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Full text of "Guide to subversive organizations and publications (and appendix)"



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JV?..9. 3 . 3 5...4al45 



1957 




Bi 



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85th Congress, 1st Session 



House Document No. 226 



W 



GUIDE TO 



SUBVERSIVE 

ORGANIZATIONS 

AND 

PUBLICATIONS 

(AND APPENDIX) 

Revised and published as of January 2, 1957, 
to supersede Guide published on May 14, 1951 




Prepared and released by the 
Committee on Un«American Activities, U. S. House of Representatives 

.0* 



Washington, D. C. 



3- 






Committee on Un-American Activities, United States House of 
Representatives, 84th Congress 



Francis E. Walter, Pennsylvania, Chairman 

Morgan M. Moulder, Missouri 
Clyde Doyle, California 
James B. Frazier, Jr., Tennessee 
Edwin E. Willis, Louisiana 
Harold H. Velde, Illinois 
Bernard W. Kearney, New York 
Donald L. Jackson, California 
Gordon H. Scherer, Ohio 



Richard Arens, Director 



H. Con. Res. 135 . Passed August 5, 1957 

^ightjjfiftli Congress of the Bniteil States of America 

AT THE FIRST SESSION 

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Thursday, the third day of 
January, one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven 

Concurrent "Resolution 

Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring) , 
That the publication entitled "Guide to Subversive Organizations and 
Publications'' prepared by the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
House of Representatives, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session, be 
printed as a House document ; and that there be printed sixty thousand 
additional copies of said document, of which forty thousand copies 
shall be for the use of said Committee and twenty thousand copies to 
be pro-rated to the Members of the House of Representatives for a 
period of ninety days after which time the unused balance shall revert 
to the Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Attest : 

Ralph R. Roberts, 
Clerk of the House of Representatives. 
Attest : 

Felton M. Johnston, 

Secretary of the Senate. 
n 



•7 



1 

Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be ii enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United 
States, (ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American 
propaganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times ana places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

in 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 84TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 5, 1955 
******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress: 
******* 

(q) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American Activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
Is authorized to make fFom time to time, investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, (2) 
the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propaganda 
that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks the 
principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and (3) 
all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such in- 
vestigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the 
signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, each 
standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the 
execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that pur- 
pose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by the 
agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

Note. — Similar rules continuing the authority of the committee to operate 
have been adopted by each Congress beginning with the 79th Congress in 1946. 

rv 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

What Is a Communist Front? vn 

Introduction 1 

Part I. Organizations cited as Communist or Communist-front by Federal 

authorities 5 

Part II. Publications cited as Communist or Communist-front by Federal 

authorities 99 

Part III. Organizations cited as Communist or Communist-front by State 

or Territorial investigating committees 113 

Part IV. Publications cited as Communist or Communist-front by State 

or Territorial investigating committees 137 

Appendix I. Deletions of certain organizations and a publication cited as 

Communist fronts in the previous edition of the Guide 141 

Appendix II. Organizations designated by the United States Attorney 

General pursuant to Executive Order 10450 144 

Appendix III. Organizations designated by the United States Attorneys 

General as being Fascist or otherwise extremist in character 150 

v 



WHAT IS A COMMUNIST FRONT? 

The following historical sketch of Communist-front organizations, 
plus formulas for detecting them, is reprinted from a report issued by 
the Special Committee on Un-American Activities on March 29, 1944: 

"Communist-front organizations are characterized by their common 
origin, the rigid conformity of these organizations to the Communist 
pattern, their interlocking personnel, and their methods generally used 
to deceive the American public. Being part of a conspiratorial move- 
ment, their essence is deception. 

"During the first few years of the Communist International, imme- 
diately following the stimulus of the Russian revolution, its interna- 
tional appeal was stridently revolutionary. As world economic con- 
ditions improved following the First World War, the international 
revolutionary movement began to wane. The Hungarian and German 
Communist revolutions failed and the Communist International began 
to lose strength. Hence it was deemed necessary to moderate the 
earlier revolutionary appeal, to adopt middle-of-the-road slogans, and 
to build so-called united-front organizations, as bridge and support- 
ing organizations in the interest of the international Communist 
movement. 

"One of the leading organizers of these 'innocent' organizations 
on an international scale was Willi Munzenberg, a prominent Ger- 
man Communist, whose organizing ability won him the sobriquet of 
the 'Henry Ford of the Communist International.' Munzenberg 
was engagingly frank in describing the real purpose of these or- 
ganizations: 

"1. To arouse the interest of those millions of apathetic and indifferent work- 
ers * * * wno simply have no ear for Communist propaganda. These people we 
wish to attract and arouse through new channels, by means of new ways. 

"2. Our sympathetic organizations should constitute bridges for the nonparty 
workers * * * who have not yet mustered the courage to take the final step 
and join the Communist Party, but who are nevertheless in sympathy with the 
Communist movement and are prepared to follow us part of the way. 

"3. By m.eans of the mass organizations we wish to extend the Communist 
sphere of influence in itself. 

"4. The organizational linking up of the elements in sympathy with the Soviet 
Union and with the Communists. * * * 

"5. We must build up our own organizations in order to counteract the in- 
creasing efforts of the bourgeois and social-democratic parties in this respect, and 

"6. Through these sympathetic and mass organizations we should train the 
cadres of militants and officials of the Communist Party possessing organizational 
experience. 

"(Speech before the Sixth Congress of the Communist International in Moscow, 
July 20, 192S. International Press Correspondence, vol. 8, No. £2, Aug. 1, 1928, 
pp. 751, 752.) 

"TRANSMISSION BELTS 

"In his Problems of Leninism, a standard textbook and guide for 
Communists throughout the world, Joseph Stalin emphasized the 

vn 



VIII SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

need of these front or mass organizations which he called 'transmission 
belts': 

"The proletariat needs these belts, these levers, and this guiding force [the Com- 
munist Party — Ed.] * * * Lastly we come to the party of the proletariat, 
the proletarian vanguard. Its strength lies in the fact that it attracts to ita 
ranks the best elements of all the mass organizations of the proletariat, without 
exception, and to guide their activities toward a single end, that of the liberation 
of the proletariat. 

"Stalin quoted Lenin in support of his argument: 

"The dictatorship [of the proletariat] cannot be effectively realized without 
'belts' to transmit power from the vanguard [the Communist Party — Ed.] to the 
mass of the advanced class, and from this to the mass of those who labor (pp. 
29, 30). 

"We cite the instructions of Otto Kuusinen, secretary of the Com- 
munist International, in his report at the Sixth Plenum [plenary ses- 
sion] of the Executive Committee of the Communist International: 

"The first part of our task is to build up, not only Communist organizations, but 
other organizations as well, above all mass organizations, sympathizing with 
our aims, and able to aid us for special purposes. * * * We must create a 
whole solar system of organizations and smaller committees around the Com- 
munist Party, so to speak, smaller organizations working actually under the 
influence of our party. (Quotations taken from the Communist, May 1931, pp. 
409-4^3.) 

"The rise of Adolf Hitler to power created a new threat to the Soviet 
Union and to the international Communist movement. Hence the 
Seventh Congress of the Communist International, in 1935, gave an 
added impetus to the creation of front organizations under Commu- 
nist initiative and leadership, the chief purpose of which was to pro- 
tect and serve the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The abil- 
ity of the Communists to ensnare large numbers and influential indi- 
viduals, to serve as decoys in operating these fronts, reached its high 
point following the Seventh Congress in 1935. 

"HOW COMMUNIST FRONTS ARE ESTABLISHED 

"The methods employed by the Communists in establishing and 
operating these front organizations, methods demonstrated by the 
various organizations herein cited, have been well summarized by 
Benjamin Gitlow, a former high official of the Communist Party of 
the United States: 

"A front organization is organized by the Communist Party in the following 
fashion: First, a number of sympathizers who are close to the party and whom 
the party knows can be depended upon to carry out party orders, are gotten to- 
gether and formed into a nucleus which issues a call for the organization of a 
particular front organization which the party wants to establish. And generally 
after that is done a program is drawn up by the party, which this provisional com- 
mittee adopts. Then, on the basis of this provisional program, all kinds of indi- 
viduals are canvassed to become sponsors of the organization, which is to be 
launched in the very near future. A provisional secretary is appointed before the 
organization is launched and in every instance in our day the secretary who was 
appointed was a member of the Communist Party. * * * And as president of 
the organization we would put up some prominent public figure who was willing 
to accept the presidency of the organization, generally making sure that, if that 
public figure was one who would not go along with the Communists, he was of 
such a type that he would be too busy to pay attention to the affairs of the 
organization. * * * 

"On the committee that would be drawn together, a sufficient number of Com- 
munists and Communist Party sympathizers, who would carry out party orders, 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS IX 

was included, and out of this number a small executive committee was organized 
* * * which carried on the affairs of the organization, so-called, and this small 
executive committee, with the secretary, really ran the organization. And this 
small committee and the secretary are the instruments of the Communist Party, 
with the result that when manifestos or decisions on campaigns are made, those 
campaigns are ordered by the Communist Party. (Hearings of the Special Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, vol. 7, pp. 4716, 4717, 4718.) 

"MEMBERSHIP IN FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 

"In judging the individuals associated with Communist-front organi- 
zations, to determine the degree of their responsibility for its activities 
and their closeness to the Communist Party, one should be guided by 
consideration of the following categories of individuals included with- 
in them: 

"1. Members of the Communist Party who have openly avowed their affiliation. 

"2. Members of the Communist Party, not openly avowed, proven to be such on 
the basis of documentary or other proof. 

"3. Those accepting Communist Party discipline, either secret party members 
or outsiders who accept such discipline and instruction. This category may be 
recognized by the regularity with which it follows the line of the Communist 
Party, throughout all its variations, by the number of different front affiliations, 
by the posts they occupy in these front organizations, and by the fact that they 
retain their affiliation after the organization has been publicly exposed. 

"4. Those who have been attracted by the high-sounding aims of the front 
organization or organizations, by the prominence of its sponsors, or by a desire to 
be sociable. The judgment of such persons is certainly open to criticism just as 
much as if they aided in launching any other hoax. 

"DOES "YES" ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS? 

"For the guidance of the American people in detecting Communist- 
front organizations, we present the following criteria: 

"1. Does the organization have Communist Party members or those trusted by 
the Communist Party, in its posts of real power — on its executive board, as 
secretary, organizer, educational director, editor, office staff? 

"2. Are meetings of the organization addressed by Communists or their trusted 
agents? Does its publication include articles by such persons? 

"3. Does the organization follow the Communist Party line? 

"4. Does the organization cooperate with campaigns, activities, publications, 
of the Communist Party or other front organizations? 

"5. Is the address of the organization in the same building with other front 
organizations or within the cooperating vicinity? 

"6. Does the organization cooperate with Communist-controlled unions? 

"7. Does the organization's official publication reflect the line of the Commu- 
nist Party, publish articles by pro-Communists, advertise Communist activities, 
or those of other front organizations or of Communist vacation resorts? 

"8. Are questions injected into meetings or in official publications, which have 
more to do with the current policy of the Communist Party, than with the pro- 
fessed purposes of the organization? 

"9. Are funds kicked back directly or indirectly to the Communist Party or to 
other front organizations? 

"10. Is printing done at a Communist printing house? 

"11. Does the organization use entertainers associated with pro-Communist 
organizations or entertainments? 

"12. Does the organization receive favorable publicity in the Communist press? 

"13. Is the organization uniformly loyal to the Soviet Union? 



X SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

"CHANGES IN PARTY LINE 

"The line of the Communist Party on foreign policy is cited here- 
with. Its advocacy by an individual or organization, throughout all 
its variations, is a sound test of the loyalty and subservience of such 
an individual or organization to the Communist Party: 

"Prior to August 1935. — No distinction was made between Fascist and demo- 
cratic governments. They were all capitalistic and had to be destroyed by a 
revolution and replaced by a proletarian dictatorship. 

"August 1935 to September 1939. — Adolf Hitler became a threat to the Soviet 
Union. Opposition to the Fascist governments. Support of collective security 
or a united front of the democracies and the Soviet Union against the Fascist 
nations. 

"August S3, 1939 to June 21, 1941.— The period of the Stalin-Hitler pact. Op- 
position to the war as imperialist. Support of an isolationist position. Support 
of the peace policy of the Soviet Union. Demand that we pay attention to our 
own domestic problems first. 

"June 22, 1941, to 1944- — Hitler attacked the Soviet Union. Support of the 
* * * war against fascism. Demand for a second front to aid the struggle of 
the Soviet Union. [Communist International dissolved in 1943 to strengthen 
Communist Party pose as local, patriotic organization.]" 

Since the above-quoted sketch was written in 1944, the committee 
offers the following additions to bring the Communist Party line on 
foreign policy up to date: 

1945 to 1956. — Return of overt Soviet hostility toward non-Communist powers; 
Communist Information Bureau formed in 1947 as modified version of Communist 
International. Revival of doctrine of inevitable conflict between two camps — the 
"progressive" camp of the Soviet Union and its satellites and the "imperialist" 
camp represented by the United States. Support of the Communist "peace" 
offensive, which of course covered such "peaceful" moves as the Communists' 
aggression in Korea. 

February 1956 to date. — Return to united front policy of 1935. Support of 
Khrushchev and "collective leadership" of Soviet Union, which desanctified Stalin 
and abolished the Communist Information Bureau. War with capitalist countries 
no longer inevitable (unless they resist). Cooperation among Communists, 
capitalists, socialists and neutrals demanded. 

The extreme changes in the foreign policy line of the Communist 
Party, U. S. A., as outlined above, are the direct results of Soviet 
maneuvering to meet various exigencies of the U. S. S. R. There has 
Dever been a change in one basic Communist purpose from 1918 to 
the present date, however — the eventual elimination of non-Com- 
munist governments and the establishment of world hegemony for 
the Soviet Union. 



FRONT ORGANIZATIONS AS DESCRIBED BY J. EDGAR HOOVER AND 
FORMER ATTORNEY GENERAL FRANCIS BIDDLE 

The following is an excerpt from the testimony of J. Edgar Hoover 
before the Committee on Un-American Activities on March 26, 1947: 

For the most part, front organizations assumed the character of either a mass 
or membership organization or a paper organization. Both solicited and used 
names of prominent persons. Literally hundreds of groups and organizations 
have either been infiltrated or organized primarily to accomplish the purposes of 
promoting the interests of the Soviet Union in the United States, the promotion 
of Soviet war and peace aims, the exploitation of Negroes in the United States, 
work among foreign-language groups, and to secure a favorable viewpoint toward 
the Communists in domestic, political, social, and economic issues. 

The first requisite for front organizations is an idealistic sounding title. Hun- 
dreds of such organizations have come into bsing and have gone out of existence 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS XI 

when their true purposes have become known or exposed while others with high- 
sounding names are continually springing up. 

******* 
There are easy tests to establish the real character of such organizations: 

1. Does the group espouse the cause of Americanism or the cause of Soviet 
Russia? 

2. Does the organization feature as speakers at its meetings known Commu- 
nists, sympathizers, or fellow travelers? 

3. Does the organization shift when the party line shifts? 

4. Does the organization sponsor causes, campaigns,- literature, petitions, or 
other activities sponsored by the party or other front organizations? 

5. Is the organization used as a sounding board by or is it endorsed by Com- 
munist-controlled labor unions? 

6. Does its literature follow the Communist line or is it printed by the Com- 
munist press? 

7. Does the organization receive consistent favorable mention in Communist 
publications? 

8. Does the organization present itself to be nonpartisan yet engage in political 
activities and consistently advocate causes favored by the Communists? 

9. Does the organization denounce American and British foreign policy while 
always lauding Soviet policy? 

10. Does the organization utilize Communist "double talk" by referring to 
Soviet-dominated countries as democracies, complaining that the United States 
is imperialistic and constantly denouncing monopoly-capital? 

11. Have outstanding leaders in public life openly renounced affiliation with 
the organization? 

12. Does the organization, if espousing liberal progressive causes, attract well- 
known honest patriotic liberals or does it denounce well-known liberals? 

13. Does the organization have a consistent record of supporting the American 
viewpoint over the years? 

14. Does the organization consider matters not directly related to its avowed 
purposes and objectives? 

Id his decisioD od the deportatioo of Harry Bridges, the Attorney 
Geoeral, Mr. Fraocis Biddle, iDcluded the followiDg excelleot descrip- 
tioo of ConunuDist-froDt orgaoizatioDs: 

Testimony on front organizations showed that they were represented to the 
public for some legitimate reform objective, but actually used by the Communist 
Party to carry on its activities pending the time when the Communists believe 
they can seize power through revolution. 



GUIDE TO 
SUBVERSIVE 

Organizations and Publications 



INTRODUCTION 

The following organizations and publications have been declared 
to be Communist-front or outright Communist enterprises in official 
statements by Federal legislative and executive authorities, and by- 
various State and Territorial investigating committees. 

In compiling the following lists, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities revises and brings up to date a compilation which it issued 
on May 14, 1951, under the same title, "Guide to Subversive Organ- 
izations and Publications." 

In addition to general revisions and corrections, the new Guide 
adds 137 organizations and publications cited as Communist or Com- 
munist front by Federal authorities, and 43 organizations and publi- 
cations similarly characterized by State committees. 

Altogether, the new Guide lists 469 organizations and 80 publica- 
tions cited as Communist or Communist front by Federal agencies; 
and 159 organizations and 25 publications cited as Communist or 
Communist front by State investigating committees. # 

It is to be noted that the citations by State authorities are carried 
separately. Many citations by State committees referred to in pre- 
vious editions of the Guide are not included in the instant Guide, 
principally because they duplicate citations by Federal agencies or 
because they involve organizations and publications operating beyond 
the jurisdiction of the State authority. 

It is to be emphasized that the elimination from the instant Guide 
of any citation heretofore made by a duly constituted authority does 
not necessarily mean that the Committee on Un-American Activities 
has made any findings whatsoever, either favorable or adverse, re- 
garding such organization or publication. 

The committee has ascertained that a Communist front is an organ- 
ization or publication created or captured by the Communists to do 
the party's work in areas where an openly Communist project would 
be unwelcome. Because subterfuge often makes it difficult to recog- 
nize its true nature, the Communist front has become the greatest 



2 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

weapon of communism in this country. A Communist front, for 
example, may camouflage its true purposes behind such moral and 
human appeals as "peace" and "civil rights" while serving the aims 
of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union. 

By "outright" Communist enterprises, the committee refers to such 
organizations as the Communist Party, U. S. A., whose subservience 
to the Soviet Union and international communism cannot be disguised. 
An examination of this compilation will disclose relatively few organi- 
zations of this nature as compared with the hundreds of front organi- 
zations controlled by the Communist Party in the United States. 

The committee believes that the issuance of this new edition of its 
Guide is particularly timely in view of the Communists' recent revival 
of their "united front" policy of the 1930's. In contrast to the overtly 
hostile attitude adopted by Communists in the post-World War II 
period, a switch in party line decreed by Soviet Communist leaders 
this year calls for Communists to extend their hands in "friendship" 
and "cooperation" with non-Communists — whether as nations, or- 
ganizations or individuals. 

Similar efforts to create what Communists called a "united front" 
with non-Communists occurred in the mid-1930's as a direct result of 
the Soviet Union's fear of the rising power of the Fascist dictatorships. 
A multitude of Communist fronts flourished in the United States in 
that period because thousands of dupes were lulled by the Commu- 
nists' siren song of friendship. Many of the organizations which 
operated at that time are listed in this compilation. 

The current "united front" policy was decreed by the new "collective 
leadership" of the Soviet Union early in 1956 as one of various Com- 
munist Party line changes considered necessary to meet new exigencies 
of the Soviet dictatorship. Communist fronts which sprang up during 
this year, as well as previously established organizations under Com- 
munist control, have exploited the new theme to the utmost. 

Americans who are mindful of previous Communist duplicity along 
the same lines will not be fooled by the Communists' "extended 
hand of friendship" and will withhold their support from presently- 
operating Communist and Communist-front enterprises. In view 
of the devious disguises employed by Communist-front groups, 
however, the committee believes that this revised Guide will provide 
additional assistance to those who would avoid aiding a subversive 
cause. Many Communist fronts currently functioning in the United 
States are identified in this compilation. 

In listing Communist and Communist-front organizations and 
publications, the committee has relied upon the characterization 
which was made by the Federal or State authority originally making 
the declaration. The fact that this Guide includes characterizations 
by authorities other than the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities should not be construed to mean that this committee is in 
any way verifying the findings of other official bodies. This com- 
mittee is merely the compiler of the information, the source of which 
is each agency's own official reports. 

Part I of the Guide lists organizations characterized as Communist 
and Communist-front by Federal authorities, namely: United States 
Attorneys General Francis Biddle, Tom Clark, and J. Howard 
McGrath; the Subversive Activities Control Board; the Senate 
Judiciary Committee and its Internal Security Subcommittee; a 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 3 

special subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropriations; 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities, and its predecessor, 
the Special Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Part II lists publications cited as Communist or Communist-front 
by the same Federal authorities. 

Part III of the Guide contains the names of organizations character- 
ized as Communist or Communist-front by duly-authorized State and 
Territorial investigating committees. In compiling this list, the com- 
mittee has omitted those organizations which have already been 
characterized by Federal authorities in Part I. The committee has 
further confined the list to organizations having headquarters or 
major activity in the State or Territory in which the particular in- 
vestigating committee is located. Characterizations by the following 
committees are included in Part III: 

Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Ac- 
tivities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations. 

Massachusetts Committee to Curb Communism. 
Subcommittee of the New York State Joint Legislative Com- 
mittee to Investigate Procedures and Methods of Allocating State 
Moneys for Public School Purposes and Subversive Activities 
(Rapp-Coudert Committee). 
Ohio Un-American Activities Commission. 
California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities and its successor, the California Senate Fact-Finding 
Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Washington State Joint Legislative Fact-Finding Committee 
on Un-American Activities. 

Hawaiian Commission on Subversive Activities. 
Part IV contains the names of publications cited as Communist or 
Communist-front by the aforementioned State and Territorial in- 
vestigating committees. In compiling the list, the committee em- 
ployed the same selective procedure as that described above in the 
case of organizations characterized by these local investigating bodies. 
Appendix I to this Guide records official action by this committee 
or the California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities rescinding previous listings of 2 organizations and 1 pub- 
lication as Communist fronts. The organizations and the publication 
in question, which were carried in the preceding edition of the Guide, 
have been deleted from the current edition for reasons stated in 
Appendix I. 

Appendix II consists of the list of organizations designated by 
Attorney General Herbert Brownell under Executive Order 10450, 
which establishes security requirements for Government employment. 
Appendix III lists organizations which have been characterized by 
United States Attorneys General Tom Clark and J. Howard McGrath 
as belonging to one or more of the following categories : "Totalitarian," 
"Fascist," or organizations which have "adopted a policy of advocat- 
ing or approving the commission of acts of force and violence to deny 
others their rights under the Constitution of the United States." 



PART I 

ORGANIZATIONS CITED AS COMMUNIST OR COMMUNIST- 
FRONT BY FEDERAL AUTHORITIES 

ABOLISH PEONAGE COMMITTEE 

1. Recently reconstituted by the Communist front, the Civil Rights 
Congress. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 on 
the Civil Rights Congress, September 2, 1947, p. 10.) 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN BRIGADE OR BATTALION 

1. Cited as Communist. 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

2. "The Communist Party was active in recruiting American boys for 

the so-called Abraham Lincoln Brigade in behalf of Loyalist 
Spain. Browder has boasted that 60 percent of the brigade was 
composed of Communist Party members." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 146.) 
ABRAHAM LINCOLN SCHOOL (Chicago, III.) 

1. Cited as an adjunct of the Communist Party. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. Successor of the Workers School as a "Communist educational 

medium" in Chicago. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 82.) 

3. "Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Com- 

munists and outsiders in the theory and practice of commu- 
nism, train organizers and operatives, recruit new party members 
and sympathizers * * * A school of this type has been the 
Abraham Lincoln School, Chicago * * *" 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, pp. 91 and 92.) 

ACTION COMMITTEE TO FREE SPAIN NOW 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

ALABAMA PEOPLES EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization which "seeks to 
alter the form of government of the United States by unconstitu- 
tional means." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released April 23, 1951.) 

©5822°— 57 2 6 



6 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

ALL-AMERICAN ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE 

1. Cited as a "Communist-front organization." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, in re Harry Bridges, May 
' 28, 1942, p. 10.) 

2. Cited as a Communist enterprise. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, P. 76.) 
ALL-CALIFORNIA CONFERENCE FOR DEFENSE OF CIVIL RIGHTS AND 
AID TO LABOR'S PRISONERS 

1. Cited as a Communist front and a subsidiary of the International 
Labor Defense. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 166.) 
ALLIED LABOR NEWS 

1. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" news syndicate. "This was 

an international organization syndicating news and articles 
chiefly to the labor press, and in practice primarily to the 
Communist and pro-Communist press." 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the 
Institute oj Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 73, 95, 

m 145 and 146.) 

2. "Certain Communist fronts are organized for the purpose of 

promulgating Communist ideas and misinformation into the 
bloodstream of public opinion. Examples of such organizations 
are the Allied Labor News Service * * *." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Handbook j or Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 

ALMANAC SINGERS 

1. "Communist entertainers." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 97.) 

AMBIJAN COMMITTEE FOR EMERGENCY AID TO THE SOVIET UNION 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 174.) 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR RECONSTRUCTION IN YUGOSLAVIA, 
INC. 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review 
Board, released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front whose functions were designed to 

victimize Slavic Americans for Communist purposes. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951, 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, pp. 89-92.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 7 

AMERICAN BRANCH OF THE FEDERATION OF GREEK MARITIME 
UNIONS 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR A FREE YUGOSLAVIA (THE) 
1. Cited as "a branch of the Moscow-inspired American Slav Congress 
operating in Seattle, Wash. * * * The records of the officers 
of the American Committee for Free Yugoslavia show the con- 
necting links between that organization, the American Slav 
Congress, the Communist Party and its front organizations." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951, 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released, June 26, 1949, p. 89.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR DEMOCRACY AND INTELLECTUAL 
FREEDOM 

1. Cited as a Communist front which defended Communist teachers. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
Report, H. R. 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 13, and House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 87.) 

2. Cited as subversive and un-American. 

(Special Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appro- 
priations, Report, April 21, 1943, p. 3.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR EUROPEAN WORKERS' RELIEF (See also 

Socialist Workers' Party) 
1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review 
Board, released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR PROTECTION OF FOREIGN BORN 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "One of the oldest auxiliaries of the Communist Party in the United 

States." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 155; also cited in Annual Report, H. R. 2277, June 25, 
1942, p. 13.) 

3. "To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been 

devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and 
reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party 
itself. Among these organizations are the * * * American Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born. When the Communist 
Party itself is under fire these offer a bulwark of protection." 
(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 



8 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR SPANISH FREEDOM 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Torn Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

2. A "recently established Communist-front organization whose 

avowed objective is to force a break in diplomatic relations 
between the United States and Spain." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, H. R. 
2233, June 7, 1946, p. 29, also p. 37.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR STRUGGLE AGAINST WAR 

1. Cited as a Communist front which was formed in response to direc- 
tives from a World Congress Against War held in Amsterdam 
in August 1932 under the auspices of the Communist Interna- 
tional. Avowed Communist Donald Henderson was executive 
director of the American Committee. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, PP. 47 and 119.) 
AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR YUGOSLAV RELIEF, INC. 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948 and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front whose "collection of funds for 'relief 

was only incidental to and a cover for its propaganda activities 
in behaif of the Communist regime in Yugoslavia." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 on 

the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 

released June 26, 1949, pp. 77-81.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR YUGOSLAV RELIEF OF THE WAR RELIEF 
FUND OF AMERICANS OF SOUTH SLAVIC DESCENT 

1. Cited as a Communist front which was later known as the American 
Committee for Yugoslav Relief, Inc. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 on 
the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, p. 77.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE IN AID OF CHINESE INDUSTRIAL COOPER. 
ATIVES 

1. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" organization also known as 
Indusco, Inc. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the 
Institute of Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 145 and 
146.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE TO SAVE REFUGEES 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, pp. 49, 112, 129, 133, 138, 167, 180.)^ 

2. Cited as one in a "series of Communist enterprises which have 

dealt with Spain and the Spanish Civil War." Merged with the 
Exiled Writers Committee of the League of American Writers 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 9 

and the United American Spanish Aid Committee to form the 
Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, H. R. 
2233, June 7, 1946, p. 27.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE TO SURVEY TRADE UNION CONDITIONS IN 
EUROPE 1 

1. "This organization was created by the Communist Party for the 
purpose of supplying Communists or Communist-disciplined 
trade unionists transportation into the Soviet Union and its 
satellite countries to propagandize against the United States and 
in behalf of the Soviet Union." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1951, H. R. 2431, July 2, 1952, originally released February 
17, 1952, pp. 17 and 18.) 

AMERICAN CONTINENTAL CONGRESS FOR PEACE (September 5-10, 

1949, in Mexico City) (See also Committee for United States Participation in 

the American Continental Congress for Peace) 

1. Cited as "another phase in the Communist 'peace' campaign, aimed 

at consolidating anti-American forces throughout the Western 

Hemisphere." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 21.) 

AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR A DEMOCRATIC GREECE 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization formerly known 
as the Greek-American Council and the Greek American Com- 
mittee for National Unity. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

AMERICAN COUNCIL, INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS {See Institute 
of Pacific Relations) 

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON SOVIET RELATIONS 

1. Cited as the subversive and Communist successor to the Friends 

of the Soviet Union. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, Sep- 
tember 24, 1942, p. 7688.) 

3. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 174-) 
AMERICAN CROATIAN CONGRESS 
1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

i Later known as American Committee to Survey Labor Conditions in Europe. 



10 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR TRADE UNION COMMITTEE FOR 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE AND RELIEF 

1. "In 1936, the Communists were utilizing a front known as the A. F. 
of L. Trade Union Committee for Unemployment Insurance and 
Relief to back legislation drafted by the Communist Party. The 
American Federation of Labor officially repudiated this organi- 
zation as a fraud. Action was brought before the Federal Trade 
Commission and the committee was ordered to cease and desist 
from using this name." 

{Special Committee on Un -American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 

p. 169.) 

AMERICAN FRIENDS OF SPANISH DEMOCRACY 

1. "In 1937-38, the Communist Party threw itself wholeheartedly 
into the campaign for the support of the Spanish Loyalist cause, 
recruiting men and organizing multifarious so-called relief organ- 
izations * * * such as * * * American Friends of Spanish 
Democracy." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P- 82.) 
AMERICAN FRIENDS OF THE CHINESE PEOPLE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, pp. 40 and 147.) 

2. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" organization. 

{Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the Insti- 
tute of Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 145 and 146-) 

AMERICAN FRIENDS OF THE MEXICAN PEOPLE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 153.) 

AMERICAN FUND FOR PUBLIC SERVICE (GARLAND FUND) 

1. "Established in 1922 * * * it was a major source for the financing 
of Communist Party enterprises" such as the Daily Worker and 
New Masses, official Communist publications, Federated Press, 
Russian Reconstruction Farms, and International Labor De- 
fense. William Z. Foster, present chairman, Communist Party, 
and Scott Nearing, a leading writer for the Party, served on the 
board of directors of the Fund. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, PP- 75 and 76.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 11 

AMERICAN JEWISH LABOR COUNCIL 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

2. "With an eye to religious groups, the Communists have formed 

religious fronts such as the * * * American Jewish Labor 
Council," 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 
AMERICAN LABOR ALLIANCE 

1. The Communist Party of America, which was operating under- 
•ground n 1921, followed a mandate from the Communist Inter- 
national and established the American Labor Alliance as "its 
open, legal expression." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 209 on 
11 The Communist Party of the United States as an Agent 
of a Foreign Power," April 1, 1947, p. 15; also cited in 
House Report 1694 on "Organized Communism in the United 
States," May 28, 1954, originally released August 19, 1953, 
p. 69.) 
AMERICAN LABOR PARTY 

1. "For years, the Communists have put forth the greatest efforts to 

capture the entire American Labor Party throughout New York 
State. They succeeded in capturing the Manhattan and Brook- 
lyn sections of the American Labor Party but outside of New 
York City they have been unable to win control." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 

V- 78.) 

2. "Communist dissimulation extends into the field of political parties 

forming political front organizations such as the * * * American 
Labor Party. The Communists are thus enabled to present 
their candidates for elective office under other than a straight 
Communist label." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 
AMERICAN LEAGUE AGAINST WAR AND FASCISM 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. A "Communist-front organization." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, in re Harry Bridges, May 
' 28, 1942, p. 10.) 

3. "Established in the United States in an effort to create public 

sentiment on behalf of a foreign policy adapted to the interests 
of the Soviet Union." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 

' September 24, 1942, p. 7683.) 

4. "The American League Against War and Fascism was organized 

at the First United States Congress Against War which was 
held in New York City, September 29 to October 1, 1933. Four 



12 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

years later at Pittsburgh, November 26-28, 1937, the name of the 
organization was changed to the American League for Peace and 
Democracy. * * * It remained as completely under the control 
of Communists when the name was changed as it had been 
before." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 53; also cited in Annual Reports, H. R. 2, January 
8, 1939, pp. 69 and 121; H. R. 1476, January 3, 1940, p. 10; 
H. R. 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 14.) 
5. "Communist fronts change in accordance with the current party 
Hue. Thus when the party line was stridently anti-United 
States in the early 1930's, the Communists launched the Ameri- 
can League Against War and Fascism." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 92.) 

AMERICAN LEAGUE FOR PEACE AND DEMOCRACY (See also China Aid 
Council, National People's Committee Against Hearst) 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Established in the United States in 1937 as successor to the Ameri- 

can League Against War and Fascism "in an effort to create 
public sentiment on behalf of a foreign policy adapted to the 
iuterests of the Soviet Union. * * * The American League 
for Peace and Democracy * * * was designed to conceal 
Communist control, in accordance with the new tactics of the 
Communist International." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 

' September 24, 1942, pp. 7683 and 7684.) 

3. "The largest of the Communist 'front' movements in the United 

States is the American League for Peace and Democracy, for- 
merly known as the American League Against War and Fascism, 
and, at the time of its inception, as the United States Congress 
Against War. * * * The league contends publicly that it is 
not a Communist-front movement, yet at the very beginning 
Communists dominated it. Earl Browder was its vice presi- 
dent." "An examination of the program of the American League 
will show that the organization was nothing more nor less than 
a bold advocate of treason." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
H. R. 2, January 3, 1939, pp. 69-71 and House Report 1311 
on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, V- 
37; also cHed in Annual Reports, H. R. 1476, January 3, 
1940, p. 10; H. R. 1, January 3, 1941, p. 21; H. R. 2277, 
June 25, 1942, pp. 14-16; and H. R. 2748, January 2, 
1948, p. 8.) 

4. Cited as subversive and un-American. 

(Special Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appro- 
priations, Report, April 21, 1943, p. 3.) 

5. "Communist fronts change in accordance with the current party 

line. * * * In the face of the growing menace of Adolf 
Hitler in the late 1930's, they [the Communists] projected the 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 13 

American League for Peace and Democracy advocating collec- 
tive security with the democracies against fascism." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 28, 
1956, p. 92.) 

AMERICAN NEGRO LABOR CONGRESS 

1. Cited as a "Communist front organization." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, in re Harry Bridges, May 
' 28, 1942, p. 10.) 

2. Cited as a predecessor of the National Negro Congress. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
Report H. R. 2, January 8, 1989, p. 81.) 

3. Cited as among "the most prominent and important Communist 

Negro fronts in the past * * * William Odell Nowell * * * 
testified that after he had received instructions in the Soviet 
Union and returned to the United States, the Communist Party 
placed him as president of the American Negro Labor Congress. 
In his testimony he recounted how in 1929 or 1930 this organiza- 
tion was changed over to the League of Struggle for Negro 
Rights * * *" 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on "The 

American Negro in the Communist Parly," Dec. 22, 1954, 

p. 10.) 

AMERICAN PEACE APPEAL 

1. Cited as a Communist front project "in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 28, 
1956, p. 96.) 

AMERICAN PEACE CRUSADE (Organized in January 1951, with national 
headquarters at 1186 Broadway, New York 1, N. Y.) ' {See also Northern 
California Peace Crusade, San Diego Peace Forum, Southern California Peace 
Crusade) 

1. Cited as an organization which "the Communists established" as 

"a new intrument for their 'peace' offensive in the United 
States" and which was heralded by the Daily Worker "with 
the usual bold headlines reserved for projects in line with the 
Communist objectives." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities. Statement on the 
March of Treason, February 19, 1951, and House Report 
878 on the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, 
originally released April 1, 1951, p. 51.) 

2. "As part of Soviet psychological warfare against the United States, 

Communist fronts seek to paralyze America's will to resist Com- 
munist aggression by idealizing Russia's aims and methods, dis- 
crediting the United States, spreading defeatism and demorali- 
zation * * * specializing in this field * * * have been 
such organizations as the American Peace Crusade." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 28, 
1956, p. 90, see also pp. 92 and 96.) 

• Note difference in years during which this organization and the one following, under same name, were 
and are active. 



14 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

AMERICAN PEACE CRUSADE (During Stalin-Hitler Pact) 

1. Cited as "a Communist front later merged into the American Peace 
Mobilization" and as the "California section of the American 
Peace Mobilization." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 47 and 96.) 

AMERICAN PEACE MOBILIZATION (See also Washington Peace Mobili- 
zation) 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "Formed in the summer of 1940 under the auspices of the Com- 

munist Party and the Young Communist League as a 'front' 
organization designed to mold American opinion against partici- 
pation in the war against Germany. * * * The most con- 
spicuous activity of American Peace Mobilization was the picket- 
ing of the White House, which began in April 1941, in protest 
against lend-lease and the entire national defense program." 
(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7684.) 

3. Cited as "one of the most seditious organizations which ever op- 

erated in the United States" and "instrument of the Communist 

Party line prior to Hitler's attack on Russia." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- & I °^ s0 cited i n Annual Reports, H. R. 2277, June 25, 
1942, p. 13; and H. R. 2748, January 2, 1943, pp. 8 and 9.) 

4. "Communist fronts change in accordance with the current party 

line * * * During the Stalin-Hitler Pact (1939-1941) * * * the 
American Peace Mobilization * * * picketed the White House 
against lend-lease and the defense program." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 92.) 

AMERICAN PEOPLE'S CONGRESS AND EXPOSITION FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 

AMERICAN PEOPLE'S FUND 

1. "The American People's Fund was organized by [Frederick Vander- 
bilt] Field as a repository for funds to be distributed to Com- 
munist enterprises." Field served as its head, and Helen Bryan 
as treasurer. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, H. R. 
2233, June 7, 1946, p. 28.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 15 

AMERICAN PEOPLE'S MEETING 

1. "The name chosen for its national convention by the seditious Amer- 
ican Peace Mobilization." Held April 5-6, 1941, in New York 
City. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 106.) 
AMERICAN PEOPLE'S MOBILIZATION 

1. "American Peace Mobilization was formed in the summer of 1940 

under the auspices of the Communist Party and the Young 
Communist League as a 'front' organization designed to mold 
American opinion against participation in the war against Ger- 
many. Its existence terminated within a month after the Ger- 
man invasion of Russia when it became American People's Mo- 
bilization and adopted a program favoring complete assistance 
to Britain, Russia, and China." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7684.) 

2. "Immediately after Hitler's invasion of Russia, the American Peace 

Mobilization changed its name to the American People's Mobili- 
zation, and reversed all of its former positions in exact accord- 
ance with the changes which Hitler's invasion of the Soviet 
Union occasioned in the line of the Communist Party." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Re- 

' port, H. R. 2748, January 2, 1943, p. 9.) 

3. "Communist fronts change in accordance with the current party 

line * * * After Hitler attacked the Soviet Union on June 22, 
1941, and Russia became an ally, this organization [American 
Peace Mobilization] was transformed into the American People's 
Mobilization which supported the war effort." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 92.) 

AMERICAN POLISH LABOR COUNCIL 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review 
Board, released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

AMERICAN RELIEF SHIP FOR SPAIN 

1. Cited as "one of the several Communist Party front enterprises 
which raised funds for Loyalist Spain (or rather raised funds 
for the Communist end of that civil war)." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 102.) 

AMERICAN RESCUE SHIP MISSION 

1. Cited as Communist, and "a project of the United American Span- 

ish Aid Committee." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released July 25, 1949.) 

2. Cited as one in a "series of Communist enterprises" which was 

"managed by the United American Spanish Aid Commit- 
tee" and which was "launched in 1940 under false claims as to the 



16 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

amount of money necessary to charter a ship to bring Spanish 
refugees from Europe to Mexico." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, H. R. 

2233, June 7, 1946, pp. 19 and 27. 

AMERICAN-RUMANIAN FILM CORP. 

1. "[Nicholas] Dozenberg, acting upon instructions which had been 
given him in Moscow, established the American-Rumanian Film 
Corp. This firm was incorporated under the laws of the State of 
New York, and its sole purpose, according to Dozenberg, was to 
furnish a cover for the operation of the Soviet Military Intel- 
ligence in Rumania." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities. Report on The Shame- 
ful Years, H. R. 1229, January 8, 1952, originally released 
December SO, 1951, p. 9.) 

AMERICAN-RUSSIAN FRATERNAL SOCIETY 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of In- 
ternational Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

AMERICAN-RUSSIAN INSTITUTE (New York) (also known as American- 
Russian Institute for Cultural Relations With the Soviet Union) 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
' released April 21 '. 1949.) 

2. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" organization which was inti- 

mately linked with the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the 
Institute of Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 73, 95, 145 
and 146.) 

3. Cited as specializing in pro-Soviet propaganda. 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 

AMERICAN RUSSIAN INSTITUTE (Philadelphia) 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

AMERICAN RUSSIAN INSTITUTE OF SAN FRANCISCO 

1. Cited as a Communist organization. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released September 21, 1948.) 

AMERICAN RUSSIAN INSTITUTE OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (Los 
Angeles) 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
- released April 27, 1949.) 

AMERICAN-RUSSIAN TRADING CORP. 

1. Cited as a Soviet Government agency in the United States. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Re" 
port, H. R. 1476, January 3, 1940, p. 8.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 17 

2. "With the founding of Amtorg, the Soviet Union had for the first 
time a legitimate cover for its espionage activities in the United 
States." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1229 
on The Shameful Years, January 8, 1952, originally released 
December 80, 1951, p. 6.) 

AMERICAN SERBIAN COMMITTEE FOR RELIEF OF WAR ORPHANS 
IN YUGOSLAVIA 

1. Cited as a Communist front which is "similar in character to the 
American Committee for Yugoslav Relief." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 on 
the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, p. 81.) 

AMERICAN SLAV CONGRESS 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review 
Board, released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as "a Moscow-inspired and directed federation of Communist- 

dominated organizations seeking by methods of propaganda and 
pressure to subvert the 10,000,000 people in this country of Slavic 
birth or descent." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 on 

the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 

released June 26, 1949, p. 1.) 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR CULTURAL RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA > 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 129.) 

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TECHNICAL AID TO SPANISH DEMOCRACY 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 116.) 

AMERICAN-SOVIET SCIENCE SOCIETY 

1. Cited as an affiliate of the National Council of American-Soviet 
Friendship, Inc. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report to the Full 
Committee of the Special Subcommittee on National Security 
of the Committee on Un-American Activities, March 18, 
1948, pp. 5 and 6.) 

AMERICAN SPONSORING COMMITTEE FOR REPRESENTATION AT THE 
SECOND WORLD PEACE CONGRESS 

1. Cited as part of the Second World Peace Congress, with an office 

at 135 Liberty Street, New York 6, N. Y., which made an 

announcement in the Daily Worker on November 9, 1950, that 

"60 persons would go to Sheffield as a United States delegation." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 on 

the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 

released April 1, 1951, p. 86.) 

» Incorrectly referred to In report as Society for Cultural Relations with Soviet Russia. 



18 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

AMERICAN STUDENT UNION 

1. Cited as a Communist front which was "the result of a united 

front gathering of young Socialists and Communists" in Colum- 
bus, Ohio in 1935. 1 The Young Commuaist League took credit 
for the creation of the organization, which offered free trips to 
the Soviet Union. It claimed to have led as many as 500,000 
students out in annual April 22 strikes in the United States. 
(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
H. R. 2, January 3, 1939, p. 80: also cited in Annual 
Reports, H. R. 1476, January 3, 1940, p. 9, H. R. 2277, 
June 25, 1942, p. 16; and in House Report 1311 on the 
CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, V- 159.) 

2. Cited as subversive and un-American. 

(Special Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropria- 
tions, Report, April 21, 1943, p. 3.) 
AMERICAN STUDENTS REPUDIATE AGGRESSION IN KOREA 
1. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 
AMERICAN TECHNICAL AID SOCIETY 
1. Cited as an affiliate of the Friends of the Soviet Union. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
' H. R. 2, January 3, 1939, p. 79.) 
AMERICAN VETERANS FOR PEACE (See also Veterans for Peace) 
1. Cited as "another specialized 'peace' front of the Communist 
Party" which sent 100 delegates to the "Peace" Pilgrimage 
sponsored by the American Peace Crusade in March 1951. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 
on the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, 
originally released April 1, 1951, p. 52.) 
AMERICAN WOMEN FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as "an advance wave to establish a beachhead for other left- 
wing organizations scheduled to descend on Washington in 
observance of a Communist-declared 'Peace Week.'" 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 75.) 
AMERICAN WORKERS PARTY (December 1933-December 1934) 
1. Cited as one of the "dissenting groups" in the Communist move- 
ment in the United States. Its formation was announced by 
the Conference for Progressive Labor Action at a meeting in 
Pittsburgh in December 1933. "A unity convention was held 
in December 1934 when the members of the Communist League 
of America were taken into the American Workers Party. In 
March 1936, the American Workers Party 2 merged with the 
Socialist Party and thus disappeared from the scene." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, p. 142, also p. 141.) 

.' Date incorrectly appears as 1937 In H. R. 2 of January 3, 1939. 

1 The American Workers Party was actually known as the Workers Party of the United States subsequent 
to absorbing the Communist League of America in December 1934. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 19 

AMERICAN WRITERS CONGRESS • 

1. Earl Browder, general secretary of the Communist Party, was a 
speaker at the second biennial American Writers Congress in 
1937; the Congress was sponsored by the League of American 
Writers, cited as subversive by the Attorney General. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, V- 82.) 
AMERICAN YOUTH CONGRESS 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "It originated in 1934 and * * * has been controlled by Com- 

munists and manipulated by them to influence the thought of 
American youth." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 

September 24, 1942, p. 7685; also cited in re Harry Bridges, 

May 28, 1942, p. 10.) 

3. "One of the principal fronts of the Communist Party" and "promi- 

nently identified with the White House picket line * * * under 
the immediate auspices of the American Peace Mobilization." 
(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
H. R. 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 16; also cited in Annual 
Reports, H. R. 2, January 3, 1939, p. 82; and H.R. 1, Jan- 
uary 3, 1941, V- 81; an d House Report 1311 on the CIO 
Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, V- 102.) 

4. Cited as subversive and un-American. 

(Special Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropria- 
tions, Report, April 21, 1943, p. 3.) 
AMERICAN YOUTH FOR A FREE WORLD 

1. Cited as an organization which is the affiliate in the United States 
of the World Federation of Democratic Youth and which has 
been "the Communist clearing house for international student 
and youth information." Offices of this organization are lo- 
cated at 144 Bleecker Street, New York, N. Y. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 
on the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, origi- 
nally released, April 1, 1951, p. 77.) 
AMERICAN YOUTH FOR DEMOCRACY 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as a Communist organization which has been succeeded by 

the Labor Youth League. 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released August 80, 1950.) 

3. Cited as the new name under which the Young Communist League 

operates and which also largely absorbed the American Youth 
Congress. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 102.) 

> The First American Writers Congress, held April 26-28, 1935, In New York City, was also known as the 
Congress of American Revolutionary Writers. See also citation under Congress of American Revolutionary 
Writers. 



20 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

4. Cited as a front formed in October 1943 to succeed the Young Com- 

munist League and for the purpose of exploiting to the advantage 
of a foreign power the idealism, inexperience, and craving to 
join which is characteristic of American college youth. Its 
"high-sounding slogans" cover "a determined effort to disaffect 
our youth and to turn them against religion, the American home, 
against the college authorities, and against the American Gov- 
ernment itself." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 271 on 
American Youth for Democracy, April 17, 1947.) 

5. "As part of Soviet psychological warfare against the United States, 

Communist fronts seek to paralyze America's will to resist 
Communist aggression by idealizing Russia's aims and methods, 
discrediting the United States, spreading defeatism and demorali- 
zation * * *. Specializing in this field * * * have been such 
organizations as * * * the American Youth for Democracy." 
(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 1956, 
p. 90, see also p. 91.) 

AMERICAN YOUTH PEACE CRUSADE 

1. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 

AMTORG TRADING CORP. (See American-Russian Trading Corp.) 
ARMENIAN PROGRESSIVE LEAGUE OF AMERICA 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

ARTISTS' FRONT TO WIN THE WAR 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P- 96.) 
ASSOCIATION OF INTERNS AND MEDICAL STUDENTS 
1. Cited as an organization which "has long been a faithful follower 
of the Communist Party line" and which supported the Interna- 
tional Union of Students' Second "World Student Congress in 
Prague in August 1950. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 79.) 

BALTIMORE COUNTY COMMITTEE FOR PEACE 

1. "Howard Bernard Silverberg * * * together with his wife, 
founded the Communist 'Baltimore County Committee for 
Peace'." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1951, H. R. 2431, July 2, 1952, originally released February 
17, 1952, p. 11.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 21 

BAY AREA COMMITTEE TO SAVE THE ROSENBERGS 

1. Cited as a "local auxiliary" at 228 McAllister Street, San Francisco* 
of the National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg 
Case. "Rosenberg activities in the San Francisco area were 
under the direction of" this committee, whose executive secre- 
tary was Sylvia Steingart. "No other officers of the Bay Area 
organization were ever made known, and there is a strong likeli- 
hood that the campaign was actually steered from Los Angeles." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 71.) 

BAY AREA ROSENBERG-SOBELL COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the local organizations active in the Communist 
propaganda campaign exploiting atomic spies Ethel and Julius 
Rosenberg and Morton Sobell. It was headed by Doris Brin 
TV alker. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 122.) 

BOOK UNION 

1. "Distributors of Communist literature." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, V- 96.) 

BOSTON COMMITTEE TO SECURE CLEMENCY FOR THE ROSENBERGS 

1. Cited as a local auxiliary of the National Committee to Secure 

Justice in the Rosenberg Case. It was headed by Herman 

Tamsky, as chairman, and Sue Koritz, as secretary. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, pp. 64 
and 65.) 

BOSTON SCHOOL FOR MARXIST STUDIES (Boston, Mass.) 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

BRIDGES-ROBERTSON-SCHMIDT DEFENSE COMMITTEE (See also 
Citizens' Committee for Harry Bridges, Citizens' Victory Committee for Harry 
Bridges, Harry Bridges Defense Committee, Harry Bridges Victory Committee) 

1. "To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been 
devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and 
reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party 
itself. Among these organizations are the * * * Bridges, 
Robertson, Schmidt Defense Committee. When the Com- 
munist Party itself is under fire these offer a bulwark of pro- 
tection." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 

Committee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 

28, 1956, p. 91.) 



95822'— 57- 



22 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

BRIEHL'S FARM (near Wallkill, N. Y.) 

1. "The Communist management of six camps in New York State 
and another in California was exposed by committee investiga- 
tions and hearings." Listed among these is Briehl's Farm 
"advertised in the Daily "Worker as a resort center for both 
youth and adults," which has "also been used by the Com- 
munist Party as a training school for party leaders." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 

1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 
January 11, 1956, pp. 2 and 10.) 

BRONX VICTORY LABOR COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 156.) 
BROOKWOOD LABOR COLLEGE (Katonah, N. Y.) 
1. Cited as "Communistic" and as the recipient of at least $115,000 
from the American Fund for Public Service (Garland Fund). 
{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, pp. 84 and 76.) 

CALIFORNIA LABOR SCHOOL 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization at 216 Market 

Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Com- 

munists and outsiders in the theory and practice of communism, 
train organizers and operatives, recruit new party members and 
sympathizers. * * * Schools of this type have been * * * 
California Labor School, San Francisco. * * *" 

{Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 

1956, pp. 91 and 92.) 

CAMBRIDGE YOUTH COUNCIL 

1. Cited as a "Communist-front organization." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1951, H. R. 2431, July 2, 1952, originally released February 
17, 1952, p. 13.) 

CAMP ARCADIA 

1. Cited as an American Youth for Democracy camp. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 271 on 
The American Youth for Democracy, April 17, 1947, p. 9.) 

CAMP KINDERLAND (Hopewell Junction, N. Y.) 

1. "The Communist management of six camps in New York State 
and another in California was exposed by committee investiga- 
tions and hearings." Listed among these is Camp Kinderland, 
a children's camp owned and operated since 1951 by Camp 
Lakeland, Inc. David Green and Sol Vail, manager and presi- 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 23 

dent respectively of Camp Lakeland, Inc., "have been active 
members of the Communist Party." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 

1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 

January 11, 1956, pp. 2, 8, and 9.) 

CAMP LAKELAND (Hopewell Junction, N. Y.) 

1. "The Communist management of six camps in New York State 
and another in California was exposed by committee investiga- 
tions and hearings." Listed among these is Camp Lakeland, "a 
summer camp for adults," owned and operated by Camp Lake- 
land, Inc. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 
January 11, 1956, pp. 2 and 9.) 

CAMP TIMBERLINE (Jewett, N. Y.) 

1. "The Communist management of six camps in New York State 
and another in California was exposed by committee investiga- 
tions and hearings." Listed among these is Camp Timberline, 
a children's camp co-directed by Mr. and Mrs. Elton Gustafson. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 
January 11, 1956, pp. 2 and 10.) 

CAMP UNITY (Wingdale, N. Y.) 

1. Cited as a "notorious Communist rendezvous. " 

(Committee on Un-American Activities. Annual Report for 
1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 
January 11, 1956, pp. 9 and 10.) 

CAMP WOODLAND (Phoenicia, N. Y.) 

1. "The Communist management of six camps in New York State 
and another in California was exposed by committee investiga- 
tions and hearings." Listed among these is Camp Woodland, 
a children's camp directed by Norman Studer. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 
January 11, 1956, pp. 2 and 10.) 

CARPATHO-RUSSIAN PEOPLES SOCIETY 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGraih, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

CENTRAL COUNCIL OF AMERICAN CROATIAN WOMEN (See Central 

Council of American Women of Croatian Descent) 
CENTRAL COUNCIL OF AMERICAN WOMEN OF CROATIAN DESCENT 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. It is also known as Central 
Council of American Croatian Women or National Council of 
Croatian Women. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 



24 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

CERVANTES FRATERNAL SOCIETY 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

CHICAGO COMMITTEE FOR PEACEFUL ALTERNATIVES TO THE AT- 
LANTIC PACT (See Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic 
Pact) 

CHICAGO COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG CASE 

1. Cited as a "local auxiliary" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. "Literature of the Chicago 
Rosenberg Committee lists Nelson Algren as honorary chairman 
and Josephine Granat as executive secretary. The actual opera- 
tion of the organization was under the direction of Mrs. Granat 
* * * who drew a salary of $85 a week from the National 
Committee." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 72.) 

CHICAGO SOBELL COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the local organizations active in the Communist 
propaganda campaign exploiting atomic spies Ethel and Julius 
Rosenberg and Morton Sobell. "Bank records of April 8, 1954, 
list Gertrude Gunther as chairman and Phyllis Pildes as execu- 
tive secretary of the organization. On February 7, 1955 * * * 
the bank records listed Ruth Rothstein as chairman; Ruth 
Belmont as secretary, and David L. Soltker, husband of Gertrude 
Gunther, as treasurer." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 124.) 

CHINA AID COUNCIL 

1. A "subsidiary" of the American League for Peace and Democracy. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
H. R. 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 16.) 

2. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" organization which began as a 

part of the American League for Peace and Democracy and later 
combined with the American Committee for Chinese War 
Orphans. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the Insti- 
tute of Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 70, 145 and 146.) 

CITIZENS' COMMITTEE FOR HARRY BRIDGES (See also Bridges-Robert- 
son-Schmidt Defense Committee, Citizens' Victory Committee for Harry 
Bridges, Harry Bridges Defense Committee, Harry Bridges Victory Committee) 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front, located at 1265 Broadway, New York 

City, which was formed to oppose deportation of Harry Bridges, 
Communist Party member and leader of the disastrous San 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 25 

Francisco general strike of 1934 which was planned by the 
Communist Party. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, PP- 90 and 94.) 
CITIZENS' COMMITTEE OF THE UPPER WEST SIDE 
1. Cited as a subversive organization in New York City which is 
among the affiliates and committees of the Communist Party, 
U. S. A., and "which seeks to alter the form of government of 
the United States by unconstitutional means." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 
CITIZENS' COMMITTEE TO FREE EARL BROWDER « 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) ^ 

2. Cited as a Communist organization. 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, Sep- 
tember 24, 1942, p. 7687.) 

3. "When Earl Browder (then general secretary, Communist Party) 

was in Atlanta Penitentiary serving a sentence involving his 
fraudulent passports, the Communist Party's front which agi- 
tated for his release was known as the Citizens' Committee to 
Free Earl Browder * * * Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, one of the 
few outstanding women leaders of the Communist Party in this 
country, headed it." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 

pp. 6 and 55.) 

CITIZENS' VICTORY COMMITTEE FOR HARRY BRIDGES (See also 
Bridges-Robertson-Schmidt Defense Committee, Citizens' Committee for 
Harry Bridges, Harry Bridges Defense Committee, Harry Bridges Victory 
Committee) 

1. Cited as a Communist-Iron t organization. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 97.) 
CIVIL RIGHTS CONGRESS (See also Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee, 
Veterans Against Discrimination of the Civil Rights Congress of New York) 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as an organization formed at a Congress on Civil Rights 

held in Detroit in April 1946 as a merger of two other Communist- 
front organizations (International Labor Defense and the 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties); it was 
"dedicated not to the broader issues of civil liberties, but spe- 
cifically to the defense of individual Communists and the Com- 

1 See also citation under National Free Browder Congress, sponsored by the Citizens Committee to Free 
Earl Browder. 



26 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

munist Party" and "controlled by individuals who are either 
members of the Communist Party or openly loyal to it." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 

on the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1047, originally 

released September 2, 1047, pp. 2 and 10.) 

3. "To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been 

devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and 

reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party 

itself. Among these organizations is the Civil Eights Congress. 

When the Communist Party itself is under fire these fronts 

offer a bulwark of protection." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1056, p. 01; see also p. 50.) 

CIVIL RIGHTS CONGRESS FOR TEXAS 

1. Cited as subversive. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1047.) 

CIVIL RIGHTS CONGRESS, MILWAUKEE CHAPTER 

1. Cited as subversive. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1 , 1048.) 

CIVIL RIGHTS CONGRESS OF MICHIGAN 

1. Cited as subversive. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1048.) 

CIVIL RIGHTS DIVISION OF MOBILIZATION FOR DEMOCRACY 

1. A Los Angeles organization "affiliated with the Civil Rights 
Congress." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 on 
the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1047, originally 
released September 2, 1047, p. 11.) 

CIVIL RIGHTS FEDERATION (Michigan) (See Michigan Civil Rights 

Federation) 
CLEVELAND COMMITTEE TO SECURE CLEMENCY FOR THE ROSEN- 

BERGS 

1. Cited as a "local auxiliary" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. "Leaders of the Cleveland organ- 
ization were George Moed and Mildred Rothenberg, wife of 
Don Rothenberg." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1056, p. 82.) 

COLUMBUS PEACE ASSOCIATION 

1. Cited as one of a number of local organizations set up by the Com- 
munists just prior to the formation of the American Peace 
Mobilization "for the purpose of obstructing America's military 
preparedness." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 20, 1044, 
p. 155.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 27 

COMITE COORDINADOR PRO REPUBLICA ESPANOLA 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

COMMITTEE FOR A DEMOCRATIC FAR EASTERN POLICY (See also 
National Conference on American Policy in China and the Far East) 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

2. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" organization. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the 
Institute of Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 70, 145 and 
146.) 

3. "As part of Soviet psychological warfare against the United States, 

Communist fronts seek to paralyze America's will to resist Com- 
munist aggression by idealizing Kussia's aims and methods, 
discrediting the United States, spreading defeatism and demoral- 
ization * * * Specializing in this field * * * have been such 
organizations as * * * the Committee for a Democratic Far 
Eastern Policy." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 90, also p. 59.) 

COMMITTEE FOR CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS 

1. Defended the "interests of the Communist Party." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Aciivities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 95.) 

2. Among a "maze of organizations" which were "spawned for the 

alleged purpose of defending civil liberties in general but actu- 
ally intended to protect Communist subversion from any pen- 
alties under the law." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 on 

the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 

released September 2, 1947, p. 3.) 

COMMITTEE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS FOR COMMUNISTS 

1. Among a "maze of organizations" which were "spawned for the 
alleged purpose of defending civil liberties in general but actu- 
ally intended to protect Communist subversion from any penal- 
ties under the law." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 on 
the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 
released September 2, 1947, p. 3.) 

COMMITTEE FOR CONCERTED PEACE EFFORTS 

1. Cited as an organization with the same aims as the American 
Congress for Peace and Democracy, a Communist front advo- 
cating collective security prior to the signing of the Stalin-Hitler 
pact. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 105.) 



2S SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

COMMITTEE FOR DEFENSE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION 

1. Cited as a Communist Party agency "whose aim was to prevent the 
Rapp-Coudert committee of the New York State Legislature 
from exposing the Communists who had infiltrated the public- 
school system of that State." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, P- 154.) 

COMMITTEE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDENT COOPERATION (144 
Bleecker Street, New York, N. Y.) 

1. Cited as an organization which sent out literature "promoting the 
Prague Youth Congress" and which "gave full support to the 
Soviet peace movement and denounced the United States as an 
'imperialist aggressor'." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 78.) 

COMMITTEE FOR PEACE THROUGH WORLD COOPERATION 

1. An organization with the same aims as the American League for 
Peace and Democracy, a Communist front which beat the drums 
for collective security against Fascist aggressors in accordance 
with current Communist Party line. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 105.) 

COMMITTEE FOR PEACEFUL ALTERNATIVES TO THE ATLANTIC PACT 

(See also Conference for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact, Con- 
tinuations Committee of the Conference for Peaceful Alternatives to the 
Atlantic Pact, Mid-Century Conference for Peace, Northern California Com- 
mittee for Peaceful Alternatives) 

1. Cited as a Communist front organization w T hich was formed as a 

result of the Conference for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic 
Pact, and which w r as located, according to a letterhead of Sep- 
tember 16, 1950, at 30 North Dearborn Street, Chicago 2, 111. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 

the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 

released April 1, 1951, pp. 54~56.) 

2. "As part of Soviet psychological w T arfare against the United States, 

Communist fronts seek to paralyze America's will to resist Com- 
munist aggression by idealizing Russia's aims and methods, dis- 
crediting the United States, spreading defeatism and demorali- 
zation * * * Specializing in this field * * * have been such 
organizations as * * * the Committee for Peaceful Alternatives 
to the Atlantic Pact * * *" 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 90, also p. 96.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 29 

COMMITTEE FOR UNITED STATES PARTICIPATION IN THE AMERICAN 
CONTINENTAL CONGRESS FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as a section of the parent organization, the American Conti- 
nental Congress for Peace, which was "another phase in the 
Communist world 'peace' campaign, aimed at consolidating anti- 
American forces throughout the Western Hemisphere." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 21.) 

COMMITTEE OF PHILADELPHIA WOMEN FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as "another in the chain of Communist-inspired women's 
'peace' groups." It was organized in February, 1950. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 75.) 

COMMITTEE OF PROFESSIONAL GROUPS FOR BROWDER AND FORD 

1. Cited as a Communist front, which operated when William Z. 
Foster and Earl Browder were candidates for President and Vice 
President, respectively, on the Communist Party ticket. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 19, 1944, 
pp. 48 and 181.) 

COMMITTEE ON ELECTION RIGHTS 

1. Cited as a Communist front "whose function was to agitate for 
placing the Communist Party on the ballot throughout the 
United States." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 47 and 48.) 

COMMITTEE TO AID THE FIGHTING SOUTH 

1. Cited as subversive and among the affiliates and committees of the 
Communist Party, U. S. A., "which seeks to alter the form of 
government of the United States by unconstitutional means." 
{Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

COMMITTEE TO DEFEND AMERICA BY KEEPING OUT OF WAR 

1. "After Stalin signed his pact with Hitler, the Communist-led Com- 
mittee To Defend America by Keeping Out of War * * * 
came forth to oppose the national-defense program, lend-lease, 
conscription, and other 'war-mongering' efforts." It initiated 
the American Peace Mobilization. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, PP- 99 and 105.) 

COMMITTEE TO DEFEND ANGELO HERNDON 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
Report, H. R. 2, January 3, 1939, p. 82.) 



30 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

COMMONWEALTH COLLEGE (Mena, Ark.) 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

2. A "Communist enterprise" cited as subversive by an investigating 

Committee of the Arkansas Legislature. It received money 
from the Garland Fund. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, PP- 76 and 167.) 
COMMUNIST INFORMATION BUREAU (COMINFORM) (See Information 
Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties) 

COMMUNIST INTERNATIONAL (COMINTERN) 

1. "The Third or Communist International was organized by Lenin at 

Moscow in March 1919 to carry out the revolutionary purposes of 
the Communist Party and the Soviet Union. * * * [It] has ever 
since been the medium of instigating class warfare and social 
revolution in all countries, in order to establish a world Soviet 
Union, with the capital at Moscow. * * * The Communist 
International is dominated by the Russian Communist Party and 
Soviet officials." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 

' H. R. 2, January 8, 1989, p. 15.) 

2. Cited as the centralized, world-wide organization of the Commu- 

nists, controlled by Moscow. "On May 30, 1943, the Communist 
International (Comintern) was formally dissolved, to be suc- 
ceeded by the Information Bureau of the Communist Parties 
(Cominform) established in September 1947 with headquarters 
in Belgrade. There is every reason to believe that the Commu- 
nist Party, U. S. A., is as completely subordinated to the disci- 
pline of this Moscow-dominated world party, as it ever was." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 209 on 
the Communist Party oj the United States as an agent of a 
Foreign Power, April 1, 1947, pp. 27 and 28; and House 
Report 1920 on the Communist Party oj the United States 
as an Advocate of Overthrow of Government by Force and 
Violence, May 11, 1948, p. 43.) 

COMMUNIST LABOR PARTY OF AMERICA (September 1919 to May 1920) 

1. Cited as one of the "varied forms the American Communist move- 
ment has taken since its inception in September 1919." Organ- 
ized at a convention in Chicago in 1919, the Communist Labor 
Party functioned until May 1920, when it merged with a group 
splintered from the Communist Party of America and formed a 
new organization known as the United Communist Party. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 209 on 
"The Communist Party of the United States as an Agent of a 
Foreign Power," April 1, 1947, pp. 14 o/nd 17, and House 
Report 1694 on "Organized Communism in the United 
States," May 28, 1954, originally released August 19, 1953, 
pp. 42 and 47; also cited in House Report 2244 on "The 
Communist Conspiracy," Part I, Section E, May 29, 
1956, p. 3.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 31 

COMMUNIST LEAGUE OF AMERICA (OPPOSITION) 

1. Cited as a "group of Trotskyites" which was formed at a national 
conference in Chicago in 1929 by leaders who had been expelled 
from the Communist Party, U. S. A. "In December 1934, the 
Communist League of America merged with the American 
Workers' Party." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 
on Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 
1954, originally released August 19, .1953, p. 141 •) 
COMMUNIST LEAGUE OF STRUGGLE 

1. Cited as a "dissenting group" within the Communist movement in 
the United States. It was formed by Albert Weisbord, who was 
an admirer of Trotsky and who was expelled from the Communist 
Party. "In December 1934 this league adopted a 'thesis' * * * 
[which] contained still another version of the many factional 
rights within the American Communist movement." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 
on Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 
1954, originally released August 19, 1953, p. 142.) 
COMMUNIST PARTY OF AMERICA (September 1919 to April 1923) 
1. Cited as one of the "varied forms the American Communist 
movement has taken since its inception in September 1919." 
The Communist Party of America was organized at a convention 
in Chicago September 1-7, 1919 and on April 7, 1923 it voted to 
dissolve and merge into the Workers Party of America. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 209 
on "The Communist Party of the United States as an Agent 
of a Foreign Power," 1 April 1, 194-7, pp. 14-17; also cited 
in House Report 1694 on "Organized Communism in the 
United States," May 28, 1954, originally released August 19, 
1953, pp. 29, 69, and 79; and House Report 2244 on "The 
Communist Conspiracy," Part I, Section E, May 29, 1956, 
p. 3.) 
COMMUNIST PARTY OF PANAMA (See Partido Del Pueblo of Panama) 
COMMUNIST PARTY, U. S. A. (March 1929 to May 1944; July 1945 to present) 

1. Cited as a "subversive" organization which seeks "to alter the 

form of government of the United States by unconstitutional 
means." 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947; and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "* * * the Communist Party of the United States of America, 

from the time of its inception in 1919 to the present time, is an 
organization that believes in, advises, advocates, and teaches 
the overthrow by force and violence of the Government of the 
United States." * 

{Attorney General Francis Biddle, opinion in the case of 
Harry Bridges, May 28, 1942, p. 31.) 

3. "* * * a foreign conspiracy masked as a political party * * * in 

practice, the Communist Party is actually functioning as a 
'border patrol' on American shores for a foreign power — The 
Soviet Union." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Re- 
port, H. R. 1476, January 3, 1940, p. 4.) 

1 Dissolution of the Communist Party of America is incorrectly described in this report. 



32 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

4. "An organization operating under centralized discipline subordi- 

nated to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union * * * 
whose basic aim, whether open or concealed, is the abolition of 
our present economic system and democratic form of government 
and the establishment of a Soviet dictatorship in its place. 
* * * An organization resorting to deception, evasion, illegal 
methods, violence, and civil war, methods implicit in its revolu- 
tionary purpose." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 209 on 
11 The Communist Party of the United States as an Agent 
of a Foreign Power," April 1, 1947, p. 1; also cited in 
House Report 1920 on the "Communist Party of the United 
Stales as an Advocate of Overthrow of Government by Force 
and Violence," May 11, 1948, pp. 1 and 2.) 

5. Found to be a "Communist-action organization" within the mean- 

ing of the Subversive Activities Control Act and ordered to 
register as such with the Attorney General of the United States. 

(Subversive Activities Control Board, Decision of April 20, 

' 1953.) 

COMMUNIST PARTY U. S. A. (MAJORITY GROUP) 

1. Cited as a "dissenting group" within the Communist movement in 
the United States. It was organized by Jay Lovestone, following 
his expulsion from the Communist Party of the United States in 
1929, and it subsequently operated under such names as the 
Communist Party, U. S. A. (Opposition), Independent Com- 
munist Labor League of America, and Independent Labor League 
of America. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, p. 143.) 

COMMUNIST PARTY U. S. A. (OPPOSITION) 

1. Cited as one of the names subsequently assumed by a "dissenting 
group" within the Communist movement in the United States 
which had been organized by Jay Lovestone following his expul- 
sion from the Communist Party of the United States in 1929. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, p. 143.) 

COMMUNIST POLITICAL ASSOCIATION (May 1944 to July 1945) 

1. Cited as a "subversive," "Communist" organization which sought 

"to alter the form of government of the United States by uncon- 
stitutional means." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released September 21, 1948.) 

2. "* * * after assuming the name of the Communist Political As- 

sociation on May 20-23, 1944, for strategic reasons, the party 
resumed the name of the Communist Party of the United States 
on July 26-28, 1945." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 209 on 
"The Communist Party of the United States as an Agent 
of a Foreign Power," April 1, 1947, p. 29; also cited in 
House Report 1694 on "Organized Communism in the United 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 33 

States," May 28, 1954, originally released August 19, 1953, 
pp. 114 and 120, and House Report 2244 on "The Com- 
munist Conspiracy," Part I, Section E, May 29, 1956, p. 3.) 

COMMUNITY UNITARIAN FELLOWSHIP 

1. "* * * when the Communists were expelled from the San Diego 
First Unitarian Church by the pastor, Peter Samson, they set 
up a competitive organization, the Community Unitarian Fel- 
lowship. This was designed to operate as a 'nonreligious' front 
organization * * *. The Communist group was refused recog- 
nition both by the San Diego Unitarian Church and by the 
American Unitarian Association, the parent body of Unitarian 
churches in America." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 

1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 

January 11, 1956, p. 26.) 

CONFERENCE FOR PEACEFUL ALTERNATIVES TO THE ATLANTIC PACT 

(See also Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact, Con- 
tinuations Committee of the Conference for Peaceful Alternatives to the 
Atlantic Pact) 
1. A conference initiated by Communists in the United States as part 
of the "Moscow-directed" "peace" movement. Called for July 
1949 in Washington, D. C, it resulted in the eventual forma- 
tion of Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic 
Pact. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, pp. 55 and 56.) 

CONFERENCE FOR PROGRESSIVE LABOR ACTION 

1. Cited as a "dissenting group" in the Communist movement in the 
United States which, at a meeting in Pittsburgh in December 
1933, made arrangements for the formation of the American 
Workers Party. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, p. 142.) 

CONFERENCE ON CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES IN AMERICA 

1. A conference as a result of which was established the National 

Federation for Constitutional Liberties, "part of what Lenin 
called the solar system of organizations, ostensibly having no 
connection with the Communist Party, by which Communists 
attempt to create sympathizers and supporters of their program." 
(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7687.) 

2. "An important part of the solar system of the Communist Party's 

front organizations," which founded the National Federation for 
Constitutional Liberties in 1940. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, p. 102.) 



34 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

CONFERENCE ON PAN-AMERICAN DEMOCRACY (See also Council for 

Pan-American Democracy) 
1. Cited as a Communist front which defended Luiz Carlos Prestes, a 
Brazilian Communist leader and former member of the executive 
committee of the Communist International. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, PP- 1^9 and 161; also cited in Annual Report, H. R. 
2277, June 25, 1942, p. 18.) 

CONGRESS (FIRST) OF THE MEXICAN AND SPANISH-AMERICAN 
PEOPLES OF THE UNITED STATES 

1. Cited as a Communist front, held March 24-26, 1939, in Albu- 
querque, N. Mex. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 120, also 102.) 

CONGRESS OF AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WRITERS > 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

CONGRESS OF AMERICAN-SOVIET FRIENDSHIP 2 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, pp. 94 and 143.) 

CONGRESS OF AMERICAN WOMEN 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as subversive and Communist and supported at all times by 

the international Communist movement. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1953 on 
the Congress of American Women, April 26, 1950, originally 
released October 23, 1949.) 

3. "As part of Soviet psychological warfare against the United States, 

Communist fronts seek to paralyze America's will to resist Com- 
munist aggression by idealizing Russia's aims and methods, 
discrediting the United States, spreading defeatism and demorali- 
zation * * * Specializing in this field * * * have been such 
organizations as * * * the Congress of American Women." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 90; see also pp. 59 and 91.) 

CONNECTICUT STATE YOUTH CONFERENCE 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

1 Congress of American Revolutionary Writers, held April 26-28, 1935, New York City, was also known as 
the First American Writers Congress. See also citation under American Writers Congress. 

1 This Congress sponsored by the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, held November 7-8, 
1942, New York City. See also entry under National Council of American-Soviet Friendship. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 35 

CONSUMERS' NATIONAL FEDERATION 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 155.) 

CONTINUATIONS COMMITTEE OF THE CONFERENCE FOR PEACEFUL 
ALTERNATIVES TO THE ATLANTIC PACT (See also Conference for 
Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact, Committee for Peaceful Alterna- 
tives to the Atlantic Pact) 
1. Cited as the title under which a "new front movement conducted 
its activities" until it "formally designated itself as the Com- 
mittee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 56.) 

COORDINATING COMMITTEE TO LIFT THE (SPANISH) EMBARGO 

1. Cited as one of a number of front organizations, set up during the 

Spanish Civil War by the Communist Party in the United States 

and through which the party carried on a great deal of agitation. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 

pp. 137 and 138.) 

2. Cited as one in a "series of Communist enterprises which have dealt 

with Spain and the Spanish Civil War. Directly related, organ- 
izationally or historically, with the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee * * *". 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, II. R. 

' 2283, June 7, 1946, p. 27.) 

COUNCIL FOR PAN-AMERICAN DEMOCRACY (See also Conference on 

Pan-American Democracy) 
1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

COUNCIL OF UNITED STATES VETERANS 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 88.) 
COUNCIL OF YOUNG SOUTHERNERS 

1. "Described on its letterhead as having 'its origin at the Youth Com- 
mission of the Southern Conference for Hainan Welfare.' 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 592 
on the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, June 16, 
1947, p. 5.) 

COUNCIL ON AFRICAN AFFAIRS 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front "formed to provoke racial friction." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 92, also p. 59.) 



36 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

CROATIAN BENEVOLENT FRATERNITY 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

CULTURAL AND SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE FOR WORLD PEACE J 

1. Cited as a Communist front set up to "mobilize American intellec- 
tuals in the field of arts, sciences and letters" as a propaganda 
forum for Soviet foreign policy and "Soviet culture." It served 
to "prepare the way for the coming World Peace Congress in 
Paris." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Review of the Scientific 
and Cultural Conference for World Peace arranged by the 
National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions and 
held in New York City on March 25, 26, and 27, 1949, 
House Report 1954, April 26, 1950, originally released 
April 19, 1949, p. 1 ; also House Report 878 on the Communist 
"Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally released April 
1, 1951, p. 11.) 

DAILY WORKER PRESS CLUB 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization which seeks 
"to alter the form of government of the United States by uncon- 
stitutional means." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released July 25, 1949.) 

DEFENSE COMMITTEE FOR EUGENE DENNIS (See Dennis Defense 
Committee) 

DEFENSE COMMITTEE FOR GERHARDT EISLER (See Eisler (Gerhardt) 
Defense Committee) 

DENNIS DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as subversive and among the affiliates and committees of 

the Communist Party, U. S. A., which seek "to alter the form 

of government of the United States by unconstitutional means." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Revieiu Board, 

released December 4, 1947.) 

DESCENDANTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

1. "A Communist-front organization set up as a radical imitation 

of the Daughters of the American Revolution. The Descend- 
ants have uniformly adhered to the line of the Communist 
Party. * * * The educational . director * * * is one Howard 
Selsam, an instructor at the Communist Party's Workers School 
in New York." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
H R. 2277, June 25, 1942, pp. 18 and 19.) 

2. Cited as subversive and un-American. 

(Sp>ecial Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropria- 
tions, Report, April 21, 1943, p. 8.) 

1 Also referred to as the Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 37 

DETROIT BILL OF RIGHTS DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Among a "maze of organizations" which were "spawned for the 
alleged purpose of defending civil liberties in general but actually 
intended to protect Communist subversion from any penalties 
under the law." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 
on the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 
released September 2, 1947, p. 3.) 

DETROIT COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG 
CASE 

1. Cited as a "local auxiliary" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. Headed by Airs. Leo (Pat) 
Rush, "The Detroit Rosenberg organization and the Communist 
Party in that city were virtually identical. The activities in 
behalf of the spies were conducted directly by the Party through 
its own leaders and members, functioning within a nominal 
Detroit Rosenberg Committee and the Communist-controlled 
Civil Rights Congress." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, pp. 74 
and 75.) 
DETROIT YOUTH ASSEMBLY 
1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

DOWN RIVER CITIZENS COMMITTEE (Detroit, Mich.) 

1. "Joseph Chrin, who was shown by sworn testimony to have been a 
member of the Communist Party, was the leader of the Down 
River Citizens Committee. The Down River Citizens Com- 
mittee operated in the communities heavily populated by Ford 
workers. It advertised as a political organization interested in 
the betterment of the Down River community. In fact and in 
practice, as set forth by sworn testimony, the Down River Citi- 
zens Committee was solely a vehicle of the Communist Party. 
Its program, while supporting many worthy issues and candidates 
for public office, was nevertheless geared to fulfill the objectives 
of the Communist Party." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1954, H. R. 57, Jan. 26, 1955, p. 16.) 

EAST BAY PEACE COMMITTEE (Oakland, Calif.) 

1. Cited as a "local Communist front" which gave support to the 
American Peace Crusade in 1951. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 on 
the Communist u Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 52.) 
EAST HARLEM WOMEN FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 

95822°— 57 4 



38 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

EAST MEADOW AND WESTBURY ROSENBERG COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the "field units" in the New York area for the 

National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 

Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for 

the Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 63.) 

EISLER (GERHARDT) DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. "An offshoot of the Civil Rights Congress." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report No. 
1115 on the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, 
originally released September 2, 1947, p. 13.) 

EMERGENCY CIVIL LIBERTIES COMMITTEE 

1. "To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been 
devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and 
reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party 
itself. Among these organizations are the * * * Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee. When the Communist Party itself 
is under fire these fronts offer a bulwark of protection." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 

EMERGENCY COMMITTEE OF THE ARTS AND PROFESSIONS TO 
SECURE CLEMENCY FOR THE ROSENBERGS 

1. Cited as an "auxiliary unit" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. Its "only public appearance 
* * * was the insertion of full-page advertisements in the Wash- 
ington Star, the St. Louis Post Dispatch and the Los Angeles 
News on January 5, 1953. These listed Dr. Clemens J. France 
as chairman and Bernard Gersten as secretary-treasurer, and 
requested contributions to be sent to its offices, 108 West 44th 
Street, New York." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for 
the Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, y. 23.) 

EMERGENCY CONFERENCE TO AID THE SPANISH REPUBLIC 

1. Cited as a Communist organization. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 87.) 
EMERGENCY CONFERENCE TO SAVE SPANISH REFUGEES 
1. Cited as Communist, and as "the founding body of the North 
American Spanish Aid Committee." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released July 25, 1949.) 

EMERGENCY PEACE MOBILIZATION 

1. "The American Peace Mobilization * * * was formally founded 
at a meeting in Chicago at the end of August 1940, known 
as the Emergency Peace Mobilization." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
' September 24, 1942, p. 7684.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 39 

2. Cited as a Communist front which came forth, after Stalin signed 
his pact with Hitler, to oppose the national defense program, 
lend-lease, conscription, and other American "war-mongering" 
efforts. It immediately preceded the American Peace Mobiliza- 
tion in 1940. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, pp. 105, 156, and 169.) 
EMERGENCY TRADE UNION CONFERENCE TO AID SPANISH 

DEMOCRACY 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, V- ISO.) 
ETHIOPIAN DEFENSE COMMITTEE 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1954, H. R. 57, February 16, 1955, p. 5.) 

EUGENE DENNIS DEFENSE COMMITTEE (See Dennis Defense Committee) 
EXILED WRITERS COMMITTEE OF THE LEAGUE OF AMERICAN 
WRITERS 

1. Cited as one in a "series of Communist enterprises, which have 
dealt with Spain and the Spanish Civil War." The Exiled 
Writers Committee of the League of American Writers merged 
with the American Committee to Save Refugees and the United 
American Spanish Aid Committee to form the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
' H. R. 2288, June 7, 1946, p. 27.) 

FARM RESEARCH 

1. Cited as a Communist-front organization financed from the Robert 

Marshall Foundation, "one of the principal sources for the 
money with which to finance the Communist Party's fronts 
generally in recent years." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, PP- 50 and 147.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front which is "used to appeal to special 

occupational groups * * *" 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 

FEDERATED PRESS 

1. Cited as a Communist-controlled organization financed by the 
American Fund for Public Service and the Robert Marshall 
Foundation, both principal sources of funds for Communist 
enterprises. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, PP- 76, 143, and 147.) 



40 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

2. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" news syndicate. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the 
Institute oj Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 95 and 

3. "Certain Communist fronts are organized for the purpose of pro- 

mulgating Communist ideas and misinformation into the blood- 
stream of public opinion. Examples of such organizations are 
the * * * Federated Press. * * *" 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. Ill , April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 

FEDERATION OF GREEK MARITIME UNIONS (See American Branch of) 
FILM AUDIENCES FOR DEMOCRACY 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, P- 150.) 
FILMS FOR DEMOCRACY 
1. Cited as a Communist-front organization. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, VV- 49 and 150.) 
FINNISH-AMERICAN MUTUAL AID SOCIETY 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

FIRST CONGRESS OF THE MEXICAN AND SPANISH-AMERICAN 
PEOPLES OF THE UNITED STATES (See Congress (First) of the Mexican 
and Spanish-American Peoples of the United States) 

FIRST WORLD CONGRESS OF THE DEFENDERS OF PEACE (See World 
Peace Congress) 

FIRST WORLD CONGRESS OF THE PARTISANS OF PEACE (See World 

Peace Congress) 
FIRST WORLD PEACE CONGRESS (See World Peace Congress) 
FIRST WORLD STUDENT CONGRESS (See World Student Congress) 
FLORIDA PRESS AND EDUCATIONAL LEAGUE 

1. Cited as subversive and as a branch of the Communist Political 
Association which seeks "to alter the form of government of the 
United States by unconstitutional means." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released July 25, 1949.) 

FRIENDS OF CHINESE DEMOCRACY 

1. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" organization. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the 
Institute of Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, p. 146.) 

FRIENDS OF THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN BRIGADE 

1. "In 1937-38, the Comemnist Party threw itself wholeheartedly 
into the campaign for the support of the Spanish Loyalist cause, 
recruiting men and organizing multifarious so-called relief or- 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 41 

ganizations." Among these was the above Communist-front 

organization. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Beport 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 82 and 125; also cited in Annual Report, H. B. 1476, 
January 3, 1940, p. 9.) 

FRIENDS OF THE CAMPUS 

1. A "Communist-controlled" organization "initiated in 1945 in order 
to mobilize 'moral and financial support' behind the AYD 
[American Youth for Democracy]." It "is headed by a group 
of individuals closely identified with Communist causes." Hon- 
orary president is avowed Communist Donald Henderson. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Beport 271 on 
American Youth for Democracy, April 17, 1947, pp. 9 
and 12.) 

FRIENDS OF THE SOVIET UNION (See also American Technical Aid Society) 

1. Cited as a Communist organization succeeded by the American 

Council on Soviet Relations and the National Council of Amer- 
ican-Soviet Friendship. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Beview Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "One of the most open Communist fronts in the United States," 

whose purpose "is to propagandize for and defend Russia and its 
system of government." It "is a section of an international 
movement directed from Moscow." The Friends admit "they 
penetrate our industrial sections." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Be- 
port, H. B. 2, January 3, 1939, p. 78; also cited in Annual 
Beports, H. B. 1476, January 3, 1940, p. 9, and H. B. 2277, 
June 25, 194-2, p. 19; and House Beport 1311 on the CIO 
Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, VV- 49 and 94.) 
FRONTIER FILMS 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Beport 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, pp. 49, 83, and 147.) 
GALENA DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist-front organization which was a subsidiary of 
the International Labor Defense, legal arm of the Communist 
Party. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Beport 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P- 166.) 
GARIBALDI AMERICAN FRATERNAL SOCIETY 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of In- 
ternational Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Beview Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

GARLAND FUND (See American Fund for Public Service) 



42 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER SCHOOL 

1. Cited as an adjunct in New York City of the Communist Party. 
(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
December 4, 1947.) 

GREAT NECK ROSENBERG COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the "field units" in the New York area for the 
National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 68.) 
GREATER NEW YORK COMMITTEE FOR EMPLOYMENT 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 152.) 

GREATER NEW YORK EMERGENCY CONFERENCE ON INALIENABLE 
RIGHTS (See also New York Conference for Inalienable Rights) 

1. Cited as a Communist front which was succeeded by the National 

Federation for Constitutional Liberties. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, pp. 96 and 129.) 

2. Among a "maze of organizations" which were "spawned for the 

alleged purpose of defending civil liberties in general but ac- 
tually intended to protect Communist subversion from any 
penalties under the law." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 on 

the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1941, originally 

released September 2, 1947, p. 3.) 

GREEK-AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR NATIONAL UNITY 

1. Cited as an earlier name for the subversive and Communist Amer- 
ican Council for a Democratic Greece. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948.) 

GREEK-AMERICAN COUNCIL 

1. Cited as an earlier name for the subversive and Communist Amer- 
ican Council for a Democratic Greece. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948.) 

HARRY BRIDGES DEFENSE COMMITTEE (See also Bridges-Robertson- 
Schmidt Defense Committee, Citizens' Committee for Harry Bridges, Citizens' 
Victory Committee for Harry Bridges, Harry Bridges Victory Committee) 

1. Cited as one of the Communist fronts formed to oppose deporta- 
tion of Harry Bridges, Communist Party member and leader 
of the disastrous San Francisco general strike of 1934 which was 
planned by the Communist Party. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 90.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATION? 43 

HARRY BRIDGES VICTORY COMMITTEE (See also Bridges-Robertson- 
Schmidt Defense Committee, Citizens' Committee for Harry Bridges, Citizens' 
Victory Committee for Harry Bridges, Harry Bridges Defense Committee) 
1. Cited as a Communist-front organization operating in San Fran- 
cisco after the Communist Party became prowar. Harry 
Bridges, a Communist Party member and leader of the Com- 
munist-planned general strike in San Francisco in 1934, was 
threatened with deportation, the defense against which was al- 
most entirely in the hands of the Communists. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 90 and 94.) 

HAWAII CIVIL LIBERTIES COMMITTEE » 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
' released April 27, 1949.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front which "from its inception has been 

directed by Communists for the principal purpose of protecting 
and expanding the Communist fifth column in the islands com- 
prising the Territory of Hawaii." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 2986 on 
Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee, August 24, 1950, origi- 
nally released June 23, 1950.) 

HELLENIC-AMERICAN BROTHERHOOD 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

HEMPSTEAD ROSENBERG COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the "field units" in the New York area for the 
National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 63.) 

HOLLYWOOD WRITERS MOBILIZATION FOR DEFENSE 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

HUNGARIAN-AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR DEMOCRACY 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947 , and September 21, 1948.) 

HUNGARIAN BROTHERHOOD 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

1 According to a press release of the Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee, November 2, 1950. their member- 
ship voted unanimously to affiliate with the Civil Rights Congress and will henceforth be known as tho 
Hawaii Civil Rights Congress. 



44 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

ILLINOIS PEOPLE'S CONFERENCE FOR LEGISLATIVE ACTION 

1. "A few years ago the Communist Party operated throughout the 
country under the guise of a series of States conferences for legis- 
lative action. The Illinois People's Conference for Legislative 
Action took care of the Chicago area. It was entirely under the 
control of the Communist Party." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, V- 122.) 
INDEPENDENT CITIZENS COMMITTEE OF THE ARTS, SCIENCES, AND 

PROFESSIONS 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities, House 
Report 1954 on the Scientific and Cultural Conference for 
World Peace arranged by the National Council of the Arts, 
Sciences, and Professions and held in New York City on 
March 25, 26, and 27, 1949, April 26, 1950, originally 
released April 19, 1949, p. 2; and House Report 378, on the 
Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, pp. 11 and 12.) 

INDEPENDENT COMMUNIST LABOR LEAGUE OF AMERICA 

1. Cited as one of the names subsequently assumed by a "dissenting 
group" within the Communist movement in the United States 
which had been organized by Jay Lovestone following his expul- 
sion from the Communist Party of the United States in 1929. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, p. 143.) 

INDEPENDENT LABOR LEAGUE OF AMERICA 

1. Cited as one of the names subsequently assumed by a "dissenting 
group" within the Communist movement in the United States 
which had been organized by Jay Lovestone following his expul- 
sion from the Communist Party of the United States in 1929. 
The league issued a declaration of dissolution in January 1941. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, p. 143.) 
INDEPENDENT SOCIALIST LEAGUE (See also Workers Party, 1940-1948) 
1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization which seeks 
"to alter the form of government of the United States by uncon- 
stitutional means." "In its official organ, Labor Action of April 
1949, the Workers Party announced that at the fifth national 
convention it had voted to relinquish the name of the Workers 
Party and adopt the name of the Independent Socialist League. 
The new organization * * * represents but a change in name 
and is devoted to the same aims and purposes of its predecessor 

$ * * if 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 29, 1949.) 
INDUSCO, INC. (See American Committee in Aid of Chinese Industrial 
Cooperatives) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 45 

INFORMATION BUREAU OF THE COMMUNIST AND WORKERS' PARTIES 

1. "Open above-ground activity by the Communist International was 
resumed in September 1947 as a result of a meeting of European 
Communist leaders in Poland. It comes as no surprise that this 
new version of the Comintern, which is called the Communist 
Information Bureau or Cominform, has openly enrolled the Com- 
munist Parties of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Poland, 
and Hungary where the old Comintern officials are in command. 
Also avowed members of the Cominform are the Communist Par- 
ties of the Soviet satellite, Yugoslavia, and of France and Italy. 
Master of the international alliance, however, is the Soviet 
Union. * * *" 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920 on 
the Communist Party of the United States as an Advocate of 
Overthrow of Government by Force and Violence, May 11, 
1948, p. 83.) 

INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS » 

1. "The IPR was a vehicle used by the Communists to orientate 
American far eastern policies toward Communist objectives." 
"Members of the small core of officials and staff members who 
controlled IPR were either Communist or pro-Communist." 
The American Communist Party and Soviet officials considered 
the organization "an instrument of Communist policy, propa- 
ganda and military intelligence." 

{Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the Insti- 
tute of Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 223 and 225.) 

INTERCONTINENT NEWS SERVICE 

1. "* * * Grace Granich, upon the direction of the Communist 
Party, in March 1941, established the Intercontinent News 
Service in New York City. Under the operation of Grace Gran- 
ich, Intercontinent News Service was a device used by the 
Communist Party and the Daily Worker to obtain party infor- 
mation and official directives from the Communist International 
in Moscow." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1952, House Report 2516, January 3, 1953, originally 
released December 28, 1952, pp. 67 and 68.) 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF DEMOCRATIC LAWYERS 

1. Cited as an international Communist-front organization. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 3123 on 
the National Lawyers Guild, September 21, 1950, originally 
released September 17, 1950, p. 13.) 

2. Cited as being among "international Communist fronts * * * 

functioning at the present time." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 93, also p. 59.) 

1 Senate Report 20.*0 states that the title, Institute of Pacific Relations, "unless otherwise qualified, 
refers to the activities of * * * the American Council of the IPR and the international secretariat." 
(p. 94 fn.) 



46 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF INTELLECTUALS FOR PEACE (See 
International Committee of Intellectuals in Defense of Peace) 

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF INTELLECTUALS IN DEFENSE OF 
PEACE 

1. Cited as one of the forms assumed by the "Communist 'peace' 
movement." It was created at a World Congress of Intellectuals 
held at Wroclaw, Poland August 25-28, 1948. It was also 
known as the International Liaison Committee of Intellectuals 
for Peace, and International Committee of Intellectuals for 
Peace. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 on 
the Communist "Peace Offensive," April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, pp. 1 and 10.) 
INTERNATIONAL DEMOCRATIC WOMEN'S FEDERATION (See Women's 

International Democratic Federation) 
INTERNATIONAL JURIDICAL ASSOCIATION 

1. Cited as "a Communist front and an offshoot of the International 

Labor Defense." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

19U, P- 149.) 

2. Cited as an organization which "actively defended Communists 

and consistently followed the Communist Party line." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 3123 
on the National Lawyers Guild, September 21, 1950, origi- 
nally released September 17, 1950, p. 12.) 
INTERNATIONAL LABOR DEFENSE (See also Galena Defense Committee, 
Trade Union Advisory Committee) 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "Legal arm of the Communist Party." 

(Attorney General Francis Riddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7686.) 

3. "It is, essentially, the legal defense arm of the Communist Party of 

the United States." "It is the American section of M. O. P. R., 
or Red International of Labor Defense, often referred to as the 
Red International Aid." Its international congresses meet in 
Moscow. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
House Report 2, January 8, 1939, pp. 75-78; also cited in 
Annual Reports, House Report 1476, January 3, 1940, p. 9 
and House Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 19; and House 
Report 1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 
29, 1944, V- 69.) 

4. "The International Labor Defense * * * was part of an inter- 

national network of organizations for the defense of Communist 
lawbreakers." At a conference held in Detroit, Mich., April 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 47 

27-28, 1946, the International Labor Defense and the National 
Federation for Constitutional Liberties merged to form the new 
front, Civil Eights Congress. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 on 

the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 

released September 2, 1947, pp. 1 and 2.) 

INTERNATIONAL LIAISON COMMITTEE OF INTELLECTUALS FOR 
PEACE (See International Committee of Intellectuals in Defense of Peace) 

INTERNATIONAL MUSIC BUREAU 

1. Cited as an organization with headquarters in Moscow, whose aims 
were published in the magazine Soviet Music, for March-April 
1933: "* * * We should not verge one single iota from a pro- 
gram of progressive class struggle. We can be successful in our 
efforts only if we know how to transplant our political slogans to 
the sphere of music. * * * We should prove that the only 
right road for artistic creations, which include also that of musi- 
cians, is the service to the objectives of proletarian revolution." 
Hanns Eisler, one of the founders of the International Music 
Bureau, has frankly avowed that "Communist music becomes 
heavy artillery of the battle for communism." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
' December SI, 1948, p. 7.) 

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF DEMOCRATIC JOURNALISTS 

1. Cited as an international Communist-front organization. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist ii Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 19.) 

2. Cited as being among "international Communist fronts * * * 

functioning at the present time." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 93, also p. 59. 

INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS 

1. "The [Communist] Party's publishing house," headed by Alexander 

Trachtenberg. 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
' September 24, 1942, p. 7686.) 

2. An "official publishing house of the Communist Party in the United 

States," and a medium through which "extensive Soviet propa- 
ganda is subsidized in the United States." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
Reports, House Report 1476, January 3, 1940, p. 8, and 
House Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 18; also cited in 
House Report 1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, 
March 29, 1944, V- 76.) 

3. "Official American Communist Party publishing house." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920 
on the Communist Party of the United States as an advocate 
of overthrow of Government by force and violence, May 11, 
1948, p. 80.) 

INTERNATIONAL SECRETARIAT, INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS 

(See Institute of Pacific Relations) 



48 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF STUDENTS (See also World Student Congress) 

1. "The World Federation of Democratic Youth brought into being 

the International Union of Students, which held a meeting in 
Prague on August 17-31, 1946. The administration and direc- 
tion of this project was entrusted to a 17-man executive com- 
mittee, of whom 12 were known Communists." Also cited as 
one of the "long-established Soviet-controlled international 
organizations" which speak identical lines of propaganda and 
stand together on all phases of Soviet foreign policy and which 
has "affiliated organizations in the United States, which conse- 
quently have also been turned into instruments in the 'peace' 
campaign." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 271 on 
American Youth for Democracy, April 17, 1947, p. 13; 
and House Report 378 on the Communist "Peace" Offensive, 
April 25, 1951, originally released April 1, 1951, p. 77.) 

2. Cited as being among "international Communist fronts * * * 

functioning at the present time." 

{Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23. 
1956, p. 93, also p. 59.) 

INTERNATIONAL WORKERS ORDER 1 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "One of the strongest Communist organizations." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7688.) 

3. "One of the most effective and closely knitted organizations among 

the Communist-'front' movements. It claims a membership 
of 150,000, bound together through an insurance and social plan. 
* * * It has contributed large sums of money to Communist 
Party campaigns, and * * * regularly sponsors Communist 
Party endorsed candidates for public office." In 1944, its 
president and general secretary respectively were William Weiner, 
former Communist Party treasurer, and Max Bedacht, former 
party secretary. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Re- 
port, House Report 2, January 3, 1939, p. 79 and House Re- 
port 1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V' 181; also cited in Annual Reports, House Report 
1476, January 3, 1940, p. 9, and House Report 2277, June 
25, 1942, p. 19.) 

1 For citations of national group societies of the IWO see: 
American-Russian Fraternal Society. 
Carpatho-Russian Peoples Society. 
Cervantes Fraternal Society. 
Croatian Benevolent Fraternity. 
Finnish-American Mutual Aid Society. 
Garibaldi American Fraternal Society. 
Hellenic-American Brotherhood. 
Hungarian Brotherhood. 
Jewish People's Fraternal Order. 
People's Radio Foundation, Inc. 
Polonia Society. 

Romanian-American Fraternal Society. 
Servian-American Fraternal Society. 
Slovak Workers Society. 
Ukrainian-American Fraternal Union. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 49 

4. Cited as "one of the strongest Communist organizations." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, pp. 82-84.) 

5. Cited as subversive and un-American. 

(Special Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropria- 
tions, Report, April 21, 1948, p. 3.) 

6. "Where the Communist message cannot be carried most effectively 

by the Communist Party among particular groups in the popu- 
lation, special fronts are formed for the purpose, such as * * * 
International Workers Order." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 
INTOURIST, INC. 

1. Cited as "a Soviet organization which supervised the travel of 
foreigners traveling in the Soviet Union." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1229 on 
The Shameful Years, January 8, 1952, originally released 
December SO, 1951, p. 19.) 
IRVING PEACE THEATER 

1. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 
ITALIAN ANTI-FASCIST COMMITTEE 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 83.) 
JAPANESE-AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR DEMOCRACY 
1. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" organization. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the 
Institute of Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, p. 146.) 

JEFFERSON SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE (New York, N. Y.) 

1. Cited as an "adjunct of the Communist Party." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. "At the beginning of the present year, the old Communist Party 

Workers School and the School for Democracy were merged into 
the Jefferson School of Social Science." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, P- 150.) 

3. "Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Com- 

munists and outsiders in the theory and practice of communism, 
train organizers and operatives, recruit new party members 
and sympathizers. * * * Schools of this type have been 
* * * Jefferson School of Social Science, New York. * * *" 
(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, pp. 91 and 92.) 



50 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

4. Found to be a "Communist-front organization" and ordered to 
register as such with the Attorney General of the United States. 
(Subversive Activities Control Board, Decision oj June 30, 
1955.) 

JEWISH PEOPLE'S COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "An organization which has been nothing more nor less than an 

adjunct of the Communist Party." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 153.) 
JEWISH PEOPLES FRATERNAL ORDER 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "National group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Re- 
view Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

JOHN REED CLUBS OF THE UNITED STATES 

1. Cited as organizations "whose affiliation with the Communist 
Party is clear beyond dispute." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
House Report 1476, January 3, 1940, p. 10.) 

JOINT ANTI-FASCIST REFUGEE COMMITTEE (See also Spanish Refugee 
Appeal) 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. A "Communist-front organization headed by Edward K. Barsky." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, V- 174.) 

3. Cited as one in a "series of Communist enterprises which have 

dealt with Spain and the Spanish Civil War. * * * The adver- 
tised objectives of this group and its associated Spanish organi- 
zations are acting in concert with the foreign policy of the Soviet 
Union * * *." It was "formed in March 1942 through the 
merger of the American Committee to Save Refugees, the Exiled 
Writers Committee of the League of American Writers, and the 
United American Spanish Aid Committee." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
' House Report 2233, June 7, 1946, pp. 27 and 48.) 

4. "To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been 

devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and 
reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party 
itself. Among these organizations are the * * * Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee. When the Communist Party itself 
is under fire these offer a bulwark of protection." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91; see also p. 59.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 51 

JOINT COMMITTEE FOR TRADE UNION RIGHTS 

1. Cited as a Communist front which, jointly with the International 
Labor Defense, supported and defended Communist Party lead- 
ers of the International Fur and Leather Workers Union when 
they were serving prison terms. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Re-port 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, VV- 1%5 and 166.) 
JOSEPH WEYDEMEYER SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE (St. Louis, Mo.) 
1. Cited as Communist. 

{Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

KING-RAMSEY-CONNOR DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 94.) 

LABOR RESEARCH ASSOCIATION 

1. Cited as a subversive "affiliate" of the Communist Party and as an 

organization which seeks "to alter the form of government of the 
United States by unconstitutional means." 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. "A direct auxiliary of the Communist Party." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, P. 47.) 

3. "Certain Communist fronts are organized for the purpose of pro- 

mulgating Communist ideas and misinformation into the blood- 
stream of public opinion. Examples of such organizations are 
the * * * Labor Research Association." 

{Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 

LABOR YOUTH LEAGUE 

1. Cited as a "Communist organization" which "has taken the place 

of the two prior organizations as the organization for young 
Communists" — the Young Communist League and American 
Youth for Democracy. 

{Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released August 30, 1950.) 

2. "Evidence in the possession of the committee shows that the Labor 

Youth League has functioned as the youth section of the Com- 
munist Party in recent years." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1955, House Report 1648, January 17, 1956, originally 
released January 11, 1956, pp. 2 and 12; also cited in House 
Report 378 on the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 
25, 1951, originally released April 1, 1951, p. 80.) 

3. "Where the Communist message cannot be carried most effectively 

by the Communist Party among particular groups in the pop- 
ulation, special fronts are formed for the purpose, such as * * * 
Labor Youth League." 



52 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary ComT* 

mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 

1956, p. 91; see also p. 59.) 

4. Found to be a "Communist-front organization" and ordered to 

register as such with the Attorney General of the United States. 

(Subversive Activities Control Board, Decision of February 15, 

1955.) 

LAWYERS COMMITTEE ON AMERICAN RELATIONS WITH SPAIN 

1. "When it was the policy of the Communist Party to organize much 
of its main propaganda around the civil war in Spain," the above 
"Communist lawyers' front organization" supported this move- 
ment. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19 U, pp. 168 and 169.) 

LAWYERS COMMITTEE TO KEEP THE UNITED STATES OUT OF WAR 

1. Cited as one of the fronts set up by the Communist Party after 
the Stalin-Hitler Pact in order to agitate to keep America out of 
the "imperialist war." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 169.) 

LEAGUE FOR MUTUAL AID 

1. Cited as a Communist enterprise. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
P. 76.) 
LEAGUE FOR PROTECTION OF MINORITY RIGHTS 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 152.) 

LEAGUE OF AMERICAN WRITERS (See also American Writers Congress, 
Congress of American Revolutionary Writers, Exiled Writers Committee of 
the League of American Writers) 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "The League of American Writers, founded under Communist 

auspices in 1935 * * * in 1939 * * * began openly to follow 
the Communist Party line as dictated by the foreign policy of 
the Soviet Union. * * * The overt activities of the League of 
American Writers in the last 2 years leave little doubt of its 
Communist control." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, Sep- 
tember 24, 1942, pp. 7685 and 7686.) 

3. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Re- 
ports, House Report 1476, January 3, 1940, p. 9; House 
Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 19; and House Report 1311 
on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 48.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 53 

4. Cited as subversive and un-American. 

(Special Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropri- 
ations, Report, April 21, 1943, p. 8.) 

LEAGUE OF STRUGGLE FOR NEGRO RIGHTS 

1. "The Communist-front movement in the United States among 

Negroes is known as the National Negro Congress. Practically 
the same group of leaders directing this directed the League of 
Struggle for Negro Rights, which was, until 2 years ago, the 
name of the Communist front for Negroes. The name was later 
changed * * * in 1936 to the National Negro Congress." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
Report, House Report 2, January 3, 1939, p. 81; also cited in 
House Report 1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, 
March 28, 19U, V- U6.) 

2. Cited as among "the most prominent and important Communist 

Negro fronts in the past * * * William Odell Nowell * * * 
testified that after he had received instructions in the Soviet 
Union and returned to the United States, the Communist Party 
placed him as president of the American Negro Labor 
Congress * * * in 1929 or 1930 this organization was changed 
over to the League of Struggle for Negro Rights * * *." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on "The 
American Negro in the Communist Party", Dec. 22, 1954, 
p. 10.) 
LEAGUE OF WOMEN SHOPPERS 

1. "An organization which this committee found to be a Communist- 
controlled front by indisputable documentary evidence obtained 
from the files of the Communist Party in Philadelphia." The 
original executive secretary of the League was Helen Kay, a 
Communist Party member. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, pp. 121 and 181.) 
LEHIGH VALLEY COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSEN- 

BERG CASE 
1. Cited as a "local auxiliary" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. It was formed "toward the end of 
1952 at a meeting at the home of Sylvia Freedland." Testimony 
disclosed "that the Rosenberg activities in the vital Lehigh Valley 
industrial heartland were under the direct supervision of the 
District Communist Party headquarters in Philadelphia and 
were carried on almost exclusively by members of the Com- 
munist Party." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobeil," August 25, 1956, p. 80.) 

LOS ANGELES COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG 
CASE 

1. Cited as a local auxiliary of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. "Next to New York and Wash- 
ington, the area of greatest focus in the Rosenberg campaign 
was Los Angeles * * * The Los Angeles campaign [was] under 

95822°— 57 5 



54 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

the direction of Sophie Davidson, chairman of the Los Angeles 

Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case * * *." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 

Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 

Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, pp. 66 

and 67.) 

LOS ANGELES EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, INC. (See People's Edu- 

cational Center) 
MACEDONIAN-AMERICAN PEOPLE'S LEAGUE 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

MANHATTAN CITIZENS COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 152.) 
MANHATTAN COMMITTEE TO SERVE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG 

CASE (also known as Manhattan Clemency Committee) 
1. Cited as one of the "most active" of the "field units" in the New 
York area for the National Committee to Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case. It "concentrated on the predominantly Jewish 
immigrant sections of the city." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, pp. 86 
and 63.) 

MARSHALL FOUNDATION (See Robert Marshall Foundation) 
MARYLAND COMMITTEE FOR PEACE 

1. "* * * hearings on Baltimore developed that the Communist Partv 

of this district * * * organized a new Communist peace organi- 
zation, the Maryland Committee for Peace * * * Phil Frank- 
feld * * * then chairman of the Communist Party of Mary- 
land and the District of Columbia, selected Ruth H. Bleier * * * 
Gunther Wertheimer * * * and Louis Shub * * * to create the 
new organization * * * Yet the fact of their affiliation, as dis- 
closed by the Baltimore hearings, was that these individuals had 
been disciplined members of the Communist Party for some 
time." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1951, House Report 2481, July 2, 1952, originally released 
February 17, 1952, p. 11, also cited in House Report 878 
on the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, 
originally released April 1, 1951, p. 54-) 

2. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 

after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 55 

MASSACHUSETTS YOUTH COUNCIL 

1. Cited as a "Communist-front organization." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1951, House Report 24$ 1, July 2, 1952, originally released 
February 17, 1952, p. 13.) 
MAY DAY committees (See United May Day Committee, United May Day 
Conference, United May Day Provisional Committee) 

MAY DAY PARADE (See also United May Day Committee, United May Day 
Conference, United May Day Provisional Committee) 

1. "The May Day Parade in New York City is an annual mobilization 
of Communist strength." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 179.) 

MEDICAL BUREAU AND NORTH AMERICAN COMMITTEE TO AID 
SPANISH DEMOCRACY 

1. "In 1937-38, the Communist Party threw itself wholeheartedly 

into the campaign for support of the Spanish Loyalist cause, 
recruiting men and organizing multifarious so-called relief organ- 
izations." Among these was the above. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 

p. 82.) 

2. Cited as subversive and un-American. 

(Special Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropria- 
tions, Report, April 21, 1943, p. 3.) 

3. Cited as one in a "series of Communist enterprises which have dealt 

with Spain and Spanish Civil War. Directly related, organiza- 
tionally or historically, with the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Com- 
mittee * * *" 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, House 
Report 2233, June 7, 1946, p. 27.) 

MEDICAL BUREAU TO AID SPANISH DEMOCRACY 

1. Cited as one in a "series of Communist enterprises which have 
dealt with Spain and the Spanish Civil War. Directly related, 
organizationally or historically, with the Joint Anti-Fascist 
Refugee Committee * * *" 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
House Report 2233, June 7, 1946, p. 27.) 

MEMORIAL DAY YOUTH PEACE PARADE (1938) 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P- S3.) 
MERRICK ROSENBERG COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the "field units" in the New York area for the 

National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 

Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 

Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 63.) 



56 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

METHODIST FEDERATION FOR SOCIAL ACTION 

1. "With an eye to religious groups, the Communists have formed 
religious fronts such as the Methodist Federation for Social 
Action * * *." 

{Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 
23, 1956, p. 91. 

MEXICAN AND SPANISH-AMERICAN PEOPLES CONGRESS (See Congress 

(First) of the Mexican and Spanish-American Peoples of the United States) 
MICHIGAN CIVIL RIGHTS FEDERATION 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization which has been 

succeeded by and now operates as the Michigan Chapter of the 
Civil Rights Congress. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 

released December 4, 194?) June 1, 1948, and September 21, 

1948.) 

2. Cited as an affiliate of the Communist front, the National Federa- 

tion for Constitutional Liberties. 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7687.) 

3. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P- 83.) 

4. Among a "maze of organizations" which were "spawned for the 

alleged purpose of defending civil liberties in general but ac- 
tually intended to protect Communist subversion from any 
penalties under the law." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 

on the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 

released September 2, 1947, p. 3.) 

MICHIGAN COMMITTEE FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as among "Communist fronts operating in Michigan" 
regarding which "investigation and hearing established beyond 
doubt that they are dominated and led by members of the 
Communist Party. These groups are more vicious than all the 
others because they are playing on the nerves of mothers and 
fathers of American youth stationed in America's Armed Forces, 
especially those fighting in Korea." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1952, H. R. 2516, January 3, 1953, originally released 
December 28, 1952, pp. 10, 11.) 

MICHIGAN LABOR COMMITTEE FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as among "Communist fronts operating in Michigan" regard- 
ing which "investigation and hearing established beyond doubt 
that they are dominated and led by members of the Communist 
Party. These groups are more vicious than all the others because 
they are playing on the nerves of mothers and fathers of American 
youth stationed in America's Armed Forces, especially those 
fighting in Korea." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1952, H. R. 2516, January 3, 1953, originally released 
December 28, 1952, pp. 10, 11.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 57 

MICHIGAN SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
' released April 27, 1949.) 

2. "Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Com- 

munists and outsiders in the theory and practice of communism, 
train organizers and operatives, recruit new party members and 
sympathizers * * * Schools of this type have been * * * Mich- 
igan School of Social Science, Detroit * * *." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, pp. 91 and 92.) 

MID-CENTURY CONFERENCE FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as a meeting held in Chicago, May 29 and 30, 1950, by the 

Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact and as 
having been "aimed at assembling as many gullible persons as 
possible under Communist direction and turning them into a 
vast sounding board for Communist propaganda." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 

the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 

released April 1, 1951, p. 59.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 

after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 

MILWAUKEE COMMITTEE IN THE ROSENBERG-SOBELL CASE 

1. Cited as a name subsequently adopted by the [Milwaukee] Pro- 
visional Committee to Commute the Death Sentence of the 
Rosenbergs, a local auxiliary of the National Committee to 
Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 76.) 

[MILWAUKEE] PROVISIONAL COMMITTEE TO COMMUTE THE DEATH 
SENTENCE OF THE ROSENBERGS 

1. Cited as a "local auxiliary" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. Its chairman was John Gilman, 
an identified Communist Party functionary. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 76.) 

MINNEAPOLIS CIVIL RIGHTS COMMITTEE 

1. Among a "maze of organizations" which were "spawned for the 
alleged purpose of defending civil liberties in general but actually 
intended to protect Communist subversion from any penalties 
under the law." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 on 
the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 
released September 2, 1947, p. 3.) 



58 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

MINUTE WOMEN FOR PEACE 1 

1. Cited as an organization which was formed by the Communists as 

an attempt to convert women in the United States to their 
"peace" program. It launched a "peace ballot" distributed in 
and around Greater Boston. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 on 

the Communist "Peace'' Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 

released April 1, 1951, p. 74.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 

after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook jor Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 
MODESTO DEFENSE COMMITTEE 
1. Cited as a Communist organization. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

19U, P. 94.) 
MURRAY DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 102.) 

MUSICIANS COMMITTEE TO SECURE CLEMENCY FOR THE ROSEN- 
BERGS 

1. Cited as an "auxiliary group" of the National Committee to 
Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. Its "only event" was 
a concert rally on January 10, 1953 at the Hotel Capitol in 
New York, featuring Paul Robeson, Morris Carnovsky, Earl 
Robinson, Robert DeCormier, and Beulah Richardson. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice jor the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 34.) 
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY AGAINST UMT 

1. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 
NATIONAL CIVIL RIGHTS FEDERATION 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 48.) 
NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR PEOPLE'S RIGHTS 
1. The National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners, 
"substantially equivalent to International Labor Defense, legal 
arm of the Communist Party," changed its name "in January 
1938 to National Committee for People's Rights * * * no sub- 
stantial change was made in its set-up or functions." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7686.) 

» Not connected with Minute Women, U. S. A., Inc. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 59 

2. Cited as a Communist front which succeeded the National Commit- 

tee for the Defense of Political Prisoners. "The organization 
under its new name remained entirely under the control of the 
Communist Party." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
House Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 20; and House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, PP- 48 and 182.) 

3. Among a "maze of organizations" which were "spawned for the 

alleged purpose of defending civil liberties in general but actually 
intended to protect Communist subversion from any penalties 
under the law." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 on 

the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 

released September 2, 1947, p. 8.) 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE DEFENSE OF POLITICAL PRISONERS 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "Substantially equivalent to International Labor Defense, legal 

arm of the Communist Party * * * [It] Gaters to financially 
and socially prominent liberals * * * the cases selected for 
defense, so far as known, have without exception, been those of 
Communists or cases publicized by the Communist Party. * * * 
In January 1938 its name was changed to the National Commit- 
tee for People's Rights." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7686.) 

3. Cited as a Communist front, together with its successor organiza- 

tion, National Committee for People's Rights. The executive 
secretary of the above was Joseph Gelders, well-known Com- 
munist. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
House Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 20; and House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, PP- 48 and 182.) 
NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO DEFEAT THE MUNDT BILL 
1. Cited as "a Communist lobby" which came into being in June 1948 
and "which has carried out the objectives of the Communist 
Party in its fight against antisubversive legislation." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 8248 
on the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill, 
January 2, 1951, originally released December 7, 1950.) 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO REPEAL THE McCARRAN ACT 

1. "To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been 
devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and 
reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party 
itself. Among these organizations are the * * * National Com- 
mittee to Repeal the McCarran Act. When the Communist 
Party itself is under fire these offer a bulwark of protection." 
{internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 



60 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE FOR MORTON SOBELL 
IN THE ROSENBERG CASE 

1. Following the execution of atomic spies Ethel and Julius Rosenberg 
in June 1953, the "Communist campaign assumed a different 
emphasis. Its major effort centered upon Morton Sobell," 
the Rosenbergs' codefendant. The National Committee to 
Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case — a Communist front 
which had been conducting the campaign in the United States — • 
was reconstituted as the National Rosenberg-Sobell Committee 
at a conference in Chicago in October 1953 and "then as the 
National Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell in 
the Rosenberg Case." National headquarters remained at 1050 
6th Avenue, New York City. Co-chairmen of the newest 
organization were Daniel Marshall and Joseph Brainin. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, pp. 118 
and 120; also cited in Annual Report for 1955, House Re- 
port 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released January 11, 
1956, p. 80.) 
NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG 
CASE (and local affiliates) 

1. Cited as a Communist front "organized at least as early as Novem- 

ber 1951" to conduct the United States phase of "a mammoth 
propaganda campaign designed to obliterate the crime [of] and 
exploit the Rosenbergs l and their codefendant, Morton Sobell, 
for the purposes of international communism." Headed by 
Joseph Brainin as chairman, the committee had national head- 
quarters at 1050 6th Avenue, New York City, and more than 40 
local affiliates throughout the country. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, pp. 1, 13, 
21, 63 and 120; also cited in Annual Report for 1955, House 
Report 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released January 
11, 1956, pp. 8 and 29-33.) 

2. "To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been 

devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and 
reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party 
itself. Among these organizations are the * * * National 
Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. When the 
Communist Party itself is under fire these offer a bulwark of 
protection." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 
NATIONAL COMMITTEE TO WIN THE PEACE 
1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

t Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, convicted atomic espionage agents who were executed on June 19, 1953. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 61 

2. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II.'-' 

{Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96, also p. 92.) 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AMERICAN POLICY IN CHINA AND THE 
FAR EAST 

1. Cited as Communist, and as "a conference called by the Com- 
mittee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy." 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released July 25, 1949.) 

NATIONAL CONGRESS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL INSURANCE 

1. Cited as a Communist front, held January 5, 6, 7, 1935, in Wash- 
ington, D. C., and headed by Herbert Benjamin, leading Com- 
munist. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 94 and 116.) 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF AMERICAN-SOVIET FRIENDSHIP (See also 
American-Soviet Science Society; Congress of American-Soviet Friendship) 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review 
Board, released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "In recent months, the Communist Party's principal front for all 

things Russian has been known as" the National Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship. 

{Special Committee on tin-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944) 

p. 156.) 

3. Cited as specializing in pro-Soviet propaganda. 

{Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 9.1.) 

4. Found to be a "Communist-front organization" and ordered to 

register as such with the Attorney General of the United States. 
{Subversive Activities Control Board, Decision of February 7, 
' 1956.) 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF AMERICANS OF CROATIAN DESCENT 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization which "has 

effected a change of name. The designation applies alike to the 

new organization known as the Union of American Croatians." 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review 

Board, released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948; and 

Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 

Review Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CROATIAN WOMEN (See Central Council of 

American Women of Croatian Descent) 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE ARTS, SCIENCES, AND PROFESSIONS 

(See also Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace) 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1954 on 
the Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace 



62 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

arranged by the National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and 
Professions and held in New Yvrk City on March 25, 26, 
and 27, 1949, April 26, 1950, originally released April 19, 
1949, p. 2.) t 
2. Cited as a Communist front which is "used to appeal to special 
occupational groups * * *" 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 

NATIONAL DELEGATES ASSEMBLY FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 

NATIONAL EMERGENCY COMMITTEE TO STOP LYNCHING 

1. Cited as a Negro Communist-front organization, whose secretary 
was Ferdinand C. Smith, high in the circles of the Communist 
Party. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 180.) 
NATIONAL EMERGENCY CONFERENCE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 49.) 

2. "It will be remembered that during the days of the infamous Soviet- 

Nazi pact, the Communists built protective organizations known 
as the National Emergency Conference, the National Emergency 
Conference for Democratic Rights, which culminated in the Na- 
tional Federation for Constitutional Liberties." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 

on the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 

released September 2, 1947, p. 12.) 

NATIONAL EMERGENCY CONFERENCE FOR DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, VV- 48 and 102.) 

2. "It will be remembered that during the days of the infamous Soviet- 

Nazi pact, the Communists built protective organizations known 
as the National Emergency Conference, the National Emergency 
Conference for Democratic Rights, which culminated in the 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 

on the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 

released September 2, 1947, p. 12.) 

3. Cited as subversive and un-American. 

(Special Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appro- 
priations, Report, April 21, 1943, p. 3.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 63 

NATIONAL FEDERATION FOR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES (See also 
Oklahoma Federation for Constitutional Rights; Washington Committee for 
Democratic Action) 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "Part of what Lenin called the solar system of organizations, osten- 

sibly having no connection with the Communist Party, by which 
Communists attempt to create sympathizers and supporters of 
their program. * * * [It] was established as a result of a con- 
ference on constitutional liberties held in Washington, D. C, 
June 7-9, 1940. * * * The defense of Communist leaders such 
as Sam Darcy and Robert Wood, party secretaries for Pennsyl- 
vania and Oklahoma, have been major efforts of the federation." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 

' September 24, 1942, p. 7687.) 

3. "There can be no reasonable doubt about the fact that the National 

Federation for Constitutional Liberties — regardless of its high- 
sounding name — is one of the viciously subversive organizations 
of the Communist Party." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 50; a ^ so cited ^ n Annual Reports, House Report 2277, 
June 25, 1942, p. 20; and House Report 2748, January 2, 

1943, pp. 9 and 12.) 

4. Among a "maze of organizations" which were "spawned for the 

alleged purpose of defending civil liberties in general but ac- 
tually intended to protect Communist subversion from any 
penalties under the law." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 

on the Civil Rights Congress, November 17) 1947, originally 

released September 2, 1947, p. 3.) 

NATIONAL FREE BROWDER CONGRESS ' 

1. Cited as a Communist front which arranged to meet March 28-29, 
1942. Earl Browder was general secretary of the Communist 
Party, U. S. A., who had been convicted and sentenced to Atlanta 
Federal Penitentiary for passport fraud. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, VV- 69, 87, and 182.) 

NATIONAL LABOR COMMITTEE FOR CLEMENCY FOR THE ROSEN- 
BERGS 

1. Cited as "an auxiliary" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case, which shared the same head- 
quarters. Abe Weisburd was executive secretary. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice jor the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 107.) 

1 See also citation under Citizens' Committee to Free Earl Browder, which sponsored the National Free 
Browder Congress. 



64 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

NATIONAL LABOR CONFERENCE FOR PEACE (Suite 905, 179 West Wash- 

ington Street, Chicago, 111.) 
1. "The Communists' 'peace' campaign in the United States also 
made special efforts to drum up support in the vital field of 
American labor. In this phase of the campaign, Communist- 
controlled unions and Communist labor figures played an impor- 
tant role. With their aid, a new, Nation-wide 'peace' front was 
organized — the National Labor Conference for Peace." The first 
National Labor Conference for Peace was held in Chicago, 
October 1 and 2, 1949. Thereafter, locals and the national office 
"waged an incessant propaganda campaign in behalf of the 
Soviet Union." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, pp. 64~69.) 
NATIONAL LAWYERS' GUILD 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

19U, P. 149;) 

2. Cited as a Communist front which "is the foremost legal bulwark 

of the Communist Party, its front organizations, and controlled 
unions" and which "since its inception has never failed to rally 
to the legal defense of the Communist Party and individual 
members thereof, including known espionage agents." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 8123 
on the National Lawyers Guild, September 21, 1950, origi- 
nally released September 17, 1950.) 

3. "To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been 

devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and 
reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party 
itself. Among these organizations are the * * * National 
Lawyers' Guild. When the Communist Party itself is under fire 
these offer a bulwark of protection." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 
NATIONAL NEGRO CONGRESS 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. A. Phillip Randolph, president of the Congress since its inception 

in 1936, refused to run again in April 1940 "on the ground that 
it was 'deliberately packed with Communists and Congress of 
Industrial Organizations members who were either Communists 
or sympathizers with Communists.' 

"Commencing with its formation in 1936, Communist Party 
functionaries and 'fellow travelers' have figured prominently in 
the leadership and affairs of the Congress * * * according to 
A. Phillip Randolph, John P. Davis, secretary of the congress, 
has admitted that the Communist Party contributed $100 a 
month to its support. 

"From the record of its activities and the composition of its 
governing bodies, there can be little doubt that it has served as 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 65 

what James W. Ford, Communist Vice Presidential candidate 
elected to the executive committee in 1937, predicted: 'An impor- 
tant sector of the democratic front,' sponsored and supported by 
the Communist Party." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 

' September 24, 1942, pp. 7687 and 7688.) 

3. "The Communist-front movement in the United States among 

Negroes is known as the National Negro Congress. * * * The 
officers of the National Negro Congress are outspoken Communist 
sympathizers, and a majority of those on the executive board 
are outright Communists." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report 
House Report 2, January 8, 1939, p. 81; also cited in Annual 
Reports, House Report 1476, January 8, 1940, p. 9, House 
Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 20; and in House Report 1311 
on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 180.) 

4. Cited as among "the most prominent and important Communist 

Negro fronts in the past. * * * Manning Johnson stated that 
* * * it was decided the Communist Party should organize the 
National Negro Congress [and] * * * that James W. Ford and 
the Negro Commission of the Communist Party were given the 
responsibility * * * Mrs. Dorothy K. Funn * * * stated that 
the National Negro Congress was a puppet of the Communist 
Party and that the program * * * was dictated by the Negro 
Commission of the Communist Party * * * Mrs. Funn also 
explained that the National Negro Congress ceased to exist in 
1947 and that its activities were turned over to the Civil Rights 
Congress * * *." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on The Ameri- 
can Negro in the Communist Party, December 22, 1954, 
pp. 10, 11.) 

NATIONAL NEGRO LABOR CONGRESS 

1. Cited as among "the most prominent and important Communist 
Negro fronts in the past." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on The Ameri- 
can Negro in the Communist Party, December 22, 1954, 
p. 10.) 

NATIONAL NEGRO LABOR COUNCIL 

1. "One of the Communist fronts currently active in seeking to 
deceive American Negroes into serving the Communist cause is 
the National Negro Labor Council * * * The organization was 
formally founded at a conference held in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
October 27 and 28, 1951, under the direction of leading Negro 
Communists in the United States, suGh as Abner Berry, Sam 
W. Parks, and Coleman A. Young. According to the latest 
available information. Young is the present National executive 
secretary of the organization, from which post he controls and 
directs NNLC activities * * * A study of the operation of the 
council shows that, rather than helping the Negro worker, it 
has been a deterrent to him/' 



66 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on The Ameri- 
can Negro in the Communist Party, December 22, 1954, 
p. 11; also cited in Annual Report for 1952, House Report 
2516, December 28, 1952, p. 10 and 11.) 
2. Cited as a Communist front "formed to provoke racial friction." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 92, also p. 91.) 

NATIONAL PEOPLE'S COMMITTEE AGAINST HEARST 

1. A "subsidiary" organization of the American League for Peace 
and Democracy. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Re- 
port, House Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 16.) 

NATIONAL ROSENBERG-SOBELL COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as the name under which the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case was reconstituted at a national 
conference in Chicago on October 10 and 11, 1953. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 120; 
also cited in Annual Report for 1955, House Report 1648, 
January 17, 1956, originally released January 11, 1956, 
p. S3.) 

NATIONAL STUDENT LEAGUE 

1. A "front organization of the Communist Party." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, in re Harry Bridges, May 
28, 1942, p. 10.) 

2. Cited as the Communists' front organization for students, about 

which Earl Browder, former general secretary of the Communist 
Party, said, "From the beginning it has been clearly revolution- 
ary in its program and activities." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- H9; a l> so cited ^ n Annual Report, H. R. 2, January 
8, 1939, p. 80.) 

NATURE FRIENDS OF AMERICA 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization since 1935. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

NEGRO LABOR VICTORY COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as a Communist-front organization whose chairman is Fer- 

dinand C. Smith, "high in the circles of * * * the Commu- 
nist Party." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, pp. 179 and 180.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 67 

NEGRO PEOPLE'S COMMITTEE TO AID SPANISH DEMOCRACY 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 180.) 

NEW CENTURY PUBLISHERS 

1. "An official Communist Party publishing house, which has pub- 
lished the works of William Z. Foster and Eugene Dennis, Com- 
munist Party chairman and executive secretary, respectively, as 
well as the theoretical magazine of the party known as Political 
Affairs and the Constitution of the Communist Party, U. S. A." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920 on 
the Communist Party of the United States as an Advocate 
of Overthrow of Government by Force and Violence, May 11, 
1948, pp. 7 and 85.) 

NEW COMMITTEE FOR PUBLICATIONS 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

NEW JERSEY COMMITTEE FOR CLEMENCY FOR THE ROSENBERGS 

1. Cited as a "local auxiliary" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 82.) 

NEW THEATRE LEAGUE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 120, 171, and 177.) 

NEW YORK COMMITTEE FOR CLEMENCY FOR THE ROSENBERGS 

1. Cited as a local auxiliary of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. Its headquarters were at 1050 
6th Avenue, New York City, and its executive secretary was 
Aaron Schneider. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, pp. 22, 
49, and 63.) 

NEW YORK CONFERENCE FOR INALIENABLE RIGHTS (See also Greater 

New York Emergency Conference on Inalienable Rights) 
1. Cited as a Communist front. It called a conference on February 
14, 1941, at Mecca Temple, New York City, "to attack anti- 
sabotage legislation and the Rapp-Coudert Committee investi- 
gating subversive activities in the New York public-school 
system." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
V- U9.) 



68 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

NEW YORK CONFERENCE ON CIVIL RIGHTS 

1. Cited as the former name for the Civil Rights Congress of New 
York. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 on 
the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 
released September 2, 1947, p. 9.) 

NEW YORK PEACE INSTITUTE 

1. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 

NEW YORK STATE CONFERENCE ON LEGISLATION FOR DEMOCRACY 

1. Title of a conference held February 14, 1941, at Mecca Temple, New- 
York City, under the auspices of the New York Conference 
for Inalienable Rights in order "to attack antisabotage legisla- 
tion and the Rapp-Coudert Committee investigating subversive 
activities in the New York public school system." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. W) 

NEW YORK STATE CONFERENCE ON NATIONAL UNITY 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 138.) 
NEW YORK TOM MOONEY COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. "For many years, the Communist 
Party organized widespread agitation around the Mooney case, 
and drew its members and followers into the agitation." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, v- 154.) 

NEW YORK TRADE UNION COMMITTEE TO FREE EARL BROWDER 

1. Cited as among the projects and campaigns of the Communist 
Party. Browder was general secretary of the Communist Party, 
U. S. A. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 126.) 

NEWARK PEACE ACTION COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 156.) 

NON-PARTISAN COMMITTEE FOR CLEMENCY FOR THE ROSENBERGS 

1. Cited as an "auxiliary organization" in Los Angeles of the National 
Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. It was 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 69 

established in January 1953 and it "requested funds to be sent 
in care of Mrs. John Clewe, 1234 West 40th Place, Los Angeles." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, pp. 67 
and 68.) 
NON-PARTISAN COMMITTEE FOR THE RE-ELECTION OF CONGRESS- 
MAN VITO MARCANTONIO 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 112.) 
NON-SECTARIAN COMMITTEE FOR POLITICAL REFUGEES 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 152.) 
NORTH AMERICAN COMMITTEE TO AID SPANISH DEMOCRACY 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 

Report, H. R. 141®, January 3, 1940, p. 9; and House 

Report 1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 

29, 1944, P- U6.) 

NORTH AMERICAN SPANISH AID COMMITTEE (See also Emergency 

Conference to Save Spanish Refugees) 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
' released April 27, 1949.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 82, 140, and 180.) 

NORTH WESTCHESTER ROSENBERG COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the "field units" in the New York area for the 
National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 63.) 

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA COMMITTEE FOR PEACEFUL ALTERNATIVES 

1. Cited as a local "peace" front organization in the San Francisco 
area which participated in the campaign of the American Peace 
Crusade. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 52.) 



95822°— 57- 



70 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA PEACE CRUSADE 

1. "From evidence obtained through investigation and testimony in 
1955, the committee concludes that the same subversive intent 
which it found in the American Peace Crusade is inherent in its 
branches: The Southern California Peace Crusade, the Northern 
California Peace Crusade, and the San Diego Peace Forum. 
All of these misnamed 'peace' organizations continue to have a 
common objective: The dissemination of Communist propa- 
ganda aimed at discrediting the United States and promoting 
a dangerous relaxation in the ideological and military strength of 
our country." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 

1955, House Report 1648, January 17, 1956, originally 
released January 11, 1956, p. 25.) 

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA ROSENBERG-SOBELL DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Activities in the San Francisco area, in connection with the Com- 
munist propaganda campaign exploiting atomic spies Ethel and 
Julius Rosenberg and Morton Sobell, were eventually "consoli- 
dated" in the above organization, located at 228 McAllister 
Street, San Francisco. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 122.) 

OHIO COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG CASE 

1. Cited as a "local auxiliary" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. "Executive secretary of the Ohio 
organization was Marjorie Posner, of Cleveland." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 82.) 

OHIO SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES 

1. Cited as an adjunct of the Communist Party. 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. "Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Com- 

munists and outsiders in the theory and practice of communism, 
train organizers and operatives, recruit new party members and 
sympathizers * * * Schools of this type have been * * * Ohio 
School of Social Sciences, Cleveland. * * * " 

{Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 1171, April 23, 

1956, pp. 91 and 92.) 

OKLAHOMA COMMITTEE TO DEFEND POLITICAL PRISONERS 

1. Cited as Communist. 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27 1949.) 

2. "The NCDPP [National' Committee for the Defense of Political 

Prisoners] * * * organized the Oklahoma Committee To De- 
fend Political Prisoners; and solicited funds and sought to obtain 
as much Nation-wide publicity as possible on behalf of Robert 
Wood, Oklahoma State secretary of the Communist Party, and 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 71 

his Communist codefendants in the recent syndicalism trials in 
that State." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7686.) 

OKLAHOMA FEDERATION FOR CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS 

1. Affiliate of the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties. 
(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7687.) 

OKLAHOMA LEAGUE FOR POLITICAL EDUCATION 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization "which operated 
for a period of time as the subdivision in Oklahoma of the Com- 
munist Political Association." 

(Assistant Attorney General James M. Mclnerney writing for 
the Attorney General, letter to Loyalty Review Board, dated 
May 22, 1952.) 

OPEN LETTER FOR CLOSER COOPERATION WITH THE SOVIET UNION 

1. "A group of Communist Party stooges issued an open letter bearing 
the title given above." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
Report, House Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 21.) 

OPEN LETTER IN DEFENSE OF HARRY BRIDGES 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 166.) 
OPEN LETTER TO AMERICAN LIBERALS 

1. "In March 1937 a group of well-known Communists and Commu- 
nist collaborators published an open letter bearing the title given 
above. The letter was a defense of the Moscow purge trials." 
(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Re- 
' port, House Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 21.) 

ORMSBY VILLAGE FOR YOUTH (TOPANGA CANYON, CALIF.) 

1. Cited as "another example of an attempt by known Communists to 
indoctrinate and disaffect American youth." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1955, House Report 1648, January 17, 1956, originally 
released January 11, 1956, pp. 10 and 11.) 

PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABOR SCHOOL (Seattle, Wash.) (See also Seattle 
Labor School) 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Re- 
view Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

PALO ALTO PEACE CLUB 

1. Cited as one of the "local 'peace' front organizations in the San 
Francisco area" which participated in the campaign of the 
American Peace Crusade in 1951. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 52.) 



72 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

PARTIDO DEL PUEBLO OF PANAMA (operating in the Canal Zone) 

1 . The Communist Party of Panama and an organization which seeks 
"to alter the form of government of the United States by uncon- 
stitutional means." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Re- 
view Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

PEACE INFORMATION CENTER (799 Broadway, New York, N. Y.) 

1. Cited as an organization which was responsible for circulating the 

Stockholm Peace Petition. Its executive director was Elizabeth 

Moos, an identified Communist. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, statement issued on 
the March of Treason, February 19, 1951, p. 2; and House 
Report 878 on the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 
1951, originally released April 1, 1951, vp. Ifi and 42.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 

after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96, also p. 59.) 

PEOPLES EDUCATIONAL AND PRESS ASSOCIATION OF TEXAS 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization which seeks "to 
alter the form of government of the United States by unconsti- 
tutional means." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

PEOPLE'S EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION (See People's Educational Center) 

PEOPLES EDUCATIONAL CENTER 

1. Cited as a Communist and subversive organization which was 
incorporated under the name, Los Angeles Educational Associa- 
tion, and which is also known as People's University, People's 
School and People's Educational Association. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

PEOPLE'S INSTITUTE OF APPLIED RELIGION 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

PEOPLE'S RADIO FOUNDATION, INC. 

1. Included in a citation of the International Workers Order as a 
subversive and Communist organization. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyally Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

PEOPLE'S SCHOOL (See People's Educational Center) 

PEOPLE'S UNIVERSITY (See People's Educational Center) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 73 

PERMANENT COMMITTEE OF THE WORLD PEACE CONGRESS 

1. Cited as having been established as a result of the World Congress 
of Partisans of Peace (World Peace Congress), a part of the 
Communist "peace" drive. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 20.) 

PHILADELPHIA COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG 
CASE 

1. Cited as a "local auxiliary" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case, which was "established publicly 
at a meeting at Town Hall [in Philadelphia] on October 14, 1952." 
Jean D. Fran tj is was secretary of the Philadelphia group. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice j or the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 78.) 

PHILADELPHIA ROSENBERG-SOBELL COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the local organizations active in the Communist 
propaganda campaign exploiting atomic spies Ethel and Julius 
Kosenberg and Morton Sobell. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 121.) 

PHILADELPHIA SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND ART 

1. Cited as an adjunct of the Communist Party. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. "Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Com- 

munists and outsiders in the theory and practice of communism, 
train organizers and operatives, recruit new party members and 
sympathizers. * * * Schools of this type have been * * * Phil- 
adelphia School of Social Science and Art * * *." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, pp. 91 and 92.) 

PHILADELPHIA WOMEN FOR PEACE (See Committee of Philadelphia 
Women for Peace) 

PHOTO LEAGUE 

1. Cited as a subversive, Communist organization in New York City. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front which is "used to appeal to special 

occupational groups * * *" 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 

POLONIA SOCIETY OF THE IWO 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 11, 1950.) 



74 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

PRESTES DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. A "Communist organization * * * defending Luiz Carlos Prestos, 
leading Brazilian Communist and former member of the execu- 
tive committee of the Communist International." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, P- tn.) 

PRISONERS' RELIEF COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a "Communist" organization "which solicited financial 
help for Communist Party leaders arrested under the Smith 
Act." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 

1955, House Report 1648, January 17, 1956, originally 
released January 11, 1956, pp. 20 and 21.) 

PROFESSIONALS FOR CLEMENCY 

1. Cited as an "auxiliary unit" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice jor the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, pp. 23 
and 42.) 

PROGRESSIVE COMMITTEE TO REBUILD AMERICAN LABOR PARTY 

1. "The Communist wing of the American Labor Party." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, PP- 102 and 127.) 
PROGRESSIVE GERMAN-AMERICANS 

1. Cited as Communist. Organization also known as Progressive 
German-Americans of Chicago. 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
' released April 27, 1949.) 

PROGRESSIVE PARTY 

1. "Communist dissimulation extends into the field of political parties 
forming political front organizations such as the Progressive 
Party. * * * The Communists are thus enabled to present 
their candidates for elective office under other than a straight 
Communist label." 

{Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook jor Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 

1956, p. 91.) 

PROGRESSIVE WOMEN'S COUNCIL 

1. "An outright affiliate of the Communist Party, headed by Rose 
Nelson." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 153.) 
PROLETARIAN PARTY OF AMERICA 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "* * * the history of the Communist movement in the United 

States is replete with constant bickerings. * * * Some [dis- 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 75 

senting groups] broke off completely and formed other organiza- 
tions. One of the first groups thus created was the Proletarian 
Party of America, formed in 1920. * * * [It] claims to be 
the real Marxist party and that all other so-called Communists 
are impostors. The organization is still active, but its field is 
limited to but few States, including Illinois, and Michigan." 
{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 
on Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 
1954, originally released August 19, 1953, p. 141.) 

PROMPT PRESS 

1. "Prints the bulk of the literature issued by the Communist Party 
and its affiliates and is reliably known to be owned by the Com- 
munist Party." 

{Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, Sep- 
tember 24, 1942, p. 7685.) 

PROVISIONAL INTERNATIONAL TRADE UNION COMMITTEE OF NEGRO 
WORKERS 

1. "The international Communist movement among Negroes through- 
out the world is known as the Provisional International Trade 
Union Committee of Negro Workers. This is a section of the 
Red International of Labor Unions, which is a part of the Third 
(Communist) International which directs the activities of Com- 
munist movements in labor unions." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
House Report 2, January 8, 1939, p. 81.) 

PROVISIONAL WESTERN REGIONAL SOBELL COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the organizations currently active in the Com- 
munist propaganda campaign exploiting atomic spies Ethel and 
Julius Rosenberg and Morton Sobell. On October 5, 1955, the 
Daily People's World reported the establishment of the above 
committee "to expand the campaign for vindication of Morton 
Sobell." "This organization comprised 'permanent committees' 
in Los Angeles, San Francisco, East Oakland, Berkeley, Hay- 
ward, Palo Alto, Marin County and Petaluma, Calif." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 129.) 

PUBLIC USE OF ARTS COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front which was organized by the Com- 
munist-controlled Artists Union. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 112.) 

QUEENS ROSENBERG COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the "field units" in the New York area for the 
National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 
{Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 63.) 



76 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

REFUGEE SCHOLARSHIP AND PEACE CAMPAIGN 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 87.) 

REICHSTAG FIRE TRIAL ANNIVERSARY COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front which was formed in December, 1943, 
by prominent Communists and Communist sympathizers to 
honor Georgi Dimitrov, former head of the Communist Inter- 
national. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 112 and 156.) 

REVOLUTIONARY WORKERS LEAGUE 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

ROBERT MARSHALL FOUNDATION 

1. "This fund of more than a million dollars, which originated with 
the rich man's son whose name it bears, has been one of the prin- 
cipal sources for the money with which to finance the Communist 
Party's fronts generally in recent years." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 50.) 

ROMANIAN-AMERICAN FRATERNAL SOCIETY 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

ROSENBERG COMMITTEE OF THE BRONX 

1. Cited as one of the "most active" of the "field units" in the New 
York area for the National Committee to Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case. Its chairman was Joseph Gingold. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 63.) 

ROSLYN ROSENBERG COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the "field units" in the New York area for the 

National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 

Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for 

the Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 63.) 

RUSSIAN AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL CORP. 

1. An organization active in 1922 whose purpose was the operation of 
the textile and clothing industry in Russia. It "had a political 
as well as a business interest in the Bolshevik revolution." It 
"was eventually a complete flop." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, pp. 74 md 76.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 77 

RUSSIAN RECONSTRUCTION FARMS, INC. 

1. Cited as a Communist enterprise which was directed by Harold 
Ware, son of the well-known Communist Ella Reeve Bloor. It 
received funds from the Garland Fund. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, P. 76.) 
ST. LOUIS COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE FOR MORTON SOBELL 
1. Cited as the name subsequently adopted by the St. Louis Com- 
mittee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case ; a local auxiliary 
of the National Committee to Secure Justice m the Rosenberg 
Case. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 83.) 

ST. LOUIS COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG CASE 

1. Cited as a "local auxiliary" of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. Its chairman was Haven P. 
Perkins. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 83.) 

SAMUEL ADAMS SCHOOL (Boston, Mass.) 

1. Cited as an adjunct of the Communist Party. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. "Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Com- 

munists and outsiders in the theory and practice of communism, 
train organizers and operatives, recruit new party members and 
sympathizers * * * Schools of this type have been * * * 
Samuel Adams School, Boston * * *" 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 

Committee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 

1956, pp. 91 and 92.) 

SAN DIEGO PEACE FORUM 

1. "From evidence obtained through investigation and testimony in 
1955, the committee concludes that the same subversive intent 
whicn it found in the American Peace Crusade is inherent in its 
branches; The Southern California Peace Crusade, the Northern 
California Peace Crusade, and the San Diego Peace Forum. All 
of these misnamed 'peace' organizations continue to have a com- 
mon objective: The dissemination of Communist propaganda 
aimed at discrediting the United States and promoting a danger- 
ous relaxation in the ideological and military strength of our 
country." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 

1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 

January 11, 1956, p. 25.) 



78 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

SAN FRANCISCO LABOR CONFERENCE FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as one of the "local 'peace' front organizations in the San 
Francisco area" which participated in the campaign of the 
American Peace Crusade in 1951. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 
on the Communist ''Peace 1 ' Offensive, April 25, 1951, 
originally released April 1, 1951, p. 52.) 

SAN FRANCISCO ROSENBERG-SOBELL COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the local organizations active in the Communist 
propaganda campaign exploiting atomic spies Ethel and Julius 
Rosenberg and Morton Sobell. It was located at 228 McAllister 
Street. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Beport, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 122.) 

SCHAPPES DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

2. "A front organization with a strictly Communist objective, namely, 

the defense of a self-admitted Communist who was convicted 
of perjury in the courts of New York." Morris U. Schappes 
"was on the teaching staff of the College of the City of New York 
for a period of 13 years. In 1936 his superior on the college 
faculty refused to recommend him for reappointment. This ac- 
tion led to prolonged agitation by the Communist Party." 
(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Beport 

1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944) 

p. 71.) 

SCHNEIDERMAN-DARCY DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Beview Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

SCHOOL FOR DEMOCRACY 

1. "In 1941, the Communists established a school in New York City 
which was known as the School for Democracy (now merged 
with the Workers School into the Jefferson School of Social 
Science)." The above "was established by Communist teachers 
ousted from the public school system of New York City." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Beport 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 89 and 168.) 

SCHOOL OF JEWISH STUDIES 

1. Cited as an adjunct in New York City of the Communist Party. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Beview Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. "Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Com- 

munists and outsiders in the theory and practice of communsim, 
train organizers and operatives, recruit new party members and 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 79 

sympathizers. * * * Schools of this type have been * * * 
School of Jewish Studies, New York." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, pp. 91 and 92.) 
SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL CONFERENCE FOR WORLD PEACE (See 
Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace) 

SCOTTSBORO DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
Report, House Report 2, January 3, 1939, p. 82;^ and House 
Report 1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 
29, 19U, V- 177.) 

SEATTLE LABOR SCHOOL (See also Pacific Northwest Labor School) 

1. Cited as an "adjunct of the Communist Party." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. "Schools under patriotic and benevolent titles indoctrinate Com- 

munists and outsiders in the theory and practice of communism, 
train organizers and operatives, recruit new party members and 
sympathizers * * * Schools of this type have been * * * 
Seattle Labor School, Seattle * * *." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary 
Committee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, pp. 91 and 92.) 
SECOND WORLD CONGRESS OF THE DEFENDERS OF PEACE (See 

World Peace Congress) 
SECOND WORLD CONGRESS OF THE PARTISANS OF PEACE (See 

World Peace Congress) 
SECOND WORLD PEACE CONGRESS (See World Peace Congress) 
SECOND WORLD STUDENT CONGRESS (See World Student Congress) 
SERBIAN-AMERICAN FRATERNAL SOCIETY 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

SERBIAN VIDOVDAN COUNCIL 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948 and September 21, 1948.) 

SLOVAK WORKERS SOCIETY 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

SLOVENIAN-AMERICAN NATIONAL COUNCIL 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 



80 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

SOCIALIST WORKERS PARTY (See also American Committee for European 
Workers' Relief) 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization which seeks 

"to alter the form of government of the United States by uncon- 
stitutional means." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947 and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "A dissident Communist group not affiliated with the Communist 

International nor officially recognized by either the Communist 
hierarchy in Moscow or the Communist Party, U. S. A. Essen- 
tially, however, both the official and unofficial groups base 
themselves upon the teachings of Marx, Engels, and Lenin. 
The Socialist Workers Party are followers of Leon Trotsky, who 
was expelled from the Russian Communist Party. The official 
Communists are followers of Joseph Stalin." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920 
on the Communist Party of the United States as an Advocate 
of Overthrow of Government by Force and Violence, May 11, 
1948, p. 141 .' also cited in House Report 1694 on Organized 
Communism in the United States. May 28, 1954, originally 
released August 19, 1953, pp. I41 and 142.) 
SOCIALIST YOUTH LEAGUE (See also Workers Party, 1940-1948) 
1. Cited as a Communist organization. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

SOUTH WESTCHESTER ROSENBERG COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a "field unit" of the National Committee to Secure Justice 
in the Rosenberg Case. It was active in the New York area 
comprising Yonkers, New Rochelle, Mamaroneck, White Plains 
and Rye. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for 
the Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 63.) 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EMERGENCY COMMITTEE FOR CLEMENCY 
FOR THE ROSENBERGS 

1. Cited as an "auxiliary organization" of the National Committee to 
Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. It was established in 
January 1953 and "consisted of the 20 members of a delegation 
from Los Angeles who had flown to Washington on January 3 
to appeal 'in person' to the President." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 67.) 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA PEACE CRUSADE 

1. "From evidence obtained through investigation and testimony in 
1955, the committee concludes that the same subversive intent 
which it found in the American Peace Crusade is inherent in its 
branches; the Southern California Peace Crusade, the Northern 
California Peace Crusade, and the San Diego Peace Forum. 
All of these misnamed 'peace' organizations continue to have a 
common objective: The dissemination of Communist propaganda 
aimed at discrediting the United States and promoting a danger- 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 81 

ous relaxation in the ideological and military strength of our 
country." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 

1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 
January 11, 1956, pp. 25-27.) 

SOUTHERN CONFERENCE FOR HUMAN WELFARE 

1. Cited as a Communist front which received money from the Robert 

Marshall Foundation, one of the principal sources of funds by 
which many Communist fronts operate. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
IS 11 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, P-W) 

2. Cited as a Communist-front organization "which seeks to attract 

southern liberals on the basis of its seeming interest in the prob- 
lems of the South" although its "professed interest in southern 
welfare is simply an expedient for larger aims serving the Soviet 
Union and its subservient Communist Party in the United 
States." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 592 on 
the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, June 16, 1947.) 

SOUTHERN NEGRO YOUTH CONGRESS 

1. Cited as subversive and among the affiliates and committees of the 

Communist Party, U. S. A., which seeks "to alter the form of 
government of the United States by unconstitutional means." 
(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
Report, H. R. 1476, January 8, 1940, p. 9.) 

3. Cited as "surreptitiously controlled" by the Young Communist 

League. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 271 on 
the American Youth for Democracy, April 17, 1947, p. 14-) 

SPANISH REFUGEE APPEAL 

1. Cited as a "subsidiary" of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Com- 

mittee, through which the JAFRC "engaged in political activity 
instead of confining its operation under the Presidential directive 
by which they operate * * *." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, H. R. 

' 2283, June 7, 1946, p. 43; also pp. 27 and 87.) 

2. "To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been 

devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and 
reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party 
itself. Among these organizations are the * * * Spanish Refu- 
gee Appeal. When the Communist Party itself is under fire 
these offer a bulwark of protection." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 

1956, p. 91.) 

SPANISH REFUGEE RELIEF CAMPAIGN 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
' Report, H. R. 1476, January 3, 1940, p. 9.) 



82 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

STOCKHOLM PEACE PETITION (See World Peace Appeal) 

STRAIGHT ARROW CAMP (Golden's Bridge, N. Y.) 

1. "The Communist management of six camps in New York State 
and another in California was exposed by committee investiga- 
tions and hearings." Listed among these is Straight Arrow 
Camp, "a day camp serving 85 children" and directed by Morris 
Salz. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1955, House Report 1648, January 17, 1956, originally 
released January 11, 1956, pp. 2 and 10.) 

STUDENT CONGRESS AGAINST WAR 

1. "During the Christmas holidays of 1932, the Student Congress 
Against War was convened at the University of Chicago. This 
gathering was held at the direct instigation of the (Amsterdam) 
World Congress Against War. The Chicago Congress was com- 
pletely controlled by the Communists of the National Student 
League. * * * The gathering ended its sessions by adopting 
the program of the (Amsterdam) World Congress Against War 
which, as has been pointed out, called for 'the turning of im- 
perialist war into civil war.' For many years, the latter slogan 
represented one of the chief objectives of the Communist move- 
ment throughout the world." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 

p. 119.) 

SWEETHEARTS OF SERVICEMEN 

1. "A division of the A YD born during the last war is the organization 
known as the Sweethearts of Servicemen. Its maiden effort was 
a delegation of 75 young women who arrived in Washington to 
petition Congress 'to give their soldier boy friends and husbands 
the chance to vote in the 1944 Presidential elections.' " 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 271 on 
the American Youth for Democracy, April 17, 1947, p. 12.) 

TOM PAINE SCHOOL 

1. Cited as an adjunct in Westchester, N. Y., of the Communist Party. 
(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

TOM PAINE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 

1. Cited as an adjunct in Philadelphia, Pa., of the Communist Party. 
(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

TOWN MEETING OF YOUTH 

1. Cited as a Communist front in Washington, D. C. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 167.) 
TRADE UNION ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

1. Set up in 1937 by the International Labor Defense, legal arm of the 
Communist Party. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 89.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 83 

TRADE UNION COMMITTEE FOR THE REPEAL OF THE SMITH ACT 

1. -"To defend the cases of Communist lawbreakers, fronts have been 
devised making special appeals in behalf of civil liberties and 
reaching out far beyond the confines of the Communist Party 
itself. Among these organizations are the * * * Trade Union 
Committee for the Kepeal of the Smith Act. When the Com- 
munist Party itself is under fire these offer a bulwark of pro- 
tection." 

{Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook jor Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 
TRADE-UNION COMMITTEE ON INDUSTRIAL ESPIONAGE 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 

p. m.) 

TRADE-UNION COMMITTEE TO PUT AMERICA BACK TO WORK 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 140.) 
TRADE-UNION EDUCATIONAL LEAGUE 

1. "Affiliate of the Red International of Labor Unions, which was the 

trade-union bureau of the Comintern * * *. In 1929 the 
Trade-Union Educational League became the Trade-Union Unity 
League." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, in re Harry Bridges, May 

' 28, 1942, p. 10.) 

2. "Zinoviev, Losowsky, and Lenin proceeded during the next 12 

months to organize the Trade-Union Educational League. This 
project was put under the control of and made amenable, as far 
as its work was concerned, to the central executive committee of 
the Communist Party of America, and it remains so today. 
William Z. Foster was selected to lead this movement. In the 
spring of 1921 he went to Russia, and the understanding was that 
he went there to get his instructions for the organization of the 
Trade-Union Educational League, gather facts about the Com- 
munist work in Soviet Russia, the functioning of Communist 
ideas and theories, and learn how the officials of the Communist 
International wanted these ideas and theories applied in America 
through the Trade-Union Educational League." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
House Report 2, January 3, 1939, pp. 47 and 48.) 

3. "[William Z.] Foster's Trade-Union Educational League was 

accepted by the Russian Communists as the organization through 
which the Communists were to operate" under a plan to capture 
the American Federation of Labor. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on Organized 
Communism in the United States, House Report 1694, 
May 28, 1954, originally released August 19, 1953, p. 79.) 



84 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

TRADE-UNION UNITY LEAGUE 

1. "In 1929 the Trade-Union Educational League became the Trade- 

Union Unity League * * * The TUUL., as it was called, openly 
supported and was dominated by the Communist Party." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, in re Harry Bridges, May 
28, 1942, p. 10.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front directly controlled by the Communist 

Party. It was headed by William Z. Foster, national chairman 
of the Communist Party, U. S. A.; was composed of some 20 
Communist unions and was affiliated with the Red International 
of Labor Unions of Moscow. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 94 and 124; also cited in Annual Reports, H. R. 2, 
January 3, 1939, p. 63, and H. R. 1476, January 3, 1940, 
pp. 8 and 9.) 
TRADE UNION WOMEN'S COMMITTEE FOR PEACE 
1. "Another Communist front which was integrated with the Ameri- 
can Peace Mobilization in the Communist Party's drive against 
America's military preparedness." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 155 and 156.) 
UKRAINIAN-AMERICAN FRATERNAL UNION 

1. Cited as Communist and among the "national group societies of 
International Workers Order." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 11, 1950.) 
UNEMPLOYED COUNCILS 

1. "Prior to the organizational convention of the Workers' Alliance, 
called by Herbert Benjamin, who makes no secret of his mem- 
bership in the Communist Party and of his allegiance to the 
Soviet Union and the Third (Communist) International of 
Russia; and David Lasser, a Socialist, pro-Communist and pro- 
Soviet, a number of unemployed movements had been set up in 
the United States. The two largest of these were the 'unem- 
ployed leagues' and the 'unemployed councils,' organized and 
directed by the above-mentioned individuals." The unemployed 
councils later became the Workers Alliance. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Re- 
port, H. R. 2, January 3, 1939, pp. 72 and 74-) 
UNION OF AMERICAN CROATIANS 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization formerly 
known as the National Council of Americans of Croatian Des- 
cent. 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 11, 1950.) 
UNION OF CONCERTED PEACE EFFORTS 

1. Cited as a Communist front, a leader of which was Clarence Hatha- 
way, then editor of the Daily Worker. 

(Special Committee on un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, V- m.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 85 

UNITED AMERICAN ARTISTS 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, P. 129-) 
UNITED AMERICAN SPANISH AID COMMITTEE (See also American 
Rescue Ship Mission) 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released July 25, 1949.) 

2. "In 1937-38, the Communist Party threw itself wholeheartedly 

into the campaign for the support of the Spanish Loyalist cause, 

recruiting men and organizing multifarious so-called relief 

organizations." Among these was the above Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, pp. 82 and 138.) 

3. Cited as one in a "series of Communist enterprises which have 

dealt with Spain and the Spanish Civil War." Merged with the 

American Committee to Save Refugees and the Exiled Writers 

Committee to form the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 

House Report 2233, June 7, 1946, p. 27.) 

UNITED COMMITTEE OF SOUTH SLAVIC AMERICANS 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as "Communist-controlled." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, p. 75, see also pp. 42-45.) 
UNITED COMMUNIST PARTY (May 1920 to May 1921) 
1. "* * * the American Communist movement * * * has changed 
its name and program on a number of occasions since 1919 * * *. 
A convention lasting 7 days was held in May 1920 and resulted 
in the formation of the United Communist Party by merging the 
group splintered from the Communist Party of America with the 
Communist Labor Party * * *. A year later the remainder of 
the Communist Party ot America merged with the United Com- 
munist Party. As a result of this merger, a new Constitution 
and Program of the Communist Party of America was adopted 
in May 1921 * * *." The United Communist Party designa- 
tion was dropped. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
" Organized Communism in the United States," May 28, 
1954, originally released August 19, 1953, pp. 2, 47 and 51; 
also cited in House Report 209 on (l The Communist Party of 
the United States as an Agent of a Foreign Power," April 1, 
1947, pp. 15 and 17; and House Report 2244 on "The Com- 
munist Conspiracy," Part I, Section E, May 29, 1956, p. 3.) 

85822°— 5T 7 



86 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

UNITED HARLEM TENANTS AND CONSUMERS ORGANIZATION 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

UNITED MAY DAY COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as subversive and among the affiliates and committees of the 

Communist Party, U. S. A., which seeks "to alter the form of 
government of the United States by unconstitutional means." 
(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. Found to be a "Communist-front organization" and ordered to 

register as such with the Attorney General of the United States. 
(Subversive Activities Control Board, Decision of April 27, 
1956.) 

UNITED MAY DAY CONFERENCE 

1. "Engineered by the Communist Party for its 1937 May Day demon- 
strations" and also organized by the party in 1938. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, l§44t 
pp. 124 and 189.) 

UNITED MAY DAY PROVISIONAL COMMITTEE 

1. "The May Day parade in New York City is an annual mobilization 
of Communist strength." Ferdinand Smith, high in the circles 
of the Communist Party, was a "member of the United May 
Day Provisional Committee in 1939, vice chairman of the same 
committee in 1940, and cochairman in 1941." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 179.) 

UNITED NEGRO AND ALLIED VETERANS OF AMERICA 

1. Cited as subversive and among the affiliates and committees of the 

Communist Party, U. S. A., which seeks "to alter the form of 
government of the United States by unconstitutional means." 
(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front "formed to provoke racial friction." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 92.) 

UNITED STATES CONGRESS AGAINST WAR 

1. "The American League Against War and Fascism was formally 

organized at the First United States Congress Against War and 
Fascism held in New York City, September 29 to October 1, 
1933. * * * The program of the first congress called for the 
end of the Roosevelt policies of imperialism and for the support 
of the peace policies of the Soviet Union, for opposition to all 
attempts to weaken the Soviet Union. * * * Subsequent 
congresses in 1934 and 1936 reflected the same program." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7683. 

2. "Convened in St. Nicholas Arena, New York City, on September 

29, 1933 * * * it was completely under the control of the 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 87 

Communist Party. Earl Browder was a leading figure in all its 
deliberations. In his report to the Communist International, 
Browder stated: 'The Congress from the beginning was led by 
our party quite openly.' " 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- H9; a ^ s0 c tt e d ^ n Annual Reports, House Report 
1476, January 8, 1940, p. 11; and House Report 2277, 
June 25, 1942, p. 14-) 
UNITED STATES SERVICE & SHIPPING, INC. 

1. " * * * organized by [Jacob] Golos in 1941", it served as 
"a cover for Soviet espionage activity." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on The Shame- 
ful Years, House Report 1229, January 8, 1952, originally 
released December SO, 1951, p. 58.) 

UNITED STATES VETERANS COUNCIL (See Council of United Stales 

Veterans) 
UNITED STATES YOUTH SPONSORING COMMITTEE, WORLD PEACE 

APPEAL 

1. Cited as the organization which handled the circulation of the 
"Stockholm peace petition" among youth. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 
on the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, 
originally released April 1, 1951, p. 41-) 
UNITED STUDENT PEACE COMMITTEE 

1. "The American Student Union * * * announced that it set up 
the 'front' movement, the United Student Peace Committee, in 
1938, which has brought into its front 17 national youth organi- 
zations." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
House Report 2, January 3, 1939, p. 80.) 

UNITED TOILERS 

1. Cited as a "dissenting group" within the Communist movement in 
the United States. Formed by secessionists from the Workers 
Party of America, the United Toilers had as its official organ, 
Workers Challenge, edited by Harry Wicks. "Like most splinter 
groups, the United Toilers withered away." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, pp. 142, and 143.) 

UNITED YOUTH COMMITTEE AGAINST LYNCHING 

1. Cited as a Communist front in which the Communist Party and 
Young Communist League officially participated. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 155.) 
VALLEY STREAM ROSENBERG COMMITTEES 

1. Cited as one of the "field units" in the New York area for the 
National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 63.) 



88 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

VETERANS AGAINST DISCRIMINATION OF CIVIL RIGHTS CONGRESS 
OF NEW YORK 

1. Cited as a subversive affiliate of the subversive Civil Rights Con- 
gress. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

VETERANS FOR PEACE (See also American Veterans for Peace) 
1. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 

VETERANS OF THE ABRAHAM LINCOLN BRIGADE 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "In 1937-38, the Communist Party threw itself wholeheartedly into 

the campaign for the support of the Spanish Loyalist cause, re- 
cruiting men and organizing multifarious so-called relief organi- 
zations." Among these was the above. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

181 1 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, P- 82.) 

3. Cited as a Communist-front organization consisting of "American 

boys who were induced by various illegal and deceptive methods 
to participate in the Communist Loyalist War in Spain." Its 
offices were located at 13 Astor Place, New York City. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, House 
' Report 2288, June 7, 1946, pp. 29 and 40.) 

4. Found to be a "Communist-front organization" and ordered to 

register as such with the Attorney General of the United States. 
(Subversive Activities Control Board, Decision of December 21, 
1955.) 

VIRGINIA LEAGUE FOR PEOPLES EDUCATION 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization which seeks "to 
alter the form of government of the United States by unconsti- 
tutional means." 

(Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released September 11, 1950.) 

WALT WHITMAN SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 

1. Cited as an adjunct in Newark, N. J., of the Communist Party. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947.) 

WASHINGTON BOOK SHOP (ASSOCIATION) (See Washington Cooperative 

Bookshop) 
WASHINGTON CIO COMMITTEE TO REINSTATE HELEN MILLER 

(District of Columbia) 
1. "In 1941 the Department of Labor discharged one Helen Miller on 
the ground that she was a member of the Communist Party. The 
Communists and Communist sympathizers of the District of 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 89 

Columbia and vicinity organized the Washington CIO Com- 
mittee To Reinstate Helen Miller." _ 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 112.) 
WASHINGTON COMMITTEE FOR AID TO CHINA (District of Columbia) 
1. Cited as a Communist-controlled organization. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 148.) 
WASHINGTON COMMITTEE FOR DEMOCRATIC ACTION (District of 
Columbia) 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. An "affiliate" or "local chapter" of the National Federation for 

Constitutional Liberties. "The program of the Washington com- 
mittee followed that of the national federation. National Com- 
munist leaders have addressed its meetings, and conferences 
sponsored by it have been attended by representatives of promi- 
nent Communist-front organizations." Many of its members 
were active in the American Peace Mobilization. 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, Sep- 
tember 24, 1942, pp. 7688 and 7689.) 

3. "When the American League for Peace and Democracy was dis- 

solved in February 1940 its successor in Washington was called 
the Washington Committee for Democratic Action." The latter 
was affiliated with the National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Re- 
port, House Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 22, and House 
Report 1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 
29, 1944, P- 143.) 
WASHINGTON COMMITTEE FOR JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG CASE 

(Washington State) 
1. Cited as a local auxiliary of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. It "was reported by the Daily 
Worker on February 6, 1953, as having scheduled a 'Clemency 
Float' for display through downtown Seattle." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice jor the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 64.) 
WASHINGTON COMMITTEE TO SECURE JUSTICE IN THE ROSENBERG 

CASE (District of Columbia) 
1. Cited as a local auxiliary of the National Committee to Secure 
Justice in the Rosenberg Case. "The headquarters of the Wash- 
ington organization also comprised the Washington office of the 
National Committee, which contributed nearly $4,000 for its 
maintenance." Chairmanship of the local organization was suc- 
cessively held by Ethel Weichbrod and John B. Stone. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 66.) 



90 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

WASHINGTON COMMONWEALTH FEDERATION 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

2. Cited as a Communist-front organization. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 
January 11, 1956, p. 28.) 

WASHINGTON COOPERATIVE BOOKSHOP J (District of Columbia) 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist under the name "Washington 

Book Shop Association." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. "The Washington Cooperative Book Shop, under the name 'The 

Book Shop Association/ was incorporated in the District of 
Columbia in 1938. * * * It maintains a book shop and art 
gallery at 916 Seventeenth Street NW., Washington, D. C, where 
literature is sold and meetings and lectures held. 

"Evidence of Communist penetration or control is reflected in 
the following: Among its stock the establishment has offered 
prominently for sale books and literature identified with the 
Communist Party and certain of its affiliates and front organiza- 
tions * * * certain of the officers and employees of the book 
shop, including its manager and executive secretary, have been 
in close contact with local officials of the Communist Party of 
the District of Columbia. ,, 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7688.) 

3. Cited as a Communist front under the name "Washington Book 

Shop." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, P. 150.) 

WASHINGTON FRIENDS OF SPANISH DEMOCRACY (District of Columbia) 

1. "In 1937-38, the Communist Party threw itself wholeheartedly 

into the campaign for the support of the Spanish Loyalist cause, 

recruiting men and organizing multifarious so-called relief 

organizations." Among these was the above. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P- 82.) 
WASHINGTON PEACE MOBILIZATION (District of Columbia) (See also 

American Peace Mobilization) 
1. Cited as a Communist-controlled organization which participated 
in the White House picket line during the Hitler-Stalin Pact. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P- US.) 

1 This organization was originally incorporated in Washington, D. 0., on June 28, 1938, as the Book Shop 
Association and reincorporated June 10, 1941, as Washington Cooperative Bookshop. It has also been 
referred to variously as the Bookshop, Washington Bookshop, Washington Bookshop Association, etc. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 91 

WASHINGTON PENSION UNION 

1. "The Communist] party achieved 'tremendous' political influence 
in the [Pacific Northwest] area by its control of organizations 
such as the Washington Pension Union. * * *" 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1955, H. R. 16^8, January 17, 1956, originally released 
January 11, 1956, pp. 8 and 28.) 

WEST SIDE ROSENBERG COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as one of the "field units" in the New York area for the 
National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 63.) 

WESTERN WRITERS CONGRESS 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
19U, P. H.) 
WINGDALE LODGE (Wingdale, N. Y.) 

1. "The Committee is convinced that Wingdale Lodge [incorporated 
in March 1955] is no less a Communist project than its predeces- 
sor, Camp Unity." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 
January 11, 1956, pp. 9 and 10.) 

WISCONSIN CONFERENCE ON SOCIAL LEGISLATION 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist. 

(Attorney General Tom, Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

WOMEN'S INTERNATIONAL DEMOCRATIC FEDERATION! 

1. Cited as a Communist front "which was founded and supported at 

all times by the International Communist movement." Also 
cited as an "organization [which] frankly stated that it intended 
to follow the lead of the Soviet Union, 'the only country truly 
working for peace' and which joined in issuing the call for the 
World Peace Congress, held in Paris in April 1949." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1953 on 
the Congress of American Women, April 26, 1950, originally 
released October 23, 1949, p. 1; and House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 71.) 

2. Cited as being among "international Communist fronts * * * 

functioning at the present time." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 1956, 
p. 93, also p. 59.) 

1 Also referred, to as International Democratic Women's Federation, and World Federation of Demo- 
cratic Women. 



92 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

WORKERS ALLIANCE 

1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization "since April 

1936." 

{Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board 
released December 4, 1947) and September 21, 1948; and 
Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to the Loyalty 
Review Board dated August 81, 1951.) 

2. A "Communist penetrated organization." 

{Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, Sep- 
tember 24, 1942, p. 7684.) 

3. "Among the successes in its 'front' movements, the Communists 

point to the 'Workers' Alliance of America.' " It was created 

in 1936 and organized "in practically every relief project in the 

country." It was "apparently patterned after the 'Unemployed 

Councils of St. Petersburg,' Russia, set up in 1906 as a part of 

the Communist front there. As the councils in Russia staged 

sit-down strikes, so also did the Alliance stage sit-down strikes 

in various State legislatures and relief bureaus in our country." 

[Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 

H. R. 2, January 8, 1939, pp. 72-74; also cited in Annual 

Reports, H. R. 1476, January 8, 1940, p. 9, and H. R. 2277, 

June 25, 1942, p. 22; and in House Report 1811 on the CIO 

Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, V- 147-) 

WORKERS (COMMUNIST) PARTY OF AMERICA (August 1925 to March 

1929) 
1. "* * * the American Communist movement * * * has changed 
its name and program on a number of occasions since 1919 
* * *" At a convention in Chicago on August 21, 1925, the 
Workers Party of America was reorganized into the Workers 
(Communist) Party of America. The latter organization, at a 
convention in New York City, March 1-10, 1929, assumed the 
name, Communist Party of trie United States of America. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
"Organized Communism in the United States," May 28, 
1954, originally released August 19, 1953, pp. 2, 80, 89 
and 90; also cited in House Report 209 on "The Communist 
Party of the United States as an Agent of a Foreign Power," 
April 1, 1947, pp. 16 and 17; and House Report 2244 on 
"The Communist Conspiracy," Part I, Section E, May 29, 
1956, p. 3.) 

WORKERS LIBRARY PUBLISHERS 

1. An "official Communist Party publishing agency." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 8; also cited in Annual Report, H. R. 2277, June 
25, 1942, p. 18.) 

2. "Official Communist Party, U. S. A., publishing house." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920 on 
the Communist Party of the United States as an Advocate of 
Overthrow of Government by Force and Violence, May 11, 
1948, pp. 72 and 80.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 93 

WORKERS PARTY (1940-1948) (See also Independent Socialist League; 

Socialist Youth League) 
1. Cited as a subversive and Communist organization "including [the] 
Socialist Youth League." It seeks "to alter the form of govern- 
ment of the United States by unconstitutional means," "In its 
official organ, Labor Action of April 1949, the Workers Party- 
announced that at the fifth national convention it had voted to 
relinquish the name of the Workers Party and adopt the name of 
the Independent Socialist League." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948, and 
Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, letter to Loyalty 
Review Board, released September 29, 1949.) 

WORKERS PARTY OF AMERICA (December 1921 to August 1925) 

1. "In December 1921 the Workers Party of America was formed 

as a camouflage for the real Communist Party of America which 
maintained its existence underground. In 1925 the official name 
was changed to Workers (Communist) Party of America, and 
at a convention held in March 1929, ! the Communists finally 
threw off all camouflage and boldly came out into the open as 
the Communist Party of the United States of America." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
H. R. 2, January 3, 1939, p. 17.) 

2. "* * * the American Communist movement * * * has changed 

its name and program on a number of occasions since 1919 * * *. 
In December 1921, the Workers Party of America was formed 
as an open and legal organization while the Communist Party of 
America remained underground." At a convention in Chicago 
on August 21, 1925, the Workers Party of America was reorgan- 
ized as the Workers (Communist) Party of America. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
"Organized Communism in the United States," May 28, 
1954, originally released August 19, 1953, pp. 2, 69 and 80; 
also cited in House Report 209 on "The Communist Party of 
the United States as an Agent of a Foreign Power," April 
1, 1947, pp. 16 and 17; and House Report 2244 on "The 
Communist Conspiracy," Part I, Section E, May 29, 1956, 
p. 3.) 

WORKERS PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES (See American Workers 

Party) 
WORKERS SCHOOL (New York City) 

1. Cited as "an official Communist Party school" located at 35 East 

Twelfth Street, New York City, which was also headquarters 

of the Communist Party. Instructors were always members of 

the Communist Party. It later merged with the School for 

Democracy to become the Jefferson School of Social Science. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 

pp. 89 and 168.) 

» Incorrectly appears as 1928 in H. E. 2. 



94 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

WORKMEN'S EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 
1. Cited as a Communist organization. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29. 
19U, V- H.) 
WORLD CONGRESS AGAINST WAR 

1. "In August 1932 the Communist International sponsored an inter- 
national gathering at Amsterdam which was known as the World 
Congress Against War. That gathering called upon the prole- 
tariat of the world to prepare to 'turn imperialist war into civil 
war.' The delegates to the Amsterdam congress were instructed 
to organize in their respective countries national branches to be 
affiliated with the world organization. In the United States, in 
the fall of 1932, the American Committee for Struggle Against 
War was organized in response to these instructions." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 119; also cited in Annual Report, H. R. 1476, January 8, 
1940, p. 10.) 

WORLD CONGRESS FOR PEACE (See World Peace Congress) 

WORLD CONGRESS OF INTELLECTUALS 

1. Among the different forms assumed by the "Communist 'peace' 
movement" is the World Congress of Intellectuals. The Con- 
gress "hailed by the Communist press and radio" was held at 
Wroclaw (Breslau), Poland, August 25-28, 1948." The Cultural 
and Scientific Conference for World Peace was held as a follow-up 
of this gathering in Poland. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878, 
on the Communist u Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, origi- 
nally released April 1, 1951, p. 1, also pp. 8-10; and House 
Report 1954, Review of the Cultural and Scientific Confer- 
ence for World Peace arranged by the National Council of 
the Arts, Sciences and Professions and held in New York 
City on March 25, 26, and 27, 1949, pp. 2-6.) 

WORLD CONGRESS OF PARTISANS OF PEACE (See World Peace Congress) 
WORLD FEDERATION OF DEMOCRATIC WOMEN (See Women's Inter- 

national Democratic Federation) 
WORLD FEDERATION OF DEMOCRATIC YOUTH 

1. "The A YD (American Youth for Democracy) is affiliated with the 
World Federation of Democratic Youth, which was founded in 
London in November 1945 by delegates from over 50 nations. 
* * * From the outset the World Federation of Democratic 
Youth demonstrated that it was far more interested in serving 
as a pressure group in behalf of Soviet foreign policy than it was 
in the specific problems of international youth. * * * So strong 
was the Communist domination at the London conference that 
it aroused the deepest concern of the English bishops." _ Also 
cited as one of the "long established Soviet-controlled inter- 
national organizations" which "speak identical lines of propa- 
ganda and stand together on all phases of Soviet foreign policy" 
and which has "affiliated organizations in the United States, 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 95 

which consequently have also been turned into instruments in 
the 'peace' campaign." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 271 on 
the American Youth for Democracy, April 17, 1947, pp. 12 
and 13; and House Report 878 on the Communist "Peace" 
Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally released April 1, 1951, 
p. 77.) 
2. Cited as being among "international Communist fronts * * * 
functioning at the present time." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 93, also p. 59.) 

WORLD FEDERATION OF SCIENTIFIC WORKERS 

1. Cited as "another international Communist-front organization" 

which seeks to win scientists to the Communist cause. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 83.) 

2. Cited as being among "international Communist fronts * * * 

functioning at the present time." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 93, also p. 59.) 

WORLD FEDERATION OF TRADE UNIONS 

1. Cited as "part of a solar system of international Communist-front 

organizations which have been established in recent years * * *" 
"American supporters include the left-wing unions within the 
Congress of Industrial Organizations." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1958 on 

the Congress of American Women, April 26, 1950, originally 

released October 23, 1949, p. 1.) 

2. Cited as "Communist-dominated." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 93, also p. 59.) 

WORLD PEACE APPEAL (also known as Stockholm Peace Petition) 

1. "The Permanent Committee of the World Peace Congress met 

* * * in Stockholm, Sweden, between March 15 and 19, 1950 

* * * to launch the boldest and most far-reaching maneuver of 
the whole Communist peace movement — the world-wide circu- 
lation of 'peace' petitions * * * 

"The launching of the world-wide drive for signatures to a so- 
called World Peace Appeal * * * is the * * * most extensive 
piece of psychological warfare ever conducted by any organiza- 
tion on a world scale * * * The World Peace Appeal was 
launched 3 months before the outbreak of Communist armed 
aggression against South Korea. Obviously the appeal was in- 
tended as a smoke screen for such aggression." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, pp. 29, 31 and 32.) 



96 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

WORLD PEACE CIRCLE OF HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 

1. Cited as a "local Communist front" which gave its support to the 
American Peace Crusade in 1951. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 52.) 

WORLD PEACE CONGRESS > 

1. Cited as being among Communist "peace" conferences which 

"have been organized under Communist initiative in various 
countries throughout the world as part of a campaign against 
the North Atlantic Defense Pact." 

The first Congress was held in Paris, April 20-23, 1949, and 
the Second World Peace Congress was originally scheduled to 
be held in Sheffield, England, November 13-19, 1950, but, upon 
denial of visas to many delegates by the British Government, 
was held in Warsaw, Poland, November 16-22, 1950. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, pp. 16, 36, and 87; also cited in 
House Report 1954 on the Scientific and Cultural Conference 
for World Peace, arranged by the National Council of the 
Arts, Sciences, and Professions and held in New York City 
on March 25, 26, and 27, 1949, April 26, 1950, originally 
released April 19, 1949, p. 10.) 

2. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 

after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96, also pp. 59 and 93.) 

WORLD PEACE COUNCIL 

1. Cited as having been formed at the conclusion of the Second World 
Peace Congress in Warsaw and which was heralded by the Mos- 
cow radio as "the expression of the determination of the peoples 
to take into their own hands the struggle for peace." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 88.) 

WORLD STUDENT CONGRESS 

1. "Immediately after the conclusion of the Budapest [World Youth] 
Festival, the Communist leaders planned another world youth 
demonstration. The Council of the International Union of 
Students met in Sofia, Bulgaria, during September 1949 and 
decided to stage a Second World Student Congress in Prague 
during 1950; the First World Student Congress was the 1946 
gathering at which the IUS was formally created. This Second 
World Student Congress met August 14-28, 1950, in Prague." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 878 on 

the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 

released April 1, 1951, p. 78.) 

> Also known as the World Congress of Partisans of Peace and the World Congress of Defenders of Peace. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 97 

WORLD TOURISTS, INC. 

1. Cited as an organization "used as a cover for Soviet espionage 
activities." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on The Shame- 
Jul Years, H. R. 1229, January 8, 1952, originally released 
December SO, 1951, pp. 16 and 58.) 

WORLD YOUTH CONGRESS 

1. Cited as a Communist conference held in the summer of 1938 at 
Vassar College. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P- 183; also cited in Annual Report, H. R. 2, January 
3, 1939, p. 82.) 

WORLD YOUTH FESTIVAL 

1. Cited as having been held from August 14-28, 1949, in Budapest, 

with the cooperation of American Youth for a Free World and 

the World Federation of Democratic Youth; the delegates to 

this festival were usually led by the Soviet delegation. The 

United States was represented by a delegation of 175 students. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 

the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 

released April 1, 1951, pp. 77 and 78.) 

YANKS ARE NOT COMING COMMITTEE 

1. The Communist Party was "the principal agent" in "the Yanks 
Are Not Coming movement." This Communist Party slogan 
in the day of the Stalin-Hitler pact was formulated by Mike 
Quinn, Daily Worker columnist. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, PP- 17, 95, and 100.) 
YIDDISHER KULTUR FARBAND 

1. Cited as subversive and Communist, and an affiliate of the Com- 
munist Party, U. S. A., which seeks "to alter the form of govern- 
ment of the United States by unconstitutional means." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released July 25, 1949.) 

YOUNG COMMUNIST LEAGUE 

1. Cited as a "subversive," "Communist" organization which seeks 

"to alter the form of government of the United States by uncon- 
stitutional means." 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 

2. Cited as "organized and maintained under strict Communist 

Party control" and as having "direct connections with Moscow 
in addition to indirect connections through the Communist 
Party." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Re- 
port, H. R. 1476, January 3, 1940, pp. 8 and 9.) 

3. "On October 15, 1943, a special convention of the Young Commu- 

nist League was held at Manhattan Center at Thirty-fourth 
Street and Eighth Avenue in New York City. At this conven- 



98 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

tion the Young Communist League officially transformed itself 
into the American Youth for Democracy." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 271 on 
the American Youth for Democracy, April 17, 1947, p. 2.) 

YOUNG PEOPLE'S GENERAL ASSEMBLY FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as a Communist front "active in the recent peace offensive 
after World War II." 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 96.) 
YOUNG WORKERS LEAGUE 

1. A Communist enterprise "later known as the Young Communist 
League and still later as American Youth for Democracy." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 76.) 



PART II 

PUBLICATIONS CITED AS COMMUNIST OR COMMUNIST- 
FRONT BY FEDERAL AUTHORITIES 

ACTION NOW 

1. "Official organ of the Civil Eights Congress." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1115 on 
the Civil Rights Congress, November 17, 1947, originally 
released September 2, 1947, p. 6.) 

AMERASIA 

1. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" magazine which was "so 
closely linked into the IPR [Institute of Pacific Relations] 
system that the IPR family ordinarily treated it as simply 
another of their own publications." Frederick V. Field was 
owner of 50 percent of the stock of Amerasia and was for more 
than three years chairman of its editorial board. "When it 
ceased publication after the arrest in what has been known as 
the Amerasia case in 1945, the subscription list was taken over 
by the Far Eastern Survey, official publication of the IPR." 
(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the 
Institute oj Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 71, 95, 145 
and 146.) 
CHALLENGE 

1. Cited as a publication which "began in March 1950 under the 
sponsorship of the Labor Youth League" and which "was en- 
dorsed by William Z. Foster, chairman of the Communist Party." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 on 
the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, originally 
released April 1, 1951, p. 81.) 

CHAMPION LABOR MONTHLY 

1. "An official organ of the Young Communist League." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, V- 102.) 

CHAMPION OF YOUTH (or Champion) 

1. "Official organ of the Young Communist League and also of the 
International Workers Order." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
H. R. 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 17; also cited in House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 189.) 

CHINA TODAY 

1. Cited as the "official organ" of the Communist-controlled Ameri- 
can Friends of the Chinese People. There was a "close inter- 
locking" of China Today with the Institute of Pacific Relations. 
(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050, on the Insti- 
tute oj Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 72 and 145.) 

99 



100 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

COMMUNIST, THE 

1. "On July 19, 1919, the National Organizing Committee issued the 
first number of The Communist as the official organ of the Com- 
munist Party of America. Dennis E. Batt was the editor." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
"Organized Communism in the United States,'' May 28, 
1954, originally released August 19, 1953, p. 29; also cited 
in House Report 209 on "The Communist Party of the 
United States as an Agent oj a Foreign Power," April 1, 
1947, p. 15.) 

COMMUNIST, THE 

1. "On June 12, 1920, The Communist appeared as the official organ 
of the United Communist Party of America." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
"Organized Communism in the United States," May 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, p. 51.) 

COMMUNIST, THE 

1. Cited as the "official magazine of the Communist Party of the 

United States." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
H. R. 1, January 3, 1941, p. 12; also cited in House Report 
1311 on the "C. I. 0. Political Action Committee," March 29, 

1944, P- 8.) 

2. "* * * organ of the Communist Party of the United States. This 

publication is now called Political Affairs." 

(Cow.mittee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, H. R. 
2742, January 2, 1947, p. 7.) 

COMMUNIST INTERNATIONAL 

1. Cited as an "internationally circulated Communist publication" 
which serves "as a means of conveying instructions to the dis- 
ciplined Communist Parties throughout the world." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 
Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, p. 98.) 

DAILY PEOPLE'S WORLD 

1. "The official organ of the Communist Party on the west coast." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 

p. 95; also cited in Annual Report, H.R.I, January 3, 1941, 

p. 10.) 

DAILY WORKER 

1. "The chief journalistic mouthpiece of the Communist Party 
* * * founded in response to direct instructions from the Com- 
munist International in Moscow. * * * The first issue of the 
Daily Worker appeared on January 13, 1924. * * * No other 
paper or publication of any kind in all American history has ever 
been loaded with such a volume of subversive, seditious, and 
treasonable utterance as has this organ of the American Com- 
munists." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 59 and 60; also cited in Annual Reports, H. R. 2, Jan- 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 101 

uary 3, 1939, p. SO; H. R. 1476, January S, 1940, p. 7; 
H. R. 1, January 3, 1941, p. 14; and H. R. 2277, June 25, 

1942, p. 4) 
2. "Official Communist Party, U. S. A., organ." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920 on 
the Communist Party oj the United States as an Advocate of 
Overthrow of Government by Force and Violence, May 11, 
1948, p. 44-) 
EQUALITY 
1. Cited as a Communist Party enterprise. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 49.) 
FAR EAST SPOTLIGHT (See also Spotlight on the Far East) 
1. Cited as the "official organ" of the Committee for a Democratic 
Far Eastern Policy. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the 
Institute of Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, p. 145) 

FAR EASTERN SURVEY 

1. A fortnightly publication which served as the organ of the American 
Council, Institute of Pacific Relations. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Report on the Institute of Pacific 
Relations, Senate Report 2050, July 2, 1952, pp. Ill and 
142.) 

FIGHT 

1. Cited as the official organ of the American League Against War and 
Fascism, later known as the American League for Peace and 
Democracy. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
pp. 113 and 128; also cited in Annual Report H. R. 2277, 
June 25, 1942, p. 15.) 

FOR A LASTING PEACE, FOR A PEOPLE'S DEMOCRACY 

1. "The Cominform's official publication, entitled, in accordance with 

typical Communist double talk, 'For a Lasting Peace; For a 

People's Democracy,' is a new vehicle for directives from the 

Soviet Union to the other Communist Parties of the world." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920, 

on the Communist Party of the United States as an Advocate 

of Overthrow of Government by Force and Violence, May 11, 

1948, p. 84', also cited in Report on Organized Communism 

in the United States, H. R. 1694, May 28, 1954, originally 

released August 19, 1953, p. 98. 

FREIHEIT (See Morning Freiheit) 

FRIDAY 

1. Cited as "Communist controlled." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 148.) 

95822"— 57 S 



102 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

GLAS NARODNA (The People's Voice, Slovene) 

1. Among those publications which, the committee found, "follows 
the Communist line." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, p. 74-) 
GLOS LUDOWY (People's Voice, Polish) 

1. Cited as a publication which "has never faltered in this program of 
active cooperation with the Soviet regime * * * Two men who 
have been responsible for directing the policy of Glos Ludowy 
are avowed members of the Communist Party, U. S. A. * * * 
Glos Ludowy stops at nothing in its frantic efforts to glorify the 
Soviet Union." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, pp. 70 and 71.) 

GOLDEN BOOK OF AMERICAN FRIENDSHIP WITH THE SOVIET UNION 

1. Cited as a "Communist enterprise" signed by "hundreds" of "well- 
known Communists and fellow travelers." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 102.) 

GUILD LAWYER 

1. Cited as an official publication of the National Lawyers Guild. 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 3123 
on the National Lawyers Guild, September 21, 1950, origi- 
nally released September 17, 1950.) 

HONOLULU RECORD 

1. Cited as a front for the Communist Party. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on the Honolulu 
Record, October 1, 1950.) 

IN DEFENSE OF PEACE 

1. Cited as being the official organ of the World Peace Congress, a 
Communist front. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 
on the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, origi- 
nally released April 1, 1951, p. 16, also p. 20.) 

IN FACT 

1. Cited as a Communist front whose president and editor is George 
Seldes. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, V- 48.) 

INTERNATIONAL JURIDICAL ASSOCIATION (LJA) MONTHLY BULLETIN 

1. Cited as "a publication of the International Juridical Association 

which combined with the Lawyers Guild Review, an official organ 

of the National Lawyers Guild." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 3123 
on the National Lawyers Guild, September 21, 1950, orig- 
inally released September 17, 1950, p. 13.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 103 

INTERNATIONAL PRESS CORRESPONDENCE (INPRECORR) 

1. "The organ of the Communist International." 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
Report, H. R. 2, January 3, 1939, p. 79.) 

2. "Official weekly press organ of the Communist International." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 209 on 
The Communist Party of the United States as an Agent of 
a Foreign Power, April 1, 1947, p. 41 >) 
JEWISH LIFE» 

1. Cited as a Communist-front which "first appeared in November 
1946, as a monthly published by the Morning Freiheit Associa- 
tion, publishers of the Yiddish Communist daily, Morning 
Freiheit * * *. The first issue contained this announcement 
of policy: 'Jewish Life dedicates itself to _ strengthening the 
friendship of the Jewish people with the Soviet Union.' " 

Its editor, Louis Harap, has been identified as a Communist 
in sworn testimony. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 93.) 
KOREAN INDEPENDENCE 

1. A bilingual Korean-English newspaper published in Los Angeles 
since approximately 1943, which is "exclusively a vehicle for 
Communist Party propaganda. 

"The newspaper is circulated among persons of Korean descent 
for the purpose of popularizing the policies of the Soviet Union, 
the North Korean Government, and the Communist conspiracy 
in America." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1955, H. R. 1648, January 17, 1956, originally released 
January 11, 1956, p. 27.) 
LABOR ACTION 

1. The official organ of the Independent Socialist League, formerly 
the Workers Party. 

(Attorney General J. Howard McOrath, letter to Loyalty Review 
Board, released September 29, 1949.) 
LABOR DEFENDER 
1. A "Communist magazine." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
H. R. 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 18.) 
LABOR HERALD 

1. The "Journal" of the Trade-Union Educational League. Earl 
Browder served as managing editor. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on Organized 
Communism in the United States, H. R. 1694, A/ay 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, p. 79.) 

LAWYERS GUILD REVIEW 

1. Cited as "an official organ of the National Lawyers Guild." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 3123 on 
the National Lawyers Guild, September 21, 1950, originally 
released September 17, 1950, p. 13.) 

i Not to be confused with the Orthodox Jewish Life, also popularly known as Jewish Life, which Is a bi- 
monthly publication of the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, 305 Broadway, New 
York 7, N. Y. 



104 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

LIBERATOR 

1. A "Communist magazine." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
' H. R. 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 18.) 

LUDOVE NOVINY (People's News, Slovak) 

1. Cited as a publication which "closely follows the Communist Party 
line." It "is published at the same address as Ludovy Dennik, 
maintains exactly the same editorial policy, and has the same 
editor * * * is officially owned by the same three individuals 
who owned Ludovy Dennik * * *." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 on 
the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, pp. 61 and 62.) 

LUDOVY DENNIK (People's Daily, Slovak) 

1. Cited as a publication to "spread the Communist word to its Slovak 
readers with material secured from the Daily Worker * * * thus 
characterized out of its own pages as a unit of the Communist 
press." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 on 
the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, p. 61.) 

MARCH OF LABOR 

1. "* * * this ostensible 'labor' publication is nothing less than an 
instrument of the Communist Party" * * * and its "propaganda 
in behalf of the Communist Party is aimed chiefly at building 
support for Communist leaders active in the trade-union 
field * * *." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report on the March 
oj Labor, December 22, 1954, PP- 6 and 19.) 

MASSES AND MAINSTREAM « 

1. Cited as the successor to New Masses, "a Communist magazine." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1953 
on the Congress of American Women, April 26, 1950, 
originally released October 23, 1949, p. 75; also citedin House 
Report 1694 on Organized Communism in the United States, 
May 28, 1954, originally released August 19, 1953, p. 98.) 

MIDWEST DAILY RECORD 

1. An official Communist Party organ in Chicago, 111. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P- 14^; also cited in Annual Report, H. R. 1476, 
January 3, 1940, p. 11.) 

MORNING FREIHEIT 

1. A "Communist Yiddish daily." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7686.) 

2. "The Freiheit has been one of the rankest organs of Communist 

propaganda in this country for almost a quarter of a century." 
(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P- 75.) 

• Name changed to Mainstream with September 1956 issue of this publication. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 105 

NARODNA VOLYA (People's Will, Macedonian-Bulgarian) 
1. Cited as a publication which "may be read in vain for any hint of 
criticism of the present Communist regime in Bulgaria * * * 
Narodna Volya grasps every opportunity to laud the Soviet 
Union * * * may be safely considered as the organ, in the 
Bulgarian language, of the Communist Party and the American 
Slav Congress." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, pp. 66-68.) 

NARODNI GLASNIK (Croatian) 
1. Cited as Communist. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 on 

the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 

released June 26, 1949, p. 15.) 

NATIONAL GUARDIAN 

1. "Established by the American Labor Party in 1947 as a 'progres- 
sive' weekly. * * * Although it denies having any affiliation 
with the Communist Party, it has manifested itself from the 
beginning as a virtual official propaganda arm of Soviet Russia." 
{Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, "Trial by 
Treason: The National Committee to Secure Justice for the 
Rosenbergs and Morton Sobell," August 25, 1956, p. 12.) 

NATIONAL LAWYERS GUILD QUARTERLY 

1. Cited as an official publication of the National Lawyers Guild. 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 8123 
on the National Lawyers Guild, September 21, 1950, origi- 
nally released September 17, 1950.) 

NEW MASSES (See also Masses and Mainstream) 

1. A "Communist periodical." 

{Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
' September 24, 1942, p. 7688.) 

2. "Nationally circulated weekly journal of the Communist Party 

* * * whose ownership was vested in the American Fund for 

Public Service" (Garland Fund). 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, VV' 48 and 75; also cited in Annual Reports, H. R. 2, 
January 3, 1939, p. 80; and H. R. 2277, June 25, 1942, 
pp. 4 and 21.) 

NEW PIONEER 

1. "The Communist Party's official publication for children," which 
was edited by Helen Kay, a member of the Communist Party for 
at least 12 years. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 121.) 

NEW THEATRE 

1. A Communist Party publication. 

{Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 

1811 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, 1>. Ml.) 



106 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

NEW TIMES 

1. Cited as an "internationally circulated Communist publication" 
published in Moscow. "Its purpose is obviously to guide the 
policy of Communist Parties throughout the world." Its prede- 
cessors were the War and the Working Classes, World News and 
Views, and Inprecorr. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920 on 
the Communist Party of the United States as an Advocate 
of Overthrow of Government by Force and Violence, May 
11, 1948, pp. 28, 25, and 48; also cited in House Report 
1694 on Organized Communism in the United States, May 
28, 1954, originally released August 19, 1953, p. 98.) 

NEW WORLD REVIEW 

1. Cited as an organization specializing in pro-Soviet propaganda. It 
was formerly known as Soviet Russia Today. 

(Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook for Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 90.) 

NOVY MIR 

1. Cited as a "Communist enterprise" which was among the benefici- 
aries of the American Fund for Public Service (Garland Fund). 
(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report, 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 76.) 
PACIFIC AFFAIRS 

1. An international quarterly which served as the organ of the Pacific 
Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Report on the Institute of Pacific 
Relations, Senate Report 2050, July 2, 1952, pp. 18 and 142.) 

PARTY ORGANIZER 

1. "The organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, 

United States of America." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7688.) 

2. "Official Communist Party magazine." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 181.) 

3. "Official internal organ of the Communist Party of the United 

States, intended for the enlightenment of party members only." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 209 on 
the Communist Party of the United States as an Agent of a 
Foreign Power, April 1, 1947, p. 19.) 
PEOPLE'S DAILY WORLD (See Daily People's World) 
PEOPLE'S VOICE (See Glas Narodna, and Glos Ludowy) 
PEOPLE'S WORLD (See Daily People's World) 
POLITICAL AFFAIRS 

1. Cited as an "official Communist Party monthly theoretical organ." 
"Political Affairs, formerly known as The Communist, 'a maga- 
zine of the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism published 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 107 

monthly by the Communist Party of the United States of 
America/ now calls itself 'a magazine devoted to the theory 
and practice of Marxism-Leninism.' Its chief editor is Eugene 
Dennis, executive secretary of the party." 

{Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920 on 
the Communist Party oj the United States as an Advocate 
of Overthrow oj Government by Force and Violence, May 
11, 1948, pp. 5 and 86; also cited in House Report 209 
on the Communist Party oj the United States as an Agent 
oj a Foreign Power, April 1, 1947, p. 25.) 

PROTESTANT (See also Protestant Digest) 

1. "With an eye to religious groups, the Communists have formed 
religious fronts such as the * * * Protestant * * *" 

(Internal Security Subcommittee oj the Senate Judiciary Com- 
mittee, Handbook jor Americans, S. Doc. 117, April 23, 
1956, p. 91.) 

PROTESTANT DIGEST (See also Protestant) 

1. "A magazine which has faithfully propagated the Communist 
Party line under the guise of being a religious journal." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, P. 48.) 
REVOLUTIONARY AGE 

1. "Louis Fraina was the first Communist editor in the United States. 

With headquarters in Boston, Fraina edited the Revolutionary 
Age, a magazine devoted to the overthrow of the United States 
Government. In an issue of his magazine dated July 5, 1 1919, 
Fraina called for 'the annihilation of the fraudulent democracy 
of the parliamentary system.' " 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual 
Report, House Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 6.) 

2. "* * * [in 1918] the Boston branch of the Socialist Party began 

the publication of The Revolutionary Age, in which Communist 
tactics were advocated * * * The National Council [of the 
Left-Wing Section of the Socialist Party] set up offices, with 
Isaac E. Ferguson as secretary, and the Revolutionary Age 
became the official organ with the first issue of July 5, 2 1919." 
(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 
on "Organized Communism in the United States," May 28, 
1954, originally released August 19, 1953, pp. 3 and 13; 
also cited in House Report 209 on "The Communist Party 
oj the United States as an Agent oj a Foreign Power," 
April 1, 1947, p. 14) 
REVOLUTIONARY AGE 

1. Cited as "the official organ of the Communist Party (majority 
group)," whose managing editor for a number of years was Will 
Herberg. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 
House Report 2277, June 25, 1942, p. 17.) 

» Incorrectly appears as July 12 in H. R. 2277. 
•Incorrectly appears as July 15 in H. R. 1694. 



108 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

SCIENCE AND SOCIETY 

1. Cited as a Communist publication. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944) 
p. 96.) 

SLAVIC AMERICAN 

1. Cited as the official organ of the American Slav Congress. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, p. 1.) 

SLOBODNA RECH (Free Expressien, Serbian) 

1. "* * * Slobodna Rech has consistently indicated to the American 
Serbians that only the Communist Party has been constantly 
right * * * Attacks on United States foreign and domestic 
policies are now featured just as prominently in Slobodna Rech 
as they are in the Daily Worker. * * * There is no attempt at 
subtlety in Slobodna Rech's devotion to Russia. * * *" 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, pp. 59 and 60, also 62.) 

SOCIAL WORK TODAY 

1. "A Communist magazine." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944) 
p. 129.) 

SOUTHERN PATRIOT 

1. "Organ" of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 592 on 
the Southern Conference for Human Welfare, June 12, 1947, 
pp. 6 and 9.) 

SOVIET RUSSIA TODAY > 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 167; also cited in Annual Report, H. R. 2277, 
June 25, 1942, p. 21.) 

2. Cited as a "Communist-front publication." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1953 on 
the Congress of American Women, April 26, 1950, origi- 
nally released October 23, 1949, p. 108.) 

3. Cited as a "Communist-controlled" publication. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the In- 
stitute oj Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 96 and 146.) 

SPOTLIGHT 

1. "Official organ" of the American Youth for Democracy. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Report 271 on the 
American Youth for Democracy, April 17, 1947, pp. 3 and 4-) 

i Name of publication, Soviet Russia Today, changed to New World Review, March 1951. Citation 01 
Soviet Russia Today applies to new title. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 109 

SPOTLIGHT ON THE FAR EAST (See also Far East Spotlight) 

1. Official publication of Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern 

Policy, which was cited as Communist by Attorney General 
Tom Clark. 

(Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, 
released April 27, 1949.) 

2. Cited as a magazine published by the Committee for a Democratic 

Far Eastern Policy. 

(Senate Judiciary Committee, Senate Report 2050 on the In- 
stitute oj Pacific Relations, July 2, 1952, pp. 70 and 95.) 

U. S. WEEK 

1. Cited as a Communist front which received funds from the Robert 
Marshall Foundation. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 ojike CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, 
p. 148.) 

UKRAINIAN DAILY NEWS 

1. Cited as Communist. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, p. 15.) 

VISTNIK (Messenger, Carpatho-Russian) 

1. Cited as a publication which "closely follows the Communist 
Party line." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1951 
on the American Slav Congress, April 26, 1950, originally 
released June 26, 1949, p. 62.) 

VOICE OF ACTION 

1. "A Communist magazine." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report, 

' H. R. 2, January 8, 1939, p. 75.) 

VOICE OF CHINA 

1. "In furtherance of instructions of their Communist superiors, 
Max and Grace Granich published in Shanghai, from March 
1936 until November 1937, the Voice of Chma, which spread 
Communist propaganda throughout the Far East." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, Annual Report for 
1952, H. R. 2516, January 8, 1953, originally released 
December 28, 1952, p. 67.) 

VOICE OF LABOR 

1. "Further dissension within the left-wing group [of the Socialist 
Party] led to the resignations of Reed, MacAlpine, and Gitlow 
from the staff of the Revolutionary Age, and a new paper, The 
Voice of Labor, was launched on August 15, 1919." 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 
on "Organized Communism in the United States," May 28, 
1954, originally released August 19, 1953, p. 25; also cited 
in House Report 209 on "The Communist Party of the 
United States as an Agent of a Foreign Power," April 1, 
1947 1 p. 41) 



110 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

WAR AND THE WORKING CLASSES 

1. Cited as an "internationally circulated Communist publication" 
which has been succeeded by New Times. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920 
on the Communist Party of the United States as an Advocate 
of Overthrow oj Government by Force and Violence, May 11, 
1948, pp. 23 and 43; also cited in Report on Organized 
Communism in the United States, H. R. 1694, May 28, 
1954, originally released August 19, 1953, p. 98.) 

WATERFRONT WORKER 

1. "A mimeographed sheet published in San Francisco from Decem- 

ber 1932 until 1936. It was first issued by the Marine Workers' 
Industrial Union, identified as an affiliate of the Communist 
Party." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, in re Harry Bridges, May 

' 28, 1942, p. 10.) 

2. A Communist publication. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, V- 94.) 
WESTERN WORKER 
1. "A Communist Party newspaper." 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 

1944, v- H>) 

WINNER 

1. "The American Youth Congress publishes a magazine entitled 
'Winner/ the editor of which is Barry Wood, Communist Party 
name for Jeff Kibre, well-known party leader of southern 
California." 

(Attorney General Francis Biddle, Congressional Record, 
September 24, 1942, p. 7685.) 
WOMAN TODAY 
1. Cited as Communist front magazine. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 
1944, p. 181.) 
WORKERS CHALLENGE 

1. Cited as the official organ of the United Toilers, a "dissenting 

group" within the Communist movement in the United States. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1694 on 

Organized Communism in the United States, May 28, 1954, 

originally released August 19, 1953, p. 143.) 

WORKING WOMAN 

1. An official Communist Party magazine. 

(Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 
1311 on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944} 
p. 181.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 111 

WORLD NEWS AND VIEWS 

1. Cited as an "internationally circulated Communist publication" 
which was succeeded by the War and the Working Classes, and 
more recently by New Times. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 1920 on 
the Communist Party oj the United States as an Advocate oj 
Overthrow oj Government by Force and Violence, May 11, 
1948, pp. 23 and 4$', also cited in Report on Organized 
Communism in the United States, H. R. 1694, May 28, 1954, 
originally released August 19, 1953, p. 98.) 

WORLD STUDENT NEWS 

1. Cited as the "organ" of the International Union of Students. 

(Committee on Un-American Activities, House Report 378 
on the Communist "Peace" Offensive, April 25, 1951, 
originally released April 1, 1951, p. 79.) 



PART III 

ORGANIZATIONS CITED AS COMMUNIST OR COMMUNIST- 
FRONT BY STATE OR TERRITORIAL INVESTIGATING 
COMMITTEES 

ACADEMIC AND CIVIL RIGHTS COMMITTEE 

1. A "completely Communist created and controlled organization." 
{California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 85.) 

ACADEMIC AND CIVIL RIGHTS COUNCIL OF CALIFORNIA 

1. A "Communist transmission belt." 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 108.) 

ACTORS' LABORATORY 

1. A "Communist venture." 

{California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 74-) 
ACTORS' LABORATORY THEATRE 

1. A "red front * * * also referred to as the Hollywood Actors' 
Laboratory School." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report 1948, p. 95.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR A FREE INDONESIA 

1. Cited as the name for subsidiary committees, located in Los Angeles 
and San Francisco, of the Communist front, the American 
Committee for Indonesian Independence. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 118.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR A KOREAN PEOPLE'S PARTY 

1. "This is just one of many Communist fronts for the purpose of pro- 
testing American policy in Korea and creating pressure for the 
recall of American occupation forces from that country." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 112.) 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE FOR RUSSIAN FAMINE RELIEF (Los Angeles 
and San Francisco) 

1. Cited as Communist front. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 114-) 
AMERICAN COMMITTEE TO AID KOREAN FEDERATION OF TRADE- 

UNIONS (San Francisco) 
1. Cited as a Communist front "for the purpose of protesting Ameri- 
can policy in Korea and creating pressure for the recall of 
American occupation forces from that country." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 

Activities, Report, 1948, p. 112.) 

113 



114 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE TO AID SOVIET RUSSIA 

1. "One of the many Communist-front organizations for propagandiz- 
in behalf of the Soviet Union. * * * [It] appears to be active 
in Los Angeles County." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 141-) 
AMERICAN FEDERATION FOR POLITICAL UNITY 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 19 43, p. 96.) 

AMERICAN FRIENDS OF THE SPANISH PEOPLE 

1. A "completely Communist created and controlled organization." 
(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 35.) 

ANGELO] HERNDON DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a "united front" under the guidance of the Communist 
Party, with headquarters at 11 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 
"This office and address served as headquarters of various other 
Communist supporting groups." 

(Massoxhusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 

* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1938, pp. 213 and 214-) 

ARTISTS AND WRITERS GUILD 

1. "Among the ERA and WPA workers, Communists organized" the 
above. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 

* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi, and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 310.) 

ARTS, SCIENCES AND PROFESSIONS COUNCIL (See Southern California 

Chapter of the National Council of the Arts, Sciences and Professions) 
ASSOCIATED FILM AUDIENCES 

1. Cited as a Communist front which merged in 1939 with Films for 
Democracy to become known as Film Audiences for Democracy. 
(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 193.) 

ASSOCIATION OF LITHUANIAN WORKERS 

1. Cited as a "foreign-language Marxist organization" serving as a 
"satellite" to the Communist Party of Massachusetts. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 

* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi, and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 154.) 

BOSTON LABOR CONFERENCE FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as a Communist "peace" front affiliated with the New York 

Labor Conference for Peace. It circulated "peace ballots" of the 

American Peace Crusade in the Boston area. 

(Massachusetts Committee to Curb Communism, Report, 
March 30, 1951, pp. 55, 57, 58.) 
BOSTON SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 
1. "Lectures, study classes, schools, and 'progressive' organizations 

were promoted with Soviet Russia the subject of glorification 

and Marxian economics the subject of teaching. Among these 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 115 

activities were the following: 

"The Boston School of Social Science grew, financially sup- 
ported by the Garland Fund, which had as its trustees the leaders 
of the Communist Party in America. * * *" 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 
* * * of Communistic, Fascistic, Nazi, and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 113.) 

CALIFORNIA COMMITTEE FOR POLITICAL UNITY 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1943, p. 91.) 

CALIFORNIA CONFERENCE FOR DEMOCRATIC ACTION (also known as 

Conference for Democratic Action) 
1. Cited as a Communist front which was a successor of the American 
League for Peace and Democracy. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Reports, 1943, p. 91 and 1947, p. 170.) 

[CALIFORNIA] FEDERATION FOR POLITICAL UNITY 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1943, p. 68.) 

CALIFORNIA LEGISLATIVE CONFERENCE 

1. Cited as "a political and legislative agitation and propaganda 
front" which "has been characterized by complete subservience 
to the twists and turns of the Communist Party line." "* * * 
for several years [it] was known by the number of its meet- 
ings. * * * At a Fresno conference September 11-12, 1948, 
on the campus of Fresno State College, this Communist 
front * * * expanded its executive board to 76 members and 
became a permanent organization." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1949, pp. 485-438; also cited in 1948 
Report, pp. 62, 63, and 195; and 1951 Report, p. 253.) 

[CALIFORNIA] STATE-WIDE CIVIL RIGHTS CONFERENCE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 172.) 

[CALIFORNIA] STATE- WIDE LEGISLATIVE CONFERENCES 

1. The California Legislative Conference is a "Communist front" 
which "for several years was known by the number of its meet- 
ings" until it became a permanent organization in 1948. The 
"First State-Wide Legislative Conference" was held in Sacra- 
mento, Calif., January 5 and 6, 1946. A "Second State-Wide 
Legislative Conference" was called for February 15-16, 1947 in 
Sacramento. "At a Fresno conference September 11-12, 1948 
* * * this Communist front * * * became a permanent organi- 
zation." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1949, pp. 435-438; also cited in 1948 
Report, p. 876; and by California Joint Fact-Finding Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities, Report, 1947, p. 240.) 



116 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

CALIFORNIA YOUTH LEGISLATURE (See also Model Youth Legislature of 
Northern California) 

1. Cited as a Communist-front organization which took part in a mass 
meeting in Los Angeles on June 8, 1940, under the sponsorship 
of the American Peace Crusade, a Communist creation for the 
purpose of putting the terms of the Stalin-Hitler pact into effect 
in the United States. 

{California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 160.) 

CHELSEA JEWISH CHILDREN'S SCHOOL (MASS.) 

1. "A place where Marxism is combined with instruction in the racial 
tongue." 

{Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * oj Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1988, p. 898.) 

CHINESE CULTURAL CABARET 

1. Cited as a "thoroughly Communized" group. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1958, p. 267.) 

CHINESE DEMOCRATIC YOUTH CHORUS 

1. "This is the Party language for a group of Chinese Communist 
singers." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1951, p. 277.) 

CHINESE WORKERS MUTUAL AID ASSOCIATION 

1. Cited as a "thoroughly Communized" group. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1958, p. 267.) 

CITIZENS COMMITTEE FOR BETTER EDUCATION 

1. Cited as a Communist front in Los Angeles whose "chief activity" 
has been "the support of extreme leftists for election to the Los 
Angeles Board of Education." It uses "the Communist Party's 
mailing list for Los Angeles County." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 198 and 199.) 

CITIZENS' COMMITTEE FOR THE DEFENSE OF MEXICAN-AMERICAN 
YOUTH 

1. Cited as a "Communist front for racial agitation that had func- 
tioned in Los Angeles in 1943 during the so-called Zoot Suit 
disturbances in that city." 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 97, also p. 45: also cited in 1945 
Report, pp. 182 and 210; and by California Senate Fact- 
Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, 1951, 
p. 257.) 

CITIZENS' COMMITTEE FOR THE MOTION PICTURE STRIKERS 

1. "This Communist front was organized for the purpose of creating 
sympathy for Herbert K. SorrelTs Communist-inspired strike 
against the motion-picture industry. It was particularly active 
in attempting to influence public opinion in favor of Sorrell and 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 117 

his strikers and in agitating and fomenting antagonisms between 
law-enforcement officers and the strikers." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 201.) 

CITIZENS' COMMITTEE FOR THE RECALL OF COUNCILMAN McCLANA- 
HAN (THIRTEENTH LOS ANGELES DISTRICT) 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 55.) 

CITIZENS' COMMITTEE TO AID LOCKED-OUT HEARST EMPLOYEES 

(Los Angeles) 
1. Cited as "a Communist inspired and dominated group." 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 180.) 

CITIZENS* COMMITTEE TO SUPPORT LABOR'S RIGHT 

1. A "newly formed Communist-front organization, * * * which 
is sponsored by the Civil Rights Congress, a Communist-domi- 
nated organization." 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 187.) 

CITY ACTION COMMITTEE AGAINST THE HIGH COST OF LIVING 

1. A "Communist-front 'transmission belt' in Los Angeles." 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1943, p. 108.) 

CIVIL RIGHTS COUNCIL OF NORTHERN CALIFORNIA 

1. Cited as a Communist organization wdiich was a branch of the 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1943, p. 97; also cited by California 
Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, 
Report, 1948, p. 163.) 

COMMITTEE FOR JUSTICE 

1. "This 'Committee' was formed for the purpose of raising funds for 
the defense of the 'Hawaii 7'. 1 Its only known activity was 
sponsoring of an exhibition of a Soviet propaganda film and it 
is accordingly considered in the 'front' category." 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Activities, Report, Febru- 
ary 28, 1955, p. 54.) 

COMMITTEE FOR THE DEFENSE OF MEXICAN-AMERICAN YOUTH (See 
Citizens Committee for the Defense of Mexican-American Youth) 

COMMITTEE FOR THE FIRST AMENDMENT 

1. "A recently created Communist front in the defense of Communists 
and Communist fellow travelers. Its immediate purpose is to 
create favorable public opinion for the Communists who refused 
to testify before the House Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties in Washington, D. C." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 210.) 

1 Refers to Communist Party leaders tried under the Smith Act. 
99822'— 5T 9 



118 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

COMMITTEE OF ONE THOUSAND 

1. A "Communist created and controlled front organization" which 
was "created to raise funds for the defense of the 19 unfriendly 
witnesses before the Congressional Committee on Un-American 
Activities' investigation of Communist activity in Hollywood, 
10 of whom were indicted for contempt of Congress." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 84 and 85.) 
CONFERENCE FOR DEMOCRATIC ACTION {See California Conference for 

Democratic Action) 
CONFERENCE FOR SOCIAL LEGISLATION 

1. The "set-up is strikingly similar to that laid down by the Central 
Committee of the Communist Party." Some of the endorsers 
were "well known as being active in organizations which fringe 
the Communist Party, and are wholly sympathetic to it. We 
believe some of the remainder were unwittingly enlisted." It 
convened in Boston on January 16, 1938, and on March 27, 1938; 
on the latter date, plans were laid to build Labor's Non-Par tisan 
League into a State-wide organization. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activ- 
ities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1988, pp. 858-355.) 

CONTEMPORARY THEATRE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 892.) 
CROATIAN EDUCATIONAL CLUB 
1. A branch of Communist language organizations. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission, to Investigate the Activ- 
ities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1988, p. 493.) 
DEFENSE COMMITTEE FOR VICTIMS OF THE OHIO UN-AMERICAN 

ACTIVITIES COMMISSION 
1. Cited among "organizations in Ohio [which] cannot escape the label 
of Communist front." 

(Ohio Un-American Activities Commission, Report, 1951-1952, 
p. 83.) 
DOWNTOWN FORUM 
1. Cited as a Communist enterprise. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 14? and 148.) 
EAST BAY ARTS, SCIENCES AND PROFESSIONS COUNCIL 
1. Cited as one of "the major front organizations operating in the 
San Francisco Bay region in 1951." It is located at 1740 Uni- 
versity Avenue, Berkeley, Calif. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1953, pp. 247 and 248.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 119 

EAST BAY CIVIL RIGHTS CONGRESS 

1. Cited as one of "the major front organizations operating in the 
San Francisco Bay region in 1951." It is located at 1740 
University Avenue, Berkeley, Calif. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1953, pp. 247 and 248; also cited in 1955 
Report, p. 403.) 

EAST BAY COMMITTEE TO SAVE THE ROSENBERGS 

1. Cited as one of numerous smaller Communist front groups in 
Alameda County, California which have been "created to serve 
a particular purpose." "As the name of this organization indi- 
cates, it was created for the purpose of mobilizing sympathy in 
behalf of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, convicted atomic spies 
under sentence of death, and to agitate for the commutation of 
their sentence." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1953, pp. 277 and 278.) 

EAST BAY YOUTH CULTURAL CENTER 

1. Cited as one of the "Communist front organizations and other 
Marxist groups" before which admitted Communist Morris U. 
Schappes has lectured. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
' Activities, Report, 1953, pp. 277, 278.) 

ELIZALDE ANTI-DISCRIMINATION COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 55.) 

EMERGENCY CONFERENCE TO HALT THE BLACK-OUT OF CIVIL 
LIBERTIES IN CALIFORNIA 

1. A "Communist-inspired conference * * * held * * * April 5, 
1941, at the south hall of the Embassy auditorium * * * in 
the city of Los Angeles * * * to generate pressure against 
assembly bill 271, a measure which ultimately became the law 
and is known as the Subversive Registration Act of 1941." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 233.) 

ESTONIAN WOMEN'S CLUB (of Massachusetts) 

1. "Active in promoting Communist objectives." 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other 
Subversive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 157.) 

ESTONIAN WORKERS' CLUBS 

1. Cited as a "foreign -language Marxist organization" which serves 
as a "satellite" to the Communist Party of Massachusetts. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other 
Subversive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 154-) 

FESTUS COLEMAN COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 172.) 



120 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

FILM AND PHOTO LEAGUE 

1. "A Communist front for revolutionary films" which eventually 

merged into a new organization, the New Film Alliance. "The 
Los Angeles Film and Photo League was particularly urged 'to 
wedge its way more sharply into the film industry'." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 238 and 247.) 

2. Boston unit cooperates with the New England Committee for the 

Defense of Political Prisoners. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activ- 
ities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 14-1 -) 
FINNISH FEDERATION 

1. Cited as a "Marxist foreign-language group" having large and 
active groups of members in Massachusetts. Besides publica- 
tions in its own language, it has printed the Communist Pioneer 
Song Book in English for the use of children. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 

* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 159.) 

FINNISH WOMEN'S CLUBS (of Massachusetts) 

1. "Active in promoting Communist objectives." 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 

* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1988, p. 157.) 

FINNISH WORKERS' CLUBS 

1. Cited as "foreign-language Marxist organizations" serving as 
"satellites" to the Communist Party of Massachusetts. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 

* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1988, p. 154.) 

FREE ITALY SOCIETY 

1. Cited as a national Communist-front organization. A meeting 
of the Los Angeles braoch in December 1946 attacked American- 
British diplomacy as imperialistic and demanded that Tito and 
Togliatti, Yugoslav and Italian Communist leaders, be allowed 
to settle the future of Trieste. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 241.) 
FREEDOM FROM FEAR COMMITTEE 

1. "One of the Communist Party's latest fronts" which came into 
being in Hollywood and New York and was created "to raise 
funds for the defense of the 19 unfriendly witnesses before the 
Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities' investiga- 
tion of Communist activity in Hollywood, 10 of whom were 
indicted for contempt of Congress." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 85 and 289.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 121 

FRIENDS OF FREEDOM 

1. Cited as a Communist front organization which sponsored the 
appearance of Paul Robeson at Butler Hall, 1095 Tremont 
Street, Boston on Feb. 18, 1951. "The sponsoring group 
was dominated by local Communist Party members and the 
hall was hired by local Communists." 

(Massachusetts Committee to Curb Communism, Report, 
' March SO, 1951, p. 58.) 

H. O. G. (ARMENIAN GROUP) 

1. Cited as a "foreign-language Marxist organization." 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 
* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 15 4-) 

HAWAII CIVIL RIGHTS CONGRESS 

1. Cited as a "Communist-front" affiliate of the Civil Rights Con- 
gress, whose "direction and control has been maintained by the 
Communist Party." It is "but a continuation of the subversive 
Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee." 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Activities, Reports, 
March 1951, p. 48 and Appendix X; and March 1953, p. 97 
and 78-98; also cited in Report, February 28, 1955, p. 52.) 

HAWAII COMMITTEE FOR SMITH ACT DEFENDANTS 

1. Cited as the "Communist front" which succeeded the Hawaii 
Civil Rights Congress in the "propaganda campaign in defense 
of the 'Hawaii 7'." 1 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Actvities, Report, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1955, p. 45.) 

HERNDON DEFENSE COMMITTEE (See Angelo Herndon Defense Com- 
mittee) 

HOLD THE PRICE LINE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 55.) 

HOLLYWOOD ACTORS* LABORATORY SCHOOL (See Actors' Laboratory 
Theatre) 

HOLLYWOOD ANTI-NAZI LEAGUE 

1. Incorporated on June 8, 1936, as the Hollywood League Against 
Nazi-ism, it became the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League on Sep- 
tember 28, 1936. "The Stalin-Hitler pact brought this front 
to an abrupt termination of activities in August of 1939. * * * 
The Hollywood Motion Picture Democratic Committee was the 
successor." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 249, 250, and 256; also cited in 
1949 Report, p. 88.) 

HOLLYWOOD ARTS, SCIENCES AND PROFESSIONS COUNCIL (See 
Southern California Chapter of the National Council of the Arts, Sciences 
and Professions) 

1 Refers to Communist Party leaders tried under the Smith Act. 



122 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

HOLLYWOOD COMMUNITY RADIO GROUP, INC. 

1. Cited as a "Communist inspired and directed" organization whose 
"immediate objective is the establishment of a radio station in 
Los Angeles County." 

(Calif crnia Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 370.) 

HOLLYWOOD COUNCIL OF THE ARTS, SCIENCES AND PROFESSIONS 

(See Southern California Chapter of the National Council of the Arts, Sciences 
and Professions) 

HOLLYWOOD DEMOCRATIC COMMITTEE 

1. "This Communist front grew out of a series of fronts designed to 
entrap Hollywood's innocents in the motion-picture industry." 
Organized in 1942 for the announced purpose of reelecting Gov- 
ernor Olson of California, it had no connection with the Demo- 
cratic Party. When it "faced exposure" as a Communist front, 
it changed its name in June 1945 to Hollywood Independent Citi- 
zens' Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 250, 251, and 253.) 

HOLLYWOOD INDEPENDENT CITIZENS COMMITTEE OF THE ARTS, 
SCIENCES AND PROFESSIONS 

1. On June 6, 1945, "the Hollywood Democratic Committee became 
the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, 
Sciences and Professions. Thus an old Communist front was 
given new life under a new name." Headquarters were located 
at 1515 Cross Roads of the World, Hollywood, 28. "Ultimately 
the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, 
Sciences and Professions joined hands with the C. I. O. Political 
Action Committee to form the new political Communist front, 
the Progressive Citizens of America." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 258-255; also cited in 1949 
Report, p. 477; and by California Joint Fact-Finding 
Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, 1947, pp. 236 
and 369.) 

HOLLYWOOD LEAGUE AGAINST NAZI-ISM (See Hollywood Anti-Nazi 
League) 

HOLLYWOOD LEAGUE FOR DEMOCRATIC ACTION 

1. Cited as a Communist-front organization in which Communist 
individuals were "pulling the strings and setting the policy." 
It "was a continuation of the Motion Picture Democratic Com- 
mittee after the invasion of Russia by Germany precipitated an 
abrupt change in Soviet foreign policy. It lasted until 1942 
when it reorganized as the Hollywood Democratic Committee." 
(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1943, p. 91, and California Senate 
Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, 
1948, p. 255.) 

HOLLYWOOD MOONEY DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1943, p. 91.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 123 

HOLLYWOOD MOTION PICTURE DEMOCRATIC COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as the Communist-front successor to the Hollywood Anti- 
Nazi League after the latter organization went out of business 
following the Stalin-Hitler pact of 1939. After German in- 
vasion of Russia in 1941 precipitated an abrupt change in Soviet 
foreign policy, the above was continued on under the new name, 
Hollywood League for Democratic Action. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 255 and 256.) 
HOLLYWOOD PEACE FORUM 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 160.) 
HOLLYWOOD THEATRE ALLIANCE 
1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1943, p. 91.) 
HOLYOKE BOOK SHOP 

1. "Strategically" located at 19 Dunster Street, Cambridge, Mass., 
"to supply students with Marxist publications. It is also a 
central controlling point for Communist activity in and around 
Cambridge, and is a recruiting center for the Young Communist 
League, both in the college and in the secondary public schools 
of Cambridge." 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activ- 
ities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other 
Subversive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 279.) 
HONOLULU CHAPTER, INTER-PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION 
1. Cited as "the first large organization in Hawaii to follow the 
Communist Party line." "Communists participated in organiz- 
ing" the Inter-Professional Association, Honolulu Chapter in 
1937. It became the Honolulu Forum in 1941. 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Activities, Report, March 
1951, pp. L-L23and24.) 
ILWU BOOK CLUB (San Francisco and Honolulu) 

1. Cited as a "propaganda agency for the Communist movement" 
which limits its selections to "works by Communists, Com- 
munist sympathizers and obscure writers whose only common 
denominator is the 'class-conflict' theme." 

The ILWU announced the formation of the San Francisco 
Club early in 1953 at 150 Golden Gate Avenue. Hawaii ILWU 
Local 142 announced formation of its own club in November 
1953. 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Activities, Report, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1955, pp. 102, 116, 138, and 140.) 
INDEPENDENT PROGRESSIVE PARTY 

1. "The Independent Progressive Party in California was quickly 

captured by the Communists, and by the time the Wallace for 

President campaign had swung into bigh gear was being operated 

lock stock and barrel by the Communist Party of California." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 

Activities, Report, 1955, p. 46', also cited in 1948 Report, 

p. 62; 1949 Report, pp. 136 and 469-471; and 1951 Report, 



124 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

INTER-PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION (See Honolulu Chapter, Inter- 
Professional Association) 
INTERNATIONAL BOOK SHOP (Boston) 

1. Cited as the predecessor of the Communists' present book store in 
Boston, the Progressive Bookshop. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 
* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 276.) 

INTERNATIONAL BOOK STORE (San Francisco) 

1. "The Communist Party book center in the bay area for the distri- 
bution of its literature." 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 100.) 

JAPANESE ASSOCIATION FOR DEMOCRACY (JAAD) (See Nichibei Minshu 

Kyokai) 
JEWISH BLACKBOOK COMMITTEE OF LOS ANGELES 

1. Cited as a Communist front located at Room 1021, 458 S. Spring 
Street, Los Angeles. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 56.) 

KARL MARX SOCIETY OF BROOKLYN COLLEGE 

1. "Branch of the Young Communist League operating under an 
alias." 

(Subcommittee of the New York State Joint Legislative Com- 
mittee to Investigate Procedures and Methods of Allocating 
State Moneys for Public School Purposes and Subversive 
Activities (the Rapp-Coudert Committee), Interim Report, 
December 1, 1941, p. 101.) 

KOREAN CULTURE SOCIETY 

1. Cited as a Communist front "for the purpose of protesting Ameri- 
can policy in Korea and creating pressure for the recall of 
American occupation forces from that country." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 112.) 

KOREAN INDEPENDENT NEWS COMPANY 

1. Cited as a Communist front "for the purpose of protesting Ameri- 
can policy in Korea and creating pressure for the recall of 
American occupation forces from that country." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 112.) 

LABOR LYCEUM 

1. "When Frankfeld, Secretary of the Communist Party in Massa- 
chusetts, testified before the Commission, he stated the Com- 
munist headquarters in Chelsea was at the Labor Lyceum." At 
the Lyceum were an active Communist group and school, and an 
extensive Marxian library. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 158.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 125 

LEAGUE AGAINST YELLOW JOURNALISM 

1. Cited as a Communist enterprise in New England. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 146.) 

LEAGUE FOR DEMOCRATIC CONTROL 

1. "Lectures, study classes, schools, and 'progressive' organizations 
were promoted, with Soviet Russia the subject of glorification 
and Marxian economics the subject of teaching. Among these 
activities were * * * The League for Democratic Control [which] 
held forth at 16 Carver Street (Boston). William Z. Foster, 
present-day (1937) titular leader of the Communist Party in the 
United States, was a frequent speaker at various gatherings." 
(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * qf Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 113.) 

LINCOLN BOOK STORE (Hollywood) 

1. Cited as "the Hollywood Center for the dissemination of Com- 
munist Party literature." 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 85.) 

LITHUANIAN WOMEN'S CLUB (Massachusetts) 

1. "Active in promoting Communist objectives." 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 157.) 

LOS ANGELES CHAPTER OF THE NATIONAL NEGRO LABOR COUNCIL 

1. "* * * the committee * * * is convinced that the Los Angeles 
Chapter of the National Negro Labor Council is predominately 
[sic] Communized, and admirably fills all of the basic require- 
ments of a Communist front organization." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1955, p. 392.) 

LOS ANGELES COMMITTEE FOR THE PROTECTION OF FOREIGN BORN 

1. "This particular organization is well known as a Communist 
front." Rose Chernin is Executive Director. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1955, p. 388.) 

LOS ANGELES EMERGENCY COMMITTEE TO AID THE STRIKERS 

1. Cited as a Communist front at 5851 South Avalon Boulevard, Los 
Angeles. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 55.) 

LOS ANGELES YOUTH COMMITTEE AGAINST UNIVERSAL MILITARY 
TRAINING 

1. Cited as a Communist front, organized at a meeting on March 9, 
1948. in Los Angeles. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 279 and 280.) 



126 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

MARITIME BOOK SHOP 

1. One of the "principal book stores of the Communist Party in 
California." It is located at 15 Embarcadero, San Francisco. 
{California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 224.) 

MARTINSVILLE SEVEN COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front organization developed "to agitate 
for the release of seven Negroes who were sentenced to be 
executed in Virginia. It was designed to attract Negro member- 
ship to the Communist Party." It is located at 405 Massa- 
chusetts Avenue, Boston. 

(Massachusetts Committee to Curb Communism, Report, March 
' SO, 1951, p. 69.) 

MARXIST STUDY CLUB OF THE CITY COLLEGE OF NEW YORK 

1. "Branch of the Young Communist League operating under an 
alias." 

(Subcommittee of the New York State Joint Legislative Com- 
mittee to Investigate Procedures and Methods of Allocating 
State Moneys for Public School Purposes and Subversive 
Activities (Rapp-Coudert Committee), Interim Report, De- 
cember 1, 1941, p. 101.) 

MASS ACTION FOR PEACE 

1. Cited as a Communist-front organization in Massachusetts which 
was an outgrowth of the Massachusetts Peace Council. "Its 
objectives are consistent with those of the Communist-inspired 
world peace movement." 

(Massachusetts Committee to Curb Communism, Report, March 
' 30, 1951, pp. 59 and 60.) 

MIMI KAGAN DANCE GROUP 

1. Cited as a "thoroughly Communized" group. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1953, p. 267.) 

MOBILIZATION FOR. DEMOCRACY 

1. "One of the largest, and certainly one of the most potentially 
potent front organizations created by California Communists" 
since 1945. "As an excuse for" its creation, the Communist 
Party seized upon the appearance of Gerald L. K. Smith in Los 
Angeles. It is "a Communist-inspired and dominated organ- 
ization, carefully window-dressed and directed" and "engaged in 
inciting riots, racial hatred, and disrespect for law and order." 
It is one of the "key Communist fronts in California." 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
' Activities, Report, 1947, pp. 48, 62, and 369.) 

MODEL YOUTH LEGISLATURE OF NORTHERN CALIFORNIA (also referred 
to as Second Annual California Model Legislature) 

1. Cited as a "Communist-inspired youth movement" held in Sacra- 
mento in 1939. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Reports, 1943, p. 91, and 1947, p. 103.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 127 

MODERN BOOK SHOP 

1. Cited as one of the "principal book stores of the Communist Party 
in California." It is located at 405 West De La Guerra Street, 
Santa Barbara. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 224.) 

MOTION PICTURE ARTISTS' COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front whose personnel "clearly indicates its 
character." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 310.) 

MOTION PICTURE DEMOCRATIC COMMITTEE (See Hollywood Motion 

Picture Democratic Committee) 
MUSICIANS' CONGRESS COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a Communist front organized early in 1944 "for the pur- 
pose of 'involving' non-Communist musicians in Communist 
activities." The headquarters was located in 1655 Cherokee 
Street in Los Angeles; the Musicians' Congress was subsequently 
held at the Roosevelt Hotel in Hollywood on February 1, 1944. 
(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 310, 316, and 317.) 

MUSICIANS' DEMOCRATIC COMMITTEE 

1. "In 1939 the Communist fraction in the Los Angeles Musicians' 
Union, Local 47, organized a Communist front which became 
known as the Musicians' Democratic Committee. It was desig- 
nated the 'Hollywood Chapter' with headquarters at 1558 North 
Vine Street in Hollywood. * * * The letterhead of the organ- 
ization stated that the group was 'affiliated with the Motion 
Picture Democratic Committee.' " 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 311.) 

MUSICIANS' OPEN FORUM 

1. "A Communist-inspired front for musicians in Los Angeles * * * 
active in 1943 and 1944." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 318.) 

NEW ENGLAND COMMITTEE FOR THE DEFENSE OF POLITICAL 
PRISONERS 

1. A unit of the national committee of like name, operated from 11 
Beacon Street, Boston. The national group "is operated by 
Communists, Communist supporters, Socialists, and a sprinkling 
of 'liberals.' " 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activ- 
ities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 140.) 

NEW ENGLAND COUNCIL FOR PROTECTION OF FOREIGN BORN 

1. Cited as among leagues, committees, and councils set up by the 
Communist Party for protection of the foreign-born. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activ- 
ities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 124-) 



128 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

NEW ENGLAND LABOR COLLEGE 

1. Cited as among "active Communist groups and schools" conducted 
at the Labor Lyceum, 453 Broadway, Chelsea, Mass. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 
* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 158.) 

NEW ENGLAND LABOR RESEARCH ASSOCIATION 

1. "In New York the Communist Party prints labor notes, economic 
notes, etc., under the imprint of Labor Research Association. 
There was set up in Massachusetts the New England Labor Re- 
search Association patterned after that in New York." 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 283.) 

NEW FOUNDATIONS FORUMS 

1. Cited as a "new Communist front" which carries on "a new and 
disguised Communist youth agitation and propaganda program" 
in California. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1949, p. 14?-) 
NEW THEATRE GROUP (Boston) 
1. Cited as an activity of the Communist Party. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1988, p. 274-) 

NICHIBEI MINSHU KYOKAI, WAIPAHU CHAPTER (Japanese American 
Association for Democracy (JAAD)) 

1. "* * * the nucleus of the JAAD Chapter at Waipahu, Oahu, was 
composed of Communists * * * the membership of the Waipahu 
Branch of the JAAD in 1948 became the nucleus of the Waipahu 
Chapter of the subversive HCLC [Hawaii Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee]." 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Activities, Report, March 
' 1951, pp. 40, and VS.) 

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA CIVIL RIGHTS COUNCIL (See Civil Rights 

Council of Northern California) 
OAHU SERVICEMEN'S COMMITTEE FOR SPEEDIER DEMOBILIZATION 

1. "A chief propaganda tactic used [by the Communist International 
after World War II] was to clamor for speedy demobilization of 
the Allied forces (other than Russian) * * * The Oahu Service- 
men's Committee for Speedier Demobilization * * * falls into 
the pattern of such Communist activity." 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Activities, Report, March 
' 1951, p. 0-1.) 

OHIO BILL OF RIGHTS CONFERENCE 

1. Cited among "organizations in Ohio [which] cannot escape the 
label of Communist front." 

(Ohio Un-American Activities Commission, Report, 1951-1952, 
p. 83.) 



r 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 129 

OHIO FREEDOM OF THE PRESS ASSOCIATION 

1. Cited among "organizations in Ohio [which] cannot escape the 
label of Communist front." 

(Ohio Un-American Activities Commission, Report, 1951-1952, 
' p. 33.) 
OHIO LABOR CONFERENCE FOR PEACE 

1. Cited among "organizations in Ohio [which] cannot escape the label 
of Communist front." 

(Ohio Un-American Activities Commission, Report, 1951-1952, 
p. S3.) 
PACIFIC PUBLISHING FOUNDATION, INC. 

1. Publishers in San Francisco of the People's Daily "World, "the 
west coast mouthpiece of the Communist Party." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 342.) 

PAX PRODUCTIONS 

1. "This Communist organization poses as the 'producers of progres- 
sive radio transcriptions for use by unions and liberal organiza- 
tions.' " 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 341.) 

PEACE COMMITTEE OF ALAMEDA AND CONTRA COSTA COUNTIES 

1. Cited as one of "numerous smaller front groups" in the East Bay 
area. On December 13, 1952, it "met at the home of Nat 
Yanish to organize propaganda urging an immediate peace in 
Korea." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
' Activities, Report, 1953, pp. 277 and 282.) 

PEOPLE'S PEACE 

1. Cited as a Communist front which came into being early in 1947 
and which "follows the Communist line as laid down in the 
People's Daily World and other Communist publications" and 
"opposes the Truman doctrine for aid to Greece and Turkey and 
propagandizes for appeasement of Russia." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 350.) 

POLSKA PARTJA KOMUNISTYZNA 

1. Polska Partja Komunistyzna (Polish Communist Party) is among 
"foreign -language Marxist groups" serving as satellites to the 
Communist Party of Massachusetts. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other 
Subversive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 154.) 

PROGRESSIVE BOOK SHOP (Boston) 

1. Cited as a Communist book shop located at 174 Harrison Avenue, 
Boston, "ostensibly owned by Daniel Boone Schirmer * * * a 
state official of the (Communist) Party * * * It is the duty of 
this bookstore to provide the Communist Party membership in 



130 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

the New England area with Communist Party manuals, books, 
magazines, newspapers, and other Party literature." 

(Massachusetts Committee to Curb Communism, Report, 
March 80, 1951, p. 37; also cited by the Massachusetts 
Special Commission to Investigate the Activities * * * of 
Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subversive Organiza- 
tions, Report, 1938, p. 43.) 

PROGRESSIVE BOOK SHOP (Los Angeles and Sacramento) 
1. Among the "principal book stores of the Communist Party in 
California." They are located at 722 West Sixth Street, Los 
ingeles, and 1002 Seventh Street, Sacramento. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 224-) 

PROGRESSIVE CITIZENS OF AMERICA (California branches) 
1. Cited as a Communist front. The "initial meeting" of the Pro- 
gressive Citizens of America at the Embassy Auditorium in the 
City of Los Angeles on the evening of February 11, 1947, was 
actually a consolidation of the National Citizens Political Action 
Committee and the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee 
of the Arts, Sciences and Professions. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, pp. 234-240, and California Senate 
Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, 
1948, pp. 356 and 357.) 

PROGRESSIVE LABOR SCHOOL (Boston) 

1. Cited as an organization "allied to" and "subordinate" to the 
Communist Party of Massachusetts. It was formerly known as 
the Workers School. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 
* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1938, pp. 54 and 274.) 

PROGRESSIVE PARTY OF MASSACHUSETTS 

1. Cited as a Communist front organization which "consistently 
sponsors Communist causes and follows the Communist Party 
line." The state organization office is located at 7 Broad Street, 
Boston. 

(Massachusetts Committee to Curb Communism, Report, March 
30, 1951, p. 60.) 

PROGRESSIVE STUDENTS OF AMERICA 

1. Cited as an organization "dominated by the Communist Party 
lock, stock and barrel." It was active at the University of 
California at Los Angeles. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1951, p. 114) 

PROGRESSIVE TRADE UNION SCHOOL 

1. "In the spring of 1937 the Communists announced special classes in 
Worcester (Mass.) under the guise of a trade-union school." 
(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 282.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 131 

REPERTORY PLAYHOUSE 

1. Cited as a drama school located in Seattle which has "proven 
Communist dominated." 

(Washington State Joint Legislative Fact-Finding Committee 
on Un-American Activities, Second Report, 1948, p. Hi.) 

ROBOTNIK POLSKI (POLISH LABOR) 

1. Cited as a foreign-language Marxist group serving as a satellite of 
the Communist Party of Massachusetts. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * qf Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 154.) 

SCHOOL OF JEWISH STUDIES (Los Angeles) 

1. Cited as "one of the numerous racial minority Communist fronts." 
It is "extremely active in southern California, being run through 
the facilities of the Communist School in Los Angeles, and main- 
taining its office at 233 South Broadway, Los Angeles, 
California." 

(California Senate Fact-finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1951, p. 287.) 

SECOND ANNUAL CALIFORNIA MODEL LEGISLATURE (See Model Youth 

Legislature of Northern California) 
SIMON J. LUBIN SOCIETY 

1. A Communist front for California agrarian penetration, organized 
in the fall of 1936 by Unit 104 of the Professional Section of the 
Communist Party. "It became the channel through which the 
Communist Party conducts its fight against the farming in- 
dustry." 

(California Joint Fact-finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1943, p. 86.) 

SLAVIC COUNCIL OF LOS ANGELES 

1. "This Communist front follows the current Communist Party line 
in propagandizing to keep America weak and to build the pres- 
tige of the Soviet Union and its Slavic satellites." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 374.) 
SLEEPY LAGOON DEFENSE COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as "among the Communist-front organizations for racial agi- 
tation" which also serve as "money collecting media" and "as 
special political organizing centers for the racial minority they 
pretend to champion." When 17 Mexican youths were con- 
victed for murder or criminal assault after a disturbance at 
Sleepy Lagoon near Los Angeles in August 1942, the Communist 
Party "had a new cause celebre" which "was used by Commu- 
nist Party steering committees to feed the racial agitation and 
antagonism created by the 'zoot-suit' riots." 

(California Joint Fact-finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Reports, 1947, p. 45; 1945, pp. 174 and 195.) 



132 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CHAPTER OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF 
THE ARTS, SCIENCES AND PROFESSIONS « 

1. Cited as "one of the major Communist-dominated propaganda 
media on the Pacific Coast". It is located at 7410 Sunset 
Boulevard, Los Angeles. 

{California Committee on Un-American Activities, Report, 
1955, pp. 892 and 893; also cited in 1951 Report, p. 268.) 

SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLES CONGRESS 

1. Cited as a Communist-front organization, with offices in the Wilcox 
Building in Los Angeles. 

{California Senate Fad-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 809.) 

SPRINGFIELD CITIZENS' PROTECTIVE LEAGUE 

1. Among "the Communists' fringe organizations." 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * qf Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 148.) 

SPRINGFIELD COMMITTEE TO AID SPANISH DEMOCRACY 

1. Among "the Communists' fringe organizations." 

{Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subver- 
sive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 148.) 

STATE-WIDE CIVIL RIGHTS CONFERENCE (See California State-Wide 
Civil Rights Conference) 

STATE-WIDE LEGISLATIVE CONFERENCE (See California State-Wide 
Legislative Conferences) 

STUDENT COUNCILS FOR ACADEMIC FREEDOM 

1. "Today we have in California a new and disguised Communist 
youth agitation and propaganda program, carried on in our 
colleges by such new Communist fronts as * * * Student Coun- 
cils for Academic Freedom, (organized originally to support and 
defend Communist college professors)." 

{California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1949, p. 147, also p. 559.) 

STUDENT RIGHTS ASSOCIATION 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

{California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1943, p. 99.) 

STUDENTS FOR WALLACE 

1. "The key Communist youth front, American Youth for Democracy, 
had become so conspicuously Stalinist from incessant exposure 
that the Communist Party, early in 1949, decided on a change in 
strategy. This shift had been prepared for by Communist 
activity in the political field in creating in 1948 Students for 
Wallace, which with help from American Youth for Democracy 
and other Communist fronts, was merged into The Young 
Progressives as the youth wing of the Communist-controlled 
(Independent) Progressive Party." Testimony showed that 

i Also referred to as the Arts, Sciences and Professions Council in Los Angeles; the Los Angeles Chapter 
of the National Council of the Arts, Sciences and Professions; and the Hollywood Arts, Sciences and Pro- 
fessions Council or Hollywood Council of the Arts, Sciences and Professions. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 133 

Students for Wallace at the University of California at Los 
Angeles was "dominated by the Communist Party lock, stock, 
and barrel." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Reports, 1949, p. 558, and 1951, pp. 114 and 162.) 

TEEN-AGE ART CLUB 

1. Cited as "a Los Angeles branch of American Youth for Democracy. 
This group held an art exhibit in June 1947 at the Los Angeles 
Museum. Marty Lupner, chairman of American Youth for De- 
mocracy in Los Angeles, was in charge of the exhibits." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 188.) 

TERRITORIAL CIO POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE 

1. Cited as a "Communist-controlled group. Six of its seven officers 
have been identified as members of the Communist Party." 
Testimony reveals that the "decisions of the PAC were never 
released until the problems had been fully discussed by the 
Central Committee of the Communist Party in the Territory of 
Hawaii." 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Activities, Report, March 
' 1951,pp.E-5 andS-1.) 

TOM MOONEY LABOR SCHOOL 

1. "The San Francisco Workers' School * * * frankly and openly 

a school lor instruction in Communism * * * by 1943 * * * 

had been rechristened the Tom Mooney Labor School. * * * 

A glance at the curriculum reveals that changing the name of the 

San Francisco Workers' School to the Tom Mooney Labor School 

did not result in any deviation from the Marxist character of 

the institution * * * the Tom Mooney Labor School functioned 

for years with Communist Party functionaries as instructors." 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 

Activities, Report, 1947, pp. 63 and 77-79; also cited by 

California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 

Activities, Reports, 1949, p. 4$4, and 1951, p. 258.) 

TOUMAYIAN CLUB 

1. "A Communist headquarters, including a class for children," 
located at 405 Broadway, Chelsea, Mass. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activities 
* * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subversive 
Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 157.) 

TRADE-UNION COMMITTEE FOR FREE SPAIN 

1. Cited as a Communist front. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 217.) 

TWENTIETH CENTURY BOOK SHOP (Oakland, Calif.) 

1. Among the "principal book stores of the Communist Party in Cali- 
fornia." It is located at 1721 Webster Street, Oakland. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 224.) 



95S22 — 57 10 



134 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

TWENTIETH CENTURY BOOK STORE (Berkeley, Calif.) 
1. A "Communist Party book store on Bancroft Avenue in Berkeley 
(Calif.)." 

(California Joint Fad-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, p. 272.) 

UNEMPLOYED WORKERS' ORGANIZATION OF HAWAII 

1. "Early in 1940 * * * Communist Party leaders were among those 
responsible for the organization of a group called the Unem- 
ployed Workers' Organization of Hawaii." 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Activities, Report, March 
1951, p. 43; also Appendix Y.) 

UNION OF PROGRESSIVE VETERANS 

1. Cited as a "relatively new" Communist front active in California. 
(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
' Activities, Report, 1951, pp. 287-289.) 

UNITED FARMERS LEAGUE 

1. Cited as a Communist-controlled organization in California for 
small farmers; it was started early in 1933 by Carl Patterson, then 
State organizer for the Communist Party, and it collapsed in 
1934. 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1943, pp. 37 and 38.) 

VICTORY BOOK STORE 

1. Among the "principal book stores of the Communist Party in Cali- 
fornia." It is located at 635 E Street, San Diego. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 224-) 

WALT WHITMAN BOOK SHOP 

1. Among the "principal book stores of the Communist Party in Cali- 
fornia." It is located at 277 East Fourth Street, Long Beach. 
(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 224) 

WESTERN COUNCIL FOR PROGRESSIVE LABOR IN AGRICULTURE 

1. "This Communist front came into existence in April of 1946. The 
offices are located at 2063 Grace Avenue in Hollywood." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
" Activities, Report, 1948, p. 383.) 

WORKERS SCHOOL (Boston) 

1. Taught Marxism and Leninism, which includes the fundamental 
doctrine of revolutionary uprising and seizure of power. Listed 
in the cash-receipt record of the Communist Party of Boston 
and located at the headquarters of the party at one time. Op- 
erated from about 1932 until the fall of 1936, when it was re- 
named Progressive Labor School of Boston. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activ- 
ities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi, and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, pp. 234, 838, 249, 254, 
and 5GS.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 135 

WORKERS' SCHOOL (Los Angeles) 

1. Part of a Nation-wide system of Communist schools at which the 
"doctrine of revolutionary socialism, the overthrow of capitalist 
governments by force and violence and Leninism-Stalinism was 
openly taught by self-admitted members of the Communist 
Party." Founded in 1939, it was disbanded in 1945 after assist- 
ing in the founding and development of its successor, the People's 
Educational Center. 

{California Joint F "act-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, pp. 63-68; also cited by California 
Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American Activities, 
Report, 1949, pp. 417 and 418.) 

WORKERS SCHOOL (San Francisco) 

1. "The San Francisco Workers' School opened in 1932 following the 
same pattern of other Communist workers' schools scattered 
throughout populous centers in the United States. It was 
frankly and openly a school for instruction in Communism. 

* * * By 1943 the school had been rechristened the Tom 
Mooney Labor School." 

(California Joint Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1947, pp. 77 and 78.) 

YOUNG PROGRESSIVES (California) 

1. "Today we have in California a new and disguised Communist 
youth agitation and propaganda program, carried on in our 
colleges by such new Communist fronts as Young Progressives 

* * * the youth wing of the Progressive Party. * * * Young 
Progressives is the direct successor to the functions and activities 
of American Youth for Democracy, which went underground 
early in 1949." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1949, pp. 147, 472 and 563; see also 
p. 558.) 

YOUNG PROGRESSIVES OF AMERICA (Ohio) 

1. Cited as "another youth organization within the Communist 
orbit" and which is the "youth group of the Progressive Party." 
The head of the YPA in Ohio has been identified as Don Rothen- 
berg of Cleveland. 

(Ohio Un-American Activities Commission, Report, 1951-1952, 
p. 25.) 

YOUNG PROGRESSIVES OF MASSACHUSETTS 

1. Cited as a Communist fiont. It is "the youth group of the Pro- 
gressive Party," with addresses at 7 Broad Street and 405 Massa- 
chusetts Avenue, Boston. 

(Massachusetts Committee to Curb Communism, Report, 
' March SO, 1951, p. 61.) 



PART IV 

PUBLICATIONS CITED AS COMMUNIST OR COMMUNIST- 
FRONT BY STATE OR TERRITORIAL INVESTIGATING 
COMMITTEES 

ANTI-NAZI NEWS 

1. ^'Ursula Daniels, Young Communist League member, was the cir- 
culation manager of the Anti-Nazi News published by the Holly- 
wood Anti-Nazi League. The name of this publication was 
changed to News of the World, and finally to Now." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 250.) 

BLACK AND WHITE 

1. "This monthly 'literary' magazine was a Communist-controlled 
publication in Los Angeles. Under the editorship of Wilbur 
Needham, the periodical began publication June 1939 * * * 
Herbert A. Klein, former organizer of Unit 140 of the Com- 
munist Party of Los Angeles, was also an associate editor of 
Black and White." 

{California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 193.) 

CAMBRIDGE PEOPLE'S VOICE 

1. Cited as a Communist publication. 

{Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activi- 
ties * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 800.) 

CLIPPER 

1. Among publications which the committee found "to be Communist 
initiated and controlled, or so strongly influenced as to be in the 
Stalin solar system." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 224-) 
CONGRESS 

1. Among publications which the committee found "to be Communist 
initiated and controlled, or so strongly influenced as to be in the 
Stalin solar system." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 224.) 

DEFENDER, THE 

1. Cited as an "organ" of the Civil Rights Congress which is published 
in Los Angeles and edited by Elizabeth Spector, Don Wheeldin 
and Rosemary Lusher. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1955, p. 385.) 

137 



138 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

EASTSIDE JOURNAL 

1, Among publications which the committee found "to be Communist 
initiated and controlled, or so strongly influenced as to be in the 
Stalin solar system." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 224.) 

FACTS FOR WOMEN 

1. Among publications which the committee found "to be Communist 
initiated and controlled, or so strongly influenced as to be in the 
Stalin solar system." It was published monthly by Facts for 
Women, Los Angeles. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 225, and 1949, p. 546.) 

FILM NEWS 

1. A publication of Associated Film Audiences and among publica- 
tions which the committee found "to be Communist initiated and 
controlled, or so strongly influenced as to be in the Stalin solar 
system." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 225.) 

HAWAII STAR 

1. "The 'Hawaii Star', companion publication to the 'Honolulu Rec- 
ord,' has served the Communist Party of Hawaii as a medium 
of propaganda among the Japanese-speaking residents of the 
Territory for the past six years." It is a "weekly newspaper 
which since its first publication in March 1947, has consistently 
followed the Communist Party line." 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Activities, Reports, March 
1951, p. 40, also Appendix DD; and March 1958, p. 76, 
also pp. 67-77.) 

HOLLYWOOD INDEPENDENT 

1. An organ of the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of 
the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, and among those publications 
found "to be Communist initiated and controlled, or so strongly 
influenced as to be in the Stalin solar system." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 225.) 

HOLLYWOOD QUARTERLY 

1. Cited as a "Communist project" sponsored jointly by the Commu- 
nist front, the Hollywood Writers Mobilization, and the Uni- 
versity of California at Los Angeles. The first issue appeared 
in October 1945. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 257 and 258; aho cited in 1951 
Report, pp. 54-56.) 

INDONESIAN REVIEW 

1. A publication of the American Committee for Free Indonesia, Los 
Angeles, and among publications found "to be Communist 
initiated and controlled, or so strongly influenced as to be in 
the Stalin solar system." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Reports, 1948, p. 225, and 1949, p. 549.) 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 139 

LABOR HERALD (OF THE CALIFORNIA CIO) 

1. Among publications which the committee found "to be Communist 
initiated and controlled, or so strongly influenced as to be in the 
Stalin solar system." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 225.) 
LABOR NEWS BULLETIN 
1. "Issued by Communist Party of Massachusetts." 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activ- 
ities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Subver- 
sive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 157.) 
NEWS OF THE WORLD 

1. The name of the publication of the Communist front, Hollywood 
Anti-Nazi League, was changed from Anti-Nazi News to News 
of the World, and finally to Now. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 250.) 
NOW 

1. The name of the publication of the Communist front, the Holly- 
wood Anti-Nazi League, was changed from Anti-Nazi News to 
News of the World, and finally to Now. 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 250.) 

PACIFIC WEEKLY 

1. "This Communist publication was alleged to be 'a western journal 
of fact and opinion.' It was published at Carmel, Calif. The 
editor and publisher was W. K. Bassett. Ella Winter, veteran 
California Communist, was literary editor." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 841 •) 
PAN PACIFIC MONTHLY 

1. Among publications which the committee found "to be Communist 
initiated and controlled, or so strongly influenced as to be in the 
Stalin solar system." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, p. 225.) 

SOVIET CULTURE 

1. A publication of the American Russian Institute, San Francisco, 
and among those publications found "to be Communist initiated 
and controlled, or so strongly influenced as to be in the Stalin 
solar system." 

(California Senate Fact-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Reports, 1948, p. 225, and 1949, p. 547.) 

TEACHER-WORKER 

1. Published by the Communist Party unit at the City College of New 
York, according to Morris U. Schappes, Communist teacher who 
was a member of the unit and edited the Teacher- Worker. 

(Subcommittee of the New York State Joint Legislative Com- 
mittee to Investigate Procedures and Methods of Allocating 
State Moneys for Public School Purposes and Subversive 
Activities (Rapp-Coudert Committee), Report, 1942, pp. 297 
and 298.) 



140 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

TI MANGYUNA 

1. Cited as a Filipino bi-weekly newspaper which functions as a "part 
of the Communists' international apparatus" in Hawaii. It is 
owned and operated by the Honolulu Record Publishing Com- 
pany. 

(Hawaii Commission on Subversive Activities, Report, Febru- 
ary 28, 1955, pp. 141 and 241.) 

WORCESTER WORKER 

1". Published by the Communist Party of Worcester, Mass. 

(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activ- 
ities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 360.) 

WORKERS' THEATRE 

1. Predecessor of the New Theatre magazine, the official organ of the 
League of Workers Theatres, a Communist project. The Work- 
ers' Theatre had headquarters in San Francisco in the Ruthen- 
berg House. Charles E. Ruthenberg was the first general 
secretary of the Communist Party. 

(California Senate F act-Finding Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report, 1948, pp. 237 and 238.) 

YANKEE ORGANIZER 

1. "Published by the Boston headquarters of the Communist Party." 
(Massachusetts Special Commission to Investigate the Activ- 
ities * * * of Communistic, Fascist, Nazi and Other Sub- 
versive Organizations, Report, 1938, p. 156.) 



APPENDIX I 

DELETIONS OF CERTAIN ORGANIZATIONS AND A PUBLICA- 
TION CITED AS COMMUNIST FRONTS IN THE PREVIOUS 
EDITION OF THE GUIDE 

CALIFORNIA EAGLE 

This publication was cited by the California Senate Fact- Finding 
Committee on Un-American Activities in its 1948 report as among 
those found "to be Communist initiated and controlled, or so strongly 
influenced as to be in the Stalin solar system." 

The California committee, in its 1955 report (p. 422), makes the 
following statement: 

"The committee has heretofore pointed out that the California 
Eagle, several years ago, was regarded as a paper that consistently 
carried the Communist Party line, then having been published by Mrs. 
Charlotta Bass, whose record of affiliation with subversive organiza- 
tions has been heretofore documented. We have also pointed out that 
so far as we can ascertain, the paper has since changed its policy." 

The California Eagle was listed on page 129 of the May 14, 1951, 
edition of the House Committee on Un-American Activities publica- 
tion, Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications. It has been 
deleted from this edition of the publication. 

CONSUMERS UNION 

This organization was cited by the Special Committee on Un- 
American Activities in 1944 as a Communist front "headed by the 
Communist Arthur Kallet (whose party name is Edward Adams)." 
The citation appeared in House Report 1311 on the CIO Political 
Action Committee dated March 29, 1944. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities, in its Annual Report for 
1953 (House Report 1192, February 8, 1954) stated that steps were 
initiated by Consumers Union through its officers and legal counsel to 
clarify the exact status of the organization. The committee also 
amiounced in the same Annual Report that: "After hearings and thor- 
ough study the committee finds there is no present justification for 
continuing this organization as one that is cited, and future reports 
and publications will reflect that this organization has been deleted 
from the list of subversive organizations and publications." 

Consumers Union was last listed in the May 14, 1951, edition of the 
committee publication, Guide to Subversive Organizations and Pub- 
lications, page 44. It has been deleted from this edition of the 
Guide. 

141 



14^ SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

VANGUARD PRESS 

This organization was described by the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities as a "Communist enterprise" which was 
established by a donation from the American Fund for PubliG Service. 
This description appeared in House Report 1311 on the CIO Political 
Action Committee, March 29, 1944, which also stated that "one of the 
first large publishing projects of the Vanguard Press" was "a series of 
propaganda books on Russia, edited by Jerome Davis." 

The Committee on Un-American Activities is in receipt of a sworn 
affidavit, dated May 24, 1951, from one James Henle, who identified 
himself as president of Vanguard Press, Inc., of New York. Mr. Henle 
stated that he purchased one-half the voting stock of Vanguard Press, 
Inc., from the owner, the American Fund for Public Service, on Decem- 
ber 1, 1928, and that he and his wife acquired the balance of the stock 
on January 2, 1932. Since 1932, Mr. Henle deposes, "no member of 
the Garland Fund (American Fund for Public Service) has ever served 
as an officer, director or employee of Vanguard Press," and "The 
members of my family — those who actually control and run the busi- 
ness of Vanguard — are uncompromisingly anti-Communist." Mr. 
Henle stated that Vanguard Press published its propaganda books on 
Russia prior to his acquisition of the corporation's stock. 

References to Vanguard Press appear in the May 14, 1951, edition 
of this committee's Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publica- 
tions, page 114. The committee has agreed to delete the reference 
from this edition of the Guide. 



APPENDIX II 

ORGANIZATIONS DESIGNATED BY THE UNITED STATES 
ATTORNEY GENERAL PURSUANT TO EXECUTIVE ORDER 

10450 

Acting under the authority of Executive Order 9835 of March 21, 
1947 which established security requirements for Government em- 
ployment, Attorneys General Tom Clark and J. Howard McGrath 
designated various organizations as being "Communist," "Fascist," 
etc. in letters to the Loyalty Review Board. The organizations which 
they designated as "Communist" have been included in Part I of this 
Guide, while those designated as "Fascist" or similarly extremist in 
nature have been listed in Appendix III to the Guide. 

On April 27, 1953, Executive Order 9835 was superseded by Execu- 
tive Order 10450 as a guide in the conduct of the Federal employee- 
security program. The new order continues the instruction in Execu- 
tive Order 9835 that a factor in the employment of an individual 
would be membership in or association with a group which is "totali- 
tarian, Fascist, Communist or subversive, or which has adopted, or 
shows, a policy of advocating the commission of acts of force or vio- 
lence to deny other persons their rights under the Constitution of the 
United States, or which seeks to alter the form of government of the 
United States by unconstitutional means." 

Whereas Executive Order 9835 authorized the Department of 
Justice to furnish the Loyalty Review Board with the names of organ- 
izations complying with the above description, Executive Order 10450 
simply states that "the Attorney General is requested to render to the 
heads of departments and agencies such advice as may be requisite 
to enable them to establish and maintain an appropriate employee- 
security program." 

Acting under the authority of Executive Order 10450, Attorney 
General Herbert Brownell has submitted the names of various organ- 
izations to the heads of executive departments and agencies. How- 
ever, the Attorney General has not classified these organizations as 
being in a "Communist," "Fascist" or other specific subversive 
category. They are characterized merely as having been "designated" 
by the Attorney General "pursuant to Executive Order 10450." 

The following organizations were thusly designated by Attorney 
General Herbert Brownell. The committee has omitted the names of 
organizations which duplicate those designated by preceding Attor- 
neys General and other Federal authorities, since the names already 
appear in other sections of this Guide. 

144 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 145 

Name of Organization and Date of Designation 

American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan, 
Inc. 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
American Lithuanian Workers Literary Association (also known 
as Amerikos Lietuviu Darbininku Literaturos Draugija) 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
American Poles for Peace 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
American Polish League 

April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Amerikos Lietuviu Darbininku Literaturos Draugija (See 

American Lithuanian Workers Literary Association) 
Asociacion Nacional Mexico-Americana (See National Association 

of Mexican Americans) 
Baltimore Forum 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Benjamin Davis Freedom Committee 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Bulgarian American People's League of the United States of 
America 

April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
California Emergency Defense Committee 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
China Welfare Appeal, Inc. 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Chopin Cultural Center 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Citizens Emergency Defense Conference 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Civil Liberties Sponsoring Committee of Pittsburgh 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Comite Pro Derechos Civiles (See also Puerto Rican Comite Pro 
Libertades Civiles) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Committee for Constitutional and Political Freedom 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Committee for Peace and Brotherhood Festival in Philadel- 
phia 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Committee for the Defense of the Pittsburgh Six 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Committee for the Negro in the Arts 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Committee for the Protection of the Bill of Rights 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 



146 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

Name of Organization and Date of Designation — Continued 

Committee for World Youth Friendship and Cultural Ex- 
change 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Committee To Abolish Discrimination in Maryland (See also 
Congress Against Discrimination; Maryland Congress Against Dis- 
crimination; Provisional Committee to Abolish Discrimination in 
the State of Maryland) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Committee To Defend Marie Richardson 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Committee To Defend the Rights and Freedom of Pittsburgh's 
Political Prisoners 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Committee To Uphold the Bill of Rights 

September 28, 1953; April 29, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Congress Against Discrimination (See also Committee to Abolish 
Discrimination in Maryland) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Congress of the Unemployed 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Connecticut Committee To Aid Victims of the Smith Act 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Coordination Committee of Jewish Landsmanschaften and 
Fraternal Organizations (See also United Committee of 
Jewish Societies and Landsmanschaft Federations) 

April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Council for Jobs, Relief and Housing 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954;' November 1, 1955. 
Council of Greek Americans 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Daniels Defense Committee 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Elsinore Progressive League 

October 20, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Everybody's Committee To Outlaw War 

October 20, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Families of the Baltimore Smith Act Victims 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Families of the Smith Act Victims 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Frederick Douglass Educational Center 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Freedom of the Press Committee (See National Committee for 

Freedom of the Press) 
Freedom Stage, Inc. 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Guardian Club 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Harlem Trade Union Council 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 147 

Name of Organization and Date of Designation — Continued 

Idaho Pension Union 

October 20, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Independent Party (Seattle, Wash.) (See also Independent People's 
Party) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Independent People's Party (See also Independent Party) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Jewish Culture Society 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Johnson-Forest Group (See also Johnsonites) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Johnsonites (See also Johnson-Forest Group) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Joint Council of Progressive Italian-Americans, Inc. 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Labor Council for Negro Eights 

April 29, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
League for Common Sense 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Maritime Labor Committee ToJDefend Al Lannon 

September 28, 1953; April Cl954; November 1, 1955. 
Maryland Congress Against Discrimination (See also Committee 
to Abolish Discrimination in Maryland) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Massachusetts Committee for the Bill of Rights 

October 20, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Massachusetts Minute Women For Peace l 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Maurice Braverman Defense Committee 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Michigan Council For Peace 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
National Association of Mexican Americans (also known as 
Asociacion Nacional Mexico-Americana) 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
National Committee for Freedom of the Press 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
National Committee To Win Amnesty for Smith Act Victims 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
North Philadelphia Forum 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
People's Drama, Inc. 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Peoples Programs (Seattle, Wash.) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
People's Rights Party 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Philadelphia Labor Committee for Negro Rights 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 

» Not connected with the Minute Women of the U. S. A., Ino. 



148 SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 

Name of Organization and Date of Designation — Continued 

Pittsburgh Arts Club 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Political Prisoners' Welfare Committee 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Provisional Committee of Citizens for Peace, Southwest Area 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Provisional Committee on Latin American Affairs 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Provisional Committee To Abolish Discrimination in the State 
of Maryland (See also Committee to Abolish Discrimination in 
Maryland) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Puerto Rican Comite Pro Libertades Civiles (CLC) (See also 
Comite Pro Derechos Civiles) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Puerto Ricans United (also known as Puertorriquenos Unidos) 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Puertorriquenos Unidos (See Puerto Ricans United) 
Quad City Committee for Peace 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Queensbridge Tenants League 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Reichsdeutsche Vereinigung (See Association of German Na- 
tionals) 
Russian American Society, Inc. 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Santa Barbara Peace Forum 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Slavic Council of Southern California 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Syracuse Women for Peace 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Trade Union Committee for Peace (See also Trade Unionists for 
Peace) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Trade Unionists for Peace (See also Trade Union Committee for 
Peace) 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Tri-State Negro Trade Union Council 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Union of New York Veterans 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
United Committee of Jewish Societies and Landsmanschaft 
Federations (See also Coordination Committee of Jewish Lands- 
manschaften and Fraternal Organizations) 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
United Defense Council of Southern California 

April 4, 1955; November 1, 1955. 
Voice of Freedom Committee 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Washington Committee To Defend the Bill of Rights 

July 15, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 149 

Name of Organization and Date of Designation — Continued 

Yugoslav-American Cooperative Home, Inc. 

September 28, 1953; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 
Yugoslav Seamen's Club, Inc. 

January 22, 1954; April 1, 1954; November 1, 1955. 



85822'— 57 11 



APPENDIX III 

ORGANIZATIONS DESIGNATED BY THE UNITED STATES 
ATTORNEYS GENERAL AS BEING FASCIST OR OTHERWISE 
EXTREMIST IN CHARACTER 

The following organizations have been characterized by United 
States Attorneys General Tom Clark and/or J. Howard McGrath as 
being "Totalitarian"; "Fascist"; as having "adopted a policy of 
advocating or approving the commission of acts of force and violence 
to deny others their rights under the Constitution of the United 
States"; or as seeking "to alter the form of Government of the United 
States by unconstitutional means." 

The organizations were so designated under the authority of 
Executive Order 9S35 and were originally listed in letters from the 
Attorneys General to the Loyalty Review Board dated as follows: 
November 24, 1947, May 27, 1948, April 21, 1949, and September 5, 
1950. 

Totalitarian Organizations 

Black Dragon Society. 

Central Japanese Association (Beikoku Chuo Nippon jin Kai). 

Central Japanese Association of Southern California. 

Dai Nippon Butoku Kai (Military Virtue Society of Japan or Military 
Art Society of Japan). 

Heimuska Kai, also known as Nokubei Heieki Gimusha Kai, Zaibel 
Nihonjin, Heiyaku Gimusha Kai, and Zaibei Heimusha Kai 
(Japanese Residing in America, Military Conscripts Association). 

Hinode Kai (Imperial Japanese Reservists). 

Hinomaru Kai (Rising Sun Flag Society — a group of Japanese war 
veterans). 

Hokubei Zaigo Shoke Dan (North American Reserve Officers Asso- 
ciation). 

Japanese Association of America. 

Japanese Overseas Central Society (Kaigai Dobo Chuo Kai). 

Japanese Overseas Convention, Tokyo, Japan, 1940. 

Japanese Protective Association (recruiting organization). 

Jikyoku Lin Kai (The Committee for the Crisis). 

Kibei Seinen Kai (association of United States citizens of Japanese 
ancestry who have returned to America after studying in Japan). 

Nanka Teikoku Gunyudan (Imperial Military Friends Group or 
Southern California War Veterans). 

Nichibei Kogyo Kaisha (the Great Fujii Theater). 

Northwest Japanese Association. 

Peace Movement of Ethiopia. 

Sakura Kai (Patriotic Society, or Cherry Association — composed of 
veterans of Russo-Japanese War). 

Shinto Temples. 

Sokoku Kai (Fatherland Society). 

Suiko Sha (Reserve Officers Association, Los Angeles). 

150 



SUBVERSIVE ORGANIZATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS 151 

Fascist Organizations 

American Nationalist Party. 

American National Labor Party. 

American National Socialist League. 

American National Socialist Party. 

American Patriots, Inc. 

Ausland-Organization der NSDAP, overseas branch of Nazi Party. 

Association of German Nationals (Reichsdeutsche Vereinigung). 

Central Organization of the German-American National Alliance 

(Deutsche- Amerikanische Einheitsfront). 
Citizens Protective League. 
Committee for Nationalist Action. 
Dante Alighieri Society. 
Federation of Italian War Veterans in the U. S. A., Inc. (Associazione 

Nazionale Combattenti Italiani, Federazione degli Stati Uniti 

d'America). 
Friends of the New Germany (Freunde des Neuen Deutschlands). 
German-American Bund (Amerikadeutscher Volksbund). 
German-American Republican League. 
German-American Vocational League (Deutsche-Amerikanische 

Berufsgemeioschaft). 
Kyffhaeuser, also known as Kyffhaeuser League (Kyffhaeuser Bund), 

Kyffhaeuser Fellowship (Kyffhaeuser Kameradschaft). 
Kyffhaeuser War Relief (Kyffhaeuser Kreigshilfswerk). 
Lictor Society (Italian Black Shirts). 
Mario Morgan tin i Circle. 
National Blue Star Mothers of America. 1 
Nationalist Action League. 

Organizations Which Have "Adopted a Policy of Advocating or 
Approving the Commission of Acts of Force and Violence To Deny 
Others Their Rights Under the Constitution of the United States" 

American Christian Nationalist Party. 

Associated Klans of America. 

Association of Georgia Klans. 

Columbians. 

Knights of the White Camellia. 

Ku Klux Klan. 

Original Southern Klans, Inc. 

Protestant War Veterans of the United States, Inc. 

Silver Shirt Legion of America. 

Organizations Which Seek To "Alter the Form of Government of the 
United States by Unconstitutional Means" 

Industrial Workers of the World. 
Nationalist Party of Puerto Rico. 

i Not to be confused with Blue Star Mothers o.' America, organized in 1942. 



INDEX 



ORGANIZATIONS 

Part I. Organizations cited as Communist or Communist-front by Fed- rage 

eral authorities 6-98 

Part III. Organizations cited as Communist or Communist-front by State 

or Territorial investigating committees 113-135 

Appendix I. Deletions of certain organizations cited as Communist fronts 

in previous editions of the Guide 141-143 

Appendix II. Organizations designated by the United States Attorney 

General pursuant to Executive Order 10450 144-149 

Appendix III. Organizations designated by United States Attorneys Gen- 
eral as being Fascist or otherwise extremist in character 150-151 

Abolish Peonage Committee 5 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade or Battalion 5 

Abraham Lincoln School (Chicago, 111.) 5 

Academic and Civil Rights Committee 113 

Academic and Civil Rights Council of California 113 

Action Committee To Free Spain Now 5 

Actors' Laboratory 113 

Actors' Laboratory Theatre 113 

Alabama Peoples Educational Association 5 

All- American Anti-Imperialist League 6 

All-California Conference for Defense of Civil Rights and Aid to Labor's 

Prisoners 6 

Allied Labor News 6 

Almanac Singers 6 

Ambijan Committee for Emergency Aid to the Soviet Union 6 

American Association for Reconstruction in Yugoslavia, Inc 6 

American Branch of the Federation of Greek Maritime Unions 7 

American Christian Nationalist Party 151 

American Committee for a Free Indonesia 113 

American Committee for a Free Yugoslavia (The) 7 

American Committee for a Korean People's Party 113 

American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom 7 

American Committee for European Workers' Relief (see also Socialist 

Workers' Party) 7 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 7 

American Committee for Russian Famine Relief (L. A. and S. F.) 113 

American Committee for Spanish Freedom 8 

American Committee for Struggle Against War 8 

American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan, Inc 145 

American Committee for Yugoslav Relief, Inc 8 

American Committee for Yugoslav Relief of the War Relief Fund of 

Americans of South Slavic Descent 8 

American Committee in Aid of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives 8 

American Committee To Aid Korean Federation of Trade-Unions (S. F.)._ 113 

American Committee To Aid Soviet Russia 114 

American Committee To Save Refugees 8 

American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe 145 

American Committee To Survey Trade Union Conditions in Europe 9 

American Continental Congress for Peace (September 5-10, 1949, in 

Mexico City) (see also Committee for United States Participation in the 

American Continental Congress for Peace) 9 

American Council for a Democratic Greece 9 

American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations. (See Institute of Pacific 

Relations.) 

I 



n INDEX 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Page 

American Council on Soviet Relations 9 

American Croatian Congress 9 

American Federation for Political Unity _ 114 

American Federation of Labor Trade Union Committee for Unemployment 

Insurance and Relief 10 

American Friends of Spanish Democracy 10 

American Friends of the Chinese People 10 

American Friends of the Mexican People 10 

American Friends of the Spanish People 114 

American Fund for Public Service (Garland Fund) 10 

American Jewish Labor Council 

American Labor Alliance 

American Labor Party 

American League Against War and Fascism 11 

American League for Peace and Democracy (see also China Aid Council, 

National People's Committee Against Hearst) 12 

American Lithuanian Workers Literary Association (also known as 

Amerikos Lietuviu Darbininku Literatures Draugija) 145 

American National Labor Party 151 

American National Socialist League 151 

American National Socialist Party 151 

American Nationalist Party 151 

American Negro Labor Congress 13 

American Patriots, Inc 151 

American Peace Appeal 13 

American Peace Crusade (During Stalin-Hitler Pact) 14 

American Peace Crusade (Organized in January 1951, with national head- 
quarters at 1186 Broadwav, New York 1, N. Y.) (see also Northern 
California Peace Crusade, San Diego Peace Forum, Southern California 

Peace Crusade) 13 

American Peace Mobilization (see also Washington Peace Mobilization) . . 14 

American People's Congress and Exposition for Peace 14 

American People's Fund 14 

American People's Meeting 15 

American People's Mobilization 15 

American Polos for Peace 145 

American Polish Labor Council 15 

American Polish League 145 

American Relief Ship for Spain 15 

American Rescue Ship Mission 15 

American-Rumanian Film Corp 16 

American-Russian Fraternal Society 16 

American-Russian Institute (New York) (also known as American-Russian 

Institute for Cultural Relations With the Soviet Union) 16 

American Russian Institute (Philadelphia) 16 

American Russian Institute of San Francisco 16 

American Russian Institute of Southern California (Los Angeles) 16 

American-Russian Trading Corp 16 

American Serbian Committee for Relief of War Orphans in Yugoslavia.. 17 

American Slav Congress 1? 

American Society for Cultural Relations With Russia 17 

American Society for Technical Aid to Spanish Democracy 17 

American-Soviet Science Society j-^f _ Tj ^ 

American Sponsoring Committee for Representation at the Second World 

Peace Congress -j £ 

American Student Union 1° 

American Students Repudiate Aggression in Korea 1» 

American Technical Aid Society 

American Veterans for Peace (see also Veterans for Peace) 1» 

American Women for Peace 1° 

American Workers Party (December 1933-December 1934) 

American Writers Congress 19 

American Youth Congress j^ 

American Youth for a Free World 19 

American Youth for Democracy 19 

American Youth Peace Crusade -_ ^ 



INDEX III 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Amerikadeutscher Volksbund. (See German-American Bund.) 

Amerikos Lietuviu Darbininku Literaturos Draugija (See American 

Lithuanian Workers Literary Association.) 

Amtorg Trading Corp. (See American-Russian Trading Corp.) Page 

(Angelo) Herndon Defense Committee 114 

Armenian Progressive League of America 20 

Artists and Writers Guild 114 

Artists' Front To Win the War 20 

Arts, Sciences and Professions Council. (See Southern California Chapter 

of the National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions.) 
Asociacion Nacional Mexico-Americana. (See National Association of 

Mexican Americans.) 

Associated Film Audiences 114 

Associated Klans of America 151 

Association of Georgia Klans 151 

Association of German Nationals (also known as Reichsdeutsche Vereinigung) — 151 

Association of Internes and Medical Students 20 

Association of Lithuanian Workers 114 

Associazione Nazionale Combattenti Italiano, Federazione degli Stati 

Uniti d' America (See Federation of Italian War Veterans in the U. S. A., Inc.) 

Ausland-Organization der NSDAP (overseas branch of Nazi Party) 151 

Baltimore County Committee For Peace 20 

Baltimore Forum 145 

Bay Area Committee To Save the Rosenbergs 21 

Bay Area Rosenberg-Sobell Committee 21 

Beikoku Chuo, Nipponjin Kai. (See Central Japanese Association.) 

Benjamin Davis Freedom Committee 145 

Black Dragon Society 150 

Book Union 21 

Boston Committee to Secure Clemency for the Rosenbergs 21 

Boston Labor Conference for Peace 114 

Boston School for Marxist Studies (Boston, Mass.) 21 

Boston School of Social Science 114 

Bridges-Robertson-Schmidt Defense Committee (see also Citizens' Com- 
mittee for Harry Bridges, Citizens' Victory Committee for Harry Bridges, 

Harry Bridges Defense Committee, Harry Bridges Victory Committee) 21 

Briehl's Farm (near Wallkill, N. Y.) 22 

Bronx Victory Labor Committee 22 

Brookwood Labor College (Katonah, N. Y.) 22 

Bulgarian American People's League of the United States of America 145 

California Committee for Political Unity 115 

California Conference for Democratic Action (also known as Conference for 

Democratic Action) 115 

California Emergency Defense Committee 145 

[California] Federation for Political Unity 115 

California Labor School 22 

California Legislative Conference 115 

[California] State- Wide Civil Rights Conference 115 

[California] State- Wide Legislative Conferences 115 

California Youth Legislature (see also Model Youth Legislature of Northern 

California) 116 

Cambridge Youth Council 22 

Camp Arcadia 22 

Camp Kinderland (Hopewell Junction, N. Y.) 22 

Camp Lakeland (Hopewell Junction, N. Y.) 23 

Camp Timberline (Jewett, N. Y.) _ — 23 

Camp Unity (Wingdale, N. Y.) 23 

Camp Woodland (Phoenicia, N. Y.) 23 

Carpatho-Russian Peoples Society - 23 

Central Council of American Croatian Women. (See Central Council 

of American Women of Croatian Descent.) 

Central Council of American Women of Croatian Descent 

Central Japanese Association (Beikoku Chuo, Nipponjin Kai) 150 

Central Japanese Association of Southern California 150 

Central Organization of the German- American National Alliance (Deutsche- 

Amerikanische Einheitsfront) 151 



IV INDEX 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Pa g« 

Cervantes Fraternal Society 24 

Chelsea Jewish Children's School (Mass.) _ - 

Cherry Association. (See Sakura KaD 116 
Chicago Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact. (See 
Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact.) 

Chicago Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 24 

Chicago Sobell Committee 24 

China Aid Council ._ ... 24 

China Welfare Appeal, Inc 145 

Chinese Cultural Cabaret — 116 

Chinese Democratic Youth Chorus 116 

Chinese Workers Mutual Aid Association 116 

Chopin Cultural Center 145 

Citizens Committee For Better Education 116 

Citizens' Committee For Harry Bridges (see also Bridges-Robertson- 
Schmidt Defense Committee, Citizens' Victory Committee for Harry 
Bridges, Harry Bridges Defense Committee, Harry Bridges Victory 

Committee) 24 

Citizens' Committee for the Defense of Mexican-American Youth 1 16 

Citizens' Committee for the Motion Picture Strikers 116 

Citizens' Committee for the Recall of Councilman McClanahan (13th 

Los Angeles District) 117 

Citizens' Committee of the Upper West Side 25 

Citizens' Committee to Aid Locked-Out Hearst Employees (L. A.) 117 

Citizens' Committee to Free Earl Browder 25 

Citizens' Committee to Support Labor's Right 117 

Citizens Emergency Defense Conference. 145 

Citizens Protective League 151 

Citizens' Victory Committee for Harry Bridges (see also Bridges-Robert- 
son-Schmidt Defense Committee, Citizens' Committee for Harry Bridges, 
Harry Bridges Defense Committee, Harry Bridges Victory Com- 

Ttlit lG6^ — - ---- - - --------------- ^& 

City Action" Committee Against the High Cost of Living 117 

Civil Liberties Sponsoring Committee of Pittsburgh 145 

Civil Rights Congress (see also Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee, Veterans 

Against Discrimination of the Civil Rights Congress of New York)... 25 

Civil Rights Congress for Texas 26 

Civil Rights Congress, Milwaukee Chapter 26 

Civil Rights Congress of Michigan 26 

Civil Rights Council of Northern California 117 

Civil Rights Division of Mobilization for Democracy 28 

Civil Rights Federation (Michigan). (See Michigan Civil Rights Feder- 
ation.) 

Cleveland Committee to Secure Clemency for the Rosenbergs jb 

Columbians J 51 

Columbus Peace Association j™ 

Comite Coordinador Pro Republica Espanola . ^7 

Comite Pro Derechos Civiles (see also Puerto Rican Comite Pro Libertades 

Civiles) '-_..__.._.---— 145 

Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy (see also National Confer- 
ence on American Policy in China and the Far East) 27 

Committee for Citizenship Rights ^7 

Committee for Civil Rights for Communists. £7 

Committee for Concerted Peace Efforts j< 

Committee for Constitutional and Political Freedom 145 

Committee for Defense of Public Education ^ 

Committee for International Student Cooperation *$ 

Committee for Justice '■Yi. 

Committee for Nationalist Action 1^ 

Committee for Peace and Brotherhood Festival in Philadelphia 14o 

Committee for Peace Through World Cooperation ,"-«"" " 

Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact (see also Con- 
ference for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact, Continuations 
Committee of the Conference for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic 
Pact, Mid-Century Conference for Peace, Northern California Com- 

mittee for Peaceful Alternatives). - ^° 



INDEX V 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Committee for the Crisis, The. (See Jikyoku Iin Kai.) 

Committee for the Defense of Mexican- American Youth. (See Citizens' 

Committee for the Defense of Mexican- American Youth.) Pa ^ e 

Committee for the Defense of the Pittsburgh Six 145 

Committee for the First Amendment 117 

Committee for the Negro in the Arts 145 

Committee for the Protection of the Bill of Rights 145 

Committee for United States Participation in the American Continental 

Congress for Peace 29 

Committee for World Youth Friendship and Cultural Exchange 146 

Committee of One Thousand - - 118 

Committee of Philadelphia Women for Peace 29 

Committee of Professional Groups for Browder and Ford 29 

Committee on Election Rights 29 

Committee To Abolish Discrimination in Maryland (see also Congress 
Against Discrimination; Maryland Congress Against Discrimination; 
Provisional Committee to Abolish Discrimination in the State of 

Maryland) 146 

Committee To Aid the Fighting South 29 

Committee To Defend America by Keeping out of War 29 

Committee To Defend Angelo Herndon -- 29 

Committee to Defend Marie Richardson.. 146 

Committee to Defend the Rights and Freedom of Pittsburgh's Political 

Prisoners 146 

Committee to Uphold the Bill of Rights 146 

Commonwealth College (Mena, Ark.) 30 

Communist Information Bureau (Cominform). (See Information Bureau of 
the Communist and Workers' Parties.) 

Communist International (Comintern) 30 

Communist Labor Party of America (September 1919 to May 1920) 30 

Communist League of America (Opposition) - 31 

Communist League of Struggle 31 

Communist Party of America (September 1919 to April 1923)--. - 31 

Communist Party of Panama. (See Partido Del Pueblo of Panama.) 

Communist Party, U. S. A. (March 1929 to May 1944; July 1945 to present) __ 31 

Communist Party U. S. A. (Majority Group) 32 

Communist Party U. S. A. (Opposition).. — 32 

Communist Political Association (May 1944 to July 1945). _ 32 

Community Unitarian Fellowship — 33 

Conference for Democratic Action. (See California Conference for Demo- 
cratic Action.) 
Conference for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact (see also Com- 
mittee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact, Continuations 
Committee of the Conference for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic 

Pact) - 33 

Conference for Progressive Labor Action 33 

Conference for Social Legislation 118 

Conference on Constitutional Liberties in America 33 

Conference on Pan-American Democracy (see also Council for Pan-Ameri- 
can Democracy) --- 34 

Congress Against Discrimination (see also Committee To Abolish Dis- 
crimination in Maryland) 146 

Congress (First) of the Mexican and Spanish-American Peoples of the 

United States - 34 

Congress of American Revolutionary Writers 34 

Congress of American-Soviet Friendship 34 

Congress of American Women 34 

Congress of the Unemployed 146 

Connecticut Committee To Aid Victims of the Smith Act .- 146 

Connecticut State Youth Conference 34 

Consumers' National Federation 35 

Consumers Union 141 

Contemporary Theater 118 

95822°— 57 12 



VI INDEX 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Continuations Committee of the Conference for Peaceful Alternatives 

to the Atlantic Pact (see also Conference for Peaceful Alternatives to the p age 

Atlantic Pact, Committee for Peaceful Alternatives to the Atlantic Pact).. 35 

Coordinating Committee To Lift the (Spanish) Embargo 35 

Coordination Committee of Jewish Landsmanschaften and Fraternal 
Organizations (see also United Committee of Jewish Societies and 

Landsmanschaft Federations) 146 

Council for Jobs, Relief and Housing 146 

Council for Pan-American Democracy (see also Conference on Pan-Ameri- 
can Democracy) 35 

Council of Greek Americans 146 

Council of United States Veterans 35 

Council of Young Southerners 35 

Council on African Affairs 35 

Croatian Benevolent Fraternity 36 

Croatian Educational Club 118 

Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace 36 

Dai Nippon Butoku Kai (Military Virtue Society of Japan or Military Art 

Society of Japan) 150 

Daily Worker Press Club.. 36 

Daniels Defense Committee 146 

Dante Alighieri Society 151 

Defense Committee for Eugene Dennis. (See Dennis Defense Committee.) 
Defense Committee for Gerhardt Eisler. (See Eisler (Gerhardt) Defense 

Committee.) 
Defense Committee for Victims of the Ohio Un-American Activities Com- 
mission 118 

Dennis Defense Committee 36 

Descendents of the American Revolution 36 

Detroit Bill of Rights Defense Committee 37 

Detroit Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosebnerg Case 37 

Detroit Youth Assembly 37 

Deutsche-Amerikanische Einheitsfront. (See Central Organization of the 
German- American National Alliance.) 

Down River Citizens Committee (Detroit, Mich.) 37 

Downtown Forum 118 

East Bay Arts, Sciences and Professions Council 118 

East Bay Civil Rights Congress 119 

East Bay Committee To Save the Rosenbergs 119 

East Bay Peace Committee (Oakland, Calif.) 37 

East Bay Youth Cultural Center 119 

East Harlem Women for Peace 37 

East Meadow and Westbury Rosenberg Committee 38 

Eisler (Gerhardt) Defense Committee _ 38 

Elizalde Anti-Discrimination Committee 119 

Elsinore Progressive League 146 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 38 

Emergency Committee of the Arts and Professions To Secure Clemency 

for the Rosenbergs 38 

Emergency Conference To Aid the Spanish Republic 38 

Emergency Conference To Halt the Blackout of Civil Liberties in California. 119 

Emergency Conference To Save Spanish Refugees 38 

Emergency Peace Mobilization 38 

Emergency Trade- Union Conference To Aid Spanish Democracy 39 

Estonian Women's Club (of Massachusetts) 119 

Estonian Workers' Clubs. 119 

Ethiopian Defense Committee 39 

Eugene Dennis Defense Committee. (See Dennis Defense Committee.) 

Exiled Writers Committee of the League of American Writers 39 

Everybody's Committee To Outlaw War 146 

Families of the Baltimore Smith Act Victims. — 146 

Families of the Smith Act Victims -- 146 

Farm Research 39 

Fatherland Society. (See Sokoku Kai.) 

Federated Press — 39 

Federation of Greek Maritime Unions. (See American Branch of.) 



INDEX vn 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Federation of Italian War Veterans in the U. S. A., Inc. (Associazione 

Nazionale Combattenti Italiani, Federazione degli Stati Uniti Page 

d' America) 151 

Festus Coleman Committee 119 

Film and Photo League — 120 

Film Audiences for Democracy 40 

Films For Democracy 40 

Finnish-American Mutual Aid Society 40 

Finnish Federation 120 

Finish Women's Clubs (of Massachusetts) _ 120 

Finnish Workers' Clubs 120 

First Congress of the Mexican and Spanish-American Peoples of the United 
States. (See Congress (First) of the Mexican and Spanish-American 
Peoples of the United States.) 
First World Congress of the Defenders of Peace. (See World Peace 

Congress.) 
First World Congress of the Partisans of Peace. (See World Peace 

Congress.) 
First World Peace Congress. (See World Peace Congress.) 
First World Student Congress. (See World Student Congress.) 

Florida Press and Educational League.. _ 40 

Frederick Douglass Educational Center 146 

Free Italy Society 120 

Freedom From Fear Committee 120 

Freedom of the Press Committee. (See National Committee for Freedom 
of the Press.) 

Freedom Stage, Inc 146 

Freunde des Neuen Deutschlands. (See Friends of the New Germany.) 

Friends of Chinese Democracy __ _ . 40 

Friends of Freedom 121 

Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 40 

Friends of the Campus 41 

Friends of the New Germany (Freunde des Neuen Deutschlands) 151 

Friends of the Soviet Union (see also American Technical Aid Society) 41 

Frontier Films 41 

Galena Defense Committee 41 

Garland Fund (see also American Fund for Public Service) 41 

Garibaldi American Fraternal Society 41 

George Washington Carver School 42 

German- American Bund (Amerikadeutscher Volksbund) 151 

German-American Republican League 151 

German-American Vocational League (Deutsche-Amerikanische Berufsge- 

meinschaf t) - 151 

Geutsche-Amerikanische Berufsgemeinschaft. (See German-American 

Vocational League.) 
Great Fujii Theater, The. (See Nichibei Koguyo Kaisha.) 

Great Neck Rosenberg Committee 42 

Greater New York Committee for Employment 42 

Greater New York Emergency Conference on Inalienable Rights (see also 

New York Conference for Inalienable Rights) 42 

Greek- American Committee for National Unity 42 

Greek- American Council 42 

Guardian Club _ ... 146 

H. O. G. (Armenian Group) ._ 121 

Harlem Trade Union Council 146 

Harry Bridges Defense Committee (see also Bridges-Robertson-Schmidt 
Defense Committee, Citizens' Committee for Harry Bridges, Citizens' 
Victory Committee for Harry Bridges, Harry Bridges Victory Commit- 
tee) _ ... 42 

Harry Bridges Victory Committee (see also Bridges-Robertson-Schmidt 
Defense Committee, Citizens' Committee for Harry Bridges, Citizens' 
Victory Committee for Harry Bridges, Harry Bridges Defense Commit- 
tee)... 43 

Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee 43 

Hawaii Civil Rights Congress 121 

Hawaii Committee for Smith Act Defendants 121 



vin INDEX 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Heimuska Kai, also known as Nokubei Neieki Gimusha Kai, Zaibel 

Nihonjin, Heiyaku Gimusha Kai, and Zaibei Heimusha Kai (Japanese Page 

residing in America, Military Conscripts Association) 150 

Heiyaku Gimusha Kai. (See Heimuska Kai.) 

Hellenic- American Brotherhood 43 

Hempstead Rosenberg Committee 43 

Herndon Defense Committee. (See Angelo Herndon Defense Committee.) 

Hinode Kai (Imperial Japanese Reservists) 150 

Hinomaru Kai (Rising Sun Flag Society — a group of Japanese war vet- 
erans) 150 

Hokubei Ziago Shoke Dan (North American Reserve Officers Association) __ 150 

Hold the Price Line Committee 121 

Hollywood Actors' Laboratory School. (See Actors' Laboratory Theater.) 

Hollywood Anti-Nazi League 121 

Hollywood Arts, Sciences and Professions Council. (See Southern California 
Chapter of the National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions.) 

Hollywood Community Radio Group, Inc 122 

Hollywood Council of the Arts, Sciences and Professions 122 

Hollywood Democratic Committee 122 

Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences and 

Professions 122 

Hollywood League Against Nazi-ism. (See Hollywood Anti-Nazi League.) 

Hollywood League for Democratic Action 122 

Hollywood Mooney Defense Committee 122 

Hollywood Motion Picture Democratic Committee 123 

Hollywood Peace Forum 123 

Hollywood Theatre Alliance 123 

Hollywood Writers Mobilization For Defense. 43 

Holyoke Book Shop... 123 

Honolulu Chapter, Inter-Professional Association 123 

Hungarian- American Council for Democracy 43 

Hungarian Brotherhood 43 

ILWU Book Club 123 

Idaho Pension Union 147 

Illinois People's Conference for Legislative Action 44 

Imperial Military Friends Group. (See Nanka Teikoku Gunyudan) . 

Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions 44 

Independent Communist Labor League of America 44 

Independent Labor League of America 44 

Independent Party (Seattle, Wash.) (see also Independent People's 

Party) 147 

Independent People's Party (see also Independent Party) __ _ 147 

Independent Progressive Party 123 

Independent Socialist League (see also Workers Party, 1940-1948) 44 

Indusco, Inc. (See American Committee in Aid of Chinese Industrial 
Cooperatives.) 

Industrial Workers of the World.. 151 

Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties 45 

Institute of Pacific Relations 45 

Inter-Professional Association. (See Honolulu Chapter, Inter-Professional 
Association.) 

Intercontinent News Service 45 

International Association of Democratic Lawyers 45 

International Book Shop (Boston) 124 

International Book Store (San Francisco) 124 

International Committee of Intellectuals for Peace. (See International 
Committee of Intellectuals in Defense of Peace.) 

International Committee of Intellectuals in Defense of Peace 46 

International Democratic Women's Federation. (See Women's Inter- 
national Democratic Federation.) 

International Juridical Association 46 

International Labor Defense (see also Galena Defense Committee, Trade 

Union Advisory Committee) 46 

International Liaison Committee of Intellectuals for Peace. (See Inter- 
national Committee of Intellectuals in Defense of Peace.) 

International Music Bureau 47 



INDEX IX 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Page 

International Organization of Democratic Journalists 47 

International Publishers . — 47 

International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations. (See Institute 
of Pacific Relations.) 

International Union of Students (see also World Student Congress) 48 

International Workers Order 48 

Intourist, Inc 49 

Irving Peace Theater 49 

Italian Anti-Fascist Committee 49 

Italian Black Shirts. (See Lictor Society.) 

Japanese-American Committee for Democracy 49 

Japanese Association of America 150 

Japanese Association for Democracy (JAAD). (See Nichibei Minshu 
Kyokai.) 

Japanese Overseas Central Society (Kaigai Dobo Chuo Kai) 150 

Japanese Overseas Convention, Tokyo, Japan, 1940 _ ._ 150 

Japanese Protective Association (recruiting organization) 150 

Jefferson School of Social Science (New York, N. Y.) 49 

Jewish Blackbook Committee of Los Angeles 124 

Jewish Culture Society 147 

Jewish People's Committee 50 

Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order 50 

Jikyoku lin Kai (Committee for the Crisis, The) 150 

John Reed Clubs of the United States 50 

Johnson- Forest Group (see also Johnsonites) 147 

Johnsonites (see also Johnson- Forest Group) 147 

Joint Anti-Facist Refugee Committee (see also Spanish Refugee Appeal) __ 50 

Joint Committee for Trade Union Rights 51 

Joint Council of Progressive Italian-Americans, Inc 147 

Joseph Weydemeyer School of Social Science (St. Louis, Mo.) _ 51 

Kaigai Dobo Chuo Kai. (See Japanese Overseas Central Society.) 

Karl Marx Society of Brooklyn College 124 

Kibei Seinen Kai (Association of United States citizens of Japanese ances- 
try who have returned to America after studying in Japan) 150 

King-Ramsey-Connor Defense Committee 51 

Knights of the White Camellia 151 

Korean Culture Society 124 

Korean Independent News Co 124 

Ku Klux Klan 151 

Kyffhaeuser, also known as Kyffhaeuser League (Kyffhaeuser Bund), 

Kyffhaeuser Fellowship (Kyffhaeuser Kameradschaft) 151 

Kyffhaeuser War Relief (Kyffhaeuser Kreigshilfswerk) 151 

Labor Council for Negro Rights 147 

Labor Lyceum 124 

Labor Research Association 51 

Labor Youth League 51 

Lawyers Committee on American Relations with Spain 52 

Lawyers Committee To Keep the United States Out of War 52 

League Against Yellow Journalism 125 

League for Common Sense 147 

League for Democratic Control 125 

League for Mutual Aid 52 

League for Protection of Minority Rights 52 

League of American Writers (see also American Writers Congress, Con- 
gress of American Revolutionary Writers, Exiled Writers Committee of 

the League of American Writers) 52 

League of Struggle for Negro Rights 53 

League of Women Shoppers 53 

Lehigh Valley Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 53 

Lictor Society (Italian Black Shirts) 151 

Lincoln Book Store (Hollywood) 125 

Lithuanian Women's Club (Massachusetts) 125 

Los Angeles Chapter of the National Negro Labor Council.. 125 

Los Angeles Committee for the Protection of Foreign Born 125 

Los Angeles Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 53 



X INDEX 

ORGANIZATION S— Continued 

Los Angeles Educational Association, Inc. (See People's Educational 

Center.) Pace 

Los Angeles Emergency Committee To Aid the Strikers 125 

Los Angeles Youth Committee Against Universal Military Training 126 

Macedonian-American People's League 54 

Manhattan Citizens Committee 54 

Manhattan Committee To Serve Justice in the Rosenberg Case (also 

known as Manhattan Clemency Committee) 54 

Mario Morgantini Circle 151 

Maritime Book Shop 126 

Maritime Labor Committee To Defend Al Lannon 147 

Marshall Foundation. (See Robert Marshall Foundation.) 

Martinsville Seven Committee 126 

Marxist Study Club of the City College of New York 126 

Maryland Committee For Peace 54 

Maryland Congress Against Discrimination (see also Committee to Abolish 

Discrimination in Maryland) 147 

Mass Action For Peace 126 

Massachusetts Committee for the Bill of Rights 147 

Massachusetts Minute Women For Peace __ 147 

Massachusetts Youth Council 55 

Maurice Braverman Defense Committee 147 

May Day Committees. (See United May Day Committee, United May 

Day Conference, United May Day Provisional Committee.) 
May Day Parade (see also United May Day Committee, United May Day 

Conference, United May Day Provisional Committee) 55 

Medical Bureau and North American Committee to Aid Spanish 

Democracy 55 

Medical Bureau to Aid Spanish Democracy 55 

Memorial Day Youth Peace Parade (1938) _ — 55 

Merrick Rosenberg Committee 55 

Methodist Federation For Social Action 56 

Mexican and Spanish-American Peoples Congress. (See Congress (First) 

of the Mexican and Spanish-American Peoples of the United States.) 

Michigan Civil Rights Federation ' — _ 56 

Michigan Committee For Peace 56 

Michigan Council For Peace 147 

Michigan Labor Committee For Peace 56 

Michigan School Of Social Science 57 

Mid-Century Conference For Peace 57 

Military Art Society of Japan. (See Dai Nippon Butoku Kai). 
Military Virtue Society of Japan. (See Dai Nippon Butoku Kai). 

Milwaukee Committee In The Rosenberg-Sobell Case 57 

[Milwaukee] Provisional Committee To Commute The Death Sentence 

Of The Rosenbergs 57 

Mimi Kagan Dance Group 126 

Minneapolis Civil Rights Committee.. - 57 

Minute Women For Peace 58 

Mobilization For Democracy 126 

Model Youth Legislature Of Northern California (also referred to as Second 

Annual California Model Legislature) — — 126 

Modern Book Shop 127 

Modesto Defense Committee 5S 

Motion Picture Artists' Committee 127 

Motion Picture Democratic Committee. (See Hollywood Motion Picture 

Democratic Committee.) 

Murray Defense Committee 58 

Musicians Committee To Secure Clemency For The Rosenbergs 58 

Musicians' Congress Committee — 127 

Musicians' Democratic Committee 127 

Musicians' Open Forum - 127 

Nanka Teikoku Gunyudan (Imperial Military Friends Group or Southern 

California War Veterans) 150 

National Assembly Against UMT 58 

National Association of Mexican Americans (also known as Asociacion 

National Mexico-Americana) 147 



INDEX XI 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Page 

National Blue Star Mothers of America 151 

National Civil Rights Federation 58 

National Committee for Freedom of the Press 147 

National Committee for People's Rights _ 58 

National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners 59 

National Committee to Defeat the Mundt Bill 59 

National Committee to Repeal the McCarran Act 59 

National Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell in the Rosenberg 

Case CO 

National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case (and local 

affiliates) _. 60 

National Committee to Win Amnesty for Smith Act Victims 147 

National Committee to Win the Peace 60 

National Conference on American Policy in China and the Far East 61 

National Congress for Unemployment and Social Insurance 61 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship (see also American- 
Soviet Science Society ; Congress of American-Soviet Friendship) 61 

National Council of Americans of Croatian Descent 61 

National Council of Croatian Women. (See Central Council of American 

Women of Croatian Descent.) 
National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions (see also Cultural 

and Scientific Conference for World Peace) 61 

National Delegates Assembly for Peace 62 

National Emergency Committee To Stop Lynching 62 

National Emergency Conference 62 

National Emergency Conference For Democratic Rights 62 

National Federation For Constitutional Liberties (see also Oklahoma Fed- 
eration for Constitutional Rights; Washington Committee for Demo- 
cratic Action) 63 

National Free Browder Congress 63 

National Labor Committee For Clemency for the Rosenbergs 63 

National Labor Conference For Peace 64 

National Lawyers' Guild 64 

National Negro Congress 64 

National Negro Labor Congress 65 

National Negro Labor Council 65 

National People's Committee Against Hearst 66 

National Rosenberg-Sobell Committee 66 

National Student League 66 

Nationalist Action League 151 

Nationalist Party of Puerto Rico 151 

Nature Friends of America 66 

Negro Labor Victory Committee 66 

Negro People's Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy _ 67 

New Century Publishers 67 

New Committee for Publications.. _ 67 

New England Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners 127 

New England Council for Protection of Foreign Born _ _ 127 

New England Labor College 128 

New England Labor Research Association _ 128 

New Foundations Forums 128 

New Jersey Committee for Clemency for the Rosenbergs 67 

New Theatre Group (Boston) _ 128 

New Theatre League 67 

New York Committee for Clemency for the Rosenbergs 67 

New York Conference for Inalienable Rights (see also Greater New York 

Emergency Conference on Inalienable Rights) 67 

New York Conference on Civil Rights _ 68 

New York Peace Institute 68 

New York State Conference on Legislation for Democracy 68 

New York State Conference on National Unity 68 

New York Tom Mooney Committee _ 68 

New York Trade Union Committee to Free Earl Browder 68 

Newark Peace Action Committee 68 

Nichibei Koguyo Kaisha (Great Fujii Theater) 150 

Nichibei Minshu Kyokai, Waipahu Chapter (JAAD) 128 



XII INDEX 

ORGANIZ ATI ON S— Continued 

Nokubei Neieki Gimusha Kai. (See Heimuska Kai.) Page 

Non-Partisan Committee for Clemency for the Rosenbergs 68 

Non-Partisan Committee for the Re-election of Congressman Vito Marcan- 

tonio 69 

Non-Sectarian Committee for Political Refugees 69 

North American Committee To Aid Spanish Democracy 69 

North American Reserve Officers Association. (See Hokubie Ziago Shoke 

Dan.) 
North American Spanish Aid Committee (see also Emergency Conference 

To Save Spanish Refugees) 69 

North Philadelphia Forum 147 

North Westchester Rosenberg Committee 69 

Northern California Civil Rights Council. (See Civil Rights Council of 

Northern California.) 

Northern California Committee for Peaceful Alternatives 69 

Northern California Peace Crusade 70 

Northern California Rosenberg-SobellDefense Committee 70 

Northwest Japanese Association 150 

Oahu Servicemen's Committee for Speedier Demobilization 128 

Ohio Bill of Rights Conference 128 

Ohio Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 70 

Ohio Freedom of the Press Association 129 

Ohio Labor Conference for Peace 129 

Ohio School of Social Sciences 70 

Oklahoma Committee To Defend Political Prisoners 70 

Oklahoma Federation for Constitutional Rights 71 

Oklahoma League for Political Education 71 

Open Letter for Closer Cooperation With the Soviet Union 71 

Open Letter in Defense of Harry Bridges 71 

Open Letter to American Liberals 71 

Original Southern Klans, Inc 151 

Ormsby Village for Youth (Topanga Canyon, Calif.) 71 

Pacific Northwest Labor School (Seattle, Wash.) (see also Seattle Labor 

School) .-- 71 

Pacific Publishing Foundation, Inc 129 

Palo Alto Peace Club. _ 71 

Partido Del Pueblo of Panama (operating in the Canal Zone) 72 

Patriotic Society. (See Sakura Kai.) 

Pax Productions - 129 

Peace Committee of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties 129 

Peace Information Center (New York, N. Y.) ! 72 

Peace Movement of Ethiopia 150 

People's Drama, Inc 147 

Peoples Educational and Press Association of Texas 72 

People's Educational Association. (See People's Educational Center.) 

People's Educational Center 72 

People's Institute of Applied Religion 72 

People's Peace 129 

Peoples Programs (Seattle, Wash.) 147 

People's Radio Foundation, Inc 72 

People's Rights Party 147 

People's School. (See People's Educational Center.) 
People's University. (See People's Educational Center.) 

Permanent Committee of the World Peace Congress 73 

Philadelphia Committee To Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case __ 73 

Philadelphia Labor Committee for Negro Rights 147 

Philadelphia Rosenberg-Sobell Committee 73 

Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art 73 

Philadelphia Women for Peace. (See Committee of Philadelphia Women 

for Peace.) 

Photo League 73 

Pittsburgh Arts Club. --- 148 

Political Prisoners' Welfare Committee 148 

Polonia Society of the IWO — -- 73 

Polska Partja Komunistyzna 129 

Prestes Defense Committee 74 



index xm 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Page 

Prisoners' Relief Committee _ 74 

Professionals for Clemency 74 

Progressive Book Shop (Boston) 129 

Progressive Book Shop (Los Angeles and Sacramento) 130 

Progressive Citizens of America (California branches) 130 

Progressive Committee to Rebuild American Labor Party 74 

Progressive German- Americans 74 

Progressive Labor School (Boston) 130 

Progressive Party 74 

Progressive Party of Massachusetts 130 

Progressive Students of America 130 

Progressive Trade Union School 130 

Progressive Women's Council 74 

Proletarian Party of America 74 

Prompt Press 75 

Protestant War Veterans of the United States, Inc 151 

Provisional Committee of Citizens for Peace, Southwest Area 148 

Provisional Committee on Latin American Affairs 148 

Provisional Committee To Abolish Discrimination in the State of Maryland 

(see also Committee To Abolish Discrimination in Maryland) 148 

Provisional International Trade Union Committee of Negro Workers 75 

Provisional Western Regional Sobell Committee 75 

Public Use of Arts Committee 75 

Puerto Rican Comite Pro Libertades Civiles (CLC) (see also Comite Pro 

Derechos CivilesJ 148 

Puerto Ricans United (also known as Puertorriquenos Unidos) 148 

Puertorriquenos Unidos. (See Puerto Ricans United.) 

Quad City Committee for Peace 148 

Queens Rosenberg Committee 75 

Queensbridge Tenants League 148 

Refugee Scholarship and Peace Campaign 76 

Reichsdeutsche Vereinigung. (See Association of German Nationals.) 

Reichstag Fire Trial Anniversary Committee 76 

Repertory Playhouse 131 

Reserve Officers Association, Los Angeles. (See Suiko Sha.) 

Revolutionary Workers League 76 

Rising Sun Flag Society. (See Hinomaru Kai.) 

Robert Marshall Foundation 76 

Robotnik Polski (Polish Labor) 131 

Romanian- American Fraternal Society 76 

Rosenberg Committee of the Bronx 76 

Roslyn Rosenberg Committee 76 

Russian American Industrial Corp 76 

Russian American Society, Inc 148 

Russian Reconstruction Farms, Inc 77 

St. Louis Committee to Secure Justice for Morton Sobell 77 

St. Louis Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case 77 

Sakura Kai (Patriotic Society, or Cherry Association — composed of 

veterans of Russo-Japanese War) 150 

Samuel Adams School (Boston, Mass.) 77 

San Diego Peace Forum 77 

San Francisco Labor Conference for Peace 78 

San Francisco Rosenberg-Sobell Committee 78 

Santa Barbara Peace Forum 148 

Schappes Defense Committee 78 

Schneiderman-Darcy Defense Committee 78 

School for Democracy 78 

School of Jewish Studies (Los Angeles) 131 

School of Jewish Studies (New York) 78 

Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace, (»See Cultural and 
Scientific Conference for World Peace.) 

Scottsboro Defense Committee 79 

Seattle Labor School (see also Pacific Northwest Labor School) 79 

Second Annual California Model Legislature. (See Model Youth Legisla- 
ture of Northern California.) 



XIV INDEX 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Second World Congress of the Defenders of Peace. (See World Peace 

Congress.) 
Second World Congress of the Partisans of Peace. (See World Peace 

Congress.) 
Second World Peace Congress. (See World Peace Congress.) 

Second World Student Congress. (See World Student Congress.) Page 

Serbian-American Fraternal Society 79 

Serbian Vidovdan Council 79 

Shinto Temples. _ _ _ 150 

Silver Shirt Legion of America 151 

Simon J. Lubin Society 131 

Slavic Council of Los Angeles 131 

Slavic Council of Southern California 148 

Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee 131 

Slovak Workers Society 79 

Slovene National Benefit Society 142 

Slovenian-American National Council 79 

Socialist Workers Party (see also American Committee for European 

Workers' Relief) 80 

Socialist Youth League (see also Workers Party, 1940-48) 80 

Sokoku Kai (Fatherland Society) 150 

South Westchester Rosenberg Committee 80 

Southern California Chapter of the National Council of the Arts, Sciences 

and Professions 132 

Southern California Emergency Committee for Clemency for the Rosen- 
bergs 80 

Southern California Peace Crusade 80 

Southern California War Veterans. (See Nanka Teikoku Gunyudan.) 

Southern Conference for Human Welfare 81 

Southern Negro Youth Congress 81 

Spanish Refugee Appeal 81 

Spanish Refugee Relief Campaign 81 

Spanish Speaking Peoples Congress 132 

Springfield Citizens' Protective League 132 

Springfield Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy 132 

State- Wide Civil Rights Conference. (See California State- Wide Civil 

Rights Conference.) 
State- Wide Legislative Conference. (See California State- Wide Legislative 

Conferences.) 
Stockholm Peace Petition. (See World Peace Appeal). 

Straight Arrow Camp (Golden's Bridge, N. Y.) 82 

Student Congress Against War 82 

Student Councils for Academic Freedom 132 

Student Rights Association 132 

Students for Wallace... 132 

Suiko Sha (Reserve Officers Association, Los Angeles) 150 

Sweethearts of Servicemen 82 

Syracuse Women for Peace 148 

Teen-Age Art Club _ 133 

Territorial CIO Political Action Committee 133 

Tom Mooney Labor School 133 

Tom Paine School 82 

Tom Paine School of Social Science 82 

Toumayian Club 133 

Town Meeting of Youth. 82 

Trade Union Advisory Committee 82 

Trade-Union Committee for Free Spain 133 

Trade Union Committee for Peace (see also Trade Unionists for Peace) 148 

Trade Union Committee for the Repeal of the Smith Act 83 

Trade-Union Committee on Industrial Espionage 83 

Trade-Union Committee To Put America Back to Work 83 

Trade-Union Educational League 83 

Trade-Union Unity League 84 

Trade Union Women's Committee for Peace 84 

Trade Unionists for Peace (see also Trade Union Committee for Peace) __ 148 

Tri-State Negro Trade Union Councit! - 148 



INDEX XV 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued 

Page 

Twentieth Century Book Shop (Oakland, Calif.) _ __ 133 

Twentieth Century Book Store (Berkeley, Calif.) 134 

Ukrainian-American Fraternal Union 84 

Unemployed Councils 84 

Unemployed Workers' Organization of Hawaii 134 

Union of American Croatians 84 

Union of Concerted Peace Efforts 84 

Union of New York Veterans 148 

Union of Progressive Veterans 134 

United American Artists 85 

United American Spanish Aid Committee (see also American Rescue Ship 

Mission) 85 

United Committee of Jewish Societies and Landsmanschaft Federations 

(see also Coordination Committee of Jewish Landsmanschaften and 

Fraternal Organizations) 148 

United Committee of South Slavic Americans 85 

United Communist Party (May 1920 to May 1921) 85 

United Defense Council of Southern California 148 

United Farmers League 134 

United Harlem Tenants and Consumers Organization 86 

United May Day Committee 86 

United May Day Conference S6 

United May Day Provisional Committee 86 

United Negro and Allied Veterans of America 86 

United States Congress Against War 86 

United States Service & Shipping, Inc 87 

United States Veterans Council. (See Council of United States Veterans.) 

United States Youth Sponsoring Committee, World Peace Appeal 87 

United Student Peace Committee 87 

United Toilers ._ 87 

United Youth Committee Against Lynching 87 

Valley Stream Rosenberg Committees S7 

Vanguard Press 142 

Veterans Against Discrimination of Civil Rights Congress of New York.. 88 

Veterans For Peace (see also American Veterans for Peace) 88 

Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 88 

Victory Book Store 134 

Virginia League For Peoples Education 88 

Voice of Freedom Committee 148 

Walt Whitman Book Shop 134 

Walt Whitman School of Social Science 88 

Washington Book Shop (Association). (See Washington Cooperative 

Bookshop.) 
Washington CIO Committee To Reinstate Helen Miller (District of 

Columbia) 88 

Washington Committee For Aid To China (District of Columbia) 89 

Washington Committee For Democratic Action (District of Columbia) __ 89 
Washington Committee for Justice in the Rosenberg Case (Washington 

State) 89 

Washington Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights 148 

Washington Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case (District 

of Columbia) 89 

Washington Commonwealth Federation 90 

Washington Cooperative Bookshop (District of Columbia) 90 

Washington Friends of Spanish Democracy (District of Columbia) 90 

Washington Peace Mobilization (District of Columbia) (see also American 

Peace Mobilization) 90 

Washington Pension Union 91 

West Side Rosenberg Committee 91 

Western Council for Progressive Labor in Agriculture 134 

Western Writers Congress 91 

Wingdale Lodge (Wingdale, N. Y.) 91 

Wisconsin Conference on Social Legislation 91 

Women's International Democratic Federation 91 

Workers Alliance 92 

Workers (Communist) Party of America (August 1925 to March 1929) >_ 92 



XVI INDEX 

ORGANIZATIONS— Continued Page 

Workers Library Publishers 92 

Workers Party (1940-48) (see also Independent Socialist League; Socialist 

Youth League) 93 

Workers Party of America (December 1921 to August 1925) 93 

Workers Party of the United States. (See American Workers Party.) 

Workers School (Boston). _. 134 

Workers' School (Los Angeles) 135 

Workers School (New York City) ___ 93 

Workers School (San Francisco) 135 

Workmen's Educational Association 94 

World Congress Against War 94 

World Congress for Peace. (See World Peace Congress.) 

World Congress of Intellectuals 94 

World Congress of Partisans of Peace. (See World Peace Congress.) 
World Federation of Democratic Women. (See Women's International 

Democratic Federation.) 

World Federation of Democratic Youth 94 

World Federation of Scientific Workers 95 

World Federation of Trade Unions 95 

World Peace Appeal (also known as Stockholm Peace Petition) 95 

World Peace Circle of Hollywood, Calif 96 

World Peace Congress 96 

World Peace Council.. 96 

World Student Congress 96 

World Tourists, Inc.. 97 

World Youth Congress 97 

World Youth Festival 97 

Yanks Are Not Coming Committee 97 

Yiddisher Kultur Farband ._ 97 

Young Communist League 97 

Young People's General Assembly For Peace 98 

Young Progressives (California) 135 

Young Progressives of America (Ohio) 135 

Young Progressives of Massachusetts 135 

Young Workers League 98 

Yugoslav-American Cooperative Home, Inc 149 

Yugoslav Seamen's Club, Inc 149 

Zaibei Heimusha Kai. (-See Heimuska Kai.) 
Zaibel Nihonjin. (See Heimuska Kai.) 



INDEX xvn 

PUBLICATIONS 

Part II. Publications cited as Communist or Communist-front by Federal Page 

authorities 99-1 1 1 

Part IV. Publications cited as Communist or Communist-front by State 

or Territorial investigating committees 137-140 

Appendix I. Deletion of a publication cited as Communist front in the 

previous edition of the Guide 141 

Action Now 99 

Amerasia 99 

Anti-Nazi News 137 

Black and White _ 137 

California Eagle 141 

Cambridge People's Voice 137 

Challenge _ _ 99 

Champion Labor Monthly 99 

Champion of Youth (or Champion) 99 

China Today 99 

Clipper _ _ _ 137 

Communist, The 100 

Communist International 100 

Congress 137 

Daily People's World _. .__ __ 100 

Daily Worker 100 

Defender, The 137 

Eastside Journal 138 

Equality ._ 101 

Facts for Women 138 

Far East Spotlight (see also Spotlight on the Far East) 101 

Far Eastern Survey 101 

Fight 101 

Film News 138 

For a Lasting Peace, for a People's Democracy 101 

Freiheit. (See Morning Freiheit.) 

Friday ._ 101 

Glas Narodna (The People's Voice, Slovene) 102 

Glos Ludowy (People's Voice, Polish) 102 

Golden Book of American Friendship With the Soviet Union 102 

Guild Lawyer 102 

Hawaii Star... 138 

Hollywood Independent 138 

Hollywood Quarterly 138 

Honolulu Record 102 

In Defense of Peace 102 

In Fact _ _ ._ 102 

Indonesian Review 138 

International Juridical Association (IJA) Monthly Bulletin 102 

International Press Correspondence (INPRECORR) 103 

Jewish Life .._ 103 

Korean Independence 103 

Labor Action 103 

Labor Defender 103 

Labor Herald _ 103 

Labor Herald (of the California CIO) 139 

Labor News Bulletin 139 

Lawyers Guild Review _ 103 

Liberator 104 

Ludove Noviny (People's News, Slovak) 104 

Ludovv Dennik (People's Daily, Slovak) 104 

March of Labor 104 

Masses and Mainstream 104 

Midwest Daily Record 104 

Morning Freiheit 104 

Narodna Volya (People's Will, Macedonian-Bulgarian) 105 

Narodni Glasnik (Croatian) 105 

National Guardian 105 

National Lawyers Guild Quarterly _ - 105 



XVIII INDEX 

PUBLICATIONS— Continued page 

New Masses (see also Masses and Mainstream) - 105 

New Pioneer - 105 

New Theatre - - - 1° 5 

New Times... - - 106 

New World Review 106 

News of the World 139 

Novy Mir - 1° 6 

Now. 139 

Pacific Affairs 106 

Pacific Weekly 139 

Pan Pacific Monthly 139 

Party Organizer 106 

People's Daily World. (See Daily People's World.) 
People's Voice. (See Glas Narodna and Glos Ludowy.) 
People's World. (See Daily People's World.) 

Political Affairs 106 

Protestant (see also Protestant Digest) 107 

Protestant Digest (see also Protestant) 107 

Revolutionary Age 107 

Science and Society 108 

Slavic American 108 

Slobodna Rech (Free Expression, Serbian) 108 

Social Work Today 108 

Southern Patriot J»8 

Soviet Culture. 

Soviet Russia Today 108 

Spotlight 108 

Spotlight on the Far East (see also Far East Spotlight) 109 

Teacher- Worker 139 

Ti Mangyuna _ 140 

U. S. Week 109 

Ukrainian Daily News 109 

Vistnik (Messenger, Carpatho-Russian) 109 

Voice of Action 109 

Voice of China _ 109 

Voice of Labor 109 

War and the Working Classes 

Waterfront Worker HO 

Western Worker 

Winner 110 

Woman Today HO 

Worcester Worker 140 

Workers Challenge HO 

Workers' Theatre } 4 g 

Working Woman HO 

World News and Views HI 

World Student News HI 

Yankee Organizer - - - — HO 

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