NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 3 3433 08254596 7 mimmiiiiiniiiiiinmmfinw AH (H o ^2 3 s eS THE HALL OF FAME Proceedings of the Second Unveiling of Memorial Tablets in the Hall of Fame at University Heights, New York City, upon Memorial Day, May 30, 1907 BY GEORGE FREDERICK KUNZ, PH.D. President of the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society; Delegate to and Chronicler of the Proceedings Reprinted by New York University from President Kunz s Report for tke use of the One Hundred Electors and the P'orty Participating Societies I9O8 ' AH ' By Wealth of Thought, or Else by Mighty Deed, they served Mankind; In noble character, in world wide Good, they live forevermore . " THE HALL OF FAME BY GEORGE FREDERICK KUNZ, PH.D. INTRODUCTION. On March 5, 1900, the Council of New York University, in the city of New York, accepted, from a donor whose name is with- held, a gift of $100,000, afterward increased to $250,000, for the erection on University Heights in the borough of the Bronx, of a building to be called " The Hall of Fame for Great Ameri- cans." The object of this institution is set forth in the following constitution of the Hall of Fame approved by the university in March, 1900 : Constitution of the Hall of Fame. A gift of one hundred thousand dollars is accepted by New York University under the following conditions : The money is to be used for building a colonnade five hundred feet in length, at University Heights, looking toward the Palisades and the Harlem and Hudson river valleys. The exclusive use of the colon- made is to serve as " The Hall of Fame for Great Americans." One hundred and fifty panels, each about two by eight feet, will be provided for inscriptions. Fifty of these will be inscribed in 1900, provided fifty names shall be approved by the two bodies of judges named below. At the close of every five years there- after five additional panels will be inscribed, so that the entire number shall be completed A. D. 2000. The statue, bust, or portrait of any person, whose name is inscribed, may be given a place either in the Hall of Fame or in the museum. 1 The following rules are to be observed for inscriptions : (1) The University will invite nominations until May 1st, from the public in general, of names to be inscribed, to be addressed by mail to the Chancellor of the University, New York city. 1 A bronze bust of Horace Mann, with granite pedestal, has been given to be placed above his tablet. 4 THE HALL OF FAME ( 2) Every name that is seconded by any member of the Uni- versity Senate will be submitted to 100 or more persons throughout the country who may be approved by the Senate, as professors or writers of American history, or especially interested in the same. (3) ]STo name will be inscribed unless approved by a majority of the answers received from this body of judges before October 1st of the year of election. (-i) Each name thus approved will be inscribed unless dis- approved before November 1st by a majority of the nineteen mem- bers of the ]STew York University Senate, who are the Chancellor / with the Dean and Senior Professor of each of the six schools, and the president or representative of each of the six theological faculties in or near ISTew York city. (5) ~No name may be inscribed except of a person born in what Is now the territory of the United States 1 and of a person who has been deceased at least ten years. (6) In the first fifty names must be included one or more repre- sentatives of a majority of the following fifteen classes of citizens : 2 ""(a) Authors and editors, (b) Business men. *(c) Edu- cators. ~"(d) Inventors, (e) Missionaries and explorers. *(f) Philanthropists and reformers. *(g) Preachers and theologians. *(h) Scientists, (i) Engineers and architects. *(j) Lawyers and judges. *(k) Musicians, painters and sculptors. (1) Physicians and surgeons. *(m) Rulers and statesmen, ^(u) Soldiers and sailors, (o) Distinguished men and women outside the above classes. (7) Should these restrictions leave vacant panels in any year, the Senate may fill the same the ensuing year, following the same rules. The granite edifice which will serve as the foundation of the Hall of Fame shall be named the Museum of the Hall of Fame. Its final exclusive use shall be the commemoration of the great Americans whose names are inscribed in the colonnade above, by the preservation and exhibition of portraits and other important mementoes of these citizens. The six rooms and the long corridor shall in succession be set apart to this exclusive use. The room i See Supplemental Article, page 5. -2 The classes marked by an asterisk were each given representation by the electors in 1900, thus satisfying finally this Rule. THE HALL OF FAME. 5 to be first used shall be named the Washington Gallery, and shall be set apart so soon as ten or more portraits of the persons in- scribed shall be accepted for permanent preservation by the Uni- versity. 1 The other rooms shall be named and sot apart for the exclusive use above specified so soon as their space shall, in the judgment of the University, be needed for the purpose of the .Museum of the Hall of Fame. In the meantime they may be de- t/ / voted to ordinary college uses. The outer western wall of the Hall of Languages and of the Hall of Philosophy, which look into the Hall of Fame, shall be treated as a part of the same, and no in- scription shall be placed upon them except such as relate to the great names inscribed in the 150 panels. Statues and busts of the great Americans chosen may be assigned places either in the Museum of the Hall of Fame, or in the Hall of Fame itself, as the givers of the same may decide with the approval of the University. Supplemental Article. Adopted by ISTew York University, February S, 1904. 1. An edifice in the form of a loggia, about one hundred feet in length, designed for the commemoration of great Americans of foreign nativity will be joined as soon as means shall have been provided, to the north end of the present Hall of Fame with har- monious architecture, to contain space for at least twenty-five me- morial tablets. Six of these shall be set apart in the year 1905 for the commemoration of .six American men of foreign birth who shall then have been deceased ten years. An additional panel shall be devoted to one name each succeeding five years through- out the twentieth century. The rules heretofore adopted for the Hall of Fame will be observed in the choosing of these names. Until the loggia shall have been builded the tablets inscribed with the names of great Americans of foreign nativity will be placed upon the walls of the Museum of the Hall of Fame. 2. Xew York University, taking account of a widely expressed desire for a larger recognition of women in the plan of the Hall 1 A bronze bust of Washington by Houclon, was placed in the Museum, the gift of Dr. J. Ackerman C'oles in 1905. 6 THE HALL OF FAME. of Fame, sets apart a site for a Hall of Fame for Women imme- diately adjoining the quadrant reserved for American citizens of foreign birth at the northeast end of the present structure. This site will accommodate a building about 30x60 feet, which should consist of a Museum on the ground floor with a main story above of twenty-eight columns supporting a pedimented roof. Places will be provided for sixty tablets as follows : Fifty for American women of native birth, ten for American women of foreign birth. The Board of One Hundred Electors will be requested to elect in the year 1905 ten famous American women of native birth and two famous American women of foreign birth, also in each succeeding quinquennial year to add two names of the American women of native birth and in each decennial year, beginning with 1910, to add the name of one American woman of foreign birth until all the tablets shall have been filled. The rules already prescribed in the Deed of Gift for the Hall of Fame, so far as applicable, will be observed in the choosing of names for the Hall of Fame for Women. Until the Hall of Fame for "Women shall have been builded, the tablets which may be in- scribed with the names chosen by the Board of One Hundred Electors will b? placed upon the Avails of the Museum of the Hall of Fame. Location of Hall of Fame. In accordance with the plans indicated in the foregoing Consti- tution, an edifice was built supporting a colonnade over 400 feet in length, connectine; the University Hall of Philosophv with the ~ O .' i JL y Hall of Languages. On the ground floor is the Museum of the Hall of Fame, 200 feet long and 40 wide, comprising a corridor and six halls. Joined to the Hall of Fame on the north is the granite foundation upon which is to be built a loggia about 100 feet long, and beyond this the site is reserved for the Hall of Fame for Women about 30x60 feet in size. The structure stands 011 the rising ground on the east side of Sedgwick avenue in the borough of the Bi'onx, a mile north of Washington bridge (One Hundred and Eighty-first street). The convex side of the hall is toward the west and commands a superb THE HALL, OF FAME. ' 7 view of the Harlem river, Manhattan Island, the Hudson river and the Palisades beyond. It may be reached from Manhattan borough by subway to One Hundred and Eighty-first street; thence by trolley car across Washington bridge and up Aqueduct avenue; or, by Amsterdam avenue surface cars to Washington bridge, and thence as above described. Dedication of Hall of Fame and Twenty-nine 'Tablets in 1901. In October, 1900, the University Senate made their first can- vass of ballots of electors and out of 252 names submitted to them the following twenty-nine were chosen as worthy of a place in the Hall. The figures in parentheses after each name represent the number of electors (out of a total o^"95) "voting for the name: Authors: Emerson (87), Longfellow (85), Irving (83), Haw- thorne (73). Teachers: Edwards (82), Mann (67), Beecher (64), Chan- ning (58). Scientists: Fulton (86), Morse (82), Whitney (69), Audubon (67), Asa Gray (51). Soldiers: Grant (93), Farragut (79),- -Lee (68). Jurists: Marshall (91), Kent ( 65 f. Story (64). Statesmen: Washington (97)J, Lincoln <"96), Webster ,( 96), Franklin (94), Jefferson (91), Clay (74), Vohn Adams (62)7 Septimi: Peabody (74), Peter Cooper (69), Stuart (52). Tablets to the foregoing were unveiled at the dedication of the Hall of Fame on Ma 30 1901. Eleven Names Chosen in 1905. Under date of October 15, 1905, the University Senate ad- dressed to each of the 100 electors the following report : October 15, 1905. The Senate of New York University respectfully presents to you this report of the official canvass of ballots received from the electors of the Hall of Fame in 1905. 8 THE HALL OF FAME. The total number of electors reporting is 95, a majority being 48. Of the 95 electors, 9 do not act upon the names of women, leaving 86 acting thereon, a majority being 44. From 6 electors, each of whom had consented to act this year, no ballot has been received. Of these electors, 3 are chief jus- tices in the south or west; 2 are prominent in politics, each in a western State ; the 6th is the president of a State University in the west. One Ballot, received without name or other mark to indicate its sender, was probably sent by one of these six, but could not be counted. The number of electors who accepted the office was 101, a majority being 51. Before canvassing the ballots, the Senate of ISTew York Uni- versity, on October 7, 1905 (when no one of its members except the chairman had any knowledge of the contents of any ballot) y adopted unanimously the following resolution : " To secure an unquestionable majority to every name that shall be inscribed in the Hall of Fame, the Senate, following the prece- dent of five years since, requires, in order to admit any name, the ballots of 51 out of 95 electors; and of 47 out of 86 electors, who have considered the names of women." The Senate, having under the Deed of Gift, a right of veto on the names " approved by a majority of the answers received,' 7 exercised the right in this limited form, by excluding every name lacking a majority of all the Electors. The Senate appointed its president, vice-president, and secre- tary, whose names are subscribed below, to canvass the ballots. The result of this canvass shows the following persons to be duly elected each to a vacant place in the Hall of Fame. The number of ballots approving each name is also indicated, includ- ing the ballot of Ambassador Whitelaw Reid, received since the canvass of October 9th 10th. FAMOUS AMERICANS or ISTATivE BIETH. JOH^ QUUSTCY ADAMS Sixty (60) JAMES EUSSELL LOWELL Fifty-nine (59) WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN Fifty-eight (58) JAMES MADISON Fifty-six (56) GREEKLEAF WHITTIER Fifty-three (53) Hull of Fame, New York University, interior of Colonnade. THE HALL OF FAME. 9 FAMOUS AMERICANS OF FOREIGN BIRTH. ALEXANDER HAMILTON Eighty-eight (88) LOUIS AGASSIZ Eighty-three (83) JOHN PAUL JONES Fifty-five (55) FAMOUS AMERICAN WOMEN. MARY LYON Fifty-nine (59) EMMA WILLARD Fifty (50) MARIA MITCHELL Forty-eight (48) This report was signed by Henry M. MacOracken, President of Senate, John J. Stevenson, Vice-President of Senate, and Francis H. Stoddard ; Secretary of Senate. The above eleven names complete a roll of forty names now in- scribed in the Hall of Fame. DEDICATORY EXERCISES, MAY 30, 1907. The following invitation was given in May, 1907, to each of more than forty National or New York associations of patriotic, educational, scientific or philanthropic character; also to several thousands of citizens who were believed to be interested in the programme of the day: The Senate of New York University requests the honor of your presence at the second unveiling of tablets in the Hall of Fame, Universitv Heights, New York city, on the afternoon of Decora- u c v / tion Day, Thursday, the thirtieth of May, nineteen hundred and seven, at half-past three o'clock. The invitation was accepted by the many associations whose names are given below and who appeared by their representatives, also by a very large number of citizens. The newspapers of the day estimated the company at 4,000 to 8,000 persons. The lower estimate was probably nearer the fact. The weather was favor- able in the highest degree. Proi ptly at the hour named in this invitation the united dele- gations moved in procession from the University Library. Half an hour before this, the coming of the Governor of New York 10 THE HALL OF FAME. had been welcomed by a salute of seventeen guns by a detach- ment of the First Battery, ST. G. N. Y., Captain John F. O'Ryan, commanding. The intervening time had been given to a reception by the Governor in the rotunda of the Library. The following was The Order of Procession. Delegates of New York Citv Hie-h Schools. / o Delegates of Students of New York University. Trumpeters and Seventh Regiment Band. The Chairman of the Senate and the Governor of New York. The Staff of the Governor of New York. The Secretary of the Senate and the Governor of Massachusetts. The Senior Professor of the Senate and the Chaplain of the Day. The Members of the Senate and Electors of the Hall of Fame. Members of the Council and Officers of the Federal, State and City Governments, and of Foreign Governments. Members of the Women's Advisory Committee and Officers of f the United States Army and Navy, and of the National Guard. Delegates of the Societies participating in the Unveiling of the Eleven Tablets. Delegates of Societies appointed to Decorate the Twenty-nine Tablets Unveiled by the Respective Societies in 1901. Delegates of Educational Societies to the Unveiling of the Bronze Bust of Horace Mann. Members of the University Faculties and of the Faculties of Sister Universities, Colleges and Schools. The following societies among the twenty-nine which unveiled tablets in 1901, were represented by delegates, who brought wreaths, which they laid upon the parapets above the respective tablets : George Washington: Society of the Cincinnati. John Adams: Sons of the Revolution. Thomas Jefferson: Sons of the American Revolution. THE HALL OF FAME. 11 Daniel Webster: Daughters of the American Revolution. Henry Clay: Daughters of the Kevolution. Abraham Lincoln: Military Order of the Loyal Legion. James Kent: Bar Association of New York. Ulysses S. Grant: Grand Army of the Republic. Robert E. Lee: United Daughters of the Confederacy. Samuel F. B. Morse: American Institute of Electrical Engi- neers. Eli Whitney: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Jonathan Edwards : Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor. -Henry Ward Beecher: Young Men's Christian Association. William E. Charming: New England Society. Horace Mann : National Educational Association. Nathaniel Hawthorne : Morris High School. . Washington Irving: Washington Irving High School. t Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Brooklyn Girls' High School. Delegates by invitation represented The Principals' Associa- tion, The High School Art Teachers' Association, The High School Drawing Teachers' Association, The Kraus Kindergarten Association, The High School Teachers' Association, The New York City Teachers' Association, The Schoolmasters' Associa- tion, The New York Schoolmasters' Club in honor of the un- veiling of the bronze bust of Horace Maim which is set upon the parapet above the bronze tablet unveiled in 1901. The Hall of Fame for Women. The procession moved northward to the site of the Hall of Fame for Women, which at. present is marked only by a wall of concrete, in which are fixed the Tablets of Bronze. A temporary platform near by was reserved for the delegates of the societies Avho were appointed to unveil the memorials. Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken, as Chairman of the University Senate, in- troduced these delegates. He said: 12 THE HALL OF FAME. In October, 1905, the One Hundred Electors of the Hall of Fame inaugurated a Roll of Famous American Women by the selection by a majority of the voices of the electors participating: of three names. First in point of age among these is Emma Willard, who was born one hundred and twenty years ago. The unveiling of the bronze tablet bearing her name is assigned to the Emma Willard Association, which is represented by Mrs. Charles E. Patterson of Troy, X. Y., and Mrs. Dr. William S. Searle, vice-pr( si dent of the association. I have the honor of in- troducing as their speaker Mrs. Patterson. Em inn \Yillard. Mrs. Charles E. Patterson said : In every great upheaval of moral forces there has been one to whom the revelation of some principle of truth lirst came, and with the heavenly vision came the courage to proclaim it, and to- do, to dare, to suffer for the cause he or she loved and believed in. The tablet to be now unveiled commemorates Emma Hart Willard, a pioneer . in as great a revolution as ever changed the history of the world. This great movement was not baptized in blood, there was no clash of arms, no martial music, but when a woman dared proclaim that woman was capable of, and entitled to- the highest intellectual development, when the woman we honor to-day said, " Reason and religion teach that we too are primary- existences ; that it is for us to move in the orbit of our duty, around the Holy Center of perfection, the Companions, not the Satellites of men," she uttered a truth as certain, if not as start- ling, as when 011 July Fourth, 1776, brave men signed the paper that declared these American Colonies free and independent States. In 1818, Mrs. Willard presented to the Legislature of New York her " Plan for improving female education," the Magna Charta of the rights of woman in matters of education. In her school, opened without State aid. at Waterford, ISTew York, in 1819, and two years later removed to Troy, Xew York, was laid the foundation for those superb institutions of learning for women of which the twentieth century is so proud. THE HALL OF FAME. 1 . > Mrs. Willard was also a pioneer among women in the making of school books, and her books of instruction in. Geography and History were surpassed by none of her days. As a teacher, she took first rank, developing in her pupils those lofty ideals and that love of knowledge with which she was herself inspired. So it is most fitting that in this beautiful hall built to preserve the name and fame of the great, the good, the wise, the brave, an enduring memorial should be placed to Emma Willard. Mary Lyon. The Chancellor said: The second in point of age among the three famous American women is Mary Lyon, who was born one hundred and ten years ago. The unveiling of the bronze tablet bearing her name is assigned to the ISTew York Alumnse Association of Mt. Holyoke College, which is represented by Mrs. J. D. Walton of Bellport, L. I., president, and by Mrs. I. W. Sylvester of Passaic, 1ST. J., whom I have now the honor of introducing as their speaker. Mrs. Sylvester said : It is not because Mary Lyon founded Mt. Holyoke College that w r e are here to give her name honor to-day. It is because that with comprehensive grasp she seized upon the fact that the greatest benefit which she could confer upon her race was the raising of the intellectual status of women. Xot only did she make possible what, before her effort, had "been, practically impossible, the opportunity for women to cultivate in like fashion as their brothers the brains which God had given them, but she also lifted the stigma which had been, before her time, attached to the educated girl. As we unveil her name in this place of honor so did she with ,steady and efficient hand lift the veil which darkened the vision of her age and made it possible for men and women to see that upon the education of women depended as perhaps upon no other xleed, the progress and happiness of her race. Her personality was very great. 14- THE HALL OF FAME. In that educational movement which dominated the descendants of our New England colonies, Mary Lyou worked fearlessly and effectively against the prejudice of her age, along new lines, her only fear being that she should not know all her duty or knowing it that she should fail to accomplish it. It was given her to know and accomplish. Maria Mitchell. The Chancellor said : The third in point of age among the three famous American women is Maria Mitchell, who was born eighty-nine years ago. The unveiling of the bronze tablet bearing her name is assigned to the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association, which is represented to-day by Professor Mary TV. Whitney of Vassal- College, presi- dent ; Mrs. Benjamin Albertson of Philadelphia, vice-president, and founder of the Maria Mitchell House at Nantucket, and Mrs. Charles S. Hinchman of Philadelphia, vice-president. I have the honor of introducing as their speaker Professor Whitney of Vassar. Prof. Marv W. Whitnev said : J i/ Maria Mitchell's words here inscribed, " Every formula which expresses a law of Nature, is a hymn of praise to God,'.' and her oft-repeated precept, " Do not neglect the infinities for the infin- itesimals," typify the character of the scientist and teacher, to whom this tablet is dedicated. Extraordinary simplicity of thought, as unvarnished as the formula; freedom from self-con- sciousness, like Nature ; freedom from conventions, like all reali- ties ; these marked her life. She believed that Science brought the mind into touch with the Power behind phenomena. She believed it elevated character. She was devoted to the education of young women, because she wished their lives to be governed by the harmonies of truth rathei* than by the vagaries of tradition, by the " infinities rather than by the infinitesimals." The law of Nature, embodied in conscience, was as vivid to her mind as the law of the revolving planet. If she saw an action to THE HALL OF FAME. 15 be right, she went to its performance with as direct a course as a star to its culmination. To her mind, perception and worship were one ; law and duty were one. She was a leader among women scientists, and she was a character-influence of unique and telling quality. At the conclusion of these exercises upon the site reserved for the Hall of Fame for Women, the Seventh Regiment Band struck up " The Battle Hymn of the Republic," John Paul Jones. The procession marched to the site reserved for the " Loggia of Famous Americans of Foreign Birth," where a platform had been prepared near by the temporary wall of concrete in which the three bronze tablets will remain until the completion of the Loggia in their honor. When the procession halted the Chancellor said : In October, 1905, the One Hundred Electors of the Hall of Fame inaugurated a Roll of Famous Americans of Foreign Birth by the choice, by a majority of votes, of three names. The first, in point of age, of these is John Paul Jones, who was born one hundred and sixty years ago. The unveiling of the bronze tablet bearing his name is assigned to the Daughters of the American Revolution, who are represented here to-day by Mrs. Donald Mc- Lean, president, and Mrs. Henry S. Bowron, .assistant historian. I have the honor of introducing as their speaker Mrs. Donald McLean. Mrs. McLean said : Born in Scotland, beloved in America, feted in France, honored in Russia, " Crested Knight of the Sea! " Created our captain of the great waters as a new " Constellation" shed its lustre upon a wondering world - - the Continental Congress, having commis- sioned him to command the " Ranger," within the hour of its reso- lution that hereafter this nation shall float its own flag- - the first to raise that flag upon the high seas, where it has ne'er gone down. 16 THE HALL OF FAME. save enshrouding the heroic dead, who had, with him wrestled victory from seven-fold defeat (and his own ship sunk beneath them) Indomitable spirit! exclaiming: "Surrender? Why I have not yet begun to fight ! ' Bringing into being a Nation's Navy, and tasting, alas, a nation's ingratitude. Homeless, from his adopted country, dead in a land of alien tongue ; buried and forgotten for a century. Then, soul called unto soul - the heart of the living here pulsed to the dead - - found him immured but immortal, and brought him " home" to that land of Liberty for which his high, free spirit ever yearned. To-day, we remember - - we exult - - we, the women of America, the generic heirs to his Patriotism, we, the Daughters of the American Kevolutioii - - are profoundly grateful to unveil this tablet to John Paul Jones. Alexander Hamilton, The Chancellor said : The second in point of age among Famous Americans of For- eign Birth is Alexander Hamilton, who was born one hundred and fifty years ago. The unveiling of the bronze tablet bearing his name is assigned to the Colonial Dames of America, who are rep- resented here to-day by Miss Harriet Duer Eobinsou, Mrs. Mary Trumbull Morse and Mrs. Thomas H. Whitney. I have the honor of introducing as their speaker Miss Harriet Duer Kobinson. Miss Kobinson read the following, written by Miss Julia Liv- ingston Delafield : Alexander Hamilton is a name that recalls many memories ; his brilliant and brief career furnishes abundant material for the novelist and the historian. A foreigner, from the island of ISTevis, Hamilton rose to be a Major-General, to be Secretary of the Treasury, to be the. friend and adviser of Washington. Captain of artillery, at the age of nineteen, Hamilton saved our guns from capture, when the pa- triot armv retreated from New York. His militarv talent was \j appreciated by the Commancler-in-chief, and Washington soon dis- cerned in the young soldier the genius of a great financier and statesman. O3 &JD <D 5 ; C. X. 0} o o a> QJ +J . cfi O 09 THE HALL OF FAME. 17 The marriage of General Hamilton to Elizabeth Schuyler was most fortunate; her domestic virtues made his home a haven of rest and freed from petty cares he devoted all his energies to the service of his country. His pen was mightier than his sword. His great work was the Federal Constitution. General Morgan Lewis endeavored to prevent the duel. Ham- ilton answered : " I allowed my son to accept a challenge ; he fell. I cannot recede ! ' William Stewart, in a letter to his nephew, Phil Church, de- scribed the closing scene : " Doctor Hosack gives no hope. Mrs. Hamilton remains at the bedside of her husband. The General retains his patience and fortitude and is perfectly aware of his situation ! ' Thus passed away from earth Alexander Hamilton. Louis Agassiz. The Chancellor said: The third, in point of age, among Famous Americans of For- eign Birth is Louis Agassiz, who was born one hundred years ago. The unveiling of the bronze tablet bearing his name is assigned to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which is represented here to-day by Dr. Charles D. Wal- cott, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., and Dr. Edward S. Morse, Director of the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. Inasmuch as by a happy coincidence we are this year celebrating the centennial of Agassiz, I shall have the honor of calling upon each of these delegates to speak in his memory to-day. Doctor Morse courteously excused himself from reading his paper because of its length, but presented a few facts of the career of Agassiz, and Doctor Walcott spoke as follows : Louis Agassiz was a man of simple but intensely active life. Coming to us in 1848 for a special purpose he met with so cordial a reception that flattering offers from European insti- tutions could not induce him to return ; and, although such a life as his cannot be limited by boundaries of space or time, we feel 18 THE HALL' OF FAME. a peculiar pleasure and satisfaction in placing his name among those of our great men in this, our Hall of Fame. Agassiz was not only a pioneer in scientific investigation and achievement, but one of the first to combine the qualities of a great naturalist, leader of men, and lover of the masses of the people. We sometimes forget that many of the fundamental con- ceptions which underlie so much of the science of to-day are the products of his genius and the fruitage of his many years of labor. He taught American students how to think in terms of science and he taught the American nation that to science it owed good will and cordial support. Few men have lived who combined such breadth of intellect with such a fascinating personality, such genuine sincerity, such openness and warmth of manner, such depth of religious nature,, such perfect unselfishness, and such devotion to science. To Agassiz nothing was commonplace. He marshalled facts and ever kept them at command in the hope that they might throw light 011 some one of the great problems which he realized were to press more and more insistently for solution. The enduring value of his contributions to science is due to the soundness of the principles underlying them. At twenty-two years of age Martins recognized his rare ability bv allowing him to edit a volume on O e i' O Brazilian fishes ; and at twenty-five Cuvier transferred to him t/ the treasures he had gathered for his work on fossil fishes. This early recognition stimulated him greatly and led him to master every subject that he undertook to investigate. Some one has said respecting him that there never was a man with an >l in- tellect more thoroughly disciplined, or less hampered by the abundance of the material on which it worked." Agassiz's extraordinary geniality and the sincerity of his manner drew every one to him. The acknowledged leader of a f group including Emerson, Holmes, Lowell, Longfellow, and Haw- thorne was the friend of laborers and fishermen who took a childish delight in gathering specimens for the " Great Professor." Lie measured men by a high standard, and created a new en- vironment for himself. Those who loved him lived in mansions and in huts; he imbued the rich and the poor, the educated and the ignorant alike, with an appreciation of the beauties of the THE HALT, OF FAME. 19 science he loved, and with his almost matchless enthusiasm for noble ideals in life. In fact, it was as a leader of men, as the teacher of thousands who gained inspiration and power from his boundless enthusiasm and his loving personality, that he was most widely known. Agassiz's life was a continual proof of his superiority over self- interest and his consecration to science. He declared that he could not afford to waste his time in making money. He de- clined the chair of zoology at Heidelberg when by accepting it he would have more than doubled his income, and he successfully opposed the making of his name a part of the official designation, both of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, and of the Anderson School of Xatural History on Penikese Island. It would be difficult to measure his influence in the way of causing men of political and commercial power to realize that the support of scientific research and the diffusion of the knowledge thereby gained, depend largely on them. Men are now more and more contributing to the advancement of science under the impulse of a sentiment Agassiz created; he set a new standard for the art of teaching; the first recognition of ice as a great geologic agent was due chiefly to his investigations j and, as a result of his work on fossil fishes, there was established a fundamental law which has since found expression in the words, " Ontogeny repeats phylogeny," a law which, it would seemj is destined to guide biologists for numberless generations. Many of us knew Louis Agassiz personally, perhaps a few of us knew him intimately, and our admiration of his genius and our love of the man were and are almost unbounded. Here in this noble building we now place a visible token of this Nation's admiration of his great intellect, of its realization of the debt it owes him for his consecration to science, and of its love for his simple but sublime character, assured that the coming genera- tion cannot fail to realize his claim to their regard as ' the first naturalist of his time, a good citizen, and a good son, be- loved of those who knew him.' 20 THE HALL OF FAME. James Madison. To the music of " Hail Columbia ' : the procession moved to the platform in the Statesmen's Corner in the Colonnade. The Chancellor said : The One Hundred Electors have by a majority of votes added to the seven names chosen by them in the year 1900 two new names. The first of these in point of age is James Madison, who was born 156 years ago. The unveiling of the bronze tablet bearing his name is assigned to the Sons of the Revolution, who are represented to-day by Howard Randolph Bayne, Edmund Wetmore, Clarence "W. Bowen, Chrystie Few Xicholsoii and- Rob- ert II. Oakley. I have the honor of introducing as their speaker, Mr. Howard Randolph Bayne. Mr. Bayne said: James Madison, more than any other man, prepared the way to that ''more perfect union' which we enjoy to-day. By cogent statesmanship and tactful patriotism, harmonizing divergent in- terests and subduing sectional antagonisms, he well deserved the distinguished cognomen, " Father of the Constitution/' All of the ten amendments to that instrument, adopted during his public life, had been proposed by him. In constructive statesmanship he excelled all the men of his time. As Member of Congress under the new Constitution he was the organizer and director of its business. Measures creating the Revenue and Departments of Foreign Affairs, the Treasury, "War, and other originals of our complicated system were pro- posed by him and passed into law. Though he was leader of the opposition when party spirit was extremely bitter, the President was accustomed to seek his views on all important measures. His counsel was ever on such occasions with rare fidelity to high patriotism and lofty ideals. ' As Secretary of State under Jefferson for eight years, as Presi- dent for an equal period, he passed through times of rancorous political strife without one reproach that history justifies or pos- terity approves. THE HALL or FAME. 21 Over his long and useful life, conscience, reason and patri- otism presided, with the kindly affections, and to the respect and admiration of the wisest and noblest of his day, succeeding gen- erations have each added their increasing approbation. And so in perpetual evidence of this just approval we erect to-day this simple but grateful memorial. * " ''_.*** _r. John Quincy Adams. The Chancellor said : The second name in point of age to be added to the Roll of Famous Statesmen is John Quincy Adams, who was born 140 years ago. The unveiling of the bronze tablet bearing his name is assigned to the Sons of the American Revolution, who are rep- resented to-day by Hon. Warren Higley, W. W. J. Warren, . William M. Crane, Louis A. Ames and J. cle la Montanye. I have the honor of introducing as their speaker, the Hon. Warren Higley. Judge Higley said : Patriotism is the bulwark of liberty! Its divine fire was the beacon light that cheered our revolutionary fathers on to victory, and it still glows warm in the hearts of every true American citizen. The fame of the dead is the heritage and inspiration of the living. A truly great life begins but never ends. To pay the tribute of gratitude due to a great and useful life which began in a quiet Xew England town 140 years ago; to set up for our- selves an index of our own best ideals and to hold up a noble example for the emulation of future generations, we claim from the past another name to inscribe on the rolls of our jSTation's Immortals. In memory of an illustrious father's illustrious son, accom- plished scholar, wise diplomat and eminent statesman ; in time of war the emissary of peace ; patriotic defender of our new-born Republic ; raised to the highest office in the people's gift ; great American commoner! Fearless champion of Christian liberty! Devoted friend of man ! In the name of the National Society of 22 THE HALL or FAME. the Sons of the American Revolution, I unveil this tablet, and dedicate to American citizenship the name of John Quincy Adams. William Tecumseh Sherman. The procession moved to the music of " The Stars and Stripes " to the section of the Colonnade devoted to soldiers, where a plat- form was placed near the tablet of Grant. The Chancellor said: The One Hundred Electors have added to the three names of warriors, inscribed in the year 1900, the name of William Tecum- seh Sherman. The unveiling of the bronze tablet bearing his name is assigned to the Grand Army of the Republic, who are represented to-day, under the appointment of the Commander-in- chief, by Judge James A. Blanchard, Col. Charles F. Homer and Col. Allan C. Blake well, all of Lafayette Post. I have the honor of introducing as their speaker. Judge James A. Blanchard : Judge Blanchard said: Nature made William Tecumseh Sherman a great soldier. Educated by his country he gave her in return his supreme devo- tion. " On no account," he said, " will I do any act or think any thought hostile to the government of the United States." From Puritan ancestry he inherited an indomitable will and a powerful mind which study disciplined and enriched. When the Civil Wai- came, his clear mental vision foresaw and predicted the magni- tude of the struggle. He promptly offered his services and began his career of illustrious achievement. Obedient .to superiors, kind to subordinates, without envy, he inspired confidence and rose to independent command. Energetic and intense, and at the same time alert, resourceful and sagacious, he waged a warfare of relentless destruction. He was stern in his purpose and unremitting in its performance. With cyclonic force he swept everything before him from Shiloh to Atlanta and the sea, joined his beloved commander and mustered out of ser- vice the finest army ever seen on this continent. His ambition began and ended with being a soldier. When asked to run for President, and his election certain, his answer was : " I will not THE HALL OF FAME. 23 accept if nominated, and I will not serve if elected," and no one doubted his word. The only honor which a grateful Nation could persuade him to accept was 'appointment to the head of the army. Victorious in war, he was magnanimous in peace. Charitable to his foes; generous to his soldiers; loyal to his friends and faithful to home and country, his character no less than his mighty deeds entitle him to imperishable fame and place him among " the immortal few who were not born to die." Horace Mann. To the air of " The Red, White and Blue," the procession marched to the Teacher's Section of the Colonnade, where a plat- form was placed immediately back of the space devoted to Horace Mann. The Chancellor said : The plan of the Hall of Fame includes the placing upon the parapet above each bronze tablet either a statue of bronze of the famous American commemorated by the tablet or his portrait bust in bronze raised upon a pedestal. To-day, for the first, a beginning is made in carrying out this plan by the acceptance of a portrait bust of Horace Mann given in the name of the Teachers of America and set upon a pedestal of Milford, Mass., granite, quarried a short journey from the birthplace of this famous teacher. The unveiling of this bust is assigned to the National Educational Association, which is represented here to-day by two of its ex-presidents, Dr. William H. Maxwell, of Xew York City, and Dr. J. M. Green, of Trenton, X. J. I have the honor of introducing as its speaker, Doctor Maxwell. Dr. Maxwell, said : Whether we regard the immediate effects of the work of Horace Mann while he lived, or their indirect results which en- dure to the present hour, his achievements accomplished in the face of extraordinary difficulties mark him as one of the foremost iDenefactors to the human race. His youth was tried in the fur- nace of hard manual labor, of poverty, of sickness, of scant oppor- tunities for education. In his manhood he had to do battle with the lukewarmness of friends and the abuse of enemies, the 24 THE HALL OF FAME. jealousies of political powers and of religious denominations, the opposition of private interests and the deep-rooted conservatism of the masses. But the burning zeal of the missionary, the clear vision and straight thinking of the statesman, that were bom in him, triumphed over every obstacle. As a member of the Legis- lature of Massachusetts, he devoted himself to the amelioration of the lives of those unfortunates who are bereft of the light of reason, and the State Asylum at Worcester was the result. As a Member of Congress his voice was raised in the anti-slavery cause against the extension of slavery to the Territories. As a college president he established the propriety of coeducation of the sexes. But it is in his work for the public schools that we find his most exalted title to fame and his most enduring service to the human race. The twelve years during which he held the office of secretary to the Massachusetts Board of Education are the most momentous years in the history of American education. The schools of Massachusetts had fallen from the high state in which they had been established by the Puritan and -Pilgrim fathers, until they had come to be regarded as fit only for the children of those who could not pay for education in private institutions. The teachers were all untrained and the majority of them igno- rant ; the methods of teaching were memoriter and mechanical to the last degree; the discipline was cruel and inhuman; and the administration machinery crude and unbusinesslike. AVith no resource but confidence in the righteousness of his cause, with no help but the support that came from a board of education which had power neither of initiative nor of constraint, he established the schools of the Commonwealth on a firm foundation and re- stored them to the people of Massachusetts, high and low, rich and poor alike. He heard the bitter cry of the children, and he waged relent- less war on the pedant who knows no means of discipline but through the rod and no way of teaching but through the memory, He saw the schools were languishing through lack of adequate support and he invoked the taxing power of the State to come to their rescue. He recognized the fact that intellectual vigor without ethical principle and physical health is dangerous alike to the State and to the individual ; and he advocated ethical o> in 3 in a % OJ X <4- o 00 O THE HALL OF FAME. 25 training and laid the foundation of the now prevalent system of physical training. He saw that if the public schools are to do their perfect work and subserve the purposes of a noble democ- racy, the teachers must be trained to teach; and he secured the establishment of the first American Normal School at Lex- ington. And the voice that cried from the State House in Boston was a voice " heard round the world." It reverberates in every schoolroom in America and its influence is felt to the remotest corners of the earth. What was the secret of Horace Mann's power ? " I have faith,"" he wrote on the day he accepted office, " in the improvability of the race - - in their accelerating improvability." The secret of his power was a sublime faith in the virtue of the people's schools, rightly managed and rightly taught to raise the Amer- ican people to high and ever higher levels of usefulness and virtue. As men died at Gettysburg that government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth, so Horace Mann, lived in Massachusetts. Upon the close of Superintendent Maxwell's address, the Stu- dents' Glee Club of New York University sang their college song, " The Palisades " of which both the words and the music were the composition of an undergraduate student. John Greenleaf Whittier. Then to the air of " Yankee Doodle " the procession moved to the Author's Corner, where a platform stood against the Hall of Languages. The Chancellor said : The One Hundred Electors have added to the four authors enrolled by them in 1900, two new names. The first of these in point of age is John Greenleaf Whittier, who was born 100 years ago. The unveiling of the bronze tablet bearing his name is assigned to " The Peace Society ' ' which is represented here to-day under the appointment of the President, Andrew Car- negie, by Dr. Benjamin R. Trueblood, Secretary of the American Peace Society, and Albert K. Smiley, Founder of the Lake Mo- honk Arbitration Conference. I have the honor of introducing? o as their speaker, Doctor Trueblood. 26 THE HALL OF FAME. Doctor Trueblood said : Whittier was the Poet of Peace because more than any other American he -was the poet of Moral Force. He never wrote for Art's sake, as Longfellow did ; nor for the amusement of it, as Holmes often wrote; nor to embellish some philosophic thought, like Emerson; nor to surprise and stun, as Lowell seems some- times to have done. His pen was always tipped with moral principle not abstract principle, but the live, warm principle of ordinary human life, with its sufferings, its rights, and its possible high destinies. Here, in men, everything with him centered. Xo one ever had a deeper, clearer conception of the intrinsic value of men, nor of the sacredness and inviolability of their persons and their rights. This made him the unalter- able foe of everything that injured men or sacrificed their liber- ties. Thus his fine poetic gift w r as turned to the support of every- thing that blesses, and against everything that curses. He opposed war for the same reason that he opposed slavery, because of its cruelties, its injustices, and the base and ignoble passions out of which it springs, or which it always arouses. As he would not have held a slave for any consideration, so he would not have killed a man to save a race or even a nation. To have done so would have been to sacrifice the most binding and cher- ished moral principles that inspired and guided his life. He not only held war to be always wrong, but he also held moral princi- ples - - truth to be the unfailing and speediest weapons for the overthrow of iniquity and the establishment of justice, if they were only faithfully used. Thus he sang of peace as the greatest glory of man, and of " the light, the truth, the love of heaven " as the weapons divinely appointed for the conquest of the world. In '' The Peace Convention at Brussels," in " Disarmament," in the " Christmas Carmen," and in lines and stanzas here and there in many other poems this marvelous poet of Moral Force T}ids us, * * - g ras p the weapons He has given, The Light, and Truth, and Love of Heaven," " Sing out the war-vulture and sing in the dove," " Lift in Christ's name His Cross against the sword," THE HALL OF FAME. 27 and inspires onr hope and courage in the great " war against war " with the sublime prophecy of disarmament, when " Evil shall cease, and Violence pass away And the tired world breathe free through a long Sabbath day." James Russell Lowell. The Chancellor said: The second in point of age of the two famous authors is James Russell Lowell, who was born eighty-nine years ago. The unveil- ing of the tablet bearing his name is assigned to the National Arts Club, which is represented to-day by Dr. Richard Watson Gilder, Dr. Charles Henry Babcock and Emerson McMillin. I have the lonor of introducing as their speaker, Doctor Babcock. The Rev. Dr. Babcock said : So wide the field of Truth which Lowell reaped, We scarce can miss the fruitage of his power. To estimate his harvest as a whole Would be for us, to-day, impossible. We, therefore, pick and choose from Truth he taught One phase of it much needed in our time, A time of courage, and of cowardice; A time in which brave deeds and fortitude, In any cause men undertake, are greatly praised, And yet, a time of seeking soft refuge From the hurts and woes of life, Even to the verge of denying that they are - We pick, I say. for this time from Lowell's sheaf The truth, that rightly to endure is not merely to be brave, But 'tis to clarify and sublimate our lives ; Xot to deny that suffering does exist ; Xot to declare there's no such thing as pain ; jSTot thus to seek to hide from hurt ; But to perceive and say, That those who suffer most, and best, Have souls ennobled by the touch of pain ; They face the world, like Moses, 28 THE HALL or FAME. Light-envisaged from the Mount, "All radiant with the glory and the calm Of having looked upon the front of God." With reverence and gratitude, we unveil this tablet to James Russell Lowell. Address by Chancellor MacCracken. Upon the conclusion of the ceremony of the Lnveiling of the Tablets, the procession moved to the great platform upon the- West Lawn, upon which seats had been placed for 200 persons,, while seats for 2,000 to 3,000 extended up the slope of the hill. The invocation was offered by the Right Rev. Edward G. Andrews, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 1 The Chancellor of the University, before introducing the speak- ers of the day, made the following address: Before introducing the orators of the day, I give thanks in the name of the Xew York t^niversity Senate, to the distinguished societies and their honored representatives who assist to-day in this dedication. Also to the members of the Board of One Hundred Electors both present and absent, to whom the wide fame of the Hall of Fame is chiefly due. This Hall of Fame, overlooking the Hudson,, has become in seven years more familiar to the people of America than the Walhalla which overlooks the Danube has become in seventy-seven years to the people of Germany. This is not by rea- son of the superior magnificence of the building or of its contents. It is because of the fact that the tribunal of One Hundred Elec- tors, representing forty-five States and selected for their knowl- edge, integrity and judicial temperament, has commended itself to thinking minds as a worthy court of appeal well qualified to- give decisions respecting the comparative claims of famous citi- zens who have gone before. It is the acceptance of this tribunal i Bishop Andrews, who on this day seemed strong far above the average man of fourscore, died in December, 1907, from an illness contracted on a, journey to the Pacific coast. THE HALL OF FAME. 29 which explains the existence at this hour of organized movements, -whether on the Atlantic shore, in the Mississippi valley, or on the Pacific coast, to present to the One Hundred Electors for their judgment three years hence, certain great names belonging to those regions. Chiefly to the Board of Electors we render thanks to-day for what this foundation has become as an educational power. We look to them for the strengthening of its influence, through all this twentieth century. We University people are in the habit of excusing ourselves from extra work till vacation comes. When the Governor of ISTew York patriotically pledged himself to be present to-day, he had rea- son to expect that his vacation as a part of the legislative power of the Empire State would have begun before now. Unluckily, sev- eral courses of instruction covering public utilities and other mat- ters have not been completed. The final examinations on some of them have been put off by request of the Mayor of Xew York. jSfevertheless, the Governor fulfills his agreement which promised only a few words and not an extended address. When the subject is " The Statesman and the Warrior/' a few words from one who brilliantly illustrates militant statesmanship will be treasured by the country as well as by the people of Xew York. Address by Governor Hughes. The Hon. Charles E. Hughes, Governor of the State of Xew York, spoke as follows : On this day, with grateful appreciation, we commemorate the valor and the sacrifices of those who, as representatives of the peo- ple, took part in the struggle for the preservation of the Union. With the passing of years, the w 7 ounds caused by civil strife have been healed, and old animosities and sectional rivalries have given place to a common realization of our national destiny and to a common congratulation that we have remained a united people. And to-day we render the tribute of honor as well as affection to the memory not merely of those w r ho fell fighting for a victorious cause, but for all who in their unselfish zeal, following what they believed to be the right, revealed the heroic qualities of American manhood. 30 THE HALL OF FAME. While the ceremonies of this hour have no direct relation to the general observance of the day, it is fitting that among those- who are esteemed worthy of a place in this temple of illustrious Americans, -and whose tablets are unveiled at this time, should be the great general of the Civil War, William Tecumseh Sherman. He hated war, but brought to its prosecution the highest mili- tary genius. He apprised its horrors so justly that he had no- patience with temporizing policy. But by daring and original plans carried out with mathematical precision and unrelenting determination to succeed, he hurried the advent of peace which he sincerely desired. To him, war was war - - unrelieved, cruel war a terrible means to a righteous and necessary end. And he played his part heroically, brilliantly and unflinchingly for the sake of the end he so clearlv saw. And bv reason of his original- f i/ ity, foresight, exactness, intrepidity and success, he placed himself in the first rank of military men. The soldier has so largely monopolized the plaudits and affec- tion of mankind not because of, but in spite of. the barbarities of war. Largely of course it has been due to the momentous political consequences of the success of arms, either in the defense- of liberty or in the maintenance of National life with which the people have felt their interests identified, or in the increase of national glory which they proudly shared. But more largely the soldier has been honored, paradoxical as it may seem, because of love of humanity and because through his work the noblest qualities of man have been placed in conspicuous relief. Endur- ance, poise, fortitude, unselfishness, disregard of personal danger, sagacity, discernment, swift and unerring analysis, exact calcu- lation, the capacity for leadership, and the mastery of men, single- mindedness and love of truth and honor shining forth in a sincere and noble character at a time of greatest stress and peril these are the qualities which dignify humanity, and, represented in the soldier under circumstances fixing the attention of the nation and the world, call forth a universal tribute. And by the manner in which these severe tests have been made, we test the quality of a nation's citizenship. It is not the havoc wrought, the lives sacrificed, the disaster and the ruin caused by the victory, that win the admiration of mankind, but the inflexible purpose, the THE HALL OF FAME. 31 intelligent plan, the undaunted courage, and the heroic self- abandonment, whether of victor or vanquished, which exercise the perennial charm and in their justification of humanity form the spell of ballad and of story. We are rich in such memories. To-day two such heroes have their appropriate recognition in this temple of the illustrious. The one, who exhibited his extraordinary military capacity in the war that saved the nation ; the other, who dazzled the world with daring exploit in the war which made the nation possible. When John Paul Jones lashed the .jib-boom of the Serapis to the mizzen mast of the Bon Ilomme Richard and with his motley crew en- gaged the disciplined British in one of the most deadly conflicts recorded in naval annals, he magnificently exhibited the spirit which won the War of Independence. It was not the physical re- sults but the moral effect of a victory achieved under extraordi- nary conditions and through rare personal valor which gave it historical significance. But more and more clearly do we understand that what we should prize most is not the occasional revelation of noble qualities of manhood in bloody warfare, but in their cultivation for pur- poses of peace and their manifestation in the every-day activities of an industrious people. Our attention is fixed upon the ideals of a peaceful society. And to-day we honor not alone the heroes of conquest, but also the framers of our governmental edifice, and the scientist, the author and the teacher - men and women notably influential in the development of our national life viewed in its broadest aspect. Among these are three men in the first rank of American statesmanship. It is impossible in the brief word now permitted to attempt a just appreciation of their char- acter and services. Two of them, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, are identified with that initial period of our national history when the Constitution was in the making. It has been well said that the years immediately following the successful end- ing of the War of Independence were the most critical in our history. The struggle which for want of effective union had been unnecessarily prolonged, left thirteen independent republics with mutual jealousies and aversions and with discordant views and antagonistic ambitions. There was wanting a national conscious- 32 THE HALL OF FAME. ness. And the great victory won in the "War of Independence seemed to promise little more than the establishment of a number of petty governments 'arrayed against each other. But powerful as were the apparent forces driving the States apart, still more powerful was the pressure of common interests - - too long im- perfectly recognized - - which were destined to bring them into an indissoluble union. Finally in 1787 the Federal Convention met at Philadelphia. Among the men of distinguished merit who composed it Washing- ton, Franklin, Hamilton and Madison were pre-eminent. Per- haps no assembly ever sat to deliberate upon the problems of government with four men who could be called their equals. Ham- ilton and Madison were young, the one thirty and the other thirty-six. To these two, more than to others, we owe our Federal Constitution. The one has been justly described as its " principal author,'' and the other as its " most brilliant advocate," Hamilton was full of national spirit. He was the apostle of centralization and of national strength. Years before, when only twenty-three, he had set forth with rare lucidity and force the need of a " stronger government " with " an administration dis- tinct from Congress." His was a master mind, acute in analysis, ready in construction, powerful in reasoning, capable in execution. But he lacked confidence in the people and in popular government. ^Nevertheless as a true statesman, he sprang to the defense of the work of the Convention, which had failed in large measure to meet his views, and by the lucidity, force and persuasiveness of his arguments broke down the opposition and prepared the way for the triumph of the Constitution. But great as was this service, even greater were his labors in establishing a system of government under the Constitution and in the constructive work of administration. As the first head of the Treasury Department, through his luminous reports and con- structive financial measures, he insured at a critical time govern- mental stability and gave vigor to the national life. Under forms different from those which he preferred, the supreme objects of national strength and adequacy for which he mightily strove have been secured, and no one has more deeply impressed himself upon our national thought or infused into the workings of our Constitu- tion a larger measure of his spirit and purpose. tfl O> PH Ifl 9 s THE HALL OF FAME. 33 James Madison, the Virginian, took the leading part in the work of the Convention of 1787. When Edmund Kandolph pre- sented to the Federal Convention the Virginia plan it was no secret that the work was largely that of Madison. He was a profound student of political history and by his leadership in the Convention won the title of the " Father of the Constitution." It is to this work and to the papers which he contributed to the "Federalist'' that he owes his transcendent fame. Later he served the country in Congress, as Secretary of State and as President. But in his long career he never showed to the same advantage as when he brought his rare talents and the constructive skill of the student of government to the task of framing our fundamental law. The statesman was largely lost in party poli- tics, and as President he was called to tasks foreign to his abil- ities. But his service to the nation in connection with the work of formulating its scheme of government will keep his fame imperishable. It was this feeling which prompted the sentiment uttered by John Quincy Adams, the third American statesman whose tablet is unveiled to-day, on the death of Madison in 1836. " Of the band of benefactors of the human race, the founders of the Con- stitution of the United States, James Madison is the last who has gone to his reward. They have transmitted the precious bond of union to us, now entirely a succeeding generation to them. May it never cease to be a voice of admonition to us, of our c'uty to transmit the inheritance unimpaired to our children of the rising age." Few careers in our history have been so distinguished, for variety of important public service as that of John Quincy Adams. Only ten years the junior of Hamilton, he lived until 184-8. Under Washington he was Minister to The Hague, to Portugal and to Prussia. Later he was State Senator and United States Senator. After an eventful mission abroad as Minister to Russia and as one of the Commissioners in the negotiations which led to the Treaty of Ghent, he became Secretary of State under Presi- dent Monroe, whom he succeeded as Chief Magistrate. Retiring at the age of sixty-two, he subsequently entered upon the most 34 THE HALL or FAME. important part of his career as Member of Congress, serving for about sixteen years, until he received the death stroke on the floor of the House. To Mr. Adams must be attributed the first suggestions of what * has come to be known as the Monroe Doctrine. In 1823 he in- formed the Russian Minister '' that we should contest the rights of Russia to any territorial establishments on this continent and that we should assume distinctly the principle that the American continents are no longer subjects for any new European colonial establishments." This was the precursor of the famous declara- tion in President Monroe's message. Ever characterized by independence and devotion to what he believed to be the right, his old age was devoted in no small part to the contest against slavery. With an indomitable spirit and extraordinary power in debate, strong in his absolute conviction of the righteousness of his cause, he was willing to stand alone, unterrified and unconquerable. His chief title to fame rests not upon official honors nor upon his holding the highest office in the nation's gift, but upon his service as the well-equipped and daunt- less champion of human rights in our national assembly. On an occasion like this we are vividly impressed with the fact that monuments may perpetuate names and form imperish- able records, but they cannot confer fame or make enduring the respect of mankind. To serve their appropriate purpose they must record what is already written in the hearts of the people and stand as tribute to the continued esteem which alone they are powerless to perpetuate. In the review of our nation's history, short as it is, the petty schemes of political manipulators, the inconsequential victories in conflicts for the spoils of office, and ignoble efforts of selfishness appear in their true proportions. The nation is a sound critic and it pays its final homage to those who with inflexible purpose and fidelity to conscience have devoted their talents unreservedly to the service of the people. The trickster, the intriguer, and those who seek to win by strategy what public confidence will not bestow, quickly pass out of the notoriety which they may temporarily achieve, unless by reason of exceptional ability they may live to point a contrast. The nation is jealous of its ideals, and it never has been more insist- THE HALL or FAME. 35 ent upon the straightforward conduct of public affairs than it is to-day. It demands of its representatives single-minded de- votion to public duty and a knightly sense of honor in the admin- istration of public office. We should lose no opportunity to en- force the lessons which may be drawn from the lives of those illustrious Americans by whom we as a people have been so richly served. And from their labors, of which these exercises are a fitting recognition, we may draw inspiration which wall enable us to go forward undismayed to meet the problems thrust upon us by our rapidly extending activities. When Governor Hughes ceased speaking, the Seventh Regi- ment Band played the " Star Spangled Banner," the whole assembly standing. Address by Governor Guild. The Chancellor, in introducing the second speaker, said : A national tribunal called to designate famous Americans has made choice among forty names of fifteen who were born in Massachusetts. Of the eleven names inscribed to-day no less than five were natives of that State. This striking fact combined with another significant fact, namely: that to-day Massachusetts presents to the world as her chief magistrate a citizen who has sustained the traditions of the past, whether in war or in peace, convinced our Senate that no one in the nation could be more welcome as a speaker in the Hall of Fame at the present time than his Excellency, Curtis Guild, Jr., Governor of Massa- chusetts. Governor Guild spoke as follows, his theme being " The Au- thor and Teacher as Builders of a Republic:" This is Memorial Day. Its beautiful rites consecrate it espe- cially to those who have died for their country in war. The children are taken to Grant's magnificent monument on the heights above the Hudson and to the living bronze on Beacon Hill where Shaw at the head of his brave black soldiers " rides forever, forever rides." And this is well, for if greater love hath no man than this that he will lay down his life for his friend, surely greater patriotism hath no man than this that he will lay down his life for his country. 36 THE HALL OF FAME. Yet we may well even on this day recognize another sacri- fice without which no government of the people can endure. There has never been a government so inequitable, there has never been despot so vile that some devoted souls have not been found ready to spill their life-blood on the altar of mere loyalty. Autocracies have perpetuated themselves by the blind sentiment that demands the Sacrifice of Death. Republics only live by the clear-eyed common sense that offers the Sacrifice of Life. The patriotism of crisis asks of some of us once in. a lifetime to face death for the salvation and the glory of the United States of America. The patriotism of progress asks all of us to live our lives not on one day but on every day for the purification and uplift of the United States of America. Though her fighting men have been first in the field in our three great wars the Bay State has furnished no leader in war so pre-eminently great that his name will live among the world's masters of battle. We have had our Arnold von Winkelrieds, but never an Alex- ander or a Washington. We have had our Herve Riels. but never a Themistocles or a Farragut. So it happens that though it is the good fortune of Massachu- setts to have furnished five of the eleven immortals whose ser- vice to our common country is commemorated here and now, their service has been that of those who have ministered not so much to national commerce or conquest as to national intelli- gence and ideals. AYoe unto the nation -without ideals! Defeat and misfortune may for a time cloud the career of a people whose leaders at some crisis lack the ability that commands success, but death is the inevitable end of a nation without a soul. In these days of trusts and mergers and monopolies, when the industrial and technical almost at the expense of history, litera- ture and morality are emphasized in American education itself, the history of a nation organized merely to make money and to make war is worth recalling. Twenty-one centuries ago a struggling little republic of Italy faced Carthage, perhaps the most nearly perfect government framed for material development that ever existed. It was a gov- THE HALL OF FAME. 37 eminent of business men. Only merchant princes might aspire to the governing assembly. The masses of the people were taught nothing except to toil and they did toil. Except for the services of the Sacred Baud, so-called, a bare brigade, the wars of Carthage were fonght by foreign mercenaries hired for the purpose, by- Greeks and Gauls and Iberians and Libyans. They needed no poets to celebrate their victories. To the free companies of ancient Africa as of mediaeval France or Italy plunder was more attractive than Greek psean or Roman, triumph. The only literature that in- spired the hired soldiers of Carthage was the inscription on the hard coin they pouched as pay. Business success, immediate or ancestral, was the golden key - - the only key to government posi- tion. Materially, Carthage was -splendidly successful. Without an orator, a poet, a historian, an educator, Carthage extended her dominion from Egypt to the Atlantic. Her merchantmen swept from the Levant to the Pillars of Hercules and beyond. Xorth her ships sailed across the Bay of Biscay to the tin mines of Cornwall, south along the coast of Africa to its uttermost cape r centuries before Prince Henry the ISTavigator or Vasco de Gama were born, tens of centuries before the American explorer, Paul du Chaillu, had rediscovered along the Gaboon river, the great apes that still bear the ancient Punic name gorilla. "Westward there is now good reason to believe that not the Canaries merely but Yucatan were visited by these adventurous Phoenician sailors beside whose voyages the wild sea stories of the Vikings them- selves seem but the chronicle of summer cruising. They produced great statesmen. They produced great generals who to a nicety mingled and maneuvered Balearic slingers, skir- mishers from Gaul, spearmen from Greece, swordsmen from Spain, wild desert cavalry from the Sahara and war elephants, from India. ~Not even the army of Xerxes himself showed a more wonderful variety of material. ISTo general in any age or time has ever sur- passed, many soldiers believe that none have ever equalled, the military attainment of the master mind of Hannibal. Yet what did the Phoenician people, what did Carthage accom- plish for the w r orld? What did they do to make. humanity the better or the happier for their existence ? They discovered a 38 THE HALL OF FAME. purple dye whose secret is forgotten and they invented an alphabet for commercial purposes which only became the vehicle of litera- ture and poetry and thought when another race had recognized its possibilities. Tyre and Siclon live in the mouths of men but as historic memories of ineffable vice ; Carthage is known only in so far as her enemies have told her story. The boundaries of her domain are unknown. Her discoveries had to be made anew before they could benefit posterity. Her triumphs have left not a mark on the history of civilization. The traces even of her language have vanished almost as utterly as her battlements and palaces. !N"ot the voice of Cato, the voice of fate it was that cried " De- lenda est Carthago," of a nation without education, without popular government, without even a popular literature, but with an acquisitiveness for wealth and power so unscrupulous and in- sincere that the only memory of the existence 'of Carthage lives when in the talk of scholars an allusion to " Punic faith " com- memorates her dishonor. The Rome even of Fabius and Scipio was not as well equipped as Carthage in military leadership. It was notoriously weak in diplomats. The race that then and since then supplied its in- habitants has not always succeeded. It has often failed, vet it \J / e/ endures. Even the Roman Empire could not forget the Roman Republic. If there was not a Cato to stimulate virtue there was -a Juvenal to flog vice. It is a far cry from Cato to Carducci, yet ever even under the scourge of Goth or Byzantine or JSTorman, amid the poisonings of the Borgias, the racking by Guelph and Ghibelline, Italy has clung to ideals suppressed but never forgotten. The Phoenician and his language have vanished from the face of the earth, but not only does the ancient Roman law live in the jurisprudence of the world, but Italy herself stands again among the nations in fulfillment of the prophecy of Petrarch : " Virtu contra furore Prendera 1'arme e fia 1'combatter corto. Che 1'an.tico valore, IXTegli Italic! cor non e ancor morto." "We, too, are harking back to earlier ideals, even to ideals in methods. Phvsical training and education for women are not THE HALL OF FAME. 39 American ideas. They are as old as the first academy, the beau- tiful park of Athens, the fields named for the fabled Academos, where Plato, first of philosophers, not only told his pupils of the great continent of Atlantis that lay across the ocean to the west, but led them to the gymnasium for exercise with the word that exercise is as necessary for the body as literature and music for the mind, and that mental and physical instruction are alike valueless if they do not tend to the upliftment of the soul. It was the same old Attic educator, you remember, who pleaded for equal instruction for both sexes, for general education as the only secu- rity of enduring popular government. We take great credit to ourselves that our schoolhouses are now filled with reproductions of the masterpieces of painting and sculpture. It was Plato who preached of the betterment that comes to the child from good surroundings as it studies, and urged a censorship even in the stories told to the young that the knowledge of the ugly, the mean and the vile might come only when the gates had closed on the happy paradise of childhood. If it was Athens that formulated the rule, it has been America that has supplied the example. Professor Bryce, in his admir- able commentary on government in the United States, declares ours not so much a government of the people as a government of public opinion. We rightly then commemorate to-day among those who have made our country great those who have helped to make American public opinion a more intelligent public opinion, for 110 nation in the world can hope by feats of war or legislation to become permanently great if it once allows the spirit of its citizen- ship to become either feeble or dull or hysterical. Rightly do we honor the services of women as well as of men who have given their lives to the instruction and to the inspira- tion of the people. Women vote in but few of the States. They create public opinion in all of the States. It seems impossible that barely a century separates us from' a time when a woman who dabbled in letters was looked upon as somehow vaguely unnatural, if not somehow vaguely immoral, and when the opportunities offered to girls in the public schools were less than those offered to boys. It seems strange that less than a century ago, in 1820, Governor Clinton should have been forced in 40 THE HALL OF FAME. his message to the Legislature, supporting Emma Willard's Water- ford Academy for Female Education, to rebuke the " commonplace ridicule " which assailed this first attempt to promote the educa- tion of the female sex by the patronage of government. Yet seven- teen years later, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, with its eminently practical curriculum for women who were to become sound housewives as well as sound teachers, would probably never have been founded and forwarded to success by a woman less inspired by religious zeal, almost by religious fanaticism, than Marv Lvon. u *J Only ten years later, less that a quarter century after the higher education of women had been first stamped with the seal of any State government approval in Xew York, another Xew England schoolmistress had proved that woman had her place in science as well as in pedagogy and theology, and the medal offered by the King of Denmark in 1831 for the first discovery of a tele- scopic comet came to the girl astronomer of 1ST an/tucket, who was to win for Yassar laurels for the advancement of the knowledge of astronomy that had hitherto been monopolized by Harvard and other masculine rivals. ~Not Massachusetts, not Yassar, but the world is the wiser because Maria Mitchell lived. Yet these three women left something more behind them than seminaries or scholastic and scientific reputations ; they left be- hind them the proof that an American woman mav without lav- _i i/ .' ing aside the charm of her sex, without wrenching herself aside as a Moll Pitcher or even a Joan of Arc from the life nature intended her to lead, yet so consecrate a life to learning and to public service that at its close her career may be an inspiration to the men as well as to the women of America. It is rare proof of the versatility of the American that of the four men specially honored here to-day as authors and educators, two at least would have been included in a claim to such honor in another class. Horace Mann, a statesman as well as scholar, stood up for human freedom in the Congress of his country ; and James Russell Lowell, if he could be forgotten as an American poet, would be remembered as an American diplomat. Frailness of health alone forced even Whittier to retire from life as a legis- lator after two terms in the General Court of Massachusetts. c cs i- QJ r ' o - O c 1 O a o THE HALL OF FAME. 41 To analyze, to summarize, even to indicate the value of these four great lives to the United States in the brief limits of a general discourse would be impossible. jSTor is it necessary. He who has achieved fame needs no eulogy. How is it possible in a paragraph to describe the labors of Agassiz, the disciple of Humboldt and the friend of Lyell ? Human knowledge of palaeontology, zoology, and geology, has mounted up to the illumination of the heights on the steps cut in the frozen ice of ignorance by this son of a Swiss clergyman, this citizen of Massachusetts. The story of the age of ice, the secret of the glaciers, was first interpreted by him from the ser- mons in stones that marked the ice river's sullen flow. The world history of the fish was first written by him for all time. The splendid museum of comparative zoology at Cambridge is his work^ a part of the greater work that added the chair of natural history to Harvard's faculty and performed for the study of zoology and geology in America the same service that Hedge had rendered for the German language and German literature. I like best to remember of Agassiz that it was he who, when asked to leave his struggling museum for a remunerative position, gave utterance to that splendid vow of poverty, "I am too busy to make money." I like to remember that he chose not a period of prosperity but a time of despair, the veiy midnight of the Rebellion, to choose the United States as his country and to be- come an American citizen. Emerson had for all time most felicitously described the success of a conflict based upon principle : " When the cannon," says he, " is aimed by ideas, when men of religious convictions are behind it, when men die for what they live for and the mainspring that works daily urges them to hazard all, then the cannon articulates its explosions with the voice of man. Then the rifle seconds the cannon and the fowling- piece the rifle, and the women make the cartridges and all shoot at one mark, then gods join in the conflict, then poets are born and the better code of laws at last records the victory." Such a conflict is the one whose successful issue is peculiarly commemorated to-day. Both sections in the clear perspective of history recognize that the success of the ISTorth in the great Rebel- lion was for the advantage of both ^Torth and South. 42 THE HALL OF FAME. In that conflict the South had, let us be honest, the pre- dominance in leadership. They had furnished the majority of Presidents. In the Revolution, in 1812, in the Mexican War, the leaders of the army had been theirs. The brilliant soldier naturally selected for the leader of the armies of the Union' became after a struggle the leader of the army of northern Vir- ginia. The Republican President was borrowed from the South. For great Union victories of the West, too, the North, had to depend on the Virginian general, Thomas, too often forgotten, whose conscience impelled him, like Farragut's, to be true, if not to the State on whose soil he was born, to the country that liad trained him for and to the oath that clad him in her uniform. The North was pre-eminently the stronghold of education. The first American college was in Virginia, but the first law enforc- ing compulsory education was in Massachusetts. Horace Mann had reached back to the ideal of the Puritan that the only salva- tion of a democracy lies in the high education of the units that compose it. He had struck at the decadent district school system ; he had founded State supervision of education ; he had established the first so-called " Normal Schools " in America to teach teach- ers how to teach. He had again encouraged, as the very first Puritan laws encouraged, instruction not only in the three R's but in literature and languages and history and philosophy. He established the common school system of the United States. Plato's teaching was theory in Athens. It was law in the United States. The Southern soldier, mostly native American, splendidly brave, fought in sheer loyalty to home against the Northern invader. The Northern soldier, largely naturalized American, steeped in the instruction of free education as to the curse of slavery in other lands, as to the splendid philosophy of the equality of all men before the law, fought not for the con- quest or defense of a section, but for the triumph of an idea. Horace Maim was no general, but his system of education bred an army. Whittier and Lowell served as politician and diplomat, but that service was as nothing compared with the trumpet blasts of verse which nerved a Commonwealth and nation to rise not for its own, but for human freedom. Webster, the Massachusetts statesman, might evade the in- THE HALL OF FAME. 43 evitable conflict in his 7th of March speech, but Whittier, the uncompromising poet, had set the face not of one but of every free State against the Fugitive Slave Law. The Massachusetts of the eighteenth century, though led by traditional instinct to free herself, had gradually declined in public instruction from the standards of the founders. The schoolgirl was denied the privilege of the schoolboy. Reading, writing and ciphering were the limits of free education. She saw then no incongruity in naming Peter Faneuil a benefactor of humanity, though the historic hall that bears his name was built from the profits of the slave trade. The death of Crispus Attucks in the Boston Massacre, the service of the negro, Peter Salem, at Bunker Hill utterly failed in the days of the Revolu- tion to stir Massachusetts to demand the right of all men to l>e free. The Massachusetts of the next century, the Massachusetts of the Traiiscendeiitalists, the Massachusetts led by Horace Mann to leadership in the cause of universal education was forced to leadership in the cause of universal freedom. A people followed our Xew England Burns. Whittier spoke not for Massachusetts merely, but for Xcw York, for Ohio, for the whole jSTorth when lie cried : '' But for us and for our children, -the vow that we have given For freedom and humanity is registered in Heaven. No slave hunt on our borders! Xo pirate on our strand! Xo fetters in the Bay State! Xo slave upon our land! '' Charles Russell Lowell, the son, died leading his regiment to victory, but that there was any regiment to follow where he led was. due in no small measure to his father, James Russell Lowell, who had sounded that glorious call to the colors: " Once to every man and nation comes the moment -to decide In the strife of Truth with Falsehood for the good or evil side Some great cause, God's new Messiah, offering each the bloom or blight, Parts the goats upon the left hand and the sheep upon the right, And the choice goes by forever 'twixt that darkness and that light. Hast thou chosen, my people, in whose party thou shalt stand, Ere the Doom from its worn sandals shakes the dust against our land? Though the cause of Evil prosper yet 'tis Truth alone is strong, And albeit she wander outcast now, I see around her throng Troops of beautiful, tall angels, to enshield her from all wrong." 44 THE HALL OF FAME. Soldier and statesman, author and educator, preacher and philanthropist, engineer and scientist, masters of brawn and mas- ters of brain, the republic needs them all and in them all the consciousness that each needs his brother's help. We are passing through a bloodless revolution whose end is to be not the equality of reward, but the equality of opportunity. It is a time when patriotism has the right to demand of education the teaching, neither of servility on one side nor of hysteria on the other. Carthage bound to materialism destroyed herself bv O e,' i servility to the millionaire and his mercenaries. Athens dizzy with the eloquence of hysteria was trampled to death by the demagogue and the mob. Justice demands the rigid regulation of great corporations in the interest of the public. Common sense demands that restric- tion shall not be carried to such a ridiculous extent that enter- prise and thrift shall be discouraged by the denial of reasonable profit and reward. No careful student of the days of the Revolution will deny that the ordinary citizen is better informed than then, that not one Congress that has sat in the last ten years but has acted with a better regard for the true interests of the country than did the Continental Congress. We have seen with our own eyes the steady reduction of special privilege - - we must see the abolition of special privilege. We must see to it also that there is a greater respect for law. That form of delirium that seizes a man accused of murder from the sheriff and executes him without trial differs in no way in character from the form of delirium that piles petition upon petition that a justly convicted murderer may escape the penalty of his crime by political pressure. The viciousness of such corporation promoters as defies the corporation laws that they may obtain more power by the control of more dollars is neither more nor less evil than the viciousness of such demagogues as in secret encourage assault and arson and riot that they may obtain more power by the control of more men. Education, the study of history, the experience of the past, the association through the written or spoken word with the noble thoughts of noble men in every age, the uplift of self-sacrifice THE HALL OF FAME. 45 that comes from these and from the inspiration of religion - these must be the foundation stones of the temple of the repub- lic's future fame. They tell in Florence that the seekers for the lost portrait of Dante by Giotto followed a clue that led at last to an ancient building and within it to a room used only for the storage of lumber and firewood. Slowly and carefully the most delicate chemical tests were applied to the whitewashed walls until at last, sublime and thoughtful, and stern and strong, the features of the great Florentine from the walls of that forgotten chapel looked out again upon the world. Let us come back to that temple of the heart where these men and women we here honor made their sacrifices, and as the rubbish and fungus and mould of convenience and custom and cowardice fall before the cleansing touch of the devotion that moved them, ive shall see in its old place the painting behind the altar at which our fathers worshipped. The feet are firmly set upon the rock of the law, but the face is the beautiful face of Liberty. When Governor Guild had spoken, the band played "America," the entire assembly rising. The exercises of the day were con- cluded shortlv before six o'clock.