
them in perspective and reveals that most of them 
fall into three basic categories: historiography, sec- 
tionalism, and life in the Southern States. The 



210 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

origins of southern historiography are discussed by 
E. Merton Coulter, Philip M. Hamer, Joseph G. 
de Roulhac Hamilton, and Wendell H. Stephenson. 
Sectionalism is most explicit in Frank L. Owsley's 
discourse on the Northeast's "egocentric sectional- 
ism" as the fundamental cause of the Civil War. 
Charles S. Sydnor, Fletcher M. Green, James W. 
Patton, and Walter B. Posey provide glimpses into 
the life of the Old South. Thomas D. Clark, Rem- 
bert W. Patrick, Clement Eaton, and James W. 
Silver discuss society in the New South. Silver's 
"Mississippi: The Closed Society," which received 
wide newspaper coverage and appeared in expand- 
ed form as a book with the same title (no. 1795 in 
this Supplement), is a primary source in itself. As 
a group, Tindall notes in his introductory essay, 
these presidential addresses touch upon points in a 
wide spectrum and suggest areas for further explo- 
ration. Although they devote little attention to sub- 
jects such as Reconstruction, economic development, 
intellectual history, and the race problem from the 
Negro's point of view, they "constitute a remark- 
ably broad and distinguished cross-section of south- 
ern historical scholarship over a period of three 
decades." 



1772. Woodward, Comer Vann. The burden of 
southern history. Baton Rouge, Louisiana 
State University Press [1960] 205 p. 

6013169 F2O9-W6 

Eight essays reflecting the author's search for 
identifying elements in the Southern character. All 
but one, "A Southern Critique for the Gilded Age," 
have previously appeared in periodicals. Wood- 
ward seeks to isolate and understand qualities in the 
Southern mind which have made the inhabitants of 
the South distinctive or have combined to produce 
a "regional essence." These elements he finds in 
the Southern past. He examines selected historical 
incidents in which the "collective experience" of the 
Southern people differs essentially from that of the 
rest of America. By a series of contrasts he con- 
cludes that the difTerentness is derived in large part 
from the Southern experience with poverty, defeat, 
and the tragic evil of slavery. In a Nation where 
"success and victory are still national habits of 
mind," he sees the effects of the South's frustration 
and failure. Against the legend of American inno- 
cence and moral complacency untainted by the 
Old World evils of feudalism and monarchism is 
posed the South's "un-American adventure in feudal 
fantasy" and its experience with the realities of 
human tragedy and bondage. 



F. The South Atlantic States: Local 



VIRGINIA 

1773. Bodine, A. Aubrey. The face of Virginia. 
Baltimore, Bodine [1963] 176 p. (chiefly 
illus.) 63-19830 F227.B6 

A collection of photographs taken over a period 
of some 30 years by a photographer. In an intro- 
duction, Virginius Dabney states that the book por- 
trays "Virginia, both old and new, with a balance, 
range, artistry and charm which in my opinion has 
never been equalled in any portfolio of views on 
the Old Dominion." Credit is also given to J. 
Albert Caldwell and Son and to what the author 
describes as their "amazing process" of Unitone 
lithography. Bodine's views do equal justice to the 
natural beauty of the Virginia landscape, the State's 
wealth of historic and educational buildings, the 
impingement of recent military installations, and 
the wide variety of economic enterprise. The pres- 
ent volume is the latest in a series that also includes 
The Face of Maryland (Baltimore, Bodine; distrib- 
uted by Viking Press, New York [1961] 144 p.). 



1774. Fish wick, Marshall W. Virginia: a new 
look at the Old Dominion. New York, 
Harper [1959] 305 p. illus. (A Regions of Amer- 
ica book) 586148 F226.F49 

"Bibliographical note": p. 282283. 

An analysis of the nature and persistence of the 
"Virginia tradition" and its effect upon the social 
and political views of successive generations of Vir- 
ginians. The author pursued this theme earlier in 
a brief work, The Virginia Tradition (Washington, 
Public Affairs Press [1956] in p.). His later and 
longer account shows Virginians caught up in a 
self-perpetuating mythology: "What Virginians 
think they are has a lot to do with what they have 
become." Legend becomes historical fact when 
viewed as a pervasive influence in the development 
of regional culture. Probing life in the Allegheny 
cabin or the tidewater plantation, among the poor 
whites or the "First Families of Virginia," the author 
balances early glories and modern frustrations. To 
the familiar predicament of Virginia's position in 
the Union the pull between North and South 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 211 



are added the disturbing implications of the internal 
tensions generated by the east-west divisions of the 
State. A final chapter offers a comparative review 
of historical writing in Virginia. 

1775. Wertenbaker, Thomas J. Norfolk: historic 
Southern port. 2d ed., edited by Marvin W. 

Schlegel. Durham, N.C., Duke University Press 
[1962] 417 p. illus. 

62-10054 F234-N8W4 1962 
A revised edition of no. 4088 in the 1960 Guide. 
Wertenbaker's death interrupted the work of revi- 
sion; Schlegel edited the manuscript and wrote 
parts of two chapters on the post-World-War-II 
period. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

1776. Ambler, Charles H., and Festus P. Sum- 
mers. West Virginia, the Mountain State. 

2d ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1958. 
584 p. illus. 5712033 F24I.A523 1958 

"Bibliographical note": p. 562564. 

A revised edition of no. 4089 in the 1960 Guide. 
Beginning chapters are recast, those covering the 
period since 1870 have been entirely rewritten, and 
additions bring the story up to the present. Special 
studies of the State's history are The Smokeless Coal 
Fields of West Virginia; a Brief History (Morgan- 
town, West Virginia University Library, 1963. 106 
p.), by W. P. Tarns, and Roy B. Clarkson's abun- 
dantly illustrated Tumult on the Mountains; Lum- 
bering in West Virginia, 7770-7920 (Parsons, 
W.Va., McClain Print. Co., 1964. 410 p.). 



NORTH CAROLINA 

1777. Lefler, Hugh T., and Albert Ray Newsome. 
North Carolina, the history of a Southern 
State. Rev. ed. Chapel Hill, University of North 
Carolina Press [1963] 756 p. 

6 3-393 2 F254.L39 J 9 6 3 

Bibliography: p. [681 1-713. 

A revised edition of no. 4090 in the 1960 Guide. 
Lefler has reorganized and rewritten that portion of 
the book dealing with the period after 1896. He 
has also edited a fourth edition of his North Caro- 
lina History Told by Contemporaries (Chapel Hill, 
University of North Carolina Press [1965] 580 p.). 
A helpful array of facts and figures about the State, 
past and present, is North Carolina; an Economic 
and Social Profile (Chapel Hill, University of North 
Carolina Press [1958] 380 p.), by Samuel Hunt- 
ington Hobbs. 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

1778. Guess, William Francis. South Carolina: 
annals of pride and protest. Illustrations and 

maps by John O'Hara Cosgrave, II. New York, 
Harper [1960] 337 p. illus. (A Regions of Amer- 
ica book) 58-12450 F269.G85 

Bibliography: p. 325-329. 

As in many of the volumes in the Regions of 
America series, this history of South Carolina is 
introduced by a personal prologue establishing the 
author's relationship and approach to his subject 
and setting the style of the work. Directed toward 
the general reader, the book is a broad episodic 
review of the South Carolinian ethos from colonial 
times to the present, rich in biography, literary allu- 
sion, and regional pride and idiom. Selections he 
makes from contemporary diaries and letters pro- 
vide insight into "the marvelously informing drama 
of acute and archetypal minds at grips with crucial 
experience." Guess leans heavily on Ulrich B. Phil- 
lips' assertion that white supremacy was the "central 
theme" in Southern history. The effect of the 
Negro's presence within the fabric of South Caro- 
lina's social, political, and economic affairs is a con- 
stant ingredient in his discussion of the State's 
development. 

GEORGIA 

1779. Averitt, Jack N. Georgia's coastal plain. 
New York, Lewis Historical Pub. Co. 

['1964] 3 v. 65-2086 F286.A9 

A formidable two-volume history (accompanied 
by a third volume of biographical sketches) of the 
original coastal counties of southeastern Georgia. 
The author includes an account of the region's con- 
tribution to the development of the State and its 
influence on the role played by the State in national 
affairs. Georgia's colonial history is almost entirely 
confined to these southeastern counties. Conspicu- 
ous early traits were a pattern of political unity and 
conservatism and a tendency toward a predominant 
interest in economic affairs, accompanied by a cul- 
tural and artistic cosmopolitanism surrounding the 
port of Savannah. The first volume is largely a 
narrative of events from Oglethorpe's first settle- 
ment to the eve of the Civil War. Volume 2 begins 
with a discussion of Georgia in the Civil War and 
the Reconstruction period and then follows a pri- 
marily topical arrangement, tracing in turn the 
southeastern region's agricultural, political, financial, 
industrial, and cultural development to the present 
time. In all, attention is devoted to a range of 
individuals and details which tend to be neglected 
in general histories. A final chapter describes briefly 
each of the 40 modern counties in the area today. 



212 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

1780. Coulter, Ellis Merton. Georgia, a short his- 
tory. Rev. and enl. ed. Chapel Hill, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press [1960] 537 p. 

60-16233 F286.C78 1960 
An updated edition of no. 4094 in the 1960 Guide. 

FLORIDA 

1781. Covington, James W. The story of south- 
western Florida. New York, Lewis Histor- 
ical Pub. Co., 1957. 2 v. illus. 

58-880 F 3 u.C67 

Vol. 2 has subtitle: Family and Personal History. 
Includes bibliographical references. 



A general account of the development of south- 
western Florida from the earliest times to the pres- 
ent, based largely on secondary sources and local 
newspaper files. Nearly half the work deals with 
the 20th century. Arranged topically, it describes 
the area's rapid expansion following each of the two 
world wars. The progress of activities that make 
up a large part of Florida's regional image real 
estate promotion, the tourist trade, citrus and fish- 
ing industries, baseball's winter quarters is fully 
explored, as are such standard ingredients of region- 
al history as flora, fauna, scenery, transportation, 
communication, religion, and education. 



G. The Old Southwest: General 



1782. Arnow, Harriette L. S. Seedtime on the 
Cumberland. New York, Macmillan, 1960. 

xviii, 449 p. 60-7414 F442.2.A7 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

1783. Arnow, Harriette L. S. Flowering of the 
Cumberland. New York, Macmillan [1963] 

xviii, 441 p. 63-15672 F442.2.A69 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The author, a novelist, has produced two nonfic- 
tion volumes on pioneer life in the valley of the 
Cumberland from 1780 to 1803. Together they 
represent the culmination of a lifetime of collection 
and assimilation. Her facts come from a wide 
range of local records, memoirs, and other written 
sources and from her own cultural inheritance in 
her native Kentucky. "This work," she writes in 
the acknowledgments in the first volume, "is not a 
history, nor is it concerned with the lives of famous 
men and women, nor does it pretend to be an 
exhaustive study of the pioneer. I have tried to 
re-create a few of the more important aspects of 
pioneer life as it was lived on the Cumberland by 
ordinary men and women." The same statements 
apply equally well to the second volume. Different 
themes, more than different time periods, distin- 
guish the two volumes. Seedtime emphasizes the 
settler's ability to conquer a new environment, 
whereas Flowering is concerned chiefly with his 
success in transplanting Old World culture. With- 
in this dual arrangement the organization is essen- 
tially esthetic; the end result is considerably more 
than a historical scrapbook. Both themes are de- 
veloped with an intimate familiarity and an easy 
narrative style. 



1784. Daniels, Jonathan. The devil's backbone; 
the story of the Natchez Trace. With 
map and headpieces by the Dillons. New York, 
McGraw-Hill [1962] 278 p. illus. (The Ameri- 
can trails series) 61-18131 F34I.D24 

"Sources and acknowledgments": p. 259-267. 

The Natchez Trace was used mostly in one direc- 
tionfrom the Mississippi River at the future site 
of Natchez northward through the lands of the 
Choctaws and the Chickasaws, and across Tennessee 
to the Cumberland River at Nashville. It was the 
road back for traders and boatmen who freighted 
their products downstream by barge, keelboat, and 
raft along the Cumberland, Ohio, and Mississippi 
Rivers from Kentucky, Indiana, and Pennsylvania. 
The author populates this ancient pathway, which 
followed roughly an old Indian trail, with a wide 
spectrum of figures and tells the early histories of 
such various personalities as Abraham Lincoln, 
General James Wilkinson, Aaron Burr, Meriwether 
Lewis, and, in particular, Andrew Jackson, who 
rode on his wedding journey down the Trace with 
Rachel Donelson and later marched down it to the 
Battle of New Orleans. 

1785. Havighurst, Walter. Voices on the river; 
the story of the Mississippi waterways. New 
York, Macmillan [1964] 310 p. illus. 

64-11761 HE630.M6H35 
Bibliography: p. 287297. 

"A survey of three centuries of transportation on 
the Mississippi system, from Indian canoes to the 
barge fleets that now dwarf the vanished steamboat 
traffic." The author traces the course of river craft 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 213 



by the cry of the steersman on raft or keelboat, the 
pitch of a steamboat whistle, or the varied sounds 
of a ship's bell signaling the passage of time and the 
rivalries of commerce. More a collection of storied 



lore than a history of transport, the book makes its 
subject "the everlasting river" the setting for 
travelers' tales, the pageant of explorer, fur trader, 
and peddler, and the romance of steamboat travel. 



H. The Old Southwest: Local 



LOUISIANA 

1786. Davis, Edwin Adams. Louisiana, a narra- 
tive history, zd ed. Baton Rouge, Claitor's 

Book Store, 1965. 394 p. 

653751 F369-D24 1965 

Bibliography: p. 385394. 

First published in 1961, this sizable history of 
greater dimensions than the usual textbook is 
used as a general reading and study guide on the 
college level. With some justice, the author repeat- 
edly characterizes the story of Louisiana history as 
a "fabulous saga." The political, legal, and social 
aspects of Louisiana's French and Spanish origins 
reflect an experience not shared by other States. 
During the "War for Southern Independence" and 
the military occupation that followed, Louisiana 
suffered more and longer than most of her neigh- 
bors. This era is presented with an undisguised 
regret and mordancy. Another of the State's unique 
adventures is related in a clear and balanced account 
of the rise of Huey Long. A closeup view of New 
Orleans and its flamboyant growth after the Louisi- 
ana Purchase is found in Albert E. Fossier's New 
Orleans; the Glamour Period, 1800-1840 (New 
Orleans, Pelican Pub. Co. [ C i957] 520 p.). 

ARKANSAS 

1787. White, Lonnie J. Politics on the Southwest- 
ern Frontier: Arkansas Territory, 1819 

1836. Memphis, Memphis State University Press, 
1964. 219 p. illus. 64-55971 F4H.W49 

Bibliography: p. [206] 212. 

A minutely documented, factual account, largely 
from local newspaper sources, of the rise of faction- 
alism in territorial politics during a period when 
alignments were often based upon personalities 
rather than issues and political differences were 
sometimes settled at the dueling grounds. The 
author's principal objective is to examine the politi- 
cal foundations which were established for the 
future State of Arkansas during the 17 years of terri- 
torial status. The successive elections during this 
period are examined in detail as the training ground 
for future political leaders under statehood. 



TENNESSEE 

1788. Folmsbee, Stanley J., Robert E. Corlew, and 
Enoch L. Mitchell. History of Tennessee. 

New York, Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1960. 4 v. 
illus., maps. 612736 F436.F64 

Vols. 34 have subtitle: Family and Personal 
History. 

Bibliography: v. 2, p. 395430. 

Two weighty volumes of history, supplemented 
by two volumes of biographical sketches. The three 
authors share about equally the task of relating the 
storv of the State's progress from the earliest times 
to the present day. Folmsbee introduces the work 
with a topographical chapter that is especially useful 
in view of the later stormy territorial and statehood 
boundary problems. He also discusses the entry of 
the State into the Union and recounts its role in the 
War of 1812. Corlew covers the I9th century, with 
particular reference to the Jacksonian era and the 
deep divisions caused by the Civil War and Recon- 
struction. Tennessee's development in the 2Oth 
century is recounted by Mitchell, who examines the 
course of politics, education, religion, and conserva- 
tion and describes society and culture at midcentury. 

1789. Govan, Gilbert E., and James W. Livingood. 
The Chattanooga country, 1540-1962; from 

tomahawks to TVA. [Rev. ed.] Chapel Hill, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press [1963] 526 p. 

634206 F444-C4G6 1963 

Bibliography: p. 495512. 

A revised edition of no. 4104 in the 1960 Guide. 



KENTUCKY 

1790. Clark, Thomas D. A history of Kentucky. 
[Rev. ed.] Lexington, Ky., John Bradford 

Press, 1960. 516 p. 61-1846 F45I.C63 1960 
Bibliography: p. 461493. 
A revised edition of no. 4106 in the 1960 Guide. 

1791. Moore, Arthur K. The frontier mind; a cul- 
tural analysis of the Kentucky frontiersman. 



214 / A GUIDE To E UNITED STATES 

[Lexington] University of Kentucky Press [1957] 
264 p. 57- IJ 379 F454.M65 

Includes bibliographies. 

The author approaches the Kentucky frontiers- 
man through his reflection in literature and the tall 
tale; his study is more a report of what nonfrontiers- 
men thought about this "buckskin hero" or "play- 
ful savage" than a penetration of his mind and cul- 
ture. Moore reverses the well-known thesis of 
Frederick Jackson Turner, stating that frontier 
democracy had its origins not in the forest but in 
the European heritage. What emerged from the 
forest was the "alligator-horse" (yet another sobri- 
quet for the frontiersman, after a familiar myth), 
"invested with all the rights and privileges of repub- 
lican citizenship and ill prepared to exercise them." 
Regarding the myths of the earthly paradise and the 
noble savage as operative factors in the occupation 
and development of Kentucky, the author has pro- 
duced a lively polemic against primitivism, charging 
that it underlies the inadequacies of midwestern 
culture, both in the age of settlement and consider- 
ably later. 

MISSOURI 

1792. Kirschten, Ernest. Catfish and crystal. Bi- 
centenary edition of the St. Louis story. 

Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday [1965] 508 p. 

65-22575 F 4 7 4 .S2K5 1965 
A history of the "Gateway City" by an editorial 
writer for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. First pub- 
lished in 1960, this book in its bicentenary edition 
begins with French control and ends with a post- 
script chapter which, among other new items, an- 
nounces another world series for the Cardinals. A 
fast-moving parade of anecdotes, historical asides, 
and personality sketches make up the St. Louis 
"story." Reports on machine politics, backroom 
deals, social scandal, tenderloin, baseball, and brew- 
eries are culled from the files, as well as tales of 
explorers, traders, missionaries, settlers, civic lead- 
ers, churches, and art societies as the constituent 
elements in the growth and progress of a great 
crossroads city. 

1793. McReynolds, Edwin C. Missouri; a history 
of the Crossroads State. Norman, Univer- 
sity of Oklahoma Press [1962] xiv, 483 p. illus. 

62-18052 F466.M2 

Bibliography: p. 459466. 

Beginning with the early Spanish explorers and 
the national rivalries and first settlements in the 
Mississippi Valley, McReynolds presents a com- 
pressed factual narrative of the acquisition of the 
Missouri Territory in the Louisiana Purchase of 



1803 and its subsequent rise to statehood in 1821. 
From this point forward, emphasis is upon Mis- 
souri's place in the history of the United States. 
The Missouri regional strategy in the opening of 
the Far West, the central role of the State in western 
railroad development, and the national attention 
drawn to the Missouri Compromise are covered. 
With a secessionist Governor and a unionist popu- 
lation, the State mirrored the national agony on the 
eve of the Civil War. The State's agricultural 
development and the granger, populist, isolationist, 
and reform movements are described within the 
context of the policies and fortunes and the long 
successive tenures of the Democratic and Republi- 
can Parties. Prominent Missourians are discussed 
in the context of their appearance on the national 
scene and in the tangle of national party politics. 
Particular reference is made to figures such as 
Thomas Hart Benton, David Barton, and the 
younger Francis P. Blair, as well as to the Pender- 
gast politics of the 1930*5, and the rise of Harry S. 
Truman. 

1794. Meyer, Duane G. The heritage of Missouri, 
a history. Saint Louis, State Pub. Co., 1963. 

843 p. illus. 631213 F466.M578 

Bibliographies at the ends of chapters. 
"The scope of the book is broad; the social, eco- 
nomic, and political development of Missouri is re- 
viewed from the era of the mastodon to the age of 
the missile." Written as a comprehensive text, this 
work is enhanced by its abundant illustrations and 
clear chronological organization. The author de- 
fines and evaluates the State's historical legacy in 
terms of its geographical position as the pioneer 
center of river, rail, and air transportation; the 
varied national and racial elements of its popula- 
tion that precluded the growth of a clear-cut region- 
al image; and its dual economy commercial and 
agricultural characterized by financial conserva- 
tism and the lack of dramatic economic develop- 
ment. The region along the Missouri River has 
historically been a center of activity, and the State's 
wealth, political power, and cultural life are concen- 
trated along the axis between Kansas City and St. 
Louis. The mid-State area's predominant role dur- 
ing the formative period receives closer scrutiny in 
Andrew Theodore Brown's Kansas City to i8jo 
(Columbia, Mo., University of Missouri Press [1964, 
c i963J 235 p.), the first volume of his Frontier 
Community. 

MISSISSIPPI 

1795. Silver, James W. Mississippi: the closed 
society. New York, Harcourt, Brace & 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 215 



World [1964] xxii, 250 p. 64-19939 F345.S5 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

An expansion of the author's 1963 presidential 
address before the Southern Historical Association. 
It examines historically certain political and racial 
parallels between the slavery era in Mississippi and 
the subsequent regime of white supremacy in that 
State. The immediate occasion for the address and 
this volume was Silver's experience as an eyewitness 
to the mob violence which attended the court- 
ordered admission of James Howard Meredith, a 
Negro, to the University of Mississippi on Septem- 
ber 30, 1962. The author has set down a strong 
indictment of Mississippi society, laws, and govern- 



ment officials in relation to the past, to other States, 
to the Federal Government, and to the laws of the 
land. He asserts that in its racial arrangements 
since the Civil War Mississippi has continuously 
perpetuated a system of exclusion, in defense of 
which its highest officials invoke an elaborate struc- 
ture of historical myth, political and social pressure, 
and legal oppression. "Today the closed society of 
Mississippi imposes on all its people acceptance 
of and obedience to an official orthodoxy almost 
identical with the one developed in the middle 
of the i gth century. In fact the philosophical 
basis for slavery has become the catechism of white 
supremacy." 



I. The Old Northwest: General 



1796. Hatcher, Harlan H., and Erich A. Walter. 
A pictorial history of the Great Lakes, by 

Harlan Hatcher and Erich A. Walter, assisted by 
Orin W. Kaye, Jr. New York, Crown Publishers 
p963] 344 P- 63-12068 F55I.H37 

Bibliography: p. 338. 

Hatcher, the author of The Great La\es (1944) 
and The Western Reserve (1949), no. 4114 and 
4118, respectively, in the 1960 Guide, has joined 
with Walter and Kaye in arranging a collection of 
illustrations, including reproductions of photo- 
graphs, museum prints, and maps, in a striking 
companion to his earlier works. The full range 
and development of lake shipping is portrayed in 
detail even to an unusual poster of the standard 
stack colors of the Great Lakes fleets. Early and 
modern scenes appear together, and views of locks, 
canals, lighthouses, bridges, cities, and industrial 
centers sustain the theme of a vigorous maritime 
and commercial expansion. A compact narrative 
carries the coverage to the opening of the St. Law- 
rence Seaway in 1959. 

1797. Havighurst, Walter. The Heartland: Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois. Illustrations by Grattan 

Condon. New York, Harper & Row [1962] 400 
p. (A Regions of America book) 

62-14531 F479.H28 

Bibliography: p. 379388. 

Readers who have followed Havighurst's excur- 
sions into the history of the Old Northwest will find 
many familiar landmarks here: the early Indian 
treaties; Fallen Timbers; the land rush that followed 
the Black Hawk War; Little Turtle, Chief of the 
Miami Nation; Chicago, "the upstart village"; the 



coming of the railroad; and the death of smalltown 
America. For the author, political boundaries dis- 
appear. These three States share a common idiom, 
attitude, and history, and Havighurst's view of the 
land, its meteoric development and growth, its enor- 
mous productive capacity in agriculture and indus- 
try, is panoramic. The "Heartland" is the "center 
of America's population and the source of important 
currents of its political, economic, and cultural life." 
The rapidity of change in the area is seen in the 
fact that Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, formed in the 
early iSoo's, had by 1840 reached the end of their 
frontier period. Numerous anecdotes from the his- 
tory and legend of the region are included. 

1798. Havighurst, Walter. Wilderness for sale; 

the story of the first western land rush. New 

York, Hastings House [1956] 372 p. illus. 

(American procession series) 568123 479^33 

Bibliography: p. 359361. 

The author's purpose is "to picture the first huge 
western frontier in America, and the process of its 
acquisition from the Indians, its survey, sale, settle- 
ment, and the beginnings of its culture and econ- 
omy." The mingled pattern of farmer, squatter, 
speculator, and promoter of big land schemes is 
described from the first strong surge of migration 
in 1800 until, 40 years later, one of Ohio's citizens 
was elected President of the United States. In 
episodic style the author relates the story of prairie 
life, the birth of cities, the growth of river transport, 
and the politics of public land administration. He 
peoples his account with such characters as Tecum- 
seh, Johnny Appleseed, Robert Owen, the eccentric 
Harman Blennerhassett, and William Henry Har- 



2l6 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

rison. In Congress, Harrison drafted the land act 
of 1800 that opened the floodgates of the great 
migration, and his election as President in 1840 
signalized its fulfillment. Havighurst has also 
edited Land of the Long Horizons (New York, 
Coward-McCann [ C i96o] 437 p. American vista 
series: The Midwest), a volume of readings on the 
history of the Midwest, illustrated with reproduc- 
tions of paintings, drawings, engravings, and photo- 
graphs. 

1799. Murray, John J., ed. The heritage of the 
Middle West. Norman, University of Okla- 
homa Press [1958] xiv, 303 p. illus. 

58-11607 F35I.M86 
Bibliographical footnotes. 

1800. McAvoy, Thomas T., ed. The Midwest: 
myth or reality? A symposium. [Notre 

Dame, Ind.] University of Notre Dame Press 
[1961] 96 p. 61-10848 F355.M2 

Includes bibliographies. 

In these two anthologies midwestern scholars 
attempt to define the region's geographic boundar- 
ies, its heritage from the past and early develop- 
ment, its modern industrial and agricultural growth, 
and the character of its inhabitants as seen in their 
politics, religion, education, art, and literature. Al- 
though its geographical limits are inexact, the Mid- 
west's existence is emphatically asserted and its 
claim to a separate regional identity is upheld. Mc- 
Avoy 's small volume is the result of a symposium in 



which the contributors of the papers respond to a 
number of almost standard criticisms concerning 
such topics as midwestern isolationism, farm-bloc 
politics, and economic and financial relationships 
with the East. The 12 contributors to The Heritage 
of the Middle West make individual assessments 
according to topic and the historical perspective of 
each. Together these essays sketch the evolution of 
an essentially conservative segment of the Nation's 
population, in whom, these authors testify, the de- 
mands for radical change and adjustment have 
fashioned a unique and unmistakable manner and 
style. 

1 80 1. Van Every, Dale. Forth to the wilderness; 
the first American frontier, 17541774. New 
York, Morrow, 1961. 369 p. illus. 

6111223 195^3 

Includes bibliography. 

The first of four volumes in a series which follows 
the frontier across America from the Appalachian 
Mountains to the west coast (17541845). In this 
volume, Van Every focuses on the conquest of the 
Appalachian Mountains and the conflicts between 
the Europeans in the East and the Indians in the 
West. Other volumes in the series are A Company 
of Heroes; the American Frontier, /77J 1783 (1962. 
328 p.); Ar\ of Empire; the American Frontier, 
1784-1803 (1963. 383 p.); and The Final Chal- 
lenge; the American Frontier, 1804-1845 (1964. 
378 p.)- 



J. The Old Northwest: Local 



OHIO 

1802. Butler, Margaret Manor. A pictorial history 
of the Western Reserve, 1796 to 1860. Cleve- 
land, Early Settlers Association of the Western Re- 
serve, 1963. xi, 155 p. (Early Settlers Association 
of the Western Reserve. Publication no. 1-63) 

63-19645 F486.W58 no. 117 
Western Reserve Historical Society. Publication 
no. 117. 

Bibliography: p. 152- [153]. 

As official historian of the Early Settlers Associa- 
tion of the Western Reserve, the author collected the 
sketches, woodcuts, paintings, and photographs in- 
cluded here to portray pioneer life in this northeast- 
ern corner of Ohio. A historical account covering 
the period between the first surveying party led by 



Moses Cleveland in 1796 and the Civil War accom- 
panies the illustrations of early terrain, pioneer 
homes and furnishings, art, education, religion, and 
recreation. Kenneth V. Lottich's New England 
Transplanted, a Study of the Development of Edu- 
cational and Other Cultural Agencies in the Con- 
necticut Western Reserve in Their National and 
Philosophical Setting (Dallas, Royal Pub. Co., 1964. 
314 p.) explores the impact of the importation of 
New England school and religious systems to north- 
eastern Ohio upon the public educational leadership 
of both the Connecticut Reserve and, ultimately, the 
State of Ohio. 

1803. Smith, William E., and Ophia D. Smith. 
History of southwestern Ohio, the Miami 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 217 



Valleys. New York, Lewis Historical Pub. Co. 
[1964] 3 v. illus. 65-5412 F497.M64S5 

A lengthy history of the 14 counties in the water- 
shed of the Great and Little Miami Rivers. Vol- 
umes i and 2 are arranged into topical chapters in 
chronological order, and the third volume is devoted 
to personal and family history. The area's earliest 
inhabitants, its flora and fauna, the emergence of the 
frontier, towns, transport, industry, and learning are 
covered in detail. The progress of modern institu- 
tions is pursued into the 20th century and develop- 
ments in banking, public education, religion, fine 
arts, medicine, agriculture, politics, and municipal 
government are depicted. 

INDIANA 

1804. Thornbrough, Emma Lou. Indiana in the 
Civil War era, 1850-1880. Indianapolis, 

Indiana Historical Bureau, 1965. xii, 758 p. illus. 
(The History of Indiana, v. 3) 

66-63323 F526.H55 vol. 3 

"Bibliographical essay": p. 715736. 

CONTENTS. Attitudes and issues at midcentury. 
Political realignments in the fifties. Secession 
and Civil War. Military contribution. Disunion 
at home. Politics and legislation of the Reconstruc- 
tion Era. Depression and politics, 1873-1879. 
The transportation revolution. Agriculture. 
Foundations of industrialization: mining, manufac- 
turing, banking, labor. Education. Population 
growth and social change. Religion. Intellectual, 
cultural, and social life. 

Published in observance of the sesquicentennial of 
Indiana's statehood in 1966, this is one volume in a 
projected five-volume history of the State. 

ILLINOIS 

1805. Pease, Theodore C. The story of Illinois. 
3d ed., revised by Marguerita Jenison Pease. 

Chicago, University of Chicago Press [1965] xvi, 
331 p. illus. 65-17299 F54I.P36 1965 

Bibliography: p. 301314. 

A revised edition of no. 4133 in the 1960 Guide. 

MICHIGAN 

1806. Bald, Frederick C. Michigan in four cen- 
turies. Line drawings by William Thomas 

Woodward. Rev. and enl. ed. New York, Harper 
[1961] 528 p. 61-17179 F566.B2 1961 

Includes bibliography. 

A revised and enlarged edition of no. 4137 in the 
1960 Guide. 



1807. Dunbar, Willis Frederick. Michigan: a 
history of the Wolverine State. Watercolors 

and drawings by Reynold Weidenaar. Grand 
Rapids, W. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. [1965] 800 p. 

64-8579 F 5 66.D8 4 

Bibliography: p. 757774. 

A comprehensive history of the State, designed to 
provide readers with "information and understand- 
ing that will help them to contribute effectively to 
the building of Michigan's future." Emphasis is 
placed on the rich heritage of the State's many 
national and racial stocks and on the sustained 
efficacy of the economic motive since the early days 
of settlement. Dunbar's work is divided by cen- 
turies into four parts, each of which is prefaced with 
a brief summary and evaluation of the period. The 
discussion of the late 1901 and 2oth centuries covers 
such topics as social, educational, and cultural de- 
velopment; political hegemony (78 years of Repub- 
lican domination that ended with the great depres- 
sion); and the coming of the automobile, which at 
once transformed Michigan from an extracting into 
a processing economy, from an agricultural into an 
industrial State. 

MINNESOTA 

1808. Blegen, Theodore C. Minnesota; a history 
of the State. [Minneapolis] University of 

Minnesota Press [1963] 688 p. illus. 

63-13124 F6o6.B668 

Bibliography: p. 601624. 

Blegen, the author of several scholarly mono- 
graphs on Minnesota history, here offers the State's 
story from its geological prehistory to the present 
day for "the general public citizens of Minnesota 
and people elsewhere who may be interested." He 
has produced a compactly written sourcebook of 
factual information, with helpful maps and illustra- 
tions. The book was sponsored by the Minnesota 
Historical Society, of which the author is a former 
superintendent. Blegen has also contributed an 
introduction to a centennial album of essays and 
illustrations: Minnesota Heritage; a Panoramic Nar- 
rative of the Historical Development of the North 
Star State (Minneapolis, T. S. Denison [ C i96o] 
430 p.), edited by Lawrence M. Brings. William 
Van O'Connor has edited A History of the Arts in 
Minnesota (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota 
Press [1958] 63, 40, 62 p.), a small centennial 
volume on music, theater, books, authors, art, and 
architecture. 

1809. Minnesota history. Selections from Minne- 
sota history; a fiftieth anniversary anthology. 

Edited by Rhoda R. Gilman and June Drenning 



2l8 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

Holmquist. St. Paul, Minnesota Historical Society, 
1965. 369 p. illus. (Publications of the Minne- 
sota Historical Society) 65-25992 F6o6.M6637 
Bibliographical references included in "Footnotes" 

(p. 324-352). 

On the occasion of this magazine's golden anni- 
versary, 26 articles from more than 500 published 
over the years were selected for this anthology. 
They were chosen according to four criteria: "the 
importance of the subject, the breadth and depth 



with which it was treated, the continuing interest 
of the piece as a whole, and the readability of its 
presentation. Several representative articles were 
also selected, since the committee felt that the an- 
thology should reflect the general contents and char- 
acter of the magazine." In addition, certain topics 
which have received emphasis in the magazine were 
included: the fur trade, pioneer social life, immi- 
gration, and third-party political movements in the 
State. The articles are arranged chronologically by 
subject rather than by date of publication. 



K. The Far West 



1 8 10. Bartlett, Richard A. Great surveys of the 
American West. Norman, University of 

Oklahoma Press [1962] xxiii, 408 p. illus. (The 
American exploration and travel series [38] ) 

62-16475 ^594.628 

Bibliography: p. 377390. 

After the Civil War, four geographical and geo- 
logical surveys were conducted over large areas of 
the West from 1867 until 1879, when the U.S. Geo- 
logical Survey was founded. Two were under the 
administration of the War Department: the United 
States Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Par- 
allel, headed by Clarence King, and the United 
States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hun- 
dredth Meridian, led by Lt. George Montague 
Wheeler. Two others, under the Department of 
the Interior, were the United States Geological and 
Geographical Survey of the Territories, directed by 
Ferdinand Hayden, and the United States Geo- 
graphical and Geological Survey of the Rocky 
Mountain Region, led by John Wesley Powell. In 
an attempt to bring all four surveys under compara- 
tive examination, the author presents each expedi- 
tion in turn, spotlighting the achievements of the 
more important scientists, journalists, painters, and 
photographers and recording the most notable ac- 
complishments of their extensive and varied explor- 
ations. In the process, he renders a very large 
subject intelligible to the general reader and opens 
a fertile field of scholarship. 

1811. Conference on the History of Western 
America, ist, Santa Fe, N.M., 1961. Prob- 
ing the American West; papers. Edited by K. Ross 
Toole [and others] With an introduction by Ray 
A. Billington. Santa Fe, Museum of New Mexico 
Press [1962] 216 p. 62-53525 F59I.C75 1961 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 193-205). 



1812. Conference on the History of Western 
America. 20", Denver, 1962. The Ameri- 
can West, an appraisal; papers. Edited by Robert 
G. Ferris. Editorial advisers: Le Roy R. Hafen, 
Allen D. Breck [and] Robert M. Utley. Introduc- 
tion by Ray A. Billington. Preface by James Taylor 
Forrest. Santa Fe, Museum of New Mexico Press 
[ C i 9 6 3 ] 287 p. 63-22144 F59I.C75 1962 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 226-251). 

The papers presented in these two volumes reflect 
new tendencies in western historical research and 
writing signalized by the Santa Fe Conference on 
the History of Western America and the subsequent 
formation of the Western History Association, 
which publishes a quarterly journal entitled The 
American West. Ray A. Billington, in an introduc- 
tion to the first volume and in one of the papers in 
the second, heralds a new surge of activity in west- 
ern studies which he sees as the latest pendular 
swing in the pattern of alternating enthusiasm and 
neglect that has followed Frederick Jackson Turn- 
er's provocative essay "The Significance of the Fron- 
tier in American History." The renewed energy 
is also viewed as the spontaneous result of the rapid 
changes which have occurred in western life during 
the last decade. The association and these papers 
represent a movement away from the provincial 
antiquarian, the purveyor of western glamor, and 
the highly distilled Turnerian theorist toward more 
resourceful scholars who, through functional and 
interpretive works, attempt to bring the frontier 
past into a more meaningful relationship to the 
present and to the Nation as a whole. 

1813. Hart, Herbert M. Old forts of the North- 
west. Illustrated by Paul J. Hartle. Seattle, 

Superior Pub. Co. [1963] 192 p. (His Forts of 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 219 



the old West) 63-15215 UA26.N6H 3 

Bibliography: p. 186188. 

1814. Hart, Herbert M. Old forts of the South- 
west. Drawings by Paul J. Hartle. Seattle, 

Superior Pub. Co. [1964] 192 p. (His Forts of the 
old West) 64-21316 UA26.S6H3 

1815. Hart, Herbert M. Old forts of the Far 
West. Drawings by Paul J. Hartle. Seattle, 

Superior Pub. Co. [1965] 192 p. (His Forts of the 
old West) 65-23448 UA26.W 4 H 3 

Bibliography: p. 186189. 

Nearly all the Army posts described in these 
works on the forts of the Old West have been 
visited by the author, who provides directions to the 
present-day sites and a brief account of the historical 
significance of each. The objective of his travels 
and of the supporting research has been to redis- 
cover and underline the Army's role as guardian of 
the westward movement between 1850 and 1890. 
Robert W. Frazer's Forts of the West; Military 
Forts and Presidios, and Posts Commonly Called 
Forts, West of the Mississippi River to 1898 (Nor- 
man, University of Oklahoma Press [1965] 246 p.) 
supplies the date of establishment, purpose, and loca- 
tion of each post; the name, rank, and military unit 
of the person establishing it; and its present status. 
Kent Ruth's Great Day in the West: Forts, Posts, 
and Rendezvous Beyond the Mississippi (Norman, 
University of Oklahoma Press [1963] 308 p.) 
depicts 147 important sites along the western trails 
as they were at the moment of their greatest con- 
tribution to western development. Each descrip- 
tion is accompanied by a contemporary illustration 
and a modern photograph. 

1816. Hine, Robert V., and Edwin R. Bingham, 
eds. The frontier experience; readings in 

the Trans-Mississippi West. Belmont, Calif., Wads- 
worth Pub. Co. [1963] xiv, 418 p. illus. 

63-18663 F59i.H6y 

Includes bibliographical references. 

Two professors of American history have col- 
laborated to edit an anthology of excerpts from the 
journals, reports, local archives, literature, and his- 
tories of the 19th-century western frontier. They 
take as their theme Frederick Jackson Turner's 
assertion that from the conditions of frontier life 
came intellectual traits of profound importance. 
Their selections are intended to illustrate the inter- 
action or contradiction of two such traits and 
their opposites: "the individualistic and the innova- 
tive threads of frontier experience, versus the coop- 
erative and traditional threads" in the formation of 
the American character. In their chapter introduc- 



tions and explanatory paragraphs the editors seek to 
place each selection in its appropriate context. The 
self-reliance and independence of the explorers and 
the mountain men, for example, provide an insight 
into the force of individual resourcefulness and the 
unfettered spontaneous response to the wilderness 
challenge. 

1817. Lavender, David S. The fist in the wilder- 
ness. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1964. 

xiv, 490 p. illus. 6416203 HD9944.U48A47 

Bibliography: p. 424480. 

A contribution to the history of the American fur 
trade and an understanding of the Astorian achieve- 
ment. The system of barter with the Indians of the 
Upper Missouri and Great Lakes region for musk- 
rat, raccoon, and deer hides and, later, buffalo 
robes was the "true foundation of the huge mer- 
cantile empires that influenced the destiny of na- 
tions." The author's central figure is Ramsey 
Crooks, John Jacob Astor's lieutenant and "fist" in 
the wilderness, whose enterprise, perception, and 
energy captured the French and British trade for 
the American Fur Company. Crooks was one of 
that small group of wilderness entrepreneurs who 
wielded an influence in world capitals out of pro- 
portion to their numbers by their knowledge of 
the frontier outposts and their control over the In- 
dians. Ruthless, resourceful, and fiercely competi- 
tive, Crooks led a continuing struggle for the op- 
eration of free enterprise against governmental 
restrictions. When the settlers came, and with them 
the money trade, he helped to guide "the entire 
transition of the fur trade from an instrument of 
history to a plain business." 

1818. Lavender, David S. Westward vision; the 
story of the Oregon Trail. With illustra- 
tions by Marian Ebert. New York, McGraw-Hill 
[1963] 424 p. (American trails series) 

6316467 
Bibliography: p. 401412. 

1819. Stewart, George R. The California trail, an 
epic with many heroes. New York, McGraw- 
Hill [1962] 339 p. illus. (American trails series) 

62-18977 F59I.S83 

Bibliographical notes: p. 329-332. 

Much of Lavender's work is concerned with the 
earliest searches for a westward passage to the Pa- 
cific: the French voyageurs of the i8th century, the 
British penetration in the early i9th century, and 
the American exploration that began with the Lewis 
and Clark expedition. From this point the author 
traces in detail, using excerpts from diaries, jour- 
nals, and contemporary accounts, the farflung net- 



220 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

work of trails opened by the exploring, fur-trading, 
or missionary ventures that often led far wide of 
the eventual route to the Columbia. Only in the 
final quarter of this volume does the reader glimpse 
the Oregon Trail itself and the beginnings of family 
migrations in the 1840'$. Stewart, for many years 
a latter-day explorer of the California Trail, con- 
tinues the theme begun by Lavender. The Califor- 
niaor Oregon Trail forked at the Snake River 
and was variously named according to one's desti- 
nation. Following closely the diaries and journals 
of this "folk movement" from 1841 to 1850, the 
author presents a vivid and detailed account of the 
light wagons, the oxen and mules which drew them, 
the supplies carried, life on the trail, the peculiari- 
ties of each stage of the journey, and the cumulative 
experience gained by successive wagon trains. 

1820. Monaghan, James, ed. The book of the 
American West. Jay Monaghan, editor in 

chief. Clarence P. Hornung, art director. Authors: 
Ramon F. Adams [and others] New York, Mess- 
ner ^1963] 608 p. illus. 63-17415 F59I.M76 

Bibliography: p. 593-595- 

Ten writers on western Americana cover the his- 
tory of half a continent in this elaborately illustrated 
volume. Subjects treated include the early explorers 
and mountain men, transportation, mining, Indians 
and soldiers, law and justice, cowboys, guns, wild- 
life, folklore, and song. A final section entitled "A 
Gallery of Western Art" was written by Clarence 
P. Hornung. The other contributors are Dale Mor- 
gan, Oscar Osburn Winther, Oscar Lewis, Don 
Russell, Wayne Card, Ramon F. Adams, Robert 
Easton, Natt N. Dodge, and Benjamin A. Botkin. 

1821. Moody, Ralph. The old trails west. New 
York, T. Y. Crowell Co. [1963] xiv, 318 p. 

illus. 6315093 F59I.M8 

Bibliography: p. 303306. 

The author pursues a lifelong fascination with 
the early western trails, particularly in their begin- 
nings and in the circumstances that determined 
their course and destination. On the theory that 
few trails wander aimlessly in the primordial forest, 
he inquires how and why they were first worn into 
the topography of the wilderness. Prehistoric ori- 
gins are traced to animal tracks leading to grazing 
lands, salt licks, and water. These were later fol- 
lowed as routes to rivers and through the mountain 
barriers by Indians, explorers, trappers, miners, 
missionaries, settlers, and armies. From the stories 
of the oldtimers, his own travels, and his reading 
in mainly secondary sources, the author has recon- 
structed "from origin to obliteration" the progress 



and proliferation of the main overland routes to the 
Pacific. 

1822. Morgan, Dale L., ed. Overland in 1846; 
diaries and letters of the California-Oregon 

Trail. Georgetown, Calif., Talisman Press, 1963. 
2v. (825 p.) illus. 62-11493 F592.M7 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(v. i, p. 369-457; v. 2, p. 743-799)- 

Bernard De Veto's The Year of Decision, 1846 
(no. 3331 in the 1960 Guide) is taken as the point 
of departure for this collection of sources, although 
Morgan is concerned with only one aspect of the 
total pattern of contemporary events that is the 
great merit of the earlier work. Morgan has focused 
on the migration along the Oregon Trail, which 
reached its high point in 1846, and has collected its 
contemporary records. The emigrants were intent, 
for various reasons that emerge from their letters 
and diaries, on getting to California and Oregon. 
"How they got there, and what happened along the 
way, as they themselves saw fit to record the facts, 
is the business of this book." 

1823. Morgan, Dale L., ed. The West of William 
H. Ashley; the international struggle for the 

fur trade of the Missouri, the Rocky Mountains, and 
the Columbia, with explorations beyond the Conti- 
nental Divide, recorded in the diaries and letters of 
William H. Ashley and his contemporaries, 1822- 
1838. Denver, Old West Pub. Co., 1964. liv, 341 
p. illus. 63-21637 F592.M72 

This very large and expensive volume fulfills 
Morgan's pledge, made during his work on Jede- 
diah Smith and the Opening of the West (1953), to 
publish the Ashley papers. The general reader will 
probably be most attracted to the biographical sketch 
of Ashley in the beginning section, which covers 
his early life and his interest in mining, politics, and 
surveying, and to the section entitled "Fur Trade 
Exploration Before the Ashley Era." Ashley's fur 
trade activities are traced in the documents, com- 
posed of letters, newspaper accounts, business rec- 
ords, trading documents, and diaries. Morgan's 
major concern is with Ashley as a dominant figure 
in western history whose enterprise and energy 
helped establish the fur trade permanently in the 
Rockies and who introduced its distinctive Ameri- 
can features. 

1824. Smith, Alson J. Men against the mountains; 
Jedediah Smith and the South West Expedi- 
tion of 18261829. New York, John Day Co. 
[1965] 320 p. illus. 6414206 F592.S655 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. [2701-292). 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 221 



Much of the color and rambunctious energy of 
the early journeys into the West is related here. 
The greater aim of this book, however, is to trace 
the adventure and achievement in the western 
explorations of Jedediah Smith. With David Jack- 
son and William Sublette, Smith purchased the fur 
business of Gen. William Ashley. After the ren- 
dezvous of 1826 at Cache Valley in what is now 
northern Utah, Smith traveled south with a com- 
pany of 17 seasoned companions to explore first to 
the south and west of the Great Salt Lake, then 
north to Vancouver. Although the expedition was 
profitless to the firm of Smith, Jackson, and Sublette 
and to the fur trade, it was a landmark in western 
exploration. During the years under review Smith 
piled up an impressive list of firsts. He was the 
first American to reach California overland, to cross 
the Sierra Nevadas, to travel all the way across the 
Great Basin, to journey up the central valley of Cali- 
fornia, and to enter Oregon from the south. In the 
north he discovered and mapped the routes later 
used by settlers in California and Oregon. 

1825. Tilden, Freeman. Following the frontier 
with F. Jay Haynes, pioneer photographer of 



the old West. New York, Knopf, 1964. 406 p. 
illus. 64-12327 TR 140^39X5 

From the resources and collections of the Haynes 
Museum at Boseman, Mont., Freeman Tilden has 
sorted several hundred photographs that are repro- 
duced in this album-cm-biography of the remark- 
able F. Jay Haynes. During a career that flour- 
ished through the last quarter of the igth century, 
the itinerate photographer traveled by horseback, 
stagecoach, and riverboat to mining camps and In- 
dian villages and with surveying parties to nearly 
every section of the frontier West. As official pho- 
tographer for the Northern Pacific Railroad, he 
used a specially outfitted studio car that dramatic- 
ally extended his range and diversity beyond that 
of other pioneer photographers. Ralph W. An- 
drews' Photographers of the Frontier West; Their 
Lives and Wor\s, 1875 to 79/5 (Seattle, Superior 
Pub. Co. [1965] 182 p.) describes and illustrates 
the artistry of 12 other pioneer photographers from 
a wide variety of frontier locales in the United 
States and Canada. Photographer of the Southwest, 
Adam Clar\ Vroman, 18561916 ([Los Angeles] 
Ward Ritchie Press, 1961. 127 p.), edited by Ruth 
I. Mahood, contains introductory materials on Vro- 
man, a short piece by him, and reproductions of 
more than 90 of his photographs. 



L. The Great Plains: General 



1826. Drago, Harry S. Great American cattle 
trails; the story of the old cow paths of the 
East and the longhorn highways of the plains. 
New York, Dodd, Mead [1965] 274 p. illus. 

6512347 179.5.08 

Bibliography: p. 261262. 

The author has made a generous contribution to 
the field of western fiction under several different 
pen names. Here, as historian, he is a revisionist, 
debunking and correcting old accounts, sifting fact 
from a large body of legend. He enlivens the re- 
telling of familiar tales by critical commentary on 
the texts of other writers and in a carefully molded 
popular style. In this book he explores the history 
of the early New England cowpaths and the Oregon 
and Northern Trails to the end of the open range 
in the great "die-up" of 1886. The roads and trails 
and the towns at trail's end (Abilene, Wichita, Cald- 
well, Dodge City) are peopled with famous outlaws, 
marshals, dancehall girls, and cowboys. Jack W. 
Schaefer's Heroes Without Glory; Some Goodmen 
of the Old West (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1965. 



323 p.) is about 10 representative "goodmen" who 
outclassed the "badmen" in skill, courage, endur- 
Old West in Fact (New York, I. Obelensky [1962] 
446 p.), edited by Irwin R. Blacker, is an anthology 
of firsthand accounts which the editor selected as 
being readable, enjoyable, and significant in the 
history of the region. 

1827. Lass, William E. A history of steamboating 
on the Upper Missouri River. Lincoln, Uni- 
versity of Nebraska Press [1962] 215 p. illus. 

6214663 HE63O.M63L3 

Bibliography: p. 201210. 

"This study traces the development of commer- 
cial navigation on the Upper Missouri from 1819, 
when the first steam vessel entered the waters of the 
Missouri, until 1936, when the last commercial nav- 
igation company on the Upper Missouri went out of 
existence." Based on steamboat company reports, 
tonnage and wage records, business ledgers, and 
government sources, the work is chiefly concerned 
with the financial and managerial problems of the 



222 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



river entrepreneur. Of particular value to the local 
historian, however, is the ensuing analysis of river- 
town economics. It traces not only the impact of 
the railroads but also the effects of government ex- 
ance, and gallantry "right across the board." The 
penditures, through avenues such as army contracts 
and Indian annuities, on the region's prosperity. 

1828. Miller, Nyle H., and Joseph W. Snell. Why 
the West was wild; a contemporary look at 
the antics of some highly publicized Kansas cow- 
town personalities. Topeka, Kansas State Historical 
Society, 1963. 685 p. illus. 63-63480 F68o.M5 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

By their persistent adherence to contemporary 
sources State, county, and city archives, police 
dockets, and especially newspapers the authors at- 
tempt to put back into perspective the stories of 
seven Kansas cowtowns which have been "knocked 
askew" somewhere between the doing and the tell- 
ing. For the period from 1867 to 1885, the careers 
of 57 lawmen and "certain other persons who were 
either astraddle or outside the law" are followed 
through the records without benefit of reminiscences 
or secondhand coloring matter. Various figures 
popularized by television, such as Wyatt Berry Stapp 
Earp, James Butler Hickok, John Henry Holliday, 
and William B. Masterson, emerge more or less in- 
tact and suffer little for having been made credible. 
There are exceptions, however, as the following in- 
dex entry shows: "Dillon, Matt: no police officer by 



this name ever served in early Dodge City. Sorry." 
The Album of Gunfighters ([San Antonio? 1965] 
236 p.), by John Marvin Hunter and Noah H. Rose, 
offers a selection from the Rose Collection of "Old 
Time Photographs" of frontier characters and 
scenes, with a brief narrative describing the role 
each played in the history of the West. A number 
of subjects are photographed "laid-out" in last re- 
pose complete with bullet holes, nooses, coffins, and 
other terminal devices. End papers are decorated 
with a variety of venomous insects and reptiles. 

1829. Sandoz, Mari. Love song to the Plains. 

Illustrations and map by Bryan Forsyth. 

New York, Harper [1961] 303 p. (A Regions of 

America book) 616441 F59 1.832 

Bibliography: p. 277287. 

The author writes of the Great Plains with a 
sweeping lyric style she has developed through 
many books and articles describing the land of her 
childhood and the way its people lived and died. 
She attests to early maneuvering for "special rela- 
tionships, special rhythm patterns" to describe this 
region and the movement of the world past her own 
threshold. The history of Nebraska extends geo- 
graphically outward into Wyoming, Kansas, and 
the Dakotas and chronologically from the Spanish 
explorers to the intrusions of modern science. Miss 
Sandoz' account is not a historian's history but an 
impressionistic filling-in of invisible outlines with 
lore, tales, and half-legends. 



M. The Great Plains: Local 



NORTH DAKOTA AND SOUTH DAKOTA 

1830. Lamar, Howard Roberts. Dakota Territory, 
18611889; a study of frontier politics. New 
Haven, Yale University Press, 1956. 304 p. illus. 
(Yale historical publications. Miscellany 64) 

5610098 F655.L25 

"Bibliographical note": p. 285291. 

The author finds that Federal and local govern- 
ment was a highly important factor in making set- 
dement possible in the Dakota Territory. Partly 
because of this experience, Dakotan miners and 
farmers tended to seek political approaches to eco- 
nomic problems. Patterns developed in such move- 
ments as the Farmers Alliance, the Populist Party, 
and the Non-Partisan League, which were neither 
radical nor conservative but the product of the new 
environment. Lamar sees these patterns as still be- 
ing adhered to in North Dakota today. Dakota 



Panorama ([Sioux Falls?] 1961. 468 p.), edit 
by John Leonard Jennewein and Jane Boorman and 
published by the Dakota Territory Centennial Com- 
mission of South Dakota, is a collection of essays 
illustrated by photographs and maps. 

1831. Schell, Herbert S. History of South Dakota. 
Line drawings by Jack Brodie. Lincoln, 
University of Nebraska Press, 1961. 424 p. 

617234 F65I.S29 

"Supplementary reading": p. 393404. 

The centennial of the Organic Act of 1861, which 
created the Dakota Territory, emphasized the need 
and the possibility for a full-scale history of the 
area. "The pick-and-shovel work in the vast body 
of available documents and primary sources seems 
to have progressed sufficiendy in most areas to war- 
rant a synthesis on a wide basis." The first eight 
chapters of SchelPs book constitute such a synthesis 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 223 



of the prehistoric sources and early explorations of 
the upper Missouri River. From this point his em- 
phasis is largely upon the growth of political institu- 
tions during the Territorial period and the political 
history of South Dakota after statehood. Political 
growth is discussed within the context of the area's 
unique economic problems, derived from special 
aspects of pioneering in the Great Plains; the rise of 
large-scale agriculture and its dependence upon 
such external forces as railroad expansion, eastern 
capital, and Federal land and Indian policies; and 
the anomalous adoption of measures for State regu- 
lation and State-owned enterprises by an essentially 
agrarian and conservative population. The author 
candidly includes a survey of the State's industrial 
activities "with the idea of providing a backdrop 
for the current campaign to attract industry to South 
Dakota." He concludes with four chapters of "re- 
appraisal" of the State's Indian affairs, its farm and 
ranch economy, manufacturing and mining, and the 
social and cultural aspects of South Dakota life. 



KANSAS 



1832. 



Zornow, William F. Kansas; a history of 
the Jayhawk State. Norman, University of 
Oklahoma Press [1957] 417 p. 577334 F68i.Z6 
Bibliography: p. 379400. 

1833. Kansas, the first century. New York, Lewis 
Historical Pub. Co. [ C i956] 4 v. 

571389 F68i.Ki93 

Vols. i2 edited by John D. Bright. Vols. 34 
have subtitle: Family and Personal History. 

Two histories of Kansas published in anticipation 
of the State's centennial in 1961. An underlying 
theme in each is that the story of Kansas' past, as a 
worthy subject for scholarly investigation, should 
consist of much more than the seven years of tur- 
moil preceding the Civil War which has thus far 
preoccupied historians. Both works therefore reach 
back to the area's early history to Coronado and 
the quest for Quivira, to the Indians and the French 
frontier and continue their coverage up to the 
present day. Zornow's history is intended as "a 
general survey which traces some of the pertinent 
developments in the political, economic, social, and 



intellectual life of Kansas." The two volumes ed- 
ited by Bright contain chapter essays by 27 contribu- 
tors and follow, in greater detail, the same topical 
arrangement in chronological sequence. Kansas, a 
Pictorial History (Topeka, Kansas Centennial Com- 
mission, 1961. 320 p.), by Nyle H. Miller, Edgar 
Langsdorf, and Robert W. Richmond, is the "first 
attempt to tell the story of Kansas largely through 
pictures, with text to supplement the illustrations." 

OKLAHOMA 

1834. Litton, Gaston L. History of Oklahoma at 
the golden anniversary of statehood. New 

York, Lewis Historical Pub. Co., 1957. 4 v. illus. 

573664 F694.L58 

Vols. 34 have subtitle: Family and Personal His- 
tory. Includes bibliographies. 

The first comprehensive multivolume history of 
the State to be written since 1929. Litton, the 
former archivist of the University of Oklahoma, has 
prepared a survey of imposing dimensions. The 
first volume is a chronological account of the re- 
gion's history from the earliest times to the election 
of 1946. Volume 2, arranged topically, covers the 
development of agriculture, business, transportation, 
mineral resources, education, and social and reli- 
gious life. 

1835. Morris, John W., and Edwin C. McReynolds. 
Historical atlas of Oklahoma. Norman, 

University of Oklahoma Press [1965] xxvi, 70 p. 
Map 651 Gi366.SiM6 1965 

Bibliography: p. ix-xv. 

The authors' purpose is to present specific aspects 
of the State's history by means of a series of maps. 
Each full-page map is accompanied by a brief 
historical or geographical statement to explain its 
importance. The first maps place the State in its 
national setting and show its outstanding physical 
characteristics, such as landforms, rainfall, rivers, 
and lakes. Another series depicts the chronological 
development of the history of the State: Indian 
lands, exploration routes, forts, battles, cattle trails, 
and territory, State, and county boundaries. A final 
series shows the locations of incorporated communi- 
ties as they were in 1960. 



224 / A GUIDE r THE UNITED STATES 



N. The Rocky Mountain Region: General 



1836. Athearn, Robert G. High country empire; 
the high plains and Rockies. New York, 

McGraw-Hill [1960] 358 p. 60-8822 F598.A8 

Bibliographical essay: p. 335-352. 

America's last frontier an area which now in- 
cludes the States of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, 
North and South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas 
is viewed as a whole "in an effort to understand its 
relationship to the larger story of American growth 
and to bring out any dominant highlights that char- 
acterize its history." The most persistent theme is 
that of exploitation carried on by remote control 
from the more settled parts of America, by succes- 
sive armies of mountain men, miners, cattlemen, 
land speculators, timber barons, and oil wildcatters 
in their role of "git-and-git-out" extractors. Settle- 
ment by farmers ultimately led to a new economy 
with cash crops made possible by the railroads. 
Then came a realization of a gigantic cul-de-sac 
and the recognition of permanent agricultural ail- 
ments. Climate, the demands of eastern creditors, 
and the arbitrary exactions of the railroads com- 
bined to produce mass anger the "agrarian revolt." 
The 20th century has seen the development of a 
full-blown stubborn tradition of political protest 
against the fluctuations of a national economy and 
the apparent vagaries of Federal farm policies. In 
all, this book is a strong indictment of an attitude 
of irresponsibility that has led to abuse of the high 
country. 

1837. Cline, Gloria G. Exploring the Great Basin. 
Norman, University of Oklahoma Press 

[1963] 254 p. (The American exploration and 
travel series [39]) 638988 F592.C635 

Bibliography: p. 217240. 

The earliest explorations of this last part of the 
country to yield up its secrets are traced through 
the archives of the Hudson's Bay Company, die 
Canadian Archives, and the journals of explorers 
and fur traders. The Great Basin, which encom- 
passes parts of Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon, and 
Southern California and nearly all of Nevada, lies 



across the path of a long parade of travelers who 
had little or no knowledge of the nature of the 
terrain they sought to cross. It lured fur traders, 
treasure seekers in search of legendary kingdoms, 
and explorers who looked for a river system linking 
America with the Pacific and the Orient. In the 
1840*5 the Great Basin became a corridor to Cali- 
fornia and Oregon, through which groups of emi- 
grants passed with no understanding of its geo- 
graphical character. In 1844, John C. Fremont 
applied to the area the name of "Great Basin," an 
appropriate title for a vast, unique area of interior 
drainage without an outlet to the sea. Mrs. Cline's 
record of the adventurers in the basin begins with 
the 18th-century Spanish explorers and continues 
through the mid-i9th century. 

1838. Sprague, Marshall. The great gates; the 
story of the Rocky Mountain passes. Boston, 
Little, Brown [1964] 468 p. illus., maps. 

6413189 F72I.S76 

Bibliography: p. [356] 364. 

Two thousand miles of Rocky Mountain passes, 
from the San Juans in northern New Mexico to 
Canada's Jasper National Park, are traced with 
historical perspective. "The story opens with the 
sixteenth-century Spaniards, and runs through the 
pass adventures of British and American explorers 
and trappers until the whole chain stood revealed 
around 1830." From this point, the narrative 
continues with the development of the passes by 
army engineers, empire builders, gold seekers, scien- 
tists, railroaders, and motorists. Sprague bases his 
study on maps, photographs, archives, contemporary 
accounts, railroad histories, and other documents, as 
well as his own wide travels by jeep and aircraft. 
Geographically, the routes are often located by ref- 
erence to modern highway numbers. Historically, 
the process of their discovery and exploration is 
related to the continuing development of the areas 
on either side of the Continental Divide. A list of 
some 800 passes is included, with historical and 
current travel information on each. 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 225 



O. The Rocky Mountain Region: Local 



MONTANA 

1839. Burlingame, Merrill G., and Kenneth Ross 
Toole. A history of Montana. New York, 

Lewis Historical Pub. Co. [1957] 3 v. 

57-37892 F 7 3i.B 95 

Vol. 3 has tide: A History of Montana, Family 
and Personal History. 

1840. Toole, Kenneth Ross. Montana: an uncom- 
mon land. Norman, University of Okla- 
homa Press [1959] 278 p. 59-7489 F73I.T65 

"Selected bibliography": p. 259269. 

The authors of A History of Montana have as- 
sembled an extensive compendium of fact. In ap- 
portioning their material they have tried to avoid the 
imbalance that characterizes some State histories; 
familiar and popular facets of the past such as, 
in Montana's case, the early gold camps, the vigilante 
movement, and political party feuds have been 
compressed to give more attention to 20th-century 
economic, industrial, and social developments hither- 
to neglected. The story of the open range gives way 
to a fuller treatment of the livestock industry, the air 
age is favored over that of the railroads, and modern 
progress in health and welfare, commerce, in- 
dustry, and literature is more completely examined 
than is customary. In the process the authors have 
provided both a basis and a stimulus for additional 
historical studies. In Montana: An Uncommon 
Land, Toole interprets the brief, traumatic history 
of the State "in a series of roughly chronological 
essays which point up the themes that course 
through the years." At the same time he conveys 
an impression of the immoderate variety of the land, 
its people, and its history. 

1841. Hamilton, James M. From wilderness to 
statehood; a history of Montana, 18051900. 

Foreword by A. L. Strand; edited by Merrill G. 
Burlingame. Pen sketches by Betty G. Ryan. Port- 
land, Or., Binfords & Mort [1957] 620 p. 

57-9233 F73I.H28 

Includes bibliographies. 

Written by Hamilton several years before his 
death in 1940, this work was planned as a two- 
volume study of Montana's entire history. The 
unfinished manuscript was finally published, the 
editor explains, because of the realization that, al- 
most 20 years after the author's death, materials 



were not yet available from which to write a history 
of the State with anything like the detail and clarity 
which characterize this volume. "Detail and inter- 
pretation are included here that are not available in 
any other published history." 

WYOMING 

1842. Larson, Taft A. History of Wyoming. 
Line drawings by Jack Brodie. Lincoln, 

University of Nebraska Press, 1965. 619 p. 

65-15277 F76i.L3 

"Sources": p. 583599. 

A detailed and clearly presented treatment of 
Territorial and State history. The author indicates 
that this is the first critical history of Wyoming for 
adult readers. The periods of explorers, fur traders, 
and the California, Oregon, and Mormon trails are 
briefly summarized. Emphasis is placed primarily 
on political and economic events, although social 
and cultural developments are adequately described. 
The interrelations of these forces are highlighted in 
the discussion of the impact of the railroads on the 
organization of the Territory and the effect of 
woman suffrage in the movement toward statehood. 

COLORADO 

1843. Ubbelohde, Carl. A Colorado history. 
Boulder, Colo., Pruett Press ["1965] 339 p. 

65-27239 F776.Ui95 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A general history of Colorado, emphasizing the 
political and economic development of the State. 
The narrative runs from the days of the prehistoric 
Indians through the present. An analysis is in- 
cluded of social, religious, and educational trends 
in the State. 

UTAH 

1844. Crampton, Charles Gregory. Standing up 
country: the canyon lands of Utah and Ari- 
zona. New York, Knopf, 1964. xv, 191 p, 

64-20165 F788.C79 

Bibliography: p. 181191. 

In this "biography of a region" Crampton por- 
trays a sculptured land of 100 square miles in the 
heart of the Colorado plateau. His geographical 



226 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

and historical review of the canyon lands and rivers 
emerged from a series of historical field studies 
which were part of a cooperative venture in arche- 
ology, ecology, and geology sponsored by the Na- 
tional Park Service and carried out by the University 
of Utah and the Museum of Northern Arizona. 
The studies were prompted by the desire to ex- 
amine the historical remains and physical charac- 
teristics that would be jeoparidzed or destroyed by 
Lake Powell, the reservoir that would result from 
the building of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado 
River. The text combines a sensitive description of 
the physical wonders of the area with a history of 
the successive explorers, inhabitants, and cultures: 
Indian, Spanish, American, fur traders, miners, 
Mormons, and scientists. The volume includes 15 
full-page color plates and more than a hundred 
scenes and portraits in black and white. 

1845. Stegner, Wallace E. The gathering of Zion; 

the story of the Mormon Trail. New York, 

McGraw-Hill [1964] 331 p. illus. (American 

trails series) 64-19216 F593-S85 

Bibliography: p. 315319. 

"This narrative begins at Nauvoo [Illinois] in 
the last months of 1845; its primary subjects are the 
Mormon migration from the bank of the Mississippi 
to the bank of City Creek in Salt Lake Valley, and 
the Gathering of Zion that took place over essen- 
tially the same route during the next twenty-two 
years." The author emphasizes the supreme im- 
portance today of the trail as an integral part of the 
Mormon faith, sustained by an enormous literature 
of diaries, journals, archives, reminiscences, and 
genealogical records and exalted to a central symbol 



in Mormon art and practice. In their literal belief 
in the promised land and the Kingdom of God on 
earth, the pioneer Mormons imposed a religious 
dynamic on the prevailing westward movement of 
the time; and because they were part of that move- 
ment they thrived. Although their wandering in 
the wilderness coincided more often than not with 
the California and Oregon Trails, the exodus of the 
Mormon hosts is described in terms of their religious 
and social organization. "They were the most 
systematic, organized, disciplined, and successful 
pioneers in our history." 



NEVADA 

1846. Hulse, James W. The Nevada adventure, a 
history. Illustrations by Don Kerr. Reno, 
University of Nevada Press, 1965. 311 p. 

64-8467 F84I.H8 

Bibliography: p. [301] 306. 

Although State law requires the teaching of 
Nevada history in the schools and universities, 
there has previously been no single adequate book 
upon which courses could be based. The author, a 
professor of history at the University of Nevada, 
has sought to supply a longstanding "need for a 
short non-technical history of Nevada." Explicitly 
intended as a textbook, it is nonetheless rewarding 
to adult readers. Early history is covered chrono- 
logically in the initial chapters; recent times are 
discussed in topical chapters on mining, transporta- 
tion and tourism, the impact of Federal Govern- 
ment projects, political problems, and the atomic 
age in Nevada. 



P. The Far Southwest: General 



1847. Carter, Hodding. Doomed road of empire; 
the Spanish trail of conquest, by Hodding 
Carter, with Betty W. Carter. Illustrations by Don 
Almquist. New York, McGraw-Hill ["1963 j 408 
p. (The American trails series) 

63-20189 F389.C25 

Bibliography: p. 375-394. 

The story of "El Camino Real para los Texas," 
the route that stretched through New Spain event- 
ually from Mexico to Natchitoch.es on the Red River 
at the northeastern edge of Texas. The author 
notes that the road was called by various names 
during the 150 years of religious conflict and na- 
tional rivalries that surrounded it. Carter devotes 



only minimal attention to the road itself, empha- 
sizing instead a sequence of narrative episodes from 
the history of colonial, borderland, and revolution- 
ary Texas through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidal- 
go in 1848. 

1848. Hollon, William Eugene. The Southwest: 

old and new. New York, Knopf, 1961. xiv, 

486, xviii p. illus. 619232 F786.H6 

"Bibliographical notes": p. 465 [487]. 

The somewhat nebulous boundaries of the 
"Southwest" are here taken to include the States of 
Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona an 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 227 



area which constitutes no particular social, political, 
or cultural entity but is distinguished by its variety, 
contrasts, and extremes in both its physical aspects 
and the behavior of its inhabitants. Hollon's ac- 
count traces the history of the region as a whole 
through the successive explorations and occupations 
(Spanish, French, and Anglo-American), the impact 
of the war with Mexico, and the Civil War. The 
generally chronological arrangement of the book is 



relieved by descriptive chapters depicting life in the 
Texas Republic, Indian affairs, climate and topog- 
raphy, the ranching industry, transportation, manu- 
facturing, politics, and urbanization. The author's 
synthesis frequently includes the more flamboyant 
episodes and personalities particularly in the last 
half of the book, which deals with the States sever- 
ally and their economic and political development 
since statehood. 



Q. The Far Southwest: Local 



TEXAS 

1849. Bainbridge, John. The super- Americans; a 
picture of life in the United States, as brought 

into focus, bigger than life, in the land of the 
millionaires Texas. Garden City, N.Y., Double- 
day, 1961. 395 p. 6116775 F39I.2.B3 
There is deliberately little or no form or organiza- 
tion to this impressionistic portrait of top-drawer 
Texans. Its chapters are not tided, but two themes 
persist through all of them: millionaires and money. 
Millionaires come in various kinds and sizes; there 
are more of them in Texan than in other States, 
and they have an attitude toward money which is 
difficult to define but which can be described at 
length. If this segment of the State of Texas is 
somewhat overdrawn, it is an indulgence justified 
by the subject. "Free-wheeling," "hi-jinks," and 
"wheeler-dealer" are terms repeatedly applied to the 
people, the "deals," and the tax deductions; irony 
is the device most frequently employed in describing 
the tastes, politics, eccentricities, or way of life of 
this wide-open society. Much of the material for 
this work originated as a series of articles in The 
New Yorker. 

1850. Richardson, Rupert N. Texas, the Lone 
Star State. 2d ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 

Prentice-Hall, 1958. 460 p. illus. 

58-9834 F386.R52 1958 

"Selected bibliography" at the end of each chapter. 

A revised edition of no. 4194 in the 1960 Guide. 
In the rewriting, "a chapter has been added on the 
course of public affairs during the last fifteen years, 
and the various topics have been brought up to date. 
A simpler, more direct view of the period since 
1876 has resulted in its condensation into fewer 
chapters, providing space for new maps, charts, 
and illustrations." 



1851. Siegel, Stanley. A political history of the 
Texas Republic, 18361845. Austin, Uni- 
versity of Texas Press, 1956. xiv, 281 p. 

56-7478 F390.S55 

Bibliography: p. 259268. 

Politics in the Texas Republic were essentially 
personal in character. There were no political parties 
comparable to those in the United States, and 
alignments on the basis of political principles did 
not emerge after independence. Siegel traces the 
clash of personalities over the staggering array of 
problems that beset the young Nation in such areas 
as finance, military defense, and foreign affairs. 
Based on the letters, journals, manuscript sources, 
and public documents of the period, his study of 
the administrations of David Burnet, Mirabeau 
Lamar, Anson Jones, and, above all, Sam Houston 
is particularly concerned with their policies toward 
finance, relations with Mexico, and the diplomatic 
maneuvers for annexation. In a prelude to the 
history of the Republic, The Last Years of Spanish 
Texas, 17781821 (The Hague, Mouton, 1964. 156 
p. Studies in American history, 4), Odie B. Faulk 
offers a study of Spanish colonial administration 
and reveals successes as well as failures while ex- 
plaining the alienation of the settlers from the 
Government. 

1852. Wallace, Ernest, ed. Documents of Texas 
history. With the assistance of David M. 

Vigness. [Austin, Tex.] Steck Co. [1963] 293 p. 

63-24468 F386.W32 

Brings together the traditional literature that has 
been the basis for narrative history. The materials 
included are those that "most graphically illustrate 
the Texas past as it unfolded" and that provide 
"examples of what seems most worthy of preserva- 
tion in the Texas heritage." They consist of out- 
standing contemporary narratives, speeches, treaties, 
State documents, proclamations, and court decisions. 



228 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

1853. Wisehart, Marion K. Sam Houston, Amer- 
ican giant. Washington, R. B. Luce [1962] 

712 p. 6220000 F39O.H868 

Bibliography: p. 681692. 

The University of Texas in 1943 completed pub- 
lication of eight volumes of The Writings of Sam 
Houston. In the light of that contemporary testa- 
ment, the author reevaluates "the outstanding traits 
of character that made him the man he was and 
the following major phases of his career: (i) his 
decision to go to Texas; (2) his relations as Com- 
mander in Chief with the General Council, the 
legislative body of the first provincial government; 
(3) his plans for defending Texas without sacrific- 
ing the Alamo Garrison; (4) his strategy during the 
forty-day campaign which culminated in the victory 
at San Jacinto; (5) his anti-war policy as President 
of the Texas Republic; (6) his annexation policy; 
(7) his thirteen years of service in the United 
States Senate and his attempts to check the drift 
toward war and to heal the breach between North 
and South; and (8) his anti-secession policy as 
Governor of Texas." Sue Flanagan's pictorial biog- 
raphy, Sam Houston's Texas (Austin, University of 
Texas Press [1964] 213 p.), adds a graphic 
dimension. Traveling more than 7,000 miles in 
eastern Texas, she visited and photographed "every 
place where evidence indicated he had ever been." 

NEW MEXICO 

1854. Beck, Warren A. New Mexico; a history of 
four centuries. Norman, University of Okla- 
homa Press [1962] 363 p. 6216470 F796.B4 

Bibliography: p. 337352. 

"Intended for readers who want a brief yet 
reasonably comprehensive treatment of the develop- 
ment of the state," this is a popular but substantial 
account. Early history is reviewed, with particular 
attention to Territorial affairs and the Spanish rule 
and heritage. About a third of the book is devoted 
to a description of economic, political, urban, and 
cultural advancement since statehood. 



ARIZONA 

1855. Cross, Jack L., Elizabeth H. Shaw, and 
Kathleen Scheifele, eds. Arizona: its people 



and resources. Tucson, University of Arizona 
Press, 1960. 385 p. 60-15913 F8n.C79 

Published by the University of Arizona as part of 

Bibliography: p. 378385. 

its 75th anniversary celebration, this unusual com- 
pendium is based on 64 separate topical essays 
assembled by a group of specialists, most of whom 
are members of the university faculty. Their con- 
tributions are correlated under five subject headings 
for the State: its people and their past, lands and 
resources, government and social services, the econ- 
omy, and cultural institutions. By this treatment 
both fact and method become visible, and the 
various techniques and viewpoints of natural scien- 
tists, political scientists, economists, sociologists, his- 
torians, and students of other disciplines are applied. 

1856. Peplow, Edward H. History of Arizona. 

New York, Lewis Historical Pub. Co. 

[1958] 3 v. illus. 58-42516 F8u.P4 

Vol. 3: Family and Personal History. 

Bibliography: v. 2, p. 549565. 

The author points out that Arizona was, at the 
time of his writing, the youngest State in the 
Union, yet it contains what is believed to be the 
oldest continuously inhabited community on the 
continent. Climate and topography have made it 
an ideal workshop for archeologists and anthropolo- 
gists. It is, he asserts, the only State to have its 
history, from wilderness to modern times, chronicled 
in the newspapers, and a large number of those who 
contributed to the State's growth and progress are 
still alive to tell the story. From this wealth of 
source material he has produced a sober and syste- 
matic history of the 48th State. The first volume 
opens with a discussion of the mute relics of geo- 
logical times and continues chronologically through 
the Indian wars and the settlement of the territory. 
Volume 2 is essentially a history of the period of 
statehood, recounted in topical discussions of eco- 
nomic, political, and cultural developments. A much 
more specialized and detailed look at the genesis 
of the Arizona Territory composed on the occasion 
of its centennial, is B. Sacks' Be It Enacted: The 
Creation of the Territory of Arizona (Phoenix, 
Arizona Historical Foundation, 1964. 200 p.) The 
work is an expansion of a two-part article originally 
published in Arizona and the West. 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 229 



R. California 



1857. Caughey, John W., and LaRee Caughey, eds. 
California heritage; an anthology of history 

and literature. Los Angeles, Ward Ritchie Press, 
1962. 536 p. illus. 6220999 PS57I.C2C35 

"Other books to read": p. 527-532. 

Selections by 137 writers are brought together as 
an expression of the variety of moods, lands, and 
people that make up the California story. The 
editors consider "some of it sober history, much of 
it lyrical and analytical description, some of it 
indubitably creative writing." The first and last 
selections are by Robinson Jeffers; in between, 
the contributors are as varied as Ambrose Bierce 
and Aimee Semple McPherson, Jack London and 
Lawrence Ferlinghetti. The collection is divided 
according to subject matter, beginning with the 
Indians and continuing to the present. A brief 
introduction accompanies each section and a bio- 
graphical headnote is included for each writer. 

1858. Cleland, Robert Glass. From wilderness to 
empire; a history of California. A com- 
bined and revised edition of From wilderness to 
empire, 15421900, & California in our time, 1900 
1940. Edited and brought down to date by Glenn S. 
Dumke. New York, Knopf, 1959. 445 p. illus. 

59-8037 F86i.C598 
Bibliography: p. 435~445- 

A combined and revised edition of no. 4203 and 
4204 in the 1960 Guide. 

1859. Lewis, Oscar, ed. This was San Francisco, 
being first-hand accounts of the evolution of 

one of America's favorite cities. New York, D. 
McKay Co. [1962] 291 p. illus. 

61-18348 F869-S3L6i3 

Bibliography: p. 285-288. 

Contemporary views and attitudes have been sort- 
ed out and embedded in a narrative that covers 
the San Francisco scene from the discovery of the 
Bay in 1776 to the "catastrophic visitation" of April 
1 8, 1906. Not a traditional anthology, the book 
aims "to emphasize those phases that have long 
set San Francisco apart from other cities." Lewis 
offers little-known selections representing the testi- 
mony of observers or participants in the events 
described. His witnesses are a disparate company 
of travelers and residents, including Ambrose Bierce, 
Anthony Trollope, Richard H. Dana, Rudyard 



Kipling, and a host of others, whose comments are 
culled from the books, pamphlets, newspapers, and 
magazines of the time. Another contemporary 
collection, San Franicsco as It Is; Gleanings From 
the Picayune (Georgetown, Calif., Talisman Press, 
1964. 285 p.), edited by Kenneth M. Johnson, 
offers excerpts of articles and news commentary in 
the first afternoon newspaper in San Francisco from 
its third issue, August 5, 1850, until its eclipse on 
April 17, 1852. 

1860. Pourade, Richard F. The history of San 
Diego. Commissioned by James S. Copley. 

[San Diego] Union-Tribune Pub. Co. [196065] 
5 v. F869.S22H5 

A venture in local history that has been expanded 
to impressive scholarly and artistic proportions. 
Suggested and commissioned by the publisher of 
the San Diego Union and Evening Tribune, the 
five volumes that have appeared contain a wealth 
of source material. For the text and illustrations 
the author has drawn from contemporary journals, 
diaries, correspondence, and art collections located 
here and abroad. Some original paintings were 
commissioned for the work. The result is a set of 
large, lavishly illustrated volumes, containing text 
and reproductions of paintings, drawings, and 
photographs. Volume i, The Explorers ([1960] 
203 p. 6053624), deals with the discovery and 
settlement of California from Juan Rodriguez to 
Juan Bautista de Anza. Volume 2, Time of the 
Bells ([1961] 262 p. 61-14059), covers the mis- 
sion period, the years of the Franciscan domination 
of California from 1769 to 1835. Volume 3, The 
Silver Dons (['1963] 286 p. 63-7055), encom- 
passes the years 183065, beginning with the secu- 
larization of the missions and ending with the close 
of the Civil War. Volume 4, The Glory Yearf 
([1964] 276 p. 64-17561), explores the "boom 
and bust" period between 1865 and 1900. Volume 
5, Gold in the Sun ([1965] 282 p. 65-23410), 
examines the period from the turn of the century 
to the roaring twenties. 

1 86 1. Riesenberg, Felix. The Golden Road; the 
story of California's Spanish mission trail. 

New York, McGraw-Hill [1962] 315 p. illus. 
(The American trails series) 62-17374 F86i.R54 
Bibliography: p. 290-302. 



230 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

The California Camino Real, the coastal route 
from Mexico to San Diego, San Francisco, and 
eventually to the Oregon border, was once com- 
posed of connecting trails between the missions. 
It grew into a commercial route for a rich cattle 
country and carried the march of conquest in 1846. 
The author uses the highway as a starting point 
from which to present episodes in the development 
of southern California, including the gold-rush 
days, the stagecoach era, and, in 1869, the coming 
of the "octopus" the Southern Pacific Railway that 
opened the floodgates of immigration. Riesenberg 
notes that the 20th century began with only a few 
of the Nation's 10,000 horseless carriages in Cali- 
fornia. Within 20 years, however, the State had 
one million automobiles and from this point travel- 
ers are legion: tourists, Okies, tramps, and boot- 
leggers. In 1925 the Camino Real became U.S. 
Highway 101. 



1862. Rolle, Andrew F. California; a history. 

New York, Crowell [1963] 649 p. illus. 

63-8480 F86i.R78 

"Selected readings" follow each chapter. 

California is noted for the diversity of its geog- 
raphy, climate, history, and people. This basic 
textbook succeeds in drawing together various 
characteristics into an ordered and intelligible whole. 
The use of short sections with meaningful headings 
relieves the necessity for involved transitions and 
supplies a valuable outline. The relative indepen- 
dence of California's historical development from 
that of the rest of the United States is noted. The 
author recounts the State's history from its origins 
to the present, seeking to interpret every phase of 
the story without recourse to burdensome or ex- 
traneous detail. His work is based in part on A 
Short History of California (1929), by Rockwell D. 
Hunt and Nellie Van de Grift Sanchez. 



S. The Pacific Northwest: General 



1863. Johansen, Dorothy O., and Charles M. Gates. 
Empire of the Columbia; a history of the 

Pacific Northwest. New York, Harper [1957] 
xv, 685 p. illus. 56-11074 F852.J67 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A collaborative study of the region that includes 
the present States of Oregon, Washington, and 
Idaho and, for early history, a large area to the 
north as well. Dorothy lohansen covers the years 
up to the period of Territorial government and 
Oregon statehood in the i88o's. Gates continues 
with a study of the transitional period in politics, 
transportation, industry, and urban affairs and a 
topical appraisal of these together with 20th-century 
progress in reclamation, conservation, forestry, fish- 
ing, and cultural affairs. Described as an "essay in 
regional analysis," the work also relates local prob- 
lems to the national and international scene. The 
search for Quivira or a northwest passage and the 
rivalries of the fur trade, for example, are viewed 
as part of the contemporary expansion of Western 
Europe. The period of explosive growth and 
change between 1880 and 1910 was a part and 
product of a pattern of enterprise and industrial 
growth in the country as a whole. 

1864. Lavender, David S. Land of giants; the 
drive to the Pacific Northwest, 1750-1950. 



Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1958. 468 p. illus. 
(Mainstream of America series) 5812049 F85I.L4 

Bibliography: p. 447457. 

A study of the explorers, "sea peddlers," fur 
traders, miners, lumbermen, and settlers who mi- 
grated to the Pacific Northwest. Lavender traces 
their motives, quarrels, and conquests and includes 
a wealth of detail and anecdote. Particular atten- 
tion is devoted to the exploits and rivalries of the 
mountain men and to trade, gold, and lumber bonan- 
zas. The final chapters cover 20th-century develop- 
ments in forestry, reclamation, and conservation. 

1865. Pomeroy, Earl S. The Pacific slope; a his- 
tory of California, Oregon, Washington, Ida- 
ho, Utah, and Nevada. New York, Knopf, 1965. 
403, xvi p. illus. 65-11128 F85I.P57 

"Notes on further reading": p. 399 [404]. 

Eschewing the conventional beginnings with "ex- 
plorers who came when almost no one else was 
there," Pomeroy places more emphasis on "Western 
society that men now living can remember." He 
attempts "to focus on men and events that explain 
the West as a developing community, emphasizing 
traits and institutions," and justifies the scope of 
his work by clearly demonstrating that State boun- 
daries have ignored the natural, climatic, economic, 
and institutional affinities within the area. Begin- 
ning in the 1830'$ and 1840'$, Pomeroy in his 
interpretive approach selects formative factors upon 



LOCAL HISTORY: REGIONS, STATES, AND CITIES / 231 



which he imposes his own synthesis of what was 
and is important. "When one approaches Western 
history from the point of view of the development 
of communities, traits, and institutions, farms, cities, 



political parties, and social ideas loom larger than 
trouble with the Indians, who were never the 
barrier to settlement west of tthe Rockies that they 
were to the east." 



T. The Pacific Northwest: Local 



WASHINGTON 

1866. A very, Mary W. Washington: a history of 
the Evergreen State. Seattle, University of 
Washington Press [1965] 362 p. 

65-4963 F89I.A82 

Bibliography: p. 331340. 

A revision of the history section of the author's 
History and Government of the State of Washing- 
ton (Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1961. 
583 p.), which was prepared as a combined text- 
book for history and government courses in the 
State. Intended for the general public, the present 
work provides a background to more specialized 
study. The narrative surveys early explorations, the 
fur trade. Indian wars, and political development. 
Topical discussions are included of geology, Indian 
culture, industrial progress, and cultural growth, 
with the exception of literature and art. 



1867. Stewart, Edgar I. Washington: Northwest 

frontier. New York, Lewis Historical Pub. 

Co. [1957] 4 v. illus. 58-320 F89I.S87 



Includes bibliographical references. 

This general history traces the development of 
the State from the 16th-century exploration of the 
Northwest to the present. Although the author 
focuses on local history, he emphasizes events and 
developments which were significant within the 
context of national history. The first two volumes 
are historical, the last two biographical. 



IDAHO 



1868. 



Beal, Merrill D., and Merle W. Wells. His- 
tory of Idaho. New York, Lewis Historical 
Pub. Co. [1959] 3 v. 59-4740 F74 6 - B 335 

Vol. 3 has title: History of Idaho; Personal and 
Family History. 

"Bibliographical essay": v. i, p. [xi] xiv. In- 
cludes bibliographical references. 

Traces the development of the State from the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition (18056) to the pres- 
ent. The authors emphasize the effect of major 
national events and social forces on the history of 
Idaho. 



U. Alaska and Hawaii 



ALASKA 

1869. Sherwood, Morgan B. Exploration of Alas- 
ka, 18651900. New Haven, Yale Univer- 
sity Press, 1965. xiv, 207 p. illus. (Yale Western 
Americana series, 7) 65-11187 F9o8.S6 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

The progress of exploration is a logical and sub- 
stantive theme for Alaskan history during the pe- 
riod covered. Commercial affairs were limited geo- 
graphically, and the sparse civilized population 
precluded an emphasis on political activity. At the 
time of the American purchase in 1867, Alaska was 
a vast terra incognita. By 1900, as a result of Ameri- 



can exploration, problems in gross geography had 
largely been solved. The author's purpose is to trace 
the course of exploration by variously sponsored ex- 
peditions and to determine to what extent it resem- 
bled the exploration phase of the stateside westward 
expansion of a half century earlier. He concludes 
that the institutional patterns were similar with re- 
spect to commercial motive, the quest for scientific 
knowledge, and governmental responsibility. In 
view of the social attitudes in the United States at 
the time and Alaska's infinitesimal population, the 
exploration activities in these years and especially 
the role played by the Federal Government can be 
considered extensive. 



232 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

HAWAII 



1870. Day, Arthur Grove, and Carl Stroven, eds. 
A Hawaiian reader. With an introduction 
by James A. Michener. New York, Appleton- 
Century-Crofts [1959] 363 p. 

59-14048 DU620.3-D3 

An anthology containing 37 selections from the 
work of 30 authors who have written about Hawaii. 
The excerpts are arranged chronologically according 
to the date of the incidents, beginning with the 
discovery of the islands by Captain James Cook. A 
brief introduction precedes each selection. Included 
are five pieces on ancient Hawaiian folklore and 
literature. Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii (Honolulu, 
Kamehameha Schools Press [1961] 440 p.), by 
Samuel M. Kamakau, presents the "historical and 



ethnographic record of Hawaii." 

1871. Kuykendall, Ralph S., and Arthur Grove 
Day. Hawaii: a history, from Polynesian 
kingdom to American State. Rev. ed. Englewood 
Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1961] 331 p. illus. 

61-8894 DU625.K778 1961 
This revised edition of no. 4220 in the 1960 Guide 
brings the history of Hawaii up to date by docu- 
menting the final steps toward statehood, achieved 
in 1959. In The Hawaiian Revolution, 189394 
(Selinsgrove, Pa., Susquehanna University Press, 
X 959- 37 2 P-) an< ^ * ts sec l ue l> The Hawaiian Repub- 
lic, 189498 (Selinsgrove, Pa., Susquehanna Uni- 
versity Press, 1961. 398 p.), William A. Russ 
recounts the events which led to the annexation of 
Hawaii to the United States. 



V. Overseas Possessions 



1872. Coulter, John W. The Pacific dependencies 
of the United States. New York, Macmil- 

lan, 1957. 388 p. illus. 57~9543 F97O.C6 

Includes bibliographies. 

A comparative study of land utilization, land 
tenure, and population in the Pacific Islands under 
American trusteeship, based on 13 years of research 
and travel among the Pacific Islanders. Particular 
attention is devoted to differences in island geog- 
raphy and agricultural methods. Among the islands 
discussed are Hawaii, Samoa, Guam, the Marianas, 
and the Marshalls. The author concludes that, in 
every South Sea area invaded by the West, native 
cultures have slowly disintegrated and some of the 
best and much of the worst of alien ways have 
been adopted. 

AMERICAN SAMOA 

1873. Gray, John A. C. Amerika Samoa; a history 
of American Samoa and its United States 

Naval Administration. Annapolis, United States 
Naval Institute [1960] 295 p. illus. 

60-12080 DU8i9.AiG7 

In 1899 Samoa was partitioned under American 
and German rule. The first part of Gray's book 
presents an anthropological and historical survey of 
the islands prior to 1900; the second part is a de- 
scription of "Amerika Samoa" or "Eastern Samoa" 
and its progress under U.S. rule. The territory was 
governed by the United States Naval Administra- 
tion until 1951, when the responsibility was trans- 



ferred to the Department of the Interior. 

PUERTO RICO 

1874. Lewis, Gordon K. Puerto Rico; freedom 
and power in the Caribbean. New York 
[Monthly Review Press] 1963. 626 p. 

6320065 Fi 958X4 
Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 

(P- 575~ 6 *3)- 

Contending that the literature on Puerto Rico, 
an independent Commonwealth in association with 
the United States, depicts it as a "tropical terminus 
of the American way of life rather than as a thresh- 
old to the wider Caribbean and Middle American 
worlds," Lewis seeks to correct the distortion. Part 
i deals with "The Past," from the voyage of Colum- 
bus in the i5th century to the emergence of the 
Popular Democratic Party in the 1940'$. The author 
characterizes the island as a continuing neocolonial 
society and the United States consequendy as a 
continuing neocolonial power. The topics covered 
in part 2, "The Present," offer evidence for such 
portrayals and also provide further material for "an 
extensive examination of the general experience of 
Puerto Rican life and thought." The last purpose 
of this scholarly study to use the island as a proto- 
type of the mass of new problems caused by the 
mutual confrontation of the developed and under- 
developed societies in the modern world underlies 
the entire volume and is given final expression in 
part 3, which concerns the future for Puerto Rico 
and world society. 



XIII 



Travel and Travelers 



4 



A. General Worths 

I TJ , C~l*-*-J T 

L 



79 Selected Travelers, 17541898 
(chronologically arranged by the date of their travels) 



1875-1877 
1878-1915 J 



No ENTRIES appropriate to the 1960 Guide's Section B, Anthologies, were located for the 
decade covered by this Supplement, and the designation "B" has therefore been assigned 
to the list of selected travelers, which was Section C in the original volume. The list of 
travelers below is limited to 19, as compared to 50 in the initial Guide. Four of the 19 (no. 
1880, 1882, 1888, and 1894) are m the tyfo Guide, and the entry numbers for their headnotes 
there are provided in the Supplement. Of the 15 newly listed travelers at least six (no. i 
1896, 1900, 1904, 1906, and 1914) are authors of 
works previously unpublished, or published only in 
part. At least three others (no. 1884, 1890, and 
1898) are the authors of works not heretofore avail- 
able in full in English. Although most of the trav- 
els are from the period before 1865 as in the case 



of those reported in the 1960 Guide one of them 



took place in 1898, four years after the terminal date 
of the final account listed in the earlier volume. In 
addition to the observations of visitors from France, 
Switzerland, England, Sweden, Poland, Germany, 
and Spain, the new Section B also records accounts 
by three native Americans. 



A. General Works 



1875. Clark, Thomas D., ed. Travels in the Old 
South, a bibliography. Norman, University 

of Oklahoma Press [195659] 3 v. illus. (The 
American exploration and travel series, no. 19) 

56-8016 71251.8704 

CONTENTS. v. i. The formative years, 1527 
1783; from the Spanish explorations through the 
American Revolution. v. 2. The expanding 
South, 17501825: the Ohio Valley and the cotton 
frontier. v. 3. The ante-bellum South, 1825 
1860: cotton, slavery, and conflict. 

1876. Clark, Thomas D., ed. Travels in the new 
South, a bibliography. Norman, University 

of Oklahoma Press [1962] 2 v. illus. (The 
American exploration and travel series, v. 36) 

62-10772 Zi25i.S7C38 

In v. 2, this work is incorrectly listed as v. 37 in 
the series. 



CONTENTS. v. i. The postwar South, 1865 
1900. v. 2. The twentieth-century South, 1900 

1955- 

A two-part series of more than 2,000 annotated 
entries arranged alphabetically within each chrono- 
logical period, beginning with the early Spanish 
travelers in the i6th century and the English settle- 
ment in 1606. The years 186065 are omitted in 
deference to Ellis Merton Coulter's Travels in the 
Confederate States, a Bibliography (1948), no. 3365 
in the 1960 Guide. The series attempts to appraise 
and evaluate the valid aspects of the travel accounts, 
including geographies, atlases, surveys, and statis- 
tical reports. There is also peripheral literature of 
a regional nature, but the bibliographies do not 
touch on magazines, newspapers, or fugitive mis- 
cellaneous publications. Seeking "to follow the 
established rules of bibliography which make for 
clarified usability," the compilers have devoted con- 

233 



234 / A GUIDE T0 THE UNITED STATES 

siderable space to the annotations and to supple- 
mental notes. 

1877. Hubach, Robert R. Early Midwestern travel 
narratives; an annotated bibliography, 1634 
1850. Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1961. 
I49 p. 60-15110 Zi25i.W5H8 

The Midwest is defined as "that section of Amer- 
ica as far east as the western border of Pennsylvania 



and including all territory north of the Ohio River 
and north of the present states of Arkansas and 
Oklahoma to the Canadian border." Hubach's 
bibliography includes both published and unpub- 
lished materials, generously annotated and arranged 
in chronological order. Exceptions to the chrono- 
logical arrangement are treated in separate units. 
Further notes for each chapter appear at the end 
of the book. 



B. 19 Selected Travelers, 1754 - i 

(chronologically arranged by the date of their travels) 



1878. 1754-1813. JOHN GOTTLIEB ERNEST- 

US HECKEWELDER (1743-1823) 

"A man on the move," Heckewelder, an Ameri- 
can Moravian missionary, came to this country 
from England at the age of 12 and lived and 
traveled among the Indians for nearly 60 years. He 
journeyed extensively through the eastern woods 
and crossed the Allegheny mountains 30 times, 
making numerous trips through Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, and Indiana. "As a reporter of Indian life 
during his time and in his vicinity he has no 
superior," the editor of his journals maintains. 
Heckewelder also assisted in various advisory and 
administrative capacities in dealing with the Indi- 
ans. Twelve edited manuscript journals of his 
travels provide the major source for the narratives 
presented here, which are told in an unobtrusive 
and simple manner. His final years were spent in 
the preparation of historical and linguistic records 
of Pennsylvania tribes. 

1879. Thirty thousand miles with John Hecke- 
welder, edited by Paul A. W. Wallace. 

[Pittsburgh] University of Pittsburgh Press [1958] 
xvii, 474 p. illus. 586422 163^4 

Heckwelder's travel journals, gathered from vari- 
ous repositories, and selections from his published 
reminiscences woven into a connected story. 



1880. 1773-1778. WILLIAM 
(1739-1823) 

No. 4247 in 1960 Guide. 



BARTRAM 



1 88 1. Travels. Edited with commentary and an 
annotated index by Francis Harper. Natur- 
alist's ed. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1958. 
Ixi, 727 p. illus. 57-11916 F2I3.B2893 

Bibliography: p. 668-694. 



A revised edition of no. 42484250 in the 1900 
Guide. The editor provides an introduction with 
an account of Bartram's life and travels; a long 
commentary principally on his geographical routes; 
and an inclusive annotated index, identifying, 
among other things, the plants, animals, minerals, 
persons, and Indian tribes that Bartram notes or 
describes. 

1882. 1780-1782. FRANCOIS JEAN, MARQUIS 

DE CHASTELLUX (1734-1788) 

No. 4251 in 1960 Guide. 

1883. Travels in North America in the years 1780, 
1781, and 1782. 

A revised translation with introduction and notes 
by Howard C. Rice, Jr. Chapel Hill, Published 
for the Institute of Early American History and 
Culture at Williamsburg, Va., by the University 
of North Carolina Press [ 1963] 2 v. (xxiv, 688 p.) 
illus. 63-18103 163.059 1963 

"Note on bibliographic and cartographic sources": 
v. 2, p. 556-561. 

A drastically revised version of George Grieve's 
18th-century translation, no. 4253 in the 1960 Guide, 
through which Chastellux' book has been known 
to English-speaking readers. Passages have been 
clarified, archaisms modernized, and efforts made 
to convey the exact meaning and general spirit of 
the original. The journals have been divided into 
chapters, and notes have been supplied at the back 
of the book. 

1884. 1783-1784. FRANCISCO DE MIRANDA 

(17501816) 

Miranda was born in Caracas, the son of a pros- 
perous linen merchant and planter. A cultured, 
enigmatic military hero, he deserted the Spanish 



army in 1783 by slipping aboard an American 
whaler bound for the United States from Cuba. 
As a fugitive he spent his life trying to liberate the 
Spanish colonies. Eventually he died in prison in 
Cadiz. His diary displays a strong sense of history 
and records his tour through the Carolinas, Penn- 
sylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Con- 
necticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New 
Hampshire and most of the major communities on 
the eastern coast. His intellectual interests and his 
accounts of numerous influential acquaintances 
have produced a description of life in America 
which fills an important gap in our firsthand knowl- 
edge of the period. 

1885. The new democracy in America; travels of 
Francisco de Miranda in the United States, 

1783-84. Translated by Judson P. Wood. Edited 
by John S. Ezell. Norman, University of Okla- 
homa Press [1963] xxxii, 217 p. illus. (The 
American exploration and travel series, 40) 

639959 164^673 

Bibliographical references included in "Editor's 
preface." 

The first complete translation into English of that 
portion of Miranda's diary which deals with his 
travels in the United States. 

1886. 1785-1798. MICHEL GUILLAUME ST. 

JEAN DE CRfeVECOEUR (1735-1813) 

Michel Guillaume St. Jean de Crevecoeur became 
famous after the publication of his Letters From an 
American Farmer (1782), no. 4500-4501 in the 1960 
Guide. Often compared to Thoreau because of his 
love of nature and his agrarian philosophy, Creve- 
coeur demonstrates the resemblance in his Journey 
Into Northern Pennsylvania and the State of New 
Yort(. He uses the literary device of a "found" or 
"shipwrecked" manuscript, alleging that he is mere- 
ly the translator. The element of travel is second- 
ary. It is in the pastoral descriptions, romantic 
legends, adventure sagas, and the telling of Indian 
lore that the author excels. 

1887. Journey into northern Pennsylvania and the 
State of New York. Translated by Clarissa 

Spencer Bostelmann. Ann Arbor, University of 
Michigan Press [1964] xviii, 619 p. 

6314014 Fi53-C923 1964 



TRAVEL AND TRAVELERS / 235 

and Durand Echeverria. Edited by Durand Eche- 
verria. Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press of Har- 
vard University Press, 1964. xxviii, 477 p. illus. 
(The John Harvard library) 

64-19579 164.689285 

Bibliographical footnotes. 

A new translation and a complete rendering of 
the French text, no. 4259 in the 1960 Guide. No. 
4260 in the 1960 Guide is a translation of the first 
two of the three volumes in the original French 
edition. 

1890. 1797-1807. JULIAN URSYN NIEMCE- 

WICZ (1758-1841) 

Niemcewicz was a Polish patriot, a statesman, 
and a prolific author. He was born in Lithuania 
and elected to the Polish parliament in 1788. Later 
he became Kosciuszko's aide-de-camp during the 
insurrection of 1794 and was captured and im- 
prisoned. Upon his release he left for the United 
States with Kosciuszko in 1797. After living brief- 
ly in Philadelphia, he settled in Elizabeth, N.J., 
where he married a prominent widow. Family 
obligations recalled him to Poland in 1802, and he 
remained there for two years. From 1804 to 1807 
he lived again in America, keeping journals that 
describe his domestic and private life and local 
people and scenes. Impressionistic in nature, the 
journals reflect the early and relatively unexplored 
history of American-Polish cultural relations. 

1891. Under their vine and fig tree; travels through 
America in 17971799, 1805, with some 

further account of life in New Jersey. Translated 
and edited, with an introduction and notes, by 
Metchie J. E. Budka. Elizabeth, N.J., Grassmann 
Pub. Co. [1965] Ivii, 398 p. illus. (Collections 
of the New Jersey Historical Society at Newark, 
v. 14) 6515378 Fi3i.N62 vol. 14 

A translation of the author's manuscript note- 
books, originally written in French or Polish and 
first published in Polish under the title Podroze po 
Ameryce, ijyjiSoj (1959). 



1888. 1788. JACQUES PIERRE BRISSOT DE 

WARVILLE (1754-1793) 

No. 4258 in 1960 Guide. 

1889. New travels in the United States of America, 
1788. Translated by Mara Soceanu Vamos 



1892. 1817-1818. WILLIAM COBBETT( 1763- 

1835) 

In 1817 William Cobbett, one of the most unruly 
figures in English literature and politics, fled to 
the United States to avoid possible arrest for his 
violently expressed demands for measures in behalf 
of the poor. Renting a farm on Long Island, N.Y., 
he read, experimented with crops, and wrote A 
Year's Residence in the United States of America. 
The diary shows his journalistic skill as he describes 
the customs, manners, and agricultural techniques 



236 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 



of the Americans and remarks upon natural phe- 
nomena. His comments are frequently bare and 
fragmented, but he notes conditions with precision. 
He prefers "to deal a little in particular instances" 
rather than in general descriptions, and his details 
give veracity to the journal. Cobbett includes 
Thomas Hulme's "Journal of a Tour in the West- 
ern Countries of America" (p. 253283), copied 
from Hulme's manuscript, which covers his visit to 
the West as far as Illinois during the period Sep- 
tember 30, 1818, to August 7, 1819. 

1893. A year's residence in the United States of 
America: treating of the face of the country, 

the climate, the soil, the products, the mode of 
cultivating the land, the prices of land, of labour, 
of food, of raiment; of the expenses of housekeep- 
ing, and of the usual manner of living; of the 
manners and customs of the people; and of the 
institutions of the country, civil, political, and re- 
ligious. Carbondale, Southern Illinois University 
Press [1965, C i964] 338 p. illus. (Centaur 
classics) 64-14796 Ei65.C668 

1894. 1833-1835. MICHEL CHEVALIER 

(1806-1879) 

No. 4312 in 1960 Guide, 

1895. Society, manners, and politics in the United 
States; letters on North America. Edited 

and with an introduction by John William Ward. 
Translated after the T. G. Bradford ed. Garden 
City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1961. 419 p. (Anchor 
books, A259) 6l ~9754 165^54 1961 

Translation of Lettres sur I Amerique du Nord. 

A new edition of no. 4314 in the 1960 Guide, 
containing approximately 5,000 corrections of Brad- 
ford's translation and supplying materials that he 
omitted. According to the editor, it is the "first 
complete edition of Chevalier's Lettres in English." 
The footnotes from the original translation have 
been omitted, since they are now deemed unneces- 
sary. 

1896. 1836-1837. THOMAS GATHER. 

Thomas Gather, a lawyer and member of 
the Royal Irish Academy from County London- 
derry, was best known for his study of the Gaelic 
origins of local place names. At the age of 23 he 
traveled to America, accompanied by his friend 
Henry Tyler. He covered some 12,000 miles in all 
with visits to New York, Philadelphia, Detroit, 
Baltimore, and Charleston. After a side trip to 
Cuba he took a Mississippi steamer to Kentucky 
and from there traveled by horseback, stagecoach 



and wagon deep into the frontier, entering obser- 
vations and minute details in his journals. He was 
intolerant of American coarseness and passion for 
money but admired the strength of the new Nation. 
He foresaw the Civil War a quarter of a century 
before its occurrence. 

1897. Voyage to America; the journals of Thomas 
Gather, edited with an introduction by 

Thomas Yoseloff. Illustrated with contemporary 
drawings by Harry Tyler. New York, T. Yoseloff 
[1961] 176 p. illus. 60-6841 165^35 

The text of the first three months of the journal 
was published in London in 1955 under the title 
Journal of a Voyage to America in 1836. 

1898. 1841-1858. GUSTAF ELIAS MARIUS 

UNONIUS( 1810-1902) 

Gustaf Unonius was a Finn who moved to Swe- 
den with his family when his homeland came under 
Russian domination. He studied law at Uppsala 
University and became a clerk for the provincial 
government at Uppsala. At 31 he emigrated to 
America and took orders in the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church. Seventeen years later, disappointed in 
the United States and in his hopes for a Utopian 
colony, he returned to Sweden and published two 
volumes of his Memoirs. In the first volume he 
describes his arrival in New York and his journey 
by steamer and canalboat to Wisconsin, with stops 
along the way at Albany, Buffalo, Detroit, and 
Milwaukee. Unonius' privation as a pioneer farm- 
er and minister of the gospel is faithfully detailed. 
Much material of a secondary nature about Ameri- 
can life in the 1850'$ has been deleted by the editor, 
but nothing of autobiographical interest has been 
omitted. Throughout the work, Unonius seeks to 
uphold the viewpoint of the Episcopal Church and 
shows bias in his judgments of other denominations. 
The second volume introduces further lengthy de- 
scriptions of his experiences as an immigrant in 
Wisconsin and Illinois a century ago. 

1899. A pioneer in Northwest America, 1841- 
1858; the memoirs of Gustaf Unonius. 
Translated from the Swedish by Jonas Oscar Back- 
lund; edited by Nils William Olsson. With an 
introduction by George M. Stephenson. Minneap- 
olis, Published for the Swedish Pioneer Historical 
Society by the University of Minnesota Press 
[1950-60] 2 v. illus. 50-11209 166^593 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(P- 327-342)- 

The first English translation of Minnen frdn en 
sjuttonarig vistelse i nordvestra America (1862. 

2V.). 



1900. 1842-1844- WILLIAM BOLL AERT( 1 8o7- 

1876) 

At 13 William Bollaert of Hampshire, England, 
entered the Royal Institution as a laboratory assist- 
ant; he published some of his original discoveries 
when he was only 16. He later worked as an 
assayer and chemist in Peru and as an agent of 
diplomatic intrigue for the Carlists in Spain, where 
he spent six years. In 1841 he made arrangements 
to explore Texas, with the idea of possibly settling 
there. He had followed the eastern coast to the 
most heavily populated areas, to the low country, 
and to the prairies when agitation for the annexa- 
tion of Texas to the United States changed his 
plans; he returned to London in 1844. His sympa- 
thetic and appealing account of life in the frontier 
republic is full of scientific data, portrayals of social 
life, and random observations and is here accom- 
panied by voluminous footnotes supplied by the 
editors. 

1901. William Bollaert's Texas, edited by W. Eu- 
gene Hollon and Ruth Lapham Butler. 

Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [1956] 
xxiii, 423 p. illus. (The American exploration and 
travel series, 21 ) 5611228 F39O.B68 

Bibliography: p. 390396. 

Edited from manuscripts in the Newberry 
Library. 

1902. 1853-1858. DAVID HUNTER STROTH- 

ER ("PORTE CRAYON") (1816-1888) 

Strother was born into an illustrious Virginia fam- 
ily which included such literary figures as John 
Pendleton Kennedy, John Esten Cooke, and Philip 
Pendleton Cooke. An invalid in childhood, he 
developed an early interest in the arts. When his 
health subsequently improved he turned to explora- 
tion and employed his talents at sketching to record 
his journeys. His work eventually came to the 
attention of Harper's Monthly, and he became one 
of its highest paid contributors as writer and illus- 
trator. His portrayals of leisurely, rural America, 
the Appalachian mountaineer, and the Negro were 
intended to combine instruction with amusement. 
Strother 's entire career as artist, writer, soldier, and 
diplomat is treated in Cecil D. Eby's "Porte Cray- 
on": The Life of David Hunter Strother (Chapel 
Hill, University of North Carolina Press [1960] 
258 p.). 

1903. The Old South illustrated. Profusely illus- 
trated by the author. Edited with an intro- 
duction by Cecil D. Eby, Jr. Chapel Hill, Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Li959] xxi, 296 p. 

60-687 F2I3.S87 



TRAVEL AND TRAVELERS / 237 

"Taken from ... [the author's] articles scattered 
in Harper's Monthly between 1853 and 1858." 

"Bibliographical appendix": p. [2935-296. 

Selections from Strother's articles in Harper's 
Monthly, 1853-58. 

1904. 1859-1862. ISRAEL JOSEPH BENJAMIN 

(1818-1864) 

Benjamin was born to a traditionally orthodox 
Jewish family in the Turkish province of Moldavia. 
He failed as a lumber-trader at 25 and decided to 
become a maggid, a type of moralistic, itinerant 
preacher. He spent his life traveling, preaching, 
and writing of his travels. This is a record of one 
of his journeys and is one of the few accounts of 
American life before 1870 by a Jewish writer. Inter- 
ested primarily in moralizing, Benjamin makes no 
attempt at either scholarship or accuracy and pre- 
sents an entertaining and informative, if somewhat 
prejudiced, description of the United States. Al- 
though he remained in New York for more than a 
year, he treats only California at length. The fer- 
ment over slavery prevented his traveling in the 
South. Oscar Handlin's introduction to the edition 
entered below provides a historical setting for this 
translation of Benjamin's hitherto unpublished 
journal. 

1905. Three years in America, 18591862; trans- 
lated from the German by Charles Rezni- 

koff, with an introduction by Oscar Handlin. 
Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, 
1956. 2 v. (The Jacob R. Schiff library of Jewish 
contributions to American democracy) 

56-7957 



1906. 1859-1861. BARON SALOMON DE 

ROTHSCHILD (1835-1864) 

Grandson to the founder of the powerful banking 
dynasty, Salomon de Rothschild came to America 
from France in 1859, ostensibly on family business. 
He stayed for 18 months, at the height of the debate 
on slavery, and visited New York, Jamestown, Sara- 
toga, Newport, Baltimore, and New Orleans. He 
wrote well but in a contemptuous vein about the 
provincialism of Americans. He was arrogant and 
self-confident and more impressed with the failings 
of the United States than with its accomplishments. 
Strongly attracted to the South, he attempted unsuc- 
cessfully to influence his country on behalf of the 
Confederacy. He died at the age of 29, three years 
after his return to Paris. 

1907. A casual view of America; the home letters 
of Salomon de Rothschild, 18591861. 



238 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

Translated and edited by Sigmund Diamond. Stan- 
ford, Calif., Stanford University Press, 1961. 136 p. 

61-14650 Ei66.R823 

Translated from a manuscript volume in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale. 

1908. 1861. CAMILLE FERRI-PISANI 
Camille Ferri-Pisani was born in Coudray, 

near Paris, the son of a Corsican. He had a brilliant 
career as a professional soldier, and at the time of 
his visit to America in 1861 he was an aide-de-camp 
to Joseph Bonaparte, Prince Napoleon. The re- 
sponsibility of keeping a record of the trip, which 
was regarded as a private visit, fell to Ferri-Pisani. 
The tour was of two months' duration and included 
a meeting with President Lincoln, excursions 
through the Northern and Western States, visits to 
New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Detroit, Boston, 
Washington, Pittsburgh, and other cities. Ferri- 
Pisani emphasizes the meetings with Civil War 
leaders and the military and political circumstances 
in which his group found itself. 

1909. Prince Napoleon in America, 1861. Letters 
from his aide-de-camp. Translated with a 

preface by George J. Joyaux. Foreword by Bruce 
Catton. Illustrated by Gil Walker. Bloomington, 
Indiana University Press, 1959. 317 p. illus. 

599248 167^383 

Translation of Lettres sur les tats-Unis d' 
Amerique (1862). 

Bibliographical references included in "Notes" 
(p. 



1910. 1865-1866. JOHN RICHARD DEN- 

NETT (1838-1874) 

Brought to Massachusetts from New Brunswick 
as a child, John Richard Dennett attended Harvard, 
became editor of the Harvard Magazine, and was 
chosen class poet in his senior year. In 1865, when 
The Nation was conceived, he was invited to join 
the staff as a special correspondent covering the 
South. He traveled widely in Virginia, the Caro- 
linas, Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana, 
reporting what he saw and heard in a series of 
weekly letters which captured the idiom and speech 
of the day through the use of dialects. His observa- 
tions were penetrating and objective, based on inter- 
views in isolated rural areas as well as in urban 
centers. This volume brings the Dennett letters 
together in book form for the first time. 

1911. The South as it is: 1865-1866. Edited and 
with an introduction by Henry M. Christ- 

man. New York, Viking Press [1965] 370 p. 

6519271 F2i6.E>4 1965 



1912. 1876-1878. HENRYK SIENKIEWICZ 

(1846-1916) 

Sienkiewicz, born in Russian Poland to a family 
of impoverished gentry, is best known as the author 
of Quo Vadis? (1895) and recipient of the Nobel 
Prize for literature (1905). At 30 he joined a Polish 
group in a plan to establish a small Utopian colony 
in California. Sent ahead with one companion to 
choose a location, Sienkiewicz financed his journey 
by writing articles for Polish newspapers. He 
arrived in New York in 1876 and, after a brief stay 
there, set out for California via Chicago over the 
recently completed transcontinental railroad. His 
reports, most of which were originally published as 
a series in Gazeta polska (Warsaw), contain ac- 
counts of the democratization of America and of 
encounters with American customs, sensitive de- 
scriptions of the land and the people, and a com- 
parison between America and Europe. The colony 
was founded but quickly collapsed, and Sienkiewicz 
was back in Poland by 1878. 

1913. Portrait of America, letters. Edited & trans- 
lated by Charles Morley. New York, Co- 
lumbia University Press, 1959. 300 p. illus. 

59-7371 168.55763 

Translation of v. 41-42 of Listy z podrozy do 
Amcryft (1947-55). 

1914. 1898. BEATRICE POTTER WEBB 

(1858-1943) 

Beatrice Potter was born in an upper-class Vic- 
torian home in Gloucester. Ill as a child, she re- 
ceived her education informally at home. She mar- 
ried Sidney Webb of the Fabian Society, and for 50 
years they were leaders of major social and economic 
reform movements in England. This journal is the 
result of a trip the Webbs took to the United States 
in 1898. Mrs. Webb emphasizes her investigations 
of local governments in the cities of New York, 
Boston, Cincinnati, Denver, Salt Lake City, and 
San Francisco. Interviews with two future Presi- 
dents, Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, 
are included. Mrs. Webb's descriptions and im- 
pressions of the country and of the many prominent 
people she sought out are perceptive but somewhat 
provincial and condescending in tone. 

1915. American diary, 1898. Edited by David A. 
Shannon. Madison, University of Wiscon- 
sin Press, 1963. 181 p. illus. 63-8436 Ei68.W4 

The first publication of a manuscript in the Brit- 
ish Library of Political and Economic Science, Lon- 
don School of Economics. 



XIV 



Population, Immigration, and Minorities 



A. Population 

B. Immigration: General 

C. Immigration: Policy 

D. Minorities 

E. Negroes 

F. Jews 

G. Orientals 

H. North Americans 

I. Scandinavians 

J. OMer Stocks 



19161921 
19221925 
1926-1928 
1929-1934 
I 935~ I 954 
1955-1959 
19601962 
1963-1965 
1966 
1967-1975 



SECTION A, Population, reflects the increasing concern with population growth in the United 
States as a whole and in the metropolitan centers in particular. The movement to the 
cities magnifies the difficulty of providing adequate housing, water supply, waste disposal, 
education, medical care, transportation, police protection, and other services. What the 
population explosion is doing to destroy man's natural environment is discussed in Sections 
G and H of Chapter XVII, Land and Agriculture. Section A of the present chapter includes 
studies which deal statistically with the character- 



istics of the population as such, its geographical 
distribution, age grouping, marital status, and re- 
lationship to economic trends. 

Since the publication of the 1960 Guide, a num- 
ber of social scientists, historians, and journalists 
have studied the situations of minority groups in 
the large urban areas. This chapter lists both cur- 
rent and historical analyses of the Negroes, Jews, 
Irish, Italians, and Puerto Ricans in New York, the 
Chinese in San Francisco, the Italians in Boston, 
and the Negroes in Chicago. The chapter also in- 
cludes books on other minority groups, such as the 



Finns, Poles, Scotch-Irish, Norwegians, and Greeks. 
These works are mostly historical, as are the vol- 
umes on immigration. The increasing emphasis on 
books by and about Negroes is reflected in the large 
number of selections for Section E. A few of these 
might well have been placed in the chapters cover- 
ing history, labor, or housing, but they seemed most 
appropriate for this chapter. Books on civil liberties 
and civil rights can be found in Chapters XXIX 
and XXX, and works on the Negro churches are in 
Chapter XXIII. Other works on the Negro in 
American society can be found through the index. 



A. Population 



1916. Freedman, Ronald, Pascal K. Whelpton, and 
Arthur A. Campbell. Family planning, ste- 
rility and population growth. New York, McGraw- 
Hill, 1959. 515 p. illus. (McGraw-Hill series in 
sociology) 58-14348 HQ766.5.U5F7 



Precise information concerning the extent and 
success in American society of "family planning" 
use of the several means, variously approved and 
variously reliable, of avoiding pregnancy has been 
notoriously lacking. This book reports upon a con- 

239 



240 / A GUIDE TO THE UNITED STATES 

siderable attempt to supply such information, con- 
ducted by the Scripps Foundation for Research in 
Population Problems of Miami University and the 
Survey Research Center of the University of Michi- 
gan and largely financed by the Rockefeller Foun- 
dation. It is based upon interviews with 2,713 
white married women between the ages of 18 and 
39, living with their husbands or separated tempo- 
rarily by the latter's military service. The "sample" 
was widely spread geographically and included di- 
verse income levels and modes of living. The 
results show that "subfecundity" and actual sterility 
are very common and productive of much individ- 
ual unhappiness, but that they make no great dif- 
ference at most a reduction of 10 or 15 percent 
in the total number of births. They show that fam- 
ily limitation is generally approved and practiced 
and that there is a notable national consensus on 
family size childlessness and a single child are 
both thought undesirable, whereas from two to four 
children are generally wanted and obtained. The 
authors report remarkably little variation between 
income levels, which may indicate that the sample 
was deficient in slumdwellers and "problem" fam- 
ilies. The present family ideals, however, are suf- 
ficient to point toward rapid population growth and 
a probable total U.S. population of 312 million by 
A.D. 2000, with the present sex ratio but a larger 
proportion of children under 18. Family Growth 
in Metropolitan America (Princeton, N.J., Prince- 
ton University Press, 1961. 433 p.), by Charles F. 
Wester! and others, investigates the social and psy- 
chological factors thought to relate to differences in 
fertility among American couples living in the larg- 
est population centers of the Nation. 

1917. Hauser, Philip M. Population perspectives. 
New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University 
Press [1961, C i96o] 183 p. illus. 

61-7090 HB3505.H3 

Includes bibliography. 

In these Brown and Haley lectures delivered at 
the University of Puget Sound, Hauser discusses the 
facts and consequences of three "explosions" that 
in world population, as background, and those in 
U.S. total and metropolitan population, as main 
themes. People who derive encouragement from 
the economic stimulation provided by accelerated 
population growth, he argues, are shortsighted, 
missing short-run disadvantages and long-run dan- 
gers alike. Growth at the present rates means 
greatly reduced nonrenewable natural resources per 
head, an increased proportion of dependent persons 
young and old, increased pressure on virtually all 
public services, a decline in the already inadequate 
facilities for the aged, the spread of the lowered 



quality of elementary education to the higher grades, 
and the demand upon an inelastic economy for mil- 
lions of additional jobs. The explosive spread of 
metropolitan areas has brought about a decline of 
civic responsibility, housing shortages affecting many 
groups, commuter congestion, and the impossibility 
of enforcing codes for building maintenance. Haus- 
er also claims that the Negro's higher rate of repro- 
duction and his lack of preparation for urban living 
create a special set of problems. The primary ele- 
ment in all these explosions, the author insists, is 
"death control," the sharp reduction in mortality 
rates brought about by modern public health and 
medical practices; the only way to stabilize the pop- 
ulation is through birth control and deliberate fam- 
ily limitation. Lincoln H. Day and Alice Taylor 
Day, in Too Many Americans (Boston, Houghton 
Mifflin, 1964. 298 p.), enumerate their arguments 
for seeking early attainment of population stability 
in the United States and discuss how this goal might 
best be achieved. 

1918. Kuznets, Simon S., and Dorothy S. Thomas, 
eds. Population redistribution and economic 

growth: United States, 18701950. Prepared under 
the direction of Simon Kuznets and Dorothy Swaine 
Thomas. Philadelphia, American Philosophical 
Society, 195764. 3 v. illus. (Memoirs of the 
American Philosophical Society, v. 45, 51, 61) 

5710071 HBi965.K8 

Bibliographical references. 

CONTENTS. i. Methodological considerations and 
reference tables, by Everett S. Lee and others. 2. 
Analyses of economic change, by Simon Kuznets, 
Ann R. Miller, and Richard A. Easterlin. 3. Dem- 
ographic analyses and interrelations, by Hope T. 
Eldridge and Dorothy S. Thomas. 

This study emphasizes "the many and close links 
between economic growth and population redis- 
tribution