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FROM THE BBqySST OP 

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A HISTORY OF rORFHVREKlh liW'-A: i 



W I L L 1 A M C H A F F L I< S. 

Al'TUor. OF**A HKsTOUY OF L()NI»(»X ') •. Ii-Mi; \^ \ND l';..V 1 L'A '"liKKKS ^'.llli.v A . 1 " 



;fttntb (fCiition. 

Extended and Enlarged, and with the Addition of 260 New Date 

Letters and Marks, and a Bibliography. 

EDI ri£L> I'Y 

CHRISTOEIIEk A. MARKHAM, F.S.A. 

A(THOR UV *'TIIE •UlUt H I'LAII, or THK ("(M MY UF NiH: IM A>! I'luN," F.n . 



LONDON: 

REEVES AND T U K N E K, 

% S3, CMArUSG CROSS Kf.AD. W <\ 

t.^^'td rtsnved.^ 



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S) 



Sail ^arks 



ON 



GOLD AND SILVER PLATE 

ILLUSTRATED WITH REVISED TABLES OF 

ANNUAL DATE LETTERS 

EMPLOY BD IN 

^Ift ^BBa^ (BS^ts of (Englanb, ^rotlanb Euh Inland, 



TO WHICH IS ADDED 



A HISTORY OF L'ORFEVRERIE FRANCAISE. 



BY 

WILLIAM CHAFFERS, 

AUTHOR or ''a history of LONDON' OOLDSMITHS AND PLATEWORKERS (OILDA AURIFAiniORUM)/' ETC. 



4^tntlj (Ebttton* 

Extended and Bnlarsred, and with the Addition of a6o New Date 

Letters and Marks, and a Bibliography. 

EDITED BY 

CHRISTOPHER A. MARKHAM, F,S.A. 

AUTHOR Of "THE CHURCH PLATE OF THE COCNTr OP KORTHAMFTON," ETC. 



[All rights reurvtd.'] 



LONDON: 

REEVES AND TURNER, 

83, CHARING CROSS ROAD, WC. 
1905 



FA«^<H%.\o.^ 




ART PUBLICATIONS. 



The Companion to " Hall Marks on Gold and Silver Plate." 

CHAFFERS (W.), A HISTORY OF ENGLISH GOLD 
SMITHS AND PLATEWORKERS("Gilda AuRiFABRORUM")and 
their Marks stamped on Plate, copied in facsimile from celebrated 
Examples and the earliest Records preserved at Goldsmiths* Hall, 
London, with their names, addresses and dates of entry, 2,500 
iilustrattons ; also Historical Account of the Goldsmiths* Company, 
and their Hall Marks and Regalia; the Mint; Closing of the Ex- 
chequer ; Goldsmith Bankers ; Shop Signs, a Copious Index, etc., a 
New Edition, 267 pp., roy. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 

The Large Edition, over 1,000 pp., imp. 8vo. 

CHAFFERS (Wm.), MARKS AND MONOGRAMS ON 
EUROPEAN AND ORIENTAL POTTERY AND PORCELAIN, 
with Historical Notices of each Manufactory, preceded by an Intro- 
ductory Essay on Ancient Pottery and on the Vasa Fictilia of 
England and Mediaeval Earthenware Vessels, with over 3,500 Potters 
Marks and Illustrations, revised and edited by F. Litchfield 
ornamental cloth. Ninth Edition, with Additional Information and 
Marks, 42s. 

CHAFFERS (W.), COLLECTORS HANDBOOK OF MARKS 
AND MONOGRAMS ON POTTERY AND PORCELAIN OF 
. THE RENAISSANCE AND MODERN PERIOD, Selected from 
his larger work. New Edition. Revised and considerably Augmented 
by F. Litchfield, Twelfth Thousand, 234 pp., post 8vo, cloth 
gilt, 6s. 

CHAFFERS IWm.), HANDBOOK TO HALL MARKS ON 
GOLD AND SILVER PLATE, with Revised Tables and Annual 
Date Letters Employed in the Assay Offices of England, Scotland 
and Ireland. Extended by C. A. Markham, F.S.A., cr. 8vo, cloth, 

MARKHAM (Chr. A.. F.S.A.), HANDBOOK TO FOREIGN 
HALL MARKS ON GOLD AND SILVER PLATE (except those 
on French Plate), containing 163 stamps, cr. 8vo, cloth. 5s. 

MARKHAM (C), HANDBOOK TO FRENCH HALL MARKS 
ON GOLD AND SILVER PLATE. Illustrated. Crown Svo, 
cloth, 5s. 1900 

LONDON: REEVES AND TURNER. 



DEDICATED TO 

Qe 0olb!5mit!)»' Compng of ioniran, 

WITH THE EXPRESS PERMISSION OF THE 

WARDENS AND COURT OF ASSISTANTS, 

Accompanied by the foil owing giacious reply, signed by the Clerk 

of the Company. 



Goldsmiths* Hall, 
London, £.C. 

nth December^ 1902. 

Dear Sir^ 

I had an opportunity of submitting your letter of the 6th 
instant to the Wardens of the Goldsmiths^ Company yesterday ^ 
and I was desired to say that they have pleasure in giving you 
permission to dedicate your forthcoming edition of " Chaffers^ 
Hall Marks on Gold and Silver Plate " to the Company* 

I am^ 

Yours faithfully^ 
WALTER S. PRIDEAUX. 
Christopher A. Markham, Esq. 



J . 



" Opus quale sit, ignis probabit."— 1 COR. iii. 13. 

(Motto of the Gold$mith$' Companjf of Roueiu) 



THE GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY. 



T 



HE following account of the Goldsmiths' Company is from 
a plate of their arms in the Clerk's office : — 



**To the Master Warden & Wardens with the rest of the 
Worthy Members of the R* Worship" Company of Goldsmiths. 

" T. B. Wtsheth Evefit of all Felicity & humbly dedicates this 
Plate. 

*'The R* Worship" Company of Goldsmiths London, bear for 
their Ensigne Armoriall : Quarterly, Gules and Azure ; In the i"^ 
and 4*"" a Leopards head Or, In y 2* & 3^ a Cup covered 
between 2 Buckles of the last : On a Helmet a Wreath of their 

Colours, a denty* Lady her Arms extended proper, in y Dexter 

■ e e 

hand a Pair of Scales, & in y Sinister an Ingot as y 3? Supported 

by 2 Unicorns Gold Underneath on an Escrole for their Motto 

JUSTITA viRTUTUM REGINA. Patrou, St. Dunstan. 

e ' 
**It is to y very gregit Honour of this Company, that severall 

Persons of Eminent worth in Antient & Modern times, have been 

6 e 

inroUed among them (particularly) in y Reigne of Hen: y first 

Lepfstane Goldsmith, was Provost of this City. That Henry Fitz 

Alwin Fitz Leofstane Goldsmith was Maior of London : i"^ of 

> 
» •-' ... 

Kich: !■* 1189. That Gregory Rokesby Goldsmith continued 

1 ■ - • 

Maior 7 year together. That W™ JEarringdon Goldsmith was 
Sheriff 9*** of Edw : i"* 1280. & his son Nicholas after him 4 times 
L^ Major in y Reigne of Edw^ 2 1308. Besides King Prince 
Earle Lord and L^ Maiors. They were Incorporated 16*** of 

* Dointy, an old word for yine or elegant, here used for an elegantly 

dressed lady. 

vn 



vili THE GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY. 

Rich : 2* 1392. W™ Stonden L* Maior. Gilbert Mafield, 
Tho : Newington Sheriffs. 

*' Their Mansion Hall Scituate Foster Lane London. 

'^London Printed for T, Bower Painter and are to be Sold at his 
Shop at the Kings head in Budge Row.*' 

Their crest and supporters were granted in 1591. 



Preface to the Ninth Edition^ \(^0^ 



I N issuing the Ninth Edition of this work, the publishers have the 
* pleasure of adding to it an Essay by CHRISTOPHER A. Markham, 
Esq., F.S.A., on the History of Plate, who has also edited this 
volume, the value of which they trust has been increased. 

Many of the letters included in the London Assay Office Letters 
being the copyright of the late Mr. W. J. Cripps, C.B., F.S.A., author 
of " Old English Plate," by whose courtesy arid express permission 
they are used in this book, the publishers desire to renew the 
acknowledgments for them and the permission to use other matter 
which has previously appeared in this work. 

Their thanks are due to the Marquis of Exeter for permission to 
reproduce one of his beautiful standing cups, as the frontispiece ; 
and also to Messrs. H. Hancock Dove and Alfred G. Dovie, of 
Messrs. Hancocks & Co., Bond Street, and Messrs. Lambert of 
Coventry Street and to others mentioned in the body of this work. 

The publishers regret to record the death in 1892 of Mr. William 
Chaffers, the author of the book; but in this work, and his elaborate 
volume on Pottery and Porcelain, his careful and industrious 
labours still remain to the public. 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. ix 

Some 260 new date letters and marks have been added, which 
have in every case been drawn by the present Editor from original 
examples. 



Preface to the First Edition^ 1 863 

nPHE Tables of Assay Office Letters here given will be found 
* more complete than any hitherto published. Of those which 
have already appeared, the first printed about thirty years since by a 
printer in St. Anne's Lane was a short list of alphabetical letters 
from the year 1697; but they were badly formed, and printed with- 
out being compared with the actual marks on the plate itself. 

Mr. Octavius Morgan, in 1853, produced an improved Table 
of the Annual Assay Office Letters of the Goldsmiths* Hall of 
London, tracing them back to the fifteenth century, and carefully 
comparing his lists with the marks on the plate, consulting also 
the Records and Minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company for con- 
firmation. He tells us that from the year 1558 regularly formed 
escutcheons were used to enclose the letters, but unfortunately did 
not show us what their forms were, only giving the letters. 

I have endeavoured to supply this defect by placing each letter 
in its proper shield, — a most important aid in determining the date 
of a piece of plate, where several alphabets of different dates are 
similar. 

Some years since I also printed a small sheet of Assay Office 
Letters. All these are now out of print, and, at the request of 
numerous friends, I have been induced to publish one on a more 
extended scale, embracing the Marks used at the principal Assay 
Offices of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

Although a great proportion of the plate made in England was 
stamped in London, yet other towns, from an early period, had the 



X PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

like privilege. Scotland also had its Assay Office at Edinburgh, 
and I am enabled, through the perseverance and untiring zeal of Mr. 
J. H. Sanderson of that city (in carefully consulting the Records of 
the Goldsmiths' Company, and comparing them with pieces of old 
Scotch plate), to give a correct Table of the Assay Letters used there 
from the year i68i. I take this opportunity of thanking him for 
his trouble and kind assistance. 

In Ireland, the principal Assay Office was at Dublin, and the 
Corporation of Goldsmiths of that city, through their Master, 
Edmond Johnston, Esq., liberally granted me permission to examine 
their Records, and, with the assistance of Mr. Thomas Ryves 
Metcalf, their Clerk (who furnished me with extracts from the local 
Acts by which they are governed), I am enabled to give a List of 
Assay Office Letters used there since 1646. 

Impressions in wax or gutta-percha of early stamps on ancient 

plate, especially those with engraved dates of presentation, will be 

very acceptable, that the blanks in the earlier cycles may be filled up 

satisfactorily. 

W. CHAFFERS. 



Preface to the Sixth Mdition^ 1883 

I N offering the Sixth Edition of " HALL MARKS ON PLATE," a few 
prefatory remarks are necessary to explain that numerous 
additions have been made in the varous sections. All the recent 
enactments have been consulted, and the important clauses embodied 
in the Work. The whole has undergone careful revision, and as it 
is essentially a bock of reference for Plate Collectors and Gold- 
smiths, due attention has been paid in giving facilities for that 
purpose. The new Act, abolishing the use of pennyweights and 
grains and dividing the Troy ounce into thousandths, has caused 



PREFACE TO THE SJXTH EDITION. xi 

some difficulty to Goldsmiths in weighing plate by the new weights, 
but tables of comparison are given to remedy the temporary in- 
convenience of the decimal system. The Report of the Select 
Committee of the House of Commons in 1879 on the Hall-marking 
of Gold and Silver will show what reforms were considered de- 
sirable, although no action has yet been taken by the Government. 
In consequence of the importation of vast quantities of foreign plate 
of an inferior quality, its sale has been prohibited in the United 
Kingdom by an Act of 1875, unless assayed and stamped at the 
Halls, with an additional mark denoting its foreign manufacture. 
The Tables of Date Letters of the London and Provincial Assay 
Offices have received especial attention, and a number of Hall Marks 
of the Provinces hitherto unappropriated are inserted under their 
respective cities and towns, with hints for the further elucidation 
of the subject, thereby preventing the destruction of many interesting 
pieces which from being unknown have hitherto been consigned to 
the crucible. 

So many additions having been made throughout, it is needless 
to do more than refer to the fact that nearly a hundred pages of new 
matter and five hundred fresh marks have been introduced. But a 
pleasing duty remains to be performed, viz., to express our grateful 
thanks to several gentlemen who have given us important infor- 
mation, and have assisted us materially in elucidating many obscure 
portions of our History of Hall Marks on Plate. Their names will 
be found recorded in the body of the work, yet a few must be 
specially noticed in anticipation. The urbanity and great help 
accorded us on all occasions by the Wardens of the Goldsmiths' 
Company and their clerk, Mr. Walter Prideaux, aided by the 
obliging attention of the Deputy Warden, Mr. W. Robinson, merit 
our warmest thanks. Our inquiries and communications made to 
the Assay masters of Chester, Sheffield, and other provincial offices, 
have met with immediate attention. To Mr. Horatio Stewart, of the 



xii PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. 

firm of Messrs. Hancocks & Co., our especial thanks are due in 
supplying us with careful drawings of Hall marks, taken by their 
artist from all pieces of ancient plate which have come under their 
notice for the last twenty yecirs. The reader will also perceive how 
much we are indebted to the assistance of the Right Hon. the Earl 
of Breadalbane in allowing us to copy the marks on examples 
of plate collected by his Lordship in illustration of those 
of the Royal Burghs of Scotland, which have hitherto been 
involved in mystery. Our thanks are also due to [the late] 
Mr. W. J. Cripps for permission to make some important 
additions and corrections in several of our Tables of London 
and provincial date letters contained in his interesting work, 
entitled " Old English Plate " ; and to the same gentleman for per- 
mitting us to print certain other matter, including some authorities 
given by Mr. J. H. Sanderson for the Tables of Edinburgh Hall 
Marks, which originally appeared in the Transactions of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland. These tables have appeared in our 
previous editions, and we rendered our thanks to Mr. J. H. Sanderson 
in the Preface to the first edition of 1863, but the property in Mr. 
Sanderson's work and notes passed to [the late] Mr. Cripps. 

W. CHAFFERS. 



TABLES 



OF 



DATE LETTERS OF ASSAY OFFICES, 



BIRMINGHAM 


. 134 


CHESTER 


140 


DUBLIN 


. 208 


EDINBURGH 


. 176 


EXETER 


. 150 


GLASGOW 


. 184 


LONDON 


110-115 


NEWCASTLE 


156 


SHEFFIELD 


163 


YORK 


. 165 



Xlll 



MEMORANDUM. 

By the *'Act to amend the Law with respect to the Hall- 
marking of Foreign Plate" (4 Edward VII. cap. 6.) when any 
plate or article imported from a foreign part is brought to an assay 
office in the United Kingdom to be assayed or stamped, the same 
shall be stamped in such manner as the King by an order in Council 
may determine. The person bringing such plate or article to be 
assayed or stamped shall state in writing whether the same was 
wrought in the United Kingdom or imported from abroad. If it 
is not known where the plate or article was wrought, it shall be 
stamped as if it were imported. Any person making a false 
declaration shall be liable to a fine. 

This Act came into force on the 4th November, 1904. 



INTRODUCTION. 

^^ Money spent in the purchase of well-designed plate^ of precious 
engraved vases y cameos ^ or enamels ^ does good to humanity.^* 

— RusKiN, "The Stones of Venice," II. vi. 18 

WHAT more beautiful craft has been practised by man- 
kind than the craft of gold and silver smith ? From the 
earliest times of which we have any record, vessels of gold 
and vessels of silver, made " for pleasure and for state," have been 
objects of universal admiration. 

Great artists have expended their power in producing articles 
made from the precious metals. Dominico Ghirlandajo, who 
flourished towards the end of the fifteenth century, and who was the 
master of Michael Angelo, worked as a goldsmith; Verochio, the 
master of Leonardo da Vinci, worked as a goldsmith; Ghiberti, the 
artist who designed and constructed those wonderful bronze gates 
of the Baptistry at Florence, which, as Michael Angelo said, might 
serve as the gates of Paradise, worked as a goldsmith; Francia of 
Bologna, whose real name was Raibolini, and who often signed 
himself on his pictures Aurifex, and on his jewellery Pictor, thus 
indicating the double craft, worked as a goldsmith; and Benvenuto 
Cellini of Florence, one of the most artistic men of his time, and a 
cunning workman, was the prince of goldsmiths and autobio- 
graphers. 

Not only have great artists devoted themselves to the gold- 
smith's craft, but " true goldsmith's work, when it exists, is generally 
the means of education of the greatest painters and sculptors of the 
day." 

No matter whether we go to the old Egyptian records graved or 
painted on stone, to the Bible, or to the classics, we everywhere meet 
the workers in gold and silver. 

Whenever we enquire into the origin of any art, we generally 
turn for information to the monuments in Egypt, and to the volume 
of the Sacred Law. 

The Egpytians were exceedingly skilful in the use of metals of 
all kinds, and understood the mixing of various alloys. The 
paintings at Beni Hasan, drawn about 2500 years before Christ, 
show the whole process of converting gold dust into jewellery. We 
see the workmen washing the dust, weighing it in the scales, the 
clerk writing down the weights on his tables, the use of the blowpipe 
to produce sufficient heat to melt the gold in the crucible, and the 
final working of the metal into vases, and articles of jewellery. 



XV 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

The paintings in the tombs at Thebes also, show the gold and 
silver smiths at their work, together with beautiful specimens of gold 
and silverware * 

We read of Pharaoh having taken Joseph out of prison arraying 
him in fine linen and putting " a gold chain about his neck " ; he 
also placed his ring on Joseph's hand, thus delegating to him the 
power of sealing documents with the royal signet.t 

A few years later Joseph gave orders that his cup, " the silver 
cup," was to be placed in the sack's mouth of his youngest brother.J 

When the Israelites had completed their term of bondage, they 
" borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver and jewels of gold,'1l 
proving that the Egyptians were at that time possessed of stores of 
earrings, bracelets, and all kinds of jewels. 

In the book of Job, one of the oldest, if not the oldest history 
in the world, there are numerous references to gold and silver. 
" Surely there is a vein for the silver, and a place for gold where 
they fine it."§ The chapter commencing with these lines refers to 
the mining and working of precious metals. 

If we go to the ancient account of gold-mining in Egypt written 
by Agatharchides, who lived in the first century before Christ, we 
find a very full account of the process by which the gold ore was 
obtained from the mines, the manner in which it was broken up, the 
earthy portions washed away, the final smelting of the ore, and the 
production of the pure gold. We also find a very vivid picture of 
the terrible life led by the slaves who worked in the mines. 

At the Great Exhibition of 1867 a beautiful little Egyptian 
barque of solid gold was exhibited. It contained twelve oars-men 
of silver, a figure in the bows in a sort of cabin, another in the 
centre of the boat holding the baton of command, and in the stern 
the helmsman steering with a large oar; the last three figures are of 
gold. The boat is mounted on a wooden carriage with four bronze 
wheels. The workmanship of the whole is very fine, and shows that 
the Egyptians were at that early period masters of the goldsmith's 
art. 

This beautiful little object is now in the Museum at Cairo, and 
it is probably the oldest piece of Egyptian jewellery now in 
existence, having been discovered in the tomb of Aah-hotep, the wife 
of the last king of the sixteenth dynasty. 

The Israelites thoroughly understood the method of working 
in gold; they appreciated the malleability of it when ** they did beat 
the gold into thin plates," and the ductility of it when they did 
" cut it into wires, to work it in the blue, and in the purple, and in the 
scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning work."l 

The famous golden candelabrum or candlestick** of the Temple 
was no mean specimen of the smith's art. It was probably earned 
off by Titus when he conquered Jerusalem, and it is shown on the 
well known bas-relief sculptured on the Arch at Rome, which was 

* Wilkinson's Antient Egyptians. t Genesis xli. 42. 

1864, Vul. ii. p. 136. J Genesis xliv. 2. 

II Exodus xii. 35. § Job xxviii. 1. 

K Exodus xxxiz. 3. ** Id. xxv. 31. 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

erected by the conqueror. Indeed the vessels of the house of the 
Lord were all of the most beautiful and costly character, and are 
very fully described.* 

We read that " all king Solomon's drinking vessels were of 
gold, and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were 
of pure gold ; none were of silver : it was nothing accounted of in 
the days of Solomon." t 

The early Greeks were dexterous in working gold and silver, 
and their skill and refinement were very great, as early as six 
centuries before Christ. They were especially clever in using solder, 
or other metallic cement, by means of which they fixed on the level 
surface of the articles they made, excessively small pieces of gold, 
which enabled them to build up the tiny ornaments with which they 
decorated their work. 

The great age of Greek art did not, however, commence until about 
330 B.C., and the highest stage in the history of all art was reached 
about a century later. 

Amongst the most remarkable of the Greek sculptures were 
those composed of ivory and gold, known as chryselephantines. 
There were many of these in Greece, the most famous being those 
of Zeus at Olympia, of Hera at Argos, and of Athene at Athens, 
which was executed by Phidias about 433 B.C., and were of immense 
size. The framework of these figures was of olive wood, the faces 
and all uncovered parts were of ivory, while the dress was of gold, 
with beautifully wrought borders. Both ivory and gold were very 
thin, and in the case of Athene, at any rate, the golden drapery 
could be taken entirely off.+ 

The statue of Zeus was said to be from fifty to sixty feet high, 
without reckoning the pedestal. The god was seated in a chair, in 
his right hand he held a life-sized Victory, and in his left a tall 
sceptre with the eagle. 

The Athene of the Parthenon was somewhat smaller. The 
goddess was standing, her helmet surmounted by a sphinx, and like 
the Zeus she held a life-sized Victory in her right, and a spear and 
shield, in her left hand. 

These colossal figures were most perfectly finished in every 
respect, and were placed on pedestals, which were covered with 
figures in relief. 

The Greeks were also very skilful in making smaller articles, 
the enumeration of which would take us too far afield. Their 
golden shields, belts, helmets, and other pieces of armour were very 
celebrated. 

Diana, great of the Ephesians, was certainly a patroness of the 
silversmith, for we read that " a man, Demetrie bi name a worcker 
in siluer makide siluer housis to Diane."|| 

Passing from the Greeks to the Romans, we leave a most artistic 
and highly trained people, for a people certainly not artistic in the 



* I Kings vii. 48 et seq. t I<I- ^' 21. 

I Jupiter Olympieu by Quartermere de Quincy. 
''Deeds of Apostles," xix. 21, Wycliflfe's Version. 

A"* 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

higher sense of the word. The Romans were not great goldsmiths, 
but if they could not produce beautiful articles, they appreciated 
what was good, and they employed Greeks whose skill was well 
known. Many beautiful silver vases have been found at Pompeii, 
Rome, and other places, most of which were no doubt made by the 
Greeks. 

A number of silver vessels were some years ago unearthed near 
Hildesheim, in Hanover, and placed in the Museum at Berlin. 
They are of a good period, and comprise drinking-vessels, some 
being parcel gilt ; dishes, ladles, pieces of tripods, and other articles. 
These vessels probably formed part of the camp equipage of some 
Roman commander, for it is known that the sets of silver plate 
carried by the Romans on their expeditions, were both large and 
costly. Copies of all these articles may now be seen in the South 
Kensington Museum.* 

The number of gold and silver vessels, each with its name, used 
by the Romans was very great. There was the crater, used for 
mixing the wine and water; the cylix, used for drinking; the cyathus 
or oenochce, used as a ladle to fill the cylix ; the carchesium, or goblet 
with or without handles ; the pronchons, or jug; the patera, or saucer; 
and many others. Small silver tripods were also used for tables. 

The decline of classic art commenced after the close of the 
third century, and before many years, all traditions of good classic 
art had died out. 

After the decay of Roman art, the remains of the Roman power, 
and what was left of the traditions of their art, were transplanted 
to Constantinople, and formed the foundation of the great art 
called Byzantine, which lasted from the fourth to the eleventh 
century. 

In this style architectural forms were much used; these were 
ornamented by scrolls and conventional foliage, interlaced with 
figures, animals, fabulous creatures, and legends in most complicated 
patterns. "Human figures no longer represented gods and goddesses, 
the images of natural strength and beauty, the pride or the passions 
of mankind. As the old religion had inspired the earlier art, so 
did the solemnity of the Christian religion set its mark on the new. 
Its austerities, its strife with the world, its contempt of pleasure, its 
future hopes — all these found expression in the heads and bodies 
of prophets, apostles, and martyrs. Instead of the smoothness of 
face and roundness of limb of the Greek artists, those of Byzantium 
represented the wasted shapes of hermits, the sorrows of the mother 
of the Redeemer, and the mystery of the Cross."* 

The Gloucester candlestick, which is mentioned hereafter, is an 
excellent example of Byzantine ornamentation. 

During the early centuries of our era the barbarians from the 
north and from the east of Europe, and from the neighbouring con- 
tinent of Asia overran Great Britain, France, Spain, and Italy. All 
trace of the old art was blotted out and an entirely different and 
ruder style followed. 

• Pollen's ''Gold and Silver Smiths' Work." 



INTRODUCTION. / xix 

Several specimens of the goldsmiths* skill of this period still 
remain. 

One of these is a diadem of pure gold which was found at Novo 
Tcherkask on the River Don, and is adorned with pearls, and a 
magnificent cameo ; it is of fine workmanship, though of grotesque 
form. 

In 1858 a beautiful treasure, consisting of eight golden votive 
crowns, was found near Toledo. The most important of these 
crowns is an excellent specimen of the goldsmith's art of the seventh 
century. It is formed of a golden band suspended from a central 
ornament, by four chains, and set with sappnires, pearls, and car- 
buncles. From the lower edge of the band hang small letters of 
gold set with sapphires. These letters form the words RECCES- 
VINTHVS REX OFP^ERET. These crowns are now at the Cluny 
Museum at Paris. 

The Emperor Charlemagne, who was crowned in 800, did much 
to encourage the goldsmiths of that period, and many beautiful 
jewels and ornciments were made for his use. Amongst these was 
the imperial crown, which is still preserved at Vienna. This is 
formed of eight plates of gold rounded above and joined together, 
and ornamented with jewels and enamels. 

Somewhat later we meet with the name of Saint feloi, who was 
bom at Simonsin in France at the end of the sixteenth century, and 
who became a celebrated goldsmith. Some beautiful crosses and 
chalices made by him still remain in the Cathedral at Limoges, and 
in a few of the churches at Paris. 

Ireland produced some early and very remarkable pieces of 
wrought silver, in the Byzantine style. 

Miss N. Stokes mentions that there is a beautiful silver chalice 
of Irish design at Kremsmiinster, in Lower Austria, eighteen miles 
South of Wels, near the Danube.* This appears, from the inscription 
it bears, to have been made in the middle of the eighth century ; and, 
if it is really of Irish manufacture, it is the earliest work in silver 
made in that country. 

The Tara brooch is a most delicate and charming work, orna- 
mented with a variety of designs, including various forms of inter- 
lacing pattern known as spiral knots. The greater portion of this 
brooch however is of white bronze, only the chain being of silver. 
It was found in 1850. 

The Ardagh chalice is formed of several different metals. The 
upper rim is of brass; the bowl is of silver, adorned with plaques 
of gold; the handles are composed of enamels; the stem is of 
bronze metal gilt; and the foot is of silver. It is ornamented with 
the interlacing pattern, and set with crystals, amber, and enamels. 

Passing on to a time nearer the present day, we find that the 
first working goldsmith of whom we hear in England was Dunstan. 
who was born at Glastonbury, about the year 925. He built a cell 
near the Abbey of Glastonbury, containing an oratory, and also a 
forge. There he made censers and crosses, chalices and patens, 

• Stokes' " Early Christian Art in Ireland," 1887, p. 67. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

as well as articles for domestic use. He successively became Abbot 
of Glastonbury, Bishop of Worcester, and of London, and Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. After his death in 979 he was buried in 
Canterbury Cathedral, canonised, and made the patron of all good 
goldsmiths. The London Goldsmiths* Company especially 
honoured S. Dunstan, always subscribing towards the light of S. 
Dunstan in the Church of S. John Zachary, keeping his day as a 
holiday, and designating him in their books as " Seynt Dunstan, 
our blessed Patron, Protector and Founder.*** 

The Anglo-Saxons were, indeed, always reckoned skilful in the 
use of gold and silver. We are told that after the Conquest, when 
William returned to Normandy, he carried with him the choicest 
wealth of England, as gifts to S. Stephen*s at Caen, and other 
churches which he visited. " Men gazed with wonder upon the rich 
spoils of the conquered island. In arts of skill and adornment 
England and other Teutonic lands were allowed to outdo the 
nations of the Romance speech. And if the women of England 
were renowned for the art which had wrought the Raven on the 
banner of Ragnar, and the Fighting Man on the banner of Harold, 
the men were no less renowned for the art which wrought the cups of 
gold, the cups of silver, and the many other articles which adorned 
the tables of the great." 

Theodoric, the goldsmith, was settled in England in King 
E ad ward's time, and held lands in various shires both under that 
King and under Earl Harold. He was a man of unrecorded 
nationality, and was no doubt one of those craftsmen from the 
Teutonic land, whose presence in England had been encouraged by 
a constant tradition, probably going back to the days of Eadgar. 
Immediately after the Conquest, William granted to him estates in 
Berkshire. In Essex and Suffolk we find a tenant called " Otto 
aurifabeTy' or " Otho aurifex'* who must have been a clever workman, 
for he was employed on William*s own tomb; and in Wiltshire, also, 
" Grimbaldus aurtfaber " was one of the King's Thegns. 

In the eleventh century a great revival of art took place through- 
out Europe, the movement being to a large extent ecclesiastical in 
character. Most of the workers were monks, who founded their 
monasteries in all parts of the land, the most wonderful structures, 
adorned with images and sculpture, with altar fronts, crosses and 
candlesticks, with chalices and patens, and with reliquaries and 
lamps. 

Brithnodus, the Abbot of Ely, at this time was a worker in gold 
and silver, and the jewelled images made by him were given to turn 
the wrath of the Conqueror from the Abbey of Ely. 

Robert, the Abbot of St. Albans, was a skilful goldsmith, and 
the maker of two remarkable reliquaries with golden images; and 
Baldwin and Anketil, two monks of the same monastery, were also 
celebrated as goldsmiths and the makers of elegant cups and 
candlesticks. 

In the twelfth century we read of many gold-workers; amongst 

• Chaffers' Gilda Aurifahrorum. (Reeves S: Turner). 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

them Leofstane, a celebrated goldsmith, who was appointed by the 
King, Provost of London, a title antecedent to that of the Lord 
Mayor. Ralph Flael was a goldsmith, and Alderman of London, 
and in the twelfth century he was one of those amerced for practis- 
ing in a guild without the King's license. 

In 1 1 80 a guild of goldsmiths existed in London, but it was 
simply an association of manufacturers working together as a trade 
union, probably using the leopard's head as a trade-mark, but 
unrecognised by the legislature, and having no charter or other 
privilege. 

The first Mayor of London was a goldsmith, Henry Fitz- 
Alweyn by name, who held this high office from 11 89 to 1213. 

The reputation of the gold-worker for honesty, does not, 
however, appear to have been very high, for in 1238 the King issued 
a mandate commanding the Mayor and Aldermen to choose six of 
the more discreet goldsmiths to superintend the craft, to inquire as to 
the pureness of gold and silver used, and to prevent any one from 
working in private. 

Neither does it appear that the gold-workers were a very peace- 
ful race, for, as the guild became powerful, it is recorded that in 
1268— 

" In this liii yere [of Henry III.] in y* moneth of Nouembre, 
fyll a varyaunce atwene the felysshyppes of goldsmythes and 
taylloures of London, whiche grewe to makynge of parties, so that 
. . . moche people nyghtly gaderyd in the stretes in harneys, and at 
length as it were prouyded, the thirde nyght of the sayd parties 
mette vpon the nombre of v.c. men on both sydes, and ran togyder 
with such vyolence that some were slayne and many wonded. 
Then outcry was made, so that y* shyreffes, with strengthe of other 
ccmons, came to the ryddynge of theym, and of theym toke certayne 
persones, and sent theym vnto dyuers prysons. . . . Then vpon the 
Fryday folowynge saynt Katheryns daye, sessyons were kepte at 
Newgate by the mayre and Laurence de Broke iustyce and other, 
where xxx. of the sayd persones were arregned of felony, and xiii. 
of theym caste and hanged."* 

At the end of the thirteenth century we meet with the name of 
William Torel, who was a goldsmith and citizen of London, and 
maker of the beautiful recumbent statue of Eleanor of Castile, in 
brass, gilt with gold ; and at the same time, Ade, a goldsmith, made 
many gold and silver vessels for Edward I. 

Sir William Faryngdon, who gave his name to the City Ward, 
and who was Sheriff and Mayor of London in 1280, was a goldsmith, 
as was also his son. Sir Nicholas Faringdon, who was four times 
Mayor of London. 

The first time any mark was officially mentioned as being im- 
pressed on articles of silver, was in 1300, when it was enacted that 
gold should be no worse than the touch of Paris, and silver should 
be of the sterling alloy, or in any case no worse than money. Silver 
articles were to be marked with a leopard's head by the wardens of 

• ''The Chronicles," by Robert Fabyan, 1811, p. 364. 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

the craft, but no mark was ordained for gold articles * Gold of the 
touch of Paris and silver of the sterling of England, were both at 
that time, everywhere, the recognised standards for precious metals. 

John de Louthe and William de Berkinge were celebrated 
jewellers about 1307, and they made for Isabella, queen of Edward 
II., " A chaplet of gold set with balays, sapphires, emeralds, dia- 
monds and pearls; a crown of gold set with sapphires and rubies 
of Alexandria; a circlet of gold, and other articles." 

Twenty years later the Goldsmiths* Company was incorporated 
by Edward III., by letters patent, in the first year of his reign, 
under the name of " The Wardens and Commonality of the Mystery 
of Goldsmiths of the City of London." This charter especially 
provided for the protection of the home industry ; and after reciting 
that private merchants and strangers from "foreign lands counter- 
feited sterling, kept shops in obscure streets, made jewellery in which 
they set glass of divers colours, covered tin with silver so subtilely 
and with such sleight that the same could not be separated, and 
otherwise misbehaved themselves, the King granted that only plate 
of fine silver should be imported, that men of the trade should only 
keep shops in Cheap, that honest and sufficient men should be chosen 
to reform defects and punish offenders, and that in the trading 
cities of England the same ordinance should be observed, and that 
certain from such towns or cities should carry the wares to London, 
in order that, after the touch of gold had been ascertained, their 
works might be marked with the puncheon of the leopard's head, 
as it was anciently ordained. 

This charter speaks of the leopard's head as being even then 
an old mark, and only provides for the marking of gold articles, 
the marking of silver articles having been directed by the previous 
statute. 

The earliest Court minutes of the Goldsmiths* Company are 
dated in 1334. 

In 1336 the ordinances of the Company speak of three marks, 
" the owner's and sayer's marks and the Liberdshede crowned " ; the 
first mark being the maker's, the second the assayer's, and the third 
that of the Goldsmiths' Hall, the crown being for the first time 
mentioned. 

Another statute in 1363 provided that every master goldsmith 
should have a mark for himself, which he was to set on his work, 
after it had been assayed and the surveyor had set on it the King's 
mark.t This is the first time ttie maker's mark is mentioned in any 
statute. 

Sir John de Chichester was a celebrated goldsmith, and the 
maker of the wedding jewellery for the son of Edward III. and the 
Lady Blanche. He was Mayor of London in 1369. 

In 1379 it was more specifically enacted that every goldsmith 
should have his own proper mark upon his work, and also that 
Mayors of cities and boroughs should assay the work; and that the 
same should bear the mark of the city or borough where it was 

• 28th Edward I. cap. 20. f 37th Edward III. cap. 7. 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

assayed, and, after the assay, that the work should be stamped with 
another mark to be appointed by the King * 

In 1 392 the Goldsmiths* Company received their second charter, 
giving them license to be a community, and to choose out of their 
own number four wardens to govern the community, t 

At the commencement of the fifteenth century the Goldsmiths' 
Company assembled in their Hall in Foster's Lane. 

In 1403, in consequence of fraudulent artificers having daily 
made articles of copper and latten, gilt and silvered, it was enacted 
that no artificer should gild or silver any article made of copper or 
latten; but ornaments made for the church might be gilt or silvered, 
provided a piece of the foot were left plain, though chalices were 
always to be of pure metal. 

In 1407 the second Goldsmiths' Hall was probably built by Sir 
Drugo Barentyn, and endowed by him with fair lands. He was 
a goldsmith, and twice Mayor of London. 

In 1414, in consequence of the goldsmiths refusing to sell gilt 
wares for less than double the price of the weight of the silver in the 
same, an Act was passed fixing the price of silver gilt of the English 
sterling, at 46s. 8d. for a pound troy.| 

As the two last-mentioned Acts were not sufficient to prevent 
frauds, another Act was passed to forbid the gilding of any metal 
except silver, the only things excepted being church ornaments and 
knights' spurs. II 

In 1423 it was ordained that the gold or silver smiths sell no 
worked silver in the city of London, unless it be of the fineness of 
silver ; and that no harness of silver be sold before it be touched with 
the touch of the leopard's head, if it may reasonably bear the same, 
and also be marked with the workman's mark. The cities of York, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Lincoln, Norwich, Bristol, Salisbury, and 
Coventry were each to have a distinct touch, to be fixed by the 
Mayor, bailiff, or governor of the same town.§ 

Sir John Pattesley, goldsmith, was the maker of a " tablett of 
golde with a crucifixe garnized with sapphires and perles weyng 
about xiiij unc," for Queen Katherine, in 1437. He also was Mayor 
of London. 

In 1462 the Goldsmiths' Company received a third charter, 
constituting them a body corporate, with perpetual succession and a 
common seal, much enlarging their powers, and giving the wardens 
authority to search and try all sorts of gold and silver in the city of 
London, and in all other places throughout the kingdom of Eng- 
land, to punish and correct all defects, and to break all deceitful 
works and wares of gold and silver. This charter has since been 
many times confirmed and enlarged by later sovereigns. 

In 1477 it was enacted that gold should be of the fineness of 
18 Ccurats, and silver as fine as sterling; and that all articles of 
silver sold within London, or within two leagues thereof, should be 
touched with the mark of the worker and the leopard's head crowned. 

♦ 2nd Richard II. t 16th Richard II. 

t 2nd Henry V. Stat. 2, cap. 4. § 2nd Henry III. caps. 13, 14. 

II 8th Henry V. cap. 3. 



xxiv INTRODUCTION. 

Sir Edmund Shaa or Shaw was Mayor of London in 1482, and 
attended as cup-bearer at the coronation of King Richard III. He 
was goldsmith to the King, and sold to him " 4 pots of silver parcel 
gilt, 3 pots and 5 bowes, 12 dishes, 1 1 saucers silver with gilt borders, 
2 chargers, 10 saucers, an ewer parcel gilt and 8 other chargers. 
The weight of the said plate was 275 pounds 4 ounces of troy 
weight, and came to ;f 550 13s. 4d." He founded a free school at 
Stockport, in Cheshire, and by his will provided for its endowment ; 
he also directed " 16 rings of fine gold to be graved with the well of 
pitie, the well of mercie, and the well of everlasting life," and given 
to his friends. 

Sir Hugh Bryce was a goldsmith. Governor of the Mint, and 
Mayor of London in 1485. He gave a goodly and rich hearsecloth 
to the Goldsmiths' Company, who recorded in a minute that when- 
ever it was used the company assembled were to pray for the donor's 
soul. 

Thomas Wood was an opulent goldsmith about 1491, and the 
builder of Goldsmiths* Row, Cheapside, which " containeth in 
number, ten fair dwellings and fourteen shops, all in one frame." 

Sir Bartholomew Reade, goldsmith, was Mayor in 1501. He 
purchased Crosby Place, where he resided, and where he received 
the ambassadors of the Emperor Maximilian, when they visited 
England to condole with Henry VII. on the death of his queen 
Elizabeth, and his son. 

Sir John Shaw, goldsmith, who was probably the son of Sir 
Edmund Shaw, was Mayor of London in 1508. He made for King 
Henry VII. " a George of Diamants iiij li iiij sh.'' and " iij rings 
of gold viij li." 

Robert Amades in 15 18 was goldsmith to Cardinal Wolsey, and 
made a quantity of plate for him, including an image of Our Lady, 
and six great candlesticks made at Bruges with leopards' heads and 
cardinals' hats. The leopards' heads were no doubt the Hall-marks. 
Were the cardinal's hats also used as Hall-marks? It will be re- 
membered that one of the indictments against this ambitious prelate 
was the charge of stamping his cardinal's hat on the coin of the 
realm. 

Many other Acts were passed in the reigns of Henry VII., 
Henry VIIL, and Elizabeth, all of which aimed at keeping the 
standard of gold and silver in a high state of fineness, and prevent- 
ing frauds. 

In 1550 the great Sir Thomas Gresham was a goldsmith, and 
carried on business at the " Grasshopper " in Lombard Street. He 
was present at Queen Elizabeth's first council at Hatfield, and was 
treated by her with marked favour. 

Sir Martin Bowes, goldsmith, was Sheriff and Mayor of London 
fiv3 times from 1545, and Member of Parliament four times from 
1546 to 1555. He was butler at Queen Elizabeth's coronation, and 
presented to her his gold cup, out of which she drank to the Gold- 
smiths' Company. His portrait now hangs in Goldsmiths' Hall. 

Sir Richard Martin, goldsmith, was Mayor in 1589, and kept 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 

his mayorality in a house in Goldsmiths' Row, Cheapside; and Sir 
James Pemberton was also a goldsmith, and Mayor in 1611. 

In 1634-6 the third Hall of the Goldsmiths' Company was 
erected, and Inigo Jones the King's architect acted as consulting 
architect, for wnich service the Company gave him a gratuity. 

The last Charter granted to the Goldsmiths' Company was the 
Inspeximus Charter of the second James I. dated 13th March. This 
recites and confirms all the previous charters and letters patent 
granted to the Company, and it is printed in the Memorial of the 
Goldsmiths' Company by Sir Walter S. Prideaux. 

Sir Thomas Vyner, goldsmith, was Sheriff of London in 1640, 
and Lord Mayor in 1653. ^^ ^^^ knighted by Cromwell, and 
created a baronet by Charles II. 

Alderman Francis Meynell, who was a goldsmith and banker, 
was Sheriff of London in 1662. He is mentioned several times by 
Pepys, who on one occasion at least went " by invitation to dinner 
to Sheriff Maynell's, the great money man." 

In the Great Fire in 1666 the Hall of the Goldsmiths' Compemy 
received much damage, and it was afterwards in great part rebuilt. 

Sir Robert Vyner, goldsmith, of Lombard Street, was Sheriff 
in 1666 and Mayor in 1675. He made the crown jewels for the 
coronation of King Charles II., and he entertained the King at a 
banquet in the Guildhall during his mayorality. Both Pepys and 
Evelyn allude to him in their diaries. 

In 1697 the standard for worked silver was raised above that of 
the coinage, which was sterling, in order to prevent the custom of 
melting silver coins. The Hall-marks were therefore changed to 
the lion's head erased, the figure of Britannia, the date letter, and the 
maker's mark.* 

Sir Francis Child, who was a goldsmith, and who succeeded 
to the business of Robert Blanchard, was Sheriff in 1690 and Lord 
Mayor in 1699. He was the first of a race of Childs who were 
jewellers, goldsmiths, and bankers; as were also Mr. James Hoare 
and Mr. James Coutts, who both founded houses well known at the 
present day. 

William Gamble, of Foster's Lane, was a celebrated goldsmith 
and plate-worker, and the maker of a great number of valuable 
articles. 

Anthony Nelme, also, of " Avie Mary Lane," was a most 
prolific goldsmith. 

And David Willaume, of the "Golden Ball," was also a well 
known goldsmith. 

So we come to the great Paul de Lamerie, who lived at the 
" Golden Ball," Windmill Street, and who entered his name at 
Goldsmiths' Hall in 171 2. For forty years Lamerie carried on his 
business as an artist, designer, and worker in gold and silver. He 
was the royal goldsmith, and much employed by the nobility and 
gentry, being the first artist of his time. After his death in 175 1 no 
one succeeded to his business. 

♦ 8th & 9th William III. cap. 8. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. 

The higher standard introduced in 1697 did not last long, for 
in 17 19 the old standard was again made lawful and the old Hall- 
marks were revived, although the higher standard was and is still 
legal.* 

The last goldsmith, perhaps, that we need mention, was Richard 
Gumey, who entered his name at Goldsmiths' Hall in 1734, in 
partnership with Thomas Cook. His place of business was " The 
Golden Cup" in Foster's Lane. In 17^9 the new mark of Richard 
Gumey & Co. was registered, and this mark is found on a very great 
number of silver vessels throughout the country. 

In 1739 the maker's mark was altered from the first two letters 
of his surname, to the first letters of his Christian and surname. All 
gold and silver smiths, therefore, destroyed their punches and pro- 
cured new ones. 

In 1 77 1 the Goldsmiths' Company was again insubordinate, and 
on the 5th June in that year, at a Common Council held in London, 
the master and wardens of the Goldsmiths' Company were dis- 
franchised for disobeying the Lord Mayor's preceptt 

In 1784 duties were made payable on all gold and silver plate, 
and the sovereign's head was impressed as a fifth mark, to denote 
the payment of the duty. 

In 1823 the mark of the leopard's head appears for the first time 
without the crown, and it is so stamped at the present day. 

In 1890 the duty on both gold and silver articles was abolished, 
and consequently the sovereign's head ceased to be impressed on 
assayed articles. 

Many other Acts have been passed at various times regulating 
the working and sale of the precious metals, which are hereinafter 
more particularly specified; the effect of the more important only 
of these Acts being given in this sketch. 

And many other great goldsmiths have lived and worked, full 
particulars of whom will be found in Chaffers' Gilda Aurifabrorum. 



<0tcltsmstical l^lutt. 



" And he took the ciippe and dide thank yngis^ and zaf to henty 

and seidey Drynke ze alle her of !^ 

— Matt. xxvi. 27 (Wydiffe^s Version). 

The only vessels which are absolutely necessary for use in the 
communion service are chalices and patens, and we therefore propose 
to give a slight sketch of the change in the forms of these vessels, 
during the last seven hundred years. 

Chalices and Patens. 

The earliest records we have of Communion plate, show the 
chalice similar in form to a classic drinking-cup, having a large 
bowl, round spreading foot, and two handles. About the beginning 

* 6th George I. cap. 2. t Allen's ''London,'' vol. ii. p. 81. 



INTRODUCTION xxvii 

of the twelfth century the use of the handles came to an end, and 
chalices with smaller bowls were introduced ; although the cup was 
not absolutely forbidden to the laity until the order of the Council 
of Constant ine in 14 14. 

The earliest chalices and patens now remaining are those which 
have been discovered in the coffins of bishops and priests who died 
during the twelfth and following centuries, it having been the 
custom to bury silver vessels with the higher, and pewter vessels with 
the lower dignitaries of the Church, as symbols of their calling. 
These interesting vessels are now and then found during the 
restoration of an old church, or when the tomb of an ecclesiastic is 
disturbed. When the Church at Nassington, in Northamptonshire, 
was restored in 1885 a pewter paten and chalice of an early type 
were found.* 

The first type of chalice which dates from 1200 to 1250 always 
has a circular foot. The oldest now remaining is quite plain, with a 
broad and shallow bowl, having a slight lip, a short stem with knop, 
and plain foot. Only three examples of this date remain; two of 
these are coffin chalices, and the third was, until recently, used at 
Berwick, S. James*, Wilts, and is now in the British Museum. The 
patens of the same date have two depressions, the first circular, the 
second quatrefoil, with a central device, the Manus Dei often being 
used. 

The next type of chalice has the stem and knop wrought 
separately from the rest of the vessel, and either stem or knop, or 
both, lobed or polygonal. The patens belonging to this type have 
the lower depression, or single depression, octofoil or multiple, and 
some device in the centre. In York Minster there is a good chalice 
and paten of this period, which were found in the grave of an 
archbishop. 

The third type of chalice, which was made at the end of the 
thirteenth century, is similar to the last, except that the foot is 
ornamented. At Dolgelly a silver-gilt chalice and paten were 
recently discovered. They are large and massive. The chalice has 
a wide and shallow bowl, with a slight lip; the knop is circular, and 
divided into twelve lobes by ribs; the stem is ornamented with 
vertical leaves; the foot is broad and circular, with twelve lobes 
ending in trefoils; between and below these are larger trefoils, 
beautifully engraved with early English foliage; and between these 
again is similar foliage. The paten is sunk in two depressions, the 
first circular, the second sexfoil, with symbols of the evangelists in 
the spandrils, and the seated figure of Our Lord in the centre. Both 
chalice and paten were made by Nicholas of Hereford about i28o.t 

During the next half -century, the pattern changed but little, 
except that the bowl of the chalice became deeper and more conical. 
Only one chalice of this period is known, which was found in the 
grave of William de Melton. Archbishop of York. 

About the middle of the fourteenth century, chalices with six- 

* Markham's ** Church Plate of the County of Northampton/' 1894, p. 
195. 

t Archceologia, vol. liii. p. 575. 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

pointed feet were first made. The reason for abandoning the round 
foot, was that the custom of laying down the chalice to drain was 
introduced, and the polygonal foot prevented the vessel from 
rolling. The earliest chalice of this fashion is that at Hamstal 
Ridware, Co. Stafford. This is of silver, parcel gilt, the bowl 
conical, the stem short and thick, the knop formed of curved lobes, 
and the foot having six points. Its paten is also silver, parcel gilt, 
sunk in circle, and again in sexfcil, with plain cusps, and the Manus 
Dei in the centre. 

The next example was probably made about a hundred years 
later. It is silver, parcel gilt, the bowl quite plain and conical, the 
stem hexagonal, the knop also quite plain and hexagonal, the foot 
mullet-shaped, having six points, and on the front is engraved the 

iljC and round the edge a double row of small-leaved flowers. 

From 1450 to 1520 the chalices became somewhat more ornate. 
Of this period several still remain, most of which have their patens. 
At this time the bowl becomes deeper, and is generally plain; the 
stem is much taller and hexagonal, also plain, but sometimes but- 
tressed at the angles; the knop is more beautiful, having on its six 
faces masks or roses; the foot is either plain with six points, or the 
points are ornamented with loops, and on the front is usually 

engraved or enamelled the crucifix or the iI|C* The patens at this 

time have a single circular depression, with il|c or iljfi as the device 
in the centre. 

A little later the foot of the chalice becomes sexfoil in plan, 
instead of having six points. The best example of this type is the 
chalice of gold at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, which, with its 
paten, was given to the College by Bishop Fox, when it was founded 
in 1 5 16. 

The last type of chalice, made immediately before the 
Reformation, is still more elaborate. The bowl is flatter, more like 
the Early Norman shape, and generally bears a legend; the stem 
is tall and hexagonal, sometimes being pierced with tracery; the 
knop has six sides, and is much like those before described; where 
the stem joins the foot there is a kind of parapet, and the foot is 
formed into a wavy-sided hexagon, on the front of which is 
engraved the crucifix, and it generally also bears a legend. The 
patens belonging to this period have a single circular depression, 
with the Vernicle as a central device, surrounded by a glory of rays, 
and also having a legend engraved round the edge. 

Pre-reformation chalices and patens have been classified by Mr. 
W. H. St. John Hope and Mr. T. N. Fallow, according to the 
following types: — * 



• English Medieval Chalices and Patens, by W. H. St. John Hope, 1887. 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

CHALICES. 

Type A. circd 1200 to circd 1250. Bowl broad and shallow; stem 
and knot, and foot plain and circular. 

Type B. circd 1250 to circd 1275. Bowl broad and shallow; stem 
and knot wrought separately from the bowl and foot, and 
one or the other or both polygonal; foot plain and circular. 

Type C. circd 1275 to circd 1300. Bowl broad and shallow; stem 
and knot as in type B; foot circular, but with its spread 
worked into ornate lobes. 

Type D. circd 1300 to circd 1350. Bowl deeper and more conical; 
stem, knot, and foot as before. 

Type; E. circd 1350 to circd 1450. Bowl as in type D; stem and 
knot uncertain; six-sided foot. 

Type F. circd 1450 to circd 15 10. Bowl deep and conical; stem 
hexagonal, with ornate knot; six-sided foot. In late in- 
stances the points of the latter terminate in knops. 

Type G. circd 15 10 to circd 1525. Bowl broader at base; stem and 
knot as in type F; sexfoil foot. 

Type H. circd 1525 to circd 1540. Bowl broad and shallow; stem 
cabled or buttressed on edges, with knot as before, but some- 
what flattened ; foot sexfoil, or hexagonal with wavy sides, 
and with an open crown at its junction with the stem. 

PATENS. 

Type A. (Form I.) circd 11 80 to circd 1260. Lower depression 
quatref oil ; central device various. 

Type B. (Form I or II.) circd 1260 to circd 1300. Lower depression, 
or single depression, octofoil or multiple; central device 
usually the Mantis Dei. 

Type C. (Form I.) circd 1300 to circd 1350, and later. Lower de- 
pression sexfoil with plain spandrels; central device usually 
the Manila Dei. 

Type D. (Form I.) circd 1430 to circd 1530. Lower depression sex- 
foil, but spandrels filled with a rayed leaf ornament. Central 
device most frequently the Vernicle, with, in many cases, an 
encircling glory of short rays. Some of the later examples 
of this type have an engraved legend round the rim. 

Type E. (Form II.) circd 1450 to circd 1510. Single circular de- 
pression, with more generally iljc or i|)fi as the central 
device. 

Type F. (Form I.) circd 1525. An elaboration of type D, which it 
resembles in general form, but the central device has a glory 
of long rays filling the field of the paten, and the rim bears 
an engraved legend. 

Type G. (Form II.) circd 1520 to circd 1535. An elaboration of type 
E. Single circular depression, with central device surrounded 
by a glory of long rays. The rim bears an engraved legend. 
The only two examples of this type have the Vernicle as the 
central device. 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

Form I comprises patens with plain circular depression, with an 
inner depression multifoil in outline : and form II. those with one 
depression only, either circular or multifoil. 

From this sketch it will be seen that the amount of mediaeval 
Communion plate remaining is very limited. Throughout England 
there are not above forty chalices and about twice that number of 
patens now in existence. 

The display of gold and silver plate, much of it being orna- 
mented with jewels, in our cathedrals, abbeys, and churches previous 
to the Reformation, must have been wonderfully beautiful. The 
number of vessels possessed was considerable, and the value of the 
same must have been great. As a typical example of the utensils 
of a great cathedral, even as late as the sixteenth century, a short 
summary of the inventory of the Cathedral Church of the Blessed 
Virgin at Lincoln, which was taken in 1536, is here given* : — 

Chalices. — A chalice of gold with pearls and precious stones 
set in the foot and knop, and a paten with the figures of Our Lord 
and the Apostles. A great silver and gilt chalice with the Passion 
and Resurrection of Christ, and* the salutation of the Virgin on the 
foot; and a paten with the coronation of the Virgin, weighing 74 
ounces. A silver and gilt chalice and paten, with gilt spoon; and 
three other large silver and gilt chalices and patens. 

FeretoriesA — A great silver and gilt feretory with steeple, 
twelve pinnacles, and images of the Virgin and S. Hugh. Four 
other feretories, silver and gilt and crystal. 

Phylacieries.X — A silver and gilt phylactery with red and blue 
stones, containing the bones of S. Stephen. A similar phylactery, 
containing the bones of S. Agnes. Another phylactery with a knop 
of beryl, containing the bones of S. Vincent. A phylactery of 
crystal and silver, containing a tooth of S. Hugh. 

Ampullce with ReliquesW — Six ampullae of crystal, with feet 
and covers of silver and gilt, containing relics of various saints. 

Tabernacles.^ — Six tabernacles of ivory or wood, one containing 
relics. 

Images. — An image of Our Saviour, silver and gilt, with a cross 
in the hand. A great image of Our Lady, crowned, sitting in a 
chair, silver and gilt, with the Holy Child on her knee, also crowned. 
Relics of virgins in a silver and gilt vessel. 

Chests for Relics. — Twenty-four chests, some made of silver 
and gilt, some of crystal, and some covered with cloth of gold or 
needlework. 

Pyxes.^ — A round pyx of crystal, ornamented with silver 
and gilt, containing the relics of saints. Four pyxes of ivory, bound 
with silver and gilt, or with copper. A pyx of crystal, with foot of 
silver and gilt. And a silver and gilt pyx. 

Crosses. — A cross of silver and gilt, with a crucifix in the centre, 
S. Mary and S. John on either hand, and the evangelists at the 
corners, weighing 57 ounces. Fifteen other crosses, of divers 

• ArchcBologia, vol. liii. p. 13. t A shrine. 

J A reliquary. || A covered vessel. § A receptacle for the Sacrament. 
H Vessels of precious metal to contain the Eucharist. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxi 

materials and sizes. A silver and gilt cross, similar to the first, but 
weighing 84 ounces. 

Candelabra. — Two great candlesticks of gold, for eight candles 
each, weighing 22 and 10 ounces respectively. Six other candle- 
sticks, silver and gilt. 

Thuribles.'* — A pair of great censers, silver and gilt, weighing 
88 ounces. Four other smaller pairs of censers. And a silver and 
gilt ship, having a spoon with a cross, weighing 34 ounces. 

BowlSf &c. — Two fair basins of silver and gilt, chased with 
double roses and enamelled, one weighing 81 ounces, the other 79 
ounces. Three other pairs of basins of silver and gilt, of smaller 
size, A patte of silver for holy water. Two saucers of silver gilt. 
A sacring bell of silver. Two-squared sconce of silver and gilt. 
A calefactory, silver and gilt. Two fioles of silver and gilt. 

Staves. — A staff covered with silver and gilt, with an image of 
Our Lady at one end, and an image of S. Hugh at the other. Foui 
other staves of silver and gilt. And four staves of wood, two of 
which have plates of silver. 

Pastoral Staves. — The head of a bishop's staff, silver and gilt, 
with a knop of pearls and stones, an image of Our Saviour on one 
side, and an image of S. John Baptist on the other, weighing 18 
ounces. The head of a staff, copper and gilt. Two staves for the 
same. 

Texts of the Evangelists. — A text after S. Matthew, covered 
with a plate, silver and gilt, and with divers stones. Six other 
similar texts. And three texts for Lent and the Passion. 

Chrismatory. — A chrismatory, silver and gilt, with sixteen 
images, enamelled, weighing 26 ounces. 

AmpullcB for Oil. — Three ampullae, silver and gilt, each with a 
cover, and a spoon with an acorn. 

Morses.i — Seventeen morses, silver and gilt, some set with 
stones and pearls, others enamelled. 

Serta. — Three garlands, silver and gilt, enriched with pearls 
and stones. 

Such were the holy vessels and utensils of a great church in the 
Middle Ages. 

After 1534 the work of spoliation commenced, and has been 
carried on more or less ever since. First came Henry VIII., who in 
1539-40 suppressed all religious houses throughout the realm, and of 
course appropriated their possessions, including their vessels of gold 
and silver. 

In 1548 Edward VI. sent his commissioners throughout the 
land, with orders to take all plate, except one, two, or more chalices, 
according to the size of the parish. And a few years later further 
orders were issued, that " monuments of feigned miracles, pil- 
grimages, idolatry and superstition " were to be entirely done away 
with and destroyed. Then it was that churchwardens and incum- 
bents, feeling that all church property was insecure, sold a good deal 
of the Communion plate, and expended the proceeds in the repairs of 
their churches and other ways. 

* Vessels in which to burn incense. f The metal fastenings of a cape. 



xxxii INTRODUCTION. 

Cups made in the time of Edward VI. are as rare as pre- 
Reformation chalices. At S. Margaret's Church, Westminster, there 
are two large silver-gilt cups of this date.* At Clapton and Great 
Houghton, Co. Northampton, are two beautiful silver-gilt cups, made 
in 1548 and 1553 respectively;! and a few others may be found 
throughout the country. 

It is believed that about the year 1562, some general order was 
issued in London, as to the shape of communion cups, for those 
made at this time are all of the same design, no matter in what part 
of England they are found. They are mostly of elegant form, but 
as different from the chalices, out of which they were probably made, 
as can well be imagined. 

A cup of this period has a conical bowl with slightly hollowed 
sides and somewhat flat base, engraved with on^ or two belts of 
strap work enclosing foliage. The stem is always e\enly balanced, 
with a circular knop in the centre, on a flat fillet, and it is joined to 
the bowl and foot by either horizontal or vertical mouldings. The 
foot is generally high and dome-shaped, resting on a flat flange, on 
which is sometimes engraved the egg and tongue pattern. The 
paten is made so as to serve as a cover for the cup, the foot forming 
a handle; sometimes the paten is engraved with strap ornamentation 
like the cup, and sometimes the date is engraved on the foot or 
button. 

An enormous number of Elizabethan cups and patens still 
remain, but no two are alike, although the same type is used for all. 

During the reigns of James I. and Charles I. the type of cup 
and cover changes but little. The cups were, however, often taller, 
slighter and less elegant, the engraved belt round the bowl being 
often omitted. Cover patens were also used. Another type of cup 
at this time was made with a bell-shaped bowl and baluster stem, 
and this form of cup does not appear ever to have been used with a 
cover paten. 

During the Commonwealth but little plate of any kind was 
made in England. Two patterns of cups were used at this time. 
One of these has a somewhat large bowl, with flat base, baluster 
stem, and fiat foot. The other has a large bell-shaped or conical 
bowl, a thick stem with a fiat fiange or plate for knop, swelling 
gradually to form a plain foot, a cup of this type generally has a 
cover paten, with a single depression, made to fit it face upwards. 

During the reigns of Charles II. and James II. some magnificent 
cups and patens will be found, and also some which are very plain 
and ugly. 

The same pattern of cup before described continued to be 
manufactured, and at the same time a new form was intro- 
duced. The bowl of this cup is cylindrical, deep, and of great 
capacity; the stem short and thick, and swelling out to rest on a 
flat flange and form the foot; the whole is large and clumsy. The 
paten corresponding with the cup, but not used as a cover, is also 

• Freshfield's " Communion Plate in the County of London." 

t Markham's ** Church Plate of the County of Northampton,** 1894. dd. 
70, 1G2. ^ ' * ^^ 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

<:lumsy, being of large size, sunk in a single depression on short 
thick foot. 

In the eighteenth century the form of the cups and patens still 
further degenerated. The cup at this time has a large bell-shaped 
bowl ; an evenly balanced stem, generally with a circular knop in the 
centre; and the foot is formed of horizontal mouldings. The 
paten is large, with a broad edge and one circular depression; the 
foot is quite plain, and generally large and high. Sometimes the 
paten fits the cup foot upward. Frequently the knop and foot of 
the cup, and the foot of the paten are ornamented with rope or rolled 
moulding. 

In the present century the same kind of vessels are made, and 
the earlier of these are not very beautiful. But now the pre-Re- 
formation typ)es are being again introduced, and some of the 
Communion sets manufactured are of excellent design and work- 
manship. 



Flagons. 

The earliest flagons at present existing are those made during 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth. These are generally of " the round- 
bellied type." At Cirencester Church; S. Margaret's Church, 
Westminster; S. George's Chapel, Windsor; and a few other places, 
are flagons which have high feet, round bulbous bodies, straight 
necks, domed lids, and curved handles. Flagons of this shape are 
far from elegant in appearance. 

This type of flagon was only made for a few years, for the 
tankard type came into fashion about 1600, and has ever since been 
used. A tankard-shaped flagon is generally handsome and massive, 
though quite plain. It has straight sides, dome-shaped lid, high, 
straight purchase, rather large curved handle, and broad spreading 
foot; the handle often ending in a heart-sl.aped plate. 

The Communion service at Easton Mauduit, Northamptonshire, 
is represented in the frontispiece of this volume. The paten and 
cup were made of silver gilt in 1630, and are marked with the 
initials of the donor, the Right Reverend Thomas Morton, who was 
successively Bishop of Chester, Lichfield and Coventry, and 
Durham. The flagon is a very beautiful vessel, made in 1672, of 
silver gilt repbuss^ work. The alms -dishes are quite plain, and are 
also silver gilt. In the parish register there is an entry relating to 
this silver, signed by the Rev. Thomas Percy, author of " The Re- 
liques of Ancient English Poetry," who was once vicar of the parish. 



Alms Dishes. 

There are throughout the country a good number of silver alms 
dishes, most of which are quite plain, though a few are most 
beautifully ornamented with leaves and fruit in repouss6 work, and 
■others are engraved. 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

Christening Bowls. 

Occasionally a christening bowl is found at a church, but it is 
usually quite plain. 

Spoons. 

Strainer spoons are sometimes used in churches, but probably 
in most cases they are of domestic origin, having the bowl afterwards 
pierced for use in removing anything from the wine. 

The greater part of the Communion plate now in use was given 
by individuals, and such gifts are frequently recorded in mediaeval 
wills. Thus in 1246 King Henry III., gave a chalice to the Church 
of All Saints, and smaller vessels to the other parish churches in the 
town of Northampton.* 



C0r0ttati0tt ipiatt. 

" A crown of pure gold on his head!^ 

— Psalm xxi. 3. 

The English Regalia was generally kept in Westminster Abbey, 
though in times of danger it was sometimes removed to the Tower 
of London. During the reign of Henry VIII., the Crown jewels 
were taken to the Tower where they are now permanently housed. 

The present regalia is but a small portion of what it used to be, 
both Kings and Parliaments having helped to disperse it.t 

In 1625 King Charles I. pawned a great number of the Crown 
jewels to Holland, in order to raise money for his wars with Spain. 
These included " A greate riche ' Jewell of goulde ' called the 
' Mirrour of Create Brittaine ' " : a gold cup with " The Dreame of 
Paris" weighing 120 ounces: the gold cup with "The Morris 
Dance" weighing 147 ounces: "The Constable's Cup": and many 
more celebrated articles.* There is no record of these jewels ever 
having been redeemed. 

Again in 1643 the king melted the crown and sceptre; and the 
following year the House of Commons issued an order that the 
King's Plate, then in the Tower was to be melted down and coined. 
The House of Lords remonstrated, alleging that the beautiful work- 
manship of the plate rendered it very valuable, but this was without 
effect, and a few years later these beautiful works of art were 
consigned to the crucible. Thus unique jewels and plate were des- 
troyed without mercy, and " the produce employed to buy horses."ll 

In consequence of this, some difficulty was experienced in pro- 
viding regalia for the Coronation of Charles II., and new crowns, 

• Bridge's *' Xorthnmptonshire," vol. i. p. 426. 

t Ryinei 's Foedera, vol. xviii. p. 236. 

X Chaffer's (riUhi Aurifahrorum. 

II Chaffer's Gilda Aiirifabrorum. p. 200. 



INTRODUCTION. xxx^r 

sceptres, a globe, staves, maces, and other things were provided by- 
Sir Robert Vyner at the cost of some thirty-two thousand pounds. 

The present r^alia consists of the following articles: — 

Queen Victoria's State Crown was made in 1838, and is adorned 
with jewels from other crowns. It has a crimson velvet cap, with 
ermine border lined with white silk, and weighs 39 oz. 5 dwt. On 
the cross pat6e above the mound in the centre is the inestimable 
sapphire which is supposed to have been taken from the ring of 
Edward the Confessor. In front is the heart shaped ruby said to 
have belonged to the Black Prince. 

St. Edward's Crown is the great state crown of England. It 
was made by Sir Robert Vyner in 1662 from the old design, and 
consists of a rim of gold, embellished with diamonds, rubies, pearls, 
emeralds and sapphires. Four arches support a mound of gold, 
on which is a cross pat6e adorned with gems and pearls. 

Mary of Modena's Circlet which was used at her Coronation, 
and which she first wore. It consists of a golden circlet set with 
magnificent pearls, and a large diamond in front 

Mary of Modena's Crown, which was worn by the queen after 
her coronation. This has arches, surmounted by a cross patee, and 
is ornamented by large diamonds and pearls. 

The Prince of Wales Coronet, is of gold, with a single arch 
carrying a cross pat^e, and it is adorned with jewels. 

St Edward's Staff of pure gold 4 feet 7| inches long, with 
mound and cross pat6e at the top. This staff formed part of the 
regalia made by Sir Robert Vyner in 1662. 

There are five sceptres. 

The Royal Sceptre with the cross, is made of gold, it is 2 ft 
9^ in, long, and is elaborately ornamented with enamels and precious 
stones. It is placed in the Sovereign's hand, at the Coronation by 
the Primate, 

The Queen's Sceptre with the cross is also made of gold, it is 
2 feet 10 in. long, and is ornamented with diamonds. 

The Royal Sceptre wth the Dove is similar to the other royal 
sceptre, except that it is slightly longer, less ornate, and it bears a 
dove on a cross above the mound instead of a cross pat^. 

The Queen's Sceptre with the Dove, is somewhat smaller, but 
more highly ornamented than the Royal Sceptre. 

The Queen's Ivory Rod is 3 ft. i| in. long, the mound has a 
cross pat6e on which is an enamelled dove. This sceptre was made 
for Mary of Modena 

There are two orbs. 

The Larger Orb is a golden globe 6 in. in diameter. It has a 
fillet round the centre, from which springs an arch, both fillet and 
arch being ornamented with pearls and precious stones. On the top 
is a large amethyst surmounted by a cross, composed of diamonds 
and other stones. It was made by Sir Robert "N^ner. 

The Smaller Orb is very similar, and was made for the 
Coronation of Queen Mary the consort of King William. 

The Ampulla is a golden eagle, with expanded wings, the 
height of which with the pedestal is 9 in., and the diameter of the 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

pedestal yl in. The body of the eagle is filled with oil, by un- 
screwing the head, and the oil is poured out through the beak at 
the coronation. This is undoubtedly an ancient piece of plate, and 
probably older than the time of Charles II. 

There are in addition the Bracelets, Queen Elizabeth's Salt- 
Cell ar, and the Coronation Spoon, of which more hereafter. All 
these articles are illustrated in Mr. Cyril Davenport's beautiful 
work.* 



Corporation jpiate. 



" Jack Cade. Strike off their heads, and bring them both upon 

two i>oles . . . for with these borne before iis instead of 

maces, will we ride through the streets^ 

— Shakespeare, **2n<l Pt. Henry VI. ,'^ Act iv. sc. 7. 

The only articles used by corporate towns that we need consider 
now are maces; for, although such towns often possess loving-cups 
and other vessels, they are not, like maces, used officially. 

Maces were once used as weapons of warfare. Thus, at the 
Conquest of England, Duke William and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, 
fought with maces; and it is said that Odo carried this terrible and 
crushing instrument, in lieu of a sword, because the canons of the 
Church forbade a priest to shed blood, t 

Afterwards maces were used as symbols of authority, and are 
found in almost every borough in England. 

And first as to sergeants' maces. The earliest of these is of the 
fifteenth century; this is silver parcel gilt and 25 inches long, with 
an iron grip, and a later crown at the top. It is now at Hedon, in 
Yorkshire. At Stratf ord-on-Avon and a few other places there are 
maces of about the same date, none of which has a crown. In the 
sixteenth century the heads of the maces became more bowl-shaped, 
and the lower end lost its mace-like character, and appeared with 
small brackets at the base. In the course of the seventeenth century 
the head was enlarged to give room for various symbols, such as 
the royal arms, or the initials of the sovereign, and a crown was 
added above the bowl, surmounted by a globe and cross. The small 
brackets also were carried upward ; first they were placed at the lower 
end, then half-way up the handle, and finally immediately beneath 
the bowl. About 1650, sergeants* maces ceased to be manufactured; 
at least hardly any were made after that time. 

Secondly, as to great maces which were borne before the Mayor 
as a sign of authority. The earliest of these now in existence, is the 

* The English Ilegalia, by Cyril Davenport, 1897. 
t Freeman's " History of the Norman Conquest." 



INTRODUCTION. xxxvii 

fine one at Chichester, which is of the early part of the seventeenth 
century. The maces at Stafford, Grimsby, and York are only a little 
later in date. These maces, though somewhat more ornate, are made 
on the same lines as the sergeants' maces before noticed. The mace 
of the House of Commons, which was made in 1649-60, is a good 
example of maces of that date. In the eighteenth century many 
of the maces were made with baluster stems, the other parts re- 
maining unaltered. 

Maces of exceptional form are sometimes found. Thus, maces 
shaped like oars are now at Dover and other seaport towns. That 
at Dover is a plain silver oar, and is a symbol of the Admiralty 
jurisdiction, being held by the town clerk of Dover as registrar; it is 
probably of the time of Queen Elizabeth. The mace of the Tower 
Ward in London is also uncommon. It was made in 1671, and is 
surmounted by a model of the Tower, with small turrets at the 
comers, each having a weather-vane, with the letters C.R. 

A few societies, such as the Royal Society and the Society of 
Antiquaries, also have the privilege of using a mace. 

Further information about maces will be found in " The Cor- 
poration Plate" by Llewellyn Jewitt and W. H. St. John Hope, 
1895. 



©omtstic l&hit 

In all houses of the better class a court cupboard, or livery 
cupboard was essential. This was, according to Nares, a moveable 
closet or buffet in which plate and other articles of luxury were 
displayed. He gives the following quotations from Comenius's 
Janua printed in 1659: — 

" Golden and gilded beakers, cruzes, great cups, crystal glasses, 
cans, tankards, and two-ear*d pots are brought forth out of the 
cup-board, and glass case, and being rinsed and rub'd with a pot- 
brush, are set on the livery-cupboard."* 

Shakespear alludes to this in Romeo and Juliet where the 
serving man exclaims: — "Away with the join-stools, remove the 
court-cup-board, look to the plate."t 

Mazers. 

" A bowl or mazer curiously carved.** 

— Dryden*8 '* Virgil. *' 

Mazers are ancient wooden drinking-vessels, on which much has 
been written and learning expended. Even the meaning of the word 
is disputed, although the general opinion obtains that it was derived 
from " maserle," or maple wood. For in early times platters and 
bowls, and other articles for the table, were frequently made of 
beech or maple wood, often having silver mountings. 

♦ Nares' *' Glossary,'* 1822. t Romeo and Juliet, I. v. 7. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

The Bishop of Chichester, in his will in 1253, speaks of his 
great cup of mazera; and such mazers are mentioned for a little over 
three hundred years from this date^ in all kinds of inventories and 
wills, the spelling of the name, of course varying very much. After 
1590 no more mazers were made. 

Simon the goldsmith, who lived in 1369, and who was a 
benefactor to the Goldsmiths' Company, was called Simon le 
Maserer, from his skill in making silver-mounted mazers. 

Early mazers had a rim above, and a small rim for foot below, 
being wide and shallow, and generally having an inscription round 
the upper rim. The later ones are generally deeper, and often 
mounted on high feet. Inside, in the centre, there is usually a flat 
plate called the print, or boss, often ornamented with a shield of 
arms or other design. The object of this was. no doubt, to cover 
the flaws made in completing the turning of the bowl. 

The earliest mazer now known is at Harbledown Hospital, near 
Canterbury, and has a plain gilt foot or stem, a plain rim, a silver- 
gilt medallion, with the figure of Guy, Earl of Warwick, and an 
inscription. This vessel is of the time of Edward II. After this 
comes the " Scrope Mazer," which is now at York ; it has a long 
inscription on the rim, which fixes the date of it as being about 1400. 
It stands on feet made of small heads, and is altogether a most 
interesting specimen. 

At All Soul's College, Oxford, there is a set of mazers, one of 
which, made in the middle of the fifteenth century, is a very fine 
specimen of such a cup. This is mounted on a high circular foot, 
and has a deep rim round the edge, both being silver gilt and some- 
what plain. On the bottom, inside, there is a boss, or print, bearing 
the arms and initials of the donor, Thomas Ballard. A cup made 
of polished maple, in the collection of the late Mr. E. P. Shirley 
of Eatington, bore the legend on the rim: — 

" In the name of the Tirnite 
Fille the kup and drinke to me." 

At the Armourers* Hall, London, there is a large deep bowl 
nearly a foot in diameter. The silver-gilt foot and rim of this bowl 
are united by bands in the same manner as are those of cocoa-nut 
cups. Oriel College, Oxford, is the possessor of a very fine mazer, 
made about 1470. This has a low, circular foot, ornamented with 
stiff leaves, points downward. The upper rim is deep, and also 
ornamented with similar leaves, points upward, and the legend in 
black letter: — 

Etr raciott^ fribaa nan qnoi pttit atra balnftm 
sit CBxa casta bntnx lis Ungn^ anjrjjeditatnr/** 

A vessel called the Narford Mazer, now in the collection of Sir 
♦ Cripps' **01d English Plate," 1891, p. 243. 



INTRODUCTION xxxix 

A. W. Franks, P.S.A., bears the London Hall-marks for 1532 on the 
silver-gilt rim, on which are the words — 

"CIPHUS REFECTORII ROFENSIS PER FRATREM 
ROBERTUM PECHAM," 

in Tudor capitals, black letters having ceased to be used after the 
end of the fifteenth century * 

Another of Sir A. W. Franks' mazers has a very low rim for 
foot, and a somewhat deep rim above, ornamented with small pen- 
dent leaves and the text in large letters : — 

» MISEREMINI : MEI : MISEREMINI : MEI : 
SALTEM: VOS: AMICI : MEI." 

At All Souls* College, Oxford, is a deep but somewhat small 
bowl, which is mounted on a tall foot and stem composed of 
clustered shafts, so that the whole forms a standing cup; it was 
made in 1529. With the Inquest plate at St. Giles', Cripplegate 
Without, London, there is a mazer bowl of maple wood, mounted 
with a broad silver-gilt rim and foot, round the stem of which is a 
scroll ornament, above which is inscribed : " Ihon Birde Mead This 
In Anno Domine 1 568 " ; the foot is engraved with various orna- 
ments, and on the print inside is a merchant's mark.t 

Nothing more remains to be said about mazers, as the manu- 
facture of them entirely ceased towards the end of the sixteenth 
century. 



Staniiittg Cups. 



"And guf hem echone 

Couppes of dene gold and coppes of silver!* 

— " Pier's Ploughman/' p. 39. 

The State cups possessed by the great men of the land in the 
Middle Ages were often of great value and beauty. Sometimes 
these cups were made of solid gold or silver, and sometimes of 
cocoa-nuts or ostrich eggs mounted with silver. 

Some of these are of early date, for at the end of the thirteenth 
century we find the Bishop of Durham bequeathing a cocoa-nut cup 
with a foot and mountings of silver ; and such cups are very fre- 
quently mentioned in old wills and inventories. Many of the City 
companies have specimens of these cups. The Ironmongers possess 
a good cocoa-nut cup, made at the commencement of the sixteenth 

* Archaologiay vol. xiii. p. 392. t Archceologia, vol. 1. p. 167. 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

century.* The Armourers and Vintners also possess such cups, that 
of the latter having been made in 1518; and Mr. E. P. Monckton^ 
has a good cocoa-nut cup which was made in London in i586-7.t 

At Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, there are the remains of 
what is probably the oldest cup formed by an ostrich egg in the 
world. It dates from the fourteenth century, although the present 
silver mounts are not older than 1592. The well-known ostrich egg 
cup at Exeter College, Oxford, is somewhat later in date, having 
been made in 1610, but it is a fine example of this particular form. 
The foot is of the shape usual at that time ; the stem is formed of 
three ostrich legs, supporting the egg, which is held in position by 
three bands, and on the cover an ostrich stands on a plume of 
feathers.J The Earl of Ducie has a unique silver-gilt cup which 
was made in London in 1584, shaped as an ostrich egg, with hinged 
straps and a foot surmounted by four dolphins. 

" Cups made of the horn of the wild bull of the English woods, 
and tipped at either end with gold or silver," were likewise used in 
very early times. At Queen's College, there is a cup, the horn of 
which it is made being twenty-five inches long; the end is tipped 
by metal formed into an animal's head, and is supported by two 
claw-shaped feet attached to bands, and round the upper end of the 
horn is also an inscribed band. The lid, surmounted by an eagle, 
is of later date. At Christ's Hospital, London, there is a somewhat 
similar horn, but in this case the two claw-shaped feet are attached 
to a single band, and are side by side instead of being in front of 
each other. The Cawdor horn is also celebrated, although it is not 
the original one, but was made in the time of Henry VII. The horn 
is borne by the royal supporters, and is highly ornamented. 

Of standing cups made entirely of the precious metals there 
are many notable examples still remaining. The cup at Lynn is 
supposed to have been given to that town by King John ; it is silver 
gilt, richly ornamented with enamelled figures, the stem is slender, 
the foot circular, the height 15 ins. and it is of the four- 
teenth century.ll The Foundress' Cup at Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, of the fifteenth century, is a quaint, if not altogether 
pleasing, piece of work; the stem, bowl, and cover are ornamented 
with broad twisted bands composed of conventional foliage in 
repousse work. At Pembroke College, Cambridge, there is a fine 
specimen known as the Anathema Cup, bearing the London Hall- 
marks for 1 48 1, and it is one of the earliest dated vessels in 
existence. The second earliest cup with a date mark is the " Leigh 
Cup," now at the Mercers' Hall, London. This is of silver gilt, 
richly ornamented by raised ropes, which form lozenges, containing 
alternately heads of maidens and flasks ; round the bowl and lid is 
a record of the gift of this cup, on the foot and bowl is an open 
cresting, and the lid is surmounted by a virgin with an unicorn. At 
Christ's College, Cambridge, there is a handsome standing cup or 

♦ Cripps^ "Old English Plate.'' f Pro. Soc. Antiq., vol. xv. p. 249. 

J Cripps' ''Okl English Plate." || "Examples of Art Workmanship." 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

stoup, covered with diaper work enclosing double roses, fleur-de-lis, 
and portcullis in the centre of each lozenge, and a daisy at each 
intersection, which was made early in the sixteenth century. 

The Richmond Cup, now at Armourers' Hall, made about the 
same time, is of a different type, having raised ribs, which form the 
bowl, cover, and stem. The silver-gilt hanap or standing cup at 
Portsmouth was made in 1590, and presented by Robert Lee to the 
Corporation. At Corby Church, Co. Northampton, there is a beauti- 
ful silver-gilt covered cup that was made in 1601. The bowl and 
cover form a perfect oval, entirely covered with repouss6 work of 
bands of leaves; on the cover is a pyramid, with three sides; the 
stem is baluster in form, with a high foot.* This cup was evidently 
made for secular purposes, though now used in the church. A some- 
what similar cup will be found at Braunstone Church, Co. Leicester! 

A very hne standing cup with cover, made of silver gilt^ 
repousse with fruit and foliage, strap work and dolphins, with the 
London Hall-marks for 1604-5, bears the legend: — 

" This Ciipp was Made of the Greate Seale of 
Irelande In Anno Domini 1^)04 After the 
Deathe of The Blessed Queeiie Elizabethe 
The Moste Blessed Prince That Kuer r^iigned 
Adam loftus lord Archbisshopp of DubHn was then 
And Is Now lorde Chaunceller of Irelande and was 
Three Tvmes lorde Justice and (jonernor of the same realme." 

This cup belongs to Mr. J. Dunn Gardner, and is now in the 
South Kensington Museum. A highly enriched gourd-shaped cup, 
called " The Berry Cup," forms part of the Corporation plate of 
the town of Portsmouth; it is silver gilt, and was made in 1608-9. 
At the Cloth workers' Hall there is a large and well -worked cup, 
which was given by Samuel Pepys in 1678. The bowl of this is 
formed of two parts, the inner being plain, and the outer one, which 
is removable, is ornamented with flowers and scrolls of elaborate 
form. The designs in the eighteenth century were somewhat 
different, being more urn-shaped, and having two, or sometimes 
three, handles. A fine example of such a two-handled covered cup, 
made in 1739 by the celebrated Paul de Lamerie, is now at the Gold- 
smiths' Hall in London. This is simple in outline, but richly 
decorated with masks and flowers in repousse work. Many of the 
standing cups made at this period are of the same pattern as the 
Wedgwood ware designed by Flaxman; indeed, some of the silver 
vessels made at this time might almost as well have been in china 
ab in silver. 

Tankards. 

These are lar^e vessels, with a handle and cover, used for 
drinking. The earliest were made in the middle of the sixteenth 
century, and many excellent examples are still in existence. At 

• Markham's '' Church Plate of the County of Northampton/' p. 77. 
t Trollope's "Church Plate of I^eicestershire," p. 321. 



xlii INTRODUCTION. 

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, there is a very old silver tankard 
which is used as a flagon. And at the Ashmolean Museum at 
Oxford there is a fine tankard which was made in 1574; this has 
straight sides, partly ornamented with the incised patterns used on 
early Communion cups, and partly with the egg and tongue pattern, 
and heads in medallions, in the Renaissance style. At Clare Col- 
lege, Cambridge, there is the celebrated Poison Cup, which is made 
of glass, enclosed in silver filigree casing, of about the same date. 

A little later the tankards are made somewhat taller and 
narrower; and in the middle of the seventeenth century they assume 
a tall cylindrical shape, often adorned with strap work or semi- 
classical ornamentation. Still later the tankards were made shorter, 
and of much larger diameter, often being quite plain. Such tan- 
kards were almost always used in churches as flagons immediately 
after the Restoration, and until flagons made of the round-bodied 
shape came into fashion. 

Other smaller cups are known by special names, such as Tazze, 
Beakers, Porringers, and Caudle Cups. 

A Tazza is a small but elegant cup, with a wide but shallow 
bowl, a tall, slender baluster-shaped stem, and circular foot, similar 
to the ordinary shallow champagne glasses of the present day. -A 
very curious silver-gilt tazza, called a loving-cup, made in London 
in 1525-6, was given to the Corporation of Portsmouth by Mrs. 
Bodkin; it is low, with a large foot, and on the bowl, which has a 
straight side, is inscribed, " Si Deus nobiscum qvis contra nos." 
There is also an elegant little tazza made in 1582-3 belonging to the 
same Corporation. 

A Beaker is a small cup without handles, like a little tumbler, 
and only slightly ornamented. These came into use at the com- 
mencement of the seventeenth century, and were more commonly 
made in Holland or Germany than in England. At the Mercers*- 
Hall in London there is a gilt beaker which was made in 1604, 
ornamented with three maidens' heads on the side. At Upton 
Church, Co. Northampton, there is an elegant little beaker of about 
the same date, which was probably made in Germany; the upper 
part is plain, and the lower is covered with an engraved ornament, 
and in three medallions are as many heads, apparently of Dutch or 
German folk. At the neighbouring church of Sutton there is also 
a little beaker-shaped cup; it is rude, and has no Hall-marks, and 
was probably made in the locality.* 

A Porringer is a little vessel shaped like a modern sugar-basin, 
with a wide mouth, two handles, and often a loose lid. 

A Caudle Cup commonly has a small mouth, swelling out 
below into a bowl form. At Loddington Church, Co. Northampton, 
there is a pretty little silver porringer or caudle cup with two 
handles, covered with leaves and flowers in repouss6 work, that was 
made in 1671.! 

Both porringers and caudle cups were used for drinking posset ; 

* Markham's ** Church Plate of the County of Northampton," pp. 276, 
291 

t Ihid., p. 179. 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

they were mostly made in the seventeenth or in the early part of the 
eighteenth centuries, and are often of most elegant form and orna- 
mentation. 



" As you knoWy my house within the city 
Is richly furnished with plate and gold; 
.Basins and ewers to lave her dainty hands'' 

— Shakespkarb, ** Taming of the Shrew," II. i. 348. 

In the Middle Ages ewers and basins were much used at meals, for 
when people ate more or less with their fingers, it was essential that 
these vessels should be carried round after each course, in order that 
the guests might wash their hands. 

The introduction of forks in the seventeenth century rendered 
the use of the ewer and basin, to a large extent, unnecessary, and 
they therefore ceased to be made for that purpose. 

At Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, there is an early ewer 
and salver of the year 1545. The ewer has eight sides, somewhat 
like a large coffee-pot, with spout, handle, and lid, and ornamented 
with engraved arabesques. The salver is also ornamented with 
arabesque work round the edge, the centre being raised with a coat- 
of-arms on a boss. 

The Duke of Rutland has a fine silver-gilt ewer and basin of 
the dates 1579 and 1581, which were exhibited at South Kensington 
in 1862. 

The Corporation of Bristol possess a good ewer and salver, 
ornamented with engraving and repouss6 work, which were made in 

'595- 

The Corporation of Norwich also possess a fine set, made in 

1 61 7. The ewer is vase-shaped, with a high foot, spout, and high 

handle, and is covered with classic figures in repouss6 work. The 

salver also is covered with similar figures in repousse, having an 

elegantly ornamented border, and a high boss or print in the centre. 

At Peterborough Cathedral there is a very beautiful silver-gilt 
dish* 19I inches in diameter, which was made about 1650. The 
broad border of this is ornamented with fruit and flowers in high 
relief. This was probably made for a domestic salver, though it 
is now used as an alms-dish. 

At Towcester Church, Co. Northampton, there is a large and 
handsome, but plain, ewer and basin,* which were made in 1691, 
and given to the church in 1755 by Thomas Farmor, Earl of 
Pomfret. 

At Easton Neston, in the same county, there is an ewer* which 

* Markham's " Church Plate of the County of Northampton," pp. 112, 
232, 287. 



xliv INTRODUCTION. 

is an excellent specimen of Paul de Lanierie's work, and was made 
in 1735. It is beaker-shaped, without stem, the foot formed by a 
double-rolled ornament, the lower portion enriched by a raised 
Romanesque pattern, the upper portion quite plain; the spout is 
curved, and also enriched with a raised pattern; the handle is partly 
formed of foliage. The lid is large and very ornate, formed of 
double-rolled mouldings, which curve up to a centre-piece; this is 
high, formed of several members, and is clasped by three little 
brackets, above which is an ornate shield bearing the arms of Fermor 
and Jeffreys, and surmounted by an earl's coronet. It was given 
by the Earl of Pomfret. 

Another beautiful ewer belonging to the Goldsmiths' Company, 
made by Lamerie in 1741, was exhibited in 1862 at South Kensing- 
ton. It is helmet-shaped. " On the lower part of the vase is a 
winged mermaid with two tails, accompanied by two boy-tritons 
blowing conches. The foot consists of marine flowers, shells, and 
reptiles. On the upper part of the vase are festoons of flowers, and 
the company's badges, the leopards' heads. The handle has a very 
bold half-length figure of a sea-god, terminating in foliage." The 
Company also own a salver to correspond, which is ornamented with 
Louis Quatorze scrolls and figures of boys. 

After this time the work becomes plainer, engraving being used 
instead of repousse work. 

In the time of Queen Anne these vessels were also engraved and 
chased. The salvers often had the edges shaped, and were 
mounted on small feet. A little later they took the form of 
elliptical trays with handles. 



Standing Salts. 



" Where is the salt; where are the hospitable tables?'' 

--Potter, *' Anticiuitics of Greece," B. iii. c. 21. 

Vessels to contain salt played an important part in the economy of 
the house in the Middle Ages, the great standing salt marking the 
line between the higher and lower guests at the table. 

The earliest salts are shaped like hour-glasses, and are some- 
times with and sometimes without covers. At Corpus Christi College 
and New College, Oxford, and a few other places, there are speci- 
mens of this type, which were all made towards the end of the 
fifteenth century. 

In the sixteenth century the type changed to a cylindrical form, 
richly ornamented with repousse work, and covered with a lid. Of 
this pattern is the fine standing salt at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, which was made in 1554. There is also a good standing 
salt belonging to the Corporation of Norwich. It is of silver gilt, 
15^ inches high, cylindrical in shape, and the cover is surmounted 
by a statuette resting on a spear, with a shield bearing the city arms;. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

the date of it is 1567-8. At Portsmouth there is, with the Cor- 
poration plate, another hne standing salt, made in 1615-6, with 
cylindrical body, having a bowl for salt at the top, then three 
brackets supporting a second bowl, and three more brackets 
supporting a cover, which is surmounted by a three-cornered orna- 
mental spike.* Standing salts of this period are also found of 
square form, and in appearance more like caskets than salts. Such 
a salt is that belonging to the Vintners' Hall, London, which is of 
silver-gilt, and a most beautiful specimen. Somewhat later the salt 
assumed a bell shape, and it was sometimes divided into several 
compartments, fitting one above another, in order to contain salt and 
spices. 

In the seventeenth century salts of more simple form came into 
use, which w-ere low and plain, sometimes circular, sometimes square, 
and sometimes octagonal. Small trencher salts were also used; 
these were circular or triangular, with a small depression in the 
centre to contain the salt 

A very remarkable silver salt, made about 1698, is the exact 
model of the original Eddystone lighthouse. This is made in 
stories. The lower is large and empty, and appears to be made of 
piles bound together; the next has a lid perforated for pepper, and 
appears as if made of masonry; the upper story is also made of 
masonry, having a depression above to contain the salt; this is 
surrounded by a gallery and surmounted by the lantern, which is 
perforated for pounded sugar; above this again is scroll work, 
terminating in a weather-vane. Outside there is a little ladder from 
the base to the first story, where it joins a little winding staircase 
leading to the gallery. 

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries small open salts^ 
standing on feet, and often being simply a cage or frame to contain 
a small glass vessel holding the salt, came into use. 



" Tkerfore behoveth him a fid long sponc 

That shal etc with a fend'' 

- Chaucer, "The Squiere's Tale,'' 10,916. 

Some elegant specimens of Anglo-Saxon spoons have been found in 
different parts of England. Two of these are figured in Archceo- 
logiaA The first made of silver jewelled with garnets, was found 
at Chatham, and is an interesting example; the second was found 
at Desborough, Co. Northampton, and is also probably Anglo- 
Saxon; the bowl is large and oval, the stem plain, tied in at 

• " Corporation Plate," by IJ. Jewitt an<l W. H. St. John Hope. 
t Vol. liii. pp. 116, 117. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

intervals by small bands; the handle also is oval and fiat, and 
ornamented with an incised pattern. 

Silver spoons appear to be first mentioned in the will of Martin 
de S. Cross in 1259* and from that time they are frequently 
referred to in mediaeval wills. 

One of the most beautiful spoons now in existence is that known 
as the Coronation spoon. Although the date of this cannot be 
accurately determined, it is supposed to be of the twelfth or thirteenth 
century. It is made of silver gilt, with four pearls on the lower 
part of the handle; the bowl is elegantly ornamented with an 
engraved arabesque pattern, and the handle also is well moulded. t 
This spoon is used to hold the oil for anointing the sovereign at the 
Coronation, and is now kept with the regalia in the Tower of 
London. 

A very early domestic silver spoon, of slender make, with fig- 
shaped bowl, " six-sided stele," and gilt " dyamond poynte," is 
mentioned by Mr. C. J. Jackson. J In the bowl is stamped the 
leopard's head, uncrowned, but surrounded by a circle of dots; and 
the spoon probably belongs to the early part of the fourteenth 
century. 

Spoons terminating with the head and shoulders of the Virgin 
Mary are known as "Maidenhead spoons," and such spoons are 
recorded in an inventory of Durham Priory made in 1446 ;|| and 
several good examples of these spoons are still in existence. 

Other examples have knops shaped as acorns, diamond points, 
animals, birds, or other terminations. Sometimes the handle was 
simply cut off, and such a sf>oon was said to be " slipped in the 
stalk," and, being almost painfully plain, obtained favour with the 
Puritans. 

An apostle spoon made in 1490-1 appears to be the earliest still 
remaining, though there are many of later date. The most perfect 
set is probably that made in 1626-7, now belonging to the Gold- 
smiths' Company. This set consists of thirteen pieces, one being the 
'* Master spoon," bearing the figure of Christ ; the others bearing the 
figures of the twelve apostles, each with his symbol. At Dallington, 
Co. Northampton, there is a pretty little spoon with S. Andrew 
bearing the cross saltier, which was made in York in 1599- 1600, and 
which is now used as a strainer spoon in the church. § 

In the seventeenth century the form of the stem changed, 
becoming flatter and wider at the top. and often turned up ; and a 
little later the stem was continued at the back of the bowl, forming 
the rat-tail type. 

In the middle of the eighteenth century the " Onslow " pattern 
of spoon was introduced ; the handle of this is curved like an Ionic 
volute, only downwards instead of upward, as had previously been 
the case. 

• '* Wills and Inventories" (Surtees Society, 2), i. 9. 
t Archmologia, vol. liii. p. 118. 

I Ihid., vol. liii. p. 130. 

II ** Wills and Inventories" (Surtees Society, 2), i. 91. 

§ Markham's " Church Plate of the County of Northampton," p. 89. 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

Then followed the many varieties of the " King " and " Fiddle 
pattern " spoon, which are in use at the present day. 



JForks. 



" Then must yon learn the use, and handling of your silver forke 

at meales^ 

— Ben Jonson, "The Fox," iv. i. 

Silver forks did not come into general use until comparatively 
modem times, though the quotation given above shows that they 
were used in 1605 when " Rare Old Ben Jonson " wrote his Vol pone. 
Th earlier forks no doubt were made of steel. The oldest now 
known, are probably the set of twelve which were made in 1667, and 
are now at Cotehele, Co. Cornwall. These have three prongs, with 
plain flat handle, cleft at the top. Another three-pronged fork, 
made during the reign of Charles II., was dug up in Covent Garden. 
This has a flat round handle, nicked at the top, on which is engraved 
a coat-of arms.* Four-pronged forks were first made in 1726, 
although there is one with the Musgrave crest that was made in 1683, 
but it is possible that this was fashioned out of a spoon. All 
modem forks are made with four prongs, the handles generally 
matching the spoons with which they are used. 



CanbU»titk». 

" A candlestick all of gold!' 

— Zkc. iv. 2. 

The celebrated candlestick made in the twelfth century at Glou- 
cester, of white metal gilt, is the earliest, as well as one of the finest, 
in the country. It has a large head with pricket, a straight stem 
with three bosses, interlaced bands, knots, monsters and other 
objects, on a tripod of dragon's claws, and is of Byzantine 
character. It was given by Abbot Peter of Gloucester to the Church 
of S. Peter at that city, and is now in the South Kensington 
Museum, t 

After this solitary specimen there is nothing to be noticed until 
the reign of Charles II. We then meet with candlesticks having 

♦ Cripps' "Old English Plate," 1891, p. 313. 
t PoUen's "Gold and Silver Smiths' Work." 



xlviii INTRODUCTION. 

square basses, stems composed of clustered columns, and a square 
rim. In the seventeenth century baluster stems of simple form came 
into fashion, and a little later more ornate patterns were employed. 
In the eighteenth century the Corinthian column was introduced for 
candlesticks, movable candle sockets being then first used. About 
the same time baluster stems were used. The candlesticks were then 
enriched wiin festoons of flowers looped to bosses or masks in high 
relief, the whole being very ornate and often of great beauty. During 
the present century all the old designs have been reproduced for 
candlesticks. 



It is sad to think of the multitude of beautiful articles which 
have been made for pleasure and for state, and destroyed. Indeed 
the very costliness of the materials in which the great goldsmiths 
of all ages have wrought, has ensured the ruin of their beautiful 
works. At various times religious houses, sovereigns and nobles, 
have sold their treasures, which have found their way into the 
melting pot, and applied the proceeds for their immediate needs. 

In this sketch it has not been possible to do more than give an 
outline of the history of the workings of the precious metals, of the 
makers, of the various vessels wrought, and of the changes of form 
that have obtained at different times. Still, it is ho[:)ed that these 
notes may not be without interest to those who appreciate old. 
-curious, or beautiful workmanship. 

CHRISTOPHER A. MARKHAM, F.S.A. 



lall ilatks on jpiate 

AND 

TAXATION OF GOLD AND SILVER GOODS, &c., 

IN ORDER OF DATE, 

JTratn tlft Sfarelftlr to tlft Itinrtt^nth (t^utnr^. 



The Statutes now in force relating to the Duties and to the Hall-marking of gold and* 
silver plate are very numerous. There are certainly not less than twenty-five 
different statutes which are more or less in force, and it seems most desirable that 
they should be consolidated into one Act of Parliament. The Parliamentary 
Committee of 1856 strongly recommended that the law should be consolidated, but 
the suggestion was not carried out. 

To the following table those which are not repealed are marked n.r. 



TABLE OF STATUTES AND ORDINANCES 

REFERRED TO IN THIS BOOK. 

1 1 80. 26 Henry II Goldsmiths' Company amerced for 

being adulterine. 
1238. 22 Henry III. close rolls m. 6. Assay of Gold and Silver. 

1300. 28 Edward I. c. 20 Leopard's head. Assay. 

1327. I Edward III First Charter to Goldsmiths' Com- 

pany. 
I I. Leopard's head crowned. 2. 
1336. Ordinance of the Gold- I Owners' or goldsmiths' mark. 3. 

smiths' Company f Assay er's mark, or variable date 

J letter. 

1363. 37 Edward IIL c. 7 Assay: marks. 

1369.43 Edward III. close rolls|g^j^^.^g ^^ ^j^^ ^^j^^^.^j^^, ^^^^^ 

B 



M 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



1379. 2 Richard II i Goldsmith's, "his own proper 

meirk." 2. " Mark of the city or 
borough." 3. Assayer's mark, 
" appointed by the King." 

1381. 5 Richard IL c. 2 Exports forbidden. 

1 392. 16 Richard II Second Charter to Goldsmiths* Com- 
pany. 

1403. 5 Henry IV. c. 13 Gilding and plating inferior metals 

prohibited. 

1 414. 2 Henry V. c. 4 Regulating the«prices of gold, gild- 
ing silver, &c. 

1420. 8 Henry V. c. 3 Gilding inferior metals prohibited. 

1423. 2 Henry VI. c. 14 Provincial offices, standard of gold 

and silver. "Touch of the Leo- 
pard's head," and " mark or touch 
of the workman." 

1432. 2 Henry VI. c. 14 Exports forbidden. 

1457. James IL (Scots) Appoints deacons, marks. 

1462. 2 Edward IV Another Charter to Goldsmiths* 

Company. 

1473. James III. (Scots) Places appointed to mark gold. 

1 477. 1 7 Edward IV. c. i " Leopard's head crowned," and 

" Mark of the Worker." Standard 
of 18 carats. 

1483. James III (Scots) Marks on Goldsmiths work. 

1487. 4 Henry VII. Pari. 3, c. 2.... Relates to the Assays. Sale re- 
stricted. 

1504. 20 Henry VII Charter to Goldsmiths* Company. 

1555. Mary (Scots) .Standard and marks, 

1573. 15 Elizabeth Standard of gold and silver and 

marks: 22 carat revived. 

1576. 18 Elizabeth, c. 15 i. "The goldsmith to set his mark 

thereon." 2. "Touch of the leo- 
pard's head crowned," axid 
" marked by the wardens.'* 

1587. James VI. (Scots) Search for inferior gold and silver. 

1 597. Goldsmiths' Company Records Marks : lion, leopard's head, and 

alphabetical mark. 

1638. Charles L (Irish) Charter to the Dublin Goldsmiths' 

Company. 

1675. Goldsmiths' Order Marks of the lion and leopard's 

head. 

1687. James VIL (Scots) Charter to the Edinburgh Gold- 
smith's Hall. 

1697-8 8 & 9 William III. c. 8 New standard of silver of 11 oz 

10 dwt. : Hall marks. N.R. 

1698. 9 & 10 William III. c. 28 Exports permitted. 

1700-1. 12 William III. c. 4 Provincial offices reappointed. As- 
says, marks. N.R. 
1701. I Anne, c. 9, s. 3 Newcastle Act. N.R. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



1719. 6 George L c. 11, s. i, 3, 41... 



Old silver standard of 1 1 oz. 2 dwt 
revived. Duty imposed. The 
lion, leopard's head, maker's mark, 
and date mark. Both old and 
new standards allowed by this 
Act N.R. 

1730. 3 George IL (Irish) c. 3, s. 32 Ireland : Standards. N.R. 

1739. 12 George IL c. 26 Standards of gold and silver. New 

makers' marks. " The initials of 
his Christian and surname." N.R. 

1742. 15 George II Silver wire. 

1756. 29 George II. c. 14 Annual duty — 5s. for every 100 oz. 

1758. 31 George IL c. 32 Licence in lieu of duty. 

1759- 32 George II. c 24 Licence duty increased. 

1773- 13 George III. c. 52 Birmingham and Sheffield. N.R. 

1784. 24 George III. c 53 Plated goods: Duty increased and 

exemptions. King's Head mark. 

1785. 25 George III. c. 64, Duty. Drawback. Watch-cases. 

1789. 30 George III. c. 31 Exemptions of silver. N.R. 

1797- 37 George IIL c. 90 Duty — gold at 8s., silver is. RE- 
PEALED. 

1798. 38 George III. c. 69 & c. 24. Gold standard lowered to 18 carat. 

Mark a crown and 18. N.R. 

1803. 43 George III. c. 69 Licences. Drawback on plate. RE- 

PEALED. 

1804. 44 George III. c. 98 Duty— i6s. on gold, is. 3d. on 

silver. REPEALED. 

1807. 47 George III Ireland. N.R. 

1812. 52 George IIL c. 59 Duty. Drawback N.R. 

1815. 55 George IIL c. 185 Duty— 17s. on gold and is. 6d. on 

silver. Repealed as regards silver 

plate 1890. 

1819. 59 George IIL c. 28 Glasgow. N.R. 

1820. I George IV. c. 14 Duty. Drawback. N.R. 

1824. 5 George IV. c. 52 Birmingham Act. N.R. 

1825. 6 George IV Irish. 

1836. 6 William IV. c. 69 Scotland. N.R, 

1842. 5 & 6 Victoria, c 47, 56, 82... Foreign plate to be assayed and 

stamped. N.R. 
1844. 7 & 8 Victona, c. 22 Criminal Law Consolidation Act. 

Distinctive mark on 22 carat gold. 

Mark a crown and 22 instead of 

o o Tr- . the lion oassant. N.R. 

1849. 12 & 13 Victona Uuty NR* 

1854. 17 & 18 Victoria, c. 96 Reduced standards of gold— 15, 12. 

and 9 carats. Mark 15.625 — 12.5 — 
9-37 S» without crown or King's 
head. N.R. 

^855. 18 & 19 Victoria, c. 60 Wedding-rings. N.R. 

^85^ Parlimentary Commission Report 

on Gold and Silver Wares. 



4 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1866. 29 & 30 Victoria, c. 64 Duty. Drawback. N.R. 

1867. 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 90 Additional mark for foreign plate. 

Duty. N.R. 

1869. 32 Victoria Additional mark for foreign plate. 

Duty. N.R. 

1870. 33 & 34 Victoria Licence and watch-cases. N.R. 

1876. 39 & 40 Victoria, c 36 Counterfeit. English marks on for- 
eign plate, and letter F in oval 
escutcneon. N.R. 

1876 & 1878 Notices by the Goldsmiths* Com- 
pany. 

1878. Parliamentary Commission Report. 

1879. Parliamentary Commission Report. 

1890. 53 & 54 Victoria, c. 8 The duty of is. 6d. per ounce on sil- 
ver plate abolished, and the staunp 
of the Queen's head, duty mark, 
discontinued. N.R. 

1897. Parliamentary Commission Report. 

4 volumes. 



(Byimds from Statutes, (Drbmanas, tit, 

REGULATING THE 

MANUFACTURE AND STAMPING OF PLATE IN 

ENGLAND, 

WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES. 



A.D. 1 1 80. 26 Henry II. A fraternity or Guild of Goldsmiths 
was in existence at this early period, although no Charter of Incor- 
poration had been granted ; for in the year above named the Company 
was, amongst other guilds, amerced for being adulterinCy i.e., set up 
without the King's licence. The leopard's head, taken from their 
arms, was probably used by them to denote the proper standard, for 
in their first charter it is spoken of as being anciently ordained. 

A.D. 1238. In the Close Rolls of 22 Henry III. M. 6. A man- 
date was issued entitled " De auro f abricando in Civitate Londonia- 
rum." That in consequence of the frauds which had been practised 
by the gold and silver smiths, it became necessary to prescribe some 
regulations for their trade, because the mixing too much alloy in the 
composition of these wares naturally tended to encourage the melting 
down of coin of the realm. It was therefore ordained that no one 
should use any gold of which the mark was not worth one hundred 
shillings at the least, nor any silver worse than the standard of the 
coins (" quod non valeat in se, quantum valeat moneta Regis "). 



STANDARDS : LEOPARD'S HEAD. 

The assaying of the precious metals was a privilege conferred 
upon the Goldsmiths' Company of London by the following 
statute : — 

A.D. 1300. 28 Edward I, c. 20, commonly called Articuli 
super cartas. " It is ordained (inter alia) that no Goldsmith of 



6 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

England^ nor none otherwhere within the King's Dominions, shall 
from henceforth make, or cause to be made any Manner of Vessel, 
Jewel, or any other Thing of Gold or Silver, except it be of good 
jind true Allay, that is to say, Gold of a certain Touch and Silver of 
the Sterling Allay, or of better, at the Pleasure of him to whom the 
Work belongeth (argent del alay de esterling ou de meillur), and 
that none work worse Silver than Money. And that no Manner of 
Vessel of Silver depart out of the Hands of the Workers, until it be 
essayed by the Wardens of the Craft ; and further, that it be marked 
with the Leopard's head (e q'ele soit sign6e de une teste de leopart) ; 
and that they work no worse Gold than of the Touch of Paris (tuche 
de Parys). And that the Wardens of the Craft shall go from Shop 
to Shop among the Goldsmiths, to Assay, if their Gold be of the 
same Touch that is spoken of before; and if they find any other 
than of the Touch aforesaid, the Gold shall be forfeit to the King -• * 
[And that none shall make Rings, Crosses, nor Locks;] and that none 
shall set any Stone in gold except it be natural; and that Gravers or 
Cutters of Stones, and of Seals, shall give to each their Weight of 
Silver and Gold (as near as they can) upon their Fidelity; and the 
Jewels of base Gold which they have in their Hands, they shall utter 
as fast as they can ; and from thenceforth if they buy any of the same 
Work, they shall buy it to work upon and not to sell again; and that 
all the good Towns of England where any Goldsmith be dwelling 
shall be ordered according to this Estatute as they of London be; and 
that one shall come from every good Town for all the Residue that 
be dwelling in the same, unto London for to be ascertained of their 
Touch. And if any Goldsmith be attainted hereafter, because that 
he has done otherwise than before is ordained, he shall be punished 
by Imprisonment, and by Ransome at the King's Pleasure," &c. 

Repealed. 

The touck of Paris was referred to in this statute because there 
were no English gold coins which could be made a standard for the 
goldsmiths' work. The French coins of that time were of fine gold. 
The touch of Paris therefore was as celebrated over Europe as the 
sterling of England. 

'Note, — This statute is prior to the first charter granted to the 
Goldsmiths' Company, and shows that the company was then a cor- 
poration, and that all plate then made in the King's dominions was 
assayed by them. 



GOLDSMITHS' CHARTER. 

1327. I Edward III. The first Charter was granted by Letters 
Patent from Edward III. to "the Wardens and Commonalty of the 
Mystery of Goldsmiths of the City of London." It is quoted at 
length in Herbert's " History of the London Livery Companies." both 
in French and English. The following are the principal provisions 
of this Charter: — That the Goldsmiths had by their petition ex- 
hibited to the King and Council in Parliament holden at Westminster 

• The portion between brackets repealed 21 Jac. 28 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 7 

shown that theretofore no private merchants or strangers were wont 
to bring into this land any money coined, but plate and silver to ex- 
change for our coin; that it had been ordained that all of the trade of 
Goldsmiths were to sit in their shops in the High Street of Cheap, 
and that no silver or gold plate ought to be sold in the City of 
London except in the King's Exchange or in Cheap, among the Gold- 
smiths, and that publicly, to the end that persons in the trade might 
inform themselves whether the seller came lawfully by it; but that of 
late both private merchants and strangers bring from foreign lands 
counterfeit sterling whereof the pound is not worth sixteen sols of the 
right sterling, and of this money none can know the right value but 
by melting it down ; and tnat many of the trade of Goldsmiths do 
keep shops in obscure streets, and do buy vessels of gold 
and silver secretly without inquiring whether such vessels were 
stolen or come lawfully by, and immediately melting them 
down, make them into plate, and sell it to merchants trad- 
ing beyond sea, and so make false work of gold, silver, 
and jewels, in which they set glass of divers colours, 
counterfeiting right stones, and put more alloy in their silver than 
they ought, which they sell to such as have no skill in such things; 
that the cutlers cover tin with silver so subtilely and with such sleight 
that the same cannot be discerned nor separated, and so sell the tin 
for fine silver; to the great damage and deceit of the 
King and his people: The King, with the assent of the 
lords spiritual and temporal and the commons of the realm 
willed and granted for him and his heirs that henceforth 
no one shall bring into this land any sort of money but 
only plate of fine silver, and that no plate of gold or silver be sold 
to sell again, or be carried out of the kingaom, but shall be sold 
openly for private use : That none of the trade shall keep any shop 
except in Cheap, that it may be seen that their work be good : that 
those of the trade may by virtue of these presents elect honest and 
sufficient men, best skilled in the trade, to inquire of the matters 
aforesaid, and that those who are so chosen reform what defects 
they shall find, and inflict punishment on the offenders, and that by 
the help of the mayor and sheriffs, if need be; that in all trading 
cities in England, where Goldsmiths reside, the same ordinance be 
observed as in London, and that one or two of every such city or town 
for the rest of the trade shall come to London to be ascertained of 
their touch of gold, and to have their works marked with the fun- 
cheon of the leopard's head as it was anciently ordained. 

The earliest records of tne Goldsmiths' Company commence in 
I334» with the Wardens' Accounts and Court Miautes- and these 
books are continued in an almost unbroken sequence until 1636, when 
the records of the Court of Assistants begin. 

The following notes are taken by the kind permission of Sir 
Walter S. Prideaux, from his " Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany.'* 

In these minutes the following information is generally 
given: — 

The nam2s of the Wardens for the year. 



S HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

The payments given to the increase. 

The names oi the Poor of the Mystery. 

The names of the Apprentices. 

The Americaments for bad practices. 

Amongst the most common frauds in the fourteenth century 
was debasing gold by mixing it with glass, and silver by adding 
lead or fine sand ; and gilding and silvering latten and brass vessels 
and passing them off as pure silver; false stones also were set in gold 
and real stones in copper or latten gilt. Amerciaments surely fol- 
lowed these practices whenever they were detected; and frequently 
the offender was adjudged to tne pillory. . 

In I355> one of the members of the Fellowship was fotmd guilty 
of mals outrages y and he was adjudged to forfeit his livery. He 
prayed mercy of the Company, and offered tnem ten tons ni wine; 
and he was forgiven on paying for a pipe of wine, and I2d. a week 
for one year to a poor man of the Company. 

It seems to have been a usual practice at this time for defaulters 
to make their peace with the Company by presenting them with a 
pipe of wine; or sometimes with a dinner. 

In 1 370 the first recorded ordinances are entered in the minutes, 
and the statutes are sworn to by the good men, and also entered in 
full. These statutes give minute direction, not only as to the mamner 
of the assay; as to workings of ouches, buckles, and what not; as 
to the apprentices ; but also as to praying for the souls of the departed 
members of the Brotherhood. 

In Riley's " Memorials of London " we also find that several 
charges were brought before the notice of the mayors and aldermen 
of London tor counterfeiting silver cuppebonds ot mazer or wooden 
cups and bowls. These mazers were usually mounted with silver 
circlets which ran round the foot and mouth of the vessel connected 
by vertical bands which enclosed the bowl. 

" In 1 372, Thomas Lauleye, contriving to deceive the common 
people, had circlets of latone gilded, and with them bound divers 
cups, which he afterwards sold and exposed others for sale, as well 
in the citye as without^ asserting that the same circlets were made of 
silver gilt and paid for acordingly. And in like manner for that he 
had pledged two cups so bound with circlets of gilded latoune to 
one William de Stoke, taillour, for xxxij. shillings, asserting that 
the same were of silver gilt. He was sentenced to stand in the pillory 
on several days with the cups hung round his neck. 

" In 1376, one Peter Randolfe, a lattener, was charged with ex- 
posing for sale two circlets for mazers which were of mixed silver, 
and not good or pure, in deceit of the people. He was let off 
mildly, however, on promising not to interfere again with the Gold- 
smiths' trade. 

"In 1376, Edward Bor was attached to make answer to the 
mayor and aldermen for that he silvered 240 buttons of latone and 
34 circlets of latone for purses called gibesers (gipcieres) and had 
maliciously purposed and imagined to sell the same for pure silver 
in deceit of the people; whereupon he said that one, Michael Hak- 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 9 

cneye, had given him the said buttons and circlets to silver. Both 
were committed to prison in Newgate, the former for one week, 
the latter for three weeks. 

"In 14 1 4, one John of Rochester, was taken by the master of 
the trade of goldsmiths there for counterfeiting mazer bonds in 
copper and brass plated over with silver, or gilded, and brought up 
to London, having sold them within the City." 

These cases show that the Goldsmiths' Company then had 
jurisdiction not only in the Metropolis, but elsewhere within the 
kingdom of England. 



THE GOLDSMITHS' ORDINANCES. 

The COMPAl^'s Ordinance of the year 1336 enjoin, that none 
do work gold unless it be as good as the assay of the mystery ; or 
in silver, unless as good or better than the King's coin or sterling, 
and tl-iat when done it shall be brought to the Hall to be assayed, 
and that such as will bear the touck shall be marked "with the 
owners and sayers marks, and afterwards be touched with the 
Liberdshede crowned." It will be observed here that three dis- 
tinct marks are spoken of — (i) the goldsmith's mark, viz., his 
initials; (2) The assay mark, probably a letter of the alphabet; 
and (3) The mark of the Goldsmiths' Hall, a leopard's head 
crowned. 

ASSAY MARKS. 

A.D. 1363. 37 Edward III. c. 7. "Item, it is ordered that 
goldsmiths as well in London as elsewhere within the realm, shall 
make all manner of vessels and other works of silver, well and 
lawfully of the allay of good sterling; and every master goldsmith 
shall have a mark by himself, and the same mark shall be known 
by them which shall be assigned by the King to survey their work 
and allay; and that the said goldsmiths set not their marks upon 
their works, till the said surveyors have made their assay, as shall 
be ordained by the King and his council : and after the assay made, 
the surveyor shall set the King's mark, and after the goldsmith 
his mark, for which he will answer; and that no goldsmith take for 
vessel white and full for the weight of a pound (that is to say) 
of the price of two marks of Paris weight, but eighteen pence as 
they do in Paris;* [and that no goldsmith making white vessel 
shall meddle with gilding, nor they that do gild shall meddle to 
make white vessel : ] and they which shall be so assigned in every 
town shall make their searches as oftentimes as shall be ordained ; 
and for that which shall be in the goldsmiths' default they shall 
incur the pain of forfeiture to the King, the value of the metal 
which shall be found in default." REPEALED. 

The laws which regulated the goldsmiths' trade were rigorously 
enforced, and we read (CI. 43 Edw. III. m. 35) that William de 

* The clause in brackets relating to gilding was repealed 21 Jac. 18. 



lo HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Mulsho and John de Newenham, in 1369, were commanded to ex- 
amine by the toucn, or by other methods, certain vessels of silver 
and belts of gold which William de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, 
had caused to be made by goldsmiths of London of less fineness 
than the ordinance required, and to report the assay to the King 
in Chancery. 

MARKS APPOINTED. 

A.D. 1379. 2 Richard IL It was enacted by Parliament that 
whereas the gold and silver worked by English goldsmiths was 
oftentimes less fine than it ought to be, because the goldsmith were 
their own assayers, from that time every goldsmith should have his 
own proper mark upon his work^ cmd that the assay of touch should 
belong to the mayors and governors of cities and boroughs, with 
the assistance of the Master of the Mint, if there should be occa- 
sion ; and that t.hc work should bear the mark of the city or borough 
where it was assayed. And also that the King should assign such 
persons as he should please to make the said assay, as well in 
London as elsewhere, as often as should be necessary ; and after the 
assay should be made to stamp the work with another mark, to be 
appointed by the King. And it was agreed that the ordinance 
should commence from the said feast of St. John, and continue 
until the next Parliament, to try whether it would be advantageous 

or not. Repealed. 

EXPORTS FORBIDDEN. 

A.D. 1 38 1. 15 Richard II. c. 2. The export of gold and silver 
in any shape is forbidden (" or et argent si bien monoie vessell plate 
et joialx "). REPEALED. 

In 1402 this provision was reinforced by another Act, forbid- 
ding any person to carry gold or silver in money, vessel, or plate 
out of the realm without the King's licence. 

GOLDSMITHS' CHARTER. 

A.D. 1392 16 Richard II. Another charter to the Gold- 
smiths' Company bearing date the 6th of February of this year 
granted and gave licence to the men of the said craft of goldsmiths 
of the City of London to be a perpetual community or society of 
themselves, and elect yearly out of themselves four wardens to 
oversee, rule, and duly govern the said craft and community, and 
every member of the same. 

IRISH STATUTE. 

A.D. 1447. It was ordained that no persons except knights and pre- 
lates of the Holy Church should use any gilt bridles, peytrells, or 
other harness; and that if any other should be found with such 
harness, is should be lawful for every man that would to take the 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. ii 

said man, his horse and harness, and to possess the same as his 
own goods. This statute was not repealed until lo and ii Charles 
L, 1635. 

GILDING INFERIOR METALS PROHIBITED. 

A.D. 1403. 5 Henry IV. c 13. Recites^ That many fraudu- 
lent artificers do daily make locks, &c., of copper and latten, and 
the same do over gild and silver like to gold and silver, to the 
great deceit, loss, and hindrance of the common people, and the wast- 
ii^g of gold and silver ; and ordains^ That no artificer, nor other man, 
shall gild nor silver any such locks, rings, beads, candlestick, har- 
ness for girdles (buckles), chalices, hilts nor pommels of swords, 
powder boxes, nor covers for cups, made of copper or latten, upon 
pain to forfeit to the King 100 shillings every time, and to make 
satisfaction to the party grieved for his damages; but that (chalices 
always excepted) the said artificers may work ornaments for the 
Church of copper and latten, and the same gild or silver, so that 
always in the foot or some other part of such ornament the copper 
and latten shall be plain, that a man may see whereof the thing is 
made, for to eschew the deceit aforesaid * REPEALED. 

In the same Act, c. 4, " It shall be felony to use the craft of 
multiplication of gold or silver" (repealed i William and Mary). 

CUTLERS AND GOLDSMITHS. 

A.D. 1405. A contest happened between the Companies of the 
Goldsmiths and Cutlers, with regard to certain privileges, claimed 
by the former, of inspecting all the gold and silver work made by 
the latter. At length the Goldsmiths appealed to the Parliament, 
and by the authority of the King, the affair was referred to the 
Lord Mayor of London, who, having carefully examined into the 
same, reported, that according to the ancient immunities of the 
City, the Cutlers had a right to work in gold and silver; but that 
all things made by them were to be assayed by the Goldsmiths; 
whereupon the Goldsmiths* Charter was confirmed by Parliament, 
and additional privileges were granted. 

PRICE OF GILT SILVER LIMITED. 

A.D. 1414. 2 Henry V., s. 2, c. 4. Recitesy "That the Gold- 
smiths of England, of their covin and ordinances, will not sell the 
wares of their mystery gilt but at the double price of the weight of 
the silver of the same, which seemeth to the King very outrageous 
and too excessive a price, the King, for the ease of his people, will- 
ing to remedy the same, hath ordained and established, that all the 
Goldsmiths of England shall gild no silver worse than of the allay 

*Loui8 XI., King of France, in an ordinance to the goldsmiths of Tours, 
January, 1470, authorises them to employ only for ecclesiastical utensils, such 
as reliquaries, <&c., gold and silver of base alloy, which pieces were to oe in< 
•cribed *^ non venundetur,^' to certify that they were not destined for com- 
merce. 



12 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

of the English sterling, and that they take for a pound of troy gilt 
but Forty-six shillings and ^ightpence at the most, and of greater 
weight and less, according to the quantity and rate of the same 
sum : and tnat which shall be by them gilt from henceforth shall 
be of reasonable price, and not excessive; and if any goldsmith do 
contrary to this statute, he shall forfeit to the King the value ol 
the thing so sold." REPEALED. 

A.D. 1420. 8 Henry V., c. 3. Ordains^ " That none shall gild 
any sheaths, nor metal but silver and Church ornaments; nor shall 
silver no metal but Knight's spurs, and all the apparel that pertain- 
eth to a Baron, and above that estate; upon pain of forfeiture to 
the King ten times as much as the thing so gilt is of value, and 
shall have one year's imprisonment; and he that will sue for the 
King shall nave the third part of the said pecuniary forfeiture." 

Repealed. 

This statute seems to have been made because the two last were 
found ineffectual to prevent frauds. 

STANDARD OF GOLD AND SILVER: PROVINCIAL 

OFFICES. 

A.D. 1423. 2 Henry VI. c. 14. It was ordained that no goldsmith or 
worker of silver within the City of London sell no workmanship of 
silver, unless it be as fine as the sterling ; cmd that no goldsmith nor 
jeweller, nor any other that worketh harness of silver, shall set any 
of the same to sell within the city, before that it be touched with the 
touch, and also with a mark or sign of the workman of the same, 
upon pain of forfeiture of the double value thereof. And that the 
mark or sign of every goldsmith be known to the wardens of the 
craft. And if it may be found that the said Keeper of the Touch 
touch any such harness with the leopard^ s heady except it be as fine 
in allay as the sterling, that then he shall forfeit for everything so 
proved, the double value to the King, and to the party who shall 
prove it. And it is also ordained tnat in the city of York, New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, Lincoln, Norwich, Bristol, Salisbury and Coven- 
try, there shall be divers touches, according to the ordinance of 
Mayors, Bailiffs, or Governors of the said towns. And that no 
goldsmith nor other workers of silver, nor Keepers of the said 
touches, within the said towns, shall set to sell, nor touch any silver 
in other manner than is ordained before within the City of London, 
upon pain of the said forfeiture. And that no goldsmith nor other 
worker of silver, in England, where no touch is ordained, shall work 
any silver except it be as fine in allay as the sterling, and that he 
set thereon his mark before he set it to sale; and if it is not as fine, 
he shall forfeit double value as in London; and justices, &c., shall 
hear, inquire, and determine offences, and make due execution by 
their discretions. REPEALED. 

It appears that before the last statute all the gold and silver 
plate made in England was assayed and marked at Goldsmiths' 
Hall in London. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 13 

EXPORTS. 

A.D. 1432. II Henry VL, c. 14. In this year the laws which pro- 
hibited the exportation of money and plate were partially sus- 
pended. The Pope's Ambassador had licence to pass out of the 
kingdom with gold, money, and jewels to the amoimt of one hun- 
dred pounds. And the Bishop ot Worcester, being about to attend 
the General Council at Basle, had permission to carry with him 
goods, jewels, and vessels of silver to the value of one thousand 
pounds. The Bishop of Winchester had licence to carry out of the 
realm money and plate to the amount of ;t20,ooo of sterlings. And 
about the same time a certain Spaniard had permission to take his 
horses, silver, plate and money out of the kingdom. REPEALED. 

GOLDSMITHS' CHARTER. 

A.D. 1462. The most important charter ever given to the Com- 
pany of Goldsmiths in London bears date the 30th of May, 2 Edw. 
4, and gprants {inter alia) as follows : " And for the credit of the men 
of the said craft, dwelling and residing in the said city, for the 
time being, and for the preventing and avoiding of the damage and 
loss, which do or may daily happen or arise, as well to us as to any 
of our liege people, for want of a due and provident care in regu- 
lating certain of our subjects and others using and exercising the 
said trade, without any regard to the credit of the said company; 
and also for the preventing and taking away the subtilties and 
deceits practised in the said trade. We have further granted, and 
by these presents do grant to the said now wardens and commonalty, 
and their successors for ever, that the wardens of the said mystery 
for the time being shall and may for ever have the search, inspec- 
tion, trial and regulation of all sorts of gold and silver, wrought 
or to be wrought, and to be exposed to sale within the City of 
London, and the suburbs thereof, and in all fairs and markets, and 
all cities, towns, and boroughs, and all other places whatsover 
throughout our kingdom of England, and also shall and may have 
power to punish and correct all defects that shall be found in the 
working of gold and silver; . . . and also by themselves, or any 
of them, to break all such deceitful works and wares of gold and 
silver, of what sort soever, if any such they shall find, to be made, 
wrought, and exposed to sale, in deceit of our people." 

This privilege has been since so materially enlarged, that they 
have the power of inspecting all gold and silver wares in the follow- 
ing particular places, viz., Chester, Newcastle, Norwich, Exeter, Bir- 
mingham and Sheffield, with the power of punishing all offenders 
concerned in working adulterated gold and silver, and of making 
bye-laws for their better government. 

STANDARD OF 18-CARAT GOLD. 

A,D. 1477. Stat. 17, Edward IV. c. i, directs (ifiter alia), that 
no goldsmith, or worker of gold or silver, shall work, or put to sale, 



14 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

any gold under the fineness of i8 carats, nor silver, unless it be as 
fine as sterling, except such thing as requireth solder; also, that no 
goldsmith work, or set to sale, harness of silver plate, or jewel of 
silver, from the feast of Easter, within the City of London, or 
within two leagues* of London, before it be touched with the 
leopard's head crowned, such as may bear the said touch, and also 
with a mark or sign of the worker of the same so wrought, upon 
pain of forfeiture of the double value of such silver wrought and 
sold to the contrary; that the mark or sign of every goldsmith be 
committed to the wardens of the same mystery, and if it be found 
that the keeper of the touch of the leopard's head crowned, do mark 
or touch any harness with the leopard's head, if it be not as fine in 
alloy as sterling, he shall forfeit double the value of the silver, and 
that the craft of goldsmiths of London shall be answerable for the 
non-sufficiency of the warden. 

This statute was enacted for seven years, and was afterwards 
re-enacted for twenty years in 1489, and again for twenty years in 
1552 by 7 Edw. VL c. 6. REPEALED. 



ASSAY OF GOLD AND SILVER. 

A.D. 1487. 4 Henry VIL PARL. 3, c. 2, sets forth " That it was 
of old time used and continued till now of late years, that there 
was, for the avail of the King and the Realm, Finers and Parters 
of gold and silver by fire and water, under a Rule and Order be- 
longing to the Mints of London, Calais, Canterbury, York, and 
Durham, and other places where mints be holden, and at the Gold- 
smiths' Hall in London, to fine and part all gold and silver, belong- 
ing and needful for the said Mints and Fellowship of Goldsmiths, 
for the amendment of money and plate of the realm: that every- 
thing might be reformed to the right standard, as well in money as 
plate, to the least cost, for the weal of the King's nobleman of the 
land and common people. But now that such finers and parters 
dwell abroad in every part of this realm, out of the Rules aforesaid, 
and buy gilt silver from the mints, changes and goldsmiths, and 
part and fine it; and for the most part of the silver so fined, they 
do allay in divers manner; and sell it to every man that will 
buy of them, to make such works as pleaseth the buyers; therefore 
man can get no fine silver, when they need it, for their money, for 
the amendment of money and plate as hath been in times past, 
wherefore it causetti money and plate, in divers places of the realm 
to be made worse in fineness than it should be. as it appeareth evi- 
dently in divers places, to the great hurt of the King's noblemen 
and common people." And enacts, " That no Finer, nor Parter of 
gold and silver allay any fine silver or gold, ne none sell in any 
otherwise, ne to any person or persons, but only to the officers of 
mints, changes and goldsmiths within this realm, for augmentation 
and amending of coin and plate; ne that no Finer nor Parter sell 

• Tliis statute is in Norman French ; this word in the original is ** leukez." 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 15 

to no person any manner of silver in mass, molten and allayed, on 
forfeiture of the same, — one half to the King, and the other half 
to the finder, that can prove and will sue for it in the Exchequer/'* 

Repealed. 



GOLDSMITHS' CHARTER. 

A.D. 1504. Another Charter granted to the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany of London, bearing date 3rd February, 20 Henry VII., men- 
tions " that divers persons in divers parts of this Kingdom do work 
and expose to sale gold and silver wrought worse than standard, 
and neither fear nor doubt to be punished; as due search, or due 
punishment, is seldom executed out of London. And that the 
common standard, or assize of gold and silver (according to the 
ordinances in that behalf made), is kept in Goldsmiths' Hall, in Lon- 
don; and that all works and wares in gold and silver there tried 
and assayed, and affirmed for good, shall be stamped with their 
marks, which they use for that purpose; and all defective works 
utterly condemned." 

In 1547, the Court of the Goldsmiths* Company, passed reso- 
lutions, in accordance with the King's injunctions, for breaking up 
the image of St. Dunstan. These were shortly afterwards carried 
out, and the weight of the image, and of St. Punstan's standing 
cup, with the number of the stones set therein, are entered in the 
proceedings. 

At this time the year began at the Feast of the Holy and 
Blessed Trinity [Sunday after Whit Sunday] instead of at the 
Feast of St. Dunstan [May 19th] as formerly. 

Four years later an almswoman was committed to ward for 
setting an Apostle on a spoon. 

Soon after Queen Mary commenced her reign, the old style 
of St. Dunstan was restored, t 



STANDARDS OF GOLD AND SILVER : 22-CARAT 

GOLD REVIVED. 

A.D. 1573. 15 Elizabeth. Commissioners were appointed to 
inquire into the standard of gold and silver, which had not been 
attended to, in consequence of the disgraceful state of the coinage, 
and the low degree of baseness to which that and goldsmiths' work 
generally had then recently fallen, but which had then reached again 
to its former purity. The Commissioners called before them the Mas- 
ter and Wardens of the Goldsmiths' Company, to see how far they 
had complied with the standard; and they were compelled to give 
security that in future no gold wares should be of less fineness than 
22 carats, and silver wares 11 oz. 2 dwts. in the pound. 

• As this Act makes no mention of any country Assay Offices, it is probable 
that all or most of them were then discontinued. 

•f Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company. 



i6 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



STANDARDS AND PRICE OF GOLD AND SILVER 

22.Cx\RAT GOLD. 

A.D. 1576. 18 Elizabeth, c. 15. In this Parliament the abuses 
in goldsmiths' work were taken into consideration; and it was 
enacted that, after the 20th of April, no goldsmith should work, selU 
or exchange, or cause to be sold, &c., any wares of gold less in fine- 
ness than 22 carats, and that he should use no solder, amell, or other 
stuffings whatsoever, more than should be necessary, and that he 
should not take above the rate of twelvepence for the ounce of 
gold, besides the fashion, more than the buyer should or might be 
allowed for the same at the Queen's Exchange or Mint, upon pain 
to forfeit the value of the thing so sold or exchanged. 

That he should not put to sale any wares, &c., of silver before 
he should have set his mark thereon, to so much as might conveni- 
ently bear it, upon pain of forfeiture of the same. And if in any 
goldsmith's ware, &c., touched, marked and allowed for good by 
the Wardens and Corporation of that mystery, after the said 20th 
of April, there should be found any falsehood or deceit, then the 
Wardens and Corporation of that mystery, for the time being, 
should forfeit the value of the said wares. 

The Goldsmiths' Company of London is entrusted with the 
custody of the pile of troy weights made in this Queen's reign, ana 
no country office is mentioned in this Act. PARTLY REPEALED. 

In 1630 new gowns were purchased for the almsmen of the 
Goldsmiths' Company, and it was ordered that " The badge of the 
Leopard's Head is to be set upon each gown." 

When Mr. Harrison, a goldsmith, was Sheriff, in 1633, the 
Company lent him a quantity of plate. The list of this shows that 
the Company possessed a very valuable collection prior to the loss of 
the greater portion of it during the Civil War. The vessels lent 
to Mr. Harrison weighed between 2,000 and 3,000 ounces, and were 
mostly gilt. They included eleven standing cups and covers, many 
basins and ewers, greater and lesser salts, Livery pots, trencher 
plates, &c. 

At the Court of Assistants, held 23rd May, 1638, it was re- 
ported that : — 

" The alphabet of small Roman letters has been used down to 
' V.' It being the custom of the Company not to go beyond ' V,' it 
is resolved that the alphabet of great letters of the Court hand- 
writing shall now be used." 

At the Court held two years later it was resolved that " In con- 
sequence of the devices of workmen to entrap the Assay Master, 
namely, by clogging their work with unnecessary solder; making 
pieces of plate of many parts of silver of different qualities; putting 
new feet to the bodies of old bowls which have passed the touch; 
and adding potkins of coarse silver; and in consequence of the 
leniency of the wardens by which many offenders escape punish- 
ment, it is ordered that Alderman Wollaston shall make relation 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 17 

of the aforesaid practices in the Hall, and warn offenders that they 
will in future be visited with condigne punishment." 

In 1650, a complaint was made against Thomas Maundy, be- 
cause he had printed and published an order of the Commonwealth 
whereby he was appointed to make the great maces, thus deterring 
others from providing maces. Mr. Maundy was sent for, and ex- 
plained that he had no desire of monopolizing the making of maces,, 
and that he conceived that the order was only to extend to the 
making of the great maces, namely : for the Parliament, for the 
Council of State, for the City of London, and for Ireland. The 
Wardens therefore resolved to publish something showing that the 
members of the Company might make any maces, which should be 
bespoken of them. 

On the 1 2th June, 1652, the new Wardens took their places at 
the Court of Assistants, and the new pounsons were brought in by 
the graver. The letter for the ensuing year was to be the great 
O in the Court character in an escutcheon. 

At the Court held 4th June, 1658, there was an order made 
for the new letter to be used, " the Company having run through 
the alphabet of the character of the Courte hand letter." 

A complaint was made to the Court of Assistants on the 2nd 
June, 1663, that the spoons had then lately not been wrought for 
length and wideness of the bowls as they ought to be, but were 
shorter in the handles and less in the bowls than theretofore. 

It was therefore ordered that the form and pattern of a spoon 
should be made and hung up in the Assay Office; and if spoons 
were brought to be assayed otherwise made, the Deputy Assayer 
was to return them to be new wrought again. 

The Company, in 1664, in conformity with the request of one 
of the Secretaries of State, made a return of the quantity and value 
of the plate made during the previous ten years. This shows that 
the total weight of silver plate was 309,728 lbs. 6oz. 6dwts., and 
the value thereof ;£'929,i85 lis. 6d. (5s. an ounce). That gold 
plate was very seldom made, and that gilt plate was included in 
the total amount named.* 

Eleven years later the Company made the following order : — 

London^ Goldsmiths^ Hall^ 2yd Febrtuiry, 1675. 

Whereas complaints have been made to the Wardens of the 
Company of Goldsmiths, London, that divers small works, as 
buckles for belts, silver hilts, and the pieces thereto belonging, with 
divers other small wares, both of gold and silver, are frequently 
wrought and put to sale by divers goldsmiths and others, worse 
than standard, to the great abuse of his Majesty's good subjects, 
and great discredit of that manufacture, and reproach in foreign 
parts to the English goldsmiths; and that there eire also divers 
pieces of silver plate sold, not being assayed at Goldsmith's Hally 
and so not marked with the leopard's head crowned^ or lyon^ as by 
law the same ought to be: And whereas the Wardens of the said 

* Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company. 



1 8 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Company, to prevent the said frauds, have formerly required all 
persons to forbear putting to sale any adulterate wares, either of 
gold or silver : but that they cause the same forthwith to be defaced : 
And that as well plate workers as small workers shall cause their 
respective marks to be brought to Goldsmiths' Hall, and there strike 
the same in a table kept in the Assay Of&ce ; and likewise enter their 
names and places of habitations in a book there kept for that pur- 
pose, whereby the persons and their marks might be known unto 
the Wardens of the said Company ; which having not hitherto been 
duly observed, and many of the offenders seem to be incorrigible; 
these are therefore to give notice to, and to require again all those 
who exercise the said art or mystery of goldsmith in or about the 
cities of London and Westminster and the suburbs of the same, 
that they forthwith repair to Goldsmiths' Hall and there strike their 
marks, first approved by the Wardens in Court, in a table appointed 
for that purpose, and likewise enter their names with the places 
of their respective dwellings in a book remaining in the Assay Oifice 
there* And that as well the worker as shopkeeper, and all cutlers 
and girdlers and all others working or trading in gold or 
silver wares of what kind soever or quality they be, for- 
bear putting to sale any of the said works, not being 
agreeable to standard, that is to say, gold not less in 
fineness than 22 carats, and silver not less in fineness than 
1 1 oz. 2 dwts. ; and that no person or persons do from henceforth 
put to sale any of the said wares, either small or great, before the 
workman's mark be struck clear and visible thereon, and upon every 
part thereof, that is wrought asunder, and afterwards soldered or 
made fast thereto, in finishing the same, unless it be such sort of 
work adjudged by the wardens, that it will not conveniently bear 
the worker's mark. And that all manner of silver vessels, and all 
manner of silver hilts for swords, and all manner of silver buckles 
for belts and girdles, and other harness of silver, be assayed at 
Goldsmiths* Hall, and there approved for standard, by striking 
thereon the lion and leopard^ s head crowned, or one of them, before 
they be exposed to sale. And hereof all persons concerned are re- 
quired to take notice, and demean themselves accordingly; other- 
wise the wardens resolve to make it their care to procure them to be 
proceeded against according to law. And will reward every person 
for their pains in discovering before them (in court) the matter of 
fact of any transgressor (in the premises) upon the conviction of the 
offender. 

A.D. 1696. By the Act 7 and 8 WILLIAM HL c. 19, s. 3. "No 
retailers of liquors to use or expose any wrought plate, except 
spoons, on pain of forfeiture," &c. 

• This table here alluded to was a copper plate of nine columns, which is 
still preserved at the Hall. It contains punches of the makers' marks from 
the date of this order, 1676, up to the passing of the Act altering the standard 
in 1697 ; but the book in which their names and places of abode were entered 
is unfortunately lost. A copy of the first five columns of this plate is printed 
in this volume; the remaining marks are of the second size for small pieces 
of plate. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 19 

NEW STANDARD OF SILVER (OF 11 oz. 10 DWTS.) 

AND MARKS. 

A.D. 1697-8. 8 and 9, WILLIAM IIL c. 8, s. i. Enacts that any 
persons that shall bring any sort of wrought plate, between the ist 
January, 1696 and the 4th November 1697, into any of his Majesty's 
mints, &c., shall be paid 5s. 4d. per ounce for the same; and that 
the master and worker of the mints shall receive all such wrought 
plate, which shall plainly appear to have thereon the mark com- 
monly used at the Hall, belonging to the Company of Goldsmiths 
in London, besides the workman's mark, as sterling silver, without 
tarrying till it be melted and assayed. And where the wrought 
plate, so brought, shall not have the said marks thereon, then the 
party bringing such plate shall have the same forthwith melted and 
assayed, and shall be allowed 5s. 4d. per ounce for every ounce of 
sterling silver found therein. 

Cap. 8, Sect. 9. "And whereas it might reasonably be sus- 
pected that part of the silver coins of the realm had been, by 
persons regarding their own private gain more than the public 
good, molten and converted into vessels of silver or other manu- 
factured plate, which crime had been the more easily perpetrated 
by them, in regard the goldsmiths or others, workers of plate, by 
the former laws and statutes of the realm, were not obliged to make 
their plate of finer silver than the sterling or standard ordained for 
the monies of the realm." It was therefore enacted that, from and 
after the 25th day of March 1697, no silver plate should be made 
of less fineness than that of 11 oz. 10 dwts. of fine silver in every 
pound troy, and that no silver vessels, &c. made after that time should 
be put to sale until such vessels, &c., should be marked, ex- 
cept silver wire or such things as, in respect of their smallness, were 
incapable of receiving a mark. That the marks should be — that 
of the worker, to be expressed by the two first letters of his surname ; 
the marks of the mystery or craft of the goldsmiths, which, instead 
of the leopard's head and the lion, should be for this plate the 
figure of a lion's head erased,* and the figure of a woman, com- 
monly called Britannia; and a distinct variable mark to be used 
by the Warden of the said mystery, to denote the year in which 
such plate was made; and that those marks should be afi&xed, on 
pain of forfeiture of all silver vessels, &c., that should be exposed 
for sale. REPEALED, except sec. 8. 

Wrought plate not marked with the Hall mark of the Gold- 
smiths' Company of London was not to be received by the officers 
of his Majesty's mints as sterling, but as uncertain silver. 

This enactment was made in consequence of the practice of 
melting the coin of the realm by silversmiths to convert it into 
plate, being the readiest way of obtaining silver "as good as 
sterling," both the coinage and the standard of plate being sterling, 
that is, II oz. 2 dwts. ; and in consequence of the immense quantities 
of plate that had been sacrificed in the preceding reign for the 

• This standard was compulsory until 1720, and is still a legal standard. 



20 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

use of the King and Parliament by converting it into money or siege 
pieces of equal value; the opulent gentry were desirous of replenish- 
ing their tables and sideboards with plate, as they were before the 
Civil War, so they set about turning the tables, by converting money 
back again into plate. This was carried to such an extent that the 
King had recourse to legislation to remedy the inconvenience, and 
the plan was carried out of raising the standard of plate above the 
sterling of the comage, rendering the latter less available to the 
silversmith. The inducement held out by the same Act to bring 
wrought plate to the mint was the offer of purchasing any which 
bore the mark of the Goldsmiths' Hall at 5s. 4d. the ounce, which 
doubtless led to a still further destruction of ancient plate. In 
this Act the Assay offices of the provinces were not mentioned; 
and they appear, therefore, to have been deprived of the power of 
marking silver plate, because they were not empowered to use the 
marks for the new standard, and to work the old was illegal ; hence 
from April 1697 until May 1701 plate was only assayed and marked 
at the Goldsmiths' Hall, London, to the entire exclusion of the 
provincial assay offices during that period. 

A.D. 1698. 9 & 10 William HI. c. 28. Recites, "That by an 
Act of the 7 & 8 William HI. c. 19, no wrought plate can be shipped 
off, under the great penalties therein named, whereby no home- 
wrought manufactured plate, though never so beneficial to the arti- 
ficers and trade of this kingdom, is permitted to be exported ; " 
which was at that time a good and wholesome law, and tended to 
the benefit of the kingdom by keeping bullion at home to be coined. 
And that a great benefit may accrue to many artificers and to the 
kingdom in general, by giving liberty to export watches, sword 
hilts, wrought plate, and several other manufactures, made within 
this kingdom, being of the fineness prescribed in the last recited 
Act, it is enacted that after the 24th June 1698, "it shall be lawful 
to export such watches, plate, &c., according to the rules prescribed 
in the said last recited Act, as shall be yearly allowed by the Com- 
missioners of the Customs." REPEALED. 

The same Act, c. 39, says, " No gilt wire to be covered with 
verdigrease, &c. Six ounces of plate to cover four ounces of silk." 



PROVINCIAL OFFICES REAPPOINTED. 

A.D. 1700. 12 William c. 4. Recites that the goldsmiths, silver 
smiths, and plateworkers remote from London are under great diffi- 
culties and hardships in the exercise of their trades, for want of 
assay ers in convenient places to assay and touch their wrought 
plate; and therefore, for remedy thereof, and for preventing all 
frauds and corruptions therein — 

Sect. I. Appoints the several cities where the mints were lately 
erected for recoining the silver money, viz., York, Exeter, Bristol, 
Chester, and Norwich, for the assaying and marking of wrought 
plate, and for executing the powers, authorities, and directions given 
by this Act. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 21 

Sect 2. Incorporates the goldsmiths, silversmiths, and plate- 
workers, freemen of, and inhabiting within, any of the said cities, 
and having served an apprenticeship to the said trade, the Company 
of Goldsmiths of such city respectively, and enables them annually 
to choose two wardens, who shall continue for one year, and no 
longer, unless re-elected. 

Sect. 3. Enacts, that no goldsmith, &c., there, shall work any 
silver plate less in fineness than the standard, nor put to sale, ex- 
change, or sell the same until marked with the worker's mark, the 
lion's head erased, the Britannia, the arms of the city, and a vari- 
able yearly Roman letter. 

Sect 4. Enacts, that each of the said companies shall elect an 
able and skilful man, experienced in assaying of gold and silver, 
who may detain eight grains per pound troy of silver he shall assay, 
four grains whereof shall be put into the diet-box, and the other 
four grains shall be allowed him for his waste and spillings in 
making the said assays; and appoints the oath he shall take imme- 
diately after his election before the Mayor. 

Sect 6. Enacts, that the diet-box shall be locked up with three 
keys, kept by the wardens and assayer, and shall be at the com- 
pany's charge conveyed annually (if required by the Lord Chan- 
cellor or Keeper) to the Mint at the Tower, and the diet therein 
tried as the pix of the coin is tried ; and if any falsehood or deceit 
therein, the company shall forfeit £so, to be recovered against such 
company, or any member thereof in his private capacity : and if 
any plate shall be touched, marked, or allowed for good by the 
assayer, and any deceit found therein, he shall forfeit double the 
value thereof. 

Sect 7. Enacts, that every goldsmith, &c., inhabiting there or 
elsewhere, shall first enter his name, mark, and abode with the war- 
dens of such company of that city or place where an assayer i3 or 
shall be appointed, which shall be done without fee. And if such 
goldsmith shall not enter his mark, or shall strike any unentered 
mark on plate, he shall forfeit double the value thereof. This sec- 
tion is Repealed. 

Sect 8. Enacts, that if any person shall counterfeit any of the 
stamps appointed by this Act to be used by the said wardens or 
assayers for marking wrought plate, or any of the stamps used by 
the wardens of the Company of Goldsmiths of the City of London, 
such person shall for every such offence forfeit the sum of ^£^500, to 
be recovered and disposed as aforesaid. 

Sect. 9. Recites, that it is not the intent or meaning of this Act 
to hinder any goldsmith, silversmith, or plateworker, not inhabiting 
within any of the cities aforesaid, from exercising his trade; yet 
for preventing of abuse or corruption therein, it enacts that every 
such goldsmith, &c., shall first fix his mark upon his plate, and then 
shall send the same to some city or place where an assayer is or 
shall be appointed who shall assay and mark the same as he is by this 
Act required to mark the plate of his company, and he shall be 
paid towards his charge and trouble in making such assays a sum 
not exceeding 6d. per pound troy. 



22 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Nearly all these cities, it will be seen, were chosen for the same 
purpose, as early as 2 Henry VI. A.D. 1424, but many had probably 
never availed themselves of the privilege, or had long since discon- 
tinued it, or it would have been unnecessary to reappoint them ex- 
pressly by this statute. 

As the King's subjects had, in the year 1697, sold most of 
their wrought plate to the mints to be coined into money, 
and the said Act William IIL c. 8, had abolished the old 
standard of 11 oz. 2 dwts. and established the new stand- 
ard of II oz. 10 dwts. for wrought silver plate, and 
had only entrusted the said Company of Goldsmiths in 
London with assaying and marking all the new standard plate of 
the kingdom ; and as a large demand now arose for wrought plate, 
and the goldsmiths in the remote parts of the kingdom were 
under great difficulties to supply their customers, therefore the gold- 
smiths, &c., in the above cities (where mints were lately erected) 
obtained the above Act, which conferred the same privileges upon 
the cities therein named, but fiom 1696 to 1701 no plate had been 
assayed or stamped anywhere but in London. 

In the parts of England distant from the metropolis it was the 
custom, as enacted by 2 Rich. II. 1379, " that every goldsmith should 
have his own proper mark set upon his work," and also that "the 
work should bear the mark of the city or borough where it was 
assayed." 

In the Acts of 1423 and 1462, York, Norwich, Lincoln, New- 
castle, and other cities were appointed to assay gold and silver, 
ana were directed to use " divers touches according to the ordin- 
ance of the Mayor, Bailiff, or Governor of the said towns;" hence 
it seems they could adopt any mark they thought proper; but in 
1700, when these assay towns were re-established. Sect. 3 expressly 
defined the five marks to be (i) tke arms of their cities, (2) the 
maker's mark, (3) a variable Roman letter to show the year in which 
the plate was made, (4) the lion's head erased, and (5) Britannia, 

THE NEWCASTLE ACT. 

A.D. 1701. I Anne c. 9. s. c. Recites the Act of 12 William III. c. 4, 
and adds, " that in the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne there is, and 
time out of mind hath been, an ancient Company of Goldsmiths, 
which, with their families, by the said penalty are like to be ruined, 
and the trade utterly lost in the said town ; " and recites, that by the 
statute 2 Hen. VI. c. 14, the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne is one of 
the places appointed to have touches for wrought silver plate; there- 
fore this Act appoints the said town for the assaying and marking 
wrought plate, as fully as if named in the said Act of 12 Will. III. 

c. 4. Partly Repealed. 

OLD STANDARD SILVER OF 1 1 OZ. 2 DWTS. REVIVED— 

DUTY OF 6d. per OZ. IMPOSED. 

A.D. 17 19. Stat. 6 Geo. I. c. 11, Sect. i. Recites, that it is 
found by experience that the manufactures of silver which were 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 23 

made according to the old standard are more serviceable and dur- 
able than those which have been made according to the new stand- 
ard; and therefore enacts, that the said old standard of silver 
plate, made after the ist of June, 1720, shall be restored, revived, 
and take place instead of the said new standard. 

Sect. 2. Enacts, that no goldsmith, &c., shall be obliged to 
make silver plate according to the said new standard. 

Sect 3. Enacts, that no person shall make any silver plate 
less in fineness than 11 ounces 2 pennyweights per pound troy, or 
put to sale, exchange, or selling any silver plate (unless wire, or 
things by smallness not capable of a mark) until touched, assayed, 
and marked in manner prescribed by the laws, for marking the new 
standard of 11 ounces 10 pennyweights fine in case the same 
standard had continued; and that all former laws for preserving 
the said new standard shall be put in execution for preserving the 
old standard. 

Sect. 4. Grants to his Majesty a duty of 6d. per ounce on all 
silver plate imported into and made in Great Britain, to be paid by 
the importer and makers respectively; and subsequent sections pro- 
vide for the levying of it. 

Sect. 41. Recites, that it may be requisite, for encouraging the 
several manufactures of wrought plate, to continue both the new 
and the old standards, for the better accommodating all buyers 
of plate, and the workers and dealers therein : And therefore 
enacts, that all wrought plate shall not be made less in fineness 
than II ounces 10 pennyweights, or 11 ounces 2 pennyweights; 
which two different standards of wrought plate shall be severally 
marked with distinguishing marks, viz., plate of ii ounces 10 penny- 
weights, with the workman's mark, the warden's mark, the lion's 
head erased, and the Britannia; and plate of 11 ounces 2 penny- 
weights, with the worker's mark, the warden's mark, a lion passant, 
and a leopard's head. And that it shall not be lawful to make 
silver plate of a coarser allay, under the penalties by any of the 
laws in being concerning wrought plate. PARTLY REPEALED. 

The contemplated alteration of the standard, in 17 19, from 
the new one of 11 oz. 10 dwts. to the old one of iioz. 2 dwts. was 
not generally approved of by the goldsmiths; for although the 
quality of the silver was reduced, yet the price was raised to the 
public by reason of the additional duty of 6d. per oz. The gold- 
smiths therefore memorialised the House of Commons, as shown in 
the following case. 

It was probably in consideration of their alleged grievances 
that Sect. 41 was added to the Bill, giving the workers an oppor- 
tunity of choosing the new or old standard; but they do not 
appear to have availed themselves of adhering to the new standard 
to any great extent after 1720. 

" Case of the Working Goldsmiths. In relation to a Bill 

now depending in the Honourable House of Commons for reducing 
the standard of wrought silver plate and laying a duty thereon. 

" 1st. It must be acknowledged by all who are workers of silver 
plate that the new standard of 11 oz. 10 dwts. is of much finer 



24 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

colour and better adapted for curious work than the old standard 
of II oz. 2 dwts., which will not stand the fire to receive proper 
ornaments. So that foreign courts (where a coarser allay is used) 
give frequent commissions for their most valuable plate to be made 
in London, to the great profit of this kingdom. But should the 
standard be altered, as by the Bill is intended, it would be im- 
possible for the finest artist to finish so compleat a work in silver 
of the old standard as it is now performed in the new standard. 
Besides that, there are some instances where plate of the old stand- 
ard will require more silver than the same piece of plate were it 
made of the new standard. 

"2nd. That the laying a duty will ruin the goldsmiths* trade 
is apparent ; for where a duty is laid on any manufacture, the con- 
sumption of which is not absolutely necessary, the consequence must 
be the sinking or destroying that trade, because every person is at 
liberty to use or refuse it. And if 6d. per oz. be laid on plate, the 
manufacturer must, for all weighty plate, pay as much, or more, 
than he receives for the fashion (besides the loss to the buyer at 
every time of exchanging such plate). And it must further be ob- 
served that the old standard, with the duty, will be 3d. per oz. 
dearer than the new standard now is ; whereby so great decrease will 
be made in the trade that not only the duty will fall short of what 
is expected from it, but many numerous families will be deprived of 
their subsistence. 

" 3rd. The liberty of search by officers by night 01 day ob- 
jected to. 

" 4th. Complains of the delay of getting their work assayed 
and marked at Goldsmiths* Hall. 

" 5th. Objects to the duty on small plate such as snuff boxes, 
watch cases, sword hilts, shoe buckles, and other small toys, as well 
as the annoyance of search by night or day, &c. 

" 6th. That Government will be deprived of the advantage re- 
ceived by wrought plate when bullion was wanting should the manu- 
facture of silver decay in this kingdom, * as certainly it will, should 
this Bill pass.' " — Guildhall Library. 

At the Committee meeting of the Goldsmiths' Company, held 
on the 23rd February, 1725, "The Workmen's remonstrances is 
read, complaining, first, against the practice of plateing of brass, 
iron, copper, and other metal Is with silver. 

Secondly, against admitting any but freemen of the Company 
to have the benefit of the assay and touch, and saying that there 
is an Act of ye 3rd King William to forbid it. 

Thirdly, complaining of the number of apprentices. 

The Committee order the first paragraph to be read again, and 
then resolve to give for answer thereto that the company have 
already applied to the Government against the evil complained of, 
and have bought several pieces of the said brass wares to lay before 
them; and will use their further endeavours to prevent the same. 

The second paragraph is read a second time, and it 
is resolved yt the Act of King William HI. enacts 
yt no plate shall be wrought or sold before it is markt at Gold- 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 25 

smiths' Hall; and that the Attorney-General, in his report for the 
Treasury, says the Company cannot refuse to mark plate wrought 
by unfreeman; as has been also the opinion of all the councell the 
company have consulted thereupon, as particularly the late Common 
Sergeant, Mr. Dee, Mr. Sergeant Darnell, and Mr. Fazakerly, and 
hath not been contradicted by the counsell of the late prosecutors, 
Sergeant Cheshire, Knot, and Probyn. 

The third paragraph is read a second time, and it is 
resolved ' . that the company cannot prevent gold- 
smiths ffree of other companies from binding many ap- 
prentices, but will consider of the best method they can to remedy 
it, and will recommend it to the consideration of the next Court of 
Assistants." 

At the Court of Wardens, 8th January, 1730 : — 

" Then Mr. Wardens took into consideration how to remedy an 
antient evil practice, amongst ill-disposed goldsmiths, of cutting 
out the Company's marks from old pieces of plate, and soldering 
the same into new pieces, which have never been tryed at the Hall, 
and may possibly be very coarse, and the fraud equal to the coun- 
terfeiting of the Company's marks, for which there is a penalty of 
;i6'500 set by Act of Parliament. Now in order to prevent the said 
evil practice of cutting out the marks from one piece of plate, and 
soldering the same into another piece, Mr. Wardens ordered that the 
officers in the Assay Office, who usually strike the mzirks on plate, 
do strike the marks on every piece of plate as far distant from each 
other as the same conveniently may be struck, so that they may 
not be cutt out together."* 

MAKERS TO DESTROY EXISTING MARKS AND ADOPT 

FRESH TYPES. 

A.D. 1739. Stat. 12 George II. c. 26. Recites the Acts of 28 
Edward I. c 20; 2 Henry VI. c. 14; 18 Elizabeth c. 15; 12 William 
III. c. 4; recites also, that "the wardens and commonalty of the 
mystery of goldsmiths of the City of London are, and have been, 
a guild or corporation time out of mind, with divers privileges con- 
firmed and enlarged by several Charters from his Majesty's Royal 
predecessors. Kings and Queens of this realm (amongst other things) 
for the searching, assaying, supervising, marking, and regulating 
wrought plate, in order to ascertain the standard thereof, for the 
good and safety of the public;" recites also the Charter of i8th of 
Charles II.; and recites, that "the standards of the plate of this 
Kingdom are both for the honour and riches of the realm, and so 
highly concern his Majesty's subjects that the same ought to be most 
carefully observed, and all deceits therein to be prevented as much 
as possible ; but, notwithstanding the aforesaid several Acts of Par- 
liament and Charters, great frauds are daily committed in the manu- 
facturing of gold and silver wares for want of sufficient power 
effectually to prevent the same." 

* Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company. 



26 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Sect. I. Enacts that in England no ware of gold shall be made, 
sold, or exported less in fineness than 22 carats of fine gold in every 
pound weight troy, and no ware of silver less in fineness than 1 1 oz. 
2 dwts. of fine silver in every pound weight troy, under a penalty of 
;tio for every offence. 

Sect 2. Provides that the Act shall not extend to jewellers* work, 
except mourning rings. 

Sect. 3. Provides how shopkeepers may be exempted from prose- 
cutions. 

Sect. 4. Provides that there shall be no trial against them, unless 
within four terms. 

Sect. 5. And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, 
that from and after the said twenty -eighth day of May, one thousand 
seven hundred and thirty-nine, no goldsmith, silversmith, or other 
person whatsoever, making or selling, trading or dealing in gold or 
silver wares shall sell, exchange, or expose to sale within that part 
of great Britain called England any gold or silver vessel, plate, or 
manufacture of gold or silver whatsoever made after the said twenty- 
eighth day of May, one thousand seven hundred anci thirty-nine, or 
export the same out of this kingdom until such time as such vessel, 
plate or manufacture of gold (being of the standard of twenty-two 
carats of fine gold per pound troy), and such vessel, plate or manu- 
facture of silver (being of the standard of 11 oz. 2 dwts. of fine 
silver per pound troy) shall be marked as followeth; that is to say, 
with the mark of the worker or maker thereof, which shall be the 
-first letters of his Christian and surname, and with these marks of 
the said Company of Goldsmiths in London, viz., the leopard's 
head, the lion passant, and a distinct variable mark or letter to 
denote the year in which such plate shall be made; or with the mark 
of the worker or maker, and with the marks appointed to be used 
by the assayers at York, Exeter, Bristol, Chester, Norwich, or New- 
castle-upon-Tyne ; or plate (being of the standard of ii oz. 10 dwts. 
of fine silver per pound weight troy) with the mark of the worker or 
maker thereof, which shall be the first letters of his Christian and 
surname as aforesaid, and with these marks of the said Company, 
viz., the lion's head erased, the figure of a woman commonly called 
Britannia, and the said mark or letter to denote the year as afore- 
said ; or with the mark of the worker or maker, and the marks of one 
of the said cities or towns, upon pain that every such goldsmith, 
silversmith, or other person, for every such offence shall forfeit and 
fay the sum of ten pounds^ to be recovered and disposed of as here- 
in after is mentioned, and for default of payment shall be com- 
mitted by the Court in which judgment shall be given thereon to 
the House of Correction for the county, city, or liberty where con- 
victed, there to remain and be kept to hard labour for any time not 
exceeding the space of six months, or until payment be made of the 
said forfeiture. 

Sect. 7. Recites and repeals the clause in 12 William HL c. 4 
which provides that any person counterfeiting the stamps shall be 
liable to a penalty of ^500. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 27 

Sect. 8. Imposes a penalty of £100 on any person who shall 
forge the marks, or sell wares with forged marks on them. 

Sect. 10. Provides that there shall be no drawback of duty on 
the exportation of silver plate above seven years old. 

Sect. II of this Act states the great frauds in the trade, and 
particularly in using too much solder, and entrusts the wardens, 
&c., with determining what solder is necessary, and whether wrought 
plate is forward enough in workmanship, and has all the pieces 
afBxed together or not. 

Sect. 20. Empowers the wardens, after three assays, to break 
any parcel of plate reported to be of a coarser allay than the said 
respective standards. 

Sect 21. Enacts that every person who shall make, or cause to 
be made, any manufacture of gold or silver, shall first enter his 
name, mark, and place of abode, in the assay office of the Gold- 
smiths* Company of London, or in the assay office at York, &c., on 
pain to forfeit i,io, and ;f 10 more for using any other mark. 

By the same Act it was ordered that the makers were to destroy 
their existing marks, which were if/te two first letters of their sur- 
namey and substitute the initials of their Christian and surnames on 
both standards in a different type or character to that previously 

used. Partly Repealed. 



28 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



EXEMPTIONS. 
(i2 George II. c. 26, and 30 George III. c. 31.) 

All Gold cind Silver Wares are required to be Assayed, Marked, 
and Duty paid except the under-mentioned Wares, which are speci- 
ally exempted, being printed in italics: — 



Gold. 

Jewellers' Work, wherein any Jewels or 
other Stones are set (other than 
Mourning lUngs). 
Rings (Wedding Mings and Mourning 

Bings excepted). 
Collets, for Kings or other Jewels. 
Chains. 

Necklace Beads. 
Lockets. 

Buttons, Hollow or Raised. 
Sleeve Buttons. 
Thimbles. 

Coral Sockets and Bells. 
Ferules. 
Pipe Lighters. 
Cranes tor Bottles. 
Very Small Book Clasps. 
Stock or Garter Clasps, Jointed. 
Very Small Nutmeg Graters. 
Rims of Snuflf Boxes, whereof Tops or 
Bottoms are made of Shell or Stone. 
Sliding Pencils. 
Toothpick Cases. 
Tweezer Cases. 
Pencil Cases. 
Needle Cases. 
Filigree Work. 

Tippings or Swages on Stone, or Ivory 
Cases, Mounts, Screws, or Stoppers 
to Stone or Glass Bottles, or Phials. 
Small or Slight Ornaments, put to Am- 
ber or other Eggs or Urns. 
Wrought Seals, or Seals with Cornelian 

or other Stones set therein. 
Watch Rings. 
Watch Keys. 
Watch Hooks. 
Ear Rings. 
Necklaces. 
Eyeglasses. 
Scectacles. 
Shirt Pins. 
Shirt Studs. 
Bracelets. 
Head Ornaments. 
Waist Buckles. 

Any Gold or Silver Vessel, or Manu- 
facture of Gold or Silver, so richly En- 
graved, Carved, or Chased, or set with 
Jewels or other Stones, as not to admit 
of any Assay being taken of, or a Mark 
to be struck thereon, without damag- 
ing, prejudicing, or defacing the same. 
Things which, by reason of their 
smallness or thinness, are not capable 
of receiving the Marks, and not weigh- 
ing ten pennyweights each. 



Silver. 

Chains. 

Necklace ]3eads 

Lockets. 

I'iligree W^ork. 

Shirt Buckles or Brooches. 

Stamped Medals. 

Spouts to China, Stone, or Eailhern- 
ware Tea Pots. 

Tippings^ Swages, or Mounts not 
Weighing ten pennyweights each 
except ISecks and Collars for Cas- 
tors^ Cruets, or Glasses, and apper- 
taining to any sort of stands or 
Frames. 

Silver Wares not weighing five penny 
weights each, except the following 
articles: — Neck collars and tops for 
castors, cruets, or glasses, apper- 
taining to any sort of Stands or 
Frames, 

Buttons for Wearing Apparel. 

Solid Sleeve Buttons and Solid Studs, 
not having a bezilled edge soldered 
on. 

Wrought Seals. 

Blank Seals. 

Bottle Tickets. 

Shoe Clasps. 

Patch Boxes, 

Salt Spoons. 

Salt Shovels, 

Salt Ladles. 

Tea SpooTis. 

Tea Strainers. 

Caddy Ladles. 

Buckles (Shirt Buckles or Brooches be- 
fore mentioned excepted). 

Pieces to Garnish Cabinets or Knife 
Cases, or Tea Chests, or Bridles, or 
Stands or Frames, 



_ Aofc— All these Wares printed in 
italics are excepted out of the exemp- 
tion, and are liable to be Assayed and 
Marked. 

All Gold and Silver Wares liable to 
be Assayed and Marked are charge- 
able with Duty (Watch Cases only ex- 
cepted). 

Gold Wares, not required to be As- 
sayed and Marked, may, nevertheless, 
be Assayed and Marked, and are not 
thereby liable to the Duty, but thii 
does not extend to Silver Wares. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 29 

Notwithstanding that in this Act of George IL a penalty of 
jf ID for every offence against any infraction relating to the stand- 
ards and the proper meirking of wares, it does not altogether invali- 
date the penalties which may be inflictea under the ancient Acts 
here recited which were not actually repealed, cind since the passing 
of this Act prisoners have been sentenced to imprisonment and fine 
under the old Acts of Parliament for making silver plate worse than 
standard. 

In 1 74 1, the Court of Assistants of the Goldsmiths* CompzLny 
received a petition from Drew Drury, who stated that he had in- 
advertently been concerned in causing a stamp to be made resem- 
bling the " Lion Passant," and thereby incurred the displeasure of the 
Company, and the penalty of ;C^ioo, but that he had 
never made any use of the stamp, had caused the same 
to be broken, and that, being sensible of his guilt, he 
was willing to pay any penalty imposed on him, with the charges 
inctirred. The petition was, however, rejected, and the Clerk was 
ordered to proceed against the petitioner. 

The Wardens of the Company, on the 3rd December, 1741, 
caused all the new plate belonging to the Company to be weighed, 
and full particulars of both old and new plate are entered in the 
inventory of that date. The total weight of the old and new gilt 
and white plate amounted to 3,134 ounces.* 



DUTY. 

A.D. 1756. 5tat. 29 George IL c. 14. Grants an annual duty 
to his Majesty for all silver plate in Great Britain, from 100 to 
4,000 ounces, of 5s. for every 100 ounces from 5th July, 1756. RE- 
PEALED. 



LICENCE OF £2 IN LIEU OF DUTY. 

A.D. 1758. 31 George II. c. 32. An Act to repeal the statute 
of the 6th of Geo. I., by which a duty of 6d, had been imposed upon 
every ounce troy of silver plate imported into, or made in, Great 
Britain; and a duty of forty shillings for a licence, to be taken out 
by every person trading in, selling, or vending gold or silver plate, 
was granted in lieu of it; to take place from and after the first day 
of June, 1758, and the licence to be taken out annually, on forfeiture 
of twenty pounds for neglecting so to do, and for discontinuing all 
drawbacks upon silver plate exported. By the same Act, the statute 
of the I2th of the King, for the better preventing frauds and abuses 
in gold and silver wares, was likewise repealed, because the punish- 
ment which was enacted by it against counterfeiting stamps and 
marks upon gold and silver plate was not sufficiently severe to 
prevent that practice, and the said crime was now made felony, 

* Memorials of the Goldsmiths' Company. 



30 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

without benefit of clergy. This penalty was, in 1773, commuted to 
transportation for fourteen years. REPEALED. 

LICENCE INCREASED TO £$. 
A.D. 1759. Stat. 32 George II. c. 24, s. i. Exempts persons 

trading in gold not exceeding two pennyweights, or in silver not 
exceeding four pennyweights, in one piece of goods, from taking 
out a licence; and Sect. 3 grants an annual duty of £^ (instead of 
40S.) to his Majesty for every licence by each person trading in gold 
plate of two ounces or upwards, or in silver plate of thirty ounces 
or upwards. REPEALED. 

SILVER WIRE. 

A.D. 1742. 15 George II. c. 20, s. i. All metal inferior to 
silver to be spun on thread, yard, or incle, only, under a penalty of 
5s. for every ounce. 

Silver thread to hold 11 oz. 15 dwts. of fine silver upon the 
pound weight troy ; and gilt silver thread 1 1 oz. 8 dwts. and 4 dwts. 
4 grs. of fine gold, on penalty of 5s. for every ounce. PARTLY RE- 
PEALED. 

BIRMINGHAM AND SHEFFIELD. 

A.D. 1773. 13 George III. c. 52. This Act was passed for the 
appointment of wardens and assay masters for assaying and stamp- 
ing wrought silver plate, in the towns of Sheffield and Birmingham. 
Silver goods " shall be marked as f oUoweth ; that is to say, with the 
mark of the maker or worker thereof, which shall be the first letter 
of his Christian and surname; and also with the lion passant, and 
with the mark of the Company within whose Assay Office such plate 
shall be assayed and marked, to denote the goodness thereof, and 
the place where the same was assayed cind marked; and also with 
a distinct variable mark or letter, which letter or mark shall be 
annually charged upon the election of new wardens for each Com- 
pany, to denote the year in which such plate is marked. PARTLY 

Repealed. 

DUTY. MARK OF THE KING^S HEAD. 

A.D. 1784. 24 George III. c. 53 From December ist, 1784, 
the following duties upon gold and silver plate are to be paid to his 
Majesty : — 

Sect. I. For gold plate imported into or made in Great Britain, 
an additional duty of eight shillings per ounce troy, over and above 
all other duties already imposed thereon. 

For silver plate imported into or made in Great Britain, an 
additional duty of sixpence per ounce. 

Sect. 4. From December 1st, 1784, all goldsmiths and manu- 
facturers shall send to the Assay Offices of the Goldsmiths' Com- 
panies in London or Edinburgh, or to the Birmingham and Sheffield 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 31 

Companies, or to the Wardens and Assayers of York, Exeter, 
Bristol, Chester, Norwich and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with every 
parcel of gold or silver, a note or memorandum, fairly written, con- 
taining the day of the month and year, the Christian and surname 
of the worker or maker, and place of abode, and the species, num- 
ber, and weight, &c., of each parcel, and the sum payaBle for duty 
upon the total weight. 

Sect. 5. Enacts that the Wardens or Assay-Master shall mark 
with the following new mark, that is to say, with the mark of the 
King's head, over and besides the other marks directed by law, all 
and every parcel or parcels of gold or silver plate so sent to be 
touched, marked, and assayed, &c. 

Sect. 7. An allowance of part of the Duty to be made for goods 

sent to be assayed in a rough state, of one-fifth in weight and duty. 

Sect. 8. Gold or silver plate, made after December ist, 1784, not 

to be sold, exchanged, or exported until marked as hereby directed, 

on penalty of Fifty pounds and forfeiture of the goods. 

Sect. 9. This Act not to extend to any jewellers' work (that is 
to say) any gold or silver wherein any jewels or other stones are set 
(other than mourning rings), nor any jointed ear-rings of gold, 
springs of lockets, &c. 

Sect. II. The new duties paid for plate shall be drawn back 
on exportation thereon. 

Sect. 12. From ist December, 1784, and the better to prevent 
the fraudulent relanding of any plate in this kingdom after the 
drawback has been paid, it is hereby enacted that all wrought plate 
of gold and silver, which shall be intended to be exported from 
this kingdom, shall be brought by the owner to the Assay Office, and 
shall be there stamped or marked with the figure of a Britannia, 
in order to denote that such olate is entered and intended foi ex- 
portation, and to be allowed the drawback thereon. 

Sect. 16. From ist December, 1784, any person who shall coun- 
terfeit any stamp to be used in pursuance of this Act, or shall stamp 
any wrought plate, &c., with any counterfeit stamp, or shall remove 
from any one piece of wrought plate, &c., to another any stamp to 
be used by the said Companies or Assayers, &c., or shall sell or 
export any plate with such counterfeit stamps thereon, &c., shall 
suffer death as a felon, without benefit of clergy. REPEALED. 

1785. 25 George III. c. 64. Recites and repeals the two 
clauses in the Act of 24th Geo. III. relating to the stamping of the 
drawback mark on plate. " And whereas by the said recited Act it 
was also further enacted, That all wrought gold and silver plate, 
which should be intended to be exported from this kingdom into 
any foreign parts, should, before the same was shipped, be brought 
to the Assay Office, and should there be stamped with the figure of 
a Britannia, in order to denote that such plate was intended for ex- 
portation, and to be allowed the drawback thereon; And whereas the 
striking of the Britannia mark on many articles of wrought gold 
and silver plate, in their finished state, can in no way be practised 
without doing material damage to such wrought plate; be it there- 



32 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

fore enacted, That from and after the 24th day of July, 1785, the 
said two last recited clauses in the said Act shall be repealed." 

By the same it was enacted, that from and after July 24th, 
1785, the person appointea to receive the duties payable for mark- 
ing of plate may make an allowance of one-sixth part of the duty 
for all plate brought in an unfinished state, instead of one-fifth, 
as directed by the previous Act (24 Geo. IIL). By the same Act — 
The exporters of gold and silver watches shall mark or engrave in 
the inside of every case or box of each watch enclosing the works 
thereof, the same numbers and figures which shall be respectively 
marked or engraved on the works of the watch. REPEALED. 

This appears to have been the law until 1871, when the pro- 
vision was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act of that year. 

DUTY INCREASED. 

A.D. 1797. 37 George III. c. 90. By this Act the duty on gold 
was placed at eight shillings per ounce, and silver at one shilling. 

Repealed. 

A.D. 1803. 43 George III. c. 69. The former Act of 24 Geo. 
III., as regards the licence, was repealed, and new licences appointed, 
viz — For trading in gold more than two pennyweights and under 
two ounces, and in silver over five pennyweights and under thirty 
ounces, £2, 6s. per annum; for trading in gold of two ounces in 
weight and upwards, and in silver of thirty ounces and upwards, 
;£"5, 15 s. per annum. REPEALED. 

A.D. 1804. 44 George III. c. 98. The duty was increased, on 
gold to sixteen shillings per ounce, and silver one shilling and three^ 
pence per ounce. REPEALED. 

A.D. 181 5. 55 George III. c 185. By this Act the duties were 
raised, on manufactured gold to seventeen shillings per ounce, on 
manufactured silver to eighteenpence per ounce. 

Sect. 7. Makes the counterfeiting of the King's head Duty mark 
a felony, punishable by death. 

This duty is paid to the assay officers at the time of handing 
the articles for assay, but if they are cut at the Hall and sent back 
as being worse than standard, the duty is returned with the articles. 

Repealed. 

DUTY ON WATCH CASES REPEALED. 
A.D. 1798. Stat. 38. George IIL c. 24. Repealed. 

18-CARAT GOLD AND APPOINTED MARK. 

A.D. 1798. 38 George III. c. 69. An Act was passed to permit 
gold wares to be manufactured, for sale or exportation, of the stand- 
ard of 18 carats of fine gold in every pound weight troy, such gold 
to be stamped with a crown and the figures 18, instead of the mark 
of the lion passant, not to the exclusion of, but concurrently with 
the former standard of 22 carats. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 33 

Sect. 7. The counterfeiting marks, &c., is made a felony, punish- 
able by transportation for seven years. PARTLY REPEALED. 

DRAWBACK ON PLATE. 

A.D. 1803. 44 George IIL c. 98. Schedule referred to in Sect. 
2 of this Act Drawback for or in respect of gold plate and silver 
plate, wrought or manufactured in Great Britain, which shall be 
duly exported by way of merchandise to Ireland or any foreign 
parts, the whole duties which shall have been paid for the same. 

Partly Repealed. 

A.D. 18 12. 53 George III. c 59. Referring to the last-named 
Act, allows to private persons residing or going to reside abroad the 
same drawback as allowed on the exportation of merchandise. This 
Act contains only one section. REPEALED. 

FOREIGN PLATE TO BE ASSAYED AND STAMPED. 

A.D. 1842. 5 & 6 Vict. c. 47, Sect. 59. And be it enacted, 
that all gold and silver plate, not being battered, which shall be im- 
ported from foreign parts after the commencement of this Act, 
and sold, exchanged, or exposed to sale, within the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland, shall be of the respective standards 
now required for any ware, vessel, plate, or manufacture of gold 
or silver, wrought or made in England; arid that no gold or silver 
plate so to be imported as aforesaid, not being battered, shall be 
sold, exchanged, or exposed to sale within the said United Kingdom 
until the same shall have been assayed, stamped and marked, either 
in England^ Scotland or Ireland, in the same manner as any ware, 
vessel, plate, or manufacture of gold and silver wrought or made 
in England, Scotland, or Ireland respectively is or are now by law 
required to be assayed, stamped and marked ; and that every gold- 
smith, silversmith, or other person whatsoever, who shall sell or 
expose to sale in England, Scotland, or Ireland any gold or silver 
plate so to be imported as aforesaid, and not being battered, before 
the same shall have been so assayed, stamped, and marked, as afore- 
said, shall be subject and liable to the like penalties and forfeitures 
in all respects, and to be recoverable in the same manner as the 
penalties and forfeitures now by law imposed upon goldsmiths amd 
silversmiths selling, exchanging, or exposing to sale in England^ 
Scotland, or Ireland respectively, any ware or manufacture of gold 
or silver plate made or wrought in England, Ireland or Scotland 
respectively, and not assayed, stamped and marked, as required by 
law : Provided always that no article or ware of gold or silver 
so to be imported as aforesaid shall be liable to be assayed, 
stamped or marked as aforesaid which would not be liable to be 
assayed, stamped or marked if it had been wrought or made in Eng- 
land. 

Sect. 60. And be it enacted, that in order that gold and silver 
plate so imported as aforesaid may be assayed, stamped and 
marked, it shall and may be lawful for any person to send the same 



34 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

to any Assay Office in the United Kingdom at which gold and silver 
plate is now by law required to be assayed, and when so sent it 
shall be assayed, tested, stamped and marked in such and the same 
manner, and be subject to such and the same charges, other than 
stamp duty, as if the same were British plate by law assayable in 
such office; and the wardens and officers in each such Assay Offices, 
and the persons employed by them, shall have such and the same 
powers of assaying, touching, testing, marking, cutting, breaking or 
defacing such gold or silver plate so sent to be assayed, as are 
now by law exercisable by such wardens, officers, and other persons 
in respect of gold and plate now by law required to be assayed in 
such Assay Offices. PARTLY REPEALED. 

5 & 6 Vict. c. 56, Sect. 6. Provides that ornamental plate made 
prior to the year 1800 may be sold without being assayed and 
marked. (Vide also 30 & 31 Vict. c. 82, sect. 24.) PARTLY RE- 
PEALED. 

Note. — It is to be observed that these enactments do not ob- 
lige the importer to send foreign plate to be assayed and marked at 
the time of its importation, nor indeed at any time. 

CRIMINAL LAW CONSOLIDATION. MARK FOR 

22-CARAT GOLD. 

A.D. 1844. Abstract of the Act of the 7th & 8th VICTORIA, cap. 
22, entitled " An Act to amend the Laws now in force, for prevent- 
ing Frauds and Abuses in the Marking of Gold and Silver Wares in 
England." 

By Sect, i, the Act of the 13 Geo. III. c. 59, and that part of the 
38 Geo. III. c. 69, which relates to the punishment of offenders, are 
repealed. 

By Sect. 2, the forging or counterfeiting any die used for mark- 
ing gold or silver wares, or knowingly uttering the same; — the mark- 
ing wares with forged dies, or knowingly uttering any such ware; — 
the forging any mark of any such die used as aforesaid, or know- 
ingly uttering the same;— the transposing or removing any mark of 
any die used as aforesaid, or knowingly uttering any such trans- 
posed mark ; — the having in possession any such forged or counter- 
feit die as aforesaid, or any ware of gold or silver, or any ware of 
base metal, having thereupon the mark of any such forged or 
counterfeit die as aforesaid, or any such forged or counterfeit 
mark, or imitation of a mark as aforesaid, or any mark transposed 
or removed as aforesaid, knowing the same respectively to have 
been forged, counterfeited, imitated, marked, transposed, or re- 
moved ; the cutting or severing any mark, with intent to join or affix 
the same to any other ware;— the joining or affixing to any ware, 
any cut or severed mark ; — and the fraudulently using any genuine 
die,— are respectively made felony, punishable by transportation 
for any term not exceeding fourteen nor less than seven years, or 
by imprisonment with or without hard labour for any term not ex- 
ceeding three years. 

By Sect. 3, every dealer who shall sell, exchange, expose for sale. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 35 

export, import, or attempt to export or import, or who shall have 
in his possession without lawful excuse (the proof whereof shall lie 
upon him) any ware of gold or silver, or base metal, having there- 
upon any forged or counterfeit mark, or any mark which shall have 
been transposed or removed, is made liable for every such ware to a 
penalty of ten pounds, 

N,B. — In the cases provided for by this section, it will be seen 
that it is not necessary for the Company of Goldsmiths, suing for 
the penalty, to prove a guilty knowledge. 

By Sect. 4, dealers are exempted from the penalty of discover- 
ing and making known the actual manufacturer of any such ware,, 
or the person for whom the same was bought, had, or received. 

By Sect. 5, it is enacted, that if any ware which shall have been 
duly assayed and marked, shall be altered, by any addition being 
made thereto, or otherwise, so that its character or use shall be 
changed, or if any addition shall be made thereto (although its 
character or use shall not be changed), the weight of which addition 
shall bear a greater proportion of the original weight than four 
ounces to every pound troy weight, every such ware shall be assayed 
and marked again as a new ware, and the duty shall be paid upon 
the whole weight. 

But if the weight of such addition shall not bear a greater pro- 
portion to the original weight than four ounces to every pound troy,, 
and the character or use of such ware shall not be changed, the 
addition only may be assayed and marked, and the duty paid on the 
weight of such addition only; but before any such addition shall 
be made, the ware shall be brought to the Assay Office for inspec- 
tion, and the nacure and extent of the additions explained, and the 
assent of the Company to the making of such addition signified : 

And every dealer who shall alter, or add to, any ware which, 
shall have been before assayed and marked, so that its character or 
use shall be changed, or so that the addition shall bear a greater 
proportion to the original weight than four ounces to every pound 
troy, without bringing the same to be assayed and marked as a new 
ware; or if its character or use shall not be changed, or the addition 
shall not bear a greater proportion to the original weight than afore- 
said, without first bringing such ware to the Assay Office, and ex- 
plaining the nature and extent of the intended addition to the Com- 
pany, and obtaining their consent thereto : and every dealer who- 
shall sell, exchange, expose for sale, export, import, or attempt to 
export or import, or who shall have in his possession any such 
ware so altered, changed, or added to as aforesaid, is made liable 
for every such ware to a penalty of ten pounds; and every such ware 
may be seized. 

By Sect. 6, dealers are exempted from the penalty on discover- 
ing and making known the actual manufacturer of any such ware, 
or the person from whom the same was bought, had, or received. 

By Sect. 7, every officer of the several Halls who shall mark as 
standard any ware worse than standard is made liable to a penalty 
of twenty pounds; every such officer shall be dismissed; and every 
such ware may be seized. 



36 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

By Sect. 8, it is enacted, that every dealer who shall enter, or 
has already entered, his private mark, under the existing laws, with 
any of the Companies, shall give them the particulars of every place 
where he carries on his dusiness, or keeps waresy and his place of 
abode, and so from time to time, under a penalty for every offence 
of five pounds. 

By Sect. 9, a penalty of five pounds for every offence is iro. 
posed on every dealer who shall fraudulently erase, obliterate, or 
deface any mark of the several Companies of Goldsmiths from any 
ware. 

By Sect. 10, the recovery and application of penalties is pro- 
vided for. 

By Sect 11, Justices of the Peace are required, upon informa- 
tion by any of the several Companies of Goldsmiths, to grant such 
warrants to search for forged or counterfeit dies and false or illegal 
wares; and every such die and ware may be seized, but not any wares 
which by existing laws are not required to be marked, nor any of the 
wares following, viz.: — Watch-rings, watch-keys, watch-hooks, ear- 
Tings, necklaces, eye-glasses, spectacles of gold, shirt pins or studs, 
bracelets, head ornaments, waist-buckles. 

By Sect. 12, the disposal of false dies and wares seized is pro- 
vided for. 

Sect. 13 regulates the proceedings in actions and prosecutions 
against any person acting in pursuance or under the authority of 
this Act. 

Sect. 14 defines the meaning and interpretation of the words 
and terms used in the Act. 

Sect. 15 provides that after the ist October, 1844, gold wares of 
the standard of 22 carats of fine gold in every pound troy shall be 
marked with a crown and the figure 22, instead of the lion passant, 
by the Goldsmiths' Companies in the Cities of London, York, Exeter, 
Bristol, Chester, and Norwich and the towns of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne and Birmingham. 

Sect. 16 extends the powers, penalties, and provisions concern- 
ing the lion passant to the mark directed to be used instead thereof, 
by this Act. 

Sect. 17 declares that this Act shall not extend to Scotland or 
Ireland. 

Sect. 18 declares that it shall come into operation on the ist 
October, 1844. 

Sect. 19 declares that it may be amended or repealed in the 
then present session. PARTLY REPEALED. 

IJote. — It will be observed that throughout this Act the word 
" dealer " has been substituted for " maker," as in former Acts, which 
enables the Goldsmiths* Company to sue any person who deals in 
plate, or has any ware of base gold, silver, or other metal in his 
possession, having any forged or counterfeit mark, without lawful 
excuse (the proof of which lies with the dealer). 

The interpretation clause defines a dealer to be " one who deals 
in gold or silver wares, including every goldsmith and silversmith. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 37 

and every worker, maker, and manufacturer of and trader and dealer 
in gold and silver wares, or shall sell such wares." 

This is the most recent statute, and must be taken as the guide 
and authority in all cases of forgery of the dies and marks used 
at the Assay Offices, and penalties for selling spurious plate, or 
having any such in possession, &c. 

REDUCED STANDARDS OF GOLD OF 15, 12, AND 

9 CARATS. 

A.D. 1854. 17 & 18 Victoria, cap. 96. An Act was passed 
allowing gold wares to be manufactured at a lower standard than 
before allowed by law, and to amend the law relating to the assay- 
ing of gold and silver wares. The first section recites that Her 
Majesty may, by Order in Council, allow any standard of gold 
wares not less than one-third fart in the whole of fine gold, to be 
marked with such mark or marks for distinguishing the actual 
fineness, to be declared in such order; and also to approve thereby 
of the instrument with which gold vessels, &c., shall be marked 
or stamped, setting forth in figures the fineness according to the 
standard declared. 

Sect. 2 provides that workers and dealers may have their wares 
assayed and marked at any established Assay Office which they 
may select. 

Sect. 3 provides that if any of the gold wares which are not 
liable to be assayed and marked, shall nevertheless be assayed and 
marked, such wares shall not be chargeable with the duty. 

Sect. 4 extends the provisions of existing Acts to the new 
standards. 

Sect. 5 imposes a penalty of ;^20 on any assayer or other officer 
who shall mark a gold ware of a lower standard with the mark 
appropriated to a higher standard. PARTLY REPEALED. 

In pursuance of this Act, an Order of Council of nth Decem- 
ber, 1854, fixes the new standards of 15, 12, and 9 carats, and pro- 
vides that they shall be marked as follows, viz.: — 

The first with the figures 15 and the decimal mark .625. 

The second with the figures 12 and the decimal mark .5 (500). 

The third with the figure 9 and the decimal mark .375. 
Tslote. — The Goldsmiths* Company of London advised against 
the introduction of these lower standards. The plain and intelligible 
manner in which it was ordered that wares of 15, 12, and 9 carats 
should be marked, has been, it is believed, the chief cause of the 
comparatively small quantity of gold of these standards which is 
manufactured. In the year, ending 27th May 0878), at Gold- 
smiths' Hall, London, gold wares weighing 7084 lbs. were marked^ 
and the articles made of the higher standards (viz., 22 and 18 
carats) weighed 6607 lbs. 7 oz. 14 dwts. 14 grains. — {Frideaux*s 
evidence). 

N.B, — All gold wares, whether manufactured of 22, 18, 15, 12,. 
or 9 carats, are liable to the usual duty of 17s. per oz. as levied on 



38 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

gold plate; except watch-cases and certain wares mentioned in 12 
•Geo. II. c. 26, s. 6, and a few enumerated 7 & 8 Vict. c. 22, s. 11. 

WEDDING RINGS. 

A.D. 1855. 18 & 19 Victoria, c. 60. An Act for excepting 
gold wedding rings from the operation of the Act of the last session 
relating to the standard of gold and silver wares, and from the 
exemptions contained in the other Acts relating to gold wares. 
Whereas an Act was passed in the 17 & 18 year of Vict, entitled 
"An Act for allowing gold wares to be manufactured at a lower 
standard than that now allowed by law, and to amend the law re- 
lating to the assaying of gold and silver wares," whereby it is 
among other things enacted, that if any of the gold wares which by 
any statute now in force are not liable to be assayed and marked, 
shall, nevertheless, be assayed and marked as of one of 
the standards authorised by law, such wares shall not by 
reason thereof be chargeable with the duty now levied on gold 
plate. And whereas by certain statutes now in force, no gold rings, 
except mourning rings, are liable to be assayed and marked, but 
gold wedding rings have nevertheless been assayed and marked; 
and whereas it is expedient that gold wedding rings should be made 
liable to the provisions of the statutes now in force relating to the 
assaying and marking of gold plate : be it therefore enacted, &c. : 
as follows : — 

1. From and after the passing of this Act, gold wedding rings 
shall be assayed and marked in like manner as gold plate not ex- 
empted is required by the statutes now in force to be assayed and 
marked, and all the provisions of the statutes relating to the manu- 
facture or sale of gold plate shall apply to gold wedding rings, any- 
thing therein contained to the contrary notwithstanding. 

2. The 3rd section of the Act passed in the 18 Vict, herein re- 
cited is hereby repealed so far as the same might affect gold wed- 
ding rings. Partly Repealed. 

110(6, — Gold wedding rings must not be sold without being 
duly assayed and marked. They can be made of any of the autho- 
rised standards, and are liable to the duty of 17s. per oz., of what- 
ever standard they are. 

DRAWBACK BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

A.D. 1866. 29 & 30 Victoria, c 64, s. 15, provides for allowing 
drawback on plate made in Great Britain exported from Ireland, 
and on Irish plate exoorted from Great Britain. 

All gold and silver plate which shall be imported from foreign 
parts, and which shall be sent to any Assay Office in the United 
Kingdom at which gold and silver plate is new or shall at any 
time hereafter be by law required to be assayed, and which when so 
sent shall be then assayed, tested, stamped and marked, shall 
in addition to the marks for the time being used at such Assay 
Office for the purpose of marking British plate, be marked with the 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 39 

further mark of the letter F on an oval escutcheon^ in order to de- 
note that such gold or silver plate was imported from foreign parts, 
and was not wrought or made in England^ Scotland^ or Ireland; and 
the wardens and officers in such and every such Assay Office, and 
the persons employed by them, shall have power to impress and 
mark, and shall impress and mark such further and additional mark 
before such plate shall be delivered out from such Assay Office. 

Cap. 82, sect. 24. Foreign plate of an ornamental character 
made before the year 1800 is exempted. Partly Repealed. 

Note. — This Act made it compulsory on gold and silversmiths, 
&c., to have all foreign plate assayed at the Hall, and if not of the 
standard allowed by law, shall be dealt with in every respect as 
made in the United Kingdom, the sale or exchange of such foreign 
plate being prohibited unless so assayed. Upon pain that every 
such gold or silver smith, &c., shall forfeit and pay the sum of ten 
pounds for every offence, and in default of payment shall be com- 
mitted by the Court to the House of Correction, and kept to hard 
labour for any time not exceeding six months, or until payment be 
made of the said forfeiture. 

This important addition to our Hall-marks with regard to 
foreign silver was rendered necessary in consequence of the quan- 
tity of spurious silver from abroad which had found its way into 
this country, and notwithstanding an Act had been passed in 1841 
prohibiting its sale unless of the proper standard, no notice had been 
taken until 1875, when proceedings were instituted by the Gold- 
smiths* Company to recover penalties. In this respect the English 
Government tardily followed the example of the French, who for 
more than a hundred years had ordered all such silver from foreign 
parts to have a separate mark of E (Strange). 

The opportunities of importing plate without having it assayed 
and marked at Goldsmiths' Hall are extremely easy, and no steps 
are taken by the Customs when it arrives in this country to test its 
quality. The officer takes the duty of is. 6d. per oz. on whatever stuff 
it may be, if it bears any resemblance to silver, and it is released 
without any mark being placed upon it. Although the traffic in 
unmarked plate is prohibited by law, the Customs take no cogni- 
sance of the prohibition, and are not in co-operation with the depart- 
ment who have the control of the standard, and whose duty it is to 
detect this base silver, and who would break it up when below the 
authorised standard, or if equal to it, after an assay, to place the 
marks of the Goldsmiths* Hall, with the additional stamp of the 
letter F, denoting its foreign origin. 

A strong objection is raised to the system of placing the same 
marks upon foreign standard plate as upon English, for although 
the additional letter F is added, it can easily be obliterated and 
passed off as English, or even if left, few people would notice it, 
but look only to the lion and Queen's head — the usual guarantee of 
British standard plate. 

One hardship in connection with the assay and stamping of 
foreign plate at Goldsmiths' Hall is, that although the duty of is. 
6d. per oz. may have been paid when imported to the Customs, unless 



40 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

the person sending the plate for that purpose can produce the certi- 
ficate of its payment he will have to pay the duty over again, at the 
Hall, and in many cases, where the plate had been in the owner's pos- 
session for twenty or thirty years and could not produce proof, he 
would be liable to pay it a second time. 

Mr. (now Sir Walter) Prideaux, in his examination before the 
Committee on Gold and Silver Hall-Marking in 1878, gave the 
following replies to the Chairman on the subject of sales by 
auctions : — 

Is a large quantity of foreign plate sold by auction at the 
present time ? — I have heard that a good deal has been sold. 

How is it that you do not put a stop to this; you have the 
power, have you not, by Act of Parliament ? — No power whatever, 
but by proceeding for the penalties. 

That is very severe, is it not? — ;^io upon each article. 

Supposing there were a dozen spoons, the penalty would come 
to a large sum? — ^Yes. 

Supposing that I have a set of foreign silver, and I send it to 
an auction room, and I sell it by the lot and not by the ounce, does 
not that get over the difficulty ? — I have not had occasion maturely 
to consider the question, but I should think not. 

Supposing that the auctioneer is not liable by the existing law, 
do not you think that he ought to be? — Certainly; and my opinion 
is that he is liable — he is the seller. 

ANNUAL LICENCES. 

A.D. 1867. 30 & 31 Victoria, c. 90, s. i. Annual Licences are 
to be taken out by every dealer in gold and silver articles in respect 
of any shop, and by every hawker or pedlar.* 

If gold is above 2 dwts. and under 2 oz., or if 

silver is above 5 dwts. and under 30 oz., at . ;^2 6 o 

If gold is 2 oz. or more, or silver 30 oz. or 
more, at ^5 ^5 o 

Every pawnbroker taking in gold or silver, in 

respect of every shop ;6s IS o 

Every re&ner, in respect of every shop . .£5150 

*** No licence required for dealing in gold or silver wire, or 
thread lace. PARTLY REPEALED. 

A.D. 1869. 33 & 34 Victoria, c. 32, s. 4. No licence required 
by makers of watch-cases for selling watch-cases made by them. 

Partly Repealed. 

With regard to licences, we may refer to a case which was de- 
cided in 1877 in the Court of Exchequer. It was on an appeal from 
the decision of a metropolitan police magistrate with reference to 
the licence duty imposed by 30 & 31 Vict. c. 90, s. i. It was con- 
tended that the weight of pure gold in a chain that had been sold 

• A penalty of £50 is imposed for dealing without licence. This penalty 
may be mitigated under the general regulations of the excise laws. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 41 

was less than two ounces, and consequently that the lower rate of 
duty only was sufficient; but the Inland Revenue contended that 
there was nothing as to pure gold in the statute, that the weight of 
the article sold as gold must be taken as the weight which regulates 
the rate of duty. The magistrate upheld the contention of the de- 
fendant in this case, and dismissed the information ; but on appeal 
to the Court of Exchequer they took the view of the Revenue against 
that of the magistrate, namely, that the higher duty attached to it, 
and it was held that the weight of the article sold as gold is the 
weight which regulates the rate of duty. 

A.D. 1876. By the Act 39 & 40 VICTORIA, c. 36, s. 42, clocks, 
watches, and other articles bearing a counterfeited British mark, or 
purporting to be the manufacture of the United Kingdom, may not 
be imported, and if imported may be seized and forfeited. PARTLY 

Repealed. 

FOREIGN PLATE.— NOTICE BY THE GOLDSMITHS' 

COMPANY. 

A.D. 1876. It having been brought to the notice of the Goldsmiths' 
Company that articles of silver plate in considerable quantities have 
been for some time past imported into this country from foreign 
countries and sold without having been assayed and marked as 
required by law, the wardens of the Company consider it their duty 
to remind dealers in gold and silver plate of the laws which prohibit 
the sale of foreign plate of gold and silver imported into this coun- 
try, unless it be of one of the authorised standards, and shall have 
b^n assayed and marked; and the wardens, at the same time, 
notify that they will consider it their duty to institute proceedings 
at law against offenders in every case of an offence committed 
in breach of the law which shall be brought to their notice and cap- 
able of proof. 

NOTICE TO THE TRADE ISSUED IN AUGUST 1878 BY 

THE GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY. 

In which the clauses from Acts of Parliament relating to for- 
eign plate were reprinted, and attention was drawn to the 12 Geo. 
II. and to the list of exemptions from compulsory marking. Also 
that in consequence of information given them of infringements of 
the laws, the wardens had been compelled to institute proceedings 
against several persons, the result of which had been the recovery of 
penalties in every case, and warning the trade and dealers generally 
that the wardens will not hesitate to put in force the powers vested 
in them to take such steps as will prevent all irregular and illegal 
practices. 

NOTICE BY THE GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY. 

£100 REWARD. 

"Whereas extensive frauds have been committed by counter- 
feiting the marks used by the Goldsmiths' Company of London, and 



42 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

by the transposition of such marks. And whereas the wardens of the 
Goldsmiths* Company, with a view to the prevention of fraud and 
the detection of offenders, have determined to offer such rewzird as 
is hereinafter mentioned. Now I, the undersigned Walter Prideaux, 
Clerk of the said Company of Goldsmiths, for and on behalf of 
the said wardens, do hereby promise to pay the sum of ;^ioo to every 
person who shall give such information and evidence as shall lead to 
the conviction of any person who shall have forged or counterfeited 
any die or other instrument which is or has been used by the said 
Company of Goldsmiths for the marking of gold or silver wares, or 
who shall have marked with any such forged or counterfeit die any 
such ware, or who shall have uttered any such ware knowing the 
same to be marked as aforesaid, or who shall by any means what- 
ever have produced an imitation of any such mark as aforesaid upon 
any ware of gold or silver, or who shall have transposed or removed 
or shall have uttered knowing the same to be transposed or removed, 
any such mark from any ware of gold or silver, or any other ware, 
or shall have in his possession any such ware of gold or silver hav- 
ing thereupon the mark of any such forged or counterfeit die, or 
having thereupon any such imitation of a mark as aforesaid, or any 
mark which shall have been so transposed as aforesaid, knowing the 
same to have been forged, imitated, marked, or transposed. 

" Witness my hand this 4th day of June, 1880. 

{Signed) " WALTER Prideaux, Clerk!' 



The Report of the Select Committee of the House of Com- 
mons ON THE HALL-MARKING OF GOLD AND SILVER PLATE, &C., 

ISSUED IN May, 1879. 

The Committee have examined numerous witnesses upon the 
matter before them; and the Report of a Select Committee of this 
Honourable House that was appointed in the year 1856 " to inquire 
into the offices for assaying silver and gold wares in the United 
Kingdom," and the evidence taken by that Committee, have been 
considered by them. 

The inquiry before your Committee was directed to three dis- 
tinct topics; the first being the incidence and effect of the duties at 
present levied upon articles of gold and silver manufacture; the 
second, the effect of the existing system of compulsory assay and 
Hall-marking; and the third, certain complaints against the opera- 
tion of the present law. 

It is in these days an accepted truism that every duty must 
operate as a fetter upon the manufacture on which it is imposed. 
To this the duties on gold and silver ware are no exception. It is 
true that the feeling of the trade is generally in favour of the re- 
tention of the duty. The close connection between the duty and the 
Hall-marking system has been prominently put forward as a reason 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 43 

why the tax is willingly borne by the trade. Probably, too, this 
feeling is, to some extent, due to an apprehension as to the effect of 
a remission of duty upon stocks in hand. 

The evidence establishes that the manufacture of gold and 
silver plate is not growing. It seems rather to be declining. But 
your Committee do not adopt the suggestion that this is entirely or 
even chiefly due to the duty. In England and Scotland duties were 
reimposed (in place of licences) in 1784, at the rate of 8s. per oz. on 
gold, and 6d. per oz. on silver. They continued at that 
rate till 1798, when the duty on gold was raised to i6s. 
per oz. and on silver to is. per oz. In 1805 the duty on 
silver was again raised to is. 3d. per oz. The late duty (17s. per 
oz. on gold and is. 6d. per oz. on silver) was imposed in 1817. In 
Ireland, from 1730 down to 1806, the duty was 6d. per oz. on gold 
and silver alike, from 1807 till 1842 it was is. per oz. on gold and 
silver alike. Since 1842 it has been levied at the same rate as in 
England and Scotland. The returns of the amount of duty paid 
during these periods do not suggest that the successive increases 
of duty had any depressing effect on the manufacture. On the con- 
trary, the maximum return (;6^i23,i28) was in 1825, nine years after 
the imposition of the existing duty. For the year ending 1878 the 
total amount of duty was ;^78,6io only. This decline is to some 
extent due to change in fashion; to some extent, also, to the dur- 
ability of plate, which results in a large trade in second-hand silver; 
but in all probability is chiefly due to the development of the 
electro-plate manufacture, which seems to have become fully estab- 
lished in or about 1846, from which date a marked diminution in the 
yield of the plate duties is to be observed. 

That the trade in gold and silver articles (as distinguished from 
the manufacture of plate) is not diminishing is suggested by the 
returns of the licences granted to plate dealers, the proceeds of 
which have steadily increased from ;^ 16,898, 8s. 6d. in the year end- 
ing 1846, to ;^44,2i6, 15s. 9d. in the year ending 1878. 

One evident objection to the duties on plate is to be found in the 
inequality of their incidence. The list of articles exempted from 
duty is long and apparently capricious. It seems to be based on no 
principle, except that of the necessity of collecting the duty by means 
of the Assay Offices, and consequently of exempting from duty all 
articles which cannot be assayed without " damaging, prejudicing, 
or defacing the same," or which are " too small to be safely marked." 
In consequence, a large number of articles in common use, such as 
chains and bracelets, escape payment of the duty, not because their 
material is different from similar articles which are liable 
to duty, but simply because as the goods cannot be 
Hall-marked, the duty cannot be collected. Again, electro-plate 
pays no duty, though it is evident that a large amount of silver 
bullion is used every year in this manufacture. The imposition of 
a duty bearing so great a proportion to the intrinsic value of the 
raw material has a tendency to diminish the use of silver as an 
article of manufacture. Considering all the circumstances con- 
nected with this trade, and the importance of promoting the use of 



44 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

silver as an article of manufacture, the Committee recommend the 
abolition of this duty, both customs and inland, whenever the con- 
dition of the revenue will permit. 

To the principle of compulsorily assaying and marking articles 
of gold and silver manufacture there are no doubt some objections. 
It is possible that if the matter were new, and it were for the first 
time in contemplation to establish an assay under the control of 
Government, these objections might prevail. But in this country 
the system has existed substantially in its present form since the 
reign of Edward L 

Without speculating on its origin, and while making due allow- 
ances for its defects, it is established that it has resulted in the 
creation and the maintenance of a high standard of excellence for 
all British assayed wares, which has not only raised the reputation 
of British workmanship at home and abroad, but has also created a 
Icirge amount of private wealth readily convertible by reason of the 
guarantees of value which the Hall-marks afford. 

As far as can be ascertained, every British manufacturer, and 
by far the largest number of the dealers, cling to the maintenance 
of the system with marked tenacity. The public do not complain 
of it. That the foreigner appreciates it, is shown by the fact that, 
rejecting the theoretical advantage of private marks and personal 
reputation, foreign watch-cases are sent to this country to be Hall- 
marked in yearly increasing numbers. Nor should the antiquarian 
or sentimental aspect of the question be altogether disregarded. At 
any rate this should prevail to the extent of throwing the entire 
burthen of proof on those who propose the abolition of a system 
which has worked well for 500 years. 

The Committee do not consider that a voluntary or optional 
system of Hall-marking would be satisfactory. So long as the in- 
land duty on plate is retained, no better means of collecting it 
than through the assay authorities has been suggested. But the 
Committee are of opinion that the abolition of the duty need not 
entail the abolition of compulsory Hall-marking. Watch-cases 
have been free from duty since 1798, but no difficulty has been 
experienced in enforcing the Hall-marking laws with regard to them. 
Assuming that the system of compulsory Hall-marking, with or 
without the duty, is to be maintained, the Committee proceed to 
consider the operation of the Acts under which that system is car- 
ried on. 

Since the report of the Committee of 1856 the Assay Office at 
York has ceased to exist. In other respects the condition of the 
offices described in that report seems to have continued unaltered. 

The chief complaint against the operation of the existing law 
comes from the manufacturers of watches and watch-casesi They 
have established by evidence that within the last few years a prac- 
tice has sprung up, and is rapidly increasing, under which foreign- 
made watch-cases are sent to this country to be Hall-marked with 
the British Hall-mark, and are afterwards fitted with foreign move- 
ments, and are not then unfrequently sold and dealt in as British 
made watches; and they assert that this not only injures their own 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 45 

reputation and lowers the credit of British workmanship, but is con- 
trary to the spirit and intention of our legislation. The Assay 
Offices are unable legally to refuse to Hall-mark these foreign 
watch-cases when brought for assay by registered dealers, though 
their officials are practically able to distinguish them from cases of 
British manufacture. 

That Parliament has recognised the distinction between foreign 
and British plate is shown by the provisions of an Act 30 & 31 Vict. 
c. 82, s. 24, which requires all imported plate to be marked before 
sale with the letter F in an oval escutcheon, " in order to denote that 
such gold or silver plate was imported from foreign parts, and was 
not wrought or made in England, Scotland, or Ireland." 

Until the practice of Hall-marking foreign watch-cases sprang 
up, the British Hall-marks were taken to indicate British workman- 
ship, and your Committee cannot doubt that foreign watches in 
watch-cases so Hall-marked are frequently sold as of British manu- 
facture. The Committee are therefore of opinion that all-foreign- 
made watch-cases assayed in this country ought to be impressed with 
an additional distinctive mark (the letter F, by reason of its resemb- 
lance to existing marks, is not sufficiently distinctive) indicative of 
foreign manufacture, and that the law ought to be altered accord- 
ingly. 

The Committee are further of opinion that the Acts now in 
force require to be amended in regard to the following matters : — 
(a) The assaying authorities should be allowed to return imported 
articles which are found below standard, instead of breaking them 
up, as at present, {b) A dome made of base metal should not ex- 
clude watch-cases from being Hall-marked. (^.) The assay autho- 
rities should have power to mark articles which, though standard 
have enamel or other metals or substances added for the purposes 
of ornzunent only, (d.) The lower standards of gold, viz., 15, 12, 
and 9 carats (equal respectively to i5-24th, i2-24th, and 9-24th of 
pure metal), should be discontinued. A composition containing less 
than two-thirds of pure metal ought not to be called by the name 
of that metal, {e.) The whole of the Assay Offices should be placed 
under the direct supervision of the Mint, so that uniform standard 
of quality shall be guaranteed. (/.) So long as a licence duty is 
maintained it should be levied at a uniform rate. 

It appears that in 1857 a Bill was prepared by the Commis- 
sioners of the Inland Revenue for giving effect to the recommenda- 
tion of the Committee of 1856, that the Acts relating to the assay- 
ing of plate should be consolidated into one Act; but this Bill was 
never laid before Parliament. This is to be regretted. There seems 
to be considerable uncertainty in the application of the law in con- 
sequence of the number of statutes in which it is found, and the 
Committee now express their opinion that the consolidation and 
amendment of the law should be carried out as proposed without 
further delay. 



46 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

THE DUTY ON GOLD AND SILVER PLATE ABOLISHED. 

A.D. 1890. 53 & 54 Victoria cap. 8. The Select Committee 
of the House of Commons, in their report on the Hall-marking of 
gold and silver in 1879, remarked that the imposition of a duty 
bearing so great a proportion to the intrinsic value of the raw 
material had a tendency to diminish the use of such metals as 
articles of manufacture. Considering all the circumstances con- 
nected with this trade, and the importance of promoting the use of 
gold and silver as mediums of manufacture, the Committee strongly 
recommended the abolition of this duty whenever the condition of 
the revenue would permit. That time having arrived, the Govern- 
ment, by the Customs and Inland- Revenue Act, 1890, Part II., pro- 
vided that on and after the first day of May, 1890, the stamp duties 
and duties of Customs on plate of gold and plate of silver should 
cease to be payable. 

ALLOWANCE OF DRAWBACK ON SILVER PLATE. 

The following notice was issued by the Inland Revenue to 
silversmiths with regard to the drawback of duty : — 

" Regulations as to claiming drawback of duty on silver plate 
which is as to every part thereof new and unused, manufactured in the 
United Kingdom, and which has never left the stock of a licensed 
dealer. 

" Plate will be received by the collectors of Inland Revenue for 
examination at the various Assay Offices on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th June, 
1890. 

" The claimant must produce his current licence dated prior to 
the 17th April, 1890: also his stock-book or some other satisfactory 
evidence to prove the date of purchase or manufacture of each 
article, and prove to the officer's satisfaction that it has never left 
the stock of a manufacturer or licensed dealer. 

" Care must be taken that only those articles which have actu- 
ally paid duty and bear the impression of the duty mark (the sove- 
reign's head) are included in the claim. 

" Foreign manufactured plate is not included in the claim." 

Then follows a penalty of ;£"500 for making any false state- 
ment, &c. 



The English sterling, or silver standard, which term first occurs 
in the reign of Henry II., was of the fineness of 1 1 oz. 2 dwts. in 
the pound troy, and 18 dwts. of alloy, and it has remained so, 
almost without interruption, for more than 600 years, with the ex- 
ception of a period of twenty years, from the latter end of the 
reign of Henry VIII. to the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth, 
when at one time it was so debased that nine ounces of alloy were 
actually employed with only three ounces of silver. In the earliest 
accounts in which the standard of fineness is mentioned, it is always 
spoken of as the " old standard of England," or " esterling." The 
Saxon pennies were of the same standard. 

In computing the standard of gold, it will be observed that the 
word karat is employed. This term is used by refiners, whereby 
they certify a certain composition of weights used in assaying and 
computing of standard gold, and this karat contains either the 
twenty-fourth part of a pound or the twenty-fourth part of an 
ounce troy.* 

The standard of gold, when first introduced into the coinage, 
was of 24 karats, that is, pure gold, and from Henry III. to Edward 
III. remained so; it was subsequently 23 karats 3^ grains fine, and 
half a grain only of alloy. The gold was debased by Henry VIII. 
to 20 karats, but it was raised to 22 karats, which Charles II. made 
standard, and which still continues to be so for coins of the realm. 
In the reign of Edward IV., A.D. 1477, an Act was passed which 
ordained that, as the Act had been daily broken in the manufacture 
of gold wares, the fineness of gold should be fixed at 18 karats, 
but it was raised again to the standard. 

One pound or one ounce of standard gold must contain 22 
karats of fine gold, i karat of silver, :ind i karat of fine copper, 
which together make 24 karats, or one pound or one ounce troy 
weight. 

* The karat is a bean, the fruit of an Abyssinian tree called Kuara. This 
bean, from the time of its being gathered, varies very little in weight, and 
seems to have been a weight for gold in Africa. In India it is used as a 
weight for diamonds, as well as in Europe. It contains four grains. The 
orthography of this word is varied, and we have, for the sake of uniformity, 
adopted the way it is spelt on the continent : Karat for Carat. The torm 
Karat or carat appears to have been first used early in the sixteenth century. 
In France the term denier was used to denote the fineness of silver, m 
the same manner as we use the word karat for gold. It indeed agrees with 
the English ounce. The pound is divided into twelve parts, or denierSy and 
each denier or twelfth part into two oholes, or twenty-four grains. 



48 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Sterling or standard silver contains f |g of pure silver and ^^^ 
of alloy. Silver coins are usually alloyed with copper in the above 
proportions, but gold coins, being sometimes alloyed with silver 
alone, sometimes with silver and copper together, no two sovereigns 
are of exactly the same colour, the former being of a pale gold, 
the latter more red. So long as the bars of gold sent to the Mint 
to be coined contain the correct proportion of pure gold, the nature 
of the alloy is not a matter of importance to the moneyer. 

Pure gold and silver are invariable in their qualities, from 
whatever mines they are produced. 

The marks for gold of 22 karats, and for silver of 11 oz. 2 
dwts., were, up to the year 1844, the same; hence a great facility 
was afforded to fraud, and, consequently, many instances occurred. 
An article of silver of the standard above named, being duly as- 
sayed and marked, had only to be gilt, and who but those more 
skilled than ordinary purchasers could say it was not gold? 

This was changed by 7 & 8 Vict. c. 22, s. 15, which required 
that all wares of 22-karat gold should be marked with a "crown 
and the figures 22, instead of the mark of the lion passant," but 
the operation of this Act did not extend to Scotland or Ireland. 

A lower standard of gold was allowed by an Act, 38 Geo. 
III. c. 69, 1798, which was marked with a crown and the figures 18, 
instead of the lion passant. 

In 1854, 17 & 18 Victoria, still lower qualities of gold wares 
were allowed to be made, of 15, 12, and 9 karats pure gold in 24 : 
stamped with the figures denoting the fineness, without the crown 
and Queen's heady but not without payment of duty. 

Gold and silver wares may be assayed at any lawful Assay 
Office wherever manufactured, without being liable to any forfei- 
ture or penalty imposed by any previous Act. 

(No particular standard named in this Act, but to be directed 
by an order from the Privy Council.) This Act is in force through- 
out the United Kingdom. 

The Goldsmiths* Company have unfortunately no jurisdiction 
over the manufacture of jewellery, hence the spurious nature of a 
great proportion of the jewellery sold in England; and there is no 
real security to the public unless the articles have the Hall-mark; 
or wanting this, purchasers should insist on having the quality of 
the gold written plainly on the invoice as a guarantee of its genuine- 
ness, not only whether it is goldy for this admits of a wide inter- 
pretation, but the quality of it expressed in numerals, as equal to 
22, 18, 15, 12, or 9 karats. Provided with such an invoice, they 
have always their remedy against the jeweller.* 

* From the foUoiiriug passage in the Comedy of Errors (Act iv. Sc. 1) we 
find that it was the custom in England, in Shakespeare's time, for the 
Goldsmith to place on his invoice the weight, the standard, and the charge for 
fashion^ Angelo the Goldsmith says : 

" Here's the note 
How much your chain weighs to the utmost carat, 
The fineness of the gold, and chargeful fashion." 

We quote this passage as given in most of the editions^ which as it stands 
is evidently an incorrect reading. Weighing a chain to tts utmost karat is 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 49 

The value per ounce of the different qualities of gold permitted 
to be manufactured into plate, jewellery, watches, &c., by the vari- 
ous Acts of Parliament, and stamped accordingly, calculated at the 
highest Mint Price,* is as follows: — 

£ 5. d. ALLOY 

24 karat or pure gold 4 4 iii ... None. 

22 karat (first standard and currency) . -Si? 10^ ... 2 karat. 

20 karat (Ireland only) 3 10 9^ ... 4 

18 karat (second standard) . . . .338^... 6 

15 karat ^ T 2 13 i ... 9 

y since 1854 < 2 2 5} ... 12 

(i II 10^ ... 15 



12 karat 
9 karat ^ 



If these variations in the value of the different qualities of gold 
were better known or attended to, the public would not so fre- 
quently be duped by dishonest tradesmen. Mr. Watherston, in his 
pamphlet " On the Art of Assaying," observes : " Advertisements 
are sometimes thus ingeniously contrived : * Fine gold chains 
weighing five sovereigns for ;^5 each,' by which it is meant to be 
inferred that the gold in the chains is of the same fineness as the 
sovereigns, while it is no such thing; and an accurate knowledge of 
this subject would enable the purchaser to detect the imposition by 
showing the vendor that five sovereigns would weigh i oz. 5 dwts. 
\2\ grs., and that sovereigns being standard or 22 karats, the weight 
of such gold at the Mint price of 77s. lo^d. per oz. would be worth 
£^, whereas the gold in the chain might be only half the fineness, 
say II karats, or i oz. 5 dwts. \2\ grs. at 38s. ii|d per oz=;6^2 
I OS. Thus £2 IDS. would be obtained for the workmanship of the 
chain, which charge it was the object of the vendor wholly to 
conceal." 

The Bank of England is bound to buy all gold at £1 17s. 
io|d. per ounce. 

The parliamentary price of gold is only an equivalent denomi- 
nation; £1, 17s. io|d. is not the price of an ounce of gold, but is 

impossible, and the chargeful fashion incomprehensible. By placing the com- 
mas aright we arrive at the poet's meaning, and find that three separate 
items are alluded to in the Goldsmith's note. 1st. How much your chain 
weighs, that is always expressed in troy ounces, pennyweights and grains. 
2nd. To the utmost karat the fineness of the qoldy the standard or fineness 
is always comouted by refiners in karats or imaginary weights. 3rd. The 
charge for fashion^ that is the cost of makine. Shakespeare's meaning is 
clearly expressed in another play, where the Prince says : — 

*' Therefore, thou best of gold art worst of gold : 
Other, less fine in carat^ is more precious. 
Preserving life in med'cme potable." 

Second Part of King Henry IV. (Act iv. Sc. 6). 

* A purchaser, in estimating the probable cost of a piece of plate or 
jewellery, must add to the intrinsic value of the gold, the duty paid by the 
goldsmith of 17s. per ounce on all the standards, of 22 down to 9 karats, if 
above 10 dwts. (the small articles, and those which cannot be stamped without 
injuring them, and watch-cases being exempted), the Assay Office fees, and 
the charge for fashion or manufacture, which, of course, varies according to 
the artistic labour bestowed upon the material by the designer, the chaser, 
and the engraver. 

D 



50 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

according to the number of gold coins that can be made out of an 
ounce of gold. This simple fact has not been generally observed. 

There are five standards for gold, and two for silver. The 
manufacturer may use either at his option, informing the authorities 
at the Assay Office which he has adopted, in each parcel of goods 
sent to be assayed. The Higher Standards for Gold are 22 and 
18 karats of pure metal in every ounce, the ounce containing 24 
karats : so that in each ounce there may be 2 or 6 karats (one- twelfth 
or a quarter of the weight) of alloy. The coinage of England is 
of the higher standard, 22 karats. The lower standard is used 
for all manufacturing purposes, except in the case of wedding rings, 
which are usually made of 22-karat gold. Since 1854 debased gold 
standards of 15, 12, and 9 karats in the ounce of 24 karats have 
been legalised. The Standards for Silver are 11 oz. 10 dwts. and 
1 1 oz. 2 dwts. of pure metal in every pound troy. The higher stand- 
ard is seldom or never used. The silver coinage is of the lower 
standard. 

It has been seen that in the year 1697 there was an alteration 
in the standard of fineness ol silver, which was increased from 1 1 
oz. 2 dwts. to II oz: 10 dwts. in the pound troy. This better stand- 
ard was denoted by a change of stamps as follows: — (i.) The 
marks of the workers to be expressed by the two first letters of their 
surnames. (2.) The mark of the mystery or craft of the goldsmith 
which instead of the leopard's head was to be a lion's head erased. 
(3.) Instead of the lion, the figure of a woman, commonly called 
Britannia, was to be substituted; and (4.) A distinct variable mark 
to be used by the warden of the said mystery to denote the year 
in which such plate was made. Both these marks were, after 1700, 
used by the provincial Assay Offices, but the lion's head erased 
was omitted on silver of the new standard at Sheffield and Bir- 
mingham. 

On referring to the minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company, we 
find that, "on the 29th day of May, 1695, new puncheons were re- 
ceived, the letter for the year being t in an escutcheon." And on 
" the 27th March, 1697, the puncheons for the remaining part of 
this year (viz., up to the 30th May) were received, being, according 
to Act of Parliament, a lyon's head erased, a Britannia, and for the 
letter, the great court A in an escutcheon." 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



51 



Table showing the alterations English coins and plate have under- 
gone with respect to weight and fineness, from the reign of 
William the Conqueror to that of Victoria. 



MONEY. 



PLATE. 



>ATB. 


RSXGN. 


GOLD. 


SILVER. 


GOLD 




SILVER. 


Fineness 
of Gold 
Coins. 


Poand Troy 
ofsnohGold 
coined into 


Fineness 

of Silver 

Coins. 


Pound Troy 
of such Sil- 
ver coined 
into 


REIGN. 


Karats. 


REIGN. 


OS. dwt 






kar.gcs- 


i s. d. 


oz. dwt ^ £ s d. 










1066 


Will. I. . . 




• •• 


II 2 114 


• •• 


... 


... 


... 


X280 


8 Ed. L . . 




• • • 


... .114 


28Ed.L . 


i9i 


Ed. I. 


II 2 


1344 


18 Ed. IIL . 


23 l\ 


14 xo 


• •■ 


k 


X I 6 


• •• 


• • • 


« • • 




1349 


23 




X4 18 8 


• •! 




130 


« B • 


■ •% 


• •« 






1356 


30 




16 


. . « 




I 6 8 


■ •• 


• • • 


• •• 






I421 


9 Hen. V. . 




X7 16 


• . 


t 


X 12 


• •• 


• • • 


• ■• 






1464 


4 Ed. IV. . 




22 4 6 


. . 


* 


200 


• •• 


• • • 


• at 






1465 


5 




24 


• « 1 




200 




• • 


• ■ V 






1470 


49 Hen. VL . 




24 


• •< 


1 


200 


• •• 


• • • 


• • • 






1482 


22 Ed. IV. . 




24 


. . 


1 


200 


17 Ed. 4. . 


18 


• • • 






1509 


I Hen. VIII. 




24 


.. 1 


1 


200 


• • 
• •• 


• ■ • 


• • • 






1527 


18 


22 


24 


• •1 


1 


228 


• • ■ 


• ■ ■ 


• • a 






1543 


34 


23 


28 16 


10 


280 


• • • 


• • • 


• at 






1545 


36 


22 


30 


6 


280 


• • ■ 


• • • 


« • a 






1546 
1547 


37 

I Ed. VL . 


20 
20 


30 
30 


4 
4 


280 
280 


• •• 

• • • 


• • • 


• •• 

• • a 






1549 


3 


22 


34 


6 


3 12 


• • • 


■ • • 


• • • 






I551 


5 


23 3i 


34 


5 


3 12 


t • ■ 


• • • 


• ■ a 






»552 

1553 
1560 

1600 

1604 


6 

1 Mary . . 

2 Elizabeth 

43 

2 James I. . 


22 

23 3i 

22 

23 3i 
22 


36 
36 
36 
36 10 
33 10 


IX 

II 

IX 

• « 1 

■ al 


I 

2 


300 
300 
300 
320 
320 


• ■ 

15 Eliz. . 

• • • 


• •• 

• •• 

22 

... 


• • • 

• • ■ 
■ • • 






1626 
x666 
1717 


2 Charles I. . 
18 Charles II. 

3 George I. . 


■ ■• 
• •• 


41 
44 10 
46 14 6 


• • 1 




320 
320 
320 


■ • ■ 

• • a 

• • • 

• •• 


••• 

• • 

• •• 


• •• 

9Wiii* III. 

6 Geo. I. . 


II 
II 


10 
2 


1816 


56 Geo. IIL . 


• •■ 


46 14 6 


• •4 




360 


38 Geo.III. 


( 22 
I 18 




^ 1 




1 


1821 

to 

1881 


2 Geo. IV. . 


• •fl 


46 14 6 


• • 1 




360 


• •• 


These two Stan- 


Victoria . . 


22kara 


Is. at which 


Sterling Stan- 


18 Vict. . 


f22 
18 


dards have both 
remained legal 






it has 


remaiued 


dard as at 


5 Standards 


■ 15 


from 1720 to the 






ever s 


ince. 


present. 


legalised. 


12 

V 9 


present day. 





It is a curious coincidence, if not actually premeditated, that 
the two great changes in the debasement of the coinage and its re- 
storation to the ancient purity of the standard should be notified 
in the arrangement of the Hall-marks on plate. In 1543 the fine- 
ness of silver coins was reduced by Henry VIII. from 1 1 dwts. 2 grs. 
to ten parts out of the twelve; in 1545 to half, and in 1546 to one- 
third part only of pure silver. It has been suggested that between 
1543 and 1545 the stamp of the lion passant was introduced to 
notify that the plate still remained as good as the old standard, 



52 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

and was not debased like the coins of that period. We have not 
met with any plate of the years 1543 or 1544. but in 1545 we find 
" Her Majesty*s lion " for the first time added as a standard mark. 
The second change occurred in 1560. Up to that date the escut- 
cheon or encircling line had taken the form of the date letter; but 
in the second year of the glorious reign of Queen Elizabeth, when 
the purity of the coinage was restored to the old standard, for gold 
of 22 karats, and for silver 1 1 oz. 2 dwts., a change was made by 
the Goldsmiths' Company, and the letters were henceforward en- 
closed in a regular Heraldic Shield, commencing on Old Christmas 
Day, viz., the 6th January, 1561, with the letter D, as shown in our 
tables. 

These shields continued, with more or less pointed bases, down 
to 1738, when an ornamental form was adopted, eminently distin- 
guishing the dates down to the year 1755. In the following year 
a square shield, with the upper corners cut off, and the base slightly 
rounded ending in a point was continued until 1877, the old 
Heraldic pointed shield being then revived. In 1896 the shield, 
instead of being pointed, was made with three circular lobes below. 

We may here advert to one of the most important features in 
our improved tables of London Assay Office letters, independent 
of the careful representation of the letters themselves, viz., the in- 
troduction of the escutcheons or shields enclosing them. This had 
never before been attempted, and the idea originated with the author 
of this work in 1863. 

The system of both gold and silver being standard measures 
of value, which they were in virtue of each being a legal tender to 
any amount, was the source of much disorder; for, as their market 
prices were always subject to variation, one kind of coin had a 
constant tendency to drive the other out of circulation. To remedy 
this great inconvenience, our present moneteiry system was estab- 
lished in 18 16, at which time, as gold was the metal in which the 
principal payments were made in England, the following law was 
enacted : — 

" That gold coins shall in future be the sole standard measure 
of value, and legal tender of payment, without any limitation of 
amount, and that silver coins shall be a legal tender for the limited 
amount of forty shillings only, at one time." 

Besides this standard fineness of coins, there is also a legal 
weight, fixed according to the Mint regulation, or rate of coinage 
cf each country. Thus in England a pound troy of standard gold 
is coined into 44^ guineas, or 46|^ sovereigns, and a pound of 
standard silver into 66 shillings, with divisions and multiples in 
proportion; and hence the Mint price of standard gold is £'i 17s. 
loid. per ounce, and that of standard silver 66 pence per ounce. 
Before the year 18 16, silver was coined at the rate of 62 pence per 
ounce. The Mint price of standard silver at 66 pence per ounce is 
above the average market value, which is considered to be about 60 
pence, the price now usually adopted in the valuation of coins, but 
since this was written the market value of silver has much decreased. 

The silver coins in circulation are considered only as tokens 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 53 

payable by the Government, and pass for more than their metallic 
value as compared with gold. Precaution is taken that it shall not 
be worth while to melt the silver coin into bullion, and it is so nearly 
* worth its current value that imitation would not be ventured, on so 
small a profit. The Government will always receive back its 
tokens, however worn they may be, provided they be not wilfully 
defaced or fraudulently reduced. But gold, being the sole stand- 
ard measure of value, and legal tender of payment, circulates as 
a commodity; and hence the necessity of Government receiving it 
at value on its return to the Mint, and making a deduction for loss 
of weight when the same exceeds the remedy of the Mint. The 
wear and tear of the gold coinage is such, that very nearly 3 per 
cent, of the whole circulation goes out annually; and the quantity 
which will suffice to throw a sovereign out of circulation is iVcfe*^^ 
parts, or about one-fourth of a grain. (W oolhouse.) 

Mr. Freemantle, Deputy Master of the Mint, in his report for 
the year 1874, states that "the amount of gold coined during the 
year, ;;t 1,460,000, has again been below the average (which may be 
reckoned at ;^5,ooo,ooo), notwithstanding that in 1873 ^he amount 
coined was only ;t3,300,ooo, as against ;t 15,000,000 in 1872, and 
;£^ 1 0,000,000 in 1 87 1. This diminution in the demand for gold 
coin is in a great measure to be accounted for by the magnitude of 
the coinages just referred to; but it should also be mentioned that 
the importations into the Bank of England during the year of Aus- 
tralian sovereigns and half-sovereigns, which are now somewhat of 
the same design as those issued from the Mint in London, are 
equally legal tender in the United Kingdom, and have been con- 
siderable, having amounted to ;£^ 1,972,000, and have contributed in 
a sensible degree towards maintaining the supply of gold coin re- 
quired for circulation in this country." 

It may be here remarked, while speaking of Bank operations, 
that the Bank of England weighs about 20,000,000 pieces sepa- 
ately and singly in each year, and if each had to be examined to 
see the date the labour would be trebled. 

" The natural colour of pure gold is a deep rich orange yellow, 
If, however, gold is beaten into thin leaves, and placed between the 
eye and the light, it appears of a green colour. Gold is also green 
in a molten state at a high temperature. When precipitated from 
its solutions it assumes a dark brown colour. If the brown preci- 
pitate is boiled in concentrated sulphuric acid, it cakes together, and 
becomes red. If gold is precipitated as a very fine powder it is 
black; if finely diffused in transparent glass it is violet; and it has 
been surmised that the colour of rose-quartz is due to a very fine 
diffusion of gold in that substance." {Lut sc haunt g.) 

There are six different ways of giving gold the various shades 
of colour by means of alloy with other metals. These six colours 
may be combined and produce all the possible variations, i. Yel- 
low gold, or pure. 2. Red gold, composed of three parts fine gold 
and one of purified copper. 3. Grass green gold, three parts of 
pure gold and one of silver. 4. Dead leaf green, half gold and 
half silver. 5. Sea green, fourteen parts of fine gold, and ten of 



54 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

fine silver. 6. Blueish gold, fine gold melted, in which is thrown a 
small quantity of iron. 

Coloured gold (of which cheap jewellery is made) means that 
the article contains a very small proportion of gold, less frequently 
thcin 9-karat gold, or 9 parts pure and 15 alloy out of the 24, which 
is intrinsically worth about 30 shillings per ounce. As this debased 
gold is of a bad colour and wanting m brilliancy, the following 
operation is adopted, called colouring-, — From the immediate sur- 
face of the article the copper is removed, exposing the pure gold 
only, but this coating of pure gold is not thicker than the looth 
part of the breadth of a hair. It is the same as if the article were 
gilt or electro-plated, only that in the one instance the alloy is taken 
from the gold on the surface, leaving the pure gold, and that in 
the other the pure gold is put on. Any bad gold over 9 karats 
can be coloured by boiling in nitric acid, or other preparation acting 
in the same manner. 

"The bleaching of silver is an analogous operation to the col- 
ouring of gold. If an article of silver alloyed with copper be 
heated to a dull red heat, and then quickly dipped in water con- 
taining a small proportion of sulphuric acid, the copper will be 
taken away, leaving the pure silver on the surface as white as snow." 
{Lutschaunig.) 

To convert gold or silver into grains or granular pieces requires 
the assistance of two persons. The one procures a pan of cold 
water and keeps it in movement by stirring it round with a stick, 
while the other pours the molten metal into it. This sudden transi- 
tion from heat to cold, and the circular motion of the water, natur- 
ally converts the metal into irregularly shaped grains. 

Filagree is composed of two round threads, so twisted together 
by means of a tourniquet that they form but one thread. 

The Loupe or magnifying-glass is a sort of microscope of a 
simple glass, convex on both sides, or a pair of lenses (convexo con- 
vexes) fixed at a certain distance from each other in a frame, with 
a handle attached. The latter is used by goldsmiths and employ6s 
of the Assay Offices to verify the Hall-marks upon gold and silver 
plate. It is more to be depended upon in a careful investigation, 
as the whole field within the radius is magnified equally, while the 
single glass distorts that portion of the object seen towards the 
edge. For this reason it is preferred by engravers. It is also very 
useful for examining coins and medals to ascertain whether they 
are genuine. 

The choice of a glass to verify the marks on plate &c., is very 
important, but it is impossible to establish any positive general rule, 
since every person must consult his own eyesight. In every case 
the glass ought to be mounted or set in a deep flat border or dia- 
phragm, to concentrate the rays of light in the centre of the lens. 
The light should be thrown direct on to the object to render the 
whole surface distinctly visible at one view without shadow. The 
closing of one eye during inspection should be avoided as much 
as possible, as this involuntary habit fatigues the eye without pro- 
ducing any better effect. The glass should be brought near to the 
eye, or at the most only two inches from it. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 55 

WEIGHTS. 

The weight used by the Saxons was the Colonia or Cologne 
pound of 1 6 ounces, containing 7680 grains. This pound was 
divided into two marks of 8 ounces each, being equal to two-thirds 
of the Tower pound, still used in Germany. In the time of William 
the Conqueror the pound Troy was introduced of 5760 grains, as at 
present used for gold and silver, so called, it is supposed, from 
being used at Troyes, in France; but this idea is incompatible with 
its French name, which denotes a more remote origin, being called 
" Poids Romain." There was another weight in use at the same 
time called the Tower or moneyer's pound {pois d*orf6vres), by 
which gold and silver coins were weighed, so called in consequence 
of the principal Mint being in the Tower. This Tower pound, 
which had 12 ounces of its own, consisted of 5400 grains, being less 
than the Troy pound by 15 pennyweights or three-quarters of an 
ounce. It is still occasionally referred to on the subject of coins, 
and in the early inventories of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fif- 
teenth centuries, such as the Exchequer and Wardrobe accounts, 
&c., the weight of silver and gold is expressed by pounds, shillings, 
and pence, the pound being subdivided into 20 shillings, and 12 
pence or pennyweights. The shilling represents three-fifths of an 
ounce.* This ceased to be a legal Mint weight in the eighteenth 
year of the rieign of Henry VIII., when in 1526-7 the Tower pound 
was abolished by Royal proclamation and the Troy pound substi- 
tuted. 

As an example of the manner of expressing weight and Mint 
value in the fourteenth century, we quote two items from the par- 
ticulars of a present of plate from the City of London to Edward 
the Black Prince, on his return from Gascony in 1371 : — 

** Bought of John de Chichestre, Goldsmith (Mayor in 1369), 
48 Esqueles and 24 Salt-cellars, weighing by goldsmith's weight, 
£76 5s. od., adding six shillings in the pound with the making; total, 
;;fi09, OS. Qd. Also, 6 Chargers, weight £\^, i8s. gd., which 
amounts with the making to ;;f2i, 7s. 2d.," &c., &c., {Riley's Memo- 
rials of London.) 

These imaginary coins had no exact representation in the coin- 
age of Great Britain until long after the period when they were 
used merely as moneys of account. The term shilling was used by 
the Saxon as equivalent to four pennies, but William the Conqueror 
established the Norman shilling at twelve pennies, yet no positive 
coin of that denomination was made current until the reign of 
Henry VII. The mark was a Danish mode of computation intro- 

* This was a source of great revenue, and is thus stated in a MS. relating 
to Mint affairs which is preserved in the Collection of the Society of Anti- 
quaries: — "There is a weight which hath been used in England from the 
beginning in the King's Mints, till of late years, and derived from the Troy 
weights; for by the Troy weiqht of twelve ounces the merchant bought his 
gold and silver abroad, and by the same delivered it into the King's Mint, 
receiving in counterpoise by Tower weighty which was the King's prerogative, 
who gained thereby three-quarters of an ounce in the exchange of each pound 
weight converted into money, beside the gain of coining, which did rise to 
a great revenue, making for every 30 lbs. Troy, being a journey of coined 
money, 32 lbs. Tower. ^^ 



50 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

duced in the reign of Alfred, then valued at lOO pennies, 
but William the Conqueror valued it at i6o pennies, or 13s. 
4d., being two-thirds of a pound. The pound referred principally 
to weight; the pound of gold or silver meant the value in money, 
according to the current coins which could be made out of the 
pound weight of either metal. At the time we are speaking of, 
silver pennies were the only coins used in England. In the reign 
of Edward IIL (1327-77) coins of various denominations were in- 
troduced — groats, half-groats, pennies, half-pennies, and farthings, 
as well as the gold noble passing at 6s. 8d. its half and quarter. 
The first sovereign or double rial, coined by Henry VH., passed for 
22s. 6d. Then succeeded, in the time of the Stuarts, the unit or 
pound sovereign of 20 shillings. 

There was a method of paying and receiving moneys so as to 
avoid the necessity of counting and weighing each piece separately, 
thereby avoiding the loss of time necessarily occupied in dealing 
with large sums of money. This was termed ** payments ad sealant^' 
and would be completely answered by the plan, provided the coins 
were of just weight and undiminished in the course of currency, 
each being weighed separately on receipt, as at the Bank of Eng- 
land, where the practice is still in use. In paying large sums in 
gold the first thousand is counted and placed in one of the scales, 
the additional thousands being estimated by weighing them succes- 
sively in the other scale against it. This is sometimes adopted at 
banking houses in the present day. In a general way the gold coins 
are taken indiscriminately from the mass, but instances are recorded 
by which deception has in former times been practised. A certain 
monk of St. Augustine's in Canterbury, in the fourteenth century, 
contrived to defraud those who made payments to that abbey, of 
whose rents he was the receiver, by taking advantage of the unequal 
manner in which coins were then formed, selecting the heaviest, 
against which he weighed all the money he received, gaining thereby 
sometimes five shillings and never less than three shillings and 
fourpence in every twenty shillings. On discovery of the fraud, 
however, the abbot and convent were severely fined. 

Troy weights are now exclusively used in the gold and silver 
trade, the weights being stated in ounces, and until recently in 
pennyweights and grains. The troy pound is not used; the troy 
ounce being the present unit of weight, which in 1879 was divided 
into decimals. 

Silver plate is always sold at per ounce. 

The old series of cup weights or nest set of ounce weights, es- 
tablished in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, are still in use in the 
City of London, for which there is no standard above 12 ounces, 
and they are usually made of brass. 

The Founders* Company claim the right to stamp and verify 
brass weights after they are made, but they have no power to en- 
force it. The right is based on a Royal Charter of James II., and a 
clause in the Weights and Measures Act reserves such, which, how- 
ever, has frequently been disputed, but no legal decision has been 
taken upon it. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 57 

Troy weights marked by the Founders' Company should be 
stamped at Goldsmiths' Hall, but it is not done now. The legal 
provisions for stamping troy weights are practically inoperative. 
A set of old troy standards still exists at Goldsmiths' Hall. 

The standard brass weight of one pound troy made in the 
year 1758 is now in the custody of the Clerk of the House of Com- 
mons, and is by 5 Geo. IV. c. 74 the established standard, and called 
" The Imperial Troy Pound." Very few troy weights are stamped 
at all, and till recently they never were. They are sold unstamped; 
but if the Goldsmiths' Company have not the power to enforce the 
supervision, a clause in some Act of Parliament should forthwith 
enable thein to exercise it legally. It would be a better guarantee 
to the public. Troy weights are not subject to inspection like the 
avoirdupois, but although inaccuracy and fraud are seldom met 
with, yet goldsmiths' weights are frequently in an unsatisfactory 
condition, and require official supervision. 

It seems to us that the more scientific system adopted in France 
might be carried out advantageously in England. The French re- 
gulation requires weights to be marked with the name of the maker 
and stamped by the appointed inspector; not only this, for every 
part of a balance is made to a gauge like a watch, and the beams 
and scales stamped accordingly. Balances are also subject to vari- 
ation through changes in the humidity of the atmosphere. 

A decimal series of troy ounces are used for bullion, legalised 
in 1853; but they have not been adopted by the general public, and 
are not used in the gold and silver trade. At that time the Bank 
abolished the system of weighing in pounds and ounces, and sub- 
stituted weighing in ounces and decimals of ounces — a more scien- 
tific method; but no one in the trade has adopted the system, ex- 
cept in his relations with the Bank. 

By troy weight, gold, silver, jewels, and precious stones are 
weighed. Diamonds and pearls are the exception. They are 
weighed by the karat, which contains 4 grains; but 5 diamond 
grains are only equal to 4 troy grains, the ounce troy containing 1 50 
diamond karats. 

TROY WEIGHT. 

14 ounces 8 pennyweights • \ /i lb** avoirdupois weight (7000 grains) 

'^ '^""'"'"'' ^ ' I pound, troy weight (5760 grains). 



12 ounces 

20 pennyweights . 

24 grains 

20 mites 

24 droits 

20 periots 



make 



I ounce (480 grains). 

I pennyweight (24 grains). 

I grain.* 

I mite. 

I droit. 



24 blanks . . . . / \i periot. 

The above subdivisions of troy weight are appended to an Act 
relating to a new coinage passed by the Long Parliament, and it 
was probably copied from earlier records; but how these infinitesi- 
mal fractions were to be used is a mystery, and this Act does not 
furnish us with the information — a blank being about the thirteen 
hundred and twenty-seven millionth of a pound troy. 

* The grains in avoirdupois and troy weight are identical. 



58 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



These divisions of the grain eire in reality only imaginary; but 
there are real weights of decimal divisions to the thousandth part 
of a grain. 

REFINERS' WEIGHTS. 



A POUND WEIGHT KARAT. 

12 ounces . . . make 24 karats. 

4 grains . 

4 quarters. 
10 dwts. troy 

2 dwts. 12 grains troy 
15 grains troy . 



»» 



»» 



»» 



t« 



)) 



I karat. 
I grain. 
I karat. 
I grain. 
^ grain. 



AN OUNCE KARAT. 

I ounce troy . makes 24 karats. 



4 grains 

4 quarters . 
20 grains troy 

5 grains troy 



I karat. 
I grain. 
I karat, 
make i karat grain. 



}» 



»» 



»j 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF TROY AND AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHTS. 



Avdps. 


Troy. 


Avdps. 


Troy. 


Avdps. 


Troy. 


oz. 

i 
i 

lOZ 


OZ. 

■•• 
••• 

... 


dwt 
4 

9 
18 


grs. 
I3i 

2} 

5i 


oz. 

15 

one 

16 


oz. 

13 

lb. 

14 
15 


dwt. 
13 

II 
9 


gw. 
lot 

16 

2li 


oz. 

31 
two 

32 


oz. 
28 

lb. 

29 


dwt. 
5 

3 

I 


2t 

8 


17 


33 


30 


I3i 


2 


I 


16 


II 


18 


16 


8 


3 


34 


30 


19 


19 


3 


2 


14 


i6i 


19 


17 


6 


8i 


35 


31 


18 


0* 


4 


3 


12 


22 


20 


18 


4 


14 


36 


32 


16 


6 


5 


4 


II 


3^ 


21 


19 


2 


I9i 


37 


33 


14 


Hi 


6 


5 


9 


9 


22 


20 


I 


I 


38 


34 


12 


17 


7 


6 


7 


Mi 


23 


20 


19 


6* 


39 


35 


10 


22\ 


8 


7 


5 


20 


24 


21 


17 


12 


40 


36 


9 


4 


9 


8 


4 


li 


25 


22 


15 


I7i 


50 


45 


II 


II 


10 


9 


2 


7 


26 


23 


13 


23 


60 


54 


13 


18 


II 


10 





I2i 


27 


24 


12 


4i 


70 


63 


16 


I 


12 


10 


18 


18 


28 


25 


10 


10 


80 


72 


18 


8 


13 


II 


16 


23* 


29 


26 


8 


I5it 


90 


82 





15 


14 


12 


15 


5 


30 


27 


6 


21 


100 


91 


2 


22 



This table will be found useful when weighing gold or silver, 
if troy weights are not at hand. A pound troy of gold in England 
is coined into 46 J§ sovereigns, or £46, 14s. 6d.; a pound troy of 
sterling silver into 66 shillings. Therefore, new silver coins to the 
amount of 5s. 6d. will weigh an ounce troy, and could be used as a 
substitute on an emergency. 

No^e. — The weight of silver is always given in ounces and 
penny -weights, omitting the grains and pounds. Thus, 6 lbs. 10 
oz. 10 dwts. 12 grains is called 82 oz. 10 dwts. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



59 



A new Act came into operation on the ist January 1879 (but 
six months were allowed to become accustomed to the alterations). 
It abolishes the use of pennyweights and grains in troy weight. 
The ounce troy remains the same, containing 480 grains, but is 
now divided decimally into tenths, hundredths, and thousandths 
so that the thousandth part of an ounce troy is exactly equal to .48 
grain, or nearly one-half. It will be seen from this that the exact 
equivalents in the new bullion and old weights cannot be shown 
without using decimals or complicated fractions, which being of no 
practical utility, are omitted in the following table, and only the 
nearest quarter-fraction inserted, the difference being always less 
than i oi 2i grain. For weighing precious stones, the karat is 
abolished, and " decimal grain weights " (or the grain troy divided 
decimally) substituted; 3.17 grains being nearly equal to one karat, 
and the equivalents being calculated to ^th of a karat, as new 
used. 

The small sets of troy weights sanctioned by the Act of 1879 
are sold in nests of 10, fitting into each other, the divisions being 
marked thus : — 



oz. 



oz. oz. oz. oz. oz. 



20 . 10 . 5 . 3 . 2 . I . T^^, equal to 10 dwts. ^ = 6 dwts. 

^ = 4 dwts. -j^ = 2 dwts. 



With loose square weights, marked thus : — 
.05=24 grs. .04=19} grs. .03=14!^ grs. .02=9|^grs. .01=4! grs. 



^1 



t1 



1 



.oo5=2f grs. .004=2 grs. .003= if grs. .002 = 1 gr. .ooi = f a gr 



Table showing the corresponding value of the Old Troy weights 
lately in common use, and the New Decimals legalised in 1879, 
omitting the fractional parts of grains and dwts. 



PENNYWEIGHTS. 



GRAINS. 



New 


Old 


1 

New 


Old 


Weights. 


Weights. 


Weights. 


Weights. 


Decimals. 


Dwts. 


Decimals. 


Dwts. 


1. 000 


I 02. = 20 


0.500 


10 


0.950 


19 


0.450 


9 


0.930 


18 


0.400 


8 


0.850 


J7 


, 0.350 


7 


0.800 


16 


0.300 


6 


0.750 


15 


0.250 


5 


0.700 


14 


0.200 


4 


0.650 


13 


0.150 


3 


0.600 


12 


O.IOO 


2 


0550 


II 


0.050 

1 


I 



New 


Old 


New 


Old 


Weights. 


Weights. 


Weights. 


Weights. 


Decimals. 


Grainp. 


Dacfmals. 


Grains. 


O.OOI 


i 


0.026 


I2i 


0.002 


I 


0.028 


i3i 


0.004 


2 


0.029 


14 


0.006 


3 


0.031 


15 


o.ooS 


3f 


0.034 


i6i 


O.OIO 


^1 


0.036 


I7i 


0.012 


5* 


0.038 


i8j 


0.014 


6J 


0.040 


19- 


0.016 


i 


0.042 


20;: 


0018 


>J 


0.044 


21 


0.020 


9* 


0.046 


22 


0.022 


lot 


0.048 


23 


0.024 


Hi 


0.050 


24 



Issag. 



Manufacturers of gold and silver are required to register their 
names and marks which indicate the same (usually their initials) at 
the Assay Office of their district, and all articles sent in by them 
to be assayed must be impressed with this maker's mark. 

If they are then found to have been made in conformity with 
the appointed regulations, a small quantity, not exceeding 8 troy 
grains in the pound, is to be cut or scraped from them for trial of 
their purity, according to the standard for which they are required 
to be stamped. One moiety of the scrapings, or die/, as it is called, 
to be reserved for the assay, and the other, if the purity prove to be 
correct, is to be put into that compartment of what is called the diei 
box which appertains to its standard. 

The diet boxes from the Assay Offices of Birmingham and Shef- 
field are proved twice a year at the Royal Mint by the Queen's 
Assay Master in the presence of an officer appointed by the Lords 
of the Treasury, and the fineness of the gold and silver must equal 
the standard trial plates which are kept in the custody of the 
Warden of the Standards at the Royal Mint. The other provincial 
Assay Offices are only compelled to do so when required. 

The method of ascertaining the quantity of pure gold in a 
given alloy is usually effected by adding to a weighed piece of 
gold three times its weight of fine silver, called inquartation, i.e., 
3 parts silver to i part of alloyed gold : these are wrapped all 
together in a piece of sheet lead and cupelled, or melted in a 
crucible called a cupel. All the impurities are thus got rid of, 
^nd the button taken from the cupel consists solely of the mixed 
gold and silver. This button is then flattened on an anvil, and 
twisted into a screw called a cornet. It is then placed in a bottle 
with aquafortis, in which it remains for a certain time, muriatic 
acid being subsequently added to make it stronger. This operation 
dissolves all the silver, leaving only the pure gold, which after 
being dried and shrunk, is carefully weigned, and the difference 
between that and its original weight before cupel lation shows the 
exact quantity of alloy. 

The assay of silver is more simple. Weigh accurately the 
piece of silver to be assayed, wrap it in about twelve times its 
weight of sheet lead, melt the whole in a cupel, which expels all 
the alloy with the lead, leaving a bead of pure silver. It is again 
weighed in a very sensitive balance, and the alloy calculated from 
the loss in weight. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 6i 

The assay marks used at the Goldsmiths* Hall of London were 
ordered to be the letters of the alphabet, changing every year. We 
do not know with certainty when this plan was first adopted, but 
it was probably as early as the time when the Goldsmiths* Company 
were empowered to assay the precious metals, which, according to 
their ordinances, was in the year 1300. We can trace these letters 
back with a degree of certainty to the fifteenth century. This 
method of denoting the year in which any piece of plate was made 
and assayed, by placing upon it a letter of the alphabet, enables 
us at the present day to ascertain the date of its manufacture, if 
assayed at the Goldsmiths* Hall of London. 

Different arrangements of the letters were adopted by the Cor- 
porations of other towns, who subsequently had the privilege of 
assaying granted them. The marks of the principal towns — Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow, Dublin, Exeter, Chester, Newcastle, Sheffield, and 
Birmingham, we have succeeded in establishing, and they are given 
in a tabular form, through the kindness of the local authorities, 
who readily accorded leave to examine the records. 

The Goldsmiths* Hall of London employs the letters A to U 
inclusive (omitting J), forming a cycle of twenty years, the charac- 
ter of the alphabet being varied every succeeding cycle. These 
letters are changed on the 30th of May in every year, the office sus- 
pending business on the two days preceding, and the diet box 
being proved on the 29th. Each letter is therefore used during 
the moieties of two calendar years. 

If an Assay Master divulge any design, or pattern, or secret of 
the workman whose plate is sent to the Hall to be assayed and 
stamped, he is liable to a penalty of ;;t200, and to be discharged; 
or if he mark any plate knowingly not of the required fineness. 

In a work published in 1678, entitled " News from the Gold- 
smiths, or a Tryal of Gold and Silver Wares,*' by W. T., a Gold- 
smith, we are told that — 

" There is a certain standard for gold and silver, according 
to which standard the coins of this kingdom (both gold and silver) 
are made : and as good as that standard, all plate and small wares 
in gold and silver are to be made, and that there may be no defraud 
used by making any gold and silver work worse than the standarci^ 
there is a very easy and sure way appointed by law for the regu- 
lating those wares, the understanding of which may be of signal 
benefit to all who buy and wear any sorts of gold and silver ware 
whatsoever. 

" As to London and the places adjacent, the Company of Gold- 
smiths hath the oversight of those wares, and the tryal of them 
committed to them : and therefore, three days in the week, there 
is a trial made of any workman's wares (whose name and mark is 
inroulled in their Assay Office), and whatsoever works they try and 
find standard are marked with these marks following: first, the 
workman's mark who made the wares (which is usually the two first 
letters of his Christian and surname, and every workman's mark 
differs from other); the second is a leopard's head crowned; the 
third is a lion; the fourth is a single letter (the letter which is 



62 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

used this present year being fjl. 1677-78); and whatsoever plate 
or small wares have these marks upon them, it is not to be ques- 
tioned but that they are sterling or standard, that is, as good as 
money. 

" But there being several sorts of small wares, both in gold and 
silver, which cannot be assayed and marked at Goldsmiths' Hall, 
after they are finished : they are therefore sold with the private 
workman's mark; and to prevent defrauds in this, all workers in 
gold and silver, in London and its suburbs, are required by law 
to make known their marks to the wardens of the Company of 
Goldsmiths, at their Hall in Foster Lane, that one workman may 
not strike a mark that is like another workman's; and that any 
persons who have wares marked with the workman's mark only, 
may, by addressing themselves to the Company of Goldsmiths, 
find out the makers of their wares; and if the wares which they 
have marked be found worse than standard, the Company of Gold- 
smiths will procure the aggrieved party recompense and punish 
the workman. 

" The reader cannot but be satisfied of the excellency of this 
way of warranting silver; but I shall show you how it's neglected to 
the publick's great wrong. Although the wardens have power to 
search any goldsmiths' shops and houses, and carry away any 
works which they shall make choice, to try them, whether they be 
standard or not, and to fine the owners if they find them worse 
than standard ; yet the workers and sellers of gold and silver wares 
being so numerous and dispersed in their dwellings to all parts of 
the city and suburbs, it is not easy that all their small wares can be 
found out by the wardens of the Company, to be tryed ; they being 
sold therefore upon the bare workman's or shopkeeper's credit, and 
they having the marking of these wares themselves; there are these 
evils that do follow it. 

" I. Some of their wares are not marked at all, though they 
may very well bear marking (whereby they are forfeited, though 
they be standard). 

" 2. Some of their wares are marked with private marks, which 
are not inroulled at Goldsmiths' Hall : For some of them who have 
a mark inroulled at Goldsmiths* Hall will have another mark not 
inroulled; which mark they will set upon adulterated wares: and 
this counterfeit mark shall be so like the inroulled mark, that it 
will not be known to be the unlawful mark by any that doth not 
know what marks are inroulled and what are not ; for there is only 
this difference : as if I (one over the other) is the mark inroulled 
at Goldsmiths' Hall, then "P.B." (one by the other) may be the 
counterfeit mark; of if " S." be the inroulled mark, then " I.S." may 
be the counterfeit, or any other way, according to the workman's 
device," &c. 

The following extract from the "Touchstone for Gold and 
Silver Wares" will show what marks were in use in 1677, and the 
views of the writer, himself a goldsmith, on the subject of marks : — 

" The Company of Goldsmiths have caused to be made (ac- 
cording to the aforesaid statutes and their Charter) puncheons of 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 63 

steel and marks at the ends of them, both great and small, of these 
several sorts of following, that is, the leopard's head crownedy the 
Lyon; and a letter^ which letter is changed alphabetically every year. 
The reason of changing thereof is (as I conceive) for that by the 
aforesaid recited statutes it is provided, That if any silver work that 
is worse than sterling be marked with the Company's mark, the 
Wardens and Corporation for the time being shall make recom- 
pence to the party grieved, so that if any such default should hap- 
pen, they can tell by the letter on the work in what year it was 
assayed and marked, and thereby know which of their own officers 
deceived them, and from them obtain a recompence. These marks 
are every year made new for the use of the new wardens; and 
although the assaying is referred to the Assay Master, yet the 
Touch Wardens lock to the striking of the marks. 

" They have also made in a part of their Hall, a place called 
by them the Assay Oificey wherein is a sworn weigher. His duty 
is to weigh all silver work into the office, and enter the same into 
a book kept for that purpose, and also to weigh it out again to 
the owner; only four grains out of every twelve ounces that are 
marked are, according to their ancient custom, to be retained and 
kept for a re-assaying once in every year, before the Lords of the 
Council, in the Star Chamber at Westminster, and before a jury 
of twenty- four able Goldsmiths, all the silver works they have 
passed for good the year foregoing. 

" In this office is kept for public view a Table or Tables, 
artificially made in columns, that is to say, one column of hard- 
ened lead, another of parchment or velom, and several of the same 
sorts. In the lead column are struck or entered the workers' marks 
(which are generally the first two letters of their Christian and 
surnames), and right against them in the parchment columns are 
writ and entered the owners* names, according to the intent of 
the words in the statute (2 Henry VI. 14), to wit, 'And that the 
sign of every Goldsmith be known to the Wardens of the Craft* 
which said wardens* duty is to see that the marks be plain and 
of a fit size, and not one like another, and to require the thus 
entering the said marks, and also the setting them clear and visible 
on all gold and silver work, not only on every work, but also on 
every part thereof that is wrought apart, and afterwards soldered 
and made fast thereto, in finishing the same." 

The same work gives an engraving of the marks used by the 
Goldsmiths' Company for the year 1676, viz., The Leopard's Head 
crowned, the Lion passant, and the Old English Letter T of a 
peculiar form, being like an L, but evidently intended for the 
former, as the same is used at the head of each page in the word 
" Touchstone." 

The letter is enclosed in a pointed shield. (See Cycle 12.) 
Hence we observe that tables were kept in public view in the 
Assay Office of the stamps of all the gold and silver plate makers; 
their signs being struck or punched on a strip of hardened lead, 
their names being written at length on parchment columns imme- 
diately opposite; and this plan of striking the signs appears to 



64 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

have been adopted and continued since 1423. Unfortunately none 
of these tables have been preserved; but one very interesting relic 
of the custom is in existence, namely, a large sheet of copper closely 
stamped with makers' signs only of large and small sizes, but 
nothing is known of the neimes of the workers who used them. 

The size of this copper plate is 24 by 18 inches, and the in- 
scription on a tablet underneath is as follows : — 

" On the above PLATE are the MARKS from WORKMEN taken at 
this OFFICE Prior to the Fifteenth of April, A.D. 1697, of which not 
any other Entry is to be found." 

With the permission kindly given by the Master, Wardens, 
and Court of Assistants of the Goldsmiths* Company, we are en- 
abled to give, in this work, a copy of this important tablet. It will 
be remembered that 1697 was the date of the Act of Parliament 
ordering the new standard of 1 1 oz. 10 dwts., and altering the 
marks from the lion and leopard's head to a figure of Britannia 
and the lion's head erased, and that the makers' marks were ordered 
to be the two first letters of their surnames. Before that period 
the mark or sign of the workman was left to his own fancy, using 
a device or monogram of his own choice; and that the sign of every 
goldsmith should be known to the Wardens of the craft, it was 
struck upon a copper plate which hung in the Assay Office. By a 
comparison of the maker's marks on the plate with pieces of silver 
bearing corresponding stamps and the letter denoting the year, we 
may safely assume that it was first used on the 23rd February, 1675, 
the date of the Goldsmiths* Order (see p. 17), and is the identical 
table therein referred to for the plate-workers to strike their marks 
upon, and continued to be used for that purpose until the 15th of 
April, 1697, when the new standard was adopted. 

From the 15th April 1697, the stamps were regularly placed 
against the makers' names and date of entry ; and these records are 
fairly preserved in volumes, bound in parchment, in the Goldsmiths' 
Hall, London. 

A clause in the Act 17 & 18 Victoria, cap. 96, directs that 
" Gold and Silver Wares may be assayed at any lawful Assay 
Office, wherever manufactured, without being liable to any forfei- 
ture or penalty imposed by any previous Act." 

DIRECTIONS FOR ASSAYING. 

Assaying is the only method by which the real value of bullion 
can be ascertained ; and about twelve grains of gold and one penny- 
weight of silver in cuttings or scrapings are sufficient for either. 
These must be rolled up in a piece of paper, about six inches long 
cind three broad, turning in the corners to prevent the pieces drop- 
ping out, and the owner's name written upon the top. This paper 
must then be carried to an Assay Master, who will make his report 
in some of the underwritten characters, which compared with the 
scale will give the exact value per ounce. 

Assayers marks arey ( 3 Uij ob. ^ h with W*^ and B^ 

meaning Worse or Better than Standard. The first stands for i 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 65 

ounce, the second 10 dwts., the third 5 dwts., those with the dots 
I dwt. each, ob (obolus) half -penny weight, the others for quarters 
as usual. 

Gold assays are reported in karats, grains, three-quarter grains, 
half grains, and quarter grains, and are thus expressed : i kar. i 
gr. J. Thus gold found to be 23 karats 2 grains fine is reported 
" Better i karat 2 grains " ; and gold of 20 karats 2 grains is re- 
ported " Worse I karat 2 grains." 

Silver assays are reported in ounces, pennyweights, and half- 
penny weights, and are thus expressed: i oz. ^ ^11 Ou. (Ede.) 

The standard for silver means 222 parts or pennyweights of 
fine silver to 1 8 parts or pennyweights of copper, weighing together 
240 parts or pennyweights, equal to one pound troy : thus if silver 
has 19 parts of copper to 221 of fine silver, the Assayer reports 
I dwt., worse. If the silver alloy, on the other hand, contains only 
»7 parts of copper to 223 of fine silver, the report says, i dwt. better. 

The more rational way of reporting the quality of silver is in 
millims or thousandth parts of a unit. So, for instance, an alloy of 
9 parts silver to i part copper would be 900 millims, ^^, and 
our English standard of ^% would be equal to 925 millims. 

The assay report for gold is also generally made with refer- 
ence to standard, or fi, that is 22 parts or karats of gold to 2 
parts or karats of alloy (silver, copper, or of both), stating the num- 
ber of karats under or above standard as so much worse or better. 
As, however, the goldsmith always turns the report intc fine, that 
is, so many karats of pure gold out of the 24, it seems the most 
rational to report in the manner most comprehensible, and to say, 
for example, instead of 4 karats worse, 18 karats iine. Gold is 
also reported in millims (milliimes), in the same way as silver. 

Parting Assays are reported in ounces of fine gold or silver 
in I pound troy. For example : — 

oz. dwt, cr- 



Gold . . . 8 3 10 
Silver . • • 2 12 



Q f in I pound troy. 



This means, that of 12 oz. which make i pound troy of the 
alloy, 8 oz. 3 dwts. 10 grs. are gold and 2 oz. 12 dwts. silver, the 
remaining i oz. 4 dwts. 14 grs. being base metal. (LutscAaunig.) 

The decimal assay is always noted in the assay report as a 
memorandum, but never enters into the calculation of tiie value. 
It is not used as between the Bank and the public. 

The milli^me system of reporting assays in France goes to the 
ten-thousandth part, but experience shows that accuracy cannot 
practically be attained to that nicety. Assays may be relied upon 
to the mil Heme; but beyond that it is hardly safe, in consequence 
of difference between the different assayers; it is barely possible to 
assay closer than ^ of the milli^me. 

ASSAY BY MEANS OF THE SPECTROSCOPE. 

Before concluding our account of the Assay Offices of the 
United Kingdom, we may here briefly notice the new system of 

F 



66 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

assay of the precious metals by means of the spectroscope, recently 
proposed by Mr. J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. Experiments have 
been conducted at the Mint to ascertain the practicability of the 
scheme and determine whether it would be possible to adopt it 
Mr. Roberts, Chemist of the Mint, expresses an opinion that by the 
aid of the spectroscope differences of composition more minute than 
the xuj^njth part might be readily distinguished. 

The Deputy Master of the Mint (Mr. C. W. Fremantle), in 
his report for the year 1873, states that he had requested Mr. 
Roberts to render every assistance to Mr. Lockyer in developing a 
process of quantitative spectrum analysis, which might with ad- 
vantage replace the methods of assay, or at any rate of verification, 
in use at the Mint. Experiments conducted by Mr. Lockyer and 
Mr. Roberts were continued throughout the early part of the year, 
and the results were communicated in a paper to the Royal Society, 
who have directed their publication in the " Philosophical Trans- 
actions." As, however, these researches were of the nature of labo- 
ratory experiments merely, it became necessary to conduct a series 
under conditions more nearly approaching those which would occur 
in actual practice, and instructions were given that such experiments 
should be conducted in the Mint itself. Instruments have been ob- 
tained, and arrangements have now been completed for this branch 
of the work. 

WASTE AND SWEEP. 

The sweep is composed of cinders or dust from the forge, the 
sweepings of the workshop, broken crucibles, the dross which ad- 
heres to the ingots of metal after fusion, and of every waste which 
can possibly contain minute particles of gold and silver, which 
had escaped the notice of the workman, or had become dispersed 
and lost in the manipulation of the metals. 

This sweep is washed over, a fine hair sieve, and the more per- 
ceptible portions of metal separated and refined ; but the remainder 
called by the French les regrets^ yet contain impalpable particles, 
and is usually sold to persons who have the necessary utensils and 
appliances, and who by means of mercury mills, about the size of 
a coffee mill, burning it in the crucible, and by the employment of 
fluxes of saltpetre, &c., are able to extract whatever metal may 
remain. It is then cupelled to determine the proportions of gold 
and silver eliminated in the process. 

In large establishments the waste and sweep form a consider- 
able item. We may especially notice the coinage operations at the 
London Mint. The large gold coinage which commenced in 1871, 
and was finished in June, 1873, amounted to ;f 24,500,000 sterling. 
The value of the metal actually deficient during the operation was 
;£^3826, 7s. lod., or ;f 156, 3s. 7d. per million. The sweep, weighing 
more than 26 tons, was sold for £2\\^, los. The loss, therefore, 
was ;£^i4ii, 17s. lod., or £^jy 12s. 5d. per million. It was considered 
by the authorities at the Mint that if the operation had been con- 
ducted there, the sum realised would not compensate them for the 
loss of time and labout necessciry for the purpose. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 6; 

• THE TRIAL OF THE PYX AND STANDARD 

TRIAL PLATES. 

The origin of the custom of the Trial of the Pyx is lost in 
obscurity.* The first statutory mention of it is in an Act of the 
first year of the reign of Edwcird III. The examination was then 
decr^d, as of old time ordained. The pyx (irvfts) is a box or 
chest, like an iron safe, divided into three compartments, two for 
silver coins and one for gold, secured by three intricate locks, each 
opened by different keys, which are entrusted to distinct officials of 
different departments. In the lid are three carefully protected aper- 
tures, through which the coins are dropped, and wnen full, the fact 
is notified by the Master of the Mint to the Privy Council, and it 
is then examined in the presence of the Lord Chancellort and other 
high functionaries of the State, the Master and Wardens of the 
Goldsmiths' Company, and a jury of freemen goldsmiths selected 
by them. No stated times are appointed, but usually the trial takes 
place every five or six years. 

Each milling of gold or silver, and its subsequent coinage, is 
termed a " journey " or day's work. These journeys formerly were 
supposed to mean the melting of 15 lbs. of gold, or 60 lbs. of 
silver, but now thej^ vary in amount ; and from each batch, whether 
large or small, specimen coins of every denomination that have been 
made from it are deposited in the pyx, marked with the date and 
value of the journey from which they are selected. The oath being 
administered to the Jury by the Queen's Remembrancer, they are ad- 
dressed by the Lord Chancellor upon the importance of their func- 
tions, and the officers of the Mint are virtually ^vtn into their 
custody, until by finding the correctness of the com submitted to 
their assay, both in weight and fineness, they should deliver their 
verdict of acquittal, and give the officers their quietus. The assay 
formerly took place in a room at the Exchequer, fitted up with 
furnaces, crucibles, tests, &c., but now it is done at Goldsmiths' 
Hall. The actual process is as follows : — ^The whole mass of gold 
and silver coin in the pyx is rolled under enormous pressure into 
two distinct ingots; a piece is then cut oflf the end of each, and 
rolled into a long and narrow plate, about the thickness of a shil- 
ling; a number of small pieces are then cut off each plate, and, 
after being weighed with the strictest accuracy, are assayed in the 
usual manner, and the results compared with the standard trial 
pieces brought from the Exchequer, where they are always pre- 
served. 

In the Annual Report of the Deputy Master of the Mint (C. W. 
Fremantle, Esq.), he observes : — " The Annual Trial of the Pyx was 

* The first known writ for a Trial of the Pyx dates from the time of 
Edward I., 1281. 

t Several royal and distinguished personages have in former times presided 
at the Trials of the Pyx. In 1611, James I., attended by Henry Prince of 
Wales; in 1669, Charles II., attended by the Duke of York and Prince 
Rupert: and four years later, Prince Rupert, himself a scientific chemist, 
presided. From 1717 to 1870 the Lord Chancellor always presided, except in 
1787, when the Right Honourable William Pitt was the President. 



68 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

held at Goldsmiths* Hall on the 17th July, 1873, when the gold and 
silver coins struck at the Mint during the preceding twelve months 
were subjected to the rigid examination rendered necessanr by the 
passing of the Coinage Act of 1870, which, by prescribing the 
standard weight and fineness of each coin, makes it necessary for 
the jury of the Goldsmiths* Company to pronounce their verdict, 
not only upon the correctness of the coins as weighed and as- 
sayed in bulk, but also upon the weight and fineness of any indi- 
vidual coin which they may select for trial. The amount of coin- 
age under examination was ;£^i 1,235,000 of gold coin, and 
:£^i, 597,000 of silver coin; and of the six sovereigns and three half- 
sovereigns examined, five coins were found to be of the exact stand- 
ard of fineness, 916.6, &c., the greatest variation from standard 
being only T^yJo^th part. The result of the examination as re- 
garded the weight of the gold coins and the weight and fineness 
of the silver coin was equally satisfactory." He continues : — 

" There are few points connected with the operations of coinage 
of greater importance than the maintenance of accurate standards, 
by reference to which the fineness of coin may be determined and 
the integrity of a metallic currency guaranteed. From the first in- 
troduction of a gold coinage into this country in the reign of Henry 
in., whose coins were 24 karats fine, or pure gold, there have always 
been ' fiducial ' pieces with which the coin could be compared ; and 
the changes which have been from time to time made in the fine- 
ness of the coinage have always been accompanied by the establish- 
ment of standards intended to contain the exact proportion of pre- 
cious metal prescribed by law. Fragments of ancient trial plates, 
representing the various changes made, are still preserved in the 
Mint, and have been examined under my directions. 

" Having pointed out in my First Annual Report that the gold 
standard trial plate prepared in 1829, and then in use, was below 
the exact standard of fineness, and further, that it might be well 
to supplement it with a plate of fine gold, the Board of Trade took 
the necessary steps for the preparation of new standard plates both 
of fine gold ana silver, and for supplementing them with plates 
of fine metal, and the preparation of them was undertaken at the 
Mint, and verified by the Goldsmiths' Company. The bar of 
standard gold was rolled into a plate and assayed carefully at 
different parts. It weighed 72 ounces. The silver trial plate 
weighed 104 ounces. It should be borne in mind that, as portions 
of the plate are distributed to the provincial Assay Offices in the 
country, and to the Indian and Colonial Mints, both their prepara- 
tion and verification are matters of the highest importance." 

W. C. Roberts, Esq., Chemist of the Mint, in his Report for 
the year 1873. has given in a tabular form a statement of the results 
of assays which he had made to ascertain the composition of the 
ancient trial plates, with some remarks as to their history. The 
earliest gold trial plate of which there is any record was made in 
17 Edward IV., 1477. Its fineness is 23 karats 3^ grains, and only 
I a karat alloy, which was principally silver. When gold coins 
were first introduced into England by Henry III, in 1257, they were 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 69 

24 karats fine; that is, pure gold. Edward III, in 1345, was the 
first to use the standard of this plate. The next is of 22 karats, 
issued by Henry VIII. A trial plate of 1553 of 23 karats lo^ 
grains bears the following inscription : STAN . OF . XXIII . KARE . X . 
GRE . DEMI . FYNE . PRYVE . MARKE *. It has no date, but the 
" pry ve maurke " (a pomegranate) is the same as that borne by the 
sovereigns and angels issued by Mary in this year. There are three 
of Elizabeth of 22 karats and 23 karats 3^ grains ; one of James 
1., 1605, of 23 karats 3^ grains; the first year of the Commonwealth, 
1649, 22 karats; Charles II., 1660, of 22 karats. Since this date 22 
karats has continued standard. The other trial plates are of 1688, 
1707, 1728, and 1829, and the new trial plates made in 1873, one 
of 22 karats, the other of pure gold. 

Silver trial pieces of the same dates are preserved, which, with 
two exceptions as " standards for Ireland " much debased, were of 
the present standard, ii oz. 2 dwts. These trial plates are in charge 
of the Warden of the Standards at the Royal Mint 

Mr. Roberts says : — " It is evident that, although the standards 
of fineness were always prescribed by law, the trial plates have 
nevertheless at times been very inaccurate. The imperfections of 
the gold plates are mainly due to sources of error, which had been 
recognised, but which were ignored when the last plates were made; 
and it is well to explain, therefore, that plates were in former times 
authoritatively pronounced to be * standard ' simply with reference 
to the results of an inaccurate process of assay. The process now 
consists in submitting an accurately weighed portion of the alloy to 
a rapid method of chemical analysis, whereby impurities are elimin- 
ated, and the precious metal, thus purified, is again weighed; but 
the method is complicated, and the accuracy of the result may be 
aflPected by the retention of impurities, or by an actual loss of metal 
during the process. The weight of gold as indicated by the bal- 
ance will, in consequence, not represent the amount originally pre- 
sent in the alloy, and it is therefore necessary to control the ' stand- 
ards ' or check pieces, the composition of which is known. As, how- 
ever, any error in the composition of these checks will be reflected 
in the result of the assay, it is preferable to use pieces of pure metal 
corresponding in weight to the amount which the alloys to be tested 
are anticipated to contain. Formerly such checks of pure metal 
were not employed, and a small amount of silver, varying from 

TuSuu^h *^ Tifcry*^ P^^^ ^f ^^^ initial weight of the assay 
piece which remained in association with the gold was consequently 
reckoned as gold in the assay report. It follows, therefore, that 
even the more recent plates, when accurately assayed, are usually 
found to be sensibly below the exact standards which they were 
intended to represent." 

The amount of gold and silver plate assayed and marked at 
the Assay Offices for seven years ending the 29th May 1872 : — 

London .... Gold, 3926 lbs. 2 oz. 8 dwts. 8 grs. 
„ .... Silver, 692,528 lbs. 3 oz. 11 dwts. 

Chester .... Total, 715 lbs. weight of silver plate. 

Exeter .... Total, 2800 lbs. weight of silver plate. 

Newcastle • . . Total, 7266 lbs. weight of silver plate. 



Cfjc ©utg. 



A.D. 1 7 19. 6 George I. A duty of sixpence per ounce troy 
was imposed on all silver plate which should oe imported or made 
in Great Britain. Goldsmiths to keep scales and weights. 

A.D. 1756. 29 George II. Owners of plate to pay a duty of 
5s. annually for 100 ounces; los. for 200 ounces; and so on — to be 
entered at the Office of Excise. 

Plate belonging to the Church, or stock in trade of Goldsmiths, 
exempt. 

A.D. 1758. 31 George II. c. 32. The previous Act was re- 
pealed, and in lieu thereof a licence of forty shillings substituted, 
lo be taken out by every person trading in, selling, or vending gold 
or silver plate, and the licence to be renewed annually. 

A.D. 1759. 32 George II. c. 14. The licence was increased to 
£i per annum for every person trading in gold plate of two ounces, 
and silver of thirty ounces and upwards. Persons dealing in gold 
and silver, of less weight than two pennyweights of gold, or iii 
silver not exceeding five pennyweights, in one piece of goods, ex- 
empted. 

A.D. 1784. 24 George III. An Act was passed imposing an 
additional duty of eight shillings per ounce on gold plate, and 
sixpence per ounce on silver plate. It was also enacted that the 
wardens or their assay masters should mark the pieces with a new 
mark, viz., the King's head, over and above the several other mark^ 
directed by law. The expression " The King's Head " is under- 
stood to mean the representation of the head of the reigning sove- 
reign. 

After the passing of this Act, which came into operation on the 
jst December 1784, a duty stamp of the King's head incuse was 
used for a short period. We find it in conjunction with the letter 
i of 1784, and also with the letter k of 1785. There were several 

f)ieces of plate in the late Dr. and Mrs. Ashford's possession of the 
atter year, k and head incuse^ viz., a cake-basket, pepper-box, and 
some spoons. 

The Duty Act of 1784 (24 Geo. III. c. 53) directs that all gold 
and silver plate intended for exportation shall be stamped at the 
Assay Office, when the drawback is allowed, with a punch of the 
figure of Britannia; and to distinguish it from the similar mark 
used for the new standard, it was stamped incuse. It was of short 
duration, for the manufacturers objecting to the number of stamps 
and consequent disfigurement of the plate, that part of the Act re- 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 71 

lating to the drawback stamp was repealed in the following year, 
1785 (25 Geo. IIL c. 64), and took effect on the 24th July of that 
year; so that the incuse Britannia denoting the drawback was only 
in use about seven months. 

Upon the exportation of plate (except gold rings and wares 
under two ounces) a drawback of the whole duty is allowed if the 
plate be new and has never been used, and the same has been 
wrought in the United Kingdom. 

In 1797 the duty on gold was 8s. per ounce, and silver is. 

In 1803 the former Act of 1784, as regards the licence, was 
repealed, and new licences appointed. For trading in gold more 
than 2 pennyweights and under 2 ounces, and in silver over 5 
ounces and under 30 ounces, £2, 6s. per annum; for 2 ounces and 
above, and for 30 ounces and upwards, £% 1 5s. per annum. 

In 1804 the duty was increased on gold to i6s. and silver is. 
3d. per ounce. 

In 181 5 the duties were raised on manufactured gold to 17s. 
per ounce, and silver is. 6d. per ounce, allowing one-sixth of the 
weight for waste in finishing, called the rebate; watch-cases being 
exempt by 38 Geo. III. c. 24. 

In this year (181 5) the licences for dealing in gold and 
silver were raised to double the amount specified by the Act of 1803, 
viz., £\\^ I OS. for gold above 2 ounces and silver above 30 ounces, 
and ;f4, 12s. for the minor trading. 

The deduction from the actual weight of the silver of one- 
sixth was equal to a rebate of 3d. per ounce on unfinished plate, re- 
ducing the duty to is. 3d. instead of is. 6d. per ounce, as an allow- 
ance for waste in finishing. On some articles, such as flat dishes, 
or waiters, the rebate scarcely covered the loss in finishing. On other 
articles the manufacturer realised a small profit, amounting to be- 
tween a penny and twopence per ounce, which ought, perhaps, to be 
looked upon as a sort of discount, as the maker paid the duty long 
before, in many instances, he recouped it again when the article is 
sold. The rebate of one-sixth in gold articles reduced the actual 
duty paid to 14s. 3d. instead of 17s. per ounce, so that on wedding 
rings, allowing for waste in finishing, there would, perhaps, be a 
profit of 2s. per ounce. 

Plate in an unfinished state when sent to the Hall to be assayed 
was subject to the full duty of is. 6d. per ounce, no rebate being 
allowed. 

By the 12 and 13 Victoria, c. 80, the allowance to the Hall for 
collection of the duty is fixed at i per cent. 

All gold, so calledy whether of 22 and 18 karats fine, or the 
debased gold of 15, 12, or 9 karats in the 24, must pay the full 
duty^ and be stamped accordingly. Wedding rings pay duty of 
whatever weight and quality they may be. Gold plate of any 
weight must pay dutv. The weight of an article does not deter- 
mine whether it is liaole, and only articles specially exempted may 
be assayed and marked duty free. Articles not weighing 10 dwts. 
each are only exempted when they are too small or too thin to bear 
the marks. 



72 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



In 1890 the duty of is. 6d. per ounce on silver plate was abo- 
lished, but the duty of 17s. per ounce on gold was retained, 
and marked as before with the stamp of the sovereign's head to 
denote payment thereof. For particulars of the abolition of the 
duty on silver the reader is referred to page 46 ante. 

The fashion for large and heavy masses of plate has entirely 
gone out since the commencement of this century, such as dinner 
services, &c., although the number of plate-workers has not de- 
creased, the articles manufactured being usually of comparatively 
small character. The introduction of electro-plating has had con- 
siderable influence in diminishing the employment of silver in 
plate. Mr. Prideaux, Secretary of the Goldsmiths* Company, in his 
examination before the Committee on the Gold and Silver Hall- 
Marking, in the year 1878, handed in the following return of the 
duty on manufactured plate at Goldsmiths* Hall for seven decen- 
nial periods from 1808 to 1878. 

He stated, that it proved that the falling off of the trade was 
greatly attributable to the use of electro-plate, which was introduced 
about 1843 or 1845, and got in full swing about 1848, when it will 
be observed that the duty on silver had decreased from £721, g^g 
sterling in 1828 down to ;f 487,633 in 1858, still dropping down to 
the present time. 

AMOUNT OF DUTY RECEIVED AT GOLDSMITHS' HALL, LONDON, 
FROM 1ST APRIL 180S TO 31ST MARCH 1878. 





x8o8 

to 

z8i8. 


1818 

to 

1828. 


182 S 

to 
1838. 


1838 

to 

1848. 


1848 

to 

1838. 


1858 

to 

1868. 


1868 

to 

1878. 


Gold . . . 

Silver . . . 

Total . . 


£ 
52.229 

656,259 


51.152 
721,919 


42.032 
673.380 


£ 
40,308 

674,673 


£ 
45.558 

487.633 


£ 
47.765 

454.073 


£ 
59.2=3 

428,425 


708.488 


773.101 


715-4" 


714,981 


533.191 


501.838 


487.648 



It will be observed that gold has not been in the least affected 
by electro-plating, because the duty which is derived may in point 
of fact be said to be entirely derived from wedding rings, which 
has also been subject to fluctuation. No large works in gold are 
now made, even snuff-boxes have gone out of date, but wedding 
rings increase with the population. 

In the Report of the Committee on the Depreciation of Silver 
in 1876, one witness (Mr. Seyd), who appeared to be conversant with 
the subject, showed in his evidence that the amount of silver bullion 
used in electro-plating in one year was a million ounces, which was 
only about a hundred thousand ounces less than the entire amount 
used in the manufacture of silver plate. This large amount of 
silver employed in electro-plating paid no duty, raw silver being 
exempt; the duty of is. 6d. per ounce formerly chargeable on manu- 
factured articles of sterling silver was abolished by Act of Parlia- 
ment in 1890. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



73 



GOLD AND SILVER PLATE-DUTY AND DEALERS' LICENCES FROM 1720 TO 1882. 



XNGLAKD. 



Duty. 



Date. 

1729 

1757 
1756 
1758 

1783 
1758 
1759 

1778 
1779 

1780 
1781 
1782 

1814 

1784 

1797 
1798 

1808 
1804 

1815 
1815 

1825 
1815 

1882 
1826 

1882 



Bilrer 
per oz. 



6d. 



Gold 
per OS. 



Dnty repealed 



... I 



I 



6d. 



lilCBNCEB. 



On silver only 



5b. for every 100 os. 



1 



88. 



Is. 8s. 



I«-8d- 16fl. 



I 

{ 



408. per anniim 

£6 above 2 os. 
gold and 80 oz. 
silver, jE2 below 

£5 5 
and 

£2 2 
£5 10 

and 
£2 4 
£5 15 

and 
£2 6 



i 



, C £11 10 •) 
... ' "nd 

C £4 12 ; 



lB.6d. 17b. 



£5 15 

and 
£2 6 



SCOTLAND. 



Duty. 



Date. 



1720 



1757 



1758 



Silver 
per oz. 



6d. 



LiCXKCSB. 



Gold 
per oz. 



U 



On 

fdlver 

nly. 



Duty repealed , 
1783 ' ' ' 



a.. I ... 



1784 
1803 



1 



6d. 



1804 



1816 j 



l8.3d. 



1817 



1882 



Is.ed, 



88. 



les. 



178. 



73 

.2 
'3) 

c 

fl 

3 

a 



IRSLAND. 



Duty. 



Date. 



173 ') 
1806 3 



1785 



1804 



Silver 
per oz. 

6d.per 
§old 
silver 



Gold 
per oz. 



ounce 

and 

alike 



I... 



1805 



1806 



1807 



} 



LiCEXCBS. 



\ 



208. per annum 



40b. per annum 



) Is 



per ounce 
gold and 



1842 ) \ silver < alike 

I 

1807 I) 

' ■*« • • • 

■ ) I 



) King's 
> first 
) 1807. 



head 
used 



I 



1811 

1812 
1841 

1842 
1880 



j... 



{ 



£5 on cities; 
£2 other 
places. 

£5, 5s. Dublin ; 
£2, 2s. other 
places. 



( £5, 156. and 
£2, 6s. as in 
England. 



I 



1843 ') 
1882 ) 



Is. 



17s. 



Note.— In 1890 the duty on silver was abolished in the United Kingdom. 



74 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 









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HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 75 

ENACTMENTS. 

13 George IIL c. 52; 24 George III. c. 20. Makers of plated 
goods in Sheffield must not put letters on them unless they have 
first been approved by and registered with the Company. 
' 6 & 7 William IV. c. 69. Makers of plated goods in Scotland 
must not put letters upon them. 

NOTICES TO THE TRADE. 

The following Notices to the Trade have been issued from the 
Assay OflSce, Goldsmiths* Hall, signed by Mr. William Robinson, 
the Deputy Warden : — 

London, October 11, 1880. 

" Sir, — I beg to refer you to the following extract from a letter 
received from the Secretary of the Board of Inland Revenue, in 
reference to the payment of duty on plain gold rings : ' As regards 
plain gold rings, not intended for chasing or engraving, the Board 
adhere to their determination, that they must be regarded as wed- 
dmg rings and duty paid accordingly.* *' 

" Assay Office, Goldsmiths* Hall, 

December 1881. 

" All plain gold rings, irrespective of weighty not intended to be 
set with stones, or to be chased or engraved, will be regarded as 
wedding rings for the purposes of duty. — By order of the Board 
ot Inland Revenue.** 

"Assay Office, Goldsmiths* Hall, 

August -1882. 

" Referring to the Notice issued from this Office in December 
1 88 1, notice is hereby further given that all plain gold rings, irre- 
spective of weighty not intended to be set with stones, or to be 
chased or engraved, will be regarded as wedding rings for the pur- 
poses of duty, and must be sent to Goldsmiths^ Hall to be assayed 
and marked before sale, — By order of the Board of Inland Re- 
venue. 

"Wm. Robinson, Deputy Warden!' 

We may likewise mention that the duty is no longer levied on 
mourning rings when sent to be assayed and marked. It was dis- 
continued to be charged in October 1878 by an order from the 
Board of Inland Revenue. So that now all rings (other than plain 
gold rings irrespective of weight) 2u:e exempted from duty and com- 
pulsory Hall-marking. 



76 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. 

Appointed to inquire into the manner of conducting the several 

Assay Offices in London, York, Exeter, Bristol, Chester, 

Norwich, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, ordered to be 

printed in 1773. 

The Report commences, that "in order to discover in what 
manner the several Assay Offices in London, Chester, Exeter, and 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne (being the only Assay Offices which they 
find are now kept up in this kingdom) have been conducted, ordered 
the Assay Masters to attend them, and produce an account of the 
number of Goldsmiths, Silversmiths, and Plate- Workers, &c. — the 
names and places of abode of those now living that have entered 
their marks, also an account of the weight of all the gold and silver 
plate assayed and mcirked at each office for seven years last past" 

From this it appears that the offices at York, Bristol, and 
Norwich were not then in operation. 

As to the Goldsmiths* Hall, London, Mr. David Hennell, De- 
puty Warden, stated that there are at the said office two weighers, 
four drawers, and two assayers; and described what their duties 
were. Mr. Fendall Rushworth, Senior Assay Master; Mr. George 
Fair, Clerk to the Company; and Mr. Richard Collins, Fireman 
and Drawer, were also examined as to the annual diet tried on the 
28th May, the modes of assay, &c. 

Mr. W. Hancock, a silversmith of Sheffield, said that his work 
had been injured by scraping; and he went to the Hall, and gave 
some drink to the Assay Master and scraper, since which time his 
plate had been less damaged. Mr. Spilsbury said that drawers or 
scrapers, if inclined, had opportunities of delivering to the assayer 
better silver than they scrape from the work; that the assayer had 
an opportunity of wrapping in lead what scrapings he pleased, to 
put upon the cupels which he delivered to the fireman; and as the 
standard mark is put upon the silver by the report of the assayer 
alone, he had opportunities of favouring any silversmith he 
pleased ; that he had several times treated the workmen with drink ; 
and thought it of consequence to be on good terms with the scrapers, 
as they had the power of showing favour; for when his plate had 
been objected to. he had known those difficulties removed by giving 
liquor at the Hall. 

As to the office at Chester, Mr. John Scasebrick, the Assay 
Master, described the mode of operating : If pieces came from 
which he could cut bits, he did so; if not, he scraped off sufficient 
for the assay and wrapped it in lead, and when the furnace and 
cupels were hot enough he refined the assay, but no flux 
was used, because the lead refined it. If it came out 
II ounces 2 dwts. fine silver, it was marked with the 
lion, the leopard's head, the city arms (being three lions 
and a wheatsheaf), and the letter for the year, the letter 
for the present official year (1772-3) being U. Sometimes it is 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 77 

passed at 1 1 oz., but then the owners are written to to be more cauti- 
ous for the future. He had no fixed salary — his profit never 
amounted to ;£^io in any one year; the diet was never sent to the 
Tower to be assayed. When asked how he knew when silver was 
suflSciently assayed, he answered, " We know by the a§say : it first 
has a cap over it, then that works off in various colours; and after 
that it grows quite bright, and then we know all the lead is worked 
away." 

Mr. Matthew Skinner, Assay Master at Exeter, described the 
mode of work. When asked to describe his method of assaying silver, 
he said, " I take a small quantity of silver from each piece (the quan- 
tity allowed by Act of Parliament is eight grains from every pound 
troy weight), which I weigh by the assay pound weight; I wrap it 
up in a thin sheet of lead, and when the furnace is properly heated, 
the assays are put in and fired off; they are taken out when cool, 
and then weighed, and from the waste we ascertain its goodness. 
That the standard for plate is 11 oz. 2 dwts. of fine silver, and 18 
dwts. of alloy, but they allow a remedy of 2 dwts. in the pound. 
That the marks he strikes upon wrought plate are the lion, the leo- 
pard's head, the Exeter mark (which is a castle), and the letter for 
the year; that the letter for the present official year (1772-3) is Z, in 
Roman character; that the letter is appointed annually, at the first 
Hall meeting after the 7th August, and goes through the whole 
alphabet ; and that A will be the letter for next year." 

Mr. Matthew Prior, Assay Master of the Goldsmiths' Company 
at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, described his mode of assaying : " That 
of silver by fine lead; and his flux for gold was aquafortis, fine 
silver and lead. That he puts four marks upon the plate, viz., the 
lion, the leopard's head, the three castles, and the letter for the 
year; and that the letter for the present official yeatr (1772-3) is D. 

Mr. David Hennell described a fraud which was sometimes at- 
tempted by dishonest workers, called a convoy, to deceive the as- 
say er. He said, "If scrapings or cuttings are taken from different 
pieces of the same sorts of plate, the whole mass so cut or scraped 
may prove standard, but several of these pieces may not be stand- 
ard ; and that it is common to put good pieces in spoons, &c., to 
the amount of 10, 12, or 15 dwts. above standard amongst the bad 
ones, as a kind of convoy for the rest ; but if that is suspected, they 
separate it, and make different assays of all the parts, and if they 
find one part worse than standard they break the whole." 

Another fraud spoken of by several witnesses was inserting 
iron, brass, &c., in the handles of snuffers, tankards, sauce-boats, &c., 
which had escaped detection at Goldsmiths' Hall, and had been 
marked accordingly. 

An appendix to this report contains the names and places of 
abode of all the goldsmiths, silversmiths, and plate-workers now 
living, that have entered their marks in the Assay Office in Gold- 
smiths' Hall, in the City of London, 8th March 1773. 

The names and trades of the present wardens and assayers of 
the Goldsmiths' Company, and when, at what times, and by whom 
they were respectively elected. 



78 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

The oath taken by the Assayer at Goldsmiths' Hall. 

The Appendix also contains an account of the prosecutions 
which have been commenced and carried on by the Company of 
Goldsmiths of the City of London, against any person or persons 
for frauds or abuses, in gold or silver plate, within seven years last 
past : — 

" In 1767 William C, working silversmith, was prosecuted by 
indictment upon Stat 28 Edw. L, and Stat. 6 George L c. 11, for 
soldering bits of standard silver to tea-tongs and shoe-buckles 
which were worse than standard, and sending the same to the said 
Company's Assay Office, in order fraudulently to obtain their marks 
to the same. 

"In 1768 William K. of London, working silversmith, was 
prosecuted by indictment upon the said statutes for making two 
salt cellars worse than standard, and selling them for standard. 

"In 1770 James M. E. and partners were severally prosecuted by 
actions on Stat. 12 George II. for making gold chains worse than 
standard ; and Roger S. and others were prosecuted for selling gold 
watch-chains worse than standard. 

"In 1778 John G. and William V., watchmakers, were prose- 
cuted for selling two silver watch-cases without being marked, and 
which on that account were stopped at the Custom House in Lon- 
don, on their being found in a cask of hardware, in which action 
they suffered judgment to go by default." 

PLATE MARKED WITH FALSE PUNCHES AND 

OTHER OFFENCES. 

A consideration of this subject by the Government is of the 
highest importance, and the perpetrators of forged Hall-marks 
should be sought for with diligence and visited with condign pun- 
ishment. Not only is it an evasion of payment of the duty and a 
deception towards the public, but it throws suspicion upon plate 
bearing the genuine stamps, and public confidence is destroyed. 

At the present day the sale of antique plate with forged Hall- 
marks is carried on to a great extent, especially in England, where, 
in consequence of the publication of our tables of date-marks, its 
precise age may be ascertained, and the value of old plate having 
thereby increased enormously, forgers are busy counterfeiting the 
ancient marks not only in England but on the Continent. In many 
cases unprincipled dealers are cognisant of the fact, and assist in 
spreading the falsifications throughout the country. It is incum- 
bent upon the authorities to use their best endeavours to put a stop 
to such practices, and seize all spurious plate wherever it may be 
found, and the dealer (who is bound to know from whom he pur- 
chases plate) be made amenable and subject to penalties as in 
France. 

We subjoin some of the cases of fraud which have been adjudi- 
cated upon. 

In the records of the Goldsmiths' Company is an entry, dated 
4th May 1597: "The Attorney-General filed an information 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 79 

against John Moore and Robert Thomas, *That whereas it had 
been heretofore of long time provided by divers laws and statutes 
for the avoiding deceit and fraud in the making of plate, that 
every goldsmith should, before the sale of any plate by him made, 
bring the same to Goldsmiths' Hall for trial by assay, to be touched 
or marked and allowed by the wardens of the said Company of 
Goldsmiths; the which wardens by their indenture, in their search, 
find out the aforesaid deceitful workmanship and counterfeit, also 
of plate and puncheons; yet the said L M. and R. T., being lately 
made free of the Goldsmiths' Company, did about three months 
past make divers parcels of counterfeit plate, debased and worse 
than Her Majesty's standard twelve pence and more in the ounce, 
and to give appearance to the said counterfeit plate being good and 
lawful, did thereto put and counterfeit the marks of Her Majesty's 
Hotly the leopard's head^ limited by statute^ and the alphabetical 
mark approved by ordinance amongst themselves, which are the 
private marks of the Goldsmiths' Hall, and be and remain in the 
custody of the said wardens, and puncheons to be worked and im- 
printed thereon, and the said J. M. did afterwajds sell the same 
for good and sufficient plate, to the defrauding of Her Majesty's 
subjects,'" &c. They were convicted, and sentenced to stand in 
the pillory at Westminster, with their ears nailed thereto, and with 
papers above their heads stating their offence to be " For making 
false plate and counterfeiting Her Majesty's touch." They were 
then put in the pillory at Cheapside, had one ear cut off, and were 
taken through Foster Lane to Fleet Prison, and had to pay a fine 
of ten marks.* Although this is the first mention of Her Majesty's 
lioHy or lion passant, and the alphabetical mark, yet they were both 
used long before this date. The lion passant is first found on 
plate of the year 1545, and the alphabetical mark was doubtless 
used since the first Charter was granted to the Goldsmiths* Com- 
pany in 1327, and is alluded to in an ordinance of 1336 as the 
'* assay er's mark!* 

A case under the Statute of 7 & 8 Victoria, c. 22 (1844), was 
tried before Lord Denman at the Taunton Assizes in 1849. Two 
silversmiths were indicted for having in their possession a silver 
spoon having thereon a mark of a die used by the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, which had been transposed from a silver skewer; and also a 
similar charge in respect to a silver soup ladle. The prosecution 
was instituted by the Goldsmiths' Company of London. The spoon 
and ladle were of modern make, but bore the mark of the year 1774. 
An officer of the Goldsmiths' Company proved that on clearing off 
the gilding and using a blow-pipe, he found that the spoon and 
ladle were not made in one piece, which would be the ordinary mode 
of manufacture, but that the parts bearing the marks were "in- 
serted " or " brought on." A working silversmith proved that by 
direction of the prisoners he had made and sent to them two silver 

* This was the usual punishment for similar offences. In Belgium it was 
slightly varied ; the goldsmith convicted of having fabricated base gold 
or silver was led to the market place, and there had his ear nailed to a 
pillar, where he remained thus fixed, until he released himself by leaving a 
piece of his ear behind him. j 



8o HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

bowls for spoons; that they were afterwards returned to him with 
handles attached to be gilt, and when he burnished them he per- 
ceived the old Hall-marks; that the bowls and stems or handles 
were generally made together. The defence was that the facts 
proved did not amount to a iranspositiotii but were an addition^ 
and as such were not a felony, but came under the 5th section of the 
Act, which imposed a pecuniary penalty for the offence. 

It was suggested that the spoon and ladle were made by using 
old silver skewers, with the old Hall-mark, for the stems, and 
adding to them bowls and figures at the top called " apostles," in 
order to give them the appearance of old plate, and that this was 
an addition. It was admitted by the prisoners' counsel to be a 
fraud in contravention of the Act, but not a felony under the 2nd 
section. The jury found that it was not a transposition but an 
addition^ and the prisoners were discharged. The judge remarked, 
however, " It appears to me very much to be questioned, at least, 
whether the description of transposition in the one section is not 
precisely the same as the description of addition in the other sec- 
tion." 

1876. D. L. G., a dealer carrying on business in London, was 
convicted at the Central Criminal Court in August 1876 of feloni- 
ously altering and transferring a certain mark of a die used by the 
Goldsmiths' Company under the following circumstances. A cus- 
tomer found displayed in the prisoner's shop a coffee-pot. Hall- 
marked and bearing the letter m of the year 1747, there being 
appended to it a label with the words " 120 years old." This he 
purchased for £10, He also purchased a small silver ewer bearing 
the Goldsmiths' letter for 1744. 

It being discovered that these articles were of recent manufac- 
ture, the Goldsmiths' Company issued a writ against the prisoner to 
recover penalties under s. 3 of the Act 7 & 8 Victoria (1844); in 
regard to which, under another section, a dealer could, however, be 
protected, if within twenty-one days he gave up the name of the 
person from whom he bought the article. He at first stated that 
he had bought it in the way of trade, and did not know from whom, 
but he afterwards gave the name of a working electro-plater, who 
was thereupon arrested, and, on the prisoner's evidence, being com- 
mitted for trial, pleaded guilty. Judgment was postponed, and his 
evidence taken against the principal offender, from which it ap- 
peared that he had transferred to the coffee-pot and ewer certain 
old marks from pieces of silver brought to him by the prisoner for 
that purpose, the prisoner agreeing to purchase those articles if the 
witness would put the old marks upon them. The offenders were 
thereupon sentenced, the dealer to six months' and the electro-plater 
to two months' imprisonment, in both cases with hard labour. 

A few hints may be acceptable to the collector in his investiga- 
tion of antique plate. 

By the electrotype process, an ancient vase, cup, or any piece 
of plate may be moulded with the greatest exactness, showing the 
minutest chasing and engraving and even the hammer marks of the 
original, as well as the Hall-mark itself. These reproductions are 



HALLMARKS ON PLATE, 8i 

difficult of detection to the uninitiated, but an expert will at a 
glance discover the spurious copy, although the means by which he 
arrives at such a conclusion are not so easily explained. An ex- 
pierienced numismatist will, by the feel as well as the sight, dis- 
tinguish between a true and a false coin ; so a perceptible difference 
will be observed between a genuine piece of old chased silver and 
its modem prototype. There is about the latter a greasy, unsatis- 
factory appearance, which a practised hand and eye will at once 
detect. Of course in these electrotype copies the reverse would 
show the crystals formed in the process; but these are inside the 
cup or vase, and if in sight are tooled over to prevent detection. 

Sometimes English Hall-marks are cut from a spoon or small 
article and transferred to a large and more important piece of plate, 
such as a cup or vase, perhaps of old German manufacture. This 
might be detected by an assay, to ascertain if the quality correspond 
with the English standard, foreign plate being usually inferior,, 
which could be done with little trouble and at a trifling cost at an 
Assay Office, by scraping a few grains from the piece. On close 
examination with a magnifler, the transposed fragment containing 
the Hall-mark may be traced by the line round the edge, which is- 
generally inserted with solder; or if highly polished, the junction 
may be observed by applying the fumes of sulphur, or by the blow- 
pipe. 

In examining pieces with supposed counterfeit or forged Hall- 
marks several indicia must be specially considered. We must first 
try and divine the motive of falsification ; whether it be to pass off 
inferior or base metal as standard, or whether the object be to deceive 
by making the piece appear of a more ancient date than it really is> 
by placing the counterfeit of the old die upon good silver and 
taking advantage of the increased value between antique and 
modem plate. In the first case we easily arrive at a safe conclusion 
by an assay ; in the second we must to a great extent be guided by 
the style and fashion of the vessel, and judge whether they corres- 
pond with the date assigned to it by the stamps, which, if copied 
accurately from the English Hall-marks, can be easily ascertained. 
Again, tne methods of manufacturing plate, ancient and modem, 
are essentially different, as indicated by the presence of hammer- 
marks, &c. The style of ornamentation in repouss6, engraving, and 
chasing differs materially; the colour and tint of old gilding is also 
difficult to imitate. Moreover, we must not be misled or taken off 
our guard by abrasions, marks of wear and tear, or rough usage, as 
these are easily counterfeited. 

Another method of detecting spurious plate is by a close obser- 
vation of the position of the Hall-marks on the piece of plate 
under examination. The stamping of plate at the Assay Offices is 
not done at random, but is subject to official orders and regulations, 
and rules are issued instructing the stamping clerk on which par- 
ticular part of each piece the punch is to be applied. This estab- 
lished practice dates from an early period, and was so constant that 
any deviation will, to a connoisseur, raise in his mind doubts of the 
genuineness of the piece under inspection. From habit, any person 



82 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

accustomed to examine ancient Hall-marks knows exactly the posi- 
tion in which they ought to be placed, and an inexperienced person 
^ill do well to compare a doubtful piece with an undoubted speci- 
men, and form his judgment accordingly. 

Spoons are sometimes found metamorphosed into " Postles " 
by the addition of a modem statuette of a saint cut from a German 
spoon. 

In Holland and in Germany spoons are still made in the style 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and recently large quanti- 
ties have come into the English market; but by the Hall-marks they 
are easily recognised, and if not equal to English standard are now 
prohibited for sale unles previously stamped at Goldsmiths' Hall. 

In genuine apostle spoons, the statuette is frequently affixed 
to the end of the stem by means of solder, but in a particular man- 
ner ; e.g.^ the end of the stem is filed downwards to a point like the 
letter V, and the pedestal of the figure is wedge-shaped to fit closely 
into the opening and fastened with solder. Modem additions are 
cut straight off and soldered on, usually in a very clumsy and un- 
satisfactory manner. 

We may here remark, that the old-fashioned French pattern 
spoons which have been superseded by the modem fiddle-head, in- 
stead of being consigned to the crucible, are purchased by silver- 
smiths at the melting price, the bowls being chased with fruit and 
gilt, and form very elegant spoons for dessert; but of course the 
chasing is modem, and not of the date indicated by the Hall-mark. 
The large old-fashioned plain tea-kettles, teapots, and milk-jugs of 
the last 150 years are in like manner elaborately chased or en- 
graved by modem artists. 

Deception is practised in many other ways. For instance, an 
antique silver bas-relief with its Hall-mark is soldered into the 
centre of a salver, the border being modem and very heavy, the 
former weighing perhaps no more than 5 or 6 ounces, and worth 
40S. to 50s. per oz., the latter 20 or 30 ounces, made at a cost of 
about 8s. per oz. The new Hall-mark is erased, leaving only the 
old one visible, and the purchaser is deceived, thinking the whole 
salver is antique. 

In old times the Beef -eaters (as they are termed) of the Tower, 
when in their pride of office, with the old Stuart costume, wore on 
their left arm a large silver badge or cognisance, having the arms 
of the ordnance (three mounted cannons) in a handsome scroll bor- 
der, measuring about 10 inches by eight, of oval form. From 
motives of economy t^e late administration ordered these emblems 
to be sold for their intrinsic value. The purchaser having about 
twenty of these silver medallions conceived the idea, in preference 
to melting them down into ingots, of converting them into articles 
of general use; so by adding silver branches with nozzles for 
candles on the lower parts of the badges, transmogrified them into 
very handsome sconces to hang upon the walls ; the old Hall-marks 
upon the medallions proving mcontestably to an unwary purchaser 
the antiquity of these cleverly adapted articles. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 83 

The duty mark of the sovereign's head» denoting payment of 
the impost, was first used in 1784. This additional stamp at once 
proclaims the comparatively recent date of a piece of plate. To 
remedy this, the intrusive stamp is frequently erased, leaving only 
four marks, as previously used, instead of five^ which, if it does not 
convince every collector, at any rate puzzles him, and in many in- 
stances the deception is successful. 

Even the experienced collector may occasionally be deceived, 
and it requires somewhat more than a hasty glance to arrive at a 
satisfactory conclusion on the merits or demerits of a piece of plate, 
e.g.y an isolated spoon, with cleverly imitated Hall-marks, might 
pass muster, but when a whole set is produced suspicion is naturally 
aroused, and a more scrutinising investigation with the magnifying 
glass becomes necessary. We shall perchance discover that the 
three or four Hall-marks exactly correspond on each spoon, and all 
are precisely in the same relative position or distance from each 
other, the same angle of inclination of each punch, in fact the exact 
counterpart in the minutest particular. Now a little reasoning on 
this coincidence will prove that such a close resemblance of one set 
of stamps to another amounts to an impossibility on genuine spoons, 
when we consider the method of stamping at the Hall, the marks 
being punched with several punches at different times, the maker 
placing his registered stamp upon the article before he sends it to 
be assayed, and after the assay is completed the Hall-marks are 
placed by its side. 

Transformations are common, and old-fashioned articles of 
plate are frequently beaten out, added to, or ornamented in such a 
manner as to render them serviceable and attractive, still retaining 
the ancient Hall-mark, although it appears in a wrong position on 
the piece. Old saucepans of Queen Anne's time having become un- 
saleable, are converted into tankards and mugs; dishes originally 
plain are turned into chased waiters or baskets ; old decanter stands 
{now out of date) are, by trifling additions, turned into soy frames, 
&c 

These transformations have been dealt with to a certain extent 
by 7 & 8 Victoria, cap. 22, sec. 5. Manufacturers are allowed by 
this Act to add to any piece of silver a quantity not exceeding one- 
third of the whole, which additional piece may be sent to the Gold- 
smiths' Hall and stamped, but these additions must be made in 
such a manner as not to alter the original use for which it was 
intended; thus, a piece may have a foot, handle, spout, or stand 
affixed; an old tankard may have a lip attached for pouring out 
liquids, but it must not have a spout added so as to serve as a 
coffee-pot In fact, no piece whatever may be diverted from its 
original use by any addition or alteration. Pieces of Hall-marked 
plate which have been added to beyond the limit of one-third pro- 
portion to the weight of the article are subject to a duty upon the 
whole, and must t« stamped accordingly. The old Hall-marks, in 
this case, are not obliterated, but a new series of Hall-marks are 
placed under the original marks; hence the occurrence of these two 



84 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

sets of Hall-marks reveals the alterations and additions made by 
the manufacturer. 

The Hall-marks were formerly placed on plate by rule and 
not by chance, according^ to the form of the piece. Before the year 
1700 the marks were placed upon cups and bowls outside, on the 
margin, near the mouth. On tankards they will be found on the 
margin to the right of the handle, and if a flat lid, straight across 
in a line with the purchase-knob or sometimes upon the flange; 
dishes and salvers, upon the faces. At and after Queen Anne's 
period these rules were altered, and instead of being so conspicu- 
ously situated, the marks were placed on the backs, and upon cups 
and bowls were stamped underneath or inside the hollow stem of 
the foot, and inside tne lids of the tankards. Any variation from 
these rules will naturally give rise to suspicion, and a careful ex- 
amination will be necessary to ascertain whether the piece of plate 
has been altered from its original shape as before alluded to. 

In early spoons the leopards' head, crowned, was placed inside 
the bowl close to the stem, the maker's mark, date letter, and lion 
on the back of the stem; but on rat-tail spoons of the latter half 
of the' seventeenth century all the 'four marks were placed on the 
back of the stems. The books of the Goldsmiths' Company of 
London having perished in the great fire of 1666, the orders fos 
the application of stamps in their relative positions on articles of 
plate are unknown, but there was evidently a regular system 
adopted, as in France. The application of the punches in that 
country was entrusted to the comptrollers of the bureaux, and in 
this operation to ensure uniformity a catalogue was published pre- 
vious to the prohibition of massive plate in 1679, and again, in 18 19, 
giving instructions for placing the stamps in the exact positions in- 
dicated on each piece of plate. A new catalogue was issued in 
1838. 

A case of considerable importance came under the immediate 
notice of the author. This case was afterwards tried before the 
Court of Queen's Bench and the Court of Appeal. In the years 
1872 and 1873 a silversmith sold to a collector a large service of 
Queen Anne plate, consisting of spoons, forks, knives, &c., of .all 
sizes, suitable for dinner and dessert, numbering upwards of 60D 
pieces. Half the articles had on the ends of each of the stems a 
bust of Queen Anne, the other half a bust of her husband, Prince 
George of Denmark. The very magnitude of this service naturally 
caused a suspicion of its genuineness, and on close inspection it was 
discovered that all the stamps were forgeries. 

The service consisted of the following: — 

326 Table, dessert, and tea spoons. 

17 Gravy spoons, fish slices, ladles, and butter knives. 
180 Silver-handled knives and forks. 
120 Gilt dessert knives, forks, and spoons. 

643 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. «S 

It may be desirable to give a more minute description of Hi&e 
particular articles as a caution to future collectors, especially as 
many most imposing pieces of plate of the time of William and 
Mary and Anne have come under our notice bearing, in some cases, 
identical marks, and being evidently from the same source; and 
although of different periods, bearing makers' initials which were 
never entered at Goldsmiths' Hall, or if imitated, were not in exr 
istence at the date falsely indicated. 

Those pieces with the bust of Queen Anne bear four Hall-^ 
marks all cast in the same mould as the stem itself. These were : 
(i) Britannia; (2) lion's head erased; (3) date letter H, of the year 
1703; and (4) the maker's initials, PE^ crowned. The p-'eces with 
the bust of Prince George of Denmark have three marks cast, but on 
several the fourth, indicating the date, is struck with a false punch 
of the Court hand Ry of 17 12-13. The maker's initials are // in 
italics, no such letters being entered in the book at Goldsmiths' 
Hall of that date. Other pieces of an equally suspicious character, 
bear the same struck letter /?, of 17 12, the other three being cast, and 
the maker's initials, H. S., not found at the Hall of that date. 

We may also add that on an assay being made, the quality of 
the silver was far below the Britannia or New Standard. The 
fraud having been brought to the notice of the House of Commons, 
application was made to Goldsmiths' Hall for information, who 
made the following return through their Clerk, Mr. Walter Prid- 
eaux, on the 22nd June 1880: — 

"In the years 1872 and 1873 a silversmith in London, in an 
extensive way of business, sold a large quantity of silver plate to 
a customer. Last autumn a gentleman who is well acquainted with 
plate-marks saw this plate, and informed the owner that it was 
spurious. 

" Hereupon the Goldsmiths' Company were communicated with. 
Their officers were sent to examine the plate, and over 600 pieces 
were found to bear counterfeit marks. 

" Application was then made to the seller, and he was informed 
that the Goldsmiths' Company would sue for the penalties, unless 
he could relieve himself under the statute by making known the 
person, and the place of abode of the person, from whom he re- 
ceived it. After having seen the invoices he admitted the sale, and, 
after some time, during which he had the plate examined by several 
persons in the trade, gave the name and residence of a person who, 
he said, supplied him with all the articles in question. This per- 
son is a working silversmith in a small way of business. 

"The Goldsmiths' Company thereupon applied to the last- 
mentioned person, who examined some of the plate in a cursory 
way, and after some time, replied through his solicitor that he was 
not prepared to admit that he sold the plate, or that he had ever 
had the plate in his possession; but that if the wares in question 
had been sold by him, they must be some of certajn wares which in 
1872 he either bought or received in exchange from a person whose 
name he mentioned, who is dead. 

" The solicitor of the first person applied to was then asked by 



86 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

letter whether he was prepared by production of his books, or in 
some other manner, to substantiate his statement. 

"Whereupon he produced invoices which covered about 600 
pieces of plate answering the descriptions of the plate which is the 
subject of inquiry, and cheques to order for payments made for it; 
all of which cneques appear to have passed through a bank, and are 
duly endorsed. 

" The circumstances bore a very suspicious appearance, but the 
Goldsmiths' Company were advised that the evidence was not such as 
would be deemed sufficient in a court of law, and that they would 
not be doing right to continue the proceedings against the person 
who apparently had cleared himself under the provisions of the 
Act of Parliament. 

" They thereupon commenced proceedings against the person 
from whom he asserts that he bought the plate in question, and 
these proceedings are now pending. 

" The defendant has raised a point of law under the Statute 
of Limitations, which is set down for argument on demurrer. 

"The articles in question purport to be of the time of Queen 
Anne, before the duty was imposed, and therefore do not bear 
the duty mark." 

This case came before the Court of Queen's Bench on the 12th 
November 1880; Robinson, a deputy Wcirden of the Goldsmiths' 
Company, being the plaintiff, and (Surrey the defendant. 

This action was Drought by the plaintiff to recover penalties 
amounting in the aggregate to ^1^6430, from the defendant, a silver- 
smith, of Great Sutton Street, Clerkenwell, for having sold 643 
articles of silver bearing a spurious mark, the penalty for each 
offence being /^^lo. The defendant pleaded — first, that he had 
bought the articles from a well-known dealer in Islington, and had 
resold them in ignorance that the marks were forged ; and secondly, 
that the plaintiffs could not maintain the action, as it had not been 
brought within the period specified by law — 6, 8, and 9 Vic. c. 22, 
to amend the laws then in force on the marking of gold and silver 
wares in England. The offence was clearly proved, but a point 
of law was raised as the cause of action did not arise within two 
years before the action was brought. On the 17th November, the 
Court, consisting of Justice Field and Justice Manisty, gave judg- 
ment for the defendant on the ground that the action had not been 
brought within two years of the time of the offence.* 

The Goldsmiths' Company, however, were not satisfied with 
this decision, and appealed. The case came before the Court of 
Appeal, consisting of the Lords Justice Bramwell, Baggallay, and 
Lush, on the 2nd April 1881. Mr. A. Wills, Q.C., and Mr. Webster, 
Q.C., and Mr. Coxon were Counsel for the Goldsmiths' Company; 
Sir John Holker, Q.C., Mr. Crump, and Mr. Jones represented the 
defendant (the then respondent). 

The Court of Appeal reversed the judgment of the Divisional 
Court, as they were unanimously of opinion that the statutes did 
not apply in this case, as the plaintiffs were neither 'common in- 

• Law Reports, Q. B. D., Vol. 6, p. 21. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 87 

formers ' nor ' siggrieved persons,' who could only bring actions re- 
spectively within one and two years. The Company were not 
restricted as to the periods in which they could bnng actions for 
penalties against persons infringing the law. The judgment of 
the Court below was, therefore, reversed, with the costs of the de- 
murrer and also of the appeal.* 

The following paragraph in the City Press of th 23rd Decem- 
ber 1 88 1 announces the termination of the action by a verdict for 
the plaintiff and full amount of penalties, amounting to ;fi"6430: — 

"The proceedings by the Goldsmiths' Company for the re- 
covery of 643 penalties oi £10 each in respect of the sale by a 
well-known dealer in Oxford Street of a large quantity of spurious 
Queen Anne plate have been terminated by tJie defendant abandon- 
ing his defence. Judgment has been signed by the Goldsmiths' 
Company for the whole of the penalties in question. We under- 
stand, however, that the amount of the penalties may probably be 
reduced by the Company." 

The Criminal Law Consolidation Act of 7 & 8 Victoria, which 
we have (juoted (page 34), " for preventing frauds and abuses in 
the marking of gold and silver wares or possessing such without 
lawful excuse," imposes a penalty of £10 for each article. This 
comparatively triflmg penalty (which formerly was death, or at 
least transportation for a lengthened term), when a number of 
forged articles are detected, increases proportionately, as we have 
seen, to a large amount; but with larger and more massive pieces 
of plate, each of which would weigh fifty to a hundred ounces, 
requiring only one Hall-mark, if that be forged, the penalty oi £10 
is cheerfully paid, and the forger, for this trivial compounding of 
felony, gets off scot free. Hence whether a piece weighs half an 
ounce at the cost of a few shillings, or a hundred ounces at the cost 
of as many pounds, the penalty is the same. At the present 
moment we know of several most imposing silver vases of the time 
of Queen Anne bearing forged Hall-marks, for which great prices 
have been paid. If a limit were put to the weight, corresponding 
to the penalty, the law might prove effective. As it is now, a pre- 
mium is hela out for placing the forged marks on large and im- 
portant pieces of plate. 

Before the introduction of milling the edges of coins, in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, the dishonest were accustomed to clip 
small pieces carefully from the edges, which being struck, were not 
always in a true circle when they were issued from the Mint. Al- 
though the weight was diminished, the fraud was not easily de- 
tected. This system of peculation was, it was thought, put a stop to 
by the milled edges being placed upon the coins in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. But although baffled by this invention, the in- 
genious thieves discovered another system of fraud, professionally 

• Law Reports, Q. B. D., Vol. 7, p. 466. 



88 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

called '^sweating** They placed a large number of sovereigns 
loose in a coarse linen bag ; this being violently shaken, rubbed off 
portions of gold which adhered to the sides of the bag, which was 
then burnt in an iron vessel, and the particles collected together. 
The coins after this operation had the appearance of being worn 
by circulation, until about thirty years ago the whole coinage was 
called into the Mint and allowed for by weight instead of being 
taken as currency. The public, upon whom the loss fell to a great 
extent, became more careful, and rejected the gold unless of full 
weight, and sovereign scales came into general use. This habit of 
weighing sovereigns was in time discontinued, and people judged 
from the appearance of the coin only. A more wholesome system of 
disintegration was then conceived, viz., filing off the edges of the 
gold coin and afterwards milling them afresh, the size and weight 
being thus considerably reduced, but the fresh appearance of the 
surface preserved. At the Liverpool Sessions in 1879 a man was 
sentenced to twelve months* imprisonment for " sweating " sove- 
reigns and reducing them in size by one twenty-fourth. The Re- 
corder said, hundreds of sovereigns, wjiich had a new milling sub- 
stituted for the genuine one, had in a short time found their way 
into the bank. The case had been waiting the judgment of a Court 
of Criminal Appeal, which, by a majority of the judges, was 
against the prisoner. 



Cljr0tt0l0gital €aWe of JUarks. 



1300 
1336 



i3;9 
1424 

H77 

1573 
1576 

1597 

1675 
1697 

1700 



1 701 
1719 



1739 

1773 
1784 



28 Edw. I.) Leopard's head. 

Ordinance of the Goldsmiths' Company), i. Leopard's head 

crowned. 2. Owner's or goldsmith's mark. 3. Assay- 

er's mark, or variable letter. 
2. Rich. II.). I. Goldsmith's, "his own proper mark." 2. 

" Mark of the city or borough." 3. Assayer's mark, " ap- 
pointed by the Kmg." 
2 Henry VI.). " Touch of the Leopard's Head," and " Mark 

or touch of the workman." 
16 Edw. IV.). " Leopard's head crowned," and " Mark of 

the worker." Standard of i8-karat gold. 
15 Eliz.). Standard of 22-karat gold revived. 
18 Eliz.). I. "The goldsmith to set his mark thereon." 2. 

" Touch of the leopard's head crowned," and " marked by 

the wardens." 
Minutes of Goldsmiths' Company). " H6r Majesty's Lion," 

" Alphabetical mark approved," and " Leopard's head, 

limited by statute." 
Goldsmiths' order). " Lion," and " Leopard's head crowned 

or one of them." 
8 & 9 Will. III.). New standard of silver. "Lion's head 

erased; Figure of Britannia and the maker's mark, being 

ihe two first letters of his surname." 
12 Will. III.). York, Exeter, Bristol, Chester, and Norwich 

appointed to assay silver plate, and stamp it with the 

marks of the lion's head erased and Britannia, and, in 

addition to the marks of their cities, a variable mark or 

letter in Roman character. 
I Anne). Newcastle added to the other cities for assaying 

and stamping plate. 
6 Geo. I.). Old standard restored. The lion, leopeird's head, 

maker's mark, and date mark, but both standards were 

allowed by this Act simultaneously, varying the respective 

marks. 

12 George II.). Goldsmiths* mark, " the initials of his Chris- 
tian or surname." 

13 Geo. III.). Birmingham and Sheffield appointed for as- i 
saying and stamping silver plate. 1 

24 Geo. III.). Duty mark of the King's head, and drawback ! 

stamp of Britannia. | 



90 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

^785 (25 Geo. IIL). Drawback stamp of Britannia, discontinued. 
1798 (38 Geo. IIL\ Standard of i8-karat gold marked with a 

crown and 18. 
1824 (5 Geo. IV.). Birmingham empowered to stamp gold. 
1844 (7 & 8 Vict.). Gold of 22 karats to be stamped with a crown 

and 22, instead of the lion passant. 
1854 (17 & 18 Vict). Reduced standards of gold to be stamped; 

15.625 — 12.5 — 9.375 — for gold of 15. 12, and 9 karats, but 

without the crown and King's head. 
1876 Foreign plate, when assayed, to be marked, in addition to the 

usual marks of the Hall, with the letter F in an oval 

escutcheon. 
1890 (54 Vict). The duty of is. 6d. per ounce on silver plate 

abolished, and the stamp of the Queen's head, duty mark, 

discontinued. 

L— THE HALL-MARKS OF ASSAY TOWNS. 

1. London. A leopard's head crowned. Since 1823 the leo- 
pard's head not crowned. 

2. York. Five lions on a cross (discontinued). 

3. Exeter. A castle with three towers (discontinued). 

4. Chester. Now the mark is a sword between three wheat- 
sheaves, but before 1779 the shield of the city arms was three demi- 
lions and a wheat-sheaf on a shield, and a small quartering above 
the sheaf. 

5. Norwich. A castle and lion passant (discontinued). 

6. Newcastle. Three castles (discontinued). 

7. Sheffield. A crown. 

8. Birmingham. An anchor. 

THE LEOPARD'S HEAD. 

Taking first the London mark of the lecpard's head, which was 
the earliest assay mark impressed on vessels of gold and silver, we 
give the forms of this stamp during the last five and a half cen- 
times. 

This mark used to be called sometimes the " Liberdes Hede." 
sometimes the " Liberd Heed," and sometimes the " Catte's Face " 
The stamp itself was known as the "punson," and it was most 
zealously guarded. 

It is mentioned in the statute of 1300 as " une teste de leopart "; 
and m the charter granted in 1327 to the Goldsmiths' Company, 
the puncheon of the leopard's head was then said to have been of 
ancient use. At all events it is always found on assayed silver, 
from the middle of the fifteenth century. 

The form of the head has changed at various times. At first 
the leopard's or lion's head crowned within a circle was used, and 
this form continued in use until nearly in the sixteenth century. 




HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



91 



In 1 5 19 the lion's head appears with different shaped crown,, 
and within a shaped outline. 




From that time until the end of the seventeenth century, the 
crowned leopard's head was placed within a line following the 
shape of the head and crown. The appearance of the lion at this 
time is very noble, and he appears as tne crowned king of beasts. 




^ In 1678 the head was once again and for the last time placed in 
a circle. 




In 1697 the Britannia standard was introduced and the Ton's 
head erased was used instead of the leopard's head. 




The form of this stamp has never been altered and is still used 
in the same shaped outline, at the present time, for the higher 
standard. 

The old standard was revived in 1720, and the leopard's head 
crowned was again used, but the shields at this time were of very 
uncertain shapes. 




In 1739 the shield was altered to a shape similar to that of 
the date letter. 




$2 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

After 1763 the head was made smaller and placed in a plain 
shield. 




In 1822 the leopard's head was deprived of its crown, and de- 
nuded of its mane and beard — a great change from the bold front 
presented in the old punches; and it has ever since looked more 
like a half -starved cat than a lion. 




Indeed, from the earliest times until 1896, this mark has been 
constantly changed, and each change has been iFor the worse. 

The leopard's head of the present cycle, adopted in 1 896, how- 
ever, certainly is a great improvement, though the shield may 
not meet with universal approbation. 




II.— THE MAKER'S MARK 

Formerly this was some emblem, as a rose, a crown, a star, &c., 
with or without the goldsmith's initials. These marks were ordered 
to be in 1363, *'a mark of the goldsmith known by the surveyor." 
In 1379, "Every goldsmith shall have his own proper mark upon 
the work." In 1423, " The mark or sign of the worker." In 1675, 
the " Goldsmiths' order " enjoins that " the plate workers shall bring 
their marks to Goldsmiths' Hall, and there strike the same in a 
table kept in the Assay Office, and likewise enter their names and 
places of habitation in a book kept there for that purpose, whereby 
the persons and their marks may be known unto the wardens of the 
said company." {See plate,) 

In 1697 (8 & 9 Will. III.), the marks of the goldsmiths were to 
be expressed by the two first letters of their surnames, but this seems 
to have been partially discontinued on the repeal of the Act in 
.1720. 

1739. In 12 Geo. II. it was ordered that the makers were to 
destroy their existing marks, which were the two first letters of 
their surnames, and substitute the initials of their Christian and 
surnames, of an entrely different type from that before used. 

Note, — Sometimes a small mark, such as a cross, star, &c., is 
found near the maker's mark; it is that of the workman for the 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. pj 

purpose of tracing the work to the actual hands that executed it; 
m large manufactories it is indispensable. 

It has been suggested that we should give the names of the 
goldsmiths whose initials are found stamped upon plate. Acting 
upon this suggestion, and being of opinion that, such a list would 
be of great importance to plate collectors, we have at considerable 
labour and expense copied all the makers' marks, together with 
their names and addresses, and dates of entry at the Hall ; in which 
we have been kindly assisted by the authorities in giving every 
facility for searching their books. This list will be found in a 

volume entitled " A HISTORY OF LONDON GOLDSMITHS AND THEIR 
Marks on Plate," from the earliest records preserved at Gold- 
smiths' Hall, by W. CHAFFERS. London. 

A list of initials of silversmiths or plate workers is here given, 
which, although necessarily very imperfect, may be useful in fixing 
within certain limits the date of a piece of plate in the absence or 
obliteration of the date letter. A reference to the volume alluded 
to above will give the exact copy of the impress. 

The following occur for the most part on important examples, 
the fact of their preservation proving that they must have possessed 
merit independent of their associations or memories. 

HI— DATE MARK 

A letter of the alphabet. Each Assay Office has its peculiar 
alphabetical mark, indicating the year in which the plate was as- 
sayed and stamped; and, therefore, plate that was stamped in any 
other place than London had to be, when entered for drawback,, 
accompanied by a certificate of the date from the office in which it 
was assayed and stamped. 

In London, previous to the Restoration, the annual letter was 
changed on St Dunstan's Day (19th May), when the new wardens 
were elected. Since 1660 the assay year commences on the 30th 
May, and the new wardens were appointed on the same day in each 
and every year, and the date marks are continued regularly with 
twenty letters of the alphabet, from A to U or V inclusive, which 
were used in succession; the letters J W X Y Z being always 
omitted. 

The debased standards of the coinage of the previous twenty 
or thirty years were raised by Queen Elizabeth to their former 
purity, and in February 1560-1 all the base money was called in 
by proclamation. The minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company record 
that on the i8th of June 1561, "the first dyett of the new standard 
was tried " — that is, the trial of the quality of gold and silver of the 
new standard of the year ending in June 1561. The restoration of 
what should be more properly styled the old sterling standard by 
the Queen, was commemorated by an alteration in the style of the 
date letters, or rather, their enclosures. This change is notified in a 
minute of the Goldsmiths' Company, dated i6th June 1560, and is 
indicated by the use of a regular shield instead of an escutcheon 
taking the form of the letter (see page 52). 

This circumstance shows the great importance of the introduce 



94 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

tion of the shields, first adopted by us in 1863, in our alphabetical 
tables, but which a recent writer terms " a somewhat doubtful im- 
provement " upon Mr. Morgan's tables. We beg leave to differ with 
him "in this, and in another respect, for he says, "The shields are 
in many cases incorrect." Some slight alterations may have been 
found necessary, but on the whole, our tables having stood the test 
of nearly twenty years' consultation by eminent connoisseurs, it 
will be generally acknowledged that no better or more correct tables 
have ever since that time been published. Ecce signum! They 
will be found in the hands of every silversmith and collector in the 
kingdom, which proves their practical utility as a book of almost 
daily reference. 

Cycles 18 and 20 being both in small Roman letters, and in 
s'milar shields, it is at first sight difficult to distinguish the dates 
of 1776-1795 from those of 1816-1835. The following remarks 
will assist us in doing so. The former alphabet up to i of 1784-5 
is not accompanied by the duty mark of the king's head, there being 
only four marks. After that date down to the g of 1822-3 there 
will be no difficulty, as there is an additional mark; but in 1824 
down to 1835 there would be nothing but the kingfs head (the por- 
trait of Geo. III. being changed for Geo. IV.) to depend upon, ex- 
cept that in that very year, 1823, the crown was taken from the 
leopard's head, and it remains uncovered to the present day. 

IV.— THE STANDARD MARK 

The standard mark of the lion passant has been used on all 
standard gold, and sterling silver, from 1545 until the present time, 
except from 1696 to 1720. The first mention of the lion passant 
is in the records of the Goldsmiths' Compeiny in May 1597, where 
it is called "Her Majesty's Lion." It is not referred to in any 
statute until 1675. The earliest piece we have met with bearing the 
mark of the lion passant is a spoon of 1545, in Dr. Ashford's col- 
lection, but it may have been used in one of the intervening years 
between 1540 and 1545, but no pieces have come under our imme- 
diate notice. 

The following representations of the lion passant are of those 
used by the Goldsmiths' Company, the provincial marks vary 
slightlv from those employed in London. 

The lion is always represented as passant guardant, and during 
the first few years was life-like, crowned, and enclosed in a shaped 
outline. 

From 1545 until 1548.— 




From 1548 until 1558. — 




HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



95 



From 1558 until 1678.— 



From 1678 until 1697.- 





The standard of silver was raised, and the mark of the lion 
passant was changed to that of " the figure of a woman commonly 
called Britannia,'* on the 25th March 1^7. 




This form of stamp is still used at the present time for the 
higher standard. 

In 1720 the old standard was again allowed and the lion 
passant was again used. Between 1720 and 1739 the lion was 
placed in a rectangle: — 




From 1739 until 1756 the shaped outline was again used: — 




The marks at this period are somewhat uncertain in form. 
From 1756 until 1896 the lion was placed in a regular 
shield : — 




In 1896 a new form of shield was introduced, having three 
lobes above and the same number below. 




There are six legal standards for gold and two for silver, as 
follows: — i-^TTN 

Gold. 

22 karats = 917 millims. 

20 „ = 834 „ (Dublin only). 



18 

15 
12 

9 



9) 
>» 
•I 
>» 
1) 



= 750 
=- 625 
== 500 

=^375 



96 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Silver, 

II oz. 2 dwts. = 925 millims. 
II oz. 10 dwts. = 959 „ 

For gold of the old standard of 22 karats, and ster- 
ling silver of 1 1 oz. 2 dwts., the mark was a lion passant. Previous 
to 1845 there was no distinctive mark between standard gold and 
sterling silver. But in that year, for gold, the lion was omitted, 
and the quality in karats and a crown substituted. 

For gold, of 18 karats, a crown and the figures 18, instead of 
the lion passant (38 Geo. IIL, 1798). 

For gold of 22 karats (or the old standard), a crown and 
the figures 22, instead of the lion passant (7 & 8 Vict, 1844). 

For gold manufactures of the reduced standard (17 & 18 

Vict, 1854), the leopard's head and date letter and the numerals. 

15 karats : 15 and .625 on separate stamps. 
12 „ : 12 and .5 „ „ 

9 „ : 9 and .375 „ 

The numerals on these punches are to express, decimally, the 
quantity of pure gold in the article so marked, thus : pure gold 
being 24 karats. 

15 karats M = t == ^^5 P^rts or millims in 1000. 

12 „ M = I = 500 

9 " A = I = 375 
For silver of the new standard of n oz. 10 dwts. the 

marks are a figure of Britannia and the lion's head erased, instead 
of the lion passant and leopard's head (8 Will. III., 1697). 

v.— DUTY MARK. 

The head in profile of Ihe reigning sovereign. This mark was 
introduced in 1784. (24 George III). It indicates the payment of 
the duty, and is impressed at the Assay Offices on every manufac- 
tured article of standard gold and silver that is liable to the duty 
after payment to the officers of the Goldsmiths' Company who are 
the appointed receivers. 

After the passing of the Duty Act, which took effect on St. 
Dunstan's Day (19th May) 1784, the duty stamp of the King's head 
incuse was used for a short period. We find it in conjunction, with 
the letter i of 1784, and also with the letter k of 1785. 

The head of George III. is in an ellipse and is turned to the 
right : — 







HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 97 

George the Fourth's is also turned to the right for the silver 
mark, though he is turned to the left on his coins : — 




The next sovereign, William the Fourth, was turned to the 
right in a similar manner : — 




The head of our late gracious Sovereign Queen Victoria is 
turned to the left : — 




The duty imposed in 1784 was — on ^old, 8s. per oz. ; on silver, 
6d. per oz. In 1797, gold, 8s. per oz.; silver is. per oz. In 1804, 
g:old, i6s. per oz. ; silver, is. 3d. per oz. In 1815, gold, 17s. per oz. ; 
silver is. 6d. ; independent of the licence. The duty on silver was 
abolished in 1890. 

Both the crown and duty mark of the sovereign's head are 
omitted on the three lower standards, although they pay the same 
duty as the higher standards, but there is no indication of it on 
the stamps. 

These standards, especially that of 9 karats, are almost univers- 
ally disapproved of by the trade. It has been suggested that the 
law was made to accommodate the Birmingham manufacturers; but 
v/hen they discovered that the Government did noc allow the crown 
to be placed on these lower standards, they said they did not care 
a button about it. They doubtless. desired the alteration for the 
purpose of forwarding English-manufactured goods abroad with 
the crown mark upon them, that the public should imagine they were 
of a higher quality than they really were. — Evidence before the 
Parliamentary Committee, 1878. 

VI.— FOREIGN MARK 
THE LETTER F. 

• 

In 1876 it was enacted that gold and silver plate imported 
from foreign parts, and assayed at any assav office in the United 
Kingdom, should be marked in addition to the marks used at such 
&ssay office, with the mark of the letter F on an oval escutcheon. 




H 



08 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



SPOON MAKERS' MARKS. 

On Spoons in the Collections of the Rev. T. Staniforth, 
Dk. Ashford, and R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

S Staniforth ; A Ashford ; F Frere 



MAXXB'S 
MARK. 


BBMABK8. 


DATKS ACCOBDINO TO THX LSTTEBB 1 


S 


With dotted edges 

A bunch of grapes 


8 1493, 1515, 1519, 1530; A 

1537, 1662. 
S 1519. 


1616, 


L 


A leaflet 


A 1522. 

S 1530, 1590. 




Lombardic letter in a square . . . 


N S 


Interlaced 


A 1545. 

S 1558, 1678, 1589, 1618; A 

F 1619. 
S 1662, 1564 ; A 1570. 


1606; 


A mullet within a crescent . . . 
3 leaves on a stalk 


I F 


A rosette 


S 1561. 
F 1572. 
S 1573. 




A cross . 


In a square border 




A shell in a round border .... 


S 1574, 1578, 1582. 




R A 


With small crescent below .... 


A 1580. 






An annulet and a mullet in a shield 


8 1581, 1586, 1596; F 1586. 






A trefoil leaf in a circle 


8 1589. 




I.C 


I within the C on a shield .... 


S 1599, 1611, 1616, 1617. 




W 


Enclosed in a crescent or the letter 
G with W enclosed 


8 1598. 1601, 1604-6-6-7-8-9 ; F 1689, 
1596, 1609; A 1610. 


T 


An anchor 


A 1602. 

8 1602, 1613. 




Within a crescent 


CD 


C enclosed in a large D in a shield. 
A pair of compasses 


A 1605, F 1608, 1629; 8 
161", iei21. 1(27, 1632, 
1636-7-8, 1646. 

8 1610. 


1614, 
1634, 


R.C. 
W.L 


In a square shield 

In monogram on a shield .... 


8 1617, 1619, 1633, 1637; A 

F 1634. 
F 1613. 


1632; 


B.N 


In monogram on a shield .... 


F 1609. 




X 


Or a cross in a heart-shaped shield. 


8 1609, 1631. 




M H 


In a monogram on a shield . . . 


S 1614, 1616; F 1614. 





HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



99 



maxxb's 



I 



w 

WF 

B.Y 

LI 

C 

W S 

I F 

S V 

R.I 

I E 

7J» 

X B 

D 
R G 

I D 
E H 
WC 

F 
T F 
H.L. 
H I 
E.L 
T.H 

I s. 

LT. 
L O 
A.K 
S O 
T.M 



In a shield 
Id a shield 



DATB8 AOOOBDlXO TO THB LKTTSBB. 



Above a three-barred gate in a 

shield 

With dots and lis variously placed. 



With mullet enclosed . . 

In a shield 

3 dots under in a shield . 
In an ornamental shield. . 
A mullet below in a shield . 



Not in a shield 
III a shield . . 
In a square . . 
A dolphin . . 
In a shield . . 



Crowned, crescent and pellets 

below 

Mullet below and pellets round. 



In a shield 

3 pellets under .... 
Joined in a shield . . . 
Two small crosses between . 

Joined in a shield . . . 

Scrip 

Crowned 

Star below 

Crowned, crescent below . 
Rose and pellets .... 
Crowned, mullet below • . 
In monogram 



S 1614. 
S 1618. 
F 1621, 1638. 

S 1623, 1638, 1639, 1640, 1661, 1664, 

1663, 1665. 
8 1624. 

S 1624; A 1624. 

F 1621 ; S 1641. 

S 1624, 1662, 1664, 1656, 1671, 1676 ; 
F 1663, 1669. 

A 1626, 1628; F 1628. 

A 1620. 

A 1621. 

S 1627. 

S 1628, 1631 ; F 1628, 1629. 

S 1629, 1633. 

A 1631. 

S 1634. 

F 1631; A 1663; S 1682; B 1684. 

A 1683 ; S 1641, 1666, 1660, 1662. 
S 1636. 

A 1637. 

S 1639. 

A 1639. 

A 1640. 

F 1646-1648. 

A 1646. 

8 1669. 

A 1671. 

S 1674. • 

8 1677, 1683. 

S 1679. 

S 1683. 



* The maker's initials on these two lists, between 1676 and 1697, will be 
found stamped on the copper plate at Goldsmiths' Hall. (See pLatt), 



100 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



kajubr'b 

MARK. 



HS 

E.C 

WM 

D.A 

R.M 
WC 
L.C 
S.W 
WS 
D.G 



Crowned, crescent and pellets below 
Crowned 



DATXB ACCOBDINO TO THB LETTERS. 



In a square 

One above 

Crowned, crescent and pellets 

S above W 

W above S 

In a lozenge 



In Roman letters 

Scrip, crowned, on oval escutcheon. 

Alone .... 

Demi lion above 



^^^Q^ Scrip, crowned, ornamental shield. 

s c 

S A 

S A 

15 

G S 
C H 



Scrip 



Scrip 



^^^,Scrip 



A 1683. 

S 1684. 

S1685, 1688. 

S 1686. 

S 1691. 

S 1691. 

S 1693 

S 1695, 1696. 

S 1696. 

S 1696. 

S 1697, 1704. 

S 1699, 1702, 1704, 1713, 1715. 

8 1701. 

A 1706. 

3 1712. 

A 1734. 

A 1764. 

A 1781. 

A 1781. 

A 1784. 

A 1785. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



lOZ 



PLATE WORKERS' MARKS. 



maker's 

MARK. 



S K 

G 
R V 

I R 

N S 

C.L 
C C 
E S 



DATS. 



RBMARKS. 



DS8CBIPTION. 



H C 
H C 
H C 

S B 
RM 

B 

B 



H C 



1659 
I660 
1666 
1669 



OOLLSCTION. 



A heart below 
Not crowned 



1669 A stag's head 

1671 Interlaced . 

1673 A crab . . 

1674 A halberd between 

1677 Interlaced . . . 

1578 

1678 A spread eagle . 
1579 'a bird . • , . 

1679 3 trefoil leaves 



1679 
1579 
1580 
1680 
1681 
1681 
1684 
1683 
1686 
1588 



A hammer and vice 
A hammer and vice 
A hammer and vice 



Stone-ware jug . . . R. Temple Frere, Eaq. 
The Cockayne cups . .Skinners' Company. 
Plateau Skinners' Company. 



Stone-ware jug . 

Stone- ware jug . 

Stone-ware jug . 

fankard . . . . 

Tankard . . . . 

Stone-ware jug . 

fankard . . . . 

Salt cellar . . . 

Pelican cup. . . 

Ewer and salver . 



E. A. Sanford, Esq. 

J. Toovey, Esq. 

J. P. Dexter, E»q. 

Colonel North. 

Ashmolean Museum. 

H. Durlacher, Esq. 

Baron Lionel de 
Rothschild. 

Sir Richard Wallace 

Right Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone, Esq. 
Duke of Rutland. 



Tazsa H.R.H. Duke of 

Cambridge. 
Cap and cover . 



Cup and cover 
Chapman cup . 



Brett Collection. 
.'L. Huth, Esq. 
. Armourers' Company. 



Salt cellar Baron Lionel de 

I Rothschild. 

A pellet in each space. Stone-ware jug . . . T. M. Whitehead, Esq. 



do. 



St one- ware jug . 



A. W. Franks, Esq. 



A tree iSalt cellar Baron Lionel de 

I Rothschild. 

3 trefoil leaves . . . China vase, silver H. Farrer, Esq. 

mounted. 
A cross between . . .Paten 





1588 


C B 


1694 


C K 


1694 


I B 


1596 


I N 


1697 



A flower Ostrich egg cup 

I 

Stone-ware jug 
Ewei and salver 
A rose under . . . .'Ewer and salver 



do 



Ewer and salver . 



Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

Earl of Home. 

H. Owen, Esq. 

S. Addington, Esq. 

Corporation of BristoL 

Corporation of Norwich. 



lae 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 




DATS. 



RXMABK8. 



H B 


1697 


E.R 


1699 


R C 


1699 


I H 


1604 


I H 


1604 


M 


1606 


A R 


1613 


I T 


1613 


T.F 


1616 




1616 


LA 


1616 


LC 


1621 


T.F 


1625 


F.G 


1683 


WS 


1634 


RR 
V 


1637 


DW 


1639 



RM 
I R 
WM 
ES 
I W 
F.C 

WH 
G S 
I N 
I N 
I N 
MG 
R A 

P.P 
R T 



1641 

1646 

1660 

1652 

1656 

1656 

1662 

1665 

1669 

1673 

1674 

1672 

1675 

1676 

1679 



A bear below . 
do. . • 



A bow between 
Monogram . . 
A trefoil leaf . 



DBSCRZFTIOH, 



On a shield 



A mullet and 5 bezants 



Between a crown and 

leopard's head. 

On shield with moor's 

head. 



Persian jug . 
Spice box . . 
Standing cup . 
Cup . . , . 
Cup and cover. 
Salt cellar . . 
Cup and cover 
Spice box . . 
Cup .... 
Salver , . . 
Dish .... 
Tankard . . 
Chester cup 
2 Monteiths 
2 cups . . . 
Cup . . . . 
Cup .... 
Cup and cover . 



GOLLBCTION. 



T. G. Sambrooke, Esq. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

Innholders' Company. 

Lord Willoughby de 

Eresby. 

do. 



Tankard ISkinners' Company. 



A crozier between the 
letters. 



Lis and 2 pellets below 
and a victory. 



Pellets and mullet 



Cup .... . 

Fauconberg cup . 
Blacksmith's cup. 
2-handled cup 

Large salver . . 

2-handled cup . . 

Creyghton cup . 

Covered cup . . 

Cutler cup . . . 

2-handled cup . . 
3 sugar castors 
Bosewater dish 



R. Neville Grenville, 

Esq. 
Lord Londesboroughk 

Sir T. W. Holburne. 

Skinners' Company. 

do. 
C. Winn, Esq. 
W. Cozier, Esq. 
Viscount Clifden. 
Haberdashers' Company 

do. 

do. • 

Skinners' Company. 
Viscount Clifden. '^ 



do. 
Paul Butler, Esq. 
J. P. Dexter, Esq. 
R. T. Frere, Bsq. 
Earl Spencer. 
R. T. Frere, Esq. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
J. W. Walrond, Esq. 
Paul Butler, Esq. 
R. T. Frere. Esq. 
J. Rainey, Esq. 
. Fishmongers' Company. 



2-handled cup . . . . R. T. Frere, Esq. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



io3 



KAKXR'8 
MABK. 



I C 
R L 
I C 
MK 
R S 
WF 

I P 
I I 
I.S 
H T 
C K 
R G 
S H 
I K 

R S 
GG 
GG 

j:r 

LR 

WM 
N L 

A K 
P H 
I K 
MA 
NK 
C H 

E 

D.B 

A 

P A 
B I 

S T 



DATS. 
1679 

1681 

1681 

1681 

1683 

1683 

1684 

1684 

1684 

1684 

1684 

1685 

1683 

1686 

1686 

1685 

1690 

1686 

1686 

1690 

1691 

1691 

1691 

1694 

1696 

1696 

1697 

1697 

1698 
1698 
1698 



BBMABKS. 



DSBCRIFTION. 



COLLECTION. 



Mullet below . . . 

With mullet . . . 
Lis above .... 
Mullet below . . . 



Crown above, small 
I shield below. 

lAnd fleur de lis . . 



Interlaced .... 
Lis above, pellet below 
Mullet below . . . 
Mullet above . . . 
Monogram .... 
Crescent below. . . 
In heart-shaped shield 



1-handled ,mug 
Large cistern 
Tankard . . 
2-handled cup 

do. 
Tpzza . . 
Plain cup . 
Covered bowl 
Tankard 
2-handled cup 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Monteith and tankard 
Tankard . . 
Reynold's cup 
Tankard . . 



Crowned .... 
Crowned .... 
Lis and 2 pellets above. 2-handled cup 

do. 

Plain shield . . . .! do. 

do. 



Crowned, annulet be- 
tween the letters. 



do. 
Fire dogs . 



3 pellets above in mono- 2-handled cup 

gram. 

Ornamental shield . . ^ do. ,, ^. , 

Cup and candlesticks 

with arms of William 

ni. 

(From 1697 to 1720 the\maker8 placed the two 



Small A 

Crowned and bird below 
In a heart 



Plain tumbler . . . 
Pair of candesticks . 
2-handled cup . . . 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 
Duke of Rutland. 
Fishmongers' Company. 
R. T. Frere Esq. 

do. 
Sir W. C. Trevelyan. 
R. T. Frere, Esq. 
Sir T. W. Holburne. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
R. T. Frere. Esq. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Sliinners' Company. 

Baron Lionel de 

Rothschild. 
Skinners' Company. 

do. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Hampton Court. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 

do. 

Duke of Manchester. 

two first lette)s of their 
surnames.) 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 



104 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



XAXXB'I 
KABK. 


DATS. 

1699 


BBMABKB. 


DBBCKIPTION. 


OOLLBCTION. 


1 


S T 


£u a heart ..... 


2-handled cup . . . . 


R. T. Frere, Esq. 




M I 


1699 


2 pellets above . . . 


do. • . . . 


do. 




AN 


1699 


In ornamental shield. . 


do. . . . . 


do. 




I N 
RO 


1700 
1701 


Trefoil above and below 


Pair chocolate cups & 

covers. 
2-handled cup . . . 


Lord Crewe. 

R. T. Frere, Esq. 




V N 


1701 


Small N 


do. . . . . 


do. 




W I 


1701 


2 stars above, lis below. 


Ewer and salver . . . 


Marquis of Abercorn. 




GO 


1701 


Crowned 


Pair large flagons . . 


Earl Spencer. 




HA 
ME 


1701 
1702 

1702 


Scrip 


Pair ewers and salvers . 
Helmet - shaped ewer, 
with royal arms '^Sem- 

oer eadem.*' 
2-hanaled cup . . . 


do. 

Lord Willoughby de 

Eresby. 

1 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 




L 


1702 


Key above 


do. . . 






R. T. Frere, Esq. 




D o 


1702 


Lis above and below. . 


do. . . 






do. 




C o 


1703 


Small 


do. . . 






do. 




N e 


1703 




Large tureen . , 






Lord Bateman. 




S I 


1704 




2-handled cup 






R. T. Frere, Esq. 




G R 


1704 


The R within G . . . 


do. . . 






do. 




H V 


1706 


Italics 


do. . , 






do. 

1 




A D 


1706 




Sugar castor . 






Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 




A N 


1706 


Small N 


2-handled cup 






R. T. Frere Esq. 




P a 


1706 


Cup above 


do. . , 






do. 




H V 


1706 


Italics 


do. . , 






do. 




S V 


17G5 


In a circle 


do. . , 






do. 




WE 


1706 


3 pellets 


do. . . 






do. 




G R 


1708 


R within G 


do. 






do. 




B E 


1708 




do. 






do. 




G R 


1709 


The R within G . . . 


do. 






do. 




C O 


1709 


2 pellets above . . . 


do. . , 






do. 




«0 


1709 


Lo in black letter . . 


do. . . 






do. 




L o 


1709 


Key above 


do. . . 






do. 




P A 


1710 


A lis under 


2-handled cup and cover 


do. 




PA 


1711 


Under a large rose . . 


4 circular stands . . . 


W. Maskell, Esq. 


1 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



105 



makbb'b ' ^.,„ ! 

DATS. 



PA 
%%\ 

L o 

I 

F L i 

V I ! 

to I 
L O 

L O I 
W I 
F L 1 
L O I 
W I 
B A 
L o 

B A 
I S 

A 

HM 
P 

W D 
G S 
I L 
I L 
P.A 

P L 
L C 

A C 
P L 
P L 
T.R 
DW 
N S 



1710 
1712 
1712 
1712 
1713 
1714 
1714 
1716 



BKMABKB. 



Under a large rose . 
A bird above, e below 
Lis above, pellet below 
Key above .... 
Crown above . . . 



I 



Black letter . . . 

2 pellets above . . . 
1716 'Key above .... 
1716 2 stars above, lis below 

1716 Crown above . . . 

1717 L traversing O, mono 

gram. 

1718 2 stars and fleur de lis 

1719 I In quatrefoil . . . 
1719 12 pellets above . . 

1719 AV black letter . . 

1720 In quatrefoil . . . 

I 

1720 2 pellets below. . . 
1722 j 

1728 Trefoil above . . . 

1728 

1728 And a trefoil . . . 
1730 do. ... 

1730 Crowned .... 



DSBCKIPTION. 



COLLECnOM. 



Sugar castor . 
Tankard . . 
Salver with royal 
2-handled cup . 

do. 
Pepper castor . 
2-haudled cup . 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Basin and cover 
2-handled cup . 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Cup .... 
Toilet set . . 
Pair sugar boxes 
6 sconces . . 



arms 



1782 By Paul Lamerie, Star Pair tankards . 

& crown above, lis under 
1732 Crown and fleur de lis. Tea kettle . . 



1732 



Milk pot and cover 



1733 Star and crown above, 1 Basket . . . 
lis under (Paul Lamerie) , 

1733 Star and crown above, Kettle . . . 
lis under (Paul Lamerie) | 

1734 Walpole mace . 



1736 

1743 A star above 



, Pair massive 

I boats. 

. Pair dishes . . 



sauce 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 
Brett collection. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford 
R. T. Frere. Esq. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Sir W. Stirling. 
R. T. Frere, Esq. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Corporation of Don- 
caster. 
Earl Stamford and 
Warrington, 
do. 

do. 

do. 
Windsor Castle. 
Earl of Home. 



J. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 
Brett Collection. 
Corporation of Norwich 
R. T. Frere, Esq. 
Windsor Castle. 



io6 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MAXtR'8 



T.T 

LR 
P.L 
P.L 

P.L 
P.L 

MF 

P.B 
R T 

T 

R.G 

C 

T.H 

S0 



T.H 
T.H 

c. 

T.W 
W 

LK 
R.P. 



^ 






s c 

I c 

I M 
R.R 
C C 
CW 

S M 



DATE. 




1740 
1740 
1741 
1741 
1742 
1744 
1747 
1750 

1762 
1754 

1754 
1755 
1766 
1766 
1768 
1758 
1769 
1761 
1763 
1763 
1765 
1765 
1765 
1766 
1767 

1768 
1770 
1770 
1773 
1773 
1774 

1775 



Crowned 

Star above 

Crown and star above, 

lis below (Paul Lamerie) 

do. do. 

Scrip 

Crown and star above, 

lis below (Paul Lamerie) 

do. do. 

Scrip 



DBSCRIPriOK. 



Pair vase and covers 
Tankard .... 
Salver .... 
Ewer and salver . 
Cup and cover . . 
Cake basket. . . 
Pair tea caddies . 
Cruet stand . . 
2-handled cup . . 
2 caddies . . . 
Scrip Plain tumbler . . 



Crowned 
Under a sun 
Scrip . . . 
Crowned 

do. . 
Scrip . . . 



Crown above 
Scrip . . . 



Scrip . 
Scrip . 



Milk pot . . . 
Engraved tea kettle 
Pair butter boats. 
Ewer .... 
Coffee pot . . . 
Bread basket . . 
Pair coronation salvers 
Basin and cover . 
Milk jug . . . 
Cup and cover . . 
Tea kettle . . . 
Tankard . . . 
Pet»per ca^or • . 
Cofiee pot . . . 
Milk jug . . . 

Ewer 

Cup (Teniers subjec 
Salver .... 
Pair sugar "bltskets 
Tea pot .... 
4 salt cellalhs . . 



t) 



COXXKCTION. 



Qoldsmiths' Company. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

do. 
Goldsmiths* Company. 
Hunt and Roskell. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
J. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

do. 
B. T. Frere, Esq. 



Earl Stamford and 

Warrington. 
R. T. Frere, Esq. 



Sir T. W. Holburne. 

J. Dunn GuiHlner, Esq. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

O. E. Coope, Esq. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

do. 

Lord Willoughby de 
Eresby. 

Windsor Castle. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

J. G. Fanshawe, Esq. 

Lord Batdman. 

2>r. and Mrs. Ashford. 

do. 
Brett Collection. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
Sir T. W. Holburne. 
G. Moffatt, Esq. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

do. 

do. 

du. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



107 



kakjkr's 



DATE. 



RBXABKS. 



W C I 1774 

I W , 1774 

S^.S\ 1776 

^^c^, 1776 

S<^\ 1777 

A C 
WGR 



A 



I D 



1777 
1779 
1780 
1780 
1783 

1784 



MS. 1786 



I B 

MN 
R G 

P.B 
T.R 



1786 
1788 

1788 
1792 



DXSCRIPTIOM. 



'Scrip 

Scrip 

Scrip 

Scrip 

Scrip 

Scrip , 

Repeated 3 times . . 

Scrip 

(Rundell and Bridge). 



2-handled cup . . 
Plain tumbler. . 
Pair butter boats 
Coffee pot . . . 

Milk jug . . . 
Sugar basin . . 



COLLSCnOM. 



Pair vases with rams' 

heads. 
Cream jug 



do. 

do. . . . . 

2-handled cup . . . . 

Cake basket . . . . 

Pair cups with ivory 
plaques. 

4 salt cellars . . . . 



I Tea pot . 
! Candlestick 



R. T. Frere, Esq. 

do. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

do. 

do. 
do. 
Brett Collection. 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
do. 
do. 

do. 
do 
Windsor Castle. 

Lord Bateman. 
Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
do. 



y,B, — All the foregoing makers' initials will be found with their shields as 
stamped on Plate in the companion work to this volume, byW. Chaffers, 
entitled -^*-A History of London Qoldsmiths and Plate Workers, with 
their marks, as stamped on plate, copied from celebrated examples and 
the earliest records preserved at Goldsmiths' Hall, accompanied dv their 
names, addresses, and dates of entry. 2500 Illstrations. Preceded by 
an Introductory Essay on the Goldsmiths' Art. London : Wm. Reeves, 
Charing Cross Road." 



io8 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



1874. 
Table op Marks used at all the Assay Offices in Englandj Scotland, and Ireland. 




Deaoription. 



Oold221uirBt 



18k ... 
15k... 
12k... 

ff V K • • ■ 

Silver O.S. 

„ N.S. 



ft 

n 

n 



Gold 22 k... 
Silver O.S. 



Eu Bf-4 



Qo]d22k... 
18k... 
15k... 

X-^ «L • • • 
M V WL • • • 

Silver O.R. 

^ N.S. 



n 
n 



y* 






» 



Gold2^k... 
18k... 
15k... 

ya X ^ K • • • 

> f f V K • • • 

I Silver O.S. 



» 



N.S. 



Sheffield, 
Estab. 1778. 
No frold stam- 
ped here. 

*^ 
£-§ 

tt - 



Silver O.S. 

N.S. 



» 



Gold 22 k... 

,1 lo K ... I 
ff LO R ... 

„ l-?k... 

Silver 0.8. 

« N.S. 



OStj 
QQ n 

Q5 



>00 

(2 



If 
»f 
w 



Gold22k... I 

lo R ... I 

15k... 
12k... 
9k ... 
Silver O.S. 1 

„ N. S. 



Gold'>?k... 
18k... 
15 k... 
l*>k 

o R ••• 

' Silver O. P. 

N.S. 



»f 



00 
00 



e? ^ ® I: 

00 '^ • 



w 



09 



Gold?2k... 

20 k... 

18k... 

15k... 

12k... 
ic ... 
Silver O.S. 






QaaUty. 



22 

18 
15*625 
12-5 

9*375 

Nil 

Nil 



32 
Nil 



22 
18 
15-625 
12*5 

9*375 

Nil 

Nil 



22 

18 

15*625 

12*5 

9*875 

Leopard's head 

crowned 

ditto 



Nil 
Nil 



22 
18 
15*625 
12*5 

9*375 

Nil 

Nil 



00 

18 

15 

12- 

9 

Nil 

Britanuia 



18 

15 

12 

9 

Nil 

Britannia 



22 

20 

18 
1.V625 
12*5 

9*375 

Nil 



2. 
Standard. 



Crown 

Crown 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Lion pesiiant 

Britannia 



Crown 
Lion passant 



Crown 

Crown 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Lion passant 

Britannia 



Crown 
Crown 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 
Lion passant 

Britannia 



Lion passant 
Britannia 



C'rown 
Crown 
Nil 
: Nil 

I Nil 

Lion passant 
I Britannia 



Thistle 
Thistle 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 
Thistle 
Thistle 



8. 
Assay Town. 



Leopard's head 
without a crown 
Leopard's head 
Leopard's head 
Leopard^s head 
Leopard's head 
Leopard's head 
Lion's head erased 



4. 
Date. 



6. 
Duty. 



6. 
Maker. 



Letter Sovereign's head 



Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 



I 



Sovereign's head 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 
Sovereign's head 
Sovereign's head! 



Liitials 

Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 



Castle 
Cnstle 



Letter Sovereign's head Initials 
Letter Sovereign's head Initials 



I 



Dagger&3 
Dagger & 3 
Dagger & 3 
Dagger & 3 
Dagger & 3 
Dagger & 3 
Dagger & 3 



sheaves 
sheaves 
sheaves 
sheaues 
sheaves 
sheaves 
sheaves 



Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 



Sovereign's head, 
Sovereign's head< 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 
Sovereign's head . 
Sovereign's head 



Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 



3 castles 
3 castles 
3 castles 
3 castles 
3 castles 
8 castles 

8 castles 



Crown 
Crown 



Anchor 
Anchor 
Anchor 
Anchor, 
Anchor 
Anchor 
Anchor 



Castle 
Castle 
Castle 
Castle 
Castle 
Castle 
Cnstle 



Letter Sovereign's head Initials 
Letter Sovereign's head Initials 
Letter , Nil Initials 

Letter Nil Initials 

Letter [ Nil Initials 

Letter Sovereign's head Initials 



Letter 



Sovereign's head' Initials 



Letter, Sovereign's head Initials 
. Letter Sovereign's head Initials 



I 



Letter Sovereign's head 

Letter Sovereign's head 
Letter, Nil 

Letter Nil 

Letter Nil 

Letter Sovereign's head 

Letter Sovereign's head. 



Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 



Sovereign's head 
Sovereign's head 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 
Sovereign's head 
Sovereign's head 



Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Liitials 



Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 



Lion 
Lion 
Lion 
Lion 
Lion 
Lion 
Lion 



rampant 
rampant 
rampant 
rampant 
rampant 
rampant 
rampant 



Tree, 
Tree, 
Tree, 
Tree, 
Tree, 
Tree, 
Tree, 



flsh, & bell 
fish, & bell 
fish, & bell 
fish, & bell 
fish, & bell 
fish, & bell 
fish, & bell 



Harp crowned | 

Plume feathers' 

Unicorn's head 

Nil , 

Nil I 

Nil I 

Harp crowned 1 



Hibernia 
Hi hernia 
Hibernia 
Hibernia 
Hibernia 
Hibernia 
Hibernia 



Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 



Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 
Letter 



Sovereign's head 

Sovereign's head' 

Nil 

Nil , 

Nil I 

Sovereign's head| 

Sovereign's head 



Sovereign's head 
So verei gn's head 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 
Sovereigd'shead 
Sovereign's head 



Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 



Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 
Initials 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Table of Marks used in 1 701-2 at the Assay Offices in England ^ 

Scotland^ and Ireland. 



109 



1 

Assay Town. Description. 

1 


1. 

Quality. 


a. 

Standard. 


• 

8. 

Assay Town. 


4. 6. 

Date. Maker. 


t 




Lion passant 

Lion passant 

Britannia 


1 
Leopard's head crowned Letter Initials 
Leopard's head crowned Letter Initials 
Lion's head erased Letter Initials 




Established 18 Cent, gii^ef u. S. 












1 


p^m^vD 6old22k... Leopard's head 
, fui-u Ji^Ai Silver O.S. Leopard's hmd 
Re-established 1701. silver N.S. Lion's head erased 

1 


Lion passant 

Lion passant 

Britannia 


Castle 
Castle 
Castle 


Letter 
Letter 
Letter 

Letter 
Letter 
Letter 


Initials 
Initials 
Initials 


Chester^ 
E£e-establishedl701. 


Gold 22k... Leopard's head 
Silver O. S. Leopard's head 
Silver N. S. Lion's head erase J 

Gold22 k... Leopard's head 
Silver O. S. 1 Leopard's head 
Silver N. S. Lion's head erased 

1 


Lion passant 

Lion passant 

Britannia 


3demi lions&wheatsheaf 
ditto 
ditto 


Initials 
Initials 
Initials 


Newcastle. 
Established 1702. 


Lion passant 

Lion pa.s.sant 

BritAnnia 


3 castles 
3 castles 
3 castles 


Letter Initials 
Letter Initials 
Letter Initials 


York. Gold 22 k... 
Re^tablishednOl.i InverN*!" 

1 1 

Norwich. ' g."!^ 22 k... 
Re-established 1701. ||};^JJJ:|: 


Leopard's head 

Leopard's head 

Lion's head erased 


Lion passant 

Lion passant 

Britannia 

Lion passant 

Lion passant 

Britannia 

(Thijirte in 1759) 


5 lions 

5 lions 

5 lions on a cross 


Letter 
Letter 
Letter 


Initials 
Initials 
Initials 


Leopard's hend 

Leopard's head 

Lion's head erased 


Castle and lion 
Castle and lion 
Castle and lion 


Letter 
Letter 
Letter 


Initials 
Initials 
Initials 


Edinbcrgh. 
Re-established 1631. 

Dublin. 


Gold 22 k... 
Silver O.S. 
Silver N.S.! 


Assay mark 

Assay mark 

Britannia 


Castle 
Castle 
Castle 


■ Letter Initials 
Letter Initials 
Letter Initials 


i' 




Gold 22 k... 
Silver O.S. 




Harp crowned 
Harp crowned 


1 
(Hi6ernia in 1780) Letter Initials 

, ,, TiAttAr ! Tnit.ifi.1a 


Established 1638. 










1 



tavern ^ssas (DM« iLetters. 

By the introduction, in the annexed Table, of the shield used 
to enclose the letters in each cycle, much assistance is given in ascer- 
taining the date of a piece of plate; but as several of the alphabets 
are somewhat alike, a few remarks are appended to each cycle to 
enable those who have not studied them sufficiently to tell at a 
glance the peculiar variations in each. Care must be taken in ex- 
amining plate to place the shield containing the date letter with 
its pointed ba^ downwards, or some confusion may arise in mis- 
taking b for q, p for d, n for u, f for J (in Cycle i6), &c. 

Manv of tne letters now and previously included in the London 
Assay Office Letters bein^ the copyrigfht of the late Mr. W. J. Cripps, 
C.B., F.S.A., author of " Old English Plate," by whose courtesy 
and express permission they are used in this book, the publishers 
desire to renew the acknowledgments which are due on this account. 



) 



no 



LONDON ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 1. 
lioaiBABDic Capitals. 



HENRY VI 




1488-9 
1489-0 

1440-1 

1441-2 
1442-8 
1448-4 
1444-6 

1445-6 
1446-7 
1447-8 
1448-9 
1449-0 
1460-1 
1461-2 
1462-8 
1468-4 
1464-6 
1466-6 
1466-7 
1467-8 



Three Stamps. 

1. Leopard's Head. 

2. Date Letter. 

3. Maker's Mark. 

No lion passant. 
No regular shield. 



CYCLE 2. 

Unknown. 

EDWRRD iv! 



1468-9 
1469-0 
1460-1 

EDWARD IV. 

1461-2 
1462-8 
1468-4 
1464-6 

1466r-6 
1466-7 
1467-8 
1468-9 
1469-0 
1470-1 
1471-2 
1472-8 
1478-4 
1474-6 
1476-6 

1476-7 
1477-« 



The Stamps for this Cycle 
are unknown. 



CYCLE 8 

LOMBABDIC. 



HENRY VII. 





M 





i 




1478-9 
1479-0 
1480-1 
1481-2 

EDWARD V. 

1482-8 

RICHARD III. 

1488-4 
1484-6 



HENRY VII. 
1486-^ 



1486-7 
1487-8 
1488-9 
1489-0 
1490-1 
1491-2 
1492-8 
1498-4 
1494-6 
149&-6 
1496-7 
1497-8 



Three Stamps. 

1. Leopard's Head crowned 

in 1477. 

2. Date Letter. 
S. Maker's Mark. 

No lion passant. 
No regular shield. 



CYCLE 4. 
Black Lbttxr Small. 



HENRY VIM. 






i 












n 



1498-9 
1499-0 
1500-1 
1601-2 
1602-8 
1608-4 
1604-6 

1606-6 
1606-7 
1607-8 
1608-9 

HENRY VIII. 

1609-0 
1610-1 
1611-2 
1612-8 
1618-4 
1614-6 
1616-6 
1616-7 
1617-8 



Three Stamps. 

L Leopard's Head or. 

2. Date Letter. 

3. Maker's Mark. 

No lion passant. 
No regular shield. 



LONPON -ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



THRn Stamps. 
_. Leopanl'i Head crowned. 

2. Dote Lbtter. 

3. Maker's Mark. 



HENRY Vm.-MAR Y. 



1640-1 
1541-2 
1642-8 
1548-4 
1544-6 
1645-6 

1546-7 

EDWAno VI. 
1647-8 

1648-9 

1549-0 

1560-1 

1661-2 

1562-8 

MAftr. 
1B68-4 

1664-6 

•1666-6 

1666-7 

1667-8 



Pour Stamitj. 

1. Leopard's Head cr. 

2. Date Letter. 

3. Maker's Mark. 

4. The lion pasasnt flrsl used 

about 1545. 



Folk Stamps. 
I. Leopard's Head cr. 
I. Lion passant. 
I. Date Letter. 
I. Msker'a Mark. 



Dtlnashiel 



ELIZABETH. 






(Ql 



1678-9 
1679-0 
1680-1 
1681-2 
1682-8 
1588-4 
1684-5 
1685-« 
1586-7 
1687-8 
1688-9 
1689-0 
1690-1 



1698-1 
1694-6 
1696-6 
1696-7 
1697-8 



ma; be diBtinguished Iiom tbe B 



PooB Stamps. 
1. Leopard's Head cr 



bare were onJi tbrse m 



LONDON ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 




LONDON ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



QEORQE I. A II. 




Four Stamps. 

3. Lion's He<Ld enwed. 
a. Date Letter. 

4. Mnker's Mark. 
The two flnt Isltui or 



Four Stamps. 

1. Leopard's Heod ct. 

2. Lionpiunot. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 
T he old lUfldKil n<riTed 
1 17U. but both tha oltl 

nra kllowed 



171(6-7 
1737-8 
1738-9 
1789-0 
1740-1 
1741-2 
1742-8 
1748-4 
1744-6 
1746-6 
1746-7 

1747-8 
1748-9 
1749-0 
1750-1 
1761-2 
1752-8 
1758-4 
1764-5 
1755-6 



PoiTR Stamps. 

1. Leopard's Head cr. 

2. Lion pHsnint. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 
Aflar ITW tfas initials of 



GEORGE III. 

si ' 1756-7 

1^ 1767-8 

^J 1758-9 

gj I 1759-0 

5^ 1760-1 

jfj 1761-2 

0J 1762-8 

5^ I 1763-4 

^ I 1764-5 

Sy i 1766-6 

Si ! 1766-7 

1767-8 
1768-9 
1769-0 
1770-1 
1771-2 
1772-8 
1778-4 
1774-6 
1776-6 



Four Stamps. 
Leopard's Head or 
_. Lioo paaaant. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 
The 



GEORGE lir. 



® 
© 

3) 
® 

m 

© 

Eli 



® 
® 

m 
© 



1776-7 
1777-8 
1778-9 
1779-0 
1780-1 
1781-a 
1782-8 
1788-4 
•1784-6 
1785-6 
1786-7 

1787-8 
1788-9 
1789-0 
1790-1 
1791-2 
1792-3 
1798-4 
1794 5 
1795-6 



nailer atter ITai than 



Five Stasipu. 
. Leopard's Head cr. 

S. Da°te ^M^T. 

4. Maker's Mark. 

5. King'B Head. 






• Bt the Dot; Act ot Hi 
Taoied Dj the date letter i, 
HeuM was adopted, but It wi 



ih 17S4, il 



J b/ a itamp o( the King"! head, wbii 
:i lor the drawback of datyonaxpoTi 



LONDON ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE a. 


CYCLE 90. 


CYCLE ai. 

BUCI LlITBK Cahtau. 


CYCLE tt. 
Blaci IdTTSa Bkall. 


CYCLE SS. 

BOHAa OAnTAL*. 


QEOflGE III 


GEO.IV.-WILL. IV. 


VICTORIA- 


VICTORIA, 


VICTORIA. 


SI 


17Se-7 




1816-7 


1 


1886-7 




1866-7 


® 


1876-7 


m 


1797-8 




1817-8 




1887^ 




1857-8 


m 


1877-8 


© 


1798-9 




1818-9 




1688-9 




1868-9 


m 


1878-9 


m 


1799-0 




1819-0 


1 


1889-0 




1859-0 


m 


1879-0 


m 


1800-1 




1820-1' 




1840-1 




1860-1 


m 


1880-1 


m 


1801-2 




1821-2 




1841-2 


1861-2 

J 


(g) 


1881-2 


m 


1808-8 




1822-8 




1842-8 




1862-8 


© 


1882-8 


m 


1808-4 




1828-1 




1848-4 




1863-4 


igi 


1888-4 


CE 


1801-6 




1824-6 




1844-S 




1864-5 


^ 


1884-6 


m 


1806-6 


1826-6 




1845-6 




1866-6 


w 


1886-6 


m 


1806-7 
1807-8 


i 


1826-7 
1827-8 




1846-7 
1847-6 


1866-7 
1 1867-8 


m 


1886-7 

1887-8 


® 


1808-9 


8 


1828-9 




1848-9 


1868-9 


^ 


1888-9 




1809-0 


o 


1829-0 




1849-0 


1869-0 


(Q) 1889-0 1 


1810-1 


^ 


WILL. IV. 

1830-1 




1860-1 




1870-1 


^ 


1890-1 


p 


1811-2 


M 


1881-2 




1861-2 




1871-2 


w 


1891-2 


m 


1812-3 


ffl 


1882-3 




1852-8 




1872-8 


^ 


1892-8 


m 


1818-4 


® 


1838-4 




1868-4 




1878-4 


^ 


1893-4 


m 


1814-5 


(B 


1834-5 




1854-6 




1874-6 


rm) 1894-5 


m 


1816-6 


SI 


1835-6 




1866-6 




1875-6 


^ , -^« 


Five Stamps. 

1. Leopard's Head. 

2. Lion passant. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 

5. King's Head. 
Aitaci'raeeoidDtiB.ku. 

wu muked with afliown 


PlVS 

L I,eopa 

2. Lion 

3. Dnte 

4. Make 

5. King 

headirtlka 


Stamps. 

rd's Head. 

r'a Mark. 

Head. 
9 the leopud'i 


FivB Stamps. 

L LtKipard'B Head. 

2. Lion passant. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 

5. Queen's Head. 
Alter 1S4S the )n>ld itan- 

dardwu muked wlibai 
>ad a crown. 


FivB Stamps. 

1. Leopard's Head. 

2. Lion paasant for 

silver. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Moker'a Mark. 

5. Qiieen'a Head. 

For gold a crown and S9 
orlB,AocordiogloBlana«rd 


Five Stamps. 

1. Leopard's Head. 

2. LionpassBDt. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker-B Matk. 

5. Queen's Head. 

For loteinB pUta the 

on Bi Ivor, ISW.and Qoean'e 


■a 


pointed, and ths 


mkliilisd 
appetoom 


nnohea are osei 
m out off. 


a.^='^r.^ 


S'i^.'t^vrth'e'Tt 


i«d;«,tba 
teiliiasqu. 


Irom nsa lo Ih 


epresenldi 
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ij, the largo 



LONDON ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



"5 







CYCLE 2i. 










Roman Small. 








VICTORIA. 


1 


EDWARD VII. 




(a] 


1896-7 


(e) 


1900-1 


(g) 


1902-3 


UJ 


1906-7 


Ob) 


1897-^ 


;f) 


1901-2 


IkJ 


1908-4 


(s^ 


1907-8 


(£} 


1898-9 








1904-5 


la) 


1908-9 


O 


1899-0 






H 


1906-6 


[fij 


1909-0 






FocR Stamps. 








1. Leopard'f 


iHead. 


3. Date Letter. 






2. Lion pasa 


ant. 


4. Maker's Mark. 





Cfitonologtcal H%t of (J^ngltsf) ipiate. 

Many of these examples of English plate were exhibited at 
the Special Exhibition of Works of Art on Loan at the South 
Kensington Museum, in 1862. When cataloguing that magnificent 
collection of plate, the writer had an opportunity of verifying the 
foregoing table, not only as regards the assay or date letters, but 
also the forms of the escutcheons enclosing tnem, a great desider- 
atum to those who consult the table, in determining the date of a 
piece of plate when the characters used in the cycles are similar. 

The numbers which precede the references allude to their places 
in the catalogue of that collection, where they will be found fully 
described. Besides these, many other interesting and important 
specimens of English silversmiths' work were displayed on that 
occasion, but they could not be included in this list from the fact of 
the marks having become illegible or altogether obliterated, so that 
their exact date could not be ascertained. 



Cycle I.— May 1438 to May 1458. (Henry VI.) 

Date, Catalogue No. 

1445. H. 7767. The Grace Cup of St. Thomas-k-Becket ; the cup 

and cover of ivory, mounted in silver gilt, inscribed 

"Vinvm . tvvm . bibe . cvm . gavdio;" the ornamented 

borders are of a later period. — Philip H. Howard^ Esq., of 

Corby. 

1445. H. 7753. The silver spoon given by Henry VI. to Sir Ralph 

Pudsey in 1463, together with his boots and gloves, at 

Bolton Hall, after the battle of Hexham, now preserved 

at Hornby Castle, Lancashire. — Capt. Pudsey Dawson, 

Cycle III. — May 1478 to May 1498. (Henry VII.) 

1481. D. 3241a. Silver gilt Cup called the Anathema Cup, dated 
1497, inscribed with the name of the donor, Langton 
Bishop of Winchester, and the sentence, " Qui alienaverit 
anathema sit." — Pembroke Coll.y Camb, 

1481. D. 5725. Silver gilt low Bowl, fluted stem, inscribed " Bene- 
dictus . Deus . Im . Dona . Suis . ame," in Lombardic 
letters. — J, Dunn Gardner, Esq, 

T487. K. Silver gilt Salt Cellar. — Christ's College, Cambridge. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 117 

Date. Catalogue No. 

M93- Q- Apostle Spoon with full-length figure of a Saint, the ear- 
liest spoon known with an Apostle. The date letter Q 
is cusped inwards and outwards; maker S. — TAe Rev, 
T. Stanifofth, 

1497. V. Three small Spoons, with slender stems. — Rev, T, Stani- 
forth. 

Cycle IV.— May 1498 to May 15 18. (Henry VIL and VIII.) 

1499. Jj. 5455. Grace Cup and Cover ornamented with crossed 

bands, and in the panels are maidens' heads and flagons, 
the badges of the (Jompany ; on the cover a maiden seated 
with a unicorn, with blue enamel bands, &c., presented by 
Sir Thomas Legh. — Mercers* Company, 

1500. t^ Old English Spoon. — Painter Stainers* Company. 

1506. u Bishop Fox's Spoons, with owls at the ends of the 

handles. — Corpus ukristi College, Oxon. 

1507. Ii. 3223. Silver Gilt Cup and Cover in form of a Tudor 

rose, battlemented, engraved with roses, portcullises, and 
daisies (Marguerites), given by the Foundress, Margaret, 
Countess of Richmond. — Chrisfs College, Cambridge, 

1507. k. 3224. Pair of Silver Gilt Salt Cellars, of hour-glass 
form, ornamented with Tudor roses, &c., presented by the 
Foundress, the Countess of Richmond. — Christ s College, 
Cambridge, 

1 5 10. n* The mounting of a Mazer Bowl. — A. W. Franks, Esq. 

1 51 2. ji. Spoon. — Rev, T. Staniforth, 

^5^4- W Gothic Silver Paten; within a tressure of 6 spandrils is 
the head of our Saviour and radiating borders. — 
Heworth Churchy NewcastU-upon-Tytie. 

1 51 5. s* Apostle Spoon, with the maker's mark of an S. — Dr. 
and Mrs. Ashford. 

1515- fi« .3207. Silver Gilt Tazza Cup and Cover, ornamented 
with stamped pattern of roses and fleurs de lis. — Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford. 

1515. %. Apostle Spoon (St. Paul), one of a set of 13 given by 

Archbishop Parker. — Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

1516. t. Bishop Fox's Spoons, with balls at the ends of the 

stems. — Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 

1 517. b. Gothic Silver Paten, parcel gilt, sunk centre; within a 

tressure of 6 arches is the head of our Saviour, a nimbus 
round His head and radiating borders, engraved and gilt. 
— Rev. T. Staniforth. 

Cycle V.— May 15 18 to May 1538. (Henry VIII.) 

1518. A. 5448. Salt Cellar, of hour-glass form. — Ironmongers^ 

Company. 

1 519. B. Set of Twelve Apostle Spoons, from the Bemal Collec- 

tion; maker S. — Rev. T. Staniforth, 



118 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Date Catalogue No. 

1520. C. Silver Cup. — Chrisfs C allege y Cambridge. 

1 52 1. D. 5726. Old English Spoon, with fluted knob on the stem. 

— f. Rainey^ Esq. 

1522. E. 5448. Salt Cellar, of hour-glass form. — Ironmongers^ 

Company. 

1522. E. Spoon, with seal top, in the possession of Dr. and Mrs. 

Ashfordy Torquay. 

1523. F. 5402. Henry VHI.'s Cup. repouss6 with scrolls, fleur de 

lis and rose, with bells on the bottom of the cup. — Barber 
Surgeons* Company. 
1523. F. 5497. Cocoa-Nut Cup, silver mounted. — Vintners' Com- 
pany. 

1527. K Chalice and Paten, given by Henry VHI. to Sir Thomas 

Pope. — Trinity College, Oxford. 

1528. L. Spoon, with statuette of St. Nicholas, and three children 

in a tub, of good early work ; the stem is inscribed SYNT. 
NYCOLAS . PRAY . FOR . WS. This spoon is supposed 
to have been formerly used in the Abbey of St Nicholas, 
Abingdon, founded by Edward VI. — f. Dunn Gardner^ 
Esq. 

1529. M. 3202. Mazer Bowl, silver gilt mounting. — All Souls' 

College, Oxford. 

1530. N. Two Apostle Spoons; maker S. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 
1533. Q. 3204. silver gilt Cup and Cover, double handled and 

urn shaped, repousse with scrolls. — Christ's College, 
Oxford. 
1537. V. Apostle Spoon, with dots on the date letter as shown on 
the table. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

Cycle VI.— May 1538 to May 1558. (Edward VI. Mary.) 

1539. B. Apostle Spoon. — Innholder^ Company. 

1545. H. Spoon, with lion sejant on the end of the stem, the leo- 
pard's head crowned in the bowl. The lion passant on this 
piece is the earliest example we have met with. — Dr. and 
Mrs. Ashford of Torquay. 

1545. H. 3239. Silver gilt Ewer and Salver, given by Archbishop 
Parker in 1570. — Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

1554. R. Sir Martin Bowes' Cup, presented (according to the 
Minutes) 1561. — Goldsmiths' Company. 

Cycle VII.— May 1558 to May 1578. (Elizabeth.) 

1558. a. Spoon with seal top; maker's mark, mullet and crescent. 
— Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1558. a* Stone Jug, silver mounted, repouss6 with scrolls, fruit 

satyrs, and masks, the cover surmounted by St. George 
and the Dragon; on the handle a bifrons maiden's head 
and quaint head-dress. — f. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

1559. h^ Silver-mounted Stoneware Jug and Cover, with date of 

presentation 1560; maker S. K. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



119 



Date Catalogue No, 
1560. 



561. 

562. 

562. 
562. 

563. 

564. 

564. 

565. 
566 
566. 
566. 

569. 



569. 

569. 
570. 

571. 



571- 

571. 
572. 

572. 
573. 

1573. 



r. Spoon, with stem cut off obliquely. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 
Two Spoons, with seal tops; maker's mark, a rose. — Rev, 
T, Staniforth. 

J>. Apostle Spoon. — Innholder^s Company. 

U 5500. Delft Tankard, silver mounted, given by David 
Gitting in 1563. — Vintners* Company. 

t* Apostle Spoon; maker's mark, a trefoil leaf. — Rev. T. 
Staniforth. 

t* 3236. Circular Salt and Cover, given by Archbishop 
Parker in 1570. — Corpus Christi College^ Cambridge. 

f. 5505. Large Cup and Cover, engraved with subjects 
relating to the manufacture of wax, the gift of Richard 
Normansell. — Wax Chandlers* Company. 

0. Apostle Spoon; maker's mark, a trefoil leaf. — Rev. T. 
Staniforth. 

0. 5412. Square Salt, given by Roger Dunster in 1641.— 
Clothworkers* Company. 

Ij. The Cockayne Cups; maker G. — Skinners^ Company. 

V 572^. Silver gilt Chalice. — f. P. Dexter, Esq. 

i. Plateau; maker R. V. — Skinners^ Company. 

i. Set of 12 Apostle Spoons, given by Archbishop Parker 
in 1570. — Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

tn* 3234. Cup and Cover, richly ornamented with masks, 
fruit and flowers, and female heads in relief, surmounted 
by a nude male figure, given by Archbishop Parker in 
1569. — Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 

VX* 5729. Brown Stoneware Jug, silver mounted; maker 

L R. — E. A. San ford, Esq. 
tn. 5729- Stoneware Jug, silver mounted. — J. Toovey, Esq. 
II. Silver seal-top Spoon. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford, 

0. 3235- Silver gilt Tankard, repouss6 with arabesques, 
given by Archbishop Parker in 1571. — Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

C* 5730- Brown Stoneware Jug, silver mounted; maker 
N. S. interlaced. — /. P. Dexter, Esq. 

0. 5731- Chalice and Paten, with engraved belt, dated 
1576. — f. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

p. 5733- Earthenware Jug, silver mounted. — H. Magniac, 
Esq. 

m 3230. Silver gilt Tazza, with punched ornaments. — 
Christ* s College, Cambridge. 

0* 5734- Silver Tankard engraved with strap work and 
medallions of female heads; maker's mark, a crab. — L. 
Huth, Esq. 

t[* 5735- Chalice and Paten, with engraved belt of nan 
ning pattern. — J, Rainey, Esq. 



120 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Date Catalogue No. 

1574- T. 5738. Silver Tankard; maker's initials C. L., a halberd 

between. — Ashmolean Museum^ Oxford. 
1574. r. Apostle Spoon; maker's mark, a shell. — Rev, J. 

Staniforth, 
1576. i. 5739. Silver Chalice and Paten. — /. Rainey, Esq. 
1576. t. 5423. Simon Gibbons' square Salt. — Goldsmiths* 

Company. 

IS77' b* 5741- Stoneware Jug, silver mounted; maker's initials 

C. C. — /. D. Gardner^ Esq. 
IS77' b» Apostle Spoon. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

Cycle VIII.— May 1578 to May 1598. (Elizabeth.) 

1578. A. Gilt Apostle Spoon, inscribed "A H. Nata Ano Dni 1578 

Octob. 10. Inter Hor. 12 et Pri. in Aurora Susceptore Gual 

Moyse." — Rev. T. Staniforth. 
1578. A. 5742. Silver gilt Tankard, repouss6 with fruit and 

flowers; on the purchase is a mermaid; maker's initials 

E. S. — Baron Lionel de Rothschild. 

1578. A. Silver gilt Salt Cellar, cylindrical, with high cover, sur- 

mounted by a soldier, elaborately ornamented with strap 
work and repouss^ masks, lions' heads, fruit, &c., maker's 
mark, a bird with wings expanded. — Sir Richard Wallace. 

1579. B. 5744. Silver gilt Tazza, chased with cartouches and re- 

pouss6 helmeted head ; maker H. C, a hammer and vice. — 
n.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge. 

1579. B 5745. Silver Cup, in form of a "Pelican in her piety" 

the stem ornamented with masks and scrolls, the foot with 
hunting scenes; maker's mark, a bird. — Sir Stephen 
Glynne, Bart. 

1580. C. Antique Spoon, with terminal female bust. — Dr. and Mrs. 

Ashford. 

1580. C. 5748. Silver gilt Cup and Cover; maker's mark, H. C, a 

hammer and vice. — L. Huthy Esq. 

1 581. D. 5746. Silver gilt Ewer and Salver, beautifully chased, 

set with Oriental agates: one of the finest examples of 
English plate known ; maker's mark, a trefoil. — The Duke 
of Rutland. 

1 58 1. D. 5750. Stoneware Jug, silver mounted. — L. Huth^ Esq. 

1582. E. Spoon with baluster knob; maker's mark, a shell. — Rev. 

T. Staniforth. 

1583. F. 5751. Square Salt Cellar. — Baron Lionel de Rothschild. 

1584. G. 5752. Mounted Stoneware Jug; maker's mark, B., a pellet 

in each space. — A. W. Franks^ Esq. 

1585. H. 5753. Porcelain Vase, silver mounted; maker's mark, 

three trefoil leaves. — H. Farrer, Esq. 

1586. I. Spoon with seal top; maker's mark, mullet and ring under. 

— Rev. T. Staniforth. 
1588. L. 5754. Ostrich Egg Cup; maker's mark, a flower. — Earl 
of Home. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 121 

Date Catalogue No, 

1588. L. Silver Paten; maker H. C. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1589. M. Silver Chalice; maker's mark, a trefoil. — Messrs, Garrard. 

1589. M. Apostle Spoon; maker's mark, a mullet and crescent. — 

Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1590. N. 5465. Rose-water Dish, chased with Dolphins and 

flowers, lions' heads, &c., the gift of William Offley. — 
Merchant Taylors^ Company. 

1590. N. Spoon with seal top; maker L. — Rev, T, Staniforth, 

1 591. O. Stoneware Jug, silver mounted. — Robert Napier, Esq. 

1592. P. 5755. Silver gilt Cup, baluster stem. — J. P. Dexter, Esq. 
1593- Q- 5756. Silver Tazza. — J. P, Dexter, Esq, 

1593. Q. Seal top Spoon; maker's mark, a mullet. — Rev, T. Stani- 

forth. 

1594. R. 3206. Gilt Salt Cellar and Cover, ornamented with re- 

pouss6 scrolls, &c., surmounted by an amorino. — Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford. 

1594. R. 5757. Stoneware Jug, silver mounted; maker C. B. — 

Hugh Owen, Esq. 

1595. S. 5651. Ewer and Salver, the gift of Robert Kitchen, 

broken up during the Bristol Riots; maker L B. and a 
rose above. — Corporation of Bristol. 

1596. T. Spoon with seal top; maker's mark, a mullet. — Rev. T. 

Staniforth. 

1596. T. Apostle Spoon, St. Peter; maker WC or W in a crescent. — 

R, Temple Frere, Esq. 

1597. V. 5678. Silver Ewer and Salver of very fine work, with 

sea deities and monsters, Neptune and Amphitrite, &c., the 
gift of Henry Howard; maker L N. and a rose below. — 
Corporation of Norwich. 

1597. V. Cup, "the gyfte of John Stuart, A.D. 1600."— i?^z;. T. 

Staniforth. 

Cycle IX.— May 1598 to May 161 8. (James L) 

1 598. A. Spoon with seal top ; maker W. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1598. A. Parcel gilt Salt Cellar. — Octavius Morgan, Esq. 

1599. B. Spice Box, in three compartments. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 
1599. B. 5445. Silver Cup, the gift of Grace Gwalter. — Innholders' 

Company. 
1599. B. Apostle Spoon. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 
1601. D. 5771. Silver gilt Cup, engraved with fruit and flowers. — 

Earl of Derby. 

1 60 1. D. 5422. Circular Salt, the gift of Richard Rogers, " Comp- 

troller of His Majesty's Mint," given in 1632 to the Gold- 
smith^ Company. 

1602. E. Spoon with seal top; maker T. in a crescent. — Rev. T. 

Staniforth. 

1602. E. Spoon with seal top. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1603. F. Silver gilt Ewer and Salver. — Lord Willoughby de 

Eresby. 



22 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Dattt Catalogue No, 

604. G. 5774. Silver covered Cup, engraved flowers; maker's 
mark, I. H. and a bear. — Lord Willoughby de Eresby. 

604. G. Silver gilt Tankard, engraved scrolls. — L. Huth^ Esq. 

605. H. 5481. The "Cockayne" Loving Cups in the form of 
Cocks. — The Skinners' Company, 

605. H. ^414. Salver, the gift of John Burnell. — Clothworker^ 
Company, 

606. L 5777. Silver gilt Salt Cellar, in form of a temple. — R, 
Neville GrenvilUy Esq. 

606. L 5776. Silver Cup, with punched ornaments. — Sir T. W, 
Holburne, Bart. 

607. K. Silver gilt Ewer and Salver, with square escutcheons of re- 
pouss6 flowers and engraved interlaced designs between. — 
Louis Huthy Esq. 

607. K. Apostle Spoon ; maker W. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

608. L. Old English Spoon; maker D. enclosing C. — R. Temple 
Frerey Esq. 

608. L. 3231. Silver gilt Tazza, on baluster stem. — Christ's Col- 
legey Cambridge. 

609. M. 3231. Silver gilt Tazza, of similar character to the pre- 
ceding. — Christ's College^ Cambridge. 

609. M. Spoon witn lion sejant top; maker W. C. — Rev. T. Stani- 
forth. 

610. N. Old English Spoon. — Octavius Morgan, Esq. 

610. N. Old English Spoon; maker's mark, a pair of compasses. — 
Rev. T. Staniforth. 

611. O. 5406. Tall standing Cup and Cover. — Broderers' Com^ 
pany. 

611. O. 5407. Standing Cup, the gift of John Reeves. — Car pen- 
ters' Company. 

612. P. Small Paten in Derry Cathedral. — Communicated by Mrs. 
Dorothea Alexander of Blackhill^ Coleraine. 

613. Q. 5778. Silver Gut Spice Box; maker's mark, a bow be- 
tween L T. — Sir T. W. Holburne, Bart. 

613. Q. Spoon with seal top; maker T. in a crescent. — Rev. T. 
Staniforth. 

614. R. 5440. Silver gilt Circular Salt, given by John Sweete, 
1635. — Innholders' Company. 

614. R. Two Apostle Spoons; maker M. H. joined. — Rev. T. 

Staniforth. 
614. S. 3244. Tall Cup and Cover, surmounted by a statuette of 

Hercules. — St. John's College, Cambridge. 
616. T. 5779. Salver, repouss^ subject of Alexander and Darius; 

maker's mark, a trefoil leaf. — Sir T. W. Holburne, Bart. 

616. T. Dish, inscribed " The dishes of the Arch Duke gotten at 
the battle of Newporte," and " Taken by the Lord Vis- 
count Wimbaldon in the year 1600." — C. Winn, Esq. 

617. V. 5780. Silver Beaker, engraved with roses, thistles, and 
pomegranates. — J. P. Dexter^ Esq. 

617. V. Apostle Spoon; maker L C. — Rev. T. Staniforth, 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 123 

Cycle X.— Msy 161 8 to May 1638. (James L and Charles L) 

Date Catalogue No, 

161 8. a. 5580. Tall silver gilt Tankard, repousse with strap work 
and medallions of sea monsters and the arms of Norwich, 
of fine work. — Corporation of Norwich. 

161 8. a. Lofty silver Beaker and Cover, engraved with imbricated 

pattern, surmounted by a female figure, inscribed "The 
gyf te of Sir William Cockayne, sonne of Roger Cockayne, 
of Baddesley, Warwickshire, 1619." — E, C, Baring, Esq. 

1 6 19. b. Apostle Spoon; maker R. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1619. b. Silver Communion Plates. — All Souls* College, Oxford. 

1620. c. Salt Cellar, with double receptacles and open covers, sur- 

mounted by an obelisk. — Dr. G. W. Dasent. 

1620. c. Apostle Spoon. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1621. d. 5782. Pair of silver gilt Tankards, given by Richard 

Wyatt, citizen and carpentia: ; maker L C. — W. u osier. Esq, 

1 62 1, d. Spoon, seal top; maker L F. Another of the same date, 

with maker's mark, B. Y., over a 3-barred gate. — R. Temple 
Frere, Esq. 

1622. e. Apostle Spoon. — Sir W. Stirling of Keir. 
1622. e. Apostle Spoon. — Innholders* Company, 

1622. e. Chalice and Paten. — St. Antholiris Church, City. 

1623. /. 5407. The Camden Cup and Cover, repousse with leaves 

and inscription. — Painter Stainer^ Company. 
1^324. g. Three Apostle Spoons; maker S. V. — Rev. T. Staniforth, 

1624. g. Silver Paten at Mark, Somersetshire. 

1625. ft. 5784. Silver gilt Cup, the gift of Richard Chester to the 

Corporation; maker T. F. — Viscount Clifden. 

1626. i. 5482. Rosewater Dish, the gift of Francis Couell. — Skin-- 

ners* Company. 

1626. i. 5439. Two Salts, given by John Wetterworth. — Skinner^ 

Company. 

1627. k. Six Silver Apostle Spoons, given in the same year. — Inn- 

holders* Company. 

1628. /. Spoon, seal top; maker R. I. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1628. /. Apostle Spoon; maker D. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1629. m. The Ivatt Cup, given in the same year. — Haberdasher^ 

Company. 

1629. ^- Spoon with seal top; maker R.G. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1630. n. Apostle Spoon. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1630. n. Silver Chalice. — Queen* s College, Oxford. 

1 63 1, o. Apostle Spoon; maker D. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1631. 0. Silver Chalice. — Broomfield Church, Kent. 

1632. p. Silver Chalice and Paten. — St. James*s Church, Dover. 

1633. q. Large Silver Flagon. — Corporation of Bristol. 

1633. q. Two-handled Cup. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1634. r, 5650. Pair of Tankards; given by John Dodridge. — Cor- 

poration of Bristol. 

1634. r. Apostle Spoon; maker C. D. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1635. s. 5433. Circular Salt, thfe gift of ' Sir Hugh Hammersley, 

Knt — Haberdashers* Company. 



124 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Date Catalogue No, 

1635. s. Apostle Spoon, inscribed with date of presentation 1635; 

maker C. D. — Rev. T. Stanitorih. 

1636. /. Apostle Spoon. — G. H. Head^ Esq. 

1636. /. Apostle Spoon, inscribed with date of presentation, 1637; 

maker C. D. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1637. V. Apostle Spoon, 1637; maker R. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1637. V. 5438. Loving Cup, repouss6 work, inscribed "Fides ex 

Charitate agens valet." — Haberdasher^ Company. 

Cycle XL — May 1638 to May 1658. (Commonwealth and 

Cromwell). 

1638. A. Two-handled Cup and Cover, embossed with flowers. — 

South Kensington Museum. 

1638. A. 5458. Circular Salt, of hour-glass form. — Mercers' Com- 

pany. 

1639. B. 5493. Loving Cup, the gift of Robert Bateman, Cham- 

berlain of London. — Skinners^ Company 

1639. B. 5785. Two Wine Cups, the gift of John Harris to the 

Company of Taylors, Oxford, in 1639. — J. Dunn Gardner^ 
Esq. 

1640. C. 5452. Four Cups, the gift of George Humble in 1640. — 

Leather sellers' Company. 

1641. D. Two seal top Spoons, with date of presentation. — Rev. T. 

Staniforth. 

1641. D. S7^7- Cup and Cover; maker R. M. — Viscount Clifden. 

1642. E. Two-handled Porringer. — R. Temple Frere^ Esq. 
1646. /. Silver Spoon; maker C. D. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1646. /. Spoon, seal top; maker T. H. in monogram. — R. Temple 
Frerey Esq. 

1648. L. Spoon, seal top; maker T. H. joined. — R. Temple Frere^ 

Esq. 

1649. M. 5417. Tankard, the gift of W. Clissworth, 1661. — 

Coopers' Company. 

1650. N. 5491. Cup, the gift of George Breton. — Skinners' Com- 

pany. 

165 1. 0. 5667. Four Apostle Spoons. — Corporation of Hedon. 

1652. P. 5788. Covered Cup, said to have been given by Oliver 

Cromwell to his daughter. Lady Fauconborg; maker E. S. 
— The late Paul Butler^ Esq. 

1653. Q. 5504. Cup and Cover, the gift of Thomas Bloodworth 

in 1682. — Vintners' Company. 

1653. Q' 5789. Silver Ladle. — Sir T. W. Holburne, Bart. 

1654. R. Apostle Spoon; maker S. V. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1655. S. 5791. Silver Cup, given by Christopher Pim to the Black- 

smiths' Company, inscribed " By hammer and hand ail 
arts do stand"; maker L W. — f. P. Dexter, Esq. 

1655. S. 5790. Tankard. — J. Dunn Gardner , Esq. 

1656. T. Old English Spoon; maker W. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1657. V. Apostle Spoon. — Innholder^ Company. 



1 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 125 

Cycle XIL— May 1658 to May 1678. (Charles II.) 
Date Catalogue No. 

1658. 3L- * 5444. Silver gilt Cup, the gift of Edward Osborne. — 

Innholders^ Company, 

1659. S» 5665. Large Mace, the gift of Henry Guy. — Corpora- 

tion of Hedon, 

1659. S. Spoon with seal top; maker S. V. — R. Temple Frere, 

Esq, 

1660. d. 5655. Silver Mace. — Corporation of Doncaster. 

1661. JB. Three Apostle Spoons. — Innholder^ Company. 

1662. <R. 5794- Silver Salver, repouss^ with the labours of Her- 

cules and trophies of arms. — Baron Lionel de Rothschild 

1662 JB. 5901. Large Salver. — Earl Spencer. 

1663. 3F. Silver Grace Cup. — Goldsmith^ Company. 

1664. (S. 5795- Silver Cup. — The late Paul Butler, Esq. 

1665. ^« Spoon, flat stem; maker I. I., a bird, and fleur de lis.— 

Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1665. H. Cup given by Charles II. to the Corporation of Oxford 

1666. |l. Embossed Silver Cup. — Sir Charles Morgan^ Bart. 

1667. %. Old English Spoon. — O. Morgan^ Esq.^ M.P. 

1668. W» Rosewater Dish. — Queen* s College, Oxford. 

1669. ffi^ Two-handled Bowl and Cover. — Sir C. Morgan^ Bart. 

1669. fii^ Cup and Cover engraved with the royal arms and the 

arms of Robertus Creyghtonus; on the cover is inscribed 
"Ex donis Caroli Secundi Regis." — Dr. and Mrs. Ash- 
ford. 

1670. ^. Porringer, inscribed 1670. — Queeris College, Oxford. 

1671. ®. Communion plate. — Westminster Abbey. 

1672. 5. 5683. Two Tankards, the gift of Thomas Bawtrey, 

Lord Mayor of the City of York in 1673. — Corporation of 
York. 

1672. ^. Two-handled Cup; maker M. G. — R. Temple Frere^ 

Esq. 

1673. ^» 5796- Covered Cup; maker I N.; in fine gold, plain 

with scroll handles, coiled serpent on the cover. (Hail 
marks the same as on silver.) — J. W. Walrond, Esq, 

1674. fl* 5799- Two-handled Cup, the gift of Sir John Cutler 

to Charles Lush ;' maker I. N. — The late Paul Butler, Esq. 

1674. 5R.. 5797- Two Cups fitting into each other, matted sur- 

face. — W. B. Stopford, Esq. 

1675. %* 5800. Set of 3 Casters; maker R. A. — J. Rainey, Esq. 

1676. fli. Cup and Cover with two handles. — 5. K. Museum. 
1676. fl/. Silver Tankard. — Corporation of Oxford. 

* The stamp of the church-text A on some of these pieces, towards the end 
of the official year, appears to have been injured. 



126 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Date Catalogue No, 

1677. 9t* 8103. Cup. — Messrs, Hunt and Roskell. 
1677. ^t* P^tir of Candlesticks. — EutI of Charlemont, 

1677. tt. Spoon, flat stem, triple rat tail ornament; maker A. K 

— Rev, J. Staniforth, 

Cycle XIIL— May 1678 to March 1697. (James IL William IIL). 

1678. a. 5803. Two-handled Cup, chased with leaves. — /. P, 

Dextety Esq, 

1679. b. 5804. Silver Ladle. — J. P, Dexter, Esq, 

1680. r. 5461. The "Brett" Loving Cup and Cover. — Uer- 

chant Taylors^ Company, 

168 1. i. 5806. Large silver Cistern, the handles in form of 

peacocks, resting on four lions' claws, weighing 2000 oz. ; 
maker R. L.* — Duke of Rutland, 

1682. t. 5807. Tankard. Sir T, W. Holburne, Bart, 

1682. t. Two Spoons with heart-shaped ends; maker E. H. and 

crown. — Rev, T. Staniforth. 

1683. f. 5808. Silver Tazza, with figures in the centre of Jupi- 

ter, Diana, &c. ; maker W. F. — Sir W, C, Trevelyan, Bart. 

1683. f. Oval Casket and Cover, engraved with Chinese figures, 
birds, &c. — South Kensington Museum, 

1683. f. Basin engraved with Chinese figures, trees, fountains, 

and birds. — f, Dunn Gardner, Esq, 

1684. g* 5809. Covered Bowl, pounced with Chinese figures, 

maker L L and lis. — Sir T, W. Holburne, Bart, 

1684. 0, Spoon, .flat stem, heart-shaped end; maker L. C. 

crowned. — Brett Collection, 

1685. Ij. Silver Tankard. — Messrs. Garrard. 

1686. i. Communion Plate; maker's initials L S. in monogram. 

— Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1686. i. 5945. Tankard, the gift of James Langdon Reynolds; 

maker I. R. crowned. — Skinners^ Company. 

1687. k- Mace with the arms of James II. — Mayor and Corpora- 

tion of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

1688. L 5810. Circular Salver, engraved with Chinese figures. 

— J. P, Dexter, Esq. 

1688. L 581 1. Pair of Candlesticks, in form of architectural 

columns. — W, Maskell, Esq, 

1689. tn. Spoon with heart-shaped end. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1690. It. 5813. Silver Tankard, the cover in form of a helmet 

repousse with trophies, &c., maker G. G. — Baron Lionel de 
Rothschild. 

* It holds 60 gallons, and is said to have been filled with caudle when the 
father of the present Duke was born, and with punch at the christening of 
the Marquis of Granby in January 1814, the Prince Regent being sponsor. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 127 

Date Catalogue No. 

1691. 0. Embossed Altar Candlesticks.— Ww/wi»j/£rf Abbey. 

1692. p. Silver Cup. — fesus College, Oxford. 

1693. A* ^2iir of Wine Cups. — /. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

1693. 0. Two Spoons; maker L. C. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1694. r. Silver Loving Cup. — Mercers' Company. 

1695- a. 5815. Silver Cup of Richard Deeble, 1724.— P. W. 
Doyle, E^g. 

1696. t. 5816. Pair of Fire Dogs at Hampton Court; maker 

M. A. — Her Majesty the Queen. 

Cycle XIV.— March 1697 to May 1716. (Anne). 

1697. A. 5817. Teapot of rock-work, vine-leaves, and grapes. — 

Sir T. W. Holburne, Bart. 

1697. B. 5818. Silver-gilt Cup with Cover, on the top the royal 

arms andW.R. III.; and a pair of large pricket Candle- 
sticks on tripod stems, with the royal arms of W. III.; 

B 

maker DB — j^^ Duke of Manchester. 

1698. C. 5894. Pair of silver-gilt Candlesticks. — Rev. G. Jepson. 

1699. D. Silver Candlesticks. — C. H. Leigh, Esq. 

1700. E. 5902. Helmet-shaped Ewer, engraved with the royal 

arms of William III., maker H. A. — Lord Willoughby de 
Eresby. 

1700. E. 5898. Large Silver Fountain, engraved with the Marl- 

borough arms; maker H. A. — Earl Spencer. 

1 70 1. F. 5894. Two Ewers and Salvers, engraved with the Marl- 

borough arms; and large Cistern weighing 1920 oz. Marl- 
borough plate; maker H. A. — Earl Spencer. 
1701. F. 5896. Pair of Massive Flagons. Marlborough Plate; 
maker G. O. crowned. — Earl Spencer. 

1 70 1. F. 5907. Ewer and Salver; maker W. I., two stars above 

and lis below. — Marquis of Abercorn. 

1702. G. 5910. Helmet-shaped Ewer, with female bust handle. 

engraved with the royal arms and motto *' Semper eadem" ; 
maker M. E. — Lord Willoughby de Eresby. 

1703. H. 591 1. Tureen; maker Ne. — Lord BatematL 

1703. ff. Silver Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1704. /. Silver Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1704. /. Spoon, flat stem, heart-shaped end; maker L. A. and crown. 

— Rev. T. Staniforth. 

1705. K. 5912. Two-handled Cup and Cover, with the royal arms, 

presented by Queen Anne to Sir John Leake, — The late 
Paul Butler, Esq. 

1705. K. Two-handled Cup; maker's mark, an anchor dividing the 

letters W. A. — Captain North's Collection. 

1706. L. 5913. Gilt Communion Service, the salver engraved with 

the Descent from the Cross. — Earl of Stamford and War* 
rington. 



128 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Date Catalogue No, 

1706. Z. 5449. Loving Cup, given by William Humphreys. — Iron- 

mongers' Company. 

1707. U, Old English Spoon. — £7. Morgan^ Esq., M.P. 

1708. N. The Goldsmiths' Company's Minutes. 

1708. N, Silver Porringer; maker B. E. — R. Temple Fr ere,. Esq. 

1709. 0. Silver Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1710. P. Silver Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

171 1. Q. 5914. Four circular Salt Cellars; maker P. A. under a 

rose. — W. Maskelly Esq. 

171 2. R. 5450. Loving Cup, the gift of Randulph Lane, in the 

same year. — Ironmongers^ Company. 

17 12. R. Salver, engraved with the royal arms and motto "Semper 

cadem," 15! in. diam. ; maker F. A., lis above pellet below. 
— Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

17 1 3. S. Silver Tankard. — J. Dunn Gardner, Esq. 

17 14. T. 5432. Loving Cup, the gift of Hugh RadclifFe. — Haber- 

dashers' Company. 

17 14. T. Pepper Caster; maker V. L — R. Temple Frerc, Esq. 

171 5. y. Six Spoons; maker Sc. — Rev. T. Staniforth. 

Cycle XV.— May 17 16 to May 1736. (George L & H.) 

1 7 16. A. Two-handled Porringer; maker F. L. — R. Temple Frere, 

Esq. 

1 7 17. B. Silver Monteith or Punch-bowl, with a detached escallop 

rim. — /. G. Fanshawe, Esq. 

17 1 7. B. Silver Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1718. C. 5919. Silver Waiter. — J. P. Dexter, Esq. 

17 1 8. C. 5920. Silver Basin and Cover; maker W. I., two stars 

and lis. — Sir W. Stirling of Keir. 

17 19. D. 5921. Pair of covered Cups, chased with scrolls and 

head of Bacchus. — Earl of Stamford and Warrington. 

1720. E. 5657. Sugar Tongs. — Corporation of Doncaster. 

1 72 1. F. 5677. Cup, the gift of John Kilpatrick. — Corporation of 

Norwich. 

1722. G. Silver Paten. — Crowhurst Church. 

1724. L Two-handled Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1725. K. 6005. Silver-gilt Oar, a copy of a more ancient one of 

the time of Queen Elizabeth, 3 ft. 3 in. long, inscribed, 
" This oar, a badge of authority used by the ancient Cor- 
poration of Boston, was sold by the modern Town Council 
m 1832, and purchased by Francis Thurkill, Esq., an 
Alderman of that Borough, by whose widow it was pre- 
sented in 1840 to the Earl Brownlow." — Earl Brownlow. 

1726. L. Two-handled Porringer. — R. Temple Frere, Esq. 

1727. M. Paten; the date letter M in a square (second size punch) 

the larger one being in the form of a shield. — Dr. and 
Mrs. Ashford, 
1727. M. 5923. Helmet-shaped Ewer, engraved with the arms of 
George L — J. P. Dexter, Esq. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 129 

Date Catalogue No. 

1728. N. 5928. Gilt Toilet Service; maker I. 1^,—Earl of Stam- 

ford and Warrington, 

1729. O. 5929. Silver Basin, scrolls and flowers. — Lord Bateman, 

1730. P. Six Sconces; maker P. A. crowned. — Earl of Stamford 

and Warrington, 
1732. R. 5934. Pair of gilt Tankards; maker P. L. (Paul* de 
Lamerie), star and crown above, lis below. — Earl of Stam- 
ford and Warrington. 

1732. R. Two-handled Cup. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1733. S. 5938. Bread Basket, of wicker pattern; maker P. L. (Paul 

de Lamerie), crown and star above, lis below. — /. Dunn 
Gardner, Esq. 

1734. T. 5671. The Walpole Mace; maker T. R. — Corporation of 

Norwich. 

1735. V. Teapot, melon-shaped, chased with shells and flowers. — 

/. Dunn Gardner^ Esq. 

Cycle XVI. — May 1736 to May 1756. (George 11.) 

1736. a. Sacramental Flagon. — Crowhurst Church. 

^hzi* ^^ 5939- Chalice and Paten. — Messrs. Hunt and Roskell. 

1739. d. Spoon, the stem surmotmted by a group representing 

Charity. — Hon. G. Mostyn. 

1740. e. 5426. Pair of Vases and Covers, chased with deities and 

emblems of the arts and sciences, scroll handles of ter- 
minal figures; maker's initials T. T. — Goldsmith^ Com- 
pany. 

1 74 1. f. 5424. Large Ewer and Salver, handsomely chased with 

heathen deities, Minerva holding a scroll inscribed, ''By 
prudence and good management I am restored"; maker 
Paul de Lamerie. — Goldsmiths* Company. 

1742. g. 5940. Silver Cup and Cover, elaborately chased; maker 

P. L. (Paul de Lamerie! and star, crown above, lis below. 
Messrs. Hunt and Roskell. 

1743. ^- 5941- P^.ir of Silver Dishes; maker N. S., star above. — 

Her Majesty the Queen. 

1744. ^- Cake Basket, with mermaid handles; maker H. M. — Dr. 

and Mrs. Ashford. 

1747. m. 5943. Pair of Tortoiseshell Caddies, silver-mounted, or- 

namented with repouss6 work in fig^es, scrolls, &c 
maker P. L. (Paul de Lamerie), crown and star above, lis 
below. — J. Dunn Gardner^ Esq. 

1748. n. Pair of Vases and Covers, with acanthus-leaf ornament. — 

Jos. Bond, Esq. 

* The first entry of Paul de Lamerie in the mark-book of the Goldsmiths' 
Hall occurs in 1712, when he resided at the Golden Ball, in Windmill Street, 
in the Haymarket. In 1739 he removed to Garrard Street or Gerard Street, 
Soho. His mark up to 1732 was L. A. crowned. In 1733 it was altered to P. L. 
crowned for the Old Standard. 

K 



130 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Date Catalogue No, 

1750. p. 5944. Cruet Stand by Paul de Lamerie.— /. Dunn Gard- 
ner, Esq, 

1752. r. 5649. State Sword. — Corporation of Bristol. 

^7 SI' s. 5945- Set of Casters.— 5ir W. Stirling of Keir, 

1754. t. 5948. Two Tea Caddies; maker M. f.—Earl of Stamford 
and Warrington. 

17s 5- ^- 5950. Milk-pot. repouss6 with v'ne-leaves and grapes, 
maker P. K—Sir J. W. Holburne, Bart, 

Cycle XVIL— May 1756 to May 1776. (George III.). 

1756. 31. 5951. Tea-kettle, gourd-shaped, engraved with land- 
scapes and figures; on a stand. — f, D. Gardner, Esq. 

1758. (J. 5952. Ewer; maker T. H. — 0. E. Coope, Esq. 

1759- B* Two-handled Vcse; and a CofFee-pot. — S. K. Museum. 

1759- 8« Bread Basket, of pierced and repouss^ work; maker 
W. v.— Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1760. (B. Jug, plain with ribbed neck. — J. D. Gardner, Esq. 

^761. y. 5953- Bread basket, of pierced work and arms of 
George IIL — Her Majesty the Queen. 

1763. ^, Pair of Coronation Salvers; maker T. H. — Lord WiU 

loughby, 

1764. %* Bread Basket and a Caddy. — Sir J. Esmonde. 

1765. ?l« 5961. Tea-kettle and Milk-pot; maker I K. crowned. 

— Lord Bateman. 

1765. ft. Silver Tankard. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1766. X. Pepper Caster; maker R. P. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

i7^7' fii. 5963. Two small Waiters. — Lord Bateman. 

^7^7' ffi* Coffee-pot, handsomely chased; maker W. G. — Brett 
Collection. 

1768. Jl. CoflFee-pot, repousse with flowers and love-knots. — f. Z?. 
Gardner, Esq. 

1768. |J. Four Salt Cellars. — Sir f. Esmonde. 

1770. ^. 5965. Gilt Ewer and Cover; maker's mark S. C. : L C. 
—Sir T. W. Holburne, Bart. 

1770. p. Cup engraved with Teniers subjects; maker L M. — 

Geo. Moffatt, Esq. 

1 77 1. (5- 5966. Tankard. — Sir W. Stirling of Keir. 

1772. 3R« 5967. Pair of Pillar Candlesticks. — Lord Bateman. 

1772. fl. Fluted Vase and Cover, satyr-head handles, festoons^ 

&c., fluted body, square foot.— 5. K, Museum. 

1773. ^. Tea-kettle and Stand, chased with foliage, by Paul de 

Lamerie. — Messrs, Hancock. 

1774. (!• Candlestick. Brett Collection. — W. Meyrick, Esq. 

1774. t!/. Two-handled Cup; maker W. C. — R. Temple Frere^ Esq. 

1775. ®. Four Salt Cellars; maker S. M. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 131 

Cycle XVIIL— May 1776 to Majt 175^ (George III.) 

Date Catalogue No, 

1776. a. CofFee-pot; maker's mark W. G. — Dr, and Mrs, Ashford. 

1776. a^ Pair. of Candlesticks, in form of figures holding flowers. 

— Messrs. Hancock. 

1777. b. Milk Jug; maker S. I. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford. 

1778. c. Set of three Vases, designed by Adams. — Percy Doyle ^ 

Esq, 

1779. d. 5909. Pair of Vases, open-work body with rams' heads 

and festoons ; maker W. G. R. — J. W. Brett, Esq. 

1780. e. Cream Jug, repouss6 with flowers and scrolls, stalk handle. 

— J. D. Gardner, Esq. 

1783. h. Cream jug; maker H. B. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford, 

1784. i. Small two-handled Cup, stamped at the Hall between the 

1st December 1784 and the 24th July 1785 with these four 
marks — ist. The drawback mark of Britannia incuse;"* 
2nd. The duty mark of the King's head incuse; 3rd. The 
Hall-maxk of a leopard's head in relief; 4th. The maker's 
initials; the date letter being omitted. — Dr. and Mrs. 
Ashford. 

1785. k. Pair of Salts, open ribs, festoons and lion's heads. — J. D 

Gardner, Esq. 

1786. 1. 5971. Pair of Cups, with ivory plaques; maker I. B. — Her 

Majesty the Queen. 
1788. n. 5676. Silver-gilt Salt Cellars; maker's mark M. N., R. G. 

— Lord Bateman. 
1792. r. 5978. Silver globe Inkstand. — J, W, Brett, Esq. 

* This refers to the drawback. 



The seven towns appointed by the Act 2 Henry VI. (1423) were 
York, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Norwich, Lincoln, Bristol, Coventry, 
and Salisbury, where mints had already been established, and most 
of them had guilds or fraternities previously existing. The town 
marks of the three first have been identified, but as nothing is 
known of the "touches" or town marks of any of the remaining 
four, they probably did not avail themselves of the privilege of 
assaying and marking plate, or if they did, few or no traces have 
been discovered of their doings or the marks they adopted. 

By the Act 12 and 13 William III. (1700), York, Bristol, and 
Norwich, and in 170 1-2 Newcastle-upon-Tyne, were reappointed, 
with the addition of Exeter and Chester, in which two last-named 
town mints had then lately been appointed for coining the silver 
monies of the kingdom — Coventry, Salisbury, and Lincoln having 
then evidently ceased working. Bristol and Norwich, if they 
ever did exercise the privilege, must have ceased shortly after as we 
have no evidence of their having assayed plate since 1700. 

BARNSTABLE. 

A maker, using the initials I. P., manufactured a little plate at 
this town in the middle of the seventeenth century. 

BIRMINGHAM. 

A.D. 1773. 13 George III. c. 52. This Act was passed for the 
appointment of Wardens and Assay Masters for assaying and 
stamping wrought silver plate in the towns of Sheffield and Bir- 
mingham. Silver goods " shall be marked as followeth; that is to 
say, with the mark of the maker or worker thereof, which shall be 
the first letter of his Christian and surname; and also with the lion 
passant, and with the mark of the Company, within whose Assay 
Office such plate shall be assayed and marked, to denote the good- 
ness thereof, and the place where the same was assayed and marked ; 
and also with a distinct variable mark or letter, which letter or 
mark shall be annually changed upon the election of new wardens 
for each Company, to denote the year in which such plate is 
marked." 

By the above-named Act of 1773, both the officers of Birming- 
ham and Sheffield had jurisdiction to assay all plate made within 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



133 



twenty miles of those towns. By the 17 & 18 Victoria, cap. 96, all 
workers or dealers in plate are authorised to register their marks at 
any Assay Office legally established which they may select. 

Sheffield and Birmingham only verify their Hall-marking at 
the Mint, and the Act requires twice a year that the Assay Master 
shall appear at the Mint and verify his proceedings, under a penalty 
of ;f 200, and dismissal from the office for ever, which is not the 
case in the other Assay Offices of Chester, Exeter, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, Edinburgh, or Dublin. 

In the Parliamentary inquiry on the subject of Hall-marks and 
Plate in 1856, it appeared that no other offices but Birmingham and 
Sheffield had ever within living memory sent up their diet boxes to 
be tested at the Mint, being only liable when required to do so. 

In the Parliamentary inquiry of 1879, it was expressly urged 
that the whole of the Assay Offices should be placed under the 
direct supervision of the Mint, so that uniform standard of quality 
should be guaranteed. 

At Birmingham the selection of the variable letter, which is 
directed to be changed with the annual election of the wardens in 
July^ is not confided to any officers, but the custom has been to take 
the letters in alphabetical order, adopting for one cycle of twenty- 
six years the Roman, and for another cycle the old English letters. 

A.D. 1824. 5 George IV. Power was given to the Company at 
Birmingham to assay gold as well as silver, and their marks are the 
same as those used in London, except that the anchor is substituted 
for the leopard's head. 

Mr. Arthur Westwood, the Assay Master at Birmingham, has 
most kindly furnished us with impressions of the date letters, and 
standard marks now used at this city. 

The following is the present form of the anchor, and of the 
lion passant, whicX is not guardant: — 





134 




BIRMINGHAM 


ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS 


• 




CYCLE 1. 


CYCLE a. 


CYCLE a. . 


CYCLE i. 


CYCLE «. 1 


A 


JULY 

1778-4 


a 


JULY 

1799-0 


a 


JULY 

1826-6 


A 


JULY 
1860-1 


a 


JULY 

1876-6 


B 


1774-6 


b 


1800-1 


B 


1826-7 


B 


1861-2 


b 


1876-7 


C 


1776-6 


c 


1801-2 


C 


1827-8 


C 


1862-8 


t 


1877-8 


D 


1776-7 


d 


1802-8 


1 


1828-9 


D 


1868-4 


Ir 


1878-9 


E 


1777-8 


e 


1808-4 


e 


1829-0 


E 


1864-6 


t 


1879-0 


F 


1778-9 


f 


1804-6 


f 


1830-1 


F 


1866-6 


f 


1880-1 


G 


1779-0 


g 


1806-6 


<& 


1881-2 


a 


1866-7 


S 


1881-2 


H 


1780-1 


h 


1806-7 


^ 


1882-8 


H 


1867-8 


JJ 


1882-3 


I 1781-2 


• 

1 


1807-8 


I 


1883-4 


I 


1868-9 


9 

I 


1888-4 


J 1782-8 


• 

J 


1808-9 


It 


1884-6 


K 


1869-0 


k 


1884-6 


K 


1788-4 


k 


1809-0 


t 


1836-6 


L 


1860-1 


I 


1886-6 


Ti 


1784-6 


1 


1810-1 


m 


1886-7 


M 


1861-2 


m 


1886-7 


M 


1786-6 


m 


1811-2 


& 


1887-8 


N 


1862-8 


n 


1887-8 


N 


1786-7 


n 


1812-8 


® 


1888-9 





1863-4 





1888-9 





1787-8 





1818-4 


» 


1888-0 


P 


1864^ 


V 


1889-0 


P 


1788-9 


P 


1814-6 


<® 


1840-1 


Q 


1866-6 


q 


1890-1 


Q 


1789-0 


q 


1816 6 


1 


1841-2 


R 


1866-7 


t 


1891-2 


R 


1790-1 


r 


1816-7 


s 


1842-8 


S 


1867-8 


% 


1892-3 


S 


1791-2 


s 


1817-8 


c 


1848-4 


T 


1868-9 


t 


1898-4 


T 


1792-8 


t 


1818-9 


m 


1844-6 


U 


1869-0 


u 


1894-6 


U 


1798-4 


u 


1819-0 


tB 


1846-6 


V 


1870-1 


& 


1896-6 


V 


1794-5 


V 


1820-1 


m 


1846-7 


W 


1871-2 


hj 


1896-7 


W 


1795-6 


w 


1821-2 


f 


1847-8 


X 


1872-8 


): 


1897-8 


X 


1796-7 


X 


1822-8 


11 


1848-9 


Y 


1878-4 


S 


1898-9 


Y 


1797-8 


y 


1828-4 


E 


1849-0 


Z 


1874-6 


! 


1899-0 


Z 


1798-9 


Z 


1824-6 










\w 




FivB Stamps. 


FlVB 


Stamps. 


Five Stamps. 


FivB Stamps. 


Five 


Stamps. 


1. Anchor. 

2. Lion passant. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Sovereign's Head, 

1784. 

5. Maker's Mark. 


1. Ancho 

2. Lion p 

3. Date I 

4. Soverc 

5. Maker 


r. 

tassant. 
setter, 
sign's Head, 
's Mark. 


1. Anchor. 

2. Lion passant. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Sovereign's Head. 

5. Maker's Marie 


1. Anchor. 

2. Lion passant. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Queen's Head. 

5. Maker's Mark. 


1. Ancho 

2. Lion p 

3. Date! 

4. Queen 

5. Maker 


r. 

Mssant. 
jetter. 
'8 Head, 
's Mark. 



Note.— For the New Standard of 11 oz. 10 dwts. a stamp of Britannia is used instead of the lion passant. 



BIRMINGHAM ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS^ 



135 



CYCLE 6. 





iwa>i 



1901-2 




lallS2r— o 



1903-4 





1904-5 



1906-6 








1906-7 



1907-8 




1908-9 




1909-0 



1. Anchor. 

2. Lion passant. 



3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 



136 • HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

BRISTOL. 

Bristol may, perhaps, have had an office, for there were several 
silversmiths there, who afterwards sent their goods to Exeter to 
be assayed. 

It is not, however, by any means certain that the right of assay 
was ever exercised at Bristol ; although it was appointed as an assay 
office in 1423, and reappointed in 1700. Indeed though we have 
enquired from a leading silversmith at Bristol, we have failed to 
trace any local silver. 

There is a cup on a stem, ornamented with punched diamond 
pattern, which from the inscription appears to have been made in 
this town, although it bears no Hall-mark. It is late sixteenth cen- 
tury work : — 

1" From Mendep I was brought, 
Out of a leden mine ; 
In Bristol I was wrought, 
And now am silver fine." 

There are some interesting pieces of plate preserved by the 
Corporation of Bristol, especially a pair of gilt tankards richly 
decorated, the gift of John Dodridge, Recorder of Bristol, 1658, 
and a gilt ewer and salver, the gift 01 Robert Kitchen. These were 
both assayed and marked in London. The salver made in 1595 
was stolen during the Bristol riots in October 1831, and was cut up 
into 167 pieces, in which state it was offered for sale to a silversmith 
of the town, who apprehended the thief, and he was sentenced to 
fourteen years' transportation. The pieces were rivetted together 
on a silver plate by the same silversmith, in which state it now 
remains, its history being recorded on the back. A State sword, 
bearing date 1483, ornamented and enamelled, is also preserved; 
on one of the mounts are the arms of Bristol, viz., a three-masted 
ship approaching a castle on a rock, with two unicorns as supporters, 
ana on a torse two arms, one holding a serpent, the other the scales 
of justice, being the crest of the city arms. 

CHESTER. 

It appears by the record of Domesday, that in the reign of 
Edward tne Confessor there were seven Mint Masters in Chester. 
In the reign of Charles I. much of the silver was coined here, and 
in that of William III. it was one of the six cities in which mints 
were established for recoining the silver of the kingdom. The Mint- 
mark of Chester on the half-crowns of Charles I. struck in 1645 is 
three gerbes or wheat sheaves. 

We have no record of the time when Chester first commenced 
assaying plate; it is not mentioned in the statute of the 2nd Henry 
IV. (A.D. 1423), but an office must have been established early in the 
sixteenth century. An old minute-book contains an entry sometime 
prior to 1573, directing "that noe brother shall delevre noe plate 
by him wrought unles his touche be marked and set upon the same 
before deliveiie thereof, upon paine of forfeiture of everie diffalt 



HALLMARKS ON PLATE. 137 

to be levied out of his goods iij* iiij*." We also quote the follow- 
ing, which may interest some of our readers : — 

" Md. the viij day of March in Anno 1603° Yt is concluded 
and agreyed by the whole Compeney of the Gouldsmyths y* this 
Order shall be houlden and kept amongst us all, that the brood 
Arrowes agaynst Shrowfttd * shall way everie one vj* stalling and 
everie on of the Compeney shall not sell vnder ix* and for everie 
on that selles vnder ix* shall flForfyt xij*. And yt is ffourther agreyed 
that the Steward for y* time shall come and sey them wayd and 
touchte. And to have ffor his paynes ij* a duzen, and for the 
perfformance of thise order we have subscribed our names. At that 
time beinge Alderman and Steward of y* said Compeney of the 
Gouldsmyths. 

** It is agreed by the consent of the Aldermen and Steward of 
the Gouldsmiths that who soe ever shall make the bell that shalbe 
made against Shrovetide ffor the Sadlers shall have for his paines 
iij* iiij*, and yf any of the Compeney shall offend in the premisses, 
he shall pay unto the Alderman and Steward and the reste of the 
Compeney being, iij* iiij* 

" And y* all the oulde bells shalbe broke and not any of the 
Compeney to by any to be new burnished or sould to the peneltie 
aforesaid iij* iiij*." 

The arms of Chester, granted in 1580, were, party per pale, 
composed of the dexter half of the coat of England, gules, three 
lions passant gardant dimidiated, or, and the sinister half of the 
coat of Blundeville, Earl of Chester, azure, three gerbes also dimi- 
diated or. The crest is, on a wreath or gules and azure, over a royal 
helmet, a sword of State erect, with the point upwards. Supporters 
on the dexter side, a lion rampant, or, ducally gorged, argent; on 
the sinister side, a wolf argent, ducally gorged or. The grant men- 
tions the antiquity of the city, &c., and that the ancient arms were 
nearly lost by time and negligence, and that the coat which the 
citizens claimed was deficient in crest and supporters. The Hall- 

* This allusion to the '' broad arrows against Shrovetide " refers to an 
ancient custom at Chester of holding shooting and running matches for prizes 
of silver broad arrows ever^ Shrove Tuesday. These arrows (in sheaves of 
six in each quiver) were given by the Shoemakers' Ck)mpany, and by all 
newly married couples, as homages to the Drapers' Companv. The homage 
of the Saddlers' Company was a silver bell, to oe eiven to the owner of the 
swiftest horse in a race on the same day. In the Collection of the Corporation 
of Carlisle are a pair of silver racing bells. One bears the date 1599; the 
other has a band inscribed with this rude distich : — 

'^ THB SWEFTES HORSE THIS BELL TO TAKE 
FOB HT LADE DAKEB SAKE." 

Bells were frequently given as racing prizes; hence the phrase ''to bear 
away the bell." Camden, under the heaa of Yorkshire, mention^ '' a solemne 
horse running, in which the horse that outrunneth the rest hath for his prize 
a little golden bell." That was in the days of James I. The well-known 
nursery rhyme also alludes to the custom, when children are being started 
for a race: — 

" Bell horses. Bell horses, what time o' day. 
One o'clock, two o'clock, three and away." 

At the word " away " they commence the start. 



138 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

marks on plate were as shown in the examples annexed, viz. — The 
arms of the city, a dagger erect between three wheat-sheaves down 
to 1697. In 1 70 1, the coat adopted was three demi-lions with three 
wheat-sheaves also dimidiated, which was again changed about 
1775 to the more simple coat above described, without the demi- 
lions, &c., still in use. 

The following extracts from the books of the Chester Gold- 
smiths* Company are all we can find relating to the Hall-marks, 
commencing in the year following the date of the Charter from 
King James II. in 1685 : — 

1686. Feb 1st. And it is further concluded that the Warden's 

marks shall be the Coat and Crest of the Citty of Chester 
on two punsons with a letter for the year. 

1687. Paid for ye tuches engraving . . ;6o 12 o 
Paid for ye three punsons o 00 6 

1690. June 2nd. On the same day the letter was changed from 
A to B, and so to continue for one year. 

1692. April. Paid for a punson and engraving the 

letter C ;^o 01 6 

1692. Novr. Paid Mr. BuUen for copperplate and 

punson . o 04 o 

1694. Paid Mr. Bullen. for a new letter punson . . o 01 o 

1697. Paid for the punson and carriage . . . o 05 8 

These extracts prove that the Goldsmiths* Company at Ches- 
ter assayed and stamped plate with three marks — the arms of the 
city, the crest, and the date letter — ^before 1701 ; the maker's mark 
being set upon the plate before it was delivered into the Assay 
Office, upon pain of forfeiture, as ordained. 

There is no plate preserved by the Corporation of Chester of an 
earlier date than the latter half of the seventeenth century. The 
three tankards, two flagons, ewer, and tobacco-box which we have 
examined were all presented and made between the years 1668 and 
1685, being all previous to the Charter of James II. granted in 
1685-6, which took effect in the year following. These were all 
assayed and stamped in London. The city mace, " given by the 
Earl of Derby, Lord of Man and the Isles, Maior 1668,** bears two 
stamps nearly effaced, of a maker's mark and the city arms. At 
the same time the Earl presented a very handsome State sword. 

A writer, describing the ruinous state of Chester immediately 
after the siege, says : " Thus of the most anchante and famous Citie 
of Chester in times past ; mark the ruins of it at present, viz. : — 
within these three years, 1643, 1644, 1645, the particular demolitions 
of it now most grievous to the spectator and more woeful to the 
inhabitants thereoff." After describing the devastations he con- 
tinues : " The drawing dry of the Cittie stockes, plate, rentes and 
collections, all which losses will amount to two hundred thousand 
pounds at the least" (MS. volume at Stowe, quoted by Lysons.) 
After reading this graphic account, we need not be surprised at the 
absence of ancient plate at Chester. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 139 

Chester was reappointed by the Act 12th William III. (1700), 
and is regulated by that Act and the Act of 1 2th George II. 

We must here express our thanks to the present Assay Master, 
Mr. Jas. Foulkes Lowe, B.A., for his persevering kindness, not only 
in searching the records and furnishing extracts, but in obtaining 
impressions of ancient plate and affording much valuable informa- 
tion on the subject, which has enabled us to give a Table of the Assay 
Letters used at Chester from 1701 to the present time. In this task 
he has been ably assisted by Mr. Thos. Hughes, F.S.A., the inde- 
fatigable Secretary of the Chester Archaeological Society. 

An interesting copperplate is preserved in the office, and is per- 
haps that mentioned in the cash-book of Nov. 1692 — "Paid Mr. 
Bullen for a copperplate and punson 4'." It contains principally 
the maker's marks, which consisted of the two first letters of the 
surname, and on and after 1720 the initials of Christian and sur- 
name. It has also the Roman capital date letters on square stamps 
used in the cycle commencing 1701, and those of other cycles of a 
later date, but not arranged in order. The other stamps are struck 
promiscuously on the plate, for the purpose of proving them, as 
well as for reference. 

In 1773, the Members of the Company of Goldsmiths and 
Watchmaikers of the City of Chester were : — 

Mr. Joseph Duke, Silversmith. 

George Walker, do. 

John Scasebrick, Jeweller, Assayer. 

Gabriel Smith, Watchmaker. 

Thomas Brown, do. 

Robert Cowley, do. 

John Richardson )* i.j^oi 

Thomas Duke Apprenticed to Silversmiths, but 

James Conway f ^^^ ^^ business. 

The ncunes and places of abode of Goldsmiths, Silversmiths, 
and Plate-workers (then living, 1773), who had entered their names 
and marks in the Assay Office at Chester, were Messrs. 

George Walker, Chester. John Gimlet, Birmingham. 

William Pemberton, do. Ralph Wakefield, Liverpool. 

Richard Richardson, do. Joseph Walley, do. 

Jas. Dixon, do. Christian Thyme, do. 

William Hardwick, Manchester Ralph Walker, do. 

T. Prichard, Shrewsbury. Fisher, do. 

Geo. Smith, Warrington. J. Wyke & T. Green do. 

Gimble & Vale, Birmingham. Bolton & Fothergill. 

The following is the present form of the Chester mark: — 




140 



CHESTER DATE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 1. 



c 

so 

St 

8 




1664-6 
1666-6 

1666-7 
1667-8 
1668-9 
1669-0 
1670-1 
1671-2 

1672-8 
1678-4 
1674-6 
1675-6 
1676-7 
1677-8 

1678-9 
1679-0 
1680-1 

1681-2 

1682-8 
1688-4 
1684-6 
1686-6 

1686-7 
1687-8 
1688-9 



Four Marks. 

1. City Arms, of a 
dagger and 3 gerbes. 

2. Crest, a sword 
erect. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker's Mark. 



CYCLE a. 



SI 

m 



m 




m 





1689-0 
1690-1 

1691-2 
1692-8 
1698-4 
1694-6 

1696^6 
1696-7 



Inamioateofz686 
three Hall-marks 
arementioned.that 
of the Maker mak- 
ing four. 

From 1697 to X70X 
the New Standard 
was only stamped 
in London ; Old 
Standard being il- 
legal.theProvincial 
Offices cottld , not 
assay or staib^ 
plate. 



Four Marks. 

1. City Arms, as 
before. 

2. Crest, fleur-de- 
lis or sword erect. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Maker^s Mark. 



CYCLE 8. 



A 


JULY 

1701-2 


B 


1702-8 


c 


1708-4 


D 


1704-6 


E 


1705-6 


F 


1706-7 


G 


1707-8 


H 


1708-9 


I 


1709-0 


K 


1710-1 


L 


1711-2 


M 


1712-3 


N 


1718-4 





1714-6 


P 


1716-6 


Q 


1716-7 


Rl 


1717-8 


S 


1718-9 


T 


1719-0 


V. 


1720-1 


V 


1721-2 


w 


1722-3 




728-4 
724-6 
726-6 



Five Marks. 

1. City Arms, changed 
about 1720 to 3 demi- 
lions & 3 hal f gerbes. 

2. Britannia. 

3. Leopard's Head er. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Mark. 
After 1790.Old Standard. 



CYCLE 4. 



CYCLE 5. 



e^ 








cjr 

e/ 



3 




V 






JULY 

726-7 
727-8 
728-9 
729-0 
780-1 
781-2 
732-8 
788-4 
734-6 
736-6 
786-7 
787-8 
788-9 
739-0 
740-1 

741-2 
742-3 
743-4 
744-6 

746-6 
746-7 
747-8 
748-9 
749-0 
760-1 
761-2 



Five Marks. 

1. City Armfl,ss the 
preceding,af ter 1720. 

2. Lion psssant. 

3. Leopard's Head. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Mark. 



A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 
H 
I 
J 
K 
L 
M 
N 


Q 

R 
S 
T 
U 
W 
X 
Y 
Z 



JULY 

762-8 
763-4 
764-6 
766-6 
766-7 
757-8 
768-9 
769-0 
760-1 
761-2 

762-3 
763-4 

764-6 
766-6 
766-7 
767-8 
768-9 
769-0 
770-1 
771-2 
772-8 
773-4 
774-6 
776-6 
776-7 



1 



Five Marks. 

1. Lion passant. 

2. Leopard's Head. 

3. City Arms, as 
the preceding. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Mark. 



* SP'l.CliJ* »****•'■ *^' ^^^» ^**** '®^ exoeptiona, are plaoed in sqnare esoutoheons, wiih the comers oat off. 

* Str Pbilip Bgerton, of Oalton, has sent us fao-similes of the Chester Marks en a pair of barrel mags with P in 
Roman oapitaiB, and an Invoice of B. Richardson, Silyersmlth, 1709, made in 1767-8 for P. Bgerton, Esq., ox Oolton. 







CHESTER DATE LETTERS. 




141 


CYCLE 6. 


.CYCLE 7. 


CYCLE 8. 


CYCLE ». 


CYCLE 10. ( 


a 


1777-8 


es? 


JULY 

1797-8 


A 


JULY 

1818-9 


®1 


JULY 

1889-0 


® 


JULY 

1864-5 


b 


1778-9 


M 


1798-9 


B 


1819-0 


1840-1 


® 


1866-6 


c 


1779-0 





1799-0 


C 


1820-1 


m 


1841-2 


© 


1866-7 


d 


1780-1 


ii 


1800-1 


D 


1821-2 


(S 


1842-8 


® 


1867-8 


e 


1781-2 


f 


1801-2 


E 


1822^ 


(D 


1848-4 


(D 


1868-9 


f 


1782-8 


^ 


1802-S 


F 


1828-4 


ID 


1844-6 


® 


1869-0 


g 


1788-4 


^ 


1803-4 


G 


1824-e 


® 


1846-6 


@ 


1870-1 


h 


1784-6 


M 


1804-6 


H 


1826-6 


ID 


1846-7 




1871-2 


i 


1786-6 


asr 


1806-6 


I 


1826-7 


m 


1847-8 


1872-3 


k 


1786-7 


X 


1806-7 


K 


1827-8 


m 


1848-9 


1878-4 


1 


1787-8 


J? 


1807-« 


L 


1828-9 


® 


1849^ 


1874-5 


m 


1788-9 


Jt 


1808-9 


M 


1829-0 


m 


1860-1 


1876-6 


n 


1789-0 


JT 


1809-0 


N 


1830-1 


m 


1861-2 




1876-7 





1790-1 





1810-1 





1831-2 


m 


1862-8 




1877-8 


P 


1791-2 


s> 


1811-2 


P 


1882-8 


m 


1868-4 




1878-9 


q 


1792-8 


3 


1812-8 


Q 


1888-4 


m 


1854-6 


i 


1879-0 


r 


1798-4 


01 


1818-4 


B 


1884-6 


m 


1866-6 


© 


1880-1 


s 


1791-6 


S 


1814-5 


S 


1836-6 


ID 


1856-7 


m 


1881-2 


t 


1795-6 


sr 


1815-6 


T 


1836-7 


W) 


1867-8 


m 


1882-8 


u 


1796-7 


^ 


1816-7 


U 


1887-8 


@ 


1868-9 


® 


1888-4 




1} 


1817-8 


V 


1888-9 


IS 


1869-0 






Th« •unip of the 
CitrAnnaofjdeml- 
llona and garbe, 
chaDgal to the Old 
Stamp t)f a sword 
between 3 gerbea. 
about 1784. 










m 


1860-1 
1861-2 
1862-3 
1863-4 






Sh Marks. 

1. Lion paaaant 

2. Leo|»rd'8UiHd. 

3. City ArniB. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. DutyMarJt in 1784 
e. Maltet-a Mart 


Six Marks. 

3. City Arms. 

4. Dutj Miirk. 

5. Date Mark. 

6. Maker. 


Six 

1. Lion 
% L«Dpe 
3. City 
A. Duty 

5. Date 

6. Make 


Marks. 

paraant. 
rd'i Head. 
irme. 
Mark. 

Mark. 


FlVB 

1. Lion 

2. City i 

3. Diitv 

4. Dat^ 

5. Make 
(The Leo 


Marks. 

lark. 
Mark. 

pud'BBead 
nned 1B39.) 


Five 

L Lion 
2. City J 
S. Doty 

4. Date 

5. Maite 


Marks. 
paaaanL 

rmH- 

lark. 
Hark. 



142 



CHESTER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 11. 




B 
C 
D 
E 
F 



884-6 



885-6 



886-7 



887-8 



888-9 



889-0 



G 

H 

I 
K 
L 
M 



CYCLE 12. 



890-1 



891-2 



892-8 



898-4 



894-6 



896-6 



N 

O 
P 

Q 

B 



896-7 



897-8 



898-9 



899-0 



900-1 



® 



1901-2 






1902-8 



IdOS-i 



1904-6 




1906-6 



® 

® 



1906-7 



1907-8 



1908-9 



5. Queen's Head. 



1. Lion posaant. 8. Date Mark. 

2. City Arms. 4. Maker's Mark- 

Duty abolished on silver in 1890, and Queen's Head omitted. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



143 







City Crest. 

Still Qsed by the Assay Offloe as a 
heading to letters and oorresppndenee. 



EXAMPLES. 

Chester, 1665. The following four marks occur on a por- 
ringer or two-handled cup and cover, lately in the possession of 
Messrs. Lewis and Son, Brighton. It is the earliest authentic piece 
of Chester plate we have hitherto met with, enabling us to ascertain 
the type of letter used in the cycle commencing 1664. 

1. The Chester City Arms, a sword be- 

tween three wheat-sheaves or gerbes. 

2. The City Crest, adopted by the 
Assay Office as their Hall-mark 
formerly, viz., a sword with a ban- 
delet, which is still used by the 
officials on their printed documents, 
issuing from an earl's coronet, the 
live pellets underneath indicating 
the balls of the coronet. 

3. A German text B, denoting the year 
1665. 

4. The maker's initials crowned, prob- 
ably some of the Pembertons, who 
were silversmiths at Chester and 
members of the Guild about that 
date. Mr. Lowe, the Assay Master, 
informs us that the signature of 
Peter Pemberton occurs very regu- 
larly in the minute-book from 1677 
until 1702. 

Date, 1689. These marks are on a 
spoon with flat stem, leaf-shaped 
end, rat-tail bowl, clearly of this 
date. In the possession of the Earl 
of Breadalbane. 

1. The Chester City Arms of a sword between three gerbes or 
wheat-sheaves. 

2. The Crest of the Assay Office at Chester. 

3. Court-hand Ay denoting the year 1689, according to the 
minutes of the year 1690. 

4. The maker's initials, Alexander Pulford, silversmith, who 
was admitted in that year as a member of the guild, whose 
name occurs frequently in the minutes. 

The assay mark of a fleur-de-lis somewhat similar to the sword 
and bandelet requires some explanation; and Mr. Lowe, the Assay 
Master, remarks as a strange coincidence, that in the same old 
minute-book there is a sketch of a fleur-de-lis, as above shown, from 
which we may infer that this stamp was an old Chester mark, and 
we may with some degfree of certainty attribute the stamp of a 
fleur-de-lis within a circle, so frequently found on plate of the early 
part of the seventeenth century, to Chester, when some such distinc- 




Dill 




144 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

tive maxk must have been used, and the lis has never hitherto been 
accounted for. 

These two examples prove that the sword between three gerbes, 
erroneously called the new arms, to distinguish the shield from an- 
other styled the old arms of three demi-lions and gerbes, was 
used as a punch on silver long before the last named : and Mr. Lowe 
informs us that it is found on public documents in the time of the 
Commonwealth, and is frequently met with in the reign of 
Charles II. 

Hence the coat of a sword between three wheat-sheaves was 
used as a stamp previous to 1701, and was altered in that year to 
that of three demi-lions per pale with three wheat-sheaves also 
dimidiated, which was again changed about 1784 for the sword 
erect between three wheat-sheaves, which still remains in use. 

The date letters on the above examples, taken in conjunction 
with the initials of silversmiths whose names are recorded in the 
minute-book, show the chciracter of the alphabets adopted at the 
Chester Assay Office, viz., 1664 to 1688 inclusive, a German text 
alphabet, and 1689 to 1697 a court-hand or church text alphabet 
brought to a premature end by the Act altering the standard, re- 
commencing in 1701; by which Act "A variable Roman letter" 
was expressly stated for the succeeding first cycle. 

The variable letter was changed annually on the 5th July, from 
1701 until 1839, when it was altered to the 5th August. 



Uncertain Chester Marks. 

Circa, 1660. A rat-tail spoon in the 
possession of the Rev, T. Staniforth, 

®|wl i§) ^ piece of plate of the seventeenth cen- 

' — ' ^ tury in Messrs, Hancock's possession. 



COVENTRY. 

Although this city is mentioned in the Statute of 2nd Henry 
VI., as being entitled to assay plate, it is not probable that plate 
was ever stamped here. 



EXETER. 

There are no records at the Hall previous to 1701, when this city 
was first appointed an assay town. 

The early mark used at Exeter previous to this date was a 
letter X crowned, subsequently altered to a castle of three towers. 
The Act passed in 1700, reappointing this city for assaying plate, 
did not come into operation until the 29th September, 170 1. On 
the 7th of August the Company of Goldsmiths met, and on the 17th 
of September Wardens were appointed, and they resolved, with all 







HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 145 

convenient speed and safety, to put the Act in execution; and the 
first wardens and assayer were sworn in before the Mayor on the 
19th of November 1701. The letters commenced with a Roman 
capital A for that yeeir, as ordered by the statute, which characters, 
large and small, they used throughout the alphabet until 1837, 
when they adopted old English capitals for that cycle. A Table 
of Letters for each year will be found annexed. 

We have given below the probable dates of some early pieces 
bearing date-letters, according to the London Tables, in a paren- 
thesis, which from the style of workmanship are approximate, if 
not actually correct. It is a curious fact that from 1797 they re- 
duced the number of letters in each cycle from 24 to 20 to corres- 
pond with those of London, adopting the same alphabets down to 
1856. The extensive collection of old English spoons in the pos- 
session of Dr. and Mrs. Ashford, of Torquay, especially rich in 
those manufactured at Exeter, has been of great service in verifying 
the Table of Date-Marks, and Dr. Ashford*s careful investigation 
of the subject has greatly assisted our research. 

Mr. Morgan speaks of a mark he had occasionally met with 
on old plate, resembling the letter X, surmounted by a crown, which 
he conjectured might be St. Andrew's cross, therefore of Scotch 
origin. We have met with several specimens, and on all the mark 
is invariably the Roman letter X, not a cross saltire or St. Andrew's 
cross. 

Another peculiarity relating to this mark is, when it occurs on 
spoons, it is always placed within the bowl, in the same position as 
the leopard's head on spoons struck in London, a proof that it 
denotes the stamp of a town. 

In order, therefore, that we may endeavour to trace this mark 
to its proper locality, we will briefly notice some of the specimens 
which have come under our notice, being all evidently of English 
manufacture. 

A brown mottled stoneware jug, in silver gilt mounting of the 
sixteenth century, has the letter X crowned, the word E ASTON, 

and a small old English date letter f on a shield (London, 1560). 
The date engraved on the handle is 1586. 

A brown stoneware jug, mounted in silver, has — ist, the letter 
X, surmounted by a crown and two pellets ; 2nd, the word ESTON ; 
3rd, C on a shield; 4th, a small old English date-letter g on a 
shield (London, 1564). On the handle is engraved the date, 1595. 
— W. Cozier^ Esq. 

A silver apostle spoon has three marks — ist, the letter X 
crowned, and two fleur-de-lis, within the bowl; 2nd, the word 
E ASTON; 3rd, a small old English date-letter r on a pointed 
shield (London, 1560). On the back are some letters pounced and 
the date 1634 of a later period. — Dr. and Mrs. Ashford^ Torquay. 

These three pieces are from families in Devonshire, and we 
have traced several others to the same county. A silversmith resid- 
ing in Exeter assures us that he has frequently met with similar 
marks, and has always considered them to be old Exeter stamps. 



146 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

in which opinion he is corroborated by other residents of the 
vicinity. 

A silver spoon bears an oblong stamp of a castle of three towers, 
with the word EXON (Exoniensis), EX on one side and ON on the 
other. It has on the handle the date 1692 pounced or pricked, but 
the make is probably earlier. — Dr, and Mrs. Askford. 

There are in Exeter parish churches several communion cups 
of the sixteenth century, mostly 1570 to 1580, bearing the stamp 
IONS, with or without the crowned X, which may be part of a 
maker's name, Jonson or Johnson. 

A stoneware jug of the sixteenth century, mounted in silver, 
bears the marks of the letter X crowned and the word YEDS. — 
South Kensington Museum, 

A spoon with a maiden's head on the stem, of old Exeter make, 
has the X crowned and the name of the maker, OSBORN, im- 
pressed. Date of presentation I.H. 161 2. — Dr, and Mrs, Ashford, 

Dr. Ashf ord informs us he has met with an old Exeter seal-top 
spoon with the maker's name, BENTLY. 

A silver apostle spoon has in the bowl — ist, the letter X 
crowned; 2nd, on the stem the name RADCLIFF; and 3rd, the 
letters I.R. and a flower. It also bears the pounced or pricked let- 
ters and date of presentation 1637. — Rev. T. Stanifortky StorrSy Win- 
dermere. 

A brown stoneware jug of the sixteenth century, mounted in 
silver handsomely chased, has the marks of an X crowned, with two 
pellets in the side angles and the word HORWOD stamped. — 
In the possession of Martin Tucker Smithy Esq. 

There are two silver apostle spoons marked with the letter X 
crowned in a dotted circle, and a goldsmith's mark, ET, repeated 
thrice,* with pounced letters and date 1659. — In the Sal ford Royal 
Museum, Peel Park. 

A silver apostle spoon has the letter X crowned, as before, and 
a goldsmith's mark, and is pounced with letters and date of pre- 
sentation 1635. — Rev. T. Staniforthy Storrs, Windermere 

Dr. and Mrs. Ashford possess several apostle spoons, with the 
crowned X inscribed with tne following dates, which in many in- 
stances are much later than the periods of their manufacture: — 

1634 and 1646. The crowned X has a small cross in each lateral 
angle, on a round shield. 

1649. The crowned X has a triangular pellet in each lateral 
angle, ditto. 

1660. The crowned X is on an escutcheon shaped to the letter. 
1675. Crowned X with round pellets in each lateral angle, on 
a round shield. 

* Repetitions of the maker's mark frequently occur in close proximity 
on the same piece, when other stamps are wanting, on provincial silver. 
This double or treble stamp may perhaps denote the quality of the silver. 
a system adopted in other countries; e.g., at Geneva, in the time of the ola 
Republic, the stamp for silver of the first quality was the City Arms ; if or the 
second, the double punch of the maker; for the third, the maker's single 
punch. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 147 

1678. Crowned X with two pellets and round beaded escut- 
cheon. 

1682. Crowned X with two stars of five points at the sides and 
a small s under. 

By reference to the date of presentation on the pieces of plate 
here described, it will be observed they range from 1586 to 1700; 
and doubtless at Exeter most of the plate made in the West of 
England, especially at Plymouth, was sent to be stamped. Indeed, 
so much was an Assay Omce required, that in the year 1700 Exeter 
was included in the statute, and after that date the shield of arms 
of the town (a castle with three towers) was adopted ; and although 
Bristol was empowered to assay plate, both by 2 Henry VI. (1424), 
and also by 12 William III. (1700), it never availed itself of the 
powers thereby conferred. On the other hand, Exeter, as soon as 
the Act came into operation, appointed its wardens and assayer 
with all convenient speed and safety. 

The first page of the register-book, in which the plate-workers 
entered their names and marks being lost, we can only commence 
with " Peeter Eliot of Dartmouth," who entered on the 13th Novem- 
ber 1703, stamping the two first letters of his surname, E.L., in old 
English capitals, in compliance with the Act for the New Standard, 
a specimen of which will be seen in the examples (page 153) occur- 
ing on a rat-tail spoon of the year 1703. This was the twenty- 
fourth worker who had entered his mark. Other marks of gold- 
smiths follow, who resided principally at Plymouth, a few at 
Exeter, and other places: — 

May 8, 1704. Richard Wilcocks, Plymouth — ^Wj. 
„ Richard Holin, Truro — HO crowned. 

Edward Sweet, Dunster — SW. 
„ Richard Vavasour, Tottness — VA. 
etc., etc. 

In the early register-book the workers stamped their marks on 
the margin of the page, opposite to their names. 

On May 6, 1708, Robert Palmer was appointed Assay Master. 

In 1773 the names of the members of the Goldsmiths* Company 
at Exeter were Mr. Thos. Coffin, Mr. Richard Sams, Mr. David 
Jones, and Mr. Richard Jenkins; and Mr. Matthew Skinner was the 
Assay Master. 

The names and places of abode of all the Goldsmiths, Silver- 
smiths, and plate workers then living (1773), ^^at had entered their 
names and marks in the Assay Office at Exeter, were — Messrs. 

Edward Broadhurst, Plymouth. John Brown, Plymouth 

Roger Berryman Symons, do. Thomas Strong, do. 

Welch, do. William Harvey, do. 

Jason Rolt, do. Thomas Beer, do. 

James Jenkins, do. Richard Bidlake, do. 

Thomas Thome, do. William Eveleigh, Dartmouth, 

Benjamin Symons Nathan, do. Richard Jenkins, Exeter. 

John Tingcombe, do. William Cofiin, do. 

David Hawkins, do. 



99 



148 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



At this Office only one standard of gold was assayed, which 
was the highest standard of 22 karats. 

Since 1701 the date letter has always been changed on the 7th 
of August in each year. 

The office at this city continued to do useful work, until twenty 
years ago, when it was closed. A great part of the silver assayed 
at Exeter was manufactured in Bristol. 

Ultimately the amount of business decreased to so large an 
extent, that on the 26th June, 1883, a special Court was held at the 
Goldsmiths' Hall. At this Court there were present Mr. Josiah 
Williams, Mr. John Ellett Lake, Mr. Ross, Mr. Henry Lake, Mi. 
Maynard, Assay Master, and Mr. Henry Wilcccks Hooper, Solicitor 
to the Company. The Company resolved, having regard to the 
small quantity of silver recently marked, that it was not desirable 
to obtain new punches ; and that the premises used for the business 
should be given up; and that no fresh premises should be taken 
until sufficient applications were received to render it desirable to re- 
open the Hall. The old punches were surrendered to the Inland 
Revenue Office, and the books and paper deposited with Mr. Hooper, 
the Solicitor to the Company. 

The early minute books and other documents of the Company 
are now in the custody of Mr. Hooper; and six copper plates, on 
which many of the date letters and makers* marks have been struck, 
are now in the custody of Mr. J. Jerman, of Exeter. 

For much of this information relating to the Exeter Assay 
Office, we are indebted to Mr. Percy H. Hooper, the last Deputy 
Assayer, and Mr. J. Jerman. 

The form of the castle used at Exeter has varied at different 
times. At first the mark appeared of the following form : — 




About 1 7 10 the form was slightly varied: — 




In 1823 the three towers are detached and placed in an oblong 




HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



149 



A few years later the the castles were again joined, and that 
form was retained until the office was closed : — 



afll£ 



The lion passant was very similar to that used at Birming- 
ham : — 




I50 



EXETER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 1. 


CYCLE 2. 


CYCLE 8. 


CYCLE i. ] 


A 


AUGUST 

1701-2 


a 


AUGUST 

1726-6 


A 


AUGUST 

1749-0 


® 


AUGUST 

1778-4 


m 


1702-3 


b 


1726-7 


B 


1760-1 


b 


1774-6 


c 


1708-4 


c 


1727-8 


C 


1761-2 


c 


1776-6 


V. 


1704-6 


d 


1728-9 


D 


1762-8 


d 


1776-7 


1706-6 


e 


1729-0 


E 


1768-4 


e 


1777-8 


F 


1706-7 


m 


1780-1 


k' 


1764-6 


f 


1778-9 


G 


1707-8 


g 


1781-2 


G 


1766-6 


g 


1779-0 


^ 


170&-9 


h 

• 


1782-8 


H 


1766-7 


h 

• 

1 


1780-1 
1781-2 


I 


1709-0 


1 


1788-4 


I 


1767-6 


JL 

k 
1 




||C| 


1710-1 


k 


1784-6 


m 

K 


1768-9 


1782-8 
1788-4 


Ti 


1711-2 


1 


1786-6 


Ti 


1769-0 


m 


1784 6 


M 


1712-8 


m 


1786-7 


M 


1760-1 


n 


1786-6 


N 


l7ia-4 


n 


1787-8 


N 


1761-2 


o 


1786-7 





1714-6 


o 


1788-9 





1762-8 


p 


1787-6 


P 


1716-6 


P 


1789-0 


P 


1768-4 






Q 


1716-7 


q 


1740-1 


Q 


1764-6 


,^J 


1788-9 


R 


1717-8 


r 


1741-2 


R 


1766-^ 


r 


1789-0 


S 


1718-9 


1 


1742-8 


S 


1766-7 


t 


1790-1 


'I' 


1719-0 


t 


1748-4 


T 


1767-8 


1791-2 


V 


1720-1 


V 


1744-6 


V 


1768-9 


V 

w 


1792-8 


w 


1721-2 


w 


1746-6 


W 


1769-0 


1798-4 


X 


1722-8 


X 


1746-7 


X 


1770-1 


1794-6 


Y 


l72a-4 


y 


1747 8 


Y 


1771-2 


y 


1796-6 


Z 


1724-5 


z 


1748-9 


Z 


1772-8 


z 


1796-7 


Five 


Stamps. 


Five Stamps. 


Five 


Stamps. 


Five S 


tamps. 


1. Lion's 


Head erased. 


1. Lion passant. 


1. Lion 


passant. 


1. Lion pas 


sant. 


2. Britai: 


tnia. 


2. Leopard's Head. 


2. Leop 


ard's Head. 


2. Castle. 




8. Castle 


. 


8. Castle. 


8. Gastl 


e. 


8. Date Ma 


rk. 


4. Date : 


Mark. 


4. Date Mark. 


4. Date 


Mark. 


4. Maker's '. 


[nitials. 


5. Hakei 


-*& Initials. 


5. Maker's Initials. 


5. Make 


^r's Initials. 


5. Duty Ma 


rk of King's 


[In 17 


ao the Marks of 


Old Standard resamed.] 






Headi 


n 1784. 



EXETER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



151 



CYCLE 5. 


CYCLE 6. 


CY 


CLE 7. 

AUGUST 

1887-8 


CYCLE 8. 1 


m 


AUQUBT 

1797-8 


(a) 


AUGUST 

1817-6 


(a) 


(A) 


AUGUST 

1867-8 


B 


1798-9 


b 


1818-9 


B 


1888-9 


B 


1868-9 


C 


1799-0 


c 


1819-0 


C 


1889-0 


C 


1869-0 


D 


1800-1 


d 


1820-1 


s 


1840-1 


D 


1860-1 


K 


1801-2 


e 


1821-2 


€ 


1841-2 


E 


1861-2 


Jb' 


1802-8 


f 


1822-8 


ir 


1842-8 


¥ 


1862-8 


G 


1808-4 


g 

h 


1828-4 





184a-4 


a 


1868-4 


H 


1804-6 


1824-6 




1844-6 


H 


1864-6 


I 


1806-6 


• 

1 


1826-6 


1846-6 
1846-7 


I 


1866-6 


K 


1806-7 


k 


1826-7 


i. 


1847-8 


K 


1866-7 


L 


1807-8 


1 


1827-8 


® 




Ti 


1867-6 


M 


1808-9 


m 


1828-9 


1848-9 


M 


1868-9 


N 


1809-0 


n 


1829-0 





1849-0 


N 


1869-0 





1810-1 





1880-1 





1860-1 





1870-1 


P 


1811-2 


P 

q 


1881-2 


* 


1861-2 


P 


1871-2 


Q 


1812-8 


1882-8 


3Si 


1862-8 
1868-4 


Q 


1872-8 


R 


1818-4 


r 


188a-4 






K 


1878-4 


S 


1814-6 


s 


1884-6 


@ 


1864-6 


S 


1874-6 


T 


1816-6 


t 


1886-6 


c 


1866-6 


T 


1876-6 


U 


1816-7 


u 


1886-7 


m 


1866-7 


U 


1876-7 


Five 


Stamps. 


Five 


Stamps. 


Five 


Stamps. 


Fivi 


1 Stamps. 


1. Lion 


passant. 


1. Lion 


passant. 


L Lion 


passant. 


1. Lion 


passant. 


2. Castl 


e. 


2. Castli 


B. 


2. Castl 


e. 


2. Castl 


e. 


3. King 


'8 Head. 


8. King' 


sHead. 


8. Quee 


n'sHead. 


8. Quee 


n's Head. 


4. Date 


Letter. 


4. Date 


Letter. 


4. Date 


Letter. 


4. Date 


Letter. 


5. Make 


kr's Initials. 


5. Make 


r's Initials. 


5. Make 


it's Initials. 


5. Make 


»r's Initials. 



152 




EXE 


TER ASSAY i 


OFFICE 


: LETTERS. 






CYCLE 9. 1 




1877-8 
1882-8 


® 


1878-9 


(cj 


1879-0 


[p J 1880-1 

1 


(EJ 


1881-2 


1. Lion passant. 2. Castle. 3. Queen's Head. 1 
4. Date Letter. 5« Maker's Initials. 1 



EXETER ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



The arms of the City of Exeter are: — Per pale gu and sa a 
triangular castle with three towers or. Crest a demi-lion rampant 
gUy crowned, or^ holding between its paws a bezant, surmounted by 
a cross botonne or. Supporters, two pegasi ar, wings endorsed, 
maned and crined or; on the wings three bars wavy as. Motto, 
" Semper Fidelis." 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



153 




H [il liaN& 



ESTON 





EXAMPLES. 

Apostle spoon, date about 1576. — 
Messrs. Hancock. 

A spoon of the sixteenth century, 
with hexagonal stem, pear-shaped 
bowl, button top. Date of pre- 
sentation 1620. — Earl of Breadal- 
bane. 





iRADCLirr 



Apostle spoon, 1637. — Rev. T. 
Staniforth. 



E X 




A spoon of about 1670, flat stem 
and oval bowl, bears this stamp 
with monogram and maker's initials 
W.F. — Earl of Breadalbane. 



Split head spoon, pricked mn 1689. 
Circd 1689. — Messrs. Ellett Lake &r 
Son. 








Handsome tankard. Date 1703. — 
Messrs. Ellett Lake & Son. 



Date 1703. These new standard 
marks are on a three-pint tankard. 
(Britannia holds in her hand a 
flower or sprig, not a cross as here 
given in the cut.) — Messrs. Hancock, 

Salver circd 17 10. The City mark of 
a Castle has a thin line rising from 
the printed base of the shield to the 
central tower, indicating the partition 
per paUy like the City arms. — 
Messrs. Ellett Lake & Son, 



154 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 





Split head spoon. Date 171 1. — Messrs. 
Ellett Lake & Son. 







[^ Date 17 1 2. On a rat-tail spoon, 
^^ given in 17 13. — Messrs. Hancock. 



HULL. 

A little plate was marked here with the town arms during the 
seventeenth century, though there was never a proper assay office at 
this place. 

EXAMPLE. 






Date Circd 1660. Spoon. — /. H. 
Walter^ Esq. 



LINCOLN. 

The city of Lincoln was mentioned as an assay town in 1423. 
but it does not appear that plate was ever manufactured at this place, 
to any large amount. 

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. 

At Newcastle-upon-Tyne as early as 1249, Henry HL com- 
manded the bailiffs and good men to choose four of the most pru- 
dent and trusty men of their town for the office of moneyers there, 
and other four like persons for keeping the King's Mint in that 
town; also two fit and prudent goldsmiths to be assayers of the 
money to be made there. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 155 

By the Act of 1423 this town was appointed one of the seven 
provincial assay towns in England. In 1536, the goldsmiths were 
by an ordinary, incorporated with the plumbers and glaziers, and 
the united company required to go together, on the feast of Corpus 
Christi, and maintain their play of the " Three Kings of Coleyn/' 
They were to have four wardens, viz., one goldsmith, one plumber, 
one glazier, and one pewterer or painter; and it is quaintly added 
that no Scotchman born should be taken apprentice or suffered to 
work in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. They had their hall in " Maden 
Tower" granted them in the mayoralty of Sir Peter Riddel 1 in 
1619, and the association of the goldsmiths with the other trades- 
men seems to have lasted till 1702.* . 

This town was reappointed as an assay town by the Act of 1701. 

The annual letter appears to have been used from 1702. Mr. 
Thomas Sewell, one of the Wardens of the Assay Office, has kindly 
furnished us with a Table of Date-Letters, chronologically ar- 
ranged, compiled from the Assay Office books and the copperplate 
on which the maker strikes his initials, as well as from pieces of old 
plate which have from time to time come under his notice. From 
careful examination of various examples of Newcastle plate, we 
have, in this edition, altered some of the characters, making the 
table more complete. The change of letter took place on the 3rd of 
May in each year. 

In 1773 tne members of the Goldsmiths' Company at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne were — Mr. John Langlands and Mr. John Kirkup, Gold- 
smiths and Silversmiths, Wardens; and Mr. Matthew Prior, 
Assayer. 

The names and places of abode of all the Goldsmiths, Silver- 
smiths, and Plate-workers then living, who had entered their names 
and marks, were — Mr. John Langlands, Mr. John Kirkup, Mr. 
Scimuel James, Mr. James Crawford, Mr. John Jobson, Mr. James 
Hetherington (Newcastle-upon-Tyne), Mr. John Fearney (Sunder- 
land), and Mr. Samuel Thomson (Durham). 

The Assay Office at Newcastle was closed in May, 1884, in con- 
sequence of there being insufficient work to make it worth keeping 
open. The Assay Master of the Office before 1854 was Mr. F. 
Somerville. He was succeeded by Mr. James Robson, who entered 
the office as a stamper in 1836, became Assay Master in 1854, ^^^ 
retained that post until the Office was finally closed. The last two 
wardens were Mr. T. A. Reid and Mr. J. W. Wakinshaw. A curious 
incident occurred when Mr. Robson commenced his duties. By some 
means he obtained the wrong punches, and marked some plate which 
afterwards went to Carlisle. This almost led to an action against 
a silversmith at that city, who was accused of forging the hall 
marks. 

When the office was closed the stamping punches were oblite- 
rated or defaced by an Inland Revenue Officer. The name punch 
plate and the old books of the Goldsmiths' Company were placed 
in the Black Gate Museum of the Old Castle in the city. 

• From an " Impartial History of the Town and County of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne," published in 1801, p. 429. 



156 NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 1. 


CYCLE 2. 


CYCLE 8. 


CYCLE «. 1 


A 


MAY 

1702-8 


% 


MAY 

1724-6 


^ 


MAY 

1746-7 




MAT 

1769-0 


B 


1708-4 


B 


1726-6 


a 


1747-8 


M 


1770-1 


C 


1704-6 


ac 


1726-7 


c 


1748-9 





1771-2 


D 


1705-6 


a> 


1727-8 


D 


1749-0 


£^ 


1772-8t 


h: 


1706-7 


(E 


1728-9 


E 


1760-1 


# 


1778-4 


¥ 


1707-8 


f 


1729-0 


F 


1761-2 




1774-5 


G 


1708-9 


<B 


1780-1 


G 


1762-8 


^ 


1776-6 


H 


1709-0 


it 
i 


1731-2 


H 


1768-4 


JT 

_^^ 


1776-7 


I 


1710-1 


1782-8 


I 


1764-6 


of 


1777-8 


K 


1711-2 


1788-4 


J 


1766-6 


3^ 


1778-9 


L 


1712-8 


1784-6 


K 


1766-7 


J^ 


1779-0 


M 


1713-4 




1785-6 


Ti 


1767-8 




1780-1 


N 


1714-6 


ft 


1736-7 


M 


1758-9 




1781-2 





1715-6 


1787-8 


N 


P 


1769-0 
1760-1 


(0 

op 


1782-8 
1788-4 


P 


1716-7 


f 


1788-9 


1761-2 


3 


1784-6 


Q 


1717-8 


9t 


1789-0 


Q 


1762-8 


M 


1785-6 


K 


1718-9 


It 


1740-1 

1 


1768-4 


S 


1786-7 


s 


1719-0 


S 


1741-2 


S 


1764-5 


sr 


1787-8 


T 


1720-1 


c 


1742-8 


T 


1766-6 


'?l 


1788-9 


U 


1721-2 


m 


1743-4 


U 


1766-7 


'If- 


1789-0 


V 


1722-8 


w 


1744-5 


V 


1767-8 


c-0 


1790-1 


W 


1728-4* 


mi 


1745-6 


W 


1768-9 







* A mng with a Newcastle stamp of 172S-4 (W) in Messrs. Garrard's possession. 
^ The Assay Master of Newnastle-upon-Tyne, in his evidence before the Committee of the House of 
Commons, before alluded to* says expressly : ** The Utter for the present official year (1772-3) it D." 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 157 



CYCLE 8. 




B 

C 

E 

F 

G 

H 

T 

K 

L 

M 

N 

O 

P 

Q 

E 

S 
T 

U 

w 

X 
Y 
Z 



MAY 

791-2 
792-8 

793-4 
794-5 
795-6 
796-7 
797-8 
798-9 
799-0 
800-1 
801-2 
802-8 
808-4 
804-5 
805-6 
806-7 
807-8 
808-9 
809-0 
810-1 
811-2 
812-8 
818-4 
814-5 



CYCLE 6. 




b 
c 
d 
e 
f 

g 
h 

1 

k 
1 

m 
n 
o 

P 

r 

s 
t 

V 

w 

X 

y 

z 



MAY 

815-6 

816-7 
817-8 

818-9 

819-0 

820-1 

821-2 
822-8 
828-4 
824-5 
825-6 
826-7 
827-8 
828-9 
829-0 
880-1 
881-2 
882-8 
838-4 
884-5 
885-6 
886-7 
837-8 
888-9 



CYC 




B 

C 

E 
F 
G 
H 
I 
J 
K 
L 
M 
N 
O 
P 

Q 

K 
S 
T 
U 
W 
X 
Y 
Z 



E 7. 



MAY 

889-0 
840-1 
841-2 
842-8 
848-4 
844-5 
845-6 
846-7 
847-8 
848-9 
849-0 
850-1 
851-2 
852-8 
858-4 
854-5 
855-6 
856-7 
857-8 
858-9 
859-0 
860-1 
861-2 
862-8 
868-4 



CYCLE 8. 



® 

h 
c 
d 
e 
f 

g 
h 

1 

k 
1 

m 
n 
o 

P 

q 

r 

s 
t 
u 



MAY 

864-5 
865-6 
866-7 
867-8 
868-9 
869-0 
870-1 
871-2 
872-8 
878-4 
874-5 
875-6 
876-7 
877-8 
878-9 
879-0 
880-1 
881-2 
882-8 
888-4 



Note.— The usual stamps found upon plate assayed at Newcastle are:— 1. The Lion passant. 2. 
1 r m? . ^ "^'^^ crowned. 8. The Town Mark of I hree Castles. 4. The T^etter or Date Mark ; 
ana o. The Maker's Initials. After 1784 the Duty Mark of the tJoveieign's Head is added. 



158 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



EXAMPLES. 




TH 




T« 




(D® 






SI® 










i) ® 







(f 








^D ® 




Iff 










Iwpl 





^^1 



^ 





id 



A porringer with two handles, 
fluted base and gadroon border 
at top. Date about 1680. — The 
Earl of Breadalbane, 

Large gravy ladle. Date 1725. 
— H, A. Attenboroughy Esq, 



Ditto. 1740. — Messrs, Hancock. 



Small beaker. Date 1740. — The 
Marquis of Exeter, 



Do. 1746. — Messrs, Hancock 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



1752. 

1764. 
1765. 



Do. 1 769. 



Do. 


1770. 


Do. 


1771. 


Do. 


^77^- 



do. 

do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 



NORWICH. 

In Norwich, plate was assayed and marked at an early period, 
this City being one of the assay towns mentioned in the Act of 1423. 
Some specimens are existing among the Corporation plate of the 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 159 

date 1.467. An annual letter seems to have been used, for we find 
on a gilt cylindrical salt and cover, elaborately chased with strap- 
work and elegant borders, this inscription: — "The Gyfte of Peter 
Reade, Esquiar." The plate-marks are — i. The Arms of Norwich, 
viz., a castle surmounted with a tower, in base a lion passant gard- 
ant; 2. A Roman capital D ; and 3. Cross-mound (or orb and cross) 
within a lozenge. It was therefore made and stamped at Norwich 
in 1 568, for Peter Reade died in that year. 

Among the records of the Corporation of Norwich we see that 
in 1624 the mark of a castle and lion was delivered by the Mayor 
and Corporation to the Wardens and Searcher of the trade of gold- 
smiths; the city was reappointed an assay town in 1700; and in 
July I, 1702, Mr. Robert Harstonge was sworn assay er of gold and 
silver to the Company, although we have never met with any plate 
with marks of Norwich after that date. 

A cocoa-nut cup, mounted in silver, bears the city arms of 
castle and lion and a rose crowned, with the date mark, a Roman 
capital S. — Messrs. Hunt Sf RoskelL 

The stsimp of a rose is frequently found on plate of the six- 
teenth century, and is thought to denote the Norwich Assay Office, 
being, as in the piece just alluded to, found by the side of the city 
arms. A silver-mounted cocoa-nut cup in the South Kensington 
Museum bears the impress of a rose crowned, a date letter R, and the 
maker's mark, a star. It has the date of presentation, 1576, engraved 
upon it. 

Among the Corporation plate is a gilt tazza cup on a short 
baluster stem. Engraved round the edge in cusped letters is the 
following inscription: — ^^'THE MOST HERE OF IS DVNE BY PETER 
Peterson." He was an eminent goldsmith at Norwich in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. In the bottom of the bowl are engrav^, 
within a circle, the arms of the city of Norwich, viz., gu. a castle 
surmounted with a tower ar., in base a lion passant gardant or. Two 
plate-marks have existed on the edge of the bowl. One of these 
seems to bear the arms of the city in an escutcheon, which was used 
to distinguish the plate made and assayed at Norwich, and the 
other a cross-mound. English work, the latter half of the sixteenth 
century. There are two other cups of similar character belonging to 
the Corporation, on one of which are the following assay marks, 
the lion, leopard's face, a covered cup, and letter. All three were 
probably the gift of John Blenerhasset whose arms are engraved 
within one of them. He was steward of the city in 1 563, and one of 
the burgesses in Parliament, 13 Eliz. — Proceedings Arch, Inst. 1847. 

A silver mace-head of the Company of St. George, in form of 
a capital of a column, enriched with acanthus leaves, and sur- 
mounted by a statuette of St. George and the Dragon. Round the 
collar has been engraved, but now partly obliterated by the inser- 
tion of four sockets, the following inscription: — 

''Ex Dono Hororabil: Fraternitaiis Sti. Georgij in Norwico 

Ano Don* 1705." 



i6o 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



On the top is engraved the shield of St. George and the fol- 
lowing: — 

" DIE III. MAEII, MDCCLXXXVI. BENE ET FELICITER MVNICIPIO 
NORVICENSI OMNIA VT EVENIANT PRECATVR ROBERTVS 

PARTRIDGE PRAETER." 

The plate-mark, a court-hand ^ in an escutcheon on the mace- 
head, is of the year 1697. The initial H occurs on one of the marks, 
the remainder of which is illegible. Height I2|in. — Ibid. 

The Walpole mace, presented in 1733, was assayed and stamped 
in London. 

A finely ornamented repouss6 ewer and salv**r. with Neptune 
and Amphitrite, "The gift of the Hon. Henry Howard, June 16, 
1663," was stamped in London in 1597. A tall gilt tankard, re- 
pouss6 with strap-work, flowers, and fruit, and engraved with the 
arms of Norwich, was stamped in London in 161 8. 

EXAMPLES. 



A chalice dated 1567, stamped with the letter C. and a cross - 
mound within a lozenge. — North Creake Churchy Norfolk. 

A piece of plate, date about 1567. 
— Messrs. Hancock. 



Communion cup of the same date. 
Messrs. Hancock. 



<^ii] 



\m 






Silver gilt salt. Date 1568. — The 
Corporation of Norwich. 



Mount of a cocoa-nut cup, with date 
of presentation 1 576. — South 
Kensington Museum. 

A cocoa-nut cup, stamped with a rose, and the letter S., date 
about 1580. — Messrs. Hunt & Roskell. 



Seal-top Spoon. Date circd 1637.- 
/. H. Walter, Esq. 




*R 




\~y 




Split head Spoon. Date circd 1662. 
— /. H. Walter, Esq. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



i6i 





Tankard, date 1691. — James Reeve, 
Esq. 



Button top spoon, pounced date 
1 7 17, date of make about 1693. — 
Messrs. Hancock. 



Beaker, date 1697. — ]. H. Walter, 
Esq. 



The rose crowned is the standard mark; the castle and lion that 
of the town ; the cross-mound and star being the mark of the famous 
Peter Peterson. All the silver bearing this symbol having been made 
by him. 

SALISBURY. 

This city was appointed as an assay town in 1423, but it is not 
known if plate was ever assayed here ; in any case nothing was 
done in 1700, when several other places were re-appointed as assay 
towns. 



SHEFFIELD. 

At Sheffield, silver only is assayed. Mr. B. W. Watson, the 
Assay Master, has most courteously f unished us with the variable 
letter for each year from the commencement in 1773, from references 
to the minute-book wherein are recorded the meetings for the election 
of new wardens, as well as the letter to be used for the ensuing year. 
The change takes place on the first Monday in July. The plan 
adopted at Sheffield differs from all the other offices, for instead of 
taking the alphabet in regular succession, the special letter for each 
year is selected apparently at random until 1824, after which the 
letters follow in their proper order. Through Mr. Watson's kind- 
ness, we are enabled to lay before our readers a table of marks, 
which have been verified by him. The meirks used at this office 
are the same as at London, except that the crown is substituted for 
the leopard's head, and variation of the date-mark. Sometimes we 
find the crown and date-letter combined in one stamp, probably on 
small pieces of plate, but they are generally separate on square 
punches. When practicable, the four marks are placed in order and 
struck from one punch, but they are struck separately when that 
cannot be done. Occasionally we find the crown and lien on one 

M 



1 62 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE 



stamp. The marks are so combined for the convenience of the war- 
dens in marking the goods, but the letter only is used to denote the 
year in which the article was made. 

The date-letters are invariably placed in square escutcheons. 

The form of the lion and crown now used is : — 







SHEFFIELD ASSAY 


OFFICE LETTERS. 




163 


CYCLE 1. 


CYCLE a. 


CYCLE 8. 


CYCLE 4. 


CYCLE 6. 1 




1778-4 


m 

® 


1799-0 




1824-6 




1844-6 


A 


1868-9 


@ 




(A^ 


$> 


1774-6 


N 


1800-1 


b 


1826-6 


B 


1846-6 


B 1 


1869-0 


A 


1776-6 


H 


1801-2 


c 


1826^7 


C 


1846-7 


C 


1870-1 


m 


1776-7 


M 


1802-3 


d 


1827-8 


D 


1847-8 


D 


1871-2 


n 


1777-8 


F 


1803-4 


e 


1828-9 


E 


1848-9 


E 


1872-8 




1778-9 


G 


1804-6 


f 


1829-0 


F 


1849-0 


F 


1878-4 




1779^ 


B 


1806-6 


g 


1830-1 


G 


1860-1 


G 


1874-6 


® 


1780-1 


A 


1806-7 


h 


1881-2 


H 


1861-2 


H 


1876-6 


B 


1781-2 


S 


1807-8 


k 


1832-8 


I 


1862-3 


J 


1876-7 


<D 


1782-3 


P 


1808-9 


1 


1833-4 


K 


1863-4 


K 


1877-8 


IH ' 178»-4 


K 


1809^ 


m 


1834-6 


Ti 


1864-6 


L 


1878-9 


31 1784-5 

1 


L 


1810-1 


p 


1886-6 


M 


1866-6 


M 


1879-0 


g 1785-6 


c 


. 1811-2 


q 


1836-7 


N 


186^-7 


N 


1880-1 


J^ 1 1786-7 


D 

■ w 


1812-3 


r 


1837-8 





1867-8 





1881-2 


^ ! 1787-8 


R 


1813-4 


s 


1888-9 


P 


1868-9 


P 


1882-8 


ggr ! 1788-9 


W 


1814-6 


t 


1889-0 


R 


1869-0 


Q 


1888-4 


09 1789-0 





1816-6 


u 


1840-1 


S 


1860-1 


R 


1884-6 


iL 1790-1 


T 


1816-7 


V 


1841-2 


T 


1861-2 


S 


1886-6 


1J 1791-2 


X 


1817-8 


X 


1842-8 


U 


1862-8 


T 


1886-7 


m 


1792-8 


I 


1818-9 


z 


1848-4 


V 


1863-4 


U 


1887-8 


fl) 


1798-4 


V 


1819-0 






W 


1864-6 


V 


1888-9 


m 


1794-6 


Q 1820-1 






X 


1866-6 


w 


1889-0 


«tt 


1796-6 


Y 


1821-2 






Y 


1866-7 


X 


1890-1 


Z 


1796-7 


Z 


1822-3 






Z 


1867-8 


Y 


1891-2 


X 


1797-8 


U 


1823-4 










z 


1892-8 


V 


1798-9 



















1. Lion patisant. 


1. Lion passant. 


1. Lion I 


lassant. 


1. Lion ] 


passant. 


1. LioQ passant. 


2. CrowiL 


2. Crown and Date 


2. Crown 


and Date. 


2. Crowi 


Land Data, 


2. Cr'iwn. 


3. Date-Letter. 


in one stamp. 


3. Duty. 




3. Date. 


4. Doty, 


S. Date Letter. 

M «%.& x'1^ AAA 


4. Duty, KWb Head. 

5. Maker's Mark. 


3. Duty. 


4. Maker, 


1 


5. Make] 


• 
m 


4. Duty, until 1890- 


4. Maker. 






Theoron 


'n sometimes 


5. Maker. 










on a sepai 


-ate stamp. 





For the New Standard, Britannia instead of Lion passant. 



164. 



SHEFFIELD ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 6. 


(a] 


1893-4 


>] 


1896-7 


s 


1899-0 


ik] 


1902-8 


(i) 


1906-6 


i^b'. 


1894-6 


'^] 


1897-8 


(fi) 


1900-1 


I 

1 


1908-4 


.0] 


1906-7 


[Cj 


1895-6 


i 


1898-9 




1901-2 


XH 1904-5 


V] 


1907-8 


1. Lion passant. 8. Date Letter. 

2. Crown. 4. Maker. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



165 





EXAMPLES. 





|IP&C*>) 



Candle Stick. Date 179 1-2. — /. 
H, Walter Esq, 




Salver. Date 183 1-2. — W. 
Shoosmith Esq. 



YORK 

York was one of the most ancient places of assay, and it was 
mentioned in the Act of 1423. The operations at this place appear 
to have been discontinued, and it was re-appointed as an assay office 
ill 1700. It does not seem however that much business was ever 
done here. 

It will be seen that in 1772, when a return was made to Parlia- 
ment, the Assay Office was not in existence ; but after that it appears 
to have recommenced. In 1848 we find it mentioned as an assay 
town, but doing very little business.* 

The Corporation of the City of York possesses some interesting 
pieces of plate. A State sword with velvet scabbard, mounted in 
silver, the arms of the city, emblazoned, the arms of Bowes, &c., of 
the time of Henry VIII. On the blade is this inscription: — " Syr 

Martyn Bov^'es Knyght, borne within this Citie of York and 
Maior of the Citie of London 1545. For a remembrance" 

(continued on the other side) " GAVE THIS S .... TO THE Maior AND 

COMMUNAL! IE OF THIS SAID HONORABLE CiTIE.** 

Two tankards, the gift of Thomas Bawtrey in 1673, engraved 
with the arms of York, were made at York, and stamped with the 
York mark and the italic capital P. The gold cup ana other pieces 
were made elsewhere. 

A silver chalice and paten in the Church of Chapel-Allerton, 
Leeds, has three marks: a half fleur-de-lis and half rose, crowned; 
an italic by similar to the London date letters of 1619; and maker's 
initials R.H. On the rim is the date of presentation, 1633. 

A stoneware jug has in relief the royal arms of England and 
the date 1576. It is mounted in silver, and bears three stamps: 
that of the maker, a half rose and half fleur-de-lis conjoined, and 
the date letter R; it is in Mr. Addington's collection. 



* The last duty paid at the Inland Revenue OfiSce was in July 1869. The officer who 
formerly acted as assay er for the city of York died many years ago, and no successor 
has been appointed. 



1 66 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

A spoon of the end of the sixteenth century, in the Rev. T. 
Staniforth's possession, has also the half rose and half fleur-de-lis, 

and the date letter k. 

The stamp used at York previous to 1700 was probably that 
of the half rose and half fleur-de-lis conjoined, which is frequently 
met with on plate of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

The junction of the lis and rose is probably in allusion to the 
union of the rival houses of York and Lancaster by the marriage 
of Henry the Seventh to the Princess Margaret, daughter of Edward 
IV., in i486; the lis being a favourite badge of the Lancastrians, as 
the rose was that of York. As a mint mark we find occasionally 
the fleur-de-lis on the coins of the Lancastrian kings, in allusion to 
their French conquests; but upon some of the coins of Henry VII. 
we find as mint mark the lis and rose conjoined — sometimes half 
rose and half lis as on the York punch on plate, on others a lis 
stamped upon a rose, and sometimes a lis issuing from a rose 
(vide Hawkins, figs. 362, 364, 368). 

The York mark here given, being found on plate of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, is frequently much worn and 
partially obliterated. The half fleur-de-lis is easily distinguished, 
but the corresponding half is not so easily discerned. In some 
instances it looks like a dimidiated leopard's head crowned; in 
others like the half of a seeded rose, with portion of the crown over 
it, for which it is probably intended. There is a great similarity, 
however, in all the punches we have examined, as if struck from 
one die, which, having been a long time in use, may have got 
damaged. It may be remarked as a curious coincidence, that two 
diminutive letters can be traced — YO, the two first of the word 
York. 

In our previous editions we suggested that this punch originated 
at York, but our data are not yet sufiicient to form a satisfactory 
table. 

In alluding to the plate preserved at York, we must not omit 
to notice the ancient bowl called " The Scrope Mazer," from the 
Archbishop whose name is engraved upon it. 

This bowl is preserved at the Minster, in charge of the Dean 
and Chapter. Drake, in his History of York, thus describes it : " In 
the Shoemakers' Company, at York, is kept a bowl called a Mazer 
bowly edged about with silver, double gilt, with three silver feet, and 
cherub's head to it. Round the rim on one side is this inscription 

(in old English characters) :—' ^rbar& arclT£bf5ClT0)lt 2Croil£ 

grants on ta all tbo t^at brinkis of this cop^ SX^' 
ba^is to parbon'; on the other side is, 'Kobart dnbson 
bfficbofie mtsm grants in santf form^ aforrsaib^ JCX^' bayis 

to }iarbon Hobart ^tunsall/ I take these two last to be 
suffragan bishops of the See. Every feast day, after dinner, the 
Company have this bowl filled with spiced ale, and according to 
ancient custom the bowl is drunk round amongst them. It has 
since had an additional lining of silver, and the Company's arms 
put upon it in i66g." Archbishop Scrope died in 1405. On the 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



167 



dissolution of the Cordwainers* Company, in 1808, it passed into 
the possession of the Dean and Chapter, and is now kept in the 
vestry room at York Minster. The silver mounts have been fre- 
quently repaired at subsequent dates, and some local Hall-marks 
have been detected on close inspection. 

EXAMPLES. 




51 



cw 



usi ii 




Apostle spoon. Date 1597. Dalling- 
ton Church, N orthamptonshire. 

Apostle spoon of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The stamp is a half lis and 
half rose crowned. Date 1626 — 
Rev. T, Staniforth, 

A piece of plate, seventeenth cefitury. 
— Messrs. Hancock. 

Ditto. 

On a spoon with flat stem, leaf- 
shaped end and oval bowl, date 
about 1680 to 1690. — Earl of 
Breadalbane. (This has also the 
stamp of a half lis and rose, here 
omitted by mistake.) 

On an oval engraved teapot This 
mark proves that J was used as a 
date letter previous to 1784, having 
no duty mark. It may belong to 
the year 1736, for J of 17 10 would 
have the Britannia mark of the new 
standard. — Messrs. Hancock. 



Scotlanb. 

EXTRACTS FROM STATUTES AND 

ORDINANCES, 

WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES, 

OF THE DEACON AND MARKING PLATE. 

A.D. 1457. In the reign of James II. (Scots), a statute was 
passed for " the reformation of gold and silver wrought by Gold- 
smiths, and to eschew the deceiving done to the King's lieges, there 
shall be ordained in each Burgh where Goldsmiths work, one under- 
standing and cunning man of good conscience, who shall be deacon 
of the craft ; and when work is brought to the Goldsmith and it be 
gold, he shall give it forth again in work no worse than twenty 
grains, and silver eleven grains fine, and he shall take his work to 
the deacon of the craft that he may examine that it be fine as above 
written, and the said deacon shall set his mark and token thereto, 
together with the said Goldsmith's ; and where there is no Goldsmith 
but one in a town he shall show that work, tokened with his own 
mark, to the head officials of the town which shall have a mark in 
like manner ordained therefor, and shall be set to the said work." 

In 1473 it was enacted that places were to be appointed in 
Scotland wherein goldsmiths should examine the gold, and when 
sufficient " set their marks thereto.*' 

GOLDSMITHS. MARKS APPOINTED. 

A.D. 1483. James III. In the records of the Town Council of 
the year 1483, we read that the goldsmiths, with other trades, under 
the general title of hammermen, presented a petition complaining 
of certain irregularities : — 

" In the FIRST thair complaint bure and specifyit that thay war 
rycht havely hurt and put to great poverty throw the douncumming 
of the blak money, walking, warding and in the payment of yeldis 
and extentis quhilkis thay war compellit to do be use. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 169 

"And in lykwyis that thai were havely hurt be the dayly 
mercat maid throw the hie street in cramis and on the baksyde the 
toun in haichling and hammermennis werk pertaining to thame of 
thair craft in greit dishonour to the burgh and in braking of the 
auld gude rule and statutis of thair craft and upon uther skathis 
that thay sustenit in default of reformatioun." 

Whereupon it was ordered there should be no " oppin mercat 
usit of ony of the saidis craftis upon the hie streittis nor in cramis 
upon buirdis," &c. "That upon ilk Settirday ef tir none tua or thrie of 
the worthiest maisters and maist of knowledge of the said craftis, 
quhilk sail haif powar with ane officiar with thame to pas serch and 
se all mennis work gif it be sufficient in stuff and workmanschip, 
gude worth and hable work to serve the Kingis liegis with and quahir 
it beis fundin faultive to forbid the samyn to be sauld under the 
paine of escheitt," Also it is advised and concluded by the Lords 
of the Articles, " That henceforth there be in each burgh of the realm 
where goldsmiths are, one deacon and one searcher of the craft, and 
that each goldsmith's work be marked witii his own marky the 
deacon's mark, and the mark of the towny silver of the fineness of 
eleven penny fine, and gold of twenty- two karats fine." 



GOLDSMITHS' MARKS. 

A.D. 1489. Another statute to the same effect was ordained. 
By this each goldsmith was to have one special mark, sign, and 
token. His works were to be of the fineness of the new works of 
silver of Bruges, and there was to be a deacon of the craft, who was 
to examine and mark the works. 

PENALTIES FOR FRAUD. 

A.D. 1555. "Forasmuch as there is great fraud, &c., it is 
ordained that ho goldsmith make in work nor set forth either his 
own or other men's silver under the just fineness of eleven penny 
fine under the pain of death and confiscation of all their goods and 
movables; and that every goldsmith mark the silver work with his 
own mark, and with the town's mark; also that no goldsmith set 
forth either his own or other men's gold, under the just fineness of 
22 karats fine, under the pains aforesaid." 

POWER OF SEARCH. 

A,D. 1586. Letters under the Privy Seal by King James VI. in 
favour of " the Deacon and Maisteris of the Goldsmyth Craft in 
Edinburgh," Jany. 3, 1586, which empowered them to search for 
gold and silver, and to try whether it were of the fineness required 
by former Acts of Parliament,and seize such as should be deficient. 
" That it shall not be lawful for any, except the masters of the 
craft, to melt any gold or silver work unless it be first shown to 



170 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

them to see whether it has been stolen (the libertie of our Soveraine 
Lordis cunyiehous alwyis exceptit.)." This gave them the entire 
regulation of the trade, separating them finally from all association 
with the " hammermen " or common smiths. 

Act and Statute of the Town Council of Edinburgh in favour of the 
Corporation of Goldsmyths^ August 20, 1591. 

" The samin day the Provost bailies and counsell, and Adame 
Newtoune, baxter, Cudbert Cranstoun, furrour, William Blythman, 
flescheoury Thomas Weir, masoun, Robert Meid, wobster, William 
Cowts, walker^ Thomas Brown, bonetmaker, of the remanent deykins 
of crafts being convenit in counsall anent the supplicaticun gevin 
in before thame be George Heriott, deykin of the goldsmythis, for 
himselff and in name and behalff of the remannet brether of the 
said craft." 

The ten(;r of these articles, which were agreed to, referred to 
the taking of apprentices for a term of seven years, that every master 
shall have served his apprenticeship, and three years over and above, 
to make himself more perfect therein, and have given proof to the 
deacon of the craft of his experience both in workmanship and 
knowledge of the fineness of the metals, &c. 

Only those admitted by the deacon and masters were to work, 
melt, or break down, or sell any gold or silver work, under penalty 
of twenty pounds, or imprisonment. 

That no goldsmith melt any work without first showing it to 
the deacon to see whether it was stolen, nor gild any lattoun or 
copper work. 

By the foregoing enactments it will be seen that only three 
marks are referred to, namely, the Goldsmith's mark, the Deacon's 
mark, and the Town mark — the first was the initials of the maker's 
name, the second the initials of the deacon's name, and the third 
the castle, indicating the City of Edinburgh — and nothing is said 
about a variable letter. The first mention of it we find in the 
Minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company is in September 1681, when 

a small black letter h was ordered to be the letter for the ensuing 
year. After this the letter is ordered annually in alphabetical order, 
from A to Z, in cycles of twenty-five years, omitting the letter J. 
In many cases the letter is stamped at the top of the page with the 
identical punch used for the plate. 

CHARTER OF INCORPORATION. 

A.D. 1687. James VII. This Charter, incorporating the 
Society of Goldsmiths of Edinburgh, dated loth November 1687, 
ratifies the letters patent of James VI., of the 3rd January 1586, in 
every respect, and amplifies their power in many instances, such as 
granting them the privilege of an Incorporated Society, wiih power 
to acquire, purchase, possess lands, &c., enact statutes and laws for 
the regulation of the trade, &c. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 171 

" And because the art and science of goldsmiths, for the most 
part, is exercised in the City of Edinburgh, to which our subjects 
frequently resort, because it is the seat of our supreme parliament, 
and of the other supreme courts, and there are few goldsmiths in 
other cities; Therefore we by these presents give and grant to the 
said deacon and masters, full power, faculty and authority to in- 
vestigate, inquire into and examine the gold or silver work, and 
all gems and stones set in gold or silver, or made and wrought in 
any other city, royal burgh, or barony, market or fair, or exposed to 
sale any where within our said kingdom," &c. 

The Charter of 1687 did not prevent silversmiths in other towns 
of Scotland from manufacturing plate and placing their own marks 
by the side of the attesting stamps of the various towns, so placed 
officially by competent assayers appointed by the Edinburgh Gold- 
smiths* Company, and it was not imperative to have it assayed at 
Edinburgh, or even at Glasgow, after the Act of 18 19. The sale 
of plate thus marked in the provincial towns was evidently legal, as 
the Charter did not prohibit it Hence we find that at Glasgow, 
Aberdeen, Montrose, Inverness, Perth, Dundee, Stirling, St. Andrews, 
and other towns of less note, as Banff, Tain, Leith, &c., plate was 
assayed and marked, although, from the imperfect knowledge of 
the town marks, their punches could not be identified, and they have 
been usually set down as foreign and sold as old silver, being 
consigned to the crucible. 

It is with the view of appropriating these hitherto unknown 
marks to the places of their adoption that we give short notices of 
the insignia of the Royal Burghs of Scotland, for at many of these 
places plate continued to be marked until the Act of Parliament 
relating solely to Scotland, of 6 and 7 William IV. (1836) expressly 
prohibited the sale of newly manufactured plate in Scotland, unless 
assayed and stamped at Edinburgh or Glasgow. 

In our endeavours to trace these Scotish provincial marks to 
their source we have to acknowledge the kind assistance of the Earl 
of Breadalbane, whose name will be found appended to many 
interesting examples. 

• 

MARK OF THE THISTLE INTRODUCED. 

A.I>- 1759- The first entry in the books of the Goldsmiths' 
Company of Edinburgh where THE THISTLE is noticed is in the year 
1759; ^^d after that date, for about twenty years, the minutes year 
by year particularly name the thistle to be used (instead of the 
Assay Master's initials) along with the letter for the year. 



172 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

SALE OF PLATE PROHIBITED IN SCOTLAND UNLESS 
ASSAYED AND MARKED AT EDINBURGH OR 

GLASGOW. 

A.D. 1836. 6 & 7 William IV. Entitled, " An Act to fix the 
standard qualities of gold and silver plate in Scotland, and to 
provide for the assaying and marking thereof. 

" Section 2. And be it enacted that on or before the ist day 
of October 1836, every goldsmith, silversmith, or plate-worker, or 
person carrying on any of the said trades in Scotland, and also every 
person who at any time after the ist day of October 1836 shall 
follow the trade of goldsmith, silversmith, or plate-worker, before 
he shall exercise the same, shall send or deliver either to the War- 
dens of the Incorporation of the City of Edinburgh or to the 
Wardens of the Glasgow Company a written statement of his 
Christian and surname, place of abode, &c. 

" Section 3. Every such goldsmith, silversmith, and plate- 
worker, or person carrying on any of tlie said trades in Scotland, 
shall first stamp or strike his mark upon all gold or silver plate 
(except such as are hereinafter excepted)* which he shall mcike or 
cause to be made after the ist October 1836, and bring or send it 
to the Assay Office of the Incorporation to which he shall have 
delivered his name and address and mark aforesaid, together with 
a note of the weight, quality, &c. ; and such gold plate as shall be 
ascertained to be not less in fineness than 22 karats of fine gold in 
every pound weight Troy, and such silver plate as shall be ascer- 
tained to be not less in fineness than 1 1 ounces and 2 pennyweights 
of fine silver in every pound weight Troy, shall be marked at such 
Assay Office as follows — ^that is to say, with the mark of the thistle 
and such a distinct variable letter, denoting the year in which such 
plate shall be marked, and also with the mark or marks used by 
the Incorporation at whose Assay Office the same shall be assayed ; 
and such gold plate as shall be ascertained to be not less in fineness 
than 18 karats of fine gold in every pound weight Troy shall be 
marked with the figures 18 in addition to the said several marks 
therein before required; and such silver plate as shall not be less 
in fineness than 11 oz. 10 dwts. of fine silver in every pound Troy 
shall be marked with the figure of Britannia in addition to the 
several other marks hereinbefore required." 

A more recent Act of 1842, 5 & 6 Vict, relating to the stamping 
of foreign plate, and the prohibition of its sale in the United King- 
dom unless assayed and stamped at the appointed Assay Offices as 
being of the legal standard, under certain penalties, extends to 
Scotland. 

The Act of 7 & 8 Vict, 1844, "Criminal Law Consolidation.** 
does not extend to Scotland or Ireland. 

The Act of 17 and 18 Vict, 1854, legalising the lower standards 
of 15, 12, and 9 karats however, applies to Scotland. 

* The exemptions are tbe same as in England (see p. 28). 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



173 



The Act of 30 & 3 1 Vict, 1 867, stating that, in addition to the 
usual Hall-marks, the letter F shall be stamped on foreign plate, 
as well as the sections relating to licenses also extends to Scotland. 

Total of Marks now required to be stamped on gold and 
silver plate in Scotland : — 

GOLD. 



Standard 

Gold. 
(6 marks.) 



3 Lower 

Qualities. 

(5 marks.) 



1. Quality in karats (22 or 18). 

2. The thistle for Edinburgh or the lion rampant 
for Glasgow. 

3. Mark of the assay town, castle, or tree, fish, and 
bell. 

4. Date-letter. 

5. Duty-mark, sovereign's head, 
j^ 6. Maker's mark. 

1. Mark of the assay town, castle, or tree, fish, and 
bell. 

2. Quality marked in karats (15, 12, or 9). 

3. Thistle or lion rampant. 

4. Date-letter. 

5. Maker's mark. 



Although paying duty as well as the higher standards, these 
debased qualities are not honoured with the duty-mark of the 
Queen's head. 

SILVER. 



Silver, 

New Standard, 

II oz. 10 dwt 

(6 marks.) 



Old Standard, 

II oz. 2 dwt. 

(5 marks.) 



■{ 



1. The standard mark of the thistle for Edin- 
burgh, the lion rampant for Glasgow. 

2. The mark of the assay town, castle, or tree, 
fish, and bell. 

3. Date-letter. 

4. Duty-meirk. 

5. Britannia. 

6. Maker's mark. 

1. The standard mark of the thistle for Edin- 
burgh or lion rampant for Glasgow. 

2. Mark of assay town, castle, or tree, fish, and 
bell. 

3. Date-letter. 

4. Duty-mark. Abolished 1890. 

5. Maker's mark. 






VIZ. : 



174 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

GOLD AND SILVER PLATE DUTY, SCOTLAND. 

1720. Duty on silver, 6d. per oz. 

1758. Duty repealed and license substituted. 

1784. Duty on gold 8s., and silver 6d. per oz. 
1803. „ ,. i6s. „ IS. 3d. 

1817. „ „ 17s. „ IS. 6d. 

1890. Duty on silver plate abolished. 

LICENSES. 
The licenses to deal in plate are also the same as in England, 

For gold exceeding 2 dwts. and under 2 oz., and 
for silver exceeding 5 dwts. and under 30 oz., per 
annum ......... £2 6 o 

For gold 2 oz. and upwards, and silver 30 oz. and 
upwards per annum ;^5 15 o 

EDINBURGH. 

The arms of the City of Edinburgh are — At. on a rock ppr.y a 
castle triple towered, embattled ja., masoned of the first and topped 
with three fans gu., windows and portcullis closed of the last. 
Cresty an anchor wreathed about with a cable, both ppr. Supporters; 
dexter, a maid richly attired, hair hanging down over her shoulders, 
ppr.; sinister, a doe, also ppr. Motto, NiSI DOMINUS FRUSTRA. 

I.— THE STANDARD. 

For Edinburgh — A THISTLE (after 1757); before that the Assay 
Master's initials. 

For gold of 22 karats, a thistle and 22. 
For gold of 18 karats, a thistle and 18. 
The present mark is : — 




II._THE hall-mark 

For Edinburgh — A CASTLE with three towers, introduced in the 
fifteenth century (1483); before that the Assay Master's initials. 
The three towered castle now used is: — 




HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 175 

III.— THE DUTY-MARK. 

The head of the sovereign, indicating payment of the duty. It 
is omitted on the debased standards of 13, 12, and g karats on gold, 
although subject to the same duty as the higher standards. 
Abolished on silver plate in 1890. 

IV.— THE DATE-MARK. 

A Letter of the Alphabet. The custom has been to use the 
letters alphabetically from A to Z, omitting J, thus making a cycle 
of twenty-five years (with some exceptions); introduced 1681, and 
changed on the first Hall day in October every year. 

v.— THE MAKER'S NAME. 

Formerly some device, with or without the maker's initials; 
afterwards the initials of his Christian and surname used from time 
immemorial accompanied by the Assay Master's initials only. 

1. The standard mark was the Deacon's initials from 1457 to 
1757, when the thistle was substituted for it. 

2. The maker's mark from 1457. 

3. The town mark of a castle with three towers from 1483. 

4. The date-letter from 168 1-2. 

5. The duty -mark of the sovereign's head from 1784 as in 
England, except on the debased standards of 15, 12, and 9 karat 
gold, and discontinued on silver plate. 

The following table is arranged from the minutes of the Gold- 
smiths' Company of Edinburgh, where the date-letters appear noted 
almost every year from 1681, verified by pieces of plate bearing 
dates. The goldsmiths* year is from Michaelmas to Michaelmas 
(29th September). The Hall-mark or town mark of a castle was 
used as early as 1457. and is referred to in that Act (before quoted), 
and alluded to again in 1483 and 1555. 

Previous to 1681, when our table commences, no date-mark 
appears to have been used. On a piece of plate said to be of the 
sixteenth century, exhibited at Edinburgh in 1856, in the Museum 
of the Archaeological Institute, we find a castle (the middle tower 
higher than the two others, as usual), and two other stamps of the 
letter E. These are, perhaps, the town mark, Assay Master's, and 
maker's mark. The silver mace belonging to the City of Edinburgh, 
and known from the town records to have been made by George 
Robertson in 16 17, has three marks, viz., the castle, the cipher G. R, 
and the letter G, (See p. 181.) 

The High Church plate, dated 1643, and the Newbattle Church 
plate, dated 1646, and several others of the same date, have only 
the town mark, the Assay Master's mark, and that of the maker. 

Our thanks are due to the Assay Master, Mr. Alex. Keir, for 
his kindness in furnishing the present mcurks. 



176 


EDINBURGH ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 




CYCLE 1. 


CYCLE 2. 


CYCLE 8. 


CYCLE 4. 


Black Lkttkr Sxaix. 


RoMAM Capitals. 

OC 1 OBER 


Itauc Capitalii. 

OCTOBEK 


Old Ekolish Caps. 
OCTOBER 




OCTOBER 


Igl 


CHARLES II. 

1681-2 


[A) ' 1706-6 


(JZ) ' 1730-1 


[^ 1766-6 


b 


1682-8 


B 1 1706-7 


■^ 1731-2 


215 1 1766-7 


c 


1683-4 


1707-8 


1782-3 


(£* , 1767-8 




1684-6 

JAMES II. 


]) 1 1708-9 


^ 1788-4 


2^ 1768-9 


e 


1686-6 


Yi ' 1709-0 


^ 1734-5 


(J^ , 1769-0 

1 GEORGE III 


f 


1686-7 


Jh^ I 1710-1 


cP^ 


1785-6 


^ , 1760-1 


9 


1687-8 


G ; 1711-2 


^ 


1736-7 


(15 1761-2 


t) 


WILL. A MARY. 










1688-9 


H 1712-3 


M- 1737 8 


J^ 1762-3 


1 


1689-0 


I 1713-4 


^ 1788-9 


% 1768-4 


ft 


1690-1 


__ 1 GEORGE 1. 

K 1714-6 


M 1789-0 


St 


1764-6 


I 


1691-2 


L 1716-6 


X 


1740-1 


%. 


1766-6 


m 


1692-8 


M ' 1*^1^"^ 


^ 


1741-2 


fl© 


1766-7 


n 


1698-4 


N 


1717-8 


cyf 


1742-3 


56 1767-8 





1694-6 

WILLIAM III. 


1 

1718-9 


& 


1743-4 


■S) 


1768-9 


P 


1696-6 


P 1719-0 


0> 


1744-6 


l» 


1769-0 


q 


1696-7 


Q 


1720-1 


3 


1746-6 




1770-1 


r 


1697-8 


R 


1721-2 


M 


1746-7 


m 


1771-2 


A 


1698-9 


s 


1722-3 


S 


1747-8 


^ 


1772 3 


t 


1699-0 


T 


1728-4 


Sr 


1748-9 


% 


1773-4 


1700-1 


^Ak> 












t0 


1701-2 


U 


1724-5 


m 


1749-0 




1774-6 




ANNE. 


V 


1725-6 


^ 


1760-1 


w 


1776-6 


1702-3 


w 


1726-7 


^^ 


1761-2 


% 


1776-7 




1703-4 


GEORGE II. 

X 1 1727-8 


.f 


1752-3 


8 


1777-8 


3 


1704-6 


Y 1728-9 


J^ i 1763-4 


% 


1778-9 






Z 1729-0 


^ 1754-6 


^ 1779-0 


Four Stamps. 


Four Stamps. 


Four Stamps. 


Four Stamps. 


1. The Castle. 


1. The Castle. 


1. The Castle. 


1. The Castle. 


2. The Assay Master's 


2. The Assay Mark. 


2. The Assay Mark. 


2. The Thistle, in 1757. 


Initials. 


8. The Maker's Initials. 


3. The Maker's Initials. 


8. The Maker's Initials. 


;3. The Maker's Initials. 


4. The Date Letter in a 


4. The Date Letter in 


4. The Date Letter in 


,4. The Date Letter in a 


pointed shield. 


square shield. 


square shield. 


pointed shield. 









From 1700 to 1790 Britannia was added for the New Standard. 
* The standard mark of a iMAU wa* used imtead of the Auay Master's initials in 1757-3. 



EDINBURGH ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



177 



CYCLE ft. - 



B 
C 

G 

H 
I 
K 
L 
M 
N 

P 

Q 

R 
S 
T 
U 
V 
W 

X 
Y 
Z 



OCTOBER 
780-1 

781-2 
782-8 

78a-4 
784-5 
786-6 
786-7 
787-8 
788-9 
789-0 

790-1 
791-2 
792-8 

798-4 
794-6 
795-6 
796-7 
797-^ 
798-9 
799-0 
800-1 
801-2 
802-8 
803-4 
804-5 
806-6 



Five Stamps. 

1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The Maker's Initials. 

4. The Date Letter in a 
pointed shield. 

5. King's Head, 1784. 



' CYCLE 6. 
Roman Bmalc. 



® 

h 

c 

d 

e 
f 

g 
h 



J 
k 

1 

m 

n 

o 

P 

q 

r 

s 
t 
u 

V 

w 

X 

J 

z 



octob|:r 
L806-7 

8O7-8., 

808-9 

809-0 
810-1 
811-2 

812-8 
818-4 
814-5 

815-6 

816-7 
817-^ 

818-9 

[819-6 

QEORQ E IV. 

[82(Kr" 
821-2 
822-8 
828-4 
824-5 
825-6 
826-7 
827-8 
828-9 



wi 



829-0 

LLIAM IV. 

880-1 
881-2 



Five Stamps. 

1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The Maker's Initials. 

4. llie Date Letter in a 

square shield. 

5. Sovereign's Head. 



CYCLE 7. 
Old Enoush Caps. 




C 

e 




mi 





OCTOBER 

882-8 

888-4 

884-5 

885-6 
886-7 

VICTORIA. 

887-8 
888-9 
889-0 

840-1 
841-2 
842-8 
848-4 

844-5 

846-6 
846-7 
847-8 
848-9 
849-0 
860-1 
851-2 
852-8 
858-4 
864-5 
855-6 
866-7 



Five Stamps. 

1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The Maker's Initials. 
-I. The Date Letter in 

a shield, concave 
sides. 
5. Sovereign's Head. 



CYCLE 8. 
EoTPTiAif Capitals, 



® 

B 

D 

E 
F 
G 
H 
I 

K 
L 
M 
N 
O 
P 

Q 

R 
8 

T 
U 
V 

w 

X 
Y 

z 



OCTOBER 

L857-8 

858-9 

859-0 

860-1 

861-2 

862-8 
868-4 
864-6 

865^6 
866-7 
867-8 
868-9 

869^ 
870-1 

871-2 
872-8 
878-4 
874-5 
876-6 
876-7 
877-8 
878-9 
879-0 
880-1 
881-2 



Five Stamps. 

1. The Castle. 

2. The Thistle. 

3. The Maker's Initials. 

4. The Date Letter in 

an oval. 

5. Sovereign's Head. 



I Sl^lS*.*^® ^"*y M*'*^ 0' *^« Sovereiim'B Head was added, 
t The G 18 repeated according to the Minutes. 



N 



178 



EDINBURGH ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 9. 



VICTORIA. 



® 

(B 
® 

® 

(D 



1882-8 



1888-4 



1884-6 




1886-6 



1886-7 



1887-8 



(I 
(D 



1888-9 



1888-0 



1890-1 



1891-2 



1892-8 



1898-4 



® 



1894-5 



1895-6 



(D 



1900-1 



EDWARD VII. 




1896-7 



1897-8 



1898-9 



1899-0 



® 

(r) 
(I 




1901-2 



1902-8 



1908-4 



1904-6 



1905-6 



1. The Castle. S. The Maker's Mark. 

2. The Thistle. 4. The Date Letter. 

5. Sovereign's Head until 1890. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 179 

The preceding Table of Assay Office Letters and the following 
List of Plate are taken from a communication by the late Mr. J. 
H. Sanderson to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, published 
in vol. iv. of their Transactions in 1862, page 544, and plate xx., vol. 
iv., and we have to acknowledge with thanks the kind permission 
accorded to us by the Council to reprint any portions of the paper 
bearing upon the subject. Our indebtedness to the late Mr. J. H. 
Sanderson for his valuable assistance was duly acknowledged in the 
preface to our first edition of 1 863, which we have reprinted in this 
edition. 



LIST OF PLATE FROM WHICH THE ANNUAL LETTERS 
HAVE BEEN TAKEN, MANY OF THEM BEARING 

DATES. 

CYCLE L 

Most of the letters in this cycle are taken from the Minutes of 
the Goldsmiths' Corporation, in many cases from an impression of 
the actual punch given on the paper. Those from plate are: — 

B. 1682-3. A Jug, the property of the late Lord Murray. 

There seems to have been another form of B. used this 
year, as on the Duddingston Communion Cups, dated 
1682. 

E. 1685-6. Auchtermuchtie Communion Cups, "gifted by Janet 
Ross," bearing date 1686. 

N. 1693-4. Trinity College Communion Cups, "the gift of 
George Stirling," the arms of Edinburgh engraved in- 
side, and bearing date 1693. 

R. 1697-8. A Cup at Messrs. C. R. & Son. 

S. 1698-9. Trinity College Communion Cups, a gift, arms of 
Edinburgh inside, and dated 1698. 

W. 1 70 1 -2. New North Kirk Communion Cups, "the gift of 
Mr. William Archibald," 1702. 

Y. 1703-4. New North Kirk Communion Cups, "the gift of 
John Cunningham of Bandales," 1704. 

CYCLE n. 

C. 1707-8. Lady Yester's Communion Cups, " presented by 

Thomas Wilkie," 1708. Another C. New North Kirk 
Baptism Laver, " gifted by Mary Ereskin," 1708. 

D. 1708-9. Eddleston Communion Cups, bearing date 1709. 
H. 171 2-3. A pair of Candlesticks, at Messrs. C. R. & Son. 
P. 1719-0. Punch Bowl, Royal Company of Archers, bearing 

date 1720. 



i8o HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



CYCLE in. 



B. 1731-2. Sugar Basin, Messrs. Mackay & Chisholin. 

O. 1743-4. Silver Club, the Edinburgh Golfers, bearing date 

1744. 
T. 1748-9. Dinner Spoon, Mr. Munro. 

U. 1749-0. The Old Church St. Giles', Communion Cups, bear- 
ing date 1750. 
Y. 1753-4. Dinner Spoon, Mr. Stewart. 



CYCLE IV. 

B. 1756-7. Teapot, Messrs. Mackay & Chisholm. 

H. 1762-3. Old Chapel of Ease Communion Cups, St Cuth- 
bert's Parish, 1763. 

I. 1763-4. Baptismal Laver, ditto, ditto, 1763. 

M. 1766-7. Cake Basket, Messrs. Mackay & Chisholm. 

N. 1767-8. Snuffer Tray, late Lord Murray. 

P. 1769-0. Sugar Basket, Messrs. Mackay & Chisholm. 

Q. 1 770- 1. Spoon, Captain Gordon of Cluny. 

R. 1771-2. Salt Cellar, Messrs. C. R. & Son. 

5. 1772-3. Spoon, Captain Gordon of Cluny. 
Y. 1777-8. Salver, Messrs. C. R. & Son. 

6. 1779-0. Spoon, Mr. Munro. 



CYCLE V. 

E. 1784-5. Medal, Royal Company of Archers, 1785. 

K. 1 790- 1. Cup, Messrs. C. R. & Son. 

L. 1791-2. Medal, Royal Company of Archers, 1792. 

R. 1797-8. Spoon, Mr. Sanderson's. 

W. 1802-3. Spoon, Mrs. Aitchison's. 



CYCLE VI. 

A. 1806-7. Salver, Mr. Nisbet's. 

D. 1809-0. Pepper-Box, Messrs. C. R. & Son. 

E. 1 8 10- 1. Salver, Mr. Nisbet's. 
G. 1 81 2-3. Basin, ditto, 18 12. 

H. 1813-4. Spoon, Mrs. Aitchison's. 

L. 18 17-8. Medal, Royal Company of Archers, 18 18. 

T. 1825-6. Mr. Sanderson's. 



Cycles VII., VIII. and IX. require no proof. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



i8i 



EXAMPLES. 




G 






m 





ir 



u±, 



(p 



Bg^DI ft IHGl [D] 



r^ fi 




€E 




M M 



George Robertson, maker of the 
mace of the city in 1617. — Mr. /. H, 
Sanderson's Paper^ Transactions of 
the Society of Antiquaries y Scotland^ 
vol. iv. p. 543, and plate xx. 

"On the Dalkeith Church plate 
there is no date, but it is known 
from the records to be older than 
that of Newbattle" (dated 1646).— 
Ibid, 

From the plate belonging to Trinity 
College Church, Edinburgh, bearing 
.date 1633. — Jbid. (The castle is 
omitted by mistake in the cut.) 

On a Quaigh, hemispherical bowl 
with flat projecting hollow handles, 
on one A C, on the other I M^L; 
engraved outside with full-blown 
roses and lilies. The initials I M^L 
are found as a maker on the Glas- 
gow Sugar Castor (p. 186). Date 
17 1 3. — Earl of Breadalbane, 

On a Table Spoon, French pattern, 
rat's tail. On back of spoon are 
four marks: (i) maker's unknown; 
(2) castle; (3) deacon's mark; (4) 
date-letter U. Date 1749. — ^^^^ ^f 
Breadalbane. 

On a Dessert Spoon, French pat- 
tern. The date-letter is the old 

English C of 1757, showing that 
the thistle was used in this year, as 
before stated. Maker unknown. 
Date 1757. — Earl of Breadalbane. 
Maker's name unknown. Date 1766. 
— Earl of Breadalbane. 




Spoon. Date 1837.—/. P. Stoti, 
Esq, 



Our thanks are due here again to the late Mr. W. J. Cripps, C.B., 
for permitting us to include some authorities given by the late Mr. 
J. H. Sanderson for the Tables of Edinburgh Hall Marks, the 
property in which passed to that gentleman. 



l82 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



GLASGOW. 



The arms of the city of Glasgow are — Ar, on a mount in base 
verty an oak-tree pp.y the stem at Uie base thereof surmounted by a 
salmon on its back also pfr.^ with a signet ring in its mouth or; on 
the top of the tree a redbreast, and in the sinister fess point an 
ancient hand -bell, both also ppr. 

Crest. The half-length figure of St. Kentigem affrontfe vested 
and mitred, his right hand raised in the act of benediction, and in 
his left a crosier, all ppr. 

Supporters. Two salmon pp.y each holding in its mouth a 
signet ring pp. Motto, " Let Glasgow flourish." 

The bearings of the western metropolis are to commemorate the 
well-known miracle of St. Kentigern (also called St. Mungo), the 
Patron Saint of the City, with reference to the recovery in the fish's 
mouth of the lost ring of the frail Queen of Caidyow. 

An ancient seal attached to a deed of the sixteenth century bears 
a full-faced head of the saint, mitred, between an ancient square 
bell, fish and ring on the dexter, and a bird on a tree on the sinister 
side, inscribed " Sigillum comune de Glasgu." {Lain^s Ancient 
Seals.) 

The ancient marks on plate made at Glasgow previous to the 
Act of 1819 were : — I. The city arms, a tree with a hand-bell on one 
side, and sometimes a letter G on the other, a bird on the top branch, 
and a fish across the trunk, holding a ring in its mouth enclosed 
in a very small oval escutcheon. 2. The maker's initials, frequently 
repeated ; and 3. A date-letter ; but it is at present useless to attempt 
to assign correct dates of manufacture. 

The parliamentary inquiry of 1773 did not extend to Scotland. 

Glasgow was made an assay town by the 59 Geo. IIL (May 
1 8 19). The district comprised Glasgow and forty miles round, and 
it was directed that all plate made in the district should be assayed 
at that office. The peculiar mark of the Company is a tree growing 
out of a mount, with a bell pendant on the sinister branch, and a 
bird on the top branch across the trunk of the tree a salmon 
holding in its mouth a signet ring. 

The marks used on the silver plate stamped at Glasgow are — 
since the Act of 1819: — 

I. T/ie Standard, lion rampant. The present form of which 
is: — 




bell. 



2. The Hall-Marky being the arms of the city, a tree, fish and 




HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 183 

3. The makcj^s marky being his initials. 

4. The date-mar ky or variable letter, changed on the ist. July 
in every year. 

5. The duty-mark of the sovereign's head, discontinued in 1890. 
For gold of 22 or 18 karats the figures 22 or 18 are added, and 

for silver of the New Standard, Britannia is added. 

The Scotch Act of 8 and 9 Wm. IV., 1836-7, in some respects 
extended to Glasgow, although it is generally regulated by the 59th 
of Geo. III.; but they have not adopted the marks prescribed by 
this statute of 1836, and continue those previously in use. The only 
difference, however, is, that the lion rampant takes the place of the 
thistle. 

The lower gold standards of 15, and 9 karats bear the town 
mcirk, the date letter, and the decimals 625 and •375. The Assay 
Master, Mr. D. D. Graham has been good enough to send us copies 
of the marks now used. 



i84 


GLASGOW ASSAY 


OFFICE : 


LETTERS. 


CYCLE 1. 


1 CYCLE a. 


CYCLE 8. 1 


A 


1st JULY 

1819-0 


a 


l8T JULY 

1846-6 


A 


1st JULY 

1871-2 


B 


1820-1 


B 


1846-7 


B 


1872-8 


C 


1821-2 


C 


1847-« 





1873-4 


D 


1822-8 


B 


1848-9 


D 


1874-6 


E 


1828-4 


<f 


1849-0 


E 


1876-6 


F 


1824-6 


f 


1860-1 


F 


1876-7 


G 


1825-6 


<& 


1861-2 


G 


1877-8 


H 


1826-7 


n 


1862-8 


H 


1878-9 


I 


1827-8 


3 


1868-4 


1 


1879-0 


J 


1828-9 


3 


1864-6 


J 


1880-1 


K 


1829-0 


It 


1866-6 


K 


1881-2 


L 


1880-1 


I 


1866-7 


L 


1882-3 


M 


1831-2 


m 


1867-8 


M 


1883-4 


N 


1882-8 


& 


1868-9 


N 


1884-6 





1838-4 





1869-0 





1886-6 


P 


1884-6 


» 


1860-1 


P 


1886-7 


Q 

R 


1836-6 
1886-7 




1861-2 
1862-3 


R 


1887-8 
1888-9 


S 


1837-8 


& 


1863-4 


S 


1889-0 


T 


1888-9 


€ 


1864-6 


T 


1890-1 


U 


1889-0 


m. 


1866-6 


U 


1891-2 


V 


1840-1 


© 


1866-7 


V 


1892-8 


w 


1841-2 


m. 


1867-8 


w 


1893-4 


X 


1842-8 


n 


1868-9 


X 


1894-6 


Y 


1843-4 


8 


1869-0 


Y 


1896-6 


Z 


1844-6 


E 


1870-1 


z 


1896-7 


Five Stamps. 

1« Lion rampant. 
2. Tree, Fish, and Bell. 
S. Sovereign's Head. 
4. Date Letter. 
1 5. Maker's Initials. 


FivB Stamps. 

1. Lion rampant. 

2. Tree, FisL and Bell. 

3. Queen's Head. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Initials. 


Five Stamps. 

1. Lion rampant. 

2. Tree, Fish, and Bell. 

3. Queen's Head. 

4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Initials. 



GLASGOW ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



185 



CYCLE i. 



® 




1897-8 



1898-9 




1899-0 





1900-1 



® 



1901-2 



1902-3 




1908-4 




W 



1904-5 



1906-6 




1906-7 




® 



1907-8 



1908-9 



1. Lion rampant. 3. Sovereign's Head until 1890. 

2. Tree, Fish, and Bell. 4. Date Letter. 

5. Maker's Mark. 



i86 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



EXAMPLES. 



® i> ® # 



mm @ El IM^ 




rm [s 



These marks are on the narrow rim of 
the foot of an elegant silver Tazza, 
chased in centre with bold leaf 
scrolls, bordered with engrailed 
lines. The work is evidently of the 
time of Charles II., 1670-1680. — 
Messrs, Hancock. 

These four stamps are found on an 
oval silver box, originally made to 
contain the wax seal appended to a 
diploma granted by the University. 
The cover is finely engraved, having 
in the centre the University mace 
and an open Bible above. On each 
side are represented the objects com- 
posing the coat-of-arms of Glasgow, 
viz., to the right a tree, with a bird 
perched on the top branch, to the 
left a hand-bell, and at the base a 
salmon on its back holding a signet 
ring in its mouth. Surmounted by 
the motto of the University, " Via 
Veritas Vita** instead of that of the 
city, " Let Glasgow flourish." 

The usual case to contain the dip- 
loma is made of tin; but this, being 
of sterling silver, was probably pre- 
sented to some person of great 
distinction. 

Dated about 1700. — In the pos- 
session of the Earl of Breadalbane. 

On a Sugar Castor, chased with 
festoons of roses. This maker's 
initials are also found engraved on 
the handle of a Quaigh of Edin- 
burgh make of 17 13. — The Earl of 
Breadalbane, 



ABERDEEN. 



The town of Aberdeen bears, gu, three towers, triple towered, 
within a double tressure flowered and counter-flowered arg. 

Supporters, Two leopards ppr. 

Motto, " Bon Accord V* This was the watchword of the town 
when it was attacked by the English, and the latter were all 
massacred, for which service the extra tressure was accorded. A 
much earlier seal of the town represents the three triple-towered 
castles, with three cones or spires, attached to a deed for the ransom 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 187 

of King David II., in 1357, preserved in H.M. Record Office, thus 
described {Laing's Ancient Seals): — 

A figure of a bishop (St. Nicholas) bestowing the benediction ; 
on the dexter side, a crescent; and on the sinister, a mullet of six 
points. " Signum Beati Nicolai Aberdonensis." The counter seal 
represents a church, or other edifice, with a large central spire and 
two smaller ones each terminating in a cross. " Sigillum de 
Commune Aberdonensis." 

The Town Assay Office mark adopted at Aberdeen consisted 
of two or more of the letters in the word, thus, the letters B D or 
A B D, with a mark of contraction above, and later A B N D, as in 
the following example: — 

On a Table Spoon, handle turned up, and 
ridges in front of stem, elongated oval 
bowl, date about 1780. — Earl of BreadaU 
bane. 



AYR. 

Arms. A castle, triple towered, between the holy lamb passant 
with banner. 

BANFF. 

Capital of the County. Erected into a Burgh A.D. 1372. 

A matrix in the office of the Town Clerk of Banff bears an 
oval-shaped seal of a boar passant, " Insignia Urbis Banfiensis." — 
Ibid. 



d^A ^"mr 



ng-r-| |j A I Dessert Spoon, French pattern. — 

IpAI lAJ Earl of Breadalbane. 



tS) ITkI IBANPl (f) ^ Dessert Spoon, French pattern, with 




ni 



king's head. — Ditto. 
Table Spoon, French pattern. — 

Ditto. 

r^:n r?-,7n /fi\ w^ Table Spoon, French pattern, with 

U BS i) El king's head.-Z?i//^.^ ' 

BERWICK (North). 

Capital of the County^ and created a Burgh at an early period, 

A very fine seal, appended to a document dated 1330, is in the 
possession of the Dean and Chapter of Durham. A bear chained 
to a tree, in the branches of which are two birds (parrots) surrounded 
by a double tressure of fleur-de-lis. ** S . . . T . . . Ville Berwic . . . 
edam." — Lain^s Ancient Seals. 



i88 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

The counter seal represents the Trinity. 

The town of Berwick-on-Tweed, in Northumberland, bears the 
arms az, on a mount, a bear standing against a tree all fpf.y the bear 
collared and chained or. In fesse two escutcheons with the arms 
of France and England quarterly; on a chief of the first a king 
crowned and habited, of the second, holding in his dexter hand 
a mound, and in the sinister a sceptre, both gold. 

CRAIL. 

A Royal Burgh in the County of Fife, 8 miles from St. Andrews. 

Chartered by King Robert Bruce. 

Arms. A galley with sails furled, stars and crescent above, 
inscribed " Sigillum Commune Burgi de Karale." From an original 
matrix in the Town Clerk's Office. 



DINGWALL (Ross-SHiRE). 

Capital of the County. A Royal Burgh. 

Arms. A star-fish or estoille; between the points are two 

lozenges, a heart and two mullets. "Sigillum Comune Burgi de 

Dingwall." The present seal is copied from an older one. — Lain^s 
Seals. 

DUNBAR (Haddington). 

A Royal Burgh created by King David //., 20 miles E. of 

Edinburgh. 

Seal. An elephant with a castle on its back. Inscribed " Sigill. 
comune Burgi Dun." — Laing's Seals. 

DUNDEE (Angus). 

On the North side of the Firth of Tay. 

The arms of the town are az. a pot of growing lilies arg. 
Crest. A lily arg. 

Supporters. Two dragons vert^ tails knotted together below 
the shield. 

Motto, " Dei donum." 

The patron saint of Dundee was the Virgin Mary, and the arms 
a pot of lilies, which are still adopted. 

In the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, there is an interesting 
brass matrix of a seal of the fifteenth century in excellent preser- 




HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 189 

vation, executed for the use of the Incorporation of Hammermen of 
Dundee, representing a figure of St. Eligius, in episcopal vestments, 
holding a hammer in his right hand and a crosier in his left, within 
a niche; at each side is a bough-pot of lilies, and beneath, a shield 
bearing a hammer in pale, a crown of three points in chief, inscribed 
'* S. ce Malliato Sci Elegi de Dundee." 

The goldsmiths, being then incorporated with the hammermen 
of Dundee, chose as their patron the celebrated St. Eligius, the 
Councillor-Minister and Goldsmith of Dagobert, King of France. 
He became Bishop of Noyen, and died A.D. 659. He was the patron 
of French and Flemish goldsmiths. 

The town mark adopted by the Dundee Assay Office is a pot 
with two handles containing three lilies, as shown in the following. 

EXAMPLES. 

On a Table Spoon, oval bowl, rat's tail, 

\M\ flat stem, leaf-shaped end, date circa 
1660. — Earl of Breadalbane, 

H^ © ® il 1^ ^anfu?° -Pi/If*" ^^^' Dundee, last 

[vSn fj© f^3 6bS ^'^ ^ P^^'' ^^ Sugar Tongs, shell and 

I — I \£^ ^^ \7^!/ fiAAXt pattern, about iZio.—Diiio. 

DYSART. 
County of Fife. 
Arms. A tree eradicated. 



ELGIN. 

A Royal Burgh, 30 miles E. of Inverness and 59 miles N,W. of 

Aberdeen, 

The assay towns of Aberdeen, Inverness, and Banff in the 
adjoining counties adopted abbreviations of their names, usually 
the first two or three and the last letters, thus : ABDN, INS, and 
BA ; hence, on the same principle, Elgin used ELN. 

The amiexed marks are on a Table 
Spoon, with oval bowl, the end 

^^ , , of the handle or stem turned 

<^^ lELNI mSm /^^ upwards with a ridge down the 
^^^ centre: a form in use from about 

1730 to 1760.— In the Earl of 
Breadalbane's Collection. 



190 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



HADDINGTON. 

Capital of the County, 14 miles E. from Edinburgh. A Royal 

Burgh. 

SeaL A goat reared on its hind-legs browsing against an 
apple-tree. "Sigillium Commune Burg de Hadington." Another 
seal bears a goat passant ; another a goat standing. 

IRVINE (Ayrshire). 

A Royal Burgh, 21 miles S.W. of Glasgow. 
Arms. A lion sejant, guard ant, crowned, between two trees. 

INVERNESS. 

Capital of the County land a Royal Burgh. 

The present seal, or matrix, not earlier than the last century, 
in the Town Clerk's Office, is, a camel passant, above the shield 
INVERNESS, inscribed "FiDELITAS ET CONCORDIA." 

The armorial ensigns on this seal differ materially from those 
displayed in the Town Hall, where they are executed in stone. 
There they appear as the Saviour on the Cross, with a camel as 
the dexter supporter of the shield, and an elephant for the sinister. 

Crest. A cornucopia, and on a ribbon above the motto, " Con- 
cordia et Fidelitas." The crest smd the supporters were assumed 
as representing the extensive trade once carried on between the 
port of Inverness and the East. 



EXAMPLES. 



On a Tea Spoon, fiddle head, date 

, , r 1 f ^.^^,,.,. ! about 1820, with a cornucopia, the 

SS INSI l^^^^l crest of the town of Inverness.— 

Earl of Breadalbane. 

The camel, one of the supporters 
of the City arms. On a large 
annular Scotch Brooch, flat, with 
engraved Vandykes, and a cluster 
of fine small annulets between each. 
Maker's mark, and another of the 
same, larger, as Deacon. Attributed 
to Chas. Jamison, circa 18 10. — Ditto. 



en assi M 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. igi 

JEDBURGH (Roxburgh). 

A Royal Burgh, 34 miles S.E, of Edinburgh. 

The seal of the town of Jedburgh, in Teviotdale, is azure, a 
unicorn tripping argent, angled, maned and homed. — Nisbet. 

Another seal bears a shield with a unicorn passant, inscribed 
'* S. Comunitatis de Jedburgh." — Laing's Seals. 

Another coat-of-arms is a horse salient and a chevalier armed 
at all points. 

LEITH. 

A seaport town in the County of Edinburgh, is a large and popu- 
lous place, with a good harbour and quay, the commerce 
with foreign countries being very considerable. 

From the fact of several pieces of plate having been bought 
here, bearing the stamp of an anchor which indicates its position 
as a harbour for shipping, we are inclined to attribute this mark to 
Leith. The circular object with rays which accompanies it yet 
remains to be explained, but in another example here adduced it is 
placed by the side of the thistle, the standard mark of Scotland. 
The crest of Edinburgh is an anchor wreathed about with a cable; 
but in this instance the cable is omitted. 

83 11) ® Yi^^ Tea Spoons, French pattern, i8th cen- 

tury. — Earl of Breadalbane. 

^ , ,c^ j^. Tea Spoon and Tongs, French pattern, 

^ © ® 1 8th century.— Z?i//^. 

Caddy Spoon, shell-shaped bowl, fiddle 

head, with Scotch standard mark and 

[S SM si i^ ^^^^ °^ ^ provincial town ; no duty-letter, 

^— ^ but made about 1820, judging from the 

fashion. — Ditto. 
A Scotch Brooch of conventional form, 

js— . 1 p^ with circular broad band, plain surface, 

Wl IO) W\ N^l ^ short pin at back with hinge and clasp ; 

^^ stamped behind with five marks. — Ditto. 



LINLITHGOW. 

Arms: az. St. Michael, with wings expanded, treading on a 
serpent, a spear in his dexter hand piercing the head of the serpent, 
and in his sinister hand an inescutcheon charged with the Royal 
Arms of Scotland. 



192 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

MELROSE. 

In the County of Roxburgh^ 25 miles S.S.W. from Edinburgh^ 

famous for its Monaster y^ now in ruins ^ founded in 1136 

by King David of Scotland. A Royal Burgh, 

A stone preserved in this town bears the arms of " A mell or 
mallet, surmounted by a rose, being a pun upon the name." 

MONTROSE (Angus). 

A Burgh Royal, as relative to the name, carries roses. Thus 
in the Lion register of arms — arg. a rose gules with helmet, mantling 
and wreath suitable thereto. 

Crest. A hand issuing from a cloud, reaching down a garland 
of roses ppr. 

Supporters. Two mermaids rising from the sea. " MARE DITAT 
Rosa DECORAT " (The sea enriches and the rose adorns), which are 
upon the face of the town seal ; and upon the reverse of it, gules 
St Peter on his proper cross, with the keys hanging at his girdle. 
On an ancient seal of Montrose is represented the Crucifixion, the 
counter seal being a rose; and on a seal of causes we find a rose 
seeded and barbed, inscribed " Sig. Burgi de Muntros ad causas." 

The Montrose Assay Office mark was probably a seeded rose 
with the maker's initials, which may be confounded with a similar 
mark supposed to have been used at Norwich. 

NEWTON-ON-AYR (Ayrshire). 

A Royal Burgh. 

A seal of the fifteenth century, still in use, bears a fess chequ6 
between three monograms of old English letters WB. Inscribed 
' Sigillum comune Nove Ville de Are." — Laing's Seals. 

PERTH. 

The anus of the City of Perth (alias St. John's Town), so 
called since the Reformation, are: — An eagle displayed with two 
heads or, surmounted on the breast with an escutcheon gules, 
charged with the holy lamb passant regardant, carrying the banner 
of St. Andrew within a double tressure, flowered and counter- 
flowered, arg., with the hackneyed motto, - " Pro Rege Lege ET 
GregE;" the two-headed eagle being in imitation of the Roman 
ensign, which, according to Menestrier, was borrowed from the 
East, to denote the conjunct reign of two emperors, and bears 
reference to its Roman origin. The old City seal, which was laid 
aside at the Reformation as " Superstitious," represented the decolla- 
tion St. John Baptist with the legend " S. Communitatis Ville 
Sancti Johannis de Perth." 

In Perth Cathedral a curious cup is preserved, called Queen 
Mary's Cup, which has been reproduced by the electro process, and 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



193 




m M 



may be seen at the South Kensington Museum. It is thus described 
by Mr. W. J. Cripps in the " Art Handbook " (College and Cor- 
poration Plate, page 66) : 

" It is a composite cup, formed of a very finely chased body 
of Nuremberg work, c. 1 560-1 570, of the best kind, with some 
additions and repairs of coarser and commoner work, executed at 
Dundee, as records testify, in 1637. The curious Scotch Hall-meirks 
bear out the record ; the maker's mark being a known one of that 
period." 

The seal of the City of Perth, used 
on public documents and headings 
of letters. Spread eagle with two 
necks, on its breast, in an escutcheon, 
the holy lamb and flag, adopted 
occasionally as a town mark on 
plate in the early part of this cen- 
tury. 



EXAMPLES. 

On a small quaigh, or cup with two 
handles, date about 1660, with these 
two marks only. The lamb and 
flag, emblem of St. John, being the 
arms of St John's Town, as Perth 
was formerly called. — C. A. 'North, 
Esq. 



Split head Spoon. Datectrci 1675. — 
J, H. Walter, Esq. 

On a set of Table Spoons, French 
pattern, with rat tail on back 
of bowl, date about 1760. Some 
have four marks of spread eagles 
only, without the shield on the 
breast, as used recently. — Earl 
of Breadalbane. 

On a Dessert Spoon, fiddle head, date 
circa 1820. The spread eagle part 
of the City arms, on its breast a 
shield with the lamb and flag of St. 
John; made by Robert Kay, silver- 
smith, at Perth, in 18 15. — Ditto. 

On a set of four Salt-Cellars, gad- 
rocn edge on three legs and 
claws — the seven marks arranged 
in a circle underneath, with the 
town mark in the centre, three 
maker's initials, and three town 
marks round — date circa 18 10. — 
Ditto. 

O 




Hcl ^|ic 




^ 


RK 


^ Ml 



m l^ 



194 * HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

ST. ANDREWS (Fife). 

A Royal Burgh^ 26 miles N, of Edinburgh, Its University is ike 
oldest in Scotland^ being founded in 1444. 

On the matrix of a privy seal in custody of the Town Clerk 
of St. Andrews is a wild boar passant, secured by a rope to a rugged 
staff. " Sigillum Secretu Civitatis Sancti Andree Aposti." 

Another seal, affixed to a deed dated I4*;3, bears a full-length 
figure of a bishop holding a crosier, &c. The counter seal has a 
figure of St. Andrew extended on his cross. In the lower part of 
the seal is a wild boar passant in front of a tree, inscribed around, 
" CURSUS (ApRI) Regalis." — Laing's Ancient Seals. 

STIRLING. 

Capital of the County and a Royal Burgh, 

The seal is a lamb couchant on the top of a rock, inscribed with 
the motto, " Oppidum Sterlini." 

The ancient seal of the Corporation bears : a bridge with a 
crucifix in the centre of it; men armed with bows on one side of 
the bridge, and men with spears on the other, and the legend, " Hie 
Armis Bruti, Scoti stant hac cruce tuti." 

On the reverse, a fortalice surrounded with trees, inscribed 
" Continent hoc in se nemus et castrum Strivilense." 

" Burke's General Armoury " gives the arms of the town, as at 
present used : az, on a mount a castle, triple towered, without 
windows arg,^ masoned sa.^ the gate closed gu,^ surrounded with four 
oak-trees disposed in orle of the second, the interstices of the field 
being sem6e of stars of six points of the last, and the motto as 
above. 

On an oblong Tobacco Box, engraved on the cover with 
two coats-of-arms surmounted by a ducal coronet. The 
town mark is a castle, triple towered, as described above, 
having beneath the letter S to distinguish it from a 
similar mark at Edinburgh. The maker's (?) mark, a 
mermaid and star, and his initials G R. — Earl of 
Breadalbane. 



TAIN (ROSS-SHIRE). 

A Royal Burgh, principal town of the County, 8 miles N. of 

Cromarty, 24 miles N.E. of Inverness, 

IT'AT-M l rro^ ^" ^ P^^"" ^^ Toddy Ladles, date about 1800. 
UamJ <^iy ^Earl of Breadalbane, 





HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 
UNCERTAIN SCOTCH MARKS. 



195 



^B)Ce 




IkGH 



# 






m 



Unknown. These three stamps are on the 
inside of the silver lid of a Shell Snuff Box. 
(\T)^ Date about 1800. — In the possession of the Earl 
^^ ^ of Breadalbane, 

Unknown. On a fiddle head Toddy Ladle, 
provincial mark of some town in Scotland, un- 
IkCHI known. Made circd 18 10. Representing an 
otter or badger on a wheat-ear (?) and the 
letters I. & G. H. — Earl of Breadalbane. 

Unknown. On a Seal Top Spoon, of Eng- 
lish or Scotch make, of the seventeenth century, 
the baluster end well finished. The monogram 
inside the bowl, the animal on the back of the 

stem. Letters on the bottom, w.k! — Lady Du 

1624. -^ 

Cane. 

Uncertain. (Query Edinburgh.) These four 
marks are on the bottom of a Mug with 
one scroll handle, broad mouth, repouss^ pyi- 
form ornament round the lower part. The 
small mark is that of the maker, the other two 
those of the Deacon, probably the same silver- 
smith. Date about 1680. — Messrs. Mackay & 
Chisholm. 




m 



i 



IreUnb. 



DUBLIN. 



CHARTER OF INCORPORATION. 

The Goldsmiths' Company of Dublin has the exclusive manage- 
ment of the assaying and marking of wrought gold smd silver plate 
in Ireland. 

The harp, and subsequently, A.D. 1638, the harp crowned, was 
the original Hall or district mark for all Irish manufactured plate 
assayed in Dublin and found to be standard, and was used long 
previous to the charter granted by Charles I., 22nd December, in 
the year 1638, in the thirteenth year of his reign, to the Corporation 
of Goldsmiths of Dublin, Ireland. This charter adopted for Ire- 
land the standards then in use in England, viz. — 22 karats for gold, 
and II oz. 2 dwts. for silver. " The harp crowned now appointed 
by his Majesty " has been continued in use ever since, in pursuance 
of a clause contained in that charter, and also by the Act 23 & 24 
Geo. III. c. 23, s. 3 C1784). 

The Journals of the Goldsmiths' Company from 1637 until the 
present time are still in existence, and a complete list of the Masters 
and Wardens of the Company from that date until 1800 has been 
printed by Mr. H. F. Berry, M.A., together with the list of Appren- 
tices from 1653 to 1752. 

A date mark was used in Dublin from a very early period, 
as it appears to have been in use previous to the year 1638. 



STANDARDS.— LEGAL PUNCHES. 

A.D. 1729. 3 George II. The Irish Parliament enacted that all 
articles of gold and silver should be assayed at Dublin by the 
Assay Master appointed by the Company of Goldsmiths, the 
standard of gold being fixed at 22 karats and silver at 11 oz. 2 
dwts., and ordered that the articles should be marked with the 
marks then used, viz., the harp crowned^ a date-letter, and the maker^s 
initials. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 197 

DUTY IMPOSED AND MARK OF HIBERNIA. 

A.D. 1730. The figure of HiBERNIA was used by order of the 
Commissioners of Excise in the year 1730, when a duty was first 
imposed, to denote the payment of the same, viz., sixpence per ounce 
on manufactures of gold and silver plate, which has been used ever 
since on every standard of Irish plate. 

REDUCED STANDARDS OF GOLD.— NEW GENEVA. 

A.D. 1783-4. 23 & 24 George III. c. 23. In this year a 
Company of Geneva Watchmakers came to Ireland, and commenced 
an establishment near Waterford, and the place or locality of this 
establishment was called New Geneva, An Assay Office and a 
Deputy Assay-Master or Assayer were granted to them at that place. 
This Act came into operation on the ist June 1784, and repeals so 
much of the 3rd of Geo. II. as respects the assaying of gold, or 
regulating the manufacture, assaying, or exchange or sale of gold, 
or the duty on any manufacture of gold in Ireland. 

The only standard of gold allowed by the Act 3 George II. was 
that of 22 karats fine; this was altered by the above Act, whereby 
three standards are provided of 22, 20, and 18 karats fine respec- 
tively. These standards were authorised to facilitate and encourage 
the manufacture of gold and silver wares and watch-cases, &c. &c., 
in Ireland, and especially at New Geneva 

This establishment and Assav Office did not continue to work 
over five or six years, and with this exception the Assay Office in 
Dublin has been and is the only one in Ireland, and has power 
and jurisdiction in all parts of Ireland. 

For description of articles that are exempted from duty and 
marking by this Act, su sec. 6 (page 28). 

By the i ith section of this Act it is enacted, " That on and after 
the 1st June 1784, every person making, or causing to be made, 
any manufactures of gold, are to enter an impression of his or her 
new marks or punches made as aforesaid, with his or her name and 
place of abode, in either of the said Assay Offices, upon paying 
the sum of five shillings to the Assayer or Wardens, who are hereby 
required to make, on a plate of pewter or copper, impressions of such 
marks or punches; and also entries of such marks or punches, with 
the names and places of abode of the owners thereof, in a book 
or books to be carefully kept for that purpose, if such owners be 
resident in Dublin or at New Geneva. And that no person or 
persons shall be entitled to have any manufactures of gold made, 
or caused to be made by him or her, assayed or stamped at either of 
the said Assay Offices, until after same have been stamped by the 
maker, and until after such impression and entry have been made at 
such office of the mark or punch of said person or persons, which 
denotes the particular standard of such manufactures of gold ; and 
that no manufacture of gold shall be assayed or stamped at the 
said Assay Offices, if marked with any other mark or punch but 



198 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

such as is duly entered ; and that no manufacture of gold shall be 
assayed or stamped at such Assay Offices unless such gold work be 
marked with the mark which denotes the true standard of same." 

The maker's marks were in use, and were also registered, at the 
time of the passing of this Act and for many years previously, in 
accordance with other Acts of Parliament and the practice of the 
London Hall. The manufacturers were required to stamp and 
register their mark punches in the Assay Office in Dublin, previous 
to the year 1694, ^^^ ^^is practice has been continued to the present 
time. 

These three standards of 22, 20, and 18 karats, directed by this 
Act, were continued by another Act, subsequently passed, namely, 
the 47 Geo. HI., sess. 2, c. 15, s. 3, loth August 1807, and are still 
in use. 

By the same Act, c. 23, s. 29 (Ireland), no refiner may sell 
gold without alloy, or less fine than with one grain per ounce. 



KING'S HEAD DUTY-MARK— DUTY INCREASED. 

A.D. 1807. 47 George III., sess. 2, c. 15, s. 6 (Ireland). The 
stamp of the King's head, or head of the reigning sovereign, was 
now lor the first time added to the others to denote payment of the 
duty, but no notice was taken of the former mark of Hibemia, and 
both marks were used. The duty was raised to one shilling per 
ounce on gold and silver plate. (The duty on silver plate abolished 
1890.) 

By the same Act, sect. 1 5, both buyer and seller are liable to a 
penalty for plate without the required marks. 



STANDARD OF SILVER IMPROVED. 

A.D. 1825. 6 George IV. c. 118. A small Roman letter e is 
found for the date towards the end of this year, succeeding the 
capital letter E. This was done in compliance with the order of the 
Commissioners of Stamps, to denote the transfer of the duty from 
the Commissioners and Collectors of Excise to the Commissioners of 
Stamps; and also to mark the change of the standard of silver 
made in Ireland at that time, by having to adopt the practice of the 
London Hall in marking silver plate, at an allowance of only 
one pennyweight and a half below the standard — this was also by 
order of the Commissioners of Stamps, and according to the 47 
Geo. III. sess. 2.,c. 15. Previous to this order, Irish manufactured 
silver plate used to be marked in Dublin, at some periods, as 
standard, at an allowance of from two and a half to three and a 
half pennyweight worse than the standard ; consequently Irish ster- 
ling, manufactured previous to that date, was inferior to English 
sterling, and to the Irish sterling subsequently manufactured. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 199 

FOREIGN PLATE ASSAYED AND MARKED. 

A.D. 1842. 5 & 6 Victoria, c. 47. SS. 59, 60. The several Assay 
Offices in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland are 
directed and empowered to assay and mark foreign manufactured 
gold and silver plate; and also to assay and mark, at any of the 
said Assay Offices, gold and silver plate manufactured in any part 
of the said United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Previous to the passing of this Act, each of the Assay Offices 
had power only to assay and mark gold and silver plate manu- 
factured within their own districts. 

N,B. — The mark punch of the resident shopkeeper, or importer 
of plate, is required to be registered, in respect of assaying and 
marking foreign plate, or plate manufactured out of the district 
of the Assay Office that it is sent to be assayed at ; but the maker's 
mcirks are not required unless he is resident in the city or town or 
district of the assay. 

The variable letter of the year is the date-mark, and is impressed 
on all manufactured gold and silver plate that is stamped at the 
Assay Office in Dublin, in accordance with the practice of the Gold- 
smiths' Hall in London; but the letter, and also the character of 
the letter, used in Dublin in each year is not the same as is used 
in London in each corresponding year. 

REDUCED STANDARDS OF GOLD. 

A.D. 1854. 17 & 18 Victoria. It was enacted that from and 
after the 22nd December 1854, three lower standards for gold wares 
were allowed in addition to the standards of 22, 20, and 18 karats, 
fixed by the Act 23 and 24 Geo. III. (1784). The figures 15, 12, 
and 9, and thousandths parts to be stamped denoting the true 
quality of the same. The marks of the harp crowned and the 
sovereign's head are omitted, although subject to the same duty 
as the higher standards. 

There are six legal standards for gold in Ireland and only 
one for silver. 

DRAWBACK. 

A.D. 1806. 29 & 30 Victoria, c. 64. An Act to amend the laws 
relating to the Inland Revenue. Section 15 provides for allowing 
drawback on plate made in Great Britain exported form Ireland, 
and on Irish plate exported from Great Britain. 

I.— THE STANDARD (as fixed by the Act ist June 1784). 

For Dublin. — Gold of 22 karats; a harp crowned and the 

numerals 22. 
Gold of 20 karats; a plume of three feathers 

and 20. 
Gold of 18 karats; a unicorn's head and 18. 
Silver of 11 oz. 2 dwt. ; a harp crowned. 



200 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

The harp now used is placed in an upright oblong, with the 
comers cut off: — 




A'^ New Standard silver is stamped in Ireland. 

THREE LOWER STANDARDS (17 and 1 8 Vict. 1854). 

For Dublin. — On these the mark of the standard proper (a harp 

crowned) is omitted, and although subject to 

the same duty, the mark of the Sovereign's 

head is also withheld, but Hibernia is used as 

a Hall-mark, 

Gold of 15 karats; a stamp of 15.625 (thousandths). 

Gold of 12 karats; a stamp of 12.500 

Gold of 9 karats; a stamp of 9.375 



>9 



For New Geneva. — Gold of 22 karats; a harp crowned with a 

bar across the strings and 22. 
Gold of 20 karats ; a plume of two feathers and 20. 
Gold of 18 karats; a unicorn's head with collar on 
the neck and 18. 
The watch manufactory at New Geneva was discontinued about 
1790, having only lasted six years. 

n.— THE HALL-MARK. 

For Dublin. — A figure of HiBERNIA, used since 1730, on gold 
or silver of every standard. 

The figure of Hibernia is also now placed in a similar 
outline : — 




HI.— THE DUTY-MARK. 

The Sovereign's Head, first used in 1807 to denote the pay- 
ment of duty on silver and on the higher standards of gold of 
22, 20, and 18 karats; but not on the lower gold of 15, 12, and 9 
karats, although paying the same duty. Discontinued en silver in 
1890. 

IV.— THE MAKER'S MARK. 

Formerly some device, with or without the initials of the gold- 
smith; later the initials of his Christian and surname. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



201 



v.— THE DATE-MARK. 

A Letter of the Alphabet, changing every year from A to 
Z (omitting J), in cycles of twenty-five years, is now adopted. 

Total of Marks now required to be stamped on gold and 
silver plate in Ireland: — 

GOLD. 



Standard ist, 
22 karats 
(6 marks). 



Standard 2nd, 

20 karats 

(6 marks). 



Standard 3rd, 

18 karats 

(6 marks). 



3 Lower 

Standards 

(4 marks). 



1. Quality in karats (22). 

2. Harp crowned. 

3. Hibernia (Dublin assay mark, first used 1730). 

4. Date-letter. 

5. Duty-mark (first used in 1807). 

6. Maker's mark, 

1. Quality in karats (20). • 

2. Plume of three feathers. 

3. Hibernia. 

4. Date-letter. 

5. Duty-mark. 

6. Maker's mark. 

1. Quality in karats (18). 

2. Unicorn's head. 

3. Hibernia. 

4. Date-letter. 

5. Duty-mark, sovereign's head. 

6. Maker's mark. 

1. Quality, karats and thousandths in one stamp. 

2. Hibernia. 

3. Date-letter. 

4. Maker's mark. 



Old Standard 
II oz. 2 dwts 
(5 marks). 






SILVER. 

I. Harp crowned. 
Hibernia. 

3. Date-letter. 

4. Duty-mark. Discontinued 1890. 

5. Maker's mark. 



No New Standard silver is marked in Ireland. 



We fr equently meet o n silver plate of the seventeenth century 
the stamp | STERLING | and the punch of the maker's initials; 



sometimes in two lines, thus 



STERl 
LING I ^' 



I Ster / 
/ ling ) 



These marks are attributed by Irish silversmiths and collectors 
to Cork, at which city there was no Goverment Assay Office; but in 



202 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

conjunction with that of the maker, it was considered a sufficient 
guarantee in the South of Ireland, without the trouble and expense 
of sending all the plate to Dublin to be Hall-marked. 

The Dublin Goldsmiths' Company may appoint assayers for 
any part of Ireland. 

47 George III. c. 15, s. 3 (Ireland). In Ireland the marks for 
silver do not seem to be determined by the statutes, but are those 
in use in 1 807, or as determined by the Commissioners of Taxes. 

GOLD AND SILVER PLATE DUTY. 

The duties were first imposed in 1730 at 6d. per ounce both 
on gold and silver. The rates were doubled in 1807 by the Act 
of 47 Geo. 3 (Sess. I.), c. 18, which was repealed by Statute Law 
Revision Act, 1872 (No. 2). 

The receipt of the duties was committed to the Excise Depart- 
ment, until by the Act of 6 Geo. 4, c. 118, it was transferred to the 
Department of Stamps. 

1807. 47 Geo. 3, Sess. 2, c. 15. "An Act to provide for the 
regulating and securing the Collection of the Duty on Gold and 
Silver Plate wrought or manufactured in Ireland." 

This Act is still in force, except Sects, i, 2, and 12, repealed 
by Statute Law Revision Act, 1872 (No. 2). 

Sects. 3 and 4 relate to the assaying and marking by the Assay 
Master, &c. 

Sect. 5 provides for a written note to be delivered of certain 
particulars, and of the weight of every parcel of gold or silver, 
and for payment of the duty. 

Sect. 6. As to accounting for the duty. 

Sect. 7. Allowance of one-sixth of duty on goods sent to 
be assayed in a rough state. 

Sect. 8. As to filing of notes and accounts of duties to be 
kept in books. 

Sect 9 provides for books being lodged by Assay Master with 
Goldsmiths' Company, and for inspection of such books. 

Sect 10. As to payment of the duties. 

Sect. II. As to any Deputy Assay Masters in the country 
paying the duty and accounting. 

Sects. 13 to 17. Penalties for various offences and mode of 
recovery. 

1842. 5 & 6 Vict. c. 82. "An Act to assimilate the Stamp 
Duties m Great Britain and Ireland, and to make Regulations for 
collecting and managing the same until the Tenth day of October 
1845." (Partly repealed by 8 & 9 Vict. c. 76, s. i, and 3^ & u 
Vict c. 99.) "^^ ^^ 

Sect. I. Repeal of duties on gold and silver plate granted bv 
47 Geo. 3, s. I, c. 18. f 6 / 

Sect 2. Duties on gold and silver plate to be the same as 
by 53 Geo. 3. c. i8«;. 



HALLMARKS ON PLATE. 



203 



PLATE DEALERS' LICENSES IN IRELAND. 

From 1785 to 1804 were £1 per annum. 

In 1805-6, £2 per annum. 

In 1807, in the City of Dublin and in any city or town sending 
one or more members to Parliament, £$. In any other part of 
Ireland, £2, 

In 18 1 2 it was raised to 5 and 2 guineas. 

In 1842. Act 5 & 6 Vict. The licenses were the same as in 
England, viz., for 2 dwts. and under 2 oz. of gold and under 
30 oz. of silver, £2, 6s.; above that quantity, £^, 15s. 



C!ir0ti0l0gical list of ^pwimens 0! Jtbij }|late. 



DATE. 



1638-^ 

1679-0 
1680-I 



1680-I 

1682-3 
1693-4 

1694-5 
1695-6 

1696-7 
1697-8 



MAKER. 



ARTICLE. 



VB 



ES 
AG 

IS 
IS 

c9'^ 



>> 



j> 



DK 
DK 



>> 



Communion Flagon; given by Moses Hill in 
1638. — Trinity Coll.^ Dublin, 

Chalice, with IHS engraved. — Messrs, Water- 
house. 

Great Tankards. — Merchant Taylors* Company ^ 
London, 

Box, with scroll feet. — T, G. Willes Sand ford, 

Esq. 
Tazza Bowl. — Mrs. Bischoffsheim, 

(mon.) Octagonal Casket, with Chinese Figures. 
— T. G, Willes Sandfordy Esq. 

Cup; given in 1696. — Mansion House^ Dublin. 

Cup, ex dono Duncombe. — Trinity ColLy 
Dublin. 

Cup and Cover. — Sir /no, Esmonde. 
Monteith and Coronal. — Earl of Charlemont. 
Flagon, dated 1700. — Trinity Coll.y Dublin. 
A Cup exhibited in the Dublin Exhibition, 
A Cup exhibited in the Dublin Exhibition. 

Pair of Taper Candlesticks, with Law's name, 
^If stamped subsequently. — Dublin Ex- 
hibition. 



204 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



DATE. 

1699-0 

I7OO-I 
I7IO-I 

I7I4-5 
17 15-6 

I7I67 

I7I7-8 

I7I8--9 



MAKER. 



ARTICLE. 



9» 



>» 



I 720-1 

1724-5 
1725-6 

9} 

1726-7 

1727-8 
9> 

99 
1728-9 

1729-0 
I73O-I 

I73I-2 



DK 

n 

19 

DK 

MW 
LO 



IH 
TS 

WA 

^^ 

WW 
TW 



illeg. 



(YoTi 



DK 



Punch Bowl, "Plunket," 1702. — Trinity ColL, 
Dublin, 

{mon.) A piece exhibited at the Dublin 
Exhibition, 

Two-handled Cup. — Sir Jno, Esmonde, 

Cup, "Pattens"; given 1705. — Trinity Coll., 
Dublin, 

Tazza Bowl. — Mrs. BiscAoffsAeim. 

Tazza Bowl. — Mrs, BiscAoffsAeim, 

Cup with two handles. — Messrs. Hancock, 

Two-handled Cup. — Messrs, Hancock, 

Corporation Mace. — Dublin, 

{mon.) Basin. — Mr, Jos. foAnson^ Dublin. 

{lion rampant between letters.) Cup. — Messrs. 
Hancock, 

Bowl Plate, fluted, escalloped edge. — Dublin 
ExAibition, 

Two-handled Cup. — Lord JoAn Butler, 

(letters crowned.) Alms Dish; given in 1725 
to St. MicAariSy Dublin, 

{letters crowned^ Bowl Plate. — Mrs. BiscAoff- 
sAeim, 

Chalice and Paten; given in 1725 by Mrs. 
Dorothy Ormsby of Rookewood to AtAleage 
CAurcA. 

Two-handled Cup. — Hon, Eric Barrington, 
Two-handled Cup. — Messrs, Hancock. 

Piece of Plate. — Messrs, Hancock, 

Mace, dated 1728, see cut. — GoldsmitAs* Com- 
pany London. 

Mace, dated 1728, top embossed with royal 
arms. — Messrs. Hancock, 

Sugar Basin, repouss6 flowers. — Earl of 
Breadalbane, 

Cup and Cover; the gift of W. Duncombe. — 
Trinity ColL^ Dublin. 

Pair of Tazze. — Earl of Breadalbane, 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



205 



DATE. 



1736-7 



9 9 



MAKER. 



>> 



1739-0 



>» 



1743-4 



1748 



1750 



IW 
RG 

RG 

AG 



ARTICLE. 



LET 



WW 
MW 



1754 


cs 


1755 


RW 


1757 


TJ 


1759 




1762 


CS 


>> 


)> 


1769 


IC 


>> 


CT 


1770 


RB 


>> 


WW 


1778 




1785-6 


10 


>> 


MW 


1790 





1792 




1793 




1803 


WW 


I8I7 


TLB 



Pair of Square Waiters.— £^r/ of Breadalbane. 

Plate, won by "Cheshire Tom," Mullingar 
Races, in 1737. — Sir C Domville. 

Three Table Spoons and a lHug.— Messrs, 
Waierhouse, 

Two-handled Cup, see cut. — Messrs. Hancock. 

Cup; presented by P. Routledge in 1741 to H. 

Blake, 
Gilt Plateau; given by Dr. Gilbert to Trinity 

Coll., Dublin. 

Six Spoons, leaf-shaped ends. — Sir Jno. Es- 
mond e. 

Five two-handled Cups, in sizes, with festoons. 
— Sir Jno. Esmonde. 

Gravy Spoon with curved end. — Messrs, Water- 
house. 

Soup Ladle, scroll end, fluted bowl. — Sir Jno. 
Esmonde. 

Sugar Basin, on three feet. — Sir Jno, Esmonde, 

Table Spoons. — Messrs. Waterhouse, 

Two-handled Cup, chased with scrolls. — C, M. 
Lone field, Esq. 

Soup Ladle. — Sir Jno. Esmonde. 

Epergne. — Dublin Exhibition 

Two-handled Cup. — C. M. Longfield, Esq, 

Large silver Cruet Frame, with branches and 14 
bottles. — Mr. Harris of Dublin. 

Six Spoons. — Sir Jno. Esmonde. 

Plate, with Hibernia. — Dublin Exhibition, 

Silver Gilt Sugar Sifter, see cut — J, H. Walter, 
Esq, 

Sugar Basin. — Rev, T. Staniforth. 

Cup, with Hibernia. — Dublin Exhibition, 

Cup. — Dublin Exhibition. 

Cup; presented in 1799. — Lady Loftus. 

Spoon. Date 1803, see cut. — J. P. Stott, Esq. 

Sugar Bowl, Cover and Stand, and Waiter, 
made by I. Le Bas. — Sir Jno, Esmonde, 



206 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



DATE. 


MAKER. 

EP 


18.^4 


1825 


f > 


i8jo 




1832 


<^M 


1837 


KS 


1864 


SL'B 



ARTICLE. 



Teapot, chased with flowers, made by E. Power. 
— Sir Jno, Esmonde. 

Bread Basket, chased with flowers. — Sir Jno. 
Esmonde. 

Mount of a Bog Oak Cup, presented to King 
William IV.—H.M, the Queen. 

Two-handled Cup, made by G. Bryden. — Sir 
Jno. Esmonde. 

Waiter; presented in 1837, made by R. Sayer. — 
Sir Jno. Esmonde. 

Trowel, presented to Sir Jno. Esmonde. 



N.B. — The dates in the first column are placed according to the arrange- 
ment of date letters in the late Mr. W. J. Cripps' tables (''Old English 
Plate," pp. 419-421) J which that gentleman gave us permission to adopt 
in the following list. 



HBuWitt ^ssas (©fR« letters. 

The time appointed for the letter to be changed, and the new 
punches put in commission, is the 29th or 30th May in every year; 
but this date has not been strictly adhered to, the changes having 
been made at various later periods in some years. 

1638 to 1729. 3 maris: harp crowned, date letter, and maker's 
mark. 

1806 to 1807. 4 maris: harp, date, Hibernia, and maker's 
initials. 

1807 to 1882. 5 marks: harp, date, Hibernia, sovereign's head 
for duty, and the maker's initials. 

From 1638, the year in which the Communion flagon was given 
by Moses Hill to Trinity College, Dublin, the fact is clearly 
established, confirmed also by the Charter granted by Charles I. on 
the 22nd December of 1638, that a Roman letter for that year was 
adopted, commencing with A. No other examples between 1638 and 
1679 have come under our notice, but in the latter year we have a 
chalice with the Old English ^i followed in 1680 by the tankard 
preserved in the Merchant Taylors' Company, bearing an old Eng- 
lish (g, . Following the order of the alphabet, plate was doubtless 
stamped down to 1686, finishing with ). 

The unsettled state of Ireland during the next six years will 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 207 

account for the cessation of work at the Dublin Assay Office. In 
1693 the letter ^ft (next in succession) was adopted, and continued 
alphabetically down to JJ, in 1700. At this time the Act of William 
III., in 1700, reappointing the provincial offices for adopting the 
new or Britannia standard, and making it imperative on all the 
provincial offices to discontinue the oldy may have operated in 
Dublin, where the new standard was never made, so that a few 
years may have elapsed before work was resumed. It appears, from 
no examples having been discovered during this period, that in 
17 10 the Hall recommenced stamping old standard plate with the 
letter ^» next in succession (the top of the shield being escalloped), 
down to J5 in 17 17, thus completing the Old English alphabet 

In 1 718 a new alphabet was commenced, and as we have met 
with two court-hand letters A and C, whilst Mr. W. J. Cripps 
(" Old Enghsh Plate," edition 1878, page 419) gives a letter B in the 
same hand (although no authority is quoted in his list of specimens), 
we have adopted his suggestion, which is probably correct, viz., that 
they represented the years 17 18, 1719 and 1720. 

In 1 72 1 Old English letters were used, and continued with 
uninterrupted succession (omittng J) from A to Z, in all twenty-five 
letters. In 1746 Roman capitals commence, and we have to acknow- 
ledge with thanks the late Mr. Cripps' permission to introduce his 
arrangement of Roman capitals from 1771 to 1820. It seems un- 
accountable and contrary to the practice of every other Assay Office 
to repeat the same character of letter in four successive cycles — the 
custom has always been to vary the style of alphabet in succession; 
but at Dublin we have Roman capitals from 1746 to 1845, just a 
century, the only variations in the Hall-Marks being the introduction 
of the king's head duty -mark in 1807, and apparently a distinctive 
form of shield, which, however, was not strictly adhered to 
throughout each cycle. The arrangement of the tables is still un- 
satisfactory, and it is to be hoped the promised assistance of the 
Royal Irish Academy will enable us to clear up the existing dis- 
crepancies. Mr. Thomas Ryves Metcalf more than twenty years ago 
furnished us with extracts from the local Acts of Parliament and 
extracts from the Minutes of the Goldsmiths' Company recording 
the Assay Office letters and dates ; but he could not do more than 
give us Roman capitals without any variation of type, hence the 
present uncertainty, and I am compelled to add, the incompleteness 
of our Dublin Tables. Mr. S. W. Le Bass, the Assay Master has 
kindly given us copies of the recent marks. 



208 


DUBLIN 


ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS, 




CYCLE B. 


CYCLE 6. 


CYCLE 7. 


CYCLE 8. 


Old Emolish Caps. 


RoVAM Capitals. 


ROXAN CAPITALS. 


RoxAK CAPrrALs. 




^ 


1721-2 


® 


1746-7 


gl 


1771-2 


® 


1796-7 


B 


1722-8 


B 


1747-8 


B 


1772-3 


B 


1797-8 


€ 


1728-4 


C 


1748-9 


C 


1778-4 


C 


1798-9 


2D 


1724-6 


D 


1749-0 


D 


1774-6 


D 


1799-0 


€ 


1725-6 


Fi 


1760-1 


E 


1776-6 


E 


1800-1 


$ 


1726-7 


J^' 


1761-2 


h' 


1776-7 


E 


1801-2 


<& 


1727-8 


G 


1762-8 


G 


1777-8 


G 


1802-8 


J^ 


1728-9 


H 


1768-4 


H 


1778-9 


H 


1808-4 


3 


1729-0 


I 


1764-6 


I 


1779-0 


I 


1804-6 




1780-1 


K 


1766-6 


K 


1780-1 


K 


1806-6 


51 


1781-2 


Ti 


1766-7 


L 


1781-2 


L 


1806-7 


£0 


1782-8 


M 


1767-8 


M 


1782-8 


M 


1807-8 


55 


1788-4 


N 


1768-9 


N 


1788-4 


N 


1808-9 


iD 


1784-6 





1759-0 





1784-6 





1809-O 




1736-6 


P 


1760-1 


P 


1786 6 


P 


1810-1 


1786-7 


Q 


1761-2 


Q 


1786-7 


Q 


1811-2 


m 


1787 8 


K 


1762-8 


R 


1787-8 


R 


1812-8 


t) 


1788-9 


S 


1763-4 


8 


1788-9 


S 


1818-4 


c 


1789-0 


T 


1764-6 


T 


1789-0 


T 


1814-6 


m 


1740-1 


U 


1765-6 


U 


1790-1 


U 


1815-6 


1^ 


1741-2 


V 


1766-7 


V 


1791-2 


V 


1816-7 


^ 


1742-8 


W 


1767-8 


W 


1792-8 


W 


1817-8 


1 


1748-4 


X 


1768-9 


X 


1798-4 


X 


1818-9 


e 


1744-6 


Y 


1769-0 


Y 


1794-5 


Y 


1819-0 




1746-6 


Z 


1770-1 
I Stamps. 


Z 

FOUF 


1795-6 

I Stamps. 


Z 


1820-1 


Four 


t Stamps. 


Foui 


Fivi 


s St AM 1*8. 


L Harp crowned. 

2. Date Letter. 

3. Maker's Initials. 

4. Hibernia in 1730. 


L Haip 
?. Date 

3. Make 

4. Hibe 


crowned. 

Letter. 
=ir's Initials, 
rnia. 


1. Harp 

or 

2. Date 

3. Mak< 

4. Hibe 

The thr 
22, ao, an 
rected to 
1784,aretl 
or Unicoi 


cr., Plume, 
Unicorn. 
Letter, 
^r's Initials, 
rnia. 

ee Standards of 

d 18 karat, di- 

be used after 

neHarpfPlnme, 

Tl. 


1. Harp 

or 

2. Mak4 

3. Date 

4. Hibe 

5. The 

in ■ 


cr., Plumo, 
Unicorn. 
Br's Mark. 
Letter, 
rnia. 

King's Head 
1807. 



DUBLIN ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



209 



CYCLE 0. 


CYCLE 10. 


CYCLE 11. 


BosfAK Capitals. 


RoxAN Small. 


RoxAN Capitals. 


® 


1821-2 


a 


1846-7 


® 


1871-2 


B 


1822-8 


b 


1847-« 


B 


1872-8 


C 


1823-4 


c 


1848-9 


C 


1873-4 




1824-6 


d 


1849-0 


D 


1874-5 


©g} 


1825-6 


e 


1850-1 


h: 


1875-6 


F 


1826-7 


f 


1851-2 


F 


1876-7 


G 


1827-8 


g 


1852-8 


G 


1877-8 


H 


1828-9 


h 


1853-4 


H 


1878-9 


I 


1829-0 


• 

1 


1854-5 


I 


1879-0 


K 


1880-1 


k 


1855-6 


K 


1880-1 


L 


1881-2 


1 


1856-7 


Ti 


1881-2 


M 


1882-3 


m 


1857-8 


M 


1882-3 


N 


1833-4 


n 


1858-9 


N 


1883-4 





1834-5 





1859-0 





1884-5 


P 


1835-6 


P 


1860-1 


P 


1885-6 


Q 


1836-7 


q 


1861-2 


Q 


1886-7 


E 


1837-8 


r 


1862-3 


R 


1887-8 


S 


1838-9 


s 


1863-4 


S 


1888-9 


T 


1839-0 


t 


1864-5 


T 


1889 -0 


U 


1840-1 


u 


1865-6 


U 


1890-1 


V 


1841-2 


V 


1866-7 


V 


1891-2 


W 


1842-3 


w 


1867-8 


W 


1892-3 


X 


1843-4 


X 


1868-9 


X 


1893-4 


Y 


1844-5 


y 


1869-0 


Y 


1894-5 


Z 


1845-6 


z 


1870-1 


Z 


1895-6 


Five Stamps. 


Five Stamps. 


Five Stamps. 


1. Harp crowned. Plume, 

or Unicom. 

2. Maker's Mark. 
8. Date Letter. 

4. Hibemia. 

5. King's Head, or Queen's. 


1. Harp crowned, Plume, 

or Unicorn. 

2. Maker's Mark. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Hibemia. 

5. Queen's Head. 


1. Harp crowned. Plume, 

or Unicom. 

2. Maker's Mark. 

3. Date Letter. 

4. Hibemia. 

5. Queen's Head. 



ip '•m.mmrm- 



210 



DUBLIN ASSAY OFFICE LETTERS. 



CYCLE 12. 



Black Lbttsb Capitals. 







VICTORIA. 

1896-7 



1897-8 



1898-9 



1899-0 




1900-1 

EDWARD VII. 
1901-2 





1902-3 




1903-4 




& 





1. Harp crovned, Plume, or Unicom. 

2. Maker's Mark. 



1904-5 



1905-6 



1906-7 



1907-8 







3. Dote Letter. 

4. Hibernia. 



1908-9 



1909-0 



1910-1 



1911-2 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



211 



EXAMPLES. 




i 




Two Tankards presented in 1680 
to the Guild of St. John. Date 
1 680- 1. — Merchant Taylors' 
Company. And a Box with 
scroll iect.— Dublin Exhibition. 
Piece of Plate. Date 1725-6.— 

Messrs, Hancock. 
Mace, dated 1728. 
bossed with the 
Messrs. Hancock. 

Two-handled Cup. Date 1739-0. 



The top em- 
royal arms. — 




— Messrs. Hancock. 



Silver gilt Sugar Sifter. Date 
1785.6.—/. H. Walter, Esq. 




^^y^^ 



Spoon. Date 1803-4. — /• P- Stott, 
Esq. 



Cdebrateb (^olbsmitfjs. 



ENGLAND. 



1 100. Leofstane, Goldsmith, Provost of London. 

1 1 89. Henry Fitz Alwyn, Fitz Leofstane, Goldsmith, and Mayor of 

London. 
1200. Ade, the King's Goldsmith. 
1222. Itger, Goldsmith, Master of the Mint. 
1255. William de Gloucester, Goldsmith, Keeper of the Dies. 
1258. William, the King's Goldsmith, Master of the Mint. 
1275 to 1 28 1. Gregory de Rokesley, eight times Mayor, Chief 

Assay Master of all the King's Mints in England. 
1276. Jocee the Goldsmith, Keeper of the Dies. 
1280. William Farringdon, Goldsmith, Sheriff of London. 
1308, 1323. Sir Nicholas Farrindon, Goldsmith, Mayor four times. 
1410. Sir Dru Barentine, twice Lord Mayor, died 141 5, Foster Lane. 
141 5. William Fitzhugh, Goldsmith, Comptroller of the Mint. 
1452. Humphrey Hayford, Goldsmith, do. do. 






212 



1485. 
1527. 

1543- 
1545. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Bartholomew Read, Goldsmith, Master of the Mint. 

Martin Bowes, do. do. do. 

Sir Martin Bowes, five times Mayor, Goldsmith, Master of the 
Mint. 

Lawrence Warren, Goldsmith, Mint Assay Master. 
1702-1722. Sir Francis Child, Goldsmith, Temple Bar, Mayor. 
17 1 2-1740. Paul de Lamerie, Crown Goldsmith. 



ENGRAVERS TO THE MINT. 



1 100. Otto the elder and 
younger. Goldsmiths. 

1 150. Wm. Fitz Otho, Goldsmith. 

1243. Richard Abel, do. 

1265. Thomas Fitz Otho, do. 

1 280. Hugh Fitz Otho, do. 

1290. Thomas Fitz Otho, do. 

1294. William Fitz Otho, do. 

1389. J. Edmund, do. 

1422. Gilbert Van Brandeburg, 
Goldsmith. 

1432. John Orewell, Goldsmith. 

1455. William Wodeward, do. 

1 46 1. German Lynch, graver of 
the puncheons. 

i483.*John Shaa. 

1487. Nicholas Flynte. 

1507. John Sharpe. 

1520. Demaire. 

1553. Deric Anthony. 

1555. Vincent ius. 

1560-78. Deric Anthony. 

1579. Menestrelle. 

161 1. Charles Anthony. 

161 2. John Dicker. 
1628-36. Nicholas Briot. 



1633. Edward Greene. 

1646-49-58-72-74. Thomas Simon 

1648. Thomas Rawlins. 

1672. James Roettier. 

1672. Norbert Roettier. 

1672. Phillip Roettier. 

1672. Joseph Roettier. 

1674. Peter Blondeau, Engineer. 

His patent expired in 

1688. 
1674-88. John Roettier. t 
1685. Henry Harris. 
1706-26-27. John Croker. 
1706-26. Samuel Bull. 
1706. Gabriel Clerk. 
1727. John Rolles. 
1727. Beresford. 
1729-40. J. Sigismond Tanner. 
1 74 1, 1749. Jas. Anthony Dassier. 
1 741. Richard Yeo. 

1 74 1, 1742, 1749. J- Ralph Ocks. 

1742. John Tanner. 
1764. Lawrence Natter. 
1 77 1. Thomas Pingo. 
1779. Lewis Pingo. 
1787. John Pingo. 

1797. Nathaniel Marchant. 



Note. — ^The initials of all Goldsmiths found stamped on Enelish Plate may 
be identiBed by the entries in the books at Goldsmiths' Hall. These have been 
accurately copied, with their names and addresses in full, and dates of 



entry, in a work entitled " Gilda AurifahroTum, or a History of English 
Goldsmiths and their Maries^** (fee, by W. Chaffers. (Reeves A Turner). 

• It was not until Henry VII. 's reign that any real expression was given 
to the human countenance, either in sculpture or coinage, in England. 

t Roettier left the year William III. came to the throne. He had coined 
for Charles II. and James II. Being a Jacobite, he made King William's 
halfpence so that the back part of the head represented a satyr's face with 
horns. For this he was turned out of his office, and was subsequently 
employed in the French Mint. 



tile 



L'ORFEVRERIE FRANC AIISE 



WITH 



(Eiiraitfl from tht ^tatntes antk (Btbinantts 



RELATING TO THE STAMPING OF 



GOLD AND SILVER WARES, 



FROM THE 

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MAKER'S MARK TO THE PRESENT DAY. 



Illastrated with TwelTe Plates of Hall Marks 



OF THE 



STANDARD AND ASSAY. 



BY 



WILLIAM CHAFFERS, 

AUTHOR OF " MARKS AND MONOGRAMS ON POTTERY AND PORCELAIN,** ETC. 



" Opus quAle sit, ignis probabit."— 1 COR. iii. 13. 

(Motto of the Goldsmiths* Com-pany of Rouen.) 



LONDON. 
1904. 



Jfrance^ 



DECLARATIONS, EDICTS, AND DECREES 

REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK. 

1275. Compelling goldsmiths to stamp their works with the seign 
or punch of the town in which they lived. 

1 3 13. Ordering gold works to be stamped with the punch of the 
Goldsmiths' Company of Paris. 

1506. Nov. Confirming ancient privileges and enjoining gold- 
smiths to have their works countermarked by the wardens 
and limiting the weight of silver works to 3 marks. 

1 5 10. Feb. Authorising the manufacture of vessels of gold and 
silver of any weight conformable to the standard. 

1554. Limiting the number of goldsmiths, and relating to the 
keeping of registers of buyers and sellers of gold and 
silver works, partly repealed in the following year. 

1577, Sept. Relating to marks and countermarks. 

1 63 1. Oct. Placing a duty (droit de remede) on all works of gold 
and silver. 

1633. May. The previous Act revoked, by the goldsmiths of Paris 
paying the composition of 24,000 livres, and 8000 by the 
wire drawers. 

1672. March 30. Goldsmiths* work to pay a duty of 30 sols per 
ounce on gold and 20 sols per mark on silver to the King's 
profit 

1674. F^b. 17. Augmenting the duty on gold and silver, viz., 
60 sols per ounce on gold and 40 sols per mark on silver. 

1679. Dec. 30. Regulating the goldsmiths' trade, and on the com- 
merce of gold and silver. 

1 68 1. July. Duties on gold and silver (de Marque); 3 livres per 
ounce on gold and 40 sols per mark on silver. 

1685. Feb. 3. For the countermark of old vessels and other large 
works of gold and silver. 

1687. Feb. 21. Prohibiting the manufacture of works in gold and 
of massive pieces of silver,, therein named. 



2i6 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

1689. Oct. 25. Reflations for the refining of gold and silver. 
1697. June Concerning the droit de Marque and Controle on 

works of gold and silver. 
1700. March. Limiting the weight of vessels of gold to i ounce, 

and silver .to 1 2 marks ; prohibiting the manufacture of 

massive plate. 

1720. Feb. 18. Renewing the prohibitions decreed in March 1700. 

1 72 1. Nov. 23. Permitting the manufacture of gold snuff-boxes, 

6tuis. and other jewels of the weight of 7 ounces, and 
reducing the standard for watch-cases, boxes, &c., to 20J 
karats. 

1724. Jan. 4. Declaring sentence of death against those who 

counterfeit stamps, or insert or solder stamps on other 
plate. 

1725. April 20. Regulating the commerce of gold and silver. 
1733. Nov. 13. Ditto, and relating to the stamping of metals. 
1735. April 19. Confirming the decree of Jan. 1724, &c. 

1746. May 21. Regulating the fabrication of galloons and lace 

of gold and imitation. 
1749. Jan. 26. Concerning the duties on gold and silver. 
1 75 1. Mar. 17. New Regulations for the marque of gold and 

silver. 
1760. June 21. Directing the Farmer of the duties not to apply 

the stamp of discharge on plate^ unless previously stamped 

by the Maison Commune. 
1763. Dec. 5. Directing all assayers of the Mint of the kingdom 

to adopt an uniform method of making assays of gold and 

silver. 
1765. Dec. 2. Requiring all silver articles plated, or covered with 

gold, to be distinctly stamped ARGENT. 
1769. Sept. 9. Concerning works of gold and silver coming from 

abroad. 
1779. Mar. 18. Concerning the duties on plate sold at the Mont 

de Pi^te in Paris. 

1782. Aug. 31. Regulating the duties and describing all the marks 

of standard, &c., to be used. 

1783. Sept. 10. Authorising wardens to increase the number of 

punches for small works of gold and silver. 

1783. Sept. 20. Forbidding the sale of jewels or small works of 
gold and silver which have not been assayed and marked. 

1783. Dec. 13. Regulating the standard of works of silver at 
II ounces 12 grains, and gold at 20^ karats. 

1783. Dec. 15. Establishing an invariable mark for each com- 
munity of goldsmiths in France. 

170^. (An IV.) Introducing the metric system of weights. 

1797. (An VI.) Re-establishine the standards of gold and silver, 
and ordering new punches, &c., recense, &c 

1803. May 31. Ordering new punches as herein described. 

1 8 17. Oct. 22. Ditto ditto. 

18 1 8. July I. Ditto ditto, recense, &c. 
1825. Dec. 18. Relating to the metric system. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 217 

1835. June 30. Ordering new punches of standard and assay, &c. 

1837. July 4. Relating to the metric system. 

1838. April 7. Ordering the recense gratutte or gratuitous veri- 

fication of works of gold and silver. 



FRANCE. 

In France a system of stamping gold and silver wares was adopted 
as early as the thirteenth century, but the means of ascertaining the 
date of manufacture is not so easily determined as in England. 

In the Livres des Metiers^ for the regulation of trades in France, 
compiled by Etienne Boileau, Provost of Paris 1258- 1269, we find 
some of the rules by which the goldsmiths were regulated, and that 
masters were appointed to see them carried into effect. This was 
probably the first institution of the Goldsmiths* Company in Paris, 
in which we meet with the following clauses, in the old language of 
the time of Saint Louis: — 

" Nus orfevres ne puet ouvrer d'or a Paris qu'il ne soit k la 
touche de Paris ou mieudres, laquele touche passe touz les ors de 
quoi on oeuvre en nule terre." Again, " Nus orfevres ne puet 
ouvrer a Paris d'argent que il ne soit ausi bons come estelins ou 
mieudres." 

No goldsmith may work gold in Paris which is not of the 
Paris touch or better, which touch or standard surpasses all the gold 
which is worked in any other country. 

No goldsmith may work at Paris any silver which is not as good 
as sterling (of England) or better. 

" Nus orfevres ne puet avoir que un aprenti estrange mes de son 
lignage ou du lignage sa fame, soit de loing soit de prfes en peut-il 
avoir tant come il li plaist." No goldsmith can have but one 
apprentice who is a stranger, but as many of his or his wife's 
relations as he pleases. 

" Nus orfevres ne puet ouvrer de nuit, se ce n*est k Teuvre lou 
Roy, la Roine, leur anfans, leur freres et T^vesque de Paris." No 
goldsmith may work at night except on work commanded by the 
King, the Queen, their children, their brothers, and the Bishop of 
Paris. 

" Nus orfevres ne doit paiage ne costume nule de chose qu'il 
achate ne vende apartenant a leur mestier." No goldsmith shall 
pay any tax or duty on anything he buys or sells appertaining to 
his trade. 

" Nus orfevres ne puet ouvrir sa forge au jour d'apostele, se ele 
n'eschiet au Samedi fors que un ouvroir que chascun ouvre k son 
tour a ces festes et au diemenche; et quanques cil gaaigne qui 
I'ouvroir a ouvert, il le met en la boiste de la confrairie des orfevres, 
en laquele boiste en met les deniers Dieu que il orfevre font des 
choses que il vendent ou achetent apartenans a leur mestier, et de 
tout Targent de celle boiste done-on chascun an le jor de Pasques 



2i8 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

un diner as povres de TOstel Dieu de Paris." No goldsmith may 
open his forge en the day of the fete of one of the twelve Apostles, 
if it does not fall on a Saturday, with the exception of the shop, 
which every one opens in his turn on the ffete days and on Sundays, 
and all that he gains who has an open shop on these days he shall 
put in the box of the Confrerie of Goldsmiths, in which box the alms 
are placed, given by the goldsmiths according as they buy and sell 
their merchandise, the contents being devoted on Easter Day every 
year for a dinner to the poor at the H6tel Dieu of Paris. 

These regulations appear to have supplemented an ordinance 
which has not come down to our times, for they do not enter into 
any details of the fabrication of works of gold and silver, or notice 
the stamps necessary to be placed upon them. 

In an ordinance of Philippe le Hardi, A.D. 1275, the argentarii 
were compelled to stamp their works with the seign of the town in 
which their forge was situated, on pain of confiscation of the goods ; 
and in the reign of Philippe le Bel, A.D. 13 13, gold was ordered to be 
stamped with the punch of the Goldsmiths' Company of Paris, which 
was kept by the prudhommes of the Company. 

" Tout orf^vre qui n^gligerait de faire marquer ses ouvrages 
serait puni de corps et d^ avoir T that is, by fine and imprisonment. 

It was also ordained that each city should have a particular 
mark for works in silver. 

This was the origin of the Hall-mark in France, each town 
having a different device and a letter, changing every year at the 
election of the new masters. 

The marks for goldsmiths' work made at Paris were anciently 
of two sorts, the maker's mark, and the assay mark of the niaison 
commune^ or common hall. The first was the signature of the 
goldsmith, who usually adopted some emblem, as a star, cross, rose, 
&c., surmounted by a iieur de lis. 

The second, or assay mark, was impressed by the Corporation, 
and proved that the article had been assayed, and found to be as 
good as the Paris standard. This stamp can be traced back as far 
as 1275, as before noticed. The punch was at Paris a letter of the 
alphabet crowned, changing every year with the new wardens of the 
craft, or gardes du mi tier ^ in alphabetical order. We are informed 
by Pierre de Rosnel, in the third part of his Mercure Indietiy that 
the letter for the year 1752 was M; but as several irregularities 
occur from incidental circumstances, the exact order cannot be 
ascertained without consulting the minutes of the Mint, where all 
the marks were registered on a plate of brass by the identical 
punches. In 1680 the letter L was ordered to be used; in 1783 a 
man was convicted for forging the letter T of the previous year. 
The variable mark continued in use until 1783, U being the letter 
for that year, when Louis XVI. assigned to each community of 
goldsmiths in France an invariable mark, that of Paris being the 
letter P crowned. From 1789 we find no stamp until lygy. 

In the Wardrobe Accounts of Edward VI. we have a very 
early record of this Hall-mark in the year 1300 (^Lib. Gard. Soc. 
Ant. 352): — "Item, viij. cocleares argenti signata in collo signo 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 219 

Parisius scilicet, de quondam Hore glegelli*' — ^which may be thus 
rendered — Item, eight silver spoons, marked on the neck or stem 
with the Paris mark, that is to say, a certain iletir de lis. 

In the Inventory of the Dukes of Burgundy, 1423, " Pour un 
pou avoir amende x marcs ij. ounces xv. esterlins dudit or estant 
a xix. karas, pour faire aultre vaisselle et Favour fait venir a xix. 
karas et un quint, qui est or de touche et au dessoubz n'oseroit on 
oeuvrer." 

Again, in the will of Thomas Rotherham, Archbishop of York, 
A.D. 1498, are the following allusions to the touches or Hall-marks 
of Paris, London, and Bruges : — " Item volo quod Thomas Sente- 
georg habeat sex taceas sive Bollezbasse Stantes (standing low 
bowls), in fundo tacearum sunt Hores ires sunt Paris towchy et 
ponderant de Troy LXXI. unc'; aliae tres sunt London Towchy et 
ponderant cum coopertor, C unc' de Troy. 

" Volo etiam quod habeat duas ollas argent* wynding chaced, 
quarum una et Bruges towchy altera London et est ponderant Troy 
XI. unc." (Lib. Nig. Scacc, vol. ii. p. 676.) 

La Croix (Hisioire de VOrfivrerie) says: — "The Revolution 
of 1789 disorganised all the Trade Guilds and Communities, and 
the Goldsmiths did not escape the universal shipwreck which in- 
gulphed at the same time Religion, Royalty, and the Public fortune. 
Of what avail could be the Goldsmiths* trade in a time when 
sceptres and crowns were broken, all the church plate melted and 
jewels placed on the altar of the country, when gold and silver 
coin was replaced by bell-metal and assignats. The Goldsmiths' 
trade could not survive the Monarchy and the Ecclesiastical power 
which had given it birth, and under which it had flourished for 
fifteen centuries." 

From 1789, therefore, little or no attention was paid to the 
stamping of plate in France until the passing of the Act of 1797. 
so that for a period of nearly eight years goldsmiths were allowed 
to make whatever quality of gold and silver articles they pleased. 



SUMPTUARY LAWS. 

Laws restricting the manufacture of gold and silver to pieces 
of a certain weight were decreed by Philippe le Bel in the thirteenth 
century, as well as by his successors, not only to moderate or limit 
the progress of luxury, but with a view of reserving a sufficient 
quantity of the precious metals for the coinage. Goldsmiths' work 
was therefore limited in weight according to the exigencies and re- 
sources of the State at particular times. 

Under Louis XI. (1461-1483), who disdained luxury and fre- 
quently ate and drank out of tin or pewter vessels, the goldsmiths' 
art was not much supported, his principal employment of the pre- 
cious metals being to enshrine the relics of saints and make gifts 
to ecclesiastical edifices, adorning tombs, &c. His greatest personal 



220 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

expense was the use of enseignes or brooches for his hat, sometimes 
of gold, but more frequently of baser metal. The former re- 
strictions, therefore, in the size and weight of vessels of gold and 
silver were continued. 

Louis Xll.'s first ordinance, given at Blois in November 1506, 
confirmed the ancient decrees and limited the manufacture of silver 
vessels to three marks, without his express permission. 

The Goldsmiths of Paris complained bitterly of this restriction, 
and the increased prosperity of the country induced Louis XIL to 
alter this law four years later. 

In February 15 10 another ordinance authorised goldsmiths to 
make all manner of silver vessels " de tels poids et f agon que 
chacun le jugera convenable," provided they were of the Paris stan- 
dard and received the mark of the wardens of the assay. It also 
states that, in consequence of the ordinance of 1 506, many prelates, 
princes, and nobles had been compelled to have their large pieces 
of plate made in other countries, to the great injury of the trade. 

Louis XII. and his Minister the Cardinal d'Amboise, in 
patronising the arts generally, paved the way for the development 
of the Renaissance under Francis I. and Henri II. 

Francis I. greatly encouraged the goldsmiths* trade and drew 
all the best Italian artists to Paris by his liberal patronage, among 
them the famous Benvenuto Cellini, who was created Orf^vre du 
Roi : but a great many jewels which are attributed to him (if really 
of the time) are the work of contemporary artists, and Cellini was 
not the only goldsmith employed by the King. The sumptuous 
presents the King made to his favourites, and lords and ladies of 
his court, kept the trade generally in full activity, and he frequently 
directed the artist himself, and furnished models with his own 
hands. 

All the works of Cellini and others were first submitted to the 
King for approbation and approval. Brantome relates that Francis 
I. ordered a great number of jewels, ornamented with emblems and 
devices and set with precious stones, for his mistress, Madame de 
Chateaubriand; but his penchant for the lady having subsided or 
become extinct, he reclaimed all the jewels which had been presented 
to her. The Countess, obeying his command, returned them all 
melted into ingots. 

The reign of Henri II. was still more favourable to the gold- 
smiths* and jewellers* trade, and his inventory records the wonderful 
jewels and works in gold and silver made by his orders. His taste 
was ably seconded or probably inspired by Diana of Poitiers, and 
the goldsmiths* art kept pace with the other arts which flourished 
in this King's reign. 

It must be remembered also that after the discovery of the New 
World, when the quantity of gold and silver had increased to such 
an amazing extent, these sumptuary laws fell into disuse and were 
disregarded; the manufactures increased, and the State obtained 
sufficient specie without intrenching upon the luxuries of the rich. 
It is said that Spain withdrew from America alone, from the end 
of the fifteenth to the commencement of the eighteenth century, 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 221 

specie of the value of five milliards of piastres in gold and silver, 
which is about twenty-five milliards of francs, much more than 
existed in the whole world before the voyage of Christopher 
Columbus. 

In the declaration of 1672, Louis XIV. sets forth in the pre- 
amble: "The care which the Kings our predecessors have taken 
from time to time by ordinances, &c., to repress luxury, has prompted 
us frequently to follow their example ; but the abundance with which 
God has blessed our kingdom since the Peace, the benefits which our 
subjects enjoy, and the dignities to which we have elevated those 
whose distinguished services have entitled them thereto, having 
insensibly augmented their expenses, we have not thought it a fropos 
to subject them to the severity of the ancient ordinancies which 
would not suit the present state of the kingdom. 

"We have endeavoured by divers edicts and regulations to 
prevent the use of many costly works, especially gold and silver 
lace, which independent of the price of fashion consume the largest 
proportion of gold and silver, which form the true riches of the 
State, &c. But as much of the precious metals is consumed by the 
excessive weight and quantity of vessels of silver and works of 
gold, so much so that scarcely any find their way into the Mint 
for coinage, we have sought the most convenient means to remedy 
this disorder, without injuring the freedom of commerce, amongst 
which we have found none more easy than the imposition of a duty. 
For these reasons we will and desire, that there shall be raised for 
our profit on all gold and silver that shall be worked throughout 
the kingdom 20 sols for each mark of silver, and 30 sols for each 
ounce of gold.* And as our principal aim is to reduce the fabrica- 
tion of silver vessels to a reasonable weight so that sufficient be 
returned into our Mint to be converted into coin, we enjoin that 
these works be limited to a certain weight which cannot be exceeded 
without our pennission in writing, and which we reserve to ourselves 
the right to accord, as we think fit and proper." 

The weight of any piece of silver was not to exceed 8 marks, 
except for ecclesiastical purposes, which were to be made as hereto- 
fore without limitation of weight. (This was renewed in February 
1687, March 1700, and in February 1720.) 

These prohibitory edicts, however, do not appear to have had 
the desired effect, or it may have happened that the King and his 
special favourites who had his permission to use massive plate 
carried their extravagance to a high pitch, for it continued to be 
made and used to a great extent; and in an edict of 30th December 
1679, relating to the commerce of gold and silver, a long list is 
appended giving goldsmiths instructions on what particular parts 
the stamps were to be applied. The massive character of some of 
these may be inferred from the descriptions of objects it includes : 
Chenets or fire-dogs with the garnitures de feu or grilles, chandeliers 
with branches, girandoles, torcheres, gueridons, mirrors, flambeaux, 

* In February 1674 this duty was doubled and increased to 2 livres 
(francs) per mark on silver, and 3 livres per ounce on gold. 



222 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

tables, large salieres or salts with flambeaux, urns, ewers, cassolettes, 
&c. 

To give some idea of the extravagance of Louis XIV., one 
instance will suffice : it relates to a fete given at Versailles in 1668, 
and describes some of the costly pieces of silversmiths' work dis- 
played on that occasion, which were all melted in 1688. On each 
side of the royal buffet was elevated on a portico, 10 feet high, 
a grand silver gu6ridon bearing a silver grandole, which lighted the 
buffet, accompanied by numerous large silver vases; on the table and 
steps of this buffet, which reached the altitude of not less than 25 
feet, were shown, beautifully arranged, twenty-four massive bowls of 
marvellous workmanship — these were separated by as many large 
vases, cassolettes, and girandoles of equal beauty. On the table of 
the buffet was the gold Nef and the silver gilt vessels for the King's 
use — these shone forth from among twenty-four large silver jar- 
dinieres full of flowers; in front of the table was a grand silver 
cistern, shaped like a shell ; at the two extremities were four 
gueridons, 6 feet high, surmounted by silver girandoles. Two 
other buffets for the service of the ladies displayed, each, four large 
bowls and four silver, figures, supporting a grand vase fitted with 
girandoles; above the backs of each of these buffets a silver 
gu6ridon, gleaming with Wcix candles, threw a lustre on six grand 
silver bowls, which served as a background, and many large vases 
of extraordinary weight and value; before the table of each buffet 
was a silver cistern weighing 1000 marcs. All this chased and 
modelled silver-work was of the estimated weight of more than 
100,000 marcs of metal (800,000 ounces.) 

An Edict of February 1687 again forbids the manufacture of 
these large pieces, mentioning those just referred to in the list of 
1679, which was probably this time more effectual, for the King 
himself set an example and his court followed it A time of great 
scarcity of money had arrived, and Louis XIV., to raise money for 
the expenses of his wars, sent all his massive plate to the Mint, and 
made it compulsory that the nobility and gentry should do the 
same; in 1688, therefore, all the magnificent services of plate made 
by Claude Ballin, Pierre Germain, Montarsy, and other celebrated 
goldsmiths, designed by Le Brun and artists of note, were sold for 
their intrinsic value to the Mint. The King's plate alone, which had 
cost more than ten millions of francs, realised only three millions; 
the plate of other persons produced a similar amount. 

These chefs-d'oeuvre were, however, before being broken and 
cast into the melting-pot, all carefully copied or drawn by the 
artist-goldsmith Delaunay, and their forms are consequently faith- 
fully preserved. 

Many of the crown jewels were saved from destruction, among 
the rest the gold Nef or ship just mentioned, weighing 150 marcs, 
or about 1200 ounces, which Charles V., Francis I., Henri II., and 
Charles IX. had successively bequeathed to the crown of France. 

The decree of February 1687, and the King's magnanimity (if 
we may so term it), caused a taste to arise for materials of a less 
expensive character, and, by the force of circumstances, the age of 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 223 

silver was suddenly metaniorphosed into an age of pottery ; painted 
and gilt earthenware, and eventually porcelain, became the fashion 
of the day for table services and ornament. Hence a great impetus 
was given to the fabriques of pottery at Moustiers, Marseilles, 
Nevers, and Rouen. Louis XIV.. it is said, ordered a table service 
at Rouen, the principal pieces of which were in form of birds, 
poultry, and animals, and even of vegetables, to replace those magni- 
ficent pieces of plate which political exigencies had caused to be so 
ruthlessly destroyed. 

The saying of Horace was thus put to the test, and le Grand 
Monarque (whose impresa was the sun in its splendour) and all his 
nobles were made cognizant of the fact that it was possible to 
make a good repast from plates of rude earthenware. 



FICTILIBUS BENE CCENATUR. 

In March 1700 the edicts of 1672 and 1687 were ordained to 
remain in force with certain additions ; no work of gold was to be 
made exceeding an ounce in weight, and silver articles were not to 
exceed 8 marcs, under a penalty of 3000 livres and confiscation. 
All merchants and others were forbid in future to make or sell any 
stuffs worked with gold or silver above the price of 70 livres the 
ell. No persons, of whatsoever rank they may be, were to wear 
clothes full and covered entirely with embroidery, tissue, or lace of 
gold and silver. Women were forbid, under 3000 livres* penalty, 
to wear any embroidery, lace, buttons, or other ornaments on stuffs 
of gold and silver ; nor to wear any gold or silver on scarves, aprons, 
neckerchiefs, tippets, &c. ; nor to wear in future any jewels (except 
certain rings), stuffs, fringes, or embroideries of gold and silver. 
It was forbid to use gold or silver on carriages, horse trappings, 
tapestries, chairs or other furniture, liveries, &c. 

A declaration of 23rd November 1721, concerning vessels of 
silver, commences thus: — "Louis, &c., We are always of opinion 
that we cannot pay too much attention to the repressing of the 
luxury which causes the ruin of our subjects, and in preventing the 
precious metals of gold and silver being employed in useless and 
superfluous goldsmiths* work. With this view our declaration of 
February 1720 forbids the fabrication of any work of gold exceed- 
ing the weight of one ounce, but our intention has not been to 
interdict for ever to our subjects a reasonable use of jewels of gold, 
nor that of silver vessels of such a weight as to preserve them without 
deterioration. We are also informed that since our said declaration, 
there have been introduced into our kingdom, by foreign dealers 
and pedlars, a large quantity of snuff-boxes, etuis, and other jewels 
of gold, the greater part being of inferior quality, which is doubly 
prejudicial to our subjects, by reason of being deceived on the one 
hand, and on the other being deprived of the profit of manufacture, 
which frequently exceeds the intrinsic value, and of which the price 



224 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

has passed into foreign hands. We know also that the standard 
of gold regulated by the ordinances at 22 karats, with a remedy 
of a quarter, can only be observed on medals, jettons, and solid 
works, but that the small works in which solder is employed cannot 
be worked at this standard; so far from it, in fact, that it does 
not exceed 14 karats. A ces causes, nous ordonnens," &c., that 
jewels of gold, as snuff-boxes, 6tuis, and other jewels, may be made 
of the weight of 7 ounces at the most. Goldsmiths and watch- 
makers are permitted to make and sell small objects of gold in 
which solder is employed, as crosses, snuff-boxes, 6tuis, buckles, 
buttons, watch-cases, &c., of the standard only of 20 karats and a 
quarter, with a remedy of a quarter; all other works to remain of 
the standard as heretofore, not exceeding 7 ounces in weight, without 
permission in writing. 



THE STANDARD. 

The Marc of the finest or pure gold contains 24 karats. 

The Marc of the finest or pure silver contains 12 denier s. 
. Goldsmiths and others who employ materials of gold and silver 
must work them of the standard prescribed by the regulations and 
within the remedies allowed by the law. 

Reiiners may not refine silver at a lower standard than 11 
deniers 18 grains, and gold below 23 karats 26 thirty -seconds (||). 

Goldsmiths are compelled to work gold of the standard 22 
karats, with a remedy of a quarter of a karat, and silver at 11 
deniers 12 grains, with a remedy of 2 grains; that is to say, if the 
gold does not contain 21 karats and three quarters, and if the 
silver does not contain 11 deniers 10 grains, the metals are not of 
the standard, and after the assay made at the Maison Commune 
the work shall be returned to the workman, and shall not be marked 
with the punch of the countermark at the Common Hall. But the 
Paris goldsmiths take care, more than all the others, to attain the 
fineness required by the regulations; and that it is which contributes 
to keep up the reputation of the punch of Paris. It is, however, 
permitted that goldsmiths may manufacture small works and jewels 
of gold, such as crosses, snuff-boxes, ^tuis, buckles, buttons, &c., 
at a lower standard, viz., 20 karats and a quarter fine gold with a 
remedy of a quarter of a karat. .(13th Dec. 1783.) 

The wire-drawers (Tireurs) employ gold of 24 karats with a 
remedy of a quarter, and silver of 12 deniers with a remedy of 4 
grains. The beaters {Batteurs) employ gold of 23 karats (§5)> and 
silver of ii deniers 18 grains. Watchmakers are compelled to work 
gold of 20 karats and a quarter with a remedy of a quarter, and 
silver of 11 deniers 12 grains with a remedy of 2 grains. The 
sword cutlers work gold at 21 karats three quarters, and silver at 
II deniers 10 grains. 

Foreign works of gold cannot be marked unless they are of 
the quality of 18 karats, if they weigh more than a gros; if they 
weigh less, they must be of 17 karats. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 225 



THE PUNCHES. 
I. The Punch of the Maker. 

The origin of this mark is unknown, but previous to the end of 
the thirteenth century it was the only guarantee for the goodness of 
the standard. It is mentioned in an edict of Philippe le Hardi in 
1275, and repeated in subsequent Acts. 

There is a copper plate in the Mus6e de Cluny at Paris, which 
originally hung in the Assay Office of the Goldsmiths* Company 
at Rouen, on which the makers of gold and silver plate in the year 
1408 struck their punches; it is inscribed in the old black-letter as 
follows, and contains the names of 123 goldsmiths arranged in 3 
rows: 1st. The initial of the Christian name; 2nd. The punch; 
3rd. The surname at length : — 

€Bst CQ k tablt an saitt tsttips Us notns bts ottbmrs 
in mtstitv haviabxtm a ^antn qttt ant tanixtsi^ms tt 
aussi ^ Bont fta^ft^ Its cantxtsisms hn Ikts outrmra, 
txdxt h nam A U sanxnam hittnlx laqndU tabU in fct 
tt cammmttt la rigtlh. bt ^and. Ian bt graa ^il 
qttatr^ ans tt bnit, leljan SatxH tstant ^axbt bn ffitxt 
bts ffiaxts bt ^antn tt bt ttstt tabU a canst bn bis 
mtstitx tt lebatt ^tttn, $tlitn (Lanxta^s, a l^ljan ^irarti 
QBxbts bittllni mtstitx. 

The Museum of Rouen preserves a stained-glass window, which 
was formerly in the Maison des Orfevres of that city, dated 1543, 
representing the arms of the Goldsmiths' Company, a chased cup 
and cover, supported by griffins and surmounted by a crucible in 
flames, with the motto from a verse of St. Paul (i Cor. iii. v. 13), 
Opus quale sii ignis probatit. 

An arret du Conseil or Decree of 30th October 1674 says, " All 
goldsmiths are prohibited from exposing for sale any works of 
gold or silver unless they are marked with, 1st. His Majesty s -punch; 
2nd. That of the assay; and 3rd. That of the goldsmith^ under 
penalties, &c." 

His Majesty s punch is that of the duty applied by the Fermier 
G^n^ral. There appears at that time to have been only one duty- 
mark ; those of the charge and discharge were not then in use. The 
assay marky or the countermark placed after the assay, was stamped 
next to that of the maker. At this time only three marks were 
used. 

In an edict of Francis L (Sept. 1543) we find: "Goldsmiths 
shall be bound to sign with their mark, and afterwards with the 
countermark kept by the sworn wardens, all their works of silver 
before they expose them for sale." According to an edict of March 
1554, "The Goldsmiths shall carry their punches to the Mint to be 
struck on the copper plate always kept there, as the goldsmiths of 

Q 



226 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Paris have always done." This punch is the seal of the workman, 
and for which he is always answerable; it must be stamped or 
insculped on the copper plates deposited in the Mint and in the 
bureau of the Company, and his name and abode engraved in the 
margin — its size and dimensions regulated — it must be placed on the 
principal part of the works, and parts attached thereto. If dis- 
figured in finishing the work, i4: must be stamped again. It must 
not be lent. Those who absent themselves or shut up their shop 
must send it to the- bureau. After the death of the workman his 
punch must be defaced at the bureau. The punch of the maker 
who refuses to accept the charge of the warden must also be de- 
faced : he must see that the countermark of the assay office is placed 
by the side of his own, conspicuously on every piece. Every maker 
is directed to alter his punch, so as not to exceed in size that of the 
assay. 

Dec. 1765. Goldsmiths who make silver boxes covered with 
gold on the outside, of one or more colours, and gilt inside, with 
hinges of gold or ifastenings mounted in gold, are compelled by 
this decree to place on the bottom of the interior, or in some pro- 
minent place, the word ARGENT, in such a manner that the punch of 
the discharge shall be placed upon the letter A. 

The administration of the Mint, in execution of the clauses 9 
& 14 of the law 19 Brumaire An VI. (19th Nov. 1797), directed 
that the form of the punch of each maker of gold and silver works 
shall be in form of a lozenge or diamond, and the proportions be 
regulated according to the size of the works, and that he shall have 
it engraved by his own artist, bearing the initial letter of his name 
with some symbol, which must differ from that of any other maker. 
The form of the punch of every maker of plated goods is a perfect 
square; the administration directs that, conformably to the law 
above quoted, each maker shall place upon his work numerals 
indicating the quantity of gold or silver it contains, and to his 
mark shall be joined the word DOUBLE. The sword cutlers, clock 
and watch makers, engravers, and others, have also makers* punches, 
which are insculped at the Mint and at the bureau of the Maison 
Commune. 



2. Punch of the Maison Commune or Contremarque. 

(Assay.) 

This punch was anciently designated the poinqon de contre- 
marque, because it was the only stamp placed by the side of that 
of the maker. 

In after times this name was given also to the punches of the 
Fermier. 

Until towards the end of the thirteenth century, the public had 
no other guarantee of the standard, except that of the goldsmith 
who made the works. But in 1275, Philippe le Hardi prescribed 
the necessity of the punch of the maker being placed upon the works, 
and accordingly of the punch of the Maison Commune, of which the 
impress has always designated the goodness of the standard. A 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 227 

case in point is, that the works marked with this punch are the only 
ones which the Mint does not submit to a fresh assay. In his request 
presented to the Council in May 1771, the Fermier General observes 
that the goldsmiths of Paris are faithful to the standard, more than 
elsewhere, and that this fidelity is the chief cause of its celebrity. 
The punches of the Maison Commune, as well as the matrices, are 
made and tempered in the bureau, in presence of the wardens newly 
elected, and the Fermier of the duty ; they are four in number, one 
for the large works in gold and silver, one for the middling-sized 
pieces of gold, another for the middling-sized pieces of silver; the 
fourth serves for the very small pieces of gold, which are assayed 
by the touchstone, but there are several of each size. They must be 
stamped by the Fermier, on a table of copper, deposited with the 
Registrar of the Mint, and also in the Assay Office of the Company. 
The old punches are at the same time defaced, and ground down, 
after being compared with the insculped tables in the bureau. The 
new punches are immediately shut up in the bureau of the 
Maison Commune. The wardens alone can use them. They cannot 
be used to mark the works until after the assay has been made. The 
stamp must be placed upon the principal part of the work, as well 
as those attached thereto. The works must be assayed and marked 
with this punch before they are finished. It must not be stamped 
by the wardens until after the Fermier has put his stamp upon the 
works ; it must be used only in the presence of the Fermier, and in 
a conspicuous place. 

Clause 14 (30th Dec. 1679) decrees, that to prevent disfigure- 
ment of the works, the punch applied by the Assay Office, which 
shall be THE LETTER Z, commencing from the ist January next 
(1680), shall not exceed in size, including the field, two lines in 
height, by one and a quarter in width. At the end of this general 
regulation is a list of works of gold and silver, indicating the exact 
positions where the punches of the maker and assayer are to be 
placed. 

Le Roy (Section X.) also tells us that the punches of the assay 
used by the wardens to countermark works of gold and silver 
were of four sizes, according to the size of the plate to be marked ; 
the first, for marking large pieces, was to be two lines high by one 
and a quarter broad, two others smaller, and the fourth very small, 
for very small pieces of plate. The three largest of these punches 
shall represent one and the same letter of the alphabet, which shall 
change annually in alphabetical order. 

The punch indicating the standard is to be stamped on the piece 
of plate, which is placed on an anvil with a plain polished surface, 
consequently without a countermark. That of the assay is struck 
upon the plate placed upon the bigorne or anvil, engraved on its sur- 
face with some particular design, so that it shall receive, when struck, 
a double impression, that of the assay on the upper surface and the 
countermark underneath^ or on the reverse side. (Circular of the 
Mint, 30th July 18 19.) 

September 1769. Articles of gold and silver coming from 
abroad are to be assayed and marked at the Maison Commune, the 



228 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

large pieces with E T., and the small ones with the letter E. 
(Etrange). 

3. Punch of the Fermier General du droit. (Duty.) 

At first the Fermier had only one punch, which was placed upon 
the plate, when the goldsmiths brought it to the Assay Office of 
the Maison Commune to be assayed and stamped. {October 163 1 ; 
March 1672.) Subsequently he had two punches, one of the charge 
to mark the works while in an unfinished state, and the other of 
discharge to mark the works when finished, at the time of payment 
of the duty. {July 168 1.) 

Punch of the Charge: — 

This must be placed upon the works before they are finished, 
showing the goldsmith that he is answerable for the charge for 
duty, and they are bound to report and make a submission to the 
Fermier when they are finished, that they may be marked with the 
punch of discharge and quittance of duties. The punch of the 
charge is not described in the Act of 1681, but it is to be different 
from that of the discharge^ which is to be a fleur-de-lys. It must 
be placed upon the works before the assay is made at the bureau 
of the Maison Commune, and the wardens cannot assay them, unless 
. they see this stamp. If, after having received the punch of the 
charge^ the goldsmiths desire to change the destination of the works, 
they must make a declaration and alter their submissions. 

As soon as the punch of the charge has been placed upon 
the works, which must be done when first put into shape, and 
before being finished, they are returned to the goldsmith, who 
carries them to the wardens of the Goldsmiths' Company to be 
assayed. If the works are found to be standard, they are marked 
with the punch of the Maison Commune, and returned to the gold- 
smith, who then finishes them off. If they are found not to be 
standard, they are broken and returned to the workman, who takes 
care to have the articles erased from the register of the Fermier, 
on which is placed his submission to present the pieces when 
finished, to be marked with the punch of the discharge, and for the 
duty on which he had made himself answerable. 

Punch of the Discharge : — 

This punch is directed by the Act of 1681 to be a fleur-de-lys, 
with the Mint letter of the town underneath. 

It must not be placed upon the works until they are finished 
and completed, immediately after the duty is acquitted and paid. 

It must not be stamped thereon before that of the countermark 
of the Maison Commune, or the Fermier is subject to a heavy 
penalty, whether the works come from abroad, or are made in 
France. 

There are some works which are not marked with the punch 
of the charge, on account of their small size : a declaration of the 
goldsmith is then made before the work is finished, and where 
possible, a very small seal is put upon it. 

This stamp is also of great importance in verifying the quality 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



229 



of plate, for it not only denotes the payment of duty, but assures 
the validity and existence of the punch of Assay or Maison 
Commune, which must have been stamped upon it before the stamp 
of the Fermier was applied. 

The marks of the charge and discharge remained in use until 
the law of April 1791, which abolished all the duties. They were 
not renewed by the law of the 19 Brumaire (November 1797), but 
the duty was levied at the time of the assay, and that stamp 
denotes both the legal assay and payment of the duties. 

Political events having been the cause of the disappearance 
of some of the punches of standard and guarantee, the adminis- 
tration caused others to be made in execution of the Royal Ordinance 
of the 22nd Oct. 1 8 17, which were in use from the i6th August 
1 8 19. There are also special punches for watches, made by an 
Ordinance of the 19th Sept. 1821. The designs of all these punches 
will be given in the following tables. 

Le Droit de Seigneurage, Droit de Remede, and Droit de 
Marque are all three synonymous and designate the same duty, but 
the Droit de Marque prevailed. In November 1708 it was decreed 
that the duties levied by the assay ers and their comptrollers should 
be made conjointly with the duties of the marque of gold and 
silver; hence the origin of the droit de marque and de controle. 

In 163 1. The amount of duty was fixed at 3 sols per ounce 
for goldsmiths' work. 

In 1633. This duty was compounded for by a sum of 24,000 
livres paid by the goldsmiths of Paris, and 8000 livres by the 
wire-drawers (tireurs) and gold-beaters (batteurs). 

In 1672. The duty was re-established and fixed at 30 sous 
per ounce on gold, and 20 sous per marc on silver. 

In 1674. The duty was increased to 2 livres (francs) per marc 
on silver, and to 3 livres per ounce on gold. 

In 168 1. Works of silver gilt (vermeil) fixed at the same duty 
as silver, and additional imposts were levied, as shown in the 
following table. 

About 1780 the duties which were collected at the Grand 
Bureau de la Marque d'Or et d' Argent at Paris are shown in the 
following table: — 



Ordinance of 1681 . 

Assayers and Controllers 

A twentieth for the Hospital and double . 

The profit of the community of Goldsmiths 

Ten sous per livre for the King's profit . 

Total Livres • 



Livres 



f» 



Once d'Or. 


Marc d'Argent. 


livre. sons. den. 


livre. sous. den. 


8 


200 


14 


16 


8 4^ 


6 7^ 


10 


5 


2 11 2^ 


1 18 8tfe 



7 13 7-1^ 4 19 10^ 



230 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

In 1674 the marc of silver was worth 29 to 30 livres; the duty 
was then a fifteenth. In 1780 the marc of silver was worth 51 to 
52 livres; the impost and the other duties, which were not for the 
King's profit, did not reach a tenth. 



THE ARGUE. 

The Argue is a machine used to reduce the size of ingots of 
silver and silver gilt, and to stretch or draw out the silver to a dimin- 
utive thread, for the purpose of making lace, or for embroidery, &c. 
These machines are kept in the different Mints for the purpose, and 
are worked under the control and surveillance of the administration. 
The silver ingots when brought to the Mint are refined and stamped 
with the assay marks : each ingot is divided, beaten, and filed into 
three batons or sticks of equal length and thickness, viz., 2 feet 
long by 3 inches 4 lines in circumference; they are then gilt, and 
usually weigh about 4150 grammes (17 marcs). These batons are 
then drawn through draw-plates, which are made of fine steel, 
with a series of round holes gradually diminishing in size; this 
operation is performed by means of strong pincers through the 
different-sized holes until the thread is sufficiently attenuated for 
the purpose, new wax being used to allow the wire to pass through 
the holes more freely. 

Silver, when gilt for the manufacture of gold lace, can be 
drawn into a thread of ^yj^ of an inch in thickness ; the film of gold 
on the surface of the wire being distended in an equal ratio, and 
covering entirely the attenuated thread. 

The baton above described can by this process be elongated to 
more than a million metric feet. The following experiment will 
exemplify this fact, which was made at the Hotel de Ville at 
Lyons, before the Dues de Bourgogne and De Berri, in 170 1. A 
Silver ingot, or rather the third of an ingot, of cylindrical form, 
weighing 17 marcs, produced a thread of silver of the length of one 
million, ninety-six mousand, seven hundred and four feet. 



DEMONSTRATION. 

One grain (marc weight) produced a length of . . 14 feet. 

Multiplied by 24 grains, which make the denier . 336 „ 

Multiplied by 24 deniers, which make the ounce . 8,066 „ 

Multiplied by 8 ounces, which make the marc . . 64,512 „ 

Multiplied by 17 marcs, which make the ingot in question 1,096,704 „ 



Thus we find that this baton of silver was lengthened by the 
art of wire-drawing more than S43.000 times its primitive length, 
equivalent to a distance of 73 French leagues. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 231 

How much soever we may be surprised at the ductility of 
silver, gold is still more so. Reaumur has proved by calculation 
that a single grain of gold is so malleable that it can be beaten 
thin enough to cover a surface of 46^ square feet. 

But this distention of gold under the hammer, although so 
considerable, does not equal that which it acquires in passing 
through the draw-plate. There are leaves of gold which are hardly 
of the thickness of ^ ^^qq of an inch, but this is inconsiderable in 
comparison with the gold thread round the silk of which the gold 
lace is made. While speaking of gold thread we may insert the 
following clause from an Act of the 21st May 1746 : — 

**The lacemakers and makers of galloons or ribbons are en- 
joined under heavy penalties to wind fine gold thread only on 
raw silkt and false metal on red cotton thread, and the ribbons 
and galloons of false metal are to have red threads along the two 
selvages or borders, so that wherever they are cut there shall be 
this distinguishing mark between the real gold and the imitation.'* 



THE METRIC SYSTEM 

OF METRES, LITRES, AND GRAMMES, OR OF LENGTH, CAPACITY, 

AND WEIGHT. 

The French metric system of weights and measures is based 
upon the length of the fourth part of a terrestrial meridian. The 
ten-millionth part of this arc was chosen as the unit of measures 
of length, and was called mitre. The cube of the tenth part of the 
metre was adopted as the unit of meaures of capacity, and de- 
nominated litre. The weight of distilled water at its greatest 
density which the litre is capable of containing was called kilo" 
grammey of which the thousandth part, under the name gramme^ 
was adopted as the unit of weight. The multiples of these measures, 
proceeding in decimal progression, are distinguished by the employ- 
ment of the prefixes aekay hektOy kilo, and myriay from the Greek, 
and the subdivisions by deciy centi, and milliy from the Latin. 

The Orfevre is understood to mean a person who undertakes 
to make and sell plates, dishes, and other large works of gold and 
silver; but in ordinary parlance the Orfivre trades in all sorts of 
works in gold and bijouterie. Thus a goldsmith is at the same 
time a silversmith and a jeweller. 

These professions necessarily oblige the persons who exercise 
them to provide themselves with scales and weights, to weigh the 
objects of gold and silver, and for this reason the goldsmith- 
jewellers are compelled neither to sell nor to buy except after the 
metric system, conformably to the law of the I" Vend^miaire An 
IV. (1795), to the Royal Ordinance of the i8th December 1825, 
and to the law of the 4th July 1837. 

This obligation, imposed upon goldsmiths, to make use only 



23<2 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

of the new weights* is so indispensable, that the Tribunal of Police 
at Paris, in March 1835, delivered a judgment which condemned 
for the neglect of it forty-one goldsmiths, each to a fine of two 
francs, and the expenses and confiscation of the old marc weights. 
M. TAvocat du Roi remarked on the occasion, that if the same 
offenders were convicted of a repetition of a similar infraction of the 
law, he should inflict a fine of fifteen francs and five days' im- 
prisonment. 

At the present day the commerce of works of gold and silver 
at Paris is carried on entirely after the new metric system, and the 
Provinces have followed the example set by the Capital, insomuch 
that on the ist January 1840 the ancient marc weights had altogether 
disappeared, as directed by the law of the 4th July i837.t 

However, many persons not being yet perfectly familiar with 
the metric system, they are often forced to use the ancient system, 
either in comparing results or in translating the expressions of the 
one or the other into the language they desire. For example, 
suppose a private gentleman carries to a goldsmith some old silver 
of which he has calculated the value according to the old system, 
the value put upon it by the goldsmith after the metric system 
embarrasses him and disposes him to believe he is being deceived, 
especially if there is any error in his calculaton; in this case it is 
indispensable to have to nis hand the tables of conversion to compare 
the results and to convince him of the correct calculation. In 
giving this table, which is taken from Raibaud's work {Matihes 
(TOr et d' Argent, p. 93), we may remark that goldsmiths, jewellers, 
and others who use the gramme weights, as required by law, can 
always ascertain the corresponding weight of the marc. There are 
1000 grammes to a kilogramme; 100 to a hektogramme; 10 to a 
dekagramme; and the gramme is subdivided into decigrsimmes, 
centigrammes, and milligrammes, as the marc was subdivided into 
ounces, gros, grains, and centiemes of grains or fractions. 



* The weights which belong to the French metric system are of hexagonal 
form. 

t The marc weight of eight ounces or half a pound avoirdupois was 
established by Charlemagne; before this time the lioman pound or troy 
weight was used in France, corresponding to 10 ounces, 4 gros ; or 321 

frammes, 238 milligrammes. The mark was subdivided thus: 24 grains — 1 
enier; 3 deniers — ^1 gros; 8 gros — 1 ounce; 8 ounces — 1 marc. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



233 






« 
K 

O 



to 



O 

Hid 

•e» 



•s 2 



2 S 



«C 



re» 









o 

CO 

o 



pa 
< 






Fract. 1 
dec. 1 


iOO'^Oi'^Oa30QOCOXCOOOrHOit*>OOqOQOCO'^010Q050'^©100 

rHOioO'^»ocDaooiO'-<o^'^»ot>QOOrHoO'«f05"^050oaoooaooor>»o 


3> 


oocoos(NkoaoiH'«i<aoTHoqoo'T}<»ocoaooiOrHOQTj4iot*QOO^GO'^os 


m 

V 

B 
B 




OOOOOOOOOOi-«r-iO^GqoO(»"*^'^»OO^rHCOi-«t>eit^OOCp 

rH 




rHCqC0^*0C0t*a0OOOOOOOOOOQQQOOOQQOQO 

rHOqoOTt*»OCOt*aOOiOOOOOOOOOQQ 


GROS. 


Fract. 
dec. 


-^OCOXCMC^i-HiOO-^OOCOt^i-iioO^XOq-tJJCOXrHOOW^t-OiOO 
0(MC5iC(MXiOi-HaO'^QOOOt>C^COi-ll005Tj<QO(NOTHlOC500t^OqTt< 
(N«3t^O00OXiH00500^CiO0qQ0W5f-it*'«9<X00l>0qC0OO0S'^0D 


(A 


Tt<xo^t*TH»oci"^aoo^w3i>Ooou5aorHco<:OGqooo^QO»oi-*t>^ao 

a0X'<^O^i-HCit*»O"«^(NTf<l>CiO^'^COCirH^aD(NI>rH»OG5'^a0OlWS 


it 

B 

i 




coi>rHwscio^:oO"^xo^o?iHC5i>0'^oii'^t^O(M'<*<ooar-iTt<ao 

i-lrHTHOqoqGOGOOOt^i-IOOiO^COO'^XCO->^<Mi-IC5l>*0'^0^'^ 

rHr-l»-lO^O^OOCOCOt*rHOO(MCOQ'^XCO 

iH rH rH (N <M « 00 CO t> 




rHO^CO^U50t>XCiOCOOOOOOOQQQOQQQQOOQ 

r-i(MtfO'^OCOt*XCiOOOOOOOOOOQ 

rH 0^ 


ONCES. 

1 


Fract. 
dec. 


»OrHCOrHC*Gqt^COX'^l>rH»00500COO(Nt»Tt<(MOt*WiOOQt>00 

i-icO'^<:or>ciO(yioo40ooTHO'Mi:^coxcot^THox<M0050t>'^ 

iCO^CO-^iOOXCiOi-fSOTjiCOt^OiOG^OO^CJOOTHOC^t^COXCOt^ 


Milligs. 


^X<MOO'^X<MI>rHOqcO'*iOCDX050rHOO'^OI>CiOO^OO»OQ 

C5XXi:^i>o»ou5T}i'<t<x<NOO'^x(Ni>-i-((Mco^u5<:oxoaOr-ia5 
OTHt^ooci*OTHC^cociXXt*i><:oo»0''5jH''5jHX(N<:oO'^xc^i>i-icq 


Grammes. 


OTHt-l(MGqoO'^'^W?>fl>i-lt>0005>fl>i-<t>OOOSXXD*C*5D»0»0'^Tt4X 

OOCOOSC^»OXi-«'^C*OiHrHOqoqCO'<^'^»0»«THC*OOC5XOr-l|>0005X 

THrHiH(MOqO^COCOC50^»OXrH'«1<t*Qi-«TH<M(MCOTji'«r^»0*Oi-l 

rHr-lrHOqO^Oqo5cOCiG<lW5Xr-l'^|>Qt-l 

i-Hi-«THoqoqoqa5o 


tHOqcO^OCOI>XOiOOOOOOOOOQOOQQQQQQQQ 

rHcqoO^OOt>XaiOOOOOOOO©QQ 

iHoqooTj*kooi>xosoo 


MARCS. 


Fract. 
dec. 


iOCOOiG<l»AXi-i^t>OOOOOOOOOOOOQQQOQQQQ 
oq^OOrHCOOXQoOCOOSO^OXrH-rt^OQOOOQOOOQQ 
CiXC*CO(;OXC)'<^30a50ilTiiCOOJi-lCOOXOC0005(M»OQOrHTjlt>00 


• 

« 

• mm 


CN00Xr-iM<t*O00^OXt*OC0»O'^3000<N^C00i^00<;0XOC0CD 
»CO«:>rHCOr-i|><Nl>(NW3Xi-i'^t>00050CiXI><:050vO-«1<OOOOOqTti 
t*vO(MOt>400^0t*»00»Oi-iOrHt>o;if<M»CXTH'^l>OCOOOaX 


Grammes. 


'^0'^oao:)Xcoxo^i>»co!iot*»oo^Oi>»oQkOr-icorHt^OJit>o5iwa 

'rj<XC0l>(MOTHk0O'^0i'^0iS0X30X0^l>»5GqOt*»C©rQl>W3O 

0^'^l>CiO^'^l:*Oi(M'^XCOt*CQ«Dr-iU50'^Oi'^C5COXOOXO!|l>kO 

rHiHrHrHOqcq'^t*05©^'^l>050^'^XCOI>Os|OiH«50'<!t<Oa 

THTHrHrH0qoqTj<t>Oi(N'^l:*Oi(N'^X 

T-t tH rH iH OQ 0^1 "«* 




rHCqC0'*»050t>XOOOOOOOOOOQQQQOQOQOQQ 

T-t(NOO'^»OCOr>XOiOOOOOOOOOQO 

i-t(MCOTji»OOI>XOiOQ 



The French weights bear the following comparison to the English : — 
I Milligramme is equal to 0*0154 English grains. 
I Gramme „ 1 5 '4440 

I Kilogramme „ 1544-40234 

I Kilogramme is equal to 2 lb. 8 oz. 3 dwts. 12 grs. Troy. 

I Kilogramme „ 2 -2406 pounds Avoirdupois. 



II 



II 



11 



II 



234 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



THE ASSAY. 

In ancient times, says Pierre le Roy, they had no other means 
of judging of the standard of gold and silver than the touch for 
the one and the scraping for the other: to these imperfect methods 
have succeeded other proofs of a certainty and precision infinitely 
superior — that is to say, the cupel, for assaying silver by means of 
refining it with lead in a muffle kiln ; and by aquafortis, for assay- 
ing gold by way of dissolution, or, as it is termed, depart (i.e., 
separation). The fixity or coherence of the parts of gold and silver 
has the effect of driving off all the alloy mixed with these metals, 
leaving them perfectly refined from dross of every description; this 
can be distinguished to the nicety of a quarter of a grain of the 
fineness of silver, and a thirty-second of a karat of the fineness of 
gold, a precision which the scraping and the touch could never 
approach. The assay by the cupel was invented in the reign of 
Philippe le Bel towards the year 1300, but the precipitation of the 
silver by means of aquafortis was not adopted for two centuries 
later. 

The coufelle, or cupel, derives its name from the French word 
coupe, a cup, its shape being conical and broad at top, to allow as 
much of the surface of the molten metal as possible to come in 
contact with the air, which assists in carrying off the scoria or dross 
together with the litharge floating on the top. 

We will briefly describe the operation of assaying silver and 
gold as practised in the French Bureaux de Garantie. 

Before proceeding to make the assay of silver, a small portion 
is cut or scraped from the ingot or work of which it is desired 
to ascertain the standard, and the fragment is carefully weighed 
with the gramme weights. A piece of lead proportioned to the 
weight and the quality of the piece of silver is then put into a 
cupel and placed in the furnace; when the lead is melted, the piece 
of silver is thrown into the cupel, which soon becomes fused. 
These two metals thus mixed together circulate in the cupel until 
the lead is absorbed or evaporated and has carried off with it all 
the alloy which the silver contained, which is ascertained when the 
button of silver is perfectly free from the iridized dross, leaving 
it in a convex shape. Shortly after the silver button is settled 
at the bottom of the cupel, it is removed from the furnace and 
allowed to cool; the button is then taken out and well brushed 
underneath, from all sediment and dirt, and weighed to a great 
nicety ; the difference which is found between its fresh weight and 
that which represented it before the operation, determines the stan- 
dard of the silver required to be assayed, by indicating the quantity 
of alloy it contained. This alloy, when it refers to works of silver 
of the first standard, ought to be a twentieth part of the whole mass ; 
and to ascertain this, the button is placed in one of the scales with 
a weight of 50 milligrammes or 5 centigrammes, which represents the 
portion of alloy contained in the work submitted to the assay; in 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 235 

the other scale is put the weight of a gramme, which represents the 
primitive weight of the metal ; and if the balance rests in equilibrio, 
or if there be a difference of 4 or 5 milli^mes at least, it is a 
proof that the work is within the remedy or tolerance^ and that it 
may be stamped as first standard. 

Although this method of assaying silver by cupellation is 
usually adopted, and has been from time immemorial, its imper- 
fections have been acknowledged, and by the assistance of a table 
of compensation to rectify the results, the public assayer is bound 
to admit as silver of the first standard those assays which reach 
by cupellation 943 thousandths, although it frequently happens that 
it is actually 2 thousandths worse, which is still within the limit 
of the remedy or tolerance allowed by law. 

M. Berthier, in the introduction to his valuable work,* tells us 
there are two methods of assaying metals — ist. The assay by the 
vote siche, or dry method; 2nd. The analysis by the voie humidey 
or wet method. An assay by the voie seche is so called when it is 
desired to ascertain the nature of a mineral substance, to discover 
its properties, and investigate the proportions of one or other of its 
elements, employing only the action of heat and fluxes. 

The ancient Docimasistes (as assayers of metals were styled) 
usually adopted the voie skche, and they deemed it advisable to 
have recourse as seldom as possible to the voie humide. 

At the epoch when the composition of the most simple com- 
binatons were not exactly known, the voie siche was indeed pre- 
ferable to the vote humide^ at least as regards the metallic 
substances, because this method has the advantage of producing the 
metal in its natural state, or an alloy of some of the metals con- 
tained in the substance to be assayed; but it became evident that 
the results of the voie siche had not, under all circumstances, the 
exactitude which was at first supposed, and that it was in many 
cases variable, and consequently only approximative, and chemistry 
having invented new methods, advantage was taken of the process 
by the voie humide; that is to say, in employing, as chemical agents, 
the liquids or solvents, on those occasions when the voie s^che 
appeared insufiicient. From that originates the mineral analysis — 
a science which has for its object the ascertainment of the nature 
and the proportion of all the elements of any mineral substance, to 
which chemistry in general and the arts owe so many important 
discoveries. 

At the present day, when the analysis of a mineral is made, 
it is submitted either to the voie slche or the operations of the 
voie humide^ whichever is considered to yield the best results, and 
more frequently the two methods are combined, each lending a 
mutual aid : this is termed the voie mixte. 

A Royal Ordinance of the 6th June 1830 mentions the assay 



• Berthier, P., Traits des Essais par le voie ShchCy Paris, 1834. In this 
treatise the branches of mineral analysis, extracting metals from their ores, 
and the incidental mechanical and chemical operations, such as furnaces, fuel, 
crucibles, fluxes, acids and all matters necessary for this purpose, are minutely 
described. 



236 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

by the voie humide, but it does not forbid assayers of the Govern- 
ment Offices and of commerce the employment of the ancient method 
of assay yet in use, considering they are responsible only for the 
standard as they find it. 

In case of dispute, the assay by the vote hutnide shall be 
adopted in Paris, unless the Commissioners of the Mint find neces- 
sary reasons for operating under the ancient mode by cupellation. 

The instruction of M. Gay-Lassac, Chief Assayer of the Assay 
Office of Paris, is as follows: — In applying the method of assay 
by the vote humide to alloys known by the name of dori, our aim 
has been rather to make known the possibility of this application 
than to substitute it for the process of cupellation and du dipart. 
We will, at the same time, add, that the assay by the voie humide 
only supposes that the alloy contains nothing but silver, copper, 
or gold, and that if it should contain a certain proportion of tin, 
which sometimes happens, cupellation becomes indispensable to 
separate this metal. This is the reason why assayers have not all 
adopted the assay by the voie humide; they fear probably they may 
find themselves compelled to operate by cupellation, for the metal 
taken from the melting of old silver plate frequently contains some 
small fraction of tin. 

Again, ingots coming from abroad have tin in so considerable 
a quantity, that it seems to have been mixed with the silver expressly 
to give it the appearance of being finer quality than it actually is. 

The voie humide process we are about to describe consists in 
determining the standard of silver works by the quantity of a 
solution of sea salt iitre^ necessary to precipitate exactly the silver 
contained in a given weight of alloy; it is based on the following 
principles: — The alloyed silver, previously dissolved in nitric acid, 
is mixed with a solution of sea salt, which precipitates the silver 
in a state of chloride {chlorure\ altogether insoluble in water, and 
even in acids. The quantity of chloride of silver precipitated is 
determined, not by its weight, which would not be sure, and, above 
all, much too tedious, but by the weight or the volume of the 
solution of sea salt necessary to precipitate exactly the silver dis- 
solved in the nitric acid. 

The period or term of the complete precipitation of the silver 
is easily ascertained by the cessation of all nebulosity or cloudiness 
when the solution of sea salt is gradually poured into that of the 
nitrate of silver. A thousandth part (milligramme) of metal is 
rendered very sensible in a weight of liquid of a hundred grammes; 
a half, and even a quarter of a milligramme can be distinguished, 
provided that before the addition of the sea salt the liquor is 
perfectly limpid. 

In agitating it briskly, during a minute or two at the most, 
the liquid, rendered milky by the precipitation of the chloride of 
silver, is sufficiently clarified to ascertain, after some instants of 
repose, the commotion which the addition of a half -milligramme of 
silver would produce. Supposing that a gramme of pure silver 
is acted upon, the solution of sea salt ought to be such that it 
requires lOO grammes measured by weight (or lOO centimetres cubes 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 237 

if measured by volume) to precipitate exactly the silver. This 
quantity of solution of sea salt is divided into a thousand parts, 
called milliemes. The standard of an alloy of silver is given by 
the number of milliemes of the solution of sea salt necessary to 
precipitate the silver contained in a gramme of this alloy. 

The assay of gold only differs from that of silver, because there 
is added a certain portion of silver which is determined by the 
standard of the bullion, usually three parts silver to one of gold, 
and that after the operation of the assay; the two metals thus 
melted together are submitted to that of the dSparty the parting or 
separation of them, which takes place in the following manner: — 
When the button is taken out of the cupel, it is flattened on the 
anvil and cinnealed; it is then reduced by means of a small 
laminoir, or a machine with two cylinders, into very thin strips, 
which are rolled up in form of a cornet. This roll or screw is placed 
in a small bottle or phial with a long neck, into which is poured 
some weak nitric acid (about 22 degrees) and heated : the liquid 
is left in ebullition during fifteen or twenty minutes; it is then 
poured off very gently and replaced by a stronger acid (about 32 
degrees); it is again heated, and left again to bubble or seethe 
for seven or eight minutes; the acid is then removed and replaced 
by distilled water. This operation, called the inquartation, com- 
pleted, and the silver dissolved, the cornet or roll of gold is drained 
and re-heated, and then weighed with great exactness ; the difference 
which is found between the weight before and after the operation 
determines the standard of the metal. The assayer must carefully 
watch this method of assay, lest a portion of platinum should be 
mixed with the gold ; which metal possesses some of the properties 
common both to gold and silver, such as resisting the action of 
lead in cupellation, and repelling that of aquafortis in the parting 
or separation. This the experienced assayer will easily detect, by 
the colour and other appearances on the surface of the metal. 

After gold and silver have been hcurdened by the mallet, the 
steel cylinders (laminoir), or by the drawing plate (there), it must 
be heated in a small crucible to a red heat to restore its malleability ; 
and to render it still more so, it should, when at a red heat, be 
plunged into cold water instead of letting it cool gradually in the 
air. 

In assaying gold and silver the metric weights are now adopted 
in France, viz., the gramme, and its subdivisions of decigrammes, 
centigrammes, and milligrammes. 

Formerly the poids de semelle were used, which represented the 
24 karats of pure gold. The semelle represented generally the 
weight of 12 grains; that is to say, the 384th part of the marc, the 
real and effective weight. Each grain oi the poids de semelle 
represented 2 karats: each half -grain, i karat; each quarter-grain, 
a half-karat or ^8 ; each eighth of a grain, one quarter of a karat or 
^ ; each sixteenth of a grain, ^ ; each thirty-second of a grain, ^ 
each sixty-fourth of a grain, J>jjof a karat. 

The semelle represented also the 12 deniers of pure silver; it 
represents then the weight of 36 grains; that is to say, the 128th 



238 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

part of the marc, the real and effective weight. Each grain of the 
poids de semelle represented 8 grains pure silver; each half-grain, 
4 grains; each quarter of a grain, 2 grains; each eighth, I grain; 
and each sixteenth, half a grain of pure silver. 

An edict of the 5th December 1763 prescribes to all assayers 
of the Mint a uniform method of making the assays of gold and 
silver, to remedy the uncertainty so frequently found in the assays 
of gold and silver taken to the Mint. 

The cupels are to be made of certain materials therein des- 
cribed, formed in a press of the shape required at the Mint, and 
furnished to the assayer ; the relative thicknesses of the parts of the 
cupels being made according to rule. 

" There shall be employed in all future assays, new lead of 
poor quality, which shall be furnished by the Clerk of the Gold- 
smiths' Company, to establish uniformity." The poorest lead is 
best for the purposes of assay, as lead frequently contains a very 
small portion of silver, which would interfere with the correctness 
of the assay. 

The proportions of the said lead which shall be used in the 
different assays shall remain fixed, as follows : For refined silver 
there shall be employed 2 parts of the said poor lead, or double 
the weight destined for the assay; for silver of 11 deniers 12 grains, 
or standard, 4 parts of lead ; for silver of 1 1 deniers and under, 6 
parts of lead; for silver of 10 deniers, 8 parts; for silver of 9 
deniers, 10 parts; for silver of 8 deniers, 12 parts; for silver of 
7 deniers, 14 parts; and for silver of 6 deniers and under, 16 parts 
of lead. 

The standards of the semelle weight for silver of 36 grains 
(marc weight), inscribed 12 deniers^ with its diminutions; and the 
semelle weight for gold of 12 grains (marc weight), inscribed 24 
K (karats), and its diminutions shall be kept by the Ushers of the 
various Mints, to regulate all other assay weights. 



PUBLIC SALES 

AT THE MONT PIETE AND OTHER ESTABLISHMENTS APPOINTED 

TO HAVE SALES BY AUCTION. 

The Monts de Piete. — These establishments were created in 
France by an edict of February 1626. 

The ancient regulations subjected all works of gold and silver 
deposited at the Mont de Pi6te of Paris to the dues and to the 
stamp, like all other objects of gold and silver which entered into 
commerce. There was a special punch to mark all works sold 
at this establishment, which represented a cap of Mercury, and it was 
applied by one of the employes of the Fermier at the time of sale. 
(Arr^t du Conseil du 18 Mars 1779.) 

The law of the 19th Brumaire, An VL (1797), decrees, that 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 239 

the works of gold and silver deposited at the Mont de Pi6t6, and 
in the other establishments where sales take place, or depots of sale, 
shall be subject to pay the droit de garaniie or assay dues, when 
they have not been acquitted or paid before they were deposited. 
The employes are bound to inspect this establishment, but the 
goldsmiths' works which are there exposed for sale are not subject 
to the payment of the dues until the moment of the sale, because 
then only they enter into commerce, and cease to be the property 
of private individuals. This rule has become law, by the regulations 
relative to the Mont de Piete of Paris. 

The Comptroller of the Guarantee consequently arranges with 
the Director of the Mont de Piet6 the days of sale of works of 
gold and silver, that he may send an employ^ to assist in verifying 
them, and separate those which have not the legal marks, or break 
up those which shall not be sold for more than old metal, and 
finally to take an exact account of the works, which must be carried 
to the Assay Office, to be there marked, after the assay and quittance 
of the dues. 

A decision of the Minister of Finance, of the 15th November 
1822, Art. 2, establishes as a general rule, that all the works of gold 
and silver sold at the Mont de Pi6t6 of Paris shall be assayed by 
the touch; that all the works found to be of the legal standard shall 
be marked with the ordinary punch of assay, and that the pieces 
which are of inferior quality shall be marked only with the punch 
used for foreign work. This decision applies to all the other Monts 
de Pi6t6 in France. 

The works sold at these establishments, being assayed only by 
the touch, need not be marked when they are of the standard, except 
with the small punches of assay, like the small works, which only 
approximately indicate the last of the standards of gold and silver, 
or the small punches for foreign works, which are not of the legal 
standard. (Circ. de TAdm. des Monn. du 26 Dec. 1822.) 

It has been decided by the Minister of Finance, that it suffices 
to require the Commissaires-priseurs to declare the effects in gold 
and silver which they intend selling, and it is only after the adjudi- 
cation or actual sale that they must be assayed, stamped, and be 
subject to the usual dues, unless to dispense with these obligations 
the auctioneer declares that it is not necessary to preserve the form 
of the works, in which case they must be broken up by the employ^ 
who has been specially charged to assist at the sale. (Circ. de la 
Regie 28 June 1823.') 

Old plate is suoject to duty every time it is sold or resold. 
(Feb. 3, 1685.) 



OBLIGATIONS OF GOLDSMITHS. 

Goldsmiths are prohibited from exposing for sale any work of 
gold or silver which is not marked with the punches of the makety 
of the Maison Commune, and of the Fermier of the duties, not only 
on the principal piece, but on the applied parts; and if the sub- 



240 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

mission has not been discharged, and the duty paid, on pain of 
confiscation of the value and lOO livres penalty for every piece. 
(July 1 68 1, June 1697, Jan. 1749.) 

Commerce in works of gold and silver, bearing the French 
Hall-marks (poin^ons de Paris) permitted only to goldsmiths, under 
a penalty of 1000 livres and confiscation. (Dec. 1679, June 1686.) 

Goldsmiths are compelled to sell the gold or silver of manu- 
factured articles separately from the fashion, and to give invoices 
written and signed with their hands to all purchasers, in which shall 
be set forth the same as on their registers, the price of the gold or 
silver, the price charged for the fashion, and the duty, in separate 
items, under a penalty of 500 livres for the first offence, and for a 
repetition, to be deprived of rights of freedom. They are also 
bound to have in their shops a table containing the price of the 
marc, with its diminutions, and not to buy or sell at a higher price 
than the tariff of the Mint under a penalty of 1000 livres; and to 
keep a register of the names and places of abode of all persons 
from whom they purchase works of gold or silver. (March 1700, 
April 1726.) 

An Edict of Henry II., March 1554, clause 8, enacted that 
goldsmiths, under a penalty of 1000 livres turnoisy and corporal 
punishment, should inscribe with their own hands, on good, complete, 
and legal registers, all the matters of gold and silver, made or 
unmade, they bought or sold, and the name of the buyers and 
sellers. This Act was repealed and modified in March 1555. 

The law of the 19th Brumaire, An VI. (Nov. 1797), is still 
more explicit : Goldsmiths and jewellers shall deliver to purchasers 
a bordereau or invoice, setting forth the description of the pieces, 
the standard and the weight of the works they shall have sold, also 
designating whether they were new or old. These bordereaux, pre- 
pared beforehand, and which shall be furnished to the maker or 
dealer by the Administration, shall have in all the Republic the 
same formulary, which shall be printed. The vendor shall write 
thereon with his own hand the designation of the work sold, whether 
of gold or silver, its weight and standard, distinguished by these 
words, premier y second, or troisiime, according to the quality; he 
shall also place the name of the district where the sale was made, 
with the date thereof, and with his signature. 

Transgressors for the first offence were liable to a penalty of 
200 francs; for the second, 500 francs and expenses; for the third, 
1000 francs, and their trade of goldsmith interdicted, under pain 
of confiscation of all their stock-in-trade. 

Goldsmiths are bound under heavy penalties, and confiscation 
of the articles or the value thereof, to fill in their printed registers, 
which are supplied by the Administration, day by day, with the 
weight and standard of vessels and other works, old or so reputed, 
that they shall buy or sell, as well as those which are brought to 
be repaired, or lodged as security, or as models, or deposits, or any 
other pretext, and this at the time the said works are brought to 
them, or have been purchased. They are also to mention in the 
register the nature and quality of the works, the arms which are 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 241 

engraved upon them, and the names and addresses of the persons to 
whom they belong, before they begin repairing or altering them. 
(Feb. 1694, March 1704, Jan. 1749, Jan. 1791, Nov. 1796, and sub- 
sequent Acts). See models, page 242. 

The clauses 14, 16, and 17, referring to this subject in the Act 
of Jan. 1749, are reprinted and enforced by the decree of Sept. 
1821. 

Note. — The Rouge which is used by all goldsmiths to polish plate and 
jewellery is called in France Rnuf^e d'A ngleterre. It is composed of sulphate of 
iron or green copperas, placed in a crucible and subjected to a degree of heat 
in the furnace, which is nearly sufficient to melt gold or silver ; the crucible is 
taken from the fire and left to cool ; the copperas when removed has become 
changed in colour from green to dark red. 

The rouge is carefully washed and levigated in a glazed earthen pan with 
clear water sufficient to allow the grosser particles to sink to the bottom ; it is 
then poured off into another pan and the washing repeated, the deposit being 
thrown away, lest it should contain any sharp particles, which might scratch the 
articles in polishing them, taking care that the fine part of the rouge is entirely 
mixed with the water ; this liquid mixture is then covered over with a cloth and 
left to stand for twenty-four hours to allow the water to deposit all the rouge it 
contains ; the water is poured off and filtered and the rouge dried in the air, but 
to render it still more perfect it is again baked and washed and when perfectly 
dry, diluted with spirits of wine, placed on the fire and allowed to burn. This 
last operation removes any grease which may have been present. 

Patte de LifcvRE. — This article, a hare*s foot or paw, is of great utility to 
goldsmiths in collecting together the filings of gold and silver, and may be called 
an emblem of their trade. Formerly the Assistant Goldsmiths (Compagnons) 
suspended one from the button-holes of their coats, at the ffite of their patron, 
St. Eloi ; and even in Paris it is seen attached to the bell-pull in the workshops 
of jewellers. When a goldsmith has distinguished himself by his talents, his 
virtue, or any meritorious action, he is said to have done honour to the Puite 
de Liivre, 



242 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



MODEL for the Keeping of the Register, ruled and headed for the 
use of Makers and Dealers in Gold and Silver^, worked or not 
worked, — Law of the i6th June 1824. 




Designation des objets achet^s, 

vendus, on donnis k raccom- 

moder, en nantissement poar 

module on depdt. 



f» 



»» 



Achet6 une tabatiere 
Vendu deux couverts unis 
A raccommoder une sou- 

pi^re , . . 

Achet6 six couverts k filets 

et un plat forme ovale . 



Nature 
des objets. 



Or 

Arg. 

Arg. 
Arg, 





• 


Poids. 




Grammes. 




60 


3* 


280 


ler 


1350 


n 


2000 


jer 



Noms et Demeures des 
Particullers. 



M rue...No...i... 

M rue. ..No. ..&... 

M rue...No...d.... 

Mad...rue...No...d.... 



"Sote. — The watchmakers have an ordinal number which is copied from the 
register to be placed upon the watch, in order to identify its registration 
when the watcn is sent to be mended or cleaned. 



TARIFF of Works of Gold and Silver of France of the Old and 
New Fabrications. — Law of the i6th June 1824. 



Designation des Ouvrages d'Or. 


Titrcs 
d'apris i'Essai. 


Valeurs. 

1 


Nouv. 


Anciens. 


Le Gros. 


Les 5 grams- 


Ancienne vaisselle marqu6e de 3 poin- 
90ns de Paris 

Anciens bijonx marqufes des mfimes 
poincons 

Nouvelle Vaisselle tit. i* . 

Celle du deuxidrae titre 

Nouveaux bijoux, au troisiime titre . 


Miiliemes. 

906 

750 
920 
840 
750 


Kar. 396. 

21 24 

18 

22 2^ 
20 5 
18 


Frs. Cents. 
TI 90 

9 85 
12 08 
II 03 

9 85 


Frs. Cents. 

15 56 

12 88 
15 80 
14 42 
12 88 


DdslKnation des Oavrages d'Argent. 


T 
d'apre 


itres 
s i'Essai. 


Valeurs. 


Nouv. 


Anciens. 


L'once. 


Les 50 grams. 


Vaisselle k I'ancien poin9on de Paris, 

tant plate que soud6e et non soudee 
Vaisselle mont6e, au mfime poin9on . 
Vaisselle plate des d6partemens i 

Tancien poin^on .... 
Vaisselle soud6e et montfee des de- 

partemens k rancien poiD9on . 
Argenterie de Lorraine marquee d'une 

aigle, et celle marquee de la lettre 

A surinont^e d'une croix 
Nouveaux ouvrages du Royaume, au 

premiere titre 

Ceux au titre deuxi^me 


Milliimes. 

948 
938 

934 
927 

785 

950 
800 


Den. Grains. 

II 9 
II 6 

" 5 
II 3 

9 10 

II 9J 
9 I4i 


Frs. Cents. 

6 35 
6 28 

6 25 

6 21 

5 26 

6 36 
5 36 


Frs. Cents. 

10 37 
10 26 

10 22 

10 19 

8 59 

10 39 
8 75 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 243 



COUNTERFEIT STAMPS AND PENALTIES. 

A decree of 168 1 subjects the forger of Hall-marks to a fine of 
3000 livres; the amende honorable^ which was an ignominious 
punishment, consisting in the culprit publicly confessing his crime 
at the church door, and asking pardon for the same, having a torch 
in his hand and a rope round his neck ; and a sentence of five years 
at the galleys for the first offence, and in cases of repetition, con- 
demnation to the galleys for life. This was not, however, considered 
sufficiently severe, and the sentence of death, cTitre pendus et 
itrangUs, was pronounced against those who made, copied, or 
otherwise counterfeited the mark or marks of the Fermier, of the 
Common Hall, or of the Wardens of the Goldsmiths' Company 
(Jan. 4, 1724). The same punishment was accorded those who 
abused the stamps of the countermark of Paris and of those towns 
where standard plate was stamped, also those who engrafted or 
inserted the stamps, soldered, added, or applied them to other 
pieces of plate which had not been assayed and marked in the 
Assay Offices (April 19, 1739). The extreme punishment was 
only carried into effect in those cases where persons were arrested 
with false punches in their possession. 

Louis Legros, Boirot, and others were tried and convicted in 
1733 for making fourteen spoons and forks of silver and marking 
them with false punches, imitating and counterfeiting the mark of 
discharge, representing a horse rearing on his hind-legs. Another 
person was tried and convicted for making a false punch of the year 
1733, imitating that of the Assay Office of the letter T. 

The capital portion of the sentence against Legros and Boirot 
was not carried out in consequence of a pardon granted on the 
occasion of the public entry of the Bishop of Orleans into the town 
and church of that city; but they were condemned to make the 
amende honorable before the principal doors of Notre Dame, their 
heads and feet bare, in their shirts only, a cord about their necks, 
holding burning torches of yellow wax, and a placard before and 
behind them bearing these words, " Orf ^vre ouvrier se servant de 
faux poinqons," and to declare with a loud and intelligible voice 
that wickedly, defiantly, and badly disposed they had used false 
punches, of which they repent, and ask pardon of God, of all, and 
of justice. This done, they were to be conducted to the Place de 
Greve, to be there hung, which was executed by effigy in a painting 
attached to a gibbet, there set up. They were also each condemned 
in 3000 livres penalty. 

Antoine Chateau in 1783 was convicted of having bought 
several crucifixes and keys of silver at different goldsmiths of Metz, 
gilding them and selling them for gold. As reparation he was 
condemned to the galleys for six years, and previously to be placed 
in the stocks near the Town Hall on three consecutive market days 
from nine till ten o'clock, with a placard before and behind with 
these words, " Escroc, et vendeur dans les champagnes des christs 
et claviers d'argent dor6 pour des ouvrages d'or," branded on the 



244 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

right shoulder by a hot iron with the letters G A L., and fined 200 
francs. 

The law of the 19th Brumaire, An VL, Titre vii. Art. 108 
(Nov-. 1797), decrees that all works of gold and silver on which the 
marks of punches shall be found inserted (ent6es), soldered or 
copied in any way whatever, shall be seized and confiscated, and 
the possessor having a guilty knowledge of the fact shall be con- 
demned to six years at the galleys. 

Art. 109. Works marked with false punches shall be con- 
fiscated in every case, and those persons in whose possession they 
are found, or who shall knowingly expose them for sale, shall be 
condemned for the first offence to a penalty of 200 francs; for the 
second, a penalty of 400 francs, with a publication of his conviction 
throughout the department at his expense; for the third time, a 
fine of 1000 francs, with interdiction in future of all commerce 
in gold and silver. 

The confiscation of plate with false marks eventually falls upon 
the forger himself, for the merchant who has purchased it supposing 
it to bear a genuine mark or marks has his remedy against the party 
who sold it to him, and thus recovers the value of the seizure : 
he is bound in his own interest as well as by law to ensure this redress 
by properly filling in the register or form supplied by the Mint with 
the correct name and address of the person from whom he purchased 
it. (Ibid., Art. 9 and Art. 74.) If he neglects these precautions 
it is his own fault, and if he purchase articles of gold or silver from 
persons unknown, against whom he has no indemnity to recover, 
the blame rests with himself; and if in contravention of Articles 
75 and 76 of the same law and of the police regulations, as well 
as of the law of the 26th Jan. 1726, by which it is decreed that if a 
silversmith purchase plate of a person unknown, he can be proceeded 
against as a receiver of stolen goods and an accomplice, and is 
compelled to restore it to its owner, or the value thereof, and other 
damages. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 245 

Decree of 31st August 1782* regulating the marks on gold 
and silver, and ordering new punches to be made, to serve the 
administration of duties in the city of Paris, to the number of 
eight, viz. : — 

1. A punch of the charge for large works of silver, representing a 

great A crowned, 

2. A punch of the charge for large works of gold and medium- 

sized works of silver, representing a cipher of two L*s interlaced. 

3. A punch of the discharge for large works of silver, representing 

the head of a dog, 

4. A punch of the discharge for works of gold and medium-sized 

works of gold and silver, representing the head of a peasant 
girl. 

5. A punch of the discharge for small works of gold and silver, 

representing the head of a lapwing. 

6. A punch of the discharge for very small works of gold and 

silver, representing the flower of a pink. 

7. A punch used for marking the body of other punches, represent- 

ing an arrow-head. 

8. And lastly, a punch of the countermark^ representing the head of 

a dolphin. 



Also retaining the following punches: — 

1. The punch of gratis ^ representing a royal crown^ which was in- 
sculped on the copperplate in possession of the Registrar, by 
a decree of the ist October 1768. 

2. The punch serving to mark works going abroad^ representing 
an ewer. 

3. The punch used for marking works coming from abroad, re- 
presenting the head of a griffin. 

4. The punch used for marking ancient works, representing a lyre. 

5. The punch used at the office of the Argue, for the charge of 
ingots of gold, representing the marc weight. 

6. The punch for marking the discharge of the same ingots, re- 
presenting an open right hand. 

y The punch used for recognition, representing an antique vase in 

form of a cassolette. 
8. The punch for the provinces only, used for marking the very 

small works of gold and silver in the same manner as the 

two punches of different sizes destined to mark the body of the 

punches representing a fleur de lys. 

In 1783 Louis XVI. caused a Declaration to be issued, of which 
I the following extracts are here given: — 

" The number of communities having increased so much of late 
years, and the punches of countermark of the Maisons Communes 
having multiplied to such an extent, that it frequently happens, as 

* This decree only relates to the stamps of the charge and discharge of the 
duties. The stamps of the standard and of the assay were not altered. 



246 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

they employ mostly one of the letters of the alphabet for a dis- 
tinctive mark, many of them have at the same time and in the same 
year the same letter for a countermark. The confusion caused by 
this state of things seems to us absolutely contrary to the intent of 
the ordinances and regulations of the establishment of the counter- 
mark, not only because it favours the abuse which can be made of 
this punch on works which are not of the legal standard, but because 
it deprives our subjects of a resource which the law has provided 
to ascertain the authors of it. We have thought that the surest 
way of re-establishing order in this respect will be to ordain that 
in future the punch of the countermark of each community shall 
bear a particular and invariable mark, which shall serve to dis- 
tinguish it from other punches of the same nature, and to whick 
shall be added the year in which the wardens of the community in 
charge had caused it to be stamped, A ces causes nous ordonnonSy' 
&c. It was further ordered that each community should send to 
the Mint the impress of the particular punch they had chosen, and 
that all the designs should vary from each other, together with the 
names of the communities and the wardens in the margin to be 
deposited with the Registrar, &c. " Donn6 a Versailles the 15th 
day of December 1783, and the tenth year of our reign." 

This declaration was registered at the Mint on the 26th May 
1784, with the following alteration: ''Instead of the year, there 
shall be added to the distinctive and invariable mark or punch of 
each community of goldsmiths a number or secret character, which 
shall vary every year with the election of wardens." 



Plate 1. 



In use from May 1784 to 1789. 

AN ALPHABETICAL TABLE 



OF 



COMMUNITIES OF GOLDSMITHS IN THE SEVERAL TOWNS IN FRANCE, 

With the Emblems adopted by them for stamping Plate, as decreed by Louis XVL 
in Dec. 1783 (registered May 1784), and used until 1879, with the dates of 
foundation (after the plates published in 1786 by Bernier, engraver to the Mint.) 



# 




Abbeville, 
1508. 



Agen, 1775. 



Aix, 1775. 



-*$ 



Bar le Due. 



^■^ Alais, 1775. 

a|^ AlengoD, 1718. 
^^* Amiena, 1727. 
W Angers. 



J 



Angoiilbme, 
1749. 



Annonay. 




/R^ Bar Biir Anbe, 
0}J 1763. 



Bay onne, 1512. 



Beancaire, 
1776. 



Beaune, 1742. 



Beauvais, 
1609. 



tBergues St. 
Vinox,1759. 



I 



T 



Besangon, 
1688. 



Apt. 



Aries. 







Arras, 15... 



Aurillac. 



Autun, 1781. 



Auxerre, 1731. 



Avalon, 1743. 







B^ziers, 1598. 



Blois, 1567. 



Avesnes, 1773. 



jKyBailleul, 1731. 



1 



Bordeaux, 
12... 

Boulogne and 
Montreuil, 
1744. 

Bourg en 
Bresse, 1747. 



Bourges, 1557. 

Brest, Lesne- 
-ven,Lander- 
neau, 1695. 

Gaen, 1591 



i 

A. 
I 

i 



Gambrais, 
1315. 




Carcassonne, 
1676. 



Castres, 1749. 



Gaudebec. 



Chalons sur 
Marne,1749. 

Chalons sur 
Saone, 1682. 



Chartre8,15... 



Chateau Gon- 
thier, 1757. 

Chateau 
Thierry. 



Chatellereault 
1758. 

Chatillon sur 
Seine, 15... 

Ghaumont en 
Assigny, 
1744. 

Clermont Fer- 
nind, 15... 



f 

T 









r 



,,^ Gahors, 1777. /^ Goutan 

6^ ^ 1751. 



Cognac, 1762. 



Golmar. 



Gompibgne, 
1667. 



Goutances, 



.*• 



Calais, 1748. 



Dallgre, 1758. 



A 
f 

I 



I 




f^ 



Dieppe, 1599. 



Dijon, 15... 



Dloan, 1746. 



Dole. 



Douai. 



Draguignan, 
1751. 



Dunkerque, 
1753. 

Etampes. 
Falaise, 1750. 

Fecamp, 1745. 



Fontenay le 
Comte,1571. 



Gien, 1757. 
Gisors, 1754. 
Grasse. 

Grenoble. 

Guise and Ver 
Vina, 1743. 

Havre, 15... 



Joinville, 
1757. 



248 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Platr 2. 



9 Issodoim, 1757. 
V^ Issoire, 1766. 



^ 




La Charity, 
1757. 



Lafbre. 



Landrecy, 
1759. 



LaDgheac, 
1781. 



LaDgTOA, 1566. 



Laon. 



La Bochelle, 
1698. 



Laval. 



LeVigaii,1775. 



N.D. de Liesse, 
1749. 



Lille. 

Limoges, 1719. 
Lisieux, 1750. 

Longwy. 



^ jA Lons le Saul- 
^r nier, 1780. 



L'orient, 1745. 



Loudon, 1646. 



LuQon, 1758. 








I 



^^ Lyo: 

If 



Lunel, 1775. 



Macon, 1600. 



Manosqne. 




Mans, 1757. 



Mantes. 



Marennes, 
1777. 



AA Marseille, 12... 



9 



Maubeuge. 



Mdanx; 



f 



Melle. 



Melun, 1727. 



Mende, 1757. 



Metz, 1635. 



^S^ M^zibres, 1746. 



f 



Milhan, 1770. 



Montargis, 
1737. 



tH ^\ 



Montauban, 
705. 



Sv Montpellier. 
Morlaix, 1607. 



I 






Moulins, 1736. 



Nantes, 1579. 



Narbonne, 
1669. 



Neven, 1757. 



I 

■^tt^ Nimes, 1586. 
13P Niort, 15... 



Noyon, 1748. 
^^ Orleans, 1611. 




Paris, 1260. 



Partbenav, 
1745. ' 



Fan. 

Payrat, St. Co- 

lombe, Chi 

labre, 1753. 



^^. lombe, Cha- 

'^^d|^ Perigiieux. 
^j^j^k Perpignan. 

^ P^z^nas, 1586. 

M^ Poitiers. 

ft 




Pontoise, 1752. 



Provins, 1759. 



Puy en Velay, 
1367. 



Quimper, 1780. 









Reims, 1560. 
Rennea, 1579. 

R^thel, 1660. 

Riez. 
Riom. 



Rochefort, 
1743. 



Rodez, 1777. 
Rouen, 13... 

Sables, 168... 
Saintes, 1758. 



V 



4 



St. Esprit, 
1777. 



St Flour, 1785. 



St. Germain en 
Laye. 

St. Jean de*An- 
gely, 1779. 



St. Ld. 



St. Maixent. 



^sfi5» St. Malo, 168... 



•H 



St. Martin, 
1785. 



St. Menehonld, 
1742. 



St. Omer. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



249 



Plate 3. 



4> 
If 



St. Quentin, 
Peronne, 
1743. 

Salins, 1640. 



T 



Saumur, 1749. 



^ Sedan, 1575. 



Semur en 
Auxois, 1701. 



Senlia. 



M^ Sena, 1745. 



X 

V 

f 



Soisaons, 1734. 



Straabourg. 



Taraacon. 



Thouara, 1714. 



Toul, 1643. 



«i- 




Tf^ 




I 



Toulon, 1712. 
Toulonae, 1500. 
Tours, 1529. 

Trrfvoux, 1783. 

Troyea, 1369. 



Valenciennea, 
1625. 



a 



Valogne8,1750. 



g^ Vannea, 1745. 
Verdun, 1630. 



1 



Versaillea, 
1768. 



Veaoul, 1775. 



Vitry le Pran- 
Vais, 1614. 



Independently of the stamp of the Maison Commune, where the 
works were assayed, and the mark of the goldsmith or manufacturer, 
there were placed on every piece capable of receiving them the 
stamps of the CHARGE and DISCHARGE of the Registrar, which 
varied in each department of the administration. It suffices to give 
here the types of the Punches of the principal towns where the 
collection of the duties of control and of the mark took place. 

The following Plates are engraved from the " Trait6 de la 
Garantie," &c., par B. L. Raibaud, published in 1825. The originals 
were authorised and the expense partly defrayed by the Minister of 
Finance, who took a considerable number of copies of the book. 

Plate 4. 



PUNCHES IN USE PREVIOUS TO THE ABOLITION 

OF ALL TAXES, 

WHICH TOOK PLACE IN I79I. 



Charge. 



Mint Towns 



Paris 



Lyon 



Bordeaux . 



Large works, 
Silver. 

1 


Gold ft small 
Silver. 

1 



Discharge. 



General Punches 



-IXo Gold 4 small 



Distinotion. 



Rouen 




^ 



V 



« 



t 



« 



Ingots for 
drawing. 



^Jf I Foreign Plate. 



Types. 



ft 



^ 



W 



Ancient works. 




^ Ver>' 



small works. 



* 



250 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



These towns were also appointed for coining money, and the 
Mint marks adopted by them were particular letters of the alphabet; 
but we do not know when they were first employed for that purpose. 
Under the earliest kings of France there were Mints in the prin- 
cipal towns, under the authority of Dukes and Earls of the locality, 
but submitted to the inspection of an Intendant, or General Master 
of Mints; but their surveillance could not prevent deception, for 
Charlemagne suppressed all the provincial Mints, and decreed that 
money should be coined only in his own palace. This restriction, 
however, did not last beyond his reign; the provincial Mints were 
re-established, and there were subsequently many changes. Francois 
L increased the number to twenty-five, but an edict of February 
1772 reduced them to seventeen. During the Revolution of 1789 
they were all again suppressed, except that of Paris; being, in fact, 
useless, because the currency of actual cash was replaced by paper 
assignats. Another law of 1795 re-established eight, especially for 
copper money, and at length in 1803 there were sixteen. The 
number of the Mints was three years after fixed at thirteen. The 
Mint letters were probably the same as were used in the sixteenth 
century. 



Towns. 



Paris . . . 

Rouen . . 

Lyon . . . 
La Rochelle 

Limoges . . 

Bordeaux . 

Bayonne . . 

Toulouse . 

Perpignan . 

Nantes . . 
Strasbourg 

Marseille . 

Lille . . 



Letters 

A 


Mint Marks. 


An anchor and C interlaced. 


B 


Lcuiib and flag. 


D 


An arch. 


H 


A trident. 


, J 


Two hands joined. 


K 


A vine-leaf. 


L 


A tulip. 


M 


F and C interlaced. 


Q 


A bunch of grapes. 


T 


A key. 


BB 


A wheatsheaf. 


M 


A palm-tree. 


W 


A caduceus. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 251 



EXTRACTS FROM THE ACT OF THE 19TH BRUMAIRE, 

An VL 

(19th nov. 1797) indicating the stamps used on gold and 
Silver Plate in France from that Period. 

The law of the loth Brumaire, An VL, forms the groundwork 
of subsequent legislation on the standard and assay works of gold 
and silver, and all other matters relating thereto, and we have 
therefore quoted largely from this important Act. 

Preamble. — The Council of Five Hundred, after having heard 
the Report of the Commission of Finance, considering that the 
re-establishment of the supervision of the guarantee of standard 
of works in gold and silver is necessary to the prosperity of this 
branch of national commerce as well for the interior as abroad; 
at the same time that the dues to be collected on these objects are 
indispensable to the Public Treasury, to contribute, with the other 
revenues of the Republic, for the maintenance of various parts of 
the service, declare the urgency and take the following resolution : — 



TITRE I. 
SECTION I.— Of the Standards of Gold and Silver Works. 

Art. I. — All works of gold and silver made in France must 
be conformable to the standards prescribed by the law, respectively 
according to their nature. 

Art. 2. — These standards, or the quantity of pure gold or silver 
contained in each piece, are expressed in thousandths (milliemes), 
the old denominations of karats and of deniers to express the 
degree of purity of the precious metals being discontinued. 

Art. 3. — It is, however, permitted during one year from this 
date to employ in the acts or writings which come under the 
observation of any public officer the ancient terms of karats and 
deniers or their subdivisions, but only immediately following the 
number of millthmes which express the true quality of precious 
metal. 

Art. 4. — There are three legal standards for works in gold and 
two for silver, that is to say : 

For gold 1st of .920 millifemes or 22 |i karats. 
2nd of .840 „ or 20 ^ karats. 

3rd of .750 „ or 18 karats. 

For silver ist of .950 „ or 11 deniers 9 V^q grains. 

2nd of .800 „ or 9 deniers 14J grains. 

Art. 5. — The remedy (tolerance) for gold is 3 milliemes, and 
for silver 5 millifemes. 



252 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Art. 6. — The makers may employ at their option any one of 
the standards mentioned in Art. 4 for works in gold or silver, 
whatever the size or description of pieces fabricated. 



SECTION II.— Of Punches. 

Art. 7. — The guarantee of the standard of works of gold and 
silver is assured by punches; they are applied on every piece, after 
the assay, conformably to the following rules. 

Art. 8. — There are three principal punches to mark gold and 
silver works — ist. That of the maker; 2nd. That of the standard; 
and 3rd. That of the Assay Office (Bureau de garantie). 

There are also two little punches, one for small works of gold, 
the other for small works of silver, too small to receive the impress 
of the three preceding marks. 

There is also a particular punch for old pieces of plate, called 
de hasard, 

A second for works coming from abroad. 

A third for works plated with gold and silver (doubl6 ou 
plaqu6). 

A fourth called the stamp of verification (recense), which is 
applied by public authority, when any doubt arises as to the genuine- 
ness of the standard or of the stamps. 

Lastly, a particular punch to stamp ingots of refined gold or 
silver. 

Art. 9. — The punch of the maker bears the initial letter of his 
name with some symbol, which he can select and have made for 
himself, observing the correct forms and proportions, as established 
by the Administration of the Mint. 

Art. 10. — The standard punches have a stamp of a cock, 
accompanied by one of the Arabic numerals i, 2, 3, indicating the 
1st, 2nd, or 3rd stanaard fixed in the preceding section. These 
punches are uniform throughout the Republic, but each punch has a 
particular form, easily distinguished by the eye. 

Art. II. — The punch of every Assay Office has the characteristic 
sign which is determined by the Administration of the Mint. This 
sign is changed as often as may be considered necessary to prevent 
the effect of a theft or unfaithfulness.* 

Art. 12. — The little punch destined for the small works in 
gold has the stamp of a cock's head. That for small pieces of 
silver a fasces or bundle of rods. 

Art. 13. — The punch for old work (poingon de vieux), destined 
solely to mark works styled de hasard, represents an axe. 

That to mark works coniing from abroad contains the letters 
ET. 

* The assay mark was a full-faced classical head for both gold and silver, 
accompanied by the number of the department. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 253 

Art. 14. — The punch of each maker de doubli ou de plaque 
has a particular form determined by the Administration of the 
Mint. The maker also indicates on his works the numerals denoting 
the quantity of gold and silver which they contain. 

Art. 1 5. — The punch of verification (recense) is also determined 
by the Administration of the Mint, which alters it according to 
circumstances.* 

Art. 16. — The punch to stamp refined gold and silver ingots 
is also determined by the Administration of the Mint, and is 
uniform throughout France, t 

Art. 17. — All the punches designated in the articles 10, 11, 12, 
13, 15, and 16 are made by the engraver to the Mint, who distributes 
them in the various Assay Offices and retains the matrices. 

The punch destined for refined ingots is only deposited in 
the Assay Office of the district where a refiner of the Chambrc du 
delivrance of the Mint of Paris resides, who verifies the stamp 
and gives a discharge. 

Art. 18. — When the punches are not required for use, they are 
enclosed in a casket with three locks, and left in charge of the 
employes of the Assay Office, as afterwards recited. 

Art. 19. — The fabricators of false punches, and those persons 
who make use of them, shall be condemned to ten years at the 
galleys, and their works confiscated. 

Art. 20. — The punches serving at present to verify the standards 
and the acquittance of the duties shall be defaced immediately after 
the punches directed by the present law are in a state to be employed. 



TITRE IL— Of the Duties on Works of Gold and Silver, 

Art. 21. — There shall be collected an assay duty on the works 
of gold and silver of every description, of new fabrication. 

This duty shall be of 20 francs per hectogramme (3 ounces, 
2 gros, 12 grains) on gold, and of i franc per hectogramme on 
silver, not including the expense of assay, or of the touch. 

Art 22. — There shall be nothing collected on works of gold 
and silver termed de hasard put again in commerce; they are only 
subject to be marked once with the punch de vieuXy as ordained by 
Art. 8 of this law. 

Art. 23. — ^Works of gold and silver coming from abroad must be 
presented at the Custom House on the frontier, to be there declared, 
weighed, sealed, and sent to the nearest Assay Office, where they 
shall be marked with the punch ET., and shall pay the same duties 
as those collected for works of gold and silver made in France, 
excepting — ist. Objects of gold and silver belonging to ambassadors 
and envoys of foreign powers; 2nd. Personal jewels of travellers 

* This mark was a head wearing a Phrygian cap (the cap of Liberty.) 
t The mark adopted was, for gold, the head of Apollo ; for silver, the 
moon and stars; both surrounded by the words '^ Garantie National." 



254 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

and silver in use by them, if the weight altogether does not exceed 
5 hectogrammes (i6 ounces, 2 gros, 6o| grains). 

Art. 24. — When works of gold and silver coming from abroad, 
and introduced in France by virtue of the preceding exceptions, 
are placed in commerce, they must be taken to the Assay Office to 
be marked with the punch destined for that purpose, and the same 
duty shall be levied as for those made in France. 

Art. 25. — ^When new works of gold and silver, made in France, 
and having paid the duties, are sent out of the Republic, as sold, or 
to be sold abroad, the assay duty shall be returned to the maker, 
except the retention of one-third. 

Art. 26. — This restitution shall be made by the Assay Office 
which received the duties of the said works, or in default of funds, 
by an order on the Paris Assay Office. This restitution, however, 
shall not be made except on presentation of a certificate from the 
Customs, specially sealed, stating the departure of the said works 
out of France. This certificate must be presented within three 
months of its date. 

Art. 27. — The executive Directory shall designate the Continen- 
tal and Maritime Communes by which it allows the works of gold 
and silver to leave the Republic. 

Art. 28. — All works deposited at the Mont de Pi6te and in other 
establishments destined for sales or at depots of sales are subject 
to payment of the duties of assay, when they have not been paid 
previously. 

Art. 29. — Ingots of refined gold and silver shall pay an assay 
duty before they can be placed in commerce. 

Art. 30. — This duty shall be: for gold, 8 francs, 18 centimes, 
par kilogramme (or 2 francs par marc); and for silver, 2 francs, 4 
centimes (or ten sous par marc). Ingots called de tirage shall only 
pay a duty of 82 centimes par kilogramme (or 4 sous par marc). 

TITRE III. — Relates to the suppression of the Common Halls 
of Goldsmiths. 

TITRE IV. — Relates to the government and regulations of 
Assay Offices. 

TITRE V. — Describes the functions of the employes of the 
Assay Office. 



TITRE VI.— Of the Obligations of Makers and Dealers in 

Works of Gold and Silver. 

Art. 72. — The ancient goldsmiths and those who desire to 
exercise this profession are bound to report themselves to the 
Administration of the department, and the municipality of the 
district in which they reside, and cause their particular punch with 
their name to be insculped on a copper plate kept for the purpose 
in the two Administrations. The Administration of the department 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 255 

must be careful that the same symbol be not employed by two 
makers in the district. 

Art. 73. — Whoever desires to trade in goldsmiths' work without 
undertaking the manufacture is only required to make his declara- 
tion at the municipality of his district, and is dispensed from having 
a punch. 

Art. 74. — The makers and dealers in gold and silver, worked 
or not worked, shall have within a month at latest after the 
publication of the present law a register ruled and headed by the 
Municipal Administration, on whch they shall write the nature, the 
number, the weight, and the standard of matters and works of gold 
and silver which they shall buy or sell, with the names and dwellings 
of those from whom they have purchased them. 

Art. 75. — They shall only buy from persons they know, or 
having references to others known to them. 

Art. 76. — They are bound to show their registers to the public 
authorities whenever they shall be required. 

Art. yj. — They shall carry to the Assay Office of the district 
in which they reside their works, to be there assayed, standarded, 
and marked with one of the stamps of the punches prescribed in 
the second section of Titre L 

Art. 78. — They shall put in the most prominent place in their 
warehouse or shop a table setting forth the articles of the present 
law relating to the standards and the sale of works of gold and 
silver. 

Art. 79. — They shall deliver to purchasers a bordereau or in- 
voice, setting forth the description of the pieces, the standard and 
the weight of the works which they shall have sold, also designating 
whether they were new or old. These bordereaux, prepared before- 
hand, and which shall be furnished to the maker or dealer by the 
Administration of the registry, shall have in all the Republic the 
same formulary, which shall be printed. The seller shall write 
thereon with his own hand the designation of the work sold, whether 
of gold or silver, its weight and standard distinguished by these 
words premier, second, or troisiimey according to the quality ; he shall 
also place the name of the district where the sale was made, with the 
date and his signature. 

Art. 80. — The transgressors against any of the ordinances pre- 
scribed in the eight preceding articles shall be condemned for the 
first offence to a penalty of 200 francs ; for the second, a penalty 
of 500 francs and expenses; for the third, the penalty shall be 1000 
francs, and his trade of goldsmith shall be interdicted under pain 
of confiscation of all his stock-in-trade. 

Art. 81. — The Articles 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, and 80 are 
applicable to makers and dealers in laces, tissues, embroideries, or 
other works of gold or silver thread. Those who shall sell for fine 
any false works in gold or silver shall be subject, independent of 
the just restitution to those whom they have deceived, to a penalty 
of 200 francs for the first offence; 400 francs for the second, with all 
the expenses; and for the third time, a penalty of 1000 francs, with 
interdiction of all trade in gold or silver. 



256 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

Art. 82. — The makers and merchant goldsmiths are bound 
within six months' delay from the publication of the present law 
to carry to the Assay Office of their district their new works of gold, 
silver, and silver gilt, marked with the old punches, to have the 
stamp of a punch of verification, which shall be determined upon 
to this effect by the Administration of the Mint. These works of 
old make shall only be submitted to the verification of the mark, 
and of the old punches, and this verification shall be without ex- 
pense, but the time of six months* delay having expired, the works 
shall be submitted to the assay, standarded, and the expenses paid. 

Art. 83. — The works not bearing the ancient stamp of discharge 
shall be likewise presented at the Assay Office, that they may be 
stamped with the punch of the standard and that of the assay. 
These works shall pay the assay dues. 

Art. 84. — These dues shall be equally payable for the works 
called de hasard, which after the before-named delay (Art. 82) shall 
not be found marked except with the old punches. 

Art. 85. — The law guarantees the conditions of the respective 
engagements of goldsmiths and their apprentices. 

Art. 86. — Jewellers are not bound to carry to the Assay Offices 
the works mounted with stones fine or false, nor with pearls; ncr 
those enamelled all over, or set with crystals; but they shall have 
a register similar to that of the goldsmiths, to inscribe thereon 
daily the sales and purchases they have made. 

Art. 87. — They shall be bound, like the goldsmiths, to give 
to purchasers a bordereau, which shall also be supplied by the 
Administration of registry, and on which they shall describe the 
nature and the form of each work, also the quality of the stones of 
which it is composed, which shall be dated and signed by them. 

Art, 88. — The contravention of the two preceding articles shall 
be subject to the same penalties as decreed in the like cases against 
goldsmiths. 

Art. 89. — ^Jewellers are interdicted from mixing together in the 
same works genuine stones with false, without declaring the fact 
to the purchasers, on pain of making restitution of the value which 
they would have possessed had the stones been genuine, and beyond 
this to pay a penalty of 300 francs; for the second offence, the 
penalty shall be trebled, with the payment of all expenses; and the 
third time they shall be declared incapable of carrying on their 
trade, and all the stock in their warehouses confiscated. 

Art. 90. — ^When a goldsmith dies, his punch shall be remitted 
in the space of five decades (fifty days) after the decease to the 
Assay Office of his district, to be there defaced immediately. During 
this period the person in whose possession it remains shall ht 
responsible for the use which shall be made of it, as are the actual 
manufacturers. 

Art. 91. — If a goldsmith or maker leaves the trade, he shall 
remit his punch to the Assay Office of the district, to be there 
destroyed m his presence; if he desires to absent himself for more 
than six months, he shall deposit his punch at the Assay Office, and 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 257 

the Comptroller shall stamp the works made at his establishment 
during his absence. 

Arts. 92 to 94 describe the obligations of travelling goldsmiths. 



TITRE VIL— Of the Fabrication of Plated Goods and 

Gilding and Silvering Metals. 

Art. 95. — ^Whoever desires to plate or gild on copper, or any 
other metal, is bound to make the declaration to his municipality, 
to the Administration of his department, and to the Mint. 

Art. 96. — He may employ gold and silver in any proportion 
he desires. 

Art. 97. — He is bound to place upon each of his works his own 
punch, determined by the Mint, as stated in Article 14 of the present 
law. He shall add to the stamp numerals indicating the quantity 
of gold or silver contained in the work, on which shall also bfe 
impressed in full the word double. 

Art. 98. — The maker of doubU or plated goods shall transcribe 
daily the sales he shall have made, on a register ruled and headed, 
furnished by the Municipal Administration. He shall also be 
supplied by the Administration with blank bordereaux like the 
goldsmiths and jewellers, and shall be bound to give to every pur- 
chaser one of these signed and dated by him, filling it in with the 
designation of the work, its weight, and the quantity of gold and 
silver it contains. 

Art. 99. — In case of contravention of the two preceding articles, 
the works shall be confiscated, and the delinquent condemned to a 
penalty, for the first offence, of ten times the value of the object 
confiscated; for the second, double the penalty and all expenses; 
for the third time, four times the penalty of the first, and the trade 
as well as the fabrication of gold and silver shall be interdicted, 
on pain of confiscation of all his stock-in-trade. 

Art. 100. — The maker of plated goods is subject, like the 
goldsmith, to all the same penalties, and must not buy any works of 
gold or silver, except from persons known to him, or having 
references from people who are known to him. 

TITRE VIII. — Relates to searches and seizures made in contra- 
vention of this laW' 

TITRE IX. — Relates to the refining of gold and silver. 

TITRE X. — Relates to the argue for drawing gold or silver 
wires, &c. 



258 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Plats 5. 

In use from 19TH November 1797 to ist September i8og. 



TABLE OF PUNCHES, 

Made in execution of the Law of 19th Brumaire, An VI. (19th Nov 1797), 
instead of those of the Communities of Goldsmiths and the 

Administration of the Excise. 



DlSTIKCTIOK. 



<n 

Q 
(6 

< 

g 

H 

Q 

»J 

O 
O 



m 
Q 
PS 

-< 
Q 

< 

pa 



P 
"< 

(n 

GO 



00 

CO 



CO 






1st. 
0.920 



2nd. 
0.840 



3rd. 
0.750 



1st. 
0.950 



2iid. 
0.800 



Large. 



Small. 



Gold. 



Silver. 



Large. 



Small. 



Pabis. 



Dbpabtmbnts. 





















1 







DI8TINCTIOM 



o 

P4 * 

o 



OS 

-< 
< 






9} 

o 
o 

o 

CQ 

<5 



p4 
o 



Large. 



Small. 



Large. 



Small. 



Gold. 



Silver. 



Paus. 



DxpAanoBirTS. 













The use of these punches, except those 
of the Ingots and the Argue, ceased Ist Sept. 
1809. They were replaced by those in the 
following table. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Ik use from ist Septbmbhr 1809 to i6th August 1819. 



TABLE OF PUNCHES, 
Made in execution of the Decree of the nth Prairial, An XI. 

(31st May 1803), 




A'otc.— The HBP of (hens piioehes wnsed on the ICth of Auguat 1819. The suns dny 
tb»y vera replaced by those of ihe Stnudard and Ateay drawn in Ihe (ollowing tables. Ilie 
— nches of the Xngota and the Acgiie were not renewed. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 
In uss from i6th August 1819 to ioth May 1838. 

TABLE OF PUNCHES, 
Made in execution of the Royal Ordinance of 22nd October 1817. 




Remarks.— 1. In ttfi flgu™ of the large punch of Aasny of aold and ailver, and of Vttrif 
tioniiflengravBd the number of the Department ns Hhonn in tie liat ot AasnyOfflces. 2. The 
imeml indicntive of each stondnrd ia engraved in the flgure of the punches irbich wcTe ~ 
Andflrd the worlu of gold nnd silver. 

22nd October 1817. 

SPBCIAL Pt-NCHKa FOR Watchks. I 



Silver Assat. 




I Rkuarks.— 1. The letter P belimita to the 
Paris Assay Office, i. The Denrtmenta have 

I the number which is indicated fni the other 
pimchesot AsHiy: thus 23. is that assigned 
the Monthdinrd Asssy OFflre ; 12. . to Arl. 
57. . to Diinkerque ; S4. to Sens, and so on. 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



261 



Plate 8. 



In use from i6th August 1819 to ioth May 1838. 



TABLE OF DIVISIONAL PUNCHES, 

Made in execution of the Ordinance of 22nd October 18 17. 



DiTIBION. 



1 North. 



2 NJE. 



East. 



Gar. 



QoLD Assay. 



Sword Hilt. 



Tiara. 



S.E. 



Sonth. 



Fan. 



Helmet. 



6 



S.W. 



West. 



8 



N.W. 



9 



Centre. 



Lyre. 



Morion. 



Trumpet. 



Fleur de Lys. 







Butterfly. 



Tortoise. 



Shell. 



Beetle. 






Lysse. 



Prog. 



Snail. 





SiLVSB 

Assay. 









Thomback. 



Guinea Pig. 






Co See-pot. 



VsRincA- 

TZOM. 



Tower. 



Ciborium. 






Goblet. 



Bell. 





Watering-pot. 



Ewer. 



Guitar. 



Book. 







1 



In the figure of the small punches of Assay of gold and silver and of Verification 
of each Division Is engraved the characteristic sign indicated in the following List of 
Assay Offices. 



262 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



In use from i6th August 1819 to ioth May 1838. 
LIST OF BUREAUX DE GARANTIE OR ASSAY OFFICES OF DEPARTMENTS, 

DIVIDED INTO NINE REGIONS 
(See Plate 8), indicating the Characteristic Signs which distinguish the Punches of each Bureau(22nd Oct 1817). 



DlYTSIONS. 



O < 



II. 



(A 
» 

O 



IIL 



CO 



i^ 



IV. 



CO 

^< 

D 
C/2 



DsPARTaCKNTS. 



BUBSAUZ. 



Characterifltio 
Signs. 



Nord 



Pas-de-Galais..... 



Somme 
Aisne... 



Seine-Inf^rieure 

Oise 

Eure 

Eure-et-Loir 

Seine-et-Oise.... 
Seine-et-Marne . 



rLille 

\ Valenciennes. 
I^Dunkerque.... 

/Arras 

\St. Omer 

Amiens 

Laon 

/Rouen 

\ Havre 

Beniivais 

Evreux 

Chart res 

Versailles 

Melun 




Ardennes... 

Meuse 

Moselle 

Rhin (Bos) 

Meurthe 



{ 



Vosges , 
Marne... 



Marne (Haute)... 
Aube 



M^zibres 

Verdun 

Bar le Due ' 

Metis 

Strasbourg 

fNanci | 

\ Pont a Mousson 
I^Lun^ville 

Epinal : 

r Chalons ' 

\ Reims 

rChaumont 

iLangres I 

Iroyes 



57 
57* 
57** 
60 
60* 
75 
2 
73 
73* 
58 
25 
26 
72 
71 

7 
53 
53* 
55 

65 
52 
52* 
.')2** 
85 
49 
49* 
50 
50* 
9 



Rhin(Haut) Colnmr 

SaoneCHaute)... 

Doubs 



66 

/Vesoul 68 

\ BesanQon 23 

Montb^liard 23* 

Jura ' Lous-le-Saulnier 35 

Cote d'Or ' Dijon 19 

Saone-et- Loire. Macon 69 

Aln Trevoux 1 

Ts^re ' Grenoble 3(> 

Rhone Lj'on 67 



Var. 



Bouches du 

Rhone 



Gard. 



Vaucluse 

Alpes (Basse) . 
At pes (Hautes). 

Drome 

Ardeche 

Loire (Hniite). 
Loire 



/Toulon 78 

1^ Grasse ^ j 78* 

Marseille ' 12 

12* 
12** 
28 
28* 



Aix 

Aries 

/ NTmes 

\Alai8 

Avignon 79 

Digne ' 4 



Gap. 

Valence 

Privas 

Le Puy 

St. Etienne, 



5 
24 

6 
41 
40 



A 

C 

D 

E 

H 

J 

M 

8 

N 

T 

V 

X 

Y 

^ 

A 

C 

D 

E 

H 

J 

M 

8 

N 

T 

V 

X 

Y 

^ 

A 

C 

D 

E 

H 

J 

M 

8 

N 

T 

A 

C 

D 

E 

H 

J 

M 

8 

N 

T 

V 

X 

Y 



DiVIBIOKB. 



V. 






DXPABTMXNTS. 



Bureaux. 



Characterifitic 
Signs. 



Large Small 
Work. Work. 



^ Pyr^n^-Orient. Perpignan 64 

Alide i Carcassone lo 

32 
76 
11 
46 
44 
14 
IS 



H^rault 1 Montpellier 

Tarn ' Castres 

Aveiron \ Rod^ 

Lozbre Mendes 



Lot 

Cantal .. 
Corrbze 



Cahors 
Aurillac 
Tulle 



t 



VI. 



Ari^ge 

Garonne (He.). 
Pyr^n^e8(Ht.)., 

Pyr^n^es (B.).., 



' \ I Landes 

Gers 

03 



VIL « \ 



CO 



Tarn-et- Garonne 
Lot-et-Garonne J 

Gironde ' 

Dordogne ' 



Foix 

Toulouse 

Tarbes 

rPnn 

\Baionne 

MontdeMarsan 

Auch 

Montauban 

Agen 

Bordeaux 

Perigueux 



o 



H 

CO 

vin. 9 ^ 

o 

OS 

o 



Charente 

Charonte-Inf 

Vienne (Haute) . 

Vienne 

Vendue 

Deux Sfevres 

Loire-lnf^rieure 
Maine-et-Loire ..' 
Indre-et-Loire. 
Vienne , 



Angouleme... 
/Iji\ Rochelle.. 
(^Sfiintes 

Limoges 

Poitiers 

Fontenay 

Niort 

Nantes 

Angers 

Tours 

Chatellerault 



Finist^re 

Morbihan 

Cotes du Nord... 

Ille-et-Vilaine... 



Mayenne 
Sarthe.... 
Ome 



H 



Manche .. 
Calvados. 



Brest 

Vannes 

St. Brieux 

/Reniies 

tSt. Miilo.. 

Iiaval 

Le Mans .. . 

AlenQon ... 

St. L6 

Valognes.. 

Caen 



{ 



IX. ^\ 



Puy-de-D6rae.... 

Creuse 

Allier 

Indre 

Loir-et-Cher 

Cher 

Nibvre 



Yonne 
Loiret 



Clermont 

Guoret 

Moulins 

Chateauroux.... 

Blois 

Bourges 

Nevers 

/ Auxerre 

\Sen8 

Orleans 



8 

29 
63 
62 
62* 
38 
30 
77 
45 
31 



15 

16 

16* 

82 

81 

80 

74 

42 

47 

85 

35 

27 

54 

20 

33 

33* 

51 

70 

59 

48 

48* 

13 

61 
21 
3 
34 
39 
17 
56 
84 
84* 
43 



A 

C 
D 
E 

H 
J 

M 

8 

N 

A 

C 

D 

E 

H 

J 

M 

8 

N 

T 

V 

A 

C 

D 

E 

H 

J 

M 

8 

N 

T 

4- 

A 

C 

D 

E 

H 

J 

M 

8 

N 

T 

V 

A 

C 

D 

E 

H 

J 

M 

N 

T 

8 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



263 



Plate 9. 



In use from i6th August 1819 to ioth May 1838. 



TABLE OF SIGNS 

Which cover the surface of Bigornes and of Countermark, made in execution 

of the Ordinance of the ist July 1818. 



Large Countermark. 



Distinction. 



Paris and 
the Depart- 
monts. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Denouination. 



Notoxe. 



Types. 




Conops. 



Saperde. 



Criquet. 



Pentatome. 






Bibion. 




Small Countermark. 



Distinction. Denomination. 



Paris and 

the Depart- Plain Ground. 
, ments. 1 



Paris only. Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Departments Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Pnris nnd , 

the Depjirt- Gules. 

ments. I 



Ditto. 



Or. 



Extra for the large Coimterraark. 




Head of 
Notoxe. 



Head of 
Bibion. 




Ditto. 



Sable. 



W 



Ditto. 



Azure. 



Ttpbs. 



:gak 













<#> 



264 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

THE RECENSE GRATUITE. OR GRATUITOUS VERI- 
FICATION OF GOLD AND SILVER. 

In order to prevent the effect of uncertainty in the Hall-marks 
on Gold and Silver Plate, which had been so much tampered with 
that people had no confidence in them as indicative of the actual 
quality of the material, the public authority took the matter into 
consideration, and directed the application of another punch, called 
de recensty or of verification upon all works of gold and silver. 
This punch was applied gratis, for a certain period, at the Assay 
Offices after the old marks had been verified by competent persons. 

The first general recense was decreed by the Act of the 19th 
Brumaire, An VI. (1797)^ with regard to works marked with the 
old stamps of the French Administration; the second in 1809; and 
the third on the i6th August 18 19, of which the term expired on 
the 1 6th November of the same year. There was another recense 
for watches only, which finished on the 1st May 1822. 

After the expiration of the delay fixed for the gratuitous 
verification, works of gold and silver, although marked with the 
old stamps, which should be found in commerce, or exposed for 
sale, not bearing the new punches of recense and the countermark, 
were subjected to a fresh assay, and liable to a fresh duty. 

For many years the want of a new recense became more and 
more necessary. There were in the jewellers* trade a great quantity 
of articles which by reason of the insertion of genuine Hall-Marks 
on inferior gold, and some altogether false or cleverly imitated, 
had escaped the surveillance of the agents of the Administration. 

To put an end to frauds of this nature, a Royal Ordinance 
of the 30th June 1835 prescribed a general re^nse or verification, 
and the creation of a new series of punches. 

Another Ordinance of the 7th April 1838 decreed that the 
punch of verification (recense) should be applied from the loth 
of May following, on all works of gold and silver existing in 
commerce, A delay of three months was accorded for the appli- 
cation of this punch, and at the expiration of that term the works, 
although bearing the genuine old marks, were to be reputed as 
unmarked. 

The special punches for watch-cases decreed by the Act of 19th 
September 1821 were suppressed. The French watches were directed 
to be marked with the ordinary punches of standard and assay; 
those coming from abroad with a particular punch for imported 
watches, which was to be applied by the offices designated in the 
Act of the 2nd July 1836. These offices were Paris, Lyons, Besan- 
con, MGntb61iard, and Lons le Saulnier. (Ordinance 7 Avril 1838.) 

The punch of the standard and that of the assay shall form 
but one stamp, which shall bear a particular sign for each office. A 
punch of remarque shall be stamped every centimetre on chains, 
bands, and other works of the same character. (Ibid.) 

The multiplicity of types of punches adopted in 18 19 rendered 
the knowledge and verification of stamps very embarrassing for the 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 265 

officers of the Excise. In order to facilitate this study, the number 
of punches previously used was considerably reduced, and they were 
altered not only in their external form, but by the addition of a 
distinctive sign for each bureau. (Circulaire de TAdm. des Contrib. 
indir. 10 Avril 1838.) 

It was ordained that, in order to stop the prevalence of counter- 
feiting and of inserting marks, the recense should be the reason for 
a severe and strict examination of the punches on each piece, in 
order to apply to them with discernment the benefit of this gratuitous 
mark or submit them to the duty, or to clear entirely from fraud 
the commerce of geld and silver, which had so long been practised 
with impunity. (Circul. de la Comm. des Monn. du 28 Avril 1838.) 

The stamp of verification (recense) ought as nearly as possible 
to be applied by the side of the old punches, and to be accompanied 
by that of the countermark. Works in silver and jewellery in 
personal use by the merchants or makers ought to be submitted to 
the recense^ as well as those of their commerce. Private people, 
not connected with the trade of goldsmiths or jewellers, have no 
right to claim the benefit of the recense. (Ibid.) 



ORDINANCE OF LOUIS PHILIPPE, 
Dated 7TH April 1838. 

We give a translation of this important Act, and a plate of 
the stamps directed to be used as therein stated. 

7-12 April 1838, Louis Philippe, &c.— Royal Ordinance 

directing a general verification of the quality of gold and silver 
works, and the employment of new punches. 

Referring to the clauses 7, 8, and 15 of the Act of the 19th 
Brumaire, An VI. (19th November 1797), and taking into con- 
sideration that numerous seizures have taken place of gold and 
silver works, in which the State punches have in a great degree been 
counterfeited, and that it is highly important as well that the public 
guarantee should be preserved, as to secure the revenues of the 
Treasury and to put a stop to the use of false punches. It is 
enacted : — 

Art. I. — From and after the loth May following, a punch of 
verification shall be applied on all the works of gold and silver now 
existing in commerce, and bearing the impress of the legal marks. 

Art. 2. — From the same date the new punches of standard and 
guarantee or assay and the punch of the countermark (of which a 
table will be published with this minute) shall be exclusively 
employed in all the Assay Offices. 

Art. 3. — The special punches for watch-cases, and other watch- 
makers' work, decreed by Article 2 of the Act of the 19th September 
1 82 1, shall be repealed. 

French watches shall be marked with the ordinary punches of 
standard and assay. Those coming from abroad shall be marked 



266 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

with a special punch for imported watches, which shall be applied 
in the offices designated by the Act of the 2nd July 1836. 

Art. 4. — The punch of the standard and that of the Assay 
Office shall consist of a single stamp, which shall bear a particular 
sign for each office. A punch called the Remarque shall be placed 
every decimetre (4 inches) on chains, and other works in gold of the 
same class. 

Art. 5. — At the expiration of three months from the day when 
the new punches are to be used, all merchants, working goldsmiths, 
jewellers, watchmakers, cutlers, armourers, cabinetmakers, and all 
other workmen and merchants dealing in gold and silver works, 
shall be compelled to carry to the Assay Office of their districts 
the gold and silver works in their possession, to be there marked, 
free of expense, with the punches of verification and countermark. 

Art. 6. — At the expiration of the term fixed for the verification, 
the gold and silver works marked with the ancient punches which 
shall be found in commerce, without being stamped with the punch 
of verification, shall be reputed as unmarked, and the holders 
subject to the condemnations decreed by the law. 

An Appendix to this Act gives a table of the punches of 
Standard and Assay^ and of Verification, of works in gold and 
silver as prescribed by the ordinance. The designaiionSy formSy 
and types of these stamps are engraved in the annexed plate, as 
they appear en gold and silver, but considerably enlarged. 



Platb 10, 

Used on the iotm May i 



{See Act of April 1838, Clauses 2 & 4.) 



TABLE OF STAMPS 

Of Standard and Assay, and of Verification of Gold and Silver Works, for 
Paris and the Departments, as directed by Ihe Act of 30th June 1835. 



I E T I Stamp for Foreign Wares. 






Sold. Wiitches itiipotted. 



Head of a Rhisocehos, 
Re-mark (irmflrkifrppeCiti 
Gold Chains, 




cbMi the (or 
p indicatea iii 



lUn ol Iba Abut Office 
) IbOM ol Lyon, BeuDf< 



268 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



PLikTX 11. 

Used on the ioth May 1838. (Decree of 30th June 1835). 



LIST OF ASSAY OFFICES (Bureaux de Garantie^ 

Showing the Characteristic Signs which distinguish the Punches of Standard 

and Assay of each Office. 



DBPABTmiTTB. 



Ain . 

Alsne 
Allier . 

Alpes (Bfuses) 

Alpes (Hautdfl) 

Ardenoes . 

Anbe 

Aude 

Averon . 

B. du Rhone 
Calvados . 
Gantal 

Charente . 

Charente-Inf. 

Cher . 
Corrbze . 

C6te d'Or 

Cdtes du Nord 

Creiiae 



2S 
-a 



2 



it 

^(5 



2 
3 

4 

5 



9 
10 
11 
12 

13 
14 

15 

16 

16* 

17 
18 

19 

20 

21 



Assay Omcis. 



Trevoux 

Laon 
Moulins 

Digne 

Gap . 

Charleville 
Troyes 
CarcaflBonne 
Rodez 

Marseille. 
Caen 

Aurillac . 
Angouldme 
La Rochelle 

Saintes . 

Bourges . 
TuUe 

Dijon 

St. Brieuz 

Gutfret . 






A 
8 

G 

E 
S 
D 

H 

I 
J 
K 



# • 

O 

s 

T 



DXPABTmilTS. 



Dordogne . 

Doubs 

Drome 
Eure . 

Enre-et-Loire 
FiniHt^re . 
Gard . 

Garonne (H.) 
Gironde . 
H^rault 

Ille-et-Vilaine 

Indre-et-Loire 
Ishre . 
Jura . 

I^Hndes 
Loire-et-Cher 

Loire . 

Loire (Haute) 



2S 

a m 

P Pi 



Assay Omcss. 



{ 



\ 



22 I Perigueux . 

23 ' BesangoQ . 
23*^ MontMIiard 

24 Valence 

25 Evreux 

26 Chaitrea . 

27 t Brest . 

28 Niuies 

Toulou£e . 
Bordeaux . 

Montpellier 

Rennes 
St. Molo . 

35 Tours 

36 Grenoble . 

37 Lons-le-Saulnier 

38 I MontdeMarsan 

39 ' Blois . 

I 

40 ' St.Etienne 

41 ' Le Puy . 



29 
31 

32 
33 



S3* 



SIS 



u 

V 

4 

OJ 

(Z 

+ 
Z 
G 

N 
A 






HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 



Platb 12. 



269 



Depabtmxkts. 



Loir^Inf^rieure 



Loirot 



Lot 



Lot-et-Garonne 



Lozbre 



Maine-et-Loire 



Manche . 



Mame 

Mame (Haute) 
Mayenne . 
Meiirthe . 

Meuse 

Morbihan 
Moselle . 



Nord 



Oise • 
Ome • 

Pas-de-CalaiB 
Puy-de-Ddme 



o a 

*<5 



[ 



42 

43 
41 
45 

46 
47 

48 
48* 



( 49 
C. 49* 



50 
51 
52 

53 
53* 

54 
55 



[ 



Assay Officbs, 



Nantes 

Orleans 

Cahon 

Agen 

Mende 

Angers 

St. Ld 
Valognes 

Chalons 
Reims 

Chaumont 

Laval 

Nancy 

Bar-le-Duc 
Verdun 

Vannes 
Metz 



57 Lille 



[ 



57* 

57** 

58 
59 

60 
60* 

61 
62 



Dunkerque 
Valenciennes 

Beauvais 
Alengon 

Anas 
St. Omer 

Clermont 
Pan . 



V 

A 

e 

SI 

7 
2 



DSFABTMBNTS. 



Pyr^n^es (B.) . 
PyrtfntfesCH.) , 
Pyr^ntfes Orient 
RhiD (Bas) 



Rhin (Haut) 
Rhdne 

Sadne-et-Loire 

Sarthe 
Seine . 



Seine-Inf^rieore 



Seine-et-Mame 

Seine-et-Oise 
Sevres (Deux) 

Somme 

Tarn 

Var . . 

Vaucluse . 
Vendue 

Vienne . , 

Vienne (Haute). 

Vosges 

Yonne 



11 
If 



[ 



[ 



{ 



62* 
63 
64 
65 

66 
67 
69 

70 
71 



72 



72* 

73 

74 
75 
76 

77 

79 
79* 

80 
81 

82 

82* 

83 

84 
85 



Assay OrFicBs. 



Bayonne . 

Tarbes 

Perpignan . 

Strasbourg 

Colmar 
Lyon , 

Macon 

Le Mans . 

Paris (none) 

Rouen 
Havre 

Melun • 

Versailles . 
Niort , 

Amiens 

Alby . 

Toulon 
Grasse 
Avignon . 

Fontenay • 

Poitiers • 
ChiLtellerault 

Limoges . 

Epinal 

.A.uxerTe . 



"5 8 



B 
9 

)( 



OD 

T 

CO 

a 
a 

Y 

A 



270 HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 

It will be observed that in the table of new punches of the 
30th June 1835 the assay marks for large pieces of gold and silver 
plate are omitted, and a punch, not previously used, called the 
poinfon de remarque, for gold chains, is added. The standard 
marks for large works are not now, as heretofore, accompanied 
by a large assay mark; it has been suppressed, as it could without 
inconvenience be replaced by a second impress of the standard 
mark, taking care not to employ the countermark except next that 
which takes the place of the large assay mark; thus, for example, 
a dish shall be marked on the bottom with the standard without 
the countermark, and on the border with a second standard mark, 
countermarked. 



ON THE APPLICATION OF THE STAMPS. 

Since the establishment of Assay Offices in the different depart- 
ments, the application of punches has been entrusted to the comp- 
trollers of these bureaux, and in this operation, to ensure uniformity 
among the various places appointed for that purpose, a catalogue 
was published by the Administration previous to the prohibition 
of massive plate in December 1679 (and again on 15th July 18 19) 
of the principal species of works, and instructing the comptroller 
with the exact position on each piece of plate where the marks 
and countermarks were to be placed. A new catalogue of the 
position of Hall-marks was issued in 1838. 

The punches at present in use are of two classes, which may 
be designated simple and countermark. The first are the punches 
of standard and the maker's mark; they are destined, according to 
custom, to stamp prominently the external surface of the gold or 
silver work after the nature of the piece and the character of the 
stamp. The others are effected by what the French term bigornes, 
a system introduced by the Decree of July 18 18, which are engraved 
punches affixed by the screw to the anvil, serving to countermark 
the piece of plate underneath when the punch is applied upon the 
upper surface by a hammer or mallet, forming a reverse mark on the 
spot where the marks of the assay or verification of foreign plate 
are stamped, as well as on the reverse of the special punches for 
watches. These bigornes are in every Assay office of three different 
sizes, and are thus used : the works which are destined to receive 
the stamps of the standard are marked upon an anvil having a 
smoothed and polished surface without any countermark; but for 
the application of punches of assay and verification, on foreign 
plate and watches, the pieces of plate are placed upon the engraved 
surface of the anvil intended as the countermark, which is effected 
by the counter-blow struck on the upper surface. 

These engraved surfaces called bigornes or countermarks 
affixed to the anvil are of different forips, very varied in design; 
those decreed in 18 18 are given on Plate 9 (page 204), which re- 
mained in use until 1835. The number was considerably increased 



HALL MARKS ON PLATE. 271 

in that year in order to prevent as far as possible the means of 
counterfeiting the principal marks on the outer surface. They 
usually represent insects : those for Paris are engraved in profile or 
side view, those for the departments are represented as seen from 
above or full-faced. They are too numerous to be engraved here, 
but it may interest some of our readers to know the names of them : 
The Ichneumon, Hercule, Charan^on, Scarab6e, Sauterelle, Copris, 
Fulgore porte lanterne, Capricorne, Fourmi. Anthia, Libellule, Perce- 
oreille, Carabe-Monitis, Mante, Manticore, Sphex, Staphilin, Clairon, 
Frelon, Mormolis, Ecrevisse Cicendele, Scorpion, Prione, Cetoine, 
Termite, Petatome, Crabe. There are 8 plates containing repre- 
sentations of 134 of these creatures, which may be referred to in 
Raibaud's work, entitled Matihes d'Or et (f Argent, Paris, 1838. 

The poincon de remarque for gold chains was first adopted 
in 1838, and chains or bands are now required to be stamped every 
d6cimetre. 

In conclusion, we must acknowledge our obligations to M. 
Raibaud, the author of the Traiti de la Garantie, from whose work 
we have derived much valuable information; and also express our 
thanks to M. le Baron Chas. Davillier, of Paris, for the loan of 
some scarce books, illustrating the early history of the Goldsmiths* 
trade in France. 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX. 



THE Goldsmiths' Company of Paris has religiously preserved 
among its Archives a variety of curious materials for its 
history; these have been carefully and laboriously searched, 
and the selected portions commented upon and expounded by 
Pierre Le Roy, a Goldsmith and Warden of the Corporation, who 
has arranged them in order, and in a concise form for reference, 
so as to be serviceable to his successors in office. 

We have thought that a translation and selection from the 
Rules and Regulations of the Goldsmiths* Trade in France might 
present some features of interest, and even suggest important 
alterations in our present laws for the government of the trade in 
England. 

The compiler of the Code de VOrfevreriey published in 1785, 
by Knapen of Paris, thus refers to the work on the Statutes and 
Privileges of the Company of Merchant Goldsmith- Jewellers of the 
City of Paris, by Pierre Le Roy : — 

" The enterprise of Le Roy was bold ; the Company of Gold- 
smiths possesses a collection of documents which their antiquity 
and rarity render the more precious in consequence of their immense 
number. It was not an easy task to place in due order these 
scattered records, to collect and arrange them so as to form a 
complete and regular series. Le Roy undertook the task, and he 
has perfectly succeeded. One observes in the compilation of these 
Statutes the same intelligence which guides the clever goldsmith 
in the composition of the works of his art All that surrounds him 
offers to the spectator nothing but detached pieces, mangled frag- 
ments, incoherent parts, and rough surfaces ; but beneath the hands 
of the industrious artist all is placed in order and polished, the 
confused mass takes the form of a body and a soul ; the astonished 
gaze admires a chef-d'oeuvre, and does not perceive the chaos of 
which the badly assorted scraps presented at nrst only a glimpse. 

" The work of Le Roy, divided into Sections, and subdivided 
into Clauses, comprehends all the statutes of the Goldsmiths. It 



276 APPENDIX. 

has not the actual force of law, but every one of its clauses, being 
founded upon the text of the laws themselves, which the author 
brings together, and containing no other expressions than those of 
the law; one can say with reason, that his work offers the most 
complete Code of legislation in that particular." 



STATUTES AND PRIVILEGES 

OF THE 

COMPANY OF MERCHANT GOLDSMITH-JEWELLERS 

QF THE CITY OF PARIS. 

Collected together from the Texts of all the Edicts, Ordinances, Declarations, 
Letters Patent, Decrees and other Deeds, Ancient and Modem, which con- 
stitute the Prerogatives and the Administration of the Establishment of 
Goldsmith-Jewellers in this City, 

By PIERRE LE ROY, 
1734-1759- 



SECTION L 

OF THE COMPANY IN GENERAL AND OF ITS CHIEF PRIVILEGES. 

Clause i. — The Art and Trade or Establishment of Gold- 
smith-Jewellers at Paris shall be and continue a Livery in this city, 
and consequently cannot be exercised by any but the Masters and 
Merchants, having been sworn to that effect, and forming together 
an administrative community, successively managed by Directors 
chosen from among themselves, by the titles of MASTERS AND 

Wardens. 

Clause 2. — The Masters and Merchants forming the Company 
and exercising the trade of Goldsmith- Jewellers at Paris shall have 
for the object of their Art and their Trade the manufacture and 
traffic of works and matters of gold and silver, with the employment 
and dealing in diamonds, pearls, and all sorts of precious stones, 
under the title of GOLDSMITH- JEWELLERS. 

Clause 3. — There shall be kept in the office of the Common 
Hall of the Company a common punch called the Countermark or 
Punch of Paris, the care of which shall be confided solely to the 
.Wardens in charge; with which punch they shall stamp all the 
works of gold and silver made in Paris, to the end of verifying by 
their stamp the goodness of the Standard of the materials. 



APPENDIX. 277 

Clause 4. — The number of Goldsmiths of Paris fixed and 
limited to three hundred. 

Clauses 5, 6, and 7 refer to the same subjects. 

Clause 8. — No Goldsmith, although a Master, can exercise his 
trade in Paris in any Palace, Priory, Commanderie, College, or 
other enclosed and privileged places, or so reputed, except in the 
Galeries du Louvre only, under a penalty of five hundred livres, 
and even corporal punishment. 

Clause 9. — No person can exercise the trade nor have a Gold- 
smith's shop in any suburb of Paris under the pretended title of 
Master of the Suburbs or otherwise, unless he has been admitted 
into the Company in the manner prescribed by the regulations, 
and consequently subject to the rules of the Company and its 
administration and to the jurisdiction of the magistrates. 

Clause 10. — It shall be lawful for any Master Goldsmith of 
the city of Paris, if he thinks fit. to establish himself and exercise 
his trade in other towns of the kingdom without being compelled 
to make a fresh oath in that he has selected; but only to present 
his deed of administration to the Freedom, and have it registered 
in the Court of Record of the Jurisdiction to which he is subject. 

Clause ii. — The said Goldsmith- Jewellers of the city of Paris, 
Proprietors and Founders of the Chapel of St. Eloi, their Patron 
in the Common Hall of the Company, are privileged to celebrate 
for ever the mass and other sacred offices soit a note ou a voix basse; 
and this by such priests approved and capable, and in such number 
as they think proper to select. 

Clause 12. — Relates to the admission of the Brotherhoods 
iconfrairies) of the Goldsmiths of Paris to attend and celebrate 
divine services at the Chapel of St. Eloi under the administration 
of the two junior Wardens. 

A'.5. — Besides the worship rendered to St. Eloi, Patron of the 
Company, the Goldsmiths of Paris had a Brotherhood of St. Denis, 
another of the Holy Martyrs, of St. Anne, and St. Marcel. 

Clause 13. — The poor Master Goldsmiths and Widows of 
Masters shall be received and lodged by the Wardens in charge 
in the Common Hall of the Company, which is at the same time 
the Almshouse of the said poor persons, who shall be there as 
regularly and abundantly assisted as shall be in the power of the 
Wardens from the annual produce of the alms of the Company 
and other pious funds devoted to this work. 

Clause 14. — The produce of confiscations awarded by the 
Courts of Justice for infractions of the Regulations of the Gold- 
smiths' Company shall belong to the Common Hall, as well as a 
third part of. waifs and strays or unclaimed goods left at the 
office; all these shall be employed by the Wardens, together with 
the alms collected each year in the Company, for the maintenance 
of divine service in the chapel and for the relief of the poor. 

Clause 15. — The Company of Goldsmith-Jewellers of Paris, 
being one of the six companies of Merchants of this City, shall enjoy 
the prerogatives which have been accorded them, and which they 
enjoy in common; consequently their deputies in company with the 



278 APPENDIX. 

rest shall carry the dais or canopy over the person of the Kings 
when making their solemn entry into Paris, and shall compliment 
their Majesties on great events, and their Merchants by their position 
shall be eligible for the Municipal and Magisterial Offices of this 

City. 



SECTION II. 

OF APPRENTICES. 

Clause i. — Only one apprentice at a time shall be allowed 
to each master, and he shall not take a second until the apprentice- 
ship of the first has entirely expired. 

Clause 2. — Masters without shops cannot take apprentices. 

Clause 3. — Apprentices shall not enter before the age of ten 
years nor after the age of sixteen. 

Clause 4. — The apprenticeship shall last for eight years and 
for no shorter period, nor can the master remit any portion of it. 

Clauses 5 and 6 relate to the registering and binding of 
apprentices, with the penalties and fines. 

Clause 7. — Apprentices shall work at their masters* houses 
without wages and not elsewhere. 

Clauses 8, 9, and 10 relate to apprentices. 

Clause ii. — The sons of Freemen are not subject to the laws 
of apprenticeship, but shall receive their freedom by their chefs- 
(Tceuvre alone. 



SECTION III. 

OF ASSOCIATES. 

Clause i. — All Goldsmiths' apprentices of Paris who have 
served their term of eight years are compelled to serve with masters 
three years more as assistants, before they can be received them- 
selves. 

Clause 2. — All associates awaiting their freedom shall work 
at the masters' wages by the day or month. 

Clause 3. — They shall not quit service without legitimate cause. 

Clause 4. — Nor work in chambers or in secret places. 

Clause 5. — Proprietors of houses shall not let them to as- 
sociates. 

Clause 6. — Principals of Colleges shall net give them retreat. 

Claltse 7. — Associates working in secret places are to be 
arrested. 

Clause 8. — They shall not work nor trade on their own 
account. 



APPENDIX. 279 



SECTION IV. 

OF CANDIDATES FOR THE FREEDOM. 

Clause i. — No candidate shall be received as Master and 
Merchant in the Company of Goldsmith- Jewellers who has not 
attained the age of twenty years, whether he claims the freedom as 
the son of a Freeman, or whether he gains the franchise by way of 
apprenticeship. 

Clause 2. — All apprentices, candidates for the freedom, shall 
be previously bound to bring to the Masters and Wardens their 
certificates of apprenticeship duly discharged, with the certificate 
of their service with the masters in quality of assistants since the 
expiration of their term. 

Clause 3. — Candidates, sons of Freemen, as well as apprentices, 
cannot be admitted freemen unless there are places vacant in the 
number of three hundred, whether by death, abdication, or re- 
nunciation of any of them, by deed, or if any of the Masters have 
retired from trade and remitted their punches to the office, or have 
absented themselves to live in the provinces. 

Clause 4. — Candidates, whether sens of Freemen or appren- 
tices, shall be admitted to the freedom in equal numbers, commenc- 
ing with the former; and in case one of these two classes of 
Candidates does not furnish sufficient to fill the moiety of places 
then vacant, they shall be filled from the other class. 

Clause 5. — The Candidates shall be duly examined by the six 
Wardens in charge, not only on the division of the marc weight, 
but on the price and the alloy of matters of gold and silver, and 
on the manner of alloying the low and the fine qualities to make 
them of the proper standard to be worked, according to the ordin- 
ances; and, moreover, the said Wardens shall diligently inform 
themselves of the morals and conduct of the said Candidates, who 
cannot be admitted if they do not know how to read and write. 

Clause 6. — The said Candidates having passed the ex- 
amination, and having been found capable in these different respects, 
shall be then bound to give proofs of their capacity in works of the 
Goldsmith's art by a ckef-cTceuvrey which shall be suggested by the 
Wardens and made in their presence in the Common Hall. 

Clause 7. — The sons of Freemen as well as apprentices shall 
be bound to execute the said chef-cTceuvre to obtain the freedom, 
which cannot be dispensed with on any pretext whatever, on pain of 
nullity of admission. 

Clause 8. — According to the Ordinances and Regulations of 
the Goldsmiths' State, the Wardens in charge shall be the sole 
competent judges of the capacity of the Candidates in the Gold- 
smith's art; consequently no Officer of Justice shall be called in, 
nor his presence required, during the operation or examination of 
the chefs'd^ceuvre of the Candidates. 



28o APPENDIX, 



SECTION V. 

OF THE ADMISSION. 

Clause i. — The Candidates for the Goldsmiths' State who 
shall have been duly examined, and of whom the chefs-cTceuvre 
have been approved, shall be then presented to the Masters and 
Wardens to the Court of the Mint, to be by the said Court received 
as Masters and Merchant Goldsmiths. 

Clause 2. — Therefore the said Wardens shall certify to the 
Court of the Mint, that the apprenticeships and the chefs-efceuvre 
of the Candidates which they present have been well and duly 
executed, and that the certificates are in proper form, without the 
Wardens or Candidates being bound to re-produce the said certi- 
ficates. 

Clause 3. — No Candidate can be admitted to the Court of 
the Mint unless presented and certified by the Wardens. 

Clause 4. — Candidates shall be examined afresh on the duties 
of the Goldsmith's State by the Court of the Mint, and in pursuance 
the said Court shall admit them Masters and Merchant Goldsmiths, 
if they are found capable, on their taking the oath to keep and 
observe the ordinances, decrees, and regulations of the said State 
of Goldsmiths. 

Clause 5. — The newly elected Freemen shall each give a bond 
of good and sufficient security for the sum of a thousand livres to 
the Mint. 

Clause 6. — Every new Master shall cause to be engraved, and 
shall receive from the Mint a punch of fleur-de-lys crowned, and 
with his name and device, to mark his own works; the stamp of 
which punch of the maker shall not exceed in size, including the 
field, two lines in height by one line and a quarter wide. 

Clause 7. — The punches of the new Masters shall be struck, 
and the names of those who are to use them engraved by the side 
of their stamps, on the table of copper in the Mint, as well as in 
the Assay Office of the Goldsmiths* Company, before any use shall 
be made of the said punches. 



SECTION VI. 

OF THE DUTIES OF MASTERS AND MERCHANT GOLDSMITH- 
JEWELLERS IN THE PROFESSION OF THEIR ART. 

Clause i. — All Masters and Merchant Goldsmith- Jewellers of 
ihe city and suburbs of Paris, as well as widows of Masters, shall 
be bound in three days after their establishment, or change of resi- 
dence, to declare their abode to the Masters and Wardens of the 
Company, under a penalty of two hundred livres in case of omission. 

Clause 2. — They shall have their shops in public and con- 



APPENDIX. 281 

spicuous places and in the public streets, in which they shall have 
their forges and furnaces fixed with cement, and not in back shops, 
halls, or secret chambers, nor other places. 

Clause 3. — They are forbidden to melt works or matters of 
gold and silver, or to fabricate any work of their art, elsewhere 
than in their said shops, on pain of exemplary punishment; as also 
to melt and work beyond the hours prescribed to this effect by the 
Ordinances. 

Clause 4. — In the fabrication of their works, they shall be 
bound to employ standard gold and silver, and in the legal remedies 
prescribed by the Ordinances, that is to say, gold of 22 karats fine, 
with a remedy of a quarter of a karat ; and silver of 1 1 deniers 1 2 
grains fine, with a remedy of 2 grains. 

Clause 5. — They shall nevertheless be permitted to fabricate 
small works and jewels of gold, as crosses, snuff-boxes, 6tuis, 
buckles, buttons, &c., of the standard of 20 karats and a quarter 
fine, with a remedy of a quarter of a karat. 

Clause 6. — The Delinquents in the aforesaid prescribed stan- 
dards for gold and silver shall be condemned in fifty livres penalty 
for the first offence, besides the confiscation of the defective works ; 
in one hundred livres for the second ; and for the third offence they 
shall lose their freedom, and in no case can the said penalties be 
remitted nor lessened under any pretext whatever. 

Clause 7. — The said Goldsmiths shall strike their punches 
upon all their works, not only on the body and principal pieces 
applied thereto, but upon the mountings that can bear the stamps 
without disfigurement; and every one of them shall be held re- 
sponsible in his own name for any faults which may be found upon 
works marked with this punch, whether of standard or otherwise. 

Clause 8. — They shall, moreover, be bound to send all their 
works in gold and silver, thus marked with their punches, to the 
office of the Common Hall (Assay Office), to be there assayed and 
countermarked with the common punch by the Wardens, on all the 
pieces of the said work, which by their size, weight, figures, and 
forms can fairly and easily bear the said mark and countermark 
without disfigurement. 

Clause 9. — The works coming from different fonts or meltings 
shall be sent to be countermarked in separate parcels, that they may 
be assayed separately; and cannot be confounded, on pain of con- 
fiscation of the said works, in case any shall be found of different 
standards beyond the remedy, and the Master fined. 

Clause 10. — The said Goldsmiths shall not have in their houses 
and shops any works mounted and put together, finished at the 
edges, polished or otherwise too far advanced, unless the said works 
have been previously marked and countermarked as has been said; 
under pain of confiscation of the said works and a penalty. 

Clause ii. — They shall not fabricate any works composed of 
parts of which the one shall be of gold and silver, and the other 
of copper gilt or silvered, nor even of gold and silver, in such a 
manner that the metals cannot be weighed and estimated separately, 
under the aforesaid penalties of confiscation and fine. 



282 APPENDIX. 

Clause 12. — They shall not likewise make the rims turned over 
full of solder, in form of hammered edges to basins, dishes, and 
plates ; nor, under pretext of joining, solder on to them other bot- 
toms; so also they shall not apply any new piece to old work unless 
it has been previously marked and countermarked, and that the old 
work shall not have been well and duly marked also. All under 
the same pain of confiscation and penalty. 

Clause 13. — It shall be lawful for them to use indifferently 
any enamels on their works of gold or silver, on condition always 
that the said enamels shall be fairly and legally applied, and with- 
out any intentional excess and superfluity. 

Clause 14. — They shall not work up any false stones or false 
pearls confusedly mixed with fine stones or otherwise, and they 
shall not even have, nor keep in their houses and shops, any false 
and imitation stones, on pain of confiscation and penalty. 

Clause 15. — So also they shall not colour or place tinsel nor 
disguise any fine stones in setting them or otherwise, to make them 
appear of a kind more precious than they really are, or to hide 
any defect they may have in them. 

Clause 16. — They shall not, moreover, without the express 
permission of the King, undertake nor make any goldsmths* work 
of which the fabrication is prohibited by the edicts and declarations 
of his Majesty, under the penalties therein named. 

Clause 17. — Those among the said Goldsmiths of Paris, who. 
from whatever cause it may arise, shall cease to keep an open shop 
in this city, shall not be allowed to retain their punches, and shall 
be bound to return them to the Wardens, to be by the said Wardens 
sealed and deposited in the office of the Common Hall. 

Clause 18. — They shall have the power to extract the precious 
metals from the sweepings* (lavures) themselves, or cause it to be 
done by their assistants and apprentices, or by any other persons 
they may think fit, without being prevented by the master refiners 
and parters of gold and silver. 



SECTION VII. 

OF THE DUTIES OF MASTERS AND MERCHANT GOLD SMITH- JEWELLERS 

IN THE EXERCISE OF THEIR TRADE. 

Clause i. — The Masters and Merchant Goldsmith- Jewellers 
of the City of Paris shall not form any Association of Trade with 
other Merchants than those of their Company to deal in Goldsmiths' 
work, whether at fairs or otherwise, and in whatever manner it may 
be possible. 

Clause 2. — The said Goldsmiths shall not sell or expose for 
sale any vessels or other works of gold and silver unless the said 
works have been duly assayed by the Master and Wardens of the 

• See the Article on " Waste and Sweep/' page 60. 



APPENDIX. 283 

Goldsmiths' Company, and countermarked by them with the punch 
of the Common Hall according to the ordinances and regulations, 
on pain of confiscation of the works not marked, and of three 
thousand livres penalty. 

Clause 3. — In their commerce the said Goldsmiths shall be 
bound to use just scales and marc weights* duly certified and 
marked at the Mint, and they shall have no others in their houses 
under any pretext whatever, on pain of confiscation and fine. 

Clause 4. — They shall not buy nor sell materials of gold and 
silver at a higher price than that which shall be paid at the money- 
changers*, on pain of penalty and confiscation of the matters 
overpaid, and other fines prescribed by the ordinances. 

Clause 5. — ^They shall have in a prominent place in their shops 
a table containing the value of the marc of gold and silver, of the 
standards to which they are bound to work, with the diminutions 
of the marc, to the end of making it conformable to the price given 
for the said materials whether in buying or selling. 

Clause 6. — ^They shall sell the materials of their work separ- 
ately from the fashion of the said works, and they shall give to 
those who purchase them invoices signed by themselves, in which 
they shall distinguish the price of the material, and the price of 
the fashion, under the penalties prescribed by the ordinances in case 
of contravention. 

Clause 7. — They shall each keep for their reference a good 
and faithful register of materials and works of gold and silver 
which they shall buy or sell, and on that they shall write the quality 
and the quantity of the said merchandises, with the names and 
residences of those to whom they have sold, or of whom they have 
bought, that the said register may be overlooked when necessary, 
under pain of arbitrary penalty. 

Clause 8. — They shall not buy any pieces of plate with or 
without armorial bearings, although they have not had notice to 
stop it, except from persons who are known to them, or unless 
they can give references to residents by whom they are known, on 
pain of being proceeded against criminally in case of robbery, to 
answer for the damages and interest of parties and for restitution 
of the things stolen. 

Clause 9. — They shall detain the plate or other pieces of 
Goldsmiths' work brought to them for sale and suspected of being 
stolen, and when they shall have received notice to stop them, they 
shall immediately make their declaration to the Clerk of the Gold- 
smiths' Company, so that he may use necessary diligence in the 
matter. 

Clause 10. — The said Clerk shall keep a register of merchan- 
dise and matters of Goldsmiths' work and jewellery lost or stolen, 
and as soon as notice is given him, he shall distribute handbills to 
stop them among the Goldsmiths, and promptly make his declara- 
tion to the commissary of the district of the particulars which have 
been given him on the subject. 

* The poids de marc was eight ounces, or half a pound, avoirdupois 
weight. 



284 APPENDIX. 

SECTION VIII. 

OF THE PRIVILEGES AND DUTIES OF THE WIDOWS OF MASTERS 
AND MERCHANT GOLD SMITH- JEWELLERS. 



SECTION IX. 

OF THE ELECTION OF MASTERS AND WARDENS OF THE GOLD- 
SMITHS* COMPANY, AND OF THEIR OATH TO THE 

ADMINISTRATION. 

The election takes place on the ist July every year of three 
Masters and Wardens of the Goldsmiths' Company of Paris, in 
which offices they remain for two years. They are thus chosen, 
an ancient who has already served one year, and two juniors to 
replace those who have finished their service, making with the three 
of the preceding election six Wardens in charge. The Assembly 
is held in presence of the Prefect, or his Lieutenant-General, of the 
Administration, and the Procureur du Roi, and is composed of all 
the ancient Wardens and thirty other Masters and Merchants of the 
Company, who have not passed the said offices, &c. 



SECTION X. 

OF THE OATH OF THE MASTERS AND WARDENS AT THE COURT 
OF THE MINT, AND THAT WHICH RELATES TO THE NEW 

PUNCHES OF COUNTERMARK. 

Clause i. — Immediately after their election, the new Wardens 
shall cause the matrices to be made, and upon them the punches shall 
be struck which are to serve for countermarking the works of gold 
and silver during the course of the first year of their functions; the 
said punches, as well as their matrices, shall be made and tempered 
in the Common Hall, in the presence of the said Wardens, and in 
that of the Farmer of the Duties on gold and silver (Fermier des 
Droits de la Marque sur Tor et I'argent). 

Clause 2. — The said punches shall be four in number, and 
made of sizes convenient for the purposes to which they are destined ; 
that is to say, one to countermark the large works of gold and 
silver, of which the impress shall be two lines high by one and a 
quarter broad; two others of half the size of the impress, the one 
for smaller works of gold, the other for smaller works of silver, 
and the fourth of as small an impress as possible, to countermark 



APPENDIX. 285 

the very little pieces of jewellery which from their diminutive size 
can only be assayed by the touchstone. 

Clause 3. — The first three of these punches shall represent one 
and the same letter of the alphabet crowned, which shall change 
annually in alphabetical order at each change of Wardens, in order 
that each shall be answerable for the work countermarked during 
his year of office; and considering the extreme smallness of the 
fourth of the said punches, it shall represent only a small cheuracter 
selected at random, which shall also change every year. 

Clause 4. — The said new Wardens shall take the oath in the 
Court of the Mint to exercise their functions well and truly, and 
shall strike or insculp the new punches of countermark on the table 
of copper in the Registry of the said Court ; at which insculpation 
the Farmer of the Duty of the mark on gold and silver shall be duly 
summoned to attend. 

Clause 5. — The punches which shall have served to counter- 
mark the works during the course of the past year shall be at the 
same time returned to the Court of the Mint by the three Wardens 
retiring from the charge; which punches, having been previously 
restruck and identified with their insculped impresses, shall be, as 
well as the matrices, broken and defaced in presence of the said 
Court. 

Clause 6. — The new punches of countermark shall be then in 
like manner insculped at the office of the Common Hall, and 
immediately put with their matrices into a casket, of which the 
Wardens alone shall have the keys; and the said casket shall be 
enclosed in a coffer fastened with several locks in the said bureau, 
of one of which the aforesaid Farmer shall have the key. 

Clause 7. — The insculpation of the punches being done, the 
three new Wardens shall unite themselves with the three that remain 
who have still one year of their functions to perform, and shall 
together elect for a Dean one of the Ancients wno shall have twice 
held the office of Warden, so that he may enjoy during the year 
of his Deanship the prerogatives of rank and similar dignities 
attached to this honorary title, and to assist the Wardens in charge 
with his counsel when it shall be required of him. 



SECTION XI. 

OF assays and of the countermark of goldsmiths* work 

BY the wardens IN THE COMMON HALL. 

Clause i. — The six Wardens in charge shall assiduously attend 
every week at the office of the Common Hall, and as often as may 
be necessary, to assay and countermark the works of gold and silver 
made in Paris, as also to attend to the other functions of their 
charge and ordinary duties of the Company. 



286 APPENDIX. 

Clause 2. — They shall make the assays of gold and silver 
in the Common Hall ; that is to say, of those in gold by aquafortis, 
•and those of silver by the cupel, and not otherwise. The said 
Wardens may nevertheless assay the very small articles of gold 
by the touchstone alone, if by their delicate workmanship and light- 
ness of weight they cannot be assayed otherwise. 

Clause 3. — In the operation of assaying and the judgment of 
the standard, the said Wardens shall bring to bear all the exactitude 
and care which the importance of the function requires of them; 
consequently all the works which they shall find beyond the remedy 
allowed by the ordinances shall be cut up and broken. 

Clause 4. — The works considered to be standard by the said 
Wardens shall be countermarked by them in a conspicuous place, 
and as near as possible to the maker's punch already stamped upon 
the works; and this in the presence of the Farmer of the Duty of 
the mark on gold and silver, who shall produce for the purpose as 
often as may be necessary his key of the coffer, containing the 
casket in which the punches of countermark are deposited. 

Clause 5. — The said Masters and Wardens of the Goldsmiths' 
Company shall not be allowed to strike their punch of countermark 
on any works of gold and silver of which the fabrication is pro- 
hibited, under the penalties prescribed by the Edicts and t)eclara- 
tions of the King which forbid the fabrication of the said works. 

Clause 6. — It is prohibited and forbidden that the Farmer 
of the Mark on gold and silver, his deputy and overseer, shall apply 
his punch, called the Discharge, upon any works unless the punch 
of countermark of the Common Hall has been previously struck 
upon them by the Wardens, under a penalty of three thousand livres 
for each contravention. 

Clause 7. — The old works marked with the said punch of the 
Common Hall which, by default of payment of the duty on the 
resale of them, shall be seized by the said Farmer of the Duties 
cannot be taken to the Court of the Mint, nor their standard be 
there determined, Seeing that the standard of the said works is 
known and verified by the impress of the said punch. 

Clause 8.— rAnd . forasmuch as this punch of the countermark 
establishes the public faith, and is the guarantee of the goodness 
of the standard of works which bear its stamp, those who shall 
forge, counterfeit, copy, or otherwise imitate the said punch, or 
shall make use of it for a false mark, shall be condemned to do 
p>enance at the church door (amende honorable), and afterwards 
to be hung and strangled (k etre pendus et 6tranglez). 



SECTION XII. 

OF THE VISIT AND INSPECTION OF THE MASTERS AND WARDENS 
OF THE GOLDSMITH-JEWELLERS OF PARIS. 

Clause i. — ^Visit of the Wardens among the Freemen of the 
Company. 

Clause 2. — ^Visit of the Wardens to those not of the Company. 



APPENDIX. 287 

Clause 3. — Inspection of Wardens over the Goldsmiths of the 
environs of Paris. 

Clause 4. — Officers of Justice shall assist the Wardens in their 
visits. 

Clause 5. — ^Wardens shall not be liable to action for seizures 
made in their visits of inspection. 



SECTION XIII. 

OF THE REGULATIONS OF THE GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY IN 
REGARD TO THOSE WHO ARE NOT GOLDSMITHS. 

Clause i. — All Merchants and Artisans of whatsoever quality 
or condition they may be, except Merchant Goldsmiths and their 
widows, are forbid to make any commerce of Goldsmiths' work of 
the punch of Paris, on pain of confiscation and of one thousand 
livres penalty for every contravention. 

Clause 2. — Merchant Mercers of Paris only are allowed to 
sell plate and jewellery coming from Germany and other Foreign 
Countries, on condition that after arrival and reception of the 
said Goldsmiths' work they shall be bound to make their declara- 
tion to the Office of the Merchant Goldsmiths, who shall stamp 
them on the body or on one of the principal pieces with a Special 
punch, used for no other purpose, in such a manner nevertheless that 
they shall not be disfigured. 

Clause 3. — The said Merchant Mercers are forbid to exp)ose 
for sale the said plate and jewellery of foreign manufacture before 
they have been stamped with the said special punch; and in case 
of contravention the Wardens of the Goldsmiths' Company are 
permitted to cause them to be seized, and with this intent to send a 
commissary to the ChSLtelet 

Clause 4. — All strangers are likewise forbid to make or cause 
to be made, or bring, any Merchandise of Goldsmiths' work and 
jewellery to Paris, to sell them there and hawk them about, unless 
they are fine stones loose and unset; and all hawkers male and 
female are forbid to meddle themselves with retailing the said 
Merchandises, on pain of confiscation and arbitrary fine. 

Clause 5. — All persons of either sex, not qualified, commonly 
called brokers (courtiers), are forbid to expose for sale, hawk, or 
sell in Paris any works or materials of gold and silver, precious 
stones, rings and jewels, on pain of being prosecuted and also 
punished exemplarily. 

Clause 6. — All private people of whatsoever station or con- 
dition they may be are likewise forbid to buy, sell, or cry about the 
streets of Paris old gold and silver lace, on pain of fine, confiscation, 
and imprisonment. 

Clause 7. — Refiners and Parters of Gold and Silver, and 



288 APPENDIX. 

Changers, shall not adventure or undertake directly or indirectly 
the establishment and commerce of Merchant Goldsmiths; con- 
sequently they shall not sell nor expose for sale any Goldsmiths' 
works, on pain of confiscation of the said works and fine. 

Clause 8. — The commerce of Diamonds and other precious 
stones, rough or cut. which shall be brought by Foreign Merchants 
to Paris shall be and remain free to the Merchant Goldsmith- 
Jewellers and Master Lapidaries. 

Clause 9. — Neither Lapidaries nor Goldsmiths of Paris shall 
become directly or indirectly Commissioners or Agents of the said 
Foreign Merchants, on pain of a hundred livres penalty. 

Clause 10. — The said Lapidaries are forbid to sell or expose 
for sale any precious stones mounted and worked, on pain of fine 
and confiscation; and the said Lapidaries are only allowed to sell 
the stones rough or cut and not mounted. 

Clause ii. — The said Lapidaries are likewise forbid to garnish 
or mount in work any precious stones in gold and silver, cuid also 
all others than the said Goldsmith-Jewellers, on pain of three 
thousand livres penalty, and all expenses, damages, and interests. 

Clause 12. — The Master Sword Cutlers of Paris may make 
and fashion in gold and silver the hilts of swords and daggers 
provided they buy of the Goldsmiths the gold and silver in mass 
which they desire to employ on their works, and do not engage the 
services of Assistant Goldsmiths. 

Clause 13. — The said Sword Cutlers shall be bound to employ 
gold and silver of the standards and within the remedies pres- 
cribed by the ordinances, and to have a punch to stamp their works, 
and to send them to the office of the Goldsmiths' Company to be 
there assayed and countermarked by the Wardens. 

Clause 14. — Master Engravers of Paris shall be allowed to 
make in gold and silver seals only, provided they buy the materials 
of the Goldsmiths, and work them of the standards prescribed by 
the ordinances, and to have a special punch to mark their works. 

Clause 15. — The Masters and Merchant Goldsmiths are 
allowed to engrave seals and all sorts of Goldsmiths' work which 
they have made, and also to make and engrave intaglio and cameo 
all sorts of punches and plates of steel, straight or otherwise, which 
may be necessary for the fabrication and ornamentation of their 
works. 

Clause 16. — Master Watchmakers of Paris shall be allowed to 
make watch-cases as well as every description of ornaments of 
gold and silver for their watches and clocks; and they shall not be 
able to employ Assistant Goldsmiths, nor to enrich with precious 
stones any of their said cases, under penalty of confiscation and 
fine. 

Clause 17. — The said Watchmakers of Paris shall be bound 
to buy of the Goldsmiths of the said city and of no others the 
materials of gold and silver for the fabrication of their works, and 
to employ them of the standard prescribed by the ordinances, to 
have each their special punch to mark their works, and to send them 



APPENDIX. 289 

to the office of the Goldsmiths' Company to be there assayed and 
countermarked. 

Clause 18. — The Master Founders shall not melt any works 
of gold and silver which are "not of the standard, and only for 
the Goldsmiths and others who have the right to employ these 
materials, for which reason the said Founders shall not receive the 
said materials except in mass or in ingots, duly marked with the 
punch of him who gives them to him ; and, moreover, the said Foun- 
ders shall be bound to preserve the stamp of the said punch for 
ten days, to be produced in case of seizure of the works melted, on 
pain of confiscation and penalty. 

Clause 19. — The said Founders, Sword Cutlers. Watchmakers, 
and Engravers are bound to have, like the Goldsmiths, their forges 
and furnaces fixed in their shops and in the public street; and they 
are forbid on pain of exemplary punishment to melt or work else- 
where than in their said shops, under any pretext whatever, and 
beyond the hours prescribed by the ordinances. 

Clause 20. — The Master Lace Button-makers shall have the 
privilege of selling, concurrently with the Merchant Goldsmiths, 
buttons formed of a cap of gold or silver, stamped and sustained 
by a mould of wood, and also to apply these caps to the said models 
or moulds, on condition that they buy of the Goldsmiths the said 
caps already stamped, finished, and marked if possible with the 
punch of the Goldsmith who sold them. So reciprocally the Gold- 
smith shall buy of the Button-makers or others the moulds of wood 
they may require to make the said buttons, and they shall be bound 
to keep a register of sales and purchases. 



SECTION XIV. 

OF WARDENS' ASSISTANTS, THEIR FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES. 



SECTION XV. 

OF THE JUDICIAL REPORTS OF THE MASTERS AND WARDENS. 



SECTION XVI. AND Last. 

OF THE ANNUAL ACCOUNTS OF THE WARDENS RETIRING FROM 

OFFICE. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 293 



AUTHORITIES ON GOLD AND 
SILVER WARE. 

The following list may be useful to those who wish for further 
information about the Goldsmiths' Art. It is founded on the Cata- 
logue of the Books in the Library at the Assay Office, Birmingham. 
Our acknowledgments are due to the Guardians of the Standard 
of Wrought Plate in Birmingham, for the use of this catalogue. 

Arundel Society's Publication— Designs for Goldsmiths, 

Jewellers, etc., by HANS HOLBEIN. Fol. London, 1869. 
Atkinson, T. D., see Foster, J. E. 
Bergan, R. Wentzel Jamitzers Entwurfe zu Pracht-gefassen in 

Silber und Gold, Facsimiles of the original engravings [1551]. 

Second Edition, La. 8vo. Berlin, 1881. 
Berry, H. F. The Goldsmiths' Company of Dublin. 
BOILEAU, Etienne. Livre des Metiers, Thirteenth century. 
Bone PlaciDE. Trait6 d'Orfevrerie, Bijouterie et Joaillerie. 2 vols. 

Paris, 1832. 
BUCHHOLZ, A. Goldschmiedearbeiten in Livland, Estland und 

Kurland, La. 4to, Lubeck, 1892. 
Buck, J. H. Old Plate, Ecclesiastical, Decorative, and Domestic: 

its Makers and Marks, 8vo. New York, 1888. 

New Edition 8vo. New York, 1903. 

Loving Cups, 4to. New York, 1898. 

BURCKHARDT, C. and RiGGENBACH, C. De Kirchenschatz des Miin- 

sters in Basel, 4to. Basel, 1862. 
Burns, Thomas. Old Scottish Communion Plate, 8vo. Edin- 
burgh, 1892. 
Castellani, M. a. a Memoir on the Jewellery of the Ancients, 

4to. N.D. 
Cellini, Benvenuto. Treatises on Goldsmithing and Sculpture, 

Translated by C. R. Ashbee, Imperial 8vo. London, 1898. 
Chaffers, W. Gilda Aurifabrorum. A History of English Gold- 
smith and Plate workers, 8vo. London, 1899. 
Cooper, Rev. T. S. The Church Plate of Surrey, 8vo. 1902. 
Crichton, Lionel and Philip. The Antique Church Plate of St. 

Mary Abbot's, Kensington, 8vo. London, 1893. 
The Antique Church Plate of the Chapel Royal, Kensington 

Palace, 8vo. London, 1894. 
Cripps, W. J. Old English Plate, 8vo. London, 1899. 

Eighth Edition. 1903. 

Old French Plate, 8vo. London, 1893. 



Davenport, Cyril. The English Regalia, 4to. London, 1897. 
DracH, C. a. von. Aeltere Silberarbeiten in den Koniglichen 

Sammlung zu Cassel. Fo. Marburg, 1888. 
Ellis, H. D. Description of the ancient silver plate belonging 

to the Company of Armourers and Braziers, 4to. London, 1892. 
Endel, Paul. 60 Planches d'Orfevrerie de la Collection de Paul 

Endel, pour faire suite aux E16mens d'Orfevrerie composes par 

Pierre Germain, 4to. Paris, 1884. 



294 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Catalogue de la Vente de TArgenterie Ancienne appartenant 



a Paul Endel, 8vo. Paris, 1884. 

L*orf6vrerie algerienne et tunisienne, La. 8vo. Alger, 1902. 



Fairholt, F. W. An illustrated Descriptive Catalogue of the 

Collection of Antique Silver Plate formed by Albert Lord 

Londesborough, 4to. London, i860. 
Ferguson, R. S. Old Church Plate in the Diocese of Carlisle. 

Edited by. 8vo. London, 1882. 
Flindt, p. Entwiirfe zu Gef assen und Motiven fur Goldschmie- 

dearbeiten, Fo. Leipzig, 1887. 
Foster, J. E. and Atkinson, T. D. An Illustrated Catalogue of 

the Loan Collection of Plate Exhibited in the Fitzwilliam 

Museum, May, 1895, 4to. Cambridge, 1896. 
Freshfield, E. The Communion Plate of Churches in the City 

of London, 4to. London, 1894. 
The Communion Plate of the Parish Churches in the County 

of London, 4to. London, 1895. 

The Communion Plate of the Parish Churches in the County 



of Middlesex, 4to. London, 1897. 

The Communion Plate of the Parish Churches in the County 



of Essex, Part I, 4to. London, 1899. 

Gardiner, Rev. E. R. Notes on the Church Plate now existing in 
the Deaneries of Baldock and Hitchin in the Diocese of St. 
Albans, 8vo. St Albans, 1888. 

Gardner, J. Starkie. Exhibition of a Collection of Silversmiths' 
Work of European Origin. Burlington Fine Arts Club, 4to. 
1901. 

Catalogue of the Exhibition of Silversmiths* work of Euro- 
pean Origin. St. James's Court, London, 1902. 

Old Silver Work, chiefly English, from, the XVth to the 



XVIIIth Century. London, 1904. 
Gee, George E. The Practical Goldworker, or the Goldsmiths and 

Jeweller's Instructor, 8vo. London, 1877. 
The Hall-marking of Jewellery practically considered, 8vo. 

London, 1882. 
-The Jeweller's Assistant in the Art of Working in Gold, 8vo. 



London, 1892. 

Germain, P. Elements d'orf^vrerie, 4to. Paris, 1748. 

GuiBERT, L. L'orf6vrerie et les orf^vres de Limoges, La. 8vo. 
Limoges, 1884. 

GUIFFREY, J. J. Les Orf6vres de Paris en 1700, 8vo. Paris, 1879. 

Halliday, George E. LlandafF Church Plate, 8vo. London, 1901. 

Haslewood, Rev. F. Church Plate of Suffolk, Edited by, 8vo. 
Ipswich, 1897. 

Havard, Henry. Histoire de L'Orfevrerie Fran9aise, Pol. Paris, 
i89i5. 

Hope, R. C. English Goldsmiths who have been or still are Mem- 
bers of the Goldsmiths' Company in the Cities and Towns 
where Plate was or is Assayed, 8vo. London, N.D. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 295 

An Inventory of the Church Plate in Rutland. 8vo. London. 

1887. 
Hope, W. H. St. John. See Jewett. 
JEWETT, H. and Hope, W. H. St. John. The Corporation Plate and 

Insignia of Office of the Cities and Towns of England and 

Wales, 2 vols., 4to. London, 1895. 
King, T. H. Orf^vrerie et Ouvrages en M6tal du Moyen-Age, 2 

vols., Fol. Brussels, 1852-57. 
Labarte, Jules. Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Ages and 

Renaissance. Translated from the French, 8vo. London, 1855. 
Lacroix, p. and Sere, F. Histoire de TOrf^vrerie-Joaillerie et des 

Anciennes Communaut^s et Confreries d'Orf6vres-Joailliers de 

la France et de la Belgique, 8vo. Paris, 1850. 

Lambert, George. St. Dunstan, Patron Saint of the Guild of 

Goldsmiths, 8vo. London, 1883. 
Lasteyrie, Ferd. de. Description du tr6sor de Guarrazar, La. 8vo. 

Paris, i860. 

Histoire de TOrf^vrerie, 8vo. Paris, 1877. 

Lea, W. Church Plate in the Archdeaconry of Worcester, 8vo. 

Worcester, 1884. 
Le Roy, Pierre. Statuts et Privileges du Corps des Marchants 

Orf^vres-Joyailliers de la Ville de Paris, 4to. Paris, 1759. 
LiNDBERG, C. F. Die Silberausstellung in National Museum zu 

Stockholm in Jahre 1887, Fo. Stockholm, 1887. 
LONDESBOROUGH, LORD. See Fairholt, F. W. 

LUTHMER, F. Goldschmuck des Renaissance nach Originalen und 
von Gemaelden des XV-XVII Jahrhundert, Fol. Berlin, 1881. 

Ornamental Jewellery of the Renaissance, Fol. London, 

1882. 

Des Schatz des Freiherm KARL VON ROTHSCHILD, Meister 



werke alter Goldschmiedekunst aus dem 14-18 Jahrhundert, 2 
vols., Fol. Frankfurt-am-Main, 1883-85. 

LUTSCHAUNIG, A. The Book of Hall Marks, or Manual of Refer- 
ence for the Gold and Silversmith, 8vo. London, 1872. 

Mansion House, City of London. List of the Plate with the 
Inscriptions thereon at the, 8vo. London, 1888, P.P. 

Markham, C. a. The Church Plate of the County of Northampton, 
8vo. London, 1894. 

Chaffer's Handbook to Hall Marks on Gold and Silver 

Plate, 8vo. London, 1897. 

Hand Book to Foreign Hall Marks on Gold and Silver 



Plate, 8vo. London, 1898. 

Hand Book to French Hall Marks on Gold and Silver 



Plate, 8vo. London, 1899. 
MOFFATT, Harold C. See Stanhope. 

MOLINIER, E. Le tr6sor de la Cathedral de Coire, Fo. Paris, 1895. 
Nightingale, J. E. The Church Plate of the County of Dorset. 

8vo. Salisbury, 1889. 
The Church Plate of the County of Wilts., 8vo. Salisbury, 

1891. 



296 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Parliamentary Reports. 

Gold and Silver Commission. Reports of the Roval Com- 
mission appointed to Enquire into the Recent changes in 
the Relative Values of the Precious Metals, 1897, 4 vols., Fol. 

Gold and Silver, Hall Marking. Report from the Select 
Committee on 1878, Fol. 

Hall Marking, Gold and Silver. Report from the Select 

Committee on 1879, Fol. 

Silver and Gold Wares. Report from the Select Committee 

on 1856, Fol. 

PasiN, a. II tesoro de San Marco in Venezia, Fo. Venezia, 1886. 

Phillips, J. A. Gold Mining and Assaying, 8vo. London, 1853. 

PiCHON, M LE Baron Jerome. Catalogue de la Vente de la 

Collection de, 4to. Paris, 1897. 
Pollen, J. H. Ancient and Modern Gold and Silversmiths* Work 
in the South Kensington Museum, 8vo. London, 1878. 

Gold and Silver Smith's Work, 8vo. London, N.D. 

Poole, J. U. Hall-marking of Gold and Silver Wares and Watch 

Cases, 8vo. 1880. 
Price, F. G. H. A Handbook of London Bankers, 8vo. London, 

1890. 
Raibaud, B. L. Trait6 de la Garantie. Paris, 1825. 

Matieres d'Or et d'Argent. Paris, 1835. 

Redman, W. The Jeweller's Guide and Handy Reference Book, 

8vo. Bradford, 1883. 
Hall Marks Illustrated, 1 560-191 5, 8vo. Bradford, N.D. 

RiGGENBACH, C, see BURCKHARDT, C. 

Ris-Paquot. Dictionnaire des Poin^ons. Symboles, Signes Figura- 
tifs, Marques et Monogrammes des Orf^vres Fran^ais et 
Etrangers, 8vo. Paris, 1890. 

Rosenberg, Dr. Marc. Der Goldschmiede Merkzeichen, 8vo. 
Franfurt am Main, 1890. 

ROSNEL, Pierre de. Trait6 sommaire de Tlnstitution du Corps et 
Communaut^ des Marchands Orf^vres. 1662. 

Sick, J. Fr. Notice sur les Ouvrages en Or et en Argent dans le 
Nord, 8vo. Copenhagen, 1884. 

Specimens of Ancient Church Plate &c., 4to. London, 1845. 

Stanhope, The Hon. B. S., and Moffatt, Harold C. The Church 
Plate of the County of Hereford, 4to. London, 1903. 

Streeter, E. W. Gold : or, Legal Regulations for the Standard 
of Gold & Silver Wares in different Countries of the World, 
8vo. London, 1878. 

Thorpe, N. and C. London Church Staves, 8vo. London, 1895. 

Touchstone, A. For Gold and Silver Wares. A Manual for 
Goldsmiths by W. B. of London, Goldsmith, i2mo. London, 
1677. 

Trollop, Rev. A. An Inventory of the Church Plate of Leicester- 
shire, 2 vols., 4to. Leicester, 1890. 

VIEVILLE, Poullin DE. Code de TOrf^vrerie. Paris, 1785. 

Wheatley, H. B. and Delamotte, P. H. Art Work in Gold and 
Silver Modern, 8vo. London, 1882. 

WiGLEY, T. B. The Art of the Goldsmith and Jeweller, 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1898. 



INDEX. 



Aberdeen, i86 

Alms Dishes, xxxiii. 

Alphabetical List of Communities 

(France), 247 
Andrews (St.), 194 
Argue (France), 230 
Articuli super Cartas, 5 
Assay by spectroscope, 65 
Assay Offices and Marks, 9, 14, 60, 64 
Assays (France), 234-238 
Authorities, 293 

Avoirdupois and Troy compared, 58 
Ayr, 187 

B 

Banff, 187 

Basins, xliii. 

Bayonne, 250 

Berwick, 187 

Bibliography, 293 

Bigornes (France), 227 

BIRMINGHAM, 90, 132, Assay Letters 

Birmingham appointed to assay, 30 
Bordeaux, 250 
BRISTOL, 136 
Britannia Standard, 31 



Candlesticks, xlvii. 
I Chaffers* "Gilda Aurifabrorum," 93r 

107 
I Chalices, xxvi., xxix. 
1 Charge and Discharge (France), 228 
I Charters of Goldsmiths, 6, 9, 10, 13, 15. 

CHESTER, 90, 136, Table of Letters,, 
140, 142 

Christening Bowls, xxxiv. 

Chronological List of Plate (London),. 
116-131 

Coins, weight and fineness, 51 

Copperplate at the Hall. Facing 
page 213 

Copperplate (Rouen), 225 

Cork (Sterling), 201 

Coronation Plate, xxxv. 

Corporation Plate, xxxvi. 
I Counterfeit stamps (P'rance), 243 

Countermark (France), 226 

Coventry, 144 

Crail, 188 
, Criminal Law Consolidation, 34 



D 



Date Marks, 93 
Decimal weights, 59 



w 



298 



INDEX. 



Declarations and Edicts (France), 215 

Demonstration (France), 230 

" Depart *' in assay (France), 236 

Departments (marks of France), 247 

Dingwall, 188 

Domestic Plate, xxxvii. 

Drawback, 33, 38, 46, 70 

DUBLIN Assay Letters, 196-21 1 

Dunbar, 188 

Dundee, 188 

Duty, 29, 32, 46, 70, 72, 73, 74, 96 

Duty abolished on silver, 46 

Duty on plate (France), 221, 229 

Dysart, 189 

E 

Ecclesiastical Plate, xxvi. 
EDINBURGH, 174, Table of Marks, 

176-178 
Elgin, 189 
Ewers, xliii. 

Exemptions from Duty, 28 
EXETER, 90, 144, Table of Marks, 

Exports, 10, 13 

Extracts from Statutes, etc., 5 



Flagons, xxxiii. 

Foreign plate to be stamped, xiv., ^^, 

40 
Forks, xlvii. 
Fran9aise (Orf^vrerie), 213, adfinem 

G 

Gilding inferior medals, ii, 12 
GLASGOW, 182, Table of Marks, 184- 

185 
Gold alloys, 65 
Gold assaj's, 65 

Goldsmiths (celebrated), 211, 212 
Goldsmiths* Charters, 6, 10, 13, 15 
Goldsmiths* (Communities in France), 

247 
Goldsmiths* Registers in France, 242 



H 

Haddington, 190 

Hall Marks of Assay Towns, 90 

Hull, 154 

I 

Inquartation of gold, 237 
Introduction, xv. 
Inverness, 190 
Ireland, Hall Marks, 108, 186 
Irvine, 190 

J 

Jedburgh, 191 

Jewellery exempt from assay, 28, 48 



K 



King's head duty mark, 30 



La Rochelle, 250 

Leith, 191 

Leopard's head, 5 

Le Roy*s work quoted, 276-289 

Licenses, 29, 30, 73 

Lille, 250 

Limoges, 250 
Lincoln, 154 

Linlithgow, 191 

LONDON, 90, Table of Assay Letters, 

110-115 

Lyon, 250 

M 

Maison Commune (France), 226 
Makers* marks, see plate, 92, 98, 10 1 
Marks of Communities (France), 247 
Marks of provinces, 7, 13, 15 
Marks (Tables of), 108 
Marseille, 250 
Mazers, xxxvii. 
Melrose, 192 
Metric system, 231 
Mint engravers, 212 



INDEX. 



299 



Mint marks of towns (France), 247, 

249 
Mont de Piet6 (France), 238 
Montrose, 192 



154, Table of 



N 

Nantes, 250 
NEWCASTLE, 90, 

Letters, 156-157 
New Geneva, 197 
Newton on Ayr, 192 
NORWICH, 90, 158 



O 

Obligations of Goldsmiths (France), 

239 
Offences and frauds, 78-88 

Orfcvrerie Fran^aise, 213, adfinem 



Paris, 250 

Patens, xxvL, xxix. 

Perpignan, 250 

Perth, 192 

Plate (Chronological List of), 116- 131 

Provincial Offices, 20, 132 

Public sales (France), 23^ 

Punches (France), 225, 245, 249, 258- 

269 
Pyx (Trial of the), 67 

R 

Recense or Verification (France), 264 
Registers of Goldsmiths (France), 242 
Report of Committee, 42, 76 
Rouen, 250 



Salisbury, 161 
Scotland, 108, 168 
SHEFFIELD, 90, 161, Table of Let- 
ters, 163, 164 



Spectroscope, 65 

Spoons, xxxiv., xlv. 

Stamps and punches (France), 225, 

et seq. 
Standards in France, 224 
Standards passim 
Standing Cups, xxxix 
Standing Salts, xliv. 
Statutes, Table of, 1-4 
Sterling (a mark), 201 
Stirling, 194 
Strasbourg, 250 
Sumptuary laws, 219 



Table of exemptions, 28 

Table of Marks in England, Scotland, 

and Ireland, 108. 109 
Table of statutes, 1-4 
Tables of Assay Letters — 

BIRMINGHAM, 134 

CHESTER, 140 

DUBLIN, 208 

EDINBURGH, 176 

EXETER, 150 

GLASGOW, 184 

LONDON, 110-115 

NEWCASTLE, 156 

SHEFFIELD, 163 
Tables, various (France), 233 
Tain, 194 
Tankards, xli. 
Toulouse, 250 
Troy weights, 57, 58 



W 

Waste and sweep, 66 
Wedding-rings, 38 
Weights, 55, 58 



YORK, 90, 165 



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THE MAKING OF SOUND IN THE ORGAN 
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THB THBORY OF THE AIR-REED ELUCIDATED. 

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Author of " The World's Earliest Music," " Modem Organ Tuning,'* etc. 



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THE 

World's Earliest Music: 

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B\ 



Hermann Smith. 

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