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Full text of "The guitar and mandolin : biographies of celebrated players and composers for these instruments"

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THE GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 




$Lutyl^t<r7UL 



THE 

GUITAR &- MANDOLIN 

Bfoarapbtes of Celebrate© UMasers ant) 
Composers for tbese instruments 



BY 



PHILIP J. BONE 

{Medallist, of the Royal Society of Arts, London). 




LONDON : 

SCHOTT & Co., also at Mayence, Leipzig, and Bruxelles, 

amalgamated with 

AUGENER, Ltd., 63, Conduit Street, W. 

MCMXIV. 

[All rights reserved.] 



DEDICATION. 



To the noble band of enthusiasts, of all nationalities, who 
are ever striving for the advancement of their beloved 
instruments — the guitar and mandolin — are these pages 
devotedly inscribed by the author. 



Murfe 
Library 



_ '1'tiK LJUKAKY 

KNlVERSriT OF CALIFORNIA 
LOS ANGELES 






3<H 



J 



AUTHOR'S NOTE. 



IT is customary for a certain section of the English 
musical public to deride and disparage the guitar and 
mandolin, speaking with loud authority as to their novelty 
and unmusical qualities. To such, power is ofttimes 
regarded as perfection in the musical art, and the delicate 
charms and nuances of the still small voices therefore 
possess no attraction, no beauty. It may be that these 
persons are unacquainted with the true capabilities and 
character of the instruments ;_ for it is admitted that the 
guitar and mandolin are seldom studied seriously, or even 
heard to advantage, in this country. 

These biographies, undertaken at the earnest suggestion 
of the late Dr. John Farmer, M.A., Bahol College, Oxford, 
were commenced to ascertain to what extent the greatest 
musicians had employed the guitar and mandolin. The 
research once begun, a revelation of the early and honourable 
position of these instruments dawned, unfolding facts hitherto 
undreamed of, and culminating in the present volume. 

That Mozart, Handel, Beethoven, and other of the 
immortal masters, should esteem the guitar and mandolin 
worthy of expressing their noblest inspirations, is sufficient 
proof of the musical value of these instruments. 

Several of the first of these biographies appeared in a 
musical periodical, and such numerous requests for the 



er «7 - 

uusir. 



complete compilation were received from readers in various 
parts of the globe, that it was decided to issue thus. This 
volume, the research of one person, cannot record all the 
celebrated composers and players of these instruments ; but 
being the first work devoted to this subject, it is hoped others 
more able will continue the research, and thus bring honour 
to the instruments. 

No living composers or players are recorded, to dis- 
criminate would be too difficult a task ; time alone must 
judge of these. Nor are the well-known particulars of the 
lives of the immortal masters reiterated, or their portraits 
reproduced ; but only those interesting facts concerning their 
association with the guitar and mandolin, which patient 
research has brought to light, and which have not been 
published heretofore, being unknown, omitted, or ignored by 
modern musical dictionaries. 

To my esteemed friend and pupil, Mr. A. J. Maskell, I 
gratefully acknowledge my indebtedness for generous and 
enthusiastic assistance in the actual production of this 
volume ; and if the work should be the means of attracting 
strangers to the subtle charms of the guitar and mandolin, 
should encourage, or stimulate present devotees, then my 
years of pleasant labour will not have been in vain. 

PHILIP J. BONE. 



New Bedford Road, 

Luton. September, 1914. 



PORTRAITS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 





facing page 


Aguado; D. 


10 


ARMANlrtl, P. 


17 


Bayer, E, 


33 


Beethoven's Mandolin ... 


26 


Bellenghi, G. ... 


33 


Berlioz, H. 


36 


Berlioz's Guitar 


40 


Bertucci, C. 


310 


Bortolazzi, B. ... 


51 


Bracco, C. A. 


55 


Brand, F. 


56 


-■Garcassi, M. 


63 


\Carulli, F. 


67 


Carulli's Guitar and Manuscript 


7i 


Coste's Guitar 


78 


Cristofaro, F. de 


80 


Darr, A. 


82 


Ellis, H. J. 


96 


Eulenstein, C. 


100 


Ferranti, M..A. Z. de 


106 


^Giuliani, M. 


124 


Gopfert, C. A. ... 


132 


G6tz,A. J. 


134 


Gounod's Guitar _, 


136 


Hucke, G. H. ...' 


152 


Huerta, Don A. F. 


154 


Hummel, J. N. ... 


160 


Janon, C. de 


162 


Korner, T. 


168 


Kuffner, J. 


172 


Lebedeff, V. P. 


176 


Legnani Labels 


178 


Lenau's Guitar 


182 


Mayseder, J. x ... 


196 


Munier, C. 


220 


'Paganini, N. 


228 


Paganini's Guitar 


40 


Pelzer, F. 


240 


Pelzer, C. 


244 


Regondi, G. 


250 



FACING PAGE. 

Romero, L. T. ... ... ... ... 256 

Schubert's Guitars ... ... ... ••• 268 

Shelley's Guitar ... ... ... ... 272 

Sokolowski, M. D. ... ... ... ••• 276 

Sor, F - 282 

Tarrega, F. ... ... ... ••• 294 

Vailati, G. ... ••• ■•• ••• ••• 296 

VlNACCIA, P. ... ... ••• ••• ••• 220 

Weber, C. von ... ... ... ■•• ••• 3°° 

Wyssotzki, M. T. ... -• ••• ••■ 3°8 



MUSIC. 



Original compositions for the guitar or mandolin. 



PAGE. 

Beethoven, L. van ••• 28, 29. 30, 3L 32. 

Carulli, F. ... ... ••• •■• 7 1 

Gretry, A. E. M. ... ... ••■ ••• J 39 

Handel, G. F H3- H4 

Hummel, J.N ■•• 1 57, 159, 3" 

Korner,T ••• l6 7 

Marschner, H. ... ... ••• •■• ••• J 9 2 

Mozart, W. A 215,216,217 

Paganini, N. ... ••• ••• -232,233 

Paisiello, G. ... ... ••• ••• ••• 2 37 

Salieri, A. ••• ■•■ ••• ••• ••• 26 ° 

Spohr,L 289,290 

Weber, C. M. von ... ••• ••• ••• 3°3- 3°4 




THE 

GUITAR AND MANDOLIN 

Celebrated Players and Composers. 



A BREU, Don A., a Portuguese musician and guitarist who lived 
during the latter half of the eighteenth century. He was a 
professor of the guitar and published a method for his instrument in 
1799 under the title of Escnela para tocar con perfection la 
qtiitarra de cinco o seis cordenes por Don. A. Abreu bien conscido 
por el Portuguez (Method for playing perfectly the guitar, with five 
Dr six strings by Sir A. Abreu the well-known Portuguese). At this 
period an innovation had just been made in the stringing of the 
guitar by adding the lowest bass E ; previously the guitar possessed 
JDut five single strings or five doubles tuned in pairs. A copy of 
Abreu's tutor which consisted of about sixty folio pages was exhibited 
in the Music Exhibition of Vienna in 1892. 

Aguado, Dionisio, one of the most celebrated guitarists, was born 
in Madrid, April 8, 1784, and died in that city December 20, 1849. 
He was the son of a notary of the ecclesiastic vicar of Madrid, and 
while very young showed a strong prediliction for music. His first 
musical education was acquired at a college in Madrid, where a 
monk taught him the elements of music and the guitar. But, like 
his countryman and fellow-guitarist, Don Huerta, it was to Manuel 
Garcia, the renowned singer, that he was indebted for a thorough 
knowledge of the resources of the instrument. At this time Garcia 
was unknown beyond Spain, his native land. On the death of his 
father in 1803, Aguado inherited a small estate in the village of 
Fuenlabrada, near Aranjuez, where he retired with his mother 
during the invasion of the French army. Here he devoted 
himself exclusively to the further study of the guitar and de- 
veloped the system of fingering and harmonic effects which were 
afterwards given to the public in his Method, which was published 
in Madrid in 1825. Aguado had previously published several 
volumes of studies for the guitar and after peace was proclaimed he 
returned with his mother to Madrid ; but in 1824 she died and the 
next year he visited Paris, where he had already made himself 
famous by his compositions. It was while residing in Paris that a 
second Spanish edition of his Method, revised and enlarged, was 
issued, which was translated into French by F. de Fossa and 



10 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

published by Richault, Paris, 1827. A third edition of this 
valuable work appeared in Madrid' in 1843, being published b> 
D. Berito Campo. He resided in Paris from 1835 to 1838 and by 
his charming personality and talents made many friends and associ- 
ated with the most eminent artists of the time. It was in Paris he 
met his countryman, the virtuoso, Ferdinando Sor, for whom he 
formed a lasting friendship. Toward the end of 1838 Aguado had a 
strong desire to return to his native land, he quitted Paris that 
year for Madrid, where he lived till his death, in 1849, at the age of 
sixty-five. His Method for the guitar is an excellent one, it is pro- 
gressive and shows great care and appreciation of the difficulties to 
be encountered by the pupil and is concluded by a short treatise on 
harmony as applied to the guitar. Aguado and Sor, although of the 
same nationality and period, represent totally different schools of 
guitar playing and their styles of execution are very dissimilar. 
Aguado had been taught to make note after note, and scale after 
scale with extraordinary velocity. His first teacher played with 
his nails and shone at a period when rapid passages alone were re- 
quired of the instrument, when the primary object was to dazzle and 
astonish. Aguado, however, was an inborn musician, and from the 
time he began to act without any other guide than his own exquisite 
taste and understanding he inclined as much as he could toward a 
style as musical as that of any of the most renowned guitarists. 
Strange to relate, he performed with his nails, and so far as is known 
he was the only artist who ever used this style of playing, producing; 
a soft, clear, thin tone. He did not, however, strike the strings with 
the back of his nails, although that was then and still is the customary 
Spanish style. After meeting Sor and hearing him play and produce 
the full, round and powerful tones for which he was so celebrated 
Aguado said that he had a new study to commence, and he confessed 
in his later years to Sor that he much regretted ever having used his 
nails. He also added that he was beyond the time of life in which 
he could overcome the inflexibility of the fingers of his right hand ; 
but that were he allowed to commence again he should certainly 
adopt Sor's method. Aguado was an intimate friend and great 
admirer of Sor, and in his Method mentions him many times in terms 
of praise and friendship. They were so intimate that Sor composed 
a duet for two guitars for Aguado and himself and entitled it Les 
deux amis. Sor, writing of this composition says : ' My duo in A 
Major Les deux amis is extremely easy in comparison with the 
works of other professors who have the reputation of writing easy 
music. The part of M. Aguado only has a very rapid variation but 
it is in single notes and in the style most known. My part is the 
least complicated of what I have hitherto done. My object was to 
produce the best effect at smallest expense." Speaking of Aguado, 
Sor says : " It is necessary that the performance of M. Aguado 
should have so many excellent qualities as it possesses, to excuse his 
employment of the nails. He himself would have condemned the use 




DlONlSl< » AGI \l>< >. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 11 

of them if he had not attained such a degree of agility nor found 
himself beyond the time of life in which we are able to contend 
against the bend of the fingers acquired by a long habitude. His 
master played with the nails and shone at a period when rapid 
passages alone were required of the guitar, when the only object in 
view was to dazzle and astonish. A guitarist was then a stranger to 
all other music besides that for the guitar. He called the quartet- 
church music — and it was from such a master that M. Aguado received 
all the principles which have directed the mechanism of his play. 
But he felt good music himself, and from the time when he began 
to act without any other guide than his own exquisite taste and his 
own understanding, he inclined, as much as he could towards a more 
musical style than that of other guitarists. M. Aguado had justice 
done him; he acquired a certain celebrity, which his excessive modesty 
induced him to think of very little importance. It was at that time 
that I became acquainted with him. He no sooner heard some of 
my pieces than he studied them and even asked my opinion of his 
playing ; but too young myself to think of openly blaming the way 
of teaching a master of his reputation, I but slightly pointed out 
the inconvenience of the nails, especially as my music was then far 
less removed from the fingering of guitarists in general than it is at 
present, and by taking a little more pains he succeeded in playing 
all the notes very distinctly and if the nails did not allow him to give 
the same expression as I did, he gave one peculiar to himself, which 
injured nothing. It was only after many years that we met again 
and he then confessed to me that if he were to begin again he would 
play without using the nails. I cannot do better than refer any 
guitarist who wishes to play detached notes with rapidity and in 
difficult passages to M. Aguado's method, who, excelling in this kind 
of execution is prepared to establish the best rules respecting it." 
Aguado was the inventor of the " tripod " or " tripodion," a three-legged 
stand with a wooden flap attached, after the manner of a table. 
While playing, he sat or stood and rested his guitar upon this table. 
It was claimed by this invention that the volume of tone of the guitar 
was greatly increased and that the performer could give all his power 
to execution by relieving him of the necessity of holding the guitar. 
Sor evidently had good opinions of the usefulness of this article, for 
he advises its use in his Method. Sor also composed a Fantasie 
Elegiaque Op. 59 — a work of great merit and difficulty — which was 
written to be played on the guitar held in position by the "tripodion." 
Ol this fantasie Sor says: " Without the excellent invention of my 
friend, Denis Aguado, I would never have dared to impose on the 
guitar so great a task as that of making it produce the effects re- 
quired by the nature of this new piece. I would never have imagined 
that the guitar could produce at the same time the different qualities 
of tone— of the treble — of the bass, and harmonical complement 
n luired in a piece of this character, and without great difficulty, 
being within the scope of the instrument." In the execution of this 



12 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

composition great clearness, taste, and the power of singing on the 
instrument are required. The portrait of Aguado playing his guitar 
on the "tripodion" is now very scarce and is here reproduced. He 
was a thorough musician, as his published compositions prove, and 
his three Rondos brilliants — really sonatas — are gems of beauty for 
the guitar. Op. 1,3,4,7,8,9,11,12,13,14 are minuets, waltzes, etc., for 
guitar solo, published by D. Berito Campo, Madrid ; Le menuet 
afandangado, Op. 15 ; Le fandango, Spanish dance, Op. 16, 
same publisher; Three rondos brilliants, Op. 2; Collection of six 
studies for guitar, published in 1820, Madrid; Grand method fori 
the guitar, Op. 5 ; and New method for guitar, with an appendix, 
published in 1843 by D. Berito Campo, Madrid. Several of Aguado's 
works are also published by Messrs. Schott, London. 

Aibl, Joseph, a teacher of the guitar and virtuoso who lived in 
Vienna and also in Munich during the commencement of the nine- 
teenth century. He published many of his own compositions for 
the guitar and also those of his contemporary Diabelli, and thus laid 
the foundations of the old-established music publishing firm of Jos. 
Aibl. The following are the most popular of his works: Op. 1, 
Rondo in C ; Op. 2 Twelve landler ; Op. 3, Rondo in G ; and Airs 
de ballet, all for guitar solo. 

Aichelburg, a mandolin virtuoso and composer who lived at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century in Vienna and there wrote Op. 1, 
Potpourri for mandolin {or violin) and guitar. Op. 2, Variations 
for mandolin and guitar. Op. 3, Nocturne concertantes for 
mandolin and guitar and Op. 4, Variations concertantes for 
mandolin and guitar. The above compositions were published by 
Haslinger, Vienna. 

Aimon, Pamphile Leopold Francois, was a French musican who 
was born October 14, 1779, at L'Isle Vaucluse, and died in Paris, 
February 2, 1866. He was a skilful guitarist, violinist, and a 
dramatic composer. His father, Esprit Aimon, was 'cellist in the 
service of Count de Rantzau, minister of Denmark, and he gave his 
son his first musical instruction. From a very early age he gave 
evidence of exceptional musical ability, and when a lad he distin- 
guished himself by his masterly performances upon the violin and 
guitar. At the age of seventeen he was appointed conductor of the 
orchestra of Marseilles theatre, and while in that position he com- 
posed numerous quartets for stringed instruments, and also duos for 
violin and guitar and violin and 'cello, which were published in 
Marseilles and also by Janet of Paris. His employment at the 
theatre gave him the opportunity of studying the dramatic art, and 
in 1817 he left Marseilles and took up his residence in Paris as a 
dramatic composer. His opera Jeux Floraux, in three acts, words 
by Bouilly, was performed at the Royal Academy of Music in the 
beginning of the year 1818, and another representation was accorded 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 13 

it in the month of November of the same year. Encouraged by this 
success he produced many other works for the French theatres, 
which enjoyed popularity, and in 1821 he had attained a considerable 
reputation among contemporary musicians for his original and music- 
ianly compositions, the most noteworthy of which are Velleda, a 
grand opera in five acts; Abugar, in three acts; Alcide and OmpJiale, 
Les Chenisques, Les Sybarites, and Les deux Figaros, the latter 
being written for the Opera Comique. Aimon was an industrious 
omposer, and at the beginning of the nineteenth century his works 
were highly esteemed. His numerous quintets, quartets and trios 
for stringed instruments are characterized by a peculiarly happy vein 
of melody, and were in accordance with the taste of the day. He 
has left behind numerous solos and duos for 'cellos, and also duets 
fur violin and guitar, three books of which, being Op. 15, were pub- 
lished by Gaveaux, Paris. Aimon is also known as the author of 
several theoretical volumes appertaining to the science of harmony 
and the elements and theory of music. 

In 1821 he was conductor of the orchestra of the Gymnase 
Dramatique in Paris and upon the retirement of Baudron in the 
following year, he succeeded him as conductor of the orchestra of 
the Theatre Francaise. Of Aimon's seven operas the most popular 
werejeux Floraux, produced in 1818, and Michel et Christine, in 
1821, the latter with immense success. Among his theoretical 
works is a treatise entitled : Connaissances preliminaries de 
UHarmonie. 

Albaneze, born in the village of Albano in Apulia, southern Italy, 
in 1729 and died in Paris 1800. He received his musical education 
in the Conservatorie of Naples and when eighteen years of age 
commenced to tour as a guitarist, arriving in Paris the same year 
and was there engaged as musican in the King's Chapel. He is the 
author of three volumes of songs with accompaniments for guitar 
and violin, which were published in Paris, 

Albrechtsberger, born February 3, 1736, at Klosternenburg, 

-spear Vienna, and died in Vienna, March 7, 1809. His fame to 

ivfl posterity is due to a great extent to the fact that he was the teacher 

of Beethoven. He was an organist, composer and teacher 

of church music, and commenced his musical career as a 

he chorister in his native town and at Melk. At the latter place his 

singing attracted the notice of the Emperor Joseph, at that time crown 

prince, and on a later occasion, the Emperor passing through Melk, 

renewed the acquaintance and invited him to apply for the post of 

Court Organist on the first vacancy. Meantime Albrechtsberger 

continued his musical studies and after serving as organist locally 

for many years, he received the appointment of Court Organist of 

St. Stephen's, Vienna in the year 1772, and at once commenced his 

new vocation as teacher. Among his numerous pupils there were 

many whose after-reputation became world-wide — the most cele- 



14 GUITAR AND MANI>m IN. 

brated of these were Beethoven, Hummel and Seigfried. The kite 
is the author of a biography of Albrechtsberger and he enumerates 
a list of his compositions, in all two hundred and sixty-one, of which 
only twenty-seven are printed. The greater number of the manu- 
scripts remain in the possession of Prince Esterhazy Galantha- 
Albrechtsberger's finest composition is a Te Deum, which was not 
performed till after his death. His most important work, however, 
is a theoretical treatise on harmony, composition and thorough-bass, 
which was published in Leipzig in 1790. Albrechtsberger is the 
author of a Concerto for the mandola, Op. 27, a composition which 
deserves attention on the part of modern performers on this instrument 

Alday, a family of French musicians of repute. The father was 
born at Perpignan, France, in 1737, and was a mandolin player of 
rare ability. The elder of his two sons born 1763, was also aj 
mandolinist, receiving his instruction from his father, and he appeared 
at the Concerts Spirituels, Paris, with marked success as a mando- 
lin virtuoso. He was compelled, however, to turn his attention to 
the violin, as there was so little demand for a mandolinist, and he 
appeared at the Concerts Spirituels a second time as violin soloist. 
His works are numerous, but his compositions for the mandolin are 
rarely met with. He is the author of a method for the violin, which 
was published by Ricordi, Milan, and ran through many editions. 

Allix, a French musician, mechanic and inventor, who lived during 
the middle of the seventeenth century at Aix, Provence, France.' 
He constructed an automatic model, which, when set in motion,! 
imitated the tone of the guitar. Bonnet, in his history of music, 
gives the tragic end of this artist. Allix placed in the hands of his 
model, a guitar tuned in unison with one which he himself held 
The fingers of the model were placed in position on the fingerboard 
the windows opened, and Allix then seated himself in a corner of the 
room and played some passages on his guitar, which the mode! I 
repeated on its instrument. There is reason to believe that thel 
guitar held by the figure was set in vibration by the air after the 
manner of the a^olian harp, and that the machine which caused the 
fingers to move had no connection whatever with the production olj 
the tone. This strange playing caused the superstitious people of 
Aix to accuse Allix of witchcraft, and he was committed to take 
his trial as a wizard. He was judged by the Chamber of the Tournelle, 
but he could not convince them that his work was a machine, and 
he was therefore condemned to be hanged and burnt in a public place 
with his model, as being the accomplice of his sorceries. Thi 
sentence was executed in 1664 to the great satisfaction of the people 
of Aix, and thus perished a genius born before his time. 

Ambrosche, Joseph Charles, a celebrated vocalist, guitarist and 
composer, born at Crumau, Bohemia, in 1759, and died in Berlin. 
September 8, 1822. He received his musical education in Prague 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 15 

under Kozeluch, and then removed to Berlin, where for a period he 
was leading tenor in the National Theatre of that city. He was 
also a guitarist and composer for the guitar, and among his published 
works we find Op. 5 Romance des Pagen aus Figaros Hochzeit 
for guitar which was published in 1800. 

Amelia, Anna, Duchess of Saxony, born 1739, died 1807, dis- 
played great interest in the guitar, and was also a clever performer 
and an enthusiastic admirer of the instrument. Through her 
instrumentality, the guitar was introduced and established in Germany 
in 1788, and she also composed several works for guitar solo. 
The guitar at this period had but five strings ; but Jacob Otto, a 
skilful musical instrument maker to the Court, and also the author 
of the celebrated treatise on the construction of the violin, was com- 
missioned by Naumann, first musician to the Court of Saxony, to 
add an extra bass string, and from this time guitars were made with 
six strings. Otto also substituted a covered fourth string in the place 
of the then very stout gut string. For the first ten years after its 
introduction into Germany, Otto and his sons were the only guitar 
makers — the instruments used previously were principally imported 
from Italy and Spain. 

JAmon, Johann Andreas, was a German musician, a skilful guit- 
arist and composer of some renown. He was born at Bamberg, 
Bavaria, in 1763, and died at Wallerstein, in Bavaria, March 29, 
1825. He received singing lessons from Mile. Fracasini when he 
was a child and as such was a chorister in his native town. During 
this period he was also studying the guitar and the violin under 
Bauerle, a musician of local repute. Young Amon had the mis- 
fortune to lose his voice at a very early age and his parents then 
desired him to study the horn. He was placed under Giovanni 
I 'unto, one of the most celebrated masters of this instrument, and he 
obtained extraordinary skill upon it. 

Previous to 1781 he had visited England as a horn player and in 
that year, when eighteen years of age, he went with his teacher 
Punto to Paris and continued his studies in composition under 
Sacchini. Amon remained in Paris, as a pupil of Sacchini, for the 
space of two years and then toured with his former teacher, Punto. 
They travelled through Prance and appeared as horn duetists with 
success, and in 1784 arrived in Strasburg. He accepted an engage- 
ment in Strasburg and remained in that city for some time and then 
undertook another but more extended tour, which included all the 
important towns of eastern Europe. Anion's excellent playing both 
of the horn and guitar brought him before the notice of Haydn, 
Mozart, and other worthies and in Ins concerl travels he be< 

I with many other musicians and his appearance with them 

, in publi< added considerably to his reputation. In L789 his health 

i that he was compelled to relinquish the playing of the horn 

J and he then devoted himself to teaching the guitar and piano. The 



16 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN, 

same year he was engaged as musical director at Heilbronn and in 
1817 he received the appointment of Kapellmeister to the Prince of 
Oettingen, Wallerstein, and remained in that position till his death 
in 1825. As a teacher of the guitar and piano he was very populai 
and the number of celebrated pupils he trained was considerable. 
At the time of his death he was completing a requiem and mass, and 
the former composition was performed by the members of the Royal 
Chapel at his funeral obsequies. He was mourned by a daughter 
and four sons, one of the latter, Ernest, having also published com- 
positions for the flute and orchestra. 

Anion was a very prolific composer and his published works 
embrace all classes of music. He was the writer of two operas, one 
of which, The Sultan Wampou, performed in 1791, obtained marked 
success, and also numerous symphonies, quartets, concertos and solos 
for the guitar and piano, and songs with guitar accompaniment. 
Upon his early compositions he styles himself " pupil of Punto." 
His vocal works with guitar accompaniment were very popular in 
his native land and he published many volumes, each containing six 
of these interesting songs. Op. 26, 32, 36, 38, 41, 43, 51, 53, 54, 62, 
64 and 89 are these collections published with guitar accompaniments 
and ofttimes flute obligato in addition. They are to be found in the 
catalogues of Gombart, Augsburg; Andre, Offenbach; Simrock, Bonn; 
and Schott, Mayence. The instrumental publications of interest to 
guitarists are Op. 46, a Divertisement for guitar, alto and 'cello in C ; 
Andre, Offenbach ; Three sonatas for guitar and piano, Op. 69 ; 
Six waltzes for guitar and piano, Op. 52, published in 1810 ; Six 
waltzes for guitar and piano, Op. 65 ; Three serenades for guitar 
and piano, Op. 123; and many volumes of useful guitar studies and 
duos with piano. The music of Anion is in use in Germany at the 
present time; but we are not aware that any of it has been publicly 
performed out of his native land. His instrumental works are im- 
measurably superior to his vocal compositions and are compactly 
and clearly designed. 

Anelli, Joseph, an Italian guitarist, vocalist and composer of 
merit, who was born in Turin at the commencement of the nineteenth 
century. He was a very successful teacher and performer in his 
native city, and was appointed guitarist to Her Royal Highness 
Princess Paoline Borgese. His services as guitar virtuoso were in 
frequent demand at all the most fashionable and brilliant concerts 
and serenades of Turin. He visited England, and remained in 
London for a period, but eventually settled in Clifton, Bath, as a 
guitar virtuoso and teacher. As a teacher of the vocal art, he was 
also very popular and highly esteemed. His concerts given in the 
west of England, where he appeared as vocalist and guitarist, were 
patronised by persons of highest rank and musicians of renown. Anelli 
was a prolific composer, both vocal and instrumental, and his publica- 
tions includeapleasing guitar solo entitled: Thetriumpli of the guitar, 




PIETRO ARM'AXIM. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 17 

based on a theme from Bellini's opera Norma. This composition 
the author frequently performed in public, and it was rendered by 
him on November 27, 1837, in the Royal Gloucester Rooms, Clifton, 
when he was accorded quite an ovation. At the same recital, Anelli, 
in order as be stated, to prove the guitar capable of great wealth of 
harmony, and an instrument admirably adapted to accompany the 
voice with regularity and particularly delicate and touching effects 
belonging to no other instrument whatever, played the overture and 
the first and second acts with the recitatives of Rossini's opera The 
Barber of Seville. This was arranged by Anelli as a comic cantata 
for three voices with full accompaniment for the Spanish guitar as 
directed by Rossini in his original score, comparatively producing 
the effect of an orchestra, and elicited general admiration for the 
arrangement and performance and accompaniment of the guitar as 
a leading instrument. The musical journals of this period speak in 
praise of Anelli's guitar playing, and he is also eulogised in The 
Hermit in Italy and The Musical World. Anelli is the author of 
eight different treatises and studies on singing, a New method for 
the guitar, and a History of the guitar, published by Somerton, 
Bristol, also many articles written for the musical journals of his day 
on the guitar and its music. He published about three hundred 
songs with guitar accompaniment, about twenty terzets and quartets 
with guitar, also First concerto for guitar and orchestra in A; 
Second concerto for guitar and orchestra in G. Two overtures for 
guitar solo, sonatas for flute and guitar and two duos for guitars, 
thirty guitar solos consisting of variations, and there are many 
of his manuscripts unpublished. 

Araciel, Don Diego, a Spaniard who lived during the eighteenth 
century in the province of Estremadura. While a youth he studied 
the guitar and violin for a time alone, and showing marked ability, 
his parents placed him under a local teacher, who also instructed 
him in harmony and counterpoint. Among his published com- 
positions, we find Op. 48 being valses for the violin with accompani- 
ment of guitar. Three trios for violin, viola and guitar, and also 
vocal studies, all published by Ricordi, Milan. 

Armanini, or Axminini, Pietro, an Italian mandolin virtuoso, who 

was born in 1844, and died September 8, 1S95, at Bordeaux, 

He was one of the most famous exponents of the Milanese 

mandolin, lie is recorded as having been a professor at La S< ala, 

Milan, and was the first to bring his instrument seriously befort 

>h publii . 1 le made many continental music tours, appi 
with at the principal halls and theatres, but he did nol 

realize his ambition of making the instrument popular. The lasl 
he performed in London was in 1895. The journals of the 
time stated that his cadenzas and improvisations were little 
of marvellous, and he was undoubtedly a maestro of the veryhig 
order"- "an artist without an equal as an executant, he had no 



18 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

rival, and probably will have no successor, his scale passages, part 
playing, pizzicato, double stopping with left hand, and marvellous 
rapidity proclaimed him the Paganini of the mandolin." In 1895 
he bad retired from public life and was living at Bordeaux, in which 
year he was stricken by an illness from which he never recovered. 
1 [e was the author of an excellent treatise on the Milanese mandolin, 
and his sons and daughters were also excellent performers, one being 
u professor of the mandolin at the Academic International de 
Musique, Paris. His portrait is from an original photograph kindly 
lent by Richard Harrison, Esq. 

Arnold, Johann Gottfried, a talented German composer and a 
renowned performer on the 'cello and guitar, was born February 15, 
1773, at Niedernhall, near Oehringen, in Wurtemberg (a town near 
to Forchtenburg, where the 'cellist Willmann was born). He 
died of consumption July 26, 1806, in the middle of his career at 
the premature age of thirty-three, while residing in Frankfort. 
Arnold was the son of the schoolmaster of his native town, and he 
received his first musical instruction from his father. During his 
earliest childhood, when but six years of age, he displayed a remark- 
able passion and aptitude for music, and when he had attained his 
twelfth year his father apprenticed him to the musical director or 
Stadtmusikus of the neighbouring town of Kunzelsau, where he 
studied for five years. The guitar had been his favourite instrument, 
and at a later period he had adopted the 'cello in addition, and when 
he Avas eight years of age his performances on both instruments had 
attracted the attention of a large circle of musical amateurs. During 
his term of apprenticeship he devoted himself to the practice of the 
same two instruments, and under the influence of a most exacting 
master he worked with such diligence as to prematurely injure his 
health ; it is said that be practised extremely hard, devoting eight to 
ten hours daily. He received but little instruction during this 
period, and all he accomplished on the instruments was due to his 
own powers of observation and the enforced severity of his practice. 
In 1789 this term of apprenticeship was completed, and in March 
of the following year he obtained his first regular engagement at 
Wertheim, on the Lauber, where his uncle, Friedrich Adam Arnold, 
was established as musical director. Young Arnold still continued 
the study of the instruments and also took lessons in harmony from 
an organist named Frankenstein. In April, 1795, he commenced a 
series of concert tours as a violoncellist, visiting Switzerland and 
Germany ; but his efforts in this direction were futile. After this 
failure he renewed his study of the violoncello and travelled to 
Ratisbon with the intention of taking lessons from the 'cellist Will- 
mann. He remained with this master for some time, this being the 
lirst really legitimate instruction he had received on the 'cello. His 
progress was rapid and decided, but after several months of study 
his teacher, Willmann, was called to the position of solo 'cellist in 
the Royal Opera, Vienna, and Arnold was thereupon induced to 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 19 

visit Berlin and Hamburg. In 1796 he had the good fortune to 
hear Bernard Romberg, in Hamburg, whose pupil he became, and 
he derived great benefit from studying this virtuoso's style and 
method. In 1797, through the recommendation of Romberg, Arnold 
became attached to the opera at Frankfort as first 'cellist. While 
in Frankfort he published his first compositions, and he enjoyed a 
great reputation, both as an executant and a teacher of the 'cello 
and guitar. He was regarded in his native land as a remarkable 
virtuoso on both instruments, and a performer who combined a most 
enchanting tone with wonderful technical ability. The career of this 
young and talented musician was speedily terminated, for he died of 
pulmonary disease in 1806. Arnold published in addition to 
numerous other compositions and transcriptions, five concertos for 
'cello, with orchestra, and several concertos for flute, one of which 
is of classical distinction. He is also the author of innumerable 
short and easy pieces for the guitar and many volumes of songs with 
guitar accompaniments. Four of these books, each containing six 
songs, are published by Schott, London. The chief of his com- 
positions for the guitar are twenty-four pieces for guitar solo ; 
numerous marches and dances for guitar ; six duos for guitar and 
flute in three books ; nine waltzes for flute and guitar ; six 
serenades for guitar, flute and alto ; three volumes of waltzes for 
guitar and flute — six waltzes in each volume — and favourite airs for 
two guitars. All the above were published by Schott of London 
and Bohme, Hamburg. 

There are two other musicians of the name of Arnold who have 
published compositions for the guitar. The first of these, 
Friedricii Wilhelm Arnold, a doctor of philosophy, was born 
at Southeim, near Heilbronn, March 10, 1810, and died February 
13, 1864, at Elberfeld. He studied music as a pastime under his 
father. Arnold was destined by his parents to become a theologian, 
and was admitted for that intent in a seminary of Heilbronn. He 
afterwards entered the University of Tubingen, and terminated his 
education after graduating at the University of Fribourg. His 
passion for music now fully asserted itself, and he accepted a 
position in the orchestra of Urury Lane Theatre, London. He 
relinquished this engagement to reside in Elberfeld, where he 
established a business in music and musical instruments and gave 
himself up entirely to writing for the guitar and piano. F. W. 
Arnold has published twelve operatic arrangements for guitar and 
flute or violin by Andre, Offenbach ; two potpourris for guitar and 
Mute by Hofmeister, Leipzig; two books of melodies for flute 
or violin and guitar; Trio for flute, violin and guitar, Op. 7; 
Potpourris for flute or violin and guitar, Op. 13 and 14 ; Six duets 
for two guitars, Op. 15; Cadenzas for guitar solo Op. 16; 
Twelve brilliant and progressive waltzes for guitar, Op. 17; and 
ve waltzes for guitar, Op. 1 all published bj Eck & Co., 
Cologne, and Hofmeister. 



20 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Arnold, Charles, of whose life nothing is known, was the 
author of many interesting pieces for the guitar published in London. 
Four books of melodies, arranged for guitar solo, by Charles Arnold, 
were published by R. Cocks, London. There was a Charles 
Arnold, a musician, pianist and composer, living in St. Petersburg in 
1820. 

Arrevalo, Miguel S., a guitarist of Spanish descent who lived the 
greater part of his life in California, principally in Los Angeles and 
San Francisco. He died in the former city in 1899 or 1900. Arr- 
evalo was the teacher of Romero, he was an excellent performer 
and teacher; but his compositions are few, not more than about a 
dozen being published. 

Asioli, Bonifacio, born April 30, 1769, at Correggio, Italy, died 
May 26, 1832, in his native town. He commenced to study music 
when five years of age, and before he was eight, had composed 
several masses, and a concerto for the piano. When he was 
eighteen, he had composed five masses, twenty-four other works for 
church and theatre, and many instrumental pieces. In 1787 he 
removed to Turin where he resided for nine years and in 1796 he 
accompanied the Duchess Gherardini to Venice, and remained in 
that city until 1799. He was living in Paris in 1810 in the service 
of the Empress Marie Louise, and he remained there till the fall of 
the Empire, when he returned to his native town. Asioli, is the 
author of many theoretical treatises on music, which are published 
by Ricordi, Milan, and also a Trio for mandolin, violin and bass ; a 
Duo for two voices with guitar accompaniment, published by 
Ricordi, Milan, and two methods for the guitar — a Short method, 
published by Ricordi — and a more comprehensive work published by 
B. Girard & Co., of Naples. This latter work contained a diagram 
of the instrument and airs arranged for guitar solo. 

DAILLON, Pierre Joseph, a French musician, who lived in Paris 
towards the end of the eighteenth century. He was a guitar 
virtuoso, composer and musician in the service of the Duke of 
Aiguillon, and is the author of a tutor for his instrument, 
entitled: New method for the guitar, on the systems of the better 
authors, containing the clearest and the easiest method for learn- 
ing to accompany the voice, and to succeed in playing everything 
that is suitable for the instrument. This volume was published 
quarto size in Paris, but did not attain popularity. The author was 
also the director of a music journal, entitled: La muse lyrique, from 
the years 1772 to 1784. This periodical contained numerous com- 
positions and arrangements of Baillon, consisting principally of 
songs with accompaniment of guitar. 

Baillot, Pierie Maria Francois de Sales, born Passy, October 1, 
1771, and died September 15, 1842. He was a very popular 

French violin virtuoso whose playing was distinguished by power 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 21 

and grace, elegant bowing and grandeur of tone. He studied the 
violin under an Italian, Polidori, and also afterwards in Rome under 
a violinist, a pupil of Nardini. Baillot spent many years in Corsica 
and Italy, and for some time was private secretary to a nobleman in 
[the south of France ; but in 1791 he returned to Paris where he was 
appointed a professor in the newly organised Conservatoire. Grove 
[says he was the last representative of the great classical Paris school 
of violin playing, as after him the influence of Paganini's style be- 
came paramount in France. He is the author of several violin 
concertos, airs with variations, duos, etc., and there are also published 
|two of his works with guitar. Op. 33, Air taut is for violin with 
violin trio or guitar accompaniment issued by Andre, Offenbach; and 
\La Romauesca an air of the sixteenth century composed originally 
for viole d'amour with accompaniment of guitar and string quartet, 
which Baillot transcribed for violin with guitar and string quartet, 
published by Richault, Paris. 

Barco, Ya, an Italian guitarist, who lived in Vienna for several 
years during the eighteenth century, and there published solos and 
duos for the guitar. Some of his compositions are of unusual merit. 
He also toured Europe as a guitar virtuoso, residing for some time 
in Paris, and later in Rheims, France, where he wrote several other 
compositions. Op. 1, Rondo for two guitars, published by Artaria, 
Vienna, and Richault, Paris ; Op. 2, Brilliant caprice for two 
guitars, published by Weigl, V ienna ; Op. 3, Twelve exercises for 
two guitars, published by Bermann, Vienna; Op. 4, Twelve dances 
for two guitars, published by Diabelli, Vienna. 

Bathioli, or Barthioli, Francois, an Italian guitarist, living at the 
commencement of the nineteenth century in Vienna, where he 
published many of his compositions. He had removed to Venice 
previous to 1830, for in that year he died in this city. His com- 
positions for the guitar, and his romances with guitar accompaniment 
were very popular in his day, and he is the author of an excellent 
|method for the guitar, which also includes introductory instruction 
in singing, and songs with guitar accompaniment. This volume was 
originally published in German, but a French edition has been 
Itranslated by the guitarist, Josef Fahrbach, and published by Cranz, 
of Hamburg and Leipzig. An Italian edition was also published 
at the same time, arranged by the author. Bathioli augmented this 
method by a volume of twenty-four studies for guitar, which 
also published by Cranz, while Diabelli, of Vienna, issued two 
volumes of theoretical music, and also a Method for the flageolet, 
by I tathioli. The following are among his best known compositions : 
Op. 3, Concerto for guitar with string quartet ; Op. I, Twelve 
waltzes and coda for one or two guitars ; Op. 5, Grand variations 
on the German melody, "An Alexis scud ich dich "for flute and 
guitar; Op. 6, Potpourri for flute, alto and guitar; < >p. 7, 
Hunting rondo for guitar solo ; Op. H, Grand variations in A for 



22 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

guitar solo ; Op. 9, Potpourri for two guitars, all published by 
Diabelli, Vienna. 

There was a Bertioli, Alex., a professor of the guitar living in 
London at the same period, who was the author of a Complete method 
for the guitar (Carulli's simplified); and Forty-four progressive 
lessons which were published by Wybrow, London; also Select airs 
for guitar solo ; Neiv Tyrolese air for piano and guitar with 
Italian words; Six French romances with guitar accompaniment ; 
rind Three Italian songs with guitar accompaniment, all of which 
were published by Chapped, London. 

Baumbach, Frederick August, a guitarist, mandolin ist and or- 
chestral conductor, was born in Germany in 1753 and died in Leipzig, 
November 30, 1813. His musical education was thorough and his 
progress most rapid, for in 1778, at the age of twenty-five, he was 
conductor of the Hamburg opera orchestra and in 1782 he was 
appointed musical director of the theatre, Riga. He occupied this 
position for seven years, until 1789, at which date he resigned his 
conductorship to reside in Leipzig as musical composer, author and 
critic. Baumbach excelled as a player on the piano, guitar and 
mandolin ; but he is known more through his compositions and 
writings than his performances. His published compositions, which 
include sonatas for the pianoforte, instrumental trios, concertos, violin 
duos, songs with piano and guitar accompaniments and studies and 
solos for the guitar are all characterized by their noble and profound 
nature. His first publications appeared in 1790, and were six sonatas 
for the piano, being published in Gotha. The latter part of his life 
he devoted almost solely to writing musical articles and criticisms. 
He is the author of those interesting articles in the " Kurz gefasstes 
Handworterbuch iiber die schonen Kiinste," which appeared in 1794. 
1 Saumbach's guitar compositions are the following, Sixteen studies 
as preludes, in all the major and minor keys ; Twenty-four pro- 
gressive pieces ; Two airs and two romances as guitar solos ; Six 
romances with variations for guitar solo; Russian air with 
variations ; and a Rondo for guitar solo. The above were all pub- 
lished in Leipzig by Peters, Hofmeister and the Musical Industrial 
Agency. Like his musical compositions, the writings and criticisms 
of Baumbach are characteristic of a man of scholarly and refined 
taste and great literary attainments. 

Bayer, Anton, born in Bohemia, 1785, was a dramatic composer, 
skilful guitarist, flautist, and vocalist, who has written much for the 
flute and guitar. Although destined by his parents for the profession 
of the law, he was by nature a musical genius, and in his youth, this 
so asserted itself, that his parents placed him under the best obtain- 
able music teachers. At a later date, he continued his musical 
studies in Vienna, under the celebrated Abbe Vogler, maintaining 
himself by giving instruction in singing and on the guitar. His 
most celebrated pupil was the famous vocalist Henriette Sontag. 



\ 

'ft 






/'"'> : :>1f 




EDWARD BAYER. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 23 

Bayer was her first music teacher, and he gave her vocal instruction 
until she was fifteen years of age. In 1815, Bayer was employed 
for some considerable time as first flute in the Prague theatre, 
under C. M. von Weber, with whom he was on most intimate terms, 
both having studied under the Abbe Vogler in Vienna. Whether 
Bayer was a member of that merry musical party of the Abbe's 
pupils of which Weber and Gansbacher were the leading spirits, it 
is not known, but it is significant that he, too, was another of the 
Abbe's pupils who played and composed for the guitar, and who 
sang to his own guitar accompaniment. The most successful of 
Bayer's operas were Der Tauseiulsassa and Fran Ahndl. His 
compositions for the guitar and his songs with guitar accompaniment 
were exceedingly popular during his life-time, and they include 
many transcriptions and arrangements. His own compositions are 
principally of a light character, and under his name we find many 
duos for flute and guitar, and violin and guitar. Three romances 
for voice and guitar, were published by Schott, Mayence ; Op. 8, 
Twelve waltzes for two flutes, and many arrangements for guitar, 
published by Hoffman, Prague. 

Bayer, Edward, a well known German guitar and zither virtuoso 
and composer for these instruments, was born March 20, 1822, in 
Augsburg, Bavaria, and died in Hamburg, 1908. He was the son 
of a magistrate's clerk in Augsburg and when he was six years of 
age Bayer had the misfortune to lose his father. His musical genius 
showed itself very early and as he was endowed with a rich soprano 
voice his services were in constant requisition, being one of the prin- 
cipal vocalists in the church choir. Young Bayer, too, was a most 
accurate and fluent reader of music, and at this period during his 
teens he commenced the study of the guitar. In this uneventful way 
he passed his boyhood, and at the age of fifteen he was apprenticed 
as a draughtsman and engraver to a large firm in his native city. For 
six years he was engaged in this occupation, but during his leisure 
moments he devoted himself entirely to the continued study of the 
guitar. As a proof of his ability and the estimation with which he 
was regarded by those who knew him, it is interesting to record the 
fact that the foreman of the works where young Bayer was employed 
took lessons on the guitar from the lad and also became an enthusi- 
astic guitarist. Bayer's whole ambition was to become really 
proficient on his instrument and he spared nothing that would 
accomplish his purpose. Such persistent determination and ability 
could not long pass unnoticed, and we find that a certain municipal 
official in Augsburg by the name of Schmo/1, who was an eminent 
performer on the guitar, recognised in the lad the possibilities of a 
rare artist and he generously undertook to direct and encourage his 
studies. The methods of Sor, Giuliani, Legnani and Mertz, hepla< ed 
at his disposal and these were all thoroughly studied till at length the 
young artist made his first public appearance as a guitar soloist in 



24 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

his native city. The reception he received was most encouraging 
and now his spare time was not sufficient to meet the demands of his 
pupils. Haver therefore quitted the workshop for the more congenial 
occupation of teaching, and devoting himself entirely to playing. He 
said that he was then a happy man engrossed in his own unhindered 
study of music and imparting his knowledge to earnest students. 

In 1848 with Loe, one of his talented pupils, he undertook a 
concert tour. They were both young and inexperienced ; but youth 
and enthusiasm saw no failure and gave them undaunted courage. 
Without experience, without recommendations or introductions they 
travelled and met with no success. They were on the point of re- 
turning home when a fortunate stroke altered the whole circumstances. 
Having to pass through Darmstadt on their journey they were quite 
unexpectedly commanded to play before the court and they received 
genuine and hearty applause from the Hereditary Grand Duke and 
Duchess, the latter being a daughter of King Ludwig of Bavaria. 
Being now provided with weighty recommendations they left the 
town which had provided them with such a pleasant surprise and 
from this time their success was assured. One court after another 
commanded their performance and musicians of renown as Lachner, 
Franz Abt, Reissiger and others paid homage to their genius and 
supplied them with eulogistic testimonials. Having now been absent 
from his native city for some time Bayer made a visit there, but was 
soon again anxious to travel. Now he went alone and upon this 
occasion he travelled through Holland and Belgium performing at 
all the important German cities on his route, where the most cele- 
brated musicians were delighted to associate themselves with his 
concerts. In Dresden he played in the Royal Court Theatre, in 
Leipzig in the Music Society's Hall, Euterpe, and gained at both 
places great applause and honour. His experiences were very varied, 
for in Wilbad when he arrived at the concert hall he found to his 
consternation that his instrument had been broken during the journey 
by coach; upon another occasion when an aristocratic audience was 
waiting for his performance and he was striking the first chords, the 
bridge of his guitar suddenly flew off and with it all the strings. The 
damp atmosphere had affected the glue ; but in the future he was 
particular to take his guitar inside the coach with him and leave his 
trunk with his clothes and possessions fastened on the outside. 
Imagine his surprise on arrival at his destination to find these had 
been cut away during the journey, and he lost everything with the 
exception of his testimonials and recommendations which were dis- 
covered upon the roadside by the police, saturated by rain. A concert 
given at Pyrmont, however, the same day made good his loss. 

Bayer's tour had extended for a period of two years when he 
arrived in Hamburg. In this city he met the young lady who after- 
wards became his wife, and being offered the position of musical 
adviser to the publishing firm of Nieymeyer senior he accepted, and 
settled in Hamburg for the remainder of his life. Through the advice 



GUITAR AND KfANDOLIN. 25 

of Niemeyer, Bayer took up the zither and in a short time he was 
passionately fond of this instrument too ; but he never neglected his 
guitar. His first composition for the zither brought him into com- 
munication and friendship with the most celebrated players and 
composers for this instrument and also with the music publisher 
P. Hoenes, of Trier, who from this time issued all the works of Bayer. 
One of his most celebrated pupils on the guitar was Otto Hammerer, 
who, when he attained manhood did much for the encouragement of 
the guitar, and was one of the founders of the International League 
of Guitarists of Germany. Bayer is held in the highest estimation 
as a composer by his countrymen, but he is practically unknown out 
of Germany. He is the author of numerous pieces for the guitar 
and also the zither. Bayer also published much under the pseudonym 
of A. Caroli. Op. 1, Collection of pieces for guitar solo ; Op. 23, 
Souvenir d'Ems for two guitars, both published by Niemeyer, 
Hamburg ; Op. 19, Operatic arrangements for guitar solo ; Op. 20, 
Petite fantasia for guitar, published by Schuberth & Co., Leipzig; 
Op. 37, Six landler for two guitars, Andre, Offenbach ; several 
collections of songs with guitar accompaniment ; a guitar method, 
published by Bohm, Augsburg ; numerous compositions for the 
zither, and a method for this instrument, in three parts, which is 
also published in the English and French languages. 

Beethoven, Ludwig van, born in Bonn, most probably December 
16, 1770, and died in Vienna, December 26, 1826. Particulars of the 
life of this immortal genius are of such common knowledge that it is 
unnecessary to repeat them, and only his associations with the man- 
dolin, mandolinists, and his compositions for this instrument will be 
noticed ; facts, which up to the present have received but scanty 
recognition from his numerous biographers. During the ten years 
(1790-1800) when he was between twenty and thirty years of age, 
Beethoven was closely associated and brought in daily contact with 
several mandolin players of ability and one of his sincerest friends 
at this time was a mandolin virtuoso. In the year 1792 he visited 
Vienna for the second time and one of his first patrons in this city 
was Prince Lichnowsky, who granted him an annuity of six hundred 
florins, to be paid during any period that Beethoven was out of con- 
stant employment. This prince it was who took him in 1796 to 
Prague where he was introduced in the family of Count Clam Gallas, 
who was an enthusiastic amateur musician. At this time the man- 
dolin was highly esteemed and enjoying universal favour from the 
musical public, particularly in Prague this was the case, for nine 
years previously Mozart had produced in this city his opera Don 
Giovanni and this work had created a profound and lasting impression. 
The hero of the opera, Don Giovanni, accompanied one of his 
amorous serenades with his mandolin, and Mozart had introduced 
the instrument with felicitious and masterly effect in the score. The 
mandolin was now the favoured instrument of the aristocracy and 
fashionable society, and it may be mentioned that even the conductor 



26 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

of the Italian opera in Prague, Kucharz, was esteemed and recognised 
as a mandolinist of the first rank, when Beethoven visited Prague. 
Count Clam Gallas, in whose family Beethoven was introduced in 
this city, was an excellent pianist and did all in his power to further 
musical art by arranging and giving musical evenings, and he it was 
who founded the Prague Conservatoire of Music. His wife, who, 
previous to her marriage was Mile. Clary, was also an amateur 
musician, being a skilful performer on the mandolin, a pupil of 
Kucharz, and it is evident from the large collection of music — both 
printed and manuscript — for the mandolin and guitar in the family 
possession, that the countess must have taken more than ordinary 
interestin these two instruments. During oneof their musical evenings 
Beethoven dedicated to the countess the still popular concert aria 
Ali perfido spergiura, Op. 65, as the original manuscript in the 
master's handwriting testifies. On the first page is the inscription, 
" Une grande scene en musique par L. von Beethoven a Prague 
1796," and on the third page " Recitativa e aria composta e dedicata 
alia Signora Contessa di Clari di L. von Beethoven." Beethoven 
also wrote and dedicated compositions for the mandolin with cembalo 
(piano) accompaniment to the countess during the same period, and 
a sketch of one of these manuscripts in Beethoven's writing has been 
discovered during the last three or four years in the library of Count 
Franz Clam Gallas, by Dr. Chitz, of Dresden. This composition, 
an Andante with variations for mandolin and cembalo (or piano), 
bears the dedication to Mdlle. de Clery with Beethoven's signature 
and this interesting manuscript is at present in Dresden, not having 
yet been printed. 

During part of the same ten years (1790-1800) of Beethoven's 
life, the master lived on the most intimate terms and sincerest friend- 
ship with Wenzel Krumpholz, a mandolin virtuoso of Vienna. 
Krumpholz was in 1796 employed as one of the first violins in the 
Court opera and he has been immortalized by his intimacy and friend- 
ship with Beethoven. The two were exceedingly fond of each other, 
Krumpholz being devoted to him, though Beethoven was accustomed 
to address him in play as " mein Narr " (my fool). According to 
Ries, Krumpholz gave Beethoven some instruction on the violin 
while he was in Vienna and it appears evident from Beethoven's 
compositions for the mandolin, that he must have had instruction 
on this instrument too, at some period, for his works for the 
mandolin, display a thorough and practical knowledge of the finger- 
board and the technicalities peculiar to the instrument. What would 
be more probable than that his intimate friend, Krumpholz, a recog- 
nised mandolin virtuoso would at some time initiate him in the charm- 
ing and subtle effects characteristic of the instrument ? Beethoven, 
himself, possessed a mandolin and a photograph of his instrument, 
suspending by a ribbon on the wall near the side of his last grand 
piano, was published some twenty or thirty years ago in Bonn, his 
native city, by Emil Koch. By the courtesy of Richard Harrison, 




BKKTIK iVK.VS MANDOLIN. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 27 

Esq., of Brighton, we are able to reproduce an illustration of this 
instrument from the original photograph in his possession. The 
instrument is a Milanese mandolin, and there is good reason to 
believe that this was the type played by Beethoven and his friend 
Krumpholz, and for which the master wrote his mandolin 
compositions. 

The mandolinist, Krumpholz, was one of the first to recognise 
Beethoven's genius, and he inspired others with his own enthusiasm. 
Czerny mentions this in his autobiography, where he speaks of 
Krumpholz as an old man — he was but fifty — and Czerny also 
states that he it was who introduced Krumpholz to Beethoven. 
The two friends spent much time together in Vienna, and Thayer, 
(vol. ii. 49) states that Beethoven wrote a composition for 
the mandolin and piano for his friend Krumpholz, and this fact 
is also mentioned by Artaria in his Autographische Skizze. 
Whether the Sonatine for mandolin and piano reproduced on page 
thirty-one, and which was composed by Beethoven in 1795, is 
the work referred to by Thayer and Artaria, cannot now be said, 
but it has been suggested. The original autograph of this com- 
position is to be found in Beethoven's sketch book preserved in the 
manuscript department of the British Museum, London, (additional 
manuscripts No. 29,801). This sonatine is now published by 
Breitkopf and Hartel, London, and although entitled on the 
original manuscript Sonatina per il mandolino composta da L. v. 
Beethoven is only in one movement ; but it is interesting to note 
that the phrase in C major, which commences the trio of the 
Sonatine is exactly the same as the composer afterwards used in the 
Allegretto of his Op. 14, No. 1. Breitkopf and Hartel, also 
publish Beethoven's Adagio for mandolin and piano, and it is 
evident that not one of his mandolin compositions was published 
during his lifetime. The autograph copy of the Adagio which is 
reproduced on page twenty-eight, is in the Royal Library of Berlin, 
and this composition gives ample proof that Beethoven was fully 
acquainted with the peculiarities and characteristics of the instru- 
ment and its fingering. In order to produce the desired effects, it 
is certain that these staccato and arpeggio passages — the latter 
commencing at the fifty-first bar — -could only have been written by 
one, not only thoroughly conversant with the fingerboard, but also 
the mechanism of the plectrum and the right hand. 

The type of mandolin had been certainly improved by this date 
and its compass extended, for we find in this Adagio a passage 
ascending to F in the fifth position, whereas only a few years 
previous, the extent of the compass was to D in the third position. 
It has been frequently stated that there was in existence a Sonatine 
ior the mandolin under Op. 33, but no trace of this work can be 
found. To Professor Mandyczewski, of the Vienna Academy of 
Music, belongs the merit of bringing these two unknown mandolin 
compositions — the Sonatine and Adagio — to light, for in 1888 he 



28 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



published these two works in the supplementary volume of 
Beethoven's works, issued by Breitkopf and Hartel. Beethoven 
died during the evening of December 26, and his funeral, an 
imposing and impressive ceremony, was attended by a vast 
concourse of people. Hummel, Gansbacher and Schubert — all 
guitarists- — took active part in these last rites, the former musician 
placing three laurel wreaths on the coffin before it was finally 
covered. Beethoven lies in the Wahringer cemetery, Vienna, and 
three paces off, rest the remains of his admirer, the immortal 
Schubert. 



ADAGIO. 



for the Mandolin, composed by 
L. van BEETHOVEN. 

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SONATINE. 

for the Mandolin, composed by 
L. van BEETHOVEN in 1795. 

Adagio. 



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GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 




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GIUSEPPE BELLENGHl. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 33 

Bellenghi, Giuseppe, born Faenza, near Bologna, Italy, in 1847, 
died suddenly on the evening of October 17, 1902, in Florence. 
He was a talented violoncellist and composer, and a devoted 
champion of the mandolin. Bellenghi was born in very humble 
circumstances, but richly endowed by nature with an aptitude and 
love of music, which asserted itself very early in life. He contrived 
to study the piano when a lad under the best available local talent, 
but it was not long before he became attracted to the violoncello, to 
which instrument he devoted much time and attention under several 
well-known Italian masters, principally, however, Teodulo and Jefte 
Sbolci. He settled in Florence, and obtained fame as a virtuoso on 
this instrument, and appeared frequently as soloist at many of the 
important concerts of Florence and Bologna, and for a period was 
employed as first violoncellist in the theatres. He also taught this 
instrument, and his pupils were numerous, the most talented being 
the Italian 'cellist, Elvira Paoli. At about this time, he became 
enamoured of the mandolin, and he immediately placed his artistic 
career and future life to the welfare and popularization of this 
instrument. The mandolin was now being adopted as the favourite 
instrument of the aristocracy and nobility ; and passionately 
fond of the instrument, he prophesied universal popularity for it 
and its music. Bellenghi's business ideas were as keen as his 
musical ability, and having made an exhaustive study of the mandolin 
and its existing music, he commenced about 1870 to teach the 
instrument. His whole time was fully occupied with the mandolin 
alone, his pupils were both numerous and wealthy, including members 
of the Royal family and titled nobility. Bellenghi appeared at many 
concerts as mandolinist with the assistance of his pupils and 
other celebrated musicians during the years 1880-1900, and he 
organised many other concerts in Florence and Bologna, at which 
the celebrated mandolinists, Riccardo Rovinazzi, Silvestri, and 
Caroline Grimaldi took part. The scarcity of suitable music for the 
mandolin caused Bellenghi to write many light selections which were 
published by Ricordi, Milan, and realizing a great demand for these 
publications, he commenced in 1882 to issue his own works. In a 
very short time, he also published compositions of other mandolinists, 
and he thus laid the foundations of the well-known music publishing 
house of Forlivesi & Co., Florence, which at the time of his decease, 
had issued more than seven thousand musical compositions of 
various authors. His concert performances were invariably 
patronised by Royalty, and the elite of society, and upon more than 
one occasion he was invited to London by his wealthy pupils to 
continue their study of the mandolin under him. 

The following notice concerning his decease, appeared in the 
Musical Gazette, of Milan, September, 1902 : "A note of mournful 
grief. At only fifty years of age, without warning — most suddenly — 
death has robbed us of the esteemed musician, Giuseppe Bellenghi. 
A Romagnolo by birth and instinct, he came to Florence when a 



34 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

young man, and from the moment he entered the city, he decided to 
make it his permanent abode. Unknown at first, by his natural 
genius, affability, and gentlemanly manner, he very rapidly won a 
good name. He was richly favoured with nature's artistic gifts, and 
moreover, endowed with prodigious industry and perseverance. He 
devoted his life and talents unreservedly to the violoncello and 
mandolin, and wrote for these instruments, most praiseworthy 
orchestral compositions, the best of their kind. A fruitful and 
spontaneous musical writer, he saw the success and popularity of 
his labours, traverse, as it were the whole world. The firm of 
Ricordi has published a great number of his arrangements for 
mandolin and guitar, and these works remain without fear of rivals. 
Bellenghi, founded the business of a musical instrument merchant 
and publisher in Florence, known as Forlivesi & Co. — which was 
his wife's name previous to marriage — and by his judicious manage- 
ment it has flourished to its present importance. Death has cut 
him off in the midst of his prosperity. Inexorable, cruel destiny ! 
Robbed of my true friend, I pour out unavailing tears of grief and 
melancholy," G. Gabardi. 

The music publishing business is now conducted by his son, 
Renato Bellenghi. Bellenghi's compositions were very numerous, 
and he published many lighter works under the name of G. B. Pirani. 
He is the author of a comprehensive Method for the mandolin in 
three parts, which is published in four languages, French, English, 
Italian and German. This work was awarded the first prize at the 
Musical Exhibition and Contest of Genoa, in 1892, held under the 
presidency of the violin virtuoso, Camillo Sivori. He also wrote a 
series of daily exercises for the mandolin, entitled : La ginnastica 
del mandolino, with the object of strengthening the fourth finger, 
and a volume of Ascending and descending major and minor scales 
in all positions for the mandolin ; Six duos for two mandolins ; 
and a Theoretical treatise on the rudiments of music. Bellenghi 
was the first to write and publish a method for the modern Jute, and 
under the nom-de-plume of G. B. Pirani, we find methods for 
mandola and guitar. The most popular of his compositions were 
the waltzes Profumi Orientali and Renato, both of which rapidly 
passed many editions, and the latter was at its time of publication, 
the foremost composition for mandolin band. Profumi Orientali 
was also arranged by its author as a song with French, Italian, and 
English words. He wrote many light pieces for piano solo and two 
pianos, songs with piano or guitar accompaniments, about seventy 
various arrangements and original compositions for mandolin band, 
about fifty similar for guitar solo, and a set of Variations for the 
mandolin with accompaniment of piano or guitar on Paganini's 
variations on the Carnival of Venice. This work alone, places 
Bellenghi in the foremost rank as a mandolin virtuoso and thorough 
artist on the instrument, who enlarged its scope and extended its 
musical possibilities, as nothing of so advanced a nature for the 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 35 

mandolin had been published hitherto. The variations are dedicated 
by Bellenghi to the memory of the blind mandolin virtuoso, 
A. Fridzeri. Bellenghi, as the firm of Forlivesi & Co., also 
published several of the compositions of the celebrated mandolinist, 
Carlo Munier. 

Beniezki, S. (Knight), a skilful performer on the guitar and the 
inventor of the harpolyre, or harp-guitar, and also of a double-bass 
guitar, which he named the aclipolyra. He undertook a concert 
tour during the years 1842 and 1843 with the object of drawing the 
attention of musicians and others to his new instruments. He gave 
concerts upon both these instruments in Paris, Vienna, and Munich, 
but he only succeeded in arousing curiosity, for in a short time, his 
inventions had passed into oblivion as so many others of a like 
nature have done. He was living as late as 1850. 

Benzon, Seigfried, a German musician, who was born in North 
Schleswig, in 1793. When a youth, he studied the guitar and violin, 
and in the year 1817, when twenty-four years of age, he was 
appointed Kapellmeister at the Stadttheatre in Mayence, and 
remained in that position until 1820. He was a skilful guitarist and 
violinist, and is the author of solos for the guitar, also duos, quartets, 
etc., for violin, flute, oboe, guitar and piano. In 1820, he removed 
to Cassel, Hanover, but three years later sailed from Bremen for 
South Africa, after which nothing more was heard of him. His 
principal compositions for the guitar are Op. 4, Potpourri for flute 
and guitar, published by Schott, Mayence ; Op. 7, Variations for 
guitar with accompaniment of string quartet, Andre Offenbach ; 
Op. 12, Polonaise for flute and guitar, the same work being also 
arranged for flute and piano ; Potpourri for flute and guitar, Nagel, 
Hanover ; Polonaise for solo voice with guitar and flute, or piano 
and flute accompaniments ; Polonaise, " Hort mich ihr Frauen 
an," for voice with guitar and flute ; and many other compositions 
for violin, flute, and oboe, and songs with piano accompaniment. 

Berard, Jean Batiste, a French guitarist and vocalist, was born 
1710, and died 1785. He commenced his public musical career in 
the year 1733, as tenor in the Paris Opera, but he received his 
discharge the following Easter, that being the end of the opera 
season. In September, he joined an Italian comedy, and was more 
successful, for he remained with this company until 1736, and won 
fame, after which he was invited back to the Opera. Berard was 
assigned a part in Les hides galantes, by Rameau, but he again 
failed, and the manager was compelled to give his role to another. 
Berard, however, was a good musician and astonished the public by 
his skill on the guitar. After leaving the stage in 1736, he 
established himself in Paris as a professor of the guitar and singing. 
In 1772, he became acquainted with Madam Pompadour through 
whose influence he received the decoration of the " The Order of 



36 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Christ." Berard is the author among other works for the guitar of 
a Potpourri for violin and guitar, published by Richault, Paris. 

Berggreen. Andreas Peter, born in Copenhagen, Denmark, 
March 2, 1801, and died there November 9, 1880, aged 79. He 
was one of the most popular of Danish song-writers, his vocal 
compositions being of national repute. His first instrument was 
the guitar, and he studied this and harmony previous to his 
fourteenth year, for at that age he began to compose. Though 
destined by his parents for the law, his strong love of music led 
him to devote himself entirely to this art. He continued the study 
of the guitar and composition, and published numerous vocal 
works with guitar accompaniment and also pieces for guitar 
alone. In fact, all his early compositions were originally published 
with guitar accompaniments, and it was not until a later period that 
they appeared with piano. He studied the piano and organ a few 
years later, and in 1829, he composed the music to Ohenschlager's 
Bridal Cantata. His first opera, The picture and the bust, was 
performed April 9, 1832, and he wrote many other large works ; but 
he is known to fame by his songs. He wrote eleven volumes of 
national songs, and thirteen volumes of school songs, and his church 
music and collection of psalm tunes which appeared in 1853, have 
been adopted in the churches throughout Denmark. In 1838, he 
became organist of Trinity Church, Copenhagen, and his church 
compositions owe part of their success to this fact. In 1843, 
Berggreen was appointed professor of singing in the Metropolitan 
School, and in 1859, inspector of singing in the public schools. He 
was the teacher of the famous Danish composer, Niels Gade, who 
was also a guitarist. For a short time he was editor of the musical 
journal, Music Tidings, which is now extinct, and he also wrote the 
biography of his countryman, the musician Weyse, in 1875. 
Berggreen has written guitar solos, variations, etc., and collections 
of songs with guitar accompaniments which appeared in his native 
land. 

Berlioz, Hector, born December 11, 1803, at La Cote, Saint 
Andre, near Grenoble, France, died March 8, 1869. In addition to 
being one of the most remarkable musicians the world has known, 
he was a master of the guitar and a keen admirer of its dreamy, 
melancholy tone. It was the only instrument he was practically 
proficient on, and the only musical instrument that accompanied 
him in all his travels. For some years he obtained a precarious 
existence in Paris by teaching the guitar, and he has composed 
variations for solo guitar, which were published by Aulagnier, Paris, 
and he also uses the instrument in the score of his opera, Benvenuto 
Cellini, the first representation of which was given in September, 

1838. 

Berlioz's father was a physician of local esteem, and it was his 
desire that his son should adopt the same profession, but fate 







HECTOR BERLIOZ. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 37 

decreed otherwise. His first associations with music are described 
in his autobiography, from which the following is culled : " Rummag- 
ing one day in a drawer, I unearthed a flageolet on which I at once 
tried to pick out Malbrook ; driven nearly mad by my squeaks, my 
father begged me to leave him in peace until he had time to teach 
me the proper fingering of the melodious instrument, and the right 
notes of the martial song I had pitched on. At the end of two days 
I was able to regale the family with my noble tune. My father 
next taught me to read music, explaining the signs thoroughly, and 
soon after he gave me a flute. At this I worked so hard that in 
seven or eight months I could play quite fairly." At this time 
Berlioz received lessons in singing and the flute from a teacher 
named Imbert. " I improved fast, for I had two lessons a day, 
having also a pretty soprano voice, I soon developed into a pleasant 
singer, and was able to play Drouet's most intricate flute concertos. 
Imbert's place was soon after taken by a man of far higher standing 
named Dorant. He played almost every instrument, but he 

excelled in clarionet, 'cello, violin and guitar. My elder sister 

who had not a scrap of musical instinct, and could never read the 
simplest song, although she had a charming voice and was fond of 
music — learnt the guitar with Dorant, and, of course, I must needs 
share her lessons. But ere long our master, who was both honest 
and original, said bluntly to my father : ' Monsieur, I must stop 
your son's guitar lessons.' ' But why ?' ' Is he rude to you or so 
lazy that you can do nothing with him ? ' ' Certainly not, only it is 
simply absurd for me to pretend to teach anyone who knows as 
much as I do myself.' So behold me ! Past master of those three 
noble instruments, flageolet, flute and guitar. I never was good at 
other instruments. My father would never let me learn the piano, 
if he had, no doubt I should have joined the noble army of piano 
thumpers, just like forty thousand others." When young Berlioz 
was eighteen years of age, he was sent to Paris to study for the 
medical profession, but it was a loathsome and irritating occupation, 
although for some time he strove to become reconciled to it to 
please his parents. His passion for music finally dominated, and 
he thereupon lost the maintainence allowance of his father, and was 
thrown upon his own resources, during which time he taught and 
wrote for the guitar, his income being so precarious that he was 
compelled to live on the humblest and cheapest fare. Quoting 
again from his autobiography, he says : — " Her (Maria Moke) 
interest in me was aroused by Hillier's account of my mental 
sufferings and— so fate willed — we were thrown much together at a 
boarding school where we both gave lessons, she on the piano— I 
on the guitar. Odd though it be, I still figure in the prospectus of 
Madame d'Aubre as professor of that noble instrument." In 1830, 
Berlioz gained at the Paris Conservatoire, the Prix de Rome, to 
which is attached a government pension, supporting the holder' for 
three years in Rome. Here, he became associated with Mendelssohn 



38 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

among the other students. His time in the evenings was spent with 
musical companions in the garden portico, " where my bad guitar and 
worse voice were in great request, and where we sang Freyschiitz, 
Oberon, Iphigenia, or Don Giovanni, for to the credit of my mess- 
mates, be it spoken, their musical taste was far from low. My 
usual remedy for spleen was a trip to Subiaco, which seemed to put 
new life into me. An old grey suit, a straw hat, a guitar, a gun and 
six piastres were all my stock in trade. Thus, I wandered, shooting 
or singing, careless where I might pass the night. Sometimes — a 
glorious landscape spread before me. I chanted, to the guitar 
accompaniment, long remembered verses of the /Enid, the death of 
Pallas, the despair of Evander, the sad end of Amata and the death 
of Lavinia's noble lover, and worked myself up into an incredible 
pitch of excitement that ended in floods of tears." Speaking of a 
friendly villager, he says : — " I first won his affection by helping to 
serenade his mistress, and by singing a duet with him to that un- 
tameable young person." " In Rome, often worn out and thoroughly 
out of sorts I would hunt him (Mendelssohn) out. With perfect 
good humour, seeing my pitiable state — he would lay aside his pen, 
and with his extraordinary facility in remembering intricate scores, 
would play whatever I chose to name — he properly and soberly 
seated at the piano, I curled up in a snappy bunch on his sofa. He 
liked me, with my wearied voice to murmur out my setting (with 
guitar) of Moore's melodies. He always had a certain amount of 
commendation for my — little songs!" Berlioz and his guitar were 
inseparable, and many years after when he was settled in Paris, and 
his everyday journalistic occupation had proved exceptionally 
irksome, and he was deeply dejected, he writes : — " I strode up and 
down, my brain on fire. I gazed at the setting sun, the neighbour- 
ing gardens, the heights of Montmartre — my thoughts a thousand 
miles away — then as I turned, I flew into the wildest rage. My 
unoffending guitar leant against the wall. I kicked it to bits ; my 
pistols stared at me from the wall with big round eyes. I gazed 
back, then, tearing my hair, burst into burning tears. That soothed 
me somewhat, I turned those staring pistols face to the wall and 
picked up my poor guitar, which gave forth a plaintive wail." 
Berlioz is the author of the standard treatise on Instrumentation 
and Orchestration, and in this work he devotes five pages to the 
guitar and mandolin. He states : — " It is almost impossible to write 
well for the guitar without being a player on the instrument. It 
shall be our endeavour, notwithstanding, to point out the proper 
method of writing simple accompaniments for it, its melancholy and 
dreamy character might more frequently be made available ; it has 
a real charm of its own, and there would be no impossibility in 
writing for it so that this should be made manifest." "The guitar 
is suitable to carry out even solely, more or less complicated many 
voiced pieces, whose charm principally consists when they are given 
by real virtuosi." " A number of virtuosi have cultivated the guitar, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 39 

and cultivate it even to-day as a solo instrument, and know how to 
produce pleasing as well as original movements." In the chapter 
on the mandolin, he deplores the fact that " the instrument has 
almost fallen into disuetude (1856) ; for its quality of tone has 
something appealing and original about it." He draws attention to 
Mozart as having penned such a melodious accompaniment in the 
second act of Don Giovanni and states : " Mozart quite well knew 
what he was about in choosing the mandolin for accompanying the 
amorous lay of his hero." After hearing the guitar virtuoso, Zani 
de Ferranti, Berlioz expressed himself as follows in the Journal des 
Debats : — " Permit us to still speak to you with all sorts of praises, 
and even with true astonishment at seeing a true master of his art, 
lord of a spot in the musical domain. We have just heard Zani de 
Ferranti, the last but the first of guitarists. Truly, it is impossible 
to imagine the effects which he produces on this instrument, so 
limited and so difficult. To Paganini's mechanism, Zani de Ferranti 
joins sensibility and an art to sing, which, so far as we know, was 
not possessed heretofore. Under his fingers the guitar dreams and 
cries. It would seem that, nearing its end, it implored life. The 
poor orphan of the lute and mandolin seems to say : ' Listen, how I 
sing the beautiful melodies of Oberon — the king of genius ; how I 
know the accent and deceit of timid love ; how my voice can unite 
itself to the voice of mysterious tenderness ; the lute is dead, do not 
let me in turn die also.' One could pass nights in listening to Zani 
de Ferranti, he rocks you, he magnetises you, and one experiences 
a kind of painful shock when the last chord of his poor protege 
strains itself, giving vent to its grief — a mosaic silence succeeds. 
We should also add that he writes excellent music for the guitar, 
and that the charm of his compositions contributes a good share to 
the prestige which it exerts upon its hearers." We are able to 
reproduce an illustration from a photograph specially taken for this 
work, by courtesy of the Director of the National Conservatoire of 
Music, Paris, of the guitar of Berlioz, which is preserved in the 
museum of this institution, and of which Berlioz was for a period 
curator. This excellent guitar was made by Grobert, of Mirecourt 
(1794-1869), and is a typical full-sized French instrument of rose- 
wood, the table being unvarnished and inlaid with bands of ebony 
and ivory purfling. It has a peg-head, and this interesting relic 
bears on its table the autographs of its famous owners, Nicolo 
Paganini and Hector Berlioz. These signatures were written in 
ink on the bare wood, parallel to each other at the ends of the 
bridge. The autograph of Paganini is now partially obliterated and 
faded — perhaps caused by some unsuccessful attempt at preservation 
by chemical means, the wood underneath being much darker in 
colour — it is even noticeable in the illustration by the dark patch on 
the left. This historical guitar was lent to Paganini by J. B. 
Vuillaume, the violin maker, during the second visit to Paris of the 
illustrious violinist, and after its return, Vuillaume very generously 



40 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

presented the instrument to Berlioz, whom he knew to be an 
enthusiastic admirer, not only of the guitar, but also of the brilliant 
genius of its previous player. Berlioz added his autograph, and 
bequeathed the guitar to the Museum of the National Conservatoire 
of Music, Paris, during his period as curator. In the words of 
Grove : " Berlioz stands alone — a colossus with few friends and no 
direct followers ; a marked individuality, original, puissant, bizzare, 
violently one-sided ; whose influence has been, and will again be 
felt far and wide, for good and for bad, but cannot rear disciples, 
nor form a school. His startling originality as a musician, rests 
upon a physical and mental organisation very different from, and in 
some respects, superior to that of other eminent masters ; a most 
ardent nervous temperament ; a gorgeous imagination incessantly 
active, heated at times to the verge of insanity ; an abnormally 
subtle and acute sense of hearing ; the keenest intellect, of a dis- 
secting analysing turn ; the most violent will, manifesting itself in 
a spirit of enterprise and daring equalled only by its tenacity of 
purpose and indefatigable perseverance." For many years, Berlioz 
was employed as musical critic on the staff of the Journal des 
Debats, of Paris, and his contributions to this paper made for him 
a lasting name as one of the most brilliant French writers. 

Bevilaqua, M., an Italian guitar and flute virtuoso and composer, 
who flourished in Vienna during the commencement of the nineteenth 
century, and published more than sixty compositions for the guitar. 
The editor of the New Encyclopcedia Musical, which was published 
in Stuttgart, speaks highly of Bevilaqua, and states that he was a 
thorough musican. His works were greatly appreciated in Vienna, 
and became very popular, but after the year 1827 his compositions 
ceased to appear, and from that date nothing more was heard of 
him. Op. 11, Twelve variations for guitar and flute, Diabelli & Co., 
Vienna: Op. 18, Quartet for violin, flute, 'cello and guitar; Op. 19, 
Variations on "La Biondiua" for flute and guitar; Op. 24, 
March and Andante for two flutes and guitar, Diabelli & Co., 
Vienna ; Op. 33, Five guitar solos, Haslinger, Vienna ; Op. 62, 
Variations for flute and guitar ; Op. 63, Variations for violin or 
flute and guitar, Haslinger, Vienna ; three duets for two voices 
with piano and guitar accompaniments and a trio for two violins 
and guitar, published by Mecchetti, Vienna. There were many 
other of his compositions printed in Rome and Vienna. 

Birnbach, Henry August, was born in Breslau, 1782, and died in 
Berlin, December 31, 1840. His father, Karl Josef, was a violin 
virtuoso and the son of a German peasant who was a clever 
performer on the guitar. Both Henry and his brother Josef 
were well grounded in the elements of music by their father, who 
also gave them instruction in violin and guitar playing. In 1795 
the father obtained professional employment in Berlin, and he and 
his family removed to this city. His son Henry possessed extra- 




GUITAR < >F I LECT< >R BERLK )Z AM) 
NIC( >L< ) l'.\( ;a\i.\i. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 41 

ordinary natural ability and a strong passion for music, and when 
ten years of age had obtained great proficiency upon both instruments. 

In Berlin he studied the violoncello and piano as autodidactic as 
neither he nor his family had the means to pay for tuition. He 
profited much by his studies on the violoncello in Berlin, and in 
January, 1802, he visited Vienna, where he obtained an engagement 
in the Theatre an der Wien. In Vienna he made the acquaintance 
of the celebrated violoncellist Nicholas Kraft, who generously gave 
him advanced instruction in the art of playing the violoncello and 
upon the recommendation of Kraft, he was appointed in 1804, 
violoncellist in the private band of Prince Lubomirski at Fiirsten 
in Galicia. He did not remain long in Galicia, for in 1806 he was 
appearing as guitar soloist and playing in the orchestra of the Royal 
Theatre in Vienna, and in 1812 he had accepted the position of solo 
violoncellist in the opera at Pesth, but he returned to Breslau in 1815 
as teacher. Birnbach was a virtuoso on both the 'cello and the 
guitar and also on another instrument — the arpeggione or guitar- 
violoncello, sometimes called the guitar d'amour or chitarra col 'arco 
(guitar played with a bow). The arpeggione was invented by 
Stauffer, a musical instrument maker of Vienna in 1823. As the 
name of the instrument implies, it partook of the construction of the 
guitar and the violoncello, being in shape similar to the guitar, but 
somewhat larger, about the size of a small violoncello. The instru- 
ment was constructed with six strings, which were tuned identically 
the same as the guitar. The fingerboard was also fretted, but the 
higher part — that portion of the fingerboard which is usually attached 
to the table — was in the arpeggione raised above the table and the 
instrument was played with a bow in the position and manner of the 
violoncello. The tone of the arpeggione resembled that of the 
obsolete viol d'amour, and upon its introduction met with popular 
favour. The guitar was at this time in the height of fashion as a 
musical instrument, and any instrument which bore a similarity to 
the popular favourite — the guitar — was certain of being accorded 
some recognition. Stauffer, the inventor, was a guitar maker living 
in Vienna, and he had received the patronage of the guitar virtuosi 
of the time — the renowned Regondi having used one of his guitars 
for a period : Legnani, too, supplied him with designs for a guitar, 
which Stauffer labelled " Legnani Model." Stauffer was constantly 
seeking to improve, and give to the musical world new ideas in 
instrument construction, and he it was who introduced the guitar 
with the detachable neck and fingerboard. This guitar was so con- 
structed that the neck and fingerboard could be removed from the 
body of the instrument, by simply loosening a screw bolt which 
was inserted through the block of the handle to the inner block 
which holds the table to the back of the instrument. 

Stauffer claimed that a guitar so constructed, would take up less 
space, and therefore tend to greater ease in portability ; but, the 
disadvantage occasioned by the necessity of having to adjust the 



42 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

neck and fingerboard to the body each time, more than counter- 
balanced this asserted advantage. In these guitars, too, as in the 
arpeggione, the fingerboard was not attached to the table, but slightly 
raised from it, as in the violin family. This guitar has shared the 
fate of his other invention, the arpeggione, and they are now very 
rarely seen. Among other notable musicians who evinced great 
enthusiasm for the arpeggione was Birnbach. He adopted and 
studied it and performed upon it in public, and also composed 
many works for it, among which was a concerto with orchestral 
accompaniment ; this being a favourite solo of Birnbach. 

He remained in Breslau till 1821, and in 1824 he married, 
and was 'cellist in the Konigstadter Theatre in Berlin, and the 
year following was appointed to the Royal Chapel in Berlin as 
violoncellist and virtuoso on the arpeggione, of which instrument 
he was evidently the most able exponent. Henry Birnbach 
and his brother Joseph have both published many works for the 
guitar, also variations for the 'cello with guitar accompaniment 
and a concerto for the guitar with orchestra. Op. 6, Three 
inarches for guitar and Six German waltzes for two guitars, 
published by Haslinger, Vienna. There was another Henry 
Birnbach, born in Breslau, 1795, died in Berlin 1879, who has 
written and published concertos for piano, oboe, and guitar. 

Blum, Carl Ludwig, surnamed Charles Blume, was born in Berlin 
in 1786, and died there July 2, 1844. He was a man of remarkable 
and varied talents, who can be aptly described in the words of a 
celebrated musical critic, a contemporary, although of different 
nationality. He speaks of him as " a universal genius, uniting in 
one person the poet, the dramatist, composer, singer and performer. 
He writes verses to his own songs, music for his own operas, and 
when necessary he takes the role of the lover and serenades his 
lady on the guitar, of which instrument he is a consummate artist. 
He possesses a very fine voice and acts remarkably well." The 
above quotation exactly portrays the abilities of this wonderful 
genius, whose only instrument was the guitar, and for which he has 
written many of the most pleasing compositions to be found in the 
literature of this instrument. He was recognized as one of the 
most brilliant musicians of his day, and enjoyed the friendship 
and esteem of Carl von Weber and other renowned musicians. He 
was the recipient of many marks of distinction, one of which was 
his appointment as composer to the Court of the King of Prussia. 
There is but little known of his childhood, beyond that he studied 
the guitar and obtained proficiency upon it, appearing at the Thalia 
Theatre, Berlin, in 1801, when fifteen years of age. He devoted 
himself entirely to the guitar and singing, and in 1805, when nineteen 
years of age, joined a company of comedians under the direction of 
Quandt. In this company he was engaged as vocalist and guitarist, 
and while travelling with them he obtained a widespread reputation. 






GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 43 

His success induced him to relinquish his travels in order to 
study more thoroughly the theoretical part of his art, and he 
terminated his engagement with Quandt when in Konigsberg, 
studying harmony and composition under F. Hillier, the local 
director of music and son of Hillier of Leipzig. After a period of 
study he returned to Berlin, and in 1810 was associated with C. von 
Weber, performing the part of Don Juan with immense success in 
the Konigsberg Theatre, Berlin. He was now appointed guitar 
instructor to the royal princesses, and in the same year he produced 
his first opera, Claudine de Villa Bella. This work was staged in 
Berlin and was received with much favour by the German musical 
public, and from this commencement Blum composed innumerable 
vocal and instrumental pieces in addition to many other operas. 
In 1817 he visited Vienna, where he found a friend and teacher in 
Salieri, with whom he studied for some time, and with the assistance 
of his master he composed another opera, Das Rosen Hutchen (The 
little hat of roses). This work, which was accorded thirty-nine 
consecutive representations during Congress session in Vienna, was 
followed by the ballet of Aline, which was produced at the Court 
Theatre. The success of this, his latest opera, was greater than 
that of the previous work produced in Vienna, and it is interesting 
to note that the violin virtuoso, Joseph Mayseder, who was at this 
date violinist in the Court Theatre, has arranged the march from 
this ballet with Seven variations and coda for violin solo with 
guitar accompaniment, Op. 3, published by Artaria & Co., Vienna. 
Lorenze has also arranged it with variations for bassoon and guitar, 
and the same march has been transcribed by various authors for 
other instruments, it being a very popular" work. In 1820, the 
King of Prussia appointed Blum composer to the Court, and 
about the same time he visited Paris to study the styles of Boieldieu, 
Cherubini and Auber. From Paris he made a visit to London, and 
in 1822 he returned to Berlin, where for the space of four years he 
was engaged as director of the Royal Theatre. In January, 1827, 
he acted in a like capacity in the Konigsstadt Theatre, and the same 
year undertook a journey to Italy ; but after his second year of 
directorship at the theatre he retired and accepted no other engage- 
ment of a similar nature, but devoted himself to composition. In 
1827 the following criticism appeared in an English music journal : 

A novelty has been performed in Berlin, a new magic opera, 
Der Bramin, the music by C. Blum. The story is taken from that 
inexhaustible mine, the Arabian Nights, and affords several highly 
dramatic situations, of which the composer has ably availed himself. 
Mr. Blum is known to the public as an able song composer, and the 
present piece affords several very good specimens of his talent in 
composition of that kind, as well as in several combined pieces of 
superior merit" 

The year 1829 saw the performance of another of his operas of 
merit, The Orphan of Russia, two of the airs and a duet from this 



44 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

play receiving wild applause. He made several journeys through 
Germany, England, and Italy, and in the month of February, 1830, 
he was engaged in Paris, where he was employed in translating 
and arranging foreign dramatic works for the German stage, and 
upon his return to Berlin at the end of 1830 he made a professional 
visit to Dantzic with the prima donna, Henrietta Sontag. Blum 
was a very prolific composer and writer, and his compositions for 
the guitar aJone, are numerous and varied. To him is granted the 
distinction of being the first to introduce vaudevilles or comic operas 
into Germany, and his translations of the operas and vaudevilles 
were preferred before all others, as the Germans recognized a merit 
in his style of work which was vastly superior and refined. In 
1830 Scheslinger, of Berlin, published a German translation by 
Blum of the first edition of Fetis' work, Music placed within the 
reach of all. Blum's operas are too numerous to mention here ; 
the principal, besides those already enumerated, are Zoriade, or 
the peace of Granada, in three acts, published by Schott, London ; 
The pages of the Duke of Veudoine, The ecclesiastical shoemaker, 
The somnambulist, Didone, and The schiffskapitaiu, the latter 
also arranged by Blum for guitar, flute and violin, published by 
Bachmann, Hanover. He also arranged the music of innumerable 
operettas, including UOurs et la pucJia and La marriage de douze 
ans. 

The style of Blum's operatic music is very graceful and light. 
He was the author of numerous German songs, romances and 
other vocal pieces for single voice, duets, and male voices with 
choruses. The majority of his vocal compositions were written 
with guitar accompaniments, and in many cases he added obbligato 
parts for flute, violin or clarionet. He was commissioned to con- 
tribute vocal compositions to Orpheus, a collection of part songs or 
vocal quartets by celebrated German composers with English words, 
published in parts and compressed score. This series was com- 
menced by Messrs. Ewer, about 1840, and has been continued to 
the present day by their successors, Novello & Co. Among the 
lyric compositions of this worthy representative of the guitar, we 
find a comic intermezzo for three male voices — tenor and two 
basses — Op. 21, with accompaniments for two guitars entitled: 
The three guitar players; Op. 127, Soprano scena with guitar 
accompaniment; Op. 18, Duo for soprano and baritone with guitar. 
He was the author of a Complete grand method for the guitar, 
published in two volumes, the first being devoted to the theory of 
music, the second volume practical. This is a compilation of some 
pretensions, and the work of a thorough master of the instrument, 
who recognized the possibilities of the guitar in its dual capacity as 
a solo instrument and one of accompaniment ; and he treated it 
accordingly in this method, which was published by Schleslinger, 
Berlin. He augmented his method by writing his Op. 44, which 
consists of various studies for developing the fingers of both hands, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 45 

and also three other volumes of studies, being Op. 4, 8 and 9. 

In Blum's compositions for the guitar we find a style of writing 
far in advance of his time. The other writers for the instrument 
were content with either giving the instrument a melody supported 
by an accompaniment of the open bass strings, or, on the other 
hand, of writing their guitar works in continued full harmony of 
four or more parts. Blum's music introduced the sustained melody 
with a running accompaniment judiciously and skilfully interwoven, 
more in accordance with that manner of writing adopted and 
perfected by Zani de Ferranti and Mertz. It is not necessary to 
mention all Blum's works for the guitar ; it will be sufficient to 
notice the following : Op. 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 
43, and 127 are all vocal compositions which have guitar accompani- 
ments ; Op. 16, 17, 25, 39, 100 are guitar solos; Op. 31, Serenade 
tiree from ballet of "Aline" 64 and 122 are trios for flute, violin and 
guitar ; Op. 38 duos for guitar and piano, published by Haslinger, 
Vienna. In addition there are numerous compositions without opus 
numbers published by the same editors, and by Schott of London 
and Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig. 

Bobrowicz, J.N. de, born May 12, 1805, in Cracow, Poland, and was 
living in Leipzig as late as 1857, after which date nothing is known 
of his life. He was a pupil of Giuliani, and one of the most skilful 
of Polish guitarists and composers, his abilities as an executant 
rivaling those of his countryman, the renowned Felix Horetzky. 
The fame of Bobrowicz does not, however, rest alone on his musical 
genius, for he was a remarkable linguist and litterateur, and his 
translations and editions of the Polish classical writers form a lasting 
monument in proof of his abilities in this direction and his name is 
regarded with the highest esteem by his countrymen for this service 
rendered to his nation's prestige. At one period of his life Bobrowicz 
was principal of the foreign department of a library of Leipzig. 
When a youth he was sent to Vienna to receive his education, and 
he remained in that city until he was fifteen years of age. While 
residing in Vienna he studied the guitar and theory of music under 
the celebrated Mauro Giuliani, who was at this time creating such a 
sensation by his marvellous playing in that city. Young Bobrowicz's 
progress under this virtuoso was phenomenal, for in the year 1821, 
when but sixteen years of age, upon the departure of his guitar in- 
structor, Giuliani, to Rome, the youthful musician also made his 
departure from Vienna and commenced his professional career as a 
•guitar teacher in Cracow, his native city. Having acquired a 
reputation as a teacher and performer, he was elected a member of 
the Musical Society of Cracow the year following. He was held in 
universal respect and admiration by the musical inhabitants of Poland 
and his services as guitarist were in frequent request, and he appeared 
at all the important concerts given by native and foreign artists in 
Cracow. 



46 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Bobrowicz was a most generous and sympathetic personality, and 
he was ever willing to assist the indigent. His name was to be 
found on all the programmes of concerts given for charitable purposes. 
He obtained particular success by his playing the original guitar 
part in a quintet of Paganini, which was performed in Cracow under 
the leadership of the violin virtuoso, Charles Lipinski. From the 
year 1821, the date of his first public appearance, till 1830, he gave 
more than thirty guitar recitals, and in 1826 he commenced to com- 
pose for his instrument, his first productions being published by F. 
Piller. 

In 1829 Bobrowicz was offered the position of Secretary to the 
Cracow Senate, which he accepted ; but owing to the memorable 
events of the following year he was not permitted to long enjoy this 
important office. Bobrowicz was as patriotic and enthusiastic as 
any of his countrymen in their endeavours to obtain their national 
independence and he played no insignificant part in this Polish in- 
surrection, for he immediately joined the army of his native land 
and served throughout the entire struggle. For personal bravery 
and military ability, displayed during the first campaign of 1831, he 
was promoted to a lieutenancy and placed in command of a regiment 
of horse artillery, and for his valour during the succeeding engage- 
ments was awarded the Cross of Virtue. After the settlement of 
affairs in 1832 he removed to Leipzig, where he once again adopted 
his first profession and was engaged as guitar virtuoso in a lengthy 
series of concerts held in the famous Gewendhaus of that city. At 
these concerts he performed in company with the most celebrated 
instrumentalists and vocalists of Europe. In the following year, 
1833, he appeared at a grand concert given by Clara Wieck — after- 
wards Madam Schumann. His solos upon this occasion were his 
own transcriptions for the guitar of four of Chopin's mazurkas, and 
he was described by the musical critics and journals as the Chopin 
of the guitar. 

His reputation was now established throughout Germany, and his 
compositions were sought for and published by the principal editors 
of Leipzig, Dresden, Vienna, Warsaw and London. Bobrowicz 
was not a prolific composer for his instrument, as his published 
works do not number more than forty. These consist of solos and 
duos for the guitar, with violin, 'cello, and other instruments. He 
is the author of a Method for the guitar published by G. Sennevald, 
Warsaw, and he also translated and appended in the German 
language the French edition of Ferdinand Carulli's Method, which 
was published by Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig. After 1833 he de- 
voted himself principally to literature, and founded a magnificent 
establishment in Leipzig for the translation and publication of the 
classic literary works of the writers of his native land. From the 
year 1833 he published no less than three hundred and eighty vol- 
umes of the works of various Polish authors. These included forty 
volumes — pocket edition — of the classics, ten volumes of A' Armorial 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 47 

of Niesieck, seventeen volumes — being the complete works of J. N. 
Niemcewicz, — an edition of the Bible containing four hundred wood 
engravings, and the complete works of Adam Mickiewicz and 
numerous other Polish writers of renown. The following are his 
most popular instrumental compositions : Themes, with variations 
for guitar solo, Op. 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 16, 18, 20 and 30, published by 
Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig; Grand potpourri, for guitar, Op. 21, 
Hofmeister, Leipzig; Marches for guitar solo, Op. 19 and 25, 
and Rondo Brilliant, Op. 17, Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig; 
Polonaises and Waltzes, Op. 11 and 24, also for guitar and flute; 
Souvenir of Pologne, grand potpourri for 'cello and guitar, or piano, 
written in conjuction with J. B. Goss ; and four mazurkas of 
Chopin, for guitar solo, in addition to piano solos, waltzes, etc., 
Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig. 

Boccherini, Luigi, a highly gifted violoncellist and composer, was 
born at Lucca, Italy, February 19, 1743, and died in Madrid, May 28, 
1805. Boccherini's name is usually associated with that of Haydn, 
his contemporary ; both enlarged the sphere of the symphony, and 
their compositions in this direction bear striking resemblance. 
Boccherini was also a guitarist and composer for the guitar, 
although musical directories fail to mention this fact when recording 
his life and works. The first rudiments of music and the 'cello 
were taught Boccherini by his father, and later by the Abbe 
Vannecci. The boy's ability was so great as to induce them to 
send him to Rome, where he rapidly made himself famous both as 
a performer and composer. He returned to Lucca and joined a 
violinist, Manfredi, a pupil of Tartini, and together they toured 
through Italy into France, travelling as far north as Paris, which 
they reached in 1768. There they obtained a brilliant reception 
from their appearances at the Concerts Spirituels and Boccherini 
became the rage, the publishers contending for his first trios and 
quartets. The Spanish ambassador in Paris, a skilful amateur 
musician, pressed them to visit Madrid, promising them the warmest 
reception from the Prince of Asturias, afterwards Charles IV. 
Accordingly, towards the close of 1768, they started for Madrid; 
but their reception upon arrival was extremely disappointing. They 
were, however, patronized by the Infanta Don Luis, brother of the 
King, and Boccherini was appointed composer and virtuoso to the 
Infanta and also to Friedrich Wilhelm II., King of Prussia, which 
latter appointment procured him an annual salary. When the 
death of Friedrich occurred, in 1797, Boccherini's salary ceased, 
and he found himself practically unknown, except to a small circle 
of patrons. He obtained a friend in the Marquis of Benavente, in 
whose palace he was able to hear his music performed by his former 
associates of the Villa Arenas, whither his old protector, Don Luis, 
had retired after his mesalliance. Meantime, ill health compelled 
Boccherini to discontinue playing the 'cello, and he studied the 



48 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

guitar. This is principally attributable to the fact that his patron, 
the Marquis of Benavente, was a talented guitar player. The 
Marquis now commissioned Boccherini to write guitar parts to all 
of his orchestral compositions and to other pieces for which the 
Marquis showed a preference. Special performances were given, 
with Boccherini and his patron playing the guitar score, the 
average payment received for such guitar parts to each quartet, 
quintet or symphony being about four pounds sterling. Many other 
wealthy Spanish amateur guitarists followed the example of the 
Marquis of Benavente and commissioned Boccherini to write guitar 
solos and guitar accompaniments to songs and various instrumental 
pieces, and he was now constantly employed with the instru- 
ment, and finding a great demand for guitar music, he eventually 
wrote guitar parts for the majority of his symphonies and other 
orchestral compositions. 

In the year 1799 he wrote to the order of the Marquis of 
Benavente a Symphony concertante for guitar, violin, oboe, "cello 
and bass, a publication which is exceedingly scarce, and seldom 
mentioned ; but this composition possesses the same excellent 
qualities which are characteristic of his other works. There was 
advertised to be published a series of twelve new quintets for two 
violins, two altos and 'cello, by Leduc of Bordeaux and Auguste 
Leduc, Paris, and described by these publishers as posthumous 
compositions written by Boccherini for the Marquis of Benavente ; 
but, although these are the work of Boccherini, they are incorrectly 
titled. The popularity of Boccherini's music tempted unscrupulous 
persons to pass upon an unsuspecting public an arrangement of his 
original works under a false title. We have previously mentioned 
that Boccherini was commissioned by the Marquis of Benavente to 
write numerous instrumental pieces, and among such works we 
find Twelve quintets. Now these twelve quintets were originally 
composed for two violins, guitar, alto and 'cello, the manuscripts 
being in the possession of the Marquis of Benavente. Some years 
after these were written, the Marquis was compelled, on account of 
political troubles, to flee from Spain, and he sought refuge in 
France, at Bordeaux, and being in straightened circumstances, 
he endeavoured to turn to pecuniary account every available asset. 
Fully aware of the popularity of Boccherini's music, he brought 
forth the manuscripts of the series of twelve quintets, as yet un- 
published, and offered them to Leduc. The original instrumentation 
for two violins, guitar, alto and 'cello was not in accordance with 
the requirements of the majority of French instrumentalists, as 
the guitar did not enjoy the same amount of popularity in France 
as in Spain. The music publisher, therefore, made arrangements 
for the guitar parts of the series of quintets to be adapted for a 
second alto. This delicate work was entrusted to M. Garnault, a 
graduate of the Royal Conservatoire of Music, who was at that 
time engaged as a professor of music in La Rochelle. This able 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 49 

musician accomplished his task with care, and made similar 
arrangements for six of the series out of the twelve, but only three 
were published out of the promised number. Boccherini's sixth 
quintet, Op. 30, which was published in 1780, is a nocturne entitled : 
The music of Madrid, and nothing more original in design and 
construction could possibly be conceived. In this composition it 
was Boccherini's desire to illustrate the music that could be heard 
throughout the night, from sunset to sunrise, in the streets of the 
city. The solemn, plaintive strains of the ecclesiastical orders are 
intermingled with the dancing and merrymaking of the people, 
accompanied by the lively click of their castagnets, their tam- 
bourines and guitars, the " rasgado " of the latter instruments being 
reproduced with particular effect. All these novelties, portrayed 
with such realistic accuracy, lend an enchantment to this quintet of 
the most extraordinary interest and singularity. 

For the Marquis of Benavente, and many other guitarists, 
Boccherini wrote innumerable compositions of various classes. His 
facility in composition was so great that he has been described as a 
fountain whose stream never ceased. His published compositions 
alone amount to about three hundred works, and it is to be regretted 
that many of his pieces, particularly his guitar works, are in manu- 
script. Colonel Charmont, of Montezeville, near Verdun, France, 
brought back from Madrid, in 1812, a considerable quantity of 
original compositions and arrangements for the guitar by this 
celebrated writer ; but, after the death of Colonel Charmont, this 
priceless collection of guitar music was, unfortunately lost, and 
although the relatives of Colonel Charmont instituted searching 
inquiry, they failed to recover or even trace its whereabouts. 
Boccherini's First, fourth, and sixth quintets for two violins, alto, 
guitar and bass, Op. 46, were published by Pleyel, Paris, and M. 
Cotelle, successor of Janet & Cotelle, music publishers, at one time 
possessed the autograph score of these inspired compositions. 
Boccherini also wrote for his patron, the Marquis of Benavente, in 
1799, a Symphony concertante for grand orchestra of two first 
violins, two second, oboe, guitar, viola, horns, bassoon, 'cello and 
bass, and in addition, nine other quintets for two violins, guitar, 
alto and bass. Towards the end of his career, Boccherini was 
reduced to abject poverty and misery, the unfortunate condition 
of Spain deprived him of patrons, and he thus lingered till death 
released him from his troubles, May 28, 1805. 

Boccomini, Giuseppe, was born in Florence during the latter part 
of the eighteenth century and was living in Rome in 1820. He was 
a guitarist and composer and the author of several compositions for 
his instrument, also songs with guitar accompaniment. In 1810 he 
was teaching the guitar in Rome and in 1812 he wrote his method 
for the guitar, entitled : Grammatica per Chitarre Francesce ridotta 
ed accresciuta, which was published the same year by Piatti of 



50 (,IITAK AND MANDOLIN. 

Rome. He is the author of Six waltzes for guitar solo, published 
by Peters, Leipzig, an air from Rossini's Tancredi, written as a 
sonata for guitar and numerous vocal solos and duos with guitar 
accompaniment, which were published in 1820 by Ricordi, Milan. 

Boom, Jan van, born in Rotterdam in 1773, was a celebrated flute 
virtuoso and the composer of many works for Mute and guitar. There 
is a scarcity of information to be obtained respecting his early life 
previous to the year 1806, when he became associated as musician 
in the band of King Louis Bonaparte. At this time he was living 
in Utrecht as flautist of the Chapel Royal, and he retained this 
position till the time of the disunion of France and Holland. During 
the years 1809 and 1810 he undertook several concert tours through 
Germany, where he received great praise for his brilliant perform- 
ances on his instrument. He was in the highest degree a virtuoso 
and his playing of bravura pieces, of his own composition, excited 
the wildest enthusiasm among his audiences. Boom's compositions 
are accordingly for the chief part bravura compositions ; but among 
his fifty published works there are several of artistic beauty, notably 
his duos for flute and guitar. These two instruments in combination 
were exceedingly popular during the end of the eighteenth century 
and stand unparalleled in their association as duo instruments for 
chamber music. Boom's first publication was a Sonata for flute 
and piano, published by Plattner, Rotterdam, and we enumerate 
the following variations, as Duos for flute and guitar, Op. 2, 12 
and 19. He is the author also of Op. 5. Theme with variations 
for guitar and quartet, which was published by Plattner, Rotterdam, 
and also numerous compositions of lesser importance for flute and 
guitar and two flutes and guitar. Of the latter we find Twelve 
waltzes for two flutes and guitar, published by Schott, London. 
Boom has also written several works for flute and orchestra and 
flute and piano. His son Jan, who was born at Utrecht, October 
15, 1809, was trained as a pianist, and after a tour through Denmark 
and Sweden, settled at Stockholm, where in 1856 he became professor 
in the Academy and Music School. In 1862 he was commissioned 
by the government to visit the chief capitals of Europe to examine 
the various systems of musical education. 

Bornhardt, J. H. C, born in Brunswick, 1774, and was living in 
1840. He was a virtuoso on the guitar, a good pianist, and a 
musician of some renown, principally in northern Germany. 
Bornhardt was a prolific composer for the flute and guitar, and also 
the writer of popular songs ; but the flute and guitar claimed his 
greater attention. He made a tour through his native land as 
guitarist receiving the praise of musicians, and he also taught his 
instruments in the principal cities on his route and then resided 
alternately in Hamburg, Leipzig, and Berlin for lengthy periods. 
During his lifetime his instrumental compositions were favoured 
with a large amount of success ; they are now almost forgotten. 







;:r-v 



■■■*»'} 




& f&oxM: 




BARTOLOMEO BORTOLAZZI. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 51 

His songs and romances, which usually have guitar and flute 
accompaniments, won for Bornhardt a widespread reputation and 
he is also known as the author of two methods for the guitar and one 
for the piano. His guitar methods passed several editions and thev 
have been honoured by translation and revision by several eminent 
guitarists. They were published— one edition revised by Chotek 
and issued by Haslmger, Vienna ; another revision by Hoffmann 
published by Andre, Offenbach ; and also an edition issued by 
bchott^ Mayence. The best known of his instrumental compositions 
are: Op. 53, 130, 146, Trios for guitar, flute and alto, published 
by Bachmann, Hanover; Op. Ill, Sixteen duets for flute and 
guitar; Op. 51, Three themes with variations for guitar solo • 
The Sentinelled for flute, violin and guitar ; Eight variations for 
guitar, violin and violoncello ; many volumes of dances for guitar 
solo, and flute and guitar ; The Concertmaster, a musical scherzo 
for solo voice with violin, flute and guitar ; six duos for two voices' 
with two guitars, and innumerable other compositions for the guitar 
published by Paez, Berlin; Breitkopf& Hartel, Leipzig; Rudolphus,' 
Altona ; and Bohme, Hamburg. 

Bortolazzi, Bartolomeo, was born in Venice, in the year 1773 of 
musical parents, and when quite a child studied the mandolin. \\t 
a very early age he made concert tours through northern Italy, meet- 
ing with considerable success. In the vear 1800, he visited England 
where he was well received, remaining in this country for two vears.' 
I his artist, by his extraordinary talent, produced the most wonderful 
and unheard-of nuances of tone and charms of expression, at that 
time deemed scarcely possible on so small an instrument. Instead 
of the monotonous, nasal tone which had hitherto been produced he 
so manipulated the strings and plectrum that he opened an enlarged 
sphere of capabilities for the instrument. It is to Bortolazzi that 
we are indebted for the first revival of the mandolin as a popular 
instrument, a popularity which lasted for about thirty years and 
caused most of the great musicians of that time to compose for it 
In the beginning of the year 1801 Bortolazzi commenced the study 
of the guitar, and so great was his natural ability that the next year 
he was performing and teaching this instrument also, to the elite of 
London society. Whilst residing in London he composed many 
works for voices and guitar, and piano and guitar, dedicating one 
of the latter compositions to his pupil, the Duchess of York this 
being published by Monzani & Hill, London. In 1803 he had 
quitted London and was touring professionally through Germany 
giving concerts in all the important cities with his usual success' 
He appeared the same year in Dresden, and in Leipzig, Brunswick 
and Berlin the year following, where critics and musicians were 
unanimous in their praise of his performances. After this his last 
concert tour, he settled in Vienna in 1805, and devoted himself to 
teaching and composition. Among his published works we find a 



$2 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

method for the guitar entitled : New theoretical and practical guitar 
school, Op. 21 ; and a method for the mandolin entitled : School for 
the mandolin, violin system. The guitar method was published in 
French and German by Haslinger, Vienna ; it was a standard work 
in Austria during the first part of the nineteenth century, and met 
with such success that it had passed through eight editions up to the 
year 1833. The first eleven chapters, of his method are devoted to 
the theoretical part, and the twelfth concerns the instrument. After 
these twelve introductory chapters, follow scales, cadenzas, and 
studies in all keys, arranged progressively, and thirty exercises on 
arpeggios, the work being concluded with a fantasia of three pages 
for guitar solo. 

The mandolin method, which was issued by Breitkopf & Hartel, 
of Leipzig, in 1805, has also passed through many editions, the latest 
revised by Engelbert Rontgen, this being published in the German 
language. The first lesson describes the mandolin and its various 
types (lute, Milanese, Cremona and Neapolitan mandolins, etc)., 
and it is followed by various exercises for the management of the 
plectrum. It treats of arpeggios, harmonics, etc., and concludes 
with a theme and six variations for mandolin with guitar accompani- 
ment ; but this mandolin method is of no use to present-day students, 
being completely out-of-date. Bortolazzi was the composer of many 
simple, yet beautiful songs, which were very popular during his life, 
and among other of his published compositions we mention the 
following: Op. 5, Six Italian songs xcitli guitar ; Op. 8, Variations 
for mandolin and guitar, published in 1804 by Breitkopf & Hartel, 
Leipzig, and also by Cappi, Vienna; Op. 9, Sonata for mandolin 
and piano, same publishers ; Op. 10, Six themes with variations 
(in two volumes) for mandolin and guitar ; and Op. 11, Six Italian 
songs with guitar, Simrock, Bonn; Op. 13, Six variations for 
guitar with violin obbligato ; Op. 19, Twelve variations concertante 
for guitar and piano, Haslinger, Vienna; Op. 20, Six French 
romances with guitar ; Twelve airs for guitar solo; and Rondo 
for guitar and piano in A, Concha, Berlin ; Sonata for guitar and 
piano, Peters, Leipzig; Six variations for violin and guitar, Spehr, 
Brunswick ; Six dances and twelve books of guitar solos, Haslinger, 
Vienna; Six Venetian songs with guitar, published in 1802 by 
Chappell, London; Today, a trio for three voices with piano, 
dedicated to Count Waldestein, and printed for the author in 1801, 
London ; Cantate a Voccasion de la reception d'un frere, London, 
1801,; Maurer lied, London 1802, and numerous other similar 
works published in London and on the continent. Twelve variations 
for guitar remain in manuscript in Dresden and several others in 
Vienna. His portrait is reproduced from an engraving by Scheffner, 
after Kattner, published by Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig. 

Bott, J. J., born March 9, 1826, in Cassel, Germany, is renowned 
as a violin virtuoso only ; but he was equally skilful on the guitar, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 53 

and has published several solos for this instrument. Bott, was the 
son of a violinist and his first musical instruction on the piano and 
violin, was given by his father. So marked was his progress, that 
when he was eight years of age he appeared at numerous public 
concerts as a performer. At this juncture he also studied the guitar, 
and Spohr taught him the violin until he was fourteen years of age, 
after which he gave concerts as violinist in Frankfort, Breslau, and 
other important German cities with great success. After this tour 
he studied harmony with Hauptmann, and in 1849, when he was 
twenty-three years of age, Bott was nominated Court Concertmaster, 
and three years later was appointed Capellmeister to the King, in 
which position he worked conjointly with Spohr. In 1858 he visited 
London, where he performed at the Philharmonic Society's concerts, 
David's Fonrtli concerto. Bott is the author of several com- 
positions for the violin, and also a few for the guitar, the principal 
of the latter being Op. 19, Five valses and two ecossaises for 
guitar solo, published by Schott, Mayence ; and Op. 25, Six waltzes 
for guitar solo, published by Andre, Offenbach; both these publica- 
tions are now out of print. 

Boulley (Du), Aubery Prudent Louis, was a guitarist and com- 
poser for the guitar of exceptional ability. He was born at 
Verneuil in the department of L'Eure, France, December 9, 1796, 
and died there February, 1870. His father being a talented 
amateur musician, gave his son instruction in the elements of music 
and the flute during the first few years. Boulley, senior, was an 
enthusiast on the flute and horn, and at the age of five the child 
commenced the study of the former instrument. A year later he 
also adopted the horn, and after devoting but two years to the study 
of these instruments, he surprised the musical inhabitants of his 
birthplace by his public performances of difficult concertos on them. 

He also received lessons in harmony from a local teacher, and 
when eleven years of age wrote several marches and dances which 
were published ; these compositions were exceedingly popular in 
his native town, being performed by all the local bands and instru- 
mentalists. After this success, in 1808, his parents sent him to 
Paris, where he entered the Conservatoire of Music and for seven 
years until 1815 studied in that institution under Monsigny, Mehul 
and Cherubini. Boulley also studied the guitar under Ferdinand 
Carulli and evinced a marked predilection for this instrument. 
During the interruption in the Conservatoire of Music, in 1815, he 
made a journey to London, where he published several guitar solos 
and songs with guitar accompaniment, but he did not stay long, 
leaving the same year for Verneuil, his birthplace, where he settled 
and married. He was enthusiastic in his devotion to music, and he 
appeared as instrumental soloist, frequently guitarist, at all the 
concerts given in Verneuil and the adjacent towns of Evreux, Ivry 
and Dreux. At this time, and even as late as 1820, he was not 



54 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

wholly engaged in the musical profession, although he had received 
a thorough training and was enraptured by the art. Notwithstanding 
his numerous business occupations, he still found time to compose, 
and in 1824 he brought out an opera entitled : Les Amants 
Querelleurs (" The lovers' quarrels ") which was produced at the 
Opera Comique, Paris. The success of this work was cut short in 
consequence of the author of the libretto refusing its performance 
in vaudeville. Boulley wrote at the same date numerous instru- 
mental compositions, principally guitar solos, duos, quartets, etc., 
which were published by the chief editors of Paris. 

In 1827 Boulley was compelled to relinquish music teaching — 
his health failed him, and he showed grave signs of pulmonary 
consumption. Acting upon medical advice, he retired to the country 
village of Grosbois,not far distant from Verneuil, and here he occupied 
himself with agriculture, with the object of restoring his health. 
This new labour and environment could not, however, nullify his 
love or work in the cause of music, for he devoted his leisure to 
writing several theoretical treatises and methods of instruction, and 
of these the most important were his Dictionary of music, published 
in 1830, and a Complete method for the guitar, Op. 118. He had 
previously published a method for the same instrument in the 
Spanish language, Op. 42, Richault, Paris. While Boulley was 
living at Grosbois, the National Guard of France was established 
throughout the country, and this organization in Verneuil presented 
an opportunity to Boulley of forming a military band. He gathered 
together a body of forty musicians whom he trained so thoroughly 
in the art, that this band was the pride and envy of the whole 
district. Owing to the popularity of this combination of instru- 
mentalists Boulley was exceedingly famous as a conductor. His 
perseverance was now rewarded with success, for he organized and 
conducted numerous other military bands in surrounding towns, and 
it must be noted that even in the village of Grosbois, where he 
lived, he maintained an efficient band of twenty-three performers, 
consisting of two bugles, ten clarionets, four trombones, a horn, 
an alto ophicleide, two bass ophicleides, and three tympani. In 
this manner Boulley rendered valuable service in popularizing 
instrumental music. 

The musical compositions of Boulley are as numerous as they 
are varied in character — he published more than one hundred and 
fifty. For the first part of his life he was enthusiastically devoted 
to the guitar, but, as in the case of the guitarist, Kuffner, upon the 
introduction of military bands he turned his attention to the popular 
wind instruments. Boulley's first compositions were sonatas, 
marches and dances for the pianoforte, and they were published by 
Joly, Paris. He is the author of many operas and symphonies for 
orchestra. Op. 69, Septet for violin, alto, 'cello, flute, horn, 
clarionet and guitar ; Op. 76, Quintet for guitar, violin, flute, alto 
and piano ; Op. 56, 66, 72, 74, 80 and 82, Six quartets for guitar, 




C. A. BRACCO. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 55 

piano, flute and violin, which were all published by Richault, Paris ; 
Op. 32, 54 and 83, Three trios for guitar, alto, and piano ; Op. 29, 
Trio for guitar, violin and 'cello; Op. 31, 38, 46, 52, 67, 70, 78, 
81, 110, Duos for guitar and piano ; Op. 50, 75 and 115, Duos for 
two guitars ; Op. 60, 62 and 64, Duos for violin and guitar ; Op. 
87, 88 and 94, Duos for flute and guitar ; Op. 68, Five volumes of 
duos for piano and guitar ; Op. 79, Romance and polonaise for 
guitar solo. In addition to the foregoing we find several funeral 
marches and other compositions for military bands- -two Methods 
for the guitar which were popular at the beginning of the last 
century, and numerous other solos for guitar, collections of duos for 
violin and guitar, two guitars, piano solos, and songs with guitar 
accompaniment, published by Richault, Meissonnier, and Janet, in 
Paris, and George & Manby, London. 

Bracco. C. A., an Italian mandolinist, violinist and conductor, 
deserving notice by his compositions for mandolin band. He was 
born in northern Italy about the middle of the nineteenth century 
and died in 1903. Bracco was a cultivated musician and musical 
conductor in Genoa and Orvieto, Italy. In the latter town he was 
for some years conductor of the municipal orchestra, and in Genoa 
was conductor of the mandolin and guitar band, "Club Musicale 
Genovese " to the members of which he dedicated his symphonic 
overture, / mandolini a congresso. Bracco was also conductor 
of the Philharmonic Society of Certosa, and the Banda Operaia 
Genovese. His composition / mandolini a congresso, scored for 
two mandolins, mandola, lute and guitar was in 1902 awarded the 
gold medal in the musical competition organised by the proprietors 
of the mandolin and guitar periodical // mandolitio of Turin. It 
appeared originally in the June 1902 number of this journal, and was 
an immediate and pronounced success being included in the reper- 
toire of all European mandolin bands of importance or note. It was 
the most classic and original composition for these instruments at 
the date of its publication. Its tuneful melodies, and interesting 
changes of tempo, its artistic and effective scoring for each instru- 
ment individually, proclaimed an advance in the style of composition 
for this combination of instruments, and it maintains to the present 
day its exalted position among original works for mandolin bands. As 
an instance of the favour in which this is held, it may be mentioned 
that during the International contests for mandolin bands held at 
Boulogne, France, 1909, the number of contestants choosing this 
publication as the selection of their own choice was so great as to 
cause unusual remarks from a member of the jury. 

Bracco was not a prolific composer (he was the author of several 
operettas and ballets which were produced in his native land) but 
his published works are principally for mandolin and guitar or 
violin and piano, and were issued solely in Italy. His portrait is 
from an original autograph photo presented by Bracco to the author 
a few years previous to the former's decease. 



56 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Brand, Alexander, there are three German guitarists of the name 
of Brand who obtained renown in their native land ; but whether 
they are of relationship cannot be said. Alexander, the first of these, 
lived during the commencement of the nineteenth century and pub- 
lished several compositions for his instrument including : Brilliant 
quartet for violin, alto, 'cello and guitar ; Trio for violin, alto and 
guitar; Six waltzes for guitar solo; Six brilliant waltzes for 
violin and guitar; and other compositions for violin and piano 
which were issued by Schott, Mayence. 

Brand, Frederick, the most celebrated of the guitarists of this 
name was living in Wurzburg, Germany, at an advanced age in the 
year 1880, and was for many years conductor of the cathedral choir 
of that city. He was one of the last of the guitar virtuosi and 
obtained fame as a player and composer throughout his native land. 
In 1816 he was living and teaching in Mannheim, and in that year 
married Miss Danzi of this city. He afterwards removed to Frank- 
fort and Wurzburg and it was in the latter place that he met the 
guitar virtuoso Adam Darr. Darr at this time was a private tutor 
in the family of an English gentleman who was resident in this city 
and it was not long before the two guitar players became known to 
each other, an acquaintance was formed that ripened into close friend- 
ship. The two artists performed guitar duos at many public and 
private concerts with much success in Wurzburg, after which they 
undertook a concert tour together, passing through southern Germany. 
In numerous public and private engagements they astonished their 
audiences by marvellous performances both in the role as guitar 
soloists, in duos for two guitars and also in vocal items with guitar 
accompaniments. The flattering notices of praise and admiration 
that preceded these two artists from town to town, combined with 
the enthusiastic receptions that greeted them in their concerts, gave 
the semblance of a series of triumphant marches. In addition to 
publishing compositions for the guitar, Brand also wrote several 
pieces for the piano. Op. 3, 7, 8, 10, Themes with variations for 
guitar solo; Op. 18, Eight simple duets for two guitars; and 
numerous dances, operatic airs, etc., and easy compositions, without 
opus numbers, for one and two guitars, are published by Pacini, 
Paris, and Schott, Mayence ; two volumes of operatic airs for flute 
and guitar and numerous collections of German songs with guitar 
accompaniment, four volumes of which, in addition to the com- 
positions enumerated above, are published by Schott, Mayence. A 
manuscript composition of Brand for solo guitar with orchestral 
accompaniment, written in 1852, was in the possession of the late 
Otto Hammerer, of Augsburg, and is a fantasia on a theme from 
Bellini's Romeo and Juliet. There is a Method for the guitar by 
Brand which is published by Breitkopf and Hartel ; but the christian 
name of the author is not known. 

Brand, J. P. de,, was living in Germany during the latter part of 




PREDERIi K BK \\l ». 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 57 

the eighteenth century and is the author of a Sonata in C major 
for guitar and violin, which was published by Breitkopf & Hartel, 
Leipzig. 

Branzoli, Giuseppe, born in Cento, near Bologna, Italy, died 
January 21, 1909, in Rome. As a young man he was gifted with 
exceptional musical talent and made rapid progress on the violin, 
which he studied in his native town. He was fond of music and it 
was not long before he commenced to teach the instrument in Cento, 
afterwards removing to a more important and enlarged sphere in 
Bologna. It was in this city that he made himself known as a com- 
poser, being at the time engaged as first violinist in the orchestra of the 
Theatre Apollo in Rome. In 1870, after the loss of his son Pietro — 
who was born in Cento — Branzoli suffered considerably" from 
melancholy, and during these severe attacks of depression, neglected 
his art ; but it ultimately emerged victorious and he was once more 
occupied in its ministrations, now in the orchestra of the Theatre 
Massimo in Rome. With renewed energy and devotion he dedicated 
himself to music as a means to stifle and conquer his grief. He 
interested himself in the founding of the Liceo Musicale di St. Cecilia 
in Rome, and to this day his name may be seen carved in the 
masonry of the entrance hall. Branzoli was appointed a professor 
of harmony in the new institution : he had previously been the con- 
ductor of the Philharmonic Society and a professor of stringed 
instruments. While in Rome he commenced the literary branch of 
musical art, devoting his attention principally to historical musical 
research, and in this he had the co-operation of Professor Rodolfo 
Berwin, who, like himself, was engaged in the library of the Royal 
Liceo Musicale di St. Cecilia and of which institution Branzoli was 
for some years librarian. He was intensely anxious for the advance- 
ment of the mandolin and guitar, and, fired with this one ambition he 
founded a music journal in Rome, the first number of which was 
published January 15, 1907. This periodical, II mandolino Romano, 
was issued in the interests of the mandolin and guitar and contained 
historical articles concerning these instruments, contributed by 
Branzoli, in addition to music by various composers. He continued 
this journal up to his death, January 21, 1909, and in the following 
number of this periodical, an eulogistic sketch and appreciation of 
his career was published, with an elegy to his memory — a duo for 
mandolin and guitar — composed and dedicated by Cav: Modesto 
Rasa. This journal was continued for two years after his demise 
and then ceased publication. 

Branzoli was the author of various compositions, for the violin, 
mandolin, flute and violoncello in particular, and some church 
music; but his principal works are his methods of instruction. He 
has left several unpublished manuscripts for mandolin, guitar, etc., 
and an elegy, Op. 18, for orchestra, entitled : A tear over the tomb 
of Meyerbeer, is in the possession of Ricordi, Milan. His Theoretical 



58 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

and practical method for the mandolin was originally published by 
Franchi in L 875 and was afterwards acquired by Yenturini. It is 
issued in the French and English languages and proved very success- 
ful, consisting of two books, each containing progressive studies in 
the form of sonatas, and also duos for two mandolins. In 1888 it 
obtained the first prize at the International Music Exhibition of 
Bologna, and in 1890 Branzoli revised and augmented it and the 
same year the new edition was awarded a similar honour at the 
Palace of Industry Exhibition in Paris. Branzoli also wrote a 
Theoretcial and practical method for the Milanese mandolin, pub- 
lished in Italian and French, and issued by the publishers of his 
Scigolidita (Studies of velocity) for the mandolin. Part i. of this 
series contains forty-eight exercises in the first position and part ii. 
forty studies in all positions, in addition to arpeggios and chords. 
Both his method for the guitar and that for the lute, contain a short 
history and illustrations of the respective instrument. About a dozen 
of his compositions were for mandolin band, but these did not attain 
the popularity of his methods ; his name, however, is highly esteemed 
by all mandolinists and a mandolin band of repute in Rome was 
known as the '* Mandolinistica Branzoli." Branzoli was the author 
of two operas : Torquato Tasso and Sorrento, both being represented 
in Rome Avith success. His musical research was made public in 
two literary volumes: The lute and its story and Historical hand- 
book for violinists. Both display his erudite knowledge of these 
subjects: they are fully illustrated and written in an attractive, 
commendable style. In his volume, Historical and practical 
method for the lute, dedicated to H.M. Queen Margherita, Branzoli 
describes himself as " Honorary Professor of the Royal Academy 
of St. Cecilia, Rome, and also of other scientific societies." This is 
one of the most valuable treatises on the instrument, containing 
diagrams of ancient lutes, including an illustration of a specimen 
made by Stradivari in 1700. The practical part treats of the ancient 
notation for the lute, with numerous examples of lute music by 
ancient writers, transcribed in modern notation by Branzoli. This 
work was published in 1891 by Venturini, Florence. 

Brecneo. Luis, a Spaniard who lived during the seventeenth 
century, who was a skilful guitarist and composer for the guitar. 
He is the author of a method for the guitar which is rarely met 
with. It was published under the title of Metodo may facillima 
para aprender a taner la gnitarra a lo Espanol, or (Easy method 
for learning to play the Spanish guitar). This work was published 
in 1626 by Pierre Ballard, Paris. Brecneo was a contemporary of 
Mersenne, and the latter in his treatise on Universal Harmony, 
speaks in eulogistic terms of the guitarist Brecneo. 

Bremner, Robert, born in Scotland about 1720, and died in 
Kensington, London, May 12, 1798, was one of the earliest British 
teachers of the guitar. He was also a professor of singing, and 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 59 

about 1748 established a business in Edinburgh as a music seller, 
under the sign of the " Harp and Hoboy." He subsequently com- 
menced business in London, under the same sign and opposite 
Somerset House in the Strand." Bremner has written a method for 
the guitar under the title of Instructions for the guitar, and has ar- 
ranged many collections of his national songs. His most widely 
known were, Twelve Scots songs for voice and guitar with a 
thorough bass adapted for that instrument, published in Edinburgh 
in 1760 ; songs in the Gentle Shepherd, arranged with guitar accom- 
paniment, published in Edinburgh 1759, and many others published 
in that city, and also in London. He was the author of Rudiments 
of Music with Psalmody, a work which passed many editions, and 
Thoughts on the performance of concert music ; but his name will 
be remembered principally as the author of the favourite Scotch 
hymn tune Dunfermline. 

Brunet, Pierre, a French musician who lived in Paris during the 
middle of the seventeenth century, a teacher of the mandola in 
that city. He is the author of a Tablature de Mandore, which 
was published by Adrien le Roy, Paris, in 1578. Mandore is the 
ancient name of an instrument similar to the mandola — the tenor 
instrument of the mandolin family — the mandore or mandola being 
of earlier origin than the mandolin. The latter instrument derived 
its name from the former, and thus the mandolin is, as its name 
signifies, a small mandola. 

Burgmuller, Frederic, born 1806 at Ratisbon, and died in 1874. 
From early infancy he studied music, and in 1829 he visited Cassel 
to study under Spohr. He appeared as a pianist at his first concert 
given January 14, 1830, and won great praise. In 1832 he travelled 
to Paris, and it was while he was residing in this city that he 
composed the music to the ballet, La Peri. He wrote a great 
number of educational works for the piano, which are particularly 
valuable for their accuracy in the matter of expression and musical 
orthography. He is the author of three very beautiful nocturnes 
for violin or 'cello with guitar accompaniment, entitled : Les 
murmures de la Rhone, they are written respectively in A minor, 
F, and C. He has also composed several songs with guitar and 
piano accompaniments, and an English edition of his three duos for 
violin and guitar was published by Wessell & Co., London : the 
works being originally issued by Schott, Mayence. 

Butignot, Alphonse, born August 15, 1780, at Lyons, died in 1814 
in Paris. He was admitted as a student of the Conservatoire of 
Music of his native city (the 25 germinal an IX) and made remark- 
able progress, obtaining in 1803 the first prize in harmony. Butignot 
was an excellent guitarist and skilful musician, whose brilliant career 
was terminated by pulmonary consumption, just as prosperity and 
fame began to dawn. He is the author of a Method for the guitar 



60 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

and also solos for the same instrument, which were published by 
Boieldieu, Paris. 

Buttinger, Charles Conrad, born Mayence in 1788 was a skilful 
performer on many instruments, principally the violin, flute, guitar 
and piano, and an instrumental composer of some repute. He re- 
ceived a thorough musical education during his youth, and in 1819 
was appointed Director of Music in Fribourg, Germany, a position 
which he retained for eight years. In 1827 he removed to Breslau 
where he was constantly engaged as a teacher and performer. 
Buttinger has published much instrumental music, also a mass, a 
melodrama for choir and orchestra, several works for the bassoon, 
many songs with guitar and flute accompaniment, and guitar solos. 
A sonata, for guitar solo, many collections of original songs with 
guitar accompaniment, and other transcriptions with guitar and flute 
are published by Schott, Mayence. 

(^ALEGARI, Francesco, an Italian guitarist, who was born in 
^"" / Florence at the end of the eighteenth century, but who spent a 
considerable part of his life in Germany, where he taught the guitar 
and published many of his compositions. As a guitar virtuoso he 
made concert tours, visiting Milan and other cities of the north of 
Italy, and he also appeared in his native city with success, and a 
few years later travelled through Germany, playing in Leipzig and 
Brunswick. He visited Paris, and finally returned to Leipzig, 
where he resided as a teacher and composer. Calegari has arranged 
numerous operatic selections for two guitars, and violin and guitar, 
and is the author of two volumes, each containing eight operatic 
selections for solo guitar, the latter entitled : // dilettante di 
chitarra, were published by Ricordi, Milan. His other published 
compositions consist of a method for the guitar, fantasias, interludes, 
rondos and dances for guitar alone. Op. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 
and 17 are guitar solos, which were published respectively by 
Hofmeister, Leipzig, and Ricordi, Milan, and by other editors of 
less repute in Florence and Brunswick. Op. 13 and 15 are duos 
for two guitars, and Op. 16 is a Polonaise of Pleyel, arranged by 
Calegari for violin and guitar, published by Hofmeister, Leipzig. 

Caliginoso, or " The Furious," was the nom-de-plume of an un- 
known Italian guitarist, the author of the following interesting 
method for guitar : / quatro libri delta chitarra Spagnuola, nelli 
quali si contengono tutte le sonate ordinarie, semplice e Passegiate, 
con una nuova inventione di passacalli Spagnoli variati, ciacone, 
follie zarabande, aire diversi, toccate musicali, balletti, correnti 
volte, gagliarde, alcniande con alcitne sonate picicate al niodo del 
lento con le sue regole per imparare a sonarle facilissimamente, 
Novaniente composto e dotto in luce. With the exception of the 
three pages which contain the rules for playing the Spanish guitar, 
and which are preceded by a portrait of the author, this work which 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 61 

forms one volume in quarto, is entirely engraved in copper, as is 
also the frontispiece, which has neither date, name of publisher, or 
town. In the preface for playing the guitar, it may be seen that 
the author had previously published three other works of his 
composition, and that this was the fourth. 

CaN, (De) Leonard, was born in a village of southern Germany 
in 1779 and died at Vienna in 1815. Call won renown as a com- 
poser for the guitar in combination with other instruments, and also 
as a writer of part songs and choruses for male voices. He was 
also a recognized virtuoso on the mandolin and guitar, although the 
number of his public appearances was limited, owing to his constant 
employment as a composer. From infancy he studied music, his 
attention being directed to the practice of the mandolin, guitar and 
flute. He commenced to make a name in the musical world in the 
year 1801, and at this date, when just over twenty years of age, he 
commenced his professional career in Vienna as a teacher of the 
mandolin and guitar, and while thus engaged wrote several com- 
positions for these instruments, which met with instant success and 
were greatly appreciated in Germany, by reason of their flowing 
melodies and the simplicity of their execution. These works obtained 
for him immediate fame and brilliant success, and they were followed 
by several vocal compositions, the popularity of which exceeded his 
first publications, and Call's songs contributed greatly to the for- 
mation of the maimer gesangvereine of Germany during the 
commencement of the nineteenth century. It must be remembered, 
however, that his first compositions, and the majority of his works, 
were composed for mandolin or violin, flute and guitar. In a very 
short period his publications attained such extraordinary popularity 
that the music publishers were becoming wealthy on his music. 
He was now importuned by various publishers for other com- 
positions and we find after the lapse of a few years, more than one 
hundred and fifty instrumental publications, in addition to numbers 
that appeared in albums. The catalogues of the publishers also 
contained about twenty various collections of vocal compositions 
alone, each collection comprising about one hundred and forty items 
for one or more voices. Call's instrumental compositions consisted 
principally of solos for the guitar, duos, trios, quartets and quintets 
in combination with the guitar, the other instruments being most 
frequently violins, flute, 'cello and oboe. These were supplemented 
by numerous lighter compositions, and at intervals, collections of 
songs for three and four male voices — several with guitar accompani- 
ment— which met with prodigious success, Call being one of the first 
to make this class of music popular throughout Germany. As is 
frequently the case with composers of popular music, the splendour 
of Call's success and fertility, waned in the course of a few years and 
if he had not died at the early age of thirty-six, he would have 
lived to perceive a profound forgetfulness of the popularity he once 



62 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

enjoyed as a musical author. He seldom appeared as a performer, 
but was employed in teaching until his death in Vienna in 1815. 
Being of a quiet and reserved disposition, he formed but few ac- 
quaintances, and at his death he was mourned by a wife and young 
children and a few intimate friends. Call was the author of a 
Method for the guitar, which obtained success in its day and passed 
through several editions, although at the present time this work is 
practically unknown. The following are the principal instrumental 
publications of this writer: Op. 8, 16, 25 and 111, Variations for 
mandolin or violin and guitar, published by Haslinger, Vienna ; 
Op. 108, Grand sonata concertante in C for mandolin and guitar ; 
Op. 3, 9, 118, 121 and 130, quartets or quintets for guitar, violin, alto 
and 'cello. Call also published about forty trios for guitar with flute, 
violin or alto : these are too numerous to mention in detail, but are 
of interest as examples of chamber music, in which the guitar par- 
ticipates. In his duos for violin and guitar, Call was very successful, 
and he published more than thirty of these for violin or 'cello with 
guitar and also more than twenty duos for two guitars, and a like 
number for guitar and piano. The best of the latter duos are, Op. 
74, Sonata ; the Serenades, Op. 76, 116, 105 and 143, and Op. 26, 
an Easy trio in C for three guitars. Many of Call's vocal composi- 
tions were written with guitar accompaniment: Op. 113 and 135 
being two volumes of songs with guitar, and Op. 136 a Terzett for 
soprano, tenor and bass with accompaniment of flute and guitar and 
another for the same voices entitled : The Schoolmaster, with guitar 
accompaniment. Call contributed several vocal compositions to 
Orpheus, which was a collection of part songs or vocal quartets by 
celebrated German composers, with English words, published in parts 
and compressed score. It was commenced by Messrs. Ewer of 
London about 1840 and has been continued to the present day by 
their successors, Novello & Co. Call's solos for the guitar were of 
simple execution and do not rank with those of Giuliani, Sor and 
other virtuosi, and it is not as a writer of guitar solos that he is 
renowned. 

Call, Thomas, an Englishman, who was living in London in 1760, 
the author of the following : " The Tunes and Hymns as they are 
used at the Magdalen Chapel, properly set for the Organ, Harpsi- 
chord and Guittar, by Thomas Call, organist. Printed for, and sold 
by Thomas Call at his Lodgings at Mr. Bennett's Stay Ware House, 
near Great Turn Stile, Holbourn, and at the Magdalen House." A 
curious and interesting caution to the " Publick " appears on the 
second page respecting the infringement of the copyright of ' Mr. 
Call's Tunes. This volume was published in 1760. 

Camerloher, Placidus von, born in Bavaria, 1720, died in 1776, 
at Freising, Bavaria. He was a renowned guitarist and violinist, 
and was appointed Canon of the Basilica of Saint Andrew, at 
Freising, and was afterwards Councillor and Kapellmeister to the 




Kyn: dr. 




MATTEO CARCASS!. 



GUITAR AXD MANDOLIN. 63 

Prince residing there. Camerloher was a prolific composer, and 
has left many operas including Melissa, which was composed for 
the Court of Munich, and produced there in 1739. He is the 
author also of the following published works : six symphonies for 
grand orchestra, twenty-four quartets for guitar with two violins 
and violoncello, eighteen trios, concertos for guitar with accompani- 
ments of two violins, viola and bass, and also with two violins and 
bass, in addition to numerous masses, vespers, etc. Many of his 
compositions for the guitar remain unpublished. 

Campion, Francois, a French guitarist and lutist, who lived 
during the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth 
centuries. In 1703 he was employed in the orchestra of the opera, 
Paris, and he retired in the year 1719 on a pension of £12 per 
annum. The following treatise is among his published works for 
the guitar : Nouvelles decouvertes sur la guitare, contenant 
plusicurs suites de pieces sur Unit manieres differentes d'accorder 
(New discoveries for tne guitar, containing several sets of pieces in 
eight different methods of tuning). This was published in Paris 
in 1705. 

Carbonchi, Antonio, an Italian musician, who was born in 
Florence, at the commencement of the seventeenth century. He 
was engaged in the wars with the Turks, and was created Knight 
of the Order of Tuscany, for valour displayed during the conflict. 
Carbonchi was a born musician and guitar virtuoso, and was one of 
the first guitarists to give a variety of accompaniments to the same 
melody, being the author of a work containing a melody with 
twelve different accompaniments, each particularly suited to the 
guitar. It is entitled : Le dodici chitarre spostate inventate dal 
Cavaliere Antonio Carbonchi, and published in Florence in 1639. 
The same work was republished in 1643 with a new frontispiece 
under the name of Libro secondo di chitarra Spagnuola, con due 
alfabeti uno alia Francesce e Valtro alio Spagnuola ; dedicato 
alia illustriss Sig. Marchese Bartolomeo Corsini. 

Carcassi, Matteo, born in Florence in 1792, and died in Paris, 
January 16, 1853, one of the most renowned of celebrated 
guitarists and composers for the guitar, was a native of Italy. His 
country is pre-eminent for its virtuosi and composers for the guitar 
having given to the world the majority of its most illustrious masters, 
chief of whom we recall Giuliani, Carulli and Legnani. The name 
of Carcassi, however, is more familiar to students of the guitar than 
any other, his compositions and also his exceedingly popular method 
for the guitar are the principal factors of his renown. Comparatively 
little is known concerning his early career, beyond the fact that he- 
studied the guitar in his youth, and by his concentrated efforts and 
natural musical endowments, acquired at a very early age, most 
extraordinary skill upon the instrument. During his teens he had 



64 MANDOLIN AND GUITAR. 

established an enviable reputation as a performer in his native land, 
and when twenty-eight years of age was attracted to Paris, the goal 
of all musicians. Previous to this date he had toured through 
Germany, where his playing had aroused the attention of the whole 
musical community, and he had received requests for compositions 
from the leading music publishers. The first of his works was issued 
by Schott, Mayence, and it consisted of Three sonatas in A and C 
major, for guitar solo, Op. 1. Op. 2, is dedicated to his friend and 
fellow artist, the guitarist Meissonnier, who afterwards established 
a music publishing business in Paris. Carcassi became intimately 
acquainted with Meissonnier while touring through Germany, and 
the two guitarists were the closest of friends during the remainder 
of life, and when established as a music publisher in Paris, 
Meissonnier issued the majority of the compositions of Carcassi. 
In 1822 Carcassi made his first appearance before an English 
audience in London and was received with much favour. He re- 
turned to Paris the same year but visited London for a period each 
succeeding year, during which time he was busily engaged as a 
guitar virtuoso and teacher. During the latter part of the year 1824 
he made another concert tour through Germany, visiting and 
performing in all the important cities, his playing creating much 
enthusiasm. The year 1826 saw him once again in England, and at 
the commencement of the following year he undertook another tour 
through Germany, where he was received with even greater 
enthusiasm than on his previous visits. He returned to London 
during the same season, and was playing at a concert given in June 
in the Royal Opera, when he was the only instrumentalist engaged, 
and on June 30, 1828, he appeared at the Argyle Rooms in company 
with Madame Stockhausen, the celebrated vocalist. It must be 
remembered that Paris was at this period the artistic centre of the 
musical world, and therefore, the goal of all the great guitarists, and 
it was only natural that Carcassi should be drawn thither in search 
of higher fame. His countryman, Carulli, had obtained European 
celebrity by his concert performances, and by his compositions which 
were published in this city, and for many years had drawn to himself 
the favour and patronage of the wealthy Parisians. Carulli's com- 
positions for the guitar, too, were readily purchased by the publishing 
houses, and he enjoyed a most enviable position. His perfect 
mastery of the guitar and the wonderful execution of his own 
compositions, invariably created a furore. Carulli's celebrated 
method for the guitar was at this time the universal favourite, in 
general use, and in addition, he had written and published more than 
three hundred compositions for the guitar, all of which were con- 
ducive to his reputation. But the celebrated founder of this school 
of guitar playing was growing old — his fingers no longer responded 
as they did in their suppleness of youth, and his magic touch had 
disappeared. He did not, consequently, appear so frequently in 
public, and the fickle Parisians were ready to transfer their allegiance 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 65 

to a new guitar virtuoso. Carcassi was a younger man, in the prime 
of life, and he unfolded newer ideas and later methods in guitar 
playing. He introduced a different style of music, more modern, 
full of melody, brilliant, abounding in artistic and pleasing effects, 
and of but medium difficulty. Being fully master of all the varied 
resources of the guitar, he was able to execute his music with 
marvellous skill, and Carcassi very speedily excelled and outshone 
his celebrated and formidable rival, Carulli, in public esteem — a 
circumstance which naturally created some prejudice in the mind of 
Carulli, the acknowledged author of a once celebrated school of 
guitar playing. New ideas were evolved from Carcassi's research 
and imagination, and the musical world is indebted to him for 
numerous perfections in guitar playing. Publishers importuned him 
for his compositions, and the salons of all the artists and the nobility 
of Paris were thrown open to him. In 1836 he returned for the 
first time to his native land, where his reputation had preceded him, 
and during his travels through Italy he was the recipient of numerous 
public favours. Unlike Carulli, Carcassi spent a wandering, restless 
life, making numerous journeys between England and the countries 
of the Continent ; but he eventually took up a somewhat permanent 
residence in Paris, previous to his death, which occurred in that city, 
January 16, 1853. Carcassi's favourite guitar was an Italian instru- 
ment of most beautiful workmanship, constructed of satinwood 
with the then customary peg head. The fingerboard, as was usual 
with Italian guitars, extended only to the body of the instrument, 
the remaining higher notes being obtained from frets inserted on the 
table of the guitar. The name of Carcassi is at the present day 
more familiar than that of any other composer for the guitar, he 
takes a prominent position among the masters of the instrument for 
his originality and individuality, which he indelibly impressed upon 
all his compositions and transcriptions. He perfected the method 
of fingering, introduced many novel effects, and carried the resources 
of the instrument to greater lengths than any guitarist before him. 
Carcassi is the author of a Complete method for tlie guitar, Op. 59. 
This volume, written and dedicated to his pupils, is a scholarly and 
useful work, in fact, one of the best, if not the best compilation of 
its kind. It has been favoured with the widest and most universal 
circulation of any guitar method ever published, and it has enjoyed 
the distinction of being translated, revised, rewritten, condensed, . 
augmented, and mutilated by succeeding guitaristsof every nationality. 
The method is complete in three parts and it was originally issued 
by the publishers of Carcassi's first compositions, Schott of Mayence, 
in German and French, and afterwards in the Spanish and English 
languages. 

The first authorized English translation was edited by F. 
Sacchi, a talented mandolinist and guitarist, and it appeared in 
the English and French languages. The following interesting 
preface to the method was published in the original edition : " In 



66 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

composing this method it was not my intention to produce a scientific 
treatise ; I have simply had in view to facilitate the study of the 
guitar by adopting a system, which in the most clear, simple and 
precise manner, might offer a thorough knolwedge of all the resources 
of this instrument. The flattering reception, which, by artists and 
distinguished amateurs, has up to this day been granted to my works, 
has induced me to publish also the present one. A long experience, 
acquired in the course of my career as a teacher, having afforded me 
useful observations, I thought it advisable to collect them in writing. 
I took the greatest care to dispose on a progressive plan each lesson, 
in order that a pupil totally ignorant of this instrument might learn 
by degrees to play from the first to the last exercise without meeting 
any of those difficulties, which, through their avidity, are too often 
the cause of his getting discouraged. Independently of the fingering 
of the left hand, of which I have very extensively treated, the 
training of the right hand has always appeared to me one of the 
most essential points for succeeding in the acquisition of a steady 
and pleasing execution. I have fingered this hand all through as 
far as the chapter on positions in the second part ; once arrived at 
that stage of practice, the pupil will have acquired sufficient know- 
ledge to enable him unassisted to finger the passages. The third 
part serves only as a recreation, which, however, is not useless ; it 
contains fifty pieces of various character arranged in progressive 
order. By the continual use I have made with my pupils of the 
rules on which this method is based, I can assert that any intelligent 
person who will attentively study this book from beginning to end, 
will acquire a perfect knowledge of the mechanism of the guitar. 
I shall always esteem myself amply rewarded for my labour, if I 
can obtain the certainty of having composed a useful work." 

After an introductory chapter on the rudiments of music, intervals, 
the construction of major and minor scales, a large diagram of the 
instrument and its fingerboard, and a brief list of the most common 
marks of style and tempo, the first chapter commences. This speaks 
of the construction of the guitar, and is illustrated by a diagram of the 
fingerboard and body. The position of holding the instrument, with 
explicit instructions on the manner of setting the strings in vibration 
by the right hand, numerous examples of arpeggios, preludes, and 
simple pieces, arranged progressively and in such a manner as to 
facilitate their application, comprise the first thirty-seven pages— 
the end of the first part. The second part is devoted to the perform- 
ance of slurs, trills, vibrato, sons etouffes and other effects, giving 
practical examples, with the positions, scales in thirds, sixths, octaves 
and tenths, and harmonics. The third part is really a collection of 
fifty pieces for guitar solo in various styles, which were written 
expressly for the method and designed to improve the execution and 
musical taste of the guitar student. Carcassi supplemented this 
method immediately after its publication, by a volume of Twenty-five 
melodic and progressive etudes, Op. 60, the object being to impart 




FERD1XANDO CART I.LI. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 67 

expression and facility in execution. 

The best of Carcassi's guitar solos are his fantasias and variations, 
classes of composition in which he especially excelled. Those fan- 
tasias upon melodies from the operas: La Mnette de Portici, Le 
Comte Ory, La Fiancee, William Tell, Fra Diavolo, Le Dieu et- 
la Bayadere, Zampa and Le Cheval de Bronze, are not only 
artistically arranged and decidedly brilliant, but exhibit all the 
resources of the instrument without being too difficult for players of 
moderate ability. His arrangement of the overture of Semiramis, 
as guitar solo. Op. 30; and Auber's Gustave, Op. 49, are also works 
of exceptional beauty. About eighty of Carcassi's compositions 
have been published with opus numbers ; they are distinguished by 
their refined style and originality, qualities which are by no means 
common, and his compositions are justly esteemed by all musicians. 
In addition to the pieces published under his opus number there are 
to be found a considerable number of works of less pretensions, as 
rondos, waltzes and duos with piano. Carcassi, while in London, 
wrote guitar accompaniments to innumerable songs which were 
exceedingly popular both in England and on the Continent. 

Carulli, Ferdinando, was born in Naples, February 10, 1770, and 
died in Paris, February, 1841. He was a guitar player, composer 
and author of universal renown, the son of a distinguished litterateur, 
who was secretary to the delegate of the Neapolitan Jurisdiction. 
Like Aguado, the famous Spanish guitarist, Carulli received his 
first musical instruction from a priest, and the instrument chosen 
for his study was the violoncello. He had attained proficiency on 
this when his attention was attracted by the guitar, and abandoning 
the violoncello, he devoted his abilities and life to the exclusive 
study and advancement of this more romantic instrument and its 
literature. During the period of Carulli's childhood, there were 
very few serious masters and teachers of the guitar ; the instrument 
was exceedingly popular, however, in his native land, being con- 
sidered only capable as an acccompanying instrument for the songs 
and serenades so common with Neapolitans. 

Carulli was a musical genius, and in his youth commenced a 
series of studies and exercises for his personal advancement, as no 
teacher of the guitar was to be found capable of leading him to 
greater attainments, and so, as in the case of Giuliani, he was an 
entirely self-taught player. By degrees he realized the great 
possibilities of the instrument in the hands of a skilled performer, 
and he studied persistently, the success of his first efforts causing 
him to further concentrate his study and prosecute the hidden 
resources of the instrument, being rewarded by the popular 
appreciation bestowed upon him as a performer and teacher in his 
native city. Previous to 1797 he had left Naples, for in that year 
he was established in Leghorn as a teacher and virtuoso, and so 
successful were his concert performances, that at the opening of 



68 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

the nineteenth century he was travelling as a virtuoso. In the 
spring of 1808, we find him in Paris, where he appeared as guitar 
soloist at many important concerts, achieving his usual brilliant 
success, and from this year he took up his permanent abode in this 
city, for he did not quit France for any considerable period, but 
remained as a teacher and composer till his death at the age of 
seventy-one. It is said, that in his best days, the command he 
possessed over his instrument was so extraordinary, that he was never 
for an instant checked in the execution of the most difficult passages 
of whatsoever nature they might be. He gave no indication of the 
slightest labour in executing with wonderful rapidity and perfect 
intonation, passages in double notes and chords, extending over the 
entire compass of the instrument — full three octaves. No sound 
other than musical, ever issued from the guitar under the 
skilful touch of Carulli ; he measured the fingerboard with such 
geometrical precision and minuteness that there was never a 
suspicion of a foreign sound which is sometimes incident to rapid 
shifting of the left hand. He executed with marvellous power, 
rapidity, and absolute clearness of tone, scales in single notes 
extending through the compass of the guitar, and by means of 
harmonic notes to an octave higher than the extent of the finger- 
board. His compositions, too, were novel in form and character, 
an innovation in the style of guitar music at that time, and these 
added considerably to his reputation. 

As a true artist, Carulli sought to improve his instrument, and he 
spent much time with the guitar maker, Lacote, who constructed 
several models after his ideas, one of which he named the"l)ecacorde." 
This instrument was made in 1828 after Carulli's designs, and was 
provided with four extra bass strings, its name being given on 
account of its ten strings. Carulli lived in the society and friendship 
of the best musicians of the day, and was regarded as their equal, 
and among his pupils were several, who, in later life proved them- 
selves artists of rare ability, and as such left a name to posterity. 
Of these we name the celebrated organist and composer, Alexander 
Guilmant and the two guitarists, Victor Magnien and Filippo 
Gragnani, and while Gragnani was receiving the applaudits of 
Parisians for his guitar solos, Carulli dedicated to him his Op. 10, 
published by Nadermann, Paris. Although an organist, Guilmant 
evinced to the last his interest in the guitar and mandolin, and spoke 
in terms of admiration of his teacher, Carulli. Guilmant was 
elected President of the International Mandolin Contests held at 
Boulogne in 1909, and his presidential address was an inspiration 
to all players of these instruments : we recall with gratitude the 
congratulation of the aged musician to the author of this volume, 
after his lute solos in the contest. 

During his last years, Carulli composed little, and played but 
rarely in public — younger guitarists had appeared, and the old 
school lost its popularity ; but to Carulli was given the satisfaction 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 69 

of witnessing his own school of playing supersede all others, and of 
seeing the art of playing the guitar perfected. His musical com- 
positions were full of originality, he was a spontaneous and prolific 
writer, and his music added considerably to his reputation, his 
works being the fashionable pieces of the day. He published an 
immense quantity of guitar music in the space of twelve years, in 
all, more than four hundred compositions, many of extraordinary 
length. It is significant that during the same year 1808, his country 
man, Giuliani, was receiving the same amount of public favour in 
Vienna for his guitar playing and publications. Carulli's com- 
positions consist of concertos for guitar with orchestra, quintets, 
quartets, trios for guitar with other instruments, and solos, duos, and 
trios for guitars. 

We will first review briefly his schools for the guitar — methods, 
studies, etc. — the majority of which are very carefully compiled, 
the exercises admirably graded, displaying profound care and 
appreciation of the difficulties to be encountered by the beginner. 
In 1810 he wrote his exceedingly popular Method for the guitar, 
Op. 241 ; dedicated to his son Gustave, a work of great merit, 
published in two volumes by Carli of Paris. This was the standard 
instruction book of the day, and its success was so marked that it 
rapidly passed five editions. The sixth edition was much enlarged 
and containing an appendix, forty-four progressive pieces and six 
studies, appeared shortly after, issued by Launer, the successor of 
Carli. This edition contained a portrait of Carulli, a list of his 
most popular compositions, and the author's notice respecting this 
revised and augmented edition. In the preface he states that since 
his first method was published in 1810, his experience had led him 
to make numerous alterations and additions to the exercises, with 
considerable advantage to those commencing the study of the 
guitar. This method gave to Carulli the distinction of being a founder 
of the modern system of guitar playing, and a German transla- 
tion of this volume, edited by the guitarist Bobrowicz, was 
published by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, Leipzig. In 1825, he wrote his 
Harmony applied to the guitar, a skilful treatise on accompaniment, 
based on a regular system of harmony, arranged in a practical 
manner for the instrument, and no such work had been published 
previously ; it was issued by Petit, Paris. Carulh's Vocal exercises, 
or Solfeges with guitar accompaniment, Op. 195, preceded by 
the elements of music, met with the approval of masters and 
teachers of the vocal art. Carulli, in the preface to the first volume, 
states that this work should be included in the repertoire of the 
guitarist, for the guitar is without question, the most suitable and 
sympathetic accompaniment for the voice. He also claims that 
the principles of the volume are so very clear and concise, that by a 
careful study of the exercises of the two volumes, one may become 
a good musician, and also gain a fair knowledge of singing. Carulli 
was the author of a singing method, published by Schott, Mayence; 



70 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

but this must not be confounded with his Solfeges, which were 
written with the idea of giving instruction to guitarists in the art of 
accompanying vocal items on their instrument. He published a 
large number of studies and collections of simple and progressive 
lessons designed for the assistance of beginners, and a work con- 
sidered of special value to young players is Op. 114, a collection 
entitled : The useful and agreeable, a volume of about ninety 
pages of studies, comprising some forty-eight preludes and twenty- 
four pieces accurately fingered, and ranging in difficulty from the 
simplest exercises in the easiest keys of the instrument, to the most 
difficult melodies with intricate variations in the lesser used flat 
signatures. Another similar work is Op. 276, A little of everything, 
consisting of about seventy pages of rondos, polonaises, etc., fingered 
and arranged progressively, and still another, Op. 265, Improvisations 
musicales, being fifty-four brilliant preludes in various keys. 

Like his other compositions, Carulli's Concertos are distinguished 
by the nature of their instrumentation, which makes the guitar the 
most important factor in their rendition, and also by a wealth and 
natural flow of melody and harmony, which could only emanate 
from an artist fertile in musical resource and conception, in con- 
junction with a profound knowledge of the science. Of these 
compositions, we enumerate Op. 140, Little concerto for guitar 
with accompaniments of violins, alto, bass, two oboes, two horns 
and double bass, published by Carli, Paris ; Op. 207, Two concertos 
for guitar with violin, alto, bass or piano ; Op. 8, Concerto for 
guitar with orchestral accompaniment ; Op. 219, Variations for 
guitar with orchestra, quartet or piano ; Concerto with two 
violins, 'cello, and two horns, Haslinger, Vienna ; Fourth concerto 
with orchestra or piano, Petit, Paris; Op. 208, Two nocturnes for 
guitar with violins, alto and bass. 

Carulli was the author of several trios for guitar, flute and violin, 
Op. 255, 119, 123, 149 and 103, all published by Carli, Paris; and 
Op. 92, 131, 251 and 255, trios for three guitars, were issued by 
the same firm ; and he was a prolific writer for two guitars and 
guitar and piano, all pieces in this branch of composition giving 
evidence of his great talent. These were issued by the most 
celebrated music publishers on the Continent : Simrock, Bonn ; 
Schott, Mayence ; Hofmeister, and Breitkopf & Hartel of Leipzig; 
Andre, Offenbach ; and in Paris, by Carli, Richault, Launer, and 
Dufant & Dubois. The above do not exhaust the list of 
Carulli's duets, but these mentioned are all characterized by 
richness of harmony, elegance of form, variety in the effects of 
instrumentation and individuality of style — features which distinguish 
them from the compositions of other eminent guitarists — and they 
are only surpassed by the guitar duos of Giuliani, which, however, 
are few in number compared with those of Carulli. The duos for 
guitar and violin, or guitar and flute, are characterized by the same 
rare qualities which are recognised in the guitar duets, and they 




CARULLFS GUITAR. 




MANUSCRIPT OF FERDINAXDO CARULLI. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 71 

differ from most works of this class, inasmuch as each instrument 
is equally dependent upon the other for the sustention of the whole. 

Under his guitar solos, we notice many descriptive pieces and 
sonatas, which possess an exceptional degree of merit, where we 
recognise the ability and ingenuity of the author in displaying the 
powers of the instrument. Carulli, in his solos was essentially a 
writer of programme, descriptive music, and these compositions 
enjoyed great popularity in their day. At present, they appear old 
fashioned — certainly, there is the impress of age upon the majority 
of his works, and yet there are among them the choicest and rarest 
contributions to guitar literature. He wrote several piano solos, 
and numerous songs with guitar or piano accompaniment : Bon soir, 
a nocturne for two voices with guitar, and L'immortel Laurier, for 
voice and guitar, were published by Schott, Mayence.* Carulh's 
portrait was published upon many occasions, a copy being inserted 
in the most important editions of his methods. 

His son, Gustave, born in Leghorn, 1797, died 1877, studied the 
guitar and singing under his father in Paris, and later continued his 
musical education in Italy, where he remained for several years. 
He was a good guitarist, and while living in Italy, wrote a farce, 
Le tre mariti, published by Ricordi, Milan, and he is the author of 
many published works for piano and voice which appeared in Italy, 
France, and Germany. Carulli enjoyed great popularity as a vocal 
teacher, and was a professor in the National Conservatoire of Music, 
Paris, where his Vocal method and Studies were adopted, these 
being issued by Lemoine, and also Leduc, Paris, and the latter 
firm published in several languages, two volumes of his Lecons 
melodiques — a continuation of his vocal method. Several of his 
part songs and pieces d'occasion for violin and piano were favourites, 
one of the latter being Three airs varied for violin, to be played 
on the fourth string with accompaniment of piano. Fetis states that 
these are the entire work of Gustave Carulli, while other authorities 
think that the piano accompaniments only are his work — the solo 
parts being by Paganini. Carulli, bequeathed his guitar to the 
museum of the National Conservatoire of Music, while he was a 
professor in that institution. This beautiful Italian instrument, 
with the dedication of his guitar method, was presented by 
Ferdinand Carulli to his son in 1810. It was constructed from his 
designs in elegant rosewood with marquetry of ivory and ebony, the 
head and neck are most cleverly executed, terminating in the form 
of a bow of ribbon, while on the table --which is chastely inlaid 
with ivory and ebony — are the initials of Gustave Carulli carved in 
ivory, and forming the terminations of the scrolls of the bridge. 
The sound hole is unusual, being partially closed by a delicate 
ivory cameo of a muse playing a lyre. An illustration of this 
instrument is reproduced, and also a fragment of Carulli's manu- 
script, written for the English pupil whose name it bears, and who 
presented it to the author of this volume. 



72 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Castellacci, Luigi, born in Pisa, Italy, 1797, and living in Paris 
in 1845, was an Italian virtuoso on the mandolin and guitar, an 
instrumental composer, and the author of numerous French romances 
with guitar and piano accompaniments that enjoyed a certain amount 
of popularity. He was the son of musical parents and as soon as 
he was capable of holding a mandolin, his father placed one in his 
hands and gave him instruction on the instrument and in the theory 
of music. Castellacci's progress was rapid, for when a child he 
appeared frequently as a musical prodigy in his native city. Having 
made a thorough study of the mandolin for some years, he extended 
the sphere of his concert performances and obtained fame on the 
instrument throughout northern Italy, after which he turned his 
ability to the guitar, and devoting several years to this instrument 
also, was then engaged in teaching both. 

About the year 1820 he left his native land on a professional tour 
as a mandolin and guitar virtuoso, and, like his countrymen Carulli 
and Carcassi, he was drawn to Paris where he made a name in the 
musical world, more particularly by his performances on the guitar 
and his vocal compositions with guitar accompaniment. He arrived 
in this city previous to 1825, for at this date he was well established 
and appearing as guitarist in the most influential musical circles, 
being esteemed and recognised as a musician of the first rank. 
It was during his residence in Paris that he issued his first 
compositions and he also published several in various other important 
French cities where he appeared as guitar soloist. In 1825 he 
commenced a tour through Germany, and passing through this 
country and Switzerland he visited his native land. His talent was 
appreciated during this tour, and upon his arrival in Milan he gave 
several concerts, and also in his native city, Pisa. During a brief 
stay here, he published several compositions for the mandolin, and 
then returned to Paris, where he was busily engaged as a teacher of 
his instruments. In 1834 he visited London and revisited it during 
the season of the following year, and here, too, he published com- 
positions for the guitar. Castellacci then returned to Paris, where 
he lived for many years and published more than two hundred 
compositions, principally for the guitar and mandolin, and romances 
with guitar accompaniment. 

The music of Castellacci is generally of a light character, and 
consists for the greater part of dances, variations, and fantasies for 
guitar solo. He is the author of two instruction books for the guitar, 
the principal, Complete and progressive method for the guitar, 
which was published in 1845 by Lemoine, Paris, is a work of merit 
in two volumes. This method was issued simultaneously in Paris, 
Lyons and Milan, and speedily passed several editions ; but outside 
of France and Italy the work appears to have attracted very little 
attention, its popularity was not universal. The second method, a 
work of smaller pretensions, entitled: Little metliod for the guitar, 
was published by Petit, Paris. Of his compositions, Op. 5, 6, 7, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 73 

16, 19, 27, 40 and 41 are Variations for guitar solo ; Op. 9, 11 and 
12, Progressive studies for the guitar ; Op. 13, 14, 15, 17 and 38, 
Dances for guitar solo ; Op. 43, Three characteristic sketches for 
guitar solo; Op. 44, Fantasia for guitar and piano; Op. 45, 
Bolero for guitar and piano ; Op. 33, Twelve dances for two 
guitars ; Op. 34, Sixteen easy waltzes for two guitars ; Op. 36, 
Potpourri for two guitars ; all the above were published by 
Richault, Paris; this firm also published a Grand fantasia for cornet, 
guitar and violoncello; and Petit of Paris published a Fantasia 
dialogue for guitar, flute and horn; Op. 46, Introduction and 
bolero in harmonics for guitar, was issued by Breitkopf & Hartel 
of Leipzig during Castellacci's visit to that city. In 1835 Chappell 
of London published a collection of Six Italian songs and six 
nocturnes for voice with accompaniments of guitar and piano; 
dedicated to his pupil, Miss F. Swinfen. The most popular of 
Castellacci's romances appeared in Paris : DelVamor marinaro, 
with guitar accompaniment, in 1825, and L 'Age de quinze ans, 
with piano, dedicated to Mile. Emilie Bourion, published in 1835, 
were two of the most favoured of this class of his composition. 

Chevesailles, a French violinist and guitarist who lived in Paris 
during the middle of the nineteenth century. He was at one period 
engaged as violinist and guitarist in the Theatre Beaujolais, and at a 
later date commenced a music business in the suburbs of Paris, 
where he resided in 1835. He is the author of a New method for 
the guitar which was published by Mdm. Joly, Paris, and rapidly 
passed three editions. There are to be found under his name 
numerous waltzes and airs for guitar solo, and also compositions for 
violin, flute and guitar, several of which were published by Hentz 
Jouve, Paris. 

Chrysander, William Christian Just, born December 9, 1718, at 
Goedekenroda, a village in the state of Halbertstadt, and died 
December 10, 1788. Chrysander was a protestant theologian and 
guitarist of repute in Germany who was for many years professor 
of theology, philosophy, mathematics and oriental languages in the 
universities of Helmstadt, Rinteln and Kiel respectively. He 
published the book of Psalms with accompaniments for guitar, an 
arrangement which enjoyed universal favour in the cities mentioned. 

Cifolelli, Giovanni, an Italian mandolin virtuoso and dramatic 
composer whose date and place of birth is unknown. In 1764 he 
made his appearance in Paris as a mandolin virtuoso and was highly 
esteemed, both as a performer and teacher. He published while 
residing in Paris, his Method for the mandolin which met with great 
success throughout France, being the most popular of its period. 
His chief works, however, were the operas Ultalienne and Pierre 
et Lncette, the former being an opera bouffe in one act, libretto by 
Framery. These works were commissioned by the Comedie 



74 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Italienne, Paris, and were produced at this theatre successfully, in 
1 770 and 1 774. Several of the songs and duets in Pierre and Liicette 
were exceedingly popular in France, and they were republished in 
Paris in 1775 and 1780. 

Corbetti, Francisco, was born in Pavia, Italy, in 1630, and was 
living in Paris as late as 1689, after which date nothing is known of 
his life. He was an Italian musician and guitarist who was 
celebrated during the middle of the seventeenth century and resided 
as court musician at the most important royal courts of Europe. 
Corbetti is known under two other names, Francesco Corbera and 
Francis Corbet, these names are the Spanish and English translations 
of his Italian name, for he lived many years both in Spain and 
England, and he is written and known accordingly. His parents 
desired him to engage in some other occupation than music, but his 
business duties were continually neglected to practise the guitar, 
and the persuasion and threats of his parents proved of no avail, for 
an inborn love of music ruled his life, and he became at a 
comparatively early age a most skilful and renowned performer on 
the guitar. 

After travelling through his native land as guitar virtuoso and 
vocalist, he visited Spain while still a young man and in that country 
he was known as Francesco Corbera. King Philip IV. of Spain, 
who had heard him play, appointed him court musician, and while 
under his patronage in Madrid, Corbetti wrote and published his first 
work, entitled: Guitarra espanol y sus differencias de sonos. 
After remaining for several years at the Court of Madrid, Corbetti 
undertook a tour through France and Germany, and during his 
travels he performed before the Duke of Mantua, who recognised 
his genius and engaged him as chamber musician for a period of 
twelve months, and then recommended him to the favour of Louis 
XIV. of France. Through the influence of the Duke of Mantua 
he was appointed court musician to Louis, with whom he remained 
for several years, his talent exciting the greatest admiration in 
Paris and Versailles. While engaged as court musician in France, 
Corbetti performed before Charles II. of England, and shortly 
after the latter's accession to the throne, Corbetti was invited here, 
and he received an appointment in the Queen's household — an 
engagement which entailed a very liberal salary. The Court of 
England during the reign of Charles II. was described by a cele- 
brated historian as " the disgrace of the country and the ridicule of 
foreigners — the King and his admirers were entirely given up to 
gambling and love making." Corbetti, the court musician, was a 
great favourite with the King and his courtiers, his playing and 
singing being a continual source of pleasure and amusement. His 
remarkable guitar playing so entranced the royal auditors, that to be 
able to play the guitar was now considered the most fashionable 
accomplishment. Francisco Corbetti's introduction of the guitar 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 75 

into royal circles in England, and the extraordinary influence he 
exercised over society by his playing, is graphically described in 
the Memoirs of the Court of Grammont, edited by Sir Walter 
Scott, and from which we append this extract : " The court, as we 
have mentioned before, was an entire scene of gallantry and amuse- 
ment, with all the politeness and magnificence which the inclinations 
of a prince naturally addicted to tenderness and pleasure could 
suggest ; the beauties were desirous of charming, and the men 
endeavoured to please ; all studied to set themselves off to the best 
advantage ; some distinguished themselves by dancing, others by 
show and magnificence ; some by their wit, many by their amours, 
but few by their constancy." 

" There was a certain foreigner at court, famous for the guitar ; he 
had a genius for music, and he was the only man who could make 
anything of the guitar ; his style of playing was so full of grace and 
tenderness that he could have given harmony to the most discordant 
instruments. The truth is, nothing was too difficult to play for this 
foreigner. The King's relish for his compositions had brought the 
instrument so much into vogue that every person played on it, well 
or ill ; and you were as sure to see a guitar on a lady's toilet as 
rouge or patches. The Duke of York played upon it tolerably well, 
and the Earl of Arran like Francisco himself. This Francisco had 
composed a saraband which either charmed or infatuated every 
person ; for the whole guitarery at court were trying at it, and God 
knows what a universal strumming there was. The Duke of York, 
pretending not to be perfect in it, desired Lord Arran to play it to 
him. Lady Chesterfield had the best guitar in England. The 
Earl of Arran, who was desirous of playing his best, conducted His 
Royal Highness to his sister's apartments ; she was lodged at court 
at her father's, the Duke of Ormond, and this wonderful guitar was 
lodged there, too. Whether this visit had been preconcerted or not 
I do not pretend to say, but it is certain that they found both the 
lady and the guitar at home ; they likewise there found Lord 
Chesterfield so much surprised at this unexpected visit, that it was 
a considerable time before he thought of rising from his seat to 
receive them with due respect. Jealousy, like a malignant vapour, 
now seized upon his brain ; a thousand suspicions, blacker than ink, 
took possession of his imagination and were continully increasing ; 
for, whilst the brother played upon the guitar to the Duke, the 
sister ogled and accompanied him with her eyes, as if the coast had 
been clear and there had been no enemy to observe them. This 
saraband was at least repeated twenty times ; the Duke declared it 
was played to perfection ; Lady Chesterfield found fault with the 
composition, but her husband, who clearly perceived he was the 
person played upon, thought it a most detestable piece." Even to 
the last, King Charles manifested his partiality for Corbetti's guitar 
playing and singing, for he was thus engaged on the evening of 
Sunday, February 1, 1685, in a magnificent chamber of Whitehall 



76 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Palace, surrounded by his courtiers, a few days previous to his 
death. Corbetti remained in public favour in England till the 
revolution of 1688, when he was compelled to flee and obtain refuge 
in France, where he died some years later, regretted by all who had 
known him. He was a skilful teacher of the guitar, and in addition 
to instructing numerous members of the royal household and court, 
he taught De Vise, De Vabray and Medard, who were the three 
most talented of his pupils. Medard is the author of the following 
curious French epitaph, and although the lines are in none too good 
style, they clearly indicate the admiration with which Corbetti was 
esteemed by his contemporaries : 

Ci-git 1' Amphion de nos jours 
Francisque, cet homme si rare, 

Qui fit parler a la guitare 

~ Le vrai language des amours. 

A free translation of which is : 

Here lies the Amphion of our days, 

Francis Corbet, this man of rare quality, 
Who made his guitar speak 
The very language of love's jollity. 

Cornet, Julius, born in 1793 at Santa Candida, Italian Tyrol, and 
died in Berlin, October 2, 1860, won a brilliant reputation in 
Germany as a dramatic vocalist and actor. Predestined by his 
parents for the legal profession, his love of music was so strong that 
he was allowed to study the art under Salieri, in Vienna, and after- 
wards continued his musical education in Italy. At the outset of 
his artistic career he created quite a furore as tenor vocalist, then, 
jointly with Muhling, undertook the management of the Hamburg 
Theatre, until the great fire of 1842. He made an artistic tour 
through Sweden and Holland, and at one time was principal tenor 
in Auber's Muette de Portici, the libretto of which he skilfully 
translated into German, and he performed the role of Masaniello 
with conspicuous success. At a later date he was engaged as 
director of a theatre in Vienna ; but his hasty temper could endure 
no interference from higher authorities, and he was forced to resign 
his position. Cornet was then appointed director of the Victoria 
Theatre, Berlin, but died before the building was completed. He 
was a guitarist of great attainments, and published several works for 
this instrument. Lyre for singing, for amateurs, with gukar 
accompaniment, and other musical compositions were published by 
Christiani, Hamburg; and under his name there is an excellent 
volume entitled : The opera in Germany. 

Costa, P. Mario, an Italian operatic composer of the nineteenth 
century, the author of a musical play without words, entitled : A 
pierrofs life, which contains in the first and third acts, a serenade 
for mandolin with orchestral accompaniment, being published by 
Chappell, London, and Rowies, Paris. The play was produced 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 77 

with great success in Florence, at the Theatre Niccolini, and later 
in 1896, at the Prince of Wales' Theatre, London, after which the 
following criticism appeared in the musical press : " A most 
distinct attraction is Signor Costa's delightfully melodious, 
characteristic, and exquisitely harmonized score — a worthy pendant 
to Wormser's L'enfant prodigue music — higher praise it is 
impossible to give." 

Coste, Napoleon, a French guitar virtuoso and composer, who 
was born June 28, 1806, in a village of the department of Doubs, 
and died in his native land February 17, 1883. He was the son of 
an officer in the imperial army, and as he showed great aptitude and 
made rapid progress in military matters, his parents were desirous 
that he should follow his father's military career. With this object 
in view he was placed under a strict and methodical tutor ; but when 
the youth reached his eleventh year he was stricken with a very 
serious and protracted illness, and after his recovery his constitution 
was such that his parents realized the impossiblity of a military 
career. At the age of six he commenced to play the guitar, an 
instrument of which his mother was fond and on which she was an 
excellent performer. The family removed to Valenciennes during 
the convalescence of the son, and in this city, when he was eighteen 
years of age, Coste gave his first lessons on the guitar, and also 
appeared as guitar soloist at the concerts of the Philharmonic Society 
of this city. In 1828 he took part in concerts with the guitar 
virtuoso Luigi Sagrini, and together they performed Giuliani's 
Variations concertantes, Op. 130, duos for two guitars, and two 
years later he removed to Paris where he essayed to make a name 
as guitarist. Coste took up his residence in Faubourg St. Germain 
and in a short time obtained fame as a teacher and soloist. His 
concert performances were attended by the elite of Parisian society 
and he was highly praised by the musical press. 

He came into direct contact with the greatest of the masters of 
his instrument— Aguado, Sor, Carulli and Carcassi — and it 
was through the personal and intimate friendship of these great 
guitarists that he resolved to devote himself more seriously than ever 
to the higher study of his art, for he spent the next ten years in the 
study of harmony and counterpoint. Up to this time he had not 
published any compositions for the guitar, but now, in the year 1840, 
when he was master of harmony, he commenced to issue his works. 
These did not bring him pecuniary success, however, for by this 
time the popularity of the guitar was waning, the piano taking its 
place in public esteem. 

In the International music contest, organised in 1856 by the 
Russian nobleman, M. Makaroff, then resident in Brussels, 
Coste, among other competitors, submitted four compositions and 
was awarded the second prize out of the thirty-one entries, the first 
prize being awarded by the jury to J. K. Mertz, the guitar virtuoso. 



78 MANDOLIN AND GUITAR. 

Some few years later Coste had the misfortune to slip on the stairs 
when engaged at a concert and he broke his right arm. After he 
had recovered, he found to his sorrow that his right hand had 
lost its suppleness and he was thereby prevented, to his great dis- 
appointment, from again performing in public ; for Coste was a true 
artist who manifested the sincerest enthusiasm for his instrument and 
its progress. He was one of the foremost guitar virtuosi and com- 
posers for the guitar that France has produced and he deserves a 
honourable place amongst her notable sons. 

Coste's guitar, of which an illustration is given, was strung by him 
and bequeathed to the Museum of the National Conservatoire of 
Music, Paris. It is of extra large proportions and is tuned a fifth 
lower than the ordinary guitar, the model, dimensions, and system of 
tuning being Coste's own idea. It is a curious and unique instru- 
ment with a lengthy finger-rest elevated from the table, and the 
fingerboard is luxuriously decorated with inlaid pearl designs, while 
the edges of the guitar are of pearl and ebony. He published in all 
about sixty compositions that are characterized by their original 
charm and vigour, although the influence of the great master, Sor, is 
observable in his work. Giuliani's Concerto for guitar and orchestra 
Op. 36, was for long a favourite composition of this artist and he 
wrote a second guitar part in substitution of the orchestra, thus 
making it a duo for two guitars. Coste was commissioned by the 
publishers to revise the original edition of Sor's guitar method, and 
he augmented this volume with a notice of the seventh string as 
used and advocated by So r and Legnani, this revised edition being 
published by Lemoine", Paris. Op. 12, Concert rondo; Op. 30, 
Grand serenade; Op. 31, Dramatic fantasia ; Op. 39, Minuet; 
Op. 46, Favourite waltzes ; Op. 45, Diversion ; Op. 51, A collection 
of solos ; Op. 52, The guitarists' book of gold; Op. 53, Album of 
six solos, the Reverie of this series being very original ; all the fore- 
going were written for guitar alone and are of a certain degree of 
difficulty, but it is regretted that these compositions are now seldom 
met with, as Coste being his own publisher, his works are now un- 
obtainable. Several of them have been reprinted, how r ever, by the 
International League of Guitarists, of Munich, Germany. 

Craeijvanger, K. A., born Utrecht, Holland, 1817, and died there 
July 30, 1868. He was a Dutch virtuoso on the guitar and 
violin, and appeared in the cities of his native land with success. 
Craeijvanger was director of various musical societies, and in 1852 
was appointed conductor of the musical festival of Cleves, and in the 
following year that also of Utrecht. Among his compositions are 
fantasias, etc., for guitar solo, quartets for string instruments 
including the guitar, and songs and choruses with guitar accompani- 
ment. His compositions are not known beyond his native 
land. 

Cristofaro, Ferdinando, de, born in Naples, the home of the 




Illl. GUITAR OF NAPOLEON COSTE. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 79 

mandolin, in 1846, died in Paris, April 18, 1890. The son of 
respectable parents in Naples, Cristofaro rose to be one of the 
most celebrated mandolin virtuosi of modern times. He received 
his musical education in the Conservatory of his native city, 
devoting himself to the study of the piano, and had his life been 
spared, his fame as a virtuoso on that instrument would have 
extended far beyond his achievements as a mandolinist. Cristofaro 
was entirely self-taught on the mandolin, and he soon distinguished 
himself by his performances on this instrument in Italy. To the 
Neapolitans, he introduced a new and completely advanced method 
of playing — accustomed as they were to hearing the instrument in 
the hands of strolling players, used more for accompanying popular 
songs than anything else — the classical compositions, executed by 
Cristofaro, caused unbounded enthusiasm, astonishment, and 
admiration. His fame spread rapidly throughout his native land, 
and after appearing with success in all the important cities, he was 
induced to visit Paris. It was in 1882 that he arrived in this city, 
where he was immediately recognised as the premier mandolinist 
of the day ; he won a widespread and enviable reputation, and as a 
teacher, his services were in constant demand by French aristocracy. 
During his residence in Paris, he appeared in public with the most 
prominent musicians of the time — M. Gounod, upon several 
occasions playing the pianoforte accompaniments to his solos. In 
1888, Cristofaro visited London, and here he met with his usual 
success, and was sought in this city also as a teacher, and was 
appointed conductor of the " Ladies' Guitar and Mandolin Band." 
He repeated his visit to London during the following season giving 
mandolin recitals in which Denza, the renowned song writer, a 
native also of Naples and a composer for the mandolin, and other 
eminent musicians took part. Cristofaro now decided to reside a 
part of each season in London, and devote himself to teaching his 
instrument ; but this visit was doomed to be his last. He had 
concluded arrangements to resume his lessons in London during 
Easter, but on April 18, 1890, he died in Paris from the effects of 
ptomaine poisoning after an illness of two days duration — he had 
partaken of ices during the intervals of his performances at a 
concert. It has been recorded that Cristofaro was interred in the 
Pere-Lachaise cemetery, Paris, but exhaustive enquiries by the 
writer prove this to be incorrect. He left many pupils, and he 
was constantly engaged in composition and as a public performer. 
As a mandolinist, Cristofaro takes a high rank, he was also a 
cultivated gentleman, a profound musician, and was naturally 
desirous of elevating the science and art of mandolin playing, and 
he it was who introduced the mandolin to the English public and 
brought about its popularity. As an executant, he was in many 
respects unsurpassed. His tone was remarkable for its exquisite 
tenderness and delicacy— -his expression and nuances were un- 
approachable — and his tours dt force were models of artistic 



80 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

excellence. The higher mechanical attributes such as the shake, 
double stopping, the glissato and other effects peculiar to the 
instrument, were by Cristofaro brought to that perfection, which 
classed him among the virtuosi of the time. As a soloist, or in part 
playing, or again at the piano as accompanist, he well knew how to 
exhibit the mandolin to its greatest advantage. Cristofaro had 
been honoured by performing at the chief Courts of Europe, and 
received the royal appointment of mandolinist to the King of Italy. 
His mandolin, constructed according to his own design by the eminent 
maker, Salsedo of Naples, was of exquisite workmanship, and he 
usually performed with a plectrum of cherry bark. In 1881, he 
had made a name in the musical world as a composer, and in that 
year several of his works were awarded high honours in Milan. 
The following is an extract from the Italian music journal, Revista 
Musicale : "Neapolitans will doubtless remember Signor Ferdinando 
Cristofaro, the greatest of mandolinists, and, in fact, the only artist 
who has been able to bring this instrument up to the high standard 
of importance that it to-day enjoys. Sig. de Cristofaro, was not 
only an elegant executant, but a composer of no mean order ; and if 
confirmation were needed in support of this, his compositions would 
lend ready witness. Not contented with the well merited success 
that he had obtained, Sig. de Cristofaro felt that he must reach on 
to higher fame. He conceived the idea of writing a melodramatic 
opera, the libretto of which was supplied by the renowned poet, de 
Lauzieres. The plot was laid in Venice in the time of the republic, 
and the title is: Almina da Volterra. At this composition he 
worked for two years, with a successful result, which was duly 
chronicled by the French journals. Signor de Cristofaro was an 
artist who, though absent from his native land, reflected the genius 
of his country, and honoured the city that gave him birth. He was 
none the less esteemed, and his talents appreciated by a people 
whose artistic mind is by some, considered not so fine as that of the 
land of the " Sunny South," but who, living in a colder and sterner 
climate, could appreciate and honour a man for his worth and 
talents, such as are possessed in so marked a degree by the subject 
of this brief sketch." Cristofaro was the author of a most com- 
prehensive and artistic method for the mandolin. It consists of 
two volumes, each being published in five languages: English, 
French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish, and treats of the 
instrument fully, and is illustrated by numerous diagrams. It 
commences with the elements of the theory of music, and all the 
exercises are melodious and arranged with a definite object : they 
are well -graded and admirably suited for pupil and teacher,, as 
the majority are written as duets for two mandolins. Several of 
these studies deserve special notice for their beauty of melody and 
form, among such, we mention particularly, the Andante maestoso, 
Larghetto, Andante religioso, in double stopping, and Allegro 
giusto, style fugue, all in the second volume. The method was 





twia/mh 




PERDINANDO CRISTOPARO. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 81 

published in November, 1884, by Lemoine, Paris, and it had 
reached the twelfth edition previous to the death of of its author in 
1890. Cristofaro had previously written a method for the mandolin 
when he was living in Naples, before he was thirty years of age, 
this being published in 1873, by Cottrau of that city. 

His works are not the more modern or unaccompanied solos, in 
full harmony ; but in the orthodox style of writing for the violin. 
They do not abound in technical difficulties, and in all of them, 
without exception, we find pleasing, spontaneous melodies. His 
last composition, a Serenade for solo voice and chorus with 
accompaniment of mandolins and guitars is original and novel, and 
like all his works, exceedingly effective : the autograph manuscript 
was in the possession of the " Ladies' Mandolin and Guitar Band," 
of London. The following are the principal of his published com- 
positions : Op. 21, 22 and 23, various transcriptions for mandolin 
and piano, issued by Ricordi, Milan ; Op. 25 to 39 inclusive, and 
about fifty others, Lemoine, Paris; and Op. 41, 44, 45 and 46, 
divertisements and operatic arrangements for mandolin and piano, 
published by Ricordi, Milan. In addition, there are other com- 
positions that appeared in Italy and France. 

F^ARR, Adam, an eminent guitar virtuoso, zitherist and composer 
was born at Schweinfurt, Germany, in 1811, and died at Augs- 
burg, in 1866. As a child he was endowed with precocious musical 
talents and mastered the flute and violin, his extraordinary ability 
on these two instruments enabling him to appear with great success 
as a public performer, while a youth. This early public 
training was the commencement of a career which won for him, at a 
later period, numerous triumphs in his prolonged travels, as a guitar 
virtuoso. It was not, however, until he was eighteen years of age 
that he took up the study of the guitar ; but in a short time it was 
his favourite instrument, and with his natural musical aptitude and 
perseverance, he soon obtained such a command over the guitar that 
he was appearing in his native town as a soloist on this instrument. 
Meeting with decided encouragement he extended his sphere of 
operations, and for the space of sixteen years he travelled as a guitar 
virtuoso and vocalist, during which period he performed before the 
royal courts of France, Belgium, Holland, Sweden and Russia, 
winning the applause of monarchs and the esteem and admiration of 
musicians. Darr was the recipient of numerous valuable souvenirs 
and decorations, the result of his concert tours. He remained in St. 
Petersburg for three years as a soloist and teacher of the guitar, and 
then, being desirous of again visiting his native land, he accepted a 
position as private tutor and music master in an English family, 
resident in Wurzburg. This employment quite suited his inclinations 
and he regarded this time as one of the happiest periods of his life. 
But Wurzburg became still dearer to him by his associations with 
another guitar virtuoso, Kapellmeister Frederick Brand; both were 



82 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

highly cultivated musicians, and they were enthusiastic in their 
admiration for the guitar, and a close friendship sprang up which 
was severed only by death. Together they played in Wi'irzburg, 
both in public and private, and then they travelled throughout central 
and southern Germany. In numerous public and private concerts 
they astonished their audiences by their marvellous playing, both in 
solos and duos for two guitars, and also in vocal solos, and duos, with 
guitar accompaniments. The sincere admiration that preceded these 
artists from town to town, and the enthusiastic reception that was 
awarded their appearances everywhere, gave their tour the semblance 
of a series of triumphant marches. At the end of their travels, Darr 
met and formed a friendship with the renowned zither player, Johann 
Petzmayer, Kammervirtuos to Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, and 
through Petzmayer's influence Darr commenced the study of the 
zither. Petzmayer was also a guitarist, and published in Munich 
many pieces for zither and guitar. Darr settled in Munich in 1846 
and was held in the highest esteem as a guitar and zither teacher, 
but in 1856 he removed to Augsburg where he was very busily 
employed teaching his instruments and in 1866 wrote his celebrated 
and exhaustive method for the zither. This method, in three volumes, 
is still popular and held in esteem on account of its thoroughness 
and excellence, although its first appearance was made nearly fifty 
years ago. 

In addition to his voluminous method, Darr was engaged in com- 
position, principally solos, duos, and trios for the guitar, and all his 
music is written with a true sense of the potentialities and limitations 
of the instrument ; many of these works being publicly performed 
by Darr and his pupils in their numerous concerts. His superior 
education and thorough knowledge of the science of music, gave him 
an exalted position among the literary and musical people of his city, 
and it was a sudden shock when they realized, that through domestic 
trouble Darr had taken his own life by drowning, at Augsburg on 
October 2, 1866. This sad and unexpected event cast a deep gloom 
over his most intimate friends, some of whom, through the instru- 
mentality of Otto Hammerer, an enthusiastic guitarist, erected a 
monument to his memory in the cemetery of Augsburg. Darr was 
a prolific writer for many instruments, but principally for the guitar 
and zither, the majority of his works being published by Ed. Hoenes, 
Treves. Darr's musical compositions abound in sentiment and 
are permeated by the pathetic and sad, while his harmonies are rich 
and varied. He was the author of an operetta Robinson, which met 
with success in Europe and America, and several numbers from this 
work he transcribed for guitar solo and arranged for voice and guitar. 
A great number of his compositions remain in manuscript, several 
of which were in the possession of his friend Otto Hammerer of 
Augsburg, who permitted the League of Guitarists of Germany to 
print them for the use of its members. The following were published 
by this Society : Le conge, a pleasing larghetto for guitar solo, and 




'■ 




ADAM DARK. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 83 

the duos for two guitars, Adagio and Allegro moderato, — composed 
in June 1850 — the solo being dedicated to his friend Hammerer; Duos 
for two guitars, Nos. 1 and2; Duo concertante for guitar ; Fantasia 
for violoncello and guitar ; Four tonstiicke for zither and guitar ; 
Letze fantasia on German folk songs for guitar solo ; Tyrolese 
ditto ; Fantasia on " Der Abschied v. d. Bergen " ; Four andantes 
for guitar ; Study in C minor ; Study in E minor ; Two rondolettos 
for guitar, and numerous vocal items with guitar accompaniment. 

Delia Maria, Domenico, a mandolin virtuoso and dramatic com- 
poser, born at Marseilles in 1768, and died suddenly in the streets 
of Paris, March 9, 1800. He was the son of Italian parents, his 
father Domenico, a roving mandolin player, who with his wife and 
friends formed an intinerate company of musicians — mandolinists, 
guitarists, and vocalists. During their wanderings they visited 
Marseilles, where their playing and singing attracted more than 
ordinary attention, and this success induced Delia Maria and his 
wife to settle in this city, where they first commenced to teach 
their instruments, and at this period the subject of our sketch was 
born. He was taught the mandolin while a child, and a few years 
later he received instruction on the violoncello, and then appeared 
as an infant prodigy upon both instruments. When he was eighteen 
years of age Delia Maria wrote his first opera, representations of 
which were given in the theatre of his native town, and this work 
caused a great sensation among musicians of Marseilles, for, apart 
from the inseparable inexperiences of a first production, it bore the 
indelible stamp of the creation of a genius. After this success, 
Delia Maria travelled through Italy as a mandolinist and violon- 
cellist, for a time, and did not continue his musical education until 
he came under the influence of Paisiello in Naples, some years later, 
for in this city he was engaged as violoncellist and mandolinist in 
the orchestra of the Royal Chapel, under the direction of Paisiello. 
Delia Maria became aware of his own lack of knowledge 
immediately he became associated with the concert master, and, 
recognising his folly, he studied diligently under Paisiello for a 
considerable period, this being the commencement of a life-long 
friendship between the two. Paisiello manifested more than 
ordinary interest in his talented pupil, the mandolin virtuoso, and 
had shown his appreciation of the musical value of the 
instrument, by employing it in the score of his opera, The 
barber of Seville, which had been composed a few years previously 
in St. Petersburg. 

Delia Maria, resided in Italy for about ten years, during the 
latter part of which period he was engaged in writing light works 
for numerous secondary Italian theatres. He produced while in this 
country, six operas, three of which were fairly successful, and one 
of the remainder, // maestro di capella, exceedingly so, its 
popularity bringing fame to its author. In 1796, Delia Maria 



84 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

returned to Marseilles, and arrived the same year in Paris, being 
absolutely unknown ; but in a very short time his reputation was 
such that he found himself the guest and friend of the most 
renowned, in literary and musical circles. Fate seems to have 
shortened and smoothed for him the rugged paths by which men 
ascend the heights of fame. The poet, Alexander Duval, wrote a 
complimentary article in the Decade Philosophique, concerning the 
young artist, and a few years later the two were most intimately 
associated. Duval mentions that one of his personal friends, to 
whom Delia Maria had been introduced, requested him to write 
some poem for the musician, and Duval acting upon the earnest 
suggestion of his friend, made an appointment with Delia Maria. 
This interview proved to be the commencement of an intimate 
friendship, for, in Duval's words, Delia Maria's classical, soulful 
countenance and his natural and original demeanour, inspired a 
confidence in the poet that was found to be entirely justified. At 
this juncture, Duval had just completed The prisoner, which had 
been commissioned for the Theatre Francais, but the ardent desire 
to gratify the request of Delia Maria, had ere long decided him to 
write an opera, so after a few alterations and additions, he had 
transformed the work to a lyric comedy. Within eight days after 
receiving the libretto, Delia Maria had composed the music, and 
the artists of the opera, manifested such an enthusiasm and delight 
in the work during its rehearsals, that upon its production, its 
success was assured. This was performed in 1798, the opera was 
published by Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig, and it established the 
name of Delia Maria throughout France, as an operatic composer 
of repute, for he immediately brought out six other operas, his 
works being now great favourites with Parisians. 

The brilliant success of The prisoner, was due to two primary 
causes, the first of which was the melodiousness and simplicity of 
the vocal parts, under a duly subservient and subdued skilful 
orchestration, while the second factor was his most fortunate choice 
of artists responsible for the principal characters. The actresses, 
Mile. St. Aubin, and Mile. Dugazon, found in the opera, parts 
analogous to their natural dispositions, and their names were 
popularized throughout France by their interpretations. In this 
opera, Delia Maria did not rise to extraordinary powerful con- 
ceptions ; but his style was original, and this individuality was 
noticeable in all his compositions. Unfortunately, his style tended 
towards weakening in several of his later operas, but the following 
enjoyed an amount of success: The uncle valet, one act; The 
ancient castle, three acts ; but Jacquot (The school of mothers), 
three acts, the first representation of which was given in 1799, and 
also The house of Marais, three acts, were both short lived; La 
fausse dnegne (The false wife), an opera in three acts, was left 
"unfinished by the sudden death of Delia Maria, and in 1802 
Blanghu was commissioned to complete the work. All the above- 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 85 

mentioned, with several others, were written within the space of 
four years, and in this brief time, Delia Maria seems to have 
exhausted all his natural resources. Being of a genial and sociable 
disposition, this young and brilliant artist made many friends. 
Duval, the poet, was one of the most sincere — they had only 
completed arrangements for retiring to the country together, 
intending to write a new opera, when Delia Maria, returning to his 
home, March 9, 1800, was seized by an illness and fell in the Rue 
St. Honore. He was assisted to an adjacent house by a passing 
stranger, where he expired a few hours later without regaining 
consciousness. As no trace of his identity could be obtained, the 
police instituted enquiries, and several days elapsed before his 
friends could be informed of the sad event, and thus perished at the 
age of thirty-two, a young and brilliant musician. Delia Maria 
was a mandolin virtuoso, who wrote much for his instrument, and, 
like his master, Paisiello, made frequent use of it in his 
orchestral scores. Several of his church compositions were 
published by Costallat, Paris, and he left many unpublished works, 
consisting of church and instrumental pieces, and mandolin sonatas, 
which, with his mandolin and violoncello, were preserved in the 
home of his parents in Marseilles. 

Denis, Pierre, or as sometimes designated, Denies, Pierre, born 
in Provence, France, during the early part of the eighteenth century 
was a renowned French mandolin virtuoso and teacher, who estab- 
lished himself in Paris. In 1780 he was engaged as music master 
in a ladies' seminary in Saint Cyr. Denis was a highly educated 
man, a thorough musician, and the author of several musical treatises. 
He wrote a Method for the mandolin, which was published in Paris 
in 1792, and was the author also of the following which appeared in 
Paris : Four collections of airs for the mandolin; a New system of 
practical music, issued in 1747, and a Treatise on com- 
position, published by Boyer, Paris, 1773. Denis also wrote a 
French translation of Tartinfs Tratto delle appogiature si asceudenti 
che discendeiiti per il violino, under the title of Traite des agremens 
de la musique, compose par le celebre Giuzeppe Tartini a Padua, 
et traduit par le Sigr. P.Denis. This volume was published by 
M. de la Chevardier, Paris. 

"A musician of the eighteenth century, Pierre Denis, born in 
Provence, and who was music master to the ladies of Saint Cyr, 
about 1780. He devoted himself to the popularization of the 
mandolin, of which instrument he was a consummate artist, and with 
this intent published a method for learning the instrument, and also 
four collections of little airs for it." — Encyclopaedia Larousse, Paris. 

Denza, Luigi, an Italian musician, born near Naples in 1846, who 
settled in London as a teacher of singing. He won renown as a 
song writer, and in 1899 was appointed professor at the Royal 
Academy of Music, London. Denza was an able mandolinist and 



86 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

guitarist, and has published the following compositions among others 
for these instruments : Ricordo di Quisisana, a serenata for solo 
voice and chorus, with accompaniments of first and second mandolins, 
mandolas and guitars, dedicated to the Marchioness Laura di 
Noailles, and published by Ricordi, Milan ; Come to me, valse for 
two mandolins, mandola and guitar, also published by Ricordi ; 
Nocturne for mandolin and piano, published by Ascherberg, London; 
and several other compositions for mandolin and piano, originally 
published by R. Cocks, London. 

Derosiers, Nicolas, a French musician, who settled in Holland 
towards the end of thfi seventeenth century. In his later years he 
was engaged as chamber musician to the Electress Palatine, at the 
palace in Mannheim. Very little is known concerning his life, but 
among his compositions are to be found several for the guitar : 
Twelve overtures for guitar solo, Op. 5, published in 1688 at The 
Hague, and Method for learning the guitar, which was translated 
in French and published by Ballard, Paris, in 1689, under the title 
of Nouveaux principes de la guitare. Derosiers was the author 
also of several collections of solos for the guitar accompanied by 
other instruments. 

Derwort, George Henry, a German guitarist and musician, who 
came to England during the commencement of the nineteenth century 
and remained in this country for many years, where he enjoyed a 
reputation as a guitar soloist and popular teacher. He was living 
in London in 1824, and giving guitar recitals there in 1830. He made 
several visits to his native land where he appeared in concert ; but 
was again teaching singing and his instrument in London as late 
as 1835. Derwort was the author of numerous easy guitar solos 
and arrangements, which enjoyed a certain amount of popularity 
during his lifetime. The following were the most favoured of his 
compositions: Op. 7, 11, 12, 13, 16, 22 and 27, Themes with varia- 
tions for guitar solo, published by Falter and also Sidler, Munich ; 
Paez, Berlin ; and Paine and Hopkins, London. Eighteen pieces 
for solo guitar, entitled : Dolce et utile, were issued amongst many 
others by Wessell, London; Progressive guitar accompaniments to 
favourite Italian, French, German and Spanish songs, published by 
Paine and Hopkins, London, who also issued his New method for 
learning the Spanish guitar. Derwort also arranged innumerable 
popular compositions of the day for guitar and piano, and also edited 
and arranged many trios for flute, violins and guitar, and songs with 
guitar accompaniment, which were published by Baumgartner, 
Leipzig, and Ewer and Johanning, London. 

Diabelli, Anton, born September 6, 1781, at Mattsee, near 
Salzburg, and died in Vienna, April 7, 1858. He was an eminent 
guitarist and pianist, a very popular composer for both these 
instruments, and also of church music. He received his first 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 87 

musical instruction as a choirister in the Monastery of 
Michaelbeurn, and continued his studies some years later in the 
Cathedral of Salzburg. Being intended by his parents for the 
priesthood, he was sent to the Latin School of Munich, and in 1800, 
entered the Monastery of Raichenhaslach. Michael Haydn had 
superintended his first attempts at musical composition, and 
Diabelli benefited largely from his association with, and study 
under this master. His talent for composition was manifested at a 
very early age, and he had attracted considerable attention by his 
works for one or more voices, before he had reached his twentieth 
year. The guitar was his principal instrument, and these early 
vocal compositions were written with guitar accompaniments. 
When the monasteries of Bavaria were secularised in 1803, he 
abandoned his intention of taking holy orders, and decided to 
devote himself entirely to music and composition, and for this 
purpose he visited Vienna, where he was already known by his 
vocal compositions, and was warmly received by Joseph Haydn. 
In a comparatively short time, Diabelli had established a wide 
reputation as a popular and able teacher of the guitar and piano, 
and he soon acquired both wealth and fame. He associated with 
the most celebrated musicians of Vienna, chief of whom was 
Joseph Haydn, brother of his teacher, Michael Haydn, of Salzburg, 
who manifested a kindly interest in the young composer, and the 
advice he received from this celebrated musician was of inestimable 
advantage to him in after years. 

About the year 1807, Diabelli became acquainted with Mauro 
Giuliani, the guitar virtuoso, soon after the latter arrived in Vienna, 
and the two artists became warm friends, they were of about the same 
age, both intensely musical and devoted to the guitar. Giuliani 
had already distinguished himself in the musical world by his 
extraordinary skill upon the guitar, and his mastery on this 
instrument far exceeded that of Diabelli ; but the latter possessed 
a most thorough knowledge of music, and was also an excellent 
performer on the pianoforte. The two friends were soon engaged 
upon compositions for guitar and piano, and they appeared in 
public, performing their duets for these two instruments. The 
guitar at this period was the instrument par excellence, it was 
played in the royal courts, and by the musical populace, and all 
vocal compositions at this period met with limited success, unless 
written with guitar accompaniment. At this time, Giuliani 
introduced a new guitar to the public — the terz-guitar. This 
instrument was constructed upon the same principles and model as 
the ordinary guitar, but was somewhat smaller. By shortening the 
length of the neck of the instrument, it was capable of being strung 
to a higher pitch — a minor third, hence the name " terz," the capo 
d'astro being used at the present time on the ordinary guitar to 
obtain the same effects. The tone of the terz guitar was more 
brilliant, the length of string being shorter, and the labour of 



88 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

execution was considerably lessened. Diabelli and Giuliani were 
the recipients of popular admiration for their combined talents on 
the piano and terz guitar, and during the period of these public 
performances, Giuliani wrote his most beautiful and brilliant 
Concertos for guitar and orchestra, Op. 30, 36, and 37, which 
were published by Diabelli, and these are among the choicest 
works ever written for the instrument. Arrangements of these 
were also published for guitar and piano, although originally 
composed and performed by the author with orchestra ; ^ they 
attracted considerable attention at the time, not only in Vienna, 
but throughout Europe. The list of Diabelli 's compositions is 
enormous, he has written a great quantity of music for the piano, 
and an equally large quantity for the guitar. His twenty-nine solo 
sonatinas, and twenty-three charming duet sonatinas, are still very 
popular, while his thirty -six books of variations, and four hundred 
and twenty-six books of potpourris, were also in great request. 
Diabelli's studies, which were written primarily for the use of his 
own pupils, are still popular amongst teachers and students, and 
these piano compositions are at once graceful and good study, while 
both his original works and arrangements for the piano display 
good taste. In fact, the merits of Diabelli, as an educational 
composer are unquestionable. His masses, and particularly the 
Landmessen, are widely performed throughout Austria, being for 
the most part easy to execute and interesting, if not particularly 
solid. Diabelli, as stated previously, composed numerous songs, 
and an operetta, Adam in der Klemme. His compositions for the 
guitar display the same qualities and characteristics as his piano 
works, and are quite as numerous, many of these being published 
simultaneously in Vienna, Paris and London. These compositions 
are not the work of, nor written for, the virtuoso ; but are admirably 
suited for the amateur and student of the guitar. They lack the 
brilliancy of other celebrated guitar composers, but they are well 
written, lie under the hand, and they proved a profitable source of 
income to their author by their popularity. Diabelli was a keen 
man of business, and in 1818, having acquired sufficient wealth by 
piano and guitar teaching, and composing, he purchased an interest 
in the music publishing business of Peter Cappi, in Vienna, the 
firm being afterwards known as Cappi and Diabelli. In 1824 he 
bought out his partner Cappi, and he became sole proprietor and 
owner under the title of Diabelli & Co. Riemann states: " Diabelli 
was Schubert's principal publisher — he paid the composer badly, 
and in addition, reproached him for writing too much." Diabelli 
published the first compositions of Franz Schubert, when he was 
unknown as a musical composer, and these first publications were 
his songs with guitar accompaniment. Schubert was a guitarist, 
and wrote all his vocal works with guitar in the first instance. 
Some few years later, when the pianoforte became more in vogue, 
Schubert, at the request of his publisher, Diabelli, set pianoforte 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 89 

accompaniments to these same songs. In 1854, Diabelli sold his 
copyrights and business to C. A. Spina ; he had at this time printed 
over twenty-five thousand works, and it was one of the largest and 
most important music publishing businesses in the world. Diabelli 
had published the majority of the compositions of Czerny, Strauss, and 
Franz Schubert, and he had purchased at various times, the copy- 
rights of the publications of other eminent firms in Vienna, those 
of Artaria, Leidesdorf and Mecchetti in particular. 

During the latter part of his life, Diabelli was brought in daily 
contact with the most renowned artists, his establishment being 
the rendezvous of the musicians of Vienna, and he enjoyed the 
friendship of Beethoven, and was in constant attendance upon 
him during his last illness in 1826. Diabelli died on April 7, 1858, 
leaving behind the record of a successful musician and business 
man, qualities very rarely found together. His quiet, unassuming 
life, made him many friends, some of whom erected a tablet to his 
memory in 1871, on the house at Mattsee in which he was born. 
Beethoven has immortalized his friend by using a waltz, composed 
by Diabelli, as a theme for his thirty-three variations. 

Diabelli's published compositions for the guitar alone, with other 
instruments, and with the voice, number hundreds, of which we 
enumerate only the following : Grand serenades for violin, alto 
and guitar; Op. 36, 65, 95 and 105, and Six volumes of grand 
serenades for the same combination of instruments, all published 
by Haslinger, Vienna ; Serenades and nocturnes for guitar and 
flute, Op. 67, 99 and 128 ; Nocturne for two horns and guitar, 
Op. 123 ; Grand trio for three guitars, Op. 62 ; Sonatas and other 
Duos for guitar and piano, Op. 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 97, 102; 
Divertimento for guitar and piano, Op. 56 (vol. ii., Diabelli 
dedicated to his friend the publisher, Haslinger) ; issued by Ricordi, 
Milan ; Preludes, waltzes, rondos, and variations for guitar solo, 
Op. 103, 127, 141 ; many arrangements and transcriptions for 
guitar solo, and Twelve Alpine dances, published by Joseph Aibl, 
Munich, without opus numbers ; a series of six books of duets for 
two guitars, entitled : Orpheus ; Six waltzes and twenty duets 
concertante for piano and guitar, Johanning, London; and 
innumerable smaller pieces for guitar, published by various 
editors in London ; Twelve songs with guitar accompaniment, 
George and Manby, London ; a collection of songs with guitar, 
entitled : Philomele, Diabelli & Co., Vienna ; Songs with guitar 
Op. 114 and 115, Bachmann, Hanover; Three Italian duets with 
guitar, Mecchetti, Vienna ; Songs with guitar and flute, Simrock, 
Bonn, and in addition to the above-mentioned, there are more than 
fifty transcriptions of operatic melodies for guitar and piano, 
several collections of pieces for guitar and violin, and guitar and 
flute, and nearly a hundred miscellaneous pieces for two guitars. 

Dickhut, Christian, a virtuoso on the 'cello, horn, and guitar, and 
an instrumental composer, who was Court musician at Mannheim 



90 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

in 1812. He devoted much time experimenting with wind 
instruments, and in the year 1811, he improved the horn by 
extending its tubes, thereby producing a clearer and more sonorous 
tone. Dickhut is the author of the following compositions which 
are regarded as of more than ordinary merit : Serenades for flute, 
horn, or alto, and guitar, Op. 3, 4, and 6, published by Schott, 
Mayence. 

Doche, Joseph Denis, born August 22, 1766 in Paris, died 
July 20, 1825 in Soissons, France. He was a dramatic composer, 
a skilful guitarist, violinist and double bass player, and celebrated 
as a writer of vaudeville. Grove states that the flowing and 
charming inspirations of Doche (father and son) were the most 
interesting from a literary, philosophical and musical point of view, 
during their period. Among Doche's compositions we find 
Op. 4, Collection of forty melodies and romances with guitar 
accompaniment . 

Doisy, Charles, or Doisy Lintant, as he has sometimes been 
erroneously named, was a Frenchman, who died at Paris in 1807. 
He was a contemporary of C. Lintant, a guitarist and violinist of 
Grenoble and Paris. For many years Doisy enjoyed an enviable 
reputation as a professor of the guitar in Paris, and during his 
later years he established a music and musical instrument business 
in this city, being thus occupied at the time of his death. He had 
the advantage of a thorough musical training and education in 
harmony and composition, as his published works prove, and he 
wrote for the guitar in its capacity as a solo instrument, for 
accompaniment, and in combination with almost every other 
instrument. His published compositions number more than two 
hundred, and during the early part of his career, the guitar was 
strung with but five strings tuned as at present, but without the 
sixth or lowest E, and Doisy's early compositions are therefore 
more limited in scope and compass. It was not until the close of 
the eighteenth century that the sixth string was added to the guitar, 
this being at the suggestion of Capellmeister Naumann of Dresden, 
and proving of great advantage it was immediately used by all 
guitar makers, and thus became universal. Doisy adopted this 
additional string, and wrote for it in his later method and com- 
positions. He is the author of several methods for the guitar, one 
of which entitled : General rudiments of music and method for 
the guitar, was published in 1801 by Naderman, Paris. He also 
wrote another, which included original airs for violin with guitar 
accompaniment, and six romances with guitar accompaniment. 
This was published by Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig, and was a most 
excellent method for its period, it contained three diagrams 
displaying the guitar with but five strings. Doisy was a voluminous 
composer, who has written several concertos for the guitar with 
accompaniment of string quartet, serenades for guitar, violin and 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 91 

alto, grand duos for guitar and violoncello, guitar and piano, guitar 
and oboe, and the guitar in duos with the horn, bassoon, viola, 
flute and another guitar. There are also published under his name 
many collections of pieces for guitar solo, including Les folies 
d'Espagne being fifty variations by " Doisy, Professeur, Paris," and 
many collections for violin and guitar, and flute and guitar. Op. 15 
and other duos for guitar and violin were published by Simrock, 
Bonn. 

Dorn, James, born January 7, 1809, at Lichtenau, Germany, and 
living as late as 1853, at which date he gave instruction on the 
guitar to his nephew, Charles James Dorn. James Dorn was cele- 
brated as a virtuoso on the horn and an excellent guitarist, and was 
for some years a member of the Royal Chapel of the Grand Duke 
of Baden. He received his first musical education when a boy, 
under Schunke, and when he was sixteen years of age joined a 
military regiment, where he continued his musical training as a 
member of the band, playing the horn. In 1832 he made a concert 
tour through England as horn virtuoso and won much praise by his 
performances, and then returned to his native land, being appointed 
court musician in Carlsbad. Dorn published only a few com- 
positions but among them we find, Six polkas for guitar solo, 
issued by Andre, Offenbach. These light dances met with 
considerable popularity, and passed several editions. 

Dorn's brother, Valentine, was also a French horn player who 
settled for a time in Boston, America, as a member of important 
orchestras in that city. His son, Charles James, born in Boston, 
October 29, 1839, died there about 1910, returned with his parents 
to their native land when he was fourteen years of age, and in 
Carlsbad he received lessons on the guitar from his uncle James, the 
court musician, and so proficient did he become on this instrument 
that in a short time he appeared in public as a soloist, and upon his 
return to America was regarded as one of the finest performers in 
the United States. During his last years he rarely appeared in 
public as a guitar soloist, but devoted himself almost entirely to 
teaching and arranging music for the instrument. Dorn was par- 
ticularly fond of the compositions of Giuliani and Mertz, and 
possessed a remarkable library of guitar music. Quoting from a 
musical periodical at the time of his decease we read " In 
more than one branch of his chosen profession Mr. Dorn attained 
an enviable reputation. As a composer of music for the guitar his 
name will long be perpetuated, for several of his best compositions 
are genuine classics, and can be found in the repertoire of many of 
our most celebrated guitarists. As an arranger, his work invariably 
bore silent testimony to his artistic ability, and that he possessed a 
thorough knowledge of the capabilities of his favourite instrument 
was in evidence on every page. As an instructor he was most 
conscientious. 1 1 is earnestness in imparting his store of knowledge 
served as an inspiration to his pupils, while his many sterling 



02 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

qualities won their respect, and, in many instances, affectionate 
regard." 

Dotzauer, Justus Johann F., born at Haselrieth, near Hildburg- 
hausen, Germany, January 20, 1783, and died in Dresden, March 9, 
1860. 'His father, the pastor of Haselrieth, was an enthusiastic 
amateur musician and guitar player of ability, and the son began 
his musical education at a very early age under his supervision. 
The guitar was the first instrument placed in his hands, and under 
his parent's instruction he obtained a thorough and practical 
knowledge of it. The ease with which he attained a proficiency in 
guitar playing induced his father to continue his musical education, 
and he now received a regular training on the violin under 
Gleichmann, the musical director of the neighbouring Court of 
Hildburghausen. During this time Dotzauer continued his practice 
of the guitar, and the numerous occasions on which he was playing 
this instrument in the company of musicians of more lengthy 
experience, proved highly instructive and beneficial, and developed 
in him a desire to master other instruments. So we find a few 
years later he commenced the study of the piano under Henschkel, 
and then the young enthusiast prevailed upon the blacksmith of his 
native place to instruct him in the rudiments of the double bass. 
This blacksmith had gained local repute as a musician and a 
performer, and his services were in constant demand at all the 
country holidays and fetes. In addition to the instruments 
mentioned, a Court trumpeter named Hessner, a pupil of the 'cellist 
Arnold Schlick, instructed Dotzauer in the art of violoncello playing, 
and for this he displayed exceptional interest. The violoncello was 
the instrument by which his name and fame as a musician is 
recorded, Dotzauer being one of the greatest composers, players, 
and teachers of that instrument. He showed such a decided 
preference for the violoncello that his father sent him, in 1799, to 
Meningen, to study under a virtuoso and teacher named Kriegk, 
who was 'cellist of the Royal Chapel. 

Dotzauer was now sixteen years of age and had been grounded 
in the elements of music, and was able to perform with proficiency 
upon several instruments. With Kriegk he studied two years and 
at the end of that period, in 1801, he received an appointment in 
the Royal Chapel of Meningen, as violoncellist, where he remained 
till 1805. His studies in composition were conducted by the 
organist Kittel, the last pupil of the great Bach, and in ( 1805 
he visited Leipzig, where he became one of the founders of " The 
Quartet." The following year he visited Berlin, where he heard 
and studied with great advantage under the renowned virtuoso, 
Bernard Romberg. In 1811 Dotzauer entered the King's Band at 
Dresden as violoncellist in the Court Orchestra, where he rose to 
the position of solo violoncellist in 1821, and remained as such till 
he retired in 1850, appearing in 1834 as soloist in Vienna with 
great success. As a soloist, Dotzauer, in his early career showed a 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 93 

preference for the concertos of Arnold; but after his finishing 
studies under Romberg, he invariably performed the latter's com- 
positions. In his playing he combined power of tone with a style 
both noble and graceful, and Spohr praises his excellent qualities 
as a quartet player. The last ten years of his life were spent in 
Dresden, where he was busily engaged composing, editing, and 
above all, teaching. His principal pupils were Kummer, Schuberth, 
and his younger son Karl Ludwig, his elder son obtained 
some renown as a pianist. Dotzauer's compositions are very 
numerous and embrace the whole field of musical art, including an 
opera, Graziosa, which was performed at Dresden in 1841, masses, 
symphonies, several overtures, nine quartets, twelve concertos for 
'cello and orchestra, sonatas, variations for 'cello, guitar solos, solos 
with guitar accompaniment and numerous studies and exercises for 
the 'cello. He edited Bach's six sonatas for 'cello, and is the author 
also of a most excellent method for that instrument. 

The majority of his compositions have now passed into 
oblivion, with the exception of his solos, tutor, and studies 
for the 'cello. These studies and method, however, retain their 
value to this day, as the new editions give proof. His concertos, 
duets, and other solos are valuable to the student as giving 
opportunity to develop technic in its various branches, and 
in this respect the Twenty-four daily studies stand pre-eminently 
useful. Many of Dotzauer's early works were composed with the 
guitar, and it is to be regretted that only one such composition is to 
be obtained at the present day — a Potpourri for violoncello and 
guitar Op. 21, published by Breitkopf & Hartel, London. This 
work, in four movements, commences with an adagio in the key of 
E minor, the second subject, an andante in lighter vein, and of 
somewhat greater length, terminates in arpeggios in triplets. This 
is followed by a larghetto in three-four time — a noble melody, 
introducing effective double stopping and harmonic notes, and the 
finale, an andante, reiterates the theme of the second movement, 
but suddenly changes tempo to presto — a two-four movement in 
triplets — wherein the bowing ability of the performer is called into 
requisition. The guitar accompaniment is written in one of the 
most resonant keys of the instrument — E minor — and while it 
supports the violoncello, it admirably displays the characteristics of 
the guitar and the composer's practical knowledge of this instrument. 
This composition occupies a foremost position among duos for this 
combination of instruments. 

Dragonetti, Domenico, born in Venice, 1755, died in London, 
April 16, 1846. Dragonetti, whose fame as a virtuoso on the 
ponderous double bass was unsurpassed, was also an extraordinary 
performer upon the light guitar, and if he could rouse the monks of 
S. Giustina of Padua out of their cells in the dead of the night by 
his imitation of a thunderstorm, when testing the powers of his 
newly acquired Gasparo di Salo double bass, he could also attract 



94 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

crowds of the citizens of Venice by his guitar playing and serenades. 
Dragonetti's father, Pietro, was also a guitar and double bass player, 
accustomed to play chiefly by ear for public dances, and when his son 
Domenico was nine years of age, he too, adopted the guitar. He 
would surreptitiously carry his father's guitar to a remote quarter of 
the house to practise, and such was the force of genius that in a short 
time, and without his parents being conscious of the circumstances, 
he made extraordinary progress on the instrument, and was a good 
player. It was part of his father's occupation to accompany on the 
guitar, the solos of the violinist Doretti, who was a composer of 
dance music ; the two musicians being constantly engaged at dances. 
Doretti, upon one occasion, desired to try over some of his new 
compositions, and for that purpose took the manuscripts to Dragonetti. 
The son was in the room, and noticing that his father did not succeed 
perfectly, asked to be allowed to try the guitar part ; but Pietro, 
unconscious of his son's ability, refused. Doretti, observing the 
assurance of the boy, persuaded the father to let him try, and he 
greatly astonished both by reading the music fluently, accompanying 
Doretti's melody with chords as appropriate as a well-versed 
practitioner. Dragonetti was determined to study the instrument to 
the highest point of perfection, and having made the acquaintance 
of Mestrino, a talented violinist, a man who possessed a great desire 
for fame, he associated himself with him as a guitarist. The two 
practised and studied together for some time, and were engaged at 
the most brilliant public and private musical circles in Venice, and 
upon their return home after engagements, they delighted to amuse 
the citizens by their violin and guitar duets. 

When a youth, Dragonetti's attention was directed also to the 
double bass, and after receiving eleven lessons from Berini, and when 
but thirteen years of age, he became first double bass player in the 
Comic Opera, Venice, and at fourteen years of age held a similar 
position at a grand opera of the Theatre St. Benetto. At Vicenza 
he played in the opera orchestra, and while in that city was fortunate 
enough to discover the marvellous double bass from which he would 
never part. This instrument had belonged to the convent of S. Pietro, 
it was his inseparable companion for nearly sixty years, and at his 
death he bequeathed it to the vestry of the Church of St. Mark, 
Venice. In 1794 he was engaged at the King's Theatre, London, 
and he became the constant friend and companion of the violoncellist, 
Lindley, where for fifty years they played at the same desk in the 
Opera, Philharmonic, and other concerts, and their execution of 
Corelli's sonatas as duos for 'cello and double bass, was an unfailing 
attraction. Dragonetti published a few songs with piano, and 
several others with guitar accompaniment remain in manuscript. 
He was an enthusiastic collector of pictures, music and musical 
instruments, and he possessed rare examples of Italian guitars. He 
died in London, and was buried in the Catholic Chapel of Moorfields, 
London. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 95 

Drouet, Louis F. P., was born in Amsterdam in 1792, and died 
in Berne, Switzerland, September 30, 1873. He was one of the 
most eminent flute players of all times and also a talented guitarist, 
a pupil of the Paris Conservatoire of Music, and played in that 
institution and also at the Opera when he was but seven years of age. 
His serious study of the flute commenced in 1807, after an extra- 
ordinary success Avhich he achieved at a concert in Amsterdam with 
the violinist Rode, for previous to this time he had divided his 
attentions between the flute and guitar. From 1807-10 he was solo 
flautist and teacher of King Louis of Holland. In 1811 he was in 
a similar position at the Court of Napoleon I, which he retained after 
the Restoration, being in 1814 first flautist in the Court orchestra of 
Louis XVIII. He came to England in 1815 and commenced a 
business in London as a manufacturer of flutes, but he discontinued 
it in 1819 and then travelled as a virtuoso. This was a lengthy tour, 
embracing all Europe, and towards its close he resided for some time 
in Naples, and then later at The Hague. Drouet's tour was a most 
triumphant success, his appearances as solo flautist and with a guitar 
accompanist in his own compositions, elicited the highest praise. 

He was a wonderful executant, his dexterity being most remarkable, 
although his tone was more delicate than powerful. In 1830 he 
appeared as a performer once again in London, and from 1836-1854 
was engaged as Court Capellmeister in Coburg, and then he visited 
the United States of America, residing for a time in New York. 
Upon his return to Europe he lived first at Gotha, afterwards at 
Frankfort, and finally settled in Berne, Switzerland. He has left 
innumerable compositions for the flute, a great number of these 
being written with accompaniment for the guitar, of which the 
following are the most important, being principally airs with 
variations for flute and guitar : God save the King, and Op. 123, 
124, 132 and 137, all published by Cranz, Leipzig. 

Dubez, John, an Italian, born in Vienna, 1828, and died there 
October 27, 1891, was a virtuoso on several instruments — the 
mandolin, guitar, harp, and zither — -and an instrumental composer. 
In 1846 he was engaged as violinist in the Josef stadt Theatre, Vienna, 
and formed there an acquaintance with the guitar virtuoso, Giulio 
Regondi. Dubez, who frequently heard Regondi perform when 
the latter appeared in Vienna, was so fascinated that he adopted the 
guitar, too, and studied it under Regondi and Mertz in this city. His 
progress was very rapid for in 1847 he gave his first guitar concert 
in the old Vienna Academy of Music, playing Regondi's compositions 
and meeting with enormous success. Dubez was a brilliant harpist 
also, and under Meyerbeer's baton he played the well-known harp solo 
in the opera Vielka. Some few years previous to his death he under- 
took a protracted concert tour, visiting Bucharest and Constantinople. 
In the former city he was commanded to perform before the Queen 
of Roumania, and in the latter before the Sultan and Court, receiving 



96 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

the decoration of the Medjidia Order. Dubez was elected the first 
president of the Vienna Zither Society, founded in 1875, and also 
created honorary member of the Prague Zither Society. His 
compositions are written in the same style as those of his teacher, 
Mertz, but the majority remain in manuscript. He has composed 
several harp solos, published by Bosendorfer, and Cranz of 
Hamburg. Dubez's portrait was published by the Vienna Zither 
Society's Journal, in 1891. As a guitarist he takes rank with Mertz 
and Regondi, and is one of the most celebrated of Austrian virtuosi. 
Among his published compositions we find a Fantasia on Hungarian 
melodies for solo guitar, issued by Diabelli and Co., Vienna, and 
Op. 11, 33, 34, 35 and 37 are harp solos which were published by 
Cranz, Hamburg. 

CDEL, George, a German musician who was attached to the Royal 
Court of Vienna during the latter part of the eighteenth and 
the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. He was a guitarist and 
violinist of ability, and is the author of many instrumental 
compositions, among which we find Eight variations on a German 
melody for guitar solo ; Serenade for violin, 'cello and guitar, Op. 
7, published in Vienna, and also a Serenade for violin, alto and 
guitar, which was issued in Hamburg. 

Ehlers, William, born in 1774, at Weimar, died December, 1845, 
in Frankfort, Germany. After studying music and literature he 
made his debut at the theatre of his native town, and his singing 
and guitar playing received an instantaneous and hearty reception. 
He then commenced to teach singing, elocution, and the guitar, and 
was later engaged as director of theatres in Mayence and Wiesbaden. 
In 1809 he appeared before the Viennese public for the first time, 
and won considerable success. Five years later Ehlers was leading 
tenor in the theatre of Breslau, and he remained in this position 
until 1824, being then regarded as one of the most popular operatic 
singers of Germany. In 1829 he established a school of music, 
which was highly successful, in Frankfort, and two years later was 
appointed musical director of the theatre of this city. Among his 
numerous vocal compositions are songs with guitar accompaniment 
which were published by Cotta of Stuttgart, Bcehme, and also 
Hofmeister, Leipzig. 

Ellis, Herbert J., born in Dulwich, London, July 4, 1865, died at 
the early age of thirty-eight, on October 13, 1903, in St. Thomas' 
Hospital, London, was without question the most fertile English 
composer and arranger for mandolin and guitar. He was the son 
of a licensed victualler, and received no musical instruction beyond 
that given by his mother, who had been a pupil of Sir Julius 
Benedict, and she taught her son the piano and harmony. While 
a lad he became the delighted owner of a banjo, and he 
says : " Having the infatuation (for the banjo), I learnt several 




HKRBKRT J. ELLIS. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 97 

tunes out of my piano tutor, and then occurred to me the idea of 
writing my own music for it. Gradually growing ambitious, I did 
not rest until I had written an instruction book, which, in due 
course saw the light and without being egotistical, I think I can 
safely say that it was from the advent of my Thorough school that 
the banjo began to be popular." It was, in fact, owing to the 
growing popularity of the banjo, from 1884 onwards, that his talents 
were developed, for he had no academic education in music ; but 
an inborn aptitude for its study and diligent practice, marked Ellis, 
for other than the commercial career originally intended by his 
parents. The publication of his Thorough school for banjo by 
J. A. Turner, London, immediately established the position of its 
author, and the demand for his compositions and methods was 
decidedly marked, resulting in the issue of some thousands of books 
and separate pieces from his pen. About the year 1888, the 
mandolin and guitar were beginning to arrest popular attention, and 
Ellis devoted himself to these instruments, too, and it was not long 
ere his Tutor for the mandolin was issued by the same publishers 
as his previous tutor. This was the first mandolin instruction book 
printed in England, and to the general surprise it ran through 
several editions, being the preliminary work that prepared the way 
for establishing the instrument in public favour throughout this 
country. 

The popularity of the mandolin brought with it a revival of 
the guitar, and here again, the skill and adaptability of Ellis was 
equal to the occasion, for yet another volume, his Thorough school 
for the guitar was published, and immediately found favour 
amongst teachers and players. In fact, his method for the guitar 
in its unique and simple manner of arrangement, by its explicit 
diagrams and judicious sequence of studies, is the simplest and best 
yet issued in England. There are other English guitar methods 
of perhaps greater scholarly and musicianly qualities; but to 
the beginner they are not so lucid or simple. During the period 
of his first publications, Ellis enjoyed the most enviable position 
as a teacher of these instruments in England — to some mortals, 
genius, and rare opportunity for success are lavishly bestowed in 
great profusion ; but the hand that gives, sometimes withholds the 
power to retain these gifts, and so in the life of Ellis, he lacked 
the force of character and power to rise above his daily environments, 
and to these in a great measure are attributable the sad termination 
of so promising a career and his premature death. To him was 
given the faculty for expressing himself in the simplest and most 
attractive manner, and his total avoidance of technical difficulties 
made his compositions of particular attraction to beginners, and his 
name quite familiar to all English players of these instruments. 
Speaking generally, his writings were not advanced in style, but on 
the other hand his time was fully occupied with the present as a 
teacher and composer, to allow for the deeper and more solid work, 



98 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

which would in all probability have followed, had his life been 
spared to more mature years. To Ellis and all English players, 
the higher branches of the mandolinistic art were unknown, and the 
majority of guitarists were satisfied with the limitations of an 
accompaniment ; but since his advent, mandolin and guitar 
instruction books and music have been published in profusion in 
this country, but his works maintain their popularity. In 1892, 
John Alvey Turner issued his Thorough school for the mandolin, 
and this was followed by his High school studies for the mandolin, 
this publisher's catalogue alone shows over one thousand works by 
Ellis, all of a light character, and in addition a great number of the 
same style were also issued by Dallas, London. 

Ernst, Franz Anton, was born in 1745, at Georgenthal, Bohemia, 
and died in 1805, at Gotha. He was a genius as a performer, a 
musical instrument maker, and composer. Ernst is known princi- 
pally as an eminent violinist ; he was also a skilful guitarist and 
manifested great interest in the two instruments by studying their 
construction and making them. As a young man he studied both 
the violin and guitar in Prague, receiving instruction on these 
instruments from Antonio Lolli, and it was then that he commenced 
constructing these instruments as a pastime, and he displayed great 
ingenuity in copying instruments of the old Italian masters. In 
1778 he removed to Gotha, having been engaged as leader of the 
violins in the Court orchestra, and in this city he once more reverted 
to his fascinating occupation of instrument making. 

Otto, a guitar and violin maker, who was a pupil of Ernst, receiving 
lessons in both playing and making these instruments, says in his 
treatise: " In Prague, where Ernst studied, he employed himself with 
violin making by way of amusement, and, on coming to Gotha, 
reverted to this employment, after having neglected it for many 
years. Now, however, he pursued it with extreme ardour, even 
taking lessons in mathematics, in order that he might be wanting in 
no information which could contribute to the perfect construction of 
instruments. Nor were these efforts fruitless; for having, as a 
member of the Chapel, much time at his disposal, he had leisure 
enough to give all diligence to the pursuit, and whoever has become 
acquainted with his violins must certainly admit that they possess 
considerable merit. Even the Chapel master, Herr Spohr, I have 
been assured, has performed a concerto on one of Ernst's violins. 
From him (Ernst) I received instruction in violin playing, and 
soon took delight in the manufacture of the instrument. Hence, he 
was my teacher in a two-fold capacity. After I left Gotha for 
Weimar he took an assistant, the joiner Artmann, of Wegmar, near 
Gotha, who afterwards manufactured violins very similar in form 
and model." " During two years, I measured and calculated the 
proportions of the very best instruments according to the rules nf 
mathematics, under the late Herr Ernst, concert director at Gotha, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 99 

with whom I also studied music for three years. Herr Ernst 
himself made excellent violins, which will in a few years approxi- 
mate to the Cremonese, if they escape the misfortune of falling into 
the hands of such gentry as I have before described (bad repairers)." 
Hart also pays a tribute to Ernst's skill in this direction by 
stating that : " He took great interest in violin making and made 
several excellent instruments." Ernst was a renowned performer 
on both the violin and guitar and has also composed for both 
instruments. For the former instrument his Concerto in E is 
acknowledged his most ambitious work, and for the guitar we find 
numerous smaller compositions. Schott of Mayence published his 
Twenty operatic transcriptions for flute and guitar. Ernst con- 
tributed an article : Uber den Ban der Geige, to a Leipzig music 
journal, which appeared in 1805. 

Eulenstein, Carl, born at Heilbron, Wurtemburg, Germany, in 
1802, died in Styria, Austria, in 1890, at the advanced age of eighty- 
eight. His parents were very poor, his mother the daughter of an 
innkeeper of the town and his father an amateur violinist of some 
ability, whose services were in frequent demand at all the festive 
gatherings in the district. While Carl was very young his father 
died and the widow and young family were plunged in straightened 
circumstances. During his father's life-time young Eulenstein had 
manifested an extraordinary love of music, and, not being permitted 
to touch his father's violin had constructed his own childish instru- 
ment when six years of age. This rude instrument is still preserved, 
being for years fondly treasured by his mother. After the death of 
the father the lad was permitted the use of his violin, and, although 
the mother was not in a position to pay for instruction, he was 
nothing deterred, but practised incessantly. His ability on this 
instrument soon attracted the schoolmaster's attention, and under- 
standing the impecunious position of the family, he generously 
undertook to teach him the violin and the rudiments of music, and 
a little later gave him instruction on the guitar and flute also. His 
progress was phenomenal, particularly upon the guitar. At the age 
of fourteen, through the influence of his uncle, the lad reluctantly 
consented to become apprenticed to a magistrate's clerk, but his 
ambition was to become a musician for he had begged and entreated 
his mother, but in vain, as she was influenced by the lad's uncle, 
who declared that Carl was a lazy vagabond — as were all musicians. 
The boy was afterwards placed with a bookbinder, and this employ- 
ment proving as irksome and unsuccessful as the former, sterner 
measures were adopted by his uncle, and he was sent away from 
home to a hardware merchant, who was requested to keep him 
continually at work and from music. 

The nearest approach to music that the lad now had, was found 
in his employer's hardware stock — jewsharps — and he was com- 
pelled to satisfy his musical longings with these. He would take 



100 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

several of these to bed, and the manner in which he manipulated 
many of them at a time, and the effects he produced were most 
extraordinary. His skill in this direction was made public in London 
many years later, when he performed before a learned audience at 
a lecture given by Sir Michael Faraday in the Royal Institute. 
Eulenstein played these and the guitar in his bedroom, unknown to 
his employer, during the greater part of each night, and it was not 
until he became the proud possessor of an old French horn, that he 
betrayed his musical midnight studies. The mournful tones of the 
brass instrument suddenly aroused the merchant from his slumbers 
and the youth was summarily dismissed with his musical instruments. 
He was now nineteen years of age, turned out into the world ; but 
released from his irksome employment, at liberty, and he decided to 
travel as a performer on the guitar and jewsharps, his only friends 
being his instruments and a few pence. Eulenstein passed through 
Heidelberg, Frankfort, Hesse Cassel and Hanover, walking with the 
greatest difficulty more than six hundred miles, meeting with much 
adversity and very little encouragement. At the theatre of Luren- 
burg, however, he performed with some amount of financial success 
and later, at Stuttgart, was patronised by nobility and in 1825 com- 
manded to appear before the Queen of Wurtemburg. He then 
performed in Tubingen, Freiburg and Basle, and from thence walked 
through Switzerland, passing Zurich and Lausanne, and entering 
France at Lyons. His plight was now pitiable in the extreme; he 
had met with no support or encouragement, was shoeless, forced to 
sleep without shelter, and on the vefge of starvation. In this 
dejected and forlorn condition he arrived in Paris, where his guitar 
playing fortunately attracted the notice of M. Stockhausen,a harpist 
of repute, and husband of the celebrated soprano of that name. The 
harpist at once befriended him and through his kindly influence 
Eulenstein performed before Paer, the Duke of Orleans, Duchess 
de Berry, and Charles X of France, with the greatest success. It 
was at this time he composed and published in Paris his Op. 1, and 
he quitted France in 1827, after a successful and protracted sojourn 
and then came to London. Here he performed before the Princess 
Augusta, the Marchioness of Salisbury, and the Duke of Gordon, 
this nobleman manifesting a kindly interest in his welfare. 
Eulenstein was commanded to perform before King William and 
played at other fashionable concerts and then returned to his native 
land but in 1828 was again in London as a professor of the guitar. 
His noble patron the Duke of Gordon, hearing of his misfortunes 
immediately invited him to his Scottish residence. It was in the 
depths of a rigorous winter when Eulenstein journeyed there by coach 
and upon his arrival the Duke was waiting to greet and escort him 
to his mansion. He resided as private musician in the mansion of 
the Duke of Gordon for some time, and made several professional 
tours through Scotland, receiving great praise in the adjacent city of 
Aberdeen, and also in Edinburgh. After these financial successes 




CARL EULENSTEIN. 



GUITAR AND >>fANDOLIN. 101 

he toured through England, he visited Cheltenham and Bath, and 
settled in the latter fashionable city as a teacher of the guitar and the 
German language. He resided here for some years, and was held 
in the highest esteem, but returned again to his native land, living 
in 1879 at Giinzburg, near Ulm. In his advancing years he removed 
to Styria and died in a village there in 1890. Eulenstein was a man 
of prepossessing appearance, well educated, and polished in manners. 

His autobiography appeared under the title of A sketch of the 
Life, etc., in 1833, this volume, 8vo, contained his portrait, and a 
second edition of this work was published in 1840. His portrait, a 
copy of which is here reproduced, was engraved by Adcock, from a 
drawing by Branwhite, and published October 1, 1833, by a London 
music seller. Eulenstein was the author of several excellent 
scholastic works on the German language, which were issued in Bath 
and London. His compositions and arrangements for the guitar 
were among the most popular ever published in England, and his 
guitar accompaniments to favourite songs were to be found in 
all the albums and journals of the time. His own compositions and 
arrangements, though for the greater part exceedingly simple, display 
good taste, and were favourites among amateur guitarists. He is 
the author of string quartets, songs with guitar, duos for guitar and 
piano, guitar solos and duos, and a Practical method for the guitar. 
This latter work met with a fair amount of favour in its day and 
passed several editions, being originally published by Brewer & Co., 
and at the present day by J. A. Turner, London. In the introduction 
Eulenstein says: "When Mr. Hummel was in Bath, the author of 
this work had a long conversation with him, and was much gratified 
to hear so eminent a pianist and composer express so high opinion in 
favour of the guitar, particularly of its effects in modulation." 

The following are Eulenstein's most popular compositions : Op. 1, 
Twelve airs for guitar solo, Richault, Paris; Op. 9, Introduction 
and brilliant rondo, Johanning, London; Op. 10, Three rondos, 
Johanning; Op. 11, Two rondos, Ewer, London; Op. 15, Six 
Waltzes, Ewer; Op. 16, Military Divertimento; Variations for 
guitar tuned in E major, dedicated to Her Grace the Duchess 
of Gordon ; German retreat in E major tuning ; Introduction and 
variations on Weber's last waltz, and a grand waltz of 
Beethoven ; Souvenir de Bath, guitar solo, and Tyrolese melodies 
with variations, Leonard & Co., London ; French melodies, with 
symphonies and accompaniments by Eulenstein published in 1828; 
PleyeVs German hymn for guitar solo, D'Almaine, London; Reicli- 
stadt waltz and Ritornella duos for guitar and piano, Chappell, 
London, and numerous other pieces of a similar nature. 
Speaking of his compositions for the guitar, The Harmotiicon of 
1831 said : " Mr. Eulenstein's rondos are remarkably delicate and 
pleasing and within the compass of ordinary players." 

CAHRBACH, Josef, a German guitar virtuoso, born August 25, 
■ 1804, in Vienna, and died there June 7, 1883. In addition to 



102 MANDOLIN AND GUITAR. 

being a guitar virtuoso, Fahrbach was celebrated as a flautist and 
composer, and was the father of the renowned composer, Philip 
Fahrbach. For many years Fahrbach was engaged in the opera 
orchestra, Vienna, and he is the author of numerous instrumental com- 
positions principally for the guitar and flute. Op. 73, Studies for the 
guitar with twelve strings (six extra basses), and Twenty-four 
harmonious studies for guitar solo, were published by Cranz, 
Hamburg, whoalso issued Fahrbach's German and French translation 
from the original text of F. Bathioli's guitar method. This volume 
was augmented by Fahrbach with cadenzas and studies from his 
pen, and the same publishers also issued many of his studies, exercises, 
and solos for flute. Fahrbach was also the author of numerous 
transcriptions and arrangements for guitar solo, issued by publishers 
of lesser repute. 

Ferandiere, Don Ferdinando, a Spaniard who was celebrated as 
a guitarist. He was living in Madrid in 1800, and is the author of 
a method for the guitar published in his native land under the title 
of Arte de tocar la guitarra Espanola. A copy of this work was to 
be seen in the Spanish section of the Vienna Musical Exhibition 
of 1892. 

Ferranti, Marc Aurelio Zani de, a celebrated guitar virtuoso 
and man of letters, born in Bologna, July 6, 1802, and died in Pisa, 
Italy, November 28, 1878. He was descended from an ancient 
Venetian family believed to be the same as that of Ziani. At the 
age of seven he was sent to Lucca, in Tuscany, with his preceptor, 
the Abbot Ronti to receive his education, and the instruction he 
received here was most thorough. Zani de Ferranti was gifted 
with very precocious intelligence, and a prodigious memory, and 
his poetic talent manifested itself from early childhood, for when 
twelve years of age he had composed and published Latin poetry 
which was read throughout Italy. At this age he attended a 
concert given by the violinist Paganini, and so great an impression 
did it create in the mind of the youth that music became his 
passion, and he at once commenced the study of the violin under 
an artist in Lucca named Gerli, junr. Ferranti 's progress was 
phenomenal, for at the age of sixteen his talent promised a violinist 
of the first order ; but he subsequently abandoned this instrument 
for the guitar, and it was by his extraordinary genius on the latter 
instrument that he made a name in the musical world. In 1820 he 
left Italy and visited Paris, where he was heard as an amateur 
guitarist ; but at this time he was pre-occupied with improved 
methods which could be introduced in playing the guitar, and he 
possessed more ideas on this subject than he could as yet introduce 
in his performances, and his skill therefore could not achieve what 
he desired to perform. Consequently his playing at this period 
received scant success, but his perseverance did not forsake him, 
neither did lack of encouragement deter him from his purpose. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 103 

Towards the end of the same year — 1820 — he travelled to St. 
Petersburg, where he was engaged as librarian to Senator Meitleff, 
and afterwards as private secretary to Prince Varischkin, cousin of 
the Emperor, and he took advantage of the long periods of leisure 
which these positions afforded, to meditate upon the innovations 
which he had entered upon, respecting his improvements in the art 
of guitar playing. While in St. Petersburg he translated into 
Italian verse twelve of the most beautiful poetic meditations of 
Lamartine. In 1824 Zani de Ferranti quitted St. Petersburg for 
Hamburg, where the following year, he appeared as guitar soloist 
with much success, although he had not yet quite perfected his 
system, nor had he acquired that remarkable talent which 
characterized his later performances. From 1825 to 1827 he was 
playing in Brussels, Paris, and London, still intent upon his all- 
absorbing idea — the regeneration of the guitar — and seeking, 
sometimes in literature, and sometimes in music, for the resources 
of his precarious existence. For the second time he visited 
Brussels in 1827, in a penniless condition ; but shortly after his 
arrival, was appointed professor of the guitar and Italian language 
in the Royal Conservatoire of that city. He was also employed in 
musical literary work, contributing articles to many of the leading 
musical journals, and he married during this year. After continuous 
and protracted study, he finally received his reward by discovering 
the secret of the art of singing in sustained notes on the guitar, and 
he devoted several years to his discovery, obtaining all the extension 
of which it was susceptible, and then made his results public in 
two recitals which he gave in Brussels in 1832. He was honoured 
by the appointment of guitarist to the King of the Belgians, and 
his time was spent alternately in Brussels and The Hague. 
Ferranti was most brilliantly successful, and from this time the 
talent of the virtuoso was augmented daily by his continuous 
application and study. The difficulties which he mastered with 
ease upon his instrument were inexecutable by other guitarists, and 
no one has been able to discover up to this time in what consisted 
his secret of prolonging and uniting his notes. His slurred chord 
passages, and melody with independent accompaniment for the 
same instrument, were most marvellous and entrancing. After 
making a third tour through Holland, he visited London, and then 
returned to The Hague, when he became associated in public with 
the violinist Sivori, and together they made a concert tour through 
America, where Ferranti remained a year, receiving praise for his 
guitar playing equal to that bestowed upon his companion Sivori. 
Returning to Brussels in 1846, he again took up his appointment 
as professor in the Royal Conservatoire and was occupied as such 
till the end of 1854, when his restless spirit manifested itself again, 
and he arranged an artistic tour through France to his native land. 
He announced farewell concerts in Brussels and The Hague, 
previous to his departure, and the Brussel's Echo remarked : " Very 



104 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

frequently we have to complain of the deluge of concerts showered 
upon us regularly in Brussels, from the beginning of Lent until 
after Easter. Fortunately, we have occasionally some sweet com- 
pensation. We could now cite several, but for to-day we will 
confine ourselves to the farewell concert of Zani de Ferranti, 
professor at the Royal Conservatoire and first guitarist to the King. 
We have heard this very distinguished artist many times, and upon 
every occasion his playing was so brilliant and so varied that he 
revealed to us some new wonder quite unexpected. What Paganini 
is on the violin, Thalberg on the piano, Servais on the 'cello, 
Godefried on the harp — Ferranti is on the guitar. He is a 
discoverer. He has done in excess beyond his celebrated rivals 
in vanquishing the difficulties, which a helpless instrument in the 
hands of others offers — but in his hands the guitar is no more the 
instrument you know — it becomes possessed of a voice and a soul. 
Ferranti has found new effects, harmonious traits of extraordinary 
wealth and power. Add to all the secrets of his technique, a 
clearness, a broadness and admirable equality of tone, add the 
rapidity, the vigour, the neatness of fingering, and far above all, the 
inspiration, the rapture, the almost supernatural in the person, 
which evidences the true artist, and you will have but a faint idea 
of the talent of Ferranti. Before you heard him, you could not 
imagine that the guitar was capable of such effects— the vigour, and 
at the same time the subtle fineness, the sweetness in effects of 
mezzotint, in ethereal vaporous gradations of tone. The pieces 
which he composes are charming, and if Ferranti was not a virtuoso 
of the first rank he would shine among composers. Is it necessary 
for us to remark that the success of the artist has been immense ?" 
In January of 1855, he arrived in Paris and was welcomed in the 
salons of the most eminent poets and musicians. Fetis lavished 
praise on him and wrote : " If the guitar has a Paganini it owes this 
glory to Ferranti." Berlioz was enraptured by his performances 
and duly chronicled, in The Journal des Debats, the effects produced 
upon him. Paganini, who, like Berlioz, was a guitarist of rare 
ability, after attending one of Ferranti's recitals, wrote : " I heard 
you, sir, with such emotion that I have scarcely enough reason left 
to tell you that you are the most miraculous guitarist that I have 
ever met in my life," and Paganini had toured and played in public 
with the guitar virtuoso, Legnani. M. Pleyel extolled his fame to 
Alexander Dumas in January, and the following month Ferranti 
gave a recital at the residence of the poet, and such a profound 
impression did his playing create upon his enraptured hearers, that 
when the last chords of his martial fantasia were vibrating, Dumas 
impulsively rose to his feet and exclaimed : " Sebastopol will be 
taken." The Parisian Chronicle, April 9, 1859, in reporting his 
recital said : " Ferranti charmed for three whole hours the most 
select and aesthetical audience. He has made himself heard, the 
guitar alone has been the attraction of this charming soiree, but the 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 105 

genius of Ferranti is so supple, so extended, so varied, that one did 
not have a suspicion of monotony. Again and again we applauded 
with real enthusiasm. The rondo of fairies, a work full of 
mysterious poetry and melancholic fantasy ; O cara memoria and 
Walpurgis night, a piece even more fantastic than the first, and of 
which the sparkling variations and finale were most miraculously 
executed. Do not scorn the guitar any more, gentlemen. When 
you have heard Ferranti you recognise the accuracy of the profound 
word of Fetis : ' An artist is always great when he opens new routes 
and draws the veil from the limits of his art.' The guitar only has 
limited resources; but the soul which animated the instrument was 
vigorous, nothing stops it, it endues its power to the inert instrument. 
Between the hands of Ferranti the guitar becomes an orchestra, a 
military band; if he play the Marseillaise on the guitar, he makes 
a revolutionary of you ; if he sing a love song there is a seduced 
woman, if he sing the Song of departure, we fly to the frontier. 
One day in 1855 Ferranti had played at the house of Alexander 
Dumas, a winning fantasia on popular martial songs. Suddenly 
Dumas rose and in wild enthusiasm exclaimed: 'Sebastopol will be 
taken.' " 

From Paris, Ferranti travelled through France to Italy, and 
performed with his usual success in the important cities on his 
route, passing through Moulins and Lyons. He arrived in Nice 
during March, and gave several recitals, the Gazette stating : M. 
Zani de Ferranti had the honour to be heard last Saturday at 
H.I.H., the Grand Duchess of Baden, who had gathered the most 
brilliant assembly. The celebrated guitarist displayed as usual his 
astonishing ability, and obtained the high approbation of the elite 
audience." Ferranti passed on to Cannes, and in April gave many 
recitals in this fashionable resort, one journal remarked : ' Not 
finding artists to assist him, the celebrated virtuoso bravely 
announced in his programme that he would execute five pieces of 
his composition alone, without the help of anyone, and he has 
charmed and enraptured his audience. I only know of one such 
instance similar, when Liszt did the same, and in justice, I must 
say that the Italian guitarist was rewarded with as great success as 
the Hungarian pianist." Upon his arrival in Italy, Ferranti 
resided in Bologna for a period, and there wrote : Di varie lezioni 
da sositiiirsi alle invalse Nell Inferno di Dante Alighieri, which 
was published by Marsigli & Rocchi of that city. He gave many 
concerts in Pisa, and other Italian towns for some time, but it was 
his earnest desire to spend his last years in his native land. This 
wish was gratified, for some years later he passed away almost 
without pain, amid his children and friends on November 28, 1878, 
at Pisa ; two hours previous to his death he was in his usual health 
conversing with friends. 

Ferranti was not a voluminous musical composer, and his 
published compositions do not exceed more than twenty works — 

G 



106 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

about fifteen being issued by Schott of London, consisting of 
fantasias, variations, etc., for guitar solo — which should be included 
in the repertoire of all earnest students of the guitar. Several of his 
compositions remain in manuscript, and among these we find a 
method for the guitar, concertos with orchestra, and a variety of 
other pieces for the instrument. A catalogue and prospectus of his 
complete works was issued some years since in Brussels, with the 
intention of publishing the manuscripts; but the enterprise did not 
meet with sufficient support to warrant the undertaking. As poet 
and litterateur, Ferranti published a poetical inspiration entitled : 
In morte della celebra Maria Malibran de Beriot, 8vo, Brussels, 
1836. This poem, which is as remarkable for the elegance and 
energy of the versification as for the beauty of ideas, was followed 
by Studies on Dante, and he prepared an edition of his poems, 
which was published during April, 1846, in London, Brussels and 
Paris, as was also La comedia di Dante Alighieri, and many other 
literary works. The following are the chief of his published guitar 
compositions: Op. 1, Fantasia varie on a favourite air; Op. 2, 
Rondo des fees; Op. 3, Six nocturnes ; Op. 4, Ma dernierc 
fantasia ; Op. 5, Fantasia on the Carnival of Venice, for guitar 
tuned in E major, and upon the title page of this, he describes 
himself as " Guitarist to the King of the Belgians"; Op. 6, Loin de 
toi ; Op. 7, Fantasia varie on a romance from Otello ; Op. 8, 
Divertimento on three favourite English romances ; Op. 9, 
Nocturne sur la derniere pensee de Weber; Op. 10, Fantasia on 
the favourite air, O cara memoria' ; Op. 20, Fantasia varie for 
guitar solo, guitar tuned in E major, dedicated to his pupil, 
Mrs. Emma Drummond, and played by the author at his concerts, 
published privately with others in Brussels ; Three songs for 
soprano with piano accompaniment. All the foregoing were 
published by Schott, and Peters, Leipzig. 

Ferrer, Manuel Y, born in Lower California about the year 1828, 
and died in San Francisco, California, June 1, 1904. An American 
guitarist and arranger for the guitar, of pure Spanish parentage, who, 
at four years of age showed his musical tendency by strumming his 
parent's guitar and displayed his love of the instrument by construct- 
ing at this early age a crude imitation of it. A little later 
he commenced the serious study of the instrument in right earnest, 
and when about eighteen years of age, left his native town, travelling 
by stage coach to Santa Barbara, and in the old mission there, met 
a priest, a clever guitarist who gave him furthur instruction on the 
instrument. Ferrer now laboured hard and devotedly at the guitar, 
thereby unconsciously building the enviable reputation in the musical 
world, which he afterwards so justly earned and deserved. Some 
few years later he removed to San Francisco, and in this city he 
taught his instrument for a period of fifty years. His public 
appearances as guitar soloist, and also as the guitarist of a quartet 




• \P * J, jf <0 



» 



dni<ic/^M 




M. A. ZAXI Di. FERRANTI. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 107 

of instrumentalists, were very frequent, in, and around San 
Francisco. Ferrer was a born musician and possessed a most 
intense, accurate, musical memory, and a very acute and refined ear 
which he used to advantage daily. His children were all endowed 
with exceptional musical talent, one daughter like her father being 
an excellent guitarist, and a son a violinist. Ferrer was a member 
of the famous Bohemian Club of San Francisco, to the members of 
which he dedicated his vivacious mazurka Alexandrina. For 
several years he was conductor of a mandolin band, " El Mandolinita," 
in this city, and the music performed by this orchestra consisted 
solely of Ferrer's arrangements. He published numerous pieces 
for guitar solo, but many of his interesting manuscripts remain to 
this day unpublished. It was Ferrer's intention of issuing another 
volume of transcriptions, but fate decreed otherwise, for death 
suddenly intervened. His later works are considered in advance of 
his early publications ; but all are regarded with esteem, and Ferrer 
transcribed no compositions but those eminently suited and appro- 
priate for the instrument, and these are so adapted that they appear 
as if originally conceived for the guitar ; his method, too, is thorough 
and his fingering carefully studied and graceful. 

One of his most talented pupils, Miss Ethel Lucretia Olcott — 
a distinguished guitarist — describes her master in the following 
passage : " In appearance Ferrer was short of stature and dark, 
with small piercing black eyes, and when I knew him, his jet black 
hair was tinged with grey. He was kind and gentle to a degree and 
a man of very few words. In his teaching, however, he was very 
methodical and strict, though not unnecessarily harsh, invariably 
playing with the pupil, and though three or four years previous to 
his death he broke his arm, so that his hand was apparently stiff, he 
still possessed a wonderful execution. He did not retain the 
astonishing brilliancy and dazzling technique of his youth, as he 
was a man past his seventieth year then ; but to me there is a 
quality more beautiful and effective than dazzling brilliancy — the 
soulful quality — and Ferrer possessed this in a high degree with a 
sufficient amount of the former. When Ferrer touched the strings 
of the guitar the sounds entered the heart, and his chords made 
music which lifted the soul to a higher plane. One of his favourite 
solos was his arrangement of a selection from Puccini's La Boheme, 
which remains in manuscript. His last original composition 
entitled: Arbor villa, mazurka, was written two years before his 
death, and is also unpublished, and I am proud to possess a copy 
written by his own hand. He taught the guitar up to the time of 
his death, which occurred very suddenly on June 1, 1904. He 
had gone from his home in Oakland to San Francisco to teach, and 
gave several lessons, when he was suddenly taken ill, and went to 
the home of his daughter. Later he was removed to the hospital, 
where he died the same day, his third wife surviving him for several 
years. Though he lived to a ripe old age, his death was a great 



108 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

loss ; but I love to think of him now playing with angelic choirs in 
the Holy City." 

Ferrer is regarded as one of the most distinguished guitarists 
resident in America, he was also a versatile and prolific composer. 
Oliver Ditson of Boston published a volume of his works, a large 
book of about two hundred and thirty pages, devoted to guitar solos, 
songs with guitar and a few duos for two guitars, and just previous 
to his death Ferrer was engaged on a second volume, which was 
nearing completion. He possessed a remarkable technique, and 
produced a powerful rich tone which emanated from the depths of 
the instrument. Though he travelled but little, his fame spread 
over other continents and his compositions find universal favour. 

Fiorillo, Federigo, born in Brunswick, Germany, in 1753, and 
was living in Paris as late as 1823. What earnest student of the 
violin has not studied and highly valued the thirty-six caprices or 
studies of Fiorillo, and yet how many violinists are aware that their 
author was originally a mandolin player? These thirty-six caprices 
for the violin, rank equally with the classical studies of Kreutzer 
and Rode, and, apart from their usefulness, are not without merit 
as compositions. They have been edited by innumerable violinists 
of repute, and Spohr wrote and published an accompanying violin 
part to them. Fiorillo's father, Ignazio, was a Neapolitan, a 
mandolin player, who at the commencement of the eighteenth 
century terminated his travels at Brunswick, upon being ap- 
pointed conductor at the Court Opera House, and it was here 
that his son, Federigo, was born. His early musical education was 
superintended by' his father, and he inherited his parent's love of 
their national instrument, the mandolin, and obtained complete 
mastery over it, showing to advantage the delicate nuances of tone 
of which it was capable. 

As a mandolinist he performed at most of the royal courts of 
Europe, but the resources of the instrument at this period were 
limited, as was also the demand for mandolin players, and he was 
therefore compelled to devote his attention to other stringed 
instruments, principally the violin and viola. In 1780 he travelled 
to Poland, and in 1783 he was conductor for two years, of the 
band at Riga. Two years later he was playing the violin with 
much success at the Concerts Spirituels in Paris, and here he 
published some of his first compositions, which were well received. 
In 1788 he made a visit to London, where he played the viola in 
Saloman's quartet, and his last public appearance in London 
occurred in 1794, when he performed a concerto for the viola at the 
Antient Concert. After leaving London he went to Amsterdam, 
and from there, in 1823, he removed to Paris. Little reliable 
information after this date concerning his life, and subsequent 
death, is to be obtained. Fiorillo's numerous compositions are 
concertos, duos, trios, quartets, and quintets, for stringed instruments, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 109 

and although the majority of these works appear at the present 
time old-fashioned, they show their author to have been a sound 
and thorough musician. 

Fischof, Josef, born at Butschowitz in Moravia, April 4, 1804, 
and died after a short illness at Bade, near Vienna, June 28, 1857, 
was a skilful guitarist and pianist, who for a period was engaged as 
a professor of his instruments at the Conservatoire of Music in 
Vienna. From birth he was of exceedingly weak and delicate 
constitution, but his mental capacity was by no means affected, for it 
is stated that when three years of age — scarcely out of his cradle — 
he could read, and at seven years of age had a good knowledge 
of the piano and guitar. The child showed such extraordinary 
intelligence, combined with a marvellous aptitude for learning and 
retaining knowledge, that his father, a respectable tradesman of 
Butschowitz, placed him in 1813 in a college of Brunn for the 
specific study of languages. He remained in this institution till 
1819, and at the expiration of his term, a period of six years, had 
obtained proficiency in his special subjects. During this time he 
had received musical instruction from Jabelka and at a later date 
continued under Rieger; but his parents were desirous that he should 
adopt a professional career, and with this intent he entered the 
University of Vienna as a student of philosophy and medicine. 
Nevertheless, he still studied music diligently as a pastime, taking 
lessons in composition from Seyfried. 

Fischof was naturally gifted for music, an acknowledged genius 
at improvisation, and, although still intent upon his university 
studies, he contrived while in Vienna to continue his musical 
education by placing himself under Antoine Halm for piano and 
composition. In 1827 he sustained a sudden reverse in his fortunes 
by the death of his father, and was compelled to relinquish his study 
of medicine and to turn to practical use his musical knowledge by 
imparting instruction in piano and guitar playing. By perseverance 
and systematic methods he built an enviable reputation as a teacher, 
and in 1833 was appointed a professor at the Vienna Conservatorie. 
In 1851 he was commissioned by the Austrian Government to take 
charge of a deputation to the musical instrument section of the 
Great Exhibition of London the same year, being interested 
principally with the piano. Upon his return to Vienna he wrote 
and published in 1853 a volume entitled: Historical essay on the 
construction of the piano, until special regard to the Great 
Exhibition of 1851 . Fischof was a brilliant linguist, a thorough 
scholar, the author of several literary works on music, and an 
honorary member of many Austrian and foreign learned societies. 
He has published several compositions for the guitar alone, and for 
guitar and flute, one of which, Brilliant variations on an original 
theme for guitar solo, published by Pennauer, ami Diabelli, Vienna, 
enjoyed some amount of popularity, as did also Paganini march for 
flute or violin and guitar, Diabelli. 



110 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Fouchetti, or really, Fouquet, was an Italian virtuoso on the 
mandolin of European renown, who resided in Paris during the 
eighteenth century. He is the author of a method for the mandolin 
which was published by Sieber of Paris in 1770, under the title of 
Method for learning to play easily the mandolin of four or six 
strings. This work also contained six serenades and six sonatas 
for the instrument. Fouquet was living in Paris as a fashionable 
professor of the mandolin as late as 1788, but after that date nothing 
more is heard of him. 

Fridzeri or Frixer, Alexandro Marie Antoine, are the names by 
which this musician was known. He was born in Verona, Italy, 
January 16, 1741, and died in Antwerp, 1819. Fridzeri was a man 
of extraordinary natural ability and artistic attainments and his skill 
as a musician was as varied as wonderful, being one of the most 
renowned of mandolin virtuosi, a clever violinist, organist, and a 
composer whose works met with popular favour. By an accident 
he suffered the misfortune of losing his sight while a child ; but this 
serious loss appears in no degree to have deterred his genius, it may 
be, as is sometimes the case, that the loss of this sense only quickened 
and intensified others. From early youth he was very susceptible 
to musical impressions, and was taught singing and the elements of 
music while a child ; but apart from this first elementary instruction 
Fridzeri was self-taught in all the branches of the art, both practical 
and theoretical. When eleven years of age he had learned to play 
the mandolin, and at that age, too, had constructed his own instru- 
ment. To such an extent had he mastered his favourite instrument, 
that he was engaged as singing boy with his mandolin accompani- 
ment at the fashionable serenades which were customary and 
exceedingly popular among the nobility of Italy, and being gifted 
with a voice of sympathetic quality, the blind boy's romances, sung 
to the accompaniment of his mandolin, were a source of pleasure to 
these select assemblies. 

Fridzeri also devoted himself to the study of other musical instru- 
ments and excelled in his performances upon the violin, flute, viol 
d'amour and organ, and when twenty years of age was appointed 
organist of the cathedral of the Madonna del Monte Berico, Vicenza, 
and he removed from Verona with his parents to take up this position. 
For the space of about three years he remained as organist of this 
celebrated cathedral, and then commenced an exceedingly romantic 
and checkered career. At the age of twenty-four he quitted his 
home with a companion and toured through Europe as a blind 
mandolin virtuoso. His repertoire consisted of the concertos of 
Tartini, the principal works of Pugnani and Ferrari, and several 
of his own compositions. They travelled through the north 
of Italy and central France, ultimately reaching Paris, towards the 
close of the same year. Fridzeri met with success and received 
great applause wherever he performed during his travels, but in 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. Ill 

Paris he obtained at first little encouragement ; the mandolin did not 
enjoy the degree of popularity as in his native land, and he therefore 
turned to account his ability as a violinist. He appeared as violin 
soloist at the famous Concerts Spirituels and performed with brilliant 
success a concerto of Gavinies and his own two concertos for violin, 
Op. 5, and then took up his residence in Paris for the space of two 
years, as a teacher of the mandolin and violin, after which time he 
made a protracted concert tour through the north of France, 
Belgium and the Rhineland of Germany. In Strasburg he was the 
recipient of much popular favour and Fridzeri resided there for 
twelve months, for it was while in this city that he wrote his first 
two operas, which were produced at the Comedie Italienne in Paris 
when he returned to France. 

The year 1771 saw him again in Paris, engaged in writing 
incidental music for the Parisian theatres and also numerous string 
quartets and mandolin sonatas. Towards the end of that year he 
quitted Paris for Brittany, having received an appointment as private 
musician to the Count Chateaugiron, and with whom he remained 
for twelve years. During this time he applied himself in his leisure 
principally to operatic composition, and undertook periodical visits 
to Paris to superintend the production of his new stage works. 
Finding a demand for this class of composition he terminated his 
service as private musician to Count Chateaugiron and again took 
up his residence in Paris ; but on the occasion of the commence- 
ment of the French Revolution, in 1789, he fled to Nantes, where 
he established an academy of music and was once more employed 
in teaching. For five years the blind musician was thus actively 
engaged in Nantes until the terrors of the civil war in Vendee and 
the wholesale massacre in the city in which he was living — where 
fifteen thousand persons perished in one month — compelled him to 
fly for refuge to Paris. On his return he was elected a member of 
the "Lycee de Arts," 1794, and commenced a music printing 
business in the Rue Saint Nicaise, near the Palaise Royal, 
which was, however, doomed to very early destruction and in this 
establishment he published his opera, Les souliers mordores. Ill 
fortune now seemed to pursue and overshadow him, for in December, 
1801, a bomb was hurled at the Palaise Royal and its explosion 
totally destroyed all Fridzeri's possessions. The unsettled state of 
the French government of this year compelled the blind musician, 
now sixty years of age and reduced to poverty, to quit France 
finally and start once again on his wanderings. With his two 
daughters — both musicians, the elder a violinist and the younger a 
vocalist — they travelled through Belgium and arrived in Antwerp 
where they settled, the daughters following the vocation of their 
father, and established a music and musical instrument business, 
which was continued until the death of Fridzeri in 1819. 

Fridzeri, although totally blind, was an artist of undoubted genius 
and a man of most remarkable character, which was fully tried under 



112 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

great adversity. His opera, The two soldiers, established his repu- 
tation as a musician and writer of music which was at once 
melodious and brilliant, and his published works, though not numerous, 
embrace nearly every variety of musical composition. The 
following are the principal : Six quartets for two violins, 
alto and bass, Op. 1, published 1771, in Paris; a second book of 
Six quartets published later; Les deux miliciens (The two 
soldiers), Op. 2, a comic opera in one act which was produced 
successfully in 1772; Six sonatas for the mandolin, Op. 3, published 
1771, Paris; Les souliers mordores (The brown shoes), Op. 4, a 
comic opera in two acts produced 1776 at Comedie Italienne; Two 
concertos for the violin, Op. 5, played by the author at the Concerts 
Spirituels, Paris; Six romances for voice with harp accompani- 
ment, Op. 6; Four duos for two violins, Op. 7, published 1795, 
Paris; Lucette, an opera produced in 1785, and Les Thermopyles, 
Op. 8,' a grand opera — an edition of this work was arranged by the 
author for piano solo; Collection of sotigs with piano accompani- 
ment, Op. 9 ; Symphony concerlante for two violins, alto and 
grand orchestra, and many other pieces for the mandolin. The late 
Giuseppe Bellenghi, mandolinist and composer, has dedicated his 
excellent variations for mandolin and piano on the Carnival of 
Venice, to the memory of Fridzeri, the blind mandolin player and 
composer. 

Furstenau, a family of distinguished German musicians, flautists 
and guitarists. The father, Caspar, who was born at Munster, 
February 26, 1772, where his father was engaged in the Bishop's 
band, was at an early age left an orphan under the protection of 
the renowned violoncellist, Bernhard Romberg. This musical 
genius tried to force his protege to learn the bassoon in addition to 
the oboe, on which instrument he had already received elementary 
instruction, but his decided preference for the flute and guitar 
predominated, and while in his teens he became proficient enough 
on the former instrument to support his family by playing in a 
military band, and that also of the Bishop of Munster. In 1792 
his son, Anton Bernhard, named after the brothers Romberg, was 
born, and Furstenau with his wife and family, travelled through 
Germany during the years 1793-1794, eventually settling at 
Oldenburg, where Furstenau entered the court orchestra and gave 
lessons to the Duke. In 1811 the band was dispersed and Caspar 
again set out on his wanderings, this time with his son who was 
nineteen years of age and also an excellent flautist and guitarist. 
Together they performed flute and guitar, and flute duos, in all the 
important cities of Germany. The father returned to Oldenburg 
once more and died there May 11, 1819. Caspar Furstenau wrote 
much for the flute and guitar, and was the author also of several 
songs with guitar accompaniment. The best known of his published 
compositions are: Three themes with variations for flute and 
guitar, published by Schott, Mayence ; Op. 10, Twelve pieces for 



GUITAR AND MANDOLltf. iU 

two flutes and guitar, Simrock, Bonn; Op. 16, Twelve pieces for 
flute and guitar, in two books, Simrock, Bonn; Op. 29, Variations 
for flute and guitar, Andr£ Offenbach; Op. 34 and Op. 35, Two 
books of pieces for flute and guitar, Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig; 
Op. 37, Twelve pieces for flute and guitar, and Op. 38, Twelve 
pieces for flute and guitar, Hofmeister, Leipzig; Six songs with 
accompaniment of flute and guitar, in two volumes, Schott, 
Mayence; Six songs with accompaniment of piano or guitar, 
Simrock, Bonn. 

Fiirstenau, Anton Bernhard, the son of Caspar, born October 20, 
1792, at Munster, was a more brilliant flautist than his father and 
occupied a very prominent position in the musical world, and was 
named after the brothers Anton and Bernhard Romberg. He 
received instruction at a very early age on the flute and guitar 
from his father, who was his only teacher, and his progress was 
phenomenal, for when he was but seven years of age he appeared 
as soloist at a court concert in Oldenburg. He remained with his 
father, and the two undertook long concert tours together, but in 
1817 he was engaged in the municipal orchestra of Frankfort, 
removing from there to Dresden in 1820. In this city he entered 
the opera orchestra as flautist and remained in the service of the 
King of Saxony till his death on November 18, 1852. It was in 
Dresden that he first became acquainted with C. von. Weber, the 
conductor of the Royal Opera, and the two became intimate friends, 
for in 1826 he was invited by Weber to accompany him on his 
memorable visit to London. On February 5, W r eber conducted 
Der Freischiitz in Dresden for the last time and took leave of the 
members of the band, all except Fiirstenau, the renowned flute 
player, who was to travel with him. They chose the route through 
Paris, and on March 5 arrived in London and were most hospitably 
entertained by Sir George Smart, then organist of the Chapel Royal. 
This sad and indeed tragic story of W T eber's visit to London, in 
response to the invitation of Charles Kemble, then lessee of Covent 
Garden Opera House, is well known to all lovers of music. Sick 
unto death — he was then only thirty-nine — and longing throughout 
his stay to return to the home, which only the prospect of making 
money for his family had induced him to leave. Weber's brief 
sojourn in England was one in which sunshine and gloom were 
strangely intermingled. Fiirstenau, his devoted and affectionate 
companion, tended him with anxious care and made hasty 
preparations for their journey home, for Weber was filled with an 
inexpressible longing to see his family once more. On the night of 
June 4 Fiirstenau assisted him to undress, but he sank under his 
sufferings and died during the night. Fiirstenau returned to 
Dresden and remained in the opera orchestra till his death, 
November 18, 1852. He composed and published about two 
hundred works for various instruments, principally for flute and 
orchestra, and also several with the guitar. He was the author of 



114 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

two methods for the flute ; Trio for tivo flutes and guitar, or flute, 
violin and guitar, published by Richault, Paris; Six serenades 
for flute, bassoon, alto and guitar, the second Op. 9, the third 
Op. 10, the fourth Op. 11 and the sixth Op. 18 were published by 
Hofmeister, Leipzig. His son Moritz, also a flautist, made 
valuable contributions to musical history and in 1852 was appointed 
custodian of the royal collection of music and received the order 
of Albert of Saxony. 

QADE, Niels Wilhelm, born February 22, 1817, in Copenhagen, 
Denmark, died there December 21, 1890, was the most famous 
of Danish composers. He was the son of Soren Gade, a distin- 
guished guitar maker of Copenhagen, and his brother, J. N. Gade, 
also followed the occupation of guitar maker. Naturally, Niels was 
taught the guitar by his parents, and his early years were devoted 
principally to this instrument and he obtained a degree of proficiency 
far beyond the average. Grove says : ' Gade learned a little about 
guitar, violin and pianoforte, without accomplishing much on either 
instrument " ; but as these facts were supplied by the living author 
we can duly appreciate his extreme modesty respecting his musical 
attainments. Riemann says : " He grew up half self-taught, with- 
out any real methodical instruction in the theory of music; but on 
the violin under Wexschall he attained to a great proficiency, and 
also received regular instruction on the guitar and pianoforte." 

His early career certainly did not receive systematic musical 
training until he entered the royal orchestra of Copenhagen as violinist. 
Gade is the author of seven symphonies and several cantatas, and in 
1876 visited England to conduct his Crusaders and Zion at the 
Birmingham Musical Festival. In addition to the above he has 
written many smaller instrumental works. 

Gambara, Cavaliere Carlo Antonio, Knight of the order of the 
Couronne de Fer, celebrated as a mandolinist and instrumental 
composer. He was born of noble parentage and received his 
education in the college for sons of noblemen at Parma, where for 
eight years he studied the mandolin and violin under Melegari, the 
violoncello under Ghiretti, and counterpoint under Colla. After 
leaving this institution he was sent to Brescia to continue his 
musical education under Caunetti, who was at that time maestro di 
capella. His compositions are principally instrumental, and include 
Four symphonies for grand orchestra, and a Quintet for mandolin, 
harp, violin, viola and violoncello. 

Gansbacher, John, Capellmeister of the Cathedral in Vienna, 
and celebrated organist, was born May 8, 1778, at Sterzing in the 
Tyrol, and died July 13, 1844, in Vienna. When he was six years 
of age he began his musical career as a chorister in the village 
church of which his father was choirmaster. A few years later he 
learned the organ, piano, guitar and 'cello at Innspruck, Halle and 



Gl'lTAR AND MANDOLIN. 115 

Botzen and displayed remarkable ability on all these instruments 
while a youth. In the year 1795 he entered the University of 
Innspruck, but on the formation of the Landsturm the year 
following, he served as a volunteer and won the gold " Tapferkeits- 
medaille." In 1801 he removed to Vienna where he was engaged 
as a teacher of music, but in the year 1803 he became a pupil of 
the Abbe Vogler in Vienna after having heard the abbe play. 
During the winter of 1803 Vogler was celebrating the thirtieth 
anniversary of his ordination and an interesting circumstance 
connected with this anniversary was his meeting Beethoven at the 
house of Sonnleithner in Vienna. By chance Gansbacher was 
present and heard both Beethoven and the Abbe Vogler extemporize 
on the piano in turn. Gansbacher admired the playing of Beethoven, 
but was perfectly enraptured and enchanted with the Adagio and 
Fugue thrown off by Vogler. So excited was Gansbacher after the 
performance that he could not retire to rest that night, but knocked 
up his friends at the most unreasonable hours to describe what he 
had heard. It was this performance that caused Gansbacher to 
continue his musical studies under the Abbe Vogler, and through 
his influence Carl Maria von Weber also became a pupil of the 
same master. Gansbacher reverenced his master and said : " Mere 
association with him was a kind of school," and needless to add, 
Gansbacher was a favourite of the abbe and also of his fellow 
students, Weber and Meyerbeer. Gansbacher and Weber were 
both enthusiastic guitar players and they were frequently together 
in convivial meetings and serenades with other musical companions, 
accompanying their latest songs on their guitars. To play the guitar 
was a passport into jolly company, and this was the instrument, that, 
slung over their shoulders, accompanied these young musicians on 
their long excursions into the country, and many of their best songs 
Avere improvised with their guitars as they wandered amidst the 
fine scenery of upper Austria. 

Few scenes of artistic life are more charming than the picture of 
the details of Vogler's last Tonschule at Darmstadt. After the 
abbe had said mass, at which one of the above-mentioned scholars 
played the organ, all met for a lesson in counterpoint. Then 
subjects for composition were given out, and finally each pupil 
brought up his piece to receive the criticism of his master and 
fellow pupils. Gansbacher says that Moses Mendelssohn's 
Translation of the Psalms was a favourite text-book for the daily 
exercise at Darmstadt. " At first," he adds, " we took the 
exercises in the afternoon, but the abbe, who almost daily dined 
with the Grand Duke, used to go to sleep, pencil in hand. We 
therefore agreed to take our exercises to him henceforward in the 
morning." Every day a work of some great composer was 
analyzed. Sometimes the abbe would propound a theme for 
improvisation. Themes were distributed and a fugue or sacred 
cantata had to be written every day. Organ fugues were improvised 



]](, MANDOLIN' AND GUITAR. 

in the cathedral on subjects contributed by all in turn. Not 
infrequently the abbe would himself play, and upon these occasions, 
when in the empty church alone with his " three dear boys," his 
performances were the wonder and admiration of his pupils. From 
the mind of one of these "boys" the impression of these perform- 
ances was never effaced, for Weber always described them as a 
thing not to be forgotten. By way of varying the regular routine 
the master would take his scholars with him to organ recitals in 
neighbouring towns, and the pupils in their turn would diversify 
the common daily tasks by writing an ode to celebrate papa's " 

birthday. 

In 1810 Weber wrote the words, Gansbacher two solos, and 
Meyerbeer a terzett and chorus for this event. A happier house- 
hold can hardlv be imagined, and when their master died, his pupils 
grieved as if they had lost a father. In 1809 Gansbacher spent 
some time in Dresden and Leipzig, revisited his home in Vienna, 
and in the following year lived for a time in Darmstadt to renew 
his studies under Vogler. Weber was an intimate friend of 
Gansbacher and retained a sincere affection for him, took him to 
Mannheim and Heidelberg, where Gansbacher assisted in his 
concerts, and later, Weber advised him to compete for the vacant 
post of Court Capellmeister in Dresden. 

Meantime Gansbacher lived alternately in Vienna— where he 
became acquainted with Beethoven — and Prague, where he assisted 
Weber with his Kampf und Sieg. He also served in the war of 
1813— as he had previously done during the campaign of 1796— 
and was even employed as a courier. This unsettled life at length 
came to a satisfactory end, for at the time Weber was suggesting 
his settling at Dresden, the Capellmeistership of the Cathedral in 
Vienna fell vacant by the death of Preindl in October, 1823; 
Gansbacher applied for it, was appointed and remained there for 
life. He died July 13, 1844, universally respected both as a man 
and musician. Gansbacher was one of the eight musicians who 
bore the mortal remains of Beethoven to their resting place, and 
during Haydn's last years was a constant and intimate visitor in his 
house, and a source of comfort and pleasure to the aged musician 
during the infirmities of old age. He was a sincere friend of 
Meyerbeer in Darmstadt, and also showed interest in Schubert by 
performing his cantata on the subject of Prometheus, now lost, at 
Innspruck in 1819. As a composer Gansbacher belongs to the old 
school; his works are pleasing and betray by their solidity the pupil 
of Vogler and Albrechtsberger. His compositions number two 
hundred and sixteen in all, of which the greater part are sacred, 
including seventeen masses and four requiems. He was very fond 
of the guitar and has written for the instrument upon numerous and 
various occasions. The following are some of his works in which 
he uses this instrument: Op. 3, Six German songs with guitar 
accompaniments, Peters, Leipzig; Op. 10, Two sonatas for guitar 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 117 

and violin, Breitkopf and Hartel, Leipzig; Op. 12, Serenade for 
guitar, flute, violin and alto, Haslinger, Vienna ; Op. 14, Serenade 
for violin or flute and guitar, Haas, Vienna; Op. 17, Three Italian 
songs with guitar accompaniment, Gombart, Augsburg, Op. 23, 
Serenade for clarionet, violoncello and guitar, Gombart, Augsburg, 
and Op. 28, Second serenade for clarionet, alto, violoncello and 
guitar, Gombart, Augsburg. 

Garat, Pierre Jean, born at Ustaritz, April 25, 1764, and died in 
Paris, March 1, 1823, was guitarist and vocalist to the ill-fated Marie 
Antoinette, and one of the most extraordinary French singers to his 
guitar accompaniment. He was the son of a lawyer and destined 
for that profession, but developed a passion for music which he 
studied under Franz Beck, a composer and conductor in Bordeaux. 
Garat appears never to have gone deeply into the subject, for he 
was a poor reader, and owed success to his natural gifts, combined 
with the opportunity of hearing Gluck's works and of comparing 
the artists at the French and Italian operas in Paris. He possessed 
a fine expressive voice of unusual compass including both baritone 
and tenor registers, an astonishing memory, a prodigious power of 
imitation, and when singing to his own accompaniment on the lyre- 
guitar the effect was both poetic and romantic. Garat may be said 
to have excelled in all styles; but his predeliction was for the music 
of Gluck. For a considerable time he enjoyed the patronage of 
Marie Antoinette, Garat being her guitar and vocal teacher, an 
especial favourite of this queen, who upon more than one occasion 
relieved him from embarrassing financial difficulties. During the 
reign of terror he fled from Paris, and with the violinist Rode went to 
Hamburg, where the two gave very successful concerts. On his 
return to France he appeared at the Concerts Feydeau in 1795, and 
the Concert de la rue Clery with such brilliant success, that he was 
appointed professor of singing at the Conservatoire in 1799. 

Garat retained his voice till he was fifty, and when it failed, tried 
to attract popularity by eccentricities of dress and behaviour. He 
trained many persons who attained celebrity in the musical world, 
and he married one of his pupils, Mdlle. Duchamp, when he was 
fifty-five years of age. Garat is the author of several romances 
with guitar accompaniment, which are practically unknown at the 
present day, they appear so uninteresting that it is evident it was 
Garat's style and appearance alone, that made them successful. 
His lyre-shaped guitar, made in 1809 by Ignace Pleyel of Paris, is 
now preserved in the Museum of the National Conservatoire, Paris. 
This instrument was constructed to the order of, and presented to 
Garat, by a wealthy amateur who had been enamoured by his play- 
ing and singing. The instrument is of unique design, most 
delicately and richly inlaid, and the same museum also contains the 
guitar of his royal pupil, Queen Marie Antoinette. 

Garcia, Manuel del Popolo- Vicente, born in Seville, January 22, 



US GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

1775, died in Paris, June 2, 1832, was the founder of a Spanish 
family of musicians, which has been characterized by Chorley as : 
" representative artists, whose power, genius, and originality, have 
impressed a permanent trace on the record of the methods of vocal 
execution and ornament." Being of Spanish nationality they were 
all more or less able performers on the guitar, and have composed 
numerous vocal works with the accompaniment of this instrument. 
In his youth, Manuel Garcia was an eminent performer on the 
guitar, and he is recorded as being the teacher of the great Spanish 
guitar virtuosi, Dionisio Aguado and Huerta. He taught and played, 
as was customary in Spain, with the finger nails, instead of the 
finger tips. 

Garcia commenced his musical career as a chorister in Seville 
Cathedral at the age of six, and at seventeen he was well known as 
composer, singer, actor, guitarist and conductor. By 1805 he had 
established an enviable reputation throughout his native land, and 
his compositions, principally short comic operas, were performed all 
over Spain. In February, 1808, he made his first appearance in 
Paris in Paer's Griselda, and within a month he was the principal 
singer in the theatre. He travelled through Italy until 1816 when he 
visited England, afterwards Paris, and was singing and playing in 
Catalani's troupe, where again he was a great success. The follow- 
ing year he again visited London appearing in opera, and once 
again left for Paris; but in the spring of 1823 he reappeared in 
London and founded his famous school of singing. His salary had 
risen from £260 in 1823 to £1,250 in 1825, and he continued to 
gain still greater fame by teaching, than by singing. The education 
of his illustrious daughter Marie, subsequently Mdme. Malibran, 
was now completed — she had studied singing and the guitar under 
her father, and had also received instruction on the guitar from 
Ferdinand Pelzer in London — and under her father's care she made 
her debut. At this period he took an operatic company to the 
United States, and in 1827 he went to Mexico where he brought 
out eight operas. After eighteen months stay, he set out to return 
with the proceeds of his labours; but the party was stopped by 
brigands and were robbed of everything, including nearly £6,000 in 
gold. Garcia then returned to Paris and devoted himself to teaching. 
He was a good musician and wrote with facility and effect, being 
the author of about forty operas, words and music seem to have 
been alike easy to him. 

He is the author of numerous songs with guitar accompaniment, 
and always recommended the guitar as an accompanying instrument 
during vocal training, and he also scored for the instrument 
frequently in his operas. In the year 1825 he published in London 
many vocal works with guitar, and Lemoine of Paris published his 
transcription of Heller's Six recreative studies for guitar solo. 
It is owing to his extraordinary and unprecedented success as a 
singer and vocal teacher, that his ability on the guitar and his 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 119 

associations with this instrument appear overshadowed. His son 
Manuel, equally conspicuous as a vocalist, was the inventor of the 
Laryngoscope, and was a professor of singing in the Paris 
Conservatoire, and afterwards at the Royal Academy of Music, 
London. To perform well on the guitar must be a family attribute, 
for his two daughters are good guitarists. 

Gassner, Ferdinand Simon, born January 6, 1798, at Vienna, 
died February 25, 1851, at Darmstadt, where he went at a very 
early age, his father being painter at the Court Theatre. Gassner 
was first engaged as supernumerary in the Court Band, but in 1816 
became violinist. Afterwards he was chorus master of the National 
Theatre, Mayence, and in 1818 musical director of the Giessen 
University. In 1819 the title of doctor and the " facultas le gendi " 
for music was conferred upon him; but in 1826 he returned to the 
Court Band at Darmstadt, and became later, teacher of singing 
and chorus master at the Court Theatre. He wrote many theoretical 
treatises, and during the years 1841-45 was editor of a music journal. 
In 1842 he made additions to the supplement of Schilling's Universal 
Lexicon der Tonkunst, and finally himself compiled a like volume 
which appeared in Stuttgart in 1849. As a composer he was active, 
and wrote operas, ballets, cantatas, and guitar music. Schott, 
Mayence, issue four of his songs with guitar accompaniment, 
Hofmeister, Leipzig, publish Variations for guitar and violin or 
flute, and Andre, Offenbach, Variations for guitar solo, Op. 8. 

Gatayes, Guillaume Pierre Antoine, born in Paris, December 20, 
1774, died there October, 1846, was the illegitimate son of the 
Prince de Conti and the Marquise de Silly. In infancy he was 
placed by his parents in the theological seminary of the Abbot of 
Venicourt, where he received his education, which included a 
knowledge of singing and the rudiments of music. When a lad he 
obtained a guitar and studied this instrument in secrecy, being 
soon discovered ; but the abbot sympathizing with the boy's 
determination and perseverance, allowed him to receive instruction 
in guitar playing in addition to singing. At fourteen years of age 
his life in the seminary became burdensome, and he longed for 
liberty; so in 1788 resolving to free himself from all restraint he 
fled from the seminary, taking with him his guitar. The troubles 
of the French Revolution now intervened, and his parents the 
Prince and Marquise, had been forced to flee from the country. 

At fourteen years of age he was left to his own resources when he 
wandered through France, obtaining an existence by singing to the 
accompaniment of his guitar. To prevent being discovered, he 
passed under an assumed name, that of Gatayes, and by chance 
lodged in a room adjoining that of the notorious revolutionist, Jean 
Paul Marat. This man would eagerly listen with rapture to the 
charming romances of his neighbour, Gatayes, accompanied by his 
guitar, and he was so touched by the music that he assisted the 



120 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

struggling musician and the two became close friends. At Marat's 
invitation Gatayes visited his benefactor daily and they spent many 
hours together playing and singing. Shortly after this acquaintance 
was formed, Gatayes received a serious injury to his knee which 
confined him to his room for some considerable time, and 
this enforced seclusion he devoted to perfecting his mastery on 
the guitar, and after his recovery published his first method. On 
the morning of July 13, 1793, Gatayes had been playing to Marat 
as was his custom, and directly after his departure, was startled to 
hear cries and a great confusion proceeding from his friend's 
apartment. Attracted by the noise, Gatayes hastened to the room 
to find Marat lying mortally wounded and the assassin, Charlotte 
Corday, standing by, calmly anticipating the infuriated mob which 
was assembling. At the end of this year, 1793, Gatayes commenced 
the study of the harp and also became famous throughout his native 
land as a virtuoso on that instrument, for after he had devoted two 
years to its study, he published a method for this instrument too. 
Gatayes' name, however, is more widely known by his numerous 
songs, which were exceedingly popular, his Mondelire being sung 
throughout the length and breadth of France. In 1790, when he 
was but seventeen, his Method for the guitar and New method for 
the guitar were published by Petite, Paris, and these instruction 
books were recognized as the standard works of the time. He was a 
prolific composer, and his instrumental publications, which enjoyed 
as wide a popularity as his vocal, consist chiefly of guitar solos and 
duos, harp solos, and duos for guitar and flute, or violin. His son, 
Josef Leon (1805-1877) was also a harp virtuoso, guitarist, and 
composer, and an intimate friend of Berlioz, who speaks of him in 
his autobiography. 

Gataves, senior, is the author of many preludes, divertimentos, 
etc., for guitar and several methods ; Collection of pieces for 
guitar solo, Op. 27, Schott, Mayence ; Duos for two guitars or 
guitar and piano, Op. 14, 25, 31, 32, 44, 47, 49, 57, 58, and 59 ; Duos 
for guitar and violin or flute, Op. 35, 39, 41, 42, 43, 48, 49, 65, 68, 
76, etc., Meissonnier, Sieber, and Janet, Paris; Trios for guitar, 
violin and flute, Op. 55, 56, 69, 77, 80, 84, 85, 96, and 109, Janet, 
Frere, Langlois, Richault, and Lemoine, Paris; Duet for guitar 
and harp, Op. 25, Meissonnier, Paris; New method for the guitar, 
Leduc, and Petite, Paris ; Little method for the guitar, Janet, Paris. 

Gaude, Theodore, born Wesel-on-the- Rhine, June 3, 1782, the 
date of his death being unknown. He was a German guitarist and 
composer of some repute, who received his first musical instruction 
from local teachers on the flute and guitar. When a youth he 
went to Paris, where he continued his study of the guitar under the 
famous performers then appearing in that city, and during the same 
time was engaged in teaching the instrument. After the com- 
pletion of his studies he made his debut in Paris as a guitar soloist, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 121 

and the success of his first public performances spurred him on to 
increased efforts, for in 1814 he planned what he intended to be a 
protracted European concert tour, which was to terminate in St. 
Petersburg. Fate, however, decreed otherwise, for although the 
commencement of the tour was successful, he was stricken suddenly 
by a serious illness in Hamburg, and compelled to remain in this 
city a considerable period. The kindness manifested to him during 
his illness and convalescence, resulted in Gaude abandoning his 
tour and making this city his future residence. He lived here as a 
teacher of the guitar and a virtuoso, and was held in the highest 
esteem by the musical citizens. Gaude wrote about ninety com- 
positions for his instrument, which were published principally in 
Germany, and they met with a certain amount of popularity. The 
majority of these are for the guitar alone, and for the guitar in 
combination with another instrument : Studies and exercises for 
the guitar, Op. 10, 21, 30; Progressive studies for two guitars, 
Op. 57 and 60 ; Variations for solo guitar, Op. 11, 18, 27, 29, 34, 
44, 55, 56, 84, 85, and 86 ; Duos, sonatas, serenades, etc., for flute 
and guitar, Op. 1, 2, 5, 9, 22, 24, 25, 28, 35, 39, 40, 46, 54, 58, and 
59 ; Grand duos concertante, and serenades for two guitars, 
Op. 48, 50, 51, and 53 ; Trio for guitar, violin, and violoncello, 
Op. 49; Six original songs with guitar accompaniment, Op. 19, 
and numerous other vocal compositions without opus numbers. 
The above-mentioned were published by Cranz, and also 
Bohme, Hamburg; Peters, Leipzig; Simrock, Bonn; and Andre, 
Offenbach. 

Geminiani, Francesco, born at Lucca, Italy, in 1680, and died in 
Dublin, September 17, 1762, was a composer, celebrated violinist 
and skilful guitarist. Geminiani's renown in the musical world 
rests upon his skill as a violinist, but he was equally talented on the 
guitar. After preliminary instruction on the guitar and violin from 
a local teacher, he continued his study on the latter instrument 
under Corelli, and then was engaged as concert director in Naples. 
He came to England when thirty-four years of age, where his 
reputation as a violinist had already preceded him. To the king's 
friend, Baron Kilmansegg, Geminiani dedicated twelve violin solos, 
and the baron recommended him to the king's notice. He was 
recognised in England as the greatest master of his instruments, 
and enjoyed a good income from his well-remunerated teaching. 
In 1750 he went to Paris where he resided for five years, and then 
again visited England. 

Geminiani was, however, continually in want; he had a great 
passion for paintings, and instead of writing music, he painted, 
also gave high prices for the pictures of others, and in this manner 
his fortune vanished. In order to retain his liberty, which his 
creditors were always seeking to restrain, he beseeched one of his 
pupils, the Earl of Essex, to take him in as his servant, and it is 

H 



122 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

recorded that once the Earl was compelled to reclaim him when he was 
being taken to prison for debt. He is the author of much valuable 
music for violin and 'cello, and his Art of playing the violin in twenty- 
three parts with twelve exercises, which appeared in London in 
1740, was the first book of its kind published in any country. 
About the same period, he also published in London, a method for 
the guitar, under the title of : The art of playing the guitar, etc. 
This work is of little use at the present day, but was esteemed 
during his lifetime, being published in no less than five languages, 
English, Italian, French, German, and Dutch. 

Genlis, Felicite Stephanie, Countess de, born near Autun, France, 
1746, died Paris, 1830, was celebrated for her literary attainments; she 
was also a musician of no mean order, and had she devoted herself 
to this branch of art, there is evidence to prove that she would have 
become equally famous. She became at four years of age a 
canoness in the noble chapter of Aix, and from this time she was 
called le Comtesse de Lancy. At the age of seventeen, a letter 
which she had written came accidently into the hands of Count de 
Genlis, who was so charmed with the beauty of its composition, 
that he made her an offer of his hand and fortune, which she 
accepted. At this period she studied the guitar and harp, and she 
also produced the following of her literary masterpieces : Adda 
and Theodore, The evenings of the castle, Annals of virtue, etc., 
all of which were well received. 

In 1791 she paid a visit to England, but on her return to France 
she was immediately ordered to quit her native land. In 1800, 
Madame de Genlis was allowed to return to France, and in 1805, 
Napoleon I. gave her apartments in the arsenal at Paris, and 
allowed her a pension. On the fall of the Empire and the return 
of the Bourbons, her affection for her former friends returned, and 
when Louis Philippe ascended the throne, every attention was paid 
to her wants and comfort. This eminent lady was a clever harpist 
and guitarist, being entirely self-taught on both instruments, and she 
wrote and published by Duhant, two methods for the harp, dedi- 
cated to Casimir. These methods are full of anecdotes concerning 
harp and guitar professors, their pupils, and the harp makers of her 
time. In her memoirs, published in London in 1825, this lady, so 
distinguished as a writer on many subjects, claims to have been the 
first person in France to play solos on the harp, and to have taught 
her daughter when nine years of age, with such success, that at 
thirteen she could play in the most brilliant manner all the most 
difficult harpsichord pieces, receiving the applaudits of the composer 
Gluck. Madame de Genlis was equally talented on the guitar, and 
wrote numerous compositions for this instrument which remain 
in manuscript. 

Giardini, Felice de, an eminent violinist and guitarist, who was 
born in Turin in 1716, and died in Moscow, December 17, 1796. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 123 

He entered the choir of Milan Cathedral when a boy, and became a 
pupil of Paladini in singing and composition, and also studied the 
guitar. After some time he returned to Turin where he continued 
his study of the guitar and violin. While a youth he was employed 
in the opera orchestra in Rome, and afterwards in the San Carlo 
Theatre of Naples, and from this city he commenced a tour through 
Germany, eventually arriving in London in 1750. His success as 
a violinist was immense and he became the favourite of the musical 
world of London. Two years later he was leader of the Italian 
opera orchestra, and appears to have infused new life in the band. 
In 1756 he undertook the management of the opera but suffered 
great pecuniary loss, and during the next eighteen years he passed 
his time between the opera, organizing and playing at concerts, and 
teaching and composing. In 1784 he travelled under the patronage 
of Sir William Hamilton, the husband of the notorious Lady 
Hamilton, to Naples, where he resided for five years. He returned 
to London and made an attempt to popularize comic opera at the 
Haymarket Theatre, but met with disastrous failure, after which he 
left England with his company, to try his fortune in Russia. He 
failed at St. Petersburg and later at Moscow, and at length, Aveighed 
down by penury and distress, he sank under dogged misfortune and 
died in this city, December 17, 1796. 

Giardini's portrait was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and he 
was described by Gardiner of Leicester as " a line figured man, 
superbly dressed in green and gold ; the breadth of lace upon his 
coat, with the three large gold buttons on the sleeve, made a rich 
appearance, which still glitters on my imagination." Giardini wrote 
numerous compositions for the chamber, including guitar music, and 
this instrument was in use by his company during their tours. He 
bequeathed to Signor Testori, a soprano singer and guitarist of 
ability, a member of his troupe who accompanied him to Russia, 
(Eitvre de sonates d'alto with guitar accompaniment. This and 
other of his compositions for the guitar remain in manuscript. 

Gilles, Henri Noel, born in Paris, 1779, and died in the same 
city in 1814. He was taught music by his parents when a child, 
and at seventeen years of age entered the Paris Conservatoire of 
Music, where he studied the oboe under Sallentin. The year follow- 
ing he obtained the second prize with honours, and in 1798 he 
succeeded in winning the first prize. In 1799 he commenced the 
study of the guitar, and was engaged as second oboe in the Theatre 
Feydeau, Paris. In 1801 he was promoted to principal oboe, which 
position he retained for about two years, when he entered the 
orchestra of the Italian Opera. At the time of the restoration, his 
attachment to the cause of Napoleon obliged him to quit France, 
and he fled to New York, and from this city he removed to 
I'hiladelphia, afterwards returning to his native land. Gilles was 
the author of many works for the guitar, including solos and 



124 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

collections of songs with guitar accompaniment, which with compo- 
sitions for the oboe, were published by Hanry, Paris. 

Giuliani, Mauro, the most renowned of Italian guitarists and one 
of the greatest, if not the greatest guitar virtuoso the world has 
ever known, was born at Bologna, Italy, about 1780. In early life 
his musical education was devoted to the study of the violin and 
guitar ; but after a few years of indifferent instruction, and while 
still a lad, the latter instrument became his favourite and claimed 
his undivided attention. He was naturally endowed with more 
than ordinary ability and aptitude for musical study, and while in 
his teens he had formed a style of playing totally different from 
that in vogue in Italy. His conceptions of the capabilities of the 
instrument and his determination in prosecuting these ideas to a 
practical issue, produced an unerring and brilliant technique, 
combined with a powerful and sonorous tone. Giuliani was, with 
the exception of his first rudimentary lessons, an entirely self-taught 
player, yet he takes a position pre-eminently above all previous 
guitar masters, both in his practical and theoretical knowledge of 
the instrument and also as the founder of a distinct and refined 
school of guitar-playing. His style of composition, too, far out- 
shone the most brilliant of former writers for the instrument and 
his works remain to-day a living monument to his genius. As 
a youth he attracted considerable attention by his playing through- 
out his native land, and before he was twenty years of age he had 
won a reputation as the first virtuoso in Italy. 

Having met with such success and encouragement in his native 
land, he undertook a continental tour before the commencement of the 
year 1800, and from that time his fame became widespread through 
the length and breadth of Europe. He visited Paris at an early 
date, and while in that city, Richault published his Op. 8, Three 
rondos for guitar; the title of this composition stated that Giuliani 
was then eighteen years of age. He travelled for some considerable 
time, and towards the close of the year 1807 he reached Vienna, 
where we find him residing as a virtuoso, composer and teacher. 
During his period of residence in this city he was engaged 
imparting instruction in the art of guitar-playing to numerous royal 
and notable persons. Among the most celebrated of his pupils we 
may mention the two Polish virtuosi, J. N. Bobrowicz and F. 
Horetzky, the Archduchess of Austria, to whom Giuliani was 
appointed Chamber Musician, the Princess Hohenzollern, the Duke 
of Sermonetta, and Count George of Waldstein. The German 
musical journals from 1807 to 1821— the period of Giuliani's 
residence in Vienna — speak of his successful concerts and remarkable 
talent in the most nattering terms, and they are unanimous in 
declaring him the head of all guitar virtuosi. In Vienna, Giuliani 
met and associated with the leading musicians of the city, who 
held him in highest esteem and admiration ; he was for many years 




MAURO GIULIANI. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 125 

the intimate friend and companion of Hummel, Moscheles, Diabelli, 
Mayseder and Haydn, and he lived and moved in the society and 
intercourse of the most learned and influential. His enthusiasm 
and devotion to the guitar was the means of bringing it to the notice 
of these musical celebrities, who were not only entranced by 
its beauty under the hands of such a master, but who seriously 
studied the instrument, individually composed and published pieces 
for it. Joseph Haydn was at this period well-advanced in years, 
although he was just receiving the unbounded praise of the musical 
world for the "chef d'ceuvre" of his compositions, The Creation and 
also The seasons, these being his latest works. Diabelli, Moscheles, 
Mayseder and Hummel, however, were all nearer Giuliani's own 
age, and a more intimate friendship existed, which proved very 
beneficial to Giuliani, for these artists had been well-grounded 
through the traditional schools of music and were exceptionally 
proficient in their skill upon their instruments — were, in fact, 
virtuosi on the pianoforte and Mayseder on the violin — and 
as stated, they each studied and wrote for the guitar. With the 
assistance of Moscheles, Diabelli, and Hummel, Giuliani commenced 
to compose duets for guitar and pianoforte, and his productions for 
these instruments, which were frequently performed publicly in 
company with one or other of the artists mentioned, increased his 
popularity to a very high degree. His own skill and powerful 
execution upon the guitar also brought the instrument most 
favourably to the notice of Beethoven and Spohr, and Giuliani was 
regarded with distinguished favour by them. 

As a true artist he was continually seeking to improve the 
instrument and its music, endeavouring also to produce new and 
original effects which might be introduced into his compositions and 
also in the art of playing the guitar. As one result of his persistent 
efforts in this direction he introduced the instrument known as the 
terz guitar. This guitar while being of the same shape, proportions 
and construction, was much smaller than the ordinary guitar, and 
the strings were considerably shorter, therefore capable of being 
raised to a higher pitch — a minor third — and the result obtained by 
these innovations was an increase in the brilliancy of tone. 
Giuliani, without much delay, introduced the terz guitar in his 
concerts, and composed many pieces for it with accompaniment 
of orchestra or quartet which possess a very marked degree of 
excellence. He was associated in public with Diabelli, and their 
duos for guitar and piano met with unbounded success, and so popular 
was the terz guitar or guitar with capo d'astro, after its introduction by 
Giuliani, that he was commissioned by the leading music publishers 
to write duets for this instrument with piano or guitar. He was 
now busily engaged, and composed innumerable pieces for guitar 
solo, duets for guitar and terz guitar and for guitar and piano. 
These works attained a very extensive popularity, and nothing so 
good in the manner of duets for guitar and piano has since been 



126 MANDOLIN AND GUITAR. 

published ; they are at once full of interest and remarkable for their 
originality and flowing melodies. All this style of music, and also 
his less ambitious publications, being eagerly sought after by the 
musical public, Giuliani was importuned by publishing houses for 
new compositions so frequently that before he departed from Vienna, 
many more than one hundred of his compositions, opus numbers — 
not taking into consideration his numerous smaller pieces — had been 
published. 

In 1815 he was engaged with Mayseder, violinist, and Hummel, 
pianist (afterwards replaced by Moscheles, as pianist) in giving 
what they named the " Dukaten concerte." Giuliani appeared as 
guitar soloist with immense success in the famous Augarten, and 
also played the guitar in a series of six musical soirees given in the 
Royal Botanical Gardens of Schonbrun, in the presence of the 
members of the royal family and nobility, with Hummel as pianist, 
Mayseder violinist, Merk violoncellist, and a renowned flautist. 
For these concerts, Hummel wrote Op. 62, 63, and 66, Grand 
serenades for piano, guitar, violin, flute and 'cello, or instead of the 
two latter instruments, clarionet and bassoon ; also Op. 74, The 
sentinel, for voice with accompaniments of piano, guitar, violin and 
violoncello. These serenades were dedicated to Count Francois de 
Palffy and published by Artaria, Vienna, but they are of exceeding 
difficulty, and only in the hands of players of exceptional skill 
could an interpretation be expected, as in addition to the great 
execution required for the performance of the work generally, each 
instrument had a solo in variations of the most brilliant description, 
written respectively by each of the original performers, viz., 
Giuliani, Mayseder and Hummel. After the departure of Hummel 
from Vienna in 1816, Moscheles was associated with Giuliani 
and Mayseder, as their pianist, and they appeared together in all 
the important cities of Germany. 
VV 1 ! In 1821 Giuliani quitted Vienna on a visit to his native land, and 
performed in Rome with his accustomed success ; but his stay in Italy 
was of short duration, as he had previously made arrangements for 
a concert tour through Europe, and in the winter of 1821 he was 
heard and admired in Holland. He also toured again in Germany, 
and from this country he travelled to Russia, meeting in St. Peters- 
burg his former associate and friend, Hummel, who had journeyed 
sometime previously to this city in the suite of the Grand Duchess 
Maria Paulowna. In St. Petersburg, Giuliani received an 
enthusiastic reception, the cordiality of which was not exceeded 
and rarely equalled during his lifetime, and he made this city his 
residence for several years, subsequently, in 1833, he paid a first 
visit to London in the company of Hummel, and they performed at 
the most brilliant and fashionable concerts, their playing exciting 
much enthusiasm. It was in London that he met his most 
distinguished and only rival, Ferdinand Sor, who had visited 
London some years previously and established a reputation. Sor 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 127 

was a most remarkable guitarist, and in some respects he surpassed 
the degree of excellence which Giuliani had attained ; but the 
latter's playing was of a totally different style and his musical 
compositions, too, were more readily comprehended by amateurs 
than were those of Sor, and as a consequence Giuliani soon found 
numerous adherents in England, and his publications were 
immensely popular. So general was the public interest now taken 
in the instrument and its literature, that a monthly musical journal, 
devoted solely to the interests of the guitar was published, the first 
number appearing in January, 1833. This periodical was entitled, 
The Giulianiad, after the popular virtuoso Giuliani, and several of 
his compositions and those of other eminent guitarists were 
published in each number. The magazine was issued regularly for 
about twelve months, after which its publication ceased. 

In June, 1836, Giuliani was again performing in London, upon 
this occasion in the company of Moscheles as pianist, and Mayseder 
as violinist. Giuliani enjoyed the friendship and esteem of 
Beethoven and Spohr; he made Beethoven's acquaintance in Vienna, 
and on the occasion of the production of his Seventh symphony, at 
the Philharmonic Concerts, Giuliani played in the orchestra with 
Spohr and Loder, under Moscheles' baton. Giuliani's expression' 
and tone in guitar playing were astonishing, and a competent critic 
said of him : " He vocalized his adagios to a degree impossible to 
be imagined by those who never heard him ; his melody in slow 
movements was no longer like the short, unavoidable staccato of 
the piano, requiring a profusion of harmony to cover the deficient 
sustension of the notes, but it was invested with a character, not 
only sustained and penetrating, but of so earnest and pathetic a 
description as to make it appear the natural characteristic of the 
instrument. In a word, he made the instrument sing." After 
leaving England he once more visited Vienna, the scene of his first 
artistic triumphs, and was living there as late as 1840. Speaking 
of his death, the English musical press said : " In him the little 
world of guitar-players lost their idol, but the compositions he has 
left behind him are a rich legacy to which the present and future 
generations will, we have no doubt, pay every homage of respect 
and admiration." 

Giuliani had a daughter, Emilia Giuliani Gugliemi, who was also 
a talented guitarist, winning fame by her playing in Vienna in 1841, 
and the last heard of her was when concertizing Europe in 1844. 
She is the author of several pieces and collections of melodies for 
guitar solo, including Op. 1, Five variations; Op. 2, Six books of 
operatic arrangements for guitar solo ; Op. 3, 5, 9, Variations, 
and Op. 46, Six preludes for the guitar, dedicated to Count Luigi 
Moretti, published by Artaria, Vienna, while the former compositions 
were published by Ricordi, Milan. 

Gustav Schilling says of Giuliani : " History speaks about several 
musicians by this name. The most celebrated among them was 



128 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Mauro Giuliani, a native of Bologna. He was a guitar virtuoso, a 
finely educated man who came to Vienna from Italy at the end of 
1807. At that period he was at his best, though only a youth. 
Through his interesting talents in various ways, principally, however, 
by his perfect knowledge and partially by his own views about 
music, as well as his really wonderful playing on his instrument 
(which at that time in Germany rested only with him, and outside 
of him, excepting in Naples and a few other principal towns in lower 
and middle Italy, was considered as a light, gallant plaything, 
though possibly as a pleasant accompaniment of small, easy songs), 
he drew all Vienna's attention to himself. Among those who would 
make up the so-called ' fine world,' he was made the musical hero 
of the day. His compositions for the guitar, of which several 
appeared in Vienna and later on in Bonn and other important 
publishing centres, and which consist of variations, cavatinas, rondos, 
etc., with or without accompaniment of other instruments, rich in 
melody, show animus and taste. He uses his compositions, and this 
is characteristic of him, to make the guitar not only obligatory but 
furthermore an instrument on which can be presented a pleasing, 
flowing melody, with a full-voiced, regularly conducted harmony. 
This necessitates a broad and full-gripped manner of playing which 
is possessed by but few, as for example in his Serenade, Op. 3, and 
others. After 1813 nothing more was heard in Germany of his 
public appearance. Probably at that time he returned to his native 
land." Schilling also wrote of him as follows: "In 1808 Mr. 
Giuliani, on April 3, gave a concerto on the guitar, in Vienna, com- 
posed by himself, being accompanied by the whole orchestra, which 
was extraordinarily pleasing on account of its rarity and because it 
was charming to the ear." According toother information, in this 
instance Mendel's Musikalisches Conversations- Lexicon, Giuliani 
made several visits to his fatherland, and died in Vienna, in 1820, 
when but forty years of age. 

When Giuliani departed from Vienna in 1821, just previous to 
his protracted tour through Germany and Holland to Russia, the 
continental critics and writers appear to have entirely lost sight of 
his whereabouts and rashly concluded him dead. That they 
lamentably erred in this particular is proved by the fact of his 
appearance at concerts in London during 1833, and even as late as 
1836, and also the publication in England of numerous of his compo- 
sitions, including his Third concerto, by public subscription. 

It is possible that Mendel may have mistaken the death of Mauro 
Giuliani for that of another guitarist of this surname, for a Michele 
Giuliani was living in Vienna during the same period, the author of 
Op. 1, Grand variations for two guitars, Weigl, Vienna; Op. 4, 
Rondoletto for guitar, tivo violins, alto and 'cello, Diabelli, Vienna; 
and a Giovanni Francesco Giuliani flourished in Vienna also at the 
same time, the author of Four quartets for mandolin, viola, 'cello 
and lute, and Six nocturnes for two sopranos with guitar or harp 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 129 

accompaniment ; the manuscripts of the quartets being preserved 
in the Musikfreund Library, Vienna, and the nocturnes published in 
Florence. 

Giuliani's portrait was published, and dedicated to him, by his 
friend Domenico Artaria, chief of the renowned music printing firm 
of Artaria & Co., Vienna, and there were several other portraits of 
this artist published during his lifetime. 

We will now mention Giuliani's published compositions, which 
can be grouped for convenience, under three heads: I. Concertos 
for guitar. II. Compositions for guitar with orchestral instruments, 
duets for two guitars, and duets for guitar and piano. III. Guitar 
solos, guitar studies, and songs with guitar accompaniment. It is 
almost incredible to believe, that in addition to his numerous public 
appearances, his teaching, and his concert travels, Giuliani found 
time to write and publish nearly three hundred pieces, including a 
practical method for the instrument, several concertos, divers studies, 
numerous quartets and quintets, solos and songs. 

The Grand concertos for guitar, with accompaniment of full 
orchestra or instrumental quartet, Op. 30, 36, 70 and 103 are compo- 
sitions for the instrument without fear of rivals, they were published 
respectively by Artaria, and Diabelli, of Vienna, and Johanning of 
London. The Concerto, Op. 36, for terz guitar and orchestra, 
published by Diabelli, Vienna, and Richault, Paris, has been 
honoured by being transcribed for the piano by Hummel. The 
Third concerto, Op. 70, for terz guitar and quartet or piano, 
dedicated to Baron de Ghill'any, was published by subscription in 
1833 by Johanning, London, and Richault, Paris, and was highly 
praised by the editor of The Giulianiad the same year, and this 
journal also mentions the eulogies bestowed on this concerto by 
Czerny and Hummel. Giuliani transcribed the polonaise from his 
Third concerto, Op. 70, and also the rondo and polacca from the 
First concerto, Op. 30, as duos for two guitars. Op. 103 is a 
Concerto for terz guitar with string quartet. On his first concerto 
Giuliani inscribes himself " Virtuoso di Camera di S. Maesta la 
Princessa Imperial Maria Luigia " (Archduchess of Austria), while 
on Op. 146 he also adds, ' Chamber musician to the Duchess of 
Parma, Piacenza, etc." Giuliani also composed, in conjunction 
with Hummel, National potpourri, Op. 43, a grand duo for guitar 
and piano, and also a Second duo, Op. 93, both published by Artaria, 
and with Moscheles he wrote Grand duo concertante, Op. 20, for 
guitar and piano, dedicated to H.I.H., Archduke Rodolphe of 
Austria, and published by Richault, Paris. Giuliani was the author 
of numerous quartets, quintets, and sextets for guitar and strings; 
Op. 65, (Polonaise for piano, guitar, two violins, alto and bass), 
Op. 101, 102 and 203 are the principal, and also a Serenade con- 
certante for guitar, violin and 'cello, Op. 19, published by Artaria. 
In Giuliani's duets for violin or flute and guitar we find the 
choicest and rarest compositions for these two instruments ever 



130 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

written, duos which display to every possible advantage the character- 
istics, capabilities, and beauties of both instruments. In these duets 
the guitar is not relegated to the background as a mere instrument 
for beating time and accent, the methods employed by the majority 
of modern writers; but all these works are characterized by concise- 
ness and lucidity of thought and form, and by a dignified, aristocratic 
bearing, and display in a striking manner the singing power of both 
instruments ; it is in these particulars that Giuliani's duos excel 
those of Carulli. The most widely known are Op. 25, 52, 76, 77, 
81, 85, 126 and 127, although these do not exhaust the list. The 
duos for two guitars and guitar and piano met with astonishing 
popularity, and Op. 66, 116, 130 and 137 for two guitars, and Op. 
6S, 104 and 113 for guitar and piano, were published simultaneously 
by Ricordi, Milan; Simrock, Bonn; and Hofmeister, Leipzig. 

Giuliani's earliest compositions were published when he was a 
mere youth in his teens, and his guitar method was written when 
seventeen years of age. He was but eighteen when he had made a 
name in Paris, and at this time he published his Op. 8. These first 
works consist principally of original themes with variations, and the 
first seventeen pieces, with trifling exceptions, are among his easiest 
compositions; Op. 10, being dedicated to Princess Caroline de 
Kinsley. The first potpourri, Op. 18, 20, and later compositions, 
require of the performer a more detailed and perfect knowledge of 
the entire fingerboard and demand greater technical ability. Of the 
more ambitious solos we must mention the Second potpourri, Op. 28, 
a work of eight pages, and Grand sonata eroica, also the Third pot- 
pourri, Op. 31, of nine pages, and well suited to display the beauties 
of the guitar, and for this reason it was a great favourite of its author, 
being frequently performed by him at his principal concerts. It is 
written more in that arpeggio style, which Regondi at a later period 
adopted, and it contains several very effective cadenzas. The 
fourth potpourri, Op. 42, does not attain the standard of excellence 
of the former of its class, nor even of those compositions entitled, 
Rossiniane, Op. 119 and 120, dedicated to His Excellency the Duke 
of Sermonetta. Between these important compositions, Giuliani 
published numerous pieces of a lesser degree of difficulty, well 
adapted for the use of pupils and amateurs, and these were greatly 
appreciated by the class of players intended for, being issued 
simultaneously by all the prominent European publishers. The 
most useful of these is the series entitled : Papillon, Op. 30, three 
books, each containing about ten melodies of increasing difficulty. 
Op. 43 is a collection of easy solos, suitable for students, as is also 
the Bouquet cmblematique, Op. 46, published by Clementi & Co., 
London. A work of special merit is Op. 83, Six preludes for the 
guitar wherein the art of modulation is exemplified with considerable 
skill and effect. Giuliani's Practical method for the guitar, Op. 1, 
in four parts, was published by Ricordi, Milan, and Peters, Leipzig ; 
the text is in three languages, French, Italian and German, and a 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 131 

Swedish edition was also published, but as a method this work 
has never been popular. It contains very little text and explana- 
tory notes, which are the chief characteristics of a successful 
instruction book, and in this respect it is in great contrast from the 
method of his rival, Sor, which contains more text than studies. 
Giuliani's method, however, forms a valuable addition to the studies 
of advanced students. The manuscripts of Op. 92 and 25 with 
Giuliani's autograph are preserved in the Musikfreund, Vienna. 
Among his numerous compositions are several songs, these being in- 
variably written with guitar accompaniments, and in some, additional 
optional accompaniments have been added by the author — the piano, 
flute and violin, appearing most frequently. Six cavatinas, Op. 39 ; 
Three nocturnes, as duets for soprano and tenor, and Le troubadour, 
a collection of French romances, were published by Simrock, Bonn ; 
Three cavatinas with guitar, Steiner, Vienna ; Flattre kleiner 
Vogel and Der treue Tod, Schott, Mayence ; Pres d'un volcan, for 
contralto or baritone, Op. 151; Ode of Anacreonte, for soprano, 
Op. 151b ; Three airettes, for tenor, and Pastorale for three voices 
with flute, guitar or piano, Op. 149, by Ricordi, Milan ; Ad altro 
laccio, The beauties of nature, and others by Johanning, London, 
while Der abschied der Troubadours, a romance for voices with 
French and Italian words and accompaniments of guitar, piano and 
violin, written in conjunction with Moscheles and Mayseder, was 
published by Diabelli, Vienna. 

Glaeser, Charles Gotthilf, born May 4, 1784, at Weissenfels, died 
in Barmen, April 16, 1829. He received his first musical tuition 
in the famous St. Thomas' School, Leipzig, under Hillier, and 
studied the violin under Campagnoli. Glaeser also received 
instruction in guitar playing from a fellow student during this period. 
In 1808 he was living at Naumbourg, and at a later date was 
appointed musical director in Barmen, Westphalia, in which city he 
also established a musical instrument business. He is the author 
of numerous songs with guitar accompaniments, solos for guitar and 
piano compositions. 

Gollmick, Carl, born near Dessau, March 19, 1796, and died at 
Frankfort, October 3, 1866, was the son of an operatic actor and 
tenor vocalist on the German stage. Carl Gollmick was a good 
guitarist and pianist and was recognised both as a skilful performer 
and teacher of these instruments. When but eleven years of age 
he had written a volume of six songs wilh guitar accompaniments, 
which found a publisher in Andre, Offenbach. He was educated 
first at Cologne, and Bernard Klein was his schoolfellow, but the 
liking for his father's theatrical life manifested itself very earl}' in 
young Gollmick, and his ordinary studies were somewhat interrupted 
thereby. He went to Strasburg to study theology and languages, 
he neglected these for music, and after a period returned to his home; 
but in 1812 he visited Strasburg a second time and during his 



132 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

residence placed himself under Capellmeister Spindler for 

harmony and composition. Gollmick was an able pianist, and in 
1817 he removed to Frankfort where he was engaged as a teacher 
of the guitar, piano, and French language. Some few years later 
he became a member of the orchestra of the Stadttheatre in this 
city, under the direction of Spohr, and he was employed in this 
theatre until 1858 when he received his pension; he entered the 
orchestra as drummer and previous to his departure was chorus 
master. 

After Gollmick had been in Frankfort a time he married, and a 
few years later made several short visits to London. He wrote a 
dictionary of music, the second part of which contains biographies 
of musicians, and this was published in 1857 by Andre, Offenbach. 
The year following the publication of this work saw the retirement 
of Gollmick and in 1866 his autobiography was published, and he 
died October 3 of the same year. His principal work is the musical 
dictionary entitled : Critische Terminologie fur Musiker unci 
Musikfreund, a treatise of merit, which was published in Frankfort 
in 1833, a second edition appearing in 1839. Gollmick is known 
as a musical critic and writer, whose numerous contributions, full of 
wit and satire, appeared in various journals. He had a son, Carl, 
who was also known as a guitarist. Gollmick wrote about one 
hundred and thirty musical compositions, consisting of guitar solos, 
songs with guitar or piano accompaniment, and piano solos and duos. 
Richault of Paris published Six waltzes for guitar solo under his 
name. Eight songs with guitar accompaniment; Russian 
melody for voice with guitar ; about a dozen other songs with guitar, 
and Six waltzes for guitar, were all published by Schott, Mayence. 

Gopfert, Carl Andreas, born January 16, 1768, at Rimpar, near 
Wiirzburg, and died April 11, 1818, at Meiningen. He was a 
German instrumentalist and composer of merit, and a thorough 
musician, who at a very early age received tuition on the piano, 
organ and guitar, and then made a special study of the clarionet 
under a virtuoso, named Meisner. In 1788 Gopfert was engaged 
as first clarionet in the Royal Chapel of Meiningen ; but after a 
period of service he resigned, and w r as then employed in a like 
capacity for a short period in Vienna, and at later dates in Bonn 
and Leipzig. He returned to Meiningen where he was appointed 
Hofmusikus of the Royal Chapel, and remained there till his death 
at the age of fifty. Gopfert was a talented guitarist, a remarkable 
performer on the clarionet and other wood-wind instruments, and 
the author of many concertos for clarionet with orchestra, numerous 
duets for clarionet and guitar, guitar and flute, guitar and bassoon, 
and quartets and quintets including the guitar. Gopfert also wrote 
several compositions for grand orchestra, and some piano music. 
His biography appeared in the Leipzig Zeiiung, and his compo- 
sitions were published in Vienna, Bonn, Leipzig, and Offenbach. 




CARL ANDREAS GOPFERT 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 133 

Op. 11, Sonata for two guitars and flute ; Op. 13, Duo for guitar 
and bassoon ; Op. 15, Duo for guitar and flute ; Op. 17, Duo for 
two guitars; and Op. 18, Duo for guitar and flute, were published 
by Hofmeister, Leipzig; while Andre of Offenbach published a 
Sonata for bassoon and guitar. 

Gotz, Alois Joseph, born in 1823 at Ischl, near Salzburg, Austria, 
died July 9, 1905 at Innsbruck, Tyrol, was the son of Joseph Gotz, 
a highly esteemed doctor of medicine, who, as the discoverer ol the 
medicinal waters of Ischl, made both his own name, and that of his 
town famous. His son's musical gifts were manifested at an early 
age, and he was given instruction in the theory of music and on the 
violin in his eighth year. When eighteen years of age he resided 
with his elder brother in Salzburg studying to gain admission in the 
Forest Academy of Mariabrunner. August Gotz was a guitar 
virtuoso whose playing of Giuliani's concertos made such an 
impression on his young brother that Alois neglected the violin 
entirely to study the guitar, and his sole aim in life became that of 
the regeneration of this instrument. During his period of residence in 
the Mariabrunner Academy, Gotz continued to receive guitar 
instruction, and he obtained skill, both as soloist and accompanist. 
Upon the termination of his studies in the Forest Academy he was 
stationed in 1844 at Aussee, Styria, where he commenced his 
practical work as a forester, and it was here that he received the 
praise of Archduke John for his performances on the guitar with 
the violinist Hermann Roithner. Gotz now commenced to write 
for the guitar, his first works being transcriptions of popular folk 
songs for guitar solo, and in Aussee he met and formed an acquaint- 
ance with the guitar virtuoso Schulz, who had lived for some time 
in England (see Schulz) as a guitarist, and who was now in this 
district for his health. This acquaintance proved beneficial to 
Gotz, for Schulz imparted instruction in the higher branches of 
guitar playing, which spurred the enthusiast to even greater efforts, 
and it was through this instruction that Gotz resolved to write his 
method for the guitar. 

As a member of the civil service he was transferred to the Tyrol, 
and in this romantic district he made his second home; but this 
pastoral life was soon interrupted, for at the outbreak of war in 
1848, Chief Forester Gotz with the Pustertaier Landesverteidiger 
was ordered to the neighbouring frontier. His guitar playing, round 
the camp fires, made him many friends among whom were the poets 
Adolf Pichler and Hermann Gilm. Gotz was awarded the the war 
medal of 1848 and decorated with the jubilee medal in 1873. During 
his residence in Reutte, Gotz married in 1862 and for twenty years 
was Chief Forester in this district. He performed before the Royal 
Court upon several occasions, receiving the warmest praise of King 
Ludwig II and the Dowager Queen for his solos and as guitar 
accompanist to vocalists. In 1880 he removed to Innsbruck 



134 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

and having retired from the civil service he devoted himself with 
untiring energy to the popularization of the guitar ; but during his 
last years was afflicted with deafness which forced him to retire from 
public life. Gotz was honoured by his country with the title of 
Imperial Councillor, conferred for services rendered, and was pre- 
paring his autobiography for publication when death intervened 
after a short illness at the age of eighty-three. He has published 
many compositions for guitar alone and in combination with zither, 
mandolin, violin, flute and 'cello, and three volumes of songs with 
guitar accompaniment remain in manuscript. He is the author of 
Reform guitar school in three volumes, published by Andre 
Offenbach, who also issued several of his guitar solos, while others 
appeared in Vienna and Stuttgart. 

Gouglet, Pierre Marie, a French organist and guitarist, who was 
born at Chalons, in 1726, and died January 27, 1790. As a 
chorister, he received his first musical instruction in the cathedral, 
and at a later period studied both the organ and guitar. For 
some time he was organist of Saint Martin des Champs, and before 
he was eighteen years of age his Escudiat and a Domine salvum 
were performed at the Royal Palace of Versailles with great 
success. He is the author of many French songs with guitar 
accompaniment, which were issued about the year 1744, and he 
also published numerous church compositions. 

Gounod, Charles, born in Paris, June 17, 1818, died October 17, 
1 893, received his first musical education from his mother, a 
distinguished pianist, and having finished his classical studies at the 
Lycee St. Louis, and also taken his degree as Bachelier des-lettres, 
in 1836, entered the Conservatoire, where he was in Halevy's class 
for counterpoint, and received instruction in composition from Paer 
and Lesueur. In 1839 he won the Grand Prix de Rome, by which 
he was enabled to continue his musical education in Italy. His 
first important composition was a mass for three voices and orchestra. 
On his return from Italy he travelled through Austria and Germany, 
and upon reaching Paris became organist of the Missions Etrangeres. 
At this period Gounod had serious intentions of taking Holy Orders, 
and even went so far as to become an out student of the Seminaire ; 
but, fortunately for music, he perceived his mistake in time. His 
first opera, Saplio, was produced at the French Academy in 1851, 
and the following year he was appointed conductor of the Orpheon, 
in Paris. His now famous opera, Faust, which received its first 
performance in the Lyric Theatre in March, 1859, placed him 
immediately in the front rank of modern operatic composers, and 
his reputation increased rapidly from this date. Upon numerous 
occasions Cristofaro, the mandolin virtuoso, was associated with 
Gounod in public performances in Paris, and the latter expressed 
his great delight in accompanying on the piano the mandolin solos 
of Cristofaro's composition. In his critical study of Mozart's Don 




ALOIS JOSEPH <;< >TZ. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 135 

Giovanni, Gounod mentions in terms of great admiration the 
serenade, with its mandolin obbligato. " This serenade is a pearl of 
transcendent beauty, an inspiration by its ravishing melody, elegant 
harmony and pulsating rhythm, which, under the subdued accompani- 
ment of the orchestra, enhances the subtle charms of the mandolin." 

During the spring of 1862, Gounod was taking a holiday in 
northern Italy, and on the evening of April 24 wandered alone by 
the picturesque shores of lake Nemi. He was attracted by the 
sound of far-off music floating on the stilly air, and, looking in the 
direction from whence it proceeded, saw an Italian peasant passing, 
singing his native melodies to the accompaniment of his guitar. 
Gounod's attention was immediately arrested, and so enchanted was 
he by the musical performance, that for some distance he un- 
consciously followed the singer, and then at length ventured to 
speak to him. Said the composer of the immortal Faust to an 
intimate friend : " I was so enraptured that I regretted I could not 
purchase the musician and his instrument complete ; but this being 
an impossibility, I did the next best thing — I bought his guitar and 
resolved to play it as perfectly as he did." So great an impression 
did this incident make on Gounod, that upon returning to his hotel 
he immediately inscribed in ink on this guitar, " Nemi, 24 Aprile, 
1862," in memory of the happy occasion. This inscription, written 
there by the master, may be seen in the photo of the instrument 
here reproduced, being placed on the unvarnished table just beneath 
the bridge. The guitar is of Italian workmanship and still bears 
intact and perfect the original label of its maker, " Gaetano Vinaccia, 
Napoli, Rua Catalana, No. 46, 1834." It is constructed of native 
maple wood without figure, the back and sides being varnished 
golden yellow. The edges of the table were originally inlaid, but 
this decoration is now missing. The ebony bridge has been at 
some late period attached to the table very rudely by two rough 
screws, and the points of the bridge terminate with fanciful and 
delicately carved tracery in ebony, which is placed in relief over the 
lower part of the table. Its fingerboard shows signs of having been 
decorated also, and there remain but three of its pegs. 

What a varied, chequered history, this guitar — of all species of 
musical instruments the most poetic and romantic — possesses. 
Lovingly fashioned and delicately inlaid by a master of repute in 
sunny Naples — sweetly responsive to the touch of its first owner, a 
peasant musician, and also of its later purchaser, an immortal 
musical genius — it suffered severe and rude shocks by fire and 
sword. Bearing the marks of brutal kicks, its back torn from its 
body, its head, neck, and fingerboard scorched, blistered, and scarred 
by fire, and ruined by water, its delicate tracery and inlay now no 
more, it reposes in its rough wooden casket in the most beautiful 
music building of the most magnificent city of the world, to be 
contemplated and revered by future generations. When Gounod 
returned from his holiday in Italy, he took his newly purchased 



136 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

guitar back with him to Paris, and the instrument was cherished by 
him in his residence in Montretout, a suburb of the city near St. 
Cloud. " It was on this same guitar," said Mr. Malsherbes, the 
curator of the Paris Opera Museum, " that its vibrating strings 
gave the celebrated composer his first inspiration and conceptions 
of Mirelle." During the Franco- Prussian war and the siege of 
Paris (1870-1871) Montretout was sacked and pillaged, and the 
beloved guitar suffered rude kicks from the spurred boot of a 
Prussian artillery officer, the fractures remaining to the present day. 
This historic instrument, in a most forlorn condition, battered and 
scorched by fire, was eventually rescued from total destruction and 
oblivion by a friend of the composer, and placed for safety in its 
present gorgeous resting place, the Museum of the Paris Opera. 
The author acknowledges the courtesy of the authorities of this 
institution in gran ling permission for photographs to be made for 
reproduction in this volume. 

Graeffer, Antoine, born in Vienna in 1780, was living as late as 
1830 in the same city, but after that date nothing of a reliable 
character is known concerning his life. lie was a guitar virtuoso 
and composer for the guitar, who attained to considerable fame 
throughout Germany, but whose renown as a soloist and composer 
did not extend to other lands. During his prime, Graeffer was 
appearing with success as a guitarist at the same period and in 
the same city as several of the most illustrious masters of this 
instrument, notably Giuliani and Diabelli. Pie also enjoyed an 
honourable reputation as a teacher of the guitar and is the author 
of more than thirty compositions for his instrument, principally 
fantasias, variations, sonatas and dance music. Graeffer published 
a method for the guitar in two volumes, entitled : Systematic guitar 
school, which appeared in the year 1811, published by Strauss, 
Vienna, a second edition being issued shortly after by Schaumburg, 
Vienna. Graefu-r, a well-educated man of literary attainments, was 
admitted to the best society of Vienna, and he is known as the 
author of an 8vo volume of seventy pages, entitled: Ueber Tonkunst, 
spraclie unci schrift (Fragments on music, etc). This interesting 
work contains two folding pages of facsimile autographs, music, etc., 
of the greatest masters of music, deceased, or then living. It was 
one of the first publications of its kind, and contained autographs 
of several of the most illustrious musicians, being published in 1830 
by Sollinger, Vienna. The most important of Graeffer's com- 
positions for the guitar were issued in Vienna, and are Variations 
for guitar solo, Op. 3, Haslinger; Variations, Op. 5, Artaria ; 
Fantasia, Op. 6, Weigl ; Grand rondo, Op. 7, Haslinger; 
Delassenient, Op. 9; Variations, Op. 11, 12 and 13, Mecchetti ; 
and Grand fantasia, Op. 15, dedicated to Charles Troppauer, was 
published by Peters, Leipzig. Graeffer also arranged for violin 
and guitar, the TJiird polonaise of Mayseder, and in addition 
published numerous smaller works, 




GOUNOD'S GUITAR. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 137 

Gragnani, Filippo, a very distinguished Italian guitarist and 
composer, born in Leghorn, in 1767, and living in Paris as late as 
1812, after which date nothing is known concerning his life. He 
was a member of the renowned family of violin and guitar makers 
of this city and his parents placed him when a lad under 
Luchesi for the study of harmony and counterpoint, intending that 
he should devote himself to church music. After remaining with 
Luchesi for some considerable time, Gragnani suddenly decided to 
study the guitar, and this circumstance was the turning point in a 
career that had been predestined otherwise by his parents. He 
took lessons on this instrument and studied it diligently for a period 
and made a name in the first rank of Italian performers. At a 
later period Gragnani undertook several concert tours as a guitar 
virtuoso, both in his native land and through Germany, and at the 
commencement of the nineteenth century visited France, eventually 
making his abode in Paris. His public performances invariably 
received the most lavish praise ; but his fame rests principally on 
his music which is characteristic of a man of scholarly and 
musicianly training, a thorough master of his art, for his works are 
admirably suitable for the instrument. His compositions were 
published principally in the towns he visited and in which he 
resided for periods as a professor of the guitar. Gragnani's first 
published compositions were Duos for two guitars, Op. 1, 2, 3, 4, 
6, 7 and 14, issued simultaneously by Carli, Meissonnier, and 
Richault in Paris, and Gombart in Augsburg. Op. 5, which is a 
Fantasia for guitar solo, was also issued by the same publishers. 
Gragnani wrote several quartets which met with more than ordinary 
favour, the first of these, Op. 8, Quartet for two guitars, violin 
and clarionet, was published by Carli, and by Meissonnier of 
Paris, and they also issued Op. 9, Sextet for two guitars, violin, 
violoncello, flute and piano ; Op. 12, Trio for three guitars, and 
Op. 13, Trio for guitar, violin and flute ; Op. 10, Theme with 
variations for guitar solo ; Op. 11, Exercises for guitar ; Op. 15, 
Divertisements for guitar solo. Sinfonia for guitar solo, and a 
sentimental sonata for guitar solo, entitled : La partenza, were 
published by Ricordi, Milan. In addition to the above-mentioned 
publications, Gragnani wrote many others which were issued 
without opus numbers, principally duos for violin and guitar, piano 
and guitar, guitar solos, and five volumes of guitar solos entitled : 
Giiifarrenspieler, were published by F. Dies, A. Werth, and 
Heckel, Mannheim. 

Granata, Giovanni Battista, born in Bologna, Italy, and lived 
during the seventeenth century, an Italian musician, one of the 
earliest masters of the guitar, who published the following: Soavi 
concent i di sonate musical i per la chitarra spagnuola (Sweet 
harmonies as musical sonatas for the Spanish guitar). 

Gretry. Andre Ernest Modeste, a famous French operatic com- 



138 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

poser, was born in Liege, Belgium, February 11, 1741, and died 
near Montmorency, France, September 24, 1813. His parents were 
in humble circumstances — the father being a poor violinist — who 
placed him when six years of age in the choir of St. Denis ; but under 
the poor teaching of his master he showed no musical ability, and 
was dismissed as incapable when eleven years of age. His next 
teacher, Leclerc, discovered the boy's latent talent, and then the 
organist, Renekin, taught him harmony ; but his taste for music 
developed rapidly after hearing the operas of the great Italian 
composers, when performed by an itinerant Italian company, of 
which Resta was the conductor. The impression these perform- 
ances made on the youth, caused Gretry to try his hand at com- 
position, and in 1758 he produced at Liege, six small symphonies and 
the year following, a mass for four voices ; but none of these were 
printed. In his memoirs he states that these compositions, however, 
obtained for him the patronage of Chanoine du Harlez, who 
supplied him with the means of studying in Rome, and that he left 
his birth-place in March, 1759, travelling on foot with a smuggler 
for companion. He entered the College of Liege in Rome — which 
had been founded by a native of the Belgian city for the benefit of 
his countrymen — and remained in this institution for five years ; 
although his teacher for composition and counterpoint had given 
him up as a failure in these subjects. During his residence in 
Rome he composed several small works, one of which, an operetta 
was performed with success in the Aliberti Theatre, Rome. He was 
now intent on writing opera comique and desirous of living in 
Paris, the centre of this art, so he left Rome the first day of the 
year 1767, travelling through Switzerland, and in Geneva he made 
the acquaintance of Voltaire. Gretry resided here for twelve 
months as a teacher of singing, and produced a one act opera, after 
which he made his way to Paris, being still fired with the desire to 
produce other operas, and he showed his versatility by writing no 
less than three, which were all staged in the year 1770. Many 
others followed, until he had composed quite fifty ; but of this 
number many are now forgotten, and only the following are heard 
of: he tableau parlant ; Uamant jaloux ; Richard; Z entire et 
Azor and Uepreuve villageoise. Richard, is still performed with 
success, Uamant jaloux, taking the second position. This last 
composition, a grand opera in three acts, was written in 1778, and 
the second act contains that most exquisite serenade : While all are 
sleeping, and to this serenade, sung by Florival, Gretry wrote a 
delicate accompaniment for two mandolins, a copy of which is 
reproduced from the original score. 

Gretry's residence in Italy had no doubt been the means of 
bringing the mandolin most favourably to his notice, for he makes 
use of it upon various occasions, in this instance with a telling and 
marked impression. Gretry excelled in pastoral music, and of all 
his melodious compositions, this serenade is regarded as one of the 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



139 



While all are sleeping. 

Serenade in " L'amant Jaloux" with accompaniment 
for two mandolins. 

Composed by GRETRY in 1778. 




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choicest. By means of his vivid imagination and natural flow of 
melody, he created a realm of characters in his operas, true to life. 
Upon the founding of the Paris Conservatoire of Music, Gretry 
was appointed an inspector, retaining this position only a year, for 
when the Institut was formed at the same time, one of the three 



140 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

places reserved for musical composers, was given to him. Gretry 
is the author of several theoretical treatises on music, and during 
his last years was engaged in writing Reflections on the art, which 
has not been published. He died September 24, 1813, and three 
days later was honoured by an imposing and impressive funeral 
in Paris. 

Gruber, Franz, born in Hochburg, a village of Upper Austria, 
near the Inn, during the year 1787, and died in Hallein, near 
Sal/burg, June 7, 1863. He was the son of a linen weaver, and is 
immortalized as being the composer of the German hymn Stille 
nacht, heilige nacht. Gruber was very musical during childhood, and 
officiated at the church organ of his native village when twelve 
years of age, and according to the custom of the period, his musical 
education included instruction on the guitar, in addition to a 
thorough study of the organ and theoretical music, under the organist 
of Burghausen, a town not far distant. His early youth was 
devoted to scholastic study, and he became a duly qualified school- 
master at the early age of seventeen, and accepted a school in 
Arnsdorf, where he was appointed organist, and remained for 
twenty- two years. 

In 1833 he removed to a larger and more important sphere of 
work in Hallein, near Salzburg, where for thirty years he was 
organist of the principal church, occupying this position till his death 
at the age of seventy-six. During Gruber's residence in Arnsdorf, 
he was organist also in the neighbouring village of Oberndorf, and 
towards the end of 1818 the organ of this church was damaged to 
such an extent that it was useless. On Christmas eve of the same 
year, Joseph Mohr, the pastor of Oberndorf visited the schoolmaster 
Gruber, showed him a Christmas hymn he had just written, and 
requested him to set it to music, for two solo voices and chorus with 
guitar accompaniment. Gruber read the poem, composed the parts 
and accompaniment as desired, returning it the same evening to the 
clergyman, and on Christmas night of the year 1818, in a 
small insignificant church on the lonely mountain side, this 
devotional and inspiring hymn was sung for the first time, with 
its accompaniment of guitars. This priceless treasure would in all 
probability have been lost to the world had not a simple incident 
occurred at the time. 

In the spring of the following year, Karl Mauracher of Fugen, 
an organ builder, was commissioned to erect a new instrument in 
Oberndorf Church, and while thus engaged, chanced to see a copy 
of this Christmas hymn. The words and music impressed him so 
much that he requested a copy from the author, and he caused it to 
be sung in Fiigen Church. From this humble introduction, the 
hymn entwined itself into every civilized land of the globe, being 
sung by persons of all creeds, and throughout Germany it is 
esteemed almost of national importance. Gruber composed about a 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 141 

hundred German masses and other music — he was an industrious 
and prolific composer — but these works for the greater part are lost ; 
they were never printed, only sufficient manuscript copies being 
made to supply local requirements. This loss is now regretted, for 
it is most certain that other gems of song, with guitar accompani- 
ment, and also works for the guitar, were amongst these compositions. 
Gruber composed this tuneful melody to be sung with guitars, and 
upon the memorable Sunday when it was first performed in church, 
guitars took the place of the organ. 

Guichard, Francis, born August 26, 1745 at Mans, and died in 
Paris, February 24, 1807, an abbott, who was for some time music 
master of the Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris. Soon after his birth 
his parents removed to Paris, and as a boy he entered the choir of 
Notre Dame Cathedral; but by the revolution of 1789, he was 
forced to leave his religious occupation, and he obtained his 
livelihood by teaching the guitar and writing compositions for this 
instrument. In 1795, several of his pieces for the guitar met 
with more than usual success. Guichard is the author of many 
fantasias for guitar solo, the most celebrated of which was Les 
plaisirs des soirees, this being published by Porro, Paris. He 
wrote a Method for the guitar, issued by Frere, Paris, and in 
addition, much church music. 

J— | AN DEL, George Frederick, one of the greatest composers the 
world has ever seen, was born at Halle, Lower Saxony, 
February 23, 1685, and died in London, April 14, 1759. His father, 
a surgeon, sixty-three years of age when the son was born, knew 
nothing of music, cared for it less, and regarded it as a degrading 
pursuit or an idle amusement. Consequently, he endeavoured to 
keep his son's mind from matters musical and to stifle the genius 
which early displayed itself in the child, but notwithstanding, some- 
one contrived to convey into the attic of the house a spinet, and the 
boy devoted much time learning to play it. When he was seven 
years of age, his father made a visit to a son by his former marriage, 
who was in the service of the Duke of Saxe Weissenfels. Young 
Handel begged to accompany his father; but to no avail, so to obtain 
his desire he resorted to strategy by following the carriage for such 
a considerable distance that his father was compelled to take him in 
the coach. This journey resulted in the father changing his attitude 
in regard to music, for upon arrival at Weissenfels the boy was soon 
making friends with the court musicians, and on one occasion, after 
service, he was lifted on to the organ stool and by his performance 
surprised everyone present. The Duke heard of the child's precocity 
and the whole facts of the case, and by his kindly intervention the 
father gave consent for him to receive a musical education. He 
was then placed under the organist of Halle Cathedral, and received 
instruction in theoretical and practical music, the latter embracing 



142 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

the organ, violin, oboe and harpsichord. For the oboe Handel 
always had a decided liking and showed it by a general and free use 
of the instrument in his compositions. 

After studying in Halle for three years he was sent to Berlin to 
continue his musical education, and by his remarkable powers as an 
organist was regarded in this city as a prodigy. Soon after his 
residence in Berlin his father died and he was compelled to find 
some employment to support himself and his mother. He obtained 
an appointment as violinist in the opera orchestra, Hamburg, and in 
a short period he was promoted to the harpsichord (conductor). In 
1705 Handel's first opera, Almira was produced, and the same year 
it was succeeded by Nero. In 1706 he undertook a journey to Italy, 
visiting Venice, Rome, Florence and Naples, and wrote many operas 
and much sacred music in these cities, his compositions being 
invariably received with favour. It w r as in Italy that Handel 
became acquainted with the mandolin, the tone of which at this period 
was very similar in timbre to that of the oboe, for previous to 
about 1850, the instrument was strung with gut strings the same as 
the violin, was also of smaller dimensions and compass, and these 
conditions produced a nasal, oboe tone. Berlioz writing of the 
instrument said: " its quality of tone — thin and nasal though it be — 
has something appealing and original about it"; but this quality of 
tone has changed since the instrument became enlarged in body and 
compass and strung with steel strings. 

For the space of three years Handel lived in Italy and then re- 
turned to his native land, being offered the post of Capellmeister to 
the Elector of Hanover, afterwards George I of England. Receiv- 
ing welcome invitations to visit England he quitted Germany and 
arrived at the end of the year 1710, and in a few months his operas 
were being reproduced in London on a magnificent scale. These 
were most enthusiastically received and his fame was immediately 
established in England, and in 1726 he became a naturalized British 
subject, making London his home. He is the author of numerous 
operas, oratorios and instrumental music, and in one of his oratorios 
he scores for the mandolin. It is quite probable this instrument is 
used in other of his compositions ; his manuscripts are preserved in 
the Musical Library of Buckingham Palace, being presented by 
Smith, Handel's amanuensis, to the King as a token of gratitude for 
the pension allowed him after Handel's death. In 1747 Handel 
wrote his oratorio Alexander Balus. This work was produced at 
Covent Garden Theatre, on March 23, 1748, and to the aria Hark ! 
hark I hark ! lie strikes tlie golden lyre, the mighty Handel writes 
the acccompaniment for mandolin, harp, violins, viola, violoncello, 
etc. The mandolin part is here reproduced, in all probability for 
the first time. It is as a choral writer that Handel predominates 
above other immortal musicians, and this beautiful aria with its 
appropriate and delicate accompaniments, gives evidence of his 
wonderful genius. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



143 



Hark! hark! he strikes the golden lyre. 

From " Alexander Balus " with Mandolin 
accompaniment. 

Composed by HANDEL in 1747. 






mm^k 



144 



MANDOLIN AND GUITAR. 





Harder, August, born at Schoenerstadt, near Leisnig, in Saxony, 
in 1774, and died at Leipzig, October 19, 1813, was the son of 
the village schoolmaster, and attained to some considerable fame 
in Germany as a guitar virtuoso, pianist, and composer. His 
parents were desirous that he should enter the church, and his 
education was directed with that object in view, consequently, as a 
youth, he was engaged in ecclesiastical work, and his studies devoted 
principally to theology. He received lessons on the piano and 
guitar as part of his daily curriculum, and after having acquired a 
sound elementary education entered Leipzig University in order 
to continue his theological training, and it was while thus engaged 
that he suddenly renounced his university and ecclesiastical career, 
to devote himself to music. Harder's practical knowledge of the 
guitar and piano made him a favourite with his fellow students, and 
for the love of his art he imparted musical knowledge to several 
acquaintances. This instruction was given during his leisure hours, 
but the interest he displayed in teaching, proved of such benefit to 
his pupils that before long he was importuned by many others for 
tuition, and this was an incentive to Harder to further his own 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 145 

musical education by the higher study of these instruments, and that 
of harmony and composition. Such was the demand made upon his 
time in giving musical instruction, that in the year 1800, when 
twenty-six years of age, he had established himself in Leipzig 
as a teacher of the guitar and piano. He was highly esteemed as a 
guitar soloist, and his pupils were numerous. He made several 
public appearances in Vienna, where he lived for a short period, and 
published many compositions in this city. Mendel, in his biogra- 
phical lexicon, speaks in praise of his powers as a guitar player, and 
places him in a foremost position among the guitar virtuosi of 
Germany. 

Harder has published in all about fifty instrumental compositions 
and numerous vocal works, his songs and romances being held in 
high repute in his native land, and his name is generally associated 
more particularly with these songs, for which he was justly cele- 
brated. He was living in Leipzig at the time of the French invasion, 
and a few days previous to the battle was overcome by an attack of 
extreme nervousness, which brought on a fever. His friends 
removed him from the city just before the battle, but the excessive 
commotion and uproar aggravated his malady to such an extent 
that he lay unconscious for several days, and succumbed on October 
19, without again recovering consciousness. He was mourned by 
many friends, by whom he was esteemed as a musician and respected 
as a man. Harder was the author of a New, practical am! theore- 
tical guitar school, a work of more than ordinary pretensions and 
of considerable merit, and he supplemented this method by a volume 
of advanced studies, which was issued by Haslinger, Vienna. There 
are published under his name, forty- six collections of songs and 
romances for voice with piano or guitar accompaniment, these being 
issued chiefly in Leipzig, Berlin, and Bonn. In 1810 he published 
Six songs with guitar accoiupaninient, and also Sonata for guitar 
and piano, Haslinger, Vienna. Op. 1, 8, 12, 15, 22, 42, 43, 54, 
Songs with guitar accompaniment, published by Breitkopf and 
Hartel, Leipzig; Twelve collections of pieces for guitar solo ; 
Brilliant variations on an original theme for guitar, piano and 
flute, Pennauer, Vienna; Progressive variations for guitar solo, 
Hoffman, Prague, send Progressive pieces for guitar solo, Haslinger, 
Vienna, who also published eight other volumes of variations for 
guitar solo on original themes or well-known melodies. 

Haslinger, Tobias, born March 1, 1787, at Zell in Austria, and 
died June 18, 1842, in Vienna. He is known as a Viennese music 
publisher, a musician and composer, who was instrumental in 
establishing one of the largest music publishing businesses, his firm 
having issued more than ten thousand musical compositions. 
Haslinger was an energetic, intelligent man, who lived on intimate 
terms with the best musicians in Vienna, and Beethoven and he 
were in constant communication : the numerous letters to him from 
Beethoven show the intimacy between them. Haslinger prepared 



146 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

a complete copy of Beethoven's compositions in full score, 
beautifully produced in manuscript by a single copyist. He was 
one of the thirty-six torch bearers who surrounded the bier of his 
immortal friend, and it fell to his lot to hand the three laurel 
wreaths to Hummel, by whom they were placed on the coffin 
before the closing of the grave. Among Haslinger's compositions 
are airs with variations and other pieces for guitar solo, and also 
songs with guitar accompaniment. This firm issued the majority 
of the compositions of the guitar virtuoso, J. K. Mertz, in addition 
to numerous works of the greatest masters of music, and also 
published several very important methods for the guitar. 

Hauptmann, Moritz, born at Dresden, October 13, 1792, died at 
Leipzig, January 3, 1868. His early education was conducted 
with the intention of adopting his father's profession as architect. 
He w'as well grounded in the elements of music, but with no serious 
intent, and he also made a study of the violin and guitar, the former 
instrument under Scholz, and harmony and composition under various 
teachers. In 1811, Hauptmann went to Gotha, wmere Spohr was 
concertmeister, and there he decided to adopt music as his profession, 
for the meeting of Spohr and Hauptmann resulted in a life-long 
friendship. After leaving Gotha, Hauptmann was for a time 
violinist in the Dresden Court Orchestra, and in 1815 he travelled 
to Russia, and remained in that country for four years. On his 
return he entered Spohr's band in Cassel as violinist, and it was 
here that he manifested his remarkable ability as a teacher of the 
theory of music. In a short time he became a most celebrated 
teacher, and pupils flocked to him from all parts of Europe, and 
even from America. Upon Mendelssohn's recommendation, he 
was appointed music director of the famous Thomas-Schule, 
Leipzig, in 1842, and also a professor in the Conservatoire of that 
city. Among his pupils were Joachim, Sullivan, Von Bulow, 
Cowen, Bott, and Burgmuller. As a young man, Hauptmann 
studied and played the guitar, and several of his early compositions 
were written for this instrument, and it is important to note that of 
his celebrated pupils, the following have shown more than a passing 
interest in the guitar. 

Joachim, the violin virtuoso, played the guitar and accompanied 
with great proficiency the songs of his elder sister, before finally 
adopting the violin. Burgmuller published three beautiful nocturnes 
for violin, or violoncello with guitar, entitled : Les murmures de la 
Rhone, and also songs with guitar accompaniment. Bott published 
solos for guitar, Op. 19 and 25. Cowen writes for the guitar, in 
Harold and The Corsair, and his widely-known song, The chimney 
corner, has a guitar accompaniment, while Sullivan's favourite 
guitar made by Davis, London, was sold by order of his executors, 
May 22, 1901, at the auction rooms of Puttick & Simpson, London. 

May we not conclude that they received this high appreciation 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 147 

of the instrument from their teacher, Hauptmann, who is recorded 
as " endowed with an ear of unusual delicacy and a lover of the 
guitar "? He published about sixty compositions, instrumental 
and vocal works, and was the author of an opera, Mathilde, written 
in early life and performed with success repeatedly in Cassel. As 
stated, several of his first compositions were for the guitar, and 
among these, Op. 8, Divertisements for violin and guitar, was 
published by Schreiber, Vienna. 

Hauschka, Vincent, or Hauska, as his name frequently appears 
in catalogues, was born in Mies, Bohemia, January 21, 1766, and 
died in Vienna, 1840. He was a son of the schoolmaster of Mies, 
and when eight years of age removed with his parents to Prague, 
where his father had been appointed to a school. Hauschka 
commenced the study of music in this city, the mandolin being his 
first instrument: he also entered the cathedral as a chorister and a 
little later received systematic instruction from Seeger, and Laube, 
the father of the violin virtuoso. Hauschka devoted himself to the 
'cello and mandolin and made remarkable progress on both, and a 
few years afterwards continued the study of the former instrument 
under Christ, one of the most celebrated Bohemian virtuosi. At 
sixteen years of age he entered the orchestra of the Count of Thun 
and remained in his service till the death of the Count two years 
later, when the orchestra was disbanded. He then made a concert 
tour through Austria and Germany, visiting Carlsbad, Dresden and 
other important cities, where his performances on both instruments 
were highly spoken of. Towards the end of 1792 he took up his 
residence in Vienna and his public performances attracted consider- 
able notice and won for him an enviable reputation. Some few 
years after his residence in this city he accepted a lucrative position 
under the government, and then relinquished music as a profession. 
After this appointment his public appearances were rare; but he 
still took an active interest in the art, being one of the founders of 
the Gesellschaft der Musikfreund, Vienna, and also the Concert 
Spirituel. He continued to write for his instruments; but the 
majority of his compositions were not published, the principal 
manuscripts being nocturnes for mandolin, alto and violoncello ; 
quintets including these instruments; concertos for 'cello, and church 
compositions. 

Held, Bruno, a Bavarian musician, who for some time lived in 
Munich, and in 1815 was residing in Mannheim. He was a flautist 
and guitarist, and the author of numerous compositions for these 
instruments, which were published principally in Mannheim and 
Augsburg. Schott of Mayence, publish dances for orchestra, and 
a vocal composition by Held. 

Held, John Theobald, an Austrian musician of no relation to the 
former, who was born in Prague, 1760, and who practised as a 
doctor of medicine in his native city. He was a most excellent 



148 GUITAK AND MANDOLIN. 

vocalist and guitarist, and a thorough musician, though amateur. 
He is the author of many collections of songs with guitar and piano 
accompaniments, and also solos for the guitar, which were published 
in Prague and Leipzig during 1796. 

Henkel, Michel, born in Fulda, Germany, June 18, 1780, and 
died there March 4, 1851, as town cantor, episcopal court musician 
and professor of music at the gymnasium. He studied the guitar, 
organ, and piano, and for many years was director of music and 
organist of the cathedral of Fulda. Henkel was a prolific composer 
for the organ, and the author of a highly esteemed method for this 
instrument in two volumes, published by Schott, Mayence. He 
composed many sacred, school, and choral works, and also 
compositions for guitar and piano, the latter consisting of studies, 
sonatas, variations, etc. Op. 44, Sonata for piano and guitar, 
Hofmeister, Leipzig ; Six ilitos for flute and guitar, Simrock, 
Bonn; Op. 31, Three variations ; Op. 36, Fifteen pieces cou- 
ecrtautes for flute and guitar, and a Scherzo for flute and guitar, 
entitled : The cuckoo, Andre Offenbach. The latter composition 
enjoyed great popularity, being also published by Richault, Paris. 

Himmel, Friedrich Heinrich, born November 20, 1765, at 
Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg, died of dropsy, in Berlin, June 8, 
1814. He was a German musician of renown, who during his life- 
time was regarded with the greatest esteem. Being intended for the 
church he was sent by his parents to Halle to study theology; but 
the excellence of his pianoforte playing induced King Frederick 
William II to educate him for a musician, and to this intent he was 
placed under Capellmeister Naumann, in Dresden, remaining under 
him for three years. Naumann was a guitarist who improved the 
instrument (see Naumann) and Himmel studied the guitar, harmony 
and composition. At the termination of his period of study, in 1792, 
an oratorio, Isacco, and a cantata La dauza from his pen, were 
performed with brilliant success by the Court Chapel in Berlin. 
The King gave him one hundred friedrichs for his oratorio, appointed 
him chamber musician, and sent him to Italy for two years, and while 
in that country Himmel produced several operas in Venice and Naples. 
Reichardt having been dismissed from the Court Capellmeistership 
in Berlin, the King gave the appointment to Himmel, who thereupon 
returned to Germany immediately. While in this position he wrote 
several compositions, a Traur cantata for the funeral of King 
Frederic William, and a Te deum for his successor. In 1798 he 
visited Stockholm and St. Petersburg, and in the latter city was 
commissioned by the Emperor to write an opera. In 1801 Himmel 
produced an opera in Copenhagen, and proceeded from there to 
France, where in Paris he published some small pieces for the guitar. 
From France he made a short visit to England, and then appeared 
in Vienna, returning to Berlin in 1802. While capellmeister in 
Berlin he had some intercourse with Beethoven in 1796, which 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 149 

terminated unpleasantly. After the battle of Jena Himmel retired, 
first to Pyrmont and then to Cassel. 

In addition to the works mentioned he wrote numerous operas, all 
produced in Berlin, also pianoforte sonatas, masses, numerous songs 
with guitar accompaniment, and pieces of a light nature for guitar solo 
and two guitars. These compositions, abounding in melody, display 
the work of a sound musician and were exceedingly popular in their 
day; during his later years Himmel devoted himself solely to vocal 
composition. The following are some of his works for the guitar, 
although by no means a complete list. Six dances for two guitars, 
Chanel, Paris ; Six songs with piano or guitar ; Six songs of Goethe 
with piano or guitar ; Twelve old German songs with guitar ; a 
second volume of the same kind; Two French romances with guitar; 
Grosse ini Angluck, with guitar; Songs of Rousseau with guitar, 
flute, 'cello and piano, published in 1797, and innumerable other 
songs with guitar, published by Simrock, Bonn, and Schott, Mayence. 

Holland, Justin, an American guitarist and arranger of music for 
his instrument was born in 1819, in Norwalk County, Virginia, his 
father, Exum Holland, being a farmer. When quite young Justin 
evinced a decided talent for music; but at that time, the locality in 
which he resided offered scanty opportunities for either hearing or 
learning music. In 1833 he went to Boston where he remained for 
a short period only, afterwards removing to Chelsea, a city near 
Boston, and there he spent his early youth and manhood. It was 
in Boston that he met Signor Mariano Perez, a Spanish musician, 
who was a clever performer on the guitar, and young Holland 
immediately studied this instrument under Perez. He also had for 
one of his first music teachers, Simon Knabel, a member of Ned 
Kendall's Brass Band, and who enjoyed a wide reputation as an 
arranger of music. Subsequently, Holland commenced studying 
under William Schubert, also a member of Kendall's band, and a 
brilliant performer on the guitar, and after making good progress on 
this instrument Holland adopted the concert flute, receiving instruc- 
tion from a Scotchman named Pollock. While studying music he 
was forced to labour hard, to meet the expenses of his musical 
education, and the time devoted to study was usually taken from 
that devoted by others, to sleep. In 1841 he entered Oberlin College, 
an institution located in the northern part of the state of Ohio, and 
he remained here for two years and then travelled to Mexico, for 
the purpose of becoming familar with the Spanish language, in order 
to read and study the methods of Sor, Aguado, and other Spanish 
guitarists. Holland returned to Oberlin in 1845, married, and then 
went to Cleveland, at that time a small city of less than nine thousand 
inhabitants, where he commenced to give lessons on the guitar, and 
his services being in demand he made Cleveland his home. From 
that time he devoted himself to teaching and arranging music for 
the guitar, in which occupation he obtained a widespread reputation 
through the United States, for in his music one recognises a high 



150 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

degree of excellence and a correct understanding of harmony. In 
July 1884, in connection with some of his advanced pupils, Holland 
organised the "Cleveland Guitar Club " which gave a public recital 
of guitar music in the following December, receiving the warm 
praise of musicians and the press generally. Holland continued 
teaching until October 1886 when his health failed, and he travelled 
south hoping that a change of climate might restore his failing powers. 
He did not recover, but died, March 24, 1887, at the age of 
sixty-seven. 

Holland was practically unknown outside his own country ; but 
a sketch of his life appeared February, 1877, in Der Freimaurer, 
a magazine published in Vienna. He possessed a high order of 
education, spoke five languages fluently, was a man of excellent 
social qualities and keen intellect, being held in esteem and friendship 
by all the musical artists in his vicinity. Holland did not publish 
any original compositions, but arranged numerous works for his 
instrument. He is the author of Comprehensive method for tlie 
guitar, published by Ditson, Boston, and also Modern method for 
the guitar, published in 1874 by Brainard, Cleveland. His arrange- 
ments for guitar were issued in collections, each containing about 
twenty pieces, under the titles of: Winter evenings; Gems for the 
guitar; Boquct of melodies; and Flowers of melody. He also 
wrote guitar accompaniments to numerous songs, one of these 
collections being entitled: Summer evenings. Holland also arranged 
about thirty duos for two guitars, the same number for guitar and 
violin, and was the author of a treatise of three hundred and twenty- 
four pages on certain subjects of moral reform. His son, Justin 
Minor Holland, was also a skilful guitarist, and like his father 
published many arrangements for the guitar. He possessed a rare 
library of guitar literature, collected by his father, and was living in 
New Orleans in 1888, employed in the government service. 

Horetzky, Felix, a Polish guitarist, who was born in Prague 
during the latter part of the eighteenth century, and died in Russia in 
1846. He is considered one of the best guitarists of Bohemia, and 
has been claimed as of that nationality. When a child he played 
the guitar, but with no further thought than amusement, and at a 
very early period of life his family returned to their native land and 
made their abode in Warsaw. It was here that Horetzky took 
regular instruction in guitar playing and the theory of music, and 
from the time he was placed under a teacher, receiving systematic 
instruction, his interest in the instrument that had only previously 
amused him, developed into a passion. When fifteen years of age 
he was employed as clerk in the Chamber of Accounts of Warsaw ; 
but his disposition was too active to reconcile himself to this 
monotonous life. Horetzky was absorbed in music and the guitar, 
and his employment proving burdensome, he resigned the desk and 
office to commence teaching the guitar. In 1815 he was fully 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 151 

established as a professor of the instrument in Warsaw : in his 
leisure he pursued his musical studies with increased vigour and 
profit, and a few years later, to obtain a reputation, he visited 
Vienna. In this city he studied the methods and compositions of 
the foremost Viennese masters, received further instruction on the 
instrument from Giuliani, after which he performed in public with 
him, and also with Diabelli. Such was his success and reputation, 
that he had obtained the patronage of the Royal Court, and was 
appointed guitar instructor to the Archduchess, and several other 
members of the royal household, before he had been resident in 
Vienna a year. His restless nature still predominated, however, 
for not being content with this honourable position, he undertook a 
protracted and roving tour through Europe, travelling through 
Germany, and performing in Frankfort and other important cities, 
and then he passed on to Paris. Just previous to 1820, Horetzky 
arrived in London and met with much success, for his advent was 
made at a very opportune time — when England had been made 
familiar with the names of the guitar virtuosi who had created such 
sensations in Vienna — -and Horetzky advertised the fact of his 
arrival from this famed city, by announcing himself on his first 
compositions published in England as "F. Horetzky, from Vienna." 

He travelled through Great Britain, and eventually settled in 
Edinburgh. In this city he met with such a favourable reception 
that he resided there, being recognised by the musical public, and 
patronised by society, as the foremost teacher of the guitar in 
Scotland : his numerous pupils came from far, and included the 
most influential, and fashionable members of Edinburgh society. 
Horetzky made visits to London, where he was heard as guitar 
soloist, winning the praise of critics and the musical press, and with 
the guitarist, Leonard Schulz, they appeared as guitar duettists. 
Schulz composed and dedicated to Horetzky, a Grand fantasia for 
guitar solo, Op. 48, which was published by Johanning, London. 
Horetzky's most celebrated pupils in this country were Sczepanowski, 
a Pole to whom he gave instruction in Edinburgh in 1833 (see 
Sczepanowski) and Dipple, whom he taught in London. The 
latter was a talented amateur guitarist and flautist, the author of 
small pieces for the guitar, and songs with guitar accompaniment, 
which were published in London about 1840. Horetzky remained 
in Edinburgh till 1840, and afterwards lived for a time in London, 
previous to travelling to Paris on a visit to his home. From 
France he made a concert tour through Germany and his native 
land into Russia, where he resided till his death in 1846. Horetzky 
commenced to write for his instrument just before his departure 
from Vienna, about 1816, and his compositions appeared in those 
countries he visited, principally in Austria, England, Germany and 
Russia. 

His publications for the guitar alone, number considerably 
more than one hundred and fifty, and Ihese were exceedingly 



152 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

popular with amateur guitarists of Great Britain, for they appealed 
to average performers by their simplicity and effectiveness, while 
his celebrated Maestoso and Adagio are pearls of classic beauty. 
Horetzky's songs with guitar accompaniment, and solos and duos 
for guitar were to be found in all the popular albums and journals, 
and many collections of his smaller works were issued in series, 
under the title of Lyra, Aurora, etc., each volume containing about 
forty pieces. These albums were published by George & Manby 
and Wessell & Co., London; Richault, Paris, and Fischer, 
Frankfort. The following compositions are considered among his 
best: Op. 1, Duos for guitar and terz guitar, dedicated to his 
pupil Count Leopold de Lazanzky, Diabelli & Co., Vienna: Op. 2 
and Op. 9, Brilliant waltzes for guitar, Chappell, London, and 
Schott, Mayence ; Op. 11, Rondo for guitar, same publishers; 
Op. 12, Serenade and variations for solo guitar, Richault, Paris; 
Op. 14, Grand fantasia, Simrock, Bonn, and Schott, Mayence; 
Op. 16, Grand variations, and Op. 17, Divertimentos, Johanning, 
London; Op. 18, Amusements for guitar, Metzler, London, and 
Fischer, Frankfort ; Op. 20 and 22, Four variations with intro- 
duction and finale, Johanning, London ; Op. 30, Almeurader, 
dedicated to his pupil, T. T. Dipple ; Op. 35, Recollections of 
Vienna, for two guitars, George & Manby, London, and Sixty 
national hymns for guitar, Chappell, London. Horetzky was the 
author of various studies and exercises for the guitar, and several 
original songs with guitar accompaniments, and he published guitar 
accompaniments to numerous other popular vocal compositions. 
Many of the latter were issued in Scotland, and dedicated to his 
pupils and friends there. Quande avvolte, a vocal serenade with 
guitar: The Spanish bride, a vocal bolero with guitar; Lady awake; 
The voice of the tempest; Good night; Spinnerlied, and Kennst 
du das land, all appeared in Great Britain, and several of them 
were published by Wessell & Co., London. 

Hucke, George H.,born in 1868, died in London, March 20, 1903, 
was one of the most popular English composers for the mandolin. 
His father, Heinrich Hucke, of German nationality, was a pupil of 
Spohr, and for some years was employed as violinist, under the 
conductorship of his teacher, in the Court Orchestra of Hesse Cassel. 
George and his three brothers were destined for a musical career, 
being taught the violin by their father, who was a stern discip- 
linarian regarding their musical studies, for the boys well knew that 
until their tasks were satisfactorily completed, recreation, meals, or 
oven sleep could not be considered. When eight years of age 
George Hucke came under the instruction of Dr. Hartmann, band- 
master to the Duke of Cambridge, continued with him for several 
years, and as time went on he gained practical experience in 
orchestral work. Ten years later he was appointed musical 
amanuensis to Canon Harford, a well-known musical authority at 




GEORGE II. HUCKE. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 153 

Westminster Abbey, and Hucke was thus employed until his death, 
at the premature age of thirty-five. With his brothers he established 
a successful music teaching studio in Hammersmith, London, just 
when the claims of the mandolin were awakening interest in this 
country. The violin had been his particular instrument, and it was 
natural he should avail himself of the possibilities presented, by 
adopting the mandolin. His first contributions to its music were soon 
offered to J. A. Turner, London— then the only English publisher 
of mandolin music — and the favour these compositions received was 
an inducement for Hucke to continue. The period of his life devoted 
to writing, was limited to ten years, but it was a time of great demand 
for suitable mandolin publications. In 1893 Turner published his 
Forty progressive studies for the mandolin, Op. 50, which rank 
amongst the best issued in England, and these were followed by many 
other original works, including over a dozen complete volumes. No 
less than forty-five original compositions are published by Turner, in 
addition to numerous arrangements, and those pieces for mandolin 
and piano entitled Beneath thy window ; Poppies and wheat, and 
Eventide, enjoyed wide popularity, while the more advanced works, 
Sonatine, Air Varie, and Overture, for the same two instruments, 
are examples of his melodic and musicianly ability. In addition to 
compositions for the mandolin and violin, Hucke wrote a number of 
albums, pieces, and a tutor for the guitar, and also organ music, all of 
which testify to his untiring energy. 

Huerta, y Katurla Don A. F., born in Orihuela, a town of some 
importance in Valencia, Spain, in 1805, was given the advantage of a 
thorough and early education, his parents being of some position. 
An inclination, which he could not resist drew him to the study of 
music, and at the age of fourteen he was placed in a music school 
for the purpose of devoting himself solely to the art. His aptitude 
for study, and his natural ability soon gained him distinction in his 
special subjects, singing and guitar playing, and he continued his 
vocal training and study of the guitar later, under the renowned 
Garcia. The unsettled state of the country interrupted his studies 
for a period — Spain was in the throes of the Peninsular war — and 
Huerta was pressed in the military service, in a regiment of cadets ; 
but he contrived to escape a few weeks later and fled to Madrid, 
then the principal patriotic focus of Spain. In this city his sympathies 
were enlisted in the cause of General Riego, and Huerta served under 
him when the enemies of the constitution were defeated. Being 
now enthusiastic in his love of liberty and martial glory, Huerta 
threw himself heartily in this new vocation, and made the acquaint- 
ance of the poet-soldier, Colonel Evaristo de San Miguel, a 
Captain-General of the Halberdiers of St. Ildefonso, and from this 
friendship resulted the famous national hymn (the Marseillaise of 
Spain), The inarch of Riego, or Riego' s hymn. Huerta composed 
the music to the poet-soldier's words, and it became of 

J 



154 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

national importance, for in less than a week the whole Spanish 
peninsula was singing this song, which also became celebrated 
through Europe. It was originally published throughout Spain 
with guitar accompaniment, and Ricordi, Milan, also issue it with 
guitar. It is not necessary to recall the ultimate defeat of Riego, 
his supporters were forced to flee, or share the fate of their leader, 
many took refuge in France and England, and thus their 
national instrument, the guitar, was brought more prominently 
before the people of these two countries. 

Huerta, with many other of his countrymen fled to France, and 
after these exciting experiences, devoted himself entirely to music, 
and as vocalist and guitarist, he was soon sought by Parisian 
society. Young, and full of ardour for his profession, he gave 
singing lessons with his former teacher, Garcia senior, Malibran, 
and Adolphe Nourrit, and as a proof of the great friendship existing 
between himself and the last named, Huerta composed a beautiful 
work which he dedicated to the celebrated, but unfortunate tenor. 
Like a capricious artist, Huerta acted according to impulse without 
calculating the consequences, as the following incident shows. He 
had been engaged to perform at Havre, and travelled from Paris to 
Rouen in the company of several business men who were about to 
sail for America. " What is the use of you giving a concert in 
Havre ?" they said, "come with us to America, you will be worth 
your weight in gold there," and without further consideration, 
Huerta embarked with them, when the people of Havre were 
entering the theatre expecting to hear him. In the United States, 
the wandering minstrel met with a lengthy series of adventures, and 
as vocalist and guitarist, he gained his great desire ; but he 
associated with an artist painter who resembled the heroes of Gil 
Bias. Both had gone to pursue their professions on this virgin 
soil, and they shared everything in common until Huerta was 
surprised to discover that his erstwhile friend had departed, taking 
w r ith him Huerta's possessions and life-savings, amounting to about 
^"400. To add to his discomfiture, Huerta now suffered the serious 
misfortune of losing his voice, which had been his principal means 
of support. He was not discouraged, but resolved to apply himself 
with renewed energy to the guitar, and for this purpose he shaved 
his head, his eyebrows, and half his beard, and vowed he would not 
quit his rooms until his hair was restored — when he had made 
himself incomparable on his instrument. After three months' 
persistent study, Huerta was acknowledged the first guitarist in 
America, for he so manipulated his instrument that it appeared as 
enchanting as a minature orchestra. On his return from America 
he resided in London, where he was immediately recognised as one 
of the foremost guitar teachers, and he associated with the most 
distinguished musicians, living in the companionship of La Pasta, 
Donzelli, and Lablache. On May 18, 1827, he was performing as 
guitarist at a brilliant concert, in the company of Moscheles and 




3 &</*!& 



DON A. F. HUERTA. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 155 

Mori. On June 22, following, he appeared as guitar soloist at a 
concert given under the patronage of the Duchess of Gloucester, 
when De Beriot was violinist, Moscheles pianist, Labarre harpist, 
and Mdm. Pasta vocalist. On the 29th of the same month, Huerta 
played sonatas on the guitar in the mansion of the Duke of St. 
Albans, when Mdms. Pasta and Stockhausen were the vocalists, and 
on June 6, 1828, he was guitar soloist at the Royal Argyle Rooms. 
Huerta remained in London until 1830, giving concerts which 
were invariably successful, both artistically and financially, and he 
also gave his services on behalf of those Spanish refugees, the less 
fortunate of his countrymen, and while residing in London he 
married his pupil, Miss Angiolina Panormo, daughter of Louis 
Panormo, the celebrated guitar maker. In 1832, Huerta visited 
Paris once more and received an honourable welcome from men 
famous in politics, literature and art. Mdm. Emile de Girardin 
dedicated to him some verses, Lamartine and Victor Hugo 
lavishly praised him, while Armand Marrast extolled his guitar 
recitals. Fetis mentions his guitar playing in the Revue Musicale, 
saying, " the marvellous power and agility of his fingers is 
prodigious ; he executes with his left hand alone, themes with 
intricate variations, and he has raised the guitar to the sublime height 
that Paganini did the violin." Huerta was appointed guitarist to 
Isabella II of Spain, and was offered a position in her palace; 
but this " restless child of wild Spanish nature " as his contem- 
porary, Mdm. Sidney Pratten described him, declined. He 
performed before most of the Sovereigns of Europe, and was Knight 
of the Order of Gregory the Great ; but above all these honours he 
esteemed the friendship of Rossini. Huerta performed on a Louis 
Panormo guitar, of concert or large size, and his portrait which is 
reproduced, depicts him with this instrument. He was not a 
prolific composer, and his early compositions were issued in Paris. 
Op. 2, Six waltzes for the guitar, published by Meissonnier ; Six 
waltzes for guitar, dedicated to the Hon. Miss Fox, published in 
London, 1828; Five waltzes, being the second set, dedicated to 
Miss Howley ; Three divertimentos, dedicated to Miss L. Hatton ; 
Overture to ' Semiramide ' and a Fantasia on ' S emir amide ,' 
Chappell, London ; Four divertimentos, composed and dedicated 
to his pupil, Miss Angiolina Panormo, published by her father, 
L. Panormo, and Grand waltz, Willis & Co., London. His wife 
was the author of several songs with guitar accompaniment, which 
appeared in London. 

Hummel, Johann Nepomuk, was born in Presburg, Austria, 
November 14, 1778, and died in Weimar, October 17, 1837. 
Hummel is recognised by all musical authorities as a classic writer 
and player of the pianoforte ; he was also a talented guitarist and 
one of the most renowned writers for the guitar and mandolin. 
Being the son of a musician, Joseph Hummel, a conductor of military 



156 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

music in Wartenberg, he consequently received instruction from his 
father in the musical art during early childhood, and it was about 
1786, while Hummel's father was conducting the band in the theatre 
of Schikaneder — Mozart's friend and the author of the libretto of 
Die Zaiiberflote — that the boy, who had made considerable progress 
in singing and piano playing, became the inmate of Mozart's house 
and for two years enjoyed the privilege of Mozart's instruction. 
When ten years of age, he had made such extraordinary strides in 
piano playing that his father took him on tour through Germany, 
Denmark, and Holland, and he appeared for the first time in England 
in 1795. The brilliant piano playing of the youth won the universal 
praise of musicians throughout this concert tour, and upon its 
termination at the close of 1795, he returned to Vienna and 
resumed his studies in counterpoint under Albrechtsberger, and 
composition under Haydn and Salieri. 

In April, 1804, he was appointed capellmeisterto Prince Nicholas 
Esterhazy — the position formerly held by Haydn — and he remained 
as such till May, 1811. Soon after this date and during his prime, 
he became intimately associated with the guitar virtuoso, Giuliani, 
and all Vienna was applauding their duos for guitar and piano until 
the year 1815. Hummel proved of great assistance to Giuliani, for 
he had been established some years in this city previous to the 
arrival of the guitarist. The two virtuosi engaged in concert work 
in Vienna until Hummel departed to fill the post of conductor at 
Stuttgart, and in the year 1815 Hummel, Giuliani, and Mayseder 
were engaged together in giving the Dukaten concerte" among other 
important concerts. They performed at at a series of six musical 
soirees in the grounds of the Royal Botanical Gardens of 
Schonbrun, given before members of the royal family and other 
nobility, and upon these occasions the trio was augmented by the 
'cellist Merk and a flautist of renown. For these concerts Hummel 
specially wrote Op. 62, 63 and 66, three grand serenades for piano, 
guitar, violin, flute and 'cello, or piano, guitar, violin, clarionet and 
bassoon. The guitar part of the allegretto from his Grand 
serenade, Op. 63, is reproduced, and it will be seen that the 
guitar is given an important position in the quintet, and this style 
is manifested in all his compositions which include the guitar. 

Hummel wrote at the same time, The Sentinel, Op. 71, for solo 
voice, with variations and accompaniments of piano, guitar, violin 
and 'cello. The serenades previously mentioned were dedicated to 
Count Francois de Palffy, an admirer and patron of Hummel, and 
were published by Artaria, Vienna, with an engraving on the title 
page depicting the several musicians performing in the gardens. 
These compositions are of more than ordinary technical difficulty and 
only in the hands of artists could an interpretation be expected, as 
each instrument is brought in requisition in its solo capacity with 
variations of a most florid description — written respectively by each 
of the original performers, viz. Hummel, Giuliani, Mayseder and 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



157 



Merk — and in addition, brilliant execution is required for the 
performance of the compositions generally. In 1816, when 
Hummel removed to Stuttgart, his connection with these artists 
was severed and his position was filled by Moscheles. Hummel 
remained in Stuttgart till 1820, when he removed to Weimar, from 

Allegretto, from Grand Serenade, Op. 63, 

(Quintet for Piano, Guitar, Violin, Flute and 'Cello). 
J. N. HUMMEL. 

GUITARRE. 

Allegretto. 




f > t ' ^ZZS? * f * f ' f 




r l f i "tZSf * f * f *" f?T 



Var.I 




158 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

whence, in the suite of the Grand Duchess Maria Paulowna he 
journeyed to Russia, and was there honoured by a most cordial 
reception, and in 1825 he visited Paris, travelling through Belgium 
and Holland, returning to Vienna in 1827. From the years 1830 
to 1833 he was in England, and at the latter date was conductor of 
the Royal Opera, London. During his stay in this country he 
made many provincial tours, and while in Bath became acquainted 
with the guitarist Eulenstein, who records a conversation they had 
on the merits of the guitar, and Hummel's high opinion of the 
instrument, particularly of its effects in modulation. Hummel 
departed from England in 1834, retiring to Weimar where he died 
three years later. Being brought up in the house of Mozart and 
receiving instruction direct from this immortal genius, he was 
consequently deemed the main conservator of Mozartian traditions 
— an expert conductor, and a good teacher, the leading and most 
brilliant German pianist, a very clever extempore player, and a 
prolific writer of all classes of music including mandolin sonatas, 
guitar solos, masses and operas. During the period he was an 
inmate of Mozart's house, his master wrote several songs and arias 
with mandolin accompaniment, and this circumstance would 
naturally bring the mandolin most favourably before his notice. 

Hummel in his prime, about 1818, was regarded by the majority 
of professional musicians as the equal of Beethoven, and he is the 
principal representative of that manner of treating the piano, which 
rested upon the light touch and thin tone of the early Viennese 
instruments, and grew together with the rapid improvements in the 
manufacture of pianos in Germany from the beginning of the 
century to about 1830. As previously mentioned, he stood fore- 
most in his day among a school of performers now rapidly dying 
out, this school was in advance in point of execution, compared 
with that of Clementi, but not scarcely so advanced, however, as that 
headed by Moscheles, and later by Chopin. Its chief feature was 
the use of the uniform legato touch so highly esteemed by 
Moscheles. It was the school which immediately succeeded the 
cantabile style of the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of 
the nineteenth century. Hummel's piano compositions are stdl 
held in esteem, but much of their popularity has vanished. These, 
and his numerous compositions for the guitar, are marked by strong 
poetical feeling, clear form, and much technical cleverness, and 
Hummel evinced a devotion to the guitar second only to that of 
the piano, and associated himself in a practical manner with its 
players and votaries. Although he made no public appearances as 
a performer on the guitar, he was a capable exponent of it, and .was 
most thoroughly conversant with its resources and lavish in his 
praise of its powers as an instrument of harmony and modulation. 

That Hummel was seriously and constantly interested in the 
guitar, is proved by his compositions for it, as they commence with 
Op. 7 and conclude with Op. 93. He was the author of many 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



159 



operas, masses, symphonies, and compositions for the piano. His 
operas are now forgotten while his masses are still in use. The 
following are the most widely known of his works composed for the 
guitar alone, and for the guitar in combination with other instru- 
ments ; but he wrote numerous other smaller pieces published 



Larghetto, from Grand Duo for Piano and Guitar, Op. 53. 



J. N. HUMMEL. 

GDITARRE. 



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160 MANDOLIN AND GUITAR. 

principally in Vienna, Stuttgart, and St. Petersburg during his 
residence there. Hummel is the author of a Sonata for mandolin 
and piano, the autograph manuscript of which is preserved in the 
Musikfreund Museum, Vienna; Six dances for tico guitars, 
published by Richault, Paris; Waltz for violin or flute and guitar, 
Spehr, Brunswick ; Op. 7, for guitar with other instruments ; 
Op. 43, National potpourri, grand duo for piano and guitar, 
written in conjunction with Giuliani; Op. 53, Grand duo for piano 
and guitar, Artaria, Vienna, and of which the guitar part from 
the Larghetto is reproduced on the preceding page. 

Op. 62, Grand serenade in C major, for piano, guitar, clarionet 
and 'cello ; Op. 63 and Op. 66, Grand serenades, for piano, guitar, 
violin, flute and 'cello, all published by Artaria, Vienna; Op. 93, 
Grand duo for piano and guitar ; Op. 79, Grand potpourri for 
guitar and 'piano, this duo was also written in conjunction with 
Giuliani ; Op. 91, Six waltzes and trios for flute or violin and 
guitar, also arranged by the author as a Duo for two guitars, 
Haslinger, Vienna. Hummel wrote the orchestral parts to 
Giuliani's Third concerto for guitar and orchestra, and among 
many other vocal compositions with guitar accompaniment, we find 
Op. 71, La Sentinelle, a vocal solo with variations and chorus, in 
D, with accompaniments of piano, guitar, violin and 'cello, Peters, 
Leipzig; Der Ausar Boheniisches, song with piano and guitar, 
Cranz, Hamburg, and Eck & Co., Cologne ; Six romances of 
Florian, with guitar accompaniments, Gerstenberg, St. Petersburg, 
and Songs of Rosseau, with guitar, piano, flute and 'cello, Vienna. 

Hiinten, Franz, born December 26, 1793, at Coblentz, where his 
father Daniel was organist, died February 22, 1S78, in his native 
city. He came of a musical family, his two brothers Peter and 
William being also musicians of repute. Hiinten received his first 
musical education from his father, studying the piano and guitar, 
the latter instrument being a favourite with the family, and in 1819 
he entered the Paris Conservatoire of Music, receiving instruction 
on the piano from Pradher, and composition from Reicha and 
Cherubini. He lived by teaching and arranging music for the 
piano and guitar, and in his best days his lessons and compositions 
commanded high prices, although the latter, with the exception of 
a trio concertante for piano, violin and 'cello were of little value. 
His Methode nouvelle pour le piano, which was published by Schott, 
had at one time a good reputation, and was issued in several languages. 
In 1837 he retired to Coblentz, in-which city he died. Franz Hunten 
is the author of many works for the guitar of which the following 
are the most popular : Variations for guitar solo, dedicated to his 
brother Wilhelm, published by Simrock, Bonn ; Three waltzes for 
flute and guitar ; Variations for guitar solo, Schott, Mayence, 
and also songs with guitar accompaniment, one of which was 
entitled Mathilde. Grove speaks of him as " an educational com- 











JOHANN NEPOMUK HUMMEL. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 16l 

poser of some merit, who wrote about two hundred pieces, easy and 
moderately difficult." Several of his pieces are widely known, while 
his studies for piano, Op. 158 are exceedingly useful and agreeable. 
Hiinten, Peter Ernest, the younger brother of the foregoing was 
born July 9, 1799, at Coblentz, and was living as late as 1878. Like 
his brother he was also a pianist, guitarist, and composer, and 
settled in Duisburg as a teacher of his instruments. He was a 
prolific composer for the guitar and was the best guitarist of the 
family. The following are his principal published works for the 
guitar : Op. 7, Variations for solo guitar ; Op. 8, 21, 24, 25 and 
26, consist of Serenades, Rondos and Variations for violin or 
flute and guitar ; Op. 13, 14 and 48, Brilliant variations for two 
guitars; Op. 18, 20, 22, 23, 28, Trios for violin, alto and guitar, 
or flute, violin and guitar; and Op. 45, Twenty-four waltzes and 
exercises for solo guitar. Hiinten also published many works for 
the guitar without opus numbers, consisting of solos for guitar, 
duos for two guitars, and trios including the guitar. The above- 
mentioned compositions were published by Schott, Mayence, 
Andre, Offenbach, and Arnold, Elberfield, and Andre also published 
Hunten's pianos solos, Op. 55 and 57. 

I ANON, Charles De, a guitarist of great repute who lived in 
North America. He was born in Cartagena, Columbia, South 
America, in 1834, and died March, 1911, in New York. Charles 
De Janon was the youngest of a family of ten children whose 
parents quitted South America in 1840 and settled in New York, 
and while quite a child he displayed extraordinary musical ability, 
and at ten years of age was given his first musical instruction by a 
local teacher. De Janon commenced with the violin and piano, and 
upon both he made rapid progress; but when fate chanced to place 
a guitar in his hands his first instruments were immediately placed 
aside, and he devoted himself henceforth solely to the guitar. This 
instrument seemed to exercise a powerful charm over the young 
artist, for commencing its serious study in the year 1843 he 
continued it assiduously throughout life. As a guitarist De Janon 
was entirely self-taught, and the only book of instruction available 
was that of Ferdinand Lois, for when he took up the study of this 
instrument there were no professional guitar teachers in America, 
and he was compelled to rely upon his own resources; but by his 
natural musical ability, perseverance and enthusiasm in his study, 
he obtained a most thorough mastery of the instrument, and is 
ranked among its most accomplished performers. 

De Janon was a versatile and musicianly arranger for the guitar 
and his transcriptions embrace nearly every variety of composition. 
They display a certain charm and taste and are familiar to all 
performers through America, and also in a lesser degree in Europe, 
being among the best and most popular of any publications for 
the guitar ever issued in America. De Janon devoted himself 



162 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

continuously to the elevation of the standard of guitar playing in 
America, and was highly respected by the musical world. He is 
the author of various guitar solos, the most successful are Valse 
Poetiqite, Serenade, a spirited Polonaise, and also numerous trans- 
criptions of which the following are worthy of more than a passing 
notice: CJiopin nocturnes, Op. 9, No. 2; the Grand March, and 
Evening star from ' Tannhauser,' and Kathleen Mavourneen. De 
Janon revised an edition of the guitar method of Carcassi, this 
being considered by American guitarists the best edition of that 
famous instruction book, and it contains in addition to Carcassi's 
studies many others by Carulli, Sor, and Giuliani. His compositions 
to the number of nearly a hundred were published principally in 
New York and Boston, and they consist of original works and 
transcriptions of popular and classic items, and all are characterized 
by their musicianly arrangement. The chief publishers were Oliver 
Ditson, Boston ; B. F. Harris and Frederick Blume, New York. 

Jansa, Leopold, born Wildenschwert, Bohemia, in 1794, died 
January 25, 1875, in Vienna. Jansa is renowned as a celebrated 
violinist, and it is not generally known that, like Paganini, he was a 
skilful performer on the guitar. He studied this instrument with 
the violin and flute from childhood and it was not his parents' 
desire that he should join the musical profession, for in 1817 he 
entered the University of Vienna to study law. Shortly after his 
admission he neglected his legal studies for music, and after 
devoting himself solely to the violin for a few years, he made his 
first public appearance as a soloist in Vienna. In 1824 he became 
a member of the Royal Orchestra, and in 1834 was appointed 
musical director in the university of his native city. Five years 
later, he made a visit to London, where he assisted at a concert in 
aid of the Hungarian refugees, and for this offence was dismissed 
from the Royal Orchestra of Vienna. Jansa then settled in London 
where he was held in the greatest esteem as a teacher, but some 
years later he returned to his native land, and his last public 
appearance was made in Vienna in 1871, when he was seventy- 
seven years of age. Jansa's duets are classical studies which are 
valued by teachers, and to him is due the credit of being the 
teacher of one of the foremost, if not the foremost lady violinist, 
Madam Neruda. Jansa's compositions are mainly for the violin, 
although he is the author of several with guitar accompaniment, for 
his first works were principally airs with variations for flute and 
guitar. Op. 2, Theme with variations from ' Zehnira' for flute 
and guitar, published by Mecchetti, Vienna ; Op. 25, Three brilliant 
variations for flute and guitar, No. 1, 'Othello,' No. 2, English air, 
No. 3, ' Gazza Ladra,' Richault, Paris. 

Joly, a French guitarist and violinist who lived in Paris during 
the latter half of the eighteenth century, and established a music 
publishing business in that city, and died in Paris in 1819. In the 




CHARLES DE JANON. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 163 

year 1790 he was in the orchestra of the Theatre Montansier, and 
afterwards was engaged in that of the Jeunes Artistes, Paris. He 
is the author of numerous pieces for guitar solo consisting of 
sonatas, airs with variations, etc., and also of violin and guitar 
duets. Joly wrote two methods for the guitar, one entitled Joly's 
great tutor for the guitar, appeared in 1793. Most of the fore- 
going works were published in Paris by their author. His best 
known compositions are a Sonata/or guitar and Fleuve du Tage, 
air with variations for flute and guitar, both being published by 
Richault, Paris. 

J^APELLER, Johann Nepomuk, or as sometimes printed Capeller, 
was a German guitarist and flautist, who is known by his 
surviving compositions. He was the author of a Quartet for two 
flutes, violin and guitar, published by Schott, Mayence ; Twelve 
trios for flute, alto and guitar; Quartet for two flutes, guitar 
and violoncello, Breitkopf & H artel, Leipzig, with many other 
compositions for violin and bass, and there is a Serenade for flute, 
alto and guitar under the name of Capeller, published by Schott, 
Mayence. 

Keller, Karl, born October 16, 1784, at Dessau, and died July 19, 
1855, at Schaffhausen, Switzerland. He was an excellent flautist 
and a guitarist, who was engaged as court musician in Berlin 
until the year 1806. In 1814 he removed to Cassel where he was 
employed in a similar position for two years, when he undertook a 
concert tour as flautist. He was appointed court musician at 
Donaueschingen in 1817, where his wife (Wilhelmine Meierhofer) 
had been engaged as opera singer, and after a time Keller was 
promoted to capellmeister. He received his pension in 1849 and 
then removed to Schaffhausen. Keller's compositions, principally 
for the flute, consist of concertos for this instrument with orchestral 
accompaniment, duos, variations, etc., and he also wrote several 
works which include the guitar, the principal of which are Op. 14, 
Grand variations for flute and orcJiestra, or for flute, violin, 
guitar and viola ; Op. 30, Serenade for violin, violoncello, viola 
and guitar, both published by Andre, Offenbach. Several of Keller's 
vocal compositions attained great popularity, the most renowned 
being: Kennst du der Liebe Sehnen ? ; Helft, Leutc/ieu inir voiu 
W agendoch ; Sehnsucht nach der Heimath ; Der Guck Kasten, 
and Kommt Briider, all of which were published with guitar 
accompaniments by Schott, Mayence. Breitkopf and Hartel also 
published Op. 38, Eight songs witii guitar accompaniments, and 
Simrock, Bonn, Op. 36, Eight songs with guitar accompaniments, 
while various separate vocal items with guitar by Keller were 
published by Aibl of Vienna. 

Klage, Charles, a German guitarist, pianist, and composer who 
was living in Berlin in 1814, and died there, October, 1850. lie 



164 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

has published in all about fifty compositions, which appeared in his 
native land. In the year 1838, Klage made a concert tour through 
Germany, which terminated in Dresden, and here he published 
Op. 36 and 37; but he eventually returned to Berlin, where he was 
held in esteem as a teacher of his instruments. Among his 
compositions we find Op. 2, Variations for guitar solo, published 
by Haslinger, Vienna while numerous piano compositions were 
issued by the same publishers, and many smaller pieces for the 
guitar appeared elsewhere in Germany. 

Klier, Josef, a son of the musician, Augustin Klier, was born 
April 24, 1760, in Stadt Kemnath, and he and his brother Andre 
were taught the guitar and rudiments of music by their father, and 
later the lads were placed in the Seminary of Amberg. In 1777, 
Josef entered the Monastery of Weissenhoe, and after studying 
philosophy and theology in the University of Ingolstadt, was 
appointed a professor there. He returned to the monastery, 
however, was ordained June 24, 1783, and for many years was 
director of music in this institution. After the suppression of the 
monasteries, he lived at Neumark; but in the month of August we 
find him Abbott of Wondrech. Klier was celebrated for the rich 
quality of his voice, and also as a remarkable performer on the 
guitar and violin, and he was author of many trios for flute, 
violin and guitar, which were published by Bcehm, Augsburg. 

Klingenbrunner, Wilhelm, born in Vienna, October 27, 1782, 
studied the guitar and flute under various teachers in this city, 
and made a modest name in the musical world as a composer for 
these two instruments. He was a government official who was the 
author of several duos for flute and guitar, and horn and guitar, 
which were published by Artaria and also Haslinger, Vienna. 

Knize, Franz Max, born in Prague towards the close of the 
eighteenth century, was a Bohemian guitarist of repute and a 
prolific composer for the instrument, who resided in Prague, and 
there taught the guitar and published his music. He is the author 
of lwo methods for the guitar, one being published by Kronberger, 
and Weber of Prague, and the other a Complete method in txvo 
parts, was issued in the same city by Enders. As a song writer, 
Knize made a name in the musical world for particularly pleasing 
was his ballad Bretislav a Jitka, which became nearly national 
in its popularity. All his songs were Avritten with guitar accom- 
paniment and they enjoyed great success. His compositions for 
the guitar, consist chiefly of divertisements, variations, national 
dances, etc. Op. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 15, 16, 19 and 20, were 
guitar solos, issued by various firms in Prague, principally Berra, 
and Hoffmann, and also Simrock, Bonn. Op. 12 is a collection of 
songs, poetry by Theodor Korner, and Op. 17, another collection, 
poems by various authors. Op. 18 and 21 were songs published in 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 165 

the Cheskian language, and all these were written with guitar 
accompaniment, and in addition, Knize published numerous vocal 
operatic arrangements with the same accompaniment. 

Kohler, Henry, a German musician, born July 6, 1765 in Dresden, 
and died there January 29, 1833. When a child his parents 
removed to Bautzen, and here he received his first musical 
instruction on the flute. After obtaining proficiency on this 
instrument he studied the guitar and piano also, and upon attaining 
manhood returned to his native city and established himself as a 
teacher of these instruments. In 1794 he entered the Royal 
orchestra as first flautist, but after four years in that service 
resigned. Kohler was an able performer upon both the guitar and 
flute, he appeared successfully as a soloist upon these instruments 
and wrote numerous compositions for the violin and piano in 
addition to his chosen instruments, and also several collections of 
songs with guitar accompaniment. His published compositions 
number about two hundred works. Op. 35, Six songs with guitar 
accompaniment, published by Simrock, Bonn; Op. 80, Sonata for 
guitar and piano, Hofmeister, Leipzig; Op. 114, Duo for flute 
and guitar, Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig, and Op. 149, Serenade 
facile for piano and guitar, Schott, Mayence. 

Korner, Theodor, born in Dresden, 1791, died in 1813, a most 
celebrated German poet, renowned as " freedom's poet and hero," 
the author of Lyre and Sxvord, and many other poems exceedingly 
popular with his countrymen. He was an excellent performer on 
the guitar and wrote many songs for this instrument. In early youth, 
his health being delicate, he was not sent to a public school but was 
educated by his father and private tutors, and his home life was in 
itself a musical education. His mother played the guitar, for on 
January 27, 1797, Dr. Korner wrote to the poet Schiller: " One more 
request to you from Minna. In Jena there is at the present time a 
certain instrument maker named Otto who makes Spanish cithers 
or guitars, and who for some time lived in Gotha. From him my 
wife wishes to purchase a guitar at once. Be so kind as to buy or 
order one and have it packed by the maker," February 7, Schiller 
replied : " The instrument maker Otto, of whom you wrote, we could 
not find for a long time, as they would not allow him to settle down 
in this town. At length he arrived here once again and asked 
Griesbach for the patronage and protection of the university. On 
this occasion I found him and ordered the guitar ; but he does not 
make them for less than ten thalers (about thirty shillings). He said 
that he sent two guitars at the same price to Naumann and Bruhl, 
and he promises to send yours in about a fortnight." Otto did not 
fulfil this promise, and the ensuing correspondence displays Dr. 
Korner's impatience at not receiving the guitar, but on April 28 he 
wrote : " The guitar has arrived and possesses a beautiful tone." 
From his father, Theodor received his first music lessons, and in 



166 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

a letter to Forster dated September 5, 1803, when his son was twelve 
years of age, he writes : " Soon I shall have many musical treats in 
my house — my children possess good voices and I have placed them 
under a music teacher here." At a very early age Theodor showed 
a liking for his mother's guitar, for the notes of his father made in 
1814 state: " In a high degree I perceived in him a decided gift for 
music. On the violin he promised to do well, when he developed a 
passion for the guitar, and his songs with the guitar, rendered with 
great musical taste and feeling, give much pleasure." Theodor, 
his sister Emma, and Julie Kunze were all endowed musically, and 
the father formed a musical circle which met in his house weekly 
under his direction, and musicians of renown took a practical 
part in these gatherings, for instance Capellmeister Paer, and even 
Mozart was a participant, and it has been stated that it was in Dr. 
Korner's house that he first made known his sketch of Don Giovanni. 
On January 27, 1805, Dr. Korner wrote to Schiller: " In our home 
we have much music and perform instrumental quartets with great 
enthusiasm. These practices we hold weekly and we may even 
have to obtain a larger hall." When sixteen years of age and on 
Easter, 1807, Theodor entered the School of Mines at Freiberg, 
Saxony, and here the guitar was his regular companion. It was 
admirably suited for his new surroundings for even to-day the guitar 
is to be seen in every miner's house. In his miner's dress with his 
guitar slung over his shoulders Korner would roam over the mountain 
sides, fancying himself back in the days of the troubadours, and 
throughout life he manifested his love for this instrument. His 
guitar was always by his side when in the social company of his 
friends, and one of these, Forster, states that Korner as a student 
possessed the gift to compose and sing poems and melodies to which 
his jolly companions joined in the chorus. 

In contrast to this quiet life at Freiberg, stands the wild students 
life at Leipzig University, which he entered October, 1810; but 
owing to his participation in the violent conflicts between the 
students, was forced to leave the following Easter. Even during 
these reckless months he did not neglect his guitar, for his friend 
Forster wrote : " I sat with him and other jolly companions in 
Auerbach's cellar, where by the side of the pearls from the Rhine 
and the blood from Burgundy, we became as happy as the cele- 
brated five hundred in the cell, out of which Faust rode away on a 
wine barrel. Under the oaks of Rosenthal, Theodor sung to me 
his gentle love songs, and I was by his side in the fateful scuffle 
when he was compelled to quit Leipzig, and he always had in me 
a sweetheart to whom he sung his poems accompanied by his 
guitar." After various vicissitudes Korner arrived in Vienna 
during the autumn of 1811 and here he experienced a brief happiness 
and artistic activity. By his poetry and numerous recommendations 
the best circles of Vienna were open to him, and by his amiable 
nature he won the affection of all, particularly the ladies. In Vienna 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



167 



his two plays The bride and The green domino met with success, 
and he produced two tragedies, one of which had for its subject the 
story of the English Fair Rosamund, and he was appointed Imperial 
Royal poet. The height of his happiness was his engagement with 
the actress Antonia Adamberger; but it was of short duration, for in 
1813 during the French invasion, Korner enlisted in the celebrated 
volunteer corps of Major Lutzow, to resist the French, and the 
young poet was severely wounded in the battle of Kitzen. In a 
subsequent engagement he was mortally shot on the road between 
Gadebusch and Schwerin and buried under an oak tree, on the trunk 
of which his comrades carved his name. 



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The last letters of the poet prove his love for the guitar, for on 
June 13, 1812, he writes: "The nights are now beautiful and so I 
always take my guitar and ramble through the neighbouring villages. 
A chestnut wood provides the necessary coolness, and my guitar 
which hangs on the nearest tree behind, occupies me in the moments 
I am resting." When he celebrated his twenty-first birthday, which 
proved to be his last, September 23, 1812, his father sent him a 
guitar and his sweetheart a worked guitar ribbon. The family guitar, 
the instrument that Otto made for his mother, is preserved among 
many other relics of the poet in the Korner Museum, Dresden. 
This instrument was given to Theodor by his father, but it was not 
the one taken to Freiberg, for this remained as the family instrument 
in Dresden, and after the death of his mother in 1843 came into the 
possession of her adopted son Captain Ulbrich. This instrument is 
rather small, of very plain neat construction, and the unvarnished 



168 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

table appears to be ordinary cedar wood. It bears inside the name 
of its maker, Otto, and the date 1797, and on the table below the 
bridge and nearly faded is the inscription "C. Th. Korner" in his 
handwriting. The guitar which the poet played in Freiberg has not 
been traced, but the instrument he played in Vienna, and which was 
sent to him as a birthday present by his father, is said to be in the 
possession of the publisher Rudolf Brockhaus, Leipzig. Korner 
also possessed a Spanish lute which came into the family through 
W. von Humboldt who purchased it during his travels. This instru- 
ment with his guitar is preserved in the same museum with a few 
of his songs written for the guitar, and also a touching remembrance 
of his student days — a manuscript volume of songs with guitar 
composed while at Freiberg and dedicated to Johanna Biedermann, 
a clergyman's daughter. Korner's excellent guitar playing has been 
universally acknowledged and among his musical compositions are 
"Fifteen variations for flute and guitar, and original and other 
songs with guitar accompaniment, several of which were published 
by the I. L. G. of Germany, and a copy of one from the Korner 
Museum entitled Resignation is reproduced on the page preceding. 

Kraus, a German musician engaged in the Court orchestra of 
Bernbourg during the end of the eighteenth century, who was a 
violinist and guitarist, and has left Op. 1, Sonata for guitar and 
violin; Op. 2, Sonata for guitar solo, and An die Naedc/ien, a 
polonaise with guitar accompaniment, all of which were published 
by Peters, Leipzig. 

Krebs, Franz Xaver, born in Eichstadt, Bavaria, in 1765, and 
living in 1812, was a German vocalist, guitarist and composer of 
repute who appeared as tenor singer successfully in the theatre of 
his native town in 1787, and was then engaged in a like capacity in 
the Hof theatre, Stuttgart, in April, 1795. Krebs is the author of 
numerous vocal compositions with guitar accompaniment and also 
duos for two guitars. Op. 8, Waltzes and polonaises for two 
guitars ; Op. 9, Six dances for two guitars ; Op. 10 and 11, Songs 
with guitar accompaniment ; Empfindungcn bcym for solo voice 
and four part chorus with guitar, composed in 1812; Six duets for 
two voices with two guitars ; Das Mddchen, for soprano and tenor 
with two guitars, both published by Peters, Leipzig; Berg it Thai 
for voice and guitar, and Lucas u Hannchen for soprano and tenor 
with two guitars, Schott, Mayence. There remains in manuscript 
a Phantasy for soprano with guitar by Krebs. 

Kreutzer, Conradin, born November 22, 1780, at Mosskirch, in 
Baden, died Riga, Russia, December 14, 1849, was a German 
operatic composer of renown. The son of a miller, Kreutzer as a 
boy was a chorister in his native town, then at the Abbey of the 
Zwiefalten, and later at Scheussenried. During this time he learned 
the guitar as a pastime, and in 1799 he went to Freiberg to study 




v^ 



&*v- / l^rr-tu^Y 



L 



THEODOR KORNER. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 169 

medicine which he soon abandoned for music. The next five years 
he passed principally in Switzerland as a pianist, vocalist, and 
composer, and in 1804 he visited Vienna, where he studied 
energetically under Albrechtsberger with the object of writing for 
the stage. His first opera Conradin von Schxcaben, produced at 
Stuttgart in 1812, gained for him the post of Capellmeister to the 
King of Wurtemburg ; but in 1822 he returned to Vienna and 
produced his opera Libussa. Until 1840 he was acting as 
conductor at various theatres, and it was during this period, in 
1834, that he produced his two best operas in the Josephstadt 
Theatre, these being entitled Das Nachtlager in Granada and 
Der Verschwender, the latter a fairy play. After these successes 
he was musical director in Cologne, and from this city he went to 
Paris, but in 1846 returned to Vienna. He died in Riga where he 
had accompanied his daughter, a vocalist, upon a concert tour. 
Kreutzer composed many operas, and in several he scores for the 
guitar for he was a thorough master of this instrument. He also 
published among his numerous compositions two duos for piano and 
guitar; one of these Polonaise, Op. 10, was issued by Weigl, 
Vienna, and several of his songs with guitar accompaniment were 
published by Schott, Mayence. 

Kreutzer, Joseph, a German musician, a guitarist and instrumental 
composer, who was living during the early part of the nineteenth 
century, and made a name in his native land as a writer of 
guitar solos and compositions for concerted instruments. His 
published works number nearly fifty items, the first half of which 
were issued by Simrock, Bonn. Op. 9, Four trios for flute, violin 
and guitar ; Op. 16, Grand trio for guitar, flute and clarionet ; 
Op. 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, Variations for guitar ; Op. 17, Twelve 
pieces for guitar; Op. 23, Three rondos for guitar, and many 
similar compositions without opus numbers, also other instrumental 
quartets and quintets. Kreutzer's Op. 12, Six variations for guitar 
on ' God save the King,' enjoyed an amount of popularity in England 
and was issued by Ewer & Co., London. 

Krumpholz, Wenzel, born at Zlonitz, near Prague, in 1750, and 
died in Vienna, May 2, 1817, was the son of a bandmaster in a 
French regiment who lived in Paris during childhood, learning 
music from his father. His brother, Johann Baptist, was also a 
musician, a celebrated harpist and composer. Wenzel Krumpholz 
studied the mandolin at an early age and became one of the most 
renowned performers on this instrument. At a later date he adopted 
the violin also, for in 1796 he was one of the first violins in the 
orchestra of the Court Opera, Vienna. His name is immortalized 
by his intimacy with Beethoven, who was exceedingly fond of 
Krumpholz, though he used to call him in joke " mein Narr " (my 
fool). According to Ries he gave Beethoven some instruction on 
the violin when in Vienna and it is most probable he gave instruction 



170 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

on the mandolin also. Krumpholz was one of the first to recognise 
Beethoven's genius, and he inspired others with his own enthusiasm. 
Czerny mentions this in his autobiography, and states that he it was 
who introduced him to Beethoven. Krumpholz frequently played 
the mandolin to Beethoven, and Artaria in his Aittographische 
Skizze states that he intended writing a sonata for mandolin and 
pianoforte for Krumpholz (see Beethoven). It is thought that this 
composition is the one sketched in Beethoven's note book, which is 
preserved (No. 29,801) in the manuscript department of the British 
Museum, and it was first made public by Breitkopf and Hartel, 
Leipzig. Beethoven evidently was deeply moved by the death 
of his friend, for on the following day he composed the Gesaug 
der Monche from Schiller's William Tell, for three men's voices — 
" in commemoration of the sudden and unexpected death of our 
Krumpholz." Only two of Krumpholz's compositions were printed. 

Kucharz, Johann Baptist, or Kuchorz, was a Hungarian musician 
of repute, born at Chortecz, near Mlazowicz, Bohemia, March 5, 
1751, and died in Prague, February, 18, 1829. He obtained 
celebrity in the musical world as organist, mandolinist and operatic 
conductor. Kucharz received his first musical instruction in the 
Jesuit Seminary of Koniggratz, Bohemia, and at a later date 
continued his musical studies in the Jesuit Seminary of Gitschin, 
and when he removed to Prague some years later pursued the study 
of the organ and composition under the well-known teacher Seegert. 
In September, 1790 he was appointed organist of St. Heinrichskirche, 
upon the decease of Jean Wolf ; and now Kucharz was busily 
engaged teaching the organ, mandolin, and theory of music. During 
this period he was organist also of the Monastery of Strahow, and 
his reputation soon spread, for in 1791 he was appointed conductor 
of the opera, Prague, and he officiated there for many years, during 
which time several of his own works met with success. It was 
while he was conductor of the Prague opera that he first met and 
became intimately associated with Mozart. He was a friend of the 
great composer during his residence in Prague, and at the first 
performance of Don Giovanni, October 29, 1787, Kucharz played 
the mandolin in the orchestra, accompanying the serenade Deli 
Vieni, while Mozart conducted. Kucharz was a consummate artist 
on the mandolin and an esteemed teacher whose pupils numbered 
many of the most aristocratic members of society, and he remained 
conductor of the opera until 1800 when he resigned. Among his 
compositions are organ concertos, piano sonatas, and various sonatas 
and other pieces for the mandolin. 

Kuffner, Joseph, born in Wurzburg, March 31, 1776, and died 
there September 8, 1856, was the son of Wilhelm Kuffner, a 
musician of repute who was a native of Kalmiinz, near Regensburg, 
and whose family for three generations had been musicians. 
Wilhelm Kuffner had made extensive tours as an artist, visiting all 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 171 

the important cities of western Europe, and eventually settled in 
Wurzburg. When he was scarcely eleven years of age Joseph lost 
his mother, and his father intending him to pursue a scientific and 
literary career, placed him in a school of his native town where he 
accomplished his studies in a highly creditable manner, and then 
continued his education by a course at the university. During his 
childhood he had received elementary instruction in the rudiments 
of music from his father, and had at an early period obtained 
proficiency on the guitar and violin. In 1793 he terminated his 
scholastic studies and was articled to a lawyer, but during his leisure 
he continued his study of the guitar and also took lessons on the 
violin from the concert director, Ludwig Schmidt. Kuffher made 
phenomenal progress, for in the following year, 1794-95, he was 
taking part as solo violinist in the winter concerts, performing the 
violin concertos of Viotti and Mestrino. Shortly after this date 
Kuffher completed his law course, was duly qualified, and entered 
an office intending to make his debut ; but in 1797 he was offered a 
position by the Bishop as supernumerary musician of the chapel at 
an annual salary of one hundred and twenty-five gulden, and the 
promise of the Bishop to secure a more lucrative position under 
the administration for him. 

By the death of his father Kuffner's circumstances were materially 
affected and he was necessitated to give lessons in Latin and on the 
violin and guitar, in addition to his ordinary employment, and the 
little time left at his disposal he utilized to the greatest extent by 
practising to more perfect himself on these two instruments. The 
desire to write music also occupied his attention ; but he was 
unacquainted with the principals of harmony, his musical studies up 
to the present had been devoted solely to the practical side of the 
art. A musical friend, however, offered him the loan of of Knecht's 
book on harmony and composition, which he gladly accepted, 
reading and studying it with avidity. Kuffner then tried his hand 
at composing light pieces in four parts, and receiving some 
encouragement from his musical associates, he resolved to continue 
his education in this direction. He placed himself under Frolich, 
and in a short time commenced to make himself known by small 
compositions for the harpsichord, the flute and guitar. When 
Wurzburg and its territory passed under the rule of Bavaria all 
Kuffner's prospects of a more lucrative position in the chapel or 
under the administration were banished, and he therefore accepted 
service as bandmaster in a Bavarian regiment, his productive activity 
in this sphere being the means of his composing numerous pieces 
for military band. For several years Kuffner had no occupation 
but his military duties as bandmaster ; but he was constantly 
employed in writing studies and music for the guitar, and other 
compositions for strings in combination with the guitar, in addition 
to military productions. His success in this department brought his 
name prominently before the musical public, and when Wurzburg 



172 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

fell to the Archduke Ferdinand, this prince, who was a talented 
musician, appointed Kuffner, in 1801, chamber and court musician, 
with a salary of four hundred florins, and the Archduke also added 
the position of chief superintendent of military music with an 
additional increment of three hundred florins. The financial position 
of Kuffner was now more satisfactory than it had ever been, and in 
1801 he married. From this time on, fortune seemed to favour and 
smile on him, and his compositions were accepted by the principal 
European music publishers and day by day his reputation became 
greater. Kuffner's first compositions published under his opus 
number — serenades for the guitar, flute or violin and alto — were on 
the models and after the style of the then exceedingly popular com- 
positions for these instruments by the guitarist, Leonard de Call. 

In 1811 the renowned music publisher, Andre, Offenbach, 
commenced to issue Kuffner's serenades and that year he published 
nine of these compositions, in addition to many works for military 
band. These publications obtained for Kuffner a brilliant reputation, 
and then Schott, of Mayence, commenced the publication of his 
serenades for guitar, violin and alto with Op. 10, and this firm alone 
issued nearly seven hundred of Kuffner's musical works. These 
embrace nearly every form of musical composition, and they were 
included in the repertoire of the majority of the musical societies of 
northern Europe. During this period Kuffner was intimate with 
Beethoven, for in the spring of 1813 he wrote a triumphal march for 
Tarpeia, or Hersilia, a tragedy by Kuffner which was advertised as 
newly composed, March 26, 1813. Brilliant offers were now 
showered upon Kuffner to induce him to settle in various cities, but 
he prefered to remain court musician and lead a quiet life among his 
friends. In the year 1814 the grand duchy of Wurzburg was newly 
reunited to Bavaria and Kuffner was placed on the pension list, as 
were all the musicians of the Royal Chapel ; but this event, which 
formerly would have carried trouble by its existence, did not now 
cause inconvenience, as Kuffner's compositions were eagerly sought 
for by the publishers, and this alone placed him in a position of 
independence. In 1825 he visited Paris and while in this city wrote 
several pieces for the guitar which were published by Leduc, and 
Lemoine, and when he visited Belgium in 1829 the important 
musical societies honoured him with a public reception and demon- 
stration, and he was the recipient of numerous honorary diplomas 
from musical institutions. In the month of August, 1830, he 
presided over a grand contest of twenty-nine musical societies 
organised in Brussels, when he was again accorded an ovation. 
In 1833 the musical society of Wurzburg presented him with his 
portrait painted by Gustave Wappera, and an engraving from this 
portrait by H. Schalck is here reproduced. 

The year 1837 saw the publication of his first and second 
symphonies, Op. 75 and 76, issued by Schott, and very shortly after, 
the third appeared published by Andre, Offenbach. During this 




/T\ 



(jftifyolp rO'Jfw^ 



JOSEPH KUFFNER. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 173 

time Kuffher was soaring high in the musical world and his fertility 
was in no way diminished. He made arrangements of all the 
modern operas, for military band, for piano solo, for violin, flute, 
alto and guitar, guitar solo, and various other instruments, and also 
composed a multitude of original works of various characters. 
Kuffher 's published compositions with opus numbers exceed three 
hundred and fifty items and in addition to these there appeared a 
still greater quantity without numbers, and at his death he left 
more than sixty manuscripts of unpublished works. At the time 
when musical societies were to be found in every city and town of 
Germany, and more particularly of Belgium, Kuffner's compositions 
alone, were the works performed and upon which these institutions 
prospered and flourished. With such societies, Kuffner's name 
eclipsed all others in the musical world and his reputation was 
exceedingly great. His instrumental music was characterized by 
brilliancy and ease of execution, two of the most important factors 
essential to the popularity of compositions. 

Kuffner died in his native town of Wurzburg, where he had 
resided with scarcely an intermission during the whole of his life, 
on September 8, 1856, at the advanced age of eighty years and 
several months. In reviewing the musical compositions of Kuffner 
we must at the outset remark that, although exceedingly popular in 
their time, the majority are now numbered among the forgotten. 
As a composer Kuffner wrote much for the guitar ; he was, in fact, 
a prolific writer for all instruments, but the guitar and violin were 
his first and favourites, and all his early compositions were written 
for these, their success being phenomenal. Kuffner appears to 
have published no method for the guitar, although he penned many 
valuable studies, scales, and exercises for the use of beginners and 
he also wrote several lessons for beginners in the form of duets for 
two guitars. The former works are Op. 80, Twenty-five sonatas 
for beginners ; Op. 87, Twelve easy duos for two guitars, and 
Op. 168, Sixty easy duos for two guitars. Kuffner published 
more than thirty popular serenades for violin or flute, alto and 
guitar, and it was these which gave him prominence in the musical 
world at the very commencement of his career. He also arranged 
for guitar solo more than a hundred different operatic selections, 
principally moderately easy transcriptions, not intended for guitar 
virtuosi as the compositions of Regondi, but popular transcriptions 
whose chief worth is in their simple, musicianly arrangement, 
enhancing their value to the student of the instrument. 

Kuffner made use of the guitar in numerous compositions as a 
solo instrument, in duos with the piano, the violin, 'cello, clarionet 
and horn, and as a vocal accompaniment, and also in trio, quartet 
and quintet with the above and other instruments, and in all 
instances he displays the guitar to advantage, which can only be 
accomplished by a practical and thorough master of the instrument. 
The majority of these were published by Schott, Mayence, and 



174 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Richault, Paris, and he is the author also of about thirty original 
vocal compositions, in every instance the accompaniment is for the 
guitar, and he wrote guitar accompaniments to innumerable 
popular and favourite airs which appeared in England and Germany. 
His publications also include methods of instruction for the oboe, 
the clarionet, the bassoon and the cornet, and in conjunction with 
Schad he has written several volumes of progressive exercises for 
the piano. Seven of his symphonies for grand orchestra are 
published by Schott, and Fifty methodical studies for the clarionet 
with English, German, FVench and Spanish text, many overtures, 
entr'actes, etc., for orchestra and military band, by Andre. Kuffner 
also wrote several operas, the chief of which were Der Cornet, 
Jean of Wieselbourg, Sporn und Scharpe, and Tarpeia, or 
Hersilia, the tragedy for which Beethoven wrote a triumphal march 
— all published by Schott. The above-mentioned do not exhaust 
the list or variety of his published musical productions — they are a 
host as diversified as numerous. 

Kuhnel, Frederic, a German guitar virtuoso, who was born in 
1820 in Austria, and died in Russia in 1878. Little is known of 
his career beyond the fact that he travelled through Europe as a 
guitar soloist, and during the year 1841 was performing in Prague 
and Vienna where he received great praise. At a later period he 
made a protracted tour through Germany and Russia, and 
eventually settled in the latter country as a teacher and performer, 
residing there till his death. 

Kummer, Gaspard, born December 10, 1795, at Erlau, near 
Scheusingen, Hungary, and died May 21, 1870. He is celebrated 
as a composer for the flute and guitar, and an orchestral writer. 
Young Kummer received lessons upon the guitar and flute from a 
musician of his native town whose name was Neumeister, and after 
obtaining proficiency upon both these instruments, continued his 
musical education in harmony and composition under a vocalist 
named Staps. In 1831 he was appointed solo flautist in the 
Royal Chapel of Coburg, and the year following was promoted to 
the musical directorship. Kummer was particularly successful as 
a writer for wind instruments — the oboe, flute, clarionet and 
bassoon — and was commissioned to compose pieces expressly 
for the trombone virtuoso Carl Queisser, these being frequently 
performed at the Gewandhaus Concerts of Leipzig, and Grove states 
that the reports of his public appearances rarely mention him 
without some term of pride or endearment. Kummer was held in 
high repute on the continent as a teacher also, for Friedrich . Kiel 
was sent to Coburg by the reigning prince to study under Kummer. 
He was a prolific composer, more than one hundred and sixty of his 
works have been published, in addition to numerous collections and 
albums, and they consist of flute concertos with orchestra, orchestral 
items, duos, quartets and quintets which include the guitar and a few 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 175 

songs. Duos for flute and guitar, Op. 5, 18, 28, 34, 38, 40, 55, 56, 
63 ; Trios for guitar, flute and violin, Op. 81, 83, 92 ; Quintet for 
guitar, ixco flutes, viola and violoncello, Op. 75. The above- 
mentioned were very popular, and Kummer also arranged several 
of these with piano accompaniment, although they were originally 
composed and published for the guitar by Andre, Offenbach ; 
Simrock, Bonn ; and Schott, Mayence. 

Kunze, Charles Henry, a teacher of music who lived at Heilbronn, 
Germany, during the end of the eighteenth century. He is the 
author of many guitar solos, duets for flute and guitar, and songs 
w r ith guitar accompaniment, nine of which were published by 
Schott, Mayence, and numerous others by Gombart of Augsburg, 
and Andre of Offenbach. 

[ ABARRE, Trille, a guitarist living in Paris during the last years 
of the eighteenth century, but nothing is known concerning his 
career. He is the author of a method and the following compositions 
for his instrument which appeared in Paris. In 1788 he published 
Op. 2, Sonata for the guitar with violin accompaniment ; Op. 7, 
New method for the guitar for those wishing to learn without a 
master, in 1793 ; Graduated studies for the guitar appeared in 
1794, and a Very pretty collection of romances for guitar solo was 
published by Bailleux, Paris, in 1787. There was a Th. Labarre, 
a harpist and guitarist, who wrote numerous pieces for the harp 
and songs with guitar accompaniment, which were published by 
Schott, Mayence. 

Lang, Alexander, born in Ratisbon, March 6, 1806, and died in 
Erlangen, February 18, 1837. His father, an official of some 
position in the service of the Prince of Tour and Taxis, encouraged 
and cultivated his son's taste for music while he was a child, by 
teaching him the guitar, and a few years later the piano. When 
he was in his teens he was sent to Heidelburg University, where he 
studied jurisprudence and music. In 1834 he was appointed 
professor in the University of Erlangen and the same year he 
founded in that institution the Cacilia Musical Society, which he 
conducted till his death, three years later. Among his published 
compositions are duos for two guitars, and also for guitar and piano. 

Laurentiis, Carmine de, an Italian mandolinist and guitarist of 
repute, who lived in Naples during the first half of the nineteenth 
century. He is principally renowned for being the first teacher to give 
serious instruction on the mandolin to the virtuoso and composer Carlo 
Munier, when a boy. Laurentiis laid the foundations of a correct 
and intelligent system of technique, which, developed by experience 
and the natural genius of his pupil, produced one of the greatest 
exponents of the mandolin. Laurentiis was the author of a Method 
for the mandolin, published in 1869 by Ricordi, Milan, and this 
is unique, for it is the earliest published method for the instrument 



176 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

which maintains its usefulness and popularity to the present day. 
It is written upon an excellent system of mechanism, its studies 
are admirable in their conception, well-arranged, and the method 
concludes with six original and musicianly caprices for mandolin 
solo. This volume, the excellence of which is in its exercises and 
studies rather than its didactics, passed many editions. An English 
translation was edited and revised by F. Sacchi, a Cremonese 
mandolinist and literateur, who lived for some years in London, and 
there imparted instruction in mandolin playing to their Royal 
Highnesses the Princesses Victoria and Maud of Wales. 

Lebedeff, V. P., a celebrated Russian guitarist who was born in 
Capiatovski, Saratov, in 1867, and died in St. Petersburg, in 1907. 
His first musical instruction was received on the guitar, and he 
played this instrument for some years as an amateur in his native 
town, for it was not until he came under the influence of the guitarist 
and composer, Decker Schenk, that he adopted the instrument 
professionally. In 1886 Lebedeff removed to St. Petersburg where 
he met the artist who shaped his musical career, for after some 
months' studv under Schenk a friendship sprang up between master 
and pupil, and when Lebedeff had completed his military training, in 
1890, he commenced as a teacher of the guitar in St. Petersburg. 
The same year he visited Paris where he appeared as guitar soloist, 
and The Figaro and other French journals record his brilliant 
execution. Lebedeff returned to St. Petersburg and in 1892 made 
a name as guitar soloist at concerts given in this city, and from this 
time his public appearances were frequent and numerous. In 1898 
Lebedeff was appointed a professor in the Royal Military Music 
Academy, and after the death of his teacher, the year following, was 
regarded the only guitarist of repute in St. Petersburg, and he en- 
joyed an enviable position both as virtuoso and teacher. 

Ledhuy, Adolphe, a guitarist living in Paris during the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, who is the author of several musical 
treatises and compositions for the guitar. The following are titles of 
several of his works : Principles of music, published in Paris 1830 ; 
Discourses on music, published by Levrault, Strasburg, 1834, with 
other similar theoretical volumes. In 1833 he was associated with 
Bertini, the pianist, in the publication of a musical journal entitled 
Musical Encyclopaedia, which appeared in Paris during the 
years 1833-1835. Ledhuy published only a few compositions 
which are now out of print, and the greater number are omitted 
from the catalogues of the original publishers. Op. 26, Brilliant 
Spanish nocturne for guitar solo, for which the author alters the 
tuning of the guitar, lowering the two lowest bass strings one tone 
each ; Op. 18, Twelve studies for the guitar; Op. 21, a volume of 
Etudes caracteristiques for guitar, and a Tablature for the guitar 
are published by Lemoine, Paris. There was a Ledhuy, a guitarist 
and guitar maker living in Coucy-le-Chateau, France, about 1806, 




V. P. LRBEDEFF 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 177 

who constructed principally novel guitars of the lyre shape, and it 
was from Ledhuy's model that Salomon obtained his idea for the 
harpolyre. 

Leduc, Alphonse, born Nantes, March 9, 1804, and died in Paris, 
June 17, 1868, was a French virtuoso on the guitar, bassoon and 
piano, and an instrumental composer. His father was a thorough 
musician, a talented pupil of Gavinies, a skilful violinist and 
guitarist who for some time was a director of the Concerts Spirituels, 
Paris. The son's musical education was first undertaken by his 
parents, and he afterwards entered the Paris Conservatoire where 
Reicha was his teacher for harmony. In 1825 he obtained the 
second prize at the Conservatoire for the bassoon, and he founded 
a music publishing business in Paris in 1841 which attained to 
considerable importance, and is still carried on under the same 
name by his son. Leduc is the author of about fifty published 
compositions for the guitar. 

Legnani, Luigi, born in 1790, at Milan, was living in that country 
as late as 1837, and although he was one of the greatest guitarists 
the world has produced, comparatively little is known of his life. 
He studied the guitar in his early years and in 1819 made his debut 
as soloist in Milan, where his wonderful performances elicited much 
praise and admiration. In October, 1822, he made a concert tour 
through Italy and Germany, and he visited Vienna where he resided 
for several months. The German musical journals of the time 
declare that nothing could be compared to the wonders of his 
marvellous playing, and that even Giuliani could not enter into 
competition with him. From Vienna, Legnani travelled to Russia, 
where he gave many concerts with his accustomed success, and in 
1825 he returned to his native land and resided in Genoa for a period 
as guitar teacher and virtuoso. In 1827 he was giving concerts in 
Switzerland, one of his principal solos being his arrangement of 
Swiss national melodies with brilliant variations, and the press 
and critics were unanimous in praising the remarkable power and 
fullness of his tone and the tenderness of his expression. Legnani 
returned to Genoa and made periodical concert tours ; he visited 
Vienna, the scene of his former artistic triumphs once again, after 
which he was living in Genoa as late as 1835. At the commence- 
ment of the following year we find him associated with Paganini, 
when the first signs of the violinist's serious malady were made mani- 
fest and during the months of October and November, 1836, Legnani 
was the guest of the incomparable violinist. The two artists lived 
together during these months in Villa Gajona, on Paganini 's estate, 
in the environs of Parma. Paganini's health could not permit of 
public appearances, so with the assistance of Legnani he occupied 
himself in arranging his compositions for publication. Lc 
accompanied upon the guitar Paganini's solos and otherwise took 
part in his musical undertakings. They planned a concert tour as 



178 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

violinist and guitarist and were busily engaged making pre- 
parations for this contemplated tour which was to commence the 
following year, their principal centres being Paris and London. In 
the summer of 1837 Paganini's health had somewhat improved and 
the two artists gave a concert on June 9 in Turin, in aid of charity, 
and also performed at other concerts in the same city for their own 
benefit. They were now making their way towards Paris, where 
Paganini was to fulfil an engagement at the opening ceremony of 
the " Casino Paganini " in this city. The concert tour of the two 
virtuosi was unavoidably abandoned, for Paganini's health again 
gave trouble — it was irretrievably broken — for he was suffering 
from consumption of the larynx, and was fast losing his power of 
speech, so he sought rest and change of air in the south of France, 
while Legnani returned to Italy. 

When Legnani was living in Vienna he spent much time with the 
guitar makers of that city, supplying them with important infor- 
mation concerning the accoustic properties and points of detail in 
the construction of the instrument, and he designed several improved 
models of the ordinary guitar and also a model of the terz guitar. 
Those instruments made in Vienna according to Legnani's instruc- 
tions, by Ries and Staufer, bear labels of which illustrations are 
reproduced. The labels of Ries are worded: "Model designed by 
Luigi Legnani, made by Georg Ries in Vienna, at the sign of the 
lute and violin," while those of Staufer read: "johann Anton 
Staufer, in Vienna, after the design of Luigi Legnani," and both 
labels bear the seal of Legnani. An Italian instrument for many years 
used by this artist was in the possession of Herr Zeigler, Munich, 
and this guitar was exhibited with other historical musical instru- 
ments in that city during the annual convention of the I. L. G. in 
1904. Legnani was a voluminous composer for the guitar, his 
published works number about two hundred and fifty items, and, like 
Sor, he used and wrote for the guitar with two extra bass strings, 
the usual manner of stringing the guitar in Russia. His first com- 
position, Terra moto con variazione, Op. 1, was published in his 
native city by Ricordi, and also by Cipriani, Florence; but the great 
majority of his works were issued in Vienna. It was while in 
Vienna that he became a friend of the guitarist, Leidesdorf, who 
afterwards established a music publishing business in the city and 
issued many of Legnani's compositions. In conjunction with 
Leidesdorf, Legnani wrote Op. 28, Variations on a theme by 
Rossini, for guitar, piano, two violins, alto and 'cello, which was 
published by Diabelli, Vienna. These two artists frequently 
appeared in public in duets for two guitars and guitar and piano. 
There is no method published under Legnani's name, but he is the 
author of Thirty-six studies or caprices for the guitar, issued by 
Weinberger, Vienna, and his Op. 10 is unique, being a Scherzo 
with four variations for the left hand alone, which was published 
with many other of his compositions by Artaria, Vienna. 




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GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 179 

Leidesdorf, Max Josef, born in Vienna about 1780, and died in 
Florence, Italy, September 26, 1840. He studied the piano and 
guitar, and commenced teaching these two instruments in Vienna 
when a youth. As a teacher he was held in high repute, his pupils 
were members of the nobility and aristocracy, and he enjoyed the 
friendship of the most renowned musicians of his time. Leidesdorf 
was intimately associated for some time with the guitar virtuoso 
Legnani, and they performed together in public, and also wrote and 
published conjointly several compositions for the guitar, and guitar 
and piano. Franz Schubert and Beethoven were his intimate and 
personal friends, and as Leidesdorf was the publisher of Schubert's 
early compositions, before he had made a name in the musical 
world, it has been stated that he did so simply from motives of 
friendship. Leidesdorf was considered one of the most celebrated 
musicians of Vienna ; he was one of the fifty commissioned by 
Diabelli & Co. to write a variation to a given theme, for their 
volume Vaterldndische Kunstlerverein, the second volume of 
which was published during the last months of 1823, or early in 
1824. In 1804, Leidesdorf commenced a music publishing 
business in Vienna which prospered, for in 1827 he disposed of his 
copyrights and publications to Diabelli, and retired to Florence 
where he passed the remainder of his life. As pianist and composer, 
Leidesdorf is regarded a forerunner of Carl Czerny, and he will go 
down to posterity on account of a little note of Beethoven's, 
apparently written in 1804, sending Ries for some easy duos for 
two pianos — " and better still let him have them for nothing " — the 
note began with a pun on his name, " Dorf des Leides!" and 
ended " Beethoven minimus." Leidesdorf was one of those 
Viennese musicians who signed the petition to Beethoven, in 
February, 1824, praying him to produce the Ninth symphony and 
the Mass in D, and to write a second opera. He is the author of a 
few works for the guitar, the following being the most widely known : 
Two divertisements for violin and guitar, published by Schott, 
Mayence ; Op. 28, A theme of Rossini with variations for guitar, 
piano, two violins, alto and violoncello, written conjointly with 
Legnani, and a Volume of divertisements for violin and guitar, 
both published by Diabelli, Vienna. 

Leite, Antonio da Silva, a Portuguese guitarist, composer and 
theorist, who was maestro of the National Conservatoire of Music, 
Oporto, from 1787 to 1826. In 1787 he wrote and published, 
Resumo de todas as regrase preceitos de cantoria assim da 
musica metrica como da cantochao. Leite is the author of many 
compositions for the guitar, although only a small proportion of 
these were ever printed, and his Method for the guitar, which 
appeared in 1796, was the standard work of its kind in Portugal. 
Other of his compositions, which are practically unheard of out of 
his native land, are Six sonatas for guitar, violin, and two 



180 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

trumpets (a most unusual combination) also a hymn written for the 
coronation of John VI of Portugal, and much church music. 

Lemoine, Antoine Marcel, the founder of the renowned music 
publishing establishment in Paris, was born November 3, 1763, in 
that city, and died there April, 1817. He was a guitar virtuoso 
and a skilful performer on the violin and viola, and his father, a 
dramatic artist, gave him his first elementary lessons on the guitar 
and violin ; but beyond this rudimentary instruction Lemoine was 
self-taught. His natural ability and perseverance were the sole 
means by which his name was made prominent in the musical 
world. Lemoine's father led a wandering, restless life, and when 
sixteen and a half years of age young Lemoine married and for the 
next few years followed the example of his parents by wandering 
with his wife, obtaining a livelihood by violin and guitar playing. 
In 1781 he settled in Paris and obtained employment as violinist 
in the Theatre Montansier, Versailles, and after playing in the 
orchestra for two years he resigned this position to commence as a 
teacher of the guitar and violin in Paris. During the year 1789 he 
was again engaged in the orchestra as alto player in the Theatre 
Monsieur, and at the same time he commenced the music publishing 
business, which, continued after his death by his son Henry, 
flourished apace and has become famous, particularly for the 
number and excellence of the compositions issued for the mandolin 
and guitar. In 1790 Imbault, of Paris, published several of 
Lemoine's compositions and theoretical works, which included a 
method for the guitar and this rapidly passed several editions. 
Three years later Lemoine devoted himself entirely to music 
publishing, but after the revolution, he placed his business under 
capable management and officiated as conductor successively of 
the orchestras of the Theatre Moliere, Mareux, and of the Rue 
Culture and St. Catherine. 

Although Lemoine had received no instruction in harmony or 
counterpoint, he was a born genius and composed, arranged, and 
orchestrated all the music performed in these theatres. In 1795 
he revised and augmented his method for the guitar, publishing 
this edition himself, and in addition to writing compositions 
for other publishers he issued about twenty- five of his own works, 
consisting of variations, potpourris, etc., for guitar solo and duos 
for guitar and violin. When the six-stringed guitar, constructed in 
the shape of a lyre and named the lyre-guitar, became fashionable 
at the commencement of the nineteenth century, Lemoine wrote 
and published in 1805 a new elementary treatise for this instrument 
under the title of Method for the guitar of six strings, but a few years 
later his compositions for the guitar were eclipsed by those of 
Carulli. Lemoine, however, was fully aware of the superiority of 
the later works of this rising generation of guitar virtuosi and he 
was among the first to issue the compositions of Carulli, Sor, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 181 

Sagrini, Aguado, Giuliani, Kuffher and Castellacci. Lemoine died 
in Paris, April, 1817, in the prime of life, deeply regretted by an 
intimate circle of the most renowned guitarists of his epoch. 

Lenau, Nicolas, whose proper name was Nicolas Niembsch von 
Strehlenau, a famous German poet, was born August 13, 1802, in 
Csatad, a little village in Hungary, near Temesvar, and died in 
Dobling, Vienna, August 22, 1850. Lenau's father was an 
officer of estates under the Austrian Government, who died while 
his son was young. His irregular life had been the cause of serious 
troubles in the family, and after his death the widow with young 
Lenau removed to Buda, where he attended the middle schools. 
When he was seventeen years of age he entered the University of 
Vienna, taking a three year's course in philosophy, and then 
afterwards adopted the study of law and medicine. In the year 
1829 he suffered a severe loss by the death of his mother to whom 
he was attached by a most tender affection, and from whom he 
inherited his nobler qualities of character, his courage, keenness, 
and depth of emotion. Having all his life been in delicate health 
he derived much satisfaction and benefit from a legacy of about 
£850 bequeathed to him by his grandmother, and he thereupon 
went to reside in SAvabia, where he lived in most friendly intercourse 
with several of the Swabian poets, Justinus Kerner, Gustav Schwab, 
and others. Those traits of Lenau's character — his tenderness, 
meekness, and sentiment — found great favour with these poets ; 
but Lenau did not remain long in this congenial atmosphere. For 
a considerable time he had cherished a longing to visit North 
America, his vivid imagination had pictured realms of happiness 
among the virgin lands and forests of the new world, and in the 
year 1832 his dream's ambition was realized. With the remainder 
of his fortune, now about ^"500, he sailed the Atlantic, continuing 
his journey from Baltimore across the continent on horseback, as far 
west as Crawford county, where he bought four hundred acres of land 
intending to make this his permanent abode. He passed a very 
lonely and sad winter in the then deserted country at Lisbon on the 
Ohio river ; he had no friends in this new home, and what was 
of greater consequence, his health was now even more delicate. 
Lenau could not endure the lonely life of a settler, so after a visit 
to Niagra Falls, he returned to Europe the following year, and upon 
reaching his native land was received with triumph, for he had 
already made a name among the great poets of his country. He 
lived alternately in Stuttgart and Vienna, and while in the latter 
city he resided with his brother-in-law, a clerk employed in the 
Imperial Palace. 

In 1844, Lenau became engaged to a young German lady whom 
he met in the house of one of his friends in Baden-Baden. He 
was now intent upon improving his financial position, and devoted 
himself with increased energy to this purpose ; but his happiness 



182 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

was of short duration, for a few weeks after his engagement, he 
became pensive, and even deeply melancholy, being continually 
haunted by a feeling of great anxietv and evil foreboding, and on 
September, 29, 1844, while at Stuttgart, he suffered a slight 
stroke of apoplexy. On the eleventh of the following month, 
madness possessed him with marked vehemence, and he was 
subsequently placed in an asylum for about six years, first in 
Stuttgart, and afterwards at Dobling, near Vienna, where he 
died, August 22, 1850, and was interred in the cemetery of 
Weidling, near Vienna. Lenau was one of the most remarkable of 
German poets, and his works, chiefly elegies, are of unsurpassed 
beauty. Lenau was not only a poet, he was also a musician, and 
he plaved the violin, like one of the gypsy musicians, the genius of 
whom he has immortalized in so many of his poems. He was also 
a good performer on the guitar, which at that time was so much in 
vogue in southern Germany, and particularly in Vienna. It is not 
certain that he was a skilful solo player ; but he was accustomed to 
accompany all his songs on this instrument, and he took his guitar 
with him wherever he travelled. The guitar — to which he wrote 
that poem so full of tender thoughts and sad presentiment entitled, 
To my guitar — is preserved in the National German Museum of 
Nuremburg. This instrument of which a reproduction is given, 
now hangs forever mute in its glass shrine, devoid of interest to 
the uninitiated and casual observer; its strings which once vibrated 
under the master's sensitive touch are now broken and silent, and 
its forlorn condition appeals only to artistic temperaments ; but 
Lenau's poem speaks to all. To only those acquainted with the 
poet's career, will this ordinary guitar of common shape and neglected 
appearance, divulge what passions of a chequered life sleep within 
its mute form, waiting in vain, the touch of a master now silenced 
by death. 

Leone, a French musician who lived in Paris during the middle 
and latter part of the eighteenth century. He Avas a violinist and 
mandolinist, and is known as the author of a volume which was 
published in Paris in 1770, entitled, Analytical method for 
mastering the violin or the mandolin. 

Leroy, or Le Roy, Adrien, a French lutist, guitarist, singer, and 
composer, who lived in the sixteenth century, and was also one of 
the most celebrated music printers of that time. In 1551 he 
married the sister of R. Ballard, who was himself a music printer, 
and the brothers-in-law joined in partnership in 1552 as sole 
printers of music to Henry II. They published in 1557 an 
instruction book for the lute which was translated into English in 
two different editions, one being by Alford of London in 1568, the 
other by " F. K., Gentleman" in 1574; a copy of the last is 
preserved in the British Museum. Another of his works entitled, 
A short and easy instruction book for the guiterne or guitar, was 




THE GUITAR OF THE POET LENAU. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 183 

published in 1578, and Airs for the lute, in 1571. Lemoine of 
Paris, published a. Little method for the guitar, containing exercises, 
duos, etc., under the name of Roy, and Ballard was the publisher 
of numerous songs with guitar accompaniments. 

Lflcche, a French guitarist, born during the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, who, in 1819 established a school of music in 
Lyons, which was very popular and flourished for many years. 
He is the author of a few compositions for the guitar, and also 
published a method for this instrument which contained chapters 
on the theory of music, lessons in harmony, and a chapter on 
accompaniment in its special relation to the guitar. 

L'Hoyer, Antoine, a Frenchman by birth, and a celebrated 
guitarist and composer of the early part of the eighteenth century. 
He studied the guitar, and at a very early age joined a company of 
French comedians who toured through France, and then L'Hoyer 
entered the service of Prince Henry of Rheinsberg. Previous to 
the year 1800 he had quitted this service for he toured through 
Germany as a virtuoso, and in 1800 settled in Hamburg as a teacher 
of the guitar. He remained here for a few years and was held in 
the highest esteem as a teacher and public performer, and in this city 
published several compositions of a high order for the guitar, 
one of which was a concerto for the guitar with accompaniment of 
string quartet. The fame of L'Hoyer spread to Paris, and he was 
eventually performing in this city with great success ; he was a 
contemporary and friend of Carulli who dedicated to L'Hoyer one 
of his compositions. He remained in Paris for some years, and 
published here the majority of his works, but his early compositions 
appeared in Germany. Op. 16, Concerto for guitar with string 
quartet ; Op. 17, Three sonatas for guitar with violin accompani- 
ment, and Op. 18, Overture for guitar and violin, were all 
published by Bohme, Hamburg; Airs dialogues for four guitars, 
issued by Schoenenberger, Paris ; Op. 28, Two sonatas for guitar ; 
Op. 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, Duos for two guitars, and Op. 29, Trio for 
three guitars, were published variously by Pleyel ; Meissonnier ; 
Simon Gaveaux, and other Parisian editors. In addition to the 
above-mentioned compositions, L'Hoyer published many others 
without opus numbers, principally studies, fantasias, duos, trios 
and solos. 

Lickl, Aegidius Carl, born Vienna, September 1, 1803, died at 
Trieste, July 22, 1864, was a guitar and piano virtuoso and composer. 
He was the younger brother of the pianist Carl Lickl (1801-1877), 
and both the sons received musical instruction from their father 
Carl George Lickl. In 1830, Aegidius removed to Trieste, where 
he lived as a teacher and composer, and among his published 
compositions are several comic operas which were produced 
originally in Trieste, and afterwards in Vienna in 1848. Lickl also 



184 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

published much chamber music which included numerous pieces 
for the guitar. 

Light, Edward, an Englishman who lived in London at the 
commencement of the nineteenth century, and was a guitarist, 
guitar maker, and the inventor of a harp-lute, or dital-harp. For 
many years he was organist of Trinity Chapel, St. George's, 
Hanover Square, London, and he devoted much time to the 
improvement of the guitar ; but his efforts in this direction evolved 
a totally different species of instrument. This was only one of the 
numerous attempts of the period to improve the guitar, and it met 
with very little success, if not failure. Grove says that Echvard 
Light appears to have invented the dital-harp about the year 1798. 
The harp-lute had originally twelve catgut strings, and its notation 
was a major sixth higher in pitch than the actual sounds, and in 
1816, Light took out a patent also for an improvement on this 
instrument, which he named the British harp-lute. His patent was 
for the application of certain pieces of mechanism called ditals, or 
thumb keys, in distinction from pedals, or foot keys. Each dital, 
by pressure, produced the lowering of a stop-ring, or eye, which 
drew the string upon a fret, and thus shortened its vibrating length 
rendering the pitch more acute, somewhat after the mechanism of 
the harp. The most complete instrument of this construction, 
Light named the dital-harp. In this instrument each string 
had a dital to raise it a semitone at pleasure, and the sounding 
board was shaped somewhat like the lute, the back was also 
fashioned after that instrument, that is to say without ribs or sides. 
Its tone was feeble, lacked resonance, and was not equal to that of 
the guitar, and its most prominent feature was its neat, artistic 
shape, and elaborate gilt decoration, although a more plain model 
was made provided with a lesser number of strings, but they did not 
meet with the slightest success. Edward Light was the author of 
a guitar method which was published by Preston, London, in 1795 
entitled, The art of playing the guitar, to which is annexed a 
selection of the most familiar lessons, divertisements, songs, airs, 
etc., also Concise instructions for playing on the English lute, and 
in 1819 he published New and complete directory to the art of 
playing on the dital-harp, by the inventor. 

Lincke, Joseph, or Linke, an eminent violoncellist, guitarist, and 
composer, was born June 8, 1783, at Trachenberg, Prussian Silesia, 
and died in Vienna, March 26, 1837. He received his first tuition 
on the violin from his father, a violinist in the service of Prince 
Hatzfeld, and was placed at the 'cello while still a child, receiving 
lessons on this instrument from Oswald. A mismanaged sprain of 
the right ankle caused lameness for life, and it is perhaps in 
allusion to this deformity that Bernard wrote : " Lincke has only 
one fault— that he is crooked." When ten years of age he lost 
both parents, and was obliged to support himself by copying music, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 185 

continuing this till the year 1800, when he obtained employment as 
violinist in the Dominican Convent of Breslau, after having 
previously served for some time as chorister. In this institution 
his education was supervised by Fleming, and he continued the 
study of the 'cello under Lose, and the guitar, organ and harmony 
under Hanisch, a guitarist who has composed much for the 
instrument. Lose was violoncellist in the opera conducted by 
C. M. von Weber, and upon the retirement of his teacher, Lose, 
Lincke succeeded him as first 'cellist in the theatre. In this 
position he was brought in contact with Weber, an enthusiastic 
guitarist, and during the period of service under his direction, 
Lincke made a deeper study of the guitar. In 1808 he went to 
Vienna, where Schuppanzigh engaged him for the famous quartet 
of Count Rasoumowsky, where Weiss played viola and the prince 
second violin, and in the house of this prince he lived in the company 
of Beethoven, whom he worshipped. Beethoven, too, was sincerely 
attached to Lincke and the latter derived great advantage by 
playing the great composer's works under his personal supervision. 
Beethoven frequently mentions his name in terms of friendship 
throughout his correspondence, and in the Imperial Library of 
Berlin there is preserved a comic canon in Beethoven's writing on 
the names of Branchle and Lincke, and Beethoven's Two sonatas 
for piano and 'cello, Op. 102, were composed while he and Lincke 
were together at the Erdodys in 1815. Lincke played in Schuppan- 
zigh's quartet and Schuppanzigh assisted Lincke at his farewell 
concert, the programme consisted entirely of Beethoven's music, 
and the great master himself was present. This famous quartet 
was dissolved in 1816 and Lincke went to Gratz and from there to 
Pancovecz, near Agram, Croatia, the residence of Countess Erdody, 
where he remained a year and a half as her chamber violoncellist. 
In 1818 he was employed as first 'cellist in the Theatre an-der- 
Wien, and in 1831 was playing with the distinguished 'cellist, Merk, 
at the Royal Opera. Lincke died March 26, 1837, on the 
anniversary of Beethoven's death ; Beethoven was his ideal and he 
had written for him several compositions for the violoncello. 
Lincke's playing appears to have been remarkable for its humour, 
and he is said to have been particularly successful in expressing 
Beethoven's characteristic style, which no doubt accounts in a 
measure for the master's fondness for him. His compositions 
consist of concertos, variations, capriccios, etc., but only his first 
three works have been published, one of which The Troubadour, 
variations for the violoncello with guitar accompaniment, was 
published by Mecchetti, Vienna. 

Lintant, C, a virtuoso on the violin and guitar, was born in 
Grenoble, France, in 1758, and died in his native city, March 17, 
1830. He was a contemporary of the French guitarist, Doisy, and 
both enjoyed a widespread reputation in Paris and throughout 



186 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

France as guitarists. As a child Lintant displayed extraordinary 
musical ability and he received thorough instruction in the theory 
of music and on the violin from a professor of Grenoble. Such was 
his progress that after two years' instruction, his teacher advised his 
parents to send the lad to Paris to complete his musical education. 
He visited Paris, being placed under Bertheaume for the violin, and 
he also commenced the study of the guitar under Benoit Pollet, a 
musician of considerable ability and renown. While in Paris 
Lintant lived with his brother-in-law, a musician named Sageret, 
and he received the benefit of his practical experience as musical 
director of various Parisian theatres. 

After the departure of the Italian troupe from the Theatre 
Feydeau, Sageret took over the direction and placed his brother-in- 
law, Lintant, in the orchestra as principal violin, under the 
conductorship of Lahoussaye and Blasius. He did not remain in this 
position for much over twelve months owing to the bankruptcy of 
Sageret, and then he was occupied as a teacher of the violin and 
guitar in Paris. In 1810, having obtained a competency, he returned 
to Grenoble and was the lessee of several theatres. Lintant was 
not a prolific composer, but his works were highly appreciated in his 
native land. Op. 1, Three quartets for two violins, alto and 
violoncello, published by Gaveaux, Paris; Op. 4, Three quartets 
for two violins, alto and violoncello, Carli, Paris ; Op. 7, Three 
duets for two violins, Braid, Paris ; Three duos for two guitars, 
Nadermann, Paris ; Three grand sonatas for violin and guitar, 
Porro, Paris ; Progressive sonatas for guitar and alto, Frey, Paris ; 
Little method for the guitar, Lemoine, Paris ; Collections of songs 
with guitar accompaniment, Janet, Paris, and many other pieces 
for guitar solo, violin solo, and a Theoretical treatise on accompani- 
ment, Gaveaux, Paris. 

Litzius, C. Under this name have appeared many compositions 
for the guitar, the author being unknown. There are many 
bagatelles, etc., for guitar alone, a serenade for guitar, flute and 
alto, and numerous songs with guitar accompaniment, most of 
which were published by Schott, Mayence. The same musician is 
also the author of a Practical method of general-bass, and a 
Practical singing method, both of which were issued by the 
publishers of his instrumental works. 

Lorcnz, Friedrich August, bom in Chemnitz, Saxony, February, 
1796, was a renowned instrumental virtuoso, excelling particularly 
on the violin, guitar and bassoon. His first professional employment 
was as a violinist in the churches of Prague, and at a later period 
he was chamber musician to the King of Saxony and a member of 
the Royal Court Band of Dresden. He has written compositions 
for many instruments, as he was a virtuoso on the violin, guitar, 
bassoon and harp. Among his published works we find Variations 
for bassoon and guitar on the march D'Aline, from the ballet of 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 187 

the same name, composed by the guitarist Blum. These variations 
were published by Haslinger, Vienna. 

Lully, Jean Baptiste, born near Florence, Italy, in 1633, and died in 
Paris, March 22, 1687, was the illegitimate son of Lorenzo di Lulli 
and Caterina del Serta. Dubourg says, " The inclination towards 
music which he showed while yet a child induced a worthy monk, 
from no other consideration than the hope of his some time 
becoming eminent in art, to undertake his tuition on the guitar, an 
instrument which in the sequel he was always fond of singing to." 
Grove also writes : " An old Franciscan monk gave the gifted, but 
mischievous child some elementary instruction and taught him the 
guitar and the rudiments of music." The Chevalier de Guise, a 
French gentleman who had travelled in Italy, brought Lully to 
France as a present to his sister, in 1646, when the boy was 
thirteen years of age ; according to Dr. Burney — or, in the more 
qualified language of another writer — to serve as a page to Mdlle. de 
Montpensier, a niece of Louis XIV, who had commissioned the 
Chevalier to find her some pretty little Italian boy for this purpose; 
it was customary for ladies of rank to maintain in their service an 
Italian boy, a singer with guitar or mandolin accompaniment. 
In this instance, if such were the lady's instructions, the countenance 
of the youth did not fulfil the requirements ; but his vivacity and 
ready wit, in addition to his skill on the guitar, determined the 
Chevalier to engage him. On his arrival and presentation, the lady 
was so dissatisfied with his looks that she changed her intentions, 
and instead of page, he was made an under-scullion ! Neither the 
disappointment he experienced, nor the employment to which he 
was placed, affected the spirits of young Lully. In his leisure he 
still devoted himself to the guitar, and a court official chancing one 
day to hear him. informed the princess of his extraordinary musical 
ability, and through his kindly intervention Lully was placed under 
a teacher for instruction on the violin. Mademoiselle having 
discovered that he had composed the air of a satirical song at her 
expense, promptly dismissed him ; but his name was now sufficient 
to procure him a place in the King's Band, and his promotion was 
very rapid, for soon he was chosen to compose the music for the 
court ballets. Lully was the author of numerous operas and obtained 
success as a sacred composer, and as Surintendant de la Musique 
and Secretary to Louis XIV, he was in high favour at court and 
being extremely avaricious, used his opportunities to amass a large 
fortune. In his early career he composed much music with the 
guitar, but it remained in manuscript. 

J\A AGNIEN, Victor, born at Epinal, Vosges, November, 19, 1804, 
and died at Lille, June, 1885, was one of the most successful 
directors of the Imperial Conservatory of Music, Lille, France. By 
a strange coincidence he was baptized on November 22, St. Cecilia's 
day — a favourable omen for his future. Magnien was a violinist, 



188 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

guitarist, and composer of considerable repute in France, having 
studied the guitar under Ferdinand Carulli and the violin under 
Rudolphe Kreutzer, both most able representatives of their respective 
instruments. Previous to 1815 his father was an administrator of 
the province of Haute Marne, and at this period Magnien received 
his first musical instruction, but when he was ten years of age the 
allied armies invaded France, and his father, with other public 
officials, was dismissed. In 1817 he was sent to Paris to further 
his musical education under Kreutzer and Carulli, and his progress 
was most rapid and thorough, for after two years he was acknow- 
ledged the foremost amateur guitarist in Paris. In 1820 bis family 
removed to Colmar, where his musical talents were soon recognized 
and called in requisition. His parents did not intend his musical 
study to lead to a profession, for when he was sixteen years of age 
he was employed as clerk in the municipal offices; but a sudden 
reverse in the fortunes of the family changed his career. Magnien 
the elder, at this juncture espoused the the cause of a Colonel Caron, 
and because of his political associations with this officer he was 
dismissed by the authorities. The family was placed in straitened 
circumstances, and young Magnien, who had studied music as a 
pastime, now resorted to teaching his art to assist the family. 

Although young and inexperienced he applied himself with 
diligence in teaching his two instruments, the violin and guitar, and 
the practical sympathy and encouragement bestowed on him by 
members of the most distinguished families of Colmar, proved of 
great assistance to him at the opening of his new career. He rose 
in the estimation of musical people of the district, and was offered a 
lucrative position in Miilhausen as professor of music, which he 
accepted, and settled in this town. Magnien, now desirous of 
obtaining a deeper knowledge of his art, visited Paris for three 
months annually and continued his musical education. He again 
took up the violin and guitar, the former instrument under Baillot 
and Lafont, the guitar under Carulli, and placed himself under Fetis 
for composition. Magnien now wrote his first musical compositions, 
duos for violin and guitar, which were published, as were many of 
his later compositions, by Richault, Paris, and between the years 
1827-1831 this publisher had issued more than thirty of his works. 

During the revolution of 1830, upon the advice of his teachers, he 
made several journeys through Germany as a virtuoso. These tours 
enlarged his education, and he also derived much benefit by hearing 
and studying the works of the great masters. Upon his return he 
visited Paris, and some time later was conductor of the Philharmonic 
Society of Beauvais, director of singing in the elementary schools, 
and a member of the examining committee of elementary instruction. 
Magnien married while in Beauvais, and was esteemed both as man 
and artist during his sixteen years' residence in this town. The 
success which he obtained as a musician in Beauvais attracted the 
attention of the musical authorities of Lille, and in 1846 he was 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 189 

appointed director of the Imperial Conservatoire of Music in this 
town, this being a branch of the Conservatoire of Paris, 
and during Magnien's term of management the institution flourished 
to a remarkable degree. He excelled as a virtuoso and teacher of 
the violin and guitar, and is the author of concertos for the violin 
with orchestral accompaniment, duos for violin and guitar, duos and 
nocturnes for two guitars, rondos, fantasias, variations, etc., for 
guitar solo, and studies for violin and guitar, in addition to masses, 
organ and pianoforte pieces, many of the latter being published in 
England. Op. 1 and Op. 2, Duos concertante for violin and guitar; 
Op. 4, Three books of duos for violin and guitar ; Op. 23, Twelve 
favourite galops for guitar solo ; Op. 35, Two duos for two guitars, 
and many others of a similar nature issued in Paris. Richault alone 
has published more than fifty of his compositions. Magnien was 
also the author of several theoretical treatises on music, one of 
which, Theorie Musicale, published in 1837, was popular in its day. 

Mahler, Gustav, a modern composer and conductor who was born 
July 7, 1860, at Kalischt, Bohemia. He was educated at the 
Gymnasium of Iglau, Bohemia, and also in the Vienna University, 
and from 1877 was a pupil in the Conservatoire of Music of this 
city. From the year 1880 he officiated as conductor in various 
Austrian theatres, and three years later was appointed second 
capellmeister in Cassel and in 1885 he succeeded Seidl as capellmeister 
in Prague. His life was spent conducting in various cities on the 
continent, and in 1892 he visited England as director of German 
opera at Covent Garden Theatre. From London he travelled to 
America where for a period he officiated in a like capacity; but his 
health failing him he returned to Europe where he died shortly after 
his arrival. Mahler is the author of instrumental compositions, and in 
his SeventJi symphony for grand orchestra he scores for three man- 
dolins and three guitars. The first performance in England of this 
work took place in London, January, 1913, under Sir H. Wood, 
when no higher regard for Mahler's instrumentation was manifested 
than by substituting banjos for the guitars ! 

Malibran, Maria Felicita, was born March 24, 1808, in Paris, 
where her father, Manuel Garcia, had arrived only two months 
previous, and died September 23, 1836, in Manchester. She was 
one of the most distinguished singers the world has ever seen, a 
thorough musician and a guitarist. When three years old she 
travelled to Italy with her parents, and at the age of five played 
a child's part in Paer's Agnese, in Naples. So precocious was she, 
that, after a few nights of this opera, she actually began to sing the 
part of Agnese in the duet of the second act, a piece of audacity 
which was applauded by the audience. Two years later she studied 
singing with Panseron, in Naples, the piano under Herold, and the 
guitar under her father. In 1816 Garcia took her with his family 
to Paris, and in the autumn of the following year to London, where 



190 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

she spent two and a half years, and in that time had picked up a 
tolerable knowledge of English — she could already speak Spanish, 
Italian, and French fluently, and not long after she learned German 
with the same facility. When she was fifteen years of age her 
father directed her musical education, and, in spite of the fear 
which his violent temper inspired, the individuality and originality 
of her genius soon displayed itself. Fetis states that it was through 
the sudden indisposition of Mdme. Pasta that the first public 
appearance of Maria Garcia was unexpectedly made. Her debut 
took place June 7, 1825, when she was immediately engaged for 
the remainder of the season, and the enthusiasm of the public knew 
no bounds. 

In the midst of this popularity Garcia gave her in marriage, in 
spite of her repugnance, to M. Malibran, an elderly and seemingly 
wealthy French merchant, and this unhappy marriage celebrated 
March 25, 1826, was dissolved within a year by Malibran's 
bankruptcy, and in September of 1827 she went to France. Upon 
her return to England she had no rival, and she continued to 
sing each season with increased eclat, both in Paris and London. 
On March 26, 1836, she married the violinist De Beriot, and the 
following September was engaged to sing at the Manchester 
Festival, and it was here that her short and brilliant career came 
to an end. On Sunday, September 11, 1836, with her husband she 
made a rapid journey from Paris, and on the following evening 
sang no less than fourteen times. On the Tuesday, though weak 
and ill she insisted on singing both morning and evening, but on 
Wednesday, the 14th, her state was more critical, still she managed 
to render Sing ye to the Lord, with thrilling effect, the last sacred 
music in which she ever took part. She was received with 
immense enthusiasm, the last movement of a duet with Cardaori 
Allan was encored, and Malibran actually accomplished the task of 
repeating it — it was her last effort, for while the concert room rang 
with applause, she was fainting in the arms of friends. She was 
removed immediately to her hotel where she expired a few days 
later. Malibran composed and published many songs with guitar 
accompaniment, and used this instrument to accompany herself in 
many of her public appearances. She was a good guitarist, a pupil 
of her father, and also of Pelzer, in London, and the latter came 
into possession of her favourite guitar, which in 1913 was in the 
collection of his daughter. Malibran's principal songs with guitar 
accompaniment are, The resignation, a romance, published by 

Challier & Co., Berlin, and The last thoughts of , six romances 

with piano or guitar, published by D'Almaine, London. Schott of 
Mayence publish the latter collection also, in which there are - ten 
romances with guitar or piano accompaniment, and also another 
entitled UEcossais, with the same accompanying instruments. 

Mara, Gertrude Elisabeth, born Cassel, February 23, 1749, died 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 191 

Revel, January 20, 1833, at the advanced age of eighty-four, soon 
after receiving from Gothe a poem for her birthday, was one of the 
foremost singers of the last century, and also an able performer on 
the guitar. Her mother died soon after the birth of this child and 
her father, a poor musician named Schmeling, is said to have 
secured his little daughter in an armchair while he attended to his 
affairs. From this cause, it appears, she fell into a rickety state 
from which it was long ere she recovered, if, indeed, she ever did 
entirely. Schmeling contrived to increase his income by repairing 
musical instruments, and the child seized every opportunity of 
practising on such instruments as she could obtain. Struck with her 
genius he gave her lessons on the guitar, and she was soon able to 
take part in violin and guitar duets with him ; but even now in her 
fifth year, the poor child could not stand without support, and her 
father would carry her where they were to perform. By chance they 
visited the Frankfort fair, and here the child's performance excited 
great wonder, and several kindly musical amateurs attended to' her 
health and assisted her with a better education. 

When nine years of age she appeared with her father in Vienna, 
and their concerts attracted the attention of the English Ambassador 
who advised Schmeling to take the child to England, and provided 
him with letters of introduction. They duly arrived in this country 
and the Musical Magazine of 1835 says : " She was brought by her 
father to London when quite a child where she played the guitar — 
when ten years of age she played before the King." It was in 
England that Schmeling was advised to allow her to study singing, so 
for a time she was placed with Paradisi, under whom she made rapid 
progress. She continued under Hillier in his music school at 
Leipzig, remaining for five years, and at the end of this period 
proved herself the first great singer that Germany had produced. 
Mara travelled through Europe, appeared at all the royal courts, 
and saved immense sums which were spent by her worthless lovers, 
and then in old age she was forced to teach her art again. 

Marschner, Heinrich, born August 16, 1796, at Zittau, in Saxony, 
died Hanover, December 14, 1861, is known as a dramatic composer 
of the romantic school, ranking next to Weber. Like him, in early 
life he played the guitar, for when a young man he was a skilful 
guitarist ; and like Weber, too, he was a most successful vocalist 
when singing to his own guitar accompaniment. The guitar was 
his principal instrument and during the years 1808-1814 he com- 
posed and published several works for it. He began to compose 
for the guitar, to write songs with guitar accompaniment and even 
orchestral music, with no further help than a few hints from various 
musicians with whom he was on terms of friendship. Marschner 
possessed a beautiful soprano voice, and his singing, accompanied 
by his guitar, was the means of bringing him favourably before 
musicians of repute. As he grew up he obtained more systematic 



192 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



instruction in the theory of music from Schicht, of Leipzig, where 
in 1816 he had gone to study law, and his singing and guitar playing 
made him many friends, among whom was Rochlitz, for by his 
advice Marschner decided to adopt music as a profession. He 
entered the service, in 1817, of Count Thaddaus von Amadee, a 
Hungarian, and with him travelled to Vienna where he made the 
acquaintance of Beethoven who advised him to continue the study 
of composition. 

EXTRACT FROM 

Twelve Bagatelles for Guitar Solo, Op. 4. 
H. MARSCHNER. 



Andantino 




F>' r 7 f w r If J} 

N°2 r Y 

Allegretto con moto. 



decresc pp 




D C 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 193 

In Pressburg he composed two operas one of which, Henry IV, 
Weber produced at Dresden, and through its success Marschner was 
appointed, in 1824, Weber's assistant-conductor of the German 
opera in Dresden. Weber had endeavoured to obtain this post for 
his friend Gansbacher, also a guitarist, but he soon recovered from 
his disappointment and a friendship sprang up between the two 
which was greatly beneficial to Marschner. He was not a pupil of 
Weber although they were most intimately connected, and the strong 
similarity between their dispositions, the harmonious way in which 
they worked together, and the cordial affection they displayed for 
each other are interesting facts. When Weber died, in 1826, 
Marschner resigned, and after travelling, settled in 1827 as capell- 
meister of the Leipzig Theatre, for it was here that he composed and 
produced his most famous opera Der Vampyr, the success of which 
was instantaneous. It was staged at the Lyceum Theatre, London, 
in 1829, the sixtieth performance taking place the same year. 
Marschner then wrote other operas, the most popular being Des 
Falkner's Braut, dedicated to King William IV of England, and 
in 1831 he was appointed Court Capellmeister at Hanover, where 
two years later he produced his masterpiece Hans Heiling, its 
success being universal, and it maintains its popularity to the present 
day throughout Germany. He is the author of numerous other 
operas, many songs for one or more voices, choruses for male voices, 
and songs with guitar ; his favourite subjects were ghosts and demons 
and he delineated these uncanny spirits with amazing power. He 
uses the guitar in his orchestral scores, while his earlier compositions 
are mainly for this instrument. Op. 4, Twelve bagatelles for 
guitar solo ; Op. 5, Twelve songs with guitar accompaniment ; 
Der Freibeuter, and Mailied, poems by Gothe, songs with 
guitar accompaniments, published by Schott, Mayence ; and several 
other songs with guitar accompaniment, without opus numbers, 
published by Breitkopf and H artel, Leipzig. An extract from 
Marschner's Op. 4, Twelve bagatelles for guitar solo is reproduced. 

Mascheroni, Angelo, born at Bergamo, Italy, about 1860, died in 
1905, a song writer of renown who has written obbligatos for the 
mandolin to several of his vocal compositions, and is the author of 
solos and duos for mandolins with piano accompaniment. He 
studied music at the Conservatoire of his native city under the 
guidance of Alessandro Nini, with such success that at the age of 
nineteen he became conductor of an operatic company, which made 
the tour of Italy, France and Spain, and later Mascheroni spent 
some years in Greece and Russia and then visited all the cities of 
importance in North and South America. Five years of his life 
were spent in Paris, perfecting himself in the vocal art at the Paris 
Conservatoire, and a few years later he made a name in England 
and America. Mascheroni was gifted with a rare natural vein of 
melody, permeated as it were with the best traditions of the Italian 



194 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

school, and he enjoyed the inestimable advantage of having thrived 
in the musical atmosphere of the great artistic centres of Europe 
and America. In all his compositions there is, beneath the beautiful 
melodic structure, a foundation of sound musicianship upon which 
the lighter graces and charms of lyric art flourish. Mascheroni 
struck out the golden mean between the German and Italian schools 
and his compositions combine the solidity and scholarly attainments 
of the German, with the grace, beauty and charm of the Italian 
schools. 

When Mascheroni arrived in London, unknown, he experienced 
great difficulty in obtaining a few guineas for his song For all 
eternity ; but this copyright when sold by public auction a few years 
later realized as many thousand guineas — the record price paid 
for a musical copyright. Other of his successful vocal compositions 
are : Woodland serenade, with mandolin obbligato, published in 1 892, 
and Ave Maria, composed at Madame Patti's Welsh castle. 
Mascheroni was the author of several arrangements and original 
compositions for mandolin and piano, the principal being: On the 
banks of the Rhine; Tarantella, written in 1894, published by 
Augener, London; Fantasia on Faust (Gounod), and others of a like 
nature. Mascheroni had a son who studied the guitar and mandolin 
under his father, and appeared as a guitar soloist in London in 1902. 

Matiegka, W., an Austrian musician who lived in Vienna at the 
commencement of the nineteenth century, and there published his 
compositions. He was an organist of some repute and a teacher of 
the guitar in this city, and Artaria published about a dozen of his 
works for the guitar, and on Op. 1, Grand sonata for guitar solo, 
Matiegka styles himself a professor of the guitar. He also wrote a 
Second grand sonata for guitar solo, which was published by the 
same firm, who also issued Op. 20, four books, each containing six 
progressive pieces for guitar solo. 

Mattera, Belisario, an Italian musician and eminent mandolin 
virtuoso who is recorded as the first mandolinist to give instruction 
on his instrument to the Royal family of Italy. For a period of 
from ten to fifteen years in the nineteenth century the nobility and 
aristocracy of the country followed the example of their Sovereign, 
and the mandolin enjoyed great favour amongst the wealthy classes. 

Mayseder, Joseph, a renowned violin virtuoso and composer, 
born in Vienna, October 26, 1789, and died there November 21, 
1863, was associated for many years with several renowned 
guitarists in their public appearances ; he devoted a period to the 
study of the guitar and has written compositions which include this 
instrument. Mayseder was the son of a poor painter, and com- 
menced the study of the violin when eight years of age, first under 
Sucher and later under Wranitzky, and when he had completed his 
studies and while still a youth, Schuppanzigh, of Beethoven fame, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 195 

took a great interest in the lad and entrusted him with the second 
violin in his famous quartet. The Viennese school of violinists, 
called into being by Schuppanzigh and influenced by Spohr, which 
so greatly encouraged the brilliant virtuoso style, found in Mayseder 
an excellent exponent. Hanslick states that when Mayseder was 
eleven years of age he gave his first concert in the famous Augarten 
of Vienna, July 24, 1800, and achieved most brilliant success. 
He rapidly made his way with the court, nobility, and musicians 
generally, and in 1811 the municipality awarded him the large 
Salvator Gold Medal, and later in 1817, presented him with the 
freedom of the city. In 1812 Spohr declared him to be the 
foremost violinist in Vienna, and although Mayseder was barely 
twenty years of age, he was frequently invited in social circles to 
try his artistic strength against Spohr. 

In the year 1815 he became associated with the pianist Hummel 
and the guitarist Giuliani, and together they appeared very 
frequently in Vienna. The members of this party were without 
exception, clever guitar players, and when Hummel departed from 
Vienna he was succeeded as pianist by Moscheles, who was also a 
guitarist. For these concerts Mayseder composed in conjunction 
with Giuliani and Moscheles the music to a romance by Blangini, 
entitled, Der abschied der Troubadours (The departure of the 
troubadours) which was published by Diabelli & Co., Vienna, for 
voices (German and Italian words) with accompaniments for guitar, 
piano and violin. During this time Mayseder evinced a great 
interest in the guitar and commenced the study of the instrument, 
for Giuliani and Mayseder were friends and they performed the 
duos concertante written by Giuliani for violin and guitar. In 
1816 Mayseder entered the Royal Opera orchestra, rising to solo 
violinist in 1820, and fifteen years later he was appointed chamber 
virtuoso to the Emperor, and in this capacity he played both at the 
Opera and in the Cathedral of St. Stephen. When the composer 
and guitarist Blum visited Vienna in 1817, Mayseder was violinist 
in the orchestra during the production of Blum's Das Rosen 
Hutchen and the ballet Aline. The latter work was a tremendous 
success for it was arranged, transcribed, and adapted for every 
instrument and in various combinations, and among these arrange- 
ments we find one by Mayseder, Op. 3, Violin solo with accom- 
paniment of guitar, a series of seven difficult variations and coda, 
on the march from this ballet, published by Artaria & Co., Vienna. 

Although Mayseder did not travel as a virtuoso he was an 
important master of the violin whose style was widely copied and 
admired by many young violinists, and Paganini, who heard him in 
Vienna, immediately recognized his brilliant technique and refined 
style. He appeared in the concert rooms of Vienna with ail 
possible success and, in fact, soon became a popular hero ; but he 
ceased to perform in public after 1837 and did not play out of his 
native land; even on his visit to Paris in 1820 he could only be 



196 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

prevailed upon to play before a select circle of artists, including 
Kreutzer, Cherubini and Viotti. Mayseder was a member of the 
famous quartet party which met at Baron Zmeskall's house — where 
Beethoven was often present— and afterwards in that of Prince 
Constantine Czartoryski from 1843-1856. In 1862 the Emperor 
bestowed on Mayseder the Order of Franz Joseph, and his numerous 
pupils spread his name far and wide. Hanslick said of him : "The 
beauty and purity of his tone, the sureness and elegance of his 
performance were fit to form a standard ; one could but wish there 
were more warmth and energy of expression." Weber, too, has 
recorded his impressions of Mayseder's playing when he said : ' A 
fine player, but he leaves one cold." The influence which the 
guitar virtuoso Giuliani exerted over Mayseder and other celebrated 
musicians of Vienna was considerable. Giuliani was a man of 
education and a remarkable genius on his particular instrument, 
who was welcomed in the highest artistic and social circles of 
Vienna, and by his playing he placed the guitar in a most enviable 
position as a musical instrument, in the estimation of musicians of 
Vienna and the public generally. Mayseder and Giuliani were 
frequently performing together in public, and this fact, combined 
with the popular demand for the instrument and its music, induced 
Mayseder to devote time to the study of the guitar. 

Mayseder's published compositions, which number sixty-three, 
include in addition to variations, etc., for violin and guitar, several 
concertos, sonatas and quartets, and with the sole exception of a 
Grand mass, his compositions are chamber music of a style similar 
to his playing. He died universally respected, November 21, 1863. 
Of his original compositions for violin and guitar we name, 
Op. 1, Variations for violin and guitar, (Schone Minka) ; Op. 3, 
Variations for violin and guitar, previously mentioned, and pub- 
lished by Artaria, Vienna ; Op. 4, Variations on a Greek theme for 
violin and guitar, Haslinger, Vienna; Op. 15, Variations in D on 
' Partant pour la syrie,' for violin and guitar, Artaria, Vienna, and 
Richault, Paris; Op. 17, Fourth polonaise for violin and guitar, 
Haslinger. The following three compositions were published 
respectively for violin and orchestra, violin and quartet, and violin 
and guitar, by their author. Op. 24, Variations, Carli, Paris ; 
Op. 43, Concert variations in D, and Op. 45, Brilliant variations 
in E on an original theme, both published by Cranz, Hamburg. 
Giuliani transcribed for flute and guitar the first and second of 
Mayseder's polonaises, Op. 10 and Op. 11, which were originally 
composed for two violins, alto and 'cello, these arrangements being 
issued by Richault, Paris. 

Meissonnier, Antoine and Joseph, were two French brothers who 
obtained fame as guitarists and composers at the commencement of 
the last century, and both established separate music publishing 
businesses which prospered. The elder brother, Antoine, was born 



_rrv-^- • ~ 




JOSEPH MAYSEDER. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 197 

in Marseilles, December 8, 1783, and it was the intention of his 
parents that he should succeed them in their business, so he was 
trained and educated for a commercial life. When he was sixteen 
years of age, business affairs took him to Naples, and it was this 
journey that decided his career as a musician, for in Naples he had 
the good fortune to hear the guitar played by skilful performers, 
after which he studied the instrument under a teacher there named 
Vinterlandi. His progress was rapid and he continued his 
education by studying harmony and composition under the same 
teacher, remaining in Naples for several years, and when proficient 
relinquished his business to commence as teacher of the guitar. 
While residing in Naples he wrote a comic opera entitled, La 
Donna Corretta, which was performed in that city and later in 
Paris, and after winning fame as a guitarist in Naples he returned 
to his native land. For a period he lived with his parents in 
Marseilles, but was eventually attracted to Paris, where he 
journeyed with his younger brother, and both appeared as guitarists. 
In this city Antoine was recognized as a virtuoso on the guitar, he 
enjoyed the patronage of the wealthy, and was on terms of intimacy 
with the most illustrious musicians who lived in, or visited Paris. 
He was an ardent admirer and close friend of Carcassi, who has 
dedicated to him in felicitous terms Three rondos for guitar solo, 
Op. 2, published by Schott, London. 

In 1814 Antoine Meissonnier established a musical instrument 
and music-publishing business in Paris, which he continued for 
about twenty years, and in addition to publishing numerous 
compositions of other celebrated guitarists who visited Paris, he 
issued many of his own works. He obtained great popularity in 
Paris by his songs and romances with guitar accompaniment, and 
as a song writer he was very prolific, innumerable volumes of these 
songs with guitar accompaniment were issued in octavo form with 
illustrated titles, published by himself and other editors of Paris, 
also Grand sonata and rondo for guitar solo, dedicated to M. 
Leipic, Colonel-Major of the Imperial Guards, originally published 
by Leduc, Paris, but in 1820 issued by the author; Three grand 
trios for guitar, violin and alto, and various fantasias and 
variations, etc., for the same combination of instruments ; Simplified 
method for the guitar or lyre, published by Sieber, Paris, which 
did not receive more than average favour. The lyre or lyre- 
guitar was simply a modification of the ordinary guitar, con- 
structed after the design ot the ancient lyre ; its stringing and tuning 
being the same as the guitar, and during Meissonnier's time this 
innovation enjoyed a short-lived popularity. As music publisher, 
Meissonnier produced the choicest compositions for the guitar, and 
among his publications for this instrument are Three duos for 
violin and guitar by the distinguished violinist Rolla, the teacher 
of Paganini. 

Joseph Meissonnier, the brother of Antoine, is generally known 



198 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

as Meissonnier Le Jeune, or younger. He, too, was born in 
Marseilles, seven years later than his brother, in 1790, and the 
success which greeted his brother's musical training, after his 
return from Naples, induced Joseph to study the same instrument. 
All his instruction he received from his brother while living in 
Marseilles, and they visited Paris together, where both were 
engaged as guitarists and teachers. In 1814 his brother commenced 
business as a music publisher, and ten years later we find Joseph 
again following his brother's example by purchasing the ancient 
music-publishing business of Corbaux, Paris. Being a guitarist 
and teacher of the instrument, he consequently published many 
works for the guitar, and of his compositions the most popular 
were: Three duos for violin and guitar ; Three rondos for guitar 
solo, published by Hanry, Paris ; Op. 2 and 4, Collections of 
melodies for guitar, Petit, Paris; Two methods for the guitar, 
and numerous collections of operatic melodies, variations and 
dances for guitar solo, published respectively by Hanry ; Petit ; 
and Dufant & Dubois. Joseph Meissonnier had a son who suc- 
ceeded him as music publisher, and who, after having amassed a 
considerable fortune in the business, sold the copyrights and 
retired in 1855 as a consequence of failing health. 

Merchi, Giacomo. There were two Italians of this name, father 
and son, who won renown as performers on the mandolin and 
guitar. The son, Giacomo, was born in Naples in 1730, and with 
his father came to Paris in 1753 and both appeared in public from 
that date, playing duos on the calascione, a species of mandolin 
with a long neck and much used at that time by the Neapolitans. 
The elder Merchi was for some time a professor of this instrument 
and the mandolin and guitar in Paris, and was living as late as 
1789, teaching his instruments in that city; but after that date 
nothing reliable concerning his career is known. Each year Merchi 
published collections of airs, preludes, and short pieces for guitar 
solo, and also songs with guitar accompaniment, for twenty-six of 
these volumes had appeared up to the year 1788. He visited 
England and taught the guitar and mandolin for a period, and 
published in this country works for the guitar, consisting of 
fantasias, divertissements and variations, and also numerous French, 
Italian, and English songs with guitar accompaniment. Op. 21, 
Twelve divertissements for tivo guitars, or violin and guitar, was 
dedicated to his pupil, Lady Ossory, and published by Welcker, 
London. He has composed in all about sixty works for the 
mandolin and guitar, but the only pieces now known are Op. 7, 
The scholars guide for the guitar, or Preludes as pleasing as 
useful, with airs and variations ; Op. 9, Trio for two mandolins 
and violoncello, and Op. 23, Minuets and allemaudes with 
variations. Merchi is the author also of a Treatise on the 
harmony of music executed on the guitar, containing clear 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 199 

instructions and illustrative examples on the pincer, the doitger, 
the arpeggio, the batterie, the acct., the chute, the tirade, the 
martellement, the trill, the glissaudo, etc. This volume, in 8vo, 
was published in Paris in 1777. 

Merk, Joseph, was born in Vienna, January 18, 1795 — some 
authorities give the date as March 15 — and died in Vienna, June 16, 
1852, at the age of fifty-seven. Merk, one of the greatest violon- 
cellists of any period, was particularly celebrated as a bravura player 
and he was a talented performer on the guitar, the greater part of 
his professional career being spent in playing with fellow guitarists. 
Grove states that : " his first musical studies were directed to singing, 
the guitar, and especially to the violin, which last instrument he 
was obliged to abandon (according to Fetis) in consequence of an 
accident to his arm. He then took to the violoncello and under the 
tuition of an excellent master named Schindlocker speedily acquired 
great facility on the instrument." Merk studied the guitar also 
with Philipp Schindlocker, and attained considerable ability under 
him on this instrument, and in 1815 was associated with the guitar 
virtuoso Giuliani, and Mayseder, and Hummel. With Giuliani he 
appeared in public upon various occasions and he frequently played 
the guitar at their serenades and convivial gatherings, for Merk was 
a good vocalist; his first musical studies had been devoted to singing, 
and now his guitar and voice stood him in good stead. In 1816, the 
year following the royal serenades with Giuliani and Hummel, Merk 
was appointed first violoncellist in the opera at Vienna, for up to 
this date he had been occupied with desultory engagements as 
guitarist and 'cellist. In 1823 he was appointed a professor at the 
newly founded Conservatoire and remained as such until 1848, and 
in 1831 he was playing in the Court Opera orchestra by the side of 
Lincke, the guitarist and 'cellist. When Mendelssohn visited 
Vienna in 1830 he spent considerable time in the company of Merk 
and the two became lasting friends. In 1834 Merk was appointed 
chamber virtuoso to the Emperor, and he made several successful 
concert tours visiting Prague, Dresden, Leipzig and Hamburg. 
His compositions for the violoncello are numerous, he will be 
remembered by violoncellists for his Twenty exercises, Op. 11, and 
other studies. There appeared in the catalogues of music publishers 
of Vienna and Prague small pieces for the guitar under his name, 
but these are now unobtainable. 

Merrick, Arnold, an English organist and guitarist, born at the 
latter end of the eighteenth century, and died in 1845 at Cirencester, 
Gloucestershire. In 1826 he was organist of the parish church of 
this town, and was then teaching the organ and guitar, his 
most celebrated pupil being the renowned English organist, John 
Bishop. To Merrick is due the honour of being the first translator 
of Sor's guitar method from the original Spanish text. This 
English edition was published in 1827 by Robert Cocks, London, 



200 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

and Merrick also translated from Spanish the earlier guitar method 
of Frederick Moretti, a Spanish guitarist of repute, the author of 
numerous spirited songs with guitar accompaniment and theoretical 
musical treatises. Speaking of this guitarist, Sor says : " At that 
time I had not heard of Frederick Moretti, I heard one of his 
accompaniments performed by a friend of his, and it gave me a 
high idea of his merit as a composer. I considered him as a 
flambeau which was to serve to illuminate the wandering steps of 
guitarists." Merrick was the author of a treatise on harmony, 
figured bass and composition, issued in two volumes by Robert 
Cocks, London, and he also translated into English many other 
standard musical treatises including those of Albrechtsberger. 

Mertz, Johann Kaspar, a renowned guitar virtuoso and composer, 
born in Pressburg, Hungary, August 17, 1806, and died in Vienna, 
October 14, 1856, was the son of very poor parents, and during 
childhood received some elementary instruction on the guitar and 
the flute ; the former instrument, however, soon monopolized all 
his spare moments and became his favourite. By the time he was 
twelve years of age he had commenced giving instruction on the 
guitar and flute, a necessity caused by the indigence of his parents, 
and in this uneventful manner he passed his young life, engaged in 
teaching and studying the guitar until the year 1840, when he was 
fired with an ambition to enlarge his sphere of operations. At this 
date and when thirty-four years of age he removed to Vienna and 
established himself as a teacher of the guitar in this city, and 
during the same year he had obtained renown for he appeared as 
guitar soloist at a concert given in the Court Theatre on November 29 
under the patronage of the Empress Carolina Augusta. His 
success was instantaneous, his performances being applauded to the 
echo, and for his brilliant achievements Mertz was appointed court 
guitarist to the Empress, after which he made an extended concert 
tour. He travelled through Moravia and Poland and appeared at 
Cracow and Warsaw, and from Poland he visited Russia, for in 
the Russian fortress of Modlin he played before the Court under 
the patronage of the Grand Duke Urusoff. From Russia he 
travelled to Stettin, where he gave several concerts with his usual 
success and then passed on to Breslau, performing in the Royal 
Theatre there, and also in the Royal Theatre of Berlin. 

In 1842 he wa^ giving concerts in the Board of Trade building 
at Dresden and it was in this city that he met for the first time the 
young lady destined to become his wife, Miss Josephine Plantin, a 
pianist, also on a professional tour who had just arrived in Dresden 
from Carlsbad and Teplitz, and the two were to appear at the 
same concert. Miss Plantin had heard of Mertz as a magician on 
the guitar, and was anxious to hear him, and stated that she was 
rapturously enchanted by his performances, as was the whole 
audience. This accidental meeting upon the concert stage led to a 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 201 

friendship which resulted in their undertaking a concert tour 
together in the company of Mertz's sister, and during a journey by 
stage coach from Dresden to Chemnitz they became engaged. 
Their arrival in Chemnitz proved disappointing, the city was 
practically deserted, so under the circumstances they deemed it 
inadvisable to announce a concert, and continued their journey to 
Altenburg and Leipzig. Upon their arrival in the latter city they 
advertised a concert in the Gewandhaus, but two days later Mertz 
was prostrated by illness and they were obliged to postpone the 
concert for a fortnight. They gave a second concert in the Book- 
sellers' Hall on November 13, 1842, when Mertz played three of 
his own compositions, a fantasia on Montecchi, Les adieux, and 
The carnival of Venice. The second of these, a duo concertante 
for guitar and piano introduces passages in harmonics, and in this 
he was accompanied by his fiancee, whose solos were 
Beethoven's Sonata in C minor, and a Dramatic scena by 
Kalkbrenner, and she also accompanied the vocalist, Herr Breitung. 
This concert proved a great financial success and then they again 
visited Dresden and Prague. They were married in this city 
December 14, 1842, where they remained a few months, but in 
February 1843 took up a permanent residence in Vienna as teachers 
and performers. Fortune smiled upon them and they were busily 
engaged in imparting instruction on their instruments to members 
of the royal family and the elite of society. A celebrated pupil of 
Mertz at this time, and one who obtained European fame in the 
musical world, was the guitar virtuoso, Johann Dubez, and another 
who would have become equally renowned had she been placed in 
less affluent circumstances was the Duchess Ledochofska. This 
lady, a pupil of Mertz on the mandolin, by her rare musical ability, 
brought her playing to a most artistic and brilliant perfection, and 
she was regarded as a virtuoso on this instrument, and published 
several original compositions for two mandolins, guitar and piano. 

In addition to being a virtuoso on the guitar, Mertz was also a 
talented performer on the flute, violoncello, mandolin and zither, 
and he has composed music for all these instruments. On March 15, 
the month following their arrival in Vienna, Mertz and his wife 
appeared at a concert in the Musicians' Hall, given by the Musical 
Society, under the immediate patronage and presence of the 
Empress Carolina Augusta and a fashionable and critical audience. 
They continued their residence in Vienna till the year 1846, busily 
engaged in teaching and concert appearances, when Mertz's health 
again failed him through overwork. He had suffered for some 
considerable time from a severe attack of neuralgia and visited a 
physician who prescribed strychnine. Both Mertz and his wife 
were unacquainted with the nature of this drug, a circumstance 
which very nearly brought fatal consequences, for the prescription 
was dispensed by an apothecary to Mertz's wife, who imagined 
he had given her a smaller quantity than prescribed, and so gave 

M 



202 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

the whole amount in one dose to her husband. Immediately 
Mertz showed symptoms of poisoning, and while another physician 
was being called, his wife lost no time in administering an emetic. 
His life, though for some time in a critical condition, was 
providentially saved — but only after a most severe and painful 
illness — and for eighteen months he was a confirmed invalid, 
requiring skilful medical treatment and patient nursing. During 
his convalescence they removed to the country in the suburbs of 
Vienna, where his wife's mother resided with them to give every 
attention to the invalid, for during this period his wife was still 
continuing her professional duties in Vienna ; but by the spring of 
1848, Mertz had regained his accustomed health and was able to 
resume his professional engagements. 

On the sixth of February of this year, they gave a concert in the 
Salon Schweighofer, this being the first appearance of the guitarist 
since his serious and protracted illness, and the public appreciation 
of the artist was made manifest by the enthusiasm and excitement 
displayed at this concert. Herr Sernetz says that the crush to 
obtain admission was so great that several persons nearly lost their 
lives and that the hall was packed to its utmost capacity, many 
hundreds being unable to gain admission, and at this concert one of 
the pupils of Mrs. Mertz obtained marked success. The unsettled 
state of the country just after this concert — insurrection in Austria 
and revolution in Hungary, during the spring of 1848 — was 
detrimental to all art, particularly musical, and Mertz and his wife 
suddenly found themselves bereft of pupils and engagements. Mrs. 
Mertz says that they vanished in a moment as by a wind, and this 
quiet time they spent composing, for it was on March 13, as they 
sat together in a most melancholy, desponding mood, that Mertz 
wrote the set of waltzes, the original manuscript of which is in the 
library of the I.L.G. of Munich. The affairs in Vienna became 
more critical every day, business was at a standstill, and to avoid 
being pressed into the military service, Mertz with his wife arranged 
to leave the city secretly. They desired to go through Vienna to 
Baden, but the railway lines were torn up, and in great fear and 
haste they took what luggage they could immediately lay their hands 
on and hurried to the north station, where they were compelled to 
wait for four hours as no train ran until ten o'clock that night, and 
although they had ample time to return home for more of their 
possessions, they feared to do so. They arrived at Brunn and 
essayed to give a concert, but the turbulent state of the town made 
it quite impossible, and after a month's time, when the conditions 
in Vienna had become somewhat more settled, they returned home 
with empty pockets. Straitened in circumstances, having lost all 
their pupils, and more in desperation than hope, they worked 
unceasingly to regain their former position. 

By 1851 matters had resumed their accustomed prosperity and 
during this year they gave many concerts, three being of special 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 203 

importance : that in the concert hall of the Musical Society, in the 
palace of the Grand Duke Esterhazy, and in the Salon Schweighofer. 
They also appeared at others in Pressburg, where their performance 
of the guitar and piano duet, Elisire d'amore, excited universal 
admiration. From this time until 1855 fortune smiled upon them 
and in July of that year they were commanded to appear before the 
Empress Carolina Augusta, King Ludwig I of Bavaria and the 
Grand Duke of Hesse Darmstadt in the royal palace of Salzburg. 
Mertz played a fantasia for guitar solo in harmonics, the Carnival 
of Venice, The pirates, and a fantasia from Lucia di Lammermoor 
as duets for guitar and piano, and these being as usual, his own 
compositions or arrangements. King Ludwig was most interested 
throughout the whole performance, and at the conclusion took the 
guitar from Mertz, turned it over, thoroughly examined it inside and 
out, and then remarked that he could scarcely believe the music he 
had heard with so much pleasure, could have been produced from 
such a simple instrument with but ten strings. (Mertz used a bass 
guitar, an ordinary guitar with four extra accompaniment strings). 
They also gave a recital in the mansion of President Ritter von 
Scharschmidt before a very distinguished and select audience, and 
then played at another concert of the Musical Society and afterwards 
travelled to Reichenhall. This was destined to be the last concert 
tour of Mertz, it was a veritable artistic triumph, but a circumstance 
arose which laid the foundations of his last serious illness. At the 
frontier town of Reichenhall a dispute arose concerning his 
instruments and strings, for the customs' officers charged him with 
carrying on an illicit trade in these goods, although he informed 
them that the two guitars were used for duets, and stated that 
his method of playing necessitated a good supply of gut strings. 
(Mertz's style of playing, his rapid reiteration of the same 
note and frequent tremolo, shortened the life of the strings, and he 
consequently provided for this). The officer intimated that he 
would like to hear him play and prove his assertion, and while 
Mertz was preparing to do so a terrific storm burst, so to avoid 
further argument he paid all charges, packed up his guitars and 
luggage, but not before he was deluged with rain, for so sudden 
and severe was the storm that part of his luggage was washed 
away and he himself did not entirely recover from the effects. 

Leaving Reichenhall they travelled to Gemunden and there gave 
a very successful concert and also played at a banquet given by the 
Duchess Julien. From Gemunden they journeyed by coach to 
Hall, and now misfortune seemed to follow them, for as soon as the 
journey commenced one of the horses lost a shoe, another fell 
lame, while the third was in very poor condition, so under the 
circumstances the passengers walked up the hills, which were not 
few, and as it was very warm Mertz took off his overcoat and 
placed it on his arm. In the breast pocket of this coat he carried 
his pocket-book and purse, and when they reached the termination 



204 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

of their journey, great was his consternation to find that he had 
lost all. In Hall they gave one concert which quite made good 
their financial losses and from this town they returned home to 
Vienna, but the following winter proved a great trial to Mertz ; his 
health, which was never robust, changed considerably and he 
became very weak, and in July of the following year, 1856, in order 
to recuperate, spent several weeks at Graein on the Danube, but 
derived no lasting benefit from the change. There was a slight 
temporary improvement in his health and he was induced to give 
one concert in this town, but during his performance it was plainly 
evident that the health of the guitarist was completely shattered, for 
it was with great pain that he completed his solos. It was his 
desire to return home by water so they took steamer from Graein, 
but when near Tulu, the vessel ran aground and the passengers had 
no alternative but to remain on board all night, for it was found 
impossible to float the boat. The night was very chilly and during 
the following day they were transferred to an open cattle boat, and 
this proved the final stroke which completely shattered his frail 
constitution, for he contracted a dangerous chill and it was with the 
greatest difficulty that he arrived home. A physician was called 
immediately, who ordered him to bed ; he did not rise again but 
lingered for just under a month, until released by death October 14, 
1856. No portrait of this artist was ever made, and one of his last 
compositions, written several weeks previous to his death, was the 
Concerto for guitar solo, Op. 65. 

In 1856, a Russian nobleman, M. Makaroff, residing in Brussels, 
offered two prizes for the best compositions written for the guitar, 
this offer being made to stimulate writers and players of the 
instrument. One of the last undertakings of Mertz was to submit 
the manuscript of his concerto in this competition. Thirty-one 
competitors submitted sixty-four different compositions to the judges, 
who were musicians of European repute, Leonard the violinist ; 
Servais and Demunck, violoncellists ; Blaes, clarionetist ; Kufferath, 
composer, and Bender, clarionetist and conductor of the State 
Military Band — all professors in the Brussels Conservatoire of Music. 
This jury, under the presidency of M. Makaroff, adjudicated upon 
the sixty-four compositions on December 10, 1856, and the first 
prize of ^"40 was awarded to J. K. Mertz of Vienna for his 
contributions : Fantasie Hongroise, Fantasie original and Le 
gondolier. Mertz did not hear this good news for he passed away 
a short time previous to the publication of the result, and these three 
compositions, Op. 65, were afterwards published by Haslinger, 
Vienna. The second prize was awarded to the guitarist, Napoleon 
Coste of Paris, who submitted four compositions, Op. 27, 28, 29 and 
30. As a performer and writer for the guitar, Mertz is ranked 
amongst the foremost and most illustrious ; his original compositions, 
transcriptions, and operatic arrangements are gems of beauty. He 
was a musician of exceptional attainments, a guitarist of the first 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 205 

order, and a poetic and sublime writer for his instrument. With 
very few exceptions his compositions are innovations, the shades of 
emotion and style blend perfectly, and like a magician, he seemed 
possessed of the power to transfigure whatever he touched into some 
weird crystal of which no duplicate is possible, no imitation desirable. 
He was a great inventor, not only as regards the technical treatment 
of the guitar, but also as regards his compositions for the instrument, 
and whatever Mertz wrote was well deserving of being written, for 
it appeared in a new and beautiful guise. In his compositions he 
leans to the poetic and romantic rather than the heroic and austere ; 
but be his make-up ever so exotic, he invariably makes amends by 
the exquisite refinement of his diction — a vulgar melody or a 
commonplace harmony seems to have been impossible to his very 
nature. tt 

An American guitarist, wrote some years since : In remembering 
our artists of from one-half to a century ago, is it not as Shakespeare's 
Mark Antony remarked over the remains of all that was mortal of 
the great Csesar. ' The evil that men do lives after them, the good 
is often interred with their bones.' For it is true that the grand and 
sublime compositions of J. K. Mertz, Sor, Ferranti, and others have 
lived to be monuments to their names, and if the public was as 
appreciative of the guitar as the violin and piano, monuments would 
bedeck many cities — erected to perpetuate the names of our famous 
composers for the guitar. While wandering through the streets of 
old, historic Vienna, and seeing monuments that had been raised 
to Mozart, Beethoven and other grand old masters, I wondered if 
it were possible that such a city could have forgotten Mertz, who 
performed for their princes and nobility, and who dedicated many 
of his compositions and arrangements to their names. Could it be 
possible that the composer of hundreds of beautiful themes — though 
it be only for the guitar, that were neglected and laid on the shelf, 
covered with the dust of time — were himself forgotten ; but yet it 
was so, and even they who had published his music could only give 
an approximate guess as to the date of his death. His works live, 
however, in those who study the instrument to which he devoted 
his talents, and with all performers who study the guitar, though it 
be in far distant America, across the water, J. K. Mertz's memory 
will never die." 

Mertz was a prolific composer, although the majority of his works 
consist of transcriptions and arrangements of classical compositions 
for guitar solo, guitar duo, or guitar and piano, which were issued 
without opus numbers, and he was the author of a Theoretical and 
practical school for the guitar, published by Haslinger, Vienna. 
This method, which is very brief, consists of only twenty-nine pages 
of printed matter, the first ten treat of the theory of music while 
the last six are devoted to fifteen short studies. It cannot be 
regarded in the same light as the more complete and detailed 
methods of Carulli and Sor, yet, like the compositions of Mertz, this 



206 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

method displays great originality, for from the very commencement 
of the practical part he insists upon the alternate fingering of the 
right hand — a practice which must be obtained with great facility 
and delicacy by any guitarist desirous of rendering satisfactorily the 
compositions of Mertz. This method of alternate fingering and 
repetition of the same note was carried to a most marvellous 
perfection by the artist himself, and his solo playing resembled the 
sostenuto of the mandolin accompanied by a guitar. 

Mertz's first composition, an original Hungarian dance, dedicated 
to Anton von Josipovich, Duke of Turopolya, was published by 
Haslinger, Vienna, who also issued the five succeeding original 
compositions — melodies, polonaises and nocturnes for solo guitar. 
Op. 4, Three nocturnes, is dedicated to Madame Aloyse Streibig, 
wife of the music publisher of Pressburg, and Op. 6, The carnival 
of Venice, variations for guitar solo, was a favourite with its author. 
Under the title of Opera revue, Op. 8, Mertz wrote thirty-three 
classic transcriptions for guitar solo of favourite operas, these 
arrangements being vastly superior to anything of the kind ever 
published, either previously or at a later date, and were also issued 
by Haslinger. Six waltzes, Op. 9, dedicated to Josephine Haslinger, 
the widow of the publisher, and Op. 13, Barden-Kldnge, thirteen 
original tone pictures, purest gems of melody, were dedicated to his 
friend Charles Haslinger, son of the publisher, and who, at his father's 
death, succeeded to the business. Op. 14 and 15, Two fantasias 
for guitar solo, Hoffman of Prague; Op. 16, 17, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28, 
29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 62, 63, 85, 86, 87, 88 and 100, operatic arrange- 
ments for guitar published under the title of The guitarist's portfolio, 
by Aibl, Leipzig, and Op. 33 and 50, also issued by the same pub- 
lisher, as was Op. 52, Songs with guitar accompaniment. Mertz 
wrote several duos for guitar and terz guitar, and guitar and piano, 
of which Op. 51, 89, 40, 41 and 60 are the principal, although these 
and others were published simultaneously by Aibl, Leipzig, and 
Ricordi, Milan. Op. 32, Trio for guitar, violin or flute and viola, 
and three compositions for zither and violin, Aibl; Op. 64, Two 
volumes of Alpine songs for zither, and Op. 65, Three pieces for 
guitar solo, previously mentioned, Haslinger, Vienna. Mertz also 
wrote innumerable transcriptions of the dances of Strauss, and the 
songs of Schubert, etc., for guitar solo. Among his unpublished 
manuscripts are Original waltz for guitar and piano; Fantasias for 
the guitar on ' Montecchi; and ' Norma ' ; Original fantasia in D 
minor ; a Mazurka; Les Adieux, a duo concertante for guitar and 
piano with flageolet accompaniment; Themes from ' II Pirata,' 
' Elixire d'amore,' ' Lucia di Lammermoor, , and a Romance. 

He was ably assisted, both in his concert appearances and com- 
position, by his wife, a musician, who published several pieces for 
piano solo. Gloggl of Vienna issued a tarantella of her composition 
and Haslinger published Op. 5, Two mazurkas for piano, dedicated 
to the Baroness Julie de Schulzig. She survived her husband 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 207 

many years, living to an advanced age, and during her later years 
was reduced to a lonely and destitute condition. After the death of 
her husband in 1856, she endeavoured to continue her teaching but 
was forced through infirmity and age to relinquish her profession. 
She died in Vienna, August 5, 1903, at the age af eighty-four. In 
1901 she loaned for exhibition several of her husband's manuscripts, 
and at the third anniversary of the League of Guitarists held 
November 3 of that year in Augsburg, under the presidency of Otto 
Hammerer, the society endeavoured to raise by subscription a 
sufficient sum to purchase from the widow his remaining manuscripts ; 
but it was not until some time later that they acquired possession, 
and they are now preserved in the society's library, Munich. 

Methfessel, Albert Gottlieb, born October 6, 1785 at Stadtilm 
Thuringia, died March 23, 1869, at Heckenbeck, near Gandersheim. 
He and his elder brother Frederick were favourite song composers, 
and both have written many vocal works with accompaniments for 
the guitar. In 1820, Albert Gottlieb was chamber musician in 
Rudolstadt, and two years later was engaged in Hamburg as 
musical director. In 1832 he was appointed court capellmeister at 
Brunswick, where he remained till the year 1842, after which date 
nothing much was heard of him. He wrote in addition to vocal 
solos, part songs for male voices many of which, as for instance, 
Kriegers Abscliied, Rheinweinlied and Deutscher Ehrenpreis, are 
still sung by German choral societies. He also published piano 
sonatas, etc., and is the author of an oratorio, Das befreite 
Jerusalem, and an opera, The Prince of Basra. His elder brother 
Frederick, born at Stadtilm, August 27, 1771, and died there 
May 1807, was destined by his parents for the church, and studied 
music in his leisure— the guitar, piano, violin and singing. In 
1796 he entered the University of Leipzig as a student of theology, 
but still continued his study of music, and ultimately accepted a 
position as preceptor in Alsbach, then Ratzebourg in Mecklembourg, 
Coburg, and other towns. His passion for music eventually 
predominated, and as he could obtain no satisfaction apart from 
this art, he returned to his native town and established himself as a 
teacher of music and a vocal composer. During the last year of 
his life he was engaged in the composition of an opera, Faust, but 
he was already suffering from the disease which terminated fatally, 
for his death occurred before the completion of the opera. He 
published many collections of songs with guitar accompaniments, 
some of which with those of his brother were issued by Breitkopf 
& Hartel, Leipzig, and Schott, Mayence. Op. 7, Song for voice 
with guitar, and Twelve songs for voice with guitar or piano, 
Simrock, Bonn. 

Miceli, Giorgio, born in Reggio, Calabria, Italy, October 21, 1836, 
and was living in his native land in 1876. His family were in 
comfortable circumstances, and when seven years of age he 



208 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

commenced the study of music under his uncle who taught him the 
mandolin. Through taking part in the revolution of 1847 his father 
was condemned to the galleys, and the child was taken to Naples, 
and here he became a pupil, first of Gallo and afterwards of Lillo. 
When he was sixteen years of age in 1852, his operetta Zoe, was 
produced with success in the Theatre Nuovo. Forty consecutive 
performances of this operetta were given, and the year following 
he produced another with the same success. The authorities of 
Naples prohibited the performance of one of his stage plays after 
seven representations, and Miceli was forced to devote himself to 
teaching. During 1864-65 he entered several musical competitions 
of Naples and Florence, and a trio and quartet of his composition 
obtained high honours. In 1870 Miceli was commissioned to write 
a Grand serenade for mandolin band for the fetes of the Maritime 
Exhibition of Naples, and this work was well received, being 
reproduced in the theatres the following year, and he was knighted 
in 1875. He was the author of songs with mandolin and guitar 
accompaniment, compositions for mandolins and guitars, and other 
instrumental music. His son Giuseppe studied the mandolin and 
composition under his father, and he has also published many 
compositions for this instrument. Venturini of Florence issued 
several, the principal of which was Danza Zingaresca, for 
mandolin with piano accompaniment. 

Miksch, a German musician, who was born about 1770, in 
Georgenthal, Bohemia, and died at Dresden in 1813. He was a 
younger brother of Johann Aloys Miksch, who, commencing towards 
the close of 1819, was for some years chorus-master under Weber 
in the Court Opera, Dresden. With his brother he studied in 
Italy, Johann being considered a first rate teacher of singing, and 
the younger brother a virtuoso on the waldhorn and guitar. He 
was a member of the Court Orchestra in Dresden under Weber, and 
remained in this position until his death. Riemann states that 
Miksch the younger was the creator of the modern style of guitar 
playing. 

Mirecki, Francois, born at Cracow in 1794, was a Polish 
dramatic and instrumental composer, principally for piano and 
guitar. He was the son of musical parents and received musical 
instruction at a very early age, for when but six years old, in 1800, 
he made his first public appearance on the piano, playing a concerto 
of Haydn. In 1814 he was in Vienna, where he took up the study 
of the guitar, and in this city he became associated with the guitar 
virtuoso Giuliani, Hummel, Moscheles and Beethoven. In 1817 
he visited Paris, where he wrote and published many of his 
compositions, and among his works — which consist principally of 
piano pieces, Italian songs, instrumental quartets, and an opera, 
Notte negli Appennini, in two acts with Polish libretto, published 
by Ricordi, Milan — are divertisements for guitar and piano. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 209 

Mirecki, is regarded one of the national song writers of Poland, 
and a collection of vocal duets and trios, composed in 1720 by 
Clari with a basso continuo, he arranged with a modern accompani- 
ment for the piano, and also an edition with the guitar. In these, 
Mirecki's novel treatment of fugue, and his masterly arrangement 
prove him a sound musician. They were published by Carli, Paris 
in 1823, and other of his compositions for guitar and grand operas 
remain in manuscript. 

Molino, Don Francois V., an Italian guitarist, violinist 
and composer, was born in Florence in 1775 and died in Paris in 
1847. He acquired the Spanish prefix to his name while living in 
Spain and several of his published compositions bear this title. 
He was taught the violin and guitar when a youth in Florence and 
made such extraordinary progress that he was enabled to devote 
himself entirely to the art of music through the influence of friends. 
After completing his studies under Pugnani in Turin and winning 
local applause for his performances, he travelled as violinist and 
guitarist at the beginning of the nineteenth century and continued 
a roving career for a period. He wandered through Italy and 
Germany and in 1820 was in Paris, where he remained for a time 
as a violin and guitar virtuoso and teacher. In that city his playing 
was accorded great praise and he received much success and 
patronage, for he was a remarkable and brilliant performer upon 
both instruments ; he enjoyed popularity as a teacher, and his 
compositions for the violin and guitar were sought for by the 
Parisian publishers. This unromantic life did not satisfy the 
roving nature of Molino, for after several months' residence in Paris 
he journeyed to Spain as a virtuoso. In Madrid he appeared 
before the Court and was received with such marked favour that in 
a very short time he was serving as an officer in the Spanish army. 
For some years he was engaged with military duties ; but, owing to 
a change in the government he was forced to quit Spain. At a 
subsequent date he made a visit to London where he was engaged 
for a season teaching the guitar to the most fashionable members 
of society, and after publishing several of his compositions he again 
returned to Paris. Molino was welcomed in the first rank of 
society in whatever country he travelled, and he also enjoyed the 
patronage of royalty, one of his appointments being court musician to 
the King of Sardinia. He was the author of numerous compositions 
for stringed instruments, published principally during 1800-1820, 
and also of a New and complete method for the guitar, which was 
published in the Italian and French languages by Gambara, of 
Paris. This method rapidly passed several editions and was so 
successful that a translation of the same work in the German and 
French languages was issued by Breitkopf & Hartel, of Leipzig, 
which also ran through several issues although it did not receive 
the amount of success accorded the original edition. It was a 



210 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

comprehensive volume of about seventy pages, published in first- 
class style and contained numerous diagrams of the guitar, intro- 
ductory chapters on the elements of music and concluded with' 
original preludes, sonatas and rondos for the guitar with violin 
accompaniment. 

While in London, Molino wrote several collections of Spanish 
serenades with guitar and piano, these being described at the time 
of publication, " Collections of the most beautiful airs characteristic 
of the national melodies of Spain." The first volume of thirty-one 
pages, folio, contained a list of subscribers, while the second volume 
dedicated to Lady Antrobus was issued by subscription by Clementi 
& Co., London. Molino's principal work was his Op. 56, a Grand 
concerto for guitar with full orchestral accompaniment of violins, 
clarionets, oboes, horns, altos and basses, and this interesting 
composition was published by Lemoine, Paris. Nocturnes for 
violin and guitar with flute obbligato, Op. 37 and 38 ; 
Op. 4 and 45, Trios for violin or flute, viola and guitar, were 
published by Breitkopf & Hartel, and the first of which is dedicated 
to Count Durazzo ; Op. 36, 44 and 46, Duos for guitar and piano, 
all published by Lemoine, Paris, and Andre, Offenbach ; Op. 1, 6, 
11, 13, 15, 21, 28 and 43, Solos for guitar ; Op. 2, 3, 7, 10, 22 and 
29, Sonatas for violin and guitar, published respectively by Andre, 
Offenbach ; Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig, and also in Paris, under 
the title of The Modern Lyre ; Op. 5, 12, 18, 31, 35 and 21, Studies 
for the guitar, the last number being dedicated to the guitarist, 
Meissonnier, and published by private subscription ; Op. 9, Twelve 
waltzes for guitar, on the title page of which, Molino announces 
himself as professor of the violin in the chapel at the court of the 
King of Sardinia. Molino issued numerous similar compositions of 
lesser pretensions, the chief of which were allegrettos, contre danse, 
romances, waltzes and rondos, etc., many of these being published 
by George & Manby, London ; but as a composer he is now quite 
unheard of. 

Molitor, J., a guitarist who was born in Liege, Belgium, but took 
up his residence in Vienna, early in life. He was living in this 
city as a teacher of the guitar and virtuoso during the years 
1800-1820, and he published in Vienna numerous duos for violin 
and guitar, trios for violin, flute and guitar, and guitar solos. Andre 
of Offenbach, published his Op. 7, Grand sonata for guitar solo ; 
Funeral march for guitar solo, was issued by Richault, Paris, and 
the same firm published also Op. 6, Trio for violin, flute and 
guitar. 

Montesardo, Giacomo, an Italian guitarist, who was born, in 
Florence, and flourished during the seventeenth century. He is the 
author of a method for the guitar, published under the title of Nexv 
method for learning to play dances, etc., on the Spanish guitar. 

Moscheles, Ignaz, the foremost pianist after Hummel and 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 21 1 

before Chopin, was born in Prague, May 30, 1794. To the musical 
world he is known only as a piano virtuoso and composer ; but he 
was also a guitarist and composer for this instrument, which in the 
sequel he greatly admired. For a considerable period of his life he 
was an intimate friend of several of the most renowned guitar 
virtuosi, and frequently appeared with them in their concerts. 
Moscheles' love for the guitar was undoubtedly inherited from his 
father, an amateur guitarist whose chief delight after business 
hours was to amuse himself and his friends by playing the guitar 
and singing to the accompaniment of this instrument. Ignaz 
Moscheles received his first musical instruction, which consisted of 
the rudiments of music and the elements of guitar playing, from 
his father, and in his biography, published in 1872, he says : " My 
father, a cloth merchant by trade, found leisure with all his business 
to keep up his music, which he loved devotedly. He played the 
guitar and sang well." Young Moscheles' precocious aptitude for 
music aroused the interest of Dyonis Weber, the director of the 
Prague Conservatoire, and he was admitted as a student of the 
piano, remaining until just after his fourteenth year, when the 
death of his father compelled him to rely on his own resources for 
a living. He quitted his native city for Vienna, obtained pupils 
for the piano and guitar, and devoted his leisure to the study of 
composition, first under Albrechtsberger and later under Salieri. 
In 1815 he commenced his career as a piano virtuoso, and during 
the following ten years, with but little intermission, led the life of 
a travelling virtuoso. Soon after his residence in Vienna he 
obtained renown as a pianist and became intimately associated with 
the guitar virtuoso Giuliani. At this time Giuliani was the popular 
favourite of the Viennese musical world, and his public association 
with the pianist Moscheles, considerably increased the reputation of 
both artists, for they played duos for piano and guitar at numerous 
fashionable concerts, their cheval de bataille being Moscheles' 
Grand duo concertante for guitar and piano, Op. 20, and also 
other of Giuliani's celebrated duos for the same instruments. In 
1816 Moscheles visited Germany, and on October 6 appeared as 
soloist at the famous Gewandhaus concerts in Leipzig, and it is 
interesting to note that the programme upon this occasion included 
a cavatina for guitar solo. 

During this visit to Leipzig, Moscheles made the acquaintance 
of Mendelssohn and the guitarist Blum, and a lasting friendship 
terminated only by death, existed between these artists. Moscheles 
returned to Vienna and associated himself with a party of 
instrumentalists — a combination of recognized masters of their 
respective instruments. This party originally consisted of Giuliani 
guitarist, Hummel pianist, Mayseder violinist, and Merk 'cellist; 
but when Hummel undertook a concert tour in 1818 he was 
succeeded by Moscheles as pianist, and this organization of artists 
of such high repute was in constant demand, appearing at all the 



212 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

royal functions and musical soirees. All these musicians were 
competent performers on the guitar; Hummel, who had preceded 
Moscheles, was no exception, and among their engagements is one 
worthy of record — a series of six concerts or serenades given by 
Prince Francois Pallfy in the Royal Botanical Gardens of 
Schonbrun. For this occasion Hummel composed Op. 71, a 
vocal solo with chorus and accompaniments for violin, 'cello, guitar 
and piano, entitled, La sentinelle. He had previously written a 
series of grand serenades for these engagements which had been 
performed with immense success. Moscheles now played with the 
party in the celebrated Augarten and at the Dukarten concerts ; 
but the year 1821 saw the dissolution of this excellent band of 
musicians, and for their last public performances Moscheles 
composed a romance for voices, with German and Italian words 
and accompaniments for piano, guitar and violin. This work aptly 
entitled, Der abschied der Troubadours (The departure of the 
troubadours,) was published by Diabelli & Co., Vienna. Giuliani 
visited Italy, his native land, and Moscheles travelled to Holland, 
for early the following year in 1822, he played in Paris, subsequently 
in London, and in 1824, was residing in Berlin, when he gave 
pianoforte lessons to Felix Mendelssohn, then a youth of fifteen. 

In January, 1825, Moscheles visited London in the company of 
the guitarist Schulz and his sons, Leonard and Edouard. Leonard 
and his father were guitarists ; the brother played the physharmonica, 
and at a later date became celebrated as a pianist. Moscheles had 
performed in Vienna with these guitarists, and it was through his 
recommendation that the three artists appeared at a Philharmonic 
concert in London, in 1828, and on January 9, 1825, they were 
commanded to appear at the Royal Palace, where they performed 
Moscheles' Grand duo concertante, Op. 20, originally composed for 
guitar and piano, but for this occasion arranged by the author for 
guitars, physharmonica and piano. After his marriage, in 1826, 
Moscheles left Hamburg and chose London as his permanent 
residence, and from this date he took part as pianist in all the 
important concerts given by guitarists ; his name was frequently 
associated with the youthful artists Regondi and Pelzer, and when 
Giuliani arrived in England he received practical assistance from 
his former associate, Moscheles. 

In 1846, when Mendelssohn founded the Conservatoire of Music 
in Leipzig, he invited his friend and teacher, Moscheles, to fill the 
position of first professor of the piano. Moscheles commenced his 
new duties the same year and the prosperity of this famous institution 
was in a large measure due to his indefatigable zeal. He spent the 
summer of 1860 in Paris, and while there an interesting conversation 
with Rossini is recorded in Moscheles' biography. This conversation 
which was on general musical matters, led to the growing tendency of 
the public to esteem noise and power in place of refinement and 
delicacy. He said to Moscheles, respecting many players, ' They 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 213 

not only thump the piano, but the arm chair, and even the floor." 
Rossini then talked of the qualities of different instruments and said 
that the guitarist Sor. and the mandolin player Vimercati, proved the 
possibility of obtaining great artistic results with slender means. " I 
(Moscheles) happened to have heard both these artists and could 
quite endorse his views. Rossini told me that, arriving late one 
evening at a small Italian town, he had already retired to rest when 
the mandolinist Vimercati, the resident capellmeister, sent him an 
invitation to be present at a performance of one of his operas. In 
those days he was not yet as hard-hearted as he is now, when he 
persistently refuses to be present at a performance of his works ; 
Rossini not only went to the theatre, but played the double-bass as 
a substitute for the right man who was not forthcoming." Moscheles 
died in Leipzig, March 10, 1870, and his Characteristic studies for 
the piano occupy a place in the classical literature of the instrument, 
which no subsequent development can supersede. He numbered 
among his intimate friends many celebrated guitarists, and the 
interest he displayed in the instrument and its players was 
considerable. Among his published compositions for the guitar we 
have the Grand duo concertante for guitar and piano, Op. 20, 
published by Artaria, Vienna ; The departure of the troubadours, 
a romance for voices with guitar, violin, piano and 'cello, published 
by Diabelli & Co., Vienna, and Moscheles made an arrangement 
for harp and piano of Hummel's Duo for guitar and piano, Op. 53. 

Mounsey, Elizabeth, born in London, October, 1819, and was 
living there in 1880. There were two sisters of this name, both of 
whom made a name in the musical world, and were associated with 
Mendelssohn during his visits to London. The younger sister 
Elizabeth, developed considerable musical ability at a very early 
age and became celebrated as organist and guitarist, for she was 
appointed organist of St. Peter's, Cornhill, London in 1834, when 
only fourteen years of age, retaining that position till 1880. 
The organ of this church, a fine instrument by Hill, was 
one of those on which Mendelssohn frequently played during his 
visits to London. Miss Mounsey studied the guitar as a child and 
appeared as a public performer on this instrument in London during 
the years 1833 and 1834. During these years she devoted much 
time to the study of the higher technique of the guitar, and her 
appearances as soloist elicited the warmest praise, and in 1842 she 
was elected a member of the Philharmonic Society. During his 
sixth visit to England, Mendelssohn conducted the Birmingham 
Festival, and when he returned to London, September 30, 1839, he 
gave an organ recital in conjunction with Miss Mounsey, at St. 
Peter's, and after the service wrote a few bars of music as a 
souvenir to this lady and the manuscript now ornaments the 
vestry of this church. Miss Mounsey was a contemporary of the 
guitar virtuoso, Regondi, and upon his advice she devoted herself 



214 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

to the study of the English concertina, for which instrument she 
has written and published by Wheatstone several compositions. 
Grove states that she has published many works for the guitar, 
organ and piano ; if such be the case they are seldom seen. 

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756, 
died in Vienna, December 5, 1791, an immortal genius, who has 
composed for the mandolin. His father Leopold — an excellent 
violinist, who held an important musical position in Salzburg — was 
the author of a celebrated method for the violin, which, published 
in several languages, passed many editions. For a considerable 
period this was the only method for the violin, and it gives ample 
evidence that the author was a man of culture far above the 
average. He immediately discerned the immense musical gifts of 
his two children, Wolfgang and Maria Anna, and devoted himself 
unreservedly to their musical education. Such rapid strides did the 
children make that he travelled with them as infant prodigies, and 
they performed before most of the European sovereigns at a very 
tender age. During 1770, they appeared in Italy, and for the next 
three years practically lived in this country. They travelled as far 
south as Naples, and it was doubtless the periods of residence in 
this country that made him so familiar with the mandolin. When 
he was twenty-one years of age, Mozart, accompanied by his 
mother, passed through Germany on his way to Paris, and his 
mother, who had been in indifferent health while in this city, 
became seriously ill and died in her son's arms, July 3, 1778, so the 
following September with a heavy heart he left Paris for Salzburg, 
his home. Mourning the loss of his mother, disappointed in his 
first love affair, and with all his cherished hopes frustrated he 
arrived in Salzburg, and during the years 1779-80, wrote much, and 
among his varied and numerous compositions of this date is the 
song with mandolin accompaniment, Come, dearest mandolin, 
come ! This was composed in 1780 and the poetry, viewed in the 
light of the sad circumstances of this period, convey a deeper and 
more intense meaning. It is not known when the song with 
mandolin accompaniment entitled, Contentment, was composed, 
presumably at a little later date when he was living in Prague, for 
the year following the writing of Come, dearest mandolin, come ! 
he removed to Vienna, where his destiny was accomplished. After 
the success of his opera Figaro, in this city, he received an invitation 
from Prague, and the commission to write an opera, so in 
September, 1787, Mozart with his wife arrived there and took 
lodgings in the Kohlmarkt, the music publishing quarter. During 
their abode in Prague, the opera conductor Kucharz, who was- a 
mandolin virtuoso, became an intimate friend of the Mozarts and 
the association of these two musicians is of interest to those who 
study the mandolin and its literature. Mozart's favourite resort 
was the vineyard of Duschek at Koschirz in the suburbs of the city, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



215 



and to this day are shown his room and the stone table at which he 
was accustomed to sit working at his score, often in the midst of 
skittle playing and conversation. The villa is now named 

"Come, dearest mandolin, come." 

Song with Mandolin Accompaniment 
Composed by MOZART in 1780. 



" Come, dearest mandolin, come, 
Thou shalt my only solace be, 

Thy silver strings my soul will thrill 
With joy and love and ecstasy." 




[Zither, or Cither, mentioned in the text of the song, is the old German poetical 
name for mandolin, the strings of which were tuned in pairs and vibrated by a 
plectrum. It bears no resemblance whatever to the modern Zither.] 



216 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



" Bertramka." and on a slight eminence in the grounds, a bust of 
Mozart by Seidan has been placed, which was solemnly unveiled 
June 3, 1876 by the owner of the property, and at the same time a 
hitherto unpublished letter of Mozart, dated from Prague, 
October 15, 1787 was printed. 

Mozart was most anxious concerning the success of his new opera, 
although, as he assured his friend Kucharz, he had spared neither 
pains nor labour in order to produce something really good for 
Prague. On the evening before the representation, the overture was 
still wanting and he worked at it far into the night, while his wife 

" Contentment." 

Song with Mandolin Accompaniment 

Composed by MOZART. 

Poetry by Joh. Martin Miller. 




GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



217 



kept him supplied with punch and told him fairy stories to keep him 
awake! Sleep, however, overcame him and he was compelled to 
rest for a few hours ; but at seven in the morning it was completed, 
the copyist received the score and it was played at sight in the 
evening, and the first performance of Don Giovanni took place 
October 29th, 1787. Upon the appearance of Mozart in the 
orchestra he was greeted with enthusiastic applause and a triple 
flourish of trumpets ; the opera itself was received from beginning to 
end with rapturous marks of approval. Perhaps the most sublime 
of all operas, this has one manifest superiority ; all the moods and 

' Deh vieni alia finestra." 

(Come to the window, dearest). 

Serenade with Mandolin Accompaniment from 

"DON GIOVANNI." 

Opera Composed by MOZART in 1787. 

Allegretto. 




218 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

situations are essentially musical, for there is scarcely a feeling 
known to humanity which is not expressed in some of the situations 
or characters. In the score of this opera, Mozart writes for the 
mandolin the accompaniment to the famous serenade Deh vieni 
(Come to the window, dearest), a passionate love song, which, sung by 
Don Giovanni, breathes the very soul of tenderness in music, with its 
obbligato of delicate, staccato arpeggios for the mandolin, accom- 
panied by the pianissimo, pizzicato notes of the strings of the orchestra. 
At the first performance of this opera in Prague, Mozart conducted, 
while the opera conductor Kucharz played this mandolin part 
under the great master's direction. Berlioz, in his treatise on 
instrumentation, deplores the fact that the mandolin is not used more 
frequently in the orchestra, and says that " even at the Opera (the 
last place in the world where such liberties should be taken) they 
venture to play the mandolin part of Don Giovanni pizzicato on the 
violins or on guitars. The quality of these instruments has not the 
keen delicacy of that for which they are substituted, and Mozart 
quite well knew what he was about in choosing the mandolin for 
accompanying the amorous lay of his hero." Grove writes, "The 
pizzicato of the violins is of a different colour of tone and offers but 
a poor substitute." Mozart had previously written the canzonets 
with mandolin accompaniment; he was thoroughly aware of the 
charming arpeggios and staccato effects wherein the instrument 
excels, and this is manifested in all he has written for the mandolin, 
for they bear the same style and character. It is worthy of notice 
too, that his pupil Hummel also wrote for this instrument. 

It has been asserted that the accompaniment to Deh Vieni, 
was written for the Spanish mandolin, and that this was the 
instrument Mozart had in view when writing his score, for 
the plot of the opera is laid in Spain, and the characters are 
Spanish. It is doubtful whether Mozart understood the Spanish 
mandolin, or bandurria, most probably the instrument actually 
written for was the Milanese type ; but the inclusion of the 
mandolin in the score of this, the chef d'ceuvre of operas, and by 
such an immortal genius — if it were the only such instance on 
record — is a sufficient justification for its adoption as an integral 
part of the orchestra. Mozart died of malignant typhoid fever in 
Vienna, December 5, 1791, at the premature age of thirty-five, and 
was buried the following day in a pauper's grave outside the city. 

Munier, Carlo, born in Naples, the home of the mandolin, 
July 15, 1859, and died in Florence, February 10, 1911. Munier 
stands at the head of all composers, performers, and writers for the 
mandolin of any period, an inspired artist in every department of 
musical art, a colossus who towers above the mightiest, and whose 
genius is justly recognised wherever the instrument is played or 
known. It would seem as if fate had predestined him the musical 
genius who was to uplift the mandolin and had decreed and 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 219 

prepared his advent for several previous generations. Munier 
inherited his profound love of the mandolin from his ancestors who 
were engaged in its construction and improvement for more than a 
century, and figuratively speaking, he was born with a mandolin in 
his hands. He was grand nephew of the celebrated Pasquale 
Vinaccia of Naples, the perfector of the modern Italian mandolin. 
The name of Vinaccia is emblazoned amongst the most exhalted of 
the world's stringed instrument makers, and it was the inventive 
genius of this member of the family — born July 20, 1806 in Naples, 
and died there in 1882 — that gave the instrument its steel strings 
and consequent machine head, who extended the compass of its 
fingerboard and enlarged and improved the tonal capabilities and 
qualities of the instrument. Previous to this date, the mandolin 
was of smaller dimensions, its sound hole was circular, similar to 
that of the guitar, the bridge was a short narrow strip of ivory, 
and the body was rather smaller, being composed of from fifteen to 
twenty narrow fluted ribs. Its strings were of gut, similar to those 
of the violin ; they were tuned in pairs by ebony, or ivory pegs, and 
the compass of the instrument was very limited, the fingerboard 
possessing usually twelve frets. The instruments of this period 
were decorated elaborately, their necks being veneered with 
tortoiseshell inlaid with strips of ivory, and a triangular design in 
tortoiseshell and pearl was inlaid on the table between the bridge 
and tailpins. The mandolin of to-day is the legacy of Pasquale 
Vinaccia, whose portrait is reproduced, and Munier was grand- 
nephew of this instrument maker and nephew of the celebrated 
present day mandolin makers, the brothers Gennaro and Achille 
Vinaccia who are honoured by the royal appointment of mandolin 
makers to the Court of Italy. 

If heredity is to be considered, there is no surprise then that 
Munier devoted his entire life to the uplifting and advancement of 
the mandolin — it was an innate love for the instrument that led 
and shaped his whole career. His immediate relatives were 
practical and theoretical artists on the instrument, and everything 
in his childhood's environments appertained to the mandolin — its 
manufacture, its performers, its study, and when with these 
circumstances we combine the rare musical genius of the man, 
it is easily understood how he became in time universally 
recognised as the greatest musical authority on the instrument. 
Young Munier commenced serious study of the mandolin in Naples, 
under Carmine de Laurentiis, a reputed mandolinist and guitarist, 
and the author of a method for the mandolin, which is founded 
upon an excellent system, and contains progressive studies most 
admirable in their conception, (see Laurentiis) Carlo Munier 
made wonderful progress under Laurentiis, and after a time 
commenced the study of the guitar also, under the same master, 
who laid the foundation of a correct system of mechanism, and it 
was left to Munier's genius to strike out original paths in his 



220 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

advancement. At the age of fifteen he studied the piano under 
Galiero and Cesi, both of whom enjoyed enviable reputations in 
Naples, and with D'Arienzo, Munier studied harmony and 
counterpoint. 

He was nineteen years of age when he quitted the Conservatoire 
of S'Pietro d'Maiella, having succeeded in obtaining the first prize 
for composition, and the second for harmony, and at this time he 
appeared in many concerts in Naples, and published his first 
compositions, arrangements of Traviata and Puritani for quartets 
of two mandolins, mandola and piano. These were the first 
compositions published for this combination of instruments, the 
second of which was dedicated to Her Majesty The Queen of 
Italy. In 1881 when he was twenty-two years of age, Munier 
removed to Florence, and he lived here the greater part of his life, 
being actively engaged as a composer and professor of the mandolin 
and guitar in the most select musical institutions of Florence. 
Munier organised in 1890 the first plectrum quartet, with Luigi 
Bianchi and Guido Bizzari first and second mandolins, Riccardo 
Matini, mandola, and himself director and lute, and this quartet, 
each member a thorough musician and artist on his respective 
instrument, gave many performances throughout Italy, being 
received with great enthusiasm, and they did much to popularise 
this combination of instruments. In 1892 they obtained the first 
prize in the International Music Contests of Genoa, when Munier 
himself was awarded the gold medal as mandolinist and composer. 
From the year 1890 until his death, Munier was engaged with his 
quartet in concert work, and he has left several compositions of 
sterling merit written for this combination. He was a member of 
the Royal Circolo Mandolinisti Regina Margherita in Florence, 
under the direction of the esteemed and venerable mandolinist, 
Bertucci, and for a period Munier officiated as conductor of this 
royal mandolin society. 

On June 30, 1902, at a concert given by the royal band, Munier's 
quartet rendered several of his own compositions before a select 
musical audience, when they were accorded an ovation. He was 
ever striving for the advancement of the mandolin, and on 
October 6, 1909, performed by royal command in the historic castle 
of Sommariva-Perno. Munier's solos were his Prelude in D major 
and his First mazurka de concert, and immediately upon the 
conclusion of the performance, His Majesty Victor Emmanuel III 
rose to greet him, shook him by the hand most cordially, warmly 
congratulated him upon his marvellous execution, and dilated on 
beautiful effects of which the mandolin was capable. Munier as a 
virtuoso on the mandolin appeared frequently in his native land, but 
he did not perform to any extent in other lands. He contributed 
literary articles to the music journals, and was honoured upon many 
occasions by being appointed an adjudicator in musical contests, 
both in Italy and other European countries. He was held in the 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 221 

highest esteem by musicians of Florence, and upon his suggestion 
the Mandolin Band of Cremona gave a concert in the Royal 
Conservatoire of Music of Florence to demonstrate the possibilities 
of their instruments. This concert took place in 1910 before a large 
concourse of the leading musicians of the city and proved an artistic 
success. In the spring of 1911, Munier made a visit to Antwerp, 
and on his homeward journey spent a few days in Marseilles in the 
company of his friend — the mandolinist Fantauzzi. Two months 
previous they had been officiating in the Mandolin Contest of 
Cremona, and now they recalled with gratification the advancement 
made in the instrument and its music, Munier spoke of his plans 
for the future, of organising an imposing concert and recital in 
Florence ; but man proposes and God disposes, for in a very few 
weeks he was suddenly called to the sphere from whence none 
return. He died after a short illness in Florence, February 10, 1911, 
at the age of fifty-two years, and the following notice appeared in the 
music journals : — 

" It is with the profoundest regret that we record the death of the 
greatest mandolin artist and composer of our times, the renowned 
Carlo Munier. The whole mandolin world will miss him greatly. 
It can ill afford to lose its most sincere, devoted and illustrious 
champion. Cut off in the prime of life, in the midst of his noble 
and successful work, we silently mourn our loss. Conscientiously 
and persistently had he devoted himself to the serious and classic 
side of the welfare of the mandolin, and as a true artist, trickery in 
playing or composition was to him abomination, as an enemy to 
the advancement of the mandolin. He is gone — it is a staggering, 
severe, and sad blow to all sincere students of the instrument — but 
his work will live. His many compositions, known and admired 
by mandolinists throughout the wide world — studies, solos, duos, 
trios, quartets and compositions for mandolin band — form a colossal 
monument that cannot perish ; they will delight future generations 
and bear testimony to his mighty genius and noble inspirations. 
As I write, I see before me his last letters, full of hope for the 
future concerning the success of the mandolin — his life's ambition, 
nay, his very life itself. Two of his latest overtures for mandolin 
band, I see also, works that emanate from serious musicians only. 
He leaves a widow, Armida, and two daughters Eliviraand Louise, 
with the whole world of mandolin players to mourn their loss." 

His admirers from all parts of the world subscribed through the 
medium of a Milanese music journal, and a bronze shield suitably 
inscribed was erected to his memory. Munier, who was a man of 
superior education and attainments, and a versatile linguist, wrote 
concerning his early study of the instrument : " At the beginning 
I confess I did not think the mandolin capable of such advancement, 
and I excluded from my repertoire a number of pieces that I 
believed impossible of execution ; but I thought, studied and worked, 
then wrote my method, my studies, solos, duos, caprices, trios, 



222 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

quartets, etc., and I became so proficient that I could then execute 
what I had previously considered impossible. They became clear, 
easy of execution, and in fact trifling as compared with other 
difficulties." Munier was a prolific composer — he had published 
considerably over three hundred and fifty works previous to his 
death — many remain unpublished. With few exceptions, such as 
a trio for mandolin, violoncello and piano, and several songs, his 
compositions are for the mandolin or guitar. His quartets written 
in the orthodox style of four movements, for two mandolins, mandola 
and lute, were the first of the kind published, and they are Op. 76, 
123 and 203. Op. 76, the first of these quartets was performed by 
the plectrum quartet " Fiorentino," of which Munier was the 
leader, in the Sala Philharmonica, Florence, and published in 1903 
by Forlivesi & Co. ; but the most classic of his quartets is that in 
G, the Quasi adagio and Minuetto are inspirations, while its fugue 
is most ingeniously w T orked out ; Lo Scioglidita, four volumes of 
progressive studies and a volume of twenty studies are among the 
most advanced exercises written for the instrument, and of the 
same degree of excellence are the duos for two mandolins of which 
there are several volumes published by Carisch & Janichen, Milan, 
and Maurri, Florence. Munier wrote also for the guitar, and all 
his compositions denote the cultivated musician and abound with 
graceful melody characteristic of the Italian school. In his Love 
song, Op. 275, dedicated to Samuel Adelstein, San Francisco, 
Munier opened new possibilities and effects for the mandolin as an 
unaccompanied solo instrument. He was the author of a Method 
for the mandolin, Op. 197 in two volumes and numerous studies, 
exercises, and duos for two mandolins, which deserve to be more 
widely adopted. 

Mussini, Noel, or Niccolo, born Bergamo, Italy, 1765, died 
Florence, 1837, was a virtuoso on the guitar and violin, also a com- 
poser and dramatic singer of ability. He visited London in 1792 
where he appeared with success as a vocalist to his own guitar 
accompaniment, and also as a guitar soloist. Ten years later he 
was appearing as guitar virtuoso in Cassel and at a later period was 
living in Berlin, in which city he was court capellmeister, music 
director, and chamber musician to the dowager queen. In 1802 his 
daughter Giuliana, married in Berlin the celebrated musician Sarti, 
who died the same year. 

[SJ AUMANN, Johann Gottlieb, a well-known composer in his day, 
' was born April 17, 1741, at Blasewitz, near Dresden, and died 

October 23, 1801, in Dresden. He was the son of a peasant, and 
studied music alone, until he met a Swedish musician named 
Weestroem who took the youth on a professional tour through Italy, 
where he became a pupil of Tartini. He spent about five years in 
this country and lived for periods in Padua, Naples, and Venice, and 
upon his return to Dresden was appointed capellmeister by the 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 223 

elector. Naumann studied the guitar in Naples and brought back 
several Italian guitars to Dresden. At this date the instrument 
had but the first five strings, for the sixth was added at Naumann's 
suggestion. The Duchess Amelia of Weimar was an enthusiastic 
admirer of the guitar and commissioned the violin maker, Jacob 
Augustus Otto, to make copies of her Italian guitars. Otto states 
in his Treatise on the structure and preservation of the violin, etc. : 
" The late Duchess Amelia of Weimar having introduced the guitar 
into Weimar in 1788, I was immediately obliged to make copies of 
this instrument for several of the nobility ; and these soon becoming 
known in Leipzig, Dresden and Berlin, so great a demand arose for 
them, that, for the space of sixteen years I had more orders than I 
could execute. I must here take the opportunity to observe that 
originally the guitar had only five strings. The late Herr Naumann, 
capellmeister at Dresden, ordered the first guitar with the sixth or 
low E string, which I at once made for him. Since that time the 
instrument has always been made with six strings ; for which 
improvement its admirers have to thank Herr Naumann. During 
the last ten years a great number of instrument makers, as well as 
joiners, have commenced making guitars ; so that, since that time I 
have entirely relinquished the business, and now turn over any 
orders which I receive to my sons at Jena and Halle, who are much 
occupied in that way. The use of covered strings for the ' D ' and 
' G ' is a small improvement of my own. In the guitar, as brought 
from Naples, a large violin third string was used for the ' D ' and 
only the 'A' was covered." Naumann was a prolific composer of 
church music, some of which is still in use, and for a time Hummel 
studied under him. In 1797 capellmeister Naumann of Dresden 
ordered a guitar from the instrument maker Otto (see Korner). 

Nava, Antonio Maria, born Milan in 1775, and died there in 1828, 
was a guitarist and vocalist who resided in his native city, but made 
a concert tour through Europe, remaining in London for several 
months as a teacher of the guitar and singing. Nava was a popular 
and highly esteemed teacher of the guitar in Milan who appeared as 
a guitar virtuoso in the cities of northern Italy during the years 
1800-1812, and at that time also made a visit to Paris and London, 
and in both these cities published several compositions for his instru- 
ment. He was the author of a method for the guitar published in 
1812 by Ricordi, Milan, which was one of the most popular 
instruction books for the instrument issued in Italy, it passed several 
editions, the latest revised and augmented by Ponzio, who describes 
himself " Maestro di Chitarra al R. Circolo Mandolinisti Margherita, 
Firenze," (Guitarist in the Royal Mandolin Band of Queen 
Margherita, Florence) and this edition also proved successful. The 
following are the principal of Nava's published compositions : Op. 
25, 41, 44, 51, 53 and 71, variations or sonatines for guitar solo; 
Op. 52, Duo for two guitars; Op. 54, Variations for guitar and 



224 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

violin, both published by Breitkopf and Hartel, Leipzig; Op. 67, 
Trio for flute, violin and guitar, and many other pieces for guitar 
solo, trios for flute violin and guitar ; duos for two guitars 
without opus numbers, and several volumes of songs with guitar 
accompaniment, all of which were published by Ricordi, Milan. 
While in London he wrote several divertissements for guitar and 
flute which were published by Francis. His son Gaetano, born in 
Milan, May 16, 1802, died there March 31, 1875, received his first 
musical education from his father and then entered the Milan 
Conservatoire. He became renowned as a teacher of the vocal art 
and in 1837 was appointed a professor in the conservatoire, where 
he taught the English vocalist Charles Santley. 

Neuhouser, or Neuhauser, Leopold, born at Innsbruck in the 
Tyrol, was living at the beginning of the nineteenth century in 
Vienna as a teacher of the guitar and mandolin, and was recognised as 
a virtuoso of the first rank. His varied compositions were principally 
instrumental works. Op. 2, Six variations for guitar and violin, 
or clarionet, and Six waltzes for tivo guitars, published by 
Simrock, Bonn ; Six variations for guitar and violin, or clarionet, 
published in 1801 ; Twelve variations for violin and bass, 
published in Vienna 1799, and several collections of German songs 
with guitar accompaniment. Neuhouser left many unpublished 
manuscripts for the mandolin and guitar, and also four instrumental 
nocturnes. No. 1 for Violin, two altos and violoncello ; No. 2 for 
Mandolin, violin, alto, two horns and violoncello ; No. 3 for Two 
violins, two oboes, two horns, alto and bass, and No. 4 Quartet 
for two violins, alto and bass. 

Neuland, W., a German musician who lived during the first half 
of the nineteenth century, an excellent guitarist, pianist and organist 
and composer for all these instruments. He came to London about 
the year 1832, where he was highly esteemed as a teacher of the 
guitar, and after remaining some time in England, returned to his 
native land, and then visited Paris ; here he also taught the 
guitar and published many compositions for this instrument, with 
much church music and piano solos. From Paris he made another 
tour through Germany, and then returned to London, where he was 
living as late as 1840. His early compositions were published in 
England, while his later works appeared in Germany and France. 
The Giulianiad, for April, 1833, a musical journal devoted to 
the guitar and published in London, gives a very eulogistic 
account of the compositions of Neuland. It draws particular 
attention to the first eight bars of Op. 5, Fantasia for guitar solo, 
stating : " It is true he (Neuland) has not been long in this country, 
but his genius is already acknowledged on every hand." Neuland 
was a contemporary of Regondi and Pelzer, but the majority of his 
compositions for the guitar are now out of print, and scarce. Op. 5, 
Fantasia for guitar solo, Johanning, London. Op. 6, Six 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 225 

divertissements for two guitars, Chappell, London ; Op. 7, 
Introduction and variations, dedicated to his friend Ferdinand 
Pelzer, published by Duff, London; Op. 16, Introduction and 
variations for guitar solo, composed for, and dedicated to Giulio 
Regondi, Schloss, Cologne ; Op. 26, Variations for two guitars, 
or guitar and piano, issued simultaneously by Chappell, London; 
Simrock, Bonn; and Richault, Paris; Op. 29, Souvenir Germaniquc 
for piano and guitar ; Two volumes of divertissements for guitar 
solo, and Eight duos for guitar and piano, Simrock, Bonn; 
Waltz for piano and guitar, Petit, Paris; Five favourite duos for 
guitar and piano, Chappell, and numerous other guitar compositions 
which appeared in England, France and Germany. Two grand 
masses, Op. 30 and 40 for four voices and chorus with organ and 
full orchestral accompaniment, with much vocal church music, also 
piano solos and duos were published by Leduc, Paris ; Simrock, 
Bonn ; and Schott, Mayence. 

Neuling, a German musician and mandolinist who lived in 
Vienna about the commencement of the nineteenth century. There 
appeared under his name a Sonata for mandolin and piano in G, 
which was published by Haslinger, Vienna, and Whistling also 
mentions compositions of this musician. 

Niedzielski, Joseph, a Polish musician who lived during the 
commencement of the nineteenth century, and died in Warsaw in 
1852. He was a talented guitarist and violinist, who for some years 
was engaged as first violinist in the National Opera, Warsaw. He 
was esteemed as a teacher of his instruments, and is the author of 
a method for the guitar which is of little renown. 

Niiske, J. A., a German musician and guitarist who visited 
England during the early part of the nineteenth century and 
established himself as a teacher of the guitar. He published many 
short, simple pieces, which enjoyed an amount of popularity, several 
of these appeared in The Ghdianiad during the year 1833. Niiske 
was the author of an Easy method for the guitar, which contained 
twenty-seven airs arranged for guitar solo and was published by 
Cocks, London, and the following are among his principal works : 
Three waltzes for guitar, published in 1827 by Vernon, London; 
Fantasia for guitar, Chappell, London ; Fantasia for guitar, 
Boosey, London ; Venetian waltz, George and Manby, London ; 
Three favourite melodies for guitar and piano, and Twelve operatic 
arrangements for guitar and piano, Simrock, Bonn ; Seventy-five 
operatic arrangements for guitar and piano, Cocks, London, and 
numerous songs with guitar accompaniment issued by various 
London publishers. 

C^NBERLEITNER, Andrew, a mandolin and guitar virtuoso, who 
^"^ was born at Angern, Lower Austria, September 17, 1786. 
His parents were of some position, his father being administrator of 



226 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

the lordship of Angern, and when a child he received instruction 
from a private tutor in singing and violin, as part of his education. 
In 1804, when eighteen years of age, his parents who were desirous 
that he should enter the medical profession, placed him in a school 
of Vienna for the specific study of surgery. Previous to this date 
Oberleitner had displayed no musical ability ; he was an amateur 
violinist, but not musical. In Vienna, however, he became 
acquainted with several fellow students who devoted their leisure to 
the mandolin and guitar, and whose serenades were the delight and 
good-fellowship of society, and Oberleitner was captivated by these 
instruments, for he had not been resident in Vienna many weeks ere 
he became a student of the mandolin and guitar. To such an extent 
did the fascination of these instruments influence him that he seriously 
neglected his medical studies, and after two years' musical application 
acquired a most remarkable degree of proficiency, and won a 
reputation in Vienna as virtuoso on the mandolin and guitar. He 
also studied harmony and composition during the same period, and 
has published about forty compositions for the guitar and many 
others for the mandolin. These pieces were issued by various 
publishers in Vienna, and there remain many of his unpublished 
manuscripts, consisting of trios, quartets, variations, etc., for both 
instruments. In 1815 Oberleitner was appointed inspector of silver 
in the royal palace, after which his public performances ceased, 
for the duties of this new position were so multifarious that he also 
neglected writing music ; but he continued the practical side of his 
art by private performances among friends. The following of 
Oberleitner's compositions were published by Artaria, Vienna : Op. 
1, Twelve Austrian waltzes for guitar ; Op. 4, Twelve allemandes 
of Vienna for guitar ; Op. 5, Twelve waltzes of Salzburg ; Op. 11, 
Six studies for two guitars; Op. 17, Styrian dances; Op. 27, 
Variations for guitar solo, and others without opus nnmbers. 

DADOVETZ, Johann, an Austrian guitarist who lived in Vienna 
and Prague during the commencement of the nineteenth century, 
and there published compositions for the guitar. Very little is 
known concerning his career, but his fifth work Introduction and 
variations for guitar solo is dedicated to the composer Ignaz 
Kalliwoda, and was published by Diabelli, Vienna. Op. 17, Fan- 
tasia for guitar solo ; Op. 18, First polonaise for two guitars, and 
Op. 21, Fantasia on Robert the devil' for guitar solo, were 
published by Richault, Paris. 

Paganini, Nicolo, was born in Genoa, Italy, October 27, 1782 — 
although several authorities give the date erroneously as 1784 — and 
died in Nice, May 27, 1840. Who has not heard of Paganini ? 
Tongues and pens have vied with each other in celebrating his 
wonderful powers and recording his extraordinary genius. The 
excitement produced throughout Europe by his marvellous manipu- 
lation of the violin remains unparalleled in musical history ; but 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 227 

although there exists a whole realm of literature on this artist, his 
mastery over the guitar and his great fondness for this instrument 
have received but meagre and scanty recognition. The following 
brief notice gives due prominence to his associations with the 
mandolin and guitar, his ability and skill upon these instruments, 
and shows the powerful influence the practical knowledge of these 
two instruments exerted over his violin playing, forming that 
individuality and peculiarity of style which placed him far in advance 
of all other violin virtuosi. Paganini's parents were of very humble 
origin ; but not quite so low as has been pretended in some 
suppositions that have been associated with the history of their 
marvellous son. His father Antonio, it has been recorded, was at 
one time a mercantile clerk, who eventually owned a small store in 
close proximity to the harbour, and although uneducated, was an 
amateur musician much devoted to the art. He was a skilful 
performer upon the mandolin and exceedingly fond of this instrument, 
giving all his leisure to the practice and study of it, and he imparted 
this knowledge to his little son. Being musical, he naturally desired 
his son to possess the same gift, and consequently perceived the first 
early indications in the infant. Riemann says he began to 
instruct him upon the mandolin at a very tender age, for he states : 
"When he (Antonio) perceived his son's musical talent, he at first 
instructed him personally in the art of playing the mandolin and 
then handed him over to more skilful teachers." It is important to 
notice that Paganini's early life was associated with the mandolin, 
for it was upon this instrument he received his first musical 
instruction ; it was the only musical instrument in the home, and he 
was quite a child when he had obtained a practical knowledge of 

it- 
According to some writers the musical discipline adopted by his 

parent appears to have begun in close sequence, and the days of 

hard and lengthened study for young Paganini were made to 

commence by a shameful perversion before he could plainly speak. 

Antonio Paganini has been described as a man of extraordinarily 

avaricious character, inhuman and brutal, possessing but one 

redeeming feature in his whole life — a love of music — and as soon 

as the son was able to hold a mandolin, he placed one in his hands 

and compelled him to practise it morning till night. He speedily 

outstripped his parent's musical knowledge, for when but five years 

of age, he is recorded as having exclaimed after hearing his father's 

unsuccessful attempts to perform a difficult passage : "Father you 

are not playing in time." A few months later he was placed under 

Servetto to receive lessons on the violin, and for six months he also 

studied this instrument under Costa ; one of the conditions imposed 

by Costa in accepting him a pupil being that he should perform a 

new concerto each week in church. Costa, the foremost violinist in 

Genoa, was maestro di capella of the Cathedral, and under his 

tuition young Paganini made rapid progress, for when he was but 



228 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

eight years of age he performed three times each week in the 
churches and also at various private musicales, and at this age, too, 
he composed his first violin sonata, which unfortunately is not 
extant. About the year 1795 his father took him to Parma, with 
the intention of placing him under Alessandro Rolla, a famous violin 
virtuoso and skilful guitarist. For several months Paganini received 
lessons from Rolla, and it it difficult to explain why in later years 
he was unwilling to acknowledge the fact. Rolla was an able 
guitarist who has published several instrumental compositions in 
combination with the guitar, and he frequently accompanied his pupil 
Paganini on this instrument, a circumstance which would bring 
it prominently and favourably before him and be a strong recom- 
mendation for its study. It is quite probable that he received 
instruction on the guitar from Rolla in addition to the violin, for in 
a similar manner Paganini, at a later period when teacher, accom- 
panied his pupil Sivori on the guitar, and even composed duos for 
violin and guitar for this purpose. 

When fifteen years of age, Paganini attended the musical festival 
of Lucca, in November, 1798, under the protection of an elder 
brother, for up to this time he appears to have been wholly under 
the control of his father, who was exceedingly harsh, and young 
Paganini's first experience of liberty resulted in his fleeing from 
home. Although only fifteen years of age, he led a wild, dissipated 
life, in which gambling played a prominent part; but the year 1801 
saw a remarkable change in his mode of life. Hitherto he had 
toured through Italy, and was flattered to intoxication by his rapid 
successes and the unbounded enthusiasm which greeted his many 
public performances. Strange to relate, notwithstanding his suc- 
cessful career as a violinist, he now put aside entirely the violin, 
which had been the means of bringing him such fame, and for the 
space of more than three years devoted himself entirely to the study 
of -the guitar. During this period he was living at the chateau of a 
lady of rank, and the guitar was her favourite instrument. 
Paganini gave himself up to the practice of the guitar as eagerly, and 
with the same amount of concentration, as he had previously done 
on the violin, and his mastery of this instrument was as thorough 
and rapid as that of the violin, his performances at this period, from 
1801 to 1804, being as celebrated as those of the guitar virtuoso 
Regondi. 

Schilling says of him : "The celebrated Nicolo Paganini is such a 
great master on the guitar that even Lipinski (a famous Polish violin 
virtuoso, who had ventured to seek a public contest with Paganini 
at Placentia, in 1818) could barely decide whether he were greater 
on the violin or guitar." Dubourg, in his notice of Paganini, says, 
respecting this period of his life : "To those early days belongs also 
the fact of Paganini's transient (!) passion for the guitar, or rather 
for a certain fair Tuscan lady, who incited him to the study of that 
feebler instrument of which she was herself a votary. Applying his 




NICOLO PAGANINI. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 229 

acute powers to the extension of its resources, he soon made the 
guitar an object of astonishment to his fair friend; nor did he 
resume in earnest that peculiar symbol of his greatness, the violin, 
till after a lapse of nearly three years." Riemann in his account of 
the artist says : "He played the guitar as an amateur, but with the 
skill of a virtuoso." That Paganini's admiration and delight 
in the guitar was of no transient passion, as Dubourg states, is 
proved in many respects, and also by the fact of his complete 
devotion to its sole study during those years mentioned. It certainly 
cannot, by any stretch of the imagination, be regarded as a passing 
fancy for an artist of Paganini's attainments and genius to devote 
three whole years in the prime of his successful career to another 
instrument. 

He was intimate and had performed in public with the 
leading guitar virtuosi, and the guitar exercised an influence and 
fascination over his musical nature, as it has done in numerous 
other instances. During his whole career, Paganini employed it 
as his accompanying instrument with his pupils and musical friends; 
and the majority of his compositions published during his lifetime, 
as also many of his unpublished works, include a part for the 
guitar. His first compositions for the instrument were written 
between 1801 and 1804; his last in 1835, and it follows therefore, 
that this artist turned his attention seriously and lastingly to the 
guitar. This was the instrument he fondled and caressed during those 
long periods of illness, when his strength was not sufficient for him 
to resort to the more exacting position required by the violin, and 
during the last year of his existence, when his malady had developed 
— when there was no hope of recovery and he was confined to his 
couch — it was the guitar which throbbed forth its plaintive 
harmonies under his reclining and lingering touch. In such a 
weakly condition, it was the only musical instrument that he could 
muster sufficient strength to vibrate with musical effect. It is a 
significant fact, too, that all his compositions, with but one exception 
— those that are authentic and published during his life time — 
contained parts for the guitar, this only exception being Op. 1, 
Twenty-four caprices, or studies for violin alone. When an 
intimate friend enquired of Paganini his reason for devoting so 
much attention to the guitar, his reply was, " I love it for its 
harmony, it is my constant companion in all my travels." Ferdinand 
Carulli, the guitar virtuoso, a contemporary of Paganini in Paris, 
says in his famous guitar method, " The fact may not be generally 
known that Paganini was a fine performer on the guitar and that he 
composed most of his airs on this instrument, arranging and 
amplifying them on the violin afterwards according to his fancy." 

In the year 1805, Paganini again set out on his travels and 
accepted an engagement at Lucca, where he remained till 1808, 
and the following years of his life were a complete series of 
brilliant triumphs, which it is not necessary to enumerate. A well- 



230 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

known author and violinist, Dr. Phipson, has written : " Paganini 
had a natural gift for music, nearly as great as Shakespeare for 
blank verse ; he inherited it from his father, and perhaps from his 
mother. After it had been duly cultivated, it enabled him to 
astonish his contemporaries by his performances on the violin and 
guitar. When we remember that his father was a player on the 
mandolin, the latter accomplishment is less surprising. It was no 
doubt the twanging (?) of his father's mandolin which originated the 
love of pizzicato passages so pronounced in his son's violin music 
and led to his proficiency as a guitar player." There is no doubt, 
but that Paganini's practical knowledge of the mandolin and guitar 
contributed in a large degree to the formation of that individuality 
of style for which his performances were so remarkable. " Most 
assuredly," said one Berlin musical critic, " Paganini is a prodigy, 
and all that the most celebrated violinists have executed heretofore 
is mere child's play, compared with the inconceivable difficulties 
which he created in order to be the first to surmount them." The 
same writer declared that Paganini executed an air quite sostenuto 
on one string, while at the same time a continued tremolo upon the 
next string was perfectly perceptible, as well as a lively pizzicato 
in guitar style upon the fourth string, thus producing upon one 
instrument a combination of violin, mandolin and guitar. M. Guhr, 
an able violinist and an intimate friend of Paganini, endeavoured to 
ascertain the chief differences of Paganini's playing over that of 
other celebrated violinists, and attempted to gain his information by 
interrogation ; but finding this method of no avail, he adopted a 
silent study or analysis of the means employed by the master. As 
one of the chief points of difference he enumerates in his volume 
on the subject, the following : " in his art of putting the violin into 
double employ, so as to make it combine with its own usual office 
the simultaneous effects of a mandolin, harp, or guitar, whereby 
you seem to hear two different performers. 

Mr. Gardiner, of Leicester, attended one of Paganini's concerts in 
London, and the following extract from his account is of interest : 
" At the hazard of my ribs, I placed myself at the opera door, two 
hours and a half before the concert began. Presently, the crowd 
of musicians and violinists filled the colonnade to suffocation, all 
anxious to get the front seat, because they had to pay for their 
places, Paganini not giving a single ticket away. The concert 
opened with Beethoven's Second symphony, admirably performed 
by the Philharmonic Band, after which Lablache sang Largo al 
factotum, with much applause and was encored. A breathless 
silence then ensued, and every eye was watching the action of this 
extraordinary violinist ; and as he glided from the side scenes to the 
front of the stage, an involuntary cheering burst from every part 
of the house, many rising from their seats to view the ' spectre ' 
during the thunder of this unprecedented cheering, his gaunt and 
extraordinary appearance being more like that of a devotee about to 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 231 

suffer martyrdom, than one to delight you with his art. With the 
tip of his bow he set off the orchestra, in a grand military movement, 
with a force and vivacity as surprising as it was new. At the term- 
ination of this introduction he commenced with a soft, dreamy note 
of celestial quality, and, with three or four whips of his bow, elicited 
points of sound that mounted to the third heaven, and as bright as 
the stars. A scream of astonishment and delight burst from the 
audience at the novelty of this effect. Immediately an execution 
followed that was equally indescribable, in which were intermingled 
tones more than human, which seemed to be wrung from the deepest 
anguish of a broken heart. After this the audience were enraptured 
by a lively strain, in which you heard, commingled with the tones 
of the violin, those of the voice, with the pizzicato of the guitar, 
forming a compound of exquisite beauty." Staccato runs, performed 
with the bow and concluded with a guitar note were quite original 
with Paganini, and it must certainly be admitted from the foregoing 
extracts that his knowledge of the mandolin and guitar formed no 
unimportant part in his style of execution. 

Paganini was a very intimate friend of the guitar virtuoso, Legnani, 
and they toured together and performed upon numerous occasions. 
In the summer of 1834, after an absence of six years spent in 
travelling, Paganini revisited his native land, and, looking forward 
wistfully to a peaceful rest of retirement, he invested a portion of 
his accumulated wealth in the purchase of an agreeable country 
residence in the environs of Parma, called the Villa Gajona. Here 
he intended preparing his remaining compositions for publication, 
and invited his friend, Legnani, to take up his abode in the Villa 
Gajona. Legnani remained with Paganini for several months ; they 
spent the time rehearsing Paganini's compositions, and in October, 
1836 they appeared together at a concert in Parma where Paganini 
was violinist, while Legnani accompanied him on the guitar and 
also performed guitar solos. The following month they were busily 
engaged in making active preparations for an intended concert tour 
to London, and the two virtuosi played together at numerous 
concerts throughout northern Italy. In Turin the following year, 
on June 9, 1837, Paganini gave a concert with the assistance of 
Legnani as guitar soloist, the proceeds being devoted to the poor of 
the city. The two artists were at this time journeying to Paris on 
their way to London, for in the French capital Paganini was to 
fulfil an engagement in connection with the opening of the Paganini 
Casino. This building, which was situated in the Rue Mont Blanc 
was supposed to be a club for art and literature. It was an imposing 
structure amid extensive pleasure grounds, provided with numerous 
indoor and open air attractions, with free public admission ; but 
when the authorities refused to grant a licence for the building as a 
gaming house, the speculation proved an immediate failure. 
Paganini had unfortunately given his signature to, and had embarked 
in this doubtful enterprise and upon its failure he suffered consider- 



232 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



able legal worries and personal loss, and consequently his pre-arranged 
plans to visit London with Legnani were frustrated, for the annoy- 
ance arising from this unfortunate affair of the Casino greatly 
increased his malady, which was phthisis of the larynx. 

Variations Bravura for Violin and Guitar. 
Composed by NICOLO PAGANINI. 



VIOLIN. 



Tema. 
Quasi Presto 




GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



233 



Early in the year 1839, the directors of the Casino instituted 
legal proceedings against Paganini for breach of contract; and seek- 
ing relief from worries and illness he went to Marseilles and stayed 
for a few months in the house of a friend, where although almost a 

EXTRACT FROM 

Variations Bravura for Violin and Guitar. 
Composed by N I COLO PAGANINI. 



GUITAR. 



Tema. 
Quasi Presto. 




f f Q Fim 

The Guitar plays alone from A to B after each variation 



234 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

dying man he found comfort in his violin and particularly his guitar. 
In the following October he tried a change of atmosphere, journeying 
by sea to his native land and for a month or two resided in Genoa, 
the city of his birth, and on the approach of winter removed to 
Nice, but this proved his last journey for his malady developed very 
rapidly; he entirely lost his voice, was troubled with an incessant 
cough, and died May 27, 1840, in Nice, at the age of fifty-six. As 
Paganini had not received the last Sacrament of the Church, the 
Bishop of Nice refused his burial in consecrated ground, and it was 
not until May 1845, just five years later, that his embalmed remains 
were laid to rest in the cemetery of the Villa Gajona, by an order 
obtained by his son and friends from the government. Paganini was 
associated for some years with Legnani ; he had also heard with 
great pleasure the guitar virtuoso Zani de Ferranti in Paris, (see 
Ferranti) and Fetis in his biography of Paganini, speaks of him 
playing the guitar in the suburbs of Florence when his performance 
in the open air attracted and enraptured an audience of passers by. 
While in Paris, Paganini frequently visited J. B. Yuillaume the 
violin maker, and on one occasion took a fancy to a guitar made by 
Grobert of Mirecourt (1794-1869), and upon Paganini's request 
Yuillaume generously placed this guitar at his disposal during his 
second visit to Paris. At Yuillaume's suggestion Paganini wrote 
his autograph in a large hand in ink on its unvarnished table, near 
the left side of the bridge, and when he finally quitted Paris, the 
guitar was returned to Vuillaume, who presented it to Berlioz ; for 
Vuillaume was well acquainted with his ability on the guitar and 
his reverence for the great violinist. Berlioz also placed his auto- 
graph on the table opposite to that of the other immortal name, 
and to-day this historical instrument is preserved in the museum of 
the National Conservatoire of Music, Paris, being presented by 
Berlioz who was curator of this museum for a period. An 
illustration of this guitar appears on page 39. Another relic of 
Paganini is a plaster cast of his hand ; the long, tapering fingers 
plainly denoting his acute sensitiveness and artistic temperament, 
and the museum of the Opera, Paris, also contains a few minor 
relics of the master. 

The following are titles of Paganini's compositions with the 
guitar: Op. 2, Six sonatas for violin and guitar; Op. 3, Six- 
sonatas for violin and guitar; Op. 4, Three grand quartets for 
violin, viola, violoncello and guitar ; Op. 5, Three grand quartets 
for violin, viola, violoncello and guitar ; Bravura variations on 
an original theme for violin and guitar, and Nine quartets for 
violin, viola, violoncello and guitar. There remain in manuscript, 
Sixty 'variations in all keys on the air ' Barucaba ' for violin and 
guitar. 'Barucaba' was a popular melody in Genoa. The theme is 
very short and the variations are studies of various kinds of 
difficulties. They are in three series and were written by Paganini 
in Genoa, February 1835, being among his latest works ; he dedicated 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 235 

them to his friend and lawyer Germi. There are title pages in his 
handwriting of compositions for the guitar in combination with 
other instruments, but the contents of these are unfortunately 
missing, and also the title pages, or parts only, of several duos and 
lesser works for violin and guitar which have also disappeared. 
Of twenty-four pieces enumerated as forming the whole of his 
original manuscripts preserved by his son, nine only were discovered 
to be in a complete state. 

While Paganini was living in retirement, devoting himself to the 
study of the guitar, he composed and published Op. 2 and Op. 3, 
the twelve sonatas for violin and guitar, in two sets of six each, 
and they were issued by Ricordi of Milan and Richault, Paris. 
The Six sonatas, Op. 2 are dedicated to Signor Dellepiane, and 
these and his other sonatas consist each of two movements, the 
guitar being written for in arpeggios and chords which are not 
difficult. The series, Op. 3, dedicated " Alia ragazza Eleonora " 
(to the lass Eleonora) — whom it is now impossible to identify — are 
written in the same style as the previous set ; but in No. 5 the 
melody is divided alternately between the guitar and violin, while 
the guitar parts of the other sonatas are written in the usual 
arpeggios and chords. Op. 5, Three quartets for violin, viola, 
violoncello and guitar is inscribed " Composti e dedicati alle 
amatrice " (composed and dedicated to amateurs) ; and the first 
quartet of this series introduces a beautiful canon for the violin, 
viola and violoncello, the guitar being called in requisition in the 
trio when it is allotted full sostenuto chords, after which three 
variations follow and the melody is taken alternately by each 
instrument. The guitar of the second quartet is given full chords 
throughout, while No. 3 has a more varied character of rapid 
arpeggios, at times the melody, and finally an accompaniment of 
full chords and arpeggios. The Variazioni di Bravura for violin 
and guitar, an extract from which is reproduced, was published by 
Ricordi in 1835, and is founded upon the theme of his Op. .1 ; the 
variations are somewhat similar and the guitar part is simple. 

Nine quartets for violin, viola, guitar and violoncello were 
among the manuscripts preserved by the son of the composer, but 
the first three of these are probably lost ; the Nos. 10 to 15 
inclusive, were at one time in the possession of Alfred Burnett, Esq., 
London. Five of these quartets were dedicated by Paganini to his 
friend the lawyer, Luigi Guglielmo Germi, while No. 14 was 
composed expressly for him. The first of these was written by 
Paganini in the summer of 1829, and Nos. 11 to 13 while he was 
in Palermo. The manuscripts were purchased from the widow, 
Madame Germi, and in November 1910, six movements from these 
quartets were published for the first time, arranged for the violin 
and piano by Tolhurst, and issued by Ascherberg, London. Quartet 
No. 1 1 requires the use of the capo d'astro for the guitar, for the violin 
is written in B major, while the guitar is in A. No. 13 in the key 



236 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

of F contains a minuet, where the guitar has a second melody to 
that of the violin, and later on in the larghetto, the guitar is given 
arpeggios of eight notes to the quaver beat. In No. 14 the capo 
d'astro is again called into requisition, and the guitar is used for 
accompaniment only. The quartet No. 15 is unique, and differs 
from the others in the respect that the melody of the trio is given 
to the guitar, while the violin, viola and violoncello support it by a 
pizzicato accompaniment. The most celebrated of Paganini's 
pupils was Camillo Sivori, and he was in fact his only direct pupil, 
(see Sivori). 

Paisiello, Giovanni, born May 9, 1741, at Taranto, died June 5, 
1815, in Naples, an eminent composer of the Italian school in its 
pre Rossinian period, was the son of a veterinary surgeon of Taranto. 
Being a native of that part of Italy which is regarded as the home 
of the mandolin, it is only natural he was familiar with the instru- 
ment and used it in his orchestral scores. When he was five years 
of age he entered the Jesuit school of Taranto, where he attracted 
notice by his beautiful soprano voice. The rudiments of music 
were taught him by a priest and he showed such talent that his 
father, who had intended him for the legal profession, abandoned 
this idea and sent him to Naples to study music under Durante. 
During his five years studentship he was engaged principally with 
church music, but at the end of this time he indulged in the com- 
position of a dramatic intermezzo, which, being performed in the 
theatre of the Conservatoire revealed his particular talent. This 
composition met with such success that Paisiello was invited to 
Bologna to write two comic operas, and this inaugurated a lengthy 
series of successes in all the principal Italian towns. Paisiello then 
took up his abode in Naples, but in 1776, on the invitation of the 
Empress Catherine of Russia, who offered him a munificent salary, 
he removed to St. Petersburg. It was in St. Petersburg in 1780 that 
he wrote one of the best, if not the principal of his operas, The barber 
of Seville, for after he returned from Russia it was produced in 
Rome, and at first very coldly received ; but further representations 
made such a fine hold on the affections of the Roman public that at 
a later date, when Rossini wrote a new Barber of Seville, it was 
regarded as almost sacrilege, nor would the audience at first give it 
a hearing. In Paisiello's opera the mandolin takes a prominent 
part in the accompaniment of a delicious serenade in the first act. 
The mandolin part is reproduced, and the cavatina, sung by Count 
Almaviva under the window of Rosina, has full accompaniment for 
mandolin, two violins, viola, contra-bass, clarionet and horn. 
Rossini too, in his Barber of Seville, employs the guitar in com- 
bination with other instruments. 

After remaining eight years in St. Petersburg, Paisiello returned 
to Naples, where he was appointed capellmeister to Ferdinand IV 
of Naples, and during the next thirteen years produced many 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



237 



operas which became widely known, chief of these was La 
Molinara. One air from this opera Nel cor pin, long known in 
England as Hope told a flattering tale, is destined to remain 
familiar, owing to the variations written on it by Beethoven. In 
Naples, Paisiello gave instruction in harmony and composition to 
his compatriot, Delia Maria, a mandolin virtuoso and violoncellist 

Mandolin with Orchestra from "The Barber of Seville." 
Composed by PAISIELLO in 1780. 



MANDOLIN. 



Lento Amoroso. 





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tZj p :'•-<. 






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|m^m^ m: i r pl nTl t ffT i pr y, I illl'nl TTO fcl 
glllli_I_ jJJ u 4 r j J r .l L iu llu I m -I TE 



238 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

playing under Paisiello's direction. Delia Maria at a later period 
made a name in Paris as an operatic composer, and master and 
pupil continued an intimate friendship throughout life. Paisiello was 
summoned to Paris later, where Bonaparte treated him with a 
magnificence rivalling that of Catherine of Russia ; but after two 
or three years he returned to Naples, where he suffered severe 
reverses of fortune by the unsettled state of the government. 
Anxiety undermined his health in 1815 ; he experienced another 
blow in the loss of his wife, and Paisiello did not long survive her, for 
he died June 5 of the same year. 

Payer, Hieronimous, born February 13, 1787, at Meidling, near 
Vienna, and died at Wieburg, near Vienna, September, 1845, was a 
renowned musician of many and varied talents, an instrumental 
composer, and also a distinguished writer of church and dramatic 
music. He received his only musical instruction from his father, 
studying the piano and guitar, and was regarded an infant prodigy 
upon these instruments. During his teens he was appointed 
organist of the church of his native town, and in 1816 removed to 
Vienna as a teacher of the piano and guitar. Payer was also a 
skilful performer on the mandolin, but he devoted his attention 
principally to the piano and guitar, which were the popular 
and favourite instruments of all classes of society. His residence 
in Vienna as a teacher of these instruments, occurred at a very 
opportune time, for in a very brief space he obtained celebrity 
both as a performer and composer, and was appointed capellmeister 
of the Theatre An-der-Wien. In 1818 he resigned his directorship 
of the Royal Theatre in order to tour as a virtuoso, and in his 
travels passed through Germany and Holland, giving concerts 
in all the cities of importance, where he published many of his 
compositions with success. He eventually reached Amsterdam, 
and for a period he resided in this city as a virtuoso, teacher, and 
composer. In the year 1825 he removed to Paris, where he lived 
for some years in the esteem and admiration of the musical public ; 
but in 1832 his restless nature led him again to Vienna where he 
arrived in reduced circumstances. Ill-fortune seems now to have 
dogged his footsteps, his prosperity and fame were on the wane, 
and six years later affairs assumed a more serious aspect, for he 
was seized by a stroke of paralysis which completely cut off his 
means of subsistence and he lingered in the most abject and 
distressing condition the remainder of his life. 

Payer was a most prolific writer and his works embrace every 
variety of musical composition, including operas, concertos, 
quintets, quartets, masses, and serenades concertant for mandolin 
and guitar, and flute and guitar. He wrote and published about 
one hundred and sixty solos for piano alone, easy and moderately 
difficult educational works, such as variations, rondos, etc., and 
these enjoyed great popularity in Vienna, being still in demand in 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 239 

his native land for teaching purposes. Payer was held in high 
esteem by the musicians of his day and he contributed — among the 
greatest masters of the art — to the volume of variations for piano 
published under the title of Vaterlandische Kunstlerverein (Society 
of Artists of the Fatherland), a name which has become famous 
through Beethoven's connection with it and his Op. 120. The 
guitar was a favourite instrument of Payer, and during his residence 
in Vienna, when some of the greatest virtuosi of the instrument 
were in the height of their fame, he made a name on the instrument, 
and had he devoted himself solely to the guitar there is ample 
evidence that he would have stood unrivalled as a guitar virtuoso 
and composer. He wrote many compositions for the guitar and 
mandolin, but owing to his wandering life, they were scattered 
throughout the continent and are now difficult to obtain. The best 
known of his compositions for the guitar are two quintets which 
include this instrument : Op. 18, Serenade and potpourri for piano, 
violin, flute, 'cello and guitar, and Op. 70, for Piano, violin, flute, 
'cello and guitar, both published by Mecchetti of Vienna, as were 
also Eight waltzes for violin or flute and guitar. In 1831 the 
fame of his compositions had reached England, for during that 
year Wessel & Co., London, issued several editions of his works, 
which are remarkable for their scholarly .construction, brilliancy, 
and melodiousness. 

Pelzer, Ferdinand, born at Treves, in 1801, and died in London, 
was a German guitarist who settled in England, where he was 
esteemed as a musician and popular as a teacher of his instrument. 
He was the son of a schoolmaster and in his youth studied 
music and the guitar. During the French invasion, General Le 
Graun was billeted at his father's house, and this soldier's daughter 
Pelzer married at an early age. In 1821 he was residing in 
Miihlheim, where his daughter Catherina Josepha, afterwards Mdm. 
Sydney Pratten, was born. Pelzer toured through Germany and 
France as a guitarist, and at a later date when his daughter was 
about seven years of age she also appeared in various continental 
cities as a prodigy on the guitar, playing solos and duos on the terz- 
guitar with her father. About the year 1829 Pelzer was induced to 
visit London by a Captain Phillips ; they became his guests, and he 
interested himself in Pelzer by obtaining pupils for him, among 
whom were the daughters of the Duchess of Sutherland. Pelzer 
appeared as guitarist very frequently in London, and performed 
duos for guitar and piano with Moscheles in the Willis' Rooms. 
He made several trips to the continent, visiting his native land and 
then returned to London, for on May 15, 1833, he was performing 
with the flautist Dressier in the Opera concert room, when he was 
accorded a hearty reception. He was a contemporary in London 
of Giuliani and Schulz, and the youthful Regondi was 
performing duos with his daughter Catherina at fashionable 
musicales in the city. 



240 Gl 1TAR AND MANDCi 

He has published many short simple pieces and arrangements for 
the guitar, and also written- guitar accompaniments to numerous 
songs which enjoyed popularity in their day, but are at present 
unknown. He is the author of two methods for the guitar, the first 
entitled: " Instructions for the Spanish guitar, written and dedicated 
to my friends Captain G. H. Phillips and John Hodgson, Esq," 
published by Chappell, London. This contained very little original 
matter and the studies are extracted from the works of Sor, Carulli, 
Giuliani and Aguado. Pelzer's second method, published by sub- 
scription, was entitled: "instructions for the guitar tuned in E 
major, to which are also added twelve psalm and hymn tunes and 
the Gregorian tunes, respectfully dedicated to Mrs. George H. 
Harvey of Exeter." This volume contained a list of subscribers, 
among whom were Lady John Somerset, and the guitarists Regondi, 
Sagrini, Miss Mounsey and Don Ciebra, the latter a Spanish virtuoso 
Avhose reputation at this time was pre-eminent in England. Pelzer's 
compositions, mainly trivial light dances and arrangements, were 
issued by various London publishers, chiefly Johanning, Metzler, 
Ewer, and Chappell. 

Pettoletti, Pierre, an Italian guitarist of the nineteenth century 
who travelled through Europe, principally in France, Germany and 
Russia, and published numerous pieces for his instrument in the 
various cities he visited. He is known by these compositions : 
Op. 1, Six waltzes for guitar, Simrock, Bonn ; Operatic traus- 
scriptions for guitar solo, Cranz, Hamburg; Op. 15, Russian 
national anthem for guitar solo; Op. 26, Cavatina with 
variations for guitar solo ; Op. 28, Fantasia for guitar and 
piano, and Op. 32, Fantasia on a Russian melody for guitar, all 
published by Schott, Mayence. There was also a Joachim 
Pettoletti, the author of Six instructive waltzes for guitar solo, 
published by Simrock, Bonn, and a C. G. Pettoletti who issued 
through Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig, several duos for two violins 
and Concert variations for guitar and violin. 

Petzmayer, Johann, born in Vienna in 1803, and living in 
Munich in 1870, was a musician by nature, the son of an innkeeper 
who obtained celebrity as a zither and guitar virtuoso and composer 
for these instruments. When eighteen years of age he became the 
possessor of a common zither and taught himself to play it, as he 
did also the guitar, and by his performances attracted numerous 
customers from far and near to his father's house. Petzmayer 
devoted himself principally to the zither, and it was not long before 
his fame spread far and wide, for he and his instrument became the 
fashion in Vienna. It was due to his efforts that the zither, 
despite its simplicity, came into public favour, for he played his 
native landler — country dance music — in most of the principal 
continental theatres and concert halls, always with the greatest 
success. Petzmayer was a born musician, who, without education 




FERDINAND PELZER. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 241 

and by the mere force of native genius, produced the greatest 
effects from the simplest materials. In his hands the zither was 
invested with a charm- to which few could be insensible, and it 
possessed that kind of attractiveness which was truly characteristic. 
In 1833 he made a successful tour through Germany and was 
commanded to perform before the Emperor of Austria upon several 
occasions, and four years later he was appointed kammervirtuos to 
the Duke Maximilian of Bavaria ; but in later life he adopted the 
bowed zither (streich zither) in place of the ordinary model which 
he had popularized. About 1840 he became associated in Munich 
with Darr, the guitar virtuoso, and through his influence, Darr 
commenced the study of the zither, and these two artistes remained 
the sincerest of friends throughout life. Petzmayer was the author 
of various solos for the zither and the guitar, and also compositions 
for these instruments in combination ; they are light dance pieces, 
which appeared principally in Vienna and Munich. 

Picchianti, Luigi, an Italian guitar virtuoso, musical critic and 
author, was born in Florence, August 20, 1786, and died there, 
October 19, 1864. Although contrary to the wishes of his parents, 
he neglected his business pursuits in order to study the guitar ; but 
his persuasions and perseverance at length overcame this opposition, 
for a few years later he decided to adopt music as his profession 
and entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence as a student in 
harmony and counterpoint under Disma Ugolini. Previous to his 
entry as a student he had made a name as a performer on the 
guitar, and he still continued the study of this instrument, for 
during the years 1821-1825 he appeared with success in Germany, 
France and England, after which he returned to his native land. 
When he had been resident some years in Florence, Picchianti 
became editor of a musical journal of that city, the Gazetta 
Musicale, and his contributions to this periodical were characteristic 
of a learned and thorough musician. It has been stated that if 
Picchianti had devoted his talents entirely to composition, his 
fame in the musical world would have been far greater ; but he is 
recognised as one of the most scholarly musicians interested in the 
guitar. His talents were acknowledged in Florence, for he was 
appointed a professor of counterpoint in the musical academy of 
his early youth. Picchianti was intimate with the celebrated guitar 
virtuosi of his period, to whom he dedicated several of his com- 
positions. In 1834, Ricordi of Florence, published a number of his 
theoretical treatises on music, and their success was such that 
second editions were issued the following year. He was the 
author of a Method for the guitar, numerous sonatas, studies, 
caprices and airs with variations for guitar solo, etc., and in 
addition, wrote various church and orchestral items and quartets 
and trios for strings and wind. Ricordi of Milan, published a 
Fantasia for guitar and violin, and Cipriani of Florence, issued 



242 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

numerous pieces for guitar, chief of which were a March for two 
guitars, grand sonatas, caprices, etc. Many of Picchianti's guitar 
compositions were published out of his native land — in Vienna, 
Bologna and Leipzig. He was a voluminous song writer, for 
Cipriani alone issued more than fifty songs with accompaniment 
for guitar, and Breitkopf & llartel published a trio of his 
composition for flute, clarionet and bassoon. 

Pleyel, Ignaz Joseph, born June 1, 1757, at Ruppersthal, in Lower 
Austria, and died in Paris, November 14, 1831, was a most fertile 
instrumental composer. He was the twenty-fourth child of 
the village schoolmaster and his musical talent displayed itself at a 
very early age. He studied the violin, piano and guitar, the two 
latter instruments under Wanhall in Vienna, and he attracted the 
notice of Count Erdody who placed him under Haydn, in 1774, to 
continue his musical education. Pleyel remained with Haydn for 
several years and then travelled to Italy; but in 1783 was appointed 
capellmeister of Strassburg Cathedral where he remained for eight 
years, when he accepted an invitation to London to conduct concerts 
during a season. He conducted his first concert in this city on 
February 13, 1792, when Haydn was present, and later he returned 
to France, living in Paris as a music seller. He was the first to 
publish the complete collection of Haydn's quartets, and in 1807 he 
added to his music publishing business the manufacture of musical 
instruments, principally pianos and guitars ; and the instruments 
constructed under his personal supervision obtained celebrity, being 
amongst the most renowned for tone and excellence of workman- 
ship. A very interesting guitar made in his workshops was that 
played by Garat the celebrated French vocalist. This instrument, 
a lyre-guitar, was constructed by Pleyel in 1809 and presented to 
Garat by a wealthy amateur who was a keen admirer of his singing 
to guitar accompaniment, and it is preserved in the museum of the 
National Conservatoire of Music, Paris. Pleyel was an intimate 
friend of his old master, Haydn, and he was considered his dearest 
and most efficient pupil. Pie was emphatically an instrumental 
composer and his early compositions were very highly spoken of by 
Mozart. While in Italy he wrote an opera which was performed in 
Naples ; but he is known by his instrumental compositions, for he is 
the author of twenty-nine symphonies, many concertos, quintets, 
quartets, and numerous small pieces for violin with the guitar. The 
most widely known of these guitar compositions are : Six sonatines 
for guitar and violin, published by Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig ; 
Minuets and rondos for violin and guitar, published by Beauce, 
Paris; and Six songs with guitar accompaniment, published in 
Brunswick. 

Pol let. A family of French musicians of this name flourished 
during the latter part of the eighteenth and the first part of the 
nineteenth centuries. They were all skilful guitarists and harpists 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 243 

and did much to popularize these instruments, and also the cittern, 
or flat-backed mandolin, throughout their native land. The first 
musician of this name to obtain renown was Charles Francois 
Alexandre, usually designated Pollet aine (the elder), who was born 
in 1748, at Bethune, Artois, North France. He studied the guitar 
and cittern, (flat-backed mandolin), in his native town, and also at 
a later period in Italy, and in 1771, when twenty -three years of age, 
he had made a name and was induced to visit Paris. In this city 
he won a brilliant reputation as a virtuoso on both instruments and 
was exceedingly popular and fashionable as a music teacher, and 
during the first five years of his residence here, he published 
eighteen compositions for his instruments, consisting of sonatas, 
variations, etc. He is the author of a method for the guitar which 
was published in 1786 by Leduc, Paris. Pollet also wrote many 
other compositions — some of which were issued periodically in 
albums — up to the time of the fateful revolution of 1793, when he 
retired to Evreux, and was living there as late as 1811. 

Jean Joseph Benoit Pollet was a younger brother of the above 
who was born at Bethune in 1753. He studied the same 
instruments as his brother, and also the mandolin under Wenzel 
Krumpholz, the mandolin virtuoso and intimate friend of Beethoven. 
He was associated with his brother Charles in Paris, and assisted 
him as teacher and performer; by the advice of Krumpholz, the 
harpist, brother of the mandolinist, he commenced the study of the 
harp also, and became a distinguished virtuoso and composer for 
this instrument. Pollet is credited with being the first harpist to 
introduce harmonics on the instrument — those mysterious ethereal 
tones. He died in Paris, 1818. Jean Pollet was a more 
prolific composer than his brother, and his published works 
embrace three concertos for the harp and orchestra, three nocturnes 
for harp, guitar and flute, four rondos for violin and guitar, two 
nocturnes for flute and guitar, numerous sonatas and variations for 
cittern, duos for harp and piano, a method for the harp, and various 
solos for the same instrument. 

L. M. Pollet, a son of Jean Joseph, was born in Paris in 1783. 
He was taught the guitar and harp by his father and obtained 
celebrity as a performer and also as a music publisher. He died 
in 1830, and left behind a method and a volume of studies for the 
guitar, airs with variations for guitar solo published by himself, 
waltzes for guitar solo and rondos for guitar and violin, published 
by Richault, Paris. Joseph Pollet, the son of the guitarist of 
this name, was a thorough musician and the author of several 
theoretical treatises on music ; in 1863 he was organist of the 
Cathedral of Notre Dame. 

Prager, Heinrich Aloys, born in Amsterdam, December 23, 1783, 
and died in Magdeburg, August 7, 1854, was a virtuoso on the violin 
and guitar and for many years conductor of an itinerant musical 



244 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

company. At a later date he was engaged as conductor in the 
theatres of Leipzig, Magdeburg, Hanover and Cologne. Prager's 
principal instrument was the guitar, and he has written numerous 
pieces for it in addition to several operas, instrumental quintets, 
capriccios, etc. The following are among his published compositions 
for the guitar: Op. 11, Exercises for the guitar ; Op. 21, Andante 
and thetne with variations, tor guitar with flute and violin ; Op. 
26, Theme with variations for violin and guitar, all published by 
Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig; Op. 48, Two volumes of studies 
for the guitar, Hofmeister, Leipzig, and Op. 29, Collection of songs 
with guitar accompaniment, Breitkopf & Hartel. His son 
Ferdinand was a talented musician, a pianist and guitarist who 
resided in London in 1834, where he was esteemed as a teacher, and 
in conjunction with the guitarist Leonard Schulz he wrote Three 
duos characteristiques for guitar and piano, published by Mori, 
Lavenu & Co., London. 

Pratten, Mdm. Sidney, nee Catherina Josepha Pelzer, was born 
at Muhlheim, on the Rhine, Germany, in 1821, and died October 
10, 1895, in London. She was the daughter of Ferdinand Pelzer 
(see Pelzer) and received instruction in the theory of music and 
guitar playing at a very early age from her father, afterwards 
studying harmony for a short period under Dr. Carnaby in London. 
When seven years of age she was before the public creating a 
sensation as guitarist in concerts with Grisi, and she also appeared 
with her father in various continental cities. About the year 1829 
her parents came to London and the youthful guitarist made her first 
appearance before an English audience in the King's Theatre, 
afterwards called Her Majesty's. She also played at concerts with 
Mdm. Grisi, and with Regondi — an infant prodigy on the guitar of 
about the same age — when they performed duos for two guitars, 
Miss Pelzer playing terz-guitar. The two diminutive players were 
lost on an ordinary stage and to be seen by the whole audience they 
were frequently seated upon a table or on the grand piano. The 
Musical Magazine for March, 1835, says: "On Tuesday last a 
morning concert took place at the Hanover Square Rooms, the first 
of the three announced by Miss Pelzer, the daughter of the guitarist, 
which was numerously and fashionably attended. Miss Pelzer 
herself contributed in a high degree to the gratification of the audience 
and was cordially and deservedly applauded for her performance. 
Kiallmark presided at the piano." In 1836, when fifteen years of 
age, she gave another series of three recitals in the Hanover Square 
Rooms, commencing February 24, and was assisted by the most 
eminent musicians in London. These concerts brought her fame as 
a performer and two years later she established herself in Exeter as 
a teacher of the guitar and taught the most fashionable members of 
society, for it was in Exeter that Lady John Somerset took a great 
fancy to the young guitarist and persuaded her to reside in London. 




m 



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f 2 %*■ '■ 



I s .,.-■ 



' 



MISS CATHERINA JOSEPHA PELZER, (Aged q years\ 

(Mum. Sidney Pratten ) 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 245 

She was provided with apartments in her London residence, 
introduced to the nobility as an instructress, and was soon firmly 
established as a busy teacher. 

On September 24, 1854, she married Robert Sidney Pratten, the 
flautist ; but their married life was of short duration for he died 
February 10, 1868. Prostrated by this severe blow she relinquished 
her profession for a time, but on May 17, 1871, gave a recital, 
performing Giuliani's Third concerto to the pianoforte accompani- 
ment of a niece of Giuliani, the composer. In 1873 she gave a 
recital and was assisted by members of Gounod's choir ; her last 
public appearance being as late as November, 1893, when she 
performed in Steinway Hall, London. Mdm. Pratten was devoted 
to the guitar, she knew the capabilities of the instrument and also 
ks defects, and to her it possessed the power of expressing feelings 
which no other medium could. She was the author of a number of 
easy, light pieces for the guitar, nothing of a deep nature, which she 
herself published, and wrote three methods for the instrument. The 
first, in two parts, published by Boosey & Co., London, was an 
exhaustive treatise ; but it proved too complicated for amateurs, and 
she issued her volume The guitar simplified, which was the most 
popular of her methods for it had passed through twelve editions at 
the time of her death. The third method was entitled Instructions 
for the guitar tuned in E major, and she arranged guitar accompani- 
ments to numerous songs, all now forgotten. Her death occurred 
after a brief illness, October 10, 1895, and she was interred on the 
18th, in Brompton cemetery, and a suitable memorial was erected to 
her memory by pupils and friends. A sketch of her life by F. M. 
Harrison was published in 1899 by Barnes & Mullins, Bournemouth. 

Pugnani, Gaetano, born in Turin in 1727, and died there in 1805, 
was recognised as a violin virtuoso, one of the most celebrated and 
brilliant of the Piedmontese school ; he was equally talented on the 
guitar, for he studied this instrument in his youth in addition to the 
violin, and, like Paganini, all his early compositions were written 
with guitar accompaniment. During his life-time the guitar was as 
popular and as highly esteemed as the violin, and the great violinists 
taught the guitar also, for many celebrated guitar virtuosi received 
their instruction on this instrument from musicians known to 
posterity as violinists only. At a very early age Pugnani commenced 
his musical education, his first teacher being Somis, a pupil of 
Corelli, and he afterwards studied under Tartini and thus combined 
in his playing the prominent qualities of style and technique of both 
these great masters. He was appointed first violin to the King of 
Sardinia in 1752, but two years later commenced to travel. He had 
achieved much success as a solo player at the Court of Sardinia and 
his reputation spread to the continent, when lie made a protracted 
visit to Paris, performing several times at the Concerts Spirituels 
where he received great applause. Pugnani afterwards travelled to 



246 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

other parts of Europe and then visited London, where for a time he 
was leader of the Opera orchestra. In London he composed an 
opera and published much orchestral music, symphonies, quintets 
and quartets. 

In 1770 he was again in his native city where he founded a school 
of music for violinists and guitarists, as Corel! i had previously done 
in Rome, and Tartini in Padua, and from this practical academy 
issued the first performers of the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, chief among whom were Viotti and Bruni on the violin, and 
Molino and Sola on the guitar. Molino studied under Pugnani 
during the latter part of this master's career, and became court 
musician — as his teacher had been some years previous — to the 
King of Sardinia. Pugnani's style of execution is recorded as being 
broad and noble, and it has been remarked that all his pupils 
proved excellent leaders. His strong and acute mind was possessed 
with the great object to which every leader ought to attend ; he 
promptly and powerfully seized all the grand points, the character, 
the style, and taste of the composition, and impressed it upon the 
feelings of the performers, both vocal and instrumental. Pugnani, 
in addition to the display of brilliant and powerful abilities as a 
performer, gave in his compositions evidence of a free and elegant 
imagination. Despite his exceeding plainness of countenance, his 
nose being of extraordinary dimensions, he invariably believed himself 
to be a persona grata among ladies ; he always dressed well, was 
exceedingly vain, wore an enormous buttonhole in his light blue silk 
coat, a gigantic coiffure and a quantity af ornaments of every 
description. And yet this foolish, vain and eccentric person 
possessed real wit, quite remarkable social talent, and unbounded 
good nature, candour and generosity, so that acquaintances in distress 
regarded him their best friend and protector. 

In Italy he was esteemed the foremost violinist of his time, and 
both in Paris and London he created furore by means of his 
beautiful tone and graceful and easy bowing. Many amusing 
anecdotes are narrated of this artist. Upon one occasion Pugnani, 
with his odd and comical appearance, introduced himself to an 
Italian nobleman. " Who are you ? " asked the latter, before he had 
time to recognise that Pugnani, the violinist, stood before him. " I 
am Caesar with my violin in my hand," replied the artist quite 
proudly. He was a prolific composer and wrote much for the 
guitar, and his published works appeared principally in Turin and 
Paris. His early compositions were all written with guitar 
accompaniment, but they are now rarely to be met with, the majority 
being out of print. Op. 2 and Op. 3, Twelve sonatas for violin 
and guitar, are the only compositions of Pugnani for the guitar 
now published, these being issued by Richault, Paris. 

DADZ1WIL, Anton Heinrich, Prince of, " Statthalter " of Posen, 
lX born June 13, 1775 at Wilna, and died April 8, 1833 in Berlin, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 247 

was recognised as an ardent admirer of good music, a fine player 
on the guitar and violoncello, and a composer of no mean order. 
He married in 1796 the Princess Luise, sister of that distinguished 
musical amateur, Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia. Radziwil 
was a great admirer of Beethoven, and was invited by him to 
subscribe to the publication of his Mass in D, the prince having 
journeyed to Prince Galitzin's purposely to hear this work. 
Radziwil was one of the seven who subscribed their names in 
answer to that appeal, and to him Beethoven dedicated his Overture 
in C, Op. 115, which was published in 1825 by Steiner of Vienna. 
Further relations between Beethoven and the prince there must 
have been ; but nothing can be found. He was best known by his 
music to Goethe's Faust, which was published in score and 
arrangement by Trautwein, Berlin, in November 1835. It contains 
twenty-five numbers and occupies five hundred and eighty-nine 
pages and portions were performed with success for several years 
in Berlin, Leipzig, Prague, and other cities. Radziwil was an 
eminent performer on the guitar and violoncello, and he has 
published several songs with guitar accompaniment, and four with 
accompaniments of guitar and violoncello, these being issued by 
Breitkopf & H artel. Leipzig. 

Regondi, Giulio, born at Lyons in 1822 — some authorities state 
in 1824 — and died in London, May 6, 1872. Among guitar virtuosi, 
Regondi stands pre-eminent, and as a musician and composer he 
occupies a no less exalted position. Of his parentage and early 
years very little is known. His father w T as an Italian, his mother 
a German, the father for some time a teacher in the Gymnasium of 
Milan. Some writers assert that the man who assumed the name 
of father was of no relation whatever, but seized the opportunity of 
making money by a precocious child, and there is no doubt that the 
harsh treatment of this man during the early days of Regondi's 
career, undermined his health, and caused his painful illness and 
premature death. The child was an infant phenomenon on the 
guitar, and as such was forced in his musical studies and sacrificed 
by his supposed father, who took him as a guitar prodigy to every 
court of Europe, with the exception of Madrid, before he was nine 
years of age. In June, 1831, they arrived in England, and after a 
provincial tour settled in London, where the boy performed at 
numerous concerts, creating quite a sensation in the musical world. 
The following extracts relative to his first appearance in this 
country, written by the editor of the Harmouicou, the most 
influential music journal in England, were published in 1831 in the 
June and July numbers of that periodical. 

In reading these notices it is very important that the musical 
events of the time should be taken into consideration — a period 
during which no greater sensation in the musical world has ever 
occurred, when the whole of Europe and the cities of Paris, Vienna, 



248 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

and London in particular were convulsed with wild excitement over 
the marvellous performances on the violin of Paganini. Strange to 
relate, Paganini and Regondi — the Paganini of the guitar — both 
left Paris and arrived in England during May, 1831, and both gave 
their first concerts in the following June. Previous to playing in 
Paris, Paganini had visited Vienna, where he had witnessed scenes 
of unequalled triumph, and had been the object of unparalleled 
sensations. Regondi was but a child of eight years, and he, too, 
had been winning the highest applause of the musical critics on the 
continent, and his fame as a guitarist had reached London sometime 
previous to his arrival in that city, and notwithstanding the 
unbounded enthusiasm and popularity which greeted Paganini, 
little Regondi's performances on his guitar attracted crowded and 
enthusiastic audiences, for his artistic achievements and results 
were in no degree less marvellous or successful than those of his 
immortal compeer. " Another prodigy ! An infant Paganini on the 
guitar ! An evening paper states that a musical phenomenon has 
just arrived in London — a first rate guitar player, although only 
eight years of age. His name is Jules Regondi. The Figaro, 
The Journal des Debats, The Journal de Paris, and Galignaui's 
Messenger, speak of him with rapture. They say that in addition 
to the mechanical precision, which generally is not to be acquired 
on the guitar under twenty years' practice, he evinces taste and 
feeling rarely witnessed in a performer on that instrument. Mercy 
on us ! twenty years in learning to play on the guitar ! For 
Heaven's sake let the instrument be hereafter put into the hands of 
none except those of Struldbrugs, the immortal inhabitants of 
Luggnagg, who must needs have a vast deal of spare time at 
command. The French journals, too, speak of Jules Regondi with 
rapture ; and, doubtless, we shall soon be elevated to the " third 
heaven," as saith Mr. Gardiner, by this miraculous child, who, in 
spite of his tender years, has discovered the means of applying high 
pressure to music and reduced the labour of twenty years to the 
space of about four. For we cannot suppose that he commenced 
his operations till well on his legs ; unless, indeed he began while 
yet unborn — a thing not impossible to those who believe the story 
of the Holy Babe who sang a hymn to His mother's great surprise 
before His entrance into the world." 

The editor evidently did not recognise genius or natural ability as 
one of the most important factors in obtaining proficiency in the 
musical art ; but he attended one of Regondi's fashionable concerts 
previous to the next issue of his journal and it is gratifying to read 
his second account of the young musician. " Among the musical 
wonders of the day is Giulio Regondi, the child whose performances 
on the Spanish guitar are not only calculated to surprise, but please 
connoisseurs. This most interesting prodigy, for such he may be 
termed, who has only reached his eighth year, was born at Lyons ; 
his mother being a native of Germany, but his father an Italian. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 249 

To say that he plays with accuracy and neatness is only doing him 
scanty justice ; to correctness in both time and tune he adds a 
power of expression and a depth of feeling which would be admired 
in an adult, in him they show a precocity at once amazing and 
alarming ; for how commonly are such geniuses either cut off by 
the preternatural action of the mind, or mentally exhausted at an 
age when the intellects of ordinary persons are beginning to arrive 
at their full strength ! The personal appearance of the almost 
infant Giulio at once excites a strong feeling in his favour. A 
well-proportioned, remarkably fair child, with an animated 
countenance, whose long flaxen locks curl gracefully over his neck 
and shoulders, and whose every attitude and action seem elegant by 
nature, not art, immediately interests the beholder ; but when he 
touches the string and draws forth from it tones that for beauty 
have hardly ever been exceeded ; when his eye shows what his 
heart feels, it is then that our admiration is at the highest, and we 
confess the power of the youthful genius. This child is the most 
pleasing musical prodigy that our time has produced." Giulia 
Pelzer, afterwards Mdm. Pratten, was appearing at the same time 
as a prodigy on the guitar, and she and the youthful Regondi 
performed guitar duos in public. In July, 1836, Regondi was the 
guitarist at concerts with Moscheles, Mdm. De Beriot, and 
Lablache — the most brilliant artistes of the day — and the press 
were eulogistic in their praise of the guitarist, for the following is 
a report of a concert where he played the guitar in the company 
of Moscheles, Sir George Smart and Sir M. Costa : " Giulio 
Regondi, too, performed to the delight and astonishment of all 
present ; so much did this interesting child please, that he was a 
second time placed on the pianoforte, and again elicited the 
applause of the whole room." 

In 1841, when nineteen years of age, Regondi made his first 
important concert tour with Herr Joseph Lidel, the violoncellist, 
and they appeared in all the important cities of Germany and 
Austria. Regondi's extraordinary guitar playing evoked enthusiastic 
praises from the correspondents of the A. M. Zeitung in Prague 
and Vienna, for the very artistic and individual character of his 
performance and the sweetness of his cantabile. He appeared 
very frequently in Prague and Vienna, and under his hands the 
guitar quite filled the largest concert halls. In 1846 he undertook 
a second, and his last continental tour with Mdme. Dulcken, the 
celebrated pianist and teacher of Queen Victoria, and upon his 
return to England toured the British Isles with Konrad Adam 
Stehling, also a guitarist of exceptional ability, and they appeared 
as guitar duetists in various towns. It was at this juncture that 
Regondi turned his attention to the English concertina, which had 
been invented by Wheatstone in 1829, but left to the genius of 
Regondi to make known and popular. His companion, Stehling, 
devoted himself to the viola, being principal viola in the 



250 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Philharmonic and Crystal Palace concerts up to the time of his 
death, February 19, 1902. The charm of Stehling's guitar playing 
was said by critics to be indescribable, his execution was extra- 
ordinary and his taste and phrasing incomparable, and Sor's 
Method for the guitar, the German edition published by Simrock, 
Bonn, was " dedicated to my friend Stehling." Stehling possessed 
a comprehensive and unique collection of guitar music which was 
disposed of by auction after his decease. 

The following is an extract from a Viennese music journal of 
1841, relative to his appearance in Austria. Regondi, then nineteen 
years of age was touring with the violoncellist Lidel, and this 
journal remarked among other eulogies that he took Vienna by 
surprise by his beautiful and marvellous playing, that he was by 
the grace of God, a great genius : " His name is Giulio Regondi, 
and he belongs to that classic land where Stradivarius and Amati 
lived — a land where a genius is no great variety ; but an artist on 
the guitar, as Regondi is, is very seldom found. As a virtuoso he 
is more conspicuous in his mastership of the guitar than was 
Giuliani, Legnani, Giugliemo, and others heard during the season. 
Regondi's mastership of the guitar is nearly incomprehensible and 
his playing is full of poetry and sweetness. It is the soul of 
melody, and he plays the guitar in its purity without any musical 
tricks. He is an artist whom all musical performers might copy, 
and even singers and actors, for his art is a natural one. Regondi 
is the very Paganini of the guitar, under his hand the guitar 
becomes quite another instrument than we have hitherto known it. 
He imitates by turn the violin, harp, mandolin, and even the piano 
so naturally, that you must look at him to convince yourself of the 
illusion, as you can hear the forte of the piano, the sweet pianissimo 
of the harp all combined in its six simple strings. He played in 
his four concerts, arrangements of Don Juan, Les Huguenots 
— after Thalberg's arrangement for the piano — and the overture to 
Setniramide. All these were played with their full harmony as one 
might hear on the piano, but with inimitable tenderness." 

Richard Hoffman in his Recollections says: "While in London, 
I stayed with Giulio Regondi, a friend of my family, and at that 
time a prominent figure in musical society. He played the guitar 
in a most remarkable manner, as well as the concertina, a small 
reed instrument invented by Wheatstone of telegraph fame. A 
most lovely quality of tone was produced by the mixture of different 
metals composing the reeds, and Regondi's genius developed all its 
possibilities. A criticism from one of the Manchester papers of 
that time describing his playing when he appeared there as a youth, 
gives a good idea of his unique style, which for the time being held 
his audience spell-bound, and I copy it verbatim from my father's 
scrap-book : ' Giulio Regondi quite took the audience by surprise. 
That an instrument hitherto regarded as a mere toy — the invention, 
however, of a philosophical mind — should be capable of giving full 








T!^2*-^Z-^ 



GIULIO REGONDL 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 251 

expression to a brilliant violin concerto of De Beriot's, was more 
than even musicians who had not heard this talented youth would 
admit. The close of every movement was greeted with a round of 
applause in which many members of the orchestra joined. The 
performer has much of the ' fanatico per la musica ' in his 
appearance, and manifestly enthusiastic love for his art ; he hangs 
over and hugs his little box of harmony as if it were a casket of 
jewels, or an only and dearly loved child. His trills and shakes 
seem to vibrate through the frame, and occasionally he rises on 
tip-toe, or flings up his instrument as he jerks out its highest notes, 
looking the while like one rapt and unconscious of all outward 
objects, in the absorbing enjoyment of the sweet sounds that flow 
from his magical instrument.' " 

" He played the most difficult music which he adapted to the 
powers or limitations of the little concertina. Among other things, 
a concerto of Spohr, which astonished everyone. My father knew 
him first, when, as a child in Manchester, he was travelling about 
with the man who called himself his father, but whose subsequent 
conduct belied any such claim. When the boy had made a large 
sum of money by his concerts, and seemed able to maintain himself 
by his talents, the so-called father deserted him, taking with him 
all the proceeds of the child's labours, and leaving poor Giulio to 
shift for himself. My father befriended him at this time, and his 
gentle winning disposition endeared him to all my family. Later 
in his life when a young man in London, he often took charge of 
me, and twice we went to Paris together where we enjoyed some 
of the choicest musical treats. I heard with him all the great 
singers and musicians ot the day, Tamburini, Lablache, Grisi, 
Mario, Alboni, Persiani, and most of these before I was sixteen 
years old. Regondi's playing of the guitar always seemed to me 
his most remarkable achievement ; he had added to the instrument 
two or three covered strings without frets which he used at will, 
and the wonderful expression he could impart to his melodies I 
have never heard excelled by any voice. I have heard him play 
Thalberg's Huguenots and the Don Juan, Op. 14, making the 
guitar respond to the most difficult variations with perfect ease." 

Mrs. Hemans made him the subject of a poem entitled, To Giulio 
Regondi — the boy guitarist ; but her beneficient desires expressed 
for his welfare in the poem were not realized : " His history was 
sad and full of mystery, which doubtless added further attraction 
to his talents, and many were the stories whispered as to his birth 
and parentage. He was much sought after in London, and a great 
favourite with the nobility of whom many were his pupils and 
devoted friends. He was the constant guest of two old ladies of the 
Bourbon aristocracy living in London, who treated him en prince ' 
and always rose when he entered their salon. He never revealed 
to anyone his connection with these people, but I have always 
thought he belonged to them ' de race.' We were in constant 



252 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

correspondence until the time of his death which occurred in the 
early seventies. His lovely spirit passed away after many months 
of suffering from that most cruel of all diseases — cancer. I 
remember that a certain hope of reprieve from the dread sentence 
of death was instilled by his physicians and friends, by telling him 
that, if only he could obtain some of the American condurango 
plant, which at that time was supposed to be a cure for this 
malady — he might at least be relieved. I sent him a quantity of 
the preparation, but it failed to help him, and so he died, alone, in 
London lodgings, but not uncared for, nor yet ' unwept, unhonoured, 
or unsung.' His fame was too closely allied to his personality to 
endure after him, save in the hearts of those that knew him best ; but 
while he lived he showed himself a true and noble artist, full of the 
finest and most exalted love of music, a man whom to know was in 
itself a privilege not to be over estimated." 

Regondi taught the concertina largely, and his name was to be 
seen on important concert programmes both in London and the 
provinces. He was an intimate friend of the violinist Molique who 
wrote for him, Op. 46, Concerto in G for the concertina, which 
Regondi played with his usual success, April 24, 1864, at the 
concerts of the Musical Society, London. Molique also wrote a 
Sonata, Op. 57, and twelve other compositions for Regondi ; and 
after hearing his wonderful playing, Sir Alexander Macfarren, Sir 
Julius Benedict, Sterndale Bennett, and Wallace — leading names 
amongst native musicians — all composed works for this instrument. 
Neuland, a contemporary organist and guitarist of repute, composed 
and dedicated to his friend, Op. 16, Introduction and variations for 
guitar solo. Regondi was a most attractive personality, of rather 
delicate and slight build, and a versatile linguist. His hands were 
rather small — the strings of an ordinary guitar were too wide on the 
finger-board, so previous to playing an instrument he adjusted the 
strings nearer to each other, particularly the first to the second. A 
guitar, made by Staufer, Vienna, and bearing in place of the label 
Regondi's autograph, is in the possession of that enthusiastic 
guitarist, Colonel J. Temple, London. Regondi presented this 
guitar to a pupil and placed a note in the instrument to that 
effect. No one, since the time of Giuliani, created such an 
interest in the guitar as Regondi, and with him the last of the really 
great guitarists departed ; but through him and his playing the 
instrument received an impetus, for his influence remains to the 
present. His portrait was published upon several occasions, the 
copy here reproduced was issued in 1852 by Wheatstone, London, 
from a daguerreotype by Laroche ; while another was published by 
Diabelli, Vienna, and a sketch of his life by L. Megarski, appeared 
in 1841 in the Vienna Tlieatrical Journal. 

Regondi was not a voluminous composer for the guitar — his pub- 
lished works for this instrument are exceeding few. He was 
primarily a concertist, a virtuoso, and his compositions require virtuosi 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 253 

to interpret them, and for this reason they were never popular. They 
alone, however, will always entitle him to a foremost place as a 
refined and cultivated musician, notwithstanding the exceptional 
powers of execution demanded by them. He wrote two concertos 
for the concertina, several methods, studies, etc., and more than two 
hundred original compositions and transcriptions for concertina solo, 
concertina with voice and with other instruments, and the exceeding 
graceful piece entitled, Les oiseaux, Op. 12, was unquestionably a 
public favourite; these concertina works were published by Ashdown, 
London, Wheatstone, London, and in Dublin. Regondi wrote a 
few songs: Absence, dedicated to Mdme. Schuster, published in 
1854 ; Tell me my heart why so desponding; As slowly part the 
shades of night, both published in 1855 and L'aviso in 1860, 
Wessell, London. The following are his published compositions for 
the guitar : Reverie nocturne, Op. 19 ; Fete villageoise, Op. 20 ; 
First air varie, Op. 21 ; Second air varie, Op. 22 ; Introduction 
and Caprice, Op. 23 ; issued by Andre, Offenbach, while the 
International League of Guitarists, Germany, published his 
Etude No. 1, for guitar alone. Mr. Ernest Shand, a talented 
guitarist and composer, known to the musical public as a comedian, 
possessed the following original manuscript guitar compositions and. 
arrangements by Regondi : Overture to 'Oberon' ; Stephen Heller's 
Wanderstunden ; an arrangement for guitar solo of Crouch's song 
Kathleen Mavourneen, and an original composition dedicated to a 
lady pupil. 

Rode, Jacques Pierre Joseph, was born at Bordeaux, February 26, 
1774, and died in his native town, November 25, 1830. When 
eight years of age he commenced the study of the violin with the 
elder Fauvel, who was a well-known violinist in Bordeaux, and 
remained under him for six years. In 1788 he was sent to Paris 
where he enjoyed the distinction of being a pupil of Viotti for two 
years, after which he made his first public appearance in the 
Theatre Monsieur, playing Viotti's Thirteenth concerto with immense 
success. Although but sixteen years of age, he was appointed 
leader of the second violins in the excellent orchestra of the 
unfortunate Theatre Feydeau, and was frequently heard as soloist. 
In 1794, Rode began a series of concert tours, visiting Holland and 
the north of Germany. His success in Berlin and Hamburg was 
decided, and from the latter city he took passage to his native town ; 
but the vessel was driven to England by adverse winds and he 
visited London. He appeared once only in public, at a concert for 
charity, without creating much impression, and returned to Paris 
where he was appointed principal professor of the violin at the 
newly founded Conservatoire. 

In 1799 he travelled in Spain to try his fortune on a concert tour, 
and in Madrid he met Boccherini, who is said to have written 
orchestral parts to his early works. It was in Spain that he gave 



254 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

attention to the guitar which enjoyed favour at the court. 
Boccherini himself was a guitarist, and Rode followed his example, 
for from this period he wrote many of his lighter compositions with 
guitar accompaniments. Upon his return to Paris, in 1800, Rode 
was solo violinist in the private band of Napoleon Bonaparte, and 
during this period he drew the admiration of all Paris, and achieved 
his greatest success. Notwithstanding, in 1803, he went with 
Boieldieu to St. Petersburg, passing through north Germany on his 
way, for Spohr heard him when in Brunswick and was greatly 
impressed, so much so, that he aimed solely to imitate his style and 
manner. In St. Petersburg his playing aroused the greatest 
enthusiasm, and he was at once attached to the private service of 
the Emperor with a munificent salary. The five years of laborious 
service in Russia are declared to have exercised a deleterious 
influence over his playing, and from this time a decided decline of 
his powers set in. This was noticed upon his return to Paris in 
1808, for his warmest friends could not but feel that he had lost his 
certainty of execution and vigour of style. Between the years 
1811-1814 he travelled a good deal in Switzerland, Germany and 
Austria, and in Vienna he met Beethoven, who finished the great 
Sonata in G, Op. 96, expressly for him. It was played by Rode, 
and Archduke Rudolph, the latter Beethoven's pupil, at a private 
concert, but so far as the violin part was concerned it was not to 
the composer's satisfaction. 

While in Vienna, Rode wrote and published several pieces for 
the violin with guitar accompaniment. In 1814 he was in Berlin, 
where he married and remained for some time, and from Berlin he 
returned to Bordeaux, for in the vicinity he owned a country house. 
In 1828 he once again resumed a public career, but his appearance 
in Paris was a decided fiasco ; he took his failure so much to heart 
that his health gave way and he died after a lingering illness two 
years later. Rode wrote much music for the violin — concertos, 
caprices, quartets, and a Polonaise for violin or flute and guitar, 
was published by Hoffmann, Prague; other original compositions 
and several arrangements with the guitar were issued in 1820 by 
Simrock, Bonn ; Haslinger, Vienna ; and Janet, Paris. 

Rolla, Alessandro, born April 6, 1757, at Pavia, Italy, died in 
Milan, September 15, 1841, eighty-four years of age. He was a 
violinist, guitarist and composer, who first studied the piano, but 
soon turned to the guitar, and later the violin, learning the latter 
instruments from Conti and Renzi. For some years he was leader 
of the orchestra in Parma, and it was here in 1795 that Paganini 
was his pupil for several months. In 1802 he was appointed 
conductor of the opera at La Scala, Milan, and in this position he 
won a widespread reputation, and was also a professor at the Milan 
Conservatoire for many years. Rolla had a strong predilection for 
the viola, and wrote concertos for this instrument, which he 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 255 

performed in public. His compositions consist of numerous violin 
duets, a few trios, quartets and quintets for stringed instruments 
which include the guitar, and also concertos for the violin and the 
viola. Three duos for violin and guitar were published by Janet, 
Paris ; Three duettini for guitar and violin, Hug, Zurich ; Three 
duos for violin aud guitar, A. Meissonnier, Paris, and Five 
romances for voice with guitar accompaniment, Cons, Milan. 
Ricordi of Milan, publish among his posthumous works, Four 
waltzes for flute, violin and guitar. Rolla's compositions, 
although now entirely forgotten, enjoyed considerable favour in 
their day. 

Romberg, Bernhard, born November 11, 1767, at Dinklage, and 
died in Hamburg, August 13, 1841. He came of a long musical 
stock, his father Anton was a bassoon player who died in 1812. 
When only fourteen years of age, Bernhard attracted considerable 
attention in Paris during a visit there with his father. From 1790 
to 1793 he was violoncellist in the band of the Elector of Cologne, 
in Bonn, at the same time as Ries and the two Beethovens. 
During the French invasion he made a concert tour through Italy, 
Spain, and Portugal, and was well received, especially in Madrid, 
where he played duos for violoncello and violin with Ferdinand VII. 
His cousin Andreas travelled with him, and on their return through 
Vienna they gave a concert at which Beethoven played. He 
returned to Hamburg where he married; but from 1801-1803 he 
was a professor in the Paris Conservatoire, and after that date was 
engaged in the Royal Orchestra of Berlin. In 1806 the French 
were advancing again into Germany, so Romberg travelled through 
the south of Russia and remained the following year ; but when 
government was more settled he returned to Berlin and was court 
capellmeister until 1817, when he retired from public and resided 
in Hamburg for the remainder of his life. Romberg was the 
earliest composer for the violoncello who retains his importance 
and popularity up to the present time. He struck out fresh paths 
in the technic of the instrument and combined truly poetic feeling 
with thorough musicianship. His celebrated concertos may be 
said to contain implicitly a complete theory of 'cello playing, and 
there are few passages known to modern players, the type of which 
may not be found in these works. His Grand fantasia, Op. 70, 
was at one time held in high esteem, but is now somewhat 
antiquated, and so are the majority of his lesser solos, although they 
contain excellent material for study. His compositions for the 
violoncello are perhaps the best studies for musical phrasing in the 
cantabile style that have ever been written for this instrument. 
Romberg was the author of several operas which were produced 
with varying success in Paris and Berlin, and while in Vienna he 
wrote and published Op. 46, Duo for violoncello and guitar, a 
divertimento on Austrian airs, which enjoyed some popularity. It 



256 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN'. 

was published by Haslinger, Vienna, and Romberg also wrote songs 
with guitar which were published by Schott, Mayence. 

Romero, Luis T., was born in Madrid, Spain, in 1853, and died 
in South Boston, America, November 19, 1893. He studied the 
guitar during youth in his native land, but in his teens his parents 
emigrated to the southern states of America, and in this country he 
continued the study of the instrument under a fellow countryman, 
Miguel S. Arrevalo. It was in San Francisco that Romero 
became acquainted with Arrevalo, and in this city he received 
instruction from him. Romero resided for a period at San Jose, 
and some time later removed to Boston where he remained till his 
death. In this city he taught the guitar and appeared as guitar 
soloist ; but his health was not robust and he was seized by that 
dreaded monster, pulmonary tuberculosis, which eventually 
terminated in his prime, a successful and artistic career. His 
disease became so acute that he entered the Carney Hospital in 
South Boston, on October 12, 1893, and died in that institution on 
the nineteenth of the following month. It is said that Paderewski 
had no opinion of the musical powers of the guitar until lie 
heard Romero play, and after that event the great pianist was 
enthusiastic in his praise of the instrument. Romero's compositions 
were published in the towns in which he lived, and the majority 
of his works are arrangements and transcriptions for guitar solo, 
the principal publishers being Jean White, Walter Jacobs, Boston ; 
and Broder & Schlam, San Francisco, California. 

Roser von Reiter, Franz de Paula, an Austrian operatic 
composer who was born at Naarn, Upper Austria, 1779, and died 
in 1830. He spent his life in Vienna and Pesth, in which cities he 
wrote nearly a hundred operas, operettas, pantomimes, etc., in 
addition to instrumental compositions, principally for strings and 
flute with guitar, but his publications ceased to appear in 1828. 
Op. 14, Theme (by Hummel) with six variations for guitar and 
flute, was published by Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig. 

Rossini, Gioachino Antonio, born February 29, 1792, at Pesaro, 
Italy, died November 13, 1868, at Passy, Paris, was one of the 
brightest musical luminaries of the nineteenth century. The position 
of his parents was of the humblest, his father being town trumpeter 
and inspector of slaughter-houses, his mother a baker's daughter. 
For a period young Rossini was left in charge of a butcher of 
Bologna, where he received crude musical lessons from Prinetti, 
while his parents were touring with a theatrical company. When 
thirteen years of age he was playing the horn by his father's side in 
the theatre orchestra, but in 1807 he entered the Liceo of Bologna 
and studied under Mattel. At the end of the first year his cantata 
was awarded the prize, being publicly performed the same year, and 
from this date Rossini commenced dramatic composition, writing 




LUIS T. ROMERO. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 257 

about sixty operas, many oratorios, cantatas and instrumental music. 
He had been employed in Naples, and shortly before Christmas, 
1815, left this city for Rome, where he was under contract to bring 
out two operas. 

The first of these was coldly received, while the second A Imaviva 
or (The barber of Seville), which made its first appearance at the 
Theatre Argentina, February 5, 1816, was immediately condemned. 
The cause of this was the predilection for Paisiello's opera of this 
name, for there was a determined opposition of partisans, whose 
intent was to wreck the work. Rossini, with the best of desires, 
before adopting the subject, had enquired of Paisiello whether by 
so doing he would cause him annoyance, thinking that this course 
would satisfy Paisiello's friends and admirers ; but this was not to 
be for from the very commencement of the performance the 
audience manifested its hostility, and matters were intensified by 
an untoward incident. In the first act, Rossini writes an accom- 
paniment for the guitar to Almaviva's cavatina, Ecco ridente il 
cielo, which he sings under the window of Rosina, and for the 
first performance, Garcia played the role of Almaviva. Garcia, 
a good guitarist, was to play his own accompaniment on the stage, 
although the guitar is written for in the orchestral score and is 
usually played by a member of the orchestra. A very unfortunate 
circumstance arose which put the audience in a more hilarious 
mood, for when he was about to commence the cavatina his guitar 
had not been tuned ! At the critical moment he realized his 
awkward position ; the performance was stopped for him to tune 
his guitar which greatly added to the amusement of the spectators, 
who began to whistle and shout, and in the midst of the turmoil 
Garcia broke a string. This proved the climax, for the whole 
house, now convulsed with laughter at the peculiar situation, 
manifested no consideration for young Rossini, who, according to 
the custom was conducting at the piano. The introduction to the 
cavatina was again played, when there hurriedly arrived on the 
stage, Figaro (Zamboni) with another guitar ! Wild derision 
and laughter took possession of the audience and the designs of 
Rossini's opponents materialized. Rossini, in despair, mounted the 
balcony in vain, for during the tumult not a single note of this 
ravishing serenade was heard. Paisiello had accompanied the 
serenade of his opera with the mandolin (see Paisiello), and 
Rossini's innovations were foreign and distasteful to the Romans. 
Though hissed on the first night, Almaviva was listened to with 
patience on the second, and advanced in favour until it became one 
of the most popular comic operas ever composed, and ended by 
being known as The barber of Seville. 

The introduction to the cavatina, Ecco ridente il cielo is borrowed 
from the opening of the first chorus in Aureliano. The cavatina is 
in key C, two-four time, accompanied by solo clarionet, the 
violins pizzicato, while the guitar ripples arpeggios in sextuplets 



258 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

and swells towards the close with full chords. It was in the 
delicious andante of this cavatina that Rossini first employed the 
modulation to the minor third below, which afterwards became so 
common in Italian music. During the next eight years, Rossini 
wrote no less than twenty operas, and in several of these he makes 
use of the guitar. He had heard Paganini play the guitar in Paris, 
and was enraptured by his performance ; he evinced a partiality for 
the guitar and mandolin, and a conversation with Moscheles relative 
to these instruments is recorded (page 212). He died in Passy, 
France, November 13, 1868, and was honoured by an imposing 
funeral. 

Rudersdorff, Joseph, born at Amsterdam, in 1779, and died in 
Konigsberg, Germany, in 1866. He was a violinist and guitarist 
who displayed his great musical genius at a very tender age. His 
first instrument was the violin, and he obtained such marked 
proficiency upon it, that when eight years of age he appeared as 
soloist in his native town playing a concerto of Pleyel. He then 
commenced the study of the guitar, and his mastery over this 
instrument was equal to that of the violin. At the commencement 
of the nineteenth century he migrated to Ireland and lived in 
Dublin for more than twenty years, where he was esteemed as a 
thorough musician. In 1822 he was engaged professionally in 
Ivanowsky, in the Ukraine, Russia, and from thence he removed 
to Hamburg. Rudersdorff was orchestral conductor in Berlin 
during 1831, and in this city he published several of his compositions, 
for he was author of fantasias, polonaises, etc., for violin and guitar, 
piano compositions and songs with guitar accompaniment, several 
of the latter being published by Schott, Mayence. His daughter, 
Hermine, born in 1822, was a celebrated singer who possessed a 
massive soprano voice. She appeared for several seasons at the 
Royal Italian Opera, London, and also on the continent and in 
the United States with great success. 

Rugeon Beauclair, Antoine Louis, a French musician and 
guitarist living in Paris during the commencement of the 
nineteenth century, who was employed in the postal service of the 
city during the years 1808-1829, the latter year being the date of 
his death. Although not professionally engaged in music he was a 
talented amateur of some repute, and published a few compositions 
for his instrument, the principal of which were Op. 2, Three grand 
duos for two guitars, published by Momigny, Paris ; Op. 3, Three 
trios concertante for two guitars and violin, Naderman, Paris ; 
Op. 4, and Op. 8, Sonatas for guitar solo, Leduc and Lemoine, 
Paris; Op. 7, Three grand duos for guitar and violin, Beauce, 
Paris ; Twelve waltzes for guitar solo, Costallat, Paris, and a 
number of themes with variations and other smaller compositions 
without opus numbers, all of which appeared in Paris. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 259 

CAGRINI, Luigi, an Italian guitarist, born about the year 1811, 
*"* who was living in London as a professor of the guitar and 
virtuoso in 1840. He was an infant prodigy on the guitar, and as 
such appeared with brilliant success at the most important courts 
of Europe, and for many years he travelled as a guitar virtuoso, 
residing in Paris for a period and afterwards in London. From 
1824 to 1828 he was concertising in France, and he took part with 
the guitarist Coste in duos for two guitars, their favourite being 
Giuliani's Variations concert antes, Op. 130. The Harmonicon, 
an English music journal, for May, 1824 stated: "The young 
Sagrini, thirteen years old, a professor of the guitar, gave a concert 
on March 15, 1824, in the hall of Mons Pfieffer, Paris. The 
extraordinary and precose talent of this young artist has been 
attended by the most brilliant success. At the court of Turin he 
astonished and charmed the most distinguished connoisseurs and 
the same effect was produced at Paris." Sagrini was highly 
esteemed in London, he was a friend of the organist and guitarist 
Neuland ; they appeared in public together in duos for two guitars 
and piano and guitar, both in London and Paris, and Sagrini wrote 
a number of works for the guitar which were published principally 
in these two cities. He was the author of A guide to the guitar; 
A set of preludes, exercises, etc., both of which were published by 
Addison, London ; Op. 4, Variations for guitar solo, Lemoine, 
Paris ; Op. 5, Five divertimentos for guitar tuned in E major ; 
Op. 11, 12 and 13, Guitar solos, Schott, Mayence (Op. 13 was 
also issued by Johanning, London, under the title of Two books of 
favourite airs) ; Op. 15, Recreation for guitar solo ; Op. 16 and 
17, Duos for two guitars, Johanning, London ; Op. 27, Fantasia 
on ' O cara memorial dedicated to the Marquis of Bristol, Richault, 
Paris. In addition he wrote numerous smaller pieces, published 
by Bochsa and Holloway, London and arranged guitar accompani- 
ments to numerous songs which deserve praise, for they are of 
special merit, and although rather more difficult than the ordinary 
accompaniment, display the beauties of the guitar as an 
accompanying instrument. 

Salieri, Antonio, born August 19, 1750, at Legnago, near Verona, 
and died in Vienna, May 7, 1825, was a very highly esteemed 
composer, of whom the mighty Beethoven was proud to style 
himself " Salieri's pupil." He was a son of wealthy parents and 
learned music from his brother, a pupil of Tartini, and after the 
death of his parents he removed to Venice, where he made the 
acquaintance of Gassmann, composer and late capellmeister to the 
Emperor. Gassmann became interested in the lad, gave him 
further instruction, took him to Vienna and introduced him to the 
Emperor Joseph, and at sixteen years of age he was appointed 
director of opera in Vienna, remaining in this position twenty-four 
years, till 1790, when he resigned. Such was his progress that at 



260 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



twenty-four years of age he was court composer, and in 1778 
received the additional appointment of court capellmeister. In 
that year he visited Italy, five of his operas being produced in 
Venice, Milan and Rome, and these spread his fame throughout 
the continent for he was commissioned to write an opera for Paris, 
which he personally superintended April, 1784. Two years later 
he made another visit to Paris, where his opera Les Horaces had 
failed ; but his good fortune was amply retrieved by the most 

Bin gebohren im Romischen Lande 

(I was born in the Roman country). 

Romance from the Opera "AXUR, RE D'ORMUS," 

Composed with Mandolin Accompaniment by SALIERI 

in 1787. 



MANDOLIN. 



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GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 261 

brilliant success of Axur Re d'Ormus, or Tarare, as it was 
originally named. This grand opera in five acts, produced in Paris, 
June 8, 1787 and the following year in Vienna, has remained his 
most important work. The fourth act contains that beautiful 
romance for tenor entitled, / was born in the Roman country, which 
is accompanied by the mandolin, flute and strings, the latter 
instruments, with the exception of the viola being played pizzicato, 
and an extract from the mandolin part of this unique orchestration 
is reproduced. Salieri wrote many operas which he conducted in 
various continental cities ; but owing to the change of taste in 
dramatic music, he devoted his later years chiefly to church 
composition, choruses, and instrumental music. He enjoyed the 
most honoured position among contemporary musicians, and in 
1816, when he celebrated his fiftieth anniversary of the commence- 
ment of his career in Vienna, he was publicly feted, decorated by 
the Emperor, and compositions by each of his pupils, including 
Schubert, were performed. Salieri lost his only son in 1805, and 
his wife two years later, and in 1824, after fifty years' service at 
court, he retired on full salary, but died shortly after. 

Salomon, M., born Besancon, Doubs, France, in 1786, and died 
there February 19, 1831, was a guitar soloist, a professor of the 
guitar and composer for his instrument, who is known as the inventor 
and patentee of two musical instruments which he named harp-lyre 
or harpolyre. This instrument was made after the model of a large 
guitar and fitted with three necks, the middle one with a fretted 
fingerboard and strung as the ordinary guitar, while the two side 
necks carried exfra accompanying strings of which there were twenty- 
one in all. This somewhat resembled the theorbo-lute and it was 
patented in 1827 by Salomon. By his manner of stringing and 
tuning, some novel and powerful effects were obtainable ; but as a 
musical instrument it met with no success and two years later, in 
1829, he improved this model and obtained a patent for another 
guitar which was evidently made after the pattern of the lyre-guitar 
of Le Dhuy, a maker who flourished in Coucy-le-Chateau about the 
year 1806. Salomon also invented a unique tuning apparatus with 
steel rods which were set in vibration by a toothed wheel ; but this 
received no more success than the harpolyre. Two of these patent 
instruments are preserved in the museum of the National Conser- 
vatoire of Music, Paris. Salomon composed and published much 
music for the guitar, solos, duos, etc., of ordinary merit, and he also 
published a method for his harp-lyre which is now exceedingly rare. 

Salvayre, Gervais Bernard, born at Toulouse, France, June 24, 
1847, and was living in 1913. He began his musical education in 
the cathedral and afterwards studied in the conservatoire of his 
native city, previous to entering the Paris Conservatoire. In the 
latter institution he studied the organ with Benoist and composition 
and fugue under Thomas and Bazin. After repeated attempts he 



262 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

gained the Prix de Rome in 1872 and during his residence in Italy 
worked hard. He studied the mandolin for a period under Bertucci 
in Rome, obtained great proficiency upon the instrument and became 
much attached to it. His first publications, some Italian songs, 
were issued by Ricordi, Milan, and many of his compositions 
date from this time, notably his opera Le Bravo and The last 
Judgment. When he returned to Paris in 1877, Salvayre was 
appointed chorus master of the Opera Populaire, and he wrote 
several works for the stage. His ballet Fandango produced at the 
opera November 26, 1877, was a decided success. Among his other 
works are Richard III, opera produced at St. Petersburg, Symphonic 
overture, Stabat mater and other church music, and operas 
produced in Paris as late as 1913. Salvayre subsequently remodelled 
The last Judgment and it was produced in France as The 
Resurrection, and his opera Le Bravo was transformed from an 
opera comique into a spectacular drama, whereupon it enjoyed an 
immense success partly owing to the singing of the prima donna 
Heilbron and the tenor Bouhy. Salvayre writes for the guitar in 
this opera and the work has been performed at several important 
theatres in other lands. He was decorated with the Legion 
d'honneur, July 1880, and is the author of several light compositions 
for the mandolin and piano which appeared in Paris, the principal, 
Mattinata, being published by Lemoine. 

Scheidler, Ch. George, a German guitarist of the early nineteenth 
century. He was living in Vienna in 1820 and published there 
many compositions for the guitar. Op. 1-2, Sonatas for guitar ; 
Romance for guitar; Five pieces for guitar and two Duos for 
guitar and violin were published by Schott, Mayence. 

Schenk Decker, F., a guitar virtuoso who was born in Vienna, 
in 1825, and died in St. Petersburg, October 19, 1899 at the age of 
seventy -four. He was the son of Friedrich Schenk, a guitar maker, 
who was for a period foreman in the workshop of the celebrated 
guitar maker Staufer, Vienna, and he commenced business as a 
guitar maker on his own account about 1849. Decker-Schenk was 
taught the guitar by his father and studied singing, and at an early 
age appeared as guitarist before Duke Max of Bavaria and other 
royal courts. He joined an operatic company as vocalist, and with 
his wife, also a musician, they toured through Russia. For some 
years Schenk was engaged as theatre director, but after the death 
of his first wife he gave up the theatrical profession, and from 1861 
resided in St. Petersburg as a virtuoso and teacher of the guitar 
and mandolin, and here he married a Russian woman. He was 
esteemed as a teacher and trained many pupils, chief of whom was 
the Russian guitarist Lebedeff. Schenk was a versatile composer, 
the author of several well-known Russian operettas which enjoy 
popularity at the present day, particularly Frena, and The soldier 
and the girl ; and under his name are published in Russia, a 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 263 

Method for the guitar, also music for one, two and four guitars, 
and compositions for mandolin and piano. Schenk played and 
wrote for the Russian guitar of seven strings ; he was an artist 
beloved by all who knew him, and in 1899 his many pupils erected 
to his memory a monument in the cemetery of St. Petersburg. 

Schindlocker, Philipp, born October 25, 1753, at Mons Hainault, 
Belgium, and died April 16, 1827, in Vienna, as " Kaiserlicher 
Kammervirtuose." Schindlocker was a violoncellist and guitarist 
of renown who came as a child with his parents to Vienna and 
studied the guitar and violoncello under Himmelbauer in this city. 
When he had completed his studies on both instruments he was 
employed for some years as a music teacher ; but in 1795 he was 
appointed solo violoncellist in the Royal Opera and at St. Stephens. 
Three years later he was touring, and finally settled in St. Etienne, 
France, being engaged in the cathedral, but he eventually returned 
to Vienna, and in 1806 was appointed violoncellist to the Emperor. 
Schindlocker has written much music which remains in manuscript, 
principally concertos for violoncello with orchestra and guitar 
music. The only published composition of this musician is a 
Serenade for violoncello and guitar, which was issued by Diabelli, 
Vienna. He taught both the guitar and violoncello to Joseph Merk, 
who attained to greater celebrity in the musical word, and who for 
some years was associated with Giuliani, Mayseder, and Moscheles 
in concert performances in Vienna, and Merk was likewise 
appointed Kammervirtuos to the Emperor in 1834. 

Schlick, Johann Conrad, born in Munster, Westphalia, in 1759, 
and died in Gotha 1825, was a virtuoso on the violoncello and 
mandolin. He married a musician of greater renown, Regina 
Strinasacchi, who was born in 1764 at Ostiglia, near Mantua, Italy. 
She was a violin virtuoso and also an excellent guitarist, studying 
these instruments in her youth, first in Venice and later in Paris. 
From 1780 to 1783 she was touring through Italy, and won 
universal admiration, both by her playing, her attractive manners, 
and good looks. In 1784 she went to Vienna, and on March 29 
and April 24 of that year she gave two concerts in the National Court 
Theatre. Strinasacchi was a friend of Mozart in Vienna, and 
requested him to compose something for her second concert, which 
he promised to do, and immediately wrote the violin part of the 
Sonata in B flat, but the piano accompaniment he delayed for 
another occasion. The day of the concert approached, and not- 
withstanding the importunity of Strinasacchi, he still postponed 
writing the accompaniment, and at the concert played from a 
few rough notes dotted on the piano staves of the manuscript. 
The Emperor Joseph, from his box above, noticing the blank sheets 
of music paper on his desk, sent for Mozart, who was obliged to 
confess the true state of the case. The original manuscript was 
in the possession of Mr. F. G. Kurtz of Liverpool in 1899, for Mozart 



264 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

filled in the complete accompaniment at a later date, in an ink of 
slightly different shade from that used upon the first occasion, so 
the bare state of the paper at the first performance is easily 
discerned at the present time. Before his marriage, Schlick was 
violoncellist in the Bishop's Chapel of Munster, his native town, 
and after concert tours with his wife, when they performed duos 
for violin and violoncello and mandolin and guitar, they resided in 
Gotha, and Schlick was for some years violoncellist in the orchestra 
of the 'ducal chapel of this city. His wife died in Gotha in 1823 
and he survived her two years. Schlick has written much music 
for the violoncello in the shape of concertos and solos, and in 
quartets with other instruments. He is the author also of sonatas 
for the mandolin, two books of pieces for the guitar, published by 
Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig ; and Schilling and Fetis give a list of 
his compositions, many of which remain in manuscript, one of 
these a Sonata for mandolin and piano is preserved in the Vienna 
Museum. 

Schnabel, Joseph Ignaz, born May 24, 1767, at Naumburg, 
Silesia, and died June 16, 1831, at Breslau, was a violinist, guitarist, 
organist, and composer of church and instrumental music, a large 
portion of which has never been printed. He was the son of a 
cantor, and received early instruction on the violin and guitar from 
his father, and when eight years of age had made remarkable 
progress on both these instruments, and also the piano. His 
parents placed him in the Catholic Gymnasium of Breslau when he 
was twelve years of age to study theology, but through the 
intercession of his maternal uncle he was able to return home and 
continue his musical education. Schnabel organised an amateur 
violin and guitar band of peasant lads of his own age, but his 
musical studies were interrupted for a time by deafness. Fortun- 
ately, he recovered his hearing later in life, and in 1797 went to 
Breslau, where he was organist of St. Claire, and first violinist in 
the " v'incentinerstift." A few years later he was teaching the 
violin and guitar in this city, and was first violinist and deputy 
conductor of the Royal Theatre orchestra, and towards the close of 
1804, was appointed cathedral organist. Schnabel resigned his 
position in the theatre when Weber arrived, probably at vexation 
for not being promoted capellmeister himself, or as a musician of 
thirty-seven years' experience, declining to serve under a lad of 
eighteen. When Weber took up his appointment in Breslau, he 
had to contend from the first, on account of his youth, with the 
prejudices of the managing committee and with strong opposition 
from the chief musical circles of the town. The leader of this 
opposition was Joseph Schnabel, and the two continued on un- 
friendly terms, for some rudeness of which Weber was guilty 
towards Schnabel— who was an educated and highly respected man 
and musician— did not raise Weber in the estimation of the better 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 265 

part of the public. Schnabel, after quitting the theatre, became in 
1806 conductor of the Richter winter concerts, and in 1811 he was 
summoned to Berlin by Zelter to investigate the methods and 
system of the Singakademie, with the object of establishing similar 
institutions in Breslau and the rest of Silesia, this being the 
intention of the Prussian Government. In 1812 he was musical 
director of the University and director of the Royal Institute for 
church music. Schnabel was the author of various published 
compositions, masses, offertories, hymns, songs, military marches 
and guitar music ; but a large proportion remains in manuscript. 
The most renowned of his published works which include the 
guitar, was a Quintet for guitar, two violins, alto and 'cello. 

Schneider, Charles Adam, a German guitarist who resided in 
Munich, and published a Method for the guitar. He was the 
author also of many songs with accompaniments of guitar or piano, 
also a method and music for the cornet. Schneider's Method for 
the guitar and his songs were published principally by Falter, 
Munich ; while Schott, Mayence, published Op. 2, Twelve 
instructive pieces for the guitar, and duos for this instrument. 

Schubert, Franz Peter, was born January 31, 1797, in Vienna, 
and died in that city, November 19, 1828, at the age of 
thirty-one. Over the door of the house in which he was born, a 
gray marble tablet has been placed with the simple words : " Franz 
Schubert's birth-place," while on the left of the inscription is a lyre 
crowned with a star, and on the right a laurel wreath, encircling 
"31 January, 1797," the date of his birth. Schubert, the most 
wonderful, and greatest of all song writers, and Carl Weber, his 
near rival in this respect, were both guitarists, and the majority of 
their songs were written with guitar accompaniments. By a 
strange coincidence, both possessed light baritone voices, and it is 
stated of both that they sang their own songs to guitar 
accompaniment, without affectation, creating intense pleasure in the 
circles of their musical friends, for both recognised the extreme 
importance of a suitable accompaniment to the words. The guitar 
was Schubert's constant companion during his early career, before 
he possessed a piano, and all his vocal compositions were conceived 
and sketched out on this instrument. 

His father Franz, in 1784, became assistant to his brother in a 
school in the Leopoldstadt, and when about nineteen years of age 
married, their first child Ignaz being born in 1784. There were 
numerous other children, several of whom died in infancy, and in 
1797, Franz was born. He received a methodical and thorough 
education from his father, which included a solid grounding in the 
rudiments of music ; he was taught the violin and guitar, and his 
brother Ignaz gave him lessons on the piano, and when his family 
had exhausted their musical knowledge, he was placed under the 
parish choirmaster Holzer, whom he soon outstripped. Before he 



266 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

was eleven years of age, Schubert was first soprano and solo violin 
in Lichtenthal Church, and in October, 1808, when eleven years 
and eight months he competed for admission in the Imperial School 
where the choristers of the Court Chapel received their education. 
Schubert was successful, and his homely gray suit was now 
exchanged for the gold laced uniform of the Imperial choir. In 
the school orchestra he played first violin ; his performance soon 
attracted the attention of Spaun, the leader, who was nine years his 
senior, and he took a fancy to the new pupil and remained his firm 
supporter through life. Schubert continued to play the guitar, and 
used it to accompany his boyish songs, for at this early period he 
had already set several poems to music, his greatest difficulty was in 
obtaining sufficient music paper to write them on. 

In 1813, when sixteen years of age, amongst other compositions, 
he wrote for his father's birthday, September 27, a Cantata in two 
movements for three male voices with guitar accompaniment. 
The words and music were both his own composition, and the 
manuscript is in the possession of Dr. Schneider. This cantata 
contains only one terzett for two tenors and a bass, and is inscribed : 
" In honour of the father's name day festival, the words with guitar 
obbligato accompaniment, composed by F. Schubert, on September 
27, 1813." The terzett, a simple tuneful melody, commences with 
an andante in A major, twelve-eight time, and concludes with a 
lively allegretto in six-eight. He had already composed many 
songs with the guitar, and at this period made the acquaintance of 
the poet-guitarist Korner. Korner also sang his own songs to 
guitar accompaniment, and he happened to be in Vienna at the 
time Schubert was offered special inducements to remain a 
further term in the Imperial School, and he influenced him in his 
decision not to continue, but to devote himself entirely to art. So 
at seventeen years of age Schubert returned to his father's house, 
and after a few months' study at the Normal School, qualified as a 
schoolmaster, and for three years was occupied in the uncongenial 
task of teaching the lowest classes ; but he spent his leisure in the 
society and companionship of musical associates, and after a while 
he was able through the kindness of a friend, to live more after his 
own inclinations. For some time Schubert's father had been 
dissatisfied with his half-hearted teaching, and when Franz von 
Schober, a young man of good birth and some means, offered to 
allow him to share his lodgings and to keep house together, the 
father consented. Schober was four months his junior, and had 
become acquainted with some of Schubert's songs while visiting 
Spaun, at Linz. How Schubert managed to exist during the year 
1816 is not known ; he commenced to give a few lessons, but . soon 
discontinued. His wants were few, but how they were supplied 
remains a mystery, as there was no sale for his compositions ; it 
appears the household expenses must have been met entirely by 
Schober. During this part of his career, and particularly when 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 267 

living with Schober, all his songs were written with the guitar, for 
in his poverty and humble lodging he could not call a piano his own, 
or even obtain the use of one. His guitar had grown very dear to 
him, for by its assistance he had obtained favour in the musical 
circles of his friends, and when this instrument was not in use, it 
was always to be seen hanging over his bed. 

On May 13 of this year (1816), he set to music with guitar 
accompaniment, his friend Schober's poem, Fruhlingslied, Op. 16, 
and about the same time set to guitar, Naturgenuss, two poems by 
Matthisson. These he disposed of for a few pence — the price of a 
frugal meal — and they were published with their original guitar 
accompaniment by Cappi & Diabelli, Vienna. During those 
months of 1816, when keeping house with Schober, he lived rent 
free ; but the return of Schober's brother upset this arrangement, 
and from that time Schubert must have been indebted to Spaun, or 
some other friend in better circumstances for his lodging, existence, 
and visits to the theatre, for he earned nothing by teaching during 1817. 
In March of this year he set to music among numerous other works, 
Philoktet, three poems of his friend Mayrhofer, which he arranged 
for four male voices with guitar accompaniment, and these were 
disposed of at the usual price and published by Cappi & Diabelli. 
Through Schober he made the acquaintance of the poets Grillparzer, 
Mayrhofer, and Bauernfeld, also of the artist painters Schwin and 
Rugelweiser. These poets and artists were accustomed to meet in 
the house of the four sisters Frohlich, where musical evenings were 
spent, for in the home of these talented sisters, the most celebrated 
musicians and authors of Vienna were everyday visitors. Next to 
the poet Grillparzer, Schubert was their most intimate friend, and 
here in the circle of his musical adherents, he took his guitar and 
sang his songs to his own accompaniment, receiving the criticisms 
and opinions relative to his latest productions and putting the final 
touches to them. 

The majority of Schubert's accompaniments were conceived on 
the guitar, and only afterwards did he set them for the piano, and 
many of his early songs were originally published in the first 
instance with guitar ; but all his accompaniments show clearly and 
undisputably the influence and character of this instrument, they 
are in truth guitar accompaniments. Schubert's first publisher 
Diabelli, was himself a guitar player, and Kreissle von Hellborn in 
his Biography of Schubert says : " The guitar was greatly in request 
in Schubert's time as a solo instrument and as an accompaniment also. 
He wrote several part songs with guitar accompaniment, the vocal 
quartet, Op. 11 has an accompaniment for guitar and piano. His 
terzett, Zum Namestag des haters, composed in 1813, has a guitar 
accompaniment which is in manuscript." In 1821, Schubert set to 
music with guitar accompaniment, Goethe's poem Sideika, Op. 31, 
he had previously set this song as Op. 14, and it was published by 
Pennauer, Vienna, and Diabelli published an Original dance for 



268 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

flute and guitar. Illustrations of two of Schubert's guitars are 
reproduced, one of these instruments is preserved in the museum of 
the Viennese Schubert Society, while the other is in the possession 
of Major Hans Umlauff. They are the usual Viennese guitars of 
the period, and the first was included in the Schubert Centenary 
Exhibition in Vienna. 

Schubert was a frequent visitor to the workshop of the guitar 
maker Staufer, Vienna, and when the latter in 1823 invented the 
arpeggione, Schubert adopted the new instrument. It has been 
called the guitar violoncello or chitarra col arco (guitar played with 
a bow), and as its name implies, it partook of the construction of 
the guitar and violoncello, its shape being that of the guitar, while 
in size it was as large as a small violoncello. Its six strings were 
tuned the same as the guitar, the fingerboard was also fretted, but 
the upper part — that portion which is attached to the table of the 
guitar, was in the arpeggione slightly raised, and it was played in 
the position and manner of a violoncello ; its tone resembled that 
of the viol d'amour and it received a certain amount of favour. 
Schubert was enthusiastic in his praise of it, and being a guitarist 
he readily mastered it and composed a Sonata in A minor with 
piano accompaniment. This was written in November, 1824 and 
dedicated to Vincent Schuster, a skilful performer, but it was not 
published till some years later by Gotthardt, Vienna. Schubert's 
activity as a song writer extends over a period of seventeen years 
and no musician has ever worked with less external stimulus and 
encouragement. It was not until 1819 that one of his songs was 
publicly performed, and it was not until 1821 that any were printed 
with the piano. Through his brief career of stress and poverty he 
was treated with unpardonable neglect, and only a half-hearted and 
tardy recognition was given toward its close. He died of typhoid 
fever, November 19, 1828, and was interred on the following 
Friday, near the resting place of Beethoven, this being a last 
request to his brother Ferdinand. His friend the poet Grillparzer 
wrote of him, " Fate has buried here a rich possession, but yet 
greater promise." 

Schulz, Leonard, born in Vienna, 1814, and died in London, April 
27, 1860, after a long and painful illness. His father, Andre, was 
a Hungarian guitarist who settled in Vienna at the commencement 
of the nineteenth century and there taught and composed for his 
instrument, and several of his compositions were published by 
Artaria and also Traeg, Vienna. Leonard, and his elder brother 
Edward, received their musical training from their father, both being 
taught the guitar. At a later date Edward (born February 18, 1812, 
died September 15, 1876) also studied the piano and as a child had 
the privilege of playing to Beethoven in Vienna. The father and 
his two sons appeared frequently in Vienna as a trio of guitarists, 
and in 1826 they came to London and made their first appearance 




Franz Schuberfs guitar, in the 
Schubert Museum. Vienna. 




Fran/ Schubert's guitar, in the 
possession of Major Hans Umlauff. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 269 

April 24, 1826, at a concert in Kirkman's Rooms when Edward 
played the physharmonica and the father and Leonard, guitars, and 
after this concert they performed before King George IV, played at 
other important functions in the city and then returned to Vienna. 
Their appearances in Vienna also attracted much attention, for the 
following extract appeared in an English music journal concerning 
their concertising in Vienna in 1827. " Among the most interesting 
concerts, we would particularise that of the two youths Schulz and 
their father, who sometime since paid a visit to London and were 
honoured by the notice of your sovereign. The younger son Leonard 
performed' with his father a brilliant rondo for two guitars, the effect 
of which was delightful. But the greatest treat of the evening was 
Der Abschied (The departure of the troubadours) a delightful 
fantasia for the aeol-harmonica (a new instrument discovered by 
Mr. Reinlein of this city (Vienna) and two guitars. This composition 
is the joint production of of Giuliani and Moscheles." 

The following year, 1828, they were engaged to play at the 
concerts of the London Philharmonic Society when they made a 
second visit to England, for on April 28 at these concerts the father 
and his sons performed a trio for two guitars and aeol-harmonica or 
seraphine ; this was doubtless the same composition mentioned as 
being so successful in Vienna. From this date they remained in 
London, engaged in teaching and concert appearances, for Leonard 
Schulz was very popular as a guitar teacher and composer, but he 
led a dissolute life. Schulz gave lessons to Gotz in Styria, who 
also obtained renown as a virtuoso. Leonard Schulz was guitar 
soloist at the Hanover Square Rooms on May 17, 1833, when he 
played with success his Op. 10, a Fantasia for the guitar tuned in 
E major, dedicated to Hart Sitwell, Esq. During the years 1833- 
1840 he made several visits to Paris and obtained great praise for 
his excellent playing, and while there Meissonnier published several 
of his compositions for the guitar. 

Schulz was a voluminous writer, the author of innumerable studies, 
exercises, arrangements and transcriptions for the guitar and guitar 
and piano. The principal of his compositions are: Op, 9, Variations 
for guitar solo ; Op. 11, 12, 13 and 14, Rondos for guitar solo, and 
Op. 15, Modulations, published by Johanning, London ; Op. 21 to 
32, various songs arranged as guitar solos and issued by the same 
firm ; Op. 20 and 33, two series of twelve arrangements for guitar 
tuned in E major, published by Meissonnier, Paris. In conjunction 
with Ferdinand Praeger, son of the guitarist of that name, Schulz 
wrote Three duos characteristiques for guitar and piano, published 
by Mori, Lavenu & Co., London, and with Clinton the flautist he 
arranged Eighteen melodies for the guitar and piano, Wessell & 
Co., London, who stated : " This collection has long been wanted ; 
it forms the only work of its kind and is calculated to display the 
powers of advanced guitarists with considerable effect. The name 
of Schulz is a guarantee for the excellence of the arrangement." 



270 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

His Op. 48, a Grand fantasia for guitar solo, was composed 
expressly for and dedicated to Mrs. Felix Horetzky, wife of the 
guitar virtuoso; Op. 101, Divertisement for guitar solo, was issued 
in 1845 by Johanning, London, while his last compositions were 
published after his death by Madam Pratten. 

Schulz was described by a contemporary guitarist as " that 
wayward genius Leonard Schulz." He was undoubtedly a 
genius of the first rank, but his disreputable life brought him to a 
premature death ; he lingered for some time in the direst poverty, 
depending upon fellow guitarists for the bare necessaries of life and 
died in London, April 27, 1860, and these friends erected a monument 
to the memory of his genius in Brompton cemetery. His brother 
Edward turned his attention to the piano, he was a man of integrity 
and highly esteemed, and for many years was the most fashionable 
teacher of London society and to whom his distinguished manners 
endeared him. As a teacher he amassed a fortune, ^"1,000 of which 
he bequeathed to the Royal Society of Musicians in London. Their 
father Andre published a few compositions both in Vienna and 
London ; but they did not meet with the same popularity as those of 
his sons. Op. 2 and 3, Variations, and Op. 4, Waltzes for flute, 
violin and guitar, Artaria, Vienna ; Op. 6, Twelve studies for the 
guitar, dedicated to Baron Gaspard d' Albertas, Diabelli, Vienna ; 
and he wrote while in England variations for guitar and many songs 
with guitar accompaniment, one of which, The lady and her harp, 
was dedicated to the Princess Esterhazy. 

Schumann, Frederic, an early German guitarist who lived during 
the middle of the eighteenth century in London. He is 
the author of A second set of lessons for one or two guittars, 
composed by Frederic Schumann, Op. II." This work consists of 
twenty-one pieces, sonatas, etc., and by the title it appears that the 
author had already composed a previous set. They were published 
by John Johnson the violin maker and music seller in Cheapside, 
London, about 1770. 

Sczepanowski, Stanislaus, born in the Palatine of Cracow, 
Poland, in 1814, and was living as late as 1852, was a Polish 
guitarist and violoncellist of extraordinary ability. During 
childhood he was taught the violin by his parents, and at the age of 
six performed in public as a prodigy. In 1820 his family migrated 
to Scotland, making their abode in Edinburgh, and while in this 
city they became acquainted with Horetzky, the Polish guitarist, 
who was exceedingly popular as a teacher and soloist, and by his 
advice Sczepanowski studied the guitar. He received instruction 
from Horetzky until he was nineteen years of age and made such 
remarkable progress that he recommended the continuation of his 
studies under Sor in Paris, the greatest living virtuoso and teacher. 
Towards the end of 1833, Sczepanowski visited Paris, and studied 
for some considerable time under this celebrated artist, and gained a 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 271 

thorough knowledge of the theory and higher technicalities of guitar 
playing. 

In 1839, after the death of Sor, Sczepanowski returned to 
Edinburgh, where the young artist made a successful debut. 
Horetzky had departed from Scotland on a continental tour, and 
Sczepanowski, young and vigorous, with the impetus received by 
tuition under one of the greatest guitarists known, quickly won 
the favour and patronage of the musical world of Edinburgh and 
proved himself a worthy successor to his former teacher. He 
lived the next few years in Edinburgh, making occasional tours 
to the more important cities of Scotland and then visited London 
for a few months, but in 1843 commenced a European tour which 
terminated in his native land. He played the guitar in concerts 
with the violinist Lipinski, in Dresden, and such was his success 
in Berlin that he was feted by musicians there, and in Posen he 
gave no less than fifteen recitals, and also appeared many times in 
Cracow. He remained in this city for some time and then under- 
took a protracted tour through Europe, after which he visited 
Paris, and by his playing won the admiration and esteem of Chopin, 
Kalkbrenner, and Liszt. The French musical press said of him : 
Et de nos jours c'est M. Sczepanowski qui tient le sceptre de 
cest instrument." In 1847 he paid another visit to London, 
remaining as a teacher till 1848, and during his residence was 
commanded to perform before the sovereign and members of the 
royal family, and he was also honoured by being solo guitarist at 
concerts given in the mansion of the Duchess of Sutherland. 
Several of his compositions were written at this time and published 
by Cocks, London, and the musical press were unanimous in praise 
of his ability as a virtuoso, for the Musical World, The Times, 
and Morning Post extolled his genius lavishly. 

At the close of 1848 he was called from London to Warsaw, 
where he was the recipient of honors worthy of his fame. 
He was engaged to give three recitals in St. Petersburg in the 
Theatre Michel, where his playing excited the jealousy of certain 
Russian guitarists, and after his departure from St. Petersburg he 
appeared at Wilna where he caused a sensation by the rendition of 
his own compositions. Indefatigable in his concert travels, he now 
entered on a protracted tour through eastern Europe, visiting 
Bucharest, Varna, Constantinople, and Smyrna, and gained a 
reputation in this part of the continent equal to that previously 
obtained in the north and west. After this tour he was once again 
attracted to London where he married an English lady and became 
a naturalized British subject, and henceforth was engaged as a 
teacher of the guitar and violoncello ; Sczepanowski was a 
consummate master of the latter instrument and frequently played 
it in his concerts. The Illustrated London News for April, 1850 
said : " M. Sczepanowski, the clever guitarist gave a matinee at 
the Beethoven Rooms, assisted by Mde. Macfarren, Misses Cole, 



272 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

and other eminent artistes from Milan and St. Petersburg. Mde. 
Macfarren was pianist and Mr. W. Macfarren, conductor." 
Sczepanowski's compositions resemble those of his teacher, 
Horetzky, although they did not attain the same popularity. His 
fame as a virtuoso was widespread in Germany, for his portrait and 
a brief account of his life was published in the IUustrirte Zeitung 
in 1852, and the same journal also contained one of his compositions 
entitled, A tear, originally written for 'cello and piano ; but 
transcribed by the author as a piano solo. His most popular 
compositions for the guitar were : Fantasia on English airs ; 
Introduction and variations on a theme of Ferd. Sor, arranged by 
Sczepanowski for the left hand only; La jota Aragonesa ; Les 
dijficultes de la guitare, comprising an andante, mazurka and 
valse fantastique for guitar solo ; Souvenir of Warsaw ; Military 
potpourri ; Duo comic on the carnival of Venice ; Four mazurkas, 
and also Variations on a Polish air, the latter compositions being 
published by R. Cocks, London. 

Sellner, Joseph, born March 13, 1787, at Landau, Bavaria, and 
died in Vienna, May 17, 1843, was an excellent guitarist and 
distinguished oboist. His parents migrated to Austria when Sellner 
was a child and he studied the guitar and oboe, and when of age 
joined the band of an Austrian cavalry regiment as oboe player 
and passed through the campaign of 1805. After the termination of 
his military service he was for some years conductor of a private 
wind band in Hungary, and later was employed as principal oboist 
in the orchestra of the Pesth Theatre. He was in this occupation 
in 1811 when Weber conducted the opera, for Sellner played under 
his baton. During this time Sellner was studying composition under 
Tomaczek in this city and when he removed to Vienna in 1817 he 
entered the orchestra of the Court opera, becoming in 1822 a member 
of the Royal Court orchestra. He was appointed professor of the 
oboe and conductor of the pupil's concerts in the Vienna Conser- 
vatoire of Music in 1821 and remained there till 1838. Sellner 
was the author of an excellent method for the oboe which was 
published in both French and German languages and remains to the 
present one of the best methods for this instrument. He published 
some instrumental and orchestral compositions, an Introduction and 
polonaise brilliant for clarionet and orchestra, many solos for 
guitar and duos for oboe and guitar. 

Shelley's guitar. The illustration reproduced is that of a guitar, 
which has become celebrated in consequence of its associations. 
It was presented by the poet Shelley to a lady friend, and is 
now exhibited in the Bodleian Museum of Oxford. Although the 
life of the poet at the ancient seat of learning was brief, it is 
evident that he left a lasting impression in the University, not from 
his disgrace and expulsion, but by his extraordinary though perhaps 
ofttimes misapplied genius. The sublimity of his writings appeals 




5 n ! 




GUITAR PRESENTED BY SHELLEY TO 
MRS. JAM': WILLIAMS. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 273 

to all artistic minds, and in spite of his philosophy and heterodox 
ideas, his poems are permeated with noble sentiment. Shelley's 
Oxford honours, however, came very late, and now there is no 
relic of the poet too poor for the University to do it reverence. In 
the mausoleum of University College — the society that expelled 
him — there is a most realistic representation, wrought in chaste 
marble of his drowned form / as it appeared when delivered up by 
the waves near Via Reggio, on the Italian coast. In the Bodleian, 
too, are treasured an incomparable collection of his manuscripts, 
also his watch and the copy of Byron's poems that he carried with 
him during his fatal trip. In another case are other interesting 
mementos, including a miniature of Shelley with a lock of his hair, 
but of paramount interest to guitarists is the guitar. This 
instrument was presented by the poet to Jane Williams, wife of 
Capt. Ellerker Williams, who perished at sea with Shelley in a 
pleasure boat during a sudden squall off the coast of Leghorn. 

In January 1822, while living in Pisa, Shelley wrote to his 
friend Horace Smith, in Paris, begging him to purchase a harp and 
some music, not too expensive, for Shelley to present to a friend. 
He urged haste, and an immediate advance from Smith's accustomed 
kindness " lest the grace of my compliment should be lost." For 
reasons best known to himself, Shelley executed his own commission 
in Italy, and chose a guitar, and the music ordered was presumably, 
and with what gain to literature ? supplanted by that priceless song 
With a guitar. It has been stated that Shelley was a guitar 
player ; whether that be correct or not he was in the land of the 
guitar, and it is certain that he had been captivated and enamoured 
by its dulcet tones or he could not have expressed such appropriate 
sentiments in this poem, and also his ariette, entitled To a lady 
singing to her accompaniment on the guitar. In the poem 
With a guitar, Shelley has expressed such sentiments as only one 
intimate with the guitar could, and he has displayed his love for 
the instrument, which had the power to speak in the language he 
knew so well. When Shelley presented the guitar and the 
manuscript, he was living in Pisa, where the renowned guitar 
virtuoso and poet Zani de Ferranti was playing with extraordinary 
success, and it is ' more than probable that Shelley had been 
enchanted by his magic spell. It is no wonder that such a mind 
for romance, as possessed by Shelley, should have been captivated 
by the delicate strains of the guitar ; his residence in Italy was the 
means of bringing the instrument prominently before him, and we 
can imagine the inspired bard revelling in the romantic sounds of 
the guitar in that sunny clime where he spent his short and sadly 
erratic life. 

The instrument was carefully preserved by the Williams' family, 
and was sought after by a devoted student of Shelley — Mr. Edward 
Augustus Silsbee, of Salem, Mass. The owner, Mr. Wheeler 
Williams would only consent to part with the guitar conditionally, 



274 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

upon its being presented to some public institution. Dr. Garnett, 
of the British Museum suggested the Bodleian Museum, Oxford, 
and Mr. Silsbee, having generously purchased the interesting relic, 
presented it accordingly. The guitar is of Italian origin, having 
been made by Ferdinando Bottari of Pisa in 1816, and it bears the 
original label. The table or sound-board is made in the orthodox 
Italian style of unvarnished pine, the lower portion being overlaid 
with rosewood decoration. Eleven rows of red, black, yellow, and 
green purfling are inlaid round the table, along the finger-board 
and round the sound-hole, and a broad black purfling is inlaid 
round the edges of the instrument. The bridge is oblong in shape, 
and is bordered with narrow edges of ivory, it has eighteen frets in 
all, patent pegs, and with the guitar is its original case, painted in 
imitation of fancy woods. The inscription placed near the 
instrument reads as follows : " The guitar, given by Shelley to 
Mrs. Jane Williams and forming the subject of one of his poems. 
Presented to the Bodleian on June 21, 1898, by Edward Augustus 
Silsbee, of Salem, Mass., an ardent admirer of Shelley's genius." 
There is exhibited also, an illuminated copy of the poem With a 
guitar, the cover being tastefully embellished with a coloured 
sketch of the guitar. The poem is here appended : 

WITH A GUITAR. 

The artist who this idol wrought. 

To echo all harmonious thought, 

Felled a tree, while on the steep 

The winds were in their winter sleep, 

Rocked in that repose divine, 

On the wind-swept Apennine ; 

And dreaming some of autumn past, 

And some of Spring approaching fast, 

And some of April buds and showers, 

And some of songs in July bowers, 

And all of love ; and so this tree — 

O, that such our death may be ! 

Died in sleep, and felt no pain, 

To live in happier form again ; 

From which, beneath Heaven's fairest star 

The artist wrought that loved guitar, 

And taught it justly to reply 

To all who question skilfully, 

In language gentle as its own, 

Whispering in enamoured tone 

Sweet oracles of woods and dells, 

And summer winds in sylvan cells ; 

For it had learnt all harmonies 

Of the plains and of the skies, 

Of the forests and the mountains, 

Of the many voiced fountains ; 

The clearest echoes of the hills, 

The softest notes of falling rills, 

The melodies of birds and bees 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 275 

The murmuring of summer seas, 
And pattering rain and breathing dew 
And airs of evening ; and it knew 
That seldom-heard mysterious sound 
Which, driven in its diurnal round 
As it floats through boundless day, 
Our world enkindles on its way — 
All this it knows, but will not tell 
To those who cannot question well 
The spirit that inhabits it. 
It talks according to the wit 
Of its companions ; and no more 
Is heard than has been felt before, 
By those who tempt it to betray 
Those secrets of an elder day ; 
But sweetly as it answers, will 
Flatter hands of perfect skill, 
It keeps its highest, holiest tone 
For our beloved friend alone. 

Sivori, Ernesto Camillo, born June 7, 1817, at Genoa — the day 
after his mother had heard Paganini for the first time — died in Genoa, 
February 18, 1894, was a great violinist; all authorities agree in 
giving him the premier place among modern Italian violinists since 
the days of his illustrious teacher, Paganini. Sivori commenced the 
violin when he was five years of age under Restano, a violinist and 
guitarist of Genoa, and the lad also studied the guitar a year or two 
later. He continued under Costa until 1823, and when Paganini 
heard the boy he was so struck by his remarkable talent that he 
gave him lessons, taught him all that it was possible to teach, and 
composed a set of Six sonatas and a Concertino for violin, viola, 
guitar and 'cello for him. These compositions they performed 
with the assistance of friends, Paganini and Sivori taking the guitar 
alternately, and this was sufficient to launch the lad into Paganini's 
style. In 1827 he visited Paris and then London, but returned 
shortly after to Genoa where he studied harmony seriously under 
Serra for several years. Sivori spent a wandering life, travelling from 
the age of ten until his death. He performed in all the European 
cities of importance and then journeyed to America in the company 
of the guitar virtuoso Zani de Ferranti, about 1846, where they 
toured together for a year and then Ferranti returned to Brussels. 
Sivori extended his tour through Mexico to South America and in 1 850 
returned to Genoa ; shortly after he lost nearly all his savings, which 
he had made in the new world, by an imprudent speculation, and 
through this misfortune he was compelled to again travel. In 1892, 
during the first Italian-American Exhibition of Genoa, the municipal 
authorities organised an extensive musical contest for mandolin 
bands and solo mandolinists and guitarists. Sivori was appointed 
president of the juries and during these contests he manifested intense 
interest and expressed his great delight in these instruments. 

Sodi, Carlo, or, as it is sometimes written, Sody, was a mandolin 
virtuoso of the early school, who was born in Rome in 1715, and 



276 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

died in Paris after a lingering illness, September, 1788. Sodi was 
a mandolinist and operatic composer who lived in Paris from 1749. 
His younger brother, Pietro, had already established himself as a 
harpist in this city, and at a later date, in 1743, was engaged as 
harpist in the orchestra of the Comedie Italienne. At the invitation 
of his brother, Carlo also visited Paris, and the two brothers appeared 
together as mandolinist and harpist at numerous important concerts. 
Carlo Sodi, by his public appearances, won an enviable reputation 
as a mandolin virtuoso and professor of his instrument. In 1749 
he, too, was engaged in the orchestra of the Comedie Italienne, 
where he remained until 1765 when he lost the sight of both eyes, 
and although pensioned, was plunged in distress when old age was 
creeping on. His fortune, once so brilliant, now suddenly declined, 
and he lingered — until death released him when seventy-three years 
of age — with an illness, the result of penury and privation. Sodi 
was the author of numerous operas and operettas, several of which 
enjoyed a brilliant but short-lived popularity. From 1753-1760 
many of his works were produced at the Comedie Italienne, Paris. 
His principal compositions were : Bajocco and Serpilla, a parody, 
published in Paris in 1753; Le Charlatan, a comic opera; Les 
Troqueurs, a comedy ; and Cocagne, a divertisement, which was 
published in 1760. 

Sokolowski, Markus Danilowitsch, a Polish guitarist who was 
born in 1818, at Shitomir, Volhynia, Russia, and died in Moscow, 
December 25, 1883. In early childhood he manifested a profound 
love of music which his parents endeavoured to stifle, considering 
it a waste of time ; nevertheless he obtained some skill on the 
violin and violoncello, but it was not until he heard the guitar 
played by a Polish artist that his passion for music fully asserted 
itself. He studied the guitar in earnest, for this instrument 
exercised a powerful influence over him, and receiving praise for his 
playing in his native town, he gave recitals in Vilna and Kiev, 
after which he performed in St. Petersburg and Moscow. By his 
recitals in Moscow in 1847, he surprised Russian musicians and 
established a wide reputation. The Moscow Stadtblatt, March 1, 
1847, said : "His recital was not proclaimed with the many voiced 
trumpet of Fama, and a concert given on an instrument of the times 
of the harpsichord, the lute and the cither, was a daring undertaking. 
Notwithstanding, the concert hall Rimski Korsakow was not large 
enough to accommodate all who desired admission. The recital of 
Sokolowski was one of the most remarkable given in Moscow. Do 
not speak of the guitar again as a feeble instrument ! Every 
instrument is poor and feeble until placed in the hands of an artist. 
The guitar playing of Sokolowski is so easy and natural .... now 
the tones fall as delicate as pearls, now they sparkle like diamonds, 

now sweetly ripple like silver bells It was more than delight 

to listen, and the audience refused to be satisfied until the artist 




MARKUS DANILOWITSCH SOKOLOWSKI. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 277 

repeated part of his programme." 

At this concert the young virtuoso Nicolas Rubinstein, then ten 
years of age was pianist, and the two artists afterwards toured 
together giving many concerts in Russia. Sokolowski appeared with 
success in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Warsaw during 1864-68, 
and then visited Paris, Vienna, and other important continental 
cities, and in London, met and formed a friendship with Regondi. 
His genius was recognised by the most eminent musicians, whose 
names were associated on his programmes, and he performed before 
the principal European Royal Courts, and appeared many times 
before the Empress Eugenie, also the Princess Mathilde, Duke 
Robrinski, and other nobility. Sokolowski was a true patriot, who 
manifested a deep interest in his unhappy nation's welfare, for the 
troubles of 1860-70 in Poland were a great trial to him; but his 
chief ambition was to see the guitar adopted in the Moscow 
Conservatoire, of which institution his friend and associate Nicolas 
Rubinstein was director. For a considerable period he pleaded for 
its introduction, thinking that it would cause the regeneration of 
his beloved instrument, and he took sadly to heart the refusal of 
Rubinstein, for he could never mention the subject without great 
emotion. His last public appearance took place in the Chapel 
Royal, Moscow, in 1877, for after this date he suffered from 
rheumatism so severely, that playing was made impossible. 
Sokolowski spent his last years in the family of a Moscow friend 
and died in that city, being interred at Vilna by the side of the 
Polish poet Kondratowitsch. A plain monument, surmounted by 
a bronze bust of the artist was erected with the inscription 
Markus Sokolowski, celebrated European guitarist, died Decem- 
ber 25, 1883, aged sixty-five years." He was the author of 
many transcriptions and original Polish and Russian melodies for 
the guitar — the favourite being a fantasia, Polski — which were 
published in bis native land, and a brief notice of his career and 
his portrait appeared in a Russian journal from which it is 
here reproduced. 

Sola, Charles Michel Alexis, born in Turin, Italy, June 6, 1786, 
and living in London as late as 1829, was an Italian guitar and flute 
virtuoso and composer. He learned music as a child, studying the 
violin in his native city under Pugnani and the guitar and flute under 
Pipino and Vondano, and for the space of a year was flautist in the 
Theatre Royal, Turin. He served four years in the band of the 
73rd Regiment of French Infantry and tiring of a military life settled 
in 1809 in Geneva. Sola was twenty-three years of age, an excellent 
guitarist and flautist, and deciding to adopt music as his profession 
he studied most diligently the next few years, receiving instruction 
in harmony and composition in Geneva from a fellow countryman, 
Dominique Bideau, who had been violoncellist for some time in the 
Com6die Italienne, Paris. Sola commenced composition for in 



278 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Geneva he published several works ; among these there was an 
opera Le tribunal, which, produced in this city in 1816, was the 
means of making himself known in the musical world. About the 
end of 1810 he visited Paris where he published other compositions 
and was esteemed as a performer and teacher of the guitar and flute. 
With his brother Alfreddo, a vocalist of repute, he toured through 
Italy as far south as Naples; but in 1817 he came to London and 
for a period of about twelve years taught his instruments, principally 
the guitar, and numbered among his pupils members of the royal 
family. Sola was the author of a method for the guitar, published 
by Chappell, London, under the title of Solas instructions for the 
Spanish guitar, and in this city he published innumerable guitar 
solos, duos for guitar and piano, songs with guitar accompaniment 
and concertos for the flute. His numerous songs, both original and 
arrangements, display great taste and excellence in their guitar 
accompaniments which are remarkably effective. Twelve Spanish 
songs with guitar; Gems of harmony ; Sixteen duos for guitar 
and piano, and more than twenty Italian songs were all published 
by Cocks, London ; Twentieth set of English songs with guitar, 
Willis, London, and innumerable similar works were issued by 
various London publishers. 

Sor, Ferdinand, was born at Barcelona, February 17, 1780, some 
authorities give the date as February 14, 1778, and in Madrid, but 
the former is probably correct, for he received his education when a 
child in Barcelona. He died July 8, 1839, in Paris. Sor was one 
of the most renowned guitarists and composers for the guitar during 
the latter part of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth 
centuries. His musical talent showed itself very early, for at the 
age of five he composed little airs which he played upon his father's 
violin and guitar. The artists who heard and saw this child-musician 
recognized a genius, who, with the necessary training would develop 
into one of the greatest musicians of the age. The parents there- 
fore decided to gratify the child's remarkable and intense passion, 
and he was found a teacher for instruction upon the violin and 'cello. 
So marked was his progress that he was shortly after placed in a 
monastery of his native town to receive a thorough general education, 
including lessons in harmony and composition. Young Sor at this 
time discarded the violin and 'cello, owing to his fascination for the 
guitar, which he studied assiduously. His determination in 
investigating every difficulty often led him into trouble with the 
monks, but he was admitted to be most thorough in his studies and 
they found in their youthful pupil much which they themselves could 
learn. When at the age of sixteen he left the monastery, his teachers 
had every reason to be proud of him, for he astonished musicians by 
his proficiency in guitar playing and profound knowledge of harmony 
and counterpoint. He joined an itinerant Italian opera company in 
Barcelona, which afforded him an opportunity of becoming practically 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 279 

acquainted with the art of song and instrumentation, and the young 
artist now essayed to write opera. Having accidentally discovered 
in the library of the theatre of Barcelona the score of an opera by 
Cipalli (Telemacco) he adapted the words to new music and this 
was performed with success when he was but seventeen years of 
age, in Barcelona, and also at a later period in London. Having 
established a reputation as an artist of ability he visited Madrid, 
where he found a powerful friend in the Duchess of Alba, who 
commissioned him to write among other works the music of an opera 
bouffe, but he abandoned this unfinished, on account of the death of 
the Duchess shortly afterwards. The Duke of Medina was also 
much interested in the young artist, and through his suggestion Sor 
wrote several oratorios, which were followed by numerous 
symphonies, quartets for stringed instruments, church music, and 
many Spanish songs. 

At this time Spain stood on the verge of a revolution ; the return 
of Napoleon, followed by the fall of the Directory in France and 
the establishment of the Consulate, commenced a new epoch for 
Spain. The treaty of San Ildefonso in October, 1800, was followed 
by war with Portugal, and Sor, with many other artists of the time, 
joined the Spanish army, and he served for some time as captain. 
He remained in the army until compelled to take refuge in France 
with the adherents of King Joseph Bonaparte, and in the French 
capital he associated with Cherubini, Mehul and Berton, who, 
charmed by his genius, prevailed upon him to again devote himself 
to art, so after a short sojourn in Paris, Sor came in 1809 to England. 
Prior to his appearance in this country the Spanish guitar was 
scarcely known, although it had been in general use on the continent 
for years. The precursor of the guitar in England was the cither, an 
instrument not so large as the guitar, somewhat pear shaped, with 
flat back and sides, strung with wire and played with a plectrum 
after the manner of the mandolin. The modern Portuguese guitarra 
or as it is commonly named, flat-backed mandolin, is constructed 
on the model of the ancient English cither, but is strung and tuned 
differently. The cither had ten wire strings, the lowest two tuned 
singly, while the others were in pairs. Strung thus, it produced six 
open notes : C, E, G, C, E, G, the lowest being the same as that 
produced at the third fret of the fifth string of the guitar. The 
technique and tone of this instrument was therefore quite dissimilar 
from that of the guitar. 

Sor was a performer of extraordinary skill on the guitar, and his 
playing created a furore in London ; the elite of society greeted the 
new instrument with unbounded enthusiasm, its music presented a 
new phase in tonal art, such as had not been heard before, and its 
study afforded a pleasant relief to the tedium of fashionable life, 
while its outline — the outline of beauty — added further grace to 
feminine posture. Sor settled in London and was fully occupied in 
teaching and writing music for the guitar, and it was owing to his 



280 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

remarkable success that numerous other continental professors of 
the guitar visited this country. While living in London he composed 
several works for the theatres and though he spent the most 
prosperous and successful part of his career in England, it appears 
his compositions were not of much pecuniary assistance ; but it is 
to this Spanish refugee that England owes its introduction to this 
charming instrument. Sor's mastership of the guitar must indeed 
have been truly great, for he is the only guitarist who has performed 
at the London Philharmonic Concerts. He appeared as soloist at 
the Society's Concerts in the season of 1817, at the Argyle Rooms, 
playing one of his own compositions, a concertante for the guitar, 
and he electrified his audience by the wonderful command he 
possessed over his instrument. George Hogarth, in his Memoir of 
the Philharmonic Society, says: " He astonished the audience by 
his unrivalled execution." 

While Sor was popularizing the guitar in England, Giuliani was 
engaged in the same work in Russia, and the latter subsequently 
coming to England there was great rivalry between the two 
masters. Giuliani had introduced into his concerts the terz-guitar, 
which being tuned higher, was more brilliant than the ordinary 
guitar, and his duets for piano and terz-guitar, for guitar and terz- 
guitar, and concertos for terz-guitar with accompaniment of 
orchestra, excited the greatest enthusiasm, and such was the 
popularity of one of these concertos that Hummel transcribed it for 
the piano. A musical journal, devoted to the interests of the 
guitar was published, being named after Giuliani, The Giulianiad ; 
it contained many of his compositions and also those of Sor and 
other guitarists of renown. Each of the great masters had his 
partisans, there were Sor clubs and Giuliani clubs ; but at length 
both quitted London, Giuliani travelling to Italy and Sor to Paris 
and Moscow, where he was to give representations of his ballet 
Cendrillon. The Parisian journals said of him : " Early in 
December, 1822, he displayed his remarkable talents at the Salle 
des Menus Plaisirs, for the benefit of M. Guillou, first flute at the 
Grand Opera, where he charmed all Parisians by an instrument 
which might from its appearance have been taken for a guitar, but 
judging by its harmony must have been a complete orchestra, 
enclosed in a small compass. He ought to be called ' Le Racine 
de la guitare.' " 

While in Russia in 1825 he wrote a funeral march for the 
obsequies of Alexander I, and composed the music of the ballet 
Hercules and Omphale for the accession of Nicholas, and on 
leaving Russia in 1828 he visited Paris once more where he 
essayed in vain to obtain the representation of his dramatic works 
in the theatres of that city. Ill-health and consequent misfortune 
overtook him, and pressed by want he returned to London in 1833, 
remaining but a short time. While there he composed the music 
of the ballet Le dormeur Eveille, and later the fairy opera La belle 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 281 

Arsene. Besides these and many other stage works, Sor had up to 
this time written innumerable pieces for the guitar, but with little 
success, for his music was not popular ; his compositions were 
usually in four parts, after the style of Pleyel and Haydn, and they 
were too difficult for amateurs. He says : " When I arrived in 
France, publishers said to me : ' Make us some easy tunes.' I 
was very willing to do so ; but I discovered that easy meant 
incorrect, or at least incomplete. A very celebrated guitarist told 
me that he had been obliged to give up writing in my manner, 
because the publishers had openly told him : It is one thing to 
appreciate compositions as a connoisseur, and another as a music- 
seller, it is necessary to write silly trifles for the public. I like 
your work, but it would not return me the expense of printing.' 
What was to be done ? An author must live ! " Sor appeared in 
public with the greatest musicians of the time. With the violinist 
Lafont and the pianist Herz he performed Hummel's trio The 
Sentinelle. The Harmonicon of February, 1831, stated : " M. Sor 
stands at a vast distance from all other guitarists, both as a 
performer and composer. He is an excellent musician, a man of 
taste, and his command over an instrument, which in other hands 
is so limited in its means, is not only astonishing, but what is more 
important — always pleasing "; and the same journal later said : " Mr. 
Sor, who so long delighted and surprised the lovers of music in 
London by his performances on the Spanish guitar is now living 
in Paris." 

He returned to Paris, hoping that a change of climate would 
restore his health, but he was disappointed, and after languishing 
in a condition bordering on want and misery, notwithstanding the 
universal esteem in which he was held, he died July 8, 1839, after 
a lingering and painful illness. In contemplating Sor as an artist, 
we are struck by his extraordinary genius and the rapid growth of 
his powers. At the early age of seventeen he stood before the 
public as a composer of an opera which had been received with 
great favour. His symphonies and other instrumental compositions 
showed a high order of talent and were very popular in Spain, as 
were also his songs. Sor considered the first requisites of a 
guitarist to be a graceful position, a quiet and steady hand, the power 
of making the instrument sing the melody, clearness and neatness of 
ornaments, and, of course, the necessary technique. Both as man 
and artist he was retiring and modest, and declared that as a 
guitarist he possessed no greater means than any other person. 
He had taken up the guitar believing it merely an instrument of 
accompaniment, as it was in Spain in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century ; but he very early discovered the full 
capabilities of the instrument. The study of harmony, counter- 
point, and composition for voices and orchestra, had familiarized 
him with the nature and progression of chords and their inversions, 
with the manner of placing the air in the bass or in one of the 



282 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

intermediate parts, of increasing the number of notes of one or two 
parts while the others continued their slower progressions. All 
these he demanded from the guitar, and found that it yielded them 
better than a continual jumble of semi -quavers or demisemiquavers 
in diatonic and chromatic scales. Sor had no patience with those 
persons who sought to conceal a lack of talent with the remark, 
1 I play only to accompany." He reasoned that a good accompani- 
ment requires a good bass, chords adapted to it, and movements 
approaching as much as possible to those of an orchestral score or 
pianoforte accompaniment. These ideas required a greater mastery 
of the instrument than the sonatas in vogue at that time, Avith long 
violin passages, without harmony or even bass, excepting such as 
could be produced on the open strings; hence Sor concluded, as 
already had Giuliani, Carulli and Aguado, under similar circum- 
stances, that there were no masters within his reach capable of 
properly teaching the instrument. He said : " At that time 1 had 
not heard of Frederic Moretti. I heard one of his accompaniments 
performed by a friend of his, and it gave me a high idea of his 
merit as a composer. I considered him as the flambeau which was 
to serve to illuminate the wandering steps of guitarists." 

Sor's first experiments were in making accompaniments and he 
soon found himself in possession of various necessary positions. 
From his knowledge of harmony, understanding each chord and 
inversion, its derivation, in what part the fundamental bass was 
found, what should be the progression of each part for the resolution 
or transition about to be made, he was prepared to establish a 
complete system of harmony for the guitar. Nor did he confine 
his investigations to the theoretical part of guitar music, for he 
studied to improve the construction of the instrument, its position, 
fingering, and the best manner of setting the strings in vibration in 
order to produce the best quality of tone. The guitars of that 
period were made of thick wood, but Sor required the instruments 
made for him to have the sounding-board, ribs, and back, made of 
very light and thin wood, supported by bars inside to withstand the 
tension of the strings. He devised a new form of bridge which 
was applied to several guitars made in London and St. Petersburg, 
and the rules formulated by him for the neck and fingerboard are 
to-day still used in the construction of the finest instruments. It 
was his precise nature that actuated his desire to perfect the art of 
guitar making. He associated with the two most eminent guitar 
makers of any period, Panormo and Lacote ; the former was a 
maker of renown living in London at the time of Sor's visit, and 
the theoretical genius of the musician, worked out by the practical 
hand of this skilful luthier, brought into existence those magnificent 
instruments which bear his name. Sor also rectified the models of 
Lacote, the most eminent of French guitar makers, who 
constructed instruments for him with seven strings — the extra 
string being added to the bass. Sor approved of this innovation for 




FERDINAND SOR. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 283 

Giuliani and Legnani, the two best guitarists of the Italian school, 
sometimes advocated an extra bass string. In his early days Sor 
had acquired perfection of technique and yet always spoke of 
himself as only an amateur; he possessed great skill, certainty, 
power, and a remarkably full tone, and his playing was as much of 
a revelation to great guitarists like Aguado and DeFossa as to 
amateurs. In fact, after hearing Sor perform some of his own 
compositions, Aguado studied them, and even asked Sor to criticise 
his rendition of them. The two artists were intimate friends and 
Aguado admitted that were he not too far advanced in life to 
overcome the inflexibility of his fingers and habits, he would adopt 
Sor's style of fingering and his method of striking the strings. 

The date of the publication of Sor's first compositions for the 
guitar is not known for certainty, but his Op. 1, Six divertisements 
appeared in London in 1819. In reviewing Sor's compositions, we 
will first consider his method, a most remarkable and philosophical 
work and the result of many years' observation and reflection. It 
was originally published in Spain, and the first English translation 
was made by A. Merrick, printed by Fowler, Cirencester, and 
published by Cocks, London. Sor prefaces his method with, " I 
have supposed that he who buys a method means to learn it." 
Throughout the volume he never lost sight of the true meaning of 
the word " method " and he remarked that he could never conceive 
how a method could be made with a greater quantity of examples 
than of text. The first part is devoted to directions for constructing 
a guitar to produce the best results, but as these instructions 
concern chiefly the manufacturer we will omit reference to them, 
it is sufficient to add that he supplied the foremost guitar makers of 
the day with valuable suggestions regarding the interior construction 
of the instrument, and also the design and functions of the bridge. 
The chapters on " the position of the instrument," "the right hand," 
the left hand," and " the manner of setting the strings in vibration " 
are full and exhaustive, being illustrated by numerous diagrams. 
His manner of holding the instrument was substantially the same as 
that of the other virtuosi of the period, but he sometimes used and 
advised his pupils to use the tripodion as invented by Aguado. 
This was a small table placed in front of the performer, partly over 
the left leg and presenting one corner opposite the twelfth fret of 
the guitar, which was then rested on the corner of this table and on 
the right thigh. In illustrating the proper position of the right 
hand, Sor compares the fingers striking the guitar strings to the 
hammers striking the strings of the piano, and argues that the 
thumb, first and second fingers, like the hammers, should be placed 
in front of, and parallel to the plane of the strings of the guitar. 
He also established as rules of fingering for the right hand, to 
employ usually only the thumb, first and second fingers, and to 
use the third finger only when playing a chord in four parts, where 
the part nearest to the bass leaves an intermediate string. 



284 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

The Italian guitarist? Carulli, Carcassi and Zani de Ferranti, all 

used the thumb more or less for fingering the sixth string, a 

practice which Sor severely condemned, on the ground that it 

contracts the shoulder, shortens the play of the fingers by one-half, 

and places the wrist in an awkward and painful position. Sor's 

explanation of the proper manner of setting the strings in vibration 

is very explicit, and especial stress is placed on the importance of 

causing the vibrations of the strings to take place in a direction 

parallel to the plane of the sounding-board, to produce a pure tone. 

The chapters on "knowledge of the fingerboard," and "fingering 

on the length of the string," are based on the axiom that " the true 

knowledge of the scale is the key to all musical knowledge." Sor 

divides the scale into two halves of four notes each, viz. : C, D, E, 

F and G, A, B, C, wherein the order of the intervals is the same in 

each tetrachord. These tetrachords are separated by the interval 

of a tone and the last interval in each is a semi-tone. In a very 

ingenious manner he makes a rule for fingering the scale according 

to the tones and semi-tones involved, and it is obvious when the 

first note or tonic is determined, it is only necessary to observe 

the proportions of the intervals to obtain by a single operation what 

would require twelve different ones were the names and the 

modifications composing it to occupy the attention. The same 

principle is applied when fingering the scale on each of the strings, 

the author deeming it necessary, in order to obtain a perfect 

knowledge of the fingerboard, to acquire the habit of passing over 

each string for the whole length, considering the open string under 

different relations as tonic, dominant, etc. Every note is considered 

with respect to its place in the key and not therefore as an isolated 

sound. The same principle is applied in considering thirds and 

sixths, general formulae being established for fingering major and 

minor thirds and sixths on adjoining strings, in every key, according 

to their occurrence in the scale, without burdening the mind with a 

consideration of each note by name and whether it be natural, 

sharp, or flat. After thirds and sixths, Sor says : " I have entered 

into all these details to prove to the reader the truth of my assertion, 

that the entire key to the mastery of the guitar (as an instrument 

of harmony), consists in the knowledge of thirds and sixths. 

Without this knowledge I believe that I should have succeeded in 

producing only a poor imitation of the violin, or rather of the 

mandolin. I say poor, because I should have been destitute of 

the great advantage of the former of these instruments, that of 

prolonging, increasing and diminishing the sounds ; and of the 

brilliancy of the latter, which being, as well as the former, tuned an 

octave above the guitar, gives passages which the guitar can but 

very imperfectly imitate — at least in my hands." 

Sor's instructions applying to the harmonic sounds are quite 
complete ; but though a mathematician, his theory respecting the 
vibration of a string is erroneous. He deduced from his investi- 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 285 

gations that the vibrations came solely from that part of a string 
between the left hand finger and the nut, while as a matter of fact, 
the whole string vibrates, but in equal sections dependent on the 
distance from the nut, or bridge, where the vibrations may have 
been interrupted by the finger of the left hand. The article on 
harmonics is followed by chapters on " accompaniments " and 
fingering with the ring finger " and the " conclusion " gives a 
resume of his investigations and general maxims established for 
guitar playing. This guitar method of Sor is the most remarkable 
ever published, and, as stated before, contains much more text than 
music ; it was undoubtedly intended to be used with the author's 
Twenty -four lessons, Op. 31. In his method and also in several of 
his compositions he sometimes advises lowering the bass " E " 
string to D." Carefully and conscientiously written, touching 
upon every point of guitar playing, it will remain a lasting 
monument to the remarkable talent and genius of one of the 
greatest guitarists the world has ever known. The compositions 
of Sor are numerous and varied, and during his periods of residence 
in London he wrote much for the theatres— ballets, pantomimes, 
etc., including The fair of Smyrna, a comic opera ; Le seigneur 
geuereux (The generous lord), ballet; Le Sicilien or Uatnant 
paintre, pantomime in one act, libretto by Anatole Petit ; Gil Bias 
and Ceudrillon. Le Sicilien was staged June 11, 1827, it was not 
favourably received, but was amply compensated for by the brilliant 
success of Gil Bias and Ceudrillon, both of which were produced 
at the Royal Opera, London, in 1822. Ceudrillon, a ballet in 
three acts, libretto by Albert Decombe, was dedicated to the 
Marquis of Aylesbury and met with success also in Paris, where 
representations were given from the following March up to 1830. 
This was without question Sor's most popular stage work ; it is 
scored for full orchestra of thirty-nine different instruments, and 
the march from this ballet was a popular favourite, being arranged 
by its author for guitar solo. Both Gil Bias and Ceudrillon were 
published in piano score by the Royal Harmonic Institution, 
London. He also wrote many solos, duos and trios for voices! 
which were published in sets of three each, between the years 
1810-1822, and in addition, piano solos and duos, and he was 
the author of an exhaustive treatise on singing in the French 
language, which has not been published; the manuscript 
was at one time in the possession of Mme. Pratten. Sor's 
compositions for the guitar are various lessons, studies, divertise- 
ments, easy pieces, fantasias, and variations, with sonatas and 
duos for two guitars. Before publishing his method he issued the 
following lessons and studies : Twelve etudes, Op. 6 and Op. 29 ; 
Twenty -four progressive lessons, Op. 31 ; Twenty-four very easy 
exercises, Op. 35; Twenty-four pieces for lessons, Op. 44. The 
Progressive lessons, Op. 31, were intended as an introduction to 
the study of the guitar, but because many amateurs complained of 



286 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

the greatly increased difficulty from one lesson to the next, the 
author wrote the Studies, Op. 35 and -14. Although well written 
and carefully fingered, these were really more suitable for students 
of great natural musical talent, than for those of average ability. 
The author himself recognized this, and among his last works, wrote 
Introduction to the study of guitar, or Twenty-four progressive 
lessons, Op. 60, a set of exercises admirably adapted for the 
purpose indicated by the title. In general, his studies and lessons 
are not only carefully written, but each has a special object in the 
application of a rule, or in affording exercises on exceptions to 
general rules for fingering. 

The divertisements — which were invariably published in sets — 
and the fantasias, are mostly on original themes ; a few, however, are 
arrangements of favourite airs, Mozart's O cara metnoria, Paisiello's 
Nel cor pin ; Que ne suis-je lafougere ; Gentil houssard, etc. They 
are all suited to the instrument, although somewhat difficult for 
those players unaccustomed to Sor's fingering. Of the Sonatas, 
Op. 22 and Op. 25 deserve especial mention, these being full of 
depth and earnestness with a vein of sadness running throughout. 
The Fantasie elegiaque, Op. 59, a work of particular merit and of 
great difficulty, dedicated to his friend Frederick Kalkbrenner the 
celebrated pianist, was written to be played with the guitar held in 
position by the tripodion. Of this fantasia Sor says : " Without 
the excellent invention of my friend, Denis Aguado, I would never 
have dared to impose on the guitar so great a task as that of 
making it produce the effects required by the nature of this new 
piece. I would never have imagined that the guitar could produce 
at the same time the different qualities of tone of the treble, of the 
bass, and harmonical complement required in a piece of this 
character, and without great difficulty, being within the scope of 
the instrument." In the execution of this piece, great clearness, 
taste, and the power of singing on the instrument is required. 
Sor's duets for two guitars, while well harmonized, lack the 
flowing melodies found in those of Carulli, and they are certainly 
less interesting; but it may be truly said of Sor that in the 
clearness and directness of his music, the spontaneity of his ideas, 
and in a certain charm pervading the whole, he was to the guitar 
what Mendelssohn was to the piano. Sor's music contains no 
mere bravura writing, but possesses grace, finish and charm. His 
compositions for the guitar, Op. 1 to Op. 35 inclusive, are all solos 
for the instrument, with the exception of Op. 13, Three valses and 
a galop for piano duet, and are published by Simrock, Bonn, while 
Op. 35 to 63 are published by Lemoine, Paris. 

Sotos, Andre de, a guitarist wdio was born in the province of 
Estremadura, Spain, in 1730, and was teaching his instrument in 
Madrid during the middle of the eighteenth century. Sotos was the 
author of a method for the guitar entitled, Arte para aprender com 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 287 

facilidad y sin maestro a templar y taner rasgado la guitarra 
(Easy method for learning without a master, for tuning, playing 
arpeggios and chords with the thumb on the guitar with five strings, 
and also those with four and six strings, and also the bandurria, and 
tiple). This volume of sixty-three pages was published in Madrid 
in 1764. 

Soussmann, Henry, born January 23, 1796, in Berlin, died 1848, 
in St. Petersburg, obtained renown as a flute virtuoso. He was the 
son of a musician of Berlin who gave him his first lessons in music 
and instruction on the violin and guitar. He commenced the study 
of the flute at six years of age, receiving lessons from a teacher of 
some repute named Schroeck, and a year later the boy was playing 
flute in a regimental band of infantry. When he was seventeen he 
served through the campaign of 1813-14 against France, but when 
peace was declared he received his discharge and toured as a flute 
virtuoso through Russia. For a lengthy period he was first 
flautist in the opera, St. Petersburg, and in 1836 was promoted 
musical director of the Imperial Theatre. Soussmann composed 
much music for the flute which appeared principally in Russia. 
Op. 6, Serenade for flute and guitar, Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig; 
Military song (French and German words) with guitar accompani- 
ment, Schott, Mayence, and other similar compositions were 
published by Andre, Offenbach. 

Spina, Andre, an Italian guitarist and teacher of the guitar who 
settled in Vienna during the commencement of the nineteenth 
century and published there many compositions and a method for 
his instrument. This method entitled, First elements of the guitar, 
with Italian and German text, was issued by Artaria of Vienna, 
and also by Weinberger of Vienna, who published the following 
compositions of Spina : March for two guitars, from the opera 
Cortez ; Six waltzes for two guitars ; Rondo brilliant for guitar 
and violin; Twelve exercises for the guitar; Variations for 
guitar solo, on a theme from Zelmira, and other operatic arrange- 
ments for violin and guitar, and operatic selections for guitar solo. 

Spinelli, Niccola, an Italian operatic composer who was born in 
Turin 1865, and died in Rome, 1909. He received his musical 
training in the Conservatoire of Naples and made a name in the 
musical world in 1890, when he gained the second prize offered by 
the music publisher Sonzogno, for his one act opera Labilia, 
Mascagni securing the first prize with Cavalleria Rusticana. 
Spinelli's opera at first actually took a higher place, the verdict of 
the judges being reversed by that of the public ; but his most 
popular and successful work was the three act lyric drama A basso 
porto, the first representation of which was given at Cologne in 
1894. The plot of this opera centres round the slums of Naples, 
and Spinelli introduces mandolins and guitars upon several 



288 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN*. 

occasions in his orchestral score. These instruments accompany 
the tenor song of the second act, and likewise the finale of the 
third act, and as a prelude to the third and last act, he has 
composed a charming Intermezzo for mandolins and orchestra, 
and the whole opera is enhanced by his departure from the 
customary instrumentation, for the applause which greeted these 
passages upon the first production of the opera in Europe was 
extraordinary. The most striking features of this intermezzo are 
the parts written for the mandolins, and also the melody which is 
allotted to the violoncellos, for Spinelli makes good use of the 
mandolins, writing an elaborate cadenza in double stopping and 
rapid chromatic passages, which evidences a practical acquaintance 
with the instrument ; but apart from these details the piece possesses 
higher attractions. The first performance of this opera in England 
was given by the Carl Rosa Co., in March, 1899, at Brighton ; and 
on October 11, 1900, the intermezzo from the opera was performed 
by the Queen's Hall Orchestra, under Mr. H. Wood, when the solo 
mandolinists were the Mdlls. Florimond and Cesare Costers. This 
intermezzo is published for mandolins and orchestra, and mandolin 
and piano by Ascherberg, London. 

Spohr, Louis, born April 25, 1784, at Brunswick, died October 22, 
1859 in Cassel, was one of the greatest of violinists and a celebrated 
composer. He was the son of a young physician and both parents 
were musical, his father being a flautist and his mother a pianist 
and vocalist. At five years of age he commenced the study of the 
violin, and when fourteen, undertook alone his first artistic tour to 
Hamburg, but he returned home to Brunswick without obtaining a 
hearing and with his finances exhausted. Struck by the lad's 
bearing and talent, the Duke of Brunswick gave him a position in 
his band and later paid the expenses of his musical education. 
Spohr travelled through Holland and Germany, and being offered the 
post of leader in the orchestra of the Theatre an-der-\Yien, Vienna, 
he resided there from 1812-15, and aftenvards made a tour through 
Italy. He returned to Germany in 1817, visited Holland, and then 
was appointed opera conductor at Frankfort. Here, in 1818 his 
opera Faust was first produced, and it was quickly followed by 
Zemire and Azor, or Hie magic rose, an opera in two acts which 
gained greater popularity than its predecessor. It is written on the 
well-known fairy tale Beauty and the beast, was composed by 
Spohr in 1819 and produced at Covent Garden Theatre, London, 
April 5, 1831. In this opera Spohr writes a guitar accompaniment 
to the tenor aria of Ali, which is scored for guitar, first and second 
violins, viola, 'cello and bass ; the first violins are divided, w T hile the 
other strings are played pizzicato. Extracts from the guitar part are 
here reproduced from the original manuscript of the opera in the 
British Museum, and these extracts are sufficient evidence of Spohr's 
familiarity and knowledge of the guitar. One song from this opera 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



289 



Rose softly blooming has remained a favourite up to the present 
day. In 1820, Spohr made his first visit to London, when he 
played one of his violin concertos at the Philharmonic Concerts ; 
he repeated his visits to this country frequently to conduct many 
of his own works. Spohr was a born musician, second only to the 
most illustrious masters, and as an executant and conductor he 
takes rank amongst the greatest of all times. His works comprise 
many operas, oratorios, symphonies and compositions for strings, 
and also his famous violin school. 

Extracts from Ali's song with accompaniment of guitar, 

in the Opera 

"ZEMIRE AND AZOR," 

Composed by SPOHR in 1819. 



Moderate 


. 




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ih — ^W — ' 


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Xw^rSI llJfJU .11 H-T^ftfrH' H* 




290 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 




Stegmayer, Ferdinand, born in Vienna, August 25, 1803, died 
there May 6, 1863, was the son of the actor and poet of that name, 
and received his first musical instruction from his father. At a 
later date he studied the guitar under Triebensee in Vienna and the 
violin and piano under Riotte and Seyfried, and became famous as 
a performer on these three instruments. His early years were 
spent in Vienna as a teacher of the guitar and singing, and when 
twenty-two years of age he was first chorus master in Vienna, and 
later at the Konigstadt Theatre, Berlin. In 1829 and 1830 he was 
capellmeister of Rockel's German Opera Company in Paris, and 
afterwards in a like capacity at theatres of Leipzig, Bremen, 
Vienna and Prague. From the years 1853-1854, Stegmayer was 
professor in the Vienna Conservatoire of Music, teaching male 
students the dramatic and vocal arts, and during the years 1853-1857 
choral singing also. He has published choral music, songs with 
guitar accompaniment, issued by Schott, Mayence, and duos for 
horn and guitar. 

Steibelt, Daniel, was born in Berlin, where his father was a 
pianoforte and harpsichord maker. The date of his birth is 
uncertain, it has been given as 1755 or 1756, but Fetis declares 
from personal knowledge that he was only about thirty-six years of 
age in 1801, which would therefore place the date of his birth about 
ten years later. He died in St. Petersburg, September 20, 1823. 
Steibelt is now almost forgotten, but during his life was so 
celebrated a musician that many regarded him the rival of 
Beethoven. Very little is known of his early career until his musical 
ability attracted the attention of the Crown Prince of Prussia, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 291 

afterwards Frederick William II, who placed him under Kirnberger 
for lessons on the harpsichord and composition. In 17S7 he was 
appearing as a pianist and his playing evoked the greatest praise, 
for he was essentially a performer of the new school. His success 
in Paris was phenomenal ; he was regarded as the reigning virtuoso, 
and in this city he wrote in 1792 his first opera Romeo and Juliet. 
The success of this work completely confirmed Steibelt's position 
in Paris. His music for the piano, though considered difficult, was 
exceedingly popular, and he numbered amongst his pupils the most 
eminent personages of his time, including the future Queen of 
Holland. In 1796 he came to England by way of Holland and 
performed in London in May of the following year, and it was here 
he wrote his most famous piano solo The storm ; the popularity of 
this was enormous and far exceeded that of any previous musical 
publication. During his residence in England, Steibelt wrote for 
the stage, and also much instrumental music, and having married an 
English lady who was an expert performer on the tambourine, he 
introduced this instrument in many of his piano compositions. He 
led a very unsettled life, touring the whole of Europe, but received 
the greatest favour in Paris, whither he returned after each 
tour. For the orchestra and other instruments Steibelt wrote 
comparatively little, but his piano music and studies were numerous, 
more than two hundred in all. He was fond of descriptive pieces ; 
but they are now all forgotten with the exception of The storm, 
Le Berger et son tronpean and his fifty studies. Steibelt played 
the guitar and composed several pieces for this instrument in 
conjunction with other instruments. Favourite rondos for flute or 
violin and guitar in D, were published respectively by Simrock, 
Bonn ; and Hoffmann, Prague, and other rondos for the same 
combination of instruments were also issued by Berra, Prague ; 
and Haslinger, Vienna. Three duos for guitar and violin, Op. 37 
were published by Nadermann, Paris, who also, with other Parisian 
editors, issued several like pieces for the same instruments. 
Steibelt's compositions for the guitar, like his other works, were 
very popular in their day, but they are now antiquated. 

Stoessel, Nicolas, born May 17, 1793, at Hassfurt, Bavaria, and 
was living in Ludwigsburg in 1844. He was the son of a poor 
weaver, a good musician, who taught his son singing when five years 
of age. The lad also learned to play the piano and organ a few 
years later, having already obtained some practical knowledge of the 
flute, violin, and guitar, for with either of these instruments he 
assisted his father in the village dances. In the autumn of 1806 he 
was serving in the 13th regiment of infantry, and took part in the 
campaign in Austria and Prussia. After the cessation of hostility , 
he returned to his native town, and with the intention of qualifying 
for a schoolmaster entered the seminary of YVurzbourg, where his 
music master was Froehlich, who gave him instruction in harmony. 



292 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Upon the completion of his studies he was appointed assistant 
schoolmaster in Neustadt-on-Saale, but his passion for music 
predominated and he accepted an engagement as bandmaster of the 
4th regiment of light cavalry then in garrison at Augsburg. While 
in this employ Stoessel wrote much music for military band; but in 
1826 he was appointed chamber musician to the King of Wurtemburg 
in Ludwigsburg, and remained there till 1844. He was the author 
of several operas, military music, and compositions for the guitar. 
Op. 5, Third serenade for guitar, violin and alio, was published 
by Gombart, Augsburg; Op. 13, Fourth divertimento for piano, 
guitar and flute, Schott, Mayence, who also publish three songs by 
Stoessel with guitar accompaniment. 

Stoll, Franz Paul, a German guitar virtuoso who was born 
April 26, 1807, at Chateau Schoenbrunn, near Vienna, and was 
living in Holland as late as 1843. He adopted the guitar when a 
child, obtaining remarkable skill on the instrument ; and although 
only an amateur, he played with the skill of a virtuoso, and his 
public performances received such encouragement that he made 
music his profession. Stoll was a pupil of the guitar virtuoso 
Giuliani, in Vienna, and received lessons in harmony and composition 
from Foerster in the same city, after which he toured through 
Russia, Germany and France. He was engaged as guitar soloist 
in the Leipzig Gewandhaus Subscription Concerts, December 7, 
1835, under the management of Mendelssohn, who had been 
appointed conductor of these concerts in the spring of that year. 
Stoll's performance in this celebrated concert hall is recorded in 
the A. M. Zeitung for 1835. From Germany he visited Holland and 
resided in Amsterdam for a period until 1843. He has published 
a few compositions for his instrument, Op. 2, 7, 8 and 9, Variations 
for guitar solo, issued by Pennauer, Vienna. 

Straube, Rudolph, a German musician who was born in Saxony 
about 1720. He studied music in the famous St. Thomas' School, 
Leipzig, under the great John Sebastian Bach, and was afterwards 
esteemed as a virtuoso on the guitar and harpsichord. Straube 
settled in London as a performer and teacher of these instruments, 
and he wrote and published there several duets for guitar and 
harpsichord and also duets for guitar and violin. 

Strauss, Franz, father of the great tone-poet and court conductor, 
Richard Strauss, was born in 1822 in Tirschenreuth, near Munich, 
and died in the latter city, June 2, 1905. He received his first 
musical instruction, on the guitar, from the concert director Walter. 
When he was six years of age he left home with his music teacher, 
and he had made such rapid progress on the guitar by the time he 
was ten years of age that he was engaged as court guitarist to the 
Duke Max of Bavaria. At a later period he also studied the French 
horn and became a consummate master on this instrument too. In 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 293 

1847 he entered the Royal Court Orchestra, where he remained until 
1889, and during this period he performed under the batons of 
Lachner, Bulow and Richard Wagner, who spoke and recommended 
him highly, and Strauss enjoyed an enviable reputation as a virtuoso 
upon the French horn and guitar. As composer and conductor of 
several musical societies he was held in the highest esteem ; but his 
compositions remain in manuscript in the library of King Ludwig II, 
who recognised his genius and conferred on him the title of 
Professor, and the Medal of Art. Strauss was a veteran guitar 
player and the father of a remarkable musician. He was 
interred in Munich, when an imposing concourse of people attended 
to do honour to his memory and to show respect for his son. 

Strobel, Valentin, a celebrated lute and mandolin player and also 
a composer for these instruments who was living in Strasburg during 
the middle of the seventeenth century. He has written songs with 
accompaniments of two violins and bass, which appeared in Strasburg 
in 1652. He is also the author of a Second symphony for three 
lutes and one mandolin, and another for four lutes. The latter 
were printed in 1654. 

Sussmayer, Franz Xaver, born in 1766, at Steyer, Upper Austria, 
died September 17, 1803, in Vienna, was a composer of repute, and 
the friend and amanuensis of Mozart. In Vienna he received 
instruction from Salieri and Mozart, and with the latter the closest 
attachment existed, for in 1791 he accompanied Mozart to Prague 
to assist in the production of his last opera Clemenza di Tito, 
September 6, and he was at the bedside the evening before Mozart's 
death, when the latter endeavoured to give him instructions for 
completing his Requiem.. The following year Sussmayer's opera 
Moses was staged in Vienna, and from this time he wrote many 
others. In 1795 he was appointed capellmeister at the Court 
Theatre where many of his works were staged, and he was also 
commissioned to write two for Prague. Grove says : " Though 
wanting in depth and originality, his works are melodious and have 
a certain popular character peculiar to himself. He might perhaps 
have risen to a higher flight had he not been overtaken by death 
after a long illness." There is preserved in the manuscript 
department of the British Museum, Sussmayer's autograph of a 
Quintet in C for violin, guitar, oboe, horn and 'cello, which is 
entitled, Serenata and comprises an allegro moderato, andanLe, 
minuet and rondo. Schott, Mayence, published two of his songs 
with guitar accompaniment. 

Sychra, Andreas Ossipovich, the most celebrated of Russian 
guitarists, was born at Vilna, in 1772, and died in St. Petersburg, 
1861. He made no appearances out of his native land and very 
little can be obtained concerning his career. Sychra played and 
wrote for the Russian guitar of seven strings— one extra bass — and 



294 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

he is recorded as a most wonderful performer ; he taught several 
pupils who obtained fame, the most celebrated being Wyssotzki. 
Sychra was the author of many compositions for the guitar which 
are of some difficulty ; these were published in his native land and 
many of his vocal compositions attained to almost national repute. 
His Method for the guitar of seven strings, was issued in Russia 
where it enjoyed favour, and his portrait appeared in a Russian 
journal. 

HTARREGA, Francisco, born November 29, 1854, at Villareal, 
Spain, died December 15, 1909, in Barcelona, was a remarkable 
modern Spanish guitarist. Of humble origin and ceaselessly engaged 
in struggles against adverse circumstances, he gave to the world the 
example of a genial personality, an ardent temperament, and an 
extraordinarv intelligence, all of which he devoted with fervent 
spirit to his instrument, with the noble idea of raising it to the 
highest category of art. He entered the Madrid Conservatoire of 
Music where he gained the first prize for composition and harmony, 
and then commenced his artistic career as a professor of his 
instrument. He made visits to important continental cities where 
he obtained artistic triumphs by his remarkable playing, particularly 
in Paris. Tarrega was honorary member of several important art 
institutions of his native land, and Spain should be proud in having 
given to the world its greatest modern guitarist. His genius was 
equalled onlv by his modesty, for even in the final staere of his 
studies he submitted his works to the judgment of his intellectual 
friends, whose approbation was to him the greatest stimulus for 
increased efforts, and an illustration of one of these musical seances 
is reproduced. He taught many players of celebrity, chief of whom 
are the virtuosi Pujol and Llobet, and his portrait appeared in 
Milan and various cities of his native land. Among the com- 
positions which he transcribed for the guitar are the works of the 
greatest masters, and also various modern authors. His original 
compositions include studies, preludes, scherzos, minuets, and 
concert fantasias, all of great technical and musical value, 
particularly his well-known Capriccio Arabe and Le reve. About 
fifty of these solos for the guitar and several duos for mandolin and 
piano are published by Rowies, Paris. 

Thompson, Thomas Perronet, a British general, born at Hull in 
1783 and died in London, September 6, 1869, a member of Queen's 
College, Cambridge, was the author of several theoretical treatises. 
One of paramount interest is entitled : Instructions to my daughter 
for playing on the enharmonic guitar, being an attempt to effect 
the execution of correct harmony on principles analogous to those 
of the ancient enharmonic. This volume, published in 1829 by 
Goulding & D'Almaine, London, is a treatise of learning and some 
importance, considered with reference to music generally, for it 
applies to the science — is a profound examination of the principles — ■ 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 295 

and the guitar is the instrument chosen to illustrate the author's 
theories and opinions. The work is so interesting a publication 
that it is regretted it cannot be quoted more fully. "The following 
pages," says the author, " had their origin in a desire to abate the 
untuneableness of the common guitar ; which, though an instrument 
possessed of many agreeable qualities, has the defect of being out 
of tune to a greater extent than any other that is played by means 
of either strings or keys. For the other instruments, as the piano, 
harp and organ, are at all events capable of playing in some keys 
with something like an approach to harmony. While on the guitar, 
the errors, instead of being collected into some particular keys, are 
disseminated as widely as possible among all, in consequence of the 
octave being divided into twelve equal intervals ; which is in fact 
necessary as long as the frets on the different strings are to form 
continued straight lines, in order to cause the octaves and the 
representations of the same sound in different parts of the instrument 
to be in tune with each other." These instructions contain " a 
diagram to scale of a guitar as made and sold by Louis Panormo, 
Musical Instrument Maker, 46 High Street, Bloomsbury. Price in 
common wood 10 guineas." The first illustration is a delineation of 
the enharmonic guitar fingerboard, to serve as a mode! for construc- 
tion, and there are chapters on harmonics, false strings, etc., and 
also a detailed description of the guitar. The volume concludes with 
algebraical and mathematical formulae and tables, with practical 
exercises for solo guitar, by Signor Verini. This treatise is alluded 
to by Eulenstein in his Method for the guitar, and a very exhaustive 
and favourable criticism concerning it appeared in The Harmonicon, 
1830. 

Triebensee, Joseph, born in Vienna during the middle of the 
eighteenth century and living as late as 1830, was a virtuoso on the 
oboe and guitar. He received his first lessons on both these 
instruments from his father and a few years later obtained instruc- 
tion in harmony and counterpoint from Albrechtsberger. In 1796 
he was capellmeister to Prince Leichenstein whom he accompanied 
on his travels, when not in residence at his Castle of Feldburg. In 
1811 he was appointed capellmeister of the Brunn Theatre, and 
from 1829-30 was serving in a like capacity in Prague. While in 
Vienna he taught the guitar to Stegmayer, who also became 
renowned as a musician and was a professor in the Conservatoire of 
Music, Vienna. Triebensee is the author of a few published 
compositions, among which are Six variations for oboe, guitar 
and piano. 

\/AILATI, Giovanni, an Italian mandolinist, who was born in 
Crema, near Milan, about the year 1813, and died in the poor 
house there November 25, 1890. He was a blind musician, entirely 
self-taught, a natural genius on his instrument, who, by his remark- 
able performances, became known throughout his native land as 



296 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

" Vailati the blind, the Paganini of the mandolin." His marvellous 
and brilliant execution was the surprise of musicians, and he spent 
the greater part of his life travelling through Europe as a blind 
virtuoso ; but through the treachery of a life-long associate of his 
travels, the blind musician lost his savings, and in old age, being 
quite destitute, was forced to seek the shelter of his native poor 
house, where he passed the remainder of a desolate career. A simple 
limn anient has been erected in the cemetery of Crema with the 
following inscription : "To Giovanni Vailati, the blind professor of 
music, who honourably upheld the name of his country over all 
Europe. Crema is grateful." 1 1 is portrait appeared in several 
Italian music journals and is here reproduced. 

Verdi, Giuseppe, born at Roncole, Italy, October 9, 1813, died 
Milan, January 27, 1901, was one of the most popular operatic 
composers of the nineteenth century. He was the son of an 
innkeeper in Roncole and passed his childhood among the poor 
and ignorant labourers of his uninteresting village. His parents 
combined a little shop with their inn and retailed a few dry goods, 
and once a week the father walked to the neighbouring town of 
Busseto, three miles distant, with two empty baskets to make his 
purchases. These were chiefly made from a Mr. Barezzi, a 
prosperous and good natured man who was destined to be of 
invaluable assistance to the young Verdi in his musical career. 
When Giuseppe was seven years of age, his parents bought a 
spinet, and noon this instrument their son made his first 
attempts at producing music. He manifested much interest in the 
instrument, and displaying ability, was placed under the local 
organist for instruction, and two years later superseded his teacher 
as organist. His parents sent him afterwards to a school in 
Busseto, where Mr. Barezzi received him in his house and 
manifested a great interest in the lad. This tradesman was first 
flautist in the cathedral orchestra, and his house was the meeting 
place of the Philharmonic Society, conducted by Provesi, the 
cathedral organist. Young Verdi was now employed by Barezzi, 
became a member of the musical society, and received further 
instruction from Provesi until he was sixteen years of age, when he 
left for Milan, the musical centre of Italy. In this city he met with 
many adverses common to human beings, but eventually emerged 
triumphant as an operatic composer. After the lapse of a few years, 
his works were eagerly sought after by publishers and impresarios, 
and he published in all about thirty operas. One of the latest of 
these, Otello, set by Arrigo Boito on Shakespeare's play, was pro- 
duced at La Scala, Milan, under the direction of Faccio, February 5, 
] 387. This opera, his last but one, and perhaps best, is a monument 
of genius, and Verdi has introduced the voices of mandolins and 
guitars under felicitous conditions, for in the second act, the orchestra 
is supplemented by six mandolins and four guitars — a small 




GIOVANNI \ All. \ II. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 297 

mandolin band — and these instrumentalists appear on the stage, 
where they play the prelude and then accompany the vocal item 
Dove guardi, the words of which are admirably suited to the 
instrumentation. Verdi did more than compose for the mandolin 
and guitar, he manifested an active interest in the advancement 
of these instruments and was honorary member of the Mandolin 
Band of Milan (Circolo Mandolinisti, Milano). The most highly 
valued treasures of this society are autograph letters from the 
maestro, congratulating the members on their good work and 
wishing them long and continued prosperity ; the last of these 
communications being dated Genoa, February 19, 1888. 

Verini, P., or as sometimes printed Verani, was an Italian 
guitarist, vocalist, and composer, who established himself in 
England during the early years of the nineteenth century, and was 
living in London as late as 1846. In July, 1836, he appeared in 
public as a guitar soloist, and his performances and compositions 
elicited praiseworthy mention from the musical journals of the 
period. He was the author of a method for the guitar entitled, 
First rudiments of the Spanish guitar, which contained an 
engraved diagram of the instrument, but this volume, folio size, did 
not meet with public favour. The following are titles of his most 
popular compositions published in England: Fantasia on 'La 
cachucha ' for guitar solo, published in 1825 by Galloway, London ; 
Divertimento for guitar solo, dedicated to Mrs. Perronet Thompson, 
Chappell, London ; The nosegay, a divertimento for guitar solo, 
published in 1834; Twelve Italian songs for one or txvo voices 
with guitar accompaniment, Chappell, London ; Six Italian songs 
for one or two voices with guitar, published in 1827 by Dover & Co., 
London ; Twelve songs and duets (Italian, French and English) 
with guitar, and also numerous other vocal items and guitar solos, 
published in 1846 by Boosey ; and Chappell, London. Verini 
contributed guitar exercises to the treatise, Instructions to my 
daughter for playing on the enharmonic guitar, etc., by General 
Thompson, published in 1829 by Goulding & D'Almaine, London. 

Vidal, B., a French professor and composer for the guitar who 
flourished during the eighteenth century, and died in Paris, 
February, 1800. He commenced to make a name in the musical 
world about 1778, for he had established a reputation throughout 
France as a guitarist in the last quarter of the eighteenth century. 
Vidal has written and published about forty compositions in various 
styles and degrees of difficulty, and was the author of a method 
for the guitar, published by Gaveaux, Paris, under the title of 
A new method for the guitar, written for the use of amateurs. 
Vidal wrote several concertos for the guitar with full orchestra or 
string quartet accompaniment, and these compositions he performed 
in public with immense success. The first of these concertos, 
No. 1 in D, with accompaniments for two violins and bass, was 



298 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

published by Janet, Paris, while others were issued by Imbault, 
Paris; Op. 6, Sonatas for guitar and violoncello ; Op. 7, 8, 12 
and 25, Sonatas for guitar and violin ; all being published by 
Bailleux, Paris. Among Vidal's lesser works were six sonatas, 
several potpourris, variations, and collections of operatic melodies, 
all for guitar solo, and these were published by Leduc, and also 
Gaveaux, Paris. Grove states that B. Vidal was the earliest 
musician of this name, that he was a talented guitar player and 
teacher during the last quarter of the eighteenth century, and 
published sonatas, short pieces, and a method for his instrument. 

Vimercati, Pietro, born in Milan, in 1779, and died in Genoa, 
July 27, 1850, was an eminent mandolin virtuoso, musical director 
and teacher, who lived in the esteem of the most illustrious 
musicians of his period. He was the son of a musician who 
imparted to him the elements of the art at an early age. For 
two generations his ancestors had been established in Milan as 
musical instrument makers, principally engaged in the construction 
of mandolins, guitars and lutes, the most celebrated member of 
this family being Gaspare Vimercati. Pietro, the mandolinist, did 
not attract public notice until he was about twenty-eight years of 
age, for his first appearance as mandolinist outside his native 
city was made in Florence, December, 1808, when his success was 
instantaneous. His fame spread through northern Italy, for such 
brilliant execution on the mandolin was seldom heard, and the 
flattering reception accorded him, induced Vimercati to make a 
tour, so for six months he performed in various important Italian 
cities, after which he returned to Milan where he was engaged as 
soloist to play during the entr'act in the Theatre Re. His 
repertoire comprised the important violin concertos of the period 
and the critics were unanimous in their praise of his artistic effects. 
In 1829 Vimercati toured in Germany, playing at innumerable 
concerts, and in Vienna his appearances were veritable triumphs. 
From Germany he travelled through France on his way to Spain ; 
he was heard again in Paris, this being his second visit, for in 1823 
the correspondent of the Harmonicon had written a flattering 
notice under the heading, " M. Vimercati, a remarkable phenomenon 
on the mandolin." Vimercati remained some months in Spain, 
but in 1835 he was receiving the applause of musicians in Holland, 
and the following year that of Berlin and Weimar. 

He undertook an extended tour through Russia in 1837, and in 
1840 was again in Vienna where he resided for a period, but being 
desirous of spending his last days in his native land, removed to 
Genoa, where, although an aged man he still took an active part in 
the musical affairs of the city. He died there, July 27, 1850, at 
the age of seventy-one, after having attended a concert only a few 
days previous. The wife of Vimercati, the prima donna Bianchi, 
performed the principal role in Rossini's operas in Mantua, Berlin 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 299 

and Weimar, during 1834. Vimercati enjoyed the friendship of 
Rossini, who had heard him perform upon many occasions, styling 
him the " Paganini of the mandolin"; perhaps the earliest 
of innumerable mandolinists who have been compared with the 
incomparable violinist ! Moscheles, too, had been amazed at his 
virtuosity, and a conversation between Moscheles and Rossini, 
concerning Vimercati, is recorded (see Moscheles). The music 
journals said of Vimercati : " He had already astonished Italy and 
Germany by the rapidity and grace with which he executed violin 
concertos on his instrument. The French connoisseurs who were 
led by curiosity to visit him found themselves irresistibly detained 
by admiration," and " In January, 1831, the well-known virtuoso 
on the mandolin, Vimercati, gave a concert at the Theatre 
Argentine which was well attended. This artist is an example of 
what genius and perseverance may effect upon the least promising 
of instruments." . . . "Vimercati, the celebrated virtuoso on the 
mandolin, and his wife, who is an excellent singer, have been 
performing at the Theatre Re, Milan, between the acts with 
unbounded applause." Mendel states that his execution and 
performances were quite inconceivable to those not privileged to 
hear him. He was the author of several compositions for his 
instrument which remain in manuscript. 

VA/ANCZURA, Joseph, a native of Bohemia, who lived during 
the middle and latter part of the nineteenth century. He 
was a professor of the guitar and piano, and a composer for these 
two instruments who made a name in his native land. When a 
young man, in 1840, he migrated to Vienna, where he was occupied 
first in teaching the guitar, and at a later period the piano also. 
Wanczura has written and published about fifty compositions for 
guitar solo, and duos for guitar and piano — principally of a light 
nature —rondos, variations, various dances, and transcriptions and 
arrangements of other instrumental compositions, the majority of 
which were issued by Diabelli, Vienna. 

Wanhall, John Baptist, or as it is printed on English editions of 
his works — Vanhall, was of Dutch extraction, born at Neu 
Nechanicz, Bohemia, May 12, 1739, and died August 26, 1813, in 
Vienna. He was a contemporary of Haydn and was held in high 
esteem as an instrumental composer. The son of a peasant, he had 
for his first music teachers, two country players Erban and Kozak, 
who taught him the elements of the guitar, violin, and organ. His 
childhood was spent in various insignificant towns of Bohemia near 
the place of his birth, and his musical education was consequently 
of fitful moods ; but in one of these towns he met a musician who 
strongly advised him to persevere with the violin and guitar, and to 
write for these instruments. This advice, emanating from a skilled 
performer, carried great influence with young Wanhall, and he 
thereupon applied himself seriously to the study of these instruments 



300 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

and the theory of music. His ability soon made itself known, for 
in 1760 his playing attracted the attention of the Countess 
Schaffgotsch, who generously undertook to bear the expense of 
his musical education and sent him to Vienna to continue his 
studies. He was placed under Dittersdorf, who manifested a great 
interest in his apt pupil, and Wanhall read all the works he could 
obtain, played and studied diligently, and composed with great 
enthusiasm, which was at that time regarded as great extravagance. 
In Vienna he continued the study of the guitar and published in 
this city many pieces for the instrument, and he received the 
patronage of the aristocracy, for a nobleman, Freiheir Riesch, sent 
him to Italy for a lengthy period to broaden his musical education. 
Upon his return to Vienna in 1772, he was afflicted with intense 
mental depression which for some time bordered on insanity ; he 
ultimately recovered, but his life in Vienna was one continual round 
of incessant hard work, the monotony of which was only relieved 
by hurried visits to Hungary or Croatia, where he was hospitably 
received by Count Erdody. Wanhall was very famous for a time, 
until brighter musical stars — Haydn and Beethoven — appeared and 
eclipsed him. He was a very prolific composer, and the list of his 
works, enumerated by Dlabacz, is enormous. There are no less 
than a hundred symphonies, a like number of quartets, numerous 
masses and other church music, much piano music and many 
compositions for the guitar, of which the following are the most 
prominent, although the list of these is by no means complete : 
Op. 42, Six variations for guitar and violin, Peters, Leipzig ; 
Two volumes of dances for guitar and piano, Cappi, Vienna ; 
Quartet for guitar, violin (or flute), alto and violoncello (or 
bassoon), Spehr, Brunswick ; Six duos in two books for piano 
and guitar ; Theme (alia past or ell a) and variations for guitar, 
piano, violin (or flute), and Six waltzes for guitar, piano, violin 
(or flute), all published by Simrock, Bonn. Several of Wanhall's 
compositions were published in Cambridge, and it is probable that 
he visited England, but no trace of any visit can be found. 

Wassermann, Heinrich Joseph, born April 3, 1791, at Schwarz- 
bach, near Fulda, died August, 1838, at Richen, near Basle, 
Switzerland, was a violinist and guitarist who studied under Spohr. 
After completing his musical education he was employed as violinist 
at Hechingen, Zurich, and Donaueschingen, respectively, and at a 
later period was engaged as orchestral conductor in Geneva and 
Basle. Wassermann was the author of several chamber com- 
positions, comprising quartets and other works which included the 
guitar, and also orchestral suites, most of which were published in 
Switzerland. 

Weber, Carl Maria von, was born at Eutin, in Holstein, 
December 18, 1786, and died in London, June 4, 1826. Weber, 
the founder of German national opera, and probably the most 




CARL MAR! \ V< )\ WEBER. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 301 

widely influential German composer of the century, was an ardent 
admirer of the guitar and was as highly an accomplished performer 
on this instrument as on the piano. Baron Max. von Weber, 
writing of his father, said that because of its subdued sympathetic 
tone, he made the guitar his constant companion. His most 
beautiful songs were written with guitar accompaniment, and these 
melodies, at first unknown, sung by him in a not powerful, yet 
pleasant voice, with inimitable expression, and accompanied on the 
guitar with the highest degree of skill, were the most complete of 
anything ever accomplished in this manner. Weber was one 
of those musicians in whose family music was long a hereditary 
gift, but the restless nature of his father did not act favourably on 
the gifted child's education, for he had left Eutin in 1787 and was 
leading a wandering life as director of a dramatic troupe, consisting 
mainly of his own grown-up children. They visited all the German 
cities of importance, and bad as this roving life may appear, young 
Weber may be said to have grown up behind the scenes, for from 
infancy his home was in stage-land. In 1797, a new theatrical 
speculation took the family to Salzburg, where Michael Haydn 
gave the boy gratuitous instruction in composition. When they 
removed to Vienna a little later, Weber became acquainted with a 
young officer, Gansbacher, a musical amateur, an excellent guitarist, 
and a pupil of Vogler, in Vienna, and this acquaintance soon 
ripened into a life-long friendship, for Gansbacher, with Weber 
and other youthful companions, formed a society and sang their 
songs to guitar accompaniment. When he removed to Breslau, 
Grove says: "He had also acquired considerable skill on the 
guitar, on which he would accompany his own mellow voice in 
songs mostly of a humorous character, with inimitable effect. This 
talent was often of great use to him in society, and he composed 
many lieder with guitar accompaniment." 

In Breslau, after his resignation at the theatre, he lived by 
teaching the piano and guitar, and when he visited Mannheim in 
1810, he found a friend for life in Gottfried Weber, also a guitarist, 
who arranged concerts for him. At one of these concerts he played 
for the first time his piano Concerto in C, and among the audience 
was Princess Stephanie of Baden, whose father, the Crown Prince 
Ludwig of Bavaria, Weber had met a few months previous at 
Baden Baden. The prince had been delighted and had walked 
about with him all night, enraptured, while he sang serenades with 
his guitar. The princess was also very desirous to hear him in 
this capacity, so after the concert, he sang her a number of his best 
songs to his guitar accompaniment, making so great an impression 
that she promised to procure him the post of capellmeister in 
Mannheim, or make him an allowance of one thousand gulders 
from her private purse. All this ended however, in nothing, for a 
few weeks later Weber received a message from the princess 
saying that her promise had been made too hastily. For a period 



302 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Weber resided in Darmstadt, where he studied under the Abbe 
Vogler with Meyerbeer, and here, in 1811, Weber composed his 
one-act comic opera Abu Hassan. This was the first of his operas 
which has retained its position on the stage, and the second aria, 
sung by Hassan, is accompanied by two guitars— the first perform- 
ance being given in Munich, June 4, 1811. During this time 
Weber composed numerous songs with the guitar. For Kotzebue's 
Der arme Minnesinger, he wrote four of these, and in a letter to 
his friend Gottfried Weber, dated May 16, 1811, he writes: " You 
will have received my guitar songs and noticed that I have set no 
accompaniment to the Madchen. How can you possibly think I 
should have been so silly." This song Madchen, acli meide 
Manner schmeichelein is a canon, and the last of the series of Six 
songs with guitar, Op. 13. The autographs of these songs were 
contained in a volume, which after being for some years in the 
possession of F. W. Jahns, mysteriously disappeared, but the 
owner had fortunately copied carefully the contents. 

Weber visited Berlin in February, 1812, and "as one of the 
foremost members of the Berlin Singakademie, Lichtenstein had no 
difficulty in introducing him to cultivated and musical families, 
where he soon became a favourite by his pleasant manners, his 
admirable pianoforte playing and extemporizing, his inspiriting 
way of leading concerted music, and above all, his charming songs 
and his guitar " (Grove). At Carlsbad, too, he took part in the 
musical evenings at Prince Eugene's, and the principal attraction 
there was his songs with guitar. But Weber's roving life came to 
an end in 1813, when he was appointed capellmeister in Prague. 
He reorganised and conducted the opera in this city till 1816, and 
on March 8, 1814, he composed while there an Andante for guitar 
and piano. This composition was not published, for only the title 
page and a portion of the work give evidence of its existence. 
Weber wrote much for the guitar during his residence in Prague, 
and among other guitar works, there was published in the city a 
volume of Five songs with guitar accompaniment , Op. 25. During 
the summer of 1816, on the anniversary of Waterloo, he visited Berlin 
to conduct his cantata, and when he resigned his post in Prague 
in September, he spent the remainder of this year in Berlin, busily 
engaged in composition, and to this period belongs his duo for 
guitar and piano entitled, Divertimento assai facile per la chitarra 
ed il pianoforte composta da Carlo Maria di Weber, Op. 38. 
This comprises an andante in C ; valse with two trios in A minor ; 
andante with five variations in G, and a polacca in A. Extracts 
from the guitar parts of the andante, the third variation, and the 
polacca are reproduced, and the composition was published by 
Schlesinger, Berlin. The following year, Weber was appointed 
capellmeister of German opera in Dresden, but his position at the 
outset was far from enviable ; matters improved considerably after 
a time, and during his years of residence in this city he was 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



303 



EXTRACTS FROM 

Duo for Guitar and Piano, Op. 38, 

Composed by C. von WEBER, in 1816. 



GUITAR. 



Andante 

jon moto . 




304 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



accustomed to pass the summer-time at Klein Hosterwitz, a little 
country place near Pillnitz. The house in which he stayed is still 
standing and bears an inscription, and in August of 1818, while 
there he composed certain pieces for the guitar to be played in 
Max von Klinger's Die Zwillinge (The twins), Dr. A. Rublack's 
version of the tragedy ; for Weber's diary of August 15, 1818, says : 
" Composed the guitar pieces for Zwilliiigen, have sent them and 
written to Hellwig." Hellwig was director of the Royal Theatre, 
Dresden, and Weber's guitar compositions were duly performed in 
the city for the first time on August 18 ; but the manuscripts cannot 
now be traced. 

In September, 1821, Weber was still living in Dresden, and he 
composed music to Donna Diana, libretto by Moreto, and in this 
comic opera he introduced a Duo for two guitars. This play had 
been previously set to music and performed in Dresden, October 2, 
1817. The first four bars of Weber's guitar duet are reproduced 

EXTRACT FROM 

Duo for Two Guitars, 

Composed by C. von WEBER, in 1821. 




S 



j-Jp | j. 



m 



"i 



from the original manuscript in the Royal Court Theatre Library, 
Dresden, and it was in Dresden too, January 10, 1821, that he 
composed the part song and chorus with guitar accompaniment, 
Tell me, where is fancy bred ? for three female voices (two soprano 
and one alto), the autograph of which is in Dresden also. In 1824 
he received the commission to write an opera for Covent Garden 
Theatre, London ; he chose Oberon, and the sad, and indeed tragic 
story of his visit to conduct this opera is well known. Sick unto 
death — he was but thirty-nine — and aware that his days were fully 
numbered, only the prospect of making provision for his wife and 
family had induced him to undertake the work and roused him from 
the languor and depression that possessed him. 

On February 5, he conducted in Dresden for the last time and 
took leave of all the members of the band except Furstenau, the 
flautist and guitarist, who was to travel with him. He arrived 
March 5, 1826, and his brief stay in England was strangely 
intermingled with sunshine and gloom ; for a time all went 
smoothly, and when the opera was produced April 12, the 
enthusiasm of the audience was intense, and although his life was 
fast ebbing he took part in concerts until a week previous to his 
death, but sank under his sufferings, June 4, in the house of his host, 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 305 

Sir G. Smart. Although the last effort, and that of a dying man, 
this opera bears no traces of mental exhaustion ; it engraves Weber's 
name among those of immortal fame. Constant in his devotion 
and love of the guitar, he displays the beauties of his favourite 
instrument in his final work, by setting it in an unparalleled 
atmosphere of charm and colour, the centre of a sublime situation, 
for the guitar is the instrument which accompanies Vision No. 3, 
Rezia's song to Oberon, Oh ! why art thou sleeping ? The song 
with its accompaniment is a rare gem ; its setting, the impress of 
genius, for with his profound command of tone colour, Weber 
introduces the guitar in a remarkably effective manner. An 
introductory bar for the horns, succeeded by four bars of plaintive 
diminuendo for clarionets and bassoon, and the guitar breaks forth 
in its most sonorous key (E major), and when the song with its 
accompaniment fades, oboes, clarionets, and bassoon, with that 
mysterious tenderness which only Weber can divulge, continue 
their final six bars. 

Weber was the author of more than ninety songs with guitar 
accompaniment, and in addition, many compositions for the guitar in 
combination with other instruments. A complete list of all these 
compositions cannot be given, but the following are among the 
most important : Op. 13, Six songs with guitar, composed in 1811 ; 
Op. 25, Five songs with guitar, published in Prague and Leipzig ; 
Op. 29, Three canzonets with guitar ; Op. 38, Duo for guitar and 
piano, Schlesinger, Berlin ; Op. 42, Six songs with guitar, 
Diabelli, Vienna; Op. 71, Six songs with guitar ; Schummerlied, 
part song for four male voices with guitar, Diabelli, Vienna ; Four 
songs with guitar for Kotzebue's Der Arme Minnesinger ; Romance 
with guitar for Costelli's Diana von Poitiers, composed in 1816 ; 
Song with guitar lor Kind's Der Abend am Waldbrunner, composed 
in 1818; the third scene, Act III, Gaston's Rundgesang is accom- 
panied by guitar, two clarionets, two bassoons, two trumpets and two 
kettle drums ; scene five, Act II, Weber writes a Minuet for flute, 
viola, and guitar, and also certain songs with guitar, the 
manuscripts of all these being in Dresden ; Eighteen songs with 
original guitar accompaniments (English and German text), 
Boosey & Co., London. Weber wrote many pieces d'occasion and 
incidental compositions which were not published, and it is certain 
that all his works for, and with the guitar, can never be brought to 
light ; but his guitar is preserved in Berlin. In The life of Carl 
von Weber, by his son Baron Max von Weber (vol. I, p. 145), 
interesting facts are recorded concerning his songs with the guitar, 
for speaking of his father and his friend Gottfried Weber, he 
says : " Most of their songs were composed for the guitar, an 
instrument so appropriate to these pieces, and one which misuse 
and tasteless treatment have alone brought out of fashion. A rich 
treasury of songs of this description has been left to the world by 
Carl Maria von Weber ; and assuredly one day, when that world 



306 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

has been sufficiently surfeited with its present food for epileptic 
soul sufferers, and can find once again a taste for the solid, genuine, 
and true in art, will they again emerge into light from the darkness 
of their temporary oblivion." He also states (vol. I, p. 189) : 
" Most of the songs composed by Carl and Gottfried Weber were 
written with guitar accompaniment ; but the romantic music which 
succeeded, degenerated into guitar tinkling, and unrightfully 
brought discredit on the beautiful instrument, whose nature is so 
adapted for vocal accompaniment. There are many of the most 
beautiful song compositions that require just this style of accom- 
paniment, and which not only reject the tone of the piano as 
antipathic, but when combined with it, entirely lose their character 
and fineness of feeling." 

Weber, Gottfried, doctor of law and philosophy, musical 
composer, theorist, and guitarist, was born at Freiesheim, near 
Mannheim, in 1779, and died in Mayence, September 21, 1839. 
He studied until he was twenty-three years of age, and then 
practised as a lawyer in Mannheim, where he also held a govern- 
ment appointment. It was in this city that Carl Weber sought a 
refuge after his banishment from Wurtemburg in 1810, and 
although of no relation, he and his aged father, Franz Anton, 
found a home with Gottfried Weber's parents. This was the 
commencement of a lasting friendship between Gottfried, then 
thirty-one, and Carl, eight years his junior. A year previous to 
their meeting, Gottfried, who was proficient on the guitar, flute, 
piano, and violoncello, and thoroughly versed in the scientific 
branches of musical knowledge, had formed from two existing 
musical societies, " The Museum," a band and chorus of amateurs, 
who, under his enthusiastic and able direction, and with some 
professional assistance, did much excellent work. Under Gottfried's 
management, concerts were organised for Carl Weber, on March 9, 
and April 2, and they were highly successful. Gottfried Weber's 
influence obtained a hearing for the young composer in Mannheim 
and other cities, and the members of the society, fired by the 
enthusiasm of their conductor, did much towards establishing Carl 
Weber's fame in Mannheim. They organised a concert in 
Heidelberg, where Carl Weber made the acquaintance of 
Gottfried's brother-in-law, Alexander von Dusch, a talented 
violoncellist, and during this period the guitar played a principal 
part in the musical affairs of " The Museum," for the two Webers 
were both accomplished guitarists, and many of their musical items 
included songs, duets, and choruses with guitars. A detailed and 
interesting account of the relations, both gay and sad, between 
these distinguished men — Gottfried and Carl — is given in Max von 
Weber's life of his father. This volume shows the influence of 
each on the other, their pleasant wanderings in the company of 
other young musicians, singing their latest songs to the accompani- 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 307 

ment of their guitars ; their founding of a so-called secret society 
with high aims of composer-literati, in which Gottfried adopted the 
pseudonym of " Giusto"; Carl, "Melos"; and Gansbacher, "Triole"; 
and of their merry meetings in the " Drei Konige," or at Gottfried's 
house. When circumstances had parted them, constant corres- 
pondence showed the strength and tenacity of their mutual 
sympathy. 

Some of Gottfried Weber's best songs were inspired by this 
intercourse, and they were exquisitely interpreted by his 
second wife, nee von Dusch, to his guitar accompaniment. 
Towards the close of 1810, Gottfried Weber, Carl Weber, von 
Dusch, and Meyerbeer, founded a society which they named 
" Harmonischer Verein," with the object of furthering the cause of 
art, particularly the branch of thorough and impartial criticism. 
The two Webers also considered the publication of a musical 
periodical, and although the plan did not materialize jointly, 
Gottfried Weber was the editor of Ccecilia — a music journal, 
published by Schott, Mayence — from its commencement in 1824 
till his death in 1839. During the intervals of founding the 
Mannheim Conservatoire of Music, superintending the court 
musical services and occasional duty as conductor in Mayence, 
the genial lawyer-musician laid the basis of his reputation by a 
profound study of the theory of music, the result of which appeared 
in a volume published about 1815, in German, French, Danish and 
English. Weber was appointed principal of the Darmstadt 
Conservatoire of Music in 1827, and the same year in recognition 
of his musical services, was decorated with the Grand Cross of the 
Order of Merit. His compositions include many part songs for 
male voices, with choruses and guitar accompaniment, which were 
first performed by himself, Carl Weber, Gansbacher and Meyerbeer, 
at their meetings and during their walks together. In addition to 
these songs, generally strophic in form, his works embrace masses 
and other sacred music, sonatas, and concerted pieces for various 
instruments, including the guitar. His first composition entitled, 
Variations for the guitar with accompaniment of flute, or 
violoncello, dedicated to Miss Therese von Edel, Op. 1, an original 
theme with six variations, was published by Schott, Mayence, and 
passed several editions. As the title states, it is written for the 
guitar, which frequently takes the solo. The violoncello and flute 
parts are not alike, for in the second variation the guitar is given 
the solo to the pizzicato arpeggio accompaniment of the 'cello, and 
in the fifth variation it accompanies the guitar with rapid passages. 
Op. 2, a second set of variations for the same instruments was 
published by Richault, Paris, and another was also published by 
Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig; Op. 19, Eight songs with guitar; 
Op. 21, Fourteen songs with guitar (in four volumes), Peters, 
Leipzig; Op. 31, Six part songs with guitar (in three volumes), 
Schott; Op. 32 and Op. 34, Songs with guitar, Peters, Leipzig; 



308 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

Op. 36, Song with guitar, Schott ; Op. 37, Themes with variations 
for flute and guitar, Simrock ; Op. 38, Venetian barcarola 
for flute and guitar ; Op. 39, Study on a Norwegian air for flute 
and guitar, Simrock; Op. 42, Tafellieder, part song and chorus 
for male voices with guitar, Schott ; and more than fifty others, 
including vocal solos and part songs with choruses for male 
voices with guitar, issued by the same publishers. 

Wyssotzki, Michael Th., one of the most celebrated of Russian 
guitarists, was born in 1790, and died in Moscow, December 28, 
1837. He was a pupil of the great virtuoso Sychra, on the Russian 
seven-stringed guitar, and he obtained fame as a virtuoso and 
composer in his native land, nearly equal to .that of his teacher. 
Wyssotzki's compositions which were published principally in his 
native land added considerably to his reputation ; his solo for guitar 
entitled, Prayer, being of universal renown. His portrait is 
reproduced from a contemporary engraving published in Moscow. 

VUMSTEEG, Johann Rudolf, born January 10, 1760, at 
*-" Sachsenflur, in the Odenwald, died January 27, 1802, from an 
apoplectic stroke which seized him after conducting a concert at 
Stuttgart. He was the son of a valet to Duke Carl of Wurtemburg, 
and received his education together with Schiller, at the Carlschule, 
near Stuttgart. To the latter he was allied by the closest friendship, 
and he set many of his songs to guitar accompaniment. Zumsteeg 
was originally intended for a sculptor, and played the guitar 
and 'cello as an amateur until he was seventeen years of age, when 
the love of music proving too strong, he adopted the 'cello as 
his professional instrument. He was appointed violoncellist in the 
court orchestra at Stuttgart, and on the demise of his teacher, Poli, 
in 1792, he succeeded him as capellmeister and director of the 
opera. Zumsteeg is celebrated as the pioneer of the " balladen " — 
a fully developed story with musical accompaniment — and most of 
these he set with the guitar. Op. 6, Ballads with accompaniments 
of flute and guitar, and "cello and guitar, published in Brunswick, 
and many others published by Simrock, Bonn ; and Schott, 
Mayence. His daughter Emilie was also a song writer, and has 
published several vocal compositions with guitar accompaniment 
through Simrock, Bonn. 




MICHAEL TH. WYSSOTZKI. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 309 



APPENDIX. 



Bertucci, Constantino, born March 12, 1841, in Rome, a 
celebrated modern mandolin virtuoso and composer. His father, 
a gardener who came of a poor, but honourable family, was a skilled 
player on the mandolin and modern lute, and commenced to teach 
his son the mandolin when he was five years of age, and three 
years later father and son performed mandolin duos. At the age 
of twelve, Constantino made his debut as mandolin soloist at the 
Cafe Nuovo, Rome, then a resort of the most fashionable society. 
He was a musical amateur, engaged in other regular work ; but 
he continued to practise the mandolin and attained local fame, 
being named " Al ragazzino di Borgo," and during this period he 
received further instruction from Finestauri, a Roman, known as 
" Checco de nonna," who had learned his art from Cesare Galanti, 
one of the early players and director of the Papal Chapel. 
Bertucci then commenced to teach, and in his public appearances 
he was frequently accompanied on the calascione (lute) by Paolo 
Curti. Bertucci has related the following incident which proved the 
turning point in his career : " On a certain fete, when playing at a 
garden party, there was present listening to us, a member of the 
band of the Papal Dragoons, a clarionetist and concert artist in the 
theatre. He requested me to play certain excerpts from operas, 
which I did, and in our conversation, I was compelled to acknow- 
ledge that I could not read music, for like most young Italians of 
that period, I depended upon a good ear and memory. This 
musician, whose name was Baccani, proved a good friend to me ■ 
he became my teacher, and to him I owe much, for by his teaching 
a new era dawned, and I made great progress." 

Bertucci also devoted himself to the guitar, and from 1860 he 
appeared at numerous concerts, both in his native and other lands. 
He was commanded to play before the Royal Court, and was also 
presented by his pupil La Marquise Gavaggi, being the recipient 
of many royal favours. In his native city, in 1872, he gave 
instruction on the mandolin to Salvayre, a young French musician, 
who, as holder of the Prix de Rome, was studying in Italy, and a 
sincere friendship resulted. In 1878, Bertucci and several of his 
pupils performed in the Trocadero, Paris, and he was one of the 
first to render instrumental music for transferrence by telephone, his 
mandolin band being thus heard in Versailles. He effected several 
improvements in the construction of the Roman mandolin, 
that being the model of his choice. Bertucci's compositions 



310 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

for the mandolin evince a purity in style and a classic standard 
which cannot be too highly eulogised. He wrote a Method for the 
mandolin, in three parts; Eighteen studies for the mandolin, 
dedicated to H.R.H. Princess Margherita ; numerous fantasias in 
harmony for mandolin alone ; others with pianoforte accompaniment, 
and compositions for mandolin band, the majority being published 
by Ricordi, Milan. 

Donizetti, Gaetano, born in Bergamo, Italy, November 29, 1797, 
died in his native town in 1848, an operatic composer of great 
renown who wrote for the guitar in his orchestral scores. He 
studied in the Conservatoire of Naples ; and his first opera, produced 
in Vienna in 1818, was speedily followed by others — sixty-five in 
all. Donizetti possessed considerable literary talent, for he 
designed and wrote several acts of the most successful of his works. 
In 1842 he was commissioned to write an opera for the Theatre 
Italienne, Paris, and in that city he composed Don Pasquale, an 
opera buffa in three acts, which was produced there January 4, 
1843, and in London during the following June. The brilliant 
gaiety of this opera charmed all immediately upon its production, as 
did also the acting and singing of Grisi, Mario, Tamburini, and 
Lablache, for whom the four leading parts were composed. For 
many years Don Pasquale was staged as a play of the present day, 
but for the picturesqueness of the opera it is now customary for the 
characters to appear in the dress of a century ago. To the most 
celebrated air in this opera, the tenor love song Com' e gentil, 
known in England as Oh ! summer night, Donizetti wrote an 
accompaniment for the guitar. This serenade, in six-eight time, at 
the commencement of the third and last act, is admirably suited to 
the guitar, and the celebrated tenor, Mario, for whom it was 
composed, added to his own reputation and that of the composer by 
his realistic performances. In the descriptive catalogue of ancient 
instruments of the Paris Conservatoire, Berlioz, who was for a time 
curator of the museum, mentions the fact that Donizetti composed 
for the guitar in Don Pasquale, and it may be also said that he used 
the instrument in several of his lesser known works. 

Hummel, J. N., (p. 160) add — Also writes for the guitar in the 
chief of his operas Die Eselhaut or Die blaue Inset, which was 
produced in the Theatre an-der-Wien, Vienna, March 10, 1814, and 
the manuscript of which is in the British Museum, London. The 
romance for tenor marked Adagio and cantabile in the second act, is 
accompanied by guitar, two violas, two 'cellos, and double-bass. 
This is a unique and effective instrumentation, heightened by the 
pizzicato of the 'cellos and double-bass, against the arco of the violas. 
In the same museum is the original autograph of "Concerto written 
by J. N. Hummel for Barthol. Bortolazi, maestro di mandolino, 
1799." When Hummel composed this concerto he was twenty-one 
years of age, and Bortolazzi, five years his senior, was a recognised 







CONSTANTINO BERTUCCI. 



GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 



311 



EXTRACTS FROM 

Concerto for Mandolin and Orchestra. 

Composed for Bartolomeo Bortolazzi, 

By J. N. HUMMEL, in 1799. 



MANDOLINO PRINCIPALE. 



Alio, moderato e grazloso. 




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312 GUITAR AND MANDOLIN. 

mandolin virtuoso (see page 51). Hummel was living in Vienna at 
this time, receiving further instruction in counterpoint and 
composition from Albrechtsberger, Haydn, and Salieri. The former 
and latter of these masters composed for the mandolin (see pp. 13, 
261), and in his treatment of the viola in combination with the other 
strings, Hummel's instrumentation closely resembles that of his 
teacher Salieri. This Concerto for the mandolin, a classic, lengthy, 
yet interesting work is scored for mandolino principale, with two 
violins, viola, 'cello, double-bass, two flutes, and two horns in G. 
The introductory theme, Allegro moderato e grazioso, in G, two- 
four time, is led off by the orchestra for forty-five bars, after which 
the mandolin enters, reiterating the same melody to the pizzicato of 
the strings. An Andante con variazione in two-four time follows, 
with a rapid movement throughout for the mandolin which does not, 
however, ascend beyond the third position. Variations in G minor 
proceed, succeeded by a Rondo in six-eight time, after which the 
the mandolin has lengthy and rapid variations on this theme also, 
and the final bars are taken by the full orchestra. Hummel's 
portrait is reproduced from a contemporary engraving which was 
published by Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig. 




INDEX. 



Abreu, Don A. 

Aguado, D 

Aibl, J. 

Aichelburg 

Aimon, P. L. F. 

Albaneze 

Albrechtsberger, J. G. 

Alday 

Allix 

Ambrosche, J. C. 
Amelia, Duchess 

Amon, J. A 

Anelli, J. 

Araciel, Don D. 

Armanini, P 

Arnold, J. G 

Arnold, F. W 

Arnold, C 

Arrevalo, M 

Asioli, B. 

Baillon, P.J 

Baillot, P. M 

Barco, V. 

Bathioli, F 

Baumbach, F. A. 

Bayer, A. 

Bayer, E. 

Beethoven, L. van 

Bellenghi, G 

Beniezki, S. 

Benzon, S 

Berard, J. B 

Berggreen, A. P. 

Berlioz, H 

Bertioli, A 

Bertucci, C 

Bevilaqua, M , 

Birnbach, H 

Blum, C L 

Bobrowicz, J. N. de ... 
Boccherini, L. 
Boccomini, G. 

Boom, J. van 

Bornhardt, J. H. C. .., 

Bortolazzi, B 

Bott, J.J 



PAGE 




PAGE 


<w 


Boulley, A. P. L 


• 53 J 


9</ 


Bracco, C. A 


55 


12 V 


Brand, A 


. 56 v 


12/ 


Brand, F 


56 


I2v/ 


Brand, J. P. de 


56 


13V 


Branzoli, G 


57 


13 


Brecneo, L. 


- 58 


H 


Bremner, R 


58 


'4 


Brunet, P 


59 


HV 


Burgmuller, F. 


• 59 


15 


Butignot, A 


59 


15-/ 


Buttinger, C. C 


. 60 


16 V 






17 V 


Calegari, F 


60 


17 


Caliginoso 


60 


18^ 


Call, L. de 


61 


ig\j 


Call, T. 


62 


20 v 


Camerloher, P. von 


62 


20 V 


Campion, F 


63 


20 V 


Carbonchi, A 


63 




Carcassi, M 


63 


20 / 


Carulli, F 


67 


20%/ 


Castellacci, L. 


72 


2I>/ 


Chevesailles 


73 


2lv/ 


Chrysander, W. C. J. 


73 


22V 


Cifolelli, G 


73 


22 -/ 


Corbetti, F 


74 


23 : 


Cornet, J. 


76 


25 


Costa, P. M 


76 


33 


Coste, N 


77 


35v 


Craeijvanger, K. A 


78 


35^/ 


Cristofaro, F. de 


78 


35^ 






36 s/ 


Darr, A. 


81 


36 , 


Delia Maria, D 


83 


22V 


Denis, P. 


85 


309 


Denza, L. 


85 


40^ 


Derosiers, N 


86 


40V 


Derwort, G. H 


86 


42 V 


Diabelli, A 


86 


45 J 


Dickhut, C 


89 


47 s/ 


Doche, J. D 


90 


40V 


Doisy, C. 


90 


50 / 


Donizetti, G 


310 


50-/ 


Dorn, J. 


9i 


5i V , 


Dorn, C.J 


9i 


5a -y 


Dotzauer, J. J. F 


92 



313 



314 



INDEX. 



Dragonetti, D. 
Drouet, L. F. P. 
Dubez, J. 

Edel, G. 

Ehlers, W 

Ellis, H.J 

Ernst, F. A. ... 
Eulenstein, C 

Fahrbach, J 

Ferandiere, Don F. . 
Ferranti, M. A. Z. de 

Ferrer, M. Y 

Fiorillo, F 

Fischof, J 

Fouchetti 
Fridzen. A. M. A. 

Furstenau, C 

Furstenau, A. B. 

Gade, N. W 

Gambara, C. A. 
Gansbacher, J. 

Garat, P. J 

Garcia, M. del P. V. . 

Gassner, F. S 

Gatayes, G. P. A. . 
Gaude, T. 

Geminiani, F 

Genlis, F.S 

Giardini, F. de 
Gilles, H. N. ... 

'Giuliani, M 

Glaeser, C. G 

Gollmick, C 

Gbpfert, C. A 

Gotz, A. J 

Gouglet, P. M. 
Gounod, C. 

Graeffer, A 

Gragnani, F 

Granata, G. B. 
Gretry, A. E. M. 
Gruber, F. 
Guichard, F. ... 

Handel, G. F. ... 
Harder, A. 
Haslinger, T. ... 
Hauptmann, M. 
Hauschka, V. ... 
Held, B. 
Held, J. T. 
Henkel, M. 
Himmel, F. H. 
Holland, J. ... 
Horetzky, F. ... 



93 


Hucke, G. H. ... 


95 


Huerta, Don A. F. 


95 


Hummel, J. N. 




Hiinten, F. 


96 


Hiinten, P. E. ... 


96 




96 


Janon, C. de ... 


98 


Jansa, L. 


99 


Joly 


IOI 


Kapeller, J.N. 


102 


Keller, K. 


102 


Klage, C. 


106 


Klier, J. 


108 


Klingenbrunner, W 


109 


Knize, F. M. ... 


no 


Kohler, H. 


no 


Korner, T. 


112 


Kraus 


i J 3 


Krebs. F. X. ... 




Kreutzer, C. 


114 


Kreutzer, J. 


114 


Krumpholz, W. 


114 


Kucharz, J. B 


117 


Kuffner. J. 


117 


Kuhnel, F. 


119 


Kummer, G. ... 


119 


Kunze, C. H. ... 


120 




121 


Labarre, T. 


122 


Lang, A. 


122 


Laurentiis, C. de 


123 


Lebedeff, V. P. 


124 


Ledhuy, A. 


131 


Leduc, A. 


131 


Legnani, L. 


132 


Leidesdorf, M. J. 


133 


Leite. A. da S. 


134 


Lemoine, A. M. 


134 


Lenau, N. 


136 


Leone 


137 


Leroy, A. 


137 


Lfleche 


137 


L'Hoyer, A. 


140 


Lickl, A. C. ... 


141 


Light, E. 




Lincke, J. 


141 


Lintant, C. 


144 


Litzius, C. 


H5 


Lorenz, F. A. ... 


146 


Lully, J. B. 


147 




H7 


Magnien, V. ... 


H7 


Mahler, G. 


148 


Malibran, M. F. 


148 


Mara, G. E. ... 


149 


Marschner, H 


150 


Mascheroni, A. 



PAGE 

... 152 

••• 153 
I55,3IO 

... 160 

... l6l 

... l6l 

... l62 

... l62 

... 163 

... 163 

- 163 
... 164 

164 

... 164 

.- 165 

- 165 
... 168 
... 168 
... 168 
... 169 
... 169 
... 1 70 
... 1 70 
... 174 
... 174 

• •■ 175 

• •• 175 
■ ■• 175 
... 175 
... 176 
... 176 
... 177 
... 177 
... 179 
... 179 
... 180 
... 181 
... 182 
... 182 
... 183 
... 183 
... 183 
... 184 
... 184 
... 185 
... 186 
... 186 
... 187 

... 187 

... 189 

... - 189 

... 190 

... 191 

... 193 



INDEX. 



315 



PAGE 

Matiegka, W 194 

Mattera, B 194 

Mayseder, J 194 

Meissonnier, A. ... ... 196 

Meissonnier, J. 197 

Merchi, G 198 

Merk, J 199 

Merrick, A 199 

Mertz.J. K 200 

Methfessel, A. G 207 

Miceli, G 207 

Miksch 208 

Mirecki, F 208 

Molino, Don F. V 209 

Molitor, J 210 

Montesardo, G. 210 

Moscheles, 1 210 

Mounsev, E 213 

Mozart, W. A. 214 

Munier, C 218 

Mussini, N 222 

Naumann, J. G. 222 

Nava, A. M 223 

Neuhouser, L. 224 

Neuland, W 224 

Neuling 225 

Niedzielski, J 225 

Nuske, J. A 225 

Oberleitner, A. 225 

Padovetz, J 226 

Paganini, N 226 

Paisiello, G 236 

Payer, H 238 

Pelzer, F 239 

Pettoletti, P 240 

Petzmayer, J 240 

Picchianti, L 241 

Pleyel, I. J 242 

Pollet, C. F. A 242 

Poller, J.J. B 243 

Pollet, L. M 243 

Prager, H. A 243 

Pratten, S 244 

Pugnani, G 245 

Radziwil, A. H 246 

Regondi, G 247 

Rode. J. P.J 253 

Rolla, A 254 

Romberg, B 255 

Romero, L. T. 256 

Roser von Reiter, F. ... 256 

Rossini, G. A 256 



PAGE 

Rudersdorff, J. 258 

Rugeon Beauclair, A. L. ... 258 

c 

°agrini, L 259 

Saheri, A 259 

Salomon, M 261 

Salvayre, G. B. 261 

Scheidler, C. G 262 

Schenk Decker, F 262 

Schindlocker, P 263 

Schlick, J. C 263 

Schnabel, J. I. 264 

Schneider, C. A. 265 

Schubert, F. P 265 

Schulz, L 268 

Schumann, F 270 

Sczepanowski, S 270 

Sellner. J 272 

Shelley, P. B 272 

Sivon, E. C 275 

Sodi, C. 275 

Sokolowski, M. D 276 

Sola, C. M. A. 277 

Sor, F 278 

Sotos, A. de 286 

Soussmann, H. 287 

Spina, A. 287 

Spinelli, N 287 

Spohr, L 288 

Stegmayer, F. 290 

Steibelt, D 290 

Stoessel, N 291 

Stoll, F. P 292 

Straube. R 292 

Strauss, F 292 

Strobel, V 293 

Sussmayer, F. X 293 

Sychra, A. 293 

Tarrega, F 294 

Thompson, T. P 294 

Triebensee, J 295 

Vailati, G 295 

Verdi, G 296 

Verini, P 297 

Vidal, B 297 

Yimercati, P 298 

Wanczura, J 299 

Wanhall, J. B. 299 

Wassermann, H. J 300 

Weber, C. M. von 300 

Weber, G 306 

Wyssotzki, M. T 308 

Zumsteeg,J.R 308 



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The table is acted upon by the strings pulling obliquely and 
they are constructed with a super table to receive any kind of 
ornamentation, such as tortoiseshell and pearl inlays. 

Marvellous Quality £r Power 
of Tone. Superior to any 
other Instrument yet made. 

Gold Medal, Bordeaux Exhibition, 1907. 
Gold Medal, Brussels Exhibition, 1910. 




No instrument of any make in the 
world can compare with Gelas's. 



E. GAUDET, sole n&akev 

4 Bd. Bonne Nouvelle, PARIS. 



THE GREATEST SUCCESSES ARRANGED rOR 

MANDOLIN, GUITAR, 8 MANDOLIN ORCHESTRA 

SNOEK En habit rouge— Popular Viennese march. 

VAX GAEL Valse Boheme. 

ZURFLUH Gavotte Rose. 

ZURFLUH Primavera (Valse lente, Houtin . 

BOIELDIEU Grand Fantasia on " Dame Blanche." 

CORTA1LLOD Pourquoi Douter? (Valse lente) 

LAMBERT Les Manonnettes. 

WEBER Grand Fantasia on " Freychutz." 

HEROLD Grand Fantasia on "Pres aux Clercs." 
Celebrated Mandolin Method by A. M. ZURFLUH (of Paris Opera). 12 Compositions 
of Schubert arranged for Mandolin and Piano by J. Pietrapertosa, 3 4. 
Ask for Catalogues of the "VICTORIA" Edition. 

14 Rue des Saint Peres, PARIS. 




ITALIAN 



MANDOLINE -MUSIC 



CARISCH & JANICHEN 



MILANO (Italia) 



Via Lazzaretto 



Ask for Catalogue. 



J. ROWIES, 

8 Rue Pigalle, PARIS, also at 3337 N. 18th St., PHILADELPHIA, U.S.A. 

The largest and most important French publisher of music 
for the Mandolin, Guitar, and Mandolin Orchestra. Compo- 
sitions of Carlo Munier, Mezzaeapo, Marucelli, Arienzo, 
Goldberg, Grout, Ranieri, Leonardi, Bara, fife, 8"c. 



PUBLISHER OF THE BEST EDITION OF THE CLASSIC 
GUITAR COMPOSITIONS OF 

SOR, AGUADO &* CAROASSI, 

REVISED AND CAREFULLY FINGERED BY 

Miguel Llobet. 

(Guitarist to the King of Spainl. 



Principal Agent for the Celebrated Mandolins 
of EGILDO, ROME. 



Send for a selection of my Publications. Catalogue post free upon application. 



Hand-Made English 
Flat-Back Mandolins. 



Constructed on the most up-to-date principles to ensure perfect tonal 
qualities. London made, in our own workshops. Powerful solo instru- 
ments, strongly built for professional use, and finished in plain, good style. 



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No. 3V. THE "VEHITONA" (JReg. No. 300,034). £4-4-0 *20. 

THOMAS DAWKINS &»- CO., 

BSt A.BLISB I. D 1755) 

205-207, CITY ROAD, LONDON, ENGLAND. 



BOSWORTH & CO'S 

CELEBRATED SERIES FOR 

MANDOLIN & PIANOFORTE. 

(Those marked * with 2nd Mandolin, Mandola, and Guitar). 
Over Fifty numbers, including the Jollowing: 

* ALETTER ... ... ••• Rendezvous. 

* CZIBULKA ... ••■ Hearts and Flowers. 
«■ M ... .. . Songe d'Amour. 

* MEYER-HELMUND ... Serenade Rococo. 
CARL ZELLER ... ... ... Nightingale. 

Farewell, or Don't be Cross. 

* TELLIER ... ■•• ... Plainte d'Amour. 
-::- FUCIK ... ... ■■• Florentine March. 

J. F. WAGNER ... Double Eagle March. 

MOSZKOWSKI ... .-■ Serenade. 

Is. 6d. each, post free. Write for complete lists. 



POPULAR GUITAR SCHOOL 

A. WANJBCK. 

An Easy Method for learning to play the Guitar quickly and thoroughly 
(with or without a Master). It contains 31 useful pieces (Songs, Country 
Dances, and Solos) with accompaniments for Voice, Violin. &c. and 
has a Table of Accompaniments (with or without the gut E string) for 
all chords in the Major Key, together with their usual Minor Modulations. 

Price (complete) 2s. Od. 



MANDOLIN SCHOOL 

P. LEONI. 

Complete and thorough in every respect, with a large selection of 
Duets for Mandolin and Guitar. 

Price 2s. 6d. 



EASY MANDOLIN TUTOR by D. Carati. 

Being a clear and concise Method for learning this popular instrument 
without the aid of a Master. It includes several favourite airs, such as 
Swinging Waltz," " Scarlet Poppies," " Nautch Dance," &c. 

Price Sixpence. 



BOSWORTH &» CO, 
8 Heddon Street, Regent Street, LONDON, W. 



BLACK DIAMOND 
STRINGS. 



Silver-Plated Steel 
&* Covered Strings 
for all Instruments. 



rt-MSfef 



CELECTED material of the most expensive quality 
** is used in these strings ; the latest type of 
machinery is employed in their manufacture. Each 
string is tested before being sent out, and the very 
best care taken in every detail. 

Black Diamond Strings will be found the most 
perfect manufactured ; being the result of a series 
of long'continued experiments to produce a flexible 
and responsive string that will be perfectly true with 
brilliant and lasting tone qualities. 



SILVER-TONED 

BELL BRAND 
STRINGS. 

Popular Strings at Popular Prices. 

These strings are perfect in eevry particular, and 
are used throughout all the countries of the civilized 
world. 




MANUFACTURED BY THE 

NATIONAL MUSICAL STRING CO., 

NEW BRUNSWICK, N.J., U.S.A. 

LONDON OFFICE: 11 Bridgewater Street, London, E.C. 

SOLD BY ALL THE PRINCIPAL MUSICAL INSTRUMENT DEALERS. 



The "Pyxe M Mandolin and 
The "New Windsor" Mandolin. 



tbe"Ppxe" 

mandolin. 



Compared with the 
best Italian Mandolin: 
a volume of tone, 
about double the 
power, giving 
sonorous notes 
like the 
Violin. 



Che " Rod 
Windsor." 



The same name has 

been applied to this 

Mandolin as the 

Famous Banjos &- 

is equal in ex- 

cellence, having 

a wonderful 

tone. 




THROUGHOUT, AT 

The WINDSOR BANJO WORKS, 

phone 6284 94 Newhall Street, BIRMINGHAM, England. »£&&■ 



HENRY LEMOINE & Co. 

17 Roc Pigalle, PARIS. 

MANDOLINE. 

Methode Complete par F. de Cristofaro ... net 10 fr. 

Editions en Anglais, Francais, Italien, Espagnol. et 
Portugais. Cette methode se vend egalement en deux 
parties dans chaque langue. 1° Partie, net 5 fr. 2° Partie. 
net 6 fr. 

Methode Elementaire par E. Patierno : texte Anglais, gd 

Format. (Existe egalement en Francais et en Italien ) ... net 3 sh. 

Methode Elementaire par Ed. Rossler net 2 fr. 

Exercices — Etudes composes specialement pour la Mandoline 

par E. Patierno net 1.50 



Morceaux pour Mandoline et Piano, Deux Mandolines et Piano. Man- 
doline et Guitare, Deux Mandolines et Guitare, Chant, Mandoline et 
Piano ou Guitare, Mandoline seule, Deux Mandolines, par divers auteurs : 
Aperte, Bosch, A. et J. Cottm, F de Cristofaro, Cristofaro Fils, Galeotti, 
Mesquita, Patierno, Cannas, etc., etc. 



34 Recueils de Morceaux pour Mandoline seule ou 2 Man- 
dolines, Chaque Recueil I fr. 50 ou 2 fr. 

440 Morceaux divers, Melodies, Airs d'Opera, Marches et 

Danses de genre pour Mandoline seule ... ... Chacun fr. 25 



GUITARE. 

Methode complete par Carulh, texte Francais, Espagnol ... net 8. 

„ Aguado, texte Espagnol , 8.35 

„ ,, Sor, textes Francais et Espagnol ... ,, 6.70 

,, „ „ Castellaci ... ,, 8.35 

Guide du Guitarists ou l'accompagnement sans maitre par 

Ed. Rossler; editions en Francais et Espagnol net 2. 

Morceaux pour Guitare et Piano, Guitare et Violon, Deux Guitares, 
Guitare seule par divers auteurs: Alba, Bosch, Carulli, Sor, Zurfiuh, etc 

BANDURRIA. 

Methode complete, texte Francais par E. Patierno ... _ ... net 5 fr. 

La raeme, en double texte francais et Espagnol, arranged e1 

doigtee pour Bandurria Espagnole par Pedro Aperte ... net 5 fr. 

Nombreux Morceaux pour Estudiantina par Aceves, ('annas. 
Cottm, Patierm '. etc. 



liNVOI FRANCO DU CATALOGUE C0NT.<E TOUTU DEMANDK AfFRANCHlE 



HART & SON. 

(Telephone: REGENT 1144). 

GUITARS. 



Q A large and varied selection, comprising examples 
of all schools. Choice specimens by Lacote, Panormo, 
Pages, Roudhloff, Poole, etc. 

VIOLINS. 

Q Hart &- Son's special make, oil varnished, fine old 
wood, £8-8-0 to £25. 



Q Large collection of Violins, Violas, and Violon- 
cellos by the Old Masters. 
Messrs. Hart & Son have for a century held the 
foremost rank in Europe, as Violin Dealers, Makers, 
and Experts ; and practically all the finest examples 
of the illustrious Cremonese Masters have passed 
through their hands. 



28 Wardour Street, LONDON, W. 



LISTS ON APPLICATION, 



Clifford MAN DOLINS 

Unapproached for Volume and Purity of Tone, and constructed 
to withstand climatic influences. 



Thc " Concert 
Grand 

De Luxe Mandolin. 

Price £10 10s. $51.14. 




If 



Other Models: 

The "Concert 
Grand " 

Price £8 8 140.91. 

" Gold Medal " 

Price £6 6 ? 50.68. 

"Silver Medal" 

Price £4 10 «21.92 

" Bronze Medal " 

Price £3 3 f 15.54. 



Everything 

a 

Mandolinist or 
Guitarist 

may require, is 
obtainable at the 

Home 

of the 

Banjo, 

Mandolin and 
Guitar. 



Combines the advantages of the Italian and 
Flaubacked Models. 

Prominent Features: 

Oblique ting aboard, to facilitate fin- 
gering on fourth string. Elevated 
'fingerplate Unique and artistically 
designed exterior. A sweet and 
L powerful tone. The instrument 

mail be forced without jarring 
effect. interior construction 
greatly improved. Position 
playing is accomplished with 
the greatest ease. Manu- 
factured from similar 

m ./ to that nsed in the 

construction of high- 
class violins. Potent 
hinged tailpiece in 
ebonn. Built to 
withstand any 
climate. 
Guaranteed to 
remain 
k perfect. 



—-.-_ 




Write for Catalogue. 




CLIFFORD ESSEX Co., 



15a (irafton St., 
Bond St., 



LONDON, W. 



Thomas Dawkins & Co., 

Established 1755. 

205. 207, City Road, LONDON, 

ENGLAND. 




talian XVIII Century. 




Old Guitars, 

Violins, 

Violoncellos, &c. 

By master luthiers of 
all schools. 



fv 




Tyrolese XIX Century. 



re»c]i XIX Centuiy. 






French XIX Century. 



Italian XVIII Century. 



ustrian. Early XIX 
Century. 



Makers of the world-famous VERITONA 

Reg.), ORPHEUS (Reg.), and DODO Reg.) 

STRINGS. 





French Hurdy-Gwdy, 
XIX Century. 



Ask your dealer for particulars 
of the CAVIL London hand- 
made VIOLINS. Replica 
copies of the masters : Banks, 
Wamsley, Lupot, Carcassi, 
Tononi, Testore, 6-c. J£5, *25. 




wcon XIX Century. 



French XIX Century. 



ALPHONSE LEDUC, 

3 Rue de Grammont, PARIS. 

flftetbobs for tbe flfoanbolin, 

Cottin, J. Special English Edition of this 

celebrated theoretical and practical method, net ... 8/4 
The above, in two parts, each ... ... ... ... 6/~ 

The instructions are remarkably clear, simple, and con- 
cise, being written in an attractive and interesting 
manner. The work contains numerous suitable 
transcriptions from the classic masters, arranged as 
progressive studies for teacher and pupil. This method 
is a popular favourite both with pupils and teachers, 
and more than 100,000 copies have been sold. 

Talamo, R. Complete method (French edition), net 3- 

A less comprehensive volume than the preceding, but 
sufficient to enable one to master the instrument 
thoroughly. Fifty pages, full music size, with diagrams 
of the mandolin and photographs of the author to 
illustrate the manner of holding the plectrum and the 
instrument ; also special diagrams explaining the fin- 
gering of the various positions. 

Celebrated {Transcriptions 

for Mandolin (with or without accompaniment), Guitar, and Mandolin Band. 

COTTIN, J. Gounod's Serenade, Hymn to St. Cecile, and Sellenick's 
Indian March, &c. 

CRISTOFARO, F. de Serenade of the Mandolins (Desormes). 

TALAMO, R. Ciao (popular Italian waltz), Joyeuse Espagne (Allier), &c. 



Hlbums for flftanboltn Solo, 

LES AIRS FAVORIS. One hundred celebrated melodies in two 

books, each 1/3 

LES VRAIS SUCCES. Collection of celebrated pieces in four 

books, each ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1/8 

COTTIN, J. Twelve melodies of Gounod, complete 1/8 

TALAMO, R. Brises d'ltalie, 25 progressive pieces, complete 3/- 
Le Charme du Mandolinlste, 20 easy pieces ,, 3/- 
Le Mandollniste Perfectionne, 20 melodious pro- 
gressive studies, complete ... ... ... 3/6 

Le Succes du Mandoliniste, 20 solos and pro- 
gressive studies, complete ... ... ... 3/- 



Send for Special Catalogue of Music for Mandolin, Guitar, and 
Mandolin Band, Post Free. 



JOHN ALVEY TURNER, 

mandolin $ Guitar Specialist 



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THE Mandolin. 

Price £9 9 

All Catalogues free on application. 






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139 Oxford Street, LONDON, W. 




IO, 



MONZINO & SONS, 

Established 1750. 

MAKERS OF STRINGED INSTRUMENTS 
IN ALE QUALITIES. 

Mandolins, Violins, Guitars, 

From 8/ to £20. 

Strings. Music. Methods. 

Seven ist Prizes at the most important International 

Exhibitions. Silver Medal of the Milan Municipality. 

Three Silver Medals from the Ministero A.I.C. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE No. 58. 

Via Rastrelli, MILAN, Italy. 




AOf-^OK T A nr\ EDITEUR COMMISSIONAIRE, 

. DCOiN AKD, 26 Rue Antoinette, PARIS. 

Speciality : 

Musique pour Mandoline, Guitarc, et Orchcstrc 
de Mandolines. 

INSTRUMENTS pour SOLISTES et ORCHESTRES MAND0L1NISTIQUES. 

Depositaire des Celebres Mandolines et Guitares de 
Emanuele Egildo de Rome. 

Demandez les Catalogues speciaux envoyes gratuitement. 

P. BEUSCHER, 

27 Boulevard Beaumarchais, PARIS. 

Publisher of the "PISA" Edition and the 
most successful French Mandolin Music. 



Compositions for Guitar Solo, Two Guitars, and Songs 

with Guitar by Bosch, Del Castello, Cottin, Ferrer, Monti, 

Mozzani, Noceti, Sancho, Sarrablo, and Zurfluh. 



ZURFLUH'S CELEBRATED GUITAR METHOD AND STUDIES. 

CARCASSI'S GUITAR STUDIES with English, French and Spanish text revised 

and fingered by Zurfluh. 

Lirfce Selection of Fine Old GUITARS, VIOLINS and VIOLONCELLOS. 



CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION. 



MESSRS. 



BONE £r CO., 



jjjf AVE beautiful, rare, and historical 
Guitars, Violins, Violoncellos, 

and other Antique Stringed Instruments, at 
prices to satisfy every purchaser, whatever 
may be the amount desired to expend. 
Selection is made from the unique and varied 
collection of Mr. Philip J. Bone, the author 
of this volume, and upon receipt of remittance, 
stating full requirements, any instrument will 
be forwarded and satisfaction guaranteed. 

Rare and out-of-print Portraits 
and Compositions for Guitar alone or 
in combination with other instruments. 



Music Warehouse, 

LUTON, England. 



ays?/ ~<c. ^AJa&frei, 



r / / 



t &L 



e^i 



120 BURY PARK ROAO, 

LUTON, ENGLAND. 



Q Special facilities for the restoration and 
renovation of high-class instruments. 
Charges moderate. • ■ ■ 



THE HtSKAJO 
JNIVERSITY C ? C I 'ORNU 
Ai\GELi£S 



' 




JUL1 
■$► 

NOV 2 5 

QUARTER 
APR 12 



PSD 2343 9/// 



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