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Sa'dI is justly reputed the Prince of Persian moralists. The harmony 
and richness of his language, the simplicity and chasteness of his 
style, the excellence of his precepts, and the unction that pervades the 
whole, contribute to render him the benefactor, the boast, and the 
honour of his country. He was born at Shiraz, then one of the prin- 
cipal cities of Persia, in the year of the Hijra 571,* (a.d. 1175-6) ; 
but according to other authorities in a.h. 580, (a.d. 1184). Daulat 
Shah, in his " Tazkiratu 'sh Shu'ara," says that Sa'dI spent thirty years 
of his early life in the acquisition of knowledge ; then in middle age he 
travelled through all the regions of Asia from the Nile to the Ganges. 
He is said to have made the pilgrimage to Mecca fourteen times. The 
last thirty years of his life he devoted to solitude and religious con- 
templation. When performing a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, a place revered 
alike by Christian and Muslim, he was taken prisoner by the Crusaders, 
and put to labour in the trenches of Tripoli. From this slavery he 
was ransomed by a wealthy merchant of Aleppo ; who afterwards gave 
him his daughter in marriage with a dowry of a hundred pieces of gold. 
This incident is alluded to in the Gulistan (chap, ii., tale 32). The lady 
sorely exercised the poet's patience. Once, says he, she reproached 
me, saying u Art thou not he whom my father redeemed from cap- 
tivity among the Franks for ten dinars?" I replied, "Yes : he ransomed 

* There exist some serious discrepancies among -writers as to the year in which Sa'dI was horn. It is 
generally admitted that he died at a very advanced age, viz., 120 lunar years, which make nearly 116 solar. 
If this he the case, then a.h. 571 is the year of his hirth ; for, of the year of his death there can he no doubt, 
as it is inscribed on his tomb near Shiraz. At the same time Daulat Shah states that his age was 102 
years when he died. To this date we object for the following reason : M. Michaud in his " History of 
the Crusades" states, on the authority of M. Langles, that Sa'dI was taken captive by the Franks soon after 
the commencement of the sixth Crusade — about a.d. 1200 — when, by Daulat Shah's reckoning, the poet would 
have been only about 12 years old, a supposition altogether inadmissible. 


me for ten dinars, and sold me into thy hands for a hundred." Sa'di 
enjoyed during life the patronage of the Atabek princes, a dynasty 
which reigned at Shiraz for about 120 years. He died in the year of 
the Hijra 691 (a.d. 1292), as we know from a memorial verse composed 
on the occasion by one of his friends, thus given by Daulat Shah, 

"He was himself one of the Nobles, and thence the word noble (^UO contains the 
date of his decease," — viz. + = 600; 1 = 1; and ^ = 90; in all, 691. 

The popularity of 8a' di is acknowledged wherever his writings are 
known. Even during his life his poems were sung by his countrymen, 
in the palace and the desert. His genius was essentially of that 
character in which Orientals delight — unfolding a truth by a pleasing 
narrative, and embellishing such narrative with the graces of poetry. 
In this manner he sought to raise the character of his countrymen, 
and to direct them in the paths of probity and honour. His writings 
are very voluminous ; but the most esteemed among them are the 
" Gulistan," the "Bostan," and the " Pand-Nama," — works which are 
to be frequently met with even in this country, both manuscript and 
printed or lithographed.. They form the text-books for beginners, 
wherever the Persian language is studied, whether in Asia or in 

In bringing out the present edition of the Gulistan, the Editor feels 
happy in acknowledging the debt he owes to Dr. Sprenger, formerly 
Examiner at the College of Fort "William, Calcutta. To the diligence 
and criticism of this laborious and learned Orientalist, the student of the 
Persian language is indebted for the most genuine and authentic version 
of this masterpiece of Sa'dl that has hitherto been published. The read- 
ings of Dr. Sprenger' s edition (Calcutta, 1851) have been chiefly adopted 
in the present volume. 

The Editor also takes occasion to acknowledge his obligations to M. 
Ch. Defremery, author of an accurate translation of the Gulistan into 
the French language — an able performance, enriched with numerous 
annotations, chiefly historical and geographical. These annotations con- 
tain valuable information, of which the Editor in the compilation of the 
Vocabulary has not scrupled to avail himself. 


To the European public the Gulistan has long been accessible) if 
not familiar. Olearius made a translation of it into German more than 
two centuries ago. After him, Gentius published at Amsterdam, 1651, 
a splendid edition, in folio, of the text, accompanied by a Latin version 
and several valuable notes. This edition was reprinted and translated 
into English by Gladwin some sixty years since. A far superior edition, 
containing both text and translation, was published at Calcutta by James 
Dumoulin, 1806, large 4to. ; and more recently an amusing, if not 
altogether an accurate, translation has been given by J. Ross, Esq. 

But the most masterly translation into our language is from the 
pen of Professor E. B. Eastwick. In this translation the poetical por- 
tions of the Gulistan, which occur in almost every page, have, for 
the first time, been rendered into English verse ; and it may be 
affirmed that Mr. Eastwick has managed not only to render faithfully 
and successfully the meaning of the author, but to infuse a good measure 
of his spirit and raciness. Beyond this a translator cannot be expected 
to go. The privilege of appreciating the force and marking the beauties 
of rhythm and alliteration which prevail throughout the original, and 
have so powerful a charm for the Oriental ear, is reserved as the 
student's reward for the patience and pains bestowed in the acquisition 
of the language. — A more elegant and attractive volume than Professor 
Eastwick' s translation of the Gulistan has seldom issued from the 
press. It forms at once an ornament for the drawing-room table no 
less than for the library of the Oriental scholar, and reflects great 
credit on the enterprise and taste of Mr. Stephen Austin, of Hertford. 

ISTew editions of the Gulistan, lithographed as well as printed, come 
out from time to time in India, in addition to those which are sent 
forth from the British press ; and some of them are accompanied by a 
vocabulary or analysis. However serviceable these may have proved 
in regard to the Persian, it must be owned that they afford little help 
to the learner in making out the Arabic parts. The Editor confidently 
hopes that the Oriental student will find these serious defects fairly 
supplied in the present volume. — The Gulistan abounds in sentences 
and verses which are purely Arabic : of these, some are quotations 
from the Kur'an ; and some, at least, of the verses are from the pen of 
8a' di himself. But, in every case, they constitute an important part 


of the work, — too important to be left wholly ignored, or but partially 
and scantily explained. 

An Arabic grammar, evincing much sound erudition, has been recently 
published by Professor "Wright, late of Trinity College, Dublin. A new 
grammar of that energetic and copious language may also be expected 
shortly, from the pen of Duncan Forbes, L.L.D., a name which for several 
years past has been well known among students of the Hindustani, and 
other Oriental languages. Of Arabic grammars published in Germany, 
that of Kosenmuller is perhaps the most useful, to which we may add 
that of Caspari and of Schier. 

When the Editor compiled the Vocabulary which accompanies this 
edition of the Grulistan, he had no intention whatever of giving a trans- 
lation of any portion, believing that all the assistance needful for the 
student would be found to have been provided there. But after the last 
sheet had passed through the press, he submitted the entire work to the 
inspection of Dr. Forbes, with the view of profiting by that distinguished 
scholar's long experience in Oriental instruction. His opinion was that 
a translation, strictly literal, of all the Arabic portions, would enhance 
the value of the work ; and for this purpose he was kind enough to place 
at the Editor's disposal a manuscript volume containing, besides a dic- 
tionary of the Gulistan, a list of all the Arabic passages, classed under 
four heads : — 1. Quotations from the Kur'an ; — 2. Traditions concerning 
Muhammad ; — 3. Sayings of the chief Shaikhs or doctors of Islam ; — 4. 
Proverbs, and scraps of poetry. "With much satisfaction the Editor has 
endeavoured to comply with the suggestion of Dr. Forbes; and has 
accordingly inserted a translation of the Arabic passages under Appen- 
dix A. at the end of the work. The extra trouble thus imposed has 
been light ; but it is hoped that the additions made will materially facili- 
tate the progress of the student. 

The Editor is further indebted to Dr. Forbes for an Analysis of all the 
Persian metres occurring in the first book of the work, together with his 
own explanation of the same, which will be found in Appendix B. 

Hertford, 1st January, 1863. 


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g~v .gs^ 'gg~^ ■ fry. L^^ ^^uc^-C?^r? 5 /7?^ - / c^i- / c^ : s^cs^c2£iCSSiC^ ^S- / r^- / r?^- / c?^ ^2ji 



a \ a, oh ! ah ! Also a particle of interrogation. 

p l-j\ db, water; tears; anything liquid. <__>! 
<_1^L=- abi liayat, water of life, immorta- 
lity, i^j^^ <— r >\ abi dahdn, water of the 
mouth, saliva. *J>J<J '—'1 dbi dlda, water 
of the eye, tears. .; c_>! abi %ar (water of 
gold), white wine. J3j <— > I abi zulul, pure, 
limpid water. 

A *M ibat, refusal, aversion, p ^S ^ ^d 
kardan, to refuse, reject. 

p j^^IjI abadun, fertile, inhabited, cultivated; 

replenished, flourishing. 
p *z0 db-ju, flood-tide. 

a 0u\ abad, age, eternity, p JjU u tu ba abad, 

for evermore, to all eternity. 
p *Jj JjT ab-dida, water of the eye, tears, 
p j! «5r, cloud. j<3ljJ^ «fo'*' aztw, winter-clouds. 

A j\j\ abrdr (pi. of jb bdrr), just, righteous. 

Ibrar, acceptance; justification. 
a +<Jb\j>\ ibrdhim, Abraham (the patriarch), sur- 

named .j-Jl an nabuj, the Prophet, or (J^J^ 

<d!\ Malilu 'Udh, the friend of God. 
Pj j 1 db-ril (water of the face), dignity, honor, 

character, reputation ; rank, glory. 
p »y\ abru, the eyebrow. 
a fjiy\ ibrlJc, ewer, jug, gugglet. 
p (jii^T db-hash, water-drawer ; water-carrier. 

p &~f-A dbgina, glass, mirror ; drinking-glass. 

a uj\ abldh, foolish, simple; dolt, blockhead. 

a i^JjI ablahi, stupidity, folly. 

p i^Jj^ ablahe, a certain blockhead. 

a fjj^>\ iblls, the Devil. 

,.)\ ibn, 

cJ J . 

l_->jJ ,j-'' j'Smm zii-bin, son of 
a wolf, a wolf's cub. 
a *Uj1 «:J«<7j- (pi. of { ji\ ibn) sons. (_/-*iJf- u?W^ 
abndyi jins, those of the same species, cha- 
racter, rank, position, condition, or situation. 

p (jwyjl dbnus, ebony. 

a i—>\y\ ctbicdb (pi. of<-_;b bdb), doors, gates; 
chapters ; taxes. 

a i*->j\y^y} abu'l fawdris, father of cavaliers, 
or rather of those mounted on asses (here 
evidently a nickname given to a certain 
stentorian preacher). 

k^^Sy\ abawdni (dual of i—)\ ab), both parents, 
father and mother. jU abawdhu, hisparents. 

a Ljj! abubahr, name of Muhammad's father- 
in-law and successor. 

p i>JJ ,jJ &*~> ^ J^.y} a bu baler bin sa^d bin 
zangl, name of a monarch of the Atabak 
dynasty, to whom the Gulistan is dedicated. 

a ijJbyt\ abu hurairat(&cc. ijJ» \*\aba hurairat, 
obi. ijjb \j\ abi hurairat, father of the 
little cat) name of a companion of Muham- 
mad, so called from a favourite kitten he had. 
Many traditions and anecdotes concerning 
Muhammad have been recorded by him. 


( 2 ) 

L5- 1 

p ^j\ dbe, a, piece or a sheet of water ; a sip or 

a draught of water. 
a CuLjI abydt (pi. of tr-v-J bait), verses. 

t tlioljl atdbak, a Turkish word signifying 
"father of the prince." A dynasty of Per- 
sian kings was so called : originally they 
were Turkumans, and reigned from 1148 to 
1264 a.d. To the sixth of them Sa^di dedi- 
cated his "Gulistan." 

p ijixj\ dlash or utish, fire; heat; rage, 
p j^ukJ'l dtashl or dtishl, thou art fire. 
a jLwl ittisdl, close union, attachment. 
a jjlaj'l ittifdk, agreement, consent, concurrence, 
harmony; league; chance, accident, fortune, 

fortuity; arrangement, p ^olsil Jj^m ittifalc 
uftddan, to happen, chance, occur ; to agree. 

a \i\Jti\ ittifdkan, in concert; by chance, acci- 
dentally, fortuitously. 

a Li-Jui'l ittafakat, it has united (fem. of the 
8th form of the rt. fjij wafaka). 

a x LJiJ'\ atkiyai (pi. of .Jo takly), devout, pious. 

a +\aj\ itmdm, completion, accomplishment. 

a <-Jy I atubu, I turn by repentance (aor. of rt. 
<—>li* tdba, "he repented," concave j wdw). 

a 'j\ ata', he came, ijlii atdnl, he came tome. 

Ajl;l dthdr, (pi. of J>\ athar), signs, marks, 
traces, prints, impressions, vestiges, indica- 
tions ; annals, histories, notable events. 

a J>\ athar, sign, mark, print, impression, ves- 
tige ; effect. 

a *^\ ithm, sin, iniquity. 

a *Jl athim, sinful, criminal ; sinner, offender. 

UJi athlman (ace.) 
a tul^-\ ijubat, answering, acceding to, response, 

acceptance, compliance, consent. pl^-*.'U-1 

^S ijdbat kardan, to answer, respond. 
a ijl^f-l ijdzat, leave, permission ; dismissal. 
a Ll~*.x<*z&-\ ijtama^at (fem. of the 8th form of 

the rt. %-*^- jama^a) it has united. 

a jl^ir>-\ ijtihdd, striving to perform, diligence, 

care, effort, pains. 
A- j!>-\ ajr, reward. ny>-\ ajrahu, his reward. 
a ij2~\ ujrat, recompense, reward, hire, wages; 

fee, fare, passage-money. 

a Jjs- I djil, delaying ; returning ; future, be- 
longing to the next life or world to come. 

a,Jjs-! ajal, appointed time, death ; fate, destiny. 

a Jjj-I ajalla, may (God) make resplendent or 
render glorious (3 p. sin. pret. 4th form of JLsj- 
jalla, " he was glorious," used optatively). 

a (Js»-i ajallu, more or most excellent, more or 
most glorious, noblest. 

a i — JAs»-l a/7d/(pl. oft aba- jilf), base fellows, 

ignoble tyrants. 
a JU-I dhdd (pi. of S=^\ ahad), units, ones; 

individuals, private persons. 
a J\p-\ uhdda, singly. 
a c_-^>-! uhibbu, I love (aor. of c_-^>-i ahabba, 

4th form of the rt. t_^> habba). 

Aj\j^~\ ihtirdz, carefulness, caution, forbear- 
ance, abstinence. 

a *)b^-! ihtildm, dreaming; nocturnal pollution. 

a JUc^s-1 ihtimdl, bearing, sustaining, putting 
up with, suffering, patience; suspicion. 

a Jo^ 1 ahad, one. *& i\>-l ahaduhum, one of them. 

a tiJo-1 ihdcC (fem. of 0*j>-1 ahad) one. ±£&*>*\ 
^**«fcsri ihda 'I hasanain, one of the two good 

a ^L*5»-\ ihsdn, doing good, beneficence, kind- 
ness, well-doing. 

a 11 ^m=*-^ ahsan, more beautiful. Ahsana, hath 
done good; (in prayer) may (God) make 
good (3 p. sin. pret. of the 4th form of the 

rt. i^>ma- hasuna, used optatively). 

a ( js*u=*-^ ahsin, do good (imp. of ^^u**-! ahsana). 

a J lu*s-I ahshds. (pi. of \j!Ls>- hasha 1 ), bowels. 

a (jLm*-! ihsdn, continence, chastity; besieging, 

a ]oaoA ihfa%, protect thou, keep, guard, de- 
fend (imp. of the rt. liiL>-). 

a X*&- \ ahmad, more or most laudable. Ahmed, 
Achmet (one of the names of Muhammad). 

a (J^>-\ ahmak, foolish ; fool, blockhead. 

a p lUft-l ahmaktar, more foolish, a greater 
fool, simpleton, or blockhead. 

A JU^ ahwdl (pi. of JU*- hdl), states, con- 
ditions, circumstances. 

a 'La- \ ahyds. (pi. of .gs*. haiy), tribes, clans, 


( 3 ) 


families. c_ ijS- ^Ls-1 ahydyi ^arab, families 
or tribes of Arabia. 

a IrM aMa (ace. of j.\ akh), brother (often 
used for the voc). <£1J! \»-\ akhd 'I ballyat, 
brother in misfortune (ace. of <uL51 *=^)- 

a ^/slri-! akhdza, he made to ford (4th form of 
i jo\i>- concave j). i_!_Ccl>-l akhdzaka, in- 
duced thee to plunge, has made thee enter. 

p j^>-\ akhtar, star. 

AjUii! ikhtisdr, abridgement, abbreviation, 
brevity, compendium, epitome. p j L cj * -1 
•d. £ ikhtisdr Icardan, to cut short, abridge, 
curtail, epitomize. 

a iL^.^-^ ikhtiydr, election, choice, option, pre- 
ference, selection ; self-control ; free and in- 
dependent action ; will, pleasure. 

a &£-\ akhaza,he took. 8jv\ ij Jo- \ akhazathu 7 
^izzatu, pride seized (or took hold of) him. 

a -ri-T dkhar, last, end ; after all, at least, in 
fine. Akhir, last, latter, 

A iJU\s>-\jS-\ ikhrdjdt (pi. of 7 \^ 1 iklirdj), 
outgoings, outlays, expenses, disbursements. 

a Sj>-\ dkhirat, future state, next world. 

a l£j<>-\ uklira? (fem. of -=M akhar), another. 

a -asi-1 akhzar, green. 

p Xz>-\ akh gar, charcoal, embers. 

A^Li-1 ikhlds, sincerity; genuine piety; affec- 
tion or attachment. 

a J>iL>-\ akhlak (pi. of (jb*- khulk), habits, 
manners, morals, dispositions, tempers. 

a y>-\ akliu, brother (nom. of ~\ akh). 

x ^j\y>-\ ikhwdn (pi. of _i! akh), brothers, 
brethren (not by birth) ; comrades, friends. 
\LA\ ^y>-\ ikhwdnu 's sofa, brethren of 
purity (name of a confraternity, to which is 
ascribed the authorship of various works, 
one of which has been published). 

a iy>-\ ukhuwat, fraternity, brotherhood. 

p \S\ add, pronunciation, voice. 

A '\<2)\ adds-, payment, performance. 

A <— M J| dddb (pi. of <«_>l>\ adab), good man- 
ners ; ceremonies, courtesies ; morals. 

a +\j\ addma, may (he) prolong (3 p. sin. pret. 

of the 4th form of *l J ddma, concave j, used 
optatively). <t»bl &&\ *\<2>\ addma 'lldh aiyd- 
mahu, may God prolong his clays. 
a c__>J^ adab, politeness, respect ; good breed- 
ing, good manners ; polite literature ; teach- 
ing, instruction. 

a.j\jS\ idrdr, salary, allowance, stipend, pay. 

a p lJj^j^ idrdre, a pension. 

a cJ\jJ\ idrdk, attainment, apprehension, 

comprehension, intelligence. 
a ijjjj\ adraka, he overtook (4th form of the 

rt. CSj^ daraka). /ij&\ &&\<s\ adrakahu 'I 

gh ark. drowning overtook him. 
a *J>\ ddam, Adam. +J\ ^j banl ddarn, the 

sons of Adam, i e. mankind. 
p^-<Jl ddami, human ; a man; thou art a man. 

r jjl~* Jl adamiydn, men, mortals, descendants 

of Adam, 
p c^sT , ^J\ ddami-bacha, child of man. 

a <*L*Jl ddamiyat, humanity. 

r iS\j 1^**3] ddaml-zdda, born of man, human. 

r .--'•♦Ol ddamiyi, thou art a human being. 
p ^~» Jl ddamiye, a certain man. 

a iJ>-}\ adna', nearer, nearest; lower, lowest; 
smaller, smallest, lesser, least. 

a k_ ojl adlb, courteous ; learned ; tutor, in- 
structor. u^ojUi <—>jl adabu 'I adlb, the 
master's instruction. 

a p *j o\ adim, face ; surface of the earth ; goat's 
leather perfumed, which is brought from 

Arabia, Morocco leather. Uw«J\ *Jt>! adlmu 's 
samd, expanse of heaven. 

p &j> Jl ddma, Friday (Muhammadan sabbath). 

&.\i}\ aza', vexation, trouble. 

a \j\ izd, when, whenever (future sense) ; lo ! 

a |J| dzar, name of Abraham's father, and an 
idolater. The last lunar winter-month. 

a (]3\ azall, vilest, basest. 

a jjjl izn, leave, license, permission. Izn or am, 

knowing. Ukn, the ear. 
a (_f Jl aza', injury. ^jj] azan (ace.), injury, 

hurt, harm; contumely. 
a <£> J>\ aziyat, injury, hurt, harm, annoyance. 


( 4 ) 


p 1 1 dr, bring, bring out (rt. ^^j}\ avardan). 
Pj\ ar (for.fl agar), if, what though, although. 
a id\j\ irddat, wish, desire, will, inclination ; 

purpose, meaning ; teachable disposition, 

teachableness, docility, 
p iL p^\j\ arastan, to adorn, fit out, equip; to 

p ic*J\j\ drasta, adorned, decorated. 
p *\,l dram, rest, quiet. ^y*f fyt drum 

giriftan, to take rest, to rest, to repose. 

A ij*\j\ ardmil (pi. of J»*^ armal), widows; 
distressed, poor persons. 

p ^y+^j^ drdmidan, to rest, repose, become 
still and quiet. 

p L j\j\ drdi, adorn thou (rt. ^f^j\ drdstan). 

p tjuj\ ill drdyish, ornament; preparation. 

a <_>b ,\ arldb (pi. of <— Jj rabb), lords, masters. 
L-iJK <-r>V^ arldbi ma^na' ', spiritual per- 
sons. u^-N-fcA <-r->^ arbdbi himmat, high- 
minded ; liberaPpersons. 

a tUijl irtifd^, exaltation, elevation, altitude, 
height ; revenue. 

p s^s>-j\ arjmand, rare, worthy, dear ; noble, 
honoured, distinguished, illustrious. 

a -si. j\ arJcIia', more or most flabby, flaccid, or 

p jo&U r~*^j\ ardsher bdbakun, the 1st king 
of the 4th Persian dynasty or Sassanides, 
was the son of a shepherd who married the 
daughter of one Babak — hence the name. 
He was cotemporary with Commodus. 

p C^£j.j^ lJ^j\ urdi bihisht (like paradise), 
name of the second Persian month (April). 

a ri\jj\ arzdk (pi. of Jjjj rizk), possessions, 

p .) "- LJuaV^ i_jU i\ arzanl ddshtan, to give, bestow, 
confer, grant, make over. 

p .j J drzu, wish, desire, eagerness, earnestness. 

p .jj j ,.\ arzidan, to be worth ; to suit. 

p t [ ±& jj\ arzhang, the house, studio, gallery, 
portfolio, or drawing-book of the painter and 
impostor Maul. 

p ijjjj* arzhangi, like the gallery, or worthy of 
the portfolio of Man!. 

p ^^L^l arsldn, a lion ; slave ; name of several 
kings of Persia of the Seljuk dynasty. 

a (jfli\ arz, earth, soil, land, country, ^ J\ 
al arz, the earth. &~aj\ i_j fl arzihi, in 
His earth. Irza, be thou pleased (imp. of 
the vb. ^^>j raziya). 

a *-ij\ irfa^, raise thou, elevate (imp. of %-*J)- 

a ^vj] arkdn (pi. of ^fj rukn), pillars, 

buttresses. Li-JjJ U J^ ar ^ n ^ daulat, 
pillars of the state, V.e/ministers. 

p *j\ dram, I may bring (rt. uj^jj\ avardan). 

p uiiu^l aramldan, to repose. 

p a S~*j I dramida, rested, reposed ; moderated, 
abated, assuaged. 

p ij\ arm, a saw. 

p i_$j\ drl, thou mayest bring (rt. io^jjI )• 

p )\ dz, avarice, desire. 

p j\ az, from; among; of; above; beyond; 

than ; on account of ; with ; by. 
p J! j I dzdd, free. ij^J* JlJ I dzdd sltudan, to 

be liberated, to be free, ^f <$\j\ dzdd 

kardan, to free, set free, liberate, release, 
p ^liJljl dzddagdn (pi. of HJ)\\ dzdda), the 

free from worldly cares, the religious. 

p i«^jl dzddagl, freedom, liberty. 

p 8i)\j\ dzdda, free. 

Pjljl dzdr, vexation, sorrow, grief, grieving, 

trouble, soreness, pain ; (in comp. from .^ jJ \j I 
dzdrdan) tormenting, tormentor. 

p (o^ljl dzdrdan, to vex, grieve, trouble, 
p ^j| \\ az an, on that account, for that reason, 

hence, thence, 
p fjMj ^j\ j\ az an pas, after that, afterwards. 

p \sf?\ j\ az dnjd, from that position, on ac- 
count of that (high) place ; since, forasmuch, 

p Isnji J \ az injd, from this place, hence. 

p J j\ az bar, by heart. tj^S*" t? J' az ^ ar 

khwandan, to repeat by rote. 
p j_5KJ \\ az birdi, on account, for, for the sake, 
p j^i j\ az balir, for the sake of. ltX>- -^ j] 

az bahri khudd, for God's sake, 
p ijdl-Jl lJv Jl az pai uftadan, to fall down. 


( o ) 


r C^vj-j ,_jl) j! flz pai past, decayed, sapped, 

P /jiV«l jJ lJv J I az pai dar dmadan, to fall 
into distress. 

a *U>-Oj\ izdihdm, crowd, throng, concourse, 
press, pressure. 

PjJ j\ az dar, by the door or gate. 

p \jbj Jj! azdarkd or Us^Jji azlidarha, large snake, 
serpent ; dragon. 

p (j^nl dzardan, to vex, pain, distress. 

p Siiijl dzarda, vexed, grieved, pained, dis- 

a Jj.;! azrak, blue, azure, cerulean. 

p jfiLj Jj \jj\ azrak-pirdhan, clad in a blue vest. 

p y>- »j\\ uzarm-ju, mild, tolerant, patient. 

p J«>- *ijl azar?n-jus.e, a pacific person. 

p «;j! «3 ru, on the ground, or score. 

p 4i jl az £e, from whom. 

A <U§j! azimmat (pi. of ,»l*j zimani), reins. 

p ^y*j^ dzmudan, to try, prove, experience. 

p £jy«; 1 dzmuda, tried, proved, tested. 

p jjjl azw, from him, from her, from it. 

p j »j\ azu bar, above him, higher than he. 

p ,_£j j\ az vai or «w°, from him. 

p lJj^j^ j\ az nar dare, of every kind, or de- 
scription ; on all topics. 

p ^j\ azln (for ^j»i j\ az in), from this ; than 

this ; at this ; of this. i ^ ^j\ azin 

salab, for this reason, 
p ^^j! azlndn (for (jlijj \\ az man), of these. 
p (jik-J li jJ Jl az'in besh, more than this. 

p \jM-d (ji J' az * w i?^^, formerly, heretofore ; 

p IsOj j\ azinjd, hence. 
a ~\J\ asdta, he sinned, did evil (4th form of 

*L) ««*«, concave « wdw). 
P ^_)L;I asaw, easy. ^J'^Ul dsdntar, easier. 
p^__/ujL:1 dsdyisk, tranquillity, ease, rest, repose. 
A t__>L^)' asbdb (pi. of t_— <~~j sabab), causes, 

means; goods, chattels, furniture. 
P i_^~^ asp, horse, steed. 
p l^*:' ast, is. 

p j\ii«ji ustdd, teacher, master, preceptor, in- 
structor, pedagogue, 
u-:! dsldn (or <)jli^l dstdna), threshold. 



LL^" - 

\ istabrah, a kind of thick satin. 

a iU^-jI istitdr, concealment. 

A ili^lJ istihhdr, deeming or regarding as 

despicable; contempt, disdain. 
a jjULsA-jI istihlcdk, merit, deserving, desert. 
a (J^wm^Us-1 istahyaitu, I am ashamed, I blush 

(10th form of the rt. L ^^=- hayiyd). 

a i iU-^cuJ ist ikhf af, holding light or cheap, 

slight, disesteem, depreciation. 
a ^jii-^J\ istikMds, liberation, deliverance, 

rescue, the effecting of a release. 
p ^SissX-S ustukhwan, bone ; stone of fruit. 

p ;J astar, mule. 

a fCclSaa^i istitd^at, power, possibility, ability. 
a j\^az~}\ istizhdr, imploring aid or protection. 
a ijbe—-! istiuirat, borrowing. 

A jl !>*£»:! istUddd, capacity, genius, skill, 
aptitude, aptness. 

Ajliii-o! istighfdr, asking forgiveness. 

a r a.itr.^l astaghfiru, I ask pardon. <d!i JLjc~j! 
astaghfiru 'lldh, I ask pardon of God. CJjkic~>\ 
astag])firulca, I ask pardon of thee. Istaghfir, 
ask forgiveness (10th form of the rt. Jii). 

a JUu.J istilcbul, going to meet, greeting, 

giving a reception. 
A.j\jfc~a\ istikrdr, confirmation, settlement, 

A *L:5 m m.i) istiksds., strict investigation, curiosity, 
p J\£~J\ ustuicdr, firm, strong, fast, tight; 

sound, valid ; faithful, true. 
p ,.t-^~:l dstin, sleeve. 
a (wlucJ istnnds, familiarity, intimacy. 
a iI-j! israr, doing anything in private, secret 

acting. i^Sj^r^ israri, my secret acting. 

A i i\jJ\ israf, extravagance, prodigality. 

a ^x-s! asca 1 , I (will) endeavour, work, exert 

myself (aor. of the rt. u*j sa^a'), he strove. 
a.j&S~*\ IsJcandar, Alexander. 
a ijj^L^\ Iskandariyah, Alexandria in Egypt. 


( 6 ) 

a *)La\ islam, the true faith, Islam, Islamism, 
the religion of Muhammad, orthodoxy. 

p ^Lk»j| dsmdn, heaven, sky. 

p tiU-sl dsmdni, heavenly. 

a %-a~>\ as-mat., more or most agreeable to the 
ear, or worthy of being heard. 

p jjJj-jI dsudan, to rest, to repose, to be tran- 
quil ; to be refreshed, or regaled. 

p #J»-j| dsuda, at rest, still, quiet, at ease. 

p J*J>»«jI dsudatar, easier, more easily. 

p L«jT dsyd, mill. ^S J.S^L^I dsydyi garddn, 
revolving mill-stone. 

p tf ^•■■■- L~sl dsyd-sang, mill-stone. 

p i_.-.....i| a.s!i, trouble, injury, calamity. 

a -»j| ffsir, prisoner, captive, slave. 

a i_iy-~^ aslrl, captivity. Asire, a certain pri- 

p ^Jl\ ash, him, his, her, hers, it, its. 

a ij\J*\ ishdrat, sign, signal, intimation, hint, 
suggestion, signification, denotation. 

p ^Ju^Li! dshumldan, to sip, or drink. 

a jj!>Li! ushdhtdu, I behold (aor. of the 3rd 
form of the rt. 4>^). 

a Jcii ishtadda, he waxed strong (8th form 
of the rt. JJb shadda). 

p Ji-il ushtur, camel. 

p jL~j j±J*\ ushtur- stiwdr, mounted on a camel. 

a* l^i-i ! ishtihdi, appetite, desire. 

K^fJj\ ishtahd 1 , he desired or longed for (8th 

form of the rt. { c^ i )- I* &&>, ,j-.J ^jl£ ^ 

U--J9) ^Ail »2«w kdna baina yadaihi ma 
ishtaha' "rutahun, he who has in his hands 
what dates he has an appetite for. 

Aj^>\ asharr, worse, more or most wicked. 
a \y yil ishribu, drink ye (imp. of <__>-£>). 
AjU-il ashlar (pi. oijxJj shi^r) poems, 
p .jiiLSi 1 dshuftan, to be disturbed, confounded. 

a HJLM ashhiyds. (pi. of ,Ji-& shakly) thieves, 
criminals, wretches, miscreants. 

p \j\£j* I dshkdrd, evident, visible, manifest, 

public, apparent, known, revealed. 
rLil dshnd (pl.^LL^I ), friend, acquaintance. 

p c-J^-i 1 dshub, terror, confusion, disturbance, 
tumult. dshubtar, more perplexing, 
confounding, bewildering. 

p ^L-il dshydn, nest. 

A c—jIs*' 3 ! ashdh (pi. of t_ ^^.l^ sahib), masters, 
owners, possessors ; companions, comrades, 
friends. i_a^ i—^ls:^! ashdbi kahf, tenants 
of the cave, the^seven sleepers (of Ephesus). 

a Pjjsr 2 ^] Istakhar, the ancient name of Per- 
sepolis, capital of Persia during the three 
first dynasties. 

a (J^pI asl, root, origin, principle ; lineage, race. 

a \ms\ aslan, not at all, by no means. 

a ^j~J\ isna^, do thou (imp. of £-^>). 

a CJ^I aswat (pi. of t_)»^>), sounds, voices. 

a ii\j>\ izdfat, addition, adjunct, supplement, 

augmentation, p ^j+J &i\j>\ izdfa namu- 

dan, to add, to append. 
a J-il azallu, I lose, I am lost (aor. of J-a). 
a J Us! atdla, he lengthened (4th form of the 

rt. JUs tula, concave j). SS <d!\ JUsl atdla 

'lldh tjimrahu, may God lengthen his life (the 

pret. is used as the optative). 
a i \2s\ atibbds- (pi. of t_^*Js tablb), physicians. 
a < i\Jb\ atrdf (pi. of ( ijb taraf), distant 

quarters, directions ; extremities. 
A JUL1 atfdl (pi. of Jik tifl), infants. 
a e.iM ittild^, investigation, discovery, in- 
formation, knowledge, acquaintance. 
a i_JJ?) utlub, seek thou (imp. of c-^Ur). 
a i^j^o\ atlas, satin. 
a cUW itmd^, excitement, incitement, causing 

to desire or hanker. 
a ij\a\ azallu, I would continue, I would not 

cease (aor. of the rt. Ji? zalla). 
a i'jlcl uddat, repetition, recital, rehearsal; 

a Jjl^cl i^tdk, manumission, liberation. 
a \\~£.\ i^tibdr, respect, regard, reverence. 

a Jlii,^! i^tiddl, equity, moderation ; equili- 
brium, symmetry, just proportion. 

a (_-Jjcjj\ i^tadalat, she becomes (or they 
become) straight (8th form of the rt. J J>xi). 

( 7 ) 


a ^>\:^£.\ i^tirdz, opposition, objection, re- 

a (_iUici idirdf, confession, acknowledgment, 

a jlixsl i^tikdd, belief, confidence. 

a i)Lctl idimdd, trust, reliance, confidence. 

a *Ijlc1 floras- (pi. of^^r. ^aduw), foes, enemies. 
<$j»c\ a^ddiihi, (upon) bis foes. 

a J^c-i a-.dal, more or most just, juster. 

a i^Ac^ a^da\ more or most bostile. 

a e J'jX-) a-.rdlly, Arab, Arabian. 

a ^jo\t£-\ i^rdz, turning away tbe face, refusal. 

a i_jLc! a^raf, the boundary line between 
the paradise and hell of the Muhammadans. 

A *uic\ «£zat(pl. of yss. tuzw or c.ttsw), limbs, 

a *lkc\ »tioi, giving, offering, bestowing. 

a *lic1 a-^zam, greater, greatest. 

a *\s.\ adam (pi. of *Lc ^alam), banners, flags, 
standards. Iddm, making known, informa- 
tion, announcing, notification. 

a l ^»-z\ Ulan, open acting, outward conduct. 
(Jlcl idani, my public or outward conduct. 

a JLz\ uzallimu, T teach (aor. of the 2nd form 
of Jx ^alima, he knew. <uJxl u^allimuhu, 
I teach him. 

a 15W ada', most high, supreme, highest, 

A Jlf\ aanal (pi. of J^ carnal), works, acts, 

a \X$\ i^rnalu, perform ye (imp. of J^ tamala). 

A Jjc! aj/uzw, I take refuge (aor. of jlc ^dza, 
concave j waw). 

A Aycl aJiad, I covenanted (gezmate of s^£.\ 
ajiadu, aor. of J<^-c). ^s\ J! a /«>« a-.had, 
did I not give a charge ? 

a ,Lcl «cj/aw (pi. of ^j^s. ^ain), eyes; nobles, 
chiefs. LZJpds- ^\s\ a^yani hazrat, no- 
bles of the court, 'lords of the presence. 

pjlil dghdz, beginning, commencement, jlil 
^jl^j a gh az nihddan, to begin, commence, 
set up. 

a tjlil aghdril (pi. of <Uici u gh nlyat). songs. 

a i_^Lc! a gk lab. most, greater part, most part, 

the majority. 
t ^^^^fLcl u gh lamish. a king of Turkistan, who 

reigned towards the year 656 of the Hijra. 

He was the son of Jingiz Khan. 

a s u-£l a gh niyds. (pi. of ^~c gh aniy), rich men. 
p [>!>*£■ I dghosh, embrace ; bosom ; servant, slave. 

a iLil aghydr (pi. of -us ghair) others ; rivals ; 

a jlil dfdk (pi. of (Jj\ ufk), quarters of the 

world, horizons. 
a ..t-jU! afdnin (pi. of ^l^), many branches. 
a ii\ dfat, calamity, mishap, disaster, 
p <__>luiT dftdb, the sun. 
p ^lSjlsj\ uftddagdn (pi. of iS^i\ uftdda), the 

fallen, the unfortunate. 
p ^jjliil uftddan, to fall, drop, alight, light ; 

to befal, happen, occur, chance, 
p sjlxil uftdda, fallen, dropped ; still, at rest, 

not flying; humble, submissive, 
p (^l^i! uftdn, falling. 
A^LkxM iftikhar, glory, boast. 
p ^s>-\ji\ afrdkhtan, to raise, exalt, lift up. 

p ^s>-tji\ afrokhtan, to set on fire ; to kindle, 

light (a fire). 
p 10^ fit dfridan, to create, 
p sjj <ji\ afrida, created. 

p ^j Jl dfirm, applause, acclamation, bene- 
diction, blessing; (in comp.) creating, creator; 
^ji I !jX^>- jahdn-dfirin, world-creator. 

p ^JL^sM dfirinish, creation. 

p ^y/\ afzudan, to increase, augment. 

p ajLuil afsdna, charm; fiction, figment, tale. 

p ^jJ-uJ^ afsurdan, to wither, flag. 

p »jL*uil afsurda, spiritless, apathetic, drowsy, 
cold, dull, lifeless. 

a. *Llj\ ifshds., divulging, exposure. 

p ^.jjlij! afshdndan, to scatter, shake. 

a ij~di\ afzal, more or most excellent, choicest. 

a p jbdh\ afzaltar, better, more excellent. 

a p ^.Ji^ illail iftdr Icardan, to break a fast. 

t 3 


( 8 ) 


a ,-*ii a/id, snake, viper. 

r {J j\*j\ afghan, lamentation, alas ! 

a \£j\ ifkan (ace. of clXii ifk), falsehood, lie. 

p ^j&Sj] afgandan, to throw, cast, throw down, 

upset; to strike, hit. 
a fjjii\ iflus, insolvency, poverty, beggary. 
a x\*i\ afwtih (pi. of i.i fuh), mouths ; rumour. 
a J yi\ afuzu, (that) I might get, gain, or triumph 

(aor. of the rt. jli fata, concave j waw). 
a l-jX:\ alcarib (pi. of u_-<oJi karlb), kinsmen, 

relations, relatives. 
A *Jli! akdllm (pi. of *Jji iklim), climates, 

climes, regions. 
a JUSl i£Ja?, advancement, good fortune, 

prosperity, felicity. U^JLii ikbdlahumu, the 

good fortune of them both. 

aMjoj! ilctidtii, taking as an example, making 
(one) an exemplar (£_jJ>i kidwat or leudwat). 
p^Jji iiXJsi iktidd kardan, to imitate. 

a *ij>ii ikddm, coming forward, advancing; 
attention, effort, diligence, promptitude* 
eagerness, p uj^y*^ *\&i\ ikdam namudan, 
to advance, to approach. 

A-J\ji\ ihrar, confession, acknowledgment, 
avowal; assertion; acquiescence, favourable 

a l -r > ji\ akrdb, nearer, nearest. 

a Jji akall, smaller, smallest, least. 

a *Jji iklim, region, country, climate, clime. 

AP ( g^Jji ikllme, one region, ^♦-lita ^*Jji ji 

az ikllme ba ikllme, from one country to 
another country, from clime to clime. 

a jlii akdbir (pi. of jS\ akbar), the rich, nobles, 

grandees, magnates. 
a .-si akbar, greater, larger ; sorer, severer. 
A l^om^\ iktasabta, thou hast acquired (8 th 

form of i^^^S kasaba). L^*^iil M L» ma 
zd iktasabta, what hast thou gained ? 

a +\£\ ikrdm, respect, honour, observance. 

a J-*si akmal, more or most perfect. 

a ^£\ akun, I am, I became, I may be (gez- 
mate of ^£\ akunu, aor. of ^li kana, con- 
cave j waw, and governs tbe ace). 

p joyij' aknun, now, just now, at present. 
p ^fclTl dgdhl, information, notice. 

p ji! «#«?', if; although. 

p <**>-£ i agarchi, although. 

p jjkXiTl dgandan, to fill, cram, stuff. 

p x&Xi \ dganda, filled, crammed, stuffed. 

p j i^i^ I uganda-par, stuffed with feathers. 

p (c^XT agahl, information, intelligence, notice. 

a J I dl, family, race, house, dynasty. Jj\j J I 
dla dds-icd, house of David ! (the accusative 

serves for the vocative). <*J| • wa dlihi, and 
(on) his family. 

a Ji «Z, the (Arabic article, always prefixed 
to the noun). 

a Si «/«, holla ! ho ! 

A Si alia (for S ^\ an la), that not (a particle 
that nasbates the aorist) ; as !nju*i" Si alia 
ta^budu, that ye worship not. Hid (for S ..! 
«'» ?«), if not, save, except, unless, but what. 

p \'J Si aid td, ho ! beware that. 

A c-AJi albdb (pi. of t_J ZwW), hearts, souls, 

a <2 ! afo£, tool ; organ (of generation). 

a 'IrsnJi iltijus-, fleeing for refuge; entreaty, re- 
quest, petition, r ^^J ls^.Si iltijd bur dan, 
to seek refuge. 

a wiA&J! iltifdt, attention, regard, courtesy, 
respect; heed, notice. 

a p J^libSi iltifdte, a regard, a look. 

a Ji allatl (fern, of ^j>!i allazi), who, which. 

a (oi-si alhdn (pi. of ^s' lahn), notes, sounds, 
modulations, tones, tunes. 

a Jl^sM alliamd, praise. <)Jj J^js-i al Jiamdu 
li'lldh, praise be to God (commencement of 
the opening chapter of the Kur'an). ,_? A^sM 
al hamde, one such ejaculation, or chapter. 

a ,_£JJi allazi, who, he who or he whom. 

a +\'\\ ilzam, forcing; obliging ; confutation ; 

keeping close (equivalent to +\Ji lizdm or 

t~+jL* muldzamat). 

a i JlLli altdf (pi. of t_jy lutf), benefits, fa- 
vours, kindnesses. 


( 9 ) 

a t_a!l alif, the letter \ . ^j '<j u-&\ alif be 

te, a, b, c, the alphabet. " 
a <u)l wZ/a^, friendship, attachment, intimacy, 

a iSk£>\ al-hissa, upon the whole, to sum up, 

to make short of the story. 
a <ul\ alldh (originally ui\ al ildh) God. Allah, 

is used by all nations that profess iluham- 

madism, whatever language they speak. £m\ 

■ JUj alluh ta-.ula 1 , God most high. 
a *^il! alldhumma, God! 
a ,P-bi' almas, diamond. 
A ^ Ji alwdn (pi. of ^J ?««»), colours ; sorts, 

various sorts, varieties. 
a ^<->j^ alwidd^, farewell ! adieu ! 
p ijjiiJl dludan, to stain, soil, defile, pollute. 
p *jJl aluda, defiled, soiled, polluted ; steeped, 
p JjJl alwand, name of a high mountain in 

Hamadan, eighty leagues from Isfahan. 
a <0 J I alwiyat (pi. of *l»! liwa 1 -), flags, standards, 

ensigns, banners. 

A <Ul «7aA, God. 

a r _^JI ilahl, divine. 

a Jl «7fl', to, towards, as far as; at. ^y "}\ 
ild man, towards whom, towards him who. 
a ~}\ ilaiya\ to me, unto me. 

a (-LxJl ilaika, towards thee. 

A *£J\ ilaihum, to you, for you. 

a *JI alim, painful, excruciating. 

a aj| ilaihi, unto him. 

a U»l ammd, but. 

p ,^1*1 amdj, butt, mark for archers ; bow-shot 

a /»l^\ imam, leader, high priest, Imaum. 
a ^t*! amdn, safety, security. 

a <uUti amunat, rectitude, sincerity, faith, re- 

a t~*\ ummat, religion ; sect, nation, people. 

a o-^»\ amid, I die (gezmate of cli**\ amutit, 
aor. of the rt. d*b mdta, concave • waw). 

a cL^I imtina-^j prohibition; refraining; ab- 

a jjli^l amthdl (pi. of Jd^ matlxal), equals, 
fellows, likes, resemblances; fables, proverbs, 

p t^-u--wV»1 amadast, hath come (poetically for 

L^v-si £X»I amada ast). 
p i^J^l amadan, to come. 
r «X*T amada, come, arrived, 
p ,_£Jl*| amade, would come, was in the habit 

of coming, used to come. 

a y\ amr, command, ^J • -*' amr u naluj, 

command and prohibition, ordering and for- 
bidding; absolute authority. 

a *! .*' umaras- (pi. of -~*\ amir), commanders, 

princes, emirs. 
a djs*\ amrad, beardless and handsome, 
p }•-»! imroz, to-day, this day. 
p t_*ji^ imshab, to-night, this night. 
a *Li^! imzdt, transmitting, despatching, car- 

rying through, accomplishing. 
a ^U^tl im-Jin, advancing far into, penetrating. 

Jaj ^\*s*\ im^ani nazr, gazing, directing of 

vision, careful glance, mature consideration. 
a ^l£^ imhln, possibility, power. 
a 51*1 amla-u, I fill (aor. of rt. ^Lt). \*\ Jisli 

fa azallu amlam, then would I continue to fill. 
a *L«\ imldi, filling up. 

a cJl^l amluk (pi. of uiiX* mulk), goods, pos- 
sessions, property. 

a f**\ umam (pi. of ts»\ ummat), peoples, nations, 

a ^*\ dmin, protect thou, render secure (imp. 
of ^1 dmana, 4th form of thert. ]i y\ amino). 

a _!»*! amwdj (pi. of —4^ mauj), waves. 

a J|**l amwdl (pi. of jL»»jd£), monies, effects. 

p { z^>-y+\ dmoMitan, to learn ; to teach. 

A jy\ umur (pi. of _*l amr), affairs, matters, 

p ^Jsx*] dmekhtan, to mix. 

a S~*\ umid or umed, ummid or ummed, hope, 
desire, expectation. 

p ^«Ju*i umidwdr, hopeful ; aspirant 

p ,_£,\tJw«l umedwdrl, hopefulness, hope; thou 
art full of hope, thou hopest. 

^ ] 

( 10 ) 


p .-»-* 

a r«^i «mir, commander, leader, captain, gover- 
nor, lord, prince. -Jz> j~*\ amiri Ttablr, 
great lord, mighty prince. 

a p Hti\j j+s*\ anilr-zdda, prince's son, prince. 

I dmez (in comp.), mixing ; blended, 
mixed; replete. 

p (jl an (pl.jjUl dndn), that, he. 

a ^\ an, that (indeclinable particle). 

a .^ m, if. J jj\ m ?#»*, if not. ^\ J ^,\ 
*"» ?«»? «£«rc, if I may not be. 

a ^,\ anna, that. Inna, truly, verily (a particle 
which nasbates the aorist, and requires 
the following noun to be in the accusative ; 
as i^j\ye&\ £j\ ^\ inna ankartil aswat, 
truly the most offensive of noises. It is also 
a convenient peg on which to hang the 
affixed pronouns, as ti&t innaka, truly thou. 

a \j\ ana, I. 

a *Ui ina<-, vase, vessel. 

a ii\j\ inabat, repentance. 

a <\j\ antira, he illuminated (4th form of the rt. 
j\j ndra, concave * wuw, but used optatively, 
as <Uj! j\j\ anura 'lldhc, may God illumine.) 

a +\j\ andm, men, mankind, mortals. 

p j^UT andn (pi. of ^,7 aw), they, those. 

p ti^jul dndnlci, they who. 

p j\*j\ ambdr, magazine, stack, granary, garner. 

p j\*j\ ambdz, partner in trade. 

p t_£jl*5i ambdzi, partnership. 

a k^JL)! ambdlca, he announced to thee, taught, 
told, informed thee (4th form of the rt. .j-J). 

p jjUil ambdn, soft sheep-skins (that of goats 
being called *j j\ adlm) ; leather ; a wallet. 

a (j^jJl ambata, he caused to bring forth, 
grow, or vegetate (4th form of c^-«J). 

a LLwJl imbisdt, gladness, recreation, mirth, 
gaiety, pleasantry. 

p Zj+j\ ambuh, concourse, mob, crowd. 

p <U ^\ an bih, that (is) better. 

a s L-jl ambiyds- (pi. of ^-J nably), prophets. 

a c^-jl anta, thou. 

a i«^-w«iJl intasabta, thou art related (8th form 

of the rt. k_^.^J nasaba). 

AjUaujI intizdr, expecting, watching, waiting, 

a /•UcJl intikdm, taking revenge, vengeance. 

p LsT| dnjd, that place, there. 

p [♦^jn anjdm, end, close ; event, issue, con- 

p ^iA-^Uo anjdmidan, to finish, terminate, 
end, result, issue. 

t^assT] anjuman, company, assembly, banquet. 

a p J-srl injll, the Gospel. 

p ^UasTl dnchundn, such as that, in that 

manner, in such a way. 
p <i^JL^I dnchundnhi, exactly as, even as. 
p &=srl dnchi, that which, whatever, 
p JJl and, they are. 
p (jiss-i Jul anddl-htan, to throw, hurl, fling, 

cast, shoot, discharge, reject. ^ri^Ju! ,o<^/j 

la gardan anddJchtan, to cast headlong. 
p &!£>-' Jul anddlchta, cast, thrown; laid. 
PimiVl anddza, quantity, measure; symmetry, 

just measure, due proportion, 
p /»ljj\ anddm, body; limb, member. 
PjjJla«i?flr,'within,in, on, amidst. ipjSJ\SJ!j.) 

ba shuhr andarash, in thanking Him. 
p jjijtXi! andardn, into it, therein. 
p (♦jAJi andaram, I am in. 
p ^j^ andarun, inner part, interior, inside, 

p ^.jiiki * andarln (for ^1 i,jj ! andar in) in this, 
p lL&J ^ andalc, little, few, small ; trifling, trivial, 
p tS&>\ andahe, a little, very little,mere trifle. 

p jjSsLjJJl andolchtan, to acquire, gain, pick 

up, collect, accumulate, 
p &i~-.Jj' andoldita, accumulated, collected, 

gained, amassed. 

p Xj^j\ anduh, grief. 

p z^j\ anduh, grief, sadness, trouble. 

p cJliAjiiJ^ andeshndJc, anxious, in fear. 

J'cJuAjAji andeshndldar, more afraid. 

/•ji'cJIiAjjj! andeshndTctaram, (I) am more 



( 11 ) 


p <Lu»JiiJl andeaha, thought, consideration, re- 
flection; doubt, anxiety, fear, care, concern. 

r ^jij^j jj 1 andeshldan, to consider, reflect, 
think, care. 

p x&JLi&>\ andesMda, thought, considered. 

p I J I anra, to that one, to him. 

a ^uii uns, society, familiarity; habit. 

a ^jLj! insan, man. ^lyjSI al insan, a man, 
the man. 

p l^^uJ I anast, is that. 

p ^i**J| anaste, that would be. 

a <d!l *L& ^1 «'» «^a;« 7/o/«, if it please God, 

God willing. 
a i__iu3Ji insuf, justice, equity. 
a *\xj\ incdm, benefaction, gratuity, largess, 

kindness, favour. 
A .jrfUj! an/as (pi. of yjJu nafas), spirits, 

a ,«_Cu*iJ^ anfusukum, your own souls. 

a cl£}! annaka, that thou. Innaka, certainly 

&.j\&j\ inkar, denial, finding fault; disappro- 
bation, dislike, aversion. 

a £j\ ankar, more or most odious or offensive. 

p t/*£j I ankas, that person. 

p <&.j I an ki, he who, him who, that which. 

p ^iWl anguridan or .^s-ilxjl angasldan, to 
compute, reckon, suppose, deem. 

p ilxj I an guh, that time, then; there, cb il£' I 
ara guh ki, when. 

p c^A>Jl angusht, finger. 

p ijpzJ^yJy angushtarl, a finger-ring. 

p jJ;.i xjfi i*^u' & n 9 um karda farzand, that 
one who had lost (his) son, i.e., Jacob. 

p j&>\ angur, grape. 

p dSj I angah, that time, then. 

p jj^^vd angekhtan, to excite. 

p <&^xjl angekhta, raised, excited. 

p 'J>j\ angez (in comp.), exciting, stirring up. 

A J ^j] in Jam, if not (gezmating particles). 

p *3 1 anam, (I) am he, am that. 

AjLjI anwar (pi. ofj»3 »wr), lights, splendours. 

a el J I anwa^ (pi. of c»J nau- c ), kinds, sorts, 

various kinds, 
p ijjy>\ Anvarl, name of a celebrated Persian 

poet, who died a.h. 597, a.d. 1200. 

A ij\ innahu, verily he (or it). 

p l^j| anha (pi. of ^1 an), those things. 

p <jl am, such art thou, of it thou art. 

a ^J\ inni, of a truth I. 

a fjM^'A anls, comrade, intimate friend, com- 

Ajl au, or. 

Pjl u (by some o), he, him, she, her, it. 

p j\»\ awuz, voice, sound, noise, shout, scream, 
cry ; announcement, report. 

p iji.l aicaza, report, rumour, news. 

a ^ijl awan (pi. of ^1 an), times, seasons. 

p, Xbjl aulash, profligate, dissolute, dissipated ; 
riff-raff, canaille, rabble. 

a _j! auj, top, summit, zenith. 

r ^3j£j»ri- »l m khweshtan, he himself. 

a MOt! awidda 5 - (pi. of ,X>0} wadid), friends, 
lovers. <$ J«! aioiddas-ihi, of his friends. 

p ijj! ora, him, her ; to him, to her. 

a S\j%\ aurad (pi. of J^i wird), portions of the 
Kuran recited at different hours ; daily re- 
hearsals, devotions. 

a ^jj\ aurak (pi. of A >j warak), leaves, 
p Jjt\ avarad, he should bring (rt. ^jj\)- 
p ^^yl avardan, to bring, fetch, adduce; to 
relate, report, allege; to bear, endure ; to beget. 
p LZ~*~;*\ ust, he is. 

p jIs»jj' ustud, master, teacher, pedagogue, in- 

a i_iLcJ ausuf (pi. of i__sLsj), qualities, praises. 

p Ll-wjJuijl uftudast, has befallen. 

p^Juiy uftadan, to fall ; stray; happen, occur. 

p yolsi.! uftada, fallen ; happened, occurred. 

a C^>lijl «w£a£ (pi. of c^i. ivakt), times, hours. 

a Jj! auwal, first, beginning; former; at first. 

a ^!.l «m?«', nearer, worthier, fitter. 

Atl»UH\ Jj! all 'lalbab (obi. of <_>LM ^\ 
ulu 7 allab), the wise, intelligent, prudent. 


( 12 ) 


ap yxJj\ aulatar, nearer, better, more fit, suit- 
able, proper or convenient ; preferable. 
a LLna!j\ aulanha, tbey, those. 
a !^j\ auwalin (oblique pl.of J^l auwal), first, 

former (or it may possibly be the Persian ^> 
in affixed to the Arabic). 
p , . i^sT* 1 aweljitan, to hang, catch hold of, cling. 

r <t^jl dwekhta, hung, suspended. 

p (J,^ un, of it thou art. 

p i\ ah, oh ! ah ! alas ! a sigh. 

p ^C^uJ&l dhistagi, slowness, gentleness, low- 
iiess, softness of voice. 

p iCMJb\ dhista, slowly, quietly, softly, gently. 

p ulx&T dhah, quick -lime, plaster, cement. 
6zm ilSJb I anaki tafta, quick-lime. 

a Jjj>1 ahl, people, inhabitants, family ; worthy, 
p J>.;>. ijjb\ aliii khirad, wise persons, men of 
understanding. J J Jj&l ahli dil, pious, pru- 
dent, wise. ujiy*j cJ^ a ^ zamin, inha- 
bitants of the earth. L^ri-U.£> J.^1 aldi 
ahindkht, intelligent. \Lo Jj&! ahli sofa, pure. 
(Jj_}s J.&1 ahli tank, devotees. ,J~di ,Jjb\ 
ahli fazl, men of excellence or of learning ; 

a 1M ahlan, heaven bless you ! welcome ! 

a <d&! ahlnhu, worthy of it. aJj&U hi ahlihi, 
worthy of it, deserving thereof. 

a <lJj&! ahliyat, worthiness, meetness ; ability, 
capacity, skill. 

a JU^l ihmdl, negligence, carelessness, inat- 

p ^jSb\ dhan, iron. 

p i^jCxb! ahang, design, preparation, readiness; 
pitch, tune (of a musical instrument). 

p (A&! dhani, made of iron, iron. Ahane, a 
piece of iron. 


*&\ dhanin, made of iron, iron. 

p ^[Zus*- t^rr-^ dhanin-changal, iron-clawed. 

p yi>| dhu, stag, deer, buck. 

a tjy&l ahwcC, I love. &\j&\ ahwcChu, I love 

him (aor. of the rt. i_?ys hawa 1 , he loved, 
desired, or wished for). 

p J&| dhe, one sigh. 

p ±j\ ai, ! (interj.) 

a w'lil aydt (pi. of h\ dyat), signs, miracles; 

verses of the Kuran. 
a !_f^VJ a yadi (pi. of jo yad), hands ; benefits, 

A. Jul Iydz, name of a favourite of Sultan 

a Ai\ aiydm (pi. of *£ yaum), days. 

a ij\ dyat (pi. CUol dyat), verse of the 

Kuran ; miracle. 
a <*uji aitdm (pi. of *-^j yalim), orphans. 

a jlij! is-thdr, presentation, offering; preferring, 
preference ; bestowing of benefits. 

AjLsH ijdz, abridging, epitomizing, compen- 
dium, abbreviation. 

a Cv\ aiyada, may (God) aid or strengthen (2nd 
form of Ol, concave ^j). 

r t^Jol dyadat, may come to thee, will be to 
thee. i£&) I dyadash,may come to him, will 
be to him (rt. ^^1 dmadan). 

p JJji izid, God. 

p ^j jl^u*.^ Istddan, to stand, stop, stay, con- 
tinue, remain. 

p ajlx^J istdda, stood, standing. 

p ^l-l^ ishdn, they, them, these. 

a Li^ aizan, also, likewise, moreover. 

p &j\ ai hi, alas ! that. 

p *jJ em, we have, we are. 

a ^Uol is- man, faith, belief. 

a (L*j\ as-immai (pi. of *\*\ imam), high-priests, 

a t^Aj) aiman, safe, secure, free, free from 

danger ; void of care, 
p ^j\ in, this; these, 
p ^lijj man (pi. of ^yi\ in) these, 
p \sty\ injd, this place, here, 
p \j^\ Inrd, to this. 
p CS*S\ inah, behold ! lo ! 
p faj\ dyina, glass, mirror, 
p (oVJ aiwdn or iivdn (pi. l^WJ aiiodnhd), 

hall, court, palace, vestibule, gallery, portico, 
r ^Jl dii, thou comest (rt. ^j^*\ dmadan). 


JT C 13 ) 


p ,.r*>T &>in, law, canon, rule, 
p 4i-j| anna, mirror, looking-glass. 
p j\j £jJi\ d&na-ddr, mirror-holder (an at- 
tendant on the great in the East. 
p i_£ita ^-J 1 titina-durl, office of mirror-holder. 

p <_> J«, to ; at ; with ; by ; in ; for ; according 
to. (It is sometimes pleonastic). 

a u_> hi, by ; with. 

pb ha, with, along with; to; possessed of; 
notwithstanding, in spite of. 

p Ai ^1 I ) ha an hi, notwithstanding that. 

ac_Aj hah, door; chapter, <b»^ <-r>b bubu't 
tauhat, door of repentance. 

v^jUs>~\i hdkhtan, to play, sport ; to lose at play. 

PA^ri-b ha dkhir, to an end. 

pa C^jylri- b ha khushunat, with roughness. 

p jb £d<#, wind, breeze, gale ; pride, haughti- 
ness, conceit, arrogance. ^__2Jbi' ,, jb budi 
mulihalif, adverse wind, foul wind. 

p *iJu hdddm, almond. 

p bob bdd-pu, fleet, swift (steed). 

p jjb jb bud-pdie, a fleet horse, a steed. 

p slitib hddshdh, kirig. 

p Op^b hdd-gird, whirlwind, tornado. 

p i_?ob hade, a flatus in the bowels, a fart. 

a <OOb hddiyat, desert. 

Pjb hdr, load; fruit; time. .L>b>-jb huri 
Mdtir, distress or load of mind. ^jj\ jb 
bar dvardan, to bear fruit. X»0 jb JdW 
<fr^«r, another time, a second time. 

p (^'jb bdrdn, rain, shower. 

p j,b bar-bar, burden-bearing; beast of burthen. 

p _y^J>. jb bdr-barddr, bearer of burthens ; 
pregnant (female). 

p !as>- .b huri Mnidd, Great God ! 

p ilTjb hur-gdh, place of audience, royal court, 

p Xj\i bdra, twelve ; battlements. 
p li^b bdrhd (pi. of ( b), times, many times. 

a i_f;b harii, Creator, ^bcjjb bdri ta^dla', 
most high God. 

p ^b Jdre, a load, weight, burden ; a turn, a 
time ; once upon a time, one day ; at least, 

at any rate. J.ijs- t_£;V bare chand, several 
times, sundry times. 

p ujJy.jb hdrldan, to vain, to fall in showers. 

p *Jojb harlda, rained. 

p iL£i\i bank, fine, thin. 

p yCS^ [ ib bdnhtar, thinner, finer. 

p jb bdz, back again ; on the other hand ; after- 
wards ; wide open, open, ajar. 

p jb bdz, falcon. 

Pjljb bazar (pi. bb^jb hazdrhd), market, 
market-place, street with shops only. 

p (_5^jb bdzdrl, of the market. lSj'JH c^X-j 
sagi huzdri, a street-cur. 

p i^^l jb bdz dmadan, to come back, to re- 
turn ; to come up right in front. 

p ^jj\ jb bdz dvardan, to bring back; to 
keep back. 

p ijmJ jb bdz pas, restitution 

bdz pas dddan, to give back, restore, 

p^^ -=i- jb bdz kkarldan, to buy back, to re- 
deem, ransom. 

p ^jlj jb hdz dddan, to give back, restore. 

p ^j^i^J jb hdz dushian, to keep back, detain, 
withhold, restrain. 

p ^^jb bdzargun (pi. ^jblijjb bdzargdnan), 
trader, merchant, trafficker. 

p ^Jb jjb hdzar -gam, a certain merchant. 

p ^ Jj j b hdz zadan, to strike again ; to hold 

p L^-s-jb hdzast, is open. 

p (jijb bdzasli, again him. 

p ^f jb bdz Jcardan, to open, unfold, un- 
ravel ; to draw back. 

p ^j&^ASjis hdz Jcaslddan, to draw back. 

p tl ^il <^jV ^" z guzdshtan, to leave, leave 

p ^jcJlj^jb hdz garddnldan, to turn back, 
bring back. 

p ^jj J^jb hdz gardldan, to turn back, return, 

w db ^ jb 


( 14 ) 


p ^As jb buz gashtan, to turn back, return, 

retreat, retire, withdraw, 
p ^r^as jb Jaz guftan, to reply. 
p ^^b* ;b 5az mdndan, to lag behind, to flag. 
p «jb Jasw (pi. ^jjb bamwan), the arm from 

the shoulder to the elbow, upper arm. 
p i_5jb bdzl, play, romp, sport; pyrotechnics. 

i^^S lJ jb 5«zz kardan, to make sport, 
p ^csqjb bdzlcha, play, sport, pastime; trifle, 

p ^Jo jb bdzidan, to play. 
a ^ I; bas-s, power, strength ; severity. 
a <_£~;b bust'k, tall, lofty (palm-tree), 
p (^<b J«s7;, be thou, stay, wait, have patience 
p Jwib bdshad, it may be, must be, would be 

(rt. i^i-V budan). 
A Jbb bdtil, vain, futile, idle, false, delusive. 
A ^Jb[j bdtin, interior, inward, internal, inside; 

hidden, ^ib butirii, my interior, 
p ib bdgh, garden, 
p ^b»ib bdr/hbdn, gardener, vine-dresser. 

p ui-wJuJb bufandast (for t2-~»i ^Jajb 5a- 

fanda ast) is a weaver, 
p SJ^ib bdfanda, weaver. 
A ^b bdlci, remaining, left; enduring, lasting, 

perpetual, permanent. 

p i^Jb bah, fear; care, solicitude; harm. 

p <» b ba Id, with whom. 

p Jb bdl, arm; wing, pinion; stature. 

p ^lb bald, above, high; upper hand; summit, 

top; stature, height, ^j'-^f ^b bald giriftan , 
to gain the ascendancy, get the upper hand. 

p J^!b bdldtar, higher. 

A^uJb bi'l bandn, with the tips of the fingers. 

p (jiob bdlish, pillow, cushion. 

a jJb buligh, adult. 

a aUb bi'lldh, by God, with God. 

p ^b bdlln, pillow, bolster, cushion, ^b 
Cl-oJ bdllni turbat, head of a tomb. 

p *b bam, terrace or flat roof of a house. 

p Jl^»b bdmddd (or ^jl^b bdmddddn), at 
morn, in the morning. 

p ijLx*{} bd manask, with me (and) him. 
b ban, tamarisk-tree. 


o ,k 

p i^Sj\i bang, cry, noise, shout, clamour, peal, 
roll, thunder; call to prayer from the minaret. 
< j±Jj,\^j <Ji£jb bung barddshtan, to call to 
prayer. ^^ ^SAi bdngi sabh, the morning 
summons to prayer, call to matins. i^Job 
jb»J bdngi namdz, summons to prayer. 

p a Jy>-j\j bd wujud, with the existence of, 
through, notwithstanding. 

p ^S yb btiwar kardan (or ^J^\^jj\j bdwar 
dashtan), to believe, credit. 

p i_$j b bu wai, with him, with her. 

a .&b bdhir (fern. iy&b bdhirat), excellent, 
eminent, resplendent; open, plain, manifest, 

v *&b bdham, together, along with. ^J^l *^b 
bdliam dmadan, to fly in a passion. 

p i\>b buyad, must be ; he must, one ought ; is 
proper, is requisite, is indispensable, beho- 
veth, is Wanted. JjJ 4>jb bdyad bud, one 
ought to be. CJOob bdyadat, dost thou need, 
wish, or want? must thou have? dy* tijb 
buyad murd, (he) must die, one must die. 

p ^jmj\i bdyistl, would be proper or necessary, 
would suit. 

p .jj babar, carry thou, carry off. 

p L^o bat (pi. ^bj butdn), idol. 

p j^i battar (for^J'Jj badtar), worse. 

F U^\? ' L -"" % ' iut-tara&h, carver of idols, sculptor. 

p i^j^pj batars, be apprehensive (rt. ^X^J). 

r u>J ;~> battarand, are worse. 

p bsT 1 ba jd, in place, to place, towards. bsT 
io^j I ba jd dvardan, to bring into place, 
to perform, discharge. 

r^bxT bajdn, heartily, sincerely. ^j^*\ U^^- 
ba jdn dmadan, to be in imminent peril, to 
be at death's door, to be weary of life, to be 

tired to death. 

^JiJ, U 


a jun parwar- 

dan, to cherish as one's life 

bajdn ranjidan, to be cut to the heart, vexed 

U S ?=?J oMn 

to the soul, deeply distressed. ^=f\> ^ 

ba jdn baranjand, are vexed to death, are 
sorely grieved. 


( 15 ) 


p ^J)^! i-^W^ ba jdi avardan, to carry into 
effect, to accomplish, perform, fulfil. 

p J=sT bajuz, besides, save, except. 

a <«U.ssr bi jamdlihi, by bis beauty. 

p A=^r bacJia, infant, child; whelp, cub, the 
young of an animal. Bi chi, by what 
(means) ? in what (way) ? to what (use) ? 

p fr'-^^f, ba chlnam, I will pluck (rt. ij&*&~-)- 

al^s^ bahth, controversy, dispute, discussion, 
p u^ ci^oc? bahth Icardan, to dispute. 

A-jS^ bahr, sea. 

p &.jy£=£] ba huzur, into the presence. 

pa u^iLiis^ ba hakihat, in truth, really. 

p a *£^7 ba huhni, by way of, in accordance 
with, p <s£j \ (&-=^, ba huhni anlci, in ac- 
cordance with that which, because that, for 
the reason that, so that, to a degree that. 
vl^j-J fS-^sr ba huhni zarurat, by force of 
necessity. Ojjle *£s^ ba huhni i&riyat, 
by way of loan. 

p ^Ji J^C bihil Icardan, to absolve, pardon, 

Ajj=sr buhur (pi. o£js? 4 bahr), seas, oceans. 

p c^sT bahht, fortune. 

L^-oc^ baMt-bar-gashta, unfortunate. 
buJihti, a large, strong, hairy camel 
with two bunches, a Bactrian camel. 

PjL^ir; baliht-yur, fortunate, fortune's favorite. 

p ijm^s? ba/chsh, share, portion, lot. 

p ^j\JLj^ baMshdi, forgive thou. 

p (jiouu^kr baJchshayish, favour, forgiveness, 

p ^&j\JLs? baMshdyandagi, liberality ; for- 
p \, bakhshish, gift, gratuity. 
p ^sUL-s? baMshandagi, liberality, 
p i&xlLs^ bakhshanda, liberal. 

s^ baMshudan, to take pity. 
-ul^kr baMshidan, to bestow, grant, give, 

V U^ 

u l 

confer ; make a present ; to waive ; to par- 
don, forgive. 

a J^ buJchl, avarice, stinginess, parsimony, 

p .j J»rkr ba Mnoud bar, upon thyself. 

a J-^sT baMil, stingy, niggard, avaricious; 

a \^~z?^ baMill, avarice, penuriousness, par- 

p Si bad (pi. ^Si badun), bad, evil, wicked. 

a \si bada', it appeared (a defective verb). 

p j^>-\ Si bad-aMtar, ill-starred, hapless. 

p Jij^>~\ Si bad-aMtartar, more ill-starred, 

more unfortunate, 
r ^jx^] Si bad-akhtare, an unlucky wight. 
p ^J\Si badun, know thou(rt < Jx^j\^ ddnistan). 
v ^j\ Si badun (pi. of Si bad), bad persons. 

p ^ Jo biddn (for ^T <u bi an), with that; for 
that purpose, or design ; to that (person). 

p ^j JoM Jo bad-andesh (pi. ^lijJol Si bad- 
andeshdn, ill-wisher, malevolent, malignant. 

r i^-asT Si bad-balcht, ill-fated, hapless, un- 
lucky, unfortunate, wretched. 

p ^As^] Si bad-baMti, (thou) art unlucky. 

p ^JLs-Si BadaMshdn, a country of central 

Asia, celebrated for its rubies, 
r (_£*=». Jo bad-Mu, bad-tempered. 
a .Jo badr, full moon. 

p \Si badar, out, out of doors, without, forth, 
p ^Ss*\ i Jo badar timadan, to come out. 
p ,^i , i Jo badar raftan, to go out. 

p &ijSi badralca, guide, escort (through a 
trackless desert). 

p ^JjZjSi badar Icardan, to expel, banish ; to 
dispense, distribute. 

p j^j«j Si bad-rozgdr, unfortunate ; wicked. 

p (JlaJoJ Jo bad-zindagdnl, bad -lived. 

p l^-wjJo bad ast, is bad. 

•^Jo ba dast avardan, to get pos- 
session, procure, secure, gain; to look out for. 

p a^jJo ba dast am, into my hand. 

p JuLj Jo bad-sigdl, ill-surmiser, evil-thinker. 

p fb>-ji Si bad-farjdm, ending bad; malignant. 

p lJj^ Si bad-Icuri, evil-doing. 

p .b £ Si bad-gauhar, of bad quality, coarse. 

p ^j£ Si bad-gu or go (pi. ^IjjTjo bad-guydn) 
evil speaker. 

P U^ 


( 16 ) 


r jjfS Si bad-guhar, bad by nature, really bad. 

p jy* <Si bad-mihr, unkind. 

p ^jY* 'V bad-mihri, unkindness. 

a ^Si badan, body. 

PjAj badu, to him, to her, to it. 

p SSi bi dili, give thou pay (rt. jjjl J da dan). 

p i_s Si badl, badness, vice, evil, harm, misery. 
Bade, a bad man. 

a %JJo badlzj wonderful, rare, marvellous, 
strange, foreign ; prompt ; original, ap *_.• Si 
^jl^sj- badicA jahdn, wonder of the world. 

r ^Si badln (for .jji Ai ba in), to this, in 
this, with this (or these). 

r L^JAJ badinlid, in these things. 

a j Si bazr, seed. 

a J3j bad, gift, liberality, munificence, be- 
stowment, distribution, profusion. 

r <0 Si lazla(])\. \}si bazlahd), joke, witticism. 

p j 5ar, on, upon ; up, above, over ; by ; ac- 
cording to ; at, against. 

Vji bar, breast, bosom, chest ; embrace ; fruit. 

^$y.j^ dar lw Icardan, to clothe, invest. 
a j barr, dry land, continent. 
p ji\ji bar-a-bar (breast to breast), equal, 

parallel, on a level, on a par, opposite, over 

against. ji j jJ dar bardbar, over against, 
p j^ji birddir (pi. i^j^A birddardn), brother, 
p -TjJui- .Jv birddir- lihwdndaqi, profession 

of brotherly affection, calling one brother. 
p ^J^ I j bar amadan, to come up, ascend, 

arise ; to emerge ; to get on, succeed, prosper ; 

to cope with successfully ; to elapse. 

p ,^k^n I .i bar dmekktan, to mix, mingle, 

p &z^)s* 1 ji bar dmeMita, mixed up. 
p ^J. bar an, on that, upon that. ^jSJ^ ^\ ji 

bar an shudan, to agree to, will, wish, intend, 
p ^rsjjj^ j bar anddkhtan, to throw down, 

throw away, fling about ; to defeat. 

p ^ss\fj\ j bar angelihtan, to raise, stir up, 

p *3! j bar dnam, I obey. 

P^^ijt^j bar dvardan, to bring up, raise; to 

tear up or out ; to fetch (a breath), heave (a 
sigh) ; to complete, accomplish, perform, 
fulfil ; to close up, fill, repair. 

p ^ji birdyi, for, because, for the sake 

p Si\ J> bar dyad, may or can come out (rt. 

lc )Sst\ j bar amadan). 
p j).) bar bar, on the breast, 
p jj^uuJ j bar bastan, to pack up ; to close, shut, 
p &c*u±i ji bar basta, firm, fixed, 
p kjj barbut, harp or lute. 
r i-f]/^ ^V barbut-sardi, harper, lutanist. 
pi) j bar pa, raised, erect, ^..ita Ij j bar pd 

ddsldan, to raise, establish, maintain, 
p <-U>J barat (for »J_> bar tu), on thee, 
p jj^ilj j bar tdftan, to twist, wring off; to 

turn away, avert, 
p Jj bartar, higher, 
p l^-vjjj j bar tust, is on thee. 
a _ j lurj, bastion, tower, barbacan. 
p U-^j bar jd, on the ground, prostrate; quiet, 

tranquil, steady. 
p jjiAwJ*- j bar jastan, to start up, jump, 
p s^>- j bar jahad, leaps up. 
A L c' = r^ burje, a certain tower, 
p ^ S^j>- j bar cliidan, to gather up , to remove. 
pa <_£=*- jJ bar halclc, true, just. 
p j.j bar Mi, part, portion, 
p l^-wjIs£- J bar Uidst, a rising up. 
p a«jIs~ j bar Mdstan, to rise, rise up, arise ; 

to break up, cease, end. 
p ^jSi\y>-ji bar Ichwdndan, to recite, repeat, 
p l^-tJ barfche, a little, bit, one part, portion. 


pj^ji bar khez, rise, get up (rt. ^yx-A: 

bar Ididstari). 
a Jiji bard, cold, chill, 
p Jj burd, he carried away, he led. 
a Jj burd, striped stuff. ijt*j l5j burdi yamdni, 

striped stuff of Taman (Arabia Felix), 
p jjS-il d ji bar ddshtan, to pick up, take up, to 

raise, hold up, lift, take off, remove, carry 

off; to sustain, bear. 

p jjjjj J j bar daridan, to split open, rip up, 
cleave asunder. 



( 17 ) 


p ^j burdan, to bear, carry; to conduct, lead ; 
to bear away, remove, take away ; to carry 
off, win ; to support, suffer, endure ; to 
prefer, lodge (a complaint) ; to throw away, 
lose, lower (one's character or dignity). 

p sJj iurda, borne, borne away, carried off. 
p ,^ij r> bar raftan, to go up, to climb. 
p j~>j> bar sar, on or at the head, end, or point. 
^Jjj~sji bar sar ash, at his or its head. j~z j 

£jly bar sar nihdda, placed on the head, 

coifed, capped, 
r +~ij ba rasam, I should arrive, 
p uJj barf, snow. 

p i—M i__v barf-ab, snow-water, iced water. 
p t^-^i^j bar aft, he (she or it) departed, 
p ^y^-ipi ji bar furukhtan (or furokhtan), to 

kindle, light up. 
p ^jji j> bar fuzudan, to increase. 
p ^vXilAi j bar fishdndan, to press, squeeze; 

to rap, tap; to snap (the fingers). 
A J^j bark, lightning. 
p Xj\Ji J bar kardr, in (one's) usual habit, or 

normal condition ; firm, fixed. 
a C^li^j barakat (pi. of '<&.i barakat), blessings. 
a &J birkat, bason of a fountain. Barakat, 

p ^oLio j bar kushddan, to open ; to remove, 

p ^yHJiji bar kushudan, to open, unloose. 
p ^iXJLs j bar kashldan, to extract, draw, 


p i^j&U}.) bar kandan, to tear up, eradicate, 

uproot; to strip off. 
p SJus j bar kanda, plucked out, picked off. 
p ,_$S-Jsj bar kande, he would uproot. 
p ^Sji baraki, a species of high-crowned cap 

made of felt. 
p t^Jj barg, leaf ; provisions for the way. 
p ^Swi Jo j bar guzashtan, to walk over ; to 

pass beyond ; to extend. 
p ^JOi^T j bar gardldan, to turn away from. 

p ^^ijiji bar giriftan, to take up or off, pick 
up ; to raise, to derive ; to remove, take 
away, carry off, clear ; to attain. 

p ^Juls j bar guzldan, to choose, select. 

p^J^Lu^-j bar gusildnldan, to snatch, wrench, 

p ^jSAjjj^ji bar gusilldan, to snap, tear up. 

p ^pJuZ j bar gaslitan, to turn, retreat, retire. 

p ta£>£ ji bar gashta, upset, overturned, in- 
verted, turned upside down. 

p^^j^&Uj* j bar gumdshtan, to depute, appoint. 

p *J baram, I might (or would) bear (or bring) 
(rt. ^ji burdan). 

p L# j bar ma, on us. 

p Jo 1 ^ j bar mi dyad, (it) comes out, it rises. 

r xfj birinj, rice. 

p «=^V birinje, one grain of rice. 

p O^Lj O bar naydrad, beareth not (rt. u^j \j ). 

p A. Li j 5<w nay dram, I will not bring out. 

p ^JkLj j Jar naydmadan, not to happen, to 
fail (rt. ^Jwl j Jar dmadan). 

p «j JartZ (for y j Jar u), on him, her, or it. 
Birav, go (rt. ^fj; raftan). 

p jjy Sarw Jar, upon him. 

p CJ>iJ burnt, whiskers, mustachios. 

p ^^*^> barumand, fruit-bearing, fruitful, 

p ^. (j birun, without, out, outside, forth. 

p ^ J Jar wm, on him, at him. 

p *j Jara or Jarra, lamb. 

a ^IflM burhdn, demonstration, conclusive proof, 
strong argument, conviction; clear judgment. 

p ^JJ +&>j3 barham zadan, to strike together, 
slam, close hastily. ^Jj *JkJ l^wjl) <?«!*£ 
barham zadan, to wring the hands. 

p i J±&j barahnagl, nakedness, nudity. 

p As&j) barahna, bare, naked, stripped ; void. 

a ijfji baris-, clear, quit, free, innocent; care- 
less, p (jS-li t> t^ J«rz dushtan, to exempt. 

p (^IjV birydn, fried, broiled, parched. (oV.j^ 
^l>-Lj birydn sakhtan (or ^J> kardan), to 
fry, broil, grill, roast. 

p ^jJj j buridan, to cut, cut off, amputate, 
separate the part ; to prune. 



( 18 ) 


p ^jSjj burrldan, to cut ; to prune. 

p sJjj burida, cut ; cut off, chopped off, am- 

p ^A barin (for ^}j] bar in), on this. 

a j\j) bazzdz, draper, mercer, clothier. 

p j4f*&-jji buzurj-mikr, name of the prime 
minister of Nushlravan, king of Persia. 

p <£Jj}> buzurg, great, venerable, grand ; grown 
up, arrived at years of discretion. 

r ^ITjjj buzurgdn (pi. of c^JjjJ buzurg), ances- 
tors ; great men, superiors, grandees. 

p Jii^Sjji buzurgtar, greater, grander. 

p a 



'j buzurg-zdda, high-born. 

p jij^jJJ buzurgwdr, great. 

p LJj^yjj] buzurgwdrl, greatness, excellence. 

Buzurgwdre, a great man. 
p Ui-v4Jb cS/jjJ buzurg-himmat, high-minded, 
p Jlz-v*J!> ^Jj\\ buzurg -himmattar, higher- 

minded,.more magnanimous or high-spirited. 

p L^jji buzurgl, greatness; adultness, maturity, 

riper years, superiority in years. Buzurge, 
a certain great man. 

p (Jb ba zarii, thou shouldest strike (rt. lodj). 

p s\i baza, sin, crime, guilt. 

p ijmJ has, many ; enough; enough ! sufficient! 

hold ! no more ! ^J> u**> bas kardan, to 
stop, leave off, give over. 

p LuJ basd, many a, many a one. 

a LluJ basdt, wide plain, extensive surface. 
Bisdt, bed, carpet, rug, anything spread. 

p i^l^o bisidn or bisitdn, take thou (rt. ^jJls-o 

sitdndan). Bustdn, garden. 
vj^mJ bistar, bed, cushion, pillow, 
p tj^uJ bastan, to shut, close ; to bind, tie, gird 

on, attach, fix ; to form, frame. i^suuJ ,J*j 
na%l bastan, to fix a shoe. 
p Jccuu.* ba sitand, they take or accept. 

p &Zm>j basta, tied, bound, girt ; shut, closed, 
fastened; stopped, hitched; locked; set, fixed, 
formed; fettered, shackled. 

p jjiX*l -u*j la sar dmadan, to come to an end ; 

to arrive at perfection, to excel. ^Jui) -uJ 
ba sar shudan, to come to an end. 
p t^dyl j»+i ba sar dvardan, to bring to an end. 

p ^jijMj ba sar bur dan, to carry to an end, 
to finish; to agree, harmonize. 

p ^(A-i -«u ba sar shudan, to be finished. 

a k**J basata, he spread, he diffused widely. 

a **uJ bism (for *~>\i hi ismi), in the name of. 

p u$y*-> ba suyi, in the direction of, towards. 

p i^mJ base, much, many ; sufficient ; many a 
one ; many a day, often ; a long while. 
JjUJ ,jiJ base na mdnad, much remains 
not, it wants but little. 

p jL**j bisydr, much, many, numerous ; great, 
often, ofttimes. 

p l_^vj^>- iLau.* bisydr-khasp, very sleepy, som- 
nolent, drowsy. 

p 1 1 y>- jL*j bisydr-khivdr, great eater, glutton, 

p ,_£)L/mJ bisydrl, abundance, large quantity, 

a k^ baslt, wide spread, extended, level sur- 
face, superficial; simple. 

a +**uJ baslm, affable, smiling. 

A ijluj bashdrat or bishdrat, good news, joyful 

a JLi bashar, man, mankind, mortals. 

a i^£j basharat, skin, surface-skin, outer cuti- 
cle, epidermis ; outside. 
a &,£>-i bashariyat, human nature, humanity, 
p fJOj bishnav, hear, hearken, listen (rt.^, J>y~£i ). 
p i_iV^ ba shuwi, thou mayest wash, 
p JJyiJ ba shuyad, washes (rt. l ^i*uJ* shustan). 
a rf'UiJ bi sdlih, as virtuous. 

a ij*2i Basrat, city of Basrah in the Persian 
Gulf, usually written Bussorah. 

a <uLaJ bizdcat, capital or stock in trade, mer- 
chandize, goods; a share in a mercantile 
^adventure or commercial enterprize. 

a Lj bait, a duck. 

a JblSaJ bi tdhirin (equivalent totalis tdhirun), 
clean, pure. 

a <JUaJ battdl, idle, vain, false. 

a <31Lj batdlat, vanity, idleness, trifling talk, 

a (jilu i«M, power, authority, severity. 
a ^Lj Ja£w, belly. 


( 19 ) 

a jjaj batu, slow, tardy, sluggish. 

A^-^Jaj bitlbihd, on account of their sweetness. 

a jm ba^d (also p \\ &xj ba^d az), after. 

a &xj bu-jd, distance. ^j^iJ^A^ &xj bu^du 'I 

mashrikain, distance of the tropics, 
p JcDjxJ ba dzzattar, in higher estimation, 

more precious. 
a p -^xj ba-^ze, some, certain ; apart, a portion. 

a Jj«j bad, lord, master ; hushand. 

a i__5w*j bdicdbaklc, Eaalbec in Syria. 

a ^j**} bi-.aun, by the aid of. 

a J^xj badd, distant, remote, far. 

A S\&x) Ba gh dad. Baghdad, a city ou the Tigris. 

p fJJo baghl, arm-pit. 

a \Jsj baghau, they would be insolent, they 

had rebelled (rt. ^Jc bagha'). 

a ^Jc baghy, rebellion. 

a jJu bi gh air, without, except. 

a 'lib bahdi, duration, permanence, continuance, 

a Juj baklcdl, green-grocer ; grain-merchant ; 

ap^Uu baktis-e, a dm'ation, a permanence. 

a cUaj bulc^at, region, dwelling-place, house, 

edifice; monastery. 
a <UJb bakiyat, remainder, residue, rest. 
a p (j^iu balciyate, some remains, a remnant. 

p ^Ji^T jIxj balcdr dmadan, to be of use, ser- 
viceable or useful, to serve a purpose; to avail. 
a (i£u£j Buktdsh, name of a certain athlete. 
a £> Baler, a man's name. 
p (jiij ba hash, draw thou. Bu hush, kill, slay. 
p ^lAio buhhdi, open thou (rt. jjJ>»Ai). 
a jJj bukm (pi. of *L>\ ablcam), dumb. 
a tULk£j bihamdhhi, by his perfection. 
Pj'axj buguzdr, allow, give leave, suffer, permit, 
r Isaxj bu guftd, he (or she) said. 
P-yJ baguibago, bu gu or bu go), say thou, speak. 
p Jo Sj ba or bu guy ad, says (rt. ^pJs guftan). 
pJ-X' ba glrad, seizes or will seize (rt. ( jSJ .£). 
a jjj JrtZ, but, nay. 

a *ita J«?at, calamity, trouble, evil, misfortune, 

affliction ; scourge. 
a SL bildd (pi. of i'jb baldat), cities, countries, 

provinces ; an inhabited country. 
a ?L baldgh, arrival; conveyance. /Xc. t» 

?iLSl *&\ J j~)\\ md ^ala V rasuli 'lid 'I bald gh , 
the prophet has only to deliver his message. 

a izh bald ghat, eloquence ; puberty, adultness. 

a fj£L) balds-e, a calamity, trial or affliction. 

p JJj bulbul (pi. ^^J bulbaldn) nightingale. 

p Lb bulbuld, nightingale ! 

p -f . BalJch, a city of Khurasan (ancient Eactria). 

p s. balkM, native of Balkh. 

a jJj #«/«<?, country. & jb baladahu, his country. 

a ^j\ jL bulddn (pi. of i'^Jj baldat), cities, towns. 

a i : »>b baldat, city, town. 

a pyLUdl) ba lizzattar, with greater delicious- 
ness, more delicate or luxurious. 

a 4_b balagha, he attained or reached. 

a i_b balligh, cause to arrive; convey, com- 
municate (imp. of ^.b ballagha, 2nd form 
of j-b). 

p <^£b J«/£j, but, moreover; nay. 

p <±M baland (or bulaiid), high, lofty, tall, ex- 

p j\j\ liulj baland-dwdz, loud-voiced. 

p ^[i &i\j baland-bdld, tall of stature, high. 

p <^Job *xJj baland-bdng, loud-sounding, noisy. 

p t_fJ.Jj bulandi, height, elevation. 

ap tjb ballur (or billaur), crystal. 

p^jJj billaurln (or ballurin), made of crystal, 

a 6 Jj bulugh, adultness, puberty; maturity. 

p ^b bale, yes, true, certainly, indeed ; well, 
right ; hut. 

AaLjj bally at, misfortune, sore trial; infliction. 

a i»^— -b bulltu, I am tried or afflicted (passive). 

a i_Jo ballgh, great, vast ; full, perfect ; cogent, 
forcible ; eloquent. 

a Uj bi md, with whatever ; according to what. 

p jJl*j ba mdnad, (he) will remain. 

r a (JiL*- 1 5« mathal, for example. 

U M ^* J . 

( 20 ) 


a ^jlam^aj hi misma^l, in mine ear. 

a ^aj biman, with whom? to whom? Ps^-^o^j 

ba manast, is to me. 
r _y».j ba mir, die (rt. ^*V* murdan). AJ L**J 

J# mlrand, they should die. 

a jjj 5m (for jjj\ $», when placed between two 
proper names), son. 

p j bun, bottom, root, end. ^ j i~> s*w w Sw», 

head and tail, beginning and end. 
a Lj bind, with us. 
a *liJ Unas-, building, edifice, fabric, structure. 

a j>\u) bind bar (built upon), because, on account 

of, by reason of. 
p luLj batidt (pi. of l^-v^j 5m<), daughters. 

CL>Lj i-1^Uj bandti nabdt, daughters of grass, 

i.e. tender berbage. 
p ^PjTLj bund gosh, cavity of the ear, lower 

part of the ear. 

p ,»Lj ba nam, in the name. 

a ^Lj bandn, finger, tips of fingers. 

p !>:j band, bond, confinement, captivity, impri- 
sonment, durance ; gyves, shackles, fetters ; 
trap, snare ; trick, artifice, sleight of hand, 
manoeuvre in wrestlirg; imagination, idea, 
thought, scheme, hope, expectation ; (imp. of 

^XuuJ bastan), fix thou, attach. CU*»aJ joj 
bandi dast, handcuffs, manacles. ^Jytji Suj 
band farmudan, to order into confinement, to 
6end to jail, to imprison. 

r jjlT X+J bandagdn (pi. of a Sus banda), servants, 

p l^iX-J bandagi, service, servitude, slavery, 
p ^jJ^J bandan, to bind, 
p &X*i banda (pi. ^ITaij bandagdn), servant, 

slave ; your humble servant, your slave. 
p^Ljoj bandiydn (pi. of i^Jcj bandi), prisoners, 
p <!^J oY nih, place thou, lay (rt. ^^l^J nihddan). 
a ^^ bunaiya', darling child (dim. of^o Saway 

for ^i\ ibn, son), 
p jl*iJ bunydd, foundation. 
a >J| ^j Jam a^«m (sons of Adam), men. 
a *£ ^ 5awz ^amm, nephews, 
py iw, smell, perfume, scent, odour, aroma. 
a y bu (foi'jj! abu), father, parent, or autbor. 

i__^s*M y bu 'I <^ajab (father of admiration), 
a wonderful thing. 

a <--j\j} bawivdb (p pi. u^\yJ bawwdbdn) door- 
keeper, porter, warder. 

ap ^^-Lj ba wdjibi, suitable, merited. 

p 0»j buvad, may be, shall be, should be. 

p (^j^jJ budan, to be. 

p (_?J»J bade, he habitually was, he used to be ; 
there would be. 

p \j£ buriyd, mat, coarse matting. 

p i sbb j»j buriya-bdf, weaver of mats, mat- 

p ^k~itf bostdn (place of perfume), flower- 
garden ; garden in general. 

p ^L-j»j busa, kiss. u^t> ^J? ^ M d®d an > to 
give a kiss, to kiss. 

p ^jw^y busidan, to kiss ; to rot. 

p ^y^jji bu kalamun, of various hues (as shot 
silk or the like) ; the chameleon ; changeable, 
capricious, inconstant, variable. 

a **} bum, owl. 

p a»j bum, country, region, land, ground. 

p jy i« vat, to him. 

p t_£yj bu (or Jo), odour, scent. JS t_sy pw*& 

gul, perfume of roses, 
p (j^^ busidan, to scent, diffuse perfume ; to 

p <U ba or £«", to, for ; in ; with ; of (sometimes 

p <u bih, quince ; good, excellent ; better, best ; 

preferable; well, cured, healed. 
a <Jj MM, by, with, concerning, or about (him 

or it). 
p l^j bahd, price, value. 
Pjl^j bahdr (pi. ^\j\^> bahdrdn), spring, 
p i_£i^J bahdri, vernal, 
p j\ <fcj M az, better than. 

p <0l^j bahdna, pretext, excuse, shift, subter- 

p .:>- £j l^j bahdna-ju (or i_SVr & \J balidna- 
juy), seeker of pretexts, shifty, shuffling. 

a Jl^j bahds-im (pi. of <U-^,J bahlmat), beasts, 

p j^i MMar, better. 


( 21 ) 

r i_f^\J bihtare, a better person. 

a Jjstf bahjat, beauty ; gladness. 

p Ar^i Bahrdm, name of several Persian kings. 

v jy /*\j^i Bohr am Gor, sixth of that name, 
a king of Persia, of the dynasty of the Sas- 
sanides, surnamed "Gor" from his fondness 
for chasing the wild ass. 

p iJjy p\j\J bahrdm gore, a Bahram gore. 

p li^au^j hi hast, is better. 

p li^A^j la hasht, in eight. Bihisht, paradise. 
Cl^i^ Jj>\ ahli bihisht, the blessed. 

p l 2JL^ bihishti, of paradise, paradisaical, 
celestial, heavenly. 

p «j ^xA^j bihishtl-ru, heavenly-faced. 

p *^j baham, together. ^>Vil J ^ baham bar 
amadan, to be displeased, disgusted, enraged ; 
to be distressed, discomposed ; to rise in op- 
position or rebellion. ^)A mJ baham bar 
zadan, to convulse. ^S A mJ baham bar 
Jcardan, to distress, displease, pain ; to upset, 

p x&JlZ j^j baham hashlda, drawn together; 

knitted, frowning (brow). 
r i>x*^j bahamand, are together, 
p ^^i bihi, quince-like. Jp ^j bihi-gard, 

quince-like dust, rough down on the face, 
p !^\J bihln, best. 

p ^j bl, without (prefixed to many words). 
a ^j bi, with me, unto me. 
p Lj biyd, come thou (rt. ^ \*\ amadan). 
p ^IjI^J biydbdn, desert, wilderness. (o^Lj 

ij+iSi biyubdni leuds, the desert of Jerusalem, 
p ,^-AJ (jbLj biydbdn-nishln, sitter in the 

desert, scenite. 
p JoLj bi ydbad, may obtain (rt. ^ib yd/tan). 
p (Jjjr^ (<J bl abrtin, dishonourable act. 
p fjs>- \ ^J bl ajal, not reached the fatal hour. 
p Juxs-\ ^j bl ikhtiydr, without the will, 

without choice or self-control, unconscious. 
p c_>l>! ^j> bl adab (pi. ^ti\ .J bl adabdn), 

ill-mannered, unpolite, rude, uncourteous. 
PjLj biydr, bring thou (rt. ^jj\ dvardan). 
p Ju^»'jLj biyardmld, ceased (rt. ,oJwJ ,\ ), 

p Jo^Lo biydrdyad, should adorn (rt. ^J\j\). 

p j \j \ ^ bl dzdr, without pain or trouble, in- 
noxious, harmless. yj\\\ ^ bi dzdr tar, more 
harmless, more innoxious. " 

p u>.ULj biydzdrad, torments, vexes, harasses 
(rt. ^^jj\ dzdrdan). 

p ivj^i\jW biydzdrdan, to afflict (rt. ^<3j\\\). 

p aJ iljLj biydzdriyam, thou grievest me. 

p fc^*}W biydzmdi, prove, try (rt. ^dy*j\). 

p^JLjLj biydsdn, thou wouldest rest (rt.^Jj-ol ) 

a ^Lj baydz, note-book, blank book, common- 
place book ; fair copy, thing written out fair. 

p a iL^ci I-) bl i-J,ibdr, without estimation or 
consideration, disesteemed. 

p *X>)!Lj biydldyad, taints (rt. ^y\ dludan). 

?jyi\*i biydmoz, learn thou (rt. ^~>-y\). 

a ^Lj baydn, explanation, disclosure, exposi- 
sition, illustration. 

p ij\jj\ jj bl anddza, without measure. 

r c_sL=jl ^j bl insdf, without equity, unjust. 

p ^iUaJl ^ bl insdf I, injustice; partiality. 

p j ^j J? bar, without fruit, unfruitful. 

p cSy .jJ bl barg, leafless. 

p a -aJ ^> bl basar, without sight ; senseless. 

p i-^i 1-) bl bahra, without a portion, destitute, 
unfurnished; unprofitable, vain. 

a ui-s-J bait, distich, couplet, verse ; house. 

(JUM 1 -^-^J baitu 7 mdl, chamber of finance, 

PALiU^^j bl tahdshd, without ceremony, 

pa _»JJj - ^j bl tadblr, without deliberation; 

a p *^-J baitam (for ^ <-^?> baiti man), my 

pa U*J ^j bl tamlz, void of discernment, stupid, 

dullard (not so correct as the next). 
PAJ--yfj ^ bl tamylz, undiscerning, undiscri- 

p <Li)»J' ^s bl tosha, without provisions, pro- 

visionless, unprovided, 
p a (J^iji ^ bl tauflk, graceless. 





a V^i-J baithd (p pi. of a l^-j bait) verses. 

a itj baite, a verse. 

p (mIs^J bljdn, lifeless. ^^S to^y %aw Icar- 
dan, to deprive of life. 

pa JU.^- .J Jl jamdll, want of beauty, un- 
comeliness, plainness. 

p a i-J\y>- J bl jawdb, unanswerable, irrefu- 
table ; without reply, having no answer. 

p J>j\ss\> blchuragl, helplessness. 

p i ilsnj blchdra (pi. ^Ujlsnj blchdragdn), 
without resource or remedy; helpless, re- 
mediless; in despair. 

p (j*££U bl cliun, without equal, peerless; God. 
p a (Jw^jI^U bl hdsil, unprofitable. 

PA Jus- 

just limits. 

^j bi hadd, unlimited, beyond bounds or 


"J~ L5 

J bihurmat, disrespectful, uncivil, 

unceremonious, irreverent, 
p l£~+j2- l^ bl hurmatl, rudeness, incivility, 

discourtesy, disrespect, absence of ceremony, 
p a C-jIwa. ^j bl hisdb, incalculable, countless. 
pa c^-w«a. ^i bl hamlyat, spiritless, 
p ^.j MM, root. {j^S f^J li]ch Jcardan, to 

take root, 
p a h^U bl khabar (p pi. ^\jJsXj bl Jchabardn), 

without information, unaware, unconscious ; 

uninformed, ignorant, unmindful. ^s^sAj 

bl Mabarl, thou art ignorant. JcJ k*^U bl 

Mabardnand, they are ignorant. 
p^Ls^j bl-khivdbl, sleeplessness, loss of sleep, 

"want of sleep, 
p J»ri- jj bl Miwud, beside one's self. 

r ±j bed, willow. (JjCi*.* J*-. 1 bedi mushk, 

p J\ juj blddr, awake ; sober, 
p ^^s+i blddrl, state of being awake, waking, 

wakefulness, vigilance, want of sleep, absence 

of sleep, forbearance from sleep. 

p jj£J!juj bl ddnish, ignorant; ignorance. 

p ^iJljwJ bl ddnishl, foolish act, folly, indis- 

p jjjfci ,<J bl dire gh , unsparing, ungrudging, 
unstinted, liberal. 

p c^-wiJ (J bl dast, handless. 

p jj J*-j baidah, pawn at chess. 

p J ii ^J bl dil, without heart, out of heart; 
ignorant, silly. 

p jjj J jj bl din, irreligious, infidel. 

p ,A>,^ ^ bl dine, an infidel ; a miscreant. 

p ^»ij ^j #i rasml, irregularity, bad prece- 
dent. " 

paLj^ ^j bl rizd, without satisfaction. 

p lJ'j^j cj> bl-rozl, unaided by fortune, without 
luck, luckless, hapless, unlucky. 

p ^j^ birun, out, outside, without, abroad, 

p jj ^j bl zar, without gold, moneyless. 

a ^j**X) bis-sa, fie ! out upon ! 
p C^«*-J blst, twenty. 


j bl sar u pa, without head or foot, 


poor, destitute of everything, wretched. 

r jjlj j -j ^ bl sar upds-l, wretchedness, com- 
plete destitution. 

p fjH^j besh, greater, exceeding, more; any 

vjxAuJ beshtar, more, more abundantly ; for 
the most part ; more intent. 

p^*.,2> s j bl sharml, shamelessness, impudence. 

Pjjfj jjk-J lesh-zor, of great strength, very 

pal—CS) ^) bl shalclc, without doubt, doubtless. 

bl shumdr, innumerable, incalculable, 
r<Liw,j bisha, desert, wild, uncultivated country; 


forest, wood. &£*■?> blshas.e, a forest. 

a <Ua-J baizat, egg. 

Ajlk-J baitdr, horse-doctor. 

p a uu-^ills ji bl tdlcat, without strength, weak. 

p ^iilLjjj bl talcatl, weakness, inability, want 

of power to support, incapacity of endurance, 

p %-<*h ^ bl tam^, without longing or hanker- 
ing, uhdesirous. 
a «_-j bai^, selling, buying, commerce, 
p a til*^ bl ^izzatl, dishonour. 


( 23 ) 


p*i^j bl gharn, unconcerned, without sorrow. 
^*£ <j bl gh aml, (thou) art unconcerned. 

p SJoli ^J bl fd>ida, useless, ineffectual, un- 
availing, fruitless, unprofitable. 

p jlai-J biyuftdd, he fell (rt. ,^j\ij\). 

p iHsJui biyuftad, he falls (rt. ^tibil uftudan). 

PAjAJJ ^J bl Icadr, without power or value, 

p a j\Ji jJ bl Icardr, restless, fidgetty. 

pa^IJLj bl My us, without measure or number; 
incalculable ; immense, imcomprehensible, 
inconceivable ; untold. 

PjL^Lj ba yakbdr, all at once. 

p iJLs& ^i bl Icafsh, shoeless, discalceated. 

y^JLaZ ,J bl kafshl, lack of shoes, shoelessness. 

p 43l£-J blgdna^.^J&J^+i bigdnagdn), foreign, 

strange, alien. 
p alLj fo y«A, out of season. 

p t^yS^] bl girdn, inestimable, great, large, 

immense, excessive. 
p ^UX-j bl gumdn, without doubt, assuredly. 
p al^J bl gundh, guiltless, innocent. 
p ^fcLLj bl gundhe, an innocent person. 
p tj*j III, shovel, spade ; pickaxe. 

p ^lal-J Bailkdn, name of a city in Armenia 
Major, near the ports of the Caspian Sea. 

p *j blm, dread, fear ; danger. 

PjLk«j blmdr, sick. 

pa uls^^J bl muhubtl, without respect, un- 

paiJ^?.^ j bl muruwat, unfeeling, unkind, 

pjx* j bl maghz, without kernel, marrowless. 

p ^j-j bain, desert. Baina, between, betwixt. 

p ^^j bin, behold (imp. of (j^V.^ dldan). 

p u-j bind, seeing, possessed of vision. 

p vX—j blnad, sees, seeth (rt. io^O dldan). 

p L^cs-IAi-j bii/anddkht, he overthrew, he 
upset (rt. ^isi^jJl anddMitan). 

p jjiu Jo-j biyandesh, reflect, consider (rt. 

p (_/iti-J blnash, behold (of) him (her or it.) 
Blnish, sight, vision. 

p ^ULJ ^j bl nishdn, without sign, mark, or 
trace ; " inscrutable. 

pa .Jii jj bl-nazlr, matchless, unequalled, peer- 
less, unmatched. 

a <-L^i-J bainaka, betwixt thee, between thee. 

p *^-j blnam, I see (rt. u^>.^ dldan). 

p J l_s^ ^ namdz, prayerless. 

p <-fjb«J [J fo namdze, a prayerless fellow. 

pLx»j 5l waw-'d, without food or victuals, indigent. 

p ^JLj ^ bl nawds-l, indigence, indigency, 
want of food, fasting, destitution. 

a ^-j bainl, between me, betwixt me. 

p ^>-J blnl, the nose ; thou shalt or mayest 
Bee ; thou seest (rt. ^jSjJ dldan). jUj ( ^*J 
naml blnl, thou seest not ; seest thou not ? 

a L v ,Lo uf^V. (j^J baina yadai ba-Mlid, in the 
presence of her lord. 

a <U Jo ^j-j bain yadaihi, in his presence. 

p **i-J blniyam, thou seest me. 

p a j_jli»-J bl wafds-l, want of payment, failure 

in performance ; faithlessness, ingratitude, 
p a LZ-Oj (P bl wakt, unseasonable, 
p Sj-j blva, widow, 
p ^y £j-j bwa-zan, widow woman, 
p jj&^j Si hunar (pi. ^^-b 15J ^ hunardn), 

stupid, unintelligent, unskilful, inapt ; devoid 
of merit, worthless ; graceless, ungodly. 

p *1&J& ^j bl hangdm, unseasonable. 

p KJu^j blhuda (or KX^J blhuda), absurd, vain, 
nonsensical, senseless, useless. 

p b pa, foot, leg ; base, foundation ; power, 
ability, strength. 

p (Jiljl) pdddsh, retribution, requital, retalia- 
tion, reprisal. 

p aLi iA> pddshdh (pi. ^jlaLijb pddshdhdn), 
king, monarch, emperor. 

p aj\j iLijb pddshdh-zdda, king's son, prince. 

p ^J&Liol) pddshdhl, condition of a king, 


( 24 ) 


royalty, kingly rank, dignity or office. 
^S (JI>L$>jI> pddshdM kardan, to act the 
king; to reign, rule, govern. 
p Jbbi jb pddshuhe, a certain king. 

p j\j par, over, across. 

p {jmj^j Pars, Persia. 

p L^b pdrsd (pi. (jLL^b pdrsdydn), abste- 
mious, pure, holy; devotee, ascetic. 

p sS\j LjjU parsd-zdda, saint's son. 

p ^Jl-^b parstiii, purity ; holiness ; asceticism. 
Pdrsas-e, a certain devotee, a pure, holy man. 

p ^-sjb Pdrsi, Persian. 

p Xj\j para, torn to pieces, in rags. 

r a.b s\j para pdra, patch upon patch. 

p JjJ Hj\j pdra-doz, patcher, botcher. 

p &»Jjb pdrina, ancient; elapsed, past. 

p fjAi pds, watch, guard, defence ; regard, 

consideration. Jh\»~ (jwb pdsi khdtir, at- 
tention to wishes or wants. 

p i^U-sb pdsbdn, watchman ; shepherd. 

p isls^b pds khdtir, attention to wishes ; for 
the sake of, in deference to. 

p .^b pdse, one watch, a single watch. 

p ^Jw-lb pdshidan, to sprinkle, strew, scatter. 

p x<xJ*\j pdsMda, strewed, scattered. 

p (jJb pdk, pure, clean, cleansed, bright ; free. 
^S CJ\j pdk Icardan, to make clean, to 
cleanse, to clear, to free, to winnow. 

p jL^b pdk-baz, sporting harmlessly; honour- 
able lover. 

p jj^J cJb pdk burdan, to carry clean off. 

p li ^*\j cJb pdk-ddman, pure-skirted, one 
who keeps his garments clean and pure. 

p.i cJb pdk-rav, upright in conduct. 

p ^j+i- «~> CJ\i pdk sokMan, to consume utterly, 
to burn clean up. 

p ijmM cJb pdk-nafs, pure-souled. 

p sj-Sb pdklza, pure, chaste ; cleanly, neat. 

p jj.j #J^b pdkiza-run, clear-faced. 

p j^J^Jb pdlhang, bridle, halter. 

p a l)Jj\j pdnzdah, fifteen. ,Jjbd iJpb panzdah- 
sdlagl, the age of fifteen years. 

p^b pdi, foot, leg; foundation; stand, pedestal ; 
basement. <-^>,b pdyat, thy foot. ^A^b 
pay ash, his (her or its) foot. *jb pay am, 
my foot. (jjbJl i_?b jl «z ^?dt uftddan, to 
break down on the road. ^.X*l jJ ^jb jl 
az pdi dar umadan, to slip, trip, tumble, fall. 
L* t^b j J (far ^;dye md, in our wake, ob 
^-i^J pdi ddshtan, to hold one's footing. 
fjzij* tjb ^a? giriftan, to obtain a footing, 
to take root. 

r (^jbb pdydn, end, extremity, close. 

p jcj !_$\j pdi-band, foot-bound, tied by the leg. 
VAJ ^jb pdi-bandem, we are tied by the leg. 

p (Aj-jb pdi-posh, (foot-cover) shoe. 

p (C~jy i_fb pdi-posM, covering for the feet. 

~s \&j\i pdi-ddr, firm, fixed, stable, perma- 
nent, lasting, enduring. 

p *uob pdi-gdh, dignity, rank ; office, post ; 

p jJUjb pdi-mdl, trodden under foot; ruined; 

p aJojb pdyanda, firm, perpetual, permanent, 
lasting, durable. 

p <ub pdya, rank, grade, dignity ; step, degree, 
point, promotion. 

p ^Jb pds-e, a leg. 

p (jiXob pdndan, to stand still or firm ; to 

halt, hesitate ; to last, endure, 
p L1 ^s^ pukhtan, to cook, boil ; to concoct, 

imagine, entertain an idea, conceit, or notion. 

p <&d>^ piikMa, cooked, boiled ; matured, ripe ; 
rich in experience. 

PjJj pidar, father. i^Jj Jj pidarat, thy father. 

p <^j)jk)>J padrud, farewell, adieu. 

p Jo Jj padid, clear, evident, plain, manifest, 
public. ioJ>-*! <Aj<Jo padid dmadan, to ap- 
pear, become manifest. 

p ji jj pazlr, accept thou. 

p jjisjjj paziruftan, to accept, receive, submit 
to, consent ; to experience, undergo. 

p j par (or j parr), feather, wing. Pur, full, 
filled, crammed, glutted, satisfied ; much. 


( 25 ) 


p A j par Uganda, scattered ; disturbed, un- 
quiet, restless, uneasy, distressed; ruined. 

r J J sS^\ji pardganda-dil, heart-wounded, 
confused in mind, bewildered, distracted. 

p lJ))j ^-^ >A pardganda-rozi, disordered in 
one's circumstances; one whose worldly affairs 
are in confusion. 

p y J partav, ray, light, beam of sun or moon. 

p t_5yy partave, a ray, a single or solitary ray. 

-£ jS=>-ji pur-hazar, full of caution, heedful ; 
ware, wary, cautious. 

p (JL\£.j) pur Mash, battle, war, conflict, strife, 
brawl, quarrel. 

p .k>- j pur-khatar, full of peril, dangerous. 

p c^i-ljj parddkht, engagement, business, 
affair, dealing; attention. 

p ^isi-itJj parddkktan, to quit, leave, abandon; 
to execute, finish ; to arrange, prepare, set 
in order ; to have dealings ; to wait upon, to 
mind, attend to, be attentively employed, 
closely and busily engaged, or taken up with. 

p <&rs-iJj parddhhta, engaged, employed, occu- 
pied ; attentive. 

r £j£ji pur-dard, full of pain, painful. 

p sJji parda, veil, curtain ; musical key or mode; 
or style of music. ^jlsM tfJhJ pardan alhdn, 
musical scale, gamut. ^ xJj parda^-iblnl, 
the cartilage that separates the nostrils ; the 
6eptum of the nose. jjlAs ijy pardat-i 
^ushshdk, (melody of lovers), name of a cer- 
tain musical mode. ClS^j l^-%a£> iJ>_ i pardas-i 
haft rang, veil of seven colours ; worldly 

Pjlj tidy parda-ddr, chamberlain. 

r^l^y parastdr (pi. ^l^u-aJ parastdran), 
worshipper; servant, waiter, waiting-maid. 

p x&iz~iji parastanda, adoring ; worshipper. 

p Jwj j pur sad, he (or she) should ask or inquire. 

p tj^~>J pursish, question, enquiry ; condolence. 

p ^iu« Jw^j pursldamash, I asked him (or her). 

p ^jX^j pursldan, to ask, inquire, interrogate, 

p ^^y parniydn, a kind of fine painted 
Chinese silk ; any garment made of the same. 

p !j j parwa, care, concern, anxiety, thought, 

attention, heed, 
p lJj\jj? parwdri, fatted, stall-fed. lSj'Jj 3 j» 

gdvi parwdrl, fatted ox. 
p &j\jji parwana, moth. 

p jir^j _> parvardagdr, the Deity (as nourisher 
and supporter of all). 

p ^^>jjji parvardan, to rear, foster, cherish, 
nourish, bring up, pamper. 

vhJj,j parvarda, brought up, nourished, reared, 
fostered, educated; foster-son. 

p i&jjj} parvarish, bringing up, rearing, pa- 
tronage, support, sustentation, sustenance, 

maintenance, u: — ijjr> parvartshat, thy 

p n&jjji parvarinda, cherisher, bringer up, 

fosterer, nourisher, trainer. 
p (j^jjijr' parvarldan, to bring up, to train up, 

foster, cherish, nourish. 
p ^jJ mJ Parw'tn, the Pleiades, 
p iJ parra, side, border, ^-j a j parra<-i blnl, 

the nostrils; the sides or walls of the nostrils, 
p j^i^u&j parhelchtan, to be on one's guard ; 

to abstain, refrain; to practise moderation, 

temperance and sobriety. 

p j-Jbj parhez, abstinent, temperate, chaste, 
continent ; abstinence, continence, eontroul 
over the passions, sobriety, ^ Jjs J-j^j parhez 
Icardan, to abstain, refrain. 

PjlT^J&j parhezgdr (pi. ^j^ja^? parhezgdrdn), 
sober, abstinent, chaste, temperate, abstemi- 
ous, moderate, cautious, careful. 

p ^j jlTj-Jfcj parhezgdr l, chastity, temperance, 
continence, restraint, moderation. 

p ,_£_) pari, fairy, elf, fay. 

p ^jjj purl, thou art full, filled, crammed. 

pLj (Cpj parl-paikar, fairy-faced; beautiful, 
comely, handsome. 

p ^,Jo [.} parldan, to fly, to flutter. 

p il«>i i_$j parl-rukhsdr, fairy-cheeked. 

p ^j ijji parl-ru (pi. ^Vjj t_?^ pari ruydn), 
fairy-faced; handsome, comely. 

p^IAj j pareshdn, dispersed, scattered ; discur- 
sive, roving; confounded, confused ; incohe- 

( 26 ) 


rent, desultory, rambling, random, hair- 
brained, harum scarum; afflicted, sad. 

p J ls>- [^lij j pareshdn-hdl, distressed, ruined. 

p e !U- ^IAj j pareshdn-hdll, a distressed, sad, 
and ruined state; distress, misery, perplexity, 
vexation, trouble. 

p ils mi J l^uLjj pareshdn-rozgdr, distressed in 
one's circumstances,ruined, broken, bankrupt. 

p civjuuJ >j pareshdnl, distraction, dispersion, 
rout; distress, desolation; insaneness, vagary. 

p ^y*'r> pazhmurdan, to fade, wither. 

p &Jjs* ti pazhmurda, withered, faded. 

p ^*3 pas, behind, after; then ; therefore, con- 
sequently ; hence, afterwards ; the rear. 

p c^-auJ past, low, short, dwarfish. Pasat, be- 
hind thee, after thee. 

p <$CmJ pista, pistachio-nut. 

p jmJ pisar (pi. (^)V"-> pisardn), son, lad, boy. 

p lJjjhJ pisar e, a boy, a lad, a son. 

p ^kX*! Aiju*j pasand amadan, to be pleasing, 
acceptable, approved, reasonable. 

p ^dJMj pasandan or ^Aj AX^j pasandldan, to 
approve, applaud, commend. 

p Aj Ai/juJ pasandld, he approved ; approved. 

p * Aj Aj^w pasandlda, approved, applauded, com- 
mended; acceptable, grateful; warranted. 

p JisA) A««j pasandldatar, more approved. 

p «fW paslch, march, marching ; preparation, 

p ^La-owJ paslniydn, followers, those who come 
after; the moderns. 

p e^.Aj pusht, the back ; support, prop, stay. 
^\^ lI^Aj pusht dddan, to turn the back, 
to fly, to flee. u l^~Aj pushti pa, instep. 

p <&Aj pushta, bundle, pack, load ; faggot. 

p (i^uJ pushti, aid, help, succour. 

p^L-^Ij pushtlldn, supporter; prop, buttress. 

p *jij pashm, wool. 

p &£j pasha or <Uio pashsha, gnat. 

t yJ^-i pashlz, any little piece of money, small 

p ^U-Aj pashlmdn, penitent, repentant. 

p ^jl^Juj pashlmdni, penitence, repentance. 

^jyi- tJl^Aj pashlmdni Umurdan, to 

repent, to grieve, to be sorry. 
p (jwita palds, coarse woollen cloth, such as is 

worn by dervishes, sackcloth, 
p ^y ij^ii palds-posh, clad in dervish's 

attire, dressed in the garb of a dervish, 
p rj«y ij*&> palds-poshl, a being dressed in the 

garb of a dervish, 
p ^S-'Aj palang (pi. ^l^dj palangdn), leopard. 
p ^Cs] (^SAj palang-afgan, leopard-killing, 

overthrower of leopards, 
r ,Smj palangl, peculiar to, pertaining to a 

leopard; the nature or ferocity of a leopard, 
p aJj palid, filthy, dirty, impure, defiled. 
p .j'A-Ij pallttar, dirtier, more nasty, filthier, 
p alij pandh, protection, defence, shelter, 
p Jkb pandhe, a shelter, a refuge, 
p <Ljj pamba (or pumba), cotton, 
p jj J <Uij pumba-doz, carder of cotton, 
p mA) pa>nj, five. 

p ils^j panjdh, fifty. 

p *zs\i panjum, fifth. 

p <k&\) panja, claw, talon ; hand with the fingers 
expanded. ^X*£i\ jj djs\s panja dar afgandan 
(or ^S ks\J panja hardan), to grapple, 
contend, strive. 

p Jcj pand, advice, warning, admonition, counsel. 

p ,\suj pinddr, conceit; esteem, good opinion; 
suppose, imagine (imp. of ^J^\jci). 

p j^wil Jcj pinddshtan, to think, consider, sup- 
pose, imagine, fancy ; to esteem ; to conceit. 

p ^jJjj pande, a bit of advice, hint, suggestion. 

p (O^A 1 pinhdn, secret, hidden, concealed, sup- 
pressed. i^Ai> ^J^a pinhdn shudan, to be 

p r~o panlr, cheese (for which the panther is 
said to have a predilection, or at least to be 
satisfied with a small piece or morsel thereof. 

p lJj^. panire, a cheese. 

p c^w«j post (pi. l(A»jy posthd), skin, hide, 
rind, coat, peel, shell, slough (of a snake). 

( 27 ) 


t^-wjj J i»e-*~s»j ^?os< £<w ^os£, coat upon 

coat (like an onion). 
p ^ji-sy postin, fur cloak or garment, dres3 

made of skins. _, Jo ^0 ^^i-j»j postin darldan 

(or i^Ocji L1 y-^~:^ ^J dar postin uftddan or 

jj^ij raftari), to speak ill of, to tell the faults, 

to slander. 
r <_?jj^ tv^***^ postln-dozl, business of one who 

makes garments of skins ; trade of a furrier. 
p l ,u r c^ijj postinl, made of fur, far-wrought. 

r ^a^-I^j poshldan, to cover, hide, conceal, 
mask ; to wear, put on ; to dress, clothe. 

p 5Ju-iy poshlda, hidden, concealed ; covered, 

clothed, clad. 
p jS v puldd, steel. 
p_j jL jJy puldd-bdzu, steel-armed, i.e. having 

an arm of steel ; brawny, sinewy. 
p ^jV.y puydn, running, 
p ^j-^y pundan, to run. 
py^j pahlu, the side under the short ribs. 
p j> pai, heel ; footstep, track, trace ; muscle, 

nerve; after, in pursuit of. b £ ^> j\ azpaUi 

ma, at our heels, after us. 
p [gJ w pai-a-pai, step by step, successively. 

p SOU piydda (pi. ^lijl-j piyddagdn), foot- 
passenger, pedestrian; pawn at chess, 
p jLj piydz, onion, 
p I*Lj pay am, news, message, errand. 
p -ju pech, turn, twist. 

r u Ju-jlsnj pechdnldan, to twist ; to turn away, 

p «aj -iO ^w^ j?ecA, twisting and coiling. 

p ^jS^jsXi pechldan, to coil, wind, twist, writhe, 

bend ; avert, turn away ; to roll, to rumble 
(as the bowels). 

pLv-j paida, produced, created; plain, distinct, 

evident, manifest. 
p^-j plr (pi. uj\j^> plran), old, aged ; holy man, 

saint ; spiritual guide, prior, abbot. _.; 

u^flj \Ja piri tarllcat, spiritual guide, superior 

of a religious order or community, 
p ^Lj pet astern, to adorn, patch up. 

p ^y* \j*j plrdman, and ^jyt\^j pirdmun, about, 

around, round about, environs, skirt. 
p <u\j+} pirdna, like or worthy of an old man. 
p ^b\j~> pirdhan, loose vest, tunic, shirt, 
p &U*J per ay a, ornament, decoration, 
p ^jjry> plr-zan, old woman, 
p iJ) i-J plr-zane, a certain old woman, 
p £-* jfj plr-mard, old man. 
p Jj^-j piroz, victorious; prosperous; favoured 

by fortune and opportunity, 
p ^xj Xj+i pira zan, old woman. 
p ^yt-^j pirdhan, shirt, shift, smock ; tunic, 
p i_f^J piri, old age, decrepitude, 
p tjy^J pire, an old man. 
p j_/u-j pesh, before, in front of, in the van ; in 

the presence of, to. Pay ash, at the heels of 

him or her, after it. 

p j I (ji--» pesh dr, take (imp. of ^J U%\ {jm-^> 

pesh dvardan). 
p j \\ (ji.«J pesh az In, before this, heretofore. 

p i^A^I (jm.^j pesh dmadan, to come before, 

meet ; to occur, to happen 
p ^JlA-J peshdnl, forehead, skull. 
p li-uI-j peshat, before thee, in thy presence. 
p.iA^j peshtar, before, foremost. 
v^p.i , (ji-J pesh raftan, to go a-head ; to succeed, 
p jJL-j pesh-rav, leader, captain, 
r j^ipiji-J pesh giriftan, to propose to one's- 

self, to adopt, embrace. 

p .-j (j^-j pesh gir (imp. of jjSJj ij^ P es h 
giriftan), take, select, pick, choose. 

p <*^-J pesha, business, craft, trade, habit. 

p jjiJ!^ peshawar, artificer, craftsman. 

p i ^j*^^> pesltin, primitive, preceding, former. 

p ^Li-^j peshlniydn, those gone before, they 
of primitive times, the ancients. 

r /♦U-J pa igh dm (or *i-j paigham), message. 

p j*ax^> pa igh am-bar (pi. ^^-/♦jLj pa igh am- 
bardn), messenger, prophet. 

p lLn-j paik, courier, messenger. 

PjliLj paikdr, battle, conflict, contest. 

p ^j^--> p'aikdn, javelin, dart, spear. 


( 28 ) 


^ij+ipil (pi. ^JLjpiIdn), elephant. Li-*«u*/« (J-j 
^nfo' m«s£, furious elephant, elephant in rut. 

p i^VLj pilban (pi. ^ULLj pllbanari), ele- 

p ^^Lj pll-tan (elephant-bodied), big, huge, 
bulky, burly, gigantic. 

p jJu) pllawar, pedlar, huckster. 

p aLj #>!/«, cocoon of the silkworm. 

p joU-j paimun, promise, treaty, covenant. 

p ij\**j paimdna, measure either for wet or 
dry goods ; cup, goblet, bowl. 

p j~*^i payam-bar, messenger, prophet. 

p iS^j j^-^ payambar-zddayi, birth or de- 
scent from a prophet. 

p ^-j^j paivastan, to join, unite, associate 

r fc^j^j paivasta, joined, united ; constantly, 
habitually, uninterruptedly. 

p Ju »-j paivand, kindred, relation, connexion ; 
conjunction, joint, articulation. 

r di at, of thee ; to thee. 

p li' ta, until ; in order that, so that ; as soon 
as, as much as ; so long as, as long as; ere; 
lo ! behold ! beware ! have a care ! 

p <— >u tub, heat, warmth, lustre ; power. 

p^bij' tabdn, lustrous, bright, shining, dazzling. 

p ^IxwuJu tdbistan, summer. 

p f'jju tdb-ddr, bright, shining, glossy. 

APjta'b' Tatar, Tartars, Tartary. 

a^JU' tadhir, influencing, impressing, impres- 

siveness, efficiency, efficacy. 
a _U taj, crown, diadem, coronet. 

Wj\s^-\'j tdj-ddr, wearing a crown, crowned, 

a .=^lj tdjir, merchant, trader. 
a (CfSs-li' taj ire, a merchant, 
p u*x=-lj ta chand, how far ? how long ? 

p ^'i^li talditan, to attack, rush upon ; to 
gallop, to walk fast; incursion, irruption. 

K j^- to" tasJcMr, delay, postponement, reserva- 

a i_^>j Jly taidib, erudition, instruction ; chas- 
tisement, correction, discipline. 

f frju tdruj, plunder, devastation, destruction, 
waste, desolation ; dissolution. 

plITAj' tar ah, top, summit ; crown of the head; 
point of a spear. 

a /ff.'.ju tas-rikh, date, day of the month. 

p CS^j li tank, dark, dull, cloudy. 

p J J l1x)j!j' tdrlh-dil, black-hearted ; be- 
nighted, depraved. 

p 15^)" ttirilci, darkness. 

p i AJjli tazanda, galloping, cantering, prancing. 

p s\\i tdza, fresh, verdant, blooming, blushing. 

Pjl^j sj\j tdza-bahdr, fresh spring. 

p jj s\\j tdza-ru, fresh-faced, smiling. 

p cJj^ tdzl, Arab, Arabian, Arabic language. 

p <SJ \j J \j' tdziydna, scourge, lash; whipping, 

flogging, caning. 
p jjJj \\\j tdzldan, to run. 
a c-i-oli" ta*assuf, grieving, regretting; grief, 

sadness, anguish, pain, -p^jyi- t__a~.-li tas-as- 
suf Miwurdan, to grieve. 

a ULsU tas-assufan, of grief, from vexation, sor- 
rowfully (ace. case employed adverbially). 

p ti ASU tdftan, to shine, sparkle ; to spin, to 
twist, twirl ; to turn away the face. 

p cJ\j talc, vine, tendril ; clasp. 

p Ls^ li* td Icujd, how far ? to what extent ? 

p ^5 li' td Icai, how long ? till when ? 

a i_ cJli tailif, composition, compilation. 

a (J.^Ij tas-ammul, reflection, meditation, con- 
sideration, thought. 

p (oUli' tdwdn, mulct, fine, amercement. 

p ,_5j li' td wai or vai (for j\ li td u), until he. 

a Jjjvi tas-wil, explanation, interpretation, ex- 
position, commentary. 

a li-jli' ta^yld, aid, help, assistance. 

PjLi' tabdr, family, tribe. 

f a Li tabdh, ruin, destruction ; ruined; ruinous. 

p ^J&Ui' tabahl, ruin, wreck, perdition; wicked- 
ness, depravity, dissoluteness. 

a i_l»A->i' tai<M,change, alteration, permutation. 


( 29 ) 


a CJjii tabarrulc, felicitation, benediction, con- 
gratulation; abundance, plenty. 

a »m**j tabassum, smiling, smile. 

p <CJ tabah (or <Uj for aLj taluk), ruin. <LJ 
^y-io tabah gashtan, to become marred, to 
be spoiled. 

P lSJ^> Tatarl, Tartary. i_iyj' t§& kulahi tatarl, 
a Tartar cap sucb as is worn by men of dis- 
tinction. Tatare, a Tartar. 

a <UsJ tatimmat, completion ; appendix, sup- 

a *jl==^ tijurat, traffic, trade, commerce. 

&.j~s\2£T tajasur, boldness, hardibood. 

a <Uysr tajribat, experiment, experience, proof, 

a k_-J^ar tajrlb, trial, testing, proof. 

a ( j, M „m"c" tajassus, spying, watching, search, 

a (J^" tajalli, lustre, brightness, brilliancy. 
ap ^S J^ 1 tajalli Icardan, to reveal, make 
clear or manifest. 

A i— ^I-y tajannub, avoidance, ap ^Jj c__~i~£T 
tajannub /cardan, to shun, eschew, avoid, re- 
frain, desist. 

a y AscT tahzlr, bidding beware, setting on one's 

guard ; threatening, cautioning, warning. 
KJjZsCtahrir, manumission; writing correctly. 

a <C*jysT tahrlmat, rendering venerable or sa- 
cred ; commencement of prayer. 

a U.<,M-sr n tahsibu (the gezmated form of ^j^uaf 
tahsibuna, aor. of c_-vu*=». ), ye will reckon. 
liK^ucsr J /a tahsibunl, do not consider me. 

a ( j--u k 2E tahsln, commendation, applause, ap- 
probation, approval, a p ^ji -.^ussr 1 tahsln 
kardan, to applaud, approve, commend. 

a J-^asT tahsil, collection, gain, acquisition. 

a Ata^ 1 tuhfat, present, gift ; rarity. 

a (J»i-<" tahkik, investigation ; truth, cer- 
tainty. < _£JL2E" Jjbl alili tahkik, divines, doc- 
tors of divinity. 

a *£=*" tahakkum, commanding, ruling; do- 
minion, rule, authority. 
A J^cs" tahammul, bearing, carrying a load ; 

supporting, bearing with ; patience, en- 
durance, forbearance. 

a A-^sf tahlyat (pi. C^U^sT tahlyat), congratu- 
lation, felicitation. 

a^-^sT tahaiyur, astonishment, amazement, 
bewilderment, confusion. 

p Li-Aiir takht, throne. 

a t^zAjkr takhlls, release, deliverance, rescue, 

p *;kr tukhm, seed ; fruit-stone ; egg. 

p iJJ^JJ taddruk, reparation, making amends; 
precaution, preparation. 

A^j^' tadblr, deliberation, counsel, advice; 
arrangement, management, skill, prudence, 
shift, contrivance ; controul, government. 

a jjj tadri (gezmated form of ^Jj tadrl, aor. 
of the defective verb ^fjJ, he knew), thou 
hast known, or knowest. 

a i_jTjJJ tadrl (aor. of the verb lJj^), thou 
knowest, or knewest. 

a fflj^> tadrlj, gradation. 

a i__^JSi jj tazhlb, gilding. 

p j" tar, wet, moist, fresh, green (also a particle 
which, added to an adjective, forms the com- 
parative degree). 

p \ji turd, thee ; to thee ; for thee, 
p jjy" tardzu, balance, scales. 

a <3y' tardnl, thou seest me (aor. of ^j rata, 

irregular, with the affixed pronoun). 
a <Jjj' turbat, grave, sepulchre, tomb. 

a <L.y tarbiyat, instruction, discipline, tuition, 

education, training, bringing up. 
a i_ ^jy tartlb, arrangement ; preparation, 

getting ready ; composition. 
a J^y tartll, reciting with a clear voice, 

chanting, intoning, intonation. 
a *=-y tarahhum, commiseration. 
a J.y" taraddud, coming and going, continual 

movement to and fro ; irresolution, hesitation, 

doubt, wavering, 
p Ly tarsd, infidel ; pagan ; christian. 
p jol-y tarsan, fearing, dreading ; afraid, 
p Jk~y tarsad, (he or she) fears, or should fear. 


tarsamat, I fear thee. 


( 30 ) 


p ^•X^ijj tarsidan, to fear, be afraid, alarmed 
or apprehensive ; to stand in awe. 

p iAp" tursh or turush, sour, acid ; crabbed ; 
austere, rough, morose. 

Pj-i y tursh-ru, sour-faced. 

p jjj \jJ$> ^Jiijj turush-shlrin, sour-sweet. 

p **b ipj turush-tcMn, sour-flavoured, acid. 

p ( -£y turshi, acidity, sourness. 

a .Jv tarakki, rise, ascendant, promotion, 

p ijjjj tark, abandonment, forsaking, quitting, 
leaving, relinquishment, giving over, renun- 
ciation, neglect, dereliction ; abdication. 

i—ii}\ CSy tarki adab, rudeness, abandon- 
ment of due respect, breach of good manners. 

ap ^Isf- CSj tarki jan, leave of life, farewell 

to life, m<^ ^- V t<W& kardan, to leave, 

quit, forsake. 
pa <lSj Turk (pi. ^JJ turkan), Turk. 
a da J tarikat, bequest, legacy, leaving, 
p (jlx^Sy Turkistan, Transoxiana. 
a *^3 turunj, citron ; orange. (See the chapter 

of the Kur'an entitled "Joseph.") 
a *J J tarannum, singing, modulation, humming 

to one's-self. 
p nJ tarra, green, pot-herb. 
a JJwjJ tiryuk, treacle of Baghdad, esteemed 

an antidote against poison. 
a Jj 3 twidu, thou desirest (aor. of j\j\ aruda, 

4th form of j\j, concave ^ waiv). 
a JJJJ tazdad, thou wilt increase (gezmate of 

J! Jp' tazdudu, aor. of Ji Jj\ izddda, 8th form 

of the rt. j\j za^a, concave ,_> ye). 
a rfA-****J tasblh, celebration of the praises of 

God ; chaplet of beads, rosary. 
ap i^y^ ^-**u3 tasblh- khwdn, a singer of the 

praises of God ; one who tells his beads. 
p ul~m3 tast, or tust, thee it is, is thine. 

c^wwj j bar tust, on thee (devolves). 
a U|/uJ tusrifu, commit excess (gezmate of 

^»i-ujj tusrifuna, aor. of u-i^ asrafa, 4th 

form of the rt. i J,-j). 

A .JumJi tasalll, consolation, solacing. 

a *-)-«aJ' tashm, delivery, surrender, consign- 
ment, submission, resignation ; health, se- 
curity. ap^ji^S mJmJ taslim kardan, to give 
up, resign, surrender. 

A & ++A3 tashblh, comparison, simile. 

a CJjjSjJ tushrika, nasbated aor. of CSjJj\ he 
gave a partner, 4th form of the rt. lL^-2) . 

a i i}Ju3 tashrlf, ennobling, honouring, con- 
ferring honour ; compliment 

p ^xiA; tishnagl, thirst, thirstiness. 

p d^AJ tishna (pi. ^IxiAi' tishnagdn), thirsty. 

pjyw3 tashwlr, anguish, distress. 

a ij!»jj&3 tashwlsh, bother, harass, confusion, 
alarm, disquietude. 

a c-i-J Laj' tasdnif (pi. of L_a«;«^" tasnlf), lite- 
rary compositions, books, works, writings. 

a {JJJudJ tasd'ik, verifying, attesting; receiving 
as true, credence. 

a i_Jy2J' tasarruf, controul, power, grasp, dis- 
posal, use. 

a «_^«aj tasannu^, artifice, speciousness, dis- 
simulation, display. 

a i <Lx>£U tasnlf, compiling, composing. 

a jy=3 tasauwur, imagination, fancy, idea, 

image, a p ^S jj*oj tasauwur kardan, to 
imagine, image, picture, portray. 

a i_Jj*3j tasauwuf, contemplation; Sufism. 

a e^' tazarru-*, humbling of one's self, pro- 
found submission, earnest supplication or 

a Jtllai' tatdtcul, oppression, usurpation, con- 
quest ; rudeness. 

a Ja3 tatir, gezmate of — \s3 tatlru, aor. of the 
rt. .U? tiira, he flew or fled, concave ^j ye. 

a jJJai' tatfacii, riseth (aor. fem. of «_1L? tala^a). 

a c^ssj tatauwu^, doing a good action gratis, 


a s^~+a3 tatlbu, thou art sweet (aor. of the rt. 

L_jIL tuba, concave ^j V e )' 

a /JUj tabula ', he was exalted (3 pers. pret., 

6th form of \z , often joined to the name of 
God in an optative sense, May He be exalted ! 
and usually rendered adjectively, MostHigh. 

c^L:j bi tatauwUij volun- 

( 31 ) 


a A-*j* ta^dbbud, worship, adoration, devotion. 

a liJuxi' ta^budu (gezmate or nasbate of ^j&+*3 
ta^buduna, aor. of S^s- ^abada), ye worship. 

A <i-**j - ta^biyat, arranging, exercising, insert- 
ing, fixing. AP^wS-i <*»«J«J' tdibia shudan,to be 

a -»-*}' ta^blr, interpretation of dreams. 

a u— -^^ ta^ajjub, astonishment, surprise. 

a J^-s^ 1 tQ>\fil> haste, hurry, precipitation. 

A JkxJ' ta^uddu, thou enumeratest (aor of the 

verb iXc <.adda). 

a t^g'Sxj ta-fttddi, assault, hostile encroachment, 
hostility, violence, oppression. 

a i i A*j ta^zlb, infliction of punishment, tor- 
ment, torture. 

a yfljij' ta-^arruz, finding fault, objecting ; dis- 
approbation, opposition, resistance, aversion, 
annoyance, exposure; presentation. 

a <Ojx5 tdtziyat, condolence. 

A c— «*3*J ta^dssub, partiality, tenacity, bigotry, 

a (J-Ja*- 1 ta^iil, suspension, interruption ; va- 
cation, holiday. 

a (JXxj ta^alluk, attachment, dependence. 

a * : 1jO' ta^tim, teaching, instruction. 

a i^-^jw ta^annut, reproach, taunt. 

A J^tu ta^ahhud, minding, looking after, at- 
tending to, tending, taking care of; agree- 
ment, promise. 

a ^Ui" taghdbun, defrauding one another ; 
vexation, peevishness, fretfulness, disap- 

a .-Aj ta gh aiyur, alteration, change. 

Jlj£-\Ju tafa k/iur, boasting, glorying. 

a fji [j\Ju tqftirlk (pi. of <j>jJu tafrlk), inter- 
vals, divisions; instalments. 

a CU>jLaJ' tafuwut, difference, odds. 

A ij»-~ju taftlsh, inquiry, search, rummage. 

a yjasf tdfdhhus, investigation, search. 

a _ .ij' tafdrruj, recreation, walking for amuse- 

ap A^ —Ju tafarruj-gdh, place for recreation, 

a tejG tafrikat, division, distribution; discord, 

disunion, dissension, r- ^S &Ju tafrika 
kardan, to distribute, separate. 
a &as3 tafakkud, strict search, diligent inquiry. 

a SJii tdfakkur, thinking, contemplation, 

a u&Ju tafwiz, confiding, making over, con- 
signment, transference. 

A LjUu tdkdza (originally ^-«olju takazi), ex- 
action, dunning. 

a AcUj tdkdiud, backwardness, hanging back. 

a ^xso tukabbihu ( aor. of -aj kabbaha, 2nd 
form of the rt. «*»), thou detestest. 

a ^Aij' takaddasd, he was sanctified (3rd 
pers. pret. 5th form of jjwJtJi) ; used opta- 
tively, May He be sanctified ! and usually 
translated adjectively, Most Holy. 

a jJjJiJ' takdlr, decree, appointment, fate. 

a <— JiAi" takarrub, association, intimacy ; pro- 
pinquity, nearness, closeness. AV^jtiytJ <-->£> 
takarrub namudan, to approach, draw near. 

a j \Ju takrir, averring, averment, avowal, re- 
cital, statement. 

Lj~a&i taksir, deficiency, fault, failure, short- 

a Jk&J' tdkulu, she says (aor. of the rt. Jli 

kdla, concave j wdw). 
a i_syiJ' takwd\ piety. 
a ajJiJ' tdkwiyat, strengthening, invigoration, 

a *£%&' takwlm, straightening ; an attempt to 

make straight. 
p lIxi' tak, gallop, course, heat. 
a J~jI£j takdsul, indolence, sluggishness. 
kj&j takabbur, arrogance, pride. 
a \^^mSj tdksibu thou mayest acquire (aor. of 

the rt. t_^ju*£ kdsaba, he gained). 

a lJwlxj takalluf, ceremony ; dissimulation, in- 
sincerity ; extravagance, profuseness. 

a \yiiSj takallamu, speak ye (imp of 5th form 
of the verb *1£). 

a <L£j takiyat, pillow ; reliance, support, de- 
pendence, p ^j <u£j' takiyd zddan, to lean. 

p bJj <u£j takiyazadd, reclined, reclining. 


( 32 ) 


p c*jO' £07, canter, gallop ; course, heat. 

a J?L' taldtama, (the water or wave) dashed 
(6th form of the verb (Jal). 

a Jsxi taldtmn, buffeting, dashing. 

a ^-JJ talbls, fraud, trick, deceit, disguise. 

p kr talkh, bitter. 

p ■ilsii ■J J talkh-guftdr, bitter in speech, satirical, 

r [tfS talkM, bitterness ; bitter disappointment ; 
thou art bitter. 

p iJuArs- 15^ talkM- chasMda, tasted bitter- 

a i alAj talattuf kindness, courtesy, blandness, 

a L-cb' talaf, consumption, squandering, waste, 

ruin, destruction. ap^Ju! u_aij' talaf shudan, 
to be lost, to perish, 
p t^J> 1 «j talaf harda, wasted. 

a <_£Jilj talfllc, sewing together ; dressing, 

a iX~*jj talmiz, scholar, student, pupil, disciple. 

a ^Sj talauwun, changeableness, versatility. 

a ^Jj tuliya (pret. pass, of \j tala 1 ), it is read. 

a *j tamma, was (or is) completed. <__>u£jl *J 

tamma 'I Icitdbu, the book is finished. 
a LiL*J tamdshu (originally ^-i)L*J" tamashi), 

spectacle, sight. 
A aUj tamdm, complete, perfect; sufiicient ; 

concluded, ended; finish, end, completion. 

p^*Uj <U la tamdml, altogether, in toto. 

APji^Lw' tamumtar, more complete. 

A «_^«J' tamattu^, enjoyment. 

a.jAj tamr, a date, jjb^i ijLU! j jjb .^J! 
«£ ta/ yawj'c. wa 'w ndtur ghair manic, the 
date ripe, and the keeper not preventing. 

a ,AJ tamurru, thou passest by (aor. of the rt. 
y* marra). 

a ij.-x^J' tamlcln, power, authority, dignity. 

a (_p~*j - tamalluk, fawning, flattery, blandish- 
ment, cringing. 

a u*j tamannd (originally ^^J tamanm), 
wish, desire, longing for. 

a ^aj tamnun (gezmate of ~*j tamunnu, aor. 

of ^j* manna, he upbraided (or reproached) 

on account of benefits conferred). 
a j}-*j" tamuz, Syrian month (July). 
a j*Xi tamlz, judgment, discernment. 
a ,J~+j tamilu, bends (fern. aor. of J I* mala, 

concave ,_? ye, governed by (oj-^ gh usun). 
p ^jj tan, body, person, individual ; bulk. ^ 

^jOiJ tan dddan, to engage, mix one's self, 

meddle ; to yield, give in, surrender, 
p tj^l t-p tan-tisarii, ease of body, personal 

comfort or indulgence. 
a J^liJ' tandwul, taking food, eating and 

a <U-iJ' tambih, warning, caution, admonition. 
p iU |jJ taji-parvar, luxurious, voluptuous, 

pamperer of the body. 
p lJj)j{ ij'J tan-parvarl, pampering of the body, 

luxury, voluptuousness. 
a AxJ tantahi, gezmate of i^-tA^ tantahl, thou 

desistest, aor. of ^^il, 8th form of ^J . 

p J>;J fund, hasty, violent, impetuous ; stern, 
severe, austere. 

p cjy^- &'*■'■> tund-khu, violent-tempered. 

p (!%;>- <A^J" tund-khun, violence of temper, ve- 
hemence of disposition. 

p Ll^N^Axi' tan-durust, healthy, hale, sound, 
well, in rude and robust health. 

p { jx^>jS,'^i tan-durustl, soundness of body, 
health, healthiness. 

p ^jX-'J tundl, greatness, bulkiness; height; 
hastiness, haste, impetuosity, vehemence, 

a Jjh»j tanzil, revelation ; the Kuran. 

a lAiJ' tanshaiu (3 per. sin. fem. aor. of UJ), 
shoots, or may shoot upwards. 

a **-3" tana^ziini, happiness, luxurious enjoy- 

p lI&J tunulc, shallow. 

p <*£x> tang, strait, narrow, tight ; pained, an- 
guished, distressed; insatiate, avaricious; 
vexation, affliction, annoyance. 

p l_j! i^S^j tang-db, shallow. 

— „ — . . 


( 33 ) 


p (nS-f- i^S^'J tang-chashn, (narrow-eyed), 

covetous, insatiable, greedy, insatiate, 
p L^w J tSJoJ tang-dad (pi. ^^^ <^JoJ fow^r- 

dastun), poor, indigent, necessitous, distressed, 
p .-i-O i^JJ tang-dasti, penury, indigence, 

straits, poverty, 
p J J t^oJ tang-dil, sad, melancholy, dumpish, 

vexed at heart, grieved. 
p t-fyj ^J^> tang-rozl, pinched for food, 

straitened for daily bread, 
p ^JcJ tangl, distress, straits. 

a jyj tannur, oven. 

p l^jJ tanha (pi. of ^p tan), bodies ; alone, by 
one's self. 

p (_|\^' tanha s.i } solitude, retirement, loneliness. 

p &*»- -fa' tane chand, several persons, some 

p y tu, thou ; of thee, thy. 
a %->y" tawdbi^ (pi. of %-A'J tdbi^), followers, 

dependents ; effects, results, consequences. 
a ^y>\y tawdzui, humility, self-abasement, 

submission ; politeness. 
a *\y tuwdni (p pi. ^}^»y" tuwdmdn), twin. 
p ^J\y tuwan, it is possible ; one may or can. 

d-otfj ^y tuwdn rast, one may escape. 

i^^iS' ^J\y tuwan guft, one may say, it may 

be said or spoken, it can be said. 
p li \y tuwand, powerful, strong, able, stalwart. 
p (_|^ly tuwunun, power, ability, strength. 
p JJ y tuwdnad, it is possible, one may, one can. 
p i jijjjJ \y tuwdnistan, to be strong, powerful ; 

to be able ; to obtain the mastery, 
p yfa\y tuwangar (pi. \^y*>y" tuwdngardn), 

rich, wealthy, opulent, affluent; great, 
p ]yjy" tuwangar u, rich one ! 
p c^-v*Ji Jk> \y tuwdngar-himmat, high-minded ; 

rich in grace, 
p ^jy-'Ay tuwangarl, opulence, wealth; power- 
fulness, greatness. Tuivangare, a certain 

great, powerful, or rich man. 

r y\y tuwdnam, I am able or capable, ^y 

^\ tuwdnam an, I am capable of that, 
p ij,\y tuwdni, thou art able, thou canst or 

mayest. ij,\y \'J td tuwdni, as much as thou 

canst, as far as thou art able. 
a fay taubat, repentance, penitence. 
a ^svjjj tauMJch, reproach, reproof, upbraiding, 

chiding, scolding. 

a As>- y tawajjuh, turning of the face (fa>-j wajh) ; 

conversion, attention ; favour, countenance. 
a &+s-y tauhid, a profession of the unity of the 

Godhead, unitarianism, anti-trinitarianism. 
a %->6y taudl^, bidding adieu, taking farewell ; 

dismissing ; depositing. 
A L£-Oj»j taunt, the Pentateuch, 
r faly tosha, provisions. 
a (j+iy taujik, divine guidance, favour of God; 

completion of one's wishes, success. 
a *Jjj' taioakku- c , hope, expectation, expectancy. 
a i—fiiV tawakkuf, delay, hesitation, pause, halt. 

ap ^S i— ftSjj tawakkuf kardan, to delay, to 

pause, wait, halt. 
a ^y tawakkul, confiding, trusting in God. 
p t& y tu ki, thou who, thou that. 
a J-£y taukll, committal to custody ; charge, 

p (Jy turf, thou art. 
r fa" tih or tah, empty. 
a ^l^jj' tahdwun, neglecting, negligence, slight, 

carelessness, remissness. 
a c-^JiX^j tahzlb, adorning, correcting, amend- 
ing, adjusting, polishing, finishing. 
a <L*^j tuhmat, suspicion ; calumny. 
a fac^i tahnis-at, congratulation, felicitation. 
a jyP tahauwur, fury, boldness, rush, onset, 

violent assault, attack, 
p ^,j' tihl or tahl, empty ; thou art empty. 
p L^_-wjJ j-^i' tihi-dast (pi. ^u~0 ^J tihl- 

dastdn)," empty-handed, poor. 
v J^* LS^ tihx-magh%, empty -brained, addle- 

pated, shallow. 
p j*j tlr, arrow, ap^j Ac ^ilmi tir, science of 

pj^Jjl -»j* tir-anddz, archer, 
p irJ tlra, muddy, turbid, obscure, dark, 
p e^vd^ byJ tira-bakht, unhappy, unfortunate. 



( 34 ) 

p • AsT' *j*i ttra-bakhtl, thou art unfortunate, 
thou art (or wilt be) miserable. 

PA ij\j *j£> ttra-rui, dark-minded, of beclouded 

p ^\jj Xj+j tlra-ravdn, dark-souled. 

p j-j' te%, sharp, keen ; fierce, hot. 

p iS^s-jf'J tez-changi, sharpness of claw, ra- 

p ^JuJ ;»j tez-danddn, sharp-toothed. 

VjjJJ tez-rav, sharp-going, fleet, swift. 

p &umj tlsha, axe, adze. 

p 4_J tegh. sword. 

PjUw»i* timdr, care, attendance on the sick; 
grooming and currying a horse. ^ Jj »^- ,U-J' 

timdr khwurdan, to receive a rub, to get a 

a Ll-olj thdbit, firm, fixed, stable, confirmed, 
established. ap^J^ l!-%jU thdbit shudan, 
to be fixed, ratified. ^S <^-olj thdbit kar- 
dan, to make firm, to confirm, to ratify. 

a ijjJ tharwat, opulence, riches. 

a by thuraiya 1 , the Pleiades. 

a jyc ihugh.ur (pi. of^iJ thaghr), passes, jyv 
+U§\ thughuru 'I islam, the passes, straits, 
or frontiers of the lands of true faith. 

a J thumma, after that, then, afterwards. 

a IjAi thumrat, fruit. 

a t j-«**3 thamin, precious, valuable, costly. 

a *Lj thandt, praise, encomium; compliment; 

a <—>Ui thawdb, reward, recompense. 
a ^jjljj thaivdbe, a reward, a recompense. 

p \s~ jd, place, room. U>- <UJ6 hamajd, every- 
a fjH**i\g>~ jdsus, spy, scout, emissary. 
a ^jj^U- jdsusl, espionage, spying, 
o (jwjiJU- Jallnus, Galen, the physician. 
a w«W- jamify a principal mosque or duoino 

where the prayer (oration or sermon) called 
<uk»- k/iutba is recited on Fridays. 
tq<L*\s>- jama (pi. l^lsj- jdmahd), garment, 
clothes, dress, raiment, robe, vest, vesture, 
garb, stuff. <U*£ <L»U- jamas-e ka^ba, a cover- 
ing of black cloth embroidered with silver, 
in which the square temple at Mecca is 
arrayed, and which is renewed annually. 

t^f <js\y*\&- jdmahuyi kuhan, old clothes. 

p t^>- jdn, life, soul. ^J> m^->^ (j^ iijW" 
jdn ba hakk tasllm kardan, to surrender the 
spirit to God. j Jo ^[^ jdni pidar, soul 

(of) thy father ! ^ &>£ ^W jdn kardan, to 
dig out the soul. 

r (jWUf jdndn (pi. of ^\>- jd?i), souls ; dear 

a l_^3 Is*- jdnib, side, direction, quarter. 

p ^li-uJU*- jdn-sitdn, soul-seizing, life-taking; 

v jy\s>- jdnvar, animal, living creature. 

p ijjy^ jdnvarl, (thou) art an animal. 

p tJU- jane, a single soul, a soul, a life ; any 

living soul, 
p ij)\^\s>- jdwiddnl, eternity; eternal, 
r JojL?- jdwld, immortal, perpetual, lasting, 

everlasting, enduring, permanent, eternal, 
p iU- jdh, rank, dignity, position, post, place. 

ij^aU- jdhat, thy rank. 
a ^\ JJiU- jdhaddni (dual of the pret. 3rd form 

of the rt. "A^^-), they both contend, or wage 

war against. Cj\<\i\^ jdhaddka, they both 
fight against thee. 

a ,Jjb\s^jdhil (p pi. jjli&U- jdhildn), ignorant. 

r (_S^" jdi (pi. l^jlcf jdiha), place. ^Ju t_?^" 
jdyi nafas, room for breathing. ^Uj ci^C 
bajdyi zandn, to woman's estate, womanhood. 

p AxjU- jdi-gah, place, spot; point, degree. 

p ij^z^jas-e, one place, particular place, point, de- 
gree ; fresh place ; respect, regard, reference. 

p AxJU>- jdts-gah, place, locality. 

a JLs>- jibdl (pi. of J^- jabal), mountains. 

Kj^-jabr or jabar, restoration, repairing da- 
mage, as setting a bone, or repairing the 
broken fortunes of a friend. 


( 35 ) 


a Jj -*s»- Jabril (or J^-j?- jabranl, or 
jabrdnT), Gabriel, the archangel. 

a i J^j>~ jabal, mountain. 

a <0u5>- jilillat, nature, constitution. 

a tXfS>- jibilliy, natural, original, innate. 

a ,j-*5f- jabln, temple, side of the forehead. 

a J»5>- jud, bestow thou, be bountiful (imp. of 
the rt. d\s>- jdda, concave « wdw). 

a Jo>- jadd, earnestness, seriousness, exertion. 

a ijS&Sf jid&l, strife, disputation, squabble. 

p <jf\j&- judatl, separation. 

a L-jJs>- jazb, drawing, attraction. 

^j^T jarr, drawing, dragging, trailing ; de- 
riving; the mark Icasra ('-), placed bencatli 
a letter, and equivalent to our vowel i. 

\s!\ J^»lc ^dmilu 7 jarr, one who drags 
or draws down, depressor ; (in grammar) a 
governing power or particle that must be 
followed by the genitive or oblique case. 

a J\j>- jarruh, surgeon, ehirurgeon. 

a As-\jS>-jtrahat, wound, sore ; a wound on any 

part of the body except the head. 
a *s\j>- jardiim (pi. of £+jj»- jarimat), crimes, 

offences, sins, trespasses. 
a +j>- jurm, fault, crime. 
a ^J^jS^ jaraytin, flowing, running. 
vj>- ju%, except, save, besides, all but. 
a *\\z>- jazdt, recompense, retribution. 
a *y>- jazm, amputation, cutting, breaking off; 

decision, determination; decided, positive. 
a iji,j>- jazirat, island ; peninsula. 
a {j»s>- jassa, he touched, felt, fingered. 
a ijuusr- jasdrat, daring, presumption, boldness, 

hardihood, audacity. 
p ^j^us>- jastan, to spring, leap, bound, jump. 

p ^j^ms>- justan, to search, seek, aim at, strive 
to win ; to hunt after, pry into. 

a&j*s>- jasad, the body (of man, genie, or angel) ; 
the calf of the children of Tsrael (spoken 
of in the Kur'an). 1a**j>- jasadan (ace.) 

kj*us>-jisr, bridge. 

a »«*> Jism, the body. 

a ***w5f jaslm, corpulent, portly; majestic. 

a <Uju>- ja^bat, quiver, case for arrows. 

a i^Ju!s>- jacfari, the finest kind of gold. 

a (Jjm>- ja^ala, he placed, made, appointed, or 
constituted (used optatively). 

a £ li^- jafds., tyranny, ill-usage, maltreatment, 
oppression, cruelty, severity, violence; in- 
civility, insolence; coarseness. 

a j_JlAs»- jafds-e, an insult, an outrage. 

p \£-»&s>-jiift, pair, couple, brace ; partner, mate ; 

fellow. ^ijsC^-jisf-Juft giriftan, to take a 

partner, to marry, to pair, 
p jcj^p- jigar-band, liver, lungs and heart; son. 
a Jjj- jalla, he shone in glory (epithet of God). 

lc j Jj>- jalla wa ^ala\ may (He) be glorified 

and exalted ; High and Glorious. 
a Jjs- jull, housing, horse-cloth. 

a Jis>- jalldd, executioner, headsman. 

a Jh^jaldl, majesty, glory, ap ySM^-jaldlask, 

his glory, 
p jJ^sf jaldli, the new Persian era, so called 

from Jalalu'd din Malik Shah, under whose 
reign, which commenced a.h. 465, the Per- 
sian calendar was reformed. 

a *Lul^>- julasds- (pi. of ^jj+Jjp- jails), com- 
panions, comrades. 

Aj\ul>- julndr (from PjUli' gulndr), pome- 

a fj*t^>- jalis, companion, associate. 

a jU^- jamdd, not growing, inanimate, inor- 
ganic (as a stone). 

a css.\as>- jamdiat, meeting, society, congrega- 
tion, crowd, multitude, troop, swarm. 

a zs\as>- jamd^ate, a troop. 

a ^\as>- jamal, beauty, comeliness. <JU^sT bi 
jamdlihi, by his beauty. 

p Jujfi*,*5»- Jamshed, an ancient lung of Persia, 
being the fourth monarch of the first or 
Peshdadyan dynasty. He built Istakhar or 
Persepolis, ana was dethroned by Zahhak. 

a *~Asr-jam$, company, class, sect; conjunction; 
the plural number; collected, composed, tran- 
quil; united, a p ^J^i f-^=r jam^shudan, 
to become collected ; to have carnal con- 
nexion. &uxa&- jam ^and for Jul ■%-*>■ jam ^ 
and, are collected. 

a { je^s>- jam^e, a company. 

a &*xa&- jamdyat, collection; reflection; tran- 
quillity, quiet, calm. 
p ^JXas>- jumlagz, completely. io^KsT bajum- 

lagi, in the mass, altogether. 
ap iLw>- jumla, sum, whole, all, total number; 

gang, a A*s\^ji 'I jumla, on the whole, to 

sum up all, in short. 
a y--'*.^- jami^, all, the whole. 
a J-/*>5»- jamil, good, beautiful ; fair, honourable. 
a.^jS*- jinn, fairy, genius, 
p (jjijjLxp- jumbdnidan, to cause to be shaken, 

to make to move, to wag, wave or nod. 
p ^j<S++us>- jumbidan, to agitate, shake, stir, 

p iS*^s>- jumbida, stirred. 
a ^++us>- jambaini (obi. of ,jLi5>- jambtini), 

both sides. C£+~.>- jambailca, thy two sides. 
k&i^-jannat (pi. CJ us»- jannat), garden, 
a { jm^s>- jins, genus, kind, stock, sort, 
p c^A^f Jang, war, battle, fight, strife, conflict, 

( 36 ) 


contest. ^jj\ 

Cis>- jang dvardan, to wage 

war, to fight. <uJ j tS 
war and strife. 

p idy»j\ <^J^.^- jang-dzmuda, tried in war, 

experienced in battle, veteran. 
Tjj\ i^J^>- jang-uvar (pi. ^\jj\ <^S^>- jang- 

avarari), warrior, 
p ufyT i^J^- jang-uvari, aggression, strife. 

p fr tS^-sr jang-ju (pi. ^V.^T <^^=T Z^- 

juyan), war-seeing, pugnacious; warrior. 
p ^S^s>- jangl, warlike, martial. 
a MV^y- junun, insanity, madness, frenzy. 
ap [<i5»- /}'««?, demon, spirit. 
-£ & jav, barley. Jit, river, stream. 
a <-—>\jS^ jawdb, answer, reply. 
a c )\jz>- jaivube, an answer, a reply. 
A.j\f>-jiwar, neighbourhood. 
p J^jsj- juwdl, sack, bag, sacking, 
pjjj Jj> juwal-don, large packing-needle. 

r ^y^»- jawdn (pi. jjlj l ^s>- jawanan), youth, 
young man. 

p JjAJ\y>- jawdn-mard, brave; honest fellow, 
brave lad ; liberal, generous. 

p i _$Jj*j\f>- jawdn-mardi, manliness, courage ; 
liberality. Jawdn-marde, a certain brave man. 

p tji *»- jawanl, season of youth, youth, juve- 
nility, adolescence. Jawdne, a youth, one 
young man, a certain youth ; a lovely youth, 
a graceful page. 

p y>- jSf jav jav, grain by grain, barley-corn 

by barley-corn. 
a u)jsj- jud, liberality, bounty. 

&. jjgf jaur, violence, severity, oppression, in- 
sult, outrage, injustice, tyranny; brutality, 
churlishness, boorishness. 

a p iJlj^j jy>- jaur-pesha, inured to tyranny, 
tyrannical, brutal ; tyrant. 

xj^jauz, nut. 

a t_?j *s»- jauziy, vendor of nuts, .jj 7- /^ 5^ 
Ljjyr abu 'I faraj bin jauzl, name of a 
celebrated preacher at Baghdad. 

a <_£~>V=T jausah, lofty edifice, palace, kiosk. 

p (ii*5f- josh, ebullition, ferment ; clamour. 

p ,^j<JuJ v«i &■ joshdnldan, to cause to boil. 

p ,j-i}=T jaushan, coat of mail. 

p i_?^~ \j**fr jaushan-khdi, piercing the coat 
of mail. 

p ^&*Ji>y>- joshidan, to boil, effervesce ; to 
fume, fret, fly in a rage ; to hum, buzz, to 
be all in a bustle, to spirt out ; to beat, pal- 
pitate, pulsate, throb. 

a j&f>~ jauhar, jewel; essence, staple, nature, 
root, origin ; element. 

p tjtjj* j^iT jauhar-farosh, seller of jewels, 

p ^JoJty>- jauhariydn (pi. of ^jJby>- jauhari), 

p i_/c?" jave, a single barley-corn, a grain of 
barley. p+~a ^_$y>-jave sim, a grain of silver, 
silver dust. Juy, stream, river; seek thou. 

p i^V.J^T fay® n > seeking. 

p ^jsf javln or ^i^ javvin, of barley, barley- 
made. (jJj 5 ?* ia>^ ndni javin, barley bread. 

p ^&Jiy>- jundan, to seek. 

a jl^>- jahdz, ship ; paraphernalia of a bride, 
her trousseau. 


( 37 ) 


a Jl^ juhhdl (pi. of ,Jjt>\e>- jdhil), ignorant. 
v ^jL^jahdn, world; (part, of ^ S^^jahldan) 

dancing, quivering, flickering, flashing, 
p ,jj ji I ^j^T jahun-dfirln, world-creator, Grod. 
p iuj uMrT" jahdn-pandh, asylum of the world. 

p l£j\^ ioMt?" jahdn-ddri, possession of the 

world, empire. 
p ^Jul^sf jahdndan, to leap, dart. 

p SAjjol^s*- jahdn-dlda, one who has seen the 

world, great traveller. 
p ij^jf- Jahdne, a world, a vast multitude, 
p ^XJ\^>- jahariidan, to impel, urge, to cause 

to leap, force to gallop. 
a 6^>-jihat, mode, reason, cause ; wages, salary. 
a j^p- jihate, a salary, wages. 

a «X^ jahd, labour, study, endeavour, care, 

pains, diligence. 
a J>^ f i>- jahl, ignorance, stupidity, 
p J^s>- juhud (pi. ^Ij^rj- juhuddn), Jew. 
a J^sj- jahul, extremely ignorant. 
p ^j A^>- jahidan, to gallop off. 

A u-^-^- y«e5, bosom ; breast of a garment ; 

a <^*.*s>- jUta, thou earnest (pret. of the rt. s l;>- 
jdta, concave <_£ ye). ^xj^>- jiUarii, thou 
comest (or earnest) to me. 

a ^}j^~ jir&n (ph of 4^f y«*w*)j neighbours. 
ij|r-j»- jirdnl, my neighbours. 

a fj!^s>- jaish, army, military resources. 

a <$Ju&- jifat, carcase, carrion. 

p lLnjI*- chdbuk, active, smart, expert, alert. 
p^jUs- chddar, sheet ; veil reaching from head 

to foot, 
p ile»- char, four. 

> v 

p u j\s- ckdr-pd, four-footed, quadruped. 

p <ob j\s>- chdr-pdya, (four-footed) bedstead, 

p (J\j .Is- chdr-pdie, a quadruped, 
p ijU- cAara, remedy, resource, help, 
p l^SIs- chdldlc, vigilant, alert, smart, active. 

p iU- chah, well; pit; dungeon. ^AJJ i\»- 

chdhi zitiddn, dungeon, prison-hole. Li-v&Us- 
chdhat, thou in the well ; thy well. 

p t__ ^s- chap, left side, left hand. 

p \j2- chird, why ? wherefore ? for what ? what ? 

P ?]/»*■ chirdgh, lamp. 

p ,J^y>- chird gh e, a lamp. 

p t\S\jS>- chard-gdh, grazing-place ; meadow, 
mead, pasture. 

p j\sj\ +j>- charJch-anddz, cross-bowman. 

p <*z~vmj>- chast, quick, brisk, smart, sharp, 

p *Ars- chashm (pi. ^U^Ls- chashmdn), eye, 
sight, view ; hope, expectation. 

p ijls^^?" chashm-Muna, socket of the eye. 

p JjJ (***>- chashm-dard, pain in the eye, oph- 

p <L*X±s>- chashma, fountain, spriDg. <Uji-»- 

^K=- chashmas-i haiwdn, the fountain of 

life, or immortality. <y& &aJO»- chashma*i 
hor, fountain of light. 

p ^.&+j5j.»~ chashidan, to taste. 

p sXJLs-chasMda, tasted; proved, experienced. 

p ^JlXs- chakidan, to drop, drip, trickle. 

p iA;X=- chaklda, dropped, trickled, dribbled, 

p ^S^y^~ chigunagi, state, particulars, the why 

and wherefore, 
p 6J$^>- chiguna, how ? in what way ? 
p &&;>- chigunat-e, how art thou ? 
p J-s- chil (for J.-^ chihal), forty, 
p a]L, J^. chil sdla, forty years old. 
p <Ls*f~ chamcha, spoon, 
p j^li^- chundn, like that, such as, such as that, 

in that manner, just the same, in such a 

manner, so, to such a degree or extent. 

p <4ioL>- ohundnhi, as that which, such as, just 
as, exactly as, in the same manner as, ac- 
cording as, to such a degree as ; so that. 

(J! J A&Ls- chundnh ddnl, as thou knowest. 

p Jc=- chand, so as, such, some ; a few, sundry, 
several, much ; how much ? how many ? how 

oft? A^s- 


tane chand, some persons. 


( 38 ) 



Jcjs- i^fjjj roze chand, a few days. 
&us>- halimad chand, a few words, 
p ^J>*>- chanddn, much, all that, so much, so 

p iSj)Sis>- chandan Ici, as long as, as soon as, 
whilst,! to the extent that, so much that, so 
much as that ; ere, or ever ; how much soever, 
however much, although, notwithstanding. 

p (JiJo*- chanddne, a good deal, more than 
enough, much, very much. 

p JV ^^ c h an d roz, some days, a few days. 

p ^jjAijs- chandln, some, certain, much, such, 

such as this, or these, so much as this, so 

many, all this, all these. 

p t££xs>- chang, crook, claw, grasp, clutch ; 

harp, lute, guitar, 
p JISj*>- changal, claw, talon, gripe, 
p [i ***>- chimin, thus, like this, such as this or 

these, all this, somuch, thus much, in this way. 
pp- chu, like; when, whilst, since, whereas, 

if so be (a contraction of ^js- chun). 
p <-r>y>- chub or chob, wood, stick, bludgeon, 
p ^y^- chupdn (or uj^y^- chubdn), shepherd. 

r ^JIj^s- chapdnl, pastoral office, duty or 
business of a shepherd. 

p ^j\iy>- chaugdn, game of horse-shinty; the 
bat used in the said game curved at one end. 
(juj*)\ m"*** chaugdni dbnus, an ebony bat 
(to which flowing jetty curls are compared). 

p ujf>- chun, how ? when, whenever, whilst, 
as, like, such as, so much as, whereas, since, 
because, how. 

v yjy>- chun tu, like thou. 

r ijijf- chunl, how art thou ? how rarest thou ? 

how do you do ? 
p is>- chi, what ? why ? how ? what matters 

it ? or, how ! how many ! what ! lS^ &~- 
chi bude, how would it be ? would to heaven ! 
I wish it were. 

Pjl^-s- chahdr, four. 

p I) j^-»- chahdr-pd (pi. ^jUu j^->- chahdr- 

pdydn, four-footed, quadruped, 
p *j\^~ chahdrum, fourth. 
p (Jb ^ chi pan, what ! dost thou stand still ? 

why dost thou hesitate? (rt. ^JuSb pandan.) 

p Xj*. 

p LU-~ai u*y>- &>• chi khmish guft, how well 

spake ! 
p lai j J <Ls- j ,_/jj it> is»~ chi dar ru wa chi dor 

Icafd, what before one's face, the same behind 

one's back. 

p Jui <ks~ chi shud, what has happened ? 

p <5J^S <!.>• chi gunas-e, how art thou ? 

p J^>- ehihal, forty. 

p /j"- chi (for t-^- chlz), thing, anything. 

p uj&+z>- chidan, to pluck, gather, pick, peck, 

glean, collect. 

■ chlra, rude, uncivil, bold, impudent. 
chlz, thing, 
p (jfU*" chlze, something, a little, any thing, 

p lZ*vm+2- chlst, what it is ; what is it ? what 

is? li^m^s- ij\»^hdl chlst, what's the matter? 
p ^> Chin, China ; (imp. of ^ A-^>- chidan), 

gather, pick, collect, 
p <3c^s>- china, grain ; pickings for birds, 
p j**s- Chlnl, of China, Chinese. 

a j_JUo *i'l»- Hatim Tds-l, name of an illustrious 
Arab of the tribe of ~Jo taiy, celebrated among 
Eastern nations for his liberality. 

a -\&- hdjj, pilgrim to Mecca. 

A C^>l»-L>- hdjat (pi. <tj?-U>- hdjat), wants, 

necessities, necessary matters. 
a 'is*- 1=»- hdjat, want, need, necessity, occasion ; 

urgent, pressing case, a p (J _ji~M^>- t«^->5j-l:>- 

hdjat khwdstan, to pray, state one's wants in 

a p j»iy»05>-U»- hdjatmand, necessitous, in want, 

in need of. 
a ^s>~\s>- hdjate, a private business. 
ap^>-1&- hdjly, a pilgrim to Mecca. 
a CjjU- hddith, occurring ; occurred, happened. 
a j jU. hdzik, acute, sharp, intelligent, skilful, 


a xJ[=- hdsid (p pi. jjl Jk-jU- hdsiddn), envious. 
a (J^W- hdsil, gain, acquisition, result ; mani- 
fest. A p ^A-i) J-oU- hdsil shudan (or (_LsU- 



( 39 ) 


^iSJ^jf hdsil gardldan), to be gained or pro- 
cured ; to happen, befal, arise, occur. J-^W 
^S hdsil hardan, to get, acquire, earn. 

a j*i[s- hazir (ppl. joj-sW hdzirdn), present, 
ready, prompt, in attendance, waiting. 

a i£\s>- hakim (p pi. ^U£U~ hdhimdn), governor, 
ruler, magistrate, judge. 

a JU- hdl, state, condition, circumstance ; state 
of feeling; ecstasy, rapture ; instant, moment, 
p C^u-r*- JW- hdlchist, what is the matter ? 

a i\\c>- halat, state, quality, condition, circum- 
stance ; ecstasy, rapture ; a p thy state, p &>- 
e^vu*JU»- chi halat ast, what has happened ? 
what is the matter ? 

a ^~\=- hdlate, a state, a condition. 

a /Ul>- hale, at the time, at the instant; one 
state, a state ; whilst, p a£ ^!U>- hale hi, the 
instant that, forthwith that." 

a (J^*U>- hamil, carrying ; carrier, bearer. <J^U»- 
^-i)Li!l hdmila H ghawdsM, (as) carrier of the 
saddle-coverings. dL«b>- hdmiluhu, its carrier. 

a aLL»U>- hdmilat, pregnant, teeming (female). 

a i^^*- hdmi, defender, protector, guardian. 

a \1>~ hibban, in point of affection (ace, used 

in an adverbial sense). 
a <U»- habbai, grain, seed, berry. 
a u*+z>- hubs, confinement, imprisonment, hold, 

durance vile. 
a J.-a»- habl, rope, cord. Aj \,^\ J^=>- hablu 'I 

war id, jugular vein (of which one is situated 

on either side of the neck). 

A >—»■.■.>■ hablb, beloved, sweetheart, friend. 
a ^J^~ hatta', until, so that. 
a Zf^ hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca. 
A ^-wp- 2 *" hiyjaj (pi. of —U- hajj), pilgrims to 

-Lsr" Hajjaj bin Yusuf, name of 

'■*. ^ -£ 

a Governor of Arabian Irak under the Caliph 
Abdulmalik, a.h. 65. 
a jl^ hijdz, Mecca, and the adjacent territory, 
Arabia Petraea ; one of the principal modes or 
styles in Persian music, viz. ; 1 . ^I^jLpI Isfa- 

han ; 2. j»\ _c girdle ; 3. j\^ hijdz. Nine 
others are enumerated. 
a uijlsr'"" hijdziy, native of, belonging to Hijaz. 

a 4^sr" hujjat, argument, argumentation, warm 
discussion; reason. 

a J£ hajar, stone. 

a 'ij£ hujrat, closet, chamber, cell, cabin ; nup- 
tial chamber. 

a Jo- hadd, bound, boundary, extent, limit, 
degree; just limits, t^-i A=>~ haddi shar^, 
legal punishment, requirement of the law. 
a ,_f AasT ba hadde, to a limit, extent, degree, 
or point. 

a sAiw hiddat, passion, sharpness, vehemence. 

a lLjS=*- hudth, novelty, recent event. Hadath, 
young man, youth. 

A Jjc- hadathe, a certain youth. 

a iJ^jSs- hadlth, discourse, history, story, 
legend, tradition ; especially the traditions 
regarding Muhammad. (Those related by 
Abu Huraira amount to more than five thou- 
sand three hundred.) 

a <Uj Je>- hadihat, enclosed garden ; palm-grove. 

a j'&2~ hazar, caution, warning; guard, care. 
ap ^j* j A>- hazar hardan, to beware, to be 
on one's guard, to exercise caution. 

a ,=»- harr, heat, warmth. 

a.ld\j2- hurrdth (pi. of i^_^U- hdrith), farmers, 
agriculturists, ploughers. 

a <L>\jS- hirdsat, custody, guardianship, care, 

a Af- hardm, unlawful, forbidden, illicit, pro- 
hibited, disallowed. 

ap xS\y*\j=>- hardm-zada, bastard, villain, rogue, 
rascal; villainous, rascally. 

a tf*]/*" ^ ar ^ m ^J ( p pl- u^lr" hardmiyari), 
robber, outlaw, assassin, brigand, bandit. 

A ij*ijt>- harr am, he protected (2nd form of the 
rt. [>« .•=*■)• <^\ W*!; 2 *" harrasahd 'lldh, may 
God defend her! (the pret. used optatively.) 

a t__ if- harf, letter, word, vocable, particle. 

APr^LJ^- harf-glr, captious ; censurer, critic, 

a ^J,*- harfe, a single letter. 


< 40 ) 

a <S^. haralcat, motion, act, action, movement; 
conduct, behaviour; improper act, unbecom- 
ing action. 

a ^J&jz- haralcate (usually harlcate), an action. 

a * .=- haram, sacred ; the sacred enclosure at 
Mecca ; female apartments, harem. 

a ^,Li >js- harmdn, repulse, disappointment. 

a i^.s>- harmat, honour, respect, reverence, 

Aj«.=>- hurur, heat, warmth. 

a i_jj j=»- huruf (pi. of l_ \j=- harf), letters, 

A jlj>- harir, silk. 

a (^ .&- haris, greedy, eager, wistful. 

a i—o'j <js- harif (p pi. ^\suj=>~ harlfdn), com- 
panion, fellow, associate; impudent, loose, 
or audacious fellow ; rival. 

a ij+ijs"- hazm, sad, mournful, plaintive. 

a fj*.:>- hiss, feeling, sensation. 

a c_>luur>- hisdb, account, reckoning, calculation. 

a i_-^am=>- hash, computing, reckoning. <Uju**- 
hasbuhu, his sufficiency ; sufficient for him. 
&xs\j i_^v«a2»- hasbi wdkiui, according to cir- 


cumstances; suitably to the case. Pi^ 

bar hasbi, according to ; in conformity with 
a &mj.s- hasad, envy. v^A Ouu»- hasad burdan, 

to envy, to bear malice. 
a 'ijM+=>- hasrat, grief, regret, vexation . p CW 

ijtJj}^*- hasrat Miwurdan, to sigh for. 
A ijj-"^ hasrate, a vexation. 
a tl ^5- hasuna (fern. i^^^w.=>- hasunat), he (or 

it) was fair, beauteous, good. 

7jmsm, beauty ; goodness, excellence. 



husni tadblr, wholesome disci- 

pline. <_JUa~- ivj«w*»- husni Mitdb, elegance 
of address, polite conversation. ,_$\j ^^m^- 
husni rat, just observation. ,Jio .j^***- husni 
zann, good opinion. Hasan, beautiful, ex- 

a CjLuj.£- hasandt (pi. of <U.u^), good works. 

a ,_sX*a.+s* i^y^=- Hasan Maimandi, Khwajah 
Ahmad bin Hasan, called Maimandi, from 
the town of Maimand, where he was born, 
was the Wazir of Sultan Mahmud, of Ghizneh. 


hasani, beauty, comeliness. 

A U y u u^. 



tow^ (p pi. io'i-V 
vious; envier, maligner. 

a *Aa- hasham, pomp, retinue, suite, train; 

AjLaa- hisdr, fortified town, castle, fort, for- 
tress; siege. 

a (_^l^^ hisdre, a fort, a fortress. 

a 'L«as- hasbai, gravel, pebbles, shingle, beach. 

a <Uto- hissat, lot, share, portion. 

A (Jy^^- husul, acquisition, gain. 

a l _ s *a^ hasa' (or La?- hasa'), gravel, pebbles. 

a bjAs- hazrat, presence, court, majesty ; his (or 
your) Grace, Reverence, Lordship, Worship. 

Aj^aa- huzur, presence, court. 

a *IL=*. hutam, anything dry, brittle; anything 
_small, paltry or minute ; rubbish, trash. 

a la*- hazz, delight, pleasure, enjoyment, gra- 
tification ; flavour, taste ; part, portion, stock. 

a cU2to- JTafsat, name of Omar's daughter, one 
of the wives of Muhammad, and frequently 
styled il j+i**j\,\ !*' ummu 7 mu^minin. 

a la«>- hifz, custody ; memory. 

a (J.=>. halclc, just, true (an attribute of God) ; 
God; right, truth, justice; just right, due, 
or claim. i_L£j'l>Lc fj.s- halclca ^ibddatilca, 
the due of Thy worship, or as Thou deservest 
to be worshipped. tJ^cJjA* (J.2- halclca ma^- 
rafatika, the right of the knowledge of Thee, 
i.e. as Thou oughtest to be known. 

a uU- hahhan, really, truly, verily, in sooth. 

a i^lfts- halcdrat, contempt. 

a p jjwL-i (J^~ haJck-shinds, grateful. 

halck-shindsl, gratitude. 

A P . ^VX»i /».: 

Ap^jwUwi) U (J.2- halclc nd shinds, ungrateful. 

a ,»_}&=- hulculc (pi. of (J.2- halclc), rights, duties, 
dues, just claims. 

a _JLs- halcir, base, contemptible, mean, despi- 
cable ; a wretch. 

a <tjuib»- halcilcat, truly, reality, fact. 

a dL)\£.=- hilcdyat (pi. C->l;u.=>- hikdydt), story, 
tale, fable, narrative, narration, anecdote, 



( 41. ) 

r : 

a. S.s- hukm, order, command ; rule, dominion; 

check, restraint; decision, judgment. 
a *l*£=>- hukamdt (pi. of *■&■>- hakim), sages, 

wise men, philosophers ; physicians. 
A p \\ Ju\ *&*■=>- hukm-anddz, obedient to orders ; 

hitting the mark ; skilful archer. 
a <u£s- hikmat, philosophy, wisdom, wise saw 

or saying, axiom; wit, cleverness, p £j>- ^j£ 

c -»■»•'«<»£&- dar In chi hikmatast, what's the 
wit of this ? in this what wisdom is there ? 

a LvJLs*- hukumat, sentence of a judge, decision, 

a (*&*>- hakim (p pi. ^l^xs- haklmdn), sage, 

philosopher ; physician. 

A ^t^Ls*. hakime, a certain wise man. 

a Jjhz- haldl, lawful, legitimate, allowable. 

a i^Ls- haldwat, sweetness. 

a c_~k=- Halab, Aleppo, a town of Syria. 

p ^^ halabi, of Aleppo, Aleppine. (Some 

five or six centuries ago Aleppo was the chief 
depot for mirrors and glass wares from the 
manufactories of Venice destined for the East.) 

A tjb- halk, throat. 

a <ial»- halkat, ring, ear-ring, circle; assembly. 

a p ir^yj 4Jil=- halka ba gosh, (ring in the ear, 

as badge of servitude), obedient. 
a ^Jo.=>- halkc, a throat, a windpipe ; hence, a 

musical and melodious voice. 

a *1&- hilm, mildness, meekness, clemency, gen- 

a *\ »L>- halwds-, a sweet cake or pudding made 
of butter, flour, and milk ; sweetmeats. 

a i-As- hilyat, splendour, external appearance. 

a *A>-, mild, gentle, meek. Um1s>- ha- 
liman (ace. used adverbially), meekly, mildly. 

a jU»- himdr, male ass, jackass ; stupid fellow. 

a (Ju^- hammul, carrier of burdens, porter, 
bearer ; laden, loaded, charged. 

a *U^ hammdm, bath; warm bath. 

a <uU^>- himdyat, protection, defence, safeguard. 

a joto- hamdtid (pi. of i &~as- hamldat), laud- 
able acts, praiseworthy deeds. 

AiU*. hamd, praise. *I! <X*sM alhamduli'lldh, 
praise be to God ! 

a (_)./♦>=>- haml, load, burden ; pregnancy, p J*«.»~ 
^S haml kardan, to impute, ascribe, charge. 

a <L1*£>- hamlat, assault, attack, charge. 

a ,<+=»- hama J (for *jI*=- hamds-im), doves. 
lJ^^ i3JJ wurku I hama', the brown (or the 
dusky) of the pigeons. Uinta' , pasture-land 
which is reserved exclusively for the horses 
of the ruler; inaccessible, forbidden, inter- 
dicted; a place from which the public is 
debarred and excluded ; any secluded spot. 

a 'U-*j5- hamiyat, warmth, zeal, nice sense of 
honour ; impetuosity. 

a A~*s>- hamid (fern, is~*s>- hamldat), praised, 
lauded; laudable, praiseworthy. 

a _»y«j>- hamir (pi. of j[*.=^himdr), asses. 

a i.^\=>- hanjarat, windpipe, larynx. 

a Jlai*. hanzal, colocynth, bitter gourd. 

a ^Jl>\y^- hawdshl (pi. of 4~il=>- hdshiyat), 
followers, attendants, domestics. 

a &\y>. hawdlat, a recommending, or entrust- 
ing to the care of another ; transference. 

a CUȣ>- hut, large fish, whale. 

&j)=- hur (pi. ot '\jjs- hawrds-), fair, white- 
complexion ed; celestial brides, houries; (used 
in the singular) celestial bride, hourie. 

p ^j\ jy>- hurdn (p pi. of a ij=»- hur), celestial 

brides, virgins of paradise, houries. 
a \joy>- hauz, reservoir, tank, cistern; pond. 
a i\f>. haulahu, round about him. 
a ^s>- haiy, tribe (of Arabians). 

a iL=» haydt, life, a p l^vaJ'Ls*- haydtast, 
is life. 

a ^j^~ hairdn, perplexed, harassed, bewil- 
dered, confounded, at one's wit's end. 

a i_ip- haif, oppression, violence, injustice; 

a pity, a sad thing. 
a J-^ 5 - hiyal (pi. of <&-»- hilat), tricks, devices, 

stratagems, (vulgarly) dodges. 
a A*s>- hilat, artifice, stratagem, device, trick. 

A p l^i-s- hiyalhd (p pi. of J-»- hiyal), tricks, 
stratagems, arts, devices. 

a tl £*s»- hin, interval, period of time. 

a ^k>~ haiwdn (pi. i£J\j\ •+»- haiwdndt) ani- 
mal, brute, beast. 

a ij^p- haydt, life. 


( 42 ) 


a *3'L>- Mdtitn, seal ; ring, finger ring. 

a iUjI>- Mdtimat, end, conclusion; seal. 

p jjjji ; l»- khdtun, lady, matron, dame. 

p j\s>- Mar, thorn. Ll_>jlri- Marat, thy thorn. 
t_?i l&- Jb har Mdre, every thorn, each thorn. 

p \j\s>. khdrd, hard stone, rock. 

p ^ i«*- Mdr-bun (pi. ^LjjlsL khdr-bunun), 
root of thorn or bramble. 

p jjio^lri- Mdr-kash, carrier of thorn-fagots. 

p ^ju>~ Mar-Jean, one who roots up thorns. 

p jj^lrJ- khdstan, to rise, to get up, arise ; to 
occur, happen. 

v te~A»- khdsta, grown up, sprung up, risen. 

a (jflUi. Mass (p pi. ^U?lri- Mussun), special, 
particular, private, peculiar; intimate, select, 
choice ; special favourite ; confiscated, con- 
fiscate, forfeit. 

a p <U>1>- Mdssa, especially, particularly. 

a <U*?Ui- Mdsslyat, peculiarity, property, spe- 

A^bl>- Mdtir, heart, mind, thought, idea; will, 
choice ; spirits, feeling ; account, sake. 

p cJU- Mule, dirt, clay, earth, soil, ground, 
land, dust; hence, lowly, mean, ji) cJ\j>~ 
Mdki dar, earth of a door (or visitation), 
where one's wishes are obtained. cJl>- 
i£y khaki murda, ashes of the dead. 

p Jjll CJlri- Mdlc-alud, begrimed with dirt. 

p \i CJ\»- Mdk pa, dust of the feet. 

p <y\j i^JlsS- Mdk-zdd, sprung from earth, earth- 
born, earthy. 

FjL*iL>- Mdksdr, mixed with earth, earth- 
like; humble; abject, base, grovelling; sor- 
did wretch. 

p j^*m^[»- Mukistar, ashes, 
p *jU- khdkam, I am earth. 
p iP^s*- Mdki, earthy ; humble, abased ; thou 
art earth. ^U- j\ az Maki, from earth thou 


a (Jvri- Mali, empty, void, free from; desti- 
tute, deserted. 

p *ls- Mum (pi. ^blri- Mdmdn), raw, crude ; 

p (j£»/«lr>. Mdmosh, silent, taciturn ; silence ! 

p e£iy*{2- MdmosM, silence, taciturnity. 

p ^\ iX> \s>- Mdnddn, family, race, line ; house, 
household, home ; court, king's household. 

p aliulri- khunkuh, monastery, convent, religious 
house for darweshes. 

p^b j 10^*- M« w u man, house, family; riches, 
and especially hereditary possessions, move- 
able and real. 

p iUL>- Muna, house, abode, home ; nest. 
p,_5)\ J j ij Iri- khdna-parduzi, domestic economy. 

p \<X>- <ti\s^Mdna-Mudd, master of the house, 

p ^UjLi- Mdtimdn, house, family. 

a ufy^ Midwl, empty, void. m/ 3 ?^ trC?^*" 

khdivl 'I batn, empty -bellied, 
p <U W- Maya, testicles. 
p ^JujUi- Mdildan, to bite, gnaw, chew. 

a £iL:>. Mabuthat, wickedness, malignity, ma- 
lice, malevolence. 

a <»2^>- Mubth, malignity, malice, malevo- 
lence ; impurity, obscenity. 

a -ci- Mabar, information, intelligence, know- 
ledge, acquaintance, report, rumour, news, 
account, description, sacred story, tradition ; 
prophecy, prediction. 

a a 


Mubrat, experience, trial, proof. 

A 1*2. *■,++<■ Mablth, impure, malicious. 

a <&-->- Mabithat (pi. C^'li;.^ Mabithat), 
impure thing (fern, of &~^>- Mabithat). 

a ^i^^>- Mablthin (obi. pi. ofui^^ Mablth), 

a *^>- khatm, seal ; completion, conclusion, end. 
APj^Jui +z~>~ Matm shudan, to be stamped or 
sealed. a^TJ *isL Matmikur'dn, perusal of 
the Kur'an from the beginning to the end. 

a ^^>- Matme, a complete perusal of the 
Kur'an from beginning to end. 

p ig-ir*- Mutanl, Chinese, of Chinese Tartary. 

a <Ul^ Mijdlat, shame, blush, bashfulness, 



( 43 ) 

a ~>~ 

p (tu.^ khujasta, happy, auspicious. 

a Jj^ - khajil, blushing, ashamed. AP^y J^ 
khajil kardan, to shame, to put to the blush. 

a £ii> khajlat, bashfulness, blush, shame, funk, 

p \&d- khudd, God. 

p ^-~~ijj \Ss>- khudd-parast, God- worshipper, 

A *IJu>- khudddm (pi. of *oU>- khddim), do- 
mestics, servants. 

\ss>- khuddwand (pi. ^JJjtad- khudd- 
wanddn), lord, master, seignior, owner, pos- 
sessor. ^iLiis- jjj\s»- khudawandi haklkl, 
the real master, i.e. God. 

P JUi 

p *j|j jJjIiXsi- kJiudd wand-zd da (pi. Jjjljci- 

^li jlj khuddwand-zddagdn), nobleman's son. 

p iLjiJ^iXsL khuddwandagdr, Creator of the 

p i_$&Jj\<X£- khudawandi, lordship, sovereign ty, 
divinity, providence ; your Majesty, High- 
ness, Lordship, etc. 

p i_^J^ klmddi, God. 

P V.^^^*- Miuddyd, God ! 

p jjljci- khuddird, to God, for God. 

p ij^J^. khuddn, divinity, deity, godship. 

a i*+ &~>- khidmat; service, ministry, tendance, 
attendance ; homage. 

ap j\^*Ss>- khidmatgdr, servant, waiting or 
serving man, personal attendant. 

a .A* Jc>- khidmat e, a particular or special ser- 
vice ; the particular service. 

T V*- khar, ass, donkey. Jl^-0 y>~ khari dajjdl, 
the ass of Antichrist. 

A k-jUri- khardb, destroyed, ruined. 

A Cl^u'^ri- khardbat (pi. of h\j&- khardbat), 
ruins, devastations ; tavern. 

a & \A~ khardbat, devastation, ruin. 

-4 dJuri- kharuba, ruin, a ruin. 

a jL»- khardb!, ruin. 

a £■!/>- kharaj, tribute, tax, revenue, rent. 

p ^LjLrU khurdsdn, the province of Persia bor- 
dering on Herat, Khorassan. 
p (JLj^-1. khurdsdnl, of Khorassan. 

p ^XJ^ji- khardshldan, to scratch, scrape, 
graze, lacerate, wound, grate, irritate. 

p ^U]^ khardmdn, strutting, swaggering, 
waving, jaunty. 

p ^JwJ j>- khardmldan, to walk proudly, 
jauntily, gracefully, to strut, wave to and fro. 

p fyy>- Jcharbuza, melon, cucumber. 

vj\j &j,=>- kharbuzazdr, cucumber -bed, melon- 

a rj>- Mkarj, expenditure, expense, outgoing. 

p **■/>• kharch, expense, outgoings. tzj^ 
i^J)»^J kharch namudan, to spend, expend. 

p Aj>. khurd, little, small. Ehirad, wisdom, 
good sense, sound judgment. 

p X~*<3y>- khiradmand (pi. ^1 JdJ^s*. khirad- 
manddn), wise, intelligent, judicious. 

p sJj>- khurda, fragment, particle, scrap, crumb. 

p t^tXri- khurdi, infancy, childhood, first part 
of life, ^-o J^ Jdmrdiyat, thy childhood. 

p lt^-o^- kharast (for l£^wji y£- M«r «w£), is 
an ass. 

p lUL;^ kharsak, leap-frog, or blind-man's- 
buff (a child's game). 

a (♦}- r=- khartum, proboscis ; bowsprit. 

a i_ ij»- Mar if, doting old man, dotard. 

p teyi- khirka, religious mendicant's garment 
made of shreds or patches, garb, habit. 

p /py tijs*. khirka-posh (pi. ^J^^ &j&- 
khirka-poshdn), clad in shreds and patches 
dervish, religious mendicant. 

p b\&j»~ khargdh, royal tent; court, palace. 

p *js- khurram, pleasant, delightful. 

p \s*y>- khurmd, date (a fruit). 

p (.^r^- khirman, harvest, corn reaped and 

stacked, but not yet threshed out. 
p Xjy*j£- khar-muhra, a small shell used in 

some countries as coin, 
p ^tjs>~ khurraml, delight, joy, glee, happiness, 
p <±>y>- kharand, they purchase (rt. ^Ajys- 

khandan) ; are asses (for &j\j»- khar and). 
p tU rS*- kharwdr, ass-load. 
a — . j£- kliuruj, egress, going forth, exodus. 

_.! A\ J.JJ —• r sM al Jchuruj kabla 7 ivuluj, 


( 44 ) 


(provide for) egress before entering, (look be- 
fore you leap). 

p ijmjjS>- khurtis, cock, chanticleer. 

p ,ji. .rs- khurosh, loud noise or cry, clamour, 

shouting, ir'i/^-j^ dar khurosh, loud, vocal, 

p ^s+JiiijS*- khuroshldan, to make a loud noise, 
or outcry, to shout, clamour, cry aloud. 

p (_£/=*- khare, an ass. 

Vj\sj.s- khandar, purchaser. 

p ^Jj \j?>- kharldan, to purchase, buy. 

p ij&l [/>■ kharlde, he used to purchase, he 
would buy. 

a i*Ju_y>- kharlf, autumn. 

a. Jri- khazz, silk, raw silk. 

p i^W*- khazdn or khizdn, autumn. 

a dj'jri- Ichizanat, treasury, exchequer; store. 
*—>-»£ ij\j>~ khtzfinati gh nib. hidden stores. 

a ^\f>- khazdnn (pi. of djU~L khizunat), trea- 
suries, treasures. 

J jr 

khazaf, potsherd, bit of crockery. 

if- kJiaxinat, treasure ; treasury, exchequer, 

a ajj 

p j_^«*=i- khas, thistle ; weed. 
a i \*u.~>- khasdrat, loss, damage, 
p ^Ju-wu^ khuspldan, to lie, sleep, slumber ; 

to lodge. 

a <U«ri- khissat, vileness, baseness ; tenacity, 

p &uuurs~ kha&ta, wounded, hurt, infirm, sick ; 
sad, dispirited. <kuus>- (_£^J<^ dilhdyi khasta, 
broken hearts, iz^usi- kJiastas-e, thou art sad. 

p A Jb\s»- AZm£>- khasta- klidtir ( or pjj &Zm*s*- 
khasta-dil), pained at heart, annoyed, vexed. 

a ijuMus**- kJiasls, sordid, vile, low, base, worth- 
less, grovelling. 

a k_^A;>- khashab, dry wood, timber. 

p l^-w1ls»- khisht, brick, tile. *}«r^ c^j!^- 
khishti piroza, turquoise -coloured bricks. 

p i^j C^L>- khisht-zan, brickmaker. 

p ^iArv khishte, a brick, a tile. jJ ^Ji^±- 
khishte du, a couple of bricks. 

p uli>>i*£=- khushlc, dry, sere ; arid, barren . 

p i_5<^ji uli^i*^- khushk-rude, a dried-up stream. 

r JL) L_C^r>- khushk-sdl, dry year, barren 
year, year of drought and dearth. 

p ^SL) uJsjlci- khushk-sdll, scarcity, dearth. 

p yts» lL>-£js>- khushk-maghz, dry-brain, noodle. 

p ^X^s>- khushki, dryness, dry land ; drought. 

p *j1^ khishm or khashm, anger, wrath, rage, 
fume, fury, pet, passion. ^Xl *»*!>■ j£ dor 
khishm shudan (or ,J^S +£>■£- khishm gi- 
riftan), to fly in a rage, to take fire. 

p +&£- khishm-dluda, overflowing with 
rage, sullied with anger. 

p ^\uaJUs*. khishmndk, angry, raging, furious. 

a .jAri- khashuna, he was rough ; (in the as- 
sertion of a general proposition, the preterite 
is often employed for the aorist), he is rough. 

p 4yJLs>- khushnud, pleased, contented. 

A h *SUs>- khushunat, roughness, ruggedness ; 
asperity, severity. 

a JUr-*- khisal (pi. of &*ad- khaslat), quali- 
ties, properties. • <J.lLr>- khisdlihi, (of) his 

a aLari. khaslat, quality, disposition, habit. 
a a.a<- Miasm, enemy, antagonist, opponent. 
a ^t^id*- khasml, enmity, contention. 
a ^fiy^d- khusus, particular, yfljus* 1 ^Lc 

%ala 'I khusus, in particular, particularly, 


a <L*..^>- khusumat, enmity, strife, quarrel, 

a c_-^-«a=- khaslb, palm-tree. Khusaib, name 

_of a man. 

a Lr>- khatt, line, boundary ; character, hand- 
writing, letter ; moustache, beard. \*~> ns>- 
khatti sabz, down upon the face (like that 
upon a peach), incipient beard. 

a iLri- khata', fault, error, sin, offence, mis- 
take. PO»-llas- khatdst, is a mistake. UarU 
^S khata kardan, to commit a fault, to sin, 

fail, miss. X^* t-^^ 2 ^ M a ^«y* munkar, 
atrocious sin. 
a c_>lk>- khitdb, address, harangue ; sermon, 
homily; discussion; charge, accusation; re- 
proof, chidiug, displeasure. 


( 45 ) 


p ij IL-U khatui, Scythia beyond Mount Iinaus; 

a ^IksL Matds-e, a sin, a fault ; any particular 
offence ; a single slip or failure. 

±'\*b>.Ic/iutabd(])\.of*-~*Jn'<Htatib), preachers. 

a tuW,.<- Miutbat, an oration delivered every 
Friday, after the forenoon service, in the 
principal Muhammadan mosques, in which 
they praise God, bless Muhammad and his 
descendants, and pray for the sovereign. This 
was generally pronounced formerly by the 
reigning Caliph, or the heir-apparent. 

a <dasi- Mittat, country, district, region, city. 
a -k»- Matar, danger, peril, risk, jeopardy, 

APCJUjksL Matarndk, dangerous, hazardous, 


a u-^Jo^- Matlb, preacher, public speaker, 

a jJ.Vf^ Miatlr, great, important, grave ; ha- 
zardous, perilous, critical. 

p <Jj>-lJL>. khafucha, name of a certain banditti 
of plundering Arabs. 

a <Us>- Miffat, lightness ; frivolity, weakness. 
,_s\j m«Ar>- khiffati rdi (or Jac i^Jui- 
khiffati %akl, weakness of intellect. 

p c^->i»- khuft, sleeping, nap. 

p ,j2jbu khuftan, to sleep, to lie down. 

p iz&s*- khufta, slept, sleeping, asleep, lying 
down ; sleeper. 

a <ui»- khufyat, concealment, secresy. pajJ 
<Ui>- dar khufya, in secret, privately. 

a <Ua>- khafiyat (fern, of ,c&==*- Miafly), secret, 
hidden, latent. 

p L-As>- khilab, clay, dirt, mud, mire, filth. 

A (_/=ws- Molds, liberation, release, escape, de- 

A 4__JiL>- khildf, difference ; opposition, contra- 
diction, dispute, disputation; opposing, con- 
trary, ap^l)^ i i\s- khildf kardan, to op- 
pose, contradict, violate, break. 

a ii\s~ khilufat, vicegerency,caliphat; imperial 
dignity, monarchy. 

a ,3^- khullun (pi. of ,J-ls»- khalll), intimate 

a (J~)hz>~ khalds-ik (pi. of <UJ^>- khallkat), peo- 
ples, creatures, nations. 
a jJj>- khallada (3 per. sin. pret. 2nd form of 

the rt. J*L>- used optatively), may (God) pro- 
long or perpetuate. 
a &mj>. khil^at, robe of honour. 

a (jfLs- khalk, creatures, created things, people, 
folk, men, mankind. Khulk or khuluk, 
nature, habit, disposition. 

PjljT (J^>- Malk-dzdr, man-tormentor. 

a ^LaLs- khulkun (pi. of (j\s>- khulk), tattered 

threadbare garments. 
a jJiirs. Malice, a mote of people, a host of 

folk, a crowd ; any created being ; hence, 
a form, figure. 

a Jl=- khalal, fault, flaw, defect, leak, injury, 
damage, detriment, harm ; disturbance. 

a iX~- khalwat, retirement, privacy, seclusion. 

f ^t-yiJ c?»1j£- khalwat-nishin, sitting in retire- 
ment, recluse. ^uAJ CL!y.£- khalwat-ni- 
shlnl, thou art a recluse. 

a <ts-ls>- khalifat, vicegerent, the title of the 
successors of Muhammad, first assumed by, 
or given to, Abubakr. 

p *j>- Mam, curl ; coil, noose. 

a ,\as>~ khumdr, effects of intoxication, crop- 
sickness or head-ache after drinking. 

a **£- khamr, fermenting ; wine or any fer- 
mented drink. 
p _u^ +2- Mam-kamand, noose, 
p i^ytsi- Mamosh, silent. 

a ry^>- khamlr, dough, leaven, a p 
kh amir kardan, to knead. 

p ^j\&*£>- Manddn, laughing, smiling, giggling. 

a Jj-Xiri- Mandak (or JjAiri- khanzak), ditch, 
trench, moat, fosse (a word derived from p 
b&£ kanda, dug, digged, excavated). 

p HSud- Manda, laughter, laughing. 

Mandldan, to laugh, titter, smile, 



r lLJ^- Mmnuk, happy, fortunate ; cool, tem- 

p yk. Mm, nature, habit, disposition. i^V*- 
&) Miuyi bad, bad temper. ^Jo^J^- <-?¥>~ 
khuyi Miradmanddn, disposition of the wise. 

( AG ) 


p c_>uri- khwdb, sleep, slumber, dream. 

p i\xi\y>. Miwdb-gdh, place of sleep, dormitory. 

p te>-\y>. Miwaja (pi. ^Us^lyi- khwdjatfdn), 
man of distinction, lord, master; gentleman; 
good-man; Mister; teacher; merchant; owner; 
eunuch. Jlc te>-\y>- Mvwdja^i ^alam, lord 
of the world (Muhammad). 

p />iu' <*.:?- urs. Miwdja-tdsh (pi. ^LiU fc>-\yi- 
Miwdja-tushdn), sclioolfellow, playmate, com- 

v j\^£- Miwdr, contemptible, mean, despised, 


cT w-i 

i J ii«rt. Miwdr ddshtan, to hold 


in contempt, to despise, (in comp.) Eating, 
(from ^jf>- Miwurdan, to eat), as (n$f* 
j\*»- mardum-Miwdr, man-eater, cannibal. 

khuivdr, lowing, bleating (of oxen, 
sheep, etc.). 

p *jj\y>~ khwdrazm, the ancient Chorasmia, 
lying along the banks of the river Oxus or 
Jaihun, and extending to the Caspian sea. 

p * Li fjj^i^- Miwdrazm-shdh, title of the Sul- 
tan A^s"* jS>\ *lLc t alum 'd din Muhammad, 
who reigned in Kharazm from 1200 to 1220 
of our era. 

p l^-woI y>~ Miwust, solicitation, begging. 

p ^~a\y>-khwastan, to want, desire, wish, will, 
ask, beg, crave, demand, require ; to design, 
intend ; to seek, covet ; to be willing ; to call 
down ; to wed, espouse. 

a ^eU^- khawdss (pi. of iJ[~>-Midssat), nobles, 
grandees. *\^c ^ ^f^y>- khawdss u ^awumm, 
nobles and plebeians, gentle and simple. 

p ^U^- Miwdn, furnished table, tray, dish. 

p ^Sj\y>~ Mvwdndan, to read, recite, repeat, 
chaunt, intone ; to call upon, invoke ; to sum- 
mon, challenge, proclaim; to lay claim; to 

p ajJusi- Miiodnda^e, thou hast read. 

p &\y±~ Miwdh, wishing, desiring; wanting, re- 
quiring; whether, either, or. 

p Js'_p- khwdhar, sister. 

p xs^&\y£~ khivdhanda, he who asks or wishes ; 
beggar, mendicant, suppliant. 

PjJb^si- Mnvdhl, thou wishest ; dost thou wish ? 

p <-— >_j^- khub (pi. ^yJy^- kkubdn), g° oa \ beau- 
tiful, fair, well. 

p i \j)y>- Miub-ru (or ^j i—jy>- but pronounced 
khub-ru), fair-faced, handsome, comely. 

p ,J;jj ( -—>)£>~ khui-run, thou art fair-faced. 
Khub-rute, a handsome-faced person. 

p CLijys ( ~r J y>~ khub-siirat, comely, handsome. 

p )a^s* ^"'i^ khub-manzar, fair to behold, 

comely in appearance, 
p ^eiy*- khuM, beauty, comeliness. 

p Jy£~ Miwud, self, himself, herself, itself ; 
one's own. 

PA lJ^j ^^ khwud-rdi, self-opiniated, head- 
strong, opinionative, conceited. 

p ,_£Jy£- Miivudi, one's own; pride, vanity, con- 
ceit; egotism, selfishness. 

p ,u> iy>- Miwurdan, to eat ; to drink ; to swal- 
low, devour, consume, corrode; to gnaw; to 
experience, enjoy, suffer; to fret; eating. 

p sJjyk. khwurda, eaten. I ^\^>^ xj>ty&- Miwur- 

das-i ambdn, crumbs in a wallet, 
r i_j Ajyi*. Miwurdi, infancy, childhood. Khwurde, 

(he) was accustomed to eat. 
p ^Jjjj^jy>~ Miwurdiyash, his minority, his 

p tpjj=^- Miivurish, food. {j^J^.^~ Miwurishat, 

thy food, thy nourishment. 
p <X*JZ)jjo-~ Mnvurshed, the sun. 
p *jy>- Miwurram, joyful, pleasant, 
p sjj >jy>~ khivuranda, eater; fed, maintained, 

victualled ; household, 
p ^r~<f>~ Miwush (but made to rhyme with (ji£ 

kash), pleasant, agreeable, delightful, nice, 

palatable, grateful, happy, good, well. 

p ^JwJlijrL Mioshdnldan, to cause to dry up. 

p \\.\ ir>y>- Miwush- dwaz, pleasant-voiced, 
sweet-voiced, having a melodious voice. 

p *-CiV' L? > y*~ Wiwwh-dwdze, one with a sweet 

p ^j^Jay^ Miwush bu, sweetly-scerited, fra- 
grant, odoriferous. 

p ^_iy~- Miwushtar, pleasanter, more agreeable. 

p ys.~>f>- Miwush-Miu, of pleasing manners, 


( 47 ) 


p l ^s^' ij*y>- JAwush-suJdkan, well-spoken. 

p «_Js ir>y>~ fchwush-tab^, good natured. 

p ^i*»*j jS (liji- lehwu&h girtstan, to weep abun- 
dantly, or ad libitum. 

p l^-oo ' tr>y>- Mwush guft, he well spake. 

p JjJ**»- khwushnud, content, satisfied, well- 

p <Lip~ Musha, ear of corn. 

p j-lyi- Tdiwushi, gladness, mirth, gaiety, 

cheerfulness, pleasantness, agreeableness, de- 
light, enjoyment, diversion, fun. 

p ^Ju-i^ Moshldan, to wither, dry, parch. 

p iXfJ^^ hhoshlda, withered, faded. 

a ijcy*- Miauz, wading, fording; plunging into, 
entering precipitately ; resolving, purposing, 
deliberating, consulting, taking counsel. 

p i'JjS y>- Mu-karda, habituated. 

p ^y*- khun, blood ; killing, murder. 

p J\fs^y>- khun-Mwdr, blood-devouring, san- 
guinary, blood-thirsty. 

p Sj\y^y^ lihun-Uiwdragl, ferocity. 

p i^Sy^- Tchuy (the same as y>. khu), habit, tem- 
per, disposition. 

p Aj^ri-. khawld, green corn, wheat or barley 
not yet in ear. 

p ^/lijyL. Miwesh, self; one's own; (my, thy, 
his, hers, its, ours, your, their) own ; kins- 
man, relative, relation. 

p Jjjl&jjri. khweshdwand, kinsman. 

p ^jsJmjjsL Jdiwesh-tan, own person, self; own. 

Vj\ J tl jSjuLjjri. Ichweshtan-ddr, temperate, ab- 

p iXji^ji^jys- khweshtaned, of your own ye are. 

a jLri- khiydr, cucumber. 

a JL^- Uiayiil, imagination, fancy, thought, 
notion, idea, conceit, whim, caprice ; phan- 
tom, ghost, spectre, apparition. r {1 ^uuj <J^>- 
kJiayal lastan, to suppose, imagine, form a 
notion, entertain an idea, dream of. 

a ilLs*- Jchayalan (ace.) as an apparition. 

p (jiaAJI jJL^- khayul-andesh, fantastic, chim- 
erical, conceited, whimsical, vain. 

a AiL^*- khiydnat, perfidy, treachery, treason, 
disloyalty, insincerity. 

A ^uLrL khiydnate, an act of disloyalty, a 

case of treason, an instance of treachery. 

^■jfP- Tthair, well ; good, virtuous, fair, happy, 
honourable ; goodness, kindness, kind atten- 
tion ; any desirable moral excellence ; goods, 

riches, good things, ap i^-~.J r*=>- Tchair ast, 

it is well ; is it well ? 
p kj+z*- Jdnra, malignant, malevolent; indolent, 

torpid; stupid, grovelling; angry, moody, 
p ,_$\j Hrfp- Mara-rdi, of dark or mean under- 
standing, grovelling. 
Pjj Xj-;p- lehlra-ru, shameless, impudent. 
p -yo j-j>- khtra-sar, headstrong ; silly, stupid, 

p mUj^ Jdiezan, rising. i^jrP^} ^^ uftan 

u khezdn, now falling and now rising, i.e. 

with difficulty. 
p jjJoj-ri. Jchezldan, to rise, spring, 
p J-^>- Mail, troop, body of men ; tribe, 
p jJil^Lj>- hhailtash, fellow-soldier, comrade ; 

commander, general ; name of an athlete, 
p <Gl=i- (J;**- Jchail-Mdna, illustrious family. 
a<s*a-^>- Ichaimat, tent, tabernacle, ap ^ Jj ^*^- 

Tehaima zadan, to pitch a tent. 

?jb dad, he gave ; gift ; justice, measure, re- 


dress ; cry for redress or justice. o\ J 
tuwdn dad, one can give. 

p jj^J dadan, to give, surrender, resign, yield ; 
to give leave, allow, suffer, permit. 

p ,_> j! J dade, justice, judgment (emphatically) : 

he used to give, 
p i!l> dar, keep (imp. of ^1-1 W dashtan). 
p^lj ddru, medicine, drug, physic, remedy. 

•J^ kJjj^ ddruyi tallch, bitter medicine. 
r -o « j\j dar ugir, pomp, bustle, consequence, 
p (Jij;!^ ddrute, a certain medicine, a drug, 
p ^j\ J ddr'i, thou holdest, supportest, keepest, 

maintainest (rt. ^a-iiJ dashtan). 
p^iib ddraini (obi. of^j'jlj ddrdni, du. ofjlj 

Jar), two worlds, both worlds, 
p ^wllt> dashtan, to have, hold, possess, keep ; 


I j 

( 48 ) 

to keep up, maintain ; to place, deposit ; to 
withhold, withdraw; to wear. ^^liJ c^-st) 
dast ddshtan, to hand over, to restore. 

a ,-^0 da-Ay inviting, stimulating; the author 
or cause of anything. 

a <Uci J da^ijat, cause, source ; claim, preten- 
sion, call. 

p *\i$ dam, snare, net, gin, springe. 

r *\j dama, may he (or it) be perpetual, or 
continue (3 per. pret. concave ^ www, used 
optatively). 4\L» *\t} dama mulkuhu, may 
his kingdom endure ! 

p <jL«!j ddmdd, son-in-law. 

p ll r*\j daman, skirt of a garment ; base of a hill. 

r pU,*\ J dumanam (for ^» ,j^0 dumani man), 
my skirt, the skirt of my robe. 

p ^*»!j dumane, a Bkirt, a whole skirt. 

p ,<*^ ddml, (thou) art the snare. 

p ^\j «2aw, know, consider (imp. of ^yuujlj). 

p U'orfawa (pi. ^bljlj^dwaycm), wise, knower, 

wise man. 
p Jil)lj ddndtar, wiser. 
p jjlilj dunus.1, knowledge, science. Ldnd<.e, 

a man of wisdom, 
p ^jjJIj ddnistan, to know, consider, esteem, 

r ^j^mJ\j ddniste, he might know ; he used to 

p j^jujlj ddm'sh, knowledge, science, learning, 
p jo^LjIo ddnishmand, wise, intelligent, know- 
ing, learned, 
p ^j^aJLk'j \ J danishmande, a certain learned man. 
p i^jtjlo dang, a weight, the fourth part of a 

dram ; the sixth part of a dinar, 
p <U\ J e?aw«, grain, corn, seed ; bait ; bead ; bead 

of a rosary, 
p ^J,\t} dam, thou knowest (2 per. pres. of 

jjSlauJiJ ddnistan). 

a Jji J Ddmd, David, king of Israel. 

Ap,j Jji JDds-udl, David-like, resembling David 

the sweet singer of Israel. 

p jj\j ddwar, judge, ruler; God. 

a ij>\ Add drat, circle, circumference, orbit; cycle. 

a *j\j du*im, lasting, unintermitting, ceaseless; 
always, perpetually. 

p <Sj\a day a, nurse, foster-mother. 

A (j+>£ dablk, name of a small town in Egypt, 
where they manufactured stuffs of gold tissue, 
which were called 1 JLjJ dabikl. 

a (Jwfo dajjdl, Antichrist. 

a Az>-i3 dijlat, the river Tigris. 

a ^s>-<J duja', darkness, ^c*- jjl ad duja\ the 
darkness (the same for all three cases). 

p j'-^-A dukhtar (pi. ^\jx>-J dukhtardn), 
daughter; damsel, girl, lass. ^x^\y>- jx.^. J 
dukhtar khwdstan, to ask a girl in marriage, 
to court, betroth. 

p CJj^s^J dukhtar ak, little girl, young virgin, 

a J^i-J da khl, entering ; income, receipt, re- 

a (U^^ dukhul, entrance, ingress, access, 

p J J dad (pi. (^OJ dadan), wild beast, beast 
of prey. 

p . J dor, in, into, within, among ; concerning, 

about, respecting, on, upon, at; under. ujlV 

1 J ba daryd dar, in the sea ; (pi. \Jbj J darhd), 

door, gate, avenue; topic, subject. j£ j\ az 
dar, by the door. 

a <J darr, milk, especially such as flows spon- 
taneously from the udder in a copious stream. 
Burr, pearl. s r pj i jJ durri yatlm, rare, in- 
comparable pearl. 

p jKj dardz, long ; outstretched, extended. 
i^j^S \\j£ dardz kardan, to stretch forth. 

p t_£j' i^ dardzl, length. 

a <L>! iJ dirasat, study, reading ; lesson, lecture. 

p ^jLi)T j J <&w ashuftan, to be disturbed, 

a £c\j J durr&tat, upper garment of cotton. 

p ^iX*! iO <&w dmadan, to come in, enter. 

p /i<ytl .J <&w dmokhtan, to teach. 

Ail i(J dar andakhtan, to hurl, cast. 
J dardnidan, to tear, to cause to burst. 
J dar dvardan, to bring in ; to bring 




( 49 ) 


p ^pjs?*\ jj Jar dwekhtan, to fasten on, to lay 
hold of, cling, hang to. 

p tosr 

■y j 

J dar uweMda, suspended. 

p <_£l i J dar di, enter thou, come in. 

a <£>! .J dirdyat, knowledge, science ; quality ; 

p ^^ri- u j J afar bdkhtan, to play, stake, gamble 
away ; to lose at play. 

p ^^t^ darbdn, porter, doorkeeper, warder. 

p J jJ <?«r Jar, on, or in the breast ; in the 
arms, ^^y j^ dar bar Icardan, to put on 
(clothes) ; to wear, assume, ^Jyfj jl> dar 
bar giriftan, to put on, assume, wear. 

p kxujj j J dar-basta, having the door shut, with 
closed doors, shut in. 

p AiJ jt> dar band, in the bond ; enslaved. 

p yj*i j£ dar pas, in the rear. 

p p j J dar pai, at the heels or footsteps. 

r {jj^j i J dar pesh, before, a-head, in front. 

p j^oi-j j J dar paivastan, to join ; to be en- 
gaged in. 

p <&-jj-j jO Jar paivasta, engaged in. 

p lUjiJ darat, thy door, thy gate. 

a _yO darj, infolding, collecting, preserving, 
comprising, holding. Durj, casket. 

a UH\s*-j J darajat (pi. of As»- jl> darajat), steps ; 
ascendingdegrees(opposedto^o / )JJara£«£). 

a fc>~j^ darajat, step, degree, rank, dignity. 

^ ,<sf-j^ Jwr;V, a casket. 

p a Jl»- j J J«r 7ta?, immediately, instantly, 

p a <_£»- j J a'ar 7<aM, in reference, respect, or 

regard, concerning, on behalf. 

p Li— ~-j£ dirakht (pi. lo^s*- jO diraMddn), tree, 

shrub, bush. 
p 4__>uri- .t) Jar Miwdb, in sleep, asleep, iJ 

,c?l}>- Jar khwdbl, (thou) art asleep. 

p <-N*>- jii dar khwurd, worthy, suited. 

p iij^ dard, pain, ache, anguish. 

p \tijiJ dardd (interj.), alas ! 

p , S\ JjJ dar dddan, to submit, yield, surrender. 

p Jti* Jj J dardmand, afflicted, aching, suffering- 
pain, pained. 

p *j Jc^J^J dardmandlm, we are pained. 
p^i^jJjjO darrubudan, to seize, snatch, carry 

off ; to save, rescue ; to steal upon, 
p ^JuJLj; . J Jar rasdnldan, to bring in. 
p ^ A^rsr \ i J Jar ranjidan, to be annoyed, vexed. 
a (jwjJ Jars, study, reading, 
p ^is-L) jd dar sdkhtan, to do with, to agree 

with ; to be satisfied and content. 
p Li— cjii darast (for Li—; si j£ dar ast), is in, 

is comprised. Durust, complete, entire, 

sound ; just, right, true, valid ; healed. 

p iO^" li lz^jJ! durust nd Icarda, unfinished, 
not done correctly. 

p ^ JjJ-^-j jj dar sitezidan, to strive obsti- 
nately and pertinaciously. 

Pj~>jJ dar sar, in the head. 

p Li— &j^ durusht, hard, harsh; rugged, rough ; 
thick, firm ; stern, surly. 

p y>~ li— ijJ dtirusht-Jchu, rough-tempered. 

Pi| Li— £>jJ durusht-ru, crabbed-faced. 

p l j^>jJ durushtl, roughness ; unkindness, 
harshness, severe treatment, severity. {ru-W. 

p ^j jl^i j J dar futddan, to fall, to fall in. 

p a \&i iO dar hafd, behind. 

a iZj\£jii darakdt (pi. of <&jd daralcat), steps 
for descending, descents. 

p Jul J&j£ dar ledr and, are at work, are busy. 

p ioLiiS" jj dar-lcushdda, open-doored, having 
the door open. 

p ^Jk-ji^jJ dar JcasMdan, to draw in, con- 
tract ; to suppress, restrain, refrain ; to drag. 

p ilijj dar-gdh, court, gate, threshold; shrine; 
palace, king's court. 

io i J dar guzdshtan, to pass by ; to pass 

p ^JwjUaS ^J dar guzrdnldan, to cause to pass. 

p ^-iAi i J Jar guzashtan, to elapse, to pass 

on, to pass over, pass by, pass away, die. 
p iJ^iS \j dar giriftan, to take effect, to impress. 

p ^ Oy . .S i J Jar ^/ray budan, to be in deposit, 

in pledge, in pawn, 
p ^Ua^ ij Jar gusistan, to be broken or 

twisted, to break down, fail. 



( 50 ) 


p (jA-Jlu^ J dar gusildnidan, to snatch, twitch, 

wrest, wrench, 
p *jJ daram (for .^ .J dari man), my gate. 

r *j J diram (pi. ^»*j^ diramha), money ; a 
silver coin worth about twopence; dram 


p^iJut»jt) <?«r mdndagi, distress, sorrow, 
melancholy, depression, sadness; want; in- 

p ^JJl* iJ <?«r mdndan, to be in want, at a 
loss, at a standstill, to stick, sink, flounder ; 
to be distressed. 

p a Jul* j J (far mtinda (pi. ^oJub^O <ftw ma«- 

dagan), distressed, unfortunate. 
Pjlj *jJ diram-ddr (pi. (j|^^ /♦j^ diram- 

ddrdn), possessed of wealth, monied, rich. 
p ,<-»j^ dirame, a single dirhem. tXUrs- .y^P 

dirame chand, a few dirhems, a little money, 
p ^Li ^,1*^ jj dar miydni shun (for ^L^^J 

^IAjJ dar miydni eshdn), among them. 

p 10^^ io«^ j & dar miydn nihadan, to lay 

before ; to entrust ; to expose ; to speak of. 
p xdJji? darrinda, that which rends, rips, or 

tears ; rapacious, ravenous, 
p i^J^ijJ dirang, delay, hesitation, 
p ,j&j^ dirangl, tardiness, lingering, delay, 
p ^j^/jj »<-> dar navardan, to travel. 
f ^JuJ.y \J dar navardldan, to wrap up, to 

fold together ; to obliterate. 
PjjJ dar u, in him, in it, thereon. Dirav, 

harvest, reaping, 
p t>j\)j^ darwdza, door, 
p 9jjii duro gh , lie, falsehood, untruth. 
p ^j ?}J^ durogh-zan, false, untrue, liar, 
p tf^jJ duroghe, a lie, a falsehood. t£ ijiJ 

duroghe hi, a lie that. 

p ijv)t> darun, within, in ; heart, inside. 

p i^fjj^ dar vai, upon him; in it. 

p ij^j i)J diravldan, to mow, reap. 

p ^jijjj .J darwesh (pi. ^IjIjjjJ darweshdn), 

poor, needy, indigent ; religious mendicant, 

p CLJj~*z (j&JjjJ darwesh-strat, poor in spirit, 

of a humble disposition, having the manners 
or temper of a dervish. 

p l^jLs (jluJjjJ darioesh-sifat, dervish-like, 
endued with the qualities of a dervish. 

p \J^,}j^ darweshi, the condition of a dervish, 
poverty. JDarweshe, a dervish, certain dervish. 

p Ifc^J <?«r/ia (pi. j<J (for), doors ; gates. ^Itoj J 
^U^l darhdyi tismtin, windows of heaven. 

p *JS> .J cfar ^«m, together; perplexed, con- 
fused, intertwined ; pell-mell ; vexed, an- 
noyed. Dirham, a drachm, a dirhem. 

p sjlii! +z>j£ darham uftada, fallen into chaos 
and confusion, embroiled, entangled. 

p ^ I \+J1& *&j<^ darham hashidan, to draw to- 
gether, to contract. 

p i_jjd dare, a door. 

p \ij J daryd, sea, ocean ; any large river, as the 

IndusorNile. e_> Jt^t t_?Vj^ daryuyi maghrib 

"Western Sea, Mediterranean. <G Uoajs. i_?ljj J 

daryuyi haftgdna, the seven seas. jJ V.J ^ 
Jar daryd dar, in the sea, into the sea. 

p <_Aj ; jJ <Zar yaJ, know thou, consider, be 
wise (imp. of ( jiiu jJ rfar yd/tan). 

p tl ji»u ij f?«r yd/tan, to discover, find out, 
apprehend, understand, comprehend. 

p teglj J daricha, window, small door. 

p ^<^j^ daridan, to rend, tear, rip. 

p X^j4 darida, rent, torn. 

p j-Jj<J dire gh . alas ! what a pity ! pity, harm ; 
denial, refusal ; repugnance, reluctance, un- 
willingness ; sorrow, vexation, grief, remorse. 

jj <Sjf>- T-r>j6 dire gh Ijhwurdan, to grieve, to 
be vexed, ^yi-il J "Mj^ &wegh ddshtan, to 
deny, grudge, refuse, withhold, keep back. 

p Uj ,J dire gh d, alas ! ah ! well-a-day ! 

p jjJ i J dar'in, in this ; in these (another mode 
of writing ^} j^ dar in). 

p xjjjjil daryuza, mendicancy, mendicity. 

p JjJ diczd (pi. (o'^j^ duzddn), thief, robber. 

p ^Jj J duzdl, theft, robbery. Duzde, a cer- 
tain thief, a robber, 
p (jJoJj J duzdidan, to steal, rob, thieve, 
p c^-sl> dast (pi. L^ J dasthd), hand ; paw ; 

( 51 ) 


pre-eminence, superiority, victory. l^-w:Jj 
^Jyl ba dast dvardan, to gain, secure. 

p .li»sJ dastdr, turbancl ; apron ; apronful. 

p l^-wJj l^-^-jJ £?«s£ J« <?«s£, (from) hand to 



ij Ci-^J' J 

<7«s£ §«/• <#««£ 


zadan, to wring the hands. 
p c y~i^\ £j} u^u^ti dast bar dashtan, to withdraw 

the hand ; to leave, let alone, 
p^jjlijj l^-~jJ dast lar fislidndan, to rub the 

hands together (for joy). 
p ,XiJ c^-jJ dast-tangl, straits, penury. 

-jJ <&?«£ dadan, to give a hand ; to 

help, aid, assist, favour, promote, 
p ij»j l^-«-jl> dast-ras, come to hand, obtained, 

within one's power; means of subsistence, 

livelihood ; friendly. 

p sUo-jJ dast-gdh, help, relief; power, strength, 

means, ability ; wealth. 
p ,jsv»xs«o J dast-gifi, taking by the hand ; aid, 

help, assistance, ^S lSjJ^"^ dast-glrl 
kardan, to hand over. 

p *i-:J dastam, my hand. 

p \i j i^-wri J rf«s£ w pa, hand and foot. 

p a J«jj l> ^ >»i-w.O <fas£ u pa burida, amputated 

in hands and feet, 
p jj^ni dastur, custom, habit; prime minister, 
p iz~t£ dasta, handful, bundle ; handle, 
p ^^u Ui-^O dast yaftan, to get the hand, 

to triumph, 
p Li-^iJ dasht, desert, plain without water, 
p ^j^-lJ dushnan (pi. ^l^.iJ dushmandn), 

foe, enemy, foeman. 
p *l£ ll p*«S> J dushman-kdm, (foe's wish) death. 
p ^i^iJ dushmanl, enmity, hostility. 

p *L^O dushndm, abuse. 

p ^tlii J dushntime, an abusive word ; abuse, 

incivility, rudeness. 
v j\yLii dushwar, not easy, difficult; harsh, 

painful, distressing. 

a *lcJ du'.ds., prayer, invocation, intreaty, sup- 
plication ; benediction. j*»- t_?biJ du^ayi 
khair, prayer for welfare. 

a jjUj du(.d^e, a prayer ; an imprecation. 

a \y: J da-^aw, they called upon (or, they call 
up6n) (pret. of the rt. IcO, defective j waw). 

a SyzA da^wat, prayer, suit, petition ; invita- 
tion; convivial meeting, feast, banquet, en- 
tertainment.AP(jiJjc J da^watash, his prayer. 

a i_i>£<-> da~wa\ claim, demand; plea, excuse; 
plaint ; petition, suit at law, prosecution ; 
assumption, pretension. 

p LcJ daghd, imposture, cheat, fraud, 
p l^JlcJ da gh dii, impostor, hypocrite, 
p J*c J da gh al, false, base, spurious ; vice, fraud. 

p i jj daf, a single drum, i.e., with only one 

skin; tambourine, 
p Jiij daftar, book, register, journal, record, 

folio, volume. 
a *Jj tfo/^, repelling, parrying, averting, 

checking, keeping off. a p i ^s>- \ Jo I %-i J ^«/^ 

anddkhtan, to refuse, defer, postpone. 
A^ji^dafn, burial, sepulture, interment, a p ^ J 

^S dafn Tear dan, to inter, bury. 
a jij dakk, defamation, calumny, slander. 
a 4JLS J dakikat, particle ; nice point, subtlety. 
a ^jl^O dukdn, shop, 
p jiJ digar (pi. ^}S^ digardn), other, different ; 

any more, again. 

p j\. \ $£ digar bur, another time, again. 

p bj\i S<1 digar bar a, again, once more. 

p i, Jl) digar rah, another road ; another time. 

p i_Sj}<3 digar e, another. 

p J J dil, heart. ^\j (J<J dil nihddan, to 
set the heart. 

p (»M J dil-drdm, heart-pleasing, heart-refresh- 
ing, solacing, delightful ; lover. 

p icj, tr-^J j\ J J rf;7 az dast rafta, one who 
has lost his heart ; lorn, forlorn. 

p iJijT J J dil-dzarda, displeased, irritated, 

nettled, provoked, pained, distressed. 
p tejLil Jj dil-dshufta, distressed in mind, 
p j . ji\ J J dil-afroz, heart inflaming. 
a 03 J daldlat, indication ; proof, evidence. 

PjJj dtl-dvar, stout-hearted, bold, brave, in- 
trepid, valiant. 


( 52 ) 

t<jSj$£ dil-avari, intrepidity,boldness ; contest. 

p tos^J dil-dwekhta, enamoured ; loved. 

PjJj^J dil-dwez, heart-attracting, alluring, 

charming, ravishing, 
p -J J dil-bar, charming; charmer. 

p lJ.-^'I dil-barl, captivation of the heart. Dil- 
bare, a captivator of the heart, a charmer. 

p l Sz*i M J J dil-bastagi, attachment, heart-union. 
p &«*uJj dil-basta, united in heart, attached. 

p AiJ J dil-band, heart-binding ; agreeable, 
lovely, charming, fascinating. 

p lz-\ J dilat, thy heart, thine heart. 

p i^JocJj dil-tang, heart-sick, disheartened, 
sad, vexed, distressed, out of spirits. 

r ^ScA ^ dil-tangl, distress, depression of spirits, 
sadness; heart-burning; oppression. 

p ,^slM dil-lchwush, pleased, satisfied, con- 
tented, cheerful, glad; appeased. 

p .IlX! J dil-ddr, possessing or holding the heart ; 

p ^Jm\^j ^W"J J ^ ^ 8*y«W #«/" ddshtan, to 

give up the hope of life, 
p jjli*J J dil-sitdn, heart- taking, fascinating, 
p J. i_s)j dil-firo%, enlivening, glad, joyous. 
p k_^o -a!o dil-farib, heart-stealing, cheating, 

bewitching, deceitful. 

r jj J <?#/£, dervish's habit, rags. 

p ^ju£}ii dil-hash, heart-attracting, alluring. 


p iJ^ J J dil-murda, dead at heart, cold- 

p ^) J <fo7e, a heart, a single heart. 

p Jo tfc'fer, bold, brave, audacious, courageous. 

p i_$vOO dilirt, courage, boldness, audacity. 

a (JJo (faM, guide, conductor ; proof; argu- 
ment, demonstration. 

p /O dam, respiration, breath ; moment ; gulp, 
draught. ^Ji^l J -»J dam bar dvardan, to 

draw a breath. ^ J i| * J </«>« tadan, to breathe ; 

to proceed. Z>m;«, tail. 
AjL«J damdr, ruin, destruction, 
p iL«J dimdgh, brain; conceit, fancy, notion, 

pride, consequential airs. 

p jjl* J daman, swift ; powerful ; terrible, 
furious, unruly. 

p *Jw«J efom 5a <&»», moment to moment, each 

p ^iXJSS jui * j <?«;» <?«r Tcashidan, to cease to 

breathe, to be silent, hold one's breath. 
a y*£ dammir, hurl thou ruin and destruction 

(imp. of 2nd form of the root -* S). 
2 i ^Ji*^*iiDamishk, Damascus, thecapitalof Syria. 
v ^i^daml, inflated, puffy, tumid, windy,gouty. 

Dame, an instant, one moment. Ax=>- ,<*k> 

dame chand, a few moments. 
a 1?L^« J dimydt, Damietta in Egypt. 
a. ^?L^«c3 dimydti, a species of fine cotton 

cloth or stuff made at Damietta, dimity, 
p jj^X*^ J damldan, to blow, bloom, expand ; 

to sprout (as an incipient beard) ; to appear, 

to burst forth as the dawn. 

p ts<Xy>3 damida, blown, blooming, budded, 
shot forth. 

p JLjJ dumbdl, tail, stern; rudder. 

p ^kX5 J danddn, tooth. 

p ij>\ JJ J danddne, one tooth, a single tooth. 

a Lj J dunya', world, earthly posssession. Lj S\\ 
jjj JJl « a^ dunya) wa 'd din, the world and 
religion, (church and state). ^J (_?^J J ^< w - 
y«y« <foira, base world. L)J C-?L=»- haydti 
dunya 1 , the present life. 

p jl J [*JJdunya'-ddr, (holding the world), man 
of the world, wealthy person ; worldling. 

A (_iVJO dunyawiy, worldly, secular. 
p^J du, two; both. 

a J ^<J dawds., medicine, remedy, a p ^J> \^ 
dawd /cardan, to medicate, to treat medically. 

a <— >\«0 dawdbb (pi. of <U^J ddbbat), cattle, 
beasts, brutes. (Dfiwabb is often employed 
in the sense of the singular.) 

a *jjj dawdm, perpetuity, duration. *\)<&\ ^c. 

\ala 'd dawdm, perpetually, uninterruptedly, 
p i^jJ dawdn, running ; runner. 
p ^iJuJl.J dawdnldan, to cause, suffer, or allow 

to run. 
A (.J^J dawds.e, a remedy, a medicine, 
p j\j j J (/it Jar, twice. 

( 53 ) 


p Xj\) ^ du bdra, a second time, twice, 
p ijlj _j o du birddar (not io\j^M j J ^m Jira- 
darari), two brothers. 

p u jJ <£w ta, double, twofold ; convex or con- 
cave, bent. 

a tewjJ dauhat, grove, orchard, thicket. 

p (j^>-_; fc> dokhtan, to sew ; to close up ; to 

broider ; to transfix, pierce, 
p Azj>-j<3 dokhta, sewed, sewed up, closed, 
p JjJ dud, smoke. Jo J. J dudi dil, smoke 

from the heart, sigh, groan, 
p ^l^JjJ dudmdn, great tribe, family. 
a jj J daur, revolution ; cycle, time ; the world ; 

fortune ; cup handed round by guests. « j 

jS>~ \ dauri dlchir, last going round of the cup. 
PjjJ dur (pi. i^\jj^ duran), far, distant, 

remote ; avaunt ! p m^ o duram, I am far. 

p XJihj\jji} duruftdda, strayed away, wandered 

afar off, gone to a distance. 
a u^jti daurdn, revolution, circle, cycle. 
p j. J^O dozakh, hell. 
p ^>-jjj dozaklri (pi. ^Lskjjj dozalihiyun), 

infernal ; prisoner in hell ; damned. 
p si-^jO dost (pi. (^>«-^ J dostun), friend, lover. 

li^ - * - 


■J <?os< ddshtan, to love, like, 

fancy, hold or esteem as a friend. 
rjlj&-;jj dost-ddr, friendly, friend. 
p mj ci-wjjJ dost-ru, having the countenance 

of a friend, amiable. 
p igS-siJ rfosii, friendship, alliance, love. Doste, 

a friend, a certain friend. 
p (£jt> rfosA, shoulder ; last night. 
p *L~ijJ doshiza, virgin, 
p ij o <?o^, sour milk, buttermilk, whig, whey. 
p u«jj dukun, shop. 

p <Oojl> dugdna, twofold; a prayer in which 
two inclinations of the body are made. 
<5jli.o dugdnaie, a single one of such prayers. 

i <£Jj J daulat, wealth, fortune, prosperity, hap- 
piness; power; reign, empire, dynasty. 

a .^J} J daulate, a fortune. 

p *jJ duwuni (or ,-^jj duwumln), second. 

p ^i.J dun (pi. ^IJjJ dundn), mean, sorry, 

shabby, base, low, vile. 
a ^jj J (?wwfl, beside, short of, exclusive of. ^J 
jSl\ l-j\&xA duna 7 ^azaij 7 «Aiar, besides 

the greater (or sorer) punishment, 
p *;J • J ^u mz»j, two halves ; in two, in twain, 
p &jL& j J <?tt hafta, two se'nnights, a fortnight. 
p ^.jo jJ davldan, to run. 
piJ c?«A, ten. 
p «o cfo'A, village, hamlet, town ; (imp. of ^lil J 

dddan), give thou ; (in comp.), giver, 
p (jliso dahdn, mouth; orifice; jaws, 
p ^jl&o dahdne, the mouth, 
p \Atj- so dih-khudd (or ^A>- *J dih-kMiddi), 

head man of a village, 
p oJ&o rf^ac?, he (she or it) gives or may give 

(rt. yjt^iJ dddan). 
a Jfco <?flAr, time, age, eternity ; world; fortune. 
a <LiJt>0 dahshat, fear, awe, dismay. 
p ^lilao dihkdn, villager, rustic, peasant, 
p y^j ^iliLaO dihhdn-pisar, peasant's boy. 
p (JjsJ duhul, drum, tabour. 
p :Jl&j dihllz, vestibule, portico. 

p l^ KfcO dihamat, I should bestow on thee. 

p ^&J dahan, mouth, 
p ^Jbil dahane, a mouth. 

Ail>J diydr (pi. of jta <7dr), houses; (pi. of 
i_>o dairat), countries, regions, provinces, 

a Jo .l>o Diydr-bah; name of the country 
anciently called Mesopotamia. 

a ill) J diydnat, religion, adherence to religion, 
conscience, conscientiousness,honcsty, probity. 

p \-j J dibd, brocade, cloth of gold. 

p 4^-Ljo dibdja, preface; frontispiece of a book 

(often decorated with gold and colours). 
a /£j J dlbah, brocade. 
p j^Joo diddr, sight, look, view, interview, 
p (A^JoO didamash, I saw, beheld, viewed, 

or regarded him. 
p ,.iiX>j didan, to see, perceive, behold, look 

at, notice, observe, witness ; to meet with, 

suffer, experience. 


( 54 ) 


p x&}£ dida, seen ; having seen ; eye-sight, 
p hsjO dictate, thou hast seen. 
p jJ dlr, late, long, slow; old, antique. 
JJJ Jj <Z?r rflr, very seldom, at rare intervals, 
after a long time ; very late. 

p ^.r*,^ dlrlna, old; long lived; of longstand- 
ing ; a long while. 

vjyj te*],j£ dirina-roz, old, aged, ancient. 

p c^Jfc> <%, pot, cauldron. 

p ij<J <%ar (pi. ^ £j J digardn), other, another ; 

on the other hand ; besides, moreover, further, 

again ; any more, any longer. 

p ulrV.<J dtgardn, others, other persons. 

p ib io J digar-bdr, another time, again. 

p *J Jj J <fty«r <?«»», another moment. 

p ;•, Lj rftyar roz, next day. 

pal^-^j £o rfi^ar wa/rf, another time. 

p jLj dlgare, one other ; the other, 

a ^jjJ c?iM, religion, faith, creed. v£~j«<3 ■ ^jJ 
rfm w daulat, church and state. 

a Pjb J dinar, a silver coin weighing seven or 
ten drachms. 

p jJjji_9 Lj Aj jjj J <?m ba dunga 1 -farosh, a seller, 
or one who barters religion for the world. 

p jjj <&9, devil, dajmon, spirit. 

p iLj diwdr, wall. 

p ^^.^ dlwdn, finance department ; tribunal 
of justice or revenue ; a complete series of 
odes running through the whole alphabet, 
the verses of the first class terminating in 
\ , of the second in <-r>, and so on. In Per- 
sian the dlwans of Hafiz and Jam! are the 
most celebrated. JjjJ k_^o»-Lo sdhibi diwdn, 
comptroller of the finances, chancellor of the 

p AjLt) diwdna, mad, crazy, deranged. 

p ijVo diwdni, belonging to a court of law or 

exchequer ; a financier ; financial. 
p LS.-JL? «j J div-sifat, devil-like, like devils, 
p <Uc> dih, village. 

a \ J zd, he; this. 

a ^JJl \ J za 7fazi, he who. 

a cMJ za£, person, body; nature, essence, soul, 

self; genus, species, race, breed. 
a j&~ J zukhr, treasure ; provision, store, hoard. 
a iL+ss-j zaJchvrat, store, hoarded supply. 
a ijJ zarrat, atom, particle, little. 

a £ J zz'/cr, memory, mention, memorial, re- 
membrance, recital ; repeating of the names, 
attributes,orpraisesof G-od. (Ji^ju lazihrash, 
in His praise, in the mention of Him. 

a J J zutt, baseness, abjectness, meanness, dis- 
grace, humiliation. 

a <U J zillat, error, blunder ; disgrace ; base- 
ness, vileness. 

a ijA<3 zillate, a base passion, a vile propensity, 
anything shameful, scandalous, disgraceful, 
and dishonourable. 

a i*L>-\j zdlika, that. 

a (JJj zalll, abject, mean, sorry, despicable. 

a /»0 zamm, blame, detraction. 

a *5l*J zamdiim (pi. of du*s»J zamlmat), 

crimes, misdeeds, base and reprehensible 

qualities, culpabilities. 

A k_^3«J zanab, tail. 

a j J zw, endued with, possessed of (always 
found in composition), /jJul j J zu'l kurba% 
possessed of relationship", kinsman. 

a Afta)! _j J sm7 fa/cur, name of the celebrated 

sword which formerly belonged to .jj ,jfiUS! 

<Ui^ Al ids bin munabbih, an unbeliever 
who was slain at the battle of Badr. It 
became the property of Muhammad, and 
afterwards fell into the possession of his 
son-in-law and successor, the caliph Ally. 

a ^\y\\ jO zu'l nun, a name of Abu Fazl Suban 
bin Ibrahim, a celebrated Muhammadan 
saint, chief of the Sufis, who died in Egypt, 
a.h. 245. 

a J^J zauJc, taste, relish, gust, delight. 

a ,_£j(j zawl (obi. of j^J zawu, pi. of «J zu), 
possessed of, endued with. ^j&\ l£j^ %aw ^ 'I 
hurba\ possessed of affinity, relatives, rela- 
tions, kinsmen. 

a t_-Ot> zis-b, wolf. 

a (JjJ sail, lappet, or train to a robe, lower 
extremity, skirt of a garment. 


( 55 ) 



p \, rd, sign of the oblique case in Persian. 

a cy !^ ras-at, she saw (rt. ,_£i> ras-a\ he saw). 

a iL^lj ruhat, quiet, repose, rest, ease. 

p J'J r " ,z > secre t> mystery. 

a ^/j«^) r«s-s, head ; &~>\j ratsuhu, his head. 

p c^-sh nt«tf, straight, direct, exact, correct, 

right, true ; the right hand ; immediately, 

directly. e&\y>- 

wantest the truth 

•^~~i\j rust khwala, thou 
askest thou the truth ? 

p Jc^jL rdsttar, truer, more correct. 

p m^s*^ Ui-*-s'j rdst-suMan, true in speech, 

p ijlj rdstl, truth, veracity ; rectitude ; 
straightforwardness ; rank of dexter. 

a 'fAj rdsikk, firm, solid, steady ; profoundly 
learned, standard, classical (author). 

a ^jisSj rdzin (for i^j rdziyun), pleased, satis- 
fied, contented. 

a ^a\j rdzl, content, satisfied, pleased, ac- 
quiescing. A.p**il^ rdziyam, I am content. 

A .g^j rd^l, shepherd, pastor. 

a k_^U rukib, riding; rider. ^L\y*\\ \^^S\, 
rukiba 'I mawdskl, (as) riding"(or a rider of) 
the beasts. 

a CL}\^\j rdlcibdt (pi. of L£\j rdlcibat, fern, of 

i^s\j rdlcil), female riders. 
p i^^j rdndan, to drive, goad, spur, impel, 

propel, push forward, urge onward, chase 

away, expel ; to attack, fall foul upon ; to 

carry on. 

p Ijtj ra*u, they (masc.) saw (rt ^j\j ra<-a'). 
p i\j rdh, way, road, path ; voyage, journey. 

p x^j*J &\j rdh-na-lurda, untravelled. 


a ij\j ras-y, view, opinion, judgment, sentiment. 

a p jcjj ^j\j rdyi buland, exalted understand- 
ing, ^j ^j rdi zadan, to give an opinion. 

a &j\j raiyat, standard, flag, banner, ensign. 

i <^)}j ras-aita, thou sawest, or seest (rt. 
i_$\j raid'). 

A ij,\j rate, an opinion ; a new opinion. 

a l->j rabb, lord ; Creator, God ; lord ! < t, 

yjoJi\ rabbu 'I arzi, Lord of the earth. 

a <_Jj rubba, many. <_&*X^ i—Jj rubba sadlhin, 
many a sincere friend. 

a b\jj ribat, any public building, as an inn, 
caravansery or monastery. 

a t^Vj rubd^iy, a verse of four hemistichs, 

tetrastic, quatrain. 
p jj^V i rubdtidan, to seize, rob. 
a ujj rabband, our Lord ! (accusative used 

for the vocative). 
p ^JjJi rubudan, to snatch, steal, ravish ; to 

withdraw one's-self. 
a *-?>j rabl^., the spring, vernal season. 
A l5*^J ra bi-i-> vernal. 
a *z*-j rajm, pelting with stones. 

a &&.j rihlat, march ; departure ; death. 

a mz*-j rahm, compassion, mercy, Rahim, womb. 

a ^J^>-j (or i^^-j) rahmdn, merciful. ^~i£>-J\ 

++2- y\ ar rahmdnu 'r rahim, the merciful, 

the pitiful ; the most merciful. 
a <U^»-j rahnat (or rahamat), pity, mercy, 

clemency ; blessing ; a mercy, a gift of the 

Divine mercy, i^s- <d!\ iL*=- i rahmatu 'lldh 

lalaihi, the mercy of God (be) upon him. 

a p |0<^j 1 <j^~^*^-< rahmat uvardan, to shew 

pity, to exercise mercy. 

a J-p-j rah'il, journey, departure. 

a **=>-» rahim, merciful, full of pity. 

a ,*l>-; rukhdm, marble, alabaster. 

p i^-vsUj rakht, furniture, stuff, apparatus, 
apparel, baggage, luggage. 

PjL«j>j rukhsur, cheek. 

pgJcAS-j rak/ishanda, shining, bright, dazzling, 

p ^iiuJLs>.j raMshidan, to shine, flash, glitter. 

a £j radd, return ; restitution, restoration ; refu- 
tation. <__>^>- Jj raddi jawdb, rejoinder. 

p )j raz, vine, grape. 

a jj ruzz, rice. 

a jjjj rizlc, support, sustenance, subsistence, 
rations, daily bread, provision, allowance 


( 56 ) 



)\~3j rasunidan, to cause to arrive, send, 


appointed by Providence, *4a« Jin wait 

matlumun, an assured subsistence. 

a <L!Ljj risalat, letter, epistle, missive; treatise, 
pamphlet, tract. 


bring, transport, carry ; to inflict 
p *^~>j Rustam, son of Zal, the most renowned 

of the heroes of ancient Persia, their Hercules. 
r ^J^j rastan, to be liberated, escape, get free. 
p ^j^>j rustan, to grow, sprout, 
p iz^j rasta, escaped ; saved. 
a **)j rasm, law, canon, rule, custom, habit, 

a \****j rasmz, a custom ; customary, 
p \*~*j ruswd, disgrace. 
a (Jy*>j rasul (r pi. ^yj rasultin), messenger, 

apostle ; prophet, 
p c^-<~: X^ij rasldast (equivalent to ««£-«««>! i 

rasida ast), has arrived, 
p ^&~*j rasidan, to arrive, reach, touch, attain, 
r i&+~ij rasida, arrived. 
a ^Jjj rashsh, sprinkling, aspersion. 
a t_c-ij rash/, drop, sip, suck. 
p CSJ^j rashk, emulation, zeal, envy. 
a iy^j rishwat, bribe, a p ^Jjy*. <-^-V£y rishwat 

khwurdan, to take bribes. 
a'Lsj n'zdi, content, satisfaction, acquiescence, 

resignation, good wiil, consent, good plea- 
sure, favour ; content, satisfied. 

a U-~cj razlnd, we are satisfied. 

a i—^oj rutab, ripe dates. 

a ulft^ ra^aya' (pi. of <Lzj ra-Jiyat), subjects. 

a <olcj riuiyat, care, attention; respect, regard. 

p^Jp Jb\s>- c^lci ricdyati khutir kardan, 
to respect, to attend to the wishes. 

a Scj ra- c d, thunder. 

p Ixcj ra.nd, delicate, tender, beautiful. 

a<Ucj ra^lyat, subject, peasant, cultivator, ryot. 

a <Ui; raghbat, strong desire, wish, inclina- 
tion, avidity, greediness. 

p juij raftur, going, travelling ; travel. 

p ^jxij raftan, to go, depart ; to escape ; to at- 
tain ; to descend. 

p ^j'^-ij ruftan, to sweep. 

p icj)j rafta (pi. ^J&zij raftagun), gone, set off, 
passed, departed, travelled ; dead, deceased. 

a «_Sj raf^, lifting, raising, elevation ; promo- 
tion ; removal (from an office) ; (in grammar) 
Zamma, i.e. the short vowel u at the end of 
a word in nouns, denoting the nominative. 

a (jjj rifk, benignity, courtesy. 

a d'iij rafhat, riflcat, or ruflcat, a company of 
fellow-travellers ; society, friendship. 

a %-~2j rajl^j raised, high, exalted. 

a (J~ij rafik (p pi. u^iLJj raflkdn), com- 
panion, associate, friend. 

a <— _?vSj rikdb (pi. of Ljj rakabat), necks. 

a ^/iij rah, dancing ; capering ; ambling, 

a dje i. ruk^at, patch ; letter, short note, scrap 

of paper ; petition, ap <uij J Ajiij rulc^a bar 

rulua, patch upon patch. 

a **ij rahn, writing, inscription. 

a i— -«*3i raklb, rival, competitor; watcher. 

a 4-jj rukyat, incantation, magic, spell. 

a fc—>l£> rikdb, stirrup. 

a iSj rukbat, the knee. ^J~&j rukbati, my knee. 

a \j&) rakibu, they embark (pret. of <^Sj). 

a &jgj rakuit, a devout inclination of the body 
during prayer, so that the hands touch or 
rest upon the knees. 

a ilSJij raklk, thin, slender, mean, paltry, 
petty, weak, small. 

p &£j rag, vein, io^t *£Jj r^di jun, heart- 

p ^jj i^Jj rag-zan, phlebotomist, bleeder. 

a <b \si <j rimdyat, shooting ; archery. 

• i ramazdn, the ninth month of the Mu- 
hammadan year. A strict fast was enjoined 
by Muhammad upon all his followers from 
sunrise to sunset daily thi'oughout this month. 

a (JL»j ramak, last breath, departing spirit. 
a .e^ t rama', he shot (a defective verb), ij^j 

ramdrii, he shot me, he hit me. 
p jj<X*.*i ramldan, to flee in terror, to be sonred. 
f f^j ranj, trouble, labour ; toil, moil ; anguish, 

grief, pain, annoyance; moodiness. 

A ^jla/ 



( 57 ) 


r ^J^jlrsT, ranjdmdan, to displease, annoy, 
vex, put to grief, affect with disgust. 

p fjjj.2^j ranjish, pettishness, indignation. 

p U*l ijms<j ranjish-umez, mixed with dis- 
pleasure ; angry, testy. 

Pjjij ranjur, sick, afflicted, ill, ailing, vale- 

p^jjjsfj ranjurl, sickness, disorder, distemper. 

p <*>=fj ranja, pain, grief. 

p (<srj ranje, a grief, a vexation, annoyance. 

p jjA-msT, ranjldan, to be displeased, offended, 

vexed, put out of humour, annoyed, made sad. 
p x^+czTj ranjlda, vexed, displeased, annoyed, 
p jJj rind (pi. ^^>j rinddn), debauchee, rake, 
p i^jjj rang, colour, hue ; dye, tint. 
p t^Jojl&j rang-d-rang, many-coloured, of 

various hues, colours or kinds. 
p ^^Xj >j rangin, coloured ; eloquent, flowery 

(language), florid (style). 
By rav, go thou (imp. of ^ij raftan). 
p jj ru, face, surface ; consideration, sake, cause, 

reason. cJLi- ^Jjj j> bar ruyi khdlc, on the 

face of the earth, on the bare ground. 
p \jj rawd, lawful, allowable, passable, right, 

fit, proper. ^iilj L rawd ddshtan, to 

allow, permit, sanction. 
p ^jj ravdn, life, soul, spirit ; also (partic. of 

iJ^ij raftan), going-, moving, shifting, run- 
ravdn shudan, to depart, 

mng. ^^ u \ 

Bet out. i^j^S io'jjj ravdn kardan, to send 
away, to despatch, dismiss. 

p LjI ^tj ravdn-dsd, soul- re freshing, spirit- 

p <~t~'jj rob (imp. of ^ ^)j robldan), wipe. 

p xujj rubdh, fox. 

p^Jujjj robldan, to wipe, sweep, dust; to clean. 

a —,j ruh, spirit, soul. __«j lUJs kuti ruh, 
food of the soul. 

p Ojj rud, river. Ravad, he goes, he may or 
might go (rt. I j^i, raftan). 

p i^j ruda, intestines, entrails, guts, viscera. 
t^JSJ bJjj ruda-i tang, narrow guts. 

p jjj roz (pi. of ^Jm rozhd), day. l>1j \*j rozi 

dad, day of retribution. lU-i j» <rozi shumdr, 

day of reckoning. ^1 \~+ j^j rozi maiddn, 
day of battle. 

p (J_T; jj rozak, a short day. Su»- ^Sj*j rozake 
chand, a few short days. 

P J j'J ro% 9 ar (P 1 - ub^jy rozgdrun), fortune; 
state, condition ; living, livelihood, means of 
subsistence ; time, life. i^j^A J^jij rozgdr 
burdan, to live, to associate. J^L*^ U jliy • 
rozgdri nd mmd-~id, unpropitious fortune, 
hard times. 

p i_5Aij«j rozgure, a time, some time, a length 
of time, a while, a long period. 

p i^ijyj rauzan, window ; chimney, aperture for 
the escape of smoke. 

p Xjjj roza, fasting, fast. 

p ^jjj rozi, fortune, luck, daily bread or food. 

p i_?jjj roze, one day, a single day ; some day. 
jc^»- i_£i«> roze chand, several days, many 
days. ,J i-£J3J roze du, a couple of days. 
t~> _j J lSJ*j ^oze du sih, two or three days. 

Pj^ri- i^fjjfj rozi-khwdr (pi. ^j^^ ^J3j roz ^- 
khivdrdn), eater of daily bread; a living 

p aJ i-S))j rozl-dih, giver of daily bread, be- 
stowing (or bestower of) subsistence. 

a *1~jjm rutasds. (pi. of j_/«-J; ra-is ), chiefs. 

p gf^it i) ruspi, harlot, whore, courtezan. 

p cLjj . rustu, village, market-town. 

p sj\jls-4)i rustu-zdda (pi. ^lijlju^j rustd- 
zddagdn), village-born ; rustic, villager. 

p i_j»^-~-i i rustd.i (pi. ^ILoij rustdydn), pea- 
sant, villager, rustic. 

p ->l^-.-jt, rustdye (or^jl^i n rustdye), a villager. 

p rjtjj ravish, gait, walk, carriage ; procedure, 
custom ; conduct, behaviour. 

p ^hij^ roshan, bright, shining, clear, light, en- 
lightened ; limpid. 

p ^li-iji . roshndn, light, brightness. 

p ^\j ^p-jjn roshan-rdi, of enlightened judg- 

p jjjs (^r-jjy roshan-guhar, bright-souled, lumi- 
nous, sparkling as a gem. 


( 58 ) 


a <Lsjj rauzat, garden. 

p iji-tj raughan, grease, oil, butter. 

a |*jj Rum, the Turkish, empire. 

ap^«jj rurni, Turkish, produced in Turkey. 

p 4 J*Jy rawinda (pi. ^^^jjj rawindagan), one 

that goes ; traveller, passenger, 
p (JJjj raundk, ornament, beauty, bloom, lustre, 

shine, glory, 
p ,_£•. ruy (pronounced ru), face, countenance, 

aspect. ^.Ji-^Li (*^^ i-OJ r " darham IcasM- 

dan, to frown. ^y*j '■Jij ruyi zamln, the 

face of the earth, ^*^f <~fjj r " hardan, to 

turn the face. .Sawz, thou goest, mayest go 

(rt. ij^jj raftan). 
p c^j«j ruyat, thy face, thy countenance. 
p ^ Jujjj rus-idan, to grow, vegetate ; to make 

grow, cause to vegetate, 
p f^+ijj rutin, brazen, consisting of brass. 
p <^^=- ^)j rutln-chang, brazen-clawed. 
p Hj rah, road ; time, turn, 
p \jbj raha, leave. ^S ^>j raha Icardan, to 

leave, quit, abandon, put off, lay aside ; to 

give leave. 

p ^^[jbjraJianldan^o cause or allow to escape; 

to save, free, deliver, rescue, release. 
p i^\&j raha%l, escape, deliverance, release, 

a <UiLj&. rahbdmyat, monasticism ; monkery. 

ajLJ! o <UjL&i *§ Id rahbuniyata fi 'I islam, 

there are no monkish practices in Islam. 
p jf&j rah-bar, guide, road-guide, 
p ^.-> &j rah burdan, to obtain the road, to get 

access to. 
p LSrr&j rah-barl, guidance, direction. 
p UJ S J ra ^~ zan > r( >bber, highwayman, 
pj sCsbj rah-guzar, passage, way. 
p ^JuA; rahldan, to rid one's self, escape, get 

free or clear of. 
a *li \j riyat, hypocrisy. 
a <L)1j> ris-a&at, dominion, authority, headship; 

a mIs]| raihan, an odoriferous herb (as sweet 


p ^xsTj reMitan, to pour out, spill, scatter, 
shed, crumble. 

p te~C.j reMita, crumbled ; shed, spilt, poured, 

p ijjj reza, crumb, scrap, shred. 

p ^U.jjyjj rismdn, rope, string; cable, hawser. 

p ijm.j i resh, wound, sore, blain, ulcer; bleed- 
ing, wounded, sore. Rish, beard ; dress, 
suit of clothes for festive occasions. 

p j^IAjj reshdn, wounded, bleeding. 

a ^|l*Jj rattan, best of anything, flower or 

vigour of youth, 
p t^Joj reg, sand. ^*\ i^S : 'j regi ravdn, 

shifting sand, quicksands, 
p yij rlv, fraud, deceit. 

p J zi (for \\ az), than ; of; from, out of. 

p jh zad, provisions for a journey ; he was 

born (rt. /^^j zddan). i\j OiJ zddi rah, 

provisions for a journey. 
a S\\ zdda, (he or it) increased, was over and 

above, exceeded (concave i_? ye), 
v (*»J JiJ zad-bum, father-land, place of one's 

birth, native countiy. 
p ^ISlM ; zadagdn (pi. of sS\\ zdda), born ; 

children, young ones, 
p iS^j zadagi, birth, parentage, 
p ^\j zddan, to be born, arise, spring ; to give 

birth to, to bring forth, 
p xS\) zdda, born ; son. 4 Jij zddas-e, a son. 

vj\\ zdr, groan, lamentation; groaning, afflicted ; 
weak, contemptible; wretch. 

p i_£^J zdrl, lamentation, cry. 

p clj zdgh, a crow. 

p JU Zal, the father of Eustam and son of 
Sam Nariman. He was called jj zar, or 
golden, because when born he was covered 
with yellow down. He was put to death by 
Bahman; an old man or woman ; a graybeard. 

f \\j zule, a certain old woman, 
p ^J\\ z'dn (for ^1 j\ az an), from that; than 


( 59 ) 



p d£j 1 <\ z'dnhi (for 4xi I jl az an hi), because that. 

p &j\j z'dn gah (for &>\ j\ az an gah), from 

that time. 


p *j Ij z'dnam, than that I am. 

py'j zawM, knee. 

a Slb\\ zdhid (p pi. ^jj^J zdhiddn), devout, 
abstinent; recluse, hermit, anchoret. 

a py SSb\j zdhittar, more of a recluse, more 

A t_>AA|j zdhidl, piety, religion, devotion, ^a- 
A«Vfo, a recluse. 

a J$j zas^, increasing, exceeding. \*Ju>*\ JjU 
zas-idu'l wasf, indescribable, beyond descrip- 

kji\jzdiir (ppl. ^Jlfij zds-irun), visitor, pilgrim. 

a Jj|j z<m7, waning, declining, decaying; im- 

p *Jk-JM zdyinda or zdi/anda, bringing forth ; 
productive ; a mother ; springing, flowing, 
running (fountain or well) ; unfailing, peren- 

p ^J^J'j zd»ldan, to bring forth ; to procreate. 

r ^j\jj zabdn (pi. L^jIjJ zabunhd), tongue; lan- 
guage, speech, dialect. 

Fjjl ^j\)j zabdn-dvar (pi. ^jjj\ ^j zabdn- 
dvar an), eloquent, fluent. 

p ^jSj^ loVvi %a ^n-dvail, eloquence, flow of 
language, fluency of tongue, readiness. 

p *Jo y ^b j zabdn-burlda, tongue-tied, silent. 

p j\j J ^bj zabun-dardz, long-tongued ; scold. 

p ^fjj^ ^Vj zabdn-dardzi, length of tongue. 

p <SJuj zabdna, flame. 

p ^j\j>j zabdne, a tongue, a language. £& ^l\j ; 
i^-w'l> zabdne hi ddsht, the language that he 
possessed, i.e. his own language, or dialect. 

p c^~~ :JjJ zabar-dast (pi. ^1^-jJj ; zabar-dast- 
d)i), having the upper hand ; oppressive, vio- 
lent; oppressor. 

p ^Jj zabarin, upper, superior. 

p i«iyj zabunl, meanness, baseness, vice, vile- 

ness, faultiness, wickedness, depravity. 
p .^Jj %i bahri, for the sake of. 
a k_^-*J ; zabib, currants, sun-raisins. 

p ^j)\ j£ i_/b J zi pdi dar dvardan, to trip 
up, to throw down, to prostrate. 

p ^jj j zi pas, after, behind. 

a .==-; zaj'r, chiding, scolding, reproof, rebuke ; 
impediment, opposition, violence. cLr^j^A 

a <U^-j zahmat, trouble, inconvenience, annoy- 
ance, affliction, disquietude. 

p *rs.J zahhm, wound. 

p tsJjyi. *»» j zahhm- khwur da, received a wound, 

p <U>ri.J zahhma, bow or plectrum of a violin 
or other musical instrument, fiddlestick. 

p ^y=-\ zi hhwud, of himself (herself, itself). 

p ^ JJ zadan, to strike, beat, hit, smite, shoot, 
whip, flog, flagellate ; to dash, fling, cast ; to 
rap ; to attack ; to sting ; to strike up. 

p jj zar, gold ; money in general. 

p jj zarr, gold. ^^ix.>- <j zarri jazfart, the 
purest kind of gold (such as was formerly 
the Venetian ducat in Europe). 

p Jj Sj\ j) zar-andud, overlaid with gold, gilded, 

p ^-jj zarat, thy gold. 

p Jm zard, yellow. 

a c. j) zar^, sowing; sown field. 

zar<z_ u tijdrat, farm and merchandise. 

p JmJ zarh, hypocrisy, fraud, imposture. 

p fjjj zurnl, visit me (from ij zur, imp. of J\\ 
zdra, concave j wuw, with the affix ij, nl, me). 

p ^j \j\ zarin or zarrtn, golden. 

p u^w&J zisht, ugly, plain, ill-favoured, de- 
formed ; odious, offensive, disgusting. 

p y>- L^-%-i)j zisht-hhu, of an odious temper. 

p (,!*;>- <-i-~ij zisht-hhus-e, a certain ill-tem- 
pered fellow. 

p jj. e^-v-i)} zisht-ru, ugly-faced. 

p ^J«i i^-*£i\ zisht-run, ugliness of face. 

p L^^b L^-»-ij zisht-ndmi, infamy. 

p Ja£>) zishti, ugliness, foulness ; opprobrium, 

p i£\ zahdt, alms, almsgiving. 

ap Ji!; zuldl, pure, limpid, wholesome water. 

a <LJj zallat, slip, fall, error, mistake. 

J J^3 VJ 


( 60 ) 


p i &\ mlf, curling lock of hair, ringlet. 

a +j zumma, (the camel) was bridled, or hal- 
tered (pass.), 
p l*; 2* ma (for t» \\ a% ma), from us, our. 
zimdm, rein, bridle, halter. 


A /*b»J 

a ^bj zaman, time, season, age. (J-sjJ ' 
zamdna 'I wasl, time of visiting (accus.). 

p <JjL*j zamdna, time; world. 

■^ tJbj zamane, a while, a little while. 

p JLjs^j zamakhshar, name of a town in Khwa- 
razm, the birthplace of Abu '1 Kasim Mah- 
rm"id, son of Omar, author of several works, 
particularly of a commentary on the Kur'an. 

a Ij^j zumrat, circle, assembly, crowd. 

p ^ji^jij zumurrudin, of emerald hue. 

a L*y»\ zamzamat, speaking low, whispering, 
murmuring; a musical manner of reading, 
chant, concert. 

p ^liAu^J zamistdn, winter. 

a ^y%\ zaman, time, season. 

p ^$j %i man (for ^y* j\ az man), from me. 

p ^j-^J zaniin, earth, ground ; landed property, 
estate, land. 

p ^j zan (pi. ^lij zandn), woman ; wife, ^j 

p~i\*s- zan khwdstan, to seek a woman in 

marriage, to court. ^Ji jjj zan Icardan, to 

take a wife, marry, wed. AJJy j ^j zan u 

farzand, wife and child ; wife and children. 

j\Aj\i ^jj zani Idr-ddr, pregnant woman. 

a p jy-'j zambur, wasp, hornet, drone, ^jy^j 
zamburam, (I) am a wasp. 

p j-sTJ zanjir or zinjlr, chain, fetter, jir^j 
j_fl) zinjiri pdi, fetters. 

p J SssTj zanakhddn, chin, lower jaw ; beard. 

p Az*t\f>. ^j\ zan-Mwdsta, married a wife. 

r .\jj j zinddn, prison, jail, lock-up. 

p e^-w>AJj zindast, is living, survives (equiva- 
lent to c^-w.-l nSJj zinda ast). 

p ij^jj zindagdtil (or ^<^>j zindagl), life, 

,.,i>.i 8JJ \ zinda 

p *Jjj sm<7«, living, alive. 

Icardan, to animate, to make alive. 

p (_j!J<^JJ zindlh (pi. ^liu jjj zindihdn), impious ; 
fire- worshipper. 

p ;*jOj z«w^, rust. 

P J J zangdr, verdigris; rust. 

p ii*>jf>. <^Jo J zang-khwurda, eaten up with 
rust, corroded, rusty. 

p fXjj Zangl, ^Ethiopian, Ethiop. The sur- 
name of the family of Sangar or Salgar, who 
established a dynasty under the title of Ata- 
bak, (q.v.) There were two branches of this 
family, the first of which ruled at Shlraz in 
Persia, the second in Syria and Mesopotamia. 

p Aijj zanand, they strike (rt. ^JJ zadan). 

Pjl^J J zinhdr, beware ! have a care ! 

p ij,j zani, womanhood. Zane, a wife ; a woman. 

a J \%\ zawdl, decline, wane, setting, departure, 

p u\jj zud, swift, quick; swiftly, soon, readily, 
quickly, speedily. 

p JOij zuttar, quicker, sooner, more speedy. 

p t_?^jj zudi, speed, swiftness, quickness, sud- 

p ..j zor, strength, power, force, violence. j%\ 
^j^\ zor dvardan, to bring violence, to press 

p l*j 1 jjjj zor-dzma, strong, powerful, athletic ; 

p (,j^jl ijjj zor-dzmdt-e, an athlete ; a certain 

p ijl ijj zor-dvar (pi. ^\)^ jjj zor-dvardn) pos- 
sessing or bringing strength; vigorous, power- 
ful ; athlete. 

p .j 'jj\ .j; zor-dvartar, stronger. 

p lJjj\ ji) zor-uvari, vigour; combat, fight. 

p jiij zaurak, pinnace, yawl, skiff. 

p &-~* i).J zormand, robust, powerful, strong. 

p i^«J^»M)J zormandl, strength, force, violence. 
Zormande, a strong powerful fellow. 

p ^Wj Zauzan, name of a city lying between 
Herat and Nishapur; also of an extensive 
district, dependant of Nishapur, and com- 
prising 124 townships. 

ih, bowstring, ^f xj zih Icardan, to 
fix a bowstring, string (a bow). 

P *J 


( 61 ) 



a JU&j zuhhdd (pi. of A>U zdhid), religious men, 
recluses, ascetics, devotees. 

p <ls>J zahdr, the lower part of the belly, the 
pubic region. 

a Ju&J zuhd, abstinence, devotion ; religious mor- 
tification, rigorous and severe. 

p jSbj zahr, poison, venom, bane. Jj'lj Jt>\ zahri 
kdtil, deadly poison. 

p ijbj zahra, gall-bladder ; boldness, spirit. 

A i jl> i ziyadat (in p written both Ojb J zi- 
yadat and 40l>J ziydda), augmentation, in- 
crease ; (used adjectively), additional, ex- 
cessive,much,more. ap^J.^ LllJjbj ziyadat 
kardan (or ^S *^Vj -iyuda kardan), to in- 
crease,augment,raise, enhance. ^.jjjj* St)u ; 

ziyuda gardldan (^^-i shudan or ^iAS gash- 
tan), to become greater, to increase, grow, 
wax stronger. 

a ^*us- s^\ ziyada-hasam, extreme comeli- 
ness, exceeding beauty. 

A iJ,l>j ziydrat, visit; visitation; pilgrimage. 

pil£jjL \ziydrat-gdh, place to which pilgrimage 
is made ; shrine. 

p cA.J z ^" w > loss; detriment, injury, harm, 
hurt, mischief; decline, decay. 

p k— Vj sii or zeb, ornament, beauty. 

p Lj J zibd, beautiful, fair, elegant, graceful. 

p (J~^j zibak, quicksilver, mercury. 

zibldan, to adorn ; to become, beseem, 

suit; to please, to be agreeable. 

a Joj Zaid, a pi'opcr name. p,_>JuJ zaidl, thou 
art (of) Zaid. ^j Jo J _j jLi * _? \j tu camr u 
bakr u zaidl, as long as thou art (a follower) 
of Amr, Bakr, and Zaid (names expressive of 
worldliness and secularity). 

p Jj zlr, under, beneath, below, down. _>j 
^j\L Xi zlri bar shudan, to be under a load, 
to be burdened. 

p i& \ji\ zlrd ki, because that. 

p c^«;jj J zir-dast (pi. ^,1^-oJj J zlr-dastun), 
powerless ; under authority ; inferior ; op- 

Pjljl c^wsJ^J zirdast-dzar, oppressor of the 

p i-l^/J z'irak, quick, sagacious, shrewd, intel- 
ligent, witty. 

p ]Sa\ ziraki, quickness, intelligence, spright- 
liness, wit, spirit, genius. 

p vrfjlj zlrhi, lower, inferior, nether. 

p ,^^-uJ J zlstan, to live ; to survive ; living. 

p C->-i] zi yak (for CXi j\ az yak), of one. 

P .jJj z'ln, than this. 

a e— uj J Zainab, name of one of the numerous 
wives of Muhammad. 

a <UjJ zlnat, ornament, decoration, gear ; at- 

p il^ijj zinhar, defence, protection ; care, cau- 
tion; beware! have a care! ^jy j^-^j 
zinhar kardan, to be upon one's guard, to 
protect one's self. 

Pjjjj zlwar, ornament. 

p &\j zhula, hail. 

p a Jjj' zhinda, old and patched (garment), 
p ijjf zhiydn, formidable, terrible, fierce, ram- 


a /£>Lj sdbik, past, preceding, prior, former, 
antecedent, bygone. /»l*jiH (j*\** sdbiku 'I 
in^dm, of former favours. 

a <&L>L: sdbikat, (fem.) former, past. 

a Ji\~isdtir, veiling, concealing,hiding; concealer. 
Lj'Lj sdtiran (ace.) ' Lj'Lj ^ Aw» sdtiran, 
be (or become thou) a concealer. 

p ^iri-L: sdkhtan, to do, form, make, build, 
construct, contrive, perform, arrange ; to pre- 
pare, make ready; to do with, manage, make 
shift; to be content; to agree, harmonize ; to 

p <fci=s-Li sdkhta. made ; built; arranged, pre- 
pared, got ready. 

p ;Lj sdz, musical instrument. 

a icLj sd^at, hour, moment. 

a ^AcLj sdzate, an hour, a while. 

A JjiL) sdcid, the arm from the wrist to the 
elbow, fore-arm. iJozL; sd-.iduhu, his arm. 


( 62 ) 


a jjL.- sa/c, the leg. 

A *iJ s «^' w (with ianwin for .JLj sdkiyun), 
a cup-bearer. 

a ,JL> sa£i, cup-bearer. 

p JL) sa£ (pi. l^jl«j sulha), yeai\ 

PjlLo sdldr, general, chief, leader, commander. 

a (_LioLs saM (p pi. ^lijL: sdlikdn), travellers. 

p (JjI-j sdlagi, (in comp.) age. 

p <uLs sola (pi. I^JLj sdlahd), age; years, as 

<JLj ^.j panj sula, five years old. 

P.J b sale, one year ; a whole year ; a certain year. 

>y^>- iJb ««& chand, several years. _jJ^!Lj 

safe <?u, a couple of years, 
p ^ULj sdliydn, years. 

a JLjsaser, every; remainder, rest, all, except, 
the other; the whole. 

a ,JjLs 8a*il, asking ; beggar, petitioner, suitor, 

p <bL) sayrt, shade, shadow. 

p n^jjji &*~s sdya-parvarda, nursed in the 
shade, delicately brought up. 

p ^JujL: su*-idan, to grind, rub, triturate. 

a t ^ sabab, cause, reason, motive. 

a <dH (m^-j subhun alluh, God ! holy God ! 
Most Holy God! God be praised! <G 1=£Uj ,_£=>- 
^llxj" « #«£/.; subhamihu wa ta^alcC, God the 
most Holy and the most High. 

p l»~> sabz, green, verdant, fresh. 

sabza, verdure, herbage; green herb, 
potherb ; sprouting or incipient beard. 

a %-*-> sab^, (fern.) seven. The seven long 
chapters of the Kur'an from £Ju bakrat to 
<U»J' taubat. pa«--j lz^as> haft sab^, seven 
of (or seventimes) these seven chapters. 

p <_L>-~j sabuk, light, not heavy. 

p \£-*~> sabuk-bdr, light in weight; lightly 
loaded ; ready to rise and travel. 

p L£-~j sabuk-pd, light-footed, light of foot. 

p ^X;iL~! Sabuktagln, name of a brave general, 
and father of Sultan Mahmud, founder of the 
dynasty of the Ghaznavlds, who flourished 
in the beginning of the eleventh century. 

p &j. 

PjLJLwj sabuk-sdr, light-headed, addle-pated, 

of weak intellect. 
p ^jj\^.L^ sabuk-sdri, lightness. 
a J^-wj sabll, road, path, way. paJ*«i j bar 

sablli, by way of. 
p (juuL~) sipds, thanks, thanksgiving. 
p iL-j sipdh, soldiery, army, 
p | e&L~j sipahi, military, of the military order, 
p j+~z sipar, shield. ^jici-'jJl -*~i sipar an- 

ddTditan, to throw away the shield, to give 

up the contest, to yield. 

p J Li j+~s sipar buz, (player with the shield), 

skilful warrior, 
p ^jf > sipurdan, to entrust, consign, give up, 

surrender, resign, 
p ^iXi i_?r-~J sipari shudan, to be completed, 

finished, spent, terminated, ended, 
p -V-^ sipand, wild rue, the seed of which is 

used by fumigation to counteract the evil eye. 
p c^-v^' ast, is, (he, she, it) is. 
p i yz~i sitdra, star. 
p ^Jul;«j sitdndan, to take, receive, accept; to 

seize, catch, snatch ; to exact, levy, 
p {JLj 1^-j sitdyish, praise, laud ; encomium ; 

compliment, flattery, 
p ^Jo-j sitadan, to take, accept; to takeaway, 
p ^J^> siturdan, to shave, 
p SJijx** siturda, shaved, shaven, 
p *s~j sitarn, tyranny, oppression, outrage, in- 
justice; deliberately, designedly, purposely. 

p iJoJ^vJ sitam-dida (pi. ^lijjj *i-j sitam- 
didagdn), one who has seen or experienced 

p ilC»,:;~j sitamgdr (or iU.i»j sitamgar), tyranni- 
cal ; tyrant, oppressor. 

p ,_5.LC*Jw-: sitamgdrl (or ,c.Cc-; sitamgari), 
tyranny, oppression, cruelty. 

p -*£»d sitame, an act of oppression. 

p ^ Jj3-»j situdan, to praise, laud. 

p i*i~j sulur, animal, beast of burden (as a 
horse, mule, or the like). 

p i^jjX-j sutun, pillar, column. 

p iy;~j sutuh, tired, jaded, knocked up; afflicted; 
fear, dread. 


( 63 ) 

p J-3-j sitez, emulation, contention, strife; ob- 
stinate, contentious, quarrelsome ; contend 
thou, persist. 

p ijSjjjip^ sitez-ru, of a quarrelsome counten- 
ance; brawling, contentious. 
p tj~~i siteza, strife, contention. 
p jjJoJ-j^-; sitezidan, to contend, strive. 

a j-s" - sajoj cooing of doves ; rhyme, metre, 

A p t_f^S J-?* - saj^-ffu, speaker in rhythmical 

sentences, or rounded periods. 
a Ojjs** 3 sujud, worship, adoration, prostration. 
a ,Jj!j ^j) ^Ls** 5 Sahbdn bin WuhI, name of 

an individual reputed to have been the most 

eloquent man that ever lived in Arabia. 

a^s* - sahar, twilight, dawn of day, morning, 
p a j-sr* c y* mur gh i sahar, bird of the morn. 

a p &£-£.•*' sahar -g 'ah (or ^j&bjS.-* sahar-gdhdn), 

dawn, morn-tide. 
a ij>jS?* sahari, morning, matutinal. Sahare, 

one morning, on a certain morning. 

a 'Is* - sakha* (or 'i^sr* sakhdwat), liberality, 

r L^-A^r ) sakht, hard, strong; painful, sore. 

p ^j e^s* - sakht-pai, of strong muscle, mus- 

p Jic^s** 5 saTdittar, harder; more painful or 

p .Asr 5 sakhti, hardness, adversity, hardship, 
"ills, distress, agony; vehemence, severity; 

p xs+AS L Asr J sakhti-lcashida, endured hard- 

a ijsr* sukhrat, one who is compelled to labour. 
ap^xj .i bji^. ba suMra giriftan, to take by 
force, employ enforced labour, press, impress. 

p c ^s** ) sukhun or sukhan (pi. l^A-s** 3 sukhunhd 
or ^Xus^sukJiandn), word, speech .discourse; 
business, affair, matter, circumstance, (j^s- 5 
ijz~:**} sukJian paivastan, to connect or draw 
out a discourse. 

p { j^>- i^^ 1 sukhan-chin, tale-bearer. 

p u \±^s~> sukhan-dun or ^fi l jjsr> sukhan- gu, 
speaker, orator. 

p ^ir-' sukhane or sukhune, a word. i^^ 
A^=- sukhune chand, a few words. 

a J.*j sadd, obstruction ; mound, dike, bank, ram- 
part. ^y*j &~z saddi ramak, sufficient to pre- 
serve life. 

p-j sar, head, top, summit; tip, point, end ; 
cover, lid ; intention, design ; desire, wish, 
inclination, propensit}^; thought, idea, fancy; 

source, spring ; chiefest, choicest . c^AxJ \ -»: 
sar angusht (pi. \^pJH.ij\ *~> sar angushthd), 
tip of the finger. (jjj.jjri--.~j sari khwesh, 
one's own way or will. tj^S {J^.y>- j~> 
sar khwesh giriftan, to depart, to be off. — > 
c^~:J sari dast, tips of the fingers. -o 
^S sar kardan, to break out ; to burst (as a 
boilorwound); to come to ahead. .iA*^ -»s 
sar kashldan, to draw back the head ; to dis- 
obey, to become refractory; to end. -j j\ 
az sar, from the beginning, de novo. ^Jj -«j 
ba sar burdan, to carry to an end, to complete, 

a j~i sirr (pi. of j\j~>\ asrdr), secret, mystery. 
a *\j~t surra*, an easy, happy condition (opposed 

to ~\j*> zarrd*). 
a -J\j*> sirdj, lamp, 
p cLs-U-o sardcha, inner apartment, or closet. 

Jo <^*-)t-j saruchan dil, purse of the heart. 

p *UsrL~: sar-anjdm, conclusion, termination, 
end; accomplishment; issue; materials, re- 
quisites, stores, provisions, furniture; what- 
ever is essential to any undertaking. 

p c_^J JuU~j Sarandlb, Ceylon. 

p i^u-s sardi, palace, house, inn, abode, man- 
sion; (in comp.) playing; player on a musical 
instrument. £& tj\f* •■ sardyidigar, the next 

mansion, i.e. the other world. ^L-j . J dar 
sardi, in the house, at home. 

p (^L-j sards-e, a mansion, a house, a home, 
p ^oJL-; sardndan, to sing, to warble ; to play 

on an instrument. 
p Is\j — : sar-panjagi, strength of fist, grip. 

p teste j~i sar-panja, nails, claws, open hand, 
expanded fingers ; the wrist. 

-ir 1 

( 64 ) 


p j-j— j sar-tez, hot-headed, headstrong. 


i surkh, red, crimson ; blooming, blushing. 

^\jjSj~: sar-garddn, bewildered, giddy, dizzy, 

p J>j~i sard, cold, cool ; extinct. 
p i^-wji^-j sar-dast, tip3 of the fingers. 
p ij»j\~i sarzanish, rebuke, chiding, reproach, 
taunt ; chastisement. 

p l^w.-: sirisht, nature, temperament, phy- 
sical part ; physics. 

p dc.j~> suruit, speed, swiftness. 

p {jm!)j~i sar-hash, headstrong, heady, refrac- 
tory, rebellious. 

p &j\jH!sj~3 sar-kushuda, having the table-cloth 

p J5j£j~i sar IcasM, refractoriness. 

•e££.'!£j~i sar-kofta, bruised in the head, i^s^-^ 
AsLi sar-kofta mar am, I am a crushed-headed 

p &j~i sirha, vinegar. 



p fcJl£j~isar-gashta, whirling round; astonished; 
dizzy; afflicted. 

p { ^fj^ sargln, dung. 

p +j~} sararn, my head. 

p L^-j sarmu, winter, cold. 

p 4j\*j~3 sar-mdya, capital, stock-in-trade. 

p c^-v«^ «*o sar-mast, intoxicated to the last 
degree, dead-drunk. 

p i_-odJ-<j sarandll (or c_^o jj-j sarandip), 

p .-a sarv, cypress, ^b^ri- •—» sarvi Miard- 
mdn, waving cypress. 

p u «— ; sarupd, head and foot, fromhead to foot. 

p Jj-j stirod, song. 

p ^Ji-j surodan, to sing, to warble. 

p ..-. ; sarvar, head, chief, principal. 

p i^Sjjj** sarvarl, chiefship, command, cap- 
taincy ; empire, sovereignty, rule, sway. 

p jlii-j s«r u Tear, business, service. 

p x.~s sara, current (as coin) ; good, worthy, 

p i^J^Jb^i sar hang, officer, captain, headman, 
master; boatswain. 

p Juayj sarhangl, official. 

a (Jr^-J sara', he travelled, visited, or came by 
night (a defective verb). 

p iCpi sari, desire, longing, wish. Sare, a 
head, one head ; an affection. 

A J j** sarir, throne. 

p U-j sazd, punishment. 

p i^U-j sazawdr, worthy, deserving, meriting; 

p l^~*mj~> sust, weak, feeble, languid, dead beat. 

Pijjlj sj^v***«j sws£-Susu,languid,weakinthearm. 

p a c--^-i) li^vw-j sust-raghbat, of blunted pas- 
sions, palled. 

p -XM~i sustl, negligence, sloth, laxness, re- 
missness ; gentleness. 

p Jua-j sisad, three hundred. 

a i Jsw satwat, dominion, majesty ; force, domi- 
nation ; bluster. 

a i'jlx-j sauldat, happiness, felicity. 

a <U-j sautt or stud, liberality, facility, wiJe- 

ness, amplitude. 
a Jv*»o sad-., happiness; name of the father of 

jiO »j I abu baler. x&x~> saJlulm, his happiness 

a w Jvl i\*~j sadda 'd dunya\ the world pros- 
pers, and is happy. 

p i^jSx^i Sa^di, Shaikh Muslihu 'd din ShlrazI, 
the most celebrated of Persian writers, was 
born at Shnaz, a.h. 571, a.d. 1175. 

p I) Sx~> sauliyd ( of ,_$ Sx~i sauli, name 
of the poet), Sadi. 

a l e nt ^> sa iV> purpose, study, endeavour, effort, 
pains, labour, trouble, exertion . a v^S .j*- 5 
sa<~%) /cardan, to strive, to attempt, to endeavour. 

a <UhU-j safdhat, stupidity, folly. 

p L^i-j suft, he bored ; boring, piercing, per- 

p ^yiA-j suftan, to bore, pierce, perforate. 

p teJi~i sufta, bored, pierced, perforated. 

a JL: safar, journey, travel, voyage. Apb.t5.A-o 
safari daryd, sea-voyage. 

a 'iJui sufrat, table ; furnished table ; table- 
cloth, especially one of leather which tra- 
vellers spread on the ground, a p^ jly ayL) 
sufra nihddan, to spread a table. 


( 65 ) 


ap xj£ji~a safar harda, having made a journey ; 

p <UjLj sifta, mean, base, low, sorry. 

A (JjL> sufla 1 (fem. of JjL^ osfal), lower, in- 
ferior. is"-i-s ^ yadi sufla', the lower {i.e. 
receiving) hand. 

v iX^i safed, white, fair. 

a <UiLa sufih, stupid, ignorant, insane, silly, 

a kiL: salcat, anything of a base nature ; coarse 
abuse, rude reproach. 

a A+A~s salclm, sick, infirm, ill ; invalid. 

a ^J&~t sukkdn, helm or rudder of a ship. 

a l£-X-j salcatta, thou art (or wert) silent (pret. 
of the verb c^£~> sulcata). 

p -f>£~> sukunj, one who has fetid breath ; ul- 
cerated ; fetid breath. 

g jsS^i sikandar, Alexander. 

a ^f^-> sukun, tranquillity, rest, repose. 

v^jLs sag (pi. ^IC* sagdn), dog. ijj\j\} <^S~; 
sugi bdzuri, dog of the bazar, a street-cur. 
,_5jl£-£) <£ji*i sagi shikari, hunting-dog. 

p (JI>~j sigul, thought, conjecture, suspicion, 


p ^Li sage, a dog, one dog. 

a J-j sul, ask thou (irregular imp. for J L.-1 

«'«*«?, from rt. ^JLs sw-alu, he asked). 
a jJLj silah, arms, accoutrements. 
A ^jJsjLj saldtln (pi. of ^UaLj sultan), sultans, 

a jJLj salam, salutation, peace. 
a <L»L«j saldmat, safety, rest, peace, welfare, 

well-being; sincerity, integrity. ,J, <L*^LJ! 

$&>-y\ as saldmat fi 'I wahdat, safety (is) in 

a ,-^lL.- saldme, a salutation, a salaam. 

p jyLs."^ silahshor, a horseman that displays 
the throwing of the javelin, vaulting, and 
other dexterity on horseback ; champion, 

A JU«Lj sulsdl, limpid water wavering like a 

a <U^L»j silsilat, chain, series. 

a .^UaLc sultan, king, emperor, monarch. 

a ^JILLj sultdnl, royalty, office or authority of 
a king. Sultdne, an emperor, a monarch. 

a iJJaLj saltanat, power, dominion, royalty. 

a p j^IiLj saltanati, of the kingdom thou art. 

a uLxLc silk, thread, string, series, order, train, 

a A~i sulimu, he was (or is) safe. 

a *-J— -• sullm, sound, perfect, healthy ; mild, 
gentle, tame, pacific ; simple. 

a ^l*-.L~ Sulaimdn, Solomon. 

a j I/».-j samd*, heaven, sky. 

a 4:=-Lw samuhat, beneficence, liberality. 

a S?L*m) sumdt, table covered with food. 

a cL».^! samdc. (or <ul*-j sumd^at), hearing ; 

song or dance, especially the circular dance 

of dervishes. 

a £_*~j sam^, the ear. ic**- 5 sam-Ji, my ear. 

a L^->*/fc~a sumi^at, she (or they irrational fem.) 
heard (3rd sing. fem. pret.). 

p &ua~s samand, a horse of a noble breed, a bay 
horse with black legs and tail. 

a py*~> sarnum, sultry suffocating blast, de- 
structive to travellers, simoom of the desert. 

a c y^-*~s samin, fat, sleek, plump. 

a ,^li~s sindn, point of a javelin, spear-head. 

p jj-^-: sumlul, hyacinth, spikenard ; any odo- 
riferous flower. 

a <U~j sunnat, rule, law, canon ; the traditions 
of Muhammad, considered by the orthodox 
Muslims as a supplement to the Kur'an, and 
of equal authority. They are rejected, how- 
ever, by the Shiya or sect of All. 

a .lsx»j Sinjdr, name of a city in Mesopotamia. 

p ^Ju^U: sunjidan, to weigh ; to ponder. 

r iJiJowo sang, stone, rock ; weight. ^Csj i^J^^a 
sang zadan, to pelt, to throw a stone. 

p«j^- j^Jowj sang-~khurda, a bit or small piece 
of stone. 

p J.aSo..j sang-dil, (heart of stone), hard- 
hearted, cruel, unfeeling. 

p ,_$ jLuCi-j sangsdri, stoning, lapidation. 

p ,Jo*«j sangi, heaviness, weight. Sange, a 
rock, an individual stone. 

p ^jS^^> sangin, of stone, heavy. 

y~3 { 

a jy~* sinnaur, cat. jy**> ha sinnaurin, as a cat. 

r ja su, side, quarter, direction ; towards. <_£j*^ 
^,L«wjI ba suyi dsmdn, in the direction of the 

heavens, towards heaven. uAi i_£«~> suyi 

hashtl, towards the ship. 

a *j~j sw*, evil, badness. 

a <j^U»s sawuhih (pi. of <UjLj sdbihat), past 

events, things gone before. L^v*jti (_^U-> 
sawdbihi ni^mat, former favours. 

a J)^«i sawucl, blackness. <^jSl ^_j~j saicddu'l 
wajhi, blackness of face. 

r- ^L-j suwdr (pi. ub V - smvdrdn), horseman, 
rider; mounted. 

p *j\y-* suwdram, (I) am mounted. 

p i^sj^y^ suwdri, (thou) art mounted. Suwdre, 
a mounted horseman, a sowar. 

a J^j-j sus-al, question, inquiry; begging, men- 

p ,5rL^ sohhtan, to burn, consume. 

p <&>-j~: sohhta, burned, consumed. 

p Jyx sud, gain, profit, use. ^w£>!j J»-j sud 
ddshtan, to afford profit, to avail. 

p i J»~j saudd, melancholy, insanity, vain or in- 
sane procedure ; trade, traffic. 

p Jo..Jw sudmand, profitable, salutary, useful. 

p ^y*> sudan, to wear, rub, bray, deface. 

p a J»~) suda, rubbed, worn, effaced, obliterated. 

p c.? 1 ^- 3 siide, a profit, any profit. 

p jJ-jij~> surdhh, hole, crevice. 

a iji4«> saurat, power (of kings or tyrants) des- 
potism, despotic power. Sural, chapter of 
Kur'an (of which there are one hundred and 

p j»~j soz, burning, heat, flame. 

p i^jy* sozdn, burning, flaming, blazing. 

p ^jy sozan, needle. 

p ^tX* J«^ soztdan, to burn. 

p c>,'Syi saugand, oath, swearing. yOjii &Sj~i 
saugand Mwurdan, to take oath, to swear. 

A ij^S^j sawwalat, she (or it) suggested evil or 
fictions (3 per. sing. fern. pret. of (J^o 2nd 
form of the root JL.-, concave ^ wdw). 

p *j~: siwum, third. 

CO ) ^^ 

p (jl&j-j suhdn (or ^j-kj-j suhari), file, rasp (for 

iron or for wood). 
a (_5j~o sjW, save, besides, except, 
p !_Sy*s su, side, quarter; towards. ^U^l »_?j~j 

««?/«' dsmdn, towards heaven. 

p <Lj sz'7j, three. 

p j\i <t-j sih bar (not \&j\j bdrhd), three times, 

p {jjjJj &~i sih shash, three sixes (a throw atdice). 

p Jua»j sisad or sasat?, three hundred. 

a (Li sffAZ, easy, not difficult, simple, trifling. 

a L^-j sahlan, easily ; softly ; may God grant 
(you) every facility or convenience. 

ap J'J-y-j sahltar, more easy, easier. 

APi> (J-\/~> sahl-ju, seeking to be smooth or 
easy, peacefully disposed, pacific, gentle. 

ap ^j£ J^ sahl-gu, soft or fluent speaking. 

p jj-JU^mj sahmgln, formidable, awful. 

p ,_^ s«M, straight, erect, upright. 

p lLx» iLi sih yah, three aces (at dice). 

a J-^ suhail, the star Canopus. 

p ^s «?, thirty. 

iyah, traveller, pilgrim ; great pere- 

a &>-L~) siydhat, journey, travel; pilgrimage. 

a *-U«j saiydhe, a traveller. (^jllij shai- 
ydde, an impostor, would have been a better 
reading, as being more emphatic). 

a <L.-L~s siydsat, chastisement ; discretional pu- 
nishment such as the law has not provided, 
but as may be inflicted by the judge ; ad- 
ministration of justice, government. 

a <GL~j siydhat, mode, manner, style, fashion; 

subject, topic, 
p *L«o siydh, black, sable, dark, opaque; negro, 

p *\i *L~j siydh-fum, black-coloured, swarthy. 

A — .LwJ 

r irf *^~j siyah-gosh, (black-ear), lynx ; the 
animal called the lion's provider. 

p ^Jfcl^-j siydhi, black-servant, negro ; black- 
ness, darkness, swarthiness. Siydhe, a black, 
a negro. 

p c—y~s sib (by some seb), apple, 
p <? ~ r s sebe, one apple, an apple. 


( 67 ) 

' s c^jii 

p Lfi.** sikh, roasting-spit. 

a tX«~j saiyid, lord. ^L^Jin X*~i saiyidu'lambiyd, 

lord of the prophets, Muhammad. JU Jw; 
saiyidi %alam, lord of the world. 
a j*~i sair, walking (for amusement), prome- 
nading; journeying; perusal of a book. 

Siyar (pi. of ij*~> sirat), morals, virtues, 
habits, qualities. 

p^-~j ser, full, satiate, satisfied, sated, glutted ; 
tired, wearied. Sir, garlic. 

a Xj+~i sirat, virtue, moral quality, disposition ; 
way of life, mode, habit; history, memoir. 

p u^j-s seri, fulness, satiety, repletion. 

a i_ e,«..i saif, sword, sabre. 

a J-»~j sail, torrent, flood. 

p <-_JiL-j saildb, flood, torrent, inundation. 

a J-j saile, a torrent, a flood, an inundation. 

p ^J~*~> sili, blow with the open hand edge- 
ways, cuff, slap. 

p *+*} sim, silver. 

p I*-.-: simd, face, aspect, countenance, simili- 
tude, resemblance. 

p j^-^-s simin, of silver, silvery. 

p <L*-~asina, breast, bosom, chest. 

p /m?~j siwum, third. 

p <U~i siyah, black, sable, jetty; gloomy, sad. 

p J J <U«j siyah-dil, black-hearted. 

p it*' ash, to or of, him, her, it, them. 
a <i>Li shdbaha, he resembled (3rd form of the 
rt. <Ui). 

a if Li s/«<2£, sheep, ewe. i'Lil! ash shut, the 

p _iLi shdkh, branch, bough, 
p ^LtjLi shddmdn, joyful, glad, joyous. 

p iJ,L»jLi shddmdni, joyfulness, joy, rejoicing, 

p t_f jLi shudi, joy, gladness, rejoicing, glee. 

^L\} ,_£ jLi s/ia^i kundn, rejoicing. 

p ^iX».iLi shdshidan, to stale, squirt urine. 

A^Ll«i shutir, bold, courageous, brisk, lively. 

a J, Li shdfi, healing, salutary, sanatory. 

a ji Li shalcir, thanking, praising ; grateful. 

p JjTLi shdgird (pi. ^J^TLi shdgirdun), stu- 
dent, scholar, pupil ; apprentice ; servant, 

a *Li Shdm, Syria, and its capital, Damascus. 
L^»Li shdmiydn, the inhabitants of Sham, 



the Syrians or Damascenes. 

a ^ Li sham, thing, affair, business ; state, con- 

p ^Li shdn, nature, state, condition ; regard, 

respect; pomp, splendour. (for^LijJ eshuri) 
they, them. 

p &Li shah, king. 

a jL&Li shdhid, mistress ; lover ; a beautiful or 

beloved object; a witness, 
p jtui J^fcLi shdhid-pisar, lovely boy. 
a ..jj^Li shdhidi, airs ; insolence, indignation. 

p <L*L\J&Li Shdh-ndma, (book of the kings), the 

celebrated poem of Firdausl. 
p aLiiJ&Li shuhanshdh, king of kings, 
p [C&Li shdhi, royalty. 

p Jo Li shdyad, is fit, suited, or allowable; suits, 
is becoming, proper or worthy, behoveth ; 
it is possible, may be, perhaps, perchance. 

p „ji«jLi shdyistan, to suit, to be proper. 

p <fcUujLi shdyista, worthy, suitable, proper ; 

p ^ JwjLi shdyidan, to be worthy, 
p w^-i shab (pi. L^i shabhd), night. ^^~i 

•Jo shdbi hadr, night of power, the 27th of 

Ramazan, when the Kur'an is said to have 

been sent down from heaven. 

a c_jL~i shaldl, youth, prime of life, 
p (jLwi shaldn or shuldn, shepherd, 
p J)jL«i shaldnroz, night and day. 

p jLOLwi shdbangdh (or <&L^i shabdngah), 
night-time, evening, even-tide, nightfall. 

p Xj+*& shap-para, (night-flyer), bat, reremouse. 

pj*sU shab-khez, rising at night, keeping vigils . 

a t 11-* shal^ or shila^, satiety, pall. 

a WdJb shali^a, he was satiated, sated, glutted, 
he was (or is) satisfied. 

p iLwwi shab-gah, even-tide, evening, night-time. 


( 68 ) 



p *~*2> shab-nam, night-moisture, dew. 

a <U-i shabah, glass-bead. 

p ,£«-£> s/;#Je, one night, a single night, a whole 

p XjfSi shapara or ijJ* shappara,bat, rereuaouse. 

p aA*- Sj-wi shappara-chashm, bat-eyed, pur- 

a *l^i shitat, winter. 

p <__>U.£> shitdb, haste, hurry. 

p ^l^-i shitdbdn, one who makes haste. 

p L1 ^il^ shitdftan, to make haste. 

vj^i shiitur, camel, p a JLs j±J* shuturi sdlih, 
the camel which the prophet Salili is said to 
have brought out of a block of stone as a sign 
to the tribe of Thamud. (Kur'an, ch. vii.) 

Pjb jJ* shutur-bur, a camel's load. 

shuturbdn, camel-man, camel-driver, 

one who attends to a camel, 
p &=£T zJ* shutur-bacha, camel- colt. 
a (icls- - shajucat, valour, courage. 
A^s- - shajar, tree. 

ap^Us - " shahna, superintendent of police. 
A^^s^shaMs, person, individual ; form, figure. 
a p ^is - shaMsam, my person. 
A ^as^ skakhse, a person, a single person, 

one person, an individual, a certain person. 
A jLvi shiddd (pi. of SjsJa shadid), vehement, 

violent, hard, severe, inexorable. 
a i&J* shiddat, hardship, sufferings, 
p ^jwV-i shudan, to be, become, happen, befal ; 

to go, depart, pass away ; to enter. 

p a Jui shuda, become ; hath or had become ; 

gone, departed. X Jvi shudw-e, one that hath 
become ; turned into. 

p ljXSi shade, he would have become. <$j>- 

ljSJ^ chi shade, what would have happened ? 
what harm would there have been ? 

a jL sharr, evil, malignity, depravity, wicked- 

a t-J\J* shardb, wine. 

a ^j-i sharbat, one drink, one sip, a single 
draught; beverage, syrup, sherbet. 

a li— J J* sharabtu, I drank. 

a ^-i sharbate, a draught. 

a _ jL sharaha, (God) opened the heart or dis- 
posed the mind (towards religion; — used 

p s\ \jL sharza, fierce, enraged. 

a \)JSi shart, condition, requirement ; rule, re- 

p iJoJii shurta, propitious, favourable. tkj*, jlj 
bddi shurta, favourable wind. 

a CjJi shar^, law, equity. 

a tjC-j-Z> shar^i, legal, lawful. 

a i_ir<2) sharaf, excellence, nobility, eminence, 
dignity, honour. 

p *jZ* sharm, shame. 

p iSy*jLsharm-%ada, struck with shame, shame- 
stricken, abashed. 

PjLu^ii sharmsdr, ashamed, downcast. 

p i_^Lu^*-i) sharmsdrl, shame, confusion of 
face, being downcast or abashed. 

a tjj* sharah, avidity, appetite, greediness, cu- 

a i»J2J \J* sharlf, noble, illustrious. 

a i_l>J -i sharilc, partner, sharer. 

p 11 j3uu*j shustan, to wash. 

p (_£.-£) shash, six. ijm-Z> <*— > s ih shash, three 
sixes (sizes). 

p *A-£j shashum, sixth. 

p u^«^i shast, sixty. 

a p ffya£> shatranj, chess. 

a u_^*-i) shi^b, path through mountains, defile. 

&.jxJi> shizr, poetry, poesy. 

A l \jxJ* shucctrdi (pi. of -cLi shd^ir), poets. 

A *U-i shifd^, convalescence, recovery, a p uLi 
^.ilj sA«/«2 yaftan, to obtain a cure. 

a <tcljLi, intercession. 

a i&L shafat or shifat, lip. *jLJI <U-i shifatu 
's sdd»i, the lip of one keeping a fast (apt to 
be flabby and withered). 

a <uLsLi shafaJcat, pity, clemency, compassion, 

a *-*A-i) shafts advocate, intercessor, a r^jLi 

jo^jI shafts dvardan, to bring (or invoke 

as) an intercessor. 


( 69 ) 


AjjyLi shukuk (pl.of^-i shakk), chinks, cracks. 

a <_JCi shakk, doubt, scepticism. 

p ilijlCi shikar-gdh, hunting-ground, game- 
preserve, chase or ground stored with such 
beasts as are hunted. 

p ^jySj* shikari, suited to the chase ; game, 

P rev - t-i;^-^ <£S~* sagi shikari, bunting- 
dog, hound. 

p piULi) shikaftan, to split. 

A<iJlLisA^ay«£,complaint,grievance. pc^-jjili 

^j^S shikayat kardan (or ^J^l uvardan), to 
complain, to lodge a complaint. 

a -£-2j shukr, returning thanks, thanksgiving. 
ap ^j\sS iLi shukr guzardan, to return 
thanks. ^i-llJo Xi shukr guzdshtan, to 
return thanks, a l^-~ *xi iLi shukri ni^mat, 
thanks for favours and benefits received. 
\jLL shukran, (ace.) thank3, thanksgiving; 

A Jj* shakar, sugar. 

p JJC.ri.JLi) shakar- khanda, sweetly smiling. 

a lj/-Z> shukre, one act of praise, a giving of 

p c^uJli shikast, he broke ; breaking, fracture, 

p ,,£*jSJ^ shikastan, to break. 

p &£*~.ijj> shikasta (pi. ^Ix^iLi shikastagan), 
broken, shattered ; sprained, dislocated ; im- 
paired, enfeebled, weakened. 

a ,_j£.i shakl, figure, form. 

p /S-^> shikam, stomach, belly, paunch, bowels ; 

p iAij »xi shikam-banda, slave to appetite. 

p J i J JCi shikam-dard, belly-ache, gripes. 

p Ass\>J^ shikanja, stocks, rack. 

a jy^ shakur, thankful, grateful. j^Jl]\ ash 
shakur, the thankful. 

p ( _» r; iLi shi/abe, a particle or atom of patience. 

p ^j£*~S..£> shiJdbldan, to be patient ; to do 
without, to dispense with. 

p k^-~iLi shiguft, astonishment, amazement, 

surprise. ^ 


shiguft amadan, to 
be astonished. l^-> **z.h.>J^ shiguftast ( for 
L^—-!l izJoJlt shgufta ast), hath blossomed. 

p ^ixi shiguftan, to admire ; to bloom, blossom. 

p te£^> shigufa, blossom, bud. 

p *iLi shal gh am, turnip. 

p l*-i) shumu, (pron. 2 per. pi.), ye, you. 

a &'Lfc£ shamatat, delight at another's woe, joy 
at the misfortunes of an enemy. 

PjUi shumdr, (imper.) count, reckon, esteem. 
jU.-l jtj rozi shumar, day of reckoning. 

p ^jSij\y*J^ shumdrldan, to count, esteem, reckon. 

a Jjt»-i shamas-il (pi. of (Jl*.S> shimal), vir- 
tues, talents, qualities. 

A ( JjU„i) shamas-ill, physical. 

a <U*i shammat, atom, particle, whiff. 

p ^ J-^-i shumurdan, to count, reckon, enume- 

a^j+aJj shams, (fern.) sun. ..iJ^ \jm.aJ* shamsu 
'd din, (sun of religion), a proper name. 

YjfJU^Jj shamshir, sword, cimeter. 

a «_^-i shanu, waxlight, candle, taper. 

p ^J^-i shamldan, to scent, to smell. 

a iL.i shunat, (pi. of t_^-i sham), haters. 

p e^^-li-i shinakht, knowledge. 

p ^j^uLjo shinukhtan, to know ; to recognise, 

acknowledge, consider, regard. 
a &c£ shun-, at, turpitude, brutality. 
p i^iXi-i shangarf, cinnabar, vermilion, 
p y-i shinav (imp. of ^Jji-£> shinudan), hear. 
p%,J»i.£ shinudan, to hear; to understand ; to 

p >*^-i shinavam, I may hear, 
p Jui-i shanid, he heard ; hearing, 
p ,p~:j.-i*i shanidasti, thou heardest. 

p ,J^-i shanidan, to hear ; to hearken, listen ; 
to hear of, about, concerning ; to perceive, 
smell, scent. 


p JJu^.i shanida^e, thou hast heard. 

a t~~-£> shaniz, base, odious, disgusting. 

p »-i> sto, be, or become thou (rt. ^A^i shudan). 

Shu, husband; wash thou (rt.^UuJs shustan). 

It is also written o^ • 
r _:«.£) shokh, saucy, insolent, playful, arch. 


( 70 ) 

p jJLs- j.y* shokh-chashm, saucy-eyed, impu- 
dent, wanton. 

p l e*£*J>- f^Zi shokh-chashml, sauciness, petu- 
lance, insolence. 

p »*X»t> +y* shokh dlda, wanton-eyed, saucy ; 

p ^>-j£i shokhi, petulance, presumption, pert- 
ness, sauciness. 

p <jy£> shavad, would be or become (rt. ^Joi). 

Fj^-i shor, noise; perturbation, disquiet, com- 
motion, disturbance, emotion ; salt, saline, 
brackish; bad luck. 

p ci-o£jj-& shor-bakht, ill-fated, unfortunate. 

p ipjj^ shorish, distraction, confusion of mind ; 

p tj*£> shora, nitre, saltpetre ; salsuginous. 

p ajJ HjjJ* shora-bum, salt, brackish ground. 

r i_5n-* ) shore, a crazy passion, insane delusion. 

p U^jy* skorldan, to be confounded, distracted. 

p iJjjj-i shorlda, distracted, disturbed, per- 
turbed, disquieted ; mad, crazy, enthusiast. 

a iSy* shaukat, pomp, splendour, grandeur, 

p 1-kvi shauhar, husband. 

r i_£}-^ shavl, thou becomest. Shu, husband. 

p *J jJa shuyam, I would wash. Jo ^L shuyad, 
he washes (rt. { ^*>*Ji> shustari). 

p <5jS> shah, king. 

A Jk^dl shahd, honey. 

p rtj-i shahr, city, town. 

p \}jy* Shah-rava, name of a certain despotic 
monarch, who forced leathern money to be 
received as coin of the realm in his kingdom. 

p *J)jy^ shahre, a certain city. 

Pjb [jY* shahr-ytir, (friend of the city) king. 

p yyif* shahw&r, (fit for a king), royal. 

a *j^~£> shahwat, lust. 

a UdSi shais-an (ace. of ^J* shais-), thing. 

a OU-i shaiyad, impostor. 

a ^j-LL-i shaytitin (pi. of ^Ua^-i shaittin), 

devils, demons. 
a c— -«-£> shall, hoariness. 

p jW' 

sher-mard (pl.^i £f j+t* sher-mard- 

a ^xJ* shaikh, venerable or learned man, doctor. 

i-fjyr ctf (ji 4 ^' u***+» rrj^ tf\ fcA shaikh 
abu 'l/araj shamsn 'd din bin jauzl, name of 
a celebrated preacher of the sect of Hanbal, 
and Sadl's master. He was born a.h. 510, 
and died a.h. 597. 

p Ju«£) shaid, deceit, fraud, trick, hypocrisy. 

(_£Ju-2j shaidi, (thou) art (a mass of) hypocrisy, 
p iJw-i shaidti, distractedly in love, insane, 
p _»-i shir, milk. Sher, lion. 

i Shirtiz, name of the capital of Pars, or 

Persia Proper, 
p^lr^-i shlrtizl, native or inhabitant of Shiraz. 

tin), (lion-man), bold, brave. 

p ±£&yj*Jii sher-mardl, (thou) art a brave lad. 

p ui/r-^ sherl, leonine, lion-like. 

p ^j+J}> shirin, sweet. 

p (jjbj (.iJi*^ shirln-zabtin, sweet-tongued. 

p^J^J iji.jt^' shlrln-zabdnl, sweetness of speech. 

p <»_-~! ^^-^ shirln-lab, sweet-lipped. 

p jj '~Jm shirini, sweetness ; a sweetmeat. 

p dJ^+J* shlsha, glass. 

p^s ttwjwl shishagar, glass-blower. 

a ^Iku-i) shaittin, Satan. ■ jlh-ji.H ash shaitun, 
the devil. 

p *j--& sforai, elegance, grace, blandishment, 
coquetry ; habit, custom, manner of living. 
a l-i--i shaitan, a thing (ace). 

a jL stibir, patient. 

A k— -n»- \te sahib, master, owner, proprietor, 

possessor, possessed of. ^^ « »- U> sdhibi 

diwan, superintendent of finance. 

a J+aj i«_-N=^Le stihib-tamiz, man of discern- 
ment; discerning, discerner. 

a p lJJ+aj t -r ,= *" ^ sahib-tamizi, (thou) art a 
man of discernment. 

AjU^f- t_->=-w>sa7j«'J-;«ma?(ppl. t ji!L4^1.*.Ltf 
stihib-jamtiltin), beautiful, comely. 

A p J J t---~s*- U? sahib-dil (pi. ^ J k_-%*-L» sa- 
hib-dil&n), spiritual, pious; man of piety. 


( 71 ) 


a Ljt) k_^s-Ls suhib-dunya' , wealthy. 
a c^-OjA;o».Ls sahib -daulat, wealthy. 

A u^tAji l—o-Ls sahib -fir asat, shrewd, intel- 

A vyjb l— -^.u* sdhib-hunar, skilful. 

a ei~s-b> sd^«£, she (or it) cried out, or would 
have cried aloud (pret. fern, concave ^ ye). 

a jl>1^> sddir, issuing, proceeding, going forth ; 

issued, passed, emanated, ap ^j<^> jjU> s«- 
dir shudan, to originate ; to go out ; to escape. 

a (jOLs sddik, true, just, sincere. 

a tJLs sdfl, pure, sincere ; candid. 

a JLo sdlih (p pi. ^IsLs sulihan), good, just, 
pious, virtuous ; name of a prophet who was 
sent on a mission to the people of the tribe of 

iiyiJ thamud, but they hamstrung the camel, 
which he, in proof of his mission, had mi- 
raculously brought out of the rock. Per- 
sisting in their unbelief they were slain by 
the angel Gabriel. 

a Ck' L> sulihan, a good action ; virtuously. 

a ^^'L? sdlihe, a certain pious man. 

a *5Lf sdnm, fasting ; one who fasts, faster. 

a L*s saba', zephyr, gentle breeze. Saba' orsiba', 

a —L*? sabdh, morning. t-I*" 3 ^ lV-c %?to '* 

sabdh, in the morning. 
a £>-L^ sabdhat, beauty, elegance. 
a ,-sw subh, morning. 
a j+*a sabr, patience, a p ^<3f> j~e sabr Icardan, 

to have patience, to wait ; to abstain. 

a r—ai fa sabrun, patience then. 
a -~c sabir or sabr, aloes. 
A -r-y^> sabuh, dawn ; a morning-draught. 
a .»-*s sabur, patient. 
a cSjy**) saburl, patience. 

A <U-c* suhbat, society, company, companion- 
ship, fellowship, friendship. 

a <is*? sihhat, good health, soundness. 

A ^jsr^ sahrus., desert, wilderness. 

$ ^s^ sahn, courtyard, area. 

p ZjS?° saMra, name of an evil genius which 
attempted to steal the ring of Solomon. (He 
was a prodigy of ugliness.) 

p Jm£ sad, a hundred. 

a jji Xa saddle, marriage-settlement made by a 

husband on the wife, 
p t_>u &*g sad bdb, a hundred chapters. 
p ,^'^.s- Jwp sad chanddn, a hundred times as 

AjJw sadr, breast, chest; chief seat, 
p JLo Jus sad sal, a hundred years, a century. 

a i JJu5 sadaf, shell; oyster-shell. 

a JjA-s sidle, truth, veracity ; sincerity. 

a +*&m\ <0J! JjJuc sadalca 'lldhu 'I ^azfm, the 

great God spoke true. 

a <w Jua sadkat, alms ; propitiatory offering, sa- 

a <iUJus sadmat, percussion, collision, shock. 

a Jij Jus sadik, sincere, true, just ; a true friend. 

a Jp Jws siddllc (r pi. ^uj Ju? siddikdn), faithful 

witness to the truth (epithet of Joseph, Abii- 

bakr and Abraham). 

a iya swrat, a purse filled with gold or silver. 
a i^ijc sarf, changed ; expenditure, a p i i.*> 

^j Jui sarf shudan, to be spent. tj^P t— *,<& 

sarf Icardan, to spend, expend. 
a <_^ot*5 saj>, hard, rough, difficult, troublesome. 
a t— e„-> «a$ rank, file, row, line, series, p a.J 

i La J^l «*ar ay pa? saf, in the first form, 

class, rank, or row. 

a *U«s safds-, purity. \suA\ ^j^~\ iihwdnu 's 
safd, brethren of purity, name of a society 
of learned men, founded at Bassora towards 
the close of the fourth century of the Hijra. 

p (^l&liL? Sifdhdn (for ^IfcliL^ Isfahan), the 

capital of Persian Irak (the ancient Parthia). 

a ^JlLo safdn, purity ; exhilaration, recreation. 

a dLo sifat (p pi. \^Jua sifatha), quality, pro- 
perty, attribute ; form, mode, manner ; (in 

comp.) like, a p cuL> Ji har sifat, any how. 

a ijSLa safwat, purity. 

p Lc said, invitation ; a proclamation either for 
giving food to the poor, or for selling anything. 

a iJiLp saldbat, hardness; firmness, severity, 
violence ; majesty, awe, dignity. 

a JLa saldh, rectitude, probity, honesty, virtue ; 
well-being, welfare, prosperity; peace ; advice. 



( 72 ) 


a <U&-jL* saldluyat, integrity, honesty, probity; 
devotion, piety. 

a ^r* sulk, peace, reconciliation, pacification, 

harmony, compact, truce. 

A *U: sulahd* (pi. of JLj sulih), just, pious. 

a JJ.«£ said or sild, hard, solid, strong, smooth 
and bare. (The text roads salad). 

a **La> salaam (a contraction of the phrase 

>L*s j <ulx. <Uj! ^L« 5«7/rt' Hah talaihi wa 
sallama, q.v. 

a L\.*s s«?/w (2 per. pi. imp. of /\*s salld 1 ), 
pray ye, invoke ye blessings. 

a c^ULs salawdt (pi. of i^a soldi) benedictions. 

A £»Ltf ««/«£ (pi. C^LLa salawdt), compassion, 

mercy from God, the divine benedictiou and 


a JL*) • <uLc dX\\ jLo salla' Huh nalaihi 10a sal- 
lama, may God be propitious unto him, and 
preserve (him). ( Obs. l*a solid and Ju«j 
sallama are the 3rd persons sing. pret. of the 
2nd form of conjug. of the roots La and ,S~s 
employed in an optative or benedictive sense). 

a *rf summ (pi. of +&\ asamm), deaf persons. 

Sj +^ sunimun bukmun, deaf (and) dumb (a 
Kuranic phrase). 
a *~**« sanilm, sincere, pure, genuine. 

a Jj^i*s sandal, sandal-wood or ointment; san- 
dal-powder mixed with rose-water (used as 
a liniment for the head and feet in cases of 
violent head-ache and fever). 

a jjiJo«s sanduh, chest, coffer, ark. A.VjS^imS^a 

sanduki gor, sarcophagus. 
a «_x^ sarif. or sun- c , make, creation, work. 
a tt'Cvtf, profession, craft, trade, art. 
a +~a sanam, image, idol ; mistress, beloved one. 
a (_jy sawdb, rectitude, reason, propriety, 

good sense, soundness ; meritorious action, 

whatever is right. Uari- u <—>'*«« sawdb yd 
Ijhatd 1 , right or wrong. 

a C!Jj«9 saut, clamour, sound, voice, noise. 

a Xji*> surat, shape, form, figure, appearance, 
.aspect, likeness, effigy, a p jjSuiuJ UUjye 
sural bastan, to assume a form ; to be supposed, 
imagined, conceived, conceivable or practi- 

cable, a Jl=- < —-'j»* s suratihdl, state of the 
case, statement of circumstances, j t — J jy s 
^ci*^ surat u ma-jna\ body and spirit; matter 
and mind; semblance and reality. Jlc 
iZ2j*& calami surat, the visible or external 
world, p a CLi, »~=j ba surat, to outward ap- 
pearance, ostensibly, 
r o^-a sufi (pi. ^X^jyc sufujdri), wise, pious; 
a religious order among the Persians, who led 
a more regular and contemplative life than 
the common dervishes. 

r sg&jo sujiye, a certain Soofy. 

a <U^> saulat, fury, ferocity, fierceness, severity, 
rigour, violence. 

a Ju«o saiyud (p pi. ^'jLe saiyuddn), hunts- 
man, hunter; fowler; fisherman. 

a c^-.«s sit, fame, renown. 

A &**e said, game, prey, chase, a p ^S A-«c 
said Icardan, to hunt. 

a (_£Ju«tf saide, some game, a piece of game, a 
head of game. 

a t— a-^ saif, summer, May and June, the hotter 
months being called \L3 kai%. 

a ;JiL«tf saihal, polishing, furbishing ; furbish- 
ing instrument. 

J 3 

a e_2.cLj zu-.afa (pret. of the 3rd form of the 

rt. i_£*«i , used optatively), may He double 
or multiply twofold. Zd^if, (imp.). 

A«JLe zas}'^, wasting, wasted; wandering, lost ; 

erred, strayed. 
a L-..9 zabt, holding fast, securing, containing, 

retaining ; confiscation. 

a jj-s*" zajur, peevish, pettish, fretful, repining. 

a ijjis.** Zahhajc, name of a prince of Arabian 
origin, and usurper of the throne of Persia 
from Jam shed the fourth king of the first or 
Peshdadian dynasty. He was noted for his 
cruelty ; but was overthrown by Faridun, a 
descendant of Tahmurath, predecessor of 

a vX<5 zidd, contrary, opposite ; enemy, rival. 

a *1 \jJ> zarrai, adversity, misfortune, affliction 

(opposed to '\j~: sarrui). 


( 73 ) 

a L-JjJ> zarb, blow. i_^*»»sr! L -r ! j^> zarbu 7 

hablb, a lover's blow, stroke from a friend. 
a t—ya zaraba, he struck. K£ Jo J L-J-i zaraba 

zaidun \amran, Zaid struck Amr. 
a ijj-o zarbat, a blow, one blow. 
a ijjj'G zarurat, need, force, necessity. CLJ.^ij 

ba zarurat, perforce. 
A Q?J3j^ %ar "^ Ta ^ e t an urgent need, a pressing 

a j_«5 zarlr, blind. 
a i_if,r.p zu^f, feebleness, weakness. 

a i_jL**j za^lf (p pi. ^j\Jux*a za^lfan), weak, 

feeble ; infirm, weakly ; thin, spare, slender. 

a p *!ju! i_jL*^j za^zf-anddm, slender-bodied. 

a JU. t—i-juj za^zf hoi, in a weakly state; 

in slender circumstances. 
a ( jLx*? zaufe, a weak man. 

a <2Ls zalolat, error, erroneousness, ruin. 

a <U>«5 zammat ( ' ), the vowel-mark for u "; 

a j+A*e zamir, mind, conscience, thought, sense, 

a (j-^-e zamln, surety, sponsor, security, bail. 

a **--« zaigham, lion. 

a ^jA^o zaimw&n, a species of fragrant herb. 

a * .Us tdram, vault of heaven. 

a iclb tu cat, obedience, a p^jiiUrUs tOcatash, 
his obedience ; obedience to Him. 

a ^Iw to^in (p pi. (jlicll? tO^inOn) reviling; 
reviler, gainsayer. 

a \J&i taghl, leader of rebels, violent refractory 
man ; tyrant (applied by the Muhammadans 
to the Greek emperors of Byzantium or Con- 

a jjll? talc, portico, cupola, dome. 

a <£ills tolcat, strength, power, ability; strength 
to bear, power of endurance. 

a J Us tola, he (or it) was (or is) long (3 per. 

pret. concave « wOw). 

a t— ^SUs talib, asking, seeking, desirous, urgent, 
pressing, anxious to obtain, craving ; candi- 
date; lover. 

^; fortune; the star of 

a «Jlb talit, arisin 

one's nativity. 
a (jwjlls tdtus, peacock. 

a p ^fJj (jAiju? tOius-zlbe, peacock-decorator. 
ap^^sIL tOs-usi, belonging to a peacock; made 

of peacock's feathers (as a fan). 
a JbUa tohir, pure. 

a^jU? tds-ir, flying ; flier, a ^sj^o tOs-ire, any 

thing that flies. 
a &ajll? tOs-ifat, company, party ; band, train, 

troop, battalion ; gang ; sect, denomination ; 

class, clique, coterie. 

a cLh tibo^, nature, temperament, disposition. 

p &=srLb taboneha (or &sf\^o tabOnja), slap, 
blow, buffet, cuff. 

a f-Jo tab^, nature, temperament. pa«_*LjI=- 
chOr tab^_, four humours, elementary qualities, 
or complexions (which are found in man). 

a i ^a tabah, dish, tray ; storey of a house, flat ; 

a (cM* tabalce, an entire tray, a whole salver. 
a J-L tabl, drum. 

a <lL1s tablat, large wooden dish in which fruits 

or perfumes are exposed, tray. 
a i__~~l? tablb, physician, doctor, medical man. 

a <U-J? tabliat, natural habit, disposition, state 
of body or mind. 

a p ^jwjUwi) ^l^x^Js tabi^at-shinas, knowing the 
temperament ; skilful physician. 

a (jwyby? tarObulus (or { j J Xs\Jo tarObulus), 

the city of Tripoli. ,*L£j (jM^j\Jb tarabulusi 

shorn, Tripoli in Syria, to distinguish it from 

*~r-y£- (j*jL)\j5 tarObulusi gharb, Tripoli in 

AjLL tarrO.r (p pi. ^\j\Js iarrOrOn), cutpurse. 

a <—JjO tarab, mirth, hilarity ; excitement. 

a p j£j \ i—Jja tarab-angez, mirth-exciting ; 
moving, affecting. 

a ~.Jd tarh, manner, mode ; position, establish- 
ment ; fixing or laying the foundation of an 
edifice, ap ^o!o ^-Joj ba tarh dOdan,to give 
(that is, to compel to purchase) at a fixed 
price. ^^j rJa tarh figandan, to lay a 
foundation ; to practise. 


~fcZ^ uuJfr-fut* il*£fci jn»~J. 6t&&~ ****- /£*, 

ICL-tfL f*iiu.& 6 u4. fry, ttfaf"* *— 3 ** 


( 74 ) 


a (_ ija taraf, direction, part, side, quarter. 

a ^Jsjs tarafe, a portion, a part. 

a (jtfjlo tarlk, way, road ; rite, profession, sect. 

pa (Jjjti) ha tarlki (or (Jijb J bar tarlki), 

by way of. 
a \syjb tar than, as to the road (adverbially). 
a aJu Jb tarikat, mode of living, way of life ; 

religious order, p a u^aj [Jb _-j ptri tarikat, 

superior of an order or sect, prior, abbot. 
a s J^„jO tarlke, a way, one way, some way. 

a *Ub ta^dm (p pi. l^»Ub ta<.umhd), meat, 

food, meal, viands, victuals. 
a <U*L tu^mat, meat, food ; dinner, meal ; bait. 
a ^j^o tatM (or <U*L? ta^nat), blame, reproach, 

jeer, gibe, banter, taunt, sarcasm, censure. 

a p ^ JJ <U*b ta<Ma zadan, to cast reflections, 
p ^j\jj <U*b ta^na-zandn, jeering, sneering. 
a ,JiL> tifl, child, infant. 
a. ( «iilp £$#*, childhood. Tifle, a mere child. 
a "LSyil? tufullyat, childhood, infancy. 

p iL fo7a, gold, gilding ; pure gold ; gold fringe 

or wire. 
a jjilL taluk, divorce. 

a t^od? taldb, inquiry, requisition ; claim, de- 
mand ; pursuit, search, quest ; invitation. 
AP^Jp i_^lls talab Icardan, to demand, re- 
quire ; to seek, summon, call for ; to expect, 
look for. 

a p .IxJd; talabgdr, one who requires ; suitor. 
p ^Ju-JJs talbldan, to seek (a Persian verb 

coined from the Arabic). 
a <uil» tal^at, aspect, countenance. 
a %-*!b tama^, covetousness, desire, greediness, 

cupidity, a p^i-ilj «_^L tama^ dashtan, to 

covet; to expect. 
a ju\s tanz, sneer, sarcasm, mockery. 
a j»l? tur, mountain, especially mount Sinai. 
a Js>jL tutl, parrot. 
4 ci tauc, obedience, voluntary submission. 

a Ufc^ j \s-2e taii^an wa Icarhan, nolens volens, 

willingly and unwillingly. 
a ^J^iyo tufdn, flood, deluge. 

a J^b tul, length. 

a ajjjt tawela, tether, stable, stall. 

a ij\j)o tahdrat, purification, ablution, purity, 

cleanness, sanctity. 
a ^_ — -Jo tib, good, excellence, deliciousness. 

^~Jo i Jaj bi tilt nafs, with a willing mind. 

a \Ji\ k_^«J? tlbu'l (properly k_ J"^o taiyibu 7) 
<w#a, melodious, musical. 

apJ-^1 <^^s tlb-dmez, blended with sweetness. 

a <L*b tlbat, being good or sweet ; sweetness. 

apJ-^»| L^-wb tlbat-dmez, imbued with good- 
ness, mingled with sweetness. 

a j^V t_^. ,Ji> tib lahjate, a sweetness of in- 
tonation, melodiousness of voice. 

a -Js tair, bird. 

a ^\j>b tayardn, flying, flight. 

a i-Js tairat, levity of mind, frivolity, fit. 

a (jUJb taish, inconstancy, levity, folly. 

a s_ aJb taif form, spectre, apparition. 

a JUs zdlim (p pi. ^UJUs zdlimdn), cruel, un- 
just, iniquitous, oppressive; oppressor, tyrant. 

a -*!Ui zdlime, a tyrant, a certain tyrant. 

a Jf>Ui zaAz'r, outward, exterior ; clear, evident, 
plain, obvious, apparent, manifest. pa,_^ j\ 
Jblls «z ruyi zdhir, fvom outward appearance. 

a tj\Jb zardfat, ingenuity, dexterity; address; 
wit, facetiousness, jocoseness, jocularity. 

a im-i t \Jo zarif{v pi. ^JJuJb zarlfdn), ingenious, 
clever, witty ; man of wit and genius, wit. 

Aji^s zafar, conquest, victory, triumph. 

a J& zill, shadow, ajj I J\s zillu 1 lldh, shadow 

of God. 
a jXSo zulm, tyranny, oppression ; injustice, 

wrong, iniquity. 
a C^?L«JJi> zulmat, zulamdt, or zulumdt (pi. of 

full? zulmat or zulumat), darknesses. 

a <ullj zulmat, darkness, obscurity ; a dark 
region at the world's end, where the foun- 
tain of life is imagined to exist. 

a +y}o zalum, most cruel, tyrannical, unjust, 
oppressive, iniquitous or nefarious. 


( 75 ) 


a **!? !«t, thirst. 

a Ujs> za»««i (or *l*li> zamdt), thirstiness. 

a ^jio %ann, opinion, thought, idea ; suspicion. 

^Ja ^j**?*- husni zann, favorable opinion. 

,£&> i j«*»- husni zanne, the good opinion. 
a j^o zahr, back, outside. 
a^»^1? zahlr, backer, supporter ; protector. 

A Jju:«VZ(ppl. ^JjIc ^nbiddn), worshipper 

(of God or idols) ; religious recluse, devotee 
a p i^ri.ji ^lc idbid-farlbe, a hermit-seducer. 
a _lc ^dj, ivory, elephant's tusk. 
a Iss-lc ^djiz, weak, impotent, feeble, unable, 

incapable, hard pressed, at bay. 
a (J^-lc itijil, transitory, fragile, fleeting 

(hence, the present life). 
a ifjlc ^adat, custom, habit, wont, usage, use. 
a jolc ^adil, just, equitable. 
Ajlc <^dr, shame, reproach, disgrace. 
a ^joj^s- c-an'z, cheek ; accident, misfortune. 
a i_j\Ic %&rif (p pi. ^lijlc ^drifdn), wise, 

skilful, knowing, intelligent ; knower (of 

God), holy ; holy man. 

a <Ojlc ^driyat, anything borrowed orient ; loan. 

a JUilc ^dshik (p pi. ^iLilc ^dshihdn), lover. 

A ^Lilc cdshiM, relation of lover. 

a ,j-elc ^asl(r pl.^L^lc ^usiydn), disobedient, 
mutinous; sinner, rebel, transgressor. 

A <Lilc ^djiyat, health, safety. 

A^^Jlc ^a/m (obi. pl.of ^ile ^afl), forgiving; 

a <Uilc ^dkibat, end; in the end, at length, at 
last, after all, in the long run. _*SI <Lilc 
^ahibatu ' I amr, at the end of the affair, finally. 

a Jilc zdkil (p pi. ^IjIc ^dlcildn), intelligent. 

a i_j£U ^/^/(ppl.^li^lc edkifdn), assiduous, 
attentive. <U« ^Uilc ^dlcifdniha^ba, those 
who constantly remain in religious attendance 
at the Kaabah, or cubical temple at Mecca. 

a Jit ^dlam, the world, ^jy* Jb tdlami 

surat, visible or external world. i^*-+ J^- 

^alami ma-^na', invisible or spiritual world. 
a Jlc jMlim (ppl. ^LJlc idlimdn), learned, 

wise. i mr ~J&\ Jlc ^dtimu 'I gh aib, knower 

of secret things ; omniscient. 

ap^IjI Jlc idlam-drdl, world -adorning. 

i> ig-Jlc Jxlaynl (pl.^l^Jlc ^dlamiydn), aman, 

an inhabitant of the world, a mortal; worldly- 
minded, worldling. 

^-^Jlc £a/<jTO0,aworld,a whole world, ^alime, 

a learned man. 

a .J Is edit, high, exalted. 

a *lc tarn (more correctly ,*lc <,dmm), com- 
mon, vulgar, public, general, common people. 

a J^lc ^dmil, maker, doer, performer; prac- 
tical, active ; collector of revenue ; (in gram- 
mar) governing (particle). jS\ ,J^lc cdmilu 

'Ijarr, one who draws, drags, pulls or trails; 
(a particle) governing, i.e. requiring the noun 
following to be marked with kasra, or sign 
of the oblique case. 

ap^*Ic frtimmi, untaught, unlettered ; com- 
mon, plebeian, laical. 

A i'jolc <.dndat, (is or will be) returning (pres. 
part. fern, of the rt. jlc ^dda, concave ^). 

a f Lc c abut, cloak open in front, withoutsleeves, 
and worn by dervishes. 

a jLc libdd (pi. of X>s- ^abd), servants. i_£^l^ 

fibddl, my servants, a oLx! li tibddihi, to his 

a i'jLc ctbddat (ppl.l^J'jLc zibddathd), wor- 
ship, devotion ; act of devotion, adoration. 
lL&jLc J,badatiha, of thy worship. 

a SjLc <dbdrat, phrase, expression, phraseology, 
mode of speech, or style in writing. 

a x*s. ^abd, servant, slave. o^V 1 \ribdi, my 

p ijX-S ,ola!\ A-c ^abdu 'I leddir Glldni, so 
called as being born in the Persian province 
of Gilan, was a doctor of eminent sanctity. 
He died at Bagdad a.h. 561, a.d. 1166. 

a li A-j uibadnd, we have worshipped (pret. of 
the rt. S*£. tabada). i^JViS^c ^abadndlca, 
we have worshipped (or served) Thee. 


( 76 ) 


a tj+c ^ibrat, warning; subject for serious re- 
flection, matter for grave consideration. 

a ij-c iiilur, crossing (a river) ; transit, pas- 
sage, a p u £ij> \y*£. ^ubur Icardan, to cross. 

a -**£. uiblr, ambergris, a perfume composed of 

musk, sandal-wood, and rose-water. 
a p i_£^»c ^abiri, art (thou) ambergris ? 

A i__>l^c ^itdb, reproach, chiding, reproof, repri- 

a i 4Ls^ c^ajiiiib (pi. of iU^js^ ^ajibat), won- 
ders, marvels, miracles. 

au-»s £ ^tijb, conceit, self-complacency, %ajab, 
wonder, astonishment, surprise; strange, mar- 
vellous. A r ^Sj^ *— -^ \ £ bu 'I ^ajab hare, 

a strange piece of business, ^^sf- &»- chi 
tajab, what wonder ? 

A tj^s? uijabtar, stranger, more marvellous. 
a Is- 2 cajz, weakness, impotence, incapacity. 

a J-s- 2 c.«)7, calf. Ls^ trijlan (ace.) \ A«^>- lis 2 
lijlan jamdan, a calf yellow as gold, the calf 
of the children of Israel (jasad, besides the 
usual meaning "body," signifying also " saf- 

a msF ^ajam, Persian. 

a (> _j^p c ^ajamly, foreign ; Persian. 

A jys^ ^ajuz, five (or according to some) seven 

days at the winter-solstice. 
A j^^s^ ^ajln, plaster, cement ; dough. 
a if^Ac ^addwat, hostility, enmity, dislike. 

a if Ac dddat, the time of probation, which must 
expire before a divorced woman can be re- 

a J Ac ^adl, justice, equity. 

a /*Ac ficdm, ^adam, or ^udum, deficiency, de- 
fect ; privation, want, loss ; non-existence, 
absence of a quality ; annihilation. 

AjAc cctduiv, enemy, foe. CJ.Ac ^aduioika, 

of thine enemy. 
A J^Ac ^udul (pi. of Jjlc ^ddil), just men. 

a JjAc cadil, equal in weight or in quantity, 
equiponderant ; a travelling companion seated 
in a litter on the opposite side of a camel. 

A <__JlAc ^azdb, punishment, torment, torture. 

^u!l <__j!ac ^azaba 'n ndr, (from) the tor- 
ments of the fire (accusative). 

kj\ Ac ^izdr, face, cheek. 

a j Ac £uzr, excuse, plea, apology, acknow- 
ledgement, a p ^yoliSvjAc ciizr kJiwdstan, 
to beg pardon or excuse, to apologize. jAc 
^,^1^3 ^uzr nihddan, to excuse, pardon. 

a i_?jAc tuzrl, my apology, my excuse. 

a JjUc tirdlc, the ancient Chaldsea, Irak. 

a *--> r c uirab, Arabia; Arab; Arabs. 

a if SjjS. uirbadat, conflict, Bcuffle, dispute, broil, 
quarrel, drunken riot. 

a ,-JyC ^a/rably, Arabian ; the Arabic language. 

a 6»ej£. ^arsat, area, court ; board (for chess or 

Ajs^r carz, representation, petition, statement. 

ijrz, reputation, fame, character. 
a Li^c larafnd, we have known (pret. of the 

vb. i_ j_c ^arafa). i^j\^ijC ^arafndka, we 

have known thee. 
a Jj \.z <Jrlc, root, stock. uirak, perspiration, 

sweat; juice, spirit, rack, toddy. 
a (j*i*j£- uirus, bride, spouse. 
A ig*><)j£ larusi, nuptials, wedding. 

a ^V.7 £ turyun, naked, nude; stripped, robbed, 

Ajc ^azza, he was great or glorious; hence, 

incomparable, glorious (epithet of the Deity). 

bj*2J js. cazza nasruhu, may his victory be 

glorious ! %izz, glory, dignity, grandeur, 


a <-r>J£ ^azab, unmarried individual, bachelor. 

a p pjjz tazabam (I) am a bachelor. 

a if jc tizzat, honour, dignity, glory, pa CLi & 

ba ^izzat, with honour. JlUjxj la ^izzattar, 
more honourable. 

A<Lkc ^azlat, retirement, secession, solitude, se- 
clusion, sequestration, voluntary resignation. 

a *lc zazm, undertaking, design, purpose, re- 
solve, resolution, determination, preparation. 

a J.;*- « '.s. tazza wajalla, may He be honoured 
and glorified ! and may be rendered, Great 
and Glorious. 

aziz (p pi. ^UKc cazlzdn), precious, 
dear, valued ; excellent, honourable, glorious, 



( 77 ) 


venerable ; a title given to Potiphar, prince 
of Egypt, in the chapter of the Kur'an en- 
titled "Joseph." 

A ijyJ j£ uizlze, the precious, excellent one ; an 
excellent object. 

a <L*J \'x. ^azimat, incantation; resolution, un- 
dertaking; departure. 

Ajjms. ^usr, difficulty. 

a J-uuJi %asal, honey. 

a *l£Le <,ashd%, supper, dshd*, the first watch 
of the night, or from sunset till morning 
twilight; prayers repeated when goingto bed. 

A JjLu.c ^uskslidk (pi. of (jfL&le Uishik), lovers. 
a 'ijJ5x£. dshrat, agreeable conversation, enjoy- 
ment, delight, conviviality, jollity. 
a (j£±£ fishlc, love. 

A p (-£; V <J^*c dshlc-bdzi, gallantry, amorous 

talk, ^ishk-buze, a lover. 
a Lac ^asa\ stick, staff, wand ; virga virilis. 

a xj^as. ^asurat, juice, expressed juice. 

a -sic £#sr, age, time. 

a <t*^ic dsmat, chastity, continence. 

a (jL«ac dsydn, rebellion, opposition. 

a XAs. tazud, the arm from the shoulder to the 

elbow, upper arm. dLJjjJ! d*£z ^azudu 'd 
daulat, arm of the state (proper name). 

a }JLc zuzw (p pi. \jbyac- ^uzvhd), limb, joint. 

a <j$jaz <MZwe, one member, a member. 

A'lkc ^atds; present, gift, donation; payment. 

a .Hoc ^attdr, dealer in perfumes or drugs, 
perfumer, druggist. 

a ULkc ^atashan (ace. of (jlkkc ^atash, thirst), 
with thirst (used adverbially). 

a *+o£ tazlm, great, large ; high in dignity. 

a i_Jlic cfl/d/, abstaining, continence, chas- 
tity ; innocence. 

a^jLc ^afw, pardon, forgiveness. 

a > >g r- ^akab, heel ; after, behind. 

a /efAc %ukba\ end ; reward ; life to come. 

a jJLc <.akdy knot; cluster; bond, contract. 
_l£j jJLc ^akdi nikdh, marriage-knot, p Jac 
^Xu*j ^akd bastan, to tie a knot. 

a i jJLc ^ukdat, knot ; marriage-knot ; frown. 

a (JiLc - akl, intellect, reason, judgment, sense. 

a &JLc tukubat, punishment, torture, torment. 

a Jyii ^w/cw^ (pi. of (Jjic c_a^Z), intellects, un- 

derstandings,reasoning powers. *Jj&* ftikuli 
him, of their understandings. 


a ^Lc ta/«', he was high ; hence Most High 
(epithet of the Deity). 

a _lc Jildj, medical treatment, doctoring, re- 
medy, cure. 

a <L*iLc ^aldmat, sign, mark, characteristic. 

a <S^Aa ^aUumat, the most learned man. 

a<Lj1c ^aldniyat, external deportment. '^JiLc 
foldniyati, my outward and visible conduct, 
my public life. 

a <LLc fillat, cause, reason ; pretence, excuse, 
pretext, plea; accident, misfortune, casualty; 
disease ; grounds of a charge or accusation. 

a ^J-c filiate, a ground for any charge or ac- 
cusation, a plea of arraignment. 

a s J\\ t elx ^alafzdr, pasture, meadow. 

a c^-Jilc ^ulikat, was, or had been suspended 
(t5rd sing. fem. pass, of the rt. Jfix). 

a As- dim, learning, knowledge, science. 
\alam, flag, banner ; badge, distinctive mark 

worn on the dress ; epaulet. A p jo^-i 
^alam shudan, to be characterized. 

a *Ulc ^ulamat (pi. of Jlc idlim), learned 
men, ulemas. 

a »Lc ^uluw, height, exaltation. 

a (*<Xc <rUlum (pi. of *Lc dim), sciences. 

a i_f*J»c fulwiy, high, sublime, talawiy, a 
descendant of All, the son-in-law of Mu- 
hammad ; they are called sherifs. a r+ijs. 
lalawiyam, (I) am a descendant of All. 

a "Xs- artcC , upon, on, over, above ; against, after, 

according to. (^f^* ^„^ ^^ L a ^' ^ n * 
mulukihim, according to the religion of their 
princes, a /♦!_• jJI ^c ^ala 'd dawdm, per- 
petually, always, a jLxll .J-c ^ala V dbdd, 
against servants, a *LJi\ ijhj ^Jlt. ^ala' 
fitrati 7 islam, with a disposition to the re- 
ligion of Islam. jSi ^^Lc ^ala! kadr, in pro- 

5. jjlc 


( 78 ) 


portion, to the extent, a t_ aJLa*l\.Jj ^ala 'I 
musannif, on the author, it rests' with the 
author (to prove), fjtla', height, sublimity, 
glory, dignity. 

a JgLc ^alty, All, the cousin and son in-law of 

Muhammad. According to the Sunnites, he 
was the fourth caliph ; according to the 
Shiyahs, he was the immediate successor of 

a ^Lc atlaiya' , on me, upon me, against me. 
A Lie ^ulya' (fem.of ( Jx! add 1 ), upper, higher. 

LJjj Aj yadi ^ulya 1 , the upper {i.e., the be- 
stowing) hand. 
a ll»«lr ^alaika, upon thee, i.e., thou oughtest 

to do ; against thee. CJiXc L* md ^alaika, 
what is laid upon thee. 

a <Llc ^alaihi, upon or against him. *LJ! di-lc 

^alaihi 's saldm, on him be peace. 
a l^-lc i.alaiha, on, upon, against her (or it). 
a *£ ^amm, father's brother, paternal uncle. 

*£ ^> barii uimm, sons of a paternal uncle, 

first cousins. 
a ijl*c limdrat, edifice, building, structure ; 

reparation, refitting. 

a ^U^c ^ammdn (p pi. of *c a ^amm), paternal 

a ifA/kc ^iimdat, support, prop, buttress (gene- 
rally occurring in composition, as 'is*s. 
^\^\ ^umdatu 'I khawdss, pillar of the 
nobles, prime minister). 

a jAS- %umr, age, life ; long life. Jj \\s. -*s. 

\umri \aziz, precious life, \umar, Omar (a 
man's name). 

a \jA& ^amran, ace. of ^az utmr, a proper 
name; Amr. 

a }-*£. ^amru (pronounced^*..c uimr the j wdw 
being added to distinguish this word from 
-4£ £umar), a proper name : a fictitious 
name, like John Nokes used in scholastic 
and juridical treatises. 

a c_t-vJ jji-*^ %amr laith, name of the second 
Sultan of the dynasty of the Saffarides who 
reigned in Persia. 

A lSj*£ %umre, a life, a life-time. 
a J-^c zamila, he did, he wrought. 

a J^c ^amal (r pi. LL^e ^amalkd), work, 
labour, act, action, practice, business, service, 
employ ; good works, a p ^ Ayiji J*^c ^amal 
farmudan, to put in office, to employ. 

a *+*£■ iiimum, community, universality. /Ax- 
a^jsH cafe'/ £umum, commonly, generally. 

a +?*x i<mim, universal, general, expansive, 
diffusive, comprehensive. 

a jj.s £««, off, from, from off; of. 

a *L\e ^andi, adversity, distress, teen. 

a c__>uj: ^unndb, jujube-tree and fruit. 

A p i^Sj j t-Jlie amndb-rang, jujube-coloured. 

a c\ix dndd, obstinacy, perverseness, stub- 

a A-jL\c idnakid (pi. of Jylu; ^tmkud), clus- 
ters, bunches. 

a ,^L\c dndn, rein, bridle. 

a <Glxc c.indyat, aid, assistance, favour, pro- 
tection, providential care, auspices. 

a j^s. (.amlar, ambergris (a perfume to which 
jetty hair is frequently compared) 

a Axe cinda, with, at, near. 

'lldh, in the eye of God. ^Lc^ Axe dnda 
7 a^j/dn, in the presence of the nobles. 

a i ->^Axc candallb, nightingale. 

a ^,\ yixc ^unfuwdn, the vigour, beauty, fresh- 
ness, flower of youth. 

a iZJyS^x ainkabut, spider. 

a tex ^anhu, of him, with him. ^\j &x canhu 
rdzin, satisfied with him. 

ii_^'U uzwdkib (pi. of iJi\x tdkibat), ends, 
issues, consequences. <Uiue (.awdlcibahu, his 
future destinies, his last end. 

a *\*z. ^awdrnm (pi. of <i^Lc ^dmmat), common 
people, commonalty, laics. 

a ^_^jLc aiwdUb (pi. of k_^-£ oa/5), defects, 
faults, blemishes. 

a AjLc- c««>a*M?(pl. of *Ajic ^ds-idat), returns; 
profits, gains, advantages. 

a Jjc ^m<?, aloe-wood. 

a ^^e dwaz, equivalent, substitute, anything 
given or received in exchange ; lieu, stead. 

a ^jS. ^aun, aid, help, assistance. 

<0J! Axe c.«w<?« 


( 79 ) 


a Ji^c ^ahd, time, reign ; agreement, compact, 
covenant, engagement; vow, promise, rule. 

a SiX^c ^uhdat, office, appointment, trust; obli- 
gation, ap ^j^*\ jAj HJ^c- j\ az ^uhda ba dar 
amadan, to clear one's self of an obligation, 
to pay off, become quits. 

a jjlls ^aiyarl, deceit, cunning, trick. 

A JUc %iyal, family, children, domestics. 

A t—^~c $aib (p pi. U**£ taibhd), fault, defect, 
failing, vice,blemish,disgrace. ap^J^ »— -^ 
j.a/5 Itardan (or ^uijs giriftan), to accuse, 
reproach, censure, criticise, blame, find fault 
with, slander, vilify, take notice of, or carp 
at faults, failings and blemishes. 

a p y>- k_^-i taib-ju (p pi. ^Vlj^T ^— "^ £«$- 

ywyaw),fault-finder,censorious,carper, caviller. 

.4 ,;— £■ z.aibe, a blemish, a fault, a defect. 

a Juȣ ci<?, festival, fete, holiday, .c 51 * 5 ! ^^ 

£Z<fo" azha', the festival of sacrifices celebrated 

at Mecca, on the 10th of ds^ jJ zm 7 hijjat, 
the last month of the Arabian year, in honor 
of Abraham's offering up (as the Muham- 
madans say) Ishmael. 

a \j»*£- %is (pi. of ijj±?z\ a^yas), (camels) of a 

whitish yellow colour. 
a ^«m£ ^isa' , Jesus. 
a ijH^c- ^aish, life; pleasure, enjoyment. 
a (i -kC catw, eye ; fountain, source ; the very 

essence, individual, thing itself; certainty, 


a c_-v*c ^.icyub (pi. of i» 
defects, blemishes. 

^flt'J), vices, faults, 

a .Lc ffA ar, cave, cavern, den. 

a SiLc ghurat, hostile incursion, foray, raid for 

predatory purposes ; robbery; plunder, booty. 
a i_5jLc gh azl, warrior, conqueror (especially 

of infidels). 
a ^o Lc gh asa, he sank or plunged (3 per. sing. 

pret. concave j waw). 
a JiLc ghufil, forgetful, neglectful, negligent, 

remiss, inattentive, off one's guard. 

a t^^Lc ghalib, overcoming, superior, prevail- 
ing, paramount, predominant, overpowering, 
strong, triumphant, victorious; chief, most, 
culij) k_ r ~!Lc ghalib aulcat, at most times. 

A l_~jLc ghalib, absent, invisible, out of sight, 
departed, disappeared. 

a ajLc ghayat, end, point, extremity, extreme, 

excess, intensity, a p i-s-^jUj ba ghayat, in 
the extreme. 

a uj: ghibban, every second day. 

AjLi ghubar, dust. 

Aj'^i ghaddar, perfidious; traitor. 

a j±s. ghadr, perfidy, treachery, treason. 

a l^-aj Ac ghuzlta, thou hast been fed (pass, of 
the rt. i_?«Xc ghazcC, he nourished). 

a <_ j>\j£. ghurab, crow. ,j^ l-j\j±. ghiirabit, 
7 bain, (crow of separation) a crow that never 
approaches any spot until it has become de- 
serted by its inhabitants ; hence, it is re- 
garded as a bird of ill omen. 

a <L*!^c gharumat, mulct, fine; tribute; a debt 
which must be paid. 

A \^ r J\j£- gharadb (pi. of £>J-c ghanbat), ex- 
traordinary and strange things, rarities. 

A.*[)j±ghurabds. (pl.of k-^Jyi gharlb), strangers, 
friendless, poor. 

a JL^i ghirbal, large sieve. 

a 6jj£. ghurbat, foreign travel, exile, expatria- 
tion, emigration. 

a {jOjS. gharaz, intention, design; selfish pur- 
pose, aim or interest ; spite, rancour, grudge ; 
(adv.) in short. 

a ^j^jZ gharaze, a spite, a grudge, an ill turn. 

a 6±j£. gkurfat, upper chamber. 

a Jjj-c gharlc, immersion, sinking, drowning. 
a p ^JlI JSjC gharlc shudan, to be swamped, 
to founder ; to be plunged or drowned. 

a j, !_c ghurur, pride, haughtiness ; vain-glory, 
vanity; insolence; flattery, adulation. 

p Xji. gharra, deceived, deluded, imposed upon ; 
haughty, proud. 

a i_^u^c gharlb (p pi. ^Lo^c gharlban), un- 
common, strange, foreign; wondrous; poor; 

±l? A 

( 80 ) 

a igffji ' gharlbi, perigrination, foreign travel ; 
foreignness. Gharlbe, a stranger. 

A (Jj \jh- gh arlh. immersed, submerged, sunk, 
sinking, drowned. u^S-c gharllcan (ace.) 

p «j \jL ghiriv, clamour, outcry, shout ; roll (of 
a drum). 

a (J^J-c ghazzdll, name of a celebrated philo- 
sopher and controversialist, who died a.h. 506. 

a Jji ghazal, amatory poem, ode. 

a i^txi gh ussat. choking sensation, suffocation ; 
anguish, straits; displeasure, wrath. 

A (^y^i ghusun (pi. of ^as. ghusn), young 
branches, boughs. 

a ^,L*ii ghazbdn. angry, chiding. 

a r^Uic ghufrdn. remission of sins, pardon, for- 
giveness, absolution. liLai ghufrdnan, (ace.) 

a CUjLc. gh afartu, I have pardoned. 

a iUjLc ghaflai, neglect, negligence, thoughtless- 
ness, carelessness, forgetfulness, remissness. 

Aj»ii gh afur. forgiving, pardoning (God). 

a *iLc gh uldm (p pi. jjbiLi gfruldmdn), slave, 
servant, lad, page. 

a *LLc ghalbdl, thickly planted (orchard). 

a <u)_c gh alabat, victory, predominance, over- 
powering, ap^ 4J-c. ghalaba kardan, to 
prevail against, to overcome. 

a <U-c ghallat, corn, grain. 

a LLc gh alat, fault, error, blunder, mistake. 

p ^JkJali ghaltldan, to roll, wallow, welter. 

A li-J^c gh allz (p pi. ^lia-li. gh allzan), gross, 
filthy, coarse, rough, brutal, brutish. 

a *i gh amm, grief, sorrow, sadness ; care, con- 
cern, solicitude, anxiety ; harm, loss. AP*i 
^jy>- gkamm Mwurdan, to grieve, sorrow ; 
to devour sorrow, to sympathize with. *i 
^J^JS ghamm ddshtan, to care, have a care. 
bJ *i ghammi far da, cares of the morrow. 

a jLi-c ghamma.%, informer, accuser, detractor. 

A p l^--v*j; ghanimat, care to thee, care of thee. 

p i\A£. ghamza, glance; amorous glance, ogling; 
wink, nod. 

ap .^-i ghamme, a grief, a sorrow. 

a ,»SLi gh (pi. of'<U-Jji ghanimat), spoils. 

a 1 ^ii. gh anly. rich, independent. 

ap J^i- ghanltar, richer, wealthier. 

a iU-^Lc ghanimat, fortunate hit; prize, gain, 
booty ; blessing,precious privilege. kv^z^A^-h. 
^JjA^i gh animat shumurdan, to count as a 
precious opportunity, to esteem as a privilege. 

A -«£>'•£ gh awashi (pi. of tU-iui gh ushiyat), 
coverings for saddles, such as grooms in Persia 
to this day carry on their shoulders, with 
which they cover the saddle every time their 

master alights from his horse. ^iLiH J»*ls>- 
hdmila 'I ghawashi, (as) carrier'of the saddle- 

a (jfi^-c gh auwds, diver for pearls, pearl-fisher, 
p -. .jc. ghuch, ram. 

a jji- ghaur, deep reflection, profound medita- 
tion, mature consideration. 

A <idg »i ghuta, dive, dip, sousing, ducking, p ibyz 
^Jjy>~ ghuta Jchwurdan, to get a ducking. 

p l!S)£ gh uk (pi. i^^Vc- ghukdri), frog. 

a CuLi ghiydth, succour, redress, aid, help. 
*\JV\ C_>Li ghiydthu 'I islam, succourer of 
the faith (a style or title). 

a <—~*+-z ghaib, concealment, invisibility ; con- 
cealed, secret, hidden, invisible; supernatural 

a p ,^5 J k— «s-g gh aib-ddn, seer, one who knows 
future events or secrets ; omniscient. 

a &~x. ghaibat, absence ; secresy ; removal to 
a distance ; slander. 

a _»i ghair, other, other than, different. lSt^- 
ghairl, beside me. 

A -»i ghaiyara, he altered, made a change 
(either for the better or the worse, 2nd form 

of the rt. jli ghdra, concave ^ ye). 

a iL»i ghair at, zeal, jealousy. 

a )iu£ ghaiz, rage, ire, fury, wrath, anger. 

a < J fa (prefix), then, therefore, consequently, 

in that case. 

a iy^-li fdjirat, an unchaste woman. 

a (joo>-l} fdhish (fern. <t-la-li fdhishat), shame- 

( 81 ) 


fill, impudent, indecent, outrageous. pa^jJ 

<U!u2^U zani fdhisha, whorish woman. 

A.y£-\ifdkhir, splendid, glorious, brave, showy; 
distinguished, honorable, precious. 

A 'oU/a izd, then, in that case, therefore. 

p (j~ju Fdrs, Persia proper, bounded on the 
East by Kerman, on the West by Khuzistan, 
on the South by the Persian Gulf, and on 
the North by a desert which divides it from 
Khurasan and Iraki ajami. 

A \juj\i farts, rider of any solid-hoofed animal 

except a horse (as a mule or ass), cavalier. 
p -.^li fdrsl, Persian, Persic. 

a £jli farigh, free, at leisure ; void, empty. 

a Jujli fdsid, bad, vicious, vitiated, perverse, 
perverted, immoral. 

a < Jh~jls fustic, worthless, impudent ; sinner, 

A t^sVt fazil, eminent, excellent, highly gifted 
or otherwise distinguished; learned, pious. 

a p jZLe\i fdziltar, better, more excellent. 

a Jiili fa azallu, then would I continue (aor. 

of the rt. J]» zalla, he ceased not, with i »). 

A iJs \i fdkat, fast, starvation, extreme hunger ; 

want, poverty, destitution. 
p /»li fum, colour, hue (in comp.) as *li iL: 

siydh-fum, dark-coloured, black, swarthy. 
a fa in, and if. 
A Ci»oU fa anta, then thou. u-^Lsr* L^-Jli/a 

anta muhdrib, then thou (art) a bringer of war. 
a i Joli fds-idat, advantage, benefit, use. ^J[i 

s JuliM fa inna 'lfd*-idata, for of a truth the 

a <Jjli fds-ilc, superior, surpassing, transcendent, 
p ^ t)Ui futddan, to fall. 
p i jlii futdda, fallen, dropped ; gotten. 
a ^j fath, victory. 

Actjsnj fatliat, the vowel mark (' a)\ the beard. 
A ij^i fathe, a victory, a conquest. 
p Jai futad, he falls or should fall. 

a &.si fitnat, insurrection, stir, disturbance, 
strife, tumult, sedition, political revolution, 
riot, uproar, row ; scourge, evil, pest ; trial. 

apJ-IjI fczi fitna-angez, strife-stirring. 

a ij^i futuivat, generosity, liberality. 

a i^fyifatwa', judicial decree given by the mufti. 

a jy-sr fujur, wickedness, debauchery. 

a -sl" fakhr, glory, ornament. „iJ jJ \ -sr fakhru 

'd din, (glory of religion), a proper name. 

i^fr^ 1 faldirl, my glory, my boast. 

&'\&sfiddi, sacrifice, ransom, redemption, offer- 
ing, devotion for another. 

Yji farr, splendour, pomp. 

p \j's faru, towards. 

a CL)\ji Furdt, the river Euphrates. 

p ^j) \ ^S-'-^>~ \ji faru cliang dvardan, to get 
into one's grasp, to clutch ; to acquire. 

p -iij fardkh, large, broad, wide; plentiful. 

p i_fjj f.\ji fardkh-ru, of an open, pleasant 
countenance. Farukh-ravi, width of step, 
going fast; extravagance, profusion. 

p (c^UJ fardkhl, amplitude, abundance. 

&.j\ji firdr, fleeing away, flight. 

p^ S~~ij \ .3 faru rasidan,to arrive; to encounter, 

meet ; to surround, comprehend, overtake, 
p j^+iij \ji faru raftan, to go out. 
p \\jifardz, above,upon, on; before, in presence ; 

entrance, ingress, interior; shut, closed. jt> j\ 

^J^l j\j3 az dar fardz umadan, to come in 

by the door. 
a LAj firdsat, intelligence, sagacity, ingenuity, 

shrewdness, physiognomy. 
a ji^Kj firdsate, a shrewdness. 

a <r-\j* farrdsli, one who spreads the carpets or 
cushions in the palaces of kings or great men, 
a chamberlain : these persons often officiate 
as executioners. 

a c \j3 fir u gh , cessation, rest from toil ; leisure. 

a isSjsfard gli at. leisure, freedom from business, 
care and trouble; retirement, disengagement, 
independence ; forgetfulness. 

a j\j! fvruh, separation, absence; loss, departure, 

p ( j£Ji' \j* faru giriftan, to envelop, 
p iJj±*\j3 fardmush, forgotten ; forgetfulness. 

ij±—j!Ls*\ji fardmushat, forgetfulness of thee ; 

thee forgotten. 



( 82 ) 


p ,py\ji faramush, forgotten. ^S tj^y*]^ 
faramush hardan, to forget. 

p ^j\ji fardwdn, abundant, ample, copious, 
plenteous, full, complete, overflowing. 

p (*&U fardham, together. ^jj\ +&\ji fard- 
ham dvardan, to collect, gather, scrape to- 
gether (as a faggot or bundle) ; to shut, close. 

p tujt farbih, fat. 

p i^ji farbihi, fatness. Farbihe, a fat person, 

a fat man. 
a iZJjjji fartut, decrepit old dotard. 
a ,_ ji farj, privities (of male or female). 
p *\s>-ji farjam, end, conclusion, issue. 
a -jifarah, joy, gladness, glee, 
p fjh fa/rrukh, happy, fortunate, 
p ^Jc^-J/flr^m«?«,prosperous,happy. xsus^ji 

«JHb farkhunda-taUf, of happy destiny. 
p \tlji far da, to-morrow ; the next life, 
p SJjJs farzand (pi. ^^jj* farzanddn), sod, 

child. > J I jJ jji farzandi ddam, son of man. 

p te~\s>~ ji iSJ jjifarzand-bar-Jchdsta, with chil- 
dren grown, having grown-up children. 

p ijJjrJ farzm, the queen at chess. 

p ^oli^oJ firistddan, to send, despatch, commit. 

r £j^-~ijS farsang, parasang, league. 

p a Jyjiji farsuda, fatigued, wearied ; damped, 
discouraged, dispirited. 

a [ipi farsh, carpet, rug, or anything similar 
spread on the ground ; pavement. 

p lzJ*Ji firishta, angel. isJitj firishtas-e, an 

p (_iv>- teJ^ji firishta-Mm, angel-tempered, of 
an angelic disposition. 

A Le <j fursat, opportunity, occasion ; conve- 
nience; advantage. 

a ^jOji farz, divine or positive command, obli- 
gation, indispensable precept. 

a \sji fart, excess. 

a jo^jj Fir^aun, Pharaoh, (a title common to 
the ancient kings of Egypt, as that of Ptolemy 
to the later sovereigns.) 

p tjy^i fir^aicnl, Pharaoh-like, proud, arro- 
gant, haughty. 

a ^ij3 far/c, separation, distinction, difference. 

p fj^ji farmdn, command, order, mandate. 
(jjjj (jbjj farmdn burdan, to obey orders. 
^JiJ ^j^ji farmdn dddan, to issue an order. 

v Jji U J* f ((rmu n-barddr , submissive, obe- 
dient to command. fj^A (O^ J farmun- 
barddram, (I) am obedient, (I) obey orders. 

p xsj[s*jifarmdn-dih, ruling, issuing mandates; 
king, potentate, paramount sovereign. 

p ^jiiyji farmudan, to order, command, pre- 
scribe (when used in reference to anyone in 
an exalted station, it simply means "to say"). 

p HJy*ji farmuda, commanded ; having com- 
manded ; hath commanded, 
p c^jOji farang or firing, Frank or European. 

p »ji faru, firu, faro, firo or furo, down, down- 
ward, below, under, beneath. 

p ^j J j j J faru burdan, to carry down, to lower; 
to swallow ; to dip, plunge. 

p ,JXujJ )Js faro bastan, to bind, tie down ; to 
stop, shut, close ; to obstruct, let ; to fail. 

p ^&*J*y *jS faru poshldan, to put on, to clothe. 

t jj*ji farutar, lower. 

p tj^jji firokhtan, to sell, to barter away ; to 

inflame, kindle, light, 
p i£j>-jjS firohhta, sold. 
p jjjjl^i. jji faro Mwundan, to hold forth, 

to utter, 
r Jmji firod or farod, down. ^<^* I ^jji firod 

dmadan, to come down, descend, ^jj I ^ r» 

firod dvardan to bring down, to lower, 
p rj&j jji faro r of tan, to go down (as breath 

into the lungs by inspiration) ; to sink, 
p ip;/ firosh, selling ; seller, vendor, 
p ^j^f jji faru Icoftan, to knock down. 

p (jSail 3o .J faru guzdshtan, to pass over, pass 
by, leave out, omit, spare. 

p j^cXJ L* tji faru rndndan, to lag, remain be- 
hind, be exhausted, to break down, sink, flag. 

p <uL* •pi faru-mdya, low, mean, baseborn, 

ignoble, scoundrel. 
p ^JulAJ ^.i faro nishdndan, to allay, quell, 

quench, extinguish. 



( 83 ) 


p lz yMiJLJ mji faro nishastan,to subside ; go out. 
p i^JLJb i )ji faru hishtan, to hang down. 
pteuiub jjifiro hishta, hanging down, pendulous. 
p £jj&ji farhang, wisdom, understanding, 

science; dictionary, lexicon. 
? £>\ij3 firyai, cry for help or redress, complaint. 
p ijMj <^,j* firyud-ras, redresser of grievances, 

helper, succourer. 
p ,-j) ^Uji firyud-rasi, assistance, redress. 

P t^»,i firth or fireb, deception, fraud, dupli- 
city, trick; (in compos.) deceiving. 
p ^S^jjS farlbidan or firibidan, to deceive. 

p ^JuJ Fariduti, seventh king of Persia of the 
first or Peshdadian dynasty. He delivered 
Persia from the tyranny of the usurper Zahhak . 

p ^k)Jt firlftan, or fireftan, to steal, ravish. 
a (Jij3 fa/rik, troop, squadron; division, class; 

p ^"iji fuzudan, to increase, multiply. 
p ^JJ fuzun, increased, augmented, 
p <3}ji fuzwil, increase. 

A JUui fasdd, depravity, vice, vicious conduct, 
corruption, perverseness, villainy, iniquity ; 
violence, war. 

fushat, space, room. 

A <JLS' 

a (JUui fish, adultery, fornication, iniquity, sin. 
p ij*>fM.h fisos, vexation, sorrow, grief, regret. 
A lyJifusuh, impudence, villainy, immorality. 
p ^y^i fusun (for ^y*>i\ afsuri), incantation, 

fascination, deceit. 
p jjjjLU fishdndan, to strew, scatter, shed. 
a &>- Lai fasahat, eloquence, rhetoric ; gabble. 
a ,_)«^i fad, time, season ; section, chapter. 
a .gLsi fade, a chapter. 
a -sua) fasih, eloquent, glib, fluent, rhetorical. 

a JjUai fazas-il (pi. of <Wu*aii fazilat), virtues, 
attainments, excellent qualities, excellences. 

a J«aJ fazl, excellence, virtue, merit, worth, 
bounty ; science, learning. 

a *Ldi fuzalas- (pi. of J/J>\i fdzil), learned men, 

a <u~difazlat, remainder, redundancy, leavings, 
remains, dregs, excrescence, superfluity. 

A Jj-fli fazul, redundant, excessive. Fuzul, 
impertinence, intrusion; meddling spirit; 

a testes fazlJiat, disgrace, ignominy. 

a JL~di fazilat, excellence, superiority, emi- 
nence, virtue, accomplishments. 

a 'ijai fitrat, complexion, nature, creation, form 
(which an embryo takes in the womb) ; alms 
given at the festival held on breaking the 
fast of Ramazan. 

a <$Jhi fiinat, understanding, intelligence, pru- 
dence, shrewdness. 

a Jjo fid, act, action, operation ; a verb. 

a l^-Le fa talaiha, then upon her (or it). 

p (jUi fighan, complaint, lamentation, moan. 
^lisb ba fi gh an, in despair. 

a jJii fa had, therefore, verily. 

a CUtXSu fahattu, I missed (rt. s'si fahada). 

AJLifahr, poverty. ^SyS 3 ,&Al \ al fahr fahhrt, 
poverty (is) my glory. ^ ^Ty^ <^ j~» jAu\ 
,mj/i>H alfahru sawadu 7 wajhifi 1 d ddraini, 
poverty (is) blackness of the face (an igno- 
minious condition) in both worlds, a p^iiJii 
fahrash, his poverty. 

a '\j&s fuhara* (pi. of^-JLJ fakir), poor. 

a e^Lii fa hidtu, and I said, then said I. 

A jJLi fahir, poor, pauper ; religious order of 

a S-Jii fahlrat, poor woman. 

a &JJs fahlh, a Muhammadan lawyer, jurist, or 

AjLifihr, thought, care, reflection, imagination. 

a h'/J fihrat, thought ; that which is the sub- 
ject of reflection. 

a i_o-(' fa ha if, why then ? how then ? how 
much more ? 

a Lk^jtlaJ' ii fa Id tutifhuma, in that case obey 
them not (gezmate of «— *laj tutlcii, 4th form 
of the rt. *Us td^a, concave j wdw). 

a Jii faldh, prosperity, safety, happiness. 

a Jii falldh, husbandman. 

a Jii fuldn, such and such, so and so, such an 
one. a p jii fulanam, (I) am such an one. 


( 84 ) 


a tixli fulk, ship. Falak, heaven, sky, firma- 

a { j^,=>-J>\.i fa li'r rahmun, for unto the Merci- 
ful One. 

a Uli fa lammd, and when. 

a &mJi.'Aj fa linafsihi, then (it will be) for his 
own self (or for his personal advantage). 

a Ci-^ii fa laita, Oh ! would that ! 

a lLXJ-c Lti fa ma calaika, then there is nought 

against thee, no fault rests with thee. 
A ^y*J fa man, who then ? Fa min, then from. 

a (j»*9 funun (pi. of ^i fami), sciences ; modes, 
ways, sorts. 

a ijj>j\)i fawaris (pi. of ijMjK'i fdris), cavaliers. 

^j^aH »j! abu 'I fawaris, father of horse- 
men, or rather, of those mounted on asses (a 
nickname given either by SftdT or someone 
else to a certain noisy and stentorian orator). 

A i£\*h fawdkih (pi. of <L£\i fdkihat), fruits. 

A Jo'«i fawaiid (pi. of S'joli fds-idat), benefits, 

advantages, privileges. 
A LUjh faut, passing away, departure ; loss, 

death, a p ^ J^i CLitifaut shudan, to be lost. 
a Si Li fuldd, steel. 
a j^ifahm, understanding, comprehension. 

r ^ Ju^i fahmidan, to understand (a Persian 

verb coined from the Arabic). 
A.y^ifahva, aud he. 
a (j ft, in, among ; concerning, for. <d^.jsM tj 

fi'ljumla, upon the whole, in short. jjlsM o 

_/? 'I lad, immediately, forthwith. 
p bjijfA firoza, fortunate ; a turquoise which is 

thought to bring good luck to the wearer. 
a J,*i/^, elephant. J-i!l alfll, the elephant. 
g u-Jy^LJ failasvf (p pi. ^[iyjA^ifailasufun), 

a u*i find, in us, among us. 
a. <Ui /S/fo", in him; in that, in it, therein. 
a +^+i flhim, in them, among them. 

a JjU kdbil, capable, able ; susceptible, sus- 
ceptive, receptive, recipient; skilful. 
a <Lbli Jcabilat, midwife, nurse. 

A Jj'li kdtil, deadly, mortal, fatal. 

A^jli kddir, predestinating; powerful, able. 

a jj^li Kdrun, Korah, the cousin of Moses, 
and son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son 
of Levi, is said by the Muhammadans to 
have been very rich and avaricious. "The 
keys of Korah's treasure-chambers were a 
burden for 300 white mules." — Note to Sura 
xxviii. by the Eev. J. M. Rodwell, author 
of a new translation of the Kur'an. 

a Xa\i kdsid, messenger, courier, postman, ex- 
press, cossid. 

A^sli kdsir, short, defective, deficient, insuffi- 

a ,5*5 li kazi, judge (civil, criminal, and eccle- 

a cli kd^j plain, level ground, flat country. 
li»A*»j cli JcaJi basit, widely extended plain 
or desert. 

a ssz\i kdddat, rule, canon; style, mode, man- 
ner; footing. 

a <Uili kdfilat, body of travellers, caravan, coffle. 

a Jli kdla, he said (concave j wdw). <)IM Jli 
JUj kdla 'Huh tauila\ God the Most High 
said (meaning, that it is said in the Kur'an). 

a i_Jli kdlib, form, model, mould; body, bust, 
shape, figure. 

a \*>\i kdlu, they said or have said (3 pi. pret.). 

a <L*l* kdmat, stature, figure, height of the 

human figure ; six feet, fathom. 
a «Jli kdnii, content, contented. 
a J&li kdhir (fern. iLfcli kdhirat), victorious. 

ir.J&Uil! al kdhirat, Al Cairo (victrix). 
a +\L* *jli kdn'm-makdm, locum tenens,deputy, 

viceroy, vicegerent; successor, 
p Lii kabd, akind of light cloak with longsleeves, 

somewhat like a college-gown, but generally 

made of wool; tunic quite open in front. 

^-X-cjJ (_?Li kabdyi postln, a fur cloak. 

a c(JLi kabdlat, bond, deed, written agreement; 

title-deeds, conveyance. 
a ^\i kubh, deformity, ugliness ; shamefulness. 

a 'Ld*i kabzat, grasp, gripe, grip, clutch. 

a J-J hall, fore part, face, front; before. Kibal, 


part, side, pa jj JL* JJi \\ a% 
from the quarter of the East. 
a <LLi hiblat, the place to which men turn in 
prayer, Kiblah. This among Jews and 
Christians is the temple of Jerusalem, our 
churches being so built that the priest at the 
altar faces towards it. Muhammad directed 
bis disciples to pray towards the temple at 
Mecca; an injunction which caused so much 
discontent at first, that he was fain to add a 
sentence to the effect that God hears prayer 
to whatever quarter the suppliant turns. 

a Jj-i kabul, acceptance, favourable reception ; 
good opinion, esteem ; accepted ; acceptable. 
a (Jj-J kabull, acceptable. 

a &^~J kabilat, tribe, family ; wife. 

a JIsj katdl, soul; remains of life; strength; 
body. Kitdl, carnage, slaughter, battle. 

a J-'ii hatl, slaying, slaughter. 

ki^^kahbat, whore, prostitute; female pander. 

a jJI lead, a particle used before verbs, signify- 
ing already ; certainly, assuredly, in truth. 

a jJ kadd, stature. 

a —AJJ kadah, cup, bowl, goblet. 

a jSs Icadr, power; rank, dignity, consequence, 
reputation; value, worth; quantity, measure, 
capacity; fate, destiny. jjJill <QJ laihtu'l 
kadr (pa.jJ i_^-i shali kaclr), the night of 
power, one of the last ten nights of Bamazan, 
and, as is commonly believed, the seventh of 
those nights reckoning backwards. On this 
nightGabriel is said to have begun to reveal the 

Kur'an to Muhammad, p a c^ijSh ba kadr at, 
by thy power, a Kidr, cauldron, pot, boiler, 
kettle. Kadar, quantity; price, worth, value. 

a ijjJ kadran, as to value, rank, dignity or 
importance (the ace. being used adverbially). 

a LjJ kudrat, power, ability. 

A^j.Sikadre, alittle,a small quantity,modicum. 

a \jm&: kuds, Jerusalem (the holy city). 

a *AJs kadam, foot ; step, pace, walk, apj +Si 
^zJj\j kadam bar ddshtan, to lift the foot, 
to stir a step. ^XZ> tef^j (*&* kadam ranja 
shudan, to take the trouble of just stepping. 
ti-v»AJ! kadamat, thy foot. 

A * Ai kaddim, send before (imp. of the 2nd form 

( 85 ) 


of the rt. *±i). >r^\ Jr* rr3j^ ("*' 

kaddimi 7 khuruj kabla 'I wuluj, prepare the 
exit before entering ; look before you leap. 

A jff^AJJ kadame, a single step, p A^==- ^Jj 
"kadame chand, a few steps or paces. 

a fj&'i kudum, approach, arrival, advent. 

a *j Si kadlm, ancient, antique, old, former. 

a j\jZ karar, stability, firmness, quiet, rest, calm, 
stillness, p a.j \Ji y> bar karar, firm, fixed, on 
a steady footing or foundation. 

a &~s\ji kurdzat, fragment of gold, a small par- 
ticle of any metal. 

A ul/ kur'an, the sacred book of the Muham- 
madans, written by their prophet, and feigned 
to have been revealed from heaven. 

a ^.\jJj kurbdn, sacrifice, corban. 

a ^Xi j kurbdni, destined for sacrifice. 

a h ji kirbat, leathern bottle, ij^.y kirbatl, 
my bottle. Kurbat, vicinity, nearness, prox- 
imity ; affinity, kindred. 

a ^Ji hirba, relationship, kin, consanguinity. 

a £ji kurs, disk, ap s^jy>- ^jSji kurst kJtwur- 

shed, the orb (or disk) of the sun. 
a ya <Ji karz, debt, loan. 
a ^ Js karin, connected, linked ; contiguous ; 

friend, yokefellow, mate. 
a ji kazz, raw silk. 

a *--w*J kaslm, beautiful, handsome, well-made. 
Ai-.-'LiJf kassdb (r pl.^lj w=i kassdbdn),h\itcher. 
a .jsLaJ ki'sus, retaliation. 
a t_^=i kasab, reed, pen, quill ; muslin, i^^^si 

i ~**s?\ kasabu 'I hablb, the friendly pen. 

i_£-»a* ±^*zi kasabi misrl, fine linen made 

in Egypt. 
a Lai kissat, history, story, case. 
a S~ai kasd, intention, preparation, design, aim. 
a «ai kasr, citadel, castle, palace. 
a is^ai kasldat, poem, kasida or elegy, being 

a kind of longer Jji ghcmal or ode. 

a 'Laikazdi, fate, destiny, predestination ; death; 
sentence, j udgment, decree ; payment, settling, 
concluding, finishing, a p ^S \*ai kazd kar- 
dan, to make up for a former omission (as to 


( 8G ) 


fast after Ramazan on account of having 
broken the fast then, a p &xAJ ^jXjii kazdyi 
nahishta, destiny-written, written by destiny. 

Apl.Lai kazdrd, providentially, by chance. 

A ^V^ kuzbdn (pi. of i_-^;«aJJ kazlb), long and 
slender branches, twigs. 

a c-^lai kutb, Polar Star, North Pole. 

&.Jai.katr, drop, ^kj ( Jx ^ki Icatrun ^aW 
kai/rin, drop upon drop. Kitr (used in the 
sense of ^Jas katrdn), liquid pitch, tar. 

a ijkn katrat,dvoip. avSUss- xlii katra^e chand, 
a few drops. 

a jJaJ Jcat^, amputation, cutting, maiming ; 
abandonment. *»- . «_ki Icat^i rahim, re- 
nunciation of kin, cutting of one's connexions. 
a p^j^j t~ &^ kardan, to cross, traverse ; 
to cut off; to conclude. 

a <uk- hit^at, strophe, section, part, portion. 

A p X Jp jJai /.a^ harda, cut off. 

a yti ZjrtiT, abyss, gulf. 

a S \J6 Icafas-, back or nape of the neck ; behind 
one's back, secretly. PAjl ^[sj ,J dor Icafdyi 
u, at his heels ; in track of him. 

a umJH Icafas, bird-cage. 

a yfliii Icafas, bird cage. 

a cSj Ma^ (pi. of A*Jj kahat), forts. 

a u_Jo £«/£, heart. 

a JSi Icullat, mountain-top. 

a <uli Ical^at (in India pronounced Ma), fort, 
castle, fortalice. 

a Aj Icalam, reed, pen, calamus. 

a ^yks kalamun, chameleon. ^y»ij »j bu 

kalamun, a changing-coloured silk or stuff. 
a LIS kulnd, we said (rt. JlS &£?«, concave^). 

¥j,xXi kalandar (pi. ^.Joli halandardn), a 
wandering Muhammad an monk, with shaven 
head and beard, who abandons family and 
goods, so called from the name of the founder 
of this sect, which appears to be somewhat lax. 

a JJj Icalll, small, little; few. JJj Icalllun, 
a few, a small number. 

a Li hind, preserve us (imp. of the rt. ,-S. 
walca', he preserved, doubly imperfect, and li 

nd, us). jLH t_>\ Sc bJs kind ^azdba 'n ndr, 
save us (from) the torment of the fire. 

A iicLi kandcat, contentment. 

a Iji kuwat, strength, power, force, ability, 

a LZJ^i kut, food, aliment, sustenance. 

a ^jjji leuwate, a power. 

a (Li haul, word, saying ; agreement, _j J »i 
Jj«i haul ufid, saying and doing, word and 
deed. ,JUj <^_ji Icauluhu ta^dla' , the saying 
of Him" Most High. 

a LLi £wfoi, say ye (imp. of the rt. Jli £</Z«, 
he said, concave^ wdw). ,Jlfc*U ^j!y Awftz 
fo' 7 mu\dfa\ say to him who is free from pain. 

a |*»i Icaum, race, folk, tribe, people. 

Au^-v<}i kauwamla, thou hast straightened(pret. 
of +ji Icaawama, 2nd form of the rt.*li kdma 

concave ^ wdw). \^p*»js kauwamtahd, thou 
straightenedst (her, it or) them. 

a ^*»i Icaume, a class, a people, a tribe, a com- 
"munity, a sect or denomination ; a crowd. 

a i_^»ii kawiy, strong, hale, robust, powerful. 

a p Jb ,_£»* Icawi bdl, strong in the arm. 

a rtJ Icahr, anger, wrath ; force, violence ; se- 
verity, sharpness. -Jl <__>U2ji- Miitdbi Icahr, 
wrathful address, violent harangue. 

a jyjl-J kiyds, conjecture, guess, imagination, 
supposition, judgment. 

a <L»uJ kiydmat, the resurrection. 

iJui kaid, bondage, imprisonment, bond, fetters, 

chain, shackles. 
a <U-*« Iclmat, price, value. 

a ^ Tea (prefix governing the oblique case), as, 

like, jy^ ^ ca sinnaurin, as a cat. iJkJo 

ka 7 ia«W,like the full moon ; (also an affixed 
pron. of the 2nd pers. sing, masc.) thee; of 

thee, thy, thine, tlxi! inndka, verily thou, 
p -jli /cabin, the portion a husband must pay 
to a wife if he divorces her on insufficient 
grounds ; dowry, settlement. 

a e— O'li kdtib, writer, scribe, amanuensis. 


( 87 ) 


p -ili Midi, apartment at the top of a house 
open to the front ; gallery, balcony ; palace. 

a jl£ Mda, it wants but little, he was little 
short of; as Ci-!y«j Jo Md yamutu, he all 
but died. \jS& ^^o ^\ j&&\ jl£ Mda 'I 
falcru an yakuna Tcufran, poverty is little 
short of becoming blasphemy. Sometimes 

this verb is pleonastic ; as <**»**» ti\iJ 1 Id 
yalcddu yusl^uliu, doth not allay it. 

p jls Mr (pi. Mrhd), thing, business, 
matter, affair; act, action, service, toil, work; 
use, good purpose; office, post. „£*«; jla 
Mr bastan, to adopt, use, employ, put in 
practice, ^y* -* j" Mrfarmudan, to put in 
practice. ^ j& Mr kun (imp. of ^js J& 
Mr Icardan), act thou, do. ^J^l J&i bahar 
dmadan, to serve, be of service, be useful. 

p l)jI£ Mrd, knife. 

p (Jljjli hdr-ddnl, experience, practical know- 

p *Jj Jjli Mr-dlda, experienced ; veteran. 

p j\)j\£ Mrzdr, battle, battle-field, action. 

p alTjli Mr-gdli, workshop, manufactory. 

p ^jj^ Mrwdn, caravan, body of travellers or 

p <J\jj" Mrwdnl (pi. ^Ljltjli Mrwdniydn), 
connected with a caravan, member of, or 
traveller with, a caravan. Kdrwdnc, a caravan. 

p U>1£ MrM (pi. of jl£ Mr), affairs ; difficulties, 
disagreeable things. 

p (_£il£ Mri, champion, warrior. Kdre, a busi- 
ness, an affair, work, employ ; an act, a deed. 

p tl p~jli kdstan, to lessen, damage ; to diminish, 
grow less. 

A A-jli hdsid, worthless, deficient in quantity 
or quality ; dead, dull, flat (market or fair), 
in which goods or animals are unsaleable. 

p A*J£ Msa, porcelain ; cup, vase, plate, saucer. 

^^~ <Lrfli hdsaii chxni, china vase. 

p (lio hash, would to heaven ! 

p tl y*«lli MsMan, to sow, cultivate. 

p <fc^ili Mshta, sown, set, planted. 

p^i-ili Kdsli gh ar. name of a city of Chinese 

a ^fc^ijli Mzimina (obi. of ^yt^>\± Mzimuna 

pi. of Jali Mzim), restrainers ; they who 

check, curb, or repress, 
p iXcli Mghaz or M gh iz, paper. j\ Sili yta- 

(fhazi zar, paper powdered with gold dust, or 

gold leaf. 

a 4_ili Mffat, all. *u^ <*ils Mffa^i andm, all 

A^ili £a/?r, denying God; ungrateful, unthank- 
ful ; infidel, caffre. 

A Tjji Is Mfur, camphor. 

PA^yli Mfuri, camphorated, made of cam- 
phor. lJj J Is «_*♦»& sham^i Mfun, a wax 
candle, camphorated wax. 

a ,_jli £a/z, sufficient, competent, enough. 

a iSj\£ ka 'I badr, like the full moon. 

p *li £a?re, palate, jaw, mouth; desire, wish ; 
satisfaction, delight. 

p j^L^li Mm-rdn, fortunate, successful, pros- 

p (Jl^li ham-ram, voluptuousness. 

a J^l£ Mmil, perfect, complete, excellent. 

p (g^li Mme, a particular desire or wish. 

p ^\£ hdn, mine, quarry, ^o j\ zari Mn, gold 

from the mine. IT an (for ^1 to hi an), for 
that ; that it ; he who. 

a ^IS' foma, he was, is, became (concave j m>«io, 
and governs the accusative case). 

p testis' Ic'dnclii (for to=- ^\ <£ hi an chi), for 
that which. 

p .Ails' Jc'dndar, for within, lest within. 

p d^ bio^ h'dnru hi, that to him who. 

p tools' Van hi (for a£ ^J\ && hi an hi), who 

a ^tails' huhili, indolence, laziness, sloth, lan- 

p ^ JuJ&ls' hdlndan, to diminish, to waste. 

p ^$\& hai (for ^1 to" £«' ««'), saying oh ! 

a culijlS' hds-indt (pi. of tojls Mtinat), beings, 

existences, creatures. 
a <__>L^ habdb, meat cut into small pieces, and 

roasted on skewers with onions and eggs. 

a J* liibr, pride. 

p CS*J* hdblc (pi. ljLCS' IcabMn), partridge. 


( 88 ) 


izS,i o-*~0 dast 

p i£jL£ Tcabg, partridge. 

v 3y£ kabutar, pigeon, dove. 

a -J0> kablr, great, large. 

p Li-o hat or hit (for \ji i& hi turd), that thee. 

A t_>l^i kitdb,book. J^s"* t— >lss kitdbi majld, 
the glorious book, i.e. the Kur'an. 

a t_JUi kuttdb, writing-school. 

a iA£ kitdbat, inscription, title-page of a book. 

A (jl^ kuttdbe, a certain writing-school. 

a p S'~s>- i^i^cS kitdbe chand,s\mdiVj books,several 

a * ^ kutub (pi. of «__.*ui kitdb), books. 

p 1 _\^li kat-khudd, master of a family, house- 

p ^jljkisiii kat-khudd ie, a single householder. 

a k__*hi kit/, katif, or kataf, shoulder, shoulder- 
blade, omoplate. p a <fci*uj 
Jar £tf^/ basta, pinioned, 

a i ..$£ kuthub (pi. of fc_^-i^ kathib), sand- 

p -s^ kaj, crooked, wry ; a kind of common silk. 

r ls~ kuju, where ? whence ? whither ? how ? 

p sS \ J* kaj-dgand, a garment of coarse silk 
worn under a cuirass. 

p i^Vsr kajdva, a cradle slung on each side of a 
camel, in which travellers and pilgrims 
(male or female) are carried. 

p ^fJ^> £«^s kajdva-nishin, seated in a camel- 
p ^Jls^ kujds-i, whence art thou ? where art thou ? 

^Lsr jl az kujdn, from whence art thou? 
pa j—J? J* kaj-tabcj perverse, dogged, 
p *\ a£ kuddm, which ? of what kind ? 

p Lv>- w\i hid- hi nuln (pi. ^\j\&&. ^ kad-Mud- 
ayan), householder, housekeeper, master of 
the house. 

a ij^kudurat, turbidness, gloom. 

a i—>\ S£ kazzdb, arrant liar, great liar. 

a lLS]^ kazdlika, thus, so, in like manner. 

p \J> kird, whom ? whom ; to whom ? to whom. 

a *\js kirdm (pi. of +1S karim), generous, 

liberal, beneficent, benign. X*\J> kirdman, 
kindly, considerately, generously (accusative 
being used adverbially). 

a L*\J> kardmat (pi. l^jV*\J, kardmdt), gene- 
rosity, excellence, magnificence, splendour ; 
miracle ; power of working miracles. 

p ^Ij kardn, shore, coast, margin, bank. 

p &j\£ kardna, margin, edge, side, quarter, 

A &Jb\Ji kardhat, aversion, detestation, disgust, 

AtUJfcl .5 kardhiyat, abhorrence, aversion, disgust. 
a h$ kurbat, affliction, mental anguish, grief, 


rjbi kirddr, action, deed, employment, prac- 
tice, conduct. 

p i^Sj^S kirddre, a conduct, a practice. 

p «^—». jJ^i kardast (for c^-i-sl XJjs karda ast), 
(he) hath done or committed. 

r j\£^£ kirdigdr, God the Omnipotent. 

p ^S kardan, to do, make, form, act, com- 
mit, perform, practise, discharge, execute. 

p Xiljs karda, made, done, accomplished. 

p iJ^S karde, was wont to make, would make. 

p i**J*J> kirishma, wink, nod, languishing look, 

p p£ kirm, worm. dLj *£ kirmi pila, yellow 

worm, silk-worm. 
a »js karam, generosity, bounty, liberality, 

kindness, goodness, excellence. 
a ^*S karame, an act of liberality. 

a idyfi karrubly, cherub. 

a +i£ karim (p pi. ^W kartmdn), liberal, 
munificent, bountiful, generous; benign, mer- 
ciful; a name of God. {JM Jc^\ +i£ karimu 
'n nafs, of benevolent disposition, of a gene- 
rous soul. 

a Uj j^ karlman, kindly, generously (accusative 
used adverbially). 

a .<*J$ karime, most exceeding generous. 

a 4j f karih, detestable, filthy, odious, hideous, 

hateful, disgusting. CL>yA\ te^fi karlhu '* 
saut, harsh-voiced, having an execrable voice. 

p Is h'az (for \\ i& ki az), that from, that of. 

p a (jJLJLeJi k'azi ^akabash, because after him. 

p %'£ ki zu, that of him. 

a JvJji ka zaidin, like Zaid. 

*$ ( 89 ) 


p *Jji kazh-dum, (crook-tail), scorpion. 

p ^/**i has, any one, somebody, a person. 

p ^Lui hasdn (pi. of ^jJi has), persons, people. 

a -a*o hasr, fracture ; affliction. 

p a lJj^ Rasra? , Chosroes, a name of several 

kings of Persia. 
a jy~"& ha sinnaur, like a cat. 
a iyM& hiswat (r pi. l^j'^ui hiswathd), robe, 

raiment, dress, garb, clothing ; mode of dress; 

the covering in which the Kaaba is draped, 

made of black cloth embroidered with silver. 

p (<«*j hase, any one, any person; a certain 

person ; a person of consequence. <b ^ 
hase hi, a person that. 

p (jlo hash (imp. of jjJuAS hashidan), draw 
thou, (for [i! 4i hi ash), that to him. 

p ^^Li-i hushddan, to open, loose, let loose, 
unloose, unbar, unbolt, untie ; to take, cap- 
ture, subdue, conquer. 

p a jLio hushdda, opened ; open. 
p t_fi \\ XiyJl£hushada-ru,o£ an open countenance. 
p^Lio i«sAa»(part.of |i , \JH& hashidan) drawing, 
p L_f^»J hushdi (imp. of ^ Jjj2*£ hushudan), open. 
p ^ISc^io hushtagdn (pi. of teA£ hushta), slain. 
p ^t^i hishtan, to sow, till. Kushtan, to slay, 

kill, murder, put to death ; to put out, ex- 

p <w!Li hushta, slain, killed ; extinguished ; 

hath slain, having slain. ^ s -ib £$£& hushta 

bdshi, thou shalt have slain. 
p ,<^£ hashtl (but often erroneously pronounced 

kishti), vessel, ship, bark, boat. Kushtl, 

wrestling. \j^J> i<^ #wsM giriftan, to 

grapple, seize in wrestling. 

v^Xf^Jj-ihashtibdn, pilot, steersman, helmsman. 

p &LuA-J) ( ^a hashti- shihasta, shipwrecked. 

a i_ c As hashafa, he uncovered, he unvailed. 
Kashaf, opening, manifesting, revealing, dis- 
covery; investigation. 

p ^tiJLz hushudan, to open, 
p jy& kishwar, climate, clime, quarter, region 
of the world. 

p Llo j^io hishwarhushd, conqueror of king- 

p ^Jtl^ jy«" kishwar- hushd^e, a conqueror of 

p .j- 1 ^ £wsA?, thou slayest, thou shouldest kill. 
o hashidan, to draw, draw out, stretch, 

drag, pull, trail, twitch, strip ; to draw upon 
one's self, bear, submit to, undergo, endure ; 
to extend, prolong ; to spread. 

p a A-jio hashlda, drawn ; spread ; experienced ; 

suffered, endured. 
a ^_^*£ ha^b (p pi \~*£ fcadhd), the heel. 

a <Lxi ha- c bat, the Kaaba, or cube-shaped temple 
at Mecca, built, as the Muhammadans pre- 
tend, by Abraham and his son Ishmael on 
the site of a still more ancient temple, built 
by Seth, and destroyed by the deluge. It is 
described by a modern traveller as an oblong 
massive structure 55 feet in length, 45 feet 
in breadth, and the heighth somewhat greater 
than the length. It stands in an open pa- 
rallelogram of about 500 feet by 530, and 
is surrounded by colonnades, the pillars of 
which are made of various marbles. It is 

termed <ill^ <-^^> baitu 'lldh, the house of 
God, and *,sl al haram, the sacred. It is 
covered with black cloth embroidered with 
silver, which is renewed every year. 

p t-_ci haf, palm of the hand ; sole of the foot ; 
hand ; foam. (^wjJ i__a£ hafi dast, palm of 

the hand 

procure ; 

a iju£ haffdrat, atonement, expiation. 
A i_jU£ hafdf, sufficiency,competency, pittance. 

a p lI/jJ \ <__il» hafdfi andah, slender means, 
small competency. 

a ,_jub hafdfe, a pittance ; a sufficiency, com- 

a dJUi hifdyat, sufficiency; ability; shrewd- 

^<J;. I u_cxj ba haf dvardan, to 
to secure in the hand. 

ness, prudence, good sense, ap^,^ i^^jU^ 

hifdyat hardan, to suffice. 

a J& hufr, infidelity, impiety, blasphemy. 

p (j*J& hafsh, shoe, sandal, slipper. 

p ;. J j_ / ^i^^«/sA-(?oz,shoemaker,cobbler,crispin. 

a ^i£ hafan, shroud, winding-sheet. 

a jjS& hafur, impious, infidel, ungrateful. 

a e^-.»i£ hafaita (pret. of rt. { J^ hafa'), thou 

hast done enough. ^j\ c^--i^ hafaita azan, 
thou hast done harm enough. 



( 90 ) 


a Ji hull, all, every, universal, whole. ^j\ J£ 

kullu intitin, every vessel. 
p &~M, kaltisa, wells where travellers (especially 

pilgrims to Mecca) drink. 

a *&z Icaldm, word, discourse, speech, saying. 

r iK kuldh, cap, hat, Tartar cap, honnet. 

p <ti)^S aili kuluh-gosha, peak of a high cap. 

a i K /cfl/i, dog. v L£ll ^Jj: ^« 7 #«/fo", 

against the dog. 

p dJo kulba, shop, warehouse. 

a ^^jJj fo7s, quick lime for making mortar. 

a Jo Icallim, speak to, address (imp. of 2nd form 
of the verb Jo). 

a <ul£ kalimat, word, saying, a p Sus^- <ul£ 
kalima<-i chand, a few words, a brief dis- 
course, a (Js>- <UJo kalima^i hakk, the word 
of truth. 

a l^li £«te, eat ye (2 per. pi. irregular imp. of 
the verb j£\). 

p „i «li fodukh, clod, brickbat. 

p j!jJ! -iJ\i kulukh-andtiz, slinger. 

p <-r>j^ j^jl£ kulukh-kob, mallet for breaking 
clods, clod-crusher. 

a Jo kulli, wholly, entirely, whole, entire, ab- 

p A-K killd, key. 

p jS kam, few, little ; less, small ; abated, di- 
minished, decreased. 

a *S kumm, sleeve. 

a U£ kamd, as, according as. 

p j\\\ j£ kam-tiztir, a rare whipper, seldom 

using the cane for punishing idle boys. 
a JL*£ kamtil, perfection, excellence. aJUjj 

hi kamtilihi, by his perfection. 
a e^.s1r? (JL^ kamtil -bahjat, perfect in beauty. 
a ^xstf. J US' kamtil-bahjate, a perfection of 

p ^U.^ kamtin, bow. ti^ ^J^kamanikaydni, 

the Kayanian bow ; a strong bow is so called 

because archery -was brought to perfection 

among the Persians under the Kayanian, or 

second dynasty of kings. 

p ,\sj[*£ kamtin-dtir, archer, bowman. 

p j±AS kamtar, less, very little. (*!,j~*& kam- 
tarern, (we) are less. 

p ,jij**a kamtarln, least, smallest, lowest. 

p j*!z> kamar, waist ; girdle, belt. 

r &u}j*& kamar-land, waistband, girdle, in which 

the Orientals carry their money. 
PjLc £kam-dytir, below standard, base (coin), 
p su*& kamand, noose, lasso. 
a ^^si kamiy, armed, mailed; bold, brave, strong, 
p ^y-^i kamin, defective, mean. 
a (J--40 kamln, ambush, ambuscade. 

a p a IT c j~*i kamin-gtih, place of ambush, am- 

p *~**& kamlnam, (I) am mean. 

p &-**£ kamxna, base, low, humble, mean; least, 

a ^f kun, be or become thou (imp. of rt. ^IS' 
ktina, concave j wtiw governing the ace). 

p j Li kantir, shore, margin, bank, brink, edge, 
side. Kintir, embrace ; lap, bosom, j J JJs 
fjj'lfi kintir dar kardan, to fill the lap. iL£ 
(jMji _j kinar u bos, embracing and kissing. 

p hjds kantir a, side, edge. ^J^f *jL} kanara 
giriftan, to retire, withdraw, to go aside. 

p ^L^ kuntin, making, doing (part. pres. of the 
verb ^S kardan). 

v ^i kunj, corner, nook. 

p lL>-mj-s\i kunjishk, sparrow. 

p (c^^ kunje, a corner, a nook. 

p Jc£ kund, dull, blunt. Kunad, he makes. 

p j&& k'andar (for j^j\ iz, ki andar), that in. 

p ^ixS kandan, to dig, excavate, raze, extir- 
pate, overthrow. 

p ^~Jl£ kunisht, fire- tern pie; Christian church; 

Jews' synagogue; profession, occupation. 
a ^UiJ kanztin, Canaan, grandson of Noah. 




'J ^ f* 

A&Li shtihidam man 

wale na dar kan^tin, I am a beauty but not 
in Canaan, — where Joseph (from his beauty, 

called ^l^o at* m&hi kan^tin, the moon of 
Canaan) was born, i.e. I make no pretension 
to excellence. 

lz^a^ kunamat, I should make thee. 


( 91 ) 


v ^j£ 'knun (for ^j^t aknun) now. i*^~jy£ 

'knunat, now to thee. 
p ^£ £wm, thou makest, canst or wilt make 

(rt. ^J> kardari). 

vj^£ kanlz, maid, virgin, girl ; female servant. 

p tJ£\+'£ kanizak (pi. .liL»ii kanlzakan), hand- 
maid, damsel, female servant or slave. 

p £ ku, street, lane; where, (for j\ <£ hi u), 

for he, that he. (for ll-wjLs^ kuja 'st), 
where is ; where is he ? where is he gone ? 

p ( ~ r } 4 kob, strike, thump, knock (rt. ^fj£). 

p a\j £ kutdh, short, small, little, dwarfish, con- 

pa jJ bVJ £ kutdh-kadd, short of stature, dwarfish. 

p &j£ kutah, short; contracted ; withdrawn. 

p ia£~*«jj &j£ kutah-dast, short-handed. 

pa Jaj &£ kutah-nazar (pi. <J\jGJ <&4 kutah- 
nazardn), short-sighted. 

p ul£>-^i kuehak, little, small. 

p tjS<J)ji kudak (\A.^j£j£ kudakdn), boy, youth, 

child, lad, brat, urchin. 
p £ J £ kudakl, chil&iahness, boyishness. Kud- 

ake, a child, a bo3 T . 
p ^y kaudan, dull, lazy, slow, stupid ; obese. 
Pjj£ kur (pi. ^jS kurdri), blind, sightless. 

p ^-^sCj^i kur-bakht, (blind-fortune), unfor- 

p J J j£ kur-dil, blind-hearted ; stupid. 

v j£ kuz, curved, bent down. j£ ii-*£j 
pushti kuz, curved back, humpback. 

p i\£ kuza, gugglet, jug, jar, decanter. 

p ^j+>£ kos, drum. ^,Jj \j*& kos zadan, to 
beat a drum. 

p i^J^S koshish, effort, endeavour. 

p ^&*J*£ kosMdan, to strive, struggle, labour, 

endeavour, take pains,make effort, strenuously 

a p li£ Kufat, a city on the Euphrates, four 
days' journey from Baghdad, and so near 
Basrah, that the two towns are called the 
two Basrahs or the two Kufahs. In Basrah 
and Kufah were rival schools of learning. The 
oldest Arabic characters extant are called 
Kufic, and so named from this city. 

p {i j^^ koftan, to pound, beat, knock, thump, 

strike, crush, smash, 
p <&hjskofta, beaten, pounded; wearied, knocked 

up, tired, dead beat ; hashed or pounded meat. 
p ^£ kun, fundament. y>- ^£ hunt khar, 

(fundament of an ass), a great fool, an arrant 

blockhead; mischievous, depraved. 

p x£ koh, mountain. 
p jUJijji kohsdr, mountainous, 
p ^X'X^Jb£ kohistdn, mountainous tract, hill- 
p ,Jfcj£ kohe, a mountain, a certain mountain, 
p ^£ ku, street, lane, alley. 
p ^J^i ku'-e, a certain street or lane. 

p <£ ki, that ; for, because ; than ; but ; lest ; 
as; when; while; where; saying; who. 
what, which (interrogative and relative). 

njbj j i^^~iJ j\ az dast u zabani ki, from 
the hand and tongue of whom ? from whose 
hand and tongue ? 

p i£ kih, little, small, mean, inferior. 

p z^f kihtar, smaller, lesser, meaner, inferior. 

a u-8.^ kahf, cave, cavern; asylum, refuge. 
*—£*£ *- r :\*sr a \ ashdbi kahf, cave-companions, 
i.e. the seven sleepers in the cave of Ephesus. 

p ^£ knhan, old. 

p j-j ^£ kuhan-plre, an old or aged man. 

p &±j£ kuhna, old. 

p ^£ kai, when ? how ? (pi. ^l-^ kayan), a 
"great king. 

a <L.-L£ kiydsat, sagacity, acuteness, shrewdness. 

a { j^i[£ kiydsate, a sagacity. 

p ^\£ kayan (pi. of ^£ kai), kings ; the sur- 
name of the second dynasty of Persian kings. 

p ,JL£ kaydnl, Kayanian, used in the time of 
the Kayans (as the Plantagenets or Tudors). 

p »jmJ&£ Kai Khusrau, Cyrus, the third king 
of the Kayanian or second dynasty of Persia. 
Bustam was one of his generals, and his war 
with Afrasyab, king of Turkistan, is cele- 
brated in the Shah-Nama. 

p -£ klr, penis. 

p ci -•-■-■■ £ Iclst, who is he ? who is ? who he is. 


( 92 ) 


p ^A**^ fo^ (for 'i-oJb <S& £« hastl), who art 

" thou ? who thou art. 
p &mJs lasa, purse, scrip, money-bag. 
p (ji-»£ £zsA, name of an island at the entrance 

to the Persian Gulf. Kayash, how of hiiu ? 

a <£»JL£' kaiflyat, character, account, state, cir- 

p .f L^-i klmiydgar, alchymist. 

p ^& kin, (for ^i\ && ki In), that this, for 

this; whether this; thinking or fancying this ; 

saying this, (for <U-£ kind), hatred, rancour. 

p jjlT gdzur, washerman; bleacher, fuller. 

p *li gam, palate. 

p J& gav (pi. ,o\*^j gavun), bull, ox. ^^y j^ 
^a»; randan, to drive oxen, to plough. yS 
-*U£. gavi camiar, the sea-cow from which 
the Persians suppose the ambergris to come. 

p tJjo gave, an ox, one ox. 

p &\S gah, time, place; at times, at one time. 

slx-j j ts\S gah u blgdh, in season and out of 

p i Jt>\S gdhe, at times ; one while. 

p -o gdbr, fire- worshipper, infidel, guebre. 

p \^Sgadd (or,_^ Jo gaddi, pl.^bl Jo gaddydn), 

beggar, mendicant. 
p «_Ja ljo gadd-tab^, of a beggarly nature. 

p (^1-xS gadds-l, beggary, mendicity, begging; 
condition of a beggar. Gada^e, a beggar. 

p j^jo guzdr, leave, let alone, give up, relin- 
quish, resign (rt. < J^\ 3o guzdshtari). 

p ^i3j\&> guzdrdan, to perform, discharge, pay, 
satisfy ; to pass one's time ; to allow. 

p ^L\dS guzdshtan, to quit, leave, let go, pass 
by, omit ; to allow, suffer ; to discharge, pay, 

Vj^Sguzar, passage, pass, place of transit, jjo 
^S guza/r kardan, to cross over, to pass, 
pass on, pass by, away or off ; to die. 

p (^JijJi.Ai guzrdnldan, to cause to pass; to 
send, to carry, to waft. 

p u^/.ui'.il Jo guzashtast, hath passed (a con- 
traction of ^l^Ji <U>1 Jo guzasfita ast). 

p (^^wi Jo guzashtan, to pass, elapse ; to pass 
away ; to die ; to cross over. 

p teJ* Jo guzashta, passed,bygone, slipped away. 

p .S gar, if ; although, what though ; whether. 

p if*]/* gardmi or girdml, precious, excellent ; 

revered, great. ^J^ ^«\Js girdml shudan, 
to be dear. 

p ^f girdn, dear, precious ; heavy, ponderous, 

weighty, grave ; dull ; sore, 
p &j\*j\js girdn-mdya, of great worth, precious, 

p ij,\js girdne, a heavy, dull, lumpish fellow ; 

a foolish and disagreeable person ; a bore, 
p ^&Ji\£ girds-ldan, to have an affection towards, 

to be inclined to; to explore, examine, note, 

pry into, mind, look to. 

p tjjs gurba, cat. ^j-iLu*^ foji gurba^e miskln, 
poor puss. 

p y f gurpuz (or yf gurbuz), artful, flattering, 

p LZiji garat, if to thee. 

p iss^S garchi (for &>-S \ agarchi), although, 
what though. 

p l>£ gard, dust ; fine dust that flies in the air. 
Gird, round, around ; the circular motion of 
the dancing dervishes. ^ J~* \ ^j* gird dma- 
dan, to convene, to meet together, to flock, 
to gather round, to assemble; to accumulate, 
mount up. iy^yi ^$ gird dvardan, to col- 
lect, lay up, gather, accumulate. u'-Lr *ir 
gird kardan, to collect, amass, accumulate. 
jJj jJo ba girdash, around him, about him. 

p l^S gurd (pi. ^^f gurddn), strong, valiant; 

p l-j\c>j} gird-db, whirlpool. 

p i Jk I J .i gird dmada, gathered around, col- 
lected about. 

p |^<-\j gar dan, revolving. 

p (jJwJlj^S garddnldan, to cause to become, to 
render, to constitute ; to make to roll or re- 
volve, to turn round ; to allow ; to avert ; to 
alter ; to turn away. 


( 93 ) 


p iJiiAJs gardish, revolution, vicissitude, change, 
turn, motion. 

p ^liJ^S girdgdn, walnut. 

p ^S gardan, the neck. ^S^JL^ ^.^ gardan 
kashldan, to withdraw the neck ; to mutiny, 
rebel, disobey ; to stretch the neck. 

p ^ii ^j* gardan-lcaslii, outstretching of the 

" neck ; pride, arrogance ; refractoriness. 
p jjjtip gar dun, windlass, wheel; heaven, the 

celestial sphere, 
p iJ>J$girda, round cake, but not thin, 
p ij<^f garde, a dust; a down, 
p ^j&fjjs gardldan, to become; to change; to 

revolve, roll ; to walk around, wander about ; 

to hover or hang about. 

p HJj^^ gardtda, become; changed. 
p^Jjj^S gardlde, he (or it) would have become. 
p { J^>S gvristan, to weep, shed tears; to cry. 
p S±~) S gursinagt, hunger. 

v &±~ij> gursina (pi. ^Ui-^i gursinagun), hun- 
gry, starving, famishing. 

? JvJsjs giriftar, taken, seized, captivated; pri- 
soner,captive. ^\^*\ M^S giriftdr amadan, 
to be taken prisoner. 

p ci-~w*2J^ giriftast, has taken (for <^^J\ fcif) 

p ij^ij) giriftan, to take, get; to capture, catch, 
seize, hold, apprehend ; to subjugate; to re- 
ceive, adopt ; to derive ; to carp at ; to begin ; 
to stop, close up. 

p teijs girifta, taken, caught, captured. 

p ,pj^ girifte, he would have taken. 

p i^S_f gurg (pi. ^J^S gurgdn), wolf. 

p ij\j ^SS gurg-zdda, born a wolf; wolfs cub. 

p *J> garm, hot, warm ; thronged, busy, brisk, 

active (market). 
p jtf^p garnil, heat, warmth, fever. 

p j\S^*^ garml-dur, feverish, fevered, febrile. 
p • Sgirav, wager, pledge, deposit, pawn ; con- 
tract, engagement. 
p Sj^ guroh, troop, band, gang, bevy, crowd, 
p iJb'f gurohe, a certain sect or class. 

p ^i$j»J> girawidan, to follow, admire, believe, 
imitate ; to be attached, to stick close. 

p ^j\\j^ girydn, weeping, shedding tears, crying. 
f ^LjX girlbdn, collar-opening, or breast of a 

p ^psT^S gurelditan, to fly, flee, run away; to 

abscond, escape, 
p te^Js gure]<hta, fled; absconded, run away. 
p Jj \Js gurez, flight. 
p ^\jj> gurezdn, taking flight, 
p ^jx*~>Js girlstan, to weep, shed tears, bemoan, 

p i^S gariwa or girlwa, high ground, steep 

bank, acclivity, ravine, 
p <0 i ginja, crying, weeping ; tears. 

p i_iUi gmuf,yain or rash act or word. <■_ jU>J 
ha guzuf, with impunity. 

p JjjT gazand, damage, hurt, harm, detriment. 

p (_£A3ji gazande, an injury, a harm. 

p i^^S gazldan, to bite. Guzidan, to choose. 

p j i Is guzir, aid, help, remedy. 

p ( ^Aj\^o' gustardnldan (or ^dp^ gustar- 
dan), to spread. 

p J2m£ gustarad, he should spread. 

p ^Uu**£ gusistan, to break; to break down. 

p ^&*j\Js> gusildnidan, to break, snap asunder. 

p ^JuLu^ gusilldan, to break, snap asunder. 

p ^jli.i' gusliddan, to open. 

p i_iLi»-j 2»jLio gushuda-peshdni,hav\Tig an ex- 
panded front and a joyful countenance. 

p lz -w. *,.£" gashtast, hath passed. 

p l jS-£o gashtan, to become; to be changed; 
to pass, depart. 

p icA^ gashta, become; turned into. 

p c^-vfti' guft, he spoke ; speech, speaking ; 
preaching, preachment. 

p l^&S" guftd (for lz-~s6 guft), he said. 

p jlxis guftur, discourse, speech, saying, argu- 
ment, conversation; profession (as opposed 
toj^JJs h'rddr, practice). 

p t_^v«.:j&' guftast, hath spoken. 

p (ji^^iS^ guftamash, I said to him. 

p ^c^i guftame, I would say. 

p IJ fj£ guftan, to speak, say, tell, talk ; to call ; 

( 94 ) 


to recite, repeat, rehearse ; to compose (poetry). 

«~s\ ij\sj\ *i^R$' 

u^i imtin&t-i 

sukhun guftanum uftuda ast, abstaining from 
speaking has fallen to me, i.e. has been 
chosen by me. 

p Ju~d j li^jii <7«/^ w shanld, conversation, 
discourse, dialogue ; debate, altercation, con- 

v teJ& gufta, said, spoken ; hath said or spoken ; 
having spoken. 

p \j^Ji£ guftahu (pi. of teJo gufta), things spoken, 

p JS gil, clay, mire, earth ; a kind of argil 
with which women in the East cleanse their 
hair. Gul, rose; flower. 

p i^JiS gul-tib, rose-water. 

p l^-oo gulat, thy rose. 

p ^u-Yuli gulistun, rose-garden, flower-garden. 

v jJUSS gul-shalcar, conserve of roses. 

p JS gilam, (I) am clay. 

p <dT gala, flock, herd, drove ; troop. Gila, 
complaint, lamentation ; blame; accusation, 

p jAT gile, a lump of clay. Gule, a rose; a 

p *-li gillm, blanket, mantle, garment of goat's 

p ^g^ii gillme, a blanket, a single blanket, 
"one blanket. 

p £ gum, lost, dwindled, reduced. 
gum kardan, to lose. 

p ^jX^l^i gumdshtan, to appoint, depute, com- 
mission, entrust, set over. 

p ^v^i gumun, doubt, suspicion, fancy, sup- 
position. (jtV i^)^ gumun bur dan, to think, 
suppose, suspect. 

p Ai J J 20 .£ *T gum-Tcarda-farzand, that had 
lost a son, bereaved parent, i.e. the patriarch 
Jacob, father of Joseph. 

p i\^ gunuh (pi. ^l&Li gunahan), sin, fault, 
error, crime. 

p l Jb\±S gundhe, a crime. 

p X~£ gumbad (also S~£ gumbaz), dome, cupola, 
vaulted building. S^is. S^S gumbazi cazad, 
name of a celebrated mosque, probably built 


or repaired by <BjjJl Juas cazadu 'd daulat. 
p -so #«w/, treasure, hoard, store, 
p gSte ganje, a treasure, 
r ^j^s: Sgunjidan, to be held,contained,stowed. 
p *&^ gandum, wheat, corn. ^b^J *&£> gan- 

dumi biryan, parched wheat, toasted corn, 
p liJu^ gandana, leek, 
p .tjljjci gandanazur, bed of leeks, 
p £J>^i ganda, fetid, foul, offensive, stinking. 
p ^Ju jo gandldan, to have a foul smell, emit 

a stench, stink, putrefy. 
p ajjJui gandlda, fetid, stinking, offensive. 
f i^J^S gung, dumb, mute, 
p &o gunah, crime, sin, harm, 
p ,o <k£ gunahgur, criminal, sinful, 
p £ gu (or ^f guy, imp. of jx& guftan), 

speak, say ; a ball. _lc ^jf guyi Jij, ball 

of ivory. ^J y ^^ iJyguyi nekl burdan, 

to carry off the ball of merit, 
p ,«-&>\o gaivahl, evidence, testimony, witness, 
p i»S gor, grave, tomb ; wild ass. 
p ±jjy gore, an onager entire, 
p jojLoji gosfand (pi. ^joJL; »f gosfandan), 

sheep, goat, 
p ^lS gosh, ear. 

p wu~w «S yos/rf, meat, flesh. Goshat, thine ear. 
p JU-i^jT gosh-mul, (rubbing the ears), chas- 

tisemen t, punishmen t . t-j^jy^ <J v-*-i »b gosh- 
mal khwurdan, to receive chastisement. 

p ^[^tJ^S gosh- mull, (box on the ear) chastise- 
ment; reproof, reprimand. 

-p ^yLifigosh-war or xJ\jJ^ £ gosh-wara, ear-ring. 

p <Li »i gosha, corner, nook ; privacy, retire- 
ment ; peak. 

p ■j-jJJ <n£ji gosha-nishln (pi. ^U-jU <L&»S 
gosha-nishinan), squatting or lurking in a 
corner; recluse, solitary, retired; hermit. 

p £$S gaugird, brimstone, sulphur. 

p ^»S U »S gun-a-gun, of various hues or kinds. 

p aj«S guna, manner, mode, way, sort, fashion. 

<U»S <!l>- chi gunas-e, how farest thou? 
t J&S gauhar, jewel, gem; essence, substance. 


( 95 ) 


p ,_5^r gu, ball, cricket-ball; speech, saying. 

p ^,u_ji guydn, speaking, saying, talking. 

p ^i^ guy ad, says, speaks (rt. { jis^ guftan). 

p iiX*j '£ guyanda, talker, speaker; warbler. 

p ijf d™^' ^ ou speakest, thou wouldest say. 

p <b gah, time ; at one time, sometimes ; now ; 

p jA S guhar, gem; race, family. 

p &> iS gali gah, time to time, occasionally. 

p l g^S guhe, at one time, one while. 

p iLT giyah (pi. ^ItoLT giydhun), grass. 

p ,c^ ^z, world ; fate, destiny. 

p \j\ l zJ* glti-drd, world-adorning. 

p j,ji j^S gltt-furoz, world-illuminating. 

TjJ? glr, granted ; take, hold, keep (imp. of 

the verb ^j^sjz giriftari). 
p Jj+s glrad, takes or will take ; seizes or will 

seize (rt. ^J^S giriftan). 
p *j£ glram, I admit, grant, allow, accept (rt. 

jiijt giriftan). 
Pjlj j _«5 glr u dur, seize and hold; dominion, 
p y***f gnu (pi. \y*u2 glsuwdn), ringlet. 


a J la, (a prefix) verily. Li, to, for (a particle 

nasbating the aoidst), as iSjyfi li tazuranl, 
that thou mayest visit me. 

a $ Id, no, not (a simple negation), as .Ji*«J 3 
Id yaslcl, he giveth not to drink, *«J 1 Id 
tamurru, thou passest not by ; (also a pro- 
hibitive particle gezmating the aorist), as 

■ jJ^j 3 Id tamnun, do not upbraid. 

a {jjzsr t Id tahzananna, grieve thou not (em- 
phatic aorist of the rt. joj*-). 

a tjj ,..,!.-<'' S to, account ye me not. 

a Jxai" S to taf^al, do not (gezmate of JueiJ' 
taftalu, aor. of the rt. Juts fa^ala, he did). 

a .jw*j i' to tamnun, upbraid not with favours 
conferred (gezmate of ^^j' te?»WMww,asurdvb.) 

a /»^s>- i! /a jaram, certainly, of necessity. 

a ^jjs>- t Idjaward, lapis lazuli. 

a Jj*- ^ to haula, or in full ^ Jj3 5! j Jj*- ^ 

<d!u to Affwfo w« to Jcuwata ilia li 'Hah, (there 
is) no power nor strength but in God (a phrase 
employed by the Muhammadans in times of 
difficulty and calamity to recommend and 
enjoin submission, patience and accpiiescence). 

a r»d- 1 Id Mair, (is) not good. 

a CSLk>-J& la arjumannalca, verily I will stone 

thee (emphat. aor. of the rt. +s>-j ). 
a *LJi\ ,J, <LJ>{*Jbj S to rahbdnlyata fi 'I islam, 

(there is) no monachism (or monkey) inlslam. 
a i—>$ Idzib, firm, solid. <_. _>;U 



i zarbati 

Idzib, a thundering blow, a stunning thwack. 
a »jt Idzim, necessary, obligatory, suitable, 
p <L£>!5 lasha, corpse, carcase. 
a Jic $ la a^zam, surely the greatest. 
p jci lughar, thin, lean, lank, slim, meagre, 
p ^L-* j£& Idghar-miydn, slender-waisted. 
p i^Sj^' Idghare, a lean man or person. 

p i_i}! Idf, boast, vain-glory, brag, ^j < «3 

lufzaddn, to boast, to brag, to bluster, 
p <*W Idla, tulip. 
a J L! hs-dlis. (pi. of_j!jJ lu4u>), pearls. 

a +b lama, he blamed (concave . wdw) ^^ 

Idmani, hath censured me. 
a tM\ j $ Id wa 'lldhi, no, by God ! 
p jkjS toya<2, talks idly ; complains, is snappish 

(rt. i^dLuS layldan). 
a ^juj i 5! to yasa^iiril, holds me not, hath not 

room to contain me (aor. of the rt. %-~jj)- 
a Jaw ^ to yaJcil, he understands not ; hence, 

stupid, stolid, dull (aor. of the rt. Jac). 
a Jlxj U to ya^lam, knows not; ignorant, stupid. 
a (JfJuo 3 to yu gh lalcu. is not shut, shall not be 

shut (aor. pass, of the rt. < _J-c ghalalca). 
a (Jj^ lus-ilc, fit, suitable, becoming, befitting. 

a Jl' lus-im, blamer, slanderer, accuser; critic, 

p * ] toJ, lip; brink, margin, rim. 

a (jwLS libds, garment, apparel, garb, attire, 

habit, dress, clothing. 
a ^U libdse, a dress. 


( 90 ) 


a !«xJ la ba gh au. verily they would have re- 
belled (pi. pret. of the rt. ,e*j). 

a ^,UJ Lubndn, mount Lebanon, so called from 
the milky whiteness of its perpetual snow. 

a cJjj/-J ^ tazuratii, that thou mayest visit 
me (aor. of the rt.jlj zdra, concave j wdw). 

a <Uisr lahzat, look, glance ; moment. 

p L^-.i' Z«M£, somewhat, some, a little, a piece 
or part. 

p jxs' lakhte, an instant, a little while. 
a a!i jj ladghat, stinging (as of a scorpion). 
a ijJ lazzat, delight, flavour, delicious taste. 

pa CD jJj 5a lazzat, with flavour. ^i'd^jJj 

£« lazzattar, more savoury, or delicious. 
a (_Li3 jj li zdlika, on that account, therefore. 
a Si jj laziz, delicious, delightsome, luxurious. 
vbjj larza, shiver, tremor, trepidation, quaking. 
p ^Jj jj larzidan, to tremble, shake, quake, 

a j^Ld lisdn, tongue; language. <U LJ lisdnuhu, 

his tongue, his language, 
p .iLiJ lashkar, army, host, 
p ijS*^ lashharl (pi. ^l^i.! lashlcariyan), 

military ; soldier, guard, attendant, military 

man, officer ; soldiery. Lashlcare, an army, 

a whole host of soldiers. 

a <Us»-LJ lisdhibihi, for its owner. 

a ijlkl latdfat, grace,elegance ; gentleness, soft- 
ness, graciousness, gentle means. 

A k_£y luif, gentleness, graciousness, amiable- 
ness, kindness, lenity, grace, favour; elegance. 

A i— a«y latif (p pi. (jla-ia! latifdn), elegant, 

graceful ; witty ; fine, light, delicate. 
a l<L.y latif an, delicate (ace. of t_ iLU latif). 

AtU-Ll latifat (ppl l^ft-ia! latifahd), pleasantry, 
bon-mot, witty or facetious saying. 

ap t_$v»- c— o.,y latif-Jchu, of a mild, gentle, 
affable disposition. 

a i_^*J la^b, play, sport. 

a i jL«J 2» <J.badihi, for (or to) his servants. 

a ,Jj«1 la^l, ruby. 

a JjJ lauilla, perhaps. (*y^ la^allahum, haply 
they. *" ' 

a p &j[) J*] la^l-pdra, piece of ruby. 

a iiM la-jnat, curse, imprecation, malediction. 

p ^Jjjil la gh zidan, to slip, slide, stumble. 

a ^x! Idghw, inconsiderate act or speech, blun- 
der, mistake, slip, fall. lSj^ laghioi, my 

^ i_fj*l laghwe, a lapsus linguae. 

a Sail fo/ss, word, expression, vocable. 

a £ U1 Zi/tds, meeting, encounter; aspect, face, 
visage, countenance. 

a jJu lahad, of a truth, verily ; already. 

a j^WiJ Luhmun, name of a certain wise man, 
by some said to have been a son of Job's 
sister or aunt ; by others to have been a dis- 
ciple of David ; by others, a judge in Israel; 
whilst others declare him to have been an 
emancipated Ethiopian slave. He is the 
author of some Arabian fables, and is sup- 
posed by many to be the same as JEsop. One 
chapter of the Kur'an is named after him. 

a <UJil luhnat, morsel, mouthful; a pittance. 

a p joj- <UJi] lulcman chand, several mouthsful. 

a lLx! laka, for thee, to thee. 

a <LJl£l li kdtibiki, for the writer of it. 

a *£! la hum, for you, to you. 

a j-l^' ^ '^ kliabUhin, for the filthy. 

a { j*=~ -JJ li V rahmdn, to the merciful (God). 

a *_ *o Jtl! li 'I gk aribi. to the stranger. 

a J lam, not, (a gezmating particle prefixed to 
the aorist, and usually — not always — giving 
a past signification.) bb_» J lam yarahd, he 
hath not seen her. ^Js\ J ^ in lam alcun, 
if I may not be. Lima, why ? wherefore ? 

a UJ lammd, when. 

a iaj' J lam tatir, had not flown, had not the 
power of flight (gezmate of-JaJ tatiru, fern, 
aor. of the rt. Jh tdra, concave ,_£ ye). 

a ij±*\ lumtunna, ye (females) blamed (rt. /J 

lama, concave j wdw). ^il^d lumtunnani, 
ye blamed me. 

a (jb**! lama^dn, sparkle, shine, glitter. 

a ^jL& J lam yahbilu, they accepted not (gez- 

mated aor. of the rt. J-i). 


( 97 ) 



a ^jSlrsjj J lam yaltafitna, they will not regard 
(aor. pi. fern. 8th form of rt. \^~Ju ). 

a *^iib,xy la nuzikannahum, assuredly we will 
make them taste (emphatic aor. of i;! jl azaka, 
4th form of the rt. jj! J z«£«, concave j waw). 

a cLx«*aJ ft nafsika, for thyself. 

p <^Ju! ?aw^r, lame, limping, halting. 

p jXiS langar, anchor. /^jl-J .&J langar niha- 
dan, to cast anchor. 

a jS ?«w, if, unless, had but. 

a »j\y lawdzim, necessary things, requisites. 

p _jl Inch, squint-eyed. 

A — jl lauh, tablet, board used as a slate to write 
on ; copy-book. 

p ^jy luriydn (pi. of ^J lurt), the people 
of a mountainous province of Persia lying to 
the Jf.E. of Khuzistan, and having Kurd- 
istan to the North. 

a \>y Lut, Lot, nephew of Abraham. 

a a.! laum, blame, reproach, censure. 

a <& lahu, to him, for him ; to it, for it. 

a <Lst lahjat, voice, sound, tone ; accent ; ac- 
centuation ; speech, talk. 

A is^yo d! lahu saut, to him (i.e he had) a voice. 

a a^J lahum, to them, for them. 

a y^ lahw, play. c__*l j »^J ZaAw w ?#l6, 

playing and toying, sport, game, fun. 
a ^1 ll, for me, to me, i.e. I have. <d!l «_** ^S 

c^ilj It mctta' Huh toaktun, I have with God 
an hour (or a season). 

a e^J laiia, (particle of exclamation), would 
to God ! would that ! that ! 

a ci^-S laith, lion. *-£-*-! ^ ij* 2 - \^M" ^ n 
laith, name of the second sovereign of the 
dynasty of the Saffarides (coppersmiths), 
who reigned in Persia from 878 to 901. 

A ij»A laisa, there is not ; is not ; not. i j*Ji 
*Luj laisa yaslamu, he will not be safe, he 
will not escape. 

P CSJi lek, or ^£J lekin, but. 

p JJ lail, night. jJJJl al lail, the night. 

a ^Ll Laild ', name of the mistress of Majnun. 

(The loves of this celebrated pair are the sub- 
ject of one of Nazaml's poems. 

a ^ii la in, verily if. COnL**--^! ^-> <*> ^^J 

la in lam tantahi la narjumunnaka, verily if 
thou desistest not, we wili surely stone thee 
(gezmated aor. of ^ii! intaha', 8th form of 
the rt.^.3,and emphatic aor. of the rt.*£f-j). 

a <UJ llnat, excellence, mildness, softness ; hu- 
manity ; a kind of palm-tree ; a tall palm. 

a *;JiJ lanm, mean, base, vile, sordid, grovelling. 
%-Jall **a) las-lmu 't tabz, of a sordid nature. 

p * " am, me ; of me, my. 

p I* ma, we ; us ; of us ; our. 

a I* ma, not; what, whatever, whatsoever, 

that which : what ? 
a *L« mas-, water. I&hJ *b mtis-u nahrihd, the 

water of its river. 
a t_JJij L* ma bikalbi, what (is) in the heart. 
a <_]*&' t* ?wa takulu, that which thou sayest; 

what sayest thou ? (aor. of the rt. J Is kala, 

concave j waw). 
p *j'L« mutam, grief, mourning. 
a <J?/>- t» mdjara', what occurred; accident, 

incident, event, occurrence. 
a j*do- I* «a hazara, that which is reaJy. 
A (£-*£»- t* »zd hazart, the fruit, milk, and 

cheese which constitute a Persian breakfast. 
a *S J L* »wa dama, whilst continues ; as long 

as remains ; during, as long as. 
p il>1* mudar, mother, jjt* jjL§ mddarimd- 

dar, grandmother, grannam. 

A lot* muzd, what ? what is this? 

PjL* mar, snake, serpent. (According to Ori- 
ental legends, every subterranean treasure is 
placed under the guardianship of a serpent). 

p \ A* mar a, to us ; for us ; us. 

p sjj ji.L* mdr-guztda, bitten by a serpent. 

p cjjt* mart, (thou) art a serpent. 

p ij^wjL) mast, sour milk, buttermilk, whey. 

A^*sL*»jazl(fem. Lj>\s» mdziyat), past, bygone. 

a liJUiyi L* ma larafndka, we have not known 

Thee (rt. < if tMrafa). 



( 98 ) 

A <J Li ma-Mi, end, goal, termination, issue. 

a jJL» ?««?, money, wealth, property, substance; 

Tj\ jJL* mdl-dur, wealthy,opulent,moniedman. 

Ai_Li3Li mdlik, master, owner, possessor; con- 

a .JJLi mdlilcl, relation of master; ownership. 

a t_^o ,*!! l.-» ma li 'I gh arlb. (there is) not for 
the stranger. 

a i jj! U mas-Iuf, familiar, ordinary, accustomed, 


a U.^1 1* ma*ulahumd, final portion of both. 

g Ll^salLi mdllMuUyd, melancholy, idle fancy. 

v ^sJX^mdlldan, to rub, anoint; to press, crush. 

ky* Li >wa marra, what (or that which)passed. 

that which is passed, 

L» ma maza' 
"what has passed. 
p (JJLiLi mdmak, little mother, goody. 
a ^* l» madman, place of security. 
a Jy» U mas-mfd, hoped for, expected. 

p L Lc mund, alike, equal, similar ; certainly ; 
you would say or think ; forthwith, quickly, 

p jjLi mund, hath remained. Munad, remains, 

remaineth, will remain (rt. ^JoL* mundan); 

resembles (rt. ^x^JX* mdnisiari). 

p jo^Li mundan, to remain, continue, last, en- 
dure; to be fatigued, spent, tired, exhausted ; 
to break down. ^ AJ L* ^ j J <?«/• #«7 mundan, 
to sink in a quagmire ; to hesitate, to boggle. 

r- * Jul* munda, remained, left, remaining; tired, 
weary, broken down. ^^> *JoLi munda 
shudan, to be weary, tired, knocked up. 

p ^i*uJU munistan, to resemble. 

a ^J Li municj refuser, forbidder, hinderer, pre- 

p JcJLi mdnand, like. 

p ^j Li muni, name of a celebrated painter, the 
"founder of the sect of the Manichseans. 

a l_j U mas-ivu, dwelling, abode ; hostelry. 

p iLi muh, the moon ; month. 

p ,_i>) aLi muh-ru (pi. j^Ljy sL» mdh-ruydn), 
moon-faced, fair and lovely as the moon. 

p jjjy Li mah-rute, one fair as the moon. 

r tj&Li mdhl, fish. 

r i^-kLi mdhiye, a fish, one fish, a certain fish. 

p &L* may a, amount, sum, quantity; wealth, 

capital, stock-in-trade, store. 
a f- w< mubdli, lawful, allowable ; allowed to 

be taken or suffered to be shed with impunity. 
v l>L^ ma bud, may there not be ! 

p lc>L* mabadu, let it not be ! by no means ! 
away ! lest. 

a jj\*-* mubtiriz (p pi. ^jj^-* mubdrizdn), 
warrior, champion. 

a CS\*s» mubdra/c, blessed, blest ; happy, for- 
tunate; auspicious. 

p i>il~* ma bush, be it not ! stay not ! lest, 

a <UlL* mubdlaghat, exaggeration, hyperbole, 
stress, emphasis. 

a 'h^t w?«5ta/a,afflicted,plagued, tried, tempted; 

a J Juv* mubaddal, changed, converted, altered. 

a j ju* mubazzir, prodigal, lavish, spendthrift. 

a ^ji^,* mubazziri, prodigality, extravagance, 

profusion, profuseness. 
p .~* ma bar, do not lower (rt. ^J. burdan). 
b-jjr* mabraz, privy, water-closet. 
a j-L** mablagh, sum, amount (of money). 
A ^iL mablaghe, a sum, a certain amount, 
p u.v.~» ma band, indulge not (rt. ,^M*i bastan). 
a l^.«-~< mablt, passing the night. 
a jjjw* mubin, manifest, evident, clear, distinct, 
p j\s^*st ma pindur, think not, do not suppose 

or imagine (rt. .jX-iljuj pinddsktan). 

p (—-'Lv* matub, turn not away (rt. L ^iiL" tdftan). 

a <£xjIx* mutdba^at, following ; obedience, com- 

AC-i) l^i mutas-allif, cultivating an acquaintance, 

a jsii^ mutabahhir, very learned, deep, pro- 

a J Ju^» mutabaddal, changed, altered ; meta- 

A l^s\s* mutajalli, resplendent, brilliant. 


( 99 ) 

a CJys^t mutaharrik, moveable ; motive. 
a ( J^£L* mutahalli, adorned with jewels. 

a J^=sv« mutahammil, suffering patiently, en- 
during; bearer. 

a j*^* mutahaiyir, astonished, astonied, be- 
wildered, amazed. 

a iS^jx* mutaraddid, hesitating, wavering, ir- 
resolute, unsettled, uncertain, doubtful, per- 

a jj^j^i mutarassil (rpl.^LJ^** mutarissilun), 
letter-writer, correspondent ; corresponding 
secretary of a prince. 

a Xaj^» mutarassid, contemplating, watching, 
waiting for, vigilant, watchful, observant, 
constantly on the look out. 

a i^^ijx* mutarakkib, one who expects, wails, 
or hopes. 

a t_«*^» muttastc, large, spacious, extensive. 

a jy^-* mutasauwar, pictured, imagined, sup- 
posed, considered. 

a c—i-t^* mutaza^^if, weak, weakened, en- 

a «_u^» mattiz, cause thou to enjoy, render happy 

(imp. of 2nd form of the verb «_^» ). 

a A;»*^» mutatabbid (r pi. ^A-xi^« muta^ab- 
bidcln), extremely devout, rigorous aud strict 
in the exercises of devotion, religionist. 

a i^Sx^st mutcuaddi, aggressor; transgressor; 

(in grammar) active, transitive, causal(verb). 

UwVc~« muta-.addiyan, (ace.) 

A i Jxxz^» muta;allik(vip\.^\sixxx*mutazallikun), 
related to, connected, dependent, hanger-on, 
adherent; domestic, kinsman. 

a JLx~« nmtac allim (rpl.^l^-oe** muta-.alliman) 

learner, student. 
a ^m^» mutazannid ( p pi. .^Ijcxi* muta^an- 

nidun), seeker of another's ruin ; inimical. 

Aj^x^* muta ghaiyir, changed,altered ; disturbed, 

a (Jsc** mutlafik, consenting, agreeing, agreed. 

a * Asix* mutakaddim (p pi. ^wAJb^ mutakad- 

dimun), predecessor, one gone before, ancient. 

Aj^^» mutakabbir, proud, haughty, arrogant. 

a *i£i/« mutakallim (rpl.^ULG,* mutakallimun) 
speaker, orator. 

a «_^*^* matamattizj enjoying, enjoyer; one 
who takes his fill. 

a ^JLvxs* mutamakkin, placed, established, firmly 

fixed or rooted ; inhabiting. 
a **i^» mutana^im, soft, delicate ; affluent, in 

the enjoyment of the conveniences, comforts 

and luxuries of life. 

a «_j»3^» mutawakkU (p pi. XxHy^* mutawak- 
kit_un), waiting, expecting; expectant. 

a ^L;^* mutahawin, negligent, careless, heed- 
less, inattentive. 

a *^~» muttahim, suspected, accused. 

a AjL« mathabat, step, degree, point. 


\^t mathubate, a degree. 

A Jli* mithdl, like, resembling ; history, fable; 

example,model; similitude,likeness. rjli.* j 

bar mithali, after the similitude. L« Jll* l> 
bu mithali ma, with the like of us, with such 
as we. 

a tjll* mathdnl (pi. of ^ mat/ma'), second 
strings of lutes. 

a fjz^t mathal, fable, tale, parable, simile, apo- 
logue, proverb. jji/*!! ^fi'^ mathal, for 
example, ap^ <i\ J^» mathal zadan, to give an 
example, quote a proverb, propound a parable. 

a l^t mathale, a simile. 

a i.Sy-ts* mathnawi, poetry composed of distichs 
iu each of which are two lines, which rhyme 
and agree in measure. 

a (Lists'* mujddalat, disputation, strife. 

a J Is-* majal, room to move round or turn 
about; suitable place; power, strength, ability. 

A ^mILst* majalis (pi. of i jjLsr* majlis), assem- 
blies, places of sitting, sessions. 

a .Lulls-* mujulasat, sitting with another, con- 
verse, society. 

a Lils-* mujunabat, receding, retiring, going off. 

a if ijls" 1 mujuwarat, keeping up a good cor- 
respondence with neighbours, intimacy; vi- 
cinity, neighbourhood. AP^Jp CU^ls- 1 * mu- 
jawarat kardan, to keep close, to remain near. 

a StMtXsr* mujahadat^ghting (specially against 
iufidels), conflict, struggle ; a sore infliction. 

a ~*^sr* mujtaba', chosen, selected, elect. 


( 100 ) 

a ^jS* mujarrad, stripped; solitary, single; un- 
married; bare, mere, p a ^rS^. ba mujarrad, 
barely, merely. 

a ■t-jj^* majruh, wounded. 

Ao^ 1 mujra', allowed to flow; (hence), payed, 

granted, allowed. 

a jjju.Ls-^ majlis, place of sitting, assembly, ses- 
sion ; congregation. 

A ^hJls* majlise, a whole company. 

a ^J~s-^ mujalta 1 , bedecked, ornamented. 
a f-^-s- - * majmaz, place of confluence or of as- 
sembling, meeting, congregation. 
a zyt^sr majmutj collected; tranquil, quiet. 

a te^Ks-* majmutat, collection, assemblage, 

a ^y-s* majnun, crazed, insane ; name of the 
Arab lover whose attachment to Laila is cele- 
brated by Nazaml and other poets. 

p i^s"* maju, seek not (rt. { juu.^-jnstan). 

a cX-js^ majld, glorious. 

A Lis'* muhubu, connivance; respect, regard ; 

a l—>j\s?* milliard, waging war ; bent on 
mailing war, warlike. 

A A-xjIs'* muhusabat, adjustment or audit of 
accounts, computation ; arithmetic. 

A i^Asx* mahusin (pi. of L1 ^=- husn), good 
works, laudable actions, virtues, merits ; per- 
sonal charms. . J^ls-* mahusinl, my good 
works or excellences. 

a Jits-* mahafil (pi. of Ji-s-* mahfil), assem- 

a J Is - * muhal, impossible; absurd. 

a <\*lsr* mahamid (pi. of x&as.-* mahmidat), 
laudable actions or qualities, virtues. 

a i^jls'* muhuwarat, conversation, dialogue, 
chat, talk, common parlance, gossip. 

a i ~s-* muhibb, friend, lover. 

a <Us"* mahabbat, love, affection ; kindness, 

a t_j^s^ mahbub (p pi. ^b^s-*' mahbubun), 

beloved, liked ; mistress. 
a vjxijfS* mahbubtar, more beloved. 
a ( j^ r us'* malibube, an object greatly beloved. 

a —l^s" 1 muhtuj (p pi. ^{^{•xs* muhtdjdn), 
necessitous, needy, in want, indigent, in need. 

ap J-lis^ muhtajtar, more in need, in greater 
need, more needy, more necessitous. 

a i^^^xs" muhtasib, the superintendent of 
police, who examines weights and measures, 
and prevents drinking and other disorders ; 

a ij^^s.-* muhtamal, possible, probable ; sus- 
pected. Muhtamil^earinga burthen; patient. 

A Cjjjjs^ mahjub, veiled, concealed ; bashful, 

a \j-sr* muhrdkan (ace. of J)Vsr* muhralc), burn- 
ing, consumed. 

a (Vr-sT* mahrum, excluded, shutout, debarred; 
balked, frustrated, disappointed. 

A ^vJmis^ muhsinina (obi. of ^yuws^ muli- 

sinuna, pi. of ^^s'* muhsin), beneficent. 

JLjJi,^* mahshar, place of assembly ; last judg- 

a u^sz" mahz, pure, unmixed, unalloyed, sheer ; 
only, entirely, purely. 

a -ds^ mahzar, disposition, temper. 

a J^Ls 1- * mahfil, assembly. 

a Ssiis'* mahfuz, kept, guarded, preserved. 

a (J ass' 

muhahhik (p pi. ^jULs'* muhakkikun), 
verifying, confirming; teacher of truth, phi- 

AP<li liLis" - * muhakkikuna, spiritual ; truly, ac- 

a lLjCs'* mihalclc, touchstone, test. 

a *&^* muhlcam, strong, firm, strengthened, 
confirmed; incontrovertible, indisputable,con- 
clusive; clear, conspicuous, perspicuous. 

a J-s'* mahall, place, situation; quarter, dis- 
trict; occasion, opportunity. 

a &Sss* mahallat, quarter of a town, district, 

a s^ks^* muliammad, greatly praised ; name of 

a man ; name of the Arabian pseudo-prophet. 

a .J hi iX^js-* ^j A/Ks^* Muhammad bin Mu- 
hammad Ghazzali, a renowned doctorof Islam, 
born at Thaus, in Khurasan, a.h. 450, and 
died a.h. 505. 

a p r *^.C~j i)as^ Mahmud Sabuktagin, the 
second Sultan of the dynasty of Ghazni, sue- 

i^ 4 

( 101 ) 


ceeded his father Sabuktaglii, a.h. 387, a.d. 
997, and died a.h. 419, after conquering 
great part of Hindustan, and taking the royal 
cities of Delhi and Kanoj. 

A A^sT* mihnat, affliction, trouble, toil, distress, 
anguish, suffering, inconvenience, discomfort. 

a js." maliw, obliteration, a p ^Xii ^k-* mahv 
shudan, to be erased or obliterated. 

A i^-Nblsr* mujchdtab, addressed ; the second 

person. Mukhdtib, addressing; speaker. 
a Ails'* makhdfat, dread, fear, alarm ; danger. 

A (Uajls-* mukhdlatat, conversation, intercourse, 

a ^>_a!lsr 1, muTilidlif, contrary, repugnant, ad- 
verse, antagonistic, unfavourable ; obstinate, 

a &m Is-" mukhdlafat, contradiction, contrariety, 
opposition, enmity. 

a IsZsr* muMabbat, disordered, disturbed, upset. 

Aj^sr^s* mulchtasar, abridged, curtailed ; brief, 
compendious, laconic ; compendium ; mean, 
trifling, small, insignificant. 

a l—cI^s^ mulditalif, different, various,contrary. 

a /»j t Xsr^ maliidum, served, waited upon ; lord, 

p jS^makhar, do not buy(rt. ^Jo-sU Miandan) . 

p ^jAjsr* ma kharash, lacerate not, do not tear 

(rt. ^vXj-iLi- JchardsMdan). 

a ^syLs-o makhfuz, lowered, depressed ; marked 

with kasr, or khafz (as when jAJs Tcadr has 
been changed to kidr). 

A ^jtLsr* muTMis (p pi. ^LiLs-* mulchlisari), 
sincere, real, genuine. .(jumtUJ- 

a K1 y~A.s* muTMislna (obi. of .j^Lst* mulch- 
lisuna, pi. of ^Lsr* mulMis), sincere, un- 
feigned in professions of faith, in demonstra- 
tion of friendship, or in yielding obedience. 

a jj^Ls' -0 makhliik, created, formed; creature. 

a cj^s-"* mukhannath, effeminate, infamous ; a 
rank old catamite ; hermaphrodite. 

Pj^sr* ma khwur, do not eat (rt. ^dj^>-). 

a i iysz* makhuf, dreadful, dangerous, tremen- 
dous, fearful. 

a _' £s» madddh, laudatory ; encomiast, pane- 

?j\&s* ma ddr, hold not (rt. ^j^ilj ddshtcm). 

p \ t \ Jk muddrd, politeness, courtesy, affability, 
conciliation, gentleness, humility ; dissimu- 

a tt^j'j^ muddwamat, assiduity, perpetuity, 

a j&,+ mudabbir, administrator, prefect, gover- 
nor, manager, director. 

a JX< muddat, time, term, period, space, long 

time or interval, while. 

^* .. ^ 

J'J^ muddathd (p pi. of i Xi muddat), many 

days, long intervals ; for a long season. 

a J Jl* muddate, a certain space of time, a long 
" interval ; for a long period. 

a —X* madh, praise, eulogium, encomium, ap- 
plause, commendation. 

A <L*>jX+ madrasat, seminary, academy, public 
school, college, university. 

a xx< muddau (ppl. ^UcX* mudda^iydii), 
"plaintiff; adversary; false pretender. 

a ^yj^ madfun, buried, interred. 

P x&* ma dih, give not, yield not (rt. ^J^J). 

a (^£ya>A,« madhush, astonished, astonied, con- 
fused, amazed, confounded. 

a i»i s.i mazkur, remembered, mentioned, re- 
corded, repeated, expressed ; discourse. 

a 'H'&s* mazallat, baseness, vileness ; contempt, 

a <L<^» mazammat, blame, disparagement, scorn, 

a *y»'\* mazmum, blamed, censured ; culpable, 

p y* mar, a pleonastic particle, sometimesplaced 

before the dat. and ace. of Persian nouns. 
a j* marra, he (or it) passed, passed by. 
a *j* mars-, min, or mur*, man ; human species, 

the human race, 
r L* ?«ara(dat.or ace. of ^ man, I) ,to me, me. 
a i_^0'U'« mardtib (pi. of 4-J .* martabat), steps, 

degrees, grades; dignities, honours. 
a t)L* murdd, meant, intended ; desire, wish, 

will, intention, design, pleasure. 
a <&~>\~+ murdsalat, epistolary correspondence. 
a ii~£.\yi murd gh abat, expression of a wish, de- 
sire, propensity. 
a iUi^« murdfazat, reference, appealing. 


( 102 ) 


A i^^Jy* 

a i^j js* 

a 'is.i\y* murdfakat, travelling in company, as- 
sociation, companionship, society. 

a iLjSjs* murdkabat, observation, regard, con- 

r lz^^J& \y* mard hast, to me is, I have. 

a ^y murabbl, tutor, instructor, guardian, 
"patron, protector. 

murattab, set in order, arranged. 
^S c— -^y murattab kardan, to arrange, 
to regulate. 

martabat, rank, degree, step, office. 

A ^zJiy* martabate, a rank. 

a ^-^iy murtahan, pledged. 

a i^^s-y* marhab, amplitude,convenience,room. 
Ls~ y marhaban, hail ! welcome ! may God 
grant you amplitude ! 

a <L*»- y marhamat, pity, compassion. 

p ii^* mard (pi. ^}<^y mardun), man ; hero. 

p j\ Jy murddd, the July of the Persian calendar. 

p S^y murdur, impure, unclean ; carrion. 

p Jj^ viarddn (pi. of Jy mard), men. 

p <!j\jy marddna, manly. 

p CS^y mardah (dim. of Jy* mard), little man, 
manikin ; low, little, or insignificant fellow. 

p *j^ mardum (pi. ^\* Hy mardumdn), man, 
human being. 

p j\j\ p^y mardum-dzdr, man-tormentor, vex- 
ing, afflicting mankind. 

p <_£>\i' p^y* mardum-dzdri, the tormenting 
of mankind. Mardum-dzdr e, a tormentor of 

p j\f>- (*^y* mardum- khwdr, man-devouring, 
cannibal ; cruel, fell, remorseless. 

p i J p^y* mardum-dar,, ferocious, 

p \~f *£y mardum-gazd, man-biting, injurious. 

p <~*<3y marduml, manliness ; humanity, cour- 
tesy. Mardume, a man, a certain man. 

p ^y murdan, to die, expire ; to go out, be ex- 
tinguished. ^s^JJy murdanat, thy dying, 
for thee to die. 

p X^y murda, dead, deceased, defunct 

jjij J ^tmurdanash, his dying. 
<U murda bih, better dead. 


p ^J^>y mardl, manliness, virility, vigour, va- 
lour, bravery; thou art a man. Marde, a 
man, a certain man. 

p li-o<X* mardiyat, thy virility. 

p ^\~y marasdn, cause not to arrive, inflict not. 

p tj~>y* mursal, sent ; apostle, prophet. 

a ff~y» marsum, marked, prescribed, accus- 
tomed ; pay, stipend, salary. 
a sJjy murshid, guide, spiritual director. 

a f-^y murassa^, covered with gold, set with 
jewels, inlaid. 

a ^joy* maraz, disease, sickness, malady, com- 

A L ^y* maraze, a disease. 

a is^y marziy, agreeable, acceptable; assented 

" to ; will, assent. 
a (^jyCy* mar^ub, terrified, affrighted. 
? r y* mur gh (pi. ^J^-y mur gh dn), bird, fowl. 
,^1 i y murghi aiwdn (bird of the porch), 

sparrow, job y £ y murghi birydn, broiled 

fowl, roast chicken. 
p l_s^' £ ymurgh-dbl, water-fowl, 
p CS-s-y murghah (dim. of i y murgh), little 

bird, chick, 
p J^y* murghe, a bird. 
a f->y* murahha^ patched, mended, botched. 

a <—J*y marlcab, horse, steed, camel ; any 
beast or vessel whereon one is carried. 

a l~-&~* muraJcJcab, compounded ; mounted, 

placed, set, inserted. 
a 'iy marJcaz, centre ; halting place, 
p t£jj<* marg, death, decease, 
p ffy* ma ranj, grieve not, be not displeased 

(rt. ^S+szTj ranjidan). 
Pjy* ma rav, go not (rt. ^jiij raftan). 
a \jy marru, they passed by (rt. .-* marra). 
A &ij\jy* marwdrld, pearl. 

a bjy* mitruivat,marilmess, humanity, kindness, 

politeness ; human nature. 
a &2~jy* mirioahat, fan. 
a p&y marham, salve, plaster, liniment. 


( 103 ) 


a p 4j *&y* marham-nih, one who lays on salve, 
or applies a plaster. 

a Siy rnurld, desirous ; partial ; scholar, dis- 
ciple, pupil. 

p j^j -+ marin (for ^2) y* mar In), this. 

a ^\y* mizaj, temperament, constitution, dis- 
position, quality. 

a is-\y* muzuhat, joke, jesting. 

A i^-y* muzjat, small matter, trifle, bagatelle. 

p Jiy* muzd, reward, gratuity, fee, recompense. 
J^jbj~> j>y* muzdi sarhangi, bailiffs fee. 

a c tjy* mazruc, sown (seed or field). 

A,J>j^ muzakka' ', made clean, purified ; capital 
" from which 2J per cent, yearly is given in 
alms (and thus rendered pure). 

p ^y* ma zan, strike not (rt. ^\ zadan). 

a <L\j* mazvjat, excellence. 

a Jj y» mazid, increase, addition. 

p i'Jin muzhda, good news, glad tidings. 

p i'j* mizha or muzha (pi. (o«r* wizhagan or 
muzhagan), eye-lid ; hair of eye-lid, eye-lash. 

a *L** mas&i, evening. 

a Sz\ms* ?^Y7,happy, favourable, auspicious. 

A^iU«^f musafir (r pi. ^LiL**-* musufirun) tra- 
veller, wayfarer, stranger. 

A j^iLu^ masukm (pi. of ^iL^ miskln), poor. 

AaLs-^Lu,* musumahat, negligence ; connivance, 

waiving, conniving, giving up. 
p c^-***^ »ws£, drunk, intoxicated, inebriated; 

drunkard. <s^m^» J-j /nfo' «?«rs£, elephant 

in rut, furious elephant. 
kzzmjs* mustatar, concealed, hidden. Mustatir, 

one who hides himself. 
a <_-?l.^gW*» mustajdb, answered, accepted. 

*j£ jJl c_>lsw* mustajubu J d daavat, whose 

prayer is accepted, or heard in heaven. 

a Sj£\*»s* mustahlcam, firm, established, con- 

a uArCiu** mustakhlas, taken clean away ; ap- 
propriated, made special, secured. 
a JLuXwv* mustaski, dropsical. 

AjU'i***^ musta^dr, borrowed. 

a ^U^u^ musta^dn, whose aid is implored ; 

(hence) God. 
a l-Jjcx*** musta-^rib (p pl.^b ju^* musta^rib- 

ari), one who becomes as an Arab. 
a ^y^^*^* musta^jil, quick, hasty, speedy. 
a JjuuX* musta^idd, arranged ; prompt ; able,fit. 
a jjjc-w^ mustaghrak, plunged, immersed. 

a S^sCjm.* mustafid benefited, profited, deriving 

advantage; profitable, advantageous. 
a ^hoM^ mustakbih, hateful, odious, disgusting. 

a *Ja«*,* mustakim, right, true, correct, accu- 
rate ; straight ; resolute ; faithful. 

p +:.>m* madam, (I) am intoxicated. 

a tx«M mustami^, hearer, auditor, listener. 

p Ai^i>u*^ mustmand, afflicted, wretched. 

a l—^ £*wi mustaujib, deserving, meriting ; 
proper, fit, proper, worthy, becoming. 

kjy*»±* mastur(v pl.^j^Xu^ mastur an), veiled, 
concealed ; good, honest, chaste. 

a ^yjM* mustauli, overcoming, predominant, 

p (A***-* masti, intoxication, drunkenness. 

a <\s^* masjid, place of worship, mosque. 

a jyhM*s* mastur, written, described, delineated. 

AjLuj^ musJcir, inebriating, intoxicating. 

a ijLw* maslcanat, poverty. 

a ^£m* mt'skln (ppl. ^^^S^u^misklndn), poor. 

a *L«^ muslim, true believer, Moslem. 

a *Lu** musallam, committed, consigned, en- 
trusted ; preserved, safe, secured ; sole, ex- 

a ^UJ-w*^ muslimdn (p pi. of a *Lu^ muslim), 
true believers, Moslems. 

p ^Ulwu* musulmdn (pi. ^li ULuu.* musulman- 
dn), Musalman, believer (a corrupted word). 

p ^JUi*** musulmani, the Muhammadan re- 
ligion ; orthodoxy, Islam. 

a ~^>Lu^ muslimlna(6bl. of ^j^vLak muslimuna, 
pi. of *Lul* muslim), true believers, faithful. 

a *-ajm* misma<^, organ of hearing, ear. ^a*** 
misma^i, mine ear. 

a tXu** masnad, large cushion for reclining on; 
throne, bench. 


( 104 ) 


a J^*«^« JwasttJ,asked, questioned, interrogated. 

a <Ja^«^ masidat, question, query, problem, 
proposition, point of law. 

a a^jIju*^* mushdbahai, resemblance. 

a j\Jl^* mushdr, indicated. <u!\jlA/« mushdr 

ilaihi, the pointed at; the aforesaid. 
a <LbliL,* mashshdtat, tire-woman. 
a >lA^ mashdmm, smell, olfactory sense. 

a ij^JL* mushdwarat, application for advice, 

a £j»Jt>L!L* mushdhadat, contemplation, vision, 
view, sight. 

a 'ijb\JL* mushdharat, monthly wages or allow- 
ance, pay, salary. 

a Jrlu*.* mashas-jJch (pi. of ^-i shaikh), elders, 
revered, venerable, holy men. 

pc^L* musht, fist ; blowwith the fist; handful. 

p c_;luJL* ma shitdb, haste not, be not in a 
hurry (rt. .^jcJa shitdftan). 

a j|«-uL* mushtdk, desirous, longing, anxious. 

a ^\JL« mushtdhi, desirousness. a p 'slaA^ 
! «L« && &.} mushtdhi bih hi malull, longing 
is better than loathing. 

a i_$zJL** mushtarl, purchaser, buyer. 


i* musht-zan, boxer, pugilist, bruiser. 
JL* musht-zanl, fisticuffs, bruising, 

boxing. Musht-zane, a boxer. 
a J*LuL* mushtaghal, employed, busy, engaged, 

busied, occupied. 
a. j^pJLs* mushtahar or mushtahir, proclaimed, 

made public ; called, named ; famous. 
p L A^* mushti, handful ; blow with the fist. 

•J ^JLs* mushti du, a couple of handsful. 
a Jj \j£j~» mashrik, the point or quarter in which 

the sunrises, the East. ap<Jua*jIj' Jj^*-* 

mashriki tdbistdnl, the summer solstice, the 

longest day, when the sun enters Cancer. 

tJl^M^j jj ]J$*s* mashriki zamistdnl, the win- 
ter solstice, the shortest day, when the sun 
enters Capricorn. 

A tl ^J ylu< mashrikaini (oblique of ^3JL^mash- 
rikdni), both Easts. .^-..syL^Jl j**j bu^du 'I 
mashrikain, the distance of the tropics. 

a ^y*jLy mashcal, torch, flambeau. 

a vj\ J <djtu^ masJuala-ddr, torch-bearer. 

a iUjLi^ mashghalat, business, employment, oc- 
cupation; pastime; place of business; tumult, 

a J^Li^ mashghul, employed, occupied, en- 
gaged, busy. 

a ^ytjLs* mash gh ull. employment, business. 

a (Jai^s* rnushfik, kind, gracious, tender, affec- 
tionate, benevolent, compassionate. 

a t&JUxs* mashakkat, trouble, hardship, misery, 
difficulty, pain, toil, moil, drudgery. 

r lL>-jw~* mishk or mushk, musk. lL^A^» ^j 
bedi mushk, musk-willow. 

a J}iJL.^ mushkil, difficult, arduous, puzzling, 
perplexing, embarrassing. 

a A_Ciu* mushkill, difficulty. 

p (j^.* mushkl or mishkl, art (thou) musk ? 

r jUJL« ma shumdr, count not, reckon not. 
a *j*JL* mashnum, perfumed, fragrant. 
a ijJL* mashwarat, consultation, counsel. 
a ifi *L>~* mushauwash, disturbed, uneasy, vexed, 

perplexed, distressed ; stormy, boisterous. 
Aii^* »j«^Mr,public,notorious, well-known ; 

celebrated, noted, famed. 
A vJijyY^t mashhurtar, better known, more 

public, notorious or celebrated. 
a i<JL~+ mashlyat, will, pleasure. 
a JU mushlr, counsellor, adviser. 
a iL^La-* musdhabat, companionship, society, 

familiarity, intimacy. 
A i>_to-Ltf-* masdhif (pi. of i— is." 3 "* mushaf), 

volumes, books; Kur'ans. 
a lj^z*musddarat, fining, mulcting, amercing. 
a <LjLi* musdra^at, wrestling, contest. 

A ujLm masdff (pi. of 1—L2* masaff), ranks ; 

rows (of soldiers) ; a field of battle. 

ap XiS** 5 \ 1 fUa^ masdff-dzmuda, inured to war. 

t •• l 

A J\.A*masdlih (pi. of (Ls^ 3 ^ maslahat), affairs, 

concerns, interests. 

a is'ln-* musdlahat, reconciliation, peace, pa; 

A 1 Ji\*zst masdtib (pi. of <L^<* musibat), ca- 
lamities, misfortunes. 

mushaf, book, volume. 

( 105 ) 


a t__is:* a '* mushaf, book, volume. i__i.s'" 3 'M al 
mushaf, the volume (also jj le ^Jls^* mushaf i 
^azzz, precious (or) glorious volume), the Kur' an 
(so called by Muhammadans). 

A^At jm'sr, Egypt. 

A misru^, hemistich, first half- line. 
p cSr^* misrl (a lJj&* misrly), Egyptian. 
a ^aLjx* mustafa\ chosen, elected, elect ; a 
"man's name, and a title given to Muhammad. 
a J* "* muslih, rectifier, censor, reformer ; pa- 
cific, conciliatory. 

a !Lsr* A ^ maslahat, affair, business; object 
subject, purpose ; prudent course, wise step, 
proper measure, becoming thing ; fit occa- 
sion, expediency ; welfare, best interest ; be- 
nevolence, kindness, peace, good-will. 

APj-^T l^-s^ 2 "* maslahat-umez, imbued with 
kindness, conciliatory, pacific. 

ap^s- e^-s^^"' maslahat-ju, seeking to cor- 
rect or reform. 

A f ^Jf>- t^^^r^ 2 ^* maslahat-jute, a seeker, or 
promoter of the interest, or of the good- will. 

a iisr - " 3 "* maslahate, any particular occasion, 
"crisis or emergency. 

a ,Xfl»* musalla', place of prayer, oratory ; a 

large field, in which upon certain occasions 
thousands congregate to offer public prayer. 

J 1-^2) ^JLa* Musalluyi Shlraz, the name 
of a place at Shiraz. 
A *a»as* musammam, fixed, determined. 

musannif, author, compiler, composer. 

a ^y^* masun, guarded, kept safe. 

a <^^>+a+ muslb, disastrous, calamitous, inju- 
rious, hurtful, pernicious. 

a <t>.»*a* musibat, calamity, misfortune, adver- 
sity, disaster, affliction. ■&■ ^z^^oAi ha musl- 
late, by a misfortune, thi-ough a calamity. 

a oLi* muzudd, opponent, antagonist. 

a i_gcLaV« muzuiaf, doubled. 

a ij*a* mazarrat, detriment, injury, mischief, 
hurt ; nuisance. 

a ^yt^dy* mazmun, contents, purport, subject, 

tenour. c_:Uaii. ^y^^» mazmuni hhitub, 
subject of discussion. 

A L ^^» 

maza\ he went ; it passed (defect, verb). 
a Jfjlk^t mutdbih, conformable. 
a clit* mutuz, obeyed. 
A *£Ua»* matdiim (pi. of **la** mattam), meats, 

viands, eatables. 
a (LJUa* mutalabat, asking, requiring, exaction. 

iP^Jji c^jjlla.* mutalabat kardan (orA-SUa.* 

^S mutalaba kardan), to require, demand, 
crave, sue, importune. 

a 4*!lia,* mutalabat, contemplation, considera- 
tion, attention, glance ; inspection, perusal. 
a p^jjy* ji ijaxtzstmutala^a far mudan, to view, 
regard, look upon ; to read, peruse, glance at. 

a ilcjlk* mutuwa^at, obedience, submission. 

a A-olla^ mutdyabat, joking together, jesting, 

a ^2-* matbakh, kitchen. 

a c jAs^t matbu^, printed, impressed ; agree- 
able, acceptable. 

a t_jjk* midrib, musician. 

a (c^r^ mutribe, a musician ; such a musician ! 

p ^_JAx* ma talb, seek not (rt. ^X-ll?). 

a *JJa* ?m^«/&'c.,apprized,informed, acquainted. 

a p ^iXi jJJi* muttali^ shudan, to perceive. 

^.JuJljjT «JJ!sL* mvttalic_ garddnldan, to ac- 
quaint, to inform, to apprize. 

a <_>dia^ matlub, required, sought, demanded ; 
thing desired, object required. 

a J*—" mutmah, upraised (eye), upturned (sight); 
spectacle, show, theatre. JaJ ^ &/ * mutmahi 
nazar, object of constant and favorite gaze. 

a i_^.*k* mutaiyab, aromatized, scented, per- 

a %-b* mutl- v obedient, submissive. 

a yili-* muzaffar, rendered triumphant,made vic- 
torious, jy^** « -Hi* muzaffar u mansur, 
made victorious, and assisted (by God). 

a (•JJi* mazlum (p pi. ^jLtjllx* mazlumdn), op- 
pressed, injured, tyrannized over. 

a «—* ma<~, with ; notwithstanding, .j** "" 
with me. 

a <Ljlx/« mu-.dtabat, chiding, expostulation, re 
proach, reprehension. 




( 10G ) 


a (JjI*,« maulsh, living, livelihood, subsistence. 

a £-£)Ut* mucMsharat, familiarity, society, in- 
timacy, intercourse. 

a ^At* maoSsifjiL of <U«sjc* ma^siyat) crimes, 
" offences. 

a icib-* mudifa\ well, healthy, free from pain. 

A<sJi\xs* mu-.dlcabat, pursuing ; punishment. 

a <\.s}U^ mu^alajat, medical treatment, physick- 
ing, doctoring; remedy, cure. 

a ixs-U^ muuilajate, a cure. 

a <lLhLc* mu^dmalat, business, affair, dealing, 
trade; practice; treatment,behaviour,conduct. 

a Jul*--* mucunid (p pi. ^IJjU^ mu^dnidan), 
obstinate, stubborn, refractory, perverse, con- 
tumacious, disobedient, opiniative. 

a 6m\*si mu^ayanat, seeing clearly, beholding. 
Aj^xsi mad>ar, pass, ferry, ford. Midar, ferry- 
boat, pontoon, bridge. 
a jlsje^ muddd, accustomed, wont, used to. 

Kj+zm mudabar, revered, respected, venerated, 
esteemed; respectable. 

a (__jji*^ mudarif, one who acknowledges or 

a sicjis* mudalcid, firmly persuaded ; staunch 

believer ; faithful friend, support. 

a i_<fG*^ mudakif, continually at prayer (in 
the temple), assiduous and unremitting in 
religious exercises ; devotional, devout. 

a SyiZJt..* mudamad, confidential, trusty, trust- 
worthy ; confidant. <ulc Ax.^ mudamad 
\alaihi, the relied upon. 

a k_^*.s' v<> mu-jib, admirer of himself, vain, con- 
ceited ; fop, beau. 

a J-s* - * mudiz, miracle. 

a is&xs* mitdat, stomach. 

a jj Jot^* madlan, mine, source of minerals. 

A /»«Ax^ madlum, extinct, non-existent, wished 
for but not found, lost ; future. 

ap ^1»! x&xs* mi^da-sangl, dyspepsy. 

a ij j>x* ma^zarat, excuse. 

a jj&x* matzur, excusable, pardonable ; ex- 
cused, exculpated. 

a ^jOj*-* ma^raz, place of meeting or exposure; 
position ; occurrence. 

*.™, ma^rifat, acquaintance, knowledge ; 

A &J.Xs1 

means, a ^j .*•* 

<UjLo sdbikas-ema^rifate, an 
old acquaintanceship. 
a dSjXs* ma^ahat, battle-field ; amphitheatre. 
a i Jjj^-* ma-^ruf, known, noted, notorious ; 

a JjJ*^ »«« ^undismissed, discarded, cashiered, 

turned out of office, degraded. 
A le^j*-* maizull, dismissal, degradation. 
a j£s.xs» mciishar, company, society. 
a j;yLx* mazshulc, loved, beloved ; mistress. 
a AJjiUxst mazshulcat, mistress. 
a lytUx* ma-ahulx, relation of beloved. 
a *■»!*•* micsam, wrist. 

a fy>s*-* ?M«csfi>w,iunocent, immaculate, chaste, 

uncorrupt, unspotted. 
a ^vyzx^t macsumi, chastity, innocency. 

a &*»&x* ma^siyat, rebellion, sin. a ^j^^xaj 

ba ma^siyate, for a crime. 
a CJ^L&fc* muizildt (pi. of ctLd*^ mitizilat, 

fem. of J-i*** muizrl), difficulties, knotty 
questions, intricacies, arduous affairs. 

a Jiuc* mu^attal, neglected, abandoned, un- 
cared for, slighted ; vacant ; unoccupied. 

a *&x* tmiuizzam, magnified, revered, honored ; 
great, respectable. 

a cuUiax* miuzamdt, great, grave matters, 
weighty and important affairs. 

a Jje* mudam, distinguished by a particular 
mark, pinked; notable. 

a (X*s* mu.allam marked, striped, spotted. Mu- 
^alliiii, preceptor, teacher, instructor, master. 

a pyut-* rnadum, known, understood, ascer- 
tained, discovered ; settled, fixed ; expe- 
rienced; notorious; stamped,impressed(coin), 

money. AP^.Jsp *»i*^ rnadum Tcardan, to 
make known, to know, discover, experience. 
a^<* »bt* madume, a single coin, any money. 

A lAxsi ma^na', sense, meaning, reality ; reli- 
gious sentiment, spiritual subject,spirituality; 
the spiritual world. ^J^^i H ma^na', in 
spirit, in substance, in reality, ap^j! uf^*-* 
^s* - ma^ndyi In sulchan, the meaning of 
these words (or of this speech). 


( 107 ) 


a J^» muaiuwal, relied upon for help ; place 

of confidence. 
a <Jj jxs* ma-^unat, aid, help, assistance. 

a i-^jfc* mazJiucl, established, fixed, accustomed; 
usual, customary. 

a .j*'* ma-A, with me, along with me. 

a 4Jm+xs* ma-.uliat, food, necessaries of life, 

means, means of living. 
a i^jfAsi mu-.aiyan, fixed, settled, determined, 

appointed, assigned. 
a L-j^jt.^t ma^ijul, stigmatized, blemished, 

vicious, faulty ; tainted or suspected. 
a ijbt* mac/karat, den, cave, cavern. 
a UiU^ mughdziban, in a rage (ace). 
a i—jjk* maghrib, quarter of sunset, "West ; 

Western Africa, Morocco. \j/^* ^y* «">« 

m ag hrihiha, from its setting-place. 
a ^j jk.i maghribly, Western ; African. 

a .•-*,* maghrur, self-deceived, deluded; proud, 

self-sufficient, conceited. 
p "m maghz, brain; marrow, kernel. 
p oji« maghze, a kernel. 

a iL&i* ma gh fi r at, pardon, absolution, forgive- 

a t— tyJts* maghlub, overcome, defeated, con- 
quered, vanquished, subdued. 

A (ji** mughannin (with tanwm, and without 

tanwln LS '-*'» mughanm), musician, singer. 

a i^jLi*, Egyptian or Arabian thorn, 
a species of mimosa yielding gum-arabic. 

a *aj\sl* mafdtih (pi. of — IsJL* miftah), keys. 

A <Li ili* mufdraJcat, separation ; departure ; 
loss, death. 

a <Lj>j[L* mufuwazat, commerce, familiar in- 
a ^* muftatin, bewitched, infatuated. 
a .is\L* muftakhir, boasting, boastful, proud. 

a JbjL* muftakir, reduced to poverty; in straits; 

humble suitor. W^ cu>ml6: 
a i J^* muftan, seduced to evil, bewitched, 

infatuated, insane. 
a. -s^* mafkhar, object of glory ; glory, boast. 


hiufakhkhar, glorious, exalted. 

a -r-jZ-* mufarrih, exhilarating ; exhilarator. 
p L*JL« ma far ma, command not (rt. ^Jy^i). 
p (. £• Jl* ma farosh, sell not (root 


a JuwA^ mufsid (p pi. ^S^uJut mufsiddn), mis- 
chievous, seditious, corrupter, mischief-maker. 

a i/mIL* muflis (p pi. ^jLJdl* muflisdn) in- 
solvent, bankrupt, poor, penniless. 

a ^JjL» muflisl, insolvency, penury, poverty. 

a (>y£* ma/hum, understood, apprehended, 

a <Dj\jL* mukaialat, opposition, resistance, con- 
tention, competition ; contrast; collation. 

a Ju^ makdl, speech, discourse, word. 

A &S\L+ makdlat, word, discourse, speech. 

a *lsL* makdm, standing-place, position spot, 
seat, station, staying, session ; place of resi- 
dence, dwelling, abode. 

A CuLulL* makdmat (pi. of iUUl* makdmat), 
discourses or lectures, as being read or de- 
livered during a <LilsL« makdmat or sitting. 

a j^U/* mukdmir, dicer, gambler, gamester. 

a ^Ul* makdme, a place, a site. 

a <L*»uL« mukdwamat, opposition, resistance. 

aJ-JL* mukb>!,adYancmg; prosperous,fortunate. 

a (JU*i* makbul, received; accepted; agreeable, 

approved ; welcomed. 
a p ■jJj.JL* makbultar, more acceptable, more 

agreeable, more welcome. 
a c ^Ji^ muktaza 1 (in p U£JL» muktazd), re- 

quired, demanded ; exigency, requirement. 

Aj\ajL* mikddr, quantity, amount. 

a iJJL< mukaddar, decreed, predestinated. 

a /»jJL* mukaddam, put before, placed before, 
preposed ; preferred ; antecedent, prior. 

a iL»sk» mukaddamat, preface, preamble, pro- 
logue, premiss. ^JLs^j ysC <C* Ju-« »aw- 
kaddamas.e nahvi zamakhs/tarl, "Introduction 
to Syntax," by Zamakhsharl, who was a cele- 
brated doctor of Islam, born a.h. 467, at 
Zamakhshar, a town in Khwarazm ; whence 
his name. 

a <}!>£« makdur, predestined, decreed, fated. 
a cjXj mukarrab (p pi. ^u JL* mukarrabdn), 
brought near, allowed to approach, admitted 


( 108 ) 


to the immediate presence ; approximated ; 
intimate or immediate attendant. 

Ajj&sa mulcarrar, fixed, settled, established, con- 
firmed ; agreed upon ; certain. 

a yfijA* malcrun, connected, conjoined, yoked. 

a *^uiL* mahsum, distributed, divided, appor- 
tioned, allotted. 

a JuaL* maksad, place of destination, goal ; in- 
tention, end, aim, object, design, purpose. 

a JjwaiL* malcsud, aimed at, intended ; intention, 
aim, design, scope, drift. 

a lSJl* mikwad, reins, bridle ;"rope, hawser. 

a *JU mulclm, fixed, constant, abiding. 

a fj^* matorim(Tp\. oi&s*j£.<* malcramat), vir- 
tues, excellences, laudable actions; favours, 
benefits, bounties. 

a S)IC* mahdrih, disagreeables, inconveniences ; 
odious, detestable, or abominable things. 

a djL&lx* muhlshafat, displaying, disclosure, 
revelation, apocalypse. 

a iU!LC» mulcdlamat, conversation, talk. 

a AjIX* nulled s-id(\A. of Jus Icaid), deceits, tricks, 
frauds, devices, stratagems, plots. 

a c_^X* mulcibb, whatever causes (one) to hang 
the head ; depressing, humiliating. 

a <&s* MaJchat, Mecca, a town in the province 
of Hijaz, and the birthplace of Muhammad. 
a l^— :£* maktab, school, writing-school. 
a t—.'yuC* malctub, written ; letter. 
a X* makr, deceit, fraud, imposture. 
a j X* mulcarrar, repeated, reiterated. 
a p~&-* mulcarram, honoured, respected, revered. 

a s»X* mahruh, odious, offensive, disagreeable, 

a JSjX* makruhl, unpleasantness. 

a u— •«**£* malcsab, gain, acquisition ; means of 
getting a livelihood. 

p ^C* ma leun (or mu few), make not (rt.^OjZ). 
a <uC* muJcnat, power, strength ; virtue, ability. 

p jL* magar, besides, save, excepting, all but, 
but, unless ; perhaps, may be, perchance, by 
chance, haply; unfortunately. 

v^j\ J.C* ma gardtin, cause not (suffer not, allow 

not) to become (rt. [^iXJlt^T gardanldcm). 

p (j*X» magas, fly, small winged insect. 

p (_5y.'« magu (or mugu), don't tell, tell not. 

a iL« mala*, assembly, crowd of people. paL J 

*. . . •*' 

bar mala! (or IUj ba mala?) ^Jluii uftddan, 

to become public, to get abroad. 
a _it« malldh(v'pl.^\&-lL* malluhdn), boatman, 

mariner, sailor. 
A 'i&»~\* muldhidat, heretics, unbelievers. 

a SL» maldz, asylum, place of refuge ; strong- 
hold, fastness. 

a (♦$'» muldzim, assiduous, inseparable; dili- 
gent ; servant, close attendant. 

a <C<jL« muldzamat, close attendance, assiduity, 
closeness ; diligence, service. 

a AftSsLt M2</afcr/«£,soothing, coaxing, caressing; 
gentleness, kindness, courtesy. 

a iJ&\s* Maldtiya, name of a town on the Eu- 
phrates, capital of Armenia Minor. 

A <UcL» muUuabat, playing, joking, toying. 

a S'liL* mululc&t, meeting, interview,encounter. 

a JL« malul (or <LSL« maldlat), sadness, displea- 

a ,JL» maldh, displeasure. 

a +L* malum, reproach, reprehension. 

a <l*iL» malumat, reproach, blame, censure, dis- 

a i^k^* malahl (pi. of i&X* milha'), instru- 
ments of music ; implements of play. 

a u_sSL« maldiilc (pi. of l1£L* malahov CJ§** 
mahak), angels. 

a iXjL< mala* that (pi. of d£L* malak) angels. 
^JoL* maldnkatl, my angels. 

a p Ji j*^ CxjL* maldtilc-surate, angel-faced, 

of angelic form. 
a ib* millat, religion, faith, creed. 
a \s^° maljas-, asylum, place of refuge, shelter. 
a .Xsr" mulhid, heretic, infidel. 
a^jst"* malhuz, observed, beheld, viewed, 

glanced at. 

p -J~* malakh, locust. 

a (O**!** mal^un, cursed, execrated, damned. 

a i_liX* »«7£,property,estate, possession. Mullc, 
kingdom, sovereignty, dominion, territory, 


( 109 ) 

country ; power, possession, ^j J j lL£>~* 
mulk u din, church and state. Halak, angel. 
Malik, king. ^oLsMCiX* malilcu 'Ikhawdss, 

chief of the nobles. 


cliX* maliki 

nimroz, king of Mmroz, a territory including 
the provinces of Sistan and Makran, of which 
Sam Neriman was governor for Minuchihr, 
seventh king of the first or Peshdadyan dy- 
nasty of Persia. 
a p bL>\j uliX* malik-zdda, king's son, prince. 

a LZJjxL* malakut, empire ; the invisible and 
heavenly world, empyrean heaven. 

a v^S^* malaki, angelic. 

a i^j>jL» mulauwath, contaminated, defiled,soiled. 

a ;»L5^L* muluk (pi of i»L^L< malilc), kings. 

a Jy-« malul, dejected, vexed, tired, weary, 

sick; fastidious. 
a p ij^* maluli, (thou) art weary ; loathing. 

a (J^)Uw* mamdlik (pi. of <bJ-*»< mamlikat), re- 
gions, kingdoms, realms. 

a <UjUw* mumdna^at, prohibition, resistance, 
refusal; repugnance. 

a \\xa** mumtuz, picked out, chosen ; eminent, 

a *j&as4 mumtani^, prohibited ; impossible, 

a J^«^ mumidd, prolonger, extender ; aider, 

a _,Xv» mamduh, praised, lauded. 

a ' * C...A.. mumsik, holdfast, close-fisted, par- 
simonious, stingy. 
a CU»iU»* mamkut, hated, detested ; odious. 
a diX*^ mamlikat, dominion, realm, kingdom. 

ACJy^w» mamliik, possessed, owned; purchased 
slave, property. 

a J^L*** mamluki, relation of servant, servile 
condition, servitude. 

p ^* man, I, and in the oblique case, me. A 
weight of 2 lbs., but in Hindustan of 80 lbs. 

a -* man, who,he who, she who,him who ; whoso, 
whosoever; who? \ J { ^y* man zd, who (is) this? 

a ^s* min, from; of; from amongst, by; be- 
sides; for; on account of; than. \ J ^^ 
i_£J^ min zd 'llazi, from this who. ^* L» 
u>J^ ma min mauludin, there is none born. 

a ij* mann, reproaching with favours bestowed, 
twitting with benefits conferred; imposing 
a sense of obligation. 

a jL mandbir (pi. of -~«* mimbar), pulpits. 

a culs-li,* mundjdt, prayers, silent devotions. 

a &*j\usi munddamat, society, familiarity, 

a ijl^* mandrat, lighthouse ; minaret, tower 
from whence people are summoned to prayer. 

a XcjU^ munaza^at, altercation, contest, fierce 
dispute, hot contention. 

a i_^-j\j^» mundsib, fit, suitable, suited, con- 
sonant, accordant, apposite. 

a <U-jL^ munasabat, relation, resemblance ; 
analogy, proportion, comparison. 

a iLs**L^ munasahat, advice, admonition, ex- 
hortation, counselling. 

a ifjliu,* munazarat, disputation. 

a «_iu^ mandfi<^ (pi. of <UJb** manfa^at, or 
manfi^at), gains, profits, benefits, advantages. 

a \j£}\^r» mundkiz, contrary, repugnant. 

a isrXuy munakahat, marriage. 

a ^l^uJi ^y mini 's samd*, from heaven. 

a ,«3jSI <--j^ jk«ll ^y* mini 'I c.azdbi'1 adnd 1 , of 
the lighter punishment, i.e. of this world. 

a ic^^* mandlil (pi. of ^i» manliiy or <U^« 

manliiy at,) forbidden practices, prohibited 
things; crimes. 

a <JtfbT ^y* min uyatihi, of or from its (the 
Kur'an's) verses. 

A-j^* mimbar, pulpit. 

a A*j ( j^» mim ba^da, afterwards. <A*j ^* 
tlid J mim ba^da zdlika, after that. 

a fc*s* minnat, praise; thanks; obligation, fa- 
vour; reproaching, twitting or casting in the 
teeth of benefits conferred, a p ^V <^-~ ~* 
minnat burdan, to bear, or lie under obliga- 
tions, u^^fj ci--,** minnat nihddan, to lay 
obligations, to confer a favour. 

p l^a^* manat, I thee. 

AP^Ai-l u^-w* minnat-shinds, one who appre- 
ciates favours, recognizesobligations, grateful. 

a t_^«£&i** muntasib, erect ; set up, placed, 
erected, set on (as a caldron or pot) ; marked 

( no ) 


with nasba or fatha, nasbated (as when kidr 
has been changed to katlr). 

a .li:u.« muntazir, one who expects with im- 
patience, waiting, expecting, expectant. 

a *!i:u^ inuntazim, arranged ; placed in rows ; 

threaded (as pearls). 
a ijS~* muntaha', finished, terminated, com- 

"pleted, accomplished, ended, consummated, 
r <__As^ manjalub, polluted water, in which 

something impure, as a dog or carrion, has 

been thrown. 

a A^y* miinajjim, astronomer, astrologer. 

a .*p>~ ^ min khair, of good, of what is good 
and desirable. 

a Ay* manzil, dwelling-house, mansion; lodg- 
ing ; halting-place, stage, station-house ; dig- 
nity, rank. 

a Vj~* manzilan, as to rank (accus.). 

a ily~* manzilat, rank, station ; dignity ; cha- 
racter, esteem. 

a Uiu^ mansub, attributed,ascribed, imputed, 
charged ; impeached, accused ; chargeable. 

p ijl>^* manash, I him. (j£w# ^y<3Xx^» j\ .X) 

iXjIj^^JJa^ yoke az mutaudlikuni manash 
muttali^ gardunld, one of my friends made 
him acquainted. 

a culiu** manshut, literary compositions, 

p^JLUst ma nisJun, sit not (rt.^j+MJLi nishastan). 
A c_->~2^« mansab, office, post, dignity. L_^^i^» 

L=js mansabi kazu, office of a judge. 
A ^~au.» mansabe, a post of dignity. 

A i J ^x^* munsarif, receding, retiring, departed. 

a ', o-i--^ munsif, just, true, honest, candid. 

uLai* munsifan (ace). 
kjyoUs* mansur, aided, defended, protected (by 

a (jbus* mantik, speech, discourse ; logic, rea- 
a Jk~« manzar, face, countenance, aspect, looks. 
a jfe*s* manzur, seen, viewed, beheld; beloved 

object, favourite. 
a *&"■* manzum (fem. J^^zx* manzumat), 

composed in verse, metrical. 

a %.Us» man^ (or as used manaQ, forbidding ; 

a i^s&*£- f^y min ^abdi, from my servant. 

a * Xi~* munzJidim, lost, vanished, disappeared, 
destroyed, annulled, ruined. 

a *xi,« mun-^am, benefited, blest with abundance. 

a *.*^ muna^utm, blest with the good things 

of this world, rich, affluent. 
a di!l sus. ^y* min linda 'tttih, from God, with 

the favour of God. 

a ^jak+s* munaghghas, disturbed, embittered, 
made wretched, rendered miserable. 

a jJii** manfaz, that through which anything 

passes ; pass, passage, defile. 
a ixAi^t man/a ^«£,emoluruent,advantage,benefit. 
a ,+ak** munkazi, finished, ended, completed. 
a %Ji3jL*s4 munkatifr cut off, exterminated. 

a y\* munkar, denied ; ignored; atrocious, bad, 
wicked, iniquitous. Munkir, ignorer ; averse, 
disapproving, evil-affected. 

a ^jLust mimkari, atrocity, iniquity. Munkare, 
an atrocious offence, an enormity. 

p X^y* ma nigar, look not (root ^j^~>y). 

p *^t manam, I am. 

a K^X* [j-* J»MJ maghribihu, from its setting 
place, from the West. 

p 6j~* ma nih, lay not, place not, set not. 

a 6~Us* munyat, wish, desire. ^^» munyati, 
my desire. 

a <U;>^ maniyat, death, decease, ts**'~* manl- 

yat?, my death. 
a «_-^* manlt., inaccessible, impregnable, 
r .jSfcji/* ma niyush (or m'yosh), listen not. 
r ^-« tow, hair. i Sjj ,_fy muyi zangl, hair of 

a negro. (jjuJ y muyash, his (or her) hair. 
a ^^^-\y mawtijib, causes, reasons, motives. 
a d^s>-\y muwujahat, presence; face to face. 

a s^y mus-akhaz, taken to task, rebuked, re- 
proved, chastised. 
A x&s-\y mu-ukhazat, remonstrance, reprehen- 

sion. AP, 



\y* mutdkhazat kardan, 


to call to an account. 
a J*\y mawushi (pi. of <Ljj\.* mushiyat), 
" quadrupeds, cattle. 


( HI ) 


a dj&\y muwazabat, perseverance, assiduity. 

a (ji>\y miavafik, conformable, suitable, agree- 
able, consonant, apt, fit. 

a &ii\y* muwdfakat, agreement, concurrence, 
acquiescence; assent, consent; concert; apt- 
ness, suitability. 
•• . i * > 

a tUiy mus-unasat, intimacy, familiarity. 

a CL!y maut, deatb. 

a y'y mtaaththar, impressed. Mus-aththir, pe- 
netrating, making an impression; impressive, 
effectual, effective, efficient. 

a ~y mauj, wave. 

a w— ~£ry mujib, cause, means, motive, reason, 

account. Pii ~z>-yj bamujib, in conformity 

with, according to. 
a 7-fTy muja^, pained, afflicted with pain (the 

metre requires it to be written jej-MH^i). 

a J>*>- ymmjud,{o\md., existing, existent; ready, 

present, forthcoming. 
a cu\jy>-y maujudut (pi. of ijy>-y manju- 

dat), things found ; existences. 
a <*#-** muwajjah, approved, agreeable. 


a &»-y muwahhid, one who confesses the unity 
of God, unitarian, antitrinitarian ; orthodox. 
a iJy mawaddat, friendship, love. 

a ^^y mus-azzin, the crier who summons Mu- 
hammadans to prayer from the turret (slender 
tower or minaret) of a mosque. 

a i^S^y mu*-zi, noxious, injurious, hurtful, per- 

p, y mur (or mor), ant, emmet, pismire ; reptile. 

p <U \»-jy, rust of iron. 

p fc>-jy* murcha (pi. i^y^>-jy murchagan), 
little ant, pismire, emmet ; (figuratively) 
hairs about the face, whiskers. 

r a ,jy muram, (I) am an ant. 
a LLitjy* mauruth, inherited; hereditary, 
p ^fjy mure, an ant. 
p £j\)\y* muriyuna, rust. 
k \jyy* mauzun, weighed, measured. 
a +~y mausim, time, season ; monsoon. 
a pyy mausum, marked, signed, impressed, 
branded ; noted, characterized ; named. 

a (c-ij-* Musa', Moses, the Jewish lawgiver. 

p fi^y mush, mouse. 

p \ff Cjj*y mushalci kur, blind little mouse, 
i.e. the mole. 

a i it^*s* mausuf, furnished with qualifications, 

qualified ; characterized, distinguished ; de- 
scribed; praised; before-mentioned. 

a f-^ay mauza^, place ; village, hamlet, town. 
a ^iJtst mauza^e, a place, a certain place. 

a ilh.£-v* maw^izat (p pi. \^acy mau-Jzaha), 
advice, admonition, exhortation, homily. 

a (ji y muivaffak, assisted, favoured. Muwaffih, 
onewhoprospers,favours, seconds; sure guide. 

a (J&yt muwakkal, appointed guardian, charged 
with, entrusted ; superintendent ; keeper (of 
a prisoner). 

a <dy maulid, native country, birth-place. 

a %^y mtila^, excited; greatly addicted, pas- 
sionately fond, wishful, greedy. &&j %^y 
mula^i zuhd, given to devotion. 

a <*J&ymu*alUf, compiler, composer, author. 
a £yy* maulud, born. 

a i^y maula', lord, master, ruler. J^^ <d 

mania', God. the ruler. 
p +y mum (by some mom), wax. 

A&jy mas-unat, provisions, daily food or rations. 

a \juJy mus-nis, intimate, familiar; companion, 

p i_$y mu, hair of the head. ^i^Tuj cSy 
muyi bunugosh, hair of the cavity behind the 
ears, lt^-j y muyat, thy hair. 

a tX> y mus-aiyad, aided, assisted, strengthened, 
helped, rendered victorious. 

r ,!** mu*e, a single hair. 

p <U mah, the moon. Mih, great, superior. 

a iJL^ mahabat, fear, dread, alarm ; awe; ma- 

p \y* mihur, reins, halter, bridle ; a camel's 
bridle, which is a peg put through the ani- 
mal's nose, with a string attached to each side. 

p a\j <v* mah-pdra, (piece of moon), mistress. 

^J^y mihtar (pi. ^}yy mihtardn), greater, 

( 112 ) 

p l£/*v* mihtarl, greatness ; superiority. 

a •y.s"^ mahjur, separated, cut off, excluded ; 
fled from,forsaken, deserted, rejected,shunned. 

A Sy mahd, cradle. 

p jy* mihr, love, attachment; tenderness, kind- 
ness. ifijY* m ihra$h, love of him (her, it). 
Muhr, seal; virginity. 

p ^\]jy* wihrhan, kind, affectionate, friendly ; 
friend, lover. 

Pji &* mah-ru, moon-faced, beautiful. <t* 
i^jjj mah-ruii,, (thou) art fair as the moon. 

p Hjy* muhra, chessman; bead of glass or coral. 

A >^.^OTMAm»i,momentous(affair), grand, serious, 
urgent, weighty (business). 

p ^\*y* niihnan, guest. 

p (_^~3 ^\a~y* mihman-sardi, guest-chamber, 
house for strangers, hospitable roof. 

p (J^*ic^ mihmdnl, feast, entertainment; hos- 

a fJ.yK^* muhmal, neglected, disregarded. Muh- 
mil, negligent, careless. 

a \*y* muhaiyd ', prepared, made ready. 

p f^Y* m ihln, greatest, noblest. 

p ^ mai, wine. 

p ^» ml, a redundant particle prefixed to Per- 
sian tenses, especially the present and im- 
perfect ; also to the continuative imperative, 
as jJjL-^ ml bush, continue to be ; • S j~* ml 
rav, keep on going. 

p \~+ mayd, come not (rt. ^&<+\ dmadan). 

PjljL^ maydzdr, distress not (rt. ^^jl )• 

p i^l-^ miyan, waist, middle ; between, be- 
twixt, ^y^, ^>V* m iyun bastan, to gird the 
waist. (oW* ^\ j\ az an miyan, from the 
midst thereof, from amongst them. ^L^» • J 
^&* \ dm miyan umadan, to come on the tapis. 

p { gY d*:r* niiydn-tihl, empty within, hollow. 

p <UL-* miydna, middle; middle-sized, middling, 
moderate; mediation. 

p Jo 1 ^» ml dyad,is coming,cometh (rt.^J^^l ). 

a L^-** maiyit, dead. ^^-^* &** \&& hdzd 

mazaht maiyitun, this (man) has with him a 

dead (thing), 
p '*?-* mekh, nail, peg or pin. A^j=- .^V* 

melihi chand, some nails, a few pegs. 
a ioiJu** maiddn, plain, area, circus, course, 

arena ; battle-field, battle. 
v j~* mlr, prince ; die thou (rt. ^y mwdan). 
a lL>\j~i mlrdth, heritage, inheritance. 
v jAj^mlrdnam, make me to die^t.^LN-Jl--*). 
p Jjj ^» ml ravad, goeth, is going (rt. ^j^j)- 

A.yM^i muyassar, facilitated, made easy; prac- 
ticable, feasible, obtainable; obtained, gained, 
p {Ijv+ts* ml shun, thou canst wash (rt. ^j^wJ*). 

a J^liL^ Mlhd^ll, Michael, the archangel, 
thought by the Muhammadans to be the 
especial protector of the Jews, as Gabriel is 
of the followers of Islam. 

p *<$£-** ml Icardam, I was making. 

a fj^s* mail, inclination, leaning, bias ; fond- 
ness, partiality, a p ^S J}^* ma ^ kardan, 
to bend, bias, a Mil, needle ; skewer or wire 
for anointing the eye with collyrium. 

a jJw-^ maile, a leaning, a bias, an inclination. 

a ^y*~* maimun, prospered with success, fa- 
voured by fortune ; fortunate, auspicious ; 
name of a man. 

p bw« mind, enamel ; blue heaven, azure sky. 

p fjUjS^* mayandesh, be not anxious (root 
[jJuuuJiJJi andeshldan ; the' alif having been 
changed into ^j ye after the + ma of pro- 
hibition by a rule of grammar). 

p tSj*s* mlva, fruit. 

p (^ na, not (a prefixed negative particle). 
pli»« (prefix), not, non-, un-, in-, dis-. 
a U nd (affix, pron.), us, of us, our. 
p idy»\ I \} nd dzmuda, untried, inexperienced, 
p X**\ \j nd umed (or nd ummed), despairing, 

despairer, despondent. 
p i_£<X»*l \j nd umedl, despair, hopelessness. 
p a Jjs>\ U nd alii, unworthy, worthless, base. 

( 113 ) 



p ^Jj\±J u wa bakdri, uselessness. 

p aJ^j U wa buda, not been, not become. 

p u-j U Ma Siraa (pi. ^XjKu^i li nd bindydn), 

not seeing, blind, sightless, 
p ^Ju-J li rea blndn, want of sight, blindness. 

iVa bintiie, a blind person, 
p tiJU- u nd pah, unclean, dirty, nasty, filthy. 

Pjljob li na pdi-ddr, unstable, unsteady, in- 

PjUj-Jjy li ndparhezgdr, inattentive, incautious, 
negligent; intemperate, incontinent, unchaste. 

p Ai-uJ li na pasand, disapproved, unapproved ; 
objectionable, unbecoming, distasteful, dis- 
pleasing, unpleasing, offensive. 

p jJi«j li na pasandt, disapprobation ; any- 
thing deserving of disapprobation. 

p s Aj A^^j li nd pasandida, disapproved ; de- 
serving of censure and disapprobation ; offen- 
sive, unpleasant. 

p $&*£i\j I) na tardshida, unhewn, unttimmed, 
unpolished, uncouth. 

pA/»Uj U na tamtim, unfinished, crude, imper- 
fect, defective. 

p Jj \j na tuwan, impotent, weak, powerless. 

p ci'y l> nd tuwdni, inability, weakness, im- 
p A (_/a*^>- \j najins, ignoble; ill-conditioned. 

p <j-*Jly>- lj na jawdn-mard (pl.^J-*j!»j»- li 
na jawdn-marddn), not a gentleman, un- 
gentlemanly ; illiberal, ignoble. 

p .Us- U na char, helpless, remediless. 

p J^=- U na clilz, nothing-worth, vile, con- 

p (jwuJl) (J&- \j na hakk-shinds, ungrateful. 

p jj^-li ndhhun, nail, claw, talon. 

p t—Jf>- li na hhub, unseemly, uncomely. 

p ,Jy>~ u na hhubl, want of beauty, uncome- 


p tyAjy*- li na hhwurdan, not eating; not to eat. 

p *^jy>- li na khivurda, not eaten, untasted; 

not suffered, felt or experienced, unfelt. 
p tr>y**- li nu hhwush, unpleasant, disagreeable, 

harsh, unharmonious. 

yy u~i z 

li na khwush-dwdz, possessed of 
a disagreeable voice, harsh-voiced. 

p j^-i)»ri- li na hhwushtar, more unpleasant, 
more grating. 

p (o^li nadan, ignorant, inexperienced; fool. 

r (_jtau naddnl, ignorance, folly; (thou) art 

Ajjli nadir, rare, wonderful, wondrous, un- 
usual, uncommon. mj***^' j^li nddiru 'I 
husn, of rare beauty. 

p c^jii) li na durnst, untrue, incorrect, in- 
accurate, wrong. 

p *Aj J li na dida, unseen ; unknown. 

a jli nar (fern.), fire ; hell, ^li ndran (ace.). 

pjli was, blandishment, caress, caressing; grace, 
coquetry, feigned disdain, delicacy, airs. 

a (Jjli ndzil, lowered, descending. 

p r-J ;\J naznln, lovely, amiable, agreeable, 

delicate, airy lady; belle, mistress. ^-.Jjli 
naznini, (thou) art a beauty. 

p Lj J li nu zlbd, ill-favoured. 

p ^.Ju JU ndzidan, to coquet, to put on pre- 
tended haughtiness, to pride or plume one's 
self, to boast, to swell, look big, be elated. 

A^jlj nus, men, mankind. ,~LJ^ an nds, man- 
kind. (*\£^-* {j?.^ [If <j+\A\ an ndsu ^ala' 
dlni muluhihim, men (follow or make a pro- 
fession) according to the religion of their 

p jLj li na sdz, inharmonious, dissonant, dis- 

r jlSjL; li na sazgdr, uncongenial. 

p ^vuL~j li na sipas, ungrateful, unthankful. 

pU-j li nd saza, unworthy, improper, unbecoming. 

p J^lr J ^ n& sazaw&r > uncongenial, ungenial. 

p i^U-i li nd sazdi, unworthy. 

p (JU-j li nd sazds-e, an unworthy personage. 

a iL&li nashirat (pi. CUl^&U ndshirdt), brisk, 
fresh, blowing, blustering (wind). 

p l^-v^lL-I li nd shindkht, unknown, without 

A ^li ndsih, monitor, faithful adviser. 

a j^\j na&ir, defender, assistant, helper. 




( 114 ) 


f a c_>U«s to fid sawub, not right, vain, false. 

a <L*al) nusiyat, forelocks, pendulous ringlets ; 
front, appearance, bearing. 

a jjlslj ndtur, gardener, watcher, keeper of a 
vineyard or palm-plantation. ^-»c ijtw'j 
«_JL* m># 'm ndtur ghair mdni^, and the 
keeper not preventing. 

a .bli »a2tV (p pi. ^\ J»U ndzirdn), looker, 
viewer, inspector, spectator, beholder. 

p (__iU wo/, the navel. 

a jili mo/?z, penetrating, piercing ; valid, ope- 
rative, effective, received, obeyed. 

p ,*to>-.i to nd farjuni, unpropitious, unhappy. 

p (oto^ri to nd farmun, disobedient, uncomply- 
ing, stubborn, refractory. 

a «-Jto »a/?t, profitable, advantageous, salutary, 
useful, f-itoj bi nafi; , of any use. 

a ^aito nalcis, deficient, defective; diminished, 
impaired. JiLc ^/sito ndhisi caJrf, deficient 
in understanding, unintellectual, dull. 

p^J^U na, kardan,iiottomnkc; the non-making. 

p sj£ li na. Icarda, unfinished, undone. 

r iftS to Ma has, mean, base, vile, worthless ; 

a nobody, 
r i toT 15 nd gdh, suddenly, unexpectedly, all at 

once, on a sudden, 
p tl pi&' to na guftan, not to speak ; not speaking. 

p <5^to ndgah, suddenly. ,51^ to ndgahe, on a 

sudden, unexpectedly, 
p (jiJto ndlish, complaint, lamentation. 
p aJU nala, complaint, moan, lamentation, 
p ^iJuito ndlldan, to complain, lament, bemoan, 

p /»\j nam, name ; fame, character, reputation. 

L^-w*to namat, thy name, i^to^j *li »a»» 

nihadan, to name, to call. 
PiUj^s'' to na mahbub, unloved, disliked. 

pi i_?u>1_* to na murddl, unpleasantness, dis- 

agreeablencss, disappointment. 
p aJj* to na mardum (pi. ^J^t^y* to ma »»«r- 

duman, not human, inhuman, barbarous; base, 

ignoble, vile. 

pa i\£U** li nd musu^id, unfavourable, unpro- 

pa Ac^» to na musta-.idd, unapt, inept, inca- 
pable, unready. 

pa |**tov« to na madum, unknown. 

p a <J^*-« to na muiouwal, not to be trusted, 

not trustworthy, unsound. 
paJ^JL* li na mahbul, unaccepted, unwelcome. 

PAk_^~:U~* to na munasib, unfitting, improper, 

p i^tto namvar, famous, celebrated, noted, re- 
nowned, notorious. 
PA^jifc* to Ma mawsMw,discordant,inharmonious. 

p j-.^lj ndmus, reputation, character, fame, 

honour, credit, esteem. 
p ^Llj j *to nam u nishdn, name and trace, 
p <L<to ndma, writing, letter, record, book, 
p (j* to »am?, illustrious, renowned, famed, 
p ^lj wow (but by Persians usually pronounced 

nun), bread ; loaf, .-^j ^lj wdW fo'Az, dry 

bread. Lto 1 ^li warn' ribdt, bread given away 

at monasteries to travellers, pilgrims, and 

mendicants. 1— Mj ^to moW wakf, bequest 

of bread in charity. 
p a jto^i to wa nihuda, not put, not placed, not 

p (^to ndne, a loaf, a single loaf, 
p (_£i«to ndvarl, wilt not bring (a contraction 

of i_f)^toi naydvari, from the root (j^jl 

dvardan, to bring). 
PjL^Ji li Ma hamwdr, uneven, unsuitable, dis- 

proportioned, ungainly ; untidy, unruly. 

p i_$\j ndi, neck, throat; flute, pipe. 

p ^ito li Ma ydftan, not to find, procure, or 

p J^to ndyad (for J^toj naydyad), comes not. 

a *jli ndnm, sleeping, asleep. *jtoll li'n ndwnri, 

for one asleep, for the sleeping. 

p ^jto nds-l, reed, cane ; the throat, neck. 

p a:\fj nabdt, fine sugar, white and refined. 

p J^J nabard, war, battle, conflict. Na barad,he 

taketh not away, removeth not (root ^r> 
burdaii). Na burad, he cuts not off. 


( 115 ) 


-J Jf^ 

p cSj?> na ban, thou shouldest not bear or sub- 
mit to (rt. ^y_ burdan). 
P l^— .A^J nabisht, writing, inscription, 
p jj^A-3 nabishtan, to write, 
p izJu^i nabislita, written, scribbled. 
a ^Lj nabz, the pulse. 

a i'^J nubuwat, prophecy, prophetical gift or 
office, function or privilege of a prophet. 

p <_?o».J na bude, would not be. 

a ^J nably, prophet. 

p ■x.^Ji na Mnacl, seeth not (rt. jo^j^ didari). 

p A-j.'jJ w« tarsad, he should not fear ; ought 
he not to fear? (rt. ^X*~sji tarsldan). 

p ^yj na tuwun, (one) cannot. 
na tuwun vast, one cannot escape. 

p s':\f>j na tuwunad, cannot. 

p ^ouj^j na tuwunistan, not to be able. 

a j\Lj nithdr, money, or anything thrown by 
way of largess among the populace on fes- 
tive occasions ; a scattering, showering down. 

a Jtzf najm, star, 
p i**^ najiiil, thou seekest not. 
a ^f^ nahnu, we. 

k ysz? nahw, way, path, track. ys\\\ an nahw, 

a kJV^ naliwiy, grammatical ; teacher of syn- 
tax, grammarian. UjU^ JUxaJ, oy^V *~~*lrl 
V_c buli hi bi nahwlyin yasulu mughaziban 
talaiya' ,1 am plaguedby a grammarian (who) 
worries me in a rage. 

p c^*usT nuljhust, first ; first of all. 

p ^.".Mrkr nukhustin, first ; original, former. 

p l^**a^jL=C na Muftast, is not asleep. 

a J-^" naljhl, palm-tree ; and often, any young 
tree in general. 

a p AiJ <J^ nalM-land, maker of artificial 

a L>j^sr* aLslT naljilas-i mahnud, the name of 
a pleasant halting-place on the road to Mecca, 
three days' journey from the city of Kufah, 
where the pilgrims are wont to rest under 
the palm-trees : whence its name. 

a J1& jo J.*^ naklilli bani Midi, {lit. the 

palm groves of the Bani hilal, a tribe so 
called), a place in Arabia. 

p Jj' and, are. 

a *1jJ nidus-, voice, call from heaven. 

a <t-^A> naddmat, repentance, contrition, regret. 

r (_i' A3 na dam, thou knowestnot; knowest not 

thou? (rt. ^'.XaaJIj ddnistan). 

p JjJu nadarad,rendiethTiot(rt.^j^jjJidarldan). 

a'L*.sJ nudam&s- (pi. of >jjJ nadim), intimate 
friends, boon companions, courtiers. 

p JJfejJ nadihad, giveth not (rt. ^ol J dudan). 

p iJjjJ na dida>e, hast thou not seen? 

a *j jo nadim (ppl. ^Uj Jo nadlmun), courtier, 
confidant, boon-companion. 

a . JJ wazr, vow, offering; gift to a superior. 

a jjj nazir, adinonisher, monitor; prophet or 
teacher sent to terrify the wicked. ***& na- 
ziran (ace.) \.}\> ^Uj!l j?~<^ ,5^ ' leaf a' bi 
ta gh aiyuri 'z zamuni naziran, change of time 
is a sufficient admonisher (similar to the 
phrase u jli> <U.I1 [-is £a/fl' «/?oA hudiyan, 
God is guide enough). 

p [c— V w« *"«<??, thou wilt not arrive. 

p Ajj narm, soft, mild, gentle; downy. 

p i^*/ narmi, softness, mildness, gentleness. 

a c\y nizde., quarrel, strife, dispute. 

p tip nazd, near, towards, with. 

p CX;ojJ nazdile, near, with. (pi. ^iSoJjj «<?«-- 

diledn), near, adjoining, present. 
p^wGjli nazdiletar, nearer. 
a c jj naza^, the agonies of death. 
a (J«p nuzul, descending, alighting ; descent. 
a &bp nuzhat, delight, pleasure. 
a <L*uJ nisbat, relation, reference, relationship. 
a Aw nasuddu, we close up (aor. of j.~j sadda). 
p i^o -«o nisrln, wild rose. 
a /^mJ nasale, usage, fashion, style, mode, way, 

order, method. 
a J.**J w«s?, offspring, progeny, race, breed. 
a ,**wJ rcasy, woven ; garments of fine texture. 

( 116 ) 


a i^J l£J nashas-ta, thou hast grown up. 

a 1?LU nashdt, cheerfulness, joyousness, glee, 

p jjl&j nishdn, sign, mark, trace, characteristic ; 

scar; flag, standard. 
dudan, to point out. 


JiJ ,.A^u3 nisha.11 

p ^JoLU nishdndan, to mark ; to cause to sit, 

to seat, to place ; to quench, extinguish, allay. 
p <ULiJ nishdna, mark, aim, butt, target, 
p JoLU na shay ad, is not suited, is improper, 

unfit, unbecoming, suits not, befits not. 
p l^auAJ nishast, he sat ; sitting, 
p ^uJL) nishastan, to sit, squat ; to settle, to 

be fixed; to be extinguished. 
p <&.wjj.J nishasta, seated ; sitting ; settled. 

&UuxU nishastas-e, art thou sitting ? 
p jrjkjjiAJ «« shanldas-e, hast thou not heard ? 
p ^jylijjnashavi, thou wiltnotbecome(rt jjJui). 
p L_~wiJ nishib, descent, declivity, slope. 
p ^**J»J nishlman, seat, mansion, 
p {i *JuJ nishln, sit, sit down (imp. of ^^U). 
p *~»'*j nishinam, I sit. 

3 nishlni, thou shouldest sit. 

ap^ ^__*a3 wasS Tcardan, to fix, appoint. 

A. -*3J nasr, victory. JYasara, he succoured, he 
helped, (used optatively) may He render vic- 
torious ! (In the text, this word has been, 
by mistake, printed nassara.) 

a ^\f^> Nasr amy, Nazarene, Christian. 

a <te£Ua3 naslhat, advice, counsel, admonition, 

a tS^z^ssxai naslhatgar, counsellor, adviser. 

A tuk) nutfat, seed, sperma hominis. 

a ^ki nuth, speech, articulation. 

a i_^Jai nut'ibu, we find sweet (aor. of t-jlL! 
atdba, 4th form of the rt. <__>G? tuba, concave 
i_5 ye). v^JaJ nutibuha, we find them sweet. 

A.Jaj nazar, sight, look, glance, regard, view, 
attention. ay^jJs Jaj nazar Tcardan, to look. 

A tjJaJ nazare, a look, a glance. 

a *la} nazm, verse, poetry. 

a i aJaJ mzif(fem. &LiaJ nazifat), pure, clean. 

a LZ~~xi na.t, description, epithet; praise. 

a bjA) na-jrat, shout, cry, scream. 

a iJum na^sh, bier with a dead body laid upon 

it (when empty it is called J^-: sarir). 
a jjxj nad, horse-shoe. 
aPlX--Lw na-J-band, smith, farrier. 
a.VjmjJ sujjej nadband-pisar, blacksmith's son. 

A ^1*3 nadain (oblique dual), pair of shoes 

with wooden soles; clogs. 
a +xJ na^am, yes, very well. Ni^am (pi. of 

<t*jtJ nii.mat), good things. 

a cUjw numat, blessing, favour, grace, bounty; 
prosperity, riches, wealth, opulence, good 

things; tenderness,delicacy; liberality. pa .S 

^u.*j .Jul gar andar ni-jmatl, if (thou) art 

in affluence. 

a ^l**J ni.mate, a single favour. 

a <ld5\j Jyu na^uzu bi 'lldh, let us fly to God ! 
God help us ! heaven forefend ! (a depreca- 
tory formula). 

a i_- -***3 na^lb, croaking, croak. 
a (J^xJ na^ik, croaking, croak. 

a +**.) na^lm, affluence, anything good which 

we enjoy; pleasure, delights, 
p Ji; na gh z. beautiful, good, 
p Jjjxj naghztcvr, more agreeable. 

p <C*iJ na gh ma. soft, sweet musical sound, me- 

A jjlaj nifalc, hypocrisy, dissimulation. 

a iJo nafrat, abomination, aversion, disgust ; 
fright, alarm, terror. 

a fj^Ju nafs, soul, spirit ; self, person ; carnal 
desire, carnality. &jV*\ ^j*Ju nafsi ammdra, 
imperious lust, concupiscence. JSfafas, breath, 
breathings; talk; moment. ap^JijI J u»zJ 
nafas bar dvardan, to give utterance. 

a P)«r> i_/*wAJ «<z/s-^arw«r,self-indulgent,selfish; 
effeminate, luxurious. 

a i__N^ii nafsulca, thyself, thy soul. 

a iZmJu nafsihi, (from) himself. 

a (jA^ai nafase, a single breath, one breath, a 
sigh, a pJaj i^AuiJ nafase sard, a cold sigh. 

( 117 ) 


a \sJi) naft or nift, naphtha, bitumen, liquid 

AFjliXi! kaj naft-anddz, maker of fireworks. 
a p (_c)lJj| kii naft-anddzi, the art of making 

or exhibiting fireworks. 
a *_fij naf^, gain, profit, advantage, benefit. 
a ajiij nafakat, the necessary expenses for living. 

a p /.ii^fj <&£j nafalca /cardan, to disburse. 
a jfkj nafur, abhorring, hating; averse, alien. 
a ^Li nafl, banishment, exile, transportation ; 

"prohibition, negation. 
a t^^-Jo nafls, precious; a precious object which 

is received with such eagerness as to stop the 

breath (^Ju nafas). 
A tp£) nakkush, embroiderer ; painter, limner. 
A t_^i) nakb (ppl. ^-ȣj nakbhd), subterraneous 

excavation, digging through a wall, breach. 
a ssu nalcd, ready money, coin, small change. 
a ^ssu nakde, the money, 
p nuhra, silver. +\~>- aju nukrati Mam, 

virgin silver. 
a {J»aj naksh, picture, drawing, design ; spot, 

a Pi 1x3 . (ji-RJ naksh u nigar, spots and hues, 

paintings and ornaments. 
a ijcm ndks, defect, deficiency, injury. 
a .^l^&J nulcsun, loss, injury, defect, deficiency, 

imperfection, diminution, failure. 
a ^jssij nakz, violation of contract, rupture. 
a jjili nakl, transportation, translation, removal, 

migration, ap ^-Jp JjU nakl kardan, to re- 
move, migrate ; to copy. 
a -.1x3 nikah, marriage. 
a <Lx3 nakbat, adversity, sad reverse. 
a <Ux3 nuktat, subtle or quaint conceit or point ; 

p xSj na kunad, makes not (rt. ^4j£ kardan). 
p jxJ niku, good, beautiful; well; safeandsound. 
p^j »x5 niku-ru, handsome-faced. 
pa LZJ-+~: £> niku-slrat, virtuous, moral, 
p AjJL) niku-ndm, respectable, respected. 
p ^iXJ^jxJ nikulildan, to despise, slight, blame. 

p *iXJfej£j nikuhida, despised, blamed, scorned, 
spoken ill of; despicable. 

p ^JfJ nikun, goodness, kindness, amiability ; 
beauty. ^J> tjy-^ niku^l kardan, to do good. 

p j\$j nigar, picture ; beloved object, sweet- 
heart; beauty. ^Jp .1x3 nigar kardan, to 
draw, paint, limn, pourtray. 

p <Sjlr^jUj nigdr-Mdna, picture-gallery; the 
house or studio of the celebrated imposter 
Manes, founder of the heretical sect of the 
Manichasans in the early ages of Christianity. 

p j^j^-3 nigarin, embellished ; beautiful, fair, 

p ilxj nigah, look. ^u-iljilx3 nigah dashtan, 
to keep, to observe, to watch ; to guard, save, 
preserve. ^j^_f aUj nigah kardan, to look, to 
view, to watch. 

p u!/ n W ard - n (pres.part.), looking, beholding. 

p i^~*$J nigar is tan, to behold, look. 

p ^jmjJsJ nigaristan, to look, peer, pry. 

p <kxix3 nagufta, unsaid, not spoken; not having 
spoken, as long as one has not spoken. 

p (Ojx3 nigun, upside down, turned, inverted. 

p L^icO^xi «7<7Mrt-JtfM£,unfortunate,ill-fated ; 

unlucky wight, 
p 4x3 nigah, sight. ^jS-^l) Ax3 nigah dashtan, 

to guard, preserve, keep, save, reserve, hold ; 

to observe, watch. ^S &J nigah kardan, 

to look. j\j 4x3 nigah ddr, preserve thou, 
p j.t-xi nigln, a ring, especially the seal-ring of 

a prince ; a precious stone set in a ring. 
f *3 nam, dew. 

pjUj namdz, prayer; prayers, especially those 
prescribed by law to be repeated thrice a day. 

p Jjl^j na munad, remaineth not; is no more. 
*JjUJ na mdndam, I remained not. 

p ^j j X*J namad-zln, coarse woollen saddle- 
cloth ; a saddle stuffed on the upper part to 
prevent the rider being galled. 

a lx*3 namat, mode, manner, style, fashion, 
strain, way, custom, likeness. 

p LlX<*j namak, salt. 

p ,^-x^J nanmkin, salted, salt; seasoned, sa- 


( 118 ) 

i— ay 

voury ; sprightly, arch, sparkling, witty ; 
handsome, beautiful. 

a J^J naml, (fem.) ant ; (figur.) whiskers. 

p ^\^y*j namudan, to show, point out, display, 
evince, manifest, discover; to appear. 

p ^jJyiJ namude, he was in the habit of dis- 
playing, he was wont to shew. 

p ij y*,j namuna, example, pattern, sample, spe- 
cimen ; exemplar. 

p CLSoJ ncing, honour, character ; shame, dis- 
grace, dishonour. 

r l e\c*J na wtAz, thou puttest not (rt. ^jly). 

r y nan, new, fresh, recent. 

a ^>-l»3 nawala (pi. of <U=»-li nahiyat), en- 
virons, parts adjacent. 

p ^S~\y nawalchtan, to soothe, to caress, to 
indulge, or treat with kindness. 

a ijly nawadir (pi. of i .jlj nudirat), rarities, 
rare things. 

i J'y nawal, present, gift, donative. 

p s^ijt y nau-uvarda, fresh- brought. 

a iiy naubat, period, time, turn. 

p i^y>-y nau-jawun, one j ust come to adoles- 

a _ y Nuh, the patriarch Noah, called by the 
Muhammadaus ^^L^*]! ^Jit Shaildm ' I mw- 
salin, elder of the prophets (those sent). 

p x\~*£ y nau-damida, newly-sprouted (inci- 
pient beard). 

a t»j nur, light. 

p ^s^jy navardan (or ^iAj Ji»3 navardtdati), to 
omit, pass by or over, to neglect. 

p a S~*sj y nau-raslda, newly arrived ; new, 
fresh, recent; germinating. 

p \*j y nau-roz, New-year's-day, which, in the 
Persian Calendar, is the day on which the 
sun enters Aries. 

p (_£j«j y nau-rozl, suited to or becoming the 

festival of New-year's-day, New-year's. 
p ,>i»3 nosh, drink, honey, sweets. 

p u^-N-iy navisht or nivisht, what is written, 

writing, scripture ; written. 
p L^>Auii»J navisht ast, is written or scribbled. 


navishtan, to write. 

p dzJ^y navishta, written, inscribed ; writing. 

p jJ\xZ>y nosh-daru, treacle; any antidote to 
poisou ; an electuary. 

p ^SfJ^y noshldan, to drink ; to take, swallow. 

p ^, ,-J* y noshlravdn, name of a king of Per- 
sia (Chosroes the first), in whose reign Mu- 
hammad was born; he is often designated by 

the Arabic epithetof JjlxH al ^ddil, the Just, 
p ^£>y noshin, sweet, pleasant. 
a ?y nau^, species, kind, mode, sort. 
A ^.ynau-.e, a species, a sort, a mode, a manner; 

a new, particular, peculiar, or original m an ner. 
p ^Jw«y naumedl or naianidl, despair. 
a -y nun, fish. ^Jl «J zu 're nun, (lord of 

the fish), a name given to the prophet Jonah ; 

also the name of a certain personage famed 

for piety, who died a.h. 245 (a.d. 8G0). 

r X&iMiJjj nawlsanda, writer, 
p ij na, not, no, neither, nor. 
p SJ nas-e, thou art not. 

p ij nih, put, place, lay, lay down (imperat. of 
rt. ^1-5^ nihadan). Nuh, nine. 

a -. Xj^i nuhuju, we are excited, we are roused up. 

(Some copies, and those, perhaps, the best, 

read -, l^j yuhaju, one is agitated or stirred ; 

a rush is made; both words are the pass. aor. 

of the vb. _lfi> huja, concave ^_$ ye). 

p l>1^j nihod, nature, disposition, habit. 

p jo^-vi nihadan, to place, put, set, lay, lay by, 
lay up, layout; to leave, to fix; to wear; to 
set out. 

p s SLu nihuda, placed, laid, set, fixed ; haying 
•placed ; hath placed. 

p (^l^J nihun, hid, hidden, concealed ; secret, 
occult, latent, clandestine. 

p _ji^)' J i^A-J nihan dushtan, to keep secret. 

p cil^J nihanl, secret, hidden, concealed, pri- 
vate, privy, clandestine. 

p JJ«ly nihtivand (or nuhtivand), name of a city 
in Persian Irak. 

a fo\j nihayat, end, extremity, ne plus ultra. 

a j^i nahr, river, rivulet, rill. 

p lz^s^j nihuft, he concealed ; secrecy, secret. 

p (jSJi^J nihuftan, to hide, conceal. 

*- j v 

( 119 ) 


p Aii^j nihufta, hidden, latent, concealed ; se- 
a fj^) nahaka, he brayed (3 per. sing, pret.) 
p i^S^J nahang (by some nihang), crocodile, 

alligator ; shark. 
a ^j nahy, prohibition. ap^O^ ^.J ««7«y 

"kardan, to forbid, prohibit. . 
p t_^*J nahib, terror, fear. 
p (J ?w°, reed, cane ; flute, pipe. 
a (3 m, me (affixed to verbs). 
p X*\,\j naydrdmad, (he) will not rest (root 

ijJwfiit drdmidan). 
p.X~*IjLj naydruMid,he rested not (rt. ^J-^ ,1 . 

Obs. the first of the two \ alifs has been changed 

to ,_$ ye, after ^ w« by a rule of grammar). 
vjj \j nay ar ad, 'KiW. not bring(rt.,^i_^|. I avardan). 

J ,Lj j bar naydrad, raiseth not. 
p J,' jLj naydzdrad, he torments not. 
p ±Sj\j\J naydzdrl, thou afflictest not, torment- 

est not, grievest not (rt. t 1 )^M\ dzdrdan). 
p *Jijlj naydzardam, I tormented not (here 

the first \ afo/ of the root ^j^jj I dzardan has 

been changed to ,_$• ye after ^. ra«). 
p Jki^jLj niydzmand, indigent. 
p *J»^jLj naydzmuda, not experienced, 
p JoLjLj M«yr/S(7ytf<?,isnotrefreshed (rt. ^y*\ )■ 
p ^jJ»~;Lj naydsude, he would not rest, 
p o^siLj nay aft, he found not. 
a j} Li re^a£ (pi. of ctili ndkat), she-camels. 

bLj niyukan (ace.) 
p aLJ nig dm, sheath, scabbard, case, 
p tX*Lj naydmad, came not(rt. ^Jul dmadan). 
p iJi-c»-v«uJ naydmokht, hath not learned (rt. 

^ri.^1 umokhtan). 
p ^J^iLj naydvardi, thou hast not brought (rt. 

(j^jjl dvardan). 
p i_s^;LJ naydvari, thou bringest not. 
p JoUj naydyad, comes not (rt. .ji-Vtl dmadan). 
p (_|Lj naydti, thou comest not (rt. ^A^l ). 

a <Ui w?y«£ (also <UJ my at), design, pu.pose, in- 
tention ; will-worship. 

p Jij -»3 nayarzad, is not worth (rt. ^.i-VJj' (W "" 
zzt&ro. Here the \ alif has been changed to 
^5 ye after ^ na). 

Pj _J wmt, strength. 

p j-J rezz, also, likewise, too; even ; again. 

p aj-i neza, spear, lance, javelin. 

p j\i syJ neza-bdz, spearman, lancer, tilter. 

p c^au-J wisi, is not, consists not. 

p ^jSUuj-J nlsti, (thou) art not ; destitution. 

p ijm.*j nlsh, sting. ^Jj cA^J n ^ 1 zadan, to 
sting, to strike with the sting. 

p X^«-j nai-shakar, sugar-cane. 

p o'cjLj nayuftdd, did not fall out, happen, or 
occur (rt. ^^Lii uftddan). 

p j_£ jJ l*UuJ nayafshdndi, thou scatteredst not. 

p (JLULj nay af sham, thou scatterest not. 

p ^ixsLJ nayafganl, thou castest not away. 

p uX»J «e£ (pi. i^j^J nekdn), good, beautiful ; 
well; very; very well. ^3»ilj S-l^J w^ 
ddshtan, to treat kindly, to do good. 

p /•lasT'l i_L^-J nek-anjdm, of happy end. 

p c^isniLj nek-bakht (pl.^liic^Lj nek-bakJitdn) 

fortunate, happy, 
p <^sT ujLj nek-bakhtl, good fortune. 

p£ Li" » nek-khwuhj-pl. \zl\*s - nck-khwdhdn) 
benevolent, well-wisher. 

p dcJj u^Li nek-rafta (pi. |obcij l -—~y Wl5 ^~ 
raftagdn), well-departed; one who, in dying, 
has left a good name behind him. 

p Jj)j lL£-J nek-roz, happy. 

p a\=st\ j~> CXy nek-sar-anjdm, ending well ; 
having a happy issue ; thoroughly provided, 
well furnished. 

r /»L>-J u_Ci nek-farjdm, of happy end. 

r -is'*uX»J «^-»m/«zffr,good-natured,amiable. 

p <Jy* ^-^^J nek-mar d, good man. 

p i_S^r* <-l£y nek-mar dl, kindness, goodness, 

p *l) uli^-J nek-ndm, of good report, fair-famed, 
p Xj neku (pi. ,\^SLo nekuwdn) good ; well, 
p i3«j ^ dCj we£ m Jtf^, good and bad. 
p ifiji *£*} neku-ravish, moral, well-behaved. 


( 120 ) 


p *U yLj neku-nam, of good repute, having a 

good name. 
p i_/}^y nckuvl, goodness, 
p ^jy~?j nekiitt, goodness, kindness, 
p ^Li nelcl, goodness, virtue ; good. 

p jj-j nil, indigo ; a blue stroke which they 
are accustomed to draw upon the house-door 
of anyone deceased ; hence, mourning ; the 
river Nile. 

p >-J nlm, half. 

p ^jf*- *J m/w-Mzraro^half-eaten ; half-drunk. 

p X^jy>- *-J nim-kkwurda, half-eaten; half- 
drunk ; leavings. 

p J ■ i J nim-roz, noon, mid-day; the province 
of Sistan. 

-J nlm-ser, half-full. 

.£» *-J nim-shah, midnight. 
>-lA-*J na9/anduMite,h.e would not throw, 
he would not have thrown (rt. ^^ri-ljj! ). 
p t^:>-;Ja-i nai/andoJiht, (he) gained not, ac- 
quired not (rt. ^^s>-tSJ\ andoMtan). 
p ^<X~£(».J niyushidan, to listen, 
p ,^-jO nann, made of reeds ; reedy. 

a; i w (and sometimes in Persian u), and; 
still, yet ; for. 

y\j wa, again, re (a prefix). 

a <ui! <__>»J'\ j was atfuJw ilaihi, and I turn by re- 
pentance unto Him. 

a (jfij wdthik, confiding, confident, assured, 

a t_— ^-^« wdjih, necessary, due, obligatory, in- 
cumbent; expedient, proper. 

A it^-\% ivajibi (or ^»^-Lj hi wdjibi), neces- 
sary, expedient, proper, deserved. 

a (_£t^j wo^i, valley, vale, dell, dale ; river. 

a <*2->j]) warith (p pi. ^j\j warithan), heir, 

p jjj *\j ivdzhun, inverted, topsy-turvy, 
p i^-yS^ jjjj ^ ivazhun-baTdit, unfortunate. 

a L-j'j Wtisit, name of a city lying midway 
between Kufah and Basrah on the Tigris, 
built a.h. 83, by Hajjaj bin Yusuf. 

a i_jL>!j wusif (p pi. ^li^lj wdsifdn), praisers ; 

a i«_^1LI j wa 'tlub, and ask thou. 

a licij wa^i (p pi. ^Haxlj wd^izdn), preacher. 

A^ilj wa^r, abundant, ample, exuberant, full, 

plentiful, plenteous. 
a <Uj1j, accident, incident, occurrence, 

event; battle, encounter,confiict; catastrophe, 


a ^JWij waki^ha (r pl.of isii\j wdki^at) ,eventu- 

alities, events. 
APi^jJ &xi\j wdlci^a-dlda, (man) of experience. 
a u_ ftilj wdkif, apprized, aware, informed, 
p iHj «#a/a, high, exalted. 

a ill j wa «7/a, and if not, otherwise. 

p y$\j wdldtar, higher. 

a <U)i j wa 7/a/t, by heaven ! 

a <J 1 j wa afo'A/, and (on) his offspring. 

p *\* warn, debt, loan, (.i^^ /*\* warn dddan, 
to grant a loan, to lend. 

p ^ajL* \j wd mdndan, to remain behind, to lag. 

p ^»lj wdme, a loan. 

a ,^1 j «># m, and if, although, albeit. 

a O-j! j wa anta, and thou. 

a c^-JUf- ^ji j wa w jV J te, and though thou 
earnest (or comest). 

p iUJlj w' dnguh, and then; and then ! 

a \aj \ « wa innamd, and surely, and indeed, and 

a tj\ _j wa innahu, and certainly it (is). 

a Jkp-j wo/a", rapture, ecstacy ; fervent love. 

a £y>-j wujud, existence ; body, person, indi- 
vidual. PAJ^=f-j b hd w>«/wa',notwithstanding. 

a ^Liy>-t wujude, an existence. 

a <*->-} wqjh, face ; mode, manner, cause, reason ; 

supply, means. i jUs is»-j wajhi kaftif, 

sufficiency of provisions. 

a iiA=>-j wahdat, solitude, singleness, unity. 

a j^A=*j wahsh, wild beast. 


( 121 ) 


A AAs-j wahshat, fear, dread, horror, sadness, 
gloom, dumps; dreariness, dismalness; fero- 
city, savageness, fierceness; asperity, aversion. 

a d^j wahal, mire, black adhesive clay. 

a <±~=-j wahid,smgle, separated, detached, apart. 

a J!u>j widdd, love, affection. bo\ Jj <j /I w«- 
dddihd, for (my) love to her. 

a c l j^ widely, farewell, adieu, good bye. 

Pjj war, if; and if; even if; although; since- 

a 'Ijj wards-, beyond, ■without, besides, except. 

a fc)y ward, rose ; leaf or petal of a flower. 

p L^JjJ war%ldan,to practice,cultivate,perform. 

p ^/j;j warash (for i£\Js\ j wa agar ash), and 
if it. 

a <U?^j wartat, labyrinth, maze ; precipice, or 
any position which occasions embarrassment. 

a Jji^j wurlc (pi. of *Uij warlctii), brown, dusky- 
coloured (pigeons). War ah, leaf (of a tree 
or paper). 

a ■cijj waralce, one leaf, a single leaf. 

p <0 ij warna (for <tj X! j wa agar no), and if 

not, otherwise. 
a l£jj ward 1 , men, mortals, 
p Jj waz (for j\ ^ w>« az), and from. 

a "\jj) wuzards. (pi. of J [jj wazlr), viziers, mi- 
nisters of state. 

a ^Jj tfazM, weight. 

a^jJj wazlr, minister of state, vizier. 

a t^Sy„j} wazlrl, rank of vizier, premiership. 

a <U-cj wus^at, largeness, amplitude, space. 

p <U-jj wasma, leaves of woad, or the indigo 
plant used in dyeing. 

a <lL»^ wasilat, means, medium, intervention; 
whatever wins or conciliates the favour of a 
prince or great man (as a gift or merit). 

a *-««)j waslm, marked between the shoulders by 
a hairy wen of the size of a pigeon's egg, as all 
the prophets had been, — Muhammad is be- 
lieved to have been the last so distinguished; 

a Jl^j wisdl, meeting, conjunction, interview, 
enjoyment of any beloved object. 

a i_a*sj was/, description, praise. 

a J-^j wasl, union ; enjoyment of the society 
of friends. 

a <Uoj wastyat, will, testament, commandment, 

a &Lljj wazifat, allowance of provisions, stipend. 

a p jy>- AJm?j wazifa-khwur, pensioner. 

a tXcj wa^ada, he promised. 

a *Acj wa^dat, promise, agreement, engage- 
ment ; putting off with a promise, a p a JtCj 
jjJ1l> wa^da dddan, to give a promise ; to put 
off with a promise. 

A lasj wa^z, admonition, exhortation, sermon, 

a 'lij wafdt, performance of promises, payment, 
fulfilment ; fidelity, good faith, a p ^J> lij 
wafd Icardan, to pay, repay, fulfil. 

a alij wafdt, decease, death, demise, a p Cjlij 
,^ilj wafdt ydftan, to die. 

ap jljlij wafd-ddr, keeper of good faith. 

ap ^Ijlij wafd-ddri, keeping of good faith. 

A jjlij wafds-e, good faith. 

a fjij wafk, congruity, proportion. Piji^ J 
har wafk, in accordance, in conformity, agree- 
ably to. 

a jJj wafa', he paid. /Jj JlCj \j\ izd wa^ada 
wafd 1 , when he has promised, he fulfils. 

a <i>-l]s. wakdhat, impudence, shamelessness, 
effrontery, brazenness. 

a jlSj waltdr, majesty, dignity, gravity, sedate- 

a t-»Oj wakt, time, hour, season, occasion. 

a L^^ wakthd (p pi. of a k_^ — .Js^ wakt), times, 
many times ; ever and anon. 

A .^Jj wakte, a certain time or occasion, once 
"upon a time ; some day or other ; at the 
time ; at one time, at another time. 

aJj_jW« kad, and verily. 

a i_flij wakf, religious legacy, charitable be- 
quest. l»'j jjt* mdli wakf, property so be- 

a <-Jjij wukuf experience, knowledge, infor- 
mation, inkling, scent, a p ,j£Ju ' — 'fy wu ~ 
kuf ydftan, to get knowledge, scent or wind. 



( 122 ) 


a jJ-jSij walcll, set over ; holder of a charge ; pre- 
sident, commissioner, trustee ; attorney, 
p &_fj wagama, and if not, otherwise. 
a 5 j wa la, and not, neither. 

a jflj wuldt (pi. of J ^ wait), governors, pre- 
sidents, prefects. 
a iS&j wilddat, birth, procreation. 

a <L> Sj wildyat, country, territory ; a foreign 
country; Europe (so called in India). 

a i.\Jj walad, son. * jJj waladahi, (ace.) his son. 

a jjj wala^, eager desire. 

a *^ijij jj ^ wa la nuzikannahurn, and verily we 
will make them taste (emphatic aorist of 
ij\ J\ azalea, 4th form of the root jjl J sa^a, 
concave j wow, with the pron. *jfc/w</?2,them). 

a J j wa Jaw, and if, and though. 

a JJjW Zaw inna, and if in truth. 

a —^ wuluj, ingress, entrance. 

p ^j wale, hut, however. 

a /Jj waliy, holy man, saint. 

a ^_^>*J « wa ?«»sa, and there is not ; and not. 

a j^ ^^ wff/i oaM, heir-apparent. 

p u>-l_j wa W, but. 

p j^XJj wa Mm, but, however. 

a p Li»***J ^!j waZ! ni^mat, benefactor. 

aU> w »?a, and whatever is. 

a <Ua?- j^j A\.\\ ^Xc JijiJ ,j^« _j wa manyata- 
wakhal ijila' 'ttahi fahwa hasbuhu, and whoso 
trusteth in God, (He) is sufficient for him. 

a ^,zs? j wa nahnu, and we. 

a i^ks\ j^aJ j wa nasara a^ldmahu, and aid his 

banners ! 
a Xj wuh, ah ! alas ! 
a <— jU>j wahhdb, great and bounteous giver. 

c__>U&jl\ a? wahhab, the Giver, *'.e. God. 

a Jjs> j wa A«£, and how ? 

a *&j wahm, surmise, suspicion, apprehension ; 
fear, anxiety ; mind, imagination. 

Ays _j wahuwa (to be pronounced wahwa), andhe. 

p i^j ww, he, him; of him, his; her. ,_£. jl 

as vaz, from him. 
p lj (_fj iw rd, to him ; him ; his. 
p jjMj werdn, desolate, waste, depopulated. 
p ^j win (for ^1 j wa in), and this. 

a * hu (and sometimes fo'), him, it; of him; 
his ; its (an affixed pronoun). 

A la> hd, her ; them, their (affixed pronoun). 

a ^jljb hddi, guide, leader, director, u jljb 
liddiyan, (ace.) 

a &*J*l\ i^))j\& Sarun arrashld, HarGn the 
Guide (or Guided aright), tbe fifth Caliph of 
the house of Abbas ; he began his brilliant 
reign a.h. 170, and died at Tus, a.h. 193. 

a ,^L*lii> Hainan, name of the favourite of 
Ahasuerus, and the enemy of the Jews ; he 
is represented in the Kur'an as vizier to 

a ^Ifc hdn, have a care ! let it not be ! 

a (Jjlfc lid til, terrible, horrible, dreadful. 

a t_->y^b hubub, furious blowing of the wind, 
gale, fresh or smart breeze. 

a ij^ hijrat, the flight of Muhammad from 
Mecca to Madina which occurred on the 16th 
of July, a.d. 622, and in the reign of the 
caliph Omar was ordered to be considered as 
the Muhammadan a3ra. 

a i • Afc hadaf, butt or mark for archers, target. 

a !_sSit> hady, cattle carried to Mecca to be sa- 

a<U JJb hadiyat, offering, gift, present (especially 
one offered to superiors). 

a \sjt> hdzd, this. .IjjUSt \&Jb hdzd 'I miMdr, 
this quantity. 

p Jb liar, every, all, each. 

p \j*t\Jb hirds, terror, fear, dread. 

p ^Ju^U hirdsidan, to fear, stand in awe, be 
in dread; to terrify. 

p ^Jt> har an, every. 

p <)£j\j!> liar an hi, every one who, whosoever. 

p &j1 j& har dyina (or i^\ .& liar anna), 


( 123 ) 


doubtless, undoubtedly, assuredly, positively; 

by all means, at all events. 
p j\i Jb har bar, every time, each time. 
p iS> \s>-Jb har jd hi, every place tbat, wherever, 
p Si^jJb harchand, although, 
p &>-j&> karchi, all that, every thing that, what, 
p * J Jb har dam, each moment, every instant. 

p^J Jb har du, both. l^-wo * J rV^ ^ a ^ ar ^ 
dad, with both the two hands. 

p J3J J^ ^ iar roz > ever y & a J> daily. 

p y> bjJb harza-gu, babbler, idle talker. 

p (J^ji sjJb harza-gu^e, a prater, a chatterbox. 

p «~j Jb har su, on all sides, everywhere. 

p t^..i Jb har shah, every night. 

p Ls^ jib har hujd, eveiw where ; wheresoever, 

p \£ jib har hird, whomsoever, to whomsoever. 

p tejib har hi, whosoever. 

p s\^jib har g ah, every time, whenever. t& alS^S 
har gah lei, every time that, whensoever. 

pji <jib hargiz, ever, at any time. 

p teJb har gah, every time, whenever. 

r <& <b-to har gah lei, every time, that, when- 

pUyii Hurmuz, son of Noshiravan, surnamed 
Tajdar, the Crown- wearer, from his habit of 
appearing at all times with the crown on his 
head, while his predecessors assumed that 
mark of royalty only when administering 
justice, or on special occasions. He was at 
first a mild prince, but before his fall became 
cruel and vindictive. 

a ifj jib hurairat (dim. of bJb hirrat), a little 
cat, a kitten. 

p Jo jib har yalce, every single one, each one. 

p j\jib hazar, thousand. 

p jb ,\j\ib hazar bar, a thousand times. 

p lj j\jib hazdr-pd, millepede, scolopendra. 

p 4j\j) j\\ib hazar ddna, a thousand beads. 

p L^~i.OjUfi> hazdr-dost, having a thousand 

a ji\ib hizbar (p pi. ^j-}^ hizlaran), lion. 

a Ayt hazl, jest. 

p L^AuJi hast, is. 

p j^jj+ib hastam, I am ; I was. 

p Ai^wJb hastand, they are. 

p i^^b liasti, existence, entity ; wealth, riches, 

" property, possessions, 
p \jLib hush, intelligence, .jX&iJ iJuJb hush 

ddshtan, to have a care, to mind, take heed, 
p cu^lJb hasht, eight. 
p pxJLib hashtum, eighth. 
p ^JUb hishtan, to leave, quit. 

p J\ ^JLib hush dar, be careful ! have your wits 

about you ! 
p j\*£jJb hush-yar, shrewd, sensible, intelligent, 

p Lr— iub haft, seven, 
p jluiji haftdd, seventy, 
p t^o . i_2^.ifc haft-rang, seven-coloured. 
r £j \>cJjb haftgdna, in sevens ; seven, 
p »zJtib haft urn, seventh, 
p teJiib hafta, week, seven days. 
a ,J.l!> hal, perhaps ? does there r is there r 
a tj^hb haldh, perishing, ruin ; destruction ; 

A P (M^X-i 

cJli> haldh 
~S\ib haldhat, 

slaughter, death. 

shudan, to be lost, to perish. 

thy destruction. 
a (JiLfc Midi, name of a tribe. ,jhb ^iJ banl 

hildl, sons of Hilal. 
a u_£bb halaha, (he) perished. 
a <j^^>JJb halahta, thou hast perished, 
p io aJjs> hilldan, to neglect, abandon, let alone, 

dismiss. ^JlJjs .J furo hilldan, to drive 

down, expel, 
p +& ham, also, too, even, likewise ; moreover ; 

a jJb hum (or him), they, them (masc). 

a *£> hamm, grief, care, solicitude. 

p l£ humd (or ,_$[£ humdi), phoenix, bird of 
happy omen, which never touches the ground; 
it is imagined that whoever is overshadowed 
by it becomes a king. 


( 124 ) 


a l£> huma (or hima), both of them (masc). 

p (jl^ hamun, always, all the same, thus, ex- 
actly so, same, self-same. 

p I) l$> hamana, certainly, assuredly ; again, as 
before ; alike ; immediately. & li \$> hamana 
ki, at the same time that, even supposing 
that; although. 

p <U ^Vp hamdn-bih, always better. 

p jjjJ U 5 humdyun, august, royal, imperial ; for- 
tunate, happy. 

a <UJ& himmat, resolution, spirit, magnanimity, 
courage, largeness of soul ; mind, attention, 
endeavour, care, thought ; auspices, favour, 
grace, blessing, a p ^^i\y>~ l^~*jj> himmat 
khwdstan, to ask a blessing. 

p io^-s* hamchundn, all the while, still, yet, 
in that manner, thus, in like manner, in the 
same manner. 

p ^u^.® hamchunln, in this manner; likewise. 

p ys> hamchu, like, such as, even as, all the 

same as. 
p ij^^sy ham-khwdba, bed-fellow, spouse. 
p ^<X$ Hamaddn, name of a town of Persia, 

the province of Iraki Ajami. 
pJ.J +& hdm-dard, fellow-sufferer, sympathetic, 
p t_?^iO *£> hamdarde, a fellow-sufferer. 

p *i\£> ham-dam, (breathing together) intimate 

companion or friend, 
p 10^ v& ham-dawdn, running together. 

p &\j$> ham-rdh, fellow-traveller ; along with, 

in company with, 
p tj$> ham-rah, fellow-traveller, 
p <U % Lu^ ham-sdya, (same shade) neighbour. 

cAtxP ^Lw-i* ham-say as-e darwesh, a poor 

p jjm£ ham-sar, (same head), equal, associate; 

pa ^U*^ ham-^indn, (with equal reins), rider 

side by side ; companion, friend, 
p j* Akfrham- Icadam ( fellow-stepping), companion . 
p a ijjJH *£> ham-lcafas, cage-fellow. 

p ^L$> ham-lcun (pi. ^-^ ham-kundn), fellow- 
labourer, fellow-worker, companion, 
p ^j\&$ hamgindn, all ; a company ; equals. 

p ^yJLu^> ham-nishln (or c^mm^ 1 ham-nishast) 
one who sits with another, companion. 

p ^ hama, all, every one, the whole, everything. 

v\s>- <L$> hama ja, everywhere, all places. &$> 
l^-j) W- hama ja ast, is everywhere. 

p \, &$> hama ra, to all. 

p .^ hami, a redundant particle prefixed to 
Persian tenses, especially to the present and 

p /♦,L\ r ^ hami ddram, I have. 

p (jjJ^ hamidun,now, always; in this manner. 

p <Liw^ hamesha, always, invariably. 

p ^$> hamln, only ; merely this (or these) ; the 
same, neither more nor less; in the same 

A p XJb Hind, India. 

p *<XJd hindu, a Hindoo. 

p fJc^tjSiJb Hindustan, the country of the 
Hindu people, Hindostan. 

p (J^i)^ hindu^e, a certain Hindoo. 

p i_£ <XJb Hindi, Indian. 

p JJ& hunar, skill, science, ingenuity, art, tact, 
knack ; virtue, merit, excellence, accomplish- 

p iX-stjU 

& hunarmand (or .• ^JJb hunarwar), skil- 
ful, scientific. 

r ^Uj jJb hunar-numdi, merit-displaying. 

p ±Jj)/*2> hunarwari, eminence in art, skill, or 

p (.5^ hunare, a single merit, a solitary virtue 
or excellence. 

p aILjs hangdm, time, hour, season, moment. 

p ti^i^Jb hanguft, thick, dense, coarse, stout ; 

cloth of a firm texture. 
a J»iib hunud (pi. of &Jb hind), Indians, 
p J.iJfc hanoz, yet, still, hitherto. 
a -^Jcs hanit, agreeable, wholesome, pleasant, 

"light, easy of digestion. 
Ay& huioa, he ; He is (a name of God). 
k'\*& hawai, air, atmosphere, the space between 

heaven and earth ; anything empty, a plys 

^jus^, hawd pukhtan, to concoct a vain fancy. 


( 125 ) 

ijMjlb j \j& hawd wa haioas, concupiscence, 
lust, sensuality, sensual indulgence. 

a p ^z^ji \j& hawd-parast, sensualist. 

A p ^j \jk hawd-paraste, a sensualist. 

a -.tiiyfc hawddij (pi. of .j--<-M> haudaj), camel- 
litters. \^s>-ii\jJb <_£ ft hawddijahd, in their 

a p iJL}\yb> hawdyash, the air of it, its climate. 

^^Juft hawd<-e, a new conceit, a fresh whim. 

Pjyb for, the sun. 

a fjHjb hawas, desire, lust, concupiscence. 

AP (_fjy \j+>}& hawas-bdze, a voluptuary. 

a je-oys hawase, a whim, a desire, a lust, a sen- 
"sual scheme, some new caprice. 

p fj!>*ft Ao«^, understanding, sense, judgment, 
prudence, intelligence; shrewdness. ijijA 
^^i-llj hosh dashtan, to heed, mind, pay at- 
tention, he careful. 

p jCwtJ^yb hoshmand, intelligent, sensible, sa- 
gacious; cautious, wary. 

p ^jS^aJ^^& hoshmandi, intelligence, sagacity. 

PjL-ijJS> hosh-ydr, sensible, endued with a 

sound understanding. 
a JLft fozj, terror, dread; horrible. 

a p cJUyfc haulndk, terrible, dreadful ; dan- 
gerous, perilous, 
p iOj •& huwaidd, clear, evident, conspicuous. 

a i' Lft hauat, face, aspect, appearance ; exte- 
rior form, guise. 

a <U»ii> haibat, fear ; respect, reverence, awe ; 
awfulness, gravity, majesty, dignity. 

p *$& hech, at all, anything, aught, some, any. 

p ita^-<.2CUJ> hechat, any to thee. 

p ijjSsMb hech leas, a person of nothing worth, 

nonentity of a person. 
p a .jSij *$&> hech wakte, at any time, ever, 
p ijjo -sUb AecA ^ff£, anyone. 
p *J-Ji hezam, wood, timber, stick, firewood. 

p i^i£ (♦Js Jb - hezam-kash, a carrier of faggots for 

fuel ; breedbate, mischief-maker. 
a j£-£> haikal, figure, image, stature, shape. 

A ,A£-J> hailcale, a figure ; such a form ! 

a ^Ji^Jb haiyulariiy, material. 

a Cl^l^-Ji haihdt, begone ! away ! beware ! 

a ,_? t, me, my (affix, pron. added to nouns). 

p l) yd, or, either. 

a u yd, ! (governs the nom. or accus.) 

p <—->V, V s ^> & n & (imperat. of ■jt'iib ydftan) ; 
(in comp.) finding, obtaining. 

a jj*i l> ya bunaiya', my darling boy ! 

p j\j ya<£, memory, remembrance, recollection. 
^^V* I Ju y«^ dmadan, to come into memory, 
to recur to one's recollection. io^T ^V. ^"^ 
dvardan, to call to remembrance. ,j2-M J jb 
yao? dashtan, to remember, recollect. 

Pjb y«r (pi. ^iU ydrdn), helper, ally; asso- 
ciate, companion, comrade ; lover (occurring 
in certain words such as J\j_ ~^L shahr-ydr, 
•L-iyb hosh-ydr, and a few others). 

p \Jo_ yard, power; boldness, courage. i_£^V. 
JoJ& ydrdyi-guftdr, boldness of speech, daring 
to talk. 

a < ij U yd rabb, Lord ! 

p cijV. y ar *> friendship; aid, help, assistance; 
fellowship, companionship. Tare, a friend; 
a lover ; a fresh lover, a new lover. 

A U* V. y ai8 > despair. 

p jm^-jV. y^min, jasmine. 

r yi (i r+~ ! V. yasmin-bu, sweet-scented as the 
jasmine. ^Jy ij^-'V. yasmin-bun, (thou) art 
as sweet as the jasmine. 

p i^b ydftan, to find, obtain, gain, get, attain, 

p ^i\\ yafte, he had found or obtained. 

p (_£b^ <*ib yufa-dardi, idle talker. 

a i_^s*k I) yd li 'I ^afab, wonderful! strange! 

a c^J \j yd laita, Oh I wish ! Oh would that ! 

a (o^LsM jLas* U yd ma^sharu 'I khulldn, as- 
sembly of friends ! friendly circle ! 



( 126 ) 


a ^y I) yd man, thou who ! 

a «_3b ydnic., ripe, mature. «_j u _-e.*JJ 1 at tamr 

yani^, the dates ripe, 
p L-?)jl>. yavart, aid. ^^ <_£y V. y&vwi Icar- 

dan, to befriend, help, aid, assist. 
a {Jub+), yabtushu, he waxes strong, becomes 

violent (aor. of the rt. (jiJaJ ). j\^^ (j^la-j 

yabtushu bPlfirtir, he will be valiant in flight. 
a t jyS)lsX) yataMashanu, he is rough (morally 

or physically), aor. of ^J*\s? takMshana, 

6th form of the rt. ^y^- • 
a f^J^, yatarashshahu, exudes or exudates (aor. 

of f*Ji tarashshaha, 5th form of the rt. f^j)- 

a i__ab&u yataldtafu, he is smooth ; he becomes 
courteous, gentle, and gracious (aor. of t_ik^lj' 
talutafa, 6th form of the rt. u-bU). 

a ^y-i yataicaJckalu, trusts, relies, confides (aor. 

of t_K%J" taioahhala, 5th form of the rt. J^;). 

a **sj yatim, orphan, pupil, ward ; unique, rare, 

incomparable. *^jJ durri yatim, a rare 

A*\.z>ryajlu, he makes clear ; (it) becomes clear 
(aor. of the rt. ls^- defective j wdw). 

a ^^=sr yuhibbu, he loves or befriends (aor. of 
t ,*J ahabba, 4th form of the rt. i ,=-). 

a Li_JA=sT yuhaddithu, converses, discourses (aor. 
ot^DSs^haddatha, 2nd form of the rt. cL-'w\&- ). 
^Jja^ yuhaddithuni, he will converse with 
me, he discourses with me. 

a J^=r; yahmilu, bears, carries (aor. of the rt. 
J««a»). L-SsLiosT yahmilulca, (it) will support 

A ,g-=sC Yahya 1 , John ; St. John the Baptist. 

p fCyaJch, ice. 

p idjj*i J^ yaM-basta, ice-bound, frozen. 

a Jo yad, the hand. (J^-j Jo y*wfo' sufla! , the 
lower or inferior hand, the hand that re- 
ceives. Lie Jo ?/«<&.' <Mlya? , the upper or 
superior hand, the hand that gives. 

a ,jO Jo yadaini (obi. of ^'jo yaddni, dual of 

Jo yfl(£), both hands. <U Jo ^«j Ja?M« yadaihi, 

between his hands, meaning, in his presence 

or before his face. 
a _> y«r#, he sees (gezmate of J^y yara\ aor. of 

thert.^/^ ra^a'). w«y_ U^ J! alamyaraM 

yauman, ah ! he has not seen her any day. 
a <_£»' J yurufihu, he travels in company with, 

he accompanies ; he helps, he affords aid (aor. 

of (JJ\j rdfaka, 3rd form of the rt. (JJj)- 
jJii^j yurdfikuni, accompanies me. 
a i^y^rA yarja^una, they return or will return 

(aor. of the rt. ^>-j). 

a %Jji ywfa<M, (he) raises (aor. of the rt. f-Jj). 

«_jj ijm+i laisa yarfacu, he raises not. 
i t i 

a t_jv yard, (a contraction of jV yan-a', aor. 


of the rt. ^1) n?*«'), he sees, he looks on. 
a Jjj* yazulu, departs, declines, decays (aor. of 

the rt. Jlj zaZa, concave j «0a«>). 
a aJuuuj) yastahimu, is correct, right, proper, 

just, consistent, or equitable; stands, remains 

(aor. of *u&~ >\ istalcuma, 10th form of the rt. 

/♦li, concave j wdw). 


yusran (ace. governed by the particle ^ 

inna), ease, facility. 
A «-w yasaai, is large, ample ; holds, contains ; 

is able or equal to (aor. of the root «_-;.). 
j.x^j yasa-.urii, equals me; can hold me. 
a ,Ji*wJ ya.sla, he presents liquor (aor. of the 

verb (Ji~j stfAff', a defective verb). 
a JuuuJ yaslamu, he is safe, he escapes (aor. of 

the rt. *!-.•)• (*^*V. l/**^ ^' sa y as ^ amu > he is 

not safe. 
a j-**«J yusighu, allows to flow gently down the 

throat; hence, allays, quenches (aor. of cU 

asdaha. 4th form of the verb 4L:, concave ,). 

<li^*j yimghulxu, quenches it. 
a JU«a> yasuhc, attacks, makes an assault (aor. 

of the verb jLe sdla, concave j wdtv). J*~aJ 

uLkj yasulu batshan, will attack furiously. 


( 127 ) 


i«_^Kn l \z i}y^„ yasulu caW I kalbi, will 

rush upon the dog. 
a Jsj yafor (gezmate of .-.I2J yatlru, aor. of the 

verb jlL £ar«, he fled, he flew, concave <_£). 
A ^ yutfis-u, he extinguishes or quenches 

(aor. of lit! atfa>a,A.'Ca. form of the rt. ^Jb)- 
a aIxj ya-.lamu, he knoweth or shall know (aor. 

of the verb As. ). 
a .ji*- 1 , ya^ni, he means ; it signifies (aor. of tbe 

rt.^xc ) ; hence,videlicet,thatistosay, to wit. 
a <jJ-*J yu gh laku, will be shut (aor. pass, of the 

rt. ^lc). 
p U.*j yaghnd, prey, booty, spoil, plunder; name 

of a city in Turkistan, celebrated for the 

beauty of its inhabitants. 

p^JU^ ya gh na -I, native of the city of Yaghnia. 

a i«ii| yughni, enables to do without and to 
dispense with ; renders independent or rich 
(aor. of i^ii aghna\ 4th form of the rt. ^i ). 

^}C lLnjJ ^^ yu ghn ihi zdlika c«w, that will 

enable him to dispense with. 
a Ljtj^u, yaftari, he invents a lie, charges falsely 

(aor. oft^^j! if 't a ra\ 8th form of the rt.^y). 
a Jliu yukdlu, is said, will be said (aor. pass. 

of the rt. Jli, concave j wuvo). 
a !y-Ju yakbilu, they accept (gezmate of ^.Lib 

yakbiluna, aor. of the rt. (J-.S ). 
a ^j-Ju yakln, certain, sure, true. 

p ulx» yah, one ; an ace. ulio <Lo s«A ya/j, 
three aces. 

a CSjyaku (a contraction'' of jj^o yakun, gez- 
mated aorist of the rt. ^l^), as *y*-RiJ i-lio J 
/am y«£w yanfa^uhum, it availed them not. 

a JIG yakadu, it wants but little ; sometimes it 
is pleonastic, as in the phrase AjL^uj J\£j 1 la 
yakadu yusighuhu, (he) does not allay (or 
quench) it. 

t ^Ixj ^ixj yakdn yakdn, one by one. 

p jl^J y«£ bar, one time, once, one day, some 

p ijb cLSo yak bur a, wholly, entirely. 

p .puxj yaktush, name of a celebrated athlete. 

p ^sZjyak-dil, single-hearted, faithful, sincere. 

p /♦ J^j ya/c &)», one instant, one moment. 

p i& /*J^J y«^ ^«w hi, the moment that. 

p .LaSo yak-digar (or S^>, yak-digar), one 

p j^bj^; yak-zabdn, of one tongue, speaking 

the same thing, univocal, unanimous, 
p ^Uu.0 yak-sdn, same, ditto, alike, equal. 
a v_^.uX) yaksibu, gains, acquires (aor. of the 

root {^~*Js ). 
p «au£j ?/«£ su, one side, aside. ivi^"V V*^. 

yak su nihddan, to lay aside. 
a (j»^J yakunu, becomes (aor. of the rt. ^li 

idwfl, concave j »ow, governing the accus.). 
p ^£j yfl7i;?, unity, oneness. Take, one, a single 

one, any one, a certain one, an individual; 

the one. J.. ^£j yake roz, one day, some 

p <Jjlx> yagdna (originally <sjlT i__x> yak gdna), 

one, sole, single ; unrivalled, unequalled ; 

a (j3>ibJj yaltafitna, they pay attention, they give 

heed (aor. fern. 8th form of the rt. t^->ii ). 

a /ZsrV. yalhaku, adheres to, reaches, overtakes 

(aor. of the verb <_£s?). .j-^ •• yalhakuni, 
adheres to me. 

a uL yalmizu, defames, calumniates, accuses, 
reproaches (aor. of the rt. UJ ). 

a iJUj yamani, produced in Taman. 

a ^Lwws.'V. yumajjisdni, they make a Magian, 
they heathenize (aor. du. of w*s£* rnajjasa, 
a root coined from the word (jm^s?* majus, 
Magi, fire-worshipper). ajLu^rV. yumajji- 
sdnihi, they (both) make him a heathen. 

a j\J t yamurru, he passes by (aor. of the vb.^i). 

a lLJAaj yamliku, he possesses, he owns (aor. 
of the rt CiX*). Tumlaku, he is possessed 
or owned (aor. pass, of the same verb). 


( 128 ) 


a JJ.4J yumn, felicity, prosperity, good luck, 
blessing, auspices. Yaman, right hand or 
side ; Yaman, Arabia Felix. 

A jj^J yamln, oath ; right hand or side. ,j*<*J 

d£L*M yaminu 'I mulk, right arm of the 
kingdom (a style, title, or proper name). 

a ^Sj>a^i yunassirani, they make a Nazarene, 
they Christianize (aor. dual of yaj nassara, 
a root coined from the word .JJ-*s3 nasra- 
riiy, Nazarene). <Uy^o yunassirdnihi, they 
{i.e. both parents) make him a Christian. 

a £-&*> yanfa^u, availeth, profiteth (aor. of the 

rt. *_aj ). l!^«j yanfa^uka, will profit 
thee, availeth thee. 

A jtf^V yus-ajjiju, he kindles (aor. of -tf^"l ajjaja, 

2nd form of the rt. —\ ). 

pj»j ywz, panther, pard, lynx, ounce (by the 
poets said to have a partiality for cheese). 

a <— &-a.j Yusuf, the patriarch Joseph, son of 
Jacob, remarkable for his beauty. Mention 
is made of him in several passages of the 
Kur'an, but especially in the chapter which 
bears his name. 

p lcA-jjJ yusuf i, Joseph-like, comely as Joseph. 

A ^jj yuzahu, will be made evident, or is ren- 
dered clear (aor. pass, of s*j\ awzaha, 4th 
form of the verb f^j)- 

a jJ«j yuladu, he is born (aor. pass, of the root 
jjj walada). 

a *jj yaum, day. <L«LJj1! *«j yaumu 'I Iciytimat, 

the day of resurrection. 
a L*jj yauman, (ace. of *»j yaum), one day, any 

day, some day ; (adverbially) once ; ever. 
a (j"*l Yundn, Ionia ; the ancient Greeks until 

subjugated by Rome ; after which the Greek 

nation is called by Oriental writers Rumi. 
a (j*-J*> Yunas, the Prophet Jonah, of whom 

repeated mention is made in the Kur'an. 

One of its chapters bears his name. 
a (_f Jl^j yahtadl, he is guided aright, he finds 

the right way (aor. of ^j^xJn) ihtada', 8th 

form of the root i_i<\a> hada', defective vb.). 

a Jk^j yahuddu, he (or it) shakes to the ground, 

or demolishes (aor. of the verb Afl> hadda). 
A c?«XiJ yuhda', is directed (pass. aor. of the 

verb c_?-^£> hada', he guided). 

a |_£ja^J 2 *6 j <0 lJ^J, yuhda? hihi wahwa la 
yahtadl, (mankind) is guided by him, but he 
does not find the right way himself. If it is 
read yalidl MM, it will signify " he guides 
(others) by it;" that is, by the torch. 

a ^1 J«^J yuhauwidani, they make a Jew, they 
judaize (aor. du. of jlft hauwada, 2nd form of 
the verb l>1&> hada, concave^ wow). <U!j»^j 
yuhauwidanihi, they make him a Jew. 

a i_>0^, yahudly, Jew, Jewish, Judaical. 

a i^u-\» yas-isa, he despaired (when used in a 
general sense and without reference to any 
specific time, the preterite may frequently be 
translated by the present), he despaireth. 

feinted by Stephen Austin, hkutfokb. 



[the classes here referred to are those mentioned at the end of the preface]. 

Page 2, line 6. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxxiv. verse 12, "Saba." 
Work, family of David ! with thanksgiving. But few of rny servants are the thankful. 

Page 3, line 1 1 . — Class 4. 
Intercessor obeyed, — generous prophet, — comely, — portly, — smiling, — marked with the 
prophetic seal. 

Page 3, line 16. — Class 4. 
He attained elevation by his perfection. He unveiled the darkness by his beauty. 
Fair are all his qualities — Invoke ye blessings on him and on his family. 

Page 3, line 20. — Class 2. 
My angels ! verily I am ashamed by reason of My servant, and he hath no Lord beside 
me. Therefore have I pardoned him. 

Page 4, line 3. — Class 3. 
We have not worshipped Thee as Thou oughtest to be worshipped. 

Page 4, line 4. — Class 3. 
We have not known Thee as Thou deservest to be known. 

Page 4, line 21. — Class 4. 
The shadow of God on His earth ; the Lord of the earth be satisfied with him ! 

Page 5, line 2. — Class 3. 
Men follow the religion of their kings. 

Page 5, line 10. — Class 3. 
God ! confer happiness on the Mussulmans by the length of his life, and double the 
reward of his goodness and actions fair, and exalt the rank of his friends and governors, and 
hurl destruction on his foes and haters, according to what is written in the verses of the 
Kur'an. God ! give security to his country and protect his son : 

The world is happy by him ; may his happiness endure ! And may the Lord strengthen 
him with the banners of victory. Thus may grow a stately palm-tree whereof he is the 
root ; for the excellence of a plant of the earth arises from the goodness of the seed. 



Page 8, line 20. — Class 4. 
A garden, the water of whose river was a limpid stream. A grove, the warbling of 
whose birds was measured cadence. 

Page 9, line 10. — Class 4. 
The generous man when he has promised, pays. 

Page 9, line 15. — Class 4. 
The aided from heaven, victorious over his enemies, arm of the conquering dynasty, 
lamp of the excellent religion, beauty of mankind, glory of Islam, Sa'd son of the greatest 
Atabek, the proudest king of kings, possessor of the necks of peoples, lord of the kings of 
Arabs and Persians, sovereign of land and sea, heir of the throne of Solomon, Muzaffuru 'd 
dunya wa 'd din, Abu bakr bin Sa'd bin ZangI ; may God Most High perpetuate the pros- 
perity of both, and make every good their final portion ! 

Page 10, line 7. — Class 4. 

Shelter of the poor, refuge of strangers, patron of the learned, friend of the pious, 

succour of Islam and Mussulmans, pillar of kings and sultans, Abu bakr bin Abl nasr, may 

God lengthen his life, and make glorious his dignity, and expand his heart and double his 

reward ! 

Page 11, line 21. — Class 4. 

Make preparation for going out before entering. 

Page 13, line 8. — Class 4. 
When a man despairs, his tongue grows long : as a cat vanquished rushes at the dog. 

Page 13, line 12. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura iii. verse 128, "The Family of Imran." 

And who master their anger, and forgive others. And God loveth the doers of good. 

Page 14, line 20.— Class 3. 
The sheep is clean, and the elephant carrion. 

Page 14, line 21. — Class 4. 

The least of the mountains of the earth is Sinai ; but with God it is truly the greatest 

in dignity and rank. 

Page 18, line 2. — Class 2. 

None is born but what is born with a disposition to Islam : afterwards his parents make 

him a Jew, or a Christian or a Magian. 

Page 18, line 15. — Class 4. 
Thou hast been fed with our milk, and hast grown up amongst us ; who then informed 
thee that thou art the son of a wolf? 

"When the disposition is a disposition to evil, the instruction of the teacher is of no avail. 

Page 26, line 14. — Class 4. 
When the armed warrior is well fed he will attack with ardour ; whilst the empty-bellied 
will be ardent in flight. 

Page 29, line 22.— Class 4. 
Up ! be not grieved, O brother of affliction ! 
For the Merciful One hath secret favours (in store). 



Page 38, line 2.— Class 1.— Kur'an, Sura ii. verse 202, "The Cow." 
The pride of sin seizeth him. 

Page 39, line 12. — Class 4. 
I taught him archery every day ; but when his arm waxed strong, he shot me. 

Page 43, line 14. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xli. verse 46, "The Made Plain." 

He who doeth right, it is for himself ; and he who doeth evil, it is against himself. 

Page 47, line 15. — Class 4. 
Do thou unto me whatever is worthy of Thee ; but do not unto us what wo deserve. 

Page 49, line 3. — Class 4. 
If I may not be a rider of the beasts, I will work for you as a carrier of the saddle- 

Page 49, line 21.— Class 4. 
Safety (is) in solitude. 

Page 51, line 8. — Class 4. 
Thou hast done harm enough, who enumeratest my good qualities. 
This is my external appearance : but my inward part thou hast not known. 

Page 52, line 1. — Class 2. 

I have with God moments when neither angel near the throne, nor prophet sent, could 

contain me. 

Page 52, line 3. — Class 3. 

The visions of the just (alternate) between effulgence and withdraw ment. 

Page 52, line 6. — Class 4. 
I gaze on him whom I love without an intervening medium, — 
And there befals me a condition in which I lose my way. 
lie kindles a fire, and afterwards extinguishes it by his sprinkling, 
For that reason thou seest me consumed and drowned. 

Page 52, line 18. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura 1. verse 15, "Kaf." 
And we are closer to him than his neck-vein. 

Page 54, line 2. — Class 3. 
A religious bequest hath no owner. 

Page 56, line 22.— Class 4. 
"VVe are roused up at the sound of the songs through their sweetness : but thou art a 
singer, if thou keepest silence, we find them sweetest. (Some copies read tatlbu, Thou art 

Page 59, line 10. — Class 4. 
Certainly I am concealed from the eye of ni)* neighbours ; 
But God knoweth my secret and my outward conduct. 

Page 61, line 4. — Class 4. 
And at the blowing of the fresh breezes over the pasture, the branches of the tamarisk 
bend, but not the hard rock. 



Page 61, line 20. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xciv. verse 6, "The Opening." 
Verily along with difficulty, ease. 

Page 63, line 6.— Class 2. 
Abu Huraira ! visit me seldomer, and you will be liked the more. 

Page 64, line 8.— Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura iii. verse 188, "The Family of Imran." 
And preserve us, our Lord ! from the torment of the fire. 

Page 65, line 15. — Class 4. 
And branches on which were pomegranate-fiowcrs, as though fire had been huDg on the 
green tree. 

Page 65, line 20. — Class 4. 
Men around him were perishing with thirst, 
And he, a cup-bearer sees, but gives not to drink. 

Page 69, line 17.— Class 1.— Kur'an, Sura xxv. verse 72, " Al Furkan." 

AVhen they pass by frivolous sport, they pass by with dignity. 

Page 69, line 18. — Class 4. 
When thou seest a sinner, be thou concealing and gentle. 
thou that reprobatest my fault, why dost thou not pass by generously ? 

Page 71, line 20. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxxi. verse 14, "Lokman." 
But if they importune thee to associate with Me that of which thou hast no knowledge, 
then obey them not. 

Page 76, line 15. — Class 3. 
This quantity will support thee, and what exceeds that, thou must be the bearer thereof. 

Page 77, line 14. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura vii. verse 29, "Al Araf." 
Eat ye and drink, but commit not excess. 

Page 79, line 4. — Class 4. 
Out upon the viands when baseness acquires them ! The cauldron is set up, but the 
dignity is lowered. 

Page 81, line 8.— Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xlii. verse 26, "Counsel." 
Should God bestow abundance upon His servants, they might act wantonly on the earth. 

Page 81, line 9. — Class 4. 
What then has plunged thee, deluded one, into danger that thou hast perished ? 
would that the ant had not assayed to fly ! 

Page 82, line 5. — Class 4. 
would that before my death One day I might obtain my wish ! 

A river dashing against my knee — Then would I not cease to fill my bottle. 

Page 83, line 16. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxiv. verse 26, "Light." 
Impure women for impure men. 

Page 83, line 17.— Class 4. 
They said, Mortar from lime is not clean. 
We replied, We close therewith the chinks of the privy. 



Page 85, line 3. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura x. verse 90, "Jonah." 
Until when the drowning overtook him. 

Page 85, line 6. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxix. verse 65, "The Spider." 

When they embark on shipboard, they call upon God, vowing him sincere worship. 

Page 86, line 17. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura vii. verse 146, "Al Araf." 

Verily an ass amongst men resembles a calf ruddy like gold and lowing. 

Page 89, line 9. — Class 4. 
Mine ear (is attentive) to the excellence of the songs. Who is this that touches the lute- 
strings ? 

Page 93, line 16. — Class 4. 

Who will converse with me now that the yellow camels are off ? To the stranger none 

but the stranger is a companion. 

Page 96, line 19.— Class 4. 

And the brother of hatred passes not by a good man but what he vilifies (him) as the 

worst of liars. 

Page 99, line 20.— Class 3. 

Without thy gifts we are content with departure. 

Page 100, line 7. — Class 4. 
The croak of the crow of the desert. 

Page 100, line 7. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxxi. verse 18, "Lokman." 
Surely the most displeasing of noises is the voice of asses. 

Page 100, line 8. — Class 4. 
When the preacher Abu Fawaris brays, he has a voice which shakes Istakhar of Persia. 

Page 102, line 14.— Class 4. 

An apparition of him who by his countenance dispels the gloom, came at night in a 

vision to accompany me as a guide through the night. 

He whom I love came to me in brightness. Then said I to him, Welcome ! and facility ! 

and room ! 

Page 103, line 22.— Class 4. 

When thou comest unto me in society to visit me, though thou comest in peace, still thou 

bringest war. 

Page 106, line 11.— Class 3. 

O crow of the desert ! would there were between me and thee the distance of the tropics. 

Page 109, line 1.— Class 3. 
The dates ripe, and the keeper not preventing. 

Page 109, line 10. — Class 4. 

And if a man escape from the evil of his own self, — from the evil of the suspicion of the 

accuser he will not escape. 

Page 110, line 10.— Class 4. 

A thirst (is) in my heart (which) the sipping of pure water fails to slake, even though I 

drank oceans. 



Page 111, line 2. — Class 4. 
I missed the moment of union ; and man is ignorant of the value of the delights of life, 
before troubles (overtake him). 

Page 113, line 13. — Class 4. 
Zaid struck Amr ; he is a transgressor (in a grammatical sense he is the agent). 

Page 113, line 17. — Class 4. 
I am ill-used by a grammarian rushing on me in a rage, like Zaid in a struggle with 
Amr. At the trailing of the skirt he raiseth not his head ; but from him that draggeth 
down is raising consistent ? (grammatically, can the nominative be expected from a power 
governing the oblique case ?) 

Page 113, line 20.— Class 2. 
Speak thou to men according to the measure of their understandings. 

Page 114, line 15. — Class 4. 
If I die not of grief on the day of bidding adieu, esteem me not in friendship candid. 

Page 114, line 22.— Class 4. 
And many a sincere friend hath blamed me for (my) love for her. Oh ! he hath never 
seen her ; or else would my excuse be obvious. 

Page 115, line 3. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xii. verse 32, Joseph." 
This is he for you, about whom ye blamed me. 

Page 115, line 15. — Class 4. 
What passed in mine ear of the story of the secluded spot, had the dusky-coloured doves 
overheard, they would have cried out with me. Oh assembly of friends ! say ye to him that 
is free (from the pangs of love), Oh would that thou knewest what is in the heart of the 
afflicted ! 

Page 116, line 10. — Class 4. 
The blow of a friend is a raisin. 

Page 118, line 15. — Class 2. 

The door of repentance shall not be closed against the servants (of God) until the sun 

arise from its setting-point. I ask pardon of Thee, Ood ! and I return by repentance unto 


Page 118, line 20* 

God Most High hath said, Their faith profited them not when they witnessed our severity. 

Page 122, line 8. — Class 4. 
"When she saw before her husband a thing like the flabbiest lip of one keeping a fast, she 
says, He has with him a dead (thing). Now a charm is only for the sleeper. 

Page 124, line 3. — Class 4. 
Childhood has passed away and hoariness has wrought a change in me. Change of time 
is a sufficient monitor. 

* Although this passage reads like a quotation from the Kur'iin, still I have not been able to discover it 
anywhere in that somewhat unconnected rhapsody. 



Page 127, line 1 5. —Class 3. 
God made them to grow a fair plant. 

Page 127, line 19.— Class 4. 
The tender branches indeed when thou hast straightened them remain straight ; but it is 
of no use to thee to attempt to straighten dry wood. 

Page 129, line 18. — Class 3. 
Convey what thou art charged with : and if they accept not, there is nothing against thee. 

Page 131, line 2. — -Class 3. 
Oh my dear boy; thou wilt be asked on the day of the resurrection, What hast thou 
gained ? It will not be said, To whom wert thou related ? 

Page 136, line 5. — Class 2. 
The death of the poor (is) a rest. 

Page 136, line 15. — Class 2. 
The most hostile foe of thine (is) thy soul which (is) between thy sides. 

Page 138, line 3. — Class 4. 

I flee unto God for refuge from depressing poverty and from the vicinity of him who 

loveth not. 

Page 138, line 3.— Class 2. 

Poverty is blackness of the face in both worlds. 

Page 138, line 5. — Class 2. 
Poverty (is) my glory. 

Page 138, line 10.— Class 4. 
Poverty wanteth but little of being a denial of God. 

Page 138, line 14. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxxvii. verse 40, The Banks." 

A stated banquet shall they have of fruits ; and honoured shall they be in the garden of 


Page 139, line 10.— Class 4. 

(There is) no monasticism in Islam. 

Page 139, line 20.— Class 4. 
"Whoever has before him what ripe dates he longs for : that enables him to do without 
pelting the clusters. 

Page 142, line 3. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xix. verse 47, " Mary." 
Verily if thou desistest not, I will assuredly stone thee. 

Page 142, line 21. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura lxv. verse 3, Divorce." 
And for him who putteth his trust in God, He will be all-sufficient. 

Page 143, line 7. — Class 4. 

And ladies riding on camels in their litters take no heed to him who is floundering among 

the sand-hillocks. 

Page 143, line 12. — Class 4. 

Aided from God, victorious and triumphant over his enemies, holder of the reins of the 



human race, defender of the passes of Islam, heir to the kingdom of Solomon, the most just 
of the monarchs of the time, Muzaffaru 'd dunya wa 'd din, Abu Bakr bin Sa'd bin Zangi. 
May God prolong his days, and give victory to his banners ! 

Page 144, line 14. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxviii. verse 77, "The Story." 
Do good as God hath done good unto thee. 

Page 144, line 18. — Class 3, 
Be bountiful and upbraid not ; for the benefit will revert unto thee. 

Page 145, line 14. — Class 4. 
Guidance (to others) is afforded by him, but he finds not the way himself. 

Page 148, line 2. — Class 4. 
The last of resources (is) the sword. 

Page 152, line 4. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxxvi. verse 60, Ya Sin." 
Did I not enjoin on you, sons of Adam ! Worship not Satan, for that he is your 
declared foe ? 

Page 158, line 16. — Class 4. 
And drop upon drop, when blended — a river : and river to river, when united — a sea. 

Page 164, line 11. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xii. verses 18 and 83, Joseph." 
He said : Nay, but yourselves have suggested to you an affair. But patience is seemly. 

Page 166, line 1. — Class 1. — Kur'an, Sura xxxii. verse 21, Adoration." 
And we will surely cause them to taste a punishment yet nearer at hand, besides the 
greater punishment ; that haply they may return. 

Page 166, line 19. — Class 4. 
Every vessel distils what it contains. 

Page 170, line 10.— Class 4. 
thou who lookest into it, ask of God mercy for the author and ask pardon for the owner 
of it : and seek for thy soul the good thou desirest for her. After that forgiveness for the 
owner of it. 

The book is concluded by the aid of the All-bounteous King. 




Late of the East India College, Herts. 

My Deae Feiend, 

I here send you a brief sketch of the Persian Metres 
employed by Shaikh Sa'di in the First Book of his Gulistan. I feel much pleasure in 
so doing, as a small return for many acts of kindness I experienced from you "in days 
o' lang syne," when you used to send me (as our Haileybury friends would express it) 
"no end of pupils" during vacations; not to speak of much valuable aid received from 
you very recently, in the concocting of certain literary works we wot of. 

The Metres in the First Book are not so numerous as one would be apt to 
expect. Of the fourteen in general use among the Persians, I think there are not 
more than eight here to be met with ; but then each of these has several variations, 
all of which are detailed in Section VII. of the last edition (1861) of my Persian 
Grammar, which, of course, I recommend to the learner's careful perusal. 

"Wishing you all the compliments of the season, 

I remain, My dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 

58, Burton Crescent, 

7th January, 1863. 


13 6 i^-~j bait, 
„ 16 c^ -»> bait, 

«_j 'r^js^r bahri sari, variation 1. 

Muftadilim Muftadilim Fadilat. 
jj\h*ijcsr bahri mutaharib, var. 2. 

Fadiimn Faduhm Faduhm Fadal. 








Li^J bait, 

i— suk&-jss? bahri khafif, var. 4, 

Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadlun. 



IJJ&* mathnavi, 

<^jj\b^4jsr bahri mutakarib, var. 2 and 1. 

Fadulun Fadulun Fadulun Fadal. 
or „ „ „ Fadul. 



sjttzi kit'a, 

c jListjztr bahri muzari , var. 4. 

Mafdulu Fadilatu Mafadilu Fadilat. 



ijtkii kit'a, 

u_d-i=-^=sr bahri khafif, var. 4, same as p. 13, 1. 17. 



^cLj rubal, 

_ jjb^sr £a/iri hazaj, var. 15. 
Mafdulu Mafadilun Fadulun. 



<uki kit'a, 

J.*j jeer bahri ramal, var. 4. 
Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilat. 



4xkS kit'a, 

u-aJbs- .csr 6a/^n khafif, var. 2 and 4. 

Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadilat.* 
or ,, „ Fadlun. 



lt-~-j bait, 

i^JJ^ jssr, ^«/«rif khafif, var. 2 and 4, same as last. 



<uki kit'a, 

u Uj .=sr e#An ramal, var. 13 and 12. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilun. 
or „ ,, Fadilat. 



,_$»ii* mathnavi, 

t-^li^^ss^ 6<z/jri mutakarib, var. 1. 

Fadulun Fadulun Fadulun Fadul. 



tr-^-j bait, 

i— <Lrs>- j2< bahri khafif, var. 4, same as p. 13, 1. 17. 



l^--j bait, 

J^jjs? bahri ramal, var. 8. 
Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilat. 



jjtLl- /foV'a, 

i— a-i:>- j=sr. bahri kjiafif, var. 3 and 4. 

Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadilun. 
or „ „ Fadlun. 


The reader will be pleased 

to remember that the vowels a, i, and u, when unmarked, are understood 

to be short, 

except when followed by a double consonant, or by a single consonant at the end of a hemistich ; 

hence it is, in general, superfluous \ 

o put the short mark u over them. "When, however, a foot happens to have 

the same vowels, but with different quantities, such as fadilat and fadilat, the short vowel is marked as well 

as the 


in order " to make assurance doubly sure." 




18 4 <ukjj hit'a, 
„ 8 ^\jj rubai, 

,, 18 l^-v<j bait, 

19 1 sA£ kit'a, 

„ 3 <ukjj &£'«, 

„ 9 c^-j 5ai£, 

,, 12 »»^-j £#^, 

,, 14 ^b i rubai, 

„ 18 <uki /«7'er, 

,, 20 <uki /«y«, 

20 6 4*1« ^'a, 

<~Jusij>-jS? bahri hhafif, var, 2 and 4, as p. 15, 1. 16. 
^[jjjss? bahri rubai, Class II. No. 8. 

Mafdulu Mafadilun Mafadilu Fadal. 
iSJi^jsr bahri hhafif, var. 3. 

Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadilun. 
c jIa+jZsT bahri muzari' , var. 4. 

Mafdulu Fadilatu Mafadilu Fadilat. 
> bahri rajaz, var. 10. 

Mafadilun Mafadilun Mafadil. 
-.j&jsr bahri hazaj, var. 15, same as p. 15, 1. 5. 

bahri Miafif, var. 3, same as p. 18, 1. 18. 



,, 13 u^-x-j bait, 

,, 17 <t*»Iii~« manzuma 

21 2 <uki /to'tf, 

,. 17 <UkJi /e<!7'«, 

„ 20 l^Jj £a&, 

-rljj^sr 5aAn ruba'i, Class II. No. 9. 
Mafdulu Mafadilun Mafadilun Fad. 
<L^s^*jsr bahri mujtathth, var. 3. 

Mafadilun Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadilat. 
i^JtJt^-JsT bahri hhafif, var. 2. 

Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadilat. 
J,«j .=< £<z/<;n ramal, var. 8, 9, or 10. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadlun. 
or ,, ,, ,, Fadlan. 

or ,, ,, ,, Fadilun. 

t^j^si-xst jis? bahri mutaharib, var. 2, same as p. 13, 1. 16. 

i_jLi>- -sr &«/m hhafif, var. 4 and 2, as p. 15, 1. 16. 
J^j j2£r ia/^n ramal, var. 3. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilat, 
_ :a> .aC 5«/«7 hazaj, var. 7. 

Mafdulu Mafadilu Mafadilu Fadulun. 
c cb , .sr bahri rubai, Class II. No. 1. 
Mafdulu Mafadilun Mafadilun Fad. 

22 4 <uLj /fa7'a, <__^,U-»^=r 6a/«7 mutaharib, var. 1, as previously. 







<uSail kit'a, 

t-i~^s"»^sr bahri mnjtathth, var. 3, same as p. 19, 1. 18. 
Mafadilun Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadilat. 



<ukj kit'a, 

^J-Js^jsr bahri khaflf, var. 3 and 4, as in p. 17, 1. 17. 



t^-j bait, 

^jsXijjs?, bahri ruba'i, Class II. No. 6. 



JaJ nazm, 

iJ^cjs?* jssr bahri mujtathth, var. 3, same as p. 19, 1. 18. 



^jft* mathnavi, 

L_^li^»yssr bahri mutakdrib, v. 2, as before. 



i_£jil* mathnavi, 

e-o-iii-^sr? bahri yhafif, var. 4, as in p. 13, 1. 17. 



<uiajs kit'a, 

J^tjjsr bahri ramal, var. 12. 
Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilat. 



ti^-j bait, 

^jAijjsr bahri ruba'i, Class II. No. 2. 
Mafdulu Mafadilu Mafadilun Fad. 



l^-v-j bait, 

Same metre as the preceding. 



Ll^-J #G«7, 

tJi^^sr-OjSsr bahri mujtathth, var. 5. 

Mafadilun Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadlun. 



tijii^ mathnavi, 

t_^Uo-« jssr bahri mutakdrib, var. 1. 



l^-*-j £<3«7, 

J^jjssr bahri ramal, var. 3, as in p. 21, 1. 2. 



U^-J £#?£, 

L±~.jsr* .ssr, bahri mujtathth, irregular. 

Mafadilun Fadilatun Mafadilu Fadulun. 



l^->-j £ai£, 

±Ju£s>. j^r bahri Jckafif, var. 3. vide note under p. 00. 



<uki &Va, 

i— i-i^s- .ssr bahri Tthaflf, var. 2 and 4, as in p. 15, 1. 16.* 



u^-«j bait, 

L-jjXsc^js?. bahri mutakdrib, var. 1, as in p. 16, 1. 17. 



L^-o £ai£, 

J^jjssr bahri ramal, irregular. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Mafdulun Fadilun. 
or Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadlun. 



^cbj ruba'i, 

^\ijj=sr bahri ruba'i, Class II. No. 9, as p. 19, 1. 14. 
Mafdulu Mafadilun Mafadilun Fad. 



(j^-j #az7, 

kJLxs^^xr bahri mujtathth, var. 5, as p. 24, 1. 20. 

* In the first bait of this kit'a my best MSS. read C—-J _y? which the metre requires. The same ex- 
pression occurs in the same foot further on, page 35, line 4, where^ is used, as, ls?> i^f^i.J^ ^r^ ji 
which I have no doubt is the correct reading in both passages. 




27 8 

^ bait, 

,, 13 i^-a-j bait, 

,, 19 c^-j teY, 

28 1 <uki kit a, 
„ 7 <uLi £&'a, 
„ 15 &Aii kit' a, 

29 5 lj^j fa&, 

„ 10 cuLj /foYa, 

,, 19 u^-;j bait, 

30 2 c^-j fo«7, 

„ 9 <uki /«7'a, 

,, 15 i-^-~-j teV, 

,, 18 i^-^-j £#zV, 

31 5 <ukj kit 1 a, 
„ 9 c^-j £a?V, 
,, 11 l^-j teY, 
„ 14 <uL' &£'a, 
„ 19 ajtLi &Y«, 

32 2 ^y kit'a, 
„ 7 <ukj &7'a, 
,, 12 t^--J SazY, 
,, 19 <ulsjj ^Y'a, 

-.jA^sr £<z^n hazaj, var. 10. 
Mafadilun Mafadilun Fadulun. 
(^cbj^sr £<z/^n ruba'i, No. 6, as in p. 23, 1. 3. 

^Xijjsr, bahri ruba'i, Class II. No. 7. 

Mafdulu Mafadllun Mafadllu Fadul. 
—j&jsr bahri hazaj, var. 10, as in last page. 

-kJd>-jsr, bahri Tihqfif, var. 4 and 3, as formerly. 
I^xsr* J2sr bahri mujtathth, var. 5, as in last page. 
-.ybjzsr bahri hazaj, var. 9. 

Mafadilun Mafadilun Mafadll. 
Jy^tjjsr bahri ramal, var. 12 and 13, as in p. 16, 1. 9. 
J^cjsr+jsr, bahri mujtathth, var. 3, as in p. 19, 1. 18. 
J^j j=sr bahri ramal, var. 2, irregular. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadllat. 
orFadilatun „ ,, Fadlun. 

bahri mutaharib, as heretofore. 

cjLi* .asr; bahri muzari', var. 4, same as p. 19, 1. 1. 
_ j&jsf. bahri hazaj, var. 10, as in p. 27, 1. 1. 
Mafadilun Mafadilun Fadulun. 


.ssr bahri Jckafif, as heretofore. 

—ybjs*? bahri hazaj, var. 15, as before. 

_. ia> jsC bahri hazaj, same as last. 
^JLzjfjs?. bahri mujtathth, var. 5, as formerly. 
dLc*sr*ys? bahri mujtathth, var. 3, as formerly. 

-ybjsr bahri hazaj, var. 10, as in p. 27, 1. 1. 

—ji>js^_ bahri hazaj, same as last, 
c X^stjstr, bahri muzari', var. 4, as in p. 19, 1. I. 
il -a.*"' -sT bahri mujtathth, var. 5, as formerly. 






22 <-i--j bait, 


6 t^^-j bait, 


10 i_5^^« mathnavl, 


14 <uki ^£'a, 


17 <uLi &£'a, 

34 5 LJy2*» mathnavl, 
,, 21 e^-j £<zi£, 

35 4 A*ki ^^'a, 
,, 10 c^-j bait, 

,, 19 <uLj /«Y'a, 

36 5 <uLi /vTa, 

,, 20 t^--j &ai£, 

37 4 ^jy£-+ mathnavl, 
„ 12 JaJ nazm, 

„ 15 Li^w* mathnavl, 

„ 20 u^-j £ae£, 

,, 22 <ukj /«Y'a, 

38 7 <uki &*'«, 
„ 11 <ulai hit' a, 

39 14 <ukj &*'«, 

40 3 4*Lj &£'«, 
,, 6 <uLji /«Vtf, 

t_>jlji-i^ y=sr i^a/^'i mutakarib, as heretofore. 
J^j j^sr £a/«7 ramal, var. 14. 
Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilat. 

_ \& js?. bahri hazaj, same as p. 15, 1. 5. 
—yb js? bahri hazaj, same as last. 
<S*:~^*js^ bahri mujtathth, var. 6 and 3, as formerly. 
Mafadilun Fadilatun Mafadilun Fadlan. 

Jytjj^r bahri ramal, var. 12, as in p. 24, 1. 8. 
^Xijjsr bahri rubal, Class II. No. 9, as p. 19, 1. 14. 
Jsijjss? bahri ramal, var. 12, as above. 
y>->.ss? bahri rajaz, irregular. 
Mastafdilun Fadilun Mustafdilun Fadilat. 

_ j&j^. bahri hazaj, var. 9, as heretofore. 
J.,*, jsr, bahri ramal, var. 10 or 11. 

Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadilatun Fadlun. 
or Fadilatun ,, ,, Fadlan. 

^Xsjjsr bahri rubal, Class II. No. 7, as p. 27, 1. 19. 
^Lis^jszr bahri hhaflf, var. 2, as in p. 19, 1. 20. 
ci-c.s'* .sr bahri mujtathth, var. 3 as formerly. 
l-<LA^ jssr bahri Maflf, var. 4, as heretofore. 

^Aij.ssr, bahri rubal, Class II. irregular. 
<-_c-A>- jsr bahri hjiaflf, var. 4 and 3, as formerly. 
t_j,li^» jcsr, bahri mutakarib, as heretofore. 
JL^^ yx? £a/^n mujtathth, var. 3, as heretofore. 
u_i»A>- ,=r £<2/tf7 hhaflf, var. 4 and 3, as formerly. 
u.i> .sr £<z/en hhaflf, same as last. 

i a-i.=- j=sr. bahri hhafif v. 4, 3, and 2, as before. 






c^-j bait, 

^£.[>jj^r bahri rubal, Class II. irregular. 
Mafdulu Mafadilun Mafadllu Fadul. 



<uLj /ji^'a, 

<ѣȣ>- jssr bahri hhaflf, var. 2 and 4, as before. 



^cbj rubal, 

^cb . yxr bahri rubal, Class II. No. 9, as formerly. 



iS*+~* mathnavi, 

—ybjsr bahri hazaj, var. 10, as heretofore. 



£*kjj kit'a, 

c_>,Uu* j=sr bahri mutakarib, as formerly. 



<ukj /«£'«, 

t-aJb*. .ssr bahri Mqflf, var. 4, as formerly. 



<uk3 /«Va, 

_ la -asr #a/*n hazaj, var. 12, as formerly. 



^jy!~* mathnavi, 

_jj!> yxr £a/*rj hazaj, same as last. 


<i*laj kit'a, 

1 o.o -L -*-" hn.h.ri l-hnfif ynr 2, as fnrmfivly. 




t-i^-j &ai£, 

t_^,Li^»^=sr £a/an mutakarib, as formerly. 



<Ul2J &Y(Z, 

^j yj jssr bahri sari, var. 2, 

Muftadihrn Muftadilun Fadilun. 



i^-j te'£, 

C^^s^j^r. bahri mujtathth, var. 3, as formerly. 



<uki /foVa, 

—j&jxr bahri hazaj, var. 10, as heretofore. 



i_$y^* mathnavi, 

—j&jsr bahri hazaj, same as last. 



LSyist mathnavi, 

^Juis^jssr bahri khqflf, as heretofore. 



(^,-j £ai£, 

's>ysr bahri hazaj, var. 10, as before. 



<ukS &£'a, 

—j& ysr bahri hazaj, var. 15, as heretofore. 



<ula3 &£'a, 

J^jjxr bahri ramal, var. 8 and 9, as formerly. 



<uki /foY'a, 

±Jusu>- fs? bahri khqflf, var. 2 and 4, as before. 



<ulaJ! kit'a, 

i_p, : o^ ."-r bahri khaflf, same as last. 



u^---j bait, 

4_>jU^«ys? bahri mutakarib, as formerly. 



<uLi /fo7'«, 

Js*j jst bahri ramal, var. 14 and 15, as before. 



Page PI line 8, for tej& read izs£ 

„ ifr „ 15, „ ^oj „ ^ij 

Page 72, line 21, for form of conjug. raze? form or conjug. 





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Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process. 
Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 

Treatment Date: July 2007 



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Cranberry Township, PA 1 6066 



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