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Full text of "A guide to typography, in two parts, literary and practical; or, The reader's handbook and the compositor's vade-mecum"

PART I. 



LITERARY SUBJECTS. 



GUIDE TO TYPOGRAPHY, 

IN TWO PARTS, 
LITERARY AND PRACTICAL; 

OR, 

Cjre Sieaben: laitHook 

v-^ fc>^ 

AND THE 

COMPOSITOR'S VADE-MECUM. 



BY HENRY BEADNELL, 

P E I N T E K. 



PART I. LITERARY. 

LONDON; 
F. BOWERING, 211, BLACKFRIARS ROAD; 

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 



LONDON: 
ADAMS AND GEE, PRINTERS, MIDDLE STREET, 

WEST SMITHFIELD, B.C. 



RISING GENERATION OF PRINTERS 

I p pnral, 

ON THE LITERATURE AND PRACTICE OF THE NOBLE ART TO 
WHICH THEY HAVE DEVOTED THEMSELVES, 

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, 

BY THEIR SINCERE WELL-WISHER, 

THE AUTHOE. 



M 3920 



PREFACE. 



UNDER various designations, such as Guides, Hand- 
books, Companions, &c., numerous books have, from time 
to time, been compiled by members of the printing 
business desirous of lightening the labor of the inex- 
perienced, and of clearing the path of the learner of the 
difficulties which continually interrupt his progress in 
the early period of his career. 

Some of those productions undoubtedly possess consi- 
derable merit, and creditably answer the end for which 
they were designed. But all of them, as far, at least, as 
they have come under my observation, have treated of 
the Art of Printing mainly as a mere mechanical occupa- 
tion, and have paid little attention to those branches of 
literature which it is so important to the tyro to master, 
if he would rise to the status of an intelligent workman, 
able to give a reason for his acts, and not sink to the level 
of a mere routine picker-up of types, on all occasions 
blindly and inconsiderately adhering to his copy, however 
incorrect or absurd that may be. Hence, the practical 
utility of those productions has, as a general rule, borne 
no proportion to their bulk and cost ; for, while these in 
some cases are very considerable, the real value of the 
matter contained in them is but too often comparatively 
email. 



To remedy this defect, to produce a real Vade- 
mecum for the Author, the Editor, the Corrector, and 
the Compositor, a book to be placed in the hands of the 
Apprentice as soon as he begins to compose, and to be 
his constant companion, until he becomes as conversant 
with it as with his boxes, which shall be a rational 
expositor of those numerous and often intricate literary 
subjects which it so much concerns every one connected 
with the Press to master, but a knowledge of which 
can now only be acquired at the cost of much labor and 
research, has been the endeavor of the Author in 
undertaking the work, the First Part of which is now 
submitted to the judgement of the reader. Whether 
he has succeeded in his intention, is not for him, but 
for the public, to determine : at all events, even if he 
has failed, he will have the satisfaction of reflecting 
that he has at least attempted to accomplish a work, 
which, if well done, he has no doubt would prove ac- 
ceptable to every one practically connected with the 
typographical art. 

To dilate here upon the nature of the work, would be 
superfluous : what it is, or what it aims to be, will be 
clearly seen from an inspection of the table of contents 
which follows this Preface. The Author will only add, 
that he submits hi# book to the friendly criticism of an 
indulgent public ; convinced, that if it but moderately 
answer the end proposed, it will be favorably regarded, 
and will secure that approbation which is the main solace 
of those who labor in the cause of general improvement, 
in however humble a sphere. 



July, 1859. 




CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

PAQX 

General Remarks . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Of the Vowels as Final Letters .. .. .. 5 

Of Final Semivowels .. .. .. .. ..11 

Of Final Liquids ... .. .. .. .. 16 

Of the Double Letters as Finals . . 17 

Of Final Mutes 18 



CHAPTER II. 

LITERARY MISCELLANIES, CHIEFLY ORTHOGRAPHICAL AND 
SYNTACTICAL. 

A or an before a Vowel or silent h . . . . 24= 

The Prefixes im or in and em or en . . . . . . 25 

The Prefixes in and un .. .. .. .. .. 27 

On the Formation of the Plurals of Words compounded of a 

Noun and an Adjective .. .. .. .. 27 

On the Plural of Nouns ending in y . . . . 28 

On the use of Diphthongs and Diacritical Marks in English 

Printing .. .. 30 

The Termination ise or ize .. .. .. ..31 

Of the words succeed, proceed, precede, &c. . . . . 32 

Of the Verb caw ,. 33 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAOK 

The Termination or or our . . , . . . . . 34 

The Termination or or our and er j . . . 35 

The Terminations able and ible .. .. 38 

Nouns Substantive in sion or tion .. .. .. 38 

The Termination ance or ence . . . . . . . 37a 

Some Peculiarities of the Letter c .. .. .. 39 

Defense, pretense, offense, expense, &c. .. .. ..40 

Dispatch or despatch . . . . . . . . 40 

Two or more Ordinal Adjectives preceding a Noun . . 41 

Double Possessives . . . . . . . . . . 42 

Nouns of Weight, Dimension, Value, and Capacity . . 43 

Half -hour, half -mile, half an hour, &v, .. .. 44 

As follows, as follow .. .. . t .. ..45 

Excellence, Excellency .. .. .. .. 46 

The Derivation of English Words . . . 46 

Prepositions before and after Verbs . . . . . . 49 

Numbers, Weights, Measures, &c. . . . . . . 

The Omission of s in the Possessive Case . . . . 50 

Nothing, Anything, Something, Everything; None, Some 

one, &c. .. .. .. .. . . 51 

Sixpence, Ninepence, &c. . . . . . . 52 

Farther and Further . . . . . . . . 53 

The word wholely . . . . . . . . , , 53 

Peas and Pease . . . . . . . . 54 



CHAPTER III. 

THE PROPER FORMATION OF DERIVATIVE AND INFLECTED 

WORDS. 
Terminations after e silent . , . . . . . 55 

Consonant Terminations after a Mute . . . . 57 

Vowel Terminations after a Consonant . . . . . . 57 

Words ending in II .. .. .. .. 63 

Words ending in s* . . . . . . . . . . 65 



CONTENTS. Vli 

CHAPTER IV. 

ON THE FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 

PAGE 

General Observations . . . . . . . . 67 

Words of the same Part of Speech . . . . 68 

Names of Places . . . . . . . . . . 70 

Nouns Substantive taken adjectively ,. .. ..72 

Nouns expressing Purport or Object .. .. 75 

Present Participle and Participial Adjectives . . . . 75 

On the compounding of Adjectives of Number . . 77 

Fractional Numbers . . . . . . . . 78 

An hour, a day, a week, a month, &c. . . . . 79 



CHAPTER Y. 

SYLLABICATION, OR THE PROPER DIVISION OF WORDS. 

A Consonant between two Vowels . . . . . . 81 

Consonants doubled . . . . . . 88 

Two Consonants between two Vowels . . . . . . 83 

Prefixes 84 

Affixes or Terminations . . . . . . . 85 

Rules for dividing Latin Words . . . . . . 87 

Exceptions to the Eules . . . . . . 88 

Rules for dividing Greek Words . . . . . . & 



CHAPTER VI. 

ON PUNCTUATION. 

Preliminary Observations , . * . . . . 90 

Construction of Sentences . . . . 

Symbols used in Punctuation . . . . . . . . *T 



till CONTENTS. 

Pies 

On the Nature of Sentences, and the Combination of Propo- 
sitions .. .. .. .. .. 98 

Of the Adjuncts of Propositions, and of Separable and Inse- 
parable Subordinate Propositions .. .. .. 104 

The Connection of Affirmations, or Compound Sentences 114 

The Comma .. .. .. .. .< 115 

The Semicolon .. .. .. .. .. ..132 

The Colon .. .. .* .. .. .. 135 

The Period or Full-stop . . * . . . . . . 138 

The Interrogation . . . . . . . . * . 140 

The Exclamation . . < . . . . . . . 142 

The Parenthesis . . . . . . . . . . 144 

The Dash, or Rule , . . . . . . . . 147 



CHAPTEE VII. 

MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS USED BY PRINTERS. 

Marks of Quotation .. .. .. .. .. l6"2 

The Apostrophe .. .. .. .. .. 156 

The Hyphen . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 

The Brace . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 

The Crotchet, or Bracket .. .. ., ..165 

The Ellipsis . . . . . . . . . . 166 

Marks of Reference .. .. .. .. ..166 

Accentual and other Marks .. .. .. .. 169 

Marks of Quantity .. .. .. .. ..169 

The Accents .. .. .. .. .. 169 

The Diaeresis .. .. .. .. .. 170 

The Cedilla 171 

The Tilde 172 

The Inverted Comma .. .. .. .. 172 

Double Commas .. .. .. .. ..172 

Miscellaneous .. .. .. .. .. 172 



CONTENTS. ix 

CHAPTEE VIII. 

ON THE PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. 

*AGE 

General Remarks . . . . . . . . . 174 

Commencing Words .. .. .. .. 175 

After a Full-Stop or Interrogation . . . . . . 175 

The Appellations of the Deity .. .. .. 175 

Titles of Honor and Respect ., . .. .. 176 

Proper Names .. .. .. .. .. 177 

Adjectives derived from Proper Names .. .. ..180 

Titles of Books, &c. .. .. .. .. 181 

Epochs .. .. ., .. .. ..182 

First Word in a Line of Poetry . . . . . . 183 

The First Word of a Quotation . . . . . . . . 183 

/ and O .. .. .. .. .. .. 183 



CHAPTEE IX. 

ASTRONOMICAL, ALGEBRAICAL, MATHEMATICAL, BOTANICAL, 
MEDICAL, AND OTHER SIGNS. 

Astronomical Signs . . . . . . . . . . 184 

Time and its Divisions . . . . . . . . 186 

The Day 187 

The Year 187 

The Week .. .. .. 189 

The Month .. .. 189 

Cycles 192 

Epochs or Eras .. .. .. .. 192 

Mathematical and Algebraical Signs . . . . . 193 

Botanical Signs . . . . . . . . . . 196 

Medical Signs, &c. .. .. .. ..197 



I CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER X. 

ABBREVIATIONS, AND LISTS OF FOREIGN WORDS, ETC. 

PAGE 

Abbreviations of Books of Scripture . . . . . . 199 

Abbreviated Names of Months . . . . . . 200 

Abbreviations of Titles, Offices, Professions, Institutions, &c. 200 
Miscellaneous Abbreviations . . . . . . 

Some French Abbreviations 

Some German Abbreviations . . . . . . . , 

Abbreviations of the principal Greek and Latin Authors 
Explanation of French, Latin, and Italian Words and Phrases 213 



CHAPTER XL 

LITERAL NOTATION. 
Roman Literal Notation 
Greek Numerals 
Hebrew Numerals . . . . . . 

Arabic and Indian Numerals 



CHAPTER XII. 

ON CORRECTING A PROOF-SHEET. 

Explanation and Use of Symbols employed . . . . 238 

Cautions as to their Use .. .. .. .. 241 

Hints to Authors on preparing Manuscript for the Press . . 241 

On the Duties of a Reader , 243 



CHAPTER XIII. 

TABLES USEFUL TO THE AUTHOR, CORRECTOR, ETC. 

Table of Signatures and Folios . . . . . . . . 247 

Condensed Table 249 

Table of Proper Names .. .. .. .. 253 



CHAPTER I. 



ENGLISH OETHOGKAPHY. 

THIS is a subject which comes immediately within the 
province of the printer, and of which, in the long run, 
he is the ultimate arbiter ; and therefore one with the 
principles of which he ought to be intimately acquainted. 
Yet, strange to say, many printers seem never to trouble 
themselves with principles at all, but are quite content to 
follow in the wake of authority and routine, whether these 
be right or wrong, rational or absurd, so long as the me- 
chanical part of their work is tolerably passable. 

Hence has arisen the anomalous and absurd manner of 
spelling certain words, which I shall have occasion to notice 
in the progress of this chapter, which reflects so much dis- 
credit on the literary reputation of printers, as a body, and 
which will increase in number and absurdity, unless more 
attention be given to the matter than has hitherto been 
the case. 

To aid in removing this opprobrium, I propose to con- 
sider the subject at some length, and to investigate some- 
what in detail the principles which govern the orthography 
of the English language, in some of its branches at least ; 
beginning from its most simple elements. I would there- 
fore here more especially bespeak the attention of the 
young printer anxious to master this important branch of 
his business. 

B2 



4 ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Undoubtedly, were orthography regarded simply as 
the art of representing by written characters, of a definite 
and well-ascertained signification, the various sounds 
emitted by th? human voice in the utterance of man's 
thoughts, the English system, in common with many 
others: Erg!it be p>'on6utieed to be extremely contradictory, 
anomalous, and barbarous. But many causes, besides that 
of the mere effort to represent individual sounds by arbi- 
trary but fixed corresponding symbols, have combined to 
establish and settle the method of spelling now current in 
our language ; and not one of the least of these causes has 
been the practice of those peoples whose languages have 
constituted the groundwork or the ornament of our own. 
So potent have been those influences, and so firmly have 
certain anomalies become fixed in the language, from their 
adoption by our greatest writers for a period of some cen- 
turies, that any attempt materially to alter the orthography 
now in use, and to place it upon what might be considered 
a more rational basis, would, I think, be utterly unsuccess- 
ful ; and therefore its investigation in this place would be 
little more than a waste of my own time, and an unreason- 
able demand upon the patience of the reader : men will 
not unlearn that which has cost them so much trouble, 
and of which they are comparatively masters, merely to 
learn another system, which would, after all, but conduct 
them to the same end, even though that system might be 
intrinsically better, and could be supported by arguments 
the most philosophical and convincing. Besides, the adop- 
tion of any system of spelling founded upon pure phonetic 
principles, would soon render useless all the books which 
have been hitherto printed, or else necessitate the learning 
of both systems, by all who would not lose the pleasure 
and the profit of an acquaintance with those authors 
whose works it might not be considered at the present 
day sufficiently remunerative to reprint. For these reasons, 
I will refrain from discussing such alterations, and will 



THE VOWELS AS FINAL LETTERS. 5 

confine my observations within a much narrower limit 
yet not, I hope, without throwing some light upon matters 
not wholly uninteresting, either to the printer or the man 
of letters. 

Firstly, then, I propose to consider each letter of the 
alphabet in its character of a final, and the changes it 
undergoes in that position ; for in this consists the prin- 
cipal difficulty of English orthography : but instead of 
taking the letters in their usual order, I will divide them 
into classes, according to their nature, and will make such 
observations upon the principles involved, as the require- 
ments of each case may suggest ; merely premising, that 
I deprecate the censure of the initiated, if some of my 
observations appear to them trite and elementary ; re- 
minding them, that I write for the uninstructed rather 
than for the well-informed reader. 

1. Of the Vowels as Final Letters. 

I need hardly remind the tyro that the vowels in the 
English language are a, e, o, u. / is also generally deemed 
a vowel : it is so when pronounced as in pin, but it is a 
diphthong when pronounced as in pine. W, when at the 
end of a syllable, mostly forms a diphthong with the vowel 
which precedes it, as iufeiv, new, now, cow ; sometimes it 
is entirely silent, and of course is of no real effect, or 
properly any letter at all ; but, as far as pronunciation is 
concerned, a mere unmeaning symbol ; as in the words 
burrow, morroiv, sorrow. Y is also a vowel when final, 
if it be sounded as e, as in beauty; but it is a diph- 
thong when it is sounded like i; as in by : it is also 
sometimes entirely quiescent. 

The letter a seldom occurs at the end of a word in 
English. When it is met with, and is pronounced, it is 
mostly in words of foreign origin ; sometimes as a sin- 



6 ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

gular, at others as a plural ; as, area, idea, arcana, data ; 
else it is silent ; as in tea, sea, flea. 

E is a very common terminal letter in English words, 
but, what is singular, it is never pronounced at the end of 
words of more than one syllable, unless it be double, as in 
committee, referee, obligee; except in words of foreign 
origin, such as acme, and proper names, as Penelope, &c. 
But as this rule does not hold with monosyllables, it is 
only for distinction-sake that some are so spelt ; as, bee, 
thee, &c. ; or else to avoid confusion in the plurals and 
derivatives ; as, tree (pi. trees), see (he sees) : for tres, ses, 
would indicate the short sound of e. The power of e final 
is mostly represented by y in words of more than one 
syllable ; as in ambiguity, bounty, scarcity, society, &c. 

When e final follows a single consonant preceded by a 
vowel, it has generally the power of lengthening that 
vowel ; as may be seen in the words abate, replete, indite, 
promote, refute, defile, prime, prone, wife, &c. ; where the 
only use of the final e is to denote the lengthened sound 
of the preceding vowel. 

Whenever an affix beginning with a vowel is added to 
such words (i. e. words ending in e mute, preceded by a 
long vowel and a single consonant), then, as the single con- 
sonant between two vowels sufficiently indicates that the 
first vowel has its long sound, the office of e is thereby 
fulfilled, and it is consequently discarded in inflected and 
derivative words. Thus, from abate comes abating ; denote, 
denoting ; repute, reputation; excite, excitability; debate, 
debatable ; remove, removable, &c. Hence, in the following 
pages, I shall strictly adhere to this, the only rational and 
correct way, of spelling these and such-like words. 

It may be further observed of this letter, that when- 
ever it occurs as a final, after I preceded by another con- 
sonant, and which altogether form one syllable, e is pro- 
nounced before I, although it is written after it. Thus, 



THE VOWELS AS FINAL LETTERS. 7 

bauble, barnacle, twaddle, trifle, beagle, freckle, example, are 
respectively pronounced, baubel, twdddel, &c. 

This anomaly in spelling has crept into several words 
ending with the sound of er preceded by a consonant ; 
such as centre, metre, manoeuvre, meagre, ogre, theatre ; but 
as they are not numerous, and custom and analogy are 
against it in other words, I think Mr. "Webster was jus- 
tified in condemning the practice, and that it would be 
much better to spell such words as they are pronounced, 
and in accordance with the general analogy of the lan- 
guage, center, meter, maneuver (for, as will be hereafter 
explained, we have no diphthongal characters in English 
words), meager, oger, theater ; as was formerly the practice. 
Hence, should I have occasion to use these words in the 
course of the following pages, the reader will find them 
spelt in the manner I have just indicated ; although, with 
the exception of maneuver, I have not much hope that the 
example will be generally followed, for some time at least : 
but manoeuvre is such an extravagant anomaly, and such a 
glaring instance of our servile, unreasoning imitation of 
foreigners, even against the most settled analogies of our 
own orthography, that I do hope to see it forthwith dis- 
carded altogether. 

Nevertheless there are a few words which must be 
excepted from the rule ; and these are, where c is the con- 
sonant preceding r, and it has the sound of k : for as c 
immediately before e has invariably a soft sound, it might 
be the occasion of confusion, were it placed in any other 
than its ordinary position iu such words as acre, lucre, and 
massacre. 

When two vowels precede a final consonant, then e is 
not generally added ; because its office of denoting elon- 
gation is already effected by the two vowels. Hence we 
spell foal, coal, mail,rail, dream, been, peep, creep, reap, room, 
toast, pour, poor, roar, &c., without a final e. Neverthe- 
less, the sibilant letters c soft, s, and z, are exceptions to 



ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

the rule ; for these take a final e, even when they are pre- 
ceded by two vowels. Examples in point are sluice, fleece, 
piece, niece, cruise, choose, rouse, maize, breeze, sneeze. This 
is owing, I suppose, to their semivowel character ; which 
seems to admit of a kind of indistinct vowel-sound after 
them, whenever they occur at the end of a word, especially 
if preceded by a long vowel or diphthongal sound. But 
the rule, one would think, should have been applied to 
the letter f, which certainly largely partakes of a semi- 
vowel character : yet it has not ; for we write belief, re- 
proof, behoof, grief, thief, &c., without a final e ; and yet, 
with strange inconsistency, the rule is allowed to have 
force with the almost mute v ; as may be seen in the words 
grieve, sleeve, bereave, retrieve, grove, &c. 

The reason above given is sufficient to account for the 
spelling with final e such words as have th and two vowels 
before it, in which the deeper sound of th is required ; as 
in breathe, loathe, soothe, seethe, &c. ; although, when this 
prolonged and deep sound of th is not to be indicated, the 
final e is dispensed with ; and we accordingly write breath, 
death, south, loth, sooth, mouth, uncouth, &c. 

The letter i terminates no purely English word. In 
those few instances in which it is met with, it is as the sign 
of the plural of words which still retain the formation 
proper to the language from which they are derived. 
Such are radii, literati, cognoscenti, &c. Its long sound is 
represented, at the end of words, by y ; as, cry, dry, rely, 
satisfy, deny, &c. In most cases in which y is not sub- 
stituted for the sound of i final, a silent e is added to 
i, as if to give corroboration to the general rule, that i can 
never end an English word ; as in die, tie, lie, vie, hie. 
But before an affix beginning with i, this ie is also changed 
into y ; as in dying, trying, vying (not vieing as some- 
times erroneously spelt), lying, &c. Dye is an anomaly not 
countenanced by Johnson or Walker, but which custom 



THE VOWELS AS FINAL LETTERS. 

has now pretty firmly established, in order to present a 
different form to the eye, of what appears to be the same 
word under another acceptation, although the sound of die 
and dye is exactly alike. 

Final o has sometimes its ordinary sound, as in so and 
lo ; and sometimes the sound of oo, as in do and to (a 
curious anomaly). At the end of words of foreign extrac- 
tion, o has always its ordinary sound ; as in quarto, junto, 
grotto, canto, &c. 

In the formation of the plural of nouns with this ending, 
the general rule is, thates is added to the singular ; as mpota- 
toes, cargoes, buffaloes ; yet the following words add only s : 
grotto, junto, canto, cento, quarto, portico, octavo, duodecimo, 
tyro, solo (all, by the bye, foreign words); and also all nouns 
ending in io ; as, folio, folios ; or, in fact, whenever o is 
immediately preceded by a vowel ; as, cameo, embryo, &c. 

A notable peculiarity is to be observed with regard to 
nouns substantive ending with the sound of o. If they be 
words of more than one syllable, they for the most part 
end simply in o ; but if only of one syllable, they take 
an 6 after the o : thus, canto, potato, quarto, hero; but, doe, 
foe, hoe, roe, sloe, toe, woe, &c. Yet other monosyllables, 
not nouns substantive, have no final e ; as, so, lo, no. 

As to final u and w, little need here be said : they 
never occur in English words, unless in connection with 
some other vowel, with which they for the most part form 
a diphthong ; as, tkou, you ; know, sow ; few, slew. 

The letter y, in English root-words, is only to be met 
with as an initial or as a final : in the former case, it is 
a consonant, and in the latter, it is either quiescent, or it 
may be a vowel or a diphthong. If y final be preceded by 
a consonant, and the accent is on the last syllable, then y 
is a diphthong, and is pronounced like long i; as in deny, 



10 ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

rely ; but if the accent is not on the last syllable, then y 
is a vowel, and has the sound of e ; as in pony, putty, &c. 
Should final y be preceded by a or e, it is mute, wherever 
the accent may be ; as in obey, journey, day, overlay ; and 
is consequently, in reality, neither vowel nor consonant, 
but, as was before said, as far as pronunciation is con- 
cerned, an unnecessary symbol : but if it be preceded by 
o, it forms a diphthong with that vowel ; as in the words 
joy and employ. 

When final y is preceded by a consonant, and has the 
sound of long i, or of e, then y is changed into i before all 
vowel additions, except i ; for two i's never meet together 
in English. Thus we spell cries, cried, denied, vitrified, 
multiplied, pitied, dainties, Sic., with an i before the ter- 
mination, although we write crying, denying, vitrifying, 
multiplying, pitying, &c., with a y. And the same rule 
holds good also before consonant-beginning terminations, 
but with one exception likewise. Examples : pitiful, 
beautiful, embodiment, drily, slily,* craftiness, haughtiness. 
The exception is, when ness is added to a word which has 
the accent on the last syllable ; as, shyness, dry ness, slyness. 
But I own I can see no valid reason for this variation 
from the general rule, although custom seems to have 
firmly established it. 

Whenever?/ final is preceded by a vowel, y will remain 
before all sorts of terminations ; as, pray, prayeth ; stay, 
staying ; gay, gayer ; boy, boyish ; destroy, destroyed ; pay, 
payment ; journey, journeyed ; enjoy, enjoyment ; day, dayly; 
gay, gayly ; flay, flayed ; stay, stayed ; buy, buyer. 

Notwithstanding the simplicity of this rule, some in- 
corrigible irregularities have crept into the language ; such 
as staid, paid, saith, said, daily, gaily, &c. ; which must? 
I suppose, remain as incurable, for some time at least, f 



* Not dryly, slyly, as frequently printed. 

t I have observed lately, that the irregularity of the 



- 



FINAL SEMIVOWELS. 11 

Following the analogy of other words ending in y, the 
plural of nouns is formed by changing y into ies, if y be 
preceded by a consonant ; as fly, flies ; beauty, beauties; but 
if a vowel come before y in the singular, s only is added ; 
as, day, days ; boy, boys. Nevertheless, for a reason which 
I shall hereafter give, nouns which terminate the singular 
in ey, are by many spelt in the plural in ies ; as, money, 
monies; attorney, attornies. 

2. Of Final Semivowels. 

A semivowel is a letter the sound of which is not en- 
tirely closed when pronounced at the end of a syllable, or 
when alone, but is capable of some degree of prolongation. 
The more perfect semivowels are c soft, f t g soft, ,;, s, z, 
and / ; the less perfect are m, n, r, and v. 

F is perhaps the most perfect of all the semivowels ; 
that is, its sound is capable of being prolonged at the end 
of a word or syllable with a slighter effort than is re- 
quired for the prolongation of any other semivowel. This 
may be observed in pronouncing the words buff, cuff, re- 
buff, leaf, loaf, woof, calf, and suffering the sound to be 
extended somewhat longer than usual : for it will be found 
that this can be done with the greatest ease. 

It is for this very valid reason, I suppose, that our 
lexicographers, in settling the system of orthography now 
in use, always double this letter at the end of a word, 
when it is preceded by a short vowel, whether the accent 

paid has been adopted by the Times and other newspapers, in a 
quite different acceptation of the word, in their account of the 
operations of laying down the Atlantic telegraph-wire. "We there 
constantly meet with the terms paid out so much cable. Now, 
certainly, it would be much better in this case to adhere to analogy 
and reason, and say payed out, especially as the word here has a 
meaning so entirely different from its ordinary one. 



12 ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

be on the last syllable or not. Hence we have cuff, snuff, 
rebuff, bailiff, midriff, handcuff, &c. 

Remark 1. //"and of are almost the only exceptions to this 
rule in the language : the first is owing to the spelling of its 
Saxon primitive, and the latter, perhaps, because /"has not its 
ordinary sound, or else to distinguish it from off. 

Remark 2. Clef is also usually spelt with one/, in order 
that it may preserve its French form ; but as we have changed 
the pronunciation from the original, we ought also, if we would 
have a due regard to the consistency of our own principles, and 
not be content with mere unreasoning literal imitation, to change 
the spelling too, and write cleff. 

But if /final be preceded by two vowels, then, as in the 
emission of sound the breath is not so forcibly propelled 
on this articulation, but is retarded by the longer utterance 
of the vowel-sounds, in that case equally as judiciously as 
before only one / is used. Example : proof, loaf, leaf, 
Tioof, belief, waterproof. It is for this reason that we still 
spell deaf with one /, although we have shortened the 
sound of the two vowels into e: but they are, however, 
in some parts of England, still pronounced long, somewhat 
as in leaf. As remarked under the letter e, when / final 
consonant is preceded by a single long vowel, it is invari- 
ably followed by e ; as, life, knife, safe, strife. 

C soft, g soft, and j, are never met with at the end of 
English words, and therefore call for no remark in this 
place. 

S seems to claim the second place in the list of semi- 
vowels, and thence, like/J it is for the 'most part doubled 
at the end of monosyllables when preceded by a short 
vowel,* and also at the end of polysyllables so circum- 

* As, was, his, is, yes, thus, us, this, and gas, are about the 
only exceptions not noted in the text. They are all too firmly 



FINAL SEMIVOWELS. 13 

stanced ; but, unlike /, custom varies as to the doubling 
of s when, although it may follow a short vowel, yet the 
accent is not on the last syllable. Hence we have lass, 
pass, cess, tress, kiss, miss, loss, moss, puss, truss, repass, 
amass, distress, redress, across, emboss, discuss, &c., with 
double 5; but when the accent is placed on other syllables 
than the last, we meet with the utmost confusion ; some- 
times having two s's, and sometimes only one, under 
precisely corresponding circumstances. To me it appears, 
as s is almost as complete a semivowel as f, the same rule 
ought to apply to both letters, and that we ought to spell 
all words ending in s preceded by a short vowel, with the 
double letter, wherever the accent may happen to be, unless 
in words which we have adopted unchanged from other lan- 
guages ; such as crocus, genius, omnibus 9 pus, rebus, plus, and 
its compounds nonplus, overplus, &c. In accordance with 
this rule, it would certainly be more consistent with analogy 
to spell canvass, Christmass, and Michaelmass with double s, 
just as we invariably spell compass, harass, witness, poetess, 
actress, authoress, goddess, blunderbuss, &c., with the final 
letter doubled, although the accent in none of these in- 
stances is on the last syllable.* 

S also differs from f, as already hinted under that 



fixed to admit of change, except the last, which certainly ought to 
be brought under the general rule. For, to say that it is so spelt 
in German, whence we have the word, is nothing to the purpose ; 
for they, quite in accordance with their principles of orthography, 
spell glas and gras with one s ; while we, in equally just accord- 
ance with our principles, spell them glass and grass : so ought we 
undoubtedly to do with gass, which is a word of comparatively 
modern introduction, and not to be generally found even in old 
German dictionaries; having been introduced, I believe, by Yan Hel- 
mont, in the early part of the last century. 

* I may note here, that canvas, meaning a kind of cloth, is gene- 
rally spelt with one s ; but when meaning to ' examine,' * sift,' &c., 
with two. This is solely for the sake of distinction, but is not 
founded upon any more valid reason. 



14 ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

letter, in taking a final e after it when it is preceded by 
two vowels ; as, loose, louse, goose, grouse, mouse, &c. 

It may be farther remarked of this letter, when fol- 
lowed by final e, that if it be preceded by a long vowel, it 
takes the sound of ,* as in rise, prose, Chinese ; but case, 
erase, excuse (noun), &c., are exceptions. 

The articulation of z differs very little from that of s ; 
it is not so sharp as the ordinary sound of the latter letter, 
and is yet sufficiently distinct to claim for itself the right 
to be represented by its appropriate symbol, whenever 
this can be done without intrenching too far on the vested 
privileges of words. As a final, it occurs very seldom, but 
when it does, it is always after a short accented vowel. 
After i, it is single, as in 'phiz, quiz ; but after u, it is 
doubled, as in buzz. There seems to be no ground for this 
distinction other than that of established custom. 

In addition to its generally recognized character of a 
liquid, I is also a semivowel, although not so perfect a one 
as f or s. Hence we generally find in the dictionaries, 
that words ending in an accented short syllable, with I 
final, double that letter. In monosyllables, this is almost 
invariably the case ; as seen in shall, fell, ill, poll, full, &c.: 
and with lexicographers, the rule holds for the most part 
in words of more than one syllable also ; for we find in the 
dictionaries, that even polysyllabic words coming under 
the description above intimated are generally spelt with 
this letter repeated. It is true that there are some ex- 
ceptions, such as repel, compel, rebel, instil, until, and 
some others, which have crept into use from inatten- 

* A judicious regard to this rule has led our lexicographers to 
distinguish between the verts advise, devise, and practise, and the 
nouns advice, device, and practice ; and might have further led 
them to the same distinction in excuse, in its verbal and in its 
nominal capacity. 



FINAL SEMIVOWELS. 15 

tion or ignorance of the simple rule above given ; and 
some of our modern printers have taken upon themselves 
by what authority, or for what reason, I am unable to 
divine to spell all such words of more than one syllable 
with but one I ; and hence we continually meet with the 
absurd anomalies of fell and befel, call and recal, /all and 
downfaly &c. &c. ; anomalies which would certainly never 
have been allowed, had the subject of English ortho- 
graphy met with that attention, and been prosecuted 
with that regard to principles, which the learned men 
of other nations have not thought beneath their dignity, 
or undeserving their acumen. 

There are other cases in which the letter I is doubled 

when final, though not preceded by a short accented vowel ; 

and these are when the articulation of I is preceded 

by the vowel a having the sound of o, or o having its long 

sound, or perhaps, rather that of ou or ow. Examples 

in point are call, fall, stall, all, roll, toll, knoll. This 

rule does not rest upon the just and natural basis pre- 

dously given for the doubling of final semivowels in 

iertain cases ; but it is an established and useful anomaly 

with regard to these vowels under the particular circum- 

tances mentioned ; and as it is well understood, and 

seems consonant to the generality of people's notions, it 

certainly ought to be strictly adhered to. For this reason, 

because we use two Z's in the case of monosyllables, we 

should employ two in all other situations where the same 

rule applies. Hence it is preferable to spell appall, befall, 

recall, enroll, controll, with double I at the end of the word ; 

and I would also prefer, if I thought my example would 

have any chance of being followed at present, to spell allso, 

allways, allready, allbeit, with two in the middle : but for 

the present I shall follow the ordinary practice. 

The letters m, n, and r, may also lay claim to the cha- 
racter of semivowels, although they are not so easily pro- 



16 ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

longed at the end of a word as/, s, z, or I: they therefore 
might, without impropriety, have been doubled at the end 
of words having a short accented final syllable ; but as 
none of our lexicographers have done so, the matter may 
be regarded as settled, and not open to innovation. 

Remark. Err, purr (name of a bird), banns, and inn, are 
the only words I can readily call to mind in which this rule is 
violated. 

F is scarcely anything but a more densely articulated^ 
and for some not very obvious reason (I suppose), is never 
met with at the end of a word in English, whether the 
vowel which precedes ,it be long or short. Thus we have 
save, wave, brave, nave, have, live and live, knives, gives and 
gives, drove and love, and numerous such-like discrepancies, 
firmly fixed in the language. Nevertheless, I cannot help 
thinking that it would have added to the consistency and 
intelligibility of our orthography, if the short syllable had 
not been graced with the unnecessary final e. Yet its re- 
moval now would be considered an intolerable innovation. 

3. Of Final Liquids. 

A liquid is a letter the articulation of which can be 
combined with that of other consonants, in the same sylla- 
ble, without requiring the intervention of a vowel. Exam- 
ples in point are, bring, blame, crime, cling, dream, flow, 
grow, plain, prow, slow, strive, trow; and bald, ward, wharf, 
calf, bulge, barge, bark, balk, whirl, furl, balm, warm, swoln, 
warp, skelp, false, hearse, wart, salt, salve, wolves. It 
will be observed, that the letters I and r easily amalga- 
mate with all the letters which they either precede or 
follow, in the examples adduced ; and the only cases 
where such amalgamation cannot take place, are I with 
r, either of these liquids with a preceding double letter, 
or q, m, or n; nor, finally, can they combine with w 
and y. 



THE DOUBLE LETTERS AS FINALS. 17 

M and n are generally classed as liquids ; but as they 
are incapable (in our language at least) of preceding and 
combining with any mute consonant, and can only (in 
common with some real mutes) amalgamate with the 
sibilant s, as in smart, snarl, snub, snipe, spit, skate, stain, 
swell, they would hardly have any claim to the character 
of liquids with us, were it not that they can, in some 
cases, be followed by the articulation of a mute consonant 
without the intervention of a vowel ; as in lamb, plomb, 
lamp, swamp, band, land, saint, want. 

Beyond this definition, which is principally intended 
for my younger readers, I have no remark to make on 
these letters in this place. 



4. Of the Double Letters as Finals. 

In English, the double letters are g soft andy, both of 
which, in fact, appear to be produced by the same articu- 
lations, composed of d and the aspirated sibilant sJi, or 
something very near it ; and x (formed of Ic and s) is 
the remaining double letter. 

G, when the last consonant of a word, always takes e 
after it when it is sounded soft ; j never occurs in a similar 
position, nor as a final, in English words, except in the 
adopted Indian word raj ; and x must be content to be 
named only. 

If the vowel preceding g be long in quantity, then g 
immediately follows that vowel ; as in rage, page, wage, 
age, doge, &c. ; but if the preceding vowel be short, then 
d is interposed between it and g ; as in badge, pledge, 
bridge, dodge, judge, knowledge, &c.* Not that there is not 

* Language, allege, andprivilege, are apparent exceptions ; but a 
and e in the last syllable of these words were formerly pronounced 
with a long quantity, as they are even yet by the generality of Scotch 



18 ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

the articulation of d inherent in the first class of words, 
although perhaps less forcibly expressed than in the second ; 
but it is here added mainly fur the purpose of denoting 
that the preceding vowel is short in quantity. 

5. Of Final Mutes. 

A mute is a consonant which, without the aid of a 
vowel, can convey no sound. Such letters are b } c hard, 
t/, g hard, k, p, q, and t. These letters coming after a 
vowel, close the sound, and their articulation is incapable 
of prolongation, although it may in some cases be followed 
by a sibilant, or by a mute of another organic formation, ' 
without the intervention of a vowel ; as in robs, robb'd; 
rags, ragged; blocks, block' d ; raps, rapt; rats, &c. 

It follows from the very nature of such consonants, 
that is, their incapacity of prolongation at the end of a 
word, that to write them double in this position, as if 
they could in some measure be reproduced under peculiar 
circumstances in that situation, is altogether incorrect. 
And this natural law has been pretty strictly adhered to 
by our compilers of dictionaries, in settling the present 
English orthography (although the Germans, but for quite 
another reason, not unfrequently repeat final mute conso- 
nants) ; for the only words I can readily remember, as 
ending with the same mute consonant repeated, are egg, 
add, odd, and butt: the three last of which I take to be 
for distinction-sake, or owing to the spelling of the words 
addere, udda, and butte, from which they are derived. The 
other may be regarded as a fixed anomaly, introduced by 
inadvertence or caprice (for the Saxon original is ccg), to be 

people. The quantity of the words has undergone a change in the 
South, but we have nevertheless retained the form proper to the 
long quantity, although instances are not rare, in old-printed 
books, of the forms alledge andpriviledge. 



OF FINAL MUTES. 19 

duly taken note of, but not to be imitated in other words 
or regarded as resting upon a correct foundation. 

Most of the mute consonants, considered as finals, 
might be passed over without remark ; but there are one 
or two on which a few observations may be made with 
perhaps some advantage to the tyro, or even to the well- 
instructed compositor. 

1. There are very few words in the English language 
which end with the letter c. This at least is the case in 
Johnson's Dictionary ; and the same system has been fol- 
lowed by the majority of our lexicographers. It is also 
adopted by modern printers in nearly all monosyllables ; * 
but in words of more than one syllable, they capriciously 
and unadvisedly, as I venture to think, omit it in some 
words, and retain it in others. Thus we have, uniformly, 
black, speck, tricky block, buck, &c. &c. ; and we as con- 
stantly meet with ransack, barrack, henpeck, toothpick, 
bullock, paddock, padlock, buttock, &c. ; yet as constantly 
find physic, tunic, havoc, and the great majority of poly- 
syllabic words without a final k. But what reason there 
can be for omitting it in some words, and inserting it in 
others, under precisely similar circumstances, passes my 
comprehension. It cannot be owing to the source from 
which such words are derived, for in monosyllables from 
the Saxon, which had no k, we invariably insert one ; and 



* Arc is used in mathematics, and disc in Astronomy, for dis- 
tinction-sake, I suppose. Zink is spelt zinck by Bailey, but more 
correctly zink by Martin (1742), which is sanctioned by Maunder, 
"Webster, and others, although they do not eschew zinc. Both talk 
and zink are spelt with a k in German, and with a c in French ; 
but as the former is in accordance with our own system of orthogra- 
phy, and the latter opposed to it, there ought to be no doubt about 
which is the more correct in English : the only plea for talc is, that 
thus distinguished from the anomalously pronounced but very 
common word talk. This, perhaps, may be generally regarded as a 
good reason j but it is purely accidental. 
c2 



20 ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

for polysyllables from the Greek, which has no c, we as 
invariably contrive to find one, even if we omit the k which 
is found in the original word. Thus the words thick and 
stick come from fticce and rtican, where no k is found ; 
andphysic and traumatic, from ^VO-IK^ and rpav/jLariK^s, where 
there is no c. How, then, can this anomaly be defended ? 
It is not much countenanced in Bailey's Dictionary, which 
is generally acknowledged to have been the best prior to 
the appearance of Johnson's ; yet Mr. Martin, who com- 
piled his somewhat pretentious work about 1740, remarks 
that the practice was in his time coming into vogue ; and 
he moreover adopts it. But what reason does he give for 
this ? He simply says, at page 19 of his Introduction, 
that c is more elegant than ck ; and at page 21, that k is 
unnecessary. But if ck is inelegant in polysyllables, it is 
equally inelegant in monosyllables and compounds ; yet 
even Mr. Martin spells smack, thick, stick, &c. : and if k be 
unnecessary in one place, it is equally so in another. These 
opinions could not be unknown to Johnson, nor yet the 
incipient elegant practice ; for they began to prevail some 
years before the appearance of his great work ; yet he did 
not suffer them to prevail with him, and has almost 
uniformly preserved the ck final in all words preceded 
by a short vowel. On referring to Webster's Dictionary, 
I find that he lays down something like a rule on 
this matter. He says that k is rejected in polysyllabic 
words ending in ic and iac 9 but is generally retained 
in those ending in ack and och; the exceptions being 
almanac, sandarac^ limbec (from alembic), and havoc. But 
this is a mere dictum as to the prevailing practice, sup- 
ported by no argument, and for all that appears in the 
voluminous Introduction to his really valuable work, rest- 
ing upon no rational foundation. But I think it is due to 
our national lexicographer, before adopting implicitly an 
anomaly introduced by no one knows who, and unsupported, 
as far as I know, by any argument of the least cogency, to 



OF FINAL MUTES. 21 

consider whether he might not have had some reason for 
declining to follow the turning tide, and for resisting a 
practice which began to have some supporters before his 
time. I do not know that he has anywhere expressed bis 
reasons ; but it seems to me, that arguments such as the 
following may probably have determined him to adhere to 
a uniform system in this respect. 

It frequently happens that a termination commencing 
with e or i is added to words ending with the hard sound 
of c, and that this sound is also preserved in the derivative 
or inflected word. Now, it is true that either c or k would 
represent this articulation, before the addition of the affix ; 
but as c is uniformly pronounced soft before e and i, it 
would be giving a power to this letter which it never else- 
where possesses, were we to require it to be pronounced 
hard in these particular circumstances. Hence we should 
be obliged to assume an additional letter (k) as belonging 
to the root-word, which never appeared in it, and to write 
trafficked, physicked, trafficking, physicking; although we 
might say that no other iinal letter than c was necessary 
in traffic. It has been, no doubt, for the purpose of avoid- 
ing this assumption in inflected words, that the final k has 
been so uniformly assumed in monosyllables ; and if the 
rule be suffered to prevail there, I am utterly at a loss to 
imagine a sufficient reason why it should not also have 
equal force in words of more than one syllable. I will 
illustrate this by a few examples. Thick and sick have no 
Jc in the original. Why then are they uniformly spelt with 
one in English 1 Thic and sic would equally represent the 
same syllable-closing articulation ; but then, in forming 
certain inflectional words, there would be confusion ; for 
thicen would represent the sound of thisen, not thicken ; 
and were the c repeated, of thicsen ; which of course is 
not what is wanted. K would have answered the purpose, 
for it could have been doubled, as all other mutes are 
before a vowel affix, if preceded by a short accented syl 



22 ENGLISH ORTHOGRAPHY. 

lable ; and as it always represents the hard sound of c, 
we should have written thikken, sikkening, and the pronun- 
ciation would have been correctly indicated. But as all 
our lexicographers have thought proper to eschew kk in 
all cases, and to write ck at the end of words of one sylla- 
ble when preceded by a short vowel, the reason, as I have 
endeavoured to show, remains of equal force for adopting 
ck with regard to other words similarly circumstanced, of 
whatever length they may happen to be.* 

But when an affix beginning with the vowel a, 0, or u, 
is added to a word, k can well be dispensed with ; for, as I 
have elsewhere shown, nothing is more common than to 
drop an unnecessary final letter in inflected and derivative 
words ; but to assume one in the derivative as part of the 
root, which is absent in the primitive, is quite another 
affair. Hence Dr. Johnson very properly spelt mnsical,pub- 
lication, scientifically, terrifically, physically, &c. without k. 

Observe, further, that as k always follows consonants 
as a final letter, in words ending with the sound of hard c, 
this k remains before the termination or affix, whatever 
letter it may begin with. Hence we write remarked, 
remarkable, embarked, embarkation, embankment, &c. ; al- 
though, in the word demarcation, of which we have no 
primitive demark in use in English, we correctly adhere to 
the French, from which we have it. True to its character of 
never properly ending a word in English, whenever c final 
consonant has its soft sound, it is followed by e mute ; as, 
race, mace, sacrifice, artifice, interstice, presence, lattice, &c. 

* I have deemed it advisable to go so much at length into this 
matter in -vindication of the practice of our great lexicographer, 
because I think he was correct ; and my business being to endea- 
vour to teach correct principles, it is necessary that I should exhibit 
them, even when opposed to present practice, which, I may remark, 
is in accordance with the dictum of Mr. Webster, adverted to in 
the text, and which the compositor will find himself generally 
obliged to follow, as I shall do in this book. 



OF FINAL MUTES. 23 

G as a final is always hard ; for when soft, as before 
remarked, it, like c soft, is also followed by e. Examples : 
rag, rage ; wag, wage ; sing, singe ; rang, range ; flung, 
plunge ; judge, pledge, ridge, badge, &c. 

And this, I think, is all that need be said of the letters 
under this head : in subsequent chapters, when treating of 
the formation of compound, derivative, and inflected words, 
we will enter more fully into the changes they undergo in 
these several characters, but will, for the present, introduce 
a chapter on miscellaneous matters, in order to relieve the 
somewhat necessarily dry character of the subject. 



CHAPTER II. 



LITERARY MISCELLANIES, CHIEFLY ORTHO- 
GRAPHICAL AND SYNTACTICAL. 

1. A or AN before a Vowel or silent H. 

IT is laid down by our grammarians, very correctly and 
very judiciously, that the article a is to be used before 
words beginning with a consonant, or with h aspirated (be- 
cause h then partakes of the nature of a consonant), but an 
before a word beginning with a vowel. Wherefore is this ? 
Let us proceed to find the solution of this question. The 
addition of the letter n to the article is purely euphonic 
causa, in order to prevent the hiatus which would result 
from terminating one word with a vowel and beginning the 
next word with another. Hence it would seem legitimately 
to follow, that an ought to be employed wherever these 
conditions exist, and in none other. This has also been 
provided for by most grammarians ; nevertheless, many 
printers, and writers, not comprehending the spirit of this 
rule, nor the reason which gave it birth, rigidly adhere to 
the mere letter of the canon, in defiance of all euphony 
and all good sense ; and because they see a word beginning 
with a merely apparent vowel, or a nominal h aspirate, they 
put an before the former, and a before the latter, utterly 
regardless of what may be the real sound or power of the 
initial letter of the word. Hence we frequently meet with 
such expressions as an unit, an unicorn, a harmonious sound, 



THE PREFIXES 'iN* AND ' EN.' 25 

&c. With equal propriety, and with equal judgement, and 
with equal conformity to the spirit of the rule, they might 
say an year, an yard, &c. ; for the actual articulation which 
commences each of these words is identical with that of u 
in unit and unicorn. On the other hand, how frequently 
do authors and printers fall into the error of saying a 
"historical, a historian, &c., merely because they see the word 
history marked in the dictionaries with h aspirated. But 
those gentlemen ought to consider, that in order actually 
to aspirate h, it is necessary that the syllable which it 
commences should be emphatically pronounced, or have 
the accent ; otherwise, there is no consonantal articulation 
at all, other than that which accompanies even the purest 
vowel-commencing words. But if the accent be removed 
from the first syllable, initial h is no longer aspirated, 
that is, it loses its nature of a consonant ; and in fact the 
word really commences, to the ear of the listener and in 
the mouth of the speaker, with the vowel which follows h. 
Hence we may lay down this general rule : Whenever a 
word beginning with h nominally aspirated, is not accented 
on the first syllable, that word ought to be preceded by the 
article an, although kindred words, having the accent on 
the first syllable, will take a before them. Therefore, a 
history, an historian, an historical, &c., are strictly in accord- 
ance with the spirit of the rule, are highly euphonious, and 
consequently are correct. 

This will not be an inappropriate place for a list of such 
words as commence with h silent. They are, heir, herb, 
honest, honor, hospital, hotel, hour, humble; with their 
derivatives : but the last word, owing, I suppose, to the 
feeble sound of u when preceded by an, has nowadays the 
h aspirated by our best writers 

2. The Prefixes IM or IN and EM or EN. 

The prefix in we have from the Latin, and that of en 
from the French and Greek. In generally signifies situa- 



26 



LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 



tion, and en mostly expresses action. Hence, perhaps, in 
strictness, inclose will signify ( to close in,' and enclose, i to 
make close.' So, to inquire will be ' to seek in, or to search 
in,' and enquire, to ' make search.' But this distinction is 
not attended to by the generality of writers, and is, indeed, 
too retined for general practice. 

Before the letters b and p, en becomes em ; as in 
embattle, empower ; and in before some letters becomes ig, 
ilj im, or ir ; as in ignoble, illegal, improper, irresolute. 

As it is sometimes a doubtful matter to the reader and 
compositor, as to which is in most general acceptation, we 
give a list of those generally spelt with im or in ; leaving 
it to be inferred that the rest are more usual with em 



imban 

imbarn 

imbastardize 

imbed 

imbibe 

imboil 

imbound 

imbow 

imbrue 

imbrute 

imbue 

imburse 

immaiiacle 

immanation 

immask 

immense 

immerge 

immerse 

immesh 

immigrate 

immingle 

immit 

immix 

immold 

immure 

impact 

impale 



imparadise 

impark 

imparlance 

impassioned 

impawn 

impeach . 

impearl 

impel 

impeii 

imperil 

impinge 

implant 

implead 

import 

impose 

impound 

impregnate 

impress 

imprint 

imprison 

inarch 

incase 

inclasp 

inclip 

inclose 

iiicloud 

include 



mcrassate 

increase 

incrust 

incur 

indart 

indent 

indict 

indite 

indoctrinate 

indorse 

indrench 

induce 

induct 

ineye 

infer 

infest 

intix 

inflame 

innate 

inflect 

inflict 

infringe 

infucate 

infuscate 

infuse 

ingeminate 

ino-enerate 






THE PREFIXES ' IN ' AND * UN.* 27 

ingrain inseam intreasure 

ingest insert intrench 

ingurgitate inserve intrude 

inhabit inset intrust 

inhale inshell intwist 

inhearse inship inumbrate 

inhere insinew inure 

inhold insphere iiiurn 

inhume inspire invade 

initiate inspirit inveigh 

inject install invert 

Dilapidate instate invest 

inlay . insteep invigorate 

inlet ' instil invite 

inoculate instop invocate 

inosculate insure invoice 

inquire intake invoke 

inrail inter inwall 

inscribe intitule inweave 

insculp intort 

3. The Prefixes IN and UN. 

In, as a prefix, also marks negation ; and is by some 
supposed to have been derived from the Hebrew ain, sig- 
nifying not ; but it is far more probable that we had it 
from the Komans, with whom it had the same negative 
power. Un, as a prefix, is synonymous with in. It is of 
Saxon origin, and generally joined to words that flow 
from a northern source, while in is oftener applied to such 
as are of Latin derivation. To give a list of either would 
swell our pages out of proportion : we must therefore be 
content with the general distinction above given, and leave 
the reader to his own observation as to particular instances. 

4. On the Formation of the Plurals of Words compounded 
of a Noun and an Adjective. 

It is a general principle of the English language, that 
adjectives have no plural number. Hence, if a word be com- 
pounded of a noun and an adjective, the 5 significative of 



28 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

the plural number will be attached to the noun, in the mid- 
dle of the word. According to this principle, the plural of 
the following words is correctly formed in this manner : 

Governor- general G overnors-general 

Attorney -general Attorneys -general 

Solicitor- general Solicitors-general 

Lord-lieutenant Lords-lieutenant 

Court-martial Courts-martial 

But if the adjective be taken substantively, the mark 01 
the plural will properly follow it. For example, Briga- 
dier-generals, major-generals, lieutenant-generals ; where 
the word general is used substantively. 

In like manner, words compounded of a noun and the 
adjective/wZZ would, by analogy, form their plurals in the 
same manner, thus, spoonsful, cupsful, bucJcetsful, hands- 
ful, did we not leave out of sight the adjectival character 
of the word full, and regard the whole as representing 
but one substantive idea of quantity, without adjectival 
qualification. 

As to the notion of some people, that two spoonsful 
necessarily means that two different spoons are full, it 
is quite erroneous ; for to give this signification the two 
words should be written apart ; thus : two spoons full. 
But the real reason for spelling handfuls, spoonfuls, c., 
with the s at the end of the word, is that I have indicated 
above ; namely, that the adjectival character of full is here 
left out of sight, and the whole word is regarded as a 
simple noun substantive. 



5. On the Plural of Nouns ending in Y. 

A s was remarked in the last chapter, the grammarians 
lay it down as a general rule, that nouns ending in y, if 
preceded by a consonant, change y into ies in the plural y 
as, ruby, rubies ; but if y be preceded by a vowel, then s 
only added to the singular ; as, day, days. 



THE PLURALS OF NOUNS IN <Y.' 29 

Notwithstanding the apparent simplicity of th is rule, it 
will be found in practice, that the great majority of writers 
spell the plural of nouns substantive ending in ey in the 
singular, in the same manner as if y were immediately 
preceded by a consonant. Thus the printer continually 
encounters authors who will spell monies, attornies, &c. 

How is this ? For there surely must be some reason, 
obvious and apparent, or concealed and latent, for this 
determined penchant, in men of sense and education, to 
transgress a rule which at first sight seems so simple and 
conclusive ! 

We shall be enabled to solve this question the better, if 
we ask ourselves a few more ; for in answering them, we 
shall also find the solution for this. First, then, is y really 
preceded by a vowel in the singular, in the circumstances 
indicated ? It is, on paper ; for the plural noun monies is 
in the singular money. But is e a vowel here in effect 1 
Does the sound of the last syllable of the word differ at all 
from what it would be if no e were there, or from ny in 
pony ? I opine not. Therefore, the apparent transgressors 
of the rule would seem to adhere to it in spirit, and the 
seeming adherents to the rule, to transgress its spirit, and 
to conform only to the letter. 

Moreover, there is another reason why ies is by some 
preferred to eys in the plural of such words ; and that is, 
that they mostly come from Saxon words in ig ; and ac- 
cording to Mr. Booth, in the Introduction to his Analytical 
Dictionary, " all words in ig were written with ie before 
they assumed the y ; and it is hence that they form their 
plural in ies; as, valley, vallies ; worthy r , worthies, &c." 

I have thought it advisable to give the reason which 
the fautors of this practice advance in its defence, in order 
that the reader may see the ground on which it rests ; for 
he will find in law-books and acts of parliament, and some 
other works, that it is in them still rigidly adhered to. 
Nevertheless the general practice is as stated at the com- 



30 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

mencement of this article. I must own, however, that 
my own opinion leans to the former view. 



6. On the use of Diphthongs and Diacritical Marks in 
English Printing. 

Happily the English language is unencumbered by 
those combinations of letters commonly called diphthongs, 
and by those marks of accentuation and other distinctive 
symbols, incident to some languages, which, however much 
they may assist the student, are a great annoyance to the 
compositor and corrector. Nevertheless there are some 
printers who, anxious to exhibit their modicum of learning, 
will persist in the use of those unnecessary combinations 
in a language which eschews them ; and nothing is more 
common than to meet with such words as archceology, 
coenobite, mediaeval, manoeuvre, &c. But these gentlemen 
should bear in mind, that the diphthongs ce and 02 do not 
differ in sound in English from the simple vowel e. They 
are therefore in our language utterly useless, and are no 
better than a pedantic encumbrance ; and have therefore 
been excluded from numerous words Anglicised from the 
Latin and Greek ; such as, Egypt, Ethiopia, economical, 
ether, pedagogue, celestial, cemetery, &c. &c. But, say the 
advocates of this slavish adherence to the logography of 
other peoples, the primitives of those words are so spelt in 
the Greek, Latin, or French language. Granted. But in 
them they had, or have, a power different from that of the 
simple vowel : they therefore answered an end, and were 
consequently not devoid of their peculiar appropriateness. 
But as they answer no end in English, save that of con- 
founding and perplexing the unlearned reader, they ought 
by all means to be abandoned ; the only instances where 
there is any show of reason for retaining them being in 
proper names, and a few other words, which we have 



THE TERMINATION ' ISE ' OR c IZE.' 31 

prest i vcd without alteration ; such as Ccesar, Phoenicia, 
dice res is, &c. 

Again, some will employ a diaeresis or accented letter 
when the same vowel is repeated in immediate succession 
in two separate syllables ; as in cooperation, and reembark- 
ation. But this also is quite unnecessary. The printer 
should give the reader credit for common sense, and for 
at least a moderate knowledge of his mother-tongue : and 
I will be bound to say that there is not one reader in ten, 
who knows the meaning of the words, who would feel the 
least difficulty as to their pronunciation, without these 
adventitious marks, which rather perplex than assist a 
mere English reader. If anything at all be required for 
his assistance in the matter, it is much better, because a 
thing which an ordinary English scholar will under- 
stand, to put a hyphen between the vowels, when they 
are alike. 



7. The Termination ISE or IZE. 

I 

There is a variance in the spelling of words of this 
sort which requires the attention of the reader, while we 
inquire a little into its cause. This variation arises prin- 
cipally from the different sources from which we have 
derived words of this description, and these sources differ- 
ing in their manner of spelling corresponding words. 
Thus the Greeks and Latins spelled words of this kind in 
i fa and izo respectively, whereas the French spell them in 
iser. Hence, in words of our own formation generally, 
and in such as we derive from the Greeks and Latins, 
our lexicographers have adopted the termination ize ; as, 
authorize, baptize, neutralize ; but in those coming to us 
more immediately from the French, ise is the prevalent 
spelling ; as seen in the words enterprise) surprise, &c 
Nevertheless the French themselves formerly spelt such 



LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

words in izer, as may be seen in any old book in that 
language. 

There is one exception to the general rule, even in 
words derived from the Latin ; and that is, when the ter- 
minating syllable begins with the sound of s ; for then we 
use ise ; as in circumcise. 

Whether we adopt ise or ize, no error in pronunciation 
can arise ; for in that respect they are identical ; the main 
thing for the compositor being to ascertain which plan 
prevails in the office where he is employed. For this 
reason, as many respectable offices follow the system I have 
indicated, it will perhaps be advisable to append a list of 
those words which preserve the 5 ; leaving it to be inferred 
that all others have z. They are 

advertise demise galliardise 

advise despise mamimise 

affranchise devise merchandise 

aggrandise disfranchise misprise (mistake) 

amortise disguise premise 

catechise divertise reprise (take again) 

chastise emprise supervise 

circumcise enfranchise surmise 

comprise enterprise surprise 

compromise exercise 

criticise exorcise 

Together with their compounds and derivatives. 

8. Of the Words SUCCEED, PROCEED, PRECEDE, &c. 

Why should the words proceed and succeed be spelt 
with eed, and the kindred words precede and intercede with 
ede ? Undoubtedly either mode represents the same 
sound, according to the English orthoepy ; nevertheless, it 
is a wanton departure from analogy to spell several words 
coming from the same root, and under precisely similar 
circumstances, in a different manner ; and as no purpose 
is answered by such an anomaly, the sooner it is aban- 
doned the better. As the Latin root of all such words is 



OF THE VERB ' CAN.' 33 

cedo, we had much better stick to the termination ede, 
and spell succede, procede, especially as we even now spell, 
with ridiculous inconsistency, succedent, procedure. The 
change might be offensive to the eye for some little while ; 
but this would soon wear off. 

9. Of the Verb CAN. 

Can, when followed by the negative adverb not, is 
commonly combined with it in one word ; which would at 
first sight appear to be injudicious : for, although can is a 
defective verb, yet it mostly discharges a distinct func- 
tion ; and the word not is another distinct word, and may 
have also its proper office. They are, therefore, some will 
be ready to conclude, two separate words. But a little 
reflection will convince us that it is entirely within the 
scope of a language to join its negative or modifying par- 
ticle to the principal word, as they together may merely 
denote a modification of the primary idea, or its contrary, 
according to the intention of the writer in each case. 
Hence we have negative prefixes in the words disobey, 
noncompliance, ungrateful, &c. ; and the Latin has nequeo, 
nonnisi, nonnihil, &c. And the mere fact of the adverb in 
this case following the verb can make no difference, of 
necessity. The true reason for this universal inclination 
to unite the two words in one, I take to be partly the 
difficulty of articulating the letter n twice distinctly in 
immediate succession, when no emphasis is given to the 
latter word ; for canst not, where st intervene between 
the two w's, we uniformly write in two words. Another 
reason is, that we generally intend to affirm a mere dis- 
ability, equivalent to the Latin nequeo, and not a negation 
of the verb can, in the sense in which Lord Bacon uses it 
in the following sentence : " In place, there is license to 
do good and evil ; whereof the latter is a curse : for in 
evil, the best condition is not to will ; the second, not to 
D 



34 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

can." Nevertheless, when peculiar stress is given to the 
negative, the words are very judiciously written apart. 
Such cases will depend upon the peculiar circumstances 
belonging to each. 

10. The Termination on or OUR. 

This is a termination which we have from the Latin or 
the French, from words in the former language ending in 
or, and the latter in eur. Now, as we are not constrained, 
as I have before shown, to follow the system of either the 
one or the other language, if neither represents the sound 
which we give to -the ending of our derivative words, En- 
glish lexicographers were perfectly justified in adopting 
our, or, or any other termination which they might consider 
most nearly to represent the "sound ordinarily given to 
the syllable. The question then is, Which form most eifec- 
tually answers the purpose ? Before Dr. Johnson's time, 
the ending our was in general use ; and it is the one 
adopted by him, and generally followed by all succeeding 
lexicographers, as far as I can ascertain. We may there- 
fore presume that these letters pretty nearly represented 
the ordinary English pronunciation of this termination in 
his time. But, as a living language is never absolutely 
fixed, a change may have occurred since then, which calls 
for a different spelling, as the tendency now is to omit the 
w, and follow the Latin termination. Let us devote a few 
lines to the consideration of that subject. What is the 
sound of such words now, however spelt ? Is it correctly 
represented either by or or our? I think, decidedly, by 
neither. The sound is extremely indefinite, and, as far 
as the vowels are concerned, much resembles that which 
we give to the termination ous, generally derived from 
Latin words in us or osus. But if neither ou nor o repre- 
sents that sound correctly, it may well be asked, What 
does ? I own, I am at a loss to say what letter, or combi- 



THE TERMINATIONS 'OR* OB <OUR' AND 'ER.' 36 

nation of letters, would properly represent it. It appears 
to be somewhat diphthongal, but of so indefinite a charac- 
ter, that I am unable to point out its proper representative 
symbols. This is extremely unsatisfactory; and I therefore 
lean to the side of those who are for introducing a uniform 
ending in or, especially if that practice should induce a 
corresponding pronunciation ; for certainly the ordinary 
sound of o would be far preferable to that indistinct and 
undefinable utterance we are now compelled to hear both 
from the legislature, at the bar, in the pulpit, and in 
general conversation also. 

This is the spelling which I shall generally follow in 
this book ; but as many respectable offices still adhere to 
;he our in several words, I append a list of them, for the 
:onvenience of the corrector and compositor. They are 

arbour endeavour rigour 

ardour favour rumour 

armour fervour savour 

behaviour flavour saviour 

candour harbour splendour 

clamour honour succour 

clangour humour tambour 

colour labour tenour * 

contour neighbour tumour 

demeanour odour valour 

dishonour parlour vapour 

dolour rancour vigour 

But, observe, the u is dropped when the termination ous 
is added to any of these words; as, clamorous, dolorous, 
humorous, laborious, odorous, rancorous, rigorous, valorous, 
vigorous. And also in many derivative words ; such as 
armory, honorary, colorable, &c. 

11. The Terminations OR or OUR and ER. 

As already remarked, or or our is a termination which 
we derive from the Latin or the French; bub er is the 
ending generally assigned to verbal nouns of northern 
* In music, tenor. 
* 



36 L1TERART MISCELLANIES. 


origin. As mistakes are frequently made with regard tc 
this class of words, I append a list of such of them whe 


an error is at all 


likely to be committed. 






VERBAL NOUNS IN i OR. 




abbreviator 


creator 


extirpator 


abettor (in law) 
abductor 


creditor 
councillor 


extractor 
fabricator 


accumulator 


counsellor 


factor 


actor 


cultivator 


flexor 


adjutor 
administrator 


cunctator 
debtor 


fornicator 
fumigator 


adulator 


decorator 


generator 


a^sjressor 


delator 


gladiator 


agitator 
animator 


denominator 
denunciator 


governor 
grantor (in law) 


annotator 


depredator 


habitator 


antecessor 


depressor 


imitator 


apparitor 
appreciator 
arbitrator 


detractor 
dictator 
dilator 


impostor 
impropriator 
incensor 


assassinator 


director 


inceptor 


assertor 


dissector 


incisor 


assessor 


disseizor 


inheritor 


benefactor 


disseminator 


initiator 


bettor 


distributor 


innovator 


calculator 
calumniator 


divisor 
dominator 


insinuator 
institutor 


coadjutor 
collector 


donor 
effector 


instructor 
interpolator 


competitor 


elector 


interrogator 


conductor 


elevator 


inventor 


confessor 


elucidator 


juror 


conjector 
conqueror 
conservator 


emulator 
enactor 
equivocator 


lector 
legator 
legislator 


consessor 


escheator 


lessor 


conspirator 
constrictor 


estimator 
exactor 


mediator 
modulator 


constructor 
contaminator 
contemplator 
continuator 


excavator 
exceptor 
executor (in law) 
explorator 


monitor 
mortgagor (in lai 
multiplicator 
narrator 


contractor 


expositor 


navigator 


contributor 


expostulator 


negotiator 


corrector 


extensor 


nonjuror 



VERBAL NOUNS IN *R.' 



37 



novator 


proditor 


sequestrator 


numerator 


professor 


servitor 


objector 


progenitor 


solicitor 


obligor (iii law) 
observator 


projector 
prolocutor 


spectator 
speculator 


operator 


promulgator 


spoliator 


opinator 


propagator 


sponsor 


originator 


propitiator 


successor 


pacificator 


proprietor 


suitor 


paritor 


prosecutor 


supervisor 


participator 


protector 


suppressor 


peculator 
perforator 


purveyor 
recognisor (in law) 


surveyor 
survivor 


perpetrator 


recriminator 


testator 


persecutor 


reflector 


tormentor 


perturbator 


regenerator 


traitor 


possessor 


regulator 


transgressor 


preceptor 


rotator 


translator 


precursor 


scarificator 


valuator 


predecessor 


scrutator 


vendor (in law) 


predictor 


sculptor 


venerator 


prevaricator 


sectator 


ventilator 


procrastinate* 


selector 


vindicator 


procreator 


senator 


violator 


procurator 


separator 


visitor 


VERBAL NOUNS IN ' ER.' 


abetter 


disturber 


jailer 


abstracter 


entreater 


lamentcr 


accepter 


exalter 


mortgager 


aider 


exasperater 


obstructer 


annoyer 


exciter 


offender 


arbiter 


execiiter 


perfecter 


assenter 


expecter 


perjurer 


condenser 


frequenter 


preventer 


conferrer 


granter 


propeller 


consulter 


idolater 


probationer 


continuer 


imposer 


propugner 


contradictor 


impugner 


protester 


contriver 


inflicter 


protracter 


conveyer 


insulter 


regrater 


debater 


interrupter 


relater 


defender 


interpreter 


sorcerer 


deserter 


invester 


supplanter 


deviser 


inviter 


vender 



38 LITERARY MISCELLANIES, 

12. Nouns Substantive in SIGN or TIOK. 

The reason for a different termination to words of this 
class is generally to be found in the Latin ; but for the 
benefit of those who are ignorant of that language, I 
append a rule for their guidance, which will be found 
generally correct. 

RULE. Primitive words which end (or might end, if 
in use) in d, de, ge, mit, rt, se, or ss, take sion in their deri- 
vatives; but all other words have tion. 

EXAMPLES. 

abscind, abscission reverb, reversion 
condescend, condescension convert, conversion 

evade, evasion confuse, confusion 

intrude, intrusion revise, revision 

absterge, abstersion impress, impression 

emerge, emersion confess, confession 

admztf, admission admir, admixtion 

iQmit, remission promote, promotion 

IRREGULARS. 

adhesion divulsion recension attention 

cohesion 1 evulsion recursion causation 

compulsion exesion revulsion distention 

declension expulsion scansion distortion 

decursion impulsion tension coercion 

depuision incursion transcursion suspicion 

dissension propulsion version crucifixion 

I2a. The Terminations ABLE and IBLE. 

As the proper application of these terminations fre- 
quently puzzles the unlearned printer, I will endeavor to 
supply some rules for his guidance, or at least to show 
him a path by which he may extricate himself from all 
perplexity on this head, if he chooses. Let him, therefore, 
attend to the following observations. 

All words, considered as mere English words, without 
regard to the source from which they have been derived,, 



THE TERMINATIONS 'ABLE* AND C IBLE. J 37 

and those which come from Latin words ending in abilis, 
or French ones in able, take the termination able in 
English; as, procurable, amendable, desirable, allowable, 
voidable, available, fordable, incontestable, &c. : but if the 
word be not taken as a pure English word, but regard 
be had to its source in the Latin or French, and these 
languages terminate the corresponding word in ibilis or 
ible, then the word will also end in ible in English. For 
instance, accessible, sensible, defensible, convertible, &c. 

In words ending in ce or ge, the final e is preserved 
before the termination able, for the purpose of indicating 
the soft sound of the consonant ; as in marriageable, 
chargeable, traceable, serviceable (and I might, did custom 
permit, add forceable and enforceable, which seem more 
legitimate, because more in accordance with analogy, 
than forcible and enforcible) ; but before the ending ible, 
the final e of the primitive will disappear, and there will 
be no e before the termination, even if no primitive is 
in use in English ; for c is always soft before i, and g 
may be. Examples : deducible, reducible, frangible, &c. 

If the quantity of the last syllable of the root-word be 
short, and the accent on it, the accent generally remains on 
that syllable in the derivative word, and the final conso- 
nant of the primitive is doubled ; as in compellable, rebut- 
table, demurrable. 

To remove all doubt, the following list of words in ible 
is here added ; of course, leaving it to be inferred that all 
others end in able. 



accessible 
admissible 
adustible 
appetible 
apprehensible 
audible 
cessible 
coercible 
collectible 


comminuible contractihle 
compatible controvert ible 
competible convertible 
comprehensible convincible 
compressible corrigible 
conceptible corrosible 
conclusible corruptible 
congestible credible 
contemptible deceptible 


decerptible 
decoctible 
deducible 
defeasible 
defectible 
defensible 
depectible 
deprehensible 
descendible 



LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 



destructible 


extendible 


legible 


refrangible 


digestible 


extensible 


miscible 


regi le 


discernible 


fallible 


partible 


remissible 


discerptible 


feasible 


passiblej 


reprehensible 


dispraisible 
dissolvible 


fencible 
flexible 


perceptible 
permiscible 


resistible 
re-ponsible 


distensible 


forcible 


permissible 


reversible 


divisible 


frangible 


persuasible 


revertible 


docible 


fusible 


pervertible 


risible 


edible 


horrible 


plausible 


seducible 


effectible 


ignoscible 


possible 


sensible 


eligible 


illegible 


producible 


solvMe 


eludible 


immarcessible 


quadrible 


tangible 


enforcible 


immiscible* 


reducible 


terrible 


evincible 


impassible f 


referrible 


transmissible 


expansible 


intelligible 


reflexible 


visible 


expressible 


irascible 







13. The Termination ANCE or ENCE. 

The same causes which have influenced the spelling of 
the termination able or ible have also operated with regard 
to the ending ance or ence. When respect has been had to 
a word considered as a mere English word, the ending of the 
derivative will be found to be in ance; as, abundance, re- 
monstrance, deliverance, importance; abundant, remonstrant, 
important: but if the source of the English word has 
been kept principally in view by tbe lexicographer, such 
as its derivation from the French or Latin language, and 
the corresponding words in them have e, then the English 
words have been made to assume e also, and to end in ence 
or ent; as, convenience, munificence, convenient, subsident. 

It is from the considerations above stated, that we have 
different spellings in words of kindred derivation. As: de- 
fendant, attendant ; dependent, independent, superintendent 
(substantive and adjective) ; and attendance, dependence, 
independence, superintendence; and some others, which 
practice will teach, and which are too firmly fixed in the 

* For other words beginning with im, in, ir, or un negative^ 
look for the simple word. 

f Incapable of suffering. % Capable of suffering. 



OME PECULIARITIES OF THE LETTER C.' 39 

language to be readily altered'. Nevertheless, the rule 
will not be found without its use even to the mere 
English reader. 

14. Some Peculiarities of the Letter c. 

"When treating of c as a final letter, I observed, that 
when it was followed by le or re, as the final syllable of a 
word, c was uniformly sounded hard, and e was pro- 
nounced before the consonant I or r, although written 
after it ; as in ancle (not ankle] , uncle, circle, acre, wise- 
acre, lucre ) massacre. 

There is a good plea for this anomaly : it answers a 
definite purpose, and gives to the letter c a power which 
it never otherwise has when immediately preceding the 
vowel e. But to extend this peculiarity to other letters, 
where it is not necessary, and answers no end except that 
of producing confusion and irregularity, is a wanton and 
ignorant departure from the real principles of ortho- 
graphy, and ought, therefore, to be no longer tolerated. 
Nevertheless, most of our dictionaries adopt such anoma- 
lies as the words, centre, theatre, sepulchre, metre, antre, 
reconnoitre, manoeuvre, ogre, &c. ; all which, and all such- 
like, ought undoubtedly to have the vowel e before the 
final consonant, just as we have in chamber, tiger, disaster, 
letter, "barometer, register, disorder, copper, powder, and 
hundreds of other words, although they all come from 
foreign words where the consonant precedes the vowel. 

Again, in words derived from the Greek, we, in ac- 
cordance with the practice in Latin, change k into c. No 
inconvenience resulted to the Eomans from this custom, 
because their c was pronounced hard before all the vowels, 
even as it was by our Saxon forefathers. But we have 
departed from this rule, and pronounce c soft before the 
vowels e and i. Hence arises an anomaly in our pro- 
nunciation of words from the Greek, which we have 



40 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

constrained to follow the general English mode, and 
pronounce c as s in all cases, before e and i, just as in 
ordinary English words. Examples : scene, ocean, cephalic, 
ceiling, circle, which we have, either directly or indirectly, 
from the Greek ovoj^, wKeaj/bs, /ce^aA^, Ko1\os, ttipKos. 
Therefore, we ought to write sceptic, and pronounce it as 
septic, not skeptik, although it does come from the Greek 



15. Defense, Pretense, Offense, Expense, fyc. 

As the words commonly written defence and offence 
come from the Latin words defensio and offensio, and as in 
their derivatives, and also in those of the words above 
indicated, we retain s, it would seem to me to be a prefer- 
able method to spell those words with s in all cases ; just 
as we do in defensive, pretension, offensive, expensive. The 
alteration, I am convinced, would soon be generally 
acquiesced in. 

Again : to spell the same word in its verbal and no- 
minal character in a different manner, is wrong, when 
there is no difference in pronunciation ; for the verb is but 
the noun in action. Therefore, eschew spelling licence and 
license, &c. ; although advice and advise, and perhaps 
practice and practise, are properly distinguished in their 
spelling, being also distinguished in their pronunciation. 

16. Dispatch or Despatch. 

Dispatch seems to me to be more correct than despatch, 
both as conveying a more exact representation of the 
sound, as being more consistent with analogy, and more 
in accordance with practice. For, though it may be alleged 
that we get the word from the French depecher, or the 
Spanish despachar; on the other hand, it may be replied, 



ORDINAL ADJECTIVES PRECEDING A NOUN. 41 

that so we derive discharge from decharger, and disobey 
from desobeir, and yet we adopt the i. But the truth, 
appears to me to be that we, in common with the French, 
have* the word from the Italian dispacciare ; and therefore 
dispatch is in every way to be preferred. 

17. Two or more Ordinal Adjectives preceding a Noun. 

When two or more ordinal adjectives precede a noun, 
each referring to one in the singular number, the sub- 
stantive which, follows may properly be put in the singular 
also ; for after each ordinal its appropriate substantive is 
omitted by ellipsis, and the sole reason for its being repeated 
only after the last is, because, from the context, it can 
be easily supplied mentally after each of the other. Thus 
the sentence, ( Take the first and the second man ' is not 
incorrect ; because there is merely an ellipsis of the word 
' man ' after the first ordinal, and no men in the condition 
severally of both first and second are intended. But ( the 
first and the second men 1 would lead the reader to suppose 
that there was more than one man in both the first and 
the second place ; which is not what is meant. This is 
more clearly seen in a language whose nouns and adjectives 
are inflected. Thus in Latin, ( Tolle hominem primum et 
secundiim ' would convey the sense above intended, and 
would be correct in grammar. But, although similar 
instances may be met with, yet I apprehend, ' Tolle 
homines primum et secundum' is not so logically de- 
fensible, though, from the nature of the inflections, the 
meaning is equally clear. But this is not so in English, 
owing to the want of inflection in our nouns. Hence it is 
more judicious, and it is at least equally correct, to use the 
singular noun, when only one of each class is intended. 
For further illustration, the sentence ' If you will turn to 
the fourth and fifth chapters of Micah' is, literally taken, 



42 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

ambiguous in English, Again : The l country and the 
London attorney were present/ is correct ; meaning, that 
there was one of each description : but were we to say, 
1 The country and the London attorneys were present,' we 
should leave it doubtful whether there were two only, or 
two score, or any other number. 

18. Double Possessives. 

The preposition of after a noun may also be followed 
by a noun in the possessive case, whenever the first is 
preceded by an indefinite demonstrative ; but if preceded 
by a word of definite determination, a noun in the pos- 
sessive case can not follow it. Examples ; 

This is a barn of my neighbor's. 
That is a field of Mr. Jones's. 

Here the word a leaves it to be inferred that my 
neighbor has more barns than one, and that this, to which 
allusion is made, is but one of them (a barn of [or among} 
my neighbor's barns), or that Mr. Jones has more fields 
than one, and that this, to which we allude, is but one of 
them. But when I say, ' This is the book of John,' I do not 
necessarily or by implication declare that there is more 
than one book of John ; on the contrary, I rather assert 
that that is John's only book, or, at any rate, that it is 
emphatically his. Whenever an s is added to words after 
a determinate demonstrative, as in the latter case, it is not 
a sign of the possessive case, but merely added euphonic 
gratia. Examples : ' The town of St. Albans.' ' The 
borough of St. Leonards.' % The parish of St. Clements.' 
But when such additional letter does not conduce to har- 
mony, no s is added. For instance, we say, l The palace 
of St. James; ' the church of St. Peter, 9 ' the district of 
St. Mary: 



NOUNS OF WEIGHT, ETC. 43 

19. Nouns of Weight, Dimension, Value, and Capacity. 

Nouns of weight, dimension, value, and capacity, &c., 
although in the plural, may be followed by a verb in the 
singular. Examples : 

Five hundred tons is the burden of the ship. 
Fifteen feet is the measurement of the court. 
Six pounds five shillings was all the money he had about 

him. 
Having a large stock of wheat in his granaries, he 

shipped five hundred bushels to London, which was 

all sold. 

The reason for this is, that it is not the tons or the feet, the 
pounds or the bushels, of which the affirmation is really 
made, but rather of the weight, the extent, the money, and 
the wheat, as aggregate wholes. But if a division of parts 
is intended, and not a totality, then a plural verb will be 
correctly employed ; as in the sentence, 'He had six 
sovereigns in his pocket, which were all of a different date.' 
Here the sovereigns are alluded to as separate pieces of 
money, and not as an aggregate total ; and therefore the 
verb is correctly put in the plural. Again : ' The farmer 
shipped five hundred bushels of wheat, of which one 
hundred were lost.' The same reason applies as before : a 
number of parts is here intended, and not a totality, which 
would have required a verb in the singular, whatever form 
of words might have been employed.* 

* The word pound, in naming sums of money, is by the gene- 
rality of people, colloquially at least, used in the singular, even 
after numerals higher than unity ; and it is commonly thought that 
the employment of the plural in ordinary discourse wears an air of 
stiffness and pedantry uncongenial to the vulgar ear. This seems 
to result from the fact of our having no such coin as a pound; and 
therefore the word does not so easily admit of individualization, and 
consequently of plurality. This peculiarity, then, is not without 



44 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

20. Half -hour, Half-mile, Half an Hour, fyc. 

It is correct to write half-hour, half-pound, half-circle, 
or even half pound, &c., in one word; because the com- 
bination represents but one substantive idea, and half is 
not here used as a fractional quantity of another greater 
unit, but is part of one word representing an integer of half 
the value indicated by its last member. Hence these words, 
and all such-like, are capable of a plural, and we can 
correctly say, 'three half-hours,' ( three half-circles; 9 and 
a well-known book is styled 'Half-hours ivith the best 
Authors.' But when an article is interposed between a 
fractional number and another noun, then the words 
should be written separately : for in that case the fraction 
performs its appropriate numerical function, and does not 
enter into combination with another word, for the pur- 
pose of representing one definite integral notion. Hence 
we cannot correctly say ' three half-au-hours ;' but must 
either adopt the former expression, or else individualize 
the word half, and say, ' three halves of an hour,' or, ' an 
hour and a half ;' which word half is in this case an 
intregal number, and is therefore written separately from 
the article which precedes it. 

Notwithstanding the obvious necessity for this dis- 
tinction, and the strictly logical and irrefragable grounds 

some foundation ; and although not strictly correct, and therefore 
not to be tolerated in print, is allowable enough in conversation. 
Neither are the English people singular in this practice ; for it is 
adopted by our kinsmen the Germans, who uniformly use pound 
in the singular, although they pluralize shillings and pence. They 
also say, ( Zwei Ries, drei Buck, und vier Bogen Papier ' (' Two 
ream, three quire, and four sheet [of] paper ') ; ' Das Regiment ist 
tausend Mann stark ' (' The regiment is a thousand man strong '). 
So that the practice is not without good authority to countenance 
it, even among a people who have paid far greater attention to the 
grammar of their native language than the English have done. 



AS FOLLOWS, AS FOLLOW. 45 

on which it is based, nothing is more common than to see, 
even in books printed by the leading houses in the busi- 
ness, and in first-rate public journals, such absurdities as 
half-an-hour, half-a-pound, &c. They might just as cor- 
rectly say half-a-year, lialf-an-ounce, half-a-million, or half- 
a-century. 

Of a somewhat similar character are the words a iveek, 
an hour, a day, a year, &c., when used apparently in an 
adverbial sense ; but as I shall treat of this matter more ' 
fully in another place, I will here content myself with the 
remark, that the words ahead, apiece, differ from them, 
as possessing a distinct grammatical character, and are 
therefore correctly written in one word. 

21. As follows, as follow. 

Is the expression ' The accounts are as follows' correct ? 
To me it appears so. Here are my reasons : As is a word 
of comparison, meaning ' according to,' ' like,' or, according 
to Dr. Johnson, 4 in the same manner with something else. 9 
There must therefore be some word in the sentence, 
expressed or understood, with which the accounts can 
be compared. Now, no such word is expressed : it must 
therefore be understood. What, then, is understood ? 
Clearly not accounts, for that is the express subject of the 
proposition ; and by the very definition of the word as, 
it is required that the subject of the sentence should be 
compared with some other subject. Neither are the ac- 
counts merely as, or like, the accounts which follow ; but 
they are the very accounts themselves. We must then find 
some other word which will answer our purpose. That 
word I take to be statement or description, or a word of 
similar import. And hence the proposition expressed in 
full would be this : ' The accounts are as [like or according 
to] the statement which follows.' Therefore this sentence, 
expressed in the condensed form, * The accounts are as 



46 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

follows,' is correct. Again, in the sentence, ' Maxwell 
describes the battle as follows.' What follows ? Why 
not the battle itself, but a description or account of it. 
That is, therefore, the word which must supply the ellip- 
sis ; and so with other cases. Thus : ' The men were 
arranged in the following order,' or f in the order which 
follows ;' or, speaking elliptically, as follows. For the men 
themselves are not supposed to follow here, but only a 
list of their names. 

22. Excellence, Excellency. 

These words were by our earlier writers used indiffer- 
ently ; or rather, perhaps, excellency was generally em- 
ployed by them, as being nearer in form to the Latin 
original, excellentia. But when the word came to denote 
an ambassador, its French form (excellence) began to be 
used to designate the quality denoting superiority or 
eminence, and the Latinized form was confined to its more 
conventional acceptation. Hence, it is better to keep 
these words to their recognized meaning, and to form 
their plurals according to the general rules of the lan- 
guage, excellencies (ambassadors), and excellences (superior 
qualities). 

23. The Derivation of English Words. 

Of course the Saxon forms the basis of our language 
in its essential parts, and is the source whence we derive 
the greater part of our ordinary and most emphatic words. 
Nevertheless we have put under contribution various 
other languages, especially the French, Latin, and Greek. 
This will be evident from the following statement of deriva- 
tions, which I insert in this chapter of miscellanies mainly 
for the benefit of the unlearned reader, that he may see 
how important it is to him that he should acquire some 
knowledge of those languages, if he desires to attain to a 



THE DERIVATION OF ENGLISH WORDS. 47 

thorough proficiency in his business as an educated 
printer. 

I. From the Greek are derived 

1. Words ending in gram, graph, smdgraphy ; as, tele- 
gram, telegraph, geography, &c. ; from the word ypatya 
(grapho\ I write, and some other Greek word. 

2. Those in gon ; from ywvia (gonia), an angle ; as, 
octagon. 

3. All words in logue or logy ; as, epilogue, astrology ; 
from \6yos (logos), a discourse. 

4. Ic, ick, icSj are also Greek terminations, generally of 
adjectives. 

5. Words in meter are all of Greek origin, coming from 
the verb (JLSTP& (metro), I measure, in combination with 
some other word. 

6. Most words into which the terminations agogue, asis, 
esis, or ysis enter, are also of Greek origin : such as dema- 
gogue, emphasis, parenthesis, analysis, &c. 

II. But the main source whence we have derived words, 
with the exception of the Saxon, is decidedly the Latin, as 
will be at once shown by a mere inspection of the following 
list : 

1. Words ending in ance, ancy, or ant, and ence, ency, or 
ent, come from Latin words ending respectively in am, 
antia, or ens, entia ; as, abundance, from abundantia ; 
infancy, from inf antia ; abundant, from abundans ; absence, 
from absentia ; excellency, from excellentia ; and excellent, 
from excellens. 

2. Words in al have their Latin representatives in alis ; 
as, corporal, from corporalis. 

3. Verbs in ate mostly come from Latin verbs of the 
first conjugation ; as, moderate, from modero. 

4. Words in ator are generally the same in both lan- 
guages ; as, orator, senator, moderator. 

5. The termination id comes mostly from Latin words 



48 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

ending in idus ; as, acid, from acidus ; but sometimes words 
of this ending are of Greek origin ; as oxide (more correctly 
oxyd), from 6vs (oxys). And indeed most scientific words 
of this ending ; as, carotid, from /capc<m5es,&c. ; rhomboid, 
from pojugoeiS^s. 

6. II or He is likewise from the Latin termination of 
adjectives in His ; as, docile, from docilis ; civil, from 
civilis. 

7. The Latin termination osus has its English repre- 
sentative in ious or ous ; as, copious, from copiosus ; nu- 
merous, from numerosus. But sometimes the English 
ending ous comes from a Latin word in ax ; as, capacious, 
from cap ax. 

8. The Latin ending to has its English corresponding 
word in ion ; as, nation, from nafa'o ; oration, from oratio. 

9. The endings we, re, and te after a vowel, are also* 
for the greater part, of Latin origin ; as, fortune, from 
fortuna ; aquiline, from aquilinus ; culture, from cultura ; 
pure, from purus ; complete, from completus, &c. 

10. Words in ty come from Lalin words in tas ; as, 
equality, from cequalitas ; bounty, from bonitas ; rarity, from 
raritas ; &c. 

11. The termination wcfe is also of Latin origin ; coming 
from words in udo ; as, fortitude, from fortitudo ; elude, 
from eludo. 

12. So also is wows, by inserting the letter o ; as, am- 
biguous, from ambiguus ; continuous, from continuus, &c. 

III. From the French we have 

1. Most of our words in age ; as, page, rage, usage. 

2. All those in eau ; as beau, flambeau, &c. 

3. The French esse is represented by the English ess; 
as, princess, from princes se. 

4. "Words in que mostly come to us from the French 
directly ; some from the Latin directly or indirectly ; as 
antique (L. antiquus, F. antique), oblique, opaque. 



PREPOSITIONS BEFORE AND AFTER VERBS. 49 

5. "Words ending in ment are, for the most part, the 
same in both languages ; as, commencement, advancement 
(F. avancement), &c. 

These lists might undoubtedly be further extended ; 
but what has been here adduced will be sufficient for my 
present object, and, I trust, will be of some interest to 
the generality of my readers. 

24. Prepositions before and after Verbs. 

Sometimes prepositions enter into composition with 
verbs, or are added to them, for the purpose of modifying 
their meaning. If the preposition precede the verb, it may 
be joined to it in one word; but if it follow, then it must 
be kept separate. Examples : ' To overturn, to turn 
over ; ' ' to upset, to set up ; ' ' to underlay, to lie under ; ' 
' to overbalance, to balance over; ' ' to uplift, to lift up? The 
reason is, when the particle follows the verb, it modifies it 
adverbially ; but, as the verb is the principal word in a 
sentence, it cannot act in subordination to a mere particle ; 
therefore the particle preceding the verb, must enter into 
combination with it, if it modifies its meaning ; because no 
idea is expressed until the verb is enunciated ; and to do 
this completely, both words are required. But when the 
verb precedes, an idea is expressed by the verb itself, and 
what follows merely modifies it. Inattention to this rule, 
or perhaps, rather, ignorance of it, has led many printers 
into an error of late years, as regards the words wind up. 
Since the passing of a certain act of parliament, this word 
has come into frequent use as an adjective, in order to 
describe that act as the ' Winding-up act.' But here the 
word has lost its verbal character, and become a mere 
adjective. But this does not justify the union of the two 
words by a hyphen when the verbal character of the word 
is preserved, as is now usually done by printers ignorant 
or careless of the principles which ought to guide them in 
E 



50 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

these matters. Do not, therefore, insert the hyphen in this 
and similar instances : ' The affairs of the partnership 
were wound up by the commissioner.' For there is 
surely no more reason for the hyphen here, than in the 
sentence, ' The assets were ordered to be given over to the 
assignees.' 

25. Numbers, Weights, Measures, fyc. 

No comma should be placed between the constituent 
parts of the same number, however long it may be. Thus 
we say, ' One million one hundred thousand five hundred 
and twentyone,' without any interpunction. The reason is, 
that there is no more than one numerical aggregate in- 
tended, or but one complex notion ; and consequently, no 
separation of parts or members can take place. The same 
reasoning holds good as respects values, weights, &c. For 
instance, when we say, ' Three pounds six shillings and 
four pence/ we merely mean that aggregate amount, but 
not necessarily any one of the coins indicated. If we did 
so intend, then two commas should be introduced, one 
after l pounds/ and the other after i shillings. 7 In like 
manner we should act with such sentences as, * Five tons 
three hundredweight two quarters and fifteen pounds ;' or 
'Ten acres four roods and twentyseven perches;' and for 
the very same reason: no division of parts is intended, but 
merely one aggregate amount. 

26. The Omission of s in the Possessive Case. 

It is not uncommon with some persons to omit the s 
after the apostrophe, in the possessive case of nouns, if 
the name itself ends in s ; as, l James* book/ 'Barnes* Notes/ 
But this is incorrect ; for if we ask, Whose book ? we should 
directly answer, James's. The only case when, as it ap- 
pears to me, the s can be judiciously omitted, and this 
solely to avoid the too hissing sound of so many s's in sue- 



NOTHING, ANYTHING, SOMETHING, ETC. 51 

cession, is when the first word ends with the sound of s in 
its last two syllables, and the next word begins with s, 
as in Misses 1 spectacles, righteousness' sake, conscience 1 
sake. 

2?. Nothing, Anything, Something, Everything ; None, 
Some one, fyc. 

The words no, any, some, every, are adjectives, or, as 
they are commonly called, adjective pronouns ; and, like 
all other words, ought, so long as they continue to fulfil 
a distinct grammatical office, to be written separately. 
This distinct function they do discharge before most nouns 
substantive ; but the word thing has acquired, in process 
of time, an indefinite, obscure meaning, not representing 
any clearly-defined substantive idea, but at one time 
relating to inanimate objects, and at another to rational 
creatures. Hence has arisen the practice of combining 
this word with the modifying words above enumerated ; the 
two words still representing but one indefinite substantive 
idea, without regard to any adjectival property possessed 
by the first member of the compound word. And so long 
as this single idea is represented by the combination, it is 
undoubtedly correct ; but so soon as the substantive part 
of the word takes a definite individual meaning, then the 
two words perform different functions, and must conse- 
quently be kept distinct. Hence we correctly say some 
things, any thing, no thing, and every thing, when our in- 
tention is to use the word thing in a definite substantive 
sense ; otherwise, it is proper to say nothing, something, 
anything, everything. 

Following this practice, some printers have of late be- 
gun to extend it to the word one : thus, anyone, everyone ; 
although I cannot say that I have ever met with the word 
someone. But this innovation seems to be not only un- 
necessary but unadvisable. For although it is true that in 

E2 



52 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

some languages, whose adjectives admit of inflection, sucli" 
like ideas are represented by one word, as in Latin by 
quidam, ullus, nullus ; yet these are used both of persons 
and things ; whereas, in English, the word one, when the 
subject of a proposition, has always a personal meaning, 
and is therefore not so indefinite in its nature as the word 
thing. For these reasons, two words are preferable in each 
case, except in the particular one where one has taken the 
indefinite meaning of person or thing ; as in none. But 
this does not apply to any, some, or every, as some seem to 
imagine ; nor yet even to no, when preceding the word 
one with a substantive meaning : for then we say, correctly 
and logically, no one ; and in like manner, a good one, a 
bad one, such a one, this one, &c. 

28. Sixpence, Ninepence, fyc. 

Owing to the want of a clear perception of the reasons 
which ought to guide us in the formation of compound 
words, many printers have fallen into the habit of uniting 
certain numerals with the word pence, when it represents 
a mere value ; for, say they, this word represents no defi- 
nite substantive idea ; but it, and the numeral with which 
it is joined, denote a certain sum, it may be, of farthings, 
halfpence, and pennies. Thus three pence is not the same 
as three pennies ; but the amount may consist of one coin, 
or be made up of several. And so, say they, with regard to 
sixpence, ninepence, elevenpence, $c. 

But the same argument might be urged with regard to 
pounds and shillings ; for we have no coin called a pound, 
and a sum of a certain number of shillings in value might 
not contain one coin of that denomination. Besides, here, 
the idea has a definite and well-defined existence in the 
mind, as to value at least ; and it is to value, and not to 
the number of pieces of money, that we usually have 
regard. Moreover, we might extent the argument of the 



THE WORD 'WHOLELY.' 53 

advocates of this innovation to measures of weight, quantity ', 
or dimension ; and say, threetons, fifteenhundredweight, 
and sixteenpounds ; which would be anything but logical 
and perspicuous. 

The truth is, that a numeral can never be properly 
joined in one word with one of value, unless the two 
represent one substantive idea. Hence we may properly 
say a sixpence, even as we can say two sixpences ; but to 
write six penee, two pence, three pence, &c., in one word, 
when we merely mean sums of these respective amounts, is 
incorrect both in grammar and logic ; and no more reason 
can be adduced for the practice, than for writing two pounds 
or six shillings in one word. If mere pronunciation is to 
be our guide, we may as well go at once to the full extent, 
and write tuppence and threppence, just as we pronounce 
them. 

29. Farther and Further. 

Farther is nowadays only employed when speaking of 
distance ; in all other acceptations of the word, further is 
generally adopted. But both Johnson and "Webster agree 
ih&t farther is a mere corruption of further, and that the 
latter is the more correct word for all occasions. 



30. The Word WHOLELY. 

A more ludicrous deviation from analogy and com- 
mon sense is hardly afforded by our whole language 
than by the ordinary way of spelling this word, wholly. 
What could have induced our printers to adopt it, or per- 
suaded our authors to adhere to it, I am utterly at a loss to 
conceive, unless it were a tacit understanding betwixt them 
that absurdity should be the only guide to our orthography, 
and common sense and analogy should by all means be 
eschewed, as dangerous and exacting innovators. Both 



54 LITERARY MISCELLANIES. 

pronunciation and analogy demand the spelling which 
heads this article ; why, then, should we go out of our way 
to find another diametrically opposed to both ? I need 
hardly say that this adverb is formed in the usual way, 
from the adjective whole, by adding the termination ly ; 
just as we have solely from sole; purely from pure; and 
hosts of other words. It is an absurdity so flagrant that 
it should not be permitted to disgrace our orthography 
another day. 

31 . Peas and Pease. 

There are scarcely any words in which a mistake is more 
frequently made by authors, press-correctors, and com- 
positors, than in the words peas and pease. Yet the 
distinction between them is simple and well-defined. Peas 
is the plural of pea, and consequently only follows numeral 
adjectives; as, l ten peas/ 'a hundred peas,' ' a, few peas,' 
1 many peas;' but pease is used when speaking of the 
legumen in the aggregate, or generally. Thus we 
correctly say, ( Pease are dear this year,' ' Pease were 
plentifully supplied to the horses,' &c. 

Pease is also employ edadjectively ; as, '^ease-pudding,' 
p,' or 'pea-soup,' &c. 



55 



CHAPTER III. 



THE PEOPEE FOEMATION OF DEEIVATIVE 
AND INFLECTED WOEDS. 

IN the course of the first chapter I was necessarily led 
incidentally to touch on some matters which belong more 
especially to this. But as this is a subject but indifferently 
understood by the generality of compositors, and yet of 
great importance to them, a little reiteration may well be 
excused, especially if it have the effect of fixing the prin- 
ciples therein explained more firmly in the mind of the 
reader. I would therefore bespeak his attention to the 
following rules, and the observations upon them. 

EULE I. When a termination or affix beginning with 
a consonant is added to a primitive word ending in silent 
e, that e invariably remains in the inflected or derivative 
word ; as, abasement, politeness, obscurely, estrangement, 
judgeship, wakeful. Hence it follows, that the words 
judgement, acknowledgement, abridgement, lodgement, ought 
to retain the final e of their primitives, and not to be spelt 
as they generally are, judgment, acknowledgment, abridg- 
ment, lodgment. 

EULE II. Whenever a termination beginning with a 
vowel is added to words ending in silent e, the e is dropped 
in the derivative or inflected word ; as, facing, pleasing, 
prized, forced, amusing, forcible, procurable, mistakable 
mistaken, pledging, judged, acknowledged. 



56 THE PROPER FORMATION OF 

The reason for the omission of the final e of the primi- 
tive, before affixes beginning with a vowel, seems to be 
this : As the final e is generally added to the root-word 
for the purpose of indicating the long quantity of the pre- 
ceding vowel, or, as regards the letter g, of showing that 
it has its soft sound, these circumstances are sufficiently 
indicated by the initial vowel of the termination ; and the 
final one of the primitive word therefore becomes unneces- 
sary ; more especially as, were it retained, it would not be 
pronounced, and would sometimes give rise to doubt and 
confusion, as to whether the syllable in which it occurred 
were long or short ; as may be seen by the following exam- 
ples, with the final e retained : Judgeed, mistakeen, mis- 
takeable, observeable, desireable, loveing, loveed, &c. But as 
regards compound words, this reasoning does not apply ; 
for in them each constituent part of the word is preserved 
entire. Hence we spell hereafter, herein, and not her after, 
herin, as in mere derivative words. The same remark 
applies to moreover, whereas, and numerous other words.* 
A want of attention to this simple rule has led to an 
erroneous spelling in several words of recent introduction- 
Thus we almost invariably find such words as ratable, 
debatable, and some others spelt rateable, &c. ; a practice 
directly opposed to the settled analogy of the language. 

Again, according to Mr. Walker, moveable (as he spells 
it) retains the silent e of the primitive word, because, 
forsooth, the letter o has not its usual sound. But this 
argument, to be of any cogency, ought to prevail in every 
case to which it would be applicable ; and we ought, for 
the same reason, to write moveing, proveable, proveing, 
removeable, removeing, &c., for o has not its ordinary sound 
in any of these cases. But the fact is, this argument, or 
rather dictum, is of no force whatever, and the e ought to 

* Wherever is an exception which cannot be defended by any 
sound argument. 



DERIVATIVE AND INFLECTED WORDS. 57 

be dropped in the inflected or derivative words of move and 
prove, as in all similar words. Nevertheless there are two 
cases where the final e of the primitive should be retained 
in the derivative. These are, where it is preceded by c or 
g, soft, and the same sound is required before increments 
beginning with the vowels a, o, or u ; for if e were dropped 
in those cases, to give c or g a soft sound, would be con- 
trary to the universal practice of the language : hence it is 
properly retained in all such words as serviceable, notice- 
able, chargeable, marriageable, &c.* 

RULE III. Whenever a termination or affix beginning 
with a consonant is added to a word ending with a mute 
consonant, the primitive word remains unaltered in the 
inflected or derivative word ; as, badness, luckless, abut* 
ment, shipment. 

RULE IV. Whenever a termination beginning with a 
vowel is added to words ending with a consonant, some- 
times the final consonant is doubled before the termination, 
and sometimes it remains single. The general rules which 
guide this subject, are the following : 

1. If an affix beginning with a vowel be added to a word 
ending with a single simple consonant preceded by a short 
accented vowel, the final letter of the primitive word must 

* In strict compliance with the above rule, the present participle 
of the verb singe ought to be written singing, although it may 
thereby, perhaps, be liable to be confounded with the participle of 
sing ; for we make no difference between ringing and ranging 
flinging and. plunging (from ring and range, and. fling and plunge), 
in this respect, although g is hard in the one case and soft in the 
other. Nevertheless, as the vowel in sing and singe is the same, and 
confusion might sometimes arise from spelling the participle of the 
two words alike, it is an excusable anomaly, and rests upon some 
basis, and is therefore generally adopted. But in tinge, where no 
such danger of confusion exists, the participle is properly spelt 
tinging. 



58 THE PROPER FORMATION OF 

be doubled before the affix ; as in rub, rubbed; bid, bidding ; 
wag t wagging ; sham, shamming ; plan, planned ; whip-, 
whipping ; blur, blurred ; wet, wetted. 

2. If the primitive word have not the accent on its 
last syllable, then, although it may end with a simple conso^ 
nant preceded by a short vowel, yet that final consonant must 
not be doubled before the affix beginning with a vowel. Ex- 
amples in point are such words as combat, combated ; register, 
registered; worship, worshiping (not worshipping, as generally 
spelt) . Nevertheless, it appears to me, if the accent be re- 
moved beyond the antepenultimate, as the word is actually 
pronounced, then, as the secondary accent on the penultimate 
must necessarily be stronger than usual, the final consonant 
of the primitive word may with great propriety be doubled 
before such affix. Hence I prefer to spell benefltting and bene- 
fltted with the t repeated. 

3. If the primitive word end with a double letter, that 
is a compound consonant, or with two or more consonants, 
then, also, the final consonant must never be doubled before 
an affix, although the last syllable of the primitive be short 
and accented. For instance, waxed, mixed, blacking, building, 
icashed, restricted, sheathed, and such-like words, receive no 
additional letter before the affix. 

4. If the final consonant of the primitive be immediately 
preceded by more than one vowel, then, although the accent 
be on the last syllable, its closing consonant is never doubled 
in the formation of derivative and inflected words. Example : 
routed, mooting, floating, shouting, fleeting, bailed, boiling, 
leafless, flooring, &c. 

As a question may here arise in the reader's mind, as 
to the reason for these apparent anomalies, I will endeavor 
to give such an explanation of them as may in some 
measure satisfy his curiosity, and assist him in the de- 
termination of any doubtful case that may come under 
his observation. 

First, as to the doubling of the final consonant of the 
primitive. Whenever the accent is upon the last syllable 
of a word ending in a simple consonant preceded by a 



DERIVATIVE AND INFLECTED WORDS. 59 

short vowel, the organs of speech, as elsewhere remarked, 
are enforced by this very circumstance to articulate that 
consonant distinctly ; and as the next sound to be uttered 
is a vowel-sound, it must necessarily commence with the 
articulation already formed ; because it is much easier 
audibly to resolve that articulation, than to open the 
mouth, and give utterance to the next vowel-sound 
without such audible resolution. This will be clearly seen 
by a few examples distinctly pronounced ; such as bid- 
ding, wag-giny, slam-ming, shun-ning, whip-ping, knit-ting, 
&c. Hence, the reason for repeating the simple consonant 
in words coming under the description above indicated, is 
simply this very rational one, that two consonants are then 
articulated, one after the vowel of the primitive, and the 
next before the vowel of the termination : for it must ever 
be borne in mind, that there is no more difficulty in com- 
mencing a syllable with a consonant articulation than in 
ending it with one. It is true, that this double articulation 
is not so distinctly heard in English as in some languages, 
and, to use the words of Dr. Forbes, in his Hindustani 
Grammar, is somewhat slurred over ; yet there can be no 
doubt that the articulation is expressed twice in all 
the instances above enumerated. 

But it may be objected : If this argument is good for 
anything, it ought to be applied to every case similarly 
circumstanced. I answer, So it ought ; and unless con- 
trolled by reasons drawn from an overweening deference to 
the method of spelling adopted in languages from which 
we have derived many of our words, it is a principle that 
will be found in general operation, even in other cases 
besides that of the formation of derivative and inflected 
words. An exemplification of this is seen in such words 
as flattery, bladder, blubber, stammer, winnow, foppery, 
summer, &c. True it is, that this rule is transgressed in 
innumerable instances in the body of words ; but as I 
before said, this is because our lexicographers have had 



60 THE PROPER FORMATION OF 

more regard to the spelling of the learned and other 
languages, than to the correct representation of each 
sound by its appropriate symbol. But I am here treating 
only of the proper formation of inflected and derivative 
words, and have no intention to propose an alteration of 
the spelling of the generality of root- words, which is too 
firmly fixed to admit of material change. Nevertheless, 
I will give a few instances in which a too great 
regard for precedent has overborne those considerations 
which ought undoubtedly to have formed one of the main 
canons for the determination of correct spelling. For ex- 
ample, from the Latin g&neralis,vre have general, &c., from 
caput, capital ; fidelis, fidelity ; fatalis, fatality ; and 
numerous other words ; in all which, had the simple and 
rational rule above indicated been adhered to, the accented 
short vowel would have been followed by a double conso- 
nant. But it is not my purpose to propose any such change 
now. I will only just further remark, that the French 
have in some cases shown more independence, and also, as 
I think, better judgement, in the spelling of some of their 
words : for we find with them the words honneur, honnete, 
deshonneur, &c., with two %'s ; although the Latin originals 
have but one. 

Secondly, as to the final consonant of the root- word not 
being doubled when the accent is not on that syllable, and 
the quantity is short. 

This requires little explanation. The consonant of 
the root in this case is not articulated at all with 
what forms the primitive word, when an aifix is 
added beginning with a vowel. Take for example the 
word com-ba-ted ; where, in pronunciation, the t un- 
doubtedly forms part of the last syllable, and not of the 
penultimate. And the reason is this : it is much easier to 
the speaker to commence a sound with a consonant-articu- 
lation, after the utterance of a vowel, where the voice has 
not been forcibly propelled on the consonant-articulation, 



DERIVATIVE AND INFLECTED WORDS. 61 

than to close with an articulation, and commence 
the next syllable with a vowel-sound.* Therefore this 
rule is founded upon a rational principle, and is in ac- 
cordance with the natural expression of the constituent 
parts of the word. The only case that can admit of doubt 
is, as I mentioned under the rule, in long words, where 
the secondary accent in the derivative or inflected word falls 
upon what was the ultimate of the primitive ; in which 
case I incline to favor the repetition of the consonant. 

Thirdly : If the primitive word ends in a double letter, 
or in two or more consonants, then the last consonant will 
not be repeated before a termination beginning with a 
vowel, even if the ultimate syllable of the primitive 
should be short and accented. 

Tiiis rule also rests upon a rational basis. Every 
compound consonant, and also every two consonants 
pronounced in one emission of the breath, necessarily 
combine two articulations, and to repeat those two articu- 
lations in immediate succession, although not always im- 
possible, is nevertheless somewhat difficult, and, I think, 
never occurs in the English language in the same word. 
For this reason, g soft,,/, and x are never doubled ; neither 
is the last of two combined consonants repeated before an 
affix beginning with a vowel, even sjiould the primitive 
word end with a short accented syllable. 

Fourthly : If the final consonant of the primitive word 
is preceded by more than one vowel, that consonant will 
not be doubled before an affix beginning with a vowel, 
even if the accent be on the last syllable of the primitive. 

Let us call to mind the reason assigned for doubling- the 
consonant at all. It was, because, under certain circum- 

* A judicious regard to similar euphonical considerations has 
induced the French, as it did before them the Greeks, to interpose 
a consonant-articulation between two pure vowel-sounds. As in 
A-1-il Jini sa le$on? ffacrovtri-v e/ce?j/oz/. And the same reason 
leads to the continual elision of vowel-sounds in poetry. 



62 THE PROPER FORMATION OF 

stances, it was twice articulated, once in its formation, 
and again in its resolution. But here, that reduplication 
of articulation does not take place ; for the extended 
pronunciation of the preceding vowels prevents it ; and 
therefore the rule does not hold. Nay, when an affix 
beginning with a vowel is added to such words, I am in- 
clined to think that the last consonant of the simple word 
is then rather pronounced with the termination than with 
the root part of the word. 

In treating of the consonants as final letters, or in their 
word-terminating character, we saw that some were nearly 
always doubled when the syllable of which they formed 
part was accented ; and that one (/), whether the syllable 
was accented or not, provided it were but short in quantity. 
The other letters to which I allude, were Z, s, and z. We 
will now inquire whether, and in what cases, this 
privilege can be properly awarded them in the formation 
of derivative or inflected words. 

The letter / will very shortly be disposed of. The 
reason for doubling it at all was, because, owing to its 
semivowel character, its sound is easily capable of pro- 
longation at the end of a word. This privilege it retains 
in composition also ; for as it occurs before no augment 
beginning with a consonant with which it readily com- 
bines, its sound is of course prolonged, as if at the end of 
a word, when preceded by a short vowel, whether accented 
or not, as in primitive words ; and therefore the ortho- 
graphy of the primitive undergoes no change. Hence we 
write stiffness, handcuffing, bluffly, bluffness, rebuffing, &c. 

The same remarks will apply to the letter I under 
certain circumstances ; and those reasons which were 
deemed valid for doubling it when final, will also apply in 
composition, provided the conditions remain the same. 
We will discuss this point somewhat in detail ; first laying 
down the following rules : 



DERIVATIVE AND INFLECTED WORDS. 63 

RULE I. If a word ending with II assume in inflection 
or composition an augment beginning with a vowel, both 
the final letters of the primitive will remain ; for in that 
case the semivowel sound of I is not closed by the articu- 
lation of a mute consonant immediately following, but is 
continued by the still more open sound of the following 
vowel. Hence we correctly spell calling, recalled, telling, 
spelling, instilled, filled, rolling, enrolled, annulled, &c., with 
the double consonants of the primitive words. 

RULE II. If a word ending in U have added to it an 
affix beginning with a consonant with which the articula- 
tion of I can easily be combined, then one I of .the primi- 
tive word may be dropped before the augment ; for the 
sound of I is not then prolonged, but its articulation 
becomes incorporated with that of the following con- 
sonant. The letters with which I can most readily coalesce 
are f and m, as in film and pilf. Before affixes, then, 
beginning with either of those letters, one I of the primi- 
tive word is very properly dropped ; and for this reason 
we spell wilful, skilful, fulfilment, annulment, &e., with one 
I : but before all other consonants both the letters ought 
to be retained ; and therefore stillness, dullness, fullness is 
the correct method of spelling these words. 

But as there are cases where one I of the primitive 
word is dropped in composition, so, on the other hand, 
there are others where an additional I is assumed ; as 
may be seen in the words cancelling, rebellious, cavilling, 
quarrelling, and numerous others. 

As this is a practice which has been universally 
acquiesced in for a couple of centuries, and seems to be 
adopted, as it were naturally, by the English under 
certain circumstances, surely there must be some founda- 
tion for it in the nature of this letter, the propriety of 
which we intuitively perceive, although, as far as I know, 
no one has hitherto attempted to give a satisfactory reason 
for the adoption of this apparent anomaly. I will there- 



64 THE PROPER FORMATION OF 

fore endeavor to supply this ' defect, and to place the 
matter on a rational basis. 

As all simple mute consonants are doubled when they 
precede a termination beginning with a vowel, provided 
they form part of a short accented syllable, surely if I be 
a letter the articulation of which is more easily formed 
than that of mute consonants, there may be cases where 
it will be properly doubled, though they may remain 
single under precisely similar circumstances. 

We have before seen that this happens uniformly to the 
letter/preceded by a short vowel, before an affix beginning 
with a vowel, although the accent may not be on the syl- 
lable of which/ forms part; as in handcuffing ; because 
even then, the articulation off is not immediately closed, 
but admits of a prolongation or reiteration. Now I is a 
letter of the like nature as/"; it is a semivowel, second only 
perhaps to/ in its vocal capacity : therefore it may well be 
entitled to enjoy some of its privileges ; and if good reasons 
can be shown for it, it ought to do so. This is the point 
which we will now proceed to discuss. 

It seems to me, then, such being the character of the 
letter I, that it ought to be doubled whenever the accent 
of the primitive word is not removed further than the 
penultimate, and that penultimate is short in quantity; for 
in that case, before an affix beginning with a vowel, a re- 
iteration or prolongation of the letter I appears clearly 
to take place. Examples in point are, travel, traveller : 
cavil, cavilling ; model, modeller ; shovel, shovelling. 

But if the accent be removed further back than the pe- 
nultimate syllable of the primitive word, or even if that 
penultimate be accented, but long in quantity, either na- 
turally or by position, then only one I will be really re- 
quired to denote the correct pronunciation before an affix 
beginning with a vowel ; tor in that case the stress of voice 
upon the I will be so faint, that it will not he pronounced at 
all in the next word, but solely in the increment : conse- 



DERIVATIVE AND INFLECTED WORDS. 65 

quently, no reiteration or prolongation thereof can then 
take place. Appropriate examples of this single sound 
of I are afforded by the following words : Naturalize, 
memorialize, vocalize, centralize ; socialism, pugilism, van- 
dalism ; federalist, sciolist, annalist ; pupilage, vassalage, &c. 
Nevertheless, generally speaking, in the formation of 
verbal nouns and adjectives, and the present and past 
participles of verbs, the final I of the root-word is doubled, 
even if its penultimate syllable be long by position; as 
in quarreller, quarrelling, quarrelled, and marveller, mar- 
vellous, marvelling, marvelled. And the reason perhaps 
is, that the proper number of syllables is thereby more 
clearly indicated ; for were such words as cancelled and 
marvellous spelt with one I, they might easily be mistaken 
for canceled, and marve-lous. And so with other termina- 
tions also, where a similar mistake might be made, although 
but one I is really required by the pronunciation ; as in 
the words chancellor, counsellor, &c. 

In accordance with the rule above stated, tranquilize 
and crystalize are more analogous than tranquillize and 
crystallize, although the one word does come from the 
French tranquilliser, and the other from the Greek Kpv- 
oroAAf ; nevertheless, the latter mode of spelling is almost 
universally adopted by English printers. 

It may be further observed, that words ending in ism 
and ist (and even in ize, except the two words above men- 
tioned) never repeat the I, even when the accent is on the 
short penult of the primitive word ; as, cabalism, novelism, 
novelist, moralist, moralize, novelize; where two Z's are,. 
in accordance with the doctrine indicated in the rule, 
really required by the pronunciation. The only exceptions 
are the words medallist (from the French medailliste} and 
metallist (from the Latin metallum, or the Greek ^T 



ERRATUM. In the last line of the preceding page, for 'next 
word' read ' root- word.' 

a 



66 DERIVATIVE AND INFLECTED WORDS. 

which follow the actual requirements of their pronun- 
ciation ; together with duellist (from the Latin duellum}^ 
which transgresses all rule. 

If the directions above given hold good with regard 
to the letter I, they certainly will apply to s with greater 
force. Therefore, although I have elsewhere said that 
some words might be spelt with one s at the end, even if 
preceded by a short vowel, yet, if an affix beginning with 
a vowel be added, the 5 ought to be doubled whenever 
the accent is not removed beyond the antepenultimate, 
even although that antepenultimate be long in quantity. 
Hence, the following words are properly spelt as in- 
dicated : Biassed, biassmg; embarrassed, embarrassing ; 
nonplussed, nonplussing ; hocussed, hocussing; focussed, 
focussing. And in like manner, omnibusses, owing to the 
secondary accent on the penultimate syllable.* 

N. B. The words duly, truly, aivful, woful, and perhaps 
a few others, might have been adduced as exceptions to 
Rule I, p. 55 ; and dyeing, hoeing, shoeing, to Eule II. 

* S does not combine or coalesce with the initial consonant 
of any increment ; therefore, in all those cases where the primitive 
word is spelt with ss final, both letters will remain before affixes of 
every kind. Instance the words, blissful, kissing, impressment 
distressful, engrossment, &c. 



67 



CHAPTER IY. 



ON THE FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 

OWING to an ignorance of the reasons which lie at 
the foundation of all rules which can be devised for the 
proper formation of compound words, many compositors 
are not a little puzzled in their proper application, and at 
the apparent contradictions in the practice of the press- 
corrector who understands the subject. But I natter 
myself, if the young printer will carefully consider what 
I am about to say, he will rise from the perusal of the 
following observations with much clearer notions on this 
matter than he had before, and will be convinced that 
this is not the arbitrary affair which the practice of 
some people had led him to suppose, nor yet so inex- 
plicable as the varying systems of different correctors had 
induced him to imagine. 

Let us begin by laying down an axiom which can 
admit of no dispute. 

No word, so long as it continues to discharge the func- 
tions of a separate word, that is, so long as it continues 
to represent a distinct idea, or to maintain a distinct 
grammatical character, can ever enter into combination 
with another word ; for this would be a contradiction in 
terms : but whenever a word fails to discharge such dis- 
tinct function, or to maintain such separate character, and 
requires to be joined with another word for that purpose, 

F2 



00 FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 

then it individually has no definite meaning, and is there- 
fore no longer, in fact, a word at all : it then becomes 
necessary to join it with some other imperfect word like 
itself, in order that the two combined may perform an 
office which neither separate was capable of accomplishing. 
Such is a compound word. 

Hence it follows, as every real word is at least the 
representative of one idea, or denotes the relation subsist- 
ing between our ideas, whenever two apparent words are 
required to perform this office, they constitute in fact but 
one, and may therefore be united. \Vhether they be 
written in one word, or be connected by a hyphen, is, as 

1 shall elsewhere show, a matter of custom and discretion, 

These are the principles which the printer must take 
for his guidance whenever he is in doubt, in any case which 
comes under his notice ; for, if attentively considered, and 
well digested, they will be sufficient for all occasions. 
But in order to render the matter clearer to those to whom 
the language used may appear somewhat obscure or 
abstruse, we will proceed to consider the subject more in 
detail, even at the risk of a little repetition. 

1. No two words of the same part of speech, represent- 
ing two distinct ideas, can immediately follow one another 
in the English language without the intervention of some 
point, or some word of connection, unless the one be the 
complement or object of the other, or the latter be a title 
or designation of the former, in the nature of an adjective. 
Thus, in the sentences, ( A iine white horse,' 'John's pen- 
knife,' * He loves to read,' ' St. John Baptist/ there are 
two words of the same part of speech in immediate suc- 
cession, without any point between them ; but the latter 
word is the complement of that which precedes it, or, as 
in the last example, the word ' Baptist' is in the nature of 
an adjective : therefore, although no point is placed be- 
tween them, they are written apart, and can never enter 
into composition as one word. But if two words of the 



FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. Gl) 

same part of speech meet together, representing but one 
idea, then they must be either connected by a hyphen, or 
united into one word. Examples : Boot maker, dairy man, 
ship builder. Plere, the words, taken singly, are both of 
the same part of speech, representing each a distinct idea ; 
but the latter word is not the complement of the former, 
nor, as the words stand^ have they any necessary relation 
the one with the other. Nothing is affirmed of them, 
or necessarily understood to be affirmed of them ; yet 
the intention is to represent but one idea. In order to 
comply with this intention, therefore, it becomes neces- 
sary that the same change in the literary symbols should 
take place, that has occurred in the mind of the writer, and 
that the two apparent words should enter into composition, 
and become one : Bootmaker, dairyman, shipbuilder. 

NOTE. In forming compound words of two nouns substantive, 
the apostrophe, or sum of the possessive case, which was in the first 
word out of composition, may be omitted in composition ; for the 
one word is no longer the complement of the other, nor is it under 
its regimen; the two words, now representing but one notion, can 
therefore require no sign of dependence, which the possessive case 
necessarily implies. But the letter s, following the apostrophe, 
may be retained, if it add to the euphony of the compouDd word ; 
for in the formation of compounds, the ear, as well as the head, 
must be consulted. For this reason it is, that of King's Town is 
formed Kingston; and of Somers' Town, Somerstown; Queen's 
Borough, Queensborough : because the final consonant of the first 
word does not easily commingle with the first consonant of the 
second; and the sibilant s is preserved, in order that the continuity 
of sound may not be broken, and that a word of more easy pronun- 
ciation may be formed. This is a matter of which the ancient 
Greeks were very sensitive. And in accordance with this principle 
it is, that although we may write bees' wax, cow's hide, sheep's 
skin, &c. ; yet, as the intention is generally not to express the rela- 
tion of possession, that is, that the wax belongs to the bees, the 
hide to the cow, or the skin to the sheep, as actually possessing 
them, we shall more correctly write bees-wax or beeswax, and 
cowhide, sheepskin, oxtail; because, in the last three instances, 
the euphonic or sound-prolonging s is not necessary to an easy 



7-0 FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 

utterance of the following letter. Following out this rule, we 
'may write ' Lincoln's Inn./ * Prince Edward's Island,' ' St. PauFs 
Churchyard ;' but, except in instances like the last, where the place 
is supposed to be under the especial tutelage of a particular saint, 
and so, in some sense, may be said to be his, it is better to drop the 
sign of the possessive case, where no relation of possession is in- 
tended, and to write such words as these in this manner \ * Lincolns 
Inn,' ' Prince-Edward Island ;' retaining the s in the first example, 
euphonice gratia, but omitting it in the last, where it is not 
so much required for that purpose. But 'Lincoln's-inn,' is not 
correct, although ' Lincolns-inn Fields ' is not objectionable. 

In reference to the rules for compounding the names 
of places, I will make one or two further observations. 
The practice of late years has much increased, of writing 
all such names, when formed of two or more words, by 
hyphens. Now, undoubtedly, whatever number of ap- 
parent words may enter into the composition of the name 
of any person or place, when the relation of possession is 
not intended or assumed, such words represent but the 
idea of one particular person or place, without, in general, 
specifying any distinguishing characteristic inherent or 
belonging to the one or the other. Such names mighty 
therefore, be not incorrectly written in one word, and we 
should then not unfrequently meet with such combinations 
of letters as ' Johnthomasjosephbrown.' However, as the 
original design in giving more names than one to one 
person or thing, was to point out some special charac- 
teristic, whereby they might be distinguished from other 
persons or things with the like general denomination, 
such names partake of the nature of adjectives, and such 
undoubtedly they originally were : they therefore per- 
formed a separate function ; and this, in fact, they in some 
measure do still, though not generally so characteristically 
as in more remote times. The parts of a name, therefore, 
of two or more words, resolving themselves into two 
kinds, general and special, it is evident that such parts 
should be clearly indicated by keeping them separate, so 



FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 71 

long as these two characters are kept in view. In names 
composed of two words, no difficulty will occur ; for they 
must be written separate, the one necessarily being ge- 
neral and the other special (whenever these distinctions 
are intended, as they mostly are). So, in names composed 
of more than two words, whatever belongs to the general 
designation must be united by a hyphen, or written in one 
word ; and so also that which belongs to the special 
branch. Hence it is, that we should write, ( Queen Street,' 
' Dorset Square,' ' Hanover Place,' ' Wynyard Terrace,' 
1 John Brown,' ' White Sea,' &c. ; because the latter word 
retains its general character, and the first is specific, dis- 
tinguishing these particular places or persons from others 
with the same general designation. But when this general 
nature of the last word is lost sight of, or not intended to 
be pointed out, then the first performs no special function, 
the two words represent but one idea simply, and without 
special modification : they should then coalesce. Such 
words are May/air, Kingston, Somerstown, Claxton, Bo- 
roughbridge, Northallerton, Doncaster, Exeter, Greenland, 
Iceland, England, &c. ; in which the first constituent of 
the word has lost its specific character, and the latter its 
general intention. In names of more than two words, 
the same rule applies : those which belong to the general 
name must form one part of the word ; and those which 
belong to the special, the other. Therefore write, Great 
Queen-street, Little Ormond-street, Wellington-street 
North, John-Thomas Brown, William-Henry Fox-Talbot, 
Prince-of- Wales Island, East-India Company. But when 
the relation of possession is assumed, of course the words 
affected by sucli relation should not be united by a hyphen ; 
for that would be a contradiction, the possessive case ne- 
cessarily implying two ideas, and the combination of words 
equally strongly implying but one. Hence we should 
write Saint Paul's Churchyard ; although the relation is 
not real but assumed merely. The Germans do not even 



72 FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 

assume this relation of possession to exist ; for they write 
Petersldrche (Peter's Church), &c., in one word. 

2. "Whenever the defining noun substantive (or rather 
the word which is a noun substantive in its ordinary 
acceptation) which precedes another noun substantive, is 
intended to bear to that noun substantive the relation of 
an adjective (for words are really of that nature which the 
user of them intends them to be*), the two words can never 
coalesce ; for they represent two distinct notions, one of 
things, and the other of the properties of things : but if 
the two words are merely intended to denote but one idea, 
or one notion, then they must be united in on word, 
or (which is in effect the same thing) be connected by a 
hyphen. 

Hence, as I had occasion to hint in another place, we 
write in two words gold pin, silver candlestick, leather 
strap, land animal, ship canal, city walls, country residence, 
&c. ; because the first word stands to the last, in the mind 
of the writer, in the relation of an adjective, denoting 
either the material of which a thing is made, or conveying 
the notion of possession, or some other adjectival adjunct 
which he wishes to represent distinctly. Such words 
would generally be rendered by an adjective, a genitive 
case, or a preposition and its complement, in other 
languages, according to their genius, or the discretion of 
the person using them. Thus we might write rb Xvxviou 
Xpv<reov, or rb Xvxviov rov xp v <rov> candelabrum argenteum, 
or candelabrum ex argento factum ; ein goldener Leuchter, 
ein Leuchter von Gold; chandelier d'argent, candelliere 
di argento, &c. ; and so of all other words denoting the 
material of which a thing is made. But when such 
words are not used adjectively, that is, when they are not 

* I may 'here not inaptly quote an observation of Priscian: 
** Non similitude declinationis onmimodo conjungit vel discernit 
partes orationis inter se, sed vis ipsius significations "-Li\>. iii, 
p. 170. 



FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 73 

intended to express an accident of the nouns to which they 
are attached, but merely denote the purpose for which 
such nouns are used, then the very same words which we 
have above shown ought to be kept distinct in the circum- 
stances there denoted, must, in this latter case, be joined 
by a hyphen to the following word, or else be incorporated 
with it ; for the two words are now merely intended to 
denote one substantive idea. Example : Silver-minej sil- 
versmith ; gold-washing, goldbeater, coal-pit, coal-mine. So 
glass-house, where glass is merely manufactured ; but glass 
house, a house made of glass.* 

This rule extends to all words formed of what appear 
to be two nouns substantive ; but each case must depend 
upon its peculiar circumstances ; that is, upon the inten- 
tion of the writer in each instance. Thus we may put 
wheat flour in two words, when we mean to affirm distinctly 
and emphatically that it is wheaten, or made of wheat; 
but if we do not intend to affirm this emphatically, then 
we mean to express but the notion of one noun substan- 
tive, and must therefore make but one word ; as in oat- 
meal, barleymeal, although we might correctly write oat 
flour. Judgement must be used in every case : there is 
nothing arbitrary in the matter ; but a clear perception of 
the writer's intention is always indispensable. 

* In determining to which class any example may belong, it 
will be some guide to the young printer to consider whether he can 
turn the first word into an adjective of an homogeneous meaning. 
If he can do so with propriety, the words must be kept distinct ; if 
he can not, they must be united by a hyphen, or formed into one 
word, according as the word is of common acceptation or not; 
for, in fact, both operations are one and the same, and the hyphen 
is merely introduced, as I have said elsewhere, to assist the eye 
of the reader in ascertaining the composition of the word. For 
instance, in place of leather strap, we may say leathern strap; for 
gold snuffbox, golden snuffbox ; and although silvery candlestick 
would not convey the same meaning as silver candlestick, and we 
have no adjective which could be used in its stead, this arises from 



74 FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 

3. A noun substantive is used adjectively, and there- 
fore is, pro hdc vice, an adjective, and cannot enter into 
composition with the following noun, when it denotes the 
place to which that noun belongs or appertains. For in- 
stance, * a county magistrate,' ' a city alderman,' ( country 
affairs,' ' a London tradesman,' ' Paris fashions.' The proof 
of this is, that these words would be rendered by an 
adjective, a genitive case, or a preposition and its com- 
plement, in several other languages. Thus, res rusticce, 
or mercator Londinensis or Londini, les modes de Paris, &c. 

If the reader should be in doubt as to the proper appli- 
cation of this rule, in any case which may come under his 
notice, he may test it by the word ' of.' If he can introduce 
this particle between the two nouns, by changing their 
order, the first is then generally used adjectively, and must 
in that case be kept distinct from the following one. 
Examples : ' A county magistrate ' (a magistrate of the 
county) ; ( a London tradesman' (a tradesman of London); 
Paris fashions' (fashions of Paris), &c. But if of cannot 
be properly introduced between the two words, or, when 
it can, if it do not convey the notion of appurtenance or 
possession , the two words must be joined ; as in oak-tree 
(not a tree of oak), ash-tree, fig-tree, water-carrier (carrier 
of water, but not in & possessory tense) ; seashore (because, 
although we can properly say ' shore of the sea,' even in a 
possessory sense, yet the intention is not, generally, so 
to regard it, but only as one substantive notion, without 
regard to its accidents), sea-breeze, land-storm, hail-storm 

the poverty of the language, and we are compelled to have recourse 
to another mode of expression, and to say, * a candlestick of silver : 
but nevertheless, an appropriate adjective might be coined ; and I 
very much doubt whether * silvern candlestick' would not be quite 
as legitimate as 'golden opportunities.' But we cannot say 'a 
papery knife,' ' a bookish seller,' and thereby convey the meaning 
of paper-knife and bookseller. Such words are therefore not in- 
tended to be used adjectively, and must consequently coalesce with 
the following word. 



FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 75 

(consisting of hail, but not belonging to it); and so of 
other words. 

N. B. These are all mere attempts to illustrate a rule ; 
but the basis of all the examples must be sought for in the 
reason of the thing, as indicated by the general rule at the 
beginning of this chapter. 

4. When the former word denotes the purpose to which 
the latter is applied, it does not partake of the nature of 
an adjective, nor can it be turned into one in other lan- 
guages ; for it in fact represents no quality or property of 
that noun, as all real adjectives do : it therefore performs 
no separate function, and must necessarily enter into com- 
position with the following word, as representing, with it, 
but one idea. Such words are woodman, lamp-post, ink~ 
stand, teapot, garden-rake, flowerpot, corkscrew, &c.; which 
may each be written in one word, or connected by a 
hyphen : for it must be constantly borne in mind, as I will 
again remark, once for all, that a hyphen is used only for 
the purpose of avoiding confusion, or assisting the reader 
the more easily to see the composition of a word ; and that 
all words that can properly be joined by a hyphen, may, 
whenever they become sufficiently common (which is a 
matter entirely at the discretion of the printer to deter- 
mine), be united in one word. On the other hand, it is 
equally certain, that if two words cannot properly be com- 
bined, neither can they, under the same circumstances, be 
properly connected by a hyphen. 

5. The present participle, or participial adjective (or 
rather what, in certain cases, literally appears to be such), 
is sometimes joined to the following noun, and sometimes 
is written separate from it. This is a subject which fre- 
quently puzzles not only many compositors, but even some 
press-correctors of considerable experience and standing ; 
yet the matter is quite simple, and the only rule which 
it is necessary to bear in mind, is one of universal applica- 
tion, and founded upon the most obvious principles. If 



76 FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 

the word which appears to be a participle, or participial 
adjective, is such in fact, that is, if it discharge the func- 
tion of a word of that character, it can never be properly 
united with another word ; but if it perform neither of 
these offices, then it merely helps, with the accompanying 
noun substantive, to represent but one integral idea ; 
and therefore the two apparent words required for this 
purpose form, in fact, but one. We will adduce some 
examples : ' A working man/ ' a loving woman,' ' an ad- 
miring child,' ' a biasing fire,' ' the rolling sea.' All these 
words, and all such as these, are properly kept distinct, 
whenever an action is implied, or the nature, quality, or 
condition, for the time being, of the following noun is 
intended to be designated : in the former of which cases 
the word will be a participle, and in the latter an ad- 
jective. But when these words lose that character, as 
was before said, they become one with the noun to which 
they have reference, and must consequently be joined with 
it. Examples in point are: ' A rolling-pin^ i a warming* 
pan/ a ( printing+pice8& 9 ' ( a (feocAtngr-machine, 9 ' writing-ink^ 
In the cases here given, and in all similar ones, the first 
word merely indicates the purpose to which the latter is 
applied, and does not denote any action in the apparent 
participle, nor is any inherent or assumed property or 
quality pointed out by what might seem at first a pure 
adjective : for ' a rolling-pin' is not a pin which at the 
time necessarily rolls, nor is a 6 warming-pan.' always in 
use in performing any warming* operation : and so of the 
other words. They must, therefore, be either united by a 
hyphen or written in one word ; but, not performing a 
separate office, ought never to be seen apart from the 
accompanying substantive. On the other hand, we may 
well say of a man on the point of death, that he has 

* This word is here an adjective, and is therefore kept distinct 
from * operation.' 



FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 77 

arrived at his dying day, dying hour, or dying moment ; for 
these respective portions of time are certainly, to him, 
dying, or expiring, or terminating. 

6. As all numbers are but the aggregation of certain 
units, each aggregate representing but one numerical 
whole, there can be no necessarily valid reason why the 
numberjftt'e should be written in one word, and the number 
five thousand in two words. It is only to avoid the con- 
fusion that would arise from the assemblage of an extra- 
ordinary number of letters in one word, that has induced 
most of the nations of modern Europe to write large 
numbers in several words. This will appear from a few 
instances. The English write two hundred, three hundred, 
ten thousand, &c., in separate words, as do the French, 
Germans, nnd others ; but the Greeks wrote ^LOLKCXTLOI, 
Tpiatt6(noi, /j.vpioi- and the Latins, ducenti, trecenti, decies 
mille. Indeed, in numbers higher than ten, the Greeks 
wrote, almost indifferently in one or more words, nearly 
all their numbers. Distinctness, then, being the only 
reason that can be alleged for writing any given number 
in more than one word, it would appear that the hyphen, 
which is commonly used by English printers in words 
from twenty to a hundred, except the even tens, might be 
dispensed with ; for either these words are too long to be 
written in continuous succession, or they are not too long, 
If too long, they should certainly be written in separate 
words ; but if not too long, then decidedly in one. In 
either case, the hyphen is entirely unnecessary ; for I have 
already explained, that any number, however large, repre- 
sents but one complex idea. As any rule which can be 
given on this head must be entirely arbitrary, I do not see, 
as I am the only writer, as far as I know, who has handled 
this particular subject, why I may not be allowed to state 
what appears to me to be a convenient system to be 
adopted by English printers. It is this : that all numbers 
under a hundred be printed in one word, and all numbers 



78 FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 

above a hundred in two or more words. Thus : fifteen, 
twenty five, eighty eight, ninetyseven, three hundred and 
t went) two, seven thousand five hundred and one, &c. 
Consequently, I would only introduce the hyphen when 
there is an inversion of the order in. words which I pro- 
pose to print in one ; as when we say five-and-twenty 
instead of twvntyfive : for certainly there is but one aggre- 
gate number, although our cousins the Germans, in this 
and similar instances, say, in three words, funfund zwan-* 
tig, &c. 

7. Fractional numbers should be printed in separate 
words ; for the numerator of a fraction denotes the 
number of the parts contained in that fraction, and the 
denominator, the value of each separate part, or a sub- 
stantive minor division of some whole, real or imaginary. 
Each word, therefore, has a separate office ; the nume- 
rator is always a numeral adjective, but the denominator 
is a real noun substantive. Hence they can never pro- 
perly enter into composition, or form but one word. Let 
us proceed to illustrate this. ' Three fourths' is equiva- 
lent to ' three fourth - parts,' or ' three fourth - shares ; ' 
and all words are, pro hdc vice at least, of that part of 
speech to which they are equivalent in hdc vice. But the 
word ' fourth' is not here an ordinal adjective, as in its 
usual acceptation ; for it does not denote the fourth part 
in order, three of which parts have preceded it ; but, in 
conjunction with the word which here follows it, but which 
is generally understood, a certain quantity or unit of a 
value less by so many times than a certain other unit of 
a higher denomination. These two apparent words, then, 
represent but one single quantity, and form, therefore, in 
fact, but one word ; and should be so printed, or else con- 
nected by a hyphen, thus; i three fourth-parts.' Again, 
what clearly shows that the denominator of a fraction 
represents a real noun substantive, is, that it admits of a 
plural, which a noun adjective, in English, never does, 



FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 79 

"Thus, we may say one fourth, three fourths, ten fourths, 
a hundred fourths, a thousand fourths, &c. ; which are 
equivalent to ' one fourth-part,' ' three fourth-parts,' * a 
hundred fourth-parts? &c.; these compound words being 
but the representatives of a certain unit, of a value by 
them defined, in relation to a certain other larger unit. 

To further illustrate my meaning, I will adduce a 
familiar example. A penny is divided into four parts, 
and one of these parts is called a farthing. ' Three far- 
things,' then, are three quarters of a penny, or three 
fourths, or three fourth-parts, or three parts. Now, 
' three' is a pure numeral adjective in all these instances, 
denoting the number of divisions ; and all the other words 
perform but one and the same function : they are neces- 
sarily, then, from what we have above said, all of the 
same part of speech. But were I to combine these words in 
the manner nowadays almost universally, but, neverthe- 
less, erroneously, adopted by English printers, and say, 
' three-fourth parts,' the denning word, or numeral adjec- 
tive, would then be ' three-fourth? and would mean, that a 
certain unit was divided into parts, each equal to three 
fourths of itself; which, of course, could never hold of 
more than one subdivision, and is not what is intended to 
be expressed ; or that there were several parts of several 
wholes, each equivalent to three fourths of one of them. 
From this, the tyro will see the necessity of paying atten- 
tion to the real character of a word in each instance of its 
application, and not suppose, that because a word is of a 
certain part of speech in one given case, it is therefore so 
in all. 

8. Another ludicrous practice has sprung up of late 
years ; namely, that of connecting the word a, when it 
means each, or there is an ellipsis of a preposition, with 
the noun which follows it. Thus, it is not uncommon to 
see such a sentence as this : * He sold his corn at ten shil- 
lings a-bushel.' Now, a bushel is not here an adverb : the 



80 FORMATION OF COMPOUND WORDS. 

farmer did not sell his corn buslielly (if I may coin such a 
word), and in no other quantities ; but he sold it in 
various quantities, at the rate of ten shillings for each 
bushel, or for a bushel. It is an idiomatic, elliptical way 
of speaking, but by no means an adverbial one, and is 
expressed in French by the definite article : Le b!6 se 
vendait a dix francs le boisseau.' And so in other lan- 
guages. 

The same remarks apply to such words as an hour, a 
day, a week, a month, a year, an ounce, a hundred, a score, a 
thousand, a peclc, a quarter, &c. Examples : ' The laborer 
received a penny an hour, or a shilling a day, or six shil- 
lings a week, and a suit of clothes once a year, for his 
wages.' ( Mustard was selling at six pence an ounce, eight 
shillings a pound, or forty pounds a hundredweight.' 



81 



CHAPTER Y. 



SYLLABICATION, OR THE PROPER DIVISION 
OF WORDS. 

WERE the only object of syllabication what in strict- 
ness it purports to be, namely, to determine what letters 
represent one sound or emission of the voice, the only 
matter for the consideration of the printer, when he might 
have occasion to divide a word at the end of a line, would 
be to determine what letters entered into each such con- 
stituent part of the 'word, and to divide it accordingly, 
without considering what might be its derivation, or how 
its various parts were etymologically connected. But such 
is not the practice with English printers, who, for the 
most part, run into the opposite extreme, and frequently 
neglect real syllabication, in order that they may display 
their knowledge of derivation. Perhaps, as in a great 
many other things, a middle course may be advanta- 
geously adopted, which, without slavishly conforming to 
either, may yet not egregiously transgress the one or the 
other. I will subjoin the rules which are generally given 
by writers on this subject, and to them I \yill append my 
own remarks, in which my notion of their propriety or 
impropriety will be stated at length, with my reasons 
for approval or disapproval. 

RULE I. If a consonant come between two vowels, it 
belongs to the latter syllable ; as, a-bove, be-fore, gra-cious, 
sta-ble. 

G 



82 SYLLABICATION, OR THE 

Remark. This rule can admit of no doubt whenever 
the first syllable is long in quantity, or, although shortj 
whenever the accent is on the following syllable, as in the 
two first examples given above ; but if the accent be on 
the preceding short syllable, then the matter assumes a 
less simple character, and does not admit of so easy a 
solution. Thus, in the words reference and disability, where 
the accented syllables are short, there is no doubt that the 
consonant is articulated in the same emission of sound 
with the preceding vowel, and therefore belongs to that 
syllable, according to the law of syllabication laid down 
at the commencement of this chapter. But it is also true, 
that /and I are, in the examples adduced, also articulated 
in the following syllable ; for, whenever the accent is upon 
a short vowel, followed by a simple consonant, the articula- 
tion proper for that consonant must thereby be firmly fixed, 
and, as a matter of course, whenever the sound in imme- 
diate succession is a vowel-sound, the emission of that 
sound must commence with the articulation already formed : 
for if that law of the Eastern grammarians be not without 
foundation, that no syllable can, strictly speaking, begin 
with a pure vowel-sound, how much less can it do so 
when the organs of speech are strongly fixed in a particu- 
lar articulation. There is, then, no choice, but the next 
vowel-sound must be preceded by the resolution of that 
articulation. To do otherwise would produce a disagree- 
able hiatus, which, perhaps, may be tolerably executed in 
singing, but not in pronouncing an articulate-syllable- 
ending language like the English. Hence it follows, that 
the simple consonant, following a short accented vowel, 
and having another vowel after it, is then twice articu- 
lated, and ought, in strictness, did orthography always 
correspond with the sounds which it represents, to be twice 
written. The first syllable, therefore, has really no more 
claim to the consonant than the following syllable ; and, 
unless overruled by considerations which will be hereafter 



PROrER DIVISION OF WORDS* 83 

noticed, I would not make this an exception to the general 
rule ; and would therefore divide those words, so far as 
respects the point under discussion, thus : disabi-lity, re- 
ference. It is laid down, however, as a rule by many 
writers, that if the accent be on the antepenultimate 
syllable, the consonant will belong to that syllable ; as in 
odorif-erous, suprem-acy, &c. 1 own I can see no more 
validity for the adoption of it here than in any other 
accented syllable under the same circumstances ; never- 
theless it is a distinction generally observed. 

EULE II. If a consonant be doubled, the first will 
belong to the first syllable, and the last to the following 
one ; as in im- moderate, con-nivance, bid-ding. 

Remark This rule is invariable, so far MS regards 
mute consonants at least > as it is utterly impossible to 
articulate two such letters in one emission of sound* 

KULE III. Two consonants between two vowels must 
be separated ; as, in-terpret, mis-con-ceive, lan-guage, ob- 
duracy. 

Remark. This is generally true when both the con- 
sonants are mutes ; for it is much easier to close a vowel- 
sound with one articulation, and commence the next sylla- 
ble with another, than to compress two articulations, as it 
were, into one, as one might attempt to do in int-erpret, 
misc-onceive, obd-uracy, and begin the next syllable, after 
a disagreeable hiatus, almost with a pure vowel-sound. 
Nevertheless, if the primitive word ends in a compound 
articulation, its derivatives will also end in the same 
manner, and must be therefore so divided ; as in siny-ing, 
ring-ing, young-er, weld-ing, scold-ing ; although finger 
should be divided^/w-^er : and so of other words not end- 
ing in their root with the double articulation. But if, in 

G2 



84 SYLLABICATION, OR THE 

the body of a word, the second mute be followed by a 
liquid with which it is capable of easily coalescing, or if 
a semivowel be followed by a mute and a liquid under the 
same conditions, then the two or more consonants will 
belong to the latter syllable ; as may be seen in the words, 
pa-tron, qua-drature, esta-blish, re-strain. 

Here the objection might be repeated which was ad- 
duced under Eule I, as to accented short vowels claiming 
the consonant along with them ; but as I did not suffer 
that objection to prevail with me there, neither do I think 
it of sufficient force in the case now under consideration, 
and would not, therefore, divide in the following manner 
such words as quad-rangle, estab-lishment. 

ETJLE IV. Whenever a word begins with a prefix, 
whether a preposition or other particle, that prefix can be 
separated from the rest of the word, whenever necessary 
for the purpose of the printer. Examples : de-scribe, per- 
suade, re-form, inter-est, dis-able, mis-interpret, post-pone, 
ex-cuse, sub-scribe, cis-alpine, trans-port, sur-charge, in- 
oculate. But if a letter be omitted, by reason of the pre- 
fix ending with the same letter as the body of the word 
begins with, the root part of the word must be kept en- 
tire, and the letter be lost to the prefix ; as in tran-scribc, 
(fully, trans-scribe). 

Remark 1. The reason for the foregoing rule is suf- 
ficiently clear. Whenever we can, we endeavour to pro- 
nounce the prefix in a distinct syllable ; and as, in 
addition to this, the division helps to show the com- 
position of the word, these have been deemed sufficient 
reasons for the establishment of the rule. It is true, that 
in this case, as in Eule I, there may be a double articula- 
tion of a consonant, indicated but once only, and that may 
come in the first syllable, contrary to the canon there laid 
down. But this is the exception to which I then alluded, 



PUOPER DIVISION OF WORDS. 85 

as being of sufficient force to establish for itself the right 
to be exempted from its purview. 

Remark 2. A prefix should never be divided from 
the word with which it enters into composition, if it 
consist of one letter only, as in e-lope ; neither should 
an affix, if it consist of not more than two letters, as in 
wakeful-ly ; because, except in very narrow measures* 
this can always be avoided with a little attention, and 
such divisions have at all times an unsightly appearance, 

KULE V. Whenever an affix or termination is added 
to a word, if the root-word be preserved entire, and be 
pronounced as in the root, then the allix must be sepa,rated 
from it in the division of a word ; as, delight-ful, market- 
able, respect-able conquering t laugh-ing, sick-ness. 

But if the root-word be not preserved entire, or if it be 
not sounded as in the simple word, then such divisions 
should be avoided, for they are contradictory. Neverthe- 
less, if you must divide them, it is preferable to adopt 
abun-dance, desig-nation (where the sound of the original 
word is departed from) ; and stri-ving, dri-ving, &c. But 
it is much better to avoid all such divisions, wherever the 
primitive has lost its final letter, as in the examples adduced. 

But some printers are so wedded to what they call 
dividing the terminations from the root, that I have not 
unfrequently met with such divisions, where the latter 
part of a word only bore some resemblance to an affix; 
as, for instance, histor-ian, separ-ate, and many such-like 
fantasies. 

A question may, perhaps, here arise, as to which sylla- 
ble of the inflected or derivative word the compound or 
double final consonant g of the primitive word may be- 
long ; whether to- the syllable of which it originally formed 
part, or to the first syllable of the termination. I will 
endeavour to meet that question. If the preceding vowel 
is long, the double consonant belongs to the syllable of 



86 SYLLABICATION, OR THE 

the termination, as in rd-ging, wa-ging ; because no part 
of the letter g is then pronounced in the root portion 
of the word. But if the preceding vowel is short and ac- 
cented, then part of such compound consonant is articulated 
in one syllable, and part in another ; as in alleging, pro- 
nounced nearly as al-led-shing. But as the compound letter 
is never in those circumstances thus resolved into its con- 
stituent parts, it must necessarily appear, in the division 
of words into syllabi es, wholly in one or the other. But 
as I have before shown that the spelling of such words 
without a d preceding g is incorrect, I will confine my 
observations to the proper orthography of words of this 
description. There can be no doubt, then, that in words 
of this formation, the letter d is always pronounced in the 
radical portion of the word, and therefore belongs to it ; 
but g (or at least a part of it) will belong to the syllable 
of the affix, if it begin with a vowel, but to the radical, 
if it commence with a consonant: for although we can 
combine three articulations at the end of such words as 
plunge, which is pronounced nearly as plundsh, it does not 
follow, nor is it the fact, that all three are combined in 
plunging ; but the word is rather pronounced plun-ging ; 
which is therefore the correct division. So is it with the 
letter d before g, as to syllabication at least : for although 
d necessarily enters into the sound of g soft, yet, as it has 
here a separate form (though this is solely for the purpose of 
indicating the short quantity of the preceding vowel), and 
is pronounced in the syllable of the primitive, and the 
sihilant portion of g is not. I prefer, if I must perforce 
divide such words, to do it thus, pled-ging jud-ging ; yet 
such divisions of words ought to be altogether avoided, if 
possible. But, as before remarked, if the affix begins with 
a consonant, the two portions of the word are properly 
kept distinct in syllabication. Hence we rightly divide 
judge-ment, acknowledgement, abridge-ment, according to* 
their actual pronunciation. 



PROPER DIVISION OF WORDS. 87 

The preceding rules and observations are intended to 
apply to English words only ; but they are not applicable 
to all languages. The Germans conform pretty strictly to 
the principle laid down in the introductory remarks of 
this chapter, taking very little account of affixes, or pre- 
fixes, or anything of the kind, if they interfere with the 
actual syllabication. Again, in Greek, Latin, Italian, and 
other languages, they are frequently inapplicable : for 
these are vowel-ending languages, in a far greater degree 
than the English, which may not improperly be styled 
a consonant-ending tongue. Therefore, when any assem- 
blage of consonants can be amalgamated in a kind of 
compound articulation, these languages will begin a syl- 
lable with them, even if a short pause be required for the 
purpose, and close the preceding one with a vowel. 

As works in Latin are frequently reprinted in this 
country, and quotations made continually from Latin 
authors, and press-eorrectors and compositors will not 
unfrequently find that editors insist upon the Latin 
method of division being adhered to ; for the benefit of 
the unlearned in these matters, I will transcribe the words 
of no mean authority on this subject.* He says : 

"I. When a consonant happens to be between two 
vowels, it must always be .put with the last, as a-mor, 
le-go, &c. 

" II. If the same consonant be doubled, the first shall 
belong to the former syllable, and the second to the latter, 
as an-nus, flam-ma. 

"III. Consonants that cannot be joined in the begin- 
ning of a word, generally speaking, are not joined together 
in the middle, as ar-duus, por-cus. Though there are some 
examples of the contrary in Greek, as e'xfy^s, liostis. 

"IV. But consonants that maybe joined together in 
the beginning of a word, ought also to be joined in the 
middle, without parting them. And Kamus asserts that 

* Port Royal Latin Grammar, vol, ii, p. 290, Eng. trans, 



88 



SYLLABICATION, OR THE 



to act otherwise is committing a barbarism. Therefore we 
ought to join 

bdellium. 

K/j.e\e6pa, tabes 

Cneus 

Ctesiphon 

gnatus 

Mnemosyne 

phthisis 

psittacus 

Ptolemseus 



bd. 


he-bdomus ^ 


cm. 


Pyra-cmon 


en. 


te-chna 


ct. 


do-ctus 


gn. 


a- gnus 


mn. 


o-mnis 


phth. 


na-phtha 


ps. 


scri-psi 


pt. 


a-ptus 


sb. 


Le-sbia 


sc. 


pi-scis 







sm. 


Co -sinus 


sp. 


a-sper 


sq. 


te-squa 


St. 


pa-stor 


tl. 


A-tlas 


tm. 


La-tmius 


in. 


^E-tna 



because we say \ 



scamnum 

smaragdus 

spes 

squama 

sto 

Tlepolemus 

Tmolus 



" Exception to this Rule. 

"Words compounded of prepositions are an exception 
to this rule, since in these we must ever separate the 
compounding particle, as in-ers, ab-esse, abs-trusus, ab- 
domen, dis-corSj &c. 

"And the same judgment we ought to form of o 
compounds, as juris-consultus, alter-uter, amphis-bcena, et- 
enim, &c." 

In these latter respects, the system of division agrees 
with the English ; and for the same reason ; because, in 
these instances, we generally endeavour to show, both by 
pronunciation and on paper, what are the constituent 
parts of a compound word. But the combination of con- 
sonants at the commencement of a syllable seems repug- 
nant to our notions of propriety. This arises, however, 
from the fact which I before noticed : the Latin endea- 
vours to end its syllables with a full vowel-sound, where- 
ever this is not interfered with by the composition of the 



PROPER DIVISION OF WORDS. 89 

word ; whereas the English chooses rather to end with a 
consonant, if preceded by a short accented vowel, and to 
begin again with the next consonant. The first is much 
more sonorous, and therefore better adapted to music ; 
but the latter is more energetic and forcible, and therefore 
suited to oratory. 

The system of division in Greek is the same as in 
Latin and Italian. The author of an excellent Greek 
Grammar, in French,* thus lays down the rule ; which I 
give in his own words, as they will no doubt be perfectly 
understood by all those to whom a knowledge of Greek 
syllabication is at all a matter of interest : 

" Les consonnes qui s'unissent au commencement d'un 
mot s'unissent 'aussi au milieu ; ainsi, comme on dit 
ipdovos, envie, en faisant une syllabe de q>06, on dira egale- 
ment &<j)9oi>os, exempt denvie, ainsi divise &-<$>Qo~vos. C'est 
d'apres ce principe que nous avons divise [in a preceding 
page] les mots deja cites, 6-Kr6. 6 ySoos, -x#os, etc." And to 
the same purport say all other grammarians. 

Now, there is nothing unnatural or difficult in this, 
only that, as it appears to me, a short pause must be made 
before some of the combinations of consonants, as the 
Italians of the present day do in certain cases. Were the 
English to do so occasionally, our pronunciation would 
sometimes be much more effective, and would oft better 
convey the real meaning of our words. For we should 
then say, di-phtTiong, tri-phtkong, geo-graphy, apo-strophe, 
apo-stasy, &c., in accordance with the true composition 
of the words. 

* Methode pour etudier la Langue Greeque, par J. L. Burnouf, 
p. 7. 



90 



CHAPTER VI. 

ON PUNCTUATION. 
SECT. 1. Preliminary Observations. 

OF all the subjects which engage the attention of the 
press-corrector and the compositor, none proves a greater 
stumbling-block, or is so much a matter of uncertainty 
and doubt, as the Art of Punctuation. This partly arises 
from the necessarily somewhat inexact nature of the art 
itself, but far more from an ignorance of the foundation on 
which its rules ought to be based, and the illogical and 
ungrammatical construction of sentences. In the latter 
case, it is utterly impossible to punctuate artistically, it is 
a mere matter of guess-work : a liberal use of dashes will 
thereby be necessitated, a sure sign except in very ani- 
mated or impassioned discourses either of confusion in 
the mind of the writer, or of the printer's inability to 
understand his meaning. 

Some have denned punctuation as the " art of pointing 
written composition in such a manner as may naturally 
lead to its proper meaning, construction, and delivery;" 
others, as "the art of marking in writing the several 
pauses, or rests, between sentences, and the parts of sen- 
tences, according to their proper quantity or proportion, 
as they are expressed in a just and accurate pronun- 
ciation ;" but as I think, better by others, as " the art of 
dividing a literary composition into sentences, and parts of 
sentences, by means of points, for the purpose of exhibit- 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 91 

ing the various combinations, connections, and dependen- 
cies of words." However, I am not much inclined to cavil 
at any of these definitions. But when we come to examine 
the means which the authors of Printers' Guides, Hand- 
books, &c., have prescribed for the attainment of this 
desirable object, all is confusion or confessed empiricism, 
nothing like science or art is pretended to. And if we go 
beyond the members of our immediate profession, and 
search the works of those whose object it was to treat this 
subject in a didactic manner, with very few exceptions, 
our labor will not be bestowed to much better purpose. 

Like everything else, if we would master the groiind- 
work of this science or art, we must begin at the beginning. 
The neglect of tliis necessary and all-important rule, and 
the desire of rushing in medias res, before the way has 
been cleared of the obstructions which beset its entrance, 
have muinly produced the confusion which pervades most 
minds on the subject of punctuation. For these reasons I 
would fain bespeak the attention of the reader, and more 
especially of the young printer, to the following pre- 
liminary remarks, which lie at the root of the matter. 

If we consider the nature of language, oral or written, 
we find that it is the vehicle for the communication of our 
ideas to our fellow-men, by means of certain sounds, signs, 
or symbols, to which an arbitrary but generally understood 
meaning is attached. Now, an idea is a pure conception of 
the mind ; and the number of our ideas is the measure of 
our knowledge : but, kept in our own breasts, and uncom- 
inunicated to others, knowledge is comparatively useless ; 
its great advantage consisting in the benefit which man- 
kind derives from the mutual interchange of ideas. But 
before any such communication can be made, we must 
form an internal judgement as to some particular relation 
which some idea, of which we have formed a conception, 
bears to some other idea, or else to itself. The mental 



92 ON PUNCTUATION. 

determination of this relation constitutes a thought; and 
expressed thoughts is language. 

The longest sentence that can be formed is but an 
assemblage of affirmations of mentally predetermined 
thoughts, having a certain mutual relation or dependence 
in grammatical construction. Hence, the art of punc- 
tuation would plainly appear to consist in the deter- 
mination of rules for measuring the various degrees of 
affinity or dependence subsisting between our thoughts 
when expressed in writing, and apportioning to each its 
proper symbol or character ; that thus the reader might be 
enabled to enter as it were into the mind of the writer, 
catch his spirit, and consequently pausn the requisite time 
between the enunciation of each thought, even as the writer 
himself would pause in uttering his own words. 

On this basis, could the affinities of our connected 
thoughts be strictly adjusted, and the laws for measuring 
those affinities be determined with accuracy, we might 
rear a solid superstructure, worthy the name of a science ; 
which could be exactly applied at all times ; which would 
remove the stigma of empiricism which now too generally 
attaches to the practice of the art of punctuation ; and 
which would enable the writer so to marshal his thoughts 
before his reader's eye, that he could never misunderstand 
his meaning, if he but understood the signification of the 
words employed. But so varied are our thoughts, so mul- 
tiform their degrees of dependence, and so few the symbols 
we employ to denote them, that any attempt to arrive at 
absolute accuracy must be abandoned as impracticable. 
Nevertheless, making the basis above adverted to our 
guide, we may approach to this accuracy ; and if we cannot 
symbolically distinguish every shade of difference, we shall 
not at least grope wholly in the dark, as has been but too 
often the practice ; we shall have the guidance of a 
rational conductor, though not at all times, the infallible 
one we might desire. 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 93 

It will therefore be necessary, before giving any rules 
as to the placing of the points themselves, to form a clear 
notion of the logical construction of sentences ; for without 
this knowledge it is impossible either to write or to punc- 
tuate correctly. Let the tyro therefore observe, 

I. 

No affirmation can be made concerning any idea of 
which the mind is cognisant, but by showing its relation 
to some other idea, or else to itself : for as an idea is but 
a mental perception, or pure knowing, it is clear, that in 
communicating any knowledge of that idea to another, we 
must affirm something of it, either with respect to itself or 
to some other idea; because there remains nothing else 
within the compass of our minds of which anything can be 
affirmed. This affirmation of a thought constitutes a pro- 
position. It cannot consist of less than three parts : the 
idea of which anything is affirmed; the affirming word, 
which expresses the relation; and the idea to which the 
principal one stands in relation. - Yet, notwithstanding 
that the simplest proposition inherently comprises three 
parts, all those parts may be expressed by one or more 
words. The main idea of a proposition is denominated the 
subject; the affirming word is designated the copula, 
because it unites the two substantive ideas; and that idea 
towards which the relation, tends, is commonly called the 
predicate, object, or complement of the proposition. The 
following may be taken as examples : 

Peter admires paintings. 

Man thinks. 

Love. 

In the first proposition, the word 'Peter* is the sub- 
ject : it represents to the mind a certain substantive idea, 
of which I am desirous of communicating some knowledge, 
which I have already mentally determined to be subsist- 



94 ON PUNCTUATION* 

ing with respect to it. The word by which I do this is 
the verb ' admires.' The verb, therefore, is the affirming 
word in all propositions, it is the word which expresses 
the relation subsisting between the connected ideas ; and 
without a verb, expressed or understood, no assertion can, 
be made, nor, consequently, any knowledge be communi- 
cated. ' Paintings ' expresses the object towards which the 
action of the verb tends as its complement. 

Take the next example : 'Man thinks.' Here the sub* 
ject is 'man,' and the affirming word is ' thinks.' But 
there is no object or complement expressed; yet there 
is one understood. What does man think ? Evidently, 
thoughts. Thoughts^ then, may be regarded as the com- 
plement of the proposition ; or the object may be identical 
with the subject: Man is (as to himself) a thinking 
being. 

Again, let us consider the last example, ' Love.' Here 
the word of relation (that is, the' verb) only is expressed ; 
but a subject necessarily exists, who commands the act, 
and an object, towards which his volition tends ; and 
therefore there is a complete proposition or affirmation 
expressed or implied.* 

II. 

A thought being the mental determination of the re- 
lation subsisting between one or more ideas, it necessarily 
follows, that an expressed thought, or affirmation, can 

* In propounding a proposition, it is not necessary that the 
words be arranged in any particular order ; the fact will be the 
same, whether the subject comes first or last ; and so with any 
other of the constituent parts of the proposition. The custom of 
each language is that alone which must determine the place of its 
words. The order of subject, predicate, and object, is generally 
called the natural order ; but there is nothing of nature in it ; only 
the prevailing custom of so arranging words in the English 
language causes us to regard it as apparently a thing settled 
by nature. 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 95 

never be less than a proposition ; for, as We have already 
seen, no affirmation can be made, unless by words com- 
prehending all the parts of such a proposition, either ex- 
pressed or implied. But an affirmation may comprehend 
much more than a bare simple proposition ; for each of its 
essentially constituent parts may have various accidents 
attached to it, and yet each part will represent but one 
complex idea in the mind ; and there will consequently 
be but one affirmation. Example : ' The industrious man 
performs his daily labor diligently? 

Further : two ideas may be joined in each part of a 
proposition, provided they be congruous and admit of ap- 
parent union ; and yet there will be but one affirmation. 
Thus : The rich-and-the-poor suffer-and-enjoy evil-and- 
good. Here are two members to each constituent part of 
the proposition ; but they are combined by a conjunction, 
and constitute, as it were, a united subject seeking a com- 
bined object by a conjoined relation : they express, there- 
fore, but one thought. 

III. 

A sentence may be the expression of one thought only, 
or it may comprise the affirmation of several thoughts, in 
some way connected or dependent the one upon the other. 
The first is a simple sentence ; the last a compound one. 
The following may be taken as an example of a compound 
sentence : 

" Supposing the matter of these transgressions to be ever 
so small in. its own nature, yet the moral characters of men 
become stained and bloated by their frequent accumulations ; 
just as so many ulcers, w T hen allowed to form and spread, will 
grow by degrees into a great disease, and contaminate the 
whole frame." BLAIR. 

IT. 

One affirmation can never contain more than one inde- 
pendent verb, although, as we have before seen, two verbs 



96 ON PUNCTUATION. 

may be united by a conjunction in the same affirmation, if 
they indicate, as it were, a combined or an indifferent 
action. , For, as each independent verb expresses a dis- 
tinct relation, that is of itself a complete affirmation. 
Nevertheless, one verb, especially one in the infinitive 
mood, may become the complement of another verb, either 
really or presumedly ; and in that case the two verbs will 
constitute but one affirmation, or express but one thought. 
Examples: John loves to read* (real object). -'The 
constable threatened that he would take him up* (presumed 
direct object).* 

Y. 

In the expression of one thought or affirmation (for I 
shall use the words indifferently) no mark of interpunc- 
tion can be required ; for as the mind proceeds but in one 
direction, if I may so speak, in the contemplation of one 
relation subsisting betwixt our ideas, and makes no de- 
flection in other directions, no point can be required to 
denote what has not taken place ; namely, a pause in the 
progress of the mind's operation. 

VI. 

As soon as the mind diverges from the contemplation 
of some certain relation subsisting between our ideas, 
towards another relation, and to other objects, then a 
mark of punctuation becomes necessary; but not before. 

VII. 

Did language contain no connecting particles, nor any 
words significative of a dependence of one affirmation 
upon another affirmation, each proposition would consti- 

* I say here, " presumed direct object ;" because it is not so in 
fact : and hence the Germans invariably put a comma before all 
such clauses introduced by a conjunction. But this would be too 
stiff for general adoption in English, 



SYMBOLS USED IN PUNCTUATION. 97 

tube an independent thought, which could not be gram- 
matically connected with any other thought, and would 
therefore constitute a complete sentence. In that case, but 
one point would be required, namely, the full-stop, to 
show the close of each affirmation. 

VIII. 

But by the use of connecting particles, and of words 
significative of dependence or affinity, a sentence may be 
formed of any length, as the taste or discretion of the 
writer may determine ; the various constituent thoughts 
of which may be connected in different degrees of affinity. 

The consideration of these affinities necessarily brings 
us to the investigation of the marks used by printers to 
denote them ; and this will form the subject of the fol- 
lowing section. 

SECT. 2. The Symbols used in Punctuation. 

To denote the different degrees of affinity in which our 
thoughts are combined, or the relative dependence they 
have on one another, certain characters have been de- 
vised, which are commonly called points. They are, 

1. The comma [ , ]. This sign is employed for the 
purpose of showing that the two affirmations between 
which it is placed are immediately connected by a con- 
junction, or that the latter flows from, or directly depends 
upon, the former. 

2. The semicolon [ ; ]. This point shows that the 
two affirmations between which it is placed are not ini 
mediately connected by a conjunction, or that the latter 
does not directly flow from, or depend upon, the former 
affirmation, although there is a mere remote connection 
or dependence between them. 

3. The colon [ : ] denotes a dependence or affinity still 
further removed, or, where the relation is that proper 



98 ON PUNCTUATION. 

for the semicolon, the omission of the connecting par- 
ticle between the affirmations. There is, in all cases where 
a colon can be placed, some dependence or affinity existing, 
in construction or by implication. 

4. The period or full-stop [ . ] signifies that the affirm- 
ation which it closes, has no connection, in grammatical 
construction, with the one that follows : in short, that the 
sense is complete. 

There are some other symbols generally regarded as 
marks of punctuation ; but as they are not strictly such, 
but rather signs adopted for the purposes of elocution, 
they will be noticed in another place. 

An investigation of the question as to who were the 
inventors of those symbols, and at what time they first 
came into use, would be a work of much labor and of but 
very little profit, as the learned themselves are far from 
agreed on the point. But however uncertain these matters 
may be, there can be no doubt of the utility of point- 
marks when judiciously employed, and their advantage in 
more clearly denoting the meaning of the writer. 



SECT. 3. On the Nature of Sentences, and the Combination 
of Propositions. 

Having already thrown out hints as to the true natur 
of the art of punctuation, and explained the symbols 
employed in its elucidation, it may perhaps be expected 
that I should now enter upon the subject in detail ; but 
have yet something further, of a more general nature, to 
submit to the reader's notice, before I can proceed with 
the particulars illustrative of each individual point ; as, 
after all, the statement of these particulars will be little 
more than an elaboration of the principles I have before 
laid down, or of those which I am now about to enume- 
rate. 



NATURE OF SENTENCES, ETC. 99 

In addition, then, to what has been before said, it may 
be further remarked, 

I. 

That a long sentence may consist of several simple 
affirmations, without any conditional clause attached to 
any of them ; and that, consequently, all these affirmations 
may stand in the same relation to each other, and hence 
require to be separated by the same point : but if a con- 
dition be attached to any affirmation, that addition can 
hardly stand in the same relation to the affirmation from 
which it depends, and to another affirmation, on which it 
does not depend ; and must therefore, in general, be parted 
from it by a stronger point. 

II. 

Whenever the connecting word is omitted between two 
affirmations, and those affirmations are still intended to 
bear the relation which the conjunctive particle would 
have indicated, such omission is equivalent to a step in 
punctuation, and therefore mostly calls for a point a degree 
stronger than would have been employed had such con- 
necting particle been inserted. 

To illustrate my meaning, I will adduce examples. 

1. Simple affirmations connected by the same particle : 
The cattle walk, and the birds fly, and the fishes swim. 

Here, the three affirmations are simple propositions, and 
they are also connected by a conjunctive particle : they 
therefore stand in the same relation to each other, and 
are separated by the same point. 

2. Affirmations with a condition annexed : 

Man is ever seeking after variety, that he may satisfy his 
manifold aspirations ; but he never attains to perfect fruition, 
because his desires are infinite. 

Here, the first affirmation has a clause dependent upon 
it : tn is clause, therefore, is separated by a stronger point 
H 2 



100 ON PUNCTUATION. 

from the following affirmation, than it is from the affirma- 
tion upon which it depends. 

3. Affirmations with the connecting particle omitted : 
The cattle walk ; the birds fly ; and the fishes swim. 

Here a semicolon is used to part all the affirmations, 
although, in the first example, a comma was the point 
employed, when the connecting particle was inserted 
betwixt each proposition. The reason is, that, the par- 
ticle being omitted, a link of the connection of the mem- 
bers of the sentence is broken : a longer pause is hence 
necessitated, and the consequent employment of a stronger 
point. The same point is preserved between the second 
and third propositions, although the connecting particle 
is there inserted. This is, because the third proposition 
stands in no closer relation to the second than to the first ; 
and the affinity of the first and the second having been 
before determined, that of the second and third necessarily 
follows the same ratio : the connecting particle is here 
added more for the purpose of aiding an easy delivery, 
than for the sake of indicating any closer degree of affinity. 

Of course, this principle can be extended to other 
points ; but the examples given are sufficient for illus- 
tration. Let us now proceed to show how it happens that 
several propositions can be condensed into one affirmation. 

The proposition * The miser loves money,' is a complete 
affirmation, and, as it stands here, also a complete sentence. 
The same may be affirmed of the proposition ' The miser 
hates generosity/ But if we wish to destroy this inde- 
pendence of construction, it is evident, either that we 
must use some word as a substitute for the subject of the 
second proposition, or else employ a word of connection, 
which would necessarily denote that the two affirmations 
were no longer independent, but stood in a certain de- 
pendent relation the one to the other ; or, we might even 
adopt both these methods. 



NATURE OF SENTENCES, ETC. 101 

I will reproduce the abovo examples "in a' uoimeciked' 
form. 

The miser loves money he hates generosity. 

Now, what degree of relation or connection is here 
established between these two affirmations 1 They were 
independent in their separate form : how are they related 
now? A substitute (the pronoun 'he') takes the place of 
the subject (' miser') of the second "proposition, which of 
itself has no meaning ; but by the force of custom it is 
made to stand for some other word which does represent 
an idea, solely that we may thereby be enabled to avoid 
the disagreeable tautology of continually repeating the 
same word. Hence it appears, that we have advanced 
but one step from an independent construction, and con- 
sequently, the point to be employed on this occasion ought 
also to be removed but one degree from that which denotes 
an entirely Independent construction. This point is the 
colon. The sentence will therefore correctly stand, 

The miser loves money : he hates generosity. 

If, in addition to the substituted subject, we also in- 
troduce a word of connection, it is clear that we shall draw 
the bonds of affinity between the two affirmations still 
closer, and shall therefore require a still weaker point. 
We shall then have, 

The miser loves money ; and he hates generosity. 

Note. It will be observed in this example, that when 
a substituted subject is used in the second affirmation, 
a semicolon is required ; but had this pronoun represented 
a subject different from that of the first proposition, then 
a comma would have sufficed. The reason is obvious. 
1 He ' would then have represented a different idea, sup- 
posed to be known to the reader, without reference to 
the subject of the first proposition. Two real propositions, 
each having its proper subject, would then have been 



102 ON PUNCTUATION. 

expressed, joinecl "by i, word. denoting the closest of affinities, 
and therefore requiring the weakest point. But in the 
instance adduced, two propositions with different subjects 
are not connected : the mind, in the second case, is thrown 
back on the first for its subject ; and therefore the reader 
or speaker must raake a longer pause while reverting to 
the first-mentioned subject. It is useful to bear this 
distinction in mind, and to know that ' The miser loves 
money ; and he hates generosity, 'is not the same in mean- 
ing as ( The miser loves money, and he [meaning somebody 
else] hates generosity.' 

To connect the two propositions still more closely, and 
thereby necessitate the adoption of a still weaker point than 
a semicolon, as the meaning of the sentence would be very 
well understood without the repetition of the bastard sub- 
ject in the second affirmation, we will leave it out, and thus 
still further decrease the independence of construction. A 
comma will then be the proper point. 

The miser loves money, and hates generosity. 

Such sentences as these, where the two verbs denote two 
incongruous relations, can never be drawn into one affirma- 
tion ; because that would be contradictory in its very terms : 
and we have before seen, that the expression of each rela- 
tion of the subject is the affirmation of a distinct thought. 
But had there been but one relation expressed, or even two 
congruous relations, admitting of an imaginary or real com- 
bination, then the two propositions might have been made 
to constitute but one affirmation. For instance, had the 
sentences been, 'The miser loves gold The miser loves 
silver,' they might, as there is but one relation predicated 
of the subject, by adopting tlie process above exhibited, 
have been combined into one sentence, forming not more 
than one affirmation, although still containing the two pro- 
positions ; and we should then have had, * The miser loves 
old and silver.' 



NATURE OF SENTENCES, ETC. 103 

Or, had the sentences been, ' The miser loves gold 
The miser admires gold/ they might still have been 
compressed into one affirmation ; because, although it may 
be true that there are two different relations expressed, 
yet the ideas they convey are of a like nature : they are 
congruous, and easily combine in one homogeneous action. 
Consequently, we can very properly say, ' The miser loves 
and admires gold/ without separating the propositions by 
any point. 

This must constantly be borne in mind, that wherever 
there is incongruity of idea in the relations expressed, 
there is more than one affirmation or thought ; and con- 
sequently, between each proposition there must intervene 
some point : but if the relations be congruous, or of a like 
nature, arid the propositions be simple, then two or more 
propositions may be combined in one affirmation ; and no 
intervening point-mark will then be necessary. 

I say, two or more such propositions may be combined 
in one affirmation; yet this cannot always be the case: 
for if each verb has a different object, it is clear that there 
are two relations of the subject expressed, one towards 
the object of each proposition. For instance, ' The miser 
loves gold, and admires usury.' Therefore, in all cases 
of this sort, a point must separate each affirmation ; . that 
is, each relation of the subject to each object. But since, 
in the instance quoted, the two relations are congruous, 
nay, nearly synonymous, they might well be combined 
in one homogeneous relation, having both the objects for 
its complements ; and then the* two propositions would 
constitute but one affirmation, and would require no point 
to part them. We should then have, ' The miser loves and 
admires gold and silver.' 

Similarly, as two congruous relations may be united in 
one affirmation, and two objects made unitedly to receive 
this combined action, so may two subjects be also joined, 
to stand in an equal degree in a simple or combined 



104 ON PUNCTUATION. 

relation to one object, or to two objects, receiving in an 
equal ratio the action of the verbs. Example : 

The brave man and the coward both dread and abhor the 
thought of annihilation. 

Again, let it be observed, that the two subjects must 
unite in the action, which must proceed, with respect to 
them, paripassu; for if it does not, there is evidently not 
one and the same relation expressed of each subject, but 
a different relation; and this being so, there must be a 
point, to denote that difference. For instance, in the 
example given, had it been intended to affirm that the 
brave man views the thought of annihilation with a less 
degree of dread and fear than the coward, special words 
ought to have been introduced to that effect, which would 
consequently have prevented the formation of one com- 
bined or united action. 



SECT. 4. Of the Adjuncts of Propositions, and of Separable 
and Inseparable Subordinate Propositions. 

We have already seen how several simple propositions 
come to be united in one affirmation : we will next inquire 
how it happens that several adjuncts may be combined 
with each essential constituent part of a proposition, and 
yet that such proposition, or even more than one, may 
still comprehend no more than one affirmation. Afterwards, 
we will proceed to examine how the action of a verb 
can be extended to objects other than those on which it 
immediately falls, without exceeding the limits of one 
affirmation ; as also some other modes of extending the 
scope of an affirmation. 

I. 

As we had occasion to remark in another place, the 
subject, the relation- word, and the complement of a 



ADJUNCTS OF PROPOSITIONS, ETC. 105 

proposition, may each have modifying words attached to 
them, and yet the proposition in which they are found, 
may constitute but one affirmation. Example : 

The good man sincerely loves his neighbor. 

Here, the adjuncts, or modifying words, good, sincerely, 
and his, do not express independent ideas, nor indicate 
more than one relation : they merely denote a quality acci- 
dental to the words to which they are attached, rendering 
the ideas more complex, but not increasing their number ; 
for did the copiousness of our language furnish us with 
appropriate words to denote these modifications in their 
combined state, no more words would be used than in a 
simple proposition. We may approach this sentiment by 
the words ' Bonus peramat vicmum.' Hence, but one 
affirmation is propounded; and consequently no point is 
required to separate its parts. 

II. 

/ Not only can simple propositions receive an adjunct 
to each of their constituent members, but compound pro- 
positions are also capable of receiving like modifications, 
without still exceeding the limits of one affirmation ; 
providing there be but one relation, simple or combined, 
expressed. Example : 

The idle man and his careless wife ate and drank their 
whole substance. 

Here, although two verbs are used, yet their action 
is combined in one congruous relation, meaning that they 
consumed their whole substance. There is, then, but one 
thought enunciated, or one conjoint affirmation. 

III. 

The action of a verb can be conveyed to a remote ob- 
ject by means of a preposition, and yet this will express 



106 ON PUNCTUATION. 

but one relation, and consequently but one affirmation. 
Example : 

The man planted a tree in the garden. 

Here is but one action, that of planting ; and this 
action is only extended beyond its immediate object, not 
varied from it. Consequently, no point-mark can be 
required to denote any deviation of the original relation ; 
because no such deviation is affirmed. 

As was observed before, and may not perhaps be again 
uselessly noted, the order in which the words may happen 
to be placed, cannot necessarily have any influence in 
varying the relation expressed, nor, consequently, of in- 
creasing the number of affirmations ; providing there is 
but one action, simple or combined, intended. Hence, the 
foregoing sentence might have stood thus : 

In the garden the man planted a tree ; or, 
A tree in the garden the man planted ; or, 
The man in the garden planted a tree. 

For in all these cases the same notion is expressed, and 
the arrangement of the words is optional with the writer, 
who generally follows the prevailing idiom of the language 
in which he composes, according to his notion of per- 
spicuity or harmony. The mere fact of a longer pause 
being required between some words than others, can 
exercise no influence on the number of relations expressed ; 
for the variation of pause between the words of the same 
thought is a matter of rhetoric and feeling, but punctuation 
depends entirely upon the variation of relation, upon 
logical and grammatical principles. And although it may 
be true, that no point ought to be placed where no pause 
takes place, yet the converse does not hold ; for the style 
of writing employed may not unfrequently demand a pause 
where no point can with propriety be used. 



ADJUNCTS OF PROPOSITIONS, ETC. 107 

IY. 

The instrumentality through which the relation is 
effected may also be added to a proposition, without in- 
creasing the number of affirmations. Example : 

The master beat the scholar with a strap. 

For as some instrument must be employed in effecting 
most actions, the addition of this instrument to the pro- 
position does not necessarily increase the number of 
relations of the subject with its objects, nor, consequently, 
can it per se affect the punctuation. 

Y. 

Not only can a verb be followed by its direct comple- 
ment and the instrumental efficient of action, without 
exceeding the limits of one affirmation, but the action 
may be modified in any other manner, and the operation 
of the verb be extended, or not, to a remoter object, and 
yet with the same effect. Example : 

The man planted a tree in the garden with his own hands. 
The sailors waded through the river to the opposite bank. 

But if the modifying or extending word be merely added 
as explanatory information, and not as a necessary part 
of the modification or extension of one action, then a 
comma would be required ; because, then, two relations 
would be intended. Hence it appears, that no verb can 
be followed by two prepositions, with their cases, without 
the intervention of a comma, if a separate relation be 
intended to be expressed as to each of these remote 
objects. For instance, 

I paid the money into the hands of the banker, in three 
different payments. 

The man planted a tree in the garden, near the south 
wall. 



108 ON PUNCTUATION. 

The result of all this is, that we must always, in such 
cases, bear in mind, whether it is the intention of the 
writer to express two separate relations, or only an 
extension or modification of one relation, and to punctuate 
accordingly. 

Further, two prepositions with their complements may 
follow a verb, without any point being required, when the 
one is used with some other word as a mere adverbial 
qualification. Example : 

The letters were sent by mail to Southampton. 

In this case, the words ' by mail' merely denote the 
manner of sending, and therefore constitute a mere ad- 
verbial modification of the words ' were sent.' No fresh 
relation of the subject is indicated, and consequently no 
point is required. 

VI. 

The action 'of an intransitive verb can never fall upon 
a direct object, unless that object be of cognate meaning ; 
as, ' I think thoughts ;' * He lives a life of pain.' But if 
such action does purport, in words, to fall upon a direct 
complement which is not of cognate meaning, that object 
is the indirect complement, to which tire action of the 
verb is conveyed by means of a preposition understood. 
Example : 

John Levett ran John Jackson. 

Here, the action of running purports to fall directly on 
the complement, ' John Jackson. ' But this is not the 
case in fact. So far as the act of Levett's running was 
concerned, it was confined to himself alone, and never 
directly affected his opponent : he merely ran with him, 
against him, or in opposition to him. 

A means of knowing whether the action falls directly 
on the object, or not, is to try whether that action can be 



ADJUNCTS OF PROPOSITIONS, ETC. 109 

extended further by means of a preposition. If it can, 
then the verb is transitive ; if it can not, then the verb is 
intransitive. Thus, in the example, 'The gallant fellow 
conveyed his companion from the field of battle on his 
shoulders,' the action of the verb is extended from its im- 
mediate object, l his comrade,' by means of a preposition, 
to the scene on which it took place, ' the field of battle.' 
Such verb is therefore transitive. But in the sentence, 
* I believe your proposition,' the action of the verb can be 
carried no further; for although we may add, 'in its full 
extent,' this is a modification of the object, and not an 
extension of the action of the verb. The verb * believe' is 
therefore intransitive, and a preposition is understood 
between it and what appears as its direct object : ' I 
believe in your proposition.' 

It is for this reason, I suppose, that such words, in 
several languages, are not followed by the casus directus, 
or accusative, but by some oblique case. For instance: 
' Credo verbis ejus.' ' Je me fie d ses paroles.' ' iLorefo 
\6yo is e/ceiVou.' (I believe his words.)* 

VII. 

A proposition may have another proposition subor- 
dinate to it, but yet so intimately dependent upon it, as 
together to constitute but one affirmation. Example : 
All men respect him who is upright in his dealings. 

* It is true that in some languages there are verbs which 
govern two accusative or direct cases ; as in Greek, verbs of ' teach- 
ing,' 'concealing,' 'naming,' 'asking,' 'clothing,' &c. ; and, 
similarly, some Latin verbs have a like power ; but that does not 
really give such verbs two direct objects ; but only shows that it 
was the custom of those nations arbitrarily to assign such power to 
certain verbs. But the fact seems to be, that the latter accusative 
case depends upon a preposition understood. This perhaps explains 
why, in French, where no preposition governs the direct objective 
case, there is no verb which governs two objective cases, or, which is 
the same thing, has two direct complements. 



110 ON PUNCTUATION. 

Here, the proposition ' who is upright in his dealings,' is 
so intimately connected with the first proposition, 'All men 
respect him/ as to be indispensable to it, denoting a quality 
essentially inherent in the object which inspires respect, 
and therefore constituting no more than an adjectival 
'addition, equal to ' the just man.' Hence, there is but one 
affirmation. 

The German printers, I believe, make no such distinction 
between essential subordinate propositions and those 
merely contingent, but insert a point between all such 
propositions. Thus, with them, the above sentence would 
be thus punctuated : 

All men respect him, who is upright in his dealings. 

But to me it seems that the English system is prefer- 
able, as confusion frequently arises when a comma is in- 
serted before an inseparable dependent proposition ; only 
it must be borne in mind, that the subordinate proposition 
must constitute a quality essential to the character of the 
object of the preceding proposition. 

If the order of the propositions be reversed, and the 
explanatory proposition take the place of the principal one, 
then the comma may be inserted, whenever confusion 
would arise from its omission. Example : 

Him who is upright in his dealings, all men respect. 

Because, although the sense is the same as in the for- 
mer example, yet the second proposition does not form 
the object of the first, nor can it be regarded as a mere 
adjectival adjunct thereof. 

VIII. 

If the second proposition merely explains some cir- 
cumstance connected with the object of the first proposition, 
then the two cannot be amalgamated into one affirma- 
tion ; for, in that case, the object of the first proposition 



ADJUNCTS OF PROPOSITIONS, ETC. Ill 

becomes the subject of the second, and enters into another 
and separate relation with its own object. Example : 

The pilgrim found himself entangled in the wood, which 
abounded in prickly bushes. 

The last proposition is here merely added to explain 
an accidental circumstance connected with the wood. But 
were it the intention to show that this condition of the 
wood was an essential adjectival condition, no comma 
ought to be used. Thus : 

The pilgrim got entangled in a wood which abounded with 
prickly bushes. * 

IX. 

Two subjects, relation- words, or complements, may be 
joined by a conjunction, without the intervention of any 
point. Example : 

Peter and John were disciples. 

A wise and good man will speak and act conscientiously. 

Truth and virtue elevate and ennoble man or woman. 

But observe, 1st, The connecting words must be con- 
gruous^ and consistent with a combined action ; for (it can 
hardly be too often repeated) wherever there is difference 

* Propositions of this sort are called incidental : they are 
divided into two classes, determinative and explicative. An in- 
cidental determinative proposition expresses some indispensable 
circumstance of the principal proposition, in such a manner that it 
cannot be retrenched without destroying or altering the sense. 
Example : ' The passions which make the greatest ravages, are 
ambition and avarice.' But an incidental explicative proposition 
is added to another proposition for the purpose of explaining some 
circumstance not strictly necessary to it, in such sort that it can be 
omitted without destroying the sense. Example : * The passions, 
which are the maladies of the soul, arise from our revolt against 
reason.' In the former, no comma is inserted before the incidental 
proposition, although one may, for a reason which will be here- 
after given, very well follow it, as here ; in the latter, two commas 
are required. 



112 ON PUNCTUATION. 

of relation, expressed or implied, it is impossible that 
there can be but one thought. For instance, if one pro- 
position be positive, and the other negative, they must 
be separated by a mark of punctuation, although they 
may be joined by the conjunction and. Example : 
Mary, and not Martha, was at the feast. 

2nd. If the qualifying word belonging to one subject do 
not belong to the other subject with which it is connected 
by a conjunction, then the two subjects, &c., must be 
separated by a comma ; as, 

Great merit, and industry, do not always lead to success. 

In this example there is an incongruity between the 
subjects of the proposition, the one having a qualifying 
adjunct, which does not belong to the other ; and, con- 
sequently, they cannot admit of strict union. 

But perhaps such sentences as these are faulty ; since 
the ordinary property of the conjunction and is to denote 
combination ; and as this is not the intention here, the 
connecting words would more properly be e \vith,' ' com- 
bined with,' ' united with/ or something of that kind : 
' Great merit, with [united with] industry, does not always 
lead to success.' 

X. 

Although the conjunction usually employed to denote a 
conjoint action is 'and,' yet other conjunctions may also 
be used for that purpose, provided they imply a union of 
ideas or relations between the words they connect. So 
also a disjunctive conjunction may connect any two parts 
of a complex affirmation without the intervention of a 
point, provided the writer leaves it undetermined which 
of them he selects, or takes indifferently the one or the 
other. Examples : 

Neither the master nor the servant attends to business. 
Either the soldier or the sailor volunteered his services. 



AUJUNCTS OF PROPOSITIONS, ETC. 113 

The reason is, that in each of these sentences there is 
but one relation expressed, which either applies to both 
the subjects indifferently, or, as in the last example, the 
writer is doubtful to which it applies. But when the in- 
tention is to refer distinctly and specially to each subject, 
&c., then, as a relation is intended to be affirmed expressly 
of each, a comma must part such connected words, what- 
ever may be the conjunction used to connect them. Thus : 

Thomas, or John, took the paper to the post-office. 
You may have the black mare, also the gray horse. 

Because, here, in each case, two affirmations are intended 
to be expressed. In the first, the affirmation is made 
principally of i Thomas,* and only supplementarily or du- 
biously of ' John ;' and in the latter, the same may be also 
affirmed of the objects ' mare' and ' horse.' There is not a 
parity of relation intended : there must consequently be a 
modification assumed by the mind ; and such modification 
constitutes a difference, and therefore demands the intro- 
duction of a point to denote it. 

XI. 

Two propositions may be compared together without 
the intervention of a point, if one affirmation only is ex- 
pressed or implied. Examples : 

Peter is as wise as James. 

Boys love playing as well as reading. 

Man is cut down like a flower. 

For here the comparison is made pari passu, and but one 
assertion is made of the subject in each case. But if two 
affirmations be intended, then a point must separate each 
relation, although the very same words may be employed 
which ordinarily denote but one relation. Example : 

The industrious love diversion, as well as the idle. 
I 



114 ON PUNCTUATION. 

But one kind of relation is expressed in this sentence,- 
that of love ; but its degrees are different. There is not, 
therefore, a comparison pari passu, as there would be de- 
noted were the comma omitted. 

Several propositions, I doubt not, may be compressed 
into one affirmation in other ways than those I have 
pointed out ; but those given will be sufficient to guide the 
reader in forming an opinion in any case which may come 
under his notice. 



SECT. 5. The Connection of Affirmations, or Compound 
Sentences. 

The preceding sections of this chapter have been prin- 
cipally devoted to the definition of the nature of proposi- 
tions, and the illustration of the amalgamation of two or 
more of them in one affirmation ; nevertheless, various 
uses of the point-marks have incidentally, as a matter of 
course, been therein elucidated. Indeed, I trust I may 
say, that the groundwork of the art of punctuation has 
been already clearly exhibited ; and I miglit, perhaps, here 
leave the subject, with a reasonable conviction that the 
attentive reader will have reaped more real information 
from the few foregoing pages, than is contained in some 
volumes written expressly on this subject. But that I may 
make the matter as clear as I can to those to whom the 
language may appear at times somewhat abstruse, or the 
method unusual, I will proceed, in the next place, to the 
consideration of compound sentences, and the \ariouspoints 
used in their connection ; of which I will treat in order, 
although, during the investigation of one point, another 
will occasionally obtrude itself upon our notice, and call 
for a passing remark. We will begin, then, with the comma, 
and illustrate its use by sundry rules and observations. 



THE COMMA. 11 

EULE I. Two affirmations may be directly united con- 
junctively, and will then require to be parted by a comma. 
Examples : 

Truth ennobles man, and learning adorns him. 
Civility is a desire to receive civilities, and to be accounted 
well-bred. 

Eemark 1. If the subject of the first proposition be 
also the subject of the second, but not expressed therein, 
such proposition must nevertheless be parted by a comma ; 
for the first proposition is the expression of a complete 
thought ; and we have already seen, that when once a 
thought has been fully expressed, no mechanism of lan- 
guage can embody another with it. Examples : 

Virtue ennobles man, and adorns him. 

Truth is born with us, and is only discarded when we throw 
off the godlike simplicity of nature. 

Remark 2. If the connecting word be omitted, a link 
of union is consequently dropped ; and if the thoughts be 
still intended to stand in a dependent or connected relation, 
such omission must, as was observed in a previous section, 
be indicated by a point a degree stronger than would other- 
wise have been used. Examples : 

Truth ennobles man ; learning adorns him. 

The daisy is the flower of spring ; the rose, of summer. 

This observation will apply to all the rules which follow, 
wherever the nature of the point will admit of it. Neverthe- 
less, instances may arise when this mode of punctuation 
would be too stiff, especially when the object common to 
each proposition is followed by a preposition. Example : 

Mathematicians have sought knowledge in figures, philoso- 
phers in systems, logicians in subtilties, and metaphysicians in 
sounds. 

EULE II. Two affirmations connected disjunctively are 
properly separated by a comma. Examples : ; 

i 2 



116 ON PUNCTUATION. 

The Queen may arrive on Monday, or she may come some 
other day. 

The Parliament is not dissolved, but only prorogued. 

Remark 1. This rule results from the fact, that the kind 
of dependence or connection subsisting between twoaffirma- 

ns does not, of itself, bring them closer, or remove them 
further ; but the degree of dependence is the only guide. 

Remark 2. If this disjunctive relation be expressed 
indirectly, or there be an incongruity of time or other cir- 
cumstance, then a semicolon will be required. Examples : 

The Scholar's Handbook ; or, a Guide to Knowledge. 

Man may lay down wise plans ; but Fortune is the great 
arbiter of events. 

In the first example, the disjunctive relation is not ex- 
pressed equally, and therefore not in the most direct' 
manner ; the book indicated not being called indifferently 
either by one or the other name, but, emphatically, * The 
Scholar's Handbook,' and by way of supplement, as it 
were, f A Guide to Knowledge. 1 In the second example 
there is an incongruity in the propositions, the one being 
suppositions, and the other positive ; and as the latter 
does not immediately depend or flow from the other, they, 
necessarily, cannot be connected in the mind in the most 
intimate degree. Hence the necessity for a stronger point. 

HULE III. Affirmations may be connected compara- 
tivety, relatively, causatively, conditionally > infer entially, or 
in some other manner ; and if this be done in the most 
direct way, the proper point to separate any of these 
relations will be the comma. Examples : 

I love to walk in the meadows, as well as to sail on the 
wide sea. 

As many perished of hunger, as were slain by the sword. 

That man is remembered by posterity, who hath benefitted 
his kind. 

He gave money to the poor, that he might thereby pro- 
cure the reputation of a charitable man. 



THE COMMA. 117 

Should the governor come to town, the cotmcil will be 
held forthwith. 

From what has been already revealed, the minister inferred 
villanous treachery. 

Remark. The reason for this is clear, from what has 
been before stated. 

RULE IY. When the expression of an affirmation is 
interrupted by some explanatory or incidental affirmation, 
the beginning and the close of that parenthetical affirma- 
tion are generally denoted by a comma.* Examples : 

Romulus, who was the founder of Rome, lived 750 years 
before the Christian era. 

A lawgiver whose counsels are directed by views of general 
utility, and obstructed by no local impediment, would make 
the marriage contract indissoluble during the joint lives of 
the parties. 

Remark 1. If the interrupting words be of little con- 
sequence, that is, if they do not constitute an affirmation, 
but only denote a mere modification of an affirmation, 
then the comma may be properly omitted. Example : 

The marquis will certainly arrive to-morrow. 

Remark 2. The proper use of the comma, or its 
omission, in instances of this kind, must of course depend 
upon the judgement of the printer, not his mere whim or 
taste, as is sometimes erroneously fancied. Indeed, the 
process of punctuation constantly demands the exercise of 
judgement on the part of the compositor, to enable him to 
comprehend the meaning of his author, ,and to distribute 
and marshal his thoughts according to their relative 
degrees of dependence. 

Remark 3. Again, the subject of an affirmation may 
have certain words attached to it, which at first sight may 

* For the reason of this rule, and of some others which follow, 
the reader is referred to the general principles in the early part of 
the chapter. 



118 ON PUNCTUATION. 

look like a thought interposed between it and its pre- 
dicate, but may be nothing of the kind, but, in fact, con- 
stitute the predicate and complement of that proposition. 
Example : 

The French demurring to the conditions which the Eng- 
lish commander offered, again commenced the action. 

Here, the Frenchmen's demurring to the conditions is 
not mentioned incidentally, as a parenthetical explanation, 
but is the principal proposition of the sentence, from 
which the next proposition depends, having the same 
subject as the first, only not expressed, simply because it 
is sufficiently obvious without being repeated. This may 
be rendered clearer by a somewhat different example. 
Thus : 

The French having occupied Portugal, a British squadron, 
under Rear- Admiral Sir Samuel Hood, sailed for Madeira. 

In this sentence, it is evident that the proposition ' the 
French having occupied Portugal,' is that upon which all 
that follows depends. No point is put after the word 
' French,' because it does not constitute a subject separated 
from the predicative portion of the proposition of which it 
forms part, but is a subject having the other members of 
the proposition immediately following it. Let us try to 
sever it, and it will read : 

The French, having occupied Portugal, a British, &c- 

If having occupied Portugal is a merely explanatory 
proposition, it can be dispensed with ; and then how will 
the proposition which it is supposed to sever, read ? Thus : 
' The French a British squadron, &c.' It will be arrant 
nonsense. 

From want of observing this distinction, the most ab- 
surd punctuation is frequently adopted, confounding the 
sense and misleading the reader. 



THE COMMA. 119 

BULE V. Three or more subjects, predicates, or com- 
plements, with or without adjuncts, and also three or more 
adjuncts of any of the essential constituent parts of a pro- 
position, are separated by a comma. Example : 

Industry, honesty, and temperance, are essential to hap- 
piness. 

The verdant lawn, the shady grove, the variegated land- 
scape, the boundless ocean, and the starry firmament, are 
beautiful and magnificent objects. 

To live soberly, righteously, and piously, comprehends 
the whole of our duty. 

The man of virtue and honor will be trusted, relied upon, 
esteemed, respected. 

Remark 1. The reason on which the above rule is 
founded is this : Each word after which a point is placed, 
has its own relation, although, it may be common to it 
and others ; and as each relation must be parted from all 
other relations, and this cannot be done by a weaker point 
than a comma, whenever those relations, or words which 
leave them implied, immediately follow each other, that 
point then becomes the proper mark to denote it. 

Remark 2. Some printers omit the comma before the 
conjunction, and also the one immediately preceding the 
verb ; thus : ' Mermaids, fairies and pigmies are imaginary 
beings.' This is incorrect ; because, as the introduction 
of a comma after the first subject denotes that it is thereby 
separated from its copula and complement by an inter- 
vening thought, and as no comma is introduced to show 
the termination of that intervening thought, the first 
subject consequently stands alone, without any meaning 
whatever, as part of a distinct affirmation, with any of the 
following words, and, as here pointed, having a meaning 
entirely different from that intended to be conveyed : for 
' mermaids ' is here made a vocative case. Other printers 
only omit the comma immediately before the verb ; which 



120 ON PUNCTUATION. 

is not so objectionable ; nay, is perhaps sometimes ad- 
visable. 

Eemark 3. A comma should always be put after the 
last noun in a series, if it is not joined to the others by a 
conjunction, and does not end a sentence or clause; as, 
* Reputation, virtue, happiness, depend greatly on the 
choice of companions.' 

RULE VI. When three or more subjects, predicates, 
or complements, follow each other in immediate succes- 
sion, and connected by the conjunction and, each must 
take a comma after it, if the intention is thereby to point 
out each separate relation with greater emphasis: for the 
conjunctive particles do not necessarily always denote a 
union of relation. Examples : 

And there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, 
and an earthquake. 

By skill, and by resolution, and by caution, and by circum- 
spection, and by foresight, and by penetration, I brought that 
enterprise to a fortunate conclusion. 

But if the intention be to express as it were but one 
united action, by three or more combined agents, in short, 
if the object be the union of all the members, and not their 
emphatic individual action, then the comma may be pro- 
perly omitted. Example : 

God is wise and righteous and faithful. 

Let us freely drink in the soul of love and beauty and 
wisdom, from all nature and art and history. 

RULE VII. Three or more adjectives in immediate 
succession, with the conjunction and before the last only, 
will have a comma after each, except the last, if each 
adjective refers immediately to the noun which it qualifies. 
Examples : 



THE COMMA. 121 

Peter was a wise, holy, and energetic man. 

His method of handling the subject was ornate, learned, 
and perspicuous. 

The most innocent pleasures are the sweetest, the most 
suitable, the most affecting, and the most lasting. 

But if the preceding adjective merely modifies another 
following adjective (without, however, constituting with it 
but one compound word), and has not immediate reference 
to the noun substantive common to both, then, as such 
adjective does not denote a distinct and separate modifi- 
cation, no comma should part it from the adjective to 
which it refers as it were adverbially. Examples : 

Mr. Byng was a fine old English gentleman. 

The square contained sixty large brick houses. 

Plain honest truth wants no coloring. 

True religion gives a native unaffected ease to the behaviour. 

Remark 1. It may be sometimes rather difficult to 
determine whether an adjective qualifies another, or not. 
A convenient help towards settling this point, is to con- 
sider whether the adjectives are of a similar character, 
and to separate them if they are ; for although an adjec- 
tive may easily modify another of a different nature, it 
cannot so easily ally itself to one of a like kind with itself, 
unless the two together constitute but one compound 
word. Examples : 

He was a good, kind father to his children. 

Ulysses was a wise, eloquent, cautious, and intrepid leader. 

Here we place a comma after each adjective but the last, 
in truth, because each points out a distinct accident of the 
following noun ; but it will be observed, they are of a like 
character, expressive of certain moral or mental attri- 
butes. But in the following sentence we put no comma : 



122 ON PUNCTUATION. 

The sailor was accompanied by a great rough. Newfound- 
land dog. 

The reason for this distinction is given above. For 
our present purpose, I need only remark, that the adjec- 
tives are all of a different kind, each being, as it were, 
of a successively more generic character than its prede- 
cessor. In the former examples, the adjectives could be 
well connected by the conjunction and ; in the latter, they 
could not. 

But, as was before stated, two adjectives may together 
constitute but one modification : they will then, conse- 
quently, form but one word, the parts of which (as 
explained more at large in another place) may be sepa- 
rated by a hyphen, or the two words may coalesce ; as in 
this sentence : 

The singer possessed a remarkably clear-toned voice, which 
echoed through the many-aisled church. 

EULE VIII. Adverbs, conjunctions, and other par- 
ticles, must sometimes be parted from the rest of the 
sentence by a comma, and sometimes no point should 
intervene. 

Remark. The reason for this is, that all adverbs and 
conjunctions, and perhaps all other particles, contain in 
themselves some latent proposition ; and as we have before 
seen that a proposition may be a complete affirmation, or 
may not, and that when it does constitute a complete 
affirmation, some point must part it from other affirma- 
tions ; even so is it with particles, or sentence-words : 
when they are intended to constitute a distinct affirma- 
tion, then a point must part them from other affirmations ; 
but if they are but a mere modification of an affirmation, 
they necessarily belong to it, and must not be parted from 
it by any point. The discovery of this distinction, in each 
case, must afford matter for the discrimination of the 
compositor, guided by the emphasis which the writer may 



THE COMMA. 123 

desire to give to each particular word ; font it is never a 
matter on which the sheer whim or caprice of the press- 
corrector can be exercised at random. Subjoined are some 
examples where the distinction may be pretty clearly 
discerned. 

I believed, and therefore I spoke. 

In accordance, therefore, with the priest's wishes, the man 
was liberated. 

In any case, however, the siphon may be filled. 

However the siphon may be filled. 

However, the siphon may be filled. 

The messenger reported the words correctly. 

Truly, what he said was correct. 

Truly has it been said, the heart of man is deceitful, and 
desperately wicked. 

KTJLE IX. Strictly speaking, as hns been before 
observed, no. intransitive verb can be followed by a direct 
object, unless that object be a word of cognate meaning ; 
for, by its very nature, it is a verb which does not operate 
beyond its own sphere. Neither can any clause introduced 
by a conjunction be the direct complement of any verb; 
for the introduction of the conjunction necessarily indicates 
a deviation from the direct line of the action of the verb, 
in order to introduce some other relation in an oblique or 
contingent manner. Hence, although we may properly 
say, * The man ran a race/ i I think thoughts,' without 
a comma between the intransitive verb and its cognate 
object, we cannot, strictly and logically speaking, say, 'I 
think you speak truly,' ' I believe that he will come,' 
without using a comma after the verb; for the latter pro- 
position is not the direct complement of the former : my 
4 thinking' or ' believing' being an act entirely confined to 
myself, the operation of the mind does not pass on directly 
to any object. Therefore, in instances of this sort, all 
such clauses might not incorrectly be separated from the 



124 ON PUNCTUATION. 

principal clause by a comma, as is invariably done by the 
German printers. Thus, they would point, * 

I believe, that they spoke truly. 

Nevertheless, when the verb is active, although in- 
transitive, and its action seems to fall immediately on the 
following proposition, it is customary in English (and 
I do not think it would be advisable, as a general rule, to 
alter the practice) to dispense with the comma ; as in this 
sentence : 

They say that Parliament will assemble in tlyree weeks. 

But with impersonal passive verbs, the comma is better 
retained. Example : 

It is said, that the Government intend to propose a new 
Reform Bill early in the session of parliament. 

Because, here, the subjective part of the sentence 
occupies the place of the objective, and in that objective 
part there is assumed a subject, gathered from the 
apparent objective, upon which the action of the verb 
seems to terminate. But if an impersonal verb in the 
passive voice be followed by another verb in the infinitive 
mood, the comma may be omitted ; for then there is only 
something affirmed of the assumed indefinite subject. 
Example : 

It is believed to be true. 

Remark. Although I have, I hope, pretty clearly shown 
that no intransitive verb can have a direct complement 
or object, yet such verbs may have indirect complements, 
the relation subsisting between which will be indicated 
by means of a preposition, expressed or understood. 

Example : 

The jury believed the witnesses. 

At first sight, 'the witnesses' would appear to be 
the direct complement of the verb ' believe ;' but a little 



THE COMMA. 125 

reflection will show that, in fact, the belief of the jurors 
does not act at all immediately on the witnesses ; but that 
they believe in, or give credence to, their words. * In * or 
4 to' is, therefore, the preposition (understood) which 
applies here, and indicates the indirect relation of the 
preceding subject to the noun following the verb. 

EULE X. It has been already shown, that no two verbs 
can, strictly speaking, enter into one affirmation, unless 
the one be the direct complement of the other : therefore, 
in sentences formed with the verb * to be ' and its accom- 
paniments, and another verb and its accompaniments, a 
comma must intervene. Examples : 

My opinion is, that it can be done. 

The question is, Can it be performed ? 
But if no other verb be introduced in the sentence, 
then a comma is not required ; for but one relation is then 
expressed ; as in this sentence : 

The result was a verdict of manslaughter. 



Numerous other rules might be introduced, for the 
purpose of illustrating the use of the comma in parting 
two affirmations; but as these could only be further 
elucidations of the same principle, I will confine myself to 
such as are generally laid down by writers on this subject, 
and to an explanation of the grounds on which they are 
based ; even although that may involve some repetition of 
what has been already said. 

EULE XI. When a phrase is inverted, it should be 
separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma, if the 
omission of the point would lead to obscurity of meaning. 
Examples : 

To the wise and good, old age presents a scene of tranquil 
enjoyment. 

Of all our senses, sight is the most perfect and delightful. 



126 ON PUNCTUATION. 

Of all the passions, vanity is the most universal. 
Of good delivery, distinct articulation is a fundamental 
requisite. 

To every one of these, young persons are strangers. 

Remark. Strictly speaking, this rule transgresses one 
of the fundamental laws of punctuation, and should there- 
fore only be adopted when confusion or mistake would 
arise from the omission of the comma ; in all other 
instances, no point should intervene between the parts of 
what is, after all, but one affirmation. Therefore omit it 
in cases like the following : 

In infancy the mind is peculiarly ductile. 
With that portion of the work I am the least satisfied. 
That interesting and valuable history he did not read. 
At the bottom of the garden ran a little rivulet. 

EULE XII. Substantives, or any words of the same 
part of speech, immediately following one another, in the 
same case, tense, &c., and joined in pairs by the con- 
junction and or or, are separated in pairs by a comma. 
Examples : 

Interest and ambition, honor and shame, friendship and 
enmity, gratitude and revenge, are the prime movers in all 
public transactions. 

Let subtle schoolmen teach their friends to fight, 
More studious to divide than to unite ; 
And Grace and Virtue, Sense and Reason split, 
With all the rash dexterity of wit. 

In the eclogue there must be nothing rude or vulgar ; 
nothing fanciful or affected ; nothing subtle or abstruse. 

Remark, This rule depends upon the same principle 
as that by which any two subjects, predicates, objects, or 
adjuncts, may be combined, without any point-mark inter- 
vening. 

RULE XIII. Expressions in direct addresses, or what 



THE COMMA. 127 

is called in Latin the vocative case, are separated from 
the rest of the sentence by a comma. Examples : 

My son, give me thy heart. 

I am obliged to you, my friend, for your many favors. 

These are thy glorious works, Parent of Good ! 

Remark. The reason for this is clear. This vocative 
case is a proposition, either interposed in another pro- 
position, or preceding or following one ; but not consti- 
tuting therewith but one affirmation. 

KULE XIY. Two words of the same part of speech, 
and in the same construction, without a conjunction to 
unite them, are separated by a comma. Examples : 

Lend, lend your wings. 

The dignity of man consisteth in thought, intelligence. 
Can flattery soothe the dull, cold ear of death ? 
We are fearfully, wonderfully made. 

Remark 1. Besides the comma inserted between two 
nouns, another is put after the last, when it does not end 
a sentence or a clause. Example : 

Thought, thought, is the fundamental distinction of mind. 

This is done for the purpose of showing that both 
nouns have an equal relation to what follows. 

Remark 2. When the iterated word resumes an inter- 
rupted sentiment, a dash is used before the repetition, 
instead of the comma. Example : 

But I fear I fear Richard hardly thought the terms pro- 
posed were worthy of his acceptance. 

RULE XY. Nouns in apposition, that is, nouns 
added to other nouns in the same case, by way of explica- 
tion, when accompanied with adjuncts, are separated 
from the rest of the sentence by commas. Examples : 



128 ON PUNCTUATION. 

Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles, was eminent for his zeal 
and knowledge. 

Romulus, the founder of Rome, lived 750 years before the 
Christian era. 

But if the nouns are not accompanied by adjuncts, 
and the one is used as it were demonstratively of the 
other, then they are not divided by a comma. Examples : 

The patriarch Abraham was called the father of the faithful. 

Edward the Confessor was guilty of great cruelty to his 
mother. 

Edward the Black Prince wore black armour. 

Remark. In the first case there is an explanatory 
proposition interposed between the subject of the main 
proposition and its predicate ; but in the latter the words 
bear more the relation of Christian and surname, than of 
an explanatory clause defining some accidental condition 
or circumstance. 

RULE XVI. A noun or pronoun in what is called 
the case absolute, and the participle, &c., with which it is 
connected, when it commences a sentence, or occurs in the 
middle of one, should be separated from the rest of the 
sentence by a comma. Examples : 

Harold being slain in the field, the conqueror marched 
directly to London, 

The armada being thus happily defeated, the nation 
resounded with shouts of joy. 

God, from the mount of Sinai, whose gray top 
Shall tremble, he descending, will himself ordain 
Them laws. 

Remark. This case absolute constitutes a conditional 
proposition, from which what follows depends ; and hence, 
as was more largely illustrated under a previous rule, a 
point-mark must intervene. 



THE COMMA. 129 

ROLE XVII. If words be placed in opposition to 
each other, or with some marked variety, they should be 
distinguished by the insertion of a comma. Examples : 

Good men, in this frail, imperfect state, are often found, 
not only in union with, but in opposition to, the views and 
conduct of one another. 

The goods of this world were given to man for his occa- 
sional refreshment, not for his chief felicity. 

But if the word to which the prepositions refer comes 
alone, or with merely an adjunct after the last preposition, 
it is better to omit the comma before it. Examples : 

Many states are in alliance with, and under the protection 
of France. 

Several nations, particularly the United States, trade with, 
and are greatly influenced by England. 

It is better to be friends with, than enemies to our brethren. 

Remark. In the latter case there can be no possibility 
of mistaking the common complement of each proposition, 
whilst, in the former, such mistake might easily take 
place, were there no comma. 

RULE XVIII. In a compound sentence, where a verb, 
or other word of connection, is not expressed, but under- 
stood, a comma should be introduced. Examples : 

From law arises security ; from security, curiosity ; from 
curiosity, knowledge. 

If spring put forth no blossoms, in summer there will be 
no beauty, and in autumn, no iruit. So, if youth be trifled 
away without improvement, manhood will be contemptible, 
and old age, miserable. 

Remark. This rule derives its force from the fact, 
that there is here a link in the chain of connection 
omitted ; and such omission, I may be pardoned for again, 
repeating, is equivalent to a step in punctuation. 



130 ON PUNCTUATION. 

KULE XIX. Such words as nay, so, hence, again, first, 
secondly ', &c., formerly, now, lastly, once more, above all, on 
the contrary, in the next place, in short, and all other 
words and phrases of a like nature, should, or should not, 
be separated from the context by a comma, according to 
the circumstances of each case. Examples : 

Be assured, then, that order, frugality, and economy, are 
the necessary supporters of every personal and private virtue. 

Here all is bustle and tumult ; there all is serene and orderly. 

Remark. The circumstances on which this rule depends 
are these : All such words and phrases are propositions, 
expressed with more or less clearness ; and every proposi- 
tion may either constitute a complete affirmation, or it 
may be only a modification of a more important proposi- 
tion. When the first is the case, of course words of this 
kind must be parted from the context by a comma ; when 
the latter, the comma must be omitted. Nevertheless, 
the rule is not arbitrary, as some seem to imagine, but re- 
quires a nice appreciation of the intention of the writer, 
in its application. 

KULE XX. When a new member is added to a sen- 
tence, that member, with its connecting particle, must be 
separated from the preceding member by a comma at tlie 
least. The principal of such connecting words are and, 
as, because, before, both, but t either, or, neither, nor, even, 
except, if, less, provided, since, so, than, that, then, thoygh, 
unless, when, while, whether, &c. Examples : 

Virtue is the highest proof of a superior understanding, 
and the only basis of greatness. 

Good-nature never appears to so much advantage, as when 
it is polished by good-breeding. 

Meadows and rivulets have their charms, as well as moun- 
tains and oceans. 

Some people are unpolite, because they do not kno\v the 
world. 



THE COMMA. 131 

A diamond must be polished, before it can appear to advan- 
tage. 

Affectation will not only destroy beauty, but even change 
it into deformity. 

A good man will certainly be happy, either in this life or 
in the next. 

Remark. The reason for this rule, and the exceptions 
to it, must be sought for in previous remarks. 

EULE XXI. Such words as namely, that is, &c., if 
they serve only to introduce an explanatory clause, and 
form but one affirmation with it, must not be separated 
from that clause by a comma ; but if they constitute of 
themselves an affirmation, then a comma must part them 
from the affirmation which follows. Example : 

One of this author's works namely his treatise on optics 
displays considerable knowledge of the laws of nature. 

For how does this sentence really differ from the fol- 
lowing : Some of this writer's works especially his trea- 
tise on optics display, &c. 

There is one disease to which the human frame is subject 
(which is gout), which is never wholly eradicated from the 
human constitution. 

Furnish a proper answer to the following query ; that is, 
explain it in such a manner that it can be readily understood 
by a person of ordinary capacity. 

JRemark. Sometimes such words as namely, that is, &c., 
require to be parted from the preceding member of the 
sentence by a comma, and sometimes by a semicolon. A 
simple rule to guide us in the right application of this 
distinction is the following : If the preceding member of 
the sentence contains the explanation to which namely, &c., 
refers, then this word must necessarily be more closely 
connected with it, than it would be were the explanation 
contained in the clause which follows. For example : 
K 2 



132 ON PUNCTUATION. 

1 In the investigation of the value of life-interests, that is,, 
the condition and circumstances of the parties must be 
well considered.' But if the explanation is contained in 
the part of the sentence which follows namely, it is evident 
that a stronger point, generally a semicolon, must precede. 
Example : 

The fable contains an exceedingly just and prudent admo- 
nition; namely, that we are not to expect the discovery of 
things useful in common life from abstract philosophy. 

2. The Semicolon. 

Incidentally, in the previous parts of this chapter, 
various applications of this point have been elucidated, 
which cannot have escaped the attentive reader's observa- 
tion ; but its principal uses will be shown in the following 
rules : 

EULE I. The main purpose of this point is to mark 
the assumption of a leading proposition, connected by 
some particle, after the expression of some other prin- 
cipal proposition and its dependent clause or clauses. 
Examples : 

The temperate man's pleasures are durable, because they 
are regular ; and all his life is calm and serene, because it is 
innocent. 

Whoso loveth instruction, loveth knowledge ; but he that 
hateth reproof, is foolish. 

To feel old age coming on, will so little mortify a wise 
man. that he can think of it with pleasure ; and the'decay of 
nature shows him, that the happy change of state for which 
he has been all his life preparing himself, is drawing nearer. 

Remark. The reason on which this rule is based is 
clear: no principal affirmation of a sentence can be so 
intimately connected with another affirmation, as the 
dependent clauses of that affirmation are. 



THE SEMICOLON. 133 

RULE II. If a consequence be deduced from a leading 
proposition and its clauses, or from more than one leading 
proposition, that consequence will be parted from those 
clauses by a semicolon or a colon. Examples : 

That patriotism which, catching its inspirations from the 
immortal God, and leaving at an immeasurable distance below, 
all lesser, grovelling, personal interests and feelings, animates 
and prompts to deeds of self-sacrifice, of valour, of devotion, 
and of death itself ; that is public virtue, that is the noblest, 
the sublimest, of all public virtues. 

If you desire to live honored and respected in the world, 
and to be remembered when your bones are crumbling in the 
dust ; live more for the benefit of others than for your indi- 
vidual advantage. 

When ambition practises the monstrous doctrine of millions 
made for individuals, their playthings, to be demolished at 
their caprice ; sporting wantonly with the rights, the peace, 
the comforts, the existence, of nations, as if their intoxicated 
pride would, if possible, make God's earth itself their football : 
is not the good man indignant ? 

Remark. In drawing a conclusion from more than 
one affirmation, the mind must necessarily pause for a 
longer time in taking a survey of all that has gone before, 
than it did in the affirmation of any of those connected 
thoughts. Hence, the rule is founded on good sense and 
reason. Nevertheless, some punctuators use a comma and 
a dash for this purpose ; and as it avoids all confusion, it 
is generally preferable. Example : 

As soon as the Queen shall come to London, and the 
houses of Parliament shall be opened, and the speech from 
the throne delivered, then will begin the great struggle of 
the contending factions. 

RULE III. If a consequence be drawn, not from the 
preceding affirmation, but from something which follows, 
that consequence must be parted from the preceding affirm- 
ation by a semicolon. Examples : 

Those faults whiph. arise from the will are intolerable ; for 



134 ON PUNCTUATION. 

dull and insipid is every performance where inclination- bears 
ho part. 

Economy is no disgrace ; for it is better to live on a little 
than to outlive a great deal. 

The conveniences of fraud are of short duration ; for if a 
person be once detected in uttering a falsehood, he will not be 
believed when he speaks the truth. 

Remark. This rule calls for no observation, if what 
has been already said be borne in mind. 

RULE IV. Although adverted to more than once 
before, it may perhaps be as well to repeat here, as in its 
peculiarly appropriate place, that when the connecting 
particle is omitted between two affirmations, a semicolon 
then becomes the proper point. Examples : 

To err is human ; to forgive, divine. 

Never speak concerning what you are ignorant of ; speak 
little of what you know ; and whether you speak or say not a 
word, do it with judgement. 

Remark. When, in a series of short sentences, each 
particular is constructed exactly alike, and the last is 
preceded by the conjunction and, the separation may be 
indicated by a comma, instead of a semicolon ; as, ' The 
pride of wealth is contemptible, the pride of learning is 
pitiable, the pride of dignity is ridiculous, and the pride 
of bigotry is insupportable.' 

RULE Y. A semicolon is put between two or more 
parts of a sentence, when these, or any of them, are divi- 
sible by a comma into smaller portions. Examples : 

The noblest prophets and apostles have been children once ; 
lisping the speech, laughing the laugh, thinking the thought, 
of boyhood. 

As we perceive the shadow to have moved, but did not 
perceive its moving; so our advances in learning, as they 
consist of such minute steps, are only perceivable by the 
distance. 



THE COLON. 135 

Remark. It is obvious, that if. the smaller portions of 
a sentence require to be separated by commas, the larger 
divisions must necessarily be separated by a stronger 
point. 

RULE VI. When the particulars in a series of clauses 
depend on a commencing or a concluding portion of the 
sentence, they are separated from each other by a semi- 
colon. Example : 

To give an early preference to honor above gain, when they 
stand in competition ; to despise every advantage which cannot 
be attained without dishonest arts ; to brook no meanness, and 
stoop to no dissimulation,- are the indications of a great mind, 
the presages of future eminence and usefulness in life. 

3. The Colon. 

During the course of the preceding investigations, 
various uses of this point have also been incidentally 
pointed out. We may say of it generally, that it is used 
to separate those parts of a sentence which have very 
little dependence on each other in construction, or which 
re only removed one degree from complete independ- 
ence. What I shall do now will be merely to point out 
more specifically the generality of those uses ; but as 
the fundamental principles on which they rest have been 
before explained, these must be sought for in the earlier 
sections of this chapter. 

EULE I. A colon is used to separate the members 
of a compound sentence, when the connecting word is 
omitted, and yet the parts are not independent. Ex- 
amples : 

Suspect a talebearer, and never trust him with thy secrets 
who is fond of entertaining thee with those of others : 110 wise 
man will put good liquor in a leaky vessel. 

In business there is something more than barter, exchange, 
price, payment : there is a sacred faith of man hi man. 



136 ON PUNCTUATION. 

Rebuke thy son in private: public rebuke hardens the 
heart. 

Study to acquire a habit of thinking : no study is more 
important. 

Remark. If both the members of a sentence depend 
upon one verb, then, even when the connecting particle is 
omitted, a semicolon will be the proper point ; as, ' The 
path of truth is a plain and safe path ; that of falsehood, a 
perplexing maze. 

RULE II. If any of the parts of the members of a 
compound sentence are separated by a semicolon, then the 
principal members must be parted by a colon, although 
a connecting word may be used. Examples : 

As we perceive the shadow to have moved along the dial, 
but did not see it moving ; and it appears that the grass has 
grown, though nobody ever saw it grow : so the advances we 
make in knowledge, as they consist of such minute steps, are 
only perceivable by the distance. 

Without the capacity of suffering, we might have been 
what the world, in its common language, terms happy ; the 
passive subjects of a series of agreeable sensations : but we 
could not have had the delights of conscience ; we could not 
have felt what it is to be magnanimous, to have the toil and 
the combat and the victory. 

RULE III. The colon is admissible when the matter 
which precedes it is complete in grammatical construc- 
tion, but is followed by some illustrative observation. 
Example : 

To give alms is the action ofj a man who may be supposed 
to know the value of what he bestows, and the want his fellow- 
creature has of it : a child, who knows nothing of either, can 
have no merit in giving alms. 

Remark. This rule is almost identical with Rule I. 

RULE IV. Several colons may follow in succession, 
when a sentence is composed of various detached affirma- 



THE COLON. 137 

tions, having no necessary connection, but only an implied 
or suppositions one, arising from the same general ten- 
dency of all the affirmations. Example : 

If you have providence to foresee a danger, let your pru- 
dence rather prevent it than fear it : the fear of future evil 
brings oftentimes a present mischief : whilst you seek to pre- 
vent it, practise to bear it : he is a wise man that can avoid an 
evil ; he is a patient man that can endure it ; but he is a valiant 
man that can conquer it. 

Remark. This rule depends upon the general principle 
already adverted to more than once. 

EULE Y. A colon is used before the introduction of a 
quotation, a speech, a course of reasoning, or a specifica- 
tion of articles or subjects, when formally introduced. 
Examples : 

Always remember the ancient maxim : Know thyself. 
Thomson begins his Hymn on the Seasons in the following 
manner : 

These as they change, Almighty Father, these 
Are but the varied God. 

The air was sweet and plaintive ; and the words, literally 
translated, were these : ' * The winds roared and the rains fell, 
when the poor white man, faint and weary, came and sat 
under our tree." 

Remark 1. If such words as as, namely, that is, &c., 
introduce a quotation, they should be preceded by a semi- 
colon and followed by a comma; for the introduction of 
these connecting words necessarily indicates a closer de- 
pendence. Example : ' I purchased the following articles ; 
namely, tea, sugar, coffee, and raisins.' But if the words 
thus introduced form altogether but a parenthetical ex- 
pression, a comma only should precede ; as, ' The word 
reeky that is, care, denotes a stretching of the inind.' 

RemarkZ. When the subjects, or things specified, 
consist of words or phrases in apposition with a preceding 
noun, or with that which is equivalent to it, without any 



138 ON PUNCTUATION. 

formal introduction, a comma and a dash are used. 
Example : ' Energy and audacity of will characterize all 
ruling men, statesmen, generals, reformers, orators.' 



Before dismissing the colon, it may not be improper to 
observe, that every verse in the Psalms, the Te Deum, and 
some other parts of the Liturgy of the Church of England, 
are divided by a colon, although no point is required b 
the sense. The use of the colon, however, in the Liturgy, 
is of great service, it being calculai/ed for choirs, where the 
parts are always chanted ; the chant being divided by it 
into two portions. We are told that the Psalms are 
tc pointed as they are to be sung or said in churches ;" but 
the colon is not to be regarded in reading them, unless it 
happens to be placed in conformity to the rules of punc- 
tuation. Indeed it frequently happens that no point 
(properly so called) should be inserted where the colon is 
placed : sometimes a comma is requisite, and sometimes a 
semicolon, for the right understanding of the passage. 

4. The Period, or Full Stop. 

When an affirmation has no dependence or connection, 
in construction, with the one that follows it, that affirma- 
tion constitutes a complete sentence, and demands a full 
stop, however short it may be. Examples : 

Fear God. Honor the King. Pray without ceasing. 
Truth is the basis of every virtue. Let its precepts be reli- 
giously obeyed. 

Remark 1. The notion of parting short independent 
sentences otherwise than by a full stop, rests upon no 
rational foundation, and leads to endless perplexities : for 
how is the standard of mere length to be defined, without 
regard to the constituent parts of a sentence 1 

Remark 2. If a deduction, inference, &c., be drawn 



THE PERIOD. 139 

from several affirmations, a colon should precede the word 
which introduces such inference, &c. ; but if the sentence 
be very long, and stronger points than the comma have 
been before introduced, a full point even may be employed. 
Example : 

There is no one of ever so little understanding in what 
belongs to the human constitution, who knows not, that 
without action, motion, and employment, the body languishes 
and is oppressed ; its nourishment runs to disease ; the spirits, 
employed abroad, help to consume the parts within ; and 
nature, as it were, preys upon herself. For, although an incli- 
nation to ease, and moderate rest from action, be as natural 
and useful to us as the inclination we have towards sleep, yet 
an excessive love of rest, and a contracted aversion to employ- 
ment, must be a disease in tha mind, equal to that of a lethargy 
in the body. 

Remark 3. It is by no means a certain sign that a 
sentence has some dependence, in construction, on the one 
that precedes it, simply because the latter may be intro- 
duced by a conjunction ; for those words sometimes serve 
as a mere starting-point to a sentence, without having any 
very definite meaning. In the Bible they even frequently 
begin a chapter. Take an example in illustration : 

There are thoughts and images flashing across the mind 
in its highest moods, to which we give the name of inspiration. 
But whom do we honor with this title of the inspired poet ? 

Remark 4. Another use of the full point, which often 
occurs, is to mark abbreviations ; of which we will speak 
in another place; merely observing here, that in contrac- 
tions of words derived from a foreign language, and used 
in English, in an abbreviated form, as if they were real 
words, the full point should be omitted. Examples : 
' Two per cent is but small interest.' ' The pros and the 
cons were equally divided.' 

The remaining point-marks, to which we adverted in 
p. 97, here follow, together with directions for their proper 
application. 



140 ON PUNCTUATION. 



5. The Interrogation. 

BULE I. A note of interrogation is used at the end of 
an interrogative sentence ; that is, whenever a question is 
asked. Examples : 

What does the pedant mean ? 

Shall little, haughty ignorance pronounce 
His work unwise, of which the smallest part 
Exceeds the narrow vision of the mind ? 

How can he exalt his thoughts to anything great or noble, 
who only believes, that, after a short turn on the stage of 
existence, he is to sink into oblivion, and to lose his con- 
sciousness for ever ? 

EULE II. Sometimes several apparent questions are 
included in one sentence ; when it may not be necessary 
to use more than one interrogation at the end. Ex- 
amples: 

Do the ambitious lay such mighty projects, and compass 
their designs with such pain and difficulty, for mere pageantry 
and gaudy trifles ; and shall I, who am a candidate for heaven, 
a probationer for celestial dignity, lose my title for want of 
diligence ? 

Ah ! whither now are fled those dreams of greatness ; those 
busy, bustling days ; those gay-spent, festive nights ; those 
veering thoughts, lost between good and ill, that shared 
thy life ? 

Remark 1. The fact is, that there is in these examples 
but one cumulative question, to which but one, if any, 
answer is required. Were there distinct questions put, 
and an answer required to each, then each interrogation 
should be marked with its appropriate sign ; for there 
would be so many interrogative sentences. Example : 

Was the prisoner alone when he was apprehended ? Was 
he drunk? Is he known to the police ? Has he any regular 
occupation ? Where does he dwell ? What is his name ? 



THE INTERROGATION. 141 

Remark 2. When sentences or expressions, which 
were affirmative when spoken or written, are quoted by a 
writer in the form of a question, the interrogative point- 
mark should follow the quotation-marks, and not precede 
them. For example : 

" The passing crowd" is a phrase coined in the spirit of 
indifference. Yet, to a rrian of what Plato calls " universal 
sympathies," and even to the plain, ordinary denizens of this 
world, what can be more interesting than ** the passing 
crowd"? 

The reason is clear : the words quoted are those of 
another, but the question is the writer's own. Never- 
theless, for the sake of neatness, the ordinary points, such 
as the comma, semicolon, colon, and full stop, precede the 
quotation-marks in instances analogous to the one quoted ; 
but the exclamation follows the same rule as the interro- 
gation. 

RULE III. An interrogation should not be used in 
cases where it is only stated that a question has been 
asked, and where the words are not used as a question. 
Examples : 

The Cyprians asked me why I wept. 

Diogenes being asked how one should be revenged of his 
enemy, answered, By being a virtuous and an honest man. 

I was asked if I would stop for dinner. 

Remark. To put a note of interrogation at the end of 
these apparent interrogative sentences would be wrong ; 
for the design here is not to elicit an answer, but merely 
to state a fact. Hence it follows, that whenever the in- 
tention is to evoke an answer, the words employed for that 
purpose must be followed by an interrogative point, 
whether they assume the ordinary form of an interroga- 
tion, or not. Example : ' You are deprived of the com- 
pany of your friend?' For here, although the sentence 
has the form of a positive affirmation, yet the speaker is 



142 ON PUNCTUATION. 

not so certain of the fact which he appears to assert, but 
that he requires his opinion to be further corroborated. 
He therefore indicates such wish by the manner in which 
lie utters the words ; and that wish or intention constitutes 
the essence of the interrogation. 

6. The Exclamation. 

EULE I. This point is used to denote any sudden 
emotion of the mind, whether of joy, grief, surprise, fear, 
or any other sensation ; and whether expressed by one or 
more words. Examples : 

My friend ! this conduct amazes me ! 

Away ! all ye Csesars and Napoleons ! to your own dark 
and frightful domains of slaughter and misery. 

What a piece of work is man ! how noble in reason ! how 
infinite in faculties ! in form and moving, how express and 
admirable ! in action, how like an angel ! in apprehension, how 
like a God ! 

Ah ! the laborious indolence of him who has nothing to 
do ! the preying weariness, the stagnant ennui, of him who 
has nothing to obtain ! 

Hail, source of Being ! Universal Soul ! 

Remark. Unless attention be paid to what was said 
under the head of the interrogation, it may sometimes be 
difficult to distinguish an interrogative from an excla- 
matory sentence ; but a sentence in which any wonder or 
admiration is expressed, and no answer is either expected 
or implied, must be terminated with a note of admiration. 
As for example : 

How mischievous are the effects of war ! 
Who can sufficiently express the goodness of our Creator ! 
What must God himself be, when his works are so mag- 
nificent ! 

RULE II. When an ironical expression is used, in the 
form of an exclamation, the note of admiration must be 
inserted. Examples : 



THE EXCLAMATION. 143 

excellent guardian of the sheep ! a wolf ! 
Entomb' d within this vault a lawyer lies, 
Who, fame assureth us, was just and wise ! 
An able advocate, and honest too ! 
That's wondrous strange indeed if it be true. 

What an admirable man he is ! how careful of his own 
interests ! 

Remark 1. Some printers invariably place an admira- 
tion after certain words which generally denote a sudden 
mental emotion, although they are followed by other words 
which make part of the affirmation expressing the emotion : 
but this is wrong ; for the mark of admiration ought 
certainly to be placed only at the end of those words which 
constitute the exclamatory phrase. Examples : 

Alas for his poor family ! 
Alas, my noble boy ! that thou shouldst die. 
Ah me ! she cried, and waved her lily hand. 
O despiteful love ! unconstant womankind. 

Remark 2. The interjections and oh are often used 
almost indiscriminately ; but there is, nevertheless, an im- 
portant difference in their proper application. The former 
is used in a direct address only, but the latter ought never 
to be so employed. If it is thought necessary to use 
a mark of exclamation after 0, it ought to follow the 
words which accompany that letter ; for they all form part 
of the exclamatory sentence or address. Example : 
' When, my countrymen ! when will you begin to exert 
your vigor V But oh may sometimes of itself form an 
exclamation, and sometimes other words which accompany 
it may be necessary for that purpose. For instance, take 
the sentences : l Oh ! what a glorious thing it is to die for 
one's country ! ' ' Oh that man were guided in his conduct 
more by reason and good sense, than by passion and preju- 
dice !' In the latter case, the words which follow oh are so 
closely connected with it, that they would constitute no 



144 ON PUNCTUATION. 

sense, were that particle omitted : the point-mark is there- 
fore properly placed at the end of the sentence. This 
example further illustrates what was said under Remark 1. 

Remark 3. Sometimes oh, even with the words which 
accompany it, does not constitute an exclamation, or denote 
any emotion of the mind at all. In those cases no point 
should be used to part them; neither should an exclama- 
tion be inserted at the end. Such phrases are, oh yes, 
oh no ; where oh is almost redundant. But if there be 
emotion of the mind indicated, then the point-mark will 
follow the words which denote it, and oh will be parted 
from the accompanying words by a comma, as in oh, 
indeed ! oh, certainly ! oh, wonderful ! &c. 

Remark 4. The Spaniards make use of inverted inter- 
rogations and exclamations at the beginning of sentences, 
and the ordinary mark at the end. Examples of this will 
be given in the following chapter. 



7. The Parenthesis. 

Although neither the parenthesis, nor the dash, nor per- 
haps even the interrogation or the exclamation, as before re- 
marked, can be called point-marks in the strict grammatical 
sense ; nevertheless, in a rhetorical point of view, they are 
so essential, that their omission in this place would be in- 
excusable : for certainly, to no other branch of our sub- 
ject can they be so properly assigned. 

RULE I. The parenthesis (so called from ira,pVTi6rifj.i, I 
place between) is generally employed to separate such 
matter from the context as, although furnishing some 
useful hint or necessary remark, is not connected in 
grammatical construction with the body of the sentence. 
Examples : 

I have seen charity (if charity it may be called) insult with 
an air of pity. 



THE PARENTHESIS. 145 

Left now to himself (malice could not wish him a worse 
adviser), he resolves on a desperate project. 

Note. The occasional use of parentheses may add live- 
liness and spirit to a discourse, but their frequent employ- 
ment is very injudicious : for nothing so much weakens 
the force of language as the continual dropping of the 
voice, and the consequent diversion of the attention from 
the main object of inquiry, which a constant recurrence of 
parenthetical observations necessitates. 

Remark 1. Some writers on the subject of punctuation 
lay down the rule, "that parenthetical remarks demand 
every point which the sense would require, if the paren- 
thesis were omitted : the proper point ought therefore to 
be placed before the parenthesis begins, and likewise be 
inserted within the parenthetical mark at the close." To 
me this seems an error. For, if the parenthetical matter 
is unconnected in construction with that which precedes 
it, and may be dispensed with altogether, without injuring 
the sense, whence arises the necessity of inserting a point- 
mark to denote a connection or dependence which does not 
exist 1 ? The inserted parenthetical remark may be inde- 
pendent in construction, both of what has gone before, and 
of what may follow : all, then, that is requisite in that 
case, is to indicate that such a remark is there made. 
The parenthesis itself serves that purpose : therefore it is 
all that is necessary, until the thread of the discourse is 
again renewed ; which is, when the parenthetical matter 
is ended, and the subject is again continued. Consequently, 
the point should be put outside the last parenthesis, when- 
ever the interpolated remark is unconnected in gramma- 
tical construction with the context. Example : 

All I contend for is, that the aristocracy cannot subsist 
long in any free country like our own (especially since the 
example of France), when unsupported by personal merit. 

Remark 2. If the parenthetical insertion denotes in- 



146 ON PUNCTUATION. 

quiry, or expresses an emotion of wonder, astonishment, 
delight, &c., and requires a note of interrogation or ex- 
clamation, that point must necessarily come within the 
parenthesis, to the remark contained in which it of course 
essentially belongs. For instance : 

The rocks (hard-hearted varlets !) melted not into tears, 
nor did the trees hang their heads in silent sorrow. 

Death onward conies, 

With hasty steps, though unperceived and silent. 
Perhaps (alarming thought !), perhaps he aims 
Ev'n now the fatal blow that ends my life. 

Remark 3. But if the general discourse also requires 
a point at the interposition of the parenthesis, according 
to what we have before said, that point should follow the 
parenthesis, and the one required by the parenthetical 
matter immediately precede it ; as in the following ex- 
ample : ' While the Christian desires the approbation of 
his fellow-men (and why should he not desire it ?), he 
disdains to secure their goodwill by dishonorable means.' 
Nevertheless, as the two points together have a somewhat 
unsightly appearance, some printers place the point belong- 
ing to the general construction of the sentence before the 
parenthesis, as follows : ( While they wish to please, (and 
why should they not wish it ?) they disdain dishonorable 
means.' But this does not seem advisable. 

Remark 4. In reports of speeches, where a particular 
reference is made to some speaker, or where the approba- 
tion or disapprobation of the auditors is signified, it is 
usual to inclose the inserted words within parentheses. 
For example : 

The lucid exposition which has been made of the objects 
of the meeting by the right honorable gentleman (Mr. 
Disraeli) lightens the task of recommending it to an audience 
like this. Indeed, I think I should act more advisedly if I 
left his cogent and persuasive statement to produce its natural 
effect, without any attempt on my part to enforce it. (No, no.) 



THE DASH, OH RULE. 147 

8. The Dash, or Rule. 

The dash is frequently employed in a very capricious 
and arbitrary manner, as a substitute for all sorts of 
points, by writers whose thoughts, although, it may be, 
sometimes striking and profound, are thrown together 
without order or dependence ; also by some others, who 
think that they thereby give emphasis and prominence to 
expressions which in themselves are very common-place, 
and would, without this fictitious assistance, escape the 
observation of the reader, or be deemed by him hardly 
worthy of notice. Nevertheless, this mark has a use, and, 
when judiciously introduced, materially assists the proper 
understanding and the correct enunciation of certain 
kinds of writing, poetical and rhapsodical especially. 
The following are the rules which are given by the best 
writers on the subject. 

RULE I. The dash is used when a sentence is broken 
off before its conclusion, and the reader is left in suspense, 
or to supply, from his supposed knowledge of the matter, 
what the author thinks it prudent to withhold. Ex- 
amples : 

I own, the decision is in your favor ; but . 

A question of precedence in the class of wit and humour, 
over which you preside, having arisen between me and my 
countryman Dr. Swift, we beg leave . 

Remark. Some printers use a longer line in this case 
than the common dash, ordinarily a two-em rule, as in 
the last example ; which appears to me to be the prefer- 
able plan of the two. 

RULE II. It may be employed where the sense breaks 

off abruptly ; where there is a significant pause required ; 

or where there is an unexpected turn in the sentiment. 

Hence it follows, that it may be properly inserted where 

L 2 



148 ON PUNCTUATION. 

no point is required ; but it does not dispense with the 
use of the ordinary points at the same time, when the 
grammatical construction of the sentence requires them. 
Examples : 

Was there ever a holder captain of a more valiant band ? 
Was there -ever but I scorn to boast. 

This world is a prison in every respect, 
Whose walls are the heavens in common ; 
The jailer is Sin, and the prisoners men, 
And the fetters are nothing but women. 

HERE LIES THE GREAT False marble ! where ? 
Nothing but sordid dust lies here. 

RULE III. A dash may be used after several words 
or expressions, when these constitute a nominative which 
is broken off, and resumed in a new form ; and after a 
long number, or a series of phrases or clauses, when they 
lead to an important conclusion. Example reproduced : 

That patriotism which, catching its inspiration from the 
immortal God, and leaving at an immeasurable distance below, 
all lesser, grovelling, personal interests and feelings, animates 
and prompts to deeds of self-sacrifice, of valor, of devotion, 
and of death itself, that is public virtue ; that is the noblest, 
the sublim^st, of all public virtues. 

llemark. Were not the dash used in instances of this 
sort, as remarked a few pages previous, a stronger point 
than any that had been before introduced, would be 
required ; for the mind must perforce pause a loDger 
time in contemplating all its previously expressed thoughts, 
before it can resume them collected into one subject. But 
as this could not always be done, owing to the paucity of 
the point-marks, the dash seems preferable. 

RULE IV. The dash is used before what is termed by 
elocutionists the echo ; that is, before a word or phrase 
repeated in an exclamatory or very emphatic manner. 
Examples : 



THE DASH, OR RULE. 149 

You speak like a boy, like a boy who thinks the old 
gnarled oak can be twisted as easily as the young sapling. 

Shall I, who was born, I might almost say, but certainly 
brought up, in the tent of my father, that most excellent 
general shall I, the conqueror of Spain and Gaul, and not 
only of the Alpine nations, but of the Alps themselves shall 
I compare myself with this half-year captain? a captain! 
before whom should one place the two armies without their 
ensigns, I am persuaded he would not know to which of them 
he is consul. 

Newton was a Christian ; Newton ! whose mind burst 
forth from the fetters cast by nature on our finite concep- 
tions; Newton ! whose science was truth, and the foundation 
of whose knowledge of it was philosophy ; not those visionary 
and arrogant presumptions which too often usurp its name, 
but philosophy resting on the basis of mathematics, which, 
like figures, cannot lie ; Newton ! who carried the line and 
rule to the utmost barriers of creation, and explored the prin- 
ciples by which, no doubt, all created matter is held together, 
and exists. 

Remark 1. No poiiit is put with the dash before 
' shall I,' in the second example, to show that what pre- 
cedes is unfinished ; while, in the third, a semicolon precedes 
the word ' Newton ;' because the members of the sentence 
are divisible into clauses. But in more simple sentences, 
like the first, a comma is sufficient. 

Remark 2. If there be a mere echo of the thought, the 
dash may generally be omitted, unless the sentence be 
very rhetorical in its character. 

RULE Y. The dash may sometimes be judiciously used 
in place of the parenthesis ; where, namely, a parenthetical 
observation is interposed, which is not thought sufficiently 
irrelevant to demand that mark. Examples : 

In every well-regulated community such as that of 
England, the laws own no superior ; but in ill-organized or 
tyrannous governments the Turkish for instance, there is 
always some power which sets itself above the law, and obeys 
or disobeys it, as suits its convenience or caprice. 



150 ON PUNCTUATION. 

The whole external deportment of a child is delightful. 
Its smile always so ready when there is no distress, and so 
soon recurring when that distress has passed away is like an 
opening of the sky, showing heaven beyond. 

Remark 1, As the dash in this case supplies the place 
of the parenthesis, strictly speaking, the grammatical 
point should follow the last dash ; but as this would have 
an unsightly appearance, it is always placed before it, as 
in the first example. 

Remark 2. If the parenthetical observation requires a 
mark of interrogation or exclamation, of course it must 
be used, whether any point has preceded it or not. Ex- 
ample in point : ' How little may it not be ? that the 
most considerate feel the import of a grateful acknow- 
ledgement to God.' 

RULE VI. The dash is commonly used where there is 
an ellipsis of the adverb namely, or of other words having 
a similar import. Examples : 

The four greatest names in English poetry are almost the 
lirst we come to, Chaucer, Spencer, Shakspeare, and Milton. 

Nicholas Copernicus was instructed in that seminary where 
it is always happy when any one can be well taught, the 
family circle. 

Remark. In works where the frequent repetition of 
the dash would be unsightly, a semicolon may generally 
be substituted for it. 

RULE VII. The dash is inserted between a side-head 
and the subject-matter, and also between the subject- 
matter and the authority from which it is taken. It is 
also used between a question and an answer when in the 
same paragraph ; and to denote an omission of some letters 
or figures, when it must be longer or shorter, according to 
the number of letters omitted. Examples : 

The Cares of Subsistence. What multitudes are there, who, 



THE DASH, OR RULE. 151 

wholly occupied with the care of obtaining subsistence, have 
no time for speculation! The rise of the sun is only that 
which calls them to toil ; and the finest night, in all its soft- 
ness, is mute to them, or tells them only that it is the hour of 
repose. Diderot. 

Who created you? God. 
Matt, ix, 16. 
By H ns ! 

Remark 1. If the authority intervene in the middle 
of a sentence, it is better to inclose it in a parenthesis 
also; for thus confusion and mistake are avoided. Ex- 
ample : 

In the preceding year, Politiano had inscribed to the Pope 
his elegant translation of Herodian, in return for which, 
Innocent had not only written to him, but had presented him 
with, two hundred pieces of gold. (Polit. Ep., viii, 1, 2, 3, 4.) 
Politiano had also addressed to the Pope, soon after his eleva- 
tion, a fine Sapphic ode. Roscoc. 

Remark 2. When, at the beginning or end of a poetical 
quotation, a portion of the line is omitted, it is better to 
leave a blank space than to insert an ugly long rule, as is 
done by many ; for the ellipsis is sufficiently indicated by 
the position of the lines. Example : 

Oh ! it is excellent 
To have a giant's strength. 



152 



CHAPTER VII. 

MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS USED BY PRINTERS. 
1. Marks of Quotation. 

I. 

EXTRACTED matter is usually marked at the com- 
mencement of each paragraph, and still more distinctly, 
and better, where the object, as in law-books, is to show 
clearly how far the quoted or documentary matter extends 
(although this would not suit the purpose of all writers), 
by placing inverted commas at the commencement of each 
line : thus (*'); and the close of the extract is denoted 
by two apostrophes, in like manner ("). I will give an 
example of each ,mode, but will premise, as I just now 
hinted, that the quotation-marks are used in each line in 
law- works, leading articles of newspapers, and where the 
object is to point out most clearly the extent and place of 
the quotation. Examples : 

"It is impossible but that he who has long exercised his 
mind in defining, dividing, and distinguishing, arguing and 
methodizing, should excel the majority of men with whom he 
converses." 

" Go now, and with some daring drug 
" Bait thy disease ; and, whilst they m^, 
" Thou, to maintain their precious strife, 
" Spend the dear treasures of thy life.'* 

II. 

When an extract occurs within an extract, its com- 



QUOTATION-MARKS. 153 

mencement is denoted by a single inverted comma, and its 
close, by a single apostrophe : as below. 

" If the physician sees you eat anything that is not good 
for your body, to keep you from, it, he cries, * It is poison !' If 
the divine sees you do anything that is hurtful for your soul, 
he cries, ' You are damned !' " 

Remark. The Scotch printers generally reverse this 
order ; denoting a simple extract by a single mark, and a 
compound one by a double mark. For reasons which may 
be gathered from what I shall say presently, I would not 
advise the general adoption of this peculiarity ; which, 
besides, seems to give the most distinct mark to that which 
is subordinate, and the less distinct to that which it is the 
intention to exhibit the most prominently. 

III. 

To avoid the use of too much italic, it is not unusual to 
put explanatory or emphatic words within single quo- 
tation-marks. Examples : 

By 'experiment' is meant the process of altering the 
arrangements presented by nature. 

The verb active frequently takes the accusative of a kin- 
dred substantive ; as, aphs aparat, ' he imprecates curses.' 

Remark. Some writers .use the double marks in such 
cases ; but they appear to me clumsy and unsightly. Of 
course, if italic letters are used, these elucidatory marks 
are dispensed with. I will give examples of various 
systems ; so that the reader may judge for himself, as to 
which ought to be preferred ; merely remarking, that 
much will depend upon the nature of each particular 
book : but whichever plan be adopted, in grammars, and 
other works where they will be of constant recurrence, the 
compositor ought to be certified respecting the plan 
determined on, when he first takes copy ; for it is too 



154 MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS. 

much to leave such matters to his discretion, and then 
make him alter his plan, at his own expense, to suit the 
whim or the taste of an overseer or a press-corrector. 
Examples : 

The root of the verb with the future of * chukna ' is con- 
sidered very properly as the future perfect of such root : thus, 
* jabmain lilih-chukunga,' postquam scripsero. 

Ao/ceT, it seems ; e'5<tae, it did seem ; e5o|e, it hath seemed ; 
TO SOKOVV, that which seems. 

npeVet, it becomes; eTrpcTre, it did become ; Trpfirciv, to become ; 
?b irptTrov, that which becomes. 

Me'Aet, * it is a care ;' e/ueAe, * it w r as a care ;' jueArjo-ct, ' it shall 
be a care ;' /ie^e'ArjKe, * it hath been a care.' 

Xprj, "it behoveth;" c'xpV, "it did behove;" xpV**, "it 
shall behove ;" xp^ vai an d XPV V > " to behove." 

Which has the advantage of neatness and perspicuity ? 
I leave each individual to judge for himself. For my own 
part, I think the common Koman letter, without any quo- 
tation-marks, is quite distinct enough after Greek, or any 
other unusual alphabet ; but in other cases, italic is cer- 
tainly the best seen, although I think the single quotation- 
marks are to be preferred, on the whole ; and therefore I 
have generally adhered to them in this book ; although, if 
the reader will turn to p. 71, he will there see examples 
of three different styles in that one page. 

IV. 

Marks of quotation are also employed in what is com- 
monly called by printers conversation matter ; but as they 
sadly disfigure the appearance of a page, when of frequent 
occurrence, and are a great nuisance both to the com- 
positor and the reader, and moreover assist very little in 
the elucidation of the dialogue, the various speakers being 
in general sufficiently indicated by the turn of the lan- 
guage, it is to me a matter of much doubt, whether their 
occasional utility, under the circumstances indicated, be 



QUOTATION-MARKS. 155 

not more than counterbalanced by their undoubted practical 
annoyance, and by the disfigurement of the page occasioned 
by their constant occurrence. I will subjoin an example, 
as I find it in a printed book, and also another without 
any of these elucidatory parasites ; in order that the reader 
may see on which side lies the balance of perspicuity : on 
that of appearance there can be no doubt. The first 
example is given as a quotation in a well-known periodical, 
and is the approved method in almost all offices in London 
at the present day. Here it is : 

" When the Oxonian returned home in the vacation, the 
squire made many inquires about how he liked his college, his 
studies, and his tutor. 

" ' Oh, as to my tutor/ replied he, * I have parted with 
him some time since.' 

" * You have ; and pray, why so ? ' 

" * Oh, Sir,' continued the Oxonian, ' hunting was all the 
go at our college, and I was a little short of funds ; so I dis- 
charged my tutor, and took a horse, you know.' " 

I will now give an example from the authorized 
version of the English Bible, where conversation matter 
is never quoted. It occurs in the twentyseventh chapter 
of Genesis, beginning at the eighteenth verse, and here 
follows : 

And he came unto his father, and said, My father : And he 
said, Here am I ; who art thou, my son ? 

And Jacob said unto his father, I am Esau thy first born ; 
I have done according as thou badest me : arise, I pray thee, 
and eat of my venison, that thy soul may bless me. 

And Isaac said unto his son, How is it that thou hast found 
it so quickly, my son ? And he said, Because the Lord thy 
God brought it to me. 

And Isaac said unto Jacob, Come near, I pray thee, that I 
may feel thee, my son, whether thou be my very son Esau 
or not. 

Now, look upon this picture, and on that ; and if it is 
intended by these marks to point out more clearly to the 
general reader what each individual says, I think they 



156 MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS. 

answer this purpose very little better than the plan 
adopted in the last quotation ; and as far as appearance 
goes, they are a complete eyesore. 

2. The Apostrophe. 

In addition to the use of the apostrophe for the pur- 
poses indicated in the preceding section, it has other 
offices. These are, 1. As a sign of the possessive case of 
nouns substantive ; as, ' John's book/ 2. To denote the 
omission of one or more letters in a word ; as, ' Fll,' for 'I 
will ;' ' heav'n,' for ' heaven,' &c. 

Remark 1. The apostrophe is sometimes used in the 
singular number without the additional s, when the nomi- 
native ends in s, ss, or ce; as, ' Moses' rod ;' ' for righteous- 
ness' sake ;' ' for conscience' sake.' This observation is 
particularly applicable to foreign proper names, and to 
common nouns which are seldom used in the plural, such 
as righteousness and conscience. The reason for this is, 
that we thus avoid the disagreeable hissing sound which 
would arise from the concurrence of so many s's. Never- 
theless, recourse should not be had to it when its adoption 
would cause ambiguity, or when the additional 5 is but 
little offensive to the ear ; as in such instances as ' James's 
book,' ' Thomas's cloak,' ' Burns's poems,' &c. 

JRemark 2. When a vowel is omitted at the end of a 
word, before another word beginning with a vowel, the 
practice of different languages varies, as to the union of 
the two words, or their separation. I will subjoin a few 
observations on such as the generality of printers are ever 
likely to meet with, and will illustrate the practice by 
examples. 

The French, in such cases, unite the two words, whether 
they form one syllable or more, so that both appear to the 
eye as one word. Thus : 

Cependant les amours d'Astarbg rietaient ignorees que de 
Pygmalion ; et il s'imaginait qu'elle riaimerait jamais que lui. 



THE APOSTROPHE. 157 

But in Latin, Greek, and Italian, the practice is the 
reverse : a space is placed between each word, whether 
the two syllables coalesce or not. Examples : 

Egon J mea bona ut dem Bacchidi dono sciens ? 

Ipsu' mihi Davus, qui intimu' est eorum consiliis, dixit. 

But in Latin poetry such omissions are of rare occurrence. 
As a general rule, the final vowel, and even m final, are 
elided in pronunciation and scanning when followed by a 
word beginning with a vowel; but, nevertheless, those 
letters are for the most part retained in appearance. 
Example : 

Postquam res Asise Priamique evertere gentem 
Immeritam visum Superis, ceciditque superbum 
Ilium, et omnis humo fumat Neptunia Troja ; 
Diver sa exilia, et desertas queerer e terras, 
Auguriis agimur Divum ; classemque sub ipsa 
Antandro, et Phrygise molimur montibus Idae ; 
Incerti quo fata ferant, ubi sistere detur ; 
Contrahimusque viros. 

Here it will be observed that no final vowel is elided 
to the eye, nor an initial vowel following ; yet in all those 
cases marked with a crescent the two vowels coalesce in 
pronunciation into one syllable. 

In Greek poetry the elision of the final vowel is much 
more common than in Latin, as the following extract will 
show : 

Tov 5' au0 5 iTT-rroAox 010 TpotTT/uSa <pcu8t/uos vios* 



OLTJ Trep (t>v\\(av yeveiri, Toa/Se KCU avfipcav. 
*u\\a TO. psv T' avefj.05 xM a ^ts X 66t > a\\a Se 0' fa 
TrjAedococra <|)U6f eapos 5* Giriyiyverat &py 
Hs avfycev ysvet], rj fJ&v ^>uet, 7} 5' 



158 MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS. 

So with the Italian : 

O si, ti so dir io, 

Ch' or ben t' apponi : tutt' i rischi , tutti , 
I disagi , che mai ponno dur noja 
A chi va errando , s' odi lei , gia tutti 
Stanno intorno al suo figlio. 

In Spanish, elisions, real or apparent, are of very rare 
occurrence : when they do happen, the plan above indi- 
cated is followed. I subjoin an extract from a Spanish 
comedy, more for the purpose of elucidating their plan of 
using the notes of interrogation and exclamation, than for 
the elisions to be found in it ; for in fact there are none. 

; Ay ! Seiior , esto va malo , 

Malo , malo ; picaruela ! 

{ Si parecera la Have ? 
Muiioz dice bien , no es ella 
Quieii tiene la culpa ; yo , 

Yo la he tenido si fuera 

Decir pero si, ; enmendarse! 

Cuando cumpla los ochenta. 
j Bien dice Mufioz ! ; mal afto 
Si dice bien ! 1 me inquieta 
Con sus cosas , pero encaja 

Unas verdades tan secas 

Si yo se lo hubiera dicho 
Antes , no me sucediera 
Este chasco , si por cierto. 

t* Pobre Don Roque ! ; qu6 buena 
a hiciste ! ; pobre Don Roque ! 

Where it will be observed, that a space is interposed 
before all the points except the period. But this is 
common to French and Italian also; at least, to works 
printed in either of those countries. 

The Germans adopt a plan different from either of the 
foregoing. If the elision of the vowel is for the purpose of 
causing two syllables to coalesce into one, then no space is 
interposed betwixt the words ; otherwise, the words 
remain apart, as though no elision had taken place, 
example or two will fully illustrate my meaning. 



THE APOSTROPHE. 159 

Lass mich Dir iris Auge sehen, 
Ob's das fruh're Antlitz 1st. 
Schoner, alter siehst Du aus, 
Sonst ist's ganz so, wie es war. 

Du Herrlicher, so hab" ich Dich yerloren ! 
Nicht hor' ich Deinen Trost, Dein Lob fortan. 

Du hast Dich. gesehnt ? Fiirwahr ? ! * 
Grade so erging's auch mir. 

In English prose, elisions are rare, except in colloquial 
and familiar discourse, where they are far from being 
uncommon. They are also of constant occurrence in 
poetry. 

It hath been the aim of some printers, of late years, to 
bring the English system into conformity with the Greek, 
&c., in this respect. Hence we frequently meet, in recently- 
printed books, with instances like the following. 

That 's monstrous : Oh, that thou wert out. 

' T were false, if I should speak it, 
For / 'm sure she is not buried. 

There was a play on V, 

And had the poet not been bribed to a modest 
Expression of your antic gambols in 't, 
Some darks had been discover'd. 

Now my young guest ! methinks you 're allycholly : I pray 
you, why is it ? 

But this seems repugnant to our taste, and contrary to 
the practice till lately universally adopted. And as we 
have as good a right to a system of our own as any other 
nation, I do not see why we should not follow that which 
has been hitherto current, especially if it is as clear, if not 
clearer than that which some fantastic people, fond of 
unnecessary innovation, would fain have us to imitate. 
The English system seems to me to have been nearly iden- 

* Observe the occurrence of the two points together. This is 
strictly correct, and is customary in German. 



160 MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS. 

tical with the German ; and as that is more consonant to 
our notions of propriety, and has been, until lately, gene- 
rally acquiesced in, it would certainly be better to adhere 
to it, as no advantage is derived from adopting that of 
the learned languages. I subjoin some illustrative ex- 
amples : 

What hour o' the clock is't? What's o' clock? 
If there be ten, shrink not, but down with 'em. 

Look, as a sweet rose fairly budding forth, 
Betrays her beauties to tK enamoured moon. 

Ay, by my beard, will we ; 
For he's a proper man. 

Thou'lt yet survive the storm, and bloom in paradise. 
If Pd a throne, Pd freely share it with thee. 

An exception is generally made with nouns substantive 
followed by s, to distinguish the elision from a possessive 
case. Example : 

Tell me not that woman 's fair, 

Where truth 's unknown, and honor 's dead. 

Before quitting this subject, I may observe, that in 
English poetry the e of the termination ed is frequently 
omitted by some printers, and a mark of elision substi- 
tuted for it. Now, as this e is scarcely ever pronounced 
in such cases, unless it follows the hard mutes d or t, such 
elision seems hardly necessary, as it does not in general 
furnish the reader with a more correct guide to the pro- 
nunciation required. I will give a few quotations without 
any elision ; from which it will be evident that no con- 
fusion or error of meter arises in them from the retention 
of this letter, and where, consequently, no advant 
would ensue from its omission. 

Was this the face that launched a thousand ships, 
And burned the topless towers of Ilium ? 



TIIE APOSTROPHE. 161 

Besides, a famous monk of modern times 

Has left of cocks recorded in his rhymes, 

That of a parish priest the son and heir 

(When sons of priests were from the proverb clear) 

Affronted once a cock of noble kind, 

And either lamed his legs, or struck him blind ; 

For which the clerk, his father, was disgraced, 

And in his benefice another placed. 

I certainly cannot see the beauty, or the advantage, of 
printing the verbs in the two last lines without the e, as 
I find them in a book now before me, otherwise very well 
printed.* 

For which the clerk, his father, was disgraced, 
And in his benefice another plac'd. 

In the few instances other than after d and t, where 
the e in the termination ed is required to be sounded in a 
distinct syllable, the letter may be accented ; and thus all 
doubt will be removed. Example : 

Hence loathed Melancholy, 

Of Cerberus and blackest Midnight born, 

In Stygian cave forlorn. 

Another method, followed by some printers, and gene- 
rally satisfactory to most writers, is to insert an apostrophe 
only in those instances where the root-word is entire, and 
the termination erttire, before contraction; but to Ketain 
the e in those cases where an elision of the last letter of 
the root-word has been already made, even in the full 
form of the derivative or inflected word, in order to avoid 
the confusion which would be apt to arise in pronuncia- 
tion, from the occurrence of two e's in one syllable ; as in 
such words as placed (=place-ed), bruised (=bruise-ed), 
loved ( love-ed), &c. An example will illustrate my 
meaning : 

* Chambers's History of English Literature. 



162 MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS. 

Oh ! bloodiest picture in the book of Time ! 
Sarmatia fell unwept, without a crime ; 
Found not a generous friend, a pitying foe, 
Strength in her arms, nor mercy in her woe ! 
Dropp'd from her nerveless grasp the shatter' d spear, 
Closed [== close' d] her bright eye, and curb'd her high career : 
Hope for a season bade the world farewell, 
And Freedom shrieked as Kosciusko fell. 

Strictly speaking, if this plan be adopted, an accent is 
only required on those final syllables where one e is 
dropped in the composition of the word, and that final 
sellable is required to be pronounced ; as in closed: for in 
all other words, the insertion of the simple e is sufficient 
for the purpose. Nevertheless, it is, perhaps, on the 
whole, better to accent the letter wherever a generally 
silent e is intended to be pronounced distinctly, as in the 
following line : 

His days are numbered, his race is run. 

Whichever of the two plans may be adopted by the 
printer, is perhaps of no great moment, although I must 
confess I rather affect the latter, and therefore generally 
follow it. But, at all events, when a work in poetry is 
put into the hands of the compositor, the system to be 
followed ought to be pointed out, if not well known 
throughout the office. Authors also ought to follow the 
one plan or the other, and not to elide or write in full at 
random, without any system, as most of them do. It 
may seem a matter of little moment to them ; but to the 
compositor, every alteration which is made in his proof 
involves a loss of time ; and the use of that time is the 
means whereby he procures his daily bread : for no accurate 
printer or corrector, of any taste, will allow such irregu- 
larities to pass in a proof-sheet ; and all alterations of this 
kind must be made at the cost of the compositor. 



THE HYPHEN. 163 

3. The Hyphen. 

The hyphen, as its name implies (</>' e/, sub wno), is 
employed to connect compound words; as, Map-dog,' 'to- 
morrow.' It is also used at the end of a line, when a 
word is not finished, but part of it is carried into the next 
line. 

It sometimes happens that the last member of a com- 
pound word is common to one or more other preceding 
words, but is expressed only with the last ; in which case, 
the German printers very properly annex the hyphen to 
all the words where such last member is understood, and 
write the last only in full. For instance, * The main- and 
mizen-masts were split into a hundred pieces/ But very 
few English printers follow this rational system : some 
omit the hyphen in both cases, to show that the first 
member of each word is incomplete without the other, 
thus, main and mizen masts ; while others insert the 
hyphen, or omit it, just as they do when the word occurs 
unconnected with any other to which a part of it is common. 
Examples : 

The main and mizen-masts were shattered in pieces, 
The fore and yardarm also suffered the same fate. 

For my part, I would strongly advise the adoption of 
the German system, for it is the only rationally defensible 
one ; but as that may seem repugnant to the ideas of the 
many, who are governed by routine rather than by reason, 
of the two above cited, I prefer the latter, especially as, 
when an entire word comes first, we never use a hyphen 
with the following curtailed one ; as may be seen in this 
example : 

The schoolmaster and mistress were discharged without a 
moment's notice. 

Other uses of the hyphen may be seen under the heads 
Syllabication, Compound Words, &c. 
M 2 



164 MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS. 

4. The Brace. 

The brace is sometimes employed in poetry to connect 
the three lines of a triplet, where all the final syllables 
have one rhyme. But as it has a somewhat unsightly 
appearance, its use for this purpose is becoming obsolete. 
Nevertheless, if the braces are neat and light, I can see 
no objection to their more general application, as they 
undoubtedly contribute to the avoidance of confusion. 
Example : 

Waller was smooth ; but Dry den taught to join^ 
The varying verse, the full- resounding line, 
The long, majestic march, and energy divine. ) 

Braces are also used to connect a number of words, 
figures, i&c., having one common term ; and are adopted 
merely to prevent a repetition of that term. For ex- 
ample, 

There are established in France twentynine tribunals of 
appeal, in the places and for the departments hereunder 
mentioned : 

TOWNS. DEPARTMENTS. 

T Gers 
Agen ................. 3 Lot-et- Garonne 

(Lot 

SBouches-du-Rhon 
Var 
Basses-Alpes 
\ Alpes-Maritimes. 

And so on for the remaining twentyseven tribunals. 
Again : 

favrl, against \ ^o^Qa\^.os avrl o^>0aA/*ou, eye for 

eve ' 

i aTrb deiirvov, to be after 



Gen. 



or e, out of 
pb, before 



v 



supper. 
ye\av e'/c taitpfav, to laugh after 



tears. 



the king. 



rpb foaKToSf to fight for 



THE CROTCHET, OR BRACKET. 165 

5. The Crotchety or Bracket. 

These marks are used to inclose one or more words 
which may be substituted for others which immediately 
precede ; as also to supply some deficiency, or rectify some 
mistake ; or to give some direction as to the nature of the 
words which are to be there supplied. Examples : 

This is the first [second or third] time of asking. 

He restored to [the inhabitants of] his island that tran- 
quillity to which they had been strangers during his absence. 

A well- wrote [well- written] treatise. 

The directors of this society shall be six in number, and 
shall be elected [here insert the manner of election], and shall 
remain in office [state the time], and no longer. 

The bracket is also used in a quotation, in preference 
to parentheses, to inclose an observation of the author 
quoting ; for it thus distinguishes a parenthetical observa- 
tion of the author quoted from an interpolation made by 
the writer quoting him. Example : 

" They [the Lilliputians] bury their dead with their heads 
directly downwards, because they hold an opinion, that in 
eleven thousand moons they are all to rise again ; hi which 
period the earth (which they conceive to be flat) will turn 
upside down, and by this means they shall, at then- resurrec- 
tion, be found ready standing on their feet." 

In addition to the uses of the bracket above indicated, 
it is also employed in poetry, and other matter in lines, 
to separate a word which will not come into the line to 
which it properly belongs, from the body of the line, above 
or below, to the end of which it is tacked. 

Weary knife-grinder ! little think the proud ones, 
Who in their coaches roll along the turnpike- [and 
Koad, what hard work 'tis, crying all day, " Knives 
Scissors to grind O !" 



166 MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS* 

But this is only done where the saving of space is an 
object. When that consideration does not limit the dis- 
cretion of the printer, it is much better to place such 
words in the next line, indenting them an em or two 
more than the general range of the lines, somewhat in the 
manner shown below : 

Shall we build to the purple of Pride, 
The trappings which dizen the proud ? 

Alas ! they are all laid aside, 
And here's neither dress nor adornments allow' d, 
But the long winding -sheet and the fringe of the 
shroud. 

6. The Ellipsis. 

The omission of part of a word is denoted by a short 
line, technically called a rule, of various lengths, according 
to the number of letters omitted, as shown in the following 
example : 

He not only disparaged his abilities, but loaded him with 

the most opprobrious epithets ; such as 1 r, f w, t f, and 

other terms of a like nature, which I do not care to mention. 

If one or more words are omitted, or supposed to be 
omitted, it is more usual, and also has a neater appear- 
ance, to use dots, or leaders. Thus : 

The comparative of superiority is expressed in Spanish by 
the words mas que ; and that of inferiority by menos que. 

If a line or more be omitted, then the usual and most 
conspicuous marks are asterisks ; as under. 

And Shakespeare receive him with praise and with love, 
And Beaumonts and Bens be his Kellys above. 

****** 
Here Reynolds is laid ; and, to tell you my mind, 
He has not left a wiser or better behind. 

7. Marks of Reference. 

Notes at the foot of a page are usually referred to by 
the following signs : 



MARKS OF REFERENCE. 167 

* Star or Asterisk Section 

f Dagger or Obelisk || Parallels 

j Double Dagger IF Paragraph 

And when the number of notes on one page exceeds six, 
the reference-marks are doubled, so far as may be neces- 
sary. But a much neater plan is to use what are called 
by printers superior letters or figures ; that is, small letters 
or figures, which range with the upper part of the ordinary 
type ; thus, a b c , or l * 3 ; or even common Italic letters 
may be used, within parentheses, or with a parenthesis 
after the letter ; thus, (a) or a). 

Whilst I am on this subject, I may make an observa- 
tion or two as to the best way of arranging short notes at 
the foot of a page. It is common to most French printers, 
and to some of their English imitators, to begin such notes 
uniformly with an indention of one em from the beginning 
of the line, however short the notes may be ; as shown in 
the examples hereunder quoted, which I take from a book 
printed in Paris in 1846. 

(1) Ego Gulielmus Chilling worth omnibus hisce articulis, &c. 

(2) Ibid. 

(3) Ibid. 

(4) Beattie on Truth. 

Generally speaking, the French are undoubtedly taste- 
ful printers ; but in the case of the arrangement of foot- 
notes, they seem to lose sight of the beautiful, in order 
that they may rigidly adhere to a system. How much 
neater the page whence these notes are selected would 
have looked, had the three last been placed in one line, I 
will leave the reader himself to imagine. 

If the lines in the text are long, as they must neces- 
sarily be in all folios, quartos, and large octavos, whenever 
they extend across the whole page, it is better to set the 
notes in two columns ; for it is difficult to read small type 
in long lines, or at least it is not easy to catch the first 
word of the next line with facility. And as there are 



168 MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS. 

generally many short notes in all works which have notes 
to any extent, they would not be so dispersed in short lines 
as in those of double the length. 

When all the notes in a page form each but one line, 
and that not a full one, they should be indented equally, 
so as to throw the body of the matter into the middle of 
the foot of the page. I will subjoin an example or two in 
illustration. 

1 Appian, Bell. Mithrid. tom. i, p. 02. 

2 Plut. in Syll. c. 80; et in Cic. c. 2. 

3 Id. ibid. c. 2, s. 8. 

4 Bacon's Noyum Organum, c. 1. 

Tn instances like these, to place each line in what is 
called tombstone fashion, has to me a very unsightly 
appearance. Nevertheless, if the notes make but two 
lines, and the first line comprises two or more notes, tliat 
plan may be judiciously followed. Examples : 

* 1 John, iv, 5 ; 1 Pet. i, 6. f Luke, xviii, 15. 

t Mark, xiv, 15 ; John, ix, 5. 

Where, the reader will remark, the comma is omitted 
after ' 1 Pet.' although inserted after ' John,' &c. This is 
for appearance' sake only, the meaning being sufficiently 
clear without the double points; as is, indeed, the case 
with the generality of notes of this kind. Neither is any 
quotation-mark necessary in cases like these to distinguish 
the names of books ; although, when they occur in the 
middle of a sentence, single quotation-marks, or italics, 
may be very properly employed.* 

* Some lay down the rule, that when figures run in succession, 
a comma should part them, as pp. 15, 16, 17, &c.; but an inter- 
ruption should be marked by a full-point, as, pp. 21, 22. 28. 3@, 
&c. But this seems to me absurd. Neither do I think any full- 
point required after Roman numerals, and have therefore generally 
dispensed with them throughout this book. 



ACCENTS, ETC. 169 



8. Accentual and other Marks. 

Happily the English language (or rather, English 
printing and writing) is unencumbered by any marks of 
accentuation, and yet no one tolerably acquainted with it 
feels the want of them. But as such diacritical symbols are 
employed in some kinds of books (especially those of an 
educational character), and are very common in several 
languages which make use of the ordinary Roman letter, 
an explanation of the most usu.il, and such as are likely 
continually to fall under the notice of the printer, could 
not well be omitted from this chapter. We will therefore 
commence with 

(1.) Marks of Quantity. 

Syllables are considered either as long or short, as 
regards their quantity, or the time occupied in their pro- 
nunciation. The long quantity is indicated by a short 
horizontal line over the vowel of the long syllable, as in 
Patroclus ; and the short, by a concave semicircle in the 
same position ; as in Caucasus. 

(2.) The Accents. 

The acute accent is generally supposed to denote that 
the vowel over which it is placed has a rising inflection ; 
or it may only mean, that the syllable in which it occurs 
has the principal accent of the word; as in authoritative, 
ejusque. In French, accents are rather marks of quantity, 
or at least they mostly denote a modification of the 
sound of the letter over which they are placed, although 
that is sometimes accompanied by a difference of inflection 
also. E is the only letter that has the acute accent in that 
language. 



O MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS. 

In common with the other accents, the grave performs 
in French the office of a sound-modifier: in Latin, and some 
other languages, it denotes a certain class of words, or dis- 
tinguishes similar words of different parts of speech ; as, 
valde, mirifice, secundum, sard, amero, virtu, post, supra, 
&c. It is also sometimes used in English, especially in 
poetry, with foreign words that end in e, when this letter 
is to be pronounced in a distinct syllable, in order that the 
unlearned may see it at a glance. Example : 

And Mycale, and proud Olympus shine ; 
Bceotus for his Dirce seeks in vain. 

This accent is never employed in Spanish. 

The circumflex is functionless in English; but it is 
employed sometimes in Latin (especially in books intended 
for learners) to denote the ablative case singular of the 
first declension, and the genitive singular of the fourth. 
It is also used to denote the contraction of two syllables 
into one; as, audtsti,for audivisti ; mandrat for manaverat. 
In French, as I before stated, when treating of the acute, 
these marks are rather, for the most part, quantitative 
or phonetic, than anything else. But there is one use of 
the circumflex in French which it may be as well to 
mention; and that is, that it is generally placed over a 
vowel which was formerly followed by the letter s, but 
which has now disappeared from the word ; as in chateau, 
fete, maitre, apotre, coutume, &c. In Welsh, w and y, as 
well as the other circumflexed letters, are employed either 
to direct the pronunciation, or for distinction-sake. 



(3.) The Diuresis. 

This mark placed over a vowel denotes, in general, 
that that vowel forms a syllable, and does not constitute 
part of one with another vowel preceding or following it. 



ACCENTS, ETC. 171 

Thus, aerial is pronounced a-e-rial. So preeminent, and 
such-like words, where the two vowels are part of two dif- 
ferent syllables, are distinguished by the diseresis. Others 
insert a hyphen between the two vowels, as in co-operate ; 
and, indeed, this is the more prevalent custom, and that 
which the compositor will generally have to follow ; 
because .it is better understood by the ordinary English 
reader. Either might, perhaps, be omitted, without 
much danger of confusion, in ordinary words ; but in words 
that are uncommon, especially in poetry, the diaeresis is 
frequently very useful. Take a few instances by way of 
example ; 

The swans that in Caystus waters glide. 
In flames Caicus, Peneus, Alpheus roll'd. 
The Tanais smoked amid his boiling wave. 

In German, this mark denotes a modification of the 
usual vowel-sound : it also frequently distinguishes the 
singular number from the plural, and has various other 
uses, which the inquiring tyro may learn by applying 
himself to the study of that language. 



(4.) The Cedilla. 

The cedilla frequently occurs in French words, sub- 
joined to the letter c, which is by them commonly called 
c d la queue, or c with a tail. The cedilla c is something 
like an inverted figure 5, which is not seldom substituted 
for it, when the compositor is not able to lay his hands on 
the real letter. Its use is to indicate that the letter c has 
then the sound of s ; and as this is always the case with 
the ordinary c before e and t, of course the cedilla c can 
only precede a, o, or u. Examples :per$ant, pronounced 
persant ; gar$on, pron. garson; aper^umes, pron. aper- 
sumes, &c. 



172 MISCELLANEOUS SYMBOLS. 

(5.) The Tilde. 

This mark ( ") called by the Spaniards tilde, and corre- 
sponding in shape with the sign ordinarily employed in 
Greek to denote the circumflex accent, is placed in Spanish 
over the letter n, which is then pronounced something like 
double n, or rather like ni ; but short and quick ; as in 
Espana. It is more common in the middle of words than 
at the beginning. 

(6.) The Inverted Comma. 

This mark is used in place of a c, in proper names 
having the prefix Mac, contracted into Me or M'; as 
Macdougall, MDougall, or M' Doug all ; where, it will be 
observed that no space intervenes between the two parts 
of the word. In a similar manner, the apostrophe is 
employed in certain Irish names beginning with ; as, 
CTDonnell, O'Brien, &c. But this, I think, is to denote an 
ellipsis of some letters, and not a mere contraction on 
paper. 

(7.) Double Commas. 

These marks are not unfrequently substituted for the 
word ditto or do., as having a neater appearance. Some 
printers invert them ; but I think their ordinary position 
is best. Example : 

Colonel Haygarth, commanding 48th regiment 
Smith 62nd ^, 

,, Broughton 9oth 

(8.) Miscellaneous. 

The index or hand ( QC^ ) points out something which 
the writer thinks of great importance. Similarly, the 
letters N.B. (nota bene) and three stars (***) are used for 
the same purpose. 

Leaders, or dots, guide the eye to the end of a line, 



LEADERS, OR DOTS. 173 

when some space intervenes between the words and the 
figures, &c., to which they refer. They are used in tables 
of contents, and other matter which requires anything to 
guide the eye of the reader. Examples : 

On Punctuation Page 22 

The History of Printing 83 

Schemes of Imposition 165 

Or full-points may be used for this purpose, with an 
em quadrat betwixt each two. 



174 



CHAPTER VIII. 



ON THE PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. 

THE Hebrew and other Oriental alphabets have no 
distinction of great and small letters ; and the Greeks and 
Romans for a long time followed the same system in their 
writing, neither having difference of character nor a 
discriminating space between the words, but all jumbled 
higgledy-piggledy in one unvarying mass of capitals, not 
to be read fluently or accurately except by persons of 
great skill and knowledge of the language. After the 
invention of small letters, the larger, or capitals, were 
preserved for the sake of emphasis and distinction. Hence 
it follows, that their use is entirely arbitrary, and can be 
applied by the printers of any country according to any 
system they may deem most consistent with the object for 
which they are retained. From this cause, it has been 
found expedient, in all the languages of modern Europe, 
to contrive some rules for general guidance, in order 
that something like uniformity may be preserved in books 
printed in the same language, and the compositor be 
spared the annoyance of having to vary his system of 
eapitalling, according to the mere whim or caprice of 
every fanciful writer. 

Formerly it was customary, not only in English but 
in other European languages also, to begin every noun 
substantive or other important word with a capital letter ; 
a plan still adhered to pretty closely by the German 



PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. 175 

printers, and also in English acts of parliament. But as 
so many capitals greatly disfigure the appearance of a 
page, and by their frequency destroy their utility, they 
are nowadays (at least in ordinary book-work) discon- 
tinued in all common words, and only used in the following 



I. 

The first word of every book, chapter, letter, note, or 
any other piece of writing, must commence with a capital. 

II. 

Also the first word after a period or full stop ; and, if 
the following sentence be unconnected in syntax with the 
preceding, after every note of exclamation or interroga- 
tion. But if a number of interrogative or exclamatory 
sentences are thrown into one general group, or if the 
construction of the latter sentence depends, or is in con- 
nection with, the former, then all of them, except the first, 
should begin with a small letter. Examples : 

How long, ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity ; and the 
scorners delight in scorning ; and fools hate knowledge ? 

Alas ! how different I yet how like the same I 

III. 

The appellations of the three persons of the deity, 
such as God, Jehovah, the Almighty, the Supreme Being, 
the Lord, Providence, the Messiah, the Holy Spirit, Lord 
of lords, King of kings, &c., are begun with capital letters. 
So also the appellations of the devil ; as, Satan, the Man 
of Perdition, the Evil One, &c. 

So Providence, Heaven, and Nature, commence with a 
capital when they have a personal reference, as, indeed, 
do all other personifications ; likewise the personal pro- 
nouns (not possessive pronouns) when referring to tli 



1 76 PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. 

Divine Being ; but only when emphatic, and unaccom- 
panied by a noun. Examples : 

"Who can unfathom the designs of Providence f 

Be witness, O Heaven, to my vow. 

The operations of Nature are silent but certain. 

O Thou, who dwell' st throughout all space, 
And mak'st the world thy throne. 

Remark. The practice illustrated in the last example 
is of recent origin : it is not countenanced by the autho- 
rized version of the Bible, and seems to me entirely 
uncalled for ; nevertheless, as it is frequently insisted on by 
authors, it is well that the compositor should be made 
acquainted with the recognized rule, and bear it in mind. 

IV. 

Titles of honour and respect, in direct addresses, are 
sometimes printed with a capital initial letter ; as, your 
Highness, your Grace, your Lordship, your Excellency, 
my Lord, my Lady, Sir, Madam. 

Remark. Capitals are now generally discontinued in 
these instances, in ordinary book- work at least ; but they 
are preserved in newspapers and pamphlets, and works 
f such-like character ; as also in dedications, prefaces, 
&c., where they seem to give importance or imply great 
respect. 

Titles preceding proper names are also in English 
begun with a capital letter ; as, General Havelock, Captain 
Clark, Lord Derby, King Philip, President Buchanan, the 
Marquis of Northampton, the Countess of Blessington, &c. ; 
but in the latter instances, in ordinary book- work, if the 
title merely denotes an office^ it is more usual to commence 
it with a small letter ; as, ' the king of Hanover,' * the 
governor of Canada/ * the bishop of London,' ' the sheriff 
of Middlesex,' ' the rector of Edinburgh High School, 7 * the 
provost of Eton,' &c. The same distinction must be ob- 



PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. 177 

served if the title is preceded by a defining word, such as 
the definite article. Examples : ' the emperor Claudius, 5 
* the sultan Mahmood,' ' the tyrant Dionysius.' But if no 
office is implied in the title, even in the case last adverted 
to, it must commence with a capital ; as, ' the Princess 
Mary, 3 ' the Prince Consort,' ' the Infanta Isabella,' &c. 

V. 

Capital letters are used at the commencement of the 
names of persons, places, streets, mountains, rivers, ships, 
months, days of the week, &c. ; in short, to begin any 
word which points out any single person, thing, or place, 
as distinguished thereby from other persons, things, or 
places ; as, George, London, the Strand, the Alps, the 
Thames, the Centaur, April, Sunday. 

Remark. It is frequently a puzzle to the young printer, 
and indeed is a matter but imperfectly understood by 
many other people, what are the essential constituents of 
a proper name. I have indicated them generally in the 
rule ; but for still greater clearness, we will examine this 
matter more in detail. A proper name, then, as just stated, 
is that word, or those words, which point out some par- 
ticular person, place, or thing, as distinguished thereby 
from other persons, places, or things of a like kind ; or it 
may denote a person or thing which constitutes a kind by 
itself. In accordance with this rule, it is evident that com- 
mon nouns substantive may become proper names, whenever 
they discharge the office above indicated. For instance, 
the word Pope is a proper name, in its ordinary sense of 
pointing out a particular bishop, as distinguished thereby 
from all other bishops. So it may also be with king, 
queen, or any other title, or even any ordinary noun sub- 
stantive, when a particular person, place, or thing, is 
characterized distinctively by that name ; as, for instance, 
the Sultan, the Mall, the Tulip, convey to the mind a 



178 PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. 

distinct notion of a certain emperor, place, and flower (in 
the abstract, but not the less, therefore, a proper name). 
And although it is not now customary to print such words 
with a capital letter in the generality of books, unless they 
are words limited in their ordinary signification to one 
person or thing, nevertheless, no valid argument can be 
brought against their more general adoption ; for there is 
no doubt that a bishop, a king, an emperor, or a president, 
&c., can be, and are, designated by that title only in the 
respective places of their jurisdiction ; and their title con- 
sequently becomes, with respect to them, to all intents 
a proper name.* Again, a noun adjective may enter into, 
or may itself constitute, a proper name: indeed, the 
majority of what are commonly designated proper names, 
are in their origin nothing but pure nouns adjective, and 
are applied to individuals from their possessing the proper- 
ties or qualities thereby denoted. Such names are White, 
Black, Young, Theophilus, George, Henry, &c. Further, a 
proper name necessarily comprises all the words required 
to point out the particular person, place, or thing intended 
to be specified ; all of which, therefore, except mere par- 
ticles, it seems to me, should begin with a capital letter. 
Thus, 'John George Parry' is but one name, denoting 
but one person, and is separated into three words, only 

* " We may carry this reasoning farther, and show how, by the 
help of the article, even common appellatives may come to have 
the force of proper names, and that unassisted by epithets of any 
kind. Among the Athenians, irXolov meant ship ; eVSa/ca, eleven ; 
and &v6pcairos, man. Yet, add but the article, and Tb IIAoiW, 
THE SHIP, meant that particular ship which they sent annually to 
Delos ; Oi^EfSeiea, THE ELEVEN, meant certain officers of justice ; 
and 'O "Av6p<airos, THE MAN, meant their public executioner. So 
in English, city is a name common to many places ; and speaker, a 
name common to many men. Yet if we prefix the article, THE 
CITY means our metropolis, and THE SPEAKER, a high officer in 
the British Parliament." HARRIS, Hermes, b. ii, c. i. 



PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS, 179 

because each word is, or is supposed to be, of a more 
specially distinctive character than the word which fol- 
lows it. The French very correctly unite all those words 
with a hyphen which together constitute the surname or 
the Christian name ; as, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Gay- 
Lussac, &c. ; because, however many words may be used, 
they represent but one individual, under his generic and 
his specific designations, if I may so say. All those words, 
then, which belong to the general name, should, as was 
shown in a former chapter, be united in one compound 
word, as should also those which belong to the specific 
appellation. And so it is with the names of places : for 
although every name might logically be compressed into 
one word, as denoting but one place, generally without any 
implied attribute, yet, since it is usual to regard many 
places under a general and a specific character, when more 
than one word is used, they ought, in those instances, to be 
written separately, in the same manner as directed for 
proper names of persons, and each commence with a capital 
letter ; for each word is essential to the name. For these 
reasons, it is correct to write l Black Sea,' ' Blue Moun- 
tains/ ' White Sea,' ' Orange Eiver,' 'Fish River,' &c. 
with two capital letters ; for the words * Black/ * Blue,' 
'White,' &c., are not here used as ordinary adjec- 
tives, to express a property or quality of those particular 
places, however appropriate the appellative may be, but 
as mere specific nominal designations, thereby to distin- 
guish these places from others of the same general denomi- 
nation. But when the general word is lost sight of in its 
distinct character (to repeat what I have before said), then 
the two words are properly joined in one. Hence we 
correctly write Kingston, Boroughbridge, Peterborough, 
Somerstown, and numerous other names of places, where 
the latter member of the word has lost its distinctive 
character, in one word only. 

In connection with this subject, let me call your atten- 
N 2 



180 PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. 

ticn to the word of. This word, you well know, is a pre- 
position, generally expressing the relation of possession, or 
of appertaining to. When it does so, the common word 
which it connects with a proper name, cannot be also a 
proper name ; for that would be a contradiction : but when 
it does not denote such relation of appertaining or belong- 
ing to, tli en the connected words form but one proper 
name, and ought to be both printed with a capital letter. 
I will illustrate my meaning. ' The court of Borne/ ' the 
people of England/ ' the coast of France/ In these in- 
stances we use no capital letter to the words court, people, 
or coast, because they denote things which stand in a 
possessive relation to the respective places to which they 
are prefixed ; but in such cases as * the Straits of Dover/ 
* Bay of Fundy/ ' Gulf of Finland/ we do commence the 
words which, in their ordinary acceptation, are common 
nouns, with a capital letter ; because here, the relation of 
mere appurtenance or proprietorship is not intended : for 
although these names may be derived from the contiguity 
of certain places, they nevertheless do not belong to them 
exclusively. They consequently constitute but one proper 
name. So also adjectives derived from proper names, 
wlien they lose their possessory character, and become 
merely nominal, constitute but one proper name with the 
word which follows them. For instance, * English Channel/ 
1 Irish Sea/ ' German Ocean/ Adriatic Gulf.' For cer- 
tainly the English Channel no more naturally belongs to 
England than to France ; neither does the Irish Sea more 
pertain to Ireland than to England. 

VI. 

Adjectives derived from proper names are also begun 
with a capital letter ; as, ' Grecian/ ( Roman/ ' English/ 
' French/ 'Linnsean,' &c. 

Remark. A practice has come into vogue within the 
last few years with some printers, in imitation of the 



PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. 181 

French and Italians, of beginning all such words when 
pure adjectives with a small letter. Thus, I have met in 
books printed in London, with 'french author,' 'english 
cheer,' Italian air/ * egyptian mummy/ and a host of 
similar whimsicalities. But this practice ought to be con- 
demned, as being contrary to the best usage, and a quite 
unnecessary innovation. It is true, the French may have 
some reason for wishing to restrict the use of capital 
letters within narrow limits ; for their books are at all 
times unavoidably disfigured by so many accentual marks, 
breaking the continuity of the line of the body of the type, 
that any excuse for increasing the number of the ordinary 
letters may readily be allowed them. But English print- 
ers have no such excuse, and therefore are not justi6ed 
in departing from a custom which has been so long 
adopted, and sanctioned by the best writers of the lan- 
guage, in order to follow in the wake of a foreign innova- 
tion, recent even in the languages in which it is adopted. 
The reason which the fautors of this system allege in 
its defence, is, that these words are, in such instances, mere 
adjectives. This I grant. But they are words of specific 
limitation, and so far partake of the nature of proper 
names. And besides, as I said just now, their use with a 
capital initial is sanctioned in this country by long prac^ 
tice ; and custom in this, as in so many other things, is 
the jus et norma agendi: the use or disuse of capital letters 
at all rests upon no firmer basis. 

VII. 

Titles of books, as Pope's ' Eape of the Lock/ Swift's 
6 Tale of a Tub/ Thomson's * Seasons/ commence all the 
important words, of whatever part of speech, with a 
capital letter. 

Remark. It is not uncommon to print titles of books 
in italic letters, or else to denote them by signs of quota- 



182 PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. 

tion. But when these are numerous, they sadly disfigure 
the sightliness of a page; and as they very little assist 
the reader in the matter, for the title is always easily 
enough distinguished from the context, their usage in 
such cases might, without much detriment, be dispensed 
with altogether. This observation especially applies to 
footnotes, which are not uufrequently composed of little 
else than references to the works of other authors, in cor- 
roboration of the opinions of the writer. The utmost that 
I would advise, would be to put such titles in what are 
technically called single turns; but that only when they 
come in the midst of a sentence, never when they follow 
a sentence as an authority (where perhaps italic is the best, 
because more distinct), nor yet when they are merely 
adduced as an authority in a footnote, without any ac- 
companying matter. An example will fully explain my 
meaning. 

" Although I have entitled the following work, ' The Life 
and Pontificate of Leo the Tenth/ yet I have not only thought 
it excusable, but even found it necessary, to enter into the 
general history of the times ; without which it would have 
been impossible to give so full an idea of the character and 
conduct of this celebrated pontiff, as it was my wish to com- 
municate." ROSCOE, Life and Pontificate of Leo the Tenth, 
Preface, p. viii. 

Or as a footnote : 
* Life and Pontificate of Leo the Tenth, Preface, p. viii. 

VIII. 

"Words denoting well-known events, which constitute 
as it were an epoch, either in the world's or in a nation's 
history, are also very properly began with a capital letter. 
Such words are, ' the Deluge,' ' the Captivity,' ' the Flight/ 
' the Reformation/ ' the Restoration/ &c., when these 
words are applied to designate certain well-known his- 
torical events or periods. 



PROPER USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. 183 

Remark. This rule applies to all sorts of book-work ; 
but in pamphlets, newspapers, and works of an ephemeral 
character, minor events, of only local and circumscribed 
importance, are dignified with a grenadier at their head. 

IX. 

The first word of every line of poetry commences with 
a capital. 

Remark. If, as sometimes happens in humorous 
verses, a word is divided at the end of a line, of course 
the next line will begin with a small letter ; as, 

Paganini, Paganim ! 
Never was there such a geni- 
us before as Paganini. 

In works in Greek the custom varies ; some printers 
beginning every line with a capital ; while others, especi- 
ally the Germans, only do so when such word happens to 
commence a sentence. To me, the usual plan seems the 
more preferable. 

X. 

The first word of a quotation introduced after a colon, 
or in a direct form, must begin with a capital letter : thus, 
Pythagoras says, " Eeverence thyself." But when a quo- 
tation is brought in obliquely, that is, generally, with some 
word to introduce it, after a comma, then a capital 
letter is not used : thus, Plato observes, " that God 
geometrizes." 

XI. 

The pronoun 1 1,' and the interjection *O,' are written 
in capitals ; as, ' I write,' ' Hear, O heavens ! ' 



184 



CHAPTER IX. 



ASTRONOMICAL, ALGEBRAICAL, MATHEMA- 
TICAL, BOTANICAL, MEDICAL, AND OTHER 
SIGNS. 

IT forms no part of my design, even had I the means at 
hand, to swell the size, and consequently thereby enhance 
the price of this book, by the introduction and explanation, 
under this head, of all the symbols which may be found in 
the writings of astronomers, mathematicians, and chemists, 
or in other branches of science and art. I shall content 
myself with explaining to the young printer such as are 
not of unusual occurrence ; and if he has at any time 
occasion to look for others, he must refer to some of those 
works which have been compiled for the express eluci- 
dation of this subject. The symbols which we shall 
attempt to explain, will be, 

I. ASTRONOMICAL SIGNS. 
The twelve signs of the zodiac are thus characterized : 

V* Aries, the Ram. h Libra, the Balance. 

\$ Taurus, the Bull. n\ Scorpio, the Scorpion. 

n Gemini, the Twins. f Sagittarius, the Archer. 

o Cancer, the Crab. , V? Capricornus, the Goat. 
<5^ Leo, the Lion. 2 Aquarius, the Waterman. 

flJJ Virgo, the Virgin. > Pisces, the Fishes. 



ASTRONOMICAL SIGNS. 185 

These symbols are said to represent the twelve "houses 
of the sun, and are here placed in the order in which that 
luminary appears to enter that part of the heavens 
assigned to each division, commencing with Aries, the 
first of the spring solstice, and so proceeding from east to 
west. The tyro no doubt will remember Dr. Watts's lines 
on this matter ; or he may see their order in the following 
Latin distich, the first line of which represents the 
northern constellations, and the second the southern. 

Sunt Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Yirgo, 
Libraque Scorpius, Arcitenens, Caper, Amphora, Pisces. 

The Sun, the centre of our system, is generally indicated 
by the sign or ; the planets and principal asteroids 
by the following symbols ; 



^ Mercury. 


T/. Jupiter. 


^ Juno. 


Q Venus. 


T? Saturn. 


p Ceres. 


or 5 Earth. 


Ijl Herschel, or 


$ Pallas. 


Q* Mars. 


Uranus. 


g Vesta. 



The names of the sun and some of the planets also 
designate the days of the week. Thus : 

Dies Solis, Sunday. Dies Jovis, Thursday. 

Dies Lunee, Monday. Dies Veneris, Friday. 

Dies Martis, Tuesday. Dies Saturnii, Saturday. 
Dies Mercurii, Wednesday. 

Some of the planets are accompanied by moons, the 
phases of which are thus represented : 

$ New Moon. O Full Moon. 

> First Quarter. ([ Last Quarter. 

Eclipses happen with us when the Sun is in a certain 
position with respect to the Earth or Moon : when this 



186 ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

occurs in the ascending node, it is denominated Dragon's 
Head, and is thus distinguished, 3 . 

When it happens in the descending node, it is called 
Dragon's Tail, and is indicated by the symbol $. 

The aspects of the planets, which we commonly meet 
with in astronomical works, are five in number : 

A Trine; when two planets stand three signs from each 
other, which makes 90 degrees, or the fourth of the ecliptic. 

CJ Quartile; when a planet stands from another four signs, 
or 120 degrees; or one third of the ecliptic. 

>j< Sextile is the sixth part of the ecliptic, or two signs ; or 
60 degrees. 

tf Conjunctio^ happens when two planets stand under each 
other in the same sign and degree. 

Opposifio, when two planets stand diametrically opposite 
each other. 

The sign for degree is [ ] ; minute [ / ] ; second [ " ] ; 
third ["']; &c. 

As this book is principally intended for the rising 
generation of printers, I perhaps may be excused if I 
endeavor to relieve the general dryness of the subjects of 
which it treats, by adding a few observations connected 
with astronomy, of a more general character, but not the 
less interesting or instructive to those who may not have 
made this science at all their study. I shall speak more 
particularly of time and its divisions, as these are matters 
of every-day life. 

Time is naturally divided, as far as the inhabitants of 
the earth are concerned, into days and years; it is also 
artificially divided into weeks and months ; and other 
divisions have at various times been adopted by different 
nations. Some of the most interesting of these I will 
explain. 



ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 187 

1. The Day. 

The most frequently recurring natural division of time 
is the day ; but as to when we shall account it to begin ? 
and when to end, this is a matter on which the opinion 
of mankind hath considerably varied. The Babylonians 
began their day with the sunrise ; the Jews, Arabs, and 
Athenians, began it with sunset : and in this they are 
imitated by the modern Italians and others, who reckon 
their first hour from the setting of the sun. The Egyptians 
began it as we do at present. 

2. The Tear, 

There is but one natural year, which comprises the 
space of time during which the earth performs one revo- 
lution round the sun ; but as to where we shall fix the 
starting-point, this is a matter entirely at man's discretion, 
so far as concerns the propriety of his reckoning ; for 
various parts of the sun's course in the ecliptic have at 
one time or another been considered the most proper with 
which to commence the year. Whichever may be fixed 
upon, the time of revolution must be the same, 365 days 
5 hours 48 minutes and 49 seconds. 

The Julian year so named from its having been esta- 
blished by Julius Caesar, although somewhat modified by 
his successor comprises 365 days 6 hours ; but as these 
six hours are omitted in the computation of three succes- 
sive years, a day is added to the month of February 
every fourth year, which is then called Bissextile, from bis, 
'twice,' and sextus, ' sixth ;' because this day was the sixth 
of the Calends of March, and was reckoned twice. By com- 
paring the Julian year with the true solar year, you will 
observe that the former exceeds the latter by more than 
eleven minutes ; which forms a day in 131 years. Whence 
it follows, that the spring equinoxes, which fell in the 
first Julian year on the 25th of March, fell on the 21st in 



188 ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

the year of Christ 325, the epoch of the Council of 
Nice ; and on the llth in 1582. To prevent the extension 
of this error, Pope Gregory XIII struck off ten entire 
days from the calendar; the day which followed the 4th of 
October, 1582, was consequently accounted the 15th. By 
this means the equinox was fixed to the 21st of March. 
At the same time, another modification was made, to 
prevent the recurrence of an error of some importance. 
The intercalary day, which had been regularly added to 
February every fourth year, was suppressed in every even 
hundredth year which cannot be divided by 4 ; so that the 
last year of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth 
centuries do not count as leap-years. This alteration of 
the calendar has approached so near the truth, as to vary 
but one day in three thousand years ; and in honor of 
the pope under whose influence it was established, it is 
called the Gregorian calendar. It was not adopted in 
England until 1752, when the 3rd of September was 
reckoned the 14th ; the Julian calendar being at that 
time wrong eleven days. The Russians still adhere to 
this calendar, which is commonly known as the Old Style, 
while the improved method of reckoning is denominated 
the New Style. It is owing to this that you will frequently 
observe dates with two figures, when reference is made 
to some period near the time of the alteration; in this 

manner: Jan. i_, 1757. 

Both the length of the year and the epoch of its com- 
mencement have varied among different nations. The 
year of the early Romans contained but ten months, com- 
prising in all about 304 days ; the Egyptian year contained 
365 days, and that of the ancient Greeks was reckoned of 
different lengths at various periods of their history. Tt 
Chaldeans and Egyptians commenced their year at th 
autumnal equinox ; the Jews dated their civil year frc 
the same epoch, but commenced their ecclesiastical ye 
in the spring. Certain of the states of Greece began the 



ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 189 

year in the summer; others in the autumn. The Roman 
year began at one time in March, but afterwards it was 
altered to January. The year of the Church of Rome is 
fixed to commence on the Sunday which precedes the full 
moon of the spring equinox. In England, the year com- 
menced in March until 1752, when the alteration of style 
took place, and when the new year was declared by 
authority to begin on the 1st of January. It is owing 
to this circumstance that the period intervening between 
January 1st and March 25th used to be represented thus : 
1753-4, or 175|. These are facts which it is worth while 
that the young printer should bear carefully in mind. 

3. The Week. 

The division thus named has much varied with the 
epochs of nations. The first Greeks divided their months 
into three quarters, of ten days each ; the Chinese of the 
north have a week of fifteen days ; and the Mexicans had 
one of thirteen. The most general division is that of the 
Jews, who divided their months into periods of seven 
days. This division was adopted by the Chaldees and 
the greater part of the Oriental nations; but it was not 
adopted in the West until after the establishment of the 
Christian religion, in the reign of the emperor Theodosius. 

4. The Month. 

This division of time is probably due to the revolution 
of the moon, each revolution occupying about twentynine 
days; but the difficulty of adjusting the lunar month to 
the annual period of the earth's progress round the sun 
has given rise to other divisions, comprised under the 
same name. The only one of these which need be noticed 
here, is the civil or political month, a portion of time 
determined by the custom of nations. 

There are reckoned twelve of these months in the year 
by almost all the nations of Europe ; a number which was 
first adopted 'in the time of Julius Caesar. Each of his 



190 ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

months was composed alternately of thirty and thirtyone 
days ; but this arrangement was modified by the emperor 
Augustus, whose name was given to the month before called 
Sextilis ; and to render it equal with the rest, he raised 
the number of its days from thirty to thirtyone, bringing 
one from February, which afterwards had but twenty- 
eight, except in Bissextile. 

In the time of the early Romans the year consisted 
but of ten months, beginning in the spring ; the last of 
the months being named December, because the tenth 
(decimus) from the spring (a vere). Hence Decemver or 
December. So, in like manner, November (the ninth), 
October (the eighth), and September (the seventh), (a vere). 
Numa added January and February ; but we cannot place 
much reliance upon this early period of Roman history. 

I subjoin an account of the origin of the names of the 
rest of the months, which will perhaps prove interesting 
to some of my readers : 

January is said to be derived from Janus, a divinity 
who presided over the commencement of all undertakings. 

February, from februo, 'I purify;' because in that 
month funeral lustrations were performed at Rome. 

March, from Mars, the god of war, because campaigns 
were generally entered upon in this month. 

April, perhaps from aperire, 'to open,' in allusion to 
the budding of vegetation. 

May, from Maia, the mother of Mercury, to whom 
sacrifices were offered on the first day. 

June, according to some, from Junius, Juno, or Junioris. 

July, as before stated, was named in honor of Julius 
Caesar ; previously called Quintus. 

August from Augustus : otherwise Sextilis. 

The various months of the year, according to the 
systems of the principal nations of the earth, will be seen 
at a glance in the accompanying table ; but it must be 
remembered, as has been before said, that they do not all 
commence at the same time. 





| 


g 


OS 
01 




CO 


OS O 
01 CO 


05 
01 


O 
CO 


05 



CO 


m 


OI 




! 


^3 

1 


Muharram . 


i 

m 


Rabia prior . 


Rabiapost.... 
Jornada prior 


od 


1-7, 


i 
'$ 


Shaaban .... 


d 


Shawall 
Dulkaadah . 


Dulheggia 






i 

Q 


o 

CO 


OS 

oq 



CO 


os o 
oq co 


O5 


o 

CO 


05 
Ol 


o 

CO 


OS O 

oq co 


5 




w 






i 




















1 


Months. 


J 


Marheslr 


i 


1 1 

* rd 

H 53 


1 


1 


.1 


I 


I = 


^ 




hd 


1 

fi 


05 
(M 



CO 


05 
01 


O OS 
CO 01 




CO 


OS 



CO 


OS 


O OS 
CO Ol 


O 
CO 




ATTIC GREE 


Months. ] 


1 


1 


1 

I 


MaifJLO.KTIlpl&l' 

Tlvavetyiciw .... 


& 
-3 
<o 

2 
b 

o 


'1 


1 


4 

I 


-1 1 

o " 

s 


t 

1 




tz 


! 



CO 


.+3 


o 

CO 


o o 

CO CO 




CO 


o 

CO 



CO 


o 

CO 


o o 

CO CO 


o 

CO 

- 

cr 


xc 


PERSIA] 


Months. 


Fervardin.. 


<D 


Chordad .. 


: 1 

^ 

1 


Sharivar . . 


1 


1 


1 


' 0> 

J -g 

Q M 


Esphandarn 


Additional 




1 


o 

CO 



CO 


o 

CO 


co co 



CO 


o 

CO 





o 

CO 



CO CO 


s 


iO 


I 














^ 


3 


: 






e! 


i 


Months. 


1 



1 


?H 

1 


"o ^ 

r3 f^ 

O EH 


f_l 


I 


Pharmu 


1 


PH H 


o 


Additioi 




1 


T 1 

CO 


s 


T 1 

CO 


CO CO 




CO 


rH 
CO 


rH 

CO 


o 

CO 


>-l 

CO CO 


g 




jz; 

i 




J 


h 












1 


. rO 


i 




3 

t> 


3 




I 


1 

0> 


I 


t SP 

^ a 






1-3 


1 


1 


1 

02 


1 a 

-o g 
8 o 

fc 


1 
p 





192 ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

At the period of the French revolution, the Christian 
calendar was replaced by the republican. The era of this 
new date was the 22nd of September, 1792, the epoch of 
the foundation of the Eepublic. It contained twelve 
months of thirty days each : the five complementary 
days received the name of sans-culottides. These months 
were named 



Autumnal Months. 
Vend^miaire 
Bmmaire 
Frimaire 


Winter Months. 
Nivose 
Pluviose 
Ventose 


Spring Months. 
Germinal 
Flor^al 
Prairial 


Summer Months. 
Messidor 
Thermidor 
Fructidor 



This method of computation lasted till after the esta- 
blishment of the Empire : it was discontinued in 1805. 

5. Cycles. 

The cycle of the sun is composed of twentyeight years ; 
at the end of which the date of the month falls on the 
same day of the week, and the sun finds himself in the 
same sign, and the same degree of the ecliptic, in which 
he was at the commencement. 

The cycle of the moon is a period of nineteen years ; 
at the end of which, the moon and the sun return very 
nearly to the same position which they occupied in the 
heavens at the commencement of the period. 

6. Epochs or Eras. 

The most remote epoch as regards man, as well as 
the most remarkable, is that of the establishment of the 
present order of nature, commonly called the Creation. 
This event is supposed to have taken place 4004 years 
before the birth of Jesus Christ. 

The latter event forms the epoch of Christian nations, 
and was adopted about six hundred years after Christ ; 
but is mostly thought to have been dated back four years 
too much. 



MATHEMATICAL SIGNS, ETC. 193 

The Greeks reckoned by Olympiads, or periods of 
four years. The first commenced 775 years before the 
Christian epoch. The Eomans dated from the foundation 
of their city, a period not well ascertained, but reckoned 
at; 753 years before the birth of Christ. 

The Mahometan era dates from the journey of Maho- 
met to Medina, A.D. 622. 



II. MATHEMATICAL AND ALGEBRAICAL SIGNS. 

The signs commonly used in these sciences are, 

-f- Plus, the sign of addition ; meaning, that the quantities 
between which it is placed are to be added together ; thus, 
2 + 4 signifies that 2 is to be added to 4. In algebra it repre- 
sents real existence, and is called an affirmative or positive 
sign. 

Minus, the sign, of subtraction, denotes that the latter 
quantity is to be taken from the former ; as 4 2 means that 
2 is to be subtracted from 4. This sign algebraically repre- 
sents a negative existence ; or a quantity less than any positive 
number ; or perhaps, more strictly speaking, a number of a 
contrary nature to that to which it is opposed. 

c/~> Differentia, signifies the difference of the quantities 
between which it is placed. By Wolfius, Leibnitz, and others, 
it is used for the mark of similitude. 

+ Plus or minus, signifies the sum or difference of two 
quantities. 

X into or with, the sign of multiplication, denotes that the 
quantities on each side of it are to be multiplied together ; as, 
4X8 ; read 4 into 8, or 4 with 8, or 4 multiplied by 8. But in 
algebra this sign is frequently omitted, and the two quantities 
are joined together. Thus, bd signifies that b is to be 
multiplied by d ; that is, the quantities represented by those 
letters. 

Note. The German mathematicians introduced a dot as 
the sign of multiplication, thus, 3-6 (i.e. 3X6), the wrong 
o 



194 MATHEMATICAL AND ALGEBRAICAL SIGNS. 

placing of which, has led to much confusion in some English- 
printed scientific books.* 

-f- by, the sign of division : thus, lO-j-2 denotes that 10 is 
to be divided by 2 ; and a +- b denotes that the quantity repre- 
sented by a is to be divided by the quantity represented by 6. 

* The error arises from the fact that a dot is also regarded as 
the mark for decimals ; so that the only way, sometimes, of know- 
ing which is meant, is by the position of this symbol. It is neces- 
sary, therefore, that this position should be accurately determined 
and strictly acted upon, in order to secure uniformity of application. 
A recent writer on arithmetic says, when speaking on this subject : 
" In writing decimals, you must be careful to put the decimal point 
against the upper part of the figures, not against the lower. When 
figures are separated by a point even with the lower part of the 
figures, the multiplication of the figures separated is understood, 
the point in that position standing in the place of the sign X : 
thus, 3.7 is the same as 3X7, while 3'7 is 3 and 7 tenths; or, as 
it is usually read, 3 decimal 7, or 3 point 7." 

To me this appears entirely erroneous. The point, as remarked 
in the text, was introduced in place of the X, by the German 
mathematicians, during the last century ; but as a mark for deci- 
mals it was in use long before then ; and in all the old works I have 
consulted, I uniformly find it ranging with the bottom of the figure 
when used in that capacity. Why, then, should we alter this well- 
settled system and adopt a new one, entirely uncalled for ? The 
best plan would be to place the dot, when used as a multiple, in 
the same position as the symbol it has in some measure displaced. 
Therefore I think it ought to be cast stronger than an ordinary full- 
point (on an en quadrat -at least), and be placed midway of the 
letter. It would then occupy the position of the other symbols, 
and there would be no danger of confounding it with the decimal 
point, which should certainly be maintained in its old position, as, 
I observe, is now done in the Athenceum and some other respect- 
able journals. The following will illustrate my meaning: 
2.5 + 3.6.5.1 = 31.11. 

The decimal point has also lately been applied to another 
purpose ; namely, to part hours and minutes : thus, 12.30 ; mean- 
ing half-past twelve; but it would be much better to contrive a 
distinct symbol for this object, something similar to this, 12/30, 
which would obviate all confusion ; or the figures might be sepa- 
rated by an en quadrat : 12 30 ; which is best of all. 



MATHEMATICAL AND ALGEBRAICAL SIGNS. 195 

Wolfius (with, the genuine German love of mystification) 
makes the sign of division two dots ; thus, 12:4; but in this 
he has not been followed. The division of one quantity by 
another is frequently denoted by placing the dividend over the 
divisor, with a line between them: thus, -~ signifies that 
a is to be divided by b. 

= equal to, the sign of equality. Descartes and some others 
use the mark x . 

Points are used to denote proportion : thus, a : b : : x : y 
signifies that a bears the same proportion to b that x does to 
y ; and in reading it we say, a is to b so is x to y. 

- involution, denotes that the quantity is to be multiplied 
by itself; as, 4 & 4 == 64. 

> , cr~, or S , is a sign of majority ; thus, a > b denotes that 
a t or its equivalent quantity, is greater than b. 

/_, ~D, or "Z., marks minority \ or that the first quantity is 
less than the second. 

00 the sign of infinity, signifies that the quantity to which 
it refers is of unlimited value. 

A/ evolution, the radical sign, or irrationality, signifies that 
the quantity which it precedes is to be extracted, according to 
the index of the power which accompanies it. Thus V denotes 
the extraction of the square root; / the extraction of the 
third or cube root ; */ that of the fourth root ; n *j that of the 
nth root, whatever n may represent ; and so of any other. But 
the roots of quantities are more commonly represented by 
fractions placed a little above the quantities, to the right hand. 
Thus a* means the same as Ja or */; a*, the same as */a, &c. 
The numbers J, J, &c., are called indices. 

The powers of quantities are represented by whole numbers, 
placed in the same manner as the fractions are which represent 
the roots. Thus, a 2 denotes the square of a ; a 3 , the cube of a; 
&c. Those numbers are also called indices. 

a vinculum. and \ -i ., n i 

r -, , ' . > are used to collect several 

t j brace or parenthesis ) 

quantities into one. Thus, a-J-6 a 6, or {+&} { -b } t 
denote that a and b, taken as one quantity, is to be multiplied 
by a b, taken as another quantity. 
o 2 



196 BOTANICAL SIGNS, ETC. 

Note. All the letters which constitute but one factor, or 
represent but one quantity or object, ought to be placed close to- 
gether, as figures are, however many in number : thus, 2ab 3cd 
= 5y ; or, the line ABC is twice the length of the line CDE ; 
and so on : but not separated in this manner, 2 a b 3 c d. 

D Quadrat, or regular quadrangle. Thus, nAB=rn BC 
means that the quadrangle upon the line AB is equal to the 
quadrangle upon the line CD. 

A Triangle; as, AABC = A ADC. 

L Angle ; as L ABC = Z ADC. The middle letter always 
denotes the angular point. 

_[_ Perpendicular ; as ABJJBC ; meaning that the line 
represented by the letters AB is perpendicular to that repre- 
sented by BC. 

CU Eectangled Parallelogram, or the product of two lines. 

1 1 Parallelism. 

V Equiangular or similar. 

J. Equilateral. 

|_ Right Angle. 

7-r The mark of Geometrical proportion continued, implies 
that the ratio is still carried on without interruption; as, 
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, -H- signifies that these numbers are in the same 
uninterrupted proportion. 

: Difference or excess. 

Q or q, a Square. 

C or c, a Cube. 

QQ, the ratio of a square number to a square number. 



III. BOTANICAL AND MEDICAL SIGNS. 
In Botanical works, 

Denotes annual plants, which bear but once. 

(1) A plant bearing single fruit once a year. The plant may 

continue one or more years. 

(2) A biennial monocarpian. It flowers in the second year, 

and afterwards dies. 
(g) A plant which only bears after several years, and then dies. 



MEDICAL SIGNS. 197 

Z* A plant whose root continues vital, and produces a stem 

every year. 

$ A plant whose root persists, and bears fruit several times. 
A small bush. 
$ A bush. 
5 A small tree. 

S A tree of more than twentyfive feet high. 
O A climbing plant. 
(j A plant climbing to the right. 
A plant climbing to the left. 
A An evergreen. 
C? Male plant. 
$ Female plant. 
'<? Hermaphrodite. 

I, II, III, IV, &c., denote the months of flowering. Thus, 
IV VI signifies that the plant flowers from April to 
June. Words compounded of an organ and an absolute 
number, are often written with the number in figures : 
thus, 10-^e?ws, W-petalus, for decemfidus, decapetalus. 
X Denotes an indefinite number. Thus, petala x, for petala 

plurima ; stamina x , for stamina plurima, &c. 
? Expresses uncertainty as to a name, &c. 
! Denotes certitude. 

-f- After a word denotes that the object is not well known. 
* After a synonyme, indicates that in the author cited there 
is a description made after nature. 

The symbols of common use in Medicine : 
R stands for Recipe, 'take.' 
a or aa is a contraction of the Greek distributive preposition 

ai/ct, and means ' equal parts of each.' 
Ss or ft semis, ' half.' 

ft * libra, ' a pound,' in apothecaries' weight = 12 ounces. 
3 or oz. f an ounce = 8 drachms. 

* This sign should never have an s after it; for the plural of 
libra is libra. Ibs. is quite as ridiculous as 5. ozs. ds. would be. 
f A contraction of the Spanish onza. 



198 MEDICAL SIGNS. 

3 a drachm = 3 scruples. 

9 a scruple = 20 grains. 

gr. a grain. There are 5,760 grains in a pound. 

j stands for one, ij for two, iij for three, and so on. 

P. pugillum or particula ; that is, such a quantity of flowers, 

seeds, or the like, as may be taken up between the thumb 

and the two forefingers. It is accounted the eighth part 

of a maniple. 
M. manipulum, ' a handful,' or as much as can be grasped by 

the hand at once. 

P. seq. paries aquales, or equal parts. 
Cong, congius, ( a gallon.' 
Cochl. cochleare, ' a spoonful ;' that is, half an ounce of syrup, 

but only three drachms of distilled water, 
f. m. fiat mixtura, let a mixture be made, 
q. s. quantum sufficit, or as much as is sufficient, 
q. p. quantum placet, or as much as you please ; or, q. 1. 

quantum libet. 
s. a. secundum artem> or according to art. 



199 



CHAPTER X. 



ABBREVIATIONS, AND LISTS OF LATIN, FRENCH, 
AND ITALIAN PHRASES, ETC. 

I. ABBREVIATIONS OF BOOKS OF SCRIPTURE. 



Gen Genesis 

Exod Exodus 

Lev Leviticus 

Num Numbers 

Deut Deuteronomy 

Josh Joshua 

Judg Judges 

Sam Samuel 

Chron Chronicles 

Neh Nehemiah 

Esth Esther 

Ps Psalms 

Prov. Proverbs 

Eccl Ecclesiastes 

S. or Song 

of Sol Song of Solomon 

Isa Isaiah 

Jer Jeremiah 

Lam Lamentations 

Ezek Ezekitl 

Dan Daniel 

Hos Hosea 

Obad Obadiah 



Mic Micah 

Nah Nahum 

Hab Habakkuk 

Zeph Zephaniah 

Hag Haggai 

Zech Zechariah 

Mai Malachi 

Esd Esdra 

Tob Tobit 

Jud Judith 

Wisd Wisdom 

Eccles Ecclesiasticus 

Bar Baruch 

Sus Susannah 

Man. Manasses 

Mace Maccabees 

Matt Matthew 

Jo John 

Rom Epistle to Romans 

Cor Corinthians 

Gal Galatians 

Eph Ephesians 

Phil Philippians 



200 ABBREVIATIONS OF TITLES, ETC. 



Col Colossians 

Thess Thessalonians 

Tim Timothy 

Tit Titus 

Philem Philemon 



Heb Hebrews 

Pet Peter 



Jas James 



N 



Rev Revelation 

Apoc Apocalypse 



Books not included in this list are better in full. 



II. ABBREVIATED NAMES OF MONTHS. 



Jan. ......January 

Feb February 

Mar March 



Apr April 

Aug August 

Sept September 



Oct October 

Nov November 

Dec. ., ...December 



These abbreviations should have place only when they 
stand in connection with the day of an occurrence ; as, * The 
first telegraphic message betwixt England and America 
was a communication from the Queen to the President, 
dated Aug. 7, 1858.' In other cases they should be in 
full ; as, ' The Atlantic cable was laid down in the month 
of July, 1858.' 



III. ABBREVIATIONS OF TITLES, OFFICES, PROFESSIONS, 

INSTITUTIONS, ETC. 
A.A.S Academics Americana Socius, Fellow of the 

American Society 

A.B Artium Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Arts 

Admr Administrator 

Admx Administratrix 

A.M Artium Magister, Master o Arts 

A.P.G Professor of Astronomy in Gresham College 

Archb. or Abp.... Archbishop 

Assist. Sec Assistant Secretary 

Atty.-Gen Attorney-General 

B.A Bachelor of Arts 

Bart Baronet 

B.C.L Bachelor of Civil Law 



ABBREVIATION'S OF TITLES, ETC. 201 

B.D Baccalaureus Divinitatis, Bachelor of Divinity 

B.L Baccalaureus Legum, Bachelor of Laws 

B.M Baccalaureus Medicine, Bachelor of Medicine 

Bp Bishop 

B.K Banco Regis (or Regina) King's (or Queen's) 

Bench 

Brit. Mus British Museum 

Bro Brother. Bros. Brothers 

B. V Beata Virgo, the Blessed Virgin 

Capt Captain 

C.B Companion of the Bath 

C.C Caius College 

C.C County Court 

C.C.C Corpus Christi College 

C.C.P Court of Common Pleas 

Cl. Dom. Com. ...Clerk of the House of Commons 

Co Company 

Col Colonel 

Coll College 

Com Commodore ; Commissioner ; Committee ; Com- 
mander 

Cor. Sec Corresponding Secretary 

C.P Court of Probate 

C.P.S Custos Privati Sigilli, Keeper of the Privy.Seal 

C.R Custos Rotulorum, Keeper of the Rolls 

Cr Creditor 

C.S Court of Sessions 

C. S Custos Sigilli, Keeper of the Seal 

D.C.L Doctor of the Civil Law 

D.D Divinitalis Doctor, Doctor of Divinity 

Dea Deacon 

Dep Deputy 

D.F Dean of Faculty (Scotland) 

Dft Defendant 

D.P Doctor of Philosophy 

Dr Doctor; Debtor 

Ed Editor. Eds. Editors 

E.I.M. Coll East-India Military College 

Esq Esquire. Esqs. Esquires 



202 ABBREVIATIONS OF TITLES, ETC. 

Exec, or Exr. ...Executor 

Execx Executrix 

F. A.S Fraternitatis Antiquariorum Socius, Fellow of 

the Society of Antiquaries 

F.D Fidei Defensor, Defender of the Faith 

F.E.S Fellow of the Entomological Society 

F.G.S Fellow of the Geological Society 

F.H.S Fellow of the Horticultural Society 

F.L.S Fraternitatis Linnearuz Socius, Fellow of the 

Linnean Society 
F.R.S . Fraternitatis Regice Socius, Fellow of the Royal 

Society 
F.R.S. & AS Fraternitatis Regies Socius et Associatus, Fellow 

and Associate of the Royal Society 

F.R.S.E Fellow of the Royal Society, Edinburgh 

F.R.S.L Fellow of the Royal Society, London 

F.S.A Fellow of the Society of Arts 

G.C.B Grand Cross of the Bath 

G.C.H Grand Cross of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic 

Order 

Gen General 

Gent Gentleman 

Gov Governor 

G.R Georgius (or Gulielmus) Rex, King George (or 

William) 

H.B.M His or Her Britannic Majesty 

H.E.I.C Honorable East-India Company 

H.M His or Her Majesty 

H.M. S His or Her Maj esty 's Ship or Service 

H.R.H His or Her Royal Highness 

Hon. Honorable 

Eon. Mem Honorable Member 

Hon. Sec Honorary Secretary 

H.P Half-pay 

I.H.S Jesus Hominum Salvator, Jesus the Saviour of 

Men 

J.D Jurum Doctor, Doctor of Laws 

J.P Justice of the Peace 

Just Justice 



ABBREVIATIONS OF TITLES, ETC. 203 

J.V.D. or J.U.D... Juris utriusque Doctor, Doctor of both Laws 
(of the Canon and the Civil Law) 

K.B Knight of the Bath 

K.B King's Bench 

K.C .King's Counsel 

K.C.B Knight Commander of the Bath 

K.G Knight of the Garter 

K.M Knight of Malta 

Knt. or Kt Knight 

K.P Knight of St. Patrick 

K.T Knight of the Thistle 

L.C.J Lord Chief Justice 

L.C.P .Licentiate of the College of Preceptors 

L.D Lady Day 

Ld Lord. Ldp. Lordship 

Lieut Lieutenant 

Lieut.- Gov Lieutenant-Governor 

LL.B Legum Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Laws 

LL.D Legum Doctor, Doctor of Laws (the Canon and 

the Civil Law) 

M Monsieur, Sir 

M.A Master of Arts 

Maj Major 

Maj.-Gen Major-General 

M.B Musicce Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Music 

M.C Member of Congress 

M.D Medicince Doctor, Doctor of Medicine 

Messrs Messieurs, Gentlemen 

MM Messieurs 

Mons. or M Monsieur, Sir 

Mde Madame, Madam 

Mdlle Mademoiselle, Miss 

-M.P Member of Parliament 

Mr Mister 

Mrs Mistress 

M.R. A.S Member of the Royal Asiatic Society 

M.R.C.S. Member of the Royal College of Surgeons 

M.R.I.A Member of the Royal Irish Academy 

Mus. D Doctor of Music 

Ph. D Philosophic Doctor, Doctor of Philosophy 



204 ABBREVIATIONS OF TITLES, ETC. 

Plff. Plaintiff 

P.M Postmaster 

P.M.G .Postmaster-General 

P.M.G Professor of Music at Gresham College 

P.O Post-office 

Pres President 

Prof Professor 

P.R.S President of the Royal Society 

P.S Privy Seal 

P. Th. G Professor of Divinity at Gresham College 

Q Queen 

Q.B Queen's Bench 

Q.C Queen's Counsel ; Queen's College 

R Rex, Regina, King, Queen 

R.A Royal Academician 

R.A Royal Artillery 

R.E Royal Engineers 

Rec. Sec Recording Secretary 

Rect Rector 

Reg Register 

Rep Representative 

Rev Reverend 

R.M Royal Marines 

R.N" Royal Navy 

R.S.S Regies Societatis Socius, or Regalls Societatis 

Socius, Fellow of the Royal Society 

Rt. Hon Right Honorable 

Rt. Rev Right Reverend 

Rt. Wpful Right Worshipful 

S.A.S Societatis Antiquariorum Socius, Fellow of the 

Society of Antiquaries 

Sec Secretary 

Sen Senate, Senator 

Serj Serjeant 

S.J.C Supreme Judicial Court 

St Saint; SS. Saints 

S.T.D Sanctce Theologies Doctor, Doctor of Divinity 

S.T.P Sancta Theologies Professor, Professor of Di- 
vinity 



MISCELLANEOUS ABBREVIATIONS. 



205 



Tr. Br. Mus Trustees of the British Museum 

Treas .....Treasurer 

Typ Typographer 

U.E.I.C United East-India Company 

U.J.C Utriusque Juris Doctor, Doctor of both Laws 

U.S.A United States Army 

U.S.M United States Mail 

U.S.N United States Navy 

V.Pres. or V. P.... Yice- President 

V.R Victoria Regina, Queen Victoria 

W.S Writer of the Signet 



IV. MISCELLANEOUS ABBREVIATIONS. 



a 

abl 

A.C. .. 

A.JLC. 



ace 

acct. . . . 
A.D. ... 

adj 

ad lib.... 
set 

A.M. . . . 

A.M. ... 

Amer. . . . 
anon. . . . 
Ans. or A 
art. 
A.U.C. . 



, acre or acres 
. ablative case 
. ante Christum, be 

fore Christ 
. anno cerce Christiance, 

in the year of the 

Christian era 
accusative case 
account 
.anno Domini, in the 

year of our Lord 
adjective 

ad libitum, at pleasure 
. cetatis, of age, aged 
. ante meridiem, before 

noon 
anno mundi, in the 

year of the world 
. American 
anonymous 
answer 
. article 
.ab urbe condita, or 

anno urbis conditce, 

in the year after 



the building of the 
city (Rome) 

Auth.Ver. Authorized Version 
b ....... book or books 

B.C. ....before Christ 

br ....... brig 

bu ....... bushel or bushels 

Cal ....... Calender, the Calends 

cap ..... capital ; caps, capi- 

tals 

cap. or c. caput, chapter 
cf. ...... confer, compare 

ch ....... chaldron or chaldron s 

chap. c. or 

ch ..... chapter 

co ....... county or company 

Com. Ver. Common Version 



comp 

conj 

ct. c 

cwt 

d 

d 



compare 
conjunction 
cent ; cts. cents 
hundredweight 
day or days 
denarius, a penny ; 

denarii, pence 
dative case 



206 



MISCELLANEOUS ABBREVIATIONS. 



D.D.D. . 



deg. , . . 
do. ditto, 
doll. ... 
D.O.M. . 



(used in dedications), 
dat, dicat, dedicat, 
he gives, he de- 
votes, he dedicates 
degree or degrees 
, the same 

dollar; dolls, dollars 
Deo optima maxima, 
to God who is all- 
powerful 
, dozen or dozens 
drachm or drachms 
duodecimo (a sheet of 
twenty-four pages) 
Deo volente, God will- 
ing 

pennyweight 
east 
edition 

English ell or ells 
, ell or ells Flemish 
ell or ells French 
ell or ells Scotch 



doz 

dr 

12mo 

D.V. ... 

dwt 

E 

edit, or ed. 
EE. ... 
E. PI. . . . 
E. Fr. . . . 
E. S. ... 
e. g. or 
ex. g. . . exempli gratia, for 



ep epistle 

et al et alibi, and else- 
where ; et alii, &c., 
and others 

ex example 

Fahr Fahrenheit 

fath fathom or fathoms 

fcap foolscap 

fig figure or figures 

fir firkin or firkins 

f. m. . . . .fiat mixtura, let a 
mixture be made 

ft foot, feet 



fol. fo. or 

f folio, folios 

fur furlong or furlongs 

gal gallon ; gals, gallons 

gen genitive case 

gr grain or grains 

guin. or G. guinea, guineas 
h. or hr. . . hour, hours 

h. e hoc est, that is 

hhd hogshead or hogs- 
heads 

hund hundred or hundreds 

ibid, or ib. ibidem, in the same 

place 

id idem, the same (per- 
son or thing) 

i. e id est, that is 

in inch or inches 

incog incognito, unknown 

in lim. . .in limine, at the out- 
set 

in loc in foco,onthe passage 

inst instant, of this month 

int interest 

i. q idem quod, the same 

which 
jun. or jr. junior 

1 line 

lat latitude 

Ib pound or pounds (in 

weight) 

1. c loco citato, in the 

passage cited 
leag. lea. 

or 1. . .league, leagues 
lib. or 1. . . liber, book 

liv. livre, book 

long longitude 

LXX Septuagint (Version) 



MISCELLANEOUS ABBREVIATIONS. 



207 



L S 


locus sigilli, place of 


8vo 


octavo (a sheet of 


m 


the seal 
mile or miles 




sixteen pages) 
pole or poles 


M ...... 


meridies, meridian 




page i pp. pages 




noon 


par. 


paragraph 


Mag 


magazine 
memento* remember 


per ann. . 


per annum, by the 
year 


mo 


month ; mos. months 


per cent. . 


per centum, by the 


MS 


manuscriptum, manu- 




hundred 


M.S. . . . 


script 
. memorice. sacrum, sa- 
cred to the me- 


P.M 
DOT). 


post meridiem, after- 
noon 
population 




mory 


P.P.D. . 


propria pecunia de- 


MSS 
N 


manuscripta, manu- 
scripts 
north 




dicavit, with his 
own money he 
dedicated it 


n 


note or notes 


prep. . . . 


preposition 


N.B 
N.B 

nem. con. 
nem. diss. 


nota bene, mark well 
North Britain (Scot- 
land) 
nemine contradicente, 
nobody opposing 
nemine dissentiente, 
unanimously 


prob. . . . 
prop. ... 
pro tern. 

prox. . . . 
P.S. 


problem 
proposition 
pro tempore, for the 
time being 
proximo, next 
(month) 
post scriptum, post- 


nl 


nail ; nls. nails 




script 


N No. . . 


numeTO in number \ 


pt. 


pint ; pts. pints 




number 


pun. 


puncheon or pun- 


nom. . . . 
Nos 

NS 


nominative case 
numbers 
New Style 


Q. or Ques. 


cheons 
question 
quadrans, farthing 


N.T. or 
New Test/ 
obedt. . 


New Testament 
obedient 


q. d.., 


quadrantes, far- 
things 
.quasi dictum, as if 


obi . . 


objection, objective 




said 


Olym 
O.S 
O.T. or 
Old Test, 
oz 


Olympiad 
Old Style 

Old Testament 
. ounce or ounces 


Q.E.D. . . . 
Q.E.F. . . . 


. quod erat demon- 
strandtim, which 
was to be proved 
. quod erat faciendum, 
which was to be done 



208 



MISCELLANEOUS ABBREVIATIONS. 



qr quarter ; qrs. quar- 
ters 

qt quart ; qts. quarts 

4to quarto (a sheet of 

eight pages) 

Qy query 

r rood or roods ; rod 

or rods 

Reed received 

Rom Roman 

S south 

s. or sec. . . second, seconds 

5 solidus, shilling ; 

solidi, shillings 

sc scruple or scruples 

s. caps .... small capitals 

schr schooner 

S.D salutem dicit, he 

sends his respects 

scil. or sc. scilicet, namely 

sect section ; sees, or ss. 

sections 

sen senior 

sol solution 

S.P salutem precatur, he 

prays for his pro- 
sperity 

S.P.D. ..salutem plurimam 
dicit, he wishes 
much health, or 
sends his best 



S.P.Q.R. . .Senatus populusque 
Eomanus, the se- 
nate and people 
of Rome 

sq. m square mile or miles 

sq. or seq. sequente; sqq. se- 
quentibus, in the 
(places) following 



ster sterling 

t ton or tons 

Text. rec. Textus receptus^the 
Received Text 

theor theorem 

tier tierce or tierces 

T. turnover 

torn, or t. tomus, tome, volume 

trans translation, trans- 
lator 

tr. transpose 

ult ultimo, in the last 

(month) 

U. S United States 

v. or vid. vide, see, refer to 

v versus, against 

ver.. verse; vv. verses 

v. g verbi gratia, for ex- 
ample 

viz videlicet L , namely, to 

wit 

voc vocative case 

vol volume ; vols. vo- 
lumes 

vv. 11 varicR lectiones, dif- 
ferent readings 

W west ' 

wk. week; wks. weeks 

wt weight 

Xmas Christmas 

Xn Christian 

Xnty Christianity 

Xt Christ 

y, the ; yn, then 

ys, this ; yt, that 

yr. year ; yrs. years 

&c. or etc. et cateri, et cater a, 
et catera, and the 
others 



209 



V. SOME FRENCH ABBREVIATIONS. 



B n Baron 

Ch er Chevalier 

Compie, C e Compagnie 

CP Constantinople 

C e Comte 

D r Docteur 

DM Docteur-Me'decin 

D.M.P. Docteur- Medecin 

Praticien 

LL. AA. . . Leurs Altesses 
LL. A A. II. Leurs Altesses Im- 

periales 
LL.AA.RR. Leurs Altesses 

Royales 

LL. EE. Leurs Excellences 
LL. EEm. Leurs Eminences 
LL.HH.PP. Leurs Hautes 
Puissances 

LL.MM Leurs Majeste's 

LL. MM. II. Leurd Majestes Im 

periales 
Le R.P. .*. . . Le Reverend Pere 

Le S.P Le Saint Pere (Le 

Pape) 

Les SS. PP. Les Saints Peres (de 
1'Eglise) 

M is Marquis 

M rae Madame 

M lle Mademoiselle 

M., M r .... Monsieur 

M d Marchand 

M Maitre 

M* r or Mgr. Monseigneur 

NeV Negociant 

N.D Notre-Dame 



N.S. J.C Notre-Seigneur Je- 
sus-Christ 

S.E Son Excellence 

S.Em Son Eminence 

S.G Sa Grace 

S.H Sa Hautesse (1'em- 

pereur de Tur- 
quie) 

S.M Sa Majest^ 

S.M.B Sa Majeste" Britan- 

nique 

S.M.C Sa Majeste Catho- 

lique 

S.M.P Sa Majeste" Prus- 

sienne 

S.M.T.C. ..Sa Majest^ tres- 
Chre"tienne 

S.M.T.F. ..Sa Majeste tres- 
Fidele 

S.S. Sa Saintete 

V.E Votre Excellence 

c centime 

cent centimetre 

ch chant 

chap chapitre 

do dito 

&, etc et csetera 

ff Digeste 

f o folio 

f r franc 

gram gramme 

gr gros 

hect hectare 

hectol hectolitre 

kil kilogramme 



210 



GERMAN ABBREVIATIONS. 



lig ....... ligne 

Ms., Mss. Manuscrit, Manu- 

scrits 
m ....... metre 

mill ..... millimetre 



pag. 
p 
pc 
l er > 2 e 



.page 

pied 

pouce 
. premier, deuxieme 



1 2 etc. primo, secundo, &c. 

qq quelques 

r recto 

sect section 

v vers 

vers verset 

v verso 

vg village 

vl ville 

voy voyez. 



VI. SOME GERMAN ABBREVIATIONS. 

a. a. am angefuhrten Orte (at the place quoted) 

d. h das heisst (that is called) 

Fr Frau (lady) 

Gr Groschen (name of a coin) 

heil heilig (holy) 

h. S heilige Schrift (holy Scripture) 

Hr., Hrn. . . Herr, Herrn (gentleman, gentlemen) 

i. J im Jahre (in the year) 

kaiserl kaiserlich (imperial) 

Kap Itapitel (chapter) 

konigl. . . . koniglich (kingly) 

Kr Kreuzer (name of a coin) 

1 leset (read) 

Maj Majestat (majesty) 

N. S Nachschrift (postscript) 

S Seite (side) 

s siehe (see) 

Sr Seiner (his) 

Thlr Thaler (name of a coin) 

z. B zu Beispiel (for example) 

z. E zum Exempel (for example) 

u. s. f. ... .und so ferner (and so further) 
u. s. w und so weiter (and so forth) 



211 



VII. ABBREVIATIONS OF THE PRINCIPAL GREEK AND 
LATIN AUTHORS. 



J3s3h. . . . 


^Eschylus 


Ale. 


Alcseus, Alcman 


Amm. Marc 


Ammianus Mar- 




cellinus 


Anac 


Anacreon 


Anthol. . . . 


Anthologia 


Antiph. . . . 


. Antiphanes 


Apol. Rhod. 


Apollonius Rhodius 


Apollin. . . . 


Apollinaris 


Apul 


Apuleius 


Arat 


Arat us 


Arist 


Aristoteles 


Aristoph. . 


. Aristophanes 


Asc. Fed. . 


. Asconius Pedianus 


Astramp. . 


. Astrampsychus 


A then. . . . 


. Athenseus 


August. . . . 


. Augustinus 


Aul. Gell. . 


.Aulus Gelius 


Aur. Viet. . 


. Aurelius Victor 


Auson. . . . 


, Ausonius 


Bacchyl. . . . 


. Bacchylides 


Bibl 


. Biblia 


Bud 


. Budseus 


Cses 


Julius Caesar 


Comm. 


Julii Csesaris Com- 




mentaria 


Cal. Quint. 


Calaber Quintus 


Callim. . . . 


. Callimachus 


Calpurn. . 


. Calpurnius 


Cat. 


,Cato 


Catul. . . . 


. Catullus 


Cels. 


Cornelius Celsus 


Chrystod. . 


. Chrystod or us 


Chrysost. . 


. Chrysostomus 



Cic Cicero 

Orat. . . Ciceronis Orationes 

de Off. Cicero de Officiis, 

&c. 

Claud Claudianus 

Col.,Colum. Columella 

C. Nep Cornelius Nepos 

Curt Quintus Curtius 

Cyr. Theod. Cyrus Theodorus 
Damasc. Joh. Damascenus Jo- 
hannes 

Demet Demetrius 

Diog. Laert. Diogenes Laertius 

Enn Ennius 

Erasm. ....Erasmus 

Eurip Euripides 

Euseb Eusebius 

Fest. Pomp. Festus Pompeius 

Flor Florus 

Front Frontinus 

Gell Aulius Gellius 

Greg. Naz.. .Gregorius Itfazian- 

zensis 

. Herodianus 
. Herodotus 
. Hesiodus 



"I Hesiodi Opera et 
3 j Dies, &c. 



Herod. . . 
Herodot. 
Hesiod. . 
Op. , 
et Dies J 

Hirt Hirtius 

Horn Homerus 

,, II Homeri Ilias 

Odys. Homeri Odyssea 

Horat Horatius 

Ars ) Horatii Ars Po- 
Poet. j etica 



212 



GREEK AND LATIN ABBREVIATIONS. 



Horat. Od . 
Sat.. 
Hort 


Horatii Odae 
Satirse, &c. 
Hortensius 


Papin. jur.. 
Paul ^Emyl 


Papinianus juris- 
consultus 
Paulus ^Emylins 


Hygin. . . . 


Hyginus 


Paus . 


Pausanias 


Jer 


Jeromus 


Pers. 


Persius 


Jul. Cap. . 


Julius Capitolinus 


Petr 


Petronius 


Jul. Firm. . 
Justin 


Julius Firmicus 
Justinus 


Phsed. .... 
Phil 


Phaedrus 
Philemon 


Juv 


Juvenalis 


Pind 


Pindarus 


Lactant. 


Lactant us 


Plat. 


Plato 


Lamprid. . 
Liv 


Lampridius 
Titus Livius 


Plaut. . . . 
Plin. 


Plautus 
Plinius historicus 


Longin. . . . 
Lucan. 


Longinus 
Lucanus 


Plin. jun. . 
Plut. 


Plinius junior 
Plutarchus 


Lucian 
Lucil 
Macr. 
Marcian. . . 
Marc. Mus-. 
Mart 
Mela .... 


Lucianus 
Lucilius 
Macrobius 
Marcianus Capella 
Marcus Musurus 
Martialis 
Pomponius Mela 


Mor. . 
Vit. . 
Pomp. jur. 

Pomp. Mel. 
Procop. . . . 
Propert. . . . 


Plutarchi Moralia 
Vitae 
Pomponius juris- 
consultus 
Pomponius Mela 
Procopius 
Propertius 


M enand 
Modest, jur. 

Mosc 
Mus 


Menander 
Modestinus juris- 
consultus 
Moschus 
Musseus 


Pythag. . . . 
Quint. &Q.C 
Quintil. . . . 
dej 
Orat. \ 
Sail 


Pythagoras 
. Quintus Curtius 
Quintilianus 
de Re 
Oratorica, &c. 
Sallustius 


Nic 


Nicander 


Sap 


Sappho 


Non. . . . 


Nonnus 


Scsevol. . . . 


Scsevola juriscon- 


Opp 
Urph 
Ovid 


Oppianus 
Orphseus 
Ovidius 


Scrib 
Sen 


sultus 
Scribonius 
Seneca Philosophus 






Sen. Tr. 


Seneca Poeta tra- 


Epist. / 
Her. \ 


phoses 
Epistolae 
Heroicse 


Sibyl. Orac. 
Sil. Ital. . . 


gicus 
Sibyllina Oracula 
Silius Italicus 


Trist... 
Pacuv 
Pallad 


Tristia, &c. 
Pacuvius 
Palladius 


Simm. Ehod 
Simon 
Socrat 


Simmias Khodius 
Simonides 
Socrates 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 



Soph Sophocles 

Stat Statius 

Strab Strabo 

Suet. Suetonius 

Tac Cornelius Tacitus 

Ter , Terentius 

Tertul Tertullianus 

. . Theocritus 

. . Theognis 

. . Thucydides 

, . Tibullus 

Rh d } Timocreon Rhodius 

Tyrt Tyrtaeus 

Ulp. jur. . .Ulpianus juriscon- 

sultus 
Val. Flae. Valerius Flaccus 



Theoe. 

Theog 

Thuc 

Tibul. 

Timoe. 



Val. Max. . .Valerius Maximua 

Varr Terentius Varro 

Vel. Pat.. .Velleius Paterculus 

Virg Virgilius 

Mn. Virgilii JEneis 
Georg. Georgica 
Buc. Bucolica 

Vitr Vitruvius 

Vol Volusius 

Vopisc .... Vopiscus 

Xen. . . . Xenophon 
Cyrop. Xenophontis Cy- 

ropsedia 

Anab, Anabasis 

Memor. Memora- 
bilia, &c. 



VIII. EXPLANATION OF FRENCH, LATIN, AND ITALIAN 
WORDS AND PHRASES IN COMMON USE. 

F. French ; L. Latin ; i. Italian ; s. Spanish. 

A bas (F). Down with. 

A fortiori (L). "With stronger reason; with greater force, 

A la bonne heure (F). Luckily ; in good time. 

A la mode (F). According to the fashion. 

A posteriori (L). From the effect ; from the latter. 

A priori (L). From cause to effect ; from the former. 

Ab initio (L). From the beginning. 

Ab urbe conditd (L). From the building of the city 

(Rome). 
Absit invidia (L). All offence apart; let there be no 

malice. 

Absit omen (L). May it not prove ominous. 
Ad arbitrium (L). At pleasure. 



214 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 

Ad dbsurdum (L). To show the absurdity. 

Ad captandum vulgus (L). To catch the mob or the vulgar. 

Ad eundem (L). To the same point or degree. 

Ad Grcecas calendas (L). An indefinite postponement. 

(The Greeks had no calends.) 
Ad infinitum (L). Without end. 
Ad interim (L). In the meanwhile. 
Ad libitum (L). >At pleasure. 
Ad nauseam (L). To a disgusting degree. 
Ad referendum (L). For further consideration. 
Ad rem (L). To the purpose. 
Ad valorem (L). According to the value. 
Addendum (L). An addition or appendix. 
Affaire de cceur (F). A love affair ; an amour. 
Afflatus (L). Inspiration. 
Agenda (L). Things to be done. 

Aide-de-camp (F). An officer attendant on a general, &c. 
Alga (L). A kind of sea-weed. 
Alguazil (Sp. alguacii). A Spanish constable. 
Alias (L). Otherwise. 
Alibi (L). Elsewhere ; not present. 
Allemande (F). A kind of German dance. 
Alma mater (L). Benign mother (applied to a university), 
Alter ego (L). A second self. 
Amateur (F). A lover of any sort of science. 
Amende (F). Compensation ; apology. 
Anglice (L). In English. 
Anno Domini (L). In the year of our Lord. 
Anno lucis (L). In the year of light. 
Anno mundi (L). In the year of the world. 
Ante meridiem (L). Before noon. 
Antique (F). Ancient. 
Apergu (F). A brief sketch of any subject. 
Apropos (Fr. a propos)^ To the purpose. 
Arcana, imperil (L). State secrets. 
Arcanum (L). A secret. 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 215 

Argumentum ad fidem (L). An appeal to our faith. 
Argumentum ad hominem (L) An argument to the person. 
Argumentum ad ignorantiam (L). A foolish argument. 
Argumentum adjudicium (L). An appeal to the common 

sense of mankind. 

Argumentum adpopulum (L). An appeal to the people. 
Armiger (L). One bearing arms ; an esquire. 
Assumpsit (L).- -It is assumed or taken for granted. 
Aufond (F). To the bottom, or main point. 
Au pis alter (F). At the worst. 
Audi alteram partem (L). Hear the other side. 
Auto-da-fe (F), Auto defe (Sp. and Port.). A decree of 

faith; burning of heretics. 
Badinage (F). Light or playful discourse. 
Bagatelle (F). A trifle. 
Bateau (F). A long light boat. 
Beau-ideal (F). Ideal excellence. 
Beau monde (F). The fashionable world. 
Bel esprit (F). Man of wit. 

Bella-donna (i). The deadly nightshade; fair lady. 
Belle (F). A fine or fashionable lady. 
Belles-lettres (F). Polite literature. 
Billet-doux (F). A love-letter. 
Bon gre mal gre (F). With a good or ill grace ; whether 

the party will or not. 
Bon jour (F). Good day. 

Bon mot (F). A piece of wit ; a jest ; a quibble. 
Bon ton (F). High fashion ; first-class society. 
Bon vivant (F). A high liver. 

Bond fide (L). In good faith (before a noun, bond-fide}. 
Bonhomie (F). Simplicity of manners or character. 
Bonne bouche (F). A delicious morsel. 
Boreas (L). The north wind. 
Boudoir (F). A small private apartment. 
Bourgeois (F). A citizen of the trading class. 
Bourgeoisie (F). The body of citizens. 
Bravura (i). A song of difficult execution. 



216 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 

Brutum fulmen (L). Non-augural lightning; unreasoning 

bluster. 

Burletta (i). A musical farce. 
Cachet (F). A seal. Lettre de cachet. A secret order of 

arrest. 

Cacoethes (L). A bad habit or custom. 
Cacoethes scribendi (L). An itch for writing. 
Cadenza (i). The fall or modulation of the voice, in 

music. 

Cceteris paribus (L). Other things being equal. 
Calibre (F). Capacity or compass ; mental power ; a term 

in gunnery. 

Camera obscura (L). A dark chamber used by artists. 
Cantata (i). A poem set to music. 
Cap-a-pie (corrupt). From head to foot. 
Capriccio (i). A fanciful irregular kind of musical com- 
position. 

Capriole (i). A leap without advancing ; capers. 
Caput mortuum (L). Dead head ; the worthless remains. 
Caret (L). Is wanting or omitted. 
Carte blanche (F). Unconditional terms. 
Caveat emptor (L). Let the purchaser take heed or beware. 
Chanson (F). A song. 
Chansonnette (F). A little song. 
Chapeau (F). A hat. 
Chaperon (F). An attendant on a lady, as a guide and 

protector. 

Charge d'affaires (F). An ambassador of second rank. 
Chateau (F). A castle ; a country mansion. 
Chef-d'oeuvre (F). A masterpiece (pi. chefs-d'ceuvre). 
Chiaro-oscuro or Chiaroscuro (i). Light and shadow in 

painting. 

Cicerone (i). A guide or conductor. 
Ci-devant (F). Formerly. 
Clique (F). A party, a gang. 
Cognomen (L). A surname. 
Comme ilfaut (F). As it should be. 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 217 

Communia proprie dicere (L). To express common things 

with propriety. 

Compos mentis (L). Of sound mind. 
Con amore (i). With love or hearty inclination. 
Conge d'elire (F). Permission to elect. 
Connoisseur (F). A skilful judge. 
Contour (F). The outline of a figure. 
Contra (L). Against. 

Contra bonos mores (L). Against good manners. 
Cornucopia (L). The horn of plenty. 
Corrigenda (L). Words to be corrected. 
Cotillon (F). A lively dance. 
Coup de grace (F). The finishing blow. 
Coup d'etat (F). A master stroke of state policy. 
Coup de main (F). A bold and rapid enterprise. 
Coup d'oeil (F). A glance of the eye (pi. coups d'oeil). 
Coute que coute (F). Cost what it may. 
Cm bono ? (L). To what good or advantage ? 
Cum privilegio (L). With privilege. 

Curiosa felicitas (L). A happy choice of words in writing. 
Currente calamo (L). With a running pen ; written off- 

liand. 

Gustos rotulorum (L). Keeper of the rolls. 
Da capo (i). Over again. 
Data (L). Things granted (sing, datum). 
De facto (L). In fact, in reality. 
De jure (L). By law or right. 
De mortuis nil nisi bonum (L). Say nothing but what is 

good of the dead. 
De novo (L). Anew ; over again. 
Deficit (L). -A want or deficiency. 

Debut (F). Beginning of an enterprise; first appearance. 
Dei gratia (L). By the grace of God. 
Dejeuner d lafourchette (F). A breakfast or luncheon 

with meats. 
Dele (L). Blot out or erase. 



218 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 

Delta (the Greek letter A), a triangular tract of land 
towards the mouth of a river. 

Denotement (F). An explanation or unravelling. 

Deo volente, or D. V. (L). God willing. 

Depot (F). A store ; the recruiting reserve of regiments. 

Dernier ressort (F). The last resort. 

Desideratum (L). Something desired or wanted (pi. desi- 
derata). 

Desunt ccetera (L). The rest are wanting. 

Detur digniori (L). Let it be given to the most worthy. 

Deus ex machind (L). A god from the clouds ; unexpected 
aid in an emergency. 

Dexter (L). The right hand. 

Dictum (L). A positive assertion (pi. dicta). 

Dieu et mon droit (F). God and my right. 

Diluvium (L). A deposit of superficial loam, sand, &c.> 
caused by a deluge. 

Disjecta membra (L). Scattered parts, limbs, or writings. 

Distringas (L). A writ for distraining. 

Divide et impera (L). Divide and govern. 

Doloroso (i). Soft and pathetic. 

Domicile (F) (L. domicilium). An abode. 

Domine dirige nos (L). O Lord direct us. 

Double entendre (F). A phrase with a double meaning. 

Douceur (F). A present or bribe. 

Draco (L). A dragon ; a constellation. 

Dramatis persons (L). The characters in a play. 

Duet (Ital. duetto). A song for two performers. 

Dulia (Gr.). An inferior kind of worship. 

Duo (L). Two ; a two-part song. 

Duodecimo (L). A book having twelve leaves to a sheet. 

Durante placito or beneplacito (L). During pleasure. 

Durante vita (L). During life. 

E pluribus unum (L). One from many: the motto of 
the United States. 

Ecce homo (L). Behold the man. 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 219 

Ecce signum (L). Behold the sign. 

Eclaircissement (F). The clearing-up of an affair. 

Eclat (F). Splendor, with applause. 

Elegit (L). He hath elected ; a writ of execution. 

Eleve (F). A pupil. 

Embonpoint (F). Good condition. 

Emeritus (L). One who has deserved well ; applied to a 
soldier who had served his full time, and was entitled 
to his discharge. 

Ennui (F). Wearisomeness. 

Ensemble (F). The whole taken together. 

Entre nous (F). Between ourselves. 

Entree (F). Entrance; also used in cookery for a prin- 
cipal dish. 

Entremets (F). A small dish set between the principal 
ones at dinner. 

Equilibrium (L). Equality of weight ; even balance. 

Ergo (L). Therefore. 

Erratum (L). A mistake or error (pi. errata). 

Esprit de corps (F). The spirit of attachment to a 
party, &c. 

Est modus in rebus (L). There is a medium in everything. 

Esto perpetua (L). May it always continue. 

Et ccetera (L). And the rest. 

Ex (L). Out of; late (as, ex-consul). 

Ex concesso (L). From what has been granted. 

Ex curia (L). Out of court. 

Ex parte (L). On one side (before a noun, ex-parte}. 

Excerpta (L). Extracts. 

Exempli gratia (L). For the sake of example. 

Expose (F). A n exposition. 

Extempore (L). Without premeditation. 

Facile primus, jacile princeps (L). By far the first or 
chiefest. 

Fac-simile (L). An exact copy. 

Faux pas (F). A false step. 



220 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 

Felo de se (L). A suicide ; a self-murderer. 

Femme-de-chambre (F). A chamber-maid. 

Festina lente (L). Make slow haste ; advance steadily 

rather than hurriedly. 
Fete (F). A feast or celebration. 
Feu dejoie (F). A bonfire; also a discharge of musketry 

on days of rejoicing. 
Fiat (L). Let it be done. 

Fieri facias (L). Cause it to be done (a kind of writ). 
Finale (i). The close or end. 
Finis (L). The end. 

Flagrante bello (L). While the war is raging. 
Fleur-de-lis (F). The flower of the lily (p\. fleurs-de-lis.) 
Forte (i). In music, a direction to sing or play with force 

or spirit. 

Fortissimo (i)= Yery loud. 
Fracas (F). Bustle; a slight quarrel ; more ado about the 

thing than it is worth. 
Fugam fecit (L). He has taken to flight. 
Gaucherie (F). Awkwardness. 
Gendarme (F). A military policeman. 
Gendarmerie (F). The body of the gendarmes. 
Gratis (L). Free of cost. 
Gratis dictum (L). Said for nothing. 
Grisette (F). Dressed in gray (a term applied to French 

shop-girls, &c.) 
Gusto (i). Great relish. 

Habeas corpus (L). You are to have the body : a writ of 
right, by virtue of which every British subject can, 
when imprisoned, demand to be put on his trial. 
Haricot (F). A kind of ragout ; a kidney-bean. 
Hauteur (F). Haughtiness. 
Hie et ubique (L). Here, there, and everywhere. 
Homo multarum literarum (L). A man of much learning. 
Honi soit qui mal y pense (F). Evil be to him that evil 
thinks. 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 221 

Horafugit (L). Time flies. 

Hors de combat (F). Disabled for fighting ; vanquished. 

Hotel-Dieu (F). The chief hospital in French cities. 

Ibidem, contracted ibid, or 16. (L). In the same place. 

Ich dien (Ger,). I serve. 

Idem, contracted id. (L). The same. (Id. ib., the same 

author, in the same place.) 
Idoneus homo (L). A fit man. 
Imperium in imperio (L). One government existing within 

another. 

Imprimatur (L). Let it be printed. 
Imprimis (L). In the first place. 
Impromptu (L). A prompt remark or piece of wit. 
In articulo mortis (L). At the point of death. 
In coelo quies (L). There is rest in heaven. 
In commendam (L). For a time. 
In conspectufori (L). In the eye of the law; in the sight 

of the court. 

In curia (L). In the court. 
In duplo (L). Twice as much. 
In forma pauper is (L). As a pauper. 
Inforo conscientice (L). Before the court of conscience, 
In loco (L). In the place. 
In petto (i). In reserve ; in one's breast. 
In posterum (L). For the time to come. 
In proprid persona (L). In person. 
In statu quo (L). In the former state. 
In terrorem (L). By way of warning. 
In toto (L). Altogether. 
In transitu (L). On the passage. 
In vacuo (L). In empty space. 
Incognito (L). Disguised, unknown. 
Instar omnium (L). One will suffice for all. 
Inter nos (L). Between ourselves. 
Ipse dixit (L). He himself said it ; an assertion. 
Ipso facto (L). By the fact itself; actually. 



222 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 

Ip so jure (L). By the law itself. 

Item (L). Also. 

Jacta est alea ; judicium Dei (L). The die is cast ; the 
judgement of God. 

Je ne sais quoi (F). I know not what. 

Jet d'eau (F). An ornamental fountain. 

Jeu de mots (F). Play upon words. 

Jeu $ esprit (F). Ptay of wit, a witticism. 

Jure divino (L). By divine law. 

Jure Tiumano (L). By human law. 

Labor omnia vincit (L). Labor conquers all things. 

Lapsus calami (L). A slip of the pen ; an error in writing. 

Lapsus linguae (L). A slip of the tongue. 

Lege (L). Read. 

Levee (F). A morning visit or reception. 

Lex non scripta (L). The unwritten or common law. 

Lex talionis (L). The law of retaliation. 

Lex terrce, lex patrice (L). The law of the land. 

Liqueur (F). A cordial. 

Literati (L). Men of letters or learning. 

Locum tenens (L). One who holds a place for another. 

Mademoiselle (F). A young unmarried lady. 

Magna charta (L). The great charter of England. 

Maitre d* hotel (F). An hotel-keeper ; a house-steward. 

Majordomo (ItaL maiordomo). One who has the manage- 
ment of a household. 

Mai a propos (F). Out of time, unbecoming. 

Malaria (i). Noxious exhalations. 

Malum in se (L). A thing evil in itself. 

Mandamus (L). We command : a writ from the Queen's 
Bench. 

Manege (F). A riding-school. 

Matinee (F). A morning party. 

Mauvaise honte (F). False modesty, bashfulnesa. 

Maximum (L) The greatest. 

Memento mori (L). Bemember death. 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 223 

Memorabilia (L). Things to be remembered. 

Memoriter (L). By rote. 

Menage (F). Housekeeping. 

Hens sana in corpore sano (L). A sound mind in a sound 
body. 

Meum et tuum (L). Mine and thine. 

Minimum (L). The least. 

Minutice (L). Minute concerns, trifles. 

Mirabile dictu (L). Wonderful to tell. 

Mittimus (L). We send : a warrant for the commitment 
of an offender. 

Mot du guet (F). Watchword. 

Multum inparvo (L). Much in little. 

Mutanda (L). Things to be altered. 

Mutatis mutandis (L). Changing one term for the other, 
when required, in reasoning by analogy. 

Nawete (F). Ingenuousness, simplicity. 

Necessity s non habet leg em (L). Necessity has no law. 

Nemine contradicente (L). No one contradicting. 

Nemine dissentiente (L). Without opposition or dissent. 

Ne plus ultra (L). To the utmost extent. 

Ne quid nimis (L). Not too much of anything ; do nothing 
to excess. 

Ne tentes aut perfice (L). Attempt nothing without accom- 
plishing it. 

Niaiserie (F). Silliness. 

Nil desperandum (L). Never despair. 

Nolens miens (L). Willing or unwilling. 

Nolo episcopari (L). I am not willing to be made a bishop 
(an old formal way of declining a bishopric). 

Nom-de-guerre (F). An assumed name. 

Non compos mentis (L). Not of a sound mind. 

Non est disputandum (L). It is not to be disputed. 

Non nobis solum (L). Not merely for ourselves. 

Non obstante (L). Notwithstanding ; none opposing. 

Nonchalance (F). Coolness, easy indifference. 



224 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 

Nosce teipsum (L). Know thyself. 

Noscitur ex sociis (L). He is known by his companions. 

Nota bene (L). Mark well. 

Nullum quod tetigit, non ornavit (L). Whatever he touched 

he embellished. 

tempora ! o mores ! (L). what times ! what manners ! 
Omnes (L). All. 

On-dit (F). A rumour, a flying report. 
Onusprobandi (L). The responsibility of producing proof. 
Ore rotundo (L). With full-sounding voice. 
Otium cum dignitate (L). Ease with dignity. 
Outre (F). Extraordinary, eccentric. 
Pari passu (L). With equal step; in the same degree. 
Parole (F). Word of honor. 
Pas (F). A step ; precedence. 
Passim (L). In many places ; everywhere. 
Patois (F), Provincial dialect. 
Penchant (F). An inclination, a leaning towards. 
Pendente lite (L). While the suit is pending. 
Per se (L). By itself; alone. 
Per cent or per centum (L), By the hundred. 
Per fas et nefas (L). Through right and wrong. 
Per saltum (L). With a leap ; at once. 
Petit (F). Small; little. 
Petit-maitre (F). A little master, a fop. 
Peu dpeu (F). Gradually ; by gentle approach. 
Pinxit (L). Painted it : placed after the artist's name on 

a picture. 

Plateau (F). A plain ; a flat surface. 
Poeta nascitur, non fit (L). A poet is born, not made. 
Posse comitatus (L). The power of the country. 
Postulata (L). Things assumed. 
Prcecognita (L). Things previously known. 
Prima facie (L). On the first face ; according to the first 
view of a thing (before a noun, primd facie). 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 225 

Primum mobile (L). The primary motive, or moving 
power. 

Pro aris etfocis (L). For our altars and our hearths. 

Pro bono publico (L). For the public good. 

Pro et con [for contra] (L). For and against. 

Pro forma (L). For form's sake ; according to form. 

Pro hdc vice (L). For this turn or occasion. 

Pro raid (L). In proportion. 

Pro re natd (L). For a special purpose. 

Pro tempore (L). For a time. 

Probatum est (L). It has been tried and proved. 

Protege (F). Taken charge of, or patronized; a ward, &c. 

Quamdiu se bene gesserit (L). So long as he shall conduct 
himself properly. 

Quantum libet (L). As much as you please. 

Quantum sufficit (L). A sufficient quantity ; enough. 

Quasi dicas (L). As if you should say. 

Qui capit, illefacit (L). If the cap fits, let him wear it. 

Qui tarn? (L). Who so 1 ? The title given to a certain 
action at law. 

Qui va Id f (F). Who goes there 1 

Qui-vive (F). On the alert. 

Quid nuncf (L). What now ? A term applied to gossip- 
ing politicians. 

Quid pro quo (L). One thing for another ; ' tit for 
tat.' 

Quis separabit f (L). Who shall separate us ? 

Quo animo (L). With what inclination. 
Quo warranto (L). By what warrant or authority. 
Quoad (L). As to. 
Quondam (L). Former. 

Quorum (L). Of whom, a term signifying a sufficient 
number for a certain business. 

Ragout (F). A highly-seasoned dish. 
Kegium donum (L). A royal donation (a grant from the 
Crown to the Irish Presbyterian clergy). 
Q 



226 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 

Re infectd (L). The business not being done. 

Rencontre (F). An encounter. 

Requiescat in pace (L). May he (or she) rest in peace. 

Requiescant in pace (L). May they rest in peace. 

Res angusta domi (L). Narrow circumstances at home; 
poverty. 

Respicefinem (L). Look to the end. 

Respublica (L). The common-weal ; the commonwealth, 

Restaurateur (F). A tavern-keeper who provides din- 
ners, &c. 

Resurgam (L). I shall rise again. 

Rouge (F), Bed coloring for the skin. 

Rouge et noir (F). Eed and black (a kind of game). 

Ruse de guerre (F). A stratagem of war. 

Sang-froid (F). Coolness; self-possession. 

Sans (F). Without. 

Sans-culottes (F). Without breeches (a term applied to 
the rabble of the French revolution). 

Saucisse (F). A sausage. 

Savant (F). A learned man. 

Scandalum magnatum (L). Scandal of the great, or libels 
on the nobility or judges. 

Scripsit (L). Wrote it. 

Sculpsit (L). Engraved it (placed after the engraver's 
name in prints). 

Secundum artem (L). According to the rules of art. 

Semper idem (L). Always the same. 

Seriatim (L). In order ; successively. 

Sic passim (L). So everywhere. 

Sic transit gloria mundi (L). Thus passes away the glory 
of the world. 

Sic in originali (L). So it stands in the original. 

Simplex munditiis (L). Simple yet elegant ; neat ; unos- 
tentatious. 

Sine die (L). Without naming a day. 
Sine invidid (L). Without envy. 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 227 

Sine qua non (L). Indispensably requisite. 

Sobriquet (F). A nickname. 

Soi-disant (F). Self-styled; pretended. 

Soiree (F). An evening party. 

Souvenir (F). Remembrance; a keepsake. 

Spectas et spectaberis (L). You will see and be seen. 

Statu quo, or in statu quo (L). In the same state. 

Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re (L). Gentle in manner, 

resolute in deed. 
Subpoena (L). Under a penalty (a summons to attend a 

court as a witness). 
Succedaneum (L). A substitute. 
Sui generis (L). Of its own kind ; peculiar. 
Summum bonum (L). The chief good. 
Suum cuique (L). Let every one have his own. 
Table d'hote (F). An ordinary at which the master of the 

hotel presides. 

Tcedium mice (L). Weariness of life. 
Tale quale (L). Such as it is. 
Tapis (F). The carpet. 
Tartufe (F). A nickname for a hypocritical devotee, 

derived from the principal character in Holier e's 

comedy so called. 

Tempus edax rerum (L). Time the devourer of all things. 
Tempus fugit (L). Time flies. 
Tempus omnia revelat (L). Time reveals all things. 
Tete-d-tete (F). A conversation between two persons. 
Tirade (F). A tedious and bitter harangue. 
Ton (F). The fashion. 

Torso (i). The fragmentary trunk of a statue. 
Tot homines quot sententice (L). So many men so many 

minds. 

Toto corde (L). With the whole heart. 
Tour (F). A journey. 
Tour a tour (F). By turns. 
Tout ensemble (F). The whole. 
Q 2 



228 FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 

Triajuncta in uno (L). Three united in one. 

Tutto e buono che men da Dio (i). All is good which 

comes from God. 

Ultimatum (L). A final answer or decision. 
Un bel esprit (F). A pretender to wit; a virtuoso. 
Unique (F). Singular ; the only one of its kind. 
Vade-mecum (L). Go with me (applied to portable articles 

in frequent use). 

Valet-de-chambre (F). A footman. 
Veluti in speculum (L). As in a mirror (applied to the 

drama). 

Veni, vidij vici (L). I came, I saw, I conquered. 
Verbatim et literatim (L). Word for word; to the very 

letter. 

Veritas vincit (L). Truth conquers. 
Versus (L). Against. 

Vertu (F), Virtu (i). Yirtue ; taste ; art ; skill. 
Veto (L). I forbid (used substantively, 'a forbidding'). 
Vi et armis (L). By force and arms ; by unlawful means. 
Via (L), By the way of. 
Vice (L). In the room of. 

Vice versd (L). The terms being reversed ; reversely. 
Vide (L). See. 

Vide et crede (L). See and believe. 
Vignette (F). A name given to slight engravings, with 

which books, bank-notes, &c. are ornamented. 
Virtuoso (i). One skilled in matters of taste or art, 
Vis-a-vis (F). Face to face. 
Vis inertia (L). Inert power ; the tendency of every body 

to remain at rest. 

Viva voce (L). By word of mouth ; by the living voice. 
Vivat regina (L). Long live the queen. 
Vivant rex et regina (L). Long live the king and queen. 
Vive la bagatelle (F). Success to trifles. 
Vive Vempereur (F). Long live the emperor. 
Vive Vimperatrice (F). Long live the empress. 



FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES. 229 

Vive le roi (F). Long live the king. 

Vive la reine (F). Long live the queen. 

Volga gran bestia (i). The mob is a great beast. 

Vox Dei (L).- The voice of God, 

Vox populi (L). The voice of the people. 

Vox stellarum (L). The voice of the stars (applied to 

almanacs). 

Vulgb (L). Vulgarly; commonly. 
Vultus est index animi (L). The countenance is the index 

of the mind. 



230 



CHAPTER XL 



LITERAL NOTATION. 

BEFORE the introduction of figures into Europe, the 
letters of the alphabet (or at least some of them) were 
employed to denote numbers; but as their use singly 
was extremely incommodious, a necessity arose for their 
combination, or for the substitution of some single letter, 
or an arbitrary mark, as the representative of a large 
number : and as letters are frequently employed for this 
purpose at the present day, I think it will not be a 
misapplication of our space, if we devote a few pages to 
their illustration. But since this system was not confined 
to the Romans, but was adopted by the Hebrews and 
Greeks before them, and also by other Eastern nations, 
any explanation of this matter would be very imperfect, 
which omitted all reference to the plan of more ancient 
peoples. I will therefore notice such of them as I think 
are likely to fall in the way of the generality of composi- 
tors and press-correctors; and first I will commence with 
that which is the most usual, and which should consequently 
be the most familiar to the mind of the printer. 



I. ROMAN LITERAL NOTATION. 

The method of using the Roman letters as numerical 
symbols at the present day is as follows ; 



ROMAN LITERAL NOTATION. 



231 



1 


I. 


20 


XX. 


2 


II. 


21 


. . . XXI, &c. 


3 


. . . III. 


30 


XXX. 


4 


IV. 


40 


XL. 


5 


V. 


50 


L. 


6 


VI. 


60 


LX. 


7 ... 


VII. 


70 


.. . LXX. 


8 


VIII. 


80 


.. LXXX. 


9 


IX 


90 


xc. 


10 ... 


X. 


100 


c. 


11 


XI. 


200 


cc. 


12 


. . . XII. 


300 . 


ccc. 


13 


XIII 


400 


. CCCC or CD. 


14 


. . . XIV. 


500 . 


10 or D. 


15 


XV. 


600 


IOC or DC. 


16 


XVI. 


700 


IOCC or DCC. 


17 


XVII. 


800 


IOCCC or DCCC. 


18 


XVIII. 


900 . 


. IOCCCC or DCCCC. 


19 . 


. XIX. 


1000 . 


. M or CIO, or 00 or X'. 



2,000 MM, IICIO, CIOCIO. or 

3,000 MMM, CIOCIOCIO. 

4,000 MMMM, &c. 

5,000 100. T, or V00._ 

10,000 CCIOO CMO, X, XOO, or XM. 

20,000 . . XXOD. 

100,000 CM, COO, or CCCIOOO. 

200,000 CCM or CCOO. 

1,000,000 CCCCIOOOO. 

It will be observed, that in this system but five letters 
are used ; namely I, V, X, L, and C : for, as regards those 
numbers into which D or M enters, I will presently show 
that they are composed of I and C. Whenever a letter 
of less value precedes a higher, it signifies that we are to 
deduct so many from the latter; but when the higher 
number comes first, the following lesser are added to it. 
With respect to the I and C, it may be remarked that C 
always faces the I, whether it precedes or follows it. Every 



232 LITERAL NOTATION. 

additional C on the right hand increases the value ten 
times : thus, as 10 stands for 500, so 100 stands for 
5,000, and 1000 for 50,000. Each C on the left doubles 
these quantities: thus CIO is 1,000, CCIOO is 10,000, 
and CCCIOOO is 100,000 ; beyond which the system with 
the ancients was not carried ; but for larger numbers they 
prefixed bis, ter, quater, quinquies, decies, centena, millia, 
&c. : nevertheless an author of the sixteenth century, when 
giving a list of the number of citizens of the Boman em- 
pire, says that they amounted to CCCCCCCIOOOOOOO* 
10000000* CCCIOOO, CCIOO ; a number which I will 
leave to the student's ingenuity to find out. 

Various ingenious theories have been started to account 
for this mode of reckoning. Some say that I came to be 
employed to denote one, because it is the most simple of 
all letters ; and V, for five, because it is the fifth vowel ; 
X, for ten, because it is the union of two Vs ; C, for a 
hundred, because it is the first letter of the word centum ; 
L, for fifty, because it is half of an angular C ( ), as 
perhaps anciently written ; and M for a thousand, because 
it is the first letter of the word mille. Others think that 
all these letters are but representations of rude shapes, 
formed by combinations of the letter I : thus V, L, ,K, C, 
D, m. Substituting for the words 'letter I,' the words 
' straight line,' I concur in this opinion : for as mankind 
would be more cogently driven to represent numbers by 
some sign, than any other of their ideas, it is highly 
probable that some species of numeration by symbols 
would precede all writing ; or rather, more correctly 
speaking, that this would be the first species of writing 
invented. Now, it may safely be asserted, that the signs 
used for this purpose would be simple and easily avail- 
able. And what could be readier than the fingers of the 
hand 1 Hence one came to be denoted by one finger 
extended, = a straight line; and the three following num- 
bers by so many extended fingers. Five might be similarly 



ROMAN LITERAL NOTATION. 233 

represented; but as it is natural that this would terminate - 
the first series, the number of fingers on one hand being 
now exhausted, a junction of any two fingers might soon 
come to denote it ; just as we see people unable to write, 
keep their accounts by straight lines, crossing every 
four to denote five. As a curious illustration of this 
primitive way of keeping accounts, I remember a case in 
which an ignorant publican, who had recourse to this 
method, summoned one of his customers for a debt, and 
actually carried the door on which his account was scored, 
on his back into the court ; and it was admitted as evidence, 
and gained him his suit. 

From this single symbol all the others are derived; 
V, as I have just said, being only the junction of two 
straight lines at the bottom, opening at an angle; X is 
two lines, or two fingers, crossed, or two Vs meeting at 
their apex ; L is but an horizontal and a perpendicular I, 
or it is the representative of the elevation of one finger 
and the horizontal extension of another ; C is but double 
L, when written square, as it probably was in the primi- 
tive ages, thus E ; or the representative of a correspond- 
ing combination of the fingers of the hand. D is the 
completion of the square, or four straight lines combined ; 
D, M, or more properly CD, is but D doubled. This is 
much strengthened by the fact that CIO, which is as near 
CD (or CCD) as can be represented by letters, is much the 
more ancient form of representing 1,000. 

The Romans also expressed any number of thousands 
by a line drawn over any numeral less than one thousand. 
Thus V denotes 5,000, LX 60,000. So, likewise, M is 
one million, and MM two millions. 

In this system of notation, it cannot have escaped the 
reader's observation, that the symbols are first quintuples, 
and then doubles; and so alternately to the end. Thus 



and M-=DX2. 



234 LITERAL NOTATION. 



II. GREEK NUMERALS. 

The Greeks used the letters of the alphabet as nume- 
rical signs in three different ways. 

1. To express a small series of numbers, each letter 
was reckoned according to its order in the alphabet; as 
A for 1, B for 2, E for 5, fl for 24, &c. In this manner 
the books of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey are distinguished. 
The technical syllable HNT will assist the memory in 
using this kind of notation : for if the alphabet be divided 
into four equal parts, H will be the first letter of the 
second part, or 7 ; N, the first of the third, or 13; and 
T, of the fourth, or 19. 

2. The capital letters were used in denoting large 
series of numbers : thus I, 1 (pia or la) ; n, 5 (irevTe) ; 

A, 10 (S&a); H, 100 (c/earbv) ; X, 1,000 (x^uot); and M, 
10,000 (nvpiot) : which, it will be seen, are all combinations 
of straight lines. A large n round any of the characters, 
except I, denoted five times as much as that character 
represented; as [A] = 50. 

3. To express the nine units, the nine tens, and the 
nine hundreds, the Greeks divided the alphabet into three 
parts ; but as there are only twentyfour letters in it, they 
used s-', called eTrto-r^o*', for 6 ; Q or 4, called KJinra, for 90 ; 
and 9, called a-wn'i, for 900. In using this kind of nota- 
tion, the memory will be much assisted by the technical 
syllable aip : that is, d denotes 1; i, 10; and //, 100. It 
is to be observed also, that all the numbers under 1,000 
are denoted by letters with a small mark like an accent 
over them; and that a similar mark placed under any 
letter, denotes that it represents so many thousands. The 
following table will clearly illustrate what has been 
said : 



GREEK NUMERALS. 



235 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
30. 
40. 

50. 
60. 
70. 
80. 
90. 


I 


. .. d 


100. 
200. 
300. 
400. 
500. 
600. 
700. 
800. 
900. 
1,000. 
2,000. 

3,000. 
4,000. 
5,000. 
6,000. 
7,000. 
8,000. 
9,000. 
10,000. 
20,000. 
50,000. 

100,000. 
&c. 


H 


r ' 


II 




HH 


. . . a' 


Hi 


y 


HHH 




mi 


. s' 


HHHH 


v / 


n 






f 


m 




"HJH If 


TTTI 


f 


mil 


, 


!THH a/' 


mm 


0' 


TJHHH ... 

T|HHHH . 
x 


... ^ 


A 


i' 


AI 






& 


AIII 


fv' 


XX 





Aim 


18' 


XXX 




An 




xxxx 


?) 


Am 


/ 


Ann 


if 


fxl . 





Anin 








ATTTTTT 


, 


AA 


K' 


X XX 


i, 


AAI, &c. 




"xjxxx .. 


7j 


AAA 


A' 


Y|xxxx . 

M 


.. e 


AAAA 




[11 


i/ 


TJA 






' 


~A~IAA 




"Ml . 




"AJAAA , 


TT' 




' P 


A AAAA 


s 






&c. 



According to this system, the year 1859 would be 
thus written : x|lf[HHH[T|niIII, or aAv'Q'. 

Fractions were generally denoted by those letters 
marked with a grave accent : thus S v , one fourth ; e, one 
fifth, &c. Numbers beyond 900,000 were mostly written 
in words at length in aocient manuscripts. Above 10,000, 
the system admitted of some variation; and Archimedes 
extended it by taking the square of the myriad as a new 



236 



LITERAL NOTATION. 



unit or period, and forming a series of periods containing 
eight figures in each. 



III. HEBREW NUMERALS. 

The ancient Jews also adopted the plan of denoting 
numbers by the letters of the alphabet, indeed, it is 
supposed by some that the practice was first introduced 
by this people ; but as their system is more artificial than 
that of the Greeks and Latins, and presupposes the know- 
ledge of an entire alphabet, I am rather inclined to think 
that these latter must have adopted theirs spontaneously 
from the suggestions which seem naturally to arise to the 
untutored mind on this subject. 

The letters were classed into three divisions, according 
to their order in the alphabet, in the following manner ; 
the first column denoting the units, the second the tens, 
and the third the hundreds. Thus : 



N Aleph . . . 


1 


^ Yod 


10 


P Coph ,. 106 


2 Beth 




2 Caph 


20 


"| Kesch 200 


J Gimel . . . 
*f Daleth 


. . 3 
.. 4 


7 Lamed . . . 
ft Mem 


. 30 
40 


{j; Shin 300 
11 Thau .... 400 


nHe 


5 


3 Nun 


fiO 


*| Caph final 500 


1 Yau 


.. 6 


D Samech. . . 


60 


D Mem 600 


f Zain 


7 


y Gnain . . 


. 70 


] Nun 700 




3 


S Phe 


80 


^ Phe 800 


M Teth.. 


9 


V Tzade 


. 90 


V Tzade 900 



The reader will see that there are twentyseven letters 
used for this purpose; but as the Hebrew alphabet con- 
tains only twentytwo, for the last five in the series of 
hundreds they adopted the final letters of cap h, mem, nun, 
phe, and tzade ; a fact which strengthens my previous con- 
jecture, that this system must have come into use among 



ARABIC AND INDIAN NUMERALS. 



237 



the Jews after their language had arrived at a consider- 
able degree of perfection, and that a much more simple 
and natural way must have been in use in the more 
remote period of their history. 

In combining different numbers, the greater is put 
first, according to the Hebrew mode of writing : thus, 
tfl 11, and JOP 121. The number 15 is denoted by the 
letters "|3, instead of the letters fp, because the latter 
enter into the name of Jehovah in Hebrew. The thousands 
are denoted by the unit signs, with two dots or a stroke 
above : thus, jtf or J$ 1000. Gesenius, in his Grammar, 
says that the numeral use of the letters did not occur in 
the text of the Old Testament, but was first found on the 
coins of the Maccabees, in the middle of the second 
century before the Christian era. 



IY. ARABIC AND INDIAN NUMERALS. 

Those inhabitants of the East who employ the Arabic 
and Indian characters, have also a system of notation by 
letters; and as they differ from those in ordinary use in 
writing, it will perhaps be advisable to give them in this 
place. 



Value. 


Persi- 

Arabic. 


Indian. 


Value. 


Persi- 

Arabic. 


Indian. 


1 


! 


I 


6 


i 


< 


2 


r 


^ 


7 


V 


va 


3 


r 


^ 


8 


A 


* 


4 


f 


8 


9 


1 


_ 


5 





y, 


10 


1. 


V 



238 



CHAPTER XII. 



ON CORRECTING A PROOF-SHEET. 

IN correcting a proof-sheet, there are certain symbols 
employed by correctors of tjie press, and well understood 
by compositors, with which it will be necessary for every 
gentleman about to enter upon the honorable career of 
literature to become acquainted. I will therefore devote 
a short chapter to their illustration, to which I will 
append a few remarks, which may, perhaps, be found of 
some utility to the inexperienced. 

The marks in common use for this purpose, then, are 
the following : 

To change one letter for another, strike the wrong 
letter through with a pen, and write the correct one in 
the margin. 

To strike out superfluous words or letters, draw a line 
through them, and place the annexed mark in the margin, 
thus : 

There were many brave men in ia the army. 

But if the author, by inadvertence, or from some other 
cause, should strike out more than he intends, or words 
which he afterwards determines to retain, he must under- 
score the word, and write stet in the margin; in this 
manner, erasing the deleting symbol: 

Over the hills and feaz away. $7 



ON CORRECTING A PROOF-SHEET. 2 

To change Roman into Italic, and vice versa, 
draw a line under the word, and write in the 
nargin Ital. or Rom. according to circumstances; 
thus : 

The ambassador was not deputed by his government. ^Ma 
The ambassador was deputed by his government. fy>o-m. 

In like manner, should it be thought advisable 
to' change ordinary letters to small capitals or 
capitals, for the former draw two lines under the 
words to be changed, and in the latter, three, and 
write in the margin sm. caps, or caps., as the case dm. ca 
may require. ^ ca 

Again, to change capital or small capital letters 
into ordinary type, draw a line under them, and 
write 1. c. in the opposite margin. S. c. 

If the punctuation is faulty, erase the wrong 
point, or if there be none, indicate the place by a 
caret, and annex the proper point in the margin, in 
this manner, as the requirements of the case may ,/ ;/ ?/ 
demand : 

The place of an omitted hyphen must be indi- 
cated by a caret where required, and the adjoining /./ 
symbol placed opposite. 

For a dash, a longer mark must be made; / / 
thus : 

If words are transposed, write tr. in the margin, 
and encircle or number the words to be transposed ; 
thus : 



(0) 



240 ON CORRECTING A PROOF-SHEET. 

between them, and another opposite to the line 
where the defect occurs, in this manner : 

Boast not L f to-morrow. 

If more space be required between two words, 
draw a line at the requisite place, and annex the 
accompanying sign : 

When words, or parts of words, are separated 
which should be joined, draw a curve under them, 
and annex a similar one in the margin : 

Any thing you choose to pro Tide. 

Should a paragraph be made where not intended, 
connect the matter by a line, and write Run on in 
the margin. On the other hand, to denote a para- 
graph in a solid line, draw a bracket at the proper 
place, and write Fresh par. or N. P. opposite to it. 

The place of omitted words is of course indicated 
by a caret, and the words supplied in the margin, 
where most convenient ; but, for long omissions, a 
caret is made at the proper place and the words, 
Out, see copy, written opposite. 

A wrong-fount letter must be underscored, and 
wf written opposite the line. 

An omitted apostrophe (or quotation- mark) must 
also be written in the margin, accompanied by the 
annexed mark, to distinguish it from the comma. 

Imperfect letters are underscored, and a cross 
placed opposite, in the margin ; thus : 

Should the damaged letters be numerous, -as 
sometimes happens, a circle should be drawn round 
the whole, and the word batter written in the 
margin. 

N.B. After correction, the wJiole of the lines 
where the batter occurs should be carefully com- 



ON CORRECTING A PROOF-SHEET. 241 

pared with the copy, or the previous proof-sheet. Many 
a blunder occurs from inattention to this necessary 
process. 

To say a word more on this matter to the man of 
experience would be ridiculous ; but perhaps I may be 
pardoned a few observations for the benefit of the unini- 
tiated in these matters. I would remark, then, in the first 
place, that it is very unadvfsable to make more marks 
than are absolutely necessary ; and in the second, never 
accompany your marks with any observations: for, if the 
marks are at all intelligible, the compositor perfectly 
understands them ; and all unnecessary remarks only tend 
to his confusion, and give a dirty appearance to the proof, 
of which, in all probability, he will not be slow to take 
advantage, and that to the author's detriment, if he pays 
his printer's bill himself. 

I have known writers of considerable experience, who, 
in addition to the requisite symbol, must needs rewrite 
the corrected word in the margin, as they thought, with 
the view of making the matter quite clear. But I can 
assure such gentlemen that they labor under a great 
mistake ; and, as I said before, I will say also to them, 
every unnecessary mark is a source of confusion and loss of 
time to the compositor and the corrector, and consequently 
adds to the amount of the printer 1 s bill. 

Perhaps, when I am on this subject, I may be allowed 
to advert to another somewhat connected with it, although 
it hardly comes under my province; and that is, the 
proper way of preparing copy ft r the press. I would beg 
leave to suggest, therefore, 

1. That the author write on one side of the paper only. 
This will be advantageous both to himself and the com- 
positor : for he can then write his notes at the back of the 
preceding page, which will of course face the page where 
they occur ; and if he should find it advisable to make any 
extensive alteration in the manuscript, he can do it much 



242 ON COKKECTING A PROOF -SHEET. 

more clearly on the opposite page than by means of inter- 
lining or cramming it into the margin. Or, better still, 
he can leave a large margin, equal to a third of the whole, 
in the side of each page of manuscript, and write his notes 
and alterations there. 

2. That he write a tolerably legible hand. It need not 
be like copperplate ; for compositors are, generally speak- 
ing, adepts at deciphering manuscript : but there is a 
wide difference between that and the miserable illegible 
scrawls that frequently find their way into the compo- 
sitor's hands, to his great annoyance, and loss of time and 
money. For, although it may happen sometimes that he 
is allowed extra for bad copy, he is never allowed enough 
to compensate him for the time he is compelled to consume 
in his efforts to unravel the hieroglyphics, and the still 
longer time in correcting the proof-sheet. Besides, all 
this adds unnecessarily to the expense of a work, and 
often causes much vexation and delay, and is the main 
cause of the most absurd blunders escaping the notice of 
both corrector and author. 

3. For the same purpose, i.e. the saving of unneces- 
sary expense, it is very desirable that an author should 
write as nearly as possible what he would like to see in 
print. Let him, therefore, revise his copy thoroughly, if 
an unpractised writer, and make the corrections in the 
manuscript ; and if these are extensive, let him re-write 
the whole. This may be laborious and tiresome ; but he 
will eventually reap the benefit, in the acquisition of a 
more correct mode of reasoning, and a clearer perception 
of the relation between his words and his ideas. 

4. An author need not trouble himself much about 
punctuation. Let him mark the end of his sentences 
distinctly, and insert a few points where confusion is likely 
to arise, and he will generally find that the printer, if at 
all equal to his business, will point his book pretty satis- 
factorily. But if the author is unwilling to trust this 



ON CORRECTING A PROOF-SHEET. 243 

matter to the printer, let him do the work thoroughly 
himself, and insert every point just as he wishes it to 
appear, and then the compositor will thank him. 

Having said thus much of the author, perhaps I may 
be allowed to say a few words also of the reader or 
corrector, and what I consider the best way of performing 
his part of the business. Undoubtedly it is desirable that 
a corrector of the press should have been brought up to 
the practical part of the business ; otherwise imperfections* 
of workmanship are apt to escape his eye, however well 
qualified he may otherwise be for the responsible office he 
has assumed. Not but that literary gentlemen, who have 
no practical acquaintance with the art of printing, may in 
course of time become adepts in detecting even practical 
deficiencies ; but while they are acquiring this necessary 
qualification, the work is being turned out in an imperfect 
state, and in a manner which will reflect little credit on 
the establishment where it is executed, if not superin- 
tended by a competent practical printer before being sent 
to press. Indeed, judging from my own experience, I 
should say that mere literary gentlemen seldom make 
really good readers. 

The principal qualifications for a reader are, that he 
should have a good knowledge of the English language, 
be generally well-informed (as all kinds of subjects come 
under his supervision), have a quick eye and a clear head, 
combined with patience and perseverance. If he adds to 
these qualifications a tolerable acquaintance with the lan- 
guages which enter so largely into the constitution of our 
own (for no man can correct errors in a language he does 
not understand), he may be regarded as an accomplished 
corrector of the press. But, however good a scholar he 
may have the reputation of being, if he has not, in addition, 
the qualifications above alluded to, he will never be fully 
equal to the task he has undertaken, and will never be 
the man to whom any work should be wholly intrusted. 
R 2 



244 ON CORRECTING A PROOF-SHEET. 

But supposing him possessed of the necessary acquire- 
ments, he will still, if inexperienced, require a little 
instruction; and in aid of that object I will venture to 
offer a few hints as to the routine of his proceeding. 

When a sheet is put into his hands to read a first 
time, let him look carefully to the primer marked in his 
copy by the reader of the previous sheet, if it be not the 
first of a work, and compare it with a table of signatures, 
' which he should always have hanging before him for 
ready reference (something similar to the one which will 
be given in the next chapter). If the page and signature 
correspond with the table, they may be supposed to be 
correct ; if not, let him ascertain the cause, and if wrong, 
rectify the error at once. He will then look and see that 
the folios follow in regular succession ; that the chapter 
corresponds with the directions in the primer; as also 
the sections and other divisions, if such there be. The 
pages must also be examined, in order to see that they 
are of a proper length : the footnotes will likewise re- 
quire his attention, to see that they also follow in order, 
and correspond with the marks indicated in the text. He 
may then venture to read the sheet carefully by eye, 
keeping the copy by his side for reference when he is in 
doubt. Having done this to the whole sheet, or a portion 
of it, if wanted by the compositor for correction, let him 
transfer the copy to his reading-boy, and cause him to 
read it distinctly and audibly (not grumblingly and 
almost unintelligibly, as boys are apt to do if not well 
looked after), and give it out to be corrected in such 
portions as may suit the urgency of the case. If the proof 
is very foul, it is better to read it at once by the copy, in 
order to clear it of its most important blunders, have it 
corrected, and re-read by the copy. But, supposing the 
sheet finished, the corrector must carefully mark where it 
ends, writing distinctly in the margin of the copy, the 
following signature, its first folio, the chapter, section, and 



0& CORRECTING A PROOF-SHEET. 245 

every other division, together with the compositor's name, 
and send this and the remainder of his copy, not wanted 
for the sheet, again to the compositor. 

"When corrected and revised, a proof is sent to the 
author, who, on his part, should lose no time in examining 
it, and then return it without delay ; for upon his regu- 
larity in this particular mainly depends the expeditious and 
satisfactory execution of the whole. When the author's 
alterations have been carefully made and revised by the 
reader, if no further proof is required, the sheet should 
then be read by a competent corrector for press ; and 
as such a person will be well acquainted with his duties, 
it is unnecessary that they should be specified here. We 
will therefore proceed to the next chapter. 



246 



CHAPTER XIII. 



TABLES USEFUL TO THE AUTHOR, CORRECTOR, 
AND COMPOSITOR. 

IN the previous chapter .1 advised the corrector to 
have a table of signatures and folios always at hand ; and 
as it will perhaps be more secure in a book, and almost 
as convenient for reference, as anywhere else, I append 
one here, which will be sufficient for all ordinary pur- 
poses ;* for it will be a very easy matter, should he be 
engaged on works in folio or quarto, which frequently run 
through three or four, or even five and six alphabets, to 
draw up a special table for that purpose : but as works 
in those sizes are not common nowadays, it would not be 
worth while to give them to that extent in this place. 

In addition to this, the reader will find subjoined, an 
abstract table, containing only those signatures whose first 
page ends with the figure 1. These form so many starting- 
points, from which the pages of intermediate signatures 
can easily be calculated, and much time saved ; for if these 
are once thoroughly fixed in the mind, reference to more 
extended tables is hardly ever necessary, in the most 
common sizes, such as 8vo and 12mo, at least. 

* This table is printed in a separate form, and sold by the 
publisher of this work, price \d. y or 2d. on card-board. 



TABLE I. SIGNATURES AND FOLIOS. 



No. 


Sigs. 


Folio. 


4to. 


8vo. 


|8vo. 


12mo. 


i 

12mo. 


16ino. 


Sigs. 




A 























A 


1 


B 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


I 


1 


B 


2 


C 


5 


9 


17 


9 


25 


13 


33 


C 


3 


D 


9 


17 


33 


17 


49 


25 


65 


D 


4 


E 


13 


25 


49 


25 


73 


37 


97 


E 


5 


F 


17 


33 


65 


33 


97 


49 


129 


F 


6 


G 


21 


41 


81 


41 


121 


61 


161 


G 


7 


H 


25 


49 


97 


49 


145 


73 


193 


H 


8 


I 


29 


57 


113 


57 


169 


85 


225 


I 


9 


K 


33 


65 


129 


65 


193 


97 


257 


K 


10 


L 


37 


73 


145 


73 


217 


109 


289 


L 


11 


M 


41 


81 


161 


81 


241 


121 


321 


M 


12 


N 


45 


89 


177 


89 


265 


133 


353 


K 


13 





49 


97 


193 


97 


289 


145 


385 





14 


P 


53 


105 


209 


105 


313 


157 


417 


p 


15 


Q 


57 


113 


225 


113 


337 


169 


449 


Q 


16 


R 


61 


121 


241 


121 


361 


181 


481 


R 


17 


S 


65 


129 


257 


129 


385 


193 


513 


S 


18 


T 


69 


137 


273 


137 


409 


205 


545 


T 


19 


U 


73 


145 


289 


145 


433 


217 


577 


U 


20 


X 


77 


153 


305 


153 


457 


229 


609 


X 


21 


Y 


81 


161 


321 


161 


481 


241 


641 


Y 


22 


Z 


85 


169 


337 


169 


505 


253 


673 


Z 


23 


2A 


89 


177 


353 


177 


529 


265 


705 


2 A 


24 


B 


93 


185 


369 


185 


553 


277 


737 


B 


25 


C 


97 


193 


385 


193 


577 


289 


769 





26 


D 


101 


201 


401 


201 


601 


301 


801 


D 


27 


E 


105 


209 


417 


209 


625 


313 


833 


E 


28 


F 


109 


217 


433 


217 


649 


325 


865 


F 


29 


G 


113 


225 


449 


225 


673 


337 


897 


G 


30 


H 


117 


233 


465 


233 


697 


349 


929 


H 


31 


I 


121 


241 


481 


241 


721 


361 


961 


I 


32 


K 


125 


249 


497 


249 


745 


373 


993 


K 


33 


L 


129 


257 


513 


257 


769 


385 


1025 


L 


34 


M 


133 


265 


529 


265 


793 


397 


1057 


M 


35 


N 


137 


273 


545 


273 


817 


409 


1089 


N 


36 





141 


281 


561 


281 


841 


421 


1121 





37 


P 


145 


289 


577 


289 


865 


433 


1153 


P 


38 


Q 


149 


297 


593 


297 


889 


445 


1185 


Q 


39 


R 


153 


305 


609 


305 


913 


457 


1217 


R 


40 


s 


157 


313 


625 


313 


937 


469 


1249 


S 


41 


T 


161 


321 


641 


321 


961 


481 


1281 


T 


42 


U 


165 


329 


657 


329 


985 


493 


1313 


U 


43 


X 


169 


337 


673 


337 


1009 


505 


1345 


X 


44 


T 


173 


345 


689 


345 


1033 


517 


1377 


Y 


45 


Z 


177 


353 


705 


353 


1057 


529 


1409 


Z 



TABLE I. Continued. 



No. 


Sigs. 


Folio 


4 to. 


8vo. 


-| 8vo. 


12mo 


I2mo 


I8mo. 


Primer 


46 


3A 


181 


361 


721 


361 


1081 


541 


Sigs. 




47 


B 


185 


369 


737 


369 


1105 


553 


B 


1 


48 


c 


189 


377 


753 


377 


1129 


565 


C 


37 


49 


D 


193 


385 


769 


385 


1153 


577 


D 


73 


50 


E 


197 


393 


785 


393 


1177 


589 


E 


109 


51 


F 


201 


401 


801 


401 


1201 


601 


F 


145 


52 


G 


205 


409 


817 


409 


1225 


613 


G 


181 


53 


H 


209 


417 


833 


417 


1249 


625 


H 


217 


54 


I 


213 


425 


849 


425 


1273 


637 


I 


253 


55 


K 


217 


433 


865 


433 


1297 


649 


K 


289 


56 


L 


221 


441 


881 


441 


1321 


661 


L 


325 


57 


M 


225 


449 


897 


449 


1345 


673 


M 


361 


58 


JS 


229 


457 


913 


457 


1369 


685 


N 


397 


59 





233 


465 


929 


465 


1393 


697 


O 


433 


60 


P 


237 


473 


945 


473 


1417 


709 


P 


469 


61 


Q 


241 


481 


961 


481 


1441 


721 


Q 


505 


62 


R 


245 


489 


977 


489 


1465 


733 


R 


541 


63 


S 


249 


497 


993 


497 


1489 


74.5 


S 


577 


64 


T 


253 


505 


1009 


505 


1513 


757 


T 


613 


65 


U 


257 


513 


1025 


513 


1537 


769 


U 


649 


66 


X 


261 


521 


1041 


521 


1561 


781 


X 


685 


67 


Y 


265 


529 


1057 


529 


1585 


793 


Y 


721 


68 


Z 


269 


537 


1073 


537 


1609 


805 


Z 


757 


69 


4 A 


273 


545 


1089 


545 


1633 


817 


24ino. 




70 


B 


277 


553 


1105 


553 


1657 


8^9 


B 


1 


71 


C 


281 


561 


1121 


561 


1681 


841 


C 


49 


72 


D 


285 


569 


1137 


569 


1705 


853 


D 


97 


73 


E 


289 


577 


1153 


577 


1729 


865 


E 


145 


74 


F 


293 


585 


1169 


585 


1753 


877 


F 


193 


75 


G 


297 


593 


1185 


593 


1777 


889 


G 


241 


76 


H 


301 


601 


1201 


601 


1801 


901 


H 


289 


77 


I 


305 


609 


1217 


609 


1825 


913 


I 


337 


78 


K 


309 


617 


1233 


617 


1849 


925 


K 


385 


79 


L 


313 


625 


1219 


625 


1873 


937 


L 


433 


80 


M 


317 


633 


1265 


633 


1897 


949 


M 


481 


81 


N 


321 


641 


1281 


641 


1921 


961 


N 


529 


82 


O 


325 


649 


1297 


649 


1945 


973 





577 


83 


P 


329 


657 


1313 


657 


1969 


985 


P 


625 


84 


Q 


333 


665 


1329 


665 


1993 


997 


Q 


673 


85 


R 


337 


673 


1345 


673 


2017 


1009 


R 


721 


86 


S 


341 


681 


1361 


681 


2041 


1021 


S 


769 


87 


T 


345 


689 


1377 


689 


2065 


1033 


T 


817 


88 


U 


349 


697 


1393 


697 


2089 


1045 


U 


865 


89 


X 


353 


705 


1409 


705 


2113 


1057 


X 


913 


90 


Y 


357 


713 


1425 


713 


2137 


1069 


Y 


961 


91 


Z 


361 


721 


1441 


721 


2161 


1081 


Z 


1009 



TABLE OF SIGNATURES, ETC. 



249 



But as the reader may not have an opportunity, at all 
times, of referring to the table, I have, as mentioned before, 
contrived a formula which will much assist him, if carefully 
borne in mind. I may remark, in the first place, that all 
sheets other than folios must necessarily be multiples of four 
pages, or of folios ; and as 5 times 4 is 20, so will five times 
any multiple of 4 end in even tens. For instance, 5X8=40, 
5X12 = 60, 5X16 = 80, 5X20=100, 5X24= 12'0, &c. 
Hence it follows that the sixth sheet, and every fifth sheet 
after it, whatever the number of pages the sheet may con- 
tain, will commence with a number whose last figure will 
be 1; and if this be well fixed in the memory, it will be no 
difficult matter to calculate from each fifth sheet, the com- 
mencing folio of any one intervening, as also the number 
of that sheet. Those starting-points, as I call them, I will 
submit to the reader's inspection in a tabular form, so that 
they may be seen at a glance, and be readily committed to 
memory. 



No. of 
Sheet. 


Sig. 


COMMENCING PAGE. 


Octavo. 


12rao. 


Quarto, or 
Octavo. 


12mo. 


6 


G 


81 


121 


41 


61 


11 


M 


161 


241 


81 


121 


16 


K 


241 


361 


121 


181 


21 


Y 


321 


481 


161 


241 


26 


2 D 


401 


601 


201 


301 


31 


I 


481 


721 


241 


361 


36 


O 


561 


841 


281 


421 


41 


T 


641 


961 


321 


481 


46 


3 A 


721 


1081 


361 


541 


51 


F 


801 


1201 


401 


601 



250 EXPLANATION OF TABLE. 

I have given the folios of half-sheets of 12mo and 8vo 
( 4to); but as they are but the halves of their corres- 
ponding sheets, it will not be necessary to commit them to 
memory. But with respect to the 8vo and 12mo, the most 
usual of all sizes, if the reader will impress upon his 
memory the technical word G(e)MBYDIOTAF (all, 
observe, different letters), and suppose them to stand 
respectively for the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 ; if he 
multiply any of them by 5 and add 1, he will obtain the 
number of the sheet represented by each of the letters ; 
thus: 5Xl + l = 6=z:G; 5X2+1 = 11 = M; 5X3 + 1 
=zl6 = K; 5X4 + 1~21 = Y; 5 X 5+1 = 26 = 2 D ; 

36=: 2 O; 5X8+1 = 41 
5 X 10+1 =51 = 3 F. And 
from these he will readily determine the number of any 
intermediate sheet. 

Again, on referring to the table, he will remark that 
the first page of each of these signatures commences with 
a number which ends with 1, beginning in 8vo with 81 
(the highest even digit), and increasing by 80 each signa- 
ture ; consequently, the even figure becoming 2 less on each 
occasion, and the first figure generally one more ; thus, 81, 
161, 241, 321, 401 ; then again with 8, 481, 561, 641, 
721, 801, and so on. But in 12mo, the even figure is the 
lowest in G, and the increase is by 120 ; consequently, the 
second figure increases 2 at every step; thus: 121, 241, 
361, 481, 601 ; and so on, 

Bearing these data in mind, it is a very easy matter to 
calculate the number and folio of any intermediate sheet, 
without referring to any table of signatures at all. I have 
myself derived much assistance in this matter from this 
simple table ; and I feel convinced, if impressed on the 
mind at an early period of life, the number and folio of 
every sheet in 8vo and 12mo will be at the fingers' 
ends. 



MISTAKES IN PROPER NAMES. 251 

ur next table shall be one intended equally for the 
literary gentleman and the printer. 

I have frequently observed that Authors and Cor- 
rectors, but especially Translators, are oft at a loss for 
the corresponding names of places, peoples, and persons in 
various languages, and not having the means of reference 
at hand, the most absurd mistakes are continually com- 
mitted : for I could recall to my mind several cases where, 
in works translated from the French, the translator has 
put down, as English names, the Escaut for the Scheldt; 
Pouille, for Apulia; la Manche, for the English Channel, 
and other blunders equally showing his superficial know- 
ledge of the language he was treating, and the subject he 
proposed to illustrate. To assist in avoiding such errors 
in future, I had compiled several tables ; but as I find that 
they would intrench too much on the space at my dis- 
posal, I have abbreviated and condensed them all into 
one ; but, should I find that this meets with the approba- 
tion of my readers, and the approval of the public, I may, 
at some future time, publish the whole in extenso, and in a 
separate form ; so that they may be available for use both 
in schools, colleges, offices, and the library. The original 
tables are hexaglossal ; but, from the narrowness of the 
page, I have been obliged to dispense with two of the 
languages embraced in them, and content myself with 
four ; nevertheless, even in the present mutilated state, I 
hope that they will not be found entirely useless, and that 
my labor has not been altogether bestowed in vain. 



252 



PROPER NAMES* 



TABLE II. 

PROPER NAMES OF PERSONS, AND THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES, CITIES, 
TOWNS, RIVERS, AND MOUNTAINS IN THE WORLD, IN FOUR Of 
THE PRINCIPAL MODERN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Aaron 


Aaron 


Aarone 


Aaron 


Abel 


Abel 


Abele 


Abel 


Abraham 


Abraham 


Abramo 


Abraham 


Abyssinia 


Abissinie 


Abissinia 


Abyssinien 


Abyssinian 


Abissin t f. -e 


AbissinianOy f.-a 


Abyssinier 


Achilles 


Achille 


Achille 


Achilles 


Adam 


Adam 


Adamo 


Adam 


Adolphus 


Adolphe 


Adolfo 


Adolph 


Adrastus 


Adraste 


Adrasto 


Adrastus 


Adrian 


Adrien 


Adriano 


Adrian 


Adrianople 


Andrinople 


Andrinopoli 


Adrianopel 


Adriatic Sea 


Adriatique (la 


Adriatico (il 


Adriatisches Meei" 




mer) 


mar) 




Africa 


Afrique 


Affrica, Africa 


Afrika 


African 


Africain, -e 


Africano, -a 


Afrikaner, -isch 


Agamemnon 


Agamemnon 


Agamennone 


Agamemnon 


Agatha 


Agathe 


Agata 


Agathe 


Aix-la-Chapelle 


Aix-la-Chapelle 


Aquisgrana 


Aachen 


Ajax 


Ajax 


Ajace 


Ajax 


Alaric 


Alaric 


Alarico 


Alarich 


Alban 


Alban 


Albano 


Albanus 


Albania 


Albanie 


Albania 


Albanien 


Albanian 


Albanais, -e 


A Ibanese 


Albanier, -isch 


Albert 


Albert 


Alberto 


Albert, Albrecht 


Albigensis 


Albigeois, -e 


Albigese 


W oldens er 


Alexander 


Alexandre 


Alessandro 


Alexander 


Alexandria 


Alexandrie 


Alessandria 


Alexandrien 


Alfred 


Alfred 


Alfredo 


Alfried 


Algiers 


Alghier, Alger 


Alghier, Algari 


Algier 


Algerian 


Algerien, -ne 


Algerino, -a 


Algierer 


Alphonso 


Alphonse 


Alfonso 


Alphons 


Alps 


Alpes 


Alpi ^ 


Alpen 


Alsace 


Alsace 


Alsazia 


Elsass 


Ambrose 


Ambroise 


Ambrogio 


Ambrosias 



PROPER NAMES. 



253 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


America 


Ame'rique 


America 


Amerika 


I American 


Americain, -e 


Americano, -a 


Americaner, -isch 


Amilcar 


Amilcar 


Amilcaro 


Amilcar 


[Amphitrite 


Amphitrite 


Anfitrite 


Amphitrite 


rJAmsterdam 


Amsterdam 


Amsterdam 


Amsterdam 


lAnastasius 


Anastase 


Anastasio 


Anastasius 


'Andalusia 


Andalousie 


Andalusia 


Andalusien 


Andrew 


Andre* 


Andrea 


Andreas 


Anjou 


Anjou 


Angi<5 


Anjou 


jJAnne, Ann 


Anne 


Anna 


Anna 


nnibal 


Annibal 


Annibale 


Annibal 


Anselm 


Anselme 


Anselmo 


Anselm 


Imithony 


Antoine 


Antonio 


Anton 


idntioch 


Antioche 


Antiochia 


Antiochien 


llntwerp 


Anvers 


Anversa 


Antwerpen 


[(Apennines 


Apennins 


Apemiini 


Apenninien 


|Apollo 


Apollon 


Apolone 


Apollo 


Apulia, Puglia 


Pouille 


Puglia 


Apulien 


j|Aquitaine 


Aquitaine 


Aquitania 


Aquitaine 


JArabia 


Arabie 


Arabia 


Arabien 


| Arabian 


Arabe 


Arabo, -a 


Araber, -isch 


iAragon 


Aragon 


Aragona 


Aragon 


Arcadia 


Arcadie 


Arcadia 


Arcadien 


B Arcadian 


Arcadien, -ne 


Arcade 


Arcadisch 


(Archipelago 


Archipel 


Arcipelago 


Archipelagus 


lAnnenia 


Arme"nie 


Armenia 


Armenien 


tl Armenian 


Armenien, -ne 


Armeniano, -a 


Armenier, -isch 


ttArtois 


Artois 


Artesia 


Artois 


tfAsia 


Asie 


Asia 


Asien 


1 Asiatic 


Asiatique 


A&iatico, -a 


Asiate, -inn, f.; -isch 


jAssyria 


Assyrie 


Assiria 


Assyrien 


1 Assyrian 


Assyvien, -ne 


Assirio, -a 


Assyrisch 


tjAsturia 


Asturie 


Asturia 


Asturien 


:jAthanasius 


Athanase 


Atanasio, -agio 


Athaiiasius 


;jAtheus 


Athenes 


Atene 


Athen 


U Athenian 


Athenian, -ne 


Ateniese 


Athenienser, -isch 


|A.tlantic Sea 


Atlantique (la 


Atlantico, (il 


Atlantisches Meer, 




mer) 


mar) 


Westsee 


Augsburg 


Augsbourg 


Augusta, Aus- 


Augsburg 






bourg 




Augustine 


Au"gustin 


Agostino 


An gust in 


[Augustus 


Auguste 


Augusto 


August 


|A.urelian 


Aurele 


Aurelio 


Aureliau 



154 



PROPER NAMES. 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Austrasia 


Austrasie 


Austrasia 


Westerreich 


Austria 


Autriche 


Austria 


Oestreich 


Austrian 


Autrichien, -ne 


Austriaco, -a 


Oestreicher, -isch 


Babylon 


Babylone 


Babilonia 


Babel, Babylon 


Babylonian 


Babylonien, -ne 


Babilonio, -a 


Babylonier -isch 


Bacchus 


Bacchus 


Bacco 


Bacchus 


Baltic Sea 


Baltique (la mer) 


Baltico (il mar) 


Baltisches Meer, 








Ostsee 


Baptist 


Baptiste 


Battista 


Baptista 


Barbary 


Barbarie 


Barbaria 


Berberei 


Barbarian 


Barbare 


Barbara, -a 


Berber 


Barcelona 


Barcelone 


Barcellona 


Barcellona 


Barnabas 


Barnab6 


Barnaba 


Barnabas 


Bartholomew 


Barthelemy 


Bartolommeo 


Barthel, Bartho- 








lomaus 


Basle, Basil (t.) 


Bale 


Basilea 


Basel 


Basil 


Basile 


Basilio 


Basilius 


Batavia 


Batavia 


Batavia 


Batavien 


Batave 


Batave 


Batavo, -a 


Bataver 


Bavaria 


Baviere 


Baviera 


Baiern 


Bavarian 


Bavarois, -e 


Bavarese 


Baier, -isch 


Bayonne 


Bayonne 


Bajona 


Bayonue 


Beatrice 


Beatrice 


Beatrice 


Beatrix 


Belgium 


Belgique 


Belgica 


Belgien 


Belgian 


Beige 


Belgio, -a 


Belgisch 


Belgrade 


Belgrade 


Belgrade 


Belgrad 


Belvedere 


Belvedere 


Belvedere 


Belvedere 


Benedict 


Benoit 


Benedette 


Benedict 


Beneventum 


Be'ne'vent 


Benevento 


Benevent 


Bengal 


Bengale 


Bengala 


Bengalen 


Benjamin 


Benjamin 


Benjamino 


Benjamin 


Berlin 


Berlin 


Berlino 


Berlin 


Bern 


Berne 


Berna 


Bern 


Bernard 


Bernard 


Bernardo 


Bernhard 


Bertha 


Berthe 


Berta 


Bertha 


Besangon 


Besangon 


Besanzone 


Besangon 


Bethlehem 


Bethleem 


Betelemme 


Bethlehem 


Biscay 


Biscaye 


Biscaglia 


Biscaya 


Black Forest 


Foret Noire (la) 


Selva JSTegra (la) 


Schwarzwald 


Black Sea 


Mer Noire (la) 


Mar Negro (il) 


Schwarzes Meer 


Blanche 


Blanche 


Bianca 


Bianca 


Blasius, Blaise 


Blaise 


Biaggio 


Blasius 



ITIOPER NAMES. 



255 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Bohemia 


Boheme 


Boemia 


Bohmen 


Bohemian 


Bohemien, -ne 


Boemo -a 


Bohme, -isch 


Bologna 


Bologne 


Bologna 


Bologna 


Boniface 


Boniface 


Bonifacio 


Bonifacius 


Bonn 


Bonn 


Bonn 


Bonn 


Bordeaux 


Bordeaux 


Bordeaux 


Bordeaux 


Bosnia 


Bosnie 


Bosnia, Bossina 


Bosnien 


Bospiiorua 


Bospliore 


Bosforo 


Bosporus 


Boulogne 


Boulogne 


Bologna 


Boulogne 


Brabant 


Brabant 


Brabante 


Brabant 


Brandenburg 


Brandebourg 


Brandeburg 


Brandenburg 


Brasil 


Brasil 


Brasile 


Brasilien 


Bremen 


Breme 


Brema 


Bremen 


Breslau 


Breslau 


Breslavia 


Breslau 


Bridget 


Brigitte 


Brigida, -ta 


Brigitte 


Brindisium 


Brindes,Brindisi 


Brindisi 


Brindisi, Brundu- 








sium 


Britain 


Bretagne 


Bretagna 


Britannien 


Briton,, British 


Breton, -ne 


Bret one 


Britte, Brittisch 


.Brittany 


Bretagne 


Bretagna 


Bretagne 


I Brunswick 


Brunswich 


Brunswick 


Braunschweig 


Brussels 


Bruxelles 


Brusselles 


Briissel 


<Buda 


Bude 


Buda 


Ofen 


f Bulgaria 


Bulgarie 


Bulgaria 


Bulgarien 


Bulgarian 


Bulgare 


Bulgaro, -a 


Bulgar, -isch 


Burgundy 


Bourgogne 


Borgogna 


Burgund 


Burgundian 


Bourgignon, -e 


Boryhignone 


Burgunder 


Cadiz 


Cadix 


Cadice 


Cadix 


Csesar 


Cesar 


Cesare 


Casar 


Caesarea 


Cesaree, Kesaria 


Kesaria, Cesarea 


Casarea 


Cairo 


Caire 


Cairo 


, Cairo 


Calabria 


Calabre 


Calabria 


Calabrien 


Camillus 


Canrille 


Camillo 


Camillus 


Canaries 


Canaries 


Canarie 


Canarische Inseln 


Candia, Crete 


Candie 


Candia 


Candien 


Candiot 


Candiot, -e 


Candiotto, a 


Candiener 


Canterbury 


Cantorbery 


Cantorbery 


Canterbury 


SlCape of Good 


Cap de Bonne 


Capo di Buona 


Vorgebirge gutes 


, Hope 


Esperance 


SperaczLi 


Hoffnuug 


{ Capua 


Capoue 


Capua, Capova 


Capua 


Caroline 


Caroline 


Carolina 


Caroline 


Carthage 


Carthage 


Cartagine 


Carthago 


Carthaginian 


Carthayinois } -e 


Cartaginese 


Carthaginienser 



256 



PROPER NAMES. 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITxVLIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Carinthia 


Carinthie 


Carintia 


Kiirnthen 


Caspian Sea 
Cassandra 


Mer Caspienne 
Cassandre 


Mar Caspiano 
Cassandra 


Caspisches Meer 
Cassandra 


Castile 
Castilian 
Castor 


Castille 
Castillieti, -ne 
Castor 


Castiglia 
Ca&tigliano, -a 

Castore 


Castilien 
Castilianer, -isch 
Castor 


Catalonia 


Catalonie 


Catalonia 


Catalonien 


Catalonian 
Catharine 


Catalonien,-ne 
Catherine 


,Cataloniano,-a 
Catterina 


Catalonier, -isch 
Catharine 


Caucasus 


Caucase 


Caucaso 


Caucasus 


Cecily 
Celsus 


Cecile 
Cels 


Cecilia 
Celso 


Cacilie 
Celsus 


Ceres 


Ce"res 


Cerere 


Ceres 


Ceylon 
Chaldea 


Ceilan 
Chaldee 


Ceilan 
Caldea 


Ceylon 
Chaldaa 


Chaldean 
Champagne 
Charles 


Chaldeen, -ne 
Champagne 
Charles 


Caldeo, -a 
Sciampagna 
Carlo 


Chaldaer, -isch 
Champagne 
Carl 


Charlotte 
Chary bdis 
Chersonesus 


Charlotte 
Carybde 
Chersonese 


Carliua, Carlotta 
Cariddi 
Chersonese 


Charlotte 
Charybdis 
Chersonesus 


China 


Chine 


China 


China 


Chinese 
Christopher 
Chrysostom 
Cimbri 


Chinois, -e 
Christ ophe 
Chrysostome 
dm bres 


Chinese 
Cristofo 
Crisostomo 
Cimbri 


Chineser, -isch 
Christoph 
Chrysobtom 
Cimbri 


Clara 


Claire 


Chiara 


Clara 


Claudius 


Claude 


Claudio 


Claudius 


Clement 


Clement 


Clemente 


Clemens 


Coblentz 


Coblentz 


Coblens 


Coblenz 


Cologne 
Conrad 


Cologne 
Conrad 


Cologne, Colonia 
Corrado 


Coin 
Conrad 


Con stan tine 


Constantin 


Constantino 


Con stan tin 


Constantinople 
Copenhagen 
Cordova 


Constantinople 
Copenhague 
Cordoue 


Constantinopoli 
Copenaghen 
Cordova 


Constantinopel 
Copenhagen 
Corduba 


Corfu 


Corfou 


Corfu 


Corfu 


Corinth 


Corinthe 


Corinto 


Corinth 


Corinthian 
Cornelius 


Corinthien t -ne 
Corneille 


Corintiano, -a 
Cornelio 


Cor in t her 9 -isch 
Cornelius 


Correggio 
Corsica 


Correggio 
Corse 


Correggio 
Corsica 


Correggio 
Corsica 


Cossack 


Cosaque 


Cosacco, -a 


Cosack 



PROPER NAMES. 



257 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Courland 


Curlande 


Curlandia 


Curland 


Cracow 


Cracovie 


Cracovia 


Cracau 


Crete 


Crete 


Creta 


Creta, Candien 


Cretan, Candiot 


Cretois, -e 


Cretense 


Candiot 


Crimea 


Crime"e 


Crimea 


Crim 


Croatia 


Croatie 


Croazia 


Croatien 


Croat, Croatian 


Croate 


Croazese 


Croate 


Cupid 


Cupidon 


Cupido 


Cupido 


Cybele 


Cybele 


Cibele 


Cybele 


Cyclades 


Cyclades 


Cicladi 


Cyclades 


Cyprus 


Cypre 


Cipro 


Cypern 


Cyprian, Cy- 


Cyprien, -ne ; 


Cipriano, -a 


Cyprier, Cyprisch 


priot 


-ot, -ote 






Dalmatia 


Dalmatie 


Dalmatia 


Dalmatian 


Damascus 


Damas 


Damasco 


Damask 


Damasus 


Damase 


Damaso 


Damasus 


Daniel 


Daniel 


Daniele 


Daniel 


Dantsic 


Dantzic 


Danzica 


Danzig 


Danube 


Danube 


Danubio 


Donau 


Dardanelles 


Dardanelles 


Dardanelli 


Dardanellen 


Dauphiny 
David 


Dauphine" 
David 


Delfinato 
Davide 


Dauphine 
David 


Delhi 


Delhi 


Deli 


Delli, Dehli 


Denmark 


Danemark 


Danimarca 


Danemark 


Dane, Danish 


Danois, -e 


Danese 


Dane, Ddnisch 


Denys, Dionysi- 


Denys 


Dionisio, -igi 


Dionysius 


Deuxponts [us 


Deuxponts 


Dueponti 


Zweibriicken 


Diana 


Diane 


Diana 


Diana 


Dnieper 


Nieper 


Nieper 


Dnieper 


Dominic 


Dominique 


Domenico 


Dominicus 


Domingo 


Domingue 


Domingo 


Domingo 


Donatus 


Donat 


Donato 


Donatus 


Dorothy 


Dorothe"e 


Dorotea 


Dorothea 


Dover 


Douvres 


Duvre 


Dover 


Dresden 


Dresde 


Dresda 


Dresden 


Dublin 


Dublin 


Dublino 


Dublin 


Dunkirk 


Dunkerque 


Dunquerque 


Diinkirchen 


Dusseldorf 


Dusseldorp 


Dusseldorp 


Dusseldorf 


Dwina 


Douine, Dwina 


Duina 


Dwina 


East Indies 


Indes Orientales 


Indie Orientali 


Ostindien 


Ebro 


Ebre 


Ebro 


Ebro 


Ecclesiastical 


Etats Eccle"sias- 


Stati Ecclesias- 


Kirchenetaat 


States 


tiques 


tic! 





258 



PROPER NAMES. 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Edinburgh 


Edimbourg 


Edimburgo 


Edinburg 


Edward 


Edouard 


Eduardo, Edoar- 


Eduard 


Egypt 


Egypte 


Egitto [do 


Aegypten 


Egyptian 


Egyptien, -ne 


Egizio, -a 


Aegypter 


Elbe 


Elbe 


Elba 


Elbe 


Eleanor 


Ele"onore 


Eleonore 


Leonore 


Elias 


Elie 


Elia 


Elias 


Elizabeth 


Elisabeth 


Elisabetta 


Elisabeth 


Emilius 


Emile 


Emilio 


Emilius 


England 


Angleterre 


Inghilterra 


England 


English 


Anglais, -e 


Jnqlese 


Englisch 


Ephesus 


Ephese 


Efeso 


Ephesus 


Ephesian 


Ephe'sien, -ne 


Efesiano, -a 


Ephesianer 


Epiphaniua 


Epiphane 


Epifanio 


Epiphanius 


Erasmus 


Erasme 


Erasmo 


Erasmus 


Ernest 


Ernest 


Ernesto 


Ernst 


Ethiopia, ^Eth- 


Ethiopie 


Etiopia 


Aethiopien 


Ethiopian, JE- 


Ethiopien, -ne 


Etiopo, -a 


Aethiopier 


Etrurian 


Hetrurien, -ne 


Etrusco, -a 


Etrurianer, -isch 


Eudoxus 


Eudoxe 


Eudossio 


Eudoxus 


Eugene 


Eugene 


Eugenio 


Eugen 


Euphrates 


Euphrate 


Eufrate 


Euphrat 


Europe 


Europe 


Europa 


Europa 


European 


Europeen, -ne 


Europeo, -a 


Europcier, -isch 


Eusebiua 


Eusebe 


Eusebio 


Eusebius 


Eustace 


Eustache 


Eustachio 


Eustachius 


Eve 


Eve 


Eva 


Eva 


Ezekiel 


Eze"chiel 


Ezechiele 


Ezechiel 


Fabian 


Fabien 


Fabiano 


Fabian 


Fabricius 


Fabrice 


Fabrizio 


Fabricius 


Felix 


Felix 


Felice 


Felix 


Ferdinand 


Ferdinand 


Ferdinand o 


Ferdinand 


Finland 


Finlande 


Finlandia 


Finnland 


Finlander 


FinlandaiS) -e 


Finlandese 


Finnldnder 


Flaminius 


Flamine 


Flaminio 


Flaminius 


Flanders 


Flandre 


Fiandra 


Flandern 


Fleming 


Flamand, -e 


Fiammingo, -a 


Flamdnder 


Flora 


Flore 


Flora 


Flora 


Florence (t.) 


Florence 


Firenze 


Florenz 


Flushing 


Flessingue 


Flessinga 


Vliessingen 


Fontainebleau 


Fontainebleau 


Fontanablo 


Fontainebleau 


France 


France 


Francia 


Frankreich 


Frerrth 


Fra?i$ais, -e 


Francese 


Franzos, -inn t 'isch 



PROPER NAMES. 



259 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Franche-Comt6 


Franche-Comte 


Franca-Contea 


Hocliburgund 


Frances 


Franoise 


Francesca 


Franciske 


Francis 


Franyois 


Francesco 


Franciskus, Franz 


Franconia 


Franconie 


Franconia 


Franken, Franken- 


Frankfort 


Francfort 


Francfort 


Frankfurt [land 


Frederick 


Frederic 


Federico 


Friedrich 


Friburg 


Fribourg 


Friburgo 


Freiburg 


Friesland 


Frise 


Frisia 


Friesland 


Prison 


Frison, -ne 


Frisone 


Frieslander 


Friuli 


Frioul 


Friuli 


Friaul 


Frozen Ocean 


Mer Glaciale 


Mar Glaciale 


Eismeer 


Gabriel 


Gabriel 


Gabriele 


Gabriel 


Galicia 


Galice 


Galizia 


Gallicien 


Galilee 


Galilee 


Galilea 


Galilaa 


Ganges 


Gange 


Gange 


Ganges 


Gascony 


Gascogne 


Gascogna 


Gasconien 


Gascon 


Gascon, -ne 


Gascone 


Gasconier, -i&ch 


Gaul 


Gaule 


Gallia 


Gallien 


Gaul, Gallic 


Gaulois, -e 


Gallo, -a 


Gallier 


Geneva 


Geneve 


Ginevra 


Genf 


Genevese 


Genevois, -e 


Ginevrino, -a 


Genfer 


Genoa 


Genes 


Geneva 


Genua 


Genoese 


Genois, -e 


Genovese 


Genueser, -isch 


George 


George 


Giorgio 


Georg 


Georgia 


Georgie 


Georgia 


Georgien 


Gerard 


Gerard 


Gerardo 


Gerhard 


Germany 


Allemagne 


Alemagna 


Deutschland 


German 


Allemand, -e ; 


Tedesco, -a; 


Deutscher, Deutsch 




Germain, -ne 


Germano, -a 




Gertrude 


Gertrude 


Gertruda 


Gertraud, Gertrud 


Ghent 


Gand 


Gand 


Gent 


Gideon 


Gideon 


Gedeone 


Gideon 


Glasgow 


Glascovie 


Glascovia 


Glasgow 


Godfrey 


Godefroi 


Gofiredo 


Gottfried 


Goths 


Goths 


Goti 


Gothen 


Gottingen 


Gottingen 


Gottingen 


Gottingen 


Great Britain 


Bretagne (la 


Gran Brettagna 


Grossbritannien 




Grande) 






Greece 


Grece 


Grecia 


Griechenland 


Greek 


Grec, -gue 


Greco, -a 


Grieche, -isch 


Greenland 


Greenland 


Greenland 


Gronland 


Gregory 


Gregoire 


Gregorio 


Gregorius 


Grisons 


Grisons 


Grigioni 


Graubiinden 








82 



260 



PROPER NAMES. 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Guinea 


Guine'e 


Guinea 


Guinea 


Guy 


Guy 


Guido 


Guido 


Hague 


Haye (la) 


Haye 


Haag 


Hainault 


Hainaut 


Hainaut 


Hanau 


Hamburg 


Hambourg 


Hamburg 


Hamburg 


Hanover 


Hanover 


Annover 


Hannover 


Hanoverian 


Hanovrien, -ne 


Annoveriano, -a 


Hannoveraner 


Hebrew 


Hebreu 


Ebreo, -a 


Hebraer, -isch 


Hector 


Hector 


Ettore 


Hector 


Helena, Helen 


Helene 


Elena 


Helene 


Henry 


Henri 


Enrico 


Heinrich 


Hercules 


Hercule 


Ercole 


Hercules 


Hesse 


Hesse 


Essea, Assia 


Hessen 


Hessian 


Hessien -ne 


Essiano -a 


Hesse, -isch 


Hibernian 


Hibernien, -ne; 


Iberno, -a 


Hibernisch 




Hibernois, -e 






Hilary 


Hilaire 


Ilario 


Hilarius 


Hippolytus 


Hippolyte 


Ippolito 


Hippolytus 


Holland 


Hollande 


Olanda 


Holland 


Dutch 


Hollandais, ~e 


Olandese 


Hollander, -isck 


Horace 


Horace 


Orazio 


Horatius 


Hortensius 


Hortense 


Ortenzio 


Hortensius 


Hugh 


Hugues 


Ugo 


Hugo 


Hungary 


Hongrie 


Ungheria 


Ungarn 


Hungarian 


Hongrois, ~e 


Unghero, -a 


Vngar, -isch 


Huns 


Huns 


Unni 


Ungarnen 


Hyacinthus 


Hyacinthe 


Giacinto 


Hyacinthus 


Iceland 


Islande 


Islanda 


Island 


Icelander 


Islandais, -e 


Islandese 


Islander 


Idumea 


Idum^e 


Idumea 


Idumaa 


Ignatius 


Ignace 


Ignazio 


Ignatius 


India 


Inde 


India 


Indien 


Indian 


Indien, -ne 


Indiana, -a 


Indianer, -sch 


Indus 


Inde 


Indo 


Indus 


Ingria 


Ingrie 


Ingria 


Ingermannland 


Ireland 


Iriande 


Irlanda 


Irland 


Irishman, Irish 


Irlandais, -e 


Irlandese 


Irldnder 'isch 


Iris 


Iris 


Iride 


Iris 


Iroquois 


Iroquois , -e 


Irochese 


Iroquois 


Isaac 


Isaac 


Isaco 


Isaak 


Isabel 


Isabelle 


Isabella 


Isabelle 


Isaiah 


Isa'ie 


Isaia 


Jesaias 


Ishmael 


Ismael 


Ismaele 


Ismael 



PROPER NAMES. 



261 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Italy 


Italie 


Italia 


Italien 


Italian 


Halien> -ne 


Italiano, -a 


Italiener, -isch 


Jamaica 


Jama'ique 


Giamaica 


Jamaica 


James 


Jacques 


Giacomo 


Jacob 


Jane 


Jeanne 


Giovanna 


Johanna 


Japan 


Jappon, Japon 


Giappone, Giap. 


Japan 


Japanese 


Japponais, -e 


Giapponese 


Japaner 


Jason 


Jason 


Giasone 


Jason 


Jeremiah 


J6*4mie 


Geremia 


Jeremias 


Jerome 


Jdrome 


Geronimo 


Hieronymus 


Jerusalem 


Jerusalem 


Gerusalemme 


Jerusalem 


Jesus 


J^sus 


Gesii 


Jesus 


Jew 


Juif, -ve 


Giudeo, -a 


Jude 


Job 


Job 


Giobbe 


Hiob 


John 


Jean 


Giovanni 


Johann 


Jonas 


Jonas 


Giona, lona 


Jonas 


Jordan 


Jourdain 


Giordano 


Jordan 


Joseph 


Joseph 


Giuseppe 


Joseph 


Joshua 


Josu6 


Giosu6 


Josua 


Jovian 


Jovien 


Gioviano 


Jovianus 


Judaea 


Jude"e 


Giudea 


Judaa 


Juno 


Junon 


Giunone 


Juno 


Jupiter 


Jupiter 


Giove 


Jupiter 


Justus, Just 


Juste 


Giusto 


Just 


Juvenal 


Juvenal 


Giovenale 


Juvenalis 


Konigsberg 


Konigsberg 


Konigsberg 


Konigsberg 


Lacedsemon 


Lacde'mone 


Lacedemonia 


Lacedamon 


Lacedaemonian 


Lacedemonien 


Lacedemone 


Lacedamonier 


Laconia 


Laconie 


Laconia- 


Laconien 


Lampsacus 


Lampsaque 


Lampsaco 


Lampsacus 


Languedoc 


Languedoc 


Linguadoca 


Languedoc 


Lapland 


Laponie 


Lapponia 


Lappland 


Laplander 


Lapon, -e 


Lappone 


Lapplander, Lapps 


Latin 


Latin, -e 


Latino^ -a 


Latein t -isch 


Laura 


Laure 


Laura 


Laura 


Lausanne 


Lausanne 


Losanna 


Lausanne 


Lawrence 


Laurent 


Lorenzo 


Lorentz 


Leghorn 


Livourne 


Livorno 


Livorno 


Leipsic 


Leipsic 


Lipsia 


Leipzig 


Leo 


Leon 


Leone 


Leo 


Leonard 


Leonard 


Leonardo 


Leonhard 


Leonidas 


Leonidas 


Leonida 


Leonidas 


Leopold 


Leopold 


Leopoldo 


Leopold 



262 



PROPER NAMES. 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Lewis 


Louis 


Luigi 


Ludchen, Ludwig 


Leyden 


Leyde 


Leide 


Leiden 


Libyan 


Lybien -ne 


Libiano, -a 


Libyaner 


Liege 


Liege 


Liege 


Luttich 


Lisbon 


Lisbonne 


Lisbona 


Lissabon 


Lisle 


Lille 


Lilla 


Lille, Ryssel 


Lithuania 


Lithuanie 


Lituania 


Lithauen 


Lithuanian 


Lithuanien, -ne 


Lituaniano, -a 


Lithauer 


Livy (Titus) 


Tite-Live 


Livio 


Livius 


Lombardy 


Lombardie 


Lombardia 


Lombardei 


Lombard 


Lombard, -e 


Lombardo, -a 


Lombarde 


London 


Londres 


Londra 


London 


Longinus 


Longin 


Longino 


Longinus 


Lorraine 


Lorraine 


Lorena 


Lothringen 


Louisa 


Louise 


Luigia 


Luise 


Louvain 


Louvain 


Lovanio 


Lowen 


Lucerne 


Lucerne 


Lucerna 


Luzern 


Lucretius 


Lucrece 


Lucrezio 


Lucretius 


Luke 


Luc 


Luca 


Lucas 


Lusatia 


Lusace 


Lusazia 


Lausitz 


Lycurgus 


Lycurgue 


Lycurgo 


Lycurg 


Lyons 


Lyon 


Lione 


Lyon 


Macedonia 


Mace"doine 


Macedonia 


Macedonien 


Macedonian 


Macedonien, -ne 


Macedone 


Macedonier, -isch 


Madeira 


Madere 


Madera 


Madera 


Madras 


Madras 


Madrasso 


Madras 


Maestricht 


Mastricht 


Mastricht 


Mastricht 


Magdalen 


Madeleine 


Madalena 


Magdalene 


Main 


Maine 


Maine 


Main 


Majorca 


Majorque 


Majorca 


Mojorca 


Malachi 


Malachie 


Malachia 


Malachias 


Malaga 


Malgue, Malaga 


Malgua, Malaga 


Malacca 


Malay 


Malais, -e 


Malese 


Malais 


Malta 


Malte 


Malta 


Malta 


Mo Itese 


Maltais, -e 


Maltese 


Malte ser 


Mantua 


Mantoue 


Mantova 


Mantua 


Marc- Antony 


Marc-Antoine 


Marc- Antonio 


Marcus Antonius 


Margaret 


Marguerite 


Margarita 


Margaretha 


Marius 


Marius 


Mario 


Marius 


Mark 


Marc 


Marco 


Marcus 


Marseilles 


Marseille 


Marsiglia 


Marseille 


Martinique 


Martinique 


Martinica 


Martinique 


Mary 


Marie 


Maria 


Marie 



PROPER NAMES. 



263 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Matthias 


Mathias 


Mattia 


Matthias 


Matthew 


Matthieu 


Viatteo 


Matthaus 


Maurice 


Maurice 


Maurizio 


Moritz 


Mauritania 


VEauritanie 


Mauritania 


Mohrenland 


Maximilian 


\! aximilien 


Massimiliano 


Maximilian 


Maximus 


Maxime 


Massimo 


Maximus 


Mede 


Mede 


Medo, -a 


Medaer 


Mediterranean 


Mediterranee 


Mediterraneo (il 


Mittellandisches 


Sea 


(la mer) 


mare) 


Meer 


Mercury 


Mercure 


Mercuric 


Merkur 


Mexico 


Mexique 


Messico 


Mexiko 


Mexican 


Mexicain, -ne 


Messicano, -a 


Mexikaner 


Michael 


Michel 


Michele 


Michael 


Milan 


Milan 


Milano 


Mailand 


Minerva 


Minerve 


Minerva 


Minerva 


Minorca 


Minorque 


Minorca 


Minorka 


Misnia 


Misnie 


Misnia 


Meissen 


Modena 


Modene 


Modena 


Modena 


Moldavia 


Moldavie 


Moldavia 


Moldau 


Monica 


Monique 


Monica 


Monica 


Mons 


Mons 


Mons 


Bergen 


Moor 


More, Maure 


Moro, -a 


Mohr 


Moravia 


Moravie 


Moravia 


Mahren 


Moravian 


Morave 


Moravo t -a 


Mdhrener 


Morea 


More"e 


Morea 


Morea 


Morocco 


Maroc 


Marocco 


Marocco 


Moscow 


Moscou 


Mosca 


Moskau 


Moscovite 


Moscooite 


Moscovito, -a 


Moskauer 


Moselle 


Moselle 


Mosella 


Mosel 


Moses 


Moi'se 


Mosfe 


Moses 


Mount Cenis 


Mont-Ce"nis 


Monte Cenisio 


Mont Cenis 


Munich 


Munich 


Munich 


Miinchen 


Naples 


Naples 


Napoli 


Neapel 


Neapolitan 


Napolttain, -ne 


Napolitano, -a 


Neapolitaner 


Narbonne 


Narbonne 


Narbona 


Narbonne 


Narcissus 


Narcisse 


Narcisso 


Narcissus 


Navarre 


Navarre 


Navarra 


Navarra 


Nehemiah 


Ne"h&me 


Neemia 


Nehemiah 


Neptune 


Neptune 


Nettuno 


Neptun 


Netherlands 


Fays Bas 


Paesi Bassi 


Niederlande 


Neuchatel 


Neuchatel 


Neuchatel 


Welschneuburg 


Nice 


Nice 


Nizza 


Nice, Nizza 


Nicholas 


Nicolas 


Nicola, Nicolo 


Nicolaua 



264 



PROPER NAMES. 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Nicias 


Nicias 


Niciade 


Nicias 


Nicodemus 


Nicodeme 


Nicodemo 


Nicodemus 


Nile 


Nil 


Nilo 


Nil 


Nineveh 


Ninive 


Ninive 


Ninive 


Normandy 


Normandie 


Normandia 


Normandie 


North Sea 


Mer du Nord 


Mare del Norte 


Nordsee 


Norway 


Norwege 


Norvegia 


Norwegen 


Norwegian 


Norwegien, -ne 


ftorvegianOy -a 


Norweger 


Nubia 


Nubie 


Nubia 


Nubien 


Nuremberg 


Nuremberg 


Nuremberg 


Niirnberg 


Octavius 


Octave 


Ottavio 


Octavius 


Olympus 


Olympe 


Olimpo 


Olympus, Olymp 


Onesimus 


One"sime 


Onesimo 


Onesimus 


Orange 


Orange 


Orange 


Oranien 


Orpheus 


Orphe"e 


Orfeo 


Orpheus 


Osnabruck 


Osnabruck 


Osnabruck 


Osnabruck 


Ostend 


Ostende 


Ostenda 


Ostende 


Ostrogoths 


Ostrogoths 


Ostrogoti 


Ostgothen 


Otho 


Otton 


Ottone 


Otto 


Ovid 


Ovide 


Ovidio 


Ovidius 


Padua 


Padoue 


Padova . 


Padua 


Palatinate 


Palatinat 


Palatinate 


Pfalz 


Palestine 


Palestine 


Palestina 


Palastina 


Pallas 


Pallas 


Pallade 


Pallas 


Palus Maeotis 


Palus-Me"otide 


Palude Meotide 


Palus Mseotis 


Paris 


Paris 


Parigi 


Paris 


Parthia 


Parthie 


Partia 


Parthenland 


Parthian 


Parthe 


Parto, -a 


Farther, -isch 


Patagonian 


Patagon, -ne 


Patagone 


Patagonianer 


Patrick 


Patrice 


Patrizio 


Patricius, Patrick 


Paul 


Paul 


Paolo 


Paulus, Paul 


Pavia 


Pavie 


Pavia % 


Pavia 


Pelagius 


Pelage 


Pelagio 


Pelagius 


Persia 


Perse 


Persia 


Persien 


Persian 


Perse, Persan 


PersianOy -a 


Perser, -isch 


Peru 


P^rou 


Peru 


Peru 


Peter 


Pierre 


Pietro 


Peter 


Petersburg 


Petersbourg 


Petersburgo 


Petersburg 


Petronius 


Petrone 


Petronio 


Petronius 


Philadelphia 


Philadelphie 


Filadelfia 


Philadelphia 


Philip 


Philippe 


Filippo 


Philipp 


Phoenicia 


Phe"nicie 


Fenicia 


Phonicien 


Phoenix 


Pheuix 


Fenice 


Phonix 



PROPER NAMES. 



265 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Phrygia 


Phrygie 


Frigia 


Phrygien 


Picardy 


Picardie 


Piccardia 


Picardie 


Pict 


Picte 


Pitto, -a 


Picte 


Piedmont 


Pidmont 


Piemonte 


Piemont 


Pius 


Pie 


Pio 


Pius 


Pluto 


Pluton 


Plutone 


Pluto 


Po 


Po 


Po 


Po 


Poitou 


Poitou 


Poitu 


Poitou 


Poland 


Pologne 


Polonia 


Polen 


Pole 


Polonais, -e 


Polonese t Po- 


Pole 






lacco, -a 




Pollux 


Pollux 


Polluce 


Pollux 


Pomerania 


Porneranie 


Pomerania 


Pommern 


Pomeranian 


Pomeranien t -ne 


Pomeraniano t -a 


Pommeraner 


Pompey 


Poinpe'e 


Pompeo 


Pompejus 


Portugal 


Portugal 


Portogallo 


Portugal 


Portuguese 


Portugais, -e 


Portoghese 


Portugiese, -isch 


Prague 


Prague 


Praga 


Prag 


Procopius 


Procope 


Procopio 


Procopius 


Prussia 


Prusse 


Prussia 


Preussen 


Prussian 


Prussien, -ne 


Prussiano, -a 


Preusse, -isch 


Pyrenees 


Pyre'ne'es 


Pirenei 


Pyrenaen 


Rachel 


Rachel 


Rachele 


Rahel 


Ragusan 


Ragusais, -e 


RaguseOy -a 


Ragusaner 


Ralph 


Raoul 


Raolo 


Rudolph 


Raphael 


Raphael 


Rafaele 


Raphael 


Ratisbon 


Ratisbonne 


Ratisbona 


Regensburg 


Rebecca 


Rebecca 


Rebeca 


Rebecca 


Red Sea 


Mer Rouge (la) 


Mar Rosso (il) 


Rothes Meer 


Remigius 


Remi 


Remigio 


Remigius 


Rhine 


Rhin 


Reno 


Rhein 


Rhodes 


Rhodes 


Rodi 


Rhodus 


Rhodian, Rho- 


Rhodien, -en ; 


liodio, -a 


Rhodiser 


diot 


Rhodiot, -e 






Rhone 


Rhone 


Rodano 


Rhone 


Rio Janeiro 


Rio-Janeiro 


Rio Gianeiro 


Rio Janeiro 


Rome 


Rome 


Roma 


Rom 


Roman 


Komain, -e 


Romand, a 


Romer, -isch 


Rosamond 


Rosamonde 


Rosamonda 


Rosamunde 


Roussillon 


Roussillon 


Rossiglione 


Roussillon 


Rupert 


Rupert 


Ruperto 


Ruprecht 


Russia 


Russie 


Russia 


Russland 


Russian 


Russe ; Russien 


RussOf -ano 


Russe, -isch 



266 



PROPER NAMES. 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Samson 


Samson 


Sansone 


Simson 


Samuel 


Samuel 


Samuele 


Samuel 


Saone 


Saone 


Saona 


Saone 


Saracen 


Sarrazin, -e 


Saracino, -a 


Sarazene 


Sardinia 


Sardaigne 


Sardegna 


Sardinien 


Sardinian 


Sarde 


Sardo, -a 


Sar dirtier, -isch 


Save 


Save 


Sava 


Sau 


Savoy 


Savoie 


Savoja 


Savoyen 


Savoyard 


Savoyard, -e 


Savtyardo, -a 


Savoyard 


Saxony 


Saxe 


Sassonia 


Sachsen 


Saxon 


Saxon, -e 


Sassone 


Sacfyse, -ische 


Scheld 


Escaut 


Escaut 


Schelde 


Scipio 


Scipion 


Scipione 


Scipio 


Sclavonia 


Esclavonie 


Schiavonia 


Sclavonien 


Sclave 


Sclave; Escla- 


Sclavone 


Sclavonier 




von, -ne 






Scotland 


Ecosse 


Scozia 


Schottland 


Scotsman, Scotch 


Ecossais, -e 


Scozzese 


Schotte, -lander, -isci 


Scythian 


Scythe 


Scito -a 


Scythianer 


Sebastian 


Se"bastien 


Sebastiano 


Sebastian 


Seine 


Seine 


Senna 


Seine 


Semiramis 


Semiramis 


Semiramide 


Semiramis 


Servia 


Servie 


Servia 


Servien 


Severus 


Se"v&re 


Severo 


Severus 


Sicily 


Sicile 


Sicilia 


Sicilien 


Sigismund 


Sigismond 


Sigismondo 


Siegmund 


Silesia 


Sile"sie 


Silesia 


Schlesien 


Silesian 


Silesian, -ne 


SUesiano, -a 


Schlesier, -isch 


Simeon 


Simeon 


Simeone 


Simeon 


Sixtus 


Sixte 


Sisto 


Sixtus 


Solomon 


Salomon 


Salomone 


Salomo 


Sophia 


Sophie 


Sofia 


Sophie 


Sound 


Sund 


Sund 


Sund 


South Sea 


Mer du Sud 


Mar del Sud 


Siidsee 


Spain 


Espagne 


Spagna 


Spanien 


Spaniard, 


Lspagnol, -e 


Spagnuolo, -a 


Spanier, -isch 


Spanish 








Spartan 


Spartiate 


Sparziate ; Spar- 


Spartaner 






tano, -a 




Spire 


Spire , 


Spire 


Speier 


Stephen 


Etienne 


Stefano 


Stephan 


Stiria 


Stirie 


Stiria 


Styrum, Stirum 


Strasburg 


Strasbourg 


Strasburg 


Strasburg 



PROPER NAMES. 



267 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Stutgard 


Stutgard 


Stutgard 


Stuttgart, -dt 


Suabia 


Souabe 


Suevia 


Schwaben 


SSitevi 


Sueves 


Soevi 


Suevi 


Sulpicius 


Sulpice 


Sulpizio 


Sulpicius 


Susanna, Susan 


Suzanne 


Susanna 


Susanna 


Sweden 


Suede 


Svezia 


Schweden 


Swede 


Suedois, -e 


Svezzese, Svedese 


Schwedc t -isch 


Switzerland 


Suisse 


Svizzeri 


Schweiz 


Swiss 


ISuisse 


Svizzero, -a 


Schweizer, -if' 


Syracuse 


Syracuse 


Siracusa 


Syrakus 


Syria 


Syrie 


Siria, Soria 


Syrien 


Syrian 


$yrien, -ne 


Siriano, -a 


Syrer, -isch 


Tagus 


Tage 


Tago 


Tagus 


Tancred 


Tancrede 


Tancredi 


Tancred 


Tarsus 


Tarse 


Tarso 


Tarsus 


Tartary 


Tartarie 


Tartaria 


Tartarei 


. Tartar 


Tartare 


Tartaro, -a 


Tartar 


Terence 


Terence 


Terenzio 


Terentius 


Thames 


Tamise 


Tamigi 


Themse 


Thebes 


Thebes 


Tebe 


Thebes, Theba 


Theobald 


Tdobald 


Teobaldo 


Theobald 


Theodore 


Theodore 


Teodoro 


Theodor 


Theophilus 


Theophile 


Teofilo 


Gottlieb 


Theresa 


Therese 


Teresa 


Therese 


Thetis 


Thetis 


Teti, Tetide 


Thetis 


Thomas 


Thomas 


Tonimaso 


Thomas 


Thrace 


Thrace 


Tracia 


Thracien 


Thracian 


Thrace 


Trace 


Thracier, -isch 


Thuringia 


Thuringe 


Turingia 


Thiiringen 


Tiber 


Tibre 


Tevere 


Tiber 


Tigris 


Tigre 


Tigre 


Tiger 


Timothy 


Timothee 


Timoteo 


Timotheus 


Tirol, Tyrol 


Tirol 


Tirolo 


Tirol, Tyrol 


Titian 


Titien 


Tiziano 


Titian 


Titus 


Tite 


Tito 


Titus 


Tobias 


Tobie 


Tobia 


Tobias 


Toledo 


Tolede 


Tolede 


Toledo 


Toulouse 


Toulouse 


Tolosa 


Toulouse 


Touraine 


Touraine 


Turrena 


Touraine 


Tournay 


Tournay 


Tournay 


Dornick 


Transylvania 


Transylvanie 


Transilvania 


Siebenbiirgen 


Trent 


Trente 


Trento 


Trident 


Treves 


Treves 


Treves 


Trier 



268 



PROPER NAMES. 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Tripoli 


Tripoli 


Tripoli 


Tripolis 


Triton 


Triton 


Tritone 


Triton 


Troy 


Troie 


Troia 


Troja 


Trojan 


Troyen, -ne 


Trojano, -a 


Trojaner, -isch 


Turin 


Turin 


Torino 


Turin, Torino 


Turkey 


Turquie 


Turchia 


Tiirkei 


Turk 


Turc, Turque 


Turco, -a 


Turk, -isch 


Tuscany 


Toscane 


Toscana 


Toscana 


Tuscan 


Toscan, -ne 


Toscano, -a 


Toscaner 


Ukraine 


Ukraine 


Ukrania 


Ukraine 


United States 


Etats-Unis 


Stati Uniti 


Staaten Vereinigte 


Urban 


Urbain 


Urbano 


Urban 


Urbino 


Urbin 


Urbino 


Urbino 


Uriah 


Urie 


Uria 


Uriah 


Usbecs 


Usbecs 


Usbecchi 


Usbecken 


Valentine 


Valentin 


Valentino 


Valentin 


Valerian 


Vale"rien 


Valeriano 


Valerian 


Vandal 


Vandale 


Vandalo, -a 


Wende, -isch 


Venice 


Venise 


Venezia 


Venedig 


Venetian 


Venitien, -ne 


Veneziano t >a 


Venetianer, 'isch 


Venus 


Venus 


Venere 


Venus 


Vertumnus 


Vertumnus 


Vertunno 


Vertumnus 


Vesuvius 


Ve*suve 


Vesuvio 


Vesuv 


Victor 


Victor 


Vittore 


Victor 


Vienna 


Vienne 


Vienna 


Wien 


Viennese 


Viennais, ~e 


Viennese 


Wiener 


Vincent 


Vincent 


Vincenzo 


Vincenz 


Virginia 


Virginie 


Virginia 


Virginia 


Virginius 


Virginia 


Virginio 


Virginius 


Vistula 


Vistule 


Vistula 


Weichsel 


Volhinia] 


Volhinie 


Volinia 


Volhynien 


Vulcan 


Vulcain 


Vulcano 


Vulcan 


Wales 


Galles 


Galles 


Wales 


Wallachia 


Valachie 


Valacchia 


Wallachei 


Warsaw 


Varsovie 


Varsovia 


Warschau 


Wenceslaus 


Venceslas 


Venceslao 


Wenzel 


West Indies 


Indes Occiden- 


Indie Occiden- 


Westindien 




tales 


tali 




Westphalia 


Westphalie 


Westfalia 


Westphalen 


William 


Guillaume 


Guglielmo 


Wilhelm 


Xavier 


Xavier 


Saverio, Zaverio 


Xavier 


Xenophon 


Xenophon 


Zenofonte 


Xenophon 


Xerxes 


Xerces 


Serse 


Xerxes 



PROPER NAMES. 



269 



ENGLISH. 


FRENCH. 


ITALIAN. 


GERMAN. 


Ypres 


Ypres 


Ypres 


Ypern 


Zaccheus 


Zache'e Zacheo 


Zachaus 


Zachariah 


Zaccharie 


Zaccaria 


Zachariaa 


Zeeland 


Zelande 


Zelanda 


Seeland 


Zembla 


Zemble 


Zembla 


Zembla 


Zeno 


Ze"non 


Zenone 


Zeno 


I Zenobia 


Ze'nobie 


Zenobia 


Zenobia 


Zurich 


Zurich 


Zurigo 


Zurich 


Zutphen 


Zutphen 


Zutfen 


Zutphen 


Zuyder Sea 


Zuiderzee 


Zuiderzee 


Zuidersee 






END OF THE FIRST PABT. 



London: Printed by Adams & Gee, 23, Middle-street, West Smithficld, 



PAET II. 



t Umiia 0f 



GUIDE TO TYPOGEAPHY, 

IN TWO PAETS, 
LITEEAEY AND PEACTICAL; 

OE, 

Ruhr's ganbhok 



AND THE 



COMPOSITOR'S VADE-MECUM. 



BY HE1STEY BEADNELL, 

P E I N T E K. 



PART II. PRACTICAL. 



LOKDON: 
F. BOWEBItfG, 211, BLACKFEIARS EOAD; 

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 



PHINTED BY ADAMS AND GEE, MIDDLE 8TREKT, 
WEST SMITH 1'IELD, E.C. 



EISIKG GENEBATION OF PBINTERS 



ON THE LITERATURE AND PRACTICE OF THE NOBLE ART TO 
WHICH THEY HAVE DEVOTED THEMSELVES, 

IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, 

BY THEIR SINCERE WELL-WISHER, 

THE AUTHOR 



PREFACE. 



WITH the conclusion of this Second Part, the author 
has worked out the design set forth in his original pro- 
gramme ; and if quantity alone be taken as the test of hig 
labors, it will be found that he has somewhat exceeded 
the prescribed limits: nevertheless he hopes that the 
quality of the additional matter will, in some measure, 
justify the increase of bulk, and the consequent extra 
demand upon the patience and the pockets of his sub- 
scribers. 

It has been his aim, in this division of his work, to 
render to the young compositor, in the daily prosecution of 
his calling, all the assistance in his power, so far as it can 
be given in books ; but yet to say nothing which may not, 
directly or indirectly, be of practical utility. By adopt- 
ing this method, the author has been enabled, on the one 
hand, to avoid the cumbersome bulk and the tedious 
minuteness which* distinguish the productions of many 
writers on this subject, and on the other, to escape the 
charge of meagerness and jejuneness to which mere hand- 
books and abridgements are generally obnoxious. For if 
a comparison be instituted between this Part and the simi- 
lar writings of others, he ventures to think that it will be 
found to contain all that is really useful to the compositor, 
to be met with in the most voluminous of them, with the 
addition of some things not elsewhere treated of. 



VI PREFACE. 

To render the work still more deserving of general 
support, it is the author's intention at some future period, 
to publish a supplementary volume, which he designs to 
call t The Mechanics of Typography,' in which will be 
included press and machine work, and the other depart- 
ments of the printer's business not handled in the Parts 
already published. 

He cannot, however, close these few remarks without 
returning his thanks to the editors of those journals, both 
in this country and America, who have favorably noticed 
his exertions, and also to those who have taken the 
trouble to point out their defects or their deficiencies ; 
for he hopes thereby to be stimulated in his endeavors to 
render future editions, should such be called for, still more 
worthy of public approbation. 



PILGRIM STREET, KENNINGTON, 
Aug. 20, 1861. 



CONTENTS. 

INTRODUCTION. 

SKETCH OP THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

PAGE 

Typography of some sort of very ancient origin 

The Chinese the first Printers . . . . . . 4 

Movable Types invented by the Germans , . . 6 

The claims of Haerlem and Mentz discussed .. ., 7 

Introduced into England by Caxton . . . . . . 11 

Other claimants to that honor . . . . . . 13 

The successors of Caxton . ,. .. .. 24 

The Dutch great Type-founders .. .. .. 25 

Stereotype invented by Ged . , . . . . , . . 26 

Printing-presses .. .. .. .. .. 27 



CHAPTER I. 

PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS NAMES AND SIZES 
OF TYPE, ETC. 

Various sizes of Type, with specimens .. .. .. 29 

Relative sizes of Type . . . . , , . . 34 

Ornamental Types, with specimens . . . . . 36 



Vlll CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER II. 

DISTRIBUTING AND COMPOSING, AND THEIR ALLIED 
OPERATIONS. 

PAGE 

The Education of the Young Printer . . . . . . 39 

Plan of a Pair of Cases . . . . . . . . 41 

Hints to the Tyro, as to his position on Picking up type, 

Spacing, Justification, &c. .. .. , , .. 42 

Companionships, Clickerships, &c, .. .. .. 45 

Compositors' Check-book ., .. .. .. 54 

News-work .... 57 



CHAPTER III. 

IMPOSING, MAKING UP FURNITURE, ETC. 

Method of Imposing Folio . . . . . . . . 65 

Quarto .. .. ,. .. 68 

,, Octavo .. .. .. 71 

,, Twelves .. .. .. .. 75 

,, Sixteens.. ,. .. .. 81 

,, Eighteens .. .. .. .. 83 

,, Twenties .. ,. .. 90 

,, Twentyfours .. .. .. 91 

Thirtytwos .. .. .. 97 

,, Thirtysixes .. .. .. 101 

,, Forties and Fortyeights .. 104 

Sixty fours .. .. .. ..107 

,, Seventytwos .. .. .. 109 

Miscellaneous Observations .. .. .. ,.110 

Table of Furniture for Ordinary Bookwork ., .. 112 



CONTENTS. IX 

CHAPTER IV. 

COMPOSITORS' SCALE OF PRICES. 

PAGB 

Preliminary Observations .. .. .. .. 114 

Works in the English Language .. .. .. 117 

Dictionaries, Grammars, &c. .. .. .. .. 119 

Pamphlets, Sixteens and smaller sizes .. .. 120 

Bottom Notes .. .. .. .. ,, ..121 

Side Notes .. .. .. .. .. 123 

Greek, Hebrew, &c. .. .. .. ..124 

Index Matter, Booksellers' Catalogues . . . . 124 

Night-work, Jobs, Auctioneers' Catalogues, &c. .. .. 125 

Broadsides, &c. .. .. .. ,. .. 126 

Reprints .. .. .. ., .. ..127 

Appeal Cases, Column Matter . . . . . . 128 

Tabular and Table Work .. ,. ,, ..129 

Wrappers .. .. .. .. .. 130 

Miscellaneous .. .. .. .. .. 131 

Abstract of Scale .. .. .. .. .. 134 

Appendix to Scale News-work .. .. .. 135 

,, Parliamentary Work . . . . 139 

Periodical Publications . . . . . . . . 141 

Country Prices .. .. .. .. 143 

Table of Prices of Letters from 10,000 to 50,000 . . . . 146 

Table of Number of Lines per Hour. . . . . . 148 

Lines per Thousand . . . . . . . , 150 



CHAPTER V. 

PLANS OP CASES IN VARIOUS ALPHABETS, WITH REMARKS 
THEREON. 

Poulter's Combined Case .. .. .. -. 152 

Foreign Alphabets, &c. .. .. .. .. 156 



X CONTENTS. 

PAG* 

The Saxon Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . 156 

The Greek Alphabet .. .. .. .. 157 

Pair of Greek Cases . . . . . . . . . . 162 

The Hebrew Alphabet .. .. .. .. 164 

Hebrew Cases . . . . . . . . . . , . 169 

The Syriac Alphabet . . . . . . . . 172 

The Persi- Arabic Alphabet .. .. .. ..177 

Arabic Cases .. .. .. .. .. 182 

The Devanagari Alphabet .. .. .. .. 184 

The German Alphabet . . . . . . . . 190 

Musical Characters . . . . . . , . . . 193 

Pair of Music Cases .. ., .. 196 



CHAPTER VI. 

JOBBING OE DISPLAYED WORK. 

Preliminary Remarks .. .. .. .. .. 198 

Broadsides .. .. .. .. .. 199 

Particulars of Estates .. .. ,. .. .. 200 

Auctioneers' Catalogues .. .. .. .. 200 

Circulars . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 

Handbills .. .. .. .. .. 201 

Cards, their various sizes . . , . . . . . 202 

Furniture.. .. .. .. fc . .. 202 

Sizes of Writing and Printing Paper . . . . . . 203 



CHAPTER VII. 

LAW WORK AND LAW BOOKS. 

Preliminary General Observations . . . . .. 204 

Abbreviations used in Law Books 206 



CONTENTS. XL 

CHAPTER VIII. 

PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

PAGE 

Bastard Founts .. .. ,. ..219 

Bill of Letters .. .. ., .. 221 

Breaks .. .. .. .. ..222 

Cancels .. .. .. .. .. -. 223 

Casting off Copy .. .. .. 223 

Head-lines to Chapters, &c. .. . .. 227 

Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 

Making Measure .. .. .. .. .. 228 

Margin - .. .. .. . . .. .. 229 

Notes , 229 

Pages, their proper length .. .. ., 231 

Preliminary Matter .. .. .. .. 232 

Proofs 233 

Quoted Matter .. .. .. ,. .. 234 

Rule-work .. .. .. .. .. ,.235 

Rules to be observed by Compositors . , 237 

Signatures . . . , . . . . . . . , 240 

White Lines .. .. .. .. ,. 241 

Poetry .. .. .. .. .. .. 241 



CHAPTER IX. 

SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER TO PART I. 

Latin, Greek, and other Foreign Nouns in common use, 

with their Plurals .. .. .. .. ..242 

On the Changes which some Letters undergo in English 

Words derived from the Greek and Latin . . 246 

* Shall and will' .. .. .. .. .. 249 

Words ending in ' in ' or ' ine ' . . . , . . 249 



Til CONTENTS. 

PACK 

Abbreviations used in Chemical Works .. .. .. 251 

Collective Nouns . 252 



CHAPTER X. 

ABSTRACTS OF THE ACTS OF PARLIAMENT WHICH RELATE 
TO PRINTERS. 

13 Geo. II, cap. 19, relating to horse-races .. .. 255 

25 Geo. II, cap. 36, advertising with < No questions asked " 255 

39 Geo. Ill, cap. 79, Press and Types to be registered . . 255 
,, Name and Abode of Printer to be 

affixed to the first and last leaf of every book, &c. . . 256 
39 Geo. Ill, cap. 79, A copy of everything printed to be 

kept, and the name, &c. of the employer written thereon 257 
39 Geo. Ill, cap. 79, Form of Notice to be given to the 

Clerk of the Peace 257 

51 Geo. Ill, Appeal lies to the Quarter Sessions ., 258 

60 Geo. Ill, cap. 9, Definition of Newspapers .. .. 259 

,, Printers of Newspapers to give bond 260 
Actions for penalties to be commenced 

by the Attorney-General 261 

Additional observations .. .. 261 



INDEX 263 



INTRODUCTION. 



A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

STRICTLY speaking, and according to the literal inter- 
pretation of the word, Typography, or the art of trans- 
ferring, by pressure, some design from one body to another, 
has been practised from the most remote antiquity, in all 
ages and by all peoples, in however primitive a state of 
society they may have lived, and may, therefore, confi- 
dently be asserted to have been an invention of the very 
earliest times. 

Of this fact we have authentic and indubitable evi- 
dence ; for, in that most ancient and most authoritative 
of all books, the Bible, so soon as the time of Moses, we 
find the Israelites (Lev. xix, 28) prohibited from printing 
or stamping any marks upon their persons ; which is of 
itself sufficient proof that the practice was at that time 
extremely common, and had been generally used ages 
before. 

The early Egyptians, moreover, and also the Babylo- 
nians, were in the habit of stamping inscriptions on their 
bricks, many of which remain to the present day ; ex- 
amples of them being to be seen by the curious in the 
British Museum and other places. The art of stamping 
or printing from seals (which is also, according to the 
definition of the word given above, pure Typography) is 

6 2 



4 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

mentioned in history so early as the thirtyeighth chapter 
of Genesis, where we read that Judah, one of the sons x of 
Jacob, gave his seal or signet in pledge to Tamar ; and it 
is recorded of Jezabel, the wife of Ahab, that "she wrote 
letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with his seal, 
and sent the letters unto the elders and to the nobles in 
his city, dwelling with Naboth," whose vineyard Ahab 
coveted, but could not obtain. That the Eastern nations, 
as well as the early Greeks and Romans, used seals as 
authoritative evidence of the genuineness of the docu- 
ments on which the symbols they contained were impressed, 
is vouched for by the most remote historical evidence, as 
well as by some of the seals themselves, which are in 
existence to this day, both in Europe and in Asia, 

The art of stamping money with some effigy was 
another step in Typography, introduced at a very early 
period. Herodotus (Clio, i, 94*) assigns the invention to 
the Lydian.s, nearly a thousand years before the birth of 
Christ; and the Hindoos had a coin which they declared 
to be no less than 4,000 years old, and which is now in 
the Museum of the East-India House. 

But the first step in the discovery of the art of what 
is now generally considered Typography, or word-print- 
ing, that is, the transference of letters or words from one 
body to another, by the means of some viscid liquid or ink 
distributed over the surface of the type, and pressed upon, 
not into, another body, is undoubtedly to be assigned to 
the Chinese, and probably took place somewhere about 
the tenth century of our era. The invention of this all- 
important step in the art is, by the Chinese themselves, 
awarded to a learned mandarin, named Foong-taon. 
His method of proceeding was as follows : " He placed a 



* His words are : AuSol Trp&roi Se avOpwircav rav 
vofit pa xpvrrov Kal apjvpov /cotl/cfyiei'oi expycravro. The Lydians 
were the first people, as far as known to us, who used stamped 
gold and silver money. 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 5 

page of writing, while it was wet, upon the face of a 
smooth piece of wood. The writing made a mark on the 
wood, just as a letter does when it is turned down upon a 
sheet of blotting-paper. A copy of the writing was, in 
other words, impressed on, or transferred to, the wood. 
Then all that part of the surface of the wood not touched 
by the writing, that part between and around the 
strokes of tlie characters, was cut away with a chisel or 
graver ; so that the wood was converted into an engraved 
tablet ; with this difference, that in an engraving the 
letters are cut into the face of the material, like the in- 
scription on a tombstone, while, in this kind of printing, 
the face itself was cut away, leaving the letters standing 
out, like the raised letters we see on a shop-front. The 
letters thus formed by Foong-taon were wetted with some 
kind of ink ; paper was then pressed upon them, and an 
inken copy of the letters was thereby transferred to the 
paper. This was really and truly the art of printing." 
And to this practice of block-printing the Chinese adhere 
to the present day; being in some measure cons :-amed 
thereto by the nature of their language, which does not 
possess any alphabet, according to our notion of the term^ 
but is completely logographic, or word-formed, and would 
consequently necessitate the use of an immense number of 
separate types, were they used singly. 

It was not until the time of Marco Polo, the celebrated 
Venetian traveller, about the middle of the thirteenth 
century, that Europe became practically acquainted with 
China, its arts or its sciences, nor, consequently, with the 
discovery of printing : till that time China was known but 
in name, as no European had ever before set foot in the 
empire. Nevertheless, shortly after this period, printing 
from wooden blocks began to be practised even in the 
West ; the first to exercise the art being the two Cunios, 
relatives of Pope Honorius IV, who resided at Kavenna, 
on the borders of the Gulf of Venice. Playing-cards, 



6 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

supposed by some to have been invented to amuse the 
unfortunate Charles VI, were also printed from blocks, 
about 1350, in exactly the same way as the Chinese print, 
that is, with a brush; as also were little books. subse- 
quently ; some of which are still in existence. 

The introduction of movable types, however, consti- 
tutes the most important step in the progress of the art 
as now practised ; and to this our observations will be 
confined. But, from the uncertainty in which the inven- 
tion is involved (the earliest printers concealing as much 
as possible their knowledge of the art, and passing otf the 
productions of their presses as genuine manuscripts), it 
was long a disputed point, and is so still, whether Mentz 
or Haerlem could claim the honor of being the seat 
where the noble art was first practised ; both places finding 
advocates, who asserted the claims of their favorite city 
with the utmost vehemence and confidence. The learned 
Dr. Willis delivers his opinion in the following concise 
manner : -" About the year 1450 the art of printing was 
invented and practised in Germany, but whether first at 
Mentz or Haerlem, is not determined ; for it appears, 
upon an impartial inquiry, that those who had it in con- 
sideration before it was brought to perfection, disagreeing 
among themselves, separated company, and some of them 
at Haerlem, and others at Mentz, pursued the practice of 
their former employ, at one and the same time." 

This is probably a tolerably correct statement of the 
case, with which I should be inclined, in a practical work 
of this nature, to remain satisfied ; although, after reading 
all the arguments, on both sides, which have come under 
my cognizance, my own opinion decidedly tends to award 
the palm to the latter city. Nevertheless, as some of my 
younger readers may desire to know a little more on the 
subject, I will submit for their inspection a short outline 
of the matter, as given by those favorable to the claims 
of Haerlem. 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 7 

The city of Haerlem, in the north of Holland, it is 
said, was a flourishing place even as early as the twelfth 
century. The streets were adorned with groves of trees 
by the liberal public spirit of its rich merchants ; and for 
these, as well as for the culture of flowers, it had been 
long famous. Amongst the inhabitants of Haerlem in 
the year 1424, was one Laurence Zanssen. He was church- 
warden, treasurer, and sexton of the parish church of 
St. Bavon ; and for that reason assumed the surname of 
Coster, that is, sexton. He lived in a large house oppo- 
site the royal palace : it is now the Town Hall, and, 
owing to its association with Coster's name, is one of the 
show-places of the city at the present day. Coster was in 
the habit of walking in the groves which adorned the 
neighbourhood of the city, and, to amuse his grand- 
children, hit upon the plan of cutting some letters from 
the bark of the beech-tree in a reversed position, and, 
daubing them with some kind of color, thus printed their 
names. The thought immediately occurred to him, that 
this could be carried to any extent ; and hence, in conjunc- 
tion with his son-in-law, Thomas Peter, this simple 
amusement led to the formation of movable wooden types, 
and to the printing of a book with them ; although, as 
must be evident to the reader, this was a work of infinite 
trouble. Their first production contained the letters of 
the alphabet, the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, and three 
short prayers. A copy of this book, on parchment, printed 
on one side only, but with the leaves pasted together, is 
said to be still in existence, and is thought to have been 
completed about the year 1439. 

Finding that wooden letters were not hard enough to 
resist the pressure used in printing, Coster is reported, 
afterwards, to have invented lead, and next pewter types ; 
and as the demand for his productions increased rapidly, 
he found it necessary to increase the number of his work- 
men, to whom he administered an oath, binding them 



8 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

not to divulge the secret of his art. But one of these, 
asserted to have been John Guttemberg, a native of 
Mentz, was not able to resist the allurements of the 
great profit which would accrue to himself, were he to 
commence business on his own account. On the Christmas- 
eve, therefore, of 1439, he seized the opportunity of Coster's 
absence at church, to purloin a quantity of his master's 
type, and to flee no one knew whither. He eventually, 
however, turned up at Amsterdam ; from thence removed 
to Cologne; and finally settled at Mentz, or Mayence, 
where he immediately commenced operations as a printer. 
His first productions were a grammar, then in high repute, 
entitled ' Alexandri Galli Doctrinale,' and the ' Tractatus 
Logicus' of Petrus Hispanus. His younger brother, also 
called John (the elder being distinguished by the appella- 
tion of Geinsfleisch) went to Strasburg, and there entered 
into an agreement with some of its citizens to disclose to 
them the important secret ; but as he had never acquired 
a knowledge of the art, his promises turned out abortive, 
and the scheme came to nothing. 

His elder brother, however, with the assistance of a 
wealthy goldsmith, named John Faust, continued the 
successful practice of the art at Mentz ; the first book that 
they printed with metal types being the Bible, commonly 
known as the Mazarine Bible : it consisted of 637 leaves, 
with two columns of print on each page, and occupied 
seven years in its production; being printed on vellum, 
and on one side only. 

In 1450, the elder Guttemberg ceased to be the partner 
of Faust, who, in the following year, joined the younger 
brother ; but, disputes arising between them, this partner- 
ship also ceased in 1455, when the business was conducted 
by Faust alone. Shortly after this period, a workman of 
Faust's, called Peter Schoeffer, succeeded in the art of 
casting metal types, which had been previously cut on 
solid pieces of metal. By this process, the manufacture 
of types became more easy, the cost less, and their 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 9 

uniformity and regularity much improved. For this 
essential piece of service, Schoeffer was rewarded with 
the hand of his master's daughter. The first book printed 
with this kind of type was the 'Rationale Divinorum 
Officiorum,' in 1459. 

After the younger Guttemberg parted from Faust, he 
was enabled, through the assistance of Conrad Humery, 
syndic of Mentz, to recommence business. Among other 
works, he printed the ' Catholicon,' in which lie ascribed 
the honor of the invention of printing to the city of 
Mentz ; an honor before claimed both by Faust and 
Schoeffer. 

In order to dispose of an edition of the Bible to which 
we before alluded, Faust proceeded to Paris, and sold one 
copy to the king for 750 crowns, and another to the arch- 
bishop of Paris for 300 ; and others, at inferior prices, 
to people less eminent ; not, be it remarked, as printed 
books (for this, as previously observed, the printers care- 
fully concealed), but as manuscripts. But the exact simi- 
larity of each copy, and the rapidity with which they 
were produced, are said to have led to the apprehension 
of Faust as a magician, and as one having dealings with 
the devil : he was consequently arrested and imprisoned, 
when, to save himself from death, he revealed his secret, 
and was set at liberty ; but died soon after, probably in 
Paris, of the plague, which was raging there at that time. 

The elder Guttemberg died in 1462,* and the younger 

* There is at Mentz, on the front of the house wherein Guttem- 
berg lived, the following inscription, which was put up in the year 
1507 or 1508 : 

JOANNI GUTTEMBERGENSI 

MOGUNTINO, 
QUI PRIMUS OMNIUM LITERAS JERE 

IMPRIMENDAS INVENIT, 
HAG ARTE DE ORBE TOTO BENE MERENTI, 

YVO VINTIGENSIS 

HOC SAXUM PRO MONUMENTO POSUIT. 



10 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

in 1468 ; but the art continued to be practised at Mentz 
by Schoeffer, in conjunction with a kinsman of Faust and 
Conrad Humery. 

To the earlier part of this account it is objected by the 
advocates of Mentz, 1. That it is only sustained by hearsay 
evidence, first broached by the historian Junius, about a 
hundred and twenty years after the supposed invention 
of the art by Coster ; 2. That the account of the process 
of the discovery is improbable, if not absurd : for the bark 
of the beech-tree is not at all adapted to the purpose of 
forming letters; 3. That there is no evidence of the 
results of the Haerlem press for twenty years after its 
supposed establishment; 4. That there is no proof of 
any rivalry having, existed between the press of Haerlem 
and that of Mentz, as there would have been had Mentz 
become possessed of the art in the clandestine way repre- 
sented by Junius ; 5. That no productions of this press 
are extant, neither does any contemporary historian make 
any mention thereof. 

These, and other objections, are urged, with consi- 
derable force, by the partisans of Mentz ; but as it does 
not enter into my plan to pursue the matter at any length, 
and to weigh the arguments on 'both sides of the question 
in detail, I shall here leave it, content with the expression 
of my opinion already given, and with having indicated 
the antagonism which exists ; but should any of my readers 

And, on his death (or his brother's), the following monument was 
placed near his tomb, in the church of the Recollects, in that 
city : 

D.O.M. S. 
JOHANNI GEINSFLEISCH, 

ARTI8 IMPRESSORIJE REPERTORI, 

DB OMNI NATIONB ET LINGUA OPTIME MERITO, 

IN NOMINIS SUI MEMORIAM IMMORTALEM, 

ADAM GELTHUS POSUIT. 

And, in 1887, a statue to Guttemberg, by Thorwaldsen, was inau- 
gurated at Meutz with much splendor. 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 11 

feel disposed to investigate the matter at greater length, 
they will find abundant occupation for their leisure hours, 
in weighing the conflicting accounts of the hundred and 
thirty writers who have given this subject the benefit of 
their lucubrations. 

However, when the secret was once divulged, a know- 
ledge of the art of printing from cast metal types spread 
with wonderful rapidity. It soon found its way to Italy, 
and was practised at Subiaco, in the Roman states, as 
early as 1465 ; in England, at Oxford, in 1468 (1) ; in 
France, at Paris, in 1469 ; in Spain, at Barcelona, in 1475 : 
in the year 1490 it also reached Turkey, and penetrated 
into Eussia in 1560. The shape of the types was also 
changed from Gothic or German to semi-Gothic, a kind of 
Roman letter, first used in Rome in 1467 ; and three years 
afterwards, Jenson of Venice cut the first Roman type in 
the shape we have it to this day. Aldus of Venice invented 
Italic letters in 1488, and the productions of the Aldine 
press soon became famous. Greek types were cast at 
Mentz in 1465, and Hebrew ones in 1482; and not many 
years after, the Vatican and Paris printers introduced the 
Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Armenian, and Coptic or Egyptian 
characters. Aldus printed the works of nearly all the 
Greek authors, with Greek types of singular beauty. But 
although the art thus spread so rapidly, it met with a 
great deal of opposition from the copyists, whose occupa- 
tion, it was at once seen, it would ultimately destroy. 
Nevertheless, as is the case with all real improvements, 
it continued to spread wider and wider, and the benefits 
thereof became day by day more and more appreciated. 

It is supposed by some, that the art of printing was 
practised in the University of Oxford before the time of * 
Caxton, who is generally regarded as the first English 
printer : for a book, containing forty pages, and entitled 
1 Expositio Sancti leronimi in Simbolum Apostolorum, ad 



12 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

Papam Laurent ium,' has been found in the University of 
Cambridge, and at the end of it is a statement that the 
printing of it was completed at Oxford, on the 17th of 
December, 1468 ; and, consequently, some years before 
Caxton commenced the practice of the art. It is printed 
in the German type, very similar to that used by Faust 
and Guttemberg, while Caxton employed in his first books 
a different style of letter. 

The arguments on both sides of the question, as well 
as on the discovery of the art of printing itself, I will 
here condense from the learned Dr. Conyers Middleton's 
account of the matter : 

It was, he says, the concurrent opinion of our histo- 
rians, that the art of printing was introduced and first 
practised in England by William Caxton, a mercer and 
citizen of London, who, by his travels abroad, and a resi- 
dence of many years in Holland, Flanders, and Germany, 
in the affairs of trade, had an opportunity of informing 
himself of the whole method and process of the art ; and 
by the encouragement of the great, and particularly of 
the abbot of Westminster, first set up a press in that 
abbey, and began to print books soon after the year 1471. 

This was the tradition of all our writers, until the book 
alluded to above, which had scarce been observed before 
the Eestoration, was then taken notice of by the curious, 
and was immediately considered, by many, a clear proof 
and monument of the exercise of the art of printing in 
England several years before Caxton began to practise it. 

The only difficulty was, to account for the silence 
of history on an event so memorable, and the want 
of any memorial in the university itself, concerning 
the establishment of a new art amongst them, of such 
k use and benefit to learning. But this likewise has 
been supposed to be cleared up by the discovery of a 
record, which had lain obscure and unknown at Lambeth 
House, in the register of the see of Canterbury, which gives 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 13 

a narrative of the whole transaction, drawn up at the very 
time. 

An account of this record was first published in a 
thin quarto volume, in English, with this title : ' The 
Original Growth of Printing, collected out of History and 
the Records of this Kingdom : wherein is also demon- 
strated, that Printing appertaineth to the Prerogative 
Royal, and is a Flower of the Crown of England. By 
Richard Atkyn.s, Esq., London, 1664.' 

It sets forth, in short, that as soon as the art of print- 
ing made some noise in Europe, Thomas Bourchier, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, moved King Henry YI to use all 
possible means to procure it to be brought into England : 
the king approving the proposal, dispatched one Mr. 
Robert Tumour, an officer of the robes, into Flanders, 
with money for the purpose, who took to his assistance 
William Caxton, a man of abilities, and knowledge of 
the country ; and these two found means to bribe and 
entice over into England one Frederick Corsellis, an under- 
workman in the printing-house at Haerlem, where John 
Guttemberg had lately invented the art, and was then 
personally at work ; which Corsellis was immediately sent 
down to Oxford under a guard, to prevent his escape, and 
to oblige him to the performance of his contract ; where 
he produced the book before mentioned, but without any 
name of the printer. 

From the authority of this record, some later writers 
namely, Mr. Wood, the learned Mr. Mattaire, Palmer, and 
Bagford, who published proposals for a History of Print- 
ing declare Corsellis to have been the first printer in 
England. But it is strange that a piece so fabulous, and 
carrying such evident marks of forgery, could impose upon 
men so well-informed and sagacious. 

For, first, the asserted fact does not correspond with 
the condition of the times, towards the close of the reign 
of the sixth Henry, in the very heat of the civil wars, 



14 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

when it is not credible that a prince, struggling for life as 
well as his crown, could have leisure or disposition to 
attend to a project that could hardly be thought of, much 
less executed, in times of such calamity. The printer, it 
is said, was graciously received by the king, made one of 
his sworn servants, and sent down to Oxford with a 
guard, &c. ; all which must have passed before the year 
1459 ; for Edward IV was proclaimed in London before 
the end of it, and crowned about the midsummer follow- 
ing ; and yet we have no fruit of all this labor and 
expense till ten years after, when the little book before 
described, is supposed to have been published from that 
press. 

Secondly : the silence of Caxton concerning a fact in 
which he is said to have been a principal actor, is a suffi- 
cient confutation of it ; for it was a constant custom with 
him, in the prefaces or conclusions of all his works, to 
give an historical account of all his labors and trans- 
actions, as far as they concerned the publishing and print- 
ing of books. And what is still stronger, in the Conti- 
nuation of the ( Polychronicon,' compiled by himself, and 
carried down to the end of the reign of Henry VI, he 
makes no mention of the expedition in quest of a printer, 
which he could not well have omitted, had it been true ; 
whilst, in the same book, he takes notice of the invention 
and beginning of printing in the city of Mentz. 

There is a further circumstance in Caxton's history 
that seems inconsistent with the record ; for we find him 
still beyond sea, about twelve years after the supposed 
transaction, learning with great charge and trouble the 
art of printing, which he might have done with ease at 
home, if he had got Corsellis into his hands, as the record 
imports, so many years before ; but he probably learnt it 
at Cologne, where he resided in 1471, and where books 
had been first printed with a date the year before. 

To the silence of Caxton, we may add that of the 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 15 

Dutch writers : for it is very strange, as Mr. Ohevillier 
observes, if the story of the record be true, that Adrian 
Junius, who has collected all the groundless ones that 
favor the pretensions of Haerlem, should never have heard 
of it. 

But, thirdly, the most internal and direct proof of its 
forgery, is its ascribing the origin of printing to Haerlem, 
where John Guttemberg, the inventor, is said to have been 
personally at work, when Corsellis was brought away, 
and the art itself to have been first carried to Mentz by a 
brother of one of Guttemberg's workmen : for it is certain, 
says the learned doctor, that printing was invented and 
propagated from Mentz. Caxton's testimony seems alone 
decisive, who, in the Continuation of the ' Polychronicon,' 
says, " About this time [viz. 1455] the crafte of emprynting 
was first found in Mogounce in Almayne." Now Caxton 
was in Germany at the very time when the first rude 
essays in printing were attempted; and there he continued 
for thirty years, viz , from 1441 to 1471 ; and as he was 
particularly curious and inquisitive after this new art, of 
which he was endeavoring to get perfect information, he 
could hardly be ignorant of the place where it was first 
exercised. 

Besides the evidence of Caxton, we have another con- 
temporary authority, from the ( Black Book, or Kegister 
of the Garter/ published by Mr. Anstis, where, in the 
thirty fifth year of Henry VI, anno 1457, it is said, " In 
this year of our most pious King, the art of printing books 
first began at Mentz, a famous city of Germany." 

Fabian also, the writer of the Chronicle, an author of 
good credit, who lived at the same tim,e with Caxton, 
though some years younger, says, " This yere [viz. 35th of 
Henry VI], after the opynyon of dyverse wryters, began 
in a Citie of Almaine, namyd Mogunce, the Crafte of 
empryntynge Bokys, which sen that tyme hath had won- 
derful en crease." 



16 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

We need not pursue this question any further, the 
testimonies commonly alleged on it, may be seen in 
Mattaire, Palmer, &c. ; and shall only observe, that we 
have full and authentic evidence for the cause of Mentz, 
in an edition of Livy from that place, dated 1518, by John 
Schoeffer, the son of Peter, the partner and son-in-law of 
John Faust ; where the patent of privilege granted by the 
emperor to the printer, the prefatory epistle of Erasmus, 
the epistle dedicatory to the prince by Ulrich Hutten, the 
epistle to the reader, of the two learned men who had the 
care of the edition, all concur in asserting the origin of 
the art to that city, and the invention and first exercise of 
it to Faust ; and Erasmus particularly, who was a Dutch- 
man, would not have decided against his own country, 
had there been any ground for the claim of Haerlem. 

But to return to the Lambeth record : as it was never 
heard of before the publication of Atkyns's book, so it has 
never since been seen or produced by any man, though 
the registers of Canterbury have on many occasions been 
diligently and particularly searched for it. They were 
examined, without doubt, very carefully by Archbishop 
Parker, for the compiling of his 'Antiquities of the British 
Church;' where, in the life of Thomas Bourchier, though 
lie congratulates that age on the noble and useful inven- 
tion of printing, yet is silent as to the introduction of it 
into England by the endeavors of that archbishop ; nay, 
Las given the honor of the invention to Strasburg ; which 
clearly shows that he knew nothing of the story of Corsellis 
being conveyed from Haerlem, and that the record was not 
in being in his time. Palmer himself owns that it was not to 
be found there when he wrote ; neither has any subsequent 
investigation succeeded in bringing it to the light of day. 
On these grounds, we may pronounce the record to be a 
forgery, notwithstanding what may have been asserted at 
various times in favor of its authenticity. 

But, although we have thus got clear of the record, the 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 17 

book itself, nevertheless, stands firm, as a monument of 
the exercise of printing in Oxford, six years before the 
date of any book printed by Caxton. This fact is strong, 
and, in ordinary cases, would be regarded as certain 
evidence of the age of a book ; but in this particular case, 
there are such contrary facts to balance it, and such 
circumstances to turn the scale, that, to speak freely, 
warrants us in coming to the conclusion that the date has 
been falsified by the printer, either by design or through 
mistake, and that an x has been dropped or omitted in 
the date of the impression of the book. 

Examples of the kind are quite common in the course 
of printing. It has been observed that several dates have 
been altered very artfully after publication, to give them 
the credit of greater antiquity. They have at Haerlem, 
in large quarto, a translation into Dutch of Bartholomseus 
*De Proprietatibus Kerum,' printed in M.CCCC.XXXV, by 
Jacob Bellart. This they show to confirm their claim 
to the earliest printing, and deceive the unskilful. But 
Mr. Bagford, who had seen another copy with a true date, 
discovered the cheat ; by which the L had been erased 
so cunningly, that it was not easy to perceive it. But 
besides the frauds of an after- contrivance, there are many 
false dates originally given by the printers ; partly by 
design, to raise the value of their works, but chiefly by 
negligence and blunder. There is a Bible at Augsburg, 
dated 1449, where the two last figures a,re transposed, 
and should stand thus, 1494. Chevillier mentions three 
more: one at Paris, of 1443; another at Lyons, 1446; a 
third at Basle, 1450 ; though printing was not used in any 
of these places till many years after. Orlandi describes 
three books with the like mistakes from Mentz ; .and 
J. Koelhoff, who first printed about the year 1470, at 
Cologne, has dated one of his books ann > M.CCCC. ; that is, 
with a c omitted ; and another, anno 1458, which Palmer 
imputes to design rattier than mistake. 
c 



18 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

But what makes most for our argument, is a book 
from the famous printer Nicholas Jenson, of which Mr. 
Mattaire gave the first notice, called f Decor Puellarum,* 
printed in the year M.CCCC.LXI. All the other works of 
Jenson were published at Venice between 1470 and 1480, 
which justly raised a suspicion that an x had been dropped 
from the date of this, which ought to be advanced ten 
years forward ; since it was not credible that so great a 
master of the art, who at once invented and perfected it, 
could lie so many years idle and unemployed. 

These instances, with many more that might be col- 
lected, show the possibility of Dr. Middleton's conjecture ; 
and, for the probability of it, the book itself affords 
sufficient proof : for, not to insist on what is less material,- 
the neatness of the letter, and regularity of the pages, &c., 
above those of Caxton, it has one mark that seems to 
carry the matter beyond the probable, and to make it even 
certain ; namely, the use of signatures, or letters of the 
alphabet placed at the bottom of the page, to show the 
sequel of the sheets and leaves of each book ; an improve- 
ment contrived for the direction of the bookbinders, which 
yet was not practised or invented at the time when this 
book is supposed to have been printed : for we find no 
signatures in the books of Faust or Schoeifer at Mentz, 
nor in the more improved and beautiful impressions of 
John de'Spira, and Jenson at Venice, till several years 
later. There is a book in the public library at Cambridge 
that seems to fix the very time of their invention, at least 
in Venice, the place where the art itself received the 
greatest improvements. It is styled : 'Baldi Lectura 
super Codic.,' &c., printed by John de Colonia and John 
Man then de Gherretzem, in the year M.CCCC.LXXIIII. It is 
a large handsome volume in folio, without signatures, till 
about the middle of the book, in which they are first 
introduced, and so continued forward ; which makes it 
probable, that the first thought of them was suggested 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 19 

during the time of the impression; They were used 
at Cologne in the year 1475 ; at Paris, 1476 ; by Caxton, 
not before 1480 : but if the discovery had been brought 
into England, and practised at Oxford twelve years before, 
it is not probable that he would have printed so long at 
"Westminster without them. 

Mr. Palmer, indeed, says that Anthony Zarot was 
esteemed the inventor of signatures, and that they are 
found in a Terence printed by him at Milan, in 1470, in 
which year he first printed. Allowing them to be in the 
Terence, and Zarot the inventor, it confutes the date of 
our Oxford book, as effectually as if they were of later 
origin at Venice, as there is reason to imagine, from the 
testimony of all old books. 

What further confirms this opinion is, that from the 
time of the pretended date of this book, 1468, we have no 
other fruit or production from the press at Oxford for 
eleven years next following ; and it cannot be imagined 
that a press, established with so much pains and expense, 
could be suffered to lie so long idle and useless ; whereas, 
if our conjecture be admitted, all the difficulties that seem 
insuperable and inconsistent with the supposed era of 
printing there, will vanish at once. For, allowing the 
book to have been printed ten years later, in the year 
1478, then the use of signatures can be no objection : a 
foreign printer might introduce them ; Caxton follow his 
example ; and the course of printing, and sequel of books 
published at Oxford, will proceed regularly, beginning 
that year, and proceeding in order, and almost uninter- 
ruptedly, downward. 

We shall now return to Caxton, and state, as briefly as 
we can, the positive evidence that remains of his being the 
first printer of this kingdom ; for what has already been 
alleged is chiefly negative or circumstantial. And here, 
as before hinted, all our writers before the ^Restoration, 
who mention the introduction of the art amongst us, give 
c 2 



20 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

him the credit of it, without any contradiction or varia- 
tion. Stowe, in his ' Survey of London,' speaking of the 
thirtyseventh year of Henry VI, or A.D. 1458, says : " The 
noble science of printing was about this time found at 
Magunce, by Joh. Guttemberg, a knight ; and William 
Caxton, of London, mercer, brought it into England, 
about the year 1471, and practised the same in the Abbey 
of Westminster." Trussel gives the same account in the 
' History of Henry VI,' and Sir Eichard Baker in his 
1 Chronicle ;' and Mr. Howell, in his * Londinopolis,' 
describes the place where the abbot of Westminster set 
up the first press for Caxton's use, in the Almonry or 
Ambry. As a confirmation of this opinion, Mr. New- 
court, in his ' Eepertorium/ vol. i, p. 721, speaks thus : 
"St. Ann's, an old chapel, over against which the Lady 
Margaret, mother to King Henry VII, erected an alms- 
house for poor women, which is now turned into lodgings 
for singing-men of the college. The place wherein this 
chapel and almshouse stood, was called the Eleemosynary, 
or Almonry, now corruptly the Ambry ; for that the alms 
of the abbey were there distributed to the poor ; in which 
the abbot of Westminster erected the first press for book- 
printing that ever was in England, about the year of 
Christ 1471, and wherein William Caxton, citizen and 
mercer of London, who first brought it into England, 
practised it." This chapel was a retired place, and free 
from interruption ; and from this, or some other chapel, 
it is supposed the name of Chapel has been in use in all 
printing-offices in England ever since. But, above all, 
the famous John Leland, librarian to Henry VIII, who, by 
way of honor, had the title of the Antiquary, and lived 
near to Caxton's own time, expressly calls him the first 
printer of England, and speaks honorably of his works : 
and as he had spent some time in Oxford, after having 
first studied and taken a degree at Cambridge, he could 
hardly be ignorant of the origin and history of printing 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 21 

in that university. We cannot forbear adding, for the 
sake of a name so celebrated, the testimony also of 
Mr. Henry Wharton, who affirms Caxton to have been 
the first that imported the art of printing into this king- 
dom. On whose authority, the no less celebrated M. du 
Pin styles him likewise the first printer of England. 

To the attestation of our historians, who are clearly in 
favor of Caxton, and quite silent concerning an earlier 
press at Oxford, the works of Caxton himself add great 
confirmation : the rudeness of the letter, irregularity of 
the page, want of signatures, initial letters, &c., in his 
first impressions, give a prejudice at sight of their being 
the first productions of the art amongst us. But, besides 
these considerations, notice has been taken of a passage in 
one of his books, that amounts, in a manner, to a direct 
testimony of it. " Thus end I this book," he says ; " and 
for as moche as in wrytyng of the same my penne is worn, 
myn hande wery, and myn eyen dimmed with overmoche 
lokyng on the whit paper and that age crepe th on me 
dayly and also because I have promysid to dyverce 
gentilmen and to my frendes to adresse to hem as hastely 
as I myght this sayd book, therefore I have practysed, and 
lerned at my grete charge and dispense to ordeyne this 
sayd book in prynte after the maner and forme as ye may 
here see, and is not wreton with penne and ynke as other 
bokes ben, to thende that every man may have them 
attones [at once] ; for all the books of this storye, named 
the Kecule of the historyes of Troyes, thus emprynted as 
ye here see, were begonne in oon day and also finished in 
oon day," &c. 

This is the very style and language of the first printers, 
as everybody knows who has been at all conversant with 
old books. Faust and Schoeffer, among the first inventors, 
set the example in their first works from Mentz, by 
informing the public, at the end of each, that they were 
not drawn or written by a pen (as all books had been 



22 THE HISTORY OP TYPOGRAPHY. 

before), but made by the new art and invention of printing, 
or stamping them by characters or types of metal set in 
forms. In imitation of whom, the succeeding printers, in 
most cities of Europe, where the art was new, generally 
gave a similar notice ; as we may see from Venice, Eome, 
Naples, Basle, Augsburg, Louvain, &c. ; in the works of 
their earliest typographers ; just as our Caxton in the 
above instance. 

As this is a strong proof of his being our first printer, 
so it is a probable one that this very book was the first 
of his printing. Caxton had finished the translation of 
the two first books at Cologne, in 1471 ; and having then 
good leisure, resolved to translate the third at that place ; 
in the end of which we have the passage before cited. 
Now, in his other books, translated, as this was, from the 
French, he commonly marks the precise time of his 
entering on the translation, of his finishing it, and of his 
putting it afterwards into the press ; which used to follow 
each other with little or no intermission, and were gene- 
rally completed within the compass of a few months. So 
that in the present case, after he had finished the transla- 
tion, which must have been in, or soon after 1471, it is not 
likely that he would delay the impression longer than was 
necessary for preparing his materials ; especially as he was 
engaged by promise to his friends, who seem to have been 
pressing and in haste, to deliver copies of it to them as 
soon as possible. 

But as in the case of the first printer, so in this of his 
first work, we have a testimony, also from himself, in 
favor of this book ; for we have observed that in the re- 
cital of his works, he mentions it the first in order, before 
the book of Chess ; which seems to be a good argument of 
its being actually the first. " When I had accomplished 
dyvers werkys and hystorys translated out of Frenshe 
into Englyshe at the requeste of certayn lordes ladyes 
and gentylmen, as the Kecuel of the hystoryes of Troye, 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 23 

the boke of Chesse, the hystorye of Jason, the hystorye of 
the mirrour of the world I have submysed myself to 
translate into Englyshe the legende of sayntes, called 
Legenda aurea in Latyn and Wylyam Erie of Arondel 
desyred me and promysed to take a resonyble quantyte 
of them sente to me a worshipful gentylman promysing 
that my sayd lord should durying my lyf give and graunt 
to me a yerely fee, that is to note, a bucke in sommer and 
a doo in wynter," &c. 

All this, added to the common marks of earlier an- 
tiquity, which are more observable in this than in any 
other of his books, viz., the rudeness of the letter, the 
incorrectness of the language, and the greater mixture of 
French words, than in his later pieces, makes us conclude 
it to be his first work, executed when he came fresh from 
a long residence in foreign parts. Nay, there are some 
circumstances to make us believe that it was actually 
printed abroad, at Cologne, where he finished the trans- 
lation, and where he had been practising and learning 
the art ; for, after the account given above of his having 
learnt to print, he immediately adds: " Whiche book I have 
presented to my said redoubtid lady Margrete, Duchesse 
of Burgoyne, &c., and she hath well acceptid hit, and 
largely rewarded me," &c. ; which seems to imply his 
continuance abroad till after the impression, as well as the 
translation of the book. The conjecture is much strength- 
ened by another fact attested by him, that he did really 
print at Cologne the first edition of Bartholomgeus ' De 
Proprietatibus Eerum,' in Latin ; which is affirmed by 
Wynkyn de Worde, in an English edition of the same 
book, in the following lines : 

"And also of your charyte beare in remembrance 

The soul of William Caxton first printer of this boke, 
In Laten tongue at Coleyn himself to advance, 
That every well disposyd man may thereon loke." 

It is certain that the same book was printed at Cologne 



24 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

by John Koelhoff, and the first that appears of his printing, 
1470, whilst Caxton was at the place, and busying him- 
self in the art ; and if we suppose him to have been the 
encourager and promoter of the work, or to have fur- 
nished the expense of it, he might possibly, on that account, 
be considered at home as the author of it. 

It is now time to draw to a conclusion, to avoid being 
censured for spending too much pains on an argument 
so apparent, where the only view is to set right some 
points of history that have been falsely or negligently 
treated by our writers, and, above all, to do a piece of 
justice to the memory of our worthy countryman William 
Caxton, and not suffer him to be robbed of the glory so 
clearly due to him, of having first introduced into this 
kingdom an art of great use and benefit to mankind ; a 
kind of merit that, in the sense of all nations, gives the 
best title to true praise, and the best claim to be com- 
memorated with honor to posterity : and it ought to be 
inscribed on his monument, what is declared of another 
printer, Bartholomaeus Bo tt onus of Reggio : Primus ego 
in patria modo chartas cere signavi, et novus bibliopola 
fui, fyc. 

Caxton died in 1491, and was succeeded in his business 
by Wynkyn de Worde and Richard Pynsent. The first- 
named of these introduced the Roman letter into England, 
and the shape of his letters was retained by the printers 
for two centuries afterwards. The punches and matrices 
he used for casting his types were to be seen as late as 
1758. The art of printing from this time continued to 
spread with great rapidity, and numerous privileges were 
conferred by our mouarchs, at different times, on its 
professors. But, as the art began to be looked upon, in 
the course of time, as an ordinary trade, the education of 
those that followed it underwent a corresponding decline ; 
and thus, instead of improving, it rather retrograded with 
its extension ; and, although it has much improved within 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 25 

the last half-century, it hardly now, even in the best 
offices, excels the standard which it attained in the first 
century after its discovery. 



The Dutch, for a long period, were the principal type- 
founders in Europe, and by them wef e the English printers 
mainly supplied, owing to a stupid law which prohibited 
the extension of their number in this country. The first 
person who became eminent in this art in England was 
William Caslon, about the commencement of the eighteenth 
century ; his principal patrons being Mr. Watts, an eminent 
printer of that day, and the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge. He so much improved the form of the type 
in use before his time, that England became an exporter 
thereof to Holland, instead of an importer from that 
country. In 1750 Baskerville, who had originally been a 
schoolmaster, still further improved the art. He was, 
besides, a manufacturer of presses, ink, and paper, and, 
in truth, of the whole of the apparatus used in the 
trade. His printing was very beautiful, the letters used 
being of slender and delicate form ; and the books 
printed by him possess, even at this day, a high value 
throughout Europe, for accuracy, as well as for typo- 
graphical beauty. Yet, it is melancholy to state, so little 
taste existed in England during Baskerville's lifetime for 
good printing, that he could not get employment ; for he 
writes to Dr. Franklin : " Is it not to the last degree pro- 
voking, that, after having obtained the reputation of ex- 
celling in the most useful art known to mankind, I cannot 
get even bread by it ?" It is no wonder, then, that little 
improvement was made in this respect for a considerable 
period ; and, indeed, it was not until after the close of 
the great war of the French revolution, that taste began 
again to revive, and typefounding and printing again 
aspired to rival the productions of the early professors 
of the art. 



26 THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 

Type, we may here remark, was for a long period, cast 
by hand only ; but Mr. Nicholson obtained a patent for a 
type-casting machine in 1 790. Dr. Church, of Birmingham, 
also obtained a patent in 1825 for a plan of casting 75,000 
letters in an hour ; and Mr. J. L. Pouch6e actually suc- 
ceeded in casting 24,000 letters an hour. Machine-made 
type, however, is used more generally in America than in 
Europe. 

But there is another process of printing besides that 
with movable type, very much in use even in the present 
day; and that is, the kind of block-printing known as 
Stereotype. This is formed by taking a page or more of 
movable types, fixing them in a frame, and covering their 
surface with a liquid plaster or other substance, and when 
this is dry and rendered thoroughly hard, it is ready to be 
used as a mould, or matrix, for casting the metal plates 
which are to be printed from. The invention of this pro- 
cess is much disputed ; but its real discoverer would seem 
to have been one William Ged, a goldsmith of Edinburgh. 
This happened about .the year 1725 ; and after spending 
two years in experiments, he succeeded in producing metal 
plates from movable type, in the manner described above. 
In 1729 he removed to London, and took into partnership a 
stationer and a typefounder, named respectively Fenner and 
James, to whom the privilege of printing Bibles and Prayer- 
books was granted by the University of Cambridge. Yet 
he met with such opposition, that he returned to Edin- 
burgh, where he printed an edition of Sallust from stereo- 
type plates in 1746. Here, however, he encountered as 
much opposition as in London, and continued to struggle 
on in poverty until his death, which happened in 1749. 
His invention now lay dormant for nearly half a century, 
when it was re-discovered by Mr. Tilloch, of Edinburgh, 
editor of the ' Philosophical Magazine,' who, in conjunction 
with Mr. Foulis, printer to the University of Glasgow, 
produced several works from stereotype plates. 



THE HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY. 27 

This process is commonly adopted with all books likely 
to go through several editions, as it is much cheaper than 
recomposing ; but the plates require care in their treat- 
ment, as they are apt to get broken and damaged both at 
the press and in the process of packing and unpacking. 

The first method of printing consisted in placing the 
paper on the types with the hand, and rubbing the back of it 
with a brush, as the Chinese continue to do at this day. 
But as the art advanced, the increased size of the surface 
to be printed required the application of increased pres- 
sure. The screw would naturally suggest itself as at once 
the simplest and the most powerful means of obtaining 
great pressure ; and it seems to have been adopted at the 
earliest period in the history of printing. The first press 
resembled the linen-press, the cider-press, and the other 
screw presses of the present day ; specimens of which, 
with very little alteration, may even now be seen in some 
of the old-established London printing-offices. The first 
principal improvement was made by Blaen, a Dutchman, 
in the year 1620. Blaen's press was superseded by the 
Stanhope press, so called from Lord Stanhope, the inventor 
of it. The next improvement was the Albion press, 
which entirely superseded the screw, retained by the 
Stanhope, and substituted for it the lever. Other presses, 
which also adopt the lever as the moving power, are the 
Imperial and tjie Columbian ; but, as this part of our book 
has regard to the Compositor only, a description of them, 
as also of printing-machines, would be out of place here ; 
we will therefore proceed to the more immediate occupa- 
tion of the Compositor. 



28 



CHAPTER I. 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS - NAMES AND 
SIZES OF TYPE, ETC. 

ON entering on this branch of our subject, it is perhaps 
necessary to caution the young printer against running 
away with the notion that skill in the more mechanical 
branches of his business can be acquired by the mere 
perusal of a book, or, indeed, that they can be effectually 
taught by these means ; and therefore, all that I shall 
attempt to do, will be to give him such general instruc- 
tions, and throw out such practical hints, as the nature of 
each subject of our investigation may seem to require ; but 
manipulatory skill and expedition, and general practical 
efficiency, must be attained by careful attention to the 
mode of working of the most skilful operators, and a 
continual and persevering effort to arrive at the same 
degree of perfection. Neither shall I waste time and 
space in explaining the duties of the various individuals 
employed in a printing-office, nor in describing the imple- 
ments used there ; for a few weeks' intercourse with the 
one, and use of the other, will do more to enlighten the 
tyro on all such matters, than volumes of mere description 
on paper, with however many well-executed woodcuts 
adorned, or however entertaining, and apparently instruc- 
tive, these may appear to the mere dilettante printer. 

Let us proceed, then, at once with our subject, and 
suppose a youth newly entered upon the duties of his 



NAMES AND SIZES OF TYPE. 29 

noviciate as a compositor. "What shall he learn first ? To 
me it appears, as the names of the various sizes of type 
will come continually under his notice, and will be men- 
tioned as matters of course in describing the modus 
operandi of composing, that we cannot, therefore, do better 
than commence our labors in this department by giving a 
description of them, and showing their relative propor- 
tions ; so that the learner will hereafter clearly understand 
our meaning when mentioning any description of type 
by its generally recognized appellation. 

The standard size of letter is called Pica. For 
although all the sizes of type generally employed in book- 
work have peculiar designations, yet all large-sized letters 
are reckoned as so many lines pica, and brass rule, leads,* 
and furniture are cast or made up to this standard. Of 
this standard letter, then, six lines are, within a shade, 
equal to an inch of lineal measure, or 7 If lines to a foot. 
Here follows a specimen of it : 

Pica. 

Typographia ars est artium conservatrix. 

This size is called Cicero by the French and Germans ; 
by the Dutch Mediaan. 

* The following are the proportions which leads bear to the 
various sizes of type : 

Pearl One four and one eight-to-pica. 

Ruby One four and one six-to-pica. 

Nonpareil Two fours, or three sixes, or four eight-to-pica. 

Emerald One four, one six, and one eight. 

Minion One four and two sixes. 

Brevier Two fours and one six. 

Bourgeois Three eights and two sixes. 

Long Primer Three fours, or six eights. 

Small Pica Two fours arid two sixes. 

Pica Four fours, or six sixes, or eight eights. 

English Three fours and two sixes. 



30 NAMES AND SIZES OF TYPE. 

Descending in the scale of sizes, the next in order is 

Small Pica. 
Typographia ars est artium omnium conservatrix. 

It seems to have been so called merely because it is 
somewhat less than pica, and filled up a gap between that 
size and the next to be mentioned. The French call it 
Philosophic; the Germans Brevier or RJieinldnder ; and 
the Dutch Dessendiaan. A lineal foot contains 83 lines. 

Next to it is a very useful size, called 

Long Primer. 
Typographia ars est artium omnium conservatrix. 

This size is three fourths of the size of pica, and is 
the kind of type in which the ' Corpus Juris' was first 
printed by the Germans. The French call it Petit- 
Romain; the Germans Corpus (for the reason above 
alluded to) or Garmond. Of it there are 89 lines to a 
foot. 

Next comes a sized type much used in leaders of 
newspapers : 

Bourgeois. 
Typographia ars est artium omnium conservatrix. 

It is of French origin, and is there known by the title 
of Gaillarde ; but the Eoglish name we took from the 
Dutch. It is equal to half a great primer, and is twice 
the size of diamond; or requires 102! lines to measure 
one foot. 

Descending further in the scale, we next come to 

Brevier. 

Typographia ars est artium omnium conservatrix. 
It is supposed to have been so called because first used 



NAMES AND SIZES OF TYPE. 31 

to print the book of prayers called the Breviary. But the 
French name it Petit-Texte, or merely Petit, and the 
Germans, Jungfer. 112| lines = one foot. 

Coming to a smaller size, but yet a type of very common 
use at the present day in the news part of newspapers and 
periodical publications, we arrive at 

Minion. 

Typographia ars est artium omnium conservatrix. 
It is an irregular size, not being exactly an aliquot 
part of any other type. In Trance it is known as 
Mignonne ; in Germany, as Colonel. Of this size 121 lines 
measure a lineal foot. 

The next size in order is half the depth of English, and 
is denominated 

Emerald. 

Typographia ars est artinm omnium conservatrix. 

Smaller still, and indeed, quite as small as can be read 
with any comfort, is 

Nonpareil. 

Typographia ars est artium omnium conservatrix. 

It is equal to half a pica, and in France and Germany 
is known as Nonpar eille. 

The desire of compressing a great deal of matter into 
small space has led our founders to cast, and our printers 
to use, types even smaller than Nonpareil. They are 

Ruby, which is equal to half a Small Pica; Pearl, 
equal to half a Long Primer ; and Diamond, which is not 
more than half a Bourgeois. Specimens of them here 
follow. 

Ruby. 

Typographia ars est artium omnium conservatrix. 



32 NAMES AND SIZES OF TYPE. 

Pearl. 

Typographia ars est artium omnium conservatrix. 

Diamond. 

Typographia ars est artium omnium conservatrix. 

Having illustrated the smaller descriptions of type, 
such, as are commonly used in book- work, we will next 
begin again with Pica, and proceed in an ascending scale. 

Pica. 

Typographia ars est artium conservatrix. 

The next size larger than Pica is by us denominated 
English ; but by the Germans it is called Mittel> as being 
about midway between the largest and the smallest types 
formerly used in book- work. But the French and Dutch 
designate it as Saint Auguslin. As before remarked, it is 
equal to two lines of emerald ; or, in other words, 64 lines 
thereof measure a foot. 

English. 

Typographia ars est artium conserv. 

We next come to the largest-sized type ordinarily used 
in book work at the present time : it is denominated 
Great Primer, and is equal to two lines of Bourgeois, and, 
of course, four of Diamond. It is called Gros Romain by 
the French, Tertia by the Germans, and Text by the Dutch. 

Great Primer. 

Typographia ars est artium. 

For the next kind of type in the order of size we are 



NAMES AND SIZES OF TYPE. 33 

indebted to the French, who, as well as ourselves, call it 
Paragon. It is equal to two Long Primers, but is not 
much in use. 

Now intervene three sizes of letter which speak for 
themselves ; viz. Double Pica (or, rather, Two-line iSmall 
Pica), Two-line Pica, and Two-line English. Specimens 
of them are subjoined. 

Double Pica. 

Typographia ars est, &c. 

Two-line Pica. 

Typographia ars. 

Two-line English. 

Typographia ars. 

Betwixt the last and Two-line Great Primer, comes 
another type with a distinct appellation. It is called 
Albion, and is equal in depth to four lines of Brevier,, 
but is rarely met with in printing-offices in this country. 

Two-line Great Primer. 

Typographia. 

Then we have Two-line Double Pica, which is of course 
equal to (our lines of Small Pica ; and next, Trafalgar t 
which intervenes midway between it and the next size, 
styled French .Canon, equal to four lines of Pica, and the 
largest-sized type with a distinct appellation ; all beyond 

d 



34 



NAMES AND SIZES OF TYPE. 



being reckoned as so many lines Pica. The only difference 
between French Canon and Four-line Pica is, that the 
latter has the face fully charged, and hence appears larger 
on paper than the former, which has what is called a 
large beard ; or, in other words, is bevilled from the face 
to the shank or body of the type. But it is not neces- 
sary to give examples of these sizes, as they are very 
rarely used except in jobbing. 

The following tabular statement will show the real, or 
approximate, relative sizes of the ordinary printing-types, 
reckoning from Pica downwards, and commencing with ten 
lines of that letter. 



1 




'1 

02 PH 


1 
^ 




*o 
o> 

b 
M 

o 
PQ 


Brevier. 


Minion. 


Nonpareil. 


>\ 

rQ 
ti 


b 

KS 

a 

PM 


10 


11* 


m 


14 


15* 


17 


20 


23 


25 


11 


12| 


14 


1* 


17 


18* 


22 


25* 


28 


12 


14 


15 


17 


18* 


20* 


24 


27^ 


30 


13 


15 ! 16i 


18* 


20 


22 


26 


30 


33 


14 


16 


171 


20 9 


2U 


23J 


28 


32i 


35 


15 


ra 


19 


21* 


23 


25| 


30 


34i 


38 


16 


18* 


20 


23 


25 


27^ 


32 


37 


40 


17 


19* 


21* 


24 


26 


28* 


34 


39| 


43 


18 


21 


22i 


25* 


28 


30* 


36 


4H 


45 


19 


.22 


24 


27 


29 


32 


38 


4.4 


48 


20 


23 


25 


28J 


31 


34 


40 


46 


50 


21 


24 


26f 


30 


32J 


35i 


42 


48i 


53 


22 


25* 


27 


31* 


34 


37" 


44 


51 


55 


23 


26 


29 


32i 


35* 


39 


46 


53 


58 


24 


27i 


30 


34" 


37 


40| 


48 


55i 


60 


25 


29 


31 


35^ 


38^ 


42 


50 


58 


63 


26 


30 


32| 


37 


40" 


44 


52 


60 


66 


27 


31 


34 


38* 


42 


454 


54 


62i 


68 


28 ! 32 


35 


40" 


43 1 


47* 


56 


65 


70 


29 


33 


36* 


41 


45 


49 


58 


67 


73 


30 


34* 


38 


42i 


46| 


50i 


60 


69 1 


75 



VARIETIES OF TYPE. , 35 

We have seen above, that types are known by various 
names, according to their size; but they are also dis- 
tinguished according to the formation and shape of the 
letter. The common distinctions of Roman and Italic are 
known to everybody ; but, besides these, there are types 
called Egyptian, Sans-serif, Outline, Black, Albion, Skeleton, 
Antique, Clarendon, Rustic, Elongated, Compressed, Old 
English, Elizabethan, Alhambra, Tuscan, Open, Shaded, 
Church Text, Ornamental, and other descriptions ; to which 
the ingenuity and taste of our typefounders and the 
increased demand for ornament and display, are continually 
making additions. Illustrations of some of the most usual 
of these we proceed to adduce. 

Egyptian (Brevier). ^ 
Typographia ars est artium omnium 



Sans-serif (Brevier). 
TYPOGRAPHIA ARS EST ARTIUM OMNI 



Sans-serif Extended (Nonpareil). 

TYPOGRAPHIA ARS EST ARTIUM CONSERVATRIX 



Outline (Long Primer). 



Albion (Long Primer). 
TYPOGRAPHIA ARS EST ARTICM 



Antique (Minion). 

TYPOGKAPHIA AUS EST AKTIUM OMNIUM 

d2 



36 VARIETIES OF TYPE. 

Club (Pica). 

Typographia ars cst artium conservatrix 



Clarendon (Brevier). 
TYPOGRAPHIC ARS EST ARTIUM OMNIUM 



Skeleton Clarendon (Pica). 

TYPOGRAPHIA ARS EST ARTIUM OlfflJM 



Extended Roman (Nonpareil). 
TYPOGRAPHIA ARS EST ARTIUM OMNIUM 



Rustic (Pica). 



Augustine Black (Pica). 

st arfmm 0mmttm 



Black (Brevier). 
ta ar tit art turn omnium ron&rfoatrtj: 



Elizabethan, or Church Text (Pica). 

ia m mi artiimi nmEmra 



Alhambra (Double Pica). 



VARIETIES OF TYPE. 37 

Etruscan (Long Primer). 

""* A&TIUB 



Shaded (English). 
(H~ 



Ornamental (Brevier), 



Condensed Albion (Long Primer). 
Typographia ars est artium omnium coiiserratrii 



Tuscan (Brevier). 
TYPOGRAPHIA ARS EST ARTIUM OMNIUM 



De la Rue (Pica). 

TYPOGH1PHIA ARS EST ARTIUM 



Elzevir (Two-line Nonpareil). 

TYPOGRAPHIA ARS EST 



Condensed Roman (Two-line Nonpareil). 

TYPOGRAPHIA AES EST ARTIUM 



38 VARIETIES OF TYPE, 

Compressed Roman (Great Primer}. 

Typographia ars est artium 



Expanded Roman (Long Primer}. 
Typographia ars est artium 



Court Hand (Two-line English). 




Script (Two-line English). 




Italian (Two-line Pica}, 



JmkjOMjQMaj 



39 



CHAPTER II. 



DISTRIBUTING AND COMPOSING, AND THEIR 
ALLIED OPERATIONS. 

SUPPOSING our neophyte to have obtained a tolerable 
knowledge of the various sizes of type, by means of sorting 
pie, or any other process which the judgement of those to 
whom his education is intrusted, may suggest, or circum- 
stances render desirable, he will next proceed to the act 
of distributing ; that is, placing each letter in the box or 
compartment assigned to it. But, before entering upon this 
operation, let us take a glance at what ought to have been 
his previous occupations, and his present qualifications. 

Firstly, then, we may state broadly, that he ought to 
have received a tolerable education ; he ought to be well 
acquainted with the principles of English grammar, and 
especially of its orthography ; as also with the art of 
punctuation, the laws of syllabication, and the formation of 
derivative, inflected, and compound words ; the proper use 
of capitals, and other kindred subjects. But as he will not 
have had much opportunity of mastering these subjects at 
school, nor will he, in all probability, be able to acquire 
them from the persons under whose tuition he may 
be placed, his best plan will be to read and re-read, until 
he is quite familiar with their contents, the whole of 
the chapters in the First Part of this book, where he will 
find the true principles which ought to govern those 
subjects illustrated at length. And, although he will 



40 DISTRIBUTING AND COMPOSING. 

sometimes find the doctrines there laid down, opposed 
to the practice of the house where he may be employed, 
let him not be discouraged thereby ; for as these prin- 
ciples are founded in truth, and are in accordance with 
the real genius of the English language, they will ulti- 
mately prevail, and practice, as it becomes better in- 
formed, will, by degrees, conform to principle, and not 
principle degenerate into the routine of mere unreflect- 
ing practice. He ought, moreover, to have learned the 
rudiments of the Latin arid French languages; for he will 
find a knowledge of them of great importance to him 
in his after-career. Secondly, he ought to have had 
a year or eighteen months' practice as a reading-boy ; for 
that is the best of all schools to teach him a readiness 
and aptitude in deciphering difficult manuscript, and 
giving him a general notion of those matters which will at 
a future period demand more of his attention, and which 
he will be required to master, if he aims at attaining 
a reputable position in his business. Lastly (in order, 
but perhaps not in importance), he should have a quick 
eye, a clear head, a light hand, a good temper, and 
a spirit of perseverance ; and, with these qualifications, 
there is no situation in the business to which he may not 
reasonably aspire, if fortune should at any time place her 
favors within his reach. 

To return to our subject. To be enabled to place the 
types in their proper places, he must have some scheme of 
the boxes before him : hence we submit one for his 
inspection ; merely premising, that circumstances, and the 
peculiar nature of some kinds of work, may occasionally 
suggest judicious alterations of arrangement. 

An entirely novel scheme was given in the first 
number of the ' Journal of the Typographic Arts ; ' 
but it does not strike us as possessing any peculiar 
advantages over the cases constructed on the plan givea 
in the next page. 



DISTRIBUTING AND COMPOSING. 



41 



PLAN OP A PAIR OP CASES. 

Upper Case. 



A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


F 


' G 


A 


B 


c 


D 


E 


p 


o 


H 


I 


K 


L 


M 


N 





H 


I 


X. 


L 


M 


N 





P 


Q 


R 


S 


T 


V 


W 


P 


Q 


B 


S 


T 


V 


W 


X 


Y 


Z 


JE 


<E 


U 


J 


X 


T 


Z 


m 


<E 


U 


J 


a 


e 


ii 


6 


u 


: 





a 


e 


1 


6 


ii 





i 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


A 


4 


i 


6 


u 


II 


t 


8 


9 





i 


ft 


1 


k 


k 


fe 


\ 


b 


u 


IT 


* 



Lower Case. 






] 


6 


ce 




J 




THINS 


d 


! 


; 




fl 


& 




C 


d 






s 








f? 





b 


e 


i 


f 


S 








H.S. 














fi 


ffl 
























d 


& 


ffl 


1 


m 


n 


h 





y 


P 





w 


i 




Z 


V 


u 


t 


THICK 

SPACES 


a 


r 


q 





QUADS 


X 



















" 





As a boy is always, for some time, placed under a man 
of considerable experience, any directions as to how 
he shall hold the lines of type he takes up, or how many 
of them he shall lift at one time, are quite superfluous : 
practical demonstration and a little experience will be 
worth pages of verbal directions. I will merely observe, 
that he need not be in too great a hurry to acquire 
a reputation for quickness: let him be careful to place 
each letter in its appropriate place, and expedition will 
come by practice ; let him also be careful not to throw the 
letter into the case with the face downwards; for this will 
necessarily batter the type, and so deface it, and con- 



42 PICKING UP TYPE. 

sequently cause him the trouble of removing it in his 
proof. But, suppose his case is now full of letter, 
but not too fully for in that case the letters will get 
intermixed, and a foul proof will be the consequence, he 
will proceed to the important act of Composing ; and on 
this a few hints may be offered, which he will find of great 
use, if carefully borne in mind. 

1. As to his Position. The standing posture is un- 
doubtedly the best adapted for composing with expe- 
dition, and should therefore be enforced on the young 
compositor ; sitting being only tolerated occasionally, by 
way of relief from the fatigue which the maintenance of 
any one attitude for a lengthened period must necessarily 
occasion. He should stand perfectly upright, without 
stiffness or restraint, with his feet very little apart. There 
should be no resting of one foot on the other, or on the bed 
or rail of the frame, nor by any other means. His case 
should be at such a height as to occasion, no stooping ; for 
it is mainly from want of attention to this precaution that 
so many compositors, especially tall men, become round- 
shouldered. There should be no nodding of the head, or 
unnecessary movement of the body, or any other useless 
gesticulations ; for all these are ridiculous in themselves, 
cause great loss of time, and fatigue and exhaust those who 
have unfortunately contracted such habits, more than the 
actual performance of their real labor. 

2. Picking up Type. The young compositor should 
endeavor to see the position of the letter before he lays 
hold of it ; he should then seize it in the manner most 
favorable for his conveying it to his composing-stick, 
without any twisting, twirling, ticking, or turning of the 
letter ; operations which consume much time, and produce 
no other effect than that of wearjing himself at the 
expense of his own pocket. Hence, he should avoid 
a hurried manner, and should go about his work calmly 
and deliberately, with a fixed determination of acquiring 



SPACING. 43 

* 

a good and easy method, even although he may for some 
time appear slow and unprogressive. It will not be long 
before he finds the benefit of this practice, and instead of 
being a slow workman, he will soon be found expeditious, 
methodical, and accurate. He should also abstain from 
unnecessary conversation, and should keep his mind fixed 
on the operation he is performing ; for this is quite 
sufficient to engage his attention : one thing at a time, he 
will find an excellent motto. 

3. Spacing. The tyro should by all means endeavor to 
preserve something like evenness of spacing ; that is, the 
words should generally be kept pretty nearly the same dis- 
tance apart, according to the nature of the work ; for leaded, 
and especially double-leaded matter, should, as a general 
rule, be more widely spaced than solid matter, to be in 
harmony with the light appearance of the page. He 
should avoid spacing one part of the line wide and the 
other close, merely for the purpose of saving a little labor ; 
neither should one line be wide and those immediately 
above or below, close; for this transgresses the funda- 
mental rule laid down above ; namely, the preservation of 
uniformity throughout the whole of the pages of a book, 
in keeping with its character. He should also avoid the 
paltry and far too common practice of driving out a word, 
at the sacrifice of good workmanship, merely for the 
purpose of making a line. More space should generally be 
placed after a point than in other places, especially after 
the semicolon, colon, interrogation, and admiration ; and 
after a full-stop, an em quadrat. Full-faced letters such 
as 1, f, h, k, &c., will also bear wider spacing than those 
which are not full on the face, such as v, w, A, T, Y, &c. ; 
for in the latter there is a space in the letters themselves, 
which necessarily increases the distance of the words on 
paper, if the same space is preserved on all occasions in 
the metal. It may even be necessary to place a hair-space 



44 JUSTIFICATION. 






between some letters of the same word, where the serif of 
one letter touches, or even more than touches, the serif of 
the other : in such instances, for example as (f), f h, f ', &c. 
Quotation-marks should also be separated from the word 
they precede or follow by a thin or other space, or should 
be close, according to the formation of the letter or point. 
At the beginning of a quotation, some space should always 
be inserted between the quotation-mnrks and the first 
letter of the word, as also at the end, if the last letter 
be full-faced without a point-mark, or the closing point be 
either a semicolon, a colon, an interrogation, or an 
exclamation ; but after or before a narrow- topped letter, 
or after a comma or full-point, no space should be inter- 
posed ; unless, occasionally, in the former case, according 
to the formation of the letter, a thin or hair-space. 
Examples. 

A thin space and no space. " A wise man acts discreetly." 
Two thin spaces. " Our intentions may he good ; " but are 

they wise ? 
Two middling spaces. The boy has learned " how to space 

well" already. 

Here, you will observe the spacing appears equal to the 
eye of the reader, although different in the metal ; but it is 
the appearance on paper tliat the compositor must bear in 
mind, and not a mere unreasoning application of the same 
kind of space on all occasions. In open work, especially 
leaded poetry, the same distinctions should be observed 
with regard to the one-em rule. 

4. Justification. This is the art of spacing out lines 
in such a way that each of them shall be precisely of the 
same length, -not one line tight in the stick and the other 
slack ; but every line of a uniform tightness. Simple as 
this operation may appear, it is nevertheless very im- 
portant ; for if not properly attended to in the act of 
composing, it becomes almost impossible to lock up a form 



COMPANIONSHIPS. 45 

satisfactorily. Letters are continually falling out at each 
laying- up and taking off the stone : errors in print are 
thereby constantly occasioned, for which nobody can 
account, and for which no one seems answerable ; but the 
real delinquent is the bad workman who neglected, in the 
first instance, to avoid it by even and regular justification 
of his lines in his stick : for no after-application of 
the bodkin will remedy this important defect. 

Bearing these observations in mind, our tyro will, 
if placed under judicious superintendence, undoubtedly 
become a good workman. So long as he is under such 
superintendence, his principal occupation will be to com- 
pose and correct his matter. On this last operation 
nothing need be here said ; for expeditious methods must 
be learned by practice, and, as Mr. Smith says, " by dint 
of the bodkin." But, supposing him to commence to work 
without any immediate oversight, he will in most cases 
join a companion ship ; that is, a certain number of men 
united in one body for the performance of a certain work. 

Now, there are two modes in general operation for this 
purpose ; the one wherein each compositor makes up his 
own matter and charges for it, and the other, termed 
clickership, where the making-up is performed by one man 
only, or his assistants, and the rest of the companionship 
merely compose. No opinion is here given as to which 
system is the most to be preferred ; because I believe that 
that depends entirely upon the nature of the work. 
Where much material and various sorts are required, 
or the work is intricate, the latter is undoubtedly the 
best ; but in plain book- work, the other seems, on the 
whole, to have tlie advantage, although not much 
countenanced by overseers, as it entails upon them more 
labor and calls for greater vigilance. 

But supposing, for our present purpose, that the former 
system is adopted, the following is the mode in which it is 



46 COMPANIONSHIPS. 

generally practically carried out, as given in the Green 
Book, and as I have frequently seen works satisfactorily 
executed. 

On the giving out of a work, A., the first in copy, having 
set the whole of his taking, on passing the making up to B., 
the second in copy, gives him the gauge, and also a book in 
which he has entered the lines borrowed from B. [if any], to 
complete the last page, or the number of lines he has given 
over his last page, to B., if less than half a page. If A. have 
borrowed 10 lines, the entry in the book will be in the follow- 
ing form : 
[Compositor's Names.] A. to B. Polish Tales. [Title of work.] 

Folio 7 7th in B. 
[Running Head] The Fugitives. 
Owes Owing to 
A. 10 lines | B. 10 lines. 

B., having set the whole of his copy, text as well as notes, 
which must in the first and subsequent takings be always done 
before applying for fresh copy, immediately commences making 
up ; which having completed, and taken 5 lines from C., who 
follows him, B. passes the book in the following form : 

B. to C. -Polish Tales. 
Folio 12 12th in B. 

Head The Fugitives. 
Owes Owing to 

A. 10 I B. - 5 

I C 5 

C. passes the making-up to D., and probably borrows 12 
lines from D., when the book will appear as follows : 

C. to D. Polish Tales. 
Folio 21 5th in C. 

Head The Round Tower. 
Owes Owing to 

A. 10 | B. 5 

C. 7 I D. 12 

17 17 



COMPANIONSHIPS. 47 

The first preceding form shows that on passing the first 
making-up, there are 10 lines due to B. When, however, B. 
passes the making-up, he diminishes the debt due to him by 
borrowing 5 lines, and the name of the creditor C. appears in 
the second column for 5 lines ; when C. passes the making-up, 
he not only pays himself these 5 lines, but becomes a debtor 
to the amount of 7 lines ; his name is therefore transferred to 
the first column, and the number of lines he owes is placed 
against his name. Should D. pass the making-up to A. and 
take 14 lines, the following will be the form of the table : 
D, to A. Polish Tales. 
Folio 33 1st in D. 

Head as before. 
Owes. Owing to. 

C. 7 I A. 4 

D -------- _2j B. J> 

9 9 

It will be seen that the total of the lines owed and owing 
must always correspond : if care be taken to observe this rule, 
no error or misunderstanding can possibly arise. When the 
first sheet is out, A. and B. impose ; the second is imposed by 
C. and D. ; the third by E. and F. ; the fourth by G. and H.; 
and when there is a return of letter, the forms are laid up by 
those whose turn it is to impose ; and if the letter for distri- 
bution be equally shared, the quantity composed by each com- 
panion will be nearly uniform ; and upon this principle it has 
been found that at the end of a large volume, the difference 
between that composed and imposed by each companion has 
not varied either w r ay more than a few pages. 

The utility of the above system, it is presumed, will be 
easily seen, and in numerous instances where it has been, 
adopted, it has been found admirably calculated to prevent 
dissension and promote the execution of a work. If any de- 
rangement arises in the account of transfer of lines, it is best 
to pay off the lines appearing in the book, and commence the 
account anew. 

As the compositor, as before remarked, makes up his 



48 



COMPANIONSHIPS. 



own pages under this system, he is more likely to acquire 
a thorough knowledge of this department of his business, 
under it, than under the plan next to be adverted to. He 
must be careful, therefore, to make his pages of an even 
length, and to preserve a uniformity of whiting, before 
notes, and in other places where required ; for by these 
means he will gain the reputation of an apt and quick 
maker-up, and will, consequently, be more likely to be 
selected for a clicker than one who makes up his pages of 
almost all lengths and without regard to uniformity of 
system. 

But if the plan of clickership be adopted, the following 
will be found to be somewhat near the process in use. 
The men to form it must be selected by the overseer, and 
they must elect the man they think best adapted for the 
office of clicker. Having done this, they proceed with 
the distribution of their letter, while he receives the copy 
from the overseer, taking his instructions respecting it, 
and providing the necessary material and sorts that may 
be required. He then provides himself with a rough book 
of blauk paper, and draws out the following scheme : 



Compositors' Names. 


Folios of Copy. 


Lines Composed. 


Remarks. 












COMPANIONSHIPS. 49 

In the first column lie enters the name of each com- 
positor when he takes copy ; and in the next, the folios of 
the copy. In the third he places the number of lines 
each man has composed, opposite his name, as the galleys 
are brought to him. The fourth column is for such re- 
marks as he may consider necessary ; the commencing 
and finishing words, &c. 

In giving out copy, of course the clicker will have 
regard to the peculiar circumstances of each case, and will 
assign to ench compositor large or small portions, as he 
may best think adapted to expedite the work ; and during 
the time the first taking is in hand, he will employ himself 
in setting the half-head, head-lines, white lines, signatures, 
side-notes, &c. ; and he will proceed with the making-up as 
soon as a sufficient quantity is composed. 

When the first sheet is made up, the clicker lays the 
pages on the stone, and communicates the state of matters 
to the person whose duty it is to provide him with chases, 
furniture, &c. ; which being furnished, he proceeds to lock- 
up the form and forward the copy and sheet, when pulled, 
to their proper destination. 

He also receives the proof from the reader, for correc- 
tion, and hands it to the compositor whose name may 
stand first on the list ; and thus the work proceeds in 
order, the clicker, or his assistant, correcting the errors in 
the heads, notes, &c. 

In this system a certain number of lines are assigned 
at the outset as an hour's work (as near a thousand letters 
as may be), and each compositor is paid according to the 
quantity he may have produced. The heads and whites, 
and short pages, are thrown into the fat of the work, and 
go towards paying the clicker and augmenting the value of 
the hour's labor. The clicker's share is generally reckoned 
with that of the highest of the companionship ; or he may 
be paid by the hour, at the rate of the bill. Another 
method is to make a previous agreement, that he shall be 



50 TAKING COPT. 

paid so much per sheet for making up ; and if he has any 
vacant time, he employs it in composing, the same as one 
of the companionship. But to enter further into this 
matter will be useless, as all those persons who are deemed 
by their companions fit for the office of clicker may be 
presumed to have already made themselves familiar with 
the duties of the office. Nevertheless, the following ge- 
neral rales for the guidance of companionships, principally 
selected from Cowie's "Printers' Pocket-Book," may be 
perused with much profit by the apprentice and the 
unpractised compositor. 

Taking Copy. If printed copy, and the compositor is 
desired to follow page for page, each sheet, as it is given 
out, should be divided into as many parts as the com- 
panionship may consist of, and the choice of each part, 
if it materially varies, should be thrown for. During the 
absence of one of the companionship, if he be likely soon 
to return, some one should throw for him, on condition 
that he will be able to get through this fresh taking, with 
what remains of the last, so as not to impede the imposi- 
tion of the sheet. 

Another method may be adopted, viz., for each person 
to agree to receive regularly of the different takings a 
certain number of pages ; but if this plan be followed, the 
bulk of the copy must not be subject to the inspection of 
the companionship, but kept by the overseer, and dealt 
out by him as it is wanted, or it will inevitably cause 
contention ; for the compositor likely to be first out of 
copy, if he has free access to that which remains unfinished, 
will observe whether the next taking be/a or lean : if the 
latter, he will hold back and loiter away his time, in order 
to avoid it, and thus materially delay the work. On the 
other hand, if this taking appear to be advantageous, 
and there should happen to be two or three of the 
companionship out of copy at the same time, a sort 
of scramble will take place who shall have it, which will 



MAKING UP LETTER. 51 

end in dispute and confusion ; on no account, therefore, 
should the copy be open to examination, unless for the 
purpose of ascertaining the charge per sheet. 

With manuscript copy it will be better to take one 
from the other in such a manner as not in the smallest 
degree to delay the imposition, or block up the letter ; 
that is, that no compositor may retain the making-up too 
long-, by holding too large a taking of copy. Compositors 
are apt to grasp at a large portion of copy, with the view 
of advantage in the making-up, though nine times in ten 
it will operate as a loss to them, by their eventually 
standing still for want of letter. If by mistake too much 
copy has been taken, the compositor should hand a part of 
it to the person next in the making-up, to set up to 
himself. 

If parts of the copy should be particularly advantageous, 
or otherwise, each of the companionship should throw for 
the chance of it : the person to whom it may fall, if he 
have copy in hand, must turn that copy over to him who 
is about to receive more copy ; but for trifling variations 
from the general state of the copy, it cannot be worth the 
loss of time necessary to contest it ; though it frequently 
happens that a litigious man will argue half an hour on a 
point that would not have made five minutes' difference to 
him in the course of his day's work. 

If one of the companionship absent himself from busi- 
ness, and thereby delay the making-up, and there is the 
smallest probability of standing still for letter, the person 
who has the last taking must go on with this man's copy, 
whether it be good or bad. 

Making up Letter. The number of the companion- 
ship, if possible, should always be determined at the 
commencement of the work, that they may all proceed 
upon an equal footing. It should be well ascertained that 
the letter appropriated for the work will be adequate to 
keep the persons on it fully employed. 

e 2 



52 IMPOSING AND DISTRIBUTING. 

If any part of the matter for distribution, whether in 
chase or in paper, be desirable or otherwise, for the sorts 
it may contain, it should be divided equally, or the choice 
of it thrown for. 

When a new companion is put on a work after the 
respective shares of letter are made up, and if there be not 
a sufficiency to carry on all the companionship without 
making up more, he must make up an additional quantity 
before he can be allowed to partake of any part of that 
which comes from the press. 

Making up Furniture. It is the duty of the overseer, 
or quoin-drawer overseer where there is one, to make up 
the furniture for the first sheet, and indeed all other new 
furniture, for the compositors ; that is to say, as far as 
providing proper chases, gutters, backs, leads, side and 
foot-sticks : the forms are then left to the compositor. 

By observing a proper method in cutting up furniture, 
where wood is used, it will be serviceable for other works, 
even though the size of the page may not be the same, 
provided it agrees with the margin of the paper. The 
gutters should be cut two or three lines longer than the 
page ; the Lead-bolts wider ; the back-furniture may run 
down to the rim of the chase, but must be level with the 
top of the page, which will admit of the inner head-bolt 
running in : the difference of the outer head-bolt may go 
over the side-stick. 

Imposing and Distributing Letter. The person to whose 
turn it falls to impose, must lay up the form for distribu- 
tion ; but as disputes sometimes arise on this subject, and 
as it can only be ascertained by comparing the number of 
pages composed, with the number put in chase by each 
person, it will be advisable to keep an exact account of 
these pages, which had better be done agreeably to the 
following plan : 



IMPOSING SCALE. 



53 



Signatures. 


Compositors' Names. 


By whom imposed. 


















B 




















C 




















D 





















E 


















F 
G 
































H 





















This scale should always be kept by the compositor in 
the making-up, who, when he gives it away to the person 
that follows him, marks down the number of pages he has 
made up opposite to the proper signature, and under his 
own name ; also, when he imposes, he inserts his name in 
the column appropriated for that purpose. By following 
strictly this mode, every sort of dispute will be prevented : 
and though a private account, something like the one in 
next page, may be necessary for individual satisfaction, yet 
it will not avail in settling a general misunderstanding, as 
the various private accounts may differ, and the charge of 
inaccuracy may be alleged with as much reason against one 
as the other ; but in this general scale a mistake can be im- 
mediately detected. It also operates as a check on those 
who may be inclined to write out of their proper signature, 
or to charge more pages than they have imposed. 



54 COMPOSITOR'S CHECK-BOOK. 

PLAN OF A COMPOSITOR'S CHECK-BOOK. 



Sig. 

X 
"B" 
"c" 


Set. 


Imposed. 


Charged. 


Sig. 

T 
IF 

~c~ 
"D" 
"E" 

F 

"G^ 


Set. 


Imposed. 






























D 
E 
F 























Set in all. 




G 
Iff 














H 






I 






Sheets. 


Pages. 


i 

"K" 






K 










L 






L 

"M 
N" 
"o" 
"F 






M 










N 












"F 






















Q 

R 

S 








_Q_ 
R 


















S 






T 

"u 
x" 
Y 
z 






T 

"u 


















X 










Y 










Z 




_ 









CORRECTING. 55 

In making up his matter, a compositor should be parti- 
cularly careful ; as, if the work he is on be very open, with 
whites, &c., he must see that the depth of the page corre- 
sponds with the regular body of the type which the work 
is done in ; for unless care is taken in this particular, 
the register of the work must be incomplete ; neither can 
the pressman make the lines back, if accuracy is not 
observed in making up the matter. 

As the letter is laid up, it should be divided in equal 
proportions ; and, if it can be so managed, each person had 
better distribute the matter originally composed by him ; 
for, by this means, the sorts which may have made his 
case uneven will again return to him. 

It may happen, from one of the companionship absent- 
ing himself, that his former share of letter remains undis- 
tributed at a time a second division is taking place ; under 
these circumstances he must not be included in this divi- 
sion. In the event of a scarcity of letter, if any man 
absent himself beyond a reasonable time, his undistributed 
matter should be divided equally among his companions; 
and when he returns, he may then have his share of the 
next division. 

Correcting. The compositor whose matter is in the 
first part of the proof, lays up the forms on the imposing- 
stone, and corrects. He then hands the proof to the 
person who has the following matter. The compositor who 
corrects the last part of the sheet locks up the forms. 

The compositor having matter in the first and last part, 
but not the middle of the sheet, only lays up the forms 
and corrects his matter ; the locking up is left to the 
person who immediately precedes him in his last taking. 

A compositor having the first page only of the sheet is 
required, in some houses, to lay up one form only ; also to 
lock up but one form if he has only the last page. 

If from carelessness in locking up the form, viz. the 
furniture binding, the quoins badly fitted, &c,, any letters, 



56 CORRECTING. 

or even a page, should fall out, the person who has thus 
locked up the form must immediately repair the damage. 
But if from bad justification, or, in leaded matter, the 
letters ride upon the end of the leads, the loss attending 
any accident from this circumstance must fall upon the 
person to whom the matter belongs. 

It is the business of the person who locks up the form, 
to ascertain whether all the pages are of an equal length ; 
and though a defect in this respect is highly reprehensible 
in the person to whom it attaches (whose duty it is to 
rectify it), yet if not previously discovered by the locker- 
up, and an accident happen, he must make good the 
defect. 

The compositor who imposes a sheet must correct the 
chargeable proofs of that sheet, and take it to the ready- 
place. He must also rectify any defect in the register, 
arising from the want of accuracy in the furniture. 

Forms will sometimes remain a considerable length of 
time before they are put to press. When this happens, 
and particularly in the summer, the furniture is liable to 
shrink, and the pages will, in consequence, if care be not 
taken, fall out ; it is therefore the business of the person 
who has locked up the form, to attend to it in this respect, 
or he will be subject to make good any accident which his 
neglect may occasion. 

When forms are wrought off, and ordered to be kept 
standing, they are then considered under the care of the 
overseer. When they are desired to be cleared away, it is 
done in equal proportions by the companionship. During 
the time any forms may have remained under the care of 
the overseer, should there have been any alteration as to 
former substance, such alterations not having been made 
by the original compositors, they are not subject to clear 
away those parts of the form that were altered. 

If the pressmen unlock a form on the press, and from 
carelessness in the locking-up any part of it fall out, they 



PRACTICE OF NEWS-WORK. * 57 

are subject to the loss that may happen in consequence. 
The compositor who locks up a sheet takes it to the 
proof-press, and the pressman, after he has pulled the 
proof, puts by the forms in the place appointed for that 
purpose. 

Transposition of Pages. Each person in the companion- 
ship must lay down his pages properly on the stone for 
imposition. The compositor whose turn it is to impose, 
looks them over to see if they are rightly placed : should 
they, after this examination, lie improperly, and be thus 
imposed, it will be his business to transpose them ; but 
should the folios be wrong, and the mistake arise from 
this inaccuracy, it must be rectified by the person to 
whom the matter belongs. Pages being laid down for 
imposition without folios or head lines, must be rectified 
by the person who has been slovenly enough to adopt this 
plan. 

Although the foregoing observations and instructions 
are more particularly directed to the practice of book- 
work, yet many of them will be found equally applicable 
to every description of work, whether book, jobbing, 
or news ; still, as in news-work there are a great many 
peculiarities with which the young compositor may desire 
to become acquainted, indeed, of which he ought not to 
be entirely ignorant, even if he intends wholly to devoto 
his time to the book department of the business, we will 
proceed to explain such of them as are the most necessary 
to be known, or as differ most materially from the practice 
of ordinary offices ; premising, by the way, that a candi- 
date for employment on a morning paper ought not only 
to be a tolerably quick workman, but also a clean one, and 
well able to decipher difficult manuscript ; for a great 
deal of this is furnished by the editors and reporters 
under circumstances of considerable pressure, and cannot 
well be expected to be of that legible description supplied 



58 PRACTICE OF NEWS-WORK. 

to a schoolboy for his copy; neither is there time to 
correct the numerous blunders which a stupid and 
incompetent workman will invariably make when laboring 
under the difficulties of illegible manuscript, and no time 
to unravel it. Such a one, therefore, had better make up 
Lis mind at once to content himself with whatever he can 
obtain, and by no means aspire to employment on a daily 
paper, until he first remedies the material defects in his 
qualifications which we have just pointed out. He should 
also endeavor to acquire a tolerable knowledge of general 
history and geography, and of the biography of the most 
celebrated men who have lived in all ages and in all 
countries of the world. He should also render himself 
acquainted with contemporaneous history and events, so 
that the subjects which come under his notice in the 
prosecution of his daily labors may not be altogether 
unfamiliar to him and matters of which he is totally 
ignorant. This knowledge he will find of great use, even 
when he is otherwise well qualified to assume the 
laborious but better-paid duties of a morning-paper hand. 
He must also make up his mind to be punctual in his 
attendance to his duties, for this is an indispensable 
requisite ; and he must nerve himself to withstand the 
dangerous and insinuating temptations which unnatural 
hours, fatigue, and money in his pocket (or at any rate a 
light at the public) will strew in his path, to lead him to 
inevitable destruction and an untimely grave. But, to 
proceed with our subject, let us begin with that important 
individual 

The Printer. To conduct the operations of the 
printing-room, a superintendent, or, as he is technically 
called, a ' printer,' is invariably appointed, who must 
necessarily possess a good practical knowledge of the art, 
and be familiar with the mode in which morning papers 
are managed. He acts as the medium between the 
compositor and the editor ; receives and gives out all 



PRACTICE OP NEWS-WORK. 59 

copy, in such portions, and with such directions, as he may 
think most conducive to its speedy execution ; and he, or 
his deputies, make up the paper into columns and pages, 
the printer, however, being held responsible for the acts of 
those whom he appoints to assist him. He also has, 
generally, the power of engaging or dismissing Lands, as 
being, from his peculiar position, the best able to judge 
whether any particular compositor discharges his duties 
efficiently or not. From this it is evident, that the printer 
of a morning, or indeed any other paper, is a person 
of considerable consequence in a printing-office ; as upon 
his decision, regularity, and ability, must depend, in a 
great measure, the regular and satisfactory production of 
the paper at the stated times. 

The Hands. These are generally divided into several 
classes, known, in some offices, as Full Hands, Supernu- 
meraries, Assistants, Outsiders, and Advertisement hands ; 
the various duties of whom are thus described in Ford's 
' Compositor's Handbook.' 

Full Hands. The duty of the Full Hands "is to 
attend at the specified time to take copy, having pre- 
viously distributed their letter. They are expected to 
produce two galleys of composition for their salary, to 
take their regular turn in proofs, and to attend to the 
stone-work ; such as tying up and laying down columns, 
imposing, &c. Should they produce matter beyond their 
stipulated quantity, up to the time fixed for going to 
press, they are paid for the excess ; after which they are 
paid on time. If there be standing for copy, the time is 
usually occupied in distribution ; by which means a man 
may often get the greater part of his letter in by the time 
of going to press; and if he can obtain letter, he had 
better always fill his cases before he leaves the office. 
At all events, it must be done before the time of taking 
copy." 

Supernumeraries. "These have a fixed salary, for 



60 PRACTICE OF NEWS-WORK. 

which they are expected to produce one galley. Should 
they exceed this quantity before the regular time of going 
to press, they, like the full hands, are paid for the excess : 
after that time, they also are paid by the hour. If kept 
standing for copy after producing their galley, they are 
paid time. If they are kept standing for want of copy, so 
that they cannot produce a galley, they are entitled to add 
the time to their lines, and to charge all over four hours, 
that being the time allowed for producing a galley, or one 
quarter per hour. 

" The Assistants are not salaried, but in other respects 
are on the same footing as Supernumeraries." 

The term Outsiders is used in The Times office ex- 
clusively. " It implies that the persons have not frames 
allotted to them. It is right, however, to say, that the 
managers recognize them as a portion of the establish- 
ment. Originally, their only duty was to take the place 
of absentees ; but the great increase in the quantity of 
matter inserted, the frequent expresses, &c., enable the 
conductors to give this class of hands a very fair amount 
of employment." 

The Advertisement hands "attend in the morning, and 
finish their work during the day. Some of them are 
frequently called upon to assist on mid-day expresses, 
but they still retain the designation of Advertisement 
hands." 

The above is stated by the authority we have quoted 
to be the system adopted on the paper to which we have 
alluded ; but it does not hold good, in every respect, on all 
morning papers. The system adopted by another paper 
is said to be as follows. 

u The Full Hands take copy first. They are expected 
to produce for their first work about a galley and a 
quarter. This can be done by quick hands in much less 
than five hours. Consequently, the time gained by a 
whip may be devoted to rest and refreshment. He has to 



PRACTICE OF NEWS-WORK. 61 

work five hours more on time, which is called the finish, 
that is, he must work the five hours immediately pre- 
ceding the time fixed for going to press, which entitles 
him to his salary. After that time he is paid by the hour." 

Supernumeraries " are entitled to charge a galley, 
though there may not be copy to produce it. This, 
however, rarely happens. They generally proceed with 
composition while the copy lasts, and thereby are often 
enabled to earn more than full hands." 

In addition to the description of hands adverted to in 
the preceding remarks, there is another class, who are only 
occasionally employed. They are called Grass Hands, 
and are only employed in cases of emergency, or to 
supply the place of a more regular hand. 

The above was the plan generally pursued on most 
London morning papers a few years ago ; but now there 
are only two classes of hands generally recognized, Full 
Hands and Assistants ; and some papers pay a certain sum 
per week to the Full Hands, but require a certain amount 
of work to be produced for the money. But as we are not 
fully acquainted with all the particulars, we refrain from 
saying more on the subject. As regards the routine 
of those offices, of course that must approximate to the 
system adopted in other offices. 

The rate of payment on the London daily papers is 
according to the following scale : 

PER WEEK. PER GALLEY. PER HOUR. 

Morning Papers. ..2 85. Od. 3s. lOd. 
Evening Papers... 2 3s. 6d. 3s. 7d. 



The Routine of Practice. Having made himself 
acquainted with the peculiarities of the paper on which 
he is about to be engaged, its method of capitalling, 
small-capitalling, or italicising (if I may use such a word), 
which he can easily do by carefully inspecting a few 



62 PRACTICE OF NEWS-WORK. 

recent numbers of the paper, the compositor will enter 
upon his duties with a much greater chance of seeing 
clean proofs returned to him from the reading-closet, and 
with a well-grounded confidence that his first efforts in 
his situation will not leave an unfavorable impression on 
the mind of the printer, and so risk the permanency of 
his tenure of office. By these means, he will understand, 
when he takes copy, the size of type in which it is to be 
composed, from the nature of the article or subject, 
and whether it requires a full-head, or a side-head, or no 
head at all ; he will also be thus enabled to judge whether 
the orthography and capitalling are in accordance with 
the system he will find it incumbent on him to pursue, 
and to act accordingly. The following practical ob- 
servations will nevertheless, we think, be found worthy of 
his attention. He will find the folios of his copy num- 
bered, either by the printer or the writer of the article, if 
it be of any length. On receiving it, he should look and 
see whether it ends with a break ; and if it does not, 
he should ascertain how far it is to a break, in the taking 
which follows, and apprise the compositor next to him 
that he is going to make even, or not, as may be mutually 
convenient. By pursuing this course, all inconvenience 
on the score of making even will be avoided. When the 
copy has no break, the compositor must closely note the 
proportion which a line of copy bears to a line he is com- 
posing ; for, by this means, in a taking of average length, 
he will be able to cast off, as he proceeds, whether he will 
be able to make even without proceeding to the unsightly 
expedient of very wide spacing ; and a hint to the next 
hand, informing him that he is likely to want a word or 
two, or the reverse, will enable him to space as evenly 
towards the end of his taking as at the commencement of 
it. The compositor must task his ingenuity on this point ; 
for, towards the close of the evening, takings will get 
short, when a correct judgement on this point will be 



PEACTICE OF NEWS-WORK. 63 

found of the utmost advantage to himself, and will much 
facilitate the object the printer has in view in resorting 
to them. When he has finished his copy, he should place 
his name at the back, or else his number. Having 
emptied his matter, if more copy be lying in the place 
assigned for it, he takes it, without troubling the printer, 
always observing to take the first in order. He should 
make a memorandum of the number of lines, and the first 
and last words of each taking. Should there be no copy, 
it must be ascertained who was out last ; so that a rotation 
of copy may be insured when there is another supply. 

Emptying. It is the duty of the first person who 
empties to put up a galley, even if he has not the first or 
the second takmg, placing his matter in such a position 
on the galley as will leave room for those who precede 
him. If the first galley of an article, a direction- line will 
not be required ; for that will be shown by the head -line ; 
but in other galleys it will be required. When the 
taking is emptied, the following matter must be closed 
up to it, by the person emptying, if the following matter 
is already on the galley ; if not, by the one who follows 
When the article is completed, the last compositor must 
place a proper rule at the end, according to the custom of 
the paper. 

Pulling. When a galley is completed, the person 
whose turn it is must quoin it up, and pull two proofs, 
one of which is forwarded, with the copy, to the reader, 
and the other is retained by the printer. 

Correcting. On daily papers, proofs are corrected in 
rotation. When a galley is more than half full, two 
persons correct it, each counting a turn. The one who 
corrects last pulls two proofs ; but if more are required, 
he is allowed lines for his extra trouble. When he has 
done, he should give notice to the next in rotation. On 
one morning paper, persons are employed especially to 
pull the galleys composed during the night. 



64 PRACTICE OF NEWS-WORK. 

It is a general rule in most news offices, that if a com- 
positor has more than six lines to compose of his taking 
in hand, when the proof is passed to him, he must 
relinquish it, and attend to his corrections ; but if he has 
less than six, he is allowed to finish his taking before 
correcting. 

Dividing Letter. To prevent disputes, it is usual with 
companionships on newspapers to pay a person to lay up 
the forms and divide the letter in equal portions for each 
individual. This person distributes the useless heads, and 
is responsible for the clearance of the boards. 

The letter for the next day's publication is usually 
distributed after the composition for the day is completed, 
in some offices, also at intervals while waiting for copy, 
or by an earlier attendance than the usual hour, to avoid 
any loss of time, by having this operation to perform when 
copy is ready to be put in hand. 

Much more might undoubtedly be here said as to the 
peculiarities of certain papers, and on the mode of display 
adopted both in advertisements and other matters; but 
we very much question whether its utility would corre- 
spond with the space we should be compelled to occupy : 
for, as regards any particular paper or periodical, all these 
matters are easily learued by a little experience, and much 
more readily and effectually than they can be taught on 
paper. We will therefore proceed to a subject of much 
more essential importance. 



65 



CHAPTER III. 



IMPOSING, MAKING UP FURNITURE, ETC. 

HAVING completed as many pages as are requisite for 
a sheet or a half-sheet of paper, accordingly as it may be 
determined by those in authority to adopt the one or the 
other mode of working, the next business of the compositor 
is so to arrange them on the imposing-stone, that they 
will fall in proper consecutive order when printed and 
the sheet of paper correctly folded. This act is called 
Imposing; and as it is very important to the young artist 
that he should early acquire a knowledge of the principles 
which govern all operations of this nature, we will pro- 
ceed to explain them at some length, beginning with the 
most simple of all schemes of imposition. 

I. FOLIO. 

The least number of pages which can be printed on 
any sheet of paper folded into leaves, provided it be 
printed on all its divisions, is four. This is called fdio, 
from the Latin word folium^ a leaf, or the Italian foglio. 
This word seems to have been applied to this scheme of 
imposition, from the fact, that in the infancy of the art, 
the paper was printed but on one side, and in single 
leaves; each page, consequently, constituting a leaf or 
folium, and a complete scheme of imposition. And hence 

f 



66 IMPOSITION; 

it is, that, even now, when both sides of the paper are 
printed, each page is still technically called a folio, and 
the simplest scheme of imposition also retains the same 
name. In that scheme, the pages are arranged on the 
imposing-stone in the manner here given. 



1. A SHEET OF FOLIO* 

Outer Form. Inner Form. 




Here the tyro will observe that the first page is on the 
left, with its foot towards him, as he stands at the stone. 
This is, because the first page of every sheet, in English 
books at least, begins on the right ; and as the order of 
the pages must be necessarily reversed by taking an 
impression from their surface on a sheet of paper, their 
order of imposition in the chase must also be the contrary 
of what they appear on the printed sheet. He will 
observe, further, that the fourth page is imposed with the 
first. The reason is obvious. Unfold a sheet of paper in 
folio, and you will immediately perceive that the first and 
fourth pages are on the outside; therefore they must be 
imposed together ; so that the impression from both may 
appear on the same side of the paper. The second and the 
third page are all that remain ; and if you bear in mind, 
that the odd page must always be to your left, when its 
foot is towards you on the stone, because every odd page 
is to your right in a printed sheet, and all schemes of 
imposition must necessarily be the reverse on the stone, of 
what they appear when printed, you will have no difficulty 
in determining where to place it. You will remark, in 
addition, that the sum of the folios of the pages in each 



FOLIO. 67 

chase is one more than the aggregate number in the sheet. 
Thus, in a folio sheet, there are four pages ; and in the 
outer form 1+4 = 5; and in the inner, 34-2 = 5 also. 
This observation holds good in all regular schemes of 
imposition, and may sometimes help you out of a difficulty, 
when you might otherwise be at a loss to know whether 
you were proceeding rightly or not. This you will notice 
as we go on. 

Sometimes two or more sheets of folio, and even of 
other sizes, are required to be folded one within the other, 
so that they may be stitched through the back as one sheet, 
for the purpose of being more compact, and more easily 
opened. Now, if you bear in mind what has been just 
stated, you will experience no difficulty in accomplish- 
ing this task, should such a work fall into your hands, 
although you may never have seen it done before, nor 
have any scheme for your guidance. Eecollect, then, that 
every four pages of the total number, beginning from the 
two extremes, form a sheet. Her.ce, the first and the last 
page must be in the same chase, constituting the outer 
form ; and the next from each extreme must compose tne 
inner form of the same sheet : and so on till you arrive at 
the center pages. For instance, suppose you were required 
to impose four sheets of folio, to fold into one another as 
one sheet. The total number of pages is 16. Therefore? 
the 1st and the 16th would be the outer form of signature 
A, and the 15th and 2nd the inner form ; the 3rd and the 
14th, the outer form cf B, or A 2, as it might be more 
appropriately called; and the 13th and 4th, the inner; 
the 5th and 12th, and the llth and 6th, of C, or A 3 ; 
and the four center pages, that is, the 7th and 10th, and 
9th and 8th, would be D, or A 4 ; the sum of every two 
of which, you will remark, amounts to 17. Thus : 

A. B, or A 2. c, or A 3. D, or A 4. 

1-16 15-2 3-14 13-4 5-12 11-6 7-10 9-8 



IMPOSITION. 



2. ABSTRACT TITLE-DEEDS OF ESTATES. 

Abstracts of title-deeds of estates are printed with 
blanks at the backs, with all the margin on the left side, 
and on single leaves ; being stitched at the corner. The 
following is the method of imposing the form, to save 
press- work : 

Outer. Inner. 




II. QUAETO. 

A sheet of quarto comprises eight pages : it is^ in fact, 
two sheets of folio imposed quire- wise, but in two chases 
instead of four, as you will see by inspection. The manner 
of doing this is as follows : 

1. A SHEET OF QUAKTO. 

Outer Form. Inner Form. 





Remarks. If you take a sheet of eight pages, fold it, and 
cut it in two crosswise, you will have two sheets of four pages 
each ; which is the same thing as two sheets of folio. Hence 
it follows, that a sheet of 4to is, as remarked just now, but 



QUARTO. 69 

two sheets of folio imposed the one within the other, or quire, 
wise ; the only difference being, that in the former case only 
two pages were in one chase, but in the latter there are four. 
Moreover, in the case of folios imposed quire-wise, it was 
remarked that each odd page, beginning with the first, and 
each even page commencing from the last, were in the outer 
form ; but in the case of 4to you will see that this is not so ; 
for we have, outer form, 1-8 and 4-5 ; and in the inner, 7-2 
and 6-3. How is this ? you will probably ask ; and a very 
reasonable question it is. I will endeavor to answer it. The 
first section requires no remark : the first and the last page of 
the sheet are always on the outside thereof ; but the third 
and the sixth, in a sheet of 4to, are not on the outside of a sheet 
when printed, but only after being folded. Spread out a 
printed sheet of 4to, and you will find the first and the eighth 
and the fourth and fifth pages on the outside of the paper ; 
but if the same paper be folded, then the fourth and the fifth 
page will be brought into the center, and will constitute the 
two inner pages of the inner folio sheet, and the third and the 
sixth will be really on the outside of that inner folio sheet, or, 
which is the same thing, the half of a sheet of 4to. For these 
reasons it is, that the really outer part of the inner division of 
the sheet (that is after folding) is imposed with the inner part 
of the outer division, and the outer part of the outer division, 
with the really inner part of the inner division, fctill they are 
but two folios, the one within the other, imposed with the 
heads of the pages towards the crossbar of the chase, in two 
chases instead of four ; the first page of each folio sheet being 
placed 011 the left hand, with its foot towards you, and their 
position altered to suit the requirements of the folding. 

Sometimes, in tables and other special works, imposed 
tandem- wise, the matter is read from the bottom of the page 
to the top, instead of across ; but this makes no difference in 
the method of imposing ; only it is necessary to bear in mind 
that the head of the matter (not of the page) must be to the 
left, when placed on the stone, so that the lines will follow 
from left to right ; the headline being at the tail of the matter, 



70 



IMPOSITION. 



with, the folio opposite the first line in the even page, and 
opposite the last line on the odd page. 

2. TWO HALF-SHEETS OF QUARTO WORKED TOGETHER. 

Calling to mind what has been said above, you will 
recollect that it was stated that a sheet of 4to is nothing 
more than two sheets of folio worked together, in such a 
manner, that, when folded the one within the other, the 
continuity of the reading was not broken. Hence it 
follows, if we leave out the consideration of the whole 
eight pages following in regular succession, as one sheet, 
and divide it into two, we shall have two actual sheets of 
folio, or, in other words two half-sheets of 4to worked 
together. The imposition will then consist in placing 
each folio sheet opposite the other, in the following man- 
ner : 



Outer Form. 



Inner Form. 




Remark. The paging, of course, of the two half -sheets, 
may either follow successively, or they may be independently 
paged, according to the requirements of the case. 



3. A HALF-SHEET OF QUARTO. 

A half-sheet of 4to, you need hardly be reminded, is 
nothing else than a sheet of folio imposed in one chase ; 
so that two copies are impressed on each sheet of paper, 



OCTAVO. 71 

which is afterwards cut into two, and the parts separated. 
This is evident from an inspection of the scheme. 




4. A SHEET OF BROAD QUARTO. 

There is no difference between this scheme of impo- 
sition and a sheet of ordinary 4to, as regards the laying- 
down of the pages ; the only difference being, that the 
chase is laid length wise on the stone, and not cross-wise. 



III. OCTAVO. 

A sheet of Svo comprises sixteen pages, and is equi- 
valent to four sheets of folio, imposed in such a manner, 
that the first page of each folio sheet must fall on that 
part of it which is the first when the sheet is folded. The 
following scheme will answer that purpose, as you may 
prove at your leisure. 

1. A SHEET OP OCTAVO. 

Outer Form. Inner Form. 



1 

B 




16 




13 




4 



9 




II 




01 




4 




3 




14 




15 




2 


B2 


* 













IMPOSITION. 



Remark.-* Here the four extreme pages of the sheet (1-16 
15-2) form one folding, or a sheet of folio ; the next four (3-14 
13-4), another ; the next four (5-12 11-6), another; and the 
four inner pages (7-10 8-9), the inner: and the pages are 
arranged in the chase according to the foregoing scheme, in 
order that the paging may follow in regular succession, when 
the sheet is folded. 

As this is the reason for all sorts of imposition, it may 
serve you as a guide whenever you are in doubt as to the proper 
position of your pages. Fold a sheet into the required number 
of leaves ; mark the number on each page, without cutting the 
sheet ; spread it out on the stone, and you will have the order 
of imposition on the page facing the stone. By this means, if 
you had never seen a sheet of 8vo imposed, and had no scheme 
to refer to, you could easily arrive at the proper method of 
doing it. 

2. A SHEET OF BROAD OCTAVO, 

The following scheme exhibits the best method of 
imposing this kind of 8vo sheet. 



Outer Form. 



Inner Form. 




3. TWO HALF-SHEETS OF OCTAVO WORKED TOGETHER. 

When two half-sheets of 8vo are required to be worked 
together on one sheet of paper, you will see at a glance, if 
you have paid proper attention to what has been already 
stated, that this is but two sheets of 4to worked at once, 
or, in other words, four sheets of folio ; and as the first 



OCTAV^. 



73 



page of the sheet must always be on the outside, to the 
left hand, when on the stone, it follows, that the first half- 
sheet will be the outer sheet of 4to, and the second half- 
sheet necessarily the inner. The method of imposing will 
therefore be as follows : 



Outer Form. 



Inner Form. 




1 

A 




8 




5* 




4* 



0* 




C* 




7 


B2 











Remark. Here you will observe that the pages of signa- 
ture A are all in the outside divisions of the chases, imposed 
like a sheet of 4to ; and those belonging to signature B, in the 
inner divisions, imposed in the same manner. 

4. A HALF-SHEET OF COMMON OCTAVO. 

This, you will see from the scheme below, is nothing 
else but a sheet of 4to, imposed in one chase instead of 
two ; and of which a double impression is produced by 
working it on both sides of the paper, each section of 
which of course forms an independent sheet of 4to, or, as 
it is commonly called, a half-sheet of 8vo. 




5. TWO QUARTERS OF A COMMON OCTAVO. 

This, again, is two folios worked in one chase, so im- 



74 



IMPOSITION. 



posed, as you will see from an inspection of the scheme, 
as to form two independent sections of four pages each. 




6. PART OF A SHEET OF OCTAVO AND OTHER ODD PAGES. 

When a sheet of 8vo is not complete, and it is neces- 
sary to fill up the remainder with pages of another work, 
or of a miscellaneous character, those pages may be put 
anywhere in the sheet, provided that they are imposed, in 
relation to each other, as one or more sheets of folio, or 
parts of a sheet of folio. Thus, if you have four pages of 
odd matter to impose with twelve others of a sheet of 8vo, 
those four pages might form any folio section of the sheet, 
and would follow in regular succession when detached 
therefrom ; but the most convenient plan is, generally 
speaking, to place them in the center folio section ; that 
is, to put them in the place of pages 7-10,9-8 of the 
regular 8vo sheet. If there are six pages, then four of 
those pages will be better in the third folio section of the 
sheet ; that is, in the place of 5-12, 11-6 ; and the two odd 
pages of each be thrown in the center, and cut off as single 
leaves. "We subjoin a scheme with four odd pages so im- 
posed. 

Outer Form. Inner Form. 















z 


9 




z 




*T- 




1 








11 






3 




10 


2 


B2 















TWELVES. 



75 



Remark. Here the odd pages are marked as Z ; and you 
will see that they occupy, as above hinted, the ordinary places 
of pages 7 8, 9, 10 of a regular sheet of 8vo : for, although the 
last page of the sheet A is numbered 12, yet it is in fact the 
16th on the printed sheet ; only, the continuity of the paging 
is broken by the interposition of an independent folio section. 

7. A SHEET OB" OCTAVO IN HEBREW WORK. 

In Hebrew, and all those languages which, as we 
would say, begin at the end of a book, the position of 
the pages is merely reversed, 16 being put in the place of 
1, 15 in that of 2, &c. &c., and vice versa ; or the following 
plan may be adopted : 

Outer Form. Inner Form. 



A 




01 




11 




9 














2 




15 




14 




3 














B2 



IV.-TWELVBS. 

Granted that you have mastered all the schemes of 
imposition hitherto laid down, and it fell to your lot to 
impose a sheet of 12mo, how would you proceed, without 
any scheme for your guidance, and no previous knowledge 
but that which you have gained from what, has been above 
stated ? Perhaps you are somewhat puzzled.* Let us 
then examine what it is that you really have to perform. 
What is a sheet of 12mo ? No more than this, it is a 
sheet of ,8vo, with a 4to sheet within it. Then all you 
have to do is to impose a sheet of 8vo in the 8vo part of 
the chase, or the larger division thereof, and a sheet of 

* I here suppose myself to be addressing the young printer, not 
the initiated. 



76 



IMPOSITION. 



4to in the smaller division, or what is commonly called the 
offeut. I will submit the scheme, and then acid a few- 
remarks. 

1. A SHEET OF TWELVES. 

Outer Form. ' Inner Form. 



81 




CI 




91 




S 
6 





Remarks. In this scheme, the division of the chase below 
the cross-bar comprises a sheet of Svo, having the four extreme 
pages of the sheet (1-24, and 2-23) as its outer folio division, 
and the rest in the same order as an ordinary Svo sheet. The 
orient comprehends two folio divisions, folding the one 
within the other; and as the first page of the outer folio, 
namely 9, must necessarily (in order that the sheet may fold 
conveniently) be to the left of the outer form when you stand 
with its foot towards you, and the first page of the inner folio, 
namely 11, on the left-hand corner of the inner form, the 
place of the remainder is easily ascertained ; for, as in turning 
a sheet at press, 10 must necessarily be made to fall upon 9, it 
must consequently be placed to the right of the inner form ; 
and as 12, in like manner, must back 11, so must it be placed 
in a position opposite to it in the outer form ; namely, to the 
extreme right. 

In the scheme above given, the inner eight pages, or those 
which form the offeut, must be cut off in folding, and inserted 
in the sheet ; for, otherwise, the heads of these pages would 
range with the foot of the others: in other words, they would 
be upside down. But it is possible to impose a sheet of 
12mo so that this offeut, as it is called, need not be cutoff; for 
if you place the heads of the pages composing it, towards 



TWELVES. 



77 



the rim of the chase, in the manner ^iven below (No. 1), 
and in folding the sheet, first fold the offcut on the adjoining 
division, the heads of those pages will all be one way, and 
nothing more will be necessary than to double the sheet up 
into the required size, keeping the first page fixed to the left. 
Or you may impose the sheet as in No. 2. 



2. A SHEET OF TWELVES, WITHOUT CUTTING. 
No. 1. 

Outer Form. Inner Form. 



!'! 


16 




13 




12 




a 









8 


OS 










1 




2-1 




21 




4 


B 

L _ 















It 




14 




15 




10 






61 1 




9 


8T 




I 












3 




22 




23 




2 


B2 















No. 2. 
Outer Form. Inner Form. 



5 

B3 




20 




17 




8 



, 




15 




91 




6 












1 

B 




24 




13 




12 



[ 7 




18 




19 




6 




01 




SI 




ZZ 



















11 




14 




23 




2 



This difference of arrangement is caused solely by the 
peculiar method of folding the printed sheet, twice the short 
way of the paper, then in the direction of the long-cross. 



78 



IMPOSITION. 



3. A SHEET OP TWELVES, WITH TWO SIGNATURES. 

This imposition could be accomplished in more ways 
than one ; but the following will answer the purpose. 
Outer Form. Inner Form. 



C-Z\ 




&1 




931 




821 



Q 



!-l 


11 




01 




. 








3 




14 




15 




2 


B2 















Remark. Here the part represented by signature M is an 
independent 4to section, and, as was said before, might be 
differently imposed, but not more conveniently than in the 
scheme given above. 

4. A SHEET OF LONG TWELVES. 

Outer Form. 



8 








05 




Q 




H 




II 
























1 




24 


21 




4 


15 




10 


B 























Inner Form. 



z 




Z 




ZZ 




g 




91 




6 




19 






12 






18 


6 


13 



TWELVES. 79 

A HALF- SHEET OF LONG- TWELVES. MUSIC WAY. 




6. A COMMOH HALF-SHEET OF TWELVES. 

This is merely a half-sheet of 8vo, with a folio division 
in the offcut. If you are master of wnat has been before 
fully explained in the preceding remarss you will find no 
difficulty here. However, a scheme is subjoined for your 
guidance. 




&emark.~- Of course, any four odd pages not connected 
with the rest of the matter, might be placed in the offcut, and 
be separated in folding, where it is desirable so to fill up the 
complete number of twelve pages. 

Now, were you required to impose a half-sheet of 12mo 
without cutting, that is, when the offcut, in folding, must 
not be separated from the rest of the sheet, but only folded 



80 



IMPOSITION. 



with it, it is evident that a different scheme of imposition 
would be necessary. For the head of the pages in the 
offcut must be turned towards the rim of the chase, and 
their order reversed, so that they may range with the 
others when the sheet is folded, and follow in regular 
order. This will be accomplished by the following scheme. 

7. A HALF-SHEET OF TWELVES. WITHOUT CUTTING. 




It is sometimes desirable to work two half-sheets of 
12mo together; and this, on reflection, you will see may 
easily be done, by irnposiDg one naif of each half-sheet in 
the outer division ol the cnase, and the other in the inner, 
according to the following plans ; either of which will 
answer the purpose ; but the jast has this advantage, 
that the sheets do not require turning. 

8. TWO HALF-SHEETS OF TWELVES WORKED TOGETHER. 

No. 1. 

Outer Form. Inner Form. 



9 




I 




*9 




A 














* 




6 




** 




6 
















1 




12 




1* 




12* 


B 








z 







01 



SIXTEENS. 


No. 2. 


Outer Form. Inner Form. 


9 




L 




*8 




Z 




*9 




4 




8 

L 




s 






*C 






E 






f 




6 




*OT 


** 




*6 


2 




i 




12 




11* 




2* 




1* 




12* 




11 




2 


B 
















z 















81 



9. A SHEET OF TWELVES, HEBtlEW. 

Outer Form. Inner Form. 



Ql 

LJ1 



81 



01 



61 



2 




23 




22 




3 

B2 



r:i 


91 




SI 




SI 


05 






9 




/I 




8 




4 




21 




24 




1 

B 



V.SIXTEENS. 

A sheet of 16mo is nothing more than eight sheets of 
folio, so imposed, that, when folded, the pages shall follow 
in regular order. This you will see from an inspection of 
the subjoined scheme : the rationale of imposition is left 
to your own ingenuity to find out ; but, in this respect, 
9 



82 



IMPOSITION. 



you can be at no loss, if you have paid due attention to 
what has been before stated. 



1. A SHEET OF SIXTEENS, WITH ONE SIGNATURE. 

Outer Form. Inner Form. 



13 




20 




21 




12 



91 




L\ 




fZ 




6 



9 




K 




08 




5* 

8 




11 




22 




19 




14 



01 




ez 




81 




51 




1 




7 




26 




31 





2. A SHEET OF SIXTEENS WITH TWO SIGNATURES, OR A 
DOUBLE OCTAVO. 

A sheet of IGmo with two signatures is the same thing 
as two sheets of 8vo, worked in two chases instead of 
four ; the outer form of the first half-sheet being imposed 
with the inner form of the second, and vice versa ; or the 
two outers may be in one form, and the two inners in the 
other. 

3. A HALF-SHEET OF SIXTEENS. 

This, again, is but a sheet of 8vo imposed in one 
chase, instead of two ; the outer form thereof in one 
division, and the inner in the opposite half, as you will 
observe from a mere inspection of the following scheme. 



EIGHTEENS. 




4. TWO QUARTER-SHEETS OF SIXTEENS. 

This imposition is accomplished in the following 



manner : 






L 






3 

B2 


6 






* 


e 






1 

B 


8 




VLEIGHTEENS. 

A sheet of 18mo is equivalent to three half-sheets of 
12mo, and may be so imposed as to make, when folded, 
three sections of twelve pages each ; or into two sections, 
one of twenty-four pages, and the other of twelve ; or 
the whole may be comprised in one section of thirtysix 



84 



IMPOSITION. 



continuous pages. The various schemes of imposition 
answering to these several purposes are given below. 

1. A SHEET OF E1GHTEENS WITH ONE SIGNATURE. 

Outer Form. 




8 




65 




SS 




9 




S3 




SI 


















1 

B 




36 




33 




4 


23 




14 



Form. 




91 




IS 




9 




1C 




OS 




\ 
























13 




24 


3 




34 


35 




2 


B4 








B2 















Or the offcut may be better imposed according to the 
following plan : 

Outer Form. 



Zl 




<?s 




86 




3 

6 




Inner Form. 




EIGHTEEN S. 



85 



'2. A SHEET OF EIGHTEENS WITH TWO SIGNATURES. 

(One section of 24 pages, and another of 12.) 
Outer Form. 




8 




L\ 




05 




e 




OJ> 




Gf 


















1 

B 




24 


21 




4 


37 

B 




48 



Inner Form. 




9* 




68 








47 




38 




86 



IMPOSITION. 



3. A SHEET OF EIGHTEENS WITH THREE SIGNATURES. 

(Three sections of 12 pages each.) 
Outer Form. 









6 




91 




15 




$Z 




eg 
















i 

B 




12 


13 
c 




24 


25 

D 




36 



Inner Form. 




fg 




ft 




ZZ 




ei 




01 




s 


















35 




26 


23 




14 


11 




5 



EIGHTEENS. 



87 



4. A SHEET OF EIGHTEENS, TO BE FOLDED UP TOGETHER. 

Outer Form. 




29 




t 




88 




8S 




6 




91 




IZ 
























1 




36 


25 




12 


13 




24 


B 
















B7 







Inner Form. 




ZZ 




83 

ei 




01 




LZ 




* 




8 
























23 




14 


11 




26 


35 




2 










BG 















This sheet folds twice across the entire length of the sheet, 
after which it is folded twice at the backs and once at the 
gutters. 



88 



IMPOSITION. 



5. A HALF-SHEET OF EIGHTEENS. 



H 




8* 
5 





8 




II 


Zl 




It 








11 




8 


7 




13 



91 




Z* 
8 








17 




2 



Remark. The white paper of this form being worked off v 
the four lowermost pages in. the middle must be transposed ; 
viz., pages 8-11 in the room of 7-12, and pages 7-12 in the room 
of 8-11. 

The offcut may be arranged in the following order, which 
is more convenient for the folder : 




H 



6. A HALF-SHEET OF EIGHTEENS, WITHOUT TRANSPOSITION. 



Remark. The necessity for transposing the pages in the 
previous instance, arises from the fact of a half-sheet of 18mo 
not consisting of a number of complete sections of folio, but 
of four such sections and a half. This is avoided by the foL 
lowing scheme, which, however, leaves three single leaves 
instead of one ; and is, on that account, very objectionable. 



E1GHTEENS. 



89 




7'. SIXTEEN PAGES TO A HALF-SHEET OF E1GHTEENS. 









Z* 






1 


II 




8 








15 




2 



Remark, When the white paper is worked off, the four 
pages, 7, 10, 9, 8, must be transposed; 7 and 10 in the place 
of 9 and 8, and 9 and 8 in the place of 7 and 10 : the trans- 
posed pages will appear as given in Egyptian figures. 

If the position of pages 5 and 12, and 11 and 6, be re- 
versed, the same convenience will arise to the folder as secured 
by the scheme in the previous page. 



90 



IMPOSITION 



VIL-TWENTIES. 

A sheet of 20mo of course comprises 10 sheets of folio, 
imposed in such a manner that the pages, when the sheet 
is folded, shall follow in proper numerical order ; each folio 
section folding within the one preceding and following, as 
so many sheets of folio worked quirewise. The method of 
imposition is as follows : 

1. A SHEET OF TWENTIES. 

Outer Form. Inner Form. 



y 


Z 




35 




ya 
61 






t 




te 




98 




2* 
















13 




28 




29 




12 



OZ 




IZ 




fZ 




11 
















Z* 


9 




es 




8S 




g 




I"! 








11 


27 




14 








es 




zs 




t* 

6 










1 




40 




33 




8 


B 

- - 















01 




T8 




95 




ei 












7 




34 




39 




I 



Remark. This scheme has the offcut first separated and 
folded as the sheet lies flat ; the remainder of the sheet is 
folded as a sheet of sixteens, which it in fact is, with an inset 
sheet of quarto in the offcut. 



TWENTYFOURS. 



91 



2. A HALF-SHEET OF TWENTIES, WITH TWO SIGNATURES. 

This is nothing else but a half-sheet of 12mo in one 
division of the chase, and a half-sheet of 8vo in the other ; 
as the tyro will observe on referring to these schemes in 
their appropriate place. 




8 




a 

T 




5 




4 




8 




SV 
5 








01 




2 








11 




2 



VIII. TWENTYFOUES. 



1, A SHEET OF TWENTYFOURS, WITH TWO SIGNATURES. 



This, of course, is but a duplicate sheet of 12mo, the 
two outer forms of which are in one chase, and the two 



IMPOSITION. 



inner in the other ; and of course, as the outer form of 
ig. B is to the left of the outer form, the inner must be to 
the right of the other form. The method of imposition 
will therefore be as follows : 



Outer Form. 



7,1 




1 




91 




6 




8 




LI 


u 




e 














1 




24 




21 




4 


B 















98 




ZS 




Ofr 




Inner Form, 



*8 




68 




se 




93 

se 






08 

^ 

03 1 




__2L 




r^ 




18 






46 




47 




26 
t 



01 




51 




H 




9S 
II 




9 




61 




81 




L 












I'l 


3 
B'2 




22 




23 



TWENTYFOURS. 93 

2. A SHEET OF TWENTYFOURS, WITH THREE SIGNATURES* 

This scheme is equivalent to imposing three sheets 
of 8vo in two chases instead of six ; and is sometimes 
adopted in books of 8vo size, to save press- work. The me- 
thod is as follows : 

Outer Form. 



f 




ei 




0& 




6 




98 




W 
























5 




12 


21 




28 


37 




44 



8 




6 




*5 




S& 




Ofr 




I* 
















1 

B 




16 


17 
c 




32 


33 

D 




48 



Inner Form. 




ft 




8* 
C 




6 


11 






t 


., 


3 


2 



IMPOSITION. 



3. A HALF-SHEET OF TWENTYFOURS, THE SIXTEEN WAV. 




zz 




Z* 
8 








19 




6 



91 



13 



8 


L\ 




OS 




e 









II 


















1 

B 


24 




21 




4 


15 




" 1 



4. A HALtf-SHEET OF TWENTYFOUKS, WITH TV/O SIGNATURES, 
SIXTEEN PAGES AND EIGHT PAGES, 



16 



** 


*S 




*8 




*I 








z 


9 


II 




01 










3 


14 




15 




2 


B2 













TWENTTFOURS. 



95 



5. A COMMON HALF-SHEET OF TWENTYFOURS. 









S* 










93 


Zl 


81 


91 


6 




01 


si 


H 


II 








8 


/I 


05 


e 


9 


61 


81 


1 




















1 


24 


21 


4 


3 


22 


23 


2 


B 










B2 









6. A HALF-SHEET OF TWENTYFOURS, WITHOUT CUTTING. 



5 




20 




17 




8 




7 




IS 


19 




6 


B3 
















B4 












M 








IS 




9T 




ga 
6 


01 




ei 


5S 




t> 


























2 


1 




24 




13 




12 


11 




14 


23 


B 












i 

















Remark. This imposition is much used for periodicals, 
where great nicety of folding is not requisite, as it saves time 
in the operation : it is the same as a sheet of twelves, p. 77. 



96 IMPOSITION. 

7. A HALF-SHEET OF LONG TWBNTYFOURS. 



B2 



OT 



I 




81 




SZ 






19 




22 


6 



y 



OS 



IS 



24 



8. A HALF-SHEET OF LONG TWENTTFOURS, WITHOUT CUTTING. 
20 17 J 8 



7 


r 




19 




6 




i. 











OT 


zz 








23 




2 


11 


* 


I 











THIRTYTWOS. 

IX. THIKTYTWOS. 

1. A HALF-SHEET OF THIRTYTWOS. 



97 



of 

2. 


* 




6Z 




82 




3 

? 




9 




tz 




OS 





8 


























13 

B7 




20 




21 




12 


11 

BS 




22 




19 




14 


























91 




11 




n 




ga 
6 


01 




Z 




SI 




ga 
91 




























1 






32 




25 




8 


7 
4 




26 




81 




2 


Remark. This, you will observe, is no more than a sheet 
16mo in one chase, and is imposed accordingly. 

A HALF-SHEET OF THIRTYTWOS WITH TWO SIGNATURES. 


81 




IS 




08 




23 

61 




OS 




6S 




Z 






ZI 




























23 
c4 




26 




27 




22 


21 
c3 




i8 




25 




24 










1 
t* 

L 


8 




6 




51 




e 
e 


9 




II 




01 




























1 

B 




16 




13 


4 


3 

B2 




14 




15 




2 



Remark. This, you will also perceive, is no more than 
two sheets of 8vo imposed in one chase, one in one half thereof, 
and the other in the other half. 

h 



IMPOSITION. 



3. A SHEET OF THIRTYTWOS. 

Outer Form. 



8 




y 


95 




ga 
6 




21 




J 

' 


09 




a 

5 






21 

Bll 

I 1 








25 

Bl3 




40 




41 




24 


44 


37 




28 









Q 




SI a 


se 




8* 




L\ 


05 


98 


^1 

, 1 


49 




3 

Inner Fo 


13 

B7 






^ 


P 


52 


61 


9 




rm. 




6C 




K 




93 
ii 




01 




SS 


95 




I 


























27 
B 14 




38 




43 




22 


23 

Bl2 


42 


39 




26 















1 
01 a 


OS 




GS 




9* 




61 
















! o 




62 




51 




14 


E2 



























91 a 


81 




z* 




? 




18 












I" 

IBS 




50 




63 




2 



THIRTTTWOS. B9 

4. A SHEET OF THIRTYTWOS WITH FOUR SIGNATURES. 

Outer Form. 



09 


89 




59 




23 
15 


I 



98 




<?* 




8^ 


a 
SS 








59 


















55 

E4 


58 


54 


37 

D3 




44 




41 


40 








_ 
21- 












8 


6 


C 
5 




25 




& 




92 


fS 




























1 

B 


16 




13 




4 


19 
C2 




30 




31 


18 




Innt 


r Fo 


rw. 




*9 




w 


& 




9 






ZQ 




19 



6^ 














I 

_!!_ 


9 






1 


56 


39 

T>1 


42 




43 




38 


60 










K 


52 




85 




IS 


II 




01 


I 
























17 
c 


32 




29 




20 


3 

B2 




14 




15 


2 



Remark. Upon inspecting this scheme, you cannot fail to 
remark that it is the same as four sheets of 8vo, imposed in 
two chases instead of eight ; two outer forms of 8vo and two 
inner forms being in each chase. This imposition is much used 
in what may be called quadruple 8vo, as it saves a great deal 
of press- work. 



100 



IMPOSITION. 



5. A SHEET OF THIRTYTVYOS. 

Outer Form. 



83 




Ze 




09 




e 
















21 




44 




53 




12 


Bll 















91 




6* 




8* 


l"l 














1 




64 




33 




32 






























53 


ts 




t> 




99 




6 
















23 




40 




57 




8 


Bl3 















Inner Form. 



9 




6? 




88 




m 




il 








11 


4) 




22 






01 




5S 




Zf 




gg 




7 

B4 




58 




39 


26 



08 




se 




39 










19 




46 




51 


BlO 











n 

LjJ 




Remark. This sheet, when printed, is folded first in the di- 
rection of the long-cross, then the short- cross ; after this it is 
folded into long 8vo ; the remaining folds follow in regular 
order, but they are too numerous to al'ow the sheet to be folded 
neatly. 



THIRTYSIXES. 



101 



X. THIBTYSIXES. 

For the remainder of the schemes of imposition, as 
they are but rarely used, it will be sufficient merely to 
give the necessary forms. 



1. A HALF-SHEET OF THIRTYSIXES. 



I 




ss 






7 




30 


4 








25 




12 








93 




9 
II 



ZS 




8* 
9 








33 




4 



K 




81 






21 




16 




19 




18 






""H 

_^j 

83 
tl 


OS 


{ 








23 




14 



Remark. This imposition has one-third of the sheet sepa- 
rated, which is folded as a half-sheet of twelves : the two- 
thirds portion is folded as a sheet of twelves, having pages 13 
to 24 insetted in the center. 



102 



IMPOSITION. 



2. A HALT-SHEET OF THIRTTSIXES WITHOUT CUTTING. 


















I I 


'" 1 

t 


z 




52 




95 




II 




Z 


3 




















34 


27 




10 


1 




22 


Bt2 
















B8 




















1 


1C 




OS 




z 




8[ 


y 



5 

B3 




32 




29 




8 






S2 


y 

25 




1T 

LL_, 


* 








1 
B 




36 


12 



i^ 




20 








91 






13 




54 


B7 







Remark. The tyro will- observe, if lie turns, to the method 
of imposing I8mo, that this is but a sheet of that size imposed 
in one chase instead of two ; the lower half being the outer form, 
and the upper half, the inner. 



THIRTYSIXES. 



103 



3. A HALF-SHEET OP THIRTYSIXES WITH TWO SIGNATURES. 



z 




5 








7 

A4 




18 








25 

B 




36 




95 




e 








8 




gl 








1 

A 




24 




12 



00 



*8 




AS 












8V 


05 




S 






21 




4 



. 



Pemark. This the young printer cannot fail to observe, if 
he looks attentively at the scheme, that it is nothing more than 
a sheet of 12mo with a half-sheet of the same size in the middle. 



IMPOSITION, 



XI. FORTIES. 

A HALF-SHEET OF FORTIES. 



0& 




IZ 




1C 




Ll 














5 




36 




33 




8 


B3 















a 


5S 




8S 




Z* 

ei 










9 




32 




29 




12 












1 
B 




40 




37 




4 



81 




& 




S5 




3 














7 


34 




35 




6 


B4 















H 




u 




9S 




ei 






30 








10 


11 


31 


BO 




























3 




38 




39 




2 


B2 















XII. FOKTYEIGHTS. 

1. A COMMON QUARTER-SHEET OF FORTYBIGHTS. 



21 




SI 




91 




6 














8 




ZT 




OS 




8 
9 
















1 




21 




21 




4 


B 















01 




ei 


n 


It 










9 




61 




81 




*a 
Z 
















3 

B2 




22 




23 




2 



FORTYEIQHTS. 



105 



2. TWO QUARTERS OP A SHEET OF FORTYEIGHTS, WORKED 
TOGETHER. 















52 


Z 




C5 




ZZ 





















7 


18 




19 




6 


B4 















11 




14 




15 




10 


B6 






































g* 


51 




Cl 




91 




6 \ 















3 


8 




Ll 




05 




5 














1 




24 




21 




4 


B 



























53 


9Z 




& 




9* 




IZ 














31 




42 




43 




30 


c4 
















3. A QUARTBR-SHIET OP FORTYEIGHTS, WITHOUT CUTTING. 



5 




20 




17 




8 


3 






































S* 


* 




IZ 




91 




6 
















1 




24 




13 




12 


B 















7 




18 


19 


6 


B4 




















01 




SI 


ZZ 


i 












11 




14 


23 


2 


B6 











106 



IMPOSITION. 



4. HALF-SHEET OF FORTYEIGHTS, WITH THREE SIGNATURES. 



te 




& 




9* 




58 




9S 




st 




8* 




88 






























39 




42 




43 




38 


37 
c3 




44 




41 




40 










~ 
08 










28 






81 


ie 


61 




08 




65 


a 






























23 




26 




27 




22 


21 

B3 




28 


25 




24 






6 








8 


SI 




g 


9 




II 




01 




\ 




























1 

A 




16 




13 




4 




3 

A2 




14 




15 


2 



Remark. This sheet perfects as a sheet of twelves. For 
folding, it divides by the long-cross ; each half then divides into 
three sections, which are respectively folded as a sheet of octavo. 



SIXTYFOURS 



107 



XIII. SIXTYFOUKS. 

1. A COMMON QUARTER-SHEET OF SIXTYFOURS. 



f 




6Z 




85 




85 










13 

B7 




20 




21 




12 


-1 






11 




ts 




ga 
6 












i 

B 




32 




25 




8 



9 




LZ 




OS 




Z* 















11 

B6 




22 




19 




14 



01 


Q 


81 




8a 
SI 










7 

B4 




26 




31 




2 



2. A QUARTER-SHEET OF SIXTYFOURS, WITH TWO 
SIGNATURES. 



81 




18 




08 




&* 
61 




05 




6S 




ZS 




a 

Zl 


























23 

B4 




26 




27 




22 


21 

B3 




28 




25 




24 






8 




6 




Zl 




SV 

5 




9 




II 




01 




tv 

J 






















1 

A 




16 




13 




4 




3 

A2 




14 




15 




2 

J 



108 



IMPOSITION . 



3. A HALF-SHEET OP SIXTYFOURS. 



1 S 




ea 




te 




IS 














15 

B8 




50 




47 


18 



23 



55 




55 




e* 




ts 




ga 
11 






38 








87 


59 




6 



|V 




19 




9S 




65 


13 








1 
45 




20 


52 


s7 



















09 



44 



53 







91 




6* 




8* 


i:i 












32 


1 




64 




33 


B 















fZ V 95 



25 



D 



SEVENTYTWOS. 



109 



XIY. SEYENTYTWOS. 

A HALF-SHEET OP SEVENTYTWOS, WITH THREE SIGNATURES. 



o fe 




s 




W (> 












to 




s 




s 












*] 




s 




s 












g 




10 o 




00 












3 




s 




S 












S 




s 




CO 












S 3 









w w 
c w 












O) 




5 




o 












|.. 




S 




!a l 












O 




CO 




OJ 












2 




CO 




5 












Li 


1 


1C -H 




I 



110 IMPOSITION. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 

1. Having placed all his pages on the stone, whatever 
may be the size, the compositor must run his eye over 
them to see that they are in their proper place ; for it is 
much easier to alter their position now than at any after- 
period of the process of imposition. 

2. He must then procure a pair of chases, as nearly 
alike as possible, or rather, we ought to say, the overseer 
or quoin-drawer will provide him with them, on his ap- 
plication to either of those individuals, according to the 
custom of the office ; and he must be careful to use those 
chases, ever after, in future sheets, in the same position in 
which he uses them in the first, as this will save consider- 
able trouble to the pressman. 

3. Furniture ought to be provided for him of a proper 
length ; and in order that that may be done easily, the 
quoin-drawer overseer should keep it in separate pigeon- 
holes or drawers, each length by itself ; as this will save a 
great deal of time, and dispense almost entirely with the 
use of the saw. The gutters, and narrows for the short- 
cross, are placed even with the foot of each page, leaving 
the upper end to project beyond the head-line and between 
the head-bolts, so as to secure the folios. The side-sticks 
should be of about the same length as the gutters, as they 
will thereby bind both the folios and white-lines. The 
foot-sticks should be long enough to include the gutter and 
back, but should by no means extend beyond the side- 
stick. These articles, with a supply of scaleboard and 
quoins, are all that are required for this purpose. 

4. The compositor will now proceed to remove the page- 
cords. Commencing with any inner page, let him care- 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERYATIONS. Ill 

fully untie the cord, and push up the furniture and the 
adjoining page by the side-stick ; and so proceed with all 
the pages of the quarter in succession ; carefully ascer- 
taining, when he has done so, whether the pages are of 
equal length ; and if not, causing the defect to be remedied 
by those by whom the fault has been committed. He 
must then secure that section with quoins, and so proceed 
with all the rest, and, after gently planing, lock up 
each section evenly, first going lightly round the whole, 
and with his quoins so placed that there shall be no hang- 
ing of the corners of the pages ; but everything so well 
secured, that the form will lift safely, if the lines are all 
properly justified. 

5. Of course the compositor will have been supplied 
with furniture pretty near the mark, and which will an- 
swer his purpose for all the operations up to being sent to 
press. Before that takes place, it must be correctly ascer- 
tained whether it suits the paper on which the work is to 
be printed, or not, and must then be correctly adjusted. 
To assist him in ascertaining the furniture proper for his 
purpose in the first instance, the following table of the 
size of pages and the requisite furniture, is given by 
Mr. Euse, in his handy little book, called l Imposition 
Simplified,' which, I have no doubt, will be found 
useful to the generality of the readers of this book. 
I will merely premise, that Mr. Euse, quite correctly 
no doubt, considers that what is deemed the back of a 
book by the binder, ought also to be so considered by the 
printer ; but as that is not the notion generally adopted 
when speaking of imposition, it will be necessary to bear 
in mind, that what Mr. Euse here calls the back, is by the 
generality called the gutter, and vice versa. 



112 



IMPOSITION. 



Table of Furnitures for Ordinary Bookwork. 



SIZE. 


Width of 
page. 


Length of 
page 


M 

1 


1 

8 


If 

<5| 


1 


1 
o 


Boyal. 
4to 


pica ems 

48 
26 
20 
21 
18 
13 

40 
23 
19 
19 
16 
12 

32 
20 
15 
16 
15 
11 

29 
18 
15 
15 
12 


pica ems 

62 
48 
39 
28 
32 
23 

53 

42 
36 
25 
29 
21 

47 
35 
32 
22 
23 
18 

394 
32 
28 
19 
21 


pica ems 

11 
10 
9 

74 
c 

5 

104 
9 

64 

54 

4 

11 
9 
6i 

6 

44 
3} 

tt 

6j 

si 

4| 


pica ems 

12 
10 
10 

7* 
6 

12 
10 
8 

7* 

6 
5 

12 
10 

7 
7 
6 
4 

10 

7 
5 

? 


pica ems 

124 

104 
9J 

8 
6 

11* 

4 

8 

7 
5 

ioj 

8 
7 

ei 
4 

8 



4 

5 


pica ems 

"9* 

"7 

"9 
"6 

"*i 
'5 

7 


pica ems 

ioj 

"?i 
"8i 

"ej 

7J 

"i 

"i 
"i 


8vo 


12mo 
16nio 


18mo 
32mo 

Demy. 

4to 
8vo 


12mo 
16mo 
18mo 
32mo 

Crown. 
4to 


8vo 


12mo 
16mo 
18mo 
32mo 

Foolscap. 
4to 


8vo . 


12mo 
16mo 
18mo 



N.B. These measurements are, of course, inclusive of crossbars. 

Remark. Should the width or length of a page be altered 
from the dimensions here given, it will necessarily follow, that 
a corresponding alteration should be made in the furniture. 
For instance, should a page, in any case, be increased an em 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS. 113 

in length, and width, a corresponding decrease must be made 
in the furniture, so as to advance all the printed matter of 
each page an en in every direction on the paper when 
workecl. This would in fact be, in 8vo, to take an em out of 
the gutter,* and an en from the back* and head, on each side 
of the bar. 

6. Making Margin. Several writers have consumed 
pages in describing methods of effecting this operation, 
but generally witli the result of rendering the matter the 
more obscure by their diffuseness. I will therefore con- 
tent myself with quoting the pithy but pertinent remarks 
of the author from whom I have copied the above table, 
merely altering his terminology to make it correspond 
with that in common use ; and adding, by the way, that 
Mr. Euse gives in his little book, which only costs 6d., and 
can be carried in the waistcoat-pocket, diagrams illus- 
trative of the process adopted, which will be found useful 
to the young compositor. He says : 

" To ascertain the Gutters, fold the sheet to size of work ; 
then measure from left side of last page, letting it extend over 
the left side of the first, to allow for the cutting, which can be 
varied at will, according to the size of the book from non- 
pareil to great primer. For Hacks, open the sheet one* fold, 
and measure from the left side of the third page to the right 
[i-e. in Svo the 13th page], to left side of the first page, 
EXACTLY OUT-AND-OUT. For Heads, fold sheet to size of work ; 
then measure from head of page at top of page 1 [i.e. in Svo 
the 8th page], letting it extend over the foot of page 1, 
same as for Gutters. For Tails, open the sheet contrary 
way to that for Backs ; then measure from foot of third 
page up, to foot of first page, EXACTLY OUT-AND-OUT, as for 
Backs. If no Tails, as in Quarto or Octavo, the same over- 
hang should be left ; as the binder would make the same re- 
duction as though there were more folds. For off- cuts, leave 
half the overhang allowed in measuring for the Heads." 



* I here use those words in their ordinary acceptation. 
i 



114 



CHAPTER IY. 



COMPOSITOBS' SCALE OF PEICES. 

IN the infancy of the art of printing, and indeed for 
many years after its general dissemination, the mode 
of payment was undoubtedly similar to that adopted in 
other occupations ; namely, by weekly wages. No scale 
of prices would then be required, but each workman would 
be paid according to his general efficiency and usefulness. 
But when the notion of piece-work began to be enter- 
tained, it would, of course, become necessary to fix upon 
some standard, to determine the value of the labor done, 
in order that each man might be paid in just proportion 
to what he had actually earned. 

This standard was arrived at by determining that for 
every thousand letters composed, ascertained by counting 
the width of the page by ens and its depth by ems, and 
multiplying them together for the product, a certain sum 
should be paid, according to the nature of the work, with 
certain allowances in cases where extra labor might be 
required. 

The first scale of prices of which we have any account, 
was adopted in the year 1785, although it is pretty certain 
that some work was done on piece even before that time. 
It was agreed to at a general meeting of master printers 



SCALE OF PRICES. 115 

held at the Globe Tavern, in Fleet Street, on Friday, the 
20th of November. By this scale it was provided : 

That the price of work paid for by letters, be advanced 
from four pence to four pence halfpenny per thousand, 
including English and brevier ; and in leaded matter, the 
ems and ens at the beginnings and ends of the lines not 
to be reckoned in the width. 

That pamphlets of five sheets and under be paid one 
shilling per sheet above what they come to by letters. 

That all works wholly printed in a foreign language, 
though common type, be paid five pence per thousand. 

That five pence per thousand be paid for all dictionaries 
of two languages, in brevier or larger type, but not for 
English dictionaries, unless attended with peculiar trouble. 

That the price of Greek be advanced in the same pro- 
portion as that of common work. 

Some additional rales were adopted at a meeting of 
master printers held on Monday, the llth of March, 1793, 
according some slight advantages to the journeyman ; as 
also at a meeting held at the Globe Tavern, in December, 
1795. 

But these alterations not giving complete satisfaction to 
the compositors, another meeting of the master printers 
was convened on the 24th of December, 1800, for the pur- 
pose of taking into further consideration the state of the 
trade, both in respect of the workmen and their employers. 

The men asked for an advance of one halfpenny per 
thousand on manuscripts. But with this the masters re- 
fused to comply, but agreed to a general advance of one 
farthing upon all kinds of work, without regard to the 
question of manuscript copy or reprint. 

In 1805 the charge for all works in the English lan- 
guage, including Engli3h and brevier, was advanced to 5fcd. 
per thousand ; and various other alterations were made, 
and remained in force until the year 1810, when a distinc- 



116 SCALE OF PRICES. 

tion was made, for the first time, between leaded and solid 
matter. In 1816, also, the masters succeeded, without 
consulting the men, in effecting a reduction of three 
farthings per thousand on reprints, which, as before re- 
marked, had hitherto been paid the same as manuscripts, 

From that time to 1847 the scale underwent no alter- 
ation whatever. But as some of its provisions admitted 
various interpretations, and its rules omitted all mention 
of many important matters of daily occurrence in a print- 
ing-office, and were thus the cause of constant disputes and 
never-ending doubt and perplexity, it was mutually agreed, 
in that year, both by masters and men, to hold a confer- 
ence for the settlement of all that was doubtful, and for 
the introduction of further rules for the determination of 
matters which the scale of 1810 had altogether omitted. 

Taking this scale as the basis of procedure, the respec- 
tive committees, after many meetings, went through the 
whole seriatim, and finally agreed that the following should 
henceforward constitute the standard of charges for com- 
positors' work in the book-offices of the London district. 



17 



SCALE OF PEICES 



COMPOSITORS' WORK, 

Agreed upon at a General Meeting of Master Printers, at 
Stationers' Hall) April 16, 1810, commencing on all 
Volumes or Periodical Numbers begun after the 30th 
inst. ; 

With additions, definitions, and explanations, agreed upon at a 
Conference held in the months of July, August, September, and 
October, 1847, between eight Master Printers and eight Com- 
positors, duly authorised by their respective bodies to discuss and 
finally settle all points in dispute, or not touched upon or clearly 
defined in the scale of 1805-10. 



ART. 1. ALL Works in the English language, common 
matter, with space lines, including English and Brevier, 
to be cast up at 5|d. per 1000 ; if in Minion, 6d. ; in Non- 
pareil, 6fc. Without space lines, including English and 
Brevier, 6(2. per 1000 ; in Minion Q\d. ; in Nonpareil, *ld.\ 
in Pearl, with or without space lines, 8d. ; Heads and Di- 
rections or Signature lines included. A thick space to be 
considered an en in the width, and an en to be reckoned 
an em in the length of the page ; and where the number of 
letters amounts to 500 1000 to be charged ; if under 500, 
not to be reckoned : and if the calculation at per 1000 
shall not amount to an odd threepence, the odd pence to 
be suppressed in the price of the work ; but where it 



118 SCALE OF PRICES. 

amounts to or exceeds threepence, there shall be sixpence 
charged. Em and en quadrats, or whatever is used at the 
beginning or end of lines, to be reckoned as an em in the 
width. 

Ruby, with space lines, to be cast up at 7\d. per 1000 ; with- 
out space lines, *l\d. per 1000. 

Diamond, with space lines, to be cast up at 9fd, per 1000 ; 
without space lines, at Wd. per 1000. 

The extra price per 1000 for Minion and all founts below 
Minion to be paid upon all descriptions of work. 

The usual deduction for leaded matter to be made for 8 to 
Pica leads, when used with Long Primer or smaller type ; for 
10 to Pica leads with Brevier or smaller type ; and for 12 to 
Pica leads when used with Nonpareil or smaller type ; Pearl 
not excepted. If leads of intermediate size be used, 9 to Pica 
to be reckoned as 10 to Pica, and 11 to Pica as 12 to Pica, 
No deduction to be made for any thinner lead than 12 to Pica 
with any sized type. 

All matter Stereotyped by the present method, namely, by 
using plaster of Paris, to be cast up, if with high spaces, at \d. 
per 1000 additional ; if with low spaces, at \d. per 1000 addi- 
tional. Should any other method be adopted obviating the 
inconvenience experienced by the compositor, no extra charge 
per 1000 to be made ; but, if imposed in small chases, Is. per 
sheet to be allowed. 

Bastard founts of one remove to be cast up to the depth 
and width of the two founts to which they belong. 

Works, although printed in half-sheets, to be cast up in 
sheets. 

2. Works printed in Great Primer to be cast up as 
English ; and all works in larger type than Great Primer, 
as half English and half Great Primer. 

3. All works in foreign languages, though common 
type, with space lines, including English and Brevier, to be 
cast up at 6|d. per 1000; if in Minion \d. ; Nonpareil, 
*l\d. -, without space lines, including English and Brevier, 



SCALE OF PRICES. 119 

6kd. ; Minion 7d. ; Nonpareil 7|d. ; and Pearl, with or 
without space lines, 8f d. 

If Dictionary matter, to take frf. advance per 1000. 

Works in the Saxon language, set up in common type with 
the two Saxon characters for th, to be cast up at \d. per 1000 
additional. 

Works in the Saxon or German languages set up in the 
Saxon or German character, to be paid Id. per 1000 extra. 

4. English Dictionaries of every size, with space lines, 
including English and Brevier, to be paid 6Jd. per 1000 ; 
without space lines, 6%d. (In this article are not included 
Gazetteers, Geographical Dictionaries, Dictionaries of 
Arts and Sciences, and works of a similar description, 
except those attended with extra trouble beyond usual 
descriptive matter.) 

Dictionaries, of two or more languages, of every size, 
with space lines, including English and Brevier, to be paid 
6f d. per 1000 ; without space lines, 6|d. If smaller type 
than Brevier, to take the proportionate advance specified 
in Article 1. 

5. English Grammars, Spelling Books, and works of 
those descriptions, in Brevier or larger type, with space 
lines, to be paid Qd. per 1000 ; without space lines, 6|c?. 

If in two languages, or foreign language, with space 
lines, Q^d. per 1000 ; without space lines, 6%d. 

Grammars wholly in a foreign language to be paid \d. per 
1000 extra beyond the price of works in foreign languages, as 
settled by Art. 3. 

6. Small-sized Folios, Quartos, Octavos, and works 
done in Great Primer or larger type (English language) 
which do not come to Is. when cast up at the usual rate, to 
be paid as follows : English and larger type, not less than 
7s. ; Pica, 8s. 6d. ; English 12mo. to be paid not less than 
10*. 6d. ; and Pica not less than 11 s. 6d. per sheet. 



120 SCALE OF PRICES. 

The words " including every item of charge" to be under- 
stood after the words " when cast up at the usual rate." 

7. Reviews, Magazines, and works of a similar descrip- 
tion, consisting of various- sized letter, if cast up to the 
different bodies, to be paid 2s. 6d. per sheet extra. 

No deduction to be made for printed copy partially intro- 
duced in Reviews, Magazines, &c. ; nor for leads occasionally 
used in them, unless with sizes of type leaded throughout ac- 
cording to the plan of the work. 

8. Pamphlets of five sheets and under, and parts of 
works done in different houses, amounting to not more 
than five sheets, to be paid one shilling per sheet extra ; 
but as it frequently occurs that works exceeding a pam- 
phlet are often nearly made up without a return of letter, 
all such works shall be considered as pamphlets, and paid 
for as such. 

In works of more than five sheets, where two-thirds are 
made up without a return of letter and leads, either of its own 
or of a similar work, Is. per sheet extra to be paid upon the 
whole work. If, however, the work be published in separate 
volumes, and the letter of the first volume be used for the 
second, or of the second for the third, no charge for making 
up letter to be made beyond the first volume. 

Parts of works done at different houses to be cast up ac- 
cording to the respective merits of the different parts ; and if 
consisting of a sheet, or less, to be cast up according to Art. 20. 

9. "Works done in Sixteens, Eighteens, Twenty-fours, 
or Thirty-twos, on Small Pica and upwards, to be paid 
Is. 6d. per sheet extra. If on Long Primer, or smaller 
type, Is. per sheet extra. Forty-eights to be paid 2s. per 
sheet extra, and Sixty-fours 2s. 6d. per sheet extra. 

In casting up, no sheet to be considered single which ex- 
ceeds 520 superficial inches of printed matter, including borders 
and rules and the inner margins ; all of larger dimensions to 
be cast up as two single sheets of half the number of pages of 



SCALE OF PRTCES. 121 

which, the whole sheet consists, viz., 4to as folio, 8vo. as 4to., 
&c., as the case may be. This rule not to include Parliamen- 
tary work. 

10. Works requiring an alteration or alterations of 
margin, to be paid for each alteration Is. per sheet to the 
pressmen, if altered by them, and 6d. to the compositor, 
as a compensation for making up the furniture ; if altered 
by the compositor, then he is to be paid Is. for the altera- 
tion, and the pressmen 6d. for the delay. This article to 
be determined on solely at the option of the employer. 

11. Bottom notes consisting of twenty lines (or two 
notes, though not amounting to twenty lines) and not ex- 
ceeding four pages in every ten sheets, in quarto or octavo : 
one page (or two notes, though not amounting to one 
page) and not exceeding six pages in twelves : two pages 
(or two notes, though not amounting to two pages) and 
not exceeding eight, in eighteens or above, to be paid Is. 
per sheet ; but under the above proportion, no charge to 
be made. Bottom notes consisting of ten lines (or two 
notes, though not amounting to ten lines), in a pamphlet 
of five sheets or under, and not exceeding two pages, to be 
paid Is. per sheet extra. Quotations, mottoes, contents to 
chapters, &c., in smaller type than the body, to be con- 
sidered as notes. [Where the notes shall be in Nonpareil 
or Pearl, in twelves, the number of pages to be restricted 
to four ; in eighteens, to five pages.] This Article is in- 
tended only to fix what constitutes the charge of Is. per 
sheet for bottom notes : all works requiring a higher charge 
than Is. for bottom notes are to be paid for according to 
their value. 

In order to constitute the charge of Is. per sheet for notes, 
there must be, 011 the average, in every ten sheets, in 4 to. or 
8vo., one note of 20 lines, or two notes though not amounting 
to 20 lines ; in 12mo. one page, or two notes though not 
amounting to one page ; in 18mo. and above, two pages, or two 
notes though not amounting to two pages. 



122 SCALE OF PRICES. 

Thus, in 4to. and 8vo. work, there must be 
In 10 sheets, 1 note of 20 lines . . . or 2 notes not amounting 

to 20 lines, 
15 ,, 2 notes amounting to 40 lines, or 3 ditto, 

20 ditto or 4 ditto, 

25 ,, 3 notes amounting to 60 lines, or 5 ditto, 

30 ditto or 6 ditto, 

and so on in proportion. 

Notes exceeding the maximum quantity specified in this 

article, to be paid Is. 6d. per sheet. If the quantity of notes 

entitle to a further advance, the whole to be measured off and 

cast up as a distinct body, Is. per sheet being paid for placing. 

Example : In a work of Sixteen Sheets. 

. s. d. 

Pica, 12 sheets at 14s. per sheet . . .880 
Long Primer, 4 sheets at 21s. 6d. per sheet . 460 
Placing 16 



13 10 

In measuring off notes, quotations, &c., the actual quantity 
of small type to be reckoned ; and when it exceeds one line, 
one line extra to be allowed for the white, but when there is 
only one line of small type, one line only to be reckoned ; i.e. 
for each separate quantity of note, quotation, &c., exceeding 
one line, one line 'extra to be reckoned for the space which 
separates it from the text. Where no space appears, no line 
to be reckoned. 

If two or more notes occur in one line, each reference to 
be considered a note in counting, but not a separate line in 
measuring off. 

In calculating the charge of Is. per sheet for notes, the 
note type to be considered as two sizes less than the text 
type. Notes set up in a type three or more removes from that 
used for the text to be reckoned according to the relative 
proportions of two removes. 

Works having notes upon notes, quotations, &c., set up in 
a smaller type than the notes, to be paid Is. per sheet extra on 
every sheet where such notes, &c. occur. If, however, this 
extra charge be not equivalent to the value of the matter set 



SCALE OF PRICES. 123 

in any one sheet, such, matter to be measured off and paid for 
upon the same principle as bottom notes. 

Type between the sizes of the text and the notes to be paid 
for as follows :The quantity to be measured off, and the 
difference of value between it and the text type charged, with 
the addition of Is. per sheet for placing in every sheet in which 
it occurs ; if occurring in three-fourths of the work, Is. per 
sheet for placing to be paid throughout. 

12. Side notes to folios and quartos not exceeding a 
broad quotation, if only chapter or date, and not exceeding 
three explanatory lines on an average in each page, to be 
paid Is. per sheet ; in octavo, if only chapter or date, and 
not exceeding three explanatory lines on an average in 
each page, Is. 6d. per sheet. Cut-in notes in smaller type 
than the body to be paid for in a similar manner. Side 
and bottom notes to many, particularly historical and law 
works, if attended with more than ordinary trouble, to be 
settled between the employer and journeyman. 

Side notes in 12mo. to be paid 2s. per sheet ; in 16mo., 
18mo., and above, 2s. Qd. per sheet. 

Side notes set up in Nonpareil, though not exceeding the 
quantity specified in this article, and not cast up to their value, 
to be paid 6d. per sheet additional ; if in Pearl, Is. per sheet 
additional. 

Where side notes exceed the maximum quantity specified, 
viz., chapter or date, and three explanatory lines on an average 
in each page, the actual number of lines set up to be counted 
and paid at treble their price as common matter, as an equi- 
valent for composing and making up. In casting up, the 
actual width only of the text and side notes to be taken 
respectively. 

Side notes and Cut-in notes, occurring in distinct portions 
of works, or in less than one-fourth part of a work, not to 
form a pro raid charge per sheet, but to be paid on those sheets 
only in which they appear. 

Double side notes, or notes upon each side of the page, to 
be paid double the price specified for notes on one side of the 



*24 SCALE OF PRICES. 

page ; but if occurring occasionally, to be paid on those sheets 
only in which they appear. 

Figures in the margin down the side of a page not to be 
considered as side notes ; but to be charged extra according to 
the trouble occasioned. 

Under-runners not to be cast up with the side notes, but 
to be paid by agreement between the employer and journey- 
men. 

13. Greek, Hebrew, Saxon, &c., or any of the dead cha- 
racters, if one word and not exceeding three lines in any 
one sheet, to be paid for that sheet Is. extra ; all aboye to 
be paid according to their value. 

Greek, &c., exceeding 3 lines in any one sheet, to be paid 
Is. per sheet in addition to its value as cast up ; the 3 lines 
specified for the Is. charge being deducted. 

14. Greek, with space lines, and without accents, to be 
paid 8%d. per 1000 ; if with separate accents, 10<#.; without 
space lines, and without accents, 8f d. ; with accents, 10|cL ; 
the asper not to be considered an accent. (If Dictionary 
matter, to take one halfpenny advance.) 

15. Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, &c., to be paid double. 
Hebrew with points to be cast up as half body and half 
points doubled. 

16. Music to be paid double the body of the sonnet type. 

Music to be paid by agreement between the employer and 
journeyman, the foregoing article being wholly inapplicable to 
instrumental music. 

17. Index matter, though but one measure, to be paid 
2. per sheet extra. 

18. Booksellers' Catalogues (in whatever language) to 
be cast up at 7d. per 1000 ; not including the numbering. 

This Article applies to Booksellers' Catalogues only. 
"Not including the numbering" means, that, when the 
compositor has to supply or correct the numbers used in a 



SCALE OF PRICES. 125 

bookseller's catalogue, an extra charge shall be made equiva- 
lent to the loss of time occasioned. 

The words "in whatever language" mean those in which 
common type is used. 

Notes or remarks in smaller type inserted in a bookseller's 
catalogue, to be paid as bottom notes. 

19. Night- work to commence and be paid for, from ten 
o'clock till twelve, Is. ; all after to be paid 3d. per hour 
extra till six. Morning work, commencing at four o'clock^ 
to be paid Is. extra. Sunday work, if not exceeding six 
hours, to be paid for, Is.; if for a longer time, 2d. an hour. 

20. Jobs of one sheet or under (except Auctioneers' 
Catalogues and Particulars) to be cast up at 7d. per 1000 ; 
if done in smaller type than Brevier, to take the 
proportionate advance specified in Article 1. If in 
foreign language, of one sheet or under (except Auc- 
tioneers' Catalogues), to be cast up at 8d. per 1000 ; if 
done in smaller type than Brevier, to take the propor- 
tionate advance specified in Article 1. 

Auctioneers' Catalogues and Particulars to be cast up at 
6d. per 1000 leaded or solid, and irrespectively of extent. 
Small type introduced, or any other extra, to be paid as in 
book-work. The " Conditions" page, if standing, to be paid 
as a page of the catalogue ; but if composed, according to the 
type in which it is set up. 

Tracts of one sheet or under, printed for Religious or other 
Societies, or forming part of an uniform series, not to be con- 
sidered jobs, but to be cast up according to Article 1, with the 
addition of 2s. 6d. per sheet. 

Jobs of the character of bookwork to be cast up in sheets, 
with the usual extras, and the portion of the sheet which is 
actually set up or imposed to be charged. 

21. Where two pages only are imposed, either opposite 
to or at the back of each other, they shall be paid for as 
two pages j but if with an indorse, or any other kind of 



126 SCALE OF PRICES. 

matter constituting a third, then to be paid as a sheet if 
in folio, a half-sheet if in quarto, and so on. 

In works printed on every alternate page only, the blank 
at the back of each page not to be charged. 

22. Broadsides, such as Leases, Deeds, and Charter- 
parties, above the dimensions of crown, whether table or 
common matter, to be paid the double of common matter ; 
on crown and under, to be paid one and one-half common 
matter. The indorse to be paid one-fourth of the inside 
page as common matter. 

This article to apply to undisplayed Broadsides of one mea- 
sure ; if set up in 2, 3, or 4 columns, to be paid one-fourth the 
price of common matter extra. 

Displayed Broadsides to be paid as follows : 
If containing more than 16 lines 

s. d. 

Foolscap or Crown 50 

Demy ..70 

Royal '...86 

Double Crown 10 

If containing 13, and not more than 16 lines, three-fourths 
of the prices specified ; if 12 lines and under, one-half. 

23. All corrections to be paid 6d. per hour. 

24. The imprint to be considered as two lines in the 
square of the page. 

25. Different volumes of the same work to be paid for 
distinctly, according to their value. 



127 



At a Meeting of the Masters, held at the Globe Tavern, 
Jan. 16, 1816, the following modification took place 
in the Compositors' Scale of Prices of 1810, as far as 
regards Reprints : 

All Eeprinted Works to be paid Three Farthings per 
1000 less than the scale of 1810. All Manuscript or Ori- 
ginal Works shall continue to be paid for as at present. 

Reprints, with numerous MS. insertions interspersed 
throughout ; or so materially altered as to consist of half MS. 
and half reprint ; or derived from various sources not being 
the compilation of the works of one author, to be considered 
Manuscript or Original works. 

[An entire chapter or portion in MS. not to be considered 
as part of the one-half above mentioned, but to be paid as 
MS.] 

Reprints having less MS. alterations than above stated, to 
be paid one halfpenny per 1000 less than the scale of 1810. 

[Verbal corrections, simple alterations of style, or typo- 
graphical alterations, not to be considered MS. alterations.] 

The text of an author reprinted with a MS. commentary at 
the foot of the page, to be paid one halfpenny per 1000 less 
than the scale of 1810. 



128 



ADDENDA. 



APPEAL CASES. 

APPEAL CASES to be cast up at 7d. per 1000 j* if above 40 
ems Pica in width., to be cast up at 8d. per 1000. Side notes 
to Appeal Cases, whether light or heavy, to be paid per sheet 
of 4 pp. folio, if on a broad quotation, 3s. ; double narrow, 5s. ; 
double broad, 6s. 



COLUMN MATTER. 

Column Matter, as distinguished from Table and Tabular, 
is matter made up continuously in two or more columns not 
dependent upon each other for their arrangement. To be paid 
as follows : 

2 column matter in sizes less than folio : 

In 4to. and 8vo . . . .Is. Od. per sheet. 

12mo Is. 6d. 

16mo. and smaller sizes . . 2s. Qd. 

3 columns : 

In pages 21 ems Pica or less wide, one-fourth more than 

common matter. 
In pages of greater width, 2s. per sheet extra. 

4 columns : 

In folio and 4to., 4s. per sheet. 

In 8vo. and smaller sizes, in pages 22 ems Pica and less 
wide, one-half more than common matter ; in pages of 
greater width, one-fourth more than common matter. 



* When Chancery Bills were first printed, they were charged 
at the game rate as Appeal Cases, Id. per 1000 ; hut the price has 
since been reduced to 6|df. 



SCALE OF PEICES. 129 

5 columns : 

In folio and 4to., one-half more than common matter ; 
in 8vo. and smaller sizes, double the price of common 
matter. 

Column matter not exceeding 5 ems Pica in width to be 
paid one-half more than common matter ; not exceeding 4 
ems Pica, double the price of common matter. 

The above charges to be made upon every description of 
work, and to include the insertion of column rules when re- 
quired. 

Parallel matter, dialogues, vocabularies, comparative 
statements, and matter of a similar description, although 
arranged in columns depending upon each other, to be con- 
sidered as column matter ; if attended with extra trouble, to 
be arranged between the employer and journeyman. 

Two-column matter interspersed throughout the text of a 
work, to be paid in 4to., 8vo., and 12mo., 6d. per sheet extra ; 
in 16mo. and smaller sizes, Is. per sheet extra; if constituting 
more than half the work, to be paid as if the whole sheet were 
column matter. 



TABULAR AND TABLE WORK. 

Tabular and Table Work is matter set up in three or more 
columns depending upon each other and reading across the 
page. To be paid as follows : 

3 columns without headings, one-fourth extra. 

3 columns with headings, or 4 columns without, one-half 
extra. 

4 columns with headings, and 5 or more with or without, 
double the price of common matter. 

Headings in smaller type than the body, but not exceeding 

two removes from it, if not more than 3 lines in depth, to be 

paid Is. per sheet extra ; if more than 3 lines, or if in smaller 

type than two removes, to be cast up according to the relative 

k 



130 SCALE OF PRICES. 

values of the two bodies ; the greatest number of appearing 
lines being considered the depth. 

The following to be considered a definition of the word 
heading : 



Parish. 


Name of Voter. 


Residence. 


Chelsea . . . 


John Smith . . 


Belgrave-place. 



Or thus, when set in smaller type, and forming three or 
more lines : 

Name Trade Place 

of or of 

Voter. Profession. Residence. 

John Smith Wheelwright Chelsea. 

Blank Tables to be cast up double the price of the text 
type of the work. No extra charge to be made for headings 
in smaller type, unless such headings constitute one-half of 
the table. 

The extra price for table, tabular, and column matter to 
be paid upon its actual dimensions only, with the following 
exceptions : 

Title headings to table and tabular matter to be reckoned 
as part of such matter ; but if they exceed 5 ems of the body 
of the table, &c. in depth, 5 ems only to be charged as table, 
the remainder as common matter. 

Bottom Notes to tables to be paid on the same plan as Title 
Headings : not to constitute a pro ratd charge per sheet. 

The extra price for table, tabular, and column matter, 
when paid by an addition to the price per 1000, to be cast up 
according to Art. 1 ; thus, a Greek table to be paid as once 
Greek and once English matter. 



WRAPPERS. 

The companionship on a Magazine or Review to be entitled 
to the first or title-page of the Wrapper of such Magazine or 



SCALE OF PRICES. 131 

Review ; but not to the remaining pages of such. Wrapper, nor 
to the Advertising Sheets which may accompany the Maga- 
rine or Review. 

Standing Advertisements or Stereo-blocks, if forming a 
complete page, or, when collected together, making one or 
more complete pages, in a Wrapper or Advertising Sheet of a 
Magazine or Review, not to be chargeable ; the compositor to 
charge only for his time in making them up. The remainder 
of the matter in such Wrapper or Advertising Sheet, including 
Standing Advertisements or Stereo-blocks not forming a com- 
plete page, to be charged by the Compositor, and cast up ac- 
cording to the 8th or 20th Articles of the Scale, as they may 
respectively apply ; but the charge of 2s. 6d., as given by 
Article 7, is not to be superadded. 

Advertisements, and Woodcuts connected with advertise- 
ments, occurring in Periodical Publications, to be charged in 
a similar manner. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Prefatory matter, Preliminary Dissertations, Biographical 
Memoirs, &c., not exceeding a sheet, if set up in type not less 
than the body of the text, to be paid as pages of the work ; if 
set up in smaller type, to be cast up with the addition of the 
extras of the work ; but if either exceed a sheet, to be cast up 
as Appendices. Half-titles, Titles, Dedications, &c., in all 
cases to be paid as pages of the work. Appendices, portions 
of works, &c., set up in a different type from the text, and 
made up in separate pages, to be cast up upon their own 
merits ; and if not exceeding five sheets, or if made up without 
a return of letter, to take one shilling per sheet extra, accord- 
ing to Art. 8. Indexes being provided for by Art. 17, are not 
included in this rule. 

Works with rules or borders round the pages, to be cast up 
according to the actual dimensions of the type, an extra price 
being paid for the rules or borders according to the trouble 
occasioned. 

2 



132 SCALE OF PRICES. 

Pedigrees to be paid double the price of common matter ; 
and the heads and notes upon the same principle as the heads 
and notes of tables. 

Algebraical and other mathematical works, consisting of 
mathematical fractional workings numerously interspersed 
throughout, to be paid double the price of common matter. 
When, however, such workings are not numerous, they only 
shall be cast up as double, the remainder of the work being 
cast up as common matter, with such extra for fractions, &c., 
as shall be mutually agreed upon between the employer and 
journeyman. 

Interlinear matter, on the plan of the Hamiltonian system, 
to be cast up at one and one-half the price of common matter; 
the actual number of lines of small type only being reckoned, 
In grammars, &c., where words and figures; not being a literal 
translation, are arranged between the lines, one-fourth more 
than common matter to be paid. 

All works to be cast up as sent to press, except by mutual 
agreement between the employer and the journeyman. 

"Works sent out in slips not made up into perfect pages, 
to be made up at the expense of the employer ; if in two or 
three columns, provided that each column exceeds 12 ems 
Pica in width, no charge for column matter to be made in the 
casting up. If set up in Long Primer or smaller type, the 
charges for 16mo., 18mo., &c., under Art. 9, to be relinquished ; 
if sent out without head-lines, the value of the head-lines to 
be deducted from the casting-up. 

Matter driven out by insertions to be charged by the com- 
positor, but the value to be deducted from the time taken in 
driving out such matter ; when driven out by leads, the over- 
matter to be charged by the compositor, deducting the time 
taken in inserting the leads ; when driven out by the insertion 
of woodcuts, the matter to be charged, but the time taken in 
justi tying such woodcuts to be deducted. 

When, in consequence of notes being struck out in authors' 
proofs, the pro ratd charge per sheet is destroyed, the com- 
positor shall only charge for notes upon the sheets where they 
originally appeared. 



SCALE OF PRICES. 133 

Blank pages to be filled up at the option of the author, 
the compositor charging for his previous trouble in making 
up the blank. 

Cancels in all cases to be charged as pages of the work. 

When woodcuts constitute more than one-fourth of the 
work, the mode of charging such woodcuts shall be settled 
between the employer and journeyman. 

Bills in Parliament : 

English, 26 ems wide by 47 ems long. 

Without side notes, per sheet 6*. Qd. 

With broad quotation side notes, ditto 9s. Qd. 

With double narrow side notes, ditto 10s. Qd. 

Pica, 29 ems wide by 53 ems long. 

Without sides notes, per sheet 7*. Orf. 

With broad quotation side notes, ditto 10*. Od. 

With double narrow side notes, ditto 11s. Qd. 

Compositors on the establishment to receive not less than 
33s. per week, for 10| hours of full work per day. An extra 
allowance to be made for working beyond the time specified. 

Compositors to receive and give a fortnight's notice previ- 
ously to their engagement being terminated. 



The above Scale to come into operation on the 1st 
December, 1847, and to be applicable to all descriptions of 
work mentioned therein commenced after that date. 

On behalf of the Masters. On behalf of the Compositors. 

(Signed) WILLIAM RIVIBGTON. (Signed) WILLIAM DREW. 

JNO. A. D. Cox. ROBERT CHAPMAN. 

ALEX. MACINTOSH. GEO. EDW. ADCOCK. 

T. R. HARRISON. FRANCIS FELTOE. 

RICHARD CLAY. JOHN FERGUSON. 

GEORGE CLOWES. WM. CRAIG. 

J. ILIFFE WILSON. LEWIS MILLER. 

CHARLES WHITTINGHAM. EDWARD EDWARDS. 

Freemasons' Tavern, 

Nov. th, 1847. 



134 



ABSTRACT OF THE SCALE. 



ENGLISH to ) 
BREVIER \ 



( leaded 
\ solid 



PEi - f s 



DIAMOND .. j l 
( 



ead *<* 
solid 



DICTION- 
ARIES. 



g 



English a 
Foreign 



GRAMMARS, 
ETC. 



ish a 
reign 



Without 
Accents 



81 



ENGLISH to ) I leaded 
BREVIER \ \ solid 




64 



71 



91 



D, iM OND_... 



10 



Reprints with MS. inseitions add %d. to the price stated above. 
Stereotyped matter with high spaces adds \d. to the price stated. 
Stereotyped matter with low spaces adds d. to the price stated. 

Notes constituting the charge of One Shilling per Sheet. 
See Article 11, 

4to and 8vo. 20 Lines or 2 Notes, and not exceeding 4 pages in 
every 10 Sheets. 

1 2mo. 1 Page or 2 Notes, and not exceeding 6 pp. in every 1 Sheets. 

18mo or above. 2 Pages or 2 notes, and not exceeding 8 pages in 
every 10 Sheets. 

Pamphlets. 10 Lines or 2 Notes, and not exceeding 2 pp. in 5 Sheets. 



135 



APPENDIX TO SCALE. 



NEWS AND PARLIAMENTARY WORK, ETC. 

As the preceding Scale is applicable only to book work, 
as charged in the London district, and makes no reference 
to news or parliamentary work, nor yet to country prices, 
it will be desirable to append them in this place. 



SCALE FOR NEWS-WORK. 

Per Week. Per Galley. Per Hour. 

Morning Papers . . . 2 8 - 3s. Wd. - IHd. 
Evening Papers . . . 2 3 6 - 3s. 7d. - \0\d. 

The charge of tenpence halfpenny per hour refers solely 
to employment upon time ; every odd quarter of a galley, on 
quantity, must carry the charge of \\d. ; as the charge of 10^. 
would bring down the galley to 3s. 6d. ; which is contrary to 
the scale. 

Assistants on other Journals are paid the same as 
Evening Papers ; the Sunday Papers, having their galleys 
of various lengths, are paid at the rate of 8%d. per 1000, 
or lOd. per hour. 

The only meaning that can be gathered from the first part 
of this article is, that papers which are published twice or 
three times a week are paid the same as Evening Papers. 
With respect to the second part, the price per thousand for a 
Sunday or weekly paper is the same, but time-work is paid 
only 10c?. per hour. 

Long Primer and Minion galleys cast as nigh 5000 
letters as possible (at present varying from that number 



136 SCALE OF PRICES. 

to 5200, partly arising from a variation in the founders' 
standard), are per 1000 on 

Morning. Evening. 

Long Primer and Minion. . . . 9d. - 8%d. 

Nonpareil Wd. - 9d. 

Pearl * . lid. - I0|d. 

Or a reduction in proportion to value, on the galley quantity. 

This article has been greatly misunderstood ; it has been 
supposed to contain a license for the news compositor to set 
up 5200 letters for a galley, but it does not say any such thing ; 
it simply states the fact, that at the period when the Scale was 
framed, some galleys contained more than 5000 letters. As 
the price per thousand is clearly established, the compositor 
should set up neither more nor less than just such a number 
of lines as will amount to 3s. IQd. on a Morning Paper, or 3s. Id. 
on an Evening Paper. 

The galley on Morning Papers consists of 120 lines 
long primer, and 40 after-lines minion 88, and 30 after- 
lines on Papers 22 ems long primer wide ; other widths 
in proportion ; and & finish of five hours. Another mode 
is, one galley, and a finish of six hours. Twelve hours 
on and twelve off (including refreshment-time) was the 
original agreement. 

"The galley on. Morning Papers consists of 120 lines long 
primer, and 40 after-lines ;" which amounts to just this, that 
it consists of a galley and a quarter and ten lines (long primer) ; 
that the workman shall compose 7040 letters for 3s. IQd., instead 
of receiving his just reward, 5s. 3^d. ; and that the full hand 
on his first work is paid at the rate of 6^d. per thousand, though 
the Scale gives him 9d. 

There is also a mis-statement in respect to the length of 
the galley ; for it will be found that on casting up a galley of 
the length and width given, it would contain 5280 letters, thus 
exceeding the legal quantity by 280 letters, and being at direct 
variance with the first part of the Scale, which directs " that 



SCALE OF PRICES. 137 

long primer and minion galleys are to be cast as nigh 5000 
letters as possible." The first direction is that which is really 
meant to be adopted, and which the remaining regulations of 
the Scale alone sanction. 

With regard to after-lines upon the first work on Morning 
Papers, we find that the custom existed as far back as the year 
1770; but no reason for the practice can be assigned, though it 
is understood to have been adopted to lighten or to leave 
nothing to compose for the finish, and thus enable the com- 
positors to go early to their beds ; an advantage which, from 
the complete alteration in the nature of Morning Papers, it is 
totally impossible they now can enjoy. 

By a finish of five hours on Morning, and six hours on 
Evening Papers, it was not meant that the compositors should 
produce five or six quarters of a galley, as that would produce 
considerably more than they were paid for ; but from the best 
information that can now be obtained of the nature of News- 
papers at the time this mode of work was introduced, it appears 
that the first work and after-lines of the full hands and the 
galley of the supernumeraries were sufficient to produce the 
paper, and that the "finish" was merely waiting to see 
whether any news of importance should arrive (during which 
time they might put in letter for the next day), and assisting 
to put the paper to press. 

The time of beginning to be the same uniformly as 
agreed upon by the printer and companionship, i. e. either 
a two, three, or four o'clock paper and at whatever hour 
the Journal goes to press one morning, regulates the hour 
of commencing work for the next day's publication, pro- 
vided it should be over the hour originally agreed upon 
if under, the time is in the compositors' favour. The hour 
of commencing work on Sunday is regulated by the time 
of finishing on Saturday morning. 

This article it is impossible to understand ; but the general 
practice appears to be, when the paper goes to press two or 
three hours after the specified time, to take off one, and some- 



138 SCALE OF PRICES. 

times two, quarters from the first work of the next day ; but 
generally commencing at the time originally agreed upon on a 
Sunday, making each week's work complete in itself. 

Ten hours composition is the specified time for Evening 
Papers all composition to cease when the day's publi- 
cation goes to press : any work required afterwards to be 
paid for extra, or deducted from the first work of the next 
publication. This does not apply to second editions ; they 
being connected solely with the antecedent paper, must 
be paid for extra. 

Matter set up for a morning paper is invariably paid morning 
paper price, although such matter is set up in London, and the 
paper is published in the provinces. 

Newspapers in a foreign language take, of course, the 
same advance as is allowed on book-work. 

A system termed finishing having been formerly intro- 
duced, it is necessary to state that no mode of working 
can be considered fair (except as before stated) otherwise 
than by the galley or hour. 

No apprentices to be employed on daily papers. 

Apprentices are not permitted to work on daily papers, 
whether stamped or unstamped. 

Compositors on weekly papers, when employed on time, 
charge one hour for every portion of an hour. 

Compositors called in to assist on weekly papers are entitled 
to charge not less than two hours if employed on time, or less 
than half a galley if paid by lines ; and persons regularly em- 
ployed in a house where a weekly paper is done, if required 
to leave their ordinary work to assist on the paper, are entitled 
to not less than a quarter of a galley, or an hour, for each time 
of being called on. 

The method of charging column work upon Newspapers 
is as follows : half measure is charged one-third more, third 



SCALE OF PRICES. 139 

measure is charged one-half, and four- column measure is 
charged double. 

One-fourth is allowed for distribution on weekly papers, 
when more than one galley has been composed ; but if less 
than a galley, no deduction is made. 



PARLIAMENTARY WORK. 

1. That all work for either House of Parliament, such 
as Reports, Minutes of Evidence, &c., as well as Reports 
of Royal Commissions of Inquiry, whether manuscript or 
reprint, leaded or solid, to be charged as 6\d. per 1000, 
including English and Brevier ; and always to be cast up 
according to the type in which it is composed. Tables to 
be charged Is. Id. per thousand. 

2. That all works not intended for either House of 
Parliament, but executed for the Public Departments, to 
be paid according to the Scale for Book-work, with all 
the extras. 

3. That Private Parliamentary Bills be charged 7d. 
per thousand, and table-matter in them at Is. 2d. per 
thousand. 

This article does not interfere with those bills in Par- 
liament which are of the regular size, and for which a stated 
price is paid. 

4. That pica or any other type as a standard is in 
opposition to the practice of the business, and in no case 
to be admitted ; but all Reports, Minutes of Evidence, 

Accounts, Appendices, &c., are to be cast up according to 

the type in which they are composed. 

5. That pages consisting of two or three columns 
with one or more headings, or three or four columns without 



140 SCALE OF PRICES. 

headings, to be charged as tabular, or one and one-half 
common matter. 

6. That pages consisting of four or more columns, with 
one or more headings, or five or more columns without 
headings, to be charged as table, or double the price of 
common matter. 

7. That when short pages occur in a series of tables, 
to be charged as full pages, but where a table or piece of 
table occurs in a Report, &c., to be charged only the depth 
of the table, measuring from the head to the conclusion 
of the table. The same rule to apply to tabular. 

In a series of tables, all pieces of pages left blank are charged 
as table ; in jobs or works consisting of plain matter, where 
tables or tabular matter are introduced, whatever blank occurs 
is considered as common matter ; unless the table or tabular 
matter forms more than three-fourths of a page ; in which 
latter case, the page is charged as a full page table or tabular, 
as the case may be. 

8. That all headings to table or tabular matter, when 
in smaller type than the body of the table, to be charged 
extra. 

9. Pages consisting of four or five blank columns to be 
charged tabular ; but when the columns are six or more, 
to be charged table, cast up to the size of the type used 
in the Reports or Bills in which they occur. 

10. When blank forms are used by themselves, de- 
tached from any Bill, &c., to be charged as pica table or 
tabular, according to the number of the columns, as 
specified in Resolution IX. 

11. Plain matter divided into two columns to be 
charged not less than Is. per sheet. 

12. All read-over pages (as in Dr. and Cr. accounts 
of two pages) where one page only is tabular or table, the 
same charge to be made for both pages, and in no case 
shall read-over pages be charged less than tabular. 



SCALE OF PRICES. 141 

13. Side notes of *' broad quotations," and not exceed- 
ing five lines per page, in quartos and folios to be charged 
Is. 6d. per sheet; in " double narrows," not exceeding 
five lines per page, 2s. per sheet, throughout such Eeport, 
Appendix, &c., excepting when pages comprising the 
whole width of the page (including the space for side 
notes) shall occur : all above that proportion to be paid 
ad valorem. Where double side notes occur in a page, to 
be charged double the above sum. 

Reports, Minutes of Evidence, and Appendices, are all 
cast up separately, and take only the extras which strictly 
belong to them. Thus, if a Report, &c. have side notes, and 
the Appendix is without side notes, no charge is made on the 
Appendix for side notes. 

14. Where two bottom notes, or one note of twenty 
lines, occur in a Eeport, Bill, Appendix, &c., a charge of 
Is. per sheet to be made throughout such Eeport, Bill, 
Appendix, &c. ; all above to be charged according to their 
value. 

N.B. The foregoing Regulations are applicable solely to 
Parliamentary Work. 



PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS. 

1. Publications, and parts of publications, when pulled 
in galleys or slips, to be made up at the expense of the 
employer. 

This regulation is to guard the compositor from having 
two makings -up and two impositions ; if he be ordered to 
make up his matter in slips, or have it pulled in galleys, he 
is not to make it up into pages, without being paid for the 
time it takes to make up and impose. 



142 SCALE OF PRICES. 

It is contrary to the spirit of this regulation for any com- 
positor to accept a price for pulling his galleys, and then make 
his matter up at his own expense. 

2. Publications containing two bodies (not being notes) 
to be cast up to the respective founts, and charged the 
2s. 6d. allowed by the 7th article of the compositors' scale. 

This article applies solely to periodicals. The regulations 
respecting mixed bodies are, that one body shall be taken 
for the width, and the other for the depth. 

3. All publications which appear weekly, or at shorter 
periods, whether stamped or unstamped, which contain 
general news, such as parliamentary reports, reports of 
police or law courts, foreign or provincial intelligence, 
reports of daily occurrences, or notices of bankrupts, to be 
paid according to the existing scale for newspapers ; but 
all those which contain only reviews of books, notices of 
dramatic or musical performances, articles on the fine arts, 
accounts of the meetings and proceedings of religious, 
literary, or scientific societies, and advertisements, to be 
paid the same as monthly or quarterly publications. 

This article is intended to define what constitutes a news- 
paper. If the matter is such as is described in the first part 
of this article, it is to be paid according to the scale regulating 
the charge for newspapers, and subject to the same rules ; 
but the publications described in the latter part of the article 
are charged according to the Book Scale, taking the usual 
extras, and the companions are entitled to any standing mat- 
ter in such publications, the wrapper, &c. &c. Should the 
mode, however, of getting up these publications materially 
differ from the common mode of doing book- work, and the 
compositors have frequently to make even lines, with takings 
of a few lines each, and other disadvantages connected with 
a newspaper, then they take the newspaper charge. 

4. No companionship to allow its work to be made up 



SCALE OP PRICES. 143 

by an individual on the establishment, or in any other way 
effect a compromise with the employer, contrary to the 
usage of the trade. 

T his stipulation was to remedy the practice of establish- 
ment-men making up the matter of compositors on the piece ; 
thus securing the principal advantage to the employers, who 
paid for the matter, occasionally, only a halfpenny or a penny 
extra per 1000. It does not prevent, however, a companion- 
ship appointing one of their number to make up their 
matter, upon such terms as they may agree to among them- 
selves. 

When a publication is pulled in galleys, and afterwards 
made up at the expense of the employer, the compositors in 
casting up their matter, reckon the head and white lines be- 
longing to the pages. * 



COUNTRY PRICES. 

The following will be found to be the main features 
of the charges for composing in some of the principal 
towns in the kingdom. 

Leeds. All works in the English language, common 
matter, including English and minion, are charged 5d. 
per 1000, nonpareil-minion, 5$d. (for the news, 6d.) ; 
nonpareil and ruby, 6d., and pearl Id. Works in great 
primer to be cast up as English ; and all works in larger 
type than great primer, as half English and half great 
primer. Foreign languages are charged ^d. extra ; and 
English dictionaries, from English to brevier, 5ld. Greek, 
without accents, 7|cZ. ; with accents, 91$.,, with \d. per 1000 

* For the preceding observations relating to Parliamentary 
Work and Periodical Publications, I am indebted to the Green 
Book, issued under the superintendence of the Trade Council of 
the London Union of Compositors. 



144 SCALE OF PRICES. 

additional for dictionaries. Hebrew, Arabic, Syriae, &c., 
are paid double ; with points, as half body and half points 
doubled. Night work commences at ten o'clock, and is 
paid Is. ; corrections, 6d. per hour. The establishment 
wages are generally 26s. per week. 

York. Most of the hands employed here, are engaged 
on the establishment, the usual rate being about 25s. per 
week. 

Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool. In these towns also, 
weekly wages are the general rule, varying from 27s. to 
80s. Piece-work prevails on some newspapers, the rate 
varying from 5d. to Id. per 1000, according to the size of 
the type. 

Edinburgh. Common matter, English language, is 
charged at 4hd. per 1000 ; but sessions work and jobs are 
cast up at 5^d. Dictionaries are charged 5d., and pam- 
phlets of five sheets and under are paid Is. per sheet above 
what they come to by letters. Grammars and school- 
books are generally paid at 5^., where much Roman find 
Italic occur, with braces, different justifications, &c. 
Foreign languages, common type, are cast up at 5d., as is 
also nonpareil ; and pearl is charged 5hd. per 1000. 

Dublin. "Works in the English language, common 
matter (from brevier to English), are cast up at 5d. per 
1000 ; minion, 5d. ; nonpareil, G\d. ; and pearl, l\d. 
Works in foreign languages take an advance of one half- 
penny. Greek without accents is paid Sd. ; with accents, 
9d. Hebrew, Arabic, Saxon, Syriac, &c., are charged 
double. Arithmetics, and similar works, are charged 2d. 
per 1000 more than the ordinary price. Algebraic works 
are cast up at lOd. ; if Algebra be mixed with other 
matter, it is charged from Sd. to 6d., according to quantity. 
English dictionaries are cast up at 5^d. ; dictionaries of 



SCALE OF PRICES. 145 

two or more languages, common type, at 6d. ; English 
grammars, spelling-books, and similar works, are paid 5%d. ; 
of two languages, or foreign, 5%d. Time is reckoned at 6d. 
per hour. 

Belfast. In this town it is customary to charge 
nonpareil at 5jd. per 1000 ; minion, 5d. ; brevier and up to 
English, 4|dL Jobs are paid at the rate of 5f d. ; and 
pamphlets of five sheets and under, 5d. Grammars and 
school-books where there is much extra labor, take an 
advance of Id. per 1000 ; and bottom notes are charged a 
halfpenny more than the text. Corrections are done at 
6d. per hour. Establishment wages are from 21 s. to 22*. 
per week. 

It is unnecessary to give the practice of towns of less 
importance ; for in most places weekly wages prevail. I 
will only add, that the rate of payment is generally highest 
in the neighbourhood of London, and in the North, and 
lowest in the West of England and the country districts of 
Scotland and Ireland, 

It is owing to this circumstance, undoubtedly, that the 
London trade is principally recruited from those ill-paid 
districts ; for in them, it is Nothing uncommon for almost 
all the work to be executed by apprentices, who are, as a 
matter of course, sent adrift as soon as their term of 
servitude has expired. 



For the convenience of the compositor, the following- 
table, showing the price of any number of letters from 
10,000 to 50,000, at all prices, from 5d. to 9d., is here given. 
Higher numbers are easily ascertained by adding together 
two or more of their component parts. 



146 TABLE showing the price of any number of letters from 



TH. 


5d. 


5|A 


%J. 


5Jd. 


6d. 


6K 


6J<*. 


6fd. 




8. d. 


s. d. 


*. d. 


s. d 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. s. d. 


10 


4 2 


4 44 


4 7 


4 9| 


5 


5 21 


55 5 74 


11 


4 7 


4 9| 


5 0| 


5 3J 


5 6 


5 8| 


5 114 6 21 


12 


5 


5 3 


5 6 


5 9 


6 


6 3 


66 69 


13 


5 5 


5 8i 


5 114 


6 2| 


6 6 


6 9 


7 01 


7 3f 


14 


5 10 


6 li 


6 5 


6 81 


7 


7 31 


7 7 


7 104 


15 


6 3 


6 6| 


6 101 


7 2| 


7 6 


7 9} 


8 14 


8 54 


16 


6 8 


7 


7 4 


7 8 


8 


8 4 


8 8 


9 


17 

18 


7 1 
7 6 


7 ^ 
7 104 


7 91 
8 3 


8 If 
8 7J 


8 6 
9 


8 101 
9 44 


9 24 
9 9 


9 6f 

10 14 


19 


7 11 


8 3| 


8 8| 


9 1* 


9 6 


9 10J 


10 34 


10 84 


20 


8 4 


8 9 


9 2 


9 7 


10 


10 5 


10 10 


11 3 


21 


8 9 


9 2i 


9 71 


10 Of 


10 6 


10 111 


11 4 


11 9f 


22 


9 2 


9 74 


10 1 


10 64 


11 


11 51 


11 11 


12 4| 


23 


9 7 


10 Of 


10 6J 


11 04 


11 6 


11 11| 


12 54 


12 11J 


24 


10 


10 6 


11 


11 6 


12 


12 6 


13 


13 6 


25 


10 5 


10 Hi 


11 5| 


11 llf 


12 6 


13 01 


13 64 


14 0| 


26 


10 10 


11 44 


11 11 


12 5| 


13 


13 6J 


14 1 


14 74 


27 


11 3 


11 9| 


12 41 


12 Hi 


13 6 


14 0} 


14 74 


15 21 


28 


11 8 


12 3 


12 10 


13 5 


14 


14 7 


15 2 


15 9 


29 


12 1 


12 81 


13 34 


13 lOf 


14 6 


15 li 


15 84 


16 3| 


80 


12 6 


13 14 


13 9 


14 44 


15 


15 74 


16 3 


16 104 


31 


12 11 


13 6| 


14 2| 


14 104 


15 6 


16 If 


16 94 


17 51 


32 


13 4 


14 


14 8 


15 4 


16 


16 8 


17 4 


18 


33 


13 9 


14 51 


15 1| 


15 9| 


16 6 


17 2| 


17 104 


18 6J 


34 


14 2 


14 101 


15 7 


16 3| 


17 


17 84 


18 5 


19 14 


85 


14 7 


15 3| 


16 Oi 


16 91 


17 6 


18 2J 


18 114 


19 8i 


36 


15 


15 9 


16 6 


17 3 


18 


18 9 


19 6 


20 3 


37 


15 5 


16 2J 


16 11| 


17 8| 


18 6 


19 3i 


20 04 


20 9| 


38 


15 10 


16 7k 


17 5 


18 24 


19 


19 9| 


20 7 


21 41 


39 


16 3 


17 Of 


17 101 


18 8* 


19 6 


20 3| 


21 14 


21 ll| 


40 


16 8 


17 6 


18 4 


19 2 


20 


20 10 


21 8 


22 6 


41 


17 1 


17 H| 


18 9J 


19 7| 


20 6 


21 4J 


22 24 


23 Of 


42 


17 6 


18 44 


19 3 


20 14 


21 


21 104 


22 9 


23 74 


43 


17 11 


18 9| 


19 84 


20 11 


21 6 


22 4| 


23 34 


24 2i 


44 


18 4 


19 3 


20 2 


21 1 


22 


22 11 


23 10 


24 9 


45 


18 9 


19 81 


20 74 


21 6} 


22 6 


23 5k 


24 44 


25 3| 


46 


19 2 


20 li 


21 1 


22 04 


23 


23 114 


24 11 


25 104 


47 


19 7 


20 6| 


21 4 


22 61 


23 6 


24 5| 


25 51 


26 54 


48 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 [ 


49 


20 5 


21 64 


22 5| 


23 5| 


24 6 


25 6J 


26 64 


27 6} 


50 


20 10 


21 104 


22 11 


28 111 


25 


26 04 


27 1 


28 14 

' 



t 10,000 to 50,000, at from 5d. to 9d per thousand. 



Id. 


i\d. 


7K 


7|d. 


Sd. 


8K 


6tf 


8|dL 


9.. 


s d 


s. d. 




s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


A-, d. 


5 10 


6 04 


6 3 


6 54 


6 8 


6 104 


7 1 


7 34 


7 6 


6 5 


6 7| 


6 104 


7 1J 


7 4 


7 6J 


7 94 


8 OJ 


8 3 


7 


7 3 


7 6 


7 9 


8 


8 3 


8 6 


8 9 


9 


7 7 


7 10i 


8 14 


8 4| 


8 8 


8 Hi 


9 24 


9 5| 


9 9 


8 2 


8 54 


8 9" 


9 04 


9 4 


9 74 


9 11 


10 24 


10 6 


8 9 


9 0| 


9 44 


9 8J 


10 


10 3J 


10 74 


10 Hi 


11 3 


9 4 


9 8 


10 


10 4 


10 8 


11 


11 4 


11 8 


12 


9 11 


10 3 1 


10 74 


10 11| 


11 4 


11 8? 


12 04 


12 4| 


12 9 


10 6 


10 104 


11 3 


11 74 


12 


12 44 


12 9 


13 IJ 


13 6 


11 1 


11 5f 


11 104 


12 31 


12 8 


13 Of 


13 54 


13 10i 


14 3 


11 8 


12 1 


12 6" 


12 11 


13 4 


13 9 


14 2 


14 7 


15 


12 3 


12 8J 


13 li 


13 61 


14 


14 5J 


14 10J 


15 3| 


15 9 


12 10 


13 34 


13 9 


14 24 


14 8 


15 14 


15 7 


16 04 


16 6 


13 5 


13 10| 


14 44 


14 10i 


15 4 


15 9| 


16 34 


16 9| 


17 3 


14 


14 6 


15 0" 


15 6 


16 


16 6 


17 


17 6 


18 


14 7 


15 li 


15 7i 


16 If 


16 8 


17 2i 


17 84 


18 2| 


18 9 


15 2 


15 84 


16 3 


16 94 


17 4 


17 104 


18 5 


18 114 


19 6 


15 9 


16 3} 


16 10J 


17 5j 


18 


18 6| 


19 14 


19 8J 


20 3 


16 4 


16 11 


17 6 


18 1 


18 8 


19 3 


19 10 


20 5 


21 


16 11 


17 6J 


18 14 


18 8| 


19 4 


19 llj 


20 64 


21 If 


21 9 


17 6 


18 14 


18 9" 


19 44 


20 


20 7j 


21 3" 


21 104 


22 6 


18 1 


18 8} 


19 44 


20 OJ 


20 8 


21 3f 


21 H4 


22 7J 


23 3 


18 8 


19 4 


20 0~ 


20 8 


21 4 


22 


22 8 


23 4 


24 


19 3 


19 Hi 


20 74 


21 33 


22 


22 8J 


23 4J 


24 Of 


24 9 


19 10 


20 64 


21 3 


21 114 


22 8 


23 44 


24 1" 


24 9J 


25 6 


20 5 


21 If 


21 104 


22 7i 


23 4 


24 Of 


24 94 


25 6 


26 3 


21 


21 9 


22 6 


23 3 


24 


24 9 


25 6 


26 3 


27 


21 7 


22 4J 


23 1| 


23 lOj 


24 8 


25 5i 


26 24 


26 llf 


27 9 


22 2 


22 114 


23 9 


24 64 


25 4 


26 14 


26 11 


27 84 


28 6 


22 9 


23 6| 


24 44 


25 2i 


26 


26 91 


27 74 


28 5J 


29 3 


23 4 


24 2 


25 0" 


25 10 


26 8 


27 6 


28 4 


29 2 


30 


23 11 


24 9J 


25 74 


26 5| 


27 4 


28 2J 


29 04 


29 10J 


30 9 


24 6 


25 44 


26 3 


27 li 


28 


28 104 


29 9 


30 74 


31 6 


25 1 


25 llj 


26 104 


27 9J 


28 8 


29 6| 


30 54 


31 4i 


32 3 


25 8 


26 7 


27 6 


28 5 


29 4 


30 3 


31 2 


32 1 


33 0. 


26 3 


27 2J 


28 14 


29 Of 


30 


30 Hi 


31 104 


32 9f 


33 9, 


26 10 


27 9| 


28 9 


29 84 


30 8 


31 74 


32 7 


33 64 


34 6 


27 5 


28 4J 


29 44 


30 4i 


31 4 


32 3| 


33 3| 


34 3J 


35 3 


28 


29 


30 


31 6 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


28 7 


29 7J 


30 74 


31 7| 


32 8 


33 8 


34 84 


35 8* 


36 9 


29 2 


30 2J 


31 3" 


32 34 


33 4 


34 4J 


35 5 


36 54 


37 6 



148 



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O 



rH 




oo 

05 




01 
01 



01 

TH 

Ol 


o 

TH 

CO 
Ol 



CO CO 
CO O 
CM CO 




00 

CO 



01 

XO 

07 



CO 


o 

CO 
OS 
CO 


05 

05 
CO 



Ol 

TH 


o 

00 

to 



CO 



10 


rH 



CO 
01 

rH 


O 
rH 



CO 

CO 
r- 1 


o 

05 
CO 
rH 




o 

rH 

Ol 



rH 
CO 
01 


O 
01 

xo 

01 


o o 

CO TH 
t^ OS 
CM 01 


o 

XO 
r-4 

00 



CO 
CO 
00 




XO 

00 


o 

CO 
CO 


o 

CO 
00 





TH 





CO 




CD- 
CO 







O 
CD 
Ol 

rH 





rH 



O 
CO 
rH 




CO 
rH 





o 

01 




CM 





TH 

01 


o o 
o o 

CO OO 
CM CM 






o 


01 

00 


o 



TH 

CO 


o 

o 

CO 

CO 


CO 

CO 



CO 

CO 


o 

xo 


I 



XO 
05 


O 

rH 
rH 



CO 
CO 
rH 



CM 
XO 



rH 

rH 




o 

05 




C73 

<M 





o o 

!>. CO 

TH CO 
CM CM 



XO 

co 

01 


o 

TH 

o 

00 



00 
01 

CO 



CM 

TH 

CO 


; CM 

00 


o 
co 

CO 




TH 

xo 


o 

CM 




05 



CO 




CO 
01 
rH 



rH 



CM 

CO 


o 


CO 

rH 


CO 

05 
rH 



CO 
rH 
01 


O O 

TH CM 
CO XO 
CM CM 




o 
.t- 

01 


o 

00 
00 
Ol 



CO 

o 

oo 


CM 

CO 


CO 
CO 


o 

f 
CO 



rH 

xo 


o 

00 

CO 


o 

XO 
OO 


o 

01 



rH 




05 
rH 
rH 



CO 
CO 
rH 



00 
XO 
rH 





rH 


O 

00 
rH 




TH 

O 
Ol 


O O 
rH CO 
CM CO 
CM CM 


XO 
01 



01 

01 



C5 
CO 
01 


o 

CO 

o 

CO 


TH 

o 

CO 


o 

CM 

CO 



CO 

TH 


o 

CO 


o 


CO 


O 

CO 
05 



CM 
rH 



CO 
CM 

TI 


O 
rH 




CO 
rH 



CO 

rH 




oq 

05 
rH 




co TH 

O CM 
<M CM 





01 



CO 

xo 

01 



01 

01 


o 

CO 

oo 

CM 


XO 
00 


o 


CO 




xo 

TH 




CO 


o 

XO 







O 

rH 




rH 



rH 


O 

g 




CO 



CO 
rH 


O O 
XO O 
OS rH 
rH CM 




XO 

13 




TH 

Ol 




xo 

XO 
01 


o 

o 

CM 


CO 
CO 


CD 

oo 
01 




01 

TH 



CO 
XO 





*>. 


o 
oo 



CO 



CM 
rH 



CO 
CM 


o 



XO 



CO 

CO 



CM CO 
OO OS 


1 


OJ 



CO 

CO 



CM 
xo 


TH 

CM 


o 

QO 

CM 


o 

OS 

oo 


CD 
01 
XO 





CO 



OO 

*>. 



rH 
OS 







rH 





CO 


TH 



CO 
XO 


O O 
OS CM 

co oo 



xo 

05 



CO 




rH 
01 


o 

TH 

CO 


00 


O 
CM 



CO 
CO 



CO 
TH 




CO 


CD 
01 



CO 



CO 
OS 




co 
o 




01 


O 
01 
CO 






CO CO 

xo co 




CO 



05 






CO 

CM 


OS 

o 

<M 

/ 


CD 
Ol 
CM 




oo 

CO 






10 


o 

CO 
CO 




fc 



00 
OO 


o 

CS 
OS 




rH 



rH 




01 
CO 


o o 

CO Tfl 

TH XO 


CD 
XO 
CO 






Is. 

oo 


o 

co 




OS 
rH 



CM 


-0 
CO 




TH 






CO 




t- 




co 



05 







rH 




01 


o o 

CO TH 



XO 




CO 






CD 

o 

CO 


S 


O 

CM 


CO 


s 




to 


o 

CD 


s 


g 






O 





rH 


rH 


O 
0*3 ijl 




s 


a 

'.0 


it 

rH 


o 

a 



150 



O C5 0} O5 30 



I 
I 

eu 

I 

I 



3 

n3 
o> 

'd 

c 



8 

5 



I 



>^ 

^3 

*& 



.2 

a 

^> 

5 



-3 



'TIOIUTW 



i i i i lOOOOSCSGiGOGOGGGOOOlT'- 



> 00 I l^- ?D CO iO O 



P^ M S 
2 s 2 
P* w.fe 



i-H<M* r 'e*liO3 !>- CO C5 O 

04 <M CN* c<z oo oo co co co co co co co crc <* 



CO CC' CO Cv) CM Od (M CM CM Cvl 



-BOIJ 



sp 



151 



CHAPTER Y. 



PLANS OF CASES IN VARIOUS ALPHABETS, WITH 
REMARKS THEREOK 

IN page 41 of this book is given a plan of a pair of the 
cases in ordinary use in England, and allusion is made to 
another, of which no scheme is given, but of which one 
appeared in the first number of the ' Journal of the Typo- 
graphic Arts/ for the month of January of the present 
year. I shall not, therefore, reintroduce either of them in 
this place ; but as a much improved case and frame has 
been invented and patented by Mr. Poulter, of Messrs. 
Cox and Wyman's, Great Queen- street, London, with his 
permission, I here append a diagram, showing the ar- 
rangement of the case, and will afterwards add a few 
observations explaining the advantages it possesses over 
all other cases hitherto submitted to the notice of the 
trade : and this I do with the greater pleasure, both as 
a recognition of the skill and ingenuity of the contriver of 
the case, with its accompanying frame and really useful 
bulk (in striking contrast with the cumbersome and in- 
convenient one of the old frame), and because I am fully 
convinced it will effect a great saving of time to the com- 
positor, and also of expense to the employer : 



152 






PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 153 

On comparison, this case, as I before remarked, will 
be found to possess many important advantages over all 
those hitherto produced. By dispensing with the accented 
vowels, Mr. Poulter has been enabled to combine all the 
sorts in one case. This, at first sight, may be thought a 
bold innovation ; but, as he very truly says, in a circular 
submitted to the trade, " It must be allowed that seldom 
are these in use in newspapers, publications, novels, or 
even ordinary book- work ; and yet we find places assigned 
to them in about the best position in every upper case, even 
when they may never be used. They, no doubt, were, origi- 
nally, only put? there to fill up the spare boxes gained by 
making both cases the same size. Accented letters in 
English works, generally, are most frequently used when 
French or other foreign phrases are introduced, and which 
are invariably put in italics." 

He further observes : " It must also be remembered, 
that there are still accented letters, and other sorts, which 
have to be placed elsewhere, although equally, if not more 
in demand, than the others." 

For the accented vowels he proposes a separate case, easy 
of access to every one, and which should also include large 
metal-rules, braces, and other peculiar sorts, which are 
now, with the cases in ordinary use, scattered about in 
several cases, and never to be found when wanted, to the 
great loss of time to the compositor, and the loss of money 
to his employer; for it not unfrequently happens, when a 
work comes into a house, in which accented letters are 
required, none are to be found, although there may be 
no lack of them, in fact, could time be spared to hunt 
them up in all the cases and out-of-the-way corners of the 
office. 

When foreign work requiring accents is to be com- 
posed, a simple form of movable box, made of suitable 
material, can be placed in the small- capital boxes, and 



154 PLANS Or CASES, ETC. 

removed in a few minutes, when done with, and placed 
in the custody of the storekeeper. 

By a reference to the diagram, it will be seen that the e. 
box is wider, instead of longer than in the ordinary case ; so 
that the space under is very advantageously appropri- 
ated to the era-quadrat and thin-space boxes. This is, 
beyond all doubt, of the greatest importance to the ope- 
rator ; the points are also much better placed, being 
grouped together in immediate connection with the hair- 
space. The position of the figures, also, it will be observed, 
obviates not only the inconvenience experienced with the 
old cases, of being obliged to remove the copy continually 
in composing figure-matter, but, by bringing them close to 
the em and ew-quadrat boxes, secures a great advantage 
in composing tables and tabular matter. Indeed, the ad- 
vantage secured by a slight yet judicious alteration of the 
position of a few boxes is surprising, as must be evident 
to every one practically acquainted with the business. 
It will be observed further, the position of no letter has 
been altered wantonly or without attaining some material 
advantage ; so that the introduction of the new case will 
not clash with those already in use, nor occasion much 
trouble to the compositor in becoming familiar with it. 

These new cases may be used with the present frames ; 
but not so advantageously as with the frames which Mr. 
Poulter has adapted for their express accommodation. 
By the use of these, a great saving of space is effected, to 
the extent of one fifth ; a better light is also secured ; 
better rack-room, and far greater accommodation on the 
bulk for large forms. The saving of gas and the economy 
of space hereby secured, are objects of considerable im- 
portance to employers, especially on newspapers, where 
much gas is consumed, and space is generally of limited 
character ; for, with the new frame, one burner will light 
well the cases of four compositors. 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 155 

There is, moreover, another feature connected with 
the case which should not be passed over unnoticed ; and 
that is, the introduction of a false bottom of India-rubber 
or other elastic material, for the smaller-sized types only, 
to be used in the principal boxes, so as to insure the types 
always being in the centre of the box, and at a good 
elevation, by the bottom continuing to rise as the box 
becomes relieved of its weight. This will, undoubtedly, 
be very advantageous to the compositor, but it will be 
quite optional whether any pair of cases shall be furnished 
with them or not. 

With these few remarks, I leave the matter in the 
hands of the trade, feeling convinced that this new ar- 
rangement only waits the test of experience to secure ita 
universal adoption. 



FOKEIGN ALPHABETS AND CASES. 

As this is a handbook, I have no intention to swell 
its pages with an account of all the alphabets of all the 
barbarous languages to which a separate one has been 
assigned, even had I the means and the ability to accom- 
plish the task : nevertheless, I do not intend to pass over 
any which differ materially from the English, and which 
are likely to fall in the way of even one in ten of the com- 
paratively small number of compositors or readers who are 
ever employed upon works in other than the ordinary 
Eoman type. An acquaintance with very unusual cha- 
racters must be acquired by those who may chance to have 
occasion to use them, from more voluminous, or more 
special works than the present ; but to occupy the pages of 



156 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



a handbook with such rarely- wanted information, would 
but materially add to its cost, without much enhancing its 
utility. I shall therefore confine myself to more moderate 
limits. 



1. THE SAXON ALPHABET. 

This language forms the main groundwork of the 
English ; but whether its alphabet was derived from the 
Eoman, which it very much resembles, or from the Gothic^ 
is a point on which the learned are not agreed. It com- 
prises twentyfour letters, which have the same name as 
the corresponding Eoman character ; but about the ninth 
century, the small letters/, g> r, t, lost their Saxon forms, 
and were written after the Roman shape. I subjoin the 
alphabet ; but it will not be necessary to give a plan of 
cases, as the letters so much resemble the common Eoman 
type. 



ANGLO-SAXON 
J-ORM. 


MODERN 

FORM. 


SOUND. 


ANGLO-SAXON 
FORM. 


MODERN 
FORM. 


SOUND. 


S A a 


A a 


Bar. 


N n 


N n 


JVone. 


B b 


B b 


.Brand. 


O o 


O o 





C C c 


C c 


Child. 


P p 


P p 


Power. 


D b 


D d 


Down. 


R ji 


R r 


.fiend. 


E 6 e 


E e 


Hair. 


8 S r 


S s 


Shoot. 


F f 


F f 


.Find. 


T t 


T t 


Turn. 


D G 3 


G g 


Gem. 


B$]> 


Thth 


TAou. 


H ft h 


H h 


Ueavy. 


U u 


U u 


C/nder. 


L i 


I i 


/onian. 


UU P p 


Ww 




K k 


K k 


.Kent. 


X x 


X x 


X. 


L 1 


L 1 


Land. 


Y y 


Yy 


Wye. 


M CD m 


M m 


More. 


Z z 


Z z 


Zeal. 



IE 



38 EG 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 157 

Besides these letters, many abbreviations were formerly 
employed, which it is not necessary to specify in this 
place ; it will be sufficient to remark, that those at pre- 
sent in use are, j , et, ' and ;' and *p, thaet, ' that.* 

In the ' Saxon Chronicle,' a small g with a dash above 
it, stands for gear or year ; k with a comma, is kynning, or 
kyng ; I scored through, is put for vel, ' or ;' b with a similar 
mark, is biscop, or bishop ; and cw, with a dash over the 
latter letter, is put for cwceth, or quoth. 



2. THE GREEK ALPHABET. 

Books in the Greek language are continually issued 
from the press in this country, and even in English works 
of a certain character, quotations from authors who have 
written in this tongue, are of common occurrence. More- 
over, as this is regarded as the learned language of Europe 
par excellence, a want of acquaintance with its alphabet is 
not only a frequent cause of loss and annoyance to the 
compositor ; but as typographical errors in it are generally 
attributed to the printer, when these are numerous in any 
work, the office in which it was executed gets a bad repu- 
tation ; and thus no small damage is indirectly inflicted 
on the employer. For the assistance of those who may be 
wholely unacquainted with this language, therefore, I 
propose to enter more largely into an explanation of its 
alphabet than will be necessary with that of any other, 
in order that the unlearned reader or compositor may 
be enabled to avoid the glaring errors which so much 
offend the eye of the scholar in ill-printed works.* 

* The most prominent instance in illustration of this remark 
which I remember, occurred about the time of the creation of the 
Roman Catholic bishops in this country, in the controversies which 
then appeared in a morning newspaper. The typographical 
errors in the Greek extracts were disgraceful. 



158 



PLANS OF CHSES, ETC. 



The Greek letters are twentyfour in number, and are 
thus formed and designated : 



FORM. 


POWER. 


NAME. 


FORM. 


POWER. 


NAME. 


A 


a 


Alpha. 


N v 


n 


Nu. 


B )8 or 


b 


Beta. 


H 


x 


Xi. 


r r 


g (hard) 


Gamma. 


O o . 


o (short) 


O micron 


A 


d 


Delta. 


n TT 


P 


Pi. 


E e 


e (short) 


Epsilon. 


p p 


r 


Rho. 


z r 


z 


Zeta. j 


2 <r or f * 


s 


Sigma. 


H v\ 


e (long) 


Eta. 


T r 


t 


Tau. 


& or 6 


th 


Theta. 


T v 


u or y 


Upsilon. 


I i 


i 


Iota. 


* <p 


P h 


Phi. 


K K 


k 


Cappa. 


x x 


ch (hard) 


Chi. 


A \ 


1 


Lambda. 


y 4, 


ps 


Psi. 


ivi ^t 


m 


Mu. 


n w 


o (long) 


Omega. 



Of these letters, seven are vowels, and the remainder 
consonants. 

The vowels are divided into short, long, and doubtful. 

The short vowels are e and o ; the long, rj and w ; and 
the doubtful, a, t, v. 

Vowels are also denominated mutable, immutable, pre- 
positive, and subjunctive. 

There are six proper diphthongs (at, au, , cu, 01, ov), and 
six improper (^, 9, ^, j^u, w, wv). The first vowel of a 
diphthong is called the prepositive, and the second, the 
subjunctive. 

The consonants are divided into simples, mutes, and 
semivowels. 

The mutes are nine in number, and are further sub- 
divided into corresponding classes. 

The weak TT K r 

The middle (3 y d 

The aspirate <!> \ Q 



* This form is used at the end of a word, and in some editions 
of Greek authors, at the end of a syllable in a compound word ; 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 159 

Thus, you will observe, each weak mute has its cor- 
responding middle and asper. But they are, moreover, 
classified according to the organs by which they are 
articulated. Thus there are 

Labials ir ft 0,and^ 

Gutturals or Palatals K y %, and sometimes v 
Dentals r 8 

Those consonants which are capable of prolongation at 
the end of a word, are called semivowels, and are five in 
number ; four liquids, X, /*, a/, p, and the sibilant o-, with 
its compounds. 

The consonants , , if/ are called double letters, because 
they are formed of a mute consonant and <r. Thus, \jt is 
formed of TT and o ; of /c<r ; and of SQ. 

y before another y, or a mute of its own order, that 
is, a palatal, is pronounced with a kind of middle sound 
between v and y, somewhat resembling our sound of the 
terminations ing, ang, ung. 

The accents are three : the acute ('), the grave (*), and 
the circumflex (~). 

The acute may either fall on the last syllable, the 
penultimate, or the antepenultimate ; but no word iu 
Greek is accented beyond two syllables from the last : the 
grave can only have place on the last syllable ; and the 
circumflex, on either of the two last. 

The breathings are two : the rough, or asper ('), and 
the smooth, or lenis ('). 

The rough breathing is equivalent to our aspirated h ; 
but the weak has no power, or rather, is the representa- 
tive of that faint breathing which must, according to the 
Oriental grammarians, precede every initial vowel, what- 
% ever its character ; it is the alif of the Hebrew, Arabic, 
and Persian, &c. 

A vowel or a diphthong may be accompanied both by 
a breathing and an accent ; as in the following instances : 



160 PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 

*A^yoi>, w, olo-rpoQ, otrtyc^. These combinations have the 
following names : 

Lenis acute * Asper grave 

Lenis grave * Circumflex lenis 

" Asper acute r Circumflex asper 

The following combinations also occur : 
* Diaeresis acute ** Diaeresis grave 

The asper may accompany any vowel at the beginning 
of a word, and is always used with v in that position. The 
letter p has also the rough breathing-mark, and that very 
judiciously, when at the commencement of a word ; but 
when two meet in the body of a word, the first is marked 
with a lenis, and the latter with an asper : thus, eppu- 

JJLtVOQ. 

In diphthongs, the breathing is placed on the latter 
vowel, as in avroQ, l he ;' but if a word begin with two 
vowels which do not form a diphthong, then the breathing 
must be over the first letter ; as in rjiuv, ' a shore.* 

Diastole (,) is put betwixt two particles that would 
have a different sense without it: thus. o,r, O,TI, mean 
' whatever f but ore signifies l as/ and on, ' that.' To, 
with diastole, implies ' and this,' but without it, * then.' 

Diceresis (") is placed over the latter of two vowels, to 
show that they must be pronounced separately, and not 
as a diphthong : thus, CLVTYJ is a word of three syllables ; 
but aiiTTj is a word of two syllables. 

The final letter is frequently (not necessarily) cut off 
from words ending in a, e, i, when the following word be- 
gins with a vowel ; as, Trdvr' t'Xgyov, for Tcavra ctayov, ' they 
said all things.' So, KO.I tKelvoQ, ' and he,' becomes fca/cctvof, 
and TO ovofia, ' the name, 3 rovvopa, &c. Sometimes whole 
diphthongs are elided by the poets ; as, /3ouXo/i' (for fiov- 
\ofjiai) tyuj, ' I wish.' 

Words ending in <7i, and verbs in and t, take v after 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 161 

them, when the following word begins with a vowel ; as, 
elicoffiv (for ciicotri) avdpsQ, ' twenty men.' 

v is changed into y, in compounds, before y, K, , x> and 
into p. before /3, /-t, TT, 0, ^ ; as of >- is made sy-xiotw, ' I 
anoint ;' and ow- becomes (rvju-0\yo>, * I consume.' Before 
\, p, <r, the final v, in composition, is changed into those 
letters ; as, aw- into o-vX-Xsyw, ' I collect.' 

When the following word begins with an aspirated 
vowel, the preceding final smooth consonant is changed 
into its corresponding aspirate : thus, Kara rjfjiaQ becomes 
KaO' j?jua, * according to our opinion ;' Kai vvb, X^TTO, ' and 
under.' 

Besides the lettersabove enumerated, there was another 
character in use in the most ancient times ; namely F, 
called digamma ; i. e. double gamma. Thus, while the 
single r denoted a soft guttural aspiration, the digamma, 
or F, represented the roughest breathing, approaching 
nearer to the sound of modern/ or v. 

The sign of interrogation in Greek corresponds in 
figure with the English semicolon ; as, Tt Xsyct? ; * What do 
you say ? ' 

The colon, in Greek, is denoted by an inverted full- 
stop (). 

Old-printed books contain numerous ligatures, or 
abbreviations of letters ; but as they are not used now- 
adays, there is no occasion for me to give a list of them 
here. Most of them will be found in any Greek grammar, 
and the student may there acquire a knowledge of them. 



In order that the letters, with their accents, may be 
shown at one view, and also for the guidance of the tyro 
in learning the boxes in which they are assorted in a pair 
of Greek cases, I will submit to his notice a diagram, with 
the letters in their proper places, according to their gene- 
ral arrangement. 



162 



w 

5 

O 

I 

& 
& 

M 
w 
w 

p^ 

O 



163 



r. 



164 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



3. THE HEBREW ALPHABET. 

Next in importance to the Greek, to the compositor 
and press corrector, is the Hebrew, the language in which 
the Old Testament was written, and which has largely 
contributed to the common stock of many more modern 
tongues ; but whether the character we at present em- 
ploy, or that called the Samaritan, be the most ancient, 
is a question not agreed upon by the critics. 

The letters of the ordinary Hebrew alphabet are 
twentytwo in number, all consonants : their names, forms, 
and power, are exhibited in the following table : 



i'ORM. 


POWER. 


NAME. 


FORM. 


POWEB. 


NAME. 


K 


Greek ' 


Aleph 


b 


L 


Lamed 


3 


Bh,B,V 


Beth 


*D D 


M 


Mem 


4 


GhorG 


Gimel 


ji 


N 


Nun 


n 


Dhor D 


Daleth 


D 


S 


Samech 


n 


H 


He 


V 


Gn or ng 


Gnain 


i 


V 


Van 


**) D 


PhorP 


Pe 


r 


Z 


Zain 


*f 


Tz 


Tzade 


n 


Ch or H 


Cheth 


P 


K 


Koph 


D 


T 


Teth 


"1 


R 


Resch 


> 


Y 


Yod 


w w 


ShorS 


Shin, Sin 


*T 3 


Khor C 


Caph 


n 


Thor T 


Tau 



The following five letters are cast broad, and are used 
at the end of words ; viz. : 

Aleph. He. Lamed. Mem. Tau. 

5^ n H -a n 

but they are not counted among the final letters, being 



* The five letters 



are called final letters. 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



165 



contrived for justifying; because Hebrew words, as well 
as other Oriental languages, are never divided. 

The letters given in the table are all that are abso- 
lutely necessary in printing Hebrew ; nevertheless, as va- 
rious marks, called Masoretic points, have been invented, 
for the purpose of denoting the vowel-sounds, and thus to 
facilitate the reading of the language, a knowledge of them 
is indispensable to every compositor employed on Hebrew 
works with points. They are ten in number : five per- 
fect, which, with their preceding consonant, form a sylla- 
ble ; and five imperfect, which have a consonant preceding 
and following them. Their names, figure, and power, are 
shown in the following table : 



NAME. 


FIG. 


SOUND. 


NAME. 


FIG. 


SOUND. 


Kametz 


K 


a in father. 


Pathach 


8 


a in bad. 


Tzeri 


K 


a in fated. 


Segol 


s* 


e in bed. 


Long Chirek 


\ 


i in machine 


Short Chirek 


$ 


i in bid. 


Cholem 
Shurek 


1 

1 


o in go. 
u in duty. 


Kamete Cha- 
tuph 

Kibbutz 


3 


o in bot. 
u in but. 



Besides the above vowels, there is another, called 
Sheva (:), which has been introduced to facilitate the ut- 
terance of words where two or more consonants would 
otherwise come together. When it is sounded, it has the 
power of a very short e ; as in the word below. 

Instead of sheva, a compound vowel, consisting of sheva 
and an imperfect vowel, is used under a guttural. These 
substitutes of sheva are three in number : their names, 
forms, and sound, are as follows : 

Chateph Pathach \? a very short, as in suitable. 



Chateph Segol 
Chateph Kametz 



e very short, as in furtherance. 
o very short, as in consonant. 



366 PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 

In addition to the letters above given, the Hebrews 
make use of sundry other characters or symbols, which I 
will proceed briefly to explain. 

Dagesh and Mappik () are points placed in the body of 
certain letters. 

The dagesh is either forte or lene. 

Dagesh forte may have place in all the letters except 
K H n y~\ '> an d its effect is to cause the consonant to be 
sounded double. 

Dagesh lene has its place in ft D 3 *7 J D> an< ^ removes 
from them the aspiration. 

Mappik is used with the letters Tie and yod, to show 
that they are not quiescent, but to be pronounced with 
their proper sound. 

Raphe is a short dash that formerly was put over the 
letters that are capable of, receiving a dagesh lene, when 
they had no dagesh, to show that they should be pro- 
nounced soft. 

Maccaph (-) is used to connect words together, which 
is common in Hebrew. 

Soph-Parak is the name of two great points (*), which 
stand at the end of each verse in the Hebrew Bible. 

Besides the vowels, the Hebrew has several accents, of 
which some have their place over, and some under the 
letter. They are not used in all Hebrew writings, but 
only in some books of the Bible, where they stand for 
notes to sing by, and are therefore called accentus tonici. 
Others, again, are named accentus distinctivi, because they 
distinguish the sense, as pointing does in English ; and 
others have the appellation of ministry or servi non dis- 
tinctivi, and show the construction and connection of 
words. These tonic accents, to call them by their general 
name, are placed on the ultimate or penultimate syllable 
of a word : in the former case the word is called acute ; in 
the latter, penacute. 

The tonic accents are twentyfive in number : of these, 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



167 



fourteen are placed above, and the remaining eleven below 
the consonant, in the following manner : 





ABOVE THE LETTER. 




Name. 


Figure 


Name. 


Figure. 


Pashta 


^ 


Rebhiang 


X 


Kadma 


K 


Zakeph Gadol 


K 


Geresh 


f 


Zakeph Katoa 


SS 


Gerashayim 


Cf 


Segolta 


& 


Telisha Ketanna 


Q 

K 


Pazer 


H 


Telisha Gedola 
Karne Para 


P 
Q P 


Zarka 
Shalsheleth 


& 



BELOW THE LETTER. 



Merca 

Merca Chephula 

Tiphcha 

Munach 

Mahpach 






Tebhir 
Darga 
Athnach 
Yerach-ben-yomo 

Silluk 



Yethib V 

Those in italics are called Ministers ; the others, Kings. 

The Hebrew has no capitals ; and therefore letters of 
the same shape, but of a larger body, are used at the be- 
ginning of chapters, and other parts of Hebrew works. 
Occasionally, also, certain words begin with a letter much 
larger than the body of the text ; and a small letter is 
sometimes found in the middle of a word, as is also a final : 
for such notes show that the words contain some parti- 
cular and mystical meaning- 



168 PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 

Like most Eastern languages, the Hebrew is read from 
the right to the left : therefore, in composing them, the 
compositor must cast off how much will make a line, and 
begin from that point, going backwards, and justifying the 
vowels and accents over and under the letters, after the 
line of matter is properly adjusted. Those vowel-marks 
and accents are not necessarily used ; but only for the sake 
of learners, who are, of course, unable, of themselves, to 
supply them : hence, as before observed, they are dispensed 
with in many books. 

It will be necessary for the compositor to bestow par- 
ticular attention on the formation of several of the Hebrew 
letters, as some of them are very much alike ; and unless 
he make himself familiar with the peculiarities .which 
distinguish them, he will find his proof very foul, and 
thereby cause himself much annoyance and extra labor. 
We will proceed to exhibit some of these peculiarities, and 
by placing one letter over another which resembles it, show 
him, at a glance, wherein the difference consists. 

Beth. Gimel. Daleth, Resch. He, Cheth. Vau. Zain. 

n j T n n n IT 
D 2 in ] 

Caph. Nun. Caph final. Tau. Nun final. 

Teth. Mem final. Gnain. 

CD D y 

D D y 

Mem. Samech. Tzade. 



The letters of the Hebrew alphabet are generally ar- 
ranged in the compositor's cases according to the following 
schemes. 



169 



D 



D 



n 



n 



a 



a 



fj 



170 



.10 



.n 



53 



.n 



n 



-n 



.1 



n 



r\ 



JO 



D 



171 



Q 



O* 



Q 



a 



n 



IZ 



ma-g 



spenft 



172 PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 

4. THE SAMARITAN ALPHABET. 

This character is somewhat different from the Hebrew ', 
but as it is very little used, I refrain from encumbering 
the pages of this manual with a detailed account thereof. 



5. THE SYRIAC ALPHABET. 

This language is a descendant from the ancient He- 
brew, and has been denominated, in accordance with dia- 
lectic distinctions, the Chaldean, Babylonian, Aramean, 
Mesopotamian, and Assyrian. It was also one of the com- 
mon languages spoken by the Jews in the Babylonish cap- 
tivity ; and in the New Testament, many words of this 
tongue occur. Like the Hebrew, it is read from right to 
left, and, like the Arabic and Persian, the letters undergo 
various changes in their formation, according to their 
position in a word. They are twentytwo in number, and 
are named Olaph, Beth, Gomal, Dolath, He, Yaw, Zain, 
Cheth, Theth, Jud, Coph, Lomad, Mim, Nun, Shemcath, 
Ee, Phe, Tsode, Koph, Eish, Sin, Tau. These letters are 
also used for numerals in the ordinary way, as far as 
Tsode , and then are extended in the following manner. 
Jud, with a, point above it, signifies 100 ; while Coph, 
Lomad, Mim, Nun, Shemcath, Ee, Phe, and Tsode, similarly 
marked, express 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900* 
Olaph, with an inclined line below it, like a grave accent, 
stands for 1,000, and Beth, with the same mark, for 2,000. 
Olaph, with an horizontal line beneath it, is equal to 
10,000; Jud, underlined, 100,000; and Coph, thus distin- 
guished, one million. 

The following table exibits the letters of this alphabet, 
in their various forms, according to the position they oc- 
cupy in a word. 



173 



Name. 


Initial. 


Medial 


Final 

Connect 


Final 
N on con 


Po- 
wei 


NOP. 


Olaph 


] 


1 


I 


] 


a. 


1 


Beth 


I 
53 


\ 

j 




. "i 


I 

. ^ 


h 


2 


Gomal 












3 


Dolatli 


^ 




^ 


^ 


^ 




g 
d 


4 


He 


cn 


t 

m. 


t 

f*n 


m 


e 


5 




o 


Q 






11 


6 


Zain 


i 








z 


7 


Chetli 


1 








h 


i 
8 


Theth 


; 


A 


^A 


cJ 


th 


9 


Jud 


D 

A 


6 L 


*"6 U 


H 


i 


10 


Coph 


o 


^ 






Q 


20 


Lomad 


V, 


N 


y 
^ 


^ 

^s 


1 


30 


Mim 


*> 


La 


VQ 


so 


m 


40 


Nun 


j 


i 


r* 


7^ 


u 


50 


Shemcath 





m 


"5 

v.Cd 


^ 

wfiD 


Qll 


60 


Ee 


^ 


^ 


^, 


^ 


n 


70 


Phe .. 


a 


n 


wl 


-3 


ph 


80 


Tsode 





> 






^>ii 
ts 


90 


Koph 


3 

> 


vj 

^1 


vj 

w2i 


^ 

^ 


kh 




Rish 


y 






> 


j 




Sin 


A. 


Ai 


f 
cA 


*, 


g 




Tau 


L 


21 


Z^ 


4 


t 



















174 PLANS OP CASES, ETC. 

In common with the Arabic and Persian, as before re- 
marked, it will be observed, on inspecting the preceding 
table, that the letters of the Syriac language assume 
different shapes, according to their position. This is for 
the purpose of more clearly combining the letters of the 
same word ; so that there may be no gap between them, 
as though they were separate words. Some are connected 
both to the foregoing and the following letter, and some 
only to the preceding. Of the former class there are 
fourteen ; namely, beth, gomal, cheth, theth, jud, coph, 
lomad, mim, nun, shemcath, ee, phe, Jcoph, and sin; but 
if these letters have others, before or after them, which do 
not allow of this connection, they remain as in the first 
column. The remaining eight letters, which admit of 
junction only on the right, are, of course, olaph, dolath, he, 
vaWj zain, tsode, risk, and tau. 

The letters of the following form, 5 ^ ) cannot be 
connected at all ; hence, L 9 and j are always written at 
the beginning of a word, and in the middle and end (where, 
also, the above form of nun is written), when the foregoing 
letter cannot be connected with the following. 

A double lomad, for al, is used at the beginning and 
in the middle of words. 

The final form of lomad, with a mark across it, is used 
in the middle of words, for la. 

And the same form of the letter, with an additional 
descending line, but none across, is used for double II at 
the end of words. 

P is used for la in all places. 

The stops are denoted by one or more dots, arranged 
in different order : thus, the comma is signified by the 
ordinary full-stop ; the semicolon, by the English colon, 
leaning to the left ; the colon, by the same symbol inclining 
to the right ; the full-point, by four dots diamond-shape; 
and the interrogation, by the ordinary colon. 
1 As in Hebrew, and indeed in many other alphabets, 
it may be remarked that several letters very nearly re- 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 175 

semble others ; it will, therefore, perhaps be advisable to 
exhibit them here at one view. 

a z b c p I e d r d r 

1 1 San ^ i> t V ? > 

v k is I e 

Q Q -A ^i^> 

The vowels are expressed by points, placed either over 
or under the letters, in accordance with the following 
table : 



Petock (a) } or ] 
Rebotz (e) 1 

Chebotz(t) 1 1 



Zekoph (o) | or j 
Eztotz(w) 



The ribbui (" } placed over a letter, thus, 3 denotes 
that such word is in the plural number. 

Every consonant without a vowel is supposed to have 
under it a sheva, which is not written, but only pro- 
nounced. 

DagesJi is a point set over the letters begadkepkat, 
and takes away their aspiration ; and is therefore called 
kiishoi, l hardness/ 

Raphe is a point set under the same letters, to denote 
their aspiration ; and hence is called ruchoch, denoting 
' softness.' 

When a line is drawn over a word, it denotes 1. con- 
traction ; 2. number ; 3. the vocative particle ; or, 4. i^ 
signifies that the letter under it is quiescent. 

A line drawn under a letter shows 1. that that letter 
is not pronounced ; 2. in certain cases, the absence of a 
vowel ; and 3. it sometimes has the force of some of the 
vowels. 



176 PLANS OP CASES, ETC. 

6. THE ETHIOPIAN OR ABYSSINIAN ALPHABET. 
Some writers have considered the Ethiopian language 
equal, in point of antiquity, to that of the Egyptians. The 
people are supposed to have been descended from Chus, 
the grandson of Noah ; and are, therefore, in the Bible, 
generally called Chusites. The ancient tongue has been, 
in great part, superseded by that of the Abyssinians, who 
added seven letters to the alphabet. This alphabet con- 
sists of twentysix letters, and is read from right to left : 
the letters also undergo various changes, according to their 
position in a word, as do the Syriac, Arabic, Persian, 
&c. : hence, the number of characters is, in all. upwards 
of two hundred and twenty. 



7. THE CHINESE ALPHABET. 

The Chinese are, undoubtedly, the most ancient people 
in the world. According to their own account, their ge- 
nealogy transcends all our notions of the earth's present 
condition ; but, even when divested of exaggeration, may 
not unreasonably be fixed at a time nearly coeval with 
the Deluge. Their language is monosyllabic, and has very 
little relation with any other. They have different kinds 
of writing, invented at various periods of their history; 
and as each word has its appropriate character, the 
number of letters may easily be imagined to be very large : 
they amount in all to about 120,000 ; but these may be 
reduced to a small number of key or radical letters, 
which the Chinese call Poo, and amount to no more thau 
214j But as it would very little interest the generality 
of printers to give examples of them, even were the means 
at my disposal, I will proceed to alphabets of more com- 
mon occurrence, and with which it is probable that some, 
at least, of my readers may desire to become acquainted. 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 177 



8. THE PERSI-AJRABIC ALPHABET, AS APPLICABLE 
TO THE HINDUSTANI. 

In consequence of our intimate connectibn with the 
East, and the open competition lately established for 
candidates for employment in the Indian service, works 
in the Arabic, Persian, and Hindustani languages are 
now in greater demand than at any former period of our 
history ; more of them are consequently printed, and that 
not by one or two houses only, but by several printers, 
and in various towns of the United Kingdom. Hence, a 
knowledge of their alphabets has become a matter of 
interest to many, while, heretofore, this was a subject 
which practically concerned very few compositors in this 
country : a notice of them, therefore, is more urgently 
required in a book of this nature, which principally aims 
at practical utility. 

All the followers of Mahomet use the Arabic character, 
more or less modified ; so that this alphabet is of common 
occurrence in a great part of Asia and Africa, and even in 
portions of Europe, although the languages in which it is 
used are different. Neither are all the letters common 
to all the nations who use it : the Persi- Arabic comprises 
thirtytwo; to which three more are added to express 
sounds peculiar to the Hindustani. These letters, in 
common with the Hebrew and those of most other Ori- 
ental nations, are read from right to left : consequently, 
their printed books and manuscripts begin at what we 
should call the end. Several of the letters, as in Syriac, 
&c., moreover, assume different shapes, according to their 
position in a word, as shown in the following table, where 
they are exhibited in their detached form, and also as 
initials, medials, %&& finals. 



178 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



NAME. 




ig 
jjs 


POWER. 


OMBINED FORM. 




ONS. 




* 


i 


S 


** 


Medial. 


Initial. 


alif 


1 


0, #e. 


I 


i 


\ 


b" 


j* 


be 
pe 
te 


v 


5 

JP 

* 


"-r* 


f 


{ 


^i 


s* 


I 


iL 


i 


jf 


i^Jus 


r" 


ta 


CL; 


* 


cU 


2 


J 


(JU.J 


12-i 


V 


se 


e^ 


5 


i^ 


A 


i. 
J 


cE-i 


^ 


& 


jim 


c 


./ 


^ 


- 


- 


^ 


^' i 


^r 


che 


5 


ch 





^S 


*- 


tj? 


^ 


V * 


he 


C 


h 


tf 


4 


^ 


^ 


y< 


J*- 


Me 


C 


ML 


^ 


* 


=^ 


^ 


r^ 


> 


ddl 


j 


d 


A 


A 


j 


.W 


ijj 


jj 


da 


5 


4 


S 


S 


3 


n 


ji 


Ji5 


zdl 


3 


2 


2k 


* 


j 


iii^ 


j^ 


r j 


re 


^ 


r 


j 


> 


j 


> 


vi 


(V 


ra 


J 


r 


j 


n 


j 


J- 


fe 


UjJ 


ze 


j 


z 


j 


j 


j 


/ 


r^ 5 


jj 


zhe 


A 


zh 


A 
J 


* 

J 


J 


ji b 


Mje 


^jj 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



179 



NAME 


FORM 


POWER. 


COMBINED. 


EXEMPLIFICATIONS. 


sin 


V 


, 


Lr 


~ 


-, 


U~? 


cM 


> 


shin 


A 
U~ 


sh 


A 


^. 


-1 


L^ 


AiJ 


^ 


sad 


u 


s 


v* 


^ 


* 


^ 


J^i- 


Af 


zad 


J> 


? 


u* 


J 


* 


u^. 


j-ii. 


^ 


toe 


k 





k 


k 


t 


&. 


C^ 


J 3 


zoe 


k 


s 


k 


k 


k 


k^ 


> ; 


yk 


'am 


L 


'a, 8fC. 


t 


* 


* 


^ 


0^ 


j^ 


ghain 


t 


cfh 


t 


* 


* 


fes? 


y 


cu 


fe 


<- 


f 


<_a 


A 


j 


LJt 


O^j 


^ 


W 


J 


* 


J 


a 


s 


J^ 


A^O 


Jo 


kaf 


(^ 


k 


tl^ 


(. 


^ 


L^^vJ 


u 


0^ 


yqf 


ef 


9 


<^ 


t 


r 


iiftj 


A 


/ 


lam 


J 


I 


J 


\. 


s 


jf 


^ 


vj 


mim 


r 


m 


r 


** 


- 


,*-> 


cr*T 


^ 


nun 


u 


n 





- 


j 


c^ 


^T 


H 


wdw 


J 


w, 8fC. 


j 


} 


j 


Jj 


J^v 


J^rj 


he 


n 


h 


* 


H 


j> 


<0 


^ 


yj 


ye 


s? 


y> $c. 


LS 


- 


i 


L5? 


>*- 


JJ 

* 



180 PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 

Of the letters mentioned in this alphabet, LJ \j> \Jz> 
^ ]* 9 (J are peculiar to the Arabic ; j. J J c are found 
in Persian or Arabic words, but not in those of Indian 
origin ; and the few words which contain the letter J are 
purely Persian. Words containing any of the letters 
C-J ~ or may be Persian or Indian, but not Arabic. 

Lastly, words containing any of the four-dotted letters, 

a 
CL> JJ are purely Indian. 

These letters, it will be observed, are all consonants, 
although three of them (\ * and ^j sometimes become 
vowels. The ordinary vowels are placed some above, and 
some below the consonants to which they belong; but, 
as in Hebrew, they are often dispensed with altogether. 
The following list exhibits those vowels, together with 
other orthographical marks : 

THE SHOET VOWELS, AND OTHER USUAL OETHO- 
GEAPHICAL MAEKS. 

Zabar (fatha, Arab.) (") is pronounced as a in * above :' 
mostly understood. 

Zer (kasra, Arab.) (^); as i in 'it:' the only mark 
below the line. 

Pesh (zamma, Arab.) (') $ as u in ' pull.' 

Madda ( 1 ) ; as a in ' all.' 

Hamza (*) is a soft breathing, used to enounce a vowel 
initial in a syllable ; when medial, it is well represented 
by a hyphen ; as, $ lco-l : so in ' pre-eminent.' 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 181 

AlifJiamza (\). Hamza takes the form of alif when 
initial in a word, and this alif represents only the 
breathing out of the vowel it conveys j as, <^j\ ab, (j*\ is, 

9 ' 

(jJi us, Ll&t eJc. 
Jazm (<-) deprives its letter of a following vowel ; as, 

c 

& JCJ banda, ' a slave.' 

TasJidld (~) doubles its letter, dividing the syllable 

distinctly ; as, C-?iX< shid-dat. 

-^ 

Taskdid doubling ye (j) makes the first ye a vowel, and 

the second *y;' as,Lj tai-yar. 

TasJidid doubling waw ( jj) makes the first wdw a vowel, 

..# 
and the second a * w ; ' as, dJy ku-wat. 

+ # 

Tanwm (1) gives a nasal n; as, \JfUj1 ittifakan, f by 

* s 

chance : ' the alif bearing tanwm is short. 

*o 

Wasla (1) cancels #&/*, and the final vowel of the pre- 

O C-O 9 

ceding word takes the place of the lost alif; as, JjtS \ ^^ It 

talil-ul-ilm. Here the a^jf is struck out by wasia, and 
the pesh immediately preceding it, takes its place. 



The following is found by experience to be a judicious 
plan of arranging the letters of this alphabet : 



182 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



V 



V 



to 



I 



I- 






oJ 



V 



*> 



*> 



-JL) 



s 



"*> 



-t) 



Remark. These cases are of the size and shape of the ordinary 
Roman cases ; but we have been obliged, from the necessity of 
the case, to represent them of a more square form than they are 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



183 



-tJ 



VJ 



1 



aJ 



ill 



-3= 



in fact. The empty boxes are reserved for any extraordinary 
sorts which may be required by any particular work on which the 
compositor may be engaged. 



184 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC, 



9. THE DEVANAGAEI ALPHABET. 

The alphabet of most common occurrence in Oriental 
works, next to the Persi-Arabic, is the Devanagari. It is 
the character generally used by the Hindoos, and is read 
and written from left to right, as in English. This 
alphabet, as used for the Hindus-tarn, consists of eleven 
vowels and thirtyfive consonants. Their correspondence 
with the E-oman and Persian characters will be clearly 
shown by the following tables : 

Vowels. 



Detached. 

\ a ^ 



\ u 



\ a 

jl o 

? 
j\ u 

+ 
j] au 

$\ e 
^\ ai 



Initial, 

Aab 



<j~ 



ud 



aur 



Non-Initial. 

A] bad 
^ din 

9 

but 
bat 
so 



IT 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



185 



Note. It will be observed, on examining this table, that some 
of the vowels assume quite a different shape, according as they 
precede or follow a consonant ; and that the secondary form of i t 

viz. [, precedes its consonant, though sounded after it. These vowels 
and diphthongs are sounded uniformly as follows : a unmarked is 
very short, as in the word ' America,' or like our u in the word 
* sun ;' i f short, as in ' fit ;' u, short, as in ' put/ or our oo in e foot ;' 
a, long, as in ' war ;' o, long, as in ' pole ;' u, long, as in ' rule ;' 
au, like our ou in ' sound/ or the German au in ' haus/ a house ; 
e, like our ea in ' bear ; ' I, long, as in the word ' police,' or our ee 
in ' bee;" and ai, like our i in 'fire/ The anomalous Sanskrit 

vowel *^2 n is expressed in the Persian character merely by 
(re with a &asra) t and in the Koman character by ri, sounded as 
ri in 'rill.' The Arabic termination J^ is represented in the 
Roman character by a or a, according as its sound is short 
or long. 

Consonants. 



b "3 


th ~Z 


bh V 


*> 1 * 


P V 


*.J * 


P k Uf 


>~ Jk W 


t 7T 


c ch * 


th "3 


.>- chh ^ 


t V 


7" $ ^ 



186 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



** 



zh 

$ 

sh 

9 



J * 



cJ k 



Gt 9 H 

^ gh ^ 

J / *T 

/* m 1 



w 



x h 



Note. The consonants, with few exceptions, are to be pronounced 
as in English. It may be remarked, however, that ph, th, and th do 
not form single sounds, as with us ; but the former has the sound 
ofph in ' up-hill/ and the latter of th in 'hot-house/ The letters 
t and d are softer and more dental than with us ; ck is uniformly 
sounded as in ' church ;' Jch and^ are best learned by the ear ; the 
former is forcibly uttered, like ch in the Scottish word ' loch ; y gh is 
less forcibly uttered, like the German g in 'sagen;' Teh and gh, 
without the dash beneath, are to be sounded as they are in the 
compounds ' ink-horn ' and ' dog-house ; ' g is uniformly sounded 
hard, as in ' go/ never like ourg in ' gem ;' zAis of rare occurrence, 
and is sounded like the j in the French word 'jour.' A final n 
preceded by a long vowel has generally a nasal sound_, as in the 
French word 'bon.' All the consonants not mentioned above are 
understood to be sounded as in English. 

To the above letters may be added the symbol (*) 
anuswara, which represents nasal n, and the visarga 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 187 

(}), which corresponds with the final weak if of the 
Persian character. I would also draw attention to two 
compound characters, of which the elements are so dis- 
guised, as to have the resemblance of single letters ; viz., 

^f ksh, compounded of <5" and *T sounded like our x in 
fluxion, or ct in fraction; and '"Sf jn, sounded like our gn 

in bagnio, or the French gn in ligne. The mark I is 
used in poetry to indicate the first member of a slolca 
or couplet; and at the end of a slolca it is generally 

doubled (II). In prose, the same marks serve to denote 
stops ; but, in many books lately published in India, in 
the Devanagari character, the English stops are intro- 
duced. 

Whenever a consonant in the middle of a word is not 
to be uttered with the short a, the consonant is marked 

underneath with the symbol (^, called virdma, or ' rest ' 

(equivalent to thejazm of the Persi- Arabic) ; as, ^T*Jf*IT 
bolnd, ' to speak.' 

The vowels^ and , in combination with -the letter T 
(r) t are written ^ (ru), and ^ or ^(ru) ; and the vowel 

^ joined to 1[ (k), is written^ (kri). 

In forming compound letters, the strict rule is, that 
when two or more consonants come together, without the 
intervention of a vowel, such consonants unite into one 
group, so as to form, as it were, but one character. "No 
general rule can be given for the formation of compound 



188 PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 

letters, except that the last of the group remains entire, 
and the rest are more or less contracted, by omitting the 
perpendicular stroke, and sometimes by changing their 
primitive form. Hence it will easily be imagined that 
the letters of this alphabet, with their combinations, are 
very numerous, and must therefore occupy a great many 
boxes and several cases. In some founts there are several 
hundred separate characters ; but it will be sufficient for 
our present purpose to subjoin a few of them, by way of 
illustration. For instance : 



Ick let Icy gn gb chchh jj tt tth tn tm 

sr^^^-^^^'rr^-^^r^ 

ty tw dd ddh dm dy dw nt nth nd ndh nn 

^r^i^^Tr^ ^ *? ** * s 

nm ny nh pt pn py ps bd bhy II sht 

^ *w w ^ ^ ^ ^r ^j IT u 

sJith shn st sth sn sm sy ss hm liy 

The letter ^C, being of frequent occurrence in com- 
pounds, is written over the group, in the form of a 
crescent (*), when it is to be sounded first, as in the 



word fT^f tarlca, t reasoning ; ' and when the ^ follows 
another consonant, or rather, when it forms, with another 
consonant, a compound articulation, it is represented by 



an oblique stroke underneath ; as in ^T^ sutra, ' rule.' 

In some books recently printed at Calcutta in the De- 
vanagari character, but few compound letters are used. 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 189 

Compounds of three letters are very rare, and when they 
do occur, it will be found that they generally consist of a 
semivowel combined with a compound of two letters ; as, 
Ictw, ntr, pty, sty, &c. 

As the Persi- Arabic alphabet has fourteen letters which 
have no exact counterpart in the Devanagari, the plan 
adopted in this case is, to represent the letters in question 
with such Nagari letters as approximate them in sound, 
which, in some printed books, are distinguished with a 
dot underneath ; thus : 

! >u^uj'j^i c ^j'- 

* * 

i. L b 

In a few printed books an attempt has been made to 
invent distinct letters for the various forms of the Persian 
and Arabic z, which, it will be observed, are all repre- 
sented by one character ; but the plan has not been gene- 
rally followed ; because, firstly, the Hindoos, who alone 
use the Devanagari character, are sparing in the use of 
Persian or Arabic words, to one or other of which the 
various forms of the letter z belong ; and, secondly, such 
words as they have in the course of time adopted, have 
become naturalized, so as to suit the elements of the 
ZSTagarl. In a new edition of the * Adventures of Hatim 
Ta,i,' almost all dots and double letters are discarded as 
a useless encumbrance.* 

* For the use of the Arabic and Devanagari types, the author 
is indebted to the kindness of Messrs. Cox & Wyman, of Great 
Queen-street. 



190 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 



10. THE GERMAN ALPHABET. 

As this alphabet differs considerably from the English, 
and some of its letters are very similar to others, I think 
it advisable to give them at length, accompanied by a few 
remarks explanatory of the difference in the formation of 
such letters as are liable to be mistaken for others. 



FORM. 


POWER. 


NAME. 


21 a 


A a 


An 


S3 b 


B b 


Bey* 


( c 


C c 


Tsey 


> b 


D d 


Dey 


( e 


E e 


Ey 


S f ff 


F f ff 


Ef, ef-ef 




G g 


Gey or Gay 


* * b 


H h ch 


Hau, Tsey-hau 


3 i 


I i 


E 


3 I 


J j 


Yot 


& I cf 


K k ck 


Kau, Tsey-kau 


S I 


L 1 


El 


m m 


M m 


Em 


91 n 


N n 


En 


> o 


o 


O 


ty $ 


P P 


Pey 


t Cf 


Q q 


Koo 


01 t 


K r 


Err 


f ff 


S 8 S SS 


Ess, Ess-ess 




sz st 


Ess-tset Ess-tey 


t 


T t 


Tey 


U u 


U u 


Oo 


55 & 


Y v 


Fou 


28 to 


W w 


Yey 





X x 


Iks 


a 9 


Y y 


Ypsilon 


3 1 


Z z tz 


Tset, Tey-tset 


a o ft 


ae oe ue 





* ey, in this and the following instances, is sounded like a in hay. 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 191 

In the printed alphabet, as before remarked, some 
letters are apt to be mistaken, and to be confounded one 
with another. To facilitate the discrimination, we will 
place them here together, and point out the difference. 

33 (B) and $ (V). 

The latter is open in the middle, the former joined 
across. 

< (C) and <g (E). 

( (E) has a little horizontal stroke in the middle, pro- 
jecting to the right, which ( (C) has not. 

@ (G) and @ (S). 

These letters, being both of rather a round form, are 
sometimes taken one for another, particularly the @ for 
the @. But @ (S) has an opening above, @ (G) is closed, 
and has besides a perpendicular stroke within. 

& (K), (N), (E). 

$ (K) is rounded at the top, -ft (N) is open in the mid- 
dle, R (K) is united about the middle. 

ffl (M) and B (W), 

SW (M) is open at the bottom, 28 (W) is closed, 
b (b) and $ (h). 

b (b) is perfectly closed below, ty (h) is somewhat open, 
and ends at the bottom, on one side, with a hair-stroke. 

f(f)andf(s). 

f (f) has an horizontal line through it, f (s) on the left- 
side only. 



192 PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 

m (m) and tt> (w). 

ttt (m) is entirely open at the bottom, ft (w) is partly 
closed. 

t (r) and X (x). 

X (x) has a little hair-stroke below, on the left. 

& (v) and p (y). 

& (v) is closed, 9 (y) is somewhat open below, and ends 
with a hair-stroke. 



11. THE IRISH, WELSH, AND GAELIC. 

These three languages also possess an alphabet dif- 
ferent from the Roman character in common use in 
Europe ; but as works in any of them are limited in 
number, and come in the way of very few printers, it will 
not be necessary to give their alphabets at length. I will 
just remark, that the alphabet common to them all is the 
Celtic, which was probably derived from the Phenician 
traders, who used, in remote times, to visit the British 
islands for the purposes of traffic ; for its resemblance to 
the Greek and Roman shows pretty clearly that they all 
had one origin, which is generally agreed to have had its 
seat on the coasts of the Levant. 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 193 

12. MUSICAL CHARACTERS. 

As it sometimes falls to the lot of the compositor to 
be engaged on musical works, a knowledge of the symbols 
used in the science will be found of some advantage to 
him, although he may have no practical acquaintance 
with the art. We will therefore append an explanation 
and examples of such as are of constant occurrence. 

Q_ . This symbol is called the treble or G clef, because 

yr- the line passing through the middle of the curve 
fffi- is called G, and the other letters are calculated 
/ therefrom. 

The tenor or G clef The line passing through 
the body is called C : it is generally placed either 
I G] upon the middle line or the fourth from the bottom : 
when placed on the middle line, it is known as the 
alto clef ; on the fourth, as the tenor. 

The bass or F clef The line passing between 
the points is called F : it is commonly set upon the 
fourth line, but sometimes it occurs upon the middle 
one, when it is known as the barytone clef. 

The common-time symbol ; each bar containing 
four crotchets, or their equivalent. 

Moderate quick time, or the second mood, is 
reckoned either by four quavers, or two crotchets, 
in a bar. There are also other symbols showing the 
time of a piece of music ; viz. | -^g 2 , &c. 

This note is called a semibreve: it is the longest 
note in modern music, and is equal, in point of time, 
to 2 minims, 4 crotchets, 8 quavers, &c. 

A minim, as just remarked, is equal to half a semi- 
breve ; and it is also equal to two crotchets. 

A crotchet is, in point of time, equal to two qua- 
vers ; and, in the generality of music, is the standard 
beat. 

o 



194 PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 

The quaver is equivalent, in point of time, to two 
semiquavers, or, as before intimated, is equal to half 
a crotchet. 

^ A semiquaver, as its name implies, is half a 
^- quaver; but it denotes a period of time equal to two 
^ demisemi quavers. 

fL The demisemiquaver is the shortest note in modern 
K music : it is, as just stated, equal to half a semiquaver, 

and is the thirty -second part of a semibreve. 
...^_ Each kind of note has its corresponding rest, a 
mark which signifies that silence is to be kept so 
_ long as the note which it represents would require 
^ to be sung or played. The different kinds of these 
symbols are shown in the margin, beginning with 
3 ij the semibreve rest, and ending with the demisemi- 
quaver. 
W 1 denotes a direction. : C: signifies repeat. 

'^"""^ A curve drawn above or below any number of 
notes, is called a slur. 

Notes, again, are either natural, signified by the 
mark ft ; flat, ; or sharp, jt 

If a sharp is placed at the beginning of a line, it 
denotes that all the notes on that line are to be taken a 
semitone higher than in the natural series ; and this affects 
all the octaves above or below, though not marked; but 
when this sign is prefixed to any particular note, it 
signifies that that note only is to be taken a semitone 
higher than it would otherwise be. 

A fiat is the contrary of the sharp ; that is, it signifies 
that the notes it precedes are to be taken a semitone 
lower. 

When a note, already sharpened by the key signa- 
ture, is to be raised a semitone more, it is shown by this 
character x (a double sharp). 

A single bar is a perpendicular line drawn across the 



PLANS OF CASES, ETC. 195 

staff, to divide the time into the given quantities indicated 
at the beginning of the piece. A double bar consists of 
two such lines, somewhat thicker : it is used to divide a 
tune or piece of music into different parts, and is always 
placed at the end. 

When the double bar is dotted, it signifies repeat. 

On the other side, the reader will find a plan of a pair 
of Music Cases, as now in use at the office of Messrs. 
Mams & Gee, of Middle Street, West Smithfield, the 
printers of this book. The arrangement differs in several 
respects from that generally given by the type-founders ; 
but as experience is the test of efficiency in this as in all 
other things, I have preferred to give that which is de- 
monstrated by actual use to be the most convenient, rather 
than be guided by the authority of those whose knowledge 
must necessarily be more theoretic than practical ; and I 
have no doubt that it will be found of great service to the 
uninitiated, whenever it shall fall to their lot to execute 
work of this character. 







/ 


\ 


M 


/I 


ss\ 


/// 




I 


s 


j 


iff 


s 
s 




^ 


^\ 


& ^7 


J\ 


/ 


or 


m 


I 

M 


A 


& 


O (5 


3\ 


/!/ 


01 


1 


1 


I 


1 


QL 01 


UL 


fT 


il 





I/ 


1 


J 


01 


5 


fe 


Jl 


JIT 


I 


HI 


ii ! 


Jfc. *nr 


1 


J 


1 


1 


IK 


111 


ji 


t tl 


j 


f 


m 


i 


1 


111 


ju 




i 


^ 


S f 


s /^ 










( 




K 


K 




r 


n 


c 


( 


^ 


K 


K 


1 


i 


/ 


( 


< 


' 


!( 


!( 


r 


ji 


a 


ff 


( 




!(f 


Iff 


V 


i 


a 


5. 


( 




St 


H 


III 


ji 


/f 


( 


( 




H 


!( 


II 


+ 


YY 


/r 


\ 


t 


r 
^ 


I 


/r 


XI 


TO 


.-s* 


c 


L^ 


00 


- 


m 


X 


jfcl 


oa 


< 


^ 


t' 


^J; 


If! A 


4T" 


ifh 


oa 


1 


<- 


CO 


*5 


-< 


!_ 


-**' 


QQ 


e 


^ 


KO 


(J 


A 


' 


4*W 


^H 


i 


N 


rJH 


M^ 


gu 


1 


HF 


ca 




4: 


03 


< 


a 





IJUT 


CM 




i 


(M 


o 


^ 


- 


IJTI 


rH 




I 


rH 


CJ 


s 


+ 


I1LJ 



I 


Jf 


A 


\ 


\ 


I 


s 


(f 















Jl 








i 




SfflBMffl-B"* 


J 


/ 


i 


% 


i 


i 


b^ 


1 


/ 


/ 


\ 


\ 


_ 


i 


1 


i 


7 


\ 


!J 


I 


cnzzzidi 


1 


i 


/ 


I 


iJ/ 


1 


J 


\ 


\ 


7 


J 


!/ 


i 


J 


\ 





H 


ft 


a 





j 


y 


a . 


J 


1 


! 


1! 


s ' 

1 


M 


\ 


1 


511 


8 ! 


I! 


iS- 





\ 


d 


4 


Q 


i 


i 


k 


0- 


J 


< 


i 




j 


Ji 


_L_ 


J_ 












' 


i i 














1 










~w 


j 


I 


- 




_ 


j 


-i- 




j. 






j 


j 


JL 


1 


_L 

























fcfc 














WL 


I_LJ 


LU 










tL 


HH 


-H 


j 


j 


- 


- 


i 





SL 


1 


j 


i 


i 


"H 


M 


A. 





i 


2) 





g 


1 


d 


a 


i 


It 


a i 



198 



CHAPTER VI. 



JOBBING OR DISPLAYED WORK. 

ALTHOUGH many of the observations contained in the 
previous chapters of this Part, apply equally to the 
duties of the compositor, whether considered as a news, 
book, or job-hand ; nevertheless, in the last-mentioned 
branch of the business there are so many peculiarities, and 
the requirements demanded are so different from those of 
an ordinary compositor, that I have deemed it advisable 
to devote a short chapter to the illustration of this part of 
our subject. 

To constitute a good job-hand, quickness of composition 
and literary ability are not so much the essential requisites 
as taste, knowledge of effect, and mechanical skill and in- 
genuity ; and although it is impossible to impart these 
qualificatious by any verbal means, when they are not, in 
some measure, given by nature, still, hints may be thrown 
out on various subjects, which the attentive junior work- 
man may turn to a profitable account in practice. 

It may be preliminarily remarked, moreover, that if 
the old adage, " a place for everything, and everything in 
its place," is applicable anywhere, it is nowhere more so 
than in a jobbing printing-office, where the great variety 
of type in use, and frequently the small quantity of 
some of it, render it utterly impossible to find any letter 
that may be required, at the moment, unless order and 



JOBBING OR DISPLAYED WORK. 199 

system be rigidly adhered to. Neither should sorts or 
material be suffered to be locked up in chase, or to ac- 
cumulate on boards or galleys, or out-of-the-way corners 
of the office, on any pretence ; but every job should be 
cleared away at the first practicable moment : otherwise, 
confusion and disorder will prevail throughout ; nothing 
will be found when wanted, time will be unprofitably con- 
sumed, and money expended in purchasing materials which 
would not at all be required, were they but duly assigned 
to their proper place, on every occasion, as soon as they 
could be liberated. 

The work executed in jobbing printing-offices princi- 
pally consists of Broadsides, Particulars of Estates, Cata- 
logues, Circulars, Hand-bills, Cards, and Rule-work of all 
sorts ; a few words on each of which may here be not in- 
opportunely adduced. 

Broadsides. Under this head are comprised posting- 
bills of all kinds ; such as sales by auction, notices of public 
events, or whatever is intended prominently to strike the 
eye of the passer-by, on the dead-walls and hoardings of 
our public streets, or other places of general resort. In 
their composition, the main thing which will require the 
compositor's attention will be the prominent and judicious 
setting-forth of that which constitutes the groundwork 
of the announcement : other subsidiary matters must be 
placed in proper subordination thereto, according to their 
importance, but each helping to set off the other, by variety 
of type, different length of lines, and other means, which 
practice will suggest to every compositor of ordinary skill 
and judgement, but which it would be impossible to de- 
fine beforehand, as each job will depend entirely upon its 
own circumstances and the necessities of the case. I will 
merely remark, in addition, that, as I think, too little 
margin is generally left in posters executed in London and 
other large towns, which appear as one black mass of 
letters, without any relief from the paper of the margin. 



200 JOBBING OR DISPLAYED WORK. 

Particulars of Estates. These are generally printed 
on one or more folio sheets ; the first page being occupied 
by tlie general summary of the estate to be sold, after the 
manner of a poster, the name of the auctioneer, the day 
and place of sale, and the offices where catalogues are to 
' be had. The Conditions of Sale mostly occupy the second 
page, the size of the type being regulated by the quantity 
of matter to be got into it ; and the Particulars commence 
on the third page; either ending there, or being carried 
forward, according to the number of lots and the length 
of the description. The last page contains the indorse, the 
width of which is regulated by the size of the paper when 
folded into long octavo, and occupies one of the quarter 
sections of this outer page, generally the second;* being 
sometimes preceded by the Agreement to Purchase, or a 
Memorandum of Deposit, &c. Circumstances may some- 
times render it necessary to place the indorse on the third 
or even the fourth section, and the compositor must act 
accordingly. 

Auctioneers 9 Catalogues are generally regarded as coming 
under the head of job-work, being, for the most part, 
printed in the form of a pamphlet, in type seldom less than 
small pica or long primer ; and being always wanted in 
haste, and requiring a good deal of material, and frequently 
running much on peculiar sorts, no time should be lost in 
clearing them away when done with, in order that you 
may be prepared for an' other similar job at a minute's 
notice. 

Circulars are mostly printed in quarto or octavo, on 
post paper, with or without a fly-leaf, according to the 
wish of the party for whom they are executed. The prin- 
cipal lines in the head should be in some neat plain or 
ornamental letter, according to the nature of the subject, 

* Quarto prospectuses, with an indorse, are only divided into 
three portions; the indorse in them is consequently on the central 
division ; as it also is when a folio is folded up as a quarto. 



JOBBING OR DISPLAYED WORK. 



201 



duly proportioned, in accordance with the importance of the 
several lines ; and the body in a neat Roman letter, leaded 
if practicable, and not too closely spaced ; so that it may be 
read with facility, and may seem to invite perusal. The 
paragraphs should also be well indented (two or three 
ems, according to the size of the paper), for the purpose of 
distinctly marking the beginning of a new feature in the 
circular, or any other purpose. 

Sometimes Circulars consist of four pages, two of 
which are occupied in setting forth the nature of the sub- 
ject which is thereby brought under notice, and the third 
contains some form for the recipient to fill up and return 
to the party sending it. In this case, there is generally 
an address printed on the last page, in the place where an 
ordinary address would be written, as under 




But if the leaf to be returned is to be folded as a letter, the 
address must be printed in the center of the page. 

Handbills are of so many and varied descriptions, that 
it would be impossible to give any directions which would 
answer for all purposes : taste and judgement, according 
to each particular requirement, must be brought into 
requisition, as the best guide. 

The above observation applies equally to Cards ; but 
the reader may refer to what was said under the head 
of Broadsides ; for the remarks there given are equally 
applicable in this place ; and in addition, neatness and a 



202 JOBBING OR DISPLAYED WORK. 

nice proportion of the various types used, are essential 
requisites. 

We may add, however, with some advantage to the 
young compositor, the various sizes of cards, with their 
names, as generally known to the trade : 



Quadruple Large... 
Quadruple Small... 
Double Large 
Double Spaall 
Larere 


... 9 I 
... 7 
... 6 
... 5 


>y 6 inches. 
> 5 
, 4J- 
3^ 
, 3 
> "j 

) ^4 J> 

j 2j ,, 
, 2 

, If 

> * 

I 3 
> 1-4, > 


Small 


... * 2 


Reduced Small ... 
Half Large 
Town, or Outsize... 
Extra Thirds 
Thirds 


... iJ ,y 

... 3 
... 3 
... 3 
... 3 


Half Small 


... 2* 



Furniture is also a subject which will demand the 
attention of every one having the superintendence of a 
jobbing office. This should be cut to pica ems of various 
lengths, and kept so assorted, in order that any length 
that may be required may be had at once, without hunting 
among a huge drawerful of various lengths, like seeking 
a needle in a bottle of hay. When this plan is adopted, 
if there is not sufficient of one length, on any particular 
job, pieces of various lengths can be joined together, and 
will make up the exact size. These remarks will apply 
to reglets also, with equal force ; and even as regards scale- 
board, they will not be found much out of place, or alto- 
gether unworthy of attention, where economy of time is an 
object. 

We before pointed out the necessity of having a place 
for everything, and the importance of requiring every- 
thing to be returned to its place as soon as done with. 



JOBBING OR DISPLAYED WORK. 



203 



To facilitate that object, it is imperative that the cases 
should be labelled, and also denoted by a number cor- 
responding with the one assigned to them in the rack. 
When this is done, even a straDger can replace any case 
he may have had occasion to use, in a moment, where it 
will, with equal ease, be found by the next person who 
may require it. 

Before closing this chapter, it will perhaps be not in- 
opportune to add, for the sake of ready reference, the 
dimensions of the various-sized papers, both writing and 
printing, as given by the wholesale stationers. 



Writing and Drawing Paper. 



Inc 
Emperor 66 I 


hes. 
>y47 
, 31 
, 26| 
, 26 
, 23| 
, 23 
, 22 
, 19 


Antiquarian ... 53 
Double Elephant 40 
Atlas 34 


Columbier 34| 
Elephant 28 


Imperial 30 


Super Royal ... 27 



Inches. 

Royal 24 by 19 

Medium 22 17 

Derny 20 15 

Large Post 21 16" 

Post 19 15 

Foolscap 17 13| 

Pott 15 12| 

Copy 20 16 



Printing Paper. 



Inches. 

Double Demy ... 35 by 22 
Double Crown... 30 20 

Imperial 30 22 

Double Foolscap 27 17 
Super Royal ... 28 20 
Boyal 24J,, 19J 



Inches. 
Sheet-and-half 

Demy 27 by 22J 

Sheet-and-half 

Post 24 18J 

Medium ^3 18 

Demy 22 17| 



Note. It will be remarked, that writing-papers are generally 
smaller than printing-papers of the same denomination. 



204 



CHAPTER VII. 



LAW WORK AND LAW BOOKS. 

IF the young printer has carefully considered what has 
been said in the preceding pages of this book, he will be at 
no great loss to execute, with credit to himself and to the 
satisfaction of those who may employ him, any work of 
the nature of that now under consideration. Nevertheless, 
as there are some things which require to be noted for 
their peculiarity, and the books and authorities cited are 
generally contracted in a uniform manner in all law 
works, we may not unprofitable bestow a few pages in 
explaining those peculiarities, and in giving, in alphabet- 
ical detail, a list of the most common law authorities, as 
generally contracted in practice, and as I find them in the 
preliminary portion of Butterworth's Law Catalogue. 

We may remark in the first place, then, that the names 
of the parties to a suit are generally in Italic (except in 
newspapers), and the authorities where the case is re- 
ported, in Eoman, contracted in the manner given in the 
appended list. If the name of the case is adduced in the 
argument, the authority follows in parentheses ; but if the 
case is added parenthetically, of course the whole is in- 
closed within the appropriate symbols. Examples of both 
will clearly explain the plan to be adopted in each case 
by the compositor. 

In Thomas v. Waller (4 Corb. & D. 61) and Jones v. Peterson 
(Adol. & El. 703), the matter is fully and satisfactorily reported. 



LAW WORK, ETC. 205 

An action of this nature must be brought within the time 
specified (Reg. v. Kesterton, 13 Co. Litt. 76), otherwise it will fail. 

Where, the reader will observe, the short and (&) is 
always employed, and there is no comma after the full 
stop, between the authority and the page. 

The short and is also uniformly employed in reciting 
the years of the reign of any monarch in which an act of 
parliament was passed, thus : 15 & 16 Geo. 3, c. 21, with 
Arabic numerals after the name, and not Roman capital 
letters, which would be too cumbersome, and not half so 
clear. 

In all instances of this sort, ike figures should never be 
separated, at the end of a line, from that to which they 
belong ; nor should the constituent parts of what forms 
but one portion of the reference. Thus, in the instance 
given above, 15 should not end a line, and the next begin 
with & ; neither should Geo. be separated from the ac- 
companying 3 ; nor c. from 21. Nor, in like manner, the 
letters denoting any office, such as Colburn, C. J. ; where 
the C. and J. should always be in the same line. And so 
in all other cases. To do otherwise would be extremely 
unsightly. 

When a number of authorities are given, with the 
reports where found, each case is separated from the fol- 
lowing one by a semicolon, in the following manner, if 
they depend or read on with what has been previously 
said. Thus : " The authorities on which I rely (12 & 13 
Car. 2, c. 14, s. 6 ; Bell v. Bradfoot, 6 T. E. 721 ; Cooke v. 
Jonas, 2 B. & A. 423) are conclusive on this point." But if 
they do not so depend, or do not form an interposed paren- 
thetical sentence, a full-stop may well be employed. 

To say more here would be but a reiteration of some- 
thing that has been previously adduced in some portion or 
other of this book ; I prefer, therefore, that the tyro 
should exercise his memory, rather than that I should 
consume time and space in going over a twice-told tale. 



206 



LAW WORK. ETC. 



We will therefore proceed at once to give the list of con- 
tracted law authorities, with their explanation, to which I 
alluded above. 

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN REFERENCES TO LAW 
BOOKS, &c. 



Ab. Sh. 
Abr. Ca. Eq. 
A. An. Anon. 
A. B. 

Act. 

Act. Reg. 

Ad. & E. 

Add. 

Ad. E. 

Al. 

Amb. 

Annaly. 

And. 

Andr. 

Anst. 

Arch. P. by Ch. 

Arch. B. L. 

Arch. Cr. L. 

Arch. J. P. 

Arch. Sum. 

Ass. 

Ast. Ent. 

Atk. 

Ayl. 

Bac. Abr. 

B. & A. or Barn. & Aid. 

B. & Ad. or Barn. & Adol. 

B. & C. or Barn. & Cress 

Ball & B. 

Bane. Sup. 



Abbot's Shipping 

Abridgement of Cases in Equity 

Anonymous 

Anonymous, at the end of Bendloe, Rep. 

1661 

Acton's Reports 
Acta Regia 
Adolphus and Ellis 
Addams's Ecclesiastical Reports 
Adams on Ejectment 
Aleyn's Reports 
Ambler's Reports 
Reports time Hardwicke 
Anderson's Reports 
Andrew's Reports 
Anstruther's Reports 
Archbold's Practice, by Chitty 
Archbold's Bankrupt Law 
Archbold's Criminal Law 
Archbold's Justice of the Peace 
Archbold's Summary of the Laws of 

England 
Assise (Book of) 
Aston's Entries 
Atkyn's Reports 
Ayliffe 

Bacon's Abridgement 
Barnewall and Alderson's Reports 
Barnewall and Adolphus 
Barnewall and Cresswell 
Ball and Beatty 
Upper Bench 



LA.W WORK, ETC. 



207 



Bar. & Arn. 

Bar. & Aust. 

Barn. K. B. 

Barn. C. 

Barnes 

Batt. 

Bayl. B. 

Beav. 

Benl. or Bendl. 

Bing. 

Bing. N. C. 

B. Tr. 

BL 

W. Black. 

H. Black. 

Bla. Com. 

Bli. 

Bli. N. S. 

B. N. C. 

B. N. P. 

Bo. R. Act. 

B. & P. or Bos. & Pul. 

Bos. & P. N. R. 

Bott 

Bra. 

Bridg. 

Bridg. 0. 

Br. Bro. 

Bro. Ab. 

Br. Brev. Jud. & Ent. 

Bro. Brow. Ent. 

Bro. V. M. 

Brown, P. C. 

Brown, C. C. 

Brownl. Redv. or Ent. 

Brownl. 

B. or C. B. 
B. R. 



Barron and Arnold 
Barron and Austin 
Barnardiston's Reports, K. B. 
Barnardiston's Reports, Chancery 
Barnes's Notes, C. P. 
Batty 

Bayley on Bills 
Beavan 

Benloe or Bendloe's Reports 
Bingham 

Bingham's New Cases 
Bishop's Trial 
Blount 

Sir Wm. Blackstone's Reports 
Henry Blackstone's Reports 
Blackstone's Commentaries 
Bligh 

Bligh's Reports, New Series 
Brooke's New Cases 
Buller's Nisi Prius 
Booth's Real Actions 
Bosanquet and Puller s Reports 
Bosanquet and Puller's New Reports 
Bott's Poor Laws 
Brady or Bracton 
Bridgman's Rep. or Conv. 
Orlando Bridgman 
Brooke, Browne, Brownlow 
Brooke's Abridgement 
Brownlow Brevia Judicialia, &c. 
Brown's Entries 
Brown's Vade-Mecum 
Brown's Parliament Cases 
Brown's Chancery Reports 
Brownlow's Redivivus 
Brownlow and Gouldesborough s Re- 
ports 

Common Bench 
King's Bench 



208 



LAW WORK. ETC. 



Buck 

Bulst. 

Bunb. 

B. Just. 

B. Eccl. Law 

Burr. 

Burr. S. C. 

B. & B. or Brod. Bing. 
C. 

C. C. 
Cald. 

Ca. temp. H. 

Ca. 

Ca. t. K. 

Cal. 

Camp. N. P. 

C. & K. or Car. & Kir. 

Car. & M. 

C. M. & R. 

C. & P. or Car. & P. 

Cart. 

Cary 

Carth. 

Cas. t. Talb. 

Cas. Pra. C. P. 

Cas. B. R. 

Cas. L. Eq. 

C. B. or C. P. 

Ca. P. or Parl. 

Cawl. 

Ch. Cas. 

Ch. Pre. 

Ch. R. 

Chris. B. L. 

Ch. Burn's J. 

Ch. PL 

Ch. Grim. L. 

Ch. Bills 

Chit. Rep. 



Buck's Reports in Bankruptcy 

Bulstrode's Reports 

Bunbury's Reports 

Burn's Justice 

Burn's Ecclesiastical Law 

Burrow's Reports 

Burrow's Settlement Cases 

Broderip and Bingham 

Codex (Juris Civilis) 

Cases in Chancery 

Caldecott's Reports 

Cases time Hardwicke 

Case, or Placita 

Cases time King 

Callis, Calthorpe 

Campbell's Reports Nisi Priua 

Carrington and Kirwan 

Carrington and Marshman 

Crompton, Meeson, and Roscoe 

Carrington and Payne 

Carter's Reports 

Gary's Reports 

Carthew's Reports 

Cases time Talbot 

Cases of Practice Common Pleas 

Cases temp. Will. 3 (12 Mod.) 

Cases in Law and Equity (10 Mod.) 

Common Pleas 

Cases in Parliament 

Cawley 

Cases in Chancery 

Precedents in Chancery 

Reports in Chancery 

Christian's Bankrupt Law 

Chitty's Burn's Justice 

Chitty on Pleading 

Chitty's Criminal Law 

Chitty on Bills 

Chitty's Reports 



Chit. G. P. 
Chit. Jun. B. 
Cl. & Fin. 
Cl. Ass. 
Clay. 
Clift 

Cod. or Cod. Jur. 
Co. Cop. 
Co. Ent. 
Co. Lit. 
Co. M. C. 
Co. P. C. 
Co. on Courts 
Comb. 
C. P. 
Com. 

Com. Dig. 
Cooper 
Co. 

Cooke B. L. 
Coop. t. Brough. 
Coop. 
Corb. & D. 
Cot. 
Cow. 
,Cox 
Cr.&Ph, 
Cro. (1, 2, 3) 
Cro. sometimes refers 

Serj. Croke. 
Cromp. 
Cromp. & J. 
Cromp. & M. 
Cromp. M. & R. 
Cunn. 
Curt. 
D. 
Dal. 



LAW WORK, ETC. 209 

Chitty's General Practice 
Chitty, jun., on Bills 
Clark and Finnelly 
Clerk's Assistant 
Clayton's Reports 
Cliffs Entries 
Codex by Gibson 
Coke's Copyholder 
Coke's Entries 
Coke on Littleton (1 Inst.) 
Coke's Magna Charta (2 Inst,) 
Coke's Pleas of the Crown (3 Inst.) 
Coke's 4 Inst. 
Cornberbach's Reports 
Common Pleas 
Comyn's Reports 
Comyn's Digest 
Cooper's Reports- 
Coke's Reports 
Cooke's Bankrupt Laws 
Cooper's Cases temp. Brougham 
Cooper (G.) 
Corbett and Daniell 
Cotton 

Cowper's Reports 
Cox's Reports 
Craig and Phillips 
Croke (Elizabeth, James, Charles) 
to Keilway's Reports, published % 

Crompton on Courts 
Crompton and Jervis 
Crompton and Meeson 
Crompton, Meeson, and Roscoe 
Cunningham's Reports 
Curteis 

Dictum, Digest (Juris Civilis), 
Dalison's Report 
P 



210 

Dalr. F. L. 

Dalt. 

D'An. 

Dan. 

Dan. & LI. 

Dav. 

Deac. 

Dick. 

Dick. Just. 

Dig. 

D. &S. 

Dod. 

Dom. Proc. 

D. & C. or Deac. & Ch. 

D. & L. or Dow. & L. 

D. R. or Dow. & Ky. 
Doug. 

Dow 

Dow. & R. M. C. 

Dow. & Ry. N. P. 

Dow & C. 

Dowl. P. C. 

Dugd. Orig. 

Dug. S. 

Duke 

Duraf. 

Dub. 

Dy- 

E. 

Eag. & Yo. 
East 

East P. C. 
Eden 

Edw. A. R. 
Eq. Ca. 

E. of Cov. 
Esp. 
Exch. Rep. 



LAW WORK, ETC. 

Dalrym pie's Feudal Law 
Dalton's Justice or Sheriff 
D'Anvers' Abridgement 
Daniel's Reports 
Dansoii and Lloyd 
Davy's Reports 
Deacon's Bankruptcy Cases 
Dickins's Reports 
Dickinson's Justice 
Digest of Writs 
Doctor and Student 
Dodson's Reports in Admiralty 
Domini Proctor ; Cases House of Lords 
Deacon and Chitty 
Dowling and Lowndes 
Dowling and Ryland's K. B. Reports 
Douglas's Reports 
Dow's Reports in Parliament 
Dowling and Ryland's Magistrates' Casts 
Dowliug and Ryland's Nisi Prius 
Dow and Clark 
Dowling's Practice Cases 
Dugdale's Origines 
Dugdale's Summons 
Duke's Charitable Uses 
Durnford & East, or Term Reports 
Dubitatur 
Dyer's Reports 
Easter Term 

Eagle and Younge's Tithe Cases 
East's Reports 
East's Pleas of the Crown 
Eden's Rep. of Northington's Case 
Edward's Admiralty Reports 
Equity Cases Abridged 
Earl of Coventry's Case 
Espinasse's Rep. or Digest N. P. 
WeLby, Huiistone, and Gordon 



LAW WORK. ETC. 



211 



Far. 

Fearne 

Ff.* 

Fin. 

F. or Fitz.f 

F. N. B. 
Fitz-G. 
Fl. 
Fol. 
Fonbl. 
For. 

For. Pla. 
Forrester 
Forts. 
Fost. 
Fra. M. 
Freem. 
Gal. & Dav. 
Gilb. C. P. 

Dist. 

Ex. 
Ev. 

Exch. 

-K. B. 

Eem. 

Us. 

Gilb. 
Glauv. 

G. J. 
Godb. 



Farresley (7 Mod. Rep.) 
Fearne on Remainders 
Pandectse (Jims Civilis) 
Finch's Reports 
Fitzherbert 
Fitz Nat. Brevium 
Fitz-Gibbon's Reports 
Fleta 

Foley's Poor Laws 
Fonblanque on Equity 
Forrest's Reports 
Brown's Formulae 
Cases time of Talbot 
Fortesque's Reports 
Foster's Reports 
Francis's Maxims 
Freeman's Reports 
Gale and Davison 
Gilbert's Common Pleas 

Distresses 

Executions 

Evidence 

Exchequer 

King's Bench 

Remainders 

Uses 

Cases in Law and in Equity 

Glanville de Legibus 
Glyn and Jameson 
Godbolt's Reports 



* This reference, which frequently occurs iu Blackstone and 
other writers, applied to the Pandects or Digests of the civil law, 
is a corruption of the Greek letter TT. Vide Calvini Lexicon Jurid. 
voc. Digestorum. 

t Fitzherbert's Abridgement is commonly referred to by the 
older law writers by the title and number of the placita only ; e.g. 
coron. 30. 



212 LAW WORK, ETC. 

Godol. Godolphin 

Golds. Goldesborough's Reports 

Gro. de J. B. Grotius de Jure Belli 

Hag. EC. Haggard's Ecclesiastical Law 

Hag. Con. Consistory Reports 

Hag. Adm. Admiralty Reports 

Hans. Hansard's Entries 

Hale C. L. Hale's Common Law 

H. H. P. C. Hale's Hist. Plac. Cor. 

H. P. C. Hale's Pleas of the Crown 

Ha. & Tw. Hall and TweUs 

Hanm. Hanmer's Lord Kenyon's Notes 

Hard. Hardre's Reports 

Hawk. P. C. Hawkins's Pleas of the Crown 

Her. Herne 

Het. Hetley's Reports 

H. or Hil. Hilary Term 

Hob. Hobart's Reports 

Holt Holt's Reports 

Holt N. P. Holt's Nisi Prius Reports 

Hugh. Hughes's Entries 

Hut. Button's Reports 

Imp. K. B. Impey's Practice K. B. 

C. P. Practice C. P. 

- Sh. _ Sheriff 

- PI. - Pleader 

J. & W. or Jac. & W. Jacob and Walker 

Jac. or Jacob Jacob's Reports 

Jan. Angl. Jani Anglorum 

Jenk. Jenkins's Reports 

1, 2, Inst. (1, 2) Coke's Inst. 

Inst. 1, 2, 3 Justinian's Inst. lib. 1, tit. 2, sec. 3 

Jon. 1, 2 Jones's, W. & T., Reports 

Jud. Judgements 

Jur. The Jurist 

Keb. Keble's Reports 

Keen Keen's Reports 

Kel. Sir John Kelynge's Reports 

Kel. 1, 2 Win. Kelynge's Reports, 2 parts 



LAW WORK, ETC. 



213 



K. B. 
K. C. R. 

Keilw. 

Ken. 

Keny. 

Kit. 

Kn. 

Kn. &0. 

Lamb. 

La. 

Lat. 

L. Mag. 

Leg. 0. 

L. Rev. 

L. T. 

Leach 

Leon. 

Lev. 

Lew. C. C. 

Lex Merc. Reel. 

Ley 

Lib. Ass. 

Lib. Reg. 

Lib. Feud. 

Lib. Intr. 

Lib. PI. 

Lil. 

Lil. Abr. 

Lind. 

Lit. 

Lit. with S. 

Llo. & Goo. 

L. & G. temp. Plunk. 

Lofft 

Long Quinto 

Lut. 

Lud. E. C. 

M. & S. or Man. & Sel. 



King's Bench 

Rep. temp. King, C. 

Keilway's Reports 

Kennet 

Kenyon's Notes, by Hanmer 

Kitchen 

Knapp's Reports 

Knapp and Ombler 

Lambard 

Lane's Reports 

Latch's Reports 

The Law Magazine 

The Legal Observer 

The Law Review 

The Law Times 

Leach's Crown Law 

Leonard's Reports 

Levinz's Reports 

Lewin's Crown Cases 

Lex Mercatoria, by Beawes 

Ley's Reports 

Liber Assisarum, Year Book, pt. 5 

Register Book 

Liber Feudorum, usually printed at the 

end of the Corpus Juris Civilis 
Old Book of Entries 
Liber Placitandi 
Lilly's Reports or Entries 
Lilly's Practical Register 
Lindewood 
Littleton's Reports 
Littleton, S. for section 
Lloyd and Goold, temp. Sugden 

, temp. Plunket 

Lofft's Reports 
Year Book, pt. 10 
Lutwyche's Reports 
Luder's Election Cases 
Maule and .Sel win's Reports 



214 

M'Cle. 

M'Cle. & Yo. 

M. D. & D. 

Mad. 

Madd. 

Madd. Ch. 

Mai. 

Man. & G. 

Man. & R. 

Manw. 

Mar. 

Marsh. 

Marsh. In. 

Mer. or Meriv. 

M. or Mich. 

Mitf. 

Mod. Ca. 

Mod. c. 1, & eq. 1, 2 

Mod. Int. 1, 2 
Mod. Rep. 
Mol. 
Mo. 

Mont. B. C. 
Mont. & B. 
M. & M'A. 
M. & Ayr. R. 
M. & Ayr. B. L. 
Moo. C. C. 
Moo. & M. 
Moo. & R. 
Moo. J. B. 
Moo. & P. 
Moo. & S. 
Mos. 

Myl. & Cr. 
Myl. & K. 
N. R. 
N. Benl. 



LAW WORK, ETC. 

M'Cleland 

M'Cleland and Younge 
Montagu, Deacon, and De Gex 
Madox's Exchequer and Formulare 
Maddock's Reports 
Maddock's Chancery Practice 
Malyne's Lex Mercatoria 
Manning and Granger 
Manning and Ryland 
Manwood's Forest Laws 
March's Reports 
Marshall's Reports 
Marshall on Insurance 
Meri vale's Reports 
Michaelmas Term 
Mitford's Pleadings 
Modern Cases 
Modern Cases in Law and Equity 

(8 & 9 Mod. Rep.) 
Modus Intrandi, 1, 2 
Modern Reports 
Molloy's de Jure Maritime 
Moore's Reports 
Montagu's Reports 
Montagu and Bligh 
Montagu and M 'Arthur 
Montagu & Ayrton's Reports 
Montagu & Ayrton's Bankrupt Law 
Moody 's Crown Cases 
Moody and Malkin 
Moody and Robinson 
J. B. Moore's Reports 
Moorj3 and Payne 
Moore and Scott 
Moseley's Reports 
Mylne and Craig 
Mylne and Keen 

New Reports, by Bosanquet and Puller 
New Benloe 



LAW WORK, ETC. 



215 



N. L. 

Nev. & M. 

Nev. & P. 

Nic. Ha. Ca. 

Nol. Sett. 

North. 

No. Ca. Eec. & M. Cts. 

N. or Nov. 

No. N. 

O. BenL 

Off. Br. 

Off. Ex. 

Ord. Cla. 

Ord. Ch. 

Ow. 

Orl. Bridgman 

Pal. 

Par. 

Park Ins. 

Pea. 

Peak. Ad. Gas. 

Perk. 

P. Pas. 

PI. Pla. P. or p. 

P. C. 

P.W. 

Per. & K. 

P. & D. or Per. & Dav. 

Ph.Ev. 

Phillim. 

1%. 

PL Com. 
Pol. 
Poph. 
2 Poph. 
P. R. C. P. 
Pr. Reg. Ch. 
Pr. Ch. 



Nelson's Lutwyche 

Nevile and Manning 

Nevile and Perry 

Nicholl, Hare, and Carrow 

Nolan's Settlement Cases 

Northington's Reports 

Notes of Cases in the Ecclesiastical and 

Maritime Courts 
Novelise (Juris Civilis) 
Novse ISTarrationes 
Old Benloe 
Officina Brevium 
Office of Executors 
Orders, Lord Clarendon's 
Orders in Chancery 
Owen's Reports 
Orlando Bridgman 
Palmer's Reports 
Parker's Reports 
Park on Insurance 
Peake's Reports N. P. 
Peake's Additional Cases 
Perkins's Conveyances 
Easter Term 
Placita 

Pleas of the Crown 
Peere Williams's Reports 
Perry and Knapp 
Perry and Davison 
Phillips's Evidence 
Phillimore's Reports 
Pigott's Recoveries 
Plowden's Com. or Reports 
Pollexfen's Reports 
Popham's Reports 
Cases at the end of Popham's Rep. 
Practical Register in Com. Pleas 
Practical Register in Chancery 
Precedents in Chancery 



216 



LAW WORK, ETC. 



Pres. Conv. Preston's Conveyancing 

Pres. Abs. Preston on Abstracts 

Pres. Es. Preston on Estates 

Price or Pr. Price's Reports 

Priv. Loud. Privilegia Londini 

Pr. St. Private Statute 

Q. B. Adolphus and Ellis, New Series 

Quinti Qiiinto Year-Book, 5 Hen. V. 

East. Rastell's Entries and Statutes 

Ld. Raym. Lord Raymond's Reports 

Raym. T. Sir Thomas Raymond's Reports. 

Raym. Raymond 

Reev. E. L, Reeves's English Law 

Reg. Brev. Register of Writs 

Reg. PI. Regula Placitandi 

Reg, Jud. Registrum Judiciale 

Rep. (1, 2, &c.) 1, 2, Coke's Reports, &c. 

Rep. Eq. Gilbert's Reports in Equity 

Rep. Q. A. Reports temp. Queen Anne 

Rep. temp. Finch Finch's Reports 

Rob. Robinson's Entries 

Rob. A. Robinson's Reports Admiralty, New 

Admiralty, or Robertson's- Reports of 

Appeals 

R. S. L. Reading Statute Law 

Roll. & Roll. Abr. Rolle, Rep. and Abridgement 

Roll Roll of the Term 

Rose Rose's Reports 

Rush. Rush worth's Collections 

Russ. Russell's Reports 

Russ. M. Russell and Mylne 

Russ. & R. Russell and Ryan 

Ry. F. Rymer's Fcedera 

Ry. & M. Ryan and Moody 

Salk. Salkeld's Reports 

Sav. Savile's Reports 

Saund. Saunders's Reports 

S. B. Upper Bench 

S. C. Same case 



LAW WORKj ETC. 



217 



Sch. & Lef. 
Sco. or Scott 
Sco. N. R. 
Scriv. Cop. 
Selw. N. P. 
Seld. 
Sel. Ca. 
Sem. 
Sess. Ca. 
Show. 

Shower's P. C. 
Sid. 
Sim. 

S. & S. or Sim. & St. 
Skin. 
Smith 
Som. 
Spel. 
S. P. 
S. C. C. 
Stark. N. P. 
Stark. C. L. 
Stark. Ev. 
Stat. W. 

Staunf. St. P. C. & Pr. 
Steph. Com. 
Stra. 
Sty. 
St. Tri. 
Sug. V. &P. 
Sug. P. 
Swans. 
Swin. 
Taml. 
Taun. 
Th. Dig. 
Th. Br. 
Toth. 
T. R. 



Schoales and Lefroy's Reports 

Scott's Reports 

Scott's New Reports 

Scriven on the Law of Copyholds 

Selwyn's Nisi Prius 

Selden 

Select Cases 

Semble, seems 

Sessions Cases 

Shower's Reports 

Shower's Parliament Cases 

Siderfin's Reports 

Simons 

Simons and Stuart 

Skinner's Reports 

Smith's Reports 

Somner, Somers 

Spelman 

Same point 

Select Chancery Cases 

Starkie's Reports 

Starkie's Criminal Law 

Starkie's Evidence 

Statute of Westminster 

Staunforde Pleas and Prerogative 

Stephen's Commentaries 

Strange' s Reports 

Style's Reports 

State Trials 

Sugden's Vendors and Purchasers 

Sugden's Powers 

Swanston's Reports 

Swinburn on Wills 

Tamlyn 

Tauntoii's Reports 

Thelwall's Digest 

Thesaurus Brevium 

TothilVs Reports 

Teste Rege 



218 



LAW WORK, ETC. 



T. R. 

T. R. E. or T. E. R. 

Tidd P. 

Tr. Eq. 

Trem. 

Trin. 

Turn. 

Turn. & R. 

Tyrw. 

Tyrw. & G. 

Vaugh. 

VeDt. 

Vet. Entr. 

Vet. N. Br. 

Vern. 

Ves. 

V. & B. or Ves. & Bea. 

Vid, 

Vin. Abr. 

Vin. Supp. 

Wats. 

Wat. Cop. 

Went. E. 

W. 1, W. 2. 

West 

Wils. Ch. 

Win. 

Wight. 

Wils. 

Wm. Rob. 

Wms. 

Wms. Just. 

Y. B. 

Yelv. 

You. 

Y. & J. or You. & Jer. 

Y. & C. or You. & Coll. 

Y. C. C. C. 



Term Reports 

Tempore Hegis Edwardi 

Tidd's Practice 

Treatise of Equity 

Trernaine, Pleas of Crown 

Trinity Term 

Turner 

Turner and Russell 

Tyrwhitt 

Tyrwhitt and Granger 

Vaughan's Reports 

Ventris's Reports 

Old B. Entries 

Old Nat. Brev. 

Vernon's Reports 

Vesey's, sen. or jun., Reports 

Vesey and Beames's Reports 

Vidian's Entries 

Viner's Abridgement 

Viner's Supplement 

Watson 

Watkins's Copyholds 

Wentworth's Executor 

Statutes of Westminster, 1, 2 

West's Reports 

Wilson's Chancery Reports 

Winch's Reports 

Wightwicke's Reports 

Wilson's Reports 

Wm. Robinson's New Admiralty Reports 

Williams's Reports, or Peere Williams 

Williams' s Justice 

Year-Book 

Yelverton's Reports 

Younge 

Younge and Jervis 

Youuge and Collyer's Eq. Exch. 

Younge and Collyer's Chancery Cases 



219 



CHAPTER VIII. 



PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

IN the methodical treatment of our subject in the pre- 
ceding pages, there are necessarily some things omitted 
which it may be interesting to the young compositor to find 
noticed in this place. We will proceed, therefore, to ad- 
duce a few remarks on such topics as may seem deserving 
of them, and will arrange them in alphabetical order, so 
that they may be easily found, whenever a thought should 
occur to the compositor on which he may require informa- 
tion. The subjects treated, as remarked in the head of 
the chapter, are of a practical nature ; and the observa- 
tions advanced, are partly the result of the author's own 
experience, and partly gleaned from other sources : for I 
confess, that, in this part of my book, I have followed the 
example of my predecessors, and have freely availed my- 
self of the labors of others, whenever I found them adapted 
to my purpose. 

1. Bastard Founts. 

Under article 1 of the Scale, it is laid down, that " bastard 
founts of one remove" are "to be cast up to the depth and 
width of the two founts to which they belong ;'' but nothing 
is said of founts of two or more removes. The following 
remarks, extracted from Mr. Day's " Tables," may there- 
fore not be uninteresting to the reader. 



220 PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

" Bastard Founts two or more removes from the re- 
gular standard, are cast up as leaded matter ; that is, by 
deducting id. per 1000. Thus, a Small Pica on an English 
body is considered as Small Pica leaded, and paid 5fd. 
per 1000. The depth of the face of the letter is the criterion 
only in those cases where the type is smaller than the body; 
but in such cases as a Minion face on a Nonpareil body, 
&c., it is the body that decides to which fount any such 
description of type belongs. 

" If a lead or leads are introduced between the lines of 
Bastard Founts of two or more removes, a further reduc- 
tion is not made for such lead or leads. 

" In founts below Minion, when the type comes under 
the regular founders' standard, an advance of price is 
granted, if it is equal to or exceeds the half of the difference 
betwixt the larger fount and the next smaller one ; but, 
under that proportion, no extra charge is made. Thus, 
when a Bastard Nonpareil contains half as many more 
ems to the foot as the difference betwixt Nonpareil and 
Kuby, id. per 1000 extra is charged ; but under that pro- 
portion no charge is made. Or, as the difference between 
a Brevier and a Minion is 16| lines in a foot, if the fount 
in use admit of 8 lines in the foot more than a standard 
Brevier allows, no charge is made ; but if it admits S~ lines 
or more, then it is charged as Minion. In every instance, 
of course, the founts are cast up to their own ems [m]. 

u In casting up a work set up in Minion-Nonpareil, 
the compositor is not entitled to cast it up as Minion first 
and then Nonpareil, and arrive at the quantity of letters 
by taking the half of each ; but he is to cast up the work 
as a Minion in length and a Nonpareil in width, and 
charge for 2000 letters the price of 1000 Minion and 1000 
Nonpareil." 



BILL OF LETTERS. 



221 



2. Bill of Letters. 

Letter-founders call 3,000 lower-case m's a bill, to 
which they proportion all other sorts. Thus a whole bill 
of pica weighs 500 lb., and a half^bill 250 lb., and the 
letters are generally apportioned according to the follow- 
ing scale. 

A BILL OF PICA, ROMAN. 



a 


8,500 


ff 


400 


j 


4,500 


A 


600 


A 


300 


b 


1,600 


fi 


500 




800 


B 


400 


B 


200 


c 


3,000 


fl 


200 




600 


C 


500 


C 


250 


d 


4,400 


ffi 


150 




2,000 


D 


500 


D 


250 


e 


12,000 


ffl 


100 


- 


1,000 


E 


600 


E 


300 


f 


2,500 


86 


100 


2 


200 


F 


400 


P 


200 


g 


1,700 


03 


60 


t 


150 


G 


400 


G 


200 


h 


6,400 


1510 




' 


700 


H 


400 


H 


200 




i 


8,000 


a 


200 


( 


300 


I 


800 


I 


400 


j 


400 


e 


100 


[ 


150 


J 


300 


J 


150 


k 


800 


i 


100 


* 


100 


K 


300 


K 


150 


1 


4,000 


6 


100 


t 


100 


L 


500 


L 


250 


m 


3,000 


u 


100 


t 


100 


M 


400 


M 


200 


n 


8,000 


a 


100 





100 


N 


400 


N 


200 





8,000 





250 


11 


100 





400 


O 


200 


P 


1,700 


i 


100 


f 


60 


P 


400 


P 


200 


q 


500 


6 


100 






Q 


180 


Q 


90 




r 


6,200 


ii 


100 




10,960 


R 


400 


R 


200 


s 


8,000 


a 


200 







S 


500 


S 


250 


t 


9,000 


e 


200 


1 


1,300 


T 


650 


T 


326 


u 


3,400 


i 


100 


2 


1,200 


U 


300 


U 


150 


V 


1,200 


6 


100 


3 


1,100 


V 


300 


V 


150 


w 


2,000 


u 


100 


4 


1,000 


W 


400 


W 


200 


X 


400 


a 


100 


5 


1,000 


X 


180 


X 


90 


y 


2,000 


e 


100 


6 


1,000 


Y 


300 


Y 


150 


z 


200 


i 


100 


7 


1,000 


Z 


80 


Z 


40 


& 


200 


o 


100 


8 


1,000 


M 


40 


M 


20 








i on 




i nno 


n? 


QO 




1 1 




107,100 


u 
Q 


JLUU 

100 





JL,U UU 

1,300 


v iu 


O\J 




.it/ 





















10,660 




5,331 










2,550 




10,900 











222 



PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 



A HALF-BILL OF PJCA, ITALIC. 



a 


1,700 


ff 80 


d 


20 


A 


120 


When 


b 


320 


fi 100 


e 


50 


B 


80 


small cap- 


c 


600 


ft 40 


i 


20 


C 


100 


itals are 


d 


880 


ffi 30 


6 


20 


D 


100 


supplied, 


e 


2,400 


ffl 20 


u 


20 


E 


120 


which is 


f 


500 


(B 20 


a 


20 


F 


80 


not usual, 


9 


340 


at 12 


e 


20 


G 


80 


they may 


h 


1,280 





i 


20 


H 


80 


be taken 


i 


1,600 


302 


b 


20 


I 


160 


at half the 


j 


80 





u 


20 


J 


60 


capitals. 


k 


160 


; 160 


d 


40 


K 


60 




I 


800 


120 


e 


40 


L 


100 





m 


600 


? 40 


i 


20 


M 


80 




n 


1,600 


/ 30 


o 


20 


N 


80 


SPACES. 




P 

q 

r 

s 
t 


1,600 
340 
100 
1,240 
1,600 
1,800 


( * 60 

410 


u 
d 
\] 
'i 
o 
u 


20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 


() 
P 
Q 

R 
S 
T 


80 
80 
36 
80 
100 
130 


Th.18,000 
Mi. 12,000 
Tn. 8,000 
Hr. 3,000 
m.q. 2,500 


u 


680 


* Very sel- 


9 


20 


U 


60 


n.q. 5,000 


V 


240 


dom used, 







V 


60 




w 


400 


Roman 




490 


W 


80 


48,500 


X 


80 


ones being 







X 


36 




y 


400 


generally 






Y 


60 


Large 


z 


40 


substitu- 






Z 


16 


quadrats, 


Sf 


40 


ted for 






M 


8 


about 80 







them. 






(E 


6 


Ib. 




21,420 




























2,132 





3. Breaks. 

It is a general rule with English printers, that the 
last line of a paragraph roust never begin a page ; although 
emergencies occasionally arise when the rigidity of this 
rule may be relaxed, if the line is nearly a full one, 
as is mostly allowed by continental printers. But the 
first line of a paragraph can well enough end a page in 
solid matter ; but when there is a white line before it, 



CANCELS. CASTING OFF COPY. 223 

it does not look well : two lines should be got in if pos- 
sible (vide pp. 23, 73, 142), or the single line taken 
over to the next page, by driving out in the previous 
matter, or by some other means. Not fewer than two 
lines (more if practicable) should follow a heading at the 
bottom of a page ; for one line in such a situation is 
awfully ugly. 

4. Cancels. 

When cancelled pages are set up before the work to 
which they belong is cleared away, and the letter of the 
work is used to compose such cancels, they are charged 
the same price as the work ; but when the work has been 
cleared away, if the pages exceed a sheet, they are paid 
according to the scale for pamphlets ; when they make 
only a sheet, or less than a sheet, they are paid Id. per 
thousand : in both the latter cases, the extras are charged 
according to their value. 

5. Casting off Copy. 

Most writers and publishers, when they resolve to 
submit a work to the press, are desirous of knowing, 
within a trifle, the quantity it will make when printed. 
Supposing the size of the letter and the page given, and 
the manuscript evenly written, upon leaves of paper of the 
same size, as all works ought to be, the operation is attended 
with little difficulty. All that will be necessary, will be 
to ascertain the proportion which a page of manuscript 
bears to a page of print, and by stating the proportions as 
a simple Rule of Three sum, thereby ascertain the result; 
afterwards making allowance for chapter-heads and other 
divisions, if such there be. But when the copy is written 
upon paper of different sizes, with many interlineations or 
erasures, the matter assumes a more complicated aspect, 
and is much more difficult of accomplishment. Still, the 



224 PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

same general rule will hold. An average page of copy 
must be taken as the guide, and the rest compared 
therewith, and carefully examined, in order to ascertain 
whether they exceed or fall short of the standard ; these 
excesses or deficiencies being noted down, and added to, 
or deducted from, the average total. The method of pro- 
ceeding will then be as before. 

But it not unfrequently happens that the size of the 
page and the total number of pages are the quantities fur- 
nished to the printer, and it is left for him to decide as to 
the size of the letter which will fulfil the required conditions. 
This is a more difficult operation than the one above re- 
ferred to, and can only be arrived at, with precision, by 
composing a page in type of various sizes, and thereby 
determining which comes nearest to the mark (of course 
having previously ascertained the total number of pages 
of manuscript or other copy). But as this is an operation 
which would consume considerable time, and would some- 
times be accompanied with no little expense, an approxi- 
mation can be arrived at by examining the number of 
words contained in an average page of copy, and multi- 
plying that number by the number of pages, which will, of 
course, give the total of words which the entire work com- 
prises. Then, if the printer knew the average number of 
words contained in a page of any given size, and in any 
given letter, all he would have to do would be to divide 
the amount of the words in the whole volume by the 
number of pages, and by comparing the result with his 
standard average, the size of the letter would be ascer- 
tained at once, near enough for a rough calculation. Thus, 
suppose the page determined on were 20 ems wide and 40 
deep (without leads, head-lines, or foot-lines), or, in other 
words, it contained 800 pica ems of solid matter ; if the 
printer knew the average number of words that page 
would contain, in letter of any size, and had previously 
ascertained the number of words in the book and the 



CASTING OFF COPT. 225 

amount of pages, the difficulty of determining the proper 
letter in which to compose it would be considerably dimi- 
nished, if not altogether avoided. 

But as some writers affect the Latin style and some the 
Saxon, or, in other words, some are partial to sonorous 
rotundity, and others to abrupt curtness, there is neces- 
sarily some difference in the number of words which two 
writers of this description would place upon the same 
amount of square inches of paper. Moreover, all printers 
know that letters of the same nominal size vary consider- 
ably in their thickness, and, consequently, some, as com- 
pared with a given standard, will get in, and others drive 
out, and thus upset all accuracy of calculation. Never- 
theless, it will be found, on examination, that English 
writers in general do not so very much vary in the length 
of their words, when an average is taken ; and as to the 
letter being fat or lean, these are matters which can easily 
be taken into consideration, and duly allowed for. 

To assist the reader in arriving at the average, I have 
compared the works of several authors, printed in type of 
different sizes and in various measures, and have found the 
result to be, that 500 ems solid pica ( length and width 
multiplied) gave the number of words assigned to the 
respective sizes of letter used, as below : 

Pica 240 245 244 225* 

Small Pica 277 283 299 283 

Long Primer... 307 310 308 312 319 334 f 

Bourgeois 420 384 % 

Brevier .456 459 466 468 424 454 

Minion .' 510 564 

Nonpareil 640 1| 706 725 



* This was a thick letter. f Words remarkably short. 

J- The blanks can be filled up in accordance with the experience 
of the reader. 

A very thick brevier. |j A thick letter and a short measure. 



226 PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

With these data for his guidance, knowing the width 
and length of his page in pica ems, the printer will only 
have to multiply them together, and compare this quantity 
with 500, according to the number in the table which he 
may consider the nearest approach to the work in hand, 
both as regards length of words and thickness of type, and 
he will have the average number of words in a page, 
which will serve him as a criterion as to the letter to be 
employed. 

But, in order that the reader may have the benefit of 
the observations of previous writers on this subject, I will 
here append the directions given by more than one of my 
predecessors. They say : 

" After having made the measure for the work, we set a 
line of the letter that is designed for it, and take notice how 
much copy will come into the line in the stick, whether less 
or more than a line of manuscript. And as it is seldom that 
neither one nor the other happens, we make a mark in the 
copy where the line in the stick ends, and number the words 
that it contains. But as this is not the safest way for casting 
off close, we count not only the syllables but even the letters 
that are in a line in the stick, of which we make a memoran- 
dum, and proceed to set off a second, third, or fourth line, till 
a line of copy falls even with a line in the stick. And as we 
did to the first line in the stick, so we do to the other, mark- 
ing on the manuscript the end of each line in the stick, and 
telling the letters in each, to see how they balance against each 
other. This being carefully done, we begin counting off, each 
time, as many lines of the copy as we know will make even 
lines in the stick : For example, if two lines of copy make 
three lines in print, then four make six, six make nine, eight 
make twelve, and so on, calling every two lines of copy three 
lines in print. 

1 ' In like manner we say, if four lines make five, then eight 
make ten ; and so on ; comparing every four lines of copy to 
five lines of print. 



HEAD-LINES TO CHAPTERS, ETC. 227 

" And in this manner we carry our calculation on as far as 
we have occasion, either for pages, forms, or sheets. 

" The foregoing calculations are intended to serve where a 
line of print takes in less than a line of copy ; and therefore, 
where a line of print takes in more than a line of copy, the 
problem is reversed, and instead of saying, if two lines make 
three, we say, in this case, if three lines of copy make two 
lines in print, then six lines make four, nine make six, twelve 
make eight, and so on, counting three lines of copy to make 
two lines in print. In this manner we may carry our calcu- 
lation to what number of pages, forms, or sheets we will, 
remembering always to count off as many lines of copy at once, 
as we have found they will make even lines in the stick. 
Thus, for example, if five lines make seven, the progression of 
five is ten, fifteen, twenty, &c., and the progression of seven 
will be fourteen, twenty-one, twenty-eight, &c.* 

" In counting off copy after this manner, we take notice of 
the breaks ; and where we judge that one will drive out, we 
intimate it by a mark of this / or this [ shape ; and again, 
where we find that a break will get in, we invert the mark 7 
or thus ]. And to render these marks conspicuous to the 
compositor, we write them in the margin, that he may take 
timely notice of, and keep his matter accordingly. 

" We also take care to make proper allowance for heads to 
chapters, sections, paragraphs, &c., and mention in the margin 
what depth of lines is left for each, in case their matter varies 
in quantity. 

" In examining the state of the copy, we must observe 
whether it has abbreviations, that we may guard against them 
in casting off, and allow for them according to the extent of 
the respective words, when writifen out at length.'* 

6. Head-lines to Chapters, $c. 
These may be in any kind of type, as may be determined 

* All this rigmarole merely amounts to this, that it is necessary 
to ascertain the proportion that a line of the manuscript bears to a 
line of print. 

q2 



228 PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

by the author, the publisher, or the closet ; but in what- 
ever type composed, all headings of the same character 
should be in the same letter uniformly throughout a volume, 
with the same space .before and after them, as nearly as 
possible. They should always be somewhat wide-spaced, 
according to the nature of the letter, in order to be distinct, 
as also should the head-lines or running titles to pages. 
These latter are mostly set in small capitals of the body of 
the work, generally with the intention of avoiding the 
charge of a shilling per sheet for small type. But they 
look ugly and clumsy ; and hence a neat capital or Italic 
letter is not unfrequently adopted. 

7. Indexes. 

Indexes always commence on a right-hand page, and are 
usually composed in small type, two or more removes from 
that of the body of the work, when practicable. They are 
uniformly placed at the end of a volume, with or without 
folios, but always with the word Index as a head-line. As 
their style is necessarily governed by the peculiarities which 
attend them, of course it would be impossible to lay down 
general rules which would meet all cases ; we may remark, 
however, that they are mostly in two or more columns, 
according to the width of the page ; but more specific in- 
structions must always be sought from those whose business 
it is to settle matters of this sort, as they arise. Of course, 
they are set in the style which is commonly known as run- 
out-and-indented. 



8. Making Measure. 






This is generally done by means of leads ; but care must 
be exercised that they are of a proper length ; for, if only 
one be too long, the measure will be too wide, and, conse- 
quently, the matter which follows or precedes, and has 



MARGIN. NOTES. 229 

been composed in a stick of the right measure, will not lock 
up tightly, and will, therefore, be liable to fall out, or to 
be pulled out by the roller* The thin letters, and points, 
moreover, will be apt to ride and slip, and thus occasion 
much inconvenience. If quadrats or pica ems are used, it 
should be ascertained that they are of the correct fount, 
or the same inconveniences may arise. 

9. Margin. 

In addition to what has been said on this subject at 
p. 113, we may further remark, that margin may always 
be verified by spreading the sheet full out, afteV having 
been properly folded to the requisite size, over the type in 
chase, with the center crease directly over the center of 
the long or short cross, according to circumstances ; and 
if the crease in the paper falls immediately in the center 
of the furniture between the pages, the margin is correct ; 
otherwise it must be altered. 

" When two or more pages of any description are im- 
posed in one chase for the purpose of being worked 
together, and afterwards cut up separately, the margin is 
made by laying the paper in its folded state on the face of 
the type and even with the ends of the lines, the opposite 
edge being placed up to, but not over the type of the ad- 
joining page, as is done in book work. This method throws 
each page exactly in the centre of the paper when printed." 

10. Notes. 

Notes are of several kinds, and are designated from the 
position they occupy in a page. 

Foot-notes, or, as they are sometimes called, Bottom-notes, 
are placed, as their name denotes, at the bottom of the 
page, and are generally set in type two sizes less than 
that of the text ; but, of course, if the text-type be very 



230 PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

small, that is not practicable. Under ordinary circum- 
stances, there is no occasion to place any rule before the 
note ; for the difference in size of the two types is a 
sufficient distinction. But if the text and the note letter 
be nearly of the same size, or if small type be introduced 
into the text, and a note immediately follows that, a rule 
is necessary, in order that the eye may readily distinguish 
where the note commences. This is the plan I have gene- 
rally followed in this book ; but if the reader will turn to 
pp. 143, 158, and 164, he will there see that I have, for the 
sake of illustration, deviated from this plan. 

If part of a note, closing with a paragraph, end a page, 
a catch-word should be placed at the end of the line, to 
show that the note is not finished, or else the break should 
be avoided in that position. 

The whites before the notes should always be as uniform 
as circumstances will allow. 

Shoulder-notes are placed at the top of the page, and 
generally denote the current book or chapter, which, in 
some works, such as law-books, is very useful in facilitating 
ready reference. Dates, &c., are sometimes inserted in the 
inner margin of the head-line, being preceded by a bracket 
in the even page, and followed by one in the odd page. 

Marginal or Side-notes contain a short summary of the 
contents of the paragraph against which they are placed. 
If the measure in which they are composed is very narrow, 
they are better set in lines of various lengths, according to 
circumstances ; otherwise, very wide and unsightly spacing 
will frequently be necessitated ; but if the measure is 
wide, the lines may then be very well of equal length. 
This, of course, is a matter for the consideration of the 
closet. In every case they require very nice adjustment, 
so that the first line shall be exactly opposite the line of 
text to which they refer : if it is even a little above or 
below, the effect is disagreeable to the eye of a printer of 
ordinary taste. Sometimes there are side-notes on both 



PAGES, THEIR PROPER LENGTH. 231 

sides of the page. When this is the case, those in the 
inner margin generally contain some remark or emenda- 
tion of the opposite text. 

Let-in or In-cut notes are notes let into the text, and 
generally consist of dates, or such-like matter. They 
should never come close to the text type, either above, 
below, or at the side : otherwise, confusion is the conse- 
quence. They are always placed in the outer margin, 
whether an odd or even page, and are generally set in type 
the same size as the notes. 

Under -r miners are continuations of such side-notes as 
are too long to be all placed opposite the paragraph to which 
they refer, and are run under the text, in order that they 
may not displace other notes, and put them in a position 
to which they have no reference. When so done, they 
should never be extended to the full length of the measure 
of the text, as that would cause confusion, but end within 
three or four ema of the line, according to its length. 

11. Pages, their proper Length. 

All the pages of a book should be of a uniform length, 
wherever practicable, except, of course, the endings of 
chapters or other divisions, when the next chapter, &c. 
begins a page. But as it is sometimes inconvenient to 
comply strictly with this rule, the usual plan is to make 
the facing pages of equal length, although, in some houses, 
the rule is, that the pages which back each other must 
correspond. But whichever system is followed, the com- 
positor should be careful not to have both short pages and 
long pages in immediate neighbourhood, nor, indeed, in 
the same volume at all, if they can be avoided ; but, if he 
must deviate from the standard, let it be in one direction 
only, as the paper will best bear it. In tables, it is some- 
times almost impossible but that the pages will run of 
different lengths. When this is the case, the text, either 



232 PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

facing or backing the table, need not be elongated or short- 
ened to correspond, because the reason for the deviation 
will be obvious ; but if the table page is much too long, the 
furniture in the head should be somewhat diminished ; so 
that the bottom of the table will not be in danger of being 
cut into when the book is bound. From want of attention 
to this rule, if the reader will turn to pp. 148 150, he will 
see that the pages will require careful adjustment by the 
binder, in order that this danger may be avoided ; which, 
if the compositor had exercised sound judgement in adjust- 
ing the furniture, and taken into consideration the great 
length of the page, would not have happened. 

12. Preliminary Matter. 

This generally comprises the Title, Preface or Introduc- 
tion, and Contents, arranged in the order named. Some- 
times a Half-title precedes the title, and a Dedication 
follows it. For the most part, they comprise the first 
sheet or half -sheet of a work, which is considered as 
signature A, although not inserted either in the half-title, 
title, or dedication. But if the preliminary matter makes 
more than one sheet or half-sheet, it is considered as 
signature a, and the following are marked 6, c, &c. 

It would be idle to give any directions as to the setting 
of Titles, which would apply to every case, as so much 
depends upon taste ; yet the tyro may read with 
advantage what has been already said under Broadsides, 
&c. ; for the general principles apply equally here as 
there. But for his more particular guidance, let him 
examine carefully all the good-looking titles that fall in 
his way, and see in what their excellence consists, and 
endeavour to imitate them, until he acquires a correct 
taste and judgement of his own. 

Dedications, if consisting of one page only, as they 



PROOFS. 233 

mostly do, are displayed by fancy, capital, or small-capital 
letters, somewhat in the nature of a title ; but no very 
large letter is used, neatness being more the matter to be 
aimed at than prominence of type. If the dedication 
exceeds a page, it is set in type a size or two larger than 
the text, the concluding part only being smaller, with the 
name of the author in capital letters. 

Prefaces or Introductions may be in type a size larger 
than the text, which is the plan generally adopted ; or 
they may be in the same letter, leaded, or extra leaded, 
according to circumstances. The word Preface or Intro- 
duction constitutes the head-line, always of the same size 
as the general head-lines, and the folio in lower-case 
Roman numerals, reckoning the first page, whether halt- 
title or title, as i, although not inserting it. 

Contents, on the other hand, are always one or more 
sizes smaller than the bo<ly of the work ; but this is 
governed by the peculiar requirements of each case. They 
may be the full measure, or in two or more columns, as 
may be thought most convenient. When the summary 
clause exceeds one line, the following are indented an em 
or more, as agreed upon previously, and the figures 
brought to the end of the line, by leaders, close or apart, 
according to fancy ; but the first line must not be brought 
within two ems of the end, as that would obscure the 
figures and cause confusion. 

If a work should be accompanied by a list of Errata 
(as such lapsus will occur, notwithstanding the utmost 
vigilance), they are best placed immediately before the 
body of the work, although some prefer to hide them at 
the end, where they answer no purpose. 

13. Proofs. 

Proofs are of several classes, and have different names 
assigned to them. 



234 PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

A First Proof is the impression taken immediately 
after composition, with all the errors of the compositor 
therein. After that is read and corrected, a Revise is 
pulled, and when the oversights therein have been recti- 
fied, or without, if the errors remaining are but few, 
another impression is taken (or, more accurately speaking, 
generally two), which is called a Clean Proof, on which are 
marked the remaining oversights (if any), and any query 
to which the reader may wish to call the attention of the 
author. When this proof is returned to the printing-office, 
it acquires the name of Author's Prorf. The alterations 
made therein by the author having undergone due cor- 
rection, a second author's proof is pulled, if required ; if 
not, the next impression is called the Press Proof, which 
is again carefully read by the press-corrector, and his 
amended proof becomes the Press Revise, or final proof, 
previous to the actual printing of the sheet. If the 
pages are stereotyped before they are worked, this revise 
is called a Foundry Proof. Galley Proofs, on newspapers 
and periodicals, are pulled by the compositor ; but, on 
book- work, generally by the pressman. 

14. Quoted Matter. 

Although at pp. 43-44 I have fully entered into this 
subject, and explained the proper space to be inserted on 
almost all occasions between the matter and the quotation- 
marks, and given illustrations of what I consider the 
best system, nevertheless I deem it advisable to recur to 
the subject in this place, and to offer, by way of contrast, 
a specimen of the prevailing usage, as I find it exemplified 
in the " leading Journal of Europe " of Feb. 1, 1861 ; and 
to invite the reader to compare the examples here given 
with those I adduced in the pages above adverted to, and 
to judge for himself which is the more sightly and the 
more worthy of adoption. If he refers to the Times of the 



RULE-WORK. 230 

above date, in its foreign intelligence, he will find the 
following quotations, spaced as I here give them, in one 
paragraph. 

" Monsieur le Conseiller d'Etat" " principles 

of the Government" " outraged" " without 

the authority of the State." 

Could anything be more unsightly ? 

15. Rule-work. 

Rule-work is a department of the compositor's business 
which often requires much skill, contrivance, and calcula- 
tion, in order to apportion the proper width to each 
column of the table he may be composing, and to adjust 
the several parts harmoniously and with proper effect ; 
nor is it without considerable practice that any man can 
hope to acquire any notable efficiency in this particular, 
however well he may be adapted thereto, or however good 
a workman he may be in other respects. Hence, we can- 
not pretend to be of much assistance to him by anything 
that can be advanced in this place; but may, nevertheless, 
furnish a few observations worthy the attention of the 
inexperienced in these matters. 

Let him bear in mind, then, that all his rules must be 
cut of the exact length required, and no m ore, other wise they 
will bind, and will look ugly, from their want of uniform 
length. They must also be nicely dressed, so that the 
ends do not look crooked) but the whole length of the 
rule straight and even. And here we may observe, if 
brass rule were cut to all sizes, and kept in distinct lengths, 
there would -be hardly any use for the shears at all ; but 
this, to be effectual, would require great nicety ; yet, never- 
theless, could be done. 

The compositor must also exercise great care in exactly 
casting off the width of his columns ; for, if this is not cor- 
rectly done, he will find that his table will not correspond 



236 PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

with the width of the rest of the pages of the work, nor 
perhaps with the paper upon which it is intended to be 
worked. The columns are calculated according to the ems 
of the body in which the table is composed, so that the 
cross-rules can be set in metal-rules of its own body, if not 
over long ; the comma being accounted an en, the differ- 
ence being made up by a thin space ; more or less white 
(or none at all in some cases) being allowed between the 
rules and the matter, according to the necessities of each 
case. And as the compositor knows the width and length 
required, he can easily ascertain, when he has added up 
all his columns and the intervening rules, whether they 
correspond with the given number of pica ems, by com- 
paring the number with the table of proportions given at 
p. 34 of this book. 

Except in pure figure-matter, where all is even ens, 
every line should be composed in the stick ; as it is almost 
impossible, otherwise, to justify correctly : for no plan of 
setting in one full measure, and justifying to a lead, can 
produce good work. The column-rules should also run 
through the heading ; because the plan of separating the 
heading from the body of the table by a cross-rule 
scarcely ever looks well. The headings themselves should 
generally be in a letter two or three removes from the 
body of the table, if that body is large ; but this, of course, 
will be regulated a good deal by the quantity th3 headings 
contain, and the size of the general type. Each column- 
heading should be placed in the center with respect to 
others, the deepest of all having an em, en, or more or less 
space, betwixt it and the cross-rules, as circumstances may 
dictate and good taste direct, and run up the column or 
across it, or both (see p. 134), as may be deemed most 
judicious. In tandem pages, they should begin at the 
outer margin of the even page, and at the inner margin 
of the odd one, as uniformly done in this book. 

In further illustration of what is here remarked, I 



RULES TO BE OBSERVED BY COMPOSITORS. 237 

will direct the attention of the reader to some pages 
of this manual. Let him turn to p. 34 ; he will there see 
the headings of the columns of the table running up wards; 
because, the columns being so very narrow, they would 
have looked badly otherwise. There is a space betwixt 
the columns and all the rules, except the bottom, which 
causes it to be somewhat unsightly ; but the plan of cases 
at p. 41, barring some slight defects in the rules, is a 
pattern of neatness. This observation will also apply to 
pp. 146, 147, 152, and the plans of cases, pp. 162 197 ; 
while some others, being executed by inferior workmen, 
will not bear the test of critical examination. 

16. Rules to be observed by Compositors. 

The best of all rules in a printing-office is, undoubtedly, 
a vigilant overseer or employer. Nevertheless, as it is 
thought by some people to be expedient, for the orderly 
working of an office, to compile rules for general guidance, 
in order that the workman may know what is expected of 
him in the daily routine of his labor, and the penalty he 
will incur by non-compliance with established regulations, 
I here append a list of them (with a few slight alterations) 
as I find them in Cowie and Johnson : not that I deem 
them all necessary or judicious ; but it will be easy for 
any overseer to select such as he may think advisable, 
reject others, and add any of his own, where he may find 
them defective. 

1. Compositors to receive their cases from the overseer, 
or other person appointed by him, free from all pie, or other 
heterogeneous matter, with clean quadrat and space boxes to 
both Roman and Italic, which they are to return to him in the 
same state, or forfeit 6d. for each pair of cases. 

2. When a compositor receives letter, furniture, &c., from 
the overseer, he is to return what he does not use, in the same 
state he received it, the same day, under the forfeiture of 3rf. 



238 PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

3. Compositors to impose their matter when desired by the 
employer or overseer, or forfeit 2d. for every hour's delay. 
The same for proofs that are desired to be corrected, unless in 
either case it shall appear that all the stones were engaged. 

4. When the compositor imposes from furniture in chase, 
he is directly to tie up the pages of loose matter, or forfeit Id. 
for every neglected page, besides being obliged to clear away the 
pie thereby occasioned. 

5. Forms, immediately after they are imposed, to be carried 
to the proof-press, and the proofs when pulled to be given to 
the reader, or other person appointed to receive them, together 
with, if a first proof, the copy, and if a second, the foul proof, 
tinder the forfeiture of Id. for every quarter of an hour's 
delay. 

6. Every compositor who shall leave a foul stone, either of 
letter, furniture, &c., shall forfeit Id. for every such offence. 

7. Should a compositor detain an imposing-stone longer 
than the nature of the business may require, he is to be fined 
%d. for every hour's unnecessary delay. 

8. When any cases are taken out of the racks, the com- 
positor is to return them into their proper place immediately 
after he has done with them, under the forfeiture of Id. for 
each case. 

9. No cases to be placed over others, or under the frames, 
under the penalty of Id. for each case. 

10. Galleys with head-lines, or other useful materials, 
during the progress of any work, to be cleared the day after 
the work is completely at press, or the compositor to forfeit 
3d. for each day's neglect. 

11. When a work is finished, the compositor or compositors 
who have been employed thereon, shall, before commencing 
another work, unless directed to the contrary, clear away the 
forms, taking from them the head-lines, white-lines, leads, and 
reglets ; which, with the furniture of each sheet, and the 
matter properly tied up for papering, are to be given to the 
overseer, or such person as he may appoint. 

12. Sweepings of frames to be cleared away before 10 
o'clock every morning, under the forfeiture of 2d. for each 



RULES TO BE OBSERVED BY COMPOSITORS. 239 

neglect. Matter broken by accident, to be cleared away the 
same day, under the like penalty. 

13. A compositor mixing any two separate founts, without 
the order of the overseer, to be fined Is. 

14. When a compositor carries his form to press, he is not 
to put two forms together, without a partition between, on 
forfeiture of 2d. ; and in case (through neglect of such par- 
tition) a form should he battered, the compositor guilty of 
such neglect shall forfeit 6d. 

15. The saw, saw-block, bowl, letter-brush, bellows, &c., 
to be returned to their respective places as soon as done with, 
under the forfeiture of Id. 

16. Any person taking a bodkin, composing-stick, or other 
implement not his own, without the permission of the owner, 
shall be fined 3d. 

17. Any compositor misplacing cases in the rack, or taking 
an upper without the lower-case (or vice versa), shall be 
fined 2d. 

18. Pie of any sort, on boards, windows, frames, &c., shall 
be cleared after five minutes' notice, under the penalty of 6d. 

19. Any person guilty of taking sorts from the frames or 
cases of another, without leave, shall be fined Is. ; and any 
person hoarding useful sorts, which he does not require, or is 
likely soon to require, shall be fined 6d. 

20. Any person in the house, other than the employer or 
overseer, or his deputy, who shall call off the errand-boy 
while he is sweeping his rooms, shall be fined 3d. 

21. The master or overseer shall forfeit Is., and the com- 
positor 6d., for every light left without proper charge ( exit 
beyond the boundaries of the office being deemed the test of 
such leaving). 

22. Jobs to be cleared away immediately after notice given 
by the overseer, under the penalty of 2d. for every hour's delay. 

23. All fines to be paid on Monday, before 12 o'clock, under 
the penalty of 6d. The father or clerk to make application 
for the fines before that time, or to forfeit 6d. 

24. These regulations, in cases of extreme hurry of busi- 
ness, may be suspended, by permission of the employer or 



240 PRACTICAL MISCELLANIES. 

overseer ; but when that has ceased, they shall forthwith have 
full effect. 

17. Signatures. 

Signatures are letters or figures placed at the bottom 
of the first page of a sheet, to denote its number and order 
to the binder. Other subsidiary signatures are used in 
other places, as we shall point out directly. They first 
came into use about the year 1480, being probably invented 
at Venice, where the art of printing was much improved 
in the infancy of its practice. In England they are mostly 
denoted by small-capital letters, the body of the work 
beginning with B ; signature A being reserved for the title, 
preface, &c., as explained under those heads. The second 
alphabet is denoted by 2 A, &c. No letter J, v, or w is 
used, because, when signatures were invented, these letters 
were respectively represented by 3E, 2E, and W&. On the 
Continent, and in America, figures are not unfrequently 
employed for this purpose. 

In Octavo, it is customary to place a second signature 
on the third page of every sheet (but not in a half-sheet). 
This is marked s2, c 2, &c. ; and shows the pressman at a 
glance the situation of that page ; so that he is thereby 
enabled to place his form properly on the press at once. 
More than two signatures in an octavo sheet are useless, 
and are only calculated to produce confusion. 

In Twelves an additional signature is required, to de- 
note the first page of the offcut, which in sheets is the 9th 
page, but in half-sheets the 5th. This is marked B 3, &c., 
in each case. 

EigTiteem are generally imposed in three half-sheet 
12mo divisions, and consequently take the signatures and 
subsidiary signatures incidental to sizes of that description, 
as above indicated ; viz. in one sheet B, c, D, &c. For 
other modes of imposing eighteens, refer to the chapter on 
that subject. 



WHITE LINES. POETRY. 241 

18. White Lines. 

Wherever these are used, whether after head-lines or 
in the body of a page, they are better in quadrats than in 
leads. They should be uniform throughout a book, in 
similar places, and those after the running title are gene- 
rally of the same size as the body of the work, although 
not always. When introduced into the body of a page, 
they should exactly equal one or more lines of text ; so 
that the line after them will back another on the other 
side of the paper. This is to be particularly observed in 
poetry. 

19. Poetry. 

Although it is the general practice to set each verse 
(Anglice line) of poetry in a distinct line, nevertheless, in 
notes in classical and other works, it is not uncommon to 
meet with lines of poetry run on in one paragraph ; and 
then the first word of each verse or line must begin with a 
capital letter. Thus I find in the notes to Griffiths's ' Pro- 
metheus Vinctus/ p. 22, the following passage : 

" This reading is strongly confirmed by a passage from 
the Prometheus Solutus which Cicero has translated in 
Tusc. Qusest. II, 10 : Hos ille cuneos fabrica crudeli inserens 
Perrupit artus ; qua miser solertia Transverleratus castrum 
hoc furiarum incolo. Compare Milton, Par. Reg. IY, 50 : 
And there mount Palatine, The imperial palace, compass 
huge, and high The structure, skill of noblest architects.'' 

The Italics are merely used for the purpose of denoting 
the first word of each line in the original. 



242 



CHAPTER IX. 



SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER TO PART I. 

DURING the passage of this Second Part through the 
press, some things have occurred to the author's mind, 
which he thinks will be found acceptable to the compositor 
and the press-corrector ; and although they belong more 
properly to the First Part than the present, yet he is un- 
willing to omit them altogether, and therefore deems it 
advisable to give them here. Of course, in future editions, 
they will be incorporated in their proper place. 

1. Latin, Greek, and other Nouns in common use, with 
their Plurals. 

There are many words of this kind of frequent occur- 
rence in works of a certain character ; and as the proper 
formation of the plural is, necessarily, often a matter of 
uncertainty to the unlearned compositor or reader, a list 
of them, in alphabetical order, will no doubt be found 
useful. 

Singular. Plural. 

Addendum (L), something to be added ... addenda 

Amanuensis (L), a private secretary ... amanuenses 

Animalcule (F), a minute insect ... animalcules 

Animalculum (L), animalcula 

Analysis (G), a separation of parts ... analyses 

Antithesis (G), opposition or contrast ... antitheses 

Apex (L), a top or point ... ... ... apices 

Aphis (G), a minute insect on plants . . . aphides 



LATIN AND OTHER NOUNS, WITH THEIR PLURALS. 243 



Apparatus (L), furniture, tools, &c. ... 
Appendix* (L), something added 

Apsis (G), a point in a planet's orbit 

Arcanum (L), a secret... 

As (L), a Roman weight and coin 

Aurora borealis (L), the northern lights 
Automaton (G), a self -moving machine 
Axis (L), that on which anythii|g revolves ... 
Bandit (Ital. bandito, banditi), a robber 

Basis (G), a foundation, a base 

Beau (F), a dressy man, a sweetheart 
Calx (L), a cinder 

Calyx (G), the cup of a flower 

Census (L), a numbering of the people 
Cherub (Heb.) , a celestial spirit 
Chrysalis (G), the second state of an insect ... 
Crisis (G), the decisive point 

Criterion (G) , a mark to j udge by 

Congeries (L), a mass of small bodies 
Datum (L), a thing given or admitted 
Desideratum (L), a thing much wanted 
Diaeresis (G), the disjunction of words 
Dictum (L), a saying 
Dilettante (I), a lover of the fine arts 
Diploma (G), a deed confirming a privilege... 
Dogma (G), a doctrinal notion 

Echinus (L), a hedgehog 

Effluvium (L), a vapor, a smell 

Ellipsis (G), an omission ; an oval 

Emphasis (G), a particular stress on a word 
Encomium (L), praise, commendation 

( an almanac with the 
Ephemeris (G), j daily places of the 

( planets ... 



apparatus 
appendices 



arcana 



aurorse borealee 

automata 

axes 

banditti 

bases 

beaux 

calces 

calyces 

census 

cherubim 

chrysalides 

crises 

criteria 

congeries 

data 

desiderata 

diaereses 

dicta 

dilettanti 

diplomata 

dogmata 

echini 

effluvia 

ellipses 

emphases 

encomia 

ephemeride* 
ephemera 



* Appendixes and indexes are generally used when the words are 
not applied to matters of science. 

r 2 



244 



SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER TO PART I. 



Erratum (L), a mistake or error 
Fasciculus (L), a little bundle 
Flocculus (L), a little lock of wool, &c. 
Focus (L), the point where rays meet 

F.tusor Fetus (L), j ^ J^ . f . 
Formula (L), a prescribed form 
Fossa (L), a dike, ditch, or trench ... 
Fungus (L), a mushroom or toadstool 
Ganglion (G), a tumor or a tendon ... 
Genius (L), an aerial spirit 
Genus (L), a kind or sort ...... 

Gymnasium (G), \ a soh o1 for athletic 

v '* ( exercises 

Helix (G), a spiral line 
Hiatus (L) , an opening or gap 
Hypostasis (G), substance, personality 
Hypothesis (G,), a supposition or theory 
Ignis fatuus (L), Will-o'-the-wisp 
Impetus (L), a tendency to motion ... 



lri 



a rainbow; the circle round 

the pupil of the eye ... 
Lamina (L), a thin plate or coat 
Larva (L), the first state of an insect 
Lemma (G), a proposition previously assumed 
Macula (L), a spot 
Magus (L), a wise man 

Mantissa (L), the decimal part of a logarithm 
Matrix (L), the womb; a mould 

( the tomb of Mausolus ; ) 
any tomb ... j 

Maxilla (L), the cheek- or jaw-bone ... 

Medium (L), 
Memorandum 



errata 
fasciculi 
flocculi 
foci 

foetus or fetus 
formulae 



fungi 
ganglia 
genii 
genera 

gymnasia 

helices 
hiatus 



hypotheses 
ignes fatui 
impetus 



Index (L), j a sig p n oi c er; an a 'S etraical j indices 
Indusium (L), 
(G), j' 



Mausoleum (L), 



indusia 

irides 

laminae 

larvae 

lemmata 

maculae 

magi 

mantissae 

matrices 

mausolea 

maxillae 

media 

memoranda 



LATIN AND OTHER NOUNS, WITH THEIR PLURALS. 245 



( a transformation or 



T. r , , . ,~v 

Metamorphosis (G), c 

Miasma (G), j ^oms arising from putrefying 



bodies ... 
Minutia (L), a minute particular 
Momentum (L), the force of a moving body 
Nebula (L), a cloudy appearance 
Necrosis (G), mortification, decay, &c. 
Nucleus (L), a kernel, &c. 
Oasis (G), a fertile spot in a desert ... 
Parenthesis (G), an interruptive clause 
Phalanx* (G), a compact body of troops 

DV, /n\ S tne appearance or face of the 
Fnasis(U), j moon &c ....... 

Phenomenon (G), an appearance 

i a Bather ; feathery part of 
a plant ......... 

Polypus (G) , a sea animal ...... 

Postulatum (L), an assumed position 
Pupa (L), the second state of an insect 

EacMs (G), j th b e r hes * ^ ^ ** 
Radius (L), half the diameter of a circle 
Radix (L), a root 
Sarcophagus (G, L), a stone coffin 
Scholium or -on (L), an explanation or note . 
Seraph (H) , a celestial spirit ...... 

Series (L), orderly succession... 



Sinus (L), 

Species (L) , a sort or kind 
Speculum (L), a mirror or looking-glass 
Sphinx* (G), a fabulous monster 
Stadium (L), an ancient lineal measure 
Stamen (L), a fine thread in a flower, &e. 
Status (L) , state or condition ... 



metamorphoses 

miasmata 

minutise 

momenta 

nebulse 

necroses 

nuclei 

oases 

parentheses 

phalanges 

phases 

phenomena 

pinnse 

polypi 

postulata 

pupae 

rachides 

radii 

radices 

sarcophagi 

scholia 

seraohim 



sinus or sinuses 

species 

specula 

sphinges 

stadia 

stamina 

status 



* Phalanxes and Sphinxes are met with in the best authors, as 
Anglicised words. 



246 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER TO PART I. 

Stigma (G), a puncture, &c.; apart of a flower . . . stigmata 

Stimulus (L), a goad or incitement ... ... stimuli 

Stipes (L), the stalk of a plant ... ... stipites 

Stratum (L), a layer or bed ... strata 

Syllabus (L), the heads of a discourse ... syllabus 

Synopsis (G), a general view ... synopses 

Superficies (L), a surface ... ... ... superficies 

Terminus (L), the end of a thing ... ... termini 

Theca (L), a sheath or case ... thecse 

Thesis (G), a proposition or theme ... ... theses 

Tumulus (L), a mound of earth ... ... tumuli 

Vertex (L), the top of anything ... ... vertices 

Virtuoso (I), one skilled in the fine arts ... virtuosi 

Viscus (L), an intestine or entrail ... ... 'viscera 

Vortex (L), a whirlpool ... ... ... vortices 

2. On the Changes which some fetters undergo in English 
words derived from the Greek and Latin. 

In words derived from the learned languages, there are 
several letters "which undergo certain changes in the com- 
position of English words, which it is necessary for the 
scholar to bear constantly in mind ; otherwise, when he 
thinks he is displaying his knowledge of those tongues, it 
may happen that he is only exhibiting his ignorance of 
the laws which govern the orthography of his own. Thus : 

1. The diphthongs at and ot in Greek, and a and 02 in 
Latin, are rendered by e only in English ; but av and tv 
remain unchanged. Examples : 

Gangrene, from yayypcuva (Lat. gangrcena] 
Sphere fffaipa ( sphara) 

Ethereal cuQcpios ( atherius or athereus) 
Hemorrhage alfjiopfiayia ( h&morrhagia) 
Economy OMovofua, ( cecotwmia) 
Cemetery KoifJLrjr-npiov ( ccemeterium) 

So, estimation from astimatio, era from cera, federal from fcedwt, 
and Jfetid from foetidus ; but autograph from avroypaQy, auto- 



CHANGES WHICH SOME LETTERS UNDERGO. 247 

maton from avrofiaroj', eulogy from evXoyia, and euphony from 

Remark. This rule holds good in all cases, with the excep- 
tion of proper names, and a few other words, which we have 
adopted unchanged in any respect ; such as Ccesar, Bceotia, Eubcea, 
fcetus y oesophagus, &c. But when any change whatever is made 
in a word (in other terms, when it is Anglicised), it ought always 
to follow the general rule. Hence we have Egypt from JEgyptus, 
Esop from ^Esopus, archeology from apxaioXoyia, anapest from 
anapcestus ; with numerous other words. But neither the 
French, Italians, nor Spaniards, allow any such exceptions, but 
systematically, logically, and correctly according to their respec- 
tive systems of orthography, discard the diphthongs in every case. 
Hence they spell Cesar and Cesar, fetus and/<tfo, &c. &c., inva- 
riably without them. 

2. The Greek v is rendered by y, ov by , and by i (but 
sometimes by e). Examples : 

Gymnasium, from yv^vaffiov (Lat. gymnasium) 

Lycurgus AvKovpyos ( Lycurgus) 

Thucydides ovKv8t$rjs ( Thucydides) 

Uranus Ovpavos ( Uranus) 

Iphigenia IQiycvtta ( Iphigenia) 

Darius Aapetos ( Darius) 

Idolatry i^ta\o\arpfia( idololatria) 

Medea MijScia ( Medea) 

Nile NeiAos ( Nilus) 

3. The Greek terminations oc and ov are mostly ren- 
dered by us and um (sometimes by os and on) both in 
Latin and English. Examples : 

\WTOS, lotus eyKWfuov, encomium 

KoXovffos, colossus Au/catov, Lyceum 

4. The letter y before another y, or before K; K, or x> is 
changed into n both in Latin and English ; because these 
letters nearly represent the sound given to the Greek. 
Hence we have angdus and angel from ayytXos, lynx from 



248 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER TO PART I. 

\vy%, incline and inclino from eyfeXivw, and enchiridion from 
cyxci/otdcoi', &c. &C. 

5. The Greek K becomes c in English, and is pronounced 
as 5 before the vowels e, i, and y ; but as k before a, o, 
and u. Examples : 

Cathedral, from KaOefya (Lat. cathedra) 

Ceramic Kepa.fj.iKos 

Cimmerian Ki^epios ( Cimmerianus) 

Cycle KVK\OS ( cyclus] 

Cacophony KaKoQuvia 

Custody KovarcoSia ( custodia) 

6. The Greek x rendered in English by ch, which 
has the sound of k before a vowel, as seen in the words 
architect, archive, archangel, architrave, &c. ; although, be- 
fore a consonant, ch is pronounced as tsh ; as in the words 
archbishop, archdeacon, &c. 

Remark. Want of attention to these rules, or rather, per- 
haps, I should say, ignorance of them, is a constant source of 
error and irregularity in the spelling of some writers, ambi- 
tious of displaying their acquaintance with that of the learned 
tongues. Hence we constantly meet with such anomalies as 
archeology, foetid, cera, palaeography t kaleidoscope , &c. &c. ; and 
there is a society in London calling itself the Orthopedic Society : 
but how they form the word I am quite at a loss to divine. It 
is neither from the Greek nor the Latin, nor yet formed by a 
mingling of the two languages. For, supposing the latter part 
of the word to be taken from the Latin, it ought to be pedic 
(from pes, pedis), and if from the Greek, podic (from TTOVS, iroSos) ; 
for words of this sort are derived from the genitive case, and not 
from the nominative (which, however, would not here cure the 
error); as we have generic from generis (not from genus), multi- 
tudinous from multitudinis (not from multitudo); steatic from 
flrrcaros (not from orcap), and steatine (Gr. ffrcanvos) ; not stearic 
and stearine, as sometimes ignorantly written. So we write ten- 
donous or tendinous, because tendo takes either i or o in its geni- 
tive case. 



* SHALL AND WILL.' 249 



3. Shall and Will: 

As the proper use of these words is sometimes mistaken, 
especially by the natives of Ireland, I subjoin the following 
apt remarks, copied from Lindley Murray's English 
Grammar, p. 98. 

Will, in the first person singular and plural, intimates reso- 
lution and promising ; in the second and third persons, only fore- 
tells : as, ' I will reward the good, and will punish the wicked ;' 
* We will remember benefits, and be grateful ;' ' Thou wilt, or 
he will, repent of that folly ;' * You or they will have a pleasant 
walk.' 

" Shall, on the contrary, in the first person, simply foretells ; 
in the second and third persons, promises, commands, or threat- 
ens : as, * I shall go abroad ;' ' We shall dine at home ;' * Thou 
shalt, or you shall, inherit the land ;' * Ye shall do justice, and 
love mercy ;' * They shall account for their misconduct.' 

" These observations respecting the import of the verbs will 
and shall, must be understood of explicative sentences ; for when 
the sentence is interrogative, just the reverse, for the most part, 
takes place : thus, * I shall go ; you will go ;' express event only; 
but, ' Will you go?' imports intention ; and, 'Shall I go ?' refers 
to the will of another. But, ' He shall go,' and l Shall he go ?' 
both imply will, expressing or referring to a command. 

" When the verb is put in the subjunctive mood, the mean- 
ing of these auxiliaries likewise undergoes some alteration; as 
the learners will readily perceive by a few examples : ' He shall 
proceed,' ' If he shall proceed ;' ' You shall consent ;' * If you 
shall consent.' These auxiliaries are sometimes interchanged, in 
the indicative and subjunctive moods, to convey the same mean- 
ing of the auxiliary : as, ' He will not return,' ' If he shatt not 
return ;' * He shall not return/ * If he will not return.' " 

4. Words ending in ' in ' or ' ine.' 

This is a termination of words which is far from being 
settled in the English language j for, although we con- 



250 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER TO PART I. 

stantly find canine, divine, feline, marine, alkaline, strychnine, 
&c., we as often meet with fibrin a&fibrine, and Augustin, 
Augustine; creatin, creatine; cholesterin, cJiolesterine ; pro- 
tein, proteine, &c. 

This anomaly arises from the fact that words of this 
sort are generally derived from Greek words in IVOQ or 
Latin words in inus, where the i is sometimes long and 
sometimes short ; the former case necessarily requiring 
the elongating e at the end of English derivatives, and the 
latter discarding it. 

I will give the rules on this subject, as laid down by 
competent authority, for the guidance of the press-corrector 
and compositor, although, in my own opinion, the ending 
ine seems preferable in all cases. 

As regards Greek words, Passow says, in his ' Doctrine 
of Greek Prosody,' p. 73 : 

" Iota is long in names of people, and masculine proper names ; 
viz. AOTW/OS, Apxwos, &c., with their derivatives; likewise in 
appellatives which have the accent on the penultima ; viz., 
Tuptvos, tpvBwos, x<Vos, &c. ; and in some which have the accent 
on the ultima ; viz. epzvbs and xaA?tfs, with their derivatives. 

" Those substantives in ivos and ivov which have the accent on 
the antepenultima, generally shorten the t ; but exceptions are 
frequent ; viz., tcdptvos, Kv^lvov, KVK.Kdp.lvos, &c. 

"Iota is short in most adjectives in ivos] viz. frvaawos, 
Hatyvwos, eAcmvos, vaKivQwos, SeieAm)*, eiapwos, a\r)6ivos, Safwroj, 
&c. ;" but some are common. 

And in Dr. Adam's Latin Grammar, p. 263, the fol- 
lowing remarks will be found respecting the Latin termi- 
nation inus: 

" Adjectives in inus derived from inanimate things, as plants, 
stones, &c. ; also from adverbs of time, commonly shorten the 
penultimate ; as, amaracinus, crocinus, cedrinus, faginus, olea- 
ginus, adamantinus, crystalltnus, crast%nus } pristwus, perendtnus, 
carinus, annotitms, &c." 



ABBREVIATIONS IN CHEMICAL WORKS. 



251 



Nevertheless, in English, we spell adamantine, crystal- 
line, pristine^ &c. 

" Other adjectives in inus are long ; zsagnlnus, cariinus, lepo- 
rinus, binus, trinus, quinus, austrmus, clandestmus, Latmus, 
marinus, supinus, vespertinus, &c." 

In accordance with which, we spell marine, canine^clan- 
destine, supine, &c. ; but, against analogy, Latin. 

5. Abbreviations used in Chemical Works. 

The following abbreviations are used in books of this 
character, for simple bodies. The list should have ap- 
peared in the chapter devoted to Abbreviations, in the 
First Part ; but, owing to an oversight, was omitted. 

SIMPLE BODIES. 



Ag. Silver (argentum) Gl. Glucinum 


Pt. Platinum 


Al. Aluminum 


H. Hydrogen 


Rh. Rhodium 


Ar. Arsenic 


Hg. Mercury 


Ru. Ruthenium 


Au. Gold (aurum) 


I. Iodine 


S. Sulphur 


Az. Azote (nitrogen) 


Ir. Iridium 


Sb. Antimony 


B. Bromine 


K. Potassium 


Se. Selenon 


Ba. Barium 


La. Lanthanium 


Si. Silicon 


Bi. Bismuth 


Li. Lithium 


Sn. Tin (stannum) 


Bo. Boron 


Mg. Magnesium 


St. Strontium 


C. Carbon 


Mn. Manganese 


Ta. Tantalum 


Ca. Calcium 


Mo. Molybdenum 


Te. Tellurium 


Cd. Cadmium 


Na. Sodium 


Th. Thorium 


Ce. Cerium 


Ni. Nickel 


Ti. Titanium 


Cl. Chlorine 


No. Niobium 


Tr. Terbium 


Co. Cobalt 


Nr. Norium 


U. Uranium 


Cr. Chromium 


0. Oxygen 


Va. Vanadium 


Cu. Copper (cuprum} 


Os. Osmium 


W. Tungsten 


Di. Didymium 


Pb. Lead (plumbum) 


Y. Yttrium 


Er. Erbium 


Pd. Palladium 


Zn. Zink 


Fe. Iron (ferrum) 


Pe. Pelopium 


Zr. Zirconium 


Fl. Fluorine 


Ph. Phosphorus 





Compound bodies are denoted by a combination of those let- 
ters and superior or drop figures : thus, AgO signifies protoxide 
of silver ; ArO 5 , arsenic acid ; Cr 2 3 , sesquioxide of chromium ; 
CuO*, peroxide of copper, &c. &c. 



252 SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER TO PART I. 



6. Collective Nouns. 

Collective nouns are of two kinds, distinguished by 
some as general and partitive, and by others, as definite and 
indefinite. The former denote a union of persons or things 
forming a definite body, and acting or taken as a whole, 
such as ' army,' ' regiment,' ' parliament,' and require a 
verb in the singular ; but the latter denote a collection of 
persons or things not constituting a united and definite 
body, acting as a whole, but taken separately or individ- 
ually, such as 'folk,' ' people,' and require a verb in the 
plural. Examples : 

The parliament was assembled. 
The regiment is disbanded. 
The army was victorious. 

The townsfolk had met together for the purpose of consulta- 
tion, and were much divided in opinion. 

The common people easily discern the real qualities of their 
rulers, and express their opinions without much reservation, 
unless awed by fear. 

It is to be observed, however, that the same word may 
be at one time a collective general, and at another, a collec- 
tive partitive, according to the sense in which the word is 
applied. Examples : 

The committee was composed of ten members. 

The jury was forthwith empanelled. 

This family has been long settled in the country. 

That is, as definite bodies, taken as a whole. But we say, 
with equal propriety, 

The committee were of different opinions, 

The jury were far from being unanimous in their verdict. 

Thefamily were formerly hereditary sheriffs of the county. 

That is, regarded in their separate members; which word, 
or some such-like, is understood in each case : for 



COLLECTIVE NOUNS. 253 

neither the committee, nor the jury, nor the family, could, 
as united bodies, act in the mode here assigned to them. 
Hence, a verb in the plural is correct : for it is the sense 
which must determine the proper application of the rule 
in all cases. 

This rule, of the sense, applies in other cases besides 
those of nouns of multitude, as they are called by some ; 
for it is that which sometimes renders correct a verb in the 
singular after two nouns united by the conjunction and. 
For this reason it is correct to say, ' The rise and fall of 
the tide is six feet ;' for the sense is, that the distance mea- 
sured by the sea's flux and reflux reaches to that number 
of feet, and not each of them six feet of different space. 

In French, a collective partitive, followed by a genitive 
plural, governs the verb in the singular when itself is pre- 
ceded by a definite article or demonstrative pronoun ; as, 

La multitude des Strangers rend le pain cher. 
Ce pen de plantes merite votre attention. 

Otherwise, that is, if the noun substantive be not pre- 
ceded by a definite article or demonstrative pronoun, the 
verb must be in the plural. Example : 

Une multitude de Chretiens segarent tous les jours. 

So, in Spanish, if a collective noun is followed by a 
word in the singular, the verb must be singular ; but if 
the collective noun is followed by a word in the plural, the 
verb is also plural. Examples : 

Una gran multitud de gente acudia de cada parte. 
Una tropa de Cosacos lijeros como el viento, fatigaban al 
ejercito Frances en su retirada. 



254 



CHAPTER X. 



ABSTRACTS OF ACTS OF PARLIAMENT RELATIVE TO 
PRINTERS. 

VARIOU s enactments have, from time to time, been pro- 
mulgated by the legislature of this country for the regula- 
tion of the printing business, under the plea of restraining 
its license, or checking the dissemination of seditious, 
libellous, irreligious, blasphemous, or immoral publica- 
tions. Some restriction undoubtedly may be required on 
those grounds ; but it has more frequently happened, that 
the real reason for wishing to restrain the liberty of the 
press, has been a consciousness on the part of the govern- 
ing powers, that their actions would not bear the test of 
this searching investigator ; and they have therefore pre- 
ferred to endeavour to prevent all inquiry into their 
conduct, rather than run the risk of having their actions 
exposed to the light of day, and the consequent condemna- 
tion of those whom they have plundered and oppressed 
under the guise of governing. 

Hence it becomes necessary that the printer should be 
acquainted with the laws which affect him in his daily 
occupation, in order that he may avoid exposing himself 
to the pains and penalties to which he is still liable. I 
have therefore thought it advisable to append a short 
chapter, containing brief notices of those Acts of Parlia- 
ment which have been passed from time to time, as 
occasion arose, or the interest of the government or of 
society was thought to require. 



ABSTRACTS OF ACTS RELATIVE TO PRINTERS. 255 

By the Act 13 Geo. II. cap. 19 (to restrain aud prevent 
the excessive increase of horse-races, &c.), it is enacted, 
" That every person or persons who shall make, print, 
publish, advertise, or proclaim any advertisement or 
notice of any plate, prize, sum of money, or other thing 
of less value than fifty pounds to be rim for by any horse, 
mare, or gelding, shall forfeit and lose the sum of one 
hundred pounds." 

By the Act 25 Geo. II. cap. 36 (for the better prevent- 
ing thefts and robberies), it is enacted, " That any person 
publicly advertising a reward with * No questions asked/ 
for the return of things which have been stolen or lost, or 
making use of any such words in such public advertisement, 
&c., shall for every such offence forfeit fifty pounds." 

The Act 39 Geo. III. cap. 79 (for the more effectual 
suppression of societies established for seditious and trea- 
sonable purposes), contains several provisions and penalties 
respecting printers, letter-founders, and printing-press 
makers. 

Sect. 23 enacts, '' That from and after the expiration 
of forty days from the day of passing this Act, every person 
Laving any printing-press, or types for printing, shall 
cause a notice thereof, signed in the presence of and at- 
tested by one witness, to be delivered to the clerk of the 
peace acting for the county, stewartry, riding, division, city, 
borough, town, or place where the same shall be intended 
to be used, or his deputy, according to the form prescribed 
in the schedule hereunto annexed ; and such clerk of the 
peace, or deputy respectively, shall, and he is hereby au- 
thorized and required to grant a certificate in the form 
prescribed in the schedule hereunto annexed, for which 
such clerk of the peace, or deputy, shall receive the fee of 
one shilling, and no more ; and such clerk of the peace, or 
his deputy, shall file such notice, and transmit an attested 
copy thereof to one of his Majesty's principal secretaries 



256 ABSTRACTS OF ACTS RELATIVE TO PRINTERS. 

of state ; and every person who, not having delivered such 
notice, and obtained such certificate as aforesaid, shall, 
from and after the expiration of forty days next after the 
passing of this Act, keep or use any printing-press or 
types for printing, or, having delivered such notice and 
obtained such certificate as aforesaid, shall use any printing- 
press or types for printing in any other place than the place 
expressed in such notice, shall forfeit and lose the sum of 
twenty pounds."* 

Sect. 24 exempts his Majesty's printers, and the public 
presses belonging to the universities. 

Sees. 25 and 26 relate to type-founders and press- 
makers. 

Sect. 27 enacts, " That from and after the expiration of 
forty days after the passing of this Act, every person who 
shall print any paper or book whatsoever, which shall be 
meant or intended to be published or dispersed, whether 
the same shall be sold or given away, shall print upon the 
front of every paper, if the same shall be printed on one 
side only, and upon the first and last leaves of every paper 
or book which shall consist of more than one leaf, in legi- 
ble characters, his or her name, and the name of the city, 
town, parish, or place, and also the name (if any) of the 
square, street, lane, court, or place, in which his or her 
dwelling-house, or usual place of abode shall be; and 
every person who shall omit so to print his name and place 
of abode on every such paper or book printed by him, and 
also every person who shall publish or disperse, or assist 
in publishing or dispersing, either gratis or for money, any 
printed paper or book which shall have been printed after 
the expiration of forty days from the passing of this Act, 
and on which the name and place of abode of the person 

* It is but the other day that a printer of Carey Street, Lin- 
colns-Inn Fields, very nearly failed in a suit for upwards of 200, 
by not complying with this requisition. 



ABSTRACTS OF ACTS RELATIVE TO PRINTERS. 257 

printing the same shall not be printed as aforesaid, shall, 
for every copy of such paper so published or dispersed by 
him, forfeit and pay the sum of twenty pounds." 

Sect 28 exempts papers printed by authority of either 
House of Parliament. 

Sect. 29 enacts, " That every person who, from and 
after the expiration of forty days after the passing of this 
Act, shall print any paper for hire, reward, gain, or profit, 
shall carefully preserve and keep one copy (at least) of 
every paper so printed by him or her, on which he or she 
shall write, or causa to be written or printed, in fair and 
legible characters, the name and place of abode of the 
person or persons by whom he or she shall be employed to 
print the same : and every person printing any paper for 
hire, reward, gaia, or profit, who shall omit or neglect to 
write, or cause to be written or printed as aforesaid, the 
name and place of his or her employer, on one of such 
printed papers, or to keep or preserve the same for the 
space of six calendar months next after the printing thereof, 
or to produce and show the same to any justice of the peace, 
who, within the said space of six calendar months, shall 
require to see the same, shall, for every such omission, 
neglect, or refusal, forfeit and lose the sum of twenty 
pounds " 

FORM OF NOTICE to be given to the Clerk of the Peace, 

that any Person keeps any Printing-Press or Types for 

Printing. 
To the Clerk of the Peace for [here insert the 

county, stewartry, riding, division, city, borough, town, 

or place^\ or his deputy. 

7, A. B. of do hereby declare that I have a 

printing-press and types for printing, which I propose to 

use for printing within , and which I require to 

be entered for th'it purpose, in pursuance of an Act passed 
in the thirty-ninth year of his Majesty King George the 



258 ABSTRACTS OF ACTS RELATIVE TO PRINTERS. 

Third, entitled, " An Act /or the more effectual suppression 
of societies established for seditious and treasonable pur- 
poses, and for better preventing treasonable and seditious 
practices." 

Witness my hand this day cf . 

Signed in the presence of . 

An Act was passed on the 10th of June, 1811, to amend 
and explain the above Act, by which it is enacted, " That 
nothing in the 27th section of the said Act contained shall 
extend to make any person or persons oifending against 
the same liable to more than twenty five forfeitures or 
penalties for printing, or publishing, or dispersing, or 
assisting in publishing or dispersing, any number of copies 
of one and the same paper or book, contrary to the said 
section of the said Act " 

By the 2nd section of this Act, power is given to 
magistrates to mitigate the same to any sum not less than 
5, with all reasonable costs incurred in the prosecution ; 
and by the 4th section, persons convicted under this 
amended Act may, if they think themselves aggrieved, 
appeal to the Quarter Sessions ; where the justices, if they 
see cause, may mitigate any penalty or penalties, and may 
order any money to be returned which shall have been 
paid or levied under any conviction as aforesaid, and may 
also order and award snch costs to be paid by eithep party 
to the other as they shall think and judge reasonable. 

The Act 60 Geo. III. cap. 9, to subject certain publi- 
cations to the duties of stamps upon newspapers,* and to 
make other regulations for restraining the abuses arising 
from the publication of blasphemous and seditious libels. 
December 30, 1819. 

* Newspapers, not exceeding 2,295 square inches superficies, 
exclusive of outer margin, can be sent through the post-office for 
a penny stamp; beyond those dimensions an additional halfpenny 
stamp is required, up to 3,443 inches, and another halfpenny up to 
4,691 inches, whether supplements or not. 



. ABSTRACTS OF ACTS RELATIVE TO PRINTERS. 259 

Sect. 1. All pamphlets and papers containing any 
public news, intelligence or occurrences, or any remarks 
or observations thereon, or upon any matter in church or 
state, printed in any part of the United Kingdom for sale, 
and published periodically, or in parts or numbers, at 
intervals not exceeding twenty-six days between the pub- 
lication of any two such pamphlets or papers, parts or 
numbers, where any of the said pamphlets, &c., shall not 
exceed two sheets, or shall be published for sale for a less 
sum than sixpence, exclusive of the duty, shall be deemed 
and taken to be newspapers, agreeably to the Act of the 
38th Geo. III., and subject to all the rules, &c., of all 
former Acts regarding newspapers, &c. 

Sect. 2. No quantity of paper less than 21 inches in 
length, and 17 in breadth, to be deemed a sheet. 

Sect. 3. No cover or blank leaf upon which any adver- 
tisement or other notice shall be printed shall be deemed 
part of a pamphlet. 

Sect. 4. Publications of the above nature, at intervals 
exceeding twenty-six days, to be published on the first day 
of every calendar month, or within two days before or 
after. Penalty 20. 

Sect. 5. The price and day of publication to be printed 
on all periodicals ;* penalty for omission 20. Persons 
liable to the above penalty for selling, or exposing for sale, 
any of the said publications for a less price than sixpence. 

Sect. 6. Price not to extend to the allowance made to 
distributors, who buy to sell again. 

Sect. 7. Pamphlets liable to the stamp duties freed 
from all regulations respecting pamphlets. 

Sect. 8. Persons not to print or publish newspapers, 
&c., or pamphlets of two sheets or under, of the above 
description, without entering into recognizance, or giving 

* It is now necessary that the day of publication of periodicals 
shall be printed on the corner of the headline of every page, and iu 
the heading of the first. 

* 2 



260 ABSTRACTS OF ACTS RELATIVE TO PRINTERS. . 

bond for securing fines upon conviction for libels. Penalty 
20. 

Sect. 9. If sureties pay any part of the money for which 
they are bound, or become bankrupts, new recognizance 
with sureties must be given. Penalty 20. 

Sect. 10. Sureties may withdraw from their recogni- 
zance, upon giving twenty days' previous notice, in writing, 
to the commissioners or distributors of stamps in the dis- 
trict, and also to the printer or publisher ; sureties not to 
be liable after the expiration of such notice. Bond or new 
sureties to be given before any more numbers are published; 
for every such offence, penalty 20. 

Sect. 11. Bonds not subject to stamp duties. 
Sect. 12. Lists of recognizances to be sent to the Com- 
missioners of Stamps four times a year ; bonds, within ten 
days after the execution. 

Sect. 13. Extending the provisions of former Acts rela- 
tive to the delivery of newspapers, &c. to the Commissioners 
of Stamps. Penalty for neglect of delivery of such pam- 
phlets or papers, ,100. 

Sect. 14. Commissioners refusing to take any pamphlet 
or paper, to give, if required, a certificate of such refusal. 
Sect. 15. Persons selling papers, &c. not duly stamped, 
to be fined 20. [Obsolete.] 

Sect. 16. Recognizance, in case of libel, to be of good 
behaviour, as well as to appear to answer. 

Sect. 17. Fines, penalties, &c. to be recovered by action 
of debt, bill, plaint, or information, &c. ; not more than 
100 to be recovered before justices of the peace, for any 
penalty incurred in one day. 

Sect. 18. Two or more justices to hear and determine 
oifences committed against this Act, within the limitation 
of three months ; magistrates have power to mitigate 
penalties to one-fourth ; reasonable costs, &c. must always 
be paid. 

Sect. 19. Persons refusing to appear and give evidence, 



ABSTRACTS OF ACTS RELATIVE TO PRINTERS. 261 

when summoned as witnesses, without satisfactory excuse 
to the magistrates, shall forfeit for each offence the sum 
of 20. 

Sect. 21. Order or conviction of justices not to be re- 
moved into any court whatever, nor can the execution be 
superseded. 

Sect. 22. No action for penalties shall be commenced 
but in the name of the Attorney-General, in England and 
Ireland, and Advocate for Scotland, or some officer of the 
stamp duties. 

Sect. 23. Duties to be under the management of the 
Commissioners of Stamps. 

Sect. 24. Duties and discounts to be paid and allowed 
according to the provisions of former Acts. 

Sect. 26 contains the following exceptions : Acts, &c., 
printed for Government, School Books, subjects on Devo- 
tion, &c., Daily Accounts, Bills of Goods imported and 
exported, Warrants and Certificates for the delivery of 
goods, Weekly Bills of Mortality, Lists of Prices Current, 
State of the Markets, Accounts of the Arrival and Sailing 
of Merchant Ships, &c. &c., provided they contain nothing 
more than the usual matter. 

Sect. 27. Eeprinted works published in numbers not 
chargeable with the stamp duty, provided that it had been 
printed two years, and not first published in parts or num- 
bers. [Obsolete.] 



In addition to what is above stated, the following 
remarks will be found of importance to the printer : 

By 6 & 7 Wm. IV. c. 76, it is enacted that every 
newspaper shall have at the end of the last column, or 
across the bottom of the last page, the name and residence 
of the printer and publisher, the place of publication, the 
date, and the price, under a penalty of '20. 

Declarations made by proprietors of newspapers are to 



262 ABSTRACTS OF ACTS RELATIVE TO PRINTERS. 

be renewed whenever any printer, publisher, or proprietor 
named therein, shall be changed, or whenever the title, or 
the office of printing or publication, shall be changed, or 
whenever the Stamp Office shall require a renewal thereof, 
under a penalty of ,50. 

No proprietor of a paper can recover damages, before 
being registered, for the non-performance of a contract for 
the printing of his paper ; nor can a printer making a 
false declaration sue the proprietors for anything con- 
nected with the business of the paper. 



INDEX. 



A or an before a vowel or silent A, i, 
24; reasons for it, 24, 25 

Abbreviations, list of, 199213; of 
books of Scripture, 199 ; of names 
of months, 200 ; of titles of honor, 
office, &c., 200205 ; miscellaneous, 
205; French, 209; German, 210; 
of Greek and Latin authors, 211; 
chemical, ii, 251 

Able and ible, as terminations, i, 38 

Abridgement, acknowledgement, &c., 
correct in orthography, i, 55 

Ac or ack, and oc or ock, Dr. Webster's 
rule respecting words ending in, i, 
20 

Accent, its power in the formation of 
derivative words, i, 58, &c. 

Accents, i, 169; the grave, its use in 
poetry, 170 ; never occurs in Spanish, 
ib. ; peculiar property of the cir- 
cumflex in French, ib. \ Greek, ii, 159, 
160 ; where placed in diphthongs, 
160 ; Hebrew, 167 

Accentual marks, i, 169 

Acts of Parliament relating to printers, 
ii, 254262. 

Addresses, direct, how pointed, i, 126 

Adjectives, at the end of a compound 
word, how changed in the plural, i, 
28; two or more in succession, how 
pointed, 121; derived from proper 
names, are begun with a capital, 
180. 

Adverbs, conjunctions, &c., rules for 
their proper punctuation, i, 122 

Advertising, restrictions respecting, ii, 
255 

Advertisements, standing, method of 
charging, ii, 131 

Affirmations, their nature, i, 95; their 
connection, 114; incidental, how 
punctuated, 117 



Affixes, or terminations, how divided, i 

85 

Albion, specimen of the letter, ii, 35 
Aldus of Venice invents Italic type, ii, 

Algebraical work, how charged for, ii, 
132 

Allso, more correct than also, i, 15 

Alphabets, Saxon, ii, 156; Greek, 158; 
Hebrew, 164; Syriac, 173 ; Ethiopian, 
176 ; Chinese, ib. ; Persi- Arabic, 
178-9; Devanagari, 184:; German, 
190 

An unicorn, inharmonious and incor- 
rect, i, 24 

Ance or ence, the terminations, i, 38a 

Ancle, preferable to ankle, i, 39 

Antique, letter so named, ii, 35 

Antre, an anomalous word, i, 39 

Apostrophe, rules for its proper appli- 
cation, i, 156 

Appeal cases, how charged, ii, 128 

Apprentice, what ought to be his quali- 
fications, ii, 39, 40 

Apprentices, none allowed on daily 
papers, ii, 129 

Article, the definite, its power in con- 
stituting a proper name, i, 178 n. 

As follows, or as fo llow, observations 
thereon, i, 45 

Assistants on newspapers, how paid, ii, 
129 

Astronomical signs, i, 184 

Attorney-General, no action to be com- 
menced against printers without hie 
sanction, ii, 262 

Auctioneers' catalogues, method of 
charging, ii, 125 ; remarks on their 
style, &c., 200. 

Augustine, Black, Elizabethan, Al- 
hambra, &c., specimens of those let- 
ters, ii, 36 



264 



INDEX. 



Authors, adrice to, as to preparing 
copy, i, 242; should return thei 
proofs without delay, 245 



B. 

Backs and gutters, misnomers, ii, 111 

Baskerville an eminent English prin- 
ter, ii, 25 ; met with little encourage- 
ment, ib. 

Bastard founts, how charged, ii, 118 
Mr. Day's remarks on, 220 

Beeswax, a correct mode of spelling 
the word, i, 69 

Befal, be/el, tniscal, downfal, &c. 
absurd anomalies, i, 15 

Bills in Parliament, scale of prices for. 
i, 133 

Blank pages, may be filled up, ii, 133 

Booth, Mr., his remarks on the forma- 
tion of the plural of nouns ending 
in y, i, 29 

Borders, how charged, ii, 131 

Bottom-no; es, best mode of arranging, 
i, 168; how charged, ii, 121 ; proper 
size of type for, 230 

Bracket, when employed, i, 165 

Breaks, remarks on, ii, 222 

Breathings, Greek, explained, ii, 159 

British Museum, specimens of early 
inscriptions in, ii, 3 

Broadsides, method of charging, ii, 126 ; 
remarks on setting out, 199 



C. 

C, as a final letter, very uncommon, i, 
19 ; soft, always followed by a final 
e, 22 ; some peculiarities respecting, 
39 

Calendar, alteration of by Pope Gregory 
XIII, i, 188 

Can, remarks on the word, i, 33 

Cancels, how charged, ii, 223 

Cannot and canst not, observations on 
the words, i, 33 

Canvas, different ways of spelling the 
word, i, 13 n. 

Capital letters, rules for their proper 
employment, i, 174 183; none in 
Hebrew, &c., 174 ; nothing else 
formerly used by the Greeks and 
Romans, #>.; their use entirely arbi- 
trary, ib.] all nouns substantive for- 
merly honored with, ib. 

Cards, their various sizes and names, 
ii, 202 



Case, absolute, rules for its punctuation, 

i, 128 
Cases, plan of a pair of ordinary ones, 

ii, 41 ; Poulter's combined, 152; pair 

of Greek, 162-3; Hebrew, 169171; 

Persi-Arabic, 182- 3 ; Music, 196-7 
Caslon, William, the first typefounder 

of eminence in England, ii, 25 
Casting off copy, method of effecting, 

ii, 223227 
Caxton, the first English printer, ii, 11 ; 

examination imo the claims of his 

rivals, 12; his claim established, 20; 

died in 1491, 24 
Cedilla, its use explained, i, 171 
Center, more analogous than centre, 

i, 7 

Chancery Bills, how charged, ii, 128 n. 
Chapel, origin of the term, ii, 20 
Check-book, plan of, ii, 54 
Chinese, the earliest printers, ii, 4 
Circulars, remarks on composing, ii, 

200 
Ck, as a termination, Dr. Webster's 

dictum on the subject, i, 20; Dr. 

Johnson's practice defended, 21-22 
Clarendon, a kind of ornamental letter, 

ii, 36 
Clauses introduced by a conjunction, 

how pointed, i, 123 
Clef, an irregular spelling, i, 12 
Clicker, his duties, ii, 48 tt seqq. 
Clickership, what it is, ii, 45 
Collective nouns, remarks on, ii, 252 ; 

in French, 252 ; in Spanish, ib. 
Colon, the rules for its application, i, 

135138 ; its use in the Psalms, 138 
Column matter, definition of and charge 

for, ii, 128 
Comma, the, rules for its use, i, 115 

132 ; not required after contractions 

in notes, 168 
Commas, inverted, double, i, 152; 

single, 153, 172; practice of Scotch 

printers with regard to, 153; double, 

not inverted, 172 

Commissioners of Stamps, lists of recog- 
nizances to be sent to periodically, 

ii, 261 
Companionships, method of working in, 

ii, 45 et seqq. 

Complement or attribute of a proposi- 
tion, its explanation, i, 93 
Composing, method to be adopted in, 

ii, 42 et seqq. 

Compound words, rules for their proper 
formation, i,67 80 ; what constitutes 
a compound word, 68; rules for as- 
certaining what are, 74, &c. 



INDEX. 



265 



Consonant between two vowels, how 
divided, i, 81 

Consonants, mute, rarely doubled at 
the end of a word, i, 18 ; sometimes 
doubled before affixes of words, 
sometimes not, 58 ; reasons for these 
anomalies, 58 62 ; double, how di- 
vided, 83 

Contents, letter proper for, ii,223 

Conversation matter, remarks thereon, 
i, 154156 

Copula of a proposition, what it is, i, 
93 

Copy, proper method of preparing, i, 
241 

Copy of everything printed, to be pre- 
served, ii, 257 

Correcting, symbols used in, i, 238; 
mode of proceed ing in, ii, 55 

Correctors of the press, ought to be 
printers, i, 243 ; iheir qualifications, 
ib. 

Corsellis, supposed to have first practised 
the art of prin ing in England, ii, 13 

Coster, considered by some the tirst 
printer, ii, 7 ; examination of his 
claims, 710 

Crystalize, better than crystallize, i, 
56 

Cycles, what they are, i, 192 



D. 

Dagesh, its use in Hebrew, ii, 166 ; in 
Syriac, 175 

Dash, or rule, sometimes used very 
capriciously, i, 147 ; rules for its pro- 
per employment, 147 151 ; some- 
times used instead of the parenthesis, 
149 ; does not dispense with the or- 
dinary points, 148, 150 ; is commonly 
used where there is an ellipsis of 
the word namely, 150; a semicolon 
may sometimes be substituted for 
it, ib. ; is used after a side-head, &c., 

Dates, in early-printed books, frequent- 
ly erroneous, ii, 17 

Day, accounted to begin at various 
points by different nations, i, 187 

Decimal point, observations thereon, 
. i, 194 n. 

Dedications, mode of composing, ii, 
233 

Defense, pretense, &c., remarks on, i, 
40 

Derivative and inflected words, how 
formed, i, 5566 

Diaeresis, its use explained, i, 170 



Diaeresis letters, mostly unnecessary in 
English, i, 31 ; in Greek words, ii, 160 

Diamond, how charged, ii, 118 

Diastole, explanation of the term, ii, 
160 

Dictionary matter, how charged, ii, 
119 

Digamma, explanation of the term, ii, 
161 

Diphthongs in the English language, 
i, 30; in Greek words, ii, 160; ai 
and oi become e in English deriva- 
tive words, ii, 246; ou becomes w, 
247 ; ei is rendered by i (sometimes 
by r), >b. ; au and eu remain un- 
changed, ib. 

Dispatch or despatch, i, 40 

Distributing, advice respecting, ii, 41 

Divisions, bad, i, 85 

Double letters, what they are, i, 17 

Dullness, why preferable to dulness, 
i, 63 

l>ye, the word au anomaly, i, 8 

E. 

E as a vowel, the changes which it 
undergoes as a final letter, i, 6 ; is 
never omitted before a termination 
beginning with a consonant, 55 ; but 
is dropped before vowel terminations, 
ib. ; except in two cases, 57; the only 
letter with the acute accent in 
French, 169 . 

Echo, the, of elocutionists, punctua- 
tion to be observed with regard to, i. 
149 
f, words ending in, i, 6 

Egyptian, specimen of letter so called, 
ii, 35 

Eighteens, method of imposing, ii, 83 
89 ; how charged, 120 

Elisions of final vowels, varying prac- 
tice of different languages with re- 
gard to, i, 156158 ; English prac- 
tice, 159 ; of i in the verb is, 160 ; of 
e in the termination ed, rules re- 
specting, 160162 

Ellipsis of words and letters, various 
ways of denoting, i, 166 

En becomes cm before b and p, i, 26 

English language, works in, how 
charged, ii, 117 

English words, their most usual deri- 
vation, i, 46 

Epochs, begun with a capital letter, i, 
182; dates of various, 192 

Er, as a termination, preferable to 
re, i, 7 ; verbal nouns ending in, 37 



266 



Errata, where to he placed, ii, 233 
Excellence and ex- elltncy, i, 46 
Exclamation, rules as to i's application, 
i, 142 144; used in ironical sen- 
tences, 142; wrong practice re- 
specting, 143 

Explanatory words, frequently put in 
Italic, or single or double quotation- 
marks, i, 153 



F. 

JF, the letter, its character, i, 11 ; why 
it is generally doubled at the end of 
words, 11, 62; why it is sometimes 
not, 12 

Farther and further, i, 53 

Faust, John, a partner of Guttemberg, 
ii, 7; prints ihe first Bible, 8; dies, 
probably at Paris, 9 

Ff., meaning of this contraction ex- 
plained, ii, 211 

Fines, &c., to be recovered by action of 
debt, ii, 261 

Finish, explanation of the term, ii, 
137 

Folio, meaning of the word, ii, 65; 
method of imposing, 66 

Foong-taon, the inventor of Chinese 
printing, ii, 4 

Foreign languages, works in, how 
charged, ii, 118, 125 

Foreign words and phrases, list of those 
in common use, i, -213 229 

Forms in the rack must be looked to 
by the compositor, ii, 56 

Forties, method of imposing, ii, 1 04 

Fortyeights, method of imposing, ii, 104 
108; mode of charging, 120 

French, English words derived from 
the, i, 48 

French canon and 4-line pica, distinc- 
tion between, ii, 33 

Furniture, making up, ii, 52; further 
remarks thereon, 110; table of, for 
ordinary bookwork, 112; should be 
cut to pica ems, 202 



G. 

G, its character as a final letter, i, 17 ; 
never ends a word having its soft 
sound, ib. ; but is invariably followed 
by, 23; -so/',./, and x, never dou- 
bled, 61 ; to what syllable attached in 
affixes, 86 

Galley, the, of what it consists, ii, 136 ; 
how charged, 143 



Gamma, is often rendered by n in 

English derivative words, ii, 247 
Gas, ought to be spelt gass, i, 13 n. 
German principles of orthography, not 

always applicable in English, i, 13 n. 
Globe Tavern, Fleet Street, first seals 

of prices adopted at, ii, 115 
Grammars, spelling-books, &c., how 

charged, ii, 119 

Great primer, how charged, ii, 118 
Greek, English words from the, i, 47 ; 

how words derived from are divided, 

89 ; how charged, ii, 124 
Greek and Latin nouns in common 

use, list of, with their plurals, ii, 242 

246 
Greek and other foreign alphabets (see 

Alphabets) 
Greek and other cases (see Cases, 

Plans of) 
Guttemberg, accused of purloining 

Coster's type and presses, ii, 7 ; two 

brothers, both called John, but the 

elder distinguished by the surname 

of Geinsfleisch, ib. ; monument on his 

tomb at Mentz, 9-10 n. 



H. 

H, words commencing with silent, i, 25 
Haerlem, its claims to be considered 
the place where printing was in- 
vented, ii, 7 

Half-hour, half an hour, &c., obser- 
vations thereon, i, 44 
Hamza, what it is, ii, 180 
Handbills, remarks on, ii, 201 
Hands; newspaper, the various grades, 

ii, 59 ct seq. 

Headings, how charged, ii, 129 
Head-lines, observations thereon, ii, 

228 
Horse-races, restriction on advertising 

in certain cases, ii, 255 
Hyphen, the, not absolutely necessary 
in writing numbers, i, 77; remarks 
on its general application, 163; 
meaning of the word, ib. ; German 
practice with regard to, ib. ; used in 
place of the diuresis, 171 



/, as a final vowel, i, 8 ; never ends a 
pure English word, ib. ; its place oft 
supplied by jy, ib. 

Ic and iac, the terminations, i, 20 



INDEX. 



267 



Ible, termination, list of words ending 
in, i, 37a 

Im or in, as prefixes, i, 25; list of 
words beginning with, 26 

Impersonal verbs, passive, rules as to 
their punctuation, i, 124 

Imposing, general principles thereof, 
with scheme', ii, 65 - 109 ; miscella- 
neous observations thereon, 110 ; me- 
thod of proceeding in, ib. 

Imposition, compositor's scale of, ii, 53 

Imprints to be placed on the first and 
last page of every book, &c., ii, 256 

In or im, as terminations, cause of the 
various modes of spelling words in, ii, 
249 

In and im, as prefixes, i, 27 

Indentions of second line in poetry, i, 
166 

Indexes, where placed, and letter 
proper for, ii, 228 

Indexes or indices, remarks on spelling 
the word, ii, 243 n. 

Inos, as a termination, rule for deter- 
mining the quantity of, ii, 250 

Insertions in author's proof, how 
charged, ii, 132 

Intercalary days explained, i, 188 

Interlinear matter, method of charging 
for, ii, 132 

Interrogation, rules for its proper ap- 
plication, i, 140 142; used but once 
in a cumulative question, 140 ; not 
employed where a question is only 
stated to have been asked, 141 ; al- 
ways used when the intention is to 
evoke an answer > 6. ; Spanish prac- 
tice respecting, 144, 158 

Interrogative sentences, do not always 
commence with a capital, i, 175 

Intransitive verbs, their action cannot 
fall on a direct object, unless of cog- 
nate meaning, i, 108; may have in- 
direct complements, 124 

Inus, Dr. Adam's rule on the quantity 
of, ii, 250 

Ise and ize, as terminations, i, 31 ; list 
of words ending in, 32 

Ism and ist< as affixes, i, 65 

Ize, remarks on words of this termina- 
tion, i, 65 



J. 

,7, its character as a final letter, i, 17 
Jasm, its power explained, ii, 181 
Jenson of Venice, invents Roman type, 

ii, 11 
Job-hand, requisites for, ii, 198 



Jobbing, chapter on, ii, 198203 

Jobs, how charged, ii, 125 

Johnson, Dr., his presumed motives for 

retaining the final ck, i, 21-22 
Judgement, &c., more correct than 

judgment, &c., i, 55 
Justification, importance of good, ii, 

44 

K. 

JT, unadvisedly displaced at the end of 
many words, by modern printers, i, 
19-20; not necessary before some 
terminations, 22 ; but indispensable 
in others, ib. 

Kappa, becomes c in English, and is 
sounded sometimes soft, sometime* 
hard, ii, 248 



as a final letter, i, 14 ; sometime* 
repeated before affixes, and some- 
times single, 63 ; the reasons for this, 
64-66 

Language, what it is, i, 92 

Language, and similar words, remark 
on, i, 17 n. 

Latin, English words derived from the, 
i, 47 ; rules for the division of words 
from, 87 

Law-books, list of contractions for, ii, 
206218 

Law- work, remarks on its peculiarities, 
ii, 204-5 

Ib. should never have an s after it, i, 
197 n. 

Leaded matter, how charged, ii, 117 

Leaders, their use explained, i, 172 

Leads, the proportions which they bear 
to the various sizes of type, ii, 29 

Let-in notes remarks on, ii, 231 

Letter, making up, ii, 51 ; dividing, 64 

Letters, sound-sustaining, in Greek and 
French, i, 61 n. ; of various alpha- 
bets, ii, 156192; some in Hebrew 
cast broad, 164; table of similar, in 
Hebrew, 168; in Syriac, 175; com- 
pound in Devanagari, 188; similar 
ones in German, how distinguished, 
191; bill of, 221-2; changes which 
some undergo in words derived from 
the Greek, 246248 

Lines per hour, number of, ii, 148-9 ; 
per thousand, 150 

Liquids, as final letters, i, 16 

Literary men, seldom make good 
readers, i, 243 



M. 

M, the letter, i, 17 

Maccaph, its use in Hebrew, ii, 166 

Madda, how pronounced, ii, 180 

Magazines, reviews, &c., take an extra 
charge, ii, 120 

Magistrates may mitigate penalties in 
certain cases, ii, 258; two or more 
may hear and determine offences, 
261 ; their order not to be removed, ib. 

Making up letter, remarks on, ii, 51 ; 
furniture, 52 

Mappik, explanation of its use, ii, 166 

Margin, instructions for making, ii, 
113, 229 : alterations of, how charged, 
121 

Martin, Mr., his reasons for rejecting 
the letter k at the end of words, i, 20 

Measure, method of making, ii, 228 

Members of sentences, require some 
point to part them from each other, 
i, 130 

Mentz, the place where printing was 
first practised, ii, 9 

Middleton, Dr., his opinion as to the 
first English printer, ii, 12 

Miscellanies, literary, i, 24 54; prac- 
tical, ii, 219241 

Modifying words and phrases, how 
punctuated, i, 130 

Money, stamped with some effigy in 
very early ages, ii, 4 

Monies, att(trnies,vaUies^ incorrect in 
spelling, i, 29 

Months, of different lengths and num- 
ber, at different periods, i, 189 ; ex- 
planation of names of, 190 ; table of 
the months of various nations, 191 ; 
names of. of the French republic, 
192 

Movable, debatable, &c., more correct 
than moveable, &c., i, 56 

Musical characters, their form and use, 
ii, 193 etseq. 

Mute consonant, its characteristics, i, 
18; never properly doubled at the 
end of a word, ib. 



N. 

ft, character of the letter, i, 16 
Namely, that is, &c., rules for their 

proper punctuation, i, 131 
Names of places and persons, how they 
ought to be written, i, 70 72 ; mis- 
takes frequently made in, by trans- 
lators, 251 ; list of, in various lan- 
guages, 252269 



News-hand, his qualifications, ii, 57 
et seq. , 62 

Newspapers,roui ine of practice thereon, 
ii,61 et seq. ; definidon of the term, 
259; their dimensions limited, 260 n ; 
printers thereof to enter into a bond, 
261 

News-work, scale of prices for, ii, 135 

Night-work, when to commence, and 
how charged for, ii, 125 

Notaiion, literal, i, 230 237 ; Roman, 
230; Greek, 234; Hebrew, 236; 
Arabic and Indian, 237 ; Syriac, ii, 
172 

Notes, best way of arranging short 
ones, i, 167 ; French mode of arrang- 
ing, objectionable, ib.', arranged 
tombstone fashion, 168; charge for, 
121 et seqq.\ struck out, ii, 132; 
different kinds of, explained, 229 
231 

Nothing, anything, none, some one, 
&c., i, 51 

Notice, form of that to be given to the 
clerk of the peace, ii, 257 

Notice of leaving to be given by the 
compositor, ii, 133 

Nouns of weight, dimension, &c., i, 43 ; 
substantive, sometimes become ad- 
jectives, 72, 74; in apposition, how 
pointed, 127 

Numbers, however large, might all be 
written as one word, i, 77 ; Latin and 
Greek mode of writing, ib.; fractional, 
should be written in separate words, 
78 

Numbers, weights, measures, &c., i, 52 



0, as a final vowel, i, 9; formation of 

the plural of nouns ending in, ib. 
O or oe, words ending in, i, 9 
O and oh, as interjections, i, 143 
Octavo, method of imposing, ii, 71 75 
O/, as connected with proper names, i t 

180 
Or or our, as terminations, i, 34 ; verbal 

nouns in or, 36 
Ordinals, two or more preceding a 

n^un, i, 41 

Orthography, English, its principles ex- 
plained, i, 323, &c. ; a subject pe- 
culiarly within the province of the 
printer, 3; anomalous and bar- 
barous, 4; radical changes therein 
impracticable, ib. ; cannot, in prac- 
tice, be reduced to phonetic princi- 
ples, ib. 



INDEX. 



269 



Our, the termination, list of words 

ending in, i, 35 

Outline letter, example thereof, ii, 35 
Overseer, value of a vigilant one, ii, 237 
Oxford, p; inting in England supposed 

by some to have been first practised 

there, ii, 12 



Pages, must be of equal length, ii, 55 ; 
transpositions of, by whom to be 
rectified, 57 ; facing and backing, 
231 

Paid, irregularity of the word, i, 10 n. 
Pamphlets, meihod of charging, ii, 120 
Paper, writing and priming, names and 

sizes thereof, ii, 203 
Parenthesis, why so called, and rules 
for its proper application, i,144 146 ; 
too many unadvisable, 145 ; practice 
regarding, not uniform in all respects, 
ib. 
Parliamentary work, how charged, ii, 

139 
Participles and participial adjectives, 

i, 76 
Particulars of estates, how printed, ii, 

200 

Pease and peas, remarks on, i, 54 
Pedigrees, how paid for, ii, 132 
Period, or full-stop, when applied, i, 
138; as a mark of comracvion, 139 
Periodical publications, how charged, 

ii, 141 

Periodicals, to have the date of publi- 
cation printed on every page, ii, 260 
Personal pronouns referring to the 
Deity, commence with a capital, i 
176 
Personifications, generally commence 

with a capi al, i, 175 
Pesh, or zamma, how pronounced, ii, 

180 
Phalanxes and sphinxes, met with in 

good authors, ii, 245 n. 
Phonetic spelling, iis advantages and 
disadvaniages, i, 4; impossible in 
English, ib. 

Phrases, inverted, how pointed, i, 125 
Pica, the standard size of type, ii, 29 
Picking up type, hints on, ii, 42 
Plural of words composed of a substan- 
tive and an adjective, how formed, 
i, 27-28; of nouns ending in y, 28- 
29 ; of many Latin and Greek words 
how formed, ii, 242 et scq. 
Poetry, Latin and Greek, remarks on 
i, 157; indention proper for, 166 



first word in each line in, not always 
begun with a capital, 183 ; in notes, 
ii, 241 

Points, foreigners generally insert a 
space before all, except the full-point, 
i, 158 ; two sometimes occur together, 
in German and o;her languages, 
159 n.; Greek, ii, 161 (see Punc- 
tuation) 

D ope, the, a proper name, i, 177 
Position, standing, best for composing, 

ii, 42 

Possessives, double, i, 42 
Pound, observations on the word, i, 
43 n. ; German practice respecting 
it, 44 
Powers of quantities, how denoted, i, 

195 
Prefaces and introductions, proper 

type for, ii, 233 
Prefixes, words beginning with, how 

divided, i, 84 
Preliminary matter, how charged, ii, 

131 ; how arranged, 232 
Prepositions, before and after verbs, i, 49 
Presses, various, ii, 27 
Pressmen, answerable for their own 

laches, ii, 57 

Prices, regulated by scale of 1785, ii, 
115; alterations made in, in 1793 and 
1800, ib. ; advance to 5id. per 1,000 
in 1805, ib. ; alterations made in, 
in 1810, 116; country, 143 
Printer, the ultimate arbiter of ortho- 
graphy, i, 3 ; Guttemberg, the first, 
ii,6 ; Caxton the first English, 11 et 
seq.\ of a morning paper, his duties. 
58 

Printers, modern, have taken several 
irrational and unwarrantable liber- 
ties with orthography, i, 15; the 
early, concealed their art as much 
as possible, ii, 6, &c. 
Printing from movable types, invented 
in Germany, ii, 6 ; spreads with won- 
derful rapidity, 1 1 ; somewhat re- 
trogrades with its extension, 24; 
revives after the war of the French 
revolution, 24-25 

Printing,block, invented by the Chinese, 
ii, 4 ; description of the process, 5 ; 
brought to Europe by Marco Polo, 
ib. ; early practised in Italy, ib. 
Printing-press and types, to be regis- 
tered, ii, 255 

Proof-sheet, marks used in correcting, 
i, 238240 ; advice as to their em- 
ployment, 241 ; mode of procedure 
in reading, 244 ; various kinds of, 
ii, 234 



270 



Proper names, how compounded, 
i, 70 ; the essential constituents 
thereof, 177 ; sometimes made by 
prefixing the article, 178 n.; French 
mode of hyphening, 179 

Propositions, what they are, i, 93; se- 
veral may be condensed into one 
affirmation, 100 ; their adjuncts, 104, 
&c. ; inseparable subordinate, 109; 
incidental, 111 n. ; two may some- 
times be compared together without 
the intervention of any point, 113 

Punctuation, i, 90 151 ; often a great 
stumbling-block, 90; cannot be ju- 
diciously applied to incorrect writing, 
ib. ; definidons of the term, 9092 ; 
no infallible guide in, 92; symbols 
used in, 97 ; authors need not trouble 
themselves much about, 242 (see the 
rarious point-marks) 



Q. 

Quantity, marks of, i, 169 

Quarter Sessions, appeal may be made 
to, ii, 258 

Quarto, method of imposing, ii, 68 71 

Questions, do not always require a note 
of interrogation, i, 140; cumulative, 
ib. 

Quotation-marks, sometimes precede 
the interrogation and the exclama- 
tion, i, 141 ; remarks on their proper 
application, 152 156 ; sometimes 
used at the beginning of every line, 
152 ; what space to be inserted before 
and after, ii, 44, 235 

Quotations, by what point preceded, i, 
137 ; not always begun with a capital 
letter, 183 



R. 

Raphe, what it is, ii, 166 

Ratable, preferable to rateable, i, 56 

Re, as a termination, often anomalous 

and incorrect, i, 9, 39 
Readers (see Correctors of the 

Press) 
Reading-boys, ought to read distinctly 

and audibly, i, 244 
Reference-marks, observations thereon, 

i, 166 168 
Reprints, reduced three farthings per 

1,000 in 1816, ii, 116, 127; what are, 

127 
Ruby and smaller type, how charged, 

ii, 118 



Rules to be observed by compositors, ii' 

237240 

Rule-work, advice respecting, ii, 235 
Ruse, Mr., his remarks on making 

margin, ii, 113 

S. 

5, as a final letter, i, 12 ; its occasional 
omission in the possessive case, 50; 
sometimes retained in th _> formation 
of compound words, euphonice gratid, 
69 

Sans-serif, specimen of letter so named, 
ii, 35 

Scale of prices for compositors' work, 
ii, 114 145; the first adopted in 1785, 
1 14 ; altered at various periods after- 
wards, 115; fixed in 1810, ib.; finally 
settled in 1847, 116; abstract thereof, 
134 

Schoeffer first succeeds in casting metal 
type, ii, 8 

Seals, impressions taken from in very 
remote antiquity, ii, 4 

Secondary accent, its effect, i, 58 

Semicolon, rules for its proper applica- 
tion, i, 132135 

Semivowels, as final letters, i, 11 

Seniences, their nature, i, 93 97, 98 
114; compound, 95, Ii4; how punc- 
tuated, 129 

Seventytwos, method of imposing, ii, 
109 

' Shall* and ' will,' rules for the proper 
employment of, ii, 249 

Sheet, definition of the term, ii, 120 

Shj/ne#t 9 tlyne8S, why so spelt, i, 10 

Side-notes, how char- ed, ii, 123 ; double, 
mode of charging, ii).; best method of 
composing, 230 

Signatures, by whom invented, ii, 18 ; 
where placed, 240 

Signatures and folios, table of, i, 247 ; 
help to the memory respecting, 249 

Signs, mathematical, i, 193; botanical 
and medical, 196 

Singe and tinge, remarks on forming 
the present participle of these words, 
i, 57 n. 

Sion or tion, as terminations of nouns 
substantive, i, 38 

Sixpence, ninepence, &c., i, 52 

Sixteens, meihod of imposing, ii, 8183; 
and smaller sizes, additional charge 
for, 120 

Sixtyfours, method of imposing, ii, 
107-8 : how charged, 120 

Skill, manipulatory, only to be ao- 



INDEX. 



271 



quired by practice and perseverance, 

ii, 28 
Slips, works sent out in, how charged, 

ii, 132 
Slyly, an incorrect mode of spelling 

the word, i, 10 
Small-sized folios, &c.,how charged, ii, 

119 

Soph-parak, its use explained, ii, 166 
Spaces, between words, not anciently 

used, i, 174 
Spacing, instructions respecting, ii, 

43 

Spoonful, directions for forming the 
plural of this and similar words, i, 28 
Ss, ought to displace single s at the end 
of many words, i, 13; remains be- 
fore affixes of every kind, 66 11. 
Stereotype, invented by W.Ged, a gold- 
smith of Edinburgh, ii, 26; unsuc- 
cessful in his endeavors to establish 
it, ib. ; rediscovered by Mr. Tilloch, 
ib. 
Stereotyped matter, how charged, ii, 

118 
Style, old and new, what they are, i, 

188 

Subject of a proposition, explanation 
of the term, i, 93 ; when three or 
more follow in succession, how 
pointed, 120 

Substantives, sometimes become adjec- 
tives, i, 72 c.t seqq. ; &c., in pairs, 
not parted by a comma, 126 
Succeed, precede, &c., i, 32 
Sunday papers, wages on, ii, 135 
Superior letters and figures, sometimes 

used as reference-marks, i, 167 
Supernumeraries on newspapers, ii, 59 
Sureties, to be given by newspaper 
printers, ii, 260 ; may withdraw from 
their recognizances, 261 
Syllabication, i, 81 89 ; practice of 

English printers respecting, 81 
Symbols, miscellaneous, used in print- 
ing, i, 172; astronomical, algebraical 
mathematical, botanical, medical 
&c., 184-198 

Syriac, observations on the alphabet 
ii, 174 et seq. 



T. 

y, the letter, frequently interposed be 
tween words in French, i, 61 n. 

Table of prices of letters, from 10,00 
to 50,000, ii, 146-7 

Tables, the various columns of, shoul 
be set in a distinct measure, ii, 236 



'abular and Table-work, definition of 

and charge for, ii, 129 
Baking copy, observations thereon, ii, 
50 

"ale and talk, remark on, i, 19 n. 

'an win, its effect when over a letter, 
ii, 181 

'ashdid, its properties explained, ii, 
181 

^erminations of words, the changes 
which they undergo, i, 55, &c. 

Tit and the, words ending in, i, 8 

1'heater, more consistent with analogy 
than theatre, i, 7, 39 

?hirtytwos, method of imposing, ii ? 
97100 ; how charged, 120 

rhirtysixes, method of imposing, ii, 101 
103 

Thought, what constitutes one, i, 92 
94 

Three pence entitles to six pence charge. 

ii, 117 

Tilde, the, its meaning explained, i, 
172 

Time, and its divisions, i, 187 

Cities, honorary, rules for capitalling, 
i, 176 

Titles of books, all important words in 
are begun with a capital, i, 181 ; 
how best set put, 182; double com- 
mas ugly in, ib. 

Title-pages, require taste and judge- 
ment in their display, ii, 232 

Trafficking, phu fticking, &c., reasons 
for retention of the letter k, i, 21 

Tranquilize, preferable to tranquillize, 
i,65 

Twelves, method of imposing, ii, 75 
81 

Twenties, method of imposing, ii, 90 

Twentyfours, method of imposing, ii, 
9196 

Two-line letters, specimens and descrip- 
tions of various, ii, 33 

Type, at first wooden, then of pewter, 
c., ii, 7 ; metal, first cast by Peter 
Schoeffer, 8; Roman, first cut by 
Jenson of Venice, 1 1 ; Italic, invented, 
by Aldus, ib. ; Greek and Hebrew, at 
Mentz, ib.', various sizes thereof ex- 
plained, 29 33; table of relative 
sizes thereof, 34; ornamental, speci- 
mens of various, 35 38 ; on the mod* 
of picking up, 42 

Type-casting machines, of Nicholson, 
Church, and Pouchee, ii, 26 

Typefounders, the Dutch for a long 
while the principal, ii, 25 

Typography, definition of the term, ii, 
3; practised, in some form, in the 



272 



INDEX. 



most remote antiquity, ib. (see 
Printing) 

Tyro, the, what ought to be his ac- 
quirements, ii, 39 ; advice to, on 
various subjects, 41 et seq. 



U. 

Under-runners, explanation of the 

term, ii, 231 
Upsilon, in Greek, is rendered by y in 

English words, ii, 247 



V. 

Verb, the essential word in a sentence, 
i, 94; no affirmation can be made 
without, ib. ; none in French has 
two direct complements, 109 n. 

Verbs, their action conveyed to a re- 
mote objec; by means of prepositions, 
i, 106 ; seldom followed by two pre- 
positions with their cases, without 
the intervention of a comma, 107 ; 
no two can enter in to one affirmation, 
if independent, 125, &c. 

Vowel-sound, no pure can begin a 
syllable, i, 82 

Vowels, their number and nature, i, 5 ; 
Hebrew, ii, 165; Syriac, 175; Persi- 
Arabic,180 

Vying, more correct than vyeing, i, 8 



W. 

Wages, weekly, the earliest mode of 
payment, ii, 114; establishment, 133 

Wasla, cancels alif, ii, 181 

Webster, Dr., his rule respecting final 
fc, i, 20 

Westminster Abbey, printing first prac- 
tised in, in England, ii, 12, 20 



Wherever, incorrect in spelling, i, 56 n. 

White lines, should be uniform, and 
set in quadrats, ii, 24 

Wholely, observations on the word, i. 
53 

Willis, Dr., his opinion regarding the 
first printer, ii, 6 

Woodcuts, how paid for under certain 
circumstances, ii, 133 

Words, connecting, effect of their omis- 
sion, in punctuation, i, 115; of the 
same part of speech, how pointed, 
127; in opposition to each other, how 
pointed, 129; English, proportion 
which they bear to the various sizes 
of type, ii, 225 

TFbr<s'/iipm<7,preferable to worshipping, 
i, 58 

Wrappers, how charged, ii, 130 

Wynkyn de Worde, succeeds Caxton, ii, 
24 



Y. 

r, the letter, its various character, i, 
9 ; changed into i before all vowel 
additions except i, 10 ; as also before 
most consonants, ib. ; preceded by a 
vowel, remains unchanged before all 
terminations, ib. 

Year, the, of different nations, i, 187; 
Roman, &c., 188; of the Church of 
Rome, 189 



Z. 

Zabar, or fatha, how pronounced, ii, 

180 

Zanssen, the proper name of Coster, ii, 7 
Zer, or kasra, explanation of the term, 

ii, 180 
Zink, better orthography than zinc, i, 

19 n. 



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