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3 3433 08192357 9 






Edited by 


\V ith Numerous \'iews 
and Portraits 

The Hudson Pl'blishing Company 





R '"3 L 

CopyriKlit 1908 
bv Horace 15. Hudson 


IN THK rise of Minneapolis is found one of the most remarkable instances of city 
buildintr in this country. In less than the ordinary span of life Minneapolis has 
ad\anced from an obscure position as a frontier xillaue to a conspicuous place 
amontr American cities — a city of about three hundred thousand people, with well 
established social and commercial institutions and worthily noted for Us progressive atti- 
tude in many lines of hiunan endeavor. To tell the story of .Minneapolis in concise 
form, makintr its salient features available for ready reference, has been the purpose in 
the preparatitm of this book. 

7 he general plan of the book has been that of irrouping events of common interest 
rather than the chronological listing of happenings without regard to their relations and 
significance. \\ ith this design in mind the first seven chapters and the last are devoted 
to sketching several not definitely limited periods in the city"s history, while Chapters 
VIII to XXV'Ill, inclusive, take up separate phases of the life and activities of the city, 
each account bemg in a measure complete in itself. In this method of treating the 
history of Minneapolis, much m the way of anecdote and reminiscence of the pioneers 
— which would find a place in a more extended work — has been, of necessity, omitted. 
Many side lights, however, are thrown upon the story of the city in the bitjgraphical 
sketches of men who have had a part in its building. These brief sketches will give an 
insight into the character of the people of Minneapolis which, possibly, could be ob- 
tained in no other way, and will give to outsiders an explanation of many things which 
may seem to them incredible. 

Among the sources of information regarding the early historv' of .Mmneapolis, Col. 
John H. Stevens' "Personal Recollections of .Minnesota and its People" has been 
found valuable as have the collections and other records and files of the .Minnesota 
Historical Society's library which have been most courteously placed at the disposal of 
the writer by Mr. Warren Upham, secretary of the societv, who has also contributed 
tile chapter on "Early Explor^roV " /.Many' '^ug^^esticns and much information have 
been received from pioneers and the older people o' the community and especiallv from 
Mr. (jeorge A. Hrackett who has preKerved many valuable records. Acknowledge- 
ment is here made for all these eyjd^rt'ces of kindU interest. It is imjiracticable to 
publish a work of this character on oi^ir' than ;: .svibscription plan and the writer appreci- 
ates the cordial cooperation of the men of \finneapolis which has made the publication 

II P. H. 

Minneapolis, October, lyu«. 


I. The Foundations of JMiNXEAPOTrs 

II. The Early Explorers .... 

III. From Savagery to Civilization 

I\'. The Pkrkjd of E.\rlv Settle.mi:\t 

V. Till-: EnR.MATIVE Pfriod 

VI. The First Co.m.\ierci.\l Advance 

VII. A.N Era of F>roader Development 

VUl. Churches and riiii.ANTiiRopiES 

IX. r'J)UCATioN \L Affairs .... 

X. Music and The.\ters .... 

XI. Art, Architix'ture .\ni) Engineering 

XII. Courts and L.wvyers .... 

XIII. Medicine • 

XIV'. Dentistry 

XV. Newspapers, Puhlishing vxd Fri-Ntin 

X\'I. The Growth of F)Ankin(; . 

X\'II. Real Estate and Insirance 


XIX. Flour Milling .... 

XX. Cr'Aix Trade .\nd Ciiami',i:r of Com.mi:rc 

XXI. X'aried Productive Industrii:s 

XXII. Wholesale Tradi-: 

XXIII. Retail 


XX\' Pl-P.LK .VfI'AIKS AXU ( )l-FI( I.\LS 

XX\'I. Pi i;M( L'tilitiics 



XXIX. Tin: Ci iy's Recexi- Progress 





.1 5 3 


NOTE-This list includes only views and maps, 


Portraits are indexed alphabetically in general index. 


The Falls of St. Anthnny in the Etrly Days The "Old Main" at the University . . 93 

of Minneapolis .... iM'ontispiece Entrance to University ..f Minnesota Caminis 96 

The Falls of St. Anthony in a Xatnral State 10 Library Building at the University . . 97 

The FalU of St. Anthony at the Present General View of the University I'arni lUnld 

11 ings 97 

F'olwell Hall, University of Minnesota . 98 

15 Pence Opera House 114 

The Academy of Music 115 

16 The Grand Opera House 116 

Map Showing the Travels of Gro^eillier.. _ Folwell ^Hall, University of Minnesota . ^98 

and Radisson , > , ■ ,^c 

and Accault at the Falls of St. The Academy of Music 115 


Carver's'sketch of the I'alls of St. .Vnthony 20 The Handicraft Guild Building ... 125 

\'n EaHv Idea of Northwestern Geography Fireplace in the Handicraft Guild . . . 125 

" ^j^jjjp^ ...... 21 In Mr. T. B. Walker's Art Gallery . . 127 

Old Fort Snelling '.'.'..■■■ 23 Court House and City Hall .... 136 

The Treaty of Traverse Des Siou.x . . 24 Law Buildiiig,^University c.f Armnosota 139 

28 Millard Hall 183 

32 St. Barnabas Hospital 184 

Bridge Square, Minneapolis, in 1851 . . 35 The Minneapolis City Hospital ... 185 

St Anthony in 1851 37 The Tribune Building 218 

The First Suspension Bridge .... 39 The Journal Building 220 

The Business Center in 1857 .... 41 The Northwestern Miller Building . . 222 

Falls of St. Anthony in 1859 .... 42 R. J. Mendenhall's Bank 238 

West Side Mills in 1859 44 Old First National Bank 238 

The Second Suspension Bridge . . . 53 Old Security Bank 239 

Minneapolis About 1868 54 l-irst^Biiildmg of the Northwestern National 

The Minneapolis 

The First Map of Minneapolis • • • 25 Minnesota^ College 
The Government Mills of 1820-3 
Colonel Stevens' House 

^lining District About Bank 239 

The Stone Arch Bridg 

55 The Northwestern National Bank ISuilding 241 
61 The First National Bank Building . . 243 

First Baptist Church and Puljlic Library . 62 I'irst Real Estate Office in .Minneapolis . 261 
The Campus of the University of Minnesota Home Office of the Northwestern Nati 

About 1890 
The West Mote 


63 Life Insurance Company .... 265 

64 Saw Mills of Early Days 297 

Loring Park-The First Large Central Park 66 The Old West Side Mills 297 

The Metropolitan Life Building ... 67 The East Side Mills as They Appeared About 

Two Churches of 1860 

70 1880 299 

Old Gethsemane Church 71 The Lumber E.xchange 300 

First Baptist Church of 1868 . . . ■ . 72 .A Modern Minneapolis Saw Mill . . . 301 

The Church of the Redeemer .... 75 the Old East Side Flour Mills . . . 328 

Westminster Presbyterian Church . . 76 The First Washburn Mill 329 

Young Men's Christian Association iiniliL After the Great Explosion of 1878 . . 330 

jj 77 General View of the Flour Milling District of 

Young Women's Christian .\ssociati<m Build Today 334 

jjjg 77 l-'irst Chamber of Commerce Building . 354 

Pillsbury House '^'^ Present Chamber of Commerce Building 356 

The Old Washington School .... 91 Modern Type of Steel Tank Elevator 359 

Typical Minneapolis School Building of Type of Brick IClcvator 360 


92 Modern Tile Tank Elevator .... 361 

The First University Building ... 93 F,arly Manufacturing Establishments . . 386 


Gt-iu-ral \'ii.-w nf llu- MiniK-apulis Threshing 
Maciiiiic (.'onipaiiy's I'laiit 

\'ic-w (il tlu' Minneapolis Steel anil Maeliinery 
Company's Works 

The KilKore-Peleler Company's M an\ilactnr- 
inK Plant 

Modern Type of Wholesale I'.nililing in Min- 

A Model Farm Implements Warehonse 

A Modern Minneapolis Jobbing Bnilding . 

The Largest Jobbing F>uil(ling West of Chi- 

One of the Xew Wholesale Warehouse 

Retail l)islriet im Wasliington Avenue in 

George W. Hale & Co.'s Store. About 18X(I 

The Old Market Honse 

L'pper Nicollet Avenue in the Retail District 

The First Department Store in Minneapolis 

Dog Train — One of the Earliest Means of 

Red River Carts 

Steamer "Minneapolis" at tlie Minneapolis 

The "William Crooks" — First Locomotive 
Running into Minneapolis .... 

The ViUard Parade of l.S8>^ .... 

Chicago, Miluaukee & St. P.aul Passenger 

Steel Arch Bridge Over the Mississippi Ri\er 

The Old City Hall 

X'olnnteer birinien of 18/1) .... 

.Minnehaha balls 

The Mississippi River Gorge .... 

The Minneapolis Postoftice Building . 

I'he First Horse Car 

Type of l-'irst Electric Car .... 

Standard Electric Car, 1908 .... 



On the .Minnetonka Electric Line 
I'^xpress Boat on .Minnetonka 

Train on the Old Motor Line . 
Minneapolis General Electric 












The Minneapolis Exposition I'.uilcling 
.\t One of the "King" Fairs .... 
Opening of the First .Minneapolis Exposition 
View at Minnesota State F'air .... 

The Masonic Temple 

luitrance to Lakewood Cemetery . 
.An Old Time Minneapolis Home . 
View in Late Autumn on Park Avenue 
.\ Modern Minneapolis Residence . 
.\ Residence Street — Terrace 
.\ Tj'pe of Recent Residence -\rchitecturc . 

Lake Minnetonka 

The .SIii>re at Ferndale. Lake .Minnetonka . 
( )ne of .Minnetonka's Charming Residences 
Minikahda Club House — Lake Calhoun 
The Old Round Tower at Fort Snelling — 


Minnesota Soldiers' Home .... 
The Security Bank Piuibling .... 
The Minneapolis .^nditorinni .... 
The Lower Dam and Rapid Transit Coni- 

p.iny's Power House .... 
Plymouth Congregational Church . 
St. Mark's Episcopal Church 
Prirpi)sed Plans for the Enlarged L'nivers 


Pillsbury l.iln-.iry Bnilding .... 
The .Minneai>o!is (.ialeway -Old City Hall 


The .'\rmory 

Proposed Plan for the Development of M 

neapolis' Civic Center .... 
The Catholic Pro-Cathedral 









A Half Century of Minneapolis 



MINNEAPOLIS was literally, as well 
as figuratively, founded upon a rock. 
-V vast ledge of limestone resting 
on a stratum of sandstone and extending 
under the bed of the Mississippi river was 
the geological cause of the Falls of St. An- 
thony ; and the falls with their potentialities 
of water power and resultant industries led 
to the settlement and de\-elopment of Min- 
neapolis. A\'hile, thus, the rocks which 
flammed the Father of \\'aters became the 
figurative basis of the city they also fur- 
nished the actual physical foundation, for 
many of the structures about the falls rest 
directly upon this same limestone ledge ; 
and rock, cjuarried from its numerous out- 
croppings, has entered into the substructure 
of practically every business and residence 
building in the cit}-. 

Although the practical ]iart which the 
ledge of Trenton limestone played in the 
determination of the site of .Minneapolis 
and its earlier development, has l)cen to 
some extent lost sight of. the figure of 
speech suggested lias become more and 
more appropriate as the solid foundations 
of the city's many sided life ha\'c become 
more and more a])])arcnt. An<l these foun- 
dations rest not alone on the great water 
power. The strategical location of Minne- 
apolis as a commercial city was admirable. 
The site at the Falls of St. .\nthonv was 
])ecuHarly adapted to the building up of a 
receiving and distributing market — the mak- 
ing of Minneapolis what it has since become 
— "the market city of the Xorthwest." 

^^'hen tlie cit\' was founded the |)Ossibili- 
ties of the northwest were quite unappreci- 
ated but it was obvious to the clear visioned 
men of the time that some day the prairies 

would be peopled and th;it a market for 
their agricultural products and for the sup- 
ply of their needs for manufactured articles, 
must arise. None of these pioneers foresaw 
the nearness of the dimly understood com- 
mercial situation or the wonderful modifica- 
tions in its development which would be 
wrought by the progress of invention and 
the change in social conditions. But they 
saw the fundamental advantages of the site 
and Iniilded fearlessly and with faith in the 


Next to the water power, one of the 
primary elements in the citv's earlier suc- 
cess was its proximit)- to the pine forests 
of Northern Minnesota. Half a century ago 
the finest body of white pine on the con- 
tinent was growing along the Mississippi 
river and its tributaries above Minneapolis, 
ready to be cut into logs and floated along 
the greatest natural logging stream in the 
cotintry to the cheap power at the Falls of 
St. Anthony. The conditions were ripe for 
the production of lumber at a low cost — 
while at the west and southwest lay the 
treeless prairies, alrearly being invaded by 
the settler, and offering a market for all 
that the ^Minneapolis saw mills could pro- 
duce. Here then was a great industry al- 
most read}' made \vhich furnished profitable 
employment while mrire permanent lines of 
commercial endeavor were being developed. 


It has been an axiom in commercial ge- 
ography that the head of navigation on a 
ri\'er of considerable jiroportions is the 
natural site of a large city. Minneapolis 
occupied this position on the greatest of 




Kipr( Hum the oiigiiml wattr Lulor made by fapt. i^. Kastman probably about 1S41. 
possession o( tl:e Miinuapolis Public Litrai-y. It is the oldest sketch ma 
by an artist and is regarded as reasonalily accurate. 

iiuw in the 

xAmcricaii rivers. It is true that fur some 
time navigation to the \er_v doors of the 
city was uncertain, that for many }ears it 
has been interrupted altogether, and tliat 
the development of railroads has apparently 
reduced the proportional importance of riv- 
er transportation: hut the principle has re- 
mained undisturheil ami iht,- sentimental ef- 
fect (by no means to l.)e disregarded) has 
Iieen operative in all these years, and iktw 
ill njoS a new realization nf the iin|iniiaiKe 
III water transportation ami the near ctmi- 
pletiiiii til river imprii\ emeiils suggests that 
this factor in the favorable locatimi uf the 
city will once more be extremely acti\e in 
its flevcl'ipmeiit. 


l')iU while water Iranspurtatinn b\- ri\er 
has been to some exteiil a (Iniiiiaiii iiilln- 
cnce, water transportation thnnii,di the sys- 
tem of the Great Lakes has been a most 
])Otcnt factor in .M iiiiie;i|)(ilis c(nnmerci;il 
growth. Located within 150 miles of the 

western em! of Lake Superior, .Minneapolis 
has enjoyed the advantages of cheap trans- 
])ortation to the Atlantic seaboard, to an 
equal extent with other cities situated on 
the lakes. That is, goods can be laid down 
in .Minneapolis at practically the same cost 
as in Chicago. Milwaukee ami other points 
some hundreds uf miles further frcmi the 
consuming districts than this city. In the 
same \va_\' floiu" and other agricultnial prod- 
ucts ni;ty be sent lii.tlie eastern and fureign 
markets under relati\el\' acKantageous 
CI imlitions. This fact has been uf immense 
significance and practical result in the cmn- 
niercial strategy of the northwest. 

IMn'SUAI, ( 11 AKAl rl'.KlSTIC.S. 

Mam iither interesting and iinpnrtant 
conditinns ha\e entered iiilii llu- solid fnun- 
dalii'ii buililing uf the eit\. huv iii--tancc, 
the immediate ph_\'sical eonfiirm.ilinn uf the 
surface about the h'alls uf .St. Aiitliuin' was 
decidedly well aila])ted to city building. A 
shallow basin surruundeil b\- luw hills gave 




This picture yive-s but a partial view of the developmeut of the water power aud tlie mills auil inrlustries 

[■entered about the falls. It is also impotsible in a view of the falls to give any 

adequate suggestion of the presence of a city " of 

300.000 inhabitants. 

ample room for wide streets, commercial 
and manufacturing .sites and charming resi- 
dence districts beyond. The surface was 
sufficiently rolling to provide natural drain- 
age but not so rough as to make improve- 
ments expensive. A subsoil of sand and 
gravel was an element making Ijoth for 
health and convenience in all matters of 
city improvements both public and pri\'ate. 
Rroad valleys and easy gradients invited the 
entry of railroads. All the materials were 
at hand for the building of mills and homes, 
warehouses and railroads. An agreeable 
climate and a most productive soil invited 
settlement of lioth citv and country. 


Of the characteristics of the agricultural 
conditions in the northwest a word must \)c 
said in passing. It is now a well established 
principle that anj' vegetable growth reaches 
its highest development at or near the mc^t 
northerly limit at which it may be jiroduced 

at all. This was imt understood when Alin- 
neapolis was founded. It was, on the con- 
trary, generally believed that the agricul- 
tural possibilities of the northwest were 
very limited both as to variety and quality. 
The half century has disproved this theorv, 
and in this refutation has been one of the 
most [jotent factors in JMinneapolis growth. 
The instance of wheat alone is sufificient as 
an illustration. The first wheat for Minne- 
apolis mills was lirought from the south. 
^\^leat growing in the northwest progressed 
slowly. Southern winter wheat was not 
adapted to northern conditions; the hard 
spring wheat produced here was regarded 
as inferior for flour making purposes. In 
this matter there has been a complete revo- 
lution of belief. Hard northwestern spring 
wheat is now well understood to contain 
the most valuable food elements and with 
improved methods of grinding makes the 
best flour in the world. Other grains have 
passeil through somewhat similar transi- 


tions in esteem; ami in llic matter nf was in a posili'in lu iccciNi.' the full benefit 
Ejrasses and forage crops it lias been ilein- of the niovenienl. Its settlers were the 
onstrateil that those jjrown in the north nmst enterprising members of the corn- 
have ijreater nntriti\e \ ahu- than those mnnities which llicy had left. 'Jdie new 
produced further south and that animals town had no tiailii ii nis to set aside, no 
fed on these jiroducts make better ])roq;ress customs nf loni; standing; to o\-erthro\v. 
in Minnesota tlian when eatinu;- the same Thin,t;s which were new and l;i lod were ac- 
varieties of feed raised in more southerly cepted immediately. The sjjirit of the peo- 
regions. And so from a rei^inn ]iopnlarly pK- was that of adaptability; it was their 
supposed half a century ago to be a half- habit to instantly a\ail themselves of any- 
frozen and nearly uninhabitable section of thin.s;- which mi.nht Ije a steppino; stone in 
the ccitmtry there now isNue f(irth each year proorcss and there was almost no element 
food supplies for many millicins nf ])eiiple amonj::; the ])ioneers which represented the 
— products which to a lari;e extent tmd prejudice and nnwillinsness to change al- 
their jirimary market at .Minneapolis. ways fnund in older and more conservative 

.VN ,„M.)KTU.NK iMsn.Kn Al. MOMENT. comnuuulies. _ So as the city grew it w'as 

found in the front in llie adaptation ot the 

Still another stone in the foundation of inventions of the time and fretpiently— as in 

.Minneapolis may be said to be tliat of oji- ^j^^. improvements in flour milling processes 

portnneiiess. In no other half century of _itscdf led the world in splendid inventive 

history could such a city as Minneaiiolis achie\-ement. 

have "been built. The city is the product \^ j^ possible that .Minneapolis, if it had 
of the age of the greatest inventions known ,,^.^.„ f,,„nded twentv-five years earlier, 
to the world. At the time when the first ,vould have lost the full effect of the wave 
rude buildings were being erected about the ,,|- progress which so dominated its actual 
Falls of St. Anthony, the railroad— perhaps settlement and earlier decades of history, 
ihe greatest force in modern civilization— ( )^\^^,^. towns along the Mississippi river, 
was in a state of cruilitw The telegra|)li established some time before Mineapo- 
was but a dream while the tele|)hone. elec- |js, seemed to miss the spirit of the day- 
trie light and all the other modrrn electrical ^i,,,! for mauv \-ears lagged behind the pro- 
inventions were unthought of. b'-ven the ci'ssion of progress. For some reason they 
application of steam power was in its in- i,ad become "set in their ways" and were 
fancy. The wonderful inventions of ma- unable to adapt themstdves to new ideas. 
chinery — from the sewing macliine throiigli |f therefore Minneapolis came into being at 
all the list of domestic and factory appli- a particularly ans|iicious moment in the 
ances and out again on to the larms to the countr\'s history, the cit_\- ina\' lia\e to 
modern liar\ester and thresher — all these thank a procrastin.iting gmenimtnt for de- 
were vet to be Contributed to the comfort laying i(s biitli. As will be told in a later 
and progress of the race. Practically all of chapter, tlu' actual settlement of the site of 
tlie inventions of machinery, im])leinents Minneapolis was mnch delaxed by the fail- 
and ])rocesses whiili now are so nnuli a ,,re of the goxcniinent to push treaties with 
part of every day life as to be accepted as i],e Indians and to open for settlement an 
necessities without a momenl's considera- unnecessariK' large milil.iry reserxaticju. 
tion. had not then been conceised of e\en 
in the brains of the brightest men. Since 
iS^o these things which we iigard as com It h;is been claimed b\ some of llu' older 
mon necessities have been |ioured oul to residents of Minnesol.a that the state bene- 
tlie world in a ni'ser i-e.asing stream ;md filed greatly through the fad its early 
Minneapolis was founded just in time to settlemt'iil took pl.aci' coincidently with the 
receive the forward ini]inlse wdiich the in- period of the gol.l eNcitemeiit in California. 
ventive half of the nineteenth century was It was argneil lliat the wilder and less sta- 
to bring to the world. .\nd the young city ble elements .if western emigr.ilion at that 

cii.\u \("rKK oi- I III-: i'io\p;i;i<s. 



time naturally gravitated tn tlie coast while 
Minnesota attracted tlu' nmre hardheaded 
and far-seeing'. Furtluv tliey argued, that 
the lawless element went where the loose 
government of the mining camps offered 
opportunities for license while Minnesota 
attracted the law-abiding. There is un- 
(U)ubtedly much to uphold this theory. At 
all events the early history of Minnesota 
and especially of Minneapolis is peculiarly 
free from accounts of law breaking and 
crime. For some years after Minneapolis 
was founded there was no prison of any 
kind in the village and the erection of a 
"lock-up" was regarded as almost an un- 
necessary expenditure of |)ublic funds. The 

city was indeed fortunate in being settled 
by men (if high character wdio gave a tone 
to the life of the settlement which was in- 
\aluable as time went on in attracting the 
right kind of people and became another 
solid stone in its foundation. 

These, briefly, are a few of the elements 
of strength which entered into the founda- 
tion of Mimieapolis. There have been 
many other influences on the development 
I if the city's life and physical growth but 
in those which have been mentioned are 
found the most conspicuous reasons for the 
wonderful progress from wilderness to 
metropolis in less than the span of a human 



Dy Warren I'p/iaiii, Secretary ol the Minncsola 
Historical Society 

BEFORK the first wliiti,' men came to burial, wliicli are fdiiiid near lakes and 
make their homes within the area of rivers through all this region, excepting 
.Minneapolis, it had an interesting north of the Great Lakes. The oldest of 
history (hiring nearly two hundred years of these mounds may have been made not long' 
the early explorations and fur trade. after the Ice age; but others were made 
How long this region had been previously doubtless during all the l(jug time until the 
occupied by the aboriginal Indian tribes, wdiite men came, for Catlin noted that a 
living by their hunting and fishing, their burial mound was built near the Red Pipe- 
rude agriculture, and the native products of stone Quarry in southwestern Minnesota 
berries and wild rice, cannot be exactly as- about two years before his visit there in 
certained ; but they had been here many 1836. 

centuries, ajjparentl}- ever since the final The first white man whd came In the 
melting of the continental ice-sheet, at the nmuth of Lake Superior and ad\anced be- 
end of the Glacial period. Fragments of ytjnd Lake Michigan into central Wiscou- 
artificially chipped quartz, and occasional sin, was Jean Xicolet, in the autuum and 
linished quartz implements, ha\e been found winter of 1634-35, coming by the canoe 
by I'n.f. \. II. W'inchell, Miss Frances E. route from the iM'ench settlements on the 
llaljbitl, lion j. \^. Brower, and other col- River .St. Lawrence, 
lectors, in the I-ate Glacial sand and gravel 
of the Mississippi valley plain at Little 
h'alls, about a hundred miles north of Min- < 'nl.v twenty years later Groseilliers and 
neapolis, which are regarded .as pr. ...f 1hat Radisson, coming also liy canoes from Que- 
men, prob;dily .aucestors of the Indians ot ''ef-" ^I'l'l ^lontreal, appear to have been the 
today, were living there while the ice-sheet first explorers to cross the area of Wis- 
was melting away fnnu the u|)per Alississ- cousin and reach that of Minnesota. The 
ippi basin and northern Minnesota, l-'rom narratives of their far western expeditions, 
the rate of recession of the h'alls of St. .\u- written by Radisson, who called them "voy- 
thony and the length of the .M ississip])i ^'.t^c'-." came into the possession (jf the Rod- 
river gorge between the inMuth of the .Min- leian Library, at Oxford University, but 
nesota river and the present ixisition of remained practically unknown to historians 
these falls, Pnjfessor Winchell thirty years during more than two hundred years, until 
ago computed about 7,000 or 8,000 '" i8,S5 they were published by the I'rince 
years have been reipiired for the erosion ol Society of I'.ostdii. \\\ |)nblication 
this gorge, eight miles long, which lime, these twi hrench fur traders were in;iile 
thus approximately determineil. measures known to the woilij .is the first ]'".uiopeans 
.'dso the Postglacial period here, since the lo reach the upper .\l ississi|)]ii river and to 
boi'der of the ice-sheet was melted back jiast trax'crse |)arts of this stale, |>i-obabl_\ cross- 
the site of this city. So long, therefore, the ing the are;i of this city. 

red men have proliably lived here. Their In their first \vestern exi)edition, leaving 

only historic menioii.ils, however, are the the lower St. Lawrence in August, 1654, 

thousands of earth mounds, mostly used for ( iroseilliers and Radisson s]ient the next 

l-TRST WllllE MF..V IN M I .N .\IiSOT.\. 



Hoirrcs ar Groscilliers aks RADissoff. 1655-ss. inn less so 

MAr shuwim; the tuavkl.s cjr Gi;(;iLLii;i:s ami 

From the Minnesota Historical Society Collections. 

winter among the Indian triijcs in the region 
of Mackinac and Green Bay. The narra- 
tion relates, if I understand it rightly, that 
in the early spring of 1655. accompanied by 
about a hundred and fifty Indians, they 
traveled with snowshoes across southern 
Wisconsin to the Mississippi river near the 
site of Prairie du Chien, spent three weeks 
in building boats, and ascended the Missis- 
sippi river to Prairie Island, between Red 
Wing and Hastings, arriving there al)out 
the first of May. Groseilliers stayed on the 
island through the summer and autumn, 
superintending the Indians in raising and 
storing corn: but Radisson went with a 
hunting party of the Indians, journeying 
southward to the Illinois river, and spent 
four months in going "from river to river." 
About the middle of June in 1656. a coun- 
cil of more than eight hundred Indians was 

held on Prairie Island. With difficulty 
Groseilliers and Radisson persuaded them 
to undertake a large expedition to Montreal 
and Ouebec, braving the expected attacks 
of the Iroquois. They left Prairie Island 
late in June, or about the first of July, and 
reached Lower Canada late in August, 
bringing furs of great value. 

Three years afterward, in August. 1659, 
< iroseilliers and Radisson, with a company 
' if Ojibways and other Indians, started on 
their second western expedition, in which 
they probably passed by the future sites of 
Minneapolis and St. Paul. They spent 
twenty-two days in canoe travel, by the Ot- 
tawa and ]\lattawa rivers and Lake Xipis- 
sing, to (Georgian bay; stopped a few days 
for rest at the Sault Ste. Marie ; and coasted 
aldiig the south shore of Lake Superior to 
(hequamegon bay, arriving there probably 
near the end of September. Thence they 
marched four days southward through the 
woods to a lake about eight leagues in cir- 
luit, probably Lac Court (Jreille. in north- 
ern W'isconsin, where a council of the Hur- 
"iis. Menominees, and other Indians, was 
held, with bestowal of gifts. After the first 
snowfall, late in October or nearly in Xo- 
vembcr. the Indians separated to provide 
food 1)\- hunting. 

Early in Januar}-, 1660, the Hurons. and 
Groseilliers antl Radisson, came together at 
an appointed rendezvous, a small lake, prob- 
ably Knife Lake or some other in its vicini- 
ty, in Kanabec county, Minnesota. A ter- 
rible famine ensued, caused b\- deep snow- 
fall and consequent difficult\- tif hunting and 
killing game. 

After the famine, twenty-four Sioux came 
to bring presents for Groseilliers and Radis- 
son, and eight days were occupied with 
feasting. The Hurons, and delegations 
from eighteen tribes or bands of the Sioux, 
then met at a prairie or clearing chosen near 
the f(irmer rendezvous, apparently in the 
neighborhood of Knife Lake. Ceremonial 
feasting, athletic trials of strength and .skill, 
singing, dancing, and bestowal of gifts, oc- 
cupied the next three weeks : and a large 
party of Crees, being specially invited, 
joined in the later part of this great celebra- 



tion of alliance witli tlu- {■'rciicli. Tliis took twenty-six daj'S in cnniini; ilowii fnnii i.aki.- 

place in the secoml hall' nf Mairli and he- Snperior. The\' l)r(iUL;iH, as in i'15'i, a \ei-y 

j,nnninj;- of Ajji-il. vahiahle freiLjht of fni>. 1 lir l;. >\a-incir of 

( anaila. Arm'nMin, renrinianilcd ihrni for 
ON Till-: Snii OI-- M IN.VKAI'OI.IS. ,,' ■ ,,. ■ , , 

,L;ipnn; (III tlii> ^■\|lellUll 111 wilhoui hi> au- 

Dnrini^ April ami .May, CJrt).seilliers and ihnrity, and inipoM.-d \ cr\ lieax \- tines, so 

Radisson visited the Prairie Sionx, prohahly that ( in ■■-(.•illitTs went t(i hfam-e to jilead 

on the Minnesota river, travelin.a; thither fi ir redress, Imt in \,aiii. 

proh.-ihly ai'diit li\ way of the knni river, 'I'Ik- later histor\- of these advent nn >ns 

Kluiii tilt' painting t>y Dimglas \ullt in llie Minnesota State eapitol. (lly peniiissinii.) 

II I I:'tlO li\ I-OLULAS \l)LK 

anddiiwn the Mississippi, hut ]jassinq; south hrothers-in-law imdndes their lenntHialii m 

to the Alinnesiita li\ \\a\ ol the series nf nf .ilk'oiance to i''r;mee, the transfer of iheir 

lakes ill the west ])art of M innea|)olis, ;ind seiwiee tu I'.uolish nierehauls, ,and leader- 

retnrniiio, with a ennipam of 1 )jihwa\' trail- shi]i in the orand enterprise of opeiiino and 

ers in canoes, by the Minnesota, M ississip])i, establishing;' tin- lluiKnii I'.ay ( '1 iin]i.iny's 

and .St. Croix rivers, ^riiey reached Che- fur trade, 

ipiaineooii |,a\- iu the Later |iart nf .May. hi the siiniiner of I'l^.v eii^hteeu \ears 

.Soon after the lirst nl |iiiii-, tlie\ crossed ;tttrr ( iinsfilliers' cnrii-raisino du I'rairie 

the west eml nf 1 .ake Superim', ap|i.irenll\ Isl.-md. iIr- ilc\(iti.-il niissinuarv . .\ I ari|nette, 

about twenty or twenty-five miles east nf ,-iii(l his cnniiianinii, Jnlitl. wlm was in cnm- 

Diduth, visitino' the Crees near the site of maud ni the p.irty. wiili luf other hrench- 

Two llarhors. men, in hireh hark c.inoes, voya.geil ilowii 

With a threat escort, three hundred or the Wisconsin ii\er tn its mouth, and 

more of the Indians in sixty canoes, (iroseil- thence d(.)wu the .Mississippi to the vicinitv 

Hers and Radisson arrived at .Montreal on of the month of the .\rkausas riser. During 

the if)th of .Aut^ust, \(><>o, h;i\int; sjjent nmre than two cent nries they were regarded 



as the first, excepting De Soto, to explore 
the Mississippi. They returned along the 
placid Illinois river, antl across the short 
portage to Lake Alichigan near the site of 
Chicago; and .Marijuettc wrote in the high- 
est praise of the beauty of that region. 

iiennepin's travels. 

The two most noteworthy explorers con- 
nected with the history of .Minneapolis were 
Hennepin and Xicolet, separated from each 
other by a hundred and tifty-six years. 

La Salle, who in 1682 voyaged fruni the 
Illinois river down the ^lississippi to its 
mouth, had tv^'o j'cars earlier sent a party 
of three Frenchmen to explore the upper 
course of this river. The party consisted of 
Accault, the leader; Auguelle, who was a 
nati\e of Picardy ; and Louis Hennepin, a 
Franciscan missionar}-, who became the his- 
torian of the expedition. Starting from La 
Salle's F'ort Crevecoeur the 28th day of F'eb- 
ruar}', 1680, and taking in their canoe about 
a thousand pounds of goods for presents 
among the tribes that they would meet, they 
paddled down the Illinois river to its mouth 
and thence up the Alississippi. 

When Hennepin and his compani(jns had 
spent nearly a month in the upward journey, 
the}' were met by a war party of Dakota or 
Sioux Indians in thirty-three canoes, who 
made the Frenchmen captives, and, turning 
back, brought them up the ri\er to the 
vicinity of the present city of St. Paul. 
There leaving the river, they went by land 
northward to the villages of this Isanti tribe 
in the region of Alille Lacs, where they ar- 
rived early in May and were kept in cap- 
tivity until the beginning of July. 


Permission was then given to llennejjin 
and the Pickard to return in a canoe down 
the Mississippi to the mouth of the Wiscon- 
sin river, where they lioped to find a rein- 
forcement of Frenchmen, with ammunition 
and other goods, which La Salle had prom- 
ised to send. Meanwhile .\ccault was left 
in captivity. On this return vo3'age, Hen- 
nepin and his comrade, .Auguelle. passed the 
Falls of St. .Anthony, to which Hennepin 
gave this name in honor of his patron saint. 

About a week later, Hennepin was over- 
taken, before reaching the Wisconsin river, 
by some of the Isanti warriors, who them- 
selves went forward to the mouth of the 
Wisconsin in hope to meet the F'rench and 
seize their goods, but found no one there. 


.\fterward they hunted Iniffalo and start- 
ed again up the Mississippi, when, late in 
July, they met Du Luth and several F'rench 
soldiers, who had come from Lake Superior 
Ijy the canoe route of the Lrule and St. 
Lroix rivers. They all then came back to 
the Isanti villages at Mille Lacs, where Du 
Luth the previous j-ear had met these sav- 
ages in council and endeavored to inform 
them of the benefits they must receive in 
trading with the French. Du Luth sharplv 
reprimanded the savages for their captivity 
of Hennepin and his companions, and in 
the autumn, on the pretense of bringing 
goods to establish a trading post, Du Luth. 
Hennepin, and other Frenchmen, were al- 
lowed to depart, voyaging from Mille Lacs 
down the Rum river (called the St. Francis 
by Hennepin) and the Mississippi to the 
Wisconsin river, and thence up that stream 
and over portages to Green bay. For this 
journey, which passed St. Anthotiy Falls 
and the site of Alinneapolis, the chief of the 
Isanti tribe traced the route on a paper and 
marked its portages, this being probably the 
earliest mapping of any part of Minnesota. 


At some time about five to ten vears after 
these journeys of Hennepin and Du Luth 
]jast this cit}' area, Le Sueur, and probably 
Charleville with him, made a canoe trip far 
up the Mississippi river, apparentlv to 
Sandy Lake. They learned from the In- 
dians at the limit of their journey that the 
sources of this great river were still far dis- 
tant, consisting of many small streams and 

Later tlie Mississii)[)i here was a fre(|uent 
route of fur traders, and exjilorers came oc- 
casionally to or past the Falls of St. An- 
thony. Prof. X. II. ^\'inchell. the state ge- 
ologist, in his report on this county, dis- 
cusses in much detail the testimonv of these 



explorers conccrniiio- ilu' ircessinn nf the 
falls, cilins^', after TIeiiiu'])iii. llie (lesciiptii m 
given hy Car\er in XoxeniluT, [j(<h. I'iUe, 
coniiiij;' to the upper Mississippi and ri'lm'n- 
\n(X ill 11^05 and 1806, Lfintj in 1817, Sehtiol- 
craft in i8jo, Ki'alins;- and I'lellranii in 18J3. 
IJoutwell and Scln xilcraft attain in t8_^2, 
l"eatherstonhau,t;h in 18^3. and Xienlet in 

''-^'' xicolet's ckkat work. 

Last and greatest of these, in his service 
of geographic exploration, was Xicrijet, 
who is forever to he bild in remembrance 
and association wiiii I knnepin, in the 
names of the two tinc-l Imsini'^s a\enne> of 

JliAN N. Ml i)LI:T. 

rtc-pi-diluceil froni ii pluiltiKiapli of an ivory paiiUiiig (ls:ili) 

presented t't llie Minnrsolji Hislinical Society i>v 

M.iJ TalialVn.i in ISfiT. 

thi.s city. Ili> map ni the legiim that 
niiw ciimprises Minnesula and the easleiMi 
parts ijf .\(Ji-th and .Sonlli I ),ikiit,i, piih- 
lisheil in 184,^, --hortly after his ileal h, is a 
m;ii'\el nt accnracv. ,'dtli(>ni..;h pie|i;iied ;it 
that eaiK' lime when the area uf (Hir state 
had 111) \illage, exce|)ting ( ir.iiid I'urtage, 
the settlement of the fur tradin.i,' e«)m])aiiies 
III! the north shore of Lake Superinr, and 
excepting alsn the \ illage of the ( )iili\vays 
at the narrows of I'ied Lake and a few 

.groups of Dakota tepees mi the Minnesota 
and Mississippi rivers. 

Jose])h Nicolas .\icolel was born jiil\- J4, 
1780, at Clnses, in Savoy; completed his 
studies in Paris, where, in 1817, he became 
an ofificer of the astronomical obser\'atory ; 
in i8i(> he became a citizen of France, and 
in 1825, ov earlier, received the Cross of 
the Legion of Honor. He was financially 
ruined ])y results of the Revolution of 1830, 
and came to the L'nited States in 1832, to 
tra\el in unsettled ])arts of the South and 
West. Here his talent fur geographic work 
was soon recognized and brought to the 
kiniwledge of the l'nited .States War De- 
partment and r.ureau of To|)ographical En- 
gineers. I'nder their :iid and direction, he 
made extensive exploring trips in the North- 
west, including a caiine jiiurne\- from I'ort 
.Snclling up the Mississippi, ami by portages 
beyond Leech Lake, to Itasca Lake, thence 
returning ilnwii the whole course of the 
Mississippi tu the fnrt. in iS.V'. and a trip 
up the Minnesiita ri\er and |)ast Lake 
Shetek In the Ked I'ipotnne (juarry in 1838. 
lie died in Washington, D. C Seiitemher 
I I. 1843. 

In tlie L'nited States government reports 
and maps of his work, his name appears 
\ar\ inglv as I. N. or J. N. Nicolet; and it 
is gi\en as Jean N. li\- (ien. Sible_\', Dr. 
.\eill, I'rnf. .\. II. Winchell, ami otlier 
writers of Minnesota histnry. Researches 
b\ lloraci' \'. Winchell. linwex'er, in 1893 
( publishetl in the American (ienlogist for 
I'"ebrnary, 1894) show that his name was 
Joseph Nicolas, as before noted. 

On Jnl\ Jfilli tn the _'i)th. 1836, Nicolet 
and his exploring ]iarty and ( )jibway es- 
cmt were in camp al the b'alls of .St. .\n- 
ilimn, whicli he alsn dniilitless examined at 
main later limes (hiring his \'isits at Fort 
.Snclling. Ill .March. 1830, he made exact 
survevs nf tlu- falls and their \-icinity, l)e- 
lieving tli;il the rate of recession of the falls 
wiitild become a (piestinn nf much interest. 
.\s was noted al the bi'gimiing of this chap- 
ter, it is indeed fmind sn by geologists, who 
therefrom, and frmii the similar recession 
of Niagara Falls. ha\i.' computed approxi- 
ni.ateh- the iluiatinn of the present geologic 
period, since ihc end nf llie ice age. 



DL'RiX(.i tlic Iwii ccnluries from the 
discovery of the h'alls of St. An- 
thony to the ort^aiiization of the 
state of Minnesota, the lands adjacent to 
the falls passed throiii^h many claims of 
ownership and governmental jurisdiction. 
Not counting- the original Indian occupants, 
the ground on which Minneapolis stands 
has belonged to four great nations and has 
been a part of nine state or territorial divi- 
sions. France originally claimed the entire 
.Mississippi valley and supported its claim 
by exploration and partial settlement. The 
overwhelming preponderance of h'rench 
names (or corruptions of French names) in 
the earlier nomenclature of the region tes- 
tifies to the diligence of the French explor- 
ers. The defeat of France in Canada and 
the British occupation in 1760 brought the 
country east of the Mississippi river under 
English control and that west nf the river 
was ceded by h'rance to Spain in 17' 13. 
With the success of the United States in 
tile Revolution, the British territory became 
the property of the new nation while twenty 
\ears later the Louisiana Purchase brought 
the western banks of the Mississippi unrler 
the same government. .\s Minneaijolis lies 
upon both sides of the river it occupies 
ground that has been the property at differ- 
ent times of Spain, h'rance, Great Britian 
and the United States. 

At the close of the Revolution the eastern 
hank of the Mississippi in the nortiiwest 
was claimed by \'irgiuia Ijut the land was 
soon relinquished to the United States and 
shortly afterwards the Northwest 'J'erritory 
was formed from the United States posses- 
sions west of the .Mleghanies and mirth 
of the Ohio river. Subsequent divisions 
l)rought the eastern bank of the Mississippi 
river at St. Anthony Falls under tlie juris- 
diction of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 

Wisconsin territories. In a similar process 
of ])olitical division the west bank of the 
Falls followed the territorial fortunes of 
Louisiana, Missouri, .Alichigan, Wisconsin 
and Iowa. Had ever a city better claims 
for cosmopolitan iirigin? 

Till', UA\s Of Jill-: tk.\I)i:ks. 
Through all this period, however, the 
changes had more geographical than gov- 
ernmental significance. There was, in fact, 
no one to govern except the Indians who 
remained in undisturl)ed possession of their 
lands until the l^eginning of the last cen- 
tury. Practically' no attempts at the exer- 
cise of governmental aitthority were made 
until the creation of the territory of Minne- 
sota in 1841). In the earlier davs govern- 
ment, so far as the aboriginal inhabitants 
were cnncerned, was represented by the fur 

Frijiu an old portrait 


A llAl.l' Cl-XTrRY OF MIXXR AI'ol.lS 



HcpitMluceti from tlu' original plate in Carver's Travels publishetl in Dublin in 1779. This is the earliest 

engraving ut tlie fails. 

li^aders iiinl tlu- priiiripal iiilci'L-st nl tlic 
white iiKMi was in llic (|iiantily uf fui's which 
mi^ht hv l)rniiL;ht out nl llic i"CL;ion at tlic 
lfa>l c.\])cii(lilurc of ])1"(i|)i.t1 \ and liuniaii 
h'fc — llie lallvi" l'ir(|iu-iill\ ihc least in con- 
sideration. Ill llie absence of ei\ il ailthoi-i- 
ly the fur coni|)anies and llieir representa- 
tives exercised a sort of ])sendo-moverninen- 
tal cunliol which was, on the whole, ])i'ol)- 
ably imich better than notliint;' at all. The 
|)o\ver obtaineil by the fm- traders, however, 
was the cause of inuch difficnlly later, the 
I'ival claims of llritish ;iiid .\iiierican C(iin- 
])anics lieing for a time a mallei' of as much 
moment. ])roporlionall_\', as (pu-^iions of fish- 
eries and sealim;- ri.tjhts in later days. 

(.'.\K\'i-;k's •n<.\\i':i.s. 

Ft was the li(jpe of secnrini; valuable tiade 
which led to the first I'ji^lish ex|)lorations 
of this region. Soon after Ihe French ces- 
sion jonallian Carver of .Massachusetts 
traveled thronj^h tlie upper .Mississippi \al- 
ley and in 1766 visited tiie h'alls of St. An- 
thony. His .sketch of the falls was the first 
made and the first to ])e engraved; fads 

which ,i;i\e it inlere^l iiol w ilh^tandinj; its 
crutlity and manifest inaccurac\'. In 1783 
the famed .Vorthwest t'om]i;iii\ was or- 
i^anized and for many years was in almost 
absoliile possession of the trade of the 
region west of Lake Michigan, though con- 
stantly coiite--ling il> ground at the north 
with the I'lfilisli traders, who, lakiiig ad\'an- 
lage of the uncertainly as to the bouinlaries 
and llic reiiKiteness of authority, continu- 
all\ iiuaded .American territor\'. 

In these da\ s of accurate geographical 
Icnowledge it is cpiite difficult to realize the 
cnidily of mn'thwestern chorogra])hy in the 
early days of the republic. .\l the close of 
the Ke\oliiiion there wt're \ fry indefinite 
idt'as ,'is 111 the bomid.iries of the regions 
wdiich the I'liiti-d States hail acquired and 
as late ;is 1703, as will be seen by the accom- 
panying m.'ip ]iulilished in I'hiladelidiia, the 
conce])tion of the arrangement of the phys- 
ical features of the northwest was extreme- 
[y \aguc. 

.\llhough the (]reat L.'ikes had been fre- 
i|iienled by the I'^rench for more than a cen- 
liirv, the I'jiglish ami the American Colo- 



nials had profited little in g-cographical a ini>re westerly souree. TIu- enal mine 

knowledge by the explDrations. The (lis- shuwn near the month nf the St. i'eters ( or 

torted outlines of the lakes in this ma]) sng- .Minnesota) was pr(jl)al)l\- inserted in the 

gest not only an ahsenee of any ri,'cent e\- map on llu- amliorii\ of some trailer or vo\-- 


From Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, by permission of tlie publisliers, HiuiglUnn .MifHiii ^- (^o,. 
originally published in Scfitl's Gazetteer. 173.">. 

lorations or surveys but also failure to agenr who wished to emliellish his stt^ry 

make use of the data which must ha\e been 
in the hands of the Frenchmen. .\s to 
the yicinity of .Minneapolis it will he no- 
ticed that the falls are indicated at the 
junction of two streams — ijne the "Lake 
river," flowing from Red Lake, while the 

of adseiiture with a color of practical dis- 
co\"er\" of mineral wealth. 

M ii.i I .\m' IK ( ri'.\Tio.v. 

Inlerest in the l'p]»er Mississippi l)ecaine 
prononnced immediately upon the coni])le- 

.Mississippi proper is shown to come from lii.m of the Louisiana I'urchase in 1803 and 



in 1805 Capt. Zeljuliin M . Pike of the L'liiteil 
States army headed the first American mili- 
tary expedition which reached the I'alls o{ 
St. Anthony. Pils-e negotiated a treaty witli 
the Sioux by wliich the United States ac- 
quired a military reservation between the 
Mississippi and Minnes(.)ta rivers includini;- 
the sites of Fort Snelling and Minneapolis. 

The exact extent of the reservation seem>' 
to liave been quite indefinite and the boun- 
daries were never accurately defined until 
after the Indian lands east of the Mississ- 
ippi had been ceded in 1837. This led to 
misunderstandings and contentii in> and was 
tlic cause of much bitter feeling in later 
years. Had the go\-ernment followed i\\> 
Pike's treaty with exact surveys nuich 
trouble woidd lun'C been avoided. The 
tinally established line of the reservation. 
as far as it affected Minnea|)olis, was that 
of the western boundary which cros.^ed Irnni 
the Minnesota to the Mississippi river west 
of Lakes Harriet. Calhoun and Lake of the 
Isles and reached the river at a point near 
Hassett's creek. This l)rought within the 
reser\-ation all of what is now the central 
business and residence section of the citv. 

Pike also visited many of the ])oaching f\n- 


Itlnitificd Willi .Minncajolis froiii J.s;9 she wa.s bioiighl to 
Fort Snelling, an infant, b.v lier parents Lieut, and 
Mrs .\atliali clarli. 


II Wini^or's Narrative and Crllleal Htslorj- nf America !)>■ 
permission of tiie publisiiers. HouglUoii, MitTlin & Co. 

traders and expelled them or secured [)rom- 
ises of allegiance. Difficulties among the 
traders continued, however, for many }'ears. 

Not long after Pike's expedition the sec- 
ond war with lireat IJritain l)roke out and 
the atteiUiou of government anil the military 
deiiarlment was diverteil fi"om the north- 
west and it was not niilil 1817 that an offi- 
cial representati\e of llie L'nited -States 
\ isiled the b'alls. In this year Major 
.Stephen II. I-oiig of llie h'.iigineer Corps 
ascended the ri\er and nii his n.-tniii ga\ f a 
\ fr\' complele descriplinn of the liu'alit\ 
about the b'alls of St. .\iuhony and of the 
b'alls themsel\-es. wliich he referred to as 
"a majestic cataract." 

In 1819 the government determined to es- 
tablish a military ])ost 1 ni llie reservation 
secured by Capt. Pike and during the sum- 
mer of that year an e\i>edilioii arri\ed at 
the mouth of the Minnesota river. Next 
year Fort Snelling was connnenced. This 
was an c'\eiit nf much mninent to the future 



JMinneapoIis. Fort Snclling' was within 
eight miles of St. Anthony Falls and no one 
who reached the ])Ost on military or civic 
errand failed to visit the falls. In this way 
the fame of the locality and its possibilities 
as the site of a future city became widely 
known ; wdiile on the other hand, the pres- 
ence of a garrison insured a certain degree 
of safety to intending settlers. 

Occupation by the white men was de- 
ferred, however, on account of the con- 
tinue<I possession of the lands by the In- 

being a part of the Fort Snclling military 
reservation. It tiius came about that .Min- 
neapolis, though standing" on the most ad- 
vantageous site for a city in the whole re- 
gion, was retarded in development until 
practically the wlmle state of Minnesota 
had been opened to the immigrant. 


Just what might ha\e been the result 
of difTerent action cm the part of the go\- 
ernment it is now impossible to determine 

From a Daguerreotype made in 

ilays aii'l lelieved to be the earliest pliotopraplii< 

view ill existenfe. 

ilians. It was ntjt until 1S3- that Gq\'. 
Dodge's treaty opened the way for settle- 
ment east of the Mississippi: while the 
country west of the river was not secureil 
until 1S51 when the famous treaties of Tra- 
\erse Des Siou.x and Mendota obtaineil for 
the settler all of what is now southern and 
central Minnesota. 

The wav for the settlement nf a great 
state had now been opened by successive 
treaties but the site of the larger part of 
Minneapolis — on the western bank nf the 
Mississippi — ^till ronained uuawiilable. it 

but it i.-. iib\iiius that a change in the 
chronological Drder nf the land openitigs 
■would have made a \ast ilifferencc in later 
urban (le\ eh ipmeiit in this locality. The es- 
tablishment of the Vnvt Snclling military 
reser\ation at an early date prevented set- 
tleiuent on the west bank of the .Mississippi 
at the Falls of St. Anthony and Indian 
rights delaved settlement on the east bank 
until 1837 and on the west bank outside the 
military reserxation until 185 r. This order 
of e\ents led to the settlement of St. Paul, 
nil the east side of the river, in 1838, where- 




ni'liKi.liiceil from the paliiliiiB liy Prank B. Mayer (owiieij by t1:e Minnesota HiKlcir hiil Sn.riety) fnim liis original 
slieU-lies made (luring tlie (-(nnu-ils and treaty in lsr,i. 

as ilif li.j^nal Incatioii foi ilir iifw Uiwii was tinn hccii opeiuMl as thus sus-.LjTstcil tin- earlv 

al Mrmlcpla (ni iIk' wrsl l)aiik' wiiciT ( irii. Al iniica|)iili'- \v( Mild have stretclieil alnii- tlic 

IL II. Sil)ley liad Imill liis tia.liiiii- Iidusc west rivei- l.aiik lioiii \l iiiiiclialia li> ihc 

some years earlier. I'.iii .Meiiil.ita was shut l^'alls cif ."^i. .\iilliMiiy with scam nccupat i. m 

off liy lack of a treaty iiiilil 1S51 hy which ,if the "east side." And it a settlement hail 

time St. i'atil had made such progress that heen made later iit (he site <if St. i'aid it 

com]ieliti(.n was nut ,,f the I'.iit, \v..uld. in all ]iruhal.ilit \ . ue\er ha\e at- 

had the upper pan ..f the iiiilitary reserva- ,.,;„,,,, ,,,„^.|, j,„|„„., 

tiiiu been upeueti lur settlement in iSji 1 , , ■ 

', heen a Ljreal ailmm 

wlicn I'ltrt Snelliu" was founded neither ' , , , , . ^ . 

,r , , I- ■,, , ,, , , eciiiKinn tlnMU"h the cc iuceiitralKin of m- 

.Meiulola nor St. I aiil would ha\e heen : '. , , . . 

thonnht of. Setlleuienl would have heen '^''■^'^'^ '" ""^' ^"">' '■"''^■'' "''"' '' 'I'^^'fati-.n 

made natnrallv hetween the hurt an.l the "^ ^■"^■'->' •'^'"' C.xpenditurc between two 

J~alls and l)y the lime the Indian treaties I'''""'"' hut ..pinions will probably differ as 

were made in 1S37 an<l 1S51 i1k- site of the '" ''"' desiiabililx of sutdi concentration as 

only city in the viciint\ wunld ha\f been opposed to the ad\aidaj.;es of competition 

irrevocabl}' determined. Ilad the reserxa- and ii\aliy. 

nice. Tliert' w 1 mid h i\ e 
slratixe and commercial 



THE exact date of a cit3-'s Ijirtli is nut 
always easily deteniiiiied. There is 
often a choice between the date of 
the erection of the first temporary dwelling 
or camp and the first permanent settlement. 
And these ilates are frequently confused by 
changes and extensions of boundaries which 
in later days bring within the city limits 
places or buildings not originally considered. 
Minneapolis enjoys a full measure of uncer- 
tainty surrounding its birthday. 

It has been customary to fix the date of 
the beginning of this city at the time of the 
erection of Col. John H. Stevens' dwelling 
in 1849; but the old government mill of 1820 
was undoubtedly the first structure built 
by white men within the present limits of 
Minneapolis. This mill was built by the 
soldiers stationed at Fort Snelling to supply 
lumber for the post and was in no sense a 
settlement. It stood upon a government 
military reservation, and no one had the 
right to settle in the vicinity. A dwelling 
was erected, however, in connection with 
the mill for the use of the soldiers detailed 
to the care of the place and here a soldier 
lived with his wife during some of the early 
years. Near the mill was the farm where 
grain was raised and cattle pastured for the 
use of the post. 


The second building to be erected on 
ground now within the limits of Minneapolis 
was the rude log hut of the Pond brothers 
at Lake Calhoun. --iSanuiel \V. Pond and 
(iideon H. Pond arrived at Fort Snelling in 
the spring of 1834 with the purpose of 
engaging in missionary work among the 
Indians. They were young men, reared 
in a Cf)nnecticut home and with no experi- 
ence in the hardships of frontier life, but 

with the most complete consecration to 
their difficult work7_^ C)btaining the permis- 
sion of the commandant at Fort Snelling 
they built their log house on the high bluff 
overlooking Lake Calhoun from the east 
on a spot afterwards occupied for years by 
a summer hotel, and now the site of a 
beautiful home. The eligibility of the site 
in the eyes of the Ponds was in the fact 
that it adjoined an Indian village which 
occupied the ground lying between Lakes 
Calhoun and Harriet. At about the time 
of its erection one of the brothers drew a 
rough chart of the region about the falls 
and fort which is probably the earliest map 


St. c/ln^on^ Falls 


Sketch of the vicinity of tlie Falls of St. Anthotiy and Fort 

Snelling, drawn by Rev. S. W. Pond in IS-ll. Reproduced by 

permission from "Two Volunteer Missionaries Among 

the Dakotas." by S. W. Pond, Jr. 



of the district now comprised in ]\Iinnc- 
apolis. About five years later the caliin at 
Calhoun was pulled down to furnish log; 
for an Indian defense against expected 
enemies. In ujoS a tablet conimeniorating 
the I'onds and tlu-ir work was erected in 
llu- \icinity nf the original site (if the cabin. 

S'ri-Al'.XS W I.AKl'. llAKKIl'.r. 

In iS.;^5, line year after the I'lmds' arrixal, 
the Rev. 1. D. Stevens came to Minnesota 
as a missionary to the Indians and selected 
a iocatiim on the m iiihwestern shore nf 
Lake llarriel where Iwn buildings were 
erecU-d. 'Jdiese structures — a missinn house 
and a school — stixid Iml a slmi't distance 
from the site of the ])reseiU amnsement 
]ia\ilion. The school was the first building 
in Minnesota erected for educational ]iur 
poM's. At the old mission house occnned 
the lirst wedding within the ]iri->ent limits 
of Minneapolis — thai of the Rev. S. \\ . 
I'oud to Miss Cordelia T'Iggleston, a sister- 
in-law of the Rev. Mr. .Stevens. This was 

on Xovember 22. iS.v'^- W ith the removal 
of ihe Indians from the reservation in 1840 
the mission buildings became useless and 
tlie\ were torn down and the hnnbt'r used 
in llie construction of new linildings on 
ihe .Minnesota i'i\cr. 

K.NKI.'i S(.ir.\rTKK CL.M.MS. 

As yet no iiermanent settlement had been 
made. The land upon the west l)ank of the 
Mississipjii still rt-mained a |iarl o| (he I'Urt 
Snelling military reservation and until 1837 
that on the east side was unceded by the 
Indians. In 183(1 Major l'l\in]iton, an of- 
licer stationed at b'ort .'^nelling. made a 
claim on the east side of the falls and put 
u]j a log cabin, but as the lainK were not 
open for settleiuent the claim bad no \-aluc. 
.\ similar claim was made in the following 
\(.ar liv Sergeant fariieuter. I'.ul diu-ing 
1837 the Dodge treaty was niaile, li\ which 
the (hippewa lands between the .Mississippi 
and .St. Croi.K rivers were ceded, and S(|uat- 
ter claims at once gave jiroiuise of being 
effectixe. The news of the trealv did not 




reach Fort Snelliiig until June i8, 1838; 
and then occurred the first "land rush" in 
Minnesota. The contestants were few Init 
the outcome was momentons fur Alinne- 
ajiolis. l-'ranklin Steele, then sutler at Fort 
Snellin.s::, outstripped his competitors and 
making a night march to the falls Iiad a rude 
cabin erected and a claim staked out when 
the other would-be town site promoters 
arrived on the ground. 


It was extremely fortunate for the ecnning 
city that this particular claim fell into the 
hands of such a man as Mr. Steele. Of 
much more than ordinary ability, of good 
family, and with social and business con- 
nections among the prominent people of 
his native state of Pennsylvania, ]\Ir. Steele 
came west, at the suggestion of President 
Jackson, with the purpose of building up 
his fortunes in what he believed to be a 
part of the country offering great oppor- 
tunities. His api^ointment as sutler came 
from President \'an F>uren. In those days 
this position was regarded as one offering 
excellent opportunities for young men in 
the new country where army posts were 
established ; and a sutler, if a man of merit, 
was on a social equality with the officers 
with whom he was associated. Mr. Steele, 
in accepting the position, had a definite 
purpose. And this he accomplished through 
the claim at the Falls of St. Anthony and 
his subsequent remarkable business achieve- 
ments in the development of the water 
power and niantifactures. and in commercial 
enterprises and real estate investment. Col. 
John H. Stevens says of him : "At the 
commencement of my acquaintance with 
Mr. Steele (1849) 'i^ "^^'^^ the foremost busi- 
ness man in this part of the northwest. 
His numerous enterprises were distributed 
from the head of Lake Superior to the Iowa 
line and from the Mississippi to the Mis- 
souri. Gentlemanly and generous, every 
member of the community was his friend." 
It was a man of this type who had much 
to do with the destinies of Minneapolis. 

For the ne.xt decade Mr. Steele could 
make little progress with his claim at the 
Falls; for the government, alllmugh cjwning 

the hind, delayed in opening it for legal 
entry. Through this period Mr. Steele's 
title was only that of a squatter, maintained 
by actual occuiiation and defense against 
claim jumpers. l''(_)r years he hired a sub- 
stitute t(] "hold tlown" his claim and in 
several instances the owner was obliged to 
buy off trespassers who had slipped in and 
taken possession during the absence of the 
rightful occupant. P.ut Mr. Steele vv'as the 
kind of man to maintain his position. The 
ye;ir 184;: f(juiid him still in possession, and 
at last he jiaid the guxcrmnent fees and 
obtained undisputed title. 

r lERKli r.OTTI NEAU. 

Meanwhile there had been manv other 
claims made and lost in the vicinity. Car- 
penter's claim of 1837 seems to have been 
recognized by later comers for he sold it 
in 1838 and it passed through various hands 
until it was purchased by Pierre Bottineau 
in 1846. This claim lay iinmediately north 
of Mr. Steele's, but like all the early claims, 
was quite indefinite as to boundaries. Bot- 
tineau, though living in Minneapolis but a 
comparatively short time, was one of the 
most interesting characters connected with 
the early history of the city, and was very 
widely known throughout the northwest. 
Born in 1817 at a trading post on the Da- 
kota prairies of a French father and Indian 
mother, he grew up a hunter and plains- 
man by inheritance and training. At a very 
early age he became a guide and until the 
railroads penetrated (lie northwest con- 
ducted many of the prominent parties of 
explorers and prospectors. After his mar- 
riage in 1836 he spent more time in the 
settlements for a while and in 1843 came 
to the Falls, living in the village until 1854 
when he moved to a farm in Hennepin 
ciiunty. A man of sterling character, ener- 
getic, and of rare ability as a ])lainsman, 
he made and held many friends, and during 
the early days was one of the prominent 
men of the community. In fact, when the 
east bank of the Mississippi was finally 
opened f(ir legal entry of land, he. with Mr. 
Steele, held the entire river frontage in the 
\icinity i>\ the I'alls. Claims had also been 
made by Juseph Kondci. I'ctil John, and 



Reproduced from the painting by James Fatrman in the Minnesota Historical Society Galleries. 

otlicrs and there was more or less trading 
in the uncertain titles of these squatters, 
Init the transfers were questionable as to 
legality, the considerations small, and the 
effects upon the development of the future 
\illage inconsc((uential. 'I'lie Petit John 
claim covered the present site of the Uni- 
versit)' of Minnesota. At one time it was 
owned by Bottineau but later came into the 
hands of Cal\-in A. Tuttle, one of the early 
|)ioneers. Immediately below this was a 
claim niaile liy Pascal and Sauverre St. 
Martin, two brothers of Canadian French 
birth. Their land included a part of the 
pif-.eni I "iii\ersity campus and extemled 
down the river rather indefinitely. This 
land afterwards became the ]iroperty of W'il- 
liam A. Cheevcr and Judge B. B. Meeker. 

PIONEEI^S OF '47 AND '48. 

Previous to 1847 'i^ t-''^ claims about the 
Falls of St. Anthony were occupit-il only 
by half-breeds or Cauadi.iu French. lAen 
Franklin Steele continued to live at b'ort 
Snelling and emi)loyed the woodsmen or 
voyageurs to hold his claim. Several au- 
thorities credit Charles \\'ilson with being 
the first American settler, but Wilson seems 

to have matle his home at Fort Snelling. 
He was employed as a teamster by Franklin 
Steele and does not appear to have made 
aii_y claim of land. In June of 1847 William 
A. Cheever arrived from Boston and pur- 
chased the claim already mentioned. He 
was soon followed by others — Calvin A. 
Tuttle, Sumner W. Farnham, Caleb D. 
Dorr, Luther Patch and his son Edward, 
John Rollins, Charles W. Stimpson, Daniel 
Stanchfield, John McDonald, Samuel Fer- 
rald, Robert W. Cummings, J. M. Marshall, 
Wm. R. Marshall (who afterwards became 
governor) and R. F. Russell. The last men- 
tioned had been a trader at Fort Snelling 
for several years, and he became the first 
merchant of Minneapolis through the open- 
ing of a small stock of goods at the Falls 
in 1848. This store was in one of the rooms 
of the house occupied by Luther Patch and 
his familv, and Mr. Russell shortly after- 
wanls married Miss Marian Patch, their 
wedding being the first to be celebrated on 
the east side of the river. 


As soon as he secured title to his lands 
Mr. Steele set about improving the water 

<::^^^^^^^^^^i^ ^^f^:^^^ 



power. He sent to Maine for Ard. God- 
frey to build a dam and sawmill, l)nl with 
characteristic cncr},'y, commenced opera- 
tions before the mill\vright"s arrival. The 
lower end of .Xicollet Island was denuded 
of a grove of elms and maples, and tindicr 
was hewed out by hand to construct the 
dam and mill frame. ( )thcr tinil.icr was 
])roughl ijown the rix'cr in the spring, and 
earl}- in the _\ear 1S4S the first merchant 
sawmill at the l''alls of St. .Anthony was put 
in operation. This was the signal for a 
rapid growth of the village, 'i'he settlers 
of the previous _\ear hail been obliged to 
build log houses or haul their lumber over 
land from the St. Croi.\ river. The govern- 
ment sawmill on the west side had supplied 
a little luml.'cr. but its capacity was very 
limited. During this year of 1848 such men 
as I'.radJcy P.. Meeker, Anson Northruj). 
Ji.hii W. Xortii. S. W. b'arnham, Washing- 
ton ( Ictchc-ll anil 1 )r. John H. Murphy, all 
later prominent in the young city, arrived 
at the I'alls. Surveys were commenced and 


plans for a city discussed among the ]5rom- 
inent settlers. Investigations of the pine 
lands north and northwest were made: the 
agricultm-al ])ossil)ilities of the countr\- w-ere 
looked inlo and the probal)3lities of the 
opening of the region west of the .Missis- 
sippi riser sifted. L'pon such opening 
depeniled the future of the village at the 
{"'alls. The lands upon the east side of the 
ri\er were not regarded as of as much agri- 
cultural \alue as those on the west; and 
on the east there were already the settle- 
ments at .St. Paul and Stillwater — rival mar- 
kets for the coming settlers. It was to the 
west that a tributary farming country must 
l)i' ilexeloped. 


The earlier settlers cast longing eyes at 
the immediate bank of the Alississippi on 
the west — still a prohibited country, it will 
be remembered, on account of the ar]>itrary 
maintenance of the military reservation by 
the government. This west shore was the 
most natural site for the city. Beyond it 
lay the beautiful country, stretching away 
towards the west — the now famous "park 
region" of .Miiniesota — fertile, well watered 
and offering subsistence for hundreds of 
thousands. The first successful attempt to 
obi.'iin a foniholi] mi the west side was made 
b\ the I bin. Kobert Smith of Alton. 111., 
who ibroiigli political inlluence obtained 
permission lo occup\ the old go\-ernmcnt 
mill ;inil the bouse connected with it. .Mr. 
Smith seemed possession in .May, 1849, but 
ne\er lived on ihe property in person. Some 
time later he st-nl ;i re|)resentati\'e who acted 
,is miller; and b\ Unilier exercise of inllu- 
iiiie 111.' was eii.ibU'il alter a lew \ e.irs to 
secure .'i cl;iim ol land. In the meantime 
ibei'e h.-nl .irnxeil ,ii the b'allsof .^l. .\nthony 
a \oung HKUi ol iwent\-nine, coming of 
sim-dy Xew F,ngl;ind aui-estry, trained in 
the school of sell-ieli:ince in Ihe new West, 
and seasoned in ihe .Mexican war — ,'i born 
])ioneer and promoier. Tliis was Juhn II. 
Stevens, known to ilie older ])eople of Min- 
nea])olis as "t'olonel Ste\ens." He was of 
the type of men who sjjcnd their lives in 
the promotion ,if the interests of the manv — 
the builders who build for the lo\ e of build- 



iiig, nut fur the liupe of gain. Like many 
others since, Col. .Stevens came to the nurth- 
west in search of health. It was his pur- 
pose to take 111) lanil and become a laiiiici'. 
lie reached St. I'anl on April 24th, 1841J, 
and came to the Falls of St. Anthony three 
da_\s later, on his way up the Mississippi 
river to select lands. His party proceeded 
sunie distance up the river, hut finding no 
lands to their likini;- returned to .St. Paul, 
and some of the nieniliers went back to their 
eastern homes, liut Col. Stevens remained 
and entered the employment of iM-anklin 
Steele in his business establishment at Furt 
Snellinfj. \\'ithin a month a plan for mak- 
ing a claim on the west side at the Falls 
was arranged, and during that sunmier the 
consent of the Secretary of War was ob- 
tained and Col. Stevens formally occupied 
the land lying immediately north uf tlie 
Smith claim on the west shore. During 
the succeeding fall he commenced the erec- 
tiiin uf his house and completed and occu- 
pied it un August 6th, 1850. 


This first permanent dwelling in Minne- 
apolis proper was a story-and-a-half frame 
structure with a wing of one story — a sim- 
ple and unpretentious farm house, l)uilt as 
a home for a young married couple, and 
without a thought uf the varied purposes 
fur which it wuuld be used, ur that it would 
l.)e preserved in a |jublic park in after years, 
as a relic of the early days of a great city. 
When it was built its owner had no title to 
the land on which it stood. He simply had 
permission from the Secretary of War to 
occupy the land on condition that he main- 
tained a free ferry across the Mississippi 
river for government troops and supplies. 
There was, of course, the understanding 
that if the lands west of the river were ever 
thrown open for settlement, Col, Stevens' 
claim would be recognized : but for si.x 
years he had not a line of writing sn])porting 
any claim of ownership. 

I'.ut ITanklin Steele, Col. Stevens and 
other leading men in the settlement were in 
touch with influential men at Washington, 
and it soon became evident that it would 
be the policy of congress to reduce the 
size of the militarv reservation ; while a 

treat}- with the Indians for the cession of 
their whole country west of the Mississippi 
ri\er in Minnesuta was almost certain of 
inunediate consnniinatiun. Pressure was 
brought tu bear from every direction U> 
accomplish these two measures. And, while 
these negotiations were going on Col. Stev- 
ens set about furnishing an object lesson 
which >h<juld help the cause by enlisting 
the assistance and approval of every visitor. 
In the summer uf 1830 he "grubbed" and 
bruke up about forty acres of land on the 
west river bank immediately above his 
huuse. and tlK' next summer raised crops 
of wheat, oats and corn which would have 
done credit, he said, to central Illinois. 
Every one visiting the falls crossed to the 
west side to secure the view and was con- 
fronte<l. immediately upon mounting the 
ri\er bank, by fields of waving grain. These 
fields, Cul. Stevens claimed, settled the 
destination of many an immigrant. They 
demonstrated the possibilities of western 
Minnesuta and removed all doubts as to the 
fertility and productiveness of the region. 
Col. Stevens" farm was the first on the west 
bank of the Mississippi north of the Iowa 
line. He introduced the first herd of cows 
west uf the Falls, excepting those held for 
the use of the troops. During the following 
year William \V. Wales demonstrated in 
his own garden that all kinds of vegetables 
could be successfully raised in this climate. 
These things seem trivial at this day, but 
in the early fifties — when the northwest was 
still regarded as almost uninhabitable — they 
were of the utmost importance. It was nec- 
essary fu demonstrate by actual ])roduction 
that the crops of the middle states could be 
grown in Minnesota; utherwise the pros- 
pective settler could not be convinced. 


Col. Stevens and Miss Frances H. Miller 
were married at Rockford, Illinois, on May 
10, 1850, and as soon as their house was 
cumideted, moved to the west side of the 
balls, where they !i\'ed at first entirely with- 
uui neighbors, except those across the swift- 
nmning river. It is difificult to imagine the 
conditions under which this young married 
couple went to housckcei^ing on the site of 
Minneapolis less than sixty years ago. Their 



house stood on the river bank on the site 
of the Union passenger station, and quite 
near the water. It was on a shelf or ter- 
race about twenty feet above the water, 
but considerably below the general level of 
the ground farther back from the river, so 
that when approaching the house from the 


Erectcti In 1849-50; the first on the west side of the river. 

(From a drawing hy A. Fournier in Stevens' Personal 


west only its roof and upper portions were 
visible. And this was the only dwelling 
inhabited by white people between the Falls 
of St. Anthony and the Rocky Mountains. 
Of Indians there was no lack. The illus- 
tration, showing a group of Indian tepees, 
with Col. Stevens' house in the background, 
was reproduced from what was undoubtedly 
the earliest ])hotograph taken on the site of 
Minneapolis and shows, much more grajjh- 
ically than words can (k'scriht-, the abso- 
lutely primitive conditions uihUt which the 
first family west of the Falls lived. The 
Indians' camp was about on the spot now 
known as Bridge Square — the common foot 
of Nicollet and Hemu'])in avenues. l'"rom 
this point westward extended the almost 
unbroken wilderness. In his ''Recollec- 
tions" Col. Stevens says of tlif Indians: 

The difTercnt tribes of Indians were never so 
numerous in the neighborhood as in 1850. A 
constant stream of Winnebagoes were coming 
and going. The different bands of Sioux re- 
mained in camp several niontlis on tlic high-lands 
just above the falls. They did not interfere with 
my stock, but made sad havoc with my garden. 
As a general rule the Indians respected the pri- 

vate property of the whites residing outside of 
their own lands, but would occasionally confiscate 

the property of the missionaries. There can be 

no question but that the cussedness of these sav- 
ages was frequently annoying to the missionaries. 

Of a particular visitation from the red 
men, Col. Stevens writes : 

The two lake bands of Indians, so called be- 
cause they formerly lived on the shores of lakes 
Calhoun and Harriet, but then residing at Oak 
Grove (now Bloomington), encamped on the 
high land above the Falls for several weeks in 
July and .\ugust. They had considerable money 
left that they had received at the Traverse des 
Sioux treaty held a few weeks previous. They 
had brought their own canoes down the Min- 
nesota river, and then up the Mississippi to the 
foot of the rapids, at which point they constantly 
crossed the river to the St. .Anthony side for the 

inirpose of trading. The Indians during their 

encampment were constantly on the alert, fearing 
an attack from the Chippewas, but they were so 
fond of trading, and the money they had left 
luinu'd in their pockets to such an extent, that 
iIkv were willing to risk their scalps at that 
lime for the pleasure they experienced in ex- 
changing their money for goods. They had 
previously given me the name of Mi-ni-sni — cold 
water — and were always friendly, supplying my 
family, at the proper season of the year, with 
game in abundance, but expecting, and always 
receiving pay therefor. To the credit of the 
traders in St. Anthony, there was never a drop 
of strong drink sold to the Indians, and as a 
consequence there was never any of them in- 

Col. Stevens' recollections of the early 
months at the first home in Alinneapolis 
arc (if special interest; the folbiwing are 
extracts : 

The only way we could reach the house from 
St. Anthony was by taking a small boat, with two 
sets of oars, above Nicollet Island. Tlie volume 
of water was so great, and the current so strong, 
we were fortunate if the landing was made any 
considerable distance above the rapids. Captain 
John Tapper, witli his sinewy arms, required a 
strong assistant, with a capacious pan for bailing 
purposes, to make a sure crossing above the 

cataract. Pioneer housekeeping was not new to 

me, for I had long kept bachelor's hall in the 
lead-mines, but it was a novelty to my wife, who 
had been accustomed to the refining influences 
and conveniences of a well regulated New York 
household. Sometimes for weeks we would not 
sec a white person: our only visitors were In- 
dians. Mosquitoes surrounded the house in such 

swarms that smoke would not !)anish them. We 

usually received our letters and papers once a 

week. Fortunately I had a pretty good library, 

and Mrs. Stevens had a piano and other musical 



instriimcnls, which had a tendency to banish 
from the little house most of the lonesomcness 
naturally incideni tn i)ioncer life so far from 

(iriii;u i-:arln- siciTLiius. 

Next in order after Col. Stevens" claim 
came that of Charles iVIoseau, who obtained 
])erniission from the military authorities in 
the winter oi 1849, ^^^^ '•ook up 1"^ ''^'^i" 
deuce t)ii the southeast shore of Lake Lal- 
houn. Soon afterwards, the Rev. E. G. Gear, 
chaplain at Fort Snelling, made a claim on 
the east shore of Lake Calhoun. John P. 
.Miller, in .\ui;ust, 1851, secured the second 
claim lurar the falls — ido acres immediately 
adjoining' Col. Stevens' location. On this 
claim he l)tiilt a good house and farm build- 
ings, although he had no title other than a 
permit from the war department. Dr. Heze- 
kiah Fletcher, John Jackins, Isaac Brown, 
Warren Bristol, Allen Harmon, and Dr. A. 
K. Ames made claims during 1851, and were 
soon followed by Edward Murphy, Anson 
Xorlhrup, C_'harles Hoag, Martin Layman, 
John G, Lennon, Benj. B. Parker, Sweet 
W'. Case, Edgar Folsom, Iliram Van Nest, 
Robert Blaisdell and others, all of whom 
secured permits from the military authori- 
ties. Prominent claim holders just outside 
the military reservation were Joel B. Bas- 
sett, Emanuel Case, Charles W. Christmas. 
Waterman Stinson, William I'.yrnes, Ste- 
])hen and Kufus Prall. all of whom took up 
land in what is now .\nrth Minneapolis. 
During 1851, 1832 and if^.^.^ many claims 
were occupied, although still wilhout title 
or immediate i)rospect of title. It was even 
necessary to guess at boundaries (in the 
absence f)f all stir\-eys by government) but 
Mr. Christmas, who was a surveyor, ran 
lines as he belie\ed the government sur- 
veyors would make them. 'I'hese informal 
boundaries i)roved to be sttljstantially cor- 
rect when the tinal survcvs were made in 


During three or fonr \ears, the utmost 
confusion ])re\';iilrd. I'.esides those who 
obtained |)ermits from the army ol'ticials 
were other si'ttlers who had no shadow of 
authoritv, and the cl;iini shaiuies of these 
"s(|uatters" were fre(|tiently destroyed l:)y 
the officers and their builders ejected from 

the reservation. The administration of this 
authority was radical and was claimed to 
be tyrannical and charges of bribery were 
frequently madi', .\lthough there was prob- 
.'ihly much less corruption of ofificials th;in 
was cliarged, it seems iiidtibitable that the 

i;civi:i:.\iiu wii.i.i.wi i;. .\i.\usiiALi. 

administration ol the ainiv nfficers was tar 
from just, anil that inlhiences cil some sort 
or other were active in securing opin irtuni- 
ties for favored settlers. So unsellleil was 
the situation that the claimlioldeis liiially 
organized an association with Dr. .\. 1',. 
\mes, as president ;ind t harles lloag as 
secretary, and an e\ecnli\e committee com- 
])osed of the leadittg ukii of the settlement. 
W'eekh- nu'etings were lield in (nl. SIcmmis' 
honse. riu- assoei.ation was IrankK com- 
mitted to frontii-r justice: there no 
Law, anil il was |irii|ioseil to asst'n the 
rights of bona tide settlers and claimants on 
the basis of justice ami ecptity as voted by 
the majority, .So thorottgh was the organi- 
zation, and so completely was it respected, 




Colonel Stevens' house is in the background,^ partly concealed by the bluff. The Indian tepees stood about where 

Bridge Square is now located. 

tliat only one instance of severe measures 
is recorded. One claim jumper received a 
well-merited flogging, and promptly disap- 
jieared from the region. However, there 
were a number of cases of disputed claims 
which were settled by compromise before 
possession could be secured. 

At the close of the year 1852 there were 
only a dozen houses on the land included 
in the original town site on the west side 
and there was as yet no appearance of a vil- 
lage. The buildings were all farm houses 
or claim shanties and of necessity were 
located on the land claimed by the inhab- 
itants ; and were thus scattered over a wide 
area. This state of afTairs continued for a 
while longer, for Congress passed a law- 
reducing the Snelling reservation l)ut made 
no provision for a survey and entry of the 
land. And it was not until the spring of 

1S35 that the claimants were enabled to pay 
their land fees and secure llu- hmg expected 
titles to their property. 


Meanwhile the village on the east liank of 
the Mississippi river was growing rapidly 
although it was conceded even then that 
the west bank must be the location of the 
greater part of the future city. .\s has been 
noted, the opening of the saw mill in 184(8 
started a miniature boom in building. Dur- 
ing that year the population reached about 
three hundred. W'ni. R. .Marshall, whose 
arrival has been referred In. surveyed the 
town site, a post-office was established, the 
first school was opened (in a log cabin) and 
religious services were commenced by the 
Rev. E. D. Neill, a Presbyterian clergyman 
who had located in St. Paul. Mr. Neil! exer- 



cised a most salutary influence upon the 
young settlement. He was a man of educa- 
tion and refinement and at the same time 
quite able to turn his hand or mind to any 
of the needs ni the frontier community — 
teaching school, lecturing, taking part in 
politics and serving the conimunil}' in an)- 
capacity where his abilities were needed. 
Col. Stevens records the following arrivals 
at St. .\nthony in 1841; : 

John W. North. Dr. John H. Alurpliy, Rculjeu 
Bean, Judge Bradley B. Meeker, Dr. Ira Kings- 
ley, Elijah Moulton, Charles Kingsley, James 
McMullen, Joseph M. Marshall, John Jackins, Wil- 
liam P. Day, Silas and Isaac Lane, Francis Hnot, 
1.. Bostvvick, Owen McCarty, Moses W. Getchell, 
Isaac Gilpatrick, J. G. Spence, Lewis Stone, Rufns 
Farnham, senior, Rnfus Farnham, junior, Albert 
Dorr, William Wortliington, Elmer Tyler, L. N. 
Parker, William Richardson, Eli F. Lewis, 
Charles A. Brown, A. J. Foster, Charles T. 
Stearns, Stephen Pratt, William W. Getchell, 
Isaac Ives Lewis, J. Q. A. Nickerson, Ira Bur- 
roughs, Samuel Fernald, William H. Welch, F. 
X. Creapeau, N. l^ieautcau, John Bean, and Amos 

(iradually the young community took on 
the appearance of an eastern sillage. From 
log cabins the style changed to the white 
painted cottages of New England, where 
most of the settlers began life. One by one 
stores and shops were opened until the ordi- 
nary needs of the villagers were supplied 
by local business enterprise. In 1851 the 
first newspaper made its appearance — the 
St. Anthony Express, published by Elmer 
Tyler and edited by Isaac Atwater, a young 
lawyer who had reached Minneapolis in the 
previous year and who was destined to be- 
come a justice of the supreme court, and a 
]jrominent citizen of Minneaijolis for nearly 
sixty years. Churches of several denomi- 
nations were organized ])revious to 1853, 
The state university, provided for by the 
first territorial legislature, was organized — 
on paper — and a board of regents was 

The arrivals in 1851 included A. II. Young, 
afterwards for main- years a judge of the 
district court, George A. Camp, |)r(iniincnt 
in the lumber business, John T. r.laisdell, 
Hiram Van Nest, William W. Wales, who 
had a large part in the affairs of the young 
city and lived to see it become a metropolis, 

Joel B. Bassett, a pioneer lumberman and 
long a well known citizen, Leonard Day and 
his sons, identified with lumbering for two 
generations, Dr. A. E. Ames, Emanuel Case, 
Sweet W. Case, Samuel Thatcher, Wm. (I. 
Moffett, David A. Secombe and many others. 
Ti) enumerate all the arrivals is beyond the 
■^CMpe of this work. 


.Many of the settlers recorded as coming 
to St. Anthony only made it a stopping 
place until they could secure a foothold on 
the west side of the river. Col. Stevens was 
the first, and most of these mentioned in the 
preceding paragraph moved to the west side 
as soon as they could make claims. Some 
spent ]iart of their time in St. Anthony and 
part on their ])otential farms. There was no 
opportimity for business on the west side 
while trade was brisk on the east shore. 
The situation made Col. Stevens uneasy and 
he was constantly importuned for permis- 
sion to build upon his farm. At last in the 
spring of 1854 he employed Chas. W. Christ- 
mas to survey a town site of over 100 acres. 
This survey covered the larger part of the 
present business center of Minneapolis of 
today and determined the general direction 
of the streets and their width. Col. Stevens 
Ii.mI been familiar with New Orleans and 
l)attcrned the new Minneapolis after the 
English portion of that city as it was in the 
early days. 

X.\>ri.\c; THE CITY. 

Immediately after the sur\'e}' Col. Stevens 
began lii> liberal ])olicy of giving away lots 
to people who woidd build and within a few 
months there was a \illage of parts centered 
about the jiresent Bridge Square — then 
knr)wn as llridge .Street. The transfers of 
real estate were \'erbal. Col. Stevens iiad 
no title and could give none. Afterwards, 
wdien his j)reemplion was completed he gave 
deeds to each lot owner. lUit though the 
peo[)le of the young city had no right to the 
ground 1 'U wliicli they were building they 
had bv this time secured a name. From the 
first there had been much discussion of this 
interesting matter. For a time All Saints 
seemed to be in favor, while Col. Stevens 
at first preferred Hennepin. Winona was 



considered as were Lowell, Albion, Adas- 
ville and other more or less suitaldc titles. 
When the Fort Snelling reservation was 
rednced in 1832 Hennepin County was or- 
ganized with, a ciinnty seat on the west side 
of the falls — but there was no name for the 
county seat. The county commissioners 
selected the name Albion aiT<I it was so re- 
corded but there was a great protest from 
the people and a few weeks later Charles 

providing for the incorporation of the town 
of Minneapolis and it was more than two 
years afterwards, on July 20, 1858, that a 
town government was organized under the 

It thus remains a matter of indisidual 
choice or opinion whether ^Minneapolis had 
its birth with the erection of the old mill of 
1820, the cabin of the Pond's in 1834, the 
Stevens house of 1849, the choice of a name 
hv the inhabitants in iR^z. the act providing 


Hoag invented and proposed the name 
"Minnehapolis" — a combination of Greek 
and Sioux. This name met with instant 
favor and — with the letter "h" eliminated — 
was formally adopted by the citizens of the 
village at a meeting held in CuI. Stevens' 
house in December, 1852. But thougli thus 
adopted the name was not sanctioned by 
government until some time later. It was 
in 1856 that tlie legislature passed an act 

for incorporation in 1856 or the actual or- 
ganization of government in 1858. But it 
is certain that the spirit of Minneapolis, as 
it has been known in later years, began to 
1)C manifest about the middle of the decade 
of 1850-60 when the settlers obtained actual 
title to their lands and when improvements 
of a permanent character began to be made. 
Then did the town first assert itself and give 
definite promise of its great future. 


-^ ~^ XlTHlX tlK' (Iccadc of 1855-65 the Eastman, Fred L. Smith, the Rev. J. F. 

\/\/ \-ilIa,t;cs at llie I'alls of St. An- ChatTee and others hiter to hecome promi- 

T T ihiMU- reiH-i\cd intn llicir ]H>]iula- ncnt in tlir affairs of the city, cast in their 

li'in nian\ i>\ llie imn whn were a few _\'ears IhIn with the frontier vilkige and ,L;a\e tiieir 

hiler to make the n.iine nf MinneapoHs fam- hest efforts to hnilding up the place, 'hhose 

ous through tiieir cnminereial achie\enients. were days wlien pubhc spirit was rife; wlien 

I'he foundations of man\ of the nlder l)anks ex'eryhody in .Minneapolis worked for Min- 

and business lionses were laid; definite plans neai)olis. 

for future commercial enterprises and trans- It is said of this time that "tlie families 

pirtation routes wire niade.T^ ( )f course, who came here, from 1S54 to i8(x>, and laid 

|i!aiis were crude .'ind incumplete ; hut, on the foundations (>f the ]\Iinneapolis to he, 

the whole, the men of this ])eiio(l had a \ cry were in character and culture the choicest 

fair conce|)lion of the main lines along which pi'oduct of the east. No new settlement 

Miiuieapolis was to develop in later years, ever showed a larger proportion of college 

It was during this decade that John S. Pills- men and cultivated women. Indeed, it luay 

Iniry came to Minnea])olis and started a he doiihled whether the official and iutellec- 

hnsiness which lives until the present time; tual status of Minneapolis has ever since 

that W'illiaiu 1). \\a>hl)iirn commenced the averaged as high as during those six earliest 

improvement of the water power on a scale years." 

and with a comprehension which laid the Kkinoixi; Tin-; Mississippi. 
foundations for a great milling industry; One of the first ways in which the spirit of 
that that enthusiastic pioneer. Colonel Stev- Minneapolis was luanifested was in the con- 
ens, gave away lots now worth millions, for struction of a bridge across the Alississippi 
the good of the town; that such men as H. river. The h'ather c.f Waters had not, up 
T. ^Velles. C. 11. i'ettit, K. J. Mendenhall, 1,, ii,is time, been bridged at any point from 
.\nthony Kelly, luigcne M. Wilson, tieorge its s,,in-ce to its mouth. 1-ranklin Steele, 
.\. r.rackett, Daniel R. l',:ii-ber. Richard aii'l c.l. Stevens. Judge .\twater and dthers 
S. H. Chute, John I'.., S. C. Gale, |,,rmed a com|ian\- fi.r the construction ..f a 
('. 11. 1 lef'felfinger, T, A. Il.irrisnn, Hugh G. siisi)ensi( m bridge and in good time the 
Harrison, F,. S. Jones. W illiam S. King, 1, ridge was completed and opened — January 
William l.ochren. Ch.uKs .\l. I.nring. Dor- _,,^ 1855— when the event was ceiel)ratcd 
ilus Morrison. W . W. McNair. J. I\. :nid v, itli a .ind bani|uet ;it llie new St. 
H. fl. Sidle, R. J. I'.aldwin, h'.. I'.. Ames, ( Parle- li-itel. This was not i<u\\ the first 
Paris Gibson, I,. M. Stewart. William !'. l,ii,|oe t, , >pan the Mississippi but . oie .if the 
.Ankcny, .\sa I'., f'.artou, I). .M . Clough. W. f,,-si l.,iig suspension l)ridges tn be con- 
H. Lauderdale. James W. Lawrence. I\ R. ^nucted in the countrw 
E. Cornell, Co]. Cyrus .\ldrich, Wimilbury 
l-'iske, C\rus lleede, George k.. Ilue\, I )r. 

AS I iir; i \ i\ AiTi; \i.;i;i) 1 \ 5(1. 

A recent hi^t.irical sketch 1)\ ibe Rew 

P. L. Il.alch, S. C. Robinson, ( ). ('. Merri- , •, 1,1 \i ,. .,,, 1,.,. ii,:, ,,;;,,,,-. .- o,„ 
I _ ( liarles 1.. .Morgan has this pictnie iil tlie 

man. I. E. P.ell, the Rev. D. 11. Knick 


\il),'ige of Minneapolis in 1856: 

backer, C. E. VandeiTnrgh. ' Hale ,,.,^,.,,„ ,„„. „,|| ,^, „,^, g^,,,;,,, ^.^^^^ -p^j,p^,,. 

W'illiams, J. C. Reno, S. I'. Snyder. W . W. ci'is^rd llu- llicn brand-new suspension bridge 




and passing at its western end the home of Col. 
Stevens, the very first house built in the village, 
we climbed what was then a veritable hill past 
a few one-story buildings into the space long 
known as Bridge Square. 

Bridge S'luarc was then a rolling prairie, ex- 
tending between what were later Nicollet and 
Ifcnnepin Avenues, and doited witli oaU trees. 
At Second Street there was a dcpressidii which, 

Brothers, but the whole tract from the Iiridgc to 
Third St. in the center of which the Nicollet 
House now stands was then an unbroken pasture 
where a herd of cows and one or two savage 
bulls held undisturbed possession. 

The village at this linie had three centers, so 
to speak, which were each struggling for su- 
premacy; the earliest was in '"lower town" where 
was the Land OHice and Post Office, the second 

THic Fii;fc'T .sL~rt:.\.-iii.\ liuiin.i;. 
FrniK a Daguerreotype made soon after tlte ereetion of llie l)ri(lge. 

usually hlled with water, served in spring for 
the navigation of rafts and in winter for a skat- 
ing pond. Thence there was a gentle up grade to 
Third St., where began a heavy growth of woods 
extending over the ridge whose meandering 
wagon track became later known as Fourth St. 
Upon Bridge Square there was already one two- 
story brick building with "Law Office" conspic- 
uous on its upper story and an irregular row of 
one and two-story stores extending part way be- 
tween First and Second Streets, — or what be- 
came Second street in later years, — for at this 
time no street was more than a wagon track or 
path an<l all the naines were long since changed. 
,\t a point between Second and Third streets on 
the south side stood the livery st.abic of the Goff 

in the vicinity of Washington St. .iiid Seconil 
Ave. South; and the third anil nmri' rapidly 
growing on account of the bridge, in Bridge 

Just beliinil the cellar on I'ourth St. where 
my father's house was soon to rise, we foimd 
the still smoking embers of an Indian camp of 
the night before. 


The piiljlic school system of .\iiiiiR'a|)nlis 
had its real he.iiiitiiiii.i;- at a iiieetiiiti- held dii 
Novendier 28, 1S55, when Ji)hn II. Stevens. 
F. J\. Iv Cornell and J. X. I'.ariier were 
elected schnnl tntstees and the legislature 



was i)etitioned for power to leavy a tax to 
raise funds for the erection of a building. 
This led to the purchase of the site now 
partly occupied by the court house and city 
hall and the erection of the first "union 
school" which was succeeded, after a fire in 
1864, by the ^^'ashington School, remem- 
bered by many men and women of Minne- 
ajjolis as the building in which they received 
their first schooling. At about the same 
time the iiromotion of the state university 
was taken up in earnest and plans were 
made for the erection of permanent build- 
ings. On Alay 16, 1859. the first meeting 
for the formation of a library association 
was held. From this grew the ^linneapolis 
.-\lhenaeum and the present public library. 
Coincident with these efforts for educational 
advancement there was a vigorous growth 
of the religious life of the community. ATany 
churches were organized and cliurcli build- 
ings were erected with much zeal and 
boundless liberality. Newspapers were es- 
tablished but as yet the older papers at St. 
Paul, ha\ing the ad\-antagc of location at 
the political center of the state and in an 
older community, overshadowed the jour- 
nals published at the l-'alls of St. Anthony. 

COM.\rF.Kri.\l. .\CT!\'ITY. 

I i)niu-(liately upon the perfectinn of the 
title to the towi'i site Minneapolis experi- 
enced its first real estate "Ijoom" accom- 
panied by a period of business activity 
which almost swept the jiromoters of the 
village off their feet. Inmiigratidn intn 
Minnesota was just beginning to assume 
great proportions; the lands ceded Ijy the 
Sioux in 1851 were now open to settlement 
and the ])eo])le woidd occu])y them, fni- ilir 
belief that Minnesota was a frozen .nid 
miinhabitable rt-gion was passing away. It 
was evident to the new comers that .Minne 
apolis was to be a commerci.'fl center fur the 
new country and they made liaste to invest in 
building lots. The first real estate office was 
o]icned by Snyder & McFarlane in a small 
frame l)uilding on Bridge Scpiare near the 
end of the sus])ensirin bridge. C. H. Pelt it 
established a bank and land agency; 1\. j. 
Mendenhall entered the banking business as 
did Rufus J. P)aldvvin, the Sidles and others 

of lesser prominence. ^Mercantile establish- 
ments multiplied by scores and speedily 
found themselves doing a large business. 
On the east side the Winslow House was 
erected in 1857 and the Nicollet House was 
opened in 1858 — these hostelries giving the 
Falls adequate facilities for the entertain- 
ment of visitors. Building contractors were 
overburdened with work and the capacity 
of the saw mills was taxed to supply the 
lund)er demanded for improvements; but, 
though the actual growth of the village was 
very rapid, the larger part of the business 
was still the sale of lands and lots and the 
supply of necessities to settlers passing 
through to the farm lands beyond. 


Quite the most important work for Min- 
neapolis at this period was the practical 
development of the water i)ower afforded 
by the Falls of St. Anthony. This potential 
resource of the young city had lain prac- 
tically dormant since the first efforts of 
I'ranklin Steele. There had been, it is true, 
an increase in the lumber sawing capacity 
and a beginning in flour milling in connec- 
tion with the east side water power; but 
nothing had been done commensurate with 
the possibilities of the volume of water or 
the prospects afforded by the opening of the 
richest farming land in the country directly 
tributary to the new town. The develop- 
ment of the lumbering and flour milling in- 
dustries will be told more in detail in the 
chapters devoted to those subjects but it is 
proper to emphasize at this point the im- 
]iiii-(ance to Minneapolis of the work done 
during the later fifties. William ]). ^\'ash- 
burn came to Minneapolis in 1856 and in 
1857 was appointed secretary and agent of 
tlir Minneaprilis Mill ('i>mp;in\, a reorgan- 
i/,ilinn of an farlier company formed by 
Robert Smith who acquired the water power 
rights on the west side .abonl the time Col. 
Stevens secured his claim, (len. Washburn 
was a young man who had come mit to 
Minnea])olis from Afaine to practice law. 
Finding better opiiortimitics for his exec- 
utive talents in the construetixe work of the 
Mill Compan\- he threw himself into the 
laljor of building a dam ;ind canal and. 



,, ...^ 

m^^^^ ' m-* y^.f^ -^ 

'^. -- ,.' 


! ' rtn^l 



View looking iiortli from about Second avenue soutii and P^ourtli street. 

amid tlie discouraging circumstances, 
pushed the enterprise to completion. His 
])oIicy of offering lil)eral lernis Id pcrsnns 
wlio would construct Hour and liiiii])cr mills 
tended t(i centralize the industry on the 
west side of the river and gave the young- 
city of Minneapolis a decided advantage 
over its neighlxjr, while the future of manu- 
facturing as a whole at the Falls of St. 
.Vnthony was made more secure and its 
development hastened. This work for the 
city was done so long ago that few remain 
who were witnesses of it and few of the 
present generation are aware of the fact 
that Gen. Washburn, still an active citizen 
of Minneapolis, was the foremost factor in 
the beginnings of the milling industry at 
the Falls. It was the first of a series of 
great cf)nstructive enterprises which Gen. 
Washburn has undertaken which have been 
in the aggregate of incalculable benefit tt) 

THE p.xxic OF 1857-8. 

The work of constructing the dam and 
canal had not been more than well com- 
menced before the financial panic of 1857 
began to make itself felt in Minneapolis. 
This not only made this particular cnter- 
])rise much more difficult but bniught to all 
the business activities of the young city 
their first great discouragement. In com- 

mon with the rest of the state, and, indeed, 
with many parts of the country, Minneapolis 
had i)\ crdi ini- llir wurk nf pi'i niiotitm. '1 he 
in>h 111 pn|iulatiiMi l.i ihf northwc^l and the 
rapid increase in \alues had lui"nc(l people's 
heads. There was speculation of the wildest 
kind, and projects most chimerical were 
backed b_\' the po]nilar voice. It wanted 
only the general panic t() cause the bursting 
I if the bubble. Minneapolis suffered with 
tlie rest, although, perhaps, not as badly 
hurt as some other communities. For a 
time the situation seemed almost hopeless. 
Banks and business houses failed in num- 
bers, many people were utterly ruined, and 
hundreds left the citv to try their fortunes 
elsewdiere. However, not all the banks or 
business men were bankrupt ; some weath- 
ered the storm in good order and with the 
improvement of conditions a year or so 
later, were able to dtj much for the develop- 
ment of the community. There was a vast 
recnperati\-e power in the town and in the 
northwest in those days, as now. No dis- 
aster could be long continued in a district 
so naturally rich and so earnest in its work 
for development. .\11 through the civil war. 
which followed hard upon the panic times. 
Minneapolis coiitinuc'd to grow, slowly, to 
be sure, but steadily, and while sending 
hundreds to the front, she contributed gen- 
erouslv of men and means for the suppres- 



sion of the Indian outbreak of 1862, which 
at first threatened to wipe out the entire 
wliite po])uhition. h'or a time the uprisins;' 
injured Minneajjohs, in common with the 
whole northwest, thri:)u.c;h the check to im- 
mit^ration which was the natural conse- 
quence: hut thi> elTecl was to some extent 
counteracti-d 1iy the concentration of gen- 
eral attention upon the war which was then 
absorbing the whole energies of the nation. 
And after the Indians had l)een put down 
and jHUiished and the history of the affair 
coidd be viewed from a better perspective, 
it became evident that the causes of the 
rising were unusual and not likely to occur 
again: wliilc the Sioux had been so thor- 
oughly subdued and scattered that any fur- 
ther Indian trouble from any cause what- 
ever, was well niL;h impossible within the 
limits of Minnesota. 

IIIE Cnv's W.\R RKCdKD. 

( )ut of an average population of about 
7,000 during the war years jMinneapolis and 
St. .Anthony sent to the Federal army about 
1,400 vohmteers. This is about the (jrdinar_\- 
ratio of adult m.'de^ in an\' communit\' and 

the figures appear extra\'agant unless it is 
remembered that the |)opulation of Minne- 
apolis in the early days contained an un- 
usual proportion of young men. It is true, 
however, that in the young cities the prog- 
ress of commercial afTairs was noticably re- 
tarded through the absence of so many of 
the workers. Inmiediately upon the pres- 
ident's first call for troo])s public meetings 
were held and, for the First Regiment of 
Minnesota N'olunteers, Co. D, Capt. Henry 
R. Putnam, was raised in Minneapolis 
anil Co. v.. Capt. George .\'. Morgan, in 
St. .\uthony. The story of the service of 
the famous "hirst Minnesota," culminat- 
ing in its magnificent charge at Gettysburg, 
— when at the Cost of two hundred and fif- 
teen out of two hundreil and sixty-two men 
who started in the charge, the dexoted band 
probablv sa\'e(l tie battle for the L'uion — 
has been often told. Capt. Morgan became 
a brigadier general and Capt. I'utnam en- 
tered the regukir infantry. Other well 
known names are those of Major Henry D. 
'.yilrieu, (,'a])t. James P.ryant and Lieut. W'il- 
liam Lochren. Xo companies t^ir the second 


Vlow fn»iii alinnt the renter of the present lloiir milling dlBtrlct. The partially ruined buildiiiR at Itie rislit is the 
old (^oveninient llovn- mill. The Winslou llimsi' ma.v lie seen in the dlstanee across the river. 



icL^iiiu'iU were raised here but its colonel. 
Ijnratiii r. \'an Cleve, afterwards a major 
!;eiicral, became a citizen of Minneapolis 
wlien tlie regiment was formed and lived 
bere during ibe remainder of his life. Ca])t. 
W". \V. Woodbury of this regiment was a 
Minneapolis pioneer and many ynung men 
enlisted from here. In the Third Regiment 
were numerous volunteers from Minneap- 
olis, including Dr. Levi Butler, the regi- 
mental surgeon, and Hans Mattson who 
subsequently became its colonel. Minneap- 
olis also sent many volunteers to the Fourth 
and Fifth regiments though raising no com- 
panies comidete. For the Sixth Ca])t. O. C. 
Merriman's Co. B and Capt. Joseph C W'hit- 
ney's Co. D were both raised here as were 
Capt. George A. Camp's Co. A and Capt 
Richard Strout's Co. B of the Ninth. The 
city also contributed many other volunteers 
to the Seventh, Eighth, Tenth and Eleventh 
Infantry. Maj. (ieorge .A. Camp was in the 
l'".ighth, Capt. Francis Peteler raised Co. S 
Second l'. S. Sharpshooters, .\nother com- 
pany was raised by Capt. Wm. F. Russell, 
and Capt. Eugene M. Wilson raised Co. A 
of the First Regiment of Mounted Rangers 
and Capt. (ieorge C. Whitcomb, Co. B of 
Hatch's Independent Battalion of cavalry. 
.\laj. ChristO])her B. HeiTelfinger of the h'irst 
Regiment of Heavy .-Vrtiller}- had been a 
])ri\ale in the First Infantry, rising by pro- 
motion to a captaincy before his transfer 
to the artillery. I'.ut to mention all the men 
of Minnea])olis who served bravely in the 
war is manifestly impossible in a work of 
this scope. Many of the volunteers enlisted 
about the time of the Sioux outbreak of 1862 
and saw their first service in the Imlian 
campaign and so did not reach tlie South 
until nearly the end of the war. I'pon the 
rl(]se of the war the veterans were welcomed 
warnil\ on tlieir return to Minneajjolis, the 
women of tlie citv (who had been notabl_\- 
active in sending comforts to the soldiers at 
the front) taking a prominent part in the 
festivities incident to their return. In the 
autunm of i(S65 (ieneral Grant visited the 
cit\- and was given such a receiition as might 
have been expected from a place which hail 
contributed so generously to the rank and 
tile of his armies. 


.At about this time scjine \ery important 
national and state legislation served to 
counteract the effects of the Indian troubles 
as well as to exercise other very pronounced 
inlluences on the fiUure of Minneapolis. Up 
to the war period the hindrances to the 
rajjid development of Minneapolis were the 
lack of a sustaining agricultural population 
and the impossibility, under existing condi- 
tions, of establishing siudi a producing com- 
munity in the region trilnitary to the city. 
( )ne difficulty was the presence of the In- 
dians who, while not regar<led l)\ the older 
Minnesotans as constituting an actual men- 
ace to settlers, were still present in large 
numbers and were viewed with more or less 
suspicion by easterners who had not grown 
familiar with the savages by actual contact. 
The events following the massacre removed 
the Indians from the crmsiileration. At the 
same time the new homestead law passed 
bv congress in i8(>2 began to have effect. 
With the prospect of free government lands 
in view settlers were willing to brave In- 
dian dangers both imaginary and real. 

Xcxt tr) the absence of producing popu- 
lation as a hindrance to development was 
lack (if trans|)ortation facilities. Railroads 
had been planned in the later fifties but the 
panic had wrecked the companies leaving 
trails of unfinished grades and scandal in 
all directions. But with the promise of bet- 
ter times railroad promotion w'as revived, 
and, fostered by wiser laws, gave hope, even 
during the height of the war, of an adequate 
transportation system within a few years. 
Besides roads fostered by state legislation 
there ^^■as now ho])e of a transcontinental 
line through the congressional charter of 
the Xorthern Pacific railway. 

.\t the same session of congress at which 
the homestead law was passed the grant of 
lands was made to the states for assistance 
in the establishment of agricultural colleges. 
This grant came to Minnesota at a time of 
almost utter hopelessness as to the future 
of the state university. Encumbered with 
debt and with the public finances in a crit- 
ical condition there seemed no chance to 
save the institution. .-Xt this juncture John 
S. Pillsbnrv of Minneapolis was called to 



w hat proved to be his life work — aside from 
his Inisiness and political services. Ap- 
pi)intc<l a regent in 1863 he set to work 
almost single handed to save the university 
l)r()[)ertv and to make available the federal 
grant — an achievement which is recounted 
mcirc at lensith in the sketch of his life which 

of the war. In spite of all backsets the two 
towns at the falls had grown steadily and 
in 1865 had a combined population of about 
8.000 — an advance of 2,000 since i860. The 
"Town of Minneapolis" (including the en- 
tire township) had 4,607 people and the 
"City of St. Anthony" 3.490- The west sirle 


From an old lltliugiuiili pioiinum-eil by pioneers (o be accnrate in location ol' ImiblinBs, Tbe small Imibiing at the 

top of the bank near the retiter of the pii-tiire is the nffli-e of W. 1), Washbinii. then 

asent anil manager for the .Minneapolis .Mill Company. 

a]i])ears clscu here. In this undertaking 
< ii)v. I'illsbury was ciinii)k'lelv successful. 
It is telling but a small jiart uf the story to 
say that he saved the university to Minne- 
sota and .\1 inncaptilis, saved the Ignited 
States grant which led tn the building ui) 
in conneciitni with the University tjf the fore- 
most school of agriculture in the country — 
accomplishments which have had a profound 
effect directly and indirectly upon the his- 
tory of Minneapolis. The state legislation 
in collection with this work was largely 
formulated by Gov. Pillsbury. 

Mi.\Ni-;.\i' IN 1(863. 
Minneapolis, therefore, had every reason 
to be hoi)eful of the future in the last year 

of tlif ri\cr was already leading the east. 
In its physical aspects the dual village had 
chaiiL'fil little for s(.'\fral years. The center 
of business on the west side was still at 
r.ridge Stpiare and on the east shore Main 
street "as the chid thi ironghfare. There 
was little business wfsl of Washington 
avenue. Most of the buildings were still 
of frame and |ireseiite(l the heterogenous 
api^earanci.' of the , ax t-ragi.- --mall town where 
hasl\ conslniclion without much regard to 
.•irchitcctiir;il appear.ance is the order of the 
day. The most iiiiporlant building in the 
town was the t'eiilral lilcick, jiisl coiiipleteil, 
and occujiied by .\. T. Hale iv Co.. clothiers, 
Lara way & Mills, grocers, and \\ akeheld & 



Plant, dry goods. At the corner of Nicollet 
and Washington avenues was the new Har- 
rison "Ijluck" while the older half of the 
XicoUet house was the chief huilding in 
\iew looking westward. A dwelling house 
occupied the site of Temple Court and the 
jirincipal residence sections were on north 
Washington avenue and on the streets 
and avenues southwest to Ninth or Tenth 
streets. At the milling district there was a 
small group of saw mills on either side of 
the river and several small flour mills. The 
Falls of St. Anthony still poured in un- 
broken flow over the original ledge of rocks, 
scarcely changed in appearance since their 
(lisc(i\er\', except for the constant recession 
which a little later caused great anxiety and 
led to the entire reconstruction of the river 
bed. In September the Minnesota Central 
Railroad was completed to ■Minneapolis and 
gave the city its first rail connection with 
the territory south. In tlie first two months 
of operation this road carried from Alinne- 
apolis 2,625,000 feet of lumber and 10,950 
barrels of flour. 

HuR.\CE Greeley's opinions in* '65. 
.At the Jilinnesota State Fair of 1865, held 
in .Minneapolis, the i)rincipal address was 
by Horace Greeley, then at the height of his 
fame as editor of the New York Tribune and 
known the country over as a patron of agri- 
culture. Writing to the Tribune shortly 
after his visit to Minneapolis, Mr. Greeley 
spoke enthusiastically of the prospects of 
the place. The following are extracts from 
tliis letter: 

St. Paul has some 13.000 inhabitants, while 
this place, including St. Anthony Falls, across 
the river, has some 8,coo; and there seems to be 
quite a jealous rivalry between them, which is 
absurd. The growth of railroads will soon ren- 
der the difference unimportant save to the land- 
speculators of one or the other locality, and Min- 
neapolis has advantage enough in her enormous 
yet most facile water power, which may be made 
to give employment to a population of 100,000 
souls. It has no superior but Niagara, and sur- 
passes that inasmuch as the pineries above and 
the w-heat lands all around are calculated to sup- 
ply it with profitable employment, .f^nd these 
are but the rude beginnings. .Already, beside a 
paper-mill and other such, a woolen factory is in 

full operation. Another such is nearly ready, and 

there is room and profitable business for a dozen 
more; and for cotton factories also. Nowhere on 

earth are the beneficent influences of our Pro- 
tective Tariff destined to be more signally, more 
promptly realized than throughout the Great 
West. .\nd this city, as one consequence, ought 
to quadruple its populatiim within the next ten 

This prediction was substantially fulfilled ; 
for in 1875 the city had reached about 32,000 
population, or four times that of the year 
of ^\r. Greeley's visit. 

h'rom the close of the Civil War to the 
present time the history of Minneapolis di- 
vides itself quite naturally into three per- 
iods: the first was of about fifteen years 
during which the great industries of the city 
made their initial forward strides : which 
saw the construction of the framework of 
the transportation system of the northwest : 
which included the consolidation of Minne- 
apolis with St. .Anthony ; and which brought 
the city through its second time of stress 
and discouragement ready for the most re- 
markable chapter in its story. The second 
period extended from about 1880 to 1894 or 
'95 and was that in which the city made its 
most rapid growth both in population, busi- 
ness and civic development. The first half 
i;if this period was almost meteoric in its 
brilliancy: the last half showed another ces- 
sation of progress culminating in the busi- 
ness depression of 1893 when, 
in common with the entire country, paid 
for mistakes made. .Again there was a rest 
time and then opened the last period ex- 
tending from the revi\'al after 1894 to the 
present and including the most solid growth 
in every line of commercial, social and 
municipal activity. The division points be- 
tween these periods were, of course, not 
clearly defined, the transition ordinarily 
covering several years. 

WASHBURN, William D., is a native of 
Maine but came to Minneapolis in 1857 and has 
thus been identified with the city for fifty years. 
During that time he has unquestionably exercised 
:i wider influence upon the affairs of the city than 
any other man, has taken a most active part in 
the commercial, social and political life of the 
place, and has, in fact, been a powerful factor 
in the wonderful progress and development of 
the city of his choice. At the same time he has 
been conspicuous in state and national affairs, 
and has been peculiarly fortunate in supplement- 
ing services of particular value to the nation, by 
giving to the northwest some of its most im- 


pdrtant puljlic works. Gcii. Washburn is de- corporation controling the west side power at 

sccndcd from one of the oldest families in Amcr- the Falls of St. Anthony — and for some years 

ica — that of John Washburn who was secretary devoted himself to the management of the busi- 

ni the Plymouth colony in England aid who, ness. His selection for this jiost was peculiarly 

sailing to the new wurld. afterwards married fortunate. To the youiin it gave immediate 

Patience, the dauglilcr of I'rancis Cook, one of employment at .'i lime wlien law business was 

the Mayllovver comjiany. hroni ihoe I'uril.m scarce ;inrl uiireniuncrativc; and it brought liim 

ancestors, Israel Washl)urn, born in 1784, was into close relations with the leading men of tlie 

directly descended. His father served in the war town ami state and familiarized him with the 

of ilie Revolution, as did the father of his wife, possiliilities of manufacturing at the Falls which 

.\l:ntli.i llenjamin. whom In- married in iSi_'. liecame largely the basis of his future business 

They made their home on .1 farm in l.iverniore, success. To llie young Minneapolis it gave the 

-Maine, and it was there that their sons were benelit. in the direction most needed, of the 

liorn and reared — a group of men who consti- exercise of a remarkable executive ability. For 

luted, perhaps, the most distinguished family con- the coming city needed most of all the develop- 

lemporaneously in pul)lic life in tlie United States. ment of the water power — then one of the largest 

( )f the eleven children there were seven sons all powers known to exist. To this work Mr. Wash- 

of whom Iiave achieved prominence in public life. 1>urn applied himself with the utmost energy and 

Israel Washl)urn, Jr., was elected to congress in despite many discouragements, including the h- 

1.^50 when William, who was born in 18,31, was nancial depression of that year, he completed the 

lull nineteen years of age. The young men had west side dam before the close of 1858. Pursuing 

.already become prominent in Maine state poli- a policy of liberality towards manufacturing cn- 

tics and Israel after serving live terms in congress lerprises the young manager succeeded within a 

was elected war governor of his native state in few years in building up the heart of the llour 

i860. Elihu B. Washburn served as congress- and luml)er manufacturing district around this from Illinois from 185,3 to 1869 when he was west side power dam. This was the nucleus of 

.•ipjiointed secretary of state by President Grant. the greatest group of llour mills in the world — 

During tlie Franco-Prussian war he was minister the corner stone of Minneapolis' future prosper- 

plenipoteiitiary to I'Vance. Cadwallader C. Wash- ity. Few of the people of Minneapolis of the 

burn was in congress both before and after the present generation are aware of the debt the city 

war. was a general in the union army and in 1871 owes to General Washburn for this, his first 

was elected .governor of Wisconsin. Charles .\. work in the city. President Lincoln appointed 

Washburn was minister to Paraguay: .Samuel .Mr. Washburn Surveyor General of Public lands 

I'l. Washburn was a distingnislud officer in the in 18(11 and it was while holding this office that 

navy. the title "(ieneral" became so associated with his 

The boyhood of Gen. Washburn was passed name it has conlinned tlirou,s.;li all the vari- 

upon the farm home .and at the schools of the ous ofiices which he luld; and he is better 

vicinity — the ordinary experiences of the farm- known today as "General Washburn" than as 

er's boy of the period, lie fitted for college at "Senator Washburn." During his incumbency of 

I'armington Academy ;ind in 18.^0 entered liow- the office Gen. Washburn became familiar with 

(loin College, the alma mater of in.any distin- the wonderful timber resources of the state and 

guished Americans. Me completed the four years ,afu-r retiring from the position fMmied the linn 

course and graduated with I he Ijacbelor's degree of W. D. W.ashburn & Co., built a saw mill at 

;in<l at once commenced the study of law. Dur- the h'alls and Liter one at .Anoka, and until 1889 

ing this period he spent of his time at Wash- carried on a very extensive lumber business. In 

ington performing the duties of ;i clerk in the 187.5 he entered fionr milling and speedily became 

house of representatives, where he obl.ained his an important in the production of that 

lirst aci|uaintaiicc with the affairs of congress and .\l miieaiiolis staple. Mis interests in llour in.Liin- 

witll the puldic men of the time. Two of .\lr. facturin.L; were Ihrongli the orit; I'lnii of W. 

W.ishburn's brothers liail ahnady m.iile lluir I '- Washburn X: Co. .iiid Washburn. Crosby & 

homes in the west and upon coiuiilelin.g his law Co. .Snbsi-.puiitl v in 1S84, tin; linn of W. I). 

studies lie determined lo fidlow their example, W.isliburn S: Co. was niereed in tin- Wasliliurn 

It was not difficult to decide upon a location. .Mill Company and in 1889 the llour milling divi- 

I.ivermore had already sent men lo the h'alls of sion of this business was consolidated with the 

St. .'\nthony and his brothers h'.lihn and Pillshury interests in the Pillsliury-Washburn 

w.allader h:id acipiired interests there .and in .\lin- i'hiur .Mills Comiiany, formin.g the lai.gest flour 

iiesota. He himself had great conlideiice in the milling corporation in the world. .\t this time 

future of the west and especially of Minnesota there were large accessions of Phiglish capital but 

of which he had heard much. Upon his arri\.il ^Ir. W.ishbnrn retained. ;is he still does, a large 

in .Minnea])olis, on May l, 1857, he opened ,111 interest .and has biin continuously one of the 

ollice for the practice of law but very shortly bo.inl of Annriean directors of the properties, 

afterwards accepted the position of secretary and The .Minneapolis .Mill Company and the St. An- 

agent of the Minneapolis -Mill Company — the thony l.ills W.itir Power Co. were also con- 

^. ^^r€c>^ dX^tcur^<^ 



solidalcd with the new corpor;ili'>ii which after- 
wards completed llie work of harnessing the 
power of St. Anthony h'alls by the constrnction 
of a new dam and power a sli<n-t distance l)ehiw 
the main falls. 

Bnt while Gen. Washhurn has been a leader 
in the development of the water power and the 
two greatest manufacturing industries of the city, 
this has been but a small part of the activities of 
his life. With a genius for jjroduction lie still 
had time and thought for the wdiole range of dis- 
tribution, transportation, linance and the broad 
ipiestions of political economy and statesmanship. 

During most of his life in Minneapolis he has 
had considerable interests in the financial insti- 
tutions of the city, the wholesale business and in 
real estate. But as a railroad builder he is best 
known to the general public — aside, of course, 
from his political life. His I'irst important rail- 
road project was the outgrowth c.)f the conviction, 
developed during the early seventies, that a rail- 
road controlled by Alinneapolis interests and 
leading inio the southern part of the state and to 
northern Iowa, was essential to the control of 
trade. The Minneapolis & St. Louis railroad was 
the oulc(jnie of this situation. Gen. Washbtarn 
was the president of the company for some years 
.md its promoter and executive durin,g the build- 
in.g period. His next project was even .greater — 
to build a Minneapolis railroad to a connection 
with lidew-ater ports, but entirely independent of 
the .Minneapolis-Chicago lines, and the roads cast 
of Chicago dominated by Chicago interests. Gen. 
Washburn retired from the presidency of the 
Minneapolis & St. Louis ,inil, e.irly in the eighties, 
commenced to agitate' the gre.itir juoject. The 
jiroject was accepted with favor, for llu- city 
had felt very seriously the detrimental inlluences 
of the Chicago domination of freight rates; but 
at lirst the plan seemed impracticable. The idea 
was to build to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and 
there connect with the Canadian Pacific railway, 
but tliis involved construction of 500 miles of 
railroad through the unbroken forests of northern 
Wisconsin and upper Michigan-through a terri- 
tory which would supply practically no local 
business. It appeared that for years it would be 
necessary to depend for revenues almost wholly 
on llu- .Minneapolis lloiir Ir.ule. IIiil in this as in 
his other business jirojecls. Gen. Washburn's con 
ceptioiis of the situation proved soinid. and uiUi energy he organized, linancied and 
bnill the railroad — now the well-known "Soo 
Line." 'J'he line had hardly been opened to the 
Soo before a western line was planned and jiro- 
moted. This traversed .Minnesot,-i ;ind North Da- 
kola to a junction with the Canadi;iii Pacific in 
the northwest and gave to .Minnc;ii)olis another 
rcnile to the Pacific. The development of this 
system was one of the most important commer- 
cial events in the life of Minneapolis. Mr. Wash- 
burn was |)resident of the Soo Line during its 

live years of construction and unlil his election 
to the United States Senate. 

Notwithstanding the enormous demands of 
these great enterprises upon his time, strength 
.-iiid energy. Gen. Washburn almost from his first 
arrival in the state gave much time to the service 
of the public. In 1858 he was chosen a member 
of the first state legislature. In 1866 he was 
elected to the Minneapolis school board and as- 
sisted in the early development of the school sys- 
tem which has become the pride of the city. 
Again in 1871 he was in the legislature and the 
year 1873 found him, at the urgent request of his 
friends, a candidate for the republican nomination 
for governor of Minnesota, .'\fter the close of 
the decisive vote in the convention it was claimed 
by his friends that two ballots had not been 
counted and these would have given him the 
nomination; but jNIr, Washburn refused to con- 
test the result. Six years of service in congress 
commenced in 1878 and only concluded when the 
Soo railway project claimed his entire attention. 
l:!ut on the completion of the road in 1S88 he 
withdrew from the presidency and became a can- 
didate for the United States senate and served for 
the following six years. In 1895 he was a candi- 
d.-ile f(jr re-election upon the assurances of those 
who afterwards opposed him, that there would 
lie no opposition to his candidacy. This unex- 
pected opposition took a form wdtich it was im- 
possible to oppose successfully with honor and 
Senator Washburn frankly admitted his defeat 
and great disappointment. .-\s in all similar cases, 
howi-\er Ik- (|nii-fly .'icci-pled the situation; he is 
uol the type id' man to pose as a dis,grnntled 

To his work in congress Gen. Washburn 
lironght a llmrougli know-lcd.^e of his district, 
bis siuir ,-iiid the entire northwest. And not 
only a knowledge, bul a wide conception 
of its coniiiiercial needs, its undeveloped re- 
sources and its possibilities. He had been pronii- 
lu-nl in the rise of the two great manufacturing 
industries of the slate and was familiar with all 
their details ami their requirements in tlu- way of 
supply of raw materials, transportation and ac- 
cess to markets, lie was master of tlu- a.gricul- 
Inr.'il conditions of the northwest. He had ni;iny 
ide.'is for the ad\aiila,ge of .\l iniu-snta which he 
set |o wcirk to develop as soon as he entered 
congress. ( )iily a few of his undertakings can be 
mentioned. ( )ne of ihe most iiiUresting was 
that of inipoiinding the llood waters of the Mis- 
sissippi liver in reservoirs al the headwaters, to 
be gradually released durin.g low water periods, 
thus maintaining an equal flow of water the year 
round. So cerlain was Gen. Washburn of the 
success of llu- |>l.-iii and ot its ullimatc aeconi- 
])lishment that he bad already, ten years before, 
personally entered llu- forty acres of land at 
I'okegama which he considered llu- key to the 
reservoir system. His personal endeavors in 
congress secnri-d the first approiirialions for this 



i;icat river improvement which has been of incal- 
culable benelit to navigation on the Upper Missis- 
sippi and has facilitated the transportation of 
logs from the pine forests to the mills and inci- 
dentally maintained an equal How of water for 
the use of power. He also started the legislation 
which has improved the lower reaches of the 
ujiper Mississippi and with the completion of 
locks and dams now building, will open river 
navigation from Minneapolis to the Gulf. Of 
even more importance to Minneapolis and the 
northwest, perhaps, was his work in securing llu: 
first appropriation for the improvement of Hay 
Lake channel in the Sault Ste. Marie river — the 
beginnings of the famous "twenty-foot" channel 
project which has revolutionized the carrying 
trade of the great lakes and wonderfully cheap- 
ened the cost of handling freight to and from the 

Such great undertakings did not, however, 
engross his attention in congress to the ex- 
clusion of national questions. Gen. Washburn 
took a very prominent part in the general afifairs 
of the country and though never an orator or 
even a frequent speaker, was one of the clear-cut 
debaters of congress whose speeches were always 
regarded with attention and whose arguments 
had much weight. His habit of independent 
llidught :\ud action occasionally brought him into 
opposition to his party but events have usually 
demonstrated that it was the man and not the 
party which was in the right. For instance, in 
the consideration of the famous Lodge bill, .gen- 
erally known as the "Imce bill," .Sen.ator Wash- 
burn stood alone on the republican side as an 
opjjonent of the measure, as wrong in principle 
and not calculated to accomplish the expected re- 
sults. Although freely criticised at the time, 
Gen. Washburn's position is now that of the ma- 
jority of clear thinkers in the country. He was 
in another case impelled to conflict with many 
party le.iders when he championed the "anti-op- 
tinn" bill. For this measure Senator Washburn 
made a speech which received world-wide atten- 
ti<in .and it was this speech and his remarkable 
ti.glit fur the law that carried it through the sen- 
ate. I'.iit jierhaps the greatest speech of his life 
was that on reciprocity delivered in the senate 
in i.Sq4 which stands, so fully did it cover the 
whnle ground, as the best authority extant on the 

Since leaving the senate in 1895, Gen. Wash- 
burn, although frequently mentioned in connec- 
tion with the highest political honors, has not 
sought office. In igoo he was the choice of his 
state delegation for vice-president. But he has 
steadfastly devoted himself to his business inter- 
ests and has with characteristic energy built an- 
other railroad and exploited a tract of 115,000 
acres of agricultural and coal be.-iring lands in 
North Dakota. 

Gen. Washburn has travelled extensively dur- 
ing his life and, with his long sojourns at Wash- 
ington, has been absent from Minneapolis for 
long periods. But this has not prevented him 
and his family from hlling a large place in the 
social life of the city. Within two years after 
settling in Minneapolis he returned to Maine and 
on April 19, 1859, was married to Miss Lizzie 
Muzzy, daughter of the Hon. h'ranklin Muzzy of 
IJ.mgor. They have had six children, four sons 
and two daughters. Gen. Washburn's beautiful 
home, "Fair Oaks," has been for many years a 
center of social life and the place of entertain- 
ment of many a distinguished guest. One of 
the founders of the Church of the Redeemer — 
one of the leading Univcrsalist churches of the 
country — Gen. Washburn has always been one of 
its most prominent members and supporters. As 
president of the board of trustees of the Wash- 
burn Memorial Orphan Asylum (founded by his 
brother, C. C. Washburn) Gen. Washburn has 
been prominent in the philanthropic and charit- 
alile work of the city, by no means confinin.g 
himself to the duties aii<l responsiliililies of the 
institution named. When municipal undertakings 
were proposed he has always been ready to take a 
hand, as in the Minneapolis-exposition project, 
to which he was a large subscriber, and of which 
he was for several years president, and in the 
public library building movement, when he was 
one of a small group to contribute $5,000 each to 
the fund. The municipal campaign of 1906 found 
him as alert and active as ever, presiding at a 
great mass meeting on the eve of election and 
speaking repeatedly during the evening for good 
government and advanced municipal standards. 
Although past the age when many men lay down 
the cares of business life he still attends to his 
affairs with regularity and bears himself with the 
air of a man much his junior. 



As W AS sli'iwn in the ])rcce(ling cliap- 
l>.r. .\l iniieaiii)lis, afu-r a periud ui 
■ lU'iirc'Ssion and (|uict, was rca(l_v, at 
llic close of the Civil war, to take advantage 
lu the utmost of the season of general pros- 
pir'i\- which folliiwcil ihc cessation of hos- 
tilities. It was slated that the special needs 
of Minneapolis were a tri])utary farming 
])()pulation and transportation to and from 
the east and into the outlying agricultural 
regions. JjOth these needs were supplied 
in large measure within five years succeed- 
ing the war. The disbanding of the armies 
thi-cw a great number of unemployed men 
into every community ami wdiile many were 
immediately absorbed in the varied imlus- 
iries which the\- had laid down in Vii, many 
turned to farming, charmed l)y the pros- 
|)ects of free government land. Possibly 
many soldiers afti'r fdur years of life in the 
(j]jen shrunk frnm the n mtinement of ofifice, 
store or shop. At all e\ents there was a 
tremendous immigration into .Minnesota — 
estimated at aliout 180,000 in the tive years 
ending in 1S70 — and the waiting prairie 
farm^ wei'e peopled and the golden wheat, 
for which the waler power at the b'alls nf 
St. Anthony had been Inoking. p(]ured into 
the city. 

Illi; KISE Ol-' ILolK M;. 

At the close of the last war year there 
were eight small mill> at the b'alls of St. 
Anthony and thev produced in i8()0 172.000 
barrels of flour. In the following year thir- 
teen mills ground 220,000 liarrels. .\t this 
jioint in the history of milling a new inlbi- 
eiice entered. For ten years (iov. C. C. 
Washburn of Wisconsin had owned an in- 
terest in the water power and he now saw 
that the tiiue was ripe to enter manufactur- 
ing. His first venture was the Washljurn 

"B" mill then the largest west of BufTalo- 
considered at first an e.\tra\-agaiit undertak- 
ing, but soon superceded by much larger 
mills. Gov. \\'ashburn was a man of cleai 
ideas and during his continuance in Min- 
neapolis milling set the pace for a group of 
great millers. And the\- came to promin- 
ence rapidl}- — Crocker, I'.arber. 1 'unwoody, 
Crosl))-. the i'illsburys. the Christians, and 
other men whose names went 'round the 
world on .Minneapolis fiour barrels. The 
story of milling is told in another chapter; 
only its influence upon the development of 
■Mmneapolis can be mentioned here. And 
what tliis influence was and what it ac- 
complished in the decade after the Avar, 
the ]jresent generation of ^linneapolitans 
can scarcely realize. Previous to this time 
liie future cjf the northwest had been some- 
what in doubt. .Men who knew it well had 
unbounded confidence in its resources and 
future dexelopnient but it remained to be 
]>roved to the world that wh;it had been 
very generally reg;iriK-il as almost a ])art 
of the frigid zone could produce crops of 
value year in and _\'ear out : and that it could 
priidiice I hem in sui'ficieiU \ariety to make 
il piospei'ous. It aKo rem;iined to lie dem- 
onsti-atiMl lliat llie spi'ing wheat of the north- 
W(.'st could compete with the other wheats 
of the woibl as ;i fooil ; and. further, that 
it coulil lie groinid into Hour and tr;ins])orted 
to dist.'inl ni.irkets in competition with 
other Mour, ,it a lixini^ piolli. At the open- 
ing of the period the almost unknown spring 
wheat llour was looked upon with distrust 
ill man\- markets of this countrx', and was 
ipnie unknown 

To the minded men of the time 
wheat seenu'd the hope of the northwest. 
They knew ,i;o(_i(l s])ring wheat could 



be grown here ; but even the most advanced 
of them could not believe that corn, other 
coarse grains, fruits and stock raising would 
ever be generally a part of the farm program 
of the northwest. On wheat, therefore, 
they must depend; and they set about jjrov- 
ing to the world that northwestern wheat 
and lliiur were unequalled. 

M II. I. INC. R1-:\OLUTIO.\'I7.ED. 

To a group of Minneapolis millers be- 
longs much of the credit for the foundation 
laying of the seventies wdiich established 
most solidly the great dual industry of the 
northwest and of Minneapolis- -wheat rais- 
ing and Hour milling. These men set about 
improving in every way possible the pro- 
cesses of flour grinding. In 1870 every mill 
in Minneapolis was equipped with old-fash- 
ioned mill stones and primitive purifying 
processes. Five years later the roller mill 
had come in ; the middlings purifier had been 
adopted, and other valuable improvements 
and inventions brought into use. At the 
same time the self-binding harvester had 
cheapened the cost of production on the 
farm, and the extension of railroads and the 
opening of lake commerce had lowered the 
cost of marketing. The [Minneapolis mill- 
ers had revolutionized their business — and 
incidentally the milling business of the 
country; and this during a period of "hard 
times." And in 1878 they went abroad and 
found a foreign market for the first time in 
the history of the Alinneapolis flour indus- 
try. By that time the_\' had proven ci in- 
clusively that AlinneaiJolis spring wheat 
flour was the e(|ual if not the best of any 
in the world. 

.Much stress is laid upon this development 
of the rtciur industry because it became then, 
and has ever since remained, the center of 
the industrial life of the city and the north- 
west. Time is reducing its relative im- 
portance; diversification of production in 
city and on farm is bound to still further 
lessen its position of leadership. But it will 
remain true that it was the development of 
this dual industry in the seventies which 
made Minneapolis. Had it fallen behind 
and failed to make its point in the world, 
the northwest and with it the city, vvotdd 
, have been much slower in its progress. 

R.\ILR0.\D BUILD! N"(;. 

Coincident with the development of the 
flour milling business and in fact a necessary 
part of that growth, was the building of the 
early railroads of Minnesota. The Minne- 
sota Central, opened to h'aribault in 1865, 
was extended to .\ustin in 1867 and con- 
nected with the ".Milwaukee" for Chicago. 
The St. Paul & Pacific (now the Great 
Xorthern) built west, reaching the Red 
Ri\er valley in 1870 and about the same 
time the Lake Superior & Mississippi 
reached Duluth and gave the needed lake 
connection. Other lines reached out down 
the Minnesota valley and into southern Min- 
nesota and in 1872 the short line to Chicago, 
via La Crosse, was completed. Seven years 
saw the essential eastern connections made 
and feeder lines for the city built into the 
principal farming comnnmities then exist- 
in a:. 


.\lthough the development of its trans- 
portation facilities and the means of absorb- 
ing the agricultural product of the outlying 
country was the first and most important 
work for Minneapolis, the town was by no 
means idle in other directions. The lum- 
bering industry made enormous progress in 
this period, the output reaching 118,000.000 
feet in 1870 and 195.000.000 feet in 1880. 
( )ther manufactures were not neglected 
and the wholesaling of merchandise first 
became a recognized factor in the com- 
mercial life of the city. Retailing was still 
on a country town basis ; the city had no 
great retail marts until after 1880. In bank- 
ing the city made progress commensurate 
with its other develojjment and most of 
the prominent financial institutions of today 
were founded, or took form, in this period 
of the city's history. 


In matters pertaining to civdc, social and 
religious affairs this part of the city's storj^ 
is not as interesting as is its commercial 
progress. In fact commercialism seems to 
have dominated during this period more 
than at any other time in the city's history. 
The beginning of the period found Minne- 
apolis lapsed from a town government to a 
simple township organization — quite suf- 



ficicin, jJL-rliaps, during the war lime (juiet, 
i)iit inadequate to the needs of the city of 
a few years later. This was speedily 
roalizeci and Minneapolis was incorporated 
as a cit}- in 1867. St. Anthony, which had 
been under a city government for a decade, 
still maintained something of a position <jf 
rivalry although the two places were prac- 
tically one, excei)t in name, and it was evi- 
dent to all impartial observers that they 
must of necessity unite within a short time. 
This necessit)' was reluctantly conceded in 
1872 and the united city started on new 
numicipal life under a new charter granted 
by the legislature. In 1874 the old city hall 
at the junction of Nicollet and Hennepin 
avenues and Second street was built. Pub- 
lic improvements and municipal depart- 
ments remained in a very crude condition 
for some time although earnestly promoted 
by a few zealous and public spirited men. 
The first waterworks consisted of a small 
pum|) and wooden mains. .\ good fire 
de|)artment was organized but remained 
uniil ^^•7') a volunteer organization. The 
original sus])cnsion liridge — the main traffic 
connection between the two sides of the 
river was re])lace(l in 11^73. I'ark^ bail liecn 
proposed from time to lime Imt the most 
promising ])lans had been Mited ilnwn liy 
a majority which seemed In be fearful of 
public e.xpenditure. For some time after 
the consolidation of the two cities the school 
systems remained se]jarate with conseepient 
lack of uniformity and co-o])cration. The 
imiversity was making slow ]jrogress, fos- 
tered as Ijcst might be by Liov. I'illsbury 
and President Folwell, wlmse interest was 
constant, but for many years receiving 
small support from the country districts of 
the state. In religious matters the people 
at this time showed no lack of devotion but, 
as in public afifairs, there was not the jM-og- 
ress in organizaticju ;ind building which the 
rapid growtli of the city w(juld naturally 
seem to have warranted. It should be 
remembered too that witli the increase of 
population the older churches found them- 
selves charged with the duty of sustaining 
many missions, wdiich, at first great bur- 
dens, later became large self-supporting 
churches. And in the later years of the 

])eriod there was good cause for lack of 



For the period was one of curiously 
blended progress and detention for Minne- 
apolis. In 1869 came the threatened destruc- 
tion of the water power through the under- 
mining of the limestone ledge forming the 
I'"alls. Prompt action saved the situation, 
but the millers did not feel perfectly secure 
of the permanence of the power until the 
completion of the government retaining 
work in 1878. The decade of the seventies 
opened with much promise, but the panic 
of 1873 seriously crippled many north- 
westera enterprises. Railroad building — the 
hope of the city and of the state — was set 
back, and most of the railroad corporations 
were forced into reorganization or down- 
right bankruptcy. Business of all kinds 
was affected. The tide of immigration was 
in part held back. And, as if financial dif- 
ficulties were not enough, the years 1875 
to 1878 brought to the northwest the so- 
called "grasshopper plague," wdiich for a 
time threatened to paralyze the agricultural 
inlercsts (if three states. In 1S73 this pest 
of locusts had reached such proportions as 
to destroy the entire crops in some parts 
of the northwest ; and no one knew where 
it would stop. Five years of total or partial 
destruction of crops reduced whole coun- 
ties to ])emiry and led many farmers to 
abandon their lands; while inunigration, 
under such cuncliiii ms, of course, almost 
completely stopped. 

just at the close of this plague, early in 
1S78, a great disaster assailed the food- 
producing industry at the other end. This 
was the Hour mill e.xplosinn in .Minneapolis, 
attended with great loss of life and the 
destruction of millions in property. The 
five years had indeed been liad ones for the 
great wheat and flour imhistry of the north- 
west; and Minneapolis felt the eft'ects in 
full measure. 

Ihit, if the blow bacl been a se\ere one, 
recovery from its effects was remarkably 
rapid. The leveled mill walls rose again, 
higher and stronger than before and the 
o]iportunity was embraced to equip the 



Krected is ls7i> to replace the bridge of 1S55. It was torn down in 18S9 when the present steel arch bridge was built. 

mills with even later and better machinery 
than that destroyed. The rebound from 
all other causes <jf depression was equally 
rapid; by the end of the decade of 1870-.S0 
Minneapolis was physically and financially 
recuperated and alive with the sjjirit which 
was to manifest itself so wonderfully dm-- 
ing the coming years. 

PILLSBURY, John Sargent, for more than 
two score of years one of the leading and most 
valued of the citizens of ^linneapolis, was Ixirii 
at Sutton, Merrimac county, N. H.. on July 29, 
1S28, and died at Minneapolis, October 18, 1901. 
He was descended from Wm. Pillsbury who came 
from England in 1640 and settled at Newbury- 
port, Mass., where he received a grant of land. 
One of Wm. Pillsbury's descendants went In 
Sutton in 1790 and established the New Hamp- 
shire branch of the family. Mr. Pillsbury's father 
was John Pillsbury. a manufacturer, and long 
prominent in state and local affairs. His mother 
was Susan Wadleigh Pillsbury, who, like her 
husband, traced her ancestry back to early Puri- 
tan stock. The son of these parents had so spe- 
cial advantages. He grew up amid the ordinary 
conditions of a New England town in the early 
part of the last century. His education was lini- 

itLcl lo the village school whicli was not of the 
be-t. While still a boy he commenced to learn 
the printers trade but preferred merchandising 
and left the case to become a clerk in the general 
store of his older brother, George .A. Pillsbury, 
who afterwards became prominent in Minneap- 
olis. A somewhat varied experience in mercan- 
tile life brought the young man at the age of 
twenty-five to a belief that he was not only fitted 
for a mercantile career but he would find 
belter r)pportunities in the west, .\ccordingly in 
1853 he traveled for some months and deter- 
mined, after a visit to St. Anthony, to make the 
place his home. He engaged in the hardware 
business and was from the first successful. He 
was just becoming well established, however, 
when he experienced a catastropjic which would 
have broken most men. Scarcely two years after 
commencing business at St. Anthony, and in the 
midst of the financial panic of 1857, he lost about 
thirty-eight thousand dollars by lire. This not 
only wiped out all his accumulations, but left him 
under a heavj' indebtedness. In the critical finan- 
cial condition of the country, it would have 
seemed impossible to avoid hopeless liankruptcy; 
])iit Mr. Pillsbury already so well established 
his credit that he was enabled to secure an ex- 
tension from his creditors ;ind at once resumed 
business. For five years Mr. Pillsbury had not 



a single new suit nf clothes — but in live years 
every debt was paid. Business success was cer- 
tain to such a man. lUiilding on this foundation 
he developed a commercial structure which had 
a prominent part in the industrial activities of 
the city and state for four decades. His retail 
hardware business was merged into a wholesale 
business which still exists as the largest in the 
northwest; he became one of the first millers 
and later a member of the greatest flour manufac- 
turing concern in the world; he dealt extensively 
in pine lands and was one of the largest manu- 
facturers of lumber; he had a part in many of 
tlie linancia! institutions established in Minneap- 
olis during his active business life. But success- 
ful as was Gov. Pillsbury's business career it is 
overshadowed, in an estimate of his life, b.y the 
otlicr great work which he took up even before 
he had established himself on a firm commercial 
footing. Possibly on account of his own lack of 
early educational privileges, Mr. Pillsbury 
watched with keen interest tlic affairs of the 
University of ^Minnesota — an institution whicli 
was not more tlian a name at the time of his ar- 
rival in the territory. T-".ndowed by a congres- 
sional land grant, the university existed on paper 
until 1856, when a building was commenced. 111- 
ad\i^i(l plans, f. .11. lu .il by the rmancial crash of 
1857, v.. iii\..l\id llu- in^ tliat the early 
sixties foinid it apiiareutly Iiopelessly in debt, 
witli an unlinislicd building and no prospect of 
ever establishing a faculty or offering education 
to the youth of Minnesota. It seemed that the 
building and campus would be lost on a mortgage 
of nearly $roo,ooo and that the land grant would 
be diverted from its purpose. 

In t86,; Mr. Pillslnn-y was appointed a regent 
of the university and -shortly afterw.irds became 
slate sentitor, and through his exertions a new 
law was passed placin.g the affairs of the institu- 
tion in the hands of three regents, with full 
]).iwer> t.i adjust its obligations on such terms 
a> they might deem best, and as if they were 
their own. Such unlimited authority has seldom 
been given a public board. But the situation was 
critical, and called for measures. Every predicted failure. But with iron will and a 
liersisteiicy which knew no defeat. .Mr. Pillsbury 
entered on a campaign of adjustment of the 
claims. lie sold lands, and with the cash com- 
promised claims at such figures as might be ar 
r.anged. The difficulties of such a task at such 
a time cannot be realized in these days. The 
lands offered were inaccessible; the creditors 
were widely scattered, and of many minds as to 
the value of their securities. The \rxations and 
ilisappointments were almost uuniunl.ered. .Mr, 
Pillsbury rode thousands of milc^ tlir.)Ugh a new 
country, hunting U]> land- or -iLiwing them to 
creditors or buyers. IK- tr.iveU-d t.. the h'.a>t: he 
wrote letters innumev.ible, lie IuoukIm int.. play 
all the resources of a skilllnl i.j business. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties of the under- 
takin.g, in four years he was able to report that 
the debt of the university had been cleared away, 
leaving intact thirty-two thousand acres out of 
the grant of forty-six thousand, and with the 
campus and building free of incumbrance. Gov. 
Pillsbury afterward made great successes in busi- 
ness, and proved himself a clever and adept finan- 
cier; but, considering the circumstances, nothing 
which he did in later years equaled this financier- 
ing of the affairs of the bankrupt University of 
jNlinnesota. .\nd it is no discredit to his asso- 
ciates to attribute the success to him; it was well 
known at the time that his energy, his enthusi- 
asm, his business sagacity, were the moving 
forces of the work. 

l-'ollovving his achievement in relieving the itni- 
versity of its financial burden, the institution was 
reorganized, a faculty was engaged, and the real 
work commenced. Governor Pillsbury remained 
a regent, and watched over every step of its 
progress during the remainder of his life. With- 
out a liberal education himself, he had a very 
keen appreciation of the needs of an institution 
of higher learning. And here it should be said 
that, through reading and association. Governor 
Pillslnu'y became a man of education and 
hi.gli rulti\ Largely his sagacity, 
the uni\er-,ity lia-- been fortunate in its presidents 
and faculty. Early in its career, the question of 
co-education came up. .Mr. Pillsbury threw his 
infiucnce to the side of equal educational advan- 
tages to young men and young women. From 
the beginning. Governor Pillsbury was the finan- 
ci.'.l guide of the institution. In the legislature 
he wa-, able to accomplish much in influencing 
appr..priati>.ns. and he was also the means of con- 
.-iolidating the land grant made directly to the 
university and that for the aid of agricultural 
eilucation and experiment work. Meanwhile, 
there was often a scarcity of dollars for current 
expenses and other needs. But by this time Mr. 
Pillsbury was becoming a man of means; and 
these nie.ins were often at the disposal of the 
institution. When the farm was 
needed in c..niu'etiim with the university and 
fnn<ls ueie l.ickiii;.; .Mr. PilKlmry .idvanced the 
$S.5i:o neede.l Til.- l.inil afterwards sold for 
$150,000 .mil the proceeds u>ed in buying the 
present university f.irm. In i.^Sc^ (i.iv, Pillsbury 
i|uietly handed the regents $150,000 to build a 
ninch meded science hall — perhaps the largest 
gilt e\ ii- in,ide to a state institution of learning. 

Il..\ve\er, niunilicent as was the gift of Pills- 
bury II all. it into- insignificance beside the 
gift of his own time and strength, which Gov. 
Pillsbury spent so freely during the thirty-eight 
years of his service as regent. A very conserva- 
tive estimate made by his friends, is that he de- 
voted one-fourth of his time to the affairs of the 
instituli.iu. This wiudd mean ten years of actual 
time taken frinu business and other pursuits. His 
life long services to the University were recog- 



nizcd in igoo through the erection on Ihc campus 
of a statue of life size. 

In his earlier cari.i.r, Mr. l'illsl)ury, in addi- 
tion to his work for the university, \\a> in al- 
most constant political service. Within a year 
after reaching St. Anthony, he hcgan a six years' 
term in the city council. l'"roui local service he 
went to the state senate, in which body he sat 
almost continuously for thirteen years. So con- 
spicuous were his services and his fitness for re- 
sponsibility that in 1875 he was nominated and 
elected governor, without any of the usual accom- 
paniments of candidacy and canvass. This was 
Ihc beginning of si.\ years in the gubernatorial 
chair, for he was accorded three terms and might 
have had a fourth had he not positively refused to 
serve again. It has never fallen to the lot of a 
governor of .Minnesota to be obliged to consider 
and handle so many diverse questions as arose 
durin.g the incumbency of Governor Pillsbury. 
When he assumed oftice the so-called "grasshop- 
per plague" was becoming a serious matter. It 
was characteristic of Governor Pillsbury that he 
went personally to the scene, investigated the ex- 
tent of the calamity and the condition of the suf- 
fering people and from his own means furnished 
relief in many cases. Returning to the state capi- 
tal, he had facts of his own, which he laid before 
the legislature w-ith such force as to secure prac- 
tical legislation looking to the aid of the people 
and the destruction of the pests. 

During his term as governor, Mr. Pillsbury 
recommended and secured the passage of some of 
the best laws on the statutes of Minnesota. 
.\mong these were acts providing for a public ex- 
aminer, a state high school board, and for estab- 
lishing biennial sessions of the legislature. He 
had an unusual numlier of appointments to make 
— in the supreme and district courts, and to other 
important offices; he was obliged to face the 
destruction of the state capitol by fire, as well as 
a similar loss of the principal insane hospital iif 
the state; he was called upon to organize ri'lirf 
for the town of New Ulni, which was dotrnyod 
by ;i tornado near the close of his term. 

Hut the great wiik of his official life was his 
lalior of removing from the name of Minnesota 
llir stain of repudiation. Ill-advised legislation 
in tJK- late fifties had led to the issue of over two 
million ilnllars' worth of bonds for the riicour- 
agenicnt of railroad-building in the state. The 
panic of 1857 prevented the completion of the 

railroads contemplated, and, exasperated by the 
situation, the people of the state voted to refuse 
payment of the obligations. For twenty years the 
rciiroach of repudiation had rested upon the state. 
In his first message. Governor Pillsbury urged 
the payment of these bonds; and met with 
indifference and violent opposition from political 
leaders, he continued to demand that the honor 
of the state be preserved, .\fter overcoming the 
most tremendous obstacles in le.gislation and 
legal entanglement. Governor Pillsbury had the 
satisfaction, just before his term ended, of seeing 
the bonds matter adjusted and the word "repudia- 
tion" removed from association with the state 
which he had served so long. The extent of Gov- 
ernor Pillsbury's charity and benefactions will 
never be known. In the greater portion of cases, 
the fact of assistance rendered was known only 
to the giver and the recipient. To only a few, 
even, is it known that a large number of young 
men have lieen helped through the University of 
Minnesota by 'the financial assistance of Gover- 
nor Pillsbury. .\mong his conspicuous gifts in 
Minneapolis were an endowment of $100,000 for 
the Home for Aged Women and Children, and 
the erection, at a cost of $25,000, of a home for 
young women working for small salaries, which 
was named for his wife, the Mahala Fisk Pills- 
bury Home. .\t the lime of his death he had well 
under way a plan lor a beautiful library building 
to cost $75,000, which was to be a gift to the city 
of Minneapolis, and especially intended for the 
use of the people of the "East Side." This build- 
ing was completed and turned over to the city by 
Governor Pillsbury's heirs, and is known as 
"Pillsbury Library." 

Governor Pillsbury was married on November 
,3, T856, to Miss Mahala Fisk, daughter of Captain 
John Fisk who came from F.ngland in 1837 and 
settled at Windon, Mass. Their children were 
four: Addie who became the wife of Charles M. 
WlIisUt, anil .'sus.m M. wlm was the wife of 
I'recl 1'.. Snyder, Sarah ISclle. the wife of Edward 
C. Gale, and .Mfred Fisk Pillsbury. Both Mrs. 
Webster and .Mrs. Snyder died some years ago. 
Alfred F. Pdlsbury has succeeded to many of the 
business interests and responsibilities of his 
father, is president of the Minneapolis Union Elc- 
v.ator Company, of Ibe .Si, .\nlliony F'alls Water 
Power Comp.-iny and i-. a director in the Pills- 
bury Wasliburn Fluur .Mills Ciimpany. 



FOL'xXDATIUN laying for the time 
of Minneapolis' most rapiij clexelMp- 
ment had been going un for \eais 
previous to 1880. Even disasters had been 
disguised blessings, for with recovery from 
each had come the feeling of securitv based 
on better methods and confidence that noth- 
ing which might happen could ])ermanentlv 
injure the progress of the city. And amid aii 
the discouragements of the middle seventies 
there had been continual growth in popu- 
lation — a growth which was followed in the 
last two years of the decade by a rush of 
pc(jple which brought the total number of 
inhabitants up to 46,887 in 1880. This was 
a gain of 28,808 during the decade or more 
than 150 per cent, advance. In the same 
period the state had gained 341,000 people 
and settlers were following the railroads 
beyond the borders of Minnesota out over 
the Dakota plains and opening farms which 
should also pour their products into the 
Minneapolis market. Railroad construc- 
tion had taken a new life with the late 
years of the seventies. Villard succeeded 
Cooke as the moving spirit of the Northern 
I'acific, and Hill secured control of the .St. 
I'aul & Pacific, converting it into the St. 
Paul, Minneapolis & Manitoba railroad, 
b'rom bankrupt and lethargic properties, 
these roads became at once virile elements 
in the development of the northwest. The 
forward movement in city and countrv was 
simultaneous and irresistible. 


The intimate connection between the 
country and that city which absorlis its 
products and exchanges them for the neces- 
sities not raised at home, brings again to 
the front, as most significant and important 
in the new period of Minneapolis history, 
the events in the flour and grain business. 

It has been told that with the adoption of 
imiirovements in milling machinery, and 
the reconstruction of the flour mills after 
the explosion of 1878, the capacity of the 
-Minneapolis mills was greatly increased 
while the product was demonstrated to be 
unequalled in quality. Still much re- 
mained to be proved to the world. It was 
one thing to make the best flour and quite 
another to be certain that people, habitu- 
ated to the use of another product, would 
adopt the new foodstufl^. It also became 
evident that Minneapolis, to retain its 
place as the market for the products of 
the northwest, must be something besides 
a milling center. In other words, Minne- 
apolis must be known throughout the 
world as a grain market as well as a flour- 
making city, and it must be known that 
both the unground wheat, and its finished 
product were the best that could be pro- 

One of the most important events look- 
ing towards the realization of these things 
was the organization of the Minneapolis 
Chamber of Commerce ; a stc|) which also 
had a forceful influence on the commercial 
development of the city in general as well 
as upon the estalilishment of Minneapolis 
as one of the great markets of the world. 
Previous to i88r there had been no recog- 
nized grain market in the city. The flour 
mills used much wheat and absorbed jirac- 
tically all the receipts. Through their Mil- 
lers' Association tliev controlled prices and 
handling facilities. This was an excellent 
thing for the city at the beginning, but, as 
the northwest develo])ed, and it became 
evident that there was to be a grain pro- 
duction in excess of the ca[)acity of the 
mills, the necessity of a public market at 
Minneapolis was recognized. The effects 



of the organization of the Chamber of Com- 
merce were to put the grain business on a 
basis similar to that of other cities ; to 
establish grades, to create a shipping busi- 
ness, to secure, as time went on, slate grad- 
ing and weighing and inspection; to de- 
velop terminal facilities; to bring, thmugh 
country elevator lines, a large pari nf the 
northwestern farming district into close 
relations willi the Minneapolis market; 
and, e\enlnall_\', to make Minneapolis the 
greatest wheat market of the world. W'ith- 
in a few \ears Minneapolis received world- 
wide recognition as a leading wheat market 
and flour-making point, and was thus ad- 
vertised more eti'ectively than could ha\e 
been accomplished by any other means. 


The reorganization of the Xorlhern Pa- 
cific and the St. Paul, Minneapolis & Mani- 
toba railroads, referred to at the beginning 
of llii> cliajjler, was followed by their rapid 
extension to the termini suggested b\' their 
names — the first to the Pacific at Puget 
.Sound and ihe second to the Canadian bor- 
iler where connection was made for Winni- 
]ieg. ( )n the completion of the Northern 
I'acilic in 1SS3 a jubilee was held in Min- 
neajxilis which had special significance. 
It wa-- no mere ebullition of unintelligent 
cnilmsiasm. For the Northern Pacific 
meant much more to •the city than the 
simjde completion of a long line of rail- 
road. With one exception, no railroad lias 
been built in the northwest which had the 
strategic importance of the Northern Ta- 
cific. It meant to Minneapolis the opening 
of the rich mountain states and of the 
Puget sound country to commercial rela- 
tions, and. lieyond thai, gave ;i vision of 
the oriental tratfic which later ilevelopod. 
It made ])ossible the enonntjus cxtensicju 
of the grazing interests of North Dakota 
and Montana, which must find an outlet, 
as must the olln'r industries of the far 
northwest, thrtnigb the Minneapolis gate- 
way. Other roads followed rapidly, and 
llie "Manitoba" (later to be known as the 
< Ireat Northern) commenced a system of 
branches which Ijrouglit the entire north- 
western ]);irt of Minnesota, and the whole 

of North Dakota into intimate iLUtch with 

At this time there was also a great de- 
velopment of the terminals at Minneapolis. 
The Union passenger station was built, 
and the stone arch bridge to furnish access 
to it. The "short lines" to St. Paul were 
opened and freight handling facilities were 
much increased in the city terminal yards. 


Even before the Northern Pacific was 
completed another equally important step 
was taken in the railway development of 
the northwest. This was the planning of 
the Minneapolis, Sault Ste. Marie & At- 
lantic Railroad — now known as the Soo 
line. The organizing company was com- 
posed of Minneapolis men, with General 
William D. Washburn, the promoter of 
the project, at the head. The significance 
of the undertaking was that it was a Min- 
neapolis road, built to relieve Minneapolis 
from the influences of other cities upon 
eastern connections, and to establish an 
independent all-rail route to the Atlantic 
seaboard. Incidentally, a new "lake and 
rail" route was opened and a vast new- 
country in northern Wisconsin and Michi- 
gan was brought into direct connection 
with Minneapolis. This project grew on 
the promoters' hands, and within a few 
years after the Soo was opened, in 1887, a 
western line was built to connect with the 
Canadian Pacific and open a competitive 
route to the Pacific northwest. 

The construction of the Soo line was a 
\ery good examiile of the "Minneapolis 
idea," as it came to be known in the eight- 
ies. The Miiuieapolis idea was Ijriefly "all 
together for Ihe city's good." .\l that time 
an\' project wdlich was regarded as of ad- 
\antagc to Minne;i]iolis was taken up with 
the utmost enthusiasm. Minneapolis men 
worked together in every emergency and 
to gain an\- |)ur|)osc which seemed to be 
of public \abie. Their i)urses were always 
o]ii.n for the city's welfare. 

Illl-; liX POSITION. 

One of the most remarkable instances of 
the working of the Minneapolis idea was 
the founding of the exposition. In 1885 



many of the large cities of the country 
were conducting annual expositions. It was 
believed that such an institution would be 
of great benefit in advertising Minneapolis 
and drav\'ing visitors who would thus conic 
into closer relations with the city. On Oc- 
tober II, 1885, a public meeting was held, 
at which $100,000 was subscribed tovvar<ls 
the project. Incorporation followed innne- 
diately, and the jniblic was asked to sul)- 
scribe to the ca[)ital stock of $300,000. 

period there was no federal building in the 
city, although the need was great, and the 
subject was being agitated. With the 
characteristic delay incident to government 
projects, it was 1882 before the site was 
purchased, and i88<j before the present 
building was occupied. Before the federal 
Iniilding was comjjleted, the old courthouse 
— a patchwork of additions — had become 
quite inadecjuate, and in 1887 legislative 
authorit\- was secured for the erection of 

The prinripat railroad entrance 

Every dollar needed was secured in Minne- 
apolis. By the following August, a build- 
ing costing $325,000 was completed, and in 
September an exposition was held, which 
was attended by 338,000 people. To ac- 
complish this undertaking, obstacles of all 
kinds were overcome by sheer force of will 
and energy. For a number of years annual 
expositions were held with success; they 
served their purpose for the period. 


The building of the exposition was but 
one of a great number of public enterprises 
to which a large part of the energy of the 
people of the city was devoted during the 
decade of 1S80-90. At the opening of the 

to the Union Passenger station. 

a joint courthouse and city hall. Com- 
menced in 1889, this building has been only 
recently completed, although occupied in 
])art for years. Its cost is over $3,000,000. 
( )ther buildings of a public or semi-public 
clKiracler received cordial support. The 
I'ulilic Library building, Masonic Temple, 
Young Men's Christian Association build- 
ing and numerous homes and asylums are 
examples of this spirit of providing the 
necessary institutions of a great city with 
suitable accommodations. 


1 )nring this period, general municipal 
improvements were for the first time un< 
dertaken in a broad way. Until the be- 



ginningf of this period tliere was not a mile 
1)1 any kind i)f iiavcniLMit on tlie streets of 
the oily, while most (if tjic sidewalks, even 
in the business center, were of wood. After 
the orig'inal dirt streets came the era of 
wooden blocks. From early in the eighties 
nntil after the business de])ression of 1893 
not much else was laid down in Minne- 
a])olis, except a considerable amount of 
sjranitc in the lower part of the city aroun^l 
the wholesale houses and railroad depots. 
Cedar l)locks, laid on pine hoards which 
rested on sand, went down by the mile. It 
was cheap, quick and perhaps the best that 
could be done under the circumstances. .\ 
good sewer system ; a comiilcte water- 
works system (e.xceiit a purilication phiiU ) ; 
a modern fire de])arlment — these wcie 
brought into existence within a few years. 

TIIIC VMiK S'l'S'l'K.M. 

.\nother and most creditable evidence of 
the progressive s]iirit of the period was 
the formation of a lioard of park commis- 
sioners and the acipiisition of the larger 

part of the area of the park system as it is 
today. For this Alinncapolis has to thank 
two elements — the refined, intelligent taste 
which concei\'ed the park ]ihin, and the en- 
thusiastic ]nil)lic spirit wdiich eagerly seized 
upon the idea and liclped it along because 
it was a good thing for the city. The board 
of park commissioners was established by 
law in 1883, and at once began to secure 
\aluable property wjiicli it was desirable to 
i)rcser\'e for the pubhc use. The earliest 
work inchided the ac(piisition and improve- 
ment of the shores of the lakes in the south- 
western part of the city, and of a connect- 
ing dri\e to Minnehaha Falls. Extensions 
of this work have brought into the system 
the banks of the Mississippi river for some 
miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, an:l 
many small tracts of land in various parts 
of the city. The park system has been one 
of llie >;trongest influences in Ijuilding up 
innnici|)al ])ride. and is generally regarded 
as one of the l)cst jiublic investments Mip 
ncapohs has made. 

'J'wo liuil<11ng« liiarliiiiu llic pionii's 

fily III tlu* tMyiitir.-i 




It was characteristic of a pupulation 
largely of New England origin that the 
first forward movement of this period wa? 
in connection with the public schools 
After the consolidation of Minneapolis and 
Sf. Anthonv in 1872, the two divisions o* 
the city retained their separate school 01 
ganizations for six years — this also prob 
ably the outgrowth of the New England of local control of the schools. But 
a continuation of this plan was, of course 

main building and a small agriculttiral 
l)uilding, no structural equipment had been 
added to the institution. In 1880, Presi- 
dent Fohvell recommended a plan of ap- 
])ropriations. but nothing was done until 
1883 when the University farm was pur- 
chased. This was followed in 1886 by the 
Mechanics Arts building, and in 1889 '^7 
the Law building, and b}' dav. I'illsbury's 
great gift of Pillsbury Hall. In 1884, Presi- 
dent Cyrus Xorthrop was called to the 
nre-idenc\' and commenccfl an administra- 

Pillsbiiry Hall is the pruniineiu building at the left. 

not feasible in a large city, and in 1878 
legislation was sought consolidating the 
schools imder a general school board. From 
tins time forward the progress of the school 
system was rapid. To no branch of the 
city's affairs has the ptiblic given such close 
attention or such willing expenditure, and 
there has been a particular pride in main- 
taining the schools — buildings, equipment 
and teaching force at a high standard. 

Shortly after the reorganization of the 
school system the development of the uni- 
versitj' was taken up in earnest. Although 
a state institution, the university had been 
largely ftjstered bv Minneapolis pco])le. 
15ut since the completion of the original 

tion of unequalled success. \\'hat the uni- 
\ersity has meant t(i Minneapolis as a con- 
stant influence for culture and tiie higher 
things of life is well understood bv those 
who have watched its growth and the cit}-"s 

One phase of this intluence was the or- 
ganization in 1883 of the Minnea]X)lis Soci- 
ety of Fine Arts, hcailed by Dr. Fohvell of 
the University. .\nnual art exhibitions 
and the maintenance of an art school have 
lieen the contributions of this organization 
to the higher development of the city. Dur- 
ing the decade of the eighties, architecture 
first began to be seriously considered in its 
effects upon the life and affairs of the city. 



I'ublic huildings began to take on some 
architectural beauty and dwellings showed 
the evidence of a cultivated taste. Minne- 
apolis was finding time to turn from the 
strnggle for existence and the accumulation 
of wealth to the consideration of the refine- 
ments of life. 

The art society found its home in tlic 
I'ublic Library building — another great 
achievement of this aggressive period. A 
librar\- was needed, and it was decided to 

connection that the period nf the middle 
and later eighties was perhaps the most 
prolific in church building that the city has 
seen. With few exceptions the larger and 
older churches of the leading denomina- 
tions occupied new structures at some time 
in this period. During this time the mem- 
l)ership of Minneapolis churches was in- 
creased enormously through the coming of 
thousands of communicants from other 
cities. Religious and charitable work 

liave the best jiossible. M"o supplement a 
public issue of bonds, $50,000 was sub- 
scribed by citizens and a building costing 
$270,000 was com])lcted in iScSq. An older 
private library, the Athenaeum, was made 
the basis for a general public library, anrl 
the institution was organized under the 
direction of TTerl)erl I'utnam, now librai-ian 
of congress. It has been characterized as 
one of the best of the libraries of its class 
in the United States. 

CIIURCIIFS .'Wl) I'llll ANI IlKOl'iP'.S. 

The historv of the churches is found in 
another jilace: it is sufficient to say in this 

made great progress. The Ycpimg Men's 
Christian Association, originally organized 
in 1866, made r.ipid growth and before the 
close of the period was housed in its hand- 
some building al Tenth street and Mary 
Place. Si. ]!;irnal)as. the Northwestern, 
St. Mary's and other hospitals were built 
at this time. The Associated Charities was 
organized and the first steps towards sys- 
tematizing and ni.aking more effective the 
city's benex'olences were taken. 


The city entered the eighties working 
under the old ch;ii-ler of 1S72, granted 

/V9t>i^ y iCTL, 



It ua.s arquired and imprcfved iiiiniediatPly arter tho organization of the Minneapolis park Ijoard in 1&S3-4. 

when tlie two towns wltc consolichitcil. 
Already this docnnient was loaded witli 
anieiuhnents and was found to he com- 
;)letely outt^rown. .A new charter \v,is 
i^ranted in 1881 — a consolidation cif variuus 
ameiidments and special acts willi the ci'.d 
charter — hut so ehansjed as to l)c jirac- 
ticallv a new organic act. JUit in a short 
time it was also amended almost l)e_\-ond 
reco,i;nition and proved to be (|uite inadc- 
(|nate tu the needs of a large city. 

'.rile demands upon municipal ot'ticers in 
those da_vS' of abnormal growth were heavy 
and it is a matter of wonder that there was 
no serious municipal scandal during the en- 
tire period. This was the ninre strange in 
that the rapid influx of population brought 
Iri the ])olls at each succeeding election a 
sufficient numlier (j1 voters quite unac- 
tpiainled with the municijial affairs of the 
city, to hold ihe balance of ])ower. It is 
not snrpi'ising, therefore, that the adminis- 
tralifjii of affairs swung fiom one i)arty to 
another and from "wide open" to "law en- 
forcement" with startling frcr|iiency, and 
no a])|iai"enl cause. The cit\' council, con- 
fronlcil by problems of finance and con- 
struction seldom etpialed under such cir- 
eunisiances, as a general thing performed 

its duties with business sagacity. ^fany 
men of line business ability were mendiers 
of the body. Others of lesser talents or 
perverted talents, are better forgotten. Es- 
l)ecially towards the eml of the i)eriod un- 
der consideration, wdien the city was be- 
coming large and its business attractive to 
the predatory, were men of uncertain tra- 
ditions bcgintiing to find their way into th.e 
council. The apjjointi\e and clccti\-e of- 
fices included some of \\\c best who have 
served the city. 

A rvyy ix nii.i.aoi-: cmu;. 

If an\- criticism can be passed upon the 
:ittitnde of the people of the city in niunici- 
])al matters iluring this tiiiie. it may be 
said to be due to their failure, still, to re- 
gard their city as luore than a \ill:-ige. And 
if this was true of the administrafion of 
public affairs it was equally true of the 
phvsical asj^ects of Minneapolis at that 
time — a fact frequently remarked by visi- 
tors. ".\i iimea])olis is a beautiful place, but 
looks like an overgrown village/' was a not 
infre(|uent coiument. This criticism was 
not ill-founded. Since Col. Stevens first 
l;iid out the original town site, no one, ap- 
parenth, had t.-ikcn i>ains to consiiler the 



question of guiding the further physical de- city. In the eighties the streets were not 
velopment of the city. Additions were laid infrequently obstructed witli these travel- 
out and joined to the city much as it hap- ]„_„ homes— many of them in a condition 
pened. and generally, it would appear, with ,,^,-,.1^ ^^,^^,,,1 ^:^,,^,^^ i„,i^^„t demolition 
particular regard to the promoters ideas, 
and with no consideration of the public in- 

terest (ir the future of the city. This was, 
])erhaps, inevitable at a time when every- 
one was struggling for foothold and each 
man was busy with his private affairs, or 
with promoting the general success of the 
cit}'. It was a struggle to "get there" — to 
use the phraseology of the time — the meth- 
od was not of so much consequence. 

But the acceptance of addi- 
tions arranged so as to produce 
irregularity and confusion of 
streets, was not as serious as 
the absence of )5lan for the ar- 
rangement of public grounds 
and liuildings. Minneapolis 
missed its first great opportun- 
ity in 1865 when it voted down 
the acquisition of Xicollet Is- 
land for a park at a nominal 
cost. Other good ])ark propo- 
sitions were defeated later, Init 
the second great opportunity 
lost was in the eighties, when 
a large number of public build- 
ings being under consideratinn, 
the city failed to group them 
around a common civic center, 
or, at the very least, to provide 
some suitable setting for each. 

And if this inattention to the 
aspect of things prevailed in 
public matters it could not be 
expected to be absent in private 
undertakings where m o 11 e v 
considerations usually predom- 
inated. Business buildings 
were put u\> without an}- re- 
gard to the fitness of things 
and dwellings were apparently 
dropped into Ijuilding lots 
much as it happened. It was 
also the custom, as the busi- 
ness structures encroached on 
the residence portions, to move 
the disturbed dwelling house 
to more distant parts of the 

But since it was a problem to house the 
people wdio wanted to live in Minneapolis, 
can the Minneapolitans be blamed for sav- 
ing everything that oft'ered a roof for the 
protection of more "population?" The 
gibes of visitors were met cheerfully and 
Minneapolis -went on her way content for 
tlie time to he called an "overgrown \-iI- 

lUi; .MKTKOroLIT.V.N 1,1KB liUlUJlNC. 

r the finst of llie large ijlliie buildings whieli wci-e Iniilt 
during r.he middle cigiilles. Known until re- 
cently ns the Gual-anty Duilding. 



At the beginninsj of this era in the his- 
tory of I\liniica|iiilis the cily knew nolhiii_2; 
of tlie many public services whicli now are 
rctj'ardcd as absohite necessities. There 
were, it is true, a few miles of narrow s^^ge 
street railway, on which one-horse "bob- 
tail"' cars were operated. The first threat 
ile\ ell ipiiK-nt was the ci iii>lnu'tii mi nf man}- 
miles of additii.mal lines to meet the needs 
of the ra])idly "growing city, but about iStjo 
the entire system was replaced by a modern 
electric system. In the same way the sys- 
tem of gas supply grew from a small plant 
in iS8o to a very large system before the 
close of the period. 


The modern electrical inventions and 
public utilities came just in time to meet 
and assist certain tendencies which had not 
developed at the beginning of the ]K'riiid in 
(|uestion. The office bmlding came in — 
made possible by the telephone, the mod- 
ern elevator, and the system of rapid tran- 
sit to suburban manufacturing plants. And 
thus the city in a few years found its busi- 
ness methods revolutionized. The lumber 
;uid flour industries were centralized in the 
great office buildings, as were, to a large 
extent, the other manufacturing lines of the 
city, while the actual manufacturing plants 
were gradnall}- being luislied out towards 
the suburbs, finxed by the requirements of 
more room, lietter light, trackage facilities 
and lower valued real estate. Business was 
finding itself. I'.:inks and fin.'incial institu- 
tions 1:)egan to draw tomllur into ;i com- 
mon centci' : whoK-sale trade, instt'ad of 
being scattere<l along the retail streets, 
took definite quarters, while the retail (lis- 
tricts became more accurately defined and 
decidedly more exclusive. .Xfter 1885 the 
great retail stores of the prt'sent day liegan 
U) ci>me to the front — the department store 
idea had reached Minncai)olis. 

This period was notable for great cele- 
brations, festivals and conventions. The 
celebration of the completion of the North- 
ern Pacific railroad in 1883 has already been 
mentioned. In 1884 the national encamp- 
ment of the G. A. R. was held in ^linne- 
apolis — the first great gathering of the kind 
in the city. In connection with the exposi- 
tion there were carnival events, and in 1891 
the bountiful cro])s and general prosperity 
of the northwest was celebrated with a 
Ilarvest b'estival, uniipie in its extent, com- 
pleteness and ai)propriate features. A mon- 
ster parade depicted the industries and re- 
sources of the city in a way which attracted 
wide attention. The auditorium afforded 
l)\- the exposition building made possible 
S(jme great conventions, notable among 
them being the national Christian Endeav- 
or convention of 1801 and the republican 
national convention of 1892. In these af- 
fairs Minneapolis won a reputation for hos- 
pitality which has made the place a favorite 
convention city ever since. 


In the decade ending with 1890 Minne- 
apolis advanced from a population of 46,- 
887 to 164,738. This was a gain of 117,851 
or 251 per cent., something quite unpar- 
alleled in the history of municipal growth 
up to that time. The average gain of about 
12,000 people a year would not have been 
excessive for a city starting with a large 
population ; but it must be remembered 
that Miimeapolis commenced the decade 
with only 47,000. As the heavier growth, 
|iroportionally. was in the first part of the 
decade, it is proliablc thai Minneapolis ac- 
tually gained 25 to 30 per cent, in popida- 
tion in some of those earlier years. 

Before considering the last period in the 
historv of Minneapolis — the period opening 
with the recovery from the general depres- 
sion of 1893 — some special phases of Min- 
neajxilis life and activities will be taken up 
nncjer a]i|)ropri;ite headings. 



THE first religious organization in this 
vicinity was a Sunday school estab- 
lished in 1823 at Fort Snelling. The 
first religious work undertaken within the 
present limits of iMinneapolis was that of 
S. W. and Gideon H. Pond who settled upon 
the shores of Lake Calhoun in 1834 and com- 
nienceil work among the Indians. A year 
later the Rev. J. D. Stevens came to Lake 
l-Iarrict where the first building ever used 
for religious services within the present city 
limits was erected. The work at Lake Har- 
riet was distinctly missionary and never 
advanced to any form of organization. 
It was connected, however, with the pres- 
ent church history of Minneapolis in an in- 
teresting way. A Presbyterian church was 
organized at Fort Snelling in 1835 and as 
Mr. Stevens acted as its pastor, its services 
were frequently held at Lake Harriet. Tn 
1840 the Rev. S. W. Pond became pastor 
and in 1849 it was reorganized and took 
the name of Oak Grove Presbyterian church 
with the Rev. Gideon H. Pond as pastor. 
In this period the church has been described 
as "migratory" and for thirty years "had 
no permanent place of worship." In i8()2 
the name was again changed to the "First 
Presbyterian Church of Minnesota at Min- 
nehaha." In the meantime Mr. Pond began 
to hold services at Colonel Stevens' house 
at the Falls and in 1853 the First Presby- 
terian church of Minneapolis grew out of 
this work. It did not flourish in the early 
days and in 1865 was reorganized, consoli- 
dated with what was left of the Minnehaha 
church, and has since been an active organ- 
ization. Through the absorption of the older 
society it can claim to be the oldest church 
in the state and city. 


The Ponds did much for the early re- 
ligious life of the community. They were 

on the ground more than a decade before 
St. Anthony was settled and they welcomed 
the newcomers and assisted in religious 
work. Equally useful were the pastors al- 
ready settled in St. Paul. In 1849 the Rev. 
E. D. Neill of St. I'aul, who has been de- 
scribed as "a Presbyterian with Episcopal 
tendencies," came every fortnig'ht to St. 
Anthony and held services which devel- 
oped into the organization of Andrew Pres- 
byterian Church. The Rev. Matthew Sorin 
organized the first Methodist class in 1849 
and soon afterwards the First Methodist 
church was fornieil with the Rev. Enos 
Stevens as niissi(jnary in charge. Congre- 
gationalism found a beginning with the 
work of the Rev. Charles Secombe who 
commenced home missionary effort in 1850. 
The h'irst Congregational church was or- 
ganized in 1851 with twelve members. The 
Rev. E. G. Gear, chaplain at Fort Snelling, 
held Episcopal services at the Falls as early 
at 1849 '^'-'t the first regular services looking 
to the founding of a church were held by 
the Kev. Tiiiicithy Wilcoxson who came as 
a missionary in 1850. The first parish was 
organized in 1852 — the beginning of Holy 
Trinit\- I'2piscopal church. The Rev. J. S. 
Chamberlain assumed charge of the parish 
and local missionary work in 1852 and in 
1856 organized Ascension parish on the 
west side of the river; and on August 5th 
the corner stone of a church was laid by 
Dr. Gear at the corner of Fifth street and 
Seventh avenue south. At this moment 
there was on the way to Minneapolis a 
young deacon who had just graduated and 
was sent west to assist Mr. Chamberlain 
in missionary work. This was David Buel 
Knickerbacker — a man destined to take a 
most prominent and useful place in the re- 
ligions life of Minneapolis and the north- 
west. Upon his arrival lie was given entire 




(tl'i W.'stniinslrr :iuil I'l.viiniiiili <lnu-»-lifS^ :is Ilii-y were lirsl 

fi-cftoil mi Fuintli siroel. Vifw Inlicn 

I'fniii llcniiriiiii Av. 

chars^e o! Ascunsiim parish and in a few 
weeks tlie name was changed to (iethsem- 
ane. For many years it was the center of 
l'",pisco])aHanisni in Minneapolis and most 
of the other eliurches of the dem )niinatii in 
grew out of mission work inulertaken by 
i'>ishop Knickerbacker. Calhuhc activities 
liegan witli tlic work of l-'ather Ravoiix in 
iH^i) when a 1)nihling was commenced in 
northeast Minneapolis on the land now oc- 
cupied by the Church of St. Anthon\- of 
I'adua. The liaptist denomination bi-gau 
organized church life in 1S50 when the hirst 
ISaptist church of St. .\nthonv was fnrnu-d. 
It is now (Jlivet liaptist church. The Kev. 
W. C. I'rown was the first pastor. In 1851 
the Rev. C. (]. .Ames organized the First 
I'^ree Baptist church on the east side. It 
later moved across the ri\-ei- and is still an 
active organization. The l\c\. J. ('. \\ hit- 
ne_\- became pastor of the I'irst I 'resljyterian 
chin'ch of Minncajiolis in 1S53. These men 
of the pioneer days were a devoted, self-sac- 
rificing band. Many of them were sent out 

as missionaries on salaries which would not 
now be regarded as compensation for day 

oKioi.N Oh" Till': i,.\ki;kk churches. 

Few of the churches first founded ha\e 
become the larger churches of the present 
time. For the most part the great churches 
of the several denominations grew out of 
later beginnings. For instance Westmin- 
ster Presbyterian church \vas not organ- 
ized until 1857 and its first church building 
was not erected until i860. This buildint: 
stood on Fourth street Ijctween Nicollet and 
Hennepin where the Hotel X'endome now 
stands. Plymouth Congregational church, 
organized only a few months before West- 
minster, built at the corner of Fourth street 
and Xicollct a\euuc. .\n illustration shows 
the 'lid Plymouth and Westminster build- 
ings a'- they appeared when Fourth street 
was in the residence part of the cit\-. In 
1S57 St. Marks mission clia])el was estab- 
lished in North Minneapolis but was re- 
moved in 1861 to the corner of Fourth street 
and Hennepin avenue where the first serv- 
ice of St. Marks Episcopal parish was held 
upon its formation in 1868. The First Bap- 
tist church was organized in 185,^ but had 
no house of worship until 1858, when it 
built at Third street and Nicollet avenue 
what was at that time the largest church in 
the town. Ten years later this church 
erected a new building at the corner of 
Fifth and Hennepin where the Pmnber Ex- 
change now stands. The Church of the 
Redeemer ( Cniversalist) grew out of an 
organization ettected at a meeting held 
in 1850 when \\'. D. Washburn, still a 
priMuinent member, presided. The Rew Dr. 
James H. Tuttle became its pastor in 1866, 
remaining for many years. Augustana 
Swedish Lutheran church was organized in 
1866 and Trinity Norwegian and Danish 
in 1867. The Church of the Immaculate 
Conce])tion was the first Catholic church 
built on the west side of the river. The 
pres<.'nt structure, erected in 1872. succeed- 
ed a small frame buihling put up three 3'ears 
before. T"or twenty years Father lames 
McGolrick was pastor of this church, mak- 
ing it a power in the denomination and 



KT. Iii;v. llAVIIl I!. KMCKlilUSACKEU. 

r.islirtp KnicUei-lmckcr was the first rector ot* Getliseiniiiie 

KpisciMial flnircli and prominent in tlic early 

rliin-rli history of Minneapolis. 

himself taking an active part in the affaii's 
of the city. In i88g he was appointed 
liisliop I if Dnluth. The Chi-isliaii chiii-ch, 
or Chnrch of the Disciiiles, had nn organiza- 
tion in the cit_\- until 1877 when the Port- 
land A\-entie Church of 

Christ was formed. It lias 
ljec(jine one of the leading 
churches of the denomi- 
nation in the W est. 
i(i;i.i(in)i's .u"i']viTiKs ok 

•riit: latiirTiES. 
After the foundation 
laying of the early days 
there was a period of 
moderate growth a 11 d 
progress, followed, during 
the later seventies and 
the decade 1880-yo, by a 
time of most r a ]) i d 
growth in all denomina- 
tions. In this jieriod 
churches grew from strug- 

ling organizations to positions of promi- 
nence and erected permanent and frequently 
very costly structures. Plain old-fashioned 
church liiiildings, Aery simply furnished, 
ga\-e place to handsome modern I)uildinys, 
luxurious in c\-ery a|)pointinent. It is told 
of the bishop then in charge that he hesi- 
tated to dedicate the old Centenary Method- 
ist church upon its completion in 1866, be- 
cause of what he regarded as its extrava- 
gance in fittings and furnishings. To those 
who can remember what seems, at this day, 
the extreme simplicity of the ohl church the 
t'\-olntion in ideas as to cluircli bnildinti- is 

Somewhat anticipating the general move- 
n:ent Plymouth Congregational church and 
the Church of the Redeemer (iccuiiied new 
buildings in the middle sexenties — the for- 
mer building the familiar landmark at 
Eighth and Nicollet (only removed in 1907) 
and the latter erecting the first of its build- at Eighth street and Second avenue 
south. Westminster Presbyterian church 
built at Seventh and Nicollet in 1882; Geth- 
semane Episcoiial church liuilt at Ninth 
street and F"ourth avenue south in 188,^; the 
Central Baptist built in i8S.s: Immanuel 
Baptist in 1884: the Swedish Mission Tab- 
ernacle in 1885: the first Baptist and First 
I'nitarian in 1887: the First Congregational 
and Holy Rosary Catholic in 1888; the First 
Presbyterian, Park .\\eiuie Congregational, 
Oliver Presb\'tcriaii and the Church of 

oi,n oETHSKMANn; rniincir. 

ririh slreel .-irid Srvoilh avehuo siailh. 



the Redeemer (rebuilding) in 1889; An- 
drew Presbyterian, ^^\^sley Methodist, and 
St. Stephens Catholic in iSqi ; the Portland 
Avenue Church of Christ in 1893. Tliese 
are some of the iironiinent church bnildinys 
of the pcridd. 'flu'v are nienliniied in a 
group to show the rapid growth of the time, 
when every denomination in Minneapolis 
was making great strides in membership, 
wealth and aggressive church and mission 

An im])ortant phase of the development 
of church matters at this time was the estab- 
lishment of many churches of the Scandi- 
navian denominations. Previous to 1880. 
the Scandinavian ijopnlation, though rap- 
idly increasing in numbers, bad maik- no 
\cr\ marked impression on the clinrcli life 
of the cits. 

It is ipiite imiK.issible to mention all the 
names associated with Minneapolis pulpits 
at this |)eriod. .\i its opening ISishop 
Knickerbacker was finishing his long rec- 
torship at Gethsemane Episcopal church. 
In 1883 he was elected bishop ol' Indiana, 
llishop Mc(iolrick was still jiastoi- of the 
( bnrcb of the hnmaculale Conception. Tlie 
i\ev. Dr. Robert !•'. Sample completed an 
eighteen years' ])astorate at Westminster 
I'resbyterian church in 1 8Sri ; ilic Rev. Dr. 
Charles F. Thwing, now president of NVest- 

riRST r..\PTisT cnuncH op iscs. 

This Ijnilillug Kloiiit III Finli mill Ui'miophi on llii> slli' iif tlio 
I.iiriihiT IO.\i'Ii]iliKt'. 

Ki:\. iiiii'.ioK'r 1'. s.sNU'r.E, n. n, 

ern Reserve LTniversity, Cleveland, received 
(>S2 niendjers into Plymouth Congregational 
church in a four years' pastorate ending in 
1890; the Rev. Dr. Wayland Ployt began 
his notable pastorate of the First Baptist 
church : Pishop Cyrus D. F'oss was resident 
bishop of the Methodist church until 1888; 
the l\r\-. I )r. J. F. Chaftee, who hail first been 
stationed in St. Anthony in 1S57, became 
])aslor of the new TTennepin avemie M. E. 
Church in 1879 and tliree years later was 
made presiding elder; the Rev. Dr. David J. 
Iltn-rell occupied Westminster Presbyterian 
pulpit for four years; in 1888 f\ev. Dr. C. J. 
Petri ln-gan a long pastorate at Augustana 
.Swedisli Luther;ni church; the l\ev. Edwin 
Sydney Williams conijdeted in 1883 an eight 
_\-ears" pastorate at the Park Avenue Congre- 
gational Chin-cb (then the "Second") and 
for some years thereafter ilevoted himself to 
city mission work with great success; the 
Rev. Dr. T. R. Wells for a decade was the 
notable rector of St. Mark's Episcopal 
church; the Rev. h'ather Tissot in 1888 
ended a long service at .St. Anthony of 



Padua; the Rev. Lars J. Jerdee has filled 
the pulpit of the Immanuel Norwegian 
Lutheran church ever since 1889; the Rev. 
G. H. Trabert began in 1883 a pastorate at 
the St. Jolms Enghsh Lutheran church 
which has continued to the present: tlic 
Rev. E. A. Skogsbergh was pastor of the 
Swedish Mission Tabernacle and is still at 
the head of this great church; the Rev. Dr. 
Tuttle was still in the pulpit of the Church 
of the Redeemer — and so this list might be 
prolonged to great length. It was a time of 
brilliant service and masterly labors and 

The city grew so rapidly at this period 
of its history that the responsibilities of the 
church people were felt very heavily. The 
obligation to furnish religious teaching and 
church services to the newcomers caused an 
activity in establishing Sunday schools, 
missions and chapels never equalled before 
or since. Each denomination had its church 
extension organization. The spirit of the 


i;i;v. i;iiwi.\ siii.nhy williajis. 

times entered into this work; the word 
"hustle," so well understood (jn the streets 
of Minneapolis in the eighties, became a 
part of the churchman's terminology. Some- 
one has said that the phrase "Churches 
built while you wait" would also have been 
appropriate at that time. One instance is 
\'ouche(l for. The committee of one denom- 
ination, deciding at a certain meeting that 
a church was needed in a particular locality, 
witliin fifteen days a lot purchased, a 
church building erected, a congregation in- 
stalleil therein and a minister in charge. 

The growing importance of the city as a 
religious center naturally led to its selec- 
tion as the meeting place of many im- 
portant conventions and gatherings. In 
the middle eighties the general assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church met here; in 1892 
the National Council of the Congregational 
churches; in 1895 the general Convention of 
the Episcopal Church. The CHiristian En- 



r.HV. .lAMKS II. TiTTi.i:. I), n. 

(leavor convt'iitidii of icSiji was one of the 
largest religious gatherings of the time. 
J'he more prominent denominations have 
from time to time entertained their great 
national associatitJiis of a missionary char- 
acter, 'i'hese meetings have brought to the 
city the leaders in the religious life of the 

THE ciiLiu:iii-;.s oi- todav. 

After the financial troubles of 93 the 
churches of Minnea|)olis were for a time 
obliged to retrench as severely as the busi- 
ness houses. Some temporarily lost mem- 
bership and building projects were largelv 
held in abeyance. These conditions rajiidly 
I)asscd away and during the decade past the 
religious aiTairs of the city have been in a 
most prosperous condition. The building 
activity of the eighties has been duplicated 
with a more pronounced tendency to per- 
manence and advanced ideas in church 
architecture. Westminster Presbyterian 
church lost its beautiful building at Seventh 
and Nicollet by fire and in i8()X occupied its 

present structure at Twelfth and Nicollet — 
one of the largest and finest churches in the 
West. Plymouth Congregational church and 
St. Marks Episcopal church sold their down- 
town property to build most beautiful spec- 
imens of church architecture further out. 

The Second Church of Christ, Scientist, 
erected a handsome church at Second av- 
enue south and Eleventh street — the largest 
of a group of churches testifying to the 
rapid growth and importance of this de- 
nomination in the past decade. In 1908 the 
corner stone of a Pro-Cathedral was laid by 
the Catholics of the city. This will succeed 
the present Church of the Immaculate Con- 
ception. It will be a magnificent structure 
of solid granite. The main nave will exceed 
in size those of the cathedrals of Europe, 
except that of St. Peter's at Rome wdiich is 
exactl}- the same width, and there will be 
seats for 2.500 people. The people of Fowl- 
er Methodist church comiileted their hand- 
some building in 1907 and many lesser 
structures all over the city have testified 
in late years to the devotion, prosperity and 
enterprise of the church people of Minne- 
apolis. There are now about two hundred 
church buildings, including missions and 
chapels, in the city and the membership 
approximates 75,000. 

\\'ith the rounding of the half century of 
Minneapolis the early churches have begun 
to celebrate their golden anniversaries. 
These occasions have been of great inter- 
est. Notable among them have been the 
celebrations of Gethsemane Episcopal 
church in 1906 and Plymouth Congrega- 
tional and \\'estminster Presbyterian in 


The building nf churches, the maintenance 
of services and the internal life of the 
churches generally, has been but a part of 
the acti\ities of the church people of the 
city. Outside of regular church organiza- 
tion every class of religious, charitable and 
l)hilantiiro])ic organization which would 
tend to give ijractical force to the principles 
of Christianity, has been heartily supported. 

The Young Men's Christian Association 
of the city of Minneajiolis was organized in 
1866. I'i)r many years it occupied rented 




quarters which gave place about 1892 to the 
handsome building at Tenth street and 
Mary place, now free of debt and valued at 
$175,000. The building is fully diuipped for 
the religious, social, educational and phys- 
ical culture work of the organization. Its 
night school is attended by from 700 to 800 
young men and boys. Its ofificers in iyo8 
are, president, J. S. Porteous ; vice presi- 
dents, E. W. Decker and E. L. Carpenter ; 
recording secretary, G. A. Grunian ; treasur- 
er, J. M. Martin, and general sccrctarv, S. 
Wirt Wiley. 

Not less interesting and successful is the 
Young Women's Christian Association, 
founded in 1891 and growing more and 
more rapidly until it has a membership of 

3,400 and is the second largest Y. W. C. A. 
in the United States. It owns at 87 South 
Seventh street a building and lot valued at 
over $125,000, equipped with all that is nec- 
essary for the maintenance of a lunch room, 
reading room, gymnasium, rest rooms, class 
rooms and a hall for entertainments and lec- 
tures. A branch lunch room is maintained 
in the wholesale district and at the two 
])laces about 750 young women lunch daily. 
Almost as many are enrolled in the edu- 
cational and Bible classes. With the Wom- 
an's Christian Association the Y. W. C. A. 
sustains a Travelers Aid work and a Tran- 
sient Home for Girls and Women is main- 
tained — the two forming one of the most 
practical philanthropic undertakings in the 
city. The general secretary is ;\Iiss M. Belle 

The Woman's Christian Association was 
founded in 1866 as the Ladies' Aid Society 
and took its present name in 1868. For 
forty years it has been an active charitable 
and philanthro])ic force, doing a wide range 
of work, including personal visitation and 
relief of the poor, and the maintenance of 
the Woman's Boarding Home at 52 South 
Tenth street and the Pillsbury Home at 819 
Second avenue south. The association also 
manages the Jones-Harrison Home for the 
care of aged women and aged ministers and 
their wives and joins with the Y. W. C. A. 
in the Travelers Aid work. The president is 
Mrs. E. M. La Penotiere. 


The \\'ashburn Memorial Orphan Asylum 
was founded in 1886 under a bequest of 
$375,000 from the late Governor C. C. Wash- 
burn of Wisconsin as a memorial to his 
mother, (ien. \\'. D. \Vashburn of Alinnc- 
apolis, brother to Governor Washburn, who 
has always been at the head of the board of 
trustees, gave twenty-five acres of land at 
Nicollet avenue and Fort}--ninth street on 
which was erected a building costing $75,- 
000, the remainder of the bequest constitut- 
ing a permanent endowment. C. E. Faulk- 
ner is superintendent. 

The Catholic Orphan Asylum at Chicago 
a\enue and Forty-sixth street was erected 
some twenty years ago to care for the or- 



phans of the denomination. It is an effi- 
cient institution and wril Mippi nicil. 

The Home for CliilihTii ami .\i.;(_'il W'c mi- 
en was foiiiidcd ill iSSi, and inslalled in 
its present buildiui;' in ]iS86. It has been 
the sjiccial care of some of the lienevolent 
ladies of the city and has recei\e<l generous 
financial sup]H)rt as well as personal service. 
iJelluun- Hcune, the Home for the Atred, and 

as a memorial to their parents, Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles A. Pillsbury, and is admirably 
e(|ui])ped for social settlement work. Henry 
]"". Hurt is head resident. Unity House, 1616 
North \Vashington avenue, developed from 
work undertaken b}- members of the Church 
of the Redeemer, but is now a co-operative 
settlement devoting itself largely to reach- 
ing the children with helpful agencies. Miss 



.» » 


4 * 





PI 1.. 

w riii-. 

Cliiis. S. Si'ils 

snYTi:iti.\.\ cni:KOil. .\ivliilc,l. 

the .Sheltering .\rnis arc all well established 
and etYective. The Minnesota Soldiers 
Home, while not maintained by the people 
of the city, is one (if the institutions in 
which much interest is felt, fts grounds 
are u])on the Mississippi river bluffs adjoin- 
ing Minnehaha park — one uf the most beau- 
tiful spots in Miimesota. 

.Settlement work has been imderlaken in 
the city at three centers. Pillsbury Ifouse, 
320 Sixteenth avenue south, grew out of the 
work of Bethel nu'ssion, established 1)y 
I'lymouth Congregational church in the 
early eighties. The beautiful Imihling was 
the gift uf Charles .S. and John .S. i'illsbmv 

Caroline M. Crosby is head resident. In 
the autumn of igo8 Wells Alemorial House 
at iiC> Nfjrth Eleventh street was opened 
under the ans|)ices of St. j\Iarks Episcopal 

The .Associated Charities of .Minneapolis 
was organized in 18S4, largidx- tln-ough the 
instrumentality of George A. llrackett, wdi<i 
remained its president for many years. The 
plan of work is similar to that of such asso- 
ciations everywhere — the principles of en- 
couragement to thrift and self sup])ort and 
intelligent co-operation among the charit- 
able being prominent, h'rank I>. McA^ey is 
prt'sident and I'aigene T. I .ies secretary. 



('has. S. ScdKwU'li, ArcliUfcl. 

The Board of Charities and Corrections 
I if the City of Minneapolis is composed of 
fi\e Cdniniissioners, of whom the mayor is 
one and is charged with the care of the 
poor department, the workhouse and the 
city hospital. I'iichard Tattersfield is sec- 
retary of the board. 

In a city so well ors^anized for charital)le 
and ])hilanthropic work it is of course, (juite 
impossible to mention every organization, 
In fact each church has its society ; each 
lodge its committee. In the same way mis- 

sion work is beyond individual treatment. 
'Jdie first large work was that undertaken 
by the City Mission of 1883 on South Wash- 
ington avenue, of which the Rev. Edwin S. 
Williams was superintendent. In 1895 the 
Union City Mission was organized as an 
undeiKjminatii iiial institution. In 1902 it 
occupied its present (piarters in the St. 
James Hotel building at Washington and 
Second avenues south, where are maintained 
a hotel, Iiidging house, mission hall, employ- 
ment bureau, baths and laundry. T. E. 
Hughes has been for years the president 
and C. M. .Stocking, suiicrintendent. 


Will, rii.innintr Wliitney, .\cchitcct 

Manv of the hospitals of the city are of 
a cliaritable character, but as their work is 
largely professional they arc mentioned in 
the cha])ter on the Medical Profession. 

pn.LSBum iioisi: 

Bcrtrand & Cluiiiiliiiliii, .VirliUccts. 

r.USHNELL, Rev. John Edward, pastor of 
Westminster Presbyterian Chureh, Alinneapolis, 
.md a leading exponent of Prcsbyterianism in ilin- 
ne.sota, was born in Old .Saybrook, Connecticut, 
()cto])er 21, 1858, snn <if Julni !•'. Bushnell of that 
place. He attended llu- \illage schools and pre- 
pared for college al llie .Mm-gan School of Clin- 
lon, Coimccticut, and .graduated at Yale College 
in 1880. .'\fter taking liis theological course at 
Yale Theological Seminary, he took a post grad- 



REV. JOHN n. r.fSIIXEI.l,, 11. 1>. 

ualr ciiursc in critical .studies. Ho received his 
first call to a pastorate from the CongregatioMal 
cluirch of Fairfield, Connecticut, where he re- 
mained four years, going in 1888 to the I'resliy- 
terian Church at Rye, New York, of which lie was 
pastor for six years. This was followed hy a 
pastorate of six years at the Phillips Presbyteri.ui 
Church, of New York City, wdien he was called to 
the Westminster Church, of ^liniu-apolis. tin- 
largest and most important church mI" thnt <\v- 
nomination in the city. Under IJr. Bushmll. 
Westminster is organized for effective work and 
its influence is both dynamic and pervasive. It 
is a church which does things and the great 
structure which the congregation erected in place 
fif the one destroyed by fire about ten years ago. 
is strongly suggestive of enduring strength and 
achievement. During Dr. Bushnell's pastorate 
the church lias greatly increased in membership 
and holds a position as one of the leading or- 
ganizations of the denomination in the country. 
Dr. Bushnell received the degree of "D. D." from 
New York University in 1898. lie is a member 
of various collegiate and clerical societies and 
literary organizations. Tn June, 1887, Dr. Bush- 

nell was married to Florence A. Ellsworth, of 
Brooklyn, New York, and to them have been 
born three sons, — Ellsworth, J.ilin Horace and 
I'aul Palmer. 

Cf.EARY, kev. James AL, for many years in 
cliargc of St. Charles Catholic Church. Minneap- 
olis, was born in Boston. September 8, 1849, the 
>un of Thomas and Julia Cleary. He came to 
the Northwest with his parents while a child and cducaleil in the public schools of Walworth 
iMunty, Wisconsin, St. Francis Seminary and Col- 
lege. Milwaukee, and at St. Lawrence College. 
Calvary, Wisconsin. He entered the priesthood 
July 8. 1872. He has been widely known as a 
public lecturer and has taken a prominent part in 
temperance work, being for many years president 
of the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of Amer- 
ica and vice-president of the .\nti-Saloon League 
of America. He lias been the president of the 
Minneapolis Home Protection League, and is a 
member of the Catholic Knights of Wisconsin. 
Catholic Order of Foresters, and the Knights of 
Columbus. While in Minneapolis he has taken a 
prominent part in the discussion of all civi.- 
i|uestions and is always to be found nn the side 
of temperance, saloon restriction and all ]irac- 
tical .good government mnvements. He is a 
nieinlier nf the C'oninurcial and Six O'Clock 

bWULKXlCR. Charles Edward, superinten- 
dent of the Washburn Memorial Orphan Asylum 
at .Minneapolis, is descended from a long line of 
alK■e-■^t(Jrs among whom were men prominent in 
the coliiiiial period. Patrick Falconer of Edin- whip emu- to .America late in the seven- 
teenth centuiy was born in 1859 and the records 
show tli.Ll he married Octolier 2. 1689, at 
New lla\en to Hannah, daughter of Deputy 
(;o\ernor William Jones of New Haven and 
ffranddanghter of Governor Theophilus Eaton of 
Xew Haven Cohmy. Patrick Falconer was a 
citizen of Newark, Xew Jersey, member of First 
Presbyterian Church of Newark, New Jersey, and 
llie records of his will showed that when he died, 
ill KiiiJ, he Kfi esfensive properties in New York 
and New Jersey. In course of time the orthog- 
rajihy of the faniil\' n.'inie chan.ged. Ed- 
ward haiilkiier. f.itlur ol Charles E., was a mer- 
chant al ICarlville. .Madison county, New York, 
;it ihe time of his son's birth. July 12, 1844. His 
wife was .Abigail Uoolittle Beach. She was de- 
scended from John Beach who lived in New 
Haven, Connecticut, as early as 1643, and who 
signed the W;illini;ford Covenant and received 
allotment of land under this document. Mr. 
Faulkner's grandfather was the Rev. Lyman 
Tieacli who served in the war of i8ij. I)uring 
his early boyhood the family moved to Alanslicld, 
Pennsylvania, where Charles attended school at 
Manslield Classical Seminary until the breaking 
I'Uf nf iln- Civil war, wdien he at once enlisted 
under tin- first call of President Lincoln in .April, 



1861. While serving on the Peninsula he was 
taken prisoner, June 30, 1862, and confined in 
Pemberton Warehouse and on Belle Island. Af- 
ter the expiration of his enlistment two years 
later, he served in the commissary department 
until the close of the war. On June 27, 1867, he 
was appointed a registration officer under the 
reconstruction acts and served in Virginia during 
the most interesting portion of the reconstruction 
period. Mr. Faulkner next went to Kansas, es- 
tablishing himself at Saliny in April, 1869. He 
at once entered actively into public affairs, 
served as deputy county treasurer three years 
and as county treasurer four years, was a mem- 
ber of the legislature for two terms, and from 
1876 to 1887 was a member of the board of trus- 
tees of the Kansas Senate Charitable Institutions. 
His interest in charitable and philanthropic in- 
stitutional work brought him the appointment in 
1887 of superintendent of the Soldier's Orphan 
Home at Atchison. After filling this post for 
ten years he was called to the superintendency 
of the Washburn Home which he has managed 
with ability for the past decade. He was pres- 
ident of the National Conference of Charities 
and Corrections at Topeka in 1900 and in 1902 
president at tlic Minnesota State Conference of 
Charities and Corrections at Rochester. Mr. 
Faulkner on September 6, 1871, married Clemen- 
tina A. Coryell, daughter of Rev. Vincent M. 
Coryell, at Waverly, New York. Like her hus- 
band, Mrs. Faulkner is descended from a long 
line of forebears. Her grandfather, Emanuel 
Coryell, served in the Revolution and her great- 
grandfather of the same name was the owner 
of Coryell's ferry across the Delaware under a 
patent from George II. ^Ir. and Mrs. Faulkner 
have two sons. Dr. Coryell Faulkner and Charles 
E. Faulkner, both living in Minneapolis. Mr. 
Faulkner is a republican in political affiliation. 

HALLOCK, Leavitt H., the pastor of Ply- 
mouth Congregational church, Minneapolis, from 
1898 to 1907, was descended from the best early 
New England ancestry on both sides, and was 
born at Plainfield, Massachusetts, August 15, 1842. 
He was the youngest son of Elizabeth Porter Snell 
Hallock, lineal descendent of John .■Mden and 
cousin to William Cullen Bryant. His earliest 
paternal ancestor in America was Peter Hallock 
who landed at Hallock's Neck, Long Island, in 
1640, the source of all the Hallocks in this coun- 

Dr. Hallock's grandfather was Moses Hal- 
lock, for forty-five years the pastor of the only 
church in Plainfield, Z^Iassachusetts, where he edu- 
cated more than three hundred students for col- 
lege, many of whom became noted men in tlie 
land, fifty of them ministers of the gospel and 
seven foreign missionaries. 

Dr. Hallock's father, Leavitt Hallock, served 
his town and state in several capacities of public 
trust, with honor and fidelity, and Dr. Hallock 

has justified his honorable ancestry by his own 

Graduated from Williston Seminary, and from 
.•\mherst college in 1863, at the age of twentj'-onc, 
he took his theological course at East Windsor 
Hill and at Hartford, closing his fourth year in 
1867. From his graduation until 1892 he held 
successive pastorates in Connecticut and in 
Maine, preaching for sixteen years in the former 
state and ten years as pastor of Williston Church, 
Portland, Maine, and in Waterville. Thence he 
was called to the First Church of Tacoma, Wash- 
ington, which he served for more than three 
years, and then became preacher and instructor 
at Mills College, California, until called to Ply- 
mouth church, Minneapolis. 

Politically, Dr. Hallock iK-longs to the con- 
servative branch of the repulilican party. He 
has always been active in moral reform and to 
his efficient work for temperance western Con- 
necticut was greatly indebted during his ten 
years successful pastorate in West Winsted. 

Dr. Hallock has been honored by the degree 
of "Doctor of Divinity." conferred by Whitman 
College, Washington, in 1893: election as cor- 
porate member of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions in the same 
year, which position he still holds: membership 
in both international councils of. the Congrega- 

cil.\ur-r:s k. faulic.nur. 



tioiiiil body, lu-W rcspcctivoly in Linulon, Eng- 
land, in rSgi, and in Boston, in 1899. 

Dr. Hallock was married in Juno, 1867, to 
Martha R. lUitler, of Urooklyn, Xew York, who 
died in October, 1873, and was the mother of his 
two children, Harry I'.utlcr llallock, a business 
man of Cincinnati, and Lillian Huntington, wife of 
Geo. R. Campliell, M. 1)., of .Xugusta, Maine. 
On the .-^d of October, 1888, Dr. mar- 
ried Miss IClIen M. Webster, of Portland, Maine, 
who was associated witli liini in tlie wnrk nf 
Plymouth church. 

JKRUEI^, Rev. Lars J., jKi^-tiir uf Ininianuel 
Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church, Min- 
neapolis, was born in Lek.anger, Norway, on 
January 2, 1859. His father, who was .1 farmer, 
migrated to America in iSfii and the family 
lived in Dane county, Wisconsin, for some years, 
Lars attending the public schools and a Norweg- 
ian churcli school in the vicinity. When seven- 

Dccorah, Iowa, and graduated in 1882 with the 
degree of B. A. He had determined to become a 
teen years of age he entered Luther College at 
clergyman and entering Luther .Seminary at Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, to pursue his theological studies, 
completed the course and graduated in 1885. In 
the same year he was ordained and entered upon 
his ministerial work in I'olk county, Minnesota, 
where he organized ten Lutheran congregations 
and did mission work in general. Mr. Jerdcc 
remained in Polk county until i88g wdien he was 
called to Immanuel Norwegian Lutheran Church 
in Minneai>olis, wdierc he has remained as pastor 
ever since, taking a leading part in the affairs 
of his denomination of the Northwest. Since 
1891 he has been one of the directors for home 
missions and for about the same length of time 
has been one of the board of visitors for Luther 
Seminary. From 1890 to 1898 he was treasurer 
of the Minnesota district of the Norwegian 
Evangelical Church of .-Xnierica. He has been 
president since 1896 nf the Imard of Enclist mis- 
sions. Mr. Jerdee a member of the com- 
mittee editing a new explanation of Luther's 
catechism, published in 1904, and for the trans- 
lation of Luther's catechism into English, pub- 
lished in 1906. During his pastorate in Minne- 
ipolis he has also had charge of Santiago and 
South Santiago in .Sherburne county, Gethsemane 
Church, Minneapolis. Brooklyn Church in Hen- 
nepin county, and Bergen Church in McLeod 
county and was prime nio\er in organizing St. 
Johannes Evangelical Churcli in .Minneapolis. 
He belongs to the Synod of the Norwegian Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church of America. Mr. Jerdee 
was married in 1S86 to Miss Turine Husevold of 
Cyrus, Minnesota. They have had five children 
— three sons, Joseph C, now studying at Luther 
College, at Decorah, Iowa, and Theodor Ruben, 
who died, and a third son also nained Theodor 
Ruben, a student at Minnesota College; and two 
daughters, Thina.and Laila Tonetle, the first of 
whom died while a child. 

KNICK I'.KI'.ACK l-'.K. David I'.uel, was one of 
llie pioneers of religious work in Minneapolis 
and the Northwest and one of the most con- 
spicuously useful anil successfid clergymen which 
the Episcopal church sent into the Northwest in 
the early days. Bishop Knickerbacker was born at 
Schaghticoke. New York, February 24, i8,!,3. His 
father, Herman Knickerbacker, inherited a large 
fortune from his father Johannes Knickerbacker, 
■md for his lavish hospitality was called tlie "Prince 
of Schaghticoke." He was a lawyer of ability, 
occupied a seat on the bench of the county and 
re])rcsentcd his district in congress. The son 
wa> given a liberal e diicction and graduated from 
Trinity College, Hartford, in 1853. He then took 
a theological course and graduated from the 
General Theological Seminary in 1856. The 
young deacon was at once appointed by the 
Board of Missions in New York as a missionary 
assistant in Minnesota .-md witli his yomig bride 



he arrived in Minneapolis in July of the same 
year. He was placed in charge of the Ascension 
parish — a name shortly afterwards changed to 
Gethsemane, under which the strong church of 
that name developed. The future bishop's salary 
was at first $500. The church had but five coni- 
numicants at the beginning; it had no church 
building — although the original structure at Fifth 
street and Seventh avenue south was completed 
during the j^ear. Bishop Knickcrbacker's work 
was for a time of missionary character, serv- 
ing a number of points in association with Rev. 
Mr. Chamberlain. By the following spring, how- 
ever, his work in Gethsemane had so strength- 
ened as to require his constant services, his out- 
side missionary work, for which he afterwards 
became so famous, becoming from that time in- 
cidental to his work in Gethsemane. By this 
time the communicants had increased from five 
to fifty-three in one year. On July 12th, 1857, 
Bishop Kemper made a visitation of the parish, 
and Mr. Knickerbacker was ordained to the 
priesthood. Under ilr. Knickcrbacker's rector- 
ship Gethsemane church grew very rapidly. At 
the end of five years the number of communi- 
cants had increased to 102 and the church was 
in a very flourishing condition. In i860 Rev. 
Mr. Knickerbacker commenced his outside mis- 
sionary work, holding services more or less reg- 
ularly at Crystal Lake, .\nnka, Hnssnn. Water- 


ville, Mahnomin, Monticello, Clear Water, Big 
Lake, Rockford, Eden Prairie, Fort Snelling and 
Bloomington. In 1863 he says, "There is no 
limit to churcli extension in this vicinity save 
the ability and strength of one clergyman to do 
the work." In 1869 he organized the "Brother- 
hood of Gethsemane" to assist him in this field 
of church work. Harvest Home Festivals were 
inaugurated and a Free Church Reading Room 
opened and maintained on Washington avenue, 
corner of Nicollet, afterward removed to Geth- 
semane Parish House. In 1870 Rev. Mr. Knick- 
erbacker, having accepted his election as Dean 
of "Seabury Divinity School," resigned his rec- 
torship but, on the urgent protests of the vestry 
and congregation to himself and the Bishop, 
was induced to remain. After the chaplain at 
Fort Snelling left in 1866, Mr. Knickerbacker 
and his helpers maintained services at the Fort 
and occasional services at the Indian village of 
Mendota. This w-as continued for more than 
ten years. On the first Sunday of the month 
a goodly number of Sioux Indians from Men- 
dota generally appeared at Gethsemane and re- 
ceived the Holy Communion. After service they 
received a feast of baker's bread furnished by the 
rector. This custom continued all through the 
remaining rectorship of Mr. Knickerbacker and 
for many years after. In 1873 Mr. Knickerbacker 
received the degree of D. D. and four years later 
was elected missionary bishop of Arizona and 
New IMexico. He did not sever his connection 
with Gethsemane church, however, until 1883 
when he was elected Bishop of Indiana. He had 
then served as rector of Gethsemane for twenty- 
seven years and had seen the church grow from 
five to 274 communicants and with 1,000 souls 
in the parish. Meanwhile numerous missions 
established through his efforts had developed into 
independent churches. In the same year the 
corner stone of the new Gethsemane church 
building at Fourth avenue south and Ninth street 
was laid. Bishop Knickerbacker was consecrated 
Bishop of Indiana on October 4, 1883. and died 
December 31. 1894, at Indianapolis. His life and 
work in Minneapolis endeared him to a very 
large number of people, as his influence and 
service extended much beyond the boundaries of 
his own parish and of denominational lines. He 
was a man of great personal magnetism, warm 
sympathies and broad views and was loved by 
Iicoplc of all classes. 

JOYCE, Isaac Wilson, (Bishop Isaac Wilson 
Joyce, D. D. LL. D., one of the Bishops of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church) was one of the 
most conspicuous figures of the denomination to 
which he belonged. He was born October II, 
1836, in Colerain township, Hamilton county, 
Ohio; the son of James W. and Mary Ann Joyce, 
and the grandson of William and Hannah Joyce, 
of Dublin, Ireland. To this inheritance of Irish 
blood was doubtless due something of his unusual 
charm in public address, and his genial spirit 



which iii.'uK' him cvorywlu'rc a favorite. As a 
youth many obstacles were in the way of his in- 
tellectual training; his poverty, the opposition of 
his family, the ridicule of his associates; but he 
loved hooks, he was an enthusiastic student and 
pcrsislentlj- availed himself of every opportunity 
to secure coveted knowledge. He taught school 
to pay his way at Hartsville, Indiana, tlie dc- 
ni>minational school of the United Brethren 
Church. He alternately taught school and went 
to college for several years; finally winning his 
A. M. degree at Asbury (now De Pauw) Uni- 
versity. Later Dickinson College gave him his 
Doctorate while the University of the Pacific 
honored itself and him by the LL. D. He was 
licensed to preach by the United Brethren 
Church, but in 1857 united with the Methodist 
Hpiscopal Church, and in 1859 was admitted into 
the Northwest Indiana Conference. As a very 
young preacher he became pastor of some of the 
leading churches in this conference, and during 
the ten j'cars following promotions and honors 
came rapidly. At thirty-three he was presiding 
Elder of the East Lafayette district, then pastor 
of Trinity Church, La Fayette. His health be- 
came somewhat impaired, and he was prevailed 
upon to fill the pulpit of Bethany Independent 
Church, Baltimore, for one year. In that cli- 
mate he rapidly regained his healtli, but, though 
that church earnestly solicited him to become its 
settled pastor, he returned to Indiana, and in 1877 
was appointed to old Robert's Chapel, Green- 
castle. Here he was enabled to erect a commodi- 
ous church which today is a monument to his 
untiring zeal and energy. In 1880, at the close of 
his term in Greencastle, he was elected to Gen- 
eral Conference, meeting in Cincinnati, out of 
which grew his transfer to the Cincinnati Con- 
ference, and his first apijointment to St. Paul's 
church in that city. After serving this important 
church for a full term, he was sent to Trinity 
Church, which he .ilso served for a full term, and 
was then reappointed to St. Paul's. In 1886 he 
was the official representative to the General 
Conference of the Methodist Church of Canada, 
held in Toronto. In 1888 he was elected to the 
I',])iscopacy by one of the largest votes, up to 
that time, ever given to an incumbent of that 
office. For two quadrenniums, from 1888 to 1896, 
liis Episcopal residence was Chattanooga, Tennes- 
see, where he greatly impressed the church by his 
power as a preacher and his skill as a leader. 
During this time he was Chancellor of Grant 
University for five years, and for four years 
president of the Epworth League, and also held 
the conferences in Europe and Mexico. The 
(jeneral Conference of 1896 transferred him to 
Minneapolis, which was his I'"piscopal home until 
the time of his death. The first two years of 
this time he was under appointment to visit and 
supervise the churches in the Orient. He visited 
and carefully examined the work of the denom- 
inat'on in Japan, Korea and China, penetrating 

into many sections of the country never before 
visited by a bishop. His administration in China 
resulted in a spiritual quickening unsurpassed 
anywhere in the world in modern times. The 
church in that far away ijuarter of the globe has 
felt the impress of this visit to the present day, 
and it is the judgment of many on the field that 
the gigantic strides made in China in recent years, 
arc largely due to his administration and influ- 
ence. Returning he visited Malaysia, making a 
zigzag journey across India, meeting the Central 
Conference at Lucknow, preaching everywhere 
a stop was made. In 1903-4 he was in charge of 
the missions in South America, giving them 
unusually painstaking attention and administra- 

During his residence in Minneapolis his broad 
catholicity was peculiarly manifest. He devoted 
himself without reserve to the interests of his 
own denomination, yet, at the same time exhibit- 
ed a spirit of deep sympathy with all forms of 
Christian work. He was particularly solicitous 
for the weaker churches, and it is a matter of 
official record that he visited and ministered unto 
something like one hundred of the smaller com- 
munities throughout the northwest where no 
Bishop before him had jienetrated. In these gen- 
uinely missionary visits, he frequently paid his 
own expenses, and never received compensation 
for services rendered. On Sunday morning, July 
2nd, 1905, while preaching at Red Rock Camp 
Meeting, he suffered a partial paralytic stroke. 
He evidently felt a premonition of the approach- 
ing end for he abruptly changed the thread of 
his discourse, as he grasped a piller for support, 
he said, "I have preached this gospel around the 
world and it has always met the needs of men." 
The Bishop was married in 1861 to Caroline 
Walker Bosserman of La Porte, Indiana, who 
died in 190". Their only son. Colonel l'"rank M. 
Joyce, is a resident of Minneapolis. 

MERRILL, Rev. George Robert, was born 
and educated in tlie East, though a great part of 
his work has been in the West. The family from 
which Mr. Merrill is descended has been estab- 
lished in America from the time of its early 
colonization, — his ancestors emigrating to this 
country with the Puritans and settling at New- 
bury, Massachusetts. His parents were Robert 
Merrill, a ship joiner and builder and .Ann (Bab- 
son) Merrill, who lived at the time of their son's 
birth at Newburyport, Massachusetts. The son 
was born on December 26, 1845. He was brought 
up at Newburyport and there began his educa- 
tion, attending the public schools and graduating 
in 1861 from Brown high school. In April. 1862, 
he entered Amherst College, and owing to his 
careful elementary work was able to join the class 
which had entered the College in the fall pre- 
ceding his matriculation. In addition to his col- 
lege work Mr. Merrill taught school at East 
Corinth, Maine, .it Bcemerville, New Jersey and 

&2^-*>^^c 4/ 




ui:\ (JioiJitci': K. .MEitiiii,!.. 1). i>. 

ill tlu- liigli schnol al Amherst. lie gradiiatcil 
in 1865 with the degree of B. A. The additional 
lionorary degree of M. A. ad eundcm was later 
awarded him by Amlierst. ludlowing his gradua- 
tion in 1865 lie was offered a position as in- 
struetor in tlic Academy at I'.liie Hill, Maine, and 
taught in that school for two semesters. He 
then began his theological studies, entering I'.an- 
gor Seminary at Bangor, Maine. The course in 
that college was supplemented by further studv' 
:ilong theological lines at the Seminary at 
Rochester, New York, and niuU-r President K. 
G. Robinson, D. IX Unring the time devoted to 
acrjuiring bis education, Mr. Merrill lilled, in tho 
interval of his study, various positions with busi- 
ness houses, as a grocer's clerk, a supply-teachei' 
in the grade scliool at Newburyport and an as- 
sistant mail carrier. l''or some time he was lo- 
cated at h'ortress Monroe and llaiii|ilon, \'ir 
ginia, where he carried on the umk I'l tlic 
American Missionary Associaliun .Luiong the 
■■"reednien after the close of llu- Civil War. He 
completed his theological studies and ordained 
at Henrietta, New ^'ork, for the Congregational 
ministry on January a, 1867, after short pastorates 
in New York, Michigan and Maine, he received a 
call from the h'irst Congregational Church of 
Painesville, Ohio, wdieie he remained for eight 
years. In 1886 he resigned and moved to .Min- 
neapolis to become the pastor of the b'irst Con- 
gregational Church, of which he continued in 

charge for more than twelve years, resigning in 
1898 to accept a call from the Levitt Street 
Church of Chicago. Since 1900 he has been the 
Superintendent of Home Missions, for the Con- 
.grcgational I^enomination of this city and has 
devoted his whole time .and energy to the ad- 
vancement of this work. In .iddition to his work 
as a clergyman Mr. Merrill has .always been in- 
terested in educational wuk, and has served as 
a trustee of various schools and colleges at dif- 
ferent times, among them Hallowell Classical 
School in Maine; Lake iM-ie College, Ohio; Chi- 
cago Theolo.gical Seminary and Carleton College 
at Nortbfield; and in iSg,? received from Ripon 
College, Wisconsin, the degree of D. D. His 
work has also included his connection for several 
years with the International Sunday School ex- 
ecutive committee as a member and the secre- 
tary. In political faith Air. Merrill is a republi- 
can. He was married on Alay i, 1867, to Eunice 
Thurston Plumer of Newburyport, Massachu- 
setts, after whose death he was again married on 
June 19, 1885, to Miss Mary Morse House of 
P;iynesville, Ohio. By his first wife he had three 
children: John Ernest Merrill, president of the 
Central Turkey College at .Aintab, Turkey, Asia; 
George Pliimer Merrill, pastor of Prospect Street 
Church in Newburyport, Massachusetts, and Mary 
Merrill, now the wife of Dr. W. L. Burnap of 
Pelican Rapids, Minnesota.' From his later mar- 
ria,ge there are four children, Eunice House Mer- 
rill, now the wife of Rev. Harold B. Hunting of 
Rochester, Wisconsin, Robert Charles, Laura 
.Mice and M:n-jorie .\nnie Merrill. 

MORRILL, Rev. Gulian Lansing, pastor of the 
People's Church of Minneapolis, was born on 
December i, T857, at Newark, New Jersey, the 
son of Rev. D. T. Morrill and Alida L. i\Iorrill. 
The father was a Baptist clergyman for forty- 
four years, a native of Vermont and a cousin of 
Senator Lot Morrill; the mother was of the Lan- 
sing family, of Plolland Dutch descent. A clergy- 
man's family is very likely to be brought up in 
many towns but it happened that a considerable 
part of Air. Alorrill's youth was spent in .St. 
Louis, where he studied in the public schools and 
graduated from the school, and where he 
first developed Ihe marked talent for music, 
which, but for parental training and his own later 
inclin.-ilion. would have made of him a profes- 
-ioii.-il ninsici.oi rather than a minister. While 
Ntill almosi a boy he studied the organ with the 
lest masters available, receiving the highest com- 
mendation from Prof. E. M. Bowman. In later 
years he has by no nie.ins ab.andoned the organ 
and has many times combined the offices of 
I>reacher and Drganist. He played on some 
of the most noted organs in Ibis country and 
dining his wanderings abroad has been privileged 
III perforin upon famous instruments in old Eu- 
ropean cities. Mr. Alorrill began his study of 
theology at Shiirtleff College and afterwards 
graduated from the Baptist Theological Seminary 



at Chicago, He took post-graduate work in He- 
brew and philosophy under Dr. Wm. R. Harper 
and Dr. G. W. Northrup. Coming to Minneap- 
olis he became pastor of the Calvary Baptist 
Church and remained during ten years, during 
which time the new church edifice was erected. 
Later he was pastor of the Chicago Avenue Bap- 
tist Church for three years. ?Ie has filled pastorates 
at Anamosa, Iowa, Denver, and Owensboro, Ken- 
tucky. During his early pastorate in Minneapolis. 
Mr. Morrill took a practical interest in the aiTairs 
of the city and particularly in the amelioration of 
the condition of the masses — the unchurched and 
unchurchable. He had an active part in the work 
which ended in the removal of the Washington 
avenue dives and made possible the establishment 
of the Union City mission. He has always stood 
for temperance reform and the restriction of the 
liquor traffic. In i-go,? Mr. ^Morrill established 
the People's church as "a place for all creeds, 
classes and conditions of non-church-going peo- 
ple." Services have been held in the Masonic 
Temple, Uni(|ue theater and Auditorium .ind the' 
pastor has brought to his aid the orchestra, organ, 
soloist and chorus as well as art in the form of 
lantern pictures illustrating the subjects of his 
discourses. His methods have been original, 
unique and sometimes sensational, (not what 
would Ih' rrquired in the ordinary church vvnik) 
but they lia\e been concededly effective in his 

REV. C.Vlil. J. I'ETIII, i>. i>. 

field. Mr. Morrill has made his work a clearing 
house for the churches of the city, sending those 
persons wishing permanent mcmliershi]) to one 
or another of the denominational churches. In 
1881, on December 14, Mr. Morrill was married 
to Miss Ada B. Wilkinson al Chicago. They have 
two sons, David W. .Morrill and Lowell Lansin.g 
Morrill. It has been Mr. Morrill's constant habit 
to write and speak outside his clericil labors, 
lie has lectured extensively on many subjects and 
li.'is written several books on subjects growing 
directly out of his experiences in pastoral work, 
111 music and in travel abroad. An extensive tour 
in Africa, Palestine, Asia and Europe a few years 
.igo pr. i\idcd material for "Tracks of a Tender- 
ize )t," a luunormis and graphic account of per- 
^im.'il eNpcriciu-es and (iliservatinns. 

I'l'-TKl, Carl Jiihan. one of llu: most distin- 
guished clergymen of the Lutheran Church in 
this country, was born at Rockford, Illinois, June 
16, 1856. His father was a tailor of that town 
and the son received his early education at the 
Rockford public schools, later attending the .\u- 
gustana College at Paxlon, Illinois, with the 
class of 1S77. In the latter year he graduated 
with the degree of A. B., being a member of the 
first class sent out from that institution, and in 
1884 received the degree of A. M. from the same 
college. During his college work he made es- 



pecial study of the modern and classical lan- 
guages and history, devoting particular attention 
to classical English and at tlie completion of his 
course was particularly proficient in these branch- 
es. One year after leaving Augustana he moved 
to Minneapolis. At that time it was his inten- 
tion to continue his English studies for the pur- 
pose of becoming, at the request of the board of 
directors, an instructor in that subject at Augus- 
tana College. He entered the University of ^lin- 
nesota and for a year put his energies to the 
study of English and .-^nglo-Saxon; following 
which he returned to the East, locating at Phila- 
delphia, from which place he had received a call 
to take charge of a Swedish Lutheran congrega- 
tion. This position he held for several years. 
In the University of Pennsylvania he again re- 
sumed his studies in English and history shortly 
after his location in Philadelphia, at the same 
time attending Dr. Krauth's lectures on philoso- 
phy. He was ordained to the Swedish Lutheran 
ministry in 1880. He returned to the West four 
years later and became one of the faculty .of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus College, at St. Peter, Minnesota, 
as an instructor of history. In 1888 Dr. Petri 
was called to iSlinneapoIis to assume the re- 
sponsibilities of the largest congregation of his 
denomination in the city — the Augustana Swedish 
Lutheran Church. This was the beginning of a 
long and successful pastorate. During his resi- 
dence in Minneapolis, Dr. Petri has been active 
in educational and public work as well as in 
his religious connections. He has served as a 
member of the board of directors of Gustavus 
Adolphus College and was a member of the first 
board of directors of the Minnesota College. 
Minneapolis, and still serves on that body, being 
the vice president. For a number of years he 
has been the vice president of the Jilinncsota 
Conference of the Swedish .\ugustana Synod 
and is now secretary of the Board of Missions 
of the Conference. In 1881 he was one of the 
founders of the "Augustana Observer," a l.ntli- 
eran religious p?per — the first of its kind to l)e 
published in the English language by tlic Swedes 
in this country. At a later period he was also 
associated with the editorial department of an 
English Sunday school paper issued under the 
direction of the churcli and is now a 
of the Hoard of Publication rjf tin- Synod .-it 
Rock Island. He was tlie originator and a prin- 
cipal promoter of the celebration in 1R88, at Min- 
neapolis, of the two hundred and fiftietli anni- 
versary of the landing of the Swedes in America 
during the seventeenth century. Likewise he 
was active in arranging the celebration, in 1893, 
of the tlirec Inmdredtli anniversary of the Upsala 
Decree, being also the first scholar to translate 
this decree into tlic F.nglisb l;inguage. In tlic 
same year he was a member of the advisory 
council of the religious congress at the World's 
Fair. He is a member of the Institute of Civics; 
and was one of llic 111. ist organizers 

of the Swedish hospital in 1898 and the first pres- 
ident of the board and of the hospital associa- 
tion. Dr. Petri was married in 1880 to Miss 
Christine Anderson, of Rattvik, Delarne, Sweden, 
the ceremony being performed in the historical 
Old Swedes' Church, or Gloria Dei Church, in 
Philadelphia. They have si.x children. The The- 
ological Seminary of Rock Island, Illinois, con- 
ferred upon him, in 1899, the degree of D. D. 
Dr. Petri has always been conspicuous in the 
counsels of his church. He is fluent and con- 
vincing in debate and courteous and engaging 
in manner and his influence is commanding; 
.111(1 he is frequently called upon to lecture 
Ihrougliout the Northwest in connection with 
various lecture courses. 

POPE, Rev. Edward Ritchie, was born in New 
Bedford, Massachusetts, June 25, 1855. Here his 
pareius, VV. G. E. and Anna F. Pope, were born 
and here his ancestors lived from the earliest 
settlement of the place. His paternal ancestor 
111 this country came to Plymouth in 1630, and 
on his mother's side the first ancestor in this 
country was John Coggeshall, the first governor 
of Rhode Island. His great grandfather was a 
Major in the Revolutionary War and his grand- 
father an officer in the war of 1812. Mr. Pope's 
early life was spent in New Bedford, where he 
was prepared for college in the Friend's Acad- 
emy; in 1872 he entered Flarvard College but left 
in tlie middle of his junior year, going to San 
Francisco, where he studied law and was ad- 
mitted to practice. In 1882 he entered the Bap- 
tist Theological Seminary at Morgan Park, Illi- 
nois, (now connected with the Chicago Univer- 
sity) and graduated in 1885. From there he went 
to Carbondale, Illinois, and in 1887 came to Rocli- 
cster, Minnesota, serving the Baptist Church as 
its pastor for more than si.x years. In January, 
i8<)4. lie came to Minneapolis, having been elected 
superintendent of Baptist State Missions under 
the appointment of the Minnesota P.aptist State 
Convention and the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society and this position he has filled 
ever since. In December, 1885, Mr. Pope was 
iiKinied to Ella Kryshcr of ("arbnndale. Illinois. 
I'i\'e il.iu.uhtcTs ]i.'ive been liorii to tliem. four 
I'f uliiini are living. 

I'F1\\ I'S. l\e\. Stuart r.allantyne, the recli.r 
of Holy Trinity Lliiireh of this city since 1X1)4, 
is of parentage and l)irlli. Ihniigli he 
received his theological education iitv the nir)st 
part in tliis country and has, since his ordin.ition, 
been engaged in clerical work in Alinnesota. I [is 
father was Richard Purves. a civil and mining 
engineer, wlio pr.uM iei'd his profession with good 
success in F.nL;l,nul, ,iiid who at the lime of his 
son's birth liK-.itecl at Marypoit. Stuart 
Ballantyne Pur\es Imhii .at .Maryport on 
July 3, 1862. The early p.ul ..f liis life was de- 
\iifed to Ills ediic.ilion in England, and he ob 
t.iiiied liis prepar.ilory ;ind classical training 1111 




der the instruction of private tutors and a taste 
for study was developed which afterwards re- 
sulted in his preparation for the ministry. He 
came to the United States and became a resident 
of the state which has for nearly twenty years 
been the field of his endeavor. Mr. Purves con- 
tinued his education here and following his in- 
tention to take up the work of a clergyman, lie 
entered the Seabury Divinity School at Faribault, 
which had been founded by the pioneer Episcopal 
missionary and bishop, the Rt. Rev. Henry B. 
Whipple. Mr. Turves completed his theological 
studies at Seabury and graduated in i88g with the 
degree of B. D. During the same year he was 
ordained to .the ministry by Bishop Gilbert of 
Minnesota and immediately began his clerical 
services as the missionary at Redwood F'alls, 
Minnesota. He continued the work there for 
some time, and then received a call to the St. 
Peter's Church of St. Paul, and was the rector 
of that parish until 1894. At that time he was 
called to the rectorship of the Holy Trinity 
Episcopal Church of Minneapolis and has since 
been its pastor. During the years of his service 
in the Twin Cities Mr. Purves has been not only 
successful in the work of his own parishes but 
has been the head of several movements of in- 
terest to the clergy and public to which he has 
lent an energy and enthusiasm which show him 
to possess the necessary qualities to fill the re- 
quirements of the position he holds. Mr. I'urves 

is associated with several of the fraternal orders, 
being a Blue Lodge Mason, a Royal Arch Mason, 
a Knight Templar and a member of the Mystic 
Shrine. In 1893 j\Ir. Purves was married to Miss 
Mary Wilson, daughter of the Rev. E. Stuart 
Wilson, D. D. They have three living children — 
Stuart St. Claire, Marjorie Elizabeth and .'\udrey 
Katherine Ballantyne — one, Dorothy Marion, 
having died in infancy. 

ROBERTS, Rev. Stanley Burroughs, for a 
quarter of a century a Presbyterian minister of 
New York and Minnesota, is descended from old 
New England families. Both his paternal and 
maternal grandparents came from the New Eng- 
land states and settled in western New York 
among the earliest pioneers of that region and 
lliere were born the parents of Stanley Burroughs. 
These were William M. Roberts and Betsey B. 
Koberts. His father was a farmer at Phelps, On- 
tario county. New York, and Stanley B. was born 
on the farm on August 12, 1855. He grew up 
at the place of his birth and began his education 
in the neighboring district school and then en- 
tered the Phelps Union & Classical School there 
completing his preparatory training. It was his 
intention to study for the ministry and he began 
his college work at Center College, now Central 
University, at Danville, Kentucky. He took up 
theological studies and after completing the work 
at the Danville institution, where he received the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, he entered upon an- 
other course of study at the Presbyterian Theo- 
logical Seminary at Auburn, New York. He 
graduated from that school in 1882. Shortly fol- 
lowing his graduation he was ordained to the 
gospel ministry in the Presbyterian Church by 
the Presbytery of Utica, New York, and since 
that time has been engaged in fulfilling the duties 
of a constant and pleasant service in his profes- 
sional life. Before his graduation from the Au- 
burn Seminary he received an appointment as 
pastor of a parish at Vernon Center, New York, 
and remained there after his ordination until 1887. 
In the latter year he resigned and accepted a 
call to Dundee, New York. For four years he 
carried on the work at Dundee and then moved 
his home and church associations to Utica, New 
York, and there held a pastorate from 1891 until 
1899. After having preached for eighteen years 
in New York he received a call from Minneap- 
olis to fill the position of pastor of the Bethlehem 
Presbyterian Church of this city, which was ac- 
cepted and Minneapolis has since been liis home 
and the scene of his religious endeavors. In 1904 
he received the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Divinity at McAllister College. Mr. Roberts has 
been continuously connected with the Bethlehem 
Church and has not only built up a strong and 
influential parish but has taken great interest and 
done much active work in the general church 
vvork of the city. Since beginning his profession- 
al life Mr. Roberts has been constantly in charge 
of some parish and aside from his vacations has 


occupied his pulpit, with but one exception, every 
Sabbath for more than twenty-five years. He is 
also a promoter and supporter of all movements 
for improvement and progress; has often spoken 
from the lecture platform in the cause of good 
citizenship and temperance; and is active in the 
Department of Missions in the Northwestern 
Bible and Training School. Mr. Roberts was 
married on December 27, 1882, to Miss Mary 
Louise Hall of Waterville, New York. Four 
sons and one daughter have been born, Stanley 
Hall, Gladys Isabel, Harold Percy. Edward Carle- 
ton and Theodore McQueen. 

SATTERLEE, Rev. William W., one of the 
most prominent clergymen in the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church of Minneapolis, was born at La 
Porte, Indiana, on April 11, 1837, and died on 
iMay 27, 1893, at Athens, Tennessee. His father 
was Ossian Satterlee and his mother Susan Curtis 
Salterlee. The family is descended from the 
Satterlces of Suffolk, England, and direct descent 
is traced from Rev. William Satterlee of St. Ides, 
Devonshire, England. The Satterlees who came 
10 .\mcrica were among the settlers of the dis- 
trict of Wyoming, New York, historically famous 
in Revolutionary timr'S. Mr. Satterlee's ances- 
tors were participant:) in the Revolutionary and 
Indian wars. Althoun'h born in Indiana, Mr. Sat- 
terlee's boyhood was largely spent in Wisconsin 
where he attended the pioneer country schools 
and, as was customary, devoted most of his time 
to farm work. While still a very young man he 
was converte<l :it meetings of the Wesleyan 
Methodists and acted as an exhorter among the 
churches of tliat denomination. He had, how- 
ever, determined to study medicine and the ear- 
lier part of his life was spent in practice which 
was later combined with work as a preacher. He 
moved to Minnesota and practiced medicine and 
occupied frontier pulpits for three or four years 
w'nile living in Le Sueur county and at the end of 
tliis period in 1867 joined the Methodist Episco- 
pal conference and became regular pastor of a 
church in Waseca. Hi.- ^erxcd this church for 
two years, one in St. Chmd ami the First Metho- 
dist Church at St. Anthony for two years each, 
and at various times supplied, as pastor, the 
churches at Delano, Sauk Rapids, Ancika, Rich- 
field and Seventh Street. Minneapolis. In iS/.i 
.\Ir. Satterlee became fUiiily interested in the 
temperance movement and from that time unld 
his death devoted much of his time to iciniier 
ance work. He was secretary of the state prolii 
bilion organization for years and was an active 
leader in the party, standing at various times 
as party candidate for mayor of .Minneapolis, for 
congress and fur governor. In 1886 he was elect- 
ed to the chair of Political I'A-cmomy and Scien- 
tific Temperance in the Grant University in 
.•\thens, Tennessee, a position which he occupied 
during the rein;iinder of his life. In his earlier 
life Mr. Satterlee an ardent abolitionist and 

member of the Whig party and later a republican. 
An injury to his left arm prevented military serv- 
ice during the war although he twice offered his 
services. Later he was drafted but in all three 
instances was rejected. He was married on De- 
cember 25, 1856, at Woodstock, Wisconsin, to 
Miss Sarah Stout, who survives him. Their living 
children are, a daughter, Mrs. L. H. Everts, and 
three sons, M. P., W. E. and F. E. Satterlee, all 
living in Minneapolis. Two other children, Mrs. 
James Pye and Harry R. Satterlee, died some 
years ago. 

SHUTTER, Rev. Alarion D., D. D., the pas- 
tor of the Church of the Redeemer, was born at 
New Philadelphia, Ohio. His father, the Rev. 
Peter K. Shutter, a minister of the Baptist church, 
has held various charges in Ohio and Michigan. 
His pastorates were always successful, for he 
was a man of great natural ability and a very ef- 
fective speaker. His father was of English ex- 
traction, while his mother was of French descent, 
a combination well adapted to produce a success- 
ful orator. His wife, Dr. Shutter's mother, was 
of early Dutch descent. Her name was Alethia 
M. Haag. Her father was a fine scholar and had 
charge of his grandson's early education. He was 
twelve years of age before he was allowed to go 

UF.V. WlI.l.I.VM \V. .S.VTTIOia.KK. 



to the public schools. In the meantime he had 
learned, in the village printing office, to set type, 
and with this craft he had in a practical way a 
knowledge of spelling, punctuation, grammar and 
the use of capital letters. When sixteen years of 
age he entered the preparatory department of 
tlie Denison University at Granville, Ohio, and 
attended the institution until the close of the 
sophomore year. As he was thrown largely on 
his own resources he was frequently obliged to 
teach school to earn money to go on with his 
studies. Mr. Shutter's junior and senior years of 
the college course were taken at the University 
of Wooster, Ohio, where he graduated in 1876. 
Without funds to go furtlier, the young divine 
began to preach at a cross-roads in Western 
Reserve, Ohio, at the rate of $200 a year. Soon 
he added another preaching station, twelve miles 
distant, and each Sunday used to drive twenty- 
four miles, preach three times, attend a Sunday 
School, teach a class and eat his lunch as he 
drove across the country. Although it was hard 
work he enjoyed it. At the end of two years he 
left two flourishing churches, each supplied with 
a pastor, and went to Oberlin to take his theo- 
logical course. He remained there nearly two 
years and then completed his studies at tlic 
Baptist Seminary at Morgan Park, Chicago. On 
the day of his graduation in 1881 he was called 
to supply the Olivet Baptist church of Minne- 
apolis which led to a successful five years' pas- 
torate during which the church erected and 
paid for the finest church building on the east 
side of the river up to that time. In the mean- 
time Dr. Shutter's theological views had been 
changing. The church was in a flourishing con- 
dition and practically out of debt. But he felt 
that he could no longer occupy a Baptist 
pulpit. He notified his church of the fact, and 
withdrew from the church and the denomination, 
having nothing in view as to his future course. 
Immediately after the publication of his letter of 
resignation, the young pastor received a kind note 
from Dr. James 11. Tuttle, pastor of the Churcli 
of the Redeemer, wliom he knew only by reputa- 
tion, inviting him to call and confer. Dr. Shutter 
did so and set forth fully and frankly the con- 
clusions at which he had arrived. Dr. Tuttle ex- 
pressed a belief that Mr. Shutter could work with 
the Universalists, and asked him to preach in the 
pulpit of the Church of the Redeemer. Hs spoke 
several times, with the result that he becatne Dr. 
Tuttle's assistant with the understanding that 
either party might, at the end of six months, with- 
draw from the arrangement. The six months 
have now lengthened to a score of years. For 
five years Dr. Shutter was Dr. Tuttle's assistant. 
On the completion of the old pastor's twenty-fifth 
year of service, in iSgr, he was made pastor 
emeritus for life and Dr. Shutter was made pas- 
tor, a position which he still holds with great 
acceptance to the people and with distinguished 

iiEV. M.\r!iox 11. sin'TTi:ri. d. ». 

success, not only as a pastor, but as a public- 
spirited citizen who is in the forefront of every 
movement promising the betterment of the peo- 
ple individually, or as a body politic. The Min- 
neapolis Kindergarten Association was organ- 
ized in his study. Dr. Shutter drafted its con- 
stitution. In i8g7 he founded the Unity House 
Social Settlement and is at present chairman 
of the board mana.ging the work. He was 
one of a committee with Dr. C. M. Jordan 
and ex-Mayor Gray to establish public play- 
grounds in the city. He is a director of the 
Board of Associated Charities. He believes that 
it is better to be with the constructive forces in 
a city than to indulge in denunciation of evil from 
the pulpit. In addition to his large and increasing 
church work, he is the author of six books which 
sell well and steadily. Their titles are: "Wit 
and Humor of the Bible," "Justice and Mercy," 
"A Child of Nature," "Applied Evolution," "How 
the Preachers Pray," and a "Life of Dr. Tuttle," 
his predecessor. Ilis work on "Applied Evolu- 
tion" attempts to interpret modern thought in 
terms of religion, and has won the praises of 
such scientific authorities as Jolni Fiskc and 
David Starr Jordan. 



As WAS incnlidiK'd in the chapter on 
luirly Settlement, the first school 
• of an_\- kind in the territory now oc- 
cupied by Minneapolis was the Sioux Indian 
school established on the slK)res of Lake 
Harriet in 1836. Soon after the settlement 
of St. Anthony Miss Electa Backus taught a 
private school in a frame shanty on Second 
street, and about 1850 the first public school 
of the village was built near l\v and was 
taui,dit for a time by a Mr. Lee. In 1851 the 
preparatory school of the University of 
Minnesota was erected and was opened in 
November by the Rev. E. ^\'. Merrill. A 
school census taken soon afterwards showed 
that the village even then had one hundred 
and eighty-five children of school age. 

On the west side the first public sclionl 
was opened on December 3, 1852, in a small 
house erected by Anson Northrup near the 
corner of Third avenue south and Second 
street. The teacher was Miss Mary E. Mil- 
ler antl about twenty ])upils attended during 
the winter. This was a district school. 
The first district had been organized to in- 
clude the will lie I if llcimcpin cnunty on No- 
N'cndjer 2ij. b'.dw. Murphy, 1 )r. .V. E. .Ames 
and Col. Stevens were tlu- lir^l school trus- 
tees. The suniiner ti-rm nf 1853 was taught 
by Miss Mary .\. Scofield. 

FOfXDA'rio.NS oi' A s^•sll•'.^I. 

The real fnundatii m nf tin- pidilic schnnl 
system of the city was laid in a town meet- 
ing held on November 28, 1855, at wdiich 
nearly every rcsi<lent of the \illage was 
present, and when it was determined to 
i.irganize a |)roperly graded school and erect 
a school building. After securing legisla- 
ti\e authority a site Avas securi'd nn Third 
avenue south betw^-en l''iiurlli and biflh 
streets (one-half of the block now occuiiied 

b_v the ccjurthouse and city hall) and here 
was erected a school house which was said 
to be "the best building of the kind north of 
St. Louis." After some delays this school, 
the original Union school, was opened in the 
spring of 1858 with a full corps of instruc- 
tors of whom George B. Stone was superin- 
tendent and principal, and the following 
were teachers: Miss S. S. Garfield, Mrs. 
Julia .V. Titus, Miss H. E. Harris and Miss 
Adeline Jefferson. .\t this time there were 
three hundred and twenty pupils. Prof. 
Stone was regarded as an excellent teacher 
and is given credit for establishing the early 
school system on a high plane. In 1864 the 
old LInion Scliool building was burned and 
was replaced by the Washington School 
which iiccupied the same site until torn 
down to make way for the courthouse in 
1889. The other buildings were added dur- 
ing the 6o's and early 70's, the average for 
some time being about two buildings per 
year. In 1871 the system made a decided 
gain when O. V. Tousley was secured as 
superintendent. He served for fifteen years 
and did much to establish the school system 
on a soimd Ijasis. Until 1878 the schools of 
.St. Anthony and .Minneapolis remained en- 
tirely distinct as scjiarate systems. 


In 187S, si.x years after the consolidation 
(if the two cities, it was decided that the 
welfare nf the schools deni.'indeil a single 1 irg;niization and by legislati\e act 
llir r.n.iid (if l'"dncatiiin (if the Cit_\- of Min- 
neapolis was created and given the entire 
control of all the public schools of both 
jjlaccs. This was the true beginning of the 
public school system nf today for it made 
possible the (le\-i'ln|inient of a modern sys- 
tem which had l.icen impossible while the 



Tin: in.D WASiiixinoN .scHODr.. 

Tliis liiiiMiTig was erec-tcd in l.S(i."> I'li Tliinl avenue south 
wlifi-e tlie ciinit linnse and cit)' hall nuw slanils. 

Iwn CI imparalively small districts remaincil 
iiiflcpendeiit. 'J"hc first board of education 
under the new law was composed of Dorilus 
Morrison, ^\'intllrop Young, S. C. Gale, 
George Huhn, S\-en (Jftedal, Chas. Simpson 
and A. C. Austin. Mr. Morrison was elected 
president and Sven Oftedal, secretary. Prof. 
Tousley continued as superintendent, and 
was largely responsible for the reorganiza- 
tion of the system. The buildings in ex- 
istence at that time were the Washing- 
ton, Jackson, Lincnlii, Jefferson, Madison, 
Franklin, Adams, Sumner, Humboldt, \\'in- 
throp, Everett and Marcy. There was no 
high school building. The total enrollment 
of pupils was 5,215 of which one hundred 
and ninety were in the high school di\-ision. 
There were ninety-eight teachers. 

From this has de\'elnped in thirty years the 
present Minneapolis school system with an 
eciuipment of sixty-five buildings, a teaching 
force of over one thousand, a total enroll- 
ment of about forty-five thousand pupils 
with four thousand of these in the high 
schools. In these three decades the schools 
have kept al)reast of modern progress in 

educational matters and have long enjoyed 
a reputation for a high standard of school 
work. The buildings of 1878 have nearly 
all disappeared and most of the sixty-five 
structures of to-day represent advanced 
ideas in school construction. During this 
time the problems of finance and superin- 
tendence have been very difficult, and the 
city has been fortunate in being served on 
the board of education Ijy some of the 
strongest business and professional men 
resident here. With the rapid increase in 
]iopulation it has, at times, seemed almost 
iiiipossilile to provide sufficient school 
rooms, for while the ])eople have warmly 
supported the school system, the impossi- 
bility of raising enough money by taxation 
and bond issue to keep pace with the build- 
ing necessities has been manifest. During 
the thirty years the schools have had but 
three superintendents. Prof. Tousley re- 
signed in 188'') and was succeeded by Prof. 
John E. r>radley, who served until 1892, 
when he resigned to accept a college presi- 
dency. He was succeeded .by Prof. C. M. 
Jordan, who had been for a number of years 
principal of the Adams school. Dr. Jordan 
has been repeatedly re-elected to this post, 
which has added responsibilities and re- 
quires greater skill and abilitv from vear to 

The city now has five high schi)ols. The 
oldest is the Central, erected in the early 
8o's, of which John N. Greer is principal. 
The other high schools are the South, 
North, East and West, of which f. (). Tor- 
gens, Waldo W. Ilobbs, Will. "f. Web- 
ster, and A. N. ( )zias are respectively the 


Before Minnesota had been organized as 
a territory the people had determined that 
one of the institutions of the coming state 
shoulil be a university. It -was even settled 
that .Minneapolis (or St. Anthony) should 
be the home of the future school. This un- 
derstanding was ratified in 185 1 by the first 
territorial legislature which passed a bill 
drawn by John \Y. North of St. Anthony, 
creating the university, locating it at St. 
Anthony and naming Isaac Atwater, J. W. 
Furber,' Wm. R. Marshall, P.. B. Meeker, 



Duiisliis scliool. conivr of \\'i:'st I-'i-jmUliii :uiil S'miIIi Piiinitit avenues. 

Socrales Xclsuii, Henry AI. Rice, Alcxandei" 
l\am^ey, Henry II. Sibley, C K. Sniitli, 
l'raiil<lin Steele, .\'. C. Y). Taylor and Abrani 
\ an \'(irliees a.s the first board of regent.s. 
The board organized by the choice of Mr. 
.Steele as ]3resident, Mr. North, treasurer 
and Mr. .\t water, secretary. The l.ioard was 
willnnit fnnds but the act ]3rovided fur the 
crealiiin nl a permanent fnnd from the pru- 
ceeds of an e.xpecled land grant fnmi ci in- 
gress. The grant pni\ed to be only about 
46.000 acres and tliei-e -was little prospect 
of immediate realization of cash from the 
lands. Jn this emergency the people of St. 
,\nthony set about l)uilding the university 
themselves. Franklin .Steele gave a site and 
$2,500 was sub.scribed with which a two- 
story frame building was erected in which 
a school was opened on December T, 1851. 
This school was designated as a "prepara- 
tory school" for the university, the peojile 
being confident, evidently, that by the time 
any students were ''prejiared" the higluT 

institution wouUl be ready to give them 
instruction. The Rev. E. \\'. Merrill was 
in charge of this school. After three years 
it was discontinue<l and a similar experi- 
ment in 1858 proved equally unsuccessful. 
Meanwhile, in 1854, the older portion of the 
present cam|)US was secured and in 1856 
the first building was commenced, the re- 
gents discounting- a future l)right with ex- 
l>cctations of income with wdiich to pay for 
the structure. T5ut the panic of '57 found 
the building in course of erection, and 
though it was finally finished, it stood for 
eight years encumbered with debt while the 
regents strove to solve the problem of sav- 
ing the institution for the state. 

(jov. John S. Pillsbury's work for the Uni- 
\ersity began at this time. Called to the 
regency in 1863 he proposed a special board 
I if regents clothed with extraordinary pow- 
i-rs to sell lands and liquidate indebtedness. 
With John Nicols and O. C. Merriman, Gov. 
l'illsbur\' was intrusted with this work. 





This shows the original section of the "Old Main" biillillug as 
it was about 1SG9. 

For four years Gov. Pillsbury strove against 
countless discouragements. It is no dis- 
credit to the other members of the board to 
say that he was the life of the body and 
that his counsel, persistence, sagacity and 
constant courage brought through what 
would in other hands have proved a hope- 
less undertaking. In 1867 he reported the 
university out of debt. Creditors had been 
induced to accept lands, or cash as might 
be, claims had been compromised in various 
ways, patriotism had been appealed to, in 
fact every resource of an unusually re- 
sourceful man had been used to bring about 

The university was at once reorganized 
and consolidated with the new agricultural 
college started under the Morrill grant, and 
plans for beginning college work were 
formulated. In 1867 the long vacant build- 
ing was repaired and furnished and a pre- 
paratory school was opened with W. A\'. 
Washburn as principal. Prof. Washburn 
opposed co-education but he was overruled 
by the regents and the question has never 
been raised again. In 1869 the regents felt 
that they were ready for further organi- 
zation and Col. William W. Folwell was 
called to the presidency. The college opened 
that \'ear with thirteen freshmen students, 
two of whom completed the four years 
course and made the first graduating class 
in 1873. 

The administration of President Folwell 
continued fifteen years and constituted the 
first natural period of the history of the 
university as a working institution. The 
university was most fortunate in securing 
the services of such a man as Dr. Folwell 
for the time of organization. Born on a 
Xew York farm, a graduate of Hobart Col- 
lege, class of '57; his education supplement- 
ed by study and travel abroad and profes- 
sorships at Hobart ami Kenyon ; with four 
years' service in the war, during which he 
lose to the highest official grade in the en- 
gineer corps — with all these broadening in- 
fluences, he came to Minneapolis at the age 
of thirty-six, young enough to be full of 
energy and initiative, not old enough to 
have lost any youthful enthusiasms and 
^ymjiathies. To him the university is in- 
debted for its organization. In 1869 the 
•American university as- it is today was un- 
known. Dr. Folwell looked into the future 
and determined to make the Minnesota in- 
stitution a university in fact. He also 
])lanned to make the university a part of a 
complete system of public instruction; how 
well this idea has been carried out is now 
a matter of general information. 

It is impossible within the limits of this 
sketch to trace in detail the work of the 




Tliis view shows the newer part of the original building erected 

in 187.'). It was snl)se(i«entl.v partly destroyed by fire 

and later views do not show the cupola. 



first fifteen years. Much was experimental ; 
in the nature of things there was difference 
of opinion and more or less faculty dissen- 
sion. During most of President Folwell's 
incumbency, the i)reparatory department 
was the larger part of the institution : Init at 
its close this department was giving way 
to the state system of high schools (carry- 
ing out Dr. Folwell's idea of a homogeneous 
and interdependent state school system) 
and the policy which opened the way for a 
broad university development had obtained 
general acceptance. In all Dr. Folwell's ad- 
ministration the university was housed, 
])ractically, in one building. The front sec- 
tion of the "Old Main" building, as it was 
known for years, was built in 1875 and soon 
afterwards an agricultural building was put 
up. President FolwcU urged the adoption 
of a liberal policy of building and extension 
and in 1880 formulated a plan for new 
Iniildings, based on an appropriation of 
$30,000 a year for ten years. Although de- 
ferred on account of other demands upon 
the state treasury, the plan was finally car- 
ried out substantially as recommended. In 
1883 Dr. Folwcll determined to satisfy his 
individual taste for student and teaching- 
work, rather than executive details, and re- 
signed, immediately accepting the chair of 
political science, which he filled until 1906, 
when he resigned to devote himself to lit- 
erary work. 

With 1884 opened the administration of 
President Cyrus Northrop which has con- 
tinued until the present time. Again the 
regents had been most fortunate in the 
choice of an executive. Dr. Northrop was 
a Yale graduate of '57, and nf the law de- 
partment in '59, and liad been admitted to 
the bar in i860. After brief experiences in 
politics and joiu-nalism (editing the New 
Haven Palladiiun in 1863) he accepted a 
chair at "N'ale and was professor of lulgH^ll 
Literature- in 1884 when he was called to 
Minnesota. ;\ man of the highest ideals — 
educational, civic and religinus — a speaker 
of exceptional eloc|ueiu'e ami ability, pos- 
sessed of a rare sense of humor, ami a mas- 
ter of diplomacy in his relations with men, 
he seemed to have most of the (|ualifica- 
tions for the difficult post. When he ac- 

cepted the work and straightway gave evi- 
dence of unusual executive ability the re- 
gents were more than satisfied with their 

President Northrop found the university 
with one building and three hundred and 
ten students, aljout half of them doing pre- 
paratory work, only three departments, and 
16 professors. Income was still small but 
the appropriations called for in 1880 began 
to come in. The organization of depart- 
ments and the erection of buildings was 
the large work in hand. 

Only the outlines of the colleges and de- 
partments can be traced here. In 1870 the 
college of engineering, metallurgy and 
mechanic arts was created and at first in- 
cluded the agricultural college. The latter 
was separated in 1874 but remainetl a very 
unimportant jiart of the university, even 
after the purchase of the university farm in 
1881, until 1888 when the school of agricul- 
ture was added to the department. Since 
that time the success of the department has 
been wonderful and the school and college 
liave become models in the field of agricul- 
tural education. A group of buildings valued 
at about $700,000 has been develoi)ed and 
the capacity of the equipment is constantly 
taxed. Dean W. M. Liggett was at the head 
of this department from 1896 to 1907, at the 
same time being director of the experiment 
station — a work entrusted to the university 
by the state. After the agricultural college 
was set off the college of engineering and 
mechanics arts developed very slowly un- 
til it secured its first building in 1886. The 
school of mining was subsequently added, 
but afterwards made a separate department. 
The ore testing works were built in 1895 
and the school of mines building in 1903. 

These departments had ilevelopcd direct- 
ly out of the original organization. The 
new (k-p;utmeiils came in as follows: Medi- 
cine in 1884, growing out of the Minnesota 
LIos])ital College established in 1881 as a 
jjrivate school; Law in 1888, organized by 
Dean W. S. Pattee, who has continued for 
a score of years its head : I'harmacy in 1892; 
Dentistry in i8()3; Chemistry in 1904. The 
professional schools are described more at 
length in the chapters on the several sub- 




jects of Courts anil Lawyers, Medicine and 
I Jentistr}-. 

At first building aii[in ipriatiuns were 
grudgingly made by the state legislature ; 
in fact so scarce was money in the univer- 
sity treasury that Governor Pillsbury from 
his own resources erected Pillsbury hall in 
1889. The Law building was added in the 
same year, the Chemical Laboratory in 1891, 
the Main IMedical building in 1893, the Li- 

ment as regent for life. I'^or nearly furty 
years he gave time and thought, counsel 
and action, probably fully one-third of his 
time being devoted to the institution he 
loved so well. He was honored just pre- 
vious to his death by the erection by the 
alumni of a bronze statue upon the camj)us. 
h^om the thirteen students of 1869 the 
university has grown to an enrollment of 
above four thousand ; from a single building 

Tliis ),':itf\v:i,v was frtcted iis a intniim-i.-il 

brary in iXv.S. ihe Armory in l8i)6, the 
Physics building in 1901, the Minini;- builil- 
ing in 1903; and l^'olwell Hall in 1907. 
Many other lesser buildings have been 
erected. Of the gifts, next to Pillsbury Hall, 
.Mice Shexdin Hall (the women's building), 
presented by Thomas H. Shevlin, is the 
most conspicuous. 

IJut the best gift e\cr reccixed by ibr uni- 
\crsity was tin- fri'C life-long service of 
(iov. John S. Pillsbur_\\ After his first great 
work for the institution in the si.xtics, Gov. 
T^illsbury cijutinued until his death in hjoi 
a regent, much of the time [president and in 
1895 honored by the legislature by appoint- 

to <;nv. Jolin S. rillsbiii\v by his lielrs. 

am! campus of imcertaiu \alue. the jirupcrly 
has increased to about $3,000,000 \alue and 
the ])ermanent invested fund amounts to 
$1,400,000. The library contains 85,000 vol- 
umes; the buildings are e(piip])ed with mod- 
ern apparatus. The standards of scholar- 
slii]i lia\-e ad\'auced until the institution 
lanks with the leading nni\cr>itics nf the 
ciinntrw < )u the hand, the nni\ersity 
has become the head of the educational sys- 
tem of the state, the coiu'ses in grammar 
and high schools being arranged so that 
a student may pass from one to the other 
and into and through the university with- 
out break or special prejjaration outside the 




reg'ular courses. In recent years the atti- 
tude of the state has been much broader 
and with a general understanding of the ad- 
vantages of the university it has received 
a most liberal support. 

Realizing the almost unlimited possibili- 
ties of growth before the university, the 
regents, in 1907, determined to secure more 
land for the campus before the cost becaiue 
prohibitive. A legislative appropriation was 
obtained and some ten blocks of land were 
purchased. Following this acquisition a 
competition was held which produced many 
excellent plans for the future development 
of the enlarged campus. While no immedi- 
ate work is to be done all future improve- 
ments will be made in hanuony with some 
plan for the general treatment of the whole 
great campus tract. 

The present board of re- 
gents is composed of: Cy- 
rus Northrop, LL. D., ex- 
nfficio; Hon. John I.ind, 
Minneapolis, president; 
lion. John A. Johnson, 
-St. Peter; Hon. John W. 
( ;isen, Albert Lea; Hon. 
Chas. A. Smith ; Hon. 
Thos. ^\■i!son; Hon. R. F. 
Nelson, .Minneap(jlis. 
Hun. A. E. Rice, Will- 
mar; Hun. Pierce Butler, 
.^'t. Paul; Hon. Henry P.. 
Hovland. Duluth; Hon. 
.^. AI. ( )\ven, .Minneap- 
olis: Hun. W. J. Mayo. 
Rochester; C. D. Decker, 
.Austin, secretary of the board. 
The executive officers of the university 
are : Cyrus Northrop, LL. D., president ; 
Ernest B. Pierce, B. A., registrar; Jas. T. 
Gerould, B. A., librarian; John F. Downey, 
AI. A., C. E., dean of the College of Science, 
Literature, and the Arts; Frederick S. 
Jones, AI. A., dean of the College of Engin- 
eering and Mechanic Arts; Eugene W. Ran- 
dall, dean and director of the Department of 
Agriculture; Wm. S. P'attee, LL. D., dean 
of the College of Law; Frank F. Wesbrook, 
AI. A., M. D., C. M., dean of the College of 
Aledicine and Surgery ; Eugene L. Mann, 
B. .A., AI. D., dean of the College of Homeo- 
[jathic Medicine and Surgery ; Alfred Owre, 
D. AI. D., M. D.. dean of the College of Den- 
tistry ; Frederick J. Wulling, Phm. D., LL. 
AI., dean of the College of Pharmacy: Wm. 


The work of the department of agriculture of the university as well as tliat of tlie experiment station Is 
carried on at this farm about two miles from tl»e university campus. 



R. Appleby, AL A., dean of the School of 
Mines; Geo. I!. Frankforter, Ph. D., dean 
of the School of Chemistry; Geo. F. James. 
I'h. D., dean of the School of luliication ; 
Henry T. Eddy, C. F., Ph. D., LL. D., dean 
of the Gradnate School; Ada L. Comstock. 
M. A., dean of Women. 


Dnring the fifties a nnmber of private 
schools were opened, inchidiny .'^t, Mary's 
.School for Yonng Ladies, nnder the care 
of the Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlain, and 
an academv cundncteil bv I'mf. 1). .S. P.. 

grown np, fostered and assisted by 
the chnrch people of this city. 

.Man_v of the prominent citizens of the 
decades following the war were interested 
in the fonnding and maintaining of Bennet 
.Seminary, at w hicli many of the yonng ladies 
of that period received their edncation. 
Such men as Dorilns Morrison, C. E. \'an- 
derbnrgh, Chas. A. Bovey, W. D. W'ash- 
bnrn, C. H. Pettit, and V\". H. Dunwoody 
were identified with its work as trnstees. 
Another school which made a snccessfnl 
record from 1879 to 1890 was Judson Female 
Seniinarw founded bv Miss Abbv A. Inil- 

> '^ 




arihitiifs skcti-li. 

last liiiililllif: iidtUd to tilt' jirnup tin the faiiipus 
I'nlwi-ll. tlif lirsl iufsidiiit :m(l Inii^' a prufessdr. 

imc.l ill of Dr. 

Johnson. Alxmt the same time .Miss Lue\ 
D. Holman cuiKhicted a jirix.ite sclinol 
and only a liltle later Prof. !■'. II. l-'ulsoni 
maintained a select school in ."^i. Aulliniiy. 
Most of these earlier schools had im per- 
manence, but they served to sbnw ihe 
willingness (jf the community to eucnur- 
age the best things in edncatinn. ll 
not long before this tendency manifested 
itself in certain denominational undertak- 
ings which have developed inio iiistilulion-- 
for higher education either in the city or 
vicinity. In this way Carlcton College, at 
Northfield, Hamline University and Alacal- 
ester College, midway between Minneapo- 
lis and St. Paul, .\ugsburg Seminary, ami 
other denominational institutions have 

^iiii. 1'^. I), llolmcs became prit-.cipal of the 
.Minneapdlis .\cademy in 1884 and de\el- 
oped it into a ]M'eparalor\- school which has 
been maintained to the present time. After 
the discontinuance of the older schools for 
girls and young ladies which have been 
mentioned. ."Stanley Hall, an linglish and 
classical school, was opened in 1890 by Ol- 
ive Allele Evers and l^'lizabetli Wallace. 
.\fter a time Miss \\\allace withdrew and 
the school h;is since bei'ii conducted by 
Aliss h'.vers. (iraham Hall, a school for 
girls, was established about ten years ago 
and is now conducted by the Misses Bart- 
lelt and Ruble. 

The city has been especially fortunate in 
the character of its ])rofcssional schools and 



these are mentioned in the appropriate cliap- 
ters. Among the denominational scliools. 
those of the CathoHc church have taken a 
prominent place. In addition to the ordin- 
ar\- parish schools conducted in connection 
with the several churches a high school fur 
hoys is maintained and excellent girls' 
schools are well sustained. 

AUGSBURG SEMINARY was organized at 
^larshall, Wisconsin, but was moved to Minne- 
apolis in 1872. It was originally a theological 
school only, but after coming to Minneapolis its 
scope was broadened to include preparatory, 
collegiate and theological departments. Very 
soon after its removal to Minneapolis Sven Ofte- 
dal became a member of the faculty and was 
made president of the board of trustees. The 
success of the institution has been due largely 
to his energetic efforts and intelligent leadership. 
It has developed from a weak and struggling 
scliDol to one of strength and great influence 
in the denomination and among the educational 
institutions of the northwest. The late professor 
George Sverdrup was president for many years 
and was considered one of the best school men 
among the Scandinavians in the United States. 
The Seminary is located at Seventh street and 
Twenty-first avenue south where it owns a block 
of ground and where it has several buildings in- 
cluding a modern structure completed in 1902 at 
the cost of $45,000.00. There are at present 
about 175 student enrolled. The faculty is com- 
posed of the following members in order of their 
appointment, S. Oftedal, Prof. Emeritus, J. H. 
Blegen, W. M. Pettersen, J. L. Nydahl, H. A. 
Urseth, H. N. Hendrickson, .A. Helland, S. O. 
Severson, George Sverdrup, Jr., and Wm. Mills. 

Almost thirty years ago the Sisters of St. 
Joseph, a Catholic order of women, founded in 
Minneapolis the Holy Angels' Academy, a young 
ladies' boarding and day school. It is situated at 
Seventh avenue north and Fourth street, where 
it has a fine tract of ground and two large build- 
ings, one of which is occupied by the recitation, 
class and study rooms, the other, the convent 
proper, being the home of the Sisters and the 
dormitories of the boarding scholars. The work 
and plans of the school advanced so rapidly that 
they outgrew- the capacity of these quarters and 
in 1907 the academy under the name of St. Mar- 
garet's, and as a day school only, occupied build- 
ings more fitted to the growing needs of the 
school, on North Thirteenth street between 
Hawthorn and Linden avenues. The property 
which has been acquired by the order, consists of 
three buildings in which are maintained a high 
school department, a music department, and a 
commercial and grades department. The pur- 
pose of the academy is the higher education and 
training of girls and their preparation for college 

work; and the curriculum includes every branch 
of study necessary to the complete accomplish- 
ment of these ends. Each department is super- 
vised by efficient and experienced instructors and 
covers most thoroughly the work which comes 
within its provinces. The music department in- 
cludes both vocal and instrumental instruction 
and the methods of study pursued in the famous 
conservatories both of this country and Europe 
are used in the daily work. The scope of the 
are used in the daily work. The scope of the pupil 
in the art department is almost unlimited, as the 
course includes studies in water color, oil, crayon 
and china decoration, carried on under the direc- 
tion of instructors whose talent and knowledge 
assure the pupil the most careful training. In 
the academic course of study are taken up all 
the subjects usually handled by the intermediate 
or preparatory school and the preparation for 
college work is complete. The graduate of St. 
Margaret's is not required to take the customary 
examinations to obtain admission to the colleges 
of the country but is admitted on the record of 
her studies in the academy. Not only is this 
done by the exclusive girls' colleges of both east 
and west but by a number of the co-educational 
institutions, including the University of Minne- 
sota. The endeavors of the school liave been 
most successful since it establishment and it has 
drawn its pupils not only from the two cities but 
the entire Northwest and fi»r many years has 
justly been regarded as one of the important 
.sources of education and culture of this locality, 
many of the best families being desirous of plac- 
ing their daughters within its influences. The 
Sisters, by their earnest efforts, have done much 
to give the academy the standing it now holds 
among the best schools of its class. 

BENSON, Arthur Fleming, was born near 
London, Canada, February 2, 1871. His parents, 
William and Maria Benson, came of a family that 
settled early in the province of Ontario. Mr. 
Benson's father is a Methodist minister. The 
early years of Mr. Benson's life were spent in 
Canada and in the Canadian public schools he 
received his elementary education. When he 
was twelve years old the family moved to Michi- 
gan. After completing a grammar and Iiigh 
school course Mr. Benson entered the Michigan 
stale normal college, from which he graduated 
in 1896 as president of the largest class which tlie 
ccillege had ever sent out. In addition to holding 
the chief executive office of his class, Mr. Benson 
was during the four years of his college life a 
most active member of the several literary soci- 
eties of the college. In this schoolj Mr. Benson 
received his training for the various positions as 
instructor which he has successively filled, and 
was especially fortunate in being, for a time, a 
pupil of Dr. Putnam, one of Michigan's most 
noted educators. After completing his normal 
studies, Mr. Benson entered upon the duties of 
principal in the schools at Pontiac, Michigan, and 




later acted in like capacity at Owosso and Grand 
Rapids in the same state. In 1903 he came to 
-Minneapolis to accept the principalship of the 
Seward school, one of the largest in the city, and 
holds that position at the present time. During 
the summer months, however, Mr. Benson re- 
turns to Michigan to instruct in the summer in- 
stitutes of that state. IMr. Benson has always 
been prominently identified with measures of pro- 
fessional advancement in the towns where he has 
resided. In connection with the Seward school 
he has organized the "Young Citizens' League" 
— a club of pupils for instruction in civic govern- 
ment and improvement. Mr. Benson is a mem- 
bur of the Minneapolis Teachers' Club, the 
Schoolmasters' Club and the Minneapolis Prin- 
cipals' Club, and holds in each organization the 
cliairmanship of a prominent and active commit- 
tee. He also holds membership in the Hennepin 
County Juvenile Protection League. Mr. Ben- 
son belongs to the Fowler Methodist Church, of 
which he is an officer and the superintendent of 
the Sunday School. 

BOSS, Andrew, was born June 3, 1867, in 
Gilford township, Wabasha county, Minnesota, 
son of Andrew and Janet Boss, who came from 
Scotland. He was brought up on his father's 
farm, attending the common schools and doing 
farm work until he was twenty-two. He then 
entered the Agricultural high school of the 
University of Minnesota-, from which he gradu- 
ated and in which he was a teacher for twelve 
years. He has been for several years active in 
the management of the university farm and in 
experimental work. Mr. Boss is professor of 
Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota and is well known as an 
earnest promoter of liberal education in the sci- 
ence and practice of modern agriculture and in 
the organization of farmers' clubs and institutes.' 
He is a member of the State Agricultural Soci- 
ety; of the State Horticultural Society; Farmers 
Club; Secretary of the Live Stock Breeders' As- 
sociation and member of the American Breeders' 
Association. Mr. Boss is a Congregationalist in 
his churcli aftiliations. He was married in 1891 to 
I'lvalcna La Mont, of Wabasha county, Minnesota, 
They have five children — Hazel V., EIna V., 
.Mabel E., Kenneth A., and Wallace L. M. 

EDDY, Henry Turner, dean of the graduate 
school, University of Minnesota, was born at 
Sloughton, Massachusetts, June 9, 1844, the son 
of Rev. Henry and Sarah Hayward (Torrcy) 
I'.ddy. He graduated from Yale University with 
tlie degree of A. B. in 1867 and from Sheffield 
.Scientific School with the degree of I'h. B. in 
1868 and later received the degrees of A. M., 
Vale, 1870; C. E., T870; Pli. D., 1872, Cornell; 
LL. D., Center College, 1892. Professor Eddy 
studied at Berlin in 1879 and at Paris in 18S0. 
His educational work has extended over forty 
years. After graduating from Yale he was in- 

structor in field work at Sheffield Scientific 
School, 1867-68; was instructor in Latin and 
mathematics at the Universitj' of Tennessee, 
1868-69; was assistant professor in mathematics 
and civil engineering at Cornell University, 1869- 
~i; was adjunct professor of mathematics at 
Princeton, 1873-74; was professor of mathemat- 
ics, astronomy and civil enginering at the 
University of Cincinnati, 1874-90; was dean of 
the academic faculty, 1874-77 and 1884-89; and 
was acting president and president elect of the 
same university in i8go; and was president of 
Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terre Haute, Indi 
ana, 1891-94. In 1894 Dr. Eddy came to Min- 
nesota as professor of engineering and mechan- 
ics at the university and was made head profes- 
sor of mathematics and mechanics in the college 
of engineering, 1907. Since 1905 he has been 
dean of the graduate school. Dr. Eddy is a 
member of many learned societies, including the 
American Philosophical Society, American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science (vice 
president of mathematics and physics, 1884), 
American Mathematical Society, American Phys- 
ical Society, Society for Promotion of Engineer- 
ing Education (president, 1896), Phi Beta Kappa 
and Sigma Xi college fraternities. He is the 
author of Analytical Geometry; Researches in 
Graphical Statics; Thermodynamics; Ma.ximum 
Stresses and Concentrated Loads, and many 
other scientific and technical papers in the trans- 
actions of the various enginering societies. 
Professor Eddy was married at New Haven, 
Connecticut, on January 4, 1870, to Miss Sebeila 
E. Taylor. They have five children. 

GEROULD, James Thayer, librarian of the 
University of Minnesota, was born on October 
3, 1872, at GofTstown, New Hampshire. He is 
the son of Samuel L. Gerould, D. D., who had 
a pastorate in GofTstown, and of Laura E. 
(Thayer) Gerould. The family is of Huguenot 
origin, the first ancestors of James Thayer in 
this country having left France to come to 
America in 1685. Mr. Gerould received his train- 
ing for college at Gushing Academy at Ashburn- 
ham, Massachusetts. He attended Dartmoutli 
College, taking the classical course and graduat- 
ing in 1895 with the degree of A. B.; and followed 
this with a year's post-graduate study in the 
same institution. He then went to New York 
city, to take charge of the Library of the Gen- 
eral Theological Seminary. This position he re- 
i.iinnl but a year, however, resigning in 1897 
v\hen a position as assistant in the library of 
Columbia University was tendered to him. This 
he accepted, taking charge of one department. 
He remained at Columbia for three years as the 
head of this department and then in 1900 was 
appointed chief librarian of the University of 
Missouri, at Columbia. Missouri, a position 
which he filled for six years. He came 
to Minneapolis in igo6 to become the li- 
brarian of the University of Minnesota. Mr. 

ytUi^'^ ^ Cctc/y, 



Gerould is a member of the American Library 
Association; the American Historical Associa- 
tion, the Bibliographical Society of America. 
Among the local organizations with wliicli lu- is 
associated arc the Bryn Mawr Golf Club and the 
Six O'clock Club. On September i8, 1900, he 
was married to Miss Mary .Aims Chamberlain, 
daughter of Roswcll II. Chanilnrl:iin of Chesler. 
New Yiuk. 

GREEN, Samuel B., since 18S8 the professor 
of horticulture and forestry at the University of 
Minnesota, is a native of Massachusetts, having 
been born at Chelsea in that state. On the ma- 
ternal side of the family he is of Dutch descent, 
his mother's ancesturs coming from Holland to 
settle in this country, and his father's lineage 
was traceable through a long line of English 
forebears. He is the son of Thomas Green and 
-\nna E. Green; his father for fifty years was a 
merchant in Boston. Samuel B. spent his boy- 
lujod in Chelsea and acquired a good elementary 
training in the local schools, and having linislud 
his preparatory courses determined to continue 
his education in the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College. With the class of 1879 he entered that 
institution, and there received his first training 
in the lines of horticulture and forestry in con- 
nection with which he has since become so well- 
known. Completing his studies he graduated 

.lOlI.N N. (ilMOHR. 

from his college in 1879 and was awarded a de- 
gree of B. S. He worked nine years in horti- 
cultural lines before coming to Minnesota, in 1888, 
where he was appointed professor of Horticulture 
and soon afterwards professor of Horticulture and 
Forestry in the University of Minnesota. Since 
that time he has carried on the work of his de- 
p.irtuunt with characteristic energy and ability 
and beyond his duties as instructor has found 
time for much general work in connection with 
the forestry movements and progress of the 
country, being as well, a frequent contributor to 
the journalistic field. Among his more important 
commissions was an appointment to take the sole 
charge and management of the department de- 
voted to the horticultural and forestry exhibit of 
all the state experiment stations and agricultural 
colleges of the country at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition at St. -Louis in 1904. At that time 
the specimens and exhibits under Professor 
Green's care attracted nnich notice and were 
awarded one grand prize and in addition a gold 
medal. Professor Green has been for many years 
line of the most active supporters of the Min- 
nesota State Horticultural Society. In 1890 he 
was the secretary of that organization and in 
1907 was elected the president. He has been also 
the chief executive officer of the St. Anthony 
Park North Improvement League for many 
years and is the vice-president of the Citizens' 
League of St. Paul, an organization which has 
accomplished much in that city for municipal bet- 
terment and advancement. Professor Green has 
written extensively on forestry and kindred top- 
ics; Amateur Fruit Growing, Vegetable Grow'- 
ing, Forestry in Minnesota, Principles of Ameri- 
can Forestry, Farm Windbreaks and Shelter 
Belts, Outlines of Greenhouse Laboratory Work 
and the various bulletins of the Minnesota Ex- 
periment Station being among the best known 
of the books and sketches of which he is author. 
Professor Green is a member of the Congrega- 
tional Church of St. Anthony Park. In 1887 he 
was married to Miss Alice C. llazelton of VVelles- 
ly. Massachusetts, and lliey have one adopted 

GREEK, Jchii N.. si>ii "f Nallian and Rebecca 
Logan McGrew Greer, was born cm his ^father's 
farm in Scott county, Iowa, April 17. 1859. At 
tin- age of twelve years, by the death of his 
lather, he obliged to take charge of the farm 
—a responsibility uliirli he nirt with eminent 
success, continuing hi> sindie-, m pn iiar.itinn for 
I he liigher edue.-iliMn wlmh was the object of his 
ambition in the cil his district school ex- 
liiriencc. l.alcr. he attended the public schools 
of Davenpi.rt. Iowa, and graduated at the high 
school, valedictorian of his class, after which he 
taught school in Scott county until 1879. when 
he entered Iowa College. He received, when he 
graduated in 1882, the degrees of A. B. and B. S. 
tor extraordinarily good work in his classic and 
scientific course during the three years he was 



at the college. In 1885 he received from the col- 
lege the degree of M. A., and when he entered 
the law office of Cook & Dodge in Davenport, 
he had made a record of devotion to study and 
kindly good fellowship and manly recognition 
of the value of athletics as an offset to close ap- 
plication to study, which students can profitably 
follow elsewhere. After studying law with Cook 
& Dodge for a year, preparing himself for the 
practice of law, he took a position with a tele- 
phone company at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and a 
year later he began the work to which he seems 
to have been instinctively called, that of an in- 
structor and director of students. After serving 
as principal of a public school in Davenport, Pro- 
fessor Greer was called to the North Side High 
School of Minneapolis as principal in 1888, and, 
in 1892, he accepted the corresponding position 
in the Central High School of jMinneapolis, suc- 
ceeding Prof. Crombie, a notably fine educator, 
and soon getting in real sympathy with teachers 
and students and showing his natural adaptation 
to discharge the difficult obligations of the im- 
portant position. If the legal profession lost a 
brilliant advocate when Prof. Greer entered the 
ranks of educators of youth, the educational in- 
terests of the public have certainly been well and 
wholesomely served by such a man as he. Prof. 
Greer was married in 1884 to Sarah Elizabeth 
Russell, daughter of Hon. Edward Russell, of 
Davenport, Iowa. They have three children — 
Edward Russell, Margaret R., and Abby E. 

GULLETTE, Albert Martin, principal of the 
Prescott school, Minneapolis, is a native of In- 
diana, but he is of French Huguenot ancestry. 
The family originally came to this country from 
Germany, where they had fled from persecution 
in France. They settled first in the Shenandoah 
Valley and later in the southeastern part of In- 
diana. Albert's father was a Methodist minister 
— John Columbia Gullette; his mother a de- 
scendant of a prominent English family. The 
first ten years of his life were spent in his native 
town of Brownston, Indiana (where he was born 
on June 2, 1873) amid such surrounding as Ed- 
ward Eggleston has described in his writings, 
and he was of the stock and training which have 
produced a "Hoosier Schoolmaster." His edu- 
cation, however, was obtained in Minnesota. He 
attended the high schools at Moorhead and 
Crookston, the Moorhead state normal school, 
Hamline University, the Northwestern Universi- 
ty, and graduated at the University of Minnesota. 
Since 1889, when he first came to Minneapolis, lie 
has been more or less identified with the life of 
the city. His educational training brought him 
itito contact with specialists in the science of edu- 
cation, and gave him perhaps a broade'r view and 
a better grasp of its problems than could have 
been secured in any other way. In the course of 
his school and college work he acquired business 
experience as for much of the time he made his 


own way, earning his living and paying his own 
college expenses. During this period he was for 
a time a member of the teachers' agency firm of 
E. O. Fisk & Co. Since graduation he has fol- 
lowed his profession and for the past two years 
has been principal of the Prescott school. Mr. 
Gullette is married and has two children. His 
wife was Miss Kate E. McKnight of St. Paul. 
Though not in any sense, a politician, Mr. Gul- 
lette has taken a good citizen's interest in poli- 
tics and has served for two years as a council- 
man in the village of Robbinsdale as well as tak- 
mg part in party caucuses and conventions. He 
was the first president of the Robbinsdale Com- 
mercial Club and a member of the North Side 
Commercial Club of Minneapolis. He belongs 
to the Masonic order. 

HALL, Christopher Webber, son of Lewis 
and Louisa Wilder Hall, was born February 28, 
1845, at Wardsboro, Windham county, Vermont. 
Like a good many other American boys, who are 
born on farms with limited family resources to 
fall back upon, and who have ambitions reaching 
beyond the farm's horizon, yOung Hall absorbed 
all that the district school of his neighborhood 
could bestow upon him and continuing to reach 
further in the region of knowledge in the neigh- 
boring academies at Townsend and Chester, he 
succeeded in matriculating at Middlebury College, 




Vermont, where he graduated in icS/i. His sci- 
entific tendencies had developed so conspicuonsly 
that he won the botanical prize and two Waldo 
scholarship-, and was assigned the scientific ora- 
tion at the commencement and was honored by 
election to memlicrship in the Phi Beta Kappa 
Society. After graduation, Mr. Hall was called to 
the principalship of the Glenn's I'alls (New York) 
.■\cadcmy and, after a year there, he went West 
and became principal of the ^lankato, JNIinnesota, 
high school and, in 1873-75, 'i'l'^d the responsible 
position of superintendent of the Owatonna 
city schools. In 1875 his ardent interest in scien- 
tific studies led him to devote himself more en- 
tirely to them and he went to Leipsic, Germany, 
with his bride, wdio was Miss Ellen Dunnell, 
•daughter of Hon. Mark H. Dunnell of Ovvalonn.i. 
His wife died in a few months, but Mr. Hall 
continued his studies until the close of 1S77, when 
he returned to the United States. His first work 
after returning was the delivery of a course of 
lectures on zoology at Middlebiiry College. Ke- 
ceiving an invitation to become a member of the 
faculty of the University of Minnesota, he ac- 
cepted it and, in the spring of 1S78. he took the 
chair of geology, mineralogy and biology. Reor- 
ganization of the departments on account of the 
great development of the work, promoted him to 
the Deanship of the College of Engineering, 
Metallurgy and the Mechanic Arts in 1892. Dean 

Hsll meantime served as Assistant Geologist on 
the Geological Survey of Minnesota, and as 
Assistant United States Geologist since 1884. He 
served for thirteen years as the valuable secretary 
of the Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences, 
and more recently for several years as its presi- 
dent. For many years he has edited the 
.Vcademy's Bulletins, and in every way has large- 
ly had direction of its work. 

Professor Hall has written much on scientific 
and educational subjects, more than 100 articles 
standing over his name in the scientific literature 
of the country. He has especially distinguished 
himself in his revelations of the geological fea- 
tures of the state. His latest work in this direc- 
tion has been exerted in the preparation of an 
extended work in a series of volumes on the 
geography and geology of Minnesota, the first 
volume of which, The Geography of Minnesota, 
has already appeared and received a most flatter- 
ing reception. Pie has also for several years been 
engaged on the U. S. Geological Survey in the 
])reparation of reports on the underground water 
resources of the state, one of which is now in 
press. He married again in 1883. His wife, who 
was Mrs. Sophia Haight, daughter of Eli Scely. <j1 
Oshkosh, Wisconsin, died in i8gi, leaving an infant 
daughter. The professor is a member of the lead 
ing scientific societies of this country. He is an 
independent republican, and has never sought nnr 
held political office. He is a member of the Con- 
gregational church. 

JONES, Frederick Scheetz, dean of the col- 
lege of engineering of the University of Minne- 
sota, was born at Palmyra, Missouri, April 7, 
1862. His parents were Dr. George C. Jones 
(who served as a surgeon in the Union army) 
and Caroline Ash Scheetz. The family is of 
French descent. Prof. Jones' great grandfather 
coming to America with Lafayette, as his staff 
surgeon. Prof. Jones early boyhood was spent 
in Chicago and Missouri but he prepared for col- 
lege at Shattuck School, Faribault, Minn., and 
graduated from that institution as valedictorian 
of his class. At Yale he took the classical course 
graduating A. B. in 1884 with honors. From 
Yale he came directly to the University of Min- 
nesota with President Northrop and has been m 
the University ever since, except when abroad. 
He held the chair of Physics for twenty years. 
During this long service he has had leave of 
absence which has given him opportunity for 
study at the University of Berlin and for courses 
in electrical engineering at the Royal Polytechnic, 
Berlin and the Swiss Polytechnic, Zurich. In 
1890 he received his A. M. degree at Yale. His 
work at the University of I,Iinnesota has been 
marked with unusual success. As a teacher he 
has been exceptionally efficient and as an organ- 
izer and executive he has displayed much ability. 
The new physical laboratory was built under his 
direction and he was instrumental in securing the 



gift of Northrop Field to the University. He is 
very fond of sports and has been active for 
years in the management of student athletics. 
Dean Jones is a member of the American Physi- 
cal Society, the Society for the Promotion of 
■ Engineering Education, a fellow of the American 
.Association for the Advancement of Science and 
a member of many scientific and literary socie- 
ties. In 1906 he was elected president of the 
University of South Dakota but did not accept 
the position. In 1908 he was elected dean of 
Yale University and will go to that institution 
in 1909. Professor Jones is a member of the 
Episcopal Church. He was married in 1890 to 
Mary Weston Gill of Kirkwood, }iIissouri. They 
have two children — George Gill Jones and Ellen 
Bodley Jones. 

JORDAN, Charles Morison, superintendent of 
the public schools of Minneapolis, was born at 
Bangor, Maine, November 12, 1851. His father. 
Nelson Jordan, was a teacher in Western Maine 
for several years and afterward was a merchant 
at Bangor and was engaged later in farming, 
lumbering and manufacturing in that state until 
1874. He then went to Massachusetts and came 
in 1877 to Minnesota where he operated a large 
farm in the southern part of the state and spent 
his last days in Minneapolis, where he died in 
1895. The family forebears in America came 
from England in 1639 settling on Richmond's Is- 
land, Maine. On the maternal side the ancestors 
were Scottish, the American descent being from 
Wiliam Morison who came from Scotland in 1740. 
settling in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Dr. Jor- 
dan's mother was a sister of Dorilus and H. G. O. 
Morison, early settlers in Minneapolis. Dr. Jor- 
dan received his early educational training in the 
public schools of Maine and prepared for college 
at Westbrook Seminary later entering Tufts Col- 
lege from which he graduated in 1877, valedic- 
torian of his class. Upon graduation he secured 
the principalship of the Bangor high school al 
a competitive examination, and two years late; 
he was made superintendent of the lower grade 
schools of Bangor. In 1883 he resigned his posi- 
tions at Bangor and accepted the principalship 
of the Winthrop school of Minneapolis. The 
same year he started the East high school, cm- 
ducting it in the Winthrop school building. In 
1884, having been transferred to the .•\dam■^ 
school, he initiated the work of the South high 
school, conducting it in the Adams building. 
Dr. Jordan's working capacity was further tested 
by the devolution upon him of the supervision 
of the evening schools of the city. In 1892 he was 
elected to the responsible office of superintendent 
of the public schools of Minneapolis for three 
years and to this position he has since been five 
times reelected for the triennial period. In 1892 Dr. 
Jordan received from Tufts College the Ph. D. 
degree. He is a member of the Zeta Psi college 
fraternity and has received the honor of mem- 

bership in the Phi Beta Kappa. He has been 
president of the National Council of Education 
and president of the National Association of 
Superintendents; is a member of the Sons of the 
Revolution and is a Mason of the Thirty-second 
Degree. He has also been president of the Citi- 
zens Staff of John A. Rawlins Post, G. A. R. 
Dr. Jordan was married on May 7, 1895, to Miss 
Maud Grimshaw, daughter of Robert E. Grim- 
shaw. of Minneapolis. To them two children 
have been born; Helen Dorcas (February 9, iSgCi) 
and Mildred Salome (August 17, 1899). 

LIGGETT, William M., prominently identi- 
fied with the educational affairs of the state, was 
born in Union county, Ohio, in 1846. He at- 
tended the common schools but at the age of 
seventeen enlisted in the 96th Ohio Volunteers 
and served during the remainder of the war. Re- 
turning to Ohio he became connected with the 
Bank of Marysville and was twice elected county 
treasurer of LInion county. He took an active 
part in the National Guard service and was 
colonel of the 14th Ohio National Guard and in 
command of the battalion that cleared the streets 
of Cincinnati during the great riot of 1884, when 
he was severely wounded. In the same year he 
came to Minnesota and in the past twenty-five 
years has given most of his time to the service 
of the state, including eighteen years as regent of 
the state university, twenty years a director of 




the state agricultural society, two terms as chair- 
man of the state railroad commission and eleven 
years as dean of the state agricultural school and 
director of the experiment station. During Dean 
Liggett's incumbency the agricultural department 
of the university developed into the foremost 
work of its kind in this country. Col. Liggett 
was married on July 3, 1876, to Miss ^lathilda 
l\- rirown. They have four children, 

N.VCHTRIEB, Henry Francis, son of Chris- 
tian and I'riedericka Diether Nachtrieb, was born 
near Gallon, Ohio, May II, 1857. His parents 
came from Wurtember.g, Germany, in 1848, sev- 
eral of Christian's brothers having preceded him. 
One of the brothers fought in the war for the 
Union and gave his life for his adopted country. 
Christian engaged in the tanner's business a few 
years and entered the ministry of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church after surviving shipwreck on 
Lake Eric, and, after some years of successful 
work, he engaged in the flour milling business 
in Gallon, Ohio, relinquishing it, after some years 
nf success, on account of a disastrous explosion, 
and returned to the ministry. Coming to Min- 
nesota in 1878 he became a member of the Min- 
nesota Conference and now lives in Minneap- 
olis in honorable retirement. Prof. Nachtrieb's 
mother was the daughter of an honored citizen 
of Heilbron am Neckar, near Heidelberg, Ger- 
many, and has, during her lon.g life as a min- 
ister's wife, shown the most admirable qualities 
which have made her to be loved and honored 
wherever she has lived. Prof. Nachtrieb's boy- 
liood was spent in Gallon and other places in 
Ohio and in Alle.ghcny City and Pittsliurgh. He 
was trained in a private German elementary 
school and in the public schools, conscientious 
in his school work, while passionately fond of 
nature and all outdoor enjoyments and showed 
liimself manly and courageous, withal not being 
free from an element of prankishness, as a little 
offset to his severe Teutonic training. He re- 
ceived the higher education at German Wallace 
College and Baldwin University and took his 
degree of B. S. at the University of ISIinnesota. 
class of 1882; became assistant in the Biological 
Laboratory of John Hopkins University in iSS.v 
84 and Fellnw in 18S4-S5. when hi- was called tn 
llie University of Minnesota .as iiistnictor under 
Professor C. W. Hall, In 1S86 he was made 
l)rofessor of Animal Biolof^y. a new department, 
subsequently having charge nf the zoological 
work of the Geological and Natural History Sur- 
vey of Minnesota, and was appointed curator 
of the zoological museum. Since his connection 
with the university. Prof. Nachtrieb has been 
a strong factor in tlie promotion of the organ- 
ization and work of the institutiim. Me 
prime mover and organizer of the TJeiieral .\luui- 
ni Association of the university, and advisoi- nu 
the organization of various scientific institu 
tions and societies and is a memlier nf the 
American Society of Naturalists; of the Central 

Branch of the American Society of Zoologists; 
of the American Breeders' Association; Ameri- 
can Association of Anatomists; American As- 
sociations of Museums; the Washington Academy 
of Sciences; fellow of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, and a member 
of the Psi Upsilon fraternity and the honor 
societies of Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi, 
Prof. Nachtrieb is president of the General 
Alumni .Association of the state university and 
a member of the St. Anthony Commercial Club. 
He is a member of tlie Hennepin Avenue Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church. He was married June 21. 
1887, to Anna Eisele, of Buffalo, New York. To 
them three children have been born, of whom 
cine survives, a daughter, Margaret. 

OFTEDAL, Sven, president of the board of 
trustees and professor of theology of the Augs- 
burg Seminary in Minneapolis, is a native of Nor- 
way, born at Stavanger, on March 22, 1844. He 
studied at the best schools of the country and re- 
ceived the most complete education which his 
broad-minded Christian parents could procure for 
him. He attended the College at Stavanger, 
where he received his academic training, and 
after this preparatory course entered the Univer- 
sity of Norway at Christiania in 1862. He re- 
mained in that institution a year, taking up philo- 
sophical studies, and passing, at the compleiion 
of his course, what is known as the "examen 
philosophicum." For several years he made a 
special study of langua.ges, ancient and modern, 
both at home and abroad, but suddenly changed 
his plans and began the study of theology. In 
1871 he took and passed his theological examina- 
tions. Professor Oftedal was not in sympathy 
with the organization and practice of the estab- 
lished church of Norway, so did not care to take 
a place ainong its clergy, but when a call came 
to occupy a newly created chair of theology in 
the Augsburg Seminary he realized that it offered 
a splendid field for his endeavors and accepted 
the position. Au.gsburg Seminary had been 
fiainded iit i86g at Marshall, Wisconsin, for the 
tr.iinin.y nf ministers for free Lutheran cliurches, 
.nid ni'i\i(I in 1872 to Minneapolis. Professor 
lliledal canie ti) tliis city in 187,^, and now for 
lliirly-one years has held the position of theologi- 
eal professor at that institution. He was elected 
president nf the board of trustees soon after his 
connection with the scliool began and has been the 
most active ;nid .sincere supporter and promoter 
of the seminary at all times, and by his earnest 
wiirk and straightforward character has gained 
the esteem of his faculty, students and friends. 
For ten years he was a meinbcr of the school 
board of Minneapolis, being for four years its 
president and on account of his active work in 
establishing high schools thnnighouf the city, has 
been called "the father" nf the present high 
school system of Minneapolis, He was also for 
ten years a member of the library board, during 
that time being chairman of the library cominit- 



tee, and the hardest worker for the organization 
and establishment of the system of brancli 

OZIAS, Albert Newton, principal of the West 
high school, was born in Preble comity, Ohio, 
July 2, 1849, the son of George and Elizabeth 
Ozias. His ancestors came from Alsace Loraine 
before the revolution and took part in that 
struggle on the side of the colonists. ]\Ir. Ozias' 
father was a farmer and his boyhood was spent 
'in the f.irni with the usual schooling during 
the winter months. He prepared for the work 
of a teacher at the National Normal School at 
Lebanon, Ohio. Some years later he attended 
the state university of Ohio and received a Bach- 
elor's degree in 1889 and a jNlaster's degree two 
years later. Mr. Ozias began teaching at the 
age of twenty-three when he was appointed prin- 
cipal of the West Des Moines high school. 
.■\fter si.x years of service there he resigned to 
accept the department of science in the Central 
high school of Columbus, Ohio, following the 
ilistingnished teacher of science. Dr. T. C. Men- 
(lenhall. He remained in this position for six- 
teen years. He then resigned and in 1897 ac- 
cepted the principalship of the Racine high 
school and three years later was appointed to 
the South high school of Minneapolis. Mr. 
Ozias remained at the head of the .South Hi.gli 
for nine years and his successful wdik in that 



scliool was recognized in ?vlay, 1908, by his ap- 
pointment to the new West high school, des- 
tined to be one of the largest schools of the 
city. Mr. Ozias is a ineinber of the Commercial 
Club and of the l''ratenial .Mystic Circle in which 
■ irder he lias held for twenty years the office of 
supreme trustee. He is a member of Hennepin 
.\venue ^I. E. Church. In 1S77 Mr. Ozias was 
married to Marie Louise McKenzie and they 
have three dau,ghters — Helen, Alice and Mildred. 

PAINTER, David H., principal of the Adams 
school, is a native of (Jhio. He is of Scotch- 
Irish descent, although the family has lived in 
America for many years and the preceding gen- 
erations came from \'irginia. His father is a 
prominent and successful farmer. He was a 
teacher in his early life and has always been 
active in promoting the educational interests of 
his community. During the Civil War he served 
in the 135th Ohio infantry. Mrs. Painter was a 
teacher, also, in her early life and it is worthy 
of remark that of a family of six boys and four 
girls all were teachers except one dau.ghter. The 
subject of this .sketch was born on a farm near 
Newark, Ohio, November 11, i860. He attended 
country school, village high school, and com- 
pleted his schooling at the Normal University, 
.■\da, Ohio. He taught country schools, and was 
for six years principal of the village high school 
at Martinsburg, Ohio. In 1S95 he came to Min- 


A HALF CENTURY OF MINNEAPOLIS .\i, i'i"i"i'i:i:sio.\. 

neapolis, having been appointed principal of 
Adams school, which position he still holds. Mr. 
Painter's sphere of activity has not been limited 
to pnl)lic school work. In addition to his spe- 
cial work as principal he has had a prominent 
part in organizing and supervising the city vaca- 
tion school for a term of years; and is active in 
several organizations which Iiavc for their object 
the civic betterment of the community. Mr. 
I'ainter was married in llu' early nineties to Miss 
Carrie J. Young of .Mt. Vernon, Ohio, now de- 
ceased. Two children were born to them, Carl 
\V. and M. I.oui'-i-. Ihe latter deceased. He was 
again married in Jinie, igo7, to ]\lrs. Vida Shore 
Smitli of Minneapolis. In political faith he is a 
republican. The family attends the Baptist 

TETTERSh'-N, Willulm .Manril/. >ince lS86 
a professor at .Augsburg Seminary, Minneapolis, 
was born at Mandal. Norway, on Deccndicr i6. 
i860, the son of Thorn Petlersen and .Xthali.i 
I'ettcrscn. .After gr.idii.ilidn fnim the lii.uli 
school the son spent scinu- lime at sea. receiv- 
ing a male's navigation certiliialr .it the age of 
cigliteen. He early developed a fondness for 
books, nature and out door pursuits and while 
a very young man traveled extensively, visiting 
nearly all the ICuropean countries, Africa. South 
America and Mexico before coinin.g to the 

United States in 1882. Mr. Pettersen came to 
Minneapolis in the fall of 1882 and entered Augs- 
burg Seminary, from which he graduated in 1884, 
supplementing this course witli one year of the- 
ology and one year at the University of Alinne- 
sota where he studied philology and international 
law. In 1886 he became a member of the faculty 
at Augsburg and has been successively professor 
of languages, mathematics, history and Nor- 
wegian literature. In connection with his col- 
lege work he has found pleasure in extensive 
reading, study and writing. A special aptitude 
for learning foreign languages was recognized 
in his early youth and this has developed into 
a talent for the study of languages and Profes- 
sor Pettersen is versed in the Germanic and 
Romance languages, and has written much in- 
cluding a volume of poems and a poetic drama 
in Norwegian and from time to time a fugitive 
verse in English. He is recognized as one of the 
foremost Norwegian poets in the United States. 
He is now especially interested in historical 
studies. Professor Pettersen was afliliated with 
the democratic party from 1S86 to 1908, but 
recently frankly stated that his views on the 
larger political questions had so changed that he 
would hereafter be a member of the republican 
party. His attitude toward public affairs is that 
of a citizen rather than a party man 'and in 1905 
he was induced to become alderman from the 
ekventli ward, Minneapolis, on the platform of 
good municipal government, and has given the 
city intelligent and devoted service. Professor 
Pettersen is a member of the Norwegian Luth- 
eran Free Church and has been its vice president 
for two years although not an ordained minister. 
He was one of the founders and for several 
years president of the Scandinavian Y'oung Men's 
Christian Association in South Minneapolis and 
is a strong advocate of temperance. He is a 
member of the Odin Club and other local organ- 
izations. Professor Pettersen was married in 
1885 to Gunda Marie Nygaard and they have had 
six children. Mrs. Pettersen died in 1908. 

R.\N1).\LL, Eugene Wilson, dean of the agri- 
cultural department of the University of Minne- 
sota, born at Winona, Minnesota, January I, 
185Q, the Sun of Albert I'., and Maria (Jayne) 
Randall. He graduated frum the Winona State 
Normal School in 1879 and in the following year 
became principal of the Morris (Minnesota) high 
school, which he organized under the then new 
stale higli school law. After two years he re- 
signed to become publisher and editor of tlie 
Morris Tribune and in 1888 disposed of his paper 
and devoted himself to agricultural and mercan- 
tile interests at Morris, also serving as post 
master from 1891 to 1895. In the latter year he 
was appointed secretary of the Minnesota State 
Agricultural Society and served for twelve years, 
during which the Minnesota State Fair grew from 
an insignificant position to be the first in the 
country. In 1904 Mr. Randall was appointed re- 



gent of the University of Minnesota and served 
on the board until 1907 when he was appointed 
dean of the agricultural department. He has 
throughout his life been deeply interested in 
agriculture and in the development of agricul- 
tural education and has brought to his present 
work a large acquaintance with practical agricul- 
ture as well as an unusual executive ability. Mr. 
Randall is a member of the Minneapolis Com- 
mercial Club, of the Six O'Clock Club, of the 
Masonic fraternity, of the A. O. U. W. and other 
orders. On March 16, 1882, he was married to 
Eudora A. Stone at Morris. They have three 
sons and one daughter. The family attend the 
Methodist church. Mr. Randall is a republican 
in political faith. 

REYNOLDS, Myron Herbert, a k-adiiiK 
.American veterinarian, was born No\eniber 5, 
1865, at Wheaton, Illinois, son of Gardner W. 
Reynolds, a well-known nurseryman and botanist 
originally from New York state, and Mary Hudd, 
of the same state. M. H. Reynolds received his 
early education in Iowa, whither his parents had 
removed, and entered the Iowa State Agricultural 
College at .Ames. He graduated when under 
twenty years and took the B. S. A. degree, sup- 
plementing it by the veterinary course, graduat- 
mg D. V. M. He then took -a medical course at 
the Iowa College of Physicians and Surgeons, 


graduating M. D., and concluded his studies with 
a course of Pharmacy, receiving the degree of 
Ph. G. On the recommendation of the Dean of 
the Veterinary Department of the Iowa State 
College, Dr. Reynolds was oflcred the lecture- 
ship of the Minnesota State Farmers' Institute, 
which position he Idled until 1893, when he was 
elected to the chair of Veterinary Science in the 
University of Minnesota, and was given charge of 
the Veterinary Division of the State Agricultural 
Experiment Station at St. Anthony Park. He 
was appointed a member of the State Board of 
Health in 1897, and was the hrst veterinary sur- 
geon appointed on that board. He was made 
chairman of a committee on infectious diseases 
of animals, and, shortly, was made Director of 
the Veterinary Department of the State Board 
of Health, the veterinary sanitary work of which 
soon became a standard. He took an active part 
in the creation of the present State Live Stock 
Sanitary Board in 1903 and has since retained an 
active relation with this board, which is now 
recognized as one of the two best supported and 
efficient state live stock sanitary organizations 
in America. In 1900 Dr. Reynolds was elected 
to the Deanship of the Division of Veterinary 
Science of the Iowa State College, but declined 
the honor. Dr. Reynolds has written many im- 
portant station bulletins and has made important 
contributions to veterinary literature, as "Hypo- 
dermic Cathartics," "State Control of Hog Chol- 
era," "State Control of Glanders," "Hog Cholera 
and Swine Plague," ".-Vzoturia," "Bovine Tuber- 
culosis," "Haemorrhagic Septicaemia." His text- 
book, "Veterinary Studies," has been adopted by 
many state agricultural colleges. He edited for 
many years the annual reports of the Atnerican 
Veterinarian Association. He is a member of 
The American Veterinary Medical .Association, 
The American JMedical Association, The Ameri- 
can Public Health Association, The Minnesota 
State Veterinary Association, The Minnesota 
State Medical Association, The Ramsey County 
.Medical Association, and other scientific bodies. 
Dr. Reynolds is a member of the republican par- 
ty; a member of the Congregational church; and 
a Mason, including the Shriner's degree. He has 
been twice married; in 1893 to Miss Eva M. 
Kuhn of Iowa, who died within a few months. 
In 1897 he was married to .Miss May I. Shaw, 
(laughter of Professor Thomas Shaw of the Uni- 
\ ersity of Minnesota. To them have been born 
four children. 

.SNA'ni'.R, Harry, iirofe.-isur in the University 
III Minnihota, was born in Cherry Valley, New 
^'"rk, (in January 26, 1867, the son of David W. 
Snyder and Mary Ann (Ilarter) Snyder. His 
father was a man of unusual mechanical skill and 
natural ability and, though a farmer much of his 
life, was in later years a railroad superintendent 
and constructor of bridges and woodwork. On 
both sides of the family the ancestors were Eng- 
lish and early Dutch settlers of the Mohawk 



Valley and participants in French and Indian 
war, the war of the Revolution and the war of 
1812. Professor Snyder received his education 
at the country schools^ the graded school at Her- 
kimer, the Clinton Liberal Institution at Fort 
Plain and at Cornell University which he entered 
in 1885. At Cornell he took the scientific course 
paying particular attention to chemistry and at 
the end of his sophomore year was made assist- 
ant to Dr. Caldwell, the head of the chemistry 
department, a position which had always been 
held by a graduate student. During the next two 
years Professor Snyder became thorougIil3- fa- 
miliar with laboratory methods, particularly 
along the line of agricultural chemistry whicli 
was a subject not then generally taught in Ameri- 
can colleges. When he was graduated in i88g 
he received honors for chemistry and his gradua- 
tion thesis received honorable mention. He was 
at once appointed instructor at Cornell and in 
1890 assistant chemist at the Cornell University 
Experiment Station. His work brought him into 
prominence and during the next year he was 
called to the position of chemist of the Minne- 
sota Experiment Station and in 1892 was also 
appointed professor of agricultural chemistry in 
the University of Minnesota. Professor Snyder's 
work at the Minnesota Station during the past 
sixteen years has been notable. He has issued 
numerous bulletins of a very practical character 
dealing with soils, farm and dairy products and 
human foods. His work in soil analysis has been 
carried farther than in many other experiment 
stations. He has been a frequent contributor 
to technical journals and agricultural papers. 
He has published three text books which have 
passed tlirough several editions — Soils and Ferti- 
lizers, The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Life, 
and Dairy Chemistry — all issued by the press of 
the MacMillan Co. Some of Professor Snyder's 
works have been translated into other languages. 
He has been president of the Association of Of- 
ficial Agricultural Chemists and other scientific 
organizations. He has carried on extensive nu- 
trition investigations with wheat and flour in 
co-operation with the United States Department 
of Agriculture. Professor Snyder was married 
in 1890 to Miss .Xdelaidc Churchill Crai.g, daugh- 
ter of Rev. Dr. .'\ustin Craig, formerly president 
of Antioch College, Ohio. Professor Snyder is a 
member of the Phi Delia Theia Fraternity, I. O. 
O. F., R. A., member of the American Chemical 
Society, Society for the Promotion of .^gricul- 
ture, l''e!lovv of the American .'\ssociation for ihe 
.Advancement of Science, and Sigma Xi. 

\V.\SI1HURN, Frederick Leonard, was born 
at I'rookline, Massacliusells, .\|>ril ij. iHlm. 
son of Neheniiah and .Martha rarnK-Ke 
Washburn. His father was a native of 
Livermore, Maine, and a business man. Mr. 
Washburn's early life was spent in i'rook- 
line and he prepared for college at the 

Ro.xbury Latin School, from which he en- 
tered Harvard University, graduating B. A., 
in 1882, receiving the M. A. degree in 1895 (Thay- 
er Scholarship). He devoted his attention at 
Harvard to the important studies, biology and 
entomology, and further pursued his studies at 
Johns Hopkins L'niversity, Baltimore, as a gradu- 
ate student. In 1887-88 he was appointed in- 
structor in Zoology at the University of Michi- 
gan; was Entomologist at the Oregon Experi- 
ment Station 1889-95, ^"d was Professor of Bi- 
ology in the University of Oregon 1895-1902. He 
was appointed State Biologist of Oregon in 1890. 
In 1885 and 1886, under the direction of the State 
Geological and Natural History Survey, he made 
a collection, with data, of Minnesota birds. The 
results of this work appear in the Report of Dr. 
Hatch, published in 1S82. In 1902, he was ap- 
pointed Professor of Entomology in the Uni- 
versity of IMinnesota; Entomologist of the Min- 
nesota E.xpcriment Station and State Entomolo- 
gist of Minnesota. Mr. Washburn is a member 
of the American Society of Naturalists, Fellow 
of the American .A.ssociation for the Advance- 
ment of Science, and other scientific bodies. He 
was married on December 27, 1887, to Frances L. 
Wilcox of Minneapolis, and two daughters, Mar- 
tha and Alice, have been born to them. 

WEBSTER, William Franklin, son of William 
Wallace and Malvina Woodworth Webster, was 
born May 23, 1862, at Clearwater, Minnesota. His 
father was a merchant of that town, and the 
boy attended the village schools until the age of 
fourteen, when he became a clerk in the store. 
In 1880-81 he attended the Minneapolis Academy; 
and the next year he entered the University of 
-Minnesota, from which he was graduated in 
1886, with membership in Phi Beta Kappa. After 
.graduatin.g, Mr. Webster taught school at Buffalo, 
Minnesota, for a year, in 1887-8 he taught in the 
.Minneapolis night schools, at the same time at- 
tending the Minneapolis Medical College. He 
was superintendent of public schools for twu 
years at Rushford, Minnesota, and in 1890-93 held 
a similar position at Moorhead, Minnesota. In 
i8(>3 he became of the East high school 
of Minneapolis where he still remains. He is 
the .author of several works on the English lan- 
;4ua.L'e .and allied topics. Mr. Webster is a niem- 
lier ■■! the Congregational ihurcli. On .\u,gust 
7, i8yo, he was married to .Mary .\lden Powell. 
They h.ive three children. Ruth. Juliet and 

WESBROOK, Frank Fairchild. pathologist 
and bacteriologist; born in Brandt county, On- 
tario, July 12, 1868. Oldest son of H. S. Wes- 
brook, formerly mayor of Winnipeg, and Helen 
Marr (Fairchild) Wesbrook, both of United Em- 
pire loyalist lineage. Educated public schools of 
London, Ontario and Winnipeg, Manitoba; de- 
gree B. A., medallist University of Manitoba, 
1887,, M. A.. M. D.. C. J\l. 1900; studied at Me- 



Gill University, 1889; interne, Winnipeg General 
Hospital, 1890, and railway surgeon, C. P. Ry, 
Banff, Alberta; worked in pathology and bacteri- 
ology King's College, London; Rotunda Hospital, 
Dublin, 1891, and University of Cambridge, Eng- 
land, 1892 to 189s, where he held the appointment 
of John Lucas Walker, student in Pathology; 
worked in Hygienisches and Pathologisches In- 
stitutes University of Marburg, Germany, 1894; 
held the chair of Pathology, University of Mani- 
toba, 1892-1894, returning from Europe to give 
short courses; worked in Pathological Labora- 
tory, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, Eng- 
land, 1895. October, 1895, called to University of 
Minnesota as Professor of Bacteriology; 1896, 
was made Professor of Pathology and Bac- 
teriology, University of Minnesota, which posi- 
tion he still holds and was appointed Dean of 
the College of Medicine and Surgery of the Uni- 
versity in 1906. He was appointed a member of 
the Minnesota State Board of Health in 1896, 
and served until 1900, and has been direc- 
tor of the Laboratories of that Board since 
1896. He is also a member of the ad- 
visory board of the Hygienic Laboratory of 
the U. S. Public Health and Marine Hospital 
Service; an honorary member of the Massachu- 
setts Association of Boards of Health and be- 
longs to the following associations and societies: 
Association of American Physicians; Association 
of American Pathologists and Bacteriologists; 
London Pathological Society; Pathological So- 
ciety of Great Britain and Ireland; American 
Medical Association; Society of American 
Bacteriologists; American Public Health Associa 

WILLIA:\IS, Henry Lane, son of Job and 
Kate Stone Williams, was born at Hartford, Con- 
necticut, July 26, 1869. His father is principal 
of the School for the Deaf at Hartford. His 
direct ancestors came to New England from Eng- 
land and one of them, Richard Williams, founded 
the town of Taunton in Massachusetts in 1642. 
The descendants of this branch took part in the 
Colonial wars and in the War of the Revolution 
and in the War of 1812. Henry L. is the first 
member of the direct descendants to locate per- 
manently out of New England. He attended the 
Hartford grade schools and prepared for college 
in the Hartford high school where he received 
the prize for his graduating oration on the theme 
"The Prospects of China." He was fond of all 
outdoor exercise and was instinctively athletic in 
his tendencies and had a passion for canoeing, 
a favorite trip with his sailing canoe being down 
the Connecticut River to Long Island Sound and 
along the Sound from New Haven to Watch Hill. 
He graduated from Yale in 1891. During his 
career at the university, while distinguishing him- 
self as an all-around athlete and a record-breaker 
in various specialties, he tnaintained an excellent 
rank in scholarship and at graduation received a 
place on the appointment list. He was one of 

HE.VRY r,. W1I,LI.\MS. M. D. 

the editors of the Yale Daily News during his 
last two years. He taught school after leaving 
college for a year at the Siglars Preparatory 
School at Nevvburgh on the Hudson and, while 
there athletically diverted himself by coaching the 
first West Point football team that' beat An- 
napolis. Later, when studying medicine at the 
University of Pennsylvania, he had charge of 
the athletic sports at the William Pcnn Charter 
School, the largest private day school in Phila- 
delphia. In 1893 he wrote a book jointly with 
the Medical School he was a member of the 
A. A. Stagg, now of Chicago, entitled ''Treatise 
on the American Game of Football." While in 
Alpha Mu Pi Omega medical fratcrnitj' and of 
the D. Hays Agnew Surgical Society, and, on 
graduation, received the prize for dissection. He 
entered the Howard Hospital of Philadelphia in 
1895 and served as resident physician there for 
one year. The next year he began the practice of 
medicine in Philadelphia and for the next four 
years was quiz master in the Medical Institute 
at the University of Pennsylvania on physical 
diagnosis and pathology, and on gynaecology and 
obstetrics. He was also an instjuctor in gynae- 
cology at the University and a member of the 
staff of the Philadelphia Afaternity Hospital, 
pathologist to the Howard Hospital and patholo- 
gist to the Gynaecological Department of the 
Philadelphia Polyclinical Hospital. Since Dr. 



Williams came to Minneapolis, in 190a, he has 
been Director of Athletics at the state university 
liulding one of the foremost positions as coach in 
Western football; and is an instructor in the 
Medical School, and actively engaged in the prac- 
tice of medicine. Dr. Williams was appointed in 
1907 to a position on the staff of the City Hos- 
pital, taking charge of the gynaecological depart- 
ment. He is now clinical instructor in gynae- 
cology at the University medical school. He ha?i, 
since he graduated in medicine, made fouf trips 
to Europe for post graduate study and investi- 
gation, spending considerable time at Berlin and 
Vienna in the specialties of gynaecology and sur- 
gery. He is a member of the Pennsylvania So- 
ciety of the Order of the Founders and Patriots 
of America. He is a member of the Commercial 
Club, of the St. Anthony Commercial Club, of 
the Roosevelt Club, of the Hennepin County 
Medical Society and of the American Medical As- 
sociation. Dr. Williams is a republican in poli- 
tics. He was married on November 24, 1897, to 
Miss Nina Meadows Boyd, of Maryland, and they 
liave one son, Henry L. Williams, Jr., born Au- 
gust 31, 1898. 

WULLING, Frederick John, dean of the Col- 
lege of Pharmacy of the University of Minnesota, 
was born on December 24, 1866, at Brooklyn, 
New York. In 1870 his father's familj- moved per- 
manently to their summer home at Carlstadt, 
New Jersey, a suburb of New York City. Here' 
Frederick graduated from grammar and high' 
school and business college. In 1884 Frederick 
took a position with college privileges with Dr. 
C. W. Braeutigam, of Brooklyn, devoting part of 
his time to work in Columbia University and to 
technical translations from French, German, 
Spanish and Italian Journals. He duly passed the 
senior examinations in pharmacy and allied 
branches before the boards of New York and 
Brooklyn, and of New Jersey, before he gradu- 
ated from New York College of Pharmacy in 
1887 at tlie head of his class, taking the gold 
medal and a hundred dollars in gold. During 
these years he also attended lectures at tlie Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia. 

In 1886 he was appointed lecture assistant to 
Professor Bedford, the foremost pharmacist of 
the profession, a year later to an instructorship. 
ind in 1890 he was made assistant professor ot 
pharmacy in the New York College of Pharmacy. 
In 1887 he made a European tour, visiting the 
principal universities of the continent and taking 
up post-graduate work in Munich, Berlin, Goet- 
tingen and Paris and after his return, in the 
Hoagland Laboratory of Bacteriology. In 1889 
he made another trip to Europe, taking advanced 
work in chemistry at Munich. In 1891 he was 
called til tile chair of Inorganic Pharmaco-Diag- 
nosis at the Brooklyn College of Pharmacy, 
which lie held until he was called to the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota in 1892, to organize a de- 
partment of pharmacy. Professor Wulling was 
made the dean of the pharmacy faculty and an 
executive olTicer of the university and has given 
his whole time to the work. In 1894 he made a 
tour of Scotland, England, France and Belgium, 
coming in touch with the prominent scientists 
and educators of those countries. Between 1893 
and 1898 he continued his studies at the state uni- 
versity and received the degrees Ph. D., LL. B. 
and LL. AI. In addition he has taken during his 
extensive college work the degrees of Ph. G., 
Ph. C, and F. S. Sc, and has done considerable 
original research wnrk. Dr. Wulling is a fre- 
quent contributor to scientific journals and has 
published several larger works — in 1891, the Evo- 
lution of Botany; in 1892, Medical and Pharma- 
ceutical Chemistry; Chemistry of the Carbon 
Compounds, published in Merck's Report from 
1899-1900; a Course in Law for Pharmacists; and 
upwards of four hundred papers and essays on 
kindred subjects. He is a member of numerous 
professional societies; president of the North- 
western Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
.'\ssociation'; chairman of the Scientific Section, 
Minnesota State Pharmaceutical Association; ex- 
ecutive officer of the American Conference of 
Pharmaceutical Faculties, and numerous other 
organizations. Dr. Wulling was married on Sep- 
tember 15, 1897, to Miss Lucile Truth Gissel of 
Pjrooklyn, New York. 



A DECIDED musical taste devel- 
oped itself in the villages at the Falls 
- of St. Anthony within a few years 
of their settlement. As early as 1852 there 
were three singing schools in St. Anthony 
and in 1853 '^'i'^ fi''st singing school in Hen- 
nepin county was organized at Minneapolis 
under the direction of B. E. Messer and was 
supported by a public subscription headed 
by Colonel Stevens. It is not to be sup- 
posed that the work of this pioneer singing 
society was of an advanced class but the 
movement showed the desire for music and 
a willingness to support musical endeavors 
As the years passed many cultivated people 
from eastern cities were added to the popu- 
lation at the Falls and music became a 
prominent part of the social and religious 
life of the young settlement. There was 
always a glee club, singing school, or choral 
society in which the young people gathered 
and music was made an effective part of the 
church services. One of the oldest and best 
remembered groups was the old Plymouth 
church choir which was composed of Sam- 
uel C. Gale, Harlow A. Gale, Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles M. Cushman and Joseph H. Clark, 
and which not only made the musical part 
of the church service notable, Init took the 
lead in the concerts and musical occasions 
in the young city. The gentlemen of the 
choir formed a male quartet which was in- 
vited to many political meetings and was 
particularly prominent in the life of the 
state during war times. 

E. M. Bowman, later to become a mu- 
sician of national reputation, lived in Min- 
neapolis for a few years as boy and young 
man and an old handbill announces a grand 
concert, given as a "complimentary benefit" 
to E. M. Bowman in 1866. On this occa- 
sion Mr. Bowman was "assisted by the Min- 

neapolis Cornet Band and Orchestra and 
the following ladies and gentlemen: Mrs. 
Whitney, Mrs. Cushman, Dr. J. A. Bowman, 
Mr. Cushman, Mr. R. P. Olmstead, Mr. S. 
V. Morris, Miss Barton, Miss Varney, Mr. 
Barton, Mr. J. H. Clark, Mr. H. A. Gale, 
Mr. A. M. Benham, the whole under the 
direction of A. M. Benham." 

For a long period few musical organiza- 
tions were established which proved to have 
any permanence. An exception was the 
Harmonia Society formed by the Germans 
of the city in the early seventies and still an 
active choral society. Peter Rauen was a 
prominent president in the early }-ears and 
Ludwig Harmsen, Richard Stempf and 
other well known musicians were among the 
leaders. One of the most important of the 
societies of the many which have passed 
out of existence was the Minneapolis Choral 
.Society which was organized in 1876 and 
for five or six years did very creditable work. 
It drew into its membership manv of the 
singers of the Harmonia society. George 
R. Lyman was president and Mr. Harmsen 
the first director and such well known 
musical people as Henry Chase, Charles B. 
and George B. Eustis, A. A. Guivvits, Henry 
Elliott, George Harrison, Joseph H. Clark, 
Dr. Bowman, Col. Charles \V. Johnson, 
Mrs. F. A. Chamberlain, Gen. C. McC. 
Reeve and others were prominent in its 
ranks. This society was the first to give in 
Minneapolis such music as the Seasons, the 
Creation and works of a similar character 
in a thoroughly artistic manner. Its mem- 
bership ranged from fifty to one hundred. 
']"he Choral Society and other organizations 
kept the taste for chorus music alive and 
occasionally something in the way of a 
musical festival was attempted, with aug- 
mented chorus and orchestra and soloists 



of reputation as special attractions. A not- 
able occasion of this kind was that of 1884 
when, upon the cnmpletiun of the first drill 
hall and auditorium at the university, Chris- 
tine Nilsson was the star at a festival which 
was very creditable to the city. During the 
eighties David Blakely promoted various 
musical undertakings ; Danz' Orchestra was 
organized by Frank Danz, Jr., and for years 
gave weekly concerts at the old Harmonia 
Hall, and the original Apollo Club was 
formed. In this decade many of the prom- 
inent musicians (jf the city came here — 
Willard T^atten. H. S. Woodruff, Herman 
Zoch, Heinrich Hocvel, Gustavus Johnson, 
the Lachmunds, I-'raulein Schoen-Rene, 
Clarance A. Marshall and others. 

With the early nineties more permanent 
organization and better results crowned the 
labors of the musical people. The Minne- 
apolis Philharmonic Club was organized out 
of the remnants of older singing societies 
and began its development into the present 
excellent choral club — pronounced by the 
best authorities to be the equal of any in 
.\merica. Emil Obcrhoffer became its con- 
ductor in 1901 and has brought the organ- 
ization to a high degree of perfection. 
Through the coming of Mr. Oberhofifer Min- 
neapolis also obtained an orchestra of the 
highest merit. The Mitmeapolis Symphony 
Orchestra was organized in 1903 and under 
Mr. Oberhoffer's Icadershij) has obtained 
first rank not only in this country but among 
the orchestras of the world. i'.oth these or- 

I'K.NT'i: ori;u.\ norsE. 

First .Miiincji[Hilis tlieatfr; erected In ISO" 

ganizations are supported by heart)' public 
commendation and liberal subscription. 
The Apollo Club, organized in the eighties 
and reorganized in 1895. is a male chorus, 
under the leadership of H. S. Woodruff and 
takes a prominent place in the musical life 
of the city. The Ladies' Thursday Mus- 
icale, another organization of the nineties, 
has done as much as any to promote music- 
al culture. .\ recent organization, the Uni- 
versity Musical b'ederation, seeks to pro- 
mote the cause of music in the state 
university, with the ]>urpLise of secur- 
ing the establishment of a musical de- 
partment : for, notwithstanding the rapid 
growth of musical interest in the last two 
decades there has not been as much atten- 
tion to musical education in the public in- 
stitutions as would be desirable. The sub- 
ject has been almost ignored in the univer- 
sity and although music has been taught for 
years in the public schools it has not been 
given the recognition which the importance 
of the subject demands. 


( )ne of the earliest teachers of music in 
the schools was Charles Marsh, a prominent 
musician of the city during the seventies. 
He was organist at the Church of the Re- 
deemer and pianist for a time for the Min- 
neapolis Choral Society. After Mr. Marsh 
came D. and j. W. Shryock of a family 
wliicii contribuU'd much to the musical life 
of the city. Next came O. E. McFadon who 
was supervisor of music for thirteen years, 
a^^i^led for a |)arl ol the time by Stiles 
l\a\niond. .Mr. McFadon brought a prac- 
tical kno\vK-d,L;e of .school conditions to the 
\\(irk, and did much towards putting the 
nuisic in the schools on a par with other 
subjects, huring his regime the pupils of 
tlu- schools wert' heard in in.iny public con- 
.■cris. In iSi)X Ml'. .Mcl'adon retired to 
niter anotlirr luiifession and was succeeded 
li\ .Miss Helen M. Trask, who now holds 
tlu- i)osition. Miss Trask prei)ared for this 
special line of work by years of music study 
in the east and look a special preparatory 
course at Lexington Institute under Henry 
Holt and Alfred Hallam. She came to the 
work here at a time when public school 



music was just beginning to be taught 
along more pedagogical lines than the ab- 
stract and technical methods of the past per- 
mitted : and she was not slow to adapt the 
more advanced methods to Alinneapolis 
schools. Consequently greater interest has 
been aroused among the children, and an 
improved standard of teaching gained 
among the teaching corps. 

Another impulse toward iniprovenicnl 
has come thri)ugh the establishment of a 
training class for prospective supervisors or 
special teachers of music, which has been 
conducted each summer at the university 
by Miss Trask. This course was organized 
three years ago and is already one of the 
most potent agencies at work in the state 
for the uplifting of the standards of music 
teaching. During the past nine or ten year-- 
the school children have taken part in many 
public entertainments. Imt in none with 
greater success than in the final concert at 
the time of the opening of the Auditorium, 
when a thousand children from all [)arts of 
the city and from all grades above the third 
took part under the leadership of Miss 


The Northwestern Conservatory of IMusic 
was organized in 1885 and in i8gi it was 
purchased by Clarence A. Marshall who 
was its director until igo6 when he disposed 
of his interests and the school under the 
same name became the musical department 
of Stanley Hall though maintaining a separ- 
ate organization. The Minneapolis School 
of Music, Oratory and Dramatic x^rt was 
established in 1898 by Gustavus Johnson 
who conducted it until 11JO7 when it passed 
into other management. In 1908 Mr. John- 
son established the Johnson School of 
Music, Oratory and Dramatic Art. These 
institutions have given ^Minneapolis addi- 
tional reputation as the musical center of 
the Northwest. The numl)er of musical 
students in the city is now very large. 


In the days when the singing school was 
the highest musical development of the city 
and the only theatrical companies visiting 

M -ill rl^ 

THE .\^AIlr:M^■ ni' \i 1 >ii 

SiTC.llil tllC'illlT ill Jlilllli'illiiilis. II SliunI .•It WiisliiiiKloii mill 
ll.-lllir - 

Minneapolis were such as might be expect- 
ed to penetrate into a wilderness three hun- 
dred miles beyond the railroad, Woodman's 
Hall, at the corner of Second avenue south 
and Washington avenue, was the only 
place of public amusement. After a time 
the first of the halls styled Harmonia Hall, 
was constructed at Second avenue north 
and Second street, and this in turn was 
followed by another Harmonia Hall at 
Washington and Nicollet. When, in 1867, 
the Pence Opera House was erected at the 
corner of Hennepin avenue and Second 
street, Minneapolis felt that she was reach- 
ing metropolitan conditions. 

The Academy of Music, built in 1871 at 
the corner of Washington and Hennepin 
where Temple Court now stands, was the 
principal theater and concert hall until 1883 
wdien it was remodelled into an office build- 
ing. Its passing was on the occasion of the 
opening of the Grand Opera House, built 
as a part of the Syndicate Block, on the 
Si.xth street front and opened on April 2, 
18S3. This was a handsome theater and for 
years presented attractions which many 
Minneapolis people recall with great pleas- 
ure. Two theaters were built in 1887 — the 
Lyceum, opened in September with a not- 



THE (iRAXn (>I'I:K.\ IKirSE. 

able engagement of Boolh and ISarrett. and 
tlie liijou Opera House, opened on (October 
;!,i, as a ]:)0])nlar priced theater. It was 
built by Lambert Hax's of Minneapolis and 
has always been under the management of 
Theodore Hays. The Metropolitan (Jpera 
House was opened in 1894 as the Peoples 
Theater. For a year it was a stock corn- 
pans' Imuse. and then became the Metro- 
politan ( )i)era House, succeeding to the 
theatrical fortunes of the (jrand, which went 
out of business and was soon dismantled. 
Vaudeville had never been tried in ^linne- 
apolis as a regular seascms attraction until 
tlie building <if the ( )rpheuni theater in 11)04. 

■J1II-: AriiiioKiLiM. 

Until 1905 Minneapolis had no place suit- 
able for concerts where a large audience 
was to be ex])ected. This want was su])- 
j)lied by the erection of the Minneai)(.)lis 
Auditorium by the Northwestern National 
Life insurance Company of ^ilinneajjolis. 
after jilans by Bertrand & thamberlin. and 
at a cost (including the site and the adjoin- 
ing (jffice building) of about $400,000. It i^ 
a beautiful building with a frontage of no 
feet and a depth of 220 feet, a seating capac- 
ity of 2,500 with room for a chorus of 400 

upon the immense stage. The auditorium 
is of strictly fire-proof construction through- 
out. It is equipped with a four-manual pipe 
organ, the fourth in size in the country. 
Since its completion this building has been 
used for the concerts of the riiilharmonic 
club, the Minneapolis Symphony orchestra, 
the .\pollo club, for grand opera and many 
theatrical and musical engagements of all 
kinds. The auditorium serves to emphasize 
the liigh estimation in which things musical 
are held by the people of Minneapolis. 

BERGQUIST, John Victor, (J. Victor Berg- 
(juist) musician, was born at St. Peter, Minnesota, 
May 18, 1877. His father, C. F. Berg(iuist, came 
from Sweden, in the early seventies, and built up 
by his industry, a good business in hardware and 
kimber. As a boy, his son, Victor, after some 
years in the Minneapolis public schools, started 
out on a business life in the emploj', first, of the 
Glass Block, and later, of the Minneapolis Gas 
Co. Ilis bent toward music was so marked, how- 
ever, that he soon found the way to gratify it by 
a course in the musical department at Gustavus 
.\dolphus College of St. Peter, Minn. From this 
he graduated with honors at the age of eighteen, 
liaving won the gold medal in an organ contest at 

.1. VlCTcilt lilOltCQUI.ST. 



the college. Four years of study with the lead- 
ing teachers of music in Minneapolis were fol- 
lowed by about three years of foreign study at 
Berlin and Paris in the studios of such instruc- 
tors as Grunicke, Scharwenka, Berger and Guil- 
niant. It was during this European stay, while 
witnessing the Passion Play, that Mr. Bergquist 
was first inspired by the idea of his oratorio "Gol- 
gotha." He was not able to find time to develop 
this until the fall of 1904 when he began the vocal 
score. The work went on at intervals during the 
next tweh'e months and was not completed until 
November of 1905, nor presented until .April 6, 
1906. During this year and a half of more or 
less absorption in his project, Mr. Bergquist was 
acting as organist of Augustana Lutheran Church, 
principal of the piano department of Gustavus 
.-\dolphus College of St. Peter, director of the 
male chorus of the United Church seminary, and 
organist to the .\poilo Club besides maintaining 
his position as director of the Cecilian Studios 
-A great worker and full of musicianly enthusiasm, 
Mr. Bergquist has written several other composi- 
tions for organ, piano and voice, but "Golgotha" 
is his last and most iinportant work; and one 
which has excited much local interest as a work 
of power and promise. Mr. Bergquist belongs tn 
the Odin Club. He was married to Emilia Elvira 
Johnson. June 7, 1905. 



liOEVEL, Heinrich. Jr., musician, is of Ger- 
man parentage and nationality, born near Bonn, 
on the Rhine, June 22, 1864. His father, Hein- 
rich Hoevel, indulged the evident talent of his 
son for music, and gave him the opportunity of 
cultivating it by instruction in the best studios 
of his native place. Bonn, as the birthplace of 
Beethoven, is full of musical traditions, and com- 
petent teachers abound. When Heinrich, Jr., was 
seven years old, he received his first violin as a 
Christmas present, and taught himself to play 
upon it familiar airs, but it was not until he was 
sixteen that his father began to colisider his son's 
musical abilities anything but an accomplishment 
iir needing more skillful training. Finding that 
the bent for the musician's life was a permanent 
tendencjs he then sent his son to Cologne Con- 
servatory. The iirst professional engagement of 
the iTiusician after graduation was as first violin 
in the .-Mhambra orchestra in London in the fall 
of 1883. The Alhambra (now a music hall) was 
then opened for English opera and the first opera 
played was Geo. Frederic Clay's "The Golden 
Ring." During the same period he also plaj'ed 
as first violin at the Crystal Palace under the 
leadership of Manns. The necessity of military 
service called him back to Germany after a year 
in England. He served out his army term and 
then spent several years on the Continent as a 
member of various orchestras and as conductor 



of musical organizations. In the former work, 
he played under such orchestral leaders as Anton 
Seidl and Ferdinand von Hiller— the latter a man 
who had the reputation of being the best edu- 
cated musician of his time. Mr. Hoevel came to 
Minneapolis in 1889, and made his first public 
appearance at Dyer's Music Hall, January 6, 1890, 
with the Lachnumd String Quartette of which he 
was solo vinlinist. Mr. Hoevel has been a favor- 
ite with biith his audiences and his associates in 
musical work, and has had eighteen successful 
years in Minneapolis. He has been identified 
with chamber music to a great extent and iiar- 
ticularly with string quartette work. 

HUNT. H.imlin Harry, the son of T. J. Hunt 
of Ellingt<ai, Minnesota, was born in that town 
on June 5, 1866. He is descended from old New- 
England families that originally had their homes 
in Vermont. ' He spent his early I'fe in Dodge 
Center, Minnesota, and there received his school 
education. He then entered Carleton College, 
Northfield, Minnesota, and began a literary and 
musical education. He graduated from the 
School of .Music at Carleton in the year 1884. 
and immediately entered upon his musical career. 
He went to Winona and for three years taught 
music, at the same time holding the position of 
organist at the First Congregational Church. He 
then went to Berlin for two seasons, where he 
further pursued his musical studies. Upon re- 
turning to this country he located in Quincy. 
Illinois, and for six years was organist of the 
Congregational church and director of the Quin- 
cy Conservatory of l\Iusic. He again went to 
Berlin for a year and afterwards studied tlie 
organ under Guilmant in Paris. He finally com- 
pleted his studies and returned to this country, 
coming to Minneapolis in September, 1898, where 
he became the organist at St. Mark's Episcopal 
Church and later at the Plymouth Congregational 
Church, where he has now been for eight years. 
Each year Mr. Hunt has made a practice of giv- 
ing a series of free organ recitals and as director 
has produced in the church services many 
works of fine character that have contributr.l 
much to the cause of good nnisic and have won 
for him the appreciation of the music lovers of 
the city. He was also selected to give three or- 
gan recitals at the Pan American Exposition ni 
Buffalo and two on the large organ at the St. 
Louis Exposition. He was appointed in igod 
organist of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra. 
Mr. Hunt believes in the teachings of the Con- 
gregational church. He "a> married on April 
16, l8gs, to Miss Lanrina J. White in Quincy, 
Illinois. They have no children. 

JOHNSON, Gustavus, was born in T-Tull, Eng- 
land, on November 2, 1856. He is the son of 
Peter Johanson, a native of Sweden, and Henri 
etta Hole, daughter of Admiral Hole, who fir>t 
distinguished himself in the English navy as a 
lieutenant under Lord Nelson. Admiral Hole 

came of an old English family and entered the 

navy about 1795, served through several notable 
battles among which was the battle of Trafalgar, 
was promoted to the rank of admiral, and at the 
time of his death in 1870 was the oldest officer 
in the navy. When Mr. Johnson was three years 
old his family moved to Stockholm. Sweden, and 
there he spent his early life, began his education 
and graduated from the Stockholm high school. 
His musical talent marked out a career for him 
and he studied the piano and theory of music 
under the leading masters of the art. He entered 
the Schartau bu.siness college of Stockholm and 
graduated in 1874. A year later he emigrated to 
.America and after staying for a short time in the 
East, came to Minneapolis, where with the excep- 
tion of three years spent in Wisconisn he has 
since lived. He began his musical work as an 
instructor and concert pianist, and for a quarter 
of a century has been known as one of the fore- 
most musicians of the Northwest, and has been 
the instructor of a number of pianists who rank 
high in their art. In 1898 he established the 
Johnson School of .Music, Oratory and Dramatic 
.Art, which became the largest institution of its 
kind in the city, with an average enrollment of 
nearly five hundred pupils. Mr. Johnson is also 
w-ell known as a composer, mostly of piano selec- 
tions but he has also written much for other in- 
struments as well as for the voice. His greatest 
works are a trio for the piano, violin and cello 
and a concerto for the piano and orchestra. Mr. 
Johnson is a member of -the Minnesota State 
Music Teachers' .Association and in 1906 was 
proideiit of that organization. He was married 
in iSSj to Miss Caroline FrauCLs Winslow, a di- 
rect ile-cendant of Governor F.dward Winshjw 
who iilayed so important a part in Colonial 
events. They have one child, a dau.ghter, l.aura 
Louise, born in iSgo. 

M.\KSH.\LI^, Claraiicc .Mden, for many years 
director of the Northwestern Conservatory of 
Music in this city and one of the well known 
musicians of the Northwest, was born on May 
IS, i,S5(). at Marlboro, Massachusetts. He is the 
son ui .Mden H, Marshall, a contractor and 
builder, who served during the Civil War and 
later located at Newton. Massachusetts, where 
ht; was well known, and highly respected by his 
fellow- townsmen. Clarissa Hemcnway, mother 
-jf Clarance A., was the daughter of a prominent 
family of Framingham. .Massachusets, and was, 
as well as Mr. Marshall, Sr., of old Colonial par- 
entage, the ancestors of both f;imilies having 
settled' in New England with the Puritans. Clar- 
ance Alden passed the early years of his life in 
Marlboro, but when he was nine years of age 
the family moved to Newton, Massachusetts, 
where a splendid school system offered excellent 
chances for an education. Mr. Marshall there 
attended the public schools, and graduated from 
the high sch...ol in 1877. and the following year 



entered Harvard College as a special student of 
music and art. After a six years course there 
during which he was under the instruction of 
John Knovvles Paine and others, he continued 
his studies in Boston under famous instrumental 
and vocal artists, and finally became associate 
conductor with Carl Zerrahn, of the Handel and 
Haydn Oratorio Society. For some time he 
engaged in Watertown, Roxbury, Boston, Dnr- 
chester, Bangor, Waterville, Augusta and other 
New England towns, as choir director and or- 
ganist and the director of choral societies. In 
1887, he came west to Saginaw, Michigan, to take 
charge of a choir and three choral organizations, 
but the climate affected his health, so the fol- 
lowing winter was spent in Nashville, Tennessee, 
where he was choir leader and vocal instructor 
in a large young ladies' seminary. He was the 
organizer and promoter of the most successful 
musical festival ever held in Nashville, in the 
year 1889. In the fall of that year he took charge 
of the chorus and orchestra of the Mozart Society 
of Richmond. Virginia, and during the two years 
he remained there, was prominent and active in 
the musical progress of the city, arranging semi- 
monthly concerts and managing two large and 
successful musical festivals. In 1891 he came 
to this city and purchased the Northwestern Con- 
servatory of Music and assumed its direction. 
For fifteen years he successfully managed the 
school, the annual attendance having increased 
from one hundred and thirty in 1891, to more 
than five hundred pupils. In the summer of 1906 
he disposed of his interests in the conservatory. 
While in Minneapolis he has also held positions 
as organist and choir master of Westminister 
Presbyterian, Gethsemane Episcopal and the 
First Congregational churches, and in other ways 
has been active and influential in the promotion 
of music in the Northwest. Mr. Marshall be- 
came a member of the Immanuel Baptist Church 
of Newton, Massachusetts, when a boy, and still 
retains the membership. He was married in 1891 
to Miss Marion Howard of Waterville, Maine, 
and they have one daughter. 

OBERHOFFER, Emil Johann, a leading mu 
sician of the northwest, was born near Munich. 
Bavaria, in 1867. His father was a successful or- 
ganist, composer and conductor in the Bavarian 
provinces. His mother also came of a musical 
family and a brother as well as two sisters were 
musicians. Emil very early showed musical tal- 
ent and when a child of ten years could play the 
organ and violin with wonderful ability and taste. 
He had at this time, beside the strict surveillance 
of his father, the' most helpful instruction of 
Cyril Kistler, since renowned as the composer of 
a number of operas. During a six years' course 
at a literary college following, Mr. Oberhoffer 
continued his musical studies under the best pri- 
vate teachers obtainable, in pianoforte, organ, 
violin, voice, and in an excellent school and 


church orchestra not only became acquainted 
with all orchestral instruments, but had ample 
opportunity to try out his talent as conductor, 
which was thus early recognized. About this 
time he also took a thorough course of theoret- 
ical studies under the Rheinberger regime. Spe- 
cializing as a pianist he later spent some time in 
Paris with the famous technique expert Isadore 
Phillip. After the completion of his studies he 
came to New York but remained there only a 
short time, leaving the musical directorship of 
a prominent college to establish himself in the 
west. He first came to St. Paul where he soon 
attained a prominent position as a teacher, lectur- 
er, concert giver and conductor. In 1897 he 
spent seven months in Europe in study and ob- 
servation and in the fall of the same year was 
called to the position of conductor of the Apollo 
Club of JNIinneapolis. At the same time the 
Schubert Choral Association and Schubert or- 
chestra were formed in St. Paul under his direc- 
tion. In 1901 Mr. Oberhoffer became conductor 
of the Minneapolis Philharmonic Club which 
soon attained a leading position among the choral 
societies of the country. The necessities of the 
development of musical life and culture in the 
city soon brought .-iljoiit the suggestion from 
.Mr. Oberhoffer that an orchestra be formed 
.■iiid with the assistance and support of the lead- 
ing men of Minneapolis the i\linneapolis Sym- 




phony Orclustr.i was cst:ililislu-d in igo.i and has 
since been the- ninsl prdniinent nnisical nrganiza- 
tion in the northwest. 'l"he plienomenal snc- 
cess of the club and orcliestra under Mr. Obcr- 
hoffer's direction has led to the engagement of 
his services for a term of years and the practical 
perpetuation of the musical jn'ogress which has 
already made Minneapolis the center of 
education in the Northwest and given lier a 
reputation for musical culture ijuite unprecedent- 
ed in the cast. Besides his activities as conduc- 
t"r. .\Ir. Oberhofl'er finds time for a group of 
advanced pupils in pianoforte-playing; he lias 
been organist and director of the music at llie 
Church of tlle IvciUemer fi>r the past few years 
and holds tiie chair of imi'-ic at the slate uni- 

PARKS. I'lorence Estclle, b.irn in Olii.., 
Trumbull eoniily. is a descendant of a long line 
of musical ancestors, particularly on tlu' side of 
her father, llenry Clay Peck, who came of old 
colonial stock, his mother's f.itlu-r having been 
Abram Crawley, a major in tin- Kevcdutionary 
war and one of those who engaged in the "lioston 
Tea Party." The mother of Mrs. Parks was El- 
len E. (Sanford) Peck, a descendant of Nathaniel 
Greene and who enjoyed the distinction of having 
been one of the early teachers of President .Mc- 
Kinley. Mrs. Parks gave evidence at an early 

age of marked musical talent, being capable of 

singing at sight difficult compositions at the age 
of four — the system then in use being numerals 
written upon the staff instead of notes. System- 
atic instruction for her musical education began 
wlien she was six years old, her studies embrac- 
ing piano, theory of music, harmony, counter- 
point composition for both organ and voice. Mrs. 
Parks received voice training from the best in- 
structors in Chicago and New York and various 
cities of Europe, and has enjoyed wide experi- 
ence in oratorio, concert and church singing. 
l'"or the past fifteen years Mrs. Parks has been 
a resident of Minneapolis and actively engaged in 
the musical life of the city. During these years 
Mrs. Parks bas devoted her time and study prin- 
cipally to the "art of teaching." Her wide ex- 
perience as a student and singer has given her 
a kniiwledge and comprehension of the many 
variiMis iiictlii>ds which, blended with lier indi- 
vi(hial ability, renders her most et'hcient as a 
\ Ileal instructor. For the past twelve years Mrs. 
I'aiks has bad full direction of the music in St. 
Charles Church, l-'nr se\eral years she was in 
charge of the vocal department of Stanley Hall 
anil at different times was instructor in Mac- 
alester College and the Johnson School of Music. 
Mrs. Parks has been an active member of the 
Thursday Musical since its beginning, and at dif- 
ferent times bas been a member of the executive 
board and program committee. She is now di- 
rector of the Students Quartettes and Choral 
dull ami her work with them is most successful. 

PATTEN, Willard. was born at Milford. 
Maine, on May 26, 185.5. His father. fJaniel Hall 
Patten, a building contractor, was of Irish des- 
cent, who had been before takin.g up bis con- 
tracting work, an unprofessional musician, choir 
master, violinist and vocalist of considerable tal- 
ent, and from whom Mr. Patten inherited his ar- 
tistic instincts. His mother was Elizabeth Jones, 
born in Canada but of Welsh descent. Mr. Pat- 
ten resided in Bangor, Me., during his early life, 
and because of a weakness of the lungs when 
about sixteen years old he look up calisthenics 
and voice culture. He left high school before 
completing his course to take private lessons in 
English literature and music. I lis musical work 
included notation, lluory. thoroughbass and 
musical analysis .and later he studied ensemble 
training and the ,art nf conductin.g, the latter 
niuUr Carl Zerrahn nf the Handel and Haydn So- 
ciety of Boston, lie tluii began bis musical ca- 
reer, teachin.g, ci ■iiiliictiiig musical conventions, 
and composing, producing his first operetta in 
i8S[. Through Dr. Elien Tourgee, the director 
of the New England Conserv.atory. he was offered 
a position in that institution, but declined, and 
came west in 188,3, est;ilili>liiiig himself in Minne- 
apolis as a solo singer ami te.icher of voice cul- 
ture. In rSSg he produced the opera. La Fianza, 
with pronounced success; and afterwards several 



short pieces. He continued his studies and in 
1S96, after spending more than a year in the se- 
lection and arrangement of the text, composition, 
and score, he completed his oratorio, Isaiah, and 
on January 27. 1897, it was given its initial per- 
formance at the Metropolitan theater, before an 
audience that included all the musicians and 
music lovers of the two cities and the northwest. 
This achieved remarkable success and established 
-Mr. Patten's reputation as a musician. The fol- 
lowing year he was appointed conductor of the 
re-organized Philharmonic Club, a position he 
held for three years, resigning to devote his at- 
tention to further composition. He has since 
ciimpletcd two large choral works based upon 
hi.-^torical data, the first entitled "Star of Empire" 
and the second "Foot-Stones of a Nation." He 
is at present brin.ging to completion a cantata in 
modern form on the subject of the Resurrection. 
Mr. Patten is actively interested in musical edu- 
cational movements and has recently been in- 
strumental in establishing twelve singing schools, 
each under the care of a competent musician, and 
his connection with the general advancement of 
music quite as much as his personal successes 
.-sliow the influence his work has had upon the 
nnisical progress of the northwest. Many of his 
compositions, among them his oratorio Isaiah, 
have obtained wide popularity for their triK- 
merit and become better known each year, but 
Mr. I'atten is too serious in his art to seek com- 


mon-place applause, seeking rather to earn tlie 
commendation of his peers, in which he has fully 
accomplished his aims. Mr. Patten was married 
in 1875 to Miss Alesta Virginia Hebberd, in Ban- 
gor, Maine. They have had one daughter, Ruth 
Elizabeth, who died in 1901. 

WILLIAMS, James Austin, one of the prom- 
inent concert tenors and voice instructors of 
Minneapolis, is a native of England and is by 
birth the descendant of an old established Welsh 
family, which is traced back among the inhabi- 
tants of Wales for more than four centuries. 
From these ancestors was descended Enoch 
Williams who located at Mitcheldean, Gloucester- 
shire, England, and there established a stone 
business, which developed into a flourishing and 
extensive enterprise. He was married to Augusta 
Parry, and his son, J. .Austin, was born at 
Mitcheldean, England, on April 19. 1876. Six 
years later the family left England to come to 
America and located at Stonewall. Manitoba, Can- 
ada. There J. Austin, received his education, at- 
tending the public schools and after completing 
his academic studies began the study of music 
and the training of his voice. Fur a time Pro- 
fessor Dore of London, England, was located at 
Winnipe,g, Canada, and Mr. Williams continued 
Ills vocal studies under his instruction, and for a 
time his vocal training was directed by Professor 
Chambers, also of London. In 1905 he was a 
pupil of Professor M. ?>. de Bnr of New York, and 
,it intervals during the last eight years has studied 
uilli a number of the foremost teachers and 
inusici.uTi in the Twin Cities. .At the present 
llnir, in ailditimi to his tcachintr and concert 
work. Mr. Williams is reccivinL; furtlier train- 
iiig- uniler the supervision of I)r. Rliys-IIerber*, 
the well known composer of this city and now 
llic org.-mist at the Hennepin Avenue Methodist 
Churcli. Since moving to Minneapolis a few 
rears ago i\Ir. Williams has taken an active part 
in the nnisical affairs of the city and is nov.' 
idintiricd with several of the more important organizations. For one yenr he was 
the (lircclor of the choir of Fowler Methodist 
Church nnd at the present time liohls the same 
piisiiii.M with tlie De 1^ Salle choir, hor three 
years he has had the direction of the Boys' 
Clee Clnli of tlie Central School and under 
his charge that organization has achieved a cred- 
il.iblo local rcnutation. He was a member of 
tlie .Apollo Club for se\-eral vears and now is a 
member and one of the board of directors of the 
Philharmonic Chib. Air. Williams has been ex- 
tensively connected with vocal church music snd 
has done tenor solo and choir work in ten of 
the larger churches of the citv and is now in 
his fourth year as tenor of the choir at the 
Church of the Redeemer. In addition to this 
work he is active in concert and recital work and 
takes a general interest in the promotion and 
support of measures that tend to the musical 
development of Minneapolis, 




SCIIOEN-RENE, Anna Eugenic, is a native 
of Prussian Poland. Her father was al one time 
secretary of agriculture and forestry of the im- 
perial province of Alsace-Eorraine, Germany, 
and an officer of the Guards. ;\t liis death the 
Emperor William, who was his close friend, 
promised to care for his eight children and 
through his kindness Fraulein Schocn-Renc was 
enabled to prepare for the profession of a singer 
in grand opera, which was her absorbing ambi- 
tion. She graduated from the Royal Academy of 
Mu'-ic in Berlin, receiving half the prize offered 
by the Mendelssohn family to the most promising 
student and devoted it to the coniph-tion of her 
musical education in Italy. .She studied with 
l'"rancesco I.amperti, Sen. of in \iiice cul 
ture, and with Madame Viardot and M.iestro 
Garcia in Paris, making her debut in I'.erlin luidcr 
the auspices of Princess Friedrich Carl, of Prus- 
sia. She was engaged to sing at the Royal Ojiera 
I louse of Saxe-Altenburg through the Puke of 
that Duchy, and soon became a musical favorite, 
mteting many famous musicians and composers, 
as Brahms. Rubcnstein and t.iszt. With marked 
ability she played the leading roles in "Ooii 
Juan," "Daughter of the Regiment," "Carmen." 
"Eaust," and other operas. After singing suc- 

cessfully in the great European musical centers, 
Fraulein Schoen-Rene came to this country and 
has for some years made her home with her 
sister, Marie Schoen, in Minneapolis. For some 
time she was instructor in the University of Min- 
nesota and was the founder and musical director 
iif the University Choral Union, which has done 
splendid work. F'raulein Anna Eugenie Schoen- 
Rene has taken a prominent part in the promo- 
tion of musical culture in Minneapolis. She is 
a member of the Union des Arts et des Sciences, 
of Paris, France, and a member of the "Deutsche 
Buchnen genossenschaft," of Berlin. Fraulein 
Schoen-Rene has been earnestly besought by 
many of her friends to return to the operatic 
stage, as her health has been greatly improved 
in Minnesota. 

WOODRUEI'', Henry Seymour, the son of 
Henry and Lucy A. (Rollo) Woodruff', was born 
at Cortland. Cortland county. New York. His 
lather was. though a merchant, a man of musical 
taste and on bis mother's side be was connected 
with a family of musicians. His mother was, 
during her early life, an instructor on the piano 
.and tier grandfather was a musical conductor. 
Mr. Woodrufif began his education at the State 
Normal School at Cortland and studied music in 
Syracuse. When he was fifteen years of age he 
served as organist in the First Baptist Church of 
Cortland and later went to Cincinnati to study 
for si.x years under Henry G. Andres, Herman 
.'\ucr, Bush h'rdey and Louis Ehrgott. For the 
most of this time he was organist of St. Paul's 
M. E. Church of Cincinnati. During this period 
be was also active in organ recital work. In 
1886 he came to Minneapolis to till a six weeks 
engagement as solo organist at the first Exposi- 
tion .111(1 was so impressed by the opportunities 
o| tin city that he decided to locate here. Short- 
ly after the close of the Exposition Mr. Wood- 
ruff received an appointment as organist of the 
b'irst I'.aptiNt Chiireli. tlu-ii just completed, and 
served in that e.ap.ieity lor six years, during four 
of wliieli he al>o aeticl as elioir m;istcr. About 
tliis time lie opeiuil a studii> and gave instruc- 
tion ill piano, ])ipe organ, ami \oice culture. 
L'lion llie loimding of the Apidlo Club in 1SS7 
he .ippiiinled diri-elor for llicir first two sca- 
soii^ .and for three viars held .1 like position with 
the I'liillianiioiiie Clii'i. AK.aiii in 1902 he bc- 
I'.Miie eoiiduelor of the .\pollo Club anil 
has held the position since that time. i\Ir. Wood- 
ruff has given many organ recitals and done much 
concert work in Minneapolis, .St. Paul and other 
cities of the northwest. In iS(),i he served as 
organist at the Cbinili of the Kedeenier, but 
.afterw.ards returned to the hirst I'.aptist t'linrch 
In i,Si)7 lie stiiilied in I'.iris with Delle Sedie, the 
celebrated voice teacher and upon bis return ac- 
cepted the position of organist and choir master 



of the Westminster Presbyterian Church, with 
wliich he is still connected. Mr. Woodruff was 
married in iSgg to Miss Corice Colburn, one of 
the younger artists of this city. 

ZOCH, Herman, son of Carl Frederick, and 
Augusta Kunau Zoch, was born in Thcerkeutc, 
Prussia. He is descended from a l.imled family, 
his paternal grandfather, a distinguished otficer 
in the war of 1813, having held an estate in 
Silesia. Carl Frederick Zoch was the director of 
the estates of the Polish Count Dzieduszicki, and 
on one of these estates in the province of Posen 
his son Herman was born. He began his edu- 
cation with a private tutor, later studying in the 
state gymnasium at Halle, Saxony, and then 
graduating from the Thomas gymnasium at 
Leipsic. His musical career which his native 
al)ility gave promise of being so brilliant com- 
menced in the Royal Conservatory of Music at 
Leipsic, where he studied the piano under Carl 
Reinecke, Jadassohn and Coccius, the first two 
being his instructors in counterpoint and compo- 
sition. He finished a six-year course in three 
years receiving at his graduation the first prize 
in piano playing. He studied for several months 
in Paris, and then for two years was in Munich 
where he associated with the leading musicians 
of the day and performed for Joseph Rheinberger 
that famous composer's piano concerto, op. 94, 
which he later introduced at concerts in Berlin 
and Leipsic. He toured through the principal 
cities of Germany, Leipsic, Berlin, Munich, Vi- 
enna, Gotha and others, and gave a series of piano 
recitals that added much to his rapidly increasing 
reputation as an artist and pianist. I^e left Ger- 
many in 1883 to come to America and a year later 
located in Minneapolis where he has been en- 
gaged as a teacher of piano and in concert ami 
recital work. Since 1889 he has made three con- 
cert tours and has given piano recitals in Bos- 
ton, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Syracuse, St. Louis, 
Indianapolis, Louisville, Cincinnati, and played at 
the Music Teachers' National Convention at 
Cleveland in 1892. During the time he has re- 
sided in Minneapolis he has given some four 
score recitals, not including recitals in St. Paul, 
Duluth and those of his eastern trips; among 
which have been three Beethoven evenings, com- 

prised of the last five sonatas of that master, Bee- 
thoven's Emperor-Concerto in E Flat with Or- 
chestra twice, four Brahms evenings, one Schu- 
bert evening, and in the fall of 1906 he gave in 
one evening the forty-eight "Songs without 
Words" by Mendelssohn. Mr. Zoch has won an 
enviable reputation as an instructor of the piano 
and is recognized as a performer of great merit. 
His programs, on which appear such names as 
Beethoven, Schuman, Chopin, Brahms, Liszt, 
Rheinberger, Rubinstein, Handel, Henselt, 
Joseffy, Jensen, Raff, Tausig, Scarlatti, Heller, 
Wagner, Reinecke and others, reveal his wonder- 
ful repertoire, and give some insight into the con- 
tinuous labor at his art that has given Mr. Zoch 
a place in the front rank of present day musicians. 

iii:i;m.\.\,\ zoru. 




S in must wL-stern cities — or new cities 
in any land — IMinneapolis gave tardy 
-recognition to things artistic. Utility 
was the first consideration in the young 
city and during all her earlier years the 
strife for gain shut out thought of the 
beautiful. However the city was often visit- 
ed by artists attracted by the picturesque 
location and surroundings. As early as 1848 
Henry Lewis, an artist of some reputation in 
those days, visited St. Anthony and made 
sketches of the falls, and afterwards execut- 
ed a number of paintings, some of which are 
still in existence in Minneapolis. Another 
early visitor was Frank B. Mayer, who was 
]jresent at the Indian treaty of Traverse des 
Sioux in 1851, and afterwards made a paint- 
ing which hangs in the Minnesota State 
Historical Society's galler}'. Capt. Seth 
Eastman, whose water color sketch is un- 
doubtedly the earliest painting of the Falls 
in existence, was commandant at the Fort 
in 1841 and was employed by the govern- 
ment in the fifties to make sketches illus- 
trating Indian life and customs. 

In the nature of things it was Inanv years 
before it was possible for an artist to estab- 
lish himself permanently in the city, and it 
was not until 1883 when the .Minneapolis 
Society of Fine Arts was organized, that art 
began tn ha\-e a definitely appointed place 
in the city's life. Tlu' formation of the 
society was largely dne to the efforts of 
Dr. W. W. Folweil, then president of the 
university, who with twenty-four others, 
were the charter nieiidiers. I'or several 
years the society only Iield anntial ex- 
hibitions but in 1886 the School of Pint- Arts 
was opened under the direction of l)uugl;is 
Volk who brought to the imdertaking 
at Minneapolis a high order of ability, and 
whose early work gave abundant promise 

of his later distinction as an artist. For 
several years the school occupied temporary 
quarters. Upon the completion of the pub- 
lic library in 1889 the school occupied rooms 
in the building and has since remained 
there, gradually increasing its student body 
and occupying more space from year to 
year. Mr. Volk was succeeded in 1893 by 
Robert Koehler who has since remained in 
charge of the school with continued success. 
This school maintains classes in antique art, 
still life, portrait painting, water colors, and 
departments for decorative design, handi- 
crafts and architecture. There are now 
about two hundred students. -Annual ex- 
hibitions have lieen maintained and for 
some years exhibitions of art photography 
have been held occasionally. 

In iSijS the Chalk and Chisel club was 
formed. The name was afterwards changed 
to the Arts and Crafts Society and the or- 
ganization has the honor of being the oldest 
of the arts and crafts societies of the coun- 
try. Its purpose includes the development 
of all the lines of art work and bi-annual 
exhiliitions are held. .\mong its active 
members is Miss Mary Moulton Cheney, 
who is president in igo8. 

The great interest in the rc\-i\;d of art 
in handicraft made possible the institu- 
tion (if the Handicraft (Inild which has 
dexeloped rajiidly and in four years occu- 
pied a building erected especially for its 
use. It has taken a most cfiicient part in 
the de\elopnient of .artistic taste in the city. 
ISesides maintaining and conducting a 
school of design in which there is instruc- 
tion in pottery making, metal work, leather 
work, book-binding, wood work, wood carv- 
ing, wood block printing, water color and 
other arts, the guild maintains permanent 
exhibition and sales rooms. In the building 



is a beautiful assembly hall and the Guild 
is to a large extent the center of aesthetic 
activity in Minneapolis. Its organization 
and rapid progress is largely due to tlic 
work of Misses M. Emma Roberts and Flor- 
ence Wales, president and secretary, res- 
pectively. Miss Roberts had been for some 
years supervisor of drawing in the public 
schools of the city and is responsible for 
the excellent progress which has been made 
in the schools notwithstanding man}- ob- 
stacles. Miss Wales had been a teacher of 
art in the Central high school and is an ac- 
complished artist in water color. 

Another artistic influence is that of the 
Craftshouse where the art work of Mr. John 
S. Bradstreet finds expression. Air. I'.rad- 
street has long been identified with the art 
life of the city and gives special attention 
to interior decoration and furnishing. The 
Craftshouse, like the building of the Handi- 
craft Guild, is architecturally beautiful and 

When the public library building was 
planned the study of art was given broad 
consideration, and in addition to arranging 
for the housing of the School of Fine Arts 
an art gallery was provided for and an art 
book room established. The art gallery has 
grown from small beginnings to be a col- 
lection of much merit and is enriched by 
loans of e.xcellent ])ictures owned by private 
collectors. In the building there is also an 
admirable collection of plaster casts of 
statuary. Mr. T. B. Walker has built up 
the largest private art collection in the city. 
It is in a spacious gallery connected with 
his residence at Eishth street and Hennc- 

%t I t!B*i 


FinErL.\ci: in lui: hamiukait la ii.i). 

pin avenue, where it is open to the jjublic 
during the daylight hours throughout the 
}ear. Mr. Walker has taken great interest 
in all art development in the city and is 
one of the most prominent private collectors 
in the West. 

Public and official recognition of art has 
been slow and first found expression in the 
formation of the board of park commission- 
ers ; although it is not to be supposed that 
all who assisted in the promotion of the 
park system understood that they were cul- 
tivating the artistic development of the city. 
The Art Commission of the city created in 
1 901, was a tardy recognition of the need 
of selection and discrimination in the pos- 
sible purchase or acceptance of works of 
art. This commission is composed of E. C. 
Chatfield, president, and Robert Koehler, 
Wm. Channing Whitney, Edward C. Gale 
and Jiihn S. Bradstreet — all men who have 
lieen prominent in the art development of 
the city. 


The distinct ad\-anccs made in the last 
twenty years in matters architectural is one 
of the most gratifying phases of Minne- 
apolis development. The numerous exam- 
|iles of refined taste in residence, commer- 
cial and ]>ublic buildings, reflect the influ- 
ence of a group of intelligent and progres- 
sive architects. With the increase of 
wealth and the ad\ance of cidture there is 
a growing tendency to give the architect 
free rein in planning" both business and 
residence structures. It has come to be un- 
derstood that architectural beauty may 



have a commercial value and that a building 
which conforms to the canons of good taste 
need not necessarily be more expensive than 
one which offends. Some very admirable 
examjjles of good business buihlings have 
been erected in Alinneapolis in the past 
half-dozen years. Xo attempt to illustrate 
this develojiment will be made in this chap- 
ter: but some of the notable buildings of 
the citv will be found pictured throughout 
the pages of other chapters, in appropriate 
comiection. Alinneapolis architects have 
taken a large part in the aesthetic develop- 
ment of the city, working jjrominentlx' in 
the art societv, for the guild work and im 
the jKirk commission. I.andscape architec- 
ture has been given much attention in more 
recent years ; many of the best modern res- 
idences of the city are particidarly effective 
through their admirable settings. At pres- 
ent the only architectural i irganization nf 
the city is the .Minneapnlis Architectural 
Club, formed in itjO/ by the younger men 
of the profession. It has rooms at ii6 
South Fourth street. A. R. Van Dyck is 
president and there are some forty mem- 

The engineering profession is of course 
closely affiliated witli llie architectural 
group, especially in the specialties of struc- 
tural steel and concrete work whicli are now 
taking a very prominent place in building. 
]t hai)]K'ns that Minneapolis is tiie home of 
\ery extensive structural contracting firms 
which re(|uire engineering ability of a high 
order. .\s one of the great water ])ower 
cities of the world .Minneapolis has ein- 
])loyed the best hydraulic engineering talent 
and resident rei)resentatives of this divis- 
ion of the ])rofession are consulted Irom 
every part of the continent. In nuinici]ial 
construction, l)iiilge building and tlie like, 
the best abilities in this department of 
engineering are called into ser\-ice. In the 
work of the engineer the practical is a])! 
to take precedence over the aesthetic, so 
that it is worth recording that some of the 
])rominent engineering work in .Minneapolis 
does nf)t lack in beauty. I he stone arch 
bridge which affords rail entrance l(i the 
union passenger station is not only a re- 
markable engineering achievement but one 

of the most beantifid liridges in the West, 
The steel arch bridge uniting the east and 
west divisions of the city at the foot of 
the main thoroughfares is a well designed 
and sidjstantial structure: while the Lake 
street bridge over the Mississippi river is 
noted for its graceful lines. 

Education in the engineering profession 
has made decided progress while in 
architecture little has been done. An at- 
tempt was made to establish a course in 
architecture at the university but it did 
not meet with success. On the other hand 
the College of Engineering is one of the 
most important in the institution. Its 
courses cover civil and mechanical engineer- 
ing and all their subdi\-isions of municipal 
and sanitary engineering, structural en- 
gineering, electrical engineering, railway 
and highway engineering, etc. The Min- 
neapolis Engineers Club is an active or- 
ganization with rooms at 17 South Si.xth 

BERTlv.VXD, Gcurge Kiiiile, .if the lirm of 
Bertrand & Chamljerlin, architects, was born in 
Superior, Wisconsin, on June 22, 1859, the son 
of A. G. and Marie (Landry) Bertrand. He re- 
ceived a public school education and studied the 
profession of architecture in Boston and Min- 
neapolis, spending several j'ears in offices of 
loading architects. He has been engaged in the 
l)ractico of his profession since 1881 and estab- 
lislu-d liimsclf permanently in Minneapolis in 
1886, and in 1896, with .Artluir B. Chaniberlin. 
formed the present I'uni. .\lr. Bertrand is a 
director in the State Institution for Savings. In 
Iiolitical affiliations he is a republican and he is 
a member of the Masonic Order and of the Com- 
mercial and Sis O'Clock Clubs. He is also a 
member of the Minnesota Chapter .'\merican In- 
stitute of .Architects. Some years ago he served 
as ,-i member of the INlinncsota Light Infantry, 
the lirsi ciimp.iny "f mililia organized in the 
-■-late. Mr. Ilerlrand was nrarricd in .September, 
iS,S,S, 1.1 .Mi>s Lillian Stoddard, a native of In- 
(li;ina. Tluy liavc two daughters, Claire and 

IK )l', I I .\l l'., Clni^liipher .\dam. was born in 
.Mnmcapulis, on January 16, 1805. His parents 
wore Gottfried J. and liva Bochme. his father 
lioing a general contractor and hardware mer- 
chant, .Mr. Hoehme was educated in Minneap- 
olis, attending the public schools, the high 
schools and the University of Minnesota. After 
graduation he entered the office of W. B. Dunnell, 
a well-known architect of the city where he re- 
mained for fourteen years and rising to a position 




of responsibility as Mr. Diinnell's assistant. In 
1896 he opened an office of his own, beginning 
a practice wliicli has grown steadily. Five years 
ago he formed a partnership with Mr. Victor 
Cordelia under the name of Boehme & Cordelia, 
and this association has proven very successful. 
The firm has planned some of the best of recent 
structures in the Northwest. Mr. Boehme is a 
member of several organizations — the North Side 
Commercial Club, the Knights of Pythias Lodge, 
of the Royal Arcanum and the St. Anthony Turn 
Verein society. On May 21, i8gi, he married 
Miss Martha Ocschgcr of La Crosse, Wisconsin, 
and they have three children, two daughters and 
a son. 

BRADSTREET, John Scott, coines of the very 
best New England — or for that matter. Old Eng- 
land — stock, his father's name, Bradford Brad- 
street, proclaiming his descent from two men 
whose names are among those most honored in 
Colonial history — William Bradford the Pilgrim 
father who came to America in 1613 and was the 
first governor of Plymouth Colony; and Hum- 
phrey Bradstreet, who came from Ipswich, Eng- 
land, in l6.;4, and was representative in 1635. John 

S. Bradstreet, whose mother, the wife of Bradford 
Bradstreet, had been Miss Susana Pickard-Scott, 
was born at Rowley, Old Ipswich, Massachusetts, 
in 1845, and graduated from the Putnam Academy 
:it Newburyport. The first years of Mr. Brad- 
street's business life were spent with the Gorman 
Manufacturing Company, in whose offices, at 
Providence, he held a responsible position, until 
early in the seventies, he decided to come West, 
and selected ^Minneapolis as his place of residence 
Here he has lived for thirty years, and in the 
course of that time has exercised a most beneficial 
influence on the artistic life, not only of the city, 
Init of the Northwest. On first coming to Min- 
iiesuta. he was associated in business with Edward 
C. Clark, but he soon embarked for himself, and 
continued alone until he formed a partnership 
with Edmund J. Phelps, under the name of Phelps 
& Bradstreet. On the dissolution of the partner- 
ship, the Thurbers of the Gorham Manufacturing 
Company, became interested with him, and the 
new firm was known as Bradstreet, Thurbcr & 
Co. For the last six years F. H. Waterman has 
been associated with him in the extensive and 
very successful organization whose headquarters 
are in the beautiful Craftshousc, a building, which, 



JOHN s. i:i:ai>stuekt. 

liDtli in it> exterior and intcrinr is entirely uniiiiie, 
resenililini; in its cliaraeter and the inllnencc 
uliicli il exerts on the pnhlic, an Art Institute, 
rather than a place of business. Mr. Bradstreet 
lias traveled widely, having made many visits to 
Japan, collecting and studying Japanese art, as 
well as having been around the world, and being 
familiar with most of the European countries. He 
is a member, in addition to most of the local 
clubs, of the Asiatic Society of London and the 
National Arts Club of New York, and has given 
valuable services to the public as member of the 
Minneapolis Park Board, having had the honor or 
naming the latest acquisition to the park system, 
"The Parade," and is also member and vice presi 
dent of the Municipal /\rt Commission. 

CHAM BERLIN, Arthur Bishop, of the (irm 
of Bertrand & Chamberlin, architects, was l)orn 
at Solon, Ohio, in 1865, the son of Anson B. and 
Martha M. Chamberlin. When he was two years 
old the family moved to Milwaukee where the 
father entered the employ of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul Railway. Mr. Chambcrlin's 
early boyhood was spent at Milwaukee and he 
has lived in Minneapolis since 1882, completing 
Ills education here and at an early age entering 
an architect's office. He has followed the profes- 
sion for twenty-three years, joining Mr. Bertrand 
in the present firm in tRgS. Mr. Chamberlin is a 

republican in political belief and is a member of 
the Minneapolis Commercial and the St. Anthony 
Commercial Clubs; is a member of the Masonic 
Order, Khurum Lodge, Scottish Rite Masons 
and Zuhrah Temple of the Mystic Shrine. On 
January 18, 1885, was married to Miss Georgia 
Wood. They have four children. 

COLBURN, Serenus Milo, of the architec- 
tural firm of Kees & Colburn, was born at 
.Vnsonia, Connecticut, October 12, 1871, the son 
of Richard R. and Letitia (Terry) Colburn. He 
received a public school education and when 
fifteen years of age came west and obtained 
employment at Minneapolis as draughtsman in 
the office of James C. Plant. He remained 
with Mr. Plant for five years and after- 
wards filled the position of head draftsman 
in several architectural offices. In 1S98 he be- 
came associated with Frederick Kees in the 
present firm, an association which has been very 
successful. Among the buildings which they 
have designed are: Donaldson Building, Minne- 
apolis Chamber of Commerce; Northwestern Na- 
tional Bank; Powers r.uilding; Donaldson's 
(rlass Block; Deere & Webber Building, and 
buildings of the Advance Thresher Company; 
J. I. Case Threshing Machine Company; Great 
Northern Iinplement Company; Emerson & 
Newton; Bement, Darling & Company, and 
tiiany large residences. Mr. Colburn is a mem- 
ber of the American Institute of Architects and 
of the Commercial and Automobile Clubs. He 
was married in Minnesota in 1899 to Miss Har- 
riet E. Whitcomb. 

CORDELLA, Victor, of the architectural firm 
of Boehme & Cordelia, is a native of Austrian 
Poland but for many years has now studied and 
practiced his profession in Minneapolis. He was 
born on January i, 1872, at Krakow, in Austrian 
Poland, the son of Marian and Florence Cordelia. 
His father was a sculptor who was desirous that 
his son should have a good academic and pro- 
fessional education. The boy was sent to the 
graded schools of Austria, obtained his prepara- 
tory education in the high schools and then en- 
tered the Royal Art .\cademy at Krakow where 
he studied for some tiinr. Later he was a stu- 
dent of technology under Professor Michael 
Kow.alozuk ;U Lemberg. Coming to the LInited 
States and locating in St. Paul he began his 
architectural training in the office of Cass Gilbert. 
Since that time, about eighteen years ago, he 
has been engaged in building an office practice. 
Following his connection with Mr. Gilbert he 
was associated with several architects of this 
city — W. H. Dennis, W. B. Dunnell, and Charles 
R. Aldrich. Five years ago lie joined C. A. 
Boehme in the present firm of Boehme & Cor- 
delia, which handles an extensive line of work in 
the local field. Mr. Cordelia was married to 
Miss Ruth Maser of Canton, Oltio, on Septem- 
ber 15, 1902. 



FANNING, John Thomas, civil engineer, is 
the son of John Howard and Elizabeth (Pridde) 
Fanning, His family on both sides is of old 
New England slock, as he is a descendant cil 
Edmund Gilbert b'anning, the first of the name 
in America, who came from Ireland in 1652 and 
settled near New London, Connecticut; and of 
Lieutenant Thomas Tracy who settled in Con- 
necticut in 1636. Capt. John Fanning, the sixth 
in line from Edmund and the grandfather of 
John Thomas, was a veteran of the Revolution- 
ary war. Mr. Fanning was born at Norwich, 
Connecticut, on December 31, 1837. He com- 
menced his education in the public and normal 
schools of Norwich and hiter studied architec- 
ture and engineering. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war in 1861 he enlisted in the Third regi- 
ment Connecticut Volunteer Infantry and served 
the full term of the regiment. After the close 
of the war he was commissioned a lieutenant- 
colonel in the Connecticut National Guard, for- 
merly having held a lieutenancy. He opened 
an office in Norwich, and from that time till 
he came to Minneapolis was engaged in the 
Iilanning of public and private buildings, mills, 
bridges and water supply systems throughout 

the New England States. In 1872 he moved his 
office to Manchester, New Hampshire, to super- 
vise the installation of the public water supply. 
He also designed several of the principal build- 
ings of that city and while he resided there was 
a member of the board of education and chair- 
man of the high school committee. He was 
employed to report on an additional water sup- 
ply for New York, Brooklyn and other cities 
of the Hudson valley, and in numerous instances 
has been retained as an expert witness in water 
and drainage cases. About 1885 he received a 
commission to report on improvements in the 
system of the St. Anthony Falls Water Power 
Company and one year later moved his office to 
^Minneapolis. From this point he has supervised 
many large engineering operations in the west. 
He was appointed engineer and agent of the St. 
Anthony Falls Water Power Company in 1886; 
and later was the engineer of the Great Falls, 
Montana, and Helena, Montana, water powers 
on the Missouri river, and of the Spokane water 
power on the Spokane river. Col. Fanning also 
devised a plan for draining 3,000 square miles of 
the famous Red River Valley wheat land and at 
different times has been consulting engineer oi 
the Great Northern, the St. Paul, Minneapolis 
and Manitoba, and Minneapolis Union Rail- 
ways. He has been a patentee of several in- 
ventions connected with liis profession — a slow 
burning building construction, a steam-pumping 
engine, steam boilers, water valves, and turbine 
wdieels. In 1873 he invented and constructed the 
first wood-stave pipes such as are now extensive- 
ly used in public water supply and sewerage 
works. Mr. Fanning's energies have not, how- 
ever, been directed entirely to the practical side 
of his work. He has been an occasional lecturer 
at the University of Minnesota and before tech- 
nical societies; and has written numerous papers 
on technical subjects. Fle is the author of "A 
Treatise on Hydraulic and Water Supply En- 
gineering," wdiich reached the sixteenth edition 
in igo6. He is a member of a number of the 
professional organizations of the country; an 
ex-director of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers; an ex-president of the American Wa- 
ter Works Association; a Fellow of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science; 
honorary member of the New England Water 
Works Association; and a member of the En- 
gineers Club of this city, the Franklin Institute 
and several other scientific societies. Politically 
he is a republican. On June 14, 1865, he was 
married at Norwich, Connecticut, to Miss Maria 
Louise Benslcy and they have a son and two 
daughters, Rennie Benslcy, Jennie Louise, wife 
of Thomas A. Jamison, and Clara Elizabeth, 
and was for many years a well known business 

JOHN T. r.\NNIN(3. 

(jILM.\N, James 1'... chief engineer of the 
Minneapolis Steel & Machinery Coinpatiy, is the 
son of one of Minnesota's pioneer settlers, and 
was born and cdiic.-ilcd in this .state. His father, 



James B. Gilman, was a native of New York, 
man in his section of tlic state. He resided, prior 
to his removal to .Minnesota, at Danville and was 
engaged in the fonndry business. in the year 
1848 he disposed of his interests in New York 
and moved to Minnesota, locating in Dakota 
county, remaining in the state until the out break 
of the Civil war, when he enlisted with the 
famous First Minnesota, and served with that 
regiment for three years. Following his muster- 
ing out of service, Mr. Gilman, Sr., returned to 
Dakota county and was living there at the time 
of his son's birth on January 28, 1872.- The 
mother of Mr. Oilman, Jr.. was Laura C. (Foster) 
Gilman, who was born in Massachusetts and had 
moved to Minnesota with her family in the early 
pioneer days. Mr. Gilman spent the early years 
of his life at the place of his birth and received 
his elementary education in the schools of Da- 
kota county. In 1880 he came to Minneapolis 
and entered the public schools, after which he 
attended the University of Minnesota, taking up 
the engineering course. He completed his studies 
in 1894 and graduated with the class of that year, 
taking a civil engineering degree. In addition to 
ranking high in his technical studies, Mr. Gilman 
was especially well prepared along practical lines 
to begin work in the engineering field, by ex- 
perience with surveying parties with which he 
had worked for parts of two years before his 

J.\.\li:S B. (ilLM.\N. 

graduation on the survey of the Minneapolis, St. 
Paul & Sault Stc. Marie railroad. The Soo was 
at that time doing construction work on the right 
of way between this city and Portal, North Da- 
kota, and Mr. Gilman obtained not only valuable 
practice in engineering, but also had an oppor- 
tunity to acquaint himself with the greatest grain 
producing region in the country. Shortly after 
his graduation in 1894, Mr. Gilman accepted a 
position as engineer with the Gillette-Herzog 
Manufacturing Company, which was afterwards 
merged in the .\merican Bridge Company, one 
of the largest manufacturers of steel construc- 
tion work in the world. Mr. Gilman was ad- 
vanced to the office of engineer of the Alinneap- 
olis plant and continued in that position until 
February, 1907. He then resigned to accept 
the post he now occupies as chief engineer of the 
Minneapolis Steel & Machinery Company, one of 
the largest business enterprises of the Northwest 
and one of the most extensive structural steel and 
machinery plants in the country, ^tr. Gilman's 
work covers a large held, as the firm does in all 
sections of the country, a general construction 
business which gives him unlimited scope for the 
application of his technical knowledge and prac- 
tical experience of the engineering science. He 
is a member of the Minneapolis Engineers Club, 
of which he is past president, also a member of 
the St. Anthony Commercial Club. Mr. Gilman. 
although well known among his business and 
social associates, has never been active in po- 
litical affairs, as an oflice holder. As a private 
citizen, however, he is a republican and supports 
the principles of that party. On June 14, 1899, 
.\Ir. Gilman was married to Miss Alice A. Hay- 
ward and they have one daughter — Dorotliy Gil- 

GILES, Robert Tait, a foremost artist in the 
ilesigning of stained .ind leaded glass, is a nat- 
ive of England, born at (ialeshead on Tyne. May 
I. 1872. His father, Peter Giles, was, at the lime 
of his son's birth, a building contractor of Gates- 
head. Rnbert Tait iiasscd his early life in that 
lovvn and when still a boy began his artistic 
education, lie al tended the art school located in 
his home Iciwii, ilie Gateshead School of Art, 
and graduated from that institution, later taking 
a course in the Rutherford Scliocd i.f .\rt at 
Newcastle on Tyne, where he cinnpleted his 
studies when about fourteen years of age. .\ talent for the work developed rapidly 
under c.ipable instruction, and at the I'lnish of 
his work in Imili schools was awarded certificates 
of e.NCellrncr, :nid won a scholarship at the South 
Kensington School of .\rt. in London. After 
leaving school he was for two years engaged in 
archilictmal drawing, and then turned his atten- 
tion to stained and leaded glass. He served an 
.ili|.renticeship for seven years in the. various de- 
l.artments of that handicraft; designing, drafting 
and iiainting— during this time being under the 
direction of W. IT. Drummond, T. R. Spence and 
M. H. Marsh, the latter being a member of the 



uoBKUT T. i;ii.i:s. 

Royal Academy. Having mastered this art. Mr. 
Giles left England to come to the United States, 
and located at Chicago, remaining there for 
about four years. During that period he was 
associated with the principal firms of Chicago 
as artist, but nine years ago he resigned the 
position he was holding at the time and came 
to Minneapolis. In 1903 he established the firm 
of R. T. Giles & Company, and conducted a 
stained and leaded glass business in all its 
branches. Mr. Giles was the proprietor of the 
concern and under his direction the company 
was a success, both from a material standpoint 
and in building up a reputation for the excellence' 
of its work. In fact the business reached sue! 
proportions and so many large commissions were 
received that larger facilities were needed and 
on October 15, 1907, Mr. Giles consolidated with 
the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company of Min- 
neapolis, and became director of the art depart- 
ment of the company. Mr. Giles during the 
time of his residence here has been interested 
in a number of the movements connected with the 
advancement of the arts and handicrafts, and is 
a member of the IMinneapolis Society of Fine 
Arts, holding also the position of instructor of 

stained and leaded glass in that organization. 
He is in addition a member of the Empire Club 
of St. Paul, and the Church Club of Minnesota. 
Mr. Giles w-as married on February 2, 1903, to 
Miss Belle Wheeler and they have two children, 
Isabel Wheeler and Robert Eldon. Mrs. Giles 
is. as well as her husband, a local artist of con- 
siderable importance. The family attends Geth- 
semane Church. 

HEWITT, Edwin Hawley, architect, prac- 
ticing in Minneapolis, was born at Red Wing 
.Minnesota, on March 26, 1874. He is the son of 
Charles X. and Helen R. Hewitt. His father, Dr. 
Hewitt, is a distinguished surgeon, a native of 
\'ermont, a graduate of Hobart College and Al- 
banj' Medical school and a veteran of the Army 
of the Potomac with which he served during the 
war as surgeon in chief of a division. His son 
Edwin spent his boyhood at Red Wing, attended 
Hobart College for one year and then returned 
to Minnesota and completed his college course 
at the University of Minnesota. While at the 
University he attended the Minneapolis School of 
I'ine Arts at night and during vacations worked 
in the office of Cass Gilbert, architect, then of 
St. Paul. After graduating from the University 
of Minnesota he devoted a year to post graduate 
work in the Institute of Technology and then en- 
tered the office of Shepley, Rutan & CoUidge, 
architects, of Boston. After three and a half 
years w-ith this firm, Mr. Hewitt married and 
went at once to Paris where he took the com- 
petitive examinations for entrance into Ecole des 
Beau Arts. His standing in this examination 
placed him at the head of the list of foreign ap- 
plicants admitted and within one place of heading 
the entire list of foreign and French. After four 
years of work at Paris with side trips for study tc 
England, Spain, Switzerland and Italy, he gradu- 
ated and returned to America in the fall of I90-1. 
-After a few months he opened an office in the 
Lumber Exchange in Minneapolis but finding the 
quarters inadequate after two months of practice, 
moved to larger rooms at 14-15 North Fourth 
street. Here he remained for eighteen months and 
then decided to build an office for his own perma- 
nent use and erected the attractive and artistic of- 
fice building which he now occupies at 716 Fourth 
avenue south. Mr. Hewitt is a director of the 
Minneapolis Society of Fine .Arts, a member of 
the governing board of the State Art Society, a 
member of the Beaux Arts Society of New York, 
and belongs to the Minneapolis Club and the 
Minikahda Club of this city. 

HUNT, William S., who has been a practic- 
ing architect of the city since 1888, was born in 
Wisconsin, at the town of Delavan, on May I, 
1861, the son of Dr. Henderson Hunt and Sarah 
.Ann (Barlow) Hunt. The members of his fam- 
ily on his mother's side were prominent in their 
professions and held various important public 
offices. Stevan .A. Barlow was for two terms 



the attorney general ot tlie state nf Wisconsin. 
John W. Barlow was an olticer of the reguhir 
army and helil the rank of Ijrigadier-general- 
Dr. J hint was a practicing physician at Dela- 
van, and his son remained in that town during 
the early part of his life and began his education 
in the local schools. When he was sixteen years 
of age the family moved to Beloit and he then 
entered Beloit College, taking the scientific 
course. He graduated with the class of 1880. 
It was his intention to follow the profession of 
architecture and went to Chicago and pursued 
his architectural studies for three years. To 
complete his training he then entered the office 
of one of the prominent architects of Chicago 
and filled the duties of office student. He came 
to Minneapolis and resumed his studies there 
until 1888. In that year he began an independ- 
ent practice which he has continued with suc- 
cess. He has planned and desi.gned a number of 
large buildings in the city. In politics he is a 
republican. He is a member of the Odd Fel- 
lows. Wr. Hunt was married in 1885 to Miss 
Caroline Park Graves, who died on October 8, 
1902. On May 29, igo6, he was again married 
to Miss Barbara C. Maurer. They have no 
children. Mr. Hunt attends tlie ICpiscopal 
church of which he has always been a niemlier. 

JONES, Harry Wild, was born June 9, 1859, 
in Michigan, son of Howard M. Jones, a Baptist 
clergyman. He is a grandson of Dr. S. F. Smitli, 
author of "'My Country, 'Tis of Thee," the na- 
tional hymn, and great-grandson of Dr. Heze- 
kiah Smith, a chaplain in the army of the Revolu- 
tion. Mr. Jones received his educational training 
at Providence Rhode Island, in the University 
grammar school, and took his A. B. degree at 
Brown University in 1882. From the university 
he went to Boston, where he continued his prepa- 
ration for the profession of architecture. Mr. 
Jones from Boston came t'l Minneapolis and con- 
tinued his work with I'lant & Whitney. He has, 
since he began business on his own account, de- 
signed many structures for business and residence 
purposes, presenting the necessary features of 
utility and solidity, together with a high order 
of architectural beauty, such as the Crc.uii nf 
Wheat building, the warehouses of Butler I'. roih 
ers, and of Wyman, Partridge & Co., and llu- 
residences of F. W. Cliflord, and George 11. Dag- 
gett and James Quirk. Mr. Jones was professor 
of architecture in the state university in 1900- 
1902, and he was for twelve years a member of 
the park board. He is a member of the Com 
niercial Club, the Six O'Clock Club, and the Min 
netonka Yacht Club. He was president of the 
Technology Club of Minnesota in ioo.( and prosi 
dent of the Minnesota Chapter of the American 
Institute of Architects in i898~()0. Mr. Jones is 
a member of the Calvary Baptist Church. He 
was married in 1883 to Miss Bertha J. Tucker, 
of Boston, and three children have been born 
to them — H. Malcom; Mary W.; Arthur Leo. 

KEES, Frederick, of the firm of Kees ft 
Colburn, architects, was born at Baltimore, Mary- 
land, on April 9, 1852, the son of Frederick and 
Eva (Schmidt) Kees. He attended the public 
schools of Baltimore, and at an early age entered 
the office of E. G. Lind, a Baltimore architect, 
as draftsman, where he continued, with the ex- 
ception of a brief period in Chicago, until 1878. 
He then came to Minneapolis, and after a short 
experience in the office of L. S. Buffington, com- 
menced business for himself, first as Kees & 
Fiske and later as a member of the firm of Long 
& Kees, and since 1901 of the firm of Kees & 
Colburn, and during this long professional service 
has been identified with many of the most prom- 
inent structures in the city, including the Syndi- 
cate Block, First Baptist Church, Court House 
and City Hall, Public Library, Minneapolis 
Chamber of Commerce, Northwestern National 
Bank, Powers Block, Donaldson's Glass Block, 
and buildings for Deere & Webber, Advance 
Thresher Company, J. I. Case Thresher Com- 
pany and others. Mr. Kees was a member of 
Company A, First Regiment, Minnesota National 
Guard, for five years. He is a Mason, thirty- 
second degree. Knight Templar, Shriner, and a 
member of the B. P. O. E. In politics he is inde- 
pendent. He was married in Minneapolis in i88t 
to Miss Florence Smith. 




NUTTER, Frank H., was born April 20, 1853, 
at Dover, New Hampshire, son of Abner J. and 
Hannah (Roberts) Nutter. The father was a 
school teacher for over fifty years, one of those 
New England educators who builded character 
out of the plastic material which came within 
their professional reach. Frank H. spent his early 
life in Boston and vicinity attending the public 
schools and the Eliot high school which was 
founded in 1692 by John Eliot, the Apostle to the 
Indians, "for the free education of any white or 
Indian boy." Mr. Nutter studied civil and land- 
scape engineering in Boston for several years 
under eminent specialists like Joseph H. Curtis 
and F. L. Lee and, after engaging in business on 
his own account for a couple of years, removed to 
Minneapolis in 1878, and from 1880 to 1890 in 
company with :Mr. Frank Plummer carried on 
business under the firm name of Nutter & Plum- 
mer. Since the dissolution of this partnership, 
Mr. Nutter has engaged in the landscape engi- 
neering work alone. Upon the organization of the 
Minneapolis Board of Park Commissioners in 
1883 Mr. Nutter was appointed Park Engineer, a 
position which he held until 1906, when he resigned 
to devote his attention to his private business, 
and his son F. H. Nutter, Jr., was appointed to 
fill the vacancy. Mr. Nutter's activities extend 
over a wide field. He has designed private 
grounds in New York, Virginia and Cali- 
fornia, in Minnesota, Iowa, South Dakota and in 
Manitoba, and other states and also makes a spe- 
cialty of parks and cemeteries. Mr. Nutter is a 
republican in politics and is a member of the 
Minneapolis Society of Civil Engineers, of the 
State Horticultural Society, of the Minneapolis 
Commercial Club and of the .\merican Civic Asso- 
ciation. He is a member of the Congregational 
church. He was married in .\pril, 1881, to Carrie 
F. Aldcn. To them have been born three chil- 
dren. Frank H. (the present Park Engineer). 
Willard A., assistant of his father in professional 
work, and Hannah A. 

SEDGWICK. Charles S., was born in Cas- 
tile, New York, ]May 9, 1856. the son of Samuel 
Sedgwick, afterwards superintendent of public 
schools at Oberlin, Ohio. Samuel Sedgwick was 
one of a prominent family of Stockbridge. Ma^ 
sachusetts. and during his boyhood was, with his 
brothers, intimately associated with Cyrus, David. 
Dudley and Henry Field, afterwards distin- 
guished members of the Field family, whose home 
adjoined that of the Sedgwicks. Charles Sedg- 
wick was one of three brothers. He received a 
common and high school education in Oberlin 
and Poughkecpsic. New York, and soon after 
the family removed to Ringhamton, New York. 
he entering the employment of Isaac G. Perry, 
a well-known New York architect, in 1872, and 
remaining with Mr. Perry twelve years, rising 
during that time from apprentice boy to foreman. 

draughtsman and assistant, having in charge the 
construction of many large and important build- 
ings in New York state and Pennsylvania. In 
1884 Mr. Sedgwick severed his connection with 
Mr. Perry and came to Minneapolis, opening an 
architectural office in the Hurlburt building on 
Nicollet avenue, and later in the Colloni build- 
ing on Fourth street, and in 1903 moving into the 
Lumber Exchange, where he still remains. 
During his twenty-four years' practice in this 
city he has planned many public and business 
buildings and many churches and residences, 
prominent among which are the Young Men's 
Christian Association Building, State University 
Library Building, Dayton Building, Boutell Build- 
ing, Westminster Presbyterian Church, Andrew 
Presbyterian Church, Park Avenue Congrega- 
tional Church, etc. He has also planned many fine 
buildings and churches in other cities. One of 
the largest is the Second Congregational Church 
of Waterbury, Connecticut. In addition to his 
regular business, Mr. Sedgwick is publishing a 
book of house designs, which is advertised in 
leading magazines and is sold in all parts of the 
country, being the medium through which the 
planning of houses and buildings is secured for 
different localities. Mr. Sedgwick is publishing 
a descriptive page, with illustration of house and 
plan, monthly in the Home Jlagazine of In- 
dianapolis, and Northwestern Agriculturist of 
Minneapolis, and a weekly contribution to the 
"Actualides" of Lima, Peru, South America. He 
is also publishing house plans weekly through an 
Eastern syndicate in many of the leading Sunday 
newspapers, covering over twenty-two states and 
Canada. Mr. Sedgwick has not specialized on any 
particular branch, but has extended experience 
along all lines of architectural work. 

WHITNEY, William Channing, was born at 
Harvard, Massachusetts, April 11, 1851, son of 
Benjamin F. Whitney. After the usual rudi- 
mentary educational training, he entered the 
Lawrence Academy at Groton, Massachusetts, 
and passed to the higher education in the 
Massachusetts State College and graduated 
with the class of 1872. He then devoted 
his attention to the study of architecture, for 
which he had an instinctive love and taste, and 
in Boston's art schools and architects' offices and 
in independent study, he developed the taste and 
original qualities of perception of architectural 
proprieties which have characterized his work in 
.Minneapolis. Mr. Whitney is a republican in 
politics and is a Fellow of the .Vmerican Insti- 
tute of Architects, a director of the Minneapolis 
Society of Fine Arts, a member of the Art Com- 
mission of Minneapolis, and a member of the 
Minneapolis Club. Mr. Whitney was married on 
October 6, i88r, to .'\lma C. Walker, of Water- 
town. Massachusetts, and to them have been born 
two daughters. 



IN THE earliest days of its histury. 
Minneapolis seems to have dniu- (|nitc 
well without courts or lawyers. it 
appears to have been an unusually peaceful 
community fur a frontier \illage. as there 
are no records of serious crime committed 
in the early pioneer da\-s anil there was an 
entire absence of spirit of litigation among 
the inhabitants. It is a matter of history 
tliat the first term of cuurt convened within 
the present limits of the cit_\' found abso- 
lutely no cases to l)e tried. 

Previous to the organization of Minne- 
sota Territory in 1849, there were no courts 
available had there been litigants without 
number. 'J"he east side of the Mississippi 
river had passed successively through the 
jurisdiction of the l-'reneh and F.nglish and 
of the territories of Indiana, Illinois, Michi- 
gan and Wisconsin. ITnder the latter .gov- 
ernment twii terms of court had been held 
at .Stillwater, but the potential Minneapolis 
had not ]3articipated. 

On the western bank of the ]\Iississipi>i 
there was judicial authority as early as 1835 
or 1836, when Henry H. Sibley received 
from the governor of Iowa a commission as 
justice of the peace with jurisdiction ex- 
tending from below Prairie du Chien to the possessions on the north. Gen. 
Sibley's power was almost unlimited and 
his acts were ne\-er called in (pu^tion li\ 
higher authorities, but, being a man i>f high 
character, there is no tlnpught that he c\er 
misused his |)o\ver, althougii the e.xigencies 
of frontier conditirjus seemed to make it 
necessary that the representative of the law 
should not always confine himself to exact 
limits of authority. Among certain of the 
settlers it was firmly believed that Justice 
Sibley had the power of life and death, 
which was perhaps just as well. 

.Minnesota became a territory of the 
L'nited States on March 3, 1849. The or- 
ganic act provided that the judicial power 
of the territory should be \ested in a 
supreme court, district courts, probate 
courts and justices of the peace. The first 
of these tribunals was constituted in the ap- 
]iointment b}' President Taylor of Aaron 
(joodrich of Tennessee as chief justice and 
1 )a\id Cooper of Pennsylvania and B. B. 
.Meeker of Kentucky as associate justices. 
( ioxeruor l\ani>ey issued a proclamation 
dix'iding the territory into three judicial dis- 
tricts: the first lying between the Missis- 
sijipi and St. Croix rivers, the second be- 
tween the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, 
and the third composed of the remainder 
(if the territory, or that part south of the 
Minnesota river. Judge Cioodrieh was as- 
signeij to the lirst district. Judge Afeeker to 
the second, atid Judge Cooper to the third. 

L'nder these appointments and assign- 
ments the first term of cmn't in the terri- 
tory of Minnesota was held at Stillwater on 
the second Monday of ,'\ugust. 1849. At 
this time the first grand jnr\^ of Minnesota 
was impaneled, and ten indictments were 
found. But w lu-n the second district court 
was convened in the following week in the 
old government mill at the Falls of St. An- 
Ihonv, it was disco\-ered that absolutely no 
cases were to I)e tried, while the first grand 
iur\ in tliis district ciiuld lind no wdrk to 
di I. JManlv'lin Steele, the St. Antlnnn pio- 
neer, was foieman of this tirst grand jury. 


The absence of legal business did not, 
however, deter lawyers from coming to Min- 
neapolis. The first lawyer to establish him- 
self was Ellis (i. W hit.all. who opened an 
office on the east side in 1849; the second 
was John W. North who came early in 1850. 




.Mr. Xiii-lli was a furceful man who took a 
\ery proiiiinriil [lai'l in the early liistorv of 
tlie youni^ city. TIk- third attorne\' ti' 
come here was the late Judge Isaac At- 
water. He arrived in October, 1850, and 
with Mr. Xorth formed tlie first law part- 
nership. Judge Atwater was even then a 
\ersatile and ])rogressive man. He had a 
hand in the foundation laying of the city 
and ne\er lost interest in matters pertaining 
lo the public welfare. Before he had been 
in the state a year he was appointed upon 
the Ijoard of regents of the University of 
.Minnesota, and in 1857 was elected a.ssoci- 
ate justice of the supreme court. Mean- 
while he had edited newspapers, invested 
in real estate and taken an active part in 
!oca! and territorial politics. Later he 
-i-rved in the city council and on the board 
"I education. 

Soon after Judge Atwater came D. A. 
Secombe, who was a leading member of the 
bar until his death in 1892. In 1852 Wil- 
liam H. Welch arrived in St. .Antlionv. .As 
an instance of the opportunities for rapid 

advancement in the pioneer days it may be 
cited that Judge AN'clch was chosen justice 
of the peace and while in that office was ap- 
pointed to the supreme bench of the state. 
During the early fifties such well-known 
names as William Lochren, J. W. (lilfillan, 
1-. R. E. Cornell, C. K. \'and'erburgh, E. S. 
Jones, W. D. Washburn, R. J. Baldwin, W. 
W. i\TcXair, L. M. Stewart and Eugene M. 
Wilson were added to the roll of the local 
bar. P>om this time on the rapid growth 
of the city and the numerous accessions to 
tlie bar make enumeration in detail impos- 

In docs not appear that after the first 
unproductive session of court in i84C^, any 
judge attempted another for several years, 
but in the meantime the people of St. An- 
thony established, under the territorial law. 
a justice's court, electing to the office Lard- 
ner pjostwick, who had arrived at the h'alls 
in 1850. Judge Bostwick had no legal edu- 
cation, but he was of unquestioned honesty 
and practical common sense and had the 
confidence and love of his constituents. He 
meted out justice after his own fashion for 
many years, being re-elected from time to 
time. Many cases of considerable import- 
ance, and which were not [iroperlv in the 
jiu-isdiction of a justice's court, were 
brought before Judge Bostwick and tried 
and decided with no question from any 
one. Judge Bostwick's court was held for 
many years in a small frame buildTng at 
the corner of Main street and Second ave- 
nue northeast. In 1856 Judge Bostwick 
was admitted to the bar and in after life he 
served the city and county in various ]niblic 

In 1853 the territorial legislature passetl 
an act directing that two terms of court be 
held each year in Henneiiin countv. The 
first term held pursuant to this law con- 
vened on .\pril 4, 1853. There was, of 
course, no courthouse, and the commission- 
ers secured the use of a parlor and two 
bed rooms in the house of Anson Northrui). 
on b'irst street, near Fourth avenue south. 
At this term the lawyers present were Isaac 
Atwater, D. ,A. Secombe, E. L. Hall, James 
IT. Fridley and George W. Prcscott. The 
comit\' attornc\- was ^^'arren P.ristol. The 




clerk (if tlic court was Swccl W, Case, ami ilu new C(jnrllinnse df JS57 was presided 

llie fnreniaii of the ^raml jury ini|)aneled 1 1\ er li_\ ihe late 1 iiil.L;e I'landraii. L'pdii tlie 

was I )r. A. 1'.. Ames. Tin- suhseiinenl terms Dr^aiiizalidii nf the state, next year, James 

of the district CMurt. until ihe erection of Hall of Little Palls liccanie tlie first judge 

tlie conrtlionse at l'".iglitli avenue south of this, the fonrili judicial district, which 

and ]'"ourth street, were held in a frame then inchuKd Ihiiteen counties liesi.les 1 len- 

huildine; (in llridge Sijuare. nepin. 

\\ ilh the admission of Minnesota to 

'"" '"•^^' '"iKiiiorsK. statehood, in 1X58, came many changes in 

The building of the lirsl courthouse the courts, 'I'he judicial office was made 

caused great commotion in the \illage, eleclixe .and the supreme judges ceased to 

owing to the rival claims of the upi)er and serve on the district bench. During the 

lower town. The latter won and the court first year of statehood eighty-nine lawyers 

house was built at l'",iglith a\'enue south. were enrolk'il in the office of the clerk of 

'l"he first term ul the district court held in the sujirenic court as mend.>ers of the bar 



of the state. This number increased very 
rapidly. I'mvisinn was also made for the 
establishment of other courts at the pleasure 
of the legislature. This power led later to 
the establishment of courts of common 
pleas and municipal courts. 

As the constitution ])rovided for only one 
judge to a district, the growing needs of the 
fourth district were met by the gradual 
lopping off of outside counties. But in 1872 
it became necessary to provide for larger 
business, and a court of common pleas was 
created, with Austin H. Young as judge. 
After a few years this extra court was found 
cumbersome, and it was merged in the 
district court. There were then two judges 
of the district court. Judge Charles E. Van- 
derburgh had been elected in 1859 and had 
retained the position ever since; holding it, 
in fact, until his elevation to the supreme 
bench in 1882. In 1881 the business of the 
district had so greatly increased that the 
legislature authorized an additional judge, 
and William Lochren was appointed to the 
position by Governor Pillsbury. These 
three judges occupied the bench for much 
longer terms than any others who have ever 
served the district. 

The court house of 1857 was outgrown at 
a very early date. Numerous additions 
gave temporary relief but added to the un- 
sightliness of the structure, and in 1887 for- 
mal steps were taken towards the erection 
of a suitable building. The legislature of 
this year intrusted a commission with the 
duty of purchasing a site and erecting a 
building to be used jointly by the city and 
county as a courthouse and city hall. The 
members of this commission were Wilfiam 
D. Washburn, Charles M. Loring, John C. 
Oswald, John Swift, Oliver T. Erickson, W. 
S. Chowen, David AI. Clough, Lars Swen- 
son and Titus Alareck. To these were sub- 
sequently added George A. Brackett, E. F. 
Comstock and E. M. Johnson. Upon the 
resignation of Air. Loring, John DeLaittre 
was appointed. After some negotiation, 
the block bounded by Eourth and Fifth 
streets and Third and Fourth avenues 
south was secured and the work of con- 
struction was connncnccd in i88g. The 
county side of the building was practically 

II. InlNil 

completed and (i[)ened for use in Xoxember, 
1895. It is one of the finest courthouses in 
the Country and cost over $3,000,000. 


j\Iinnesota was constituted a judicial dis- 
trict of the L^nited States innnediately upon 
its admission, but terms of the United 
States courts were always held in St. Paul 
until 1890, wdien the district was sub-di- 
vided. Since then the court has been held 
during stated terms in the federal building 
in Minneapolis. The first Minneapolis law- 
yer to recei\'e appointment to the U. S. dis- 
trict bench was Judge William Lochren, 
who had long served as judge of the state 
district court. He was appointed in 1896 
and served until 1908, when he resigned, 
and Milton D. Purdy of Minneapolis was 
appointed his successor. Eugene AI. Wil- 
son and Eugene G. Hay have represented 
the Minneapolis bar in the list of U. S. dis- 
trict atforncys. 




The judges of the fourth judicial district 
since the organization of the state have 
heen these: James Hall, May 24, 1858, to 
October i, 1858; Edward O. Hamlin, Octo- 
her r, 1858, to December 31, 1858; Chas. E. 
X'anderburgh, January i, 1859, to January 
I, 1882; A. H. Young. January, 1877, to 
January, uSgf : John M. .Shaw, Jaiuiary 13, 
1882, to January 8, 1884: M. !',. K(.,.n, Jan- 
uary 8, 1884, to May i, 1886; |,>lin 1". kvn. 
May I, 1886, to March 5, 1889; William 
Lochren, November 19, 1881, to May, 1893; 
Henry G. Hicks, March 16, 1887, to Janu- 
ary, 1895; Frederick Hooker, March 5, i88g, 
to September, 1893; Seagrave Smith, March 
5. 1889, to May, 1898; C. M. Pond, Novem- 
ber 18, 1890, to January, 1897; Thos. Canty, 
January 5, 1891, to January, 1894; Robert 
n. Russell, May 8, 1893, to October 20. 
1897; Robert Jamison, September 19, 1893. 
to December i, 1897; Charles B. Elliott, 
January, 1894, to October 4, 1905; Henry 
C. Belden, January, 1895, to May 5. 1897; 

Di-nii of the Coll<.Bo (.f r.iiw, Unlvcr.slly of MlniiPsota. 

David F. Simpson, January 5, 1897, to Janu- 
ary, 1909; Edward M. Johnson, May 5, 
1897, to January, 1899; John F. McGee, 
October 20, 1897, to November 19, 1902; 
W'illard R. Cray, November 19, 1902, to 
January, 1905; William A. Lancaster, De- 
cember I, 1897, to January 2, 1899; Alex- 
ander M. Harri.son, May 19, 1898, to Janu- 
ary, 1905; Chas. M. Pond, January 2, "1899, 
to January, 1905; Frank C. 1 '.rooks, January 
-'. 1899, to January, 1911; .Andrew Holt, 
January 2, 1905, to January, 191 1; Horace 
D. Dickinson, January 2, 1905, to January, 
1911; John Day Smith, January 2, 1905, to 
January, 191 1; Frederick V. lirown, Octo- 
i)er 4, 1905, to January, HJ13. 

During the territorial period Sweet W. 
Case was clerk of the district court. Under 
the state government the clerks have been 
as follows: H. A. Partridge, PI. O. Ham- 
lin, J. P. Plummer, George PI. W. Chowen, 
1). W. Albaugh, L. Jerome, J. .\. \\'olver- 
ton, E. J. Davenport, C. P. 'Pirrell, George 
G. Tirrell, C. N. Dickey, A. E. Allen. 

During the period from 1867 to 1872 the 
office of city justice was held by Judge 
Charles PI. Woods, . H. A. Partridge, D. 
Morgan, J. L. Himes, and Henry G. Plicks. 

The names of the city attorneys for old 
St. .\nlliony, Minneapolis and the consoli- 
ilated city after 1872 will be found in the 
li>l of city officials in the chapter on Public 
-MTairs and Officials. Frank Plealy, the 
present incumlient, was appointed in i8i;7 
and is now ser\ing his twelfth year of ser- 
vice — by far the longest term of any city 
attorney since the lieginning of the citv. 
Since 1888 the term of office has commenced 
on January i and has been for two years. 


Soon after the consolidation of the two 
cities an act was passed, in 1874, establish- 
ing a numicipal court in Minneapolis. This 
court was given much larger jurisdiction 
than the city justices. Grove T!. Coolev was 
elected municiiial court judge in 1874 and 
served imtil .\iiril, 1883. In 1877 the busi- 
ness of the Court had so increased that a 
special judge was proxidcd, and Reul)in 
Reynolds was appointed and served until 
1879. ]<"rancis B. Bailey was then appointed 
and licld the office until April, 18R3, when 





he was elected regular judge for the term 
expiring Jan. i, 1889. At the same time 
Stephen Mahoney was elected special judge. 
George D. Emery was elected judge for the 
term commencing January i, 1889, and 
Judge Mahoney was re-elected special judge 
at the same time. Upon the resignation of 
Judge Emery, in 1891, Charles B. Elliott 
was appointed to the office for the unex- 
pired term, and was re-elected in 1892. He 
served until January 4, 1894, when he was 
appointed to the district bench and Andrew 
Holt was appointed as his successor. In 
1896 William A. Kerr was elected special 
judge to succeed Judge Mahoney. In 1901 
H. D. Dickinson succeeded Judge Kerr and 
in 1905 both Judge Holt and Judge Dickin- 
son were elevated to the district bench and 
Edward F. Waite and C. L. Smith were ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy. In ilie fall of 
1906 Judge Waite was elected judge of the 

municipal court for the full term and Judge 
Smith was elected special judge at the same 
time and both are now serving on the bench. 
The first judge of probate in Hennepin 
county was Joel B. Bassett, who was elect- 
ed in 1852. It appears from the records 
that during his two years' service only one 
person died who was possessed of any prop- 
erty requiring the care of the court, and no 
estates were administered. Judge Bassett 
was succeeded by E. S. Jones, who held the 
oiifice for four years. Lardner Bostwick 
was judge of probate in i860 and i86r, and 
N. H. Hemiup from 1861 to the close of the 
year 1870. The succeeding judges were 
these: Franklin Beebe, 1870-1875; E. A. 
Gove, 1875; P- M. Babcock, 1876 and 1877: 
John P. Rea. 1877 to 1882: A. Uelan<l. 1882 
to 1887; F. Von Schlegel, 1887 to 1890; 
Francis B. Bailey, 1890; J. R. Corrigan, 1891 
and 1892; John II. Steele, 1893 — 1896; 



Frederick C. Harvey, iRg" tn Kp"; George 
R. Siiiilli, 1907. 

Since the organization of the state, Hen- 
nepin county has liad eighteen county at- 
torneys. I'he complete list follows: James 
R. La.wrence, November i, 1858; \V. W. 
McNair, May 5, 1862; J. \i. Giltillan, May, 
4, 1863; George R. Robinson. Alay 1867; J. 
B. Gilfillan, May, i86g : David A. Secombe, 
May, 1871; J.' B. Gilfillan. March, 1873: 
lames W. Lawrence, Tanuarv i, 1875; \V. 
E. Hale, 1879; John G. VVoolley, 1883: 
Frank F. Davis, 1885; Robert Jamison, 
1889; L. R. Thian, 1891 ; Frank M. Nye, 
1893; Tames A. Peterson, i8i;7; Louis A. 
Reed, 1899; I'^red H. Boardman, 1901; Al 
J. Smith, T905. 


In 1883 the Minneapolis Bar associati(.iii 
was organized with the purpose of building 
up a substantial and permanent law library. 
Its first president was the late E. M. Wil- 
son, and it had a membership of fort_\--six 
leading lawyers. It has since grown in 
strength, and its library — long housed in 
Temple Court — has now found a ])ermanent 
home in the courthouse. 

The Hennepin County Bar association 
was formed in 1896, in recognition of a de- 
mand for an organization which should in- 
clude all reputalde members (jf the |)r(.ifes- 
sion in Hennepin county, and with the 
avowed objects of advancing the science of 
jurisprudence, promoting the administra- 
tion of justice and upholding the honor of 
the law. The l)0(ly has no regular meet- 
ings, but is called tcjgetlier from time to 
time as needs arise. 


In 1888 the College of Law of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota was established and 
was opened on Se])tcmber ir, with an ad- 
dress by Dean W. S. I'attee, w In > l)een 
called to the head of the sclic"il and wlm 
has since continuously devoted liis time and 
abilities to its interests. Al first the l.iw 
department was quartered in the old main 

building, hut an appropriation of $25,000 
was soon secured and the original law 
building was erected in time for the open- 
ing of the fall session of 1889. This build- 
ing has since been greatly enlarged to meet 
the growth of the student body. An enroll- 
ment of sixty-seven students during the 
first year was followed by a rapid increase 
nntil the college has become one of the lead- 
ing law schools of the country. 

In 1895 th*-' course of study was length- 
ened from two to three years. There was 
some fear lest this change should i)rove too 
radical, as this was the first western school 
to propose such a forward movement ; but 
other schools soon followed the example. 
In the same year of 1895 a graduate depart- 
ment was organized leading to the degree 
I if LL. At. This course of study included 
the subjects of general juris]irudence, politi- 
cal science, constitntinnal history and juris- 
prudence, and some others which vary from 
year to year as necessity requires. Those 
students only are admitted to this course 
who have received their degree of B. L. In 
1898 a third course consisting of advanced 
work in comparative jurisprudence, Roman 
law, the philosophy of jurisprudence and 
jiolitical science was organized. No definite 
time was prescribed within which the work 
required for graduation siiuidd be per- 
fdrined, but ^tudent^ are permitted a rea- 
sonable time to pre|)are and present their 
final theses, the acceptance of which liy the 
faculty entitles the candidate to the degree 
of D. C. L. 

The facidty of the college of Law is as 
follows: Cyrus Northrop, president; Wil- 
liam S. Pattee, dean; A. L". Hickman, James 
Paige, Henry J. I'letcher, Edwin A. Jag- 
gard, Howard .'-^. Abbott, Robert S. Kolliner, 
Hugh l',. Willis, Ifugh V. Mercer, Homer 
W. .Stevens, Charles W. Buim, Christopher 
I ). O'Brien, and Jared How. The special 
lertm-ers .are John Lind, Charles P.. h^lliott, 
A. I',.", T. I). < )'r,rien. Jcilin W. Wil- 
lis, W illiani 1'. I ..•mcaster, Rume G. Pirown, 
Daniel FIsIl Edmund S. I)urment, John F. 



ABBOTT, Howard Strickland, son of the Rev. 
Abiel H., and Mary Ellen Strickland Abbott, was 
born Sept. 15th, 1863 at Farmington. JNIinn., and 
spent his boyhood in Minnesota. His father be- 
came a member of the Minnesota Methodist 
Church Conference, which he joined in 1855, con- 
tinuing to be an active clerical worker until his 
death in 1903. The son Howard came near being 
a victim of the Sioux Indian massacre in 1862, 
his father being then stationed at St. Peter. When 
fourteen years old he taught school, and. after 
preparation at the Minneapolis Academy, ho en- 
tered the state university, graduating in 1885 with 
the degree of B. L. He studied law in Minne- 
apolis with James 1). Springer, then general solic- 
itor for the Minneapolis & St. Louis and the 
"Soo" railway companies, and was admitted to 
the bar, after oral examination by the Supreme 
Court, in .\pril, 1887. After admission, he was 
appointed assistant general solicitor for the M. 
& St. L., and "Soo" railways and, in i8go, be- 
came assistant counsel for the Atchison. 
Topeka & Santa Fe R. R., at Chicago and then 
at St. Louis. From 1886 to l8go he was secretary 
of the Wisconsin, Minnesota & Pacific Ry. Co., 
and in 1897 succeeded W. D. Cornish as special 
master in chancery of tlie Union Pacific Railway 
Company, then in the hands of receivers. He 
devoted himself for the next four years to the 
task of closing up the afifairs of that corpora- 
tion, which involved the solution of many dif- 
ficult problems and the supervision of the proper 
disbursement of many millions of dollars paying 
claims and operating the road besides writing de- 
cisions as to disbursements and questions of 
policy which were in no case reversed on appeal. 
Mr. Abbott, upon the termination of this work, 
came to Minneapolis and was appointed Stand- 
ing Master in Chancery, U. S. Circuit Court. 
District of Minnesota, and has lectured on public 
and private corporations and civil law in the law 
department of the state university. Mr. ,M)br)tt 
is the author of several valuable works on the 
law of corporations, the most recent being a 
three volume work on municipal corporations. 
which has received the highest encomiums from 
judges and lawyers as a discussion of rare schol- 
arship and analytical acuteness. Mr. Abbott 
has also distinguished himself as a bond and 
security expert and an authority on railway ques- 
tions. He is now a director of the .Minneapolis 
Trust Co., and a member of the executive com- 
mittee. The family, which is descended from 
George .\bbott of Rowley, Mass., who came to 
this country in 1632. can boast of many members 
who have done notable work in literature, as the 
historian J. S. C. Abbott. Jacob Abbott, noted 
as an educator and writer, and .A.ustin and Ben- 
jamin Vaughn Abbott as lawyers and the distin- 
guished Dr. Lyman Abbott, who are near rela- 
tives of Howard S. Abbott. 

Mr. Abbott is a member of the Minneapolis, 
the Minikahda and the Lafayette Clubs and a 

Howard s. abbott. 

member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon college fra- 
ternity. He attends St. Marks Episcopal Church 
and is a member of the vestry of that parish and 
one of the trustees of the Diocese of Minne- 
sota. He was married on June 28, 1898, to Mary 
Louise Johnson, of Racine, Wis. To them two 
children have been born, Emily Louise and 
Howard Johnson. 

ALBERT, Charles Stanley, lawyer, is a Penn- 
sylvanian, born at Williamsport, July lO, 1872, 
and the son of .Mien D. and Sarah A. (Faber) 
.•\lbert. Until he was sixteen he went to the 
common schools of Wilkesbarre — to which city 
his parents removed when he was four — and of 
Towanda, where he lived between ten and sixteen. 
His father then took a post as a government offi- 
cial at Washington, D. C, and his son Charles 
studied law in the office of Worthington & Heald 
and attended the law school of Columbian Uni- 
versity, (now George Washington University). 
He graduated from Columbian with his LL. B. in 
1892, and LL. M. in 1893, then came to Min- 
neapolis and entered the office of Benton, Rob- 
erts & Brown, attending the University of Min- 
nesota law school in the winters of '93-'94- He 
received his I-L. B. from this in 1894. Between 
1897 and 1900 Mr. Albert was in partnership with 
W. E. Dodge. After Mr. Dodge's appointment 
as general attorney for the Great Northern Rail- 



way, with headquarters at St. Paul, he formed a 
partnership with Rome G. Brown. jMr. Albert is 
a gold democrat. He belongs to the legal fra- 
ternity of Phi Delta Phi and to the American, 
State, Hennepin County and Minneapolis Bar 
associations, and is a member of the Minneapolis, 
Minikahda, and the Lafayette clubs. He is un- 
married. As a member of the firm of Rome G. 
Brown and Charles S. Albert he is attorney for a 
large number of corporations in Minneapolis and 
in Minnesota. 

ANKENY, Alexander Thompson, son of Isaac 
Ankeny and Eleanore Parker Ankeny, was born 
at Somerset, Pennsylvania, December 27, 1837. 
After receiving in his native town a common school 
education he attended the Disciples' College at 
Hiram, Ohio, and later an academy at Morgan- 
town, West Virginia, and Jefferson College at 
Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. He then received an 
appointment at Washington in the office of the 
United States Attorney General, Hon. Jeremiah 
S. Black, at the same time reading law there. He 
was admitted to the bar at Somerset in April, 
i86r. During the war he held a position of more 
than ordinary trust in the War Department under 
Hon. Edwin M. Stanton. Mr. Ankeny came to 
Minneapolis in April, 1872, and for some years 
was connected with the/ lumber firm of W. P. 
Ankeny & Bro. In 1878 he resumed law prac- 
tice and has since continued therein. During his 



residence in the city he has been identified with 
its best progress and development. He has fre- 
quently been a candidate of the democrats, in 
1890 coming within a few votes of election as 
one of the district judges. In 1896 he was the 
party candidate for mayor. From 1886 to 1895 
he was a member of the board of education, and 
for the last four years of the term was its presi- 
dent, also being ex-officio a member of the li- 
brary board. From 1899 to 1903 he was presi- 
dent of the state normal school board. Mr. An- 
keny was one of the incorporators of the Ma- 
sonic Temple Association in 1885, and for sev- 
eral years has been president of the board. He 
is identified with the Portland Avenue Church 
of Christ and is one of its three trustees. Mr. 
.'\nkeny was married at Wheeling, West Virginia, 
in 1861, to Miss Martha V. Moore. Four children 
now grown reside in this city, the eldest dan.c:hter, 
Mrs. Chester McKusick, having died at Duluth, 
.Minnesota, in 1900. Mrs. Ankeny died here May 
27, 1904. 

-\RCTANDER, Ludvig, lawyer, was born at 
Skien, Norway, on January 3. 1863, the son of 
.'\ugust' H. and Caroline Ahlsell Arctanf'or. His 
father was a college professor at Skien. The 
Arctander family is one of the old families of 
Norway and one whose members have taken an 
active part in the intellectual and political life 
of the country for four hunds'ed j'ears. A cousir., 
Sophus Arctander, is a member of the present 
Norwegian cabinet and was one of the chief 
actors in the movement which resulted in the 
dissolution of the union between Norway and 
Sweden. As a boy Mr. Arctander attended the 
high school and college at Skien and received 
the degree of M. A. at the University of Chris- 
tiania in 1881. In the same year he emigrated to 
the United States. He first went to Willmar. 
Minnesota and taught school in Kandiyohi and 
Renville counties during 1882, '83 and '84; edited 
the Willmar .^rgus in 1885 and all this time do- 
voted himself to the study rif law. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1885 and in January, 1880, 
commenced practice in Minneapolis. His twenty 
years of practice have been closely devoted to 
his profession and he has given little time to 
outside pursuits. His only participation in poli- 
tics has been as an independent voter and citizen 
— so much so that he has no party affiliations 
and has never taken any active part in political 
campaigns or filled public office. Mr. .\rctander 
was married in 1903 to Mrs. Dolly Miller. They 
have nil rbihlrcn. 

AUSTIN. Charles D.. lawyer, is the son <•! 
David .'\ustin, a Maine farmer. He was born 
April 26. 1856, at Belgrade. Kennebec county, 
Maine. He was brought up on his father's farm 
to which he returned for his vacations while fit- 
ting for and attending college. During a portion 
of the lime he was attending college he spent 




i'UAi;i.i;.s II. AUSTIN. 

his vacations in teaching- school to defray ex- 
penses. He attended the Weslcyan College bnt 
did not complete the course there. In the year 

1880, upon the advice of his brother, Horace Aus- 
tin, Ex-Governor of Minnesota, then Register of 
the United States Land Office at Fargo, Dakota, 
he started for Fargo reaching therein the spring 
of that year. At that place he entered the gov- 
ernment service in the Land Office where he re- 
mained for about one year while looking for a 
suitable place to locate permanently. 

He located at Lisbon, Ransom County, Da- 
kota Territory (now North Dakota) on July 5th. 

1881, when the town was forty miles from the 
nearest railroad station. This section of the 
country was just being developed and he did a 
large land and loan business from the outset. 
Having been admitted to the bar in 1882 he en- 
gaged in the practice of law in addition to liix 
other business. 

He was a member of the territorial legisla- 
ture during the session of 1884-5, the stormy ses- 
sion at which an attempt was made to remove 
the capital from Bismarck. He held several other 
offices having been mayor of Lisbon, a member 
of the board of education, besides holding several 
minor offices. As a lawyer, Mr. Austin was en- 
gaged in important litigation. The Hewitt case, 
involving the right of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road Company to select indemnity lands as 

against an entryman, which was carried to the 
Supreme Court of the United States by him and 
where his contention was finally sustained, was 
a very important case and one of general inter- 

On June ist, 1893, he moved to Minneapolis 
and formed a partnership with Judge Bailey, 
which continued until his death. After that he 
was in partnership with Judge Pierce for several 
years, but is now in business for himself. Mr. 
.Austin is a Republican. He is a member of the 
Westminster Presbyterian Church of Minneapolis. 
By his marriage to x'^delaide J. Van Vleck, Jan- 
uary 25, 1888, he has one child — Van Vleck Aus- 

B.-\.RD\^■ELL, Winfield W., was born July 18, 
1807, at E.xcelsior, Hennepin county, Minnesota, 
son of William E. and Araminta Hamblet Bard- 
well, his father being an engineer. .-Kfter attending 
the common schools and academy at Excelsior, 
Winfield entered the office of Harlan P. Roberts 
in Minneapolis as stenographer and clerk, and 
then took a course of law at the State University, 
receiving from that institution the degree of LL. 
B., and the supplementary degree of LL. M., for 
the required graduate work. Since 1891 Mr. Bard- 
weU has been engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession, first in partnership with James M. Bur- 
lingame, as Burlingame & Bardwell, and later 
with C. L. Weeks, as Bardwell & Weeks, and 




s«eeT, PHOTO 


latterly he has practiced alone. Mr. Bardwell was 
a member nf the legislature in the sessions nf 
lyo.vigo.S, and chairman of the Hennepin count}- 
delegation and of the committee on insurance in 
1905. lie intrnihued and put tln-r>uf;li liill- f^r 
general salary adin^fnunt of Hennepin ciiunl\ 
officials and introduced a bill placing city clerk, 
assessor and engineers on the elective basis, but 
the iuia>nre ilid not pass the senate. Afr. Bard- 
well is a niemhir of the Commercial Club, of the 
.Masonic < >rdc 1. and tlie Royal .'\rcanuni. .Secre- 
tary cjf the Hennepin County Bar Assoei.atiiin, 
and member of the executive com mil in nf the 
Minneapolis Bar Association. Mr. Ilardwell is 
a member of the Park .\\euue Congregatinnal 
Church. He was married in iSoJ to I'.dilh M.iy 
t'li.nnpliii .Old tlirer ehihiren h,i\e ]}ern liorn In 
them, .Mildred I.. Charles (.'h.'ini]diii .•ind M.'irion.\, 

BAXTICR, J(dm T., general counsel for the 
Northwestern National Life Insurance Company, 
was born at Berlin, Wisconsin, on October 15;, 
1862, the son of Thomas Baxter and Susannah 
{ Lewis) Baxter. He acquired a grannnar and 
high school education at West Salem, Wisconsin, 
and then entered Ripon College at Ripon, Wis- 
consin, for a preparatt)ry course. He studied 
there for three years, taking a prominent part in 
the oratorical work of his school; and at the 
same time held a position as express messenger 

with the American Express Coinpany. In 1885 
he matriculated at Williams College, and grad- 
uated with an A. B. degree in 1887, winning the 
\'i\n Vechten prize, awarded to the best ex- 
tempore speaker of the graduating class by the 
popular vote of the students and faculty. He 
moved to Minneapolis and the following year 
commenced to qualify liimself for the legal pro- 
fession by studying law in a Minneapolis law 
office and in i88g was admitted to the bar. Mr. 
Ilaxfer liegan his active legal practice in 1890 
at .Minneapolis, and in 190G was appointed gen- 
eral counsel for the Northwestern National Life 
Insurance Company, a position he now holds. 
In 1891 Mr. Baxter was married to Miss Gertrude 
Hooker of Minneapolis, and they have three 
children, Beth, Helen and John, aged respec- 
livcly fifteen, eleven and four years. Mr. Baxter 
IS a member of the- Commercial Club, the Six 
O'clock Club, the American Bar Association 
and the Minneapolis Bar Association of which he 
was for fifteen years secretary. 

BLI~,ECKER, George Morton, was born at 
VVhippany, New Jersey, on November 19, 1S61, 
being descended from one of the earlier Knicker- 
bocker families wdio settled on Manhattan island. 
He attended the public schools and Whippany 
.\cademy, and after coming to ]\linneapolis, in 
188,^, entered the University of Minnesota and 
i-ontimied special work during that and the fol- 




lowing year. His legal education was acquired 
in the law department of the University of 
Michigan, which he entered in 1885. After 
graduating in June, 1887, Mr. Bleecker returned 
to Minneapolis and was admitted to the bar of 
Minnesota in December of that year, and has 
practiced in this city continuously since that date. 
With the exception of three years, from 1894 to 
1897, when he was associated with Edward E. 
Witchie, Mr, Bleecker has practiced alone. His 
clients include a number of the larger corpora- 
tions of the city and state and his practice ex- 
tends into the state and federal courts. ?ilr. 
Bleecker has not taken an active part in political 
affairs, but has had a lively interest in good poli- 
tics, and has twice been called upon to serve the 
public. He served as clerk of the Probate Court 
of Hennepin county during the years 1891 and 
1892, and was also a representative in the State 
Legislature during the session of 1893, and would 
probably have received further honors had he 
not been a democrat living in a republican dis- 
trict. Mr. Bleecker is married (his wife was 
Mary Frances Martin) and the family attend the 
Episcopal church. He is a member of several oi' 
the social and fraternal organizations of the city, 
including the Masonic and Odd Fellows bodies 
and the Order of Elks. 

BRIGHT, Alfred H., general counsel for the 
Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Rail- 
road, was the son of Thomas Bright and Jane 
(Crittendon) Bright and was born at Adams Cen- 
ter, New York. Thomas Bright was of English 
birth, coming to New York when ten years of 
age and removing, in 1850 to Wisconsin where his 
son attended the common schools and the state 
university from which he graduated in 1874 with 
the degree A. B. and L. B. Two years later he 
was admitted to the bar. He practiced law in 
Wyoming from '84 to '87. In '87 he went to 
Milwaukee, where he was solicitor of the Mil- 
waukee and Northern Railway Co. until 1891. 
During his residence in Milwaukee he was a 
member of the law firm of Williams, Friend & 
Bright. In i8gi he came to Minneapolis to ac- 
cept the position of general solicitor of the Min- 
neapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie railw^ay. or 
the "Soo Line" as it is more familiarly called. 
This oflice he filled until in February, 1908. he 
was appointed general counsel for the same line. 
the office which he now holds. Mr. Bright is a 
republican in political faith, and though not a 
politician, takes a lively interest in public affairs. 
In Wyoming he was for four years prosecuting 
attorney of Fremont county but he has not held 
office at any other time. Since coming to Min- 
neapolis he has taken a special interest in educa- 
tional matters and has been considered as a de- 
sirable candidate for the board of education. He 
is one of the board of directors of the Associated 
Charities and is a member of the Minneapolis 
Commercial Club. A Universalist, he is affiliated 
with the CInirch of the Redeemer. He married 

Emily Haskell September 15, 1887. They have 
four children, Elizabeth, George Noyes, Kather- 
ine, and Agnes. 

BROWN, Frederick Vaness, was born on 
March 8, 1862, in Washtenaw county, Michigan. 
He lived on his father's farm until he was seven 
years old, when the family moved to Shakopee, 
Minnesota. After attending the public schools 
and studying for one year at Hamline University, 
he was employed for two years as storekeeper for 
the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Rail- 
road in St. Paul, after which he read law in the 
office of Hon. H. J. Peck in Shakopee and was 
admitted to the bar at Shakopee in June, 1885. 
He practiced his profession there for four years, 
after which he removed to Minneapolis where he 
engaged successfully in general practice. On 
October i, 1905, Mr. Brown was appointed by 
Gov. Johnson Judge of the District Court to fill 
the vacancy caused by the election of Judge El- 
Holt to the supreme bench. In the following year, 
1906, at the regular November election, he was 
reelected to the same nftice. Mr. Brown is a 
democrat in politics; is a member of the Masonic 
Order and of the B. and P. Order of Elks, and a 
member of the Minneapolis and Commercial 
Clubs. On April 7, 1903, he was elected presi- 
dent of the State Bar Association. He is a mem- 
ber of the First Unitarian Church. On Novem- 
ber 10, 1886, he was married to Esther A. Bailey 
at Prescott, Wisconsin, and to them have been 
born two children, Jessica M. and Howard Selden. 

BROWN, Rome G., former president of the 
MinnesotaState Bar Association, anda well-known 
lawyer, was born at Montpelier, Vermont, June 15, 
1862. He is the son of Andrew C. and Lucia A. 
(Green) Brown, and on his family tree appear 
some of the most noted names of colonial his- 
tory — among them those of Chad Brown and of 
the Putnams and Stoddards. When Mr. Brown 
was born, his father was editor of the Vermont 
Watchman. Later he was in the insurance and 
telephone business but is now retired. The son 
was educated at the Montpelier common and 
high schools, and graduated with honors from 
Harvard University in 1884. Bringing his .\. B. 
home with him to the law office of the Hon. Ben- 
jamin F. Fifield. after three years of study there, 
he was admitted to the Vermont bar. October 24. 
1887, Two months later he came to Minneapolis 
and entered the office of Benton & Roberts, be- 
coming a partner after three years of practice, 
under the firm name of Benton, Roberts & Brown. 
On Col. Benton's death, January i, 1895, the part- 
nership was dissolved and Mr. Brown practiced 
alone, building up from that time a large general 
practice. On May 29. 1895, he was admitted to 
practice in the United States Supreme Court. 
Since January I. 1900, his firm has been Rome G. 
Brown and Charles S. Albert. A large part of his 
professional work has been given to questions of 
water power and of riparian rights on lakes and 



UIIMH ci. llltllWX. 

Streams. Hl- is altcinicy fur tlic Great Ni)rtheni 
Railway, having cliarge oi that company's legal 
Imsincss in five connties of Minnesota, including 
Minneapolis and Hennepin county. In all, Mr. 
lirown represents some dozen corporations, lo- 
c.iled chiefly within the state of Minnesota and 
dealing mostly with puhlic utilities. He has writ- 
ten several monographs upon important puljlic 
questions, among them "The Pollution of Lakes 
and Streams" and tlic "Question of Establishing 
a Three Years' Course for the Degree of .\. 1! 
at Harvard," tlie latter in connection willi the 
work of Tlie Associated Harvard Chilis. P.olli 
of these last have had a wide circulation, though 
among different circles, throughout the cuntry. 
He belongs to the leading social ami ]>u--ini-'.- 
clubs of Minneapolis, is a member of the J.oyal 
Legion, vice-president of ilie Minnesota Harvard 
Club, of the American Har Association for Min 
ncsota and president of the Vermont Associ.ition 
of Minnesota. On May 26, igo6, he was electeil 
president of The Associated Harvard Clubs, an 
organization representing all the le.iding Har- 
vard clubs in the United Stales. Mr. P.rown lie- 
longs to the First Unitarian Church. He was 
married on May 25th, 1S88, to Mary Lee Hol- 
lister, of Marshlield, \'ermonl, and has two chil- 
dren — a son and daughter. 

CAIRNS, Charles Sumner, has practiced law 
in Minneapolis since 1883, when he came to the 
city from Decatur, Illinois. He is of remote 
Scotch-Irish descent on the paternal side. Wil- 
liam Cairnes or Careins was a Scotch-Irish Pres- 
byterian who came to this country in the year 
1774, and settled in Maryland, at what is now 
the town of Jarretsville, some distance north 
of Baltimore. Front him Mr. Cairns is a direct 
descendant. Wm. Cairns, Jr., son of the head of 
the .\merican branch of the family, was born 
and raised in Maryland. He fought in the war 
of 1812; was afterward married and made his 
Iiome at Jarretsville, remaining there until a few 
years after his son, Robert, was born. He moved 
to Ohio and became a farmer of Muskingum 
county; and his son Robert (father of Charles) 
followed the same occupation as well as en- 
gaging in mercantile pursuits for a time at New 
Concord. The ancestors of Mr. Cairns upon his 
mother's side were numbered among the Puritan 
colonists of rocky New England, Samuel Haynes 
having come to America in the ship Angel Gab- 
riel which was wrecked on the Maine coast in 
1635. He was a founder and selectman of Ports- 
mouth. New Hampshire, and his descendants 
were prominent colonists, who were among the 
number that served under Washington during 
the War of the Revolution. Mary A. Haynes, 
mother of Charles S., was a remarkably talented 
woman, wdio accomplished considerable in liter- 
ary and journalistic fields and published a book 
of poems for private circulation. Her younger 
brother. Judge John Haynes, was a distinguished 
jurist of California. Charles Sumner was born 
near Duncan's Falls, Muskingum county, on July 
.), 1856. His education began in the district 
school, wdiere he acquired his preparatory train- 
ing, then entered the Muskingum College at New 
Concord, Ohio, and graduated with the class of 
1S76. taking an A. B. degree, and after post- 
graduate work was awarded the degree of M. A. 
It had, since boyhood, been his ambition to study 
for a legal career, and with that end in view he 
entered the law offices of Roby, Outten & Vail 
at Decatur, Illinois, reading law with that firm 
about a year. He continued his legal studies in 
till- law department of the University of Michi- 
,gan, graduating and takin.g an LL. B. degree in 
1882. Soon after leaving college he entered into 
,1 partnership with Judge William E. Nelson, but 
in the following year came to Minneapolis -and 
dctennined In reniain here and jiracticc his pro- 
fession lie fMiiiHil .'Mii'thiT ii.-[rtiirrship, in this 
instance with l)a\id S. Frackelton. After & 
period of five ye;irs, this connection was severed 
:uid. for tlic must p.irt, Mr. C'lirns has since 
practiced alMUc. Mr. Cairns is a republican in 
politics; an enthusiastic worker in the party af- 
fairs of the state; and in 7893 was elected to the 
state legislature, wdicre he became prominent 
through the introduction of .a bill for the direct 
nomination of political candidates by the people 
— the foundation of the primary election law 



adopted in 1899, which latter act he drafted for 
the most part. In 1896 he was an alternate dele- 
gate to the National Republican convention which 
met in St. Louis and nominated William McKin- 
ley for president. At the time of the twelfth 
United States census he was appointed supervisor 
for the fifth congressional district of Minnesota, 
filling the office most successfully. He was a 
member and a director of the Board of Trade 
and as a member of the Minneapolis Commercial 
Club he has always taken an active part in its 
public work. Mr. Cairns was married to Miss 
Frances V. Shellabarger, a daughter of an old 
Lllinois family and graduate of the Wesleyan 
College, Cincinnati. They have two sons, Mil- 
lard S. and Carl A. The family are members of 
the Westminster Presbyterian Church of which 
he is a ruling elder. 

CARLETON, Frank H., was born at New- 
port, New Hampshire, October 8, 1849, the son 
of Henry G. Carlcton, w'ho was for many years 
a banker at that place. The family is of English 
descent and traces its line back to Sir Guy Carle- 
ton. As a boy Frank H. Carleton attended tJie 
public schools of Newport, later preparing for 
college at Kimball Union Academy at Meridan, 
New Hampshire. He entered Dartmouth College 
in 1869 and completed the course with the class of 
1872. Like many New England young men he 



largely worked his way through college. He taught 
at various places, at one time being principal of an 
academy in Mississippi. After leaving college 
Mr. Carleton was for awhile city editor of the 
Manchester (N. H.) Daily Union. He then came 
west, first finding employment in Minneapolis as 
a reporter on the Minneapolis News, and later 
as city editor of the St. Paul Daily Press. But 
he wished to study law and after a year with the 
Press he entered the office of the late Cushman 
K. Davis and C. D. O'Brien where he read law, 
at the same time serving as clerk of the municipal 
court. Five years later his health failed and he 
resigned his position and made a trip to Europe. 
When he returned he served a short time as 
private secretary to Gov. John S. Pillsbury — at 
the time when the famous railroad bond matter 
was reaching final settlement. With the expira- 
tion of Gov. Pillsbury's last term in office Mr. 
Carleton found a desired opportunity to enter ac- 
tive law practice and moved to Minneapolis, form- 
ing a law partnership with the late Capt. Judson 
N. Cross and Judge H. G. Hicks. This firm has 
continued to the present time with but one 
change in name — it became Cross, Hicks, Carle- 
ton & Cross when Norton M. Cross, son of Capt. 
Cross, was admitted to partnership. In the course 
of his professional career Mr. Carleton has been 
called upon to handle much special litigation and 
to act as administrator and trustee in many im- 
portant cases. He has never engaged actively in 
politics but has been a lifelong republican and 
has served the public in office, first as assistant 
city attorney, from 1883 to 1887, and later as a 
member of the library board. During his service 
in the city attorney's office he had charge of much 
litigation arising from the passage of the famous 
patrol limits law and successfully combated all 
suits brought for the annulment of that ordi- 
nance. Mr. Carleton has been for many years one 
of the trustees of Park Avenue Congregational 
church. He was married in 1S81 to Ellen Jones, 
only daughter of the late Judge E. S. Jones. They 
have had seven children. 

CHILDS, Clarence H., is a native of Iowa. 
He was born .August 19, 1858. at Tipton, Cedar 
county, the son of Eugene Childs, a merchant, 
and Caroline S. Childs. His boyhood was spent 
at Fort Dodge, Iowa, where he attended the dis- 
trict and high schools, afterwards going to Michi- 
gan University from which he graduated with the 
degree of Ph. B. in June. 1882. Very soon after 
he came to Minneapolis and commenced the 
study of law with James D. Springer, general 
solicitor of the Minneapolis & St. Louis railway. 
Upon being admitted to the bar in 1884 he com- 
menced general practice and has followed his 
profession continuously since that time and since 
igoi has been examiner of titles under the Tor- 
rens law- in Hennepin county. Mr. Childs' po- 
litical affiliations arc with the republican party. 
He is a member of the Minneapolis and Mini- 
kahda Clubs. On June 6, 1889, he was married 



1894 was a member of Company I, First RcRi- 
mcnt, M. N. G. In politics he is independent and 
l>rogressive, especially in local matters. Mr. 
Child is a member of the I'irst Unitarian church 
mI" which he has for many years been a trnstee. 
lie was married on Jnly 5, 1884, to Miss .'Mice 
Webber of Rumford, Maine. They have four 
children, Sherman \V.. Emily, Marjorie and 
Lewis W. 

CRANE, Jay W., was burn in the village of 
Perry, New York. His father was the Rev. 
Stephen Crane. D. D., a Universalist minister for 
over forty years, now deceased. Mrs. C. Jane 
Crane, widow of Stephen, and mother of Jay W., 
now lives in Minneapolis at the home of her son. 
Mr. Crane passed the early years of his life in 
Xcw York, where he attended the public schools 
and later entered the high school at Hillsdale. 
Michigan, from wdiich he graduated. After com- 
plctiui,' liis preparatory work Mr. Crane entered 
I.Miiili.iril College at Galesburg, Illinois. He took 
ii]i the ^tudy of law shortly after his graduation 
fnun ihc Galesburg institution, and was admitted 
In the liar at Columbus, Ohio, in l8go. b'or two 
>^.lr^ prior in r8qo, Mr. Crane had been engaged 
ill leaching in IlliiKiis and in the public schools 
!if N'lrwalk, ( )hiu, and until 1891 continued to 
hold his position as an instructor in that city. 
Since that time Mr. Crane has been continuously 
engaged in the work of his profession, and has 
c.irried on a .general practice successfully. Though 

to Miss Sarah M. Ilcnshaw. They have one son. 
George H. Childs. The family attends St. Mark's 
Episcopal Church where Mr. Childs has been a 
\cstrynian for some six or scxeii years. 

CHI LI J. Sainps(jn Reed, was born on .Septem- 
her 22, i860, at Paris, O.xford county, .Maine. He 
was the son of Lewis Washburn Child and Emily 
Reed Child. His father was a farmer. Mr. Child's 
boyhood was spent at Rumford, Oxford county, 
.Maine, where he attended tlic public schools after 
which he filled for college at North Bridgton 
academy, Maine. Gradu.aling from the .academy 
in 1880 he entered Bowdoin colKyu the same 
year and completed his course in 18S4, with the 
degree of -K. B. Mr. Child ,it once came we-.t ,iiid 
idinmenced the study of law in .\l iiiiiea]iolis with 
the l.ale Judge Seagrave Smith .iinl the Kite S.iiiip 
son .'\. Reed. He was .ulniilted to tin- bar ni 
18S6 and has since been in ,icli\e jiractice of hi-. 
I)rofession in Minneapolis. Mr. Child ha-- lum 
constantly interested in the public affairs of the 
city and though never an office holder or office 
seeker has been idi'ntilied with v.arious move- 
ments looking to the iiiiprovenunt of iiiuiinip,il 
and social conditions. He was ap|)oiiilcd a iiuin 
ber of the first Minneapolis charter commission 
and lias since taken part in the campaigns looking 
to the adoption of an improved charier for llie 
cily. He has been for years a member of lln.- 
.\cademy of Natural Sciences and from iSSij to 

i.W \V. CKA.NE. 



he has applied himself closely to his legal work 
he has also been a strong political worker. He 
is a republican and is associated with several 
organizations interested in the advancement of 
the party; among them being the Fifth Ward Re- 
publican Club, of which he is president, and tlie 
Garfield Republican Club. He was a member of 
the Hennepin county republican campaign com- 
mittee for many years. The Minneapolis Com- 
mercial Club also includes him in its membership. 
Mr. Crane is a Universalist, and is a member of 
the First Universalist Society of Minneapolis (the 
Church of the Redeemer), of which he is clerk. 
He is imt married. 

CR.•\^', Willard Rush, for thirty years a mem- 
ber of the Minneapolis bar and formerly a judge 
of the district court, is a native of Vermont. He 
was born on May s, 1853, at Highgate. Frank- 
lin count}', and the son of Carlos Lawrence 
Cray and Sarah Spooner Cray. The family is 
traced back to Scotch and English ancestors, 
whose descendants settled in New England in 
early times. Carlos Cray was a farmer and his 
son grew up amid the surroundings of the New 
England farm life of that period, attended the 
traditional little red school house and inter- 
spersed his years of higher schooling with terms 
of teaching, clerking and such other occupations 
as would serve to defray the expenses of an 
education. He passed through the high school, 
Addison County Grammar School (Vermont), 
and graduated from Middlebury College, Ver- 
mont, in 1S76. After leaving college he entered 
the law office of Noble, Davis, Smith & Stevens 
at St. Albans, Vermont, but during the follow- 
ing year, 1877, he came to Minneapolis and con- 
tinued to read law in the office of Shaw & Levi. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1878 and 
practiced continuously in Minneapolis except 
during the years 1902-1904 when he served upon 
the district bench for the Fourth Judicial District, 
Hennepin county, Minnesota. For many ye;irs 
he was a law partner of the late Judge J. M. 
Shaw, the firm of Shaw & Cray being one ui 
the most prominent in the Northwest. Jud^^i- 
Cray has taken an active part in the affairs i.l 
the city and is a member of various organiza- 
tions and clubs including the Minneapolis. 
Lafayette and Minikahda clubs and the Sons c^f 
Veterans and Citizens Staff of John A. Rawlins 
Post, G. A. R. He is a republican and though 
not conspicuous in politics is not one of those 
who neglects the primary and the voting booth. 
In 1896 he was elected to the state legislature 
as representative from his district and served 
during the session of 1897. Judge Cray was one 
of the organizers of the Minneapolis Bar Asso 
ciation and its president in 1902, and is a mem 
ber of the Minnesota State Bar Association and 
the American Bar Association. He has been 
for many years a prominent member of Plymouth 
Congregational Church. He was married on 

December 10, 1879, to Marguerite L. Douglas. 
They have two children, Jessie Kitchel and Flor- 
ence Marguerite. 

DEUTSCH, Henry, was born in Minneapolis, 
.August 28, 1874, son of Jacob and Malchen A. 
(Valfer) Deutsch. He received his early educa- 
tional training in the public schools of Minne- 
apolis, was graduated from the Central high 
school in 1891; was graduated LL. B. from the 
law department of the University of Minnesota 
in I. '-'94; took Yale University's IX. M. ("Magna 
cum I.aude") in 1895, and was admitted to the bar 
(Jctober, 1895, when he was associated with Al 
J. Smith (now county attorney) as partner; in 
1907 he became associated in active practice with 
F'rank M. Nye and soon became his partner under 
the tirm name of Nye & Deutsch. In 1908 Mr. 
Nye having been elected to congress, this partner 
sliip was dissolved and Mr. Deutsch with E. P. 
.Mien and A. M. Breding formed the law firm 
of Deutsch, Allen & Breding. Mr. Deutsch is a 
member of the board of directors of the Minne- 
apolis Commercial Club, of which he was second 
\icc president in 1905. He is a member of the 
.American "Bar .Association, of the Commercial 
Law League of America (of which he is one of 
the vice presidents); of the Minnesota State Bar 
Association; and of the Hennepin County Bar 
.Association. He is a member of the Six O'Clock 
Club and of the Garfield Club and is a prominent 




member of the Elks, the Maccabees and the 
Royal Arcanum. He is a Past Master Hennepin 
Lodge No. 4, A. F. & A. M., has K. C. C. H. 
I )i'gree, Scottish Rite bodies Masonic; and is 
Wise Master St. Vincent De Paul Chapter, Rose 
Croix No. 2; member of Zuhrah Temple Mystic 
Shrine and past president Minnesota Auxiliary 
Fraternal Congress. Mr. Deutsch is a member 
of the Second Church of Christ, Scientist, of 
Minneapolis. He was for two years chairman of 
the Public Entertainment and Convention Ccmi- 
niittee of the Minneapolis Commercial -Cluh and 
was a member of the executive committee of the 
G. A. R. Encampment, in 1906. He was mar- 
ried May 2, 1898, to Miss Grace A. Levi and three 
children have been born to them, Clarence S.. 
Maria Hope, and Henry Noel. 

DILLE, John Ichabod. was born at Andrews. 
Indiana, on November 18, 1857, the son of Icha- 
bod and Rebecca Dille. His early years were 
spent on his father's farm and his schooling was 
that of the local educational institutions until he 
fitted for college and entered the University of In- 
diana. From this university he obtained his de- 
gree of LL. B. in 1877 and shortly afterwards 
entered upon the practice of his profession at 
Huntington, Indiana, and remained there until 
the spring of 1889. Mr. Dille's first entrance into 
railroad service was as attorney for the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Ry. for Oklahoma and In- 
dian Territory in i8qi with offices at El Reno. 
Oklahoma. He continued to fill this position 
until 1898, when he became assistant attorney 
ff)r the same road for Iowa, South Dakota and 
Minnesota, with headcjuarters at Des Moines, 
Iowa. On September i, 1905, he resigned to 
accept the appointment of general attorney of 
the Minneapolis & St. Louis Railroad Com- 
pany, the Iowa Central Railway Company and 
the Des Moines & Fort Dodge Railroad Com- 
j/any, with headquarters at Minneapolis. He 
at once took up his residence in this city and 
entered actively upon his duties as attorney. Mr. 
Dille is associated with the Knights of Pythias, 
and is a Past Grand Chancellor of that order. 
In 1897-8 he was president of the Territorial Bar 
.Association of Oklahoma. He has been promi- 
nent in educational work in the different states 
where he has resided. While attorney for the 
Rock Island at Des Moines he was also dean of 
the Highland Park College of Law in that city. 
In Oklahoma he was associated with the uni- 
versity of that state for several years as presi- 
dent of the Board of Regents, and after ninving 
to Des Moines received the degree of l.L. D. 
from that institution. Mr. Dille was married in 
1876 lo Miss Mary J, Mohii. They have five 

DODCJli, h'red B., senior member of the law 
firm of Dodge & Webber, was born at Moscow, 
Livingston county, New York, F'ebruary 4, 1854. 
He received his education at Temple Hill Acad- 
emy at Geneseo, New York, and Fairfield Sem- 

inary, Herkimer county. New York, and the 
University of Rochester. He was admitted to 
the bar of New York in 1879, and came to Minne- 
apolis in 1881, where he has since been engaged 
in general legal practice. 

DWINNELL, William Stanley, was born at 
Lodi, Wisconsin, December 25, 1862, son of John 
Bliss and Maria C. Dwinnell. His father was a 
merchant and later a farmer, his family having 
settled at Topslield, Massachusetts, in 1660. 
Tlie ori.ginal home is still in the posses- 
sion of the f.imily. His mother's family 
include in tlieir direct line of descent, Jona- 
than Edwards and the Dwight family of 
Ciumecticut and New York. W. S. Dwinnell 
spent his early life in Wisconsin where he at- 
tended the public and high schools at Lodi, and 
then took two years of undergraduate course at 
the University of Wisconsin and graduated from 
the law department in 1886. For the next two 
years he was employed by the supreme court of 
Wisconsin preparing opinions for publication and 
at Madison he enjoyed the close friendship of 
Governor Jereiniah M. Rusk. He accompanied 
tlie Governor and his staff, on invitation, to the 
funeral of Gen. Grant in New York and was with 




A Half century of Minneapolis 

Governor Rusk during the Milwaukee riots of 
1886. After serving as district attorney of Jack- 
son county, Wisconsin, in 1888-89, M""- Dwinncll 
came to Minneapolis as attorney, under contract, 
for a large building and loan association, but re- 
signed on account of radical differences as to 
policy, and engaged in the practice of law chiefly 
relating to corporations. Since 1900 he has, to 
avoid too close conlinement to his office, given 
larger attention to outside matters and has oper- 
ated in realty in Minneapolis and St. Paul and 
in timber lands in California and British Colum- 
bia. He is president of Fraser River Tannery 
in llie latter province, and treasurer of the Ur- 
ban Investment Company of St. Paul. Among 
the substantial public services of Mr. Dwinnell 
may be mentioned his agency in securing the con- 
sideration and passage of the Direct Primary 
Law by the Legislature of 1899 and the passage 
of the Anti-trust Law. Mr. Dwinnell has been 
and is a strenuous champion of good government 
and does not spare himself in the work of secur- 
ing the nomination of worthy candidates for 
municipal, state and federal offices. He was for 
several years a member of the public afifairs com- 
mittee of the Commercial Club and was vice- 
chairman of that committee for the year 1906. 
He holds membership in the Minneapolis, Mini- 
kahda. Commercial, Six-O'clock Clubs, the Amer- 
ican and Minnesota Bar associations and the 
American Economic Association. Mr. Dwinnell 
is a member and vestryman of St. Mark's Epis- 
copal Cluirch. He was married on April 24, 1889, 
tu Virginia Ingman, and they have three chil- 
dren — Stanley W., Katherine and James Bowen. 

McNAIR, William Woodbridge. ime of the 
pioneers of Minneapolis, and for many years a 
clistin.guishe(l member of the Hennepin ccjunty 
bar, was born at Grovcland, Livingstone county. 
New York, on J.uuiary 4, 1836. He was the old- 
est son of William W. McNair, whose family 
was of Scotch- lU-^cent, while his mother, 
Sarah Pierrepont. wa> a descendant of Rev. 
James Pierrepont, one of the founders of Yale 
College, and of a family which traced its line 
back til the lime uf William the ( '(ini|uer(ir. ,Mr, 
.McN'air's talented mind received frnni private 
iiilfirs and the academies of (ienesee and Canan- 
daigua education and cullvn'e. When nineteen 
years old. lie canu- w 1 --t .iiiil iiilrn-d the- law 
office of Jiid^e J. I'. DndbllK' al Kaciiie, Win- 
consin, but after t\V(i^ eauie ti> .\linne.ip- 
olis. in TS57. Ill- ua-i adniiUicl lo tlie liar durin,!,' 
llir s.iuu year, and for lwenty-se\en yiars re- 
mained in active practice in this city. Lnmi iXOi 
to 1868, Mr. McNair was associated with thi- late 
l*",u.gcnc M. Wilson under the firm name ni Wil- 
son & McNair. and npnn Mr. Wilson's election 
to Congress in 18O8, he fcinned a partnership with 
Judge William Lochren as Lochrcn & McNair. 
J. 1!. Gill'illan was later admitted to this firm, 
which for m.inj- years was the leading law firm 
ui tile city. After Judge Lochren's appointment 

to the district bench in 1881, the business was 
continued by McNair & GilfiUan until Mr. Gil- 
tillan's election to Congress in 1884, when, on 
account of impaired health, Mr. McNair retired 
from practice. During his long practice in Min- 
neapolis, he was connected with much important 
litigation and was considered one of the strong- 
est lawyers at the bar. Ahhough much engaged 
with his practice, he was deeply interested in 
public affairs, but though frequently importuned 
to accept office, on only a few occasions con- 
sented to public service. For four years prior to 
1863, he w'as county attorney, and in 1868 was 
elected one of the school directors of St. An- 
thony. In 1869, he was elected mayor of St. 
.Anthony and continued at the head of the city 
government until the consolidation of St. An- 
thony and Minneapolis in 1872. He affiliated 
with the democratic party and, against his wishes, 
received the nomination for Congress in 1876 and 
was complimented by a vote which largely re- 
duced the usual republican majority in the dis- 
trict. In 1883 he was tendered the nomination 
for governor, but positively declined. A busi- 
ness man of unusual ability, Mr. McNair's name 
was connected with many of the successful en- 
terprises of his time, including the Minneapolis 
Gas Light Company and the Minneapolis Street 
Railway Company, in each of which he was one 
of the original incorporators. He was also an 
original stockholder and director in the Minne- 
apolis & St. Louis Railroad, and was extensively 
interested in lumbering and contracting for tim- 
ber supply for the northwestern railroads. P.e- 
ing strongly impressed with the future of the 
city, he invested very largely in real estate in 
and about Minneapolis. Mr. McNair possessed 
fine social cjualities and the most genial and gen- 
erous disposition. Mr. McNair was married on 
August 21, 1862, to Miss Louise Wilson, daugh- 
ter of Edgar C. Wilson of Virginia, and sister 
of the late Eugene M. Wilson of Minneapolis. 
They had two daughters, Agnes O., now Mrs. 
Louis K. Hull and Louis P., now Mrs. Francis 
M. Henry. Mr. McNair died on September 15. 
1885, leaving many devoted friends who mourn 
their great loss. 

REED, Frederick Watson, was born at Fow- 
ler, Ohio, on November 7, 1853, the son of Ben- 
jamin Franklin and Susan (Dewey) Reed. The 
family moved to Iowa and Mr. Reed's boyhood 
was spent on a farm in that state where he at- 
tended school and fitted for college, making his 
iiwii way during most of his school and college 
life, lie was graduated from Iowa College, Grin- 
nell, Iowa, in 1879 and immediately went to 
iMontana where he was principal of schools dur- 
ing the next two years. He then engaged in 
business in Montana but after two years came 
to Minneapolis and began the study of law in 
the office of Shaw, Levi & Cray. In 1886 he 
was admitted to the bar and has since been con- 
tinuously in active pr.actiee in Minneapolis. He is 
a member of the Hennepin County, Minnesota 



State, and American bar associations and of the 
Commercial and Six O'clock clubs. In political 
faitli Mr. Reed is a republican though independ- 
dcnt in thought and action, especially in local 
matters. He takes a very active interest in 
municipal afTairs and has been prominently iden- 
tified with all movements of the past twenty 
years looking to the promotion of good govern- 
ment and better municipal conditions. Con- 
spicuous in this work has been his participation 
in the campaigns for a better city charter. Mr. 
Kced was married at Cincinnati on December 
,10. iSgi, to Miss Selina Brown, daughter of the 
late Charles E. Brown of the Cincinnati bar. 

G.A.LE, Edward Chenery, son of Samuel C. 
and Susan (Damon) Gale, was born in Minneap- 
olis, August 21, 1862. The father, Samuel C, 
came to Minneapolis in 1857 from Massachusetts, 
educated as a lawyer; but he early engaged in real 
estate in which business as well as in the general 
civic life of the community he has long taken an 
active part. The family are of English descent, the 
forebear in this country being Richard Gale, who 
settled in Watertown, JMassachnsetts, in 1636. Ed- 
ward C. attended the public schools of Minnea- 
polis and .graduated from the high school in 
the class of 1878. He attended the state uni- 
xersitv fnr two vcars and then went to Yale 

1-. \\ . Ki:i-:i> 

Eiiw.Mui c.;. 

University where he graduated with the class of 
1884. After a year abroad he studied law in the 
office of Shaw & Cray, Minneapolis, and sub- 
sequently took the degree of A. M. at the Law 
School of Harvard University. Mr. Gale has at- 
tained a most worthy and honorable position in 
the profession he has chosen. He is at present a 
member of the law firm of Snyder & Gale, his 
associate being Fred B. Snyder. Mr. Gale is 
a director in the Minneapolis Society of Fine 
.Arts, of which society he has also been presi- 
dent; treasurer of the Minneapolis Academy of 
Sciences; director <>{ tlie Minneapolis Athena-uni': 
secretary as well ,is a member of the Municipal 
Art C"niniis^t(iii of Minneaimlis. and active in 
nianj- ollur nmvemenls niakint; for the better 
things in life, civic as well as individual. Mr. 
(jale was married to Sarah Pillsbury. daughter of 
Ex-Governor John S. Pillsbury, June 28, 1892. 
They have one child living — Richard Pillsbury. 

GJERTSEN, Henry John, (Henry J. Gjert- 
sen) though l)orn in Norway, October 8, i86r, has 
lived in Hennepin county ever since 1868, and 
has been a zealous worker for the state which 
adopted him. His father was Herman J. Gjert- 
sen, a Norwegian sea-captain who came to Min- 
nesota in 186S and after a generation spent in 
farming, retired from active labor some years 
ago. Mr. Gjertsen, Sr., was born in Bergen. 



There the family has long been prominent, as 
was also that of his wife, Albertina B. Gjertsen, 
whose family name was that of Wulf, also of 
old Norwegian history. On both sides the mem- 
bers of the two families have followed the pro- 
fessions, more or less. Henry J. Gjertsen grew 
up on a ^Minnesota farm when farming in Hen- 
nepin county knew nothing of agricultural col- 
leges. He worked summers and went to the 
district schools in winter. These last schools, 
and Red Wing Seminary later, made his prelim- 
inary training for the study of law. For this 
latter purpose he spent two years in study in 
Minneapolis, was admitted at twenty-three, and 
lias since been successful in his profession to 
more than the ordinary degree. Under the ad- 
ministration of Gov. Lind, he held the post of 
Brigadier General for two years; under Gov. 
Van Sant, he was Judge Advocate General for 
four years. His politics being republican, he has 
had a good chance to render effective public 
services as a member of the Minneapolis Charter 
Commission and as state senator from the forty- 
second district in 1902. In the latter position he 
drew up the bucket shop law, which was passed 
in 1905. He also took an important part in the 
legislation that resulted in the new code. Mr. 
Gjertsen is a member of the Odin Club, the Elks, 
K. P., and ^lasonic bodies. He attends the 
Lutheran Church. He is married to Gretchcn 
Groebel, of Red Wing, and has one daughter, 
now studying music in Berlin. 

H.ALE, William Edward, son of Isaiah Byron 
Burr and Mary E. Hale, was born at Wheeling, 
West Virginia, May 11, 1845. His father was a 
lawyer and was descended from Samuel Hale, 
who came from England and settled in Glasteii- 
bury, Connecticut, in 1637, making a record in 
the early Indian wars, while the family did patri- 
otic duty in the War of the Revolution, in later 
3'ears appearing with favorable conspicuity in 
public life — as James T. Hale, of Pennsyl- 
vania, in congress, and the great naval 
secretary, Gideon Wells. William, who had 
visited Minnesota with his father when he 
was a boy, returned in i860 and resided 
in Plainvievv where, in 1861, he enlisted 
in the Third Minnesota Infantry and served three 
years during the war for the Union, receiving an 
honorable discharge. He then entered Hamlinc 
University, at that time located in Red Winp. 
and. after taking a collegiate course for three 
years he studied law in the office of Judge Wilder 
of Red Wing, and was admitted to the bar in 
1869. He located in Buffalo, Wright county, 
where he practiced his profession and was elected 
county attorney and held the office two years. 
In 1872 he came to Minneapolis where he has 
since lived. He was elected county attorney for 
Hennepin county in 1878. and re-elected for a 
second term. He has made a notable record in 
the practice of the law. He has been in partner- 
ship with Judge Seagrave Smith O877S0) and 

subsequently with Judge C. M. Pond (Hale & 
Pond), and with Charles B. Peck (Hale & Peck), 
and latterly the head of the firm of Hale & Mont- 
gomery. Mr. Hale is and has always been an 
active, loyal member of the republican party, but 
he has never yielded to the allurements of office- 
holding, except in the few instances when he has 
held the office of county attorney. 

HARRISON, Alexander M., was born in Ven- 
ango county, Pennsylvania, on November 5, 1847, 
the son of Charles Harrison and Catherine E. 
(DeWitt) Harrison. The father was descended 
from English stock and was a successful farmer; 
the mother was of Dutch descent. During his 
boyhood he received excellent school training, 
first attending the district school in Perry, Ven- 
ango County, and later an academy in the same 
place and afterwards the academy at Pleasant- 
ville, Pennsylvania. He completed his education 
at Fredonia academy in Chautauqua county. New 
York, where he graduated when he was twenty- 
one years of age. Before graduation he had com- 
menced reading law and after leaving Fredonia 
he worked for a time in the oil fields of Penn- 
sylvania to earn money with which to complete 
his law studies. Having secured sufficient funds 
to pay his expenses during the law course he 
entered the law department of the University of 
Michigan from which he graduated in 1870. 
Judge Harrison came west and first established 
himself at Charles City, Iowa, w-here for three 
years he practiced alone and then became asso- 
ciated with Samuel B. Starr and John G. Patter- 
son under the firm name of Starr, Patterson & 
Harrison. After the death of Mr. Patterson in 
187S the partnership was continued as Starr & 
Harrison until December i, 1886. when Judge 
Harrison came to Minneapolis. In 1898 Judge 
Harrison was nominated by the republican party 
of Hennepin county as one of its candidates for 
the district bench, and was elected by a large 
majority at the election that fall. He served 
upon the bench until the expiration of his term in 
January, 1904, After retiring from the district 
bench Judge Harrison resumed active practice. 
On August 1.1. 187.1, he was married to Miss Lizzie 
O. Chapin. They have three children, Merton E.. 
Ruth, and Helen. Judge Harrison is a member 
of the ^linneapolis Club and the Elks. 

HERTIG, Wendell, was born August 1.1, 1868, 
on a farm in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, son 
of L'lysses and Emily P. (Litman) Hertig. .-Mter 
having received a good rudimentary education he 
graduated in June, 1884, from the state normal 
school at California, Washington countj'. Penn- 
sylvania, and taught a country school the same 
winter. Coming to Minneapolis in 7887 he became 
connected in an official capacity with several finan- 
cial corporations and was a bank cashier from 
1892 to 1895. fn 1891 he entered the Law School 
of the University of ^linnesota, and, after having 
taken the full night law course, graduated in 
]8<)5. since which time he has been practicing his 



prdfession, combining with the same a real estate 
and mortgage loan business. Mr. Hcrtig is a re- 
publican in politics and was elected alderman of 
the Fiftli Ward in 1905. He is a member of the 
Commercial Club, the Roosevelt Club, the Mini- 
kabda Club, the B. P. O. E. No. 44 and of all the 
.Masonic Bodies. 

JACKSON, Anson Blake, was born in Brook- 
lyn, New York, February 17, 1850, the son of 
William B. and Elizabeth Blake Jackson. The' 
father was a manufacturer and banker and the 
family trace their ancestry through several 
generations of Connecticut farmers, who took 
part in the War of the Revolution. Mr. 
Jackson's early life was spent in Brooklyn, 
Foresport and Utica, New York. He gradu- 
ated from Hobart College, Geneva, New York, 
in 187a, and from Columbia law school, New 
York, in 1873, having been a student in the office 
of Roscoe at Utica during the year 1871. Mr. 
Jackson practiced his profession in New York 
City for about five years. During most of the 
year 1878, he was employed in Kansas City as 
attorney for the Bondholders Committee of the 
Kansas Pacific Railway, and, on the absorption 
of that road by the Union Pacific in 1880, he re- 
moved to ^linneapolis where he has since been 
engaged in private practice, from 1880 to 1883 
as a member of the firm of Jackson and Pond, 
and from 1885 to 1893 of the firm of Jackson and 

Mr. Jackson is a republican in politics, and was 
ni.-irried in 1881 to Eugenia Cheney Adams. They 
Iiavr t\\ii cliildren living — Anson Blake Jackson, 
Jr., a graduate of Yale University, class of '07, 
and Margaret E. Jackson, who graduated from 
Kcisem.-irv Hall. Greenwich, Connecticut, class 
of '06. 

HAl.I,, .XHurl II., senior nuinlicr of the law 
firm of Hall iSd Kolllncr. of this city, was born 
on July ir, 1858, at .\le\andria. Licking county. 
()liiu. His family on liolh sides were early set- 
tlers in tli.-it state, liis nialern.-il grandf.'il her briuL; 
tlic first white child born witliin tin- cimlines of 
Union county. f.evi TTall, Iiis f.itlur. fur 
ni:iny years a Methodist F.piscopal clergyman. 
\\'\ui Liter entered the medical profession and 
moved to Minneapolis where he has for more 
than a (|uarter of a century been a pracliein.g 
physician. His mother's n.anie lieforc her niar- 
ri.age was l.ucinda Alilchell. Mr, Hall received 
his education in the public schools, first in ()hio. 
and later atlendin.g the high school at .\ustin, 
Minnesota, where the family moved in 1872. 
Three years later he came to this city and en- 
tered the University of Minnesota, supporting 
himself while in college by night work in tele- 
graph and telephone service. At the end of his 
junior year in i8Sr, he left school and cntere<l 
the law office of the late Judge Frederick Hooker. 
A position in the treasury department at Wash- 
ington was offered him wliich he acceiited, and 

at the same time attended the Columbia Law 
School, from which he graduated in 1883. Re- 
signing his position, Mr. Hall returned to Minne- 
apolis, and since that time has been engaged in 
the practice of his profession. Soon after return- 
ing here he formed a partnership with N. F. 
Hawley, wdiich continued for several years, Mr. 
Hall severing the connection to accept an ap- 
pointment as assistant city attorney of Minne- 
apolis in 1889. During the two years which he 
served he conducted successfully several impor- 
tant cases, including the well known garbage 
dump cases. He resumed his general legal prac- 
tice until 1893, when he was selected by the grand 
jury and appointed by Judge Seagrave Smith, 
special assistant attorney for Hennepin county, 
and filled that office for eighteen months. He 
tried many important criminal cases for the 
county and made a record as an able speaker 
and efifective trial lawyer. Among the cases with 
which he was coimected were the notable Scheig 
and Floyd cases; the Harris murder case which 
Mr. Hall successfully prosecuted; and the famous 
Hayward trial in which his unceasing eflforts se- 
cured the admissions and evidence which made 
possible the conviction of the guilty parties. At 
the expiration of his term Mr. Hall again took 
up his practice and has since been engaged in 
general practice, both in this city and throughout 
the Northwest. He formed in 1902 a partnership 
with Robert S. Kolliner under the firm name of 
Hall & Kolliner — an association which still con- 
tiinics. From his earliest manhood Mr. Hall has 
taken an active interest in politics and has been 
an efficient worker for the republican party for 
many years. In 1904 he became a candidate for 
the republican nomination for congress, but was 
defeated in a strong against Hon. Loren 
F'letcher, who had been the incumbent for a num- 
ber of successive terms. Mr. Hall was again a 
candidate in 1906 and made an even better run 
against a larger field for opponents. Mr. Hall was 
married in 18S3 to Miss Nellie J. Pearson. They 
have one daughter, Faith. The family attends, 
the Hennepin Avenue Methodist Cluirch. Mr. 
Hall is a member of the Commercial Club and 
other organizations of a social character, 

JOSLYN, Colin C, is a native nf the state of 
Illinois, the son of De Witt C. Joslyn and Philura 
1., Joslyn. His father was a farmer at Cortland, 
Illinois, where Ci.Iiii C, was burn ■■n December 
0. 1857. He grew u\> ■ m the farm and attencted 
the graded school at Cortland, .\fter completing 
the necessary preparatory work he entered Ripon 
College, in Wisconsin, wdiere he took the »ca- 
dcntic course rcceivin.g his degree with the class 
of T8S3. He studied law. was admitted to the 
bar and commenced practice in Minneapolis, in 
1885, where he has since continuously practiced. 
Mr. Joslyn is a member of the Minneapolis Com- 
mercial Club and attends the Universalist Church. 
In 1899 l\lr. Joslyn was married to Miss Marie 
.\, Rich and thev have three children. 





KOON, Martin B., one of the most prominent 
men of the Hennepin county bar, was born on 
January 22, 1841, at Altay, Schuyler county, New 
York. His ancestry on his father's side was 
Scotch and through his mother he was descended 
from Connecticut pioneers. His father, Alanson 
Koon, was a farmer in Schuyler county New 
York, a man in moderate circumstances but of 
highest integrity and enjoying the respect of the 
community. While his son was yet quite young 
.Manson Koon removed with his family to Hills- 
dale county, Michigan. It was on a Michigan 
f.-irm that Judge Koon spent his boyhood studying 
at the district school in winter and doing farm 
work in summer. His advantages were those of 
the average farmer's boy at that period. At the 
age of seventeen he had by diligent study pre- 
pared himself to enter Hillsdale College. During 
his college course he mainly supported himself 
by teaching and had, in 1863 when he graduated, 
so impaired his health that 'it was necessary to 
seek a change of climate. He went to California 
by the old Panama route and spent two years on 
the coast holding a position as teacher. Having 
regained his health he returned to Michigan and 
tuok up the study of law, in the office of his 
brother, E. L. Koon. In 1867 he was admitted 
to the bar in Hillsdale, Michigan, and soon after- 
ward entered into partnership with his brother, 
which association continued until 1878. While 
he did not go actively into politics he held the of- 
l^ce of prosecuting attorney in Hillsdale county 
from 1870 to 1874. In 187.? he spent four months 
in travel in Europe. He had become persuaded, 
however, that Hillsdale did not offer a promising 
held and in 1878 he moved to Minneapolis, where 
he formed a partnership with E. A. Merrill, to 
which firm A. M. Keith was afterward admitted. 
This firm enjoyed an extensive practice until the 
fall of 1881, when, owing largely to overwork, Mr. 
Koon fell a victim to typhoid fever, and on his 
partial recovery he went to California in search 
of health. In 1883, after his return. Judge J. M. 
Shaw resigned from the district bench, and Gov- 
ernor Hubbard appointed Mr. Koon to fill the 
vacancy. This was entirely without Mr, Koon's 
solicitation and wholly unexpected. He accepted 
the office with much reluctance, doubting his 
qualifications for the position. He filled it with 
such eminent satisfaction, however, that in the 
following fall he was unanimously elected to the 
same office for the term of seven years. But he 
did not find the duties of the office congenial to 
him, and May l, 1886, he resigned. During his 
occupancy of the bench he tried a number of im- 
portant cases, among them the Washburn will 
case, the St. Anthony water power case, the King- 
■ Remington case, the Cantieny murder case, and 
others scarcely less notable. This work involved 
an enormous amount of study and research. On 
his retirement from the bench he resumed the 
practice of his profession and has been for years 
the senior member of the firm of Koon, Whelan 

& Bennett. The practice of the firm is mainly in 
the line of corporation law. They are attorneys 
for the Minneapolis Street Railway Company. 
Judge Koon is a member of the Minneapolis Club, 
the Commercial Club, the Chamber of Commerce 
and a trustee of the Church of the Redeemer. He 
was married November, 1873, to Josephine Van- 
dermark and has two daughters, Kate Estelle, 
now Mrs. E. C. Bovey, and M. Louise, now Mrs. 
Charles Deere Velie. 

LAYBOURN, Charles G., was born at Spring- 
field, Clark county, Iowa, March 23, 1851, the 
son of Joseph Laybourn and Ann (Kirkley) Lay- 
bourn. His father was a native of Clark county, 
and was descended from an old New York family 
which counted among its members one of the 
early mayors of New York City. His mother was 
of English descent, her parents' family having 
settled in central Ohio when she was but a child. 
Mr. Laybourn's schooling was had in the district 
school near his father's farm, supplemented by a 
course at a private school in which he made such 
progress that, at the age of sixteen, he was able 
to obtain a first grade teacher's certificate. For 
some time he was engaged in teaching, but inter- 
rupted this work to learn the trade of carriage 
making which he followed until he met with a 
disabling accident. He then took up teaching 
again and desiring to secure a higher education 
entered the Illinois State Normal University at 
Normal, Illinois, in 1874, four years later graduat- 
ing with honor in both the normal and classical 
courses. For two years following his graduation 
he was a teacher in Markham's Academy, Milwau- 
kee, resigning to take up the study of law. He 
entered the law department of the University of 
Michigan, graduated in 1881, and immediately be- 
gan practice at Creston, Iowa. He made rapid 
progress in building up a practice, but after four 
years, wishing a wider field, he came to Minneap- 
olis wdiere he has been engaged in practice since 
1885. While Mr. Laybourn's practice is general 
it has been perhaps most extensive in com- 
mercial and insurance law. He has been fre- 
quently retained by fraternal insurance orders. 
Mr. Laybourn is a member of the leading or- 
ganizations, social and fraternal, and takes an 
active interest in public affairs as well as in 
politics. He has been several times mentioned 
as a candidate for the district bench and has re- 
ceived very complimentary support at the prim- 
ary elections for this office. In 1883 he was mar- 
ried to Miss Blanche Gove of Creston, Iowa, and 
they have four children two boys and two girls. 

LEONARD, Claude Bassett, was born at 
Chelsea, Massachusetts, son of Rev. Charles H. 
and Phoebe A. (Bassett) Leonard. His father 
is Dean of the Theological School of Tufts Col- 
lege, Medford, Massachusetts, and has reached 
the age of eighty-four years. Claude B. Leonard 
received his earlier educational training at Dean 
Academy, Franklin, Massachusetts, and gradu- 



ated at Tufts College with the A. B. degree. 
Mr. Leonard studied law in the olVice of Starbuck 
iV Sawyer at Watertown, New York, was admit- 
ted to the bar in October, 1878, came to Minne- 
apolis from Sumuierville, Massachusetts, on 
November 7, 1878, and entered vigorou>ly 
iii(() llie activities of the Northwestern metropo- 
li>. Jle was clerk of the probate court 
m 1879-80, and is now attorney fur the Farmers' 
and Mechanics' Savings Bank and for the Tri- 
State Telephone & Telegraph Company. In a 
niilitarj' way he has a record as a memljcr of 
the National Guard, State of New York. He is 
a republican in politics; a member of the Com- 
mercial Club; Past Master of Cataract Lodge 
No. 2, \. F. and A. AL; a member of St. Anthony 
h'alls, Chapter No. 3, R. A. M.; of Adoniram 
Council, No. 5; of Darius Commandery, No. 7, 
K. T., and Zuhrah Temple, N. M. S. Mr. Leonard 
attends All Souls Universalist Church. He was 
married to Ella J. Kddy at Watertown, New York, 
on April 14, 1880, and they have three children — 
Ruth Fddy, Emily Bassctt and I'.lva Llewelyn. 

LYON, George Asa, was born at Rockford, 
Floyd county, Iowa, on June y, 1S71, son of O. H. 
and Belle Alden Bradford Lyon. The mother 
was a direct descendant of William Bradford, 
who was chosen governor of the heroic Pilgrim 
Ijand who landed from the Mayllower on the big 
boulder known as Plymouth Rock, December 21, 
1620, and ruled the Plymouth colony for thirty- 
six years as the successor of John Carver, both 
being apostles of self-government in this land. 
Mr. Lyon's father, who is a cousin of General 
Nathaniel Lynn, served during the entire Civil 
War in an Iowa regiment, and was promoted to 
tile cajjtaincy of the Third Iowa Battery for 
luroic service. Mr. Lyon attended the public 
schools of Rockford, Iowa, then attended Grin- 
ncU College and later graduated at the Law 
.School of Harvard University with the LL. B. 
degree. Mr. Lyon while in college was an all 
around athlete, and was a member of the Grin- 
nell college base ball and foot ball teams for three 
years, being captain of the foot hall team during 
the last year, and was Intcr-Collegiate champion 
of tennis for three years. lie came to Minneapolis 
November i, 1903, and has since practiced his 
profession here with marked success. He has 
been associated in the practice of law willi llie 
firm of Lancaster & McGee since 1004, Ili^ e.\- 
licrience in the responsibilities of ollice holding is 
derived from his tenure of the mayoralty of the 
city of Rockford, Iowa, for a term or two. He 
is a member of the Commercial C'lnli, .•md of the 
.State Bar Association. He is .1 iiunilicr of the 
Plymouth Congregational Church. .Mr. Lyon wa-^ 
married on October 5, T905, to Ivlizalu-lh, 
of Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

McCUNl'"., .Mexander, clerk of the ])rnbatc 
court and for a long time an attorney in Keiur;il 
practice in Minneapolis, was born March j, 1859, 

at Mecca, Parke county, Indiana. He is the son of 
Henry Clay McCune and May Ann (Melvin) Mc- 
Cune. The family is Scotch-Irish in origin and 
its history in .America dates back over a century, 
to when the first McCune came to Pennsylvania 
from the north of Ireland. Its members have 
intermarried with colonial stock and the family 
chronicles are rich in incidents of interest. Mr. 
McCune was brought up on an Indiana farm. 
He went to the common schools of the country 
until he was twelve. Then the grandfather for 
whiim he was named took him to his home at 
Lima, New York. The elder McCune was a man 
of unusual originality and force of character. His 
grandscm received from association with him an 
education in the art of living which he says was 
as valuable as the academic training which he 
got from the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary of 
Lima. From Lima the grandson was sent to 
Princeton. With him went Lyman G. Morey, a 
seminary classmate — afterwards well known in 
Minneapolis by his work on the Minneapolis 
Journal — but wdio met a tragic and early death 
by drowning, in a Michigan lake. .Mr. McCune 
had also a native Minneapolitan, Wm. H. Van- 
derburgh, as a classmate in the classical depart- 
ment of Princeton. It was through his friend- 
ship for Mr. Vanderburgh, which brought him 
here later on a visit, that Mr. McCune decided 
that Minneapolis was the only city in the country 
for his permanent home. After graduation at 
Princeton and a year of law study in Indiana, 
he went to Ann Arbor, meeting there in the law 
department of Michigan University Frank Healy, 
who further confirmed his faith in Minneapolis. 
In March, 1883, Mr. McCune came to this city, 
entered the office of Cross, Hicks and Carlton 
and was admitted to practice in October of the 
same year. He pays high tribute to the kind- 
ness of the late Capt. Cross and to the courtesy 
and patience of Judge Stephen Mahoney in court 
practice, for many chances to better establish 
his own future as a young lawyer. After a few 
months of independent practice in 1884, he united 
with E. S. Slater under the firm name of Slater & 
McCune. Three years later he became associated 
with the Hon. E. M. Johnson, out of wdiich grew 
the ten years' partnership of Johnson, Leonard 
& McCune. llpon Mr. Johnson's appointment ^ 
as District Judge, Mr. McCune took up practice 
alone and has so continued. He has held the 
office of alderman "f the eighth ward. His pres- 
ent post as clerk of the Probate Court came to 
liim without solicitation or previous knowledge. 
.Mr. McCune is a Presbyterian in church faith. 
He was married October 20, 1886, at Lima, New 
York, to Clara .A. AfcNair, and as a result of this 
iiniiin llirec children. ("I;ir:i. .Mary ancl .'\nna, 
lia\c bcTii linni \i> tlnni 

MORRIS, WilluLiii Richard, i.n 
February 22, 1859, in l''leiiiing county, Kentucky. 
His father was Hezekiali Morris of three-quar- 
ters Negro blood, wlm, born in shivery in the 



WILLIAM K. .McllntlS. 

south, by liis industry bought his freedom and 
learned the trade of mattressmaking. His 
mother was Elizabeth (Hopkins) Morris of half 
Negro parentage. When William R. was two 
years of age his father died and after remaining 
in Kentucky through the war his mother moved 
to Ohio, locating at New Richmond. There her 
son attended the public schools and later a pri- 
vate school of the same place and after moving 
to Chicago he entered a Catholic school. Com- 
pleting his studies there his ambitions urged him 
to acquire a college and professional training and 
he entered Fisk University at Nashville, Tenn- 
essee, in 1876, taking the classical course. He 
was at the University for eight years, and grad- 
uated with high honors with the class of 1884. 
During his college work he was a powerful de- 
bater and orator, as well as being strong in his 
studies. Following his graduation a position as 
instructor of mathematics, languages and sci- 
ences in the institution was tendered him which 
he accepted; and where he remained for four 
years — the only Afro-American member of the 
faculty. During this time he was also engaged in 
legal studies and in 1887 completed his law 
course, resigning his position at Fisk in 1889 to 
begin his legal practice. He was admitted to the 
bar by the Supreme Court of Illinois and came 
to Minneapoli.s, where he immediately com- 
menced practice. He has found opportunity here 

to exercise his native talent in the successful 
handling of many important cases, one of the 
most notable being his defense of Thomas Lyons 
in the famous Harris murder trial. Mr. Morris 
has always been keenly interested in all move- 
ments for the advancement of his race and has 
lent his own time and energy to such purposes. 
In 1885 he represented the Afro-Americans of 
the South at the meeting of the A. M. A. at Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, delivering an address on "The 
Negro at Present." The following year he held 
institutes in Tennessee for the Afro-American 
teachers of the state under the auspices of the 
Superintendent of Education. In 1891 he was 
elected president of the Minnesota State League 
of Afro-Americans and for some time has been 
the political leader of the Negroes of the state 
Republican party. Mr. Morris is a Mason of the 
Thirty-third Degree Scottish Rites and has held 
several important offices in that body, being a 
pa~t grand master and past grand secretary. In 
tlie Odd Fellows he is a past most venerable pa- 
triarch and is a past grand chancellor of the 
Knights of Pythias, in which order he is at pres- 
ent deputy supreme chancellor and brigadier 
general for Minnesota. He is a member of the 
Plymouth Congregational Church. On July 14, 
1896, Mr. Morris was married to Miss Anna M. La 
Force, and they have one son, Richard Edward, 
born April 2, igoo. 

MORRISON, Robert George, son of David H. 
and Margery B. (McConnell) Morrison, was born 
at Blair's Mills, Huntington county, Pennsylva- 
nia, on July 31, i860. His father was a merchant 
of Blair's Mills and Mr. Morrison spent the first 
twelve years of his life at that place. The family 
then moved to Morning Sun, Iowa, where he 
finished his common school education and en- 
tered the local high school. After graduating 
from the latter he entered the Iowa State Uni- 
versity and in 1882 received his A. B. degree, and 
delivered the valedictory address at the class-day 
exercises of his class. He studied one year 
longer at the same institution and took an LL. B. 
degree in the law department. He also returned 
a few years later and was given his A. M. degree 
in 1890. Mr. Morrison's energies have always 
been turned toward the study and practice of his 
profession, and, aside from the experience ac- 
quired in his father's store during his vacations, 
he received no business training. When he fin- 
ished his college course, he commenced to prac- 
tice and since moving to Minneapolis has con- 
tinued to apply himself to his profession, and, 
during this time has been connected w'ith several 
cases that have attracted more than local atten- 
tion. Mr. Morrison is a republican in his polit- 
ical beliefs but has never consented to run for 
office, although he is actively interested in polit- 
ical measures. While in college he was a mem- 
ber of the Zetagathian Literary society, was 
prominent in the work of the club and held at 
one time the office of president. .\t the present 


A HALF Century op Minneapolis 

of the Northwest and he seems to have had his 
program of activities defined in his own mind 
when, in his youth, he was learning the lumber 
business and preparing for the study of law. Mr. 
Nichols is a republican in politics and is a mem- 
ber of the East Side Commercial Club. 

PATTEE, William Sullivan, dean of the Col- 
lege of -Law, University of Minnesota, was born 
at Jackson, Maine, September 19, 1846, the son 
I'f Daniel and Mary Ann (Bixby) Pattee. He 
prepared for college at Kent's Hill, Maine, and 
entered Bowdoin College in 1867, graduating in 
1S71. He studied law while teaching school after 
:.fraduation and coming to Minnesota was ad- 
mitted to the bar on June 28, 1878, at Faribault. 
In 1884 and 1885 Dean Pattee served in the state 
legislature while living at Northfield, Minnesota, 
and in 1888 was elected dean of the College of 
Law, organized the college and has since con- 
tinued at its head, building it up in twenty years 
l<> a high position among the law schools of the 
C'luntry. Dean Pattee is the author of "Illus- 
trative Cases in Contracts," "Illustrative Cases 
in Equity," "Illustrative Cases in Personality," 
"Illustrative Cases in Realty," "Elements of Con- 
tracts," and "Elements of Equity." From 1886 
he was a member and president of the Board of 
Normal School Directors of Minnesota for a 


time he is a member of the Westminster club 
and at different times has taken a part on the 
annual program of that association. Mr. Morri- 
son attends and is a member of the Westminster 
Presbyterian Church. He was married in 1903 to 
Miss Alice B. Gilmore of this city, and they have 
one daughter, Elizabeth. 

NICHOLS, John F., was born at Rice Lake, 
Wisconsin, October 15, 1882, son of Amos C. and 
Augusta C. Nichols. He attended the public 
sc.hools at Rice Lake and was employed by the 
Rice Lake Lumber Company for some time, 
meantime making such jireparations for a pro- 
fessional life that he was able to enter the Min- 
nesota state university upon coming to Minne- 
apolis in igoi, graduating in law in 1904 with the 
degree LL. 15. Since then Mr. Nichols has en- 
tered vigorously into the law and real estate busi- 
ness under the firm name of Nichols, Frissell & 
Smith, which firin has for some time made its 
headciuarters in the Andrus Bldg., Minneapolis. 
They have built up a large business in organizing 
land syndicates, to develop hardwood timber, 
prairie and cut-over timber tracts, dairy and blue 
grass land, etc. -The firm has developed several 
new towns in Wisconsin and throughout the 
northwest; they have lines of business in Canada, 
North Dakota, Colorado and elsewhere. Mr. 
Nichols is a young man to assume large business 
responsibilities, but he has the push and energy i«"r, fnoro 




period of twelve years. He was married at Ply- 
mouth, Maine, on November 30, 1871, to Miss 
Julia E. Tuttle. In 1894 Dean Pattee received 
the degree of LL, D. from Iowa College. He, is 
a speaker of ability and is frquently called upon 
for public addresses and lectures. He is a mem- 
ber of the Congregational church. 

PRENDERGAST, Edmund A., was born in 
St. Paul on October 16, 1875. His parents were 
Patrick Henry Prendergast and Bridget Louise 
Prendergast and the family was among the pio- 
neers of the state, six brothers having settled in 
St. Paul in the year 1856. When Edmund A. 
was four years old his parents moved to Minne- 
apolis where he has since lived. The family has 
always been connected with the Roman Catholic 
Church and Mr. Prendergast was educated in 
the institutions of the denomination. He took 
a six years' classical course in the College of St. 
Thomas at Merriam Park, graduating in June, 
1894, and completed his collegiate education with 
a post-graduate course at Grand House of Phil- 
osophy, Montreal, Canada, during the years 1894 
and 1895. Returning to Minneapolis he entered 
the law department of the University of Minne- 
sota, from which he graduated in 1899. Mr. 
Prendergast at once commenced practice in Min- 
neapolis and has a general clientele, althougli 
making a specialty of corporation law. For the 
past three years he has been general attorney for 
the Northwestern Telephone Exchange Company 
of Minneapolis and local attorney for the Wiscon- 
sin Central Railway Company. Mr. Prendergast 
is a republican in political faith though not a 
politician. He is interested in civic and philan- 
thropic problems and has been a member of the 
board of directors of the Associated Charities. 
He is a member of the Minneapolis Club. 

ROBERTS, Harlan Page, is a native of Ohio. 
His parents were Rev. George Roberts and Ann 
J. Roberts and he was born on December 5, 
1854, at Wayne, Ashtabula county, Ohio, wdiile 
his father held a charge in that place. When 
he was nine years old he went to Iowa to live 
with a sister and his schooling, begun in the 
rural schools of Ohio, was continued in the 
schools of Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, and at Howe's 
Academy in the same state. Schooling, as is 
often the case with country boys, was diversified 
with hard work. At one time Harlan P. spent 
a j'ear at Pentwater, Michigan, packing shingles. 
Fitting himself for college he entered Oberlin, 
graudating in 1875. He then attended Yale The- 
ological seminary and graduated in the class of 
1878. Next came a few years of experience as 
a pastor in the west. During this period Mr. 
Roberts determined to study law and entered the 
office of Nathaniel E. Slaymaker of Silverton, 
Colorado. He was admitted to the bar in Col- 
orado in 1883 and came to Minneapolis in Decem- 
ber, 1884. Since that time he has been continu- 
ously engaged in the practice of his profession in 
this city. His practice has been of a general 


ED.MI Nil A. l'KK.NUrJltO.\ST. 

character but he has liad special experience in land 
and title law and was for several years examiner 
for the state under the Torrens land title reg- 
istry system in vogue in Hennepin county. An 
increasing general practice necessitated the re- 
linquishment of this position. Mr. Roberts has 
taken a lively interest in good government, both 
local and state, but has not entered politics, ex- 
cept at the caucus and in local conventions. He 
is president of the Minneapolis Humane Society 
and has been active in other philanthropic work. 
On October 3, 1888, he was married to Miss 
Margaret Lee Conklin. They have two children 
living, Marjorie and Harlan C. The family at- 
tends the Park Avenue Congregational Church. 

ROBERTS, William Preston, son of Job and 
Hannah Pickering Roberts, was born June 16, 
184s, in Gwynedd, Montgomery county. Penn- 
sylvania. The forebears of the family on the 
father's side were Welsh Quakers who accom- 
panied William Penn to Pennsylvania in 1698, 
settling in Montgomery county, near Philadel- 
phia, and on the mother's side they were Eng- 
lish Quakers. W^illiam P. was brought up on his 
father's farm and continued there, with the ex- 
ception of a few years spent in Maryland, until 
he began training for the teacher's profession at 
the normal school, Millersville, Pennsylvania, in 
the fall of 1862. Here his studies were interrupted 



Wn.I.lAM !■ KdHIORTS. 

by Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania in 1863. An 
emergency company of the students was hastily 
armed and sent to the front to aid in obstructing 
the progress of the rebel invader. Most of these 
improvised soldiers were soon mustered in the 
army as Company H, Forty-seventh Pennsylvania 
X'olunteer Militia during the battle of Gettysburg, 
but were ordered to serve under Gen. Meade in 
the pursuit of Lee up the Cumberland Valley and 
to the Potomac. The regiment served thereafter 
under Sigel and was mustered out in the fall, and 
Mr. Roberts went back to school but responded 
to a call ior officers to command colored troops, 
and was commissioned Second Lieutenant by the 
War Department and assigned to the T'orty-fifth 
U. S. Colored Troops which served until the 
close of the war, in Maryland, Virginia and West 
Virginia. Mr. Roberts just missed being at the 
surrender of Lee, as he had been sent back with 
a detachment to bring up provisions for the whole 
army. He went with his regiment under Gen. 
Sheridan, with the 25th .Army Corps, to the Mex- 
ican border to demonstrate against Napoleon's 
puppet Maximilian in Alexico. and the regiment 
was not mustered out until December, 1865, Mr. 
Roberts having in the Texas service served on 
the brigade staff and having been in command of 
of his company during his whole service, coming 

out First Lieutenant and recommended for a 
captain's commission. He returned to his studies 
in the Millersville normal school and graduated 
in 1867, and soon entered the law school of the 
University of Michigan, graduating in 1869, and, 
on application to the Circuit Court in Ann Arbor 
and examination, he was admitted to the bar of 
.Michigan. Six weeks later he removed to Ne- 
braska City, Nebraska, and practiced law there 
until 1874, when he came to Minneapolis where 
he has since resided. He was in partnership with 
Col. Reuben C. Benton and his brother, C. H. 
Benton, as Benton, Benton and Roberts, from 
1878 to 1881, and with Col. Benton alone as Ben- 
ton and Roberts, and then with Col. Benton and 
Rome G. Brown, as Benton, Roberts and Brown 
until 1895. Since the death of Col. Benton, Mr. 
Roberts has practiced alone. He was an original 
member of the Minneapolis Bar Association, of 
which he holds the oldest outstanding share. Mr. 
Roberts was an active- and efficient member of 
the lower house of the Minnesota legislature dur- 
ing the sessions of 1899, 1901, 1902 and 1905, serv- 
ing on the most important committees. He in- 
troduced the first bill in Minnesota for nomina- 
tions by direct vote of the people, which in some 
respects was better than the measure which be- 
came a law at the session of 1899, notably in 
keeping the primaries for state, county and city 
nominations separate. In 1902 he prepared and 
passed through the lower house the so-called 
"wide-open" tax amendment to the constitution, 
which is practically identical with the amend- 
ment introduced by him at the session of 1905, 
and ordered for submission to ratification by the 
people at the ensuing general election. Mr. 
Roberts also, as a member of the House Judiciary 
Committee and joint conference committee, took 
an imjjortant part in the construction and enact- 
ment of tlie Revised Code in 1905. He was 
prominent in his efforts that year to secure ap- 
propriations for the new buildings of the State 
University, as chairman of the appropriations 
committee, as well as for the Women's building 
at the Soldiers Home. 

Mr. Roberts is a strenuous republican in poli- 
tics and one who believes that it is every man's 
duty to show his patriotism by taking an active 
part in national, state and local politics between 
campaigns as well as in the heat of campaign ac- 
tivities. He believes in intelligent organization 
in political action but not in machine politics, 
and his course since he came to Minneapolis in- 
dicates that he has lived up to his principles. He 
was an active member of the old Union League 
of Minneapolis and of the original Union League 
of Civil War times. He helped organize the 
Fourth Ward Republican Club and always at- 
tends its meetings when in the city. In 1872, 
with many other Republicans, he joined the so- 
called Liberal Republican movement, involving 
a coalition with the Democratic party, in revolt 
against the political shortcomings of the domin- 
ant party, under the leadership of Horace Greeley. 
He, with two other veterans of the Civil War, 



started the revolt in Nebraska and he was one of 
the delegates from that state to the Liberal Re- 
publican Convention in Cincinnati and repre- 
sented it on the platform committee, exerting his 
influence against the "tarifif-for-revenue-only" ele- 
ment, who were led by Carl Schurz, Stanley 
Mathews, David Wells, and others who stood for 
Charles Francis Adams for nomination to the 
presidency. He voted for Greeley at the start and 
brought the Nebraska delegation and ultimately 
the whole convention to his support. Mr. Rob- 
erts did some of the hardest work of his life dur- 
ing that campaign, whose disastrous ending con- 
vinced him that the reformation of a party is 
only really possible by a movement from within 
its own ranks, and since then he has worked for 
party in regular ways in the regular Republican 
ranks. He was president of the Minneapolis Un- 
ion League when the movement to nominate Mc- 
Kinley to the presidency began in 1895, and used 
all his influence in securing a delegation from 
Minnesota instructed for ]McKinley. Mr. Roberts 
is a member of the G. A. R., George N. Morgan, 
Post No. 4, and has always been conspicuous in 
its councils oflicially and otherwise. He is an 
original member of the Commercial Club and a 
member of Hennepin Lodge No. 4, A. F. A. M., 
in which ho has held and holds important posi- 
tions. He is a member of the several bodies of 
the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite Masons 
in Minneapolis, and of Zuhrah Temple of the 
Noble Order of the Mj'stic Shrine, and of the 
Independent Order of Good Templars for the 
past forty years. In 1908 he was re-elected Grand 
Master of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Minne- 
sota. He is a Universalist and a member of the 
Church of the Redeemer and president of the 
Universalist State Convention. He married in 1869. 
Anna N. Pugh. of Chester county, Pennsylvania, 
who died childless in 1870. In 1876 he married 
Agnes D. Taggart, of St. Clairsville, Ohio, who 
died in 1895, leaving two sons of that marriage — 
Horace W., born July 8, 1877, and Roy G., born 
January 29, 1880. Horace is in the Pliilippine 
civil service and Roy lives in Manitoba. 

ROCKWOOD, Chelsea Joseph, was bnrn 
September i,?, 1855. at Bennington, Vermont, son 
of Joseph R. and Rhoda (Hurd) Rockwood. His 
father was a farmer in his earlier life and later 
became a clergyman. The farm on which Chel- 
sea J. was born had been settled by his mother's 
grandfather, Moses Hurd, in 1769. In 1869 the 
family removed to Garden City, Blue Earth 
County, Minnesota, arriving in December of that 
year. Mr. Rockwood attended the common 
schools and studied in the preparatory department 
of Carleton College, going thence to the state 
university, taking the four-year course and grad- 
uating in 1879, B. A. Like many other under- 
graduates, Mr. Rockwood. during his course at 
the university, had to take some reefs in his purse 
strings. He had only fifty dollars when he en- 

tered, and pulled through largely by what he 
made carrying newspapers. He was then em- 
ployed as principal of the Le Sueur schools dur- 
ing the next two years, and, after reading law 
in the offices of Shaw, Levi & Cray and of Judge 
P. ^I. Babcock, he was admitted to the bar by 
examination of the District Court of Hennepin 
county in November, 1882, and has been prac- 
ticing law in JMinneapolis since. Mr. Rockwood 
was attorney for the Board of Park Commis- 
sioners from 1889 to 1892 and since 1895 to the 
present time. He was a member of the board in 
1893-95. He is a member of the Commercial 
Club and of the local and national bar associa- 
tions. Mr. Rockwood is a republican in politics 
and a member of the Baptist church. He was 
married on October 30, 1883, to Carrie D. 
Fletcher, of Mankato. They have had four chil- 
dren, the oldest of whom, Paul, born in 1884, died 
in 1890. The living are Ethel (1886), Edith (1888) 
and Fletcher, born in 1893. 

REED, Sampson A., a practicing attorney of 
Minneapolis for about thirty years, was born 
in Boston, December 8, 1849, and died in Min- 
neapolis, May 31, 1908. He was the only child 
of Elisha B. Reed of Hartford, Maine, and Ab- 
bie Brett of Canton, Maine. His father was an 
older brother of Captain Axel H. Reed of Glen- 
co, Minnesota, and a pioneer of that town. When 
Sampson was very vounL; the elder Reed, be- 





cause of failing health, returned from Boston 
with his family to his native town, where he 
soon after died. He was descended from pure 
New England stock through those ancestors 
that settled in Oxford county, Maine, after the 
Revolutionary War. He is descended on his 
mother's side from three Mayflower ancestors, 
and (in liis fatlicr's side, from one. Governor 
I'.radlord of tlic Plymouth colony. Soon after 
the Revolutiun, many revolutionary soldiers with 
others, went to the wilds of Maine to found new- 
homes. One Sampson Reed, whose father had 
died in Massachusetts, was one of those who 
in 179s went with his mother to Hartford, 
Maine, then a wilderness. The subject of this 
sketch is the fo;irth Sampson Reed from the 
pioneer referred to, but with him dies the name 
as a family name. Sampson Reed's boyhood 
was spent in Canton and Buckfield, Maine, 
where he attended the public schools. He fitted 
for college at Hebron .Vcademy, of which Mark 
Dunnell was at one time principal, and was 
graduated from Dartmouth College in 1874. 
While in college, Mr. Reed was an active and 
prdmiiunt nnnilur if \ariiius cnllcge debating 

societies. He supported himself while in the 
academy and in college, by teaching school. Mr. 
Reed did not linger long in the east, but in the 
same year, 1874, came west as principal of the 
high school in Glencoe, Minnesota. In the fol- 
lowing year, 1875, he came to Minneapolis and 
began the study of law in the office of the late 
Judge Isaac Atwater. After his admission to the 
bar in 1877, he practiced for a time by himself and 
in 1883 entered into a law partnership with the 
late Judge Seagrave Smith, under the firm name 
of Smith & Reed, which continued until the ap- 
pointment of Judge Smith to the district bench 
in March, 18S9. Mr. Reed, although always in 
the general practice of his profession, made 
something of a specialty of land titles and real 
estate law. He also developed e.xcellent business 
judgment and was the confidential adviser of 
many men of large real estate interests. He was 
in politics a republican and in religion a Univer- 
salist, being a member of the Church of the 
Redeemer. He was married on November 7. 
1877, to Miss Abbie Eells of Belfast, Maine, and 
is survived by her and by one daughter. Miss 
Abbie M. Reed. He was a member of lodges 
of Elks and Odd Fellows. Mr. Reed was a man 
of high integrity in his profession and was 
popular and well beloved by all who knew him 


ROOT, F. W., solicitor of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul Railway Company, at Min- 
neapolis, is a native of New York. He was 
born at Guilford, August 7, 1855, the son of 
Silas and Mathilda Root, both of Revolutionary 
stock. During his boyhood he attended the local 
schools and afterwards went to Oxford Academy, 
Chenango county. New York. He had deter- 
mined upon the law as his profession and after 
leaving the academy he entered the law office 
of Henry R. Mygatt at Oxford where he studied 
for three years. He was admitted to the bar at 
the general term of the supreme court of New 
York at Ithaca on May 4, 1880. Mr. Root came 
to Minneapolis in October, l88r, and for a time 
was associated with the law firm of Jackson & 
Pond. In the following year he entered the 
oftice of W. H. Norris, solicitor of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company at Min- 
neapolis. His position was that of law clerk and 
bis efficient service led to bis eventually being 
intrusted with many impuriaiU cases, especially 
personal injury cases, in the state and federal 
courts. In the defense of this class of cases he 
has won special distinction and is acknowledged 
to be without an equal in the defense of personal 
injury cases. Later the trial of important cases 
involving questions connected with the transpor- 
tation of freight were added to his department 
of the work. Mr. Root continued as attorney 
for the C. M. & St. P. Ry., associated with Mr. 
Norris, until the latter retired in 1902 when he 
was appointed solicitor, Mr. Root is a repub- 
lican in political faith but has never sought 




political preferment. He takes an active part 
in local movements for good government and 
is a member of various public and social organ- 
izations. Since 1904 be has been Judge Advocate 
General with title of Brigadier General on Gov- 
ernor Johnson's staff. 

S1'E\'KRS. George W., general counsel for 
the Minneapolis & St. Louis Railway, is an Ohio 
man, — born at Coshocton in that state on Septem- 
ber 23, 1845. His parents were Robert and Ellen 
Bryant Seevers. The family moved tn low a 
when George W. was ten years of ago, and his 
schooling was largely obtained in the public 
schools near their new home. From high school 
he went to Oskaloosa (Iowa) College, and later 
completed his academic education with a post- 
graduate course at the University of Michigan 
at Ann Arbor. He graduated from the law de- 
partment of the University of Michigan, after 
which he began the work of his profession, and 
soon had a large general practice at Oskaloosa, 
Iowa, which he continued until 1895, when he was 
appointed general counsel of the Iowa Central 
Railway, with headquarters at Oskaloosa. In 
1904 Mr. Seevers, in addition to his position with 
the Iowa Central road, was made general counsel 
for the Minneapolis & St. Louis Railway Com- 
pany, and moved to Minneapolis, where he has 
since maintained general offices. He afterwards 
became the vice-president and general counsel of 
the Minnesota, Dakota & Pacific Railway, and at 
the present time is still connected with the lines 
named in the same capacities. In politics Mr, 
Seevers is a republican. He has become closely 
identified with the railroad and legal life of the 
city, and is well known in social and club circles. 
He is a member of the Minneapolis Club, the 
Minikahda Club, the .\utomobiIe Club, and is also 
a Sir Knight Mason. 

SHAW, Frank W., of the law hrm of Cihen, 
Atwater & Shaw, was born at llodgdon, Maine, 
the son of Charles Shaw and Mary Jane Wiggin. 
His ancestors were prominent in the colonial 
wars and public affairs and in the Revolutionary 
War. Mr. Shaw's early life was passed at Houl 
ton, Maine, and he received his educalion al 
Ricker Classical Institute from which he grad 
uated in 1876 and at Colby University, Water- 
ville, Maine, graduating with the class of 1880. 
In September of that year he came to Minne 
apolis and during the nexf three years studied 
law in the office of Rea, Woollcy & Kitchcl. 
Upon his admission to the bar on June 30, i88,?. 
he became a member of the law lirni of Rea. 
Kitchel & Shaw, a partnership which oonlinued 
until 1886 when the style was changed to Kitchcl. 
Cohen & Shaw. After the death of Mr. Kitchel 
in 1900, J. B. .•\twater was admitted to the part- 
nership, the firm becoming, Cohen, Atwater & 
Shaw as at present. Mr. Shaw is a republican in 
political belief and is a member of the Lowry 
Hill Congregational Church. He belongs to the 
Minneapolis Club and to the Delta Kappa Ep- 

silon fraternity. He has been twice married, in 
1882 to Eliza A. Warnock and in 1899 to Julia C. 
Fairbairn and had two children by the first mar- 
riage and four by the second. 

SELOVER, Arthur William, for a number of 
years a well-known member of the legal frater- 
nity in the Twin Cities, was born at the town of 
Flatbush, Long Island, on July 9, 1871, the son 
of Peter and Jennie H. Selover. His father is a 
builder and contractor and was engaged until 
1879 in business in New York state, at 
which time the family came to Minnesota and 
located at Lake City. Their son attended the 
public schools there and took his preparatory 
work for college in the Lake City high school, 
from which he graduated in the year 1888. He 
matriculated at the University of Minnesota for 
the continuation of his studies, entering the aca- 
demic department. He graduated from that de- 
partment in 1893, receiving at the time his degree 
of B. A., returning to complete his training for 
the legal profession, which he had determined 
to follow, in the l.iu college. He finished the 





A K Till I! w. si:i.iivi;[;. 

law course in 1894 taking a LL. B. degree; and 
at the time of graduation was awarded the honors 
of his class for the preparation of the best and 
most complete legal thesis. After leaving col 
lege Mr. Selover followed his legal studies for a 
time and in 1897 took the additional degree of 
LL. M. In 1894, following his graduation from 
the law department of the University of Minne 
sola, he had accepted a position on the editorial 
staff of the West Publishing Company of St. 
Paul, and took an important part in the editing 
of the law books handled by that house. He 
was associated with that lirm as legal editor for 
five years, but in 1899 resigned his office to fol- 
low his original intention of entering the legal 
profession. He chose Minneapolis as the field 
for his practice and has since been engaged with 
legal work in this city. Much important litiga- 
tion has come under his management during thi; 
course of his practice. Mr. Selover is also the 
author of several legal books, the most impor- 
tant, possibly, being a volume on negotiable in- 
struments which is used as a standard authority 
throughout the country and wdiich the Yale Law 
School has adopted as a text book. This was 
published in igoo. A year later he completed and 
published a w'ork on bank collections. Mr. Sel- 
over is a republican in politics and has been ac- 
tive in the work of his party, and in 1908 became 
the candidate for alderman from the Fifth 

ward. He is a member also of the Apollo 
Club. On December 19, igoo, Mr. Selover was 
married to Miss Bessie S. Warner of St. Paul, 
and they have two children, both sons — Arthur 
Lucien, aged five, and Harvey William, now three 
years of age. The family attends the First Pres- 
byterian Church of Minneapolis, and Mr. Selover 
is the superintendent of the Sunday School. 

SHEARER, James Duncan, came to Minne- 
apolis in 1883, when twenty-one years of age, and 
since the following year has been a practicing 
attorney of this city. He is descended on both 
sides from old Scotch families; his father, Robert 
Bruce Shearer, was a descendant of Robert Bruce 
(if Scotland; his mother, Elizabeth Eliza Camp- 
bell McDougall, was a second cousin of the last 
Duke of Argyle, and grand-daughter of Dr. John 
l.awson of Edinburgh, physician to Sir Walter 
.^cott. James D. Shearer was born on March 25, 
1S62, at Janesville, Wisconsin, then the home of 
his parents. When he was three years of age 
ihe family moved to central Iowa and he grew 
up on a farm in that state, the youngest of six 
children. His education began in "the little 
white school-house" and after the usual prepara- 
tory training he entered the Iowa State Agricul- 
tural College at ,\mes. His studies were carried 
on tliere for five years and he graduated in 1879, 
when only seventeen years old, being, in fact, up 
to that time the youngest student of the institu- 




tion to receive a diploma. After leaving college 
Mr. Shearer taught in the Iowa schools for sev- 
eral years, but the work of a teacher did not oflfer 
scope for either his ambitions or abilities. So in 
1883 he resigned his position and came to Minne- 
apolis, and has since been a resident and a mem- 
ber of the legal fraternity of the city. Soon after 
his arrival here, Mr. Shearer began to study law 
in the oitices of Judge Bagg, and on October 17. 
1884, was admitted to the bar by the state su- 
preme court. He commenced practice at once in 
Minneapolis. His work has not been confined to 
any one branch of the law, but has been along 
general lines, and at the present time his list of 
clients is large and his practice successful. For 
several years he has been a member of the law 
firm of Belden. Jamison & Shearer. On March 
25, 1907. Mr. Shearer was appointed receiver of 
the Minnesota Title Insurance & Trust Company 
and since that time has been largely engaged in 
settling up the affairs of the institution. Mr. 
Shearer is a member of the republican party and 
is active in its work. In 1903 he was elected to 
the Minnesota house of representatives, and 
served during 1903 and 1904. He is a member of 
various organizations, social, political, and pro- 
fessional; among them being the Minneapolis 
Commercial Club and the Six O'Clock Club. On 
September 18. 188S, Mr. Shearer was married to 
Miss Emma E\an-- nf Cedrir Rapids. Iowa, and 


they have four 

children, three sons and 

SMITH, Edward E., a practicing attorney of 
Minneapolis, was born on May 5, 1861, at Spring 
Valley, Minnesota. He is a son of Dryden Smith 
and Elizabeth Ann (Hines) Smith. He attended 
the public schools at Spring Valley, where he 
passed his boyhood and youth, but studied law 
at Charles City, Iowa, where he was admitted 
to the bar in 1883. Most of Mr. Smith's profes- 
sional life has been passed in Minneapolis, where 
he moved not long after his admission to prac- 
tice. He has always taken an active interest in 
politics and has been repeatedly elected to the 
State Legislature as a republican. He first served 
in the house of representatives in 1895, and 
was re-elected for the session of 1897. He was 
elected to the state senate in 1898 and again in 
1902 and 1906. Mr. Smith was married in 1883 
to Esther E. Leonard, and they have two chil- 
dren, Harriet and Rollin. He is a member of tlie 
Minneapolis and Commercial clubs and is promi- 
nent in all the Masonic orders. 

SMITH, George Ross, lawyer and judge of tlic 
probate court of Hennepin county, was born in 
Stearns county, Minnesota, May 28, 1864, the son 
of David and Katharine (Crowe) Smith. He at- 
tended the district school until fifteen years of 
age, working on his father's farm during the sum- 
mers. In 1886 he graduated from Lake View 
.'\cademy and was awarded a gold medal for 
scholarship. He taught school until 1891, when lie 
entered the College of Law of the University of 
Minnesota, from which he graduated with the 
degree of LL. B. in 1893. While in the university 
he was elected president of his class. Since 1893 
he has been actively engaged in the practice of 
l.iw in Minneapolis. He was elected to the legis- 
lature from the Thirty-eighth legislative district 
in 1902, and was the first republican representative 
to lie sent to the house of representatives from 
ihat district. He was elected judge of probate of 
Hennepin county in November, 1906. On Janu- 
.M-y 9, 1895, Judge Smith was married at Minneap- 
olis to Mrs. F. J. Horan. He is a member of 
the State Bar Association and several fraternal 
orders and local clubs. His recreations are hunt- 
ing and fishing. 

SMITH, Seagravc. for ni.iny years ;i pnniii 
nent member of the Hennepin eminty ami 
judge of the district court, was born on Soiitem- 
hcr 16. 1S28, at Stafford. Connecticut, the son of 
llir.ini and Mary .'\. (Scagrave) Sinitli. His 
father was a farmer of Welsh descent and his an- 
cestors on both sides were early settlers of New 
England. His early life was that usual to the 
farnuTN Imy in Xew I'.ngland and he finished a 
common sclinol cdiu-ation with a course at the 
Connecticut Literary Institution at Suffield, 
where he graduated in iS4,S. He had already de- 
termined to be a lawyer, but this course was 
strongly opposed by his f.ilher, wlm refused him 

^ (Ttr ^^-^i;?i^>^ 





any financial aid, and he accordingly supported 
himself while studying for the bar by teaching 
school. He read law with .\lvin P. Hide at Staf- 
ford, Connecticut, and was admitted to the bar 
on August 13, 1852. He began to practice in 
Colchester, Connecticut, and during his residence 
there served as town clerk, state senator, and 
clerk of tlie probate court. In ICS57 he grati- 
fied an early desire to settle in the west and 
came to Hastings, Minnesota, wdiere he formed a 
law partnership with J. W. De Silva. During 
his twenty years residence at Hastings he took 
a prominent part in llie i>olitics of Dakota coun- 
ty, serving from time to lime as county attor- 
ney, county commissioner, judge of probate and 
as a member of the state senate. He was at- 
torney for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. I'.iul 
railway and other railroad corporations. In 
i«77 Judge Smith moved to Minneapolis and 
formed a law partnership with W. E. Hale, 
which continued for three years. In 1883 he en- 
tered into a partnership with the late S. A. Reed, 
whicli continued until March, i8Sg, when Judge 
Smith was api)ointcd to the district bench. Al- 
though a life long democrat. Judge Smith was 
elected in 1890 by the united support of all par- 
ties and in l8g6 was again elected to the bench 
on the democratic ticket. In 1887 he was elect- 
ed city attorney and held the office for two 
terms. He was frequently nominated for vari- 

ous positions, as attorney general of the state 
and chief justice of the supreme court, but with 
the exceptions noted was not elected, his party 
being largely in the minority in Minnesota. In 
every case, however, Judge Smith ran ahead of 
his party ticket, as he was widely known as a 
man of the highest character and ability and one 
whose partisanship could not detract from his 
.ible, conscientious work as an ofiicial. Judge 
Smith was married three times. His first wife 
was Miss Almira Cady of Monson, Massachu- 
setts. They had four children. His second wife 
was Mrs'. Fidelia P. Hatch of Hastings, who had 
one son, Theron S. Smith. Judge Smith's third 
marriage was to Mrs. Harriet P. Norton of Otis, 
^lassachusctts, who survives him and is still liv- 
ing in Minneapolis. The only surviving child of 
Judge Smith is Claribel Smith, principal of Ham- 
ilton school, in this city. Judge Smitli died in 
May, 1898. 

S.MITH, John Day, member of the district 
l)^ench of Minnesota, is the descendant of English 
Colonial ancestry that settled in this country a 
!^alf century before the Revolutionary War and 
took part in the struggle for independence. His 
great-grandfather, James Lord, was a lieutenant 
ind led a companv at Bunker Hill. John Day, 
the son of a Kennebec county, ]\laine, farmer, 
was born in that region on February 25, 1845. 
-Mter completing his preparatory education he 
entered Brown University and graduated with 
the class of 1872. Returning for further work he 
took an A. M. degree in 1875 and in his senior 
year became a member of the Phi Beta Kappa 
fraternity. He taught school for a short time 
and then entered Columbia University and stu- 
died law, receiving an LL. B. degree at that insti- 
tution in 1878 and his degree of LL. M. three 
years later at the same place. In 1881, shortly 
after his graduation from Columbia he was ad 
mitted to the bar in the city of Washington. In 
1885 he came to Minneapolis and has resided here 
since that time. He practiced his profession in 
this city, as senior partner of the law firm of 
Smith and Parsons until 1901 and then inde- 
pendently until his election to the district bench 
in 1904. Besides his legal work Judge Smith was 
a lecturer at the state university on .American 
constitutional law, from 1890 till 1905, when he 
was promoted to the bench, and was engaged for 
a time to lecture at Howard University. On June 
26, 1862, he enlisted with Company F., Nineteenth 
Maine Volunteers and fought in most of the prin- 
cipal battles of the Civil war — Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, Bristoc Station, Mine Run, the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Bethesda Church, 
North Anna, Cold Harbor, Siege of Petersburg 
and Jerusalem Road. lie was slightly wounded 
at Gettysburg and at Jerusalem Road was almost 
fatally shot in the face. Though given up by 
the surgeons he recovered and was discharged, as 
a corporal, .^pril 25, 1865, on account of his 
wounds. Judge Smith has always been active 



politically and has held several public offices. He 
has usually supported the republican party 
though in i<Sy6 he followed the political leader- 
ship of William J. Bryan. In 1889 he served in 
tlie lower house of the Minnesota legislature and 
was the representative from the Thirty-fourth 
District in the senate from 1891 to 1895, and was 
an able leader of the republican sentiment and 
movements in that body. During his last term 
he was chairman of the judiciary committee of 
the senate. After his second term in the senate 
he returned to private life and practiced his 
profession until 1904 when as rnentioned he was 
elected to the district bench. Judge Smith is 
prominent in the affairs of military fraternal or- 
ganizations — he is a member of the G. A. R. and 
in 1893 was chosen as commander of the depart- 
ment of Minnesota. In December, 1906, he was 
elected president of the ^linnesota Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution to succeed 
Judge F. M. Crosby. He is also a member of 
Ark Chapter, Darius Commandery of the Knights 
Templar, and of Zuhrah Temple, and was the first 
master of Ark Lodge A. F. and A. M. In 1872 
he was married to Miss Mary Hardy Chadbourne, 
of Lexington, Massachusetts, who died in 1874. 
He was again married in 1879 to Miss Laura 
Bean, of Delaware, Ohio. They have four chil- 
dren. The family attends the Calvary Baptist 

1 Ki;ii i;. s\i iii:u. 

SNYDER, Fred B., son of Simon P. and Mary 
R. Snyder, was born in Minneapolis, on Febru- 
ary 21, 1859, in the original Colonel Stevens 
house, the first dwelling erected on the site of 
Minneapolis. He is the second son in the fam- 
ily and has spent his life from his birth in this 
city. He attended the local public schools, grad- 
uated from the high school and then entered the 
University of Minnesota from which he gradu- 
ated in 1881. He received his degree in that 
year and then read law; first in the office of 
Lochren, McNair & Gilfillan and later with the 
law firm of Koon, Merrill and Keith. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1882. He practiced in 
partnership with Judge Jamison till 1889. He 
has handled a number of important cases, notably 
that of the State vs. Pillsbury, in which he upset 
the provisions of the City Charter relating to 
special assessments for local improvements; and 
that of the State vs. Westfall, when he sustained 
the constitutionality of the Torrens Land Law, 
of which he himself is the author. Mr. Snyder 
has always been a republican in politics and lias 
been elected by that party to several public of- 
fices. In 1892 he was elected alderman of the 
second ward and served four years, being presi- 
dent of the council in 1894-1895. Two years later 
he was the representative in the legislature from 
the University district, in 1899 was advanced to 
the senate, and in 1902 declined re-election for a 
second term. While in the city council he pro- 
posed the gas arbitration plan, which materially 
reduced the price of that commodity, and created 
the office of City Gas Inspector. He also advo- 
cated and voted for the Harvey transfer ordinance. 
As a member of the legislature he was the origi- 
nator and supporter of several important meas- 
ures — introducing and passing the bill increasing 
the annual revenue of the state university. While in 
the senate he introduced and passed the Board 
of Control Bill and supported and voted for the 
increase of the gross earnings tax from three to 
four per cent. He was also the author of the 
Probation Law for juvenile offenders. Mr. 
Snyder while in college was elected to the Chi 
Fsi and P. B. K. fraternities, and is a member of 
the Minneapolis and Commercial Clubs. In 1885 
he was married to Miss Susan M. Pillsbury, who 
died in 1891. In 1896 he married Miss Lenora 
Dickson of Pittsburgh. There are two children, 
a son. John Pillsbury, and a daughter, Mary 
Stuart. Mr. Snyder attend^ the First Congrega- 
tional Church. 

SWEET, John Cochrane, was born at Fort 
Wayne, Indiana, April 24, 1870, son of Kay Chit- 
tenden and Elizabeth (Cochrane) Sweet. His 
father was a locomotive engineer whose forebears 
in this country came from England and settled 
in Rhode Island in 1630. Mr. Sweet spent his 
boyhood in I^^ort Wayne, Indiana, and received 
his early educational training in the public 
-chools of that city and at Waseca, Minnesota, 
whitlur he went in 1882. In 1890 he went to 



Mankato, Minnesota, and the next year he came to 
Minneapolis to enter the university where he won 
the Paige prize for the best graduation thesis in 
1893. also winning the gold medal for first place in 
the two hundred and twenty-yard dash on college 
field day. 1892. Pursuing his studies in the law de- 
partment of the university, Mr. Sweet received 
tlie LL. B. degree in 1893 and LL. M. in 1896. 
When the Spanish war broke out Mr. Sweet en- 
tered the L'nited States service as second lieute- 
nant, Company A, Fifteenth Minnesota Volunteer 
Infantry. Mr. Sweet represented the thirty-ninth 
district in the lower house of the Minnesota 
legislature during the sessions of 1901 and 1902. 
lie is secretary and director of the Minneapolis 
Oil Company and, since 1901, has been receiver 
for the Minneapolis Fire & Marine Mutual In- 
surance Company, and since 1896 has been lec- 
turer on the Law of Mortgages in the Law De- 
partttient of the state university. Mr. Sweet has 
interests in Minneapolis real estate and in petro- 
leum lands in Kansas and is interested with W. 
S. Dwinnell in British Columbia timber lands. 
He is a member of the Minneapolis and Com- 
mercial clubs; is secretary and treasurer i>f the 
I'si Upsilon Association of Minnesota, .ind a 
member of the Phi Delta Phi Fraternity and, not- 
withstanding his professional engagements, main- 
tains a lively interest in athletics and automobil- 
ing. Mr. Sweet is a member of the First Con- 
gregational Church of Minneapolis. He was mar- 
ried on May 19, 1897, to Mary, daughter of Chas. 
H. Lougee, and two daughters have been born 
to them — Catherine Elizabeth (born February S, 
1901) and Margaret Cochrane (born June 17, 
1903). Mr. Sweet resides at 526 h'levenlh avenue 

TiKJ.MPSON, Charles T., of the law firm of 
Keith, Evans, Thompson & Faircliild. is a native 
of Ohio. He w-as born at Glendale, near Cin- 
cinnati, on June 6, 1853, the son of Samuel J, 
and Eveline K. Thompson. His father was one 
of the distinguished Cincinnati lawyers of the 
last generation. He began his education at Glen- 
dale where he fitted for entrance to Denison Uni- 
versity at Granville, Ohio, from which instituti' m 
lie graduated in 1873 with the degree of .\, I'.- lie 
llien went abroad studying at the University i>l 
Edinburgh, Scotland, wdiere, in the fall of 1874. 
he took honors in logic, metaphysics and in 
Roman law, having completed a two years course 
in one year. Returning to America he entered 
the Cincinnati Law School (now law department 
of the University of Cincinnati) from which he 
graduated in June, 1S76. He at once began prac- 
tice with the firm of King, Thompsim & Long- 
worth, but on account of his health moved to 
.Minneapolis in 1878. For a few years he prac- 
ticed alone and then in .'\ugust, 1883, formed the 
partnership with Mr. .\rthur M. Keith, which 
has continued until the present time. The firm 
was at first Keith & Thompsmi and in 1S87 the 
present partnership was fornucl. It has ;ilways 


Iieen one of the prominent law firms of the city 
and has cunducted much important legal busi- 
ness. During his thirty years residence in .Min- 
neapolis Mr. Thompson has taken an active part 
in .all matters looking toward the bettermenl of 
social and political conditions, though he has 
never held or sought public office. His political 
affiliations .are with the republican party and his 
clinrcli relatiinis with the Presbyterian dcnomina- 
lion, in which he has held many important posi- 
tions. He has served as elder and clerk of West- 
minster Presbyterian Church for many years. 
II.- is a member of the Sons of the .\merican 
Ki\ .ilutiiin. the Citizens' st.aff of the Rawlins post. 
(]. A. K,. ilie r.eta Tlui.-i I'i fraternity, the Min- 
luapiilis Chill. Ihe ('■ iiiiiiiercial Club, the La- 
fayette Chill, the WistiniiisUr Club, the Six 
tJ'Clock Club, and the .\iiuriean and .Minnesota 
State bar associations. .Mr. Thompson mar- 
ried on September 28, 1881, to Kate I.. Harris of 
.Minneapolis. They have three sons, .\rtluir II., 
Telford K. and Charles Stanley. 

TRA.X I.ICR, Charles Jerome, son of John and 
Rebecca ^'ounl Traxler, was b'irn in Henry 
county, Iowa, near Mount Pleasant, "ii ileeeiiilier 
16, 1858. The father was a farmer and liiick- 
maker and the son spent his early years on the 
f.iiiii near Mount Pleasant where, after attending 
Ihe public schools, he took the academic course 
.11 Howe's .Veademv. .\fter a course in Iowa 



Wesleyan University at Mount Pleasant, Mr. 
Traxler completed his collegiate education at the 
State University of Iowa at Iowa City from which 
he tfraduated, LL, B., in 1882, meantime having 
read law with prominent lawyers. He began the 
practice of his profession in partnership with 
Hon. Clay B. Whitford (now of Denver, Col.; 
and after that gentleman's departure for Denver, 
the partnership being dissolved, Mr. Traxler be- 
came a member of the editorial staff of the Daily 
Tribune-News, of Evansville, Ind., holding the 
position of associate editor in chief. In 1886 he 
resumed the practice of law in western Kansas, 
where he was twice elected county attorney of 
Seward County. He came to Minnesota in 1889 
locating in Minneapolis where he has since been 
practicing in his specialty as corporation counsel. 
Mr. Traxler is an Independent in politics, in later 
j'ears generally voting for republican candidates. 
As counsel for several freight receivers' associa- 
tions, Mr. Traxler has given intelligent attention 
to the rate question and a plan for the regulation 
of rates was considered by the government last 
year which Mr. Traxler originated and which was 
regarded with considerable favor by the Federal 
authorities and men of afifairs who considered it. 
It left the rate-making power with the railroads 
and devolved upon them the burden of proof, 
while avoiding any ground for basing a charge 
that the commission is combining judicial and 
legislative functions or that a special tribunal has 
been created for a special industry. Mr. Traxler 
is the author of several books which have re- 
ceived the commendation of recognized legal au- 
thorities. His "Annotated Lien Laws of Minne- 
sota." published in 1890, has been indorsed by the 
justices of the state supreme court and leading 
members of the bar and by the dean of the law 
department of the state university, where it is 
used as a text book. His treatise on the "Law 
of Mechanics' Liens of Iowa," also has the unani- 
mous indorsement of the members of the Iowa 
supreme court. In 1907 Mr. Traxler was ap- 
pointed by the Minnesota supreme court as one 
of the six members of the state board of law e.x- 
aminers and assumed the duties of his office on 
May I of that year. Mr. Traxler was married in 
1886 to Mary Comstock, daughter of Col. A. W. 
Comstock, of Mount Pleasant. Iowa. To them 
have been born three children — Marian .'\very. 
Hazel Alice and John Austin. 

TRYON, Charles John, a Minneapolis attorney 
in active prictice in the firm of Tryon and Booth, 
was born September 8, 1859, at Batavia, New York. 
He is the son of A. D.. and .Amanda H. Tryon. 
and both parents were of English colonial an- 
cestry, the New York branch of the Tamily hav- 
ing migrated from Connecticut — the original 
hgme of the first settlers — and established them- 
selves in New York early, in that state's history 
The father was a druggist and book seller in pros- 
perous circumstances and the son after an early 
education in the common schools of Batavia, 

went to Columbian University, Washington, D. 
C, for his law course. Soon after graduation, 
he came to Minneapolis, where he has since lived, 
and practiced as a lawyer. Mr. Tryon is a re- 
publican in politics, and a Congregationalist in 
church affiliations. He was married June 10, 1901, 
to Miss Isabel Gale, the daughter of Harlow 
A. Gale, one of the early pioneers of Minneapolis. 
He has seven children — three sons and four 

VAN VALKENBURG, Jesse, was born in 
Sharon, New York, on December 31, 1868, and is 
of a family whose ancestors took part in the 
Revolution. His father, Joseph Van Valkenburg, 
was at the time of his son's birth a New York 
farmer, but later engaged in business, and is now 
retired; his mother was Harriet Seeley Van 
Valkenburg. The family moved West and Jesse 
grew up at Farmington, Minnesota, attending the 
local schools and afterwards taking a course at the 
-Mankato state normal school. After graduating 
at Mankato, he completed his education with 
the academic and law courses at the University 
of Minnesota, graduating from the former in 
1894 and the latter in 1895. During the later 
years of his university work he was on the staff 
of the Minneapolis Tribune as a reporter and con- 
tinued for a short time after graduating, or until 
he commenced practice in his chosen profession. 
During his ten years' membership in the bar of 
the city and state he has made a large acquaint- 
ance and established a satisfactory practice. .A. 
republican in politics, he has not taken a poli- 
tician's part in party affairs, but has been inter- 
ested in civic betterments and good government. 
He is a member of the Masonic order and of 
the society of the Sons of the .American Revolu- 
tion. Mr. Van Valkenburg is married and has 
three children. The family attend the Congre- 
gational church, 

VANDERBURGH, Charles Edwin, better 
known as Judge Vanderburgh, an early settler 
of St. Anthony and the first judge of the dis- 
trict bench from this district, was born on De- 
cember 2, 1829, at Clifton Park, Saratoga county, 
New York. His ancestors came to this country 
from Holland before the Revolution, his grand- 
father fought under the flag of the United Col- 
onies and shortly after the close of the war 
settled in Saratoga county, where the father of 
Charles Edwin. Stephen Vanderburgh, was born. 
Charles Edwin received his grammar education 
in the district school, later taking a preparatory 
course in Cortland Academy at Homer, New 
York, and entering Yale College in 1849 with 
the class of 1852. He graduated in the latter 
year and soon after commenced his legal studies 
with Henry R. Mygatt, an eminent lawyer of 
his day, at the same time holding the office of 
principal at Oxford Academ5', Oxford, New 
York. .Admitted to the bar in 1S55, he came to 
Minneapolis the following spring, where he soon 
formed a partnership with F. R. E. Cornell and 



commenced the practice of law, the firm becom- 
ing one of the most successful in the state. At 
the age of twenty-nine elected judge of the 
Fourth Judicial District in 1859, and successively 
re-elected. Judge Vanderburgh dispensed justice 
in the territory embracing everything north and 
west of Minneapolis for twenty years, driving 
over a large part of the circuit. In a day when 
the jurisprudence of Minnesota was but sliglitly 
(U-veloped, his excellent training and sound judg- 
ment blazed out the way of interpretation which 
other courts followed. In 1881, he was elected 
to the supreme bench, the death of Judge Cor- 
nell having left a vacancy, and served until the 
e.xpiration of his last term in 1894. Probably his 
most famous decision was that rendered while on 
tlie district bench in i860, in the case of Kliza 
Winston, a slave woman brought by her owner. 
Colonel Christmas, from Mississippi to this state 
and taken before Judge Vanderburgh on a writ 
of habeas corpus. He decided that slavery was 
a local institution, and that a slave brought into 
a free state by its owner became free. This 
made the woman free to leave her former owner 
and with the aid of a party of abolitionists she 
evaded a forcible attempt at recapture and 
escaped into Canada. His supreme court de- 
cisions were distinguished by strong common 
sense, thorough investigation and conciseness. 
A former associate said of him, "The fidelity and 
painstaking care with vv-hich he discharged judi- 
cial duties, may be likened to that which a 
sculptor bestows in chiseling the form and face 
of a statue, anxious always, that no fault or flaw 
should be revealed in the finished work." When 
it is remembered that ^Minnesota had only 150,000 
peoi'le when he went on the bench and had 
grown til a million and a half when he left it, 
it will be seen that he was an influential factor 
in the determination of most of the important 
litigation that has occurred in the state. On his 
retirement from the bench, he entered into the 
general practice of law, took an active part in 
the political campaign of 1896 and presided at 
the first meeting held by W. J. Bryan, in Min- 
neapolis. With his family he attended the First 
IVcsbyterian Church of this city and for many 
years was an elder and the superintendent of the 
Sabbath school. He was married to Miss Julia 
M. Mygatt of Oxford, New York, on September 
2, 1857, and they had two children, W. H. Van- 
derburgh, now a practicing attorney in Minne- 
apolis, and Julia M. Vanderburgh, who was 
drowned in 1871. After the death of his first 
wife in 1863 Judge Vanderburgh was again mar- 
ried to Miss .\nna Culbert of Fulton county, 
New York. One daughter, Isabella, was born, 
who died in 1893. Judge Vanderburgh died in 
March, 1898, at the age of sixty-eight years. 

WILSON, George Potter, son of Samuel and 
Elizabeth Wilson, was born at Lewisburgh, 
Pennsylvania, January 19, 184O. His father was 
a farmer of Scotch-Irish descent; his mother of 


CKOKLi: 1'. WII.SO.N'. 

German descent. The father served in the w^ar 
of 1812. The subject of this sketch w-as a boy 
when his parents died. He remained at Lewis- 
burgh until he was eighteen years old and at- 
tended the Lewisburgh (now Bucknell) Uni- 
versity during the last tw'O years of his residence 
there. He then attended the Wesleyan Univer- 
sity at Delaware, Ohio, for two years and in 
i860 he removed to Winona, Minnesota, where he 
studied law in the office of Lewis & Simpson and 
was admitted to the bar in the fall of 1862. He 
practiced his profession at W'inona as a member 
of the firm of Simpson & Wilson until October, 
1878. Meantime he was elected, and served for six 
years, or three terms, as county attorney of Wino- 
na County. He was elected to the lower house of 
the legislature in November, 1872, and was elected 
Attorney General of the state of Minnesota in 
November, 1873, and was twice reelected, his last 
term ending on January I, 1880. Mr. Wilson then 
removed to Fargo, North Dakota, and practiced 
law under the firm name of Wilson & Ball until 
July, 1887, coming then to Minneapolis, where he 
has since remained in the practice of his profes- 
sion. He was elected to the state senate from 
the Forty-first District in 1898, and re-elected in 
T902. .Vmong the distinctions which have marked 
the career of Mr. Wilson, he was appointed by 
President Grant, in 1871, one of the government 
commissioners on the Southern Pacific Railroad, 

2lk_^_^ iX^/- 

'^^. (J-^-^ 


A HALF Century op Minneapolis 

tin- construction of which had just commenced 
from San Francisco south and cast. The com- 
missioners inspected the worl< from San Fran- 
cisco to Gilroy, eighty miles. Mr. Wilson was 
line of the counsel for the state of Minnesota in 
that celebrated case. The State of Minnesota 
against The Northern Securities Company, on 
each side of which tlie strongest legal talent was 
engaged. Mr. Wilson is a member of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church. He was married in Sep- 
tember, 1866, to Ada H. Harrington of Winona, 
and they have had three children. Jessie M., mar- 
ried to W. R. Sweatt; Walter H., and Wirt, all 
of whom reside in Minneapolis. 

WILLIAMSON, James Franklin, was born in 
the town of Osborn, near Dayton, Ohio, on Jan- 
nary 9, 1853. His grandfather, James W. Will- 
iamson, was one of the pioneer settlers of Ohio. 
James Franklin is the son of George C. and Sarah 
A. Williamson, being of Scotch-Irish descent 
upon his father's side and German descent on his 
nicither's side. He was educated at the public 
schools and Princeton Lniversity, graduating 
from the latter in 1.S77 with the degree of A. B. 
and receiving therefrom ihe degree of Ph. D. in 
1879, on examination fnr jHist graduate work. 
He studied law in the ofticc of ex-Governor 
George Hoadly, at Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1881 he 
came to Minneapolis, here continuing his studies 
with the law firm of Lochren, McNair & Gil- 


idlan, and in November of the same year was 
admitted to the bar. He accepted an appoint- 
ment, in the fall of 1881, as an examiner in the 
United States Patent Office, remaining about two 
years. He resigned from government service in 
1885, and opened a law office in this city, making 
a specialty of patent and trade-mark law and 
soliciting. He has since been continuously en- 
gaged with that branch of legal work, and has 
a well-established practice in the United States 
courts and before the Patent Office. After prac- 
ticing alone in this city for fifteen years, Mr. 
Williamson, in 1900, took into partnership Mr. 
Frank D. Merchant, under the firm name of 
Williamson & Merchant. This association still ex- 
ists, and the firm has built up a most success- 
ful business, numbering among its clients not 
only prominent corporations in the Northwest, 
but some of national repute in other sections 
On June 9, 1896, Mr. Williamson was married to 
Miss Emma F. Elmore, and they have two chil- 
dren, both sons. Mr. Williamson is a member 
of the leading business and social organizations 
of the city, including the Minneapolis Club and 
Commercial Club of this city, and is also a mem- 
ber of the University Club of New York City. 

WRIGHT, Fred B., was born January 17, 
1856, in Coos county. New Hampshire. His father, 
Beriah Wright, was a farmer of moderate means 
directly descended from Beriah Wright wdio had a 
part in the war of 1812 as a captain in the army 
i>f the United States. The family have had di^- 
tinguished representation in the legal and med- 
ical professions in both the East and the West, 
and have been eminently successful in agricul- 
tural and commercial life. Fred B., after a good 
district school education, entered the St. Johns- 
bury .Academy at St. Johnsbury, Vermont, from 
which he graduated in 1878 and, after teaching 
school for a time, he began to read law in the 
i.iftice of George A. Bingham at Littleton, New 
Hampshire; and later completed his studies at 
the Boston Law School. In 1883 Mr. Wright 
came to Minneapolis and began, here, the prac- 
tice of his profession. He has continuously prac- 
ticed here since that time and been eminently 
successful in his professional career. In politics 
he is a republican and is active in the work of 
the State t.eague of Republican Clubs, of which 
lie was president for two years. He was elected 
III the state legislature in 1906 from the Fortieth 
I )istrict which is identical with the Fourth Ward 
111 .Minneapolis and during the session of 1907 
\va> .'L member of many important committees 
and chairman of the committee of drainage. In 
response to the pressing demand for a revision 
and extension of the drainage laws, Mr. Wright 
revised and rewrote the old drainage laws with 
the view to making them meet the present de- 
mand of the state. This work was done so thor- 
I Highly that the result brought him warmest com- 
mendation and it is conceded that Minnesota now 
has the best system of drainage laws of any state 



in the Union. Mr. Wright is a high degree Ma- 
son and is a member of the Minneapolis No. 19 
Blue Lodge, St. John's Chapter No. 9, Zion Com- 
mandery Xo. 2, Knights Templars, and Zuhrah 
Temple. On August 2T, 1884, he was married to 
Helen M. Conant, of Greensboro, Vermont, and 
they have four children — Ralph C. Fred B., Jr., 
Barbara Helen, and Donald Orr. 

WAITE, Edward Foote. judge of the tnunic- 
ipal court of Minneapolis, was born on January 
T5, i860, in Norwich, New York, the son of John 
Waite and Betsey N. Foote. His father was a 
lawyer and his ancestors on both sides of the 
family were among the early settlers of New 
England. Judge Waite's early life was spent at 
Norwich and in that vicitiity, where he obtained 
his earlier schooling and prepared for college. 
He entered Colgate University at Hamilton, New 
York, and graduated with the degree of A. B. 
in the class of 1880. His professional education 
was obtained at the Columbian (now George 
Washington) University Law School at Wash- 
ington, D. C, from which he was graduated in 
1883 with the degree of LL. B. and from which 
he received his LL. M. in 1884. Judge Waite 
did not engage in practice at once. He had been, 
during his law studies, a clerk in the United States 
Pension Department at Washington, and con- 
tinued in the service of the pension department,' 
serving as special examiner at various points, the 
last being Minneapolis, where he was stationed 
from 1888 to i8y7. In the latter year Judge 
Waite withdrew from the public service and com- 
menced the practice of law. He was for some 
lime associated with the late Judge A. H. Young, 
who had served upon the district bench in Min- 
neapolis for many years. In 1901 Mr. Waite was 
made assistant city attorney of Minneapolis and 
in .Xugust, 1902, was appointed Superintendent of 
I'lilice by Mayor David P. Jones, who had come 
into office upon the retirement of Mayor A. A. 
Ames. The appointment of Judge Waite as 
superintendent of police was for the avowed 
purpose of complete reorganization and rehabilita- 
tion of the police force of the city and for the 
absolute suppression of various forms of vice and 
crime which had been given free rein. This 
work was accomplished in a few months and when 
Supt. Waite retired from the position on Jan- 
uary I, 190.?, the police force was thoroughly re- 
organized on a basis of independence, complete 
protection to the public and no protection to law 
breakers. This reorganization was a remarkable 

demonstration of the possibilities of the police 
department when handled solely for the main- 
tenance of law and order. In December,' 1904, 
Judge Waite was appointed to the municipal 
bench by Governor Van Sant to fill an unex- 
pired term and in November, 1906, he was regu- 
larly elected for the six years' term. Judge Waite 
is a republican in party affiliations though quite 
independent in local affairs. He takes an active 
part in all questions of good government and 
improvement of municipal conditions in all ways 
and in philanthropic and charitable movements. 
Since he has been on the municipal bench this 
court has inaugurated a system of parole under 
suspended sentences for minor offences, which 
has been practically successful in effecting ref- 
ormation in many cases. Judge Waite is a 
member of Plymouth Congregational Church. 
He was married May 5, 1892, to Miss Alice M. 
Eaton, at Brooklyn, New York. They have had 
one son, Bradford, who died in infancy. 

YALE, Washington, Jr., was born January 7, 
1875, at Norwalk, Huron county, Ohio. His 
father, Charles W. Yale, a descendant of Thomas 
Yale, (a brother of Elihu Yale, from whom Yale 
University derived its name) is a capitalist. 
Washington Yale lived in Ohio until he was 
thirteen years old, then came to Minneapolis and 
lived with his great-uncle, Washington Yale, for 
whom he was named. He attended the Central 
high school, later the Engineering school of the 
state university, and finally the Law school, from 
which he graduated with the class of 1898 and 
was then admitted to the bar. Mr. Yale's prac- 
tice has had to do chiefly with commercial and 
real estate law, including the care of property 
for both residents and non-residents. During the 
last three years and at the present time, he has 
given considerable attention to the erection of 
modern homes for rental purposes. During his 
senior year in college, he was Major of the Uni- 
versity Cadet Corps. A republican, Mr. Yale 
has been a member of the Roosevelt Club during 
the last two campaigns. He is also a member of 
the Minneapolis Commercial Club, an honorary 
member of "Scabbard and Blade," the University 
military society, and a very active member of 
Plymouth Congregational Church, being secretary 
of the society and recently a member and chair- 
man of the board of directors of Drummond Hall, 
one of its missions. He was also a charter mem- 
ber and first secretary and treasurer of Plymouth 
Club. He married May Wilman Emery, of Walt- 
ham, Massachusetts, October 25, 1899. 



THE history of the practice of medi- 
cine in any city is largely told in the 
lives of the individual members of 
the profession, and this is true of Minne- 
apolis. For more than hity years Minne- 
apolis has demanded and received med- 
ical treatment of the highest order and 
from the very beginning the standard of 
professional life has been very high and 
the medical profession has numbered among 
its members physicians who have ranked 
with the foremost in the country. The 
first phjsician of the regular school of med- 
icine to arrive in St. Anthony was Dr. J. 
H. Murphy who came in 1850 and was then 
just twenty-four years of age and a recent 
graduate of Rush Medical College. He be- 
came one of the most distinguished physi- 
cians in the state and gave to the early 
settlement a high standard in matters med- 
ical. Dr. A. E. Ames came in 1851. He 
was also a graduate of Rush but had had 
several years' experience, .\fter a short 
time these two physicians entered into part- 
nership and they both took a very active 
part in the affairs of the two villages at St. 
Anthony Falls. Dr. Ames moved across 
the river to Minneapolis and was frequently 
called upon to serve the city in public office. 
Dr. Ira Kingsley and Dr. Hezekiah Fletcher 
also arrived at the Falls in 1851. Dr. 
Fletcher was a prominent citizen of the old 
Minneapolis but is not included in early 
lists of practicing physicians. Another 
physician to arrive in very early times was 
Dr. A. E. Johnson who came in 1853 and 
became a partner of Dr. C. \V. Le Boutil- 
lier. The latter died in 1863 but Dr. John- 
son remained to become the veteran of the 
profession in the city. Dr. C. L. Anderson 
arrived in 1854, Dr. .\dolph Ortman in 1857. 
Dr. Ortman also proved to be a permanent 
resident of the citv, living for many rears 

in St. Anthony as a successful practitioner. 
Dr. J. S. Elliot who became a most dis- 
tinguished citizen settled in Minneapolis in 
1854. Dr. W. H. Leonard came in 1855 
and Dr. J. J. Linn in 1857. All these re- 
mained lung in practice and became well 
known in the community. A list of physi- 
cians of all schools practicing at the Falls 
at the close of 1858. compiled by Colonel 
Stevens, includes: Dr. J- H. Murphv. Dr. 
A. E. Ames, Dr. M. R.' Greeley. Dr.' J. S. 
Elliott, Dr. \V. H. Leonard, Dr. B. Jodon. 
Dr. A. Ortman. Dr. A\'. D. Dibb, Dr."C. W. 
Le Boutillier, Dr. C. L. Anderson, Dr. P. L. 
Hatch, Dr. J. B. Sabine, and Dr. Simon 
French Rankin. 

.As the number of physicians increased 
the exact date of their arrival in the city 
became of less importance but it is interest- 
ing tc) group the following men who joined 
the ranks of the profession in the citv be- 
tween i860 and 1880: Drs. N. B. Hill, A. 
H. Lindley, C. G. Goodrich, H. H. Kimball. 
R. S. M'cMurdy, O. J. Evans. Edwin 
Phillips, E. H. Stockton, Chas. Simpson, 
E. J. Kelley, A. \V. Abbott. T. F. 
Quimby, F. A. Dunsmoor, I. D. .\lger, A. 
C. Fairbairn, Geo. F. French, S. F. Hance, 
J. W. Murray, A. E. Hutchins. A. H. 
Salisbury and C. L. Wells. Of the fore- 
going Drs. Hill and Lindley were among 
the earliest arrivals (coming in 1861) and 
became the most prominent physicians in 
the city for a time. Thev were both men 
of high professional attainments, broad cul- 
ture and eminent public spirit. Of those 
commencing practice here previous to 1870, 
Dr. Leonard, Dr. Kimball and Dr. Phillips 
are the only ones still in active practice at 
the present time. 

The early medical men of Minneapolis 
shared with their brethren of other new 
communities the difficulties of pioneer prac- 




This liiiilillnj; was originally tin- Wiiisl.iw 
a faninlls lintel in llu- <la\^ lii-rmi- 

llituse ami \va 
the war. 

ticc. l''ifty years agu AI iniieapi ilis physi- 
cians wL-re not called to as great tlistances 
as their successors of today hut a call froni 
an isolated farm or lumher caiii]), if imt 
ninre tlian twenty or thirty miles awa}' from 
l(j\vn, still meant infinitel_v more- diiflculty 
and haiilshi|i for the doctor than a call fidin 
a piiini hundreds of miles distant at the 
present day. In the ahsence of all means 
I if transportation except that afforded hy 
a horse and huggy, without anv of the iiin:!- 
ern iiu'entions — mechanical nr reme.lial — 
which facilitate the work of the physician, 
the doctors of a half century ago found the 
practice f)f medicine a very strenuous dccu- 
patinn. The .Minneapiolis pioneer ph\si- 
cians were, Imwexer, the kind nf men td 
wlicim difticulties meant no more than did 
tlie dil'hculties of business to their fellnw 
tiiwnsmen. With few exceptions they seem 
til lia\-e done their work well, maintaineil 
the standards nf their iirdtessii ui ,ind ,it the 
same time In lia\e taken an active and efli- 
cient p.irt in the organization of the yniing 
commiiiiity. \'ery early they realized the 
advantages of organization for themselves 
and the present lTenne])in County I\fedical 
Society grew out of tln' St. Antlinm ,ind 
I\f inneajiolis Union .\Ie(lical .Si K-icly nrgan- 
ized in il^55 at the ri'siiK-iu'e nf I )r. ,\. I'.. 
.\mes at l''.ighlh a\enue south and Imirlli 
street. Dr. ,\mes was |)resideiil and I )r. 
Wheeliick, secretary. The society was re- 
(irgani/ed in 1S70 under its present name 
with Dr. .Allies again as president and since 
thai time it has lakt'ii a \'ery ])niniiiient part 

in the life of the profession and has been 
most iuHuential in maintaining standards 
and securing reforms when necessary. 
Aniiing its executive officers have been: 
I Ms. C. G. Goodrich, Edwin Phillips, A. H. 
Lindley, \i. J. r.rnwn. W'm. Asburv TIall, 
1.. .\. Xippert, II. r>. Sweetzer, A. \\'. Ab- 
b.itt.j.W. I'.ell.l . II. Hunter, I ).(). Thom- 
as, hrank G. Ti.uld, and I'. A. Knights, 
riie society has brou.ght together a large 
medical librar}' and maintains rooms in the 
Donaklson building, where its semi-monthly 
meetings are lielil. ( )f later organizations 
the Siiciet\' nf I'liysicians and Surgeons was 
acti\e from 1882 for several years but dis- 
continued upon the I irgaiiization of the j\Iin- 
nesota .\cademy of Medicine in which Min- 
neapdlis physicians have taken a leading 
part. The Minneapolis Medical Club was 
iirgani/ed a few years ago and numbers in 
its membership main- ( if the younger phy- 
sicians of the cil}'. It meets monthly at 
the court house. Its presidents have been 
Drs. Lester \\\ Da\', George D, Haggard, 
I. I". Litzenberg, .\. T. Mann and R. E. 

J. 11. >u liriiv, .\i. 1). 



Until 1881 Minneapolis had no medical 
schools hut ])r. ]•'. A. Dunsmoor had ad- 
vocated the establishment of a college and 
to his earnest work was due the organiza- 
tion in that year, of the Minnesota College 
Hospital with a board of directors composed 
of Thomas Lowry, president and Drs. 
George F. French, A. W. Abbott, and C. 
H. Hunter and Judge C. F. A^andcrburgh. 
Dr. Dunsmoor became dean. The nld 
\\'inslow House was secured and was oc- 

lege of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery 
and the College of Dentistry. Into these 
colleges were merged the Hospital College 
including its dental division, the St. Paul 
Aledical College and the Minnesota Home- 
opathic Medical College, the officers of all 
these institutions joining in urging the de- 
sirability of this consolidation and tender- 
ing the use of their several properties with- 
iiut cliarge to the state. From this begin- 
ning has grown the medical department of 

^^r.I.AnD hai.l. 

Onp nf tlif grutip nf medifiU Iniildings iit rlie I'lilvt-rsity of Mlmicsntji. 

cupied for four years, or until the comi)le- 
tion of a college building at Ninth avenue 
south and Fifth street. At the time of the 
removal to this building the institution was 
reorganized, dropping the hospital feature 
and assuming the name of the Hospital 
College, while a free dispensary was added. 
The first faculty of the Department of 
Medicine of the University of Minnesota 
was appointed in 1883 but for five years con- 
fined itself to the examination of candidates 
for degrees and the general duties of a state 
hoard of medical examiners under the pro- 
visions of a state law of 1883. In 1888 the 
department was reorganized as a teaching- 
school of medicine with three colleges: The 
College of Medicine and Surgery, the Col- 

the uni\'ersity — now one of the leading 
medical schools of the country, .\ftcr a 
few years buildings began to appear upon 
the campus and the scattered (piarters were 
permanently abandoned. .\ College of 
Pharmacy was added in i8()i and the four 
colleges are now housed in fi\-e buildings, 
Millard Hall, the laboratorv of medical 
sciences, the laboratory of chemistry, the 
laliorator}- of anatomy and the institute of 
public liealth and pathology. In the latter 
building is a very complete museum and a 
technical library. The officers of the sev- 
eral colleges are: I'ranlc Fairchild \\'es- 
brook, M. A., M. D., C. .M.. Dean of the Col- 
lege of Medicine and Surgery : Eugene L. 
Mann, B. A., M. D.. Dean of the College of 



A. II. Li.\iii.i;v, M. n. 

Honiciipathic Medicine and Surt^ery ; Al- 
fre.l Owre, 1). ^\ . D., M. D., Dean'nf the 
Ciilletije of Dentistry, and Frederick J. W'ul- 
lin^^ I'lim. D., LL.M., Dean of tlie College 
of Pharmacy. 

The statement that the Minnesota Home- 
opathic Medical College was merged in the 
department of medicine at the unixcrsity, 
calls for an account of the origin of this 
institution. The practice of Honu-<ipathy 
in Minneapolis dates from 1856 when Dr. 
William A. Penniman came here from Al- 
bany, New ^'ork. lie was a graduate of 
I'.rown L'niversity and of Jefferson Medical 
College and wdiilc ])racticing in I^ittshurg 
changed U> the homeopathic school, lie 
was the president of the Alinnesnta 
State Medical Institute — the lirst Uume- 
opalhic medical society in the st:i(e. In 
1S5X Dr. I'hilo L. Hatch, a -racUiale nl tin- 
Homeopathic Hospital and College ol 
Cleveland, visited .\linncai)o]is and was so 
pleased with the jilace thai he made it his 
liome and became a ])rominent physician as 
well as a leading citizen and an ornitholog- 

ist of repute. Dr. William H. Leonard, who 

had been a jiracticing physician in the city 
since 1855, determined, in i8(k), to embrace 
the doctrines of Hahnemann and took his 
place in the homeopathic school. He is the 
oldest living practitioner in the city and is 
held in the highest respect by physicians 
of all schools as well as by the people of 
the city who have known his fifty years of 
devoted service. The year 1866 brought 
I )rs. T. R. Huntington and David M. Good- 
u in ; the year 1870 Dr. Otis M. Humphrey. 
( )ther physicians began practice here in this 
order; Dr. Adele S. llutchison, 1877; Drs. 
A. E. Higbee and John A. Steele in 1878; 
Hr. W. 1). Lawrence, 1879; I^rs. John F. 
r.e.unnont, W'm. E. Leonard, and S. M. 
Spaulding in 1880; Dr. H. \\'. r>razie in 
1881 ; Drs. George V. Roberts and (jeorge 
IC Dennis in 1884; Dr. Henry C. Aldrich 
in 1S87. In 1872, through the efforts of Drs. 
W . II. Leonard and D. lS\. Goodwin, the 
llahneniann Medical Society of Hennepin 
L'omity was organized and for some years 
did \ery effective work in the ])romotion of 
the interests of homeoiKithy. Amoiig other 
things accomplished was the establishment 
of the Homeopathic L'ree Dispensary. The 
societ}' was renamed and reorganized in 
1891 as the Minneapolis Homeopathic Med- 
ical Societ\- with Dr. George F. Roberts as 
president. ' Dr. H. C. Aldrich, Dr. A. S. 
Wilcox, Dr. G. E. Dennis and Dr. H. H. 
Leavitt have been among the later presi- 
dents of the club. The promoters of this 
organizaticjii were also actix-e in the found- 
ing of the IIonieo|i;ithic Hospital and took 
a pi-oiiiiiK'iU part in the agitation which fin- 

i;m;\.M'..\s niisi'i iai.. 



ally led to tlie organization of the Minne- 
sota Honieojiathic Medical College which 
was incorporated early in 1886 and began 
college work in the following autumn. Dr. 
P. L. Hatch was dean, assisted by a strong 
faculty, main- of whose members became 
professors in the new College of Homeo- 
athic Medicine and Surgery- at the univer- 
sity upon the consolidation of 1888. In this 
college, as in the others in the tlepartnient, 
the standards are equal to the highest 
among the schools of the countr\-. 

medical profession and developed in the 
last forty years. It was organized in 1S70 
as the Cottage Hospital largely through the 
influence of I!isho]3 Knickerbackcr. It 
was first located at Washington and Ninth 
axenues north but in 1881 was removed to 
Ninth avenue snuth and Sixth street and 
given its present name. In later j'ears the 
l)uildings have been greatly extended and 
the hospital \ery thoroughly equipped. St. 
Barnabas has always been under the control 
of the Episcopal denomination and has on 



In 1883 the Minneapolis College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons was organized with 
Dr. Edwin Phillips, president and Dr. J. T. 
Moore, dean of the faculty. In 1895 it was 
made the medical department of Hamline 
University though maintaining its own 
building at Fifth street and Seventh avenue 
south in Minneapolis. It continued as a 
successful medical school, until igo8 when 
it was merged in the medical department 
of the university, the members of its faculty 
generally becoming professors in the con- 
solidated college. 


St. Barnabas Hospital was the first of 
the group of institutions fostered by the 

its staft' a numlier of the leading physicians 
of the city. 

The Minneapolis Free Dispensary was 
established in 1878 by C. A. Pillsbury, Geo. 
A. Brackett, C. M. Loring, A. B. Barton 
and E. S. Jones. It did excellent work un- 
til 1882 when it was merged into the Minne- 
sota College Flospital which had been estab- 
lished in 1881 through the efforts of Dr. I'. 
A. Dunsmoor. The College IIos])ital as 
its name implies combined educational pur- 
poses with hospital service and is referred 
to under the subject of medical education. 

In 1882 the Northwestern Hos|)ital was 
organized and in 1887 removed from tem- 
porary quarters to its present location on 



Swedish Hospital was founded in 1898 and 
in iyo2 occu])ied its own 1)uilding at Tenth 
avenue south and Eighth street. The 
I Ic Jineojiatiiic Hiispital was incorporated in 
iSSi liut was imt (ipencd until January 1883. 
In 1(^84 it moved to I'ourth avenue south 
and T\\ enty-fiftli street where it continued 
in successful operation for some years. 

.Maternity Hospital was founded in 1886 
through the efforts of Dr. Martha G. Ripley 
and is the only hosiiital in the city or state 
devoted entireh- tn the care nf women dur- 
ing confinement. Its wurk is largelv charit- 
able and has interested many women, who 
in fact make up its entire board of officers 
and directors. It occupies a biiiMing at 
2-:oi Western avenue. Dr. Ripley has al- 
ways been physician in charge. There are 
various other hospitals and h()mcs in the 
city, ranging from the fully ec|ui])ped hos- 
pital tn the charitable humc where med- 
ical treatment is merely inciilcntal. The 
phxsicians of the cit\ have taken a very 
large ])art in the ]inimi>tiiin and conduct 
(if these institulii ins and ha\c gi\en \erv 

X, i: iin.i.. M 11, 

Chicago avenue and Twenty-seventh street. 
The lots were the gift of L. Al. Stewart and 
$20,000 iif the building fund was contrib- 
uted by .Mrs. Jane T. Harrison. St. Mary's 
Ibispital, one of the best ecjuipped institu- 
ti'iiis in the city was established in 1888 by 

llislmp Ireland and has been under the 
charge cif the .Sisters of .St. Joseph. ha\ ing 
on Its staff man\ ])rominent physicians. 

i'he Minneapi.ilis City Hos])ital was not 
opened until iSSX when it occupied tempo- 
rary (piarters al b".ighth street and ICleventh 
;i\enue soiiili. The present City Hosjiital 
building was connnenced some years later. 

1 he management was at first vested in the 
council connnittee on health .-iikI hospitals 
but was later Iransferrt-il to the board of 
charities and corrections. .\sbur\ .Metho- 
dist I lospit.'il was rirL;ani/ed in |8()2 oecup\- 
ing iirst the building \acate(l ])v the Minne- 
sota College- llospital at .Xintli a\ emu- South 
and Sixth street and only recently moving 
to its own building at l'"oiirteenth street and 
Ninth avenue south. It is umlei' the direc- 
tion of the Methoilist denomination. The 

.\S.\ IC. .IIIUNSdN. M. u. 



freely of their time anrl professional abil- 
ities to the inmates. 

In public service the pliysicians of the 
city have always been active and loyal. 
Much interest was taken in the organization 
of the department of health immediately 
upon the incorporation of the city in 1867. 
The first "sanitary cummittee" as it was 
styled, consisted of Drs. A. Iv Ames, N'. B. 
Hill and A. H. Lindley, the latter being 
health officer. After serving two terms Dr. 
Lindley gave place to Dr. Leonard who in 
turn was succeeded by Dr. Charles Simpson. 
These men set the pace for later administra- 
tion of the department. There have been 
few serious epidemics and these have in the 
main been very well handled. In 1889 the 
health department was reorganized under a 
special law and its work broadened to cover 
the necessities of a large city. The health 
officers have been these: 1867-68, Dr. A. H. 
Lindley; 1869-71, Dr. W. H. Leonard; 1872- 
75, Dr. Chas. Simpson; 1876, Dr. G. F. 
Townsend ; 1877. Dr. .\. A. Ames; 1878, Dr. 
O. J. Evans; 1879-80, Dr. A. H. Salisbury; 
1881, Dr. O. J. Evans; 1882-3, Dr. f. Cock- 
burn; 1884-87. Dr. T. F. Ouimby; "1888-90, 
Dr. S. S. Kilviugton ; 1891-92, Dr. E. S. 
Kellev; 1895. Dr. H. X. Avery; 1899. Dr. 
A. K. Norton; 1901-08, Dr. V. M. Hall. 

The city j^hysicians ha\e l)een. I )r. S. 
AI. Spaulding, i88q-i ; Dr. j. C. Cock- 
burn, 1881-2; Dr. A. B. Cates. 1883-4; Dr. 
C. T. Drew. 1884-5; Dr. S. H. Van Cleve, 
1885-6-7; Dr. Tames H. Dunn, 1887-8; Dr. 
C. A. Chase, 1889-92; Dr. Charles G. \\es- 
ton. 1893-98; Dr. W. J. Byrnes, i8c;9-i9O0; 
Dr. Henry S. Nelson, 1901-2; Dr. George 
E. Ricker, 1903-4; Dr. E. H. Beckman, 1905- 
7; Dr. P. M. Holl, 1908. 

An;ong the coroners of Hennepin county 
have been Drs. A. C. Fairbairn, R. ]. Hill. 
Frank E. Towers, W'm. J- Piyrnes, W . P. 
Spring, J. AI. Kistler, George E. Dennis, 
Henrv S. Nelson and U. G. Williams. 

ABBOTT, .■\mos Wilson, for many years a 
prominent surgeon of Minneapolis, was born at 
Alimednuggur, India, on January 6. 1844, the son 
of .^Kmos and .-Xnstice (Wilson) .Abbott. He was 
educated at the Phillips .\cademy. .\ndover, Mas- 
sachusetts, at Dartmouth College and at the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons at New York. 
He served in the Union army during the Civil 
war as a member of Company C, Sixteenth New 

Hampshire Volunteer Infantry. In 1869 he com- 
menced practice. For many years he has resided 
at 21 South Tenth street where he still maintains 
his office and in 1902 he established a private 
hospital at 10 East Seventeenth street, of which 
he is surgeon in chief. He is a member of the 
American Medical Association, Minnesota State 
Medical Association, Minnesota .-Xcademy of 
Medicine, and the Hennepin County Medical So- 
ciety. ' Dr. Abbott was married on August 19, 
1880, at Delhi. New York, to Miss Helen G, 

ALGER, Edmund Whitney, son of Isaac D. 
and Ellen Whitney Alger was born in Minne- 
apolis, July 13, 1877. His father is a physician 
of distinction who settled in Minneapolis in 1874 
and was recognized as an expert in gynecology. 
The family are descended from one of the early 
colonists of Massachusetts, a branch of the Algers 
settling in Vermont, whence Dr. Isaac Daniel 
.•Mger came to Minneapolis. The son, after at- 
tending the public schools of Minneapolis and 
graduating at the East Side high school, in- 
stmctively followed the professional tendencies 
of his forebears, many of whom were noted phy- 
sicians, and graduated from the medical depart- 
ment of the state university with the degree M. 
D. in 1902, and is engaged in the practice of his 
profession. Dr. Alger is a member of the East 
Side Commercial Club and of the Hennepin Coun- 
ty Medical Society and of the Minneapolis Medi- 
cal Club. 

ALGER, Isaac Daniel, for more than thirty 
years a practicing physician of this city, was born 
at Morristown, Vermont, on March 16, 1844. He 
is the son of Dr. Isaac Smith Alger, a native of 
Strafford, Vermont, born in 1802, who lived for 
most of his life and practiced his profession of 
medicine at Williston, Vermont. His health failed 
when he was twenty-one years old, and for five 
years he lived on the sea returning to Stowe 
where he remained till he was forty-two years 
old, when he moved to Williston, where he re- 
sided until he came West. In 1875 he came to 
Minneapolis to reside with his son, who had 
moved to this city a short time before. Dr. I. D. 
.'Mger's mother was the widow of Daniel Robin- 
son, her maiden name being Priscella Churchill 
Lathrop, born at Stowe, Vermont, on May 22, 
1800. The ancestry of the family seems to have 
been originally French, as a distinguished eccle- 
siastic of Liege bore the name in the early part 
of the twelfth century. The name is a rather 
unusual one in this country and the first record 
of it is that of .Andrew -Alger, of Scarborough. 
Massacliusetts. who settled in this country in 
1651. There is also record of a Thomas Alger 
who resided in Taunton. Massachusetts, about 
1665. and although the genealogical connection 
has been lost it is probable that the .-Xlgcrs of 
Vermont are descended from these early settlers. 
While he was still a child Dr. .Alger's family 
moved to Williston, Vermont, where he was 



raised and rcci-ivi-<l his academic training at the 
Williston Academy, lie ti>i)k a course of medical 
study under his father and llien attended Burling- 
ton College for two years, lie t^Mik a final course 
at Harvard University and there received his M. 
1). degree in 1864. After his graduation he imme- 
diately went to Stowe, Lamoille county, Vermont, 
where he practiced for four years. He then 1 e- 
lurned to his native town and forming a partner- 
ship witli liis father practiced there until 1874, 
•A lull he came to Minneapolis. He has followed 
Iii^ profession in this city continuously since that 
time and for many years has had a large and 
satisfactory practice. Shortly after he had moved 
to Minneapolis Dr. Alger returned to his home 
state and on February 10, 1875, was married to 
Miss Ellen Josephine Whitney, the daughter of 
Edmund Whitney of Williston, \'ermont. On his 
return his father and mother accompanied him 
and resided with him until their deaths. Dr. 
Alger lias one son. Kdmund Whitney, born July 
13. '877, a graduate i>f the University oi Minne- 
sota, and now a iiracticing physician of this city. 

AVERY, Jacob Fowler, was born January 19, 
187,3, ;i' Poughkeepsie, New York. He is de- 
scended from the Groton. Connecticut, branch of 
the A\'erys. His father, Henry Newell Avery, 
who married Catherine Sebring I'owler, was a 
practicing physician and surgeon, who, at the 
time of his death, April 17, 1898, was serving his 
second term as commissioner of health of Min- 
neapc.dis. It was through his influence that the 
present system of city milk and dairy inspection 
was instituted and put on an efficient basis. Dr. 
.Avery, senior, came West when his son was si.\ 
months old and lived at Winona. Minnesota, and 
(l.-ilesville, Wisconsin, until 1882 when he moved 
to Minncap(dis. His son attended the Central 
high school, graduating in 1892, had one year of 
ihe scientific course at the state university and 
then taught for a year. In "95 he entered the 
medical department of the university and gradu- 
ated in 1899. In 1903 he took a post-graduate 
course at the Chicago Polyclinic. During the 
summer of 1899 he was senior medical interne at 
llu- Cily Hospital. In the fall of that year he 
went to Virginia, Minnesota, where he formed a 
partiursliip with Drs. J. R. and Cyrus Eby to 
conduct a mine-hosijital. He was also assistant 
surgeon for the D. M. & N. Ry. and health officer 
of Virginia. He was assist;mt surgeon at Aitkin, 
Minnesota, for Ihe N'ortlurn Pacific Railway for 
a year from June 1, 1905, and while there was a 
nuinlier ol the library board. He is a member 
of the .\itkin County Medical Society, the Upper 
.\lississii)pi Medical Society, the Hennepin Coun- 
ty Medical Society, the Minnesota State Medical 
Society and the American Medical Association. 
Dr. .Avery has always been a republican. He is 
a member of the Fifth Avenue Congregational 
Church. On June 4, 1902, he m.irried Mary Leti- 
tia Esmond, formerly of I'ort Wayne, Indiana. 
They have one child, John Esmond .Avery. 

BECK, James Flournoy, physician in general 
practice, was born at Dubuque, Iowa, April 21, 
1871. Dr. Beck is of Kentucky ancestry and 
Revolutionary descent. His parents went from 
Kentucky to Iowa about the time of the Civil 
War period and Dr. Beck received his ele- 
mentary and common school education in the 
schools of Dubuque, where he lived until he was 
fifteen years of age. He then took the academic 
course at Princeton L'niversity in the class of 
1894. but left a year before graduation to study 
medicine. He entered the medical department 
of the L^niversity of Minnesota in January, 1893, 
graduating in 1896. During the next year he was 
house surgeon at the Alinneapolis City Hospital 
and for the six years following he was upon the 
medical staff of the same institution. Dr. Beck 
belongs to the Minneapolis Medical Club and the 
State Medical Society. He is a republican in 
politics, but is not actively interested in political 
afifairs. His church relations are Episcopalian. 
He was married Feb. 8, 1899, to Katherine Con- 
way, and has one child, a son, born in 1901. 

BECKMAX, Emil H., city physician from 
July, 1903, to January, 1908, was born Febru- 
ary 15, 1872, at Grundy Center, Iowa. He is 
the son of Emil H. and Catherine Beckman, his 
father being a well known banker of that locality, 
and he was educated in the public schools of his 
native place until he went to Grinnell College. 
From Grinnell he received the degree of Ph. B. 
in 1894. After a lirief experience in banking and 
school teaching, in the latter case as principal 
of the Stillwater higli school, Dr. Beckman came 
to the L'niversity of Minnesota for a medical 
course, graduating from the medical department 
in 1901. .An appointment as assistant bacteriolo- 
gist for the State Board of Health followed grad- 
uation. He held this for four years until his 
appointment as city physician in July, 1903. Dr. 
Beckman has filled this position with ability and 
efficiency. He is secretary of the Minneapolis 
Pathological Society as well as a member of the 
national, state and county medical associations. 

In politics he is republican, and in religious 
faith a Methodist. On Janu.ary I, 1902. Dr. Beck- 
man married Miss Jessie Sayre. He has one 
child, a daughter. 

BELL, John W., was born in Butler county, 
Ohio, March 18, 1853, son of R. J. and Ann Bell. 
His father was a farmer and the son was bred to 
farm life, receiving his early educational training 
in the public schools. With a strong inclination 
to professional life he steadily accomplished the 
necessary preparatory work and entered the Ohio 
Medical College in Cincinnati and graduated in 
1876. After a period of postgraduate study in 
Germany, Dr. Bell came to Minneapolis and com- 
menced active practice. From 1886 to 1889, he 
was professor of the Theory and Practice of 
Medicine at the Minnesota Hospital and has been 
professor of Physical Diagnosis and Clinical 
Medicine at the state university since the opening 



of the Medical Department. He is a visiting 
physician at the Northwestern Hospital and con- 
sulting physician at the City, the Asbury 
and Swedish and the St. Mary's hospitals. Dr. 
Bell has a very high standing in his profession 
and. in private as well as in his hospital practice, 
liis valuable experience is in demand as consulting 
physician. In politics, Dr. Bell is an independent 
deinocrat. He was a member of the State Senate 
from 1891 to 1895, a member of the Charter Com- 
mission, and of the Voters League. Dr. Bell 
belongs to the Commercial and Minikahda clubs; 
of the professional organizations he is a member 
of the Hennepin County Medical Society; of the 
State Medical Society; of the Minnesota Academy 
of Medicine and of the American Medical Associa- 
tion and is an ex-president of the first three. Dr. 
Bell is a Universalist in his church affiliations, 
and is a member of the Church of the Redeemer. 
He was married on November 11, 1890,, to Kate 
M. Jones and to them have been born two sons. 

BENJ.\M1N, Arthur Edwin, was born Decem- 
Iier 19. 186X, at Hutchinson. Minnesota, son of John 
and Elizabeth Garner Benjamin. His father was 
a physician, who practiced his profession in Bos- 
ton until 1857 and came to Hutchinson in 1S60. 
Both parents were educated in England. Artliur 
Edwin was born and brought up on a farm, at- 
tended the common schools; graduated from the 
high school in 1887, and after teaching school two 
years, entered the medical department of the 
University of Minnesota and graduated in medi- 
cine in 1892, when he began to practice his pro- 
fession in Minneapolis. The last three years he 
has been limiting his practice to the specialties 
of surgery and gynecology. Dr. Benjamin, after 
graduation, did excellent service in the medical 
department of the state university as clinical as- 
sistant. He has read numerous papers in surgery 
before the various medical societies to which he 
belongs and they have been published in different 
medical journals throughout the United States. 
He is a member of the staffs of the St. Barnabas, 
Swedish and City hospitals, Minneapolis, and is 
a teacher in clinical gynecology in the college of 
medicine and surgery of the University at the 
present time. Dr. Benjamin is a republican in 
politics. He was president of the Alumni Asso- 
ciation of the Medical Department of the State 
University in 1904. and is a member of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association, and of the Minnesota 
Medical Association and of the local medical so- 
cieties. In church relations he is a Congrega- 
tionalist. He was married in 1900 to Blanche 
Grimshaw and to them has been born one child 
—Edwin G. 

BESSESEN, Alfred Nicholas, was born Jan- 
nuary iS, 1870, in Freeborn county, Minnesota. 
He is the son of John and Delia (Anderson) Bcs- 
sesen, both natives of Norw-ay. His father, a 
jeweler, came to America from Bergen, Norway, 
in the year 1867 and his mother came from Tele- 
marken, her native town, in 1850. They settled 

on a farm in Freeborn county and there Dr. 
Bessesen passed the first twelve years of his life. 
The family then moved to Albert Lea, Minne- 
sota, and Dr. Bessesen began his education, grad- 
uating from the high school of that city. ."Kt this 
time he attended the Norwegian Lutheran Church 
and in connection with it organized a young peo- 
ples Christian Endeavor society. In 1890 he en- 
tered the Rush INIedical College at Chicago, and 
completed his course there in 189,3, receiving his 
diploma in March. During the last two years 
he held the office of president of the Chicago 
Intercollegiate Department of the Y. M. C. A. 
After his commencement he returned to Minne- 
apolis and assisted Dr. J. H. Dunn in bis prac- 
tice and was also, during the winter of 1893-94 
interne at St. Mary's Hospital. He was appointed 
Demonstrator of Anatomy in the Medical Depart- 
ment of Hamline University and during 1895 and 
1896 was professor of histology in the same in- 
stitution and a year later became a lecturer on 
anatomy. Dr. Bessesen is now a surgeon on the 
staff of the Norwegian Deaconess Hospital and 
also a member of the board of trustees for the 
United Cliurcli Hospital, which, it is planned, 
shall be built in North Minneapolis and of which 
he is one of the most active promoters. Dr. Bes- 
sesen is connected with a number of the fraternal 
orders and clubs of the city, being a Mason; the 
medical examiner for the Bridal Veil Camp of the 
M. W. .'\.; a member of the Sons of Norway; of 
the Minneapolis Amateur .\tliletic Association 
and the Minneapolis and North Side Commercial 
clubs. He is also affiliated with the national 
state and county medical societies and attends the 
United Norwegian Lutheran Church of America. 
In politics he is a republican. In 1895 Dr. Bes- 
sesen was married to Florence Emma Holland 
and they have four children — .Alfred Nicholas. 
Jr., Daniel Holland, Grace Isaliclle and Florence 

BISHOP, Charles Wesley, was born in Mon- 
treal, Canada, in the year 1874, His father was 
George C. Bishop, now retired from active life. 
Dr. Bishop's early life was passed in his native 
town and he attended the grammar schools of 
that town. After finishing his elementary and 
preparatory education. Dr. Bishop graduated from 
the medical department of the McGill University, 
with the class of 1895. For a year after his grad- 
uation he continued his studies as interne at the 
Asbury Methodist Hospital and during 1897-98-99 
held the same position in the Manhattan Hos- 
pital of the eye, ear. nose and throat. He then 
began to practice in Minneapolis, and in 1900 
limited his attention to the study and treatment of 
the diseases of the eye. ear. nose and throat. Dr. 
Bishop is a member of the Minnesota State 
Medical Society, the Hennepin County Medical 
Societv and the Minneapolis Medical Club and 
City Hospital staff. He is also connected with 
the Commercial and Minikahda Clubs. He was 
married on February m. 1906. 



BLAKE, James Joseph, was born in Ontario, 
Canada, April 2, 1872, son of John and Mary 
lUake. His father was a farmer of Ontario and 
like many other young Canadians, he came to the 
States to try his fortunes. Settling in Mankato. 
he attended the Normal School and graduated 
from the advanced course in 1896. He soon after- 
ward came to Minneapolis and entered the State 
University from which lie graduated in medicine 
in igol, and, after serving as interne at the Min- 
neapolis City Hospital for one year, he began 
the practice of medicine in West Minneapolis 
ill H)0j. He was married in T904 (June 21) tu 
Agnes Catherine Macdonald, of Mankato, and 
one child has been liorn to them. 

BOOTH, Albert E., assistant professor of sur- 
gery in the college of homeopathy of the state 
university was born at Patterson, New Jersey, 
September 30, 1871. His father, Andrew Booth, 
removed to Lawrence, Massachusetts, where Dr. 
Booth spent the first eight years of his life. In 
1879, the family came to Lyon county, Minnesota, 
and settled on a farm, where the district schools 
gave the only chance for an education until 1888. 
Then as a youth of seventeen. Dr. Booth taught in 
the country school for two years; later after grad- 
uatin.g from Tracy high school he took two years 
of scientific training at Hamline University, fol 
lowed by the medical course in the College of 
llomeopathy of the state university. For a short 
lime after graduation Dr. Booth was house physi- 
cian at the City Hospital, then went to Spokane 
as a venture, but shortly returned to settle in 
Minneapolis. Except for one year of post 
graduate study in New York City he has been in 
active practice ever since. He is a member of 
several secret societies and college fraternities_^ 
.iiid nf the State Institute of Homeopathy, and 
tile .Minneapolis Homeopathic Medical Society 
He is also a member of the St. Anthony Com 
mercial Club. Dr. Booth is republican in poli 
lies. Was married to Nina L. I'ritz in 1902 and 
h;is two sons. 

I'.K.VCKICK. ll.nry Martyn, ( H. M. Bracken) 
secretary of the Minnesota State Board of 
Health since 1897, and Professor of Materia 
.Medica and Therapeutics in Minnesota Univer- 
sity, was born in Noblestown, Pensylvania, Feb- 
ruary 27. 1854. His father was Dr. Wm. C. 
I'.rackiii; his iiiotlier, IClecta (Alvi>rd) Bracken. 
Tin- lir.u'kens and .\lvords arc of 
disccnl, the Brackens being early settlers 
in Delaware — about 1700 — and the .Mvords 
riiniing to Massachusets about lifly years 
earlier. Both families have had genealogies 
iniblished. Dr. 11. M. Bracken's life is one 
of those stories of perseverance against the 
odds of circumstance and fortune which have 
made the history of the .American peojjle so full 
of results in nation-building. In his early lifi- 
he was given the usual advantages of education 
in the common schools of Pennsylvania and 
Ohio. At thirteen he entered Eldersridge Acad- 

emy, a preparatory school conducted by a rela- 
tive and fitting for Washington and Jefferson 
College. Between fourteen and sixteen he studied 
with a tutor. At seventeen he taught school in 
the smnmer, but went back to Eldersridge in 
the fall. The death of his father cut short his 
plans for a Princetoti course. He made arrange- 
ments for study in a physician's office, teaching 
school between tiines. .'\t twenty he was ready 
for a year at Michigan University's Medical De- 
partment. Then he went back to work again, 
and at twenty-two was able to give another year 
to medical study, this time in the Medical depart- 
ment of Columbia College, New York City. From 
here he graduated in the spring of '77, spent a 
year in post-graduate and hospital work and at 
twenty-four was in a Venezuelan gold-mining 
camp as surgeon. A few months of this exper- 
ience enabled him to go to Edinburgh for study. 
He received his diploma of Licentiate of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, ( L. R. C. S. 
E.) in May, 1879, and in the fall of the same year 
entered the service of the .Mail Steamship Com- 
pany as surgeon. He returned to the United States 
after three years of this work, went into general 
practice at Thompson, Conn., where he spent one 
and one half years and then again went, as sur- 
geon, to a gold-mining camp in Mexico, under 
the superintendency of a personal friend. He 
spent eighteen months in camp, went back to 
New York City for a post-graduate course, and 
removed to Alinneapolis for regular practice in 
1885. The Minnesota Hospital College soon after 
placed him upon its stafif to occupy the chair he 
still holds in the state university's medical de- 
partment. In 1895 Dr. Bracken was appointed on 
the State Board of Health, and in 1897 was made 
secretary nf lindy. The <lemands of this 
post and ul his uiinersity work have almost com- 
[ilctely lilled his time to the exclusion of general 
pr.actice. He has twice been elected as director 
of the National .Association of the Study and 
Prevention of Tuberculosis, his last election hav- 
ing been made in 1906. Dr. Bracken is also ex-vice- 
president of the .\nierican Public Health Associa- 
tion, .a nu-mber uf the .Anieric.iii Climatological 
Association, and of kindred national and local 
health ,ind medical societies. Dr. Bracken has 
made a most efticient and vigorous state health 
iflicial and used his long opportunity for in- 
ilueiicing civic and state sanitary legislation in a 
broad and disinterested way. He is knnwii 
widely ;is a man who accomplishes things, and 
though he not escaped opposition and criti- 
cism, he is iKine the less respected as one who 
st.'inds 111 his coiivicliiiiis nf public duty. He 
is republic.iii in politics and Presbyterian in faith. 
He married i'ebni.-iry I,?, 78X4, to h'.mily 
Rcibiiisnii. nf ( )raiige. New Jersey. 

I'.kOWX. Edward Josiah, (Dr. Edward J. 
Bniwn) a .Minneapolis specialist in diser>.ses of the 
eye and ear, was born January 14, 1S51 in Bruke, 



Vermont. His father, Ira Brown, also a physi- 
cian, could trace his lineage back to John Browne, 
one of those early Massachusetts settlers who 
followed in the wake of the Pilgrims and who 
was Governor's assistant from 1636-1653. He 
was also a Commissioner of the United Colonies 
of New England in the years from 1644-1655. 
A farm at Seekonk, Long Island, bought by John 
Browne's great-grandson, Samuel, is still a family 
possession. Dr. Brown's mother, Emily Clark 
Brown, was a descendant of Natlianiel Clarke, a 
prosperous citizen of Newburyport, Massachu- 
setts. Her son went through the frequent youth- 
ful apprenticeship of the ambitions New England 
boy of that day. Between village schools and va- 
cation farming he progressed to his preparation 
for Dartmouth College, from which he graduated 
with good standing, and the degree of A. B., in 
1874. After two years in the West, spent in 
teaching and in business, he went back to Dart- 
mouth for the medical course. At its close he 
took a winter at New York University, and after 
a few years of practice in New Hampshire re- 
moved to Minneapolis, in 1882. Here he at once 
identified himself with those phases of medical 
practice which call for fearless and vigorous ac- 
tion in defense of the public health. During his 
first six years of Minneapolis practice he became 
noted for his connection with reform methods 
while upon state and city boards of health. .\t 
the same time he filled the chairs of chemistry 
and preventive medicine in the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons and later held the chair of 
deseases of the eye and ear in the same college. 
Resolving upon devoting his attention to a special-, 
ty he spent a year in study in New York and 
Berlin, returning to take up the treatment of eye 
and ear diseases. In 1891 he designed an infant 
incubator which attracted considerable attention 
and has been very successful in results. Dr. 
Brown is a member of the State and American 
Medical .Associations, and of the Hennepin Coun- 
ty Medical Society of which he was president in 
1888. lie was married to Mary Peck Fullerton 
in 1890 and has si.K children. Dr. Brown is an 
Independent Democrat in his politics. To Con- 
gregationalism he has always been a loyal ad- 

BURTON, Frank, was born on October 2nd. 
1853, at .Albany, New York. He is of Dutch 
descent, bis ancestors having located on the Hud- 
son with the early settlers from Holland, mem- 
bers of the family making a home at .Albany 
when that city was but a colonial village and his 
father, grandfather and great-grandfather were 
all born and educated in that city. On the ma- 
ternal side he is of Scotch ancestry, his mother's 
father being born in Inverness, a printer by trade 
who came when young to .America and located 
in New Y'ork. Frank Burton is the son of 
Benjamin Burton and Christina .A. (Davidson) 
Burton. His father was a stone manufacturer at 
Albany where his son passed the early part of his 

life and received his education. He attended the 
Old .Albany .Academy and graduated from the 
medical department of the Union University in 
1879. Following his college work he remained 
at Albany, obtaining practice by interne work m 
the hospital and instructing in anatomy in his 
Alma Mater where he had received an appoint- 
ment as assistant professor of that subject. Dur- 
ing this time he was also assistant to Professor 
John Swinburne, the noted surgeon who at that 
lime had so prominent a reputation throughout 
the country and for whom the famous Swinburne 
Island Hospital in New York was named. In 
1881 Dr. Burton had spent months abroad, study- 
ing in the important medical institutions of Eng- 
land and Ireland, returning again to Albany, 
when he came in 1883 to Minnesota. He was first 
located at Detroit in this state, where he prac- 
ticed until February 1884, when he moved to 
Minneapolis. He has since practiced continuously 
in this city. He has held during this lime numer- 
ous appointments in addition to his practice. He 
was the demonstrator of anatomy in the Minne- 
sota College Hospital and was later made pro- 
fessor of that subject. He also taught in the 
medical school in what is now the .Asbury Hos- 
pital. For twelve years he was tlie general sur- 
geon of the ^linneapolis & St. Louis road, until 
that office was abolished by a new management. 
He was county physician of Hennepin County for 
si.x years and at the present time holds the office 
of chief medical inspector of the health depart- 
ment. He has been on the staff df St. Mary's 
Hospital since it was founded and is a staff sur- 
geon of the City Hospital. His practice has been 
confined almost exclusively to surgery, and his 
work in that field has been varied and success- 
ful. He is a member of the Hennepin County 
.Medical society and the Minnesota State Medi- 
cal society. Politically he is a republican. Dr. 
Burton was married in September 1882 to Miss 
Rebecca Knower Palmer, daughter of F.rastus 
Dow Palmer, the sculptor. 

BYRNES, William J..scp!i. was b..rn in .Min- 
neapolis, January 3, 1859, the son of William 
i'yrnes and Katherine (Campbell) Byrnes, both 
of whom were natives of Ireland. They came to 
this country in 1848 settling first in New Y'ork 
but three years later preempting a claim on the 
present site of Minneapolis. William Byrnes 
served thrDUgh the war reaching the rank of 
first lieutenant of Company K., loth Minnesota 
Volunteers and in 1866 was elected sheriff of 
Hennepin county. He died during his term of 
office in November, 1867. His son was educated 
in tlie public schools of Miimeapolis and at .St. 
John's College, Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin and 
St. John's College. Collc.gevillc. .Minnesota. He 
graduated from the medical department of the 
L'niversity of Michigan in 18S2 and was at once 
appointed assistant liouse surgeon at the Uuixcr- 
sily hospital. In 1S83 he returned to Minneapolis 
and began practice entering the office of Dr. 



Kclwin F'liillips witli wlinni he was associated for 
eleven years. Hcfore he had been at home a year 
he was appointed demonstrator of anatomy at the 
Minnea])olis College (if Physicians and Surgeons 
with which institution he has since been con- 
tinuously connected being appointed professor of 
anatomy in 1886, professor of surgical anatomy 
and clinical diseases of women in i8g5 and pro- 
fe-^sor of the principles of surgery in 1900. In 
1SS5 Dr. Hyrnes visited Europe and spent sunic 
montlis in study at the principal medical schools 
of the old world. He was president of the Hen- 
nepin County Medical Society in 1889 and in 
1893 was appointed to the Minneapolis board ui 
pension examining surgeons. He was apjioinled 
county physicial of Hennepin county during the 
years 1887 and '88 and from i8go to '92 was county 
coroner. In 1899 Dr. Byrnes was appointed city 
physician of Minneapolis, a positimi which he 
held for two years. Dr. Bj'rnes is a nienilier of 
the State and Hennepin County Medical Societies 
and of many fraternal organizations including tlie 
A. O. U. W., Koyal Arcanum. IMilitary order "f 
the 1-oyaI Legion, and Brotherhood of Elks. In 
political faith he is a democrat. He was married 
in 1S87 to Miss Josephine .Armstrong of Ann 
Arbor. Michigan. They li,i\'e fimr cliildren, 
Lyle, William. Murtice, and Josephine. 

CAMPBELL, Robert .Mien, specialist and in- 
structor in diseases of nose and .it the 
University of Minnesota, was Iidiii ,it l)etrciit, 
Michigan, December 27. 1868. Through his fa- 
ther, Geo. G. S. Campbell, who was a Michigan 
mill-owner, he is descended from I be Cinipbidls 
iif Argyle, Scotland. His mother, .Mary \nsc>imli 
Campbell, was (if ICnglish ancestry. 1)|- Camp- 
bell's early education was had in the coinmon 
scho(ds of Delrdil. While still a lad, he came 
to Alexandri,!, .Minnesota, where he graduated 
from the Alexandria high school in the brst 
graduating class of th;it inslitulion. He took his training .it the LIniversity of Minnesota, 
i(cei\in,g his .M . I), in i(8i/), and following this 
liy pdst-graduate work in New York. in iSij) 
and Kjoo he was assistant city physician lUr .Min 
neapolis. Since then Dr. Cain])bell has also 
served on the medical staff (if both the City llos 
pital and Asbury Il(isi> lie was ajipoiiited In 
his present positiim in llw university departnienl 
of medicine in kjo,?. l)r ( aniiibcll btlimgs to the 
Minneapolis Medical Club and to the state and 
C(nnity medical societies, lie is a republican and 
attends the ICpiscopal church. lie was married 
some years ago to M.iiy S. .McKusick, a grand 
daughter of the llnii. Jnn, .McKusick id Still 
water, and three children a d.iughter .iinl 
two sons. 

C.ATKS, Abraham Barker, s,,n ..f Ch.oles 
Bunker and .''ar^jaret liaker Cales, was 
born on May 12, 1854, at I'-ast Vassalbdro, 
Maine. He was prepared 'or college at ( )rik 
Grove Seminary at Vassalboro, and at Coburii 
Clas.sical Institute .il Waterville, Maine. bioni 

the latter school he graduated in 1870, and, at 
fifteen years of age, he began to teach a district 
school and was so engaged for two terms, when 
he entered Colby Cidlcge at Waterville, Maine, 
from which he graduated, receiving the A. B. 
degree in 1874 and A. M. in 1877. From 1874 to 
1877 he was principal of the high school at 
Cherryficld. Maine. He graduated M. D. in 1880 
from Harvard University Medical Department, 
and engaged in postgraduate work at the uni- 
versities of Berlin and Vienna in 1880 and 1881, 
coming in the fall of 1881 to Minneapolis and 
entering upon the practice of his profession. .\t 
the same period he began lecturing on obstetrics 
at the Minnesota College Hospital. Ever since 
that time he has lectured on obstetrics of which 
sitliject he is professor in the medical and sur- 
gical department of the State University. Dr. 
Cates is also to the Northwestern 
Hospital and obstetrician and pediatrician to the 
Bethany Home. Within two years of his arrival 
in Minneapolis Dr. Cates was honored with the 
appointment of city physician, an office which he 
held during 1883-84. He is a metnber of the state, 
local and national medical societies. Dr. Cates 
was married on June 19, i88g, at Jewett Mills, 
Wisconsin, tn .\bby W. Jewett. They have fws 
children: Helen, Catherine, Natalie, .\bram and 

CllOWNlNG, William Mack, is a native <>i 
lUiiKiis, havin.g been born in Millersburg in that 
state on May 10. 1874. His father was Jnhn P. 
Chowning. a pr.icliciiig iihysician; his uKillier 
bliirence Cliduning. Dr. Chownin.g passed the 
early part (it his lite and began his sch(^ioling in 
Illinois. Dr. Chowning completed his prepara- 
tory training at Knox College, frmu which he 
graduated in 1894 with the degree of B. S. The 
next fall he entered Johns Hopkins University 
for one year's study, and there earned his .\. I!, 
degree. Dr. Clniwning accepted a positiim as 
instruetdr nf biology and chemistry in the high 
school 111 Warren. Ohio. Later he nnived to 
Ruck Isl. 111(1. Illiuiiis, where he ncciipied a simi- piisitKin liir a time. In loot he graduated 
from the University of .Minnesnta with an M. D. 
degree and sIku'IIv .ifter be.gan practice in Min- 
iie.'ipolis, Dr, ('Iniwning was lnr three years, 
i(,oi i(jo4, instruetdr in tin' p.ithnli i^ieal depart- 
ment (if the University 'it M innesdt.i. resigning 
to devote his time to snrger.\. Me is a mendier 
of the surgical stall (d the (.'ilx llnspital. In 
piilitics he is inileiienileiit in his \ iew s. but bc- 
yiiiid the interest nf the private iiti/eii he does 
mil engage in |)(ilitical matters, lie is a member 
111" the Hennepin County Medical Suciety; the 
.Minnesota State Medical Society, the .\inerican 
Medical Association .ind the Minneapolis Medi- 
cal Club. In 1902 Dr. Chowning was married to 
Miss Sophie P. Thics, and they have two chil- 
dren, John Patterson, a.ged four and a half years, 
and Soiibie l.oraine, two years of age. The fam- 
ily attends the Episcopal church. 



COOK, Henry Wireman, was born at Balti- 
more. Maryland, November 8, 1877, and is de- 
scended from prominent sonthern colonial families. 
His father is VVm. W. L. Cook also a native of Bal- 
timore, who has retired after an active business 
career. Dr. Cook lived in Baltimore during the 
eaily part of his life and there received his pre- 
paratory training, and later entered the academic 
department of Johns Hopkins University, win- 
ning a valuable scholarship at the competitive 
entrance examination, and graduating with the 
degree of A. B. in 1898. The same year he en- 
tered the Johns Hopkins Medical School and 
graduated in 1902 with an M. D. degree. Upon 
the excellence of his record during the four 
years' he was awarded a position in the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital and served his interne service 
there as resident medical officer. Later hospital 
appointments included services as assistant 
resident physician to the Thomas Wilson Sani- 
tarium for sick children. Maryland, and chief 
resident physician of Memorial Hospital, Rich- 
mond, Virginia. In 1905 he returned to Balti- 
more to accept a position at the Johns Hopkins 
and to practice medicine in association with Dr. 
Joseph C. Bloodgood of that city. Dr. Cook has 
acted as the referee for the Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company of New York in Virginia and had 
received special course for this work at the 
home office in New York. He has also acted as 
examiner for Germania Life, New York Life, 
Washington Life, Manhattan Life, Home Life, 
Security Trust & Life, Travelers Life, etc., in 
Richmond, Baltimore, and Minneapolis. At the 
re-organization of the Northwestern National 
Life Insurance Company. Dr. Cook was offered 
the position of medical director and located in 
Minneapolis, January, 1906. Not only has he 
been very active as a physician but has also done 
considerable original research work and expe- 
rimenting and is the inventor of Cook's Modified 
Rivo Rocco Sphygmomanometer, which he origi- 
nated in 1902 and which is now extensively used 
by physicians both in this country and abroad 
for the measurement of the strength of the pulse. 
He is a frequent contributor to scientific and 
technical journals and is the author of numerous 
medical papers, among them. Nitrogen Excre- 
tion in Pneumonia, published in the Johns Hop- 
kins Hospital Bulletin in January. 1903; Clinical 
Value of Blood Pressure Determinations as a 
Guide to Stimulation in Sick Children, which' ap- 
peared in the American Journal of Medical Sci- 
ences in March, 190.S; the Value of .Accurate De- 
termination of .Arterial Tension in General 
Practice in the Journal of the .American Medical 
.Association on Mav 21, 190.^: .Arterial Hyper- 
tension in the same paper on January 28, 1905; 
and Cardio Vascular Regulation during Opera- 
tion, published in the .American Journal of Med- 
ical Sciences in .April, 1907. On May 8, 1904, 
he read one of tlie first papers presented before 
a public audience in this country on the Pre- 

vention of Tuberculosis, at the meeting of the 
Conference of Charities and Corrections at Nor- 
folk, Virginia. Dr. Cook is a member of the 
more important medical societies — The Johns 
Hopkins Alumni Association, the American 
Medical Association, the Association of Medical 
Examiners, of which he was for a time vice 
president, the Minnesota Medical Society, the 
Hennepin County Medical Society, the Minne- 
apolis Medical Club, and is a Fellow of the 
Medical Society of Virginia. He also belongs to 
the Lafayette Club and attends St. Marks Epis- 
copal Church. In igc6 he was married to Miss 
Ellen McCain Davenport, (jf Richmond, Vir- 

CORBETT, J. Frank, city bacteriologist, was 
born at Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, February 
16, 1872. His father, W. C. Corbett, was a mer- 
chant there at that time, but the schooling of Dr. 
Corbett was begun in the Minneapolis public 
schools, and completed by a three years' course 
in the academic department of Minnesota Uni- 
versity followed by the full medical course. In 
his academic years Dr. Corbett was president of 
the Engineers Society. .After his graduation as 
an M. D., in 1896, Dr. Corbett was interne at the 
City Hospital for a year. He was appointed^ pro- 
fessor of Bacteriology at Hamline University the 
following year, which position he held until the 
medical department was merged in that of the 
University of Minnesota. In the latter institu- 
tion he is assistant professor of surgical pathol- 
ogy. In 1898 he received his present appoint- 
ment as city bacteriologist. .At that time the 
local equipment for his work consisted of one 
bare room without any apparatus. Dr. Corbett 
at once set to work to establish the municipal 
laboratory of Minjieapolis upon such a basis that 
it should be able to create a national reputation 
for scientific results. At present, after a decade 
of work he has thoroughly equipped a suite of 
rooms in the Court House, with complete appara- 
tus, and is still working toward his ideal of 
municipal sanitation. Dr. Corbett is a member 
of the American Public Health .Association, the 
Minneapolis Pathological .Association, and the 
state and county medical bodies. He is also 
pathologist and bacteriologist at the city hospital. 
In i8g8 lie was married to iMiss Nellie Yates. 

CIRKLER, .Alexander .A., a practicing physi- 
cian, who has the distinction of being the first 
.American student to whom the privilege of pass- 
ing the German State Examination was ever 
granted, was born in St. Paul, January I, 1865. 
He is the son of Herman and Johanna Cirkler 
and brother of C. H. Cirkler of Minneai)olis. His 
parents removed from St. Paul to Minneapolis 
when Dr. Cirkler was very young, and his early 
education was taken entirely in the public schools 
of Minneapolis, first at the old Washington, and 
later at Central high school. He then went into 
the drug business with his brother for a year, 
and later went to Germany to carry out his in- 



tention to study medicine. There in the universi- 
ties of Freiburg. Heidelberg and Munich he spent 
three years, foHowed by five years at Berlin, 
where he received his degree of M. D. and where 
he finally took the state examination referred to 
above. Dr. Cirkler was accorded this privilege 
through a special permit issued him by Chan- 
cellor Caprivi, in consideration of his having 
studied the same inimbcr of semesters and com- 
pleted the same preparatory courses prescribed 
for the regular German student. After another 
year of preparation spent in post-graduate and 
clinical study in foreign cities and in the eastern 
cities of the United States, Dr. Cirkler returned 
to Minneapolis, took the state medical examina- 
tions in 1804, and at once began work. He has 
identified himself with the state and county medi- 
cal societies, belongs to the American ^ledical 
Association, and is a member of the Commercial 
Club. He is not married. 

CR.'\FTS, Leo Melville, was born at .Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota, on October .?, 186.?, the son of 
Major Amasa and Mary J. (Henry) Crafts. He 
is a descendant from the earliest colonial stocks 
the Crafts being among the founders of Boston, 
who came in Winthrop's expedition in 1630 — 
and members of the family were prominent and ac- 
tive as colonial and revolutionary patriots. His 
parents were among the earliest prominent pio- 
neers of Minneapolis, having settled here in 185,^ 
H;e was educated in the public schools of 
Minneapolis and the University of Minnesota 
from which he took the degree of B. L. in 1886, 
and Harvard Medical School from whicli lie- 
graduated in 1890. During 1890 and '<;i he was 
house physician at the Boston City Hospital. He 
then came west establishing himself in Minne- 
apolis where he has taken an active jiart in the 
professional and public life of the city. He has 
been professor of nervous and mental diseases at 
Hamline University Medical School since iSg_\. 
was dean of the faculty from 1897 to 1903 ancl 
was instrumental in securing a new plant, now 
grounds and new ei|uipment for the institution. 
He is now visiting neurologist on the staff of four 
of the Minneapolis hospitals. Dr. Crafts was 
president of the Minnesota State Sunday School 
Association from 189,3 to 1896, a member of its 
board since 1893. president of the .Minneapolis 
Sunday School Officers" Associalinn from 1895 to 
1906, treasurer of the Hennepin county Medical 
Society, 1895 to 1897. chairman of the Nerve 
Section of the State Medical Society 1899, and a 
member of the board of directors of the Minne- 
sota National Park and Forestry Association, 
and was secretary fif the general executive com- 
mittee of all organizations combined for a nation- 
al park and reserve in the state. He has been 
prominently connected with the Western Society 
for the Suppression of Vice and was president of 
the Native Sons of Minnesota in 1906 and is a 
member of the Sons of the American Revcdution. 
Dr. Crafts is a member of the American and 

Minnesota State Medical .Associations, Fellow of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society. Hennepin 
County Medical Society and Harvard Medical 
and Boston City Hospital .■\lumni .Associations. 
He is the author or a number of articles for 
professional magazines and is a writer on Sunday 
School topics. He is also interested in forestry 
and has spoken and written quite extensively on 
the subject of forest preservation, and is also a 
student of state history having prepared several 
articles and delivered various addresses on that 
subject. Dr. Crafts was married at Minneapolis 
in 1901 to Miss Amelia I. Burgess. He is a mem- 
ber of the Minneapolis Commercial Club. For- 
merly a college athlete he is interested in legiti- 
mate sport, but finds his own recreation through 
outings among the pine woods of ni)rthern Min- 

IJKI-^W. Clias. VVaylaiul, was born at Bur- 
lington, Vermont, January 18, 1858. His father. 
Homer C. Drew, was a contractor and builder 
and a representative of a family which had 
lived in Vermont for several generations, 
coming there from Connecticut in revolutionary 
times. Charles attended the public schools of 
Burlington and at fifteen entered the University 
of Vermont. The natural bent of his mind was 
toward the sciences and especial attention was 
devoted to chemistry and collateral branches of 
science. He graduated in 1877, receiving the 
degree of Bachelor of Philosophy and was hon- 
ored by election to membershi)) in the Phi Beta 
Kappa Society. After a further study of chem- 
istry in leading laboratories, he entered the 
.Medical Department of the University of Ver- 
mont, graduating with the degree of M. D. in 
1880, and receiving the highest honors in his 
class. During the year following he practiced 
nuilicine in Brattleboro, Vt., in association with 
(iiie of the le.iding physicians of the state, and 
in 1881 he came to Minneapolis where he soon 
secured a satisfactory practice. The following 
year he was appointed professor of chemistry in 
the .Minnesota Hospital College which position he 
held for seven years. In 1884 Dr. Drew was 
appointed city physician serving for two years. 
In 1886 he entered upon an extensive investiga- 
tion of Food .Adulterations in Minnesota, pub- 
lishing a valuable report upon the subject, and 
<loing much to awaken public interest. -As a re- 
sult lu- was appointed state chemist to the Dairy 
.111(1 I'ood Department and nf)t only did a large 
amount of valualile work as a chemist during 
his six years with tlie department but was large- 
ly influential in determining the policy of the 
department aiul in securing the enactment of 
the laws under which such efficient work has 
since been done. In 1886 Dr. Drew established 
the Minnesota Institute of Pharmacy and this 
school has just completed its twentieth year. 
During tliis lime its attendance has aggregated 
nearly two thousand and it numbers among 



its graduates nearly one-half of all the legally 
qualified pharmacists in Minnesota and the sur- 
rounding states. In 1895 L)r. Drew was appointed 
chemist to the city of Minneapolis and served for 
seven years, and in iSg8 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of chemistry and toxicology in the Medi- 
cal Department of Hamline University and served 
until he resigned in 1902. During the later years. 
Dr. Drew has been so fully occupied with his 
special lines of work that he has largely discon- 
tinued his medical practice, devoting himself to 
expert work in chemistry. He is a republican 
in politics but the public offices which he has 
filled have been those relating to the duties of 
his profession solely. He is a member of the 
medical societies of Hennepin county and the 
state of Minnesota, the State Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation, the American Medical Association and 
the American Chemical Society. He was made a 
Mason in 1879 in Burlington. Vt., afterwards 
affiliated with Khurum Lodge. Minneapolis, 
which he left to become a charter member of 
.Minnehaha Lodge of which he is a Past Master. 
He is at present a member of Ark Lodge, Ark 
Chapter, Minneapolis Mounted Commandery 
Knights Templar, of which he is Past Com- 
mander, and of Zuhrah Temple of the Mystic 
Shrine. He is also Grand Treasurer of the Grand 
Commandery of Knights Templar of Minnesota 
and a member of the Elks and the Commercial 
CIul). Dr. Drew is a member of the Episcopal 
Church. He was married Sept. 18. 1884, at Brat- 
lleboro, Vt., to .■Xnnah Reed Kellogg, daughter 
of Henry Kellogg, of Boston, Mass. Two chil- 
dren have been born to them — Julia Kellogg and 
Charles Wayland. Jr. 

DUNSMOOR, Frederick Alanson, son of 
James A. and Almira Mosher Dunsmoor, was 
born on May 28, 1853. His parents came to Min- 
nesota in 1852, from Maine, and settled at Rich- 
field, in Hennepin county, where Frederick .\. 
was horn, and where he began his educatinn in 
the public schools. He attended the public 
schools of Minneapolis and the University of 
Minnesota. His medical course he took in the 
Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York, 
taking the M. D. degree in 1875. He took private 
courses with such eminent men in their special- 
ties as Frank H. Hamilton, Alfred G. Loomis, 
Austin Flint, Sr., E. G. Janeway and R. Ogden 
Doremus; and then commenced to practice in 
Minneapolis in partnership with Dr. FI. H. Kim- 
ball with whom he was connected about a year. 
In 1877 he accepted a position in the St. Paul 
Medical College as professor of surgery, wliicli 
he held till 1879, during which year he was coun- 
ty physician for Hennepin county. For two years 
he held the chair of surgery in the medical depart- 
ment of Hamline University, but in 1881 became 
vice president and dean of the Minnesota College 
Hospital, with the organization of which he had 
been prominently connected, holding at the 
time the office of professor of surgery and at 

tending surgeon in the hospital and dispensary. 
This institution, in connection with other medical 
schools of Minneapolis and St. Paul, was reor- 
ganized in l88g into the medical department of 
the state university and since that time Dr. Duns- 
moor has held the chair of operative and clinical 
surgery in that department of the university. 
He has also served as surgeon to St. Mary's 
Hospital since 1890, to St. Barnabas Hospital 
since 1879, as gynecologist to the City Hospital 
since 1894, to the Asbury Hospital since 1892, and 
to the Asbury Free Dispensary since its organ; 
ization. Dr. Dunsmoor had made an especial and 
extensive study and practice of gynecology and 
surgery, increased each year by a short period of 
study in the large hospitals, colleges and scien- 
tific centers, both in this country and Europe and 
holds an enviable reputation as an operative sur- 
geon. He is a member of the International Med- 
ical Congress, the American Medical Association, 
the National Association of Railway Surgeons, 
the Minnesota Academy of Medicine, the West- 
ern Surgical and Gynecological Association, the 
Tri-State Medical Association, the North Dakota 
State Medical Association, the Crow River As- 
sociation, the Society of Physicians and Surgeons 
of Minneapolis, and the county and state medical 
societies. He is a surgeon for the Northern Pa- 
cific; the Chicago, St. Paul, ]\Iilwaukee & Omaha 
and the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Stc Marie 
railroads, and the medical director for the Surety 
I^'und Life Company. He is also well known in 
the club and fraternal life of the city and holds 
membership in the Nu Sigma Nu fraternity, the 
Masonic Order, the Good Templars, the Druids, 
the Minneapolis club and the Commercial club, 
being a charter member of the last two. Dr. 
Dunsmoor was married on September 5, 1876 to 
Miss Elizabeth Emma Billings, the daughter of 
the late Surgeon George F. Turner, U. S. A. 
They have three children living — Marjorie ."Ml- 
port, Elizabeth Turner and Frederick Laton. Dr. 
Dunsmoor attends and is one of the stewards of 
the Hennepin .-Kveniie Methodist Episcopal 

EITEL, George Gotthelf, was born September 
28, 1858. at Chanhassen, Carver Count}-. Minne- 
sota, son of John G. Eitel, a farmer and flour 
miller. His early life was spent on a farm in 
Carver county. He attended the public schools 
of Chaska and Chanhassen and the Moraviair 
Academy at Chaska and received private instruc- 
tion in phjsics, mathematics, botany and geology 
and began the study of medicine at the Minnesota 
Hospital College, September i, 1885. and grad- 
uated in May. 1888, receiving the first prize in 
surgery. He then spent the next ten months at- 
tending lectures at the L^niversity of Berlin, Ger- 
many, and in the fall of 1890, after practicing six 
months, he entered the medical department of 
the University of Pennsylvania where he grad- 
uated in 1891, returning thereafter to the Uni- 
versity of Berlin to resume the special studies 



which he had left in 1889. At that great school 
he passed all examinations; presented and de- 
fended a thesis on appendicitis and received the 
M. D, degree in December, 1901. Before locating 
in Minneapolis in 1893, Dr. Eitel practiced in 
Centralia, Washington. He was appointed one of 
tlie surgeons to Asbiiry Hospital by his friend, 
Dr. F. A. Dunsmoor and is a surgeon to St. Barna- 
l)as hospital and the Norwegian hospital. Dr. Eitel 
is a member of the Hennepin county, state, Min- 
nesota Valley. Western Surgical and American 
Medical associations and of the Commercial Club 
of Minneapolis. 

ERB, Frederick Alexander, is a native of 
.Minneapolis. He was born here July 5, 1873. 
His father. Alexander Erb. is a business man 
of the city, who retired from the grocery 
business some time ago. Dr. Erb grew up in 
Minneapolis, went through the public schools, 
and was a member of the first class ..f grad- 
uates from the East Side High school. He 
took the academic course in the state university 
as a preparation for the medical department, from 
which he graduated in iQ0->. Dr. Erb is a staunch 
republican, believing that the republican party 
is the party of the past, present and future of the 
country. Though in the ranks of the younger 
element of the medical profession of Minnesota, 
lie is already becoming well known and belongs 
to the standard older medical societies, as well as 
t.) the Minneapolis Medical Club— an association 
cif the young physicians of Minneapolis. Dr. Erb 
holds rank also in Sigma Chi and Nu Sigma Nu 
fraternities. He was married June 20, 1905, to 
Jessie M. Cribb. of Milwaukee. They have one 
daughter, Catharine Louise. 

I'lRD.M.W'X, Charles .\ndrcw, professor of 
.-matomy in the University of Minnesota, though 
l)orn in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, August 3, 1866, has 
so identified himself with the city of Minneapolis 
in the past decade that he may he considered a 
native. From his father, .Andrew Erdmann, who 
was a skilled mechanic. Dr. Erdmann probably 
inherited his love for the thorough study of 
every new condition and of its correct adjust- 
ment to natural laws which has already given 
him a place of authority in his profession. He is 
a graduate nf the .Milwaukee public schools and 
of the University of Wisconsin, hut received his 
doctor's diploma from the medical department oi 
the University of Minnesota in 1893. To this 
preparation he added later a year at Berlin and 
Vienna. From 1894 to 1899 he held the position 
of demonstrator of anatomy in Minnesota Uni- 
versity. The following year he was given a full 
professorship which he now holds. He is a re- 
publican and during his college course served as 
deputy coroner of Hennepin county. Dr. Erd- 
mann belongs to several secret societies. He is 
also a member of the .American Association of 
.Anatomists, .American Medical .Association, the 

state and county medical societies and thi; Min- 
neapolis Medical Club. He married Caroline A. 
Edgar in 1896. and has two children, Edgar and 

Fl FIELD, Emily W.. physician, was born in 
Iowa, and is the daughter of the Rev. Lebbens B. 
and Emily (Walworth) Fifield. On the mother's 
side. Dr. Fifield is a Daughter of the Revolution, 
her maternal great-grandfather having been Capt. 
Charles Walworth, who served in that war. Dr. 
Fifield has inherited a good deal of the pluck and 
determination of those days, and whatever she 
sets out to do. she usually completes, if not by 
the original plan, by some other resource. Her 
early education was at home and in the common 
schools. Later she took a course at Holyoke, 
traveling in the United States extensively after- 
ward. Before taking up medicine Dr. Fifield 
tried teaching, and was so successful that she 
was asked to take a man's place with a woman's 
wages. But this not seeming to offer sufficient 
practical inducements, she decided to become a 
physician and entered the Woman's Medical Col- 
lege of Baltimore. After graduation and a year 
of post-graduate study in New^ York, Philadelphia 
and Baltimore, Dr. Fifield came to Minneapolis 
in 1885 and has been in practice here since, ex- 
cept for study abroad. She has served in various 
professional relations on the staflf of Bethany, 
the Northwestern, Asbury and the City hospitals, 
and is a member of the Hennepin county and 
the state medical societies. Dr. Fifield has al- 
ways been interested in the Humane Society and 
the Young Women's Christian .Association. Of 
this last society she was rme of the earliest mem- 
iiers, her office at one time being the only meet- 
ing place of the members. Dr. Fifield is a Con- 
gregationalist. Is unmarried. 

GEIST, Emil Sebastian, physician and sur- 
geon and instructor in Orthopedic Surgery in 
the University of .Minnesota, is a genuine son of 
Minnesota. He was born in St. Paul. Minnesota, 
May 9. 1878, and liis father, Emil Geist, Sr., is a 
well-known jeweler of St. Paul. Dr. Geist's early 
schooling went on in the St. Paul schools en- 
tirely mitil he entered the state university in 
1895. He graduated at the age of twenty-two 
from the medical department of the university. 
.After that three years were spent in European 
universities. Since then his professional advance 
has been rapid, although one of the youngest 
members of his profession in active work. Dr. 
(ieist already liolds, besides his position at the 
st.ite university, several important consulting po- 
>ilions. Ill- is orthopedic surgeon to the Uni- 
versity hree Dispensary. St. Barnabas Hospital. 
.Asliur'y llo-.pi1.1l, St. Mary's Hospital and the 
City Hospital. \)r. Geist belongs to the German 
Orthopedic Society, the .American Medical .Asso- 1 
ciation, Hennepin County .Medical Society, the 
Minneapolis Medical Chii> and the Crow River 
Valley .Medical Society. 



GOULD, James Bennett, was born January 
23, i860, at Eden Prairie, Hennepin county, son 
of Aaron and Matilda (Channel) Gould. His 
father was a farmer and James Bennett spent his 
earlier years on the farm, receiving his educa- 
tional training in the rudiments at the district 
school. In 1873 he entered the public schools of 
Minneapolis and, continuing on the ascending 
grade to the higher education, he entered the 
state university, from which he graduated in 
1882 with the degree of A. B. After spending one 
year as a student in the office of Dr. C. N. He- 
witt, then secretary of the State Board of Health 
of Minnesota, he matriculated at Jefferson Medi- 
cal College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1883, 
and in 1886 received from that institution the de- 
gree of Doctor of Medicine. During both his 
collegiate and medical courses he filled the role 
of schoolmaster. His first school was taught 
when he was but seventeen years old in a new 
school building erected on the site of the "old log 
school house," the one built by his uncle. He is 
medical examiner for various life insurance com- 
panies, and for the Royal Arcanum, in which or- 
ganization he has held the position for some 
fifteen years. Since 1901 he has been medical 
examiner for the Independent Order of Foresters, 
and since 1903 for the Modern Woodmen. He 
is a member of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, State Medical Society of Minnesota and the 
Hennepin County Medical Society. He belongs 
to the Masonic fraternity, affiliating with Ark 
Lodge No. 176, .\. F. and .■\. M., and with Ark 
Chapter No. 53, R. A. M. In politics he is a 
republican. Dr. Gould married, December 26th, 
1889, Ella M. Crombie, of Michigan. His present 
address is 313 Pillsbury Building. Minneapolis. 

H.ALL, William Asbury, was born at Aure- 
lius, New York, on June 17. 1853. His father was 
a farmer of only moderate circumstances but a 
descendant of a family which came to Connec- 
ticut from England in 1639 and which has been 
noted for its learning and scholarly work rather 
than for its ability to accumulate wealth. On his 
mother's side. Dr. Hall was descended from 
Hollanders who settled in New Amsterdam at a 
very early date. Dr. Hall received his primary 
education in the public schools, graduated from 
the Auburn, New York. High School, passed the 
examination for the University of the state of 
New York when only fourteen years old and 
two years later was making his own way as a 
teacher. When he was nineteen he entered the 
office of Dr. A. S. Cummings. of Cayuga. New 
York, and began to study medicine. In 1872 he 
entered the Albany medical college graduating 
on December 23. 1875. with special honorable 
mention for his graduation thesis on the sub- 
ject, "Inflammation.'' Soon after graduation, al- 
though only twenty-two years of age, he re- 
ceived, after a competitive examination, an ap- 
pointment as senior resident physician and sur- 
geon of the .Albany, New York, Hospital. Here 

he remained until 1877, when he established him- 
self at Fulton, Oswego county. New York, and 
engaged in practice. During his ten years' resi- 
dence in Fulton he became widely known 
throughout northern New York through his great 
success in surgery and in 1885 he was elected 
president of the Oswego County Medical society. 
In the next year he moved to Minneapolis. In 
1888 he was appointed professor of medical juris- 
prudence in the Minnesota College Hospital and 
attending surgeon at St. Mary's Hospital. In 
1892 he was elected president of the Henne- 
pin County Medical society and from 1894 to 
1899 held the chair of professor of the principles 
of surgery and clinical surgery in the medical 
department of the Hamline University. He is 
attending surgeon at the Minneapolis City Hos- 
pital and St. Mary's Hospital, consulting surgeon 
at Asbury Hospital and consulting physician to 
the Northwestern Hospital. In 1901 he was 
elected president of the Minnesota State Medical 
society, and in 1903 and 1904 represented the 
state of Minnesota in the House of Delegates of 
the .American Medical association. .-Xlthough a • 
surgeon of high standing. Dr. Hall continues a 
general practice as he does not look favorably on 
specialization in the profession. Dr. Hall is a 
republican in political faith and is an active 
member of the national, Minnesota and local 
medical societies and is a member of the Minne- 
apolis club and other social bodies of the city. 
In 1880 he was married to Miss Ida A. Dickinson 
of Lowville, New York. They have two children 
— Le Roy and Helen. The family attends the 
Episcopal Church. 

HARE. Earle Russell, was born at Summer- 
field, Ohio, in 1872, the son of John W. Hare and 
Mary Cornelia (Taylor) Hare. Dr. Hare had 
the usual common school education supplemented 
by a course at the Kansas City high school, 
where he graduated in 1890. Coming to Minne- 
apolis he entered the College of Medicine and 
Surgery of the University of Minnesota from 
which he graduated with the degree of M. D. 
He has since been continuously in practice in 
this city and has a wide acquaintance and mem- 
bership in all the leading medical organizations, 
including the Minneapolis Medical Club, Henne- 
pin County Medical Society, the Minnesota State 
Medical Society and the American Medical Asso- 
ciation. Dr. Hare was married in 1900 to Miss 
.Maude Wilson and they have one child, Horace 
Barstow Hare. The family attend the Methodist 
Episcopal church. 

H.\YNES. Frederick Eugene, the son of O. F. 
Haynes. engineer, but formerly a blacksmith, 
was born at Shclburn Falls, Massachusetts, on 
November 22, 1875. A few years after his birth, 
his parents moved to Minneapolis, and in this 
city Dr. Haynes passed his youth and received 
his education. He attended the public schools 
and after the grammar course entered the South 



high school and graduated from there in 1895. 
In the fall of the same year Ik- ni;itricnlated at 
the University of Minnesota, and took up the 
work of the medical department. The degree of 
M. 1). was awarded him in 1899 and he immedi- 
ately he^an to practice his profession in Pelican 
KapiiK. Minnesiita. where he remained till the 
year Igoi. when he moved to Minneapolis. He 
has since continued his regular practice in this 
city and in 1903 was appointed to till the position 
of inspector on the Minneapcdis Board of Health. 
Dr. Haynes is a member of the Minneapolis Med- 
ical Club, the Hennepin County Medical Society 
and the State Medical Society. He was married 
in 1900 to Miss Edythe Mills. 

HEAD, George Douglas, son of Newell S. 
and Mary Elizabeth Head, was born September 
10, 1870, at Elgin, Minnesota. His father is a 
general insurance adjuster, has held this position 
with several companies and is one of the pioneer 
fire insurance men in this state. Dr. Head re- 
ceived his education in the public schools of Min- 
nesota; attended and graduated from the Fargo 
high school, delivering the oration for his class, 
and then entered the University of Minnesota. 
He received his degree of B. S. in 1892, and was 
again given the honor of delivering a class ora- 
tion. He returned in the fall of the same year 
and took up his professional studies in the medi- 
cal department, and graduated in 1895 with a 
"cum laude" degree. In this course he also suc- 
ceeded in winning the Alexander Stone medal 
in gynecology. Upon leaving school, Dr. Head 
commenced to practice in this city. In the years 
1898 and 1900 he took post-graduate work in the 
Johns Hopkins Medical School. Again in the 
year lyoj lie studied for nine months in Vienna 
and upon his return to this country, started to 
practice in Minneapolis as a specialist in "In- 
ternal medicine." Dr. Head has held a number 
of offices at the state university and at present 
is Chief of Dispensary Clinic of that institiition. 
Two years after his graduation he was appointed 
as assistant in medicine and in 1895 took the posi- 
tion of instructor in clinical medicine and mi- 
croscopy. The position of professor of Clinical 
Medicine and Microscopy was offered to him in 
1902, which place in the faculty he now holds. 
He has been president of the Alumni Association 
of the Medical Department of the state universi- 
ty, and is now a member of the Minnesota Acad- 
emy of Medicine; the American and state medi- 
cal associations; the Hennepin County Medical 
Society; the Minneapolis Medical Club and the 
Minneapolis Pathological Society. He holds the 
position of attending physician at the City and 
Asbury hospitals and is a consulting physician at 
the Northwestern Hospital. Dr. Head is a re- 
publican in politics. He attends the Methodist 
church and was married in 1898 to Miss Sarah 
Belle I'arry. They have nnc son. Douglas Parry 

HILL, Richard J., a practicing physician of 

the regular school, was born February it. 185,^, at 
Hill's Store, North Carolina. His father, Nathan 
Hill, was a physician and surgeon, who left the 
south in 1861, at the breaking out of the Civil 
War. He came to Minneapolis, where his son 
was educated in the public schools, later taking 
the first two years at the state university. De- 
ciding upon his father's profession and not being 
able then to pursue it at Minnesota university, 
the young sophomore took a full course at Jef- 
ferson Medical College, Philadelphia, where he 
graduated in 1875. Securing a position as con- 
tract surgeon in the medical department of the 
army, he spent three years on the frontier, re- 
turning to Minneapolis and a general practice in 
1881. Dr. Hill's politics are republican. He was 
the coroner of Hennepin county for two terms 
of an effective administration. He belongs to the 
county and state medical associations, to the 
Minnesota Academy of Medicine and to the 
American Medical Association. His church af- 
filiations are with the Society of Friends. He 
was married to Louise T. Johnson in 1881, and 
has two children, a son and daughter. 

HVOSLEF, Jacob, son of Bishop F. W. 
Hvoslef and Alethe Catherina Frost Hvoslef, was 
born at Tromsoe, a city of northern Norway, and 
the starting point of many .A-rctic expeditions, 
near the seventieth parallel of latitude. The 
family immigrated to Norway from South Den- 
mark in the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
the first member arriving being a merchant; most 
of the family, however, were prominent in law 
and the church. Dr. Hvoslef's parents were 
visited by Bayard Taylor when they lived in 
Kantokeino, Norway, his father being at that 
time a missionary to the Lapps. Mr. Taylor re- 
lated the incident in his book detailing his north- 
ern travels. Dr. Hvoslef attended the Latin 
school in Tromsoe for five years and continued 
his studies at Drammen in Southern Norway 
five years more and at Bergen he made his final 
preparation for admission to the Royal Univer- 
sity of Christiana, Norway, which occurred in 
l88.i. Dr. Hvoslef's father was made bishop of 
the diocese of Bergen in 1881, and the son. after 
taking the academic course at the university, 
studied medicine and graduated in 1891. After 
spending a year as an interne at the government 
hospital in Christiana, he came to the United 
States, locating in Minneapolis, where he has 
since practiced his profession, with the ex- 
ception of one year which he spent at Tracy, 
Minnesota. Dr. Hvn-U-f has built up a fine prac- 
tice, the fruitage of his thorough preparation 
for bis life work and his devotion to it. He 
is a member of the Hennepin County Medi- 
cal Society, the State iVIedical Society, the Ameri- 
can Medical Association, and is lecturer on 
orthopedic surgery at Hamline, University. He 
is also a member of the Odin Club. On October 



II, 1893, he was married to Miss Clara Johnson, 
of Minneapolis, and they have two children, F. 
VValdemar, born in Tracy, Minnesota, 1894, and 
Catherine Elizabeth, born in Minneapolis in 1900. 

HYNES, John Eldon, was born on July 25, 
1878, at Winnebago, Minnesota, where his father, 
John A. Hynes, was a farmer and stockraiser. 
Here he spent all his early life, going to the com- 
mon school and graduating from the Winnebago 
liigh school in 1898, He came to Minneapolis 
for his professional education. In 1900 he gradu- 
ated from the College of Pharmacy of the Uni- 
versity, and in 1904 graduated from the Medical 
Department. The University work was supple- 
mented by a year's experience as interne in St. 
Luke's Hospital. He is now an instructor in 
medicine at the University of Minnesota. Dr. 
Hynes is a member of the Hennepin County 
Medical Society, the Minnesota State Medical 
Society, the .-Vmerican Medical Association, the 
Minneapolis Medical Club, the Minnesota Patho- 
logical Society, and the Roosevelt Club. Dr. 
Hynes was married on November 27, 1907, to 
Martha F. Harris, of Minneapolis. 

IRWIN, Alexander Francis, son of Thomas 
and Margaret Irwin, was born in Chatham, 
Ontario, Canada, receiving his early education in 
tlie public and high schools and academic work 
in the University of Toronto, receiving medals in 
natural science and classics. He graduated from 
the medical department of the University of 
.Michigan in i88g and was honor graduate in 
medicine of McGill Medical College in 1890. He 
served six years in iVIinneapolis as assistant city 
physician; was secretary of the Hennepin Coun- 
ty Medical Societj' during '93 and '94; is a member 
of the American and Minnesota State Medical 
.\ssociation and local Shakespeare Society; also 
a member of Royal .Arcanum and Masonic bodies. 

JOHNSON. .-Vugust Emanuel, was born in 
Lund, Wisconsin, on August 23, 1881. His par- 
ents, a few years after his birth, moved to Min- 
neapolis and in this city he spent his early life. 
He entered the public schools here, but after 
some years' work, left his course uncompleted 
and entered Carleton College, at Northfield, Min- 
nesota. .After his preparatory work in that insti- 
tution. Dr. Johnson commenced to study for his 
profession at Hamline University, and finished 
his course and graduated from there in 1903 with 
the degrees M. D, and C. M. Since that time he 
has carried on a general practice in Minneapolis 
and in addition held (until the closing of the de- 
partment) a position in the Medical Department 
of Hamline University as instructor in clinical 
surgery. Dr. Johnson is on the staff of the Swe- 
dish Hospital, and is a member of the Hennepin 
County Medical Society, the State Medical Soci- 
ety and the American Medical .Association. 

JONES, William .Alexander, was born at St. 
Peter, Minnesota, May 24. 1859. His parents 
were of Welsh and Scotch ancestry and both his 

grandsires were soldiers of the War of the Revo- 
lution. His father, a native of Vermont, was 
taken by his parents to New York City, when a 
child, and, when he grew to manhood, he came to 
Minnesota, and, in 1854, located at St. Peter 
where he opened a drug store and in 1858 mar- 
ried Miss M. A. Virginia Christian, a New York 
lady who shared with him the storm and stress 
of frontier life, when they encountered the hor- 
rors of the Indian outbreak of 1862. They shel- 
tered many refugees in their home, their son, 
William, being a little child at the time. The 
latter attended the common schools of St. Peter 
and the high school, and gained a good knowl- 
edge of the drug business in his father's store. 
He studied medicine at the University of the 
City of New York, Medical Department, gradu- 
ating in 1881, after which he became assistant 
physician at the State Hospital for the Insane in 
St. Peter. In 1883 Dr. Jones came to Minneap- 
olis where he practiced medicine until 1886, when, 
after his marriage to .Annie R. Johnson, of Den- 
ver, Colorado, he went with her to Europe where 
he entered upon special study of nervous diseases 
in the school and hospitals of Berlin and Vienna. 
After his return to Minneapolis, Dr. Jones de- 
voted himself to practice in his specialty, and has 
proven himself a most successful lecturer on 
nervous and mental diseases, as clinical professor 
of these specialties in the medical department of 
the state university. He is attending neurologist 
for St. Mary's Asbury Methodist, the City, North- 
western, Norwegian and Swedish hospitals, and 
is chief of the staflf of the Northwestern Hospital, 
and is editor of Journal of the Minnesota State 
Medical Association and the Northwestern Lan- 
cet, a well-known leading medical journal. Dr. 
Jones is a democrat in politics. 

KIMB.ALL, Hannibal Hamlin, a practicing 
physician in Minneapolis since 1867. was born 
at Carmel, Penobscot county, !Maine, on .August 
18, 1843. He is descended from old families of 
gciod standing on both sides. His father, John 
Kimball, was a lawyer with great ability and a 
good education who was prominently connected 
with the public affairs of his state and who oc- 
cupied a scat in the state Senate. .Abigail Hom- 
ans, his mother was of Spanish descent, a woman 
of much talent and power, from whom Dr. Kim- 
ball inherited much of his ability and to whose 
early training he feels much of his success is 
due. Dr. Kimball received a district school educa- 
tion and then entered and graduated from the 
Hampden Academy and the Lewiston Seminary 
(now Bates College). He intended to acquire a 
medical education, so for a time studied under Dr. 
P. A. Stackpole at Dover, New Hampshire, and 
then entered the Pittsfield Medical College, fol- 
lowing his studies there with a complete course at 
Bellevue, New York. During the latter part of 
the Civil War he acted as contracting surgeon 
under Dr. S. B. Mcirrison of the regular army. 



He entered Bowdoin College to continue his 
medical studies, during Iiis senior year being 
prosector of surgery. Graduating with the class 
of 1866, he came to Minneapolis in 1867 and for 
forty years lias practiced in this city. For a time 
Dr. Kimball's work was arduous, as in any young 
town — lung, hard drives of twenty and thirty 
miles into the outlying districts. The number 
(if his patients increased with the growth of the 
I'lwn. and liy his thorough knowledge of medicine, 
his liarii work, and his own personality, he es- 
tablished and has sustained one of the most ex- 
tensive practices in the city. Soon after opening 
an oftice in Minneapolis Dr. Kimball shared it 
with Thomas Lowry, then a young but ambitious 
lawyer, and later J. M. Shaw, another lawyer, 
also had his office with them. In 1868 Dr. 
Kimball and Mr. Lowry moved into an office in 
the Old Harrison building where Dr. Kimball was 
established for many years. He formed a partner- 
ship with Dr. C. G. Goodrich in i86g and they 
practiced together for five years, the only time 
Dr. Kimball has been connected with any one in 
his w-ork. Though his practice was eminently 
successful. Dr. Kimball wished to pursue his 
medical studies still farther and for that pur- 
pose went to Europe in 1879-80, where he spent 
scverals months in the hospitals of I,ondon. 
Heidelberg, I'.erlin and other large cities, and 
^everal times since he has visited Europe with 
the same mtitive. Dr. Kimball is a member of the 
county, state and national medical associations 
and since 1869 has been on the United States 
F.oard of Pension E.xaminers. He is also a 
member of the Masonic order. In 1870 he was 
married to Miss Grace Everett Morrison, daugh- 
ter of the first mayor of Minneapolis, the Hon. 
Dorilus Morrison. 

HILL, Xathan liranson, a prominent Min- 
neapolis physician from 1861 until his death in 
1H75, was born in Randolph county. North Caro- 
lina, III! May 13. 1817. He was the son of Samuel 
and .Mary Hill — the father a merchant and the 
lie.Lcl cil' ,1 l.irge family. b'or generations the 
IlilN hail lieeii i'lieiiils and Dr. Hill's education, 
afUr preparatory study at the schools of .Ash- 
In no. North Carolina, was olitained at the 
h'riends Boarding School, at Xew Garden, North 
Carolina, at Guilford College and at Haverford 
College, an institution maintiiined by the Friends 
near Philadcl])hia. ['"or a tiu'e he was employed 
as a te.icIuT in the Xew Garden scliool and after 
gradnatioti from llaverford he joined his latlur 
in business. lint desiring to enter the practice 
of medicine lie attended lectures at the Jeffer- 
son .Medical College at Philadelphia during iS.;j 
and 184,3. In May, 1845, Dr. Hill was married to 
Miss Eliza J. Mendcnhall and aboni two ye.n^ 
later moved to Ohio and completed his medical 
edncatiim .it ()hio Medical, Cincinnati, 
receiving his diploma in 1848. He had ex- 
pected to remain in the north but circumstances 
led to his return lo Carolina where he practiced 
his profession until the breaking out of tl'e Civil 

War in 1861. During the stormy period before 
the war Dr. Hill's frankly expressed anti-slavery 
sentiments and his aid and advice to negroes 
rendered his situation m Lamlina difficult, and 
war once declared he had no recourse but re- 
moval to the north. In company with Dr. A. 
H. Lindley, his brother-in-law. he came to Min- 
neapolis where the two families were soon e>- 
lablished and the two physicians entered into 
a partnership which only terminated at Dr. 
Hill's death. Dr. Hill's leadership in the profes- 
sion was soon recognized and for fifteen years 
he occupied a most prominent place in the com- 
nuinity. His natural abilities and loveable char- 
acter won him many friends and he enjoyed, to 
an innisual extent, tlie confidence of his fellow 
citizens. He was soon called to take a prom- 
inent part in the affairs of the young city, serving 
three years in the city council of Minneapolis, 
after the incorporation in 1867. and again after 
the consolidation of the two cities in 1872, for 
a one-year term. In 1871 he was appointed to 
the state board of liealth by Governor .Austin. 

LA PIERRE. Charles Arthur, was born No- 
vember 2. 1870, at Quebec, Canada, son of Pierre 
and Salome ( Cinq-.\'ars) Lapierre. Mr. Lapierre 
was brought up in Quebec, the ancient capital of 
Canada and received his educational training in 
Quebec Seminary from which he graduated in 
1888, and in Laval University, which was founded 
in 1663 by the first bishop of Quebec, whose 
name it bears. From this old and well-equipped 
institution. Mr. Lapierre graduated in medicine 
!n 1892. In i8g,5 he came to Minneapolis and 
has been practicing his profession with great suc- 
cess since. Dr. Lapierre is a democrat in poli- 
tics, but his party aftiliations are not allowed to 
dixert him from his professional duties. He per- 
mitted his name, however, to be used in igo6 as 
democratic candidate for the nomination to the 
office of coroner. Dr. Lapierre is a member of 
the American Medical Association, the State 
Medical Society, the Hennepin County Medical 
Society, the St. Anthony Medical Club and the 
St. Anthony Conmiercial Club. Dr. Lapierre is 
a member of the Roman Catliolic Church. He 
was married in 1893 to Artheiuise L. Laliberte 
and they have five children — listher, .\rtliur, Jean 
Thomas, Ada and Marguerite. 

I.AWRENCb:, William D., was born May 16. 
1852, at Lawrencevillc, Province of Quebec, Cana- 
da. His father, Erastus Lawrence, was the direct 
descendant of Sir Robert Lawrence of Ashton 
Hall, born in Lancashire, b^ngland, in 1150 .'\. D. 
His mother was Sarah Harvey. His childhood 
was spent in eastern townships of Canad.i and he 
attended the Waterloo .Academy and tiranby 
Academy in the l'ro\ince of Quebec. ICrastus 
Lawrence v\as a merchant, so the young man saw 
more or less business life in the general store at 
Lawrencevillc and in the lumber and milling busi- 
ness, but for his professional training he came to 
the states — to Iowa University, to the Chicago 



Medical College and to the Chicago Homeopathic 
Medical College. He came to Minneapolis in 
1879 and has been in active practice ever since. 
He has been president of the Twin City Academy 
of Medicine, managing director of the Minneap- 
olis Homeopathic Hospital, president of the Min- 
neapolis Medical and Surgical Institute and presi- 
dent of the Lawrence Sanatorium of which he is 
the founder. Dr. Lawrence is a republican. He 
is actively interested in the cause of temperance 
and is founder and president of the International 
Uplift Society. He has had no military experi- 
ence in the LTnited States, but was Captain of 
the "gth Highlanders, Montreal Division, in 
Canada. He is a member of the Minneapolis 
Commercial Club, the national and state asso- 
ciations of Charities and Corrections and the 
Medico Legal Society of New York. He has been 
vestryman of Gethsemane Episcopal Church for 
many years, and deputy to the General Conven- 
tion of the Episcopal Church. His marriage witli 
Lucy Maj'O Beach, of La Fayette, Indiana, took 
place in 1878. E. H. Lawrence, their only child, 
died in infancy in i88r. His step son. Henry 
Mayo Lawrence, is associated with him as secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Lawrence Sanatorium, 
a large and flourishing institutinn. 

LEAVITT, Henry Hooker, was born on a 
farm near Waterloo. Towa, April i, t86i. His 
parents were William Hunt Leavitt and Celia E. 
( Dunnell) Leavitt. They were from Charle- 
mont, Massachusetts, and had gone to Iowa a 
year or two earlier, when Iowa was a new state 
with almost no railroads. As a boy Dr. Leavitt 
attended the public school in Waterloo, later at- 
tending Beloit (Wisconsin) Academy and gradu- 
ating A. B., from Beloit College in 1884. As 
soon as he was graduated, he entered the Minne- 
sota Hospital College, now the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University of Minnesota, but com- 
pleted his studies at the Chicago Homeopathic 
Medical College from which he received the M. 
D. degree. In June 1887 he received the M. A. 
degree from Beloit College. Dr. Leavitt began 
practice in Minneapolis but after three years he 
went abroad, spending a year in the liDspitals and 
clinics of Vienna, paying special attention to 
diseases of the ear, nose and throat anil .also to 
diseases of children. After his return to .Minne- 
apolis he was appointed professor of diseases of 
children in the Homeopathic Medical Depart- 
ment of the state university and after a few years 
of general practice finished preparing himself to 
make a specialty of the eye. ear, nose and throat, 
studying at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary 
and the New York Post Graduate Medical Col- 
lege. Since 1897 he has confined his practice to 
this specialty. Dr. Leavitt's immediate family 
consists of his wife, who was Miss Mabel L. 
Howe, of Des Moines. Iowa, and three daughters, 
Louise. Helen and .Mice. He is a Congregation- 
alist, a member of the Minnesota Congregational 
Club, the Commercial Club, the .Automobile Club, 

the American Institute of Homeopathy, the 
Ophthalmological, Otological, and Laryiigial So- 
ciety, the Minnesota State Homeopathic Insti- 
tute, and the Minneapolis Homeopathic Medical 
Society. Dr. Leavitt has been since 1904 profes- 
sor of Opthalmology in the College of Homeo- 
pathic Medicine and Surgery of the University <>( 
Minnesota. Dr. Leavitt's ancestors were among 
the early settlers of New England. His grand- 
father was Col. Roger H. Leavitt, who repre- 
sented his county in the state senate and his 
district in the house of representatives; was one 
of the incorporators of the Troy & Greenfield 
railroad, and one of the earliest promoters 01 the 
Hoosac Tunnel. His brother, Joshua Leavitt, was 
the editor of the Emancipator and the New York 
Independent. Roger Leavitt, Dr. Leavitt's great 
grandfather rendered conspicuous services to the 
cause of education and of temperance and to the 
anti-slavery movement, and was nominated, the 
day before his death, by the new liberty party as 
its candidate for lieutenant governor. Roger 
Leavitt was the son of Rev. Jonathan Leavitt, 
born in 17,!!, one of tlie noteil preachers of his 
time. The earliest known Leavitts came to this 
country from England and settled in Kingliam, 
Massachusetts about 16.36. 

LELAND, Muret N., Jr., was born January 
8, 1874, at Wells, Faribault County, Minnesota. 
His father, Muret N. Leland, is president of the 
T. M. Roberts Co-operative Supply Company of 
Minneapolis. The subject of this sketch passed 
his earlier life at Wells attending the common 
schools and graduating from the Wells high 
school in 1891. The next three years he spent 
at the Liniversity i.if Michigan at .Ann Arbor and 
in 1896 he graduated from the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons. Chicago, and served one term 
as Resident Surgeon at St. Elizabeth Hospital in 
that city. Leaving there on October 27, 1897, he 
entered upon general practice at his old home, 
Wells, Minn. He was county coroner there from 
1898 to 1901 and served as U. S. Pension Ex- 
aminer and was chairman of the board of health. 
Dr. Leland came to Minneapolis in April, 1901, 
and has since practiced his profession here. Dr. 
Leland is a meml)cr of the Hennepin county and 
stale medical societies. He attends the Methodist 
Church while not a member of that communion. 
Dr. Leland is Minnesota-born and bred and par- 
takes of the progressive spirit of the state. 

LITTLE, Jolin Warren, physician and sin- 
geon, and professor of Clinical Surgery in tlie 
University of Minnesota, was born in Clark Coun- 
ty, Ohio, in 1859, on his father's farm, where 
he alternately worked or went to school in the 
locality until he taught his own first pupils, when 
he was eighteen years old. He is the son of 
John and Mary Ann Little. On his father's side, 
his ancestors were Welsh and Irish, His mother 
was of English stock. This mixture of races 
has so often resulted in the best blood of the 
United States that it was to be expected that Dr. 



Little should graduate from the high and normal 
school of Lfbannii. Oliii), at an early age. He 
took his medical training at JetTcrson Medical 
College, and went at once into practice in Minne- 
apolis upon receiving his diploma in i88j. Dr. 
Little stands high in his profession. His ability 
as a surgeon has brought him the position of 
s'.'rgeon to the Chicago Great Western Railway 
and that of chief of staff at Asbury Hospital, He 
holds various other positions as consultant in his 
ciwn specialty at St. Mary's, the Swedish and tlie 
City hospitals. In politics he is a republican. 
He belongs to the Commercial Club, to several 
Masonic orders of the Scottish rite, to the Minne- 
sota Academy of Medicine and to the Hennepin 
County Medical Society nf which lie is an ex- 
presidcnt. Dr. Little is not himself a church 
iiK-niber, but his family attend the Methodist 
church. He was married to Nellie C. Marshall 
in 1887 and has three children, a son and two 

MacDONALl), Irving Cobuni, was born in 
Minneapolis, on Marcli 16, 1874, He is the son 
of John VV. MacDonald, who came to Minnesota 
I'riim Canada in 1865 and established throughout 
the Northwest a line of flour mills, which be 
owned and operated successfully until his death. 
Dr. MacDonald's mother was Sar.ili (Coburn) 
MacDi.mald, also born and educated in Canada. 
Dr. MacDonald attended the Minneapolis public 
schools, completing his preparatory training here. 
He took his college course in the University of 
North Dakota, taking the acicleniic work, and 
graduated in 1895 with a 1'.. .\. degree. He did 
not immediately begin his medical training, but 
until i8g8 served as principal in the schools of 
iliffercnt North Dakota towns. In the latter 
year he entered the medical department of the 
University of .Minnesota. He graduated and re- 
ceived his M. D. degree in igoj and in tlie same 
year began a general practice in thi-^ city which 
lie lias continued successfully. I lis work includes 
all the branches of professional |iraclice, but he 
has specialized somewhat on obstetrical work. 
Ill politics Dr. .MacDonald is a republican, but is 
not actixe in political work. He is a member 
of the Miniu'sola St.ite Medical Society, of ilu- 
llennepin County Medical .Society, of the .Miiine- 
al>olis .Medical Club, of the .St. .\nthony Medical 
I lull .mil the .Mph.'i Ka|ip.i meilical fraternity. 
Ill Is .1 I'rcsbyterian and is not married. Dr. 
.\I,hI )'>nald is fond of athletic sports and is him- 
self an enthusiastic .automobilist. 

MANN. Arthur Te.ill. (.Arthur T. Mann) As- 
.sociate Surgron to Ihe Northwestern Hospital, 
and professor of Cliniial Surgery in the Univer- 
sily of Minncsola, burn in 18^1^). in New York 
City, lie is llii- son of .S.iiniul Iv. .iiid (leorgiana 
Teall .Mann, and both the .Manns ;ind Tealls have 
been distinguished by the members of tlieir stock 
who have taken active part in the affairs of coloii- 
i;il times. The first .Mann who came to America 

was Richard Mann who left England in the reign 
of Charles I and settled in Scituate, Mass. His 
son Richard is on record as receiving a grant of 
land in Connecticut for services in "the Indian 
War." In the next century Capt. .Andrew Mann's 
name appears in the history of New London, Con- 
necticut as receiving his title of Capt.iin at the tiine 
the British burned New London. On the Teall side 
the first emigrant to America was Oliver. His 
father was apothecary-in-chief to William III 
and to Queen .A,nne's troops. George I gave him 
the family coat of arms presumably for services 
on the field under Marlborough. His grandson, 
Oliver Teall, Jr., followed in his steps, and was 
surgeon in the British army during the French 
and Indian War. In the third generation on this 
side the Y'ankee blood began to take force, and 
the grandson of the first Oliver. Nathan Teall, 
cast in his lot on the .\nierican side during the 
Revolution. Nathan's first child wa? Elmira for 
whom the town of Elmira. New York (originally 
Newton) was renamed. Dr. Arthur Mann spent 
his youth in New Y'ork. but came West after his 
father's death, entered the University of Minne- 
sota, and graduated with the degree of S. B., in 
1888. He went to Harvard Medical School for 
his M. D.. and carried off two scholarships during 
the course. In addition to four year; of hospital 
set vice in Massachusetts hospitals. v\here he was 
successively House Surgeon at the Boston City 
Hospital and Resident Physician at the Massa- 
chusetts State Hospital. Dr. Mann look a post- 
graduate abroad in IQ04. Since hi.i return to 
Minneapolis be has been occupied with his place 
on tl;e staff of the university as Professor of 
Clinical Surgery and in surgical practice. He is 
a republican, belongs to the state and county 
medical societies, to the .American Medical Asso- 
cialion, and to the Minneapolis iVledical ("lub, of 
which he has been president. He is also secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Western Surgical and 
Gynecological Society. Dr. .Mann married Wi- 
nona P.. ( )rfT in 1904. 

MOORE. James Edward, (James E. Moore) 
Professor of Surgery in the University of Min- 
nesota, chairman of the executive committee of 
the .\merican Medical Association and Surgeon- 
in-Chief of the Northwestern Hospital, was born 
in Clarksville, Pennsylvania. March 2. 1852, and is 
the son of the Kev. George W. Muore and of 
Margaret J. .Moore. Dr. Moore has the distinc- 
tion of being the lirst specialist in surgery west of 
New York City — beginning 1888 — and he has now 
ail established position of authority in his own 
line among his Northwestern associates in the 
profession of surgery. Dr. Moore's early educa- 
tion was that wdiich the iniblie schools of various 
Pennsylvania cities could give in the usual jour- 
neyings of a Methodist pastor. .As he grew older, 
he was sent to Union Seminary, Poland, Ohio, 
and to the University of Michigan. He grad- 
uated from BeUevuc Hospital Medical College in 



1873, took a course at the New York Polyclinic, 
and spent 1885-86 at Berlin. His first practice was a 
country one at Emlenton, Venango County, Penn- 
sylvania. Coming in 1882 to Minneapolis, it was not 
until after his Berlin study that he began to call 
attention to his work as a surgeon. In the past 
twenty years his skill has brought him into gen- 
eral demand in the West and Northwest, and 
insured him national recognition, as witnessed by 
the associate honors which have come to him. 
Beside the offices first mentioned Dr. Moore is 
now the only living American Honorary Fellow 
of the American Orthopedic Association and is 
ex-president of the Western Surgical and Gyneco- 
logical Association, and ex-chairman of the sur- 
gical section of the American Medical Associa- 
tion. He is also the author of Moore's Or- 
thopedic Surgery, published in 1898, and editor 
of the Department of Surgical Technique of 
American Surgery for 1906, besides being a con- 
tributor to several leading .-\mcrican Medical 
journals. In politics he is a republican. As a 
clubman he belongs to the principal medical 
clubs of the Northwest and to the Commercial. 
Minneapolis, Lafayette and Minikahda clubs. He 
attends the Univcrsalist church. Dr. Moore's 
first wife died leaving him one daughter, now 
Mrs. Bessie Moore Forsell, of Minneapolis. He 
was married, in 1887, to Louise C. Irving. 

MOORE, Jehiel Tuttle, was born on Octo- 
ber 4, 1848, in Oxford .county, Ontario, Can- 
ada. His father, .\lexander Moore, was a gen- 
tleman farmer and until twenty years of age he 
spent his time on his father's farm attending the 
country school. In 1868 and 1869 he attended 
the Canadian Literary Institute in Woodstock. 
Ontario, but in 1870 he changed to the Collegiate 
Institute in Gault. Ontario. During the same 
year he had private medical instruction under Dr. 
Joy which was followed by the medical course in 
McGill University, Montreal, from which he grad- 
uated in 1874. He practiced his profession in 
Canada for eight years holding there the posi- 
tions of associate coroner for the county of Ox- 
ford and staff surgeon of the Great Western 
Railway. In 1883, the year after his removal to 
Minneapolis, he was one of the organizers of the 
Minneapolis College of Physicians and .Surgeons 
of which he was Dean for thirteen years, that 
is, until 1896 when the school became the Medical 
Department of Hamline University. He taught 
theor3- and practice in the school from its or- 
ganization and from 1897 until the closing of the 
department in 1908. he was its (vice) and acting 
president. In 1886, Dr. Moore presented a reso- 
lution to the State Medical society of which the 
ultimate result was the appointment of the first 
medical board by the legislature to control the 
requirements for medical practice in the state 
of Minnesota. The present board is an evolution 
from this first appointment. Dr. Moore was a 
liberal in Canada and a republican since coming 
to the United States. He has been a Mason 

since i86g, occupying every office in the Blue 
Lodge before he left Canada, and he is a member 
of the Hennepin County and State Medical so- 
cieties and the American Medical Association. 
Dr. Moore is an Episcopalian and was vestry- 
man of Gethsemane Church for ten years. He 
married Frances Winifred Joy, daughter of his 
old preceptor, in 1876. Their only child. Miss 
Maude Moore, graduated from the American 
Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York in 1894, 
and is now teaching in the Minneapolis School of 
Music Oratory and Dramatic .^rt. Dr. Moore 
belongs to the staff of St. Barnabas Hospital, and 
during 1896 was chief of staff. 

MURI'HY, William Bernar<l. was horn al 
Chicago, March 9, 1871, son of Patrick and Mary 
Ann Lawton Murphy. His father was a brick- 
layer and building contractor, who served in 
Company !•'. I'"irst New York Volunteer Engin- 
eers in the Civil War, and was w-ounded in the 
knee at Swamp Angle and crippled permanently, 
and was discharged ranking sergeant. His 
brother John served in the U. S. Navy through 
the Civil War. William B. spent his childhood in 
Chicago and from ten to eighteen years of age 
he worked on a farm near Woodstock, Illinois, re- 
ceiving his early educational training at the pub- 
lic schools and, after clerking in a country store 
at Stoughton, Wisconsin, and later in a wholesale 
house, he studied at Hamline University and in 
1897 took the degree of M. D,, C. M., was ap- 
pointed interne at St. Joseph's Hospital, St. Paul, 
in 1897-98, and was druggist at the Minneapolis 
City Hospital and on the staff of that hospital 
until 1905. In the course of his practice he at- 
tended the late Ignatius Donnelly in his last ill- 
ness. Dr. Murphy is a republican in politics and 
has attended many conventions in Minneapolis. 
He was deputy coroner from 1900 to 1904. He is 
a member of the American Medical Association; 
I if the county and state medical societies and the 
.Minneapolis Medical Club, the A. O. U. W., 
Knights of Columbus, the B. P. O. E. and other 
organizations of the kind. He is a member of 
the Roman Catholic church. Dr. Murphy was 
married on January 29, 1902, to Amelia C. Heiker, 
a graduate nurse of St. Joseph's Hospital, St. 
Paul. There have been born to them three chil- 
dren, Kathleen .-\dcle. William Bernard, Jr., and 
Edward Patrick. 

MURR.'\Y, William Robbins, clinical profes- 
sor of diseases of the nose and throat in the Min- 
nesota University was born at Marquette, Michi- 
gan, in 1869. He is an Ann .\rbor graduate, hav- 
ing received the degree of Ph. B. from that in- 
stitution in 1892. In 1897 he took an M. D. from 
Rush Medical College of Chicago. Dr. Murray is 
a member of the ."Vmerican Medical .\ssociation, 
American Academy of Medicine, the ,^cadcmy of 
Ophthalmology and Oto Laryngology, and of 
the state and county medical associations. 



XF.\\ IL\RT, Horace, was born December 9, 
1872, at New Ulm, iMinncsota, son of J. Newhart, 
a lawyer and a veteran of the Civil War. He 
passed his early life in New Ulm, where he at- 
tended tlie public schools and the high school. 
After studying at Carleton College, Northlield, 
.Minnesota, in i8gj and 1893, he went to 
Dartmouth College. Hanover, New Hampshire, 
wlien- he graduated in iSgs, with com- 
mencement honors, receiving the honor, also, 
of election to the Phi Beta Kappa Soci- 
ety. In l8g8 he received the degree of M. D. 
from the Medical Department of the University 
of Michigan. The following year he spent abroad 
and took up post graduate work at the University 
of Vienna, where he was again engaged in special 
clinical work in 1905. In 1899 he was a member 
of the medical staff of the Jackson Sanatorium, 
Dansville, New York, and. later, served as 
surgccn on the staff. Since coming to Minne- 
apolis, Dr. Newhart has entered successfully on 
the practice of his profession. He is a Fellow of 
the .\merican Academy of Medicine; a member 
of the Americati Medical Association; of the Min- 
nesota and Hennepin County Medical Societies; 
of the Minneapolis Medical Club and of the Min- 
neapoIi> Commercial Club; the Minikahda Club; 
;i member of the Dartmouth Association of the 
Northwest; a member of the Minnesota Congre- 
gational Club and of the Phi Rho Sigma and the 
Sigma Chi Fraternities. Dr. Newhart was mar- 
ried on September 3. 1904, to .^.nne Hendrick, of 
.'Vlbany, New York, and to them one child, a 
son, has been born — Flwood Hendrick, 

NIPPF.RT, Louis Albert, son of the Rev. 
Louis Nippcrt, D. D,, was born in Bale, Switzer- 
land. His father, now deceased, was formerly 
president of the Methodist Theological Seminary 
at Frankfort on the Main, Germany, and was 
directly descended from French Huguenots, who, 
when driven from their fatherland, had emigrated 
to Alsace. The early years of Dr. Nippert's life 
were spent in the schools of Switzerland and Ger- 
many, and in them he received his elementary 
education. Preparatory to his college course he 
took the work in the "gymnasium" and poly- 
technical high school in Karlsruhe, Germany, 
graduating from the latter institution in .March. 
)H~r), He then came to America and entered the 
Miami Medical College of Cincinnati. Ohio, 
where he completed his course and was awarded 
his degree of M 1) in iHiSi Immediately after 
liis graduation he received the appointment of 
house ]>hysician in the City Hospital of Cincin 
nati, and a year later was advanced to the posi- 
tion of senior house physician in the same insti- 
tution, which ofiice he held until 18S5. After 
leaving the hospital lie went tn P.aris to attend 
the clinics, and from .March to June, 1885, was 
in the hospitals of that city. In September of 
the same year he went to Vienna with a like 
jnirposc in mind, staying in the hospitals there 
until March, i8S(i, H.' then returned In .Xmeric^i 

and commenced his general practice in Minneap- 
olis. In 1907 Dr. Nippert again visited Europe 
and spent much time in the hospitals and clinics 
at the great centers of medical research. Dr. 
Nippert is a member of various medical and pro 
fessional associations, among which are the Hen- 
nepin County Medical Society (of which he has 
been president), the Minnesota State Medical 
Society and the Minnesota Academy of Medicine 
and is clinical professor of medicine in the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota. He was married in 1S87 to 
Miss Mary Rauen and they have two children, 
l,illi;in, and Rauen Louis Nippert. 

NOOTNAGFL, Charles F., a well known 
physician and surgeon of Minneapolis, was born 
in Wisconsin in 1863. His father before him 
was also a physician and surgeon, and the son 
took a thorough preparation for the medical pro- 
fession by two years at .Ann Arbor, completed at 
Hellevue Hospital Medical College. Dr. Noot- 
nagel also spent a year in European study. He 
has a well established and valuable practice in 
Minneapolis and is regarded as one of the solid 
inin of the profession. 

O'BRIEN. Richard P., was born February 27, 
1863, at Marengo, Illinois. His father, William 
O'Brien, was a grocer of that place, married to 
Mary McManus. His early life was spent at 
Marengo where he attended the public schools 
and graduated at the- high school. Later he 
studied medicine at the Chicago Medical Col- 
lege and engaged in general practice. He was 
the only member of his class to receive a hos- 
pital appointment from the Dean after gradua- 
tion. In 1S87 and 1888 he was professor of physi- 
ology at Hamline University and served as coun- 
ty physician in Minneapolis in 1893 and 1894. He 
is a member of the Knights of Columbus, of the 
Maccabees, of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, 
of the Modern Woodmen of .America, of the 
Bankers' Union and of the Catholic Order of 
F'oresters. Dr. O'Brien is a member of the 
Catholic Church. He was married on November 
26, 1890, to Miss Mary Ring, daughter of Martin 
Ring, a prominent contractor of Minneapolis. 
To them have been Imrn four children, William 
Claude, Richard Mailiii, (ierald and Marian. 

<) h'S r.'\ 1 ). .\rnl I'.,, prai'licing physician, was 
horn in \orw.iy. .Inl\ i-|. 1811(1. Mi-- father was 
linlli a farmer ami nurilianl. .ind llie s'HI 
excelli'iil I'li.nuis In secure the besi \'orw.-iy 
can give lur suns in the way ol hi^lu-r educi- 
tion. He received the fidl course of common, 
high and Latin schools and took his .'\. B. at the 
University of Christiani.a. Coming to the United 
States, Dr. Ofstad took the medical course at 
Chicago .Medical College, graduating in 1894. and 
later returning for three months of post-graduate 
work. Ten years later, in 1904, he graduated 
from Hamline University of Minnesota, and then 
spcnl one year as interne- in the Minneapolis City 



Hospital. He came to his profession doubly 
equipped with thorough preparation for work 
among new conditions. Dr. Ofstad belongs to 
the Odd Fellows, M. W. A., the Sons of Norway 
and the Independent Order of Foresters. Before 
leaving Norway he served his time in the artil- 
lery service under the compulsory military regu- 
lations of Norway. Dr. Ofstad is a republican 
and of the Protestant faith. He married .-\nnc- 
Murie Sorum in 1895. He has no children. 

PETERS, Ralph Moore, was born May 24, 187J 
at Anoka, Minnesota, son of A. L. Peters, treas- 
urer of the Peters Arms & Sporting Goods Com- 
pany. Cincinnati, Ohio. His parents have re- 
sided in Minnesota since 1867. Ralph graduated 
at the St. Paul high school in 1891, president of 
his class. He graduated at Rush Medical Col- 
lege, Chicago, in 1894, and served as interne at 
St. Mary's Hospital. Minneapolis, in 1894-95. 
and was associated with Dr. J. H. Dunn, 
when he began the practice of medicine in 1895 
in Minneapolis. Dr. Peters is an active and 
respected member of his profession in Minne- 
apolis, not only among his confreres but among 
his clientele as well. Dr. Peters is a republican 
in politics and a member of the Commercial, 
the Roosevelt and the Automobile clubs. He is 
a member of Gethsemane Episcopal Church. In 
1895 Ur. Peters was married to Margaret Emily 
Wiggins, formerly of Saratoga Springs, New 

PORTEOUS. William N.. was born in On- 
tario, Canada, on June 20, 1857. His father was 
David Porteous, who had studied medicine at 
Edinburgh University in Scotland, but who had 
subsequently given up practice and engaged in 
flour milling in Canada. Dr. Porteous' mother, 
whose maiden name was Jessie Bell, was the 
daughter of a Canadian manufacturer and of a 
family engaged extensively in large business un- 
dertakings in that part of the country. Dr. Por- 
teous received his common school and college 
education in Ontario, graduated from McGill 
University at Montreal and studied medicine in 
Scotland at Edinburgh University. After re- 
ceiving his degree at Edinburgh he took a course 
in London, England, and then returned to this 
country to commence practice. In 1893 he came 
to Minnesota and established himself in Minne- 
apolis, where he has since continued to practice, 
making a specialty of the diseases of the ear. 
nose and throat. He is a member of the vari- 
ous medical societies, of the Minneapolis Club 
and other social organizations. In 1894 Dr. Por- 
teous was married to Miss Alma Norton John- 
son, daughter of the late Col. Charles W. John- 
son, an old citizen of Minneapolis. Mrs. Por- 
teous is widely known as a concert singer of 
charming voice and personality. 

PRATT, I-'red John, Jr., was born May 29, 
1876, at Jackson, Michigan. He grew up at Jack- 
son, attending the grade schools and graduating 

from the Jackson high school. He then attended 
the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, and 
graduated from the medical department in 1901. 
I'"or the ne.xt two and a half years he was assist- 
ant to Dr. C. W. More, at the More Hospital, 
Eveleth, Minnesota. He then took post-graduate 
work during 1904 at Chicago Eye, Ear, Nose and 
Throat College fitting himself especially for 
practice in diseases of the eye, ear, nose and 
throat, and for one year following was assistant 
to Dr. J. A. Pratt, a specialist of the eye, ear, nose 
and throat at Aurora, Illonois. Dr. Pratt came 
to Minneapolis in 1905 and established himself 
as an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist on the 
East Side where he has since practiced. He is 
a member of Phi Beta Pi fraternity. Masonic 
and K. P. Lodges, Hennepin County Medical So- 
ciety. Minneapolis Medical Club, St. Anthony 
Medical Club and the American Medical Associa- 

REES, Sorer P., physician and instructor in 
Physical Diagnosis and Clinical Medicine at the 
state university, was born in Denmark, Septero 
ber 27, 1870. He is the son of Peter Nelson Rees, 
a Danish farmer, and his earliest schooling was 
had in the common schools of Denmark. Com- 
ing to America with his parents while a child, 
the family at once removed to Minnesota. Here 
Dr. Rees completed his common and high school 
course, graduating from the Stillwater high 
school, and taking his college and medical train- 
ing at the University of Minnesota. In 1895 he 
received his degree of B. S. from the college, and 
was also honored by election to membership in 
Phi Beta Kappa. Dr. Rees was editor-in-chief of 
the 1895 Gopher and during his medical course 
acted as instructor in Histology and Embryology. 
Immediately after receiving his diploma of M. D. 
he became resident physician for a year at St. 
Barnabas Hospital. The next three years follow- 
ing were spent in general practice at Anoka, 
Minnesota. In 1901 Dr. Rees returned to 
Minneapolis to become associated with Dr. 
J. W. Bell, in which connection he has 
made himself recognized during the past 
seven years as one of the actively pro- 
gressive men of his profession. He belongs 
to the county, state and national medical societies 
and to the Minnesota Academy of Medicine. In 
politics he is a republican, taking an earnest and 
active interest in all civic reforms. But he is 
specially interested in the work and advancement 
of the state university, for like all men who have 
had to work hard to obtain an education he values 
highly the opportunities of his own .Alma Mater. 
He has shown this appreciation by being the 
chief agent in putting the present general alumni 
association on an efficient basis by securing funds 
to support a paid secretary for the association. 
Dr. Rees is one of the board of directors of the 
association, representing the medical department; 
and his energy and enthusiasm are always ac- 
tively enlisted in plans for the future development 



..f the lu-u b(j<ly. Ho attends Trinity Baptist 
Church. Ifc was marricil on August 3. 1898, to 
Miss Estclle Crocker, aiul has one son. Soren 

R1^LIC^■, Martlia George, a practicing pliysi- 
ciaii of this city and founder of the Maternity 
Hospital, was born at Lowell, Vermont, on No- 
vember 30, 1843. She is of English and Scotch 
descent; the ancestors of the family on both sides 
came to America with the Pilgrims and settled 
in New England. During the Revolutionary War 
the great-grandfather of Dr. Ripley fought under 
ihe flag of Washington and died while serving 
his country in that bitter winter at Valley Forge. 
Dr. Ripley is the daughter of Francis and Esther 
Ann (George) Rogers. Her father was a stock 
farmer of Vermont who became a pioneer settler 
in northeastern Iowa, where he brought his fam- 
ily and established a typical New England home. 
Dr. Ripley was raised amid these surmundings 
and commenced her education in the public 
schools and attended and graduated from the 
Lansing, Iowa, high school, and then held a posi- 
tion as instructor in the public schools for seven 
terms. While yet a young woman, Dr. Ripley 
became actively interested in charitable and phil- 
anthropic objects giving her time and energies 
iluring the Civil War to the work of the Sanitary 
Commission. She was married in 1867 and went 
to her husband's home in Massachusetts. The 
desire to aid humanity urged her, however, to 
become a physici.m and she entered Boston Uni- 
versity taking her medical studies in the School 
of Medicine of the same institution. Following 
her graduation in 1883 she moved to Minneapolis 
and devoted herself to a practice which has 
proved increasingly successful, and to thi- ac- 
complishment of many and varied works of cliar- 
ity and philanthropy. Perhaps the most worthy 
of her benevolent efforts have been expended in 
the foundation and support of the Maternity Hos- 
pital, which she organized and founded about 
twenty years ago and of which she has been con- 
tinuously the physician in charge. This is but one 
of the many ways, however, in which Dr. Ripley 
has, l)y her sympathy, counsel and material aid, 
found it possible to perform, in a great measure 
unknown even to her friends, countless acts of 
warm hearted charity. In .nblition to tluse du 
ties >,he held for a time the olticc of profe>-M>r of 
children's diseases in the Homeopathic .Medical 
School and is often called upon to read technical 
essays before various medical bodies. Dr. Rip- 
ley is a firm believer in the ecpial right to the 
ballot and is a prominent member of city and 
state woman suffrage societies, being for six years 
the president of Ihe latter association. She is a 
member of several professional organizations, 
.among which are the .\nierican Institute of 
I lomeoi)athy. the Woman's Medical Club of Min- 
neap(jli^ ,iiid the city and state homeop,ithic sr)- 
cieties, .She is a member of and attends the 
I'lyni'>uth Congregational Church. Dr, Ripley 

was married on June 2$, 1867. to William W. 
Ripley and they have four children, Mrs. .Abigail 
Ripley Smith, Mrs. Clara Rii)lcy Smith, Mrs. 
F.dna Rii>ley Page, and .Miss Hester Ripley. 
There .ire eight grandchildren. 

ROBERTS, Thomas Sadler, clinical profes- 
sor of Children's Diseases in the medical depart- 
ment of the university and director of the De- 
jKirtment of Birds in the Minnesota Natural His- 
tory Survey, was born February 16, 1858, at Phil- 
adelphia, Pennsylvania. He is the son of 
John Roberts and Elizabeth Sadler. his 
father bein.g of Welsh descent and of Quaker 
f.aith, while his mother was of ]-"nglish 
<Iescent and an Episcopalian. The Roberts 
family in America traces its history back 
to a Welsh ancestor, Thomas Roberts, who came 
over in the time of William Penn, settled near 
Philadelphia and became the forebear of a long 
line of Pennsylvania farmers. The "Old Rob- 
erts Home" and "Roberts School" are still stand- 
ing. In 1867, John Roberts and his faiuily re- 
moved to Minneapolis. Dr. Roberts was then 
only nine, and his previous schooling had been 
chiefly at the Friends' School in German- 
town, Pennsylvania. He entered the Minne- 
apolis public schools and gradu.atcd from 
the higli school in the clas^ of 1S77 as The two years follow'ing were 
spent at the University of Minnesota. Then 
ill health compelled him to drop out of the 
course and to take up temporarily some outdoor 
occupation. During the summer of 1879, he was 
with a State Natural History Survey party on 
the north shore of Lake Superior studying the 
birds and plants of that region and making a col- 
lection of ornithological and botanical specimens 
for tlie university. During the four f(.dlowing 
sumn.ers he was in charge of parties engaged 
in examinin.g the land grant of Northern Pacific 
Railrod in Minnesota, Dakota and Montana. 
When lie rcMimed college work it was at the 
medical department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania from which he graduated in 1885, rank- 
ing liftli ill ,1 class of one luindrerl and thirty-two. 
;\fter lifteeii months of practice a> interne at the 
Philadelphia Children's Hospital and Philadelphia 
City Hospital, Dr. Roberts came back to Minne- 
a]iolis in the fall of 1886. since which dale he has 
bei-n ill pr.iclice. He wa-. on the staff of 
.St. I'.arii.abas for twehe years and chief 
of" for six ye.ars. He i~. at present on the 
staff of the Xorthwestern. City and Swedish hos- 
pitals and the Home for .^ged Women and Chil- 
dren, the latter fi>r twenty years past. Besides 
these positions he is a member of the anti-tuber- 
culosis committee of the Associated Charities 
and belongs to the .American Medical Associa- 
tion, the state and county medical societies and 
the Minnesota .•\cademy of Medicine. In his or- 
nithological work he has placed in the state uni- 
versity a collection of about 5,000 specimens for 
the state natural history survey and has pub- 



lished numerous articles relating to Minnesota's 
birds. The latest work will be issued, when fin- 
ished, as a report of the State Natural History 
Survey. He has been both secretary and presi- 
dent of the Minnesota Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences and is now a trustee of that body. He has 
been a fellow of the American Ornithological 
Union since its formation and for some years 
past one of the council. He is also a correspond- 
ing member of various scientific societies, and be- 
longs to the Minneapolis and Minikahda and Long 
Meadow Gun clubs. Though in early life he 
was a Friend, Dr. Roberts for a time attended the 
Episcopal church, and is now a Universalist. Po- 
litically he is a republican. He was married Oc- 
tober i8, 1887. to Jane Cleveland, and has three 
children — two sons and a daughter. 

ROME, Robert R., was born March 4. 1865. 
His childhood was passed on a farm, with his 
parents, at Union Grove, Wisconsin. Here he 
went to the district school. At sixteen years of 
age, he went to Chicago to attend school. He 
matriculated at Rush Medical College in 1883. 
After one year there he was given a scholarship 
in the old Chicago University where he took four 
years of academic work. Then he went to Deni- 
son University at Granville, Ohio, for a year's 
work to prepare for the ministry. In 1888 he 
supplied the pulpit in the Baptist church at Albert 
Lea, Minnesota. The year following he matric- 
ulated in Hahnemann Medical College, Chicago 
.■\fter graduation there in 1891 he came to Min- 
neapolis and entered the department of Homeo- 
pathic Medicine and Surgery of the University of 
Minnesota, class of 1892. He was at once ap- 
pointed lecturer and adjutant professor in ob- 
stetrics in that college. In 1895 he was made full 
professor of obstetrics. In 1901 he was appointed 
to the chair of gynecology of which he is now 
senior professor. Dr. Rome joined the Baptist 
church in Chicago in 1887, and in 1906 his letter 
was transferred to the Linden Hills Congrega- 
tional Church of Minneapolis. He married 
Jeannie May Nichols of Buffalo, New York, in 
1894. They have two sons: Robert Carroll and 
Richardson Rome. 

SEASHORE, Gilbert, was born July 14. 1874, 
at Dayton, Iowa. His father, Alfred Seashore, 
was a farmer. Gilbert attended the public schools 
of Iowa and entered Gustavus Adolphus College 
at St. Peter, Minnesota, where he graduated in 
1896 valedictorian of his class, taking the A. B. 
degree. He then studied tvv'O years in the medi- 
cal department of the University of Iowa and two 
years more in the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, graduating in 1902. Dr. Sea- 
shore, after graduation at St. Peter, served ac- 
ceptably as principal of the public schools in 
North Branch in 1896-97, and in 1897-98 he held a 
similar position at Marine Mills, Minnesota. In 
1902 and 1903 he was house physician at the 
.Swedish Hospital in Minneapolis and is at present 

established in a growing practice. Dr. Seashore 
is a republican in politics. He is a member of 
the Hennepin County Medical Society and is a 
Lutheran in his church affiliations. 

SMITH, David Edmund, the son of Charles 
Henry and Clarissa ^Moodyj Smith, was born 
at Winona, Minnesota, December 20, 1867. His 
youth was spent in Chicago where he attended 
the public schools and the University Prepara- 
tory School. Dr. Smith graduated from Amherst 
College in 1891 and received the degree of A. M. 
in 1895. His medical degree was given him in 
1894 by the Rush Medical College of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. Additional training was re- 
ceived in post graduate work at eastern medical 
schools and in service at Asbury Hospital where 
he was house surgeon and where he is still a 
member of the stafif. Dr. Smith is a member of 
the Minnesota State iMedical Society, the Hen- 
nepin County Medical Society, the Minneapolis 
Medical Club, the Commercial, Six O'clock and 
Westminster Clubs. His party affiliations are 
republican and he is a member of Westminster 
Presbyterian Church. On September 23, 1896, 
Dr. Smith was married to Miss Alice Dyer. 

SMITH, Norman M., was born September 22, 
1875, in Monticello, Iowa. His father, Rufus P. 
Smith, prominent business man and manager of 
the Electric Light & Power Co. of Monticello, 
was the son of Norman M. Smith, who held dur- 
ing the Civil War the position of surgeon in the 
Sixth Regiment of Iowa Volunteers. After the 
usual grade preparation. Dr. Smith entered the 
.Monticello high school and graduated in 1893. 
He then attended for two years Monmouth Col- 
lege, at Monmouth, 111., when he left college and 
entered the service of the C. M. & St. P. Ry. at 
Monticello, as assistant agent. Coming to Min- 
neapolis in 1898 he matriculated at the State 
University in the medical department and for 
three years applied himself to his professional 
education. In 1901 he entered the Hahnemann 
Medical College of Chicago and graduated from 
that school in the following year with the degree 
of M. D. At the same time that he was com- 
pleting his course, Dr. Smith held the office of 
instructor in physiologic chemistry in the same 
college and was taking the additional course in 
the Illinois College of Electro-Therapeutics, re- 
ceiving from the latter school his M. E. degree 
in 1902. Soon after completing his studies, Dr. 
Smith commenced to practice his profession in 
Allison. Iowa, where he remained until he came 
to Minneapolis in 1903. In addition to his suc- 
cessful practice in this city Dr. Smith holds a 
position on the visiting staff of the City Hospital 
and of the University Free Dispensary. In poli- 
tics he is a stanch republican and believes firmly 
in the principles and doctrines of his party. In 
1898, the governor of Iowa, Leslie M. Shaw, ofii- 
cially authorized Dr. Smith to organize and drill 
a company for service in the Spanish .\merican 



u^r He was appointed captain of his cuinpany. 
but the sudden termination of the war prevented 
enlistment and active service. At the present 
time lie is associated with the Sons of Veterans 
and is a member and surgeon of the Red Cross 
Corps. He also holds membership in the Ma- 
sonic Lod^e, the civic educational clubs, the Min- 
neapolis Homeopathic Medical Society and the 
Minnesota State Homeopathic Institute, holding 
in the last two organizations the ol'tice of secre- 
tary. Dr. Smith attends Plymouth Congrega- 
tional Church. He was married to Miss Crissie 
May Benton, the daughter of C. H. Benton, in 

SODERLIXI), Andrew, was burn in Sweden, 
on January 31, 1861. He is the son of An- 
drew and Caroline Soderlind. His father was 
a surveyor of logs. From both his father's and 
mother's lineage Dr. Soderlind is descended from 
the highest families — his mother being of the 
House of Aldrin and his father directly in line 
with Stalhandskc, both ranking among the nob- 
lest families of the kingdom. His father, how- 
ever, was too democratic to retain his patrician 
name, so adopted that by which his descendants 
are now known. Dr. Soderlind spent his early 
life in Sweden and there attended the public 
schools. He was anxious to acquire a profession, 
so after completing his preparatory studies he 
took up the study of pharmacy and in the year 
1887 was awarded his diploma as a registered 
pharmacist. He continued his college work and 
two years later graduated as a doctor of medicine 
and surgery. Since that time he has, to complete 
his professional education, taken post-graduate 
courses in Baltimore and Berlin. He now has an 
extensive medical and surgical practice in this 
city and holds the position of chief ul the staff 
physicians (jf the Swedish Hospital. Dr. Soder- 
lind is connected with a number of the more im- 
jiortant fraternal and professional organizations — 
tile American .Medical Society; Minnesota State 
Medical Society; the Hennepin County Medical 
Society; the Masons; I. O. O. F. ; Gustaf Adolf 
Society; the .Modern Samaritans, the Modern 
Woodmen and the Odin and South Side Com- 
mercial Clubs. He is a republican in politics. In 
1X93 he was married to Miss Ann.-. Schult and llu y 
have two sons and a daughter, Ellen, Ralph and 
Ragnar. The family attends the Lutheran church. 

S'rF.W.ART, J. Cl.irk. pliysician and surgeon, 
and professor of Principles of Surgery in the 
University of .Minnesota, was the first person to 
enter the freshman class of Minnesota, 1871, and 
also left his class at graduation, 1875, as first in 
standing. .Minnesota, however, does not claim 
Or. Stewart's birthplace. He is a New Jersey man, 
born at Camden, October 21, 1854, the son of 
the Rev. Daniel Stewart and of lUiza M., his 
wife. The ancestry is Scotch on the father's 
side. On the mother's there is a long list of the 
original settlers of Rhode Island, among them 

three governors and some dozen others of dis- 
tinction in colonial times. Dr. Stewart was edu- 
cated entirely in the private schools of Camden, 
of Johnston, New York, and of New Albany, Indi- 
ana. When the family removed to Minneapolis, Dr. 
Stewart entered the University at the age of 
seventeen, and graduated — a B. S. and C. E. — 
at twenty-one, the youngest graduate of the Uni- 
versity at that time. After trying a business life 
in the wholesale field for several years, Dr. 
Stewart took up medicine and entered the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons in 1881, coming 
out in 1884, again with honors. After two years in 
Mt. Sinai hospital and New York City dispen- 
saries, he returned to join the staflf of the old Min- 
nesota Hospital College; later merged in the 
Medical Department of the University of Min- 
nesota. He has held various positions in the 
University, before taking the chair he now holds, 
and is also on the consulting staff of .^sbury and 
Northwestern hospitals and surgeon at the City 
Hospital. He is a republican who looks for the 
right man in the right place rather than for party 
gains. Dr. Stewart holds membership in several 
important medical and social clubs, as well as in 
the Society of the Colonial Wars, which last is 
an inherited honor. He is a Presbyterian. Has 
never married. 

STROUT, Eugene Silas, tlujugh horn near 
the western shores of Lake Michigan on .\u- 
gust 3, 1862, came to Minnesota when only 
two years old. and therefore may be called a 
native of the state. He is the son of Silas 
C. and .Maria L. Gatchell Strout. His father, for 
some time a farmer of Raymond, Racine county 
Wisconsin, removed to Stearns county, Minnesota, 
in 1864, when he engaged in farming and later in 
the mercantile business. Dr. Strout's prelimin- 
ary education was received in the common 
schools and the state Normal scliool at St. Cloud. 
He received his medical training in the University 
of Michigan, from which he graduated in the year 
1891. Then followed post-graduates at Chicago, 
London and Vienna, with reference to an eye 
and ear specialty. .-Xfter some three years of 
practice at Ironwood, Michigan, Dr. Strout came 
to Minneapolis, where he has lived for the past 
twelve years. He is a member of Hennepin 
County Medical Society, and of the American 
Medical Association, also of the State Medical, 
and is on the stafif of the Northwestern Hospital. 
Dr. Strout attends Calvary Baptist Church. He 
was married in 1892 to Henrietta Udell Elliott, 
who died in 1896. In l8()8 he married Nellie A. 
Matthews, a graduate of the Northwestern Hos- 
pital trsining school. lie has two children — a 
son and d.'inyhter. 

T1I()M.\S, David Owen, was born in 1852 at 
I'cnybeiiglog .Mill, Pembrokeshire, Wales, the 
son of Thomas and Margaret Thomas, of a family 
of ancient lineage. When nineteen years of age 
he came to .America and made his home at 



Voungstown, Ohio. Desiring to complete his 
education, which had been begun in Wales, he 
entered Bethany College in West Virginia, and 
graduated in 1878, with the degree of B. A. He 
determined to become a physician and according- 
ly entered the Medical College of Indiana, In- 
dianapolis, where he graduated in 1884, receiving 
the Mears gold medal for the best thesis on 
"Caesarean Section."' Dr. Thomas at once came- 
to jMinneapolis, but after three years practice he 
determined to secure a more extended clinical 
experience and went to the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons of New York where he took two 
years work in one and graduated in 1889. He 
then went abroad and after some travel in Eu- 
rope, returned to London, and continued his 
clinical work for two years at St. Bartholemew's 
Hospital. He successfully passed the examina- 
tions of the Conjoint Board of the Royal College 
of Physicians of London and the Royal College 
of Surgeons of England, and holds the degree of 
L. R. C. P. and M. R. C. S. In 1891 he returned 
to Minneapolis and resumed the practice of his 
profession and for years until the closing of the 
department in 1908, was a professor of the Dis- 
eases of the Chest of the Medical Department of 
Hamline University, and likewise a visiting physi- 
cian to the City Hospital and the Asbury Hos- 
pital. He is an active member of the Minnesota 
State Medical Society and was president of the 
Hennepin County Medical Society in 1905, and is 
alive to all medical progress, as well as a con- 
tinuous student in some private matter of literary 
research. In politics Dr. Thomas is a republican 
though distinctly independent in his views. He 
is a prominent member of the Portland Avenue 
Church of Christ and has taken an active part 
in the affairs of the denomination at large. In 
1885 he was married to Miss .\nne E. Butler, 
daughter of the late Ovid Butler, founder of 
Butler College, University of Indianapolis. 

WANOUS, Ernest Z., physician and surgeon, 
is a native son of Minnesota, having been born 
in McLeod county, January 24, 1875. He is the 
youngest of the four children of Frank Wanous. 
who came to this state in 1854, and at present 
resides at Glencoe, Minnesota. Doctor Wanous 
received his first lessons of school discipline in 
the little district schoolhouse by the roadside, but 
this was soon abandoned for the much more per- 
fect public school at Glencoe. His parents gave 
up their agricultural pursuit to enter upon a busi- 
ness career in the village, that the children might 
receive the benefits of the grade system and the 
high school work, which had been inaugurated 
through the efforts of the first settlers in that 
vicinity. After entering upon his high school 
studies, he spent his spare time and vacations in 
a drug store, thus becoming interested in the first 
elements of his chosen profession. After gradua- 
tion, he further prepared himself at the medical 
department of the University of Minnesota. At 
twenty-two he received his degree of M. D. and 

spent one year practicing in the country. In 1898 
he received the appointment of assistant superin- 
tendent of the Minneapolis City Hospital. lie 
served one year, then resigned his position to 
accept the position of assistant medical superin- 
tendent of the Rochester State Hospital, where 
he remained for three years. In 1902 he resigned 
this position to enter upon a private practice in 
Minneapolis. Doctor Wanous has done special 
work in the New York, Baltimore, and Chicago 
hospitals. He is a member of the state and 
county medical societies, and the American Medi- 
cal Association. He was married in June, 1907, 
to Miss Julia Bell Hopkins at Mendon, Michigan. 
W.\RH.\M. Thomas Tweed, was born in Can- 
ada, at Kingston, Ontario, on August 31, 1866, 
the son of Richard Lee W'arham and Agnes 
Warhani. The family is a very old one, the lin- 
eage having been traced back to the early part 
of the seventeenth century to an Episcopal bishop 
who bore the same surname. The father of 
Thomas Tweed was a painter by occupation, who 
moved with his family in 1873, to Belleville, 
Canada. His son attended the public schools of 
that town and continued his education in the 
high school from which he graduated when fif- 
teen years of age. Dr. Warham did not enter 
college at that time but after working in a tele- 
graph office for nine months and in the dry goods 
business for a short time, learned the paper 
hanger's trade. He came to Minneapolis in 1886 
and worked at his trade in this city with several 
diflterent firms. It was his wish, however, to 
enter the medical profession, and with that end 
in view he studied for a time under a private 
tutor, Professor Hall, at the ^Minneapolis .Acad- 
emy, preparatory to entering the Hamline Uni- 
versity for his professional training taking up his 
work in the medical department of that institu- 
tion and graduating with the class of 1897 tak- 
ing M. D. and C. M. degrees. He commenced to 
practice in Vernon Center, Minnesota, remaining 
there until 1904 when he moved to Minneapolis 
and resumed his medical work in this city. He 
has been appointed medical inspector for the De- 
partment of Health of Minneapolis for the term 
of 1907-1909 and fills that office at the present 
time. Dr. Warham has held several other public 
and semi-public positions, for four years he was 
county physician of Blue Earth county, and in 
the summer of 1906 was the commander of the 
Red Cross corps and surgeon-in-chief of the 
emergency hospital during the Fortieth Annual 
Encampment of the G. A. R. in Minneapolis. He 
is a republican in politics and has engaged active- 
ly in the work of the state party. For two years 
he was chairman of the republican county com- 
mittee of Blue Earth county and for four years 
a member of the executive committee of the re- 
publican county committee of the same district. 
Dr. Warham in 1888 joined the Sons of Veterans 
and has held every office w'hich his camp could 
bestow and in 1903 and 1904 was elected Division 
Commander of the state. He is also a member 



of various professional and fraternal orders; a 
member and Past Master of Kiirum Lodge, A. F. 
and A. M. Mount Horeb Chapter, R. A. M.; a 
member of the Vernon Center Chapter of O. E. 
T., of North Star Lodge No. 6, I. O. O. F.; Union 
I'.ncainpment No. 14, P. C. P. and Captain of the 
degree staff; a Past Captain of Minnesota Can- 
ton No. I, P. M.; of Mankato Lodge No. 225, B. 
P. O. E. ; and is examining physician and a mem- 
ber of the following, Yoemen, M. B. A., I\L W. 
A., R. N. A., E. F. U., A. O. U. W. His profes- 
sional affiliations are with the following organi- 
zations: the Hennepin County Medical Society, 
the State Medical Society, the Mississippi Valley 
Medical Society and Ainerican Medical Associa- 

WESTON, Chas. Galen, was born at Chelsea, 
.Massachusetts, April 25, 1858. His father, Seth 
Weston, was a successful business man of Boston, 
well known as a contractor and builder. The son 
had his early education in the Chelsea public 
schools, from which he graduated in 1875. He en- 
tered Harvard Medical School two years later. At 
intervals before securing his degree of M. D., Dr. 
Weston was house-physician at the Boston 
Lying-in Hospital and interne at Boston City 
Hospital. Immediately after the completion of 
liis Harvard course, in 1882, he began practice at 
Pcabody, Massachusetts, where he remained until 
coming to Minneapolis in 1888. Dr. Weston at 
once established himself here on a sound profes- 
sional basis and was appointed assistant city phy- 
sician for the two years of 1891-93, and city physi- 
cian from '93 to '99. His latest public appointment 
was chairman of the hospital committee of the 
Hoard of Charities and Corrections. He was a 
prime mover in securing the present city hospital 
plant and has put the hospital on a modern basis 
witli .-i visiting staff and a training school for 
nurses. Dr. Weston also occupies several staff 
positions on various hospitals of the city. He 
belongs to the American Medical Association, to 
the state and county medical societies and to the 
Minnesota .'\cadcmy of Medicine. Of the last 
two bodies, he is an ex-president. 

Dr. Weston was married in 1884 to l^lla C. 
Derby of Salem, .Massachusetts, and has three 
children: two sons and a daughter. 

WinTK, .Sul.m .Marx, associate professor of 
pathology in the state university, is a native of 
.\linnes(jta, bi)rn at Jlokah, July 16, 1873. He is 
ilie son of Solon C. and .Anii.'i -\rmstrong White, 
and for two generations before liim, his ancestors 
li.ive been physicians. His maternal grandfather, 
I )r. 'I'homas .Armstrong, was a pioneer physician 
of tlie early settlers days of eastern Wisconsin. 
His father. Dr. S.ilon C. White, practiced medi- 
cine for many years in Wisconsin an<i at Sand 
wich. Illinois, Dr. S. Marx White was educated in 
tlie llokah village schools until he was ten, and 
afterwards went to Sandwich, Illinois, where he 
gra<luated from the Sandwich hit;h school in 

1890. He took his college course at Cliampaign, 
Illinois, receiving his B. S. degree from the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. His professional training he 
gained at the Northwestern University, graduat- 
ing in 1897, and later served as interne at Cook 
county hospital, Chicago. Dr. White has held 
his present post in the medical department of the 
University of Minnesota for some time, and is 
also on the medical staff of St. Barnabas, the 
Northwestern and the City hospitals. In 1902- 
1903 he was president of the Minneapolis Patho- 
logical Society. The summer of 1904 was spent 
in Vienna at work along the special lines to which 
he has limited his practice — Internal Medicine and 
Pathology. He belongs to the American .-Kcad- * 
emy of Medicine; the American .Medical Asso- 
ciation; tlie Minnesota .\cadeniy of Medicine, and 
the regular state and county medical societies. 
Dr. White is Baptist in his religious affiliations. 
He was married July 25, 1900, to Sara Miner 
Abbott, and has two children, a son and daughter. 

WILLLA^MS, Charles Winthrop, professor of 
Materia Medica and Therapeutics in Hamline 
Medical College, until the closing of the depart- 
ment in 1908, e.x-niember of the Board of Health 
of the city of Minneapolis and ex-physician to 
post office employees, is a Wisconsin man who 
was born at . Barneveld, Iowa county, Wis- 
consin. .Vpril 10. 1S63. His father, Daniel 
Williams, a farmer by occupation, was born 
in Wales, where he married Elizabeth Da- 
vis, also of Welsh ancestry and the daugh- 
ter of a large land owner of Wales. Daniel 
Williams migrated to America and with his fam- 
ily settled at Blosburg. Pennsylvania, and 
later moved to Wisconsin where he set- 
tled on a farm. Dr. Williams received his 
first instruction at the district school, later 
graduated at the neighboring high school 
of Sprin,g Grceii. and then took a course 
in medicine at the Northwestern Medical 
College of Chicago. Coming to Minneapolis to 
practice he was soon called to tlic chair nf 
materia medica and therapeutics in Hamline 
University. Besides this i)Ost. he has .'it various 
times been appointed to fill the public offices 
previously outlined in this sketch. Dr. Williams 
is also on the medical staff of the City Hospital. 
He is a Knight Templar Mason and is a member 
of the state and county medical societies and the 
Hamline Medical Club. He is a republican in 
])olitics. His church affiliations are Presbyterian. 
Dr. Williams was married October 9, 1891, to 
Minnie I.. Bcnhani, daughter of Major Bcnham 
cif Michiian. 

\VII.1.1;\.MS. Ulysses Grant, ex-coroner of 
Hennepin county, was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 
18(14. 11'^ f.riher, who came from Wales to .•\meri- 
ca in 183X, married .-i resident of Oneida county, 
New \iirk. .ind settled in business in Chicago 
until his son was about seven, when he removed 
to a farm near Columbus, Wisconsin. Dr. Wil- 



Hams received his education from the country 
district school and the high school of Columbus. 
He came to Minneapolis, a youth of nineteen, in 
1883. Going into the drug business immediately, 
he at once set about the study of medicine by a 
practical experience with remedies. In 1886 he 
entered the Minnesota Hospital College as a stu- 
dent. Before he graduated in June, 1889. that 
institution had been merged in the College of 
Medicine and Surgery of the state university. Dr. 
Williams kept up his retail drug business during 
his student years and continued it until 1897, 
when the demands of an active practice led him 
to abandon it. For two successive terms between 
1809 and 1902, Dr. Williams was coroner, an offtce 
which he filled with such ability and general sat- 
isfaction that the suggestion of his second term 
received the largest majority given any republi- 
can candidate for that office. He also held for 
a short period the office of sheriff. During his 
coronership he was the author of a bill for put- 
ting the office on a salaried basis. He belongs to 
several secret societies, to the Commercial Club 
and to the state and county medical societies. He 
is also an honorary member of Alpha Kappa 
Kappa. Dr. Williams was married in 1899 to 
Gertrude H. Twine. 

WOODARD, Francis Reuben, a practicing 
physician in Minneapolis since 1881, was born at 
Madison, Ohio, on July 15, 1848. The ancestors 
of the family were early settlers in America and 
the grandfather of Francis R. Solomon Woodard. 
fought in the War of 1812, holding the rank of 
Colonel of his regiment. Dr. Woodard is the son 
of Joseph S. Woodard and Frelove M. Baker, 
who were early settlers in the state of Ohio, and 
were married in 1847. Francis, the eldest son. 
spent the first ten years of his life in that town 
and began his education in the public grammar 
schools. In 1858 the family moved to Roches- 
ter, Minnesota, where Dr. Woodard finished his 
elementary training. In the year 1869 he entered 
the University of Michigan, taking the work of 
the literary department until his senior year 
when he changed his course and for a year 
studied law. He was anxious, however, to ac- 
quire the training for the profession of medicine, 
so in 1876 entered Rush Medical College at Chi- 
cago, carrying on in connection with his studies, 
practical work in the Cook County Hospital. He 
graduated with the class of 1879 and almost im- 
mediately came to Minnesota and located at 
Claremont, where he practiced for about three 
years, coming to Minneapolis in 1881, where he 
has since been in continual practice of his pro- 
fession. In addition to this practice Dr. Wood- 
ard holds surgical positions on the stafifs of the 
Asbury, Swedish, City and several other hospi- 
tals in Minneapolis, has other appointments in 
the city, and for twelve years was chairman of 
the hospital committee for the city hospital. 
During the administration of Mayor Winston he 

was appointed to the Board of Charities and Cor- 
rections and was a member of that body for four- 
teen years, during the terms of Mayors Winston, 
Eustis. Pratt, Gray, Ames and Haynes, and 
served for six years as president of the board. 
In politics Dr. Woodard is a republican, but is 
not active in political matters. He is a member 
of the prominent professional organizations, 
among which are included the American Medical 
Association, Hennepin County Medical Society, 
Minnesota State Medical Association and the 
M'innesota Academy of Medicine. He is also a 
member of the Minneapolis Commercial Club. 
Dr. Woodard was married in 1874 and has five 
children, Harry S., Joseph N., Lawrence B., 
Frances H. and Luella. The family attends the 
Park Avenue Congregational Church. 

WRIGHT, Charles D'a, was born November 
22, 1863, and is the son of William S. and Eliza- 
beth Ann Wright. His early years were spent 
in Wisconsin, where he attended the common 
schools of Dodgeville and the higher institutions 
at Madison. He received his diploma of M. D. 
in 1887, from the medical department of Michi- 
gan University, afterward taking a post-graduate 
course at the Vienna Royal University and in 
London, Paris and Berlin. He came back to the 
United States to the position of demonstrator of 
Ophthalmology and Otology at Michigan Uni- 
versity. Dr. Wright limits his practice to dis- 
eases of the eye and ear and is now oculist and 
aurist to St. Mary's Hospital and to the State 
Hospital, both of Minneapolis. He is also the 
consultant at Asbury Hospital. He is ex-presi- 
d(;nt of the Helmholtz Ophthalmological Society 
and is at present a corresponding member of 
that body and president of the Northwestern 
Ophthalmological Society. Dr. Wright is a re- 
publican in politics. He was married to Kathryn 
E. Keating in 1890, and has one child — a daughter, 
Muriel Kathryn Wright. Dr. Wright is a mem- 
ber of Alpha Chapter of Nu Sigma Nu of Ann 
.\rbor, Michigan, and is by religion a Catholic. 

WRIGHT. Franklin Randolph, instructor in 
Dermatology and Genito-Urinary Diseases in the 
University of Minnesota, was an Illinois boy, 
who, like so many other western youths, came 
to our state university for the completion of his 
studies, and liked Minneapolis so well that he has 
made it his home. His father was Dr. George W. 
Wright, of Canton, Illinois, one of the early sur- 
geons of that state. Franklin was born at Canton, 
Illinois, June 15, 1866. The family moved to Shen- 
andoah. Iowa, when he was twelve. His education 
went on at the public schools of Canton and Shen- 
andoah until he entered the university from which 
he graduated at twenty-four, as a member of the 
dental class of 1890. He practiced dentistry at 
Hutchinson for a short time, but soon returned 
to university life in order to complete the full 
medical course. Receiving his diploma in 1894, 



he was for eighteen months the house surgeon 
at the St. Barnabas hospital and then for five 
years practiced general medicine in this city. In 
igoo Dr. Wriglit took up his present specialty, 
going to Vienna for study. Upon his return, he 
was appointed to the position he now holds at 
the state universit>'. Dr. Wright's politics are 
democratic. He inherits membership in the 
Loyal Legion through his f.=ither who was Lt. 
Col. of the 103 Illinois Volunteer Infantry. Pro 
fessionally he belongs to the state and county 
medical associations. Dr. Wriglit believes in the 
doctrine of evolution. He is not married. 

LINDLEY, Alfred Hadley, for many years 
one of the leading physicians of Minneapolis. 
came to tliis state from North Carolina where 
he was born on May 23, 1S21, at Cane Creek, 
Chatham county. The family was an old oiu-. 
established in Chatham county since before tin- 
Revolution and tracing its line back to Penn- 
slvania, where the first of the Lindleys, who 
where always Friends, probably followed William 
Pcnn from Kngland. Dr. Lindley's father was 
Thomas Lindley, a farmer and merchant, and 
his mother was Mary (Long) Lindley. He at- 
tended the village school until he was si.xtcen 
years old and then after two years study at the 
Friends New Garden Boarding School in Guil- 
ford county, became a teacher in the same in- 
stitution. He had determined to be a physician 
and after two years teaching, returned to Cane 
Creek where he studied with Dr. Abner Holton. 
Later he studied at Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia, where he recc'ved his degree in 
1850. Until the breaking out of the Civil War 
he practiced in his native place and then, at 

great sacrifice, abandoned his home, connection 
and interests and came north to begin life anew. 
IK- was entirely opposed to the war both on 
principle as a Friend and through his belief in 
the Union and the insufficiency of cause for the 
rebellion. Dr. Lindley had been married, on 
May 2, 1850, to Miss Eliza J. Hill of Uharie, 
North Carolina. Mrs. Lindlev was a sister of 
Dr. Nathan }',. Hill. wli.. Nha'red Dr. Lindley's 
views on the and wlui had already left 
Carolina when I )r Lindley started. The two 
families met in Indiana and settled upon Min- 
neapolis as their future home. Arriving here on 
September 10, icS6i, Drs. Hill and Lindley 
formed a partnership which continued until Dr. 
Hill's death in 1875. Both gentlemen entered 
with enthusiasm into the life of the young city 
and took prominent part in its r.flfairs. When 
.Minneapolis was incorporated as a city in 1867 
Dr. Lindley became its first health officer and 
organized the wo-k of this important depart- 
ment. For years he stood in the front rank 
of the profession in city and state and was 
honored with eIec:ion to official positions in the 
various medical societies. With advancing age 
he relinquished active practice and during the 
later years of his life he devoted himself to his 
property interests which were large and to the 
enjoyment of well earned leisure. He remained 
an active and loyal citizen of Minneapolis, an 
interested participant in all things looking to 
the true progress of the city and its people, un- 
til his death on Feb'-uary :6, 1905. He was sur- 
vived by Mrs. Lindley, who continues a life- 
long interest in the philanthropies of the city, 
and an only son, Clarkson Lindley, engaged in 
the real estate business in Minneapolis. 


THK liistorv of the practice of Den- Athenaeum hhrary whicli was the founda- 

tistr\- in Minneapolis begins with the tidii of the present pnhhc library nf Miinie- 

settlenient of Dr. Gould in tlie vil- apolis. 

iage of St. Anthonv, early in the fifties. Dr. J. A. Bowman came tn .Minneapolis 

He was followed in 1857 by Dr. A. L. in 1865. He was a native of \'ermont and 

Rausman who opened an office f>n Helen commenced practice in Canton, Xew York, 

street (the old name of Second avenue south) in 1858. This practice was interrui)ted by 

and became the pioneer dentist of Minne- the war to be resumed in i\linnea])olis upon 

apolis proper. He is still living in the city its close. Dr. Bowman first practiced in an 

though retired from jiractice. Dr. 15. L. office on Bridge Square and frum time t" 

Taylor had arrived in the city the year be- time moved uj) town as the cit\- dexelnpcd. 

fore Dr. Bausinan but he did ncit commence lie became one nf the most prcnninent dcn- 

practice for some years, devoting himself tists in the northwest and continued in 

in the meantime to business pursuits. Tt active practice until a few years ago. Dr. 

may be inferred that in those days the prac- B. L. Taylor, who, as stated, came here in 

tice of dentistr\- in the young citv of .Min- 1856, opened an office for jiractice of his 

neapolis offered little attraction tn amlji- profession in the Pence Opera ffouse build- 

tious and progressive men. Compared with ing in iSCig, and has been d intinunusly in 

the practice of the present day dentistry jiractice for nearly forty years. 

was in its infancy; and not only had the In 1874 Dr. Charles M. r.aile\- came to 

practitioner less to ofTer his patients but .Minneaixdis from Machias, .Maine, where 

people generally were not yet trained to the he had been in practice for several years, 

habit of dental considtatii m and treatment, at the same time attending dental lectures 

many onlv visiting a dentist when e.xtrae- at Harvard L'niversity from which he re- 

tion was necessary. Fifty \ears have ceived his degree in 1871. He entered ac- 

brought great changes both in the ])rogress tively into the professional life of the city 

of the profession and the attitude of the and has been a working member of the city 

public. In the great evolution which has and state organizations of the profession 

taken ])Iace the members of the profession and was for years one of the facultv of the 

in Minneajxilis have taken a prominent. dental department of the Minnesota Hospi- 

useful and practical jiart. tal C ollege and the College of Dentistry of 

Among the earlier dentists of prominence the University of Minnesota. Like Dr. 

in the citv was Dr. Mark D. Stoneman who I'.ailey, Dr. ^^"m. A, Spaulding, who came 

came here in 1863 and for over twenty years to Minneapolis in 1873, took a most active 

was a leader in the profession. He was a jiart in the work of organization and educa- 

native of \'irginia, a practicing physician tion which made for the ad\Mncement of 

for twenty years, and commenced the study the profession. Also like Dr. Bailey he was 

of dentistry in 1858. During the early part a native of Maine. He had studied at the 

of the war he was a surgeon in the army. Ohio College (if Dental Surgery where he 

About the same time that Dr. Stoneman had graduated with honor receiving the 

connnenced practice I >r. Kirby Spencer degree of Doctor of Hernial Surgery. Ide 

opened an office on Bridge Square. He is was made a member of the faculty of the 

best remembered by his bequest to the dental department of the Minnesota College 


Hospital in 1884 and became dean in 1886. scntial forces that have been important fac- 

i)r. Spaiildin^ left Minneapolis some years tnrs in the advancement of the profession 

asajo and is nnw li\inc; in I lainhnr.i;', (icr- here, are the Minneapolis Dental Society, 

many. Minnesota State Dental Association, and 

Dr. M. M. I'Visseile, who came to Mimic- the College of Dentistry of the Unisersity 

apolis in 1880, was the first Icctnrer cm nf the state of Minnesota. These, with the 

medical and surgical ilentistrv in the Col- ci uiservative, stringent laws that forbid the 

lege Hospital and in 1882 was authorized practice i)f dentistry bv an\- person not 

to cjrganize the dental department, taking autlvirized by the State I'luard nf l^xaminers 

his place at the head of the facult\'. lie — the board consisting of nuinbers of the 

was a fre(pient contributor to medical and profession a])pointed by the governor of 

dental literature. He retired in i88y and state — effectually ])rotects the community 

for some vears before his death he lived at from irregidar and incompetent ])ractition- 

his country home at Lake Minnetonka. Dr. crs." 

Hugh .\l. Kcid arrived in the cit\- in 1880 The Minneajxilis Dental Society was or- 

resigning a chair in the ( )liio College of ganized in 1882 with Dr. 11. M. f\eid, pres- 

Dental Surgery in conmience active prac- ident. Dr. A. T. Smith, vice ])resident, and 

tice here. He was the first president of the Dr. J. H. Martindale, secretary. It was 

Minneajjolis Dental Society. Dr. Francis largely thr(.)Ugh the inHuence of this society 

II. llrimmer settled in .Minneapolis about that the state laws regulating the practice 

the same time. He graduated from the of dentistry and proxiding for examination 

Philadelphia Dental College and was made by tlie state board of examiners, were adopt- 

a member (jf the first faculty of the dental ed. The socict_\' also took a prominent part 

department of the College Hospital. in reorganizing the Minnesota State Dental 

Dr. E. H. Angle who commenced practice .Association, which was accomplished on 

h.ere in 1884 was a ])rominent member of Janu:irv 16, 1884, at a meeting at the Xicol- 

the profession, one of the faculty of the col- let House in Minneapolis. Dr. II. -M . Reid 

lege, a careful student and a contributor to of .Minneapolis was elected ]iresident ; Dr. 

the dental publications. He is now ])rac- 1,. W. Lyon. \ ice president; Dr. Iritten- 

ticing in St. Louis. Dr. J. H. Martindale. don, secretar)- ; Dr. T. I'". Weeks, corres- 

now of Los .\ngeles, was also a ]irominent ];onding secretary, and I )r. .'s. I). Llements, 

participant in the development of dental af- treasurer. The organization at once be- 

fairs in .Minnea])olis during the early eight- came induential in the ))rofessional afifairs 

ies, serving as one of the college faculty. of the state and has rem lined a most efti- 

as a member of the state board of exam- cient body. 

iners and as president of the .Minnea])olis The College of Dentistry of the Cniver- 

Dental Society. sity of Minnesota grew out of the api)oint- 

These were some of the men who took ment in 1881 of Dr. ITis-^elle as lecturer 
part in the affairs of the profession <Iuring on Medical and .Suii.;ical dentistry in the 
the formatixe davs. During the Later sev Minnesota College Hospital. During tin' 
enties and the tdghties the arrivals in the next year l>r. I'risselle organized a regular 
city were too mnnerous for detailed men- dent.'il department, .\mong the members 
tion. M.'inv men of large natural ability of the faculty were: M. M. Frisselle, M. D., 
and splendid pre])aratioii for their ]irofes- I). I) ."s.. Professor of Medical .ind Surgical 
sional duties have come to the city and the |)»nlistr\ and Therajieutics ; W . ]■' . (lid- 
ranks of the profession are now filled with dings, 1). D. .'-^., Professor of ( )perati\e Den- 
as strong and |)rogressi\i' a ,L;rou|) of nien as tistry : W. .\. .Spaulding, 1 >. I). .^., Profes- 
can he f<iund in an\' cit\' of the country. sor of .Mechanical Dentislr\ ; J. A. Parker, 

The members of the |)rofessiiui in th' I). P. S.. .and I )r. L. D. Leonard, demon- 
city early took measures looking to tiie strators of ()perati\e Dentistry; F. H. 
maintenance of a high professional standarfl. IVimmer, I). I). S.. and (". E. Cleveland, 
Dr. I'risselle in writing of the earlier eti- D. 1). .S., demonstrators of .Mechanical Den- 
deavors of the profession savs: "The es- tistry. 



The dental department moved to the col- 
lege building at Sixth street and Ninth 
avenue south in 1885 and was reorganized 
along with the medical department and in 
i88g was absorbed into the University of 
Minnesota, becoming a college of that 
institution. Since its association with the 
university tlie dental college has grown in 
facilities and student body until it is one 
of the prominent schools of the profession 
oi the country. It is a member of the Na- 
tional Association of Dental Faculties and 
its diplomas are recognized by the dental 
examining boards of every state. Dr. Al- 
fred Owre is dean and many of the leading 
dentists of the citv are on the facultv. 

BAILEY. Charles Monroe, for more than 
thirty years a practicing dentist in Minneapolis, 
was born in Portland. Maine, December 6, 1843. 
From an early age he made his own way in life. 
When only thirteen he entered the law office of 
Deblois & Jackson at Portland, and for the next 
si.x years was variously employed, having no 
definite profession in view. At nineteen, 
through the influence of his brother, he entered 
the office of Dr. James E. Grant, of Calais, 
Maine, where lie commenced tlic study of den- 
tistry. After five years he commenced practice 
at Machias, Maine, and during the four succeed- 
ing years combined study and practice, attend- 
ing lectures at the dental department of Har- 
vard University, graduating in 1871 with the de- 
gree of D. M. D. In 1874 Dr. Bailey came to 
Minneapolis, where he has since been in contin- 
uous practice. Soon after his arrival here. Dr. 
Bailey began active participation in the affairs 
of the profession, taking special interest in all 
movements looking to the raising of profes- 
sional standards. He was one of the first mem- 
bers of the Minneapolis Dental Society and was 
twice its president; an active member of the 
Minnesota Dental Association, and has fre- 
quently represented the state in national so- 
cieties of the dental profession. In 1886 he was 
elected to the chair of Dental Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics in the dental department ci 
the Minnesota Hospital College, occupying the 
chair until the College was merged in the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, when he was appointed to 
the chair of Prosthetic Dentistry and later added 
the duties of the chair of Orthodontia. For 
two years. Dr. Bailey was secretary of the Col- 
lege and the office of dean being then vacant, 
was acting dean during this period and carried 
the larger part of the responsibility of the de- 
partment. Dr. Bailey was married in 1876 to 
Miss Laura Longfellow of Mathias, Maine, who 
died within two years, leaving one son, Campbell 
L. Bailey, at Northome, Minn. 

COBB, Frederick Emory, was born Decem- 
ber 18, 1867, at Chicago, Illinois. He was the 
son of Cyrus Bradley Cobb, a dealer in lum- 
ber and real estate, and Ella Jane Morrison. 
He attended the grammer and high schools in 
Chicago and the Shattuck School at Faribault, 
Minnesota, graduating with the class of '86. He 
graduated from the college of dentistry of the 
University of Minnesota in 1895. Dr. Cobb is 
a republican. He is the secretary of the Minne- 
sota State Dental Association. National Dental 
Association, a meinber of the Theta Delta Chi 
Fraternity and Delta Sigma Delta Fraternity, and 
a Scottish Rite Mason. His church affiliations 
are with the Episcopalian denomination. His mar- 
riage with Jessie Helen Sharpnack took place 
April 30. 1892. Their daughter, Lois Steele was 
born March 10, igoo. 

COX, Norman Jeffrey, was born November 
30, 1873, at Centerville, Wisconsin, son of Charles 
and .-Xnne Cox. His father was a Methodist min- 
ister of English descent. The son, after receiv- 
ing his earlier educational training at the grade 
and high schools, took the scientific course in 
the class of i8g8 and afterward graduated from 
the college of dental surgery at the University of 
Minnesota. He has since been in dental practice 
in Minneapolis, also filling the position of in- 
:tructor in dentistry, in the dental department of 
the state university. Dr. Cox is a member of the 
Minnesota State Dental Association; and of the 
Twin City Dental Club. Dr. Cox was married on 
June 20, 1905. to Miss Stella E. Lynch. 

KREMER, Frederick B., was born at Middle- 
burgh, Snyder county, Pennsylvania, on June 22, 
1861, the son of Frederick E. and Elinira G. Kre- 
mer. His father was a farmer. In 1872 the family 
moved to Lena, Illinois, where Dr. Krcmcr com- 
pleted his public school education and had his 
first business experience with a jeweler of that 
town. Subsequently a few years were spent in 
clerking but having determined to become a den- 
tist he went to Waterloo, Iowa, where he com- 
menced the study of dentistry in the office of Dr. 
H. D. Spaulding. For a time he practiced at Cale- 
donia, Minnesota, then completed his studies at 
the University of Iowa, from which he graduated 
in 1890. In 1892 he came to Minneapolis and com- 
menced practice at the same time taking the po- 
sition in the college of dentistry in the university 
of Minnesota, of demonstrator under Dr. Charles 
M. Bailey. .\fter five years he succeeded Dr. 
Bailey in the chair of prosthetic dentistry, but 
after one year resigned to devote himself exclu- 
sively to his private practice. He was for some 
years lecturer on oral pathology and therapeutics 
at the medical department of Haniline university 
and for one year was lecturer on the same subject 
in the College of Homeopathy in the medical de- 
partment of the university. He has for some 
time been on the staff of Asbury hospital as con- 
sulting dentist. Dr. Kremer's practice has been 
general although for a number of years he has 



specialized to a considerable extent in oral sur- 
gery. Durinc; his residence in Minneapolis Dr. 
Krenier has taken a most active part in the affairs 
of the profession, has been a constant worker in 
the dental societies, has held numerous offices of 
responsibility and honor in these societies and has 
accomplished much for the advancement of the 
profession in this state. He is president of the 
State Dental association and was chairman in 
1907 of the committee which was successful in 
bringing to Minneapolis the annual meeting of 
the National Dental association — a meeting 
which was a record breaker in attendance. Dr. 
Krcmer is an officer of the national association 
and a contributor to dental periodicals. In polit- 
ical faith he is a democrat and he is a member of 
the Masonic body, of the Minneapolis Commercial 
club and supreme chapter of the Delta Sigma 
Delta, the professional fraternity. He was mar- 
ried on December 27, 1881 at Lena, Illinois, to 
Miss Lillias M. .'\mbrose. They have one son. 
George E., now ;i practicing; lawyrr in .Minneap- 

McCREA, John Franklyn, was born March 6, 
1868, near Shelbyville, Iniliana. His parents were 
Albert McCrea, a farmer, and Mary Campliell. 
The McCreas came to this country from tlie 
Highlands of Scotland before the Revolutionary 
war and played their part in colonial affairs. It 
was the murder of Jane McCrea by Indian ma- 
rauders which aroused among the colonists such 
bitter hatred fur the s.avages. From these early 
settlers are descended nearly all the McCreas in 
this country who use that orthography of the 
name. When Dr. McCrea was two years of age 
bis mother died, and he spent his early life on 
the farm until lu- went Ici college. He attended 
the ncIiooI at hanville, Indiana, and hav- 
ing complcte<l the c(nir>e tliere entered the North- 
ern Indiana College, taking a course in engineer- 
ing. He taught school during his vacation, and 
graduated in l8Sg taking a 15. S. degree I K- 
matriculated at the Chicago College of Dental 
Surgery and completed bis course there in the 
spring of 1892, receiving bis degree of I). 1). S. 
Since that time he has practiced in Minneapolis 
and is well known in his profession. Dr. McCrea 
is a member of the Intern.-itional Dental Congress 
and in August. IQOO. was a delegate to that body 
at the convention held at I'aris. In igo5 >onu' 
business associates commissioned him to ,go to 
the Isthmus of Tehauntepec in southern Mexico, 
to investigate tlie eondiliims in that locality rela- 
tive to industrial investment. I )r. .McCrea is a 
member of .ill the more im])orlanl dental societies 
among tliein, the International Dental Congress. 
The Twin City Dental Academy .nid the .Miiine 
sola State Dental Association, ami in the last 

named organization he has successively held all 

the important offices including that of president. 
He is also connected with, and an officer in. many 
of the minor clubs about town. In politics he 
is an independent thinker, but usually supjjorts 
republican principles. In -Xpril. 1895. Dr. McCrea 
was married to Miss Etta Johnson of Minneap- 
olis. They have two children, Ruth and John, Jr. 

MUNNS, Edward Ernest, D. M. D., was born 
in the town of Deseronto, On carlo, Canada, on 
August II, 1874. He is the son of Edward Munns, 
a constructional contractor and builder of Dese- 
ronto. Dr. Munns lived in the town of his birth 
until he was seven years old when the family 
moved to St. Paul. He there obtained his pre- 
paratory education in the public schools and grad- 
uated from the Humboldt high scliool of that 
city. He then turned his attention to the pro- 
fession he intended to follow and entered the Col- 
lege of Dentistry at the University of Miimesota 
with the class of 1900, graduating in that 
with the degree of D. M. D. He started to prac- 
tice soon after in East Minneapolis, and has since 
been in active professional life. Dr. Munns is a 
member of the State Dental .Association, and at- 
tends the Episcopal church. He was married in 
June. 1904, to Miss Marion Drew. 

WELLS, James O., the son of Osbprn and 
Cornelia T. Wells, was born in Newberry, South 
Carolina, February 13, 1871. ;md died at Min- 
neapolis August 24, 1908. His father was a 
general contractor of Newberry, and Dr. Wells 
passed the early years of his life in that city. 
.\fter finisliing the grade and high school courses, 
he matriculated at Newberry College and in 1892 
graduated from that institution with the degree 
of A. B. During the two years following he re- 
turned for post-graduate work and took his M. .\. 
degree in 1894. While carrying this work. Dr. 
Wells was also teaching school and he held tlie 
position of instructor until 1896 when he came to 
Minneapolis. In the fall of that same year he 
entered the dental department of the University 
of Minnesota and completing the three-year 
course received his diploma in 1899 with the de- 
gree of D. D. S. Dr. Wells was, during the first 
two years he spent at the University, "Quiz mas- 
ter" in histology and shortly after his graduation 
was appointed to the position of assistant pro- 
fessor of operative dentistry, an office which he 
held in connection with his regular practice. 
Since 1899 Dr. WelN practiced contiimously 
in this city and in 1904 was appointed professor 
of crown and bridge work at the state university. 
He was married on June 18, 1905. to Miss Helen 
Barnholdt, of Minneapolis. 


'newspapers, publishing and printing 

Till'', priiilint; press lias played a prom- 
inent pari in the history of Miniie- 
apnli^. The first press was brought 
into the \illage of St. Anthony at so early 
a period that it was quartered in a log 
house, while Indians frecpiently peered in 
through doors and windows to inspect the 
white man's marvellous machine ; hut in 
less than sixty years the product of the 
press became fifth in \alue among the in- 
dustries of the city and has outstripped even 
the great lumbering industry and has placed 
i\linncapi)lis far ahead of many cities nl 
larger pupulalion as a piililishing center; 
while as an inlluence upon the life nf the 
community and in promoting the interests 
of the city, the press has no peer among 
the acti\ities i)f Minneapolis. 

In a CMmmnnity of comiiaratively poor 
people settled in the midst of a wilderness 
there was no very inviting field for an ex- 
perienced newspaper pnldisher so it came 
about that to satisfy the demand of the 
cnterjjrising village for a paper, the first 
]niblishcr came frnm the's bench and 
the first editor from the lawyer's desk. The 
St. .\iitlii)nv Express came out on May 31, 
1 85 1, published by Eliuer Tyler, a tailor and 
edited by Isaac Atwater, a lawyer. It was 
the seventh [laper to be started in .Minne- 
sota Territ(ir\ ; in politics it suppurted the 
whig ]iart_\-. T)der was confident of suc- 
ces.s ; .\twater pessimistic as to the outcome. 
The latter proved to be correct in his ideas 
for T\ler scion abandoned the venture in 
disgust and jmlge Atwater was obliged t<> 
continue it in the hope of recouping him- 
self for advances made to the publisher. 
He finally sdld (lut at a loss of $3,000. The 
paper ])assed through \-arions hands and 1). 
S, B. Johnston closed a brief newsjiaper 

career with it in 1861 when the [laper dis- 
continued and the plant was suld. 'i'hc ex- 
perience of most of the either pioneer jour- 
nalistic ventures was not more satisfactory 
than that of the Express. The Northwest- 
ern Democrat, first published cm |uly 13, 
'^^53. I'y Prescott & Jones, was the second 
paper; The St. Anthony Republican ap- 
peared in 1855. The Democrat publishers 
soon tired of the \-enture and the paper was 
then sold and moved to the Minneapolis side 
I if the river where the first newspaper ever 
printed west of the Mississippi and north 
I if the Iowa line was issued on September 2, 
1854, by VV, A, llotchkiss. Although en- 
dorsing Fremont in 1 S50 the Democrat 
claimed to be "Thoroughly Jeffersonian." 
Its plant soon passed into other hands and 
for a time C. H. Pettit and John G, Williams 
owned it and published the Minneapolis 
Journal. The Republican was purchased by 
W. A. Croffut and Edwin Clark in Septem- 
ber 1857 and on September 28th they issued 
the first numljer of the first daily paper 
published at the l-'alls— the Daily Falls 
I'A'cning News. Jt s<ion reverted to the tri- 
weekly class, but in i8(io again tried the 
daily ex])eriment. Meanwhile there ap- 
peared a new force in Minneapolis journal- 
ism. Colonel William .S. King, a compar- 
atively newcomer in the city, started the 
State Atlas on May 28, 1859. It was an 
inausjiicious time for promoting new pub- 
lishing enterprises but Colonel King was 
nut the man to stand for difficulties, however 
formidable. He espoused the cause of the 
new and growing republican party and dis- 
cussed all (picstions with characteristic 
vigor, sparing no one when he disapproved 
of actions or policies. Ilis forcible editorial 
and business management made the paper a 
success in spite of local conditions; al- 



iiii; ritir.r.M: i:i ii.niNc. 

lli<mt;li a teniixirai-y issm- tif a daily jinivnl 
as fiiiaiu-ially iiiisali^factc iry as in the case 
III iiiIkt early \entiires. 

The Stale Atlas euntimieil Im he llie lead- 
\]\'^ .Minneapolis ])ai)er iiiilil iSdj. I" Jiil\ 
1866 Colonel J'lhn H. Stevens, Colonel L. 
I', riunnner, i're(leriek 1.. Smith and W'il- 
lard S. Whitniiire emnineneed the puhlica- I.I the Chronicle as a weekly, makin.u; 
h a ilaih a few weeks later and condnctini; 
il with such vi,i;i>r that the inllnence nf the 
Atlas was threatened. After a few nmnths 
lively competition tlu' papers settled their 
differences bv consDliiJatini;, and renamini^ 
tlie cnmhineii sheet The Minneai)olis 1 nh- 


IIII-: Mi.\Ni-:.\i' Miii'.rxi:. 
The first issue of the Minneapnlis Trihune 
came from the press on .Mas J^. iS'v. ••iinl 
the ]Kiper is thus ahnut fnrty-nne > fars nld 
and the oldest dail\ in the eily. The prin- 
cipal stockholders were Cnlnncl W . S. Kini;, 
Dnrilns .Mi.rrisnn. W. I >. W ashhurn. A. 11 

Stickney, Dr. Levi P.ntler. \V. S. \\ hitniore, 
Colonel L. P. Plunnuer. Irederick L. Smith. 
Dr. George H. Keith and \\ . .\. Newton, 
and the first editor was John T. Cilman. 
The iiwnership was unharnn minus politically 
and in those days polities cut a very large 
figure in the management and success or 
failure of a pa])er. .Mr. Cilman was very 
soon succeeded ]j\- (jeorge K. Shaw who 
came to Minneapolis in i868. In 1870 the 
Tribune owners found agreement impossible 
and a controlling interest in the paper was 
sold to Hugh W. Greene of Boston. I'our 
\ears later the ownership ]3assed to Clifford 
I'hompson and L. W. Powell, with Major 
John H. Howell, and, later. Judge John P. 
kea, as editors. Then came an interesting 
episode — the raid of the jiublishers of the St. 
Paul Pioneer Press in 1876 by which the 
Tribune was temporarily put out of exist- 
ence, the "St. Paul and .Minneapolis Pioneer 
I 'ress and Tribune" taking its place. The 
vigorous protest of the Minneapolis people 
resulted in a compromise. The Evening 
Tribune was started and an agreement made 
liv which Minneapolis was to have a morn- 
ing ])ai)er franchise whenever it was ready 
to pay $18,000 as purchase money. In the 
same operation the Pioneer Press had wiped 
off the news])aper map the Evening .Mail 
which had lieen running since 1874 under 
the management of Johnson & Smith. In 
1871^ the Tribune was owned b\- David 
lUakely. Col. Plummer and George K. 
Shaw, when General .\. P. .Xettleton came 
to the city and purchased first Shaw's and 
then Plummer's interest and in May of the 
following year. i)ai(l the $18,000 to the Pio- 
neer Press and started the morning Tribune 
again. Mr. lUakely sold his interests to 
(ien. Nettleton in 1881 and the paper con- 
tinued under one head until 1885 when it 
passed into the hands of Alden J. P.lethen 
and the Haskells of the I'.oslon ller;dil. Eor 
years the 'JVibune had been housed in the 
iild city hall but about tlie time of the new 
regime it moved into the first Tribune build- 
ing at I-ourth street and Eirst avenue south, 
now the Phoenix building. Colonel Bleth- 
eii's management was forceful and sagacious 
and the paper made rapid progress. In 
1888 Colonel Plethen sold his interests to 



Haskell & Palmer but after a year bought 
back the paper and conducted it until 1891 
when he sold again to Pierce & Murphy. 
Meantime, on November 30, i88y, had oc- 
curred the fearful Tribune building fire, 
when the entire plant of the paper was de- 
stroyed and several lives lost. The new 
Tribune building mi the opposite side of 
Fourth street was constructed with great 
rapidity and temporary quarters were mean- 
while occupied in the Rochester building. 
During a large part of Colonel Blethen's 
regime, Dr. Albert Shaw, now editor of the 
Review of Reviews, was associate editor of 
the Tribune. Charles Alf. Williams, one of 
the best kntiwn Minneapolis newspaper men 
of the eighties, was city editor, managing 
editor and dramatic critic during most of the 
same period. Cjov. Pierce's connection with 
the Tribune was not long. The paper soon 
passed solely into the hands of William J. 
Murphy who has since directed its fortunes 
with great success. The Tribune was a 
second time burned nut in 1899. For some 
years Charles H. Hamblin, who came to 
the paper in 1889, has been its editor and 

In 1887 L". A. Ximocks started the Even- 
ing Star, which he managed for about three 
years, when it was merged with the Tribune 
as the Tribune-Star, becoming in fact the 
evening edition of the Tribune. Within a 
short time the original name was dropped 
and since 1890 the afternoon edition of the 
Tribune has been known as the Evening 

THE jriXXEAlMil.IS (nURN'Ar.. 

The Minneapolis Evening Journal dates 
from November 26, 1878, when 1". E. Cur- 
tis, C. A. French, Charles H. Stevens and 
E. J. C. Atterbury undertook the jierilous 
enterprise of publishing a daily without a 
press franchise and with very limited cap- 
ital. The paper made progress from the 
first and in the autumn of 1879 had reached 
2.000 circulatif)n ; but in the spring of t88o 
when the Tribune went back to morning 
publication, its evening franchise was pur- 
chased by George K. .Shaw, C. A. Nimocks 
and W. A. Nimocks who made preparations 
to start a new afternoon paper. The pros- 
pects of the Journal were gloomy. .At this 

juncture the plant of the Journal was burned 
and its founders sold out its name, circula- 
tion and good will to Shaw and the Nim- 
ocks for $2,000. Mr. Shaw later disposed of 
his interest to the Nimocks brothers who 
in turn sold the whole paper to Lucian 
.-5wift, A. J. lUethen, W. E. Haskell and H. 
W. Hawley in November, 1885, for $130,000. 
Soon after this transfer the office of the 
paper was nui\ed from 255 First avenue 
south to the Tribune building where it re- 
mained until the fire of 1889. ^- i^- Has- 
kell soon ac(iuired Mr. Blethen's interest in 
the paper and J. S. :McLain and C. M. 
Palmer became stockholders upon the with- 
drawal of Mr. Hawley. On no paper in the 
city have there been so few changes in stalT. 
Mr. Swift became manager at the outset and 
has remained in charge of the business af- 
fairs of the paper, while Mr. iNIcLain who 
was at first managing editor soon became 
editor-in-chief, the position which he still 
holds. W. 1;. Chamberlain and A. J. Rus- 
sell have been associated with the editorial 
department, Charles A. TuUer with the 
business department and William II. Web- 
ster with the mechanical department al- 
most from the beginning of the present 
ownership while Charles L. Bartholomew 
— "Bart" — has been cartoonist since 1890. 
\\ illiam .\. Frisbie the present managing 
editor came to the paper in 1893 ''"'l ^^ • W- 
Jermane, the Washington correspondent, 
went on to the staiif in 1892. The fire of 
1889 was not a serious setback to the paper 
as its new building at 47-49 South Fourth 
street was nearly completed and was soon 
occui)ied. This building has since beeti 
much enlarged. In KJ05 The Journal com- 
menced the publication of a Sunday inorn- 
ing edition.* 

rrniKR n.\ti-V p.vpers. 
There has never been a permanently suc- 
cessful attempt to establish a democratic 
daily paper in Minneapolis. The most am- 
bitious undertaking in this direction was the 
Minneapolis Times which was founded in 
1889 as a morning paper by C. A. Nimocks 

•On September I. 190.S. The Journal was purcha.sed 
b.v H. V. Jones and Wni. S. Jones, tioth well known 
Minneapolis newspaper mt^n. Messi'S. Swift, McT.ain 
and Frisl>ie liaving sold tlieir interests at once retired 
and H. V. Jones became editor and W. S. Jones busi- 
ness manager. 



and k. B. Gelatt, the latti-r being cditor-in- 
cliief. James Gra}', who had begun news- 
paper work on the Tribune in 1885, was 
managing editor. The first number was is- 
sued on October i, 1889. In the fuUuwing 
Ajjril John Blanchard purchased Air. Gel- 
att's interest and remained with the paper 
until his death. .Although started as an in- 
dependent pai)er the Times soon developed 
democratic tendencies and in the autumn 
I f i8go a number of prominent Icjcal dem- 
ocrats became interested. For a time the 
paper prospered but the panic of i8i)3 
brought disaster. For several years the 
fortunes of the ])aper were uncertain. Mr. 
lira\- left the staff in 1898 to become a can- 
didate for mayor; shortly afterwards Mr. 
I'dauchard died, and after a few years tlie 
paper was discontinued. 

The present Minneapolis Daily News was 
established in 1903 by l'>. 1). lUitler with the 
prestige of association witli pupular one 
cent papers of the Scri])ps-McRae group. 
The Daih- 'iidende (mentioned more ai 
length elsewhere) was estaljlished in 1887 
by T. Guldbrandsen. It is the only Scandi- 
na\ian daily in the Northwest and has been 
\erv successful. The Market Record, Mar- 
ket Reporter and Daily Legal News serve 
llie purposes indicated by tlu-ir names and 
are successful class papers. 

.\s suggesting the growth of daily jour- 
iialism in the city the following figures from 
tlie most recent census reports are interest- 

Aggrejrate Average 

„ . . _ . Circulation Circulation 

Census Total Morning Svening p^^ Issue Per Issue 


1905 11 
1900 9 
1890 9 



Although ranking nineteenth in popula- 
tion the city stands sixteenth in ;iggregate 
circulation of dailies. 

TR,\I)K .\Nn CLASS i'.\ri-:RS. 

Minneapolis is exeeptionalK" stmng in the 
matter of class publications of all kinds. 
.As early as 1857 C'ol. Stevens (who had a 
hand in many of the newspaper enterprises 
of the city) started the Cataract and Agri- 
culturist — the forerunner of the large agri- 
cultural ])apers of today. It lived under 

MM ,iiiri;.\.\i, mil. dim; 

\arious ii.imes and owners until alioui 1870. 
I he Rural .Miinu-M iiiaii i>f 1851) onls' sur- 
\i\ed a short time and this was the fate of 
all other early enterprises of this character. 
The first of the large trade ])apers of the 
present time was the Mississi])pi Valley 
I .iniilirnii.'in liuinilrij in 1870 b\' Col. i'latt 
I'). W alker, whose son, i'latt 1',. Walker, Jr., 
i^ new editiir and manager. It has liecome 
iini' 111 the sirongest lumber |ia|iers in the 
counti) . 

The Xorllnvesteni .Miller, for years the 
leading milling journal of the w^irld. was 
fotmded at l.aCrosse, Wisconsin, in 1877 
,ind iii(i\ed to .Minneapolis in 1871) when C. 
M. I 'aimer heranie its pi'iiu'ip;il owner. 
Win, C. Ivlgar became business manager 
in i88j and in a few years advanced to be 
general manager and editor, having had 
entire charge of the pajjcr since 1886 and 
owning a controlling interest since 1895- 

The Housekeeper was established by A. 
<i. Wilcox in the late seventies and was one 



of the earliest of the monthlies devoted to 
home matters. It passed through several 
ownerships with varying .fortunes until the 
Housekeeper Corporation was formed in 
1895 with Lucian Swift as president and 
I-'rederick Fa^-ram as secretary, treasurer 
and manager. Under Mr. Fayram's direc- 
tion the paper has taken a foremost place 
among the publications of its class and has 
reached a very large circulation. 

The Commercial Bulletin was started in 
1883 as the Cirocers Bulletin. W'ni. .S. Jones 
acquired an interest in i88f) and fur twenty 
>ears was identified with the ]:)aper, build- 
ing it uj) to a strong position. lie sold it 
in i(jo5 to the Root Newspaper .Associa- 
tion and (jcorge D. Alekeel is now its man- 
ager, h'arm Implements, a leading jiajier 
in its line, was estalilished in 1886. Limian 
C. I'ryor is its editor. 

Agricultural journals have been prosper- 
ous since the eighties. Farm, Stock and 
Home was established in 1884 and has be- 
come a powerful influence among the rural 
population under the editorship of S. Al. 
( )wen. 'i'he Northwestern Agriculturist, 
established in i88() in North Dakota, was 
moved to jNlinneapolis a few years later 
and since 1893 when it came under the man- 
agement of 1'. \'. Collins, has attained a 
prominent place among farm papers. 

In 1892 H. C. Chapin, who had been con- 
nected with the daily papers of the city for 
some years, witlidrew to enter business for 
himself and founded the ChajMn I'ubli^hing 
Company which issues the Improveiiient 
Bulletin and the Northwestern Druggist, 
two very successful trade papers. Another 
prominent daily newspaper man, Herschel 
\'. Jones, resigned from a long connection 
wih the Journal in 1901 to found The Com- 
mercial West, a paper devoted to western 
investments, manufacturing, milling and 
grain. In medical journalism the North- 
westeiii Lancet, under the direction of W. 
L. Klein, has taken a foremost place. 

( )ne of the very latest of Minneapolis 
publications is The Bellman, edited and 
conducted li\ William C. Edgar. It was 
estaldished in 11,06 and is pul)lished every 
week. It is a political, social and literary re- 
view of some thirty-two pages and its aim 

is to represent the dominant spirit of the 
.Northwest, which is not always the popular 
one. Its tone is ultra-conservative. In 
politics as in other things it is independent, 
and it e.xercises the strictest censorship of 
any paper in the L'nited States over the ad- 
vertising admitted to its columns. It is hand- 
^()mcly illustrated. i)rintcd on expensive 
])aper and made as nearly ])erfect typograph- 
ically as is possible. 


In a state where there is so large a popu- 
lation of Scandinavian origin, Minneapolis 
has very naturally become the center of 
publication of journals in the Swedisli and 
Norwegian languages. Nordisk-Folkeblad 
was the first of a long list of these papers. 
It was moved to Minnea|jolis in 1868 but 
after a few years was sold and discontinued. 
Ikidstikken was started as a weekl}' in Sep- 
tember. 1873, was purchased by Mr. Guld- 
brandsen of the Tidende in 1888 and in 1895 
was consolidated with other papers and 
changed to the weekly Tidende and contin- 
ues as the largest Norwegian weekly in the 
northwest. Folkebladet was issued first in 
1877, edited by Professors Oftedal and 
.Sverdrup of the Augsburg Seminary : Sven- 
ska ]'"olkets Tidning was established in 1881 
l)v .\lfred Soderstrom and with Magnus 
Lunnow as editor: Ugel)ladet mo\ed here 
from Chicago in 1886. 

The .Sven.ska .\merikanska Posten was 
founded in 1885 by Swan J. Turnblad as 
a [prohibition paper but developed into a 
general weekly anrl has become the most 
important paper published in the Swedish 
language in this part of the country. Since 
these older papers were established there 
have been many more put forth, some of 
which have become large and influential. 


The story of the book and job printing 
and publishing business of the city is, of 
course, very closely interwoven with that of 
the newspapers. The earlier printing offices 
combined job and newspaper work as a 
matter of course and there were few inde- 
pendent job offices for a long time. -As late 
as 1874 only six were listed in the city direc- 
tory. The veteran of all the printers of 



Minneapolis is Fred L. Smith of the Harri- 
son (Jv Smith Co. who came to the city in 
1857, a Ixiv of fiiurteen. ami sunn went to 
work at thr printers trade in the t)ld news- 
paiier and jnli office of CroiYut & Clark. 
He was connected with snme of the 
earlier newspa])er ventures, in 1X07 became 
mechanical superintendent <>f the newly 
launched Minneapolis Tribune, and in 1871, 
with the late Colonel Charles W. Johnson, 
established the job printing; firm (if Jdhnsnn 
it Smith which has continued witlnmt break 
t(i the ]iresenl lime, .Mr. Smith being' the 

THE NOKTriWESTICRX \m.l.i:K lU ll.hlNi;. 

president and manager. The Tiibunc estab- 
lished a job deparlinent x » m alter il was 
fdunded which, after a while, si_'] 
fnim the ne'.vspa]ier comjiany and became 
(he 'I'ribune Job I'rintint; e'limpany. C. .\. 
.Mitchell was for years the owner of this 
business. Ilemy .Al. Hall of Hall, r.lack ^: 
Co. is ne.xt to \\v. Smith, the oldest printer 
in the city, lie was the first journr\ ni.iii to 
work for Johnson iK: Smith in 1S71. < )f 
otiu-r job ]irinlin,t; houses of loila\ , that ol 
Kimball & Storer Co. was fomnU'd as Todd 
\- Kindiall in 1878 and Swinburne \- Co. 
b\- J. W. Swinburne in 1883. 
■ Publishiui^ as distinct from news])ai)er 
printing' was not a reco.gnized business un- 

til about 1880. The late Major A. G. Wil- 
cox was one of the first book publishers of 
the city, under the name of the I'lUckeye 
I^ublishing Company. Warner lit I'oote 
were early historical and map publisliers. 
lUit the lar.Ljer publishini;;- establishments, 
iK.itablv the concerns publishing books in 
the Scandina\-ian languages, have grown u]) 
with the past two decades. The Augsl)urg 
I'ublishing Company, 'J'he Free Church 
ISook Concern, The laitheran Publishing 
House and others are jirominent. Many 
of the large eastern jiublishing houses have 
established regular otifices in the city and 
the A. X. Kellogg Newspaper Company 
maintains its northwestern offices and plant 
here. A unique and notable publishing 
house is that of the The 11. W. Wilson 
Companv. This was established in 1889 as 
Morris & WiLson and at first handled only 
university supplies and occupied a room in 
the old main building. In i8()9 the concern 
moved to ,v .S Fourteenth avenue southeast, 
eidarging its stock and adding a printing 
plant and in ii;07 it had grown to such pro- 
portions as to require a much larger build- 
ing and occupied the present quarters at 
1401-1-105 Cni\ersity avenue southeast. The 
business of the comi)any is principally the 
publicati<in of indexes and catalogs used in 
pul)lic libraries throu.ghout the Ignited 
States anil to some extent in other c(pun- 

■j'lie enormous growth of the publishing 
and printing business of the city may behest 
a]ipreciateil through a comparison of the 
business in ujoo and l<;o3 as supplied by 
the Cnited States Census bureau. In this 
period the :imount of ea]iilal employed, as 
well as the value of the output, doubled, 
as shown in the following statement: 

Fstab- ^ •. , Misc. Cost of Value of 

Census lisjiments Capital Expenses Materials Products 

1905 .S9 #977„-?33 $212,809 #387,577 fl,426,-441 

1900 73 474,357 68,706 209,474 770.839 

The luunber of enqiloyes increased from 
548 lo y~(< and the total wages paid nearly 



BARTHOLOMEW. Charles L.. known to the 
reading world as "Bart," has heen the cartoonist 
<if The Minneapolis Jonrnal for eighteen years. 
In this long period he has drawn daily cartoons. 
nii';sing very few days of publicatinn, .m enor- 
iiicius dr.iin upon the invention of any ni;in no 
matter how prolific. Bart draws cartoons as the 
iilitorial writer writes articles, from the news of 
the day. He is an oditur in outline. His cartoon 
is a first-page editnrial. couched in the most tell- 
ing phrases and simplest grammar. 

Bart was a pioneer in the newspaper carlooii 
field, not only in the northwest but in the country 
at large, The Journal being one of the first pa- 
pers in the LTnited States to use the daily cartoon 
feature. He came to Minneapolis at the age of 
nineteen after taking an engineering course at the 
liiwa State college. After two years with other 
twin city papers, he began work with The Jour- 
nal as a reporter, and literally created the depart- 
ment in which he has made a name. The success 
of the idea was immediate, but has grown from 
year to year until Bart's cartoons are known 
around the world, and The Journal and Minneap- 
olis are familiar names to many abroad who 
otherwise might never h.ivc heard of them. 

The Journal cartoons have been reproduced in 
every part of the Union and in England and Eu- 
ropean countries, by many daily papers and maga- 
zines. Even in far ;iway Australia they are fre- 
quently reproduced. In his book. "The Ameri- 
canization of the World." W. T. Stead says: 
"One of tlie most capable cartoonists of the Un- 
ited States is Mr. Bart of The Minneapolis Jour- 
nal." In this book and in Mr. Stead's magazine, 
The European Review of Reviews, Bart's car- 
toons have appeared more frequently even than 
in The Ainerican Review of Reviews, whose edi- 
tor. Dr. Albert Shaw, says: 

"The esteem in which The Review of Reviews 
holds the political cartoons that appear in The 
.Minneapolis Journal is sufficiently shown by the 
frequency with which it has reproduced them 
.Mr. Charles L. Bartholomew of The Journal, 
whose work is signed 'Bart,' has not merely a 
very ingenious and ready pencil, but he has a re- 
markable political instinct that makes his draw- 
ings to a very unusual extent valuable as elucidat- 
ing the situation or re-enforcing an editorial po- 
sition or point of view." 

Of the wonderful advertising value of Bart's 
cartoons B. O. Flower, the editor of The Arena, 
wrote in a recent article: "We doubt if even the 
management of The Journal fully appreciates the 
enormous value of Bart's work in familiarizing 
the reading world at large with the name of his 
p.-iper." and to this, he might have added, with 
the name of his town also. 

The artist has made a name for hinisL-lf. Imt 
lutter than that he has made a home for himself. 
.Mr. Bartholomew married a college classmate. 
They have a home in town and a summer place at 
Lake Minnetonka, wdiere Bart, his wife and their 
tJiree boys spend the happiest of summers. Many 

i'II.\IU.i:s I., i:.M:iII(il.n.\i|.;\\ , 

flattering offers have come to him from ludiiica- 
tions in other cities east and west, bnl his unvir- 
onment is so congenial where he is tliat it would 
take something like a re\olution to lift Bart from 
Minneapolis or from The Journal. 

Mr. Bartholomew is the son of Col. O. A. 
liartholoinew, an attorney at Chariton, Iowa. He 
was turned toward newspaper work by his mother 
whose habit was to read aloud to her children. 
She encouraged the future cartoonist to learn the 
printer's trade, and later coached him in editing 
the home paper during college vacations. 

I'.l.ETHEX. -Mden J., formerly editor and 
iwner of the .Minneapolis TribUiie and now edi- 
tor-in-chief of the Seattle Daily and Sunday 
Times, and president of the Times Printing Com- 
pany, comes of one oi tin- oldest families of this 
country, his ancestry tr.icing hack to r68o. when 
represent.'itives ol the n.ime located .at Ipswich. 
Mass.aelnisetts. .\s a rule the mc-n of the famil) 
h.ave dexoted ;luir eiier;.4ies to cither .agricultural 
or sea-faring pursuits. The paternal grand- 
mother was a second cousin of b'than .Mien, the 
.g:ilhant Vermont general. .Ag.iin the family was 
represented by loyal ser\ice in the ("ivil War, 
three elder brothers of .\. J. I'.lethen joining 
the union army. Colonel Hlethen is a native of 
Miiine. h.aving been horn .it Knox. Waldo conn- 



ty, on rjecembcr 27, T846, his parents being Alden 
and Abbie I-. Blothen. After acqniring a com- 
mon school educatiiin he entered Wcsleyan sem- 
inary and college, where he was graduated in 
186S. In 1872 he won the degree of Master of 
Arts at Bowdoin college. He then took up tlu- 
profession of teaching and was lessee and ])rin 
cipal of the Al)bott Family school at Farmington, 
Maine, from 1869 imtil 187,^ .\t the same time 
he carried on the study of l;iw and was admit- 
ted to the bar of Maine in tlu- latter year, estab- 
lishing an office in Portland, lie there engaged 
in practice initil 1880, when on .'lecount of ill 
health he removed to Kansas City. Mis-.or 
where he entered upon the \ocation for which 
he is so admirably fitted, l-'nr four years lie was 
manager of the will known Kansas City Joiir- 
al. Thence he renio\ecl lo .Minneapolis in 1.SS4, 
wdicre his fuld enlarged by purchasing an 
interest in the two leading papers here — the 
Tribune and the Journal. He served as eiliior 
of the Tribune and manager of the Journal until 
1888, when he sold his interest in those papers 
for two hundred and fifty thousand dollars spot 

Having a decided liking as well as a special 
ability for newspaper work. Colonel Blethen re- 
purchased the Tribune the following but 
fire destroyed the building in November of the 
same year and he suffered a loss of one hundred 
thousand ilolhn^. Nothing daunted, he set to 
work to Iniilcl in i8qo, erecting tlu- new Tribune 
building at ;i cost o|' one hmuli-ed thons.and ilol- 
lars, hilt the finaiuial p.inie of i.'^oo, caused by 
the failure ol' the Barings Brothers followed 
so closely after llie hre only to be succeeded by 
the greater panic of iSg.i, it brought dis- 
aster to him as it did to so many others and he 
lost all. 

.After his rmancial failure, desiring to begin 
anew in the news|iaper field. (_ oloiul Blethen 
went lo Seattle in l8g(i, where he piireliaseil the 
pl.-iiil of a bankrupt daily p.iper. with a circula- 
tion of thirty-five liundred. lie increased this 
over fifty-six per cent in the lirst year .iiiil the 
Times has since steadily grown until its cireiil.i- 
tion is over fifty thous.and each eveiiiivj ,iiid se\ 
eiily thousand Sunday inorning. It now occu 
pies its own building, .iiid lias the largest plant 
in the neirthwest. 'I'lie growth ami prosperitx 
of the 'riiiHs clurin.u the twelve years of the 111:111- 
agemeul ol Coloiul Blethen may he better nii 
dcrstood from the following f.icis: While 
paper coiisnined in 181)5. 125,000 pounds, in loo", 
8,468,844 |)oiiiids; circul.ation in 1895, ,1,8,51 copic's 
daily, in igo7, 5.i.g49 copies daily; the Suiid.iy 
Times, 1907 (started in 1902) 70.125 copies each 
issue. The advertising carried in 1895 was r.ii. 
040 inches, in 1907, 8,^6.987 inches, h^-om an in 
sicnificant plant valued at $.?,ooo in 1895, the 
Times has increased until today its ])lant is \ 
ued, including building, above $500,000. 

Newspaperdom recently said: — "With match- 
less energy and foresij;lit Colonel Blethen has 

made the Times the greatest afternoon and Sun 
day newspaper on the Pacific Coast, and has de- 
voted it as a mighty instrument for the upbuild- 
ing of Seattle. There is not at this time a bet- 
ter or .a more elegantly equipped newspaper 
jilaiit west of Chicago, than that from wdiich the 
Seattle Daily and Sunday Times are issued, — all 
the result of the indefati.gable energy of Colonel 

While in .\l inne.ipolis Colonel Bletliei look 
a Host .active jiarl in the public affairs of the 
city and partieularlj- prominent in the pro- 
motion of the Minneapolis exposition — an under- 
takin.g which he was the first to propose in the 
editorial columns of the Tribune. He served, 
while ill Minncsola, as Colonel on the st.iffs of 
both (iovernor Nelson and Governor Clough. 

.\t I'"armington, Maine, on Alareh 12, i8()'j. 
(. olonel Blethen was united in marriage to Miss 
Rose, a daughter of Captain David F. Hunter, 
and a .granddaughter of David Hunter, who came 
from .Scotland to America and was one of the 
e.arly settlers of northeastern Maine, k'nur chil- 
dren h.ave been born of this marriage, two sons 

and t\\o 

d.iii.nhters. Joseph, the eldest son, is 

of the Times, and the secretary and 

of the Times rriiiting Company. 

I'.., the younger son, is the managing 

Ai.lilON .1. lii.K-niUN. 




CHAPIN. Harold C, was born at La Crosse, 
Wisconsin, on September 22, 1861, the son of 
Nathan C. Chapin and Mary Fountain Chapin. 
His father was a Congregational minister, wIuj 
for fifteen years until 1872 held the position of 
pastor of the First Congregational Church at La 
Crosse and afterwards held pastorates at Fari 
bault, Rochester and St. Cloud, Minnesota. Mr. 
Chapin passed the early years of his life in l^a 
Crosse and studied there under the tutorship of 
his father and in the public schools, acquiring 
thus his preparatory education. He entered Be- 
loit College, at Beloit, Wisconsin, of which his 
uncle, A. L. Chapin. was president so many years, 
and graduated in 18S1, winning high honors in 
scholarship and representing his class as its 
salutatorian. Three years later he took in ad- 
dition an yi. A. degree. In selecting the field 
for a career, Mr. Chapin chose that of journal- 
ism, and in the fall of iSSi, came from Rochester. 
Minnesota, where his home had been for some 
time, to Minneapolis, to accept the position of 
private secretary to Mr. .\. B. Nettleton. at that 
time the owner and editor of the Minneapolis Tri- 
bune. For two years he was with that paper, 
being promoted to a position on the staflf of the 
city editor. He resigned in order to fill a simi- 
lar position on the Minneapolis local staff of the 
Pioneer Press, and upon the resignation of J. 
N. Nind was placed in charge of the Minneap- 
olis editorial department. For many years he 

held this office and by his energy and natural 
ability for the journalistic work became promi- 
nent among the newspaper men of the North- 
west. He later resumed his connection with the 
Tribune and for some time was city editor. At 
the time of the famous Tribune Building fire on 
November 30, 1889, ]\Ir. Chapin was one of those 
who narrowly escaped death in the burning build- 
ing. In 1892 Mr. Chapin abandoned daily news- 
|iaper work and established the Northwestern 
Press Clipping Bureau. The following year he 
began a publishing business and started the pub- 
lication of the Weekly Improvement Bulletin, and 
for some years later issued the first copy of the 
Northwestern Druggist. These two publications 
are now ranked among the successful trade jour- 
nals of the country. Mr. Chapin still owns all 
of these interests and is at the head of the active 
management of them, the business being incorpo- 
rated as the Chapin Publishing Company. Dur- 
ing his residence in this city Mr. Chapin has been 
interested in the promotion and support of all 
movements for the civic welfare or improvement 
and is associated with several organizations for 
tliat purpose. In 1904 he held the office cf presi- 
dent of the Linden Hills Improvement Associa- 
tion. He is also a member of the Minneapolis 
Press Club, the Minnesota Trade Press Associa- 
tion and the Minneapolis .'\utomobile Club. He 
was married on May 5. 1887. to Miss Virginia 1-'.. 
Coe, daughter of C. A. Coe of this city. They 
have two children Rollin C. and Harold F. Tliey 
have an attractive suburban home on the shore 
of Lake Harriet. 

COLLINS. Paul V., editor of the Nortliwest- 
ern Agriculturist, and president of the P. V. 
Collins Publishing Company, is a direct descen- 
dent of the famous Quaker Collins family of 
luigland, one of tlie first followers of George 
Fox. His English ancestors were Edward and 
Mary Collins of Oxfordshire. Their son, Francis, 
migrated to America in 16S1 with the first ship- 
load of colonists sent over l)y William Pcnn, and 
settled at Burlington, New Jersey, where bVancis 
Collins built the first Quaker meeting house. In 
a collateral line from tlie same ancestors, was 
Isaac Collins, who in Revolutionary times started 
and published the New Jersey Gazette, the first 
editorial champion of the ."Xmcrican patriots, and 
whose loyal services as editor were recognized 
by Congress in a resolution, expressly exempting 
Isaac Collins and all his printers from military 
duty. .Another ancestor of distinction was Ed- 
ward Doty, a passenger on the Mayflower, who 
Ijccame the forefather of Eunice Doty, paternal 
grandmother of the subject of this sketch. The 
maternal grandmother of Paul V. Collins, Rhoda 
Littell, was a cousin of the founder of the Boston 
literary magazine, Littell's Living Age. Paul \'., 
the son of Samuel and .'\bigail Jane Collins, was 
born in Camden. Preble county, Ohio, but his 
parents removed to Dayton when he was about 
seven years of age, wdicre his father was a iner- 
chant. He graduated from the Dayton high 



school in 1879 and a year later began his journal- 
istic career as a reporter on the Dayton Democrat. 
In 1882 he became reporter and staff correspon- 
dent on the Cincinnati Commercial Gazette, a 
position he held for two years. Discontinuing 
his journalistic work, he then took up the study 
of art in the Art Students' League in New York 
during 1884 and 1885, after which he re-entered 
journalism by forming a syndicate of metropol- 
itan papers, among them the New York Tribune. 
Boston Globe and St. Louis Republic, for special 
European correspondence by mail and cable, and 
in 1885 went to Paris. From the French capital 
he cabled detailed interviews with Pasteur on 
the discovery of his hydrophobia cure, with De 
Lcsseps after his inspection of the Panama Canal 
in 1886; Meissonier Bougcreau, Constant, Gerome 
and other famous artists on the paintings of the 
Paris Salon, and while there he was a member 
of the famous Ramblers' Club which consisted 
of American and English artists and journalists, 
having headquarters in that city. He returned to 
.America in :886, and located in Minnesota, pur- 
chasing the St. Peter Tribune. Later, at St. 
Peter, while still publishing the Tribune, he pur- 
chased Skordcmannen, the only Swedish farm 
paper in America; and in 1890 he sold the Tri- 
bune for the purpose of bringing Skordcmannen 
(a paper he could not read) to Minneapolis and 
developing its business. After putting the Swed- 
ish publication on a successful financial basis, he 
sold it in June, 1893, and purchased the North- 
western Agriculturist. This was a monthly of 
9,000 circulation at the time of Mr. Collins' pur- 
chase; the following fall (1893) he changed it to 
a semi-monthly, and in March, 1904, to a weekly. 
It has now a circulation (1908) exceeding 83.000 
a week — equal in the year to any other two farm 
papers in the Northwest combined. In 1904 Mr. 
Collins purchased The Home Magazine, a month- 
ly publication of 150,000 circulation founded by 
.■Vlrs. John A. Logan in Washington. District of 
Columbia, and he removed il ti. Minneapolis, 
where he published it until January, 1906, when 
it was sold and removed to Indianapolis. In 
.\ugnst, 1904, the P. \'. Collins Publishing Com- 
liany was incorpi. rated, for publishing the North- 
western .•\griculturist and The Home Magazine, 
.Mr. Collins holding a controlling interest in the 
corjjoration, and being its president and manager. 
With this business he is still engaged, and mider 
his editorial and business management, tlie 
.Northwestern .Xgriculturist has attained a posi- 
tion of leadership amongst the agricultural press. 
.Mr. Collins is prominent in the various press and 
editorial associations of tlu- country, and has 
held offices in of tlu- nmrc important. In 
1904 he was president of the National Editorial 
.Association and one of the two vice presidents 
for .America of the World's Press Congress, both 
of which organizations met at the St. Louis 
World's Exposition. The meeting of the Na- 
ti'inal Editorial .Association on that occasion 
were the largest editorial gatherings ever held 

in the world, the average daily attendance ex- 
ceeding a thousand, including the best known 
journalists of the country. Mr. Collins was also 
(in 1901) president of the National .Agricultural 
Press League. He is a member of the Commer- 
cial, Publicity, and Westminster clubs of Min- 
neapolis, and is an active member of Westmin- 
ster Presbyterian church. He was married June 
20. 1889, to Miss Mary G. Rhoads. 

COMMERCIAL BULLETIN— An important in the growth of Minneapolis as a whole- 
sale center has been the Commercial Bulletin 
■And Northwest Trade, which since it was founded 
in 1883, has ably and consistently labored to 
extend and increase the trade of the wholesale 
and manufacturing industries of the city. A 
weekly paper, having a wide circulation among 
retail merchants throughout the Northwest, it 
has grown with the development of the market, 
until today it is recognized as one of the strong- 
est trade publications of the country. The his- 
tory of the Commercial Bulletin and Northwest 
Trade dates back to October, 1883, when T. T. 
Bacheller founded the Grocers' Bulletin, which 
was financed by one of the large jobbing houses 
of the city. It soon became evident to Mr. 
Bacheller that Minneapolis was to be a great 
jobbing center and that with St. Paul it would 
control the greater part of the trade of Minne- 
sota and the Dakotas, with sections of Iowa and 
Wisconsin, and gradually reach out westward, to 
the coast. Accordingly, in May, 1884, he placed 
his paper on an independent footing, changing 
its name to the Commercial Bulletin and cham- 
pioning the wholesale and manufacturing in- 
terests of .Minneapolis in such an aggressive way 
that the paper soon became known as the rep- 
resentative organ of the Minneapolis merchan- 
dise market. Up to 1885 the Commercial Bul- 
letin had depended almost entirely upon the Min- 
neapolis market for its supi)ort, but as the years 
moved on its infiucnce with the retailers of the 
Northwest became so strong that manufactur- 
ers and wholesalers in all parts of the United 
States came to recognize it as the best medium 
for reaching the retail trade of the Northwest. 
Its success inspired the establishment in 1884 of 
the Northwest Trade. In May, 1885, Mr. Bachel- 
ler sold the Commercial Bulletin to S. W. .Al- 
vord. a Pennsylvanian backed by two Minne- 
apolis attorneys. Early in t886 Mr. Alvord sold 
a half interest in the paper to Will S. Jones, then 
an advertising solicitor on one of the Minne- 
apolis daily newspapers, and in 1887 sold the 
rcm.-iining li:ilf interest to Red Clay McCauley. 
.Mr. Jone- a lillle later bought out Mr. McCaul- 
ey's interest, thereby becoming sole owner and 
manager. The Northwest Trade was soon after- 
ward acquired by Mr. Jones and the two papers 
were consolidated. Since 1902 the editorial 
direction of the paper has been in charge of 
W. v.. D.ivis, with the exception of a year and a 
li.alf, wlu-n I, A. Fleming occupied the 



chair. In April, 1906, the Commercial Bulletin 
and Northwest Trade became the property of 
the Root Newspaper Association, publishers of 
a number of the most important and successful 
trade publications of the country. George D. 
Mekecl. formerly of St. Louis, assumed the busi- 
ness management of the property. Since that 
time it has been much enlarged and improved 
and. now ranks as one of the strongest journals 
devoted to retail merchandising, 

EDGAR, William C, a resident of Minneap- 
olis since 1882 when he came to the city to asso- 
ciate himself with the Northwestern Miller, 
comes of old American families in both the 
paternal and maternal branches. His father was 
Joseph C. Edgar who for a number of years was 
an architect in St. Louis, ^Missouri. William C. 
Edgar was born in La Crosse in the year 1856. 
The family soon after moved to St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, where Mr. Edgar passed the early part of 
his life and began his education in the public 
schools. He also attended the high school of 
that city but did not graduate. In 1874 he took 
a position in a St. Louis business house where 
he remained until 1882. In the latter year he 
received an offer from the Northwestern Miller, 
then as now, the foremost milling journal of the 
country, to become its business manager. He 
accepted and came to Minneapolis to begin his 
long connection with the paper. Two years later 
he became general manager and since 1886 has 
also been its editor. In 1895 he purchased a 
controlling interest in the stock and became pres- 
ident of the Miller Publishing Company. Cover- 
ing, as it does, one of the broadest fields with 
which class journalism is connected, the Miller 
has given to Mr. Edgar a splendid opportunity 
to exercise his knowledge of the editorial depart- 
ment of newspaper work as well as his ability as 
a business manager. In July of 1906 "Mr. h'dgar 
established and began the publication of "The 
Bellman." a weekly illustrated paper issued in 
Minneapolis. He is a contributor to numerous 
periodicals and the author of several books and 
pamphlets. Among these are the Story of a 
Grain of Wheat, published in 190.^; The Russian 
Famine, 189,5, and The Miller's Evil Genius. Mr. 
Edgar is actively interested in improvement ami 
reform movements and has been the head cif a 
number of such efTorts to better the public con- 
dition. Possibly his most important public serv- 
ice was rendered by his connection with the re- 
lief movement for the famine stricken peasants 
of Russia in 1891. The plan was conceived and 
executed by him: through his efforts the millers 
of this country were induced to contribute a 
shipload of flour; and under his personal super- 
vision it was collected, shipped and distributed. 
The food furnished by these means to the suffer- 
ing population of the Empire did much to relieve 
the situation, and as a mark of the appreciation 
felt for the efforts of Mr. Edgar in behalf of his 
people, the Emperor presented him with a gold 

flagon. Well known in the social- life of the city 
as well as in business circles, Mr. Edgar is natu- 
rally associated with a number of the larger 
clubs, both of Minneapolis and other cities. His 
local affiliations include memberships in the Min- 
neapolis, Minikahda, Lafayette and Skylight 
clubs and he is also on the roll of the St. Louis 
Club of St. Louis, and the Salmagundi Club of 
New York. He is connected with several scien- 
tific and improvement organizations, the chief 
ones being the American Social Science Associa- 
tion of New York; the American Free Trade 
League. Boston; the National Municipal League, 
Philadelphia; the Minnesota Trade Press Asso- 
ciation, of which he was the first president; and 
the Voters League, of the executive committee of 
which he is a member. Mr. Edgar was married 
in 1883 to Miss Anne Page Randolph Robinson 
and they have two children — a son, Randolph, 
and a daughter Marjorie. 

FARM, STOCK AND HOME, one of the 
leading agricultural papers of the west, was 
established in 1884 by the late Horatio R. Owen, 
who was its business manager until his death in 
1900. The Hon. Sidney M. Owen assumed 
editorial management of the paper in 1895 and 
still occupies the position of editor with the 
utmost success. His son, Harry N. Owen, has 
long been connected with the paper, and on the 
death of Mr. Horatio Owen succeeded him as 
business manager and still continues at the head 
of that department of the paper. The business 
is now owned by the Farm, Stock & Home Com- 
pany, a corporation, and the enterprise is on a 
sound basis financially. Its circulation is over 
104,000 copies, it is issued semi-monthly, and 
the paper enjoys the confidence of a large con- 
stituency among the farmers of the Northwest. 
Its office is at 8,50 Hennepin avenue, where is 
occupies an entire floor, fully equipped for the 
production of a modern class paper. 

FAYRAJiI, Frederick, was born on April 3, 
1852, at Rotherham, England. His father .^mos 
Fayram, a life insurance actuary, is still living 
but has now retired; his mother, Martha Black- 
more Fayram, died in 1891. They were both na- 
tives of England and them Mr. Fayram 
is connected with prominent .mil well known 
aristocratic families in England. His c.irly boy- 
hood was spent in England but when he was nine 
years of age, his parents came to Canada and 
settled at Hamilton. In the schools of that place 
and of Toronto, Canada, he received his educa- 
tion, going through the common schools and tak- 
ing a course in a business college. For a time 
,\lr. Fayram studied the cabinet making trade, 
but his inclinations were toward a journalistic 
career and in T875 he went to Detroit, Michigan, 
and there entered the employ of the Detroit Free 
Press. He remained with this paper for nineteen 
years, becoming business manager in 1887. He re- 
signed this position in 1894 to come to Minneapo- 
lis and one year later, in July, 1895. he associated 



himself with Lucian Swift in the purchase of "The 
Housekeeper," and of this publication he has 
been secretary, treasurer and general manager 
since that time. Mr. Fayram has always had a 
keen interest in music and its promotion and for 
nineteen years while in Detroit sang profession- 
ally in church choirs anil was one of tlic famous 
,\rion Male Quartette of Detroit. He continued 
his connection w-ith musical affairs in Minne.ip- 
olis and since 1897 has been president of the 
Philharmonic Clul). He was largely instrumental 
in bringing about the movement which resulted 
in tlu- erection of the Minneapolis .\uditoriuni. 
.At tlu- institution of the Minneapolis Symphony 
Orchestra he was one of the most active workers 
on tlie behalf of that organization and is now 
one of the managing committee. Mr. Fayram is 
fond of athletic and water sports, belongs to the 
Minneapolis Athletic and Minnelonka Yacht 
clubs and is actively intcre-.tcd in sailing, auto- 
mobiling and all vigovMU-. out-of-door sports. 
He is also a member of the Alinneapolis. the 
Commercial and tlie Six O'Clock clubs and i-. 
prominently identilieil with the club life of the 
city. In iSgj Mr. l-'ayram was married to Miss 
Carrie J. Young, cjf Mount Vernon, Ohio. They 
have no children. 

HALL, BLACK & CO.— The firm of H.ill. 
Black & Co., general printers, was organized in 
1XS6 by Henry M. Hall and W. F. Black and 
has continued ever since without change of 
name or membership in the partnership. Both 
the partners were from Maine. Mr. Hall learned 
the printer's trade in Houlton, Maine, ami came 
west til establish himself in business. Mr. r.l.ick 
h,-ul I)een in the printing business in P.ipstun. but 
owing to failing health had sold out and (or 
some years engaged in the more active work 
of telegraph and lelephom construction and 
superintendence. He was superintendent of the 
Worcester division of the New England Tele- 
graph .mil Telephone Company at the time of 
tlie general consolidation of the- I'.ell telephone 
interests and w;is soon sent to Minneapolis to 
act as cashier in the local office, .\fter a year 
or so of service as cashier and acting superin- 
tendent in Minneapolis he formed the partner- 
ship with Mr. Hall .ind lias since been in busi- 
ness for himself. Tin joli printing busiius-, l.d<i-n 
up by the firm w.i- lint originally started about 
1880 or 1881 ;[S tile Join-nal Job rrinting Coin 
Jiany. The new owner-, moved the to ^04 
I'irst .avenue .'south, where they enlarged it ye.'ir 
by year and built up a satisfactory business. .Af- 
ter 15 years \\n- (|ii,-irters were outgrown and 
in igoi the concern moved to its present loca- 
tion at .3J9 Hennepin avenue Here .1 modern 
cylinder press of large capacil\- and oilier ec|uip 
ment was added to the plant ;ind the business 
still further developed. The liriii i^ |ieilKi]iN the 
only one in the city wliirli lia-- iiiidergoiie no 
changes or suffered from any business vicis- 
situdes in the course of its career of a score of 

I'KEDEItlCK F.\Vl;.\.\l. 

JONb'.S, Herschell \\, eilitor of ilie .Minne- 
apolis Journal, was born at Jeft'erson, Schoharie 
county. New ^■ork. .August 30, i86r. son of W. 
S. Jones, a merchant of th.-it place. Mr. Jones' 
ancestors helped to make hiNhiry in the older 
days in Connecticut ,iiid .\l:i>>achusetts, some 
ol them luuing lueii mimliered among the 
miiiule men who in.ide the stand at Conciu'd 
l:!rid,ge in 1775 .and "lired the shot heard round 
the world." As a boy Air. Jones attended the 
public schools in Jeli'erson, New York, and after- 
w.irds the Del.iware Literary Institute at I*"r;ink- 
liii, Xew ^'ork. With strong journalistic instinct 
he conducted a country newspaper, when he was 
eighteen years old, and, subseiiuently, as a member 
of the editorial staff of the Minneapolis Evening for seventeen years, he acijuired ample 
e.sperieiu'e in metrnpolif an journalism. .As coni- editor of p.iper Mr. Jones developed 
;i reiii.irl'i.ibli- aptitude m the dilliciilt science of 
crop esliinating .iiid lorecastiiiL;. and bis close 
appro.Nimatiotis to oliieially declared results in 
the spring are.i. h.ive given him a wide 
rei'ognition in the coiiiniercial world as an expert 
crop istiiiiator In mm .Mr. Jones founded "The 
Coinmercial West," a journal devoted to the 
promotion of the financial and inter- 
ests of the West. This undertaking proved very 
successful and the paper has taken a place as a 
recognized authority in its lield. On Septemliei 



I, igo8. Mr. Jones, with his brother William S. 
Jones, purchased the Minneapolis Journal. He 
became the editor and his brother the business 
manager of the paper. He is a member of the 
Minneapolis, the Minikahda. the Ci)mmercial and 
the Sky-light Clubs. In 1885 Mr. Jones was 
married to Lydia G. Wilco.x. of Jefiferson. New 
York, and seven children liave been born to tlieni. 

KLEIN, William Livingston, publisher of the 
Journal-Lancet, is a native of Illinois. He was 
born at Barry, Pike county, on January 28, 1851. 
the son of Joseph and Agnes G. Klein. His 
father was a lawyer. He attended the local 
schools during his boyhood, and prepared for 
college at the Pittsfield, Illinois, high school 
From Pittsfield he went to Ithaca, New York, 
and entered Cornell University. After completing 
the four years' course he graduated in 1873 witli 
the degree of B. S. .\fter leaving college Mr 
Klein spent a few years teaching school being, 
successively, the principal of the Argyle Academy, 
.Argyle, New York; principal (for three years) 
of the Woodstock, Illinois, schools; and principal 
of the Jefferson, Illinois, high school^now a 
part of the Chicago school system. Since 1878 
he has been editor and publisher of professional 
books and periodicals. He came to Minneapolis 
in 1882 and for the past fifteen years has been 
manager of the Lancet, the leading paper of the 
medical profession in the Northwest. Mr. Klein 
is the author of "Why We Punctuate; or Rea 
son vs. Rule in the Use of iMarks," which was 
published anonymously and caused much com 
ment among literary and educational papers. It 
received high praise from the leading literarv 
journals of the country, and Dr. J. L. Pickard. a 
prominent .American educator, said of it: "The 
author has introduced punctuation into litera- 
ture." Mr. Klein was married in 1875 to Nora 
C. Sprague of Homer, New York, and they h.ivi' 
two children, Horace C. and Kenneth O. Tin 
family attends Trinity Baptist Church. 

McL.MN, John Scudder, editor of the Min- 
neapolis Journal, was born in Brown county, 
Ohio, on May 26, 1853, the son of James Robin- 
son and Nancy (Anderson) McLain. He spent 
his early years on a farm in Kendall county, Il- 
linois, where the family located in 1854. and at- 
tended the common schools, completing his edu- 
cation at Jennings Seminary, Aurora, Illinois, 
and at Wabash College, which he entered in 1870. 
He began newspaper work on the St. Louis 
Democrat in 1872 at the same time studying at 
Washington University at St. Louis. In 1875 he 
returned to Wabash College and graduated in 
1877 and in 1902 received the degree of A. M. In 
1897 he delivered the annual alumni address at 
Wabash. From college Mr. McLain went to 
Kansas City where he began newspaper work on 
the Kansas City Journal, acting as city editor and 
managing editor until 1881, when ill-health com- 
pelled him to take up another class of work. For 

four years he was in the employ of the A. T. & 

S. F. Railway at Topeka. Mr. McLain came to 
Minneapolis in 1885 as editor of the Journal and 
for a score of years has been one of the leading 
newspaper men of the northwest. He was vice- 
president of the Journal Printing Company until 
September i, 1908, when (with the other stock- 
holders) he sold his interests and retired from 
the editorship of the paper. .'\ tour of Alaska 
a few years ago was followed by the publica- 
tion in 1905 of ".Alaska and the Klondike," 
recognized as an authoritative work and 
the first comprehensive book written on the 
subject. He belongs to the leading local clubs — 
the Minneapolis, Commercial, Si.x O'Clock and 
others and is a member of the National Municipal 
League, .American Social Science Association, 
American Economic Association, National Geo- 
graphical Society, Phi Beta Kappa and Beta 
Theta Pi In 1881 he was married at Crawfords- 
ville, Indiana, to Miss Caroline E. Thompson. 
They are members of Westminster Presbyterian 

MEHAN, James Edward, general Northwest- 
ern agent for George Barrie & Sons, was born on 
November 21. 1866. in New York state, at Mechan- 
icville. Saratoga county. His parents were Mar- 


.lOII.N S, .Mil.AIN. 




till Mclian and Catlieriiio Mehaii, and at the time 
of hib l)irth his father was engaged in farming at 
Mrchanicville. James Edward began his educa- 
tion at that place, attending the public schooK 
and later continuing his studies for three years 
in the Meclianicville Academy. While in the 
academy he earned his tuition by performing jani 
tor services for the school and doing such other 
work as he could olUain. Having studied for 
three years at the Academy. Mr. Mehan left 
school and began his commercial training. He 
remained in the e.ast for .a few years and then ac- 
cepted a pcisiiiciii uitli Cieorge Barrie & Son-., 
the Philadeli>hia book publishers. In l.Syo he 
came to 'Minneapolis to take charge i>f the local 
branch of that lirm as its general northwestern 
agent, and lur llu- past seventeen years has filled 
that office. .\lr. .\lehan has made a pronnunccd 
success in establishing his business. In loni Mr 
Mehan began study at the University of Minn.- 
sota, entering the night Law Departnunl, Iron? 
which he graduated, after completing the three 
years' course, in 1904. His degree of Bachelor of 
Laws was received at that time. After two ye,■lr^' 
work in post graduate studies he obtained tlie ad 
ditional degree of Master of Laws in igoit. ,\lr 
Mehan does not practice his profession, lia\iii^; 
taken up his legal training as an assistance in 
his commercial work. In 1.S95 he was married to 
Stella .\. Neunian of l.illle h'alls, ^Minnesota, .•md 

thej' have one child, a daughter. They have al- 
ways resided in .Minneapolis, their present home 
being on I'ark avenue. 

MEYST, Frank Jay. resident manager of the 
.\. N. Kellogg Newspaper Company, was born at 
.-Xmsterdam, Holland, on January 23, 1858. His 
father was Peter Meyst and his mother Nellie 
(Faber) Meyst. He came to St. Paul with his 
father when only eight years of age. They were 
accompanied by five other families and together 
the colonists bought a full section of land in Sil- 
ver Creek, Wright county, Minnesota, from the 
old St. Paul and Pacific Railway. In those days 
farming meant Iiard work for the whole family 
and the boy up to the age of twelve had but tw-o 
years of schooling. In 1870 he entered the office 
of the St. Cloud Times and his education as 
printer and pulilisher — that of so many active 
and successful men — was obtained at the case and 
in the editorial chair. .A.fter eighteen months as 
printer's devil in the St. Cloud office he went to 
St. Paul and entered the employ of the late H. P. 
Hall who was then conducting the St. Paul News- 
paper Union. He continued with Mr. Hall for 
many years working for him during his ownership 
of the St. Paul Globe. For some twenty years 
he was associated with Mr. Hall for most of the 
time but at intervals had engaged in country 
journalism being the founder of the Brainerd Dis- 
jKilih anil the ( )sakis ( )liscrver. Soon after the 

I'ltANK .1. .Mi;vs'r. 



sale of the Globe to Louis Baker in 1885, Mr. 
Hall started the Mutual Benefit Publishers' As- 
sociation fur the making of ready printed sheets, 
with himself as president and Mr. Meyst as secre- 
tary. After two years this business was sold to 
the A. N. Kellogg Newspaper Company. .Mr. 
Meyst has been resident manager of the Kellogg 
Newspaper Company for the past fourteen or 
fifteen years. He is a prominent member ni the 
State Editorial Association and no man is better 
acquainted with newspapers and newspaper men 
throughout the Northwest. Mr. .Meyst is a 
Knight Templar and a Shriner in Masonry and 
a member of the Minneapolis Commercial Club 
and other local organizations. He was married 
on May 26, 1881, to Lena Furch of Minneapolis 
and they have four children, Lillian D., May E., 
Bessie L. and Frank J., Jr. 

NELSON, Milton Orelup, for many years a 
newspaper writer in Minneapolis, was born on 
September 24, 1859, at Wayne, La Fayette coun- 
ty, Wisconsin, the son of James H. and Sarah 
Nelson. He is descended from old Colonial 
stock. His first American ancestor, John Nel- 
son, came from Norfolk, England, about 1660 
and was a prominent citizen in Flatbush, .\'ew 
York. James Nelson, great grandfather of Mil- 
ton Nelson, fought in the French and Indian War 
and afterwards in the Revolution and his son 
Justus was a captain in the war of 1812. Mr. 
Nelson's father was born near West Point on 
the Hudson river and was a Wisconsin pioneer, 
settling in Waukesha county in 1844. On his 
mother's side Mr. Nelson comes from Con- 
necticut Puritan stock. After a boyhood spent 
on his father's farm, Mr. Nelson attended college 
at Lawrence University, .-^ppleton, Wisconsin, 
and at the University of Wisconsin from whicli 
he graduated with the class of 1884. His first 
newspaper work was that of editor and publisher 
of the Northwestern Mail, a weekly publication 
at Madison, Wisconsin. In 1891 he came to Min- 
neapolis and has filled the positions of asso- 
ciate editor of the Mississippi Valley Lumber- 
man, Commercial Bulletin and Commercial West, 
and has done much general newspaper corre- 
spondence and editorial writing. He has for 
years been an authoritative writer on lumber mat- 
ters and has been for some time secretary of 
the Northwestern Cedarmen's Association. Mr. 
Nelson early became interested in public afifair^ 
and especially in the beautification of public and 
private grounds on which subject he .has written 
and lectured in an enthusiastic but practical man- 
ner and has exerted his influence generally to 
better municipal conditions. In the fall of 1906 
he was elected a member of the board of park 
commissioners of Minneapolis for a six years' 
term. Mr. Nelson was married on June 20. 1889, 
to Anna M. Henry, of Madison, Wisconsin, and 
they have one son, Donald O. Nelson. They at- 
tend the Westminster Presbyterian Church. 

NI MOCKS. Charles A., for many years prom- 
inently identified with the newspaper and public 
life uf tlie city, is a native of Jonesville, Hills- 
dale county, ^lichigan. He was born on October 
16, 1842. He spent his early life in his native 
state, curtailing his education to enter the army 
on the breaking out of the Civil War and making 
an excellent military record as Captain of Com- 
pany C, Seventh Re.giment uf .Michigan Infantry 
volunteers. Mr. Nimocks came to .Minneapolis 
in 1871 and in i8S'o, m connection with George 
K. Shaw, bought the name and good will of the 
Evening Journal whose plant had just been de- 
stroyed by fire. He became business manager of 
the Journal and retained an interest in the paper 
until 1885 when he sold to the present owners. 
Mr. Nimocks spent two years in Detroit, Michi- 
gan, as business manager of the Tribune of that 
city and then returned to Minneapolis wdiere he 
started the Evening Star which he conducted for 
three 3'ears. One year later he founded the Min- 
neapolis Daily Times which he conducted for 
about three years. Later he assumed charge of a 
collection agency; in connection with which he 
established a bureau for the purpose of collecting 
back taxes w'hich had been over-assessed and 
over paid and he has recovered for tax payers 
a large sum of money. He is still the president 
of the company. Tn iqo8 he was appointed a 




deputy United States marshal and served four 
year>. Mr. Nimocks was one of the earliest 
members of the Chamber of dimmcrce and was 
one of the group of men whicli donated the site 
of the old Chamber. The first draft of the aet 
providing for a park eommission for Minneapolis 
was presented at a meeting of the old Board of 
Trade in 1882 by Mr. Nimocks. He took a very 
lively interest in ijromoting the necessary legis- 
lation looking to the founding of the magnificent 
park system of tlie city and was elected to the 
board at the first election held under the law 
nuring the two terms in which he served he 
an important part in the work of laying out the 
earlier ])arks and jjarkways. Mr. Nimocks was 
again elected to the park board in the fall of i<)o6 
and is now serving his third term in that body. 

NILSSON. Victor, editor and musical critic, 
is a native of Sweden, liorn March 10. 1867. He 
is the son of John and Bertha Nilsson. His 
father was a merchant a-, was his father before 
him- \'ictor Nilsson was graduated from the 
Latin College at Gothenburg. He came to Min- 
neapolis in 1885 and began his training for 
journalism. He has been an editorial writer 
and musical critic e\'cr since. .\t present he is 
musical critic for tlie .Minneapolis Journal. He 
is a doctor of philosophy. University of Minne- 
sota. 1807. l'"or ten years he had charge of the 
east side br.-inch. pul)Iic library He has pub- 

lished The Lives of the Presidents of the United 
Stales, 1893; History of Sweden. 1899: Lodd- 
fafnismal, Eddie study, 1898. Dr. Nilsson is a char- 
ter member of the American Union of Swedish 
Singers, and was secretary of the Scandinavian 
music festivals held in Minneapolis in 1891 and 
190J. Music runs in the family, Dr. Nilsson 
having two sisters wlio are professional singers. 
Emma Nilsson and I'ertha Nilsson Best. 

O'BRIEN, Frank G.. is a native of Maine, 
born at Calais on May 15, 184.?. His father Wet- 
more O'Brien, a lumberman, and one of the early 
settlers of St. Anthony, came to what is now 
East Minneapolis in 1855, when his son was 
twelve years old. .Mr. O'Brien's education was 
limited, as he attended school but eighteen 
months; and for three years previous to coming 
West he did his share, as was usual in the early 
days, tmvard keeping up the home, his first work 
])eing in a sawmill. He started an active busi- 
ness career immediately after coming to Min- 
nesota and has had marked success in his under- 
takings. He has now retired from active business 
life, however, and has placed his affairs in the 
hands of his son, Edward James O'Brien, while 
he devotes his energies to writing. His "Min- 
nesota Pioneer Sketches" was recently success- 
fully published, and he now has almost ready for 
the press the ".\dventures of the Jones and Jep- 
son Boys." In addition to his other literary work, 
he is a frequent contributor, in prose and verse, 
to the press and many have become acquainted 
with his articles through the local papers. Mr. 
O'Brien has been an active participant in the 
commercial, social and club life of the city since 
its infancy. He is an officer in the Minnesota 
and Hennepin County Territorial Pioneers' Asso- 
ciation and of the Writers' League and is a mem- 
ber of the Press Club; The Monday Club; of the 
Masonic Order; the Legion of Honor; the Min- 
nesota Historical Society and the New Thought 
Lyceum, lie attends the Unitarian Churcli. He 
was married on May 8, 1866, to Miss Lizzie E. 
Bostwick, ilaughter of Judge Lardncr Bostwick, 
a pioneer jurist of this state who came with her 
parents to the l-'alls c.f St. .\nthony ig 18.SO, ami 
was well known in the social life of the city, and 
as a writer of verse for the press. Their only 
child is Edward James O'Brien of this city. Mrs. 
( )'l')rien died nii Janu.iry I.!, 1908. 

I'^■;^■|)|<. l.uman C, editor and manager of 
F.irni I nipKinents, was jx.irn at Bay View, Mil- 
waukee county. Wis., January 8, 1864, the son ol 
William R. .and Elizabeth M. Pryor. His father 
is of luiglish origin, both father and mother hav- 
ing been born in that country. William R. Pryor, 
when ;ibou1 seven years of age. left I'.ngland with 
his father and ihe re>l n! liis f.imily. They set- 
tled first in Canada, near Toronto, removing a 
few years later to the United States, and takiny 
up their permanent residence at Rochester. New 
York. The spirit of adventure brought William 
' R, Prvor to the west in the later forties. He set- 

irtANN .1 nlllllKN. 



tied on tlie shore of Lake jNIichigan, and engaged 
in farming, his homestead being located within a 
very short distance of the townsite of Milwaukee. 
Many years ago, the city limits were sufficiently 
extended to include all of the Pryor farm. Here 
the childhood of Luman C. Pryor was spent. 
When thirteen years of age, he moved with tlie 
famih' to Waupun, Wis., following the death of 
his parents. He received his educaticjn in the 
common schools of Bay View, and the lii.i>:li 
school at Waupun. After leaving school, lie en- 
tered the newspaper business, and has made that 
his life work. In 1882, he moved to Minneapolis, 
and after spending ten years on the various pa- 
pers in Minneapolis and St. Paul, purchased Farm 
Implements, the paper which he has since con- 
ducted. At the time of acquiring this property, 
the business in farm inplements was divided be- 
tween the two cities, and Mr. Pryor has witnessed 
the wonderful growth of the trade in Minneapolis, 
including the gradual transfer of many of the 
houses in this line from St. Paul, until Minneap- 
olis has developed into the greatest implement 
center in the country. Farm Implements has kept 
pace with the growth of the business. It was 
established in 1887, but previous to 1892 had not 
made marked progress. An energetic policy and 
pro.gressive methods have developed the paper 
from meager beginnings to the position of one of 
the principal publications in the implement line. 
Mr. Pryor was married October 11. 1888, to Miss 
Lulu iMarion Judd, daughter of William A. and 
Alice M. Judd, of St. Paul. They have one 
daughter. Clarion G. Pryor. The family attend 
St. Mark's Episcopal church. Politically, Mr. 
Pryor is a republican, but is not active in politics. 
He is a member of various clubs, including the 
i\Iinneapolis, ^liinikahda, Lafayette and Commer- 
cial cUdjs. 

SMITH, Fred L., was born in Maine, July 2. 
1843. He came to St. Anthony in 1857 and has 
resided in Minneapolis ever since. He was mar- 
ried in 1869 to Roxana G. Sinclair and has two 
children, both married. He commenced the 
printing trade with Messrs. Croffut & Clark in 
September, 1857, and was carrier boy on the Falls 
Evening News, the first daily paper printed at 
the Falls of St. Anthony. In 1865 he was one 
of the founders of the Minneapolis Daily Chron- 
icle and when the Chronicle was merged with 
the Atlas in 1867, forming the Minneapolis Tri- 
bune, Air. Smith became superintendent of the 
mechanical department of the Tribune. In 1871 
he, with Col. Chas. W. Johnson, established a job 
printing business, and the present concern of 
Harrison & Smith Co., of which Mr. Smith is 
president, is the outgrowth of the partnership 
formed with Mr. Johnson in 1871. Mr. Smith 
has had considerable experience in public life, 
having represented the fifth ward in the City 
Council of the city of Minneapolis for five years, 
occupying the president's chair when he resigned 
in 1881. He has served ten years on the Park 
Board of the city, and is an ex-president of ihe 

board. In former years Mr. Smith was quite 
active in Masonic circles, and has passed the chair 
in all the Masonic bodies meeting at the lodge 
room of Cataract Lodge No. 2, in East Minne- 
apolis. He is a thirty-second degree Mason and 
for many years was secretary of the Scottish rite 
bodies of Minneapolis. 

SWIFT, Lucian, for twenty-three years pres- 
ident, manager and treasurer of the Minneapo- 
lis Journal, was horn at .Akron, Ohio, July 14, 
1848, the son of LiR-i-in (his father was chief 
justice of Connecticut) and Sarah S. Swift. He 
graduated from the Cleveland, Ohio, high school 
and from the University of Alichigan in 1869 
with the degree of M. E. In 1871 he came to 
Minneapolis and was connected with the draft- 
ing department of the Northern Pacific Railway 
until 1876. For the next nine years he was 
identified with the Minneapolis Tribune and in 
1885 with three others purchased the Alinneapo- 
lis Journal of which he was manager for twen- 
ty-three years. During all . this time he has 
been actively connected with the development 
of Minneapolis and the public enterprises of the 
northwest. On September i, 1908. Mr. Swift 
(with the other stockholders of The Journal) 
sold his interests and retired from the manage- 
ment of the paper. Mr. Swift is president of 



tlic Housekeeper Corporation. He is a meiii- 
licr oi the -Minneapolis. Commercial, Lafayette, 
-Minikalula. Minnetonka Yacht, and Bryn Mawr 
(iolf Club and Union League Club of ChicaKo. 
and of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. 

Swedisli-American weekly, sent its first number 
into the world October 25, 18S1. It was tlien 
imblishcd by the Swedish Publishing Company 
of Minneapolis, whose officers were X'ictor 
llerggren. ])residcnt: P. J. R. Clementson. treas 
urcr: and .Alfred .Soderstrom. secretary. Its first 
editor was .Magnus Lunnow. who held this posi- 
tion for nearly twenty years. Among the early 
contributors were Hon. John Lind. eiliting from 
Xew Ulm the judicial query (leii.irtiiient, Hon. 
llans Mattson. mostly correspondence during 
I ravels in Europe. India and Me.xico, Hon. .Al- 
bert Berg, then ot Fargo, and others. The paper 
has always been liberal in its tendencies, trans 
mitting and commenting upon news and the 
leading (piestions of the day without social, 
political or clerical restrictions, yet of moderate 
tone. It is educationl in purpose and republican 
as far .at its party aftlHations are concerned. 
Svenska Folkets Tidiiing was successful from its 
very start, gaining more than 3,000 subscribers 
within the first three nionllis of its publication 
and increasing this number more than three 
times within the second year. In 1883 the paper 
was sold by the Swedish Publishing Company 
to its three workers, .Alfred Soder- 
strom. Alagnus Lunnow .nid ( )lof lloglund, in 
whose possession it remained until the spring of 
iSgg. The paper's career has not been without 
its trying vicissitudes and has four times passed 
through fire. When the llrst Tribune P.uildiiig 
was destroyed in November. iSXc). the .Svenska 
I'olkets Tidning lost its entire plant, which was 
located on the seventh floor. This was a total 
loss to the owners as the insurance policies had 
just expired. The modern reiiuirements for :i 
newsp.iper. -olid l-.acking and an en 
larged. up to d.ile pl.inl. in l8()<), caused the in 
corporating of the Printing Company 
of Minnesota, into the hand- i>i which Svenska 
I'olkets Tidning was then placed. The incor- 
porators were N. O. Werner. (', A. Sinilb, |. P 
lledberg, P. 11. Stolberg. Carl joba 
Peterson, N, h'.. Xelson. Magnus Lunnow, C, j. 
Larson .-ind < )lr,f lloghiinl < >f Ihe-e the l.isl 
nieiilioiied lia-. later sold lii- sli;ii'es and .Magiin- 
l.nnnow and C. j. i .arson .ire dead. Carl Fk lias been the general inaii.iger ever since 
lX(j() .ind is in ;i large measure resjioiisible for 
the rapid strides of advancement ni.nle by I be 
p.aper of late years. The Svenska Fidkets I'iil 
iiing ])osscsses in Gudmund .Akermark, h'rnesi 
-Spangberg and I )r. X'ictor Xil-^oii three .able 
editorial writers. I'he former is editor in cliiel 
and also edits Odalmannen, a semi-nKJUthly tigri- 
cultural jiaper started by the Swedish Printing 
Coinp.iiiy ill .M.iy, 1004. Hr. Xilsson is also the 

imlilishe^ of a iiiontlily the organ of the 
.-American LMiion of Swedish .Singers. 

only Scandinavian daily jj.iper in the Northwest, 
was established in 1 SX7 by Mr, T. Guldbrandsen. 
.\lr, ( inldbr.iiidsen had been publishing a small 
\\ecd<ly paper at (iiMiid li.rks. Xortli Dakot.a. 
when he c.nicei\eil the bold pbiii of e-.talilisliing 
a Scandinavian d.iily in .\l inneaiiolis. The lirsl 
issue appeared on J.iniiar\ j_|. 18X7, No better 
illustration of the success which has been at- 
tained li\ Mr ( inldbrandseii in his undertak- 
ing could be olTered than a comparison between 
the modest looking four jiage. five-column sheet 
issued on the dale n.iined ,ind the handsome 
jubilee issue ol the pnbliealion twenty years 
l.iter. lanu.irv 24, 11)07. when ,1 thirty-two pagf. 
li.iper in.ide its ,a|ipear.ince. ]irofusely illustrated 
.111(1 full of interesting matter regarding the citv. 
:iiid especi.illy its .Scandinavian coiitin,gent. be- 
sides news in.ilter and iiumerous .articles. 
ICstablished as ii was .11 ,1 lime when the city's 
populati.m of .Scandinavian extraction numhercd 
.about 30.000. it took some little time for the 
"Tidende" to obtain a firm foothold, hut Min- 
neapolis grew, the Scandinavian element of the 
|iopul.ili, .11 increased still more ra]iiilly, .and the 



'"Tidendc" gained in influence and importance, 
until it today occupies an enviable position of 
prestige andi influence among the Scan- 
dinavians of this city. The Daily Tidende had 
been published but a few months when the 
rtve-cclunin pages were widened to six columns. 
.\l)out tlie same time a large Sunday edition was 
made a feature. The weekly paper which Mr. 
Guldbrandsen brought from Grand Forks was 
published separately until in 1888 he bought the 
weekly "Budstikken," established in 1873 and the 
oldest Norwegian paper in Minneapolis. Tlie 
two papers were published as one under the 
latter name. In 1890 Mr. Guldbrandsen bought 
"Faedrelandet og Emigranten," the oldest Scan- 
dinavian paper in .\merica, established under the 
name of "Emigranten" in 1851 at Inmansville, 
Rock county, Wisconsin, later moved to La 
Crosse and from there to ^linneapolis. Beginning 
with the year 1895 these various weeklies were 
consolidated and published as the "Minneapolis 
Tidende." This paper has increased steadily in 
circulation and importance and now stands as 
one of the largest, most influential and widely 
circulated Norwegian weeklies in .\merica. 

TURNBLAD, Swan Johan, was born October 
7, i860, in Tubbemala, Sweden, son of Olof M. 
and Ingjard Turnblad, who came to this country 
and settled at Vasa, Goodhue county, Minnesota, 
Swan at that time being only nine years old. 
The father, who was of limited means, engaged 
in farming and the son laid the foundations of his 
education at the public and high schools of Vasa, 
developing a strong tendency to be a printer. To 
gratify an instinctive yearning for that art he 
bought a small printing plant and taught himself 
enough of its mysteries to set up and print an 
arithmetic prepared by P. T. Lindholm, head of 
the Vasa high school, when he was seventeen 
years old. When nineteen years old he came to 
Minneapolis and set type on the Minnesota Stats 
Tidning and Svenska Folkets Tidning and, until 
1887, continued in such employment and that ol 
insurance solicitor until he was called upon to 
take charge of the Svenska Amerikanska Posten 
and raised it from a moribund condition to 
substantial prosperity as an independent paper in 
politics and an exponent of temperance princi- 
ples. Mr. Turnblad has given much of his atten- 
tion to the promotion of temperance principles. 
He organized the first Scandinavian temperance 
society in Minneapolis and, a prominent Good 
Templar, he has organized several lodges of that 
order in the state. Independent in politics, he has 
declined to enter the political arena as an office 
seeker and has accepted only one state appoint- 
ment, that of member of the board of managers 
of the state reformatory at St. Cloud, which was 
offered to him by Gov. Lind in 1899. He is a high 
degree Mason, a Shriner, an Elk, and a member 
of Westminster Presbyterian Church. Mr. Turn- 
blad is an interesting example of the energetic 
and progressive material which comes to this 

country with the Scandinavian immigration. He 
gives the best talents that he has to the welfare 
of his adopted country: lias proven himself a 
power in Scandinavian-.-\merican journalism, and 
has given liberally of his acquired fortune for the 
building up of the city where his life's greatest 
activities have been wrought. Coming to Min- 
neapolis with a few dollars, he has, by his own 
talent and industry, acquired a fortune. He be- 
lieves in buying Minneapolis realty and improving 
it. In 1883 iVIr. Turnblad was married to Chris- 
tina Nelson, of Worthington, Minnesota, and one 
child. Lillian Zenobia, has been born to them. 

WALDELAND. Erik, is a native of Norway, 
but has lived in this country since 1882, during 
most of which time he has been associated with 
the publishing business as at present, first in 
Iowa and later in the state of Minnesota. He 
was born at Christiansand, Norway, on January 
15, 1S61, the Sun of Erik Waldeland and Karen 
W. Waldeland. His father was a school-teacher 
and educator in the town of his son's birth, and 
Erik, junior, was raised in Norway, and attended 
school until he had reached the age of fifteen, 
getting a good preparatory education. He then 
obtained employment and a great part of the 
training that qualifies him for his present posi- 
tions has been acquired from the experience of 
actual business life. He remained in Norway 
until he was twenty-one in 18S2, and then came 
to this country and went into business in De 
corah, Iowa, where he remained until 1887. In 
that year Mr. Waldeland removed to Northfield, 
Minnesota, w'here he had been offered the position 
of manager of the Northfield Publishing Com- 
pany. This office he accepted, and remained in 
Northfield for three years, and devoted his time 
and energies to the establishment of a progres- 
sive and successful publishing concern. In 1890 
the business was sold to the .Xugsburg Publish- 
ing House of Minneapolis, and on the consolida- 
tion Mr. Waldeland was appointed assistant 
.general manager. He was promoted in 1904 
to the office of general manager and now 
lia-, entire charge of the business, and is 
rapidly making it one of the large publish- 
ing houses of the city. In 1904 also Mr. Wal- 
deland was appointed treasurer of the United 
Norwegian Lutheran Church of .'America, an of- 
fice which he still holds. Mr. Waldeland is a 
public spirited citizen and though never active 
in politics, is interested in all measures tending 
toward civic improvement ami is a member of 
several organizations for that purpose, among 
them the South Side Commercial Club. He is a 
member of the Bethlehem Norwegian Lutheran 
Church. In July, i8S6.^ he was married to Miss 
Edvine Osmundsen, who died in 1SS7 leaving one 
child, a son, Karl. Mr. Waldeland again married 
in 1891, his wife being Miss Ida G. Ness. The}' 
have five children, Leonora, Dorothy, Edmund, 
Marii' and Henry. 



THE business of banking in Minne- 
apolis had an inauspicious begin- 
ning, for the pioneer bankers had 
bcarcel_\- opened their doors when the 
])anic of 1857 swept over the coimtry car- 
rying away many older and much belter 
established tinancial concerns. In a new 
and isolated community where credit 
had not been firmly settled and capital 
had yet to be accunudated the effects 
of the ])anic were e\'en more disastrous than 
elsewhere. I'.ut the records of these early 
banking operations show a most creditable 
story of heroic endeax'ors to tide over dis- 
aster and self-denying loyaltv to the home 
business men and the community. 

IJanking was on a very different basis 
then than now. There were no national 
banks, onl)- crude state banking laws :ini\ 
no bank examiners: and, except in the larger 
eastern cities, no associations of bankers or 
any system nf mutual support. Minnesota 
was still a territory ; Minneapolis was 300 
miles from the nearest railroad and more 
completely out of touch with the east than 
are the remotest settlements in Alaska to- 
dav. Most of the earlier banks were con- 
ducted by men engaged also in other busi- 

Tin- t"n>l bankers at the l•'all^ of St. .\n- 
ili(jii\ wei'e Richard Martin, wlm came tn 
ihe village of St. Anthony in 1854, and 
I'aridiam & Tracy, who opened a bank in 
tin- ^anie vear. In 1855 Siiuon P. Snyder 
.md \\'m. K. McFarlane*'arri\'e(l in Minue- 
.ipiilis and at once formed a partnership in 
llie real estate and bank'ing business, be- 
coming the first bankers on the west side 
of the river. They were provided with 
ample capital and their energy and ])ro<;res- 
sive methods did nuich for the develoi)ment 
of the young city. C. H. Pettit arrived in 
the same vear and opened the second bank 

in Minneapolis. Messrs. Snyder and Pet- 
tit are believed to be the only survivors of 
this pioneer group of bankers. 

In 1857 Rufus J. Baldwin opened a bank 
in tlie olfl Cataract House on lower Wash- 
ington avenue, Cyrus Beede and R. J. Men- 
denhall commenced business on Bridge 
Sijuare and J. K. Sidle entered a long bank- 
ing career in the then newly completed 
Nicollet House. Other banks started soon 
afterwards were those of D. C. Groh, Orrin 
C'urtis, B. 1). l)orman and Graves, Towne 
& Co. 

H.-inking was conducted under great diffi- 
culties. The lack of currency, the isolation 
(if the frontier town, the impending panic, 
were all causes of trouble for the bankers. 
It is said that the ruling rate of interest 
was "three per cent ]ier month and five per 
cent after maturity." 

There was little available currency, and 
at one time "Indiana wild cat" — as the notes 
of certain Indiana banks were styled — was 
the chief circulating medium. To meet the 
need of small change the local merchan*^s 
issued scrip in sums of ten, fifteen, twenty- 
five and fifty cents. The following is an 
.'ictual ccipy of one of the issues: 

.Miimoapolis, Minn.. ( )cl. JOtli, 1S57. 
"25 Cts. Tills certific.'itf f<ir twcnly-l'ivi.- cents 
will be rc'ilrumcd with currtnt liank nutis, ;it 
(lur stiiro, ciirTKT nf Bridge and First siirct, wIhii 
prt-si-ntc-d. Ii> the anifnint nf nne dnIl.Lr," 

AK u )ki': X- i'()\vi-:r. 

These notes had .'i large circulation al- 
tliDUgh there was a very warm discussion 
over their issue. Later state scrip was is- 
sued and during 1858 sixty-four merchants 
joined in a ]jublished statement that they 
would receive state scrip at par for debts 
or goods. An attempt was also made to 
establish a curreucv in the form of notes 



secured on the state railroad bond issue of 

Conditions improved somewhat after a 
year or so but were again so bad in i80j 
that the town of MinneapoHs issued scrijj 
which was "redeemaljle in bank notes in 
sums not less than five dollars."' The sig- 
natures of S. H. Mattison and George A. 
Savory, president and secretary of the town 
organization, and the endorsement of R. j. 
IMendenhall, treasurer, gave this temporary 
currency a value which led to its free cir- 

Notwithstanding the ahuost incredible 
financial hardsliips of the young citv it i< 
a ni)tal)k' fact that not one of the jMoneer 
bankers failed to meet his obligations. Sonic 
were forced to discontinue business but all 
paid in full. 

Statehood and the adoption of banking 
laws and the passage of tlie national 
bank act l)rought about a better con- 
dition of affairs. At the same time the 
panic cleare<l the atiuosphere. The bankers 
who had developed staying powers jjulled 
thenisel\-es together and in the earlv si.xties 
the fiiinidations of some of the older banks 
of the present day were laid. K. ]. Mendeu- 
hall and Rufus J. Baldwin in hS*)^ bought 
out the State Bank of Minnesota at Aus- 
tin, antl reiuoving it to Minneapolis, founded 
a banking institution which was the virtual 
beginning of the present Security National 
Bank. In the same way the First National 
Bank grew out of the business of Sidle. 
Wolford & Co. In 1865 J. K. Si.lle re- 
organized the business under the name of 
the Minneapolis Bank, ami shortly after- 
wards, taking advantage of the passage of 
the national banking law started the First 
National Bank of Minneapolis, with the 
same capital, officers and business. 

From 1865 to 1873 there was almost ab- 
normal progress in the northwest. To meet 
the necessities of business, banks multii)lierl 
and constantly increased their capital. The 
first new bank to be organized in this period 
was the National E.xchange Bank, which 
began business in 1867, with a capital of 
$50,000, and }I. Miller of Troy, N. Y., as 
president and W. P. Westfall, cashier. 

Eight years later its business was wound up 
with all depositors paid in full. 

In 1868 the State Bank of Minnesota, 
whose organization has already been men- 
tioned, was merged into the State National 
liank of Minneajiolis. Its capital was $100,- 
000. R. J. .Mendenhall was president and 
R. J. Baldwin, cashier. T. A. Harrison, 
who was destined to become a most prom- 
inent figure in northwestern banking, suc- 
ceedetl Mr. Mendenhall, and two years af- 
terwards Joseph Dean became cashier in 
place of Mr. lialdwin. When the Security 
Bank was organized in 1878 the business of 
the State National was transferred to the 
new institution. 

The old City Bank was organized in 1869. 
J. \\\ fence was the first president, and T. 
J. Bn.xton, long a proiuinent banker of the 
city, was its cashier. In 1870 the First 
.National Bank of St. Anthony was formed 
and subsequently became the Merchants' 
National Bank of Minneapolis 

The year 1872 saw the founding of the 
Northwestern .National Bank. It com- 
luenced with a capital of $200,000. The late 
Dorilns Morrison was the first ])resident. 
In the centennial year of 1876 the Citizens 
baidv was added to the early list of Min- 
neapolis financial institutions. The Hen- 
nepin County .Savings I'.ank was founded 
in 1870, and the Farmers' and Mechanics' 
B.ank in 1874. The Security Bank of Min- 
nesota was organized in 1878 with a capital 
of $300,000. 


At this period, now about thirty years ago, 
the ba)d<ing center of .Minneapolis was at 
Washington and Hennepin avenues. The 
First National was at Nicollet and Wash- 
ington. J. K. Sidle was president, and H. 
(j. Sidle, cashier. Directly on the corner 
of Hennepin and Washington were the Hen- 
nepin County Savings Bank and the Bank 
of Minneapolis, the former officered by 
Judge E. S. Jones as ])resident and J. E. 
Bell, cashier, and the latter headed by T. W. 
Wilson. The City Bank vyas one block down 
Hennepin, at .Second street, and direetly 
back of it, on the Nicollet ayenue front. 
Valentine G. Hush conducted a private 
baid\, The old ^krchatits' National was 



located \u^\ iinrlli ol' I Iciiiu-piii awiuiu on 
\\'ashiiif>ton. and ilic Sccuiity liaiik was at 
Third and I Icnnrpiii. Tlu' .\<irth\\-cstern 
National was at l'"irst avenue sonth and 
Washington, and the I'arniers' and .Mechan- 
ics' Savin,e;s liank- at Xicollet and Washing- 
ton. The only hank in the eitv outside of 
the immediate vicinity was the Citizens,' 
which was at Washington and Fifth avenues 
south. X. J-', (iriswold was its president 
and ( ieorge Ik .Shepherd its cashier. 

I 'm-ing the next decade there was a de 
cided tendency towards scattering. lUii 
this movement was (|uickly follnwed 1)\- on: 
111 eimcentialion ;ind nearly .all the changes 
of Incatiiin of (he ki'-l fifteen ni' twenty years 
ha\f been tdw.ards a new cimnnon center in 
the general \'icinity of k'irst axenue south 
and h^uirtli street. 

Concurrently with this centralization of 
the larger hanking interests has developed 
a group of neighhorhood or outhdng hanks, 
serving the needs <if the smaller lnisine>s 
centers of the city which lia\e come to large 
commercial importance during the past 

.Another notable de\elo])ment of later 
years been the erection of peiananent 
banking buildings. When the banks of a 
city abandon rented (|uarters ami establish 
lliemM'hes in buildings of their 
own, little need be s.iid ol the stabilit\ o| 
the institutions .md (he ccjiilidence of fman- 
cial circles in the future of the place. ( )ne 

i: I- -Mi:.Mi|..\HAi.i. s i;a.\k. 
(•iirmr .if Mrsl slici'l ami niiiiupiM .ikhui.. .Miniil 1.S7II. 


111. II I'llisr NATIUNAI. i:a.\k 

of the lirst to build was the h'armers' ami 
-Mechanics' .Sa\-ings Hank. The .Xorthvvest- 
ern X'atiiinal erected in ii/)^ the finest bank- 
ing house west of Chicago, '["he Swedish 
.American oeenjiies its own building and 
the First National completed in 11^07 one of 
the most comjilete exclusi\e hank buildings 
in the country. 'I'he Secui-it}- .Xational holds 
peiiiianent and especially constructed cpiar- 
ters in a building which bears its name. The 
.St. Anthony |-"alls I'lank owns its own hand- 
some building and the ( lerman-.American 
has erecle 1 one of the most substantial and 
architectui ally 1 eaiitiful banking houses in 
the city. 

I III' 1 II- \i<i \i; iiorsi-:. 
In iSSo the .Minneapolis Clearing House 
.\ssoeiation was organized. I'rexious to 
that time exchanges were etYected through 
messengers. With the organization of the 
clearing house. .Minneapolis hanking affairs 
were gi\eii a beder looting, the clearings 
ie]ioi(cil and the city was given its 
as one o| the centers of the 
In iSSi the clearings were $1^,487,- 
In iSS:; they had reached $87,568,000, 
.and ill i.'^S5, ,S I 25,000,000. The year t8(jo 
loimd tlieiii at $30_^, 000,000: 1895, $.?7^.ooo,- 
000: 11,00, S57<).ooo,ono, and 1005. $913,000,- 
cno. In |i;oCithey reached $<)<)0,ooo,ooo, and 
in 11J07 p.assed the billion m.ark with 
a total of $1,145,4(12,140. 

I'or iii.iny years the Clearing 1 louse 
ser\ed its original |iiirpi se as a medium for 
the il.ail\- exch.anges, but it has gr.idualh' 
assumed barker functions and within the 





past ten years the clearing house banks of 
the city have virtually become an associa- 
tion for mutual protection and public safety. 
They employ their own special l)aiik 
examiner through whom they keej) infurniecl 
of the condition of all local financial institu- 
tions including their (iwn membershi]i; and 
stand ready to act for the connnon <^{nu\ in 
e\'cnt of complications in a single institu- 
tion or general financial difficulty. 

During the decade of i88o-i;0 banks miil 
tiplied in .Minneapolis as thev did in all pari- 
of the country. I^.ut the cnnrnicius growth 
of the city and its surrounding terrilnrv 
made possible an e.xpansi(_)n here which was 
not witliout its evils. Too many banks w ere 
started. Some of them were excellent in- 
stitutiuns and successfully weathered tlu- 
financial sttirms of the next decade, hut 
others were (ptitc unnecessary and. managed 
by men of little financial experience and bad 
judgment, succumbed to the first scpiall of 
the storm of '93. Of the banks organized 
during the eighties which are still in exis- 
tence the most important are the Peoples 
Bank, 1886, the Swedish American National, 
1888, and the German-American, 1887. The 
National 15ank of Commerce, the Xicollet 
National, tlie -Metropolitan — all strong bank- 
ing houses in the eighties — were merged 
into other banks during later vears. More 



I i;i n.iiix(; or -iin.; MHrrnwKSTioux .\atiox.\l 


ri.riii'i' w.iNiiiiii;i.,ii Miiii Fiisi ■■ivi' s.iiitli. .\hmit issn. 

recently ha\e been (irganized the St. An- 
thony b'alls I'.ank, the ( ienu.inia, the Alin- 
uesota National, the East Side State Bank, 
the Union State Bank and the Metropolitan. 

]!.\NKS .\.\ii e.\iTr.\i. j\ i(;oS. 
A complete list of the banks of tlie citv 
;it the ])rcsent time, with their capital, fol- 
lows : 


''ir--t $2,000,000 

M innesota 200,000 

Xiirtlivvesturn 2,000,000 

.Security 1 ,000,000 

.Sucilish .\iiiericaii 500,000 


Cunti-al $ 25,000 

luist Side 100,00c 

(JiTinania 50,000 

( Jeniiaii-.\iiieric;iii I00,00r 

Hennepin C'lnnty 

Merchants' & .Manul'artnrers" 50.000 

Metropolitan 100,00c 

People's 60,000 

St. .Xnthony Falls 200,00G 

Sontli Side 50,000 

I'niiin 50,000 

Tiit.-il capital $6,585,000 

This statement of banking capital as con- 
trasted with the !sj(H),(X)() credited to the 
.\linnea|)olis banks forty years ago is sig- 
nificant. The development of banking facil- 
ities lias been phenomenal. .As late as 1870 
llic {'A''\ caiiil,a!iz;ition i.if Mimicapolis banks 




/^^^^^^HHk^ ' ' ^m 


/W 19 «■ 


mL ^ 


1 -^ 



was i;ivcn as $270,000. In iSSn it was rc- 
l)nrU'd as $2,434,800; in iSijo, $7,1)05,000. Af- 
ttT 1893 the total was considerably rcducetl, 
1ml ill 1900 was $4,835,000. In 1903 it had 
ad\anced to $5,635,000, and at the close of 
1007 to $6,585,000. 

But this does not show the full capital 
assets of the l)anks, for nearly all of them 
carry heavy siu'plus accounts, aggregatin;; 
apprnxiniately $5,oo(),oo(), Dr fiilh- cit^lit\ 
per cent 1 if Ihe capilal s|i ick. 

iJeposils shdw ;i niar\rlnns growth (if 
wealth in the city and the northwest. In 
1866 the \-illagc was ]jr()ud of a statement 
of $493,000, aggregate deposits. In 1870 the 
total had rea(die(l $850,000, hut ten years 
l.'iter, in t8,So. tlu- ileposils anionnted to 
,$.J, 2(14, 000. I'ly l8i;o Ihey had mounted np 
to $27,752,000. This included savings hank 
deposits of over $5,000,000. There was, of 
course, a falling off after ■1)3, Init the recov- 
ery was rapid ;ind liy njoj {\]r totals had 
reached lifty millions. The last statement 
of i(;o7 sliowi-d t(jt;ils of $79,327,666. wdiich 
included some $15,000,000 deposited in sav- 

ings banks, l;)nt did not include the deposits 
of trust companies or fnmls in the hands 
"I private bankers. 

IXDl\-IDl'.\r. Il.WK HISTORY. 

Tlu' individual history of the older banks 
of tbc city is of nuich interest. The oldest 
bank is the First National, which, as has 
been stated, grew out of the Ijusiness 
founded by J. K. Sidle in 1857. This busi- 
ness became the Minneapolis Hank — a state 
institution — and that in turn was succeeded 
in 1864 by the F'irst Xational, whose charter 
number was 710. The first Ijoard of direc- 
tors consisted of J. K. Sidle, president; H. 
i'l. Sidle, cashier; G. Scheitlin, Loren 
Fletcher, E. P., Ames, D. C. Bell. E. A. 
\'eazie, Anthony Kelly and ^^'. A. I'enni- 
man. John Martin was added to the hoard 
in i8'i6. At the start the capital of the First 
Xational was $50,000, hut it was raised to 
$roo,ooo in 1872, to $200,000 in 1S74, to 
$600,000 in 1877, to $1,000,000 in 1885, and 
to $2,000,000 in 1903. The present officers 
are I-". AI. Prince, president; C. T. Jafifray, 
\ice-president ; George F. Orde, cashier; 
and 1). Mackerchar, K. C. lirown and H. A. 
W'illoughby, assistant cashiers. The capital 
is $2,000,000; the surplus $2,000,000 and the 
deposits $14,600,000. 

Idle Northwestern National Pank was or- 
ganized April 23, 1872, by Dorilus Morri- 
son. II. T. Welles, Anthony Kelly, Paris 
(iibson, ]•. '>. (libson, (". G. Goodrich, E. 
.\. Harmon, llmi. William Windom, S. E. 
.\eiler, A. II. llMruey of New York, C. B, 
W right and W G. Moorhead of Phila- 
del|)hia. The authorized was $200,- 
000. Dorilus Morrison was elected pres- 
ident and S. E. Neiler cashier. The bank 
wa'- openeil for business on September 21, 
1872, with $183,000 paid up capital, and 
deposits of $80,651. Eater H. T. Welles be- 
came president and S. .\. Harris cashier, and 
the capilal \\;is iiu'reased to $r,O0O.O0O. Af- 
ter several changi-s in the course of years, 
Win. II. hunwoody became jiresident. M. 
P. Koon, vice-president; lulward W^. 
Meeker, vice-president ;ind ;icli\e manager; 
Joseph ('ha|.)inau, Jr., cashier, ;inil I^rank E. 
Holton, Charles W . b'arwell ;ind K. E. Mac- 
(jregor, ;issislant cashiers. Under this 



manao;ement the bank made rapid advances, 
and on Ma\' 14. 1908, its statement showed 
a snrphis of $1,000,000, undivided profits 
of $321,000. and deposits of over 
In June the Northwestern absorbed the 
National Hank of Commerce, consohdating 
the business of the two banks and shortly 
afterwards increased its capital stock to 
$2,000,000 and its surplus to $2,000,000, 

Powell, cashier. In 1888 J. W. Raymond 
was elected president and the ca[)ital in- 
creased to $1,000,000. The next year H. H. 
Thayer was elected cashier. These officers 
niaiia.<rerl the bank until 1892, at which time 
.Mr. Raymond retired to become president 
• of the Xorthwestern and S. A. Harris, who 
had formerly been associated with the 
Northwestern, was elected president. In 


iKcf<s & (■(illivini 

while the deposits of the enlarged institu- 
tion reached approximately $20,000,000. 
The officers of the bank remained the same 
except that Mr. Chapman became a vice- 
president and Mr. Holton the cashier, while 
A. A. Crane, vice-president of the liank of 
Commerce, and W. F. McLane. S. .S. Cook, 
and I. I". Cotton, assistant cashiers, as- 
suiried the same positions in the .North- 

The National Bank of Commerce had 
been organized in 1884 with a capital of 
$400,000. The first officers were E. F. Gould, 
president; \^, G. Hush, vice-president: ^Vm. 

lON.VL B.VNK Brn.DINr,. 

I. .\icliitects. f 

January. 1895. •^- •"^- Crane was elected as- 
sistant cashier and in January, 1900, became 
its cashier. The officers at the time the 
bank retired from business were: S. A. 
Harris, president; A. A. Crane, vice-pres- 
ident; F. E, Kenaston, vice-president: \\'. 
S, Harris, cashier: ^\'. F. McLane. S. .S. 
Cook and I. F. Cotton, assistant cashiers. 
The origin of the .Security National Bank 
has already been traced from the State Bank 
of Minnesota, brought from .Austin to Min- 
neapolis in 1863 by R. J. Mendenhall and 
Rufus J, Baldwin. T. A. Harrison came 
into the bank in 186S, and in 1878 the 



Security Rank of jNIinnesota was organized 
and the business of the State Bank was 
transferred to the new instilutinn. The 
capital was $300,000, and T. A. Ilarrison 
was president, his brother, 11. ( .. I larrikin, 
tile vice-president, and Josepli Dean, casli- 
ier. Tlie lioard of directors included these 
officers and Juiline C. K. N'anderljur^h, 
jndi,a' l-'ranklin I'.eebe. Judije J. .M . Shaw 
and W . W. McXair. The hank cnnnnenced 
business in the building at Third street and 
Hennepin avenue, now (iccn|ned by the 
W eslern I niim lelegraiih ( nni|iaii\. In 
iSji) the capital was increased to $400,000, 
and in i88cj to $1,000,000. The death of Mr. 
T, A. llarrisiin in 1S77 and of his brother 
in 1891 removed the founders of the bank, 
liut their policies were continued b\' !■'. .\. 
Chamberlain, who became president, and 
Perry Ilarrison, a son of Hugh (1. Ilarrison, 
who l)ecame cashier and subseipienth- vice- 
president. In igo8 the Securit}' became a 
national bank. The statement of July, iljo8, 
showed caiiital $1,000,000, siu'plus $1,000,- 
coo, and (le])osits of $13,427,702. The offi- 
cers are now: b". .\. Chamberlain. ])resi- 
dent : I'erry Harrison. \-ice-presi(lenl ; b'.. b". 
-Mearkle. x-ice-jiresiilent ; J. S. I'omeroy, 
cashier; b'red .S])affor<l. ( ieorge Lawther, 
!>. 11. I'.ezoier, assistant cashiers. 

The Swedish-American .National I lank 
was organized as the Swedish .\merican 
liank in 1888, and began l)usiness with a 
capital of $100,000. ( ). X. ( )strom. fornierK- 
a banker at l*.\'ans\ille, Minnesota, was 
president; C'ol. Mans .Matt^on. secretary of 
st.ate for Minnesota, the \ice-president ; and 
N. ( ). Werner, formerly of Rt-t] Wing, 
cashier. It gained a foothold at once, and 
its gro\s lb was rapid .and substantial, neces- 
sitating in two years an increase in capital 
to ,$250,000. ^Ir. Mattson resigned the \ ice- 
prt-sidenc\' .alionl this time .ind suc- 
ceeded bv ( . S. Ilnlbert. wlio h,is since held 
ihe |)(]silioii. In lX(;3 occurred ihe death ot" 
I'resident ()slroni, .Mr. Werner succeeded 
him. In i8i;4 the b;ink reoi'ganized im- 
der a'ti'r. The e;L])ital of the 
bank was again increased in |ul\. 11)05, to 
$500,000. The surplus and profits ae 
$400,000, and llu- ile])osits about ,$3,200,000. 
Tlu- preseiH ofticers are X. ( ). Werner. 

president ; C. S. Hulbert, vice-president ; J. 
.-\. Latta, \ice-president ; E. L, Mattson, 
cashier; and .\. \'. Ostrom, assistant cashier. 
The Hennepin County .Savings Bank was 
organized in 1870 b\ the late Judge E. S. 
Jones and J. E. Bell, the_\- being respectively 
president and cashier. The capital was at 
first $50,000, but was increased to $100,000 
within a few years. Both a savings and a 
general banking business have been done 
and the l)ank has been \er\- successfid. Af- 
ter many _\ears location at the corner of 
Washington and Hennepin avenues, the 
bank moved to the I'hoeni.K building at 
b'onrth street and First avenue south. The now shows a surplus of $100,000 and 
d(.'posits of $4,000,000, and the officers are 
as follows: John E. P.ell, president; David 
I'. Jones. \ice-])resident ; W. H. Lee, 
cashier, and 11. H. I'arber, assistant cashier. 
These with b". A. Chamberlain, David C. 
liell, ]•". M. I'rince. and .\ndrew Tharalsoii 
are the trustees. 

The b'armers' & .Mechanics' Sa\ings Bank 
of .Minneapolis was formed in 1874. Eder 
11. .\loidton was its treasurer and manager 
at the outset and for many years, building 
it up from nothing to the ])Osition of the 
largest savings bank in the Northwest. Its 
board of trustees has always included a 
grou]) of the strongest business men of the 
city. b"or many years Clinton Morrison was 
president. In 1^05 Mr. Monlton's outside 
business interests led Inm to withdraw from 
the management of the bank and X. F. 
Hawiey was elected treasurer, and has 
since served the bank as its executive offi- 
cer. The deposits are now about $11,500,- 
000, and the officers are: John DeLaittre, 
president; Thomas Lowry, vice-])resident ; 
( ». (,'. W yman. second vice-president and 
,assisi;mt tieasurer; .X. 1'. 1 lawdey, secretary 
.and Iri-asui-er. The ofticers with H. C, Ake- 
K\ . T. I'>. i,inne\ . C. S. I.angdi>n. E. II. 
Moultoii. W ni. C. Xorthup. ,\. b. I'illsbnry. 
:ind |olm Washburn constitute the board of 

The ( ierm.m .Xmerii'.an Hank was or- 
ganized in I S80 :it rivmouth ,ind Xr)rth 
W ;ishinL;'on ,^\enue^ b\ ,\ntlion\ Kellw .\. 
II. l.inton. Ilenr\ ( Innd. |olui llcinrich. 
b'dmund b.ichhorn, l\. I'., I ..ini.;(|on. f. 



.M. Griffith, E. C. Chatfield, Charles Gluek, 
J. A. Schlener, Henry Doerr, Jas. C. Miller, 
Henry Winecke, George Huhn. Geo. W. 
McClelland, Robert Pratt and J. C. Oswald, 
and with a capital of $50,000. On the first 
of January, 1886, the deposits were only 
$36,000, but from this they have grown to 
about $1,850,000. The present capital is 
$100,000, and the surplus is also $100,000. 
The jiresent officers are: Francis A. Gross, 
president : Chas. Gluek, vice-president : J. 

came its cashier. Its capital is $50,000, 
with as much more in surplus and undivid- 
ed profits accounts, while its deposits are 
over $400,000. Its officers are : I'. E. Kena- 
slini, president; .\. M. Woodward, vice- 
president: Cmirad i!irkii<ifer, \ice-i3resi- 
dent: A. A. .McRae, cashier: Olaf E. N. 
()ls(in. assistant cashier. 

The I 'copies Rank dates hack to 1886, 
wlien it was founded by .\. 1). Cotton. It 
was reorsranized some time later, and for 

THE I'HiST NATlll.NAI. I!.\.\K r.fir.DING. 

M. (iriffitii, vice-president : G. E. Stegner. 
cashier: G. I'. Iluhn, assistant casliier. 

'1 he Cicrmania Hank was organized liv 
(Jttd I'",. Xaegele in 1803. It has Ijeen very 
successful, and in addition to its capital of 
S50.000, has a surplus fund appro.xiniating 
that amount and deposits reaching u])- 
wards of half a million. The present offi- 
cers are : (). ]•;. Xaegele, president : E. 
Paulle, vice-president: J. J. Heinrich. vice- 
president: (leorge \'ollmer, assistant casii- 

The South Side .State Bank was orga- 
nized in 1899 by .A. -A.. McRea. who be- 

many years has been dnjng a prospenius 
Inisiness at the uM (|u:irter- nf the l-'irst Na- 
tional, cnrner Xicollet and Washington 
avenues. Its capital is $60,000, and its de- 
posits are over $400,000. 'lie officers are: 
H. (j. Merritt. president; (1, j. Sherer, vice- 
president; C. E. Grandin. vice-president: 
C. K. Cotton, cashier; II. 1). Davis, assist- 
ant cashier. 

Two of the more recent banks of the city 
are the East Side and the Metropolitan. 
The former was organized in 1906, with F. 
P.. P>arney as president and Ibnvard Dyk- 
man as cashier, 'idle baid< has made rapid 



protjrcss. Its capital is $100,000 and de- 
posits run well over $200,000. The officers 
are : F. E. Barney, president ; Isaac Haz- 
lett, vice-president; D. I.. Case, cashier; 
C. L. Campbell, assistant cashier. The JNlet- 
ropolitan was incorporated in April, 1907, 
with a capital of $100,000, and George C. 
Merrill a^ president. In a year's time it 
was carrying deposits of a[)proximately 
twice the amount of its capital. The offi- 
cei-s are now: \'. H. A'an Slyke, president: 
M. K. \\'aters, vice-president; C. F. Wy- 
ant, cashier. 

TRl'ST C0.MI'.\.\"1ES. 

In 1883 the business of trust companies 
was commenced in Minneapolis by the Min- 
nesota Loan & Trust Company, which was 
formed by F. .\. Merrill and F. J. Phelps, 
the former being president and the latter 
secretary. The cajntal stuck was first $200,- 
000, Init was soon increased to $500,000. 
The ciimpany erected a fine uffice building 
at 313 Nicollet a\-enue, which it still occu- 
pies. It has been very prosperous, and now 
shows a surplus accnunl of some $250,000. 
The officers are: F. A. Merrill, president; 
M. [j. Koon, vice-president and trust offi- 
cer; .-K. M. Keith, vice-president; H. F. 
Moore, treasurer; W. .\. Durst, secretary. 

The Minneapolis Trust Company was 
formed in 1888 l^y Samuel Hill, who w^as 
its first president, with Clarkson Findley 
as secretary and treasurer. Its capital is 
$500,000, with $250,000 in the surplus ac- 
count. For years the company occupied its 
Imilding at boiuih street and Hennepin 
a\enin', but in 11J07 nio\x'd into the new 
Mrst .Xalional I'.ank' bnilding, occupying 
the b.'inkiiiL; riii>ni .\o. loy .South b'iflh 
street. The present officers are: r.lbridge 
C. Cooke, president; Win. II. I )un\yo( iily. 
\ ice-i)resideHl : Robeit W . Webb, secretary 
.and treasurer. 

B,•\RNK^■, I'rcd Elisha, president of the East 
Side State I'.ank. (if .Minneapolis, was tjorn at 
Swanton. W-rnionl, Octolicr 10. 1,^59, tlic son of 
V'aleiUine Ci. .-ind .Mari.i I., ti.irncy. Tlu: fatlicr 
was in llie marble hnsinc-ss in Vermont; seived 
in the Civil War and was Lieutenant-Colonel ol 
llie Ninth regiment of Vermont volunteers. In 
i86g the family left .Swanton and moved to Min- 
neapolis and. in 1S72. moved to Charles City, 

Iowa. In the autumn of 1881 he came back 
to Minneapolis to work in the Commercial Bank. 
Last Minneapolis, having had business trainiuR 
m an abstract and loan office in Charles City. 
Iowa, where he attended the public schools. Dur- 
ing the last two years of service in the Commer- 
cial Bank, Mr. Barney was assistant cashier. 
Since March, 1888. he has conducted an insurance, 
loan and real estate agency in Minneapolis repre- 
sinting five important insurance companies. He 
was active in the organization of the East Side 
■State Rank, in 1906, and became its president. He 
has always been a republican in politics and was 
elected, in igoo. a member of the board of county 
connnissioners and served four years, in 1903-4 
being chairman of the board. He is a member of 
the Commercial Club, and is a director and has 
been a member of the public affairs committee; 
a member of St. .\nthony Club and a director; a 
member and director of the Minneapolis Whist 
Club; a member fif the Masonic order and of the 
Sbriners. Mr. Barney attends the First Congre- 
gational church, but is not a member of any 
church. He was married September 17, 1885, to 
.Mary Case, of Charles City, Iowa, and to them 
three children have been born — Hadwen C, 
Elizabeth and Mary, all of whom are attending 
the East Minneapolis high school. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Francis A., president of 
the .Security National Bank, was born April 20, 
1855. at Bangor, Maine, son of James T. Cham- 
berlain, a merchant of that city. Mr. Chamber- 
lain passed his early years at Red Wing, Minne- 
sota, where he attended the public schools and 
subsequently studied two years at the State Uni- 
versity )iut did not graduate. His business train- 
ing was earl}' devoted to banking and finance for 
which he proved himself admirably adapted, nota- 
bly because such special knowledge rested upon 
a ])road substructure of gnod general busi- 
ness princii)les. Mr. Chamberlain has shown 
himself to he a wise financial counselor, and the 
.Security National Hank, under his management, 
lias proved itself to be one of the strongest bank- 
iii.i; iiislilulioiis in (lie Northwest. He is an 
e.Naiiiplr III sh;i(lf.[st .idliercnce to economic and 
rin.aneial triilli .Mr fiianilicrlain is a director 
(,f ilir M iiiiu-a]>cili.. .\llicnaL-uin and a member 
.if llie .\1 iiiiie l]loli^ and Ci clubs. His 
church alliliaticin- arc with the Methodist Episco- 
pal denomination. He w.i- married on May 23, 
188.? to Frances b'oss, daughter of Bishop Cyrus 
I). Loss. They have three children — Cyrus, Ruth 
and Caro. 

CXMI'IM'!.!., Wallace, lawyer and banker, 
was born .it W.iverly. Tioga county. New 
^■ol■k. September 8. iXd.v He is the son of 
Solomon C, Caiiipbell and .Mary .\urelia (Far- 
well) Campliell. His father was, for twenty-two 
years, resident buyer at New York City for the 



Chicago house of J. V. Farwell & Co. There 
was stanch Scotch-American ancestry on both 
sides. Camphellstown, New York, was founded 
by Robert Cainpljcll. fjreat-grandfather of Wal- 
hice. On tin- maternal side another great- 
grandfather, John Kno.\, founded Knoxville, 
now part of the city of Corning, New York. 
Wallace Campbell was educated in the public 
schools of Corning and at Hamilton College, 
from which he graduated in 1K83, as an A. B. 
.\fter a year of alternate teaching in the Brooklyn 
Polytechnic and of study at Columbia Law 
School, he was admitted to the New York Bar, 
beginning practice in the Hon. R. W. Todd's of- 
fice. Two years later he came to Minneapolis 
where he became a member of the law firm of 
Stryker & Campliell until 1891, when he entered 
the firm of Hill Sons & Co., bankers. Seven 
years later he gave up lii> interests here to be 
vice-president of the N'orthwestern Life Insur 
ance Co. Mr. Campbell later became presiilenl 
of the People's Bank. He has also occupied 
other positions of trust and responsibility in 
business and professional ways. He is an ar- 
dent republican, stumped the state in the Harri- 
son campaign of 1888, and has been a frequent 
contributor to the best magazines of the country, 
writing upon national topics with force and ease. 
He is an enthusiast on rare books — also upon out- 
door sports; and a llrst edition ha'; the same 
charm of the chase fur him that the lirst trout 
catch has. .\lr. Campbell belongs to the Mimic 
apolis Club, the .Minneapolis Commercial Club and 
the Twin City Bankers Club and the Automobile 
and ;\liltona Clubs. At I,ake Miltona he has a 
country home. He attends the Presbyterian 
church. lie was niarrieil in 1886 to .Minnie V. 
Adams, of Chica.go, and has two (laughters. 

CH.-VPMAN, Joseph, Jr., vice president of the 
Northwestern National Bank, is a native of Iowa. 
He wa-i burn in nubuque on October 17, 1871. 
He is the von of Joseph and Catherine Cassidy 
Chapman. His father for many years has been 
connected with the railroad business and at the 
'ime of his son's birth was division freight agent 
01 the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad 
with headquarters at Dubucpie .\t the pnsent 
time he is located 'J.t f'airport, I )hio. .in man.igcr 
of the terminals <.f the Baltimore & Ohio road 
The son attended tin- pulilic schools of DubU(|ue 
until 1887, uluii (lu- lainily movrd from low.i ti' 
this city. He at once entered the Central high 
school to linish his preparatory course and grad- 
u.ated the following year. L'pon graduation Mr. 
Chapman obtained a position with the Northwest- 
ern National Hank and has since been continu- 
ously connected with that institution. He ad- 
vanced rapidly from one position to another and 
was appointed cashier several years ago. As an 
.aid to his business training Mr. Chapman took 
the night law course of the University of Min- 
nesota .and graduated in 1807. Mr. Chapman is 

a member of several of the social and municipal 
improvement organizations of the city and is 
well-known among his associate business men. 
He is a member of the Jlinneapolis Board of 
Charities and Corrections, and also belongs to 
the Minneapolis Club, the Minikahda Club, and 
the Si.x O'clock Club, of which he was president 
in 1906-7. For six years, from i-goo to 1906, Mr. 
Chapman w'as secretary of the Minnesota Bank- 
ers' .Association and has served as a member of 
its executire council and in 1908 was elected its 
president. He is also a member of the execu- 
tive council of the American Bankers' Associa- 
tion, as well as a member of the board of trustees 
df the American Institute of Bank Clerks. He is 
a clear-cut forceful speaker and is frequently 
ailed upon to make addresses on financial and 
business topics. In 1897 ^If- Chapman was mar- 
ried to Miss Elizabeth Mayhew of Eau Claire, 
Wisconsin, and they have two daughters, Kath- 
eriiie and Elizabeth. The family attends the 
Hennepin .Avenue .Methodist church. 

COOKE, Elbridge C, president of the Min- 
neapolis Trust Company, is a native of Illinois 
and the son of Joseph Clark and Amy Wade 
Cooke. The family is of English origin and Mr. 
Cooke traces his ancestry back to the settlement 
of certain of the name in Sandwich, ]\Iassachusetts, 
in 1630. His early life was spent in New England, 
where he attended school and prepared for col- He is a graduate of Yale, 1877, and a mem- 
ber of the Yale Club of New York City. .After 
completing his college course he studied law and 
was admitted to the bar in Connecticut in 1879. 
He soon came west and was a prominent member 
of the Minneapolis bar for many years. Since 
1895 he has been connected with the Minneapolis 
Trust Company and since his election as president 
of the company has devoted most of his time to 
the business of the institution. Mr. Cooke was 
married in iS8,^ to .Miss Belle Boies Turner whose 
home in Norwich, Connecticut. He takes an 
active interest in the social and public affairs ol 
the city, is .1 mcniber of the .Mimieapolis Club, the 
.Minikahd.i Club :ni(l Long .Meadow (jun Club, ii .i republican ni politics, though never an 
Mflice holder. 

COTT(.)N, Charles b'.dgar, c.ishier of the Peo- 
ples Bank, was born at Franklin, Pennsylvania, 
April .10, i860, son of -\ustin D. Cotton, a banker 
< I that city. The son was educationalU- trained 
in the local schools .ind gr.aduated at the I'Vanklin 
high school, rcciuing business training in bank- 
ing .'iinl making his life's business, follow- 
ing in the footstejis of his father. .Mr. Cotton 
was m.arried October 1,0, i8(»5. He is a Presby- in his church relations. 

CK.WI-'.. .Xrchili.ild .\ . \ ice iiresidi-iit of the 
Xorlhwcstern of Al inneapolis, 
was born .if .\ustiii, .M iiinesot.i, July r, 1866, the 
son i<i C.ileb C. .111(1 b.niilv (W.irner) Crane. He 



was educated in the public schools of Austin and 
Anoka. Minnesota, and entered banking as a 
clerk in the Anoka National Bank in 1883. He 
came to Minneapolis in 1887 as assistant cashier 
of the Flour City National Bank and was made 
cashier in 1893. Following a consolidation ol 
banking interests in 1895 he became assistant 
cashier of the National Bank of Commerce and 
was appointed casliicr in igoo. In 1906 he was 
advanced to the vice-presidency. In 1908, upon 
the consolidation of the National Bank of Com- 
merce with the Northwestern National Bank of 
Minneapolis, Mr. Crane became vice-president 1 f 
the latter institution. Besides taking a prominent 
part in the financial affairs of Minneapolis. Mr. 
Crane has been active in the American Bankers' 
Association, of which he is treasurer. In Janu- 
ary, 1908. lie was elected by the Minneai>olis 
Clearing House .'Association to the office of pres- 
ident. He is a Mason, Knight Templar and 
Shriner. ,ind u nuinlier of the Commercial and 
Minikahda clul)s. Mr. Crane was married at 
Minneapolis in 1890 to Miss F'anny M. Stevens. 

DECKF:R, Edward W., vice-president and 
general manager of the Northwestern National 
Bank, is a native of Minnesota. He was born at 
Austin, August 24th, i86g. His father, Jacob S. 
Decker, was of an old family of mingled Holland 
and French Huguenot extraction which settled 
on the Delaware River in 1700. The son spent 
his boyhood and youtli with his parents on the 
farm near Austin attending the common schools 
and .\ustin high school from which he graduated 
in 1887. He at once came to Minneapolis and 
commenced service with the Northwestern Na- 
tional Bank as a messenger. His progress was 
rapid and in 1895 he was otifered the ]>osition of 
assistant cashier of the .Metropolitan Bank, .\ 
short service in this position was lollovved by 
promotion to the cashiership, and a few years 
later, in 1901, by the recall to the Northwestern 
as cashier. In 1903 he was made vice-president 
.and general manager — one of the most responsi- 
ble banking positions in the city. Mr. Decker has 
not, however, escaped other responsibilities. He 
is a director of the Northwestern National Life 
Insurance Company of Minneapolis and is fre- 
quently called upon to participate in the public 
aflfairs of the city. He is president of the Twin 
City Bankers' club, vice-president of tlu- .Min- 
neapolis clearing house, a director of the ^'oung 
Men's Christian .Association, a member of the 
Minneapolis club, the Commercial club and 
the .Minikahda Club and of the .Minneapolis 

Chamber of Commerce. In 1892 Mr. Decker 
married Miss Susan M. Spaulding, a daughter W. 
\. Spaulding, one of the old settlers of Minneap- 
olis, a prominent memljer of the G. A. R., and 
distin.guishcd for his military service in the 2nd 
Battalion Light .-Xrtillery. Mr. and Airs. Decker 
have four children, Edward VV., Jr., Margaret, 
Catherine and Susan. They are attendants of 
Plym')UtIi Congregational church. 

GROSS, F'rancis A., president of the German 
.American Bank of Minneapolis, is the son of 
Mathias and Mary Gross, the fatlier being en- 
.gaged in the real estate business. Air. Gross 
was born .\ugu>t 10, 1870 in the township of 
.Medina, Hennepin county, Minnesota, but the 
family moved to Minneapolis the next year and 
he has spent his whole life here. He attended 
the public and parochial schools of this city and 
St. John's University. Stearns comity, Minnesota. 
.As a boy he clerked in his father's grocery. .\t the 
age of nineteen lie entered the employ of the 
German .American Bank in the capacity of mes- 


i:iiw.\i!ii w. nniKin! 


A Half Century of Minneapolis 

senger. From the position of collection teller, 
lie was promoted to that of paying and receiving 
teller, to assistant cashier, cashier and at last to 
tlic presidency, the office which he now holds. 
Though he has never held political office Mr. 
(iross has been active in public affairs, especially 
on the North Side. He was the first president 
and is now ex-president of the North Side Com- 
mercial Club. He is a Past Regent of the Royal 
Arcanum, a member of the Catholic Knights of 
.America and of the Elks. In 1893 he married Ida 
K. Buerfening. Their children are Roman B., 
l-"rancis B.. Marie B., and Carl B. Gross. Mrs. 
Gross is the daughter of Captain Martin Buer- 
fening and grand-daughter of Frederick Weinard. 
a pioneer who came to St. Anthony, now Min- 
neapolis, in 1854. 

HARRISON, Hugh G., for many years a 
very prominent business man and banker of 
Minneapolis, was born on April 23, 1822. near 
Belleville, Illinois. He was the son of Thomas 
Harrison who migrated from North Carolina in 
1.S03 and settled in Illinois, then an almost un- 
known w'ilderness. His son Hugh was educated 
at McKendree college at Lebanon, Illinois, and 
in his early life was associated with his father 
and i:)rothers in the milling business at Belle- 
ville. In i860 with his brothers, Thomas A. and 
William, he moved to Minneapolis where he 
lived until his death on. August 12, 1891. During 
this residence of thirty j-cars, Mr. Harrison was 
one of the most prominent citizens of Minneapo- 
lis, a progressive and far-seeing promoter of 
Milid business interests and an active participant 
in all things which made for the betterment of 
the city. In 1862 he with his brothers built the 
idd Harrison block at the corner of Washington 
and Nicollet avenue. In i86j he was associated 
with Joseph Dean in the lumber business and in 
1S77 T. A. and Hugh G. Harrison with Mr. Dean 
organized the Security Bank of Minnesota, one 
of the oldest financial institutions of the city. 
.Mr. Hugh Harrison was vice-president of the 
bank until the death of his brother, when he be- 
came ]>resident and continued at the head of the 
institution uiilil his de.itli. Notwithstanding the 
engrossing iialun- of his banking interests Mr. 
Harrison tcjok an active part in other business 
.affairs, gave his name to one of the larger 
wholesale grocery establishments of the city and 
at the time of his death was vice-president of 
the Minneapolis Trust Company. He also took 
a very active ijart in the social, political and re 
ligious life of the city. For many years he 
served on the school board, was mayor of .Min- 
neapolis in 1868, served as director and treasurer 
of the Minneapolis Exposition and was a gen- 
erous contributor to church and benevolent work. 
A prominent Methodist and member of the Hen- 
nepin .Avenue Methodist Episcopal church, he 
gave largely to that denomination, and took a 
dee]) interest in the work of Hamline university. 
.Mr. Harrison was twice married. His first wife 
rlied on .Xugust I,?, 1876, leaving five sons, Ed 

ward, George, Lewis, Hugh and Perry. On Oc 
tober 25, 1877 he married Mrs. Elizabeth W 
Hunt of Allenstown, Pennsj-lvania, who survivi-^ 

HARRISON, Perry, vice-president of the Se- 
curity National bank of Minneapolis, was born in 
this city on October It, 1862, the son of 
Galbraith and Irene .Amelia (Robinson) Harri 
son. He attended the Minneapolis public schooU 
and the Northwestern University Preparatory 
school and at the age of sixteen began his 
experience in banking, entering the Security 
bank which had just been organized by his 
father and his uncle T. A. Harrison. Mr. Har- 
rison began at the bottom of the ladder and 
learned the banking business thoroughly. Dur- 
ing his thiry years connection with the Se- 
curity bank it has become one of the most 
prominent banking institutions in the west. Mr. 
Harrison became cashier in 1891 and was made 
vice-president in 1898. In 1879 Mr. Harrison 
joined the first regiment, Minnesota national 
guard and was for some years a prominent mem- 
ber of that organization, resigning in 1887 as its 
lieutenant colonel. He is a republican in politics 
and in church affiliations a jNIethodist. He is a 
member of the Minneapolis club, the Long Mea- 
dow Gun club and the Lafayette club. In 1887 
Mr. Harrison was married to Miss Miriam Thom- 
as at Hokendauqua, Pennsylvania. They have 
had four children. 

H.A.WLEV, Newton F., treasurer of the Farm- 
ers & Mechanics Savings Bank of Minneapolis, 
was born at Springdale, Iowa, November 28, 
1859. He was the son of N. J. and Delia (Can- 
field) Hawley. He attended the common and 
high schools at Tipton, Iowa, and Iowa College 
at Grinnell, from which he graduated in 1879 .A. B. 
and received the degree of -\. -M. in 1882, He 
was admitted to the practice of law at Minne- 
apolis in 1884 and was successively a member of 
the law firm of llahn & Hawley; Hahn, Belden 
& Hawley; and I'.eMeii, Hawley & Jamison. Mr. 
Hawley continued m active practice until Janu- 
ary I, 1906 when he was elected treasurer (man 
aging officer), secretary and trustee of the I'arm- 
ers & Mechanics Savings Bank. He has been 
for years a trustee of Iowa College. During his 
residence in Minneapolis he has taken a very 
active part in municipal affairs and has had a 
strong influence in movements looking to bet- 
ter municipal condition. He was a member of 
the charter commission of 1898 and again of the 
charter commission of 1906 and was a member of 
the board of education from 1899 to 1905. He is a 
republican but quite independent in local mat- 
ters. Mr. Hawley is a member of the .American 
.Xcademy of political and Social Science, the 
National Municipal League and other organiza- 
tions for the studying of social and municipal 
questions. He is a member of the Minneapolis 
Commercial, Minikahda and Six O'Clock clubs. 

^2-^^^e, !^J--2_^ 




Mr. Hawley was married at Miniiuapulis, Septem- 
ber 5, 1884 to Miss Kllen M. Field. The family 
attends Plymouth riiiiicli. 

JAFFRAY, Clive T., for more than twenty 
years prominently associated with the banking, 
business of Minneapolis, is a native of Canada. 
His father was W. JafYray, a resident of Berlin, 
Ontario, and for a number of years the post- 
master of the place. Clive T.. was born at Ber- 
lin and received his education in the Canadi.iu 
schools. Following the completion of his ac.ul- 
emic training, Mr. Jaflfray entered upon a business 
career and gained his first e.xpericnce in the bank- 
ing business in the Merchants Bank of Canada. 1 1 e 
entered the service of that institution in t88j .iiul 
was associated with it for five years, during that 
period acquiring valuable training. In 18S7 he 
resigned his position to move t<> Al inne.ipolis. 
where, shortly after his arrival, he accepted a 
clerical position with the Northwestern 
Hank. He became bookkeeper in i88q and two 
years later was promoted to the post of assistant 
cashier, which he held until i8y5. In the litlir 
year he was oflfered the cashiership of the First 
National Bank, which was then, as now, one of 
the leading financial institutions of the city. This 
position he accepted and has since been an of- 
ficial of that bank. He was for nine years cashier 
and in 1905 was appointed to the vice presidency 

which he held in conjunction with the other of- 
Ince. The following year, however, he resigned 
the cashiership to devote his time to the duties 
of the higher office, which he occupies at the 
present lime. Mr. Jtiffray is well-known in the elul) and socitil life and is a member of the 
more priniiinent organizations, including the Min- 
ne:'poIis and Minikahda clubs. He takes an active 
interest in athletic sports, is a member of the Min- 
iie.ipolis and Long Meadow gun clubs and is an 
enthusiastic golfer. Mr. Jafifray is married and a beautiful home on Mt. Curve Avenue. 

JOHNSON, Samuel T., formerly vice-presi- 
dent of the Minnesota National Bank of Minne- 
apolis and now engaged in the lumber and manu- 
facturing business, is a native of Indiana. He 
was born near Indianapolis, November 16, 1858. 
His father. Lawrence A. Johnson, was a practicing 
physician and of a family which was among the 
lirst settlers of Marion county. As a boy Mr. 
Johnson lived at home, attending the common 
schools and early entering business. He came 
to Minneapolis in 1884 and soon became identi- 
fied with the public affairs of the city, following 
the family traditions — for his father and other 
progenitors had been active in the public service 
in various capacities. He served as vice-president 
of the Board of Trade which was later merged 
in the Commercial Club. Relief work during 
the Spanish-American \v ir left Air. Johnson in 
broken health and he had scarce recovered when 
in 1901 Gov. S. R. Van Sant tippointed him Public 
Examiner and Superintendent of Banks for Min- 
nesota. The appointment took effect January ist, 
1902 and came at a time uhen the office was first 
charged with the iliiiy of examining the books 
of all corporations paying a gross earnings tax. 
.Mr. Johnson's examination of the railroad ac- 
counts showed over $,ooo unpaid taxes over- 
due, of wliieh he collected about $250,000 and left 
$500,000 or more in course of collection when 
he retired from ol'lice, llic rest being cut off by 
the statute of limitation. The which this 
investigation brought about in the system of 
railroad reports for taxation has added over $125,- 
000 a year to the taxes now being paid. During 
his incumbency not cnic of the 400 state banks 
under his supervision failed to comply with the 
law and no defaults occurred among county or 
slate officers. LIndertaking tlie I'lrst exhaustive 
examination ever made in the st.iic .nulitor's of- 
fice, Mr. Johnson developed rlainis of hundreds of 
tliiuisands of dc:illars in state timber and tres- 
p.iss cases but lost to the state by reason of the 
sl.ilule of limitations. But lie .ilso found claims 
:1111c ■iinting to over $200,000 not yet outlawed. 
whirli have liceii collected, and ollurs for some 
$500,000 more are in process of eollcelion, having 
been affirmed by the supreme court. His action 
ill enforcing claims against the various individuals 
.Old corporations was met with tremendous o]i 
jiositioji but, notwithstanding, he proceeded for 




the three years with his work — and the courts 
have sustained the position taken by him and the 
legislature has passed laws making the recurrence 
of such evasions impossible. The legislature of 
1903, by unanimous resolution, and Gov. Van 
Sant's message to the legislature of igo5 both 
publicly recognized the "services and persist- 
ence" of Examiner Johnson in the performance of 
his general duties and in investigating the rail- 
road taxes and timber trespasses, saying that as 
a result "many needed reforms in the conduct of 
the state's business had been adopted." The Gov- 
ernor further said: 

"I take this occasion to publicly commend 
the untiring energy and faitlifulness of Hon. S. T. 
Johnson, who has for the past three years served 
the state in the capacity of Public Examiner. 
His devotion to duty and his desire to preserve 
the interests of the people, have caused him to 
step beyond the mere routine of his office, and 
to meet the greater requirements of the law. Not 
contented with disposing of new matters as they 
arose, he went back to matters that were years 
ago deemed closed and brought to light the fact 
that the people had been unfairly dealt with by 
persons and corporations. The result is that the 
state will receive hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars which otherwise would have been lost to it. 
The energy and devotion to duty of Mr. John- 
son may well be emulated by all who servo the 

This work of Mr. Johnson's has resulted in 
timber trespass and railroad tax dodging becom- 
ing a lost art in Minnesota. 

Upon leaving the office of public examiner, 
Mr. Johnson was called to the active manage- 
ment of the Minnesota National Bank as vice- 
president, retiring on January i. 1907, to enter 
the lumber business, at the same time becoming 
a director of the Peoples Bank, Mr. Johnson is 
a Mason, Knight Templar. Shriner and a member 
of the Park .\venue Congregational Church. While 
in the banking department, he was twice elected 
president of the National Association of State 
Bank Superintendents, and is now an honorary 
member of that body. He was married March 
II, 1880, to Miss Katherine Starr, a daughter of 
John Starr, an old resident of Indianapolis. They 
have one son, Everett Starr Johnson. The family 
home is 1724 Logan avenue south. 

McRAE, Alexander A., cashier of the South 
Side State Bank, is a native of Canada, the son 
of James Roy McRae and Flora ^^IcRae. and of 
a family which was among the pioneers of Glen- 
coe. Ontario, the place of his birth. He was 
born on January 27, 1870, passed his childhood 
and early youth at home, attended the public and 
high schools of the town and in 1889 came to 
Minnesota. He first entered the service of the 
First National Bank of Little Falls as book- 
keeper. Three years later he assisted in the or-, 
ganization of the Bank of Hutchinson at Hutchin- 
son, Minnesota, and served as assistant cashier 

from its organization until September I, 1899, when 
he assumed the cashiership of the South Side State 
Bank which he was instrumental in organizing. 
Since that time he has remained in the active 
management of the bank which has been very 
prosperous. He has taken a leading part in the 
promotion of public interests and has served 
as president of the veryactive and efficient South 
Side Commercial Club. In politics he is a re- 
publican although independent in municipal mat- 
ters. Mr. McRae was married on June 3. 1896, to 
Jean Adair Thomas. They have three children, 
Douglas, Allister and Marion. The family at 
tends Park Avenue Congregational Church, 

M.\TTSON, Edgar Lincoln, banker, was born 
in Minnesota thirty-seven years ago and has spent 
practically all his life in Minneapolis. His father 
was Col. Hans Mattson. a distinguished citizen of 
the state wdio came to Minnesota in 1852, and 
was prominent in pioneer days as well as serving 
later in public life. Col. Mattson won his title in 
the War of the Rebellion as colonel of the Third 
Minnesota. After the war he was prominent in 
state politics and served for several terms as 
secretary of state. Later he was consul general 
in India under presidents Garfield and Arthur and 
held other public trusts. His son Edgar attended 
the Minneapolis public schools, leaving the Cen- 
tral high school at the age of 17 to enter the 
banking business. He has been connected with 
the Swedish-.A.merican National Bank since its 
organization in 1888, commencing as a messenger 
and holding nearly everj- position in the bank up 
to that of cashier — the position which he now- 
occupies. An active life devoted to the responsi- 
ble business with which he is connected has left 
little lime for outside aft'airs, hut Mr. Mattson has 
taken a practical business man's interest in poli- 
tics without seeking office. He is a republican. 
Mr. Mattson is a member of the military order 
of the Loyal Legion, of the Commercial Club of 
.Minneapolis, of the Minnetonka Boat Club and 
of the Odin Club — of which organization he was 
president in 1906. He is treasurer of the Min- 
nesota State Agricultural Society. Mr. Mattson 
is married and has four children. He is devoted 
to out door sports, fishing and luintiu'r. and spends 
his suinmers at Lake Minnetonka where he has 
a home at Wildhurst. 

MERRILL, George Costin. president of the 
Merrill .Xbstract Co., was born in Manchester, 
Scott countv. Illinois, son of Joseph Winthrop 
and .Anna E. IMerrill. His father, who w-as a 
noted horticulturist, removed to Cook county. 
Illinois, residing in Chicaeo and suburbs of that 
city where George attended the graded schools 
and a private academy and studied in the under- 
graduate course of the L^niversity of Chicago. 
In 1882 he came to Minneapolis, where he began 
the business of furnishinuf abstracts of title to 
realty in Henne|)in county, forming the firm of 
.Merrill & .Albee. This partnership continued un- 
till 18S6. For a time he conducted the business 




ill hi-- own name until il increased to such large 
pr(i|>i>rlii.iis that he organized tile .Merrill Ah- 
stract Company in iXgj, he lu-iiis president and 
manager of the orManizalicm. In this enterprise 
he has hroufrht his line expert knowledge of 
title examination inl'p most effective action. He 
studied law in the law school of the Llniversity 
of .Minnesota, graduating in 1895 as Bachelor of 
Law and was admitted the same year to practice 
law in Minnesota, taking the degree of Master 
of Law in iSgrj. As a title expert Mr. Merrill 
has commanded the utmost confidence, and this 
confidence was illustrated hy his nomin.ation on 
the repnhlican ticket in igoo under the new 
primary law, when the friends of that 1 iw were 
desirous the nominees so selected slionUl 
have special (pialifications fnr the respective of- 
fices, fer register of deeds of Hennepin connly 
over many competitors, and his t-leclion .il the 
polls in Novemhcr hy .a very large majority. In 
igoj he was re-elected to the same office, :ind 
again in ICJ04. Mr. Merrill cast his first vote 
f r Gr.ant and is a life-long repuhlican, hut he 
has never heen an oiifice-seekcr. while he ni.iy 
he numhered among those wdio have the siih 
st.-mtial interests of the city at heart. In I he- 
spring of i(;o7 Mr. Merrill hecamc one of the 
promoters of the Metropolitan .State Bank of 
.Minneapolis. lie closely associated with 
its organization and uinn incorporation was 
tdected to fill the ofilce of president, a position 

lor which his varied commercial experience gave 
him iju.ililie.itions. He continued at the 
head of the until il was well established, 
when he withdrew to devote hiiuself to the busi- 
neis of the abstract company. Mr. Merrill is a 
member of the Commercial Club and other organ- 
izations interested in the civic and material ad- 
vancement in the city. He was married in 1875 
to Miss .Mice Swindler and has two children — 
-\l:re Reli.i and l-'ied Ixaymond. 

.MORRISON, Clinton, a notable figure in 
.Minneapolis life and progress, was born at Liver- 
more, Maine, January 21, 1842, and came with his 
IKirents, wdien thirteen years old, to Minneapolis, 
.As a boy he was one of the pupils, in 1856, of the 
old Union School which stood on the site of the 
present Minneapolis court house and city hail. 
He entered business at an early age and under 
the guidance of his father was soon a capable 
business man. .At the age of twenty-one, he and 
his brother, George H., engaged in the business 
of outfitting lumbermen .and, incidentally, they 
became investors in nine timbered lands, mills and 
hiniher. The brothers operated a water power 
s.Lw mill nil the platform at the Falls and opened 
a lumber yard in the lower part of the city w-here 
they did a large business until the death of 
George II.. in 1882, when Clinton gave special 
attention to the assistance of his father in his 
many undertakings and particularly to the build- 
ing up of the Minneapolis Harvester Works, 
which had been run by a stock company. With 
failure imijending, the Morrisons assumed most 
of the stock, took charge of the business and 
made a great success of it. Soon after the re- 
organization the m;inagcment of the business was 
essentially entrusted to ;\Ir. Clinton iMorrison, 
wdio was the \ice-president and whose close at- 
tention to its affairs brought it to an advanced 
stage of prosperity. The company adopted the 
twine-binder invented hy Mr. .Appleby, of the 
Harvester Works, and the invention proved very 
profitable. The Harvester Works were sold dur- 
ing the nineties to the W.alter .A. Wood Har- 
vester Company, which was organized in St. Paul. 
.\lr Miurisun has been one of the leading factors 
in the |iriiinotii 111 of the success of the Farmers 
:md Mechanics Savings of Minneapolis, 
which has two fpr three times iiro\ed its Gibral- slrent;lli in time nf nervousness 
.•111(1 ])aiiie. It lia^ twice come out of "runs," .gen- 
erated bv niiscliie\iius tongues, and millions to 
the good, and is one of the strongest hanks in 
the uoiilnvest. Mr. .Morrison was a trustee and 
]iresi(lent of the for many years. During 
his adniinistr.ilion il erected the handsome build- 
Iiil: on I'diirlh street near First avenue south. 
Mr .\lonison married in February, 187.^, to 
lulia. daughter of Nehemiah Washburn. Mrs. 
"^'orrison died in 188,3, leaving a son, .Angus 
Washburn Morrison, and a daughter. F.tliel, now 
the wife of Mr, John R. ^'anderlip. an attorney 





l>'l"r(J E. NAlSOELli;. 

of Minneapolis. Mr. Morrison is a member of 
the Minneapolis Cki]) and of llie Universalis! 
Chnrch of the Redeemer. 

NAEGELE, Otto E., president of the Ger- 
mania Bank of Minneapolis, was born at New 
Ulm, Minnesota, ]\Iay 28, 1858. He was the son 
of Lambert Naegele who learned tlie printer's 
trade in Rottweil, Germany, emigrated to America 
in 1848 and became a publisher of German news- 
papers in this country, lie published the New 
Ulm Pioneer from 1857 to 1869: the Minneapolis 
Free Press from 1869 to i88g; the Montana Staats 
Zeitung, at Helena, 1889 to 1901, and the Wash- 
ington Staats Zeitung, at Seattle, 1901 to 1905. 
He served in the Civil War and was absent with 
the Federal Army at the time nf the Indian mas- 
sacre of 1862, which is one ni llu- earliest reciil 
lections of his son CJtto. TIk- i>arly u.i- uitli 
the small band of refugees ulm eseaped Inim 
New Ulm during the night, arriving at St. Peter, 
Minnesota, the following morning. Here they 
were given shelter and care .mkI .ill were con- 
veyed to St. Paul. After thai until the close of 
the war, the family lived in Mdwaukee, but re- 
turned to New Ulm when the father was released 
from military service at the front. Otto E. spent 
his earlier years at New Ulm, moved to Minne- 
a])olis with his parents in 1869 and attended the 
public schools of this city. He sui)plemcnted his 
schooling with a term ,it a business college and 

then at the age of liftecn years became an appren- 
tice in the book bindery of the Minneapolis Trib- 
une then located in the old City Hall at Bridge 
S<iuare. After three years he entered the post 
oHice, advancing rapidly to a responsible position 
in the money order and registry department and 
continued in the post office until -May, 1886. He 
then resigned to take up the profession of bank- 
ing. After several years' experience as assistant 
cashier he became the organizer of the Germania 
Bank on .May II, 1893, and has from the begin- 
ning been the president and active manager of the 
institution. His political affiliations have always 
been with the republican party from the time he 
cast his first vote in 1879 for Jas. A. Garfield as 
president. He has taken an active part in public 
affairs of the city and is associated with various 
liusiness clubs and organizations. He was mar- 
ried at Minneapolis on May 28, 1881, to Miss 
Anna Raiicn. They have had four children of 
whum [\\ii ,ire luing, Richard O. and Gladys. 

(>RI)I-., George F., cashier of the First Na- 
imnal I'.ank of Minneapolis, was born in On- 
t.ini) in 1864. He commenced his banking career 
111 1883, when he entered the service of the Cana- 
dian Bank of Commerce.. Three years later in 
September, 1886, he moved to Chicago where he 
was employed in the American Exchange Na- 
tional Bank for the following ten years. When 
he left the .American Exchange in 1895 he had 
risen to the position of assistant cashier. He re- 
signed to accept the cashiership of the Northern 
'1 rust Company Bank of Chicago. This position 
he retained until May i, 1905, when he resigned 
to come to Minneapolis to accept his present 
position. In January, 1906. he was made a 
director of the First National Bank, and although 
a resident of the city but about two years is one 
of tlie best known bankers in the Northwest. Mr. 
Orde has an extensive acquaintance among the 
bankers of the country and has been honored 
with membership in the Executive Council of the 
American Bankers Association, serving from 
1899 to 1902, and was elected treasurer of the as- 
sociation at New Orleans in 1902, and was re- 
elected at San Francisco in 1903. Mr. Orde was 
married in 1887. He is a member of the Min- 
neapolis Club; of the Minikahda Club; and of the 
Minneapolis Curling Club, of which he was 
elected president in November, 1907. 

I'RINCE. Frank M., president of the First 
National Bank of .Minneapolis, was born at .\in- 
herst, Massachusetts, on July 23, 1854. He was 
the son of George H. Prince and Sarah E. (Nash) 
Prince, the father being a successful business 
man at .Amherst. As a boy Mr. Prince attended 
the public schools of his native town and on the 
completion of a high school course he entered a 
store where he worked until he was twenty, when 
he came to Minnesota. He first went to Still- 
water and was employed for a year in the general 



store of Prince & French. A short period of 
school teaching was followed by employniciit in 
the First National Bank of Stillwater where he 
obtained his first experience in banking. In July, 
1878, he came to Minneapolis and secured a posi- 
tion in the First National Bank as correspondent 
and teller. Mr. Prince remained in this position 
until November, 1882, when he resigned to return 
to Stillwater to accept the position of cashier in 
ihe First National Bank, where he had been pre- 
viously employed as a cKrk. His connection 
with the Stillwater bank cintinued for the ne.xt 
ten years and the position was resigned to take 
that of secretary and treasurer of the Minnesota 
Loan & Trust Company of Minneapolis. Two 
years later Mr. Prince went again to the First 
National of ]\Iinneapolis, this time as cashier, and 
since that date, .August i, 1894, he has been con- 
tinuously connected with the institution with a 
large part of the responsibilities of its manage- 
ment. On January r, 1895, he was chosen vice- 
president and he was made president in January, 
1905. Mr. Prince has found time to take a part 
in other financial and business institutions and is 
a director in the .Minnesota Loan & Trust Com- 
pany and the ?'irst National Bank of Cloquet. He 
is a member of the leading commercial and social 
organizations of the city including the Minne- 
apolis club, the Commercial club, tlie Minikahda 



club, the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts and 
others. In political faith Mr. Prince is a re- 

SHEPHERD, William Lyon, was born at Ra- 
cine, Wisconsin, December 6, 1869. Acquired his 
education at Ogdensburg, New York, and his 
business experience with the National Bank of 
Ogdensburg and Trust Companies of Minneapolis. 
He has been a resident of Minneapolis since 1889; 
and since January, 1897, has been a dealer in in- 
vestment securities. 

STEGNER, George Elias, cashier of the Ger- 
man-American Bank since 1905, is the son of Rev. 
William Stegner and Catherine (Bauernfiend) 
Stegner. Rev. William Stegner was a native of 
Saxony, Germany, from whence he came to the 
United States when eighteen years of age. He 
settled in Minnesota, entered the ministry and 
associated himself with tlie work of the Evangeli- 
cal Association of the state. For many years he 
was active in the work of that organization and 
held parishes at a number of towns throughout 
the state, continuing pastoral work until the time 
of his death on .August 6, 1883. George E. was 
born on July 11, 1866, at Maple Grove, in Henne- 
pin county, Minnesota, where his father was then 
in charge of a church. His mother, who still re- 
sides in Minneapolis, was a native of Bavaria, Ger- 
many. Owing to his father's frequent change of 
location in following his evangelical work, George 
E. received his education in various public schools 
of the state, attending at different times the 
schools of Mankato, Waseca, and other points at 
which his father had churches. For four years 
he. was in Minneapolis and attended the Lincoln 
school, which has since been torn down. .After 
Ills schooling, Mr. Stegner learned the tinner's 
trade and for a time was engaged in that business 
in the city, but in 1892 he secured a position in 
the German-American Bank. He served first as 
a messenger, but was soon promoted and succes- 
sively held all of the positions in the bank mov- 
ing up from the bottom through hard work and 
application to the details of the business. He was 
appointed in January, 1905, to his present office, 
that of cashier. During his connection with the 
liank Mr. Stegner lias become well known as one 
"f the conservative bankers of the city. He is a 
ii-ember of the North Side Commercial Club and 
iif the Odd Fellows order, and through these or- 
>janizations as well as in his capacity of private 
citizen he takes an interest in public work, partic- 
ul.irly that involving the interests of the North 
.Side, fie is not married. 

STEVENS, Eugene Morgan, head of thi 
commercial paper and investment bond firm of 
Eugene M. Stevens & Co., was born at Preston, 
-Minnesota, on February i. 1871, a son of Andrew 
J. and Clara M. Stevens. Iiis father being manager 
of the Winona Wagon Company at the time of 
his death in 1880. Eugene lived at Rushford and 




i:riii;xic m. stuvens. 

Winona nntil i8gi, receiving liis edncation at the 
ciimmon scliools and liigh school and in the em- 
|doy of the Winona Wagim Cumiiany. after which 
ho came to Minneapolis and was employed by 
1'". IT. Peavcy & Co.. in various capacities, of- 
licial and otherwise, with their several subsidiary 
companies during ten years, the last five years as 
general auditor of the entire Peavey grain sys- 
tem. In igoi Mr. Stevens established under his 
own name a business in commercial paper, muni- 
cipal, corporation and railroad bonds, admitting 
as a partner in 1906, Mr. Rdward T. Chapman. 
The firm have business with niMst ,,\ the leailing 
banks and many investors of capilal in the Mid- 
dle West, handling high grade iiapcr .md the 
best securities. Mr. Stevens is a in 
politics. He i-- one of the founders of the 
Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra association and 
a member of its executive committee and has 
been a director of the Philharmonic Club for 
many years, lie i-, a member of the board of 
ilirectors of the N'oung Men's Christian Associa- 
tion and a member of the state executive com- 
mittee, lie is a memlier of the Minneapolis, the 
Minikahd.i, the MinnclonUa, the Roosevelt, the 
Six O'clock cluhs of .Minneapolis, and of the 
Minnesota Club ^f St. P;iul. Mr. Stevens is a 
number of tlie flniiirpiii ,\venue Methodist 
hpiscop.-il Chnrfli. a iiieinl)i-f of I he ollii'ial hoard. 
,iiid ehainiiaii of it-. niuMc eoinniiUee, < )ii I'ebru- 

ary 14, 1899, Mr. Stevens was married to Mary 
I'". Rolfe. They have one child, Eugene Morgan 
Stevens, Jr. 

WINTER, Bert, was born at Cleveland, Min- 
nesota, October 12, 1861. His father. John Win- 
ter, came to Minnesota with his family from 
Chatham, Canada, and settled in the present Yel- 
low Medicine county "U a farm near the Upper 
.-\gency where the lirst county seat. Yellow Medi- 
cine village, was located. His father was one of 
the first county commissioners and his family 
was the first white family located in Y'ellow 
Medicine county. Granite Falls later became the 
county seat and the residence of the Winter 
family. Ilert Winter attended school at Yellow 
Medicine village and at Granite Falls and studied 
awhile at Carleton College, Northfie.d. >linnes:'ta. 
after which he taught country schools for some 
time and then worked in the store of J. Winter 
& Son at Granite Falls. In 18S5 he was employed 
a.s cashier of a bank at Sacred Heart, Min- 
nesota, remainiii.g there until January 6, 
ii'^'ijcS, when he was elected cashier of the 
Yellow Medicine County Bank at Granite 
Falls, the first slate bank in the county. 
This position he resigned on h'ebruary i. 
1504, to take, the position of secretary and 
treasurer of the Union Investment Company, 
Minneapolis, which he now holds. While in Yel- 
low ^Medicine County, Mr. Winter served as city 
recorder, city treasurer, member of the board of 
education and treasurer of the Board, at Granite 
Falls. The Union Investment Company has built 
up an extensive business in farm loans, bank 
stocks, bonds and commercial paper and loans to 
banks and is one of the recognized strong insti- 
tutions of Minneapolis. Mr. Winter is a member 
of the Commercial Club and of the Men's Club of 
the Church of the Redeemer, of which he is also 
a member. He was married to Regina Winter 
in February, 1894. 

JONES, Edwin Smith, pioneer lawyer, banker 
and philanthropist, was born in Connecticut, June 
,1, 1828. He came West with his bride .-iiid set- 
tled .-It the h'alls of St. .\nthony in 1854. He 
studied law in the ofiice ol Judge Isaac .\tv\ater, 
■ ind was .•idmilled to ihe li:ir in 1855, — the tirsl 
lau\er admitted to pr.ietiee in llennepin couiily. 
Three years later he was elected of pro 
hate "f llennepin coiinly and held llie i>osilion for 
three hroiii his eariiesi residence here Jones was in loiieli with the public mo\'e- 
menls of Ihe time, both liiisiiuss ami moral, and 
became a le:iiler in philanthropic work, lie was 
one of the incorporators and lirst presi<lent ol the 
.Mhenemn Library associatiem. .\fler the Civil 
\\ ar broke out Judge Jones entered the army and commissioned as Commissary ol .Subsistence 
wilh the rank of e.i|it.iin and .assigned to 
duly ill the I )e|>:irt nient of the Gull. Here his ability leeognizcd and his services 
were s. 1 .ippreei.ileil lie w;is brevetted major. 




His work was liutli li.\ tlu- iiiL'iiibc-rs 
of the army and tlic guvi'rnnunt. His services 
in the south brought him in touch with the 
needs of the people there and in after years, as 
his means increased, he felt that the south was 
in need of linancial assistance and industrial and 
educational stimuhition. As a result of Judge 
Jones' interest in the South and southern people, 
a free kindergarten for colored people at At- 
lanta, Georgia, to which he contributed both in 
money and counsel, was named "The Jones Kid- 
lu-rgarten" in recognition of his work. At All 
Healing Springs, near King's Mountain. North 
Carolina, he established and maintained a school 
known .i?. the "Jones Seminary" for young ladies 
with a corps of teachers, the special mission of 
which was to give education to the white girls of 
the mountains, not only along the lines of the text- 
books, but sewing, cooking and domestic econ- 
omy. Judge Jones was one of the first supervis- 
ors of the town of Minneapolis and he was elect- 
ed as alderman of the city. Among objects which 
were benefited largely by Judge Jones' benefac- 
tions were the Western Minnesota Academy at 
.Montevideo, Minnesota, now Windom Institute, 
of which he was a trustee; Carleton College at 
Xorthficid, Minnesota, of which he was a trustee; 
The Chicago Theological Seminary, of which he 
was also a trustee, and The American Board of 
h'oreign Missions, of which he was a corporate 

member. He also .gave the site of the Jones- 
Harrison Home on the shores of Cedar Lake in 
the suburbs of Minneapolis, a beautiful tract of 
eighty acres, and was most liberal in general bene- 
factions and in the support of church activities. 
He was for many years one of the prominent 
members of Plymouth Congregational Church 
of Minneapolis. In 1870, Judge Jones, in associa- 
tion with J. E. Bell and others organized the 
Hennepin County Savings Bank, which has been 
one of the most successful banking institutions 
of the city. He was chosen the first president 
of this bank and held this position cnntinunusly 
until his death, January 26, 1890. 

Judge Jones was a strong man, physically, 
mentally and morally, courageous in his convic- 
tions, wise in his business judgment, kind and 
sympathetic, progressive and prompt to act for 
the best interests of his city, his state and his 
country, and always generous with his time and 
his means in supporting those things which make 
for good. Had he sought to accumulate property 
he would have been a very wealthy man, but he 
has administered his estate by his gifts during 
his lifetime and died a man of moderate means. 
He was three times married, his widow, Susan 
C. Jones, surviving him. Nine children were 
born to him, of whom but two survive, Mrs. 
P'rank H. Carleton and former mayor David P. 



THE first real estate transactions in 
Minneapolis had to do with claims 
on government land not yet sur- 
veyed, and to which no title of any kind 
could be secured. Such claims were made 
on the east side as early as 1836. They 
passed from hand to hand in an irregular 
sort of way, and it was not until 1848 when 
that part of the old reservation was sur- 
veyed and formally opened to entry, that 
any clear title could be obtained. 

On the west side, in Minneapolis proper, 
the conditions were similar, except that 
entry was much longer delayed and the 
official action of the government was fore- 
stalled by settlers who filed claims and oc- 
cupied the land long before anything but a 
'"permit" of questionable value could be 
shown as a warranty. However, so confi- 
dent were the settlers that their claims 
would be recognized, that they actually sur- 
veyed and platted their property some time 
before they secured title, and many of these 
lots were build upon and occupied for com- 
mercial purposes before the original pre- 
emptions had been made. 

The original Minneapolis was surveyed 
in 1834 by Chas. W. Christmas for Col. 
John H. Stevens, the first settler who laid 
out the city in his farm acres. It was Col. 
Stevens himself who determined the direc- 
tion of the streets, and who fixed their 
width and the size of the lots and blocks. 
In a short space of time he and Mr. Christ- 
mas cool\- staked out ground now worth a 
hundred million dollars. 

And then Col. Stevens began to give it 
away. To any one who would build, he 
freely donated a lot. It was a policv of 
development copied many times in later 
real estate promotion schemes. In these 
first real estate deals in Alinneapolis, there 

was neither deed nor covenant. "As no 
deeds would be lawful," writes Col. Stevens 
in his "Personal Recollections," "none were 
given;" neither were memoranda or arti- 
cles of agreement signed. I trusted them 
and they trusted me. and when the proper 
time came, they received deeds for their 

Col. Stevens was a splendid jiromoter. 
In an incredibly short time buildings were 
going up and business establishments were 
engaged in trade. The first lot to be given 
away was at the corner of Hennepin avenue 
and First street, where the Xorthrup, King 
& Company building now stands. After a 
time lots had a cash value and Col. Stevens 
sold a great number, but the aggregate of 
sales was not large, and the man who 
owned the original town site of Minneapolis 
never realized a fortune on Minneapolis 
real estate. 

Soon the day of the real estate dealer 
arrived. Early in 1855 Simon P. Snyder 
and W'ni. K. McFarlane came to ^linne- 
apolis and opened the first regular real es- 
tate office in the city. Their office build- 
ing — a small one-story frame structure, 
stood "at the top of the hill" as one mount- 
ed the rise from the old ferry landing. In 
this office a large business was transacted. 
The firm had ample capital and much en- 
ergy and enterprise. They were the first 
to use a prospectus fcir the advertisement 
of Minne.ipolis real estate: and their circu- 
lars, telling of the advantages of Minneajio- 
lis and Minnesota, were spread broadcast 
over the country. They were fitting fore- 
runners of the hustling real estate men of 
the later days. Col. Stevens testified that 
"probably to Messrs. Snj'der & McFarlane 
are the citizens of Minneapolis more in- 
debted than to any others for the ra()id 




progress in the earl\ iinlustries on tlie wi-st 
side of llie falls." Mr. Snyder still lives in 
.\1 inneapi ilis. 

( )ther firms followed in ra])id succession. 
Hancock & Thomas, I'.eede & Mendenhall 
and I'.ell Ov Wilson were amont;' the earliest. 
(.'. II. I'eltit came. ci|ieneil a hank and hand- 
led real estate and land^. II. T. Welles 
made luavv investments. Uaniel R. r>ar- 
iK-r and Carlos W'ilco.x were early realty 
dealers and S. C. and Harlow A. Gale be- 
came active real estate men. Everyone was 
in real estate in those days. Whatever his 
linsiness the |)ii)m-er .M inneapolilan was 
snre t(i ha\e ^unie little side interest in 

Tllic |■|l^s|• "i;ooM." 

With the ad\int of the real estate deal- 
ers, business became \ery active, and dtir- 
ini; the ne.xt year .M iuneapulis experienced 
its lirst real estate "boom."' 1 'rices were 
!(i\v — that is, low comjjared with later days, 
but it must be remembered whrn twu Inis 
Mil I'.piiilh street between .Nicollet and hirst 

avenue south scild in 1856 for $200 that 
this same land had been purchased from 
ihe j;"()verument only a few mouths before 
at $!.J3 an .acre, or at the rate of about 30 
cents a Int. Almut the same time all of 
block i\'j. l''ourth avenue south between 
Third and l-'ourth streets sold for $1,000, 
and lots 1 and 2 at h'ourth street and Sec- 
ond avenue south for S350. Still the 
average value of lots in the city was but 
v'i^S. The year 1S57 saw prices open still 
higher, but with the appearance of the panic 
of that year there was a collajise in the 
real estate market and corner lots which 
sold for $3,000 in May had little, if any. 
\alue in ( )ctober. 

For the next three years there was little 
I)rogress. I'.nt \alues had not entirely dis- 
appeared, and though many mortgages 
were foreclosed and nian\' owners were 
mined, many others held to their ])roperty, 
and in the end realized good prices. Tin- 
bottom was reached about t86o, and though 
recoxcrv was slow the .gain was steady. 
The real estate of Minneapolis was as- 
sessed in i860 at $1,054,812, and in .St. An- 
thony at $800,992. After the war came the 
period of railroad building and general 
commercial expansion, and real estate val- 
ues responded to llir im]iro\'(.-d conditions; 
but until about the \ ear 1880 the es- 
tate business in .Minneapolis was on what 
might he called a \illage basis. City con- 
ditii.ins and prices have come in the past 
thirty }-ears. 

I'rexions to 1880, however, some of the 
best known real estate men of the city had 
Commenced business. I^lwood S. Corser 
began in 1871. and with the exce])lion of 
S. C. tiale, is ]iidbably the \eteran of the 
real estate men continuously in business in 
the city. W . A. Ilarnes joined Mr. Corser 
in 1872, and for many years the firms of 
Corser it Co. and W. A. Ilarnes i^i Co., 
which was formed in 18S4, were conspicu- 
ous in the earl\- affairs of the city. Lester 
I'l. I'd wood joined Mr. Corser in 1873. 1. t'. 
Seeley was a clerk for Mr. Corser for a 
\ ear at the beginning. ;ind in 1872 entered 
business for himself and became one of the 
most proiiiinenl I'cal estate men of the city, 
r. I ). McMillan began in 1872, the late 




The (iffico f)f SiiyiU'l- vV Mcrarlane. i'ttM-lp<l in ls:)(;. (,n lowor liriil*:e Stiuiire. Fniiii a plintnjii-aph made in 
and still ill ihc pcsscssinn of Mr. Siiyilrr. Tlic nun sliown in tlu' view svcro (fnan left to riglit) 
J. B. Gilbert, S. r. Snjder, Julin Miirr.v. .Tiilin MeKarlane, W. K. McFarlane, W. 1'. Anliony. 

Edmund Eiclihorn in 1873, and the late H. 
O. Hamlin, first in iSdO with S. C. Gale 
and afterwards on his own account in 1877. 
W. II. Lauderdale went into real estate in 
1879. There were many others whose prop- 
erty interests later developetl real estate 
a,q;encies, but who were, in the early days, 
classed as real estate owners, rather than 
dealers or agents. Among these were the 
late Judge E. S. Jones, who was first law- 
yer and then banker. The firm of David P. 
Jones & Co, is the successor to his large 
interests. Ricliard and .Samuel II. Chute 
were early investors and real estate dealers, 
though the iriive of Chute Brothc's was 
not assumed until i8(it. The Chute Realty 
Company nf to-day is composed of their 
sons. The Edmund G. W'allon Agency was 

established in 1886 and the David C. Bell 
Investment Company in 1889, though hav- 
ing its origin in the business of Bell & Net- 
tleton. established several years previously. 

i:xi'.\.\sio.\ i.\ riiK r.i(;inii;s. 

I' or .--ome ten }'ears, from about 1879 or 
1880. a period of most intense activity in 
Minneapolis realty set in. It was a time 
of the most rapid ex])ansion of population 
and business, in the city and the northwest. 
There was great c-xcilenieiit in real estate. 
Prices advanced rapidK', ami for a time 
there seemeil no limit In the capacity of the 
investing public to absorb lots singlv and 
in blocks. Fortunes were made in nmnlhs 
and e\'en weeks. New additions were |)lat- 
ted and idaced on the market as rajiidly as 



the surveyors could do their work. The 
number of real estate firms multiplied as ii 
by magic: in 1883 the city directory showed 
J13 names nf a.£;;encies and dealers: in 1878 
they nunilx-red hut fifty. The business was 
much overdone, largely through mistaken 
enthusiasm and confidence in the future of 
the city, and parti}', it must be admitted, 
tb.niugh uuscrupulousness. I'nr its failure 
Ici curb the latter spirit the city suffered, 
as have many western cities, though by no 
means to the same extent. 

Since 1894 there has been a steady recov- 
erv of prices and a constant increase in the 
volume of transactions. Business property 
has reached prices never before realized : 
but, compared with other cities, is now re- 
garded as a most desirable investment. 
Vacant places in the business center have 
filled up. In the same way the residence 
portions of the city liaxe been solidified. 
It has been a feature of the past decade 
that homes have multiplied rapidly, that 
the working men ha\e bought and built, 
and that the great middle class has liccu 

housed under its own roofs. In residences. 
as in business building, there has been a 
marked tendency towards better quality : 
the architecture of the city has improved 
most wonderfully. The ])lace has taken on 
an air of permanence and solidity uid<nn\\u 
twenty-five years ago. 


In place of boom methuds the dc\elcip- 
ment of "additions" along rational and logi- 
cal business lines has become common and 
profitable. It is now the reasonable theory 
that an_v gi\en section of the city must take 
on something of a uniform character. The 
real estate agent nowadays plats his addi- 
tion, and determines from general location 
and surroundings what class of residences 
and occupants it should ap])e:d to. He then 
aflvertises for that class and fi.xes his prices 
at a suitable figure. In this way Lowry 
Hill was offered to the public after the 
panic of 1803, ^t prices and on terms that 
would a|iiK',Tl only to the best class of home 
buiblers. .\ little further out a notable 
example was Sunnyside and Linden Hills 
and Lynnhurst at Lake Harriet, Kenwood 
and other additions in the vicinity of Lake 
of the Isles were developed on this ])lan. 
The name of each soon meant something 
to the ])id)lic : property was given a def- 
inite place and \alue. In the same way 
additions ]Kirticidarly designed for the 
occupation of artisans and the industrial 
chiS'^es were ])latted and presented to thoss 
who would find the prices and localities 
suileil to their needs. Perhaps the most 
conspicuous example of this class of prop- 
ert\- is I'olundiia Heights, in Northeast 
.Minneapolis, owned by l.owry 
and platted and |>laced on the market 
i>\ I'Mnuuid ( ;. \\ alton as a great indtis- 
Ivi.-d suburb, the idea being to devote suit- 
lo manufacturing enterprises 
pu adjoining ground lionies for 
managers and employes ot 
■r.adi' from the 

.ible tracts 

and sup|ily 

the oliicer' 

thrs(.' concerns, o' e\er\ 

hiuhest to i1k- lowest. 



Tl I' enormous ;id\ances in \alue in Min- 
neajiolis real estate in the course of tlu' past 
lialf centnr\ lia\e been the fre(|uent subject 



of interesting articles. A very few in- 
stances only can be given here. S. C Gale 
(the oldest real estate man of Minneapolis 
continuously in bnsinessj l)ought a quarter 
of a block at the corner of First avenue 
south and Fourth street in the sixties, pay- 
ing $900 for the ])roperty. It was then 
quite well nut of the business center. Me 
lived on the pnqicrty for many years, and 
finally sold it for $150,000. It is now worth 
easily $250,000 without the buildings. The 
present site of Temple Court at Washing- 
ton and Hennepin avenues was valued by 
the owner in 1857 at $2,500. It is now 
regarded as worth at least $175,000. As 
late as 1877 L. AI. Stewart bought the half 
block on I'irst avenue south between Fifth 
and Sixth streets for $20,300: it is now- 
estimated to be worth at least $500,000. 
The other half of this block, occupied b\- 
the Syndicate block was sold to the Syndi- 
cate comjiany in 1881, for $77,500, and is 
now worth about $1,250,000. 

During the past few years the real estate 
transactions as indicated b_y the recorded 
transfers have been: 1901, $11,557,585: 
1902, $16,873,104; 1903, $13,811,346: 1904, 
$13.565470: 1905. $18,125,485; 1906, $17,- 
542,400: 1907, $24,911,962. 

In the same period the Iniilding opera- 
tions as shown li\' the ])crmits issued from 
the office of the building inspector were : 
1901, $6,766,303: 1902, $7,087,053; i<)03. 
$7,732,799; 1904. $6,696,985: 1905, $8,905,- 
205; 1906, $9,466,150: 1907, $io,oo^),..l85. 

THE RE.VL EST.\TE B:).\I<n. 

A strong influence in promoting the real 
estate interests of the city and in regulat- 
ing transactions maintaining standards, has 
been the Minneapolis Real Instate Hoard 
which was organized in May, 1892, and re- 
organized in the spring of if;oo upon a 
very substantial and business-like basis, its 
membership consisting of the representa- 
tive real estate and loaning houses of the 
city. The officers for 190S-09 are: i)resi- 
dcnt, R. TX Cone: vice-president, ( leorge 
Odium; secretary, II. F. Xewhall : treas- 
urer, A. V. Skiles; chairman of executive 
committee, D. I', bnu's. 


The fire insurance business in Minneapo- 

R.\>n'Er, IT. enr'TE. 

lis has been for the most part that of the 
agencies of companies having home offices 
elsewhere, and its history is largely that of 
the real estate men of the city ; for the 
agencies have been until \-ery recently, 
largely adjuncts of the real estate offices. 
In the early days of Minneapolis the best 
companies flid not seek business in the 
frontier towns. With' the growth of the 
citv, however, the character of the popula- 
tion and its business-like attention to mu- 
nicipal improvements and fire protection 
brought solicitation for business from the 
best companies in the worlil. 

The first insurance office opened in Min- 
ncajiolis proper was that of A. K. Hart- 
well, established in 1854, Judge E. B. Ames 
opened an office in 1857, and Gale & Co., 
Snyder & McFarlane and others wrote in- 
surance in the first few years of the city's 
life. ]-'or a long time the real estate men 
Controlled the agencies and it was not until 
comparatively recent years that exclusive 




SAMl'EL C. ClAl.H. 

acjcncies Ijc^aii t" drxrlnp ti i anv extent. 
'J"\vciity-fi\e _\ea;s a;;ii there were twentv- 
eii^ht ageneies in the eity, hut fully half of 
ihem conihined real estate or some other 
liusiness with that of insurance. 

.\t that time it was not uneonnnon for a 
real estate firm to hamlle lire insurance and 
lile insurance also. I'dr instance, ( iale & 
Co., one of the largest real estate firms did 
a large fire insurance business and were 
also ,Minnea|iolis a.gents for the .Mutual 
Life Insurance Com])any. C .\. j. .Marsh, 
hesl known as a real estate man, was a fire 
insurance agent, and alsn represented the 
Continental Life, hrederick I'aine, the \et- 
eran insui'anci- man. only receiilK' de- 
ceased, then represented hnth life and fire 

I'or man\' \ears the liahit in the east of 
loiiking uimn St. I'anl as the business cen- 
ter of the northwest prevented the estab- 
lishment of agencies of imijorlant life in- 
surance companies in .Mimicaiiolis. .\s late 
as t88,^, there were but three state agents 
in Minneapolis. Changes came rapidly. 

however. One of the evidences of recogni- 
tion of the importance of the city was the 
erection in iS.Scj of the New York Life In- 
surance Company building. Many import- 
ant state agencies have been established 
here and as in fire insurance, the city is now 
the general head(|uarters for the north- 
west. Few important companies, either life 
or fire, are not represented here, and within 
the past two decades the business of acci- 
dent, casualty and liability insurance — in 
all its variety of form — has been greatly 
developed. Many strong agency firms have 
been formed and have built up a heavy 


COMPANY. — The Northwestern National un- 
der its former name, came to Minneapolis 
twenty-two years ago, moving into ofifices 
consisting of two small rooms on a side 
street. It had been in existence but a short 
time, and had recently closed its first year 
with assets amounting to $600.46. To-dav 
the com]iany occupies its own home office 
building, at Nicollet avenue and Eleventh 
street, completed in the spring of 1905. 
This office building and the auditorium, 
architecturally one, hut practically separate 
structures, constitute one of Minneapolis' 
most substantial improvements of recent 
years. 'Jlie office buihhng is most admir- 
ably ada])ted for its purpose. The entire 
Ijroperty, costing over $400,000, constitutes 
a splendid investment, of steadily increas- 
ing \alue. 

From $600.46, the admitted assets of the 
company have steadily increased, until the 
total as shown by its annual statement, De- 
cember 31st, 11J07, amounts to $5,231,828: 
the [)ayments to beneficiaries and policy- 
holders at the same date having been $6,- 
020.024 : the total insurance in force reach- 
ing nearly $23,000,000, and protecting the 
li\es of nearly 30.000 peoi)le. 

The company, originally organized under 
the old assessment laws, was reincorporated 
in iqoi upon a legal reserve basis. In the 
spring of 1905, the old officers of the com- 
I any resigned, a complete reorganization 
icsulting, the management passing into the 
hands of experienced life insurance men. 
under the directorate of Minneapolis' most 




UMici; (]!' TiiH \(ii;Tn\vi:s'rr:K.\ naiiunai. i.iri: ixsi ham 

(Rfrtniii.l & rliiiiiil.iTlin. An-liiliMts.) 

■successful and substantial financiers. 

The company, now thoroughly estab- 
lished upon a sound basis, has become one 
nf the leading financial institutions of the 
Northwest, and gives promise of still more 
rapid de\-elopment and a most successful 
ami brilliant future. Its jiresidcnt and gen- 
eral manager, Leonard K. 'riidiiipson, who 
took charge of the atTairs of the coni])an\- 
in the spring of 1905, and. in cunnection 
witli Alinneapiijis' leading Ijankers, ci miluct- 
ed its reorganization, is a trained and suc- 
cessful life insurance man of twenty years' 
experience, thoroughly familiar with all the 
details and problems connected with wmnd 
life underwriting and successful companx 
management. .Mr. Thompson is surrounded 
with an e.xcepticinal corps of assistants: 
^\■illiam J. Graham, formerly of New York, 
vice-president and actuary : Dr. Henry 
VVircman Cook, from Baltimore, medical 
director: John T. Ilaxter, counsel; George 
E. Towle, for many years a North Dakota 
banker, treasurer, and Robert E. Esterly, 

The directorate of the company is espe- 
cially strong, including chief executive offi- 
cers of the leading banks of the city, and is 
as follows: F. -\. Ghamberlain, president 
Securit}' National Hank: .A. A. Crane, vice- 
president Northwestern National Bank; 
John T. Baxter, coimscl ; ( leo. K. Towle, 
treasurer; C. T. JalTray, \ice-president First 
National Bank; E. W. I)ecker, \ice-presi- 
dent Northwestern .\';itioiial I'.ank ; 1!. V. 
Nelson, Nelson-'rulhill Cumber Co.; W. 
J. (iraham. vice-president and actuary; L. 
K. Thompson, president. 


sL-i<.\xci-: coMTA.w was organized at Grand 
I'orks, North Dakota, in iSqi) and for sev- 
eral years did a very successful business: 
gradually extending its field unlil, in 1904, 
its officers saw the desirability of a more 
central location and made ])lans for re- 
moval to .Minnea|)olis. This mo\e was 
made early in the \car. the company ac- 
(piiring as an office building the old In- 
surance Exchange at 13 and 15 North 



l'"oiirth street which had Imij; been identi- 
fied ill the public niind witli tire insurance, 
'idle company was sul)se(|ucmly rc-inci.)r- 
poratcd under tlie Minnesota Laws with a 
capital stock of $200,000. This has since 
been increased to $300,000. Since coniiiii^ 
til .Minnea]jiilis its Ijusiness has enlarged 
ver\- rapidl}- thoug-h along c in^crvative 
lines, and miw doing business in twenty 
states, ciiniprising the best ])art uf the conu- 
trv. At the close of Kjo" the couiiiany had 
in force insurance to the amount of $44.- 
<S47,io8; carried a net surplus of $76,641; 
anil had total assets amounting to $770,- 
oi)2. ( ). O. Tollefson who was the secre- 
tary of the company at the organization, 
is now president and manager; Alvin Rob- 
ertson is vice-president; J. 1). flrown, sec- 
ond vice-president; 11. X. Stabeck, tliinl 
\-ice-prcsideiit ; \\'. A. l.aidlaw, secretary; 
C. H. Baldwin, assistant secretary ; and 
Charles Carothers. treasurer. 

Since i8()3 the lire insurance companies 
doing business in Minneapolis lia\e main- 
tained a saK'age corps or fire insurance 
patrol, well e(pii])peil for sahage work and, 
.is ex])erieiice has shown, doing effective 
work in lessening fire losses. The patrol 
is managed by the Minneapolis IJoard of 
I'lre I 'iiderwriters, the local organization 
of the insurance men. It works in connec- 
tion with the cit\- fire department. I'ire 
losses have been comparati\el_\' small in 
.Minneapolis owing to good Iniilding laws, 
an efficient tire de|iartment and water snp- 
pl\- ;ind the w mk of the salvage cor|)S. 

.\R.\I.\T.\GF.. .\ithiir WclU-slcy. tnr iiKiny 
yc-ar.s cngaRi'd in the in.surance bu.siiu-ss in .Min- 
neapolis, is a native of Canada. He was horn in 
(Juel)ec and his early year-- were spent near that 
place on liis fatlier's farm, lie he^ hi^ educa 
lion in the jmhlic schools, aeipiirinii llnrr liis 
elementary and preparatory Ir.iininn. ImIIow 
iiiK liis studies in the public scliools, he entered 
.St. l''rancis Collei.;i\ .it Kichmnnd, Quebec. .-Xftcr 
one year spent at St. Francis he left eolIcKc and 
entered upon liis commercial life. Mis lirst po- 
sition was in the auditor's department of the 
Canadian Express Company at .Montreal, lie re- 
mained in tliat ofliee for tlirec years, at the end 
■ ■f wliich time lie moved to .Minneapolis and here 
liegan his experience with the real estate busi- 
ness, with which, in connection willi insurance, 
he has since been associated. He entered the 

emploj- of I. .\. Dunsmoor & Company, re- 
maining with that Mrm for tliree years. He then 
resigned to enter the insurance business as an 
adjustor and continued in that capacity for three 
years, .\t the end of that lime on July I, 1891, 
he formed a partncrshi]) with .Mr. Samuel S. 
Thorpe, and his brother, under the firm name of 
Thorpe Bros. & .'\rmatagc, and engaged in the 
insurance business. This association still con- 
tinues, the company now being a part of the 
.Minneapolis Insurance Agency, which carries on 
a very e.xtensive business in fire and marine in- 
■-urain'r. Mr. .\riiiatagc is treasurer of the coni- 
jiaiiy. In pulilical faith he is a republican. .Mr. 
.\rmatage is a iirominent member of several 
clubs and fraternal orders; among which are the 
Commercial Club, of which he was for six years 
a director. He is also associated with the local 
Elks body; is a thirty-second degree Mason, and 
;i .Shriner. With his family he attends the Hen- 
nepin .Avenue Methodist Church. Mr. Armatage 
was married on June 18, i8go, to Miss "Maude A. 
Dunsmoor of this city, and they have three chil- 
dren, one son and two daughters. 

B.XDGER, Walter Louis, was born on May 
27, 1868, at Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. He is the 
son of George A. Badger, a successful merchant 
of Fond du Lac. and Harriet E. Hastings; both 
parents being natives of Massachusetts and de- 
"H'cnileil from old Xcw b'nglanil families. Mr. 


•Mtiiii 1; w . .\i;.\|.\ t \oi;. 



Badger attended the public school of his home 
town till 1878 when he came with his parents to 
Minneapolis. Here he again attended a prepara- 
tory institution for two years and then left school 
to commence an active business life. He entered 
the real estate office of J. Goldsbury where he re- 
ceived his first training in the business with which 
he is now prominently identified. In 1886 Mr. 
Badger opened an office for himself, which he 
managed for four years. He then entered the firm 
of Corser & Company as a special partner, an 
association which continued for three years, until 
189,^, when he again opened his own office and has 
since conducted his business independently. He 
makes a specialty of the management of large 
estates, and has built up a most successful busi- 
ness in general real estate dealing and the man- 
agement of estates and office buildings, and has 
a large eastern clientage. Mr. Badger is a re- 
publican in politics, and though he lias never 
sought public office, is actively interested in muni- 
cipal improvement and reform. He is a member of 
the Minneapolis Club and Commercial Club and 
active member of the Minneapolis R. E. Board. 
Mr. Badger attends Plymouth Congregational 
Church. In i8go he was married to Miss Anna 
Dawson, of Keokuk, Iowa, and they have had two 
children — Lester Robert and Norman Dawson. 

CAMPBELL, Lewis William, was born at 
Harringt(m, Washington county, Maine, son of 
Dennison Campbell, a civil engineer. His grand- 
father was James Campbell, one of the framers 
of the Constitution of Maine, also judge of the 
Supreme Court and a colonel of the militia of 
that state; his great-grandfather, Alexander 
Campbell, was colonel of the 6th Massachusetts 
during the war of the Revi^'ution. later a Mainr 
General and judge of the Superior Court ; state 
senator for the Eastern District of Maine for 
;even years, one of the organizers of the East 
Machias, Washington countv. Academy and one 
of the original trustees of Bovvdoin College. 

Lewis W. during his early years attended the 
Academy at East Alachias, on August 4th. i86:i- 
he enlisted in the nth Regiment of Main.- volun 
teers and served in the army until h'ebruary 
13th, 1866; he was in many of the greatest battles 
of the war. and was present at the surrender of 
Lee, .Ajiril gth, 1865. His commission as an of- 
ficer came to him at .Appomatox. During his 
army life he was on ;i number of different 
boards and at the close wa.-- judge in the I'reed- 
men's Bureau, near Fredericksburg, \'irginia, 
making contracts with the planter and his for- 
mer slave. He was in business at Machias. 
Maine, for three years, coming to Minneapolis 
in 1869; was engaged in the milling business until 
1892, and since then has been prominently en- 
gaged in real estate, loans and insurance. He is 
a member of the Masonic fraternity, a member 
of the G. A. R. and Loyal Legion, of the Com- 
mercial Club and the Chamber of Commerce. In 
1892 and "93 he was the first and second vice 

I.KWIS W. C.V.MI'r.KI.I.. 


president of the Chamber of Commerce and the 
Board of Trade at the same time, the only man 
in the city to enjoy that distinction. Mr. Camp- 
bell is a member of the First Congregational 
Church, was for fifteen years one of its deacons, 
and prominently identified with the Sunday 
school movement, as superintendent nine years 
and as teacher eighteen years. He was i>resident 
of the State Sunday School .'\s50ciation in 1800, 
and served on the International Sunday .School 
committee in i8gt. He was married May 31st, 
1871, to Sarah Fisk. who died November 6th, igoj. 
They have two daughters, Mahala P. Holman 
and Mary .\. Campbell. Mr. Campbell has been 
identilicd with all of the reform movements for 
the uplift of his fellow men. He now enjoys the 
title of Colonel, having been on the staff of tlie 
former Governor of .Minnesota. 

CfL-\DBOURX. Charles Henry, f.iuuder of 
the Chadbourn i'-inance Company of .Minneapolis, 
son of Nathaniel and Kutli Hill Chadbourn, was 
born in Sanford. Maine, November 8, 1831. His 
father was a farmer and Charles, after receiving a 
common school and academic education, went to 



C:ilifornia by way of Panama. He reached there in 
April, 1852, with twenty dollars left in his pocket, 
the remainder of his hoyhood savings. He went 
to work in the gold mines at Columbia Gulch and. 
after four years he left the Golden Gate with 
about $5,000. Returning East, he engaged in 
business with his brother at Columbus, Wisconsin, 
and, in November, i860, he removed to Rochester, 
Minnesota, forming a private banking partnership 
in 1862, which was incorporated in 1876 as the 
Rochester National Bank. Elected in 1887 presi- 
dent of the Flour City National Bank, of Min- 
neapolis, he removed to this city and in 18S9 he 
formed a partnership with his sons to engage in 
the business of real estate and insurance. This 
business was incorporated in 189,-^ as the Chad- 
bourn Finance Company. Mr. Chadbourn pur- 
chased in 1887 the five-story Stillman Block and 
remodelled it into the handsome hotel known as 
The Vendome. whicli at the time of his death. 
Maj' 5, 19CO, he and his sons were conductin.t;. 
Mr. Chadbourn was married in 1858 to Henrietta 
Jane, daughter of Alfred Toplifif. There are four 
living children: Charles Nathaniel, Henrietta 
Fxuth. missiiinary to .San Jose, Costa Rica; Kati- 
bcl, and Rodney Whitney, associated with liis 
brother in the management of the Chadbourn 
Finance Company. Mr. Chadljourn was a re- 
publican in politics and a member of the Congre- 
gational church. Til his family and tlie com- 
munity he left a nntable example of public spirit 
;ind strict integrity. 

CHUTE. Frederick Butterheld, is the son of 
one of the early pioneers and business men of 
Minneapolis and was liorn and has made his home 
in this city. His father was Samuel Hewcs 
Chute, for many years i)roniincnt in business and 
social affairs and one of the original Chute 
Brothers who conducted an extensive and suc- 
cessful real estate business in this city from 18.^7 
till 1893 when the firm incorporated as Chute 
Brothers Company. His mother was Helen 1". .\. 
(Day) Chute. Fred B. Chute was born on De- 
cember 21, 1872, in Minneapolis and his boyhood 
was spent here and his preliminary and prepara- 
tory education obtained by tutor and in private 
schools of this city. He entered the preparatory 
department at Xotrc Dame University in Indiana 
in 1885 and was graduated in 1892, receiving the 
degree (if Bachelor of l^etters. He took one year 
in tin- Xiitre Dame law department but wishing 
til cimtinne liis legal studies at home he entered 
the law department nf the University of Minne- 
sota and at the C'ini])letii)n of his post-graduate 
work received, in 1890, his degree of I.I.. M. 
After finishing his college work Mr. Cliiite prac- 
ticed law and later became connected with tlie 
Chute Realty Company, of which he was one of 
the incorporators, and since that time has been 
I)rominenlly associated with the real estate busi- 
ne>s in this city. Though he has pr.'u'ticed his 
liriifc-siiin indejiendently to some extent and in 
connection with his commercial interests. .Mr. 

FKi:ll II. (^IIITE. 

Chute's time has Iieen fur the must p.irt engaged 
with the real estate lnisine>s and the different 
firms of which he is a nu-mlier have been asso- 
ciated with some of the largest ami must impor- 
tant transactions in realty which have been con- 
summated in the city. He is at present the secre- 
tary of the Chute Brothers Company; the second 
vice president and secretary of the Chute Realty 
Company, and a member of tlie linn of L. P. & 
F. B. Chute, and is active in the management of 
the financial and commercial interests which 
these firms represent. Mr. Chute has engaged, 
aside friim liis business life, in many branches of 
public and social activity ami is a memlier uf the 
more prominent organizatiniis nf :l pulilic and 
social ch.'iracter. l''nr some time he was connect- 
ed with tile .X.itional Guard of Minnesota and 
during two years was the First of one 
of the local companies. .Xs a memlier of the 
Board of Education he has been an important 
promoter of some of the educational movements. 
Politically Mr. Chute is a republican but has 
never desired to hold public office, though inter- 
ested in the ailv.anccment of good municipal gov- 
ernment, lie is well-known in Minneapolis social 
circles as well as in commercial life, being a 
member ol the l.-irger clul s, among them the Min- 
iK.'ipolis (lull, the .Minikahda Cliili. the Minne- 
tonka ^'acllt Club, the Roosevelt ("lull, the Sons 
of the .\meric:in Revolution, the Knights of Co- 



lumbus, the State Bar Association and the Min- 
neapolis and St. Anthony Commercial Clubs. He 
attends the Catholic Church. 

CHUTE, Louis Prince, lawyer, horn in .Min- 
neapolis, October 17, 1868, belongs to a Minneap- 
olis family which has been prominent in the 
locality from the time Dr. Samuel H. Chute, 
his fatlier, came to the early village of St. .-X-ii- 
tliony. Dr. Chute and his wife, Helen E. A. 
(Day) Chute, were leaders in all enterprises of 
a public or social character for nearly a genera- 
tion of the growth of the city, especially as re- 
lated to the Ea^t Side. Their children mivv 
occupy as public-spirited a relation. Louis I'. 
Chute spent his early life here, getting his edu- 
cation at first under a private tutor. This was 
seconded by several terms at the Archibald Busi- 
ness College, and completed in the legal depart- 
ment of the University of Notre Dame, Indiana. 
From this institution, Mr. Chute received his 
A. B. in 1890, and LL. B. in 1892. He was ad- 
mitted to practice in Indiana in 1892, and re- 
ceived the degree of LL. M., in 189,3, ^'t 'he 
University of Minnesota. Since then law and 
real estate have occupied him. He is a busy 
man, but finds time to belong to most of the 
leading social clubs of the city. lie is on the 
Citizens' staff of John A. Rawlins Post, G. A. R. 
and is a member of the Sons of the American 
Revolution. Mr. Chute is a member of the Civic 
Affairs committee of the Commercial Club and is 
secretary of the Minnetonka Yacht club. He is 
a Roman Catholic. Is unmarried. 

CHUTE, Richard, a resident of Minneapoli-' 
since 1854, and until his death a member of the 
real estate firm of Chute Brothers, was of Eng- 
lish descent. The lineage has been traced to 
Alexander Chute, a resident of Taunton, Eng- 
land, in 1268, wdiose ancestors were among those 
of Norman blood, who came to Britain with 
William the Conquerer. His ancestors on the ma- 
ternal side were revolutionary soldiers, among 
them being Captain Roger Clapp, who in 7664 
commanded the "Castle," now Fort Independence 
in Boston Harbor. The parents of Richard Chute 
were James Chute and Martha (Hcwes) Chute. 
James Chute taught a private school in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, but after his son's birth entered 
the Presbyterian ministry and moved to Coluni 
bus, Ohio. He resided at Columbus until iS.ii. 
when he moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, where 
he died in 18.35, having survived his wife two 
years. Richard Chute was born in Cincinnati 
on September 2.?. 1820. His education was re- 
ceived from his parents, and when twelve years 
of age he entered the store of S. & II. Hanna 
& Co. at Fort Wayne. The d^ath of his father 
left him the oldest of the family, and he con 
tinned his employment — being connected with 
various firms until in 1841 he accepted the posi- 
tion of clerk with W. G. & G. W. Ewing, large 
dealers in furs. In 1844 this firm desired to 
establish a fur trading prist at Good Road's vil 

lage, eight miles above Fort Snelling, and sent 
Mr. Chute out for that purpose. While ac- 
complishing this commission Mr. Chute visited 
the Falls of St. .\nthony and recognized the 
splendid advantages which the then almost wild 
location had for the site of a large city. He 
continued in the fur trading business for some 
years, in 1845 becoming a partner of the Ewings 
and later joining the firm of P. Choteau, Jr., & 
Co. In 1854 he moved to St. Anthony and be- 
came largely interested in real estate and soon 
acquired a part ownership in the hind controlling 
tlic water power on the east side of the river, 
then owned by Franklin Steele and others. Two 
years later the St. Anthony Falls Water Power 
Company was incorporated and Mr. Chute be- 
came its agent. This office he held until 1868, 
when he assumed the presidency of the company, 
holding the position until the property was sold 
to Jas. J. Hill. This corporation developed the 
power at the Falls which was of such importance 
in the growth of the milling interests of the 
city. In 1865 Mr. Chute began his association 
with his brother in the realty business and since 
that time the firm of Chute Brothers has been 
one of the important factors of the real "estate 
business of the city. Mr. Chute also engaged 
:it various times in other industrial and com- 
mercial projects, which proved successful ven- 
tures. Mr. Chute's public services in the in- 
terests of the citv and state were extensive and 

LOIIS I', nil TK. 



varied. With R. P. Upton and Edward Murphy 
he siipcr-.iscd the expenditure of tlu- public 
funds for clearing the channel of the Mississippi 
from Minneapolis to Fort Snelling. for steam- 
boat traffic, and in the fall of the same year 
was appointed territorial delegate by Henry M. 
Rice to aid in passing the railroad land grant 
bill in Wasliington. With II. 'I'. Welles lu- 
finally accomplished tlu- enaclment of the hill 
which resulted in the construction oi 1,400 miles 
of railroad in the state. He was made a charter 
director of several of the railroad companies 
and was especially prominent in the atifairs of 
the Great Northern system, lie was one of the 
organizers of the Board of Trade, for many years 
on its board of directors and for two years its 
president. Governor Ramsey appointed him in 
1862 special (luartcrmaster for a detachment nt 
troops at Fort Ripley and he was later made 
assistant quartermaster of tlu- state with the 
rank of lieutenant colonel, l-'roni 1S63 until the 
close of the Civil War he was United States 
Provost f<.r Hennepin County. Mr, 
Chute was particularly influential in the uork 
which has been done to preserve St. .\nlh..ny 
Falls, first through his association with the St. 
Anthony I'alls Water Power Company and 
later when, after failing twice to secure the 
passage of a land '^mni bill for the purpose, 
he succeeded in having jiassed in Washington a 
hill appropriating $50,000 for permanent im- 
provements for the conservation of the local 
water power. This sum together with Mihse- 
quent congressional approiiri.ations and muni- 
cipal subscriptions erected the present con- 
crete dyke and permanent apri.n. While 111 the 
fur-trading business Mr. Chute became ac- 
quainted with the vari.nis Indian tribes and was 
influential in arraigning, and «:is present at the 

of the state university. He wa- a repulilican 
and was one of twenty wlio in 1S35 ..rganized 
that party in Minnesota. Until iHS.' .Mr. Chute 
continued in active business life, when ill lie;iltli 
compelled liim to retire, after which, until hi- 
death on AuguM 1, iSc«, he spent a large iiart 
of his time in the snuthern stale-. .Mr, ( hut. 
was married in 1850 to Miss Mary KHza ^.lllllg. 
They had i\vc children, three of whom, Charles, 
William Y. .ind C.r.iec-, .are -till li\ing 

CHUTE, Samuel llewes, came to .Minneapolis 

\^n\Jli^, oaiuLiei iii^vv,-;,, v,vii,v .V. 1 

on May i, 1857, and has been one of the tnost 
promnicnt factors in the development of the city. 
He was born in Columbus, Ohio, on December d. 
1830, the son of Rev. James Chute .and Martha 
Hewes (Clapp) Chute. Shortly after his birth 
his parents moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and 
in that town Dr. Chute passed the early part of 

his life and began his education which he finished 
at Wabash College at Crawfordsville. He com- 
menced to study medicine under Drs. C. E. Stur- 
gis and J. H. Thompson of Fort Wayne in No- 
vember, 1849, and shortly afterwards matriculated 
at the Medical College of Ohio at Cincinnati and 
in February, 1852, graduated with the degree of 
-M. U. Almost immediately he joined a party of 
friends who were making the then perilous jour- 
ney across the plains to Oregon, as the physician 
of the party. Dr. Chute reached Portland, Ore- 
gon, and spent the winter of 1852 in medical prac- 
tice there. In the spring of 1853 he again made a 
journey on horseback to California wdiere for six 
months he engaged in mining. He resumed his 
professional work, however, and for four years 
practiced and was in charge of the hospital at 
Yreka, being the only graduated physician in the 
locality. In 1857 he returned to the "States" by 
way of San Francisco, Panama and New York, 
and coming west arrived in St. Anthony on May 
1, 1837, having traveled by steamboat from Prairie 
du Chieii to St. Paul, He immediatelj- engaged in 
the re;il estate business with Richard Chute, his 
brother. The firm name of Chute Brothers was 
assumed in 1865 and was retained until the death 
of Richard Chute in 1893 when the company was 
incorporated as the Chute Brothers Company, of 
which Dr. Chute has always been president. His 
business interests have extended to numerous en- 
terprises. When the great improvements were 
made for the preservation of the Falls of St. An- 
thony, Dr. Chute, as executive officer of the 
board of construction, was in charge, with J. H. 
Stevens as engineer. This office he held until 
Col. F'arquhar was sent out by the government to 
take charge of the permanent construction work. 
He was for a long period associated with the Mis- 
sissippi and Rum River Boom Company, first as 
its vice-president and director and from 1879 to 
1886 as president. Dr. Chute was the agent of the 
St. Anthony I'alls Water Power Company from 
1868 to 1880. In the latter year the property was 
sold to J. J. Hill and others. Before holding 
the position of active manager of the plant Dr. 
Chute had been a director and at one time the 
stock of the company was owiud iiitircly by the 
Chute Brothers. His interests have been connected 
largely with the realty business, however, and 
numerous additions and divisions of the city- have 
been platted and developed by the firm of which 
lie been the In politics Dr. Chute is a 
n liulilu'.in, Diniu.g liis long residence in the 
city he has held many municipal offi'ces, both 
elective and .appointive, .\t several times he has 
been a member of the council .iiiil as early as 

1858 was suiiervisiir of ilie | r. He was for 

some time city treasurer of St. .\nthony and was 
one of the most inlluential and energetic founders 
•jf the public school system. F'rom 1861 to 1864 
he was a member of the board of education and 
during the greater part of that time president. 
He was again on the board in 1878, at the time 
when the separate educational boards of the east 
and west divisions of the city were united. From 





March, 1883, uiuil April, 1885, he- was a iiK-mlicr 
of the park coniinission. In all his piihlic posi- 
tions Dr. Chute displayed ability and earnest- 
ness and he has been instrumental in many of 
the city's progressive movements, particularly 
along educational lines. On May 5, 1858, he was 
married to Miss Helen E. A. Day and they have 
had six children, four daughters, Charlotte 
Rachel, deceased, Mary Jeanette, .\gnes and 
Elizabeth, and two sons, Louis Prince and Im-ciI- 
erick Butterheld. Dr. Chute is a member of (lie 
Presbyterian church. 

CHUTE, William Y., son of Richard Chute, 
was born September 13, 1863, in Minneapolis. 
His father was most conspicuously and com- 
mendably identified with the development of 
Minneapolis. It was he who, coming in 1844. to 
the Northwest to establish a trading post for the 
Ewing Brothers of Fort Wayne, Indiana, in the 
Indian country, beheld the Falls of St. Anthony 
in a natural condition and a mighty volume of 
water power going to waste and took oflf his hat 
to the rusliing, tumbling waters and exclaimed, 
"Here is the site of a mighty city." With strong 
faith Mr. Chute devoted his life to the work of 
making good the prophetic observation. An In- 
dian trader, he dealt honorably with the Indians, 
with whom it was his duty to negotiate treaties 
and vast areas of public land were acquired 

through his efforts, while the story of his ac- 
tivity in developing the water-power of the Falls 
of St. Anthony, is one of the most interesting 
passages in the history of the city, and his part 
in the work of securing the national aid in the 
preservation of the F'alls, when the disintegrating 
sandstone brought down the Trenton limestone, 
is fully recognized. William V. has strong busi- 
ness instincts like his father. He attended the 
common schools in his youth and attended the 
state university and took a course at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology at Boston and 
is now head of the Chute Realty Company at No. 
301 Central avenue, one of the oldest firms in the 
city. Mr. Chute has also been president of the 
.Minneapolis Real Estate Board, which is one of 
the strongest and most progressive bodies in the 
city. He is a member of the Minneapolis Club, 
Commercial Club, the East Side Commercial 
Club, the Minikahda Club, the Town and Coun- 
try Club and the .Automobile Club and is presi- 
dent of the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts. 
.Mr. Chute is a member of the Christian Science 

CORSER, Elwood Spencer, president of the 
Corser Investment Company and for nearly forty 
years interested in the real estate business in 
Minneapolis, is descended from the Puritan set- 
tlers of New England. William Corser emigrated 
from London in 1635 and settled in Boston where 
he married; and the lineage of E. S. Corser is 
traced through the following members of the 
family — John Corser, born near Boston in 1642; 
John Corser, born near Boston, or Newbury, 
Massachusetts, in 1685; John Corser, born 
at Newbury in 1718, who served with other 
New Hampshire settlers in the French and 
Indian War of 1758, and later settled with 
his family on Corser's Hill in the town 
of Boscawen, now Webster, near Concord, 
New Hampshire. He had six sons, five 
(^f whom served during the Rev